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Ja«k«>n Htgh S hool 

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Thi text of this edition of Virgil is mainly adopted ftom that 
of the school edition of Wagner, published at Leipzig in 1845. 
In certain matters of orthography, the mode usually pursued in 
this country, and to which our dictionaries are adapted, has been 
employed, instead of that to which Wagner has been led, from 
his faithful adherence to manuscript authority. Thus, for conp<h 
nere, iaepes, maesttu, temptabunt^ we have given componere^ sepet, 
moestus^ tentabunt. Witbout entering into the complicated ques- 
tions which arise on this topic, it has appeared to us that the 
battle must be fought elsewhere : and that it is our province not 
to lead in such matters, but to follow. The punctuation, on which 
60 much depends for the right understanding of an author, has 
been carefully attended to, and adjusted so as best to bring out 
the meaning, without that minute subdivision which serves to 
perplex rather than to guide. 

In the notes, the Editor has of course availed himself of the 

most distinguished commentators, ancient and modern. At the 

j same time he has exercised an mdependent judgment in lelecting 

and adapting them,and in bringing before the reader such views 

of his own as he deemed to be useful. The great object has been 

to givc such information and guidance on points grammatical, 

critical, mythological, geographical, and historical, as may lead 

I the learner to understand and to feel the aim, the thoughts, the 

; allusions, and the beauties of the author, without interfering with 

I the exercise of his own powers and industry. Peculiarities and 

anomalies in prosody are duly pointed out Some attention has 

been given to illustrate Virgil by a comparison with passages in 

our own poets; and these the judicious teacher will do well to 

multiply. Indeed one great aim has been not only to inform the 

scholar, but to guide the less-experienced instruotor as to the 

I points tc which it is desirable he should direct the attention of 

I his pupils. Hence it will be ob.served tbat the geographical and 

I mythological notices are of the briefest kind, and enter only into 

[ 391119 J' 


siich explanations as tend to elucidate the passage in which they 
oocur. More than this is left to the dictionary. Some pains have 
also been taken to make the Arguments as fall as possible, that 
a clear exposition of the author*s main object may awaken a cor- 
responding intelligence on the part of the reader. To under- 
stand the current of a writer^s thoug^t, is the only way to un- 
derstand and relish his single passages, his choice of epithets, 
and his skill in weaying a consistent whole. 

It will be observed that a running commentarj has not beea 
giYen on the whole of the Georgics. They aie seldom read 
throughout in schools ; not for their want of beautj, but because 
a didactic poem is not so weli fitted to interest the youug as a 
narratiTe or a dialogue. But there are some passages in the 
Geoi^cs which nniyersal consent points out as among the finest 
efibrts of Yiigirs muse, and which are eminently captivating 
even to a young mind. These are the praises of Italy in the 
First, and of a rural life in the Second Book, and the story of 
Aristaeus in the Fourth. To these notes have been given. 

In conformity with the plan pursued in the various works of 
tfais series, a life of the Author has been prefixed, in which an 
attempt is made to bring the learner into contact with him, and 
thus prepare the mind to appreciate his excellencies, and m 
«cooont for his defects. 

Ebutbvmb, Mg 20, 1841 


suUbip of Cn. Pom- 

bined with Julius Cae 

deslined lo be tiis basotn Oiend, 
WBB born five, and Octavianna, 
afterwmds Augustus, ou whom M 
mch of his life depended, seven 


salpine Gaul, n 

rth is ollen Hscribed, as when lio is lermed 
fd.' Mamua ia situatod on a marshjr lake 
icius (ihe modern Mincio), aboiit Iwelve miles 
here it joins Ihe Po, on the nDrlh bank. Tho 
Mincius flows from the Laous Benaous, a noble loke (now tho 
Logo di Garda), whioh Vitgil has not left unsung.' Aboul three 
miles lielow Mantua is the hirthplBce of ouc poet. Tiadition, 
B9 eaily at leaal as Ihe time of Dante,' iJentifled, as ii does stilt, 
Ihis spot wiih tlie modern Fi^tola, a Bmall bul neat village in a 
Sal tbough feilile and well-wooded country, etill waving with 
the spreading beech and lofty elm. Heie a farm ia atill called 
yirgiUana, which is aaid lo have been thut poaseaaed hy Iha 
poet ; bul the feaiuree of the eountry in the roighbouthood, 
which i» low ord unpiotureaque, do nol bear out tlie hinla which 
we can galher fiom the poel of his residence; while tbe Mia 
ciua, with ilB reedy bankB and lazy course, ia by bim failhfully 
and graphically descrihed." 

There are vatious accounia of the oecupation of his faiher ; 
snd ihese aie ao blended wllh manlfesl abeutililies regarding tha 

>GeoTg. ii. 160.— 'Pnrgaforw, xviii. 82.— '£d. vii. 13 ; Gtorg. ii 



omens which at his birth predicted the future greatness of the 
wonderful infant, that we are induced to doubt the whole. Thi» 
much seems certain, that his mother's name was Maia, and that 
his parents, though obscure, were possessed of some property, 
and were neither unable nor unwilling to impart to their son a 
liberal education. 'Fbis, according to the traditions regarding him» 
preserved by Donatus,* was carried on at Cremona, Mediolanam 
(Milan), and aAerwards at Neapolis (Naples). It has been 
conjectured that Virgil received instructions from CatiuSi an 
Insubrian professor of tbe Epicurean philosophy. But this rests 
on no other foundation than what we learn from Cicero— that 
Catius was alive about this time, and that Mediolanum, in which 
it is possible that Virgil tben lived, was an Insubrian town. We 
have better authority for believing that at Naples he studied 
Greek under Parthenius, a native of Nicaea, in Bithynia, one of 
whose prose works has come down to us, and who, as a writer of 
poetry,* was a great favourite of the noble Romans of his time. 
It seems certain that he enjoyed at Rome, to which he removed 
from Naples, the instructions of Syron, an Epicurean philosopher, 
much commended by Cicero. 

If we may credit Donatus, Virgil assiuned the toga vtrilis at 
Cremona, on his birthday, when he had completed his fiAeenth 
year ; in the consulship again of Pompey and Crassus, b. c. 55. 
During the interval between his birth and this event, Pompey 
and Caesar had both consolidated their power. The former had 
conducted to a successful termination the Piratic and Mith- 
ridatic wars ; and the latter had exhibited in Graul his extraor- 
dinary skill as a general, prompt, brave, and politic. During 
this time also Catiline and Clodius had, the one succumbed to, 
and the other triumphed over, the eloquence of Cicero. It was 
in this year likewise that Caesar first invaded Britain — toto 
dwisos orbe BrUannos.* 

We are compelled to conjecture the incidents of our author'fl 
life after he had finished his early studies at Rome. It is 
probable that his health (which we learn incidentally from 
Horace, as well as directly from his biographer, to have been 
infirra, in consequence of a feeble stomach and an asthmatic 
tendency) prevented him from aiming at distinction by the 
usual means by which obscure meu of talent then rose to 

^ A biography of Virsil, bearing this name, is generally prefized to 
ihe larffer editions. We know nothing of the author. It is conjec- 
tured that he was a grammarian of the fifth century, who collected 
the floating traditions on the subject ; and that his account was inter- 
polated by subsequent and ignorant writers. — ' Virgil is said to have 
Dorrowed from him ; and ohe line, Georg. i. 437, is particularly men* 
tioned. Macrob. v. 17 ; A. Gellius, ix. 9, xiii. 26.^^Ecl, i. 67. 


eminenee at Rome — the pnrsuits of the Forum, and the arts of 
eloquence. Nor does his temperament seem to have fitted hiro 
to straggle with the difficulties of that troubled time. We need 
not wonder, then, to find him engaged in rural pursuits in tho 
neighbourhood of his birthplace, on the banks of tbe Mincius. 

To this period is assigned the greater portion of certain poems 
which are by some attributed to Virgil, but which are not gene- 
rally given along with his more notable works in an edition such 
as this. The principal of these are CuleXy Ciris, Moretwn^ Copa, 
and CataUcta, The Culex narrates an adventure connected with 
the death of a gnat : the Ciris tells the love of Scylla, daughter 
of Nisus, king of Megara, for Minos, her treachery to her father, 
and her change into the bird bearing the name Ciris : the More- 
tum (said to be an imitation of a Greek poem on the same snb- 
ject by his teacher Parthenius) is named from a kind of salad, 
the concoction of which, along with other rustic in-door opera- 
tions, preparatory for going to out-door work, is the subject of the 
poem. These are written in hexameter verse. The Copa (cau- 
po), in elegiac verse, seems intended to illustrate the art with 
which those who kept places of pubiic entertainment allured by- 
passers to partake of their cheer : the CataUcta is a collection 
of short poems of various merits as well as metres. Of these the 
CuUxy Cirisj and a portion of tbe CataUcta, have no great impress 
of Yirgirs manner. The rest are not unworthy specimens of bis 
younger eiforts.* 

Public events, meanwbile, were hastening to a crisis. The 
civil war between Pompey and Caesar, with the events wbich 
foilowed, are too well known, and bave too little direct bearing 
upon the fortunes of our author, to require more tban mention 
here. But it is absolutely necessary to notice more at lengtb tbe 
subsequent turn taken by public affairs, as tbey exercised a pow- 
erful influence on his history. 

Julius Caesar was assassinated on tbe 15th March b. c. 44, 
when Virgil was twenty-five, and wben Octavius, tbe grandson 
of the dictator'8 sister, adopted by him tbat very year, was nine- 
teen years of age. Antony, wbo was consul for tbe year, and 
had inflamed the passions of the populace so strongly against 
the conspirators that they were immediately obliged to flee from 
Rome, was brougbt from personal views into hostile collision 
with Octavianus, wbo at first naturally looked to bim for assist- 

* ' Virgil is a remarkable instance of a man mistaking his vocation. 
His real calling was lyric poetry, for his sraall lyric poems — for in- 
atance that on tbe villa of Syron, and the one commencing ' Si roihi 
susceptum fuerit decurrere munus' — show tbat be would bave been a 
poet like CaiuIIus if he had not been led away by his desire to writ« 
a great Latin poem.' — Niebuhr*s Hittory of Ronu»- vol. v. p. 158. 


ance as tbe ETenger of his adopted father. And thus we find 
Octayianus for a time on the side of the constitutional partf, 
lauded by Cicero, and trusted, in appearance at least, hy the 
senate. In b. c. 43 be was sent by tbe senate, along with Hir- 
tius and Pansa the consulS| to relieye D. Brutus, whom Anton^ 
was besieging in Mntina. In this they succeeded, and Antony 
fled into Gaul ; but both the consuls were killed. The senate, 
howeyer, from some raistrust of Octavianus, instead of conferring 
the command upon him, directed D. Brutus to bead the armies 
against Antony, who was again becoming formidable through the 
aid of Lepidus, then commanding in Transalpine Gaul. Octa- 
yianus, on his return to Rome, was at first coldly reoeived by the 
senate ; but the soidiers reyered the memory of Caesar, and their 
influence procured for him the consulship, and the outlawry of 
the conspirators, of course including D. Brutus, who was betrayed 
by his officers and slain^Antony and his followers being freed 
from a sentence of outlawry passed against him. It was in this 
year, b. c. 43, that the Second Triumvirate, which was to continne 
for fiye years, was formed by Antony, Lepidus, and Octayianns, 
who sliared among themselyes the goyernment of the world. 
But it was necessary to put down their enemies at home, and meet 
the troops under Brutus and Cassius, who were then engaged in 
Macedonia and in tbe East. The former was done by a fearfnl 
proscription, most mercilessly carried into efiect against the per- 
sonal enemies of each member of tbe Triumyirate. To accom- 
plish the latter, Antony and Octayianus crossed oyer into Greeoe, 
and thence proceeded to Macedonia, where, in the two battles of 
Philippi, Ceissins and Brutus were defeated, and slew themselyes, 
B. c. 42. Antony, unhappily for himself, proceeded to Asia, while 
Octayianus returned to Italy. One of the objects of the latter in 
doing this was to secure the snpport of the soldiers, by bestowing 
on them land, on which they might settle, and which had been 
promised them at the yery commencement of the troubles conse- 
quent on the death of Caesar, as the reward of their seryices. 
This is sometimes done :n the case of yeteran soldiers by our own 
goyernment, but always in aHew country, where no hardship is 
inflicted on any one ; and it is supposed that thus there is secured 
both> a race of sturdy cultiyators and of braye adherents to the 
parent country. In the case of the Roman soldiers, it was ineyi- 
table that the grossest injustice should be perpetrated, and the 
greatest misery occasioned, for the scheme was to depriye of their 
estates the actual possessors, and bestow them on the soldiers. The 
miserableinhabitants,despoiled of their lands and homes,crowded 
to Rome, seeking redress and assistance. The eyil bad spread 
xnore widely than was at first intended ; for it had beon found 
that the lands originally set apart for the purpose vrme not suffi 


cient, and hence an indiscriminate spoliation took place, reaching 
to all ranks and all parties. It became evident that the struggle 
was now between a licentious army and the whole inhabitants 
of Italy. In the meantime L. Antonius, brother of the triumvir, 
and then consul, along with Fulvia, the triumvir's wife, to secure 
to Antony some of the popularity with the soldiers likely to accrue 
from the division of the lands, persuaded Octavianus to leave to 
the officers of Antony the duty of assigning to his troops the lands 
'which fell to their share. Those despoiled by the latter fled in 
tum to Octavianus, who at first was not unwilling to court the 
popular favour by protecting them. But he found that, after all, 
the army was his great support j and he finally entered into their 
eause without restraint, while L. Ahtonius, in turn, threw himself 
on the people. 

Thus there were two parties arrayed against each other in open 
war, the subject being the division of the lands — L. Antonius at 
the head of the people, and Octavianus at that of the army. The 
siege of Perusia, in Etruria, at the Trasimene Lake, where L. 
Antonius was shut up by Octavianus, ended unfortunately for the 
latter, b. c. 40, and the army finally triumphed. 

We must now look at the bearing which these events have on 
the history of Virgil. When the division of the Roman world 
among the triumvirs took place, the Grauls constituted one of the 
provinces assigned to Antony. The charge of Gallia Transpadana^ 
that portion of Cisalpine Gaul which lay between the Po and 
the AIps, and in which Cremona and Mantua were situated, 
was given to Asinius PoUio, who was six years older than Virgil, 
and had been a faitbful adherent of Julius Caesar. He was not 
only a brave soldier, but a celebrated orator ; and in addition to 
his historical labours, had devoted himself to poetry. A friend 
and patron of poets, and a literary man, it is fair to infer that he 
ibstered tlie growing genius of the young Virgil, who came under 
his special notice, as living in his province, engaged in agricul- 
ture and the service of the Muses. It was his ofiice to divide 
among the soldiers the portion of the lands which lay in the 
country over which he presided. If the ordinary account bo 
correct, PoUio must have found himself unable, by his own au- 
thority, to reserve the lands of the poet, highly though he esteemed 
him. Virgil had already written some of the Eclogues,* by which 
he gave early promise of his future fame ; and in a friendly spirit 
Pollio counselled him to seek the protection of Octavianus. We 
have no information how the poet obtained access to Octavianus; 
but his prayer was grauted, and his lands in the meantime se« 
oured to him— a service which he celebrates in the first Eclogue. 

Probably thc second, third, and perhaps the fifth. 


Bat bis success at Perusia having placed all Italy in the hands 
of Octavianus, Poilio was superseded iu bis command, and the 
task of assigning the lands committed to Cornelius Gallus, also 
distinguisbed as a poet and orator, and Varus, both of whom had 
been fellow-pupils of Virgil under Syron. Even their favour did 
not protect our poet from the violence of the soldiery. The lands 
about Cremona, which had, from favouring the conspirators, ren- 
dered itself obnoxious to the veterans of Caesar, did not suffice, 
and Mantua, though not in the same position, was, from its 
proximity, exposed to the same fate. Besides, Antonius Musa, 
who was associated with Varus and Grallus, had private reasons 
for pressing hard upon the Mantuans. In the consequent seizure 
of their lands, the protection before given to the poet, and which 
he endeavoured to secure by celebrating Varus in his sixth 
Eclogue, did not now avail him. He was obliged to flee before 
the sword of an angry soldier, and took shelter, it is said, with 
his master Syron, where he wrote the ninth Eclogue, b. c. 40. 

In the meantime Antony, who had behaved himself disgrace- 
fuUy in Asia and Egypt, was summoned by his wife, while on 
his march in an expedition against the Parthians, to support his 
declining cause in Italy. He mether in Greece, where she died; 
but he sailed to Italy, where he found Octavianus at Brundusium 
ready to oppose him. On the other hand, Antony had been 
joined by a strong reinforcement, as Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, 
who commanded the constitutional fleet, was induced by Pollio 
to come over to his side. In these circumstances neither party 
was averse to peace, which was conducted under the mediation 
of Maecenas ou the side of Octavianus, Pollio on that of Antony, 
and Cocceius, a common friend of both — an event which is com- 
memorated in the fourth Eclogue. It was at this time that An- 
tony married Octavia, Ihe sister of Octavianus. Virgii now found 
easy access to Octavianus, and eitber formed or confirmed his 
friendsbip with Maecenas. His lands were, in consequence, 
restored to bim ; and if we may credit Servius, his influence was 
strong enough to obtain a partial redress for the Mantuans.^ 

* V^e have thought ii right, in such a work as this, to foliow the 
account of the various steps by which the poet was ultimately se- 
cured in his property, as given in subBtantially the same manner by 
all the modern writers who have carefullv consulted Donatus, Ser- 
vius, and the other grammarians, among the most elaborate of whom 
are La Rue, Heyne, Jahn, and Forbiger. But we think it would 
not be difficult to show, from the position of PoIIio, and the situation 
of Gaul in reference to Octavianus, that the application of Virgil to 
Octavianus is placed too early. Without entering into the reasons 
bv which this conclusion is arrived at, we shall briefly state the con- 
clusion itself. Virgil, as well as the other Mantuans, enjoyed his 
lands in peace whue Gaul was under the Edministration of PoIIio. 


Vlrgil had not yet ezhansted the stores of his affection to 
Pollio, and the eighth Eclogne (b. c. 39) bears a pleasant testi- 
moay to the poet's gratitude. From this time Pollio retired into 
private life, taking no part in the subsequent contests between 
Octavianus and Antony. 

For some years Virgil seems to have divided his time between 
his farm and Rome. It must have been about this period (b. c. 
39) that he introdnoed Horace to Maecenas.^ It was in this year 
also that the triumvirs concluded at Puteoli a peace with Sextus 
Pompeius, son of the great Pompey, who had long harassed the 
Italian coasts with his fleet, and intercepted the provisions sent 
the Romans by sea from abroad. After this, Antony, with his 
wife Octavia, went to Athens, and Octavianus returned to Rome. 
But the calm was not of long duration. Antony had failed to 
falfil his engagements ; Pompeius either would not remain quiet, 
or Octavianus invented tales of piratical attacks on Roman ships 
as a pretext for assailing him. Accordingly next year (b. c. 38) 
war was declared against him by Octavianus, who desired the 
oo-operation of Antony. A meeting was fixed at Brundusinm, 
whither Antony repaired ; but as Octavianus had not arrived, he 
instantly, to the great surprise of all, returned to Athens. Mae* 
cenas, with Cocceius and others, and, what is more memorable, 
Horace and Virgil in his train, arrived at Brundusium, it may be 
conjectured, afler Antony's abrupt departure. From the language 
of Horace in describing their journey,' it is evident that Virgil and 

When the party of Octavianus triumphed, the poet's fears were ex- 
cited — ^hence Eclogue vi. — and justly. He was too well known to 
be under the protection of Pollio, for his former connection with 
Gallus and Varus to save him ; though it is not unreasonable to su^- 
pose that thev would have done so had they been able. Leaving his 
lands, he fled, and it was not tili the Brundusian peace that he re- 
gained his lost property. No wonder that the terms of the fourth 
Eclogue are so rapturous ; while the language of the flrst Ecloeue 
will suit this period, to say the least of it, as well as the other. Thus 
we may account for the circumstance that, with the exception of the 
fact stated in the next paragraph of the text, we find no more notice 
of Pollio in all the subsequent writings of Virgil, though Pollio long 
sarvived him. Our author seems to have thrown himself entirely 
on the side of Octavianus and Maecenas. Is there no allusion to 
this in the lines Ecl. i. 28-36 7 There is nothing in the early com- 
mentators to oppose this view of the matter, while it is adequate to 
meet the historical facts known to us. 

' Horat. Sat. i. 6, 55, 61, compared with Sat, i. 5. Clinton (Faati 
HeUenicii vol. iii. p. 221) conjectures that the introduction of Maecenas 
to Horace took place b. c. 41; but if the reasoning of the previous note 
be sound, this is too carly a period. The friend and partisan of Pollio 
could hardly be so intimate at this time with Maecenas — ^not to men- 
tion the total silence of Virgil regarding Maecenas in the Ecloguee. 

*Horat. Sat, i. 5. Amold fixes the time of this excursion at tha 


he were on the most fViendly terms both with each other mnd 
with Maeoenas. Nor is the year void of the labour of oar author, 
if it be true that he then produced the seyenth Eologue, though 
there is no evidence, either interoal or external, to prevent us 
from placing it in the previons year. To this year also some 
refer the tenth Eologue, which others place in b. c. 37. 

Virgil was now confirmed in his intimacy with Maecenas. The 
opinion that he was encouraged by Maecenas to his second great 
work, the Georgics, is founded not more on the opinions of the 
ancient grammarians than on his own express statement.^ It is 
said that the great object which Maecenas had in view in sug- 
gesting, and Virgil in executing the poem, was alike to stimulate 
to agricultural labour, and to instruct in its best metbods. Italy 
had been so long devastated by civil wars, that its iuhabitants 
were repeatedly exposed about this time to all the horrors of fa- 
mine ; and the inhabitants, trained to the excitements of active 
military life, had lost agricultural taste and skill. In these cir- 
cnmstances, it was of importance not more to instruct than to 
encourage. And assuredly he would deserve weil of his country 
who could so direct the feelings of his countrymen, by popular 
strains, as sbonld lead them to exchange the spear and the sword 
ibr the share and the pruning-hook. It is not unfrequently the 
oase that men fail in subjects prescribed or suggested to them by 
others. But the case here was different. We can hardly doubt 
that the poet was self-directed to his theme, and that the sugges- 
tion was his own, but encouraged and fostered by Maecenas. 

There seems little doubt that the Georgics were completed in 
B. 0. 30. This appears both negatively and from positive evi- 
deoce, for Yirgil alludes to maoy occurrences preceding that year. 
When the Greoi^cs were commenced, is not so clear. The older 
commentators state that they occupied a period of seven years. 
If so, they mnst have been begun b. c. 37. But little confidence is 
to be placed in their averments, though there is at least a proba- 
bility that this theme was entered on before b. c. 35. Trusting 
to the lines at the end of the Georgios, we may condnde that the 
main part of this work was composed in the city of Naples. If, 
however, the poem actually occupied so long a time as is gene- 

date of the Brundosian peace {Hutoryofthe LaterBoman Common" 
weaUhj vol. ii. p. 260), referring to Appian, v. 64. But his account 
of the transaction is manifestiy inaccurate ; and the view of Heyne, 
Jahn, and others, who refer it to the visit to Brundusium, mentioned 
by Appian, v. 78, has been adopted as the true one. Heyne, how 
ever, places the date of the visit in the year b. c. 39. Niebuhr seems 
to take the same view as the majority of the commentators. JSts- 
UryofRome, vol. v. p. 124, note. 
^ Oeorg, iii. 40, 41. 


mlly ascribed to it, it is higfaly iraprobable that Yirgil resided ia 
ihat city at a period wben the south of Italy was in corarootioD 
ijrom the civil wars raging between Octavianus, Antony, and 
Sextus Pompeius. But there is no diffioulty if we assume that 
the poet alludes to his occupations, as was natural, towards the 
conclusion of his work. 

While engaged in the composition of the Greorgics, Yirgil 
appears to have meditated another and a greater work, a maip 
object of which should be to exalt Octavianus Caesar. It is less 
easy to tell what truth there is in the narrative of Donatus, which 
i« confirmed by Servius, that our author had commenced in his 
youth a poem fbunded on early Roman history, but that the hard- 
ness of the names deterred him. There are, however, sufficient 
indications in his earlier poems that some such design was enter- 
tained by him. And in the peace that the world now enjoyed, 
he at last commenced his great undertaking, which occupied him 
till the close of his life. He manifested in the Aeneid the same 
attention to the passing events connected with his exalted patroa 
as he had done in the Georgics. 

Ponatus mentions that while Augustus was engaged in his 
Spanish expedition, b. c. 27, he wrote to Virgil expressing his 
anxiety to possess some specimens of his labour. We have an 
extract from the poet^s letter in reply. Afler acknowledging the 
receipt of several letters from Augudtus, he says, * With regard to 
my (poem on) Aeneas, if I had anything worthy of your ears, I 
should send it witli pleasure. But I have only entered on the 
subject, which is of such a nature, that I seem to myself to have 
nndertaken it almost from some fatuity of mind ; especially as 
yon know that I wish to bring to bear on that work other studies, 
and these of much greater moment.'^ There have been also 
referred to the sam^period the well-known lines of Propertius, 
celebrating the progress of the Aeneid, and ending-^ 

Cedite Romani scriptores, cedite Graii, 
Nescio quid majus nascitur Iliade.* 

^Macrob. Sat. i. 24.— -'The time at which this was written appears 
doubtful. Clinton (F. H. p. 237) places it at b. c. 24, from the aliu- 
■ion (91) to the recent death of (rallus. There arises, however, a 
soapicion from the words-— 

' Actia Virgiliuni custodiB )itora PhoBbi 
Caesaris et fortis dicere posse rates/ 

that Propertius did not write it till the completion of the eighth book 
(see 675, &>c. especially 704) ; which we should conjecture, for rea- 
sons regarding the seventh book, stated below, was not written till 
two years after this. It is certainly possible that Propertius may 
have known tbat Virgil intended to celebrate the glories of the battle 
of Actium. But no one can look at the two passages without being 


In the year b. c. 24, Augustns returned to Ronie ; mnd in th« 
next year he had the misfortune to lose by death Maroellus, the 
8on of his sister Octavia by her first husband. This young man, 
who died in his twentieth year, had been adopted by AugustuSi 
who gave him his daughter Julia in marriage, and bestowed oa 
him 80 many marks of favour, that he was universally regarded 
as his intended successor. Virgil, as usual, laid hold of this event 
in his patron's history, and thus enables us to fix the date of the 
sixth book as posterior to b. c. 23. The foUowing incident is nar- 
rated by Donatus, and alluded to by Servius, in connection with 
the death of Marcellus. The poet, when his work was far ad- 
vanced, read to the emperor the second, fourth, and sixth books» 
it is to be presumed not all atone sitting. Wbile he was reading 
the last book, Octavia was present. When he came to the passage, 
Tu Marcellui em, Octavia fainted away, and the poet received 
from her on her recovery the munificent gift of ten tntertia for 
each of the lines referring to Marcellus.* We are told by the 
same authority that Virgil read with great sweetness, and imparted 
even to dull matter a charm which gave it a life not its own. 

With this date assigned to the sixth book agrees a passage in 
the seventh. It has been mentioned that the Parthians, Phraates, 
then reigning as king, and Tiridates, whom a conspiracy, exas- 
perated by tbe cruelty of the sovereign, had raised up as a com- 
petitor for the throne, had applied for aid to Octavianus while in 
Syria after the conquest of Egypt The son of Phraates was at 
that time in the hands of Tiridates, who placed him in the hands 
of the Romans. He was taken to Rome, and application was 
made for him, b. c. 23, by ambassadors from Phraates, while Tiri- 
dates pleaded his own cause in person. Augustus sent back tbe 
youth, but on condition that the Roman prisoners and standards 
taken in the disastrous defeat of Crassusf thirty years before, 
should be restored. This was done b. c. 20, and afibrded intense 
gratification to the Romans. But there was in the meantime an 
evident allernative of war, and to this Virgil alludes in the 
seventh book. If this suggestion of La Rue, sanctioned by 
Heyne, be correct, the six last books of the Aeneid were com- 
posed within a period of three years. During this time Augustus 
was engaged in some of those extensive excursions which led 
Suetonius to remark that Africa and Sardinia were the only 
provinces of the Roman empire not visited by him, and which 
seems to have excited the admiration of our author. 

Btruck by the ahnost certainty that Propertius had read or heard the 
passaffe. And we have the authority of Donatus for stating that 
Virgir reciiamt pluribus. 

^ This— valuing the sestertium at L.7, 16s. 3d. — ^gives L.78» 2s. 6d. 
fox 99ch Hne, and L.2031, 5s. for the whole. 


It was while returning from one of these excursicms that tha 
emperor met Virgil, on what was destined to be the poet'8 \aat 
iourney. Ue had contemplated, it is said, a tour through Greece 
and Asia, to furnish him with more copious materials, and more 
lifeliise observation, so that the Aeneid, now blocked out, but 
all unpolished, might receive the last touches of his master hand. 
Augustus was returning from Samos, where he had passed the 
two preceding winters, and met Virgil in Athens. The latter, 
either feeling already the incipient weakness of disease, or 
wiiling to gratify his great friend, abandoned his first intention, 
and agreed to return with him. At Megara, his fatal illness de* 
veloped itself, and increased during the voyage to Italy. A few 
days afler his arrival at Brundusium, he died, on Uie 22d of 
September, b. c. 19, within twenty-three days of completing his 
fifty-first year, probably the same year that witnessed the death 
of the poet Tibullus. 

According to Donatus, he had spent the later years of his life 
partly in Sicily, but chiefiy in Campania. The delightful climata 
and scenery of Naples being associated with his greatest enjoy- 
ments, he directed that he should be buried there. Accordingly, 
Augustus ordered his bones to be transferred thither, and a tomb 
was erected over them near the via Puteolana on Mount Posilipo, 
less than two miles from Naples. A tomb (see tail-piece),.aUnost 
universally believed to be that of Virgil, is still pointed out, in 
a situation corresponding to that mentioned by Donatus,^ and 
bearing this inscription, referring to the birth, death, and burial- 
place of the poet, as well as his threefold Is^urs in the Eclogues» 
tlie Georgics, and the Aeneid :— - 

' Mantua me gennit, Calabri rapuere, tenet nune 
Parthenope. Cecini pascua, rura, duces.' 

This epitaph Donatus credulously assigns to Virgil himself. 
His parents, we are told, lived long enough to enable him to 

^^^» ■■■ ■-■■ I ■■■■ ■■!■■■ ■■■»■■■■■ ■■■■■ M^»^1l ■ ■ ■ ■^l.^^^— ^ 

^The subject of the site of Virgirs tomb is an interesting one, but 
cannot be discussed here. Cluveriua first raised doubts on the sub- 
ject, for universal tradition, so far hack as it can be traced up to 
Petrarch, is in its favour ; and Cluverius was followed by Addison 
(Bemarks on Italyj p. 138). Holdsworth (Remarks and Dissertations 
OH VirgUi p. 501) examines the matter at great length, and decides, 
it seems on good grounds, in favour of the received notion. This^ 
too, is the opinion of Gibbon {Miscellaneous WorkSf vol. ii. p. 204, 
ed. 1796), Eustace, Cramer, and Niebuhr {History of B.ome^ vol. v. 
p. 159), who says — ' It is adorned with a laurel-tree. I have visited 
the spot with the feelings of a pilgrim, and the branch I plucked 
firom the laur^l-tree is as dear to me as a sacred relic, although it 
never occurs to me to place him among the Roman poets of tho 
first order.' 


•bow his affection and gratitnde hy maintaining them in afflnence 
his fatber having become blind. He bad lost, besideSf by death, 
two brothers; but a step-brother bj the mother, Valerius Pro> 
ealus, survived him. To him he left one-half of his property, and 
the remainder, in various proportions, to Angustus, Maecenasi 
L. Yarius, and Plotius Tucca. We cannot doubt that he had 
been enriched by the liberality of his patrons. According to 
Aulus Gellius, a refusal which he met with from the people of 
Nola, a town of Campania, north of Yesnvius, when he wanted a 
supply of water from their district for an estate of his, led him to 
alter Nola to Ora in the second Georgic, verse 225. This indi- 
cates an early possession of property ; and we find more than one 
instance of the impression made on his successors as to his wealth 
and its source, as well as the importance of having Maecenases, 
in order that there may be Virgils. Heyne hints at a conjecture 
derived from a passage in Propertius, that he may have had a 
property near Tarentum ; and Donatns mentions not only the 
estate in Campania, but another in Sicily. For these, however, 
we have but slight, or rather no warrant. Donatus rates his for- 
tone at about ten thousand testertia^ and states that his house at 
Rome stood on the Esquiline Hill, near the gardens of Maecenas. 
It may be noticed that here also lived Horace ; and that sneh 
was the character of the place— once deemed unwholesome-* 
fbr its healthiness, in consequence of recent improvements, that 
Tiberius retired thither to enjoy health and retirement. 

We are told that on his deathbed Virgil demanded to see his 
papers, intending to burn the Aeneid, then in an unfinished state. 
His friends remonstrated with him, and in his will he left in- 
structions regarding it, of which we have various accounts. Ho 
either ordered it to be burned, or he left it to the discretion of 
L. Varius and Plotius Tucca — both mentioned by Horace aa 
friends of Virgil, and eminently fitted for such a charge — direct- 
ing them, whatever they suppressed, to add nothing — not even 
to complete unfinished lines. Augustus interfered to save the 
poem from destruction, and by his directions Varius and Tucca 
performed the task assigned them, bequeathing it to posterity as 
we now have it. 

It is also said, and from Yirgirs own language, as well as 
his temperament, it is probable enough, that it was his inten- 
tion, aAer he had given the last finish to the work, to devote 
himself to philosophical pursuits. Without giving credence to 
the absurd fictions contained in his lifeby Donatus, we have 
no reason to doubt the statement that the poet had devoted 
« _ 

*Po88edit prope centies testertium; equivalent, according to the 
•tandard raentioned, to J£778,125 of our money. 


nuch of his early years to the studies tbat appeitain to nataxml 

With regard to his personal appearance, Virgil is said to have 
been tall, and stoutly made, of a swartby colour, and with the 
appearance of a farmer. He was slow in speecb, and no one 
could bave judged from bis conversation that he was the most 
leamed of Roman poets. From his asthmatic tendency, and the 
weak eyes of Horace, arose the saying attributed to Augustoiy 
tliat with these poets on either hand, he was sitting between 
sigbs and tears. 

Virgil lived on terms of intimacy not only witb men politicaUjT 
great, but with those of his contemporaries who were distin- 
guished for their literary attainments, in tbat bright age of 
Augustan literature. His biograpber remarks tbat he was utterljT 
free from all literary jealousy, to sucb a degree, tbat the success- 
ful prodactions of others afforded bim as mucb pleasure as if 
they were his own. His library was open to all men of learning; 
and be oAen quoted tbe saying of Euripides, tbat * the property 
of friends was a common good.' Hence towards bim the voice 
of envy was almost silent ; and Varius, Tucca, Horcu^e, Propertius, 
and others who adorned the time were devotedly attached to 
him. Though, like all otber distinguished men, be did not want 
detractors, bis transcendant raerits were early acknowledged by 
the Romans. On one occasion, happening to be in the tbeatre 
at a time when some lines of bis own were being recited, the 
people in a body rose and saluted bim witb tlie same bonours as 
tbey were in tbe babit of rendering to Augustus. His modesty, 
moreover, was equal to his greatness. He seldom visited Rome. 
The clear atmospbere and sparkling beauties of Naples attracted 
him, from considerations both of health and of taste. When 
he did appear in the streets, crowds followed him with the 
tiibute of admiration; but tbis gave bim so little pleasure, that 
be was fain to find, in tbe shelter of tbe nearest house, a 
refuge from tbe tbrong. We can trace downwards the pro- 
gress of his fame. Ovid, who was a young raan of twenty- 
four wben Yirgil died, repeatedly takes notice of his writings. 
Quintilian assigns to him the same place in the study of Latin 
which be docs to Homer in that of Greek — ^the vcry higbest and 
most desirable as an introduction. That he had been introduced 
into the schools of Rome as early as the age of Augustus, we 
learn from Suetonius. And tbe practice continued till a late 
period,as we find it both recommended and mentioned byAugus- 
tin and Orosius, who wrote about ▲. d. 415. Caligula, however, 
treated alike contemptuously the claims of Virgil and Livy to 
distinction ; and Adrian preferred Ennius to our poet. The 
popularity of Virgil secured him early a bost of commentatorS' 
2* B 


araoDg whom the prinoipal was Servius, a oovrtier in the reign 
of Yalentinian, a little af\er the middle of the fourth century. 
Anlm GelliQi also (abont a, d. 143) has copious remarka on our 
poet in hii Noetti Mticae ; and Macrobins (aboutJL.D. 390) de- 
votes Ibur out of the seven books of his Conviviorum Satttma 
liorum to a critical ezamination of Virgirs merits. The most 
extraordinary of the effects of his reputation, was the belief pre- 
▼alent in the middle ages that he had been a great magician ; 
and of his feats in this capaoity most wonderful things are nar« 
rated. Thus a copper fly fixed by hini on one of the gates of 
Naples, for eight years prevented any fly from entering that city. 
He encompassed his house and garden, in which it never rained, 
with a wall of air, invisible, but impermeable. £ven at thii 
day his name is associated in the minds of the common people 
of Naples with magic and necromancy. 

Critics of more modern times have taken widely dififerent esti« 
mates of the merits of Virgil, especially as jegards the Aeneid.' 
These opinions were at first founded on a sense of the obligation 
dne to his productions, which, more than any otliers, attracted 
attention at the revival of letters in Europe. Hence there was 
too much inclination to overvalue him as an epic poet, and 
blindly to compare him, as on equal terms, with Homer. We 
may take Blair as a late representative of this class. * But,' says 
he, *notwithstanding these defects, which it was necessary to 
remark, Virgil possesses beauties which have justly drawn tlie 
admiration of ages, and which to this day hold the balance in 
eqnilibrium between his fame and that of Homer.' The ten- 
dency is now too much perhaps the other way. Niebuhr espe- 
cially seems unduly to depreciate Virgil, when he says — * His 
Aeneid, on the other hand, is a complete failure ; it is an un- 
happy idea from beginning to end ; but this must not prevent us 
firom acknowledging that it contains many exquisite passages.* 
There is no doubt on the mind of any as to the excellency of the 
Georgics. Even Niebuhr says — *■ His didactio poem on agricul- 
ture is more sucoessful; it maintains a bappy medium, and wa 
cannot well speak of it otherwise than in terms of praise.' All, 
too, are agreed on the service rendered by Virgil to the Latin 
language and versification. To the former he gave dignity, and 
as much of sweetness and soAness as its structure renders it 
capable of receiving ; and the latter he moulded in a stately and 
flowing melody unknown to it before. His learning too, his pro- 
found skill in the antiquities, the usages, abd the history of Italy. 
are universally acknowledged. In the words of Niebuhr — * Virgil 
displays in it [the Aeneid] a learning of which the historian can 
scarcely avail himself enough ; and the historian who studies the 
Aeneid tHorougbly wili ever find new things to admire.* 


It 18 now time to exatnine very briefly fbr onraelves the 
three works contaiued in this Yolume. The flrst is the 
BvcoLiCA, or, as it is popularly called, the Eclognes of Virgil. 
The early occupationt of the poet — partly devoted to rural pur- 
inits, and partly to the cultivation of Greek literature-^aturally 
interested him in the writings of Theocritus, who wrote in Greek 
verse of the employments of the shopherd. His first thoi^ht 
seems to have been to content himself with an imitadon of his 
master, seeking no other glory than to transfer to his own nativa 
stream and fields, and to his own verse, the sentiments of the 
Syracusan bard. Hence we find passages from the Idyllia, or 
pastoral poems of Theocritus, almost literally translated by Virgil. 
Few of the ten Eclogues are strictly pastoral. The life of the 
husbandman in the north of Italy did not present the poet with 
opportunities of drawing from the life a representation of the 
easy and sunny existence of his Sicilian prototype. Accordingly, 
with the exception of snatches here and there of rural life, we 
find little to imbue us with a shepherd^s feelings or habits of 
tbinking, even in their poetised state. And the avowed transfer^ 
ence of Syracusan song to northern Italy leads to a mingling up 
of scenes, and personages, and deities. which is nnfavourable to 
onr sense of the real, and brings the artist too prominently be- 
fbre ns.' Nevertheless, they are delightful poems. The images 
are simple and suitable, and so is the language in which they 
are conveyed. It is not much to say that they never ofiend ; bnt 
this is at all events an advance upon Theocritus. The great error 
of Yirgil was to imagine that they could ever be snpposed to be a 
sbepberd^s representation of scenes in a shepherd^s life. They are 
in reality the pictures of a polished mind, playing, if we may use 
the expression, at shepherd. And we detect, we think, in the later 
Eclognes, greater, if not complete, independence of his master, 
leading to the invention of that pleasing, if not whoUy natural 
school of poetry, where the imagination invests the rural life with 
the charms of its own refinement Here, too, Virgil presents us 
with many specimens of that power of description which we shall 
best place before the reader in the words of a master,* even 
though it anticipate something of what remains to be said of the 
Aeneid. * In the Epic, character forbids the appearance of descrip- 
tions of natural scenes and objects otherwise than as subordinate 
and accidental features, limited to a very small space : iudividual 
Vocalities are not portrayed, but an intimate understanding and 
ibve of nature manifest themselves occasionally with peculiar 
beauty. Where have the soil play of the waves, and the repose 

' See for an illustration Ecl. vii. verse 4, compared with 12. 
* Humboldt*8 Cogmot, vol. ii. p. 19, English translation. 

n iimoDucnoN. 


of night, erer been more bappiljr deflcribed? And how finely de 
these nilld and tender images contrast with the powerfiil reip» 
sentatioDS of the gathering and bnrsting tempest in the first book 
of the Georgics, and with the descriptions in the Aeneid of the 
navigation and landing at the Strophades, the crashing fall of tbe 
rrxsk, and of Aetna with its flaraes !' In truth, howef er, indiTidoal 
localities are often portrayed, and that to the life, by Virgil, ai 
any one glancing at tho scene described in the first Eclogue will 
at once admit. In one respect the Eclogues have an original 
merit, which it becomes us to notice. Without losing sight of 
that softness which is a leading characteristic of the true Idyi, be 
gives to some of his themes ^ a simple grandeur, which is so ^ 
firom being incompatible with rural images, that the latter twiae 
round the stately stem in most graceful and befitting ornament. 

The next work is the Gxoaeics. It belongs to that difficoU 
class of poems called Didactic, whose object is to convey instnio> 
tion pleasingly and invitingly through the medium of poetiy. 
The purpose for which it was written has been already raeo- 
tioned — the revival of agriculturo in Italy, devastated by tho 
long and cruel civil wars. It is dedicated to Maeceoas, the 
patron and friend of Virgil. It is divided into four books, each of 
which treats of a difierent subject. The first treats of the culti- 
vation of the soil, and the operations of agriculture connected 
with sowing, and the difierent occupations that are proper for the 
difiierent seasons. The second regards the cultivation of trees, 
especially of the vine. The third treats of the various animals 
that are more immediately nseful in agricultare — horses, oxen, 
sheep, goats, and dogs. The fourth is occupied with the care of 
bees. It is impossibie to praise too highly the mode in whicb 
Virgil has executed this work ; and though the subject had belbre 
exercised the pens both of Greek and Roman writers, and onr 
poet had especially beibre him the Opera et Dies of Hesiod, there 
is little o£ the close imitation that is to be found occasionally in 
the Eclogues. Italy was his field, and he confines himseLf to 
this; his aim being, in truth, to benefit his countrymen. Taking 
into view the popularity of Virgil, we are entitled to presume 
that his verses, passing from mouth to mouth, contributed mate- 
terially to efiect the object which he had in view. And we know 
that not only did the ancient writers on agriculture refer to hioi 
as an unquestionable authority, but we are told in modern Italy 
his maxims are found to be as sound as ever. Martjm— no inean 
authority — even says : *Though the soil and climate of Itaiy are 
different from those of EUigland, yet it has been found by expe- 
lience that most of his rules may be put in practice even here 

> See eBpecialiy the fonrth Eclogoe. 


10 advantage.' The dangers to whioh the poet was ezposed weroi 
thtt either by treating his «ubject too literally, he should make it 
dry and repulsive ; or that he should bo overiay it with ornament, 
BB to render his instructions useless and unintelligible ; or that 
he shonld, by undue elevation of what is apparently mean and 
trivial, degenerate into afifectation and bombast These dangers 
he has completely escaped. He gives rules with all the preci* 
sion of a scientific treatise, and ali the charms of true poetry, 
manifesting that pregnant power of exaot expression in which 
he has no rival. Like all gx>od teachers, he abounds in illustra- 
tion. What can be apter, for instance, than his reminiscenoe of 
the old gardener, probably visited by him on the journey to Brun- 
dusinm with Horace and Maecenas, whioh he gives with so 
much enjoyment, and such exquisitely minute touches, subordi- 
nate, however, all the while to his main purpose of teaching 
how bees may be most profitably reared ? fielonging also to the 
same illustrative facultyis his habit of seizing hold of an incident 
common enough in rnrai life, and giving it activity and person- 
ality, as in his instructions regarding the viper, Cape saxa manUf 
eape robora^pastor. fiut his poetical power is principally dispiayed 
in those episodes, by which he has enriched the Georgics with 
Bome of the most finished specimens of poetry that exist in any 
language. Donatus tells us that Virgil, while writing the Georg* 
ics, was in the habit of dictating to his amanuensis in the morn- 
ing several lines, and that his sole employment during the day 
was to reduce their number, and bring the selected few to the 
proper state of polish ; and adds, that he compared himself not 
unaptly to a bear licking her cubs into shape. Whether this be 
true or not,^ the result of his labours undoubtedly is, that in the 
Georgics we have one of the most finished productions of which 
human language seems susceptible. 

We cannot say the same of the third, the longest and most 
ambitious of yirgil's works — the Asiteid. fiut in our remarks 
on tbis poem, we must remember that it is an unfinished produc- 
tioni and did not enjoy the master's polishing touches to soflen 
isperities, to remove inconsistencies, and to efiect those callidoi 
juncturae which are oflen the result of minute elaboration. The 
avowed subject is the settlement of Aeneas and the Trojans in 
Itaiy — that theme which had been a favourite tradition of the 
Romans, at least prior to the time of Naevius.' The poem opens 

^ Donatus, m the same passage, says that Virgil first wrote the 
Aeneid in prose. If both these assertions had been made of the 
same poem, they would have been sineularly analogous with the 
procedure of GoldBmith in his exquisitely-finished poem of the D&^ 
terted Village. 

' B. c. 235. Clinton, jF. H. vul. iii. p. 29. Niebuhr'8 Lecture$ m 
Ihe Early Hietory of Eomef p. 29. 


in the seventh summer afler tbe destruction of Troy, with tho 
landing of Aeneas on the coast of Carthage, and his hospitable 
reception by Dido.^ In the two following books Aeneas narratea 
to Dido his wanderings, from the downfall of Troy np till fhat 
time. The fourth contains the loves of Aeneas and Dido, the 
departure of the former by the command of the gods, and the 
despair and voluntary death of the latter. In the fi£th, Aeneas 
visits Sicily ; and in the sixth arrives in Italy, where, at Cnmae, 
be descends to the shades, and has an interview with his father 
Anchises. The remaining books are occupied with his struggles 
to obtain a eettlement in Italy, the land destined to his race — the 
offers of Latinus, king of the Latins, who agrees to marry to him 
his daughter, and give him a kingdom — the opposition of the 
Rutulian king, Turnus, to whom Lavinia had been betrothed-* 
the mustering of allies on both sides — the repeated defeats of 
the Rutulians, in spite of the gallant deeds of Turnus— his final 
overthrow and death, and the triumph of Aeneas. 

Objections have been made to the Aeneid, altogether indepen- 
dently of its being an unfinished work. These resolve them- 
selves into Yirgirs want of originality, his alleged poverty of 
mvention, the sameness of his characters, and, above all, the fatal 
objection that his hero is totally devoid of interest To some of 
these no satisfactory answer can be given. It was an unfortu- 
nate thing tbat he cbose to form himself so much on the model 
of Homer, and to trust too little to his own original powers. That 
he has done so cannot be denied. And if the question were, 
whether the Aeneid is to be read solely for its own underived 
excellencies? we sbould have to except a very large portion. 
But the question assumes a very different aspect when we wish 
to examine not tbe powers of the poet, but tbe cbarms of the poem. 
In this view we are at liberty to admire the new form in which 
Virgil often reproduces the thoughts of his master. The alleged 
poverty of invention, in incidents at least, is not so apparent 
The rapid cbanges of scenery and event, especially in the early 
books, are a convincing proof tbat bis powers were not essentially 
deficient in tbis respect Nor can tbe charge of sameness of cha- 
racter be admitted. No doubt there is too much ofthe /orfem^ 
Gyafij fortemque Cloanthum, But tbere must be walking gentle- 
men in all populous representations. And surely tbe old age 

* As tbe date of the foundation of Carthage by Dido is generally 
placed upwards of two bundred years after tbat assigned to tbe de- 
Btruction of Troy, Virgil has here been char^ed witb an Anachron- 
ism, or error in point of time. From tbis be is elaborately deiended 
by Martyn in bis Dissertations upon the Aeneid of VirsU^ pp. 1-26 ; 
and by Uibbon, Miscellaneous Tvorkst vol. ii. p. 469. Ses non opera§ 

• •• 


of Anchises is not tbat of Evander or Latinus, nor the youth of 
Earyalus that of AscaniuS) nor the bravery of Mezentius that of 
Turnus, nor the rage of Amata that of Dido ? The deities also 
|ireserve their characteristics ; and Jupiter's dignity is as diflferent 
from that of Neptune, as the lineaments and state of Yenus are 
difierent from those of Juno. The last objection — that founded 
on the character of Aeneas — seems the most serious and irreme» 
diable of all, as it runs througb the whole work, and affects its 
power to please, apart from the question of origiuality. It has 
been alleged that Virgil has here failed, because his aim was to 
represent Augustus in Aeneas, and that the character of the 
former was incompatible with heroic dignity. But, critioally 
considered, though tliis were the case, it would only prove that 
be was destitute eitber of skill in selection, or of that power of 
oreating a cbaracter which constitutes the true poet. There is 
no question that be did intend to compliment Augustus. He had 
personally experienced the fearful woes to which his country 
had been subjected by the civil wars. He seems early to have 
abandoned the party of Antony, to wbich his own retired and medi- 
tative habits had probably never induced him to form an attach- 
ment stronger than that which arose from the ties of personal 
afiection to some of its leading men. Thenceforth he flung him- 
self entirely on the side of Maecenas and Augustus, as of men 
"who alone could heal the bleeding wounds of the country which 
he so ardently loved. He fondly hoped that Rome would rival 
Greece in arts, as she had before conquered her in arms ; and 
he strove to do his best to accomplish this end. And in all this 
Augustus was his bope, as it was that of Horace and otber reflective 
and leading minds of that age. But it seems an over-reflnement 
to suppose tbat in the Aeneid the characters are representations 
of those men that thronged tbe court of Augustus, or took place 
in the events tbat afiietcted his history, and tbat the battles and 
struggles are intended to shadow forth tbe conflicts that raised 
Augustus to the empire. Yirgil seems to have had befbre him 
in Aeneas, not a representation of Augustus, but a distinct con- 
ception of a character noble in itself, thougb, unfortunately for 
his main design, it is difficult, perhaps impossible, to invest it 
with interest when success is to accompany it. His design was, 
baving before bim the destinies of the migbtiest empire that the 
world had ever seen, to give its fcnnder a cbaracter befltting. 
He was to be a man of warm afiections, eager to see bis storm- 
bufietted friends and followers at last reposing in peace, but with 
implicit reliance on the will of Heaven, and determined to forego 
all considerations, not for bimself, but for tbat posterity wboso 
destinies depended on bis obedience to the behests of tbe gods. 
Hence tbe pmi Aentaz sacriflces his own feelings at all timos to 


poMeritr. For tbit he waaden from clime tc cbme— 4>r Ihil ba 
Eives up Dido— fot lliii he plunges ialo a bloodjr war in a ■tn 
land. Now lo inveat snch a characier with inierest, lie oiiv 
Dnsuccesaral j he mait be Ihe objeci of oui admjmioa foi 
leal haidsbips Bad evila lo which he aabniits, his unselBihneM 
appearing STident ia bis meek submisaion. Unrortuoateljr, il 
wu neoessarily Viigil'B plan, as il waa part of ibe tiadiUoii, M 
beatow snccess on AeBeas; and Ibaa his cbaiaclet ia inveiUd 
wiih an obedience which bas no real Irials ; his neir-oonflicB al 
end in his ■elf^ggrandisemeet One thins Blone coald hsti 
impaned interest to tbe sucoeMfal Aeneas — a slning wi[l (tn| 
gliDg manfuUj, and bj- iis own indominant enEi^es. nnionB- 
Dalely, tbis is ihe very aEIribuie with wbicb the poet bas eadowed 
Toraus i and it cannot be denied Ihat tbe lesdet ia irresistiblf 
dTawn to wish success to the enem/ of the Boman lace, aad W 
mourn his IblL 

But in spile of these terioos drewbacks, the Aeneid, while il 
woald be foUr to demand Ibr ii a place with ihe lliad, will anr 
be a deeplf inteiesling poem. Its slyle a model of coiiect laits, 
ita diclion pure and majestic, iis veisiGcation fall and flowint in 
viVHCii]' anbounded, the spirit of ils incidGnti unfailing, it pia- 
■enis a charming field over which lo roam in ■eaich of llie ai 
and Ihe slalely. In one characletisiic, al leasl, Tirgil Boipi 
Homei — in ihe eiquisile palhos wilb which he delineales ha 
■afiering; while not Homei himself is moie snblime thukTiigU 
in his loftiest flights, as wheo be describes the gods coDgtqBUd 
for Tioj-^B downfall, oi Ihe Egyptiaa fleeing in awe^tiiiok diaad 
fnMn the poiated anow of Apolla 



Thb title Bucolica was probably that given to these poems by 
Virgil himself. It is borrowed from the Greek word, BouxoXt- 
xo^, and signifies, pertaining to the shepherd life — pastoral. The 
title Ecloga was probably added by the critics. It also is bor- 
rowed from the Greek, IxTioy^, o selected piece ; so tbat Bucolicon 
Echgae means, selections from pastoral poemSj Bticolicon being 
ihe genitive plural in the Grreek form. In consequence of this 
title, Eclogay having been so applied, Echgue comes to mean 
a pastoral poem. 

The subject of the first Eclogue is the gratitude of Virgil to Au- 
gustus, for hftving restored to him his lands, in the neighbour- 
hoQd of Mantua, as has been narrated in his Life. The poet 
brings this out by a dialogue between two shepherds, one of 
whom, Meliboeus, is forced to leave his country by the soldiers. 
The other shepherd, Tityrus, representing one of the dispos- 
sessed inhabitants, is seated in the enjoyment of freedoni and 
peace, both of which he had gained in a visit to Rome. This 
is intended to indicate, in a general way, Virgil's own condi 
tion ; but the resemblance must not be pressed too closely. 
The Eclogue is supposed to have been written in the autumn 
of B.C.41, when Virgil was twenty-nine years old. 



Mel. TiTYRE, tu patulae recubans sub tegmine fagi 
Silvestrem tenui Musam meditaris avena : 
Nos patriae finis et dulcia linquimus arva j 

2. SUvestrem Musam. The Muse that loves the woods — the Muso 
of shepherds ; as, in summer and autumn in Ilaly, the flocks are 
driven into the woods. Musa is used here to denote that over 
which she presided. Milton imitates this expression of Virgil, Mti- 
sam meditaris — 

' And strictly meditate the thanklcss Mtise.' 

3. Finis. It is necessary to notice this form of tne accusative 

plural, that the student may not confound its quantity vvith tbat of 
ihe genitive singular. Scc 2umpt, Lat. Gram., ^^9, note. 

2 /. ^"25) 


No8 patriam fugiraus : tu, Tityre, lentas ia umbra 
Formosam resonare doces Amaryllida silvas. i 

IHt. Meliboee; deus nobis liaec otia fecit. 
Namque erit ille mihi semper deus ; illius aram 
Saepe tener nostris ab ovilibus imbuet agnus. 
llle meas errare boves, ut cernis, et ipsum 
Ludere, quae vellem, calamo permisit agresti. 10 

MeL Non equidem invideo ; miror magis: undique totis 
Usque adeo turbatur agris. En, ipse capellas 
Protenus aeger ago ; hanc etiam vix, Tityre, duco. 
Hi(^inter densas corylos modo namque gemeUos, 
Spem gregiS) ah ! silice in nuda connixa reliquit. 15 

Saepe malum hoc nobis, si mens non laeva fuisset, 
De caelo tactas memini praedicere quercus, 
[Saepe sinistra cava praedixit ab ilice cornix.] 
Sed tamen, iste deus qui sit^ da, Tityre, nobis. 

Tit. Urbem, quam dicunt Romam, Meliboee, putavi 20 
Stultus ego huic nostrae similem, quo saepe solemus 
Pastores ovium teneros depellere fetus. 
Sic canibus catulos similis, sic matribus haedos 
Noram; sic parvis componere raagna solebam. 
Verum haec tantum alias inter caput extulit urbes, 25 
Quantum lenta solent inter viburna cupressi. 

Mel. £t quae tanta fuit Romam tibi causa videndi? 

Tit. Libertas ', quae sera, tamen respexit inertenii 
Candidior postquam tondenti barba cadebat ; 
Respexit tamen, et longo post terapore venit, 30 

Postquam nos Amaryllis habet, Galatea reliquit. 
Namque, fatebor enim, dum me Galatea tenebat, 
Nec spes libertatis erat, nec cura peculi. 
Quamvis multa meis exiret victima septis, 
Pinguis et ingratae premeretur caseus urbi, 35 

5. The echo of the woods is here alluded to. Atnaryllis is a 
•hepherdess beloved by Titynis. — 6. Octavianus Caesar, afterwards 
Augustus, is the sod alluded to. He was (but not at this time) ac- 
lually deified by the Roman people, while still liying. -— 17. In nar- 
ratives, memini is often joined with the present infinitive of a past 
event, as here and Ecl. ix. 52, See Zumpt, $589. In such cases, 
we may conceive the infinitive the same as the cognate noun ; here 
praedictionemi with the force of its being at present before the mind. 
Before si mensy &c. some such clause is tacitly assumed, as q\iod 
no8 monuisset. — 21. Huic nostrae. Mantua, about three miles dis* 
tant from Andes, our poet*s native village. — 33. Peculi. On thiB 
form of the genitive of substantives in -tttwi, which alone Virgil em- 
ploys, see Zumpt, M9. He is fond of such contractions as di^ ditt 
i$dem, The peculium was the property, acquired by a slave, which 
a master permitted him to '«onsider as his o^yn. 




Non umquam gfravis aerd domum mihl deztra redibat. 
I Mel. Mirabar, quid maesta deos, Amarylli, vocareS| 

Cui pendere sua patereris in arbore poma : 
Tityrus hinc aberat. Ipsae te, Tityre, pinus, 
Ipsi te fontes, ipsa haec arbusta vocabant. 40 

Tit. Quid facerem ? neque servitio me exire licebat, 
Nec tam praesentis alibi cognoscere divos. 
Hic illum vidi juvenem, Meliboee, quotannis 
Bis senos cui nostra dies altaria fumant. 
Hic mihi responsum primus dedit ille petenti : 45 

Pascite, ut ante, boves, pueri ; submittite tauros. 

Mel. Fortunate senex, ergo tua rura manebunt ! 
£t tibi magna satis. Quamvis lapis omnia nudus, 
Limosoque palus obducat pascua junco, 
Non insueta gravis tentabunt pabula fetas, 50 

Nec mala vicini pecoris contagia laedent. 
Fortunate senex, hic, inter fiumina nota 
£t fontis saoros, frigus captabis opacum ! 
Hinc tibi, quae semper vicino ab limite sepes 
Hyblaeis apibus florem depasta salicti, 55 

Saepe levi somnum suadebit inire susurro i 
Hinc aJta sub rupe canet frondator ad auras^ 
Nec tamen interea raucae, tua cura, paluml)es, 
Nec gemere aeria cessabit turtur ab ulmo. 
i Tit. Ante leves ergo pascentur in aethere cervi, 60 

£t freta destituent nudos in litore pisces, 

. ■ — — — ^^ ^— i— — » 

36. He spent, in buying presents for Galatea, his share of the 
market money allowed him as peculium. — 39. Aberat. The final 
syllable long, as the caesural syllable. — 43. Juvenem. The same 
person who is called DeuSi ver. 6. He was at this time twenty- 
three years of age, and is still styled juvenis when twenty-seven 
years old. Georg. i. 500. — 44. JSis senos dies. Probably once 
a-month ; it being usual, on the calends, nones, or ides of each 
month, to worship the Lares domesticii among whom Tityrus reck- 
ons Octavianus Cfaesar. — 47. Tua, Emphatic, in its contrast with 
the fields of his neighbours, which had been seized by the soldiers. 

— 50. Fetas means either pregnant or newly delivered. Here, from 
rer. 15, probably the latter, in which case, graves will be equivalent 
lo aegras.-^ 52-56. A beautiful picture, though the language of the 
latter part is too intricate. Sepes is the nom. to stLadd^it : quae to 
depasta est. The construction is : sepes, quae ab vicino limite (equi- 
vaient to vicinus limes) semper depasta ^orem salicti Hyblads^ &c. 
Depasta fiorem is an example of what is called the Greek accusa- 
tive, which may be called the accusative of limitation. See Zumpt, 
^458. Avoid saying ih&t Jlorem is governed by any word under- 
stood. Hybla, a mountain of Sicily, tamous for its bees and honey. 

— 60-64. Tityrus compares the possibility of his forgetting his 
benefactor to events that are impossibie, such as stags feeding on 


Ante, pererratis amboram finibas, exsul 

Aut Ararim Parthus bibet; aut Germania Tigrim, 

Quam nostro illius labatur pectore vultus. 

3Iel. At nos hinc alii sitientis ibimus Afros ; 65 

Pars Scythiam et rapidum Cretae veniemus Oaxen, 
£t penitus toto diyisos orbe Britannos. 
£n umquam patrios longo post tcmpore finis, 
Pauperis et tuguri congestom cespite culmen, 
Post aliquot, mea regna videns, mirabor aristas? 70 

Impius haec tam culta novalia miles habebit ? 
Barbarus has segetes? £n, quo discordia civis 
Produxit miseros ! en, quis consevimus agros ! 
Insere nunc, Meliboee, piros, pone ordine vitis. 
Ite meae^ felix quondam pecus, ite capellae. 7t 

Non ego vos posthac, viridi projectus in antro, 
Dumosa pendere procul de rupe videbo; 
Carmina nulla canam ; non, me pascente, capellae, 
Florentem cytisum et salices carpetis amaras. 

Tit. Hic tamen hanc mecum poteras requiescere noctem 
Fronde super viridi : sunt nobis mitia poma, 81 

Castaneae molles et pressi copia lactis : 
£t jam summa procul villaram culmina fumant, 
Majoresque cadunt altis de montibus umbrae. 

the air. See Ecl. viii. 52. — 63. The Arar (or as here, Ararii) is a 
river of Gaul, a tributary of the Rhodanus, and the Tiffria bounds 
Parthia on the west. But a shepherd may be supposed to imagine 
that the Arar (now the Saone) was a German river. — 65. The dis- 
possessed exiles are represented as scattered all over the world. 
lience we have alii contrasted With oar», as in Georg. ii. 10, &c. ; 
iv. 158, &c. ; Aen. i. 212, &c. ; ii. 399, &c. ; xi. 193, &c. Et — et 
have both the force of alii. Afros. Without a preposition, as if 
the name of a town or country. % This is rare, but is used by Taci- 
tus. Zumpt, ^ 398. Four different places of the world are se- 
lected: in the south, Africa; north, Scythia; east, Crete; west, 
Britain. Of the Oaxes of Crete we know nothing. Britain did not 
belong to this world, ibr the latter was surrounded by the Oceanus, 
and beyond it lay Britain. Probably settlements in other lands 
were provided for the unhappy exiles.— -70. Either post (an adverb) 
mirabor aliqiiot aristas^ ^aze with astonishment on a head of wheat 
here and there ; aliqitot m the sense of rara : or, post aliquot aris- 
tas ; aristas in the sense of messes for annos. — 73. Quis — quibus. 
— 80. The indicative is in some verbs used where we employ the 
subjunctive. The infinitive, with such verbs in the imperfect, indi- 
cates what is not, but the time for which is not yet past. Mehboeus 
was goinff away without resting, but Tityrus says * he might repose.* 
Zumpt, ?518. — 82. Castaneae molleSf chestnuts still fresh and 
sweet. Hence the dialogue took place in October, the month when 
chestnuts become ripe. Pressum laCt cheese. See ver. 35. 



*Thi8 is the fifst of all the Eclogues written by Virgil, and was 
composed b. c. 42. The poet had seen, in the house of 
Asinius Pollio (then gOYernor of Gallia Transpadana)^ a youth 
named Alexander, who acted as cup-bearer, and he formed 
for him the same attachment as Socrates, Plato, and others 
manifested to handsorae boys. In the poem, he bears the 
name of Alexis, Virgil that of the shepherd Corydon, and 
Asinius that of lollas. Pollio, charmed with this poem, pre- 
sented Alexander to Virgil. By him he was carefully edu- 
cated, and became a grammarian. Virgil has transferred 
many things into this poem from Theocritus.' — Trandattd 
from Wagner, 


FoRMosuM pastor Corydon ardebat Alexim, 
Delicias domini ; nec, quid speraret, habebat. • 
Tantum inter densas, umbrosa cacamina, fagos 
Assidue veniebat. Ibi haec incondita solus 
Montibus et silvis studio jactabat inani ; 5 

O cmdelis Alexi; nihil mea carmina curas? 
Nil nostri miserete 1 mori me denique coges. 
Nunc etiam pecudes umbras et frigora captant ; 
Nunc viridis etiam occultant spineta lacertos, 
Thestylis et rapido fessis messoribus aestu 10 

AUia serpyllumque herbas contundit olentis. 
At mecum raucis, tua dum vestigia lustro, 
Sole sub ardenti resonant arbusta cicadis. 
Nonne fuit satius, tristis Amaryllidis iras 
Atque superba pati fastidia; nonne Menalcan? 15 

Quamvis ille niger, quamvis tu candidus esses. 
formose puer,nimiumne crede colori ! 
Alba ligustra cadunt, vaccinia nigra leguntur. 
Despectus tibi sum, nec, qui sim, quaeris, Alexi, 
Quam dives pecoris, nivei quam lactis abundans: 20 

Mille meae Siculis errant in montibus agnae ; 
Lac mihi non aestate novum, non frigore defit. 
Canto, quae solitus, si quando armenta vocabat, 
Amphion Dircaeus in Actaeo Aracyntho. 

5. Jactabat. Applied to words spoken aloud. Ecl. v. 62 ; Aen. L 
102. — 18. From the connection, before alba and nigra, quamvis is 
implied. Cadunt : non leguntur. — 21. Virgil places the scene in 
Sicily. — 24. Amphion is called Dircaeus from the Theban fountain 
Uirce, so named from Dircei aa eneroy of his motber Autiopoi 


Nec 8U\n adeo informis : nuper me in litore ndL 25 

Cum placidum veutis staret mare ; non ego Daphnim 

Judice te metuam, si nuraquam fallit imago. 

O tantum libeat mecum tibi sordida rura 

Atque humilis habitare casas, et iigere cervos, 

Hoedorumque gregem viridi compellere hibisco ! 30 

Mecum una in silvis imitabere Pana canendo. 

Pan primus calamos cera conjungere pluris ;^ 

Institiiit ; Pan curat ovis oviumque magistros. 

Nec te poeniteat calamo trivisse labellum : 

Haec eadem ut sciret, quid non faciebat Amyntas ? 35 

£st mihi disparibus septem compacta cicutis 

Fistula, Damoetas dono mihi quam dedit olim, 

£t dixit moriens : Te nunc habet ista secundum. 

Dixit Damoetas ; invidit stultus Amyutas. 

Praeterea duO; nec tuta mihi valle reperti, 40 

Capreoli; sparsis etiam nunc pellibus albo ', 

Bina die siccant ovis ubera ; quos tibi servo. 

Jam pridem a me illos abducere Thestylis orat * 

£t faciet, quoniam sordent tibi munera nostra. 

Huc ades, o formose puer : tibi lilia plenis 45 

£cce ferunt Nymphae calathis ; tibi candida Nais, 

Pallentis violas et summa papavera carpens, 

Narcissum et florem jungit bene olentis anethi ; 

Tum^ casia atque aliis intexens suavibus herbis, 

Molha luteola pingit vaccinia cahha. 50 

Ipse ego cana legam tenera lanugine mala, 

Castaneasque nuceS; mea quas Amaryllis amabat ; 

Addam Cerea pruna : honos erit huic quoque pomo ; 

£t vos, o lauri, carpam, et te, proxima myrte : 

Sic positae quoniam suavis miscetis odores. 55 

whose body was thrown into it by him and his twin brother Zeihus. 
Aracynthus is a raountain between Boeotia and Attica, on which 
Virgil represents Amphion as feedin^ his herds. Amphioh was 
famed for his musical powers. Acte is a name for Attica ; hence 
Aracynthus, partly in Attica, is called Actaeui. There was ano- 
ther mountain of this name in Acarnania. The o oi Actaeo is not 
elided before the unusual quadrasyllabic AracyntJio, a Greek modcl 
being followed in both peculiarities. Indeed it seems the transcript 
of a Greek verse: 'A/i^/wv AipKa7os iv 'A/cra^yj 'Apo/riJv^v. — 32. For 
Pan^s invention of the syrinx, see Ovid, Met. i. 689. — 53. The 
last syllable of pruna is left before honot, forming what is called a 
hiatus. The pause that occurs here accounts for this violation of 
the ordinary rule. From the strong expression of feeling involved 
in Heu, heu, the former is not elided, ver. 58. And in ver. 65, 
while o is left, it is shortenedi as in the Greek in similar circum- 

BGL06A III. 91 

Rusticas es, Corydon: nec mnnera cnrat Alexis^ 

Nec, si muneribus certes, concedat lollas. 

Heu, heu, quid volui misero mibi ! floribus austrum 

Peraitus, et liquidis immisi fontibus apros. 

Quem fugis, an, demens'? habitarunt di quoque silvas, 60 

Dardaniusque Paris. Pallas, quas condidit arces, 

Ipsa colat ; nobis placeant ante omnia silvae. 

Torva leaena lupum sequitur ; lupus ipse capellam , 

Florentem cjrtisum sequitur lasciva capeila j 

Te Corydon, o Alexi : trahit sua quemque voluptas. 65 

Aspice, aratra jugo referunt suspensa juvenci, 

£t sol crescentis decedens duphcat umbras : 

Me tamen urit amor; quis enim modus adsit amori? 

Ah, Corydon, Corydon, quae te dementia cepit ! 

Semiputata tibi frondosa vitis in ulmo est. 70 

Quin tu aliquid saltem potius, quorum indiget usus, 

Viminibus molhque paras detexere junco 1 

Invenies alinm, si te hic fastidit, Alexira. 


This Ec1ogj.e is principally occupied by a contest in poetical 
skill between two shepherds, Menalcas and Damon. Such 
contests — still not uncommon among the Jmprovisatori of 
Italy — were carried on in verses, called carmen amoebaewn, 
from the Greek dfu>cj3M0$, answering alternately. And in them 
no sequence of ideas was necessary on the part of the chal- 
lenger, but the party challenged was bound to exceed in lan- 
guage or ideas the thoughts first expressed. The introduction, 
wherein the challenge is given, occupies the first fifly-nina 
lines, introducing Palaemon as an arbiter. In the course of 
the amaboean verses, Virgil takes occasion to glorify his friend 
and patron Pollio, and to sneer at Bavius and Maevius, two 
envious satirists, who attacked both hlm and Horace. This 
Eclogue is said to have been written b. c. 42. 



Men, Dic mihi, Damoeta^ cujum pecus? an Meliboei'* 
Dam. Non, verum Aegonis; nupermihitradidit Aegon. 

1. Cuju8'a'um, ail antiquated possessivc pronoun, perhaps used 
bere as a mark ojf rusticity. 


Men, Infelix o semper, ovis, pecQs ! ipoe NeaeFam 
Dum fovet, ac, ne me sibi praeferat illa, veretur|- 
Hic alienus ovis custos bis mul^et in hora ) 6 

£t 8UCCUS pecori et lac subducitur agnis. 

Dam. Parcius ista viris tamen objicienda memento. 
NovimuS; et qui te, transversa tuentibus hircis, 
El quo — sed faciles Nyraphae risere — sacello. 

Men. Tum; credo, cum me arbustum videre Miconis lO 
Atque mala vitis incidere falce novellas. 

Dam. Aut hic ad veteris fagos, cum Daphnidis aroam 
Fregisti et calamos : quae tu, perverse Menalca, 
£t, cum vidisti puero donata, dolebas, 
£t, si non aliqua nocuisses, mortuus esses. 15 

Men. Quid domini faciant, audent cum talia fures ! 
Non ego te vidi Damonis, pessime, caprum 
£xcipere insidiis, multum latrante Lycisca ? 
£t cum clamarem : ^ Quo nunc se proripit ille ? 
Tityre, coge pecus ;' tu post carecta latebas. 20 

Dam. An mihi cantando victus non redderet ille, 
Quem mea carminibus meruisset fistula caprum ; 
Si nescis. meus ille caper fuit ; et mihi Damon 
Ipse fateoatur, sed reddere posse negabat. 

Men. Cantando tu illum ? aut umquam tibi fistula 
cera 25 

Juncta fuit ? non tu in triviis, indocte, solebas 
Stridenti miserum stipula disperdere carmen ? 

Dam. Vis ergo, inter nos, quid possit uterque, vicissim 
£xperiamur ? ego hanc vitulam — ^ne forte recuses, 
Bis venit ad mulctram, binos alit ubere fetus — 30 

Depono : tu dic, mecum quo pignore certes. 

Men. De grege non ausim quicquam deponere tecam : 

3. Ipse: referring to Aegeon. — 5. AlientUf a hireling, and, as 
such, caring nothin^ for the flock, but to profit by them. — 7. Ft- 
ris : in its emphatic sense, men of manly minds. — 8. Transversa 
for transverse. The accusative, both singular and plural, of adjec- 
tives, is often so used for the adverb, as below, ver. 63 ; EcL iv. 
43 ; Georg. iii. 149 ; Aen. vi. 288. — 9. Sacellot a cave sacred to the 
Nymphs. See Aen. i. 168. — 10. Me. Menalcas ironically trans- 
fers to himself the wrong actually done by Damoetas. — 13. Cahi' 
mo8 : sagittas e calamis factas. — 16. As neither of the parties 
seems to be a slaye, the force of this line appears to be, ' What can 
the masters of flocks do to protect themselves, now that thieves 
have become so daring?' — 18. Lyciscas, the name of a dog. — i 
25. Tu vicisti illum? A strong emphasis in tu and Ulum. — 27. 
Imitated by Milton in its harshness — 

— ^* their lean and flashy songs, 
Grate on their scrannel pipca of wretolied straw.* 



ECL06A III. 33 

£st mihi namque domi pater, est injusta noverca; 

Bisque die numerant ambo pecuS; aiter et haedos. 

Verum; id quod multo tute ipse fatebere majus — 35 

Insanire libet quoniam tibi — pocula ponam 

Fagina, caelatum divini opus Alcimedontis : 

Lenta quibus torno facili superaddita vitis 

Diffusos hedera vestit pallente corymbos. ^ 

In raedio duo signa, Conon, et — quis fuit alter, 40 

Descripsit radio totum qui gentibus orbem, 

Tempora quae messor, quae curvus arator haberet ? 

Necdum iliis labra admovi, sed condita servo. 

Dam, £t nobis idem Alcimedon duo pocula fecit, 
£t moUi circum est ansas amplexus acantho, 45 

Orpheaque in medio posuit silvasque sequentis. 
Necdum illis labra admovi, sed condita servo. 
Si ad vitulam spectas, nihil est, quod pocula laudes. 

Men. Numquam hodie efFugies; veniam, quocumque 
Audiat haec tantum — vel qui venit — ectie, Palaemon. 50 
£fiiciam, posthac ne quemquam voce lacessas. 

Dam. Quin age, si quid habes, in me mora non erit ulla, 
Nec quemquam fugio : tantum, vicine Palaemon, 
Sensibus haec imis, res est non parva, reponas. 

Pal. Dicite, quandoquidem in molli consedimns 
herba. 55 

Et nunc omnis ager, nunc omnis parturit arbos ; 
Nunc frondent silvae ; nunc formosissimus annus. 
Incipe, Damoeta ; tu deinde sequere, Menalca. 
Alternis dicetis ; amant allerna Camenae. 

Dam. Ab Jove principium Musae ; Jovis omnia 
plena ; 60 

IUe colit terras ; illi mea carmina curae. 

37. Who Alcimedon was is unknown. — 38. Facilis expresses ihe 
ease with which the skilfiil workman uses his tools. — 39. Pdllente. 
The distinction of colour between the ivy leaves and berries is 
finely marked. — - 40. Conon was a celebrated mathematician and 
astronomer, who lived in the times of the Ptolomies, Philadelphus 
and Euergetes, b. c. 283-222. Alter. Probably Eudoxus, another 
celebrated astronomer, who lived about b. c. 366. His work on 
^atvdneva was in great repute among Italian agriculturists ; hence 
the allusion to him in this place. — 41. Radio. The rod of j^e 
mathematician, with which he drew his figures on the sand. — -42. 
Curvus. Alluding to the stooping posture of a man holding the 
plough. — 46. So Horace, Od. i. 12, 7; Ovid, Met. x. 86.-— 50. 
About to propose some one as judge, he breaks ofT in the middle, 
with the name suppressed, and says — vcZ, &c. — 59. Alternis. • A 
translation of the Greek, Sl dnotpatwv. Camenaej Latin deitiei^ 
nearly identlcal with the Muses of the Greeks. 


Men, £t me Phoebns amat 3 Phoebo saa semper apud 
Munera sont, laori et saave robens h^racinthus. 

Dtxm. Malo me Galatea petit, lasciva puella, 
£t fugit ad salices, et se cnpit ante videri. 65 

Men. M mihi sese ofiert ultro, meus ignis, Amyotas, 
Notior ut p.m sit canibus non Delia nostris. 

Dam. Parta meae Veneri sunt munera : namqae notavi 
Ipse locum, aeriae quo congessere palumbes. 

Men. Quod potui, puero silvestri ex arbore lecta 70 
Aurea mala decem misi ', cras ahera mittam. 

Dam, quoties et quae nobis Galatea locuta est ! 
Partem aliquam, venti, divom referatis ad auris ! 

Men, Quid prodest, quod me ipse animo non speniis, 
Si, dum tu sectaris apros, ego retia servo ? 75 

Dam. Phyllida mitte mihi: meus est natalis, loUa; 
Cum faciam vitula pro frugibus, ipse venito. 

Men. Phylhda amo ante alias; nam me discedere flevit, 
£t longum formose, vale, vale, inquit, lolla. 

Dam, Triste lupus stabulis, maturis frugibus imbres, 80 
Arboribus venti, nobis AmarylHdis irae. 

Men. Dulce satis humor, depulsis arbutus haedis, 
Lenta salix feto pecori. mihi solus Amyntas. 

Dam. Pollio aroat nostram, quamvis est rustica, Ma- 
PierideS; vitulam lectori pascite vestro. 85 

Men. Pollio et ipse facit nova carmina : pascite taanmii 
Jam cornu petat et pedibus qui spargat arenam. 

Dam. Qui te, PoUio, amat, veniat, quo te quoque gaudet; 
Mella fluant illi, ferat et rubus asper amomum. 

Men. Qui Bavium non odit, amet tua carmina, Maevi, 90 
Atque idem jungat vnlpes et mulgeat hircos. 

Dam. Qui legitis flores et humi nascentia fraga, 
Frigidus, o pueri, fugite hinc, latet anguis in herba. 

Men. Parcite, oves, nimium procedere : non bene rtpae 
Creditur ; ipse aries etiam nunc vellera siccat. 95 

Dam. Tityre, pascentis a fluraine reice capellas: 
Ipse ubi terapus erit, omnis in fonte lavabo. 

63i^Suave. See note on ver. 8. — 67. See Shenstone^s iDaitatioD-^ 
* I have found out a gift for my fair/ icc 

—79. Either longum (with protracted sound) inquit, or lon^m vale, 
The c in the second rale short, from the hiatus. — 80. Triste, used 
substantivcly, and equivalent to res tristis. Zumpt, ^ 368. _Aem^ 
iv. 570. — 84. See Argument. — 90. See Argument. — .96. ., 
contracted for rejice — a natural contractioD, especially ifj as 
K)se, such words were all anciently written with one t 

SCL06A IT. 85 

Men, Cogite ovis; pneri ; si lac praeceperit aesiDst, 
Ut nupef; frustra pressabimus nbera palmis. 

Dam. Hen, heu, quam pingui raacer est mihi taurus 
inervo! 100 

Idem amor exitium pecori pecorisque magistro. 

Men. His certe neque amor caussa est; vix ossibus 
Nescio quis teneros oculns mihi fascinat agnos. 

Dam. Oic, qnibus in terris — et eris mihi magnus 
Apollo — 
Tris pateat caeli spatinm non amplias ulnas. 105 

Men. Dic, quibus in terris inscripti nomina regum 
Nascantur flores; et Phyllida solus habeto. 

Fd, Non nostmm inter vos tantas componere lites. 
£t vitula tu dignus, et hic; et quisquis amores 
Aut metuet dulcis, aut experietur amaros. 1 10 

Clandite jam rivoi^ pueri : sat prata biberunt. 

102. The force of these two lines is : ' For the disease of your 
bull there is a remedy ; but there is none for that of my sheep. Bad 
as love is, not it even {neaue) is the source of tbe iilness of these 
lambs. They are certainly under the fascinatiou of the Eml £ye.* 
This superstition still lingers in some narts of Europe. — 105. One 
answer to this puzzle is, the bottom of a well. In this country we 
have a similar puzzle andsolution — ^the latter being the bottom of a 
coal-pit. There is a tradition, now generally followed, that Virgirs 
own solution was as foUows: — In Mantua there was a profligate 
citizen who sold his all, and had no territory («pottum) leit but his 
jzrave, 'three paces of the vilest earth.' IliB name was Caelius, 
Virgirs genitive of which is Cadu (See JEcl. i. 33.) Ulnas. In the 
later writers, ulna is equivalent to cubitusj about a foot and a hal£ 
Servius explains it as meaning here, the whole width between the 
cutstretched hands — about four feet. — 107. Flores. The hyacinth 
was believed to be marked with the name of Hyacinthus, or of Ajax. 
Ovid. idet. z. 206 ; ziii. 389. Interipti nomina ; see Ecl. i. 55. — 
109. Et quisquis^^tnaros. The meaning seems to be : * Not onlv 
do both of you, love-inspired, deserve the prize, but all that shall 
tremble with fear when love is propitious, or suffer under his frown ; 
in short, all true lovers, such as you.' But the passage is a difficult 
one, and many emendations have been suggested. — 111. Palaemon 
leaves them to see closed the sluices of the irrigating streams. 

This Eclogue is mainly imitated in Pope's first Pastoral. 


£h the mullitude of conjectures regarding the subject of this Ec- 
logue, Wagner*s views seem preferable. AU Italy had been 
•xposed to dreadfnl calamities ; first <from the division of tha 


lanJs, spoken of in tho first Eclogne, then from the oaarrels 
between Antony and Octaviantis, and the war which ensaed, 
B. c. 41 ; and finally, from a most severe famine, the result of 
tho blockade formed by the fleets of Antony and Sex.'Pompeiu8. 
So much the greater was the joy occasioned by the treaty of 
Brandusinm made in the autumn of b. c. 40, by which har> 
mony was restored between the two contending chiefs. Antony's 
agent in arranging the peace was Virgirs patron, Asinius Pollia 
A little aflerwards, on his return to Rome, Pollio entered on 
the consulship, and about the same time had a son born to him. 
There was a comraon belief at the time that a new age wa« 
dawning on the world ; and as Italy seemed to have escaped 
from its miseries chiefly through the means of Pollio, Virgil, in 
this Eclogue, congratulates him on his consulship, and does it 
in such a way, as at once to extol him as tbe harbinger of a 
new era of happintjs, and at the same time to augur this, 
from the birth of his son, as an omen of futnre peace and 
prosperity. This Eclogue was written in the auturan of b. c. 40, 


SiCELiDES Musae, paulo majora canpLmus ! 
Non omnis arbusta juvant humilesque myricae , 
Si caiiimus silvas, silvae sint Consule dignae. 
Ultima Cumaei venit jam carminis aetas ; 
Magnus ab integro saeclorum nascitur ordo. 5 

Jam redit et Virgo, redeunt Saturnia regna j 
Jam nova progenies caelo demittitur alto. 
Tu modo nascenti puero, quo ferrea primum 
Desinet, ac toto surget gens aurea mundo, 
Casta fave Lucina : tuus jam regnat Apollo. 10 

Teque adeo decus hoc aevi, te Consule, inibit, 
Pollio, et incipient magni procedere menses; 
Te duce, si qua manent sceleris vestigia nostri, 
Irrita perpetua solvent formidine terras. 
Ille deum vitam accipiet, divisque videbit 15 

Permixtos heroas, et ipse videbitur illis, 
Pacatumque reget patriis virtutibus orbem. 

1. Sicelides. Theocritus, whom Virgil principally imitated, was 
a Sicilian. — 4. For the Cumaean Sibyl, see Aen. vi. 10. The age 
was the tenth in her books, or Golden Age. — 6. Virgo. Astraea; 
that is, Justice. Ovid. Met. i. 149 ; Georg. ii. 473. Satumia. Sce 
Georg. n. 538. — 10. Lucina. This name (from lux ; that is, the 
light-bringer) is applicd to the goddess who presided over childbirth ; 
sometimes Juno, sometimes, as here, Diana, whom the Romans 
identified with the Greek Artemis, the sister of ApoIIo ; hence tuui 

ECLOOA ir. 97 

At tibi prima. puer, nullo munuscula cultu 

Errantis hederas passim cum bacchare tellus 

Mixtaque ridenti colocasia fundet acantho. 20 

Ipsae lacte domum referent distenta capellae 

Ubera; nec magnos metuent armenta leones. 

Ipsa tibi blandos fundent cunabula flores. 

Occidet et serpens, et fallax herba veneni 

Occidet ; Assyrium vulgo nascetur amomum. 25 

At simul heroum laudes et facta parentis 

Jam legere, et quae sit poteris cognoscere virtus : 

Molli panlatim flavescet campus arista, 

Incultisque rubens pendebit sentibus uva, 

Et durae quercus sudabunt roscida mella. 30 

Pauca tamen suberunt priscae vestigia fraudis, 

Quae tentare Thetim ratibus, quae cingere muris 

Oppida, quae jubeant telluri infindere sulcos. 

Alter erit tum Tiphys, et altera quae vehat Argo 

Delectos heroas ; erunt etiam altera bella, 35 

Atque iterum ad Trojam magnus mittetur Achilles. 

Hinc, ubi jam firmata virum te fecerit aetas, 

Cedet et ipse raari vectO)\ nec nautica pinus 

Mutabit merces: omnis feret omnia teilus. 

Non rastros patietur humus. non vinea falcem ; 40 

Bobustus quoque jam tauris juga solvet arator; 

Nec varios discet mentiri lana coloresj 

^pse sed in pratis aries jam suave rubenti 

Murice, jam croceo mutabit vellera luto ; 

Sponte sua sandyx pascentis vestiet agnos. 45 

'Taiia saecla,' suis dixerunt, ^currite,' fusis 

CoQCordes stabili fatorura numine Parcae. 

Aggredere o raagnos — aderit jam tempus — honores, 

Cara deum soboles, magrium Jovis incrementum ! 

■ _ — ■ 

18, &c. Virgil traces the progress of the world : 1. in the boy- 
nood, .verses 18-25 ; 2. in the youth, 26-36 ; 3. in the manhood, 
37-45; of Pollio's son. — 25. Assyrium. This name is ofien em- 
ployed by the poets to indicate eastern countries in general. — 26. 
Simul; that is, simul ac. — 30. See Georg. i. 131; Ovid, Met. L 
112. — 32. Thetis. A sea goddess. To tempt her, is to tempt the 
sea. — 34. Tiphys. The pilot of the ship Argo, which sailed in the 
celebrated quest for the golden fleece, with Hercules, Jason, and 
others — delectos heroas. — 39. There will be no need of navigation, 
for every land will produce everything of itself. — 43. Suave. See 
Ed. iii. 8, 63. —47. Parcae. The Fates ; from parco, to propitiate 
them, and induce them to spare. Ages are here said to be spuK 
from their spindles. — 49. Jovis ; the subjective genitive, Jupiter 
causing the growing honours of the boy ; or objective, the boy bemg 
regarded as onc raore added to Jupiter's race. Inirementum. For 


Affpice convexo nulantem pondere mundum, 50 

Terrasque tractusque maris caelumque profundum, 

Aspice, venturo laetantur ut omnia saeclo ! 

O mihi tam longae maneat pars ultima vitae, 

Spiritus et, quantum sat erit tua dicere facta : 

Non me carminibus vincet nec Thracius Orpheus, 55 

Nec Linus, huic mater quamvis atque huic pater adbit, 

Orphei Calliopea, Lino formosus Apollo. 

Pan etiam, Arcadia mecum si iudice certet, 

Pan etiam Arcadia dicat se judice victum. 

Incipe. parve puer, risu cognoscere matrem : 60 

Matri longa decem tulerunt fastidia menses. 

Incipe, parve puer : cui non risere parentes, 

Nec deus hunc mensa^ dea nec dignata cubili est. 

the force added to a verse by the spondaic quadrasyllable, see Georg, 
i. 221 ; Aen. ii. 68, viii. 167. — 51. Tractusque. The last ByllabTe 
long from the arsit. — 52. Laetantur. The indicative shows the 
poet's firm conviction of the truth of his statements. It is not ' See 
iiow all nature rejoices/ but, ' See ! How does ali nature reioice !' 
—55. It is not unusual for a negative proposition to be laid down 
generally, and then particulars to be stated, still with particles of 
negation. Here the general proposition is, * There shall not (non) 
any conquer me ;' the particular instances are Orpheus and Linus, 
both ushered in with nec, nec. In strong negations, in English, we 
have something similar; and here we may say, ' No one shall sur- 
pass me in song; no, not Orpheus,' &c. — 60. Risu cognoscere; to 
show thy mother by thjr laugh that thou recog^isest her. — 61. Tu- 
lerunt. For the quantity see Geor^. ii. 129, iii. 283, iv. 393 ; Aen, 
ii. 774, iii. 48, 681, x. 334. — 62. Cux non^ &c. Him to whose laugh 
no parents have joyously replied. 

This Eclogue is expressiy imitated in Pope'8 Metsiah, a Sacred 


THX original Daphnis was a Sicilian hero, and his name occors 
frequently in the ancient Pastorals. It is supposed that this 
Eclogue was written b. c. 42, in which year public rejoicings 
throughout Italy were ordered to celebrate the deification of 
JuiJus Caesar, the month of July being also named ailer him. 
According to this conjecture, which is not improbable, Virgil 
celebrates Caesar under the name of Daphnis, though not car- 
rying the resemblance through all its features. The poem has 
been extensively imitated, and has furnished materials for 
many elegiac Eclogues. The first fifty-two lines consist chiefly 
of lamentation ; the remaining verses celebrate the deification 
of Daphnis. 




Men, CuR non, Mopse, boni quoniam convenimus ambo, 
Tu calamos inflare levis, ego dicere versus, 
Hic corylis mixtas inter considimus ulmos ? 

Mop. Tu major; tibi me est aequum parere, Menalca, 
Sive sub incertas Zephyris motantibus umbras, 5 

Sive antro potius succedlmus. Aspice, ut antrum 
Silvestris raris sparsit labrusca racemis. 

Men, Montibus in nostris solus tibi certat Am^mtas. 

M(yp, Quid, si idem certet Phoebum superare canendo ? 

Men. Incipe, Mopse, prior, si (juos aut Phyliidis ignis, 10 
Aut Aiconis habes laudes, aut jurgia Codri. 
Incipe ; pascentis servabil Tityrus haedos. 

Mop. Immo haec, in viridi nuper quae cortice fagi 
Carmina descripsi et modulans aiterna notavi, 
Experiar. Tu deinde jubeto ut certet Amyntas. 15 

Men. Lenta salix quantum pallenti cedit olivae, 
Pnniceis humiJis quantum saliunca rosetis, 
Judicio nostro tantum tibi cedit Amyntas. 

Mop. Sed tu desine plura, puer; successimus antxo. 

Exstinctum Nymphae crudeli funere Daphnim 20 

Flebant; vos coryli testes et fluraina Nymphis; 
Cum, complexa sui corpus miserabile nati, 
Atque deos atque astra vocat crudelia mater. 
Non ulli pastos illis egere diebus 

Frigida, Daphni, boves ad flumina ; nulla nec amnem 25 
Libavit quadrupes, nec graminis attigit herbam. 
Daphni, tuum Poenos etiam ingemuisse leones 
Interitum raontesque feri silvaetiue loquuntur. 
Daphnis et Armenias curru subjungere tigris 
Instituit, Daphnis thiasos inducere Bacchi^ 30 

1. Boni; that is, periti. It is followed by the infinitive inflare, 
which is a poetical usage. See Ecl. vii. 5 — x. 32 ; Georg. i. 280, 
284; Aen. ix. 772; and Zumpt, ^598. — 7. Sparsit. See Ecl. iv. 
52. — 8. Tibi certat. So Certent et cycnis ululae. Ecl. viii. 55. — 
9. Mopsus seems to sneer at Amyntas, as darin^ to contend not 
with him only, but with ApoUo. — 14. Alter^a. Mopsus inscribed 
his verses, and then set them to music, which, too, he inscribed. 
See Ecl. iii. 8. — 23. Atque — atque ; that is, et — et. Astra. She 
upbraids with cruehy ihe stars, as influencini^ her son*s fate. Ma^ 
ter. Venus, the alleged foundress of the Juhan race. See Ecl. ix. * 
47.— »25. Nulla nec. See Ecl. iv. 55. — 29. Curru for currui; a 
form usually adopted by Caesar, and not uncommon in Virgil. Se* 
Georg. iv. 158 ; Aen. i. 257, iii. 541. 


£t foliis lentas intexere mollibus hastas. 

Vitis ut arboribus decori est, ut vitibus uvae, 

Ut gregibus tauri, segetes ut pinguibus aryis, 

Tu decus omne tuis. Postquam te fata tulerant, 

Ipsa Pales agros atque ipse reliquit Apollo. Sft 

Grandia saepe quibus mandavimus hordea 8ulci8| 

Infelix lolium et steriles nascuntur avenae ; 

Pro molli viola, pro purpureo narcisso^ 

Carduus et spinis surgit paliurus acutis. 

Spargite humum foliis, inducite fontibus umbra8| 40 

Pastores ; mandat fieri sibi talia Daphnis ; 

£t tumulum facite, et tumulo superaddite carmen : 

' Daphnis ego in silvis, hinc usque ad sidera notus, 

Formosi pecoris custos, formosior ipse.' 

Men. Tale tuum carmen nobis, divine poeta, 45 

Quale sopor fessis in gramine, quale^ per aestum, 
Dulcis aquae saliente sitim restinguera rivo. 
Nec calamis solum aequiparas, sed voce magistrum. 
Fortunate puer, tu nunc eris alter ab illo. 
Nos tamen haec, quocumque modo, tibi nostra vicissim 50 
Dicemus, Daphnimque tuum toUemus ad astra ; 
Daphnin ad astra feremus : amavit nos quoque Daphnis. 

mop. An quicquam nobis tali sit munere majus? 
£t puer ipse fuit cantari dignus, et ista 
Jam prldem Stimicon laudavit carmina nobis. 55 

Men. Candidus insuetum miratur limen Olympi, 
Sub pedibusque videt nubes et sidera Daphnis. 

35. Pales. An Italian deity who presided over shepherds. 
Apollo. One of the offices of the Greek ApoIIo, especially dwelt 
on in later times, and here recognised by Virgili was that of pro- 
tecting the flocks and cattle. — 36. In iis iulcis is necessary to com- 
plete the sense. — 37. Infdix, not fitted to sustain life. Aen. iii. 
649. Steriles avenae. Wild oats, called by Linnaeus avena fatua. 
— 40. He calls upon the shepherds to perform the wonted honoora 
to the tomb of Daphnis, sprmkling leaves, and enveloping in thick 
shades (umbras, plur.) of numerous branches thc running waters 
near which his tomb was placed. — 46. Quale. See Ecl. ui. 80. — 
47. Restinguere. As tho infinitive is a verbal substantive (See 
Zumpt, % 597, &c.), it corresponds with other substantives, as here 
with sopor. See Georg. i. 25, iii. 181 ; Aen. x. 759. — 49. Alter has 
the force, as often, of a^undus. Ah ; the order of immediate suc- 
cessidh is expressed by this preposition with the force oi post,— 
54. Cantari disnus. The infinitive with the force of the ablative is 
rure in prose, but not uno^mmon in verse. See a similar construc- 
tion, ver. 89. — 56-80. We have now the deification of Daphnis, in 
which the poet ascribes to him ali the attributes, and claims for him 
all the honours, of a rural deity. Candidus. Either serenely 
majestic, or glo\sing with heavenly splendour. Olympi. It is well 


Ergo alacris silvas et cetera rura voluptas 

Panaque pa8tore?que tenet Dryadasqne puellas. 

Nec lupus insidias pecori, nec retia cervis 60 

Ulla dolum meditantur; amat bonus otia Daphnis. 

Ipsi laetitia voces ad sidera jactant 

Intonsi montes , ipsae jam carmina rupes, 

Ipsa sonant arbusta : 'Deus, deus ille, Menalca !' 

Sis bonus o felixque tuis ! en quatuor aras : 65 

Ecce. duas tibi, ikphni, duas altaria Phoebo. 

Pocula bina novo spumantia lacte quotannis 

Craterasque duos statuam tibi pinguis olivi, 

Et multo in primis hilarans convivia Baccho, 

Ante focum, si frigus erit, si messis, in umbra, 70 

Vina novum fundam calathis Ariusia nectar. 

Cantabunt mihi Damoetas et Lyctius Aegon ; 

Saltantis Satyros imitabitur Alphesiboeus. 

Haec tibi semper erunt, et cum sollemnia vota 

Reddemus Nymphis, et cum lustrabimus agros. 75 

Dum juga montis aper, fluvios dum piscis amabit, 

Dumque thymo pascentur apes, dum rore cicadae, 

Semper honos nomenque tuum laudesque manebunt. 

Ut Baccho Cererique, tibi sic vota quotannis 

Agricolae facient ; damnabis tu quoque votis. 80 

known that the poets employ this mountain of Thessaly to denote 
heaven, the residence of the gods. See Ecl. vi. 86 ; Georg, i. 450 ; 
Aen. i. 374, &c. — 58. Alacris qualifies vclitptas. — 59. Fana. The 
Greek god of ehepherds, identified by the Komans with their own 
Faunus. Vryadas. The nymphs of trees, from ^pSf, any wild- 
growing lofty tree. — 60. Not only happiness, but serenity prevails. 
— 61. ionust kind. See ver. 65; Aen. xiL 647. — 63. Intonsi; 
silvosi. — 65. Aras. Any structure for worship by offering was 
called ara ; that whereon victims were slain in honour of the superior 
deities was called altare. Duas (aras) altaria Fhoebo. The cele- 
bration of the birthday of Julius Cqesar fell upon the eve of the ludi 
ApollinareSi the 12th July. — 67. Bina ; 68. duos. Two pocula to 
each altar, but only one crater, as larger. Such is the force of the 
numerals here. Zumpt, ^ 119. It is probable that Virgil here de- 
clares his intention to rank Caesar among the Lares worshipped in 
April, when the harvest began (at the Ambarvalia)^ and at tbe close 
of the vintage in autumn. To the first refer novo lacte, tnestis: to 
the latter, oliyi and frigus. On both occasions he is to pour forth 
libations of wine. — 69. Baccho, for vino ; as Georg. i. 344 ; Aen. i. 
215. — 71. Ariusia. A district of the island of Chios, producing 
the choicest wines, called here nectar. — 72. Lyctiut : equivalent 
to Cretensis ; from Lyctus, a town of Crete. — 75. Frobably a^ain 
an allusion to thc autumnal feast, and the Ambarvalia ; for which, 
in connection with lustrahimut agros, see Georg. i. 338, &.c. — 80. 
A vow ivotum) partook of the nature of a bargain. The wors24p* 
4* D 


Mop. Qaae tibi, quae tali reddam pro carmine donaf 
Nam neque me tantum venientis sibilas auatri, 
Nec percussa juvant fluctu tam litora, neo quae 
Saxosas inter decurrunt flumina valies. 

Men. Hac te nos fragili donabimus ante cicuta. 85 
Haec nos, ' Formosum Corydon ardebat Alexim,' 
Haec eadem docuit, 'Cujum pecus? an Meliboei'^' 

Mop. At tu sume pedum, quod, me cum saepe rogaret| 
Non tulit Antigenes — et erat tum dignus aman— - 
Formosum paribus nodis atque aere, Menalca. 90 

pers covenanted to perform some specified service to tbe god {vota 
fecerunt)^ on condition that the god granted theu- prayer. If he did 
80, he was said damnare voti^ or votoy to find them liabie to pay 
their vows (vota reddere), as having had their prayer granted. — 86, 
87. The commencement of the second and third Eciogues. 

For the most beautiful imitation of this Eciogue, see Milton'8 


L. Alfsws Yarus had been appointed by Octavianus, b. c. 40, 
to preside over Cisalpine Gaul, ia room of Pollio, who be- 
longed to the party of Antony, and had been driven from his 
command. With Yarus were associated tbe poet Corn. Gallus, 
a Roman eques, and Octavianus Musa. Yarus and Virgil had 
before together received instructions in philosophy from Siron, 
an Epicurean. In the year b. c. 39, Virgil, who had fled to 
Rome from violence offered to him by the soldiery, even aAer 
his lands had been restored, returned home, and, to conciliate 
Varus, composed this Eclogue. The subject is principally a 
rapid and poetical account of the Epicurean tbeory of tbe 
creation of the world, along with some of the most noted 
mythes, and a delicate compliment to Gallus. 


Prima Syracosio dignata est ludere versu 
Nostra, nec erubuit silvas habitare, Thalia. 
Cum canerem reges et proeliaj Cynthius aurem 

1. Prima ; either^r»t in Latin poetry, or atfirsti for primum; as 
Georg. i. 12. Syracosio. Theocritus was a native of Syracuse. See 
Ecl. IV. l. — 2. Thalia. The Muse that presided over pastoral poetry. 
— 3. When Virgil, who had written pastoral poetry, was attempting 
higher strains, he was checked by Apollo (CynthiuSf irom Cjrnthus, 
a mountain in Delos, at the foot of which he was born), and recom 
meftdod to sing a humble {deductum^i song. 


Vellity et admonuit : P&storem, Tityre, pininiis 
Pascere oportet ovis, deductum dicere carmen. 6 

Nunc ego^ — ^namque super tibi erunt, qui dicere laudes, 
Vare, tuas cupiant, et tristia condere bella — 
Agrestem tenui meditabor aruodine Musam. 
Non injussa cano. Si quis tamen haec quoque, si quis 
Captus amore ieget, te nostrae, Vare, myricae. 10 

Te nemuB omne canet ; nec Phoebo gratior ulla est, 
Quam sibi quae Vari praescripsit pagina nomen. 

Pergite, Pierides. Chromis et Mnasylos in antro 
Silenum pueri somno videre jacentem, 
Inflatum nestemo venas, ut semper, laccho ; 15 

Serta procul, tantum capiti delapsa, jacebant, 
Et gravis attrita pendeoJEit cantharus ansa. 
Aggressi — nam saepe senex spe carminis ambo 
Luserat — injiciunt ipsis ex vincula sertis. 
Addit se sociam timidisque supervenit Aegle — 20 

Aegle, Naiadum pulcherrima — ^jamque videnti 
Sanguineis frontem moris et tempora pingit. 
IUe dolum ridens, ^Quo vincula nectitis?' inquit; 
^ Solvite me, pueri ; satis est potuisse videri. 
Carmina, quae vultis, cognoscite ; carmina vobis, 25 
Huic aliud roercedis erit.' Simul incipit ipse. 
Tum vero in numerum Faunosque ferasque videres 
Ludere, tum rigidas motare cacumina quercus; 
Nec tantum Phoebo gaudet Parnasia rupes, 
Nec tantum Rhodope mirantur et Ismarus Orphea. 30 
Namque canebat, uti magnum per inane coacta 

6. Super ttbi erunt ; the same as supererunt. This separation is 
not uncommon. See Georg. ii. 349, 351 ; Aen. ii. 567, vii. 559. — 
8. See Ecl. i. 2. — 9. Injussa ; referring to the instnictions of ApoUo. 
— 13. Chromis et Mnasylos. The names of two Satyrs. — 14. SUe' 
num. This constant companion of Bacchus, at least in the later 
mythes, is represented as old, and ever indulging in wine. — 15. 
Inflatum venas. See Ecl. i. 55. laccho. A name for Bacchus, from 
IdKxtiVj to utter loud shouts of joy ; here equivalent to vino. See 
Ecl. v. 69. — 17, 18. A brief and ffraphic picture of the old god, 
Btretched in sleep, still keeping hold ot the wine-jar, and his garland 
lying beside him. Procut indicates interval of space, small or great 
— the interval to be judged of from the context. Here the interval 
is small, near. Tantumj referable eithcr to time, or rather to space ; 
from his head, andno more. — 21. Videnti. Silenus had been awak- 
ened, and saw what they were doing. — 27. In numerum^ keeping 
time with the music. — 30. Rhodopeet Ismarus, mountainsof Thrace, 
thc land of Orpheus. Orph^H to oe pronounced Orphyd. — 31. Her© 
commences the Epicurean cosmogony. Inane ; the void which the 
Epicureans held to be the original condition of the universe. The 
Bcattered atoms (semina) of enrth (terrarum)t air (.animae), wator 


Semina terraramque animaeque marisque fuissent 
Et liquidi simul ignis ; ut his exordia primis 
Omnia, et ipse tener mundi concreverit orbis , 
Tum durare solum et discludere Nerea ponto 35 

Coeperit, et rerum paulatim sumere formas ; 
Jamque novum terrae stupeant lucescere solem, 
Altius atque cadant submotis nubibus imbres; 
Incipiant silvae cum primum surgere, cumque 
Rara per ignaros errent animalia montis. 40 

Hinc lapides Pyrrhae jactos, Satumia regna, 
Caucasiasque refert volucres furtumque Promethei. 
His adjungit, Hylan nautae quo fonte relictum 
Clamassent, ut litus, 'Hyla ! Hyla !' omne sonaret ; 
£t fortunatam, si numquam armenta fuissent, 45 

Pasiphaen nivei solatur amore juvenci. 
Ah, virgo infelix, quae te dementia cepit ! 
Proetides implerunt falsis mugitibus agros : 
At non tam turpis pecudum tamen ulla secuta est 
Concubitus, quamvis collo timuisset aratram, 50 

Ec saepe in levi quaesisset coraua fronte. 
Ah, virgo infelix, tu nunc in montibus erras : 
Ille, latus niveum molli fultus hyacintho, 
Ilice sub nigra pallentis ruminat herbas, 
Aut aliquatn in magno sequitur grege. ^ Claudite, Nym- 
phae, 55 

Dictaeae Nymphae, nemoram jam claudite saltus, 
Si qua forte ferant oculis sese obvia nostris 

(mam), fire (t^nts), wcre united icodcta) to form bodies. See Ovid, 
Met, i. 21, &.C. — 35. Nerea. A sea-god, here put for the waters 
of the sea, but to be translated iiterally. Ponto^ in ponto. — 38. 
The rains are represented as fallins from a greater heignt, in conse- 
quence of the greater elevation oi the clouds. — 39. Cum primum 
incipiantf &.c. ; that is, Canehat primum ortum sUvarum, et primo» 
errores animaliumt &'C. — 41. See Ovid, Met. i. 348, &c. — 42. 
Frometheus, for havin^ stolen fire from heaven (ftirtum), and giveu 
it to man, was by Jupiter's command chained to Mount Caucasus, 
an eagle preying on his liver. — 43. The third mjrthe was that of 
the Argonautic expedition, in which Hylas, a youth beloved by Her- 
cules, was carried off in Mysia, by a n^rmph, and sought in vain. 
Quofonte, apud quem fontem. — 44. HylS, Hyl& : neither a is cut 
ofT. The first is lonff by the arsis, the second short before omne. — 
48. Proetides. The daughters of Froetus were driven into madness 
by Juno, and believed themselves to have been changed into cows. 
— 53. Fultus hyacintho. The -us made lonff by the arsis. This is 
rare after a lons syllable, and at the end of the fifth foot, but it ts 
in imitation of tne Greek usage. For the construction oflatusfultut, 
see JEcl. i. 55. — 55. Fasiphae herself is introduced as uttcring these 
w<irds. -» 56. Dictaeae ; from Dicte ^ mountaii^of Crete. 


Errabanda bovis yestigia ; forsitan illum, 

Aut herba captum viridi, aut armenta secutum, 

Perducant aliquae stabula ad Grortynia vaccae.' 60 

Tnm canit Hesperidum miratam mala puellam ; 

Tum Phaethontiadas musco circumdat amarae 

Corticis, atque solo proceras erigit alnos. 

Tum canit, errantem Permessi ad flumina Gallum 

Aonas in montis ut duxerit una sororum, 65 

Utque viro Phoebi chorus assurrexerit omnis 3 

Ut Linus haec illi divino carmine pastor, 

Floribus atque apio crinis ornatus amaro, 

Dixerit : ' Hos tibi dant calamos — en accipe — MusaC; 

Ascraeo quos ante seni, quibus ilie solebat 70 

Cantando rigidas deducere montibus ornos. 

His tibi Grynei nemoris dicatur origo, 

Ne quis sit lucus, quo se plus jactet Apollo/ 

Quid loquar, ut Scyllam Nisi, quam fama secuta est^ 

Candida succinctam latrantibus inguina monstris 75 

Dulichias vexasse rates, et gurgite in alto 

LJ- I - - - - 

60. Gortynia ; from Gortyna, a city of Crete. — 61. The fifth 
mytbe was that of Atalante, whom Hippomenes conquered in a foot 
race, and thus gained as a wife, by throwing in her way three golden 
apples, which she stooped to pick up ; Ovid, Met. x. 560. Virgil 
speaks of these apples as those of the Hesperides, whose office it 
was to guard the golden apples of the far west. See Aen. iv. 480. 
— 62. Jrhaethontiadas. The next m^the is that of the sisters of 
Phaethon ; for which see Ovid, Met. ii. 325, &c. ; and Aen. x. J90, 
where they are said to have been changed into poplars. Circumdat» 
Silenus is represented as doing what was done in the case of those 
whom he is celebrating. — 64. Vir^il introduces the praises of Conu 
Grallus as a poet. Fermessi. A river of Boeotia, rising in M ount 
Helicon, the haunt of the Muses. — 65. Aonas montis. The Boeo- 
tian hills, of wbich Helicon was one ; from Aonesj the primitive 
inhabitants. Sororumy the Muses. — 66. This was a mark of re- 
spect. See lliadj i. 533. — 67. Linus. Already mentioned, iv. 56. 
He was a mythic personification of lamentation, said tb be the son 
of ApoIIo and Calliope, and in later times regarded as a poet. Join 
divino carmine either with dixerit^ or, what seems preferable, with 
pastor. — 70. Ascraeo dederant seni — to Hesiod, so caUed from As- 
cra, in Boeotia, his birthplace. — 72. Grynei. From Gryneum 
{TpHvciov), a town of Aeolis, where Apollo had a celebrated grove 
and tcmple. It would seem that Gallus had written, in imitation 
of Hesiod, a poem celebrating this grove and temple. See EcJ. x. 
50. &.C. — 74. Virgil leaves Gallus to take up another mythe, that 
of Scylla, the daughter of Phorcys, chani^ed into a monster shelter- 
ing in her belly sea-dogs (Ovid, Met. xiv. 1, &c.), whom ho con- 
founds with the daughter of Nisus, changed into a bird (Ovid, Met, 
viii. 6, &c.). Scyllam, governed by narraverity ver. 78. —-76. JDu- 
lichias. Dulicbium was an island near Ithaca, with which it is often 


Ah ! timidos nautas canibus lacerasse marinis; 

Aut ut mutatos Terei narraverit artus, 

Quas illi Philomela dapes, quae dona pararit, 

Quo cursu deserta petiverit, et quibus ante 80 

Infelix sua tecta superyolitaverit alis 1 

Omnia, quae, Phoebo quondam meditante, beatus 

Audiit £urotas jussitque ediscere laurus, 

Ille canit ; pulsae referunt ad sidera Talles ; 

Cogere donec ovis stabulis numerumque referri 85 

Jussit, et invito processit Vesper Ol^rmpo. 

78. This mythe is told by Ovid, Met. vi. 424, &c. Philomela, 
with her sister Procne, the wife of Tereus, king of Thrace, had, 
in revenge for his infamous conduct, kiiled his son Itys, and served 
him up {dapesj dona) to his father. Tereus was changed into a hoo- 
poe, Procne into a swallow, and Philomela iuto a ni^tingale. Te- 
rei — two syllables. — 83. The affection of Phoebus lor Hyacinthus, 
a native ol Laconia, led him to frequent the Eurotas, a river of that 
district. — 85. Cogere — referri. For other instances of this change 
of construction, see Georg.i. 130; Aen. iii. 61. — 86. Invito. The 
heaven itself was unwilling to see the advance of the evening star, 
because it stopped the sweet strains of Silenus. 


ArrsR an introduction, occupying the first twenty lines, this Ec- 
logue contains amoebaean verses (see Argument to Ecl. iii.), 
in which Corydon, a shepherd of a gentle nature, begins, and 
is replied to by Thyrsis, whose strains are more morose. It is 
supposed to liave been written in the spring of B.c. 38, the 
year that Virgil began to write the Georgics, when he waa 
thirty-two years old, and had becorae intimate with Maecenas, 
Horace (then twenty-seven years old), and othermen of note. 



Mel. FoRTE Bub arguta consederat ilice Daphnis, 
Compuleranlque greges Corydon et Thyrsis in unum, 
Thyrsis ovis, Corydon distentas lacte capellas, 
Ambo florentes aetatibus, Arcades ambo, 
Et cantare pares, et respondere parali. 5 

1. ArgtUa ; shrill whistling in the wind. — 4. Amho indicates ttiat 
ihe shcpherds were together when the reraark is made. — 5. Cantare, 
fbr the prose cantandOf respondercj for ad respondendum. See Ed, 
T. 47; Zumpt, $598. 


Huc mihi, dum teneras defendo a frigore myrtos, 
Vir gregis ipse caper deerraverat ; atque ego Daphnim 
Aspicio. Ille ubi me conlra videt : * Ocius,' inquit, 
' Huc ades, o Meliboee ! caper tibi salvus et haedi ; 
£t, si quid cessare potes, requiesce sub umbra. 10 

Huc ipsi potum venient per prata juvenci j 
Hic viridis tenera praetexit arundine ripas 
Mincius, eque sacra resonant examina quercu.' 
Quid facerem'? neque ego Alcippen, neque Phyllida habe- 

Depulsos a lacte domi quae clauderet agnos; 15 

Et certamen erat, Corydon cum Thyrside, magnum. 
Posthabui lamen illorum mea seria ludo. 
Alternis igitur contendere versibus ambo 
Coepere ; ahernos Musae meminisse volebant. 
Hos Corydon, illos referebat in ordine Thyrsis. 20 

Cor, Nymphae, noster amor, Libethrides, aut mihi car- 
Quale meo Codro, concedite ; proxima Phoebi 
Versibus ille facit ; aut, si non possumus omnes, 
Hic arguta sacra pendebit fistula pinu. 

Thyr, Pastores, hedera nascentem ornate poetam, 26 
Arcaaes, invidia rurapantur ut ilia Codro ; 
Aut, si ultra placitum laudarit, baccare frontem 
Cingite, ne vati noceat mala lingua futuro. 

Q>r. Saetosi caput hoc apri libi, Delia, parvus 

6. Meliboeus, who narrates the contest, proceeds to tell how *he 
had come to witnesa it. — 7. Deerraverat ; the first two syllables 
make one long ; see Georg. ii. 200 ; Aen. x. 378. Atque is often 
used to introduce a statement not only additional, but unexpected. 
— 12. Praetexo, I weave in the front of— I fringe. See Aen, vi. 5. 
—- 13. Mincius. So Milton in his Lyddas — 

* Smooth sliding Mincius, crowned with vocal reeds.* 
— 16. This is a rare apposition, equivalent to, Etcertahant Corydon 
eum Thyrside magnopere. See Aen. v. 339 — 19. Alternos (versus). 
See Ecl. iii. 59. — 21. Lihethrides ; from Libethrus, a fountain and 
cave of Helicon. The Nymphs, therefore, may be the Muses, or 
the nymphs merely of the grotto and spring. See Ecl. x. 1. — 22. 
Proxima may be used substantively, as in Ecl. iii. 80 ; or it may 
Tnfer to carmina, involved in carmen in the preceding line. — 24. 
Those who left any employment, hung up their implements as a 
sacred ofFering i here to Pan, to whom, as well as to Gybele, the 
pine was sacred. — 27. Ultra placitum, beyond the real opinion of 
Codrus ; or rather beyond wnat you approve of, as indicating the 
flattery of envy, bringing danger with it. Baccare. This acted as 
a charm against envy. — 29. Velia, a name for Diana, from the isl- 
Jid Delos. These four lines contain a votive inscription, in the 

vle of the Epigrammata, such as usually accompanied offerings to 


£t ramosa Micon vivacis cornua cervi. 80 

Si proprium hoc fuerit; levi de marmore tota 
Puniceo stabis suras evincta cothurno. 

Thyr. Sinum lactis te haec et liba, Priape, quotannis 
Exspectare sat est : custos es pauperis horti. 
Nunc te marmoreum pro temjwre fecimus; at tu, 35 
Si fetura gregem suppleverit, aureus esto. 

Cor. Nerine Galatea, thymo mihi dulcior Hyblae, 
Candidior cycnis, hedera formosior aiba, 
Cum primura pasti repetent praesepia tauri, 
^ Si qua tui Corydonis nabet te cura, venito. 40 

Thyr. Immo ego Sardoniis videar tibi amarior herbis, 
Horridior rusco, projecta vilior alga, 
Si mihi non haec lux toto jam longior anno est. 
Ite domum pasti, si quis pudor, ite, juvenci. 

Cor. Muscosi fontes et somno moUior herba, 45 

£t quae vos rara viridis tegit arbutus umbra, 
Solstitium pecori defendite; jam venit aesias 
Torrida, jam laeto turgent in palmite gemmae. 

Thyr. Hic focus et taedae pingues, hic plurimus ignis 
Semper, et assidua postes fuligine nigri ; 50 

Hic tantum Boreae curamus frigora, quantum 
Aut numerum lupus, aut torrentia flumina ripas. 

Cor. Stant et juniperi et castaneae hirsutae ; 

the cods — as to Diana a portion of the animais slain in the chace.— 
31. Hoc. This success. — 32. Suras evmcta. See JScZ. i. 55. Pa- 
niceo cothurno. Even raarble statues were sometimes painted. The 
description is that of a huntress. See Aen. i. 337. — 33. Priapus, 
the son of Bacchus and Venus, was worshipped as the guardian 
(custos) of fields, and especially of gardens. Sijium. Take care 
not to confound this word with stnus. A verse similarly formed, 
without any caesural pause save the Trochaic in Priape^ is rarely 
found in Virgil. — 35. To excel Corydon, Thyrsis brags of marbie 
and ^old. — 37. Galatea, daughter oi Nereus (iVenwe, a rare patro- 
nymic), was famed in Siciiy for her love to Acis. Hyhlae. See 
Ecl. i. 55. — 41. Sardoniis herbis. Sardinia abounds in an herb called 
by the Greeks Parpdxiov, by the Romans ranunculus ; of which the 
spocies described by rliny, xxv. 109, is called by Linnaeus Ranuu' 
culus sceleratusj our celery-Ieaved crowfoot. It is extremely acrid 
damarior), and blisters the skin. When taken inwardly, it was said 
to produce mortal spasms, and to contract the muscles of the face, 
BO as to resemble laughter. Hence risus Sardoniais, and our Sar- 
donic grin. — ^^42. Busco. Probably a species of whin, the ulex Eu- 
ropaeus of Linnaeus. — 50. Nigri. The Romans had no chimneys 
to carry off the smoke. — 51, 52. The sentiment is, * We do noi 
fear cold in the least, so well are we supplied witli the meansof 
warminff ourselves.' — 53. The picture presented is ihat of the juni- 
pers and the chestnuts exhibiting their branches stiflf with berries 
an4 nuts (stant) } whiie under each tree Ue m heaps its native fruits. 


Strata jacent passim sua quaqae sub arbore poma ; 
Omnia nunc rident ; at si tormosus Alexis 55 

Montibus his abeat, videas et flumina sicca. 

Thyr, Aret ager ; vitio moriens sitit aeris herba ; 
Liber pampineas invidit collibus umbras : 
Pbyllidis adventu nostrae nemus omne virebit, 
Jupiter et ]aeto descendet plurimus imbri. 60 

Cor. Populus Alcidae gratissima, vitis laccho, 
Formosae myrtus Veneri, sua laurea Phoebo , 
Phyllis amat corylos. Illas dum Phyllis amabit, 
Nec myrtus vincet corylos, nec laurea Phoebi. 

Tkyr, Fraxinus in sifvis pulcherrima, pinus in hortis, 65 
Populus in fluviis, abies in montibus ahis; 
Saepius at si me, Lycida formose, revisas, 
Fraxinus in silvis cedat tibi, pinus in hortis. 

3Iel. Haec memini, et victum frustra contendere Thyr- 
£x illo Corydon, Corydon est tempore nobis. 70 

Castaneae hirsutae. The ae unelided and lon^ through the arsis. — 
60. Jupiter, The air-god, personifying the air. See Georg. ii. 325. 
— 6L jPopuluSf &c. Compare Phaedrus, iii, 17. laccho. See Ecl. 
vi. 15. — 70. Corydon est nobis ; a phrase indicative of high satis- 
fisiction ; as we say colloquially, ' Is the man for us.' 


AfXKirs PoLLio, to wbom tliis Eclogue is addressed, had in ■. o. 
40 completely crushed the Parthini, an Illyrian tribe on the 
confines of Macedonia, near Dyrrachium. It is probable that 
the Eclogue was inscribed to him on his return in the subse- 
quent year. The subject, apart from the address, 6—13, and 
the introductory verses, 1-5, 14-16, 62^ 63, is twofold. The 
first part, 17-61, is occupied with the unsuccessful love of a 
shepherd for Nisa, as sung by Damon. In the second, Alphe- 
siboeus represents the grief felt by a shepherdess when aban* 
doned, as she supposed, by Daphnis, and the magical charms 
to which she had recourse to bring him back. Hence the title 
of the Eclogue, borrowed from Theocritus, from the Grcek 
^opfMKBvfpCa, an encbantress. 

5 S 




Pastorum Musam Damonis et Alphesiboei, 

Immemor herbarum quos est mirata jnvenca 

Certantis, quorum stupefactae carmine lynoes, 

£t mutata suos requierunt flumina cursus, 

Damonis Musam dicemus et Alphesiboei. i 

Tu mihi, seu magni snperas jam saxa Timavi, 
Sive oram Ulyrici legis aequoris, en erit umquam 
Ille dies, mihi cum liceat tua dicere facta ? 
£n erit, ut liceat totum mihi ferre per orbem 
Sola Sophocleo tua carmina digna cothumo ? 1< 

A te pnncipium, tibi desinet. Accipe jussis 
Carmina coepta tuis, atque hanc sine tempora circom 
Inter victricis hederam tibi serpere laurus. 

Frigida vix coelo noctis decesserat umbra, 
Cum ros in tenera pecori gratissimus herba ; t 

Incumbens tereti Damon sic coepit olivae. 

Dam. Nascere, praeque diem veniens age, Lucifei 
Conjugis indigno Nisae deceptus amore 
Dum queror, et divos, quamquam nil testibus illis 
Profeci, extrema moriens tamen alloquor hora. 2 

Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, versus. 

1. Musanii equivalent to carmina. — 4. Either mutata curaua^ se 
McL i. 55 ; or requierunt cursus, an analogous construction. — ( 
Mihi. The dative of personal pronouns is oiten used in cases whei 
it seems superfluous, but where, in reality, it brings home a livel 
feeling to the person indicated by the pronoun. Here the feeling i 
of joy. (Zumpt, ^ 408.) It is called in such cases the dative ethicui 
Imavi. The Timavus was a river flowing into the Sinus Tergm 
tinus, at the head of the Gulf of Venice. The springs of tb 
Timavus are numerous, bursting out from rocks (saxa), and the 
uniting into one stream. See Aen. i. 244. Superare may allud 
nither to a voyage or a march.. Probably here the former ; and the 
the altemative would be, whether marcning round through Istrit 
from the Parthini (see Argument), or hugging (legia) the IUyria 
shore in «hips. — 7. En expresses a strong desire. — 8. Virgd e? 
presses his anxiety to sing the praises of rollio, as a warrior. 
as a writer of tragedies alone worthv of being ranked with t*- 
Sophocles. CothurnuSj a part of the dress peculiar to f 
ioecus was to comedy. — 16. Either leaning on a staff^' 
or reclining against an olive-tree. — 17. Join jtray^ 
18. Conjugis ; used not in its strict sense, but jr 
was to be, or who wished to be. So below, v^' 
844, iii. 330, vii. 189. — 21. Such lines, regula f 

vals, are common to many langnafi^*»»?, especiall> \ s' 



Maenalus argutumque nexnus pinosque loquentis 

Semper habet ; semper pastorum ille audit amores, 

Panaque, qui primus calamos non passus inertis. 

Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, versus. 25 

Mopso Nisa datur : quid non speremus amantes ? 

Jungentur jam gr^phes equis, aevoque sequenti 

Cum canibus tinudi venient sid pocula damae. 

Mopse, novas incide faces : tibi ducitur uxor ; 

Sparge, marite^ nuces : tibi deserit Hesperus Oetam. 30 

Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, versus. 

digno conjuncta viro ! dum despicis omnis, 

Dumque tibi est odio mea fistula, dumque capellae 

Hirsutumque supercilium promissaque oarba, 

Nec curare deum credis mortalia quemquam. 35 

Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, versus. 

Sepious in nostris parvam te roscida mala — 

£>ux ego vester eram — vidi cum matre legentem. 

Alter ab undecimo tum me jam acceperat annus ; 

Jam fragilis poteram ab terra contingere ramos. 40 

Ut vidi, ut perii ! ut me malus abstulit error ! 

Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, versus. 

Nunc sciO; quid sit Amor ; duris in cotibus illum 

Aut Tmaros, aut Rhodope, aut extremi Garamantes, 

ealled refrain». Maenaliosy equivaieDt to Arcadian, from Maenalus, 
a mountain in Arcadia. This refrain was probably intended to in- 
troduce a bar of moumful music from the tibiaj as preliminary to 
each new thou^ht in the song. — 24. Panaque. See Ecl. ii. 32. 
Pan is appropnately introduced in Arcadia, where principally he 
was worshipped. — 26. Ikitur nuptum. Speremus. Spes and spero, 
like the Greek iXirls and lAfrev^at, often indicate not merely Ac^e— <• 
expectation of good — but expectation of any kind, as here. See 
Aen. i. 543, xi. 275. — 27. Gryphes. These were mythic animals, 
with a lion'8 body, but an eagle's face and wings, who frequented 
the Rhipean mountains, and were at constant war with horses. — 
29. Allusions are made in these two iines to marriage usages. 
Torches of pine ifaces) were burned, and, among the Romans, nuts 
were scattered, by the marriage procession. — 30. Oeta was a moun* 
tain range, forming the south boundary of Thessaly. The evening 
etar is represented as leaving it ; that is, as appearing in the sky 
above it, and ushering in the evening. The lover must therefore 
be Bupposed to be on the east part of the range. — 37. Eoscida, 
Still wet with the dew of morniiig. — 39. Alter ab undedmo, The 
twelfth. See^Z. V. 49. — 41. ZTT—wf — ut. The first «t is equiva- 
lent to eimul ac. The others are words of exclamation. Thero is 
no elision of the i of perii. — 43. Hlum at the end of the line indi- 
tates emphasis. — 44. Tmaron. A mountain range in the north-east 
of EpiruSi above Dodona. Sfiodope, a mountain range in the west 
of Tnrace, an ofishoot from Haemus. Garamantet, A people inha* 


Neo generb nostri paenim neo sangainis ednnt. 411 

Inoipe Maenalios meoam, mea tibia, versoB. 

Saevus Amor docait natorom sangaine matrem 

Commaculare manas; oradelis tu qaoqae, mater; 

Cnidelis mater magis, an pner improbus ille ? 

Improbas ille puer ; crudeus tu ouoque, mater. 50 

Incipe Maenauos mecum. mea tiDia, yersus. 

Nunc et OTis ultro fugiat lapus, aurea durae 

Mala ferant quercusi naroisso noreat alnus, 

Pinguia oortioibus Budent eleotra myricae, 

Certent et cycnts ululae. sit Tityrus Orpheus, 55 

Orj>heus in silvis, inter aelphinas Arion. 

Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, yersus. 

Omnia vel medium fiant mare. Yivite, silvae : 

Praeceps aerii specula de montis in undas 

Deferar ; extremum hoc munus morientis habeto. 60 

Desine Maenalios, jam desine, tibia, versus. 

Haec Damon ; vos, quae responderit Alphesiboeus, 
Dicite, Pierides ; non omnia possumus omnes. 

Alph, ESer aquam, et molli cinge haeo altaria vitta, 
Verbenasque adoie pinguis et mascula tura : 65 

Conjugis ut magicis sanos avertere sacris 
Experiar sensus : nihii hic nisi carmina desunt. 
Dncite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim. 
Carmina vel coelo possunt deducere Lunam; 
Carminibus Circe socios mutavit Ulixi ; 70 

■^ II ■ _ . I . 

biting the intenor of Airica, south of Libya, notorious for cruelty ; 
hence Amor is here eaid to be of their race. The e of Shodope is 
not elided, after the Greek model. — 47. Matrem. Probably an allu- 
sion to Medea, who, from the pangs of violated love, slew her own 
cliildren b^r Jason. The meaning of the followine lines seems to 
be : ' If it is asked whether Medea was more cruel, or Amor more 
wicked (magis improbus) ; he was wicked, but she, too, who obe^ed 
him, was cruel.' — 54. It was bciieved that amber was an exudation 
from the stately trees (not the lowly myricae) that skirted the Fo. 
See Ovid, Met, ii. 365.-56. Arion. A Lesbian lyric poet, who, 
when cast into the sea, was saved by the dolphins {delphituu)^ whom 
he had charmed by his songs. — 58. In his despair, he wishes all 
nature to become one common imedium) sea. Vel (veZtm), a word 
ezpressive of wish. Vivite. Equivalent to valete. — 60. Hoe. This 
leap of mine. — 64. The poet now introduces Alphesiboeus. See 
Argument. Daphnis calls to Amaryllis, who is her attendant, to 
supply her with what is necessary in her magic rites. Purifica- 
tory watcr, an altar encircled by a woollen {molli) fillet, vervain 
and strong-smelling {maacula) frankincense, for burning, are first 
spoken ofT AU is ready for the incantations {carmina). — QQ. Con» 
jugv. See ver. 18. — 69, &c. She mai^nifies the eflScacjr of incan- 
tations. — 70. The companions o^ UI s were changed ir to sMono 


Frigidus in pratis cantando rumpitur anguis. 

Ducite ab urbe domura, mea carraina, ducite Daphnim. 

Terna tibi haec primum triplici diversa colore 

Licia circumdo, terque haec altaria circum 

Efiigiem duco ; numero deus impare gaudet. 75 

Dacite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim. 

Necte tribus nodis temos, Amarylli, colores; 

Necte, Amarylli, modo, et, ' Veneris,' dic, ' vincula necto.' 

Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim. 

Limus ut hic durescit, et haec ut cera liquescit 80 

Uno eodemque igni, sic nostro Daphnis amore. 

Sparge molam, et fragilis incende bitumine laurus. 

Daphnis me malus urit, ego hanc in Daphnide laurum. 

Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim. 

Talis amor Daphnim, quaiis, cum fessa juvencum 85 

Per nemora atque altos quaerendo bucula lucos, 

Propter aquae rivum viridi procumbit in ulva, 

Perdita, nec serae meminit decedere nocti — 

Talis amor teneat, nec sit mihi cura mederi. 

Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim. 90 

Has olim exuvias mihi perfidus ille reliquit, 

Pignora cara sui ; quae nunc ego limine in ipso, 

Terra, tibi mando ; debent haec pignora Daphnim. 

Dncite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim. 

Has herbas atque haec Ponto mihi lecta venena 95 

Ipse dedit Moeris; nascuntur plurima Ponto. 

His ego saepe lupum fieri et se condere silvis 

by the incantations of Circei a sorceress, who lived in the island of 
Aeaea. Ulixi. 1'he same as Ulixeit from TJlixes and TJlixeuSf 
which is obsolete. Zumpt, % 52 — 73, &c. The sorceress then ties 
three threads {tema for tria)^ of three different colours, round a 
small wazen image of Daphnis (t£6i, explained by tma^inenit ver. 75), 
and then carries it thrice round the ahar. Amarylhs is engaged in 
tying up the ends of the threads into love-knots, and is toldwhat 
to say while doing it. — 80. The image of clay was to harden him 
against others. — 81. Unoeodem; pronounce un* yodem. — 82. She 
tnen sprinkles the sacred mola of flour and salt, and burns laurel 
branches steeped in hitumen, to produce a black flame and cracklinff 
{fragUis). The burning of tho laurel was embleraatic of her wisn 
to tum the omen to the heart of Daphnis in Daphnide (hl ^d^viSi). 
— 85. The construction is, Talis amor Daphnim teneatf qualis amor 
buculam tenet cum, &c. — 88. Nocti decedere. The notion of yidd' 
ing to the influence of the night is combined with that of moving 
homewards. So Georg. iii. 467, iv. 23. — 91. Exuvias. Garments 
formerly worn by Daphnis. See Aen. iv. 496, 651. These she 
buries in the earth, at the door of her house, to draw him home.*^ 
95. Along with the garments she buried magical herbs, gather**'' '« 
Pontus, which Medea had rendered famouslbr poisons. — 97. 


MoerhX) saepe animas imis exoire sepulchriB 

Atque satas alio vidi traducere messis. 

Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim. 100 

Fer cineres, Amarylli, foras; rivoque fluenti 

Transque caput jace ; nec respezeris. His ego Daphnim 

Aggrediar.— ^iml iJle deos, nil carmina curat. 

Ducite ab urbe domum. mea carmina, ducite Daphnim. 

Aspice, corripuit tremulis altaria flammis 105 

Sponte sua, aum ferre moror, cinis ipse. Bonum sit ! 

Nescio quid certe est— et Hylax in hmine latrat. 

Credimus ? an, qui amant, ipsi sibi somnia fingunt ? 

Parcite, ab urbe venit, jam parcite, carmina, Daphnis. 

tnore modem times the loup-garrou. — 99. The magician Moeris— 
who he was, is unknown — transferred the growing crops from one 
field to another (fllio), — 101. Amaryllis is directed to take in her hand 
ashes from the altar, to stand witn her back to a running stream, 
and, without lookhig behind her, to throw them over her head. — 
105. While engasea in this, a good omen appears. The cinders on 
the altar, not the buming wood, (fiinii ipse)^ untouched, («va tponte), 
while she is delaying to help Amaryllis, in carrying them away for 
a iast trial, bum tremulously — 107. Hylax. The dog of Daphnis. 

— 108. Qui. Unelided and short, after the Greek model 109. 

Farcite. She calls upon the incantations to cease, for Daphnis 


Thx division of a part of the lands of Italy among the soldiery, 
has already been spoken of in the Arguments to the first and 
sixth Eclogues, and it has been mentioned that those of Yirgil 
had been saved for him. But it would seem that the party of 
Octavianus Caesar, headed by Yarus, not only dispossessed the 
Mantuans of a portion of thelr lands, bnt were either unable 
or unwilliug to maintain Yirgil in his farm, wbo fled frcm the 
tbreats of a centurion named Arrius (see ver. 16). Virgil re- 
tired to Rome, and wrote this Eclogue, b. c. 40. Moeris, the 
slave of Menalcas (Yirgil himself), is represented as driving 
to Mantua some kids, at the bidding of his new master Arrius 
He meets Lycidas, a slave from a neighbouring farm, and en« 
tering into conversation, they quote unconnected portions of 
the verses of Menalcas, which are admirable imitations of 
those of Theoccitus. 




Lyc, Quo te, Moeri, pedes ? an, quo via ducit, in urbem ^ 

moer. Lycida, vivi pervenimuft; advena iiostri, 
Quod numquam veriti sumus, ut possessor agelli 
Diceret: 'Haec mea sunt; veteres migrate coloni.' 
Nunc victi, tristes, quoniam Fors omnia versat, 5 

Hos ilii — quod nec vertat bene — mittimus haedos. 

Lyc, Certe equidem audieram, qua se subducere colles 
Incipiunt, mollique jugum demittere clivo, 
Usque aa aquam et veteris, jam fracta cacumina, fagos, 
Omnia carminibus vestrum servasse Menalcan. 10 

Moer. Audieras ? et fama fuit ; sed carmina tantum 
Nostra valent, Lycida, tela inter Martia, quantum 
Chaonias dicunt, aquiia veniente, columbas. 
Quod nisi me quacumque novas incidere lites 
Ante sinistra cava monuisset ab ilice cornix, 15 

Nec tuus hic Moeris nec viveret ipse Menalcas. 

Lyc. Heu, cadit in quemquam tantum scelus ? heu, tua 
Paene simul tecum solatia rapta, Menalca? 
Quis caneret Nymphas? quis humum florentibus herbis 
Spargeret, aut viridi fontis induoeret umbra ? 20 

Yel quae sublegi tacitus tibi carmina nuper, 
Cum te ad delicias ferres, Amaryllida, nostras ? 
' Tityre, dum redeo — brevis est via — pasce capellas, 
Et potum pastas age, Tityre, et inter agendum 
Occarsare capro, cornu ferit ille, caveto.' 25 

Moer. Immo haec, quae Varo necdum perfecta canebat : 
'Vare; tuum nomen, superet modo Mantua nobis — 

^^^— ^^— ^— ^^™^M^— ^^^^^^M^^»^^— ^^M ■ ■ I !■■■■■ ^— — ^— ■ — ■■ ■■■■■■■ ■» I ■■ ^»^^^^— ^^M^ 

1. Ufbenij Mantua. — 2. The construction is, Vivi pervenimut (we 
have lived to reach this pass) quod (a thing which) numquam veriti 
eumue, ut advena, potsessor nostri agetti, diceret. — 13. Chaonias, 
columbas. The Chaones anciently inhabited that district of Epirus 
where Dodona was, whose oracie depended on its doves. — 14. /»- 
eidere, devitare, einUtra. Corniz a einistra facit ratum. Cic. Div, 

i. 39, 85. — 18. Paene. Alluding to VirgiPs narrow escape 19. 

Wbat^the poet celebrates, he is represented as doing. See Ecl. vi. 
62, &c. — 21. Velquia caneretouae, &c. — sublegere tacitus ; quietly 
to ieam what another sings, wittiout his noticine it (suh). — 22. Love 
being the deiisht of the 8hepherd's (nostras) me. — 26. Immo quis 
caneret haec. The poet'8 object seems to be to flatter Varus with 
the hope of immortal praise, to induce him to deal lenientlY with 
Mantua. — 27. Superet. Equivalent to supersit, See AeK, i, 597» 
iii. 339, v. 519. 


Mantua vae miserae nifhium vicina Cremonae — 
Cantantes sublime ferent ad sidera cycni.' 

Lyc. Sic tua Cyrneas fugiant exaroina taxoS| 30 

Sic cytiso pastae distendant ubera vaccae; 
Incipe, si quid habes. £t me fecere poetam 
Pierides ; sunt et mihi carmina ; me quoque dicunt 
Vatem pastores ; sed non ego credulus illis. 
Nam neque adhuc Vario videor nec dicere Cinna 3 

Digna, sed argutos inter strepere anser olores. 

moer. Id quidem ago et tacitus, Lycida, mecum ipee 
Si valeam meminisse; ne(jue est ignobile carmen. 
^ Huc ades, o Galatea ; ^uis est nam ludus in undis ? 
Hic ver purpureum; varios hic flumina circum 40 

Fundit humus flores, hic candida populns antro 
Imminet, et lentae texunt umbracula vites. 
Huc ades ] insani feriant sine litora fluctns.' 

Lyc. Quid, quae te pura solum sub nocte canentem 
Audieram? numeros memini, si verba tenerem. 45 

Moer, ^ Daphni, quid antiquos signorum suspicis ortus ? 
Ecce Dionaei processit Caesaris astrum, 
Astrum, quo segetes gauderent frugibusp et quo 
Duceret apricis in colTibus uva colorem. 
Insere, Daphni, piros ; carpent tua poma nepotes.' 50 

28. Mantua is at a considerable distance from Cremona, but it 
became involved in its fate, as the lands attached to Cremona, which 
had taken the side of Brutus and Cassius, were found insufiicient 
to satisfy the soldiery. — 29. The Mincius abounded in swans. — 
30. Lycidas intreats Moeris to sing him more of the songs of Me- 
nalcas. Sic. A word introducing a prayer for some gc^ to an- 
other ituQf &,c.fugiant, &c.) depending on a condition (tnnpe, &c.) 
Cymeast from IL^fvoii Corsica. Honey made from the yew, in which 
Corsica aboundea, was said to be bitter. — 35. Varius and Cinna 
were distinguished poets, and contemporary with Virgil. — 40. Fur- 
pureus is an epithet applied to all obiects glorious in their beauty— 
as swans, the snow, bright eyes, and here the spring. See Georg. 
iv. 54 ; Aen. i. 590, vi. 490. — 41. Candida vopulus. This is our 
silver poplar. — 43. Verbs of permission ana willingness, and, in 
general, verbs that are foUowed by ut with the subjunctive, may 
also be followed by the subjunctive without ut. Here nt feriant «uic. 
Zumpt, ^ 624. — 46. Antiqux)8 aignorum ortuSi equivalent to antique» 
rum signorum ortus. This change is ezceedingly common. oee 
Georg.i. 62, 211 ; iv. 267; Aen. i. 169, iii. 411. v. 375, vi. 10, x. 
426, xii. 199. Antiqu^s, *lonff known.' — 47. Dionaei. Dione was 
the mother of Venus, from wnom Julius Caesar was said to be de- 
scended. In the year b. c. 43, a comet, probably that known in our 
time as Halley's comet, appeared during the celebration of the fes- 
tival in honour of Julius Caesar, and was held to be his deified 
■pirit. — 50. Pear-trees ingraft*^^ n^w m^^er t^'-a propitious star 


Omnia fert aetas, animum quoque ; saepe ego longos 

Cantando puerum memini me condere soles : 

Nunc oblita mihi tot carmina ; vox quoque Moerim 

Jam fugit ipsa; lupi Moerim videre priores. 

Sed tamen ista satis referet tibi saepe Menalcas. 55 

Lyc. Causando nostros in longum ducis amores. 
£t nunc omne tibi stratum silet aequor, et omnes, 
AspicO; ventosi ceciderunt murmuris aurae. 
Hinc adeo media est nobis via; namque sepulchrum 
Incipit apparere Bianoris : hic^ ubi densas 60 

Agncolae stringunt frondes, hic, Moeri, canamus; 
Hic haedos depone ; tamen veniemus in urbem. 
Aut si, nox pluviam ne coUigat ante, veremur, 
Cantantes licet usque — ^minus via laedet — eamus; 
Cantantes ut eamus, ego hoc te fasce levabo. 65 

Moer. Desine plura, puer, et, quod nunc instat, 
Carmina tum melius, cum venerit ipse, canemus. 

will produce fhiit for posterity. — 51. Moeris laments his failins 
memory. — 52. Memini condere. See Ecl. i. 17. — 53. Ohlita, used 
in a passive sense. — 54. Xupt, &c. A rustic superstition, that, to 
be seen of a wolf jZr««, was to lose one'8 voice. — 57. Tibi, The 
dativus commodif to give you a better opportunity of being heard. — 
59. Adeo, *exactly.* — 62. Tamenf *afterall.' — 64. Usque, 'allthe 
while.' Zdcet eamus. See ver. 43. — 65. Fasce. To induce the 
old shepherd to sing, he proposes to relieve him of the kids he is 
carrying. See ver. 62. — 66. Fuir, long by the arsis. 


C. CoRKBLius Gallus, alrcady mentioned by Virgil, (Ecl. vi. 64,) 
a man descended of poor ancestors, had, by his military skill 
and his amiable qualities, secured the friendship of Octavianus, 
afterwards Augustus Caesar. His lover, Lycoris — celebrated 
by Ovid, Propertius, Martial, and Gallns himself — ^had deserted 
him ; and this Eclogue, said to have been composed 'n the 
spring of B. c. 37, at Naples, after Virgil had begun to write 
the Georgics, commemorates his grief. It consists of an intro* 
duction, 1--8 ; an account of the sympatby that things inanimate, 
shepherds, and gods felt for him, 9-30 ; the mournful strains 
ofGrallus himself, 31-69; and the concluding declaration of 
Virgirs afiection for the deserted lover. 



ExTREM UM hunC) Arethusa, mihi concede laborem : 
Pauca meo Gallo^ sed quae legat ipsa Lycoris^ 
Carmioa sunt dicenda : neget quis carmina Gallo t 
Sic tibi, cum fluctus subterlabere Sicanos, 
Doris amara suam non intermisceat undam. 5 

Incipe ; sollicitos Galli dicamus amores, 
Dum tenera attondent simae virgulta capellae. 
Non canimus surdis ; respondent omnia sUvae. 

Quae nemora, aut qui vos saltus habuere, puellae 
Naides, indigno cum Gallus amore peribat ? 10 

Nam neque Pamassi vobis juga, nam neque Pindi 
Ulla moram fecere, neque Aonie Aganippe. 
IUum etiam lauri, etiam flevere mjricae ; 
Pinifer illum etiam sola sub rupe lacentem 
Maenalus et gelidi fleverunt saxa Lycaei. 15 

Stant et oves circum — nostri nec poenitet illas, 
Nec te poeniteat pecoris, divine poeta : 
£t formosuB ovis ad Humina pavit Adonis — 
Venit et upilio ; tardi venere subulci ; 
Uvidus hiberna venit de glande Menalcas. 20 

Omnes, 'Unde amor iste,' rogant, ' tibi?' Venit ApoUo: 
' Galle, quid insanis V inquit ; ^ tua cura Lycoris 
Perque nives alium perque horrida castra secuta est.' 
Venit et a^resti capitis Silvanus honore, 
Florentis ferulas et grandia lilia quassans. 25 

L The nymph Arethusa (see Aen. iii. 694-6), pursued by the 
river-god Alpheius, was changed by Artemis into a stream, and 
flowing beneath ihe sea, rose again near Syracuse. An allusion 
here to the country of Theocritus. See Ecl. vi. 1. — 4. Sic. EcK 
ix. 30. FluctuSf &.C. See note to ver. 1. — 5. Doris ; a sea-god- 
dess, wife of Nereus. See Ecl. vi. 35. — 10. Naides. Tho nym^hs 
of rivers, lakes, and fountains. Generally Naiades. The allusion 
here is probably to the Muses, who are called Nymphaet Ecl. vii. 2L 
— 10. Cum pertbat ; others read periret. See Zumpt, ^ 579. — 11. 
Pamassi. A two-topped mountain (hence juga) of Phocis, above 
Deiphi, a favourite haunt of the Muses. Findi. A mountain ranec, 
forming the western boundary of Thessaly, another haunt of me 
Muses. — 12. Aonie. The final c not elided. For the epithet, eee 
Ecl. vi. 65. Aganippe. A fountain in mount Helicon, sacred to the 
Muses. — 15. Arcadian mountains. — 18. Adonis. A beautiful 
youth, beloved by Venus. — 19. For ojtUiot upilio. — 20. Menalcas, 
a herdsman, was wet with the water in which he had soaked tbe 
acoms, the winter food of cattle as well as swine. — 23. Comparing 
this line with ver. 47, we may infer that Lycoris had followed ihe 
army which, under Agrippa, marched into Gaul, and across the 
Rhine, in the early part of b. c. 37. — 25 Onassan^ ; that is, in capite. 


Pan deus Arcadiae venit, qaem TJdimuB ipsi 

Saiiguineis ebuli baccis minioque rubentem. 

'Ecquis erit modus V inquit ] ' Amor oon talia cnrat ; 

Nec lacrimis crudelis Amor, nec gramina riTis, 

Nec cytiso saturantur apes, nec fronde capeUae.' 30 

Tristis at ille : 'Tamen cantabitis, Arcades,' inquit, 

'Montibus haec vestris, soli cantare periti 

Arcades. O mihi tum quam molliter ossa quiescant, 

Vestra meos olim si fistula dicat amores ! 

Atque utinam ex vobis unus, vestrique fuissem 35 

Aut custos gregis; aut maturae vinitor uvae ! 

Cerle, sive mihi Phyllis, sive esset Amyntas. 

Seu quicumque furor— quid tum, si fuscus Amyntas ! 

£t nigrae violae sunt et vaccinia nigra — 

Mecum inter salices lenta sub vite jaceret ; 40 

Serta mihi Phyllis legeret, cantaret Amyntas. 

Hic gelidi fontes, hic molha prata, Lycori, 

Hic nemus ; hic ipso tecum consumerer aevo. 

Nunc insanus amor duri me Martis in armis 

Tela inter media atque adversos detinet hostis : 45 

Tu procul a patria — nec sit mihi credere tantum ! 

Alpinas ah, dura, nives et frigora Rheni 

Me sine sola vides. Ah, te ne frigora iaedant ! 

Ah, tibi ne teneras glacies secet aspera plantas ! 

Ibo, et, Chalcidico ^uae sunt mihi condita versu 50 

Carmina, pastoris Siculi modnlabor avena. 

Certum est in silvis, inter spelaea ferarum 

Malle pati tenerisque meos incidere amores 

Arboribus; crescent illae: crescetis, amores. 

Interea mixtis lustrabo Maenala Nymphis, 55 

Aut acris venabor apros. Non me ulla vetabunt 

Frigora Parthenios canibus circumdare saltus. 

Jam mihi per rupes videor lucosque sonantis 

Ire j libet Partho torquere Cydonia cornu 

Spicula. — ^Tamquam naec sit nostri medicina furoris, 60 

Aut deus ille malis hominum mitescere discat ! 

31. lUe; Gallus. Tamen, Referrin^ to a Buppressed idea of 
grief: *yet, as a consolation.' See Aen. iv. 329, x. 509. — 32. Can- 
tare. The genitive. See Ed. v. 54. — 44. Gallus waa probably en- 
gaged in some of the military operations carried on nnder Octaviantu 
Caesar. — 46. NeCj &.c. Gallns ezpresses a wish that he raay have 
some ground to disbelievc a tale so strange. — 47. S«e ver. 23. — 
50. Gallua had written verses (aee Ed. vi. 72), in imitation of En. 
phorion of Chalcis. — 57. Fartheniot. Parthenins wan a mountain 
between Arcadiaand Argolis. — 59. Cydonia^ from CjdfmiAi a lown 
of Crete. Botb Parthian and Cretan archery wae famoiu. 

00 bi:couco:t scLbOAE. 

Jam a«qae Hamailryaiies rarsossec evmia> iw 
Ipn p!a>:cat ; ipme. mrsas cOGcedite. silTae. 
fioa iUuni aoetri podduni miiLafe laborea; 
Nec si tri^rLbos meiiiid Hebrumqne bibunas, 
Sichoaiasqae ai-res hiemid lubeamas »qiio3se, 
Nec Ei, enm moHeQs olca liber aret ia. olmo, 
AeEbiapum Fecsemas otIs sab sidece Ciitcri. 
Om[iia Tincic Amai ; el aoi cedamos Amon.' 
Haec at ent. dine. restmm cecioiMe p _ 
Dum sedet et sr^ciL ti^celUm texit hibisco, 
PieciJe^ : to« haec ticietls maiima Gallo— 
G»lb. cajus amar tanrimi raihi crescit ia bona, 
Quantum rere iidto Tiiidis se sobjicit alniu. 
Sarzamm : iiolet esse ^ians eactaiitibns nmbn ; 
Jnniperi graris umbta : tiaceal et fragibDS ombima. 
lle domum, satone, Teait Uetpenis, ite capeUae. 

63. namtdiyaila. 

of relief even Ln i! 

lUebrui. ■ livei. aml Sithania. a diiincC ot' Tfmce). or io Aethio- 

K. even in midaummer. — 69. Amar ; lone bj ihe mrmia. — "X 
Tis. in .MandoDia. «oa said [a he ibe birthpUec of ihe Mbm. 
J/uina. maiimi aefiliinna. — .1. St luhJireTt, to ni» haelf tp 
bom undei — lo iocrease ia heigbi, * Thal Gsllni waa not «' ' 
' ' ~ ~ ■ dishonest man. ihd triendsfaip of Vintil. irho ' 
■ ».' — Bechet'i eaa«j, 1 

Ui bim his icnih Gctogue, teiiines.' — Bechet'i GtMat, p. U. 



GsoRGicoir, the genitive plural in the Greek form, is derived 
from yccopyue^;, belonging to husbandmen. This work treats 
of the various departments of farming, and is divided into four 
books. The subject of the first book, generally, is the cultiva- 
tion of the soil, for the growth of crops. More particularly, we 
have an introduction, addressed to Yirgirs patron, Maecenas, 
stating the nature of the whole work, 1-5 ; then an invocation 
to Sol, Luna, Liber, Ceres, the Fauns, the Dryades, Neptune, 
Aristaeus, Pan, Minerva, Triptolemus, Silvanus, and all the 
rural deities, along witli Augustus Caesar, 5-42. Virgil then 
discusses the proper time and mode of ploughingand manuring, 
with reference to season, soil, fallow, succession of crops, irri- 
gation, feeding down, and draining, 43-117. In connection 
with the trouble necessary to protect the soil from mischievous 
animals and plants, labour and invention are sbown to be the 
result of Jupiter's succession to the throne of heaven, 118-159. 
The instruments of agriculture are described, 160-176. Mis- 
cellaneous directions : regarding the threshing-floor, 176-186; 
indications of a heavy or a light produce, 187-192; the medi- 
cating and the choice of seed, 193-203, are then given. The 
proper time for sowing is next taken up, 204-230. The sun's 
annual course, and the zodiac, 231-256. The four seasons. 
What should the farmer do in time of rain? 257-267 ; on holy 
days? 268-275. The moon's influence on certain days is 
treated of, 276-286. Some things are better done at night, 
some in the heat of the day, and some in winter, 287-310. 
We find then a description of the havoc made by an autumnal 
storm, 311-334. Therefore we must watch the weather, and 
worship the gods, 335-350. He dwells on the prognostics 
that foretell winds, 351-369 ; rain, 370-392 ; clear weather, 
393-423 ; on prognostics derivable from the moon, 424-437 ; 
from the sun, 438-465. And he concludes with a splendid 
passage on the prodigies which prognosticated the civil wai 
that followed the death of Julius Caesar, 466-497, and a 
prayer for the preservation of Augustus, 498—514. 

Thom8on's Seasons furnis^h the best imitatlon, in our language 
of passages in the Georgics. 

6 (61) 




QuiD faciat laetas segetes, quo sidere terram 

Vertere^ Maecenas, ulmisque adjungere vitis 

CoQveniat; quae cura boum, qui cultus habendo 

Sit pecori ; apibus quanta experientia parcis : 

Hinc caaere incipiam. Vos, o clarissima mundi 6 

Lumina, labentem coelo quae ducitis annum; 

Liber et alma Ceres, vestro si munere tellus 

Chaoniam pingui glandem mutavit arista, 

Poculaque mventis Acheloia miscuit uvis; 

£t vos, agrestum praesentia numina, Fauni, 10 

Ferte simul Faunique pedem Dryadesque puellae : 

Munera vestra cano. Tuque o, cui prima frementem 

Fudit equum magno tellus percussa tridenti, 

Neptune ; et cultor nemorum, cui pinguia Ceae 

Ter centum nivei tondent dumeta juvenci ; 15 

Ipse nemus linquens patrium saltusque Lycaei, 

Pan, ovium custos, tua si tibi Maenala curae, 

Adsis, o Tegeaee, favens; oleaeque Minerva 

Inventrix ; uncique, puer, monstrator aratri ; 

£t teneram ab radice ferens, Silvane, cupressum; 20 

Dicjue deaeque omnes, studium quibus arva tueri, 

Quique novas alitis non ullo semine fruges; 

Quique satis largum coelo demittitis imbrem : 

Tuque adeo, quem mox quae sint habitura deoram 

Concilia, incertum est; urbisne invisere, Caesar, 25 

Terrarumque velis curam, et te maximus orbis 

Auctorem frugum tempestaturaque potentem 

Accipiat, cingens materna tempora myrto ; 

An deus immensi venias maris, ac tua nautae 

Numina sola colant, tibi serviat ultima Thule, 30 

Teque sibi generum Tethys emat omnibus undis ; 

Anne novum tardis sidus te mensibus addas, 

Qua locus Erigonen inter Chelasque sequentis 

Panditur ; ipse tibi jam brachia contrahit ardens 

Scorpios, et ccbU justa plus parte reliquit : 35 

Quidquid eris — ^nam te nec sperant Tartara regem, 

1-5. Introduction, stating the object of the whole work. — 5-42. 
Invocation to Sol, Luna iclarissima mundi lumina)» Liber, Ceres, the 
PVuns and Dryades, Neptune, Aristaeus (cultor nemorum)^ Pan, 
Minerva, Triptolemus (uTici monstrator aratri)^ Silvanus, and all the 
rural deities, along with Augustus C«<»aar. 

LIBER I. 68 

Nec tibi regnandi veniat tam dira cupido 

Quamvis Elysios miretur Graecia campos, 

Nec repetita sequi curet Proserpina matrem — 

Da facilem cursum, atque audacibus adnue coeptis, 40 

Ignarosque viae mecnm miseratus agrestes, 

Ingredere, et votis jam nunc adsuesce vocari. 

Vere novo, gelidus canis cum montibus humor 
Liquitur, et Zephyro putris se gleba resolvit, 
Depresso incipiat jam tum mihi taurus aratro 45 

Ingemere, et sulco attritus splendescere vomer. 
Illa seges demum votis respondet avari 
Agricolae, bis quae solem; bis frigora sensit; 
Illius immensae ruperunt horrea messes. 
Ac prius ignotum ferro quam scindimus aequor, 50 

Ventos et varium coeli praediscere morem . 
Cura sit ac patrios cultusque habitusque locorum ; 
£t quid quaeque ferat regio. et quid quaeque recuset. 
Hic segetes, illic veniunt felicius uvae ; 
Arborei fetus alibi, atque injussa virescunt 55 

Gramina. Nonne vides, croceos ut Tmolus odores^ 
India mittit ebur, molles sna tura Sabaei; 
At Chalybes nudi ferrum, virosaque Pontus 
Castorea, Eliadum pahnas £piros equarum ? 
Continuo has leges aeternaque foedera certis 60 

Imposuit natura locis^ quo tempore primum 
Deucalion vacuum lapides jactavit m orbem, 
Unde homines nati^ durum genus. Ergo age, terrae 
Pingue solum primis extemplo a mensibus anni 
Fortes invertant tauri, glebasque jacentis 65 

Pulverulenta coquat maturis solibus aestas. 
At si non fuerit tellus fecunda, sub ipsum 
Arcturum tenui sat erit suspendere sulco ; 
Illic, officiant laetis ne frugibus herbae^ 
HiC; sterilem exiguus ne deserat humor arenam. 70 

Alternis idem tonsas cessare novales, 
£t segnem patiere situ durescere campum; 
Aut ibi flava seres^ mutato sidere, farra, 
Unde prius laetum siliqua (juassante legumen, 
Aut tenuis fetus viciae tristisque lupini 75 

Sustuleris fragiles calamos silvamque sonantem. 
Urit enim lini campum seges^ urit avenae, 

43-117. The proper time and mode (deep ploughing, depresso 
aratro) of plou^hing (with a hint as to manurinff dry and ezhausted 
soils, and burnmg the stubble on barren ground), with reference to 
season, soil, fallow, euccession of cropsi irrigation, feeding down, 
and draining. 


Urunt Lethaco perfusa papayera somno 

Sed tamen altemis faciiis labor : arida tantnm 

Ne saturare fimo pingui pudeat sola, neve 80 

Effetos cinerem immundum jactare per agros. 

Sic quoGue mutatis requiescunt fetibus arva; 

Nec nulla interea est inaratae gratia terrae. 

Saepe etiam steriles incendere j)rofuit agros, 

Atque levem stipulam crepitantibus urere nammis: 85 

Sive inde occultas vires et pabula terrae 

Pinguia concipiunt ; sive iliis omne per ignem 

Excoauitur vitium, atque exsudat inutilis homor; 

Seu pluris calor ille vias et caeca relaxat 

Spiramenta, novas veniat qua succus in herbas; 90 

Seu durat magis, et venas adstringit biantis, 

Ne tenues pluviae, rapidive potentia solis 

Acrior, aut Boreae penetrabUe frif^us adurat. 

Multum adeo, rastris glebas qui mmgit inertis, 

Vimineasque trahit crates, juvat arva ; neque iilam 95 

Fiava Ceres aJto nequidquam spectat Olympo; 

£t qui, proscisso quae suscitat aequore terga, 

Rursus m obliquum verso perrumpit aratro, 

Exercetaue fre^uens tellurem, atque imperat arvis. 

Humida solstitia atque hiemes orate serenaS) 100 

Agricolae ; hibemo laetissima pulvere farra, 
Laetus ager ; nullo tantum se Mysia cultu 
Jactat; et ipsa suas mirantur Gargara messis. 

Quid dicam, jacto qui semine comminus arva 
Insequitur, cumulosque ruit male pinguis arenae, 105 
Deinde satis fluvium inducit rivosque sequentis, 
£t, quum exustns ager morientibus aestoat herbis, 
£cce supercilio clivosi tramitis undam 
£Iicit % Illa cadens raucnm per levia murmur 
Saxa ciet, scatebrisque arentia temperat arva. 110 

Quid, qui, ne gravidis procumbat culmus aristis^ 
Luxuriem segetum tenera depascit in herba, 
Quum primum sulcos aequant sata ? quique paludis 
CoIIectum humorem bibuJa deducit arena? 
Praesertim incertis si mensibus amnis abundans 115 

£xit, et obducto late tenet omnia limo : 
Unde cavae tepido sudant humore lacunae. 

Nec tamen — haec cum sint hominumque boumque la- 

118-159. In connection wiih the trouble necessary to protect the 
Boil from mischievous animals and plants, hand-labour and invention 
«le shown to arise from Jupitf*» ''"'»o.'>-nion to the throne of heavea 

LIBER I. 6% 

Versando terram experli — nihil improbus anser, 

Strymoniaeque grues, et amaris intuba fibris 120 

Ofiiciunt, aut umbra nocet. Pater ipse colendi 

Haud facilem esse viam voluit) primusque per artem 

Movit agros, curis acuens mortalia corda, 

Nec torpere gravi passus sua regna veterno. 

Ante Jovem nulli subigebant arva coloni; 125 

Ne signare quidem aut partiri limite campum 

Fas erat : in medium quaerebant, ipsaque tellus 

Omnia liberius, nuilo poscente, ferebat. 

Ille malum virus serpentibus addidit atris, 

Praedarique lupos jussit, pontumque moveri j 130 

Mellaque decussit foliis ; ignemque removit, 

£t passim rivis currentia vina repressit : 

Ut varias usus meditando extunderet artis 

Paullatim, et sulcis frumenti quaereret herbam ; 

Ut silicis venis abstrusum excuderet ignem. 135 

Tunc alnos primum iluvii sensere cavatas^ 

Navita tum stellis numeros et nomina fecit, 

Pleiadas, Hyadas, claramque Lycaonis Arcton. 

Tum laqueis captare feras et fallere visco 

Inventum, et magnos canibus circumdare saltus^ 140 

Atque alius latum funda jam verberat amnem 

Alta petens, pelagoque alius trahit humida lina. 

Tum ferri rigor, atque argutae lamina serrae — 

Nam primi cuneis scindebant fissile lignum — 

Tum variae venere artes ; labor omnia vicit 145 

Improbus et duris urguens in rebus egestas. 

Prima Ceres ferro mortalis vertere terram 

Instituit, cum jam glandes atque arbuta sacrae 

Deficerent silvae, et victum Dodona negaret. 

Mox et frumentis labor additus, ut mala culmos 150 

Esset robigo, segnisque horreret in arvis 

Carduus : intereunt segetes : subit aspera silva, 

Lappaeque tribulique ; interque nitentia culta 

Infelix lolium et steriles dominantur avenae. 

Quod nisi et assiduis herbam insectabere rastris, 155 

Et sonitu terrebis aves, et ruris opaci 

Falce premes umbram, votisque vocaveris imbrem : 

Heu ! magnum alterius frustra spectabis acervum j 

Concussaque famem in silvis solabere quercu. 

Dicendum et, quae sint duris agrestibus arma, 160 
Quis sine nec piotuere seri nec surgere messes : 
Vorais et inflexi primum grave robur aratri, 

160-175. The instruments of agriculture. 
6* r 

66 GEORGIC05. 

Tardaqne Eleosinae matris volTentia planatn, 

Tribnlaque, traheaeque, et iniquo pondere nutri ; 

Virgea praeterea Celei vilisqae supellex. 165 

Arbuteae crates et mystica vannus lacc^. 

Omnia quae multo ante memor provisa reponefl^ 

Si te digna manet divina gloria ruris. 

Continuo in silvis magna vi flexa domatur 

In bcrim, et curvi formam accipit ubnns aratri. 170 

Huic ab stirpe pedes temo protentus in octo^ 

Binae aures. duplici aptantur dentalia dorso. 

Caeditur et tilia ante jugo levis, altaqne fagnSy 

Stivaque, quae cursus a tergo torqueat imo6 : 

£t suspensa focis explorat robora fumos. 175 

Possum multa tibi veterum praecepta referre, 
Ni refugis, tenuisque piget cognoscere curas. 
Area cum primis ingenti aequanda cylindro. 
£t vertenda manu. et creta solidanda tenaci^ 
Ne subeant herbae, neu pulvere victa fatiscat, 180 

Tom variae illudant pestes : saepe ezigans mns 
Sub terris posuitque domos atque horrea fecit; 
Aut oculis capti fodere cubilia talpae ; 
Inventnsque cavis bufo. et quae plurima tenae 
Monstra ferunt ] populatque ingentem farris aceirom 185 
CurculiO; atque inopi metuens formica senectae. 

Contemplator item, cnm se nuz plnrima siivis 
Induet in florem, et ramos curvabit olentis: 
Si superant fetus, pariter frumenta seqnentnri 
Magnaque cum magno veniet tritura calore; 190 

At si luxuria foliomm exuberat umbra, 
Nequidquam pinguis palea teret area cnlmos. 

Semina vidi equidem multos medicare 8erente6| 
£t nitro prius et nigra perfundere amnrca, 
Grandior ut fetus siliquis fallacibus esset, 195 

£t. quamvis igni exiguo, properata maderent. 
Vidi lecta diu et multo spectata labore 
Degenerare tamen, ni vis humana qnotannis 
Maxima quaeque manu legeret ; sic onmia fatis 
In pejus ruere, ac retro sublapsa referri; 20C 

Non aliter, quam qui adverso vix flumine lembnm 
Remigiis subigit, si brachia forte remisit, 
Atque illum in praeceps prono rapit alveus amni. 

Praeterea tam sunt Arcturi sidera nobis 

176-156. Miscellaneoas directions ; the threshiiig-floor. -» 187 
192. lodication of a heavy or a light prodQce. — 193-203. The me 
ating aod the choice of seed. — 201-240. The proper times fbi 

UBER 1. 6V 

Haedorumque dies servandi et lucidus Anguis, 205 

Quam qaious in patriam ventosa per aequora vectis 

Pontus et ostriferi fauces tentantur Abydi. 

Libra die somnique pares ubi fecerit horas, 

£t medium )uci atque umbris jam dividit orbem ; 

Ezercete, viri; tauros; serite hordea campis ' 210 

[Jsque sub extremum brumae intractabilis imbren. 

Nec non et hni segetem et Cereale papaver 

Tempus humo tegere, et jamdudum incumbere arutris; 

Dum sicca tellure hcet, dum nubila pendent. 

Yere fabis satio ; tum te quoque, Medica, putres 215 

Accipiunt sulci; et milio venit annua cura: 

Candidus auratis aperit cum coraibus annum 

Taurus, et adverso cedens Canis occidit astro. 

At si triticeam in messem robustaque farra 

Ezercebis humum, solisque instabis aristis, 220 

Ante tibi Eoae Atlantides abscondantur, 

Gnosiaque ardentis decedat stella Coronae, 

Debita quam sulcis committas semina. quamque 

Invitae properes anni spem credere terrae. 

Multi ante occasum Maiae coepere; sed illos 225 

Ezspectata seges vanis elusit aristis. 

Si vero viciamque seres vilemque faselum, 

Nec Pelusiacae curam aspernabere lentis, 

Haud obscura cadens mitcit tibi signa Bootes ; 

Incipe; et ad medias sementem extende pruinas. 230 

Idcirco certis dimensum partibus orbem 
Per duodena regit mundi Sol aureus astra. 
Quinque tenent coelum zonae : quarum una corusoo 
Semper sole rubens, et torrida semper ab igni ; 
Quam circum extremae dextra laevaque trahuntur, 235 
Caerulea glacie concretae atque imbribus atris. 
Has inter mediamque duae mortalibus aegris 
Munere concessae divum ; et via secta per ambas, 
Obliquus qua se signorum verteret ordo. 
MunduSj ut ad Scythiam Rhipaeasque arduus arces 240 
Consurgit, premitur Libyae devexus in Austros. 
Hic vertex nobis semper sublimis; at illum 
Sub pedibus Styx atra videt Manesque profundi. 
Maximus hic flexu sinuoso elabitur Anguis 
Circum perque duas in morem fiiuminis Arctos, 245 

Arctos Oceani metuentis aequore tingui. 
IUic, ut perhibent; aut intempesta silet nox, 
Semper et obtcnta densantur nocte tenebrae : 

331-256. The Bun*s annual course, and the zodiac. 


Aut redit a nobis Aurora diemque redncit, 

Nosque ubi primus equis Oriens adflavit anhelw^ 250 

11] ic sera rubens accendit Inmina Yesper. 

Hinc terapestates dubio praediscere coelo 

Possumus, hinc messis(}ue diem tempusque serendi; 

£t quando infidum remis impellere marmor 

Cooveniat ; quando armatas deducere classes ; 255 

Aut tempestivam silvis evertere pinum. 

Nec frustra signorum obitus speculamur et ortii8| 
Temporibusque parem diversis quatuor annam. 

Frigidus agricolam si quando continet imber, 
IMuIta, forent quae mox coelo properanda sereno, 260 
Maturare datur ; durum procudit arator 
Vomeris obtusi dentem 3 cavat arbore lintres; 
Aut pecori signum aut numeros impressit acenris. 
Exacuunt alii valios furcasque bicomis, 
Atque Amerina parant lentae retinacula viti. 265 

Nunc facilis rubea texatur fiscina virga; 
Nunc torrete igni fruges, nunc frangite saxo. 

Quippe etiam festis quaedam exercere diebiis 
Fas et jura sinunt : rivos deducere nuila 
Religio vetuit, segeti praetendere sepem, 270 

Insidias avibus moliri, incendere vepres, 
Balantumque gregem fluvio mersare salubri. 
Saepe oleo tardi costas agitator aselli 
Viiibus aut onerat pomis, lapidemque revertens 
Incusum aut atrae massam picis nrbe reportat. 275 

Ipsa dies alios alio dedit ordine Lnna 
Felicis operum : quintam fuge ; pallidus Orcos 
Eumenidesque satae j tum partu Terra nefando 
Coeumque lapetumque creat, saevumque Typhoea, 
£t conjuratos coelum rescindere fratres. 280 

Ter sunt conati imponere Pelio Ossam 
Scilicet, atque Ossae frondosum involvere Olympam ; 
Ter Pater exstructos disjecit fulmine montis. 
Septima post decimam felix, et ponere vitem, 
£t prensos domitare boves, et licia telae 285 

Addere. Nona fugae melior, contraria furtiB. 

Multo adeo gelida melius se nocte dedere, 
Aut cura sole novo terras irrorat £ous. 
Nocte leves raelius stipulae, nocte arida prata 
Tondentur : noctes lentus non deficit humor. 290 

^ ■ ■ - — ~ 

257-267. The four seasons. Wbat shoald the farmer do in tha 
time of rain ? — 268-275. What work may the farraer do on holy 
«^o^fi? — 276-2S6. The moon's influence on certain days. — 287« 
Some tbings are better done at night. 

LIBBR I. 6f 

£t quidam seros hiberni ad luminis ignis 

PenrigilBt, ferroque faces inspicat acuto 3 

Interea long^am cantu solata laborem 

Arguto conjunz percurrit pectine telas; 

Aut dulcis musti Yulcano decoquit humorem, 295 

£t foliis undam trepidi despumat aeni. 

At rubicunda Ceres medio succiditur aestu, 
£t medio tostas aestu terit area fruges. 
Nudus ara, sere nudus : hiems ignava colono. 
Frigoribus parto agricolae plerumque fruuntur, 300 

Mutuaque inter se laeti convivia curant. 
Invitat genialis hiems, curasque resolvit : 
Ceu j^ressae cum jam portum tetigere carinae 
Puppibus et laeti nautae iraposuere coronas. 
Sed tamen et quernas glandes tum stringere tempus, 305 
£t lauri baccas oleamque cruentaque myrta; 
Tum gruibus pedicas et retia ponere cervis, 
Auritosque sequi lepores; tum figere damas, 
Stuppea torquentem Balearis verbera fundae ; 
Quum nix alta jacet, glaciem quum flumina trudunt. 310 

Quid tempestates auctumni et sidera dicam ? 
Atque, ubi jam breviorque dies et mollior aestaS; 
Quae vigilanda viris'? vel cum ruit imbriferum ver, 
Spicea jam campis cum messis inhorruit, et cum 
Frnmenta in viridi stipula lactentia turgent? 315 

Saepe ego, cum flavis messorem induceret arvis 
Agricola, et fragili jam stringeret hordea culmo, 
Omnia ventorum concurrere proelia vidi, 
Quae gravidam late segetem ab radicibus imis 
Sublimem expulsam eruerent ; ita turbine nigro 320 

Ferret hiems culmumque levem stipulasque volantis. 
Saepe etiam immensum coelo venit agmen aquarum, 
£t foedam glomerant tempestatem imbribus atris 
CoUectae ex alto nubes ; ruit arduus aether, 
£t pluvia ingenti sata laeta boumque labores 325 

Diluit 'j implentur fossae, et cava numina crescunt 
Cum sonitu, fervetque fretis spirantibus aequor. 
Ipse Pater, media nimborum in nocte, corusca 
Fulmina molitur dextra : quo maxima motu 
Terra tremit, fugere ferae, et mortalia corda 330 

Per gentis humiles stravit pavor : ille flagranti 

297-299. Some things are belterdone in summer; 300-310. Some 
ifl winter. — ^311-334. The havoc made by an autumnal storm. Ad 
mirablY expanded and imitated by Thomson, in his SumTner, linei 

beginning— > 

* Behold, 8low settling o'er tbe lurid grove.* 


Aut Athon, ant Rhodopen, aut aha Ceraunia telo 
Dejicit ', ingeminant austri et densissimus imber j 
Nunc nemora ingenti vento, nunc litora plangunt. 

Hoc metuens, coeli menses et sidera serva^ 335 

Frigida Satumi sese quo stella receptet, 
Quos ignis coeli Cyllenius erret in orbis. 
Imprimis venerare deos, atque annua ma^ae 
Sacra refer Cereri, laetis operatus in herbis, 
£xtremae sub casum hiemis, iam vere sereno. 340 

Tum pingues agni et tum mollissima vina ; 
Tum somni dulces densaeque in montibus umbrae. 
Cuncta tibi Cererem pubes agrestis adoret, 
Cui tu lacte favos et miti dilue Baccho; 
Terque novas circum felix eat hostia fruges, 345 

Omnis quam chorus et socii comitentur ovantes, 
Et Cererem clamore vocent in tecta. Neque ante 
Falcem maturis quisquam supponat aristis 
Quam Cereri, torta redimitus tempora quercu, 
JDet motus incompositosj et carmina dicat. 350 

Atque haec ut certis possemus discere signis, 
Aestusque pluviasque et agentes frigora ventos, 
Ipse Pater statuit, quid menstrua Luna moneret; 
Quo signo caderent austri ; quid saepe videntes 
Agricolae propius stabulis armenta tenerent. 355 

Continuo, ventis surgentibus, aut freta ponti 
Incipiunt agitata tumescere, et aridus ahis 
Montibus audiri fragor; aut resonantia longe 
Litora misceri, et nemorum increbrescere murmur. 
Jam sibi tum a curvis male temperat unda carinis, 360 
Cum medio celeres revolant ex aequore mergi, 
Clamoremque ferunt ad litora, cumque marinae 
In sicco ludunt fulicae, notasque paludis 
Deserit atque altam supra volat ardea nubera. 
Saepe etiam stellas, vento impendente, videbis 365 

Praecipites coelo labi, noctisque per umbram 
Flammarum longos a tergo albescere tractus; 
Saepe levem paleam et frondes volitare caducas, 
Aut summa nantes in aqua colludere plumas. 
At Boreae de parte trucis cum fulminat, et cum 370 

Eurique Zephyrique tonat domus j omnia plenis 
Rura natant fossis, atque omnis navita ponto 
Humida vela legit. Numquara imprudentibus imber 


335-350. The farmer must watch the weather and worship the 
ods. — 351-369. The prognostics that foretell winds. — 370-392 
'he prognostics that foretell r»^"- 

LIBER 1. 71 

Obfuit : aut illum surgentem vallibus imis 

Aeriae fugere grues ; aut bucula coelum 375 

Suspiciens patulis captavit naribus auras ; 

Aut arguta lacus circumvolitavit hirundo; 

Et veterem in limo ranae cecinere querelam. 

Saepius et tectis penetralibus extulit ova 

Angustum formica terens iter ; et bibit ingens 380 

Arcus; et e pastu decedens agmine magno 

Corvorum increpuit densis exercitus alis. 

Jam varias pelagi volucreS; et quae Asia circum 

Dulcibus in stagnis rimantur prata Caystri, 

Certatim largos humeris infundere rores, 385 

Nunc caput objectare fretis, nunc currere in undas^ 

£t studio incassum videas gestire Javandi. 

Tum comix plena pluviam vocat improba voce, 

£t sola in sicca secum spatiatur arena. 

Ne nocturna quidem carpentes pensa puellae 390 

Nescivere hiemem, testa cum ardente viderent 

Scintillare oleum, et putris concrescere fungos. 

Nec minus ex imbri soles et aperta serena 
Prospicere et certis poteris cognoscere signis. 
Nam neque tum stellis acies obtusa videtur, 395 

Nec fratris radiis obnoxia surgere Luna, 
Tenuia nec lanae per coelum vellera ferri ; 
Non tepidum ad solem pennas in litore pandunt 
Dilectae Thetidi alcyones ; non ore solutos 
Immundi meminere sues jactare maniplos. 400 

At nebulae magis ima petunt campoque recumbunt; 
Solis et occasum servans de culmine summo 
Nequidquam seros exercet noctua cantus. 
Apparet liquido sublimis in aere Nisus, 
£t pro purpureo poenas dat Scylla capillo : 405 

Quacumque illa levem fugiens secat aethera pennis, 
£cce ! inimicus, atrox, magno stridore per auras 
Insequitur Nisus ; qua se fert Nisus ad auras, 
Illa levem fugiens raptim secat aethera pennis. 
Tum liquidas corvi presso ter gutture voces 410 

Aut (juater ingeminant ; et saepe cubilibus altiS; 
Nescio qua praeter solitum dulcedine laeti, 
Inter se in foliis strepitant ; juvat, imbribus actis^ 
Progeniem parvam duloisque revisere nidos. 
Haud equidem credo, quia sit divinitus illis 415 

Ingenium, aut rerum fato prudentia major ; 
Verum; ubi tempestas et coeli mobilis humor 

393-423. The prognostics that foretell fair weather. 


Matavere ▼ias, et Jupiter nyidns austris 

Densat, erant qaae rara modo, et, quae densa, relaxat, 

Vertuntur species animorum, et pectora motus 420 

Nunc alios, alios, dum nubila ventus agebat, 

Concipiunt : hinc ille avium concentus in agria^ 

£t laetae pecudes, et ovantes gutture corvi. 

Si vero solem ad rapidum lunasque seqaentiB 
Ordine respicies, numquam te crastina fallet 425 

Hora, neque insidiis noctis capiere serenae. 
Luna revertentis cum primum colligit igniSi 
Si nigrum obscuro comprenderit aera cornu, 
Maximus agricolis pelagoque parabitur imoer. 
At si virgineum sunuderit ore ruborem, 430 

Ventus erit ; vento semper rubet aurea Phoebe. 
Sin ortu quarto — ^namque is certissimus aactor- 
Pura, neque obtusis per coelum comibus ibit : 
Totus et ille dies, et qui nascentur ab illo 
Exactum ad mensem, pluvia ventisque carebunt ; 435 
Votaque servati solvent in litore nautae 
Glauco et Panopeae et Inoo Melicertae. 

Sol auo^ue, et exoriens et cum se condet in nndas, 
Signa dabit ; solem certissima signa sequuntur, 
- £t quae mane refert, et quae surgentibus astri& 440 

Ule ubi nascentem maculis variaverit ortam, 
Conditus in nubem, medioque refugerit orbe, 
Suspecti tibi sint imbres ; namque urguet ab alto 
Arboribusqiie satisque Notus pecorique sinister. 
Aut ubi soD lucem densa inter nubila sese 445 

Diversi rumpent radii) aut ubi pallida surget 
Tithoni croceum linquens Aurora cubile : 
Heu ! male tum mitis defendet pampinus uvas ; 
Tam multa in tectis crepitans salit horrida grando. 
Hoc etiam, emenso cum jam decedit Olympo, 450 

Profuerit meminisse magis : nam saepe videmas 
Ipsius in vultu varios errare colores. 
Caeruleus pluviam denuntiat, igneus Euros ; 
Sin maculae incipient nitilo immiscerier igni, 
Orania tum pariter vento nimbisque videbis 455 

Fervere. Non illa quisquam me nocte per altum 
Ire, neque ab terra moneat conveliere funem. 
At si, cum referetque diem condetque relatum, 
Lucidus orbis erit, frustra terrebere nimbis, 
Et claro silvas cernes aquilone moveri. 460 

424-437. Prognostics derivable from the moon. — 438-463. Prog- 
nostics derivable from xh» °"~ 

LIBER I. 73 

Denique, quid vesper serus vehat, unde serenas 

Ventus agat nnbes; quid cogitet huniidus Auster, 

Sol tibi signa dabit. Solem quis dicere falsum 

Audeat? Ille etiam caecos instare tumultus 

Saepe monet) fraudemque et operta tumescere bella. 465 

Ille etiam exstincto miseratus Caesare Romam; 

Cum caput obscura nitidum ferrugine texit, 

Impiaque aeternam timuerunt saecula noctem. 

Tempore quamquam illo tellus quoque et aequora ponti, 

Obscoenaeque canes importunaeque volucres 470 

Signa dabant. Quoties Cyclopum effervere in agros 

Vidimus undantem ruptis fornacibus iEtnam, 

Flammarumque globos liquefactaque volvere saxa ! 

Armorum sonitum toto Germania coelo 

Audiit; insolitis tremuerunt motibus Alpes. 475 

Vox quoque per lucos vulgo exaudita silentis 

Ingens, et simulacra modis pallentia miris 

Visa sub obscurum noctis, pecudesque locutae, 

Infandum ! sistunt amnes, terraeque dehiscunt, 

£t maestum illacrimat templis ebur. aeraque sudant. 480 

Proluit insano contorquens vortice silvas 

Fluviorum rex Eridanus, camposque per omnis 

Cum stabulis armenta tulit. Nec tempore eodem 

Tristibus aut extis fibrae apparere minaces, 

Aut puteis manare cruor cessavit, et altae 485 

Per noctem resonare lupis uluiantibus urbes. 

Non alias coelo ceciderunt plura sereno 

Fulgura, nec diri toties arsere cometae. 

Ergo inter sese paribus concurrere telis 

Romanas acies iterum videre Philippi ; 490 

Nec fuit indignum Superis bis sanguine nostro 

Emathiam et latos Haemi pinguescere campos. 

Scilicet et tempus veniet, cum finibus illis 

Agricola, incurvo terram molitus aratro, 

Exesa inveniet scabra robigine pila, 495 

Aut gravibus rastris galeas pulsabit inanis, 

Grandiaque effossis mirabitur ossa sepulchris. 

Di patrii, Indigetes, et Romule, Vestaque mater, 
Quae Tuscum Tiberim et Romana Palatia servas, 
Hunc saltem everso juvenem succurrere saeclo 500 

Ne prohibete ! Satis jam pridem sanguine nostro 
LaomedontQae luimus perjuria Trojae. 

463-497. The prodigics prognosticating the civil wars that fol- 
iowed the deaih of Julius Caesar. — 498-514. A prnyer for the pre* 
leivation of Auguptus. 

7 c 


Jam [iridera nobis coe;i te rejiia. CaeKar, 
iDTJdet, atque homiiiuni queriiui curare triumpht» 
Qoippe ubi lasTer^um atque aeia& toi bellaperoibef 
Tam muliae sceieium facies : non ullus aralro 

Hinc movei Cupiiraies, iilinc Geimaiua belliiin; 
Vicinae ruptis iuler se Je^ibus urbes 
Aima ferunl ; saevit lolu Mars impius oibe : 
Vl, Gum carceribus Mse effadeie quadrigae, 
AdduQt in spalia. et fruslia relinacula teodeDS 
FeitDr equJB auriga, neqne audit cuinu habenu. 


Tbi «econd boot of iLe Georgics is cw^upied wi^^ 
trecs, pmrlieularljr of tho vine, Vlrgil fir»t of ii 
suljjecl, invoking Bacchu», l-B. lie then 
modes in which tiees are naturally jitoii 
9-13; from Ked, 14-10: from i.ii<-l(i^rf, 1' 
the «rtifit-ial mcthod» of profia^aiir.g 
83-24 i tctf, W, 95; layers, 36, ■- ; tniti 
drr irunk, 34, 31 ; ingiafiins. 3; -:14 AddieBigi 
aaliing ihe counienance of Mbocp 
and attenllon to thc beii raode of 
tiees, 3EMG. Trees tpontaneousiy prodalj 
liy inpaHing, traniplanling, mod Q 
talljr produced ftom suckert ■ " 
open lield», 03-50. Tre' 
be trenched aiid othcrwise n 
cialiy propagaled, certain 
eni irees, G3-0S. Differei 
being iiigrBfled on ccitaii 
•cribcd, 73-77 ; and ingrmning, 10 
species of tiie «ame kind» of tt-^'" 
G»-1C8. Trcc» atG adapted K 
illuatiated by the producla of d 
inlrcdBO;! ilie praiics of 1nlf,1 
liave different capabilili 
177-183; another for ihe 
•S5>S02. DiffEience betw« 
- inil 903-225. Rules a 

LS regBidiiv diw 
tha gnniid, DM 


Vff^ ; and as to the mode of planting, 273-287. Yarious io- 
•Iractions and warnings are given, 288-314. He then shows 
the best season. for plantiog, with a glowing description of 
spring, 315-345. Then foUow directions as to the proper steps 
to be taken during and afler planting, 346-357 ; and as to 
props, 358-362; and pruning, 363-370. Then isa list of evils 
to be guarded against, 371-379; especially the attack of the 
goat, 380-396. Vineyards need constant attention all the year 
round, 397-419. Olives, 420-425; fruit-treeSi 426-428; de- 
mand little or no attention. Neither do other trees, which 
from their beauty and their usefulness should be extensively 
planted, 429-453 ; they even surpass the vine, which is often 
injurious in its efects, 454-457. This detail of the various 
advantages derived from planting leads to a splendid eulo» 
gium on rural life, 458-542. 

Hactenits arvGrum cultus et sidera coeli ; 
Nunc te, Bacche, canam, nec non silvestria tecum 
Virgulta, et prolem tarde crescentis olivae. 
Huc, pater o Lenaee ! — tuis hic omnia plena 
Muneribus; tibi pampineo gravidus auctumno 6 

Floret ager, spumat plenis vindemia labris — 
Huc, pater o Lenaee ! veni, nudataque musto 
Tingue novo mecum dereptis crura cothumis. 

Principio arboribus varia est natura creandis. 
Namque aliae, nullis hominum cogentibus, ipsae 10 

Sponte sua veniunt, camposque et flumina late 
Curva tenent, ut molle siier lentaeque genestae, 
Populus et glauca canentia fronde salicta. 
Pars autem posito surgunt de semine, ut altae 
Castaneae; nemorumque Jovi quae maxima frondet 15 
^sculus, atque habitae Graiis oracula quercus. 
Pullulat ab radice aliis densissima silva, 
Ut cerasis ulmisque 3 etiam Parnassia laurus 
Parva sub ingenti matris se subjicit umbra. 
Hos natura modos primum dedit ; his genus omne 20 
Silvarum fruticumque viret nemorumque sacrorum. 

Sunt alii, quos ipse yia sibi reperit usus. 
Hic plantas tenero abscindens de corpore matrum 
Deposuit sulcis ; hic stirpes obruit arvo 

1-8. Thc subject is stated, Bacchus being invoked. — 9-13. 01 
trees propagated naturally, some grow spontaneously. Thia doc- 
trine, it may be remarked, is now exploded. — 14-16. Some from 
seed. — 17-21. Some from suckers. — 22-24. Of trees propagated 
artificially, some are produced from suckers. — 24, 25. Scmefirom 


Qnadrifidasque sudes et acuto robore valloS; 
Silyarumque aliae pressos propaginis arcus 
Exspectant, et viva sua plantaria terra ; 
Nil radicis egent aliae, summumque putator 
Haud dubitat terrae referens mandare cacumen. 
Quin et caudicibus seciis — mirabile dictu ! — 
Truditur e sicco radix oleagina ligno. 
£t saepe alterius ramos impune videmus 
Vertere in alterius, mntatamque insita mala 
Ferre pirum, et prunis lapidosa rubescere corna. 

Quare agite, o, proprios generatim discite cultos, 
AgricolaCj fructusque feros mollite colendo. 
Neu segnes jaceant terrae : juvat Ismara Baccho 
Conserere, alque olea magnum vestire Taburnum. 
Tuque ades, inceptumque una decurre laborem, 
O decus, famae merito pars maxima nostrae, 
Maecenas, pelagoque yolans da yela patenti. 
Non ego cuncta meis amplecti versibus opto, 
Non, mihi si linguae centum sint oraque centum, 
Ferrea vox; ades, et primi lege litoris oram; 
In manibus terrae; non hic te carmine ficto 
Atque per ambages et longa exorsa tenebo. 

Sponte sua quae se tollunt in luminis oras, 
Infecunda quidem, sed laeta et fortia surgunt; 
Quippe solo natura subest. Tamen haec quoque; sl c 
Inserat, aut scrobibus mandet mutata subactis, 
Exuerint silvestrem animum, cultuque frequenti, 
In quascumque yoces artis, haud tarda sequentur. 

Nec non et sterilis, quae stirpibus exit ao imis, 
Hoc faciet, yacuos si sit digesta per agros : 
Nunc altae frondes et rami matns opacant, 
Crescentique adimunt fetus, uruntque ferentem. 

Jam, quae seminibus jactis se sustulit arbos, 
Tarda yenit, eeris factura nepotibus umbram ; 
Pomaque degenerant, succos oblita priores; 
Et turpis avibus praedam fert uva racemos. 

26, 27. Some from suckers. — 28, 29. Some from cuttings.— 
31. Some from pieces of the dry trunk. — 32-35. Ingraftinff tr 
fers to one tree tne nature of another. — 35-46. Addressine larn 
and asking the countenance of Maecenas, he inculcates industry 
attention to the best mode of improving and cultivating trees.— 
52. Trees spontaneously produced may be improved by ingrafi 
transplanting, and culture. — 53-56. Trees naturally produced : 
sackers must be transplanted into the open fields. — 57-62. T 
naturally produced from seed must be trenched, and otherwisc 


Scilicet omnibns est labor impendendus, et omnes 
Cogendae in sulcum ac multa mercede domandae. 

Sed truncis oleae melius, propagine vites 
Respondent, solido Paphiae de robore myrtus. 
Plantis et darae coryli nascuntur^ et ingens 65 

FraxinnS; Herculeaeque arbos umbrosa coronae, 
Chaoniique patris glandes ; etiam ardua palma 
Nascitur, et casus abies visnra marinos. 

Inseritur vero et nucis arbutus horrida fetu ; 
£t steriles platani malos gessere valentis ; 70 

Castaneae fagus, ornusque incanuit albo 
Flore piri, glandemque sues fregere sub ulmis. 

Nec modus inserere atque ooulos imponere simplex. 
Nam, qua se medio trudunt de cortice gemmae, 
£t tenuis rumpunt tunicaS) angustus in ipso 75 

Fit nodo sinus ] huc aliena ex arbore germen 
Includunt, udoque docent inolescere libro. 
Aut rursum enodes trunci resecantur, et alte 
Finditur in solidum cuneis via; deinde feraces 
Plantae immittuntur : nec longum tempus, et ingens 80 
£xiit ad coelum ramis felicibus arbos, 
Miraturque novas frondes et non sua poma. 

Praeterea genus haud unum, nec fortibus uImiS| 
Nec salici lotoque, neque Idaeis cyparissis ; 
Nec pingues unam in faciem nascuntur olivae, 85 

Orchades, et radii, et amara pausia bacca ; 
Pomaque et Alcindi silvae ; nec surculus idem 
Crustumiis Syriisque piris gravibusque volemis. 
Non eadem arboribus pendet vindemia nostris, 
Quam Methymnaeo carpit de palmite Lesbos. 90 

Sunt Thasiae vites, sunt et Mareotides albae — 
Pinguibus hae terris habiles, levioribus iilae — 
£t passo Psithia utilior tenuisque Lageos, 
Tentatura pedes olim vincturaque linguam ; 
PurpureaO; preciaeque ; et — quo te carmine dioam, 95 
Rhaetica? nec cellis ideo contende Falernis. 
Sunt et Aminaeae vites, firmissima vina, 
Tmolius adsurgii quibus et rex ipse Phanaeus ', 
Argitisque minor, cui non certaverit ulla 

63-68. Of trees to be artificially propagated, certain methods are 
best adapted for different trees. — 69-72. Different fruit-trees are 
best adapted for ingrafting on certain others. — 73-77. Inoculating 
is described. — 78-82. Ingrafting proper is described. — 83-8aI 
There are diflferent species of the same kind of tree. — 89-108, 
Especially there are different species of vine. 


Aut tantum fluere, aut totidem durare per annos. 100 
Non ego te, dis et mensis accepta secundiS; 
Transierim, Rhodia, et tumidis, Bumaste, racemis. 
Sed neque, quam multae species, nec, nomina quae sint, 
£st numerus; neque enim numero comprendere refert; 
Quem qui scire velit, Libyci veJit aequoris idem 105 
Discere quam multae Zephyro turbentur arenae ; 
Aut, ubi navigiis violentior incidit Eurus, 
Nosse, quot lonii veniant ad Htora fluctus. 

Nec vero terrae ferre omnes omnia possunt. 
Fluminibus salices, crassisque paludibus alni 110 

Nascuntur, steriies saxosis montibus orni ; 
Litora myrtetis laetissima; denique apertos 
Bacchus amat collis, Aquilonem et frigora taxi. 
Aspice et extremis domitum cultoribos orbem, 
Eoasque domos Arabum piotosque Gelonos : 115 

Divi&ae arboribus patriae : sola India nigrum 
Fert ebenum; solis est turea virga Sabaeis. 
Quid tibi odorato referam sudantia ligno 
Balsamaque et baccas semper frondentis acanthi? 
Quid nemora Aethiopum, molli canentia lana, 120 

Velleraque ut foliis depectant tenuia Seres? 
Aut quos Oceano propior gerit India lucos, 
Extremi sinus orbis^ ubi aera vincere summum 
Arboris baud ullae jactu potuere sagittae % 
£t gens illa quidem sumptis non tarda pharetris. 125 
Media fert tristes succos tardumque saporem 
Felicis mali; quo non praesentius ullum, 
Pocula si quando saevae infecere novercae; 
Miscueruntque herbas et non innoxia yerba, 
Auxilium venit, ac membris agit atra venena. 130 

Ipsa ingens arbos faciemque simillima lauro ', 
Et, si non alium late jactaret odorem, 
Laurus erat; folia haud uUis labentia ventis: 
FIos ad prima tenax ; animas et olentia Medi 
Ora fovent illo, et senibus medicantur anhelis. 135 

Sed neque Medorum silvae ditissima terra, 
Nec pulcher Ganges atque auro turbidus Hermus 

^^^™ ■ ■ " ■■ — ■ ■■■■! ■ ■ I -■■■■■■■■■■■I »^^»^^— ^ ■■ III —^— ^^■^■^■^^— ^— 

109-113. Trees are adapted to certain situations. — 114-135. 
This is illustrated by the products of distant climes. — 136-176. 
This illustration introduces the praises of Italy. He contrasts it 
(ver. 136) with Media, the most important province of the Persian 
ennpire, producing the citron ; (ver. 137) the Ganges, on whoso 
banks the Seres procured the down from the leaves of trees (as was 
believed in VirjBfil^s time), whence silk was fabricated ; the Hermut 
a river of Lydia, with its golden sands ; (ver. 138) Bactra, ihe ctpi- 


Laudibus Italiae certent ; non Bactra, neque Indiy 

Totaque turiferis Panchaia pinguis arenis. 

Haeo loca non tauri spirantes naribus ignem 140 

Inyertere satis immanis dentibus hydri, 

Nec galeis densisque virum seges norruit hastis; 

Sed gravidae fruges et Bacchi Massicus humor 

Impleyere ; tenent oleae armentaque laeta. 

Hinc bellator equus campo sese arduus infert ; 145 

Hinc albi, Clitumne, greges, et maxiraa taurus 

Victima, saepe tuo perfusi flumine sacro, 

Homanos ad templa deum duxere triumphos. 

Hic yer assiduum atque alienis mensibus aestas } 

Bis grayidae pecudes, bis pomis utilis arbos. 150 

At rabidae tigres absunt et saeya leonum 

Semina ; nec miseros fallunt aconita legentis; 

Nec rapit immensos orbis per humum, neque tanto 

Squameus in spiram tractu se colligit anguis. 

Adde tot egregias urbes operumque laborera, 155 

Tot congesta manu praeruptis oppida saxis, 

Fluminaque antiquos subterlabentia muros. 

An marcj quod supra, memorem, quodque adluit infra ? 

Anne lacus tantos ? te, Lari maxime, teque, 

Fluctibus et fremitu adsurgens, Benace, marino? 160 

tal of Bactria, a north-eastern province of the Persian empire, and 
India, and (139) Panchaia, an island offthe coast of Arabia, probably 
fabled by Euemerus, a logographer of Messana. — 140-142. He con- 
trasts Italy favourably with Colchis, alluding to the story of Jason, 
and the bulls (others have horses) snorting fire, and the draffon^s 
teeth, wbich, when sown, produced a crop of arnried men. ifenti' 
hu8t the dat. /or, to receive. — 143. Massicus^ a hill famous for its 
vines ; it was in Campania, which produced the most celebrated 
wines of ancient Italy. — 146. The Cliiumnus was a river of Um- 
bria, still a famous pasture country. It was believed that the cattle 
that drank its waters became white. And white buUs werc the 
proper sacrifice in the Roman triumphs, where they were led before 
the victor's car. — 149. Alienis. Even the months not belonging 
to summer seem to be under her ffenial influence. Bis per singulos 
annos. — 151, &c. With these advaniages, Italy is free from wild 
beasts, poisonous plants, and large serpents. — 153. TantOt quanto 
in aliis terris. — 155, &c. Italy abounds in proud and ancient cities, 
in noble rivers, seas, lakes, harbours, mountains full of metallic 
veins. The cities are eiiher beauiiful by art, or are piled on rug^ed 
rocks, or adorn the banks of rivers. — 158. SuprOf the Adriatic ; 
tn/ra, the Tuscan sea. — 159. Lari. Larius lacus, a magniflcent 
laKe in Gallia Cisalpina, filling a hollow at the south of the AIps ; 
the modern lake of Como, in Austrian Lombardy. — 160. Benace, 
Benacus, the modern Garda, a large and noble lake enclosed^ by 
mountains, except at the south. Hence the gusts that lash it into 
sea-like fury (fremtu marino). 


An memorem portus Lucrinoqae addita claQstra, 
Atque indignatum magnis stridoribus aequor; 
Julia qua ponto longe sonat unda refuso, 
Tyrrhenusque fretis immittitur aeatus Ayerais? 
Haec eadem argenti rivos aerisque metalla 165 

Ostendit venis, atque auro plurima fluxit. 
Haec genus acre virum Marsos pubemque Sabellam, 
Adsuetumque malo Ligurem Volscosque verutos 
Extulit ; haec Decios, Marios magnosque Camillos, 
Scipiadas duros bello; et te, maxime (^esar, 170 

Qui nunc, extremis Asiae jam victor in oris, 
Imbellem avertis Romanis arcibus Indum. 
Salve, magna parens frugum, Saturnia tellus, 
Magna virum ; tibi res antiouae laudis et artis 
Ingredior, sanctos ausus recludere fontis, 175 

Ascraeumque cano Romana per oppida carmen. 

Nunc locus arvorum ingeniis: quae robora cuique, 
Quis color, et quae sit rebus natura ferendis. 
Difficiles primum terrae collesque maligni, 
Tenuis ubi argilla et dumosis caloulus arvi«, 180 

Palladia gaudent silva vivacis olivae. 
Indicio est tractu surgens oleaster eodem 
Plurimus, et strati baccis silvestribus agri. 
At quae pinguis humus dulcique uligine laeta, 

161-164. An allusion is here made to a harbour of refuge formed 
in the bay of Baiae by Octavianus Caesar, called the Portus Julius, 
Two small lakes, the Avernus and the Lucrinus, both close on the 
bay, were united with it by excavation, the Lucrinus forming the 
middle basin. It shrank into a shallow pool, from an earthquake 
and volcanic eruption, a. d. 1538 ; on which occasion Avemus, the 
northern basin, assumed its present banks, now covered with vine- 
yards. — 167. Marsos. The Marsi lived among the Apennines, on 
the north-east of Latium. Sabellam. The Sabines occupied the 
Apennines to the north of Latium. — 168. Ligurem. The Lifi^rians 
occupied that portion of Gallia Cisalpina which was overlooked by 
the maritime Alps. The soil was poor and rocky ; hence adsuetum 
malo. Vohcosj a Latin people who fought with a light spear — ^vem, 
hence verutos. See Aen. vii. 665. — 169, &c. Decios, &c. Men 
famous in Roman history. — 171. In the year b. c. 30, Octavianus 
Caesar, having conquered Antony in the previous year, was on the 
banks of the Euphrates, by poetic exaggeration, extremi* Asiae m 
orisj pacifying the Asiatics, Indum. — 173. Satumia. See Aen. 
viii. 319. — 174. Tibi. See Ecl. viii. 6. — 176. Ascraeum. See Ecl. 
vi. 70. For a cclebrated imitation of this fine passage, see Thom- 
Bon*s Seasons, Summer, the lines beginning, 

* Happy Britannia, when the dueen of Arts.* 

177-183. Different soils havc different capabilities ; one is best 
miited for the olive. — 184-194. Another soil is best suited for the vin«. 


Quique frequens herbis et fertilis ubere campus; 185 
Qualem saepe cava montis conyalle solemus 
Despicere — huc summis liquuntur rupibus amnes, 
* Felicemque trahunt liraum — quique editus Austro, 
Et filicem curvis invisam pascit aratris ; 
Hic tibi praevalidas olim multoque fluentis 190 

Sufliciet Baccho vitis : hic fertilis uvae, 
Hic laticis, qualem pateris libamus et auro, 
Injflavit cum pinguis ebur Tyrrhenus ad aras, 
Lancibus et pandis fumantia reddimus exta. 
Sin armenta magis studium vitulosque tueri, 195 

Aut fetus ovium; aut urentis culta capellas; 
Saltus et saturi petito longinqua Tarenti, 
Et qualem infelix amisit Mantua campum, 
Pascentem niveos herboso flumine cygnos : 
Non liquidi gregibus fontes, non gramina deerunt ; 200 
Et, quantum longis carpent armenta diebus, 
Exigua tantum gelidus ros nocte reponet. 
Nigra fere et presso pinguis sub vomere terra, 
Et cui putre solum — namque hoc imitamur arando— 
Optima frum<entis; non ullo ex aequore cernes 205 

Plura domum tardis decedere plaustra juvencis; 
Aut unde iratus silvam devexit arator, 
£t nemora evertit multos ignava per annos, 
Antiquasque domos avium cum stirpibus imis 
Eruit : illae altum nidis petiere relictis; 210 

At rudis enituit impulso vomere campus. 
Nam jejuna quidem clivosi glarea ruris 
Vix humilis apibus casias roremque ministrat ; 
Et tophus scaoer et nigris exesa chelydris 
Creta negant, alios aeque serpentibus agros 215 

Dulcem ferre cibum et curvas praebere latebras. 
Quae tenuem exhalat nebulam fumosque volucris, 
Et bibit humorem et, cum vult, ex se ipsa remittit ; 
Quaeque suo semper viridis se gramine vestit, 
Nec scabie et salsa laedit robigine ferrum : 220 

Illa tibi laetis intexet vitibus ulmos ; 
Illa ferax oieo est ; illam experiere colendo 
Et facilem pecori et patientem vomeris unci. 
Talem dives arat Capua, et vicina Vesevo 
Ora jugo, et vacuis Clanius non aequus Acerris. 225 

Nunc, quo quamque modo possis cognoscere, dicam. 

195-202. Aaother for pastures. — 203-225. Difference between a 
productive and an unnroductive soil. — 226-258. Rules are given to 
distinguish loils. 


Hara sit an supra morem si densa reqnlras — 
Altera frumentiB quoniam favet, altera Baccho, 
Densa magis Cereri, rarissima quaeque Lyaeo— 
Ante locum capies oculis, alteque jubebis 230 

In solido puteum demitti, omnemque repones 
Rursus humum, et pedibus summas aequabis areras. 
Si deerunt, rarum pecorique et vitibus almis 
Aptius, uber erit ; sin in sua posse negabunt 
Ire loca, et scrobibus superabit terra repletis, 235 

Spissus ager ; glebas cuuctantis crassaque terga 
Exspecta, et yalidis terram proscinde juyencis. 
Salsa autem tellus et quae perhibetur amara, 
Frugibus infelix— ea nec mansuescit arando^ 
Nec Baccho genus, aut pomis sua nomina servat — 240 
Tale dabit specimen : tu spisso yimine qualos 
Colaque prelorum fumosis deripe tectis; 
Huc ager ille malus, dulcesque a fontibus undae 
Ad plenum calcentur : aqua eluctabitur omnis 
Scilicet, et grandes ibunt per yimina guttae; 245 

At sapor indicium faciet, manifestus et ora 
Tristia tentatum sensu torquebit amaror. 
Pinguis item quae sit tellus, hoc denique pacto 
Discimus : haud umquam manibus jactata fatiscit, 
Sed picis in morem ad digitos lentescit habendo. 250 
Humida maiores herbas alit ; ipsaque justo 
Laetior. Ah nimium ne sit mihi fertilis illa^ 
Neu se praevalidam primis ostendat aristis ! 
Quae gravis est, ipso tacitam se pondere prodit. 
Quaeque levis. Promptum est oculis praediscere ni- 
gram, 255 

£t quis cui color. At sceleratum exquirere frigus 
Difficile est; piceae tantum taxique nocentes 
Interdum, aut hederae pandunt vestigia nigrae. 

His animadversis, terram multo ante memento 
Excoquere, et magnos scrobibus concidere montiS; 260 
Ante supinatas Aquiloni ostendere glebas 
Quam laetum infodias vitis genus. Optima putri 
Arva solo ; id yenti curant gelidaeque pminae, 
Et labefacta movens robustus jugera fossor. 
At si quos haud ulla viros vigilantia fugit, 265 

Ante locum similem exquirunt, ubi prima paretur 
Arboribus seges, et quo mox digesta feratur, 
Mutatam ignorent subito ne semina matrem. 

^S^-^^e^. Directions regarding the planting of vines; as to tho 
•^eparation of the ground. — 265-272. As to the cuttings. 


Quin etiam coeli regionem in cortice signant. 
Ut, quo quaeque modo steterit, qua parte calores 270 
Austrinos tulerii, quae terga obverterit axi, 
Restituant. Adeo in teneris consuescere multum est. 

Collibus, an plano melius sit ponere vitem, 
Quaere prius. Si pinguis agros metabere campi, 
Densa sere, in denso non segnior ubere Bacchus; 275 
Sin tumulis acclive solum coilisque supinos; 
Indulge ordinibus, nec seciusomnis in unguem 
Arboribus positis secto via limite quadret. 
(Jt saepe ingenti bello cum longa cohortis 
Explicuit legio, et campo stetit agmen aperto, 280 

Directaeque acies, ac late fluctuat omnis 
Aere renidenti tellus, nec dum horrida miscent 
Proelia, sed dubius mediis Mars errat in armis : 
Omnia sint paribus numeris dimensaviarum; 
Non animum modo uti pascat prospectus inanem, 285 
Sed quia non aliter vires dabit omnibus aeauas 
Terra, neque in vacuum poterunt se extendere rami. 

Forsitan et, scrobibus quae sint fastigia, quaeras. 
Ausim vel tenui vitem committere sulco. 
Altior ac penitus terrae defigitur arbos — 290 

Aesculus m primis, quae, quantum vertice ad auras 
Aetherias, tantum radice in Tartara tendit. 
Ergo non hiemes illam, non flabra neque imbres 
Convellunt ; immota raanet, multosaue nejwtes, 
Multa virum volvens durando saecula vincit; 295 

Tum fortis late ramos et brachia tendens 
Huc illuc^ media ipsa ingentem sustinet umbram. 

Neve tibi ad solem yergant vineta cadentem 3 
Neve inter vitis corylum sere ; neve flagella 
Summa pete, aut summa defrin^e ex arbore plantas: 300 
Tantus amor terrae ! neu ferro kede retimso 
Semina ; neve olea silvestris insere truncos : 
Nam saepe incautis pastoribus excidit ignis, 
Qui, furtim pingui primum sub cortice tectus, 
Robora comprendit, frondesque dapsus in altas 305 

Ingentem coelo sonitum dedit; inde secutus 
Per ramos victor perque alta cacumina regnat, 
£t totum involvit fiammis nemus, et ruit atram 
Ad coelum, picea crassus caligine, nubem; 
Praesertim si tempdiBtas a vertice silvis 310 

Incubuit, glomeratque ferens incendia yentus. 

273-287. As to the mode of planting. — 288-314. Varioas instruc- 
Ibns and wamings are given. 


Hoc ubi, non a stirpe valent caesaeque reyerfi 
Possunt, atque ima similes revirescere terra; 
Infelix superat foliis oieaster amaris. 

Nec tibi tam prudens quisquam persuadeat aactoi 315 
Tellurem Borea rigidam spiranle movere. 
Rura gelu tum claudit hiems ; nec semine jacto 
Concretam patitur radicem adfigere terrae. 
Optima vinetis salio, cum vere rubenti 
Candida venit avis longis invisa colubris; 320 

Prima vel autumni sub frigora, cum rapidus Sol 
Nondum hiemem contingit equis, jam praeterit aestas. 
Ver adeo frondi nemorum, ver utile silvis; 
Vere tument terrae et genitalia semina poscunt. 
Tum pater omnipotens fecundis imbribus Aether 325 
Conjugis in gremium laetae descendit, et omnis 
Magnus alit, magno commixtus corpore, fetus. 
- Avia tum resonant avibus virgulta canoris, 
Et Venerem certis repetunt armenta diebus; 
Parturit almus ager, Zephyrique tepentibus auris 330 
Laxant arva sinus; superat teuer omnibus humor; 
Inque novos soles audent se germina tuto 
Credere ; nec metuit surgentis pampinus Austros^ 
Aut actum coelo magnis Aquilonibus imbrem, 
Sed trudit gemmas, et frondes explicat omnis. 335 

Non alios prima crescentis origine mundi 
liluxisse dies aliumve habuisse tenorem 
Crediderim : ver illud erat ; ver magnus agebat 
Orbis, et hibernis parcebant flatibus Euri, 
Cum primae lucem pecudes hausere, virumque 340 

Terrea progenies duris caput extulit arvis, 
Immissaeque ferae silvis et sidera coelo. 
Nec res hunc tenerae possent perferre laborem, 
Si non tanta quies iret frigusque caloremque 
Inter, et exciperet coeli indulgentia terras. 3A5 

Quod superest, quaecumque premes virgulta per agroS| 
Sparge fimo pingui, et multa memor occule terra; 
Aut lapidem bibulum, aut squalentis infode conchas; 
Iiiter enim labcntur aquae, tenuisque subibit 
Halitus, atque animos tollent sata. Jamque reperti, 350 
Qui saxo super alque ingeutis pondere testae 
Urguerent; hoc effusos munimeji ad imbris, 
Hoc, ubi hiulca siii findit canis aestifer arva. 

315-345. He then shows the besi season for plaoting, with « 
glowing description of spring. — 346-357. Directions as to tne praptr 
■teps to be taken diirin^ and after planting. 

UBBR II. 65 

Seminibns positis, superest diducere ierram 
Saepius ad capita, et duros jactare bidontis, 355 

Aut presso exercere solum sub vomerO; et ipsa 
Flectere luctantis inter vineta juvencos : 
Tum levis calamos et rasae hastilia virgae 
Fraxineasque aptare sudes furcasque valentis, 
Viribus eniti quarum et contemnere ventos 360 

Adsuescant, summasque sequi tabulata per ulmos. 

Ac, dum prima novis adolescit frondibus aetas, 
Parcendum teneris ; et dum se laetus ad auras 
Palmes agit, laxis per purum immissus habenis, 
Ipsa acie nondum falcis tentanda, sed uncis 365 

Carpendae manibus frondes interque legendae. 
Inde ubi jam validis amplexae stirpibus ulmos 
Exierint; tum stringe comas, tum brachia tonde : 
Ante reformidant ferrum ; tum denique dura 
Exerce imperia, et ramos compesce fluentis. 370 

Texendae sepes etiam, et pecus omne tenendum ; 
Praecipue dum frons tenera imprudensque laborum, 
Cui, super indignas hiemes solemque potentem, 
Silvestres uri adsidue capraeque sec^uaces 
Illudunt; pascuntur oves avidaeque juvencae. 376 

Frigora nec tantum cana concreta pruina, 
Aut gravis incumbens scopulis arentibus aestas, 
Quantum illi nocuere greges durique venenum 
Dentis et admorso signata in stirpe cicatrix. 
Non aliam ob culpam Baccho caper omnibus aris 380 
Caeditur, et veteres ineunt proscaenia ludi, 
Praemiaque ingeniis pagos et compita circum 
Thesidae posuere, atque inter pocula laeti 
MoIIibus in pratis unctos saluere per utres. 
Nec non Ausonii, Troja gens missa, coloni 385 

Versibus incomptis ludunt risuque soluto, 
Oraque corticibus sumunt horrenda cavatis ; 
Et te, Bacche, vocant per carmina laeta, tibique 
Osciila ex alta suspenaunt mollia pinu. 
Hinc omnis largo pubescit vinea fetu ; 390 

Complentur vallesque cavae saltusque profundi, 
Et quocumque deus circurh caput egit nonestum. 
Ergo rite suum Baccho dicemus honorem 
Carminibus patriis, lancesque et liba feremus, 

358-362. Directions as to props. — 363-370. Directions as to 
runing. — 371-379. A list of evils to be guarded against. — 380* 
96. Tne goat is especially to be excluded. 


£t ductns comu stabit sacer hircus ad aram, 395 

Pinguiaque in veribus torrebimun ezta oolumis. 

Est etiam ille labor curandis vitibus alter, 
Cui numquam exhausti satis est ; namque omne quotannis 
Terque quaterque solum scindendum, glebaque versis 
Aetemum frangenda bidentibus } omne leyandmn 400 
Fronde nemus , redit agricolis labor actus in orbem, 
Atque in se sua per vestigia volvitur annus. 
Ac jam olim, seras posuit cum vinea frondes, 
Frigidus et silvis Aquilo decussit honorem ', 
Jam tum acer curas venientem extendit ia annum 405 
Rusticus^ et curvo Saturni dente relictam 
Persequitur vitem attondens, fingitque putaado. 
Primus humum fodito^ primus devecta cremato 
Sarmenta, et vallos prmius sub tecta referto ; 
Postremus metito. Bis vitibus ingruit mnbra ; 410 

Bis segetem densis obducunt sentibus herbae : 
Duras uterque labor. Laudato ingentia rara, 
Exiguum colito. Nec non eiiam aspera rusci 
Vimina per silvam, et ripis fluvialis arando 
Caeditur; incultique exercet cura salicti. 415 

Jam vinctae vites, jam falcem arbusta reponunt, 
Jam canit effectos extremus vinitor antes. 
Sollicitanda tamen tellus, pulvisque movendus ; 
£t jam maturis metuendus Jupiter uvis. 

Contra non ulla est oleis cultura, neque illae 420 

Procurvam exspectant falcem rastrosque tenaces, 
Cum semel haeserunt arvis, aurasque tulerunt. 
Ipsa satis tellus, cum dente recluditur unco, 
Sufiicit humorem, et gravidas, cum vomere, fruges. 
Hoc pinguem et placitam Paci nutritor olivam. 426 

Poma quoque, ut primum trancos sensere valentiS| 
£t vires habuere suas, ad sidera raptim 
Vi propria nituntur, opisque haud indiga nostrae. 

Nec minus interea fetu nemus onme gravescit, 
Sanguineisque inculta rabent aviaria baccis. 430 

Tondentur cytisi, taedas silva alta ministrat. 
Pasounturque ignes nooturni et lumina funaont. 
£t dubitant homines serere atque impendere curam? 
Quid raajora sequar ? Salices nnmilesque genestaa, 
Aut illae pecori frondem, aut pastoribus umbras 43 > 
Sufficiunt, sepemque satis, et pabula melli. 

397-419. Vinevards need constant attention all the year nnmd.- 
490-425. Olives do not need much attention. — 426-428. Neitlier d* 
finut>trpes. — 429-453. Nor do other trees, which, from thor benty 
uid their n«!*»f»ilne«»?. should be extcnwvely planted. 



Et juvat undantem buxo spectare Cytoranii 

Naryciaeque picis lucos ; juvat arra videre 

Non rastris, hominum non ulli obnoxia curae. 

Ipsae Caucasio steriles in vertice silvae, 440 

Quas animosi £uri assidue franguntque feruntque, 

Dant alios aliae fetus; dant utile lignum, 

Navigiis pinos, domibus cedrumque cupressosque. 

Hinc radios trivere rotis, hinc tympana plaustris 

Agricolae, et pandas ratibus posuere carinas. 445 

Yiminibus salices fecundae, frondibus ulmi, 

At myrtus validis hastilibus, et bona bello 

Comus 'j ItUraeos taxi torquentur in arcus. 

Nec tiliae leves aut tomo rasile buxum 

Non formam accipiunt, ferroque cavantur aouto ; 450 

Nec non et torrentem undam levis innatat alnus, 

Missa Pado ; nec non et apes examina condunt 

Corticibusque cavis vitiosaeque ilicis alveo. 

Quid memorandum aeque Baccheia dona tulenint 1 

Eacchus et ad culpam causas dedit ; ille f urentis 455 

Centauros leto domuit, Rhoetumque Pholumque 

£t magno Hylaeum Lapithis cratere minantem. 

O fortunatos nimium, sua si bona norint, 
Agricolas, quibus ipsa, procul discordibus armis, 
Fundit humo facilem victum justissima tellus ! 460 

Si non ingentem foribus domus aha superbis 
Mane salutantum totis vomit aedibus undam } 
Nec varios inhiant pulcra testudine postis 
Illusasque auro vestes £phyreiaque aera; 
Alba neque Assyrio fucatur lana veneno, 465 

Nec casia Hquidi corrumpitur usus olivi : 

-^— — " _ - _ , , , ■ ■ ■ J, __M ■ 

454-457. Other trees surpass the vine, which is often injurious in 
its effects. — 458-542. This detail of the various advantaees derived 
from planting, leads to a splendid eulogium on rural iife. — 459. 
Ipsa; of its own accord.; tnat is, bountifully and willingly. — 460. 
JFundit and facilem both refer to the plenty of the fhiits of the earth 
(see Aen, i. 445), and juatUsima to tne return of crop. from seed. •— 

* Wbat thoa^h the dome be wanting, whose proud gate 
Each morning yomitfl out the sneaking crowd/ &c. 

Thomson'» Seeuoru—Autumn. 

The allusion is to the Roman practice of cUents visiting their patron 
early in the morning. — 463. Inhiant ; that is, agricolae. Inhiare 
generally governs the dative. — 464. Bphyreia. £^hyra was an an- 
cient name for Corinth. Vessels made of Corinthian bronze were 
rare, and highly esteemed. — 465. Atayrio veneno. Assyria is often 
taken to signify Syria: here Phoenicia, aportionof it. Venenutn 
simply denotes the purple dye for which Pnoenicia was celebraied. 
— 466. Catia. This does not seem-to be the casia meDtioned in vec 


At secura quieB et nescia fallere vita, 
Dives opum variaruni ; at latis otia fundis, 
Speluncae vivique lacus ; at frigida Tempe 
Mugitusque boum moUesque sub arbore somni 470 

Non absunt; illic saltus ac lustra ferarum 
£t patiens operum exiguoque adsueta juventus, 
Sacra deum, sanctique patres ^ extrema per illos 
Justitia excedens terris vestigia fecit. 

Me vero primum dulces ante omnia Musae, 475 

Quarum sacra fero ingenti percussus amore, 
Accipiant, caelique vias et sidera monstrent, 
Defectus solis varios lunaeque labores : 
Unde tremor terris ; qua vi maria alta tumescant, 
Objicibus ruptis, nirsusque in se ipsa residant ; 480 

Quid tantum oceano properent se tinguere soles 
Hibemi, vel quae tardis mora noctibus obstet. 
Sin, has ne possim naturae accedere partis, 
Frigidus obstiterit circum praecordia sanguis ; 
Rura mihi et rigui placeant in vallibus amnes, 4S5 

Fiumina amem silvasque inglorius. 0; ubi campi 

213, Georg. iv. 30, 182, 304, which was probably spurge flaz. It is 
€Pndent that this casia was an odoriferous plant used to perfome their 
ungaents. — 467. At, For the force ofat, see Zumpt, $ 349. Fal- 
Ure. The genitive. See Ecl. v. 47. The force of/allere here is to 
disappoint with false hope. — 468. As Virgil (ver. 412) recomraends 
Bmall farms, latisfundis must here mean ttie open expanse of view 
that the country yields. — 469. Tempe. This delightful valle^, hi 
Thessaly, between Olympus and Ossa, watered by the Peneus, is 
cften used to denote any rural scene of surpassing beauty. — 47^ 
Justitia. See Ecl. iv. 6. — 475. Frimum, Vir^l wishes^rtC to be 
a poet and philosopher; next, if that be unattamable, to be blessed 
with a country life. See 483, &.c. Join dulees ante omnta. —476^ 
Sacrafero. roets are sometimes called priests of the Muses, and 
it was part of the duty of the priest, /erre aacra. Peretueua amor^^ 
' Smit with the love of sacred song.' — Milton, Par.Lottj iii. ver. 39. 
—-477. Viaa et aidera^ equivalent to vias aiderum. So verses 486, 
487, campi Spercheosque, equivalent to camipi Sperchei, and so in other 
passages, wnere the last term modifies or explains the first. Thns 
Aen. vii. 751. Fronde etfelici comtus oliva ; crowned with a leidfy 
chaplet, and that {jet) of the blessed olive — 481, 482. The short 
days of winter, when the sun seems to hurry to hift ocean bed, 
and the long days of summer, when night seems to be obstnxcted 
in her approach, are alluded to. See a similar passag^, the subject 
being a favourite one with some of the earlier (^reek poets, Aen. i. 
740, &c. — 483, &.C. Virgil prays that if the dulness of his iacultios 
(arisinff from the coldness of his blood— « hypothesis of some an- 
oient philosophers) prevented him from being a poet and a phiioso- 
pher, he might enjoy rural delights. See ver. 476. — 486, 487 
Campi Spercheosque. For this fOrm of speech, which the graJnma 

LIBER II. 89^ 

Spercheosque et yirginibus bacchata Lacaenis 

Taygeta ! o, qui me gelidis in Tallibus Haemi 

Sistat, et ingenti ramorum protegat umbra ! 

FeliX; qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas, 490 

Atque metus omnis et inexorabile fatum 

Subjecit pedibus strepitumque Acherontis avari ! 

Fortunatus et ille, deos qui novit agrestis, 

Panaque Silvanumque senem Nymphasque sororesi 

lllum non populi fasces, non purpura regum 495 

Flexit, et infidos agitans discordia fratres, 

Aut conjurato descendens Dacus ab Histro ; 

Non res Romanae perituraque regna ; neque ille 

Aut doluit miserans inopem, aut invidit habenti. 

Quos rami fructus, quos ipsa volentia rura 500 

Sponte tulere sua, carpsit j nec ferrea jura 

Insanumque forum, aut populi tabularia vidit. 

Sollicitant alii remis freta caeca; ruuntque 

In ferruni; penetrant aulas et limina regum; 

Hic petit excidiis urbem miserosque Penatis, 505 

Ut gemma bibat, et Sarrano dormiat ostro ; 

Condit opes alius, defossoque incubat auro ; 

rians call Hendiadys (?v itci SvoTv, one term by two), see ver. 477. 
The Spercheos was a river of Thessaly. — 488. Taygeta (juga). 
The Taygetus was a mountain range of Laconia, on which the L»- 
conian maids celebrated the rites of Bacchus {virginibuSj &>cU 
Haemi. A wooded mountain range of Thrace. — 489. Finely imi- 
tated by Cowper — 

* Oh for a lodge in some vast wilderness, 
Some boundless contiguity of shade.* 


— 490. Happy the philosopher, happy, too (fortunatus et iWc, ver, 
493) the peasant. — 492. Acherontis avari. The Acheron was a 
smail river of Epirus, but was supposed to communicate with tha 
infernal regions. Here the poet ailudes to it as an emblem of insa- 
tiable death, the fear of which the philosopher overcomes. — 495. 
Fasces. The ensigns of power for power itself. — 496. Fratre». 
Probably Phraates and Tiridates, near relations, who were contend- 
ing for the throne of Parthia. — 497. Dacus. The Dacians, who 
lived along the north of the Danube {Hister)^ west from the Black 
Sea, made constant inroads on the Romans ; nor were they finally 
subdued till the time of Trajan. Conjurato used actively. Zumpt, 
^633. — 499. Peasants are Ireed from beggary and wealth — they 
have a corapetency. — 503-512. Virgil describes the passions and 
vices of a city life ; 503, 504, love of military glory tempting some 
to seek fame abroad; 505, 506, luxuriousness tempting others to 
civil war ; 507, some are misers ; 508-510, others are attracted by 
the desire of distinction, as iawyers and statesmen; 510-512, and 
0ome, stained with blood, are forced to settle in foreign cUmes»«« 
506. Sarrano. Tyrian. See ver. 465. 
8# H 


Hic stupet attonitus Rostris ; honc plausus hiantem 

Per cuneos geminatus enim plebisque Patramqae 

Corripuit; gaudent perfusi sanguine fratram| 510 

Exsilioque domos et dulcia limina mutant, 

Atque alio patriam quaerunt sub sole jacentem. 

Agricola incurTO terram dimovit aratro : 

Hinc anni labor; hinc patriam parvosque nepotes 

Sustinet, hinc armenta boum meritosque javencos. 515 

Nec requies. quin aut pomis exuberet annus, 

Aut fetu pecorum. aut Cerealis mergite culmi, 

Proventnque oneret sulcos, atque horrea vincat. 

Veiiit hiems : teritur Sicyonia bacca trapetis } 

Glande sues laeti redeunt ; dant arbuta silvaei 520 

£t ^-arios ponit fetus autumnus, et alte 

Mitis in apricis coquitur vindemia saxis. 

Interea dulces pendent circum oscula nati; 

Casta pudicitiam servat domus ; ubera yaccae 

Lactea demittunt, pinguesque in gramine laeto 525 

Inter se adversis luctantur coraibus haedi. 

Ipse dies agitat festos. fususque per herbam, 

Ignis ubi in medio et socii cratera coronant^ 

Te, libans, Lenaee. vocat. pecorisque magistris 

Yelocis jaculi certamina ponit in mmo; 59C 

Corporaque agresti nudant praedura palaestrae. 

Hanc olim veteres vitam coluere Sabmi, 

Hanc Remus et frater ; sic fortis Etraria creTit 

Scilicet, et rerum facta est pulcherrima Roaia, 

Septemque una sibi muro circumdedit arces. 53ft 

Ante etiam sceptram Dictaei regis, et ante 

Impia quam caesis gens est epulata juvencis, 

Aureus hanc vitam in terris Saturnus agebat 

Necdum etiam audierant inflari classica, necdom 

509. Cuneos. Tlie wedge-formed divisions of the Roman tbet 
tres. Enim has herc tlie force of a strong afiinnative. See Am 
viii. 84. — 513. &c. How ditferent are the pixrsuits of the peannti 
— 516. Ile enjoys constant and innocent returns lo his lab«iiir ali 

*i j =in iL'.- ^r r^ :_.i- r r u. 

tion wcre tillcd. Coronant. Encircle wiih a chaplet of floweiB (M« 
Aen. iii. 525}, as was the usagc of our poet^a time. — 536. JHtlMd. 
An epithet applied lo Jupiter. from Dicte, tbe mountain in Cntei 
where hc was born. — 537. The early Romans deemed it impioBS 
to eat so useful an animal as the ox. — 538. Saturnus. Accarding tc 
the old Italian mythes, the Golden Age, full of rural innooenee ■nd 
peace. flourishedunder the paternal rule of Saturn. See Am. ▼& 
9, &c. 


Impositos duris crepitare incudibus enses. 540 

Sed nos immensum Bpatiis confecirous aequor, 
£t jamtempus equum fumantia solvere coUa. 


Ix the tliird Book of the Georgics, Virgil treats of the animala 
employed in agriculture, and which are the farmer's peculiar 
care — horses, oxen, sheep, goats, and dogs. He introduces his 
subject 1-8, by addressing Pales, the goddess of shepherds, 
Apollo, and Arcadia, and by expressing his intention to shun 
the mythic themes of ordinary poets. He is to make Mantua 
renowned for producing a poet, who, victorious in the contest 
of genius, shall celebrate in song and festal games, and with a 
votive temple, the praises of Caesar, 9-39. But he informs 
Maecenas that first he will' deal, at his request, with rural 
themes, 40-48. The breeding of horses and oxen, 49-156. 
The rearing and training of oxen, 157—178. The rearing and 
training of horses, 179—208. The effects of love on animals, 
209—283. Virgil, after some introductory remarks, gives direo- 
tions for the care of sheep in winter, 284-299. Directions 
regarding goats, which, for some purposes, be recommends as 
preferable to sheep, 300-317. Directions regarding the care 
of goats during winter, 318--321. Directions regarding the 
rammer pasturing of sheep and goats, 322-338. The Nomadic 
tribes of Libya described, 339-348. The shepherd tribes of 
oold Scythia described, 349-383. Directions to those who 
caltivate sheep for the sake of the wool, 384-393 ; for the 
sake of the milk, 394-403. The care and uses of dogs, 404- 
413. To beware ofserpents, 414-439. The causes and cure 
of disease in sheep, 440-463. The necessity of promptness 

.. urged from the danger ofinfection, 464-473. This introduces 
(474-481) a striking description of an autumnal epidemic 
among cattle in the Noric Alps and neighbourhood. Compli- 
cated nature of the disease, 482-485. Its sudden effects on 
sheep, 486-493 ; on heifers in the pastures, 494, 495 ; on dogs 
and swine, 496, 497. Commencement of the disease in horses, 
498-502. Its progress, 503-514. Suflferings of the innocent 
steers at work, 515-530. Hardships thereby imposed on the 
people, 531-536. Other animals shared the evil eflfects, 637- 
. 547. All remedies were unavailing, 648-550. Fearful havoo 
• ; sqiade by the pestilence, and its perninous eflfects on the anima] 
lyitem, 551-566. 


T£ quoque, magna Pales, et te ixreraorande, canemas, 

Pastor ab Amphryso, vos, silvae amnesque Lycaei. 

Ceterd, quae vacuas tenuissent carmine mentes, 

Omnia jam vulgata. Quis aut Eurysthea durum, 

Aut illaudati nescit Busiridis aras? 5 

Cui non dictus Hylas puer, et Latonia Delos, 

Hippodameque, humeroque Pelops insignis eburno, 

Acer equis ? Tentanda via est^ qua me quoque possim 

Tollere humo, victorque virum volitare per ora. 

Primus ego in patriam mecum, modo vita supersit, 10 

Aonio rediens deducam vertice Musas ; 

Primus Idumaeas referam tibi, Mantua, palmas; 

£t viridi in campo templum de marmore ponam 

Propter aquam, tardis ingens ubi flexibus errat 

Mincius, et tenera praetexit arundine ripas. 15 

In medio mihi Caesar erit, templumque tenebit. 

Illi victor ego et Tyrio conspectus in ostro 

Centum quadrijugos agitabo ad flumina currus. 

Cuncta mihi, Alpheum linquens lucosque Molorchi, 

Cursibus et crudo decernet Graecia caestu; 20 

Ipse, caput tonsae foliis ornatus olivae, 

Dona feram. Jam nunc sollemnis ducere pompas 

Ad delubra juvat, caesosque videre juvencos ; 

Yel scaena ut versis discedat frontibus, utque 

Purpurea intexti tollant aulaea Britanni. 25 

In foribus pugnam ex auro solidoque elephanto 

Gangaridum faciam, victorisque arma Quirini ; 

Atque hic undantem bello magnumque fluentem 

Nilum, ac navali surgentes aere columnas. 

Addam urbes Asiae domitas, pulsumque Niphaten, 30 

Fidentemque fuga Parthum versisque sagittis, 

£t duo rapta manu diverso ex hoste tropaea, 

Bisque triumphatas utroque ab litore gentis. 

Stabunt et Parii lapides, spirantia signa, 

Assaraci proles, demissaeque ab Jove gentis 35 

Nomina^ Trosque parens et Trojae Cynthius auctor. 

Invidia infeiix Furias amnemque severum 

Cocyti metuet; tortosque Ixionis anguis 

Inimanemque rotam, et non exsuperabile saxum. 

1-8. Virsil introduces his subject — horses, oxen, sheep, ffoats, 
mnd dogs--Dy addressing Fales, the goddess of shepherds, Apollo 
{Pastor ah Amphri/so), and Arcadia, and by expressing his intention 
to shun the mythic themes of ordinary poets. — 9-39. He is to make 
Mantua renowned for producing a poet, who, victorious in the oon 
test of genius, shall celebrate in song, and with festal games, and • 
votive temple, the praises of Caesar. 


Interea Dryadum silvas saltusque sequamur 40 

Intaotos, tua, Maeoenas, haud mollia jussa. 
Te sine nil altum mens inchoat. £n age, segnis 
Rumpe moras ; vocat ingenti clamore Cithaeron, 
Taygetique canes, domitrixque Epidaurus equorum, 
£t vox assensu nemorum ingeminata remugit. 45 

Mox tamen ardentis accingar dicere pugnas 
Caesaris, et nomen fama tot ferre per annos, 
Tithoni prima quot abest ab origine Caesar. 

Seu quis, Olympiacae miratus praemia palmae, 
Pascit equos, seu quis fortis ad aratra juvencoSf 50 

Corpora praecipue matrum legat. Optima torvae 
Forma bovis, cui turpe caput, cui plurima cervix, 
£t crurum tenus a mento palearia pendent; 
Tum longo nullus lateri modus j omnia magna, 
Pes etiam, et camuris hirtae sub cornibus aures. 55 

Nec mihi displiceat maculis insignis et albo ; 
Aut juga detractans, interdumque aspera comu, 
£t faciem tauro propior, quaeque ardua tota, 
£t gradiens ima verrit vestigia cauda. 
Aetas Lucinam justosque pati hymenaeos 60 

Desinit ante decem, post quatuor incipit annos } 
Cetera nec feturae habilis, nec fortis aratris. 
Interea, superat gregibus dum laeta juventas, 
Solve mares ; mitte in Venerem pecuaria primuS| 
Atque aliam ex alia generando sufRce prolem. 65 

Optima quaeque dies miseris mortalibus aevi 
Prima fugit; subeunt morbi trislisque senectus; 
£t labor et durae rapit incleraentia mortis. 
Semper erunt, quarum mutari corpora malis: 
Semper enim refice ; ac, ne post amissa requiras, 70 

Anteveni, et subolem armento sortire quotannis. 

Nec non et pecori est idem delectus equino. 
Tu modo, quos in spem statues submittere gentis, 
Praecipuum jam inde a teneris impende laborem. 
Continuo pecoris generosi pullus in arvis 75 

Altius ingreditur, et mollia crura reponit 
Primus et ire viam, et iiuvios tentare minaces 
Audet, et ignoto sese committere ponti ] 
Nec vanos horret strepitus. Illi ardua cervix, 
Argutumque caput, brevis alvus, obesaque terga ; 80 
Luxuriatque toris animosum pectus. Honesti 

40-48. But iirst, he informs Maecenas that he will deal, at his re> 
qaest, with rural themes. — 49-156. The breeding of oxen {ui& 


Spadices glaucique ; color deterrimus albis 
£t gilvo. Tum, si qua sonum procul arma dederei 
Stare loco nescit, micat auribus, et tremit artus, 
Collectumque fremens volvit sub naribus ignem. 85 

Densa iuba, et dextro jactata recumbit in armo ; 
At duplex agitur per lumbos spina ; cavatque 
Tellurem, et solido graviter sonat ungula comu. 
Talis Amyclaei domitus PoIIucis habenis 
Cyllarus, et, quorum Graii meminere poelae, 90 

Martis equi bijuges, et magni currus Achilli : 
Talis et ipse jubam cervice effudit equina 
Conjugis adventu pemix Saturnus, et altum 
Pelion hinnitu fugiens implevit acuto. 
. Hunc quoque, ubi aut morbo gravis, aut jam Begniof 
annis 95 

Deficit, abde domo ; nec turpi ignosce senectae. 
Frigidus in Yenerem senior, frustraque laborem 
Ingratum trahit ; et, si quando ad proelia ventum est, 
Ut quondam in stipulis magnus sine viribus ignis, 
Incassum furit. Ergo animos aevumque notabis 100 
Praecipue ; hinc alias artis, prolemque parentum, 
£t quis cuique dolor victo, quae gloria palmae. 
Nonne vides^ cum praecipiti certamine campum 
Corripuere, ruuntque effusi carcere currus ; 
Cum spes arrectae juvenum, exsultantiaqne haurit 105 
Corda pavor pulsans : illi instant verbere torto, 
£t proni dant lora ; volat vi fervidus axis ; 
Jamque humiles, jamque elati sublime videntur 
Aera per vacuum ferri atque adsurgere in auras; 
Nec mora, nec requies; at fulvae nimbus arenae 110 
ToIIitur, humescunt spumis fiatuque sequentum : 
Tantus amor laudum, tantae est victoria curae. 
Primus £richthonius currus et quatuor ausus 
Jungere equos, rapidusque rotis insisiere victor. 
Frena Pelethronii Lapithae gyrosque dedere, 115 

Impositi dorso, atque equitem dpcuere sub armis 
Insultare solo et gressus glomerare superbos. 
Aequus uterque labor; aeque juvenemque magistri 
£xquirunt caiidumque animis et cursibns acrem ; 
Quamvis saepe fuga versos ille egerit hostis, 120 

£t patriam £pirum referat fortisque Mycenas, 
Neptunique ipsa deducat origine gentem. 

His animadversis instant sub tempus, et omnis 
Impendunt curas denso distendere pinguij 
Quem legere ducem et pecori dixere mantum ; 
Florentisque se^ant herbas, fluviosque ministrant 


Farraque, ne blando nequeat superesse labori, 

Invalidique patrum referant jejunia nati. 

Ipsa autem macie tenuant armenta volentes, 

Atque, ubi concubitus primos jam nota voluptas 130 

Sollicitat, frondesque negant, et fontibus arcent; 

Saepe etiam cursu quatiunt, et sole fatigant, 

Cum graviter tunsis gemit area frugibus, et cum 

Surgentem ad Zephyrum paleae jactantur inanes. 

Hoc faciunt, nimio ne luxu obiunsior usus 135 

Sit genitali arvo, et sulcos oblimet inertis; 

Sed rapiat sitiens Venerem interiusque recondat. 

Rursus cura patrum cadere, et succedere matrum 
Incipit. Exactis gravidae cum mensibus errant, 
Non ilJas gravibus quisquam juga ducere plaustris, 140 
Non saltu superare viam sit passus, et acri 
Carpere prata fuga, fluviosque innare rapaces. 
Saltibus in vacuis pascunt et plena secundum 
Flumina j muscus ubi et viridissima gramine ripa, 
Speluncaeque tegant, et saxea procubet umbra. 145 

£st lucos Silari circa ilicibusque virentem 
Plurimus Alburnum volitans — cui nomen asilo 
Romanum est, oestrum Graii vertere vocantes — . 
Asper, acerba sonans; quo tota exterrita silvis 
Dinugiunt armenta : furit mugitibus aether 150 

Concussus silvaeque et sicci ripa Tanagri. 
Hoc quondam monstro horribiles exercuit iras 
Inachiae Juno pestem meditata juvencae. 
Hunc quoque — nam mediis fervoribus acrior instat — 
Arcebis gravido pecori, armentaque pasces 155 

Sole recens orto, aut noctem ducentious astris. 

Post partum cura in vitulos traducitur omnis; 
Continuoque notas et nomina gentis inurunt, 
£t, quos aut pecori raalint submittere habendo, 
Aut aris servare sacros, aut scindere terram, 160 

£t campum horrentem fractis invertere glebis. 
Cetera pascuntur viridis armenta per herbas. 
Tu quos ad studium atque usum formabis agrestem, 
Jam vitulos hortare, viamque insiste domandi, 
Dum faciles animi juvenum, dum mobilis aetas. 165 
Ac primum laxos tenui de vimiue circlos 
Cervici subnecte ; dehinc, ubi libera colla 
Servitio adsuerint, ipsis e torquibus aptos 
Junge pares, et coge gradum conferre juvencos : 
Atque iliis jam saepe rotae ducantur inanes 170 

1^57-178. The rearing ond training of oxen. 


Per terram, et summo vestigia pulvere signent; 
Post valido nitens sub pomfere lag^inus axis 
Instrepat. et junctos temo trahat aerens orbi& 
Interea pubi indomitae non gramina tantam, 
Nec vescas salicum frondes ulvamqne palustreiiiy 17S 
Sed frumenta manu carpes sata. Nec tibi fetae, 
More patrum. nivea impiebnnt mulctraria vaccae, 
Sed tota in dulcis consument ubera natos. 

Sin ad belia magis stndium turmasque ferocis. 
Aut Alphea rotis praelabi flumina Pisae, 180 

£t Jovis in luco currus agitare volantis: 
Primus equi labor est animos atque arma Tidere 
Bellantum, lituosque pati, tractuque gementem 
Ferre rotam, et stabulo frenos audire sonantis; 
Tum magis atque magis blandis gaudere magistrf 185 
Laudibu.s, et plau?ae sonitum cervicis amare. 
Atque haec jam primo depulsus ab ubere matris 
Audeat. itique vicem det mollibus ora capistris 
Invaiidus. eiiamque tremens. etiam inscins aerL 
At tribus exactis ubi quarta accesserit aestas, 190 

Carpere mox gyrum incipiat gradibusque sonara 
Compositis. sinuetque alterna volumina cruruiii, 
Sitque laboranti similis; tum cursibus auras, 
Tum vocet, ac per aperta voIanS; cen liber faiabenia. 
Aequora, vix summa vestigia ponat arena: 195 

Qualis Hyperboreis Aquilo cum densus ab oris 
Incubuit. Scythiaeque hiemes atqne arida differt 
Nubila : tum segetes altae campique natantes 
Lenibus horrescunt flabris; summaeque sonorem 
Dant silvae. longique urguent ad litora fiuctns; 200 

nie volat, simul arva fuga. simul aequora veiTeiiB 
Hic vel ad £Iei metas et maxima campi 
Sudabit spatia. et spumas aget ore cruentas; 
Belgica vel molli melius feret esseda collo. 
Tum demum crassa magnum farragine corpus 20i5 

Crescere. jam domitis. sinito ; namque ante domaiidiuii 
Ingentis tollent animos, prensique negabunt 
Verbera lenta pati, et duris parere lupatis. 

Sed non ulla magis vires industria firmat, 
Qiiam Venerem et caeci stimulos avertere amoria, 210 
Sive boum sive est cui gratier usus equorum. 
Atque ideo tauros procul atque in sola relegant 
Pascua, po5t montem oppositum et trans flnmiiia lata 

Ty9-208. The rcaring and training of horses.— 
:ts of love on animals. 


Aut intus clausos satura ad praesepia senrant. 

Carpit enim vires paullatim uritque videndo 215 

Femina ; nec nemorum patitur meminisse, nec herbae. 

Dulcibus illa quidem illecebris et saepe superbos 

Cornibus inter se subigit decernere amantis. 

— Pascitur in magna Sila formosa juvenca — 

Illi alternantes multa vi proelia miscent 220 

Vulneribus crebris j lavit ater corpora sanguis, 

Versaque in obnixos urguentur cornua vasto 

Com gemitu ; reboant silvaeque et longus Olympus. 

Nec mos bellantis una stabulare ; sed alter 

Victus abit, longeque ignotis exsulat oris, 225 

Multa gemens ignominiam plagasque superbi 

Victoris, tum, quos amisit inultus, amores, 

£t stabula adspectans regnis excessit avitis. 

Ergo omni cura vires exercet, et inter 

Dura jacet pernox instrato saxa cubili, 230 

Frondibus hirsutis et carice pastus acuta. 

£t tentat sese, atque irasci in cornua discit 

Arboris obnixus trunco, ventosque lacessit 

IctJbus, et sparsa ad pugnam proludit arena. 

Post, ubi collectum robur viresque refectae, 235 

Signa movet, praecepsque oblitum fertur in hostem ', 

Fluctus uti medio coepit cum albescere ponto, 

Longius ex altoque sinum trahit ; utque volutus 

Ad terras immane sonat per saxa, neque ipso 

Monte minor procumbit : at ima exaestuat unda 240 

Verticibus, nigramque alte subjectat arenam. 

Omne adeo genus in terris hominumque ferarumque, 
£t genus aequoreum, pecudes, pictaeque volucres, 
In furias ignemque ruunt : amor omnibus idem. 
Tempore non alio catulorum oblita leaena 245 

Saevior erravit campis, nec funera vulgo 
Tam multa informes ursi stragemque dedere 
Per silvas ; tum saevus aper, tum pessima tigris. 
Heu, male tum Libyae solis erratur in agris. 
Nonne vides, ut tota tremor pertentet equorum 250 

Corpora, si tantum notas odor attulit auras? 
Ac neque eos jam frena virum, neque verbera saeva, 
Non scopuli rupesque cavae atque objecta retardant 
Flumina, correptos unda torquentia montis. 
Ipse ruit dentesque Sabellicus exacuit sus, 255 

£t pede prosubigit terram, fricat arbore costas, 
Atque hinc atque illinc humeros ad vulnera durat. 
Quid juvenis, magnum cui versat in ossibus ignem 



Daras amor? Nempe abruptis turbata prooelliB 
Nocte natat caeca serus freta ; quem super ingeuB 260 
Porta tonat coelij et scopulis illisa reclamant 
Aequora; nec miseri possunt revocare parentes, 
Nec moritura super crudeli funere virgo. 
Quid iynces Bacchi variae, et genus acre luporum 
Atque canum ? quid, quae imbelles dant proelia cervi l 265 
Scilicet ante omnis furor est insignis equarum ] 
£t mentem Venus ipsa dedit, quo tempore Glauci 
Potniades malis membra absumpsere quadrigae. 
Illas ducit amor trans Gargara trans(jue sonantem 
Ascanium : superant montis et flumina tranant. 270 

Continuoque avidis ubi subdita fiamma medullis, — 
Vere magis, quia vere calor redit ossibus — illae 
Ore omnes versae in Zephyrum stant rupibus altis, 
Exceptanque levis auras^ et saepe sine ullis 
Conjugiis, vento gravidae — mirabile dictu — 275 

Saxa per et scopulos et depressas convallis 
DiiTugiunt, — non, Eure, tuos, neque Solis ad ortus, — 
In Borean Caurumque, aut unde nigerrimus Auster 
Nascitur, et pluvio contristat frigore coelum. 
Hic demum, hippomanes vero quod nomine dicunt 280 
Pastores, lentum destillat ab inguine virus; 
Hippomanes, quod saepe malae legere novercae, 
MiBcueruntque herbas et non innoxia verba. 

Sed fugit mterea, fugit irreparabile tempus, 
Singula dum capti circumvectamur amore. 285 

Hoc satis armentis. Superat pars altera curae, 
Lanigeros agitare greges hirtasque capellas. 
Hic labor ; hinc laudem fortes sperate coloni. 
Nec sum animi dubius, verbis ea vincere magnum 
Quam sit, et angustis hunc addere rebus honorem ', 290 
Sed me Parnassi deserta per ardua dulcis 
Raptat amor; iuvat ire jugis, qua nulla priorum 
Castaliam molli devertitur orbita clivo. 
Nunc, veneranda Pales, magno nunc ore sonandum. 

Incipiens, stabulis edico in mollibus herbam 295 

Carpere ovis, dum mox frondosa reducitur aestas; 
£t multa duram stipula filicumque mAniplis 
Sternere subter humum; glacies ne frigida laedat 
Molle pecus^ scabiemque ferat turpisque podagra£(. 
Post, hinc digressus, jubeo frondentia capris 300 

284-299. Virgil, after some introductory remarks, gives directions 
for the care of sheep in winter. — ^300-317. Directions regarding goats, 
frhich, for sorae purposes, he recommends as preferaole to aiieep. 


Arbota sufficere et fluvios praebere recentis, 

£t stabula a ventis hiberno opponere soli 

Ad medium conversa diem, cum frigidus olim 

Jam cadit extremoque irrorat Aquarius anno. 

Hae quoque non cura nobis leviore tuendae, 305 

Nec minor usns erit, (juamvis Milesia magno 

Vellera mutentur Tyrios incocta rubores : 

Densior hinc soboles, hinc largi copia lactis. 

Quam magis exhausto spumaverit ubere mulctra, 

Laeta magis pressis manabunt flumina mammis. 310 

Nec minus interea barbas incanaque menta 

Cinyphii tonde|it hirci, setasi^ue comantis 

Usum in castrorum et miseris velamina nautis. 

Pascuntur vero siivas et summa Lycaei, 

Horrentisque rubos et amantis ardua dumos ] 315 

Atque ipsae memores redeunt in tecta, suosque 

Dncunt, et gravido superant vix ubere limen. 

Ergo omni studio glaciem ventosque nivalis, 

Quo minor est illis cuiae mortalis egestas, 

Avertes, victumque feres et virgea laetus 320 

Pabula, nec tota claudes foenilia bruma. 

At vero; Zephyris cum laeta vocantibus aestas 
In saltus utrumque gregem atcjue in pascua mittet, 
Luciferi primo cum sidere frigida rura 
Carpamus, dum mane novum, dum gramina canent, 325 
£t ros in tenera pecori gratissimus herba. 
Inde, ubi quarta sitim coeli collegerit hora 
£t cantu querulae rumpent arbusta cicadae, 
Ad puteos aut alta greges ad stagna jubeto 
Currentem ilignis potare canalibus undam ; 330 

Aestibus at mediis umbrosam exquirere vallem, 
Sicubi magna Jovis antiquo robore quercus 
Ingentis tendat ramos, aut sicubi nigrum 
Ilicibus crebris sacra nemus accubet umbra ; 
Tum tenuis dare rursus aquas, et pascere rursus 335 
Solis ad occasum, cum frigidus aera vesper 
Temperat^ et saltus reficit jam roscida luna, 
Litoraque alcyonen resonant, acalanthida dumi. 

Quid tibi pastores Libyae, quid pascua versu 
Prosequar, et raris habitata mapalia tectis 1 340 

Saepe diem noctemque et totum ex ordine mCinsem 
Pascitur itque pecus longa in deserta sine ullis 

318-321. Directions for the care of goats in winter. — 322-338. 
irections regarding the summer nasturing of sheep and goats. — • 
19-348. The Nomadic tribes ^*^ •* described. 


Hospitiis : tantum campi jacet. Omoia secani 
Armentarius Afer agit, tectumque Laremqae 
Armaque Am}'claeumque canem Cressamqae phare- 
tram : ' S45 

Non secus ac patriis acer Komanus ia armis 
Injusto sub fasce viam cum carpit, et hosti 
Ante exspectatum positis stat in agmine castris. 
At non. qua Scytniae gentes Maeotiaque mida, 
Turbidus et torquens flaventis Hister arenas^ 351 

Quaque redit medium Rhodope porrecta snb axem. 
lilic clausa tener.t stabulis armenta, nec nllae 
Aut lierbae campo apparent, aut arbore froades: 
Sed jacet azgeribus niveis informts et alto 
Terra gelu late. septemque adsurpt in ulnas ; 355 

Semper hiems, semper spirantes frigora Cauri. 
Tum Sol pallentis haud umquam discutit umbias: 
Nec cum invectus equis ahum petit aethera, nec com 
Praecipilem Ocear.i rubro lavit aequore currom. 
Concrescunt subitae currenti in flumine crostae, 360 
Undaque jam tergo ferratos sustinet orbis, 
Puppibus ilia prius. patuhs nunc hospita plaastris: 
Aeraque dissiliunt vulgo, vestesque rigescont 
Indutae. caeduntque securibus humida riaa, 
£t totae Eolidam in glaciem vertere lacanae ; 365 

Stiriaque impexis induruit horrida barbis. 
Interea toto non secius aere ninsuit : 
Intereunt pecudes, stant circumfusa pruinis 
Corpora magna boum, confertoque agmine cervi 
Torpent mole nova, et summis vix cornibus exstant. S70 
Hos non immissis canibus. non cassibus ullis 
Punicaeve agitant pavidos formidine pinnae; 
Sed frustra oppositum trudentes pectore montem 
Comminus obtruncant ferro, graviterque nidentes 
Caedunt, et magno laeti clamore reportant. 375 

Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta 
Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora totasqae 
Advolvere focis ulmos, ignique dedere. 
Hic noctem ludo ducunt. et pocula laeti 
Fermento atque acidis imitantur vitea sorbis. 380 

Talis Hj^perboreo Septem subjecta trioni 
Gen*^ effrena virum Rhipaeo tunditur Euro, 
Et p^cudum fulvis velatur corpora selis. 

-S'. tibi lanitium curae, primum, aspera siJva 

» . 

349-353. The sbepherd tribes of cold Scythia dcscribcd. — 384 
393. Directions to those who cuUivate sheep for the sake ot the 


Lappaeque tribolique absint ; fuge pabula laeta ; 385 

Continuoque greges villis lege mollibus albos. 

Illum autem, quamyis aries sit candidus ipse, 

Nigra subest udo tantum cui lingua palato, 

Rejice, ne maculis infuscet vellera pullis 

Nascentum, plenoque alium circumspice campo. 390 

Munere sic niveo lanae, si credere dignum est, 

Pan, deus Arcadiae, captam te, Luna, fefellit, 

In nemora alta vocans ; nec tu aspernata vocantem. 

At cui lactis amor, cytisum lotosque frequentis 
Ipse manu salsasque ferat praesepibus herbas. 395 

Hinc et amant fluvios magis, et magis ubera tendunt| 
£t salis occultum referunt in lacte saporem. 
Multi jam excretos prohibent a matribus haedos, 
Primaque ferratis praefigunt ora capistris. 
Quod surgente die mulsere horisc^ue diurnis, 400 

Nocte premunt ; quod jam tenebris et sole cadente^ 
Sub lucem exportans calathis adit oppida pastor; 
Aut parco sale contingunt hiemique reponunt. 

Nec tibi cura canum fuerit postrema, sed una 
Yelocis Spartae catulos acremque Molossum 405 

Pasce sero pingui. Numquam, custodibus illis, 
Nocturnum stabulis furem incursusque luporum, 
Aut impacatos a tergo horrebis Hiberos. 
Saepe etiam cursu timidos agitabis onagros, 
Et canibus leporem, canibus venabere damas ; 410 

Saepe volutabris pulsos silvestribus apros 
Latratu turbabis agens, montisque per altos 
Ingentem clamore premes ad retia cervum. 

Disce et odoratam stabulis accendere cedrum, 
Galbaneoque agitare gravis nidore chelydros. 415 

Saepe sub immotis praesepibus aut mala tactu 
Vipera delituit caelumque exterriia fugit ; 
Aut tecto adsuetus coluber succedere et umbraO; 
Pestis acerba boum, pecorique adspergere virus, 
Fovit humum. Cape saxa manU; cape robora, pastor^ 420 
Tollentemque minas et sibila colla tumentem 
Dejice. Jamque fuga timidum caput abdidit alte, 
Cum medii nexus extremaeque agmina caudae 
Solvuntur, tardosque trahit sinus ultimus orbis. 
£st etiam ille malus Calabris in saltibus anguis, 425 

Squamea convolvens sublato pectore terga, 

394-403. Directions to those who cultivate sheep for the sake of 
Im milk.— -404-413. The care and uses of dogs.— 414-439. To 
eware of serpents. 


At(}ue notis longam maculosu? grandibus alyum, 
Qui, dum amDGs ulli rumpuntur fontibus, et dain 
Vere madent udo terrae ac pluvialibus austris, 
Stagna colit, ripisque habitans hic piscibus atram 430 
Improbus ingluTiem ranisque loquacibus explet; 
Postquam exusta palus, terraeque ardore deaiscaDti 
Exsiljt in siccum, et flammantia lumina torquens 
Saevit agris, asperque siti atque exterritus aesta. 
Nec mihi tum mollis sub divo carpere somnoB, 485 

Neu dorso nemoris Jibeat jacuisse per herbas, 
Cym positis novus exuviis nitidusque juventa 
Volvitur, aut catulos tectis aut ova relinqueDS, 
Arduus ad solem; et iinguis micat ore trisulcis. 

Morborum quoque te causas et signa docebo. 440 

Turpis ovis tentat scabies, ubi frigidus imber 
Altius ad vivum persedit et horrida cano 
Bruma gelu, vel cum tonsis illotus adhaesit 
Sudor, et hirsuti secuerunt corpora vepres. 
Dulcibus idcirco fluviis pecus omne magistri 445 

Perfundunt, udisque aries in gurgite villis 
JMersatur, missusque secundo defluit amni , 
Aut tonsum tristi continguunt corpus amurca, 
£t spumas miscent argenti et sulmra viva 
Idaeasque pices et pinguis unguine ceras 45C 

Scillamque helleborosque gravis nigmmque bitnmen. 
Non tamen ulla magis praesens fortuna laboram est, 
Quam si quis ferro potuit rescindere summum 
Ulceris os : alitur vitium vivitque tegendo, 
Bum medicas adhibere manus ad vulnera postor 455 
Abnegat, aut meliora deos sedet omina poscens. 
Quin etiam, ima dolor balantum lapsus ad ossa 
Cum furit, atque artus depascitur arida febris, 
Profuit incensos aestus avertere, et inter 
Ima ferire pedis salientem sanguine venam; 460 

Bisaltae quo more solent acerque Grelonus, 
Cum fugit in Rhodopen atque in deserta Gretarum, 
£t lac concretum cum sanguine potat equino. 
Quam procul aut molli succedere saepius umbrae 
Videris, aut summas carpentem ignavius herbas, 465 
£xtremamque sequi, aut medio procumbere campo 
Pascentem. et serae solam decedere nocti } 
Continuo culpam ferro compesce, priusquam 
Dira per incautum serpant contagia vulgus. 

163. The caiises and cure of disease in sheep.— 464-^79 
mticesBity o( promptness urged from thc danger of ' ~ 


Non tam creber agens hiemem ruit aequore turbo, 470 
Quam multae pecudum pestes. Nec singula morbi 
Corpora corripiunt, sed tota aestiva repente, 
Spemque gregemque simul, cunctamque ab origine 

Tum sciat, aerias Alpis et Norica si quis 
Castella in turaulis et lapydis arva Timavi 475 

Nunc quoque post tanto videat, desertaque regna 
Pastorum, et longe saltus lateque vacantis. 

Hic quondam morbo coeli miseranda coorta est 
Tempestas totoque autumni incanduit aestu, 
£t genus omne neci pecudum dedit, omne ferarum, 480 
Corrupitque lacus, infecit pabula tabo. 
Nec via mortis erat simplex; sed ubi ignea venis 
Omnibus acta sitis miseros adduxerat artus, 
Rursus abundabat fluidus liquor omniaque in se 
Ossa minutatim morbo collapsa trahebat. 485 

Saepe in honore deum medio stans hostia ad aram, 
Lanea dum nivea circumdatur infula vitta, 
Inter cunctantis cecidit moribunda ministros. 
Aut si quam ferro mactaverat ante sacerdos, 
Inde neque impositis ardent altaria fibris, 490 

Nec responsa potest consultus reddere vates, 
Ac vix suppositi tinguuntur sauguine cultri, 
Summaque jejuna sanie infuscatur arena. 
Hinc laetis vituli vulgo moriuntur in herbis, 
£t dulcis animas plena ad praesepia reddunt ; 495 

Hinc canibus blandis rabies venit, et quatit aegros 
Tussis anhela sues ac faucibus angit obesis. 
Labitur infelix studiorum atque immemor herbae 
Victor equus, fontesque avertitur et pede terram 
Crebra ferit ; demissae aures ; incertus ibidem 500 

Sudor, et ille quidem morituris, frigidus; aret 
Pellis et ad tactum tractanti dura resistit. 
Haec ante exitium primis dant signa diebus; 
Sin in processu coepit crudescere morbus, 
Tum vero ardentes oculi atque attractus ab alto 605 

Spiritus, interdum gemitu gravis, imaque longo 
Ilia singultu tendunt, it naribus ater 

474-481. Introduction to a striking description of an autumnal 
pidemic among cattle in the Noric AIps and its neighbourhood. — 
82-485. Complicated nature of the disease. — 486-493. Its sudden 
ffects on sheep. — 494, 495. Its sudden efiects on heifers in the 
astures. — 496,497. On dogs and swine. — 498-502. Commence- 
lent of the disease in horses. — 503-514. Progress of the di» 


Sanguis, et obsessas fauces premit aspera lingiia. 
Profuit inserto latices infunaere comu 
Lenaeos; ea Tisa salus morientibus una. 510 

Mox erat hoc ipsum exitio, furiisque refecti 
Ardebant, ipsique suos jam raorte sub aegra — 
Di meliora piis, erroremque hostibus illum ! — 
Discissos nudis laniabant dentibus artus. 
Ecce autem duro fumans sub vomere taurus 515 

Concidit et raixtum spumis vomit ore cruorem 
Extremosque ciet gemitus. It tristis arator, 
Moerentem abjungens fraterna morte juyencnm, 
Atque opere in medio defixa relinquit aratra. 
Non umbrae altorum nemorum, non mollia possunt 520 
Prata movere animum, non, qui per saxa Yolutus 
Purior electro campum petit amnis; at ima 
Solvuntur latera, atque oculos stupor urguet inertisy 
Ad terramque fluit devexo pondere cervix. 
Quid labor aut benefacta juvant? quid vomere terras 525 
Invertisse gravis ? Atqui non Massica Bacchi 
Munera, non illis epulae nocuere repostae : 
Frondibus et victu pascuntur simplicis herbae, 
Pocula sunt fontes fiquidi atque exercita cursu 
Flumina, nec somnos abrumpit cura salubris. 530 

Tempore non alio dicunt regionibus iliis 
Quaesitas ad sacra boves Junonis, et uris 
Imparibus ductos alta ad donaria currus. 
Ergo aegre rastris terram rimantur, et ipsis 
Unguibus infodiunt fruges, montisque per altos 535 

Contenta cervice trahunt stridentia plaustra. 
Non lupus insidias explorat ovilia circum^ 
Nec gregibus nocturnus obambulat ; acrior illam 
Cura domat. Timidi damae cervique fugaces 
Nunc interque canes et circum tecta vagantur. 540 

Jam maris immensi prolem et genus orane natantum 
Litore in extremo, ceu naufraga corpora, fluctos 
Proluit ; insolitae fugiunt in flumina phocae. 
Interit et curvis frustra defensa latebris 
Vipera, et attoniti squamis adstantibus hydri. 54i 

Ipsis est aer avibus non aequus, et illae 
Praecipites alta vitam sub nube relinquunt. 
Praeterea jam nec mutari pabula refert, 

615-530. Sufferings of the innocent steers at work. — 531-536. 
Hardships imposed on the people. — 537-547. Other animali «x- 
perienced the evil efTects ot the diseasc. — 548-550. AU remodiM 
were unavaiiing. 

LIBER lY. 105 

Quaesitaeque nocent artes ; cfBsere magistri, 

Phillyrides Chiron Amythaoniusque Melampus. 550 

Saevit, et in lucem Stygiis emissa tenebris, 

Pallida Tisiphone Morbos agit ante Metumque, 

Inque dies avidum surgens caput altius efifert. 

Balatu pecorum et crebris mugitibus amnes 

Arentesque sonant ripae collesque supini. 555 

Jamque catervatim dat stragem atque aggerat ipsis 

In stabulis turpi dilapsa cadavera tabo, 

Donec humo tegere ac foveis abscondere discunt. 

Nam neqne erat coriis usus, nec viscera qnisquam 

Aut undis abolere potest, aut vincere flainma j 560 

Ne tondere quidem morbo inluvieque peresa 

Vellera, nec telas possunt attingere putris. 

Yerum etiam invisos si quis tentarat amictus, 

Ardentes papulae atque immundus olentia sudor 

Membra sequebatur, nec longo deinde moranti 565 

Tempore contactos artus sacer ignis edebat. 

551-566. Fearful havoc made by the pestilence, and its pehiicioas 
effects on the animal system. 


The care of bees fbrms the subject of the ibarth Bcok of HiB 
Georgics, which begins with an address to Maeceiut^ »ta.*;3^ 
the argument, 1-7. The choice of a plare fit for b<tef (^^^if^ 
and what should be done to render it adraiitairwo* {'^*^'/c. 
are then discussed. Directions ar? giren af lo :te ciT«. 'Vi— 
46. Certain things to be avoide/L 47— 50. Hoir v* \-jijt:»: 
tliem to settle wben they issiie fbrt!j ic earJy *;./>,?, t^^^A, 
What to do when they figbt nnder riral k;e.g;t. CT— W \^ 
scription of the best kiod of be«f, 95-102, HoTr v, jbt»»^ rii«a 
at home when in an onsettled state. lOS-lli. A ^jTjfi'. *►_.%-' 
sion to flower-gardens, llft~124. A de«rti;.'>/'. c^ \rxmrjt, 
otherwise useless, profitable as a garien. l^^K^. T>t: fJib^ 
ture of bees described generally, 14^357. T^'.: *3**wr^*rt* 
and varied emplojrments, 15S— 178. Tbe v*>fic '.^ 'ijtt *4f;*t<. 
178, 179. The work of the joaut^ I%0-:^% Tt^^ .-.-iv- '*^ 
pose, 189, 190. Their employment Tr&eii rtJ': ti/**.vrvt W." 
196. Their mode of prodocin^ ycnc^ 5*w*, I?T— iT/f 7 vfe# 
devotiou to their king, 210-21^. XuSfstf^tM^ v/ v.fVkim 
philosophers from tbe nsLtare c€ he^ 21 a-^^. Hvtr r. ye^ 
Med when their boney is detifed, 2^2^^;;^. i^fftfisis.vuMm 


against yermin during M-jmer recommended. 239-250. Dis 
eases of bees. and ibeir ren:eil:e*, 251— CSO. If ihe swarm of 
bees bas died out, a rr.etLov': cf replacing ;hem. from the putri- 
fied carcase of a heilVr. nieriticnei as unlrersai in £s7pt, and 
first praciised by Ari^:ae:is. CS1-C94. This meihod described, 
295-314. Tbe oripn of ii detailed, 3l5-i-5S. General con- 
clusion to the Georgics, 55'?— !!"5C. 

Protents atTii mellis caelestia dona 

Kxsequar. Hanc etiam, ^laecenas. aspice partem. 

Admiranda tibi levium spectacula rerum, 

Magnanimosque duces, totiusque ordine geotis 

Mores, et studia, et populos, et proelia dicam. 6 

In tenui labor ; at tenuis non gloria. si quem 

Numina laeva sinunt auditque vocatas Apollo. 

Principio sedes apibus statioque petenda, 
Quo neque sit ventis aditus — nam pabula yenti 
Ferre domum prohibent — neque oves haediqoe petolci 10 
Fioribus insultent, aut errans bucula campo 
Decutiat rorem. et surgentis atterat herbas. 
Absint et picti squalenlia terga lacerti 
Pinguibus a stabulis, meropesque, aliaeque volucres, 
£t manibus Procne pectus signata craentis; 15 

Omnia nam late vastant. ipsasqoe volaotis 
Ore ferunt dulcem nidis inmitious escam. 
At liquidi fontes et stagna virentia mosoo 
Adsint. et tenuis fugiens per gramina rivus, 
Palmaque ve&tibulum aut ingens oleaster inumbret, iO 
Ut, cum prima novi ducent examina reges 
Yere suo, ludetque favis emissa juventus, 
Vicina invitet decedere ripa calori, 
Obviaque hospitiis teneat frondentibus arbos. 
In medium, seu stabit iners, seu profluet himior, 25 

Transversas salices et grandia conjice sajra, 
Pontibns ut crebris possint consistere, et alas 
Pandere ad aestivum solem, si forte morantis 
Sparserit aut praeceps Neptuno immerserit Eurus. 
Haec circum casiae virides et olentia late 30 

Serpylla et graviter spirantis copia thymbrae 
Floreat, irriguumque bibant violaria lontem. 

Ipsa autem, seu corticibus tibi suta cavatis, 

1-7. The care of bees forms the subject of ihis book, which be 
gins with an address to Maecenas, statmg the argument. — 8-24« A 
place suitabie for bees should be chosen. — 25-32. What ahoald b9 
done to rcndcr the place advantageous. — 33-46. DirectionB regtti 
ing tho hiics. 

LIBER IV. 107 

Seu lento fuerint alvearia vimine texta. 
t Angustos habeant aditus : narn :i'.:io:*i mfr'*a 35 

Cogit hieras, eademque calor li^iueracta Trr:.[::A. 
Utraque vis apibus pariter meiuei.Ja : .ie .. ^e 
Nequidquam in tectis cerlatim terji:ia ce:a 
Spiramenta linunt, fucoque et floribus or-d.s 
Explent, collectumque haec ipsa a-J mu.-iera ;:! j:.rn 40 
Et visco et Phrygiae servant pice ler/Jus I^iae. 
Saepe etiam effossis, si vera est fama. !atebr*s 
Sub terra fovere larem, penitusque repertae 
Puraicibusque cavis exesaeque arboris ai;lro. 
Tu tamen e levi rimosa cubilia limo 45 

Ungue fovens circum, et raras superinjice fro:;dis. 
Neu propius lectis taxum sine, neve rubeiitis 
Ure roco cancros, altae neu creile paludi, 
Aut ubi odor caeni gravis, aut ubi concava pulsu 
Saxa sonant vocisque offensa resultat imago. 50 

Quod superest, ubi pulsam hiemem Sol aureus egit 
Sub terras, coelumque aestiva luce reclusit, 
Illae continuo saltus silvasque peragrant, 
Purpureosque metunt flores, et flumina libant 
Summa leves. Hinc nescio qua dulcedine laetae 55 

Progeniem nidosque fovent, hinc arte recentis 
Excudunt ceras et mella tenacia flngunt. 
Hinc ubi jam emissum caveis ad sidera coeli 
Nare per aestatem liquidam suspexeris agmen, 
Obscuramque trahi vento fnirabere nubem, 60 

Contemplator : aquas dulcis et frondea semper 
Tecta petunt. Huc tu jussos adsperge sapores, 
Trita melisphjdla et cerinthae ignobile gramen, 
Tinnitusque cie et Matris quate cymbala circum: 
Ipsae consident medicatis sedibus; ipsae 66 

Iiitima more suo sese in cunabula condent. 

Sin autem ad pugnam exierint — nam saepe duobus 
Regibus incessit magno discordia motu ] 
Continuoque animos volgi et trepidantia bcllo 
Corda licet longe praesciscere ; namque morantis 70 

Martius ille aeris rauci canor increpat, ct vox 
Auditur fractos sonitus imitata tubarum ; 
Tum trepidae inter se coeunt, pmmt^qm coruflcant; 
Spiculaque exacuunt rostris, apiantquo Jacertos, 
Et circa regem atque ipsa ad praetoria dcnsao 7.'> 

47*A0. Certain things tobe avoided. — dl^CG. How to UulirA th«* 
m to settle when they issue forth in early tpring. 67 *94. VVha' 
' do when the bees fight under rival kings. 


MiHcentur, magnisque vocant clamoribus hostem. 

Ergo ubi ver nactae sudum camposque patentis, 

Erumpunt portis : concurritur; aethere m alto 

Fit sonitus; magnum mixtae glomerantur in orbem, 

Praecipitesque cadunt ; non densior aere grando, 80 

Nec de concussa tantum pluit ilice glandis. 

Ipsi per medias acies insignibus alis 

Ingentis animos angusto in pectore versant, 

Usque adeo obnixi non cedere, dum gravis aut hos 

Aut hos versa fuga victor dare terga subegit. — 85 

Hi motus animorum atque haec certamina tanta 

Pulveris exigui jactu compressa quiescunt. 

Verum ubi ductores acie revocaveris ambo^ 
Deterior qui visus, eum, ne prodigus obsit, 
Dede neci ; melior vacua sine regnet in aula. 90 

Alter erit maculis auro squalentibus ardens; 
Nam duo sunt genera ; hic melior, insignis et ore, 
£t rutilis clarus squamis 3 ille horridus aiter 
Desidia latamque trahens ingiorius alvum. 

Ut binae regum facies, ita corpora plebis. 95 

Namque aliae turpes horrent, ceu pulvere ab allo 
Cum venit et sicco terram spuit ore viator 
Aridus ; elucent aliae et fulgore coruscant, 
Ardentes auro et paribus lita corpora guttis. 
Haec potior suboles ; hinc coeli tempore certo 100 

Dulcia mella premes, nec tantum dulcia, quantum 
£t liquida et durum Bacchi domitura saporem. 

At cum incerta volant caeloque examma ludunt, 
Contemnuntque favos et frigida tecta relinquunt, 
Instabilis animos ludo prohibebis inani. 105 

Nec magnus prohibere labor : tu regibus alas 
Eripe ; non illis quisquam cunctantibus altum 
Ire iter aut castris audebit vellere signa. 
Invitent croceis halantes floribus horli, 
Et custos furum atque avium cum falce saligna 110 

Hellespontiaci servet tutela Priapi, 
Ipse tnymum pinosque ferens de montibus altis 
Tecta serat late circum, cui talia curae ; 
Ipse labore manum duro terat, ipse feracis 
Figat humo plantas ct amicos irriget imbris. 1 15 

Atque equidem, extremo ni jam sub fine laborum 
Vela traham et terris festinem advertere proram, 

95-102. Description of the best kind of bees. — 103-115. HdW to 
keep them at home when in an unsettled state. — 116-124. A ^^Atf • 
allusion to gardens. 

LIBER IV. 100 

Forsitan et, pinguis hortos quae cura colendi 

Ornaret, canerem, biferiqne rosaria Paesti, 

Quoque modo potis gauderent intuba rivis 120 

Et virides apio ripae, tortusque per herbam 

Cresceret in ventrem cucumis^ nec sera comaTJtem 

Narcissum aut flexi tacuissem vimen acanthi, 

Pallentisque hederas et amantis litora rayrtos. 

Namque sub Oebaliae memini me turribus altis, 125 

Qua niger humectat flaventia cuha Galaesus, 

Corycium vidisse senem, cui pauca relicti 

Jugera ruris erant, nec fertilis illa juvencis, 

Nec pecori opportuna seges, nec commoda Baccho. 

Hic rarum tamen in dumis olus albaque circum 130 

Lilia verbenasque premens vescumque papaver, 

Regum aequabat opes animo, seraque revertens 

Nocte domum dapibus mensas onerabat inemplis. 

Primus vere rosam, atque auctumno carpere poma| 

Et cum tristis hiems etiamnum frigore saxa 135 

Rumperet et glacie cursus frenaret aquarum, 

Ille comam moUis jam tondebat hyacinthi, 

Aestatem increpitans seram zephyrosque morantis. 

Ergo apibus fetis idem atque examine multo 

Primus abundare, et spumantia cogere pressis 140 

Mella favis; illi tiliae atque uberrima pinus; 

Quotque in flore novo pomis se fertilis arbos 

Induerat, totidem autumno matura tenebat. 

Ilie etiam seras in versum distulit uimos, 

Eduramque pirum, et spinos jam pruna ferentis, 145 

Jamque ministrantem platanum potantibus umbras. 

Verum haec ipse equidem spatiis exclusus iniquis 

Praetereo, atque aliis post me memoranda relinquo. 

Nunc age, naturas apibus quas Juppiter ipse 
Addidit,- expediam, pro qua mercede, canoros 150 

Curetum sonitus crepitantiaque aera secutae, 
Dictaeo caeli Regem pavere sub antro. 
Solae communis natos, consortia tecta 
Urbis habent, magnisque agitant sub legibus aevum, 
Et patriam solae et certos novere penatis; 155 

Venturaeque hiemis memores aestate laborem 
Experiuntur, et in medium quaesita reponunt. 
Namque aliae victu invigilant et foedere pacto 
Exercentur agris ; pars intra septa domorum 

125-148. A description of ground, otherwise useless, profitablc 
tm a fi[arden. — 149-157. The pecuUar nature of bees describod 
generally. — 158-178. Their ceaseless and varied employmenta. 


Narcissi lacrimam et lentum de cortice gluten, 160 

Prima favis ponunt fundamina, deinde tenacis 

Suspendunt ceras; aliae, spem gentis, adultos 

Educunt fetusj aliae purissima mella 

Stipant et liquido distendunt nectare cellas. 

Sunt, quibus ad portas cecidit custodia sorti, 165 

Inque vicem speculantur aquas et nubila caeli, 

Aut onera accipiunt venientum, aut, agmine facto 

Ignavum fucos pecus a praesepibus arccnt ; 

Fervet opus, redolentque thymo fragrantia mella. 

Ac veluti, lentis Cyclopes fulmina massis 170 

Cum properant, alii taurinis foilibus auras 

Accipiunt redduntque, alii stridentia tinguunt 

Aera lacu ; gemit impositis incudibus Aetna; 

Illi inter sese magna vi brachia tollunt 

In numerum, versantque tenaci forcipe ferrum : 175 

Non aliter, si parva licet componere magnis, 

Cecropias innatus apes amor urguet habenai, 

Munere quamque suo. Grandaevis oppida curae, 

Et munire favos, et daedala lingere tecta. 

At fessae multa referunt se nocte minores, 180 

Crura thymo plenae ; pascuntur et arbuta passlm 

Et glaucas salices casiamque crocumque rubentem 

Et pinguem tiliam et furrugineos hyacinthos. 

Omnibus una quies operum, labor omnibus unus. 

Mane ruunt portis; nusquam mora; rursus easdem 185 

Vesper ubi e pastu tandem decedere campis 

Admonuit, tum tecta petnnt, turfi corpora curant; 

Fit sonitus, mussantque oras et limina circum. 

Post, ubi jam thalamis se composuere, siletur 

In noctem, fessosque sopor suus occupat artus. ' 190 

Nec vero a stabuiii, pluvia impendente, recedunt 

Longius, aut credunt coelo adventantibus Euris; 

Sed circum tutae sub moenibus urbis aquantur, 

Excursusque brevis tentant, et saepe lapillos, 

Ut cymbae instabiles, fluctu jactante, saburram, 195 

Tollunt — his sese per inania nubila librant. 

Illum adeo placuisse apibus mirabere morem; 
Quod neque concubitu indulgent, nec corpora segnes 
In Venerem solvunt, aut fetus nixibus edunt; 
Yerum ipsae e foliis natos et suavibus herbis 200 

Ore legunt, ipsae regem parvosque Quirites 

178, 179. The work of the aged. — 180-188. The work of tk» 
young. — 189, 190. Their night repose. — 191-196. Their eni|dof 
ment when rain threatens. — 197-209. Their mode of prodmklg: 
young bees • - 

LIBER ir. 111 

Sufficiunt, aulasque et cerea regna refingnnt. 

Saepe etiam duris errando in cotibus alas 

Attrivere, ultroque animam sub fasce dedere : 

Tantus amor florum et generandi gloria mellis. 205 

£rgo ipsas quamvis angusti terminus aevi 

Excipiat — neque enim plus septima ducitur aestas — 

At genus immortale manet, multosque per annos 

Stat fortuna domus, et avi numerantur avorum. 

Praeterea, regem non sic Aegyptus et ingens 210 

Lydia, nec populi Parthorum aut Medus Hydaspes 

Observant. Rege incolumi, mens omnibus una est; 

Amisso, rupere fidemj constmctaque mella 

Diripuere ipsae, et crates solvere lavorum. 

Ille operum custos, illum admirantur, et omnes 215 

Circumstant fremitu denso, stipantque frequentes, 

Et saepe attollunt humeris, et corpora bello 

Objectant, pulchramque petunt per vulnera mortem. 

His quidam signis, atque haec exempla secuti, 
Esse apibus partem divinae mentis et haustus 220 

Aetherios dixere ; deum naroque ire per omnis 
Terrasque tractusque maris coelumque profundum; 
Hinc pecudes, armenta, viros, genus omne ferarum, 
Quemque sibi tenuis nascentem arcessere vitas; 
Scilicet huc reddi deinde ac resoluta referri 225 

Omnia, nec morli esse locum ; sed viva volare 
Sideris in numerum atque alto succedere caelo. 

Si quando sedem angustam servataque mella 
Thesauris relines, prius haustu sparsus aquarum 
Ora fove, fumosque manu praetende sequacis. 230 

£is gravidos cogunt fetus, duo tempora messis, 
Taygete simul os terris ostendit honestum 
Piias et Oceani spretos pede repulit amni^ 
Aut eadem sidus fugiens ubi Piscis aquosi 
Tristior hiberaas caelo descendit in undas. 235 

Illis ira modnm supra est^ laesaeque venenum 
Morsibus inspirant, et spicula caeca relinquunt 
Affixae venis, animasque in volnere ponunt. 

Sin duram metues hiemem parcesque futuro 
Contunsosque animos et res miserabere fractas, 240 

At suffire thymo, cerasque recidere inanicL 
Quis dubitet? nam saepe favos ignotus adfedit 
Stellio, et lucifugis congesta cubilia blattis, 

210-218. Their devotion to their king [queen] . —219-227. Infer 
ence drawn by some philosophers from tne nature of bees. — 228 
888. How to procccd when their honey is desired. — 239-250. Pre 
cantions against vermin during winter recommended. 


Immunisque sedens aliena ad pabula fucus ', 

Aut asper crabro imparibus se immiscuit armiSi 245 

Aut dirum, tiniae, genus, aut iuTisa Minervae 

Laxos in foribus suspendit aranea casses. 

Quo magis exhaustae fuerint, hoc acrius omnes 

Incumbent generis lapsi sarcire ruinas, 

Complebuntque foros et floribus horrea texent. 250 

Si vero, quoniam casus apibus quoque nostros 
Vita tulit, trisli languebunt corpora morbo — 
Quod jam non dubiis poteris cognoscere signis: 
Continuo est aegris alius color ; horrida voltum 
Deformat macies ; tum corpora luce carentum 255 

Exportant tectis et tristia funera ducunt; 
Aut illae pedibus connexae ad limina pendent, 
Aut intus clausis cunctantur in aedibus, omnes 
Ignavaeque fame et contracto frigore pigrae. 
Tum sonus auditur gravior, tractimque susurrant 3 260 
Frigidus ut quondam silvis immurmurat Auster, 
Ut mare sollicitum stridit refluentibus undis; 
Aestuat ut cJausis rapidus fornacibus ignis — 
Hic jam galbaneos suadebo incendere odores, 
Mellaque arundineis inferre canalibus, ultro 265 

Hortantem et fessas ad pabula nota vocantem 
Proderit et tunsum gallae admiscere saporem 
Arentisque rosas, aut igni pinguia multo 
Defruta, vel Psithia passos de vite racemos 
Cecropiumque thymum et grave olentia centaurea. 270 
£st etiam nos in pratis, cui nomen amello 
Fecere agricolae, faciJis quaerentibus herba; 
Namque uno ingentem toilit de cespite silyajn, 
Aureus ipse, sed in foliis, quae pluruna circum 
Funduntur, violae sublucet purpura nigrae ; 275 

Saepe deum nexis omatae torquibus arae ; 
Asper in ore sapor; tonsis in vallibus illum 
Pastores et curva legunt prope flumina Mellae. 
Hujus odorato radices incoque Baccho, 
Pabulaque in foribus plenis adpone canistris. 280 

Sed si quem proles subito defecerit omDi& 
Nec, genus unde novae stirpis revocetur, haDebit, 
Tempus et Arcadii memoranda inventa magistri 
Pandere, quoque modo caesis jam saepe juvencis 
Insincems apes tulerit cruor. Altius omnem 285 

251-280. Diseases of becs, and their remedies. — 281-294. If the 
swarm of bees has died out, a mcthod of replacin^ them from the 
pntrified carcase of a heifer, mentioned as bemg umversal in Egypt, 
and first practised by Aristaeus. 

LIBER IV. 113 

Expediam prima repetens ab origine famam. 

Nam, qua Pellaei gens fortunata Canopi 

Accolit eflfuso stagnantem flumine Nilum, 

£t circum pictis vehitur sua rura phaselis, 

Quaque pharetratae vicinia Persidis urguet, 290 

£t diversa ruens septem discurrit in ora 

Usque coloratis amnis devexus ab Indis, 

£t viridem Aegyptum nigra fecundat arena, 

Omnis in hac certam regio jacit arte salutem. 

£xiguus primum, atque ipsos contractus ad usus, 295 

£ligitur locus ; hunc angustique imbrice tecti 

Parietibusque premunt arctis, et quatuor addunt, 

Quatuor a ventis, obliqua luce fenestras. 

Tum vitulus bima curvans jam cornua fronte 

Quaeritur; huic geminae nares et spiritus oris 300 

Multa reluctanti obstruitur, plagisque perempto 

Tunsa per integram solvuntur viscera pellem. -f 

Sic positum in clauso liquunt, et ramea costis 

Subjiciunt fragmenta, th^um^ casiasque recentis. 

Hoc geritur Zephyris pnmum impellentibus nndas^ 305 

Ante novis rubeant quam prata coloribus, ante 

Garrula quam tignis nidum suspendat hirundo. 

Interea teneris tepefactus in ossibus humor 

Aestuat; et visenda modis animalia miris, 

Trunca pedum primo, mox et stridentia pennis, 310 

Miscentur, tenuemque magis magis aera carpunt, 

Donec, ut aestivis effusus nubibus imber, 

£rupere, aut ut, nervo pulsante, sagittae, 

Prima leves ineunt si quando proelia Parthi. 

Quis Deus hanc, Musae, quis nobis extudit artem ? 315 
Unde nova ingressus hominum experientia cepit ? 

Pastor Aristaeus fugiens Peneia Tempe, 
Amissis, ut fama, apibus morboque fameque, 
Tristis ad extremi sacrum caput adstitit amniS| 
Multa querens; atque hac afifatus voce i>arentem : 320 
' Mater, Cyrene mater, quae gurgitis hujus 
Ima tenes, quid me praeclara stirpe deorum — 

295-314. This method described. — 315-558. The origin of it de- 
;ailed. — 317. Aristaeust a rural god, worshipped in Arcadia, Thes- 
laly, and Boeotia, was the son of Apollo and Cyrene. Fugiens ; 
16 fled from Tempe, at the mouth of the river, where he usually 
Iwelt, and sought the source. Tempe, a valiey celebrated for its 
pietoresque beauty, situated in Thessaly, between the mountains 
01]m)pu8 and Ossa, watered by the PeneiiR (Peneta), — 319. Caput, 
bns. See ver. 368. Amnisi the Peneus. See ver. 355. — 321. 
C^«te. Daughter, or granddaughter, of Peneus, the river-god. 
10» K 


Si modo, qaem perhibes, pater est Thymbraeus Apollo— 

Invisum fatis genuisti 1 aut quo tibi nostri 

Pulsus amor ? quid me coelum sperare jubebas? 325 

£n etiam hunc ipsum yitae mortalis honorem, 

Quem mihi vix irugum et pecudum custodia sollers 

Omnia tentanti extuderat, te matre, relinquo. 

Quin age, et ipsa manu felicis erue silvas. 

Fer stabulis iuimicum ignem atque internce messisi 330 

Ure sataj et validam in vitis mohre bipennem, 

Tanta meae si te ceperunt taedia laudis.' 

At mater sonitum thalamo sub fluminis alti 
Sensit. Eam circum Milesia vellera Nymphae 
Carpebant, hyali saturo fucata coiore, 335 

Drymoque, Xanthoque^ Ligeaque, Phyllodoceqae, 
Caesariem effusae nitidam per candioa colla 
Nesaee, Spioque, Thaliaque, Cymodoceque, 
Cydippeque et 6ava Lycorias, altera virgo, 
Altera tum primos Lucinae experta labores, 340 

Clioque et Beroe soror, Oceanitides ambae, 
Ambae auro, pictis incinctae pelUbus amlMke, 
Atque Ephyre, atque Opis, et Asia Deiopea, 
£t tandem positis velox Arethusa sagittis. 

323. Thymbra was a town of Troas, where Apollo had a tem- 
ple. — 324. The forms nosCrum, vestrumy are partitive genitives; 
nostri, vestrif are used in other constructions. ITostri may be used 
in the sense of met, as here ; nostrum cannot. Zumpt, ^^ 431, 694. 
— 327. Vixt multo cum labore. — 328. Tematre. Tne languag^e of 
reproachful surprise, quamvis tu, dea, mater sis. — 333. Sonitum, 
Cyrene perceived only (jsensit) that there was a sound above, but 
did not distinctly hear the words. The imperfects that follow mark 
finel)r the continuous acts, which were interrupted by the single 
acts indicated by the perfects sensiti impulit, &c. — 334. MUetia, 
from Miletus, a town of Caria, celebrated, among other thines, for 
its fine wool. — 335. As it was not the colour or dye which was 
taturf but the wool, we must refer this to the class of figures noticed 
Ed. ix. 46. — 336. Homer, and after him Virgil, and especially Ovid« 
are fond of occasionally giving long lists o? UYmphs. Thoee heni 
enumerated are of all kinds — sea, wood, mountam, andriver nymphi. 
See ver. 383. Drymoque, Xanthoque. The QuH made long before 
the double consonant x, or more probably Irom the arsis. — 337* 
Caeaariem effusae. For this construction, see Ed. i. SS-SS.— 338. 
This line is here probably supposititious. It occurs again Ae», ▼• 
826. — 340. Lucinae. See £cZ. iv. 10. — 342. These ocean nymphi, 
admitted by Diana among hcr train, had, as became huntreMeSf 
dresses of spotted skins, and a girdle of gold. — 343. Bfhyre, Tbe 
final e not elided. Aaia. The first vowel lon^, indicatinff a tract 
of marshy ground on the banks of the Cajrster, m Lydia. The fint 
vowel of Asiat tho quartcr of tho globe, is short. — 344. Ardkiut(i 
8ee Ed. x. L 

LIBER lY. 116 

Inter quas curam Clymene narrabat inanem 345 

Volcani; Martisque dolos et dulcia furta, 

Aque Chao densos divum numerabat amores. 

Carmine quo captae dum fusis mollia pensa 

Devolvunt, iterum maternas impulit auris 

Luctus Aristaei, vitreisque sedilibus omnes 350 

Obstupuere ] sed ante allas Arethusa sorores 

Prospiciens summa flavum caput extulit unda, 

Et procul : * gemitu non frustra exterrita tanto, 

Cyrene soror, ipse tibi. tua maxima cura, 

Tristis Aristaeus Penei genitoris ad undam 355 

Stat lacrimans, et te crudelem nomine dicit.' 

Huic percussa nova mentem formidine mater^ 

^ Duc, age, duc ad nos ; fas illi limina divum 

Tangere,' ait. Simul alta jubet discedere late 

Flumina, qua juvenis gressus inferret. At illum 360 

Curvata in montis faciem circumstetit unda 

Accepitque sinu vasto misitque sub amnem. 

Jamque domum mirans genetricis et humida regna, 

Speluucisque lacus clausos, lucosque sonantis, 

Ibat, et ingenti motu stupefactus aquarum 365 

Omnia sub magna labentia flumina terra 

Spectabat diversa locis, Phasimque, Lycurnque, 

Et caput, unde altus primum se erumpit Enipeus, 

Unde pater Tiberinus, et unde Aniena fluenta, 

Saxosusque sonans Hypanis, Mysusque Caicus, 370 

£t gemina auratus taurino cornua voltu 

Eridanus, quo non alius per pinguia culta 

In mare purpureum violeiitior efHuit amnis. 

Postquam est in thalami pendentia pumice tecta 

354. Tibi. See Ecl. viii. 6.-355. Fenei. A dissyllable.— 
362. The place which we enter is said accipere; through which 
we pass, mittere. — 363. In this magnificent description of the 
palace of Cyrene, Virgil presents to us her residence, as fonn- 
ing a part of that mighty cavcrn where, according to some 
of^the ancient philosophers and poets, all the rivers and walers 
of the earth had their common source. — 367, &c. Phasis. A 
river of Colchis, LycuSj of Pontus, Enipeusj of Thessaly, Tiber 
and Aniot of Italy, Hypanis (the Bog), of Sarmatia, CaicuSf of 
Mysia, Eridanus (the ro), of Italy. — 370. Saxosusj propter saxa 
frequentia. Others rcad saxosunij used adverbially, with the same 
force. — 371. River-gods are often represented with a bulPs head, 
either from their violence, or roar, or their hom-like tributaries. 
Auratus is eitlier a mere general epithet, or refers to vinguia cuUa 
in the next line. The Po is not now a river of notable rapidity.^' 
373. Purvureum. This epithet must have a reference to the impettt< 
06ity of tno Po darkening tho waters of thc sea. 


Perventum, et nati fletus cognovit inanis 37d 

Cyrene, manibus liquidos dant ordine fontis 

Germanae, tonsisque ferunt mantelia villis; 

Pars epulis onerant mensas et plena reponunt 

Pocula j Panchaeis adolescunt ignibus arae ; 

£t mater, ^ Cape Maeonii carchesia Bacchi : 3(<0 

Oceano libemus,' ait. Simul ipsa precatur 

Oceanumque patrem rerum Nymphasque sorores, 

Centum quae silvas, centum quae flumina servant. 

Ter liquiuo ardentem perfudit nectare Vestam, 

Ter Hamma ad summum tecti subjecta reluxit. 385 

Omitie quo firmans animum sic incipit ipsa: 

^ £st in Carpathio Neptuni gurgite vates, 
Caeruleus Proteus, magnum qui piscibus aequor 
£t juncto bipedum curru metitur equorum. 
Hic nunc £mathiae portus patriamque revisit 390 

Pallenen ; hunc et Nymphae veneramur, et ipse 
Grandaevus Nereus ; novit namque omnia vates, 
Quae sint, quae fuerint, quae mox ventura trahantar; 
Quippe ita Neptuno visum est, immania cujus 
Armenta et turpis pascit sub gurgite phocas. 395 

Hic tibi, nate, prius vincHs capiendus, ut omnem 
£xpediat morbi causam, eventusque secundet. 
Nam sine vi non ulla dabit praecepta, neque illum 
Orando flectes ; vim duram et vincula capto 

375. The lamcntations of her son appeared to the alarmed Cyrene 
ittanis, after she had heard them ; for she was certain she could find 
a remedv. — 377. Napkins of wool, the rough ends being carefully 
removea, so as to present a smooth surface. — 378. £f , and (at the 
end of the first courae) reponunt ; re having its proper force.— 379. 
Fanchaeis. Arabian. See Georg. ii. 139. — 380. The feasts of thc 
ancients were closed with a libation to the gods. See Amt. i. 728. 
Maeonii Bacchi, Lydian wine. See nezt note. ^384. Veaiamt for 
ignem. See a similar usage, Ecl. iv. 32, v. 69, and other passages. 
—-386. Animum. Either of Aristaeus, or more probablyner own. 
—387, &c. Virgil, imitating Homer iOd, iv. 364, &c.), representi 
Cyrene as recommending Aristaeus to consult Proteus, an Egjrptian 
sea-god (hence Carpathio, from the island Carpathus, between Crete 
and Rhodes, that part of the Mediterranean which washed the 
shores of Egypt), who was skilled in a knowledge of all events. 
Followins an old myth, Virgil represents Proteus as visitin^ hia 
nativc Pallene, a promontory of Macedonia, called here Emathuu — 
393. So Homer (/Z. i. 70) describcs Calchas — 

8ff ^»7 rd r* idvrOf rd r' hadiitvay irp6 r i6rra, 

—397. Secundare evefUus, secundum reddere quod male evenit.^ 
39^. Vim iende, figurative ; vincula tende, litend. This is not mip 
common. So in Pope — 

' Where gentle Aniia, whom three realms obey, 
Doei sometimcs counsct tak«, and sometimes tea.^ 

LIBER IV. 117 

Tende; doli ciicam haec demum frangentur inanes. 400 

Ipsa ego te, medios cum soi accenderit aestus, 

Cum sitiunt herbae, et pecori jam gratior umbra est, 

In secreta senis ducam, quo fessus ab undis 

Se recipit, facile ut somno aggrediare jacentem. 

Verum ubi correptum manibus vinclisque tenebis, 405 

Tum variae eludent species atque ora ferarum. 

Fiet enim subito sus horridus, atraque tigris, 

Squamosusque draco, et f ulva cervice leaena ; 

Aut acrem ilammae sonitum dabit, atque ita vinclis 

Excidet, aut in aquas tenuis dilapsus abibit. 410 

Sed quanto illa magis formas se vertet in omnis, 

Tanto, natCj magis contende tenacia vincla, 

Donec talis erit mutato corpore, (jualem 

Videris, incepto tegeret cum lumma somno.' 

Haec ait, et liquidum ambrosiae diffundit odorem, 41^ 
Quo totum nati corpus perduxit ; at illi 
Dulcis compositis spiravit crinibus aura, 
Atque habifis membris venit vigor. £st BpecuB ingenfl 
Exesi latere in montis, quo plurima vento 
Cogitur inque sinus scindit sese unda reductos, 420 

Deprensis olim statio tutissima nautis ', 
Intus se vasti Proteus tegit objice sazi. 
Hic juvenem in latebris, aversum a iumine, Nympha 
Collocat j ipsa procul nebulis obscura resistit. 
Jam rapidus torrens sitientis Siriue Indos 42& 

Ardebat caelo, et medium sol igneus orbem 
Hauserat; arebant herbae, et cava flumina siccis 
Faucibus ad limum radii tepefacta coquebant : 
Cum Proteus consueta petens e fluctibus antra 

400. Cireum haec. A Bingular use of eircumy roiind about ; tha^ 
is, throagh means of..— 408. Leaena. It has been asked, why ^ 
lioness? And how had a lioness a mane, /u/va cervieet — 410. 
These transformatjpnB will remind the young^reader of a simila^ 
struggle to escape in the 'Arabian Nights' Entertaininents,' ancX 
may saggest the fact, that there is a wonderful similaritjr in i>opula^ 
traditions all over the world. — 415, &c. Cyrene anointed Aristaeus 
with sweet-smelling ambrosia, to give him the strength necessary 
for the achievement before him. — 416. llli. N ot goyernedhy dul^ 
eiSf but apiravitf with the force of ah Ulo. — 420. Sinus reductom^ 
Either the inmost windings of the cave, or rather the convez curves 
that waves are formed into when they dash a^ainst the rocks. See 
Aen. i. 161. — 421. In front of this cave, and Bneltered by the moun^ 
tain, was eafe anchorage for ships caught in astorm. — 424. Procul, 
See Ecl. vi. 16.-— 425. Sirius expresses the time of the vear, tbe 
hottest period, when the dog-star rises, about the end of July. — 
427. Hauserat. This expresses the time of day — mid-day — when 
the 8un is hottest. Haurirct completely to drain — ^to finish. 


Ibat ; evm vasti circum gens hamida ponti 4IC 

Exsultans rorem late dispersit amarom. 
Sterr.unt se somr.o liiversae in litore phocae; 
Ipse. veiut siabuli custos in montibas olim, 
Vesper i:bi e pastu vitulos ad tecta redacit, 
Auditis/^^ue lupos acuunt balatibus agni, 435 

Co.-isiviit scopulo medius. numerumque reoenset. 
Cujus Aristaeo quoniam est oblata facultaa, 
Vix dci'e«sa ser:em passus componere membra, 
Cum clamore ruit magno. manicisque jacentem 
Occu;>ai. Ii!e suae contra non immemor aitis 440 

Omr.ia trarisformat sese in miracula reram, 
Irrnemcue. horribilemque feram. fluviamqae liqnentem. 
Verum uli r.ulla f:.;2:am reperit fallacia, victas 
In se?.e rodit. atque homiriis tandem ore locutas: 
*Nam qu:s te. confidentissime, nostras 445 

Jussit a-iire dumos ? cuidve hincpetis?' inqnit. At ilie: 
•Scis. Pro:eu. scis ipse : neque est le fallere qnidqaam; 
Sed lu (lesine wV.^i. Deum praecepta secati 
Venimus. hii:c lapsis cuaesitum oracula rebas.' 
Tantum enatus. Ad haec vates vi deniqae multa 450 
Arder.tis oculos iritorsit lumine glauco, 
£t graviter frendens sic fatis ora. resolvit: 
'Xon te nullius e.^ercent numinis irae : 
^la^na luis commissa: tibi has miserabilis Oipheiis 
Haud quaquam ob meritum poenas. ni Fata resistant, 455 
Suscitat. et rapta graviter pro conjuge saoTit. 
lila quidem. dum te fugeret per numina praecepo^ 
Immanem ante pedes hydium moritara pneila 
Servantem ripas aita non vidit in herba. 
At chorus aequalis Dryadum clamore sapiemos 480 

Implerunt montis ; tlerunt Rhodopelae arces, 

431. Eorem. Eos is aprlied lo anv liquid. «See Aem. tL 

Here it is «^a-warer. — 432. Somno. lEizher the abl. ni. or the ds- 
tive /or. Dit^.rtat. diversif» locii». Sce Aen. \. 70. — 444. /« Mtc. 
in suam form^m. Ad re rcdirt is a common phrase, applied not to 
the body, but to th^ mir.d. — 44S. Xim rfjferE to asnpposed traio ot 
ihought on :he par: of Pp/.e;:*. .«"Ji^h a«. ■! would tain know how 
vou cane :o know mv secrf-t haiP,'.' — 447. E*t. Far e§i wiih ihe 

n n Ui".f. E-:: J i va !•=:.: r ro <ilic".'}us. 3'b // i*fi* b v t he artu. — 4M, 45S. 
^lif.rchiJi^ ha-jid qnaqhQm oh m^tritum. For a mosc spiriied fe wi un 
of : he «i ii- ? : ui * i r p h ►> m « . « <: e Por-': ' > Ode for Muaicon CeeSia*» Dm§^ 
iv.-vi . — 4*1 'X -4 * ■/ :/ gU*. }{*- r ^o :r. p a n ioiis . — 4 b 1 . Virpl^ icp i cseim 
rhraco as mourn:r,g for Eurydice. Thia he varies bjr inti 

LIBER IV. 119 

Altaque Pangaea, et Rhesi Mavortia tellus, 

Atque Getae, atque Hebrus, et Actias Orithyia. 

Ipse, cava solans aegrum testudine amorem, 

Te, dulcis conjunx, te solo in litore secura; 465 

Te reniente die, te decedente canebat. 

Taenarias etiam fauces, alta ostia Ditis, 

Et caligantem nigra formidine lucum 

Ingressus, Manisque adiit Regemque treraendum, 

Nesciaque humanis precibus raansuescere corda. 470 

At cantu commotae Erebi de sedibus imis 

Umbrae ibant teiiues simulacraque luce carentum; 

Quam multa hi foliis avium se raillia condunt, 

Vesper ubi aut hibernus agit de monlibus imber; 

Matres atque viri, defunclaque corpora vita 475 

Magnanimum heroum, pueri innuptaeque puellae, 

Impositique rogis juvenes ante ora parentum ; 

Quos circum limus niger et deformis arundo 

Cocyti tardaque palus inamabilis unda 

Alligat, et novies Styx interfusa coercet. 480 

Quin ipsae stupuere domus atque intima Leti 

Tartara, caeruleosque implexae crinibus an"guis 

Eumenides, tenuitque inhians tria Cerbems ora, 

Atque Ixionii vento rota constitit orbis. 

Jamque pedem referens casus evaserat omnis, 485 

Redditaque Eurydice superas veniebat ad auras, 

Pone sequens — namque hancdederat Proserpina legem — 

Cum subita incautum dementia cepit amantem, 

Ignoscenda quidem, scirent si ignoscere Manes: 

Restitit, Eurydicenque suam, jam luce sub ipsa, 490 

Immemor, heu ! victusque animi respexit. Ibi omnis 

Effusus labor, atque imraitis rupta tyranni 

.__^ — _ — _ — I « ■ 

le heights of Rhodope and Pangaeus, Thracian mountains^he 
nd of Rhesus, king of Thrace (see Aen. i. 471) — the Getae, a peo- 
6 bordering on Thrace — the Hebrus, a river of Thrace, and Ori- 
lyia, daugnter of Erechtheus, king of Athens (hence Actiat, a 
minine patronyniic, from ActCj a name for Attica), carried into 
hrace by Boreas. Hhodopeiae. The last syllable unelidedt and 
lort, both according to the Greek usage. — 463. The ae of Oetae 
lelided. Orithyia, a word of four syllables ; in Greek, *0.pu9yla. 
-467. Taenarias. One of the entrances to the infernal reffions 
afl said to be by the Promontorium Taenarium^ in the south mlA' 
)nia. — 475-477. These lines are rcpeated. Aen. vi. 306-308.— 
H. Vento. Join rota orbis with vento, having this sense — that tbe 
)tation was caused by the wind — the wind-caused revolation 
sased. — 491. Victus animi. In imitation of the Greek idiomfor 
iitffio. SeeZumpt, ^437. — 492. Effusus. A -«^xpreflrion, 

om water poured out and loft. 

120 GE0RGIC05. 

Foedera, terque fra^or auditus ATernis. 

Illa. "Quis et me.'* ip.quit. **miseram. et te perdiiiity Or- 

Quis laritus furnr ? En iterum cruielia retro 495 

Faia vocaiit. cor.iiitque natarjtia Icmina somcns. 
Jamque valt* I Fvror ii.senii circumJata nocte. 
InvaliiiasquL* tibi teiiJeriS; heu no:» tua. palmas !" 
DLxit. et ex oculi? subi:o. ceu fuinus in auras 
Commixlus tei.u:?. fu^rit ciiversa. r.ecue illum. 500 

Preniautem nequi.! 'luam umL'ras et multa Tolenteai 
Dicere. praeterea v;Jii : nec portitorOrci 
Amphus passji? trai-.sire paludem. 
QuiJ faceret ? quo se rapta bis conjuge ferrel ? 
Quo flelu Ma!ii<. qua \umi::a voce moveret? 505 

11 la quiJem Siyaia nabat jam cymba. 
Septem illum totos perhibe:.t ex ordine menses 
Rupe sub aeria deserti ad Strymonis undam 
Flevisse. et eelidis haec evolvisse sub antris, 
Muicentem tigris et a:;eritem carmiiie quercus; 510 

Qualis populea moereiis philome!a sub umbra 
Amissos queritur fetus. quos durns arator 
Observans iiido implumis detraxit; at ilia 
Flet noctem. ramoque sedens miserabile carraen 
Integrat. et moestis iat'3 loca questibus implet. 515 

\ulla Yenus. non ulli animum flexere hymenaei. 
Solus Hyperboroas glacies Tanalmque niTalem 
Arvaque Rhipaeis numquam viduata pruinis 
Lustrabat, raptam Eurydicen atque irrita Ditis 
Dona querens : spretae Ciconum quo munere matrefl^ 520 
Inter sacra deum nocturiiique orgia Bacchi, 
Discerptum latos juvenem sparsere per agros. 

496. Xatantio. The «amc expression 13 asrain applied to the ertB 
of o.^.e dying. Aen. v. ^56 ; and is used by otner auihorB. — 500. JV- 
fiuif. join to onra^. — .502. Portifor Orei. Charon. — 506. ObserTC 
the force of the imperfec: nahnt ; shc wd? sailing awaT, whileha nor wh^t tu do. — 507. Ez nrdine. Haa thc torce ol^cMilauiM. 

— 511. &:c. Qualis. &c. Or.c of thc nobiest similes inpoetry.— 
514. Xcctem. So Miiton — 

' \or then the ^olcrnn ni^hti.iznl? c<:ascd warblinjf, 
Bul all ni^hz tuhed ber i's1\ lais.' 

— PJr.ZAJf. vii.i35. 

— 517. Tanaim f-.he Dor.;, a river of Sarmatia. — 518. ^fyf^ 
Propfrrly thc Oural Mountain? ; but oftcn used, as here, todeao^ 
any nor-hern chain. — 5C0. Ciconum. A tribe of the ThiaciaBii 
here :akcn for th*^- Thracians gencrali)-. Qua munere. il/wiM: 
hcrc mc-an the atfectior.Lte duty discharged by Orpheus to tha 

lorv ot Eurvdice. 

LI6ER IT. 121 

Tum quoque xnarmorea oaput a cervice revulsum 
Gurgite cum medio portans Oeagrius Hebrus 
Volveret, £urydicen vox ipsa et frigida lingua. 525 

Ah miseram Eurydicen ! anima fugiente vocaDat ; 
Eurydicen toto referebant Humine ripae.' 

Haec Proteus, et se jactu dedit aequor in altnm, 
Quaque dedit; spumantem undam sud vertice torsit. 
At non Cyrene 3 namque ultro affata timentem : 530 

'Nate, licet tristis animo deponere curas. 
Haec omnis morbi causa ; hinc miserabile Nymphae^ 
Cum quibus illa choros lucis agitabat in altis, 
Exitium misere apibus. Tu munera supplex 
Tende petens pacem^ et facilis venerare Napaeas ] 535 
Namque dabunt veniam votis, irasque remittent 
Sed modus orandi qui sit, prius ordme dicam. 
Quatuor eximios praestanti corpore tauros, 
Qui tibi nunc viridis depascunt summa Lycaei, 
Delige, et intacta totidem cervice juvencas. 540 

Quatuor his aras alta ad delubra dearum 
Constitue, et sacrum jugulis demitte cniorem, 
Corporaque ipsa boum ux)ndoso desere luco. 
Post, ubi nona suos Aurora ostenderit ortus, 
Inferias Orphei Lethaea papavera mittes, 545 

£t nigram mactabis ovem, lucumque revises; 
Placatam £urydicen vitula venerabere caesa.' 

524. Oeagrius. From Oeagert king of Thracet father of Or- 
pheu8. — 529. Sub vertice, S^ has the notion of motion upwards, 
and vertex that of an eddying effect, the whirl upwards ; the foam- 
ing water, forming an eddy all around. — 530. Cyreno did not seek 
her native waves, but counselled her trembling son as to the remcdy 
of the evil, the cause only of which Proteus had shown. — 538, &c. 
The mode of expiation is here described. Aristacus is to sacrifice 
to the Nymphs of the woody valleys (called, ver. 535, Napaeat) 
four bulls, at four separate aitars, and to leave the carcases m the 
wood. On the ninth moming afier the sacrifice he is to ofTer pop- 
pies and a black sheep to Orpneus. Ho is then to go back to the 
wood where he had left the buUs ; and on finding that Eurydico 
(with the other Nymphs) is appeased, he is, in tokcn of gratitude 
for his bees restored, to sacrifice in her honour a heifcr. There is 
a difference of opinion as to the proper arrangement of the lines 
545-547 ; but the one adopted, as hcro explaincd, seems to bc thc 
best ; and it is supported by the majority of the manuscripts. — 539. 
Lyeaei. A mountain to thc south-west of Arcadia, whcre Aristaeus 
was worshipped, and where he is here said to have flocks. See v. 
317. — 540. Intacta. Jugo completes tho scnse. — 545. For the 
form Orpfteij sec Zumpt, ^52. Lethaea, a derivat*ve from Lethe, 
the rivcr of forjgetfulncss. — 546. Nigratn. Black victims wcro of- 
fercd to tho inrcrnnl doitios. Seft Aeii. vi. 243, 249. 

11 L 


Haud mora; continuo matris praecepta faceasiti 
Ad delubra venit, monstratas excitat aras, 
Quatuor eximios praestanti corpore taaroa 
Ducit, et intacta totidem cervice juyencas. 
Post, ubi nona suos Aurora induxerat ortus, 
Inferias Orphei mittit, lucumque revisit. 
Hic vero subitum ac dictu mirabile moxistrum 
Aspiciunt, liquefacta boum per viscera toto 
Stridere apes utero et ruptis efTervere costis, 
Immensasque trahi nubes, jamque arbore summa 
Confluere et ientis uvam demittere ramis. 

Haec super arvorum cultu pecornmque canebam 
£t super arboribus, Caesar dum magnus ad altum 
Fuhninat Euphraten belio, victorque volentis 
Per populos dat jura, viamque affectat Olympo. 
Illo Virgilium me tempore dulcis alebat 
Parthenope, studiis florentem ignobilis oti, 
Carmina qui lusi pastorum, audaxquc iuventa, 
Tityre, te patulae ceciui sub tegmine fagi. 

5i9, Monatratast a matre. — 554, &c. The infinitives in app* 
tion with mon$trum, furnish a iine illustration of the natnre ot 

iiifinitive, as the substantive form of the verb 555. Viseeru 

eludes the whole carcase within the skin. — 557. Nkbeg aTimii 
558. Uvam. Thc grape-like clustering of bees had stnick Hoin 
who calls it fiorpvidv {II. ii. 89). See a picture oomewhat siinl 
Aen, vii. 64, &,c. — 559-566. General conclusion to the Georgia 




This is an Epic poem, which, according xo the definidon of 
Blair, is * the recital of some illustrious enterprise in a poetical 
form.' The title Jieniis is derived from Aenias (Auretof), the 
hero of the poem. Its professed object is to celebrate the ad 
ventures of Aeneas, while sailing from Troy, atter the de 
struction of that city, in search of a settlement-— his final land- 
ing in Italy— -and his triumphant struggle with his enemies, 
and his rival, Turnus, in that country, leaving him free to 
roarry Lavinia, the daughter of Latinus, king of the Latins, 
and to found Lavinium, the mother city of Rome, with all her 
glories. It is supposed by many that Yirgit had a further 
object — - to exalt his great patron, Augustus, whose character 
and martial deeds, according to this view, he shadows forth 
in the person of Aeneas. There can be no doubt that he in* 
tends to gratify Roman pride, by embodying in loAy song the 
legends that told of their descent from gods and heroes. 

llie legends of Aeneas followed by Yirgil develop themselves 
in the course of the poem. It is prc^er to observe that they 
materially difier, in many respects, from the account of Aeneas 
given by Homer. 

The first Book may be thus divided : — Proposition of the subject, 
with address to the Muse, 1— IL. Causes of Juno'8 hatred 
towards Aeneas, 12-33. Her feelings, when, in the seventh 
summer of his wanderings, she sees him sailing from Sicily to 
Italy, his destined homA, 34-49. Her plans to prevent hii 
reaching Italy, by persiiadilng Aeolus to sink or disperse his 
fleet, 50-80. The consequent storm, in which one of the ships 
is lost, a<R the rest are icattered, 81-123. The interference 
of Neptune to calm the storm, 124-156. Aeneas, with seven 
out of twenty ships, lands on the coast of Africa, 157-222. 
Conversation between Jupiterand Yenusregarding the fate of 
AeneM and his posterity, 223*296. Mercury sent down to 



render Dido, queen of Carthage, fricndly to Aencas, 297-304. 
Interview bctween Acncas and ycnos, Bt £rst in the guise of 
a huntress, 305—109. Hc proceeds to Carthagc, aiong with 
Achates, both rendered invisible by the carc of Vcnus, 411— 
420. Description of rising Carthage, 421-430. Acneas visits 
the f.emplo of Juno,-and sees depicted there tho Trojan wars, 
437-493. Dido visits tho teinple, 494-508. A dcputatiou 
froin tlio twelve niissing ships of thc Trojans waits on Dido, 
to complain of thc outrages of her pcoplc, and bewail the loss 
of Aencas, 509— 5G0. Dido consoles them, and offers them a 
settlemcnt, 561—578. Aencas, freed from the cloud, appcars, 
and addrcsscs Dido, who replics kindly, and prepares to 
cntertain him and his followcrs, 579—042. Aeneas sends for 
Ascanius, C43-C56. Vcnus substitutes Cupid for Ascanius, 
657-698. Tho banquct in Dido's palace, 699-747. Dido 
asks Aeneas to narrate the downfall of Troy, and his wander- 
ings, 748-756. 
It may be seen from this tliat Virgil does not, as a historian 
would, introduco tho subject with tho fall of Troy, and con- 
duct Aeneas, in the ordcr of timo, through his adventures till 
their conclusion. FoUowing tlie examplo of Homer, in both 
his great Epics, tho Iliad and tho Odyssey, he dashes at once 
into the middle of the subject — a plan praised by Horace (Df 
jSrte Poet. 148), and obscrved by the writers of Epic poems in 
xnodern times, as in Milton's Paradise Lost, which does not 
begin with tlie creation of the world, but takes up the subject 
aAer the world has been created, and many events bearing on 
the main action havo alrcady occurred. 

Illo ego, qui quondam gracili modulatus avena 
Carmcn, ct, cirrcssus silvis, vicina cocgi 
Ut quamvis avido parerent arva colono, 
Gratum opus agricolis ; at nunc horrentia Martia. 

Arma virumque cano, Trojae qui primus ab oris 
Italiam, fato profugus, Laviniaque venit 

Many regord the first four lines as a spurious addition of some 
later writer. They are not, howcver, nnworthy of Virgil — pro- 
vided they be re^arded as a mcre inscription. Hence, it wili be 
observed that in tnis edition those lines^ are not reckoned as part of 
the poem itsclf. 1. Arma virumque; eithcr virum dai^m armi», or 
l)erhaps amui is a gencral, virum a specific proposition. Prumw 
xnaymean either 'first,' or, 'in auciont times,' or, 'surpassing &U 
in lame.' The first seenis preferable, as the most obvious : and -. 
although Antenor (sec v. 242) setiled in Cisalpine Gaul, Virgil majf^ 
have regardcd it as no part of Italy. — 2. Italiam, withont ad,' It*.'" 

LIBER I. 125 

Litora — multum ille et terris jactatus et alto 
Vi superum, saevae memorem Junonis ob iram. 
Multa quoque et bello passus, dum conderet urbem, 5 
Inferretque deos Latio, genus unde Latinum 
Albanique patres atque altae moenia Romae. 

Musa, mihi causas memora, quo oumine laeso, 
Quidve dolens, regina deum tot volvere casus 
Insignem pietate virum, tot adire labores 10 

Impulerit. iTantaene animis coelestibus irae 1 

Urbs antiqua fuit, Tyrii tenuere coloni; 
Carthago, Italiam contra Tiberinaque longe 
Ostia, dives opum studiisque asperrima belli; 
Quam Juno fertur terris magis omnibus unam 15 

Posthabita coluisse Samo ; hic illius arma, 
Hic currus fuit j hoc regnum dea gentibus esse, 
Si qua fata sinant, jam tum tenditque fovetque. 
Progeniem sed enim Trojano a sanguine duci 
Audierat, Tyrias olim quae verteret arces ; 20 

Hinc populum late regem belloque superbum 
Venturum excidio Libyae : sic volvere Paroas. 
rd metuens veterisque memor Satumia belli, 
Prima quod ad Trojam pro caris gesserat Argis — 

poetical construction. Zumpt, ^ 401. Laviniaque; pronoonee 
Lavmyaque as four syllables. — 3. Ille, with jactatus and passua 
(v. 5), is to be rcgardcd as in apposition with qui. — 4. Superum 
seems to have the generic force oi divorum. Aencas was exposed 
to thc violent opposition, not oniy of Juno, but of Aeolos, Jutuma, 
and others. — 5. Dum conderet. Conderet eeems to have a poten- 
tial force: 'till he was able to.' — 8. Quo numine laeso. As no 
other dcity than Juno {regina deum) is mentioned by Yirgil as ag- 
grievcd by the enterprise of Aeneas, it is difficult to understand tne 
])rccisc force of these words. Virgii, in a subsequent passage, re- 
ibrs the resentment of Juno to two causes — ^the destinea triumph of 
Rome over Carthage, and the insuhs to which she had been ez- 
posed from the Trojan race. Perhaps the easiest mode of inter- 
pretation is to conceivc quo numine (divino consilio) laeso to refer to 
the first, and quidve dolens to the latter cause : both beinjg conjoined 
with regina deum. — 12. Anliqua. In reference to Virgil's own 
time. — 15. Unam. Alone in respect to the degree in wfiich Juno 
favoured it. — 16. Samo. The final o not clided. Virgil representi 
Juno as preferring Carthage even to Samos, an island ofT the coast 
of lonia, where Juno was worshipped with great observance. — 19. 
Sed enim. In such expressions, sed infers an objection to a previous 
•tatement, enim introduces the reason of the objection. Here, Sed 
metoebat de regno Carthaginis, audierat enim^ &lc. — 21. Regtmf 
tegnantem. — 23. Satumia. Juno was the daughter of Satum.— -24. 
FHma, olim ; or, foremost in the ranks of the hostile deities. Argig, 
• ' The capital of Argolis, wherc Juno was worshipped vfith speckl 


Neodam etiam catine iramm nerique daiona 
Exeidflraot animo) maoet atta caeate rep(»tam 
Jodiciuin I^ridis epretaec|Qe injaiia foimaej 
Et genus iDvisuni, et rapti GauymediB honotes j 
Hia oecenfa BUper — jaotatoa aeijaure loto 
Troas, reliqaiaB Daoaam atqtie uninilui AoliiQj, 
Aicehai loDge Laiio, muItOBque per lUinoa 
Errabant, scti ralis, maiia omnia ciTemoi. 
Taniae tnolia cral Ramanam condere geiHein. 

Vlx e cgnBpectu Siculae lelturls in altam 
Vela ilabaiil laeii et spumas »lis aere roitbluri, 
Com Jmiu, aetornnm servaas sub peclore ralmit, 
Haec Kecum : 'Mene inceplo deai«tere Tiotein, 
Nec posse Italia Teacrorum aTerleie regwBl 
Qalppe velor fatla. PailasQe e^turete ciaaatm 
ArgiTcm alque ipsos potnit sabmeigeto ponb^ 
UiiiQB ob noxam et fuiias Ajacis Oilei ? 
Ipeo, JoTis lapidiim jacuiala e nubibcs igneoi, 
Disjecitque rates eveitiiqtie aeqnoia veails ; 
Tllam ejiFpLianlem trans&ia peclore flanimu 
Tarbine coiripiiil Eoopuloque infiAit acDlo. 
A»l ego, qnae divDoi iDceao t«giiH) JoTisqiH 
Et Borai et conjanx, anB onm gente tot iuioos 
Bella gero. £[ qitisquam numen Jmmi» adonU 
PraetecBa,aut eupplcxaris imponel hoQoreral' 

Talia flammato secum dea eords Tolnlaos, 
Nlmbomm in patriam, loca feta fureBbiina Miini 
Aectiam venil, Hio raflto lex Aeolos anln) 
Luclajitia venloa tempeslatc»)Qe «onoras 
Imperio premit, ac vinciis ei carcece l>Bmi. 

A pui fot M Gra 

25. Tba, 

__. — ,_ ^ovrfoDawh 

10 nper, are tlicoviii in parentbetinlir. Tbar «Ul« ililiiiiiwil 
oiiuies of JanD'9 resenunenl : the goIdBD ii{iple, ih« |iriH at hausj, 
aSBigned to Venus ; Ihe dascent orAenPU Iroin DudlDos, llaMd m 
■hetoiiar Jupller end Electm; the ol&ce of cliptnuer Irnnfnmd 
fromllebe, herdnughler, lo ihe Tnijan Ganjmed*. — 31. ^tn^ol. 
ThiBlenn fioelv rasrlie ibe continued action. oi tbeii[-:r ii: j .„a 
IIB. — 3S. Aere i Ibnt is, Nittibas seintis, Hn.-::- . ' ■, • 
_. __i«itjvel)r for lucrc laciebiinl. — 37- Jtlfni daiiitr.- , . .. i i ' 
tbimof inicmi|piion. indicaiing cuong vmoiion. ^i ' l, 

Aiai. eon of OdeuB, is lo be dislioeuitbed fn™ iti- u' ' ". .i. 

m of Telamon. TUe fonner offercJ i . - ' 

tbeteaipicof Mioerts. — 4S. C«v. Set - - » 

-310.-49. Frailerta. posthac. — 51 .4< 
'Hn JtlaDdn, Tolcanic locks, to ibe mnlh ' 
"" i ernatl iBlandd are, Ute ' 

LIBER I. 127 

Illi indignantes, magno cum murmnre montis, 55 

Circum claustra fremunt; celsa sedet Aeolus arce 
Sceptra tenens, mollitque animos et tempt;rat iras; 
Ni faciat, maria ac terras coelumque profundum 
Quippe ferant rapidi secum verrantque per auras. 
Sed pater omnipotens speluncis abdidit atris, 60 

Hoc metuens, molemque et montis insuper altos 
Imposuit, regemque dedit, qui foedere certo 
Et premere et laxas sciret dare jussus habenas. 
Ad quem tum Juno supplex his vocibus usa est : 

^ Aeole, namque tibi divom pater atque hominum rex 65 
Et mulcere dedit fluctus et tollere vento, 
Gens inimica mihi Tyrrhenum navigat aequor, 
Ilium in Italiam portans victosque Penatis: 
Incute vira ventis submersasque obrue puppis, 
Aut age diversos et disjice corpora ponto. 70 

Sunt mihi bis septem praestanti corpore N}Tnphae, 
Quarum quae forma pulcherrima Deiopea, 
Connubio jungam stabili propriamque dicabo, 
Omnis ut tecum meritis pro talibus annos 
Exigat, et pulchra faciat te prole parentem.' 75 

Aeolus haec contra : ' Tuas, o regina, quid optes, 
Explorare labor ; mihi iussa capessere fas est. 
Tu mihi, quodcumque hoc regni, tu sceptra Jovemque 
Concilias, tu das epulis accumbere divom, 
Nimborumque facis tempestatumque potentem.' 80 

Haec ubi dicta, cavum conversa cuspide montem 
Impulit in latus : ac venti, velut agmine facto, 
Qua data porta, ruunt et terras turbine perflant. 
Incubuere mari, totumque a sedibus imis 
Una Eunisque Notusque ruunt creberque procellis 85 

61. Molem et montes ; equivalent to molem montiura. Ifuuper; 
neany cquivalent to super. — 67. Navigat ; used transitively ; a 
poetical hcence, which occurs also in rhetorical prose, common also 
in English — 

* She sails tho aUrial spacc.*— Pop0. 

— 68. Victos, because unable to defend Troy. — 73. Connubio. Th« 
Becond svllablo seems always lon^. Pronounce herc connSbyo as 
three syllables. Virgil displays throughout great knowledge and 
obBervance of Roman forms and usages, bcsidcs much antiquarian 
reaearch. Of the former, we havo here an instance in eonnubio, 
wfaieh was the technical tcrm for a marriage legal in all its condi- 
tioiis> — 78. Observe the cmphnsis derived from the repetition of 
iK.V-82. Inlatusy *on its side,' or *overon its side.* — 83. Con« 
{fcUt fuunt intransit. with ruunt transit., v. 85. Sce also v. 35. 
Qoniparo this dcscription of a storm at sea with another, Aen. uu 



AfrMQt, «t Toaio) trolTUnt ad liiom flucias. 
Insm^uiiw otaniuraiie vmim Mridorque nulwilaiii 
Bnpmnt aubiiu iiuWb Doe]um(|Uu drumque 
THueroruni ox ncutm ; ^Ma nol inoubat *lta. 
Iijlonuere> poli, et embri* micot i^ibus ucther, 
Pramwnlvuque viria iiilontiuit uniuia Biurl«in. 
Kxtempb Arnear «olvuniut frigore in«mbiB ; 
Infcuniit, et ilupUcis lenden* kd iKiem ptiiinu 
TaliaTnes reforc -O len|uu i]a%l«tt]au beal), 
QuU ftnin om polnim TrojM «ul> moenibus ■Itie 
Conlixit oppcturc ! o Dniiuun] rotlisiime gentis 
TydiJe ! niuuo Uiacia oucumbcMt citinpis 
Non pomiMO, lusauo uiim&ia li&nc etruuJore iloUnf 
SseTD* ubi AoBCtilaH lolo jaoal ilecloi, ubi ingsn« 
Sarpeilou, nbi lot Siraois oorreptA lub aaiiit 1 

Snuta vinim gxleuN^ue «l furti« (Mrpota volvil.' 

TUin JBctnnli iitriilnna Aquilane nrocella 
Voluni itilveriio ferit, tlaclu*qui> ucT Mileni tnllil. 
Pmnganinr mmi ; inm prora a*oriil, el undis 
I>:il ialua; inauquiltir cumulo pmeruptu* aquoe inou» luo 
Hi PQinmo in lluoiu pentlnnt; liia ouda dehinocn» 
T«rroin iniet lliu^tDB aperil ; rurii aeaiiis areiiis. 
Tri> Notu« BbreptM iii hbj» IkieotiB turqnei — 
S4n vocunt Itnu, uutrjiis qnnB in fluc^iibas, Am« — 
Oorvum immiuie mari eutmno ; iria Kurus ab ullu ) 10 

90. Th» cnremiiieB nr ihe supnosed aiii. oti wbicii liie heavi^i 
w«re believed tnrsvolve, wer« ulled/wli; wUuli henua DoinsB lo 
•%nity thc luatvemi riom polc lo pole. — 92. Aenrae! reiher tfaa 
dulvD gintTmi hj (alBunlur, thin ihG geniiire. The oxceBsive 
amuliuii nf Aeusei muet iioi be Judued of ■ccording lo our elanddrd. 
Finl. Ihe ani^entB, liam loligioue leeliDgi. legorded deMh by ship- 
Wifwlt itiiriTnntly (roia us. Aod sBCDndlj, saDtheni nalioBB eipiea» 
thoir feolinj;» more vividljnhon wo do — 8S, QuiM. Bvc Ect, i.7». 
— 97. T^rfiili. TydBus' aon, Diomedes, wiih whont. eouvnliujt lo 
HOlDOi lH. V, !39). Aeneas en|;aged in single combBI. and woaU 
h«TD bean 111110. bui fot the intervenlioii of VenuB nn.l ApoDo. 

JWhh. Soev. 37. — 99. Saemn implies no reproacli t |. ..,..— 

wliBt in wni waa eaieemed honourable, 'drcadfuUn hi' 1, 

tida». AnhillcB, Ibe griiiidson of Aeacus 100. Safj; ■ 

Ltcjb, killfd b; PalrocIuB. — 103, &c. Tfae winil. :■ 

■iniM tfaa aiiil. nnd Bweepe B,it»y ihe oarsi tlie veBncl l> 

muUBcible, aod Iho prowVBwinK rDund. shi 
lllodJi ' '■ 

iBohition is compieied by 

— 109. Eiiher sn eiymologicol remutk — Iinli 

* ia mediiB flaclibiia, Arsa ; or exBeeticii.1 uf <o>a 
,Jia (jueniii) mediia in euclibus iiali 

ir, tliongh Bingvdarly plnced, is Ihe mon 

LIBER I. 129 

In brevia et syrtis nrguet, miserabile visu, 

Illiditque vadis atque airgere eingit arenae. 

Unam, quae Lycios fidumque vehebat Oronten, 

Ipsius ante oculos ingens a veitice pontus 

In puppim ferit: excuiitur pronusque magister 115 

Volvitur in caput ; ast illam ter fluctus ibidem 

Torquet agens circum, et rapidus vorat aequore vortex. 

Apparent rari nantes in gurgite vasto ; 

Arma virum, tabulaeque, et Troia gaza per undas. 

Jam validam Ilionei navem, jam fortis Achatae, 120 

Et qua vectus Abas, et qua graudaevus Aletes, 

Vicit hiems ; laxis laterum compagibus omnes 

Accipiunt iiiimicum imbrem, rimisque fatiscunt. 

Interea magno misceri murmure pontum, 
Emissamque hiemem sensit Neptunus et imis 125 

Stagna refusa vadis, graviter commotus; et alto 
Prospiciens, summa placidum caput extulit unda. 
Disjectam Aeneae toto videt aequore classem, 
Fluctibus oppressos Troas coelique ruina. 
Nec latuere doli fratrcm Jnnonis et irae. 130 

Eurum ad se Zephyrumque vocat, dehinc taha fatur: 

^Tantane vos generis tenuit fiducia vestri? 
Jam coelum terramque meo sine numine, Venti, 
Miscere, et tantas audetis tollere moles ? 
Quos ego — ! Sed motos praeslat componere fluctus. 135 
Post mihi non simili poena commissa luetis. 
Matnrate fugam, regique haec dicite vestro : 
Non illi imperium pelagi saevumque tridentera, 
Sed mihi sorte datum. Tenet ille immania saxa, 

111. Brevta and syrtif secm to havc ncarly the samc meaninGr> the 
Inlter not bcing ilio African Sifrtis, propcrly so callcd, but shallows 
further wcat. — 113, &c. A hiigc sca strikcs from the stcrn one pf 
the ships, and rising high above it, in its descent dashes hcad fore- 
most into thc ocean tnc pilot (magister, Aen. v. 17G) Leucaspis 
{Aen. vi. 334) ; then an eddying wave whirla the ship forcibly round, 
and forming a whirlpool, sucks it bcneath ihc flood. — 118. The 
•trogglinff swimmcra arc fcw (rari) whcn acen on the boundless 
{vasto) gulf. The apondeea indicatc eflrort. — 122. Ilicmg, tempestas. 
— 123. ii?i2»re7n, aquam marinam. — 124. Misceri. Mark this imper- 
fect, EB contrasteu with tho following phipcrfects : thc sea wa» in 
oonAision, in consequence of thc storm thai had been sent forth. — 
187. Thongh graviter comfnotuSf his consciousncssof powcrexhibited 
in Neptune placidum capvt. — 129. Muina, quasi coelum ruoret- 
(be ci«8h of elcments. — 131. Dehinc, the e elidcd.— 135. (^uos ego. 
K«ptiin^-abruptly breaks ofl*, cnlming himsclf, that he may mstontly 
^iuu the tumult. See a similar instancc, Bxodus, xxxh. 32. See 
ftlM», Ajen-^ ii« 100, v. 195. Grammarians call this mode of speaking 

Veslnts, Eure, iloniOBi illa se jociet in Knla 
AeoIu&, el clauao veDlornm carc«re regnel-' 

Sic aiL et diclo cjtiii& lumida aeqnoia plaoU, 
Colleciafque fissal nubes golemijBe icdODil. 
CyiDolhoe iimiJ el TriloD adnunii aeulD 
Delrudunt navis scapulo" lerat ipse Irideati; 
El T&slB» aperil syrtiE, et temperat aequor, 
Alque rolls suminas leTibits perlabitnr undu. 
Ac veluli magno in populo cum »«pe coocta. ett 
Sedilio, MeviTque animis ignobile vulgVE ; 
Jamque faces el saxa rolanl, fnror arma miniolru; i 
l'uia, pielale gravem ac merilis e\ fnrle vimm quem 
Con»pexere, Bilenl, BdrectisqueauribuBadstant; 
Ille r«gil dJcliH animci^ el pecloia muleei : 
Sic etineltis peloei cecidit frafior, aequiMU j»Bl^MBm 
Proipnciena geniTor, coelMoe inrectas aperto. 1 

Fleciii cijuoa curraquc vokus dat lora teeuoaa, 

Defem Aeaeadae, quae proijina iilota, onm 
Coulendunt petere, el Libyae verluRlai ad dta*. 
Esi in eeoeeiiD long« locus; insut» poilum 
Efficit objcclu lalerum, tjaibos Offlnjs ab alta ] 

Fran^mi inque «inui Enindii »ese nndx feihichii. 
Hinc alque liinc vattae mpe* geoiiiuquB mktajdtiT 
In coeluin soi^li, quomm snb venica IsU 

Aeqiiora lula «iJeiit; tum &ilvis m " 

Desujiec borrenlique atnim Daroit 

HO. VettrtHf plurBl; Eure, «ingutar. 
lo Euch nsBsace^ a nuniber of iittlivi'! 
indiridaBl iB »lecle(l, bikI niuned an Ihe 
— 1«. Cymoliioe an4 Triion were ; 
iuigh^ei of Kereua- Ibe laiicr a san ' 
viBm facil pei. — IIB. F^uliaun hae ili 
Satpt, no FU^ ocCUrrencE. — 151. Adr 
Uiose animali ilisi prieb up iheir ea» w. 
■llenlion. — Ifl.l. Blr indicaie» eniiTbu . 
objective lo ihe subJBcrive.— 155. On Ihe eoa. biil 
leM sky. — 156. Curru. See ErL v. 39. Bul n' 
I «blalirei rarru votam Jat lara eqnis. — 159. &i 

socne, ivhicii ehould bc coiefutly ■mdied ui sll iis y 
oa island nod Ihe m&inland ie a lane creeic ni 

L ou Itic On^ sidi?, snd Iwo projeciing limt-'! ■■! ->■- "i- ■ 

I The »>•«« !pent ihf^u tDry on lite isIqh.] 

I bftM of two clifii. crowned wiih rrubcv.- 

ft rhe eBinincii on eiiher Bide, ww ebIbi 

.<»* aitrui* thor 

LIBER I 131 

Fronte sub adversa scopulis pendenlibus antrum j 

Ifitus aquae dulces vivoque sedilia saxo, 

Nympharum domus. Hic fessas non vincula navis 

Ulla tenent, unco non alligat ancora morsu. 

Huc septem Aeneas collectis navibus omni 170 

Ex numero subit; ac matrno telluris amore 

Egressi optata potiuntur Troes arena, 

Et sale tabentis artus in litore ponunt. 

Ac primum silici scintillam excudit Achates, 

Suscepitque ignem foliis atque arida circum 175 

Nulrimenta dedit, rapuitque in fomite fiammam. 

Tum Cererem corruptam undis Cerealiaque arma 

Expediunt fessi rerum, frugesque receptas 

Et torrere parant flammis et frangere saxo. 

Aeneas scopulum interea conscendit et omnem 180 
Prospectum late pelago petit, Anthea si quem 
Jactatum vento videat Phrygiasque biremis, 
Aut Capyn, aut celsis in puppibus arma Caici. 
Navem in conspectu nullam ; tris litore cervos 
Prospicit errantis; hos tota armenta sequuntur 185 

A tergo, et longum per vallis pascitur agmen. 
Constitit hic, arcumque mLanu celerisque sagittas 
Corripuit, fidus quae tela gerebat Achates ; . 
Ductoresque ipsos primum, capita alta ferentis 
Cornibus arboreis, sternit, tum vulgus, et omnem 190 
Miscet agens telis nemora inter frondea turbam; 
Nec prius absistit, quam septem ingentia victor 
Corpora fundat humi et numerum cum navibus aequet. 
Hinc portum petit, et socios partitur in omnis. 
Vina bonus quae deinde cadis onerarat Acestes 195 

170. Septan, The ship of AeneaSt with thrce driven on the rocks 
(V. 109), and three on the quicksands (v. 111), but relieved by Nep- 
tuDC and his attendants (v. 144, &c.). — 173. Sale, aqua salse. — « 
176. Nutrimentai wood and leaves. Rajmit. Rapere hcre probably 
means, to kindle quickly by blowing, or by the rapid motion of 
8ome aubstancc, creating a quick circulation of air. — 177. Cererem, 
framentum. See Ecl. v. 69. — 178. Fcssi rerum. This is a Greek 
eonBtruction. See Zumpt, ^ 437. — 181. Anthea, in apposition with 
1,^ which is used substantively. Si has the force of an. See 
iv. 110. — 183. Arma. Probably the shield which was exhi- 
Bt the stern of ships of war. bec ^en. viii. 92. — 190. See a 
r expression, derived from the branch-like appearance of tha 
ixkjSd. vii. 30. — 193. Fundat. Fundit would express his 
{f the fvLCtifundat denotes the motive which Aeneas had in 
JMiiMTerance shown in the words nec absistit. — 194. Note the 
I OK I» for inter. — 195. Deinde is to be connected with dividit. 
Jtm, iii. 609, V. 400. Acestes. Aeneas, in his wanderings, had 

Lilore Trinacrio, deJeraKjHe aheunlihua heraa, 
DtvjJil. el diutia moeTeiilia peclora miilcet: 

•O ■Dcii — noque enim idnari buuiub nnle maloruin — 
O pasii graviora, dabil livae his quoque fineiii, 
Vos el Scyll&eam tabiem penitugque «ununliB 20C 

Acceslis Eooptvlos, roa el Cyclopia msA 
Experli : reTocale animoH, moestuinqae limorera 
Mittiie; forsan et haac olim meminisse junbil. 
Per varioa Cftsus, pec tol iliscrimiiia renim 
TendimuB in Litiium, sediw ubi fata quielaB lOI 

OBtendunt ; il)ic faa mgna resurgens Troju. 
Durate, ei voBinet rebuti servale Muaiidis.' 

Tnlio voca referl, ooriH{Ua iiii^nlibufl aeoer 
8pem voliu aimulai, pfeRiil altuni (wrde <]o!an!ni' 
rili Bs praettaa aocinfunt liapibutqm; taluris: 911 

Tergon dctipiiuil cosits et viic«i« uudtiiil ; 
Para In ftttUti sec&nt veribosqiic iipninniio figuni; 
Litors ■6im iof.iint nlii, flnmmnsiiaa ntiniBtront. 
Tum vicln rcvnmpTi vprl-, fii.lqiji. p«r hotbam 
ImplOiilurv.'i.>i.- K...-.-I,, i.m,.,,Mn;.. lonnae. iU 

pDHtqunm exi il:}:i i I..j.:. <'|'Ii!:.- iiiL-iimvqii« cematue, 
Amiswilluria'! ■':.':')■ ■:':ri:":." ri.'iiuiruill, 

Spemquenieuiin^iiii' i r :|:iti:i, "■■u vivere cteUani, 

Sive exIlemM pnli npc jtim enniidirn vocBto». 
Pra«cimiG pius Acnune mina a«tin Oronii, 22< 

Nuno Xmyei oesum gcmii el crudelia Mcam 
Faia Lyoi, foriemqao Gynii, fortcmauc Cloknllinm. 

Et jatn Gnis erat, oum Jupilcr nclfieta tuinino 
Duspiciens mare v^livolum tecra9'tue janeiiliif 
Liionujne et laioa popaloti, sic VBrliee ooali '22! 

Imtei <Af. r. 693. ic.i Bi, 
m.l9ti. IVrqvf, Stc. Siinilur 
tO. — UOO. SevUaam ratiai: 
aamUti: Cydiniia. Tlic < 
FoT iho AinCTTS inPUTred ihin 
»1.594,^. — EIO. ^cnreiVi 
llfMneroboi; hanci 

_- — , —giwiight ihoirloo'^: . 
nmlkr oxpreaaions coiui; i» ili-i 
SH, Vinmi. See Georg. i- 

faani foilows ihe analogy of phiiu.t, eovaxniaE 1 
Zumnt, f <ti;3. — S16. Stnuriae. With ihe Bnciel 
wudoac. ihe tablewBiwiihdniwn. — S19. Fhr 

iiMih. Thelatieria 
Ktmaa of ihc dfad (mi 

Ow WOrd» niie or valc. 

— Fhcum 

in 10 too praetioe of ct!| 
iimncdiDielr nfier ttulri 
SiV, Iii ibp BifitM* ■ 

LIBER I. 133 

Constitit et Libyae defixit lumina regnis. 
Atque illum talis jactantem peclore curas, 
Tristior el lacrimis oculos sufTusa nitentis, 
Adloquitur Venus : ' qui res hominumque deuraque 
Aeternis regis imperiis, et fulmine terres, 230 

Quid meus Aeneas in te committere tantum, 
Quid Troes potuere, quibus, tot funera passis, 
Cunctus ob Italiam terrarum clauditur orbis? 
Certe hinc Romanos olim, volventibus annis, 
Hinc fore ductores, revocato a sanguine Teucrij 235 

Qui mare, qui terras omni ditione tenerent, 
Pollicitus. Quae te, genitor, sen^entia vertit ? 
Hoc equidem occasum Trojae tnstisque ruinas 
Solabar, fatis contraria fata rependens. 
Nunc eadem fortuna viros tot casibus actos 240 

Insequitur. Quem das finem, rex magne, laborum % 
Antenor potuit, mediis eJapsus Achivis, 
Ulyricos penetrare sinus atque intima tutus 
Regna Liburnorum, et fontem superare Timavi, 
Unde per ora novem vasto cum murmure montis 245 
It mare proruptum, et pelago premit arva sonanti. 
Hic tamen ille urbem Patavi sedesque locavit 
TeucroTum, et genti nomen dedit armaque fixit 
Troia ; nunc placida compostus pace quiescit : 
Nos, tua progenies, coeli quibus adnuis arcem, 250 

Navibus, infandum ! amissis, unius ob iram 
Prodimur, atque Italis longe disjungimur oris. 
Hic pietatis honos ? sic nos in sceptra reponis V 
Olli subridens hominum sator atque deorum 
Yultu, quo coelum tempestatesque serenat, 255 

rom tales curag (v. 227), anziety scems involved in his position, 
hich led him to observe the situation of Aeneas. — 228. Tristior 
jam mos erat. Oculos suffusa. See Ecl. i. 55. — 233. 06, ne 
leant. — 234. Volventibus. Transitive verbs, principally thos© 
SDOting change, arc often used intransitivcly, or with theibrce of 
le Grcek middle voice. See Zumpt, ^ 145. — 238. Occasum sola 
ir, dolorem ob occasum. — 242. For thc settlcmcnt of the Hcneti 
r Veneti undcr Antenor, see Liv. i. 1. — 244. Timavi. See Ecl. 
ilL 6. — 246. The Tiroavus, immediately on issuing from its rocky 
vring, is compared to a sca foaming with brcakers. — 247. Tamen ; 
i spite of all thc difTiculties of thc country. Patavi. The modern 
WU* The construction is rnrc : the usual form would be urbem 
'atonvtn* — 2^18. Nomen. Thc inhabitants reccivcd the name of 
VBHjmeli, P&phlagonian followers of Antenor. Figere arma is, to 
tpg up arma as no longer needcd — a sign of peace. — 249. The 
noiiiess of Antcnor has bccn consummatcd by a pcaccful death. 
^851. tlnius. Juno is referred to. — 254. Olli, an antiqnated fon» 


OMsala libavit naUe, dehinc talis rulur: 
'Parce nieta, Cftherea, manuni itDiocni luontia 
Fata libi; ceraea urbem et prDinisea Lavini 
Moenio, Bublimeroque forcB mi siilem coeli 
Magna.\imum Aenean ; neaae me aententii.-. VL>rt 
Kic tibi— labor enim, quaoJu baec te cvni i«iKKde^ 
Lotigius et volvens ralonim arcana moTebc^— 
Bellum ingens gerel Ilaliu populosciue ferwiis 
CaDlundet, murcsque vih» el moenia ponet, 
Terlia dum Lalia regiiar^lem vitleril aeilM, 
Temaqae tranaierini KuluIis hibetna eulMetis. 
At ouer A»canit>s, cui nuoc cognomen Inlo 
* 'oiiur — UuB erai, Jnm "' "' 



^ 'Trlpnla ina^uii volrendis menslbua nrtii* 
' tmperio explebit, regnumqLie ab eede Lavihi 
Tmnaferet, et longnm mulia vi muniel Albom. 
Hie jam ler centum toms regnabiluc aaww 
Genle sub HeoLorea, doneo resina nocriloia 
Marlo giavi» geininain pnrlu Jabit llia pn>lem. 
Inda lupae forio ouliicii tegininH IntiiaA ^ 

Romulus excipiet genttw, nl Mavorll» CMldet 
MoeDia BoDianiuqiie ruo <Is noDitne tlicei. 
Hm ego nec ntelas terutn nne tetnpora poar 
Ifflperiim eine fine dedi, Quin lupvtH Juflt-. 
Qaae niare nunc teiraMqno in«ilu onnlumqaa fntigat, Mlt 

aSG, OliiiU. See 131, — 2J7. JMrfu. Sr^ &J t r>. CfHtrtt,! 

bsme fyr Vemi», fiiHn Ibo iilaml Cjlliir-i ' » »"i.-i. .li.. ~ ■.ntri^ 

bavv Rpning Irom ibe Irolli af ilin >rii - '■'-■<. rtt, 

G. — eC3. The pteeem pmiciplefau '.•'. .ii>ifl| 

Ihe scC bf wbicb H leaull ^er« mmrli. ■ tm 

it eBcctBd— «lEai.>, tiy nnroUiog thr .n l •hw 

, tiy nnroUiog tli 

Aiori», legea ; eee Ai 

-iBp0«ercoUKHia. thoi.B 

- :3fi<i. Svlula luboelit ; eilhnr iho olili 

islte ftwar ibe obscuriir ih« huiea v. 

"on», legea; we Atn. vL 8.53. ^niTr u-n ii.>> > ' iiKr.i, *a WMi 
fwerc ouKHia. though diffiiTeiit varl» wlII bn nH[uirad in riiuM 
^., n . ,. -.. ...I.. ,. . -'iio. iirtfc«JGill»« 

..ledtrive of the iiL __ 

find th» nomtnmive ijului) u 
KHnitive Unli) EOverned bjf (■tgnmKr'! 
atatemeni » a noetica! liciian. uiiendf J 
klO iho gens ialia. — 268. Bn tlrlil n 
iL 83; ■(okil rf^iui ivrolimii. In boili 
■" ■ ( ia. abidine firm in tiie poset. 

,...j miit. Aonos. —274. Hia. elsewliMe 

tyal blood (rc^ma), imd piiestesB of Vetta 

•■*■, ' ID recoive io sncoesBion' — ' lo auoeei 

I MUBga in hoooui of Bonuui glary ni 

LIBER 1. 135 

Consilia in melius referet, mecumque foreDit 

RomanoS; rerum dominos, gentemque togatam. 

Sic placitum. Veniet luslris labentibus aetas, 

Cum domus Assaraci Phthiam clarasque Mycenas 

Servitio premet ac victis dominabitur Argis. 285 

Nascetur pulchra Trojanus origine Caesar, 

Imperium Oceano, famam qui terminet astris, 

Julius, a magno demissum nomen lulo. 

Hunc tu olim coelo, spoliis Orientis onustum, 

Accipies secura ; vocabitur hic quoque votis. 290 

Aspera tum positis mitescent saecula bellis; 

Cana Fides, et Vesta, Remo cum fratre Quirinus, 

Jura dabunt ; dirae ferro et compagibus arctis 

Claudentur Belli portae ; Furor impius intus, 

Saeva sedens s"per arma, et centum vinctus aenis 295 

Post tergum uodis, fremet horridus ore cruento.' 

Haec ait, et Maia genitum demittit ab alto, 
Ut terrae, utque novae pateant Carthaginis arces 
Hospitio Teucris, ne fati nescia Dido 
Finious arceret. Volat ille per aera magnum 300 

Kemigio alarum, ac Libyae citus adstitit oris. 
£t jam jussa facit, ponuntque ferocia Poeni 
Corda volente deo ; in primis regina quietum 
Accipit in Teucros animum mentemque benignam. 

At pius Aeneas, per noctem plurima volvens, 305 

Ut primum iux alma data est, exire locosque 
Explorare novos, quas vento accesserit oras, 
Qui teneant, nam inculta videt, hominesne feraene, 

282. Togntam. No one but a Roman was allowcd to wear the toga. 
See 73. — 283. Jupiter foretells thc subjugation of the victorious 
Greeks (Phthia in Thessaly was thc native country of Achilles, My- 
cenac the city of Agamemnon, and Argos of Diomedes) under the 
Romana, descended from the Trojan Assaracus, the ffreat-grand- 
father of Aeneas. — ^286. Caesar. Probably Augustus, called, v. 288, 
JuliuB, for the reason stated at v. 267. Othcrs refcr this to Julius 
Caesar. — 287. A future clause introduced by a relative which is 
dependent ou anothcr future, is exnrcsscd by thc present subjunc- 
tive : fuucetur qui terminet. — 292. Quirinus, the namc of tho dcified 
Romulus. — 293. Dirae, &c. Refcrring to the fact, that the temple 
of Janus was shut, as a sign of peacc, the third time from the 
foundation of the city, in thc roi^u of Au^stus, b. c. 29. — 297. 
JBiuia genitum, Mcrcurium. — 301. Bemigio. Thc similarity be 
twsen aailing and flying invoivcd^in this exprcssion appears also in 
Greek and iu English, as 

* Saiis bctwccu worlds and worlds.* 

jmitotCs Paradise Loat^ vi. 968. 

84B Aen, vi. 19. — 308. VidH ; made long by the arsis. 

Quureri! oonslilail. «ociisqtie exacla rehnv. 
Cl&nwftu ia ooiivexo uemorum euLi lape cavstk 3 

ArbnribuB claiunm circum Blque hwreulibus uinbris 
Ooflnlil; ipse uno Kraditur cunailAlaa AcbU«, 
hitia. iiianu lalo crispaua tiwlilia Soito. 
Ciii moter media eeso lulit Dbvi!i rdvti, 
Virsiiiis OB babilumque sf'."!" •■' vv_'"'i-' 

su . 

um U 

H«rpalyco volucrCTnqiit' '• 
Nam^jue hiniieris Je niui i 

Vcnaj-Li, dederalque ciiin.iii iii.'. i- \ 

Nuila^unu. nuiloijiii* eiiius LMilleciu iluenlm. aam 

Au pnur, 'H«uii, iii(|uil, jur^ncE, monHltalo, mearum 
Viijisli* ai quaro tiio ertaDlem forte Eororum. 
SaaeiEiolBm pharclra et maculoeae legmiae lyniiiB, 
Aul tpuiuuittii spri cnniuin clainore premanlsm.' 

Sio V8nus', ol Vnneiia coctra eio hlius □riue: 3S!fi 

'Nulla luarom nutliCa rDihi noque vjbb earorum, 
O — qnniii te memorem^ vitgu 1 namquo b&oA libi vullua 
&1cinnli8, neu vox homineia BOnai — a, dea eerte ; 
An Phoobi eoioi 1 an Nymphanim BaBguini» uiia ) 
Sis felii, noati-Dmque leves, <|uaacuii)que, laboteni) /330 
Kl, eiiiu aiib GDitlii tBndem, qiiibns orbie in orit 
Jactefflur, dooeas^ igiiuri hominaniquc luaon]m(]ue 
ErraiuUB, venlo huu VBBtis et tluutibuB auli : 
Multft libi ante nmB nostra oiidet hoalia dexln-' 

Tiim Venua: 'Haudequjdem lidiniedigiuiihouute} 335 
Virginibui Tjrtiis icos «st gesure olmretrain, 
Ptirpareoqiie alle Huraa vinoire colburne. 
Puuiea regna videa, Tyrios el Aceuoris utbttm 
Sod tiiies Libyci, genua intraciaoila bello. 

91(1, SMlMdeBoriplian, 139, &.c!,—3IS. f 
mte Mnse, aai IhHi it ia aceompunied br 1 1 
dua.a poelical aaage. — 31T. Hnijtnlyct, li' ^^ 

Sred, WM n. Throcinn princes», of tninil i 
m. See Ect. x. 64, — 318, Tliis di 

• MiHtt 

of D 

I. !\-ud.i , 

ahartctied, lo aa lo leath only lo tW kiivt', Bori iliu (,Mi 
eathBTcd laDeihor. M as ta Idnil t knol. Simil orflMU._X* 

— Saa. M«rkoi.di(aiBWtforiho inota onliMry n »«.— M. 
an doTiat follow eaoh othcr os alUsrnativc psnifleBi lhtt$ 

iiaira B(mi»— an. TraneUto both clBums as djr" '" 

333. Laarumque. Q„i eltdad before e of £rn 
Tbs tatkumui reached biah up Ihe leg, lo defeEU . . 

,,., 3 nnd thieket!, — 3S8. Ptmiea regna.- 

Tha imniBilfiite eonntrj is nnder tbe rule oF PL 
'a LibyB. £iaea 19 BitBppOBiliaD wilh f 

LIBER I. 137 

[nj|f)enum Dido Tyria regit urbe profecta, 340 

Germanum fugiens. Longa est injuria, longae 

Ambages ; sed summa sequar fastigia rerum. 

Huic conjunx Sychaeus erat, ditissimus agri 

Phoenicum, et magno miserae dilectus amore, 

Cui pater intactam dederat, primisque jugarat 345 

Omir^ibus. Sed regna Tyri germanus habebat 

Pygmalion, scelere ante alios immanior omnis. 

Quos inter medius venit furor. Ille Sychaeum 

Impius ante aras atque auri caecus amore 

Clam ferro incautum superat, securus amorum 350 

Germanae ', factumque diu celavit, et aegram, 

Multa malus simulans, vana spe lusit amantem. 

Ipsa sed in somnis inhumati venit imago 

Conjugis, ora modis attollens pallida miris; 

Crudelis aras trajectaque pectora ferro 355 

Nudavit, caecumque domus scelus omne retexit. 

Tum celerare fugam patriaque excedere suadet, 

Auxiliumque viae veteris teJlure recludit 

Thesauros, ignotum argenti pondus et auri. 

His commota fugam Dido sociosque parabat. 360 

Conveniunt, quibus aut odium crudele tyranni 

Ant metus acer erat ; navis, quae forte paratae, 

Corripiunt, onerantque auro. Portantur avari 

Pygmalionis opes pelago; dux femina facti. 

Devenere locos, ubi nunc ingentia cernes 365 

Moenia surgentemque novae Carthaginis arcem, 

Mercatique solum, faoti de nomine Byrsam, 

Taurino quantum possent circumdare tergo. 

Sed voB qni tandem, quibas aut venistis ab oris^ 

Quove tenetis iter V Quaerenti talibus ille 370 

Suspirans imoque trahp ns a pectore vocem : 

' dea, si prima repetena ab ori^ine pergam, 
Et vacet annalis nostrorum audire laborum, 
Ante'diem clauso componet Vesper Olympo. 

Aen, iv. 40. Agenor, twia brother of Belus, was king of Phoeni- 
cia, and an ancestor of Dido, whose story Venus proceeds to narrate. 
-7-343. Observe the double construction of ditissimus agri, ditiasi' 
inu Phoenicum. — 344. Miserae dUectus. See 326.-^347. Mark 
mmanior ante, &.C., instead of tho ablative. — 350. Securus, sine 
eun.*— 353. Inhumati. This increased the atrocity of the deed, a» 
the ancients regarded with religious horror the fate of being un- 
bariBd. — 358. Tdlure recludit : not tn, but from the earth. — 365. 
J}0aenere locos. Mark the construction for ad locos. — 367. Byrsam^ 
commonly derived from Bvpva, a hide. — 374. Night is poeticailjr 
dsseribed. Vespcr shuts tho gate of heaven (see Ecl, v. 50), and 
preparos for tho rc!^t of the day-god. 
12* M 


Noe Traja Bfili^ua — ai TCflras fori« per autis M 

Trojae nomen iii — diverra pcM Benuoni *oc(M 
Forte Bua Libycis lempeelaa appulit ori«. 
Sqri piiis Aeneas, raplus qal ex hosle Fenalia 
Cksse veho ineeum, ramn sapeT aethera nottis. 
Ituliam qaaero palriam el ^enus ab iavB enmmo. 3fl 
Bi» tlciiis Piirygiom coiieci^ijUi navibua aequor, 
Maire <lea monalmnle riam, ilata fata secains ; 
Vtx eeptem ooiirulaae undis Euroque eupersnnt. 
Ipto ijKnotiis, egeiis, Libyae deserta peragro, 
Kiirapa ntqne Asia pulnis.' Nec plvira querenlem 3B 
Pas«a Veiiun itii'dio sic iiiterfaia dolore est : 

'QuiBquia en, haui1, credo, iriTiBus coelealibns anTaa 
Vitalif caniis, Tyriam qui adcenecis urbem' 
Perge moJo, nlmie hina te resioae ncl liminn perfer. 
Namcgue titii reduocs aooias claGaQnique relalam 38 

Nuntio ei In tuinm T6rels aquilonibus sclani, 
Ni fraslra atigiiriiim voni ilocuere petdutes. 
Aspice bia seiioa laelaiiiis a^ine cycnua, 
Aeih><riB quoe lapea pU^ Jovis alee aperto 
Turbabat euclo; tiuno tcrms oidine louga 39 

Aul capere nat mptBS jam desneclare videniut: 
Vl lednoes illl ladunl altitleatibus alia, 
Et enoln oinzete polum, caniuiquo dedere, 
Haud aliler piipj]c>K|iie toae pubesque tuoram 

377. Fartt iiia, Msa tempeetaii pmprio. — 37S. Pim. Thr lesd. 

-- ' araclBriatic ot Aonaiis in Vit "' ' "'"-■' " 

f «II ihe natura) ifreclions, i 

ing ctiarHi;teristic of Aonaiis in Vit^l ei^reBsas thc llrnlUI pusBes- 

-: r ..II ,jjg nalural BfTecliijnB, whicb i» the propor nieHning of 

ikegodB, in Dnc'a fniliei at ohildTen. 'niia Viigi! niain- 

tliin* throughout in hia delineBtioa of Aenegs, — 379. Fama, A.O, 
Ijiis ia not Bo mu^ pereoTial boHeting, n» i tef«rence lo tbn celobriiy 
of all those eonceniEd in Ibfl Trojan wor. — 380. RefbrMng lo tlia 
leeeiid ^at connected Dardsntis, ihe aneegtoT uf Aones". nnd Mig 
ffitJupilCT, wiih Btruria. See Am. iii. 1<>3, SiA —381. Daii. 8ea 
SIB.— 388. Sure. Theae wnrda for ih« winds are uiud wiiiiaui 
any imcial relerenco lo Ihe diredio» tttim whioh lh*F blpw 

llM^I, iwtiilani^KB. — 388. Jdvener». nrLlh }ui, hu tbe forGC qi 
mimiinin Baveniiii, It gives hsr groundfor -' -■-■■---■ 
nvitui iWnrfih», A»ras, St,c., cquimlen 

p^r in fxnye, (parrego) snd V"'!^ npmsiie» llie InteiMliy, t) 
plolion « tno Bction. — 391. VeTttM atiuilimSm* } •ithertt 
l^e absotuie, or ih£ daiive, govemed b; oeMm. — 339, 31' 
MB, Sse VY, ES6, 313. Cjennj. The hwid •mya seendU 

—394. /oeul lia. aquiia 395. TnrJiahat, waa lalalr.— L 

pm MBins here lo be eQiiivalonl 10 eligare, lo selMt *4I 
'Mli9]| M alight.— 396. The iierraci teiaeB marli whsl kwp 
tliBir weseut iayful reiurn lo ihe enfe euih. CaMM. 
iMlinBlioie o£ tho ?'"-" «"" '" " *■« 

LIBER I. 139 

Aut portum tenet, aut pleno subit ostia velo. 40r 

Perge modo, et, qua te ducit via, dirige gressum/ 

Dixit, et avertens rosea cervice refulsit, 
Ambrosiaeque comae divinum vertice odorem 
Spiravere 3 pedes vestis defluxit ad imos ; 
Et vera incessu patuit dea. Ille ubi matrem 405 

Agnovit, tali fugientem est voce secutus : 
' Quid natum tolies, crudelis tu quoque, falsis 
Ludis imaginibus*? cur dextrae jungere dextram 
Non datur, ac veras audire et reddere voces?* 
Talibus incusat, gressumque ad moenia tendit. 410 

At Venus obscuro gradientis aere sepsit, 
Et multo nebulae circum dea fudit araictu, 
Cernere ne quis eos, neu quis contingere posset, 
Molirive moram, aut veniendi poscere causas. 
Ipsa Paphum sublimis abit, sedesque revisit 415 

Laeta suas, ubi templum illi, centumque Sabaeo 
Thure calent arae sertisque recentibus halant. 

Corripuere viiim interea, qua semita monstrat. 
Jamque ascendebant collem, qui plurimus urbi 
Imminet advcrsasque adspectat desuper arces. 420 

Miratur molem Aeneas, magalia quondam, 
Miratur portas strepitumque et strata viarum. 
Instant ardentes Tyrii ; pars ducere muros, 

401. Modo. This brings back the mind to 389. — 402. Bosea, 
The same remark appiies to this as to purjmreum. Ecl. ix. 40.— 
403. Amhrosiae^ used by the deities as an unguent. — 404. JDefiuxit. 
Her huntress drcss reached only to her knees. See 320. — 405. in- 
cessu. Comparc vv. 46, 497, for the notion of stateliness iuvolved 
in incedo. 1 hc walk of the deities was reprcscnted as a gliding 
motion, unlike the mortal pedetentim. Ded; the a not clided. lUe^ 
with its emphatic force, *hc on ihe olher hand.' — 409. Fero», 
whcrein they would spcak as motlier and son — their frue position. 
—410. Gressum. The gait of Venus was irtcessvs ; thcirs gressus, 
— 412. Dea. From its positioA, it is evident that this is no mere 
epithet applicd to Venus, but hns this force — * by her divine power.* 
—415. Faphum. A town on the south-west of Cyprus, celebrated 
for its worship of Vcnus. — 416. Sahaeo. The south-west of Ara- 
bia Felix was callod Sabaca. It was celebratcd for its wealth (see 
the account of the queen of Sheba, Saba, in the Scriptures) and foi 
ita BpiceB. See Georg. i. 57, ii. 117; MiIion's Paradise Lost — 

• North-east winds blow 
Sabaean odours froin thc spicy shores 
Of Araby ihe blest.'— iv. IGl. 

|7o blood was shed in thc worship of Vcnus. — 419. Plurimus, al- 
tinimuB coHium qui adstant. — 421. For a description of the primi- 
CIV6 wigwams imas^alia) of the Numidians, scc Sallust, Bell. Ju* 
§UTtk., c. 18. — 423. Ducere. The historical injinitive, taking th* 

MoliciqDe nroem et manibui subTolTere sasa, 
Pars upl&ra locum leulo ut concliiijere sulcoi 
JuTA initsislralasqile leguiil aaaclumque aenatuiai 
Hio puctue aJii enodiunt ; hiu alta IbeatriH 
Fuiidai[ii?D(a IvraiK M^ imninnJBque cotuniiiaa 
Kupibui axciijunl, «ceiils decora alla fulurii. 
Qnalit apcn neuate nuva [lor Horea nim 
Elenwl eub «u)e lab»r, cum genlis adullos 
Edllcuiil feluit, M«t cum liqaealia mella 
Stipaai et dulci diiti^nduai neeiate cellas, 
Aul oriara auoipmiit vtmiantnm, aut agmiiie laclO 
lenitviini fuonspcomta jiraeaBpibus aroent ; 
l^orvet opus, reaulentnue ihymo fragninlia mella. 
'O fortunalt, quorum Jam nuienia BUrgunt !' 
A^neaH ail, el fd*ttJ!<H i>Oi>|)tcit orbis. 
Infprt nn Enpiu* nobuU — mirabile diclu — 
IVr iiii.-diu», tniccelijite virii, neqiie ceniitur ulli. 
Liicu« III iirbi< liiil modia, laiiiifiEiinus umbrse, 
CluQ primum jnciaii uiidis ei lurbine fueoi 
EirtKii^ra loco Bij{itumi ijuod rogia Jano 
MoQMmrAl, capul acne equi ; sic uam fore bnllo 
Iilj{togi«m e1 liuulam viuia per saefiula ^ntem. 
Hio leinplum Juiioiu liigens Sidonia Dido 
Condobal, doiiis opulenium et numine divfti», 
AereacuigradibiiR surBebont limiaa nexaeqiia 
Atitv tralMii, foribUB cnrdo stridebat a^nis. 
Uoa primum iu luou nova ree oblata limorem 
Leniit, Itia Dninuin A«(i#as sperare galoteni 
Auf>u« Rt nllliciis moliiiB coafidere rebus. 
Namque sub iiigenti luslrtii dum singula lemplo, 

» of (li* imprrfiicl indioBiivi!. anit Daitveying the a 


ie was uied 1>X Il>e UBmsRa u 

r .|i<»l isnpplied lo ihe iJireB sabe 

L Inh OB» verlj, equiFHlent locnnilitiiiinf. when aHed Wldl ^iira, 4 

«MlW wilh iho Diher Iwo, — 430. There i» ■ — >•--■:--•-: 

f UiUMK-Tibs litbin- Poenos eieioei, juala, & . 

SilililBrir J™. '»■ 679. Lliuialia. Aen. v. 238, 77S.— ,4Sjl 
, neHHW all ihis whilH cntsBing ihe hill, but he waBuowai 

,. ef jl; hnnne tuipicit 141. In confnrmily wiih ihis le^ 

I CatlhaginiBn coin» bore a horae"» hBBd 445. Viilu. ^ 

>E Binr» J As ihe horsc ia useful in war, nnd ir. 

I, prohahly Vireil alliideg co thn Iwofold Opulanco af Ci 

" "■ 'tolii war bh3 niarehandiae. Then /acumi virlit rrSl 

ading In ihe reEUuroeB of oaay uffluonM,' — 44& ifiM 

dbwUB .4ere ia ihe next Unn. — 449. Atn trabttl i 

■e prob»hiy » 

LIBER I. 141 

Reginam opperiers, dum, quae forluna sit urbi, 

Artificumque manus inler se operumque laborem 455 

Miratur, videt Iliacas ex ordine pugnas 

Bellaquo jam fama tolum vulgata per orbem, 

Atridas, Priamumque. et saevum ambobus Achillen. 

Constitit, et lacrymans, 'Quis jam locus,' inquit, ^Achate, 

Quae regio in terris nostri non plena laboris? 460 

En Priamus. Sunt hic etiam sua praemia laudi, 

Sunt lacrymae rerum et mentem mortalia tangunt. 

Solve metus; feret haec aliquam tibi fama salutem.' 

Sic ait, atque animum pictura pascit inani, 

Multa gemens, largoque humectat llnmine voltum. 465 

Namque videbat. uti bellantes Pergama circum 

Hac fugerent Graii, premeret Trojana juventusj 

Hac Phryges, instaret curru crislalus Achilles. 

Nec procul hinc Rhesi niveis tenloria velis 

Agnoscit lacrymans, primo quae prodita somno 470 

Tydides multa vastabat c^icde cruentus, 

Ardentisque avertil ecjuos in castra, prius quam 

Pabula gustassent Trojae Xanthumque bibissent. 

Parte alia fugiens amissis Troilus armis. 

Infelix puer atque Irapar congressus AcnilH, 475 

Fertur equis, curruciue haeret resupinus inani, 

Lora tenens tamen : huic cervixque comaeque trahuntur 

Per terram, et versa pulvis inscribitur hasta. 

Interea ad templum non aequae Palladis ibant 

458. Achillcs had quarrclled with thc Greeks, especially with 
Agamemnon, thcrebv daninging tho causc of Mcnelaus, both in- 
cluded in thc word Atridas ; and he was thc rclcntless foe of the 
Trojans, here represcntcd by Priam. — 461. Hic etiam is to be con- 
sidered as belonging to sunt lacrymae rerum (the tcars of, due to 
life'8 inoidents), and to tangunt^ &c. — 4G3. In his emotion, Aeneas 
forgets Achates, and soliloquiscs. — 4C5. In this dcscription of the 
picture, composed of six compartments, a great deal dcpcnds in 

Freserving the notion of the tenses, as given by Virgil. — 466-468. 
n this first compartmcnt Virgii has probably iii vicw the slaughter 
of the Trojans by Achillcs, whcn infuriatcd by the death of Patro- 
clu8. Fugerent, were (repreaented in tho picturc as) in the act of 
fleeing; and so with the othcr imperfccts. — 469-473. The second 
compartment represents the capturc of thc horsos of Rhesus. Seo 
Ovid, Met, xiii. 249, &c. — 472. Avertit, the prescnt t« driving 

away, but with the real forcc of an imperfect ; hencc gustassent. 

473. Prius quam gustagsent. This subjunctivc indicatcs that it was 
the intention of Diomede (Tyditles) to drivc away tho Iiorses bcfore, 
&o. — 474-478. Thc third compartment is that ofTroilus, Priam'8 

Joungest son, slain by Achillcs, dragp^cd by his chariot. — 478. 
*ulvU; long by tho arsig. — 479-482. The fourth comp<irtment ia 
thftt of tho Trojan dames Dlfenng to Pallas tho peplus^ or sacred robe. 

■ ASIftlOQS. 

Cnnibus Iliades passis peplumque (erBhoMj ■ 
Suppliciler tf Istes el tuiisae peclom palmis; 
Dira m\o fixos oculoa aversa lenebal. 
Ter circum llJacos lapiarerat Heclora muios, 
Eimnimuiiique aum corpua vendebal AcbtUM. 
TuiD vero iiigeulem gemitum dat pectore ab inu^ 
ITt ^lia, ul ciirrui, utqiie ipaum corpus amici, 
Ten^entemque maniia Priamum conspexil iaennia> 
Se quoqne principibus permixlum agnoTit Aelu*is 
Ei>asquc aciee et nigii Memnouis aima. 
Ducil Amazoiiidum lunatis agmiua pellia 
Pentliesilea furens, mediisqua in millibus nidet, 
Auiea subnectena eicsertae cingula mammae, 
Bellairii. oudelqns viriE concarieie viigo. 

Haec dum Dardanio Aeiiese mirenda TidentHt, 
Dum Blupel, oblaluque haerel defixas in ntio, 
fiegina atl t«mplum, forma pmtchecrima Diija, 
Incewit, mAsnn juvenum stipante caieiVB. 
Quahs in Eurolae ripis aut per juga Cynlhi 
£xercet Diaita chnros, quam tnille secuiae 
HiacatquehincglomemutiirOieadies; illa phaMram 
Fert hnmero, giadiensque deas «uperemintit imiii*; 
Laloiiae lamtum peilentanl gaudia psclus: 
Talis eml Dido, talem se laeta feteMI 
Fec mediog, instana opeti regnjsque tDlDii*. 
Tum ioribtis divae, media leBiuiline lempli, 
Sepl» «riui», adioigue alto snbniM, rcseilit. 
Jum dHbni l«^>efiqiM viria, DpernmqDe loiinran 
Parlihn* ai-qiiabal jnalis, tmlsorlo irahpbiil; 
Cum eubilo Aenean criiCHi^u ai«i-dtir(^ nnsuo 
Anlhcs Seieesiiimquc tJiIpi forlrmni"- l"lo*iiihiiiti, 
Teucroiiunqtte niioa, atcr nnus uj/.iin )■■ 'uiiiii 
Dinpalentl pf-nitaM[u<° ::]■■■ • ■ 


lUS. — .'Kti. i*J. 

ibt nlidillB Df ihe letnpli 

- ia.hirt - -■ ' ' 

tht Joorn ihe iDnBf lialy^lnft 

LIBER I. 143 

Obstupuit Bimul ipse, simul percussus Achates 
Laetitiaque metuque ; avidi conjungere dextras 
Ardebant; sed res animos incognita turbat. 515 

Dissimulant, et nube cava speculantur amicti, 
Quae fortuna viris, classem quo litore linquant, 
Quid veniant 3 cunclis nam lecti navibus ibant, 
Orantes veniam, et templum clamore petebant. 

Postquam introgressi et coram data copia fandi, 520 
Maximus IlioneU^s placido sic pectore coepit ; 
*0 Regina, novam cui condere Jupiter urbem 
Justitiaque dedit gentis frenare superbas, 
Troes te miseri, ventis maria omnia vecti, 
Oramus : prohibe infandos a navibus ignis, 525 

Parce pio generi, et propius res aspice nostras. 
Non nos aut ferro Libycos populare Penatis 
Venimus, aut raptas ad litora vertere praedas; 
Non ea vis animo, nec tanta superbia victis. 
£st locus, Hesperiam Graii cognomine dicunt, 530 

Terra antiqua, potens armis atque ubere glebae; 
Oenotri coluere viri ; nuiic fama, minores 
Italiam dixisse ducis de nomine gentem. 
Hic cursus fuit : 

Cum subito adsurgens fluctu nimbosus Orion 535 

In vada caeca tulit, penitusque procacibus austris 
Perque undas, superante salo, perque invia saxa 
Dispulit; huc pauci vestris adnavimus oris. 
Quod genus hoc hominum'? quaeve hunc tam barbara 

Permittit patria ? hospitio prohibemur arenae ; 540 

Bella cient, primaque vetant consistere terra. 

515. The reaBOD of their perplexity is expressed by the a4jectiv8 
ncognita. — 521. Maximu*, natu et auctoritatc. — 526. Fropiug, 
iccuratius. — 527. Populare. Populatum would be the prose con- 
traction. Penate$, tne gods presiding over the housenold, here 
iquivalent to domoflt sedcs. — 530. Hesperus (?(nrcpo(), the evening 
tar — the west. Hesperia, any land west of the speaker; Spain 
ometimes; hcre Italy, callcd (5G9) Hesperia magna. — 532. Oenotri, 
I tribe of Pelasffians, early inhabitants of thc wcst of Southern 
taly. — 533. Italus ; a fabulous prince of Italy is alluded to. Such 
Mineaf derived from the country, but said to givc name to it, are 
i^Ued eponymoui. — 534. Ilii;, &c. Tlie reader will often find in 
b» Aeneid such unfinished lincs, arising probably from the prema- 
ntfkath of Virgil befoi-e hc had time to revisc his grcat pocm. - 
wL OruMft, a famous hunter in the old mythes, then a constellation 
ifciaie ritin^ was supposed to be accompanied with violont p 
|fM9 JkM, in. 517, iv. 52. Mark short, in iii. 517 1 
iWriii raferring to tlie pri vious hominum. 


Su genus humBniun el morialiit leinDilia Mim, 

Al aperate Jeas meTnores fnniii i>U|un nefaodi. 
Rex erat Aeneag Dobis. uuo justior nJtef 
N«u pielate fuit, nec betlo mnior el amiiE. 

Aeltiena, nequa adhuc crniieJibiie oocubat uinbft% 
Noti ineius^ otlicia iie te ccilasse firioti.>ia 
Poenileal. Suiit ei Siculift regionibu! uibes 
Arvai|oe, Traianoque a sangame clatui AcesCeB. 
Quaualum veiitis Mocal subiliioere cUBsein, 
El silvis aptare trabes el slriogers remoa ; 
Si dalur Iialiami sociis eE lege rect^plo, 
TeiHiere, ut lialiam laeli Latiamijue pemiuDEp 
Sia absumpla salus, el te, paler optome TeDCtHlB, 
Ponttis babel Libfae, nec eoes jbjh lestal luli, 
Ai frela Sicaoiae Batlein seilesque paraia*, • 
Uiule bae advecti, regemqoe petamos Aceaim,' 
Talibos [liooens; ciincii «uual ore (iem«bwit 

Tum breviiet Dido, TDllum iltfmiMa, prabtu: 
'Solvile conJe melum, T«ucii, «wluilile eaiu. 
Reo ijum ei tejtni ncvitaa mn talia w;^!!! 
MoUri, et lale Roi» ciistO'l/> to«ti. 
Quis genu» Aeneailum, (]ats Tiojw Dp-Hsiait nilmt, 
VirluteHjue viro^oe, aol lauli ionttDdiM IkiUi ! 
Noii obluHi adeo i;>;s(amii« piN^tor.! l^UMi), 
Nec tam avejEUs eijUo>' Tyrin Sol jtmiiit nli aiim. 
Seu vos Hesperiam ma2''^"i s.,iiiri,i!i. ,iih nrva, 
Sivn Biyciii liitiH re^^ji,, ■ ■ 

Aaxilio toioi dimtliam. 
Vitliis et liiE mecum pu , ' ' 

Urb«ni qnatn aialiia, > ' , i ' n . 

iiunl c 

Of t.!,J 

— Bil, ic. EilhFT Aenes» ■ 
nnBWoald repnir lo llalv. oc. ii ri.i>, m, 
— 357. Jr- See M3. — 'S64. 3f*Iir». i I 
sRitn. Herc ii innnuntes ihe rcIaDiani:< 
coun* lo sodi eipedientB. — S6h, I?ni n< 
liwm— 'who 90 ienomnt aa nni 'o lui',v. 
nolion, Ihot cold legioiis prou i 
530. SatKnia. ftntuni, ileit: 
laken refog* in ItaJjr. — 5Til. ; 
Sicilf j aUii • iin; of that nni:' 
tattt toraia of thi; CDaElrtifiti>n . 
nlaiive. 1. The lulnljinlTK- mav lic iii 

LIBER I. 145 

Tros Tyriusque mihi nulio discrimine agetur. 

Atque utinam rex ipse Noto compuJsus eodem 575 

Adforet Aeneas ! Equidem per lilora certos 

Dimittam et Libyae lustrare extrema jubebo, 

Si quibus ejectus silvis aut urbibus errat.' 

His animum adrecti dictis et fortis Achates 
Et pater Aeneas jamdudum erumpere nubem 580 

Ardebant. Prior Aeneaa compellat Achates : 
^Nate dea, quae nunc animo sententia surgit ? 
Omnia tuta vides, classem sociosque receptos. 
Unus abest, medio in fluctu quem vidimus ipsi 
Submersum ; dictis respondent cetera matris.' 685 

Vix ea fatus erat, cum circumfusa repenle 
Scindit se nubes et in aethera purgat apertum. 
Restitit Aeneas claraque in luce refulsit, 
Os humerosque deo similis j namque ipsa decoram 
Caesariem nato genetrix lumenque juventae 593 

Purpureum et laetos oculis adflarat bonores : 
Quaie manus addunt ebori decus, aut ubi flavo 
Argentum Pariusve lapis circumdatur auro. 
Tum sic reginam adloquitur, cunctisque repente 
Improvisus ait : 'Coram, quem quaeritis, adsum, 595 
Troius Aeneas, Libycis ereptus ab undis. 
sola infandoB Trojae miserata labores, 
Quae nos, reliquias Danaum. terraeque marisque 
Omnibus exhaustos jam casibus, omuium egenos, 
Urbe, domo socias, grates persolvere dignas 600 

Non opis est nostrae, Dido, nec quidquid ubique est 
Gentis Dardamae, magnum quae sparsa per orbem. 

unexpresscd in the relative clauso : quam statuo, urbs vestra est. 
This is the most common construction. 2. The subatantive may 
be expreased in both clauses : quam urbcm statuo, vestra urbs est, 
Caesar is food of this iteration. 3. The substantive may be ex- 
pressed in the relative clauso, and unexpressed in the antecedent 
clause, the relative coming first: quam urbem statuo, vestra eat. 
4. As in the third method, the rclativc coming last. Both these 
last are rare. In this and similar instancos, the circumstance of the 
Bubstantive comin^ first secms to dcmand attention to the substan- 
tive : * Tho city wnich I am rearing — even it.' — 576. CertoSj fidos. 
— 584. Sce 113, &c.— 585. Sco 390, &c. — 587. Both scindit and 
ffurgat refer to se. — 589. For this construction, seo Zumpt, ^ 458. 
^591. Purpureum. See Ecl. ix. 40. — 593. Parius. Paros was an 
iBland of the Cyclades, celobrated for its sparkling marble. Th« 
ooxnpajison is bctwecn Acncas and his incrcased bcauty, and the 
•iriUumt offects produced by artistic skill on ivory, silver, or marbla. 
-«601. Opinj &c. A singular expression, eqnivnlcnt lo • non pofl* 


13 .V 

K libi, Bi qtu pio8 reapecUnt nuiuina, n quid 
UsquaRi iaatilia eit et mens sibi consaia noii, 
Praemia digna feraut. Qoaa le lara laeta tnlenmt $tS 
Saecula ! qui I&nli lalecii eienDere pajenlecT 
In frela dum flnvii currenl, lium montibas UndHae 
Lusirabuni coQvex&. polus dnm Bid«ra ^aaeeo, 
Semper boncs nomenque luiun l3udesqa« manebaat, 
Q»ae me cnmqne vocant lerrae.' Sic islnft, 
IlioQea peli! deKira, iaevaqne Sefeaiuai, 
Posl alios, Ibrtemque Gyan, fortemqae C 

Obstopuil primo atjfpectn Sidonia Dido, 
Casu deinde Tiri laiito, et aic ore locoia esl : 
' QuJB te, nate dm, per isula penciila casu» 
laseqQiinr f quae ti^ imroautbaE appiicat iwis! 
Tiine ille Aenees, qitem DerdaniD Anchima 
Abna Venu» Phrygii gcnail Simoenlis ad tuiilara t 
Atqae etjuidem Teuctum memiai Sidooa «voin 
FLmbns ejipulMim patriis, novai reena petaOMn 
Auxibo Beii ; geniior lom Beliu opiniani 
Vn«Uibat CyptQfn, et vidou dilione (mebal. 
TempoTe jam ex ilio «asua mibi Doani!u« vriMS 
T(9jiit»« nomenque (unm rogc^jDR P^JBt^. 
Ipae bDBtis Teucro« itiBlgni laoJe ferefaat, 
MNiao orlom aaltqaa Teucrannn ab Gltipe rolvtet. 
Qnitra agiie, o lectia, jurenes, nocailile HMlhi, 
Me quoque per multos similis dmmia UbotM 
Jaetalam ba« derotiin volait conaitlers lern. 
Nun ignsia mnJi misetis iHCcnrTcra tliKai.' 
Sie aiemarat ; simul AeueBO in tegiS dDcit 
Teota, simul diram lemptia indicil baoaieiii. 
Nec Hunoa inierea eaclif otl litvt« minit 
Vigiati tatiros, magQonim t«ncntB ee&lam 

601. h/riia. «ct-. Fotasiiailar 
608, Convtxk, vslleg, Petui. ibi: Iii 
die pasture gnninil frani which ilic ■ 

— eil.7I^«,'»»r^. — G14. Otc, 

Isled 'aJoaJ.' — 617. Danlan^ AnrMto* ; itdM 
tnm I fon ot TeUnion. Reiamiiin Iram TMf 
haii kiUed hinuelf! he waa driven by liW fclhiirl 
Imiu, aod foDnded Salamis in Cyi^ua. Mam» 
i. 17. ~ e2i. Beli. See3S3, — 633. rniCTw; - 
k named frDin anolhet TeaoBr iAai. jij- 108); be 

■ tba Tascan Dardanus, who meeeedad lo ibe ' 

■ mother llesione. dsaghtet of ihe Trojan I 
B Aml This (w^ioifiiior ihsidugivine ia 
^k neituid, not Ihsi of Honieric timcs, in wbich 
^^^io tbe bouse or ihe hofl. See 73. 


LIBER I. 147 

Terga suum. pinguis centum cum malribus agnos, 635 

Munera laelitiamque dii. 

At domus interior regali splendida luxu 

Instmitur, mediisque parant convivia tectis: 

Arte laboratae vestes ostroque superbo, 

Ingens argentum mensis, caelataque in auro 640 

Fortia facta patrum, series longissima rerum, 

Per tot ducta viros antiquae ab origine gentis. 

Aeneas — neque enim patrius consistere mentem 
Passus amor — rapidum ad navis praemittit Achaten, 
Ascanio ferat haec, ipsumque ad moenia ducat ; 645 
Omnis in Ascanio cari stat cura parentis. 
Munera praeterea, Iliacis erepta ruinis, 
Ferre jubet, pallam signis auroque rigentem, 
£t circumtexcum croceo velamen acantho, 
Omatus Argivae Helenae, quos illa Mycenis, 650 

Pergama cum peteret inconcessosque Hymenaeos, 
Extulerat, matris Ledae mirabile (lonum; 
Praeterea sceptmm, Ilione quod gesserat olim, 
Maxima natamm Priami, colloque monile 
Baccatum, et duplicem gemmis auroque coronam. 655 
Haec celerans iter ad navis tendebat Achates. 

At Cytherea novas artes, nova pectore versat 
Consilia, ut faciem mutatus et ora Cupido 
Pro dulci Ascanio veniat, donisque furentem 
Incendat reginam, atque ossibus implicet ignem; 660 
Quippe domum timet ambiguam Tyriosque bilinguis; 
Urit atrox Juno, et sub noctem cura recursat. 
Ergo his aligeram dictis affatur Amorem : 
'Nate, meae vires, mea magna potentia, solus, 

636. Dii, For diei ; to cclebrate the day. Dei, that is, Bacchi 
(see Aen. ix. 337), is also read. Then we shoald have laetiliaMque 
Dei ; vinum, connected with tauros, terfra, agnoSt and mttftera, 
would be a common attribute of the four, and in apposition with 
them. — 645. Ferat. For this usc of thc subjunctivo aner praenUttit 
Vithout utj scc Zumpt, ^ 624. — 646. Stat infers constancy. See 
268. — 650. Argivae^ in its widcr scnsc of Grccian, and with stiil 
greater liccnce. Mvcenia for Sparta. — 651. PeterU by thc arsis. — 
652. Ledacy wifo oi Tyndarus, king of Sparta, mother of Castor, 
Pollux, Clytemnestra, and Hclon. — 655. Baccatunij so callcd from 
the berry-hke shape of pcarls. Duplicem rcfcrs to tho twofold ma- 
terials. — 657. Cytherea ; sce 257. Artes rcfcrring to /ocim, &c. ; 
eoiuilia to donisquej &lc. — 658. Faciem, the whole appcarance; 
•nz, the features. — 659. Join incendat donis. Furentem, ut furat. 
^661. BUinguis. Compare the well-known expression P«n«0s 
Jidut. — 664. Join solus with qui. Some place no comma after|»- 
(eiitia, joining solus with mea magna potentia, in this sensey qm 

Nate, palriAmimini qui leU TyphDUk temnii^ 
Ad le confugio et supplex lu» numiiia poaco. 
Frater ul Aeneas jpeU^ luus aimiia citciim 
Litoia jaclelui odiis JunoDi^ iDiquae, 
Nota titii, et noslro doluisti saepe dolore. 
Huno Phoenisaa tenet Dida blamliBquo moralur 
Vocibua; el vereor, quo se Junonm verlant 
Uoepilia; haud tHuIo ceeeabil caidiae rerum. 
Quociica capere aole dolja el cingere llamniA 
Reginam medilor, ne qno ao numine niu.Iel, 
Sed magno Aeneae mecum lenealur amore, 
Qua faoere id possit^ noslrara naue acoipe monlem : 
liegius acciia cari geuitoris ad uibeni 
Sidouiam puei ire paret, mea maxima ouni, 
Dona ferenii, pelagu et flammis reElanlia Trojae ; 
Huac ego BOuitain Bomno euper alla Cjthen 
Aul fiuper iJaliuin GBCtata eede lecouilBii], 
Ne qua ^ire dolos medinsve occurrere posiil. 
Tu laciera QUue, noclem non ampliua uuaia, 
Falle doio, el nolos poeri puer iodne vultiui, 
Ul, cum te giemio accipiet laeliasima Dido 
Re^lis inler ineQEafi lalicemqoe Lvaeum, 
Cnm dabil amplexus atquo uaoula duloia figel, 
Occultuin ingpires tguem falla»:|ue yeaeaa/ 
Paiet Amor diclis carse genetrioia, el alaa 
Exuil, et greeeu ^udena incedit Juli. 
At Venu» Aei-ani^ pkcidam pei tnembta qaNtetn 

FtoTibua el dulci adepiians oomplec 

JViwmii, diviinun opem. — 66!f. JViila for rji 

Gieekidlom- — 671. A"e involvea ui oon. : 

sloae qoalifylDg lenAitur. JVuniiu leferrui 
~ ~ J. Sopilvm. Perfecl panicipleB ortFu ' 

LIBER I. 149 

Jamque ibat dicto parens et dona Cupido 695 

Regia portabat Tyriis, duce laetus Achate. 

Cum venit, aulaeis jam se rejrina superbis 

Aurea composuit sponda mediamque locavit ; 

Jam pater Aeneas et jam Trojana juventus 

Conveniunt, stratoque super discumbitur ostro. 700 

Dant famuli manibus lymphas, Cereremque canistris 

Expediunt, tonsisque ferunt mantelia villis. 

Quinquaginta intus famulae, quibus ordine longam 

Cura penum struere, et flammis adolere Penatis, 

Centum aliae, tolidemque pares aetate ministri, 705 

Qui dapibus mensas onerent et pocula ponant. 

Nec non et Tyrii per limina laeta frequentes 

Convenere, toris jussi discumbere pictis. 

Mirantur dona Aeneae, mirantur lulum, 

Flagrantisque dei vultus simulataque verba, 710 

Pallamque et pictum croceo velamen acantho. 

Praecipue infelix, pesti devota futurae, 

Expleri mentem nequit ardescitque tuendo 

Phoenissa, et pariter puero donisque movetur. 

IUe ubi complexu Aeneae colloque pependit 715 

£t magnum falsi implevit genitoris amorem, 

Reginam petit. Haec oculis, haec pectore toto 

Haeret et interdum gremio fovet, inscia Dido 

Insideat quantus miserae deus. At memor ille 

Matris Acidaliae paulatim abolere Sychacum 720 

Incipit, et vivo tentat praevertere amore 

Jam pridem resides animos desuetaque corda. 

695. Virgil proservcs great cxactncss in the uso of his tenses. 
Seo 467 and 6'J7. Ilcro ih-xt and portahat mark what Cupid wac 
doin^ at the time that Ascanius slumbcred in tho perfumea groveB 
of Idalium. — 697. For tho roason mcntioned in the prcvious note, 
be careful to translato vinit composuit, &c. according to their strict 
times. — 700. St rato oatro, ieclia puTpMTeia. — 701. Cererem, panes» 
as in Ecl. v. 69. Thcro aro thrco scts of slavcs hore described. 
One attends to tho giiests, anothcr to the cooking, and the third to 
the banquet. — 702. Tonsisque. Seo Gcorg.iv.377. Obscrvo, wa- 
tcr to wash thc hands, towels to drv them, and bread for the tables. 
— 703. Lonfram penum. Dapium longam seriem. — 704. Struere, 
the nominativo ot thc innnitivc aftcr erat involvcd in cura. Flam' 
miSf &c. AUuding to tho fact, that the Fenates wcro worshipped 
in tho innermost part of thn house, cxposcd to the smoke oi tho 
hearths, wherc the cooking was goingon. — 708. Fictis acu. — 711. 
See 649. — 713. Expleri mentem. Sce Zumpt, $458. — 716. In^ple- 
vit-^petit, Scc 697. — 720. Aciflaliae. From a spring in Boeotiap 
sacred to the Graces, the attendants of Venus. — 721. Praevertere* 
What iH the forco of prae ? Pcrhaps, prae Sychaeo, * in prefereBC^ 


Bio regicBt g»>wn getmnts MieqDB eopowU. 
Ia»de«itqae mera patenun, qnam B^a» ei mat 
A Belo Boliti; runi facta nlenlialeeliB: 

' Jnplter, ha«pitibafl i . . - , 

Hnjm Uetiun Tynitqne dieoi Ttopqaa prafMis 
EfSB Teli^ iMMiio«}u« hDJD« memiBissB miaoi 
Aiisil laeutiae SsccfaiH dalor, et Ima Joiw ; 
Etvoc>,»,oM - - - - 




« iladit iDenfiiiai»; iUe itapifet liMHit 
in intenm, ei pl«na se protoit anra; 
flotl «Iti [mioeiea. CdthvB cnailaa lopu 
Panoot ■wmia, docuit qiiu ttuuLlflias Atlo* 
Hic cajitl mmaun lanem eoliaqae laborcs ; 
Uodi bwnlmttn geoiM ot peeadea : uode itnlwr et igaes ; 
ARtwwv plnnMqw ^w* grntimsque Tnooo^; 
Qaid Uumim OtMDO nn|>erBu m tio-tiei» itUaa 7U 
Hibenit, vel odm ludb iiiotb iioe<ibu« otwut. 
IngBw ii i iai it {Jmimi Tjrtii, TroeEqDe Mqnontiir. 
Nee oon ei mio DDclera esimnoe iiabrad 
Infelix Dido, hmgiiiDqiie bibebal amtirvtii, 
Mitlta wper Pmoio iagiisi»i ^'*Pf Hacioia mid 
tiTOK, qttibcs Annme *euiMei filroe umia, 
Nunc^ qnajea Diamedis ecjoi, nmo, qtanb» AoliSIua. 
'Immo age, et a prjim, di«, bosjieB, niigiiiii ncibb 

733. Jtfouae; ptotMbtyihe nHmhtc bnodk on «klidl tha diiiMI 
Mn bnniBbl in aod placed. BcBVe.—TM. FtMwmmM. Saa 
emtg. n. SIB.—7ae. Aiirta! prwwgnta s) t«D «jlUMta- — 799. 

^^oa; nyut tmptere from i^Iem^ 731. &nioDcbiao(hareiin- 

Mtea, Jspiler vaa auppoted le pr«gUe Bvar Ihe !■•■ HrhoaptlaMjr- 
Bcace be wn cdled by ihe Greeks ihm. bj the RomaM, Bttmi. 
loKi.— T38. £i^p^, notbiDe tcnik.— TM. Citicta. Soeh aoea»- 

■Dd vne noi agjiiuiwn lo ihe RonniiB. — 741. .liiiu. TbeAMMi 
Allia, aytbologicaUr biBBd a« hine, sdnnnRDn, ■ * ' '~ 

•f the faeorens. i* apiljf tnmdond Sf """" """" 

__. dBjr^ — 7SI. See 489.-759. £n>; pnibahl* tbo 
Mok ftom Rhnos. Sce 472. — 7S3. O ' ' -'-• 
«tj^of ihe wal, (lut «Tthe «iteB aflhB 
Semd Book 

Sjuii pnibaU* tho MM 

1. Oruiue. nridantlv-H 

Ihe <AMkB— Ite Mlfttfii 

LIBER II. 151 

Insidias,' inquit, ^ Danaum, casusque tuorura, 
Erroresque tuos; nam te jam septima portat 755 

Omnibus errantem terris et fluctibus aestas.' 


Tke Second and Third Books are artfully contrived to give an 
aecount of the downfall of Troy, and the wanderings of Ae- 
neas thereafter, till tho time that we find him in the position 
described in the First Book. 

The Second Book comprises the destruction of Troy, as narrated 
by Aeneas in compliance with the wishes of Dido. After a 
brief introduction, 1-13, we have an account of the entrance 
into Troy of the wooden horse, fuU of armed men, with the 
treachery of Sinon, and the fate of Laocoon and his chiidren, 
13-250. Night comes, and the Greeks descend from the 
horsc, and invado the city, 250-267. Aeneas, forewarned by 
a dream, and alarmed by the tumult, rushes into tbe conflict, 
the result of which is for some time doubtful, 268—401. The 
gods decide in favour of the Greeks, 402-437. Attack on 
Priam's palace, and death of Priam, 438-558. Aeneas, on 
his way homeward to save his father, is prevented from slay- 
ing Helen by a vision, 559—631. Anchises refuses to seek 
safety, but at last, encouraged by heavenly signs, consents, 
632-704. The flight, 705-735. Creusa, the wife of Aeneas, 
is lost in the confusion, 736—746. Aeneas, returning in search 
of hcr to the city, finds it wholly occupied by the Greeks, 747— 
767. The ghost of Crensa appears to him, consoles, and coun- 
sels him to depart, 768-794. He returns to his fathei and fol- 
lowers, and takes shelter in Mount Ida, 795-804. 

CoNTicuERE omnes, intentique ora tenebant. 
Inde toro pater Aeneas sic orsus ab alto : 

* Infandum, Regina, jubes renovare dolorera, 
Trojanas ut opes et lamentabile regnum 
Eruerint Danai ; quaeque ipse miserrima vidi, 5 

£t quorum pars magna fui. Quis talia fando 

1. CoHticuere ; in translating, retain the force of con, Ora, ocn- 
loB et ▼ultus. — 3. Jubes renovare ; for this constraction of^ 
withoot tho accusative (here me), soe Zumpt, $617. — 6. JleM. 
Med in a general sense to denote ' during the act of narrating,' 
'.o be deeiAed active or passivo aceording to the context ; here. 
mblvaettve, dum fatur; in lino 81, pasiuve, dum aliquod nar 
••t, iBter narrationes aliquas. 

Mjnnidoaum Dolopumve aDl dnri ipiles Ulici 
I^p«(el A lo^Hinis! Ei jasi cmi hnmida eoda 
rniecipiuij Huuienlqne (sdantia nden iwiapB». 
Sed si taaiiig ainor cuos eogMiMeie imwIem 
Ya breviter Trojae «ipreauiin aiuliie UMram, 


' Fracti bello fatuque repalea 
Dnctores DanaDm, lot jam Uttealibas amii 
Inslai moalis eqnaiu diiiiia l^lUJa sna 
AMli6cant, BPciai]Ue inleTiuit ■) 
Votiim pro ledilu Eimolani ; ett 
HlKt delecta rintni EOilitt rM|v>tB (ofUfll 
IncliKtanl caeco laleri, |>anit«(Hnfl cavemi 
Ingentis atermnqDe aimato niifiU «laiplaB 

* Eel ic ooaspentii Teoedos, noiMaisui laiob - 
Insula, dives opfun, Prtami dom rcen ilUL|wbMI| 
Nddc anliim sinDs e< staliu mals fida earijiaa. 
Hnc se piDve«ti deserto ic 

-' -[ renlo peliisM Mtcmms- 
•olrii 98 TeDcria liwta ; 

im ei Dnrica nuin 
btii«]iH raliDlim. 
le saevua taBdalw ARhOlM; — 
oenaM ■otabant.'' >? 

iDplaa doDiim giiliale MiMifTM, 
aBUueqoii phmuaiiMi TbjnniwKA 
Dod inlra muitiG boltanir et aroa lonii, 
Sire ihilo^ een jua TrajaB iie &a fimlamt. 
At Cap|s, e( qconim melior eenlflntia meaift S 

7. Tbe HTtmidaaQ aad Dalnpre were Ttiwalhna, Ika llniw 
• tbsiinmdktefallinreiaaj AcUUei.diBtaltBriif PIUMtt. A4IW> 
' nrMeptat. — 9. Frtrifitat. Sm i. SL NlQbl o — i m B i m m is 
' Aownword couim inta ilit nreani ii iras paM iduIhbIu. — tE. tl^ 
niBm.> *riin shndilersi' rcfv^ peif,. 'kn Img nmilad {rk' 

II. 7»«. Ta.— la. TheconaimnoToriiiebwBei»-- *" — '" 

laoebi bf Fkllas- — ^f^ Abaie. Pranoni* 
A snulf utwd eO Ihe taatt of Mjvia, q 
aS. JVW ta^tieal. J*nje " ~ "" 

« Mmfa. 

of th" oveijoyed Treii — 

Tauldai lemoria. — 31. Stufri^ . . 

tlieft uliumiEUm. Rmm SlnHrtat, gfn. nOt 


II PiiuD, liiilnTingslain Iris wifci 
Kpirate propwJu*: I. Toi"" — 


Aut pela^ Danaum insidias auspectaqne dona 
Pmecipicare jabtiiil, subjaciiKque urere flammi^ 
Aut lerebrare cavas oleri et tenlare latebras. 

' Primas ibi anle Dmnis, magna comitaule CBie 
Laacoon ardens Bumma deciirtit ab arce, 
Et procul: " miserl, quae tanta iuBania, civea^ 
Creditis avecloa hoslis 1 aut ulla putaljs 
Dona carere doiia Danaum ? sic naiae Ulixeel 
Aul hoc inciuai ligna occullaulur Achivi, 
Aut baec in nostros iabricala est inschina muros, 
Inapeclura domoa venturaque desuperurbi, 
Aut aliquia IbIbI error; aquo ne credile, Teacri. 
Quidquid id esl, timeo Danaos el dona ferenlis." 
Bio falus validis ingsntem viribns hastam 
In kiua isque feri ourvam compagibus alvura 
Contorsit. Sletit illa Iremens, uteroqoe recuBfto 
Insunuere cavaa gemitumque dedere caver 
£t, si faU deum, ai mens non laevn fuiesel, 
Impulerat ferro Argolicas foeilars latebras, 
Trojaque nunc stare?) Priamiqne arx alla n 

'Kcce, mauue jnvenem inteFea poat terga 
Pastores magna ad regem clamore Irahebant 


wo wnys — some rccommeniling Ihat it sbouMbe huded it 

thp Bta (prfago) ond llicm lin ^M >l tulijeft «7 
ehould bc b irnrd " 1 r-tnir ne 19 hollo» deplhs. — 11. £00. 
em» h S ^5 — 4' J tbcbI. This inili- 

colc» 1 aiao sliown by hia bro- 

fcen 1 I G enks, properly oF 

tbo Ar K »liu ucaoriliitg ta tha 

Mel" L/ 11 propDrly ihe ouae, 

Srst cl sl tiiiB tpBioponnMus, 

nnd lnbtW \ I 13 i u dicu d n 1 ihe Greeki generally.— 
Sl r;r Eijai bnuv 018—1)4 Sijiitadtan. Phemoal naiural 
cona ru 101 ei.i.nia 10 bo nun laeva [in Ihe vense ol' unpropiiiauc) 
fuuKiii Bnt tanybe/ata (uisieni vobueeni — SS. InipuliTai. 
Indicnl ve bh iI Ihe «ITiict hid ocluallf followed A hvpaiheBia 
wcceda» — iho fnvuor of Iho Faies »nd the acutsneaB o( ihe TrojanB. 
Thit eranled tiB« !acX (iit. lil), the reeull isf^OHUy 11 fHCE, But ihs 
bpoUeiie ie unfouniledj ihe roeult, therefore, dnBB not follow. 
^^^■eema to lia tlio nUumiic of Ench exprcBBianB aa those whetB 
jljshien to Ihe etBleiiiBnl, aa if ifao reenlt hnd beon ao neulll 
^'tUlllt il hsd pBBBedfroni llie poesible 10 the aotual. See tlni 
AS19. OWrve. moteover, Ihe subjuuQtives which follM^I 
•^ mantre*. Fa«liin. Bee Zumpl, «615. ^rgaIig|§B 
Ar^oUc, ftom Argos, bul uaed for Gtaecas. 8es 41, t^M 
im, Sinon (Eee Ti), occotdiog 10 the paal-HomelicpMJ^H 
of Dlyeees, ^^H 

W «B!«KtDes. 

DBrdAnldM, qui k i^nniutn veaianiibiw u1In>, 
Hoc ipeum iit «ruerci Trojnmi^aii nperirot AcluTii^ 
Obluloiat, tident «iiimi, alqua la atrumqiii; paialas, 
Seu vornro dolos, mu c«TUie ooeumbure looiti. 
Undiqao visBiiiti «ludin Tiajw» inrtnlu* 
CiiouRiCaoi luil, oertunlquo illudera Mplo. 
Accip« nanc Duiaum insidias, et criuuuu ab uiio 
Pisoe onini». 

Nam(|uu ut conepecto in medio turb«lue, iaeimiti, 

Connlitit «tquo ocuIiB I'hrygia agmina oircumsptytit : 

" Hcm. miaa nnnc lollus.'' inrniil. " nuae inii af-nuara, 

), (]na. 

c lollus,'' inquil, " quae inu ««■quura po>- 

Acciperu? aut quid jam misera mihi deiiique restat, 70 
Cui ueqile apud Duioob uaquom locuf. el supMr i[i»i 
Dnrdanidae mfonsi poeuaB cum mngume poMunt." 
Quu gemilo conversi anlmi, cnrapreaiuB ei onuii» 
Imputits. Hoitamur fari, quo Baupuiae ciema, 
Qnidva feral ; memoret, quae sil tiilacia caplo. ?(• 

Ille haeo, depunita tandom jannidinn, fuinr: 

" Cuticla equidem libi, H«i, I uerit quuduumque, fnlebor 
Vera," inqDiti "naque me Argolica de aonln ne^bo; 
Um Tirimam; nee, bi roieernm Fortunu Sinonem 
Fiuxil, vanum etiam mendacamqDO improba, fingct. BO 
FtDdo aliquod ai [orte tuas pervonit ad auria 
Boiidae nnmen Palamndi» et inclnta fatiia 
Glcria, quem falsa eub proditione Pela^i 
iDsoutem iulando indici(>, Quia belts vstabat, 
Demisere nooi, nunccaBsum lumine lo^nt: 
illi me comitem et oouHBnguinitate propinqoum 
Paopei in arma paler primis buc misit ab aimiB- 



By i/oc ip , 

■k nf ceitsiji dewli if b« should n... - 
I. He wni prcparcd foi eitlisi lU 
ifetiy eTHiun \a na BccnBalion arijutUi 

i-Sii. Onnii Dsnaos. — 68. Tho iipuni];i 

Hiuiaiw gncr. i^rwln. Beiikra Irina 
HMXif Mvsin ; hcncenere foi Troji 
JtfrJeftiHae. ~- '— -'■- " 

Of MvBin ! hcnce .,. , ... _-^ 

ni4ae. a palronrRric far llio Tr«inw, from 
71. Obwrve ihochangeof cmiiltucllMi, X 

t ,.?.■ --' 

... A dem 

«iGilm of ilio trisBchfry of ulyBBe», eocordinj . 
i-Homerie noeis. Ses Ovid, JU«. xitl. G6-tiO.- 
Sa. TiO«» icia nicnn tho beijinning rjf tlie 

J6 iflf/Ma», rt 
if ulyBBe», eoi 



Dam slabal regno meolnniis regumque vigcbat 
CooBiliiB, el tioa aliquod nonieuque deeuBque 
GeBsimuB, Iiividia postquRm peljiicis Ulixi — SO 

Haud ignola loquor — superis conceEsit ab oii», 
AdilJDlus vttam iu tenebris lactuque trahebam, 
Et casum in^ntia mecum iudigoabar amioi. 
Neo lacai, demeoB, et lae, IbrB ei quu tulisBet, 
Si pattios umquam remeasaero vicior ad Argoa, 
PrmniBi nliDrem, et verbia odia aspera movi. 
Hitic raihi prima raali labee, hinc semper Ulixea 
Criminibns lerrere notin, hino sparsere vocbs 
In Tulgum ambiguas, et quaerere couBcius arma. 
Nec requievit enim, donec Calchante minislru — 
Sed quid ego haec autem neqitidqaam iiigrdft reTolTO} 
Quidve iiioror, ei omnis imo ordine habetia Acbivos, 
Idqiie audire sat est? Jamdudum snmite poenas 
Hoc Ithacus Telit, et msgiio mercciilur Atridas." 
'Tum vero ardemus si^ilari el qtiaerere causas, 
Ignari Ecelerum lanlorum arliaqtie Pukpgae. 
Prosequitur paviteinB, et ficto pectore rator: 

" Saspe fugam Danai Troja cnpiere reliala 
Maliri et longo iessi diecedere bello— 
FeciBseiitqoe ulinam ' — 6a«pe illos aspera ponti 
Intercluait hiems^ et termit Auater euntis. 
Pmecipue, cum jam hic IrabibuB contextus ucertiii 
Slaret eguus, toto Boauerunl aelhere iiimbi. 
SuBpenBi Gurypjlum Bcilantem oracula Phoebi 
MittimuE, isque adytis haec IriEtia dicta repottat : 
'Sangaiae placastis ventoi et virgine cuoaa, 
yBBTs ofmy raaolwodl ProbaWy tIib lailer. Suih oompiinionfi 
aa that of FaliuneteB and Suioii were caiinnon ia llia Hctoii! tir,„ 
—as. Slabal. See i. i;68.— 9«. Titlurtl. The EujliHli Klium li.« 
TfinlB lu tran aeoiag ihs fult signillcanLO of thia latta frwNtit o^ 
p«jl, *nd at lliiB paii (ime the appor unitv woa coiu. Ivad u ann- 
^*i (fut-jierfect) prioi lo Uie threaienecl rEvenge — IP Terrtre. 
Thft huloriol inftnitive. wbicti tsliBs the p\ 1) r triTpfifljal 

fmIlo»tivH. 8oe Znrapl, 5 »99 1«3 Eu - -' 

'ingMdlniih:' or.reBolvingiHi: eianna 

'■•(lin. C^i^iB was ihe grenl Buolhajyer 

I -TnijiBI wsr. For ihis mode oC spBech 

1IM. ume nonneclion, eHpeciolIy wb 

lt«««fa«C Ihe idea nfqtiidquaia mgrulu 

nolire lo dwell on diglBSteful si 


Caia primum lliacas, Uanai, venislJB ad ona; 
Saiiguine qua«rendi reditus, animaqQf litnndmn 
Argolicn.' Vulgi quac vox ut vt-nil ad nuris, 
Ob»Iupuere aiiirai, gelidusque pcir ima cucurril 
Oasa treinor, cul fala pat«nt. qu«tn po8C«t Apollo, 
Hic llhacuB VBtem magno OtrobanlB tumallu 
Ptutnihit in medtos; qiiae iiiDt e» tmmina divoin, 
Pla^itat. £l mibi jam tnulli crudflln cAnebkni 
Attiflcis seeJuit, et laciii venlura videbant. 
BiB quino» Bilet ille diea, teelusqua rBOUBUt 
Prudure vou» suu quomquam aul opponer* moiti. 
Vix landom, inoeTii* Irbaci clamoribns acins, 
Compgfilo nimpit voeem, e1 raa deslieal iirM. 
Ailsemeru umnC!!, el, quae BJbi qalsquo tini»bal, 
UniuS in mi»eri exllium caTiTcraa tulere. 
JantiniA dics inr«niln luletal ; roihi sa<^m parart, 
Et raluM trugce, irt cirvum lempnra vitlae, 
Ecipui, fateor, !wo me, e\ vinciila rupi, 
Limofoque lacu per noi^icm iibiicufu# m ulva 
Dt-liluij dum vefa darenl, si lorle tlftiisMtil. 
Ncc mdii jam pAlriam aiitiquam i>pM ulk vidondi, 
Nee (luiGis nairiH etoptaiumque j«Fenlem ; 
Quos illi forg et poeriit» ob noxlm r»|>D«oeiit 
ElfuKia, e[ calpam haiic miMrUfum xnune piabunl. 
fiiioit t« pet sLiperoH ei onnMiia numin» wii, 
Pcr, si quft est, qune rcsiot adliiio morlalibua nsqtiain 
Inleiueratii iidos, oro, miwroru lulnrum 
Tuiiotuia, min«ii«re miimi iioa dtejtu feiwntiti," 

'His Inorimis vitam tiamus, bi niiwrHEiiimnii tiflro, I 
Ipse viropiiinuii raaiiican alqMi aroU lovatt 
Viaelc juibet Friamus, diciis^ue Ita ffttux «diflis : 
"Quisqais BP, amiiiiOB hino JWB riWiviii3i»m tJniioa; 
NoEter eris; mihique liat^R i^diiwfri^ vara ni^anli: 
Quiim<:lambnnciniiiianifiequlstalu<!>it>^ qumauclof! 1 
Quidve petunt 1 quaereligii)! oal i]iiiiu tuuthiciH.liHni' 

121. Parentmorlem. — m. Qnuwa. : . 
SwM — 133, Sahar fmeet. nio\B uis:i 
aptinhled on ihe besd of ihe Biiiiniil lo 1<" 
AficordiDB lo Mutyn, on Gntr/r, m. K!-, 
B»l'fl-lBirarre«d-niBco. whith 'grovn only v 
WiMU onoagh lo conntnil aay persan.' — 1 

nadiag (Dlheri ntnil od fornai), q , . 

'^BRitiifiMlion,' £f,etiDiD. — U1, QwdrelenMd 
•nimlive. 118 Bgriiund fot wiini followB: 'In theM aii 
•— 143. Ftr intoiner»iam fldeni — 145. Ei — nJina. -; 
ktM Ilis fori-e iif oiir ' ay, ovnii uiiMked." — ISl. ^ 

DDm stabat regno ineolumia regumqHe vigeljat 
Consiliis, et iioa aliquod nuiriQiiqiie Jucustiuc 
GeBsiraas. Invidia poBtquam pellacis Ulisi — 
Haud ignota loquor — BUperia coiicEsait ab oris, 
Adfiiotus vitBm in tenebriB luotuque Irahabam, 
£t casum insonlis mecum indignabar amici, 
Neo lacui, demens, et niB, fors si qna tutiHsel, 
Si patrios umquam remeaMem victor ad Argos, 
PromJsi uUorem, et verbis odia aspera movi. 
Hinc mihi prima mali labes, hinc aemper UlixGB 
Criminibus lerrere novis, hioc spargere voces 
In vulgum amhiguas, et quaerere conscius arma. 
Nec requievil enim, donee Culehanle miniatro — 
Sed quid ego haec aulem ncqiiidijuam iiigndt revolvo 
Quldve moror, si omniB uno orOine habeils Acbivoe, 
Idque audire sat eat^ Jamdudum Eumile poenaa; 
Hoc Ithacua velil, el mBgiio morcetiiur Atridae." 
' Tiim vera ardemus scitari el quaerare causae, 
Ignari «celerum lantorum arlia(]oe Pslasgae. 
Prosequitur pavilang, ei fictu peuiere fatur : 

"Saepe fogam Dauai Troja cnpiere relicta 

Moliri et Joiigo iesst dieaeileiu bello— 

Fecisaenlqae utiiiam ! — saepe illos aspera ponli I 

Inlsrclusit kiem», et lerruii Aaster eunlia. 

Praecipue, cum jam hic Irabibua contextns acerais 

Staret equus, loio «luuerunl aelhere nimbi. 

Suspensi Kurypylom scitanlem otacula Ptioebi 

Mittimus, i«<}ue ailytis haec Iristia dicla reportat : 1 

placAitlls ventoa et virgine oaesa, 

yeors ofiuy nKmtioodf Frobnlj]]' ibB lallEr. Siich cciinpiuiianabipi 

Bs ihat iit 1'aUmBdeB SDil Sinoii were eoinmon iii ilis Heroic time& 

— 83. Stabot, Sieel.a68.— 0i. TuliiieJ. The Engliab idiora pre- 

»ant» ue frotn «ecii% tbo (uU eiguificBn™ of tiiis icaia. Framiii ia 

t pott, aiul Di ihis paat lime Uu opporluoiiv w«b CfiiLCcivod ns i^i>«- 

I tifda' Ijfult-fwr/e^ [trior ID ihe ihreiLteiied revenge. — 99. Temrf. 

' Tliii InsioricBl ionnitive, which lu-kes iho place uf tliu imperfijat 

■ idKaiive, ScB Zurapt, 4 599,— 100. BiHm moy havo tho foree of 

I» jjOoU irwli •' or, tHaolvlQg nee, a anna iidepluB esl, nwi riiqalevit 

_ _Hin. Calohiie wu the grom eooihtiayer of iii« Crceka ducing ih* 

Iq-t^jan «DT. For tbia mode of apeocb. bgg i. 135.-1(11. Sei~ 

l|«»i n rars nonnecliiMi, eBpeciallj' whrT Ihus saparalod. Mny it 

II bd t)m ihe idea ntouuJfiian ingmta is referrad to? 'i'bere 

*~'' ' ' a DinbvB to dwtill on diatastefiil Babjecla, hut uot on iliose 

*•< nojsidquam ingTUIa. — 103. JamdKdtLm, ' it is now morc 

— IM. /cAsc»!, a conlemptuoua exprcBaton fbr IJlyaBw- 

1. Eatiiii, ' in iha vi 

■DiTerso mlerea mitcenlur moenia luctu, 
£l magis alqiie mau>«. i[uaiiiquam i>ecrela, fiateatilt 
Ancbjeaa dotnus itrboribiisque obtecla receecit, 
Clareecuiit sttiutua, armariiro({i>e ijigriiii hotrar. 
Exculior somno, el sDmmi fasligia lecil 
ABcensu supero, atque arreclis auributi adsto ; 
In Be^etem VBtuti cum ijanuna furenlibus austris 
lacidil, aul rapidus rnoulano flamtne (oTreoa 
Sternit agros, aierait sata laeta boutnque Uborea, 
Praecipili«qae Irahit BUvas ; stapet inscius dlo 
Accipiena soniiom saxi Ue verlice paslor. 
Tum vuro manireala fides, Danaumquo i^t«seillit 
Tiieidiae, Jam Deiphobi dedit ampfn ruiuaii) 
Volcano aupBmnte il<imui>, jam projiitmus BTdet 
Ueaiagon; Sigea igni frein Iftta rcluoetil. 
Exoritur clamorque virum vlaii^njuo lubanHn. 
Antili nmens capioj necsat rationiK in MFmi»; 
Scd glomerate mBiium ballo «l cuauurrera iii aioeta 
Cum «JCiiH ardent animi , funir itaque mmtem 
Praecipitanl, pulchriiinqu'1 mori Buccurcit iu ainiia. 

■ Eooe amem telit Panlhus el«psu& Achivoui, 
Panlhus OLhryadee, atcie l'ho»l>li]ue aa^eiiliM, 
Sacrit manu victosque dsos pafniiDiini' niirioium 
Ipui Irabit, eursuque amens ad liauTUt tHnJit. 
''Quu tes8niiunaloco,PaDthu? qwtmprurjiJu) 
Vlx on falu3«i8rD,gcmiiu cuiu talia mldit: 
'' Veuit «umma. tlics el inelucI/Ujile (emiHM 
Dardatiiae. Fuimus Troes, fuit Qium, ei ineoiH 
Gloria Teuciorum ; ferus omuia Jupiii^i' Ai^w* 

taved froni ite holy place of Veeia'» Iflnple, adiiit fxutfnijil 
S99. JUiicstiur IiKtu, lucbantur vEriis lenum riiciui.— 3>^, 
cirminietanciu fender»ii ihe bnuse of Aocbiai-s «ti|wHl«iad (n 
— ii WB9 fnr B^araled rmm olher hollMs, nnJ il iiovi aiAidM 
—302. EKutiar. excutia me: wiib ihe foree o( nGftr-X 
ymt), — !I04, &,e. A BliikinE eitsile, where ihe fafillofi 
whilo lislonitlg 10 llie fnghiful Iiunult. ant likODnl ln lam 
sllepherd htiariiig the rmii uf Hnmes, or ot a ewdUoii (aimit. 
ItiMCuif. hatauso tgflDraiit of Ihc uaiue, — 30*. Ftdwj 
''£,10 Sjnon ; snd ironical, aa ia ihs a){ 

Veiphobi, u Bon of PriBm. Sbb Atn, 

VelmiiB. lar ignt. Seo Bc(, v. 69; v!b». J. 1T7, 

hir piieafiges 313. Sigea. A proiDoiilarT ne 

lame bere to ilie odjoiniDg 
. . breadih.' — 'iJb. BtUs, tb» daliva., 
Piaibi, cujua faHRUi iii btco eral. —323, £«• m 
■aiolf w(u ihe chief conccrn. Arrm, Bbetgbli ii 

L buiii en a heigbt; btre, BB^plKe ofi *" 

min empliuB "'" ' — "■ 


-336. A. 

Sanguineae superant undas; pars celera pontum 
Pone legil ainuatque ioimenBa voliimine lerga. 
Fit wnitus spuniBnte ealo ; jamque aita tenebant, 
Ardeiilisqne oculos EulFecti sKinguiQB et igni, 
Sibila lambebaut linguis vibranlibua oia. 
DiSugimtis viau exeaogues. Hli agmine certo 
Laoooonta petunt; et primum paira duorum 
Corpora iiBtomm seipeas amplexuB uterquB 
ImpUcat, ut miBeroB morsu depascituv acius ; 
Post ipBum, anKilio subeuntem ac tcla ferentem, 
Corripiunt, spiriMUB liganl tngentibus; et jnm 
Bis medinm amplexi, bis collo EqDamea circum 
Terga datt, superant oapite et cerricibus altis. 
Ille simul manibuE lendii dlvellere nodos, 
Perfuaus sanie vittaa atioque veneno, 
Clamores simnl horrendos ad sidera tollit; 
Qualis mugilus, fugit cum saucius aram 
TauruB et mcertam ezausEil cervice securim. 
At gemini lapsu delubta ad aumma dracones 
EfTugiant saevaeque petimt Tritonidts arcem, 
Sub pedibDBqne dcae clipeiqae Bub orbe teguntur. 
Tum vero tramefacta oonB iier peclora cuDClia 
Insinnat pavor, et soelus expendisse mereLilem 
Laocoonta feriint, sacrum qfli cuBpide robur 
LaeEerit et In^ soeleratiun inlorserit tiastam. 
Ducenduxii 9.d sede» simulacrum orandaque liivaa 
NumiiiH ecmcilamant. 

Dividimasnniros et moenia paiidlmna urblE. 
Acoiujunl dinliee operi, pedibusque rotarum 
Subjiulu&t Ihpms, 01 stuppea vincula collo 

ns. Xuii. Stowly iravGrsea, Sinaat tcrga, ia BiDui ietgt plhiMi* 

...jfBjerti. SeBBJ. i. 53, &,c. — 312. J™tB». 8b«Y. 

i. — ilfi. rm, noBtea. —817. The riciinesB e( vocabloB ie doaerv- 

af noticei aniiui, mIthriri, ipirit. — S18. Bia. TMt aixe itr 

w ioftTrwl from ihtSi ttiiil tiioaga two foldB wore rouud his wiu«t 

wo roiiiid his neck, iheir necks and heitda mse ebove hia. Cir- 

___li(f wtfn; Iha ordinBT? conalruclioo ; ctrnnnilnti irrira. Krl. i. 

B<— Stt. Vittat. Even <he rocrad fillDt could iti 

■e Tostka thc 

LiLoeoon'a dooia 

,■ nin, nll wiih l 

. T) bniiik down llic 

fc'— 1(3S. AeciAgVAi, ae, 

iSsfanfi lapiut i rolaB lahenles. 

IntsnduDt- ScBndlt fatatia machiDa muro^ 
Feia armis. Poeri clfciim innuptaBqae piiella» 
Sacra cantiDl, funemque manu coblmgere gaciileat. 
Hla subil, (nediaeque niicanB iUabitur urbi 
palria, o divom iJorous Ilium, el iiiclula betlo 
MoeDin Dardanidum ! qualer ipso in llmine purlM 
Substilil, alque ulero eouiliim ijualei arma deilere; 
Insiarttos tamen immtimore& cauaique fuiorei 
Et monstmm iiifelix KacraliL siatiiDaB aice. 
Tunc etiam fati^ aperit CaseanJfa fnturis 
Ora, ilei ja^sv nou umquam credita T^ucri» 
Nds ilelobra deum mi&eii, qnibiia ullimus MHt 
Ulo die^ festa veiamos froode per uibetn. 

'VertilDt inlerea coeium el rnil oct^no Nux, 
tnvolteos umbra magnB teiiamque poluiDuu* 
Myrmidmumque dolos; fuei p^r moenialeectt 
Conltcuere ; sopor fessoB compleotiiar artoa: 
Et JBin Argira phalaTii inslnictia iiavibua 0!«) 
A Tenedu, tacilae per amicn gilBntiB lunna 
Lilora nola petens, llainmas i.'am le^a pDppai 
EnlHlerat; fatisque deum Jiifuuftus uifi|alt^ 
]»cIitso< uiero Danaos et ninea fnriiin 
[.axal clauetra Sinon. nioe ^MelnL-tuE ait «Dru 
Beddil equua, laelique cnvd mi rDtinro pramnnt 
ThfiMandi»! Slhenelusque duciw «I ilinia Olius, 
OemiaHUm lapsi per fiinein, Acanuuijna^ ^ _. . 
Peliilesque Neopiulemus, pdmB»]UU Uu * 

337. Eila!i$. aeo 165.— 338. -TKri. tkC Al< 
— »19. The onward pmgjtfa irf. tW UKifa 
•Mendin^ at ifae entiuncej itt^iknr, gtat^im 
in Uie middle of liie ciiy ; miMitit, MnpfaKBB. 
cHadel: jufntiM. itt uTiviLliherK — MS. <*• ~ 
vf Piinn, wlia obtainBd froin Apotla lb<i .:ii 
llie coodiiioa mioiioned ia ibe Deii lioe. i : 
Dsed 10 indicBle eny anc who tnilhfuJlr 
beliwed. — SiS. j}/iifrj — fuiiui smi*. 'i !. 
«hal respe«l ihey weie tvi<i(ciicd — 'in-j- 
njierjr ii eanliBalcd wiih iheii reiotein(p- — 3M- 
10 he^ien llie ■lleel of the desaipliin] a( ttM Al 
HeaTen i^ repieeenled as e conoBve epbere 

Bighi-lieavFii liata fioni ihe orean SM. JPt 

airindicstiTe of preparaiion, ~~ 355. Tln n 
fiivuunil'le lo Lhe Gieekc. unles^ vrith 
biiiat lo mcui & time wben ibe iDoon IVM 
Tndilion bore ihai Troy was capiund at fnlt 
Libeian* Oiinaiu Ituof claMrlm. — 3S3. ATin - ' 
af Acbilles. snd coaseqoenllj^^odsooiilf 
"" 'e dcncent, or peiliaps &rBi ii 

Et Msiiekus, et ipse doli fabricator Epeos. 
Invaduat urbem Bomno vinoqua Bepullara ; 
Jieduniur ri^lea, pDrtisqua patenlibua omniB 
Acdpiunt bocios atque agmiiya cutiBcia juiigunt. 

' Tempus urat, quo pnrna quies mortalibua aegris 
Inoipil el dono divoin gratisBima serpit. 
In BDmnis, ecce, ante oculos mowitBaimuB Heolor 
TiBUS adesse mihi, largosquB etfandere lletus, 
fiaplatua bigis, ut quoudam, aterqua cruentu 
Pulvere, perquo pedes trajeclua lora lumentis. 
Hei milii, qualia eral ! quantum mutatus ab iUa 
Hectore, qui redit eKuvioa indulus Achilli, 
Vel Daaaum Phrygios jaculalus puppibus ignis ! 
Squalentem bartKLni el coucretos sanguine orinis 
Volrieraque llla gerens, quae circnm plurinia muros 
Accepit patriOB. Ultro tlens ipsa videbav 
Compellara virum et moe^tas expromere voces : 
" lux Dardaniae, spes o fidissima Teucrum, 
Qnae lanlae leuuere morae 1 qaibut Hectoi ab oris 
Eiupectate venisT ut le post mulla luorum 
Fiuiera, poBt vario.i hominumque nrbieque labores, 
Defeeai aspioimos! quae caoBsa indigna eerenos 
Foedavit vulliifll aut eur haec vulnem cerpol" 
Ule nihil, nea me quaerentem vana moralur, 
Sed graviter geniitas imo dc peCtore ducens, 
" Heu fus;a, ^ate dea, teque hia," ait, " eripe flammi' 
Hostis bsibtil muros; ruit alto a culmine Troja. 
Sal pairitw Priauaijue datum: si Pergama doxtvn 
Defeiidi poa*epi, elum haa dereuiia fuissent. 
SacrasuoBque tllii comm«ndat Troja Penalis; 
Hos eapn fotorum comiics, his moeiiia quaere, 
M&gOA paTerrBia sintaes miae denique ponlo." 
8ic mI, ot imnibiui vtttiw Vetiiamque poientem 
Aetamunique nijjtts eOetrpeuetralibua iguem. 

— S6S. ITrSaifc Pnnn tho oilndel. — 270, lleetor. 

~ Tiey, «en or " " 

kt Uta chariot 

' ItDAwn hera of Tivy, «en of Priani, ivhom Achillcs having i 
itaesfA Ihriiw Bt Uta ehariot round Iha waila of Trov laccordiL^ .^ 
VtQca.i.iai). — 3TS. JSiuviai. Heeior bad elain Bnd spoiled Patiw 

,.„. ;hi!los.— 376. JacMiodw. Afterha 

A«ddaiW. — 379. ip"- 'iBswoJlaaho.' — 3ST. The leidsi must 
^irVi' ^iloi:)vcr'<<I tlmt ttueh wanl« aa dixii are frDquenliy leri lo his 
-wv* ■" •-—"!" ■■' m iUe ytitiU. Ntt meratar ; ifaat is. hy anawat- 
!■ iiiii. — 298. Si patstnt impliBa a nejtative — 'iT 

i.-il. ahieli thcT/ evM tiot he.' Sueh ts thp forco 
iiiriclivo in Eimilareenlences. — 397. Aelemim, 

III. I. M vp^tB wero DBVBr allowedto diapul. Hactori» 

^^^^^^^^ ^r.uii AciKas th4He etned thingti whiah he iHd^ 


'DlTcrea inierea mltoenlur mocnia luciu, 
£t iciigia alqus magie, quaniquam Hect^Ia par«ati( 
AnchiBas duniiis atboribusqud obtecla rvoesslE, 
ClBreacuiii BDDiiUB, Brmoniraqde iiigiuil humiT. 
Exonlior whdiio, «i eumini JwiiKia leeti 
AtMnsu supero, atqu* BmxitJs snribu* wltlo : 
Iti wifMem vetuii cum IIbidiim fatenlitius auetria 
iQCidil, aut r«f>iilu> laoiiIiuKi lliiiiiiix} torrniii 
Slnrnit nKrOfi, ilernit wu IneU tKiumqne kboreii, 
Pmpoipiliaque tixhit •!!¥«•; elupet inwiue &I10 
Acci|H«iie BCtiituiii «axi de verlice [«slor, 
Tum vnTO rnanifMta riilcii, Paniumnuo |>at«*cunl 
loiidiaa. Juni Di^tpiiobi ilodit lunpta ruiiiaia 
VoleUte «uperaulo dumuo, jam pronumus nidel 
lIul«f[Qn; Siitiia ii;ni fielQi lata rclucenl. 
Kxoiilur clhniorc)i]e virum clongurque tubarnm. 
Anoa amBnii eapiu; iiecaHi raiiom» it) Rimie; 
finl gloiDAraia maiiuin boilo ati ooomrrere iii aiecta 
Citm MOiie anient «nirui ; (nnir imque ia«>Diem 
Praecipitanl, pQlchrDnique inori succiirrit ia arniii. 

' Ecoo autem tolii Paiithu* clapsua Auhivom, 
I^lhusOitiiyadox, arui» l'ho«bu]ue oaoaKlon, 
Saera mnnu pictoMivie donii jiarrDmque nopolom 
ItMo trabii, cnmique Binmte ad liimna tendil. 
"Quoiessutiunaloi!a,Pantliu? quHinprendlmusarcoii 
Viji oa (atuii etam, gemiiu fum talia wdrfit : 
"Vpuii tuiDinadieB et iitoiufUbd'' lempiu 
DnFdimiao. Fuimo* Tiok*, tnil lliumi ol iugviin 
Giofia TBUOrornnt ; [nnt orotiia JlipilM An^ 

lytu pfoBroi 

riwiui.— 3ii 

— ^ wii far BvpiicBUsd rron oiherfaoui.,. 

— 302. Srriutor, oxcutio nui: wllh tli» roiua of a 
Wrb^— STM, dc.c. A Blcikine Bimile. wfaara ibs U 
ttlUlfl li«ioniii9 la ih« Irighifnl lumuli. aie '" 
«lleplianl htiating the loar of RamBa. or af a> 

.&Mdiu. bccauso igiiorani of ihe 

pMtfMtilv, to Sinon ; snd ironicsl, e , 

— 310. BeipluAi, a bdu of Pniiin. fifle jin. vL 4 
Veleaim. bt ignt. See Ed. v. 69 ; Aea ' — " 
iBrpaaMgta. — 313. Sigea. A promonl 
MBln. glvea immehiiTB 10 llio adjoining iioa(/™ta).J 

''ia tll theii biDodtb.' — Kl^. BrtU, <he dMi»i. — 3I| 
jnMU, cujui famm in nicu «rni. — 3i3S. Btim 
— ' — wae theehief nnnwrn, ^nrtm.alwightt a 
-~ ~ h«Je!it', herc, an^phu» of >iraii|ith. - 
• «umuB. — 326. Argef. SeeU. 


LIBER II. 168 

Transtulit : incensa Danai dominantur in urbe. 

Arduus armatos mediis in moenibus adstans 

Fundit equus, victorque Sinon incendia miscet 

Insultans. Portis alii bipatentibus adsunt, 330 

Millia quot majjnis umquam venere Mycenisj 

Obsedere alii telis angusta viarum 

Oppositi: stcat ferri acies mucrone corusco 

Slricta, parata neci ] vix primi proelia tentant 

Portarum vigiles, ct caeco IMarte resistunt.'' 335 

Talibus Othryadae dictis et numine divom 

In flammas et in arma feror. quo tristis Krinnys, 

Quo fremitus vocat et sublatus ad aethera clamor. 

Addunt se socios Rhipeus et maximus armis 

Epytus, oblati per lunam, Hypanisque Dymasciue, 

Et lateri agglomerant nostro, juvenisque Coroeous, 

Mygdonides. Illis ad Trojam forte diebus 

Venerat, insano Cassandrae incensus amore, 

Et gener auxilium Priamo Phrygibusquo ferebat, 

Infelix, qui nou sponsae praecepta furentis 345 


Quos ubi confertos audere in proelia vidi, 

Incipio Buper his: '• Juvenes, forlissima frustra 

Pectora, si vobis audcntem extrema cupido 

Certa sequi, quae sit rebus forluna videtis; 360 

Excessere omnes, adytis arisque relictis, 

Di, quibus imperium hoc steterat; succurritis urbi 

Incensae : moriamur, et in media arma ruamus. 

Una salus victis, nullam sperare salutem.*' 

Sic animis juvenum furor additus. Inde, lupi ceu 355 

Baptores atra in nebula, quos improba ventris 

328. Moenibus ; refcrring to thc fortificntionfl of the citadel in 
which the horsc iiow wns. Sec 234. — 329. Misceti pasRim jnctat. 
— 334. rrimi. Those iirst exposcd to thcir ntlack. — 335. Caecu$ 
Mart is on cngQgeincnt (sec Ecl. v. 09), in whicli thc rcf>istancc is 
xnadc at randuni, and, here by infcrencc, wiihout hopc of puccefls. 

luntary act on their pnrt. — 310. Fcrlunam. Scr 255. — 341. Ag- 
glomerant. 8ee i. 234. Foolish and ra.«h. — 342. Mtfffdoniflp8,irom 
nis father Myijcioiics. Fortc. He did not ronic by chancc, but it bu 
chanccd that h\s coniing to niarry Cns.«»nndra (scc 2U'i) wus contem- 
porRncous wiih thrsc cvonts. — 344. Gfver, applicd to one who 
wished to hc Priani's pnn-in-Ia\v. Scc 7icZ. viii. 18. — 34(>. Audie' 
rit, See i. :J88, ii. 248.-348. Svnerhiii. ' On the sidycct of our 
pFescnt entcrprisc' — 352. J)i. KeferrinR to thc Roman notion, 
• that the tuiclary goda forsook a doomcd city or nation. Cjuibut, 
d&tive. See 163.-356. Improba. The force of improbu9 in snch 


Exegit cweort nbiss, cataliqne reliclj 
Fuucibtu MBpoManl sicci», per lela, pet Iioslis 
VadimDB baod ilabiaiii in morlem, mediaeqne ' 
UrbiE ilcr ; nox atia cnTa circumToiar uinbrs. 
Quia oiadem illius nociis, quis funera fanda 
Eniliovt, 8UI poesil lacrimis seqnare laboreaT 
tTrbs ■ntiqua thjI, mallOi dominaia per aiiiMa; 
Plurima perqiie vias Btemaalnr inertia paaiin 
CDrpora, ptirque domosi et teligiosa dearam 
Limina. Nec soli poenas dajit saDguiQe T«iieri; 
Qucmlain eliam viclis redil in piaecardia TiMiii^ 
ViclOt«a(jae cadunt Daiiai. CruJelis Dliiqae 
Luctits, ubiqoG pa*or, el plurima moilis fnift^. 

' Primna ae, Danaain ma^mi comitante eaiet*>, 
Kudrogeoi ofierl rrobi», wt-ia a^ina cied«iiii 
IniiciD*^ BlqOB nltre rerbifl compellal amicia : 
" Festinati!, riri. Nam itoae lam eera moratnr 
SegnitieB'' alii raniaat liiceiiBa feruntque 
Peig&mBi vot («lais annc priaiamB naTibnn i;h*' 
Kidt, et exleroplo, neque piiim re^-".^-' .i'K..^.,,r 
Fida Httis, st-ne>I metlioB delapsii' i' 
Obstnpnit, letroqne pedem cum v<^: 
Improvigum aBpris veliili qai wiiti!> 
Prsseil hnroi nilepB, ttn'"li^^i'? "■ 

Altollenlem ira? el cai:vr!. ■ 

Haod secDB Androgeo.^ '. 
Imitmne, itensis el vin i 
Iguaicwjne locr pas«im i 
^■MUiiniis. Adspirat |:', 
Atqua btc eDccesBD e\^ii 
'*0 eoeii, qna prima," i<i 
Uonatnt iter, quaque ■/'.'-■ 
BJnlnmia olipeos, Danauiiniui- m-i 
ApleiBue. Uolos an liilas, ituiE i . 


^.. -heie nppliod lo hiiBger — ie n I 

4f li^aad<i*roDei reeyeaa. — 353. tuJiro; ■ 
plf stesdy lewlaiion.— 360. JW. See ^J. — . 
W WO W i on of mlirrf. paitil ai^iiare. j\BfuaTela 
(he le>n aiiaiica. — 367 Qucnilatt, abguuab 
Deaiii ■□ luanv a vimei (>tTm.—S(3. Sen. 8et«_ 
Vot; cmphsiir. — 377. Saait ddaptat,bmrBiBbll 
Ig KMidine lo ilie Creek naage, See SEti, — " "' 
rnVrrr and oib hki lefer lo nprtail : sn 1» 
•la* nndsiieMli. — 379. JtpniSaiatpBra.- ,__ — 
, iSi. Ahiint. In Uie mniie ihe ipaD Aa< surtsd ^ 

iis&a II. 

Arma dabunl ipsi," Sic fatus, de 
AndfOgei galeam ellpeiqiie insigne decoram 
Induitur, lalofique Argivum accomraojat ensem. 
Hoc Rhipeus, hoe ipse Djmas omniwjue juvenms 
Laeta fauitj apoliis se qniBque recenlibus armat. i 
YadimuB immixli Dunaie tiaud numina nosiro, 
Mullaque per coecam congreasi proelia noctem 
Consenmua, mullos Danaum demittimus Orco. 
Dilfuglant iilii ad riavis, et litora cureu 
Fida petunt^ para ingenCem formidine torpi < 

Scandunl rursus equum, ec nola conduntur in alvo. 

Keu invilis fae quemquaia lidere divis I 
Ecce trahebatur pafsis Priameia virgo 
CrinibuB a templo Ca9£andra adylisque Minervae, 
Ad coeinm tendena ardenlia lumina fruBtra — 4 

Lumina, nam leneia» arcebant vincula palmaa. 
Non tulit han^Bpeciem furiata menle CoroebuB, 
E[ sese mediuin iujecit pKritucaa in a^en. 
ConBetjuimur cUncti et donsis incurrimus armi«. 
Hic pnmum ex allo delubri culmir>e leiia , i 

Nosirotum obcuimur, oriturque miseriima caedes 
Armonim faoi? e( Cjrai^rum ermre jubaruiil< 
Tum Daoai, gentitu Blque ereptae virginis ira, 
Undique collecti iovadnnl — aucrrimua Ajax, 
El geraini Atridae, Dolopumque exercituB onwiB; * 
Adversi ruplo ceu quondam turbine venti 
Confligurit, ZephyruBque Notuaqoe el laetue Eots 
Euins equis; stndilnt silrae, saevitque Iridenli 
L^pumcus atqiie !mo Nereus ciet aequora fundo. 
lili etiam, ei quos o^cura oocte |Kr unibraRi '. 

39S. Seeftltii^, rwjcnter aeqaiBitis — 396. Tfumlae netlrBf. 
lerTiiiff ciilifr. lo llie tMiuos of ihe gods on th« s,rmour tclwnihni 
-■n»rum. aSSA, ot, r>I^r, larauiiDe ■gatnBt Ihe will ofour BixIh.^ 
)i. — 3»8. Orro. A nnnia ii>r ths dtrDth-god Pluio. —401. Con. 
ip iwitll llia Sqite of the Greek niiddle voice), ae CDndunl. — „ 
..•vUi/ difn». ThcabliuivBali&oluie. — 405. i.umina. SeC 171- 
I 40T. CoraiJnii mailt Jilriala Han. Ii.c. — 409. Coniyum^r, (A 
■ lo acunnpanr hint. Amit, llie dalive. — 410. FriMim, tba S 

^-IweH Wb r.c«iv«d. IWuiri. The temple of M' '""■ '- 

' 'i.CoMnndTB wm being dragBud (403), nnd . . _._ ,.„ 

'■ ■- See amantem, 391.-414. AJax. Se» i, 41.— W 

._ .ISa, Doinnm. S6o7 — H6. I\n«ne. Theti - 
|»di»B mH^s. ifie burslingofwlkichocciiHlaliatliREtO, 
— apreseeil compnrisoii. Tlis mislitughl of ihe Qriu— 
Iwiiid*! fury.- 417. .^i^. Fcoin (hn regian. of fl 
. ujuit. Seei. 469.-419. iTermi. Oiie.pftSa 
Ip ifidcnl \s properly ihe iusigne ol Ncpinno. J 


Fiidinuie insidiis lotaqne agiiavtiDDS athe, 
Appaieul ; pnmi elipeos meiitiiaque tela 
A^WscuDt, atque ora sono discorjia Gignaut. 
Ilicei obnnmur nameFoi primoHjue CoroebiH 
Penelt^ ilextrd divae anmpoleotid ad atain 
Procumbit ; cadit et RhJpeQs, jnstissiiiiDB tmos 
Qui fnit ia Tencris el servantiBsimua aequj — 
Disalitet Tisum,' peteitni Hraanisque Dymatqao 
COn£xl a sooiie; neo te tna plniima, PanUia, 
Labenlem pielas nec Apallints iofola leiit. 
Iliaci einere? ei Samma exlrema maomm, 
Testur, in occasu veBlro nec tela neo oll{u> 
VitftTJne Tices Danaum, el, si fala fuiciieai, 
Ut oadenm, meruiise maou. Direliimur iade; 
Iphitu» et Pelias inecum; qQDtnm Iphitua wtd 
Jftm ^vior, Pulias ei TUlnere tardua Uliu. 
P»tiiiD« ad aedes Piianti clunore Tocoli. 

^ Uartci» indomitum, Dnnacvqao nd lecu ratnlls • 
Omimas, oWKiamque acia iMiailtna limon. 
HurvQt psnetibas toake, p«ti>qiie eoli l{iM 
Nitunliir ^riulibiu, cIip<>o-| ii'> nJ Ti'I» •iiiiatri» 
PtoUwl) obiidiant, preii^.1 < 
DHnlasitliio oontra lnr r i i 
Calaiina coDvellunl; hi- 'ittiiDt, 

Ritiwia jam in raotlif ; n , 

Anraiajqiie Irabes, veii'. ■ im 

D^vntvimi: alU siricit.^ ■ 

.j. if»ai. A» d n,- 

10, Jliartrm. »•■•.■ 33.'. : h'l ■■ 
. «aEtnis, roofbd. md muviiue n 
I Iicilcging wtuj' sMiuleJ itii.' 
L71l> -vrhaie punnrF i» tnll m 
ntbJKI from thsi lo l,arrri> 
Ibu». Sm-T m, Irl". 11.5 ■■■' 

Circamdat neqGidquam humecis, ct inutile fernUIi Cl< 

Ciiigitur, ac dsDBOs ferltir moriturus ia hoBtis. 

AeiiibUB in mediis, nudoque Eub aethBrie oxe, 

Ingene ara fnil juxtaque veterriraa Jaufus, 

luuuRibons aiae atque umbta complexa Feiialiti- 

Hic Hecuba ct uatzie nequidquam uilatia circuni) 

Fraecipites atnt ceu tempeslute columbae, 

Condensas et diTom ampleirae eimulacra BedebBnt. 

Ipsum aulem sumptiB Priamom juvenalibuB armis 

Ut vidit, "Quae menfl tam dira, miaerrime oonjuAX^l 

Impulil his cingi telJs 1 aul quo rais '!" iaquit> 

" Nou taJi auxiho noe defaoBciribua istis 

Tempua eget; non, ei ipBa raeus nunc adforet Heotrt 

Huc taudem conoede; haec ara tuebitur oain\Br '" 

Aut moriare Bimul." Sio ore eiTata recepit 

Ad Eese et sacra loogBevum in seds looavil. 

' Ecce aulem elapsua Pyrrhi de caede Politd*t • 
Unus ualurum Priami, per tela, per hostis 
Porlicibaa longis fugit, et vacua alrja JuBlrat, 
Saucina. Illum ardens infeslo rulaerQ PyFriiuS 
Ingequitur, jara jaraque tenet et ptemil h»***" 
Ut tandero oate oculos evaail et ora. parentuiri> 
CoMcidit, ao multo vitam Dum sangmns fudil. _ 

Hio Frianms, quamqnam in media jam moria leii*'**"' 
Non lameu obsUouit, nec voci iraaque pepercit : , , 

" At tibi pro scelero," exclamat, "jro tulibus ai»s*ft 
Di, ei qu» est coelo pietae, quas lalia ouret, 
PerBolvatiC gratea dign&s et praemia rsddant 
Debila, qui itati oorara rae cernere ietum ^___— — — 


^'lie paaition of theao worijii ahciwa that tha tone disusa o"'.^^ 
hia Bge. — HK, Then vna s vtttibuljm ! then ini " '"' 

n BquBic, wilh iia spuuNu i?ani«. and in the mi(._ 
to tho heaven, wheis, U w™ uaual in ancienl hoQBet, . 
u ihe Poniuee, Ak, 8ec L 90. — 51S. Tho poBitian ><! 
.WKi aUaria indicaies Ihe impioue i^rueUy uf ibai Grui :> 
»Unta wtiTO nc pmtBclion. — 519. Qurr ment *a» rfim i" 
BipwBaion» nro cquivaleni lo bsi tam dira ui impellni. - 
inni ol Iho pranoun hefore nngi msy be explaineil mi 
L IWhloSslew neliilcd, Erf. i. 17; cuioiioiiBni. — 522, JVon . -t-vvi 
-*!•» €gtt Irom ihe proviouB Bomence ia involvad, wiihout tha *!*•*• 
ttin Wtt Infcl* Ihitt llieir sstety ia befond atl bop«, ns w« would MW 
J a dulil man, be needi no hclp now. — 634. On. een i. 6U, ^ 
i3tt 'Thii liiano 13 hero moat arflphicfllly dcscrihBd bj' itie ote» ~ " 
I aiill jam. /rjwine. — ,«3. 3Irdia morfe ; deiilh ia rei1»MMed 
bnnu witomriristmiThiinonnllBide». — S3S. AtlHi; Utnphwlo, 
■ Bft, itt l*ii»i— wbiiipver may bo ih« &ib of iho olhnr 0»bl 
i> .tWo, fi" i. 3TS. 1.) DKCettnin how in heavell th«r« ^ 

Anniset Automeilon, unii omnit Scyria piibw 
Suocetliiut iwsiu, et tlRiniii»» ad culmina jacl(nl> 
lfi»i! liilai primM corrc^|>l> dum bipuiini 
Limins p(-rruni|»l, pusiisijiie a uuriJiiKi vellit 
A«ralo«i jamiiua o:!!;!» iiHhe litraii cavavit 
Robora, ct litgentein luto deiiil ore fonustrain. 
Appart)! docnuNiulUJS, etatiia longapntuKiunti 
Apinrenl Priaini «t vi^lnrum pBnelimlia rcgura, 
Anii«JO»[u« ridenl siiiiitis in liniina primu. 

'Al (loiimB iiiturior gi.iniilu miwrotiua lumultu 
Misoeliii, ii.'(iiliimii>> Ciivae jiliKigoiilii:? hbJm 

Janoft, i;! irmiFii piucLiinbiiLil iiirJuie pcmici. 
Fit vin vi: ruiDpuat aiJilun, primuiHjue liiividant 
Imraitai Danti, bI Inio loon niiTitu noniplnnt.^ 
Non «iu, ajtgHtibui riiptia cuiii, i^unieiui iuiuu& * 
K\iil, oppi'HitKs(|U(^ xvicit |iai^i« molM, 

iir in »rv« fiirun* citiiiiilo, CBiiipa«jUo pot ooiniB 
Ciiin BlaLiulin afoiLTila triiliil. ViiU iimi» rutMiIlfm 
Cnfili! Jii'uiiiulfiniiTii yL'Jiiiiii'-ijii'' 111 '(iiiiiit' AlrJdiuj; 
Viiii Heciib.iiii ■ ''■■■:-. ii'Hifl per »1111 


Bv^rii;» [i< 

Proouiiuere , 

'ForWian tii, iViiiiu 

Urbin nti cnpua cjwiii 

[ Lirairm leciorum et m 

ArmA diu Hcuiiur doeui 

47^. Si^yris ; from Scyrcis. ono of tlw Cynliiilifi. "wiiinT W 
?yrrhfl«, of DpTdamiu. — «9. ipf, rynlnm. — W* tfow"' 
*iih 483. midii wiU be foiiii(l ilmi Ai-np-.-n i. ) 
IfmM rf iho ctitllinlrn. — ■1^,''> ■' 
tn wAaat, rfomn* j«(erioP.— '> 
—.4(9- ETTnnli sslrong csfii^ 
^ Bidditi^ theii. iKtewHl - 
|fl*80, «3,-496, JVottiir; !■■ 
^ Cnnmla. Comirati; i. liii. — ...-i. .i..r-..."i., 
iti ^iSB fquin^iinKriiiliil ei iiunia (i|Ulii4ii. 

I. Tirail ticr* liillnwa ilm {JrcoKB iiithii n-r~-, 
'V Trojsn unl'!. thaneh it mnj hn ihnt tho olln 
^^■Eba Tioiana fiom itii: tarhirl. — 309. Oli 

LIBER II. 169 

Circumdat nequidquam humeris, et inutile ierrum 610 

Cingitur, ac densos fertur moriturus in hostis. 

Aedibus in mediis, nudoque sub aetheris axe, 

Ingens ara fuit jaxtaque veterrima laurus, 

Incumbjns arae atque umbra complexa Penalis. 

Hic Hccuba et natae nequidquam aharia circum, 515 

Praecipites atra ceu tempestate columbae, 

Condensao et divom amplexae simulacra sedebant. 

Ipsum autem sumptia Priamum juvenalibus armis 

U t vidit, '' Quae mens tam dira, miserrime conjunx, 

ImpuHt his ciugi telis 'l aut quo ruis V^ inquit. 520 

'^ Non tali auxilio nec defensoribus istis 

Tempus eget ; non, si ipse meus nunc adforet Hector. 

Huc tandem concede j naec ara tuebitur omnis, 

Aut moriere simul.'*' Sic ore efTata recepit 

Ad sesc et sacra longacvum in sede locavit. 525 

^ Ecce autem elapsus Pyrrhi de cacde PoHtes, 
Unus natorum Priami, per tela, per hostis 
Porticibus longis fugit, et vacua atria lustrat, 
Saucius. Illum ardens infesto vulnere Pyrrlius 
Insequitur, jam jamque manu tenet et premit hasta. 530 
Ut tandem ante oculos evasit et ora parentum, 
Concidit, ac multo vitam cum sangunio fudit. 
Hic Priamus, quamquam in media jam morte tenetur, 
Non tameu nbstinuit, nec voci iraeque pepercit : 
" At tibi pro scelere," exclamat, ^^ pro talibus ausis, 535 
Di, si qua est coelo pietas, quae talia curet, 
Persolvant grates dignas et praemia reddant 
Debita, qui nati coram me cernere letum 

The position of thcso words shows that tho lonc disuse arose from 
his age. — 512. TheTo waa tt vestibulum ; thcn tne ualace, fonning 
a squarc, with its spacious rooms, and in thc middlc a court, open 
to tne hcaven, whcre, os was usual in ancicnt houscs, stood an altar 
to the Penates. Axe, »Scc i. 90. — 515. Thc poBition ofnequid^tum 
nezt altaria indicatos thc impious cruchy of tho Grccks ; cven the 
altars werc no protcction. — 519. Quec menn tam dim imjmlit. Such 
ezpressionB aro cquivalcnt to cst tam dira ut inipcllat. — 520. The 
want of thc pronoun beforc cingi may bc cxplained on the same 
principle as is statcd, EcL i. 17 ; cinctionem. — 52*2. Non : defetuo^ 
rihu eget from thc prcvious scntoncc is involvcd, without the irtu. 
JVm ^et infora that thcir pafcty is bcyond all ho])e, ns wc would say 
of adead man, hc «m/a no hclp now. — 524. Orc. Scc i. 614.— 
530. The chasc is hcrc most graphically dcscrihod by ihc presents. 

536. Coelo. Soo i. '.)7H, to nscertaiii how in hcaveii thcre may be 

15 I* 

Fooi«li el patrios foedaati funere Tullua. 
Al non ille, Batiun qao la mt<ntiiia, Actuil«s 
Tali« ia liaelB Tuil Priatno ; ied jura fidemqii* 
Supplieis eiubuit, corpuaque exBaogue sepulolUD 
iWuidit UMloruum, meque in mea ra^a n~'~'' ' 
Sio htDaMnior, Mlumqiie imbelle sine ict 
Conjecit, ranoo ^nod prolinuE aere repuiau 
Et eumino oliptM nKjuuiaam umbone peptmiliL 
Cui Pyrrhus ; " Rereraa ergo baec el Quiiliua ib 
Palidae gcnilori,' illi mua tnstia raota 
DegHueruraque Neuplol^nium oarrare memenla 
Nuao iDorere." Dnc liiosna altaria wX ip«a tromOQ- 

Tcaxil ut in mullu lapittutmu Mnsuinv o»ti, 
Implicailque comam Jaem, liextraqne cortucum 
Exiulit M lateri capalo tenu» xbdidil enieai. 
tlauo finis Priami Uiorumj bio eiiitua iilum 
Sorto lulii, Titijam iiicenaam «t projspia TiJsDlem 
Peigaina, lot quondam populis tMritqne ■upurbum 
Bu^nlurein Asiae. JaaeliugoutlilOJX] trunDUH, 
Avulsumqae humeris capiit, «t etne iiumiiie cofpHB. 
' At mo lum primum sapfua oirouinMBtil lioiior. 
Obaiupui j eubiil c&ii genitutis mut^, 
Vl regem aequaeram unul«li auliiere vidi 
Vitam exlialaniem ', subiil deeertft C(8ll«a, 
Bl dircpUi domus, et parvi cuus luli. 
Hespicio, et, qane sit me oircum. oupii, liMtra. 
DaBoruece omnes defesai, et oorpom A.itt» 

MO. Priiuii denicB il to be pasaibl* llir 
mi beaTCouf tbe liifirh-sauWl AaliiilM, 
■>bodyof Heclor. — 511. J« h. ■ " 





— 5M, tdu. Ii niorolygluieod .... 

'T, th« Euntro of the (liield. whieh 

' in a siiikn, whicli nilght, ns ' 

I danglo from ii, — 54T, A.i. 

-iinoysd »1 ihe taniiiB of Hanry Vl„ . 

Uball; uidsiy — I ■catlhco ihiihet.'— SML b 
lh« Inniiotr of ihs de«d. — S5A. fforii, f«t9. — 61 
tlillMa nf ihn usual gauiiive, g<>vern«d by ftfMt 
ialb*Boniaii sonBd, of Iho i •-- — ' ■—■--- 
TlU tnme»* and ca^iut nmkQ ._. ,. 

.t« lllii fathsl. ThemenuljBWofL 

Hm Erat tiDi«. — M3. Daiaii. by ilin nraia.- 
•tU) to ttn on tho bouse-iop, hhiI, whil« ' 
' ■ - - hBTB beheld liii ' ■ 

• lanc fore«hen ■ 

Ad lacTBQi misere aat ignibuB aegis dedara. 

' JamquQ adea super unna eruiii; cum liniina Vestae 
ServaElem «t taoilam secreta in aede latentem 
Tyndarida aspiaio ; dant clara iiioendia lucem 
Erranti paaaimque oculos per cuncla ferenti. 671 

Illa sibi infeetos everBs ob Pergama Teucroa 
Et poeDas Danaum el deserti conjngis iraa 
Fraemeluens, Trojae et patriae communis EiinnjB, 
Abdiderat sese alijne aris invisa aedebat. 
ExnrGere ignea ammo: subit ira cadentem OTJ 

Ulciaoi patriam et sGeleralas sumere poenas. 
Scilioel haeu Sparlam incolumts patriasque Mycsnaa 
AEpiciet? portoQue ibit r^ina triumpbo, 
Coniugiumque, uomumque, paties, nalOEque videtH^ 
Iliadum turba et Pbrygiia comilata ministris 1 fiSI 

Oociderit farro PriainuB t Troja arseril igni ? 
Dardanium lolLens sudarit sanguine litusl 
Non ita. Namque etsi nullum memorabila nomea 
Feminea in poena est, nec habel rictoria laodem, 
ExslinxisBe nefa» tamen et snmpsisse mereiitis SSI 

Laudabor poenaa, animumque expleeee juv&bit 
Ultcicis flaraniae, et cinerea satiasae meomm. 
Talia jaotHbam, el fuiiala mente ferebar, 
Citm mLhi se, non aiile ooulis tam clara, videndam 
Obtulit et pura per nool^ ta luce refulsit SH 

Alma parena, oonfeBiia deam, qualiiqDe videri 
Coaliooiis el qoanta solet, de.tlraque prehBnsum 
Conlinuil, roseoque hnec insuper addidit ore : 

56ti. fyitihtt* aegm. Ths poEiiiont of the worda ma^ka IbHt thaiK'1 
Bie wnsln ooiucqueiice of lb«ii weaiiDBEs. The Ewiioiy-iwo Uqm iI, 
'bllawing were rejeded, ne btb ioIcI, hy iho criiics who reiiewv^ J 
Ihe Aeiteid iar AnguBtuB, becauae ineauaiaieni wiih vi. 517, ft«,. 
Mid lo oToid ihe «Iw casi upon AeueaE for hls prujuaiod violence to 
n 'wnTiinn. — SAV. Aeneaa Idsves Ihe palace, biuI wBode» hoinB- 
WBTdB, — 569. T^ndarida. Sce i, (i52.~570. BrranCi. In fhe con- 
fiulon of the liour be losl hia woy. Seo 489. — 573, Conjugis, Me- 
n«Ur, — S73. £riBBs». Soe 337.-574. InvUa, non vibb.— 576. 
SetUratai. «oelerum. — 377, &.C, This reprceeDla the currenl of hia 
ibuiiahtft. SjiuTtam, Ihe bomB of MenelBUB, her huBband. Miictnat, 
QmodBm. See i. 650. — 579. Ftttra. See «7.— 580. Cimitala. 
S«l,319.— aai, Ocriderif. Tho aclion ia regardBd a» ceB^Irted al 

laudni h<ili(i|"> 
215,-59«, i'u. 
W1. Qaali; «s 

-anlBdbyiSii. — 5S4. Vid.-. .- 
iniTTKc, ihe resolulion of whi 
Mij»e. in Iheaenilive, — 587, Ftai 
it toelesli, Per 

fenjuiB. — 5S5. 

T norfon, lughl ihougli il wna. — ■ 

Llqoan* ADonisaa ? BUperel conjciisite CrniM, 
Aaauiiiuqiie puAr T qixat tmmi» uodiqDQ GniM 
CinnimeRaQl acies, et, ni otett eu» reakft, 
Jam flnnuDiie tnlerini, intmicu£ et banieril ouis. 
Non libi T^Tidohiti» iaeie» iniisa Lacaeoae 
Culpaluave Pans, divom indlemenlia, diTOm, 
Ha* pvorlil (^h meniilqae a culmme Tnijain. 
Aipice — oungue omnem, qxme aaae obduela twial 
Morialis hotwtat vimis I)lii et liunnda citcaui 
C^ligai, niibiim ntipiam ; ln no ijiia [HUEntia 
Jii«M tinie, nou pnMcpiis parero rvcnia — 
Hic, titJi disj«ctaa moiea avoiisai^ue mxi» 
Saxa vidoa mLxtoqae undanli^m pnlvure fatnnm, 
NupUinua mnroR magnoiiDB emola triJpiiii 
Fuiulam«iiea iiualil loiamqiio a MJibus mljnm 
Eniil. Hic Jano Scaeas isa«t(Mima portaa 
Prlma tenet, ewiamqne fnrens a naribos Bgmon 
Psrro Bcoiiicta mciat. 

Jam mimmas amea Tritania, re^ice, Pallafl 
Inwidit, nimbo efiulgens et Goiafma saera. 
Ipao Paler Danais aiiimoa viiRsqne seauniliu 
NlJBcit, ipse dcos io Dardaua fii^ta! aim&. 
Eripe, naie, (ugtim, linemiu*'' iiiiivin<? labori. 
Nutquam abero, el lutum putrio 1l- limine «jUam." 
Dixinat, et spi«Bis noctie a» cuuUiiiit unMj». 
Apparonl dirae facies iuimii^a^que TroJM 

NURiina magnn deum. 

M<. TanlM eiciWI, _ _.. 

SW Omrg. iv. 334. — 599. Heialat, lulm 

nqlUTMadoae atienlioa lo tlie ptiiciw) rm 

1^0 MMplMfpN of ilioir dealniclian is u 
yM»i by (nA anotber «ci in tlii ewm" • 
■tidalMnproiifd comiiig«nil]>i 'Mypttig.. 


-■JF.r,iinoi ilii 
-*.' — liOI. Laran.,., 
II not a nieie epilMl, ) 
"i. Tu, empliBncftl.— (ft 

«aUfn uf the daikneee. 

B«le of Troy %TOB the one [. 

— S16. Gtrgimt. MeditBB'i hcBil — shawiisoii 
i>Ucb twnM imo sionf erery one who loo^ed aii 
Ih» brnnnpluia m ahield of FbIIsh,— 6J7. PaUt 
*ta*wl hw iha forcB of, 'ehcfinifihcd apoaking.'- 
Thba vinion !■ mBSterly boih in vonccpiion luid < 
J^Hmina dnna, llia ^ods eiLTtliig tbeir powcr. 

'Tum rero omae mihi Tisum conEidsis 
Ilium et ex ima verti NeptuniaTraja; 
Ac ¥e!nti auramia atiliquara in tnonlibus 
CarQ ferro acciaam ctebrisque bipennibus 
Eruere cigricolae certHtimj iUa uaque minatQi 
Et trcraefaeta '' 

Volnaribua donec pauialim evicla BUpremum 630 

Cotigemuit, traxitque jugis avulsa ruinant. 
Dcsoendo, ao ducente deo flammam inier et lioatis 
Expedior; dant tela locum, l^mniaeque reQediltit. 

' Atqus ubi jam pattiae parventiim ad limina sedia 
Antiquasque domos, genitor, quem lollere in altos 635 
Optabam primum moutiB primumnue petebam, 
Abnegat ejicisa. Tilam producete Troia 
Essiliumque pati. " Voa o, quibus inle^r aevi 
SatiguiE," ait, " eolidaeque Gito Blant rolrare vicea, 
Vog a^ilate fugam. 640 

Me ei coelicolae voluissenl ilucere vilam, 
Has mibi servasseni sedes. Satia aaa ftuperque 
VidimQs exeidia et oaplae superavimua urbi. 
Sic o aic, posttum aHali litgce^ite corpue. 
IpsB manB tBBrlem invBtiJfttn ; raiBerebitur hoalJs 646 
Exuvia^ua potet. FaclJis jacinra Mpulchri. 
Jam prtdsm. invieus dXvia et inaliliG anuoa 
Demoror, ex quo me divom pater axqae homiuum rex 
Fulminui adflavit venlis et contigii igiii." * 

' Talia perntabm mciooraiis, (ixuaque manebal. fiSO 
Nua oontia efiusi laurlnsia, conjunxque Creitsi 

94, il/af, > »)«. — 639. yi^uma. Noplmio (nnd ApoUo) had 

^ Troy. — 1526, VtbOi, Ttob ruit veluH, A,e. — 627. Aaiiam, not 

liiroiiBK, hlU pgiCliliUy. Criirii, exjireBaine blawcloae folW- 

"-"Muw. — C30. Snmmiim. used adverbinlly. — 633. DtMcfnda «x 

... Jh«. {«tvrirslly a<l«tiir, wiihmit lefiirciice lo sei, ■» iiiTit, 

if^BSei. Jciif foi asTO, a Creek Gonsiruciiou. SeeZumpt, f U7. 

W8. ITna,- «li liistonce af the pluial af unus. AnchUu nUn 

«pruviouaaipiuro of Troy by Heiculee, — 643, SuptnaimiMf 

Ut thn liireu Uid the coiutriicliaii of Buperrunnus «r&i. — Ul,. 

' rrleci puriiciplBS. aea i. GSO. The rcMttution o(jhit 

bciwnite et Bd&mini, dein diBcedile. JffiUUai 

iHi laTswell. Se» i, 319, Sii:, wiihout furiber hi-, 

] lo lenve hini an he whb, and coHBider hini olreti^ 

---.ornfliivo. ' Ehiher I bIibII eiaj mi^uiir. or ihe em- 

liwigli piif , penly for ihe nBke ol Epoil, will BlBf ffle.' 

B ituanc^Kef, lie regarde na alight Ihe loaa evea of A 

■bove bIT olherB dtmded by ilie ancienlH. —649. B» 

AManitt»qu« omtiisque domus, ne Tertere ftecuni 
CimoU paiec latoqao urguenli incumbete Tellel. 
AbnegAI, inoeptoqDO el Eedibus haer^l in isdrao, 
Snraua ia nrma ft^ror, mDrlemigue miserrimna opto. t 
Nbiti quod oonailium aal (^uae jam fDrtuna dabuurl 
"Mene eflera pedijn], gemtor, le poHe leliota 
Speresli, EaDlunique uefas palrio excidil ore! 
& aihil ei (ania Superis placec urbe T«linqiii, 
El wdel boc ftnimo, perilDnteqne addere Ttojaa < 

Teque tuoeque jaral, patet isli janua leio, 
JUnqae aderil roullo Prianii tlo langtiine Pynhiui, 
Gnatnra anle ota palris, pnirein qoi obtraucAL ad aiat» 
Hoo emi, almn |meng, qiiod fno per tida, per ignia 
Eripis, ul mediis buslem ia peueliAlibus, utqoa I 

AscBninm paircmque mt^um juxtiujue CreOssm 
Altetom in allerius inaclalO!i nngame ooraamt 
Arma, vtri, ferle arma ; vocal lux ultima violoii. 
Iteddite me IJanaie; sinile instaurala TeTmtn 
Froelia. NumquRm oiuties hodie tnoriemur inulti.'' I 

'Hinc lerro acoingoi nireuBj olipeoqna eiiiiumm 
iDaertab&m apians, meqne eirtra lecla feiebam; 
Ecce aalem compleia padas in liiuiDB caojuni 
Haerebai, parvnmque pairi tendabat Julum : 
"Si psrJlurUB abis, et 1109 rape in omnia leeuini I 

Bifl atiqufim experiua sumpLis speiD ponia in nrmi*, 
Hsnc primum tutare domum. Cui pBrvn» lulun, 
Cui paler, et conjuux qdondam loa diota njJlaqiu» !" 

Tuift voaifeians gemiln toetum OiTUA roplcfait, 
Ccm subitum dictuque orilur niimbile mooflrain. I 
Namque manus iut.>r maeNiorumque 0» pwMtua 
li^eeeWia Eummo de verliT^i? vi<c* tuli 
Fuiulere lumen apex, tapiu"i'" •■'••■•"■.■' "•'>ii'- 



__. .,._. Ta(l««nuii ■ - 

Jhc«pfo, tli&Ut AoirM. tl^B ('' ' 
•™M ID liis fwhw. — 658. .S)i. .■ 
. .. Wilh tli» iniiicnlB nntKni^ ■ . -1 

«onlgMtvfl proftoun of tlie aeeond porBon. — 063. 
m-MM, ut revBBUi. a«o EW. 1 43. itataanim 

—670, JViiBifiMiii Mia, a ourioua KH ora 1 

flAtenn of lime logeaier. Se« Etl. tii. U.—ffi 
'dnBTVe allentlon. Acciaear, Ibe liiaiarical fiWMni] 

■ '» HWord, Th»i fiDiBhed, dll iLo of' ■- 

«iBlAeurto/ fiiling on hia Ebie__, _ 

Wife (M> mlheacl n/ olingioe to huii, sod huldiug t 
fitIi)U| Ihe hwwe witli lipr wailingp. when orilar, 680, 

9w taken from Ihe wcll-lsnown logoiid of Sorvius Ti 
«•ft iimllM prodiey " """" *-* "' 

Lambero flamma oomas et oircum lempora pasci. 
Noa pavidi Irepidare meln, crineraque iia^raTitem 6 
Exculere et saNclus restinguere foutibua iguia. 
At pater AncLieea ouuloa ad nidera. laelus 
Extulil, et uoelo palmBa cuui voce leisndil : 
" Jupiter omnipotenB, precibus si flecleria ullis, 

Dn deiiide auxiiiuni, pater, alque baec omiua firma." 

' Vix ea fatus erat aenior, subitoque ftajwra 
Intonuit lasvum, el de coelo lapsa per DHLbraB 
Stalla facem ducens nmlla CLim luce cucurrit. 
IUam, summa super iBbenlenri culmiaa lecti, 6 

Cernimua Idaea claram se condere Bilm 
Signsutemque vlan; tum longo limila euloua 
Dat lucem, et kte ciroum loca aujfure fumant. 
Hio vero rictua genilor lie tollit ad auraa, 
Adfaiutque deos el ^anclutn aiduB adotal. 7 

" Jam jam nullamora estj Bequor, et, qua ducilis,adeui 
Di pBtrii, servate domum, eervate nepotem. 
Veslrum hoc augjirinra, veBliiaqoo iu numino Tioja bbI, 
Cedo eqiudenl, n^, iiate, tibi comeg ire recuBO," 
Dizerat ille; et jam per moe[)i& clarior ignis 7 

Aitdilur, propiusqu« aeslus iocendia Totvuut. 
"Ergo aga, earepater, cervici iniponere noslrae; 
InAe flubibo hunieris, nea me lubor iate gravnblt ; 
Quo rcs cuiiimie c^tddiit, unum et commuiie pericluin, 
Uaa mIub amlwbuB erit. Mihi parvus lulus 3 

Sit mmcB, et longe eervwl vesligia coniuui. 
VvB, fiimiili, quau diciim, animij advertile vestris. 
Eat Urbe itgf$atia lnmulus lemplumque velustum 

' C84. iMibrrts i>en«i: nur oxpisaGioii, uJan&e/tl nBme. Pata- 9am 
i7l-—6Bb. Tran£lrt. Sim 08. CriBanyiie flrwroBlem, oiiu - "- 
■ntkiiwim. — 6S8. SBeaBiniilarMproi«ioii,37o. — 690. JA* 
'Thb—alMltQfkiiidicgudlaijiM— iiBJlwenDvraak ' '" 
'llwH»« *li»Il askmDre, «veii aiiaiBlBiiaa,' — 693. Jiuli 
■oml. XtWVKin. ThiivriuagoDdiMnea — fi94, ABtsr, 
""*" tfataa dHteni), hersldsd ihc way from ihehoiise i 

II Idsi iii Ihe immedists neishbourhood of Tror. — C9' 

'-' 'e imhehpavBna, reBomblina ilbIup'b wi . 

em, wnointlte oiaiiiBeEiniedprittcipiillytOP 
retsina its nnlioii of iiiftrriomr. Aeness v 
__ .__ . es tbe romf, —705. DaeTal. See Sai. - 

jjitiiUiir. Tlin i-raMmg ot ihe Sniimai bnnce clarior reieta la taa 
MM, oi'' ili" i-y-s. —71*7. Ergo; (be fonduBion of Aenens&omaH 

Deiertae Cereri», juxtaque aatiqua CQpreHiu 

Religiona palrum multoa serra.(a per annoK. 

Hanc ez itiTerso sedeni Feniemus in unBm. 

Tii, eeniior, Mpo Baen nuuiu pairiosqua PenaliB; 

Me, belb e tHDlD ilit^reiuuin ol caeda reoeali, 

Altr«r.Ure iivIm, (ioiieo mc fliimine vivo 


flaeo itXa», laioe butneroa subjectaque colla 

VflnW siiper tulvique iniKemor pelle lconi», 

Su««BiIoH]Uo ouori; claxtrae liu parvus lului 

ImplicUil, seqoilurquonalrGin iioii paMibus aequis ; 

Pniio subii coDiunx. Ferimttr por opaoa loeonim ; 

El me, quom uudum mra utla injeota move^iil 

Tok neque aitverai) glomcrsli ex aemiue Graii, 

Nonc omnes lerrent aurae, sonas eiieitiil omnM 

Suapensum et pariler oomiliquB onorique limentnm. 

JaiiU^ue piopinquabam porlw, oinnemque viJetiar 

£TUiiee viam, subito cum croberad auri« 

VisuB adesae pediira BOiiitus, Kenilunjuo par umbmm 

Pfoapiciomi^ " Naie," exoliunBi, "fuge, naie; pitipioquai 

Ardenlit olipeos aique aera mjcanlia cerno.'' 

Hic mihi npMJo ijiiod treplilo male nuraen ii 

Confusam otipuit meatem. Namquv< avta «i 

Dum aeq^uor et nota exoado rftsEiont viaram, 

Beu ! mjaoro oonjuiiK fuluno erepla Cretkiia 

rU. Dcicrtat Cfrtri: 
d by II 


'taaalj.' — 717. Saera, &.<:■, Ile had rec|iv!.-(( ■ 
peihaps, from PsiiihuB, 320.— 719. Tft/S. i. 
»1". 'I wCBp mfsolf, but notaU, only huner. 
733. Oneri. Aaehiaea. — 72i. In^icuU, irqi, 

, juoo» raolipii. 8««93T.i 

Opofo Ipearam mdicslBa on inlenliaital menlion onl]' of m * 

M w«ni obacurc ; not obacure Bpols mrrelf . but apnn pK 

IMMlr bHrauBB tliey were ab«cure, — 739. Camiti. WaalllilJA 
fiiuBorCrouBa! — 730. Vtddnr. Tho wholo jenmey wb» |»F 
bnl, in his anxiei; imd hia jay ol haviog goi ihraudb Iha a 
■afvly, II Beemed to be. — 731. Creber, an expreauvo wer* ' 
M7- — 739. Nacie jvBd uni gvid. A forn orexprcmjon K 

advelr, 10 denote Bomovague. uncerisin o^eei --' ■ - 
li«n«e on the-TBrb. The TDearaneia not— ^Ibi 

duiy wbo;' olherwise we ehould have eriptra—'] 

} fcllOW not who.' Maliamirum; infBBtuin. Seedot 
a. — m Slii<mi/ata erepla muBi qualUjp Ike 11^ 
IhHCB Blfitcd bv Aenens. However she wa» loat, j; 

Subetititl «rravitne via? geu lassii resedilT 

Inoerlumj nec poel ocqIjb eal reddila nostris, 740 

Nec priua amiBBara raBpexi aDimumve reflejd, 

Quiun luraulam 8aliquae Cereris Bedemque eaciatani 

VeDimus; hie demam coUectia omnibuB una 

Detuit, et comites iialumque virumque fefellit. 

Quem non incusavi amens hominumquB deorumque, 74& 

Aut quid iu eversn vidi crudelius urbel 

ABcanium AnahiBenque patrem ToucrosquB Penatia 

Commonda sociis et ourva valla recondo; 

Ipse urbem repeto et ciagor fulgenlibus aimis. 

Stal caBus lenovarB omBis, omnemqua reverti 

Per Trojam, cl jiirsus capul objeclaie periolia, 

PrinoipiD muros obsouraque limiua porlao, 

Qua greBaum extnleram, repeto, et vesligia ratro 

Observala sequor per mJctem, et lumine luBlro. 

Horrac ubiqiie aDimos, eimul ipsa silentia terrsnt, TSiT' 

Inde domum, si forte padem — si fotle ! — luliasel, 

Me refero. Irruerant Danaii, et teotnm omne tenebanli 

Ilicet ignis edax summa ad festigia venlo 

Volvilurj ejisaperant flammae, furit aestus ad aaras. 

Prooedo, et Priemi sedes arcemque reviso. TMt 

Et jam porlicibus Tacuis Jtmonia asylo, 

Ciislodee kcti, Fbaenis et dirus Ulixee 

Praedam sdtiervabanl. Uuo undiqae Trota gaxa 

Incensis erepUi adytia tnennaeque deocum, 

Ci-atorsiqiia »oia eolitli, uaptivBquo veslis 

Congaritnc. raeiiet pavidae longo ordino malres 

Staiit uiraum. 

AuHus quin «liatn vouim jaciare per umbram 

■ of £iio. Iffnon iho ar ii- |>liiccd iii n nre, thoiigh not in aa nnpn-' 
[ cnAamci] pi!t! o( tlia tKinKrnnn. Tke macks of intomigBtjoD. plscej 
I hfi' f'lr 'ne (irst titiie, BiVD livclinEiaa lo ihe expr«9Blaii of iha h«ro'v 
|iit-t. otid nrcdenianEledby ihe uidiDativeB. — Ti'1. Frfellil. FalJere, 
, J> iho «ciisii ot eBCBpidg tfie notice of, ganarally inJsra intBntion on 
I iitt part ut ihr Bubjecl lo the verb ; but nol nlwBys. ns hDCe. — 715. 

" -- .1. The qut cul ofT belore aul. — 760. Slali ooualituo, 

, fn of AeQBasiB finely mnlrived to bring beiiie an Ihe ullei 

qif Troy, and iis condilion ns posscBieil tiy the Gioeka. — 754. 
iH^Mifa iinHBr; obscTVO et icjiur. LicmmB biilra onuiiii. See 
§^^7.'iS._ Trrreal seeniB lo involve ihe nolion of Blringit. whioh 

" niiiM» meoB 756. The secoad aifa-rtt seema to eiptesa 

.! his own credulOQsnegH 757. Irtiteranl — leneianl. 

force of thfcsu lenses. —763. Phoenis, tbe ogod lutor of 
,. WDs oa guard in ihe gallertea of Jiido'b teinple, a Bacred 
,T~T6.^. SBHdi, eiBolido. — 706. Pueri. Tiojans, now iha 
$io OreekB. ^_ 

if5 ixiinao». ^B 

Implevi claniare viag, inoe«iuBque CrefiSBin ^ 

Quaerenli pt [ogUe nrbJB eine fine fitienti 4H 

InielLX siniuiacnini alque ipsius urabra Creuws fl 

Viea. laihi iinte octiloe et Da(ei maior iniagq. H 

Obelupui, Bteterunlque comae et vox faucibua haeail. ]B 
Tum sie adfari et cume bis demere dictis: ^vl 

"Qaid l^tum iitKina juvat indulgere dolari, ^H 

O dulcie conjunx t Non haec eiue cumine divom. ^H 

Eveniout: nec fe coitiitem porlaie Creliram ^H 

Ts,a, aut ille Einit snperi regnulot Olympi. ^H 

Longai libi ejisilia, et vasium maris aequor aiaadom. TJfB 
£t lerram IlespeTiam venies, ubi Lydins arva ^M 

Tnter upima virum leni Anit agmine Thybria: ^M 

IIIlc Ka laetae regnnmque et reeia coujuiix ^M 

Partn tibi ; lacrimaa dilsctBe Mlle CreaHse. ^Jm 

Non ego Myrmidonum sedea Dolopnmve eUperbaa T^M 
Aspiciam, aat Graiis Hervitum laalfibus ibo, ]H 

Dardanis, et dlvae Veneris nurus; ^ 

Sed me magna lieum Genelrix tiia dellnel oris. I 

Jamque vale, et nati eerm uommania amonnn." 
llaecubi dicta dodit, lacriinantemelntaluvuloittnni 7!ii) 
Dicere desemil, lenui^ue recesail iu auis)> 
Ter conatus ibi qoIIo daie braohia circulu.j 
Ter rruHtra comprensa manus effngil imago, 
Par levibus venlia Tolucrique eimiUimtt si 
Sic ilemum socios aooBUTnpDi nocto revisi 

'Atniie hic ingeiitsm comilum adfluxiEM nororitia 
IdVetiio admiranj! numorum. ni8lre«pie, vinwqDe, 
CoUectam exsiljo pubem, miserabilH vnlgi». 
Undiijue convenere^ aiiiinia tipibusque parttti, 
lo qDft»cnm<}Ue velim pelago deducere torrM. 
Jomqae jugis summae surgebat Lucirer tdas 
Dueobsique diem, Danaique obsess» u ' ' ' 

Tl. /flWii, mo rflddena infclicem. — 773. 1 

- m. Slfttnint. ThiBlinooMur9HBain,iii, 18.— m 

- /81. Hnjitriam. Sae i. 530. iyrfiiu 2li(6r«. Tiiiili*, 

wliich ThybriB is a poelical forni, riscs in Tnwntiy, 1M 

■ ■ by r -■■' ■ ' • -•-- "" — — ■" ■■"'- " 

Ama ftTinor. — 7a3. Btiati a 
mE. — 78i. CVrajoB, eenntlj* 
mGmfiri^; Cybe\e — 7»fc 8 
?ain, vi.TOa. — 797. Mmu "' 

;oanc, wiiQ anauni mininenes». giveE 3400 SOO. OtA 

is ilie propor lenn Bpuljoij lci him who lieadad u Ri>m«i 
' ' ' t, VenuB, HeeperuB. are fhe Enme plimot, 1 
II othela, BR hei«,«e~~ " 

, _ by LydiBi._. 

lia, dauahler of king I,atti 
-785. SeaT. — 788. Dcu 
-794, Tbia line (iccitrs Hi 

^^ teta io iha wesl. iu ihe ovenins, ai oi) 
^^kjjeai sunriae. 


Limina portanim, nec spes opis ulla dabatur. 
Cessi et sublato montes genitore petivi. 

804. The plural is also used, 636. 


jln the Third Book, Aeneas proceeds to give an account of hif 
seven years' wanderings after the dcstruction of Troy. 

First year* Aeneas and his followers build, during winter, a 
lleet at ATUandros^ at the foot of the mountain range of Ida (see 
ii. 694), and set sail in the beginningof the next summer, 1—12. 

Second year. They first visit Thrace, a country of Europe, to the 
north-west of Troy, much given to ihe worship of Mars (terra 
Mavortia)y and build a town [moenia prima, referring to the 
town called Aenos by the geographer Mela), 13—68. 

Third and Fourth years. They leave Thrace (whose fields are 
called Getica^ from the Getae, see Georg. iv. 463), deterred by 
a frightful incident which occurs there. They sail southwards 
through the jSegean Sea or Archipelago [Nepttmo Aegaeo) to De- 
lo8 (called also Ortygia, from some legend connected with 
dptifys^y quails), which, as tradition tells, was once a floating 
island, but on tbe occasion of the birth of ApoUo and Diana, 
was fastened to the neighbouring islands of Gyaros &nd'Myco- 
no8 — and here consulting the priost of Apollo, they receive aa 
ambiguous answer, 69-08. Anchises interprets it as advising 
them to sail to tbe island of Crete (called Gnosia regna^ from 
Gnosus, a town in the north of the island), whore in the cen- 
tre was the mountain range of Ida (^mons Idaeus')^ 99—120. 
They leave Delos, passiug in the way Naxos — the largest of 
the Cyclades, lich in vines, where the worship of Bacchus 
prevailed — Donusa, Olearos (or Antiparos as opposite Paros), 
and Paros (see i. 593), all islands in the Archipelago, princi- 
paliy belonging to that group called tho Cyclades (from xvx7u>$), 
121—130. Arrived in Crete, whence had come the Corybantes^ 
and where lived the CureteSy the armed priests of the goddess 
Cybele, who was worshipped on a mountain in Phrygia bear- 
ing ber name, they founded the city Pergamernn^ and intended 
finally to settle there ; but alarmed by a pestilence, they medi- 

* JMm tejam septima partat—aestas, ii. 755-6. Hcyne's arrangcment of the 
yvan Iih been fuUowcd. It Iias been deemed advisable to give in this Argu- 
mnt hrief geographical noticcs of the numcrous placcs mentioncd, that the 
BilMt BUiy not oe overcrowded. Tt*e placcs mentioncd by Virgil are printed 


tatcd n pccond voynjje to Dclos, 131-MG. Aeneas is warned 
hy thc goils in a vision t<» lcavc Octc (Dictaca arva, from 
Dirte, a infniiitriin raiiirc in tlic ca.-torthc i^Ianfl), aud to settle 
in Italy («•alh'd (Wythux, froni an Italian hcru 01' that name, 
the kin^ ot'Tn^«>any. and tcrra jhtsonia^ Ironi thc Ausones, an 
indigeiums raoc inhabitinp; tho niiddle rcgions of Italy, called 
also Anrnnci and Opici, of whoin thc Volscians were probably 
a tribe) — tidings wiiich Anohises hears joyfully, 147-189. 

Fi/th year. Thcy once niore set .«ail, but lose their way in 9 
storin, l'.)(U'jOt>. Thcy takc .«ihclter at two islands in the opec 
t<ea (/outo niari in mas^no) to thc wcst of Mcssenia in the Pe- 
loponncsui<, cailcd S^trophades (froni crrpf^)i in consequence of 
a legcnd rcgarding the Harpics. who are a grcat source of an- 
noyaneo tu the wandcrin); Trojans, 209— 2G7. Sailing north- 
wards, thcy j^ass Zacynthus^ the modern Zaiite-^DuUehium 
(seo Ecl. vi. 70) — Same^ or Cephalenia, the modern Cephalo- 
uia— Aeri7o«, in thc iniincdiate ncighbourhood of Ithaca, but 
whosc ])rccisc sitc is unknown — Jthaca^xhe well-knowu island 
of Laertes and Iiis son Ulysscs — Leucate, ofl* Acarnania, now 
Santa Maura — all islands in tho lonian Sea, oiT tbe coast of 
Grcccc, 208—274. Tlicy land at Actium (jparvoje urbi)^ a town 
in Acarnania, famons for a tcmplc of ApolIOi and celebrate 
games thcrc, 275-288. 

Sixth year. They again sct sail, passing Corcyra, novv Corfu, thea 
inhabitcd by thc Sicilian PAaeare«— and tfae coast of JSptrut, 
the country north of Acarnania — auchoring at Pelodes, tlie 
harbour of Buthrotum^ a towu of Ejjirus, 289-293. Aeneas 
herc, to his grcat surprise, iinds Andromache and Helenns, 
who had named tlie coimtry (which lay west of Dodona, 80 
celcbratcd for its oracle of Jupitor, see 4G6, and £cL ix. 13) 
Chaonitty from the Trojan Chaon, and bad revivcd in livers 
near Butlirotum the Trojan names of the Xauthua and tbe 8i- 
maXSf having also a Scaeau gato (sec ii. G12), 294—355. Aeneas 
consults Helcnus, who had grcat fame as a prophet, and re- 
ceives a responsc, assuring him of ultimato succcbb, but warn- 
ing him that hc has a long voyage before him,a8 be must pass 
tho Sicilian Sca (^Trina^ria unda^ Siciiy being called Trinacria 
from its three promontorics) — Lake Avernus in Campania, bh 
entrance to the lowcr world (infemi lacus) — and an island in the 
Tuscan Sca (Salis Jlusonii), whose site is now unknown, inliab- 
ited by the sorccrcss Circe, named Aeaea (from «tfeo, a town of 
Colchis, whenco she eamc) ; and he directs him to 8bna the 
lower parts of Italy, as the Locri, from the town Ndr^x, on the 
coast of Greccc, opposite tho island of Kuboea, had pliuited a 
colony aniong thc Brutii — Idomeneus of Lyctue^ in CTetq,-had 
settlod among thc SnUentini in Calabria — and PAtVoeffffff ef , 

LIB£R III. 181 

boeOt in Thessaly, had founded Pctelia among the Brutii (356— 
402). Helenus also gives liim directions how to approach Italy 
so as to propitiate the gods, 403-409. He advises him, on get- 
ting near the straits at Pelonts, the north-eastern promontory of 
Sicily, to sail southwards and round the island, thus avoiding the 
rock Scylla, on the Italian, and the whirlpool Charybdis, on the 
Sicilian side of the straits, even though the course by Pachynuniy 
the southern promontory, was much longer, 410— 432. Heespe- 
cially counsels bim to propitiate Juno, and when he comes to 
Cvmae, a town in Campania, near Naples, to consult the Sibyl, 
433—462. After receiving presents, interchanging farewells, and 
predicting the alliance of Rome and Epirus, which probably 
refers to the foundation of the town of Nicopolis by Augustus, 
after the battle of Actium, constituted by him an allied town 
(cognatasque itries), Aeneas sets sail, passing the Ceraunii montes, 
which stretch along the northern part of the coast of Epirus. 
After spending a portion of the night on land, they get a favour- 
able wind, reach Italy next day, and enter the Portus Veneris, 
the harbour of Hydruntum in Calabria, on a hill near which was 
a temple of Minerva, 463—548. They leave this, passing Taren- 
tum in Apulia, traditionally said to be founded by Hercules — the 
promontory Lacinium (now the Capo delle Colonne, from the re- 
maining pillars of a ruined temple of Juno) — the town of Cau- 
lon, situated on a height— and Scylacevmi, whose bay, now that 
Of Squillace, is exposed to dangerous winds (nain^rcrgufn)— all in 
the country of the Brutii ; thence rounding the south of Italy, 
they see the distant smoke and flame of Aetna, and approaching 
too near Scylla and Charybdis, hear their dreadful roar, which 
urges them to take refuge near Jietna^ in the land of the Cyolopes, 
549—569. Aetna'8 fires are described and accounted for, 570- 
587. Adventures of Achemenides, one of the foUowers of Ulys- 
ses, 588-654. The Trojans take him on board, and with diffi- 
culty escape from the Cyclops Polyphemus ; they pass in their 
southward course the river Pantagia, with a rocky mouth — the 
towns Megara and ThapsuSy all south of Leontini, on the east 
coast of Sicily ; then, further south, the Bay of Syracuse («nu 
Sicanio) — and, at the entrance of the Syracusan harbour, the 
island Ortygia^ in which the JllpheuSf a river of £lis, in the Pelo- 
ponnesus, according to the legend, emerges from the sea, and 
mingles with the waters of the Arethusa (^Ecl. x. 1) — ^the pro- 
montory of PUmmyrium, on tlie other side of the harbour, 655— 
697. Thereafter tliey pass the river HeloruSy north of Pachy- 
hum; they round Pachynum itself; then on the south of the 
iilaud, proceeding westwards, they sail along by the towns 
Ctimarina, with its lake, which the oracle of ApoUo forbade 
'fte inbabitants to drain (nwnquam cancessa inovc7'i) — (xtla, wilh 

■U r«itiln plain* (ronpt OtJoi)— Agtieiiitum,ciii Mouut Jcrq[4i, 
Ikmoui foi iho ■neaes* of xu lioi»e< in tlia Kcvnt gfmtt oT 
Gr«nn — •ad &Uihu, KbouinlliiK witti wUii |inlmi>, a9S-1(Ki. 
RounilinK JliiJybaHiin, iba wuierii pivniDawrr ol' Sti:ily, iliv/ 
piooond a «lidii wny norili K>iVvu>«ru,n«ar Htjfi, whero A«- 
ehi»!* ilini, 7IK-719. ThuB coiU tlm nnrmttve oi: A««u 

'PoiTQCTAM rnn Ptiamiquu evart«r« gentsin 
Immocitara viiiam SuiieriB, v»uiJiiqtie sup«(bain 
IViaia ut omnit tiiinta Snmal Nnptuuia Trojft, 
Diveim axsili> el JoBeitna ijuaerare teiru 
Auguriit a^iiimr <livntn, claasemijue nab ipw 
Aaluidro st Phryeiac molimui mnntibus Ida«, 
Inootti, qua fjibt («niiit, ubi Bifltero detur ; 
CoitliaaiinuMaa Tiriw, Vix prima incepffrat aAttaa 
Bt paier Ancliiies dtiio fati> vela jubebati 
iilura eum palriiM lacriinanB iwitusqu» raUuquo 
Et campoo, ubi Trpjii tuit. Fetor exsul in altum 
Cum lociifl mttoijiM', P^natibua el mBKnisdi*. 

' Terra prociil vastin cotitur Mavorlin canipis— - 
ThraoHs itraiil, uori (|aoii<.l<un regnitla LyctHKO — 

Mocnin primn loco, fotii ingreuus iniauis, 
A4iiiiailawjut< nitKi iiODian de nomine fmgo. 

'Sacra Dione^ rnAtri [Jivi«inB i'or«b«m 
Anspicubus u<iii|itaram opiiruni. •npium^iic siigatiii 
CuulioQtum lesi innclabain nk iUoiv taaiuic. 
Foil» fiill juxtn tumuliK. quu DOfnnn >,uniian 
Vir^illii el ileiiBm linHliliuUi horriJa tnyntf. 
AcDiixni, vitiJamqua ab Eiucui 0O]i<i<ilU'imuiinin 
Cuaaiu^, ritiiiia tugoKim nt rronik-iitibuii nni^ 
Hoireudain el dlotu vidao iiiiniljili» iiiuuilnini. 
Nam, ijuae prima boIo rupti* radinibu» )irl.KM> 

l-JU. . 

of Firil 

Sbu iL 625.- .. 

See i. 34U.— II. FsiL Se.. h 
•1 hoB L mure empliatic ruti-' . ' 
ttiBawnie, ortha Istler retera i.. 
«nil tlft formot lo llie sada -.i . 
tiDe ia apundniG. — 13-6s! Ac( . 
«n duient Iting of Tliiaa:, i.~ 

rd fiBHchus. SigHala. u ;... 
Uoipiliaia ind PeaaUa iu- 
gnim larram. — 19- Duma:.- 
uacblor oflhe nynipli Dion^. — 

LiBER m. 1B3 

Tellilnr, huiu atro liquunlur Banguine guttae 

Et lerrara. labo maculant. Milli frigidus horror 

Membra qualil, geliduBquo coi! farmidiae sauguis. 30 

BureuB et aheriuB lentutn conTellete vimen 

Inseqaor et citusaa penitus lentare lalentiB: 

Ater et alleriuB ^quitur de oorlice sanguis. 

Muha movens animo Nyoiphaa venerabar agreslis 

Gradiviimque palrem, Gelicis qui praeBJdel arviBj 3S 

Rite seounaarecl viBUSomenque-levarent. 

Tertia eed postquam maiore hastilia nisu 

Aggredior genibuEque adTerEae obluclor arenae — 

Eloquar, an aiieamT — gemitua lacrimabilis imo 

Audilur Inmnlo, et vox reddita fertur ad auria : 40 

"Quid miBerum, Aenea, iaceraa? jam parce aepullo; 

Parce piaa Rcelerare mannit. Non me tibi Troja 

£xternum tnlit, aut crnor hic de stipilo manat. 

Ileu ! fuge crudelia terraa, fuge litua avarum. 

Nara Polydoruo e^. Hio oonfixum ferrea texit 4G 

Teiorum isegBB et jaculis incrBVil acutis." 

Tum veto ancipiti mentem formidine preasun 

Obatupui, fiteieruiitque coitiae el vox lancibus baeeil. 

' Himo Polydorntn auri quondam cum pondere magno 
Infelix. Priamas fattim mandaiat alendnra 60 

Threicio regi, uum jam difflderet atmis 
Dardaniae, oingique nrbem obsidione videret. 
Ille, nt opee fraolae Teuerum, et Fortuna recessil, 
Rea A^tneinfionias Tictriciaqus arma secutua, 
Fas omiie abrumpit ; Polydorum obtruncatj et auro S6 
VI polilur. Quid non murialia pectora cogiSj 

'Postqnam pavor ossa raliquil, 

DelMlos jMpuIi nd procBres primumqoe jarenlem 

. Aloiiiiln, ileuflt lefera, el, qua« eit sententia, poBOO. 

Omuibi» itlom animuB, scelerats excedere terca, 60 

U. <<'n'JJBUM, II naino for Mara, irnm hlB mBrliil «te^, grKdior, 

S. ('•tfwroHrtruI >«im*irfii(; lecundure, i» turn to good. — 42, 

CooBiriw BO» with mlertium. Tha idea. iijvolved in ihia latiet 

»NbiilUri*o"« tn ilia mxt nlauee, exienins cnmr. Or f(i|nee 

nqilialh»!: 'il ■■ boC from the tra, bat from rae.'— iS. 

(lorPriBto. Con^mine. — 48. Sea ii. 774. — Sl. 

1£ Polymiieatar. — 56, Poiiitir. ThiB prsiem 

ie, aw the tinperlect sabjunciive of thu verb, 
I, Mpecially in ihe poele, of ihe Ihiid canjaga- 

ol' the person, Mid tho olher oT tliB deed, forGftd 
id by a proooun. Sbb jr. 412.— S7. S — "- " 


Nautbiw exOrilnT mio certLuniiw eLuaor; 
Hort&ntuf socii, Cretam pronvncquc pntuaai. 
Proiwquitur aurgens a pnppi veniu« euDtiiL 
El tsDdem BnlitjitiH Curclum adUbitnur OtU. 

' Ergo avidua munis ontaua molior urbis, 
Porg&ineamque voco, et laetam cuBnomioo goatam 
llurior BiRaiQ rocOBarceinqueBllolmre laelis. 
Jninquo fere Bicco subiluetno tilorc pnppes; J 

Conimbiis arvisque novis unuiala juveutua; 
Jui« ilomo!ique rtabam : Kubilo com tabida moinbria, 
CorniplD coeli ii»otu, miserandaqnB * euit 
Arboribus^e eaLiBqnc InoE et letifer aniius. 
Linqucbant dulcis Bninias, aut Begni irBhetant 
CorDota; tumiteritiaexiirere Siriusagros) 
Aretnnt herba«, et ncIuBi se£«Baegra m 
Rur^uii ad oiaclom Oriygias Ptoebumque 
Ilortatui pater ire mart, veiiiamqiie precari i 
QuHQi fessis lineui reboe feral ; unde laboriun 
Tcniur^ auxilium jsbeat ; qiio renuro cursu*. 

'Nux erat, et lerriE auiinalia eoiDUua ItabebU; 
ElHgies sicrBe divom Phrygiinno Peiiaio*, 
Quoti inecum 4 Troja m^iiK|tiu ex igoitiun m 
Extuleiam, viai anle oculos ailMaiO jaoenlit 
Inaomnis, niullo manifeBti lumiaC', (|ua M 
PleML ner inseitaa funclebnt luns tcnesira* ; 
Tnm wc adfari et ourai ttiB dtfmotK >)i<uiBi 
"Quotl tibi delnto Oixygiam dioturuii Apilla nu, 
Ilio canit, et lua noi on ullru nij limmu niiuil. 
NoD 10, IHiilaiiiu iiiueitsa, insijiia aruiaiuaBtt, 
No9 tuinidum sub te porn^nBielanlbiuoM^r, 
Mem vi"iiIuro8 tolleitiua in^antni iwjwtBfl, 
ImpRrinmqoc urhi dabimiM. Tu iiioimia iiw(;niK 

199. JtaTlantur ui pKamu: ^'•,v Zuiii; 

HUk the lufiuiiirE «aaare, n noctiiMi] onaH-i 

Einw. 3«o Zunipi, t 616. Tiri;». t«r,t 

1 'S& — 133. £iiM<Mi«, Sbb Tl.— -I3tl. < 

/ OT. TM olhsr opariLliona wero Ofer. ru.' 

kpalailon, ^Aon. Soo a i>ItnllDr dx(>i. 

Ais(i pTveHi 111 ^lrat. — lAl, Itutmiii' 

bam •nxieir, lo bIbbi.,' Thie «in-nw yti. 

. b»w*Tar, r«Kd in toiaiiiii, ond Buppiwi) ntf Msdhffl 

t^Hwwu tl»t ihe nrnpty pasGBiii tif t m>i«.annnill 

ll vlrioo.' —153. aJ/o" doM iiot »e<n U. X, " 

ico1 in- ■ 

Delms, aut CretEie jussit ci 

Eet loauB, HesperiBm Grai 

Terra antiqua, potena anniB atque ubera glebae; 

Oenolri ooluerB yirl; nunc fama minores 

Italiam dkiese dacis de nomina genlem : 

Kae nobis proptjae sedee; hinc Dardanua ortus, 

laBJueque patef, genua a qno priucipe nostrum. 

Surge age, el haec laelns loiigaevo dicta parenli 

Haud dnbilanda referi Cor;^tbura lerraaque Teqniral 370 

AusoniBs. Diotaea negat tibi Jupiler arva." 

Talibua attoniluB viKiB et voce deorum— 

Nec BOpor illvid Btal, aed coram agnoscere vultun 

Vetatasque oomas praesenliaque ora vitlebar; 

Tum gelidus tolo manabat corpore sudor — 

Conipio B Glralifl carpus, tetiJoque eupiDaa 

Ad uoelum vuoe maiius, el munera libo 

Intemsrala focisi Perfecto l^elus honore 

Andiisan taoio cerlum, remque ordiiie pando. 

Agnovit pi^olem ambignam geminoBque patenlea, 

Seque novo veleram decoptum etrore locorum. 

Tum memorai : "Naie, lUacie exercite fatia, 

SoJii mitti talie bm«s Ci>e9an4ta cqji^bat. 

Nunc repeto haefi geneii porlendere debita noslro, 

Et eaepe Heppetlam, Baepe Ilala regna vocare. 

Sed qnie ad Uesperiae venluros lilora Teuoros 

Crederet ? aiil quem lum vates Cassandra move 

Cedamue Phoebo, el monlti meliora sequamur." 

Sio ait) «l otinMi dicto paremusovanlos. 

Huiw quoque deseriitiussedeRi, pauciaque reliclis ISO ' 

V«]a 4iunt)«, vasiumque citva, trabe currimDs aequor. 

Q allum tennere ralea, neo jam ampliUB ullat 

«e [^oneiructinn wotililbe ' in Creia.' — 1G8-1E6> 

flifuiwis, McordinglOEOmelTndtliuD», brQlhiir 

f Juralor or Corflbua. Tiificnn prinoo. Drivmi 

iifH&ruria, DtudonaB Giaigiiiud MtTtvf, and 

->173, See 151.-176. Sapinai. ll was iba 

TT VI ine K Bupari iirByers willi tho iiolnis "iiwitrde, to 

■wilii ibe pBlimi riownwarda (proniis). — 180, PnleM 

^•ftirring to Teucrua aa (ine anceBlor froui Cteie, -■■'" 

Iisly. SeelOS. &.C. — lei. iVora urtorww. 
ibelefleibuftiniR Bince theee ulscee had- 

tnarka ibai ibe lefleibuf timc Bince theee ulscee had> 
liy iha foumlor» of th« Trojnn luce had lad to ttif 
lerday l«iim>.— 183. CaBSondrn, SaciLW6. — 18« 
ire. Two ihtnea 8te lo hc noliced here — Ibe (imiulM 


Adparenl lerrae, ooeJmn umlique et iindiilga» pontD^ 
Tum mihi caeruleus sopra ca^ut aijjjtitjt imbsr, 
Noatemluemeinqueferene, etinhorruiiundatenftbrU. U 
Cuntinuo veuti Talvnnl maro mHgnaque sargailt 
Aeqiinrs; ili^peiai jactamur gurgiia tbsIo ; 
lovolvere diem aimbi, ei nox huroida coelum 
Alislulil; ingeroinanl abruplia nnbibus ignaB. 
ExcQtitnuc cur^u, et caecis ermtnus ia uiidis. 
Ipee Uiem noclemque nesal diacBmere coeio, 
Neo mcmiaisse rias media Palinunia iu uada. 
Trie aduo incerlos caeca caligine ioles 
ErramUB pelaso, tolidein sine eidere nocteit, 
Quarlo (erra die primuia se attollere tandem 
Tisa, aperire pracul loonti^ ao vulvero Ainiun). 
Vela oadnnt, remis iasurgimusj haud mon, UUUm 
Adoixi torqnenl Bpumaa et oaerula verrunl. 
Servalum ex uudis Strophadum me liiora priiniim 
Accipiunl; Strophadcs Graia Blaiit uomiae ilicUG^ 
Insulka louio in tnagao, quas dlra Cehieno, 
Harpyiaeque colunt aliae, Phineia poglqaam 
Clauaa domus, menEasqim melu liquerc prlom. 
Tristius haud illis moastrum, neo ssiiTior uib 
Peslis et ira deum Stygiis eese exltilit undis. 
Virginei valucrum Tultus, roedlieimii vGnlnt 
Proluviee, uncaeque mauus, et palUda s«(np0r 
Ora tame. 

"Huoubi dela.1i pailusinmviniUB, ecuol 
Laeta boum paesira campis ai'meiila vjJmdd* 
Caprigenumque pecufi, nullo uuilodei, per hwbui. 
Irruimus ferco, et diros ipBUiiiqu^ vuciutiUB 
In partem praedamque Jovem ; Iudi tiloie cantl 
EKSiruimiiBque tnros dapibusqua nnuIaniQr upiBiu. 
Al fiDbilae hcrrilico lapau de mODIiI>U>4 uiliiaitl 
Harpyiae et niBgnia qualiunt olangoribu» alu), 
DiripiuDtque dapes canlactuciiie ocnnia foedont 
Immuiiilo; tura vok telrum Jira inler odonna, 

«B. Nee ttriaeB from ru^, diqit oon. — 211. 
BwliAGiI. anil mude sborl sccording lo ihe Greek ui 
I wilh Aello Biid Ocypeio. were ihe Hatjlie! " 

g Phlnr«, 
ilie Blroytndea, atici '!■' 
as in ibu Srpek, in llii'< ' 
wiio expelled liirm mm 
jiTatdamim: oqiiivnltju <■. 

LISKH tft. II 

Rursum Id Beaegsu longo eub rape cavata, 
ArboriboB clBUsi circom atque horrenlibus umbriB, i.: 
InstruimuB meusaB arisque reponimus ignem.: 
Rursum bx diverso ceeli caeoieque latebrls 
Turba sonatia praedam pedibus circumTalal uncis, 
Polluil ore dapes. Sociis lUDC, arma capeseatit, 
EdicD, et dira bellum cum gonte gerendum. 2i 

Haud secua ac iuBsi faoiunt, tectosqus per iterbam 
DispQQunt eusBs el acula latentia oondimt. 
Ergo ubi delapgae Bonitum per curva detlere 
Litora, dat signum Hpocula AlisenuH ab alta 
Aere cavo, [nvadunt socii, et uova proelia tenlanl, 2i 
Obscenaa pelagi ibrro foedare volocres. 
Sed neque »im plumiB ullam iiec volnera. tergo 
Accipiunt, eftlBTtque fuga eub eiiiera lapeae 
Semesam ptaqdam el vestigia foeiia relinquiint. 
Una in praecelsa consedit rupe Celaeno, 24 

Infelix TatBB, roDopitqua hano peclore Tooem ; 
" Bellum elkm pro caede boum stratisque jurcnoia, 
L&omedonliadae, bellumne inferre paratis 
Et jiatrio Harpyias infonlis peilere regno ? 
Accipite ergo animis alque haec mea %ite dicta. 2S 
Quae Phoebo pater omnipotens, mihi Phoebus Apollo 
Praedixit, T«biB Furianim ego maiima pando. 
Jlaliam cursu petilis; venliBque vocatie 
Ibilis Ilaliam, porlusque inliaie )icebil : 
Sed non ante dalam cingeli» ijKwiiibas orbera, 2E 

Qiiam vos dira faraes iioatraeque injuiia caedle 
Ambesas subigat malis ! menBaa." 
Dinit, et in Gilvam pennis ablata refugit. 
Al eooiis aabila eielida.'* rocmldine sanguia 
DeriguJI; ceuideie Animi, neo jam amplius armis, 2( 
Sed Totin precibueqtie jobunt exposcerQ paeem, 
Sivs dea«, «en gjnt dirse obscenaeque Toloctes. 
Et patct Anctiisea paema de htore palmis 
, Nuntinft magns vocal, meritoiujua tndicii hoDOies : 
''Di, proliibete minas: Ui, lalem avsrlile casum, U 

lunded, — 

ad. — 3S7. 

ph y, eae vii. 

Et pUcidieemtPpios!" Tum litore funem 
Dermere, eitcn**osiiiie jubet taxaro rudentis. , 

'Teniluot rela Nuii; [ueiaius apurDanlibu* unilia, 
Qua cutsum veiilasque giibernalorqQo vocabnt. 
J«m Tnrdio adjmret flneiu nemoroEa Zaeynlhoii : 

Duliohicmqiie Sameque el Neritos ardim saxis. 
ESu^itiiUs scopaloB Ithacae, La^rlia regna, 
Kt Inrrnm allricem saevi exsecramiir ulixi, 
Mo« Ot Leucalas nimbasa cacumina montis 
El farinliislus nautrs aperilur ApoUo. ] 

Hunc potimua fessi et parvae succedimus urbi ; 
Anconi de pttira jatittur, stant licora puppes. 

' Er;en innpstnlR tBndein tellare politi 
Ludtvmurque JoTi. vjtisque inoendimuB araa, 
Aotiaque rilaoiN celebraniUK litora tudis. i 

JSXBrcenl pslrina oIpo labente palaeatras 
Nadati sucit; juvnt ovaciMe tol orbea 
Aq^liuae medlosque fnd-un tenuisBo pcr hoslis, 
IrMeren mogniim sol oirbumvulvittir aonum, 
Et glacialiti hiems aquilumbu^ asperai unda.s; s 

Aer« cavo cliptntm, mogRi ge«tRmen Abanliti, 
Postilnis odvorsJB figo, et rem cArmine signn : 
Anta» katt dt Danois vieUrilm nrma. 

'Linquei^ lum porlua jabeo «t coneidere traDStiia, 
CciTtniim SDoii firiiiiit more et Beqnora vemim. ! 

Ptolinii* nuriiis PhBcacum abMundimos arues, 
LitunKjuu Epiri l^giraua portuqun nubiniui 
Chaunio el celBam Bult^ti nmiuilimut nrheo). 
Hio iiicrcdibiJis rerum fam« DcaitpM aiiiii, 
Priamidt^a Helenutn 6raia» rv^Hnni per uibea, i 

CoijjugiD A^BRJilae Pyrrhi BcepErisque poliUiiin, 

Et pairio Amlromacheii ilerura aeasiaae marilo, 

Obstupui, micaque iucensnm pecliis amore, 

Compellara vicum et casus cognoGcere lantoa. 

Pragredior poitu, clHSiis et Ulora liuqaens j 30 

SoUeninis cum focte da.peB el Iristia dona 

Ante urbeiu in luco falsi SimotintiB ad undam 

Libabat cineri Andromactkti, Manisque vocabal 

Hectoreum ad tumulum, viridi quem cespite iuaneni 

Et geminaa, cauaam lacrimis, saciareral arae. 30 

Ut me conspexit venientem st Traia oicuum 

Arma ameua Tiditj magiiis exlerrita mauEtriB 

Deriguil visu iu. meiiia, calai oaaa reliquit; 

Labitur, el longo vik tandem tempore falur : 

" Verane te facies, veroe raibi nunliua adferB, 31 

Nate dea ? viviBne l aut, bi Imx iilma cecessit, 

Hector ubj e»t V' dizit, Ikerimasqne effudit el omtieio 

Implevit atamore loDum. Yix j)auca furenti 

Subjicio, et rnriii tnrluilus vacibus hitvo : 

" Vivo equideni) vilamque e.^trema per omiiia du»JO J 31 

Ne dubiia, nBiu veta vides. 

Heu! [[uis td oasuB dojiwtiim coojuge tamo 

Excjpir! aul quuo di{:t"" ^''^ fortuiia revtgit! 

Heclocia Aiulrtimaclii l'j'iTbili' connubia sorvas?" 

Dajeoit vullum ut dQmissn voce locula esl : 3! 

"O felix uiJtt ailte aliae Pciamcia viigo, 

Iloalilem aii tiunulum Trojao sub mooiiibua altia 

JuBsa mori, qoae sociiiua non poclulit ulloa, 

Nec vioto'is D«ri leligii captiva cublla ! 

Nos, patrift iriceiifla, Jirersa per aequDta veclAo 33 

StirpiB AobjllHui faalus juvenemque auperbum, 

Sotvitio ooikae, tutimiisi qui deinde, secutus 

I^aenm HemioD«ii LacedaeniDnioaqiii; hymeaaecB, 

Mu fftmulo ianiukmqiie Heletiu transroJBit habimdiuii, 

Ast illiuti, Rieptae cnagno inflammania amore il3 

..._ -.lia.PyrriK»'. 

1e .laeiii otlati elided in oomic [HHii»i Bn(lu 
'e vi. TT3. Tlis quGBtiaushuwa lliBlAaiHMi 
iM>rt menlionedasl, ftc — 331. FolynBB.H 
I .1- slain an Iha grnveaf AoIiU.Ibb, la whQm BU 
p.iint oi tipma niBnied when Pari» «low hira. — 337. 
kuiiiuliehitd borne Ihree childreii lo •'yrrhiia. — 394> 
wliler of Leda, and duugliter uf Menvhiiis, kioB' 
jWroihed 10 Orcstea, san of Agdincmnaa aii2_ 
i. T»a pomnt gave me, who woa ateoin 

ConjU{^ e( MHlomm Kuriii agitaiaa, OmUea 
Excipil incsulUiii pairinitqiie obtruncal ad aras. 
MnrLn Neoptolcmi rpgnoruin redilitA cesaic 
Para IklotKi, qui Ctiuuctos cogiiQmine uitipo* 
Cliaoni&iai]!)» omnem Trojan» a ChaOne dixil, 
Pei^muine Iliacoimjae jugis haac oiljiilil htoaiiI. 
Sed libi ttui ourBura veati, ^030 fata liedort! ! 
Aut qutsnam igiiBrum nosins ileus adpulit oris? 
Qnid i>uor Ascanins ! supemlne ? et veacilnr surs, 
Quuo libi jam Tmja — 

Ecqua tamen puero esi amlBaae cuta parentisl 
Ecqnid in anlit|uani viirlutt^m BtiimiMciiu viriliit 
Kt pal^t Aonvati ol «vnnculuB oioitAt Ueetotl" 
TftliR luDdfibnt iBfirimann loa^Kiuo ciebat 
Inoiusam dolu», cum Rete a mocnibD» henn 
Pfiamidea mulun [Uleuiu cwmiuiiiiibu« oiifen, 
AffnoRnilque ouqii, lMtu*qu«aiJ limiim duHi, 
Et miilium kcrimo* vctIki inler «iu^ln tmulii. 
Proutido, 01 parvam Trujftm flimnlatatitio mugui» 
Pergiuna. st orentom Xanllii (^iomino livnra 
Agnosoo, Seat>iiequu nmplmslor limina portM. 
N«ic uon et Tcucci Mai« «imDl urbe Iruaouir. 
llloe {Mrtinitii» rnx accipinbat in ampUa ; 
AulBi medio libabont poouU Rncchi, 
Impositis auro dapibuii, i^ultiruwjut^ leiiebtiBt. 

Oamque dic6 alierqoc dio* proconit, ut aniBo 
Tela Tdoant lumidoque inllatur carbniioa aiistKi: 
His vatcm aggrettior dicliniio laliaqutuiNi: 
"Trojugena, inler^rei>diriim, ijui numimi PtaCbi, 
Qui Iripodas, Clarii lauiua, igni mdvm «Miili* 
£t rolucrum liiiguas et prucpBtis lAnnia juuinne^ 

iJI. Canhga. HermionB m 1 
le. Thg Fuiies. the insiteiKr.'- 
' i> OresUs Itir slnyii.^ 

« AchilleE 
lupl, « 

-SiO. I 

«•nlingto nalt roganling tho (".". 

oonmomncii of AoneaB ihBi lii- 

I uks ir AacBuiua sllll r. .. 

1 _moiller'B brothor. \ 

ganiltva eineiilni. Seo vi. Ti: 
lumiB Ibr Apollo, frotn nn luin 1 
tMYipln ond propholic enve. Ili 
I WI.OmsiUianionglheRomtiii.;.».!. 1 
^' ai),or 'hp fliglit of liirils Ij/nr/irt 


Fare age — namque omnem cursum mihi prospera dixit 

Religio, et cuncti suaserunt numine divi 

Italiam petere et terras tentare repostas ; 

Sola novum dictuque nefas Harpyia Celaeno 366 

Prodigium canit, et tristis denuntiat iras, 

Obscenamque famem — quae prima pericula vito '^ 

Quidve sequens tantos possim superare labores?" 

Hic Helenus, caesis primum de more juvencis, 

Exorat pacem divom, vittasque resolvit 370 

Sacrati capitis, meque ad tua limina, Phoebe, 

Ipse manu multo suspensum numine ducit, 

Atque haec deinde canit divino ex ore sacerdos : 

^' Nate dea ; nam te majoribus ire per altum 
Auspiciis manifesta fides : — sic fata deum rex 375 

Sortitur, volvitque vices j is vertitur ordo — 
Pauca tibi e multis, quo tutior hospita lustres 
Aequora et Ausonio possis considere portu, 
Expediara dictis : prohibent nam cetera Parcae 
Scire Helenum, farique vetat Saturnia Juuo. 380 

Principio, Italiam, quam tu jam rere propinquam, 
Vicinosque, ignare, paras invadere portus, 
Longa procul longis via dividit invia terris. 
Ante et Trinacria lentandus remus in uuda, 
Et salis Ausonii lustrandum navibus aequoi* 385 ' 

Infernique lacus Aeaeaeque insula Circae, 
Quam tuta possis urbem coraponere terra. 
Signa tibi dicara ', tu condita raente teneto ; 
Cura tibi BOlIicito secreti ad flurainis undani 
Litoreis ingens inventa sub ilicibus sus 390 

Triginta capitum fetus enixa jacebit, 
Alba, solo recabans, albi circura ubera nati, 
Is locus urbis crit, requies ea certa laborum. 
Nec tu raensarum morsus horresce futuros : 
Fata viam invenient, aderitque vocatus Apollo. 395 

Has autem terras, Italique hanc litoris oram, 
ProxiAa quae nostri perfunditur aequoris aestu, 

tion betwccn oscines and pmepctcs. — 363. Religio^ thc commanda 
of heaven. Seo 94, &c., 163, &c. — 36.5. Scc 255, &c. — 374. 
Majaribus solito. — 379. Parcae. Sco Ecl. iv. 47. — 383. Inviay 
inapBSBablo by land, as Acncas could not mako Iiis way ovcr the 
interVening territorics (longis terris) from thc Greek colonics on the 
coaBtB. — 389. C%tmj &c. Scc this prophecy repeated by the river- 

Sid Tiberinus, viii. 43, &c. — 392. Alba. From this, accordine to 
e usages of his timo, Vir^il dorives thc namo of thc town Alba. 
«—895. Viam^ a way by which the fulfilment of the prcdiction will 

proveto be harmlcss 3%. Jlanc, the roapt ncarest — the east coast. 

•—397. Noftri afqvorix. tho Adriatic. 
17 K 

Effnge; ouaota malis habituilur moenia Gnuw. 

Hic et NBrycii poauenint moeni» Locri, 

Et Sallenliiioa obsedit mliile campo« 

Lyctius Idomeneiia ; bio illa ducis Melibooi 

Parra Philocielas subnixa Pefelia rauro, 

Qnin, ubi transmiBsae stelerint ir&na aequora olusei^ 

Et poaitis Rris jam voia in litore solveg, 

Purpareo ve!are ooinas adoperton amiclu, 

Ne quB inler sauciun ignis in honore deorum 

Hoatili» facitss ocourral et omina lurbet. 

Hunc socii morem Bacromm, hunc ipae tenetO; 

Hao casti maueant in religione nepotea. 

Ast nbi (ligreasum Siculae le admoverit oraa 

Ventus, et angusti rarescenl claiietra Pelori, 

Laeva libi tellus et iongo laeva petantur 

Aequora circiiitu ; dextrum fuge tilae et qimIu. 

Uaec loca vi quODdaia et vaslB convolsa ruina — 

Tanlum sevi longinqoa valet mutare velustiu — 

DiasLluisso ferunt, oum proliuu» ulrnque tulliu 

Una foret ; venit medio vi pontus eC nndi* 

HeHperium Siculo latoa abECJdit, nrvaqu« «1 urbca 

Litore didualas Riiguslo ihleilail ncDlu. 

Dexlrum ScyJIa Inlua, lanmm iinploeatti CtMUrybdis 

Obsidei, alque imo barathri ter gnrgite vanbic 

Sarbet in abruptum llDctu», rursuaque eub urm 

Erimt allernoa el sidera vefbenit llniia- 

Ai Scyllam caeciE cohibel spuluncn lalebtiB, 

Oia exsertantem et navis in Muca ImhsnlUDi. 

Prima hominis rncleE el pnlehm ponlore virea 

Pube lenus, poslrema immani. oorpurB pivtiut, 

Delphinum caudas utero cummlsBH lutwruitt. 

PrBeBta.t Trinacrii meiaa hislmrB Punyni 

-iia. EUhn l 

H inere was a tmdilioa tMltBfva 
» only w«lled iii ty ?lljl«eini^ 
"H lo ba ■ raiaed liiltb «r "" *'™'' 
■rCnlQs. — 403. FtUrct.^ 
iiuu Di nsiBiTc Teraa of dcBsaing wilh the ftRCtw 
436. ThB praclice of BUcriticiug wiiii ihs IlUlt CUvMfl 
Seai. 73.-411. Earaennt, ' Bhnll bcgin to HipnT'! 
inwnoss,' — 412. Larva, sailine wcntWHrd. Ilie HHL 

tbe lefl 424, Scyila. aL-carding lo ihe Irwlhian*,'! 

BhBngail inlQ iha monaler herc daacribed by ViMil, r- 
fnini her don, to eeize tind destroy ahlpa — halr -in 
Bnding in ino dolpbma' (aiis, and Iraviug her bcllric 
wolies or dogs. Bce 433, and Ecl. vi, 74. &e« W" 
LMt, ii. eso, &c. 

WBs ths friend ot' Ilerci 

Ces9a.tilein] longos et circumfleclere cursus, 
Quam semel iuformem Tasto vidisf " ■'" 
Scyllarn et caemleis canibua leEonantia Baxa. 
PraBlerea, ei qua est Heleaa prudentia, vati 
Si qua fidas, animum si veris implet Apollo, 
Uaura illud tibi, nato dea, proque omnibuB unum 
Praedicam, et repetena iterumque ilerumque inonebo 
Junonla ma^ae primum prece numen adora^ 
Junoni cane vota libens, dominamque potentem 
SuppiioibuH Bopera donis; sic denique victot 
Trinacria finls Iialos mitlare reliola. 
Huc ubi delatns Cumaeam acceseeris urbom 
Divinosque lacus et ATeraa sunanlia silvis, 
Insanara valem aspicies, quae rupe sub iraa 
Fala eanit foliisque nolas et nomina mandat. 
Quaecumque in (oliia deactipsit carraina virgo, 
Digeril iit nuroenim atque anlro seclusa relinqnit. 
Illa manent immola, locia neque ab ordine cedunt. 
Verum eadem, TerEO tenuis cura cardine venlus 
Impulit et leneras turbavit janua frondeB, 
Numquam deimle cavo volilautia prendere aaso, 
Nec reTocare situa aul juogere carniina curat. 
Tnconsulii abeunt, sedemque odeie Sibyllae. 
Hic tibi ne qua morae fuerint diependia tantr, 
Quamvis increpitent sucii, et vi cursus in allum 
Vela vocet possisque ainUE implere Eecundos, 
Quin adeas vatem precibusqne oracnla poscaa 
Ipsa canat, vooemque volens alque ota resolvat. 
llla libi Italiae popalos venturaqae bella, 
Et quo i|uemque modo fugiasque ferasque iHboretn, 
Expediel, cursusque dabil veaerata secnndoB. 
Haec sunt, qua« noslra liceat te voce moneri. 
Vade age, et ingentem factis fet ad aeliiem Trojam." 
' Quae pastquam vates aic nre eSatus araico est, 

— 431. Fides, IruBlworrliinOBB. — 435. Frr 

II,' ttiat iH, 'aa what alono will bc of aa mudi value u 

eanB.'— «0. Fmii. biI jThh. — 413. SanaiKu tUeit, 

na ihe raBtling woodE.' — 443. /luanam. FuU ofprophstis 

mS, C^rinina, propberics ; bui u theso were geDetally 

Ibs word here iQBjr hnve il9 proper mcaoiiie. — 446. m 

in Ibe ordet — probBbly — of lime. — 452. IiKota^H, s 

ihe word, Bpplied to ihose who, hBVlng Booght 

Sibyl, aro mocked by the diepersBd leara*. and 

_ — 433. ^ic, &,•:■ Hcloiius adviees AenaiH to. 

. orihe Sibyl, na couiilerbiiliuicing auy diBBdmilHa 

however long » daration. — 457. See vi. 74, — 460. 

— Soa Zumpt, 1 633, - . 

196 AE:«GtDOs. 

Doiia ilehijtc aoro jiravla sfutoque c lojiliaiila 

linpcrat ad iiavis fiTri. slipaiqiiu curitiis 46B 

Iiigens nrj^tiluiii, UoJuiiHuusiiue Ifbctas, 

Loritram uoiiseriB,in lianiis auroquit iriliouni, 

Et uonuin insijrrils galuiie uri.vtannuc cnma.iitis, 

Arma Neoptolemi. Suiit et Bua (luiia parentl. 

Aildlt eijuos, ailditiiae ducen; 470 

Bemigiuin supplel ; socios simul instruit armis. 

' Inlifiea cuifsem velia aplaro jubebat 
Anchi:M'!>, rifrel venlo niora iie (jua ferenti. 
Quem rtioi.-bi iitterpri-s multo competlal tionorc : 
"Cotiju^'iu, Anchisa, Vetiuris liii^iali; siiperlMt, 4TS 

Cura ilfuiii, bis Pergameis crcple ruiiiiS; 
Eccc tibi Ausoiiiai: lellua ; tiaiic arripe velis. 
£t laraQn hatic pela^ praelerlabaru necesse est ; 
Ausoniac' pars illa piocul, quam paiidii ApoIIo. 
Vode," uil, '-o feli\ nati piciale. Quid ultc& 480 

Provehor «;t tauilo BniHCiilis domoror iLiistrosl" 
Nbc miiius Andromacne, diiiressu inocsta supremo, 
Ferl picturatas auri sobtcmiue vestes 
El Plirvgiam Ascanlo dilamydem; nec cedit honori, 
TextiliDugque onerat donis, ac talia fatur : 486 

"Accipe et haec,maQuam tlbi qnae monumeiita mearum 
Sint, piier, et loiigum AndromaotiaQ testenlur amorem, 
Conju^is Hectoreae. Cape Jona exlrsma tuotum, 
mihi sula mei auper AstyanaotlB imago. 
Sic oculos, stc ille raanus, sic ora fcrebat ; 490 

El nunc aequali tecum pubescerel aero." 
Hos ego di^rediens lacrimis adfabar obortis; 
"Vivite felices, quibua est forluna peracta 

464. Gravis hy iho orsia. — 4GG. Thfl IAi*a were braien eweis, 
•nd wero uaed liy iho pricats in DodonB, for the purpose of predict- 
ing filture events, from iha aounda relurned hy mein whan Blrock. 

— 467. Lericam. Tha cost of mul woa of thm descrjption OdW ' 

K' ufl chein-arniour, iho ringa, in three plios, being offiold. — WBL 
irenti, Anchiaac. — 476. Bii. See ii. 643.-477. ."^- " -—^- 

to the oppOBitc cunal 478. Hanc, yonder ahare — ih( 

of Italy.--491. Demor/ir, ■nreTenl you frora availiii!] j 

— 484. Nec cedii hBiiori. Tha moaniae of thew u.ii, 
FeihnpB ihia eiplnnntioit mny prove snttsfiii-iiiiy : 
nveD prCBcnlB, nnd bldden d rcapeclfiil [iaiiore, 17 
AnellisGB. Andromache qives presents to ABcaniua, — 
&rewell wilh ciiunl tc^pccl. ShB not only givcB preecntB, 

inierior {'docsnol yield') in her lan^na^ to theror *- 

«flliir hnabiind. — 466. Tho force ot thiBtincwill 
preBcnlinchcrgitiaofwovenakill(iheoM(et andd . . 
befoie), t>nc Ihus addrcsscs Aecanius.' — 489. Sujvr, 

Jbid BQa ; noa alia ex aliis in 
Vobta parU quise ; nuUutn mariB aequor araadum, 
Arva neque Ausoniae sempQr cedentia retro 
Qnaerenda. Effigiem Xanthi Trojamqoe videliB, 
Quam vestrae fecete manoa, melioribus, oplo, 
AaBpiciitj, et quaa fiierit minus obvia Graiia. 
Si quanda Thybrim vioinaque Titybridia arva gentique meae data moenia cernam, 
CognatBH urbes oLin) populuBque propinquos, 
Epiro, Hesperia, qm"bus idem Dardauus auctor 
Atque idem casus, unam faciemus utramqne 
Troiam animis ; maneat nostros ea cura nepotes." 

'rrovehitaur pelago vieina Ceraunia juxla, 
Undo iter Italiam eursnsque brevisaimus Ufnii*. 
Sol ruii inlarea ot montes timbranlur opaci. 
Sternimur optatae gremio lelluris ad undam, 
Softiti renias, passimque in litore sicco 
Corpora ouramus; Seaaoa sopor irrigal arlus. 
Necdum orbem medium Nox horis acta subibal ; 
Haud segasji fttrato surgit Paliutuus et omuia 
Explorat ventoa, atque auribua a^ra captal ; 
Sidei^ QUQCta uotBt taotlo kbentia ooelo, 
Arcturum pluviaaque Hyadas geniinoeque Trioiies, 
Armatumque aoro eircumBpicii Orioita. 
Posiquam onuclft videl coeln constaro Bereiio, 
Dat clarum « puppi signum ; nos caBlia movemu», 
Tenlumusque viam el velomm paudimus alas. 
Jamque rubeaocbat sleilia Aurora fugatis, 
Cum pracuL obsouros collie Iiumilemque videmua 
lluliam. "Ilalinini" piimu» eonclamat Acbates, 
liatiam laoto soiui olamore solutant. 
Tam palsr AactiaeB magiium cratera oorona 
Indiiit iiaplevitque mofo, divneque vooavit 
Slaus ocIm iri puppi : 

iiis el tertao lempeslalumqne potentes, 

§iH. Snafffi-luaa. iIib chan| 

*^ bw. — 4!'!). ^uerii. Thia ^ 

KUw £^'i«tiiui Tlov. It« ^nithed foundt 

louliu, dutined 
a [he foondBtioit 
is hoped, vSl it 

ly. irsS . . .... . 

_.. that ofancient Tray. — S03. lo .^fro. JJnn. 

|i>aDditie Rome iind Nicopolis. — SOl. Coijit,- A « 

,~iOi, Tra;am, in opposition with vrbea pBpiSa^Ut. 
Tot, alreadr ■UB"'i°oed U ihe pilotof AsDeW, MS.— 
Sm i. 535. A Bpondaic lino ; see ii, es.— 519. Sig- 
' > lighl lii. 35G), or a irumpet (v. 139). — S33. TMI 
italtam, brings lo mind Xeiiuphon'B ^jlsm ) Mttcr- 
... 7. 34. — 53S. Craltra. See GtaTg. ii. SM, — fiStt^^ 
ItRtM wilh mari$. j^^l 



FerlG vtdtn venlo facUem et Bpirate Beoundi." . 

' Crebrescuiit optaiae aurse, porttisque pateBoit fiSK 
Jam ptopior. templumque ndparet in arce Minervae. , 
Velalegtinisocii, ei profaa ad lilora lorqnont. 
Porlus ab Earoo flucta curTBlus in arcnin ; I 

Objectae ealsa Bpumaiil aBpergine cautee; I 

' — latet; gemino demiitunt orachia muro SI8l< 

iti scDpuli, refugitque ab litore templnnri. i 

Quatuor hic, primum omen, eqnos in gtaraiae vidi | 

TondeQtis caiapum late, catidore nivali. 
Et pater Anciii^s; ".Beliuin, o lerra hospilA, pOTHfl; 
Belio armantur equi, beUum haec armentB miiiBBtur. 540 
Sed lamen idem olim curru ftuccedere eueli 
Quadrupedes, et frena jugo concordis ferre: 
Spea et pacis," ait. Tuiii nuoiiTia sancta praouatir 
Palladis annisotiae, tuiaa prima aooopit OTantui, 
El capila ante aras Phrygio velamnr amicln; 
Praeceptiaque Ueleci, dederat qoae maxinw, tita 
Jiinani Argivao jassog ndolemuis hooores, 
Haud roora, coatinuo perfectiB ordiite vatiE, 
Cornaa velatarom obveitimua aDlenQaTDni^ 
Grajugenumque doinDs mispecbqae liDqaiiniM am. 590 

'Uinc Binus Herculei, si vera est <ama, IWenli 
Cemiturj stlollit ae dira Ladniaeontia, 
Caulocisque arces et navifra^um Scylaceuta. 
Tum procul e Ructu Trinaocia oemilQr Aeins, 
El gemitum iogentem pelagi pnleataqaa 
AudimaG longe fra.ctaBque ad lilDTa vocCT 
Exsuliatiique vada, alqueaestu niiscenui . .._. 
El paler AnchiseE: "Nimirum haec illa diarjlKlla: 
Hos Helenus ncopuloa, baes saxa horrenda oniiabW-' 
Eripite, o 9ocii, parilerque insurgilo remis." 
Haud minus ac jiiEsi faciunl, piiinti^ijue rudeMain 
Contortiil laitvas proram Palinnrus KiTnndafi; 
Laevam cuncta t»)hors reinis wntiaquo putiirrt 

S30. Paiattl. See 375,-531. Aret. Sob ii, 
MluB. — 53e. Stfagit. Tbe lempk ainnillnc' on ] 

^ irom Ihe ahai«, \a ronTeBenlBd bs rtlrealitig uum .. _ 
IhOM approBoUing, wlio would notumllj-, in Ihc iliiltt 
cloee lo ths Eca. — 540. Bdla, dalivs. — 543, Spa <l 
**3.— 5«. Canilavrlam.«r. See 405. — 347. Jwunfl 

—549. OUierlmai. eo as lo Tace tiie sea SSg. .0 

&c. Bee 39C, &c. — 333. IHva, lemplum diva»,,- 
A fino jnBlaaee of tha differenco beiween thcM JT 
ppintmg (0 il — this that vie hcar; ilta, thal ~ ~ 

L 8ee420.~569. Lacmi. See 413. 



Tollimur in coolum curvato giirgite, et idem 

Subducta ad Manis imos desidimus uiida. 565 

Ter scopuli clamorem intor cava saxa dedere 5 

Ter spumam elisam et rorantia vidimus astra. 

Interea fessos ventus cum sole reliquit, 

Ignarique viae Cyclopum adlabimur oris. 

'Portus ab accessu ventorum immotus ct ingens S^O 
Ipse; sed horrificis juxta tonat Aetna ruinis, 
Interdumque atram prorumpit ad aethera nubem, 
Turbine fumantem piceo et candente favilla, 
AttolUtque globos liammarum et sidera Jambit ; 
Interdum scopulos avolsaque viscera montis 575 

Krigit eructans, liquefactaque saxa sub auras 
Cum gemitu glomerat, fundoque exaestuat imo. 
Fama est Enceladi semiustum fulmine corpus 
Urgueri mole hac, ingentemque insuper Aetnam 
Impositam ruptis liammam exspirare caminis ; 680 

Et fessum quotiens mutet latus, intremere omnem 
Murmure Trinacriam, et coelum subtexere fumo. 
Noctem illam lecti silvis immania monstra 
Perferimus, nec, quae sonitum det causa, videmus ] 
Nam neque erant astrorum ignes, nec lucidus aethra 585 
Siderea polus, obscuro sed nubila coelo, 
Et Lunam in nimbo nox intempesta tenebat. 

' Postera jamque dies primo surgebat Eoo, 
Humentemque Aurora polo dimoverat umbram : 
Cum subito e silvis, macie confecta suprema, 590 

Ignoti nova forma viri miserandaque cultu 
Procedit supplexque manus ad litora tendit. 
Respicimus. Dira illuvies immissaque barba, 
Consertum tegumen spinis; at cetera Graius, 

565. Dettedimus, Others read desidimu». — 566-7. These two 
lines parlicularise thc two precedin^. Thricc thcy sunk so low as 
to bcar the roar of tho wavcs, which, breaking against cliffs (sco' 
puli)i bcllowed in thc caverns of thc rock (cava snxa) ; thrice they 
werc hcavcd up on thc foam-wavc dashcd back from the rock. 
Hearing was thc sense most anpallcd by the first, and siglit by the 
second phcnomenon. — 578. hficeladij a hundrcd-handcd giant, son 
of Tartarus and Terra. In tho war l3ctwccn the gods and the gi- 
ants, he was ovcrlhrown by Jupiter, and buried undcr Mount Aetna. 
8ee Ovid, Met. v. 346, &c. who represents Typhocus as the buriea 
ffiont. Scmiustwn; pronounco scmyustum. — 580. The cavems of 
Aetna burst, and from thcsc furnaccs thc mountain brcathcs forth 
fire. — 585. Thcre wcrc no stars visible, nor was thc hcaven spark 
Img with thc constcllations that dcck the purc rcgions of aether. •— 
587. Iniempesta^ blackcst night, becausc it is no time to work. — 
594. Hia tattcre-d drcss wos hcld togcthcr by thoms instead of 
thre&ds. bnt his arms wpre Grecian. 

E( quondam pairiif ad Troj»m mjasiu in acmia. 
Isque obl I^rdamos hBbitus el Troln vidit 

ArmH praaul, paulum aspeoiu oonterritua haeait, 
Coutinuilque gTodam ; moic eese ed lilora pcaaoepa 
Cum flelu precibusque tulil: "PorBidera leator, 
Per BUperos alqae hoc coeli epirabile lameu, 
Tollite me, Teucri; quascumque abducite larras; 
Hoc eat enl. Scio me Dnoaia e clasaibus kiauto, 
Et bBllo IliacoH faleor petiisee FeuBtis. 
Pro quo, Bi ac«]ariB tanta est injuria aoalri, 
Spac^ile me )n HuclUB, vaatoque immergiln ponta. 
Si pereo, hominum manibus periisse juvabil," 
Dixerat, (;t geima amplexus geuibuaque voluians 
Haerebat. Qul sil, fari, quo eanguine orelDi, 
Horlaniur; quae deiniie asilel forluna, falMJ. 
Ipee pater dextram Ancbiees, haud malta momlUM, 
Dat iuveai, atqua animum praecenli pigaore &niuit. 
Illa haeo, deposita tandera formidine,_falut :_ 
" Sum palria ex Ilbaca, comed infeliuiB Ulfxii 
Nomen Achemenidai, Trojam genilere AilatlMMO 
Paapere — mansisselque ulinam fartuoa ! — pntfectoa- 
Hic me, dum Irepidi orudelia limina, iini]uuat, 
Immemores socii vasto Cydopia ia «ntro 
Beaeroere. Damus saniQ dapibQeqDe CTHmtl*, 
InlUH opaca, ingens. IpRe atduuf, altaque pnlst 
Sidera— Di, laleiu lerris ^vertite pealem' — 
Neo visu facilis nec dlctu adlabilil Dlli. 
Visoeribus miserorum el saaguine vescttut aini. 
Vidi egomet, duo de numero oum corpom Dutwu 
Fressa mana magna medio resupinas in »nirr) 



-600. S, 


bilr Ivnm,' • 

995. El. ' ond wliat ia ini 
DsllocBlJon. Il mUBt refor 
breaih.— fiOl. Terras. Ad 
ded, and kept lons iij the Brais. — 607. JJ 
lulaiM. Seei.SSi. — 614. NmneK esl niil 
coaBlrucdon, aee i, 267,— 615. Ilewisbe» 

ied hiin lo forsBka his father'a humblD fui 

csompleliaR of ao advealure nirntled b; Hamiir, (lil. ix. 
Ulyaeee and hia companioDa had unwitiinsly tkkaB 
OTVO of Polyphemus, ohb of ibs Cydnpa. aracB-'- 
Bt£is, v/ho. of gigBniic Biae. tondea iheirdoclu «t 
Aelna. Polyphenius y/aa devouring the GieakB 
UlveBeB Bt once aveuBed 'he dcad, and aaved Iba 
pedieul herQ recorded, 630, lic., and whu:h will 
of ibeHiniitar incidonl in the ibird voyDge of ~' 
the Arehian Nightt' £.i((Tlfli«m«./.. When L 

(isniona fled, AcbcinenideB, according to Viigil 
Bft bchind. 


Frangeret ad saxura, sanieque exspersa natarent 625 

Limina; vidi atro cum membra fluentia tabo 

Manderet, et tepidi tremerent sub dentibus artus. 

Haud impune quidem; nec talia passus Ulixes, 

Oblitusve sui est Ithacus discrimine tanto. 

Nam simul expletus dapibus vinoque sepultus 630 

Cervicem inflexam posuit, jacuitque per antrum 

Immensus, saniem eruclans et frusta cruento 

Per somnum commixta mero, nos, magna precati 

Numina soititique vices, una undique circum 

Fundimur. et telo lumen terebramus acuto, 635 

Ingens, quod torva solum sub fronte latebat, 

Argolici clipei aut Phoebeae lampadis instar, 

Et tandem laeti sociorum ulciscimur umbras. 

Sed fugile, o miseri, fugite, atque ab litore funem 

Rumpite. 640 

Nam qualis quantusque cavo Polypheraus in antro 

Lanigeras claudit pecudes atque ubera pressat, 

Centura alii curva haec habitant ad litora vulgo 

Infandi Cyclopes, et altis montibus errant. 

Tertia jam Lunae se coraua luraine coraplent, 645 

Cuni vitam in silvis inter deserta ferarum 

Lustra domosque traho, vastosque ab rupe Cyclopas 

Prospicio, sonitumque pedum vocemque tremisco. 

Victum infelicem, baccas lapidosaque corna, 

Dant rami, ct volsis pascunt radicibus herbae. 650 

Omnia collustraas, hanc priraum ad litora classem 

Conspexi venientem. Huic me, quaecumque fuisset, 

Addixi : satis est gentem eflugisse nefandam. 

Vos iinimam hanc potius quocumque absuniite leto." 

* Vix ea fatus erat, summo cum monte videmus 655 
Ipsum inter j^ecudes vasta se mole raoventem 
Pjistorem Polyphemum el litora nota petentem, 
Monstrum horrendum, iuforme, ingens, cui lumen. 

. 631. Sortiti vices, in this perilous adventure, the followers of 
Ulysscs settled by lot which part each shouldact. — 635. The telum 
was, according to Homcr, a trcc pointcd and hardencd in the fire. 
{JLMmen)\ See ii. 173. — 637. Tlie clipeus Argolicus was round. 
Compare, with this passagc, and with 645 icomua complent)^ • The 
moon that rose last night, round as my shicld, had not yct filled hcr 
homB.* — Ilome^s Douglas. — C39. The elisions and hexamctera of 
this line niark the inipatience of dcspair. — 643. Vulgo, everywhere 
arouDd.-- 645. Tertia^ &lc. Three months had elapscd. See 637. 
•^646. IVemiaco poetically govcrns the accusativc. Seexi. 403. — 
654. Po<tu«, in prcfcrcnce to ihc horrid fate that awaitcd him in the 
handB of Polyphcmus. — 658. This linc, with its spondces and eli- 
■ioiu, visibly rcprescnts thc crashing movement of the giant. 

Trunca iDann [iJnuB regit, ct vesttgia &ttnu ', 
Laiiigerae oomiiuiitur ovee; ea isola Toluptua 
Solamenque inalj. 

PDSiquam altoa tetigit fluQtus ei aJ aeqaorti venil, 
Luminis efibasi fluiaum taTil inda cruoreoi, 
Dentibus infTeDdeus gemilu^ giadilurque pur (teqgor 
Jam tneiiium, necdum HadUB ialera arduii tinxit. 
Nos procul inde fugam trepidiceleiare, recsplo 
Supplice aic merito, tacitlque incidere luDsm ; 
Verrimus et proiii <wrlantibuH aequora remio. 
Sensit, et ad sonilum voeis 

Clainorem inmensum lollit, quo ponlu» e! 
Contremuere uaijae, penitusque exteiri» tellus 
Ilaliae, curviKiue immngiit Aelna cavBrain. 
At ganas e alvis Cyclopum el moniibus allis 
Excilum ruit ad porttia et lilorE oomplent. 
Cernimue adslantis nequidqcam lumine lorvo 
Aetnoec» fmirea, coeto capila alla ferentis, 
Concilium hoiiendum: (]ualeBRum vertioe oelso 
Aeriae querouH. aut conilerae cyparissi 660 

Coaatileiunt] silva alta Jovi», lucuavs Oianao, 
Praecipilis metus aoer agit quoiuimqiie rudentis 
JSxcuiere, et ventia intendera vela BeoimdM. 
CoQlra jusaa mouent Ueleni, Scijllam aiqua CbBTybdiiDi 
Inter, utiamque viam leli discrimtne jam, ,C8S 

Ni leneant cursus; corium est dsre Imte» retra. 
EcGe BUtem Boreas aiigOKta sb eede l^eloTi 
MiBsuE adesl. Vivo pra.elervehor oslii aaxo 
Pantagiae Megarosque sinH» Tiiapsumquo , 
Talia monplrabai relegens ertRtA rptnifiii* 

" 869. Vetii. TUe cry of tlie rowets. — ■ 
'WaveB boiH AeDE«a away wiih d mpidiiv i 
lakelhBm,— 676. Euic tt eomplent. Pr 
tbe nolion ia, ' BS one bodf ibfy ruish. hui 
fiU.'— 681. Con»litlruni. tiuemt lalBlur.: 
.M IsiMivii Bianaf. wbti mu91 hcr« be idtii 
cBle. — 684-686. A difficidl psssage, ancl ' 
troable lothe commeatalora. AccordiDt: [n . 
Ihe meaning will be, ' On ihe olher hniiJ. 
tma (410. &,i;.) nsm ua, ihu unless itiry 
«aili, vtta) kaop Iheir wny right belwtic.!] 
bolb cnuraBj expose io alniogt inevUHblc <|. 
■ ir fear of PolyphemuB.) we deietBiim 
They wete deliverad from Iboir d,'iii: 
'iB riaing of ihe nonb wiiid, - "^ "" 
"" Ham, Ihe verb hei~ " '"" 

LIBER lY. 203 

Litora Achemenides, comes infelicis Ulixi. 

^Sicanio praetenta sinu jacet insula contra 
Plemmyrium undosum : nomen dixere priores 
Ortygiam. Alpheum fama est huc Elidis amnera 
Occultas egisse vias subter mare ; qui nunc 695 

Ore, Arethusa, tuo Siculis confunditur undis. 
Jussi numina magna loci veneramur ; et inde 
Exsupero praepingue solum stagnantis Helori. 
Hinc ahas cautes projectaque saxa Pachyni 
Radimus, et fatis numquam concessa moveri 700 

Adparet Camarina procul campique Geloi, 
Immanisque Gela fluvii cognomine dicta. 
Arduus inde Acragas ostentat maxima longe 
Moenia; magnanimum quondam generator equoram ; 
Teque datis linquo ventis, palmosa Selinus, 705 

Et vada dura iego saxis Lilybeia caecis. 
Hinc Drepani me portus et inlaetabilis ora 
Accipit. Hic, pelagi tot tempestatibus actus, 
Heu genitorem, omnis curae casusque levamen, 
Ajnitto Anchisen. Hic me, pater optime, fessum 710 
Deseris, heu, tantis nequidquam erepte periclis ! 
Nec vates Helenus, cum multa horrenda moneret, 
HoB mihi praedixit luctus, non dira Celaeno. 
Hic labor extremus, longarum haec meta viarum. 
Hinc me digressum vestri^ deus adpulit oris.' 715 

Sic pater Aeneas, intentis omnibus, unus 
Fata renarrabat divom, cursusque docebat. 
Conticiut tandem, factoque hic fine quievit. 

chemenides, had sailed from the coast of Airica previously to the 
Iventure with the OycIopeB. — 697. Jussi. By whom? rerhaps 
f Anchises, or it may be in compiiance with the inBtructions of 
elenus, as generally applicable. — 702. Gela. Immanis is probably 
I epithet of fiuvii, as a destructivc rivcr. — 711. Nequid^uam; 
nce, after all, he had not reached Italy. — 716. Intentis, brmging 
ick the mind to ii. 1, ' Intentijue ora tenebant.* 


iso loves Aeneas, 1—5. She reveaU Uer love to her sister Anna, 
6^80. Anna encourages her to marry him, 31-55. They offer 
'iitm^ftoes, in order to propitiate the gods, 56-67. Progress of 
Dfdo^B love, 68—89. Juno, alarmed, proposes to Venus the 
'miRisge of Aeneas and Dido, with the junction of the two 
MliODt; to which Venus seemingly assents, 90-128. The 


CartliRginians aiiil Tiojans ro forlh to hunt, 129-159. In ■ 
«torrii, ruiwil by Jtino. Acneu^ nnil Diila, scpnnted from their 
compDuiotis, aro iiinrrii'a, inU-17a. Fanic (who is describeJ) 
bears thu liiiinfs iliroiis;!i Libyn, 173-107. Thia irritatei king 
larbHti, a rcjcclcd suiKir or Uiilo'9, wlio praya to his father Ja- 
jiitcr, 108-SlH. Jiipitpr scnila Merciir)' to haaterk the vofage 
of Acneas to Itnljr, aiO-'J37. Fiiglit of Mercurjf, 238-SSe. 
Mcrcury*s mcsEaijc to Acncns, 3S0-S7S. Acneas, whose lead- 
ing cliamclcristiu is obcdiciicc to the vill of Hearen (jiiiu), 
Iircpure» fur liis ilcpartiirc, altcmpting to coneesl his plani 
froiii Dido, S79-Sl.'5. Tlic quecn divines hia intcntions, and 
upbraids hiin, SOC-3.10. His rcply, 331-361. Dido'» reBant- 
llieut and griol) 3l!'i-30ii, AcneBs, aorrowful, peisisCB in hia 
pieparations, 3'J3— 107. Aniia, ac Dido's requeit, intei^wes, 
buE in vaiti, 408-440. DiJo is appa^d by frightful otnena, 
and iirepatcs for dcalli, bnc conocalink her deiigo from hsr 
sistcr, preteiiils thnt sho is inaking prcparaiions to win hB£k 
Actieus by inncical riics, 4S0-35i Aeneas, warned by Mer- 
cury, in a viaion, to ilcpart 011' tlie instBnt, lete uil, SS3^B3. 
Thc qiiecn cccs liis llcct ilcparting, and stabs harself, 5B3-6SS. 
Thc gcncral ooiisleiiintion, and Annu's despair, 0G6— 687, Ago- 
nicsof Diilo, till Iris, by Jnnu'9 contmand, interposea to teleui 
oer by dealli, 088-705, 

At regina gravi jamiludum Bauoia caim. " 

Vulnua alit veni?, et caeco carpitur igni. 

Mulia viri virtus animOj multusqne reonrut 

Getilis lionos; hnereiit itifuki pectore «ulUs i 

Verbaque, ticc plauidam membris ilat catH quiete^. B , 

Posiera Plioebea lusirabal lampade tems 

HumeiUemijue Aiirora polo Jimoverat umbtam, | 

Cum Bic uiianimam alluqullur male uns Bororem: 

' Ajvwo. mioi, quac mi; Hiispcnaam insomnio. tcrrcnt ! 

Quis iiDvus hlc iiostri:^ eucceBsit eedibus hospes 1 

Q.uem WBe ore fcjcns ! quam forti peotore et armia I 

Creilo etjuiiiem, nec vatia lideB, gcnus esBe deorius. 

Dugenerea ahimos timor nr^uit. Heu, quibns ille 

Jaulalus fatis ! quae bella exhausta cauebat ! 

I. Jlt «rcma 10 cnnncL'! iliis tiook wiih the pmoding n 
Aencan had toneluilcd liLi talo, but long betbre he .w«- ^ 
|uecn v.-a9 sniiilen wilh tho jiniiia of love. — 3. Carpe.4 

's ncparaiiaa iDto fmgments, 

, , . ihal, dimaeerat. ' ' " 

ously, atid uifi liisliliiij; np. — S, JUali 

process, - 

i, 7. Lailrahal, dimaeerat. Autora liad 

— li. J^trrt leiii refcta 10 Ihe general deportmenC. 
eipres^ion, i, ,m — 12. Gi^mi. prolem. 

LIBER IV. 205 

Si mihi non animo fixum immotumque sederet, 15 

Ne cui me vinclo vollem sociare jugali, 

Postquam primus amor d(H!optam morte fefellit; 

Si non pertaesum thalami tacdaeque fuisset, 

Huic uni forsan potui succumbere culpae. 

Anna — fatebor euim — misori post fata Sychaei 20 

Conjugis et sparsos frateriia caede Penatis. 

Solus hic inllexit sensus, animumque labantem 

Impulit. Aijnosco veteris vesligia flammae. 

Sed mihi vel tellus optem prius ima dehiscat, 

Vel Pater omiiipotons ailigat mc fulmine ad umbras, 25 

Pallentis umbras Erebi noctemciue profundam, 

AntCj Pudor, quam tc violo, aut tua jura resolvo. 

Ille meos, primus qui nie sibi junxit, amores 

Abstulit ; ilie habeat secum servetque sepulchro.' 

Sic efTata sinum lacrimis implcvit obortis. 30 

Anna refert: ^O luce magis dilecta sorori, 
Solane perpetua moerens carpere juventa, 
Nec dulcis natos, Veneris nec praemia noris'? 
Id cinerem aut Manis credis curare sepultos? 
Esto : aegram nuUi quondam flexere mariti, 36 

Non Libyae, non ante Tyro ; despectus larbas 
Ductoresque alii, quos Africa terra triumphis 
Dives alit : placitono etiam pugnabis amori ? 
Nec venit in raentera, quorum consederis arvis"? 
Hinc Gaetulao urbes, genus insuperabile bello, 40 

Et Numidae infreni cingunt et inhospita Syrtis ; 

15. Sederet. This term indicntcs the unalterableness of her reso- 
lution. Sec Zuinpt, $524. — 17. FefeUit. This clause is no part 
of her resolution, otherwise we should Imyc fefellisset. It is narra- 
live merely, and hnd better be taken in after si. — 19. Potui, Strongly 
put instead oi' jwsscm. See ii. 55. — 20. Sifchaei. See i. 343-352. 
— 24. Prius. An apparent pleonasm, with antequamy 27. Biit 
priu8 mny havc a gcncral rcfercnce, antequam a morc precise refer- 
ence to what follows. Dihiscat. — 28. JUc — primug. Tho Romnn 
feeling was strongly affninst the marriai^cs of widovvs. — 31. Dilecta 
aororiy for n sorore. See Zumpt, '^ 419. — 35. Grantcd (esto) thnt 
you have rightfully indiilged your wounded feelings (acgram) m re- 
jecting 80 mnny .suitors, why rcpist a passion fondly cherished? 
Mariti. See Ecl. viii. 18. — 3(). LiJnfnc, in prosc would be, in Li- 
bya. See 320, and iii. 1G2. Jarbas'. Sce 19G, &c. — 37. Virgirs 
expressions reicr constantly to Roman usages (sce i. 73), as Iiere, 
wherc he mnkcs frcquent triumphs to indicate the warlike nature 
ofthe Africans ; thc triumph bcing peculiar to Rome. — 39. Conse- 
dertM, in tho suhjuuctive, because hypothetically put ns the thought 
ofDido.— 41. Jvfrcni. Riding horses without hridlcs. See x. 750. 
CifWttftf. Dido wus surrounded on all sidcs hy wi!d races : on the 
■outn were ihc finctulians. on the wcst the Nuuiidians, on thc cas^ 

Hinc (lcserta siii rfsi", lateque fureiiteB 
Barca'ei, Quid bi'Mii Tjro surgculia dicam, 

1)13 equidi'iii aiisjiicibus reor et Juuone secunila 4S 

IIuuc cursum Iliaciis vcuto tenuisae caiiuas. 

Qnain lu urbem, soror, lianc eernes, quae siirgera regoa 

Coujugio lali ! Teuurum comitatilibus armis, 

Punica ee quantix attollet gloria lebusj 

Tu moijo posco deos veniam, eacriaque litalis SO 

Iiidulge hospiliu, cau.isasque innecte morandi, 

Dum pelagu dcsaevit hiems et aquosus Orion, 

Quassatai'que ralcs, dum uon Iraclabile coelum.' 

His dicli» inceusum aiiimum inflammavit amore] 
Spemque dedit dubiac menii, Bolviique pmloreni. 59 
Priiioipio delubra adcuiit, paccmque per aras 
E.tquirunt ; maclaiil li^ctas de raore bidenti» 
Legiferae Cereri Pboebogue patrique Lyaeo, 
JunoiiianLe omniR, cui vmcla jugalia curae. 
^)sa, lciietis dextra pateram, pulcherrima Dido 60 

Cundeutis vaccne mcdia iiiter cornua fundit ; 
Aul aule ora deuin piiiguis apatiatur ad araa, 
Iiislauratquo diom (Jonis, pecudumque raclasis 
Pectoribus inbians spiraiitia consulit exla. 
Heu vatum ignarao iiientes! quid vota furentero, S5 
Qnid deliibra juvant? Est mollis flamnia medulIaB 
Interea, et tacilum vivit sub pectore tuIddi. 
Uritur iiifelix Dido totaque vagatur 
Urbe furetis : qualis conjecla cerva ngilta, 
Qnam procul incautam nemora inter Cresia fizit 70 

thc quickBniidB callud S^nii, bordered by nvigs (uiAaq»lal tribw, 
and n naadf dcscri. ncroBS which roumed ths inhabitanta o( Buea 
in Cyrenc— .12. Orion. Sco Ht i. 533.— 55. PadortM, hsr doaiM 

to rcmnin unmnrricd. — Ha. Paccm deoiam - '" " 

' Bccarding 1» Kolcnin riliial,' with maetaat i 
'"''', iiroperly «hcep livo yciirB old, from theiii 

Ihis ncc hnvc iwo tcelh nioie prominent than It 
bm tnkcn to signify shecpof nny ngo. — .'18 £^' 
introduciiig ngricnhure. iniroduccd bIhu htws, 
bond of civilisalion. PhoobuB was one of ihe 
shippcd at Cartliaflc. Lyaee. 
Sec i. 15, &c. Juiio prcsided 

166. Cui Hunt carae. Jiinalia, hcnco Juno wbb ulli 
tho Grcek ■iIm waB caUcd {o,.(«. — frl. Pwtonliu ii,i 
araia. — fiS. Iltu, &.c. Tlio Buothsnyfirs knewnci l'i 
consulling thcin, or, knew not the futura wo«b oI I' 
Bvert Ihem. — 66. Ett. Nol from the vcrb Hum — ' 
compiircB Dldo to a stag wounded by a Tandom dart in 
Crctc (Creiia). ^m 

LIBER IV. 207 

Pastor agens telis, liquitque volatile ferrum 

Nescius; illa fuga silvas saltusque peragrat 

Dictaeos ; haeret lateri letalis arundo. 

Nunc media Aenean secum per moenia ducit, 

Sidoniasque ostentat opes urbemque paralam : 75 

Incipit effari, mediaque in voce resistit ; 

Nunc eadem labente die convivia quaerit, 

Iliacosque iterum demens audire labores 

Exposcit, pendetque iterum narrantis ab ore. 

Post, ubi digressi, lumenque obscura vicissim 80 

Luna premit, suadentque cadentia sidera somnos, 

Sola domo moeret vacua, stratisque relictis 

Incubat. Illum absens absentem auditque videtque, 

Aut gremio Ascanium, geniloris ima^ine capla, 

Detinet, infandum si fallere possit amorem. 85 

Non coeptae adsurgunt turres, non arma jflventus 

Exercet, portusve aut propugnacula bello 

Tuta parant; pendent opera interrupta minaeque 

Murorum ingentes aequataque machina coelo. 

Quam simul ac tali persensit peste teneri 90 

Cara Jovls coniunx, nec famam obstare furori, 
Talibus adgreditur Venerem &iturnia dictis : 
* Egregiam vero laudem et spolia ampla refertis 
Tuque puerque tuus; magnum et memorab^le numen, 
Una dolo divom si femina victa duorum est. 95 

Nec me adeo fallit, veritam temoenia nostra 
Suspectas habuisse domos Carthaginis altae. 
Sed quis erit modus, aut quo nunc certamina tanta ? 
Quin potius pacem aeternam pactosque hymenaeos 
Exercemus7 Habes, tota quod mente petisti : 100 

Ardet amans Dido traxitque per ossa furorem. 
Communem hunc ergo populum j)aribusque regamus 

'ir.. Dictaeos. See ot Ed. vi. 56. — 75. Sidonias. The Cartha^- 
tians had come from Sidon, which Virgil uses indifferently with 
Tyre, both being Phoenician cities. Seo i. 338. — 77. Construe 
adem with convinia. — 78. Iterum. Sec end of i., and the ii. and 
ii. books. — 80. iMmen suum. — 81. Suadentque, &c. See ii. 9.— 
2. Melictist in the ono clause, scems to be comparcd with vacua in 
he othcr, and to refer to the desire of appoasing the sense of deso 
ition felt in the absencc of a beloved object — here relictis ab Aenea. 
-86. The wofks, ho vividly dcscribed i. 423, &c., are suspended. 
— 93, &c. Spoken ironically. — 94. Memorabile esi numen yestTum. 
^96. Adeo, to the degrco ihat you supposc. Sce 533. Fallere 
ometimes means 'to clude notice.' See ix. 572. — 97. Suepectas 
bee i. 670, Slc. — 98. Certamina tendunt. — 102. Juno proposes 
liBt^e and Venus shall presidc over the unitcd nations with equal 
ower and protection. 


Auspiciis ; liceat Phrygio servire marito, 

Dotalisque tuae Tyrios permittere dextrae.' 

OUi — sensit enim simulata menle locutam, 105 

Quo regnum Ilaliae Libycas averteret oras — 

Sic contra est ini^ressa Venus : ' Quis talia demens 

Abnuat, aut tecum malit contendere beJlo'? 

Si modo, quod memoras. factum fortuna sequatur. 

Sed fatis incerta feror, si Jupiter unam 110 

Esse velit Tyriis urbem Trojaque profectis, 

Miscerive probet populos, aut foeciera jungi. 

Tu conjunx; tibi Jas animum tentare precando. 

Perge ; scquar.* Tum sic cxcepit regia Juno; 

^ Mecum erit iste labor. Nunc qua ratione, quod instat, 115 

Confieri possit, paucis, adverte, docebo. 

Venatum Aeneas unaque miserrima Dido 

In nemus ire parant, ubi primos crastinus ortus 

Extulerit Titan radiisque retexerit orbera. 

His ego nigrantem commixta grandine nimbum, 120 

Dum trepidant alae, saltusque indagine cingant, 

Desuper infundam, et tonitru coelum omne ciebo. 

Diffugient comites et nocte tegentur opaca : 

Speluncam Dido dux et Trojanus eandem 

Devenient. Adero, et, tua si mihi certa voluntaSi 125 

Connubio jungam stabili propriamque dicabo. 

Hic hymenaeus erit.' Non adveisata petenti 

Adnuit, atque dolis risit Cytherea repertis. 

Oceanum interea surgeus Aurora reliqait. 
It portis jubare exorto delecta juventnsj 130 


103. Liceat reginae servire ; the latter, purpOBely, a strong word 
for nuhere. — 105. Olli. Seo at i. 254. — 106. Ad ora», See at L 2. 
— 107. Quis, &c. Equivalent to quis tam demens ut abniut. See 
at ii. 519. —110. Fatis, the ablativo; her uncertainty of actionaris- 
ing from the Fates, not her course of action arisinff from unoertainty 
as to the will of thc Fatcs, othcrwiso we should Bave,^itoniat. See 
at 564. — 117. Mark the diffcrcnt uaes of the infinitive and snpnMf 
parant ire venatumj preparc thc act of going, tfi order io hnirt.— • 
119. Titan, in conformity with an old legend, ia used hme ibr di* 
6un-god, as oftcn. — 121. Alae. Eithcr norsemen employedtAeiifp 
closc thc forest, and, frightcning thc game, todrivo it into the ilBtSl; . 
or feathcrs fastcncd to ropcs {indafrine\t thc ilnpping of wbieh^foq^ ' 
dant) was uscd for thc sanie purpose. — 122. JNote that here Jfilik9J 
represented as posscssed uf.thc power of thundering, as Minenoi-f 
i. 42. — 124. Ad spclu7icam. »Sec at 106. — 126. See at i. 73!.'«^ 
Dolis. Eithcr thc ablative of cause, or thc dative, jpiTOinili^ 
risi^ which also governs the accusativc. Dolis repertu *'" 

to Juno'8 contrivance of the artful scheme, or Venua^a 
nf it. In the lattcr casc, dolis repertis may bQ the ablatiTO.i 

LIBER IV. 209 

Retia rara, plagae, lato venabula ferro, 

Massylique ruunt equites et odora canum vis. 

Reginam thalamo cunctanlem ad limina primi 

Poenorum exspectant, ostroque insignis et auro 

Stat sonipes ac frena ferox spumantia mandit. 135 

Tandem progreditur magna stipante caterva, 

Sidoniam picto chlamydem circumdata limbo; 

Cui pharetra ex auro; crines nodantur in aurum; 

Aurea purpuream subnectit fibula vestem. 

Nec non et Phrygii comites et laetus lulus 140 

Inccdunt. Ipse ante alios pulcherrimus omnis 

Infert se socium Aeneas atque agmina jungit. 

Qualis ubi hibernam Lyciam Xanthique fluenta 

Deserit ac Delum maternam invisit Apollo, 

Instauralque choros, mixtique altaria circum 145 

Cretesque Dryopesque fremunt pictique Agathyrsi; 

Ipse jugis Cynthi graditur, moHique lluentem 

Fronde premit crinem fingens atque implicat auro, 

Tela sonant humeris : haud illo segnior ibat 

Aeneas; tantum egregio decus enitet ore. 150 

Postquam altos ventum in montis atque invia lustra. 

Ecce ferae, saxi dejectae vertice, caprae 

Decurrere jugis ; alia de parte patentis 

Transmiltunt cursu campos atque agmina cervi 

Pulverulenta fuga glomerant montisque relinquunt. 155 

132. Maasylij the inhabitants of the district wcst of Carthaffe, 
comprchending ihe Roman province of Numidia. They were cele- 
brated for horscmanship. Odora canum visj cquivalent to odorum 
canum vis. Odorus is used actively, ' quick-scented,' and vis refers 
to number and strength. We use tlie word force in a similar sense. 
— 137. Chlam^dem circumdaia. For tbis poetical construction of the 
accuaativo with paflsive verbs of drcss, scc Zumpt, ^ 458. — 138. 
The hair was gatnered up into a network of gold thrcad. — 141. /n- 
cedunt. See at i. 405, 690. — 143, &c. Aencas is comparcd to 
Apollo, when, having left Lycia (in the south-wcst of Asia Minor), 
his winter's haunt (hibernam)^ wherc the river Xanthus flowcd past 
Patara, famous for his temple and oracle, the god leads the dance 
from ihe top of Cynthus, ahill in Delos. See p. 179, hne 17. — 146. 
In this sacrcd dance ioin tho Cretans iCretes), the Dryopes from tho 
Bouth of Doris, and thc Agathyrsi in Sarmatia, between the modem 
Niemon and Dwina, who were tattoocd (picti). AU these — the Aga- 
tk^rsi being taken to represcnt thc inhabitants of the far north, the 
Hyperborei — wcre peculiarlv connected with the worship of Apollo. 
ObaeTyG Cretesqiie. — 149. The rattUng of the quiver on his snoul 
ders indicates tho active stcp of the god. — 153. Decurrere hero 
■eems to mean, 'to cause to leap down.' — 154. Trans campos se 
millunt. Cervi is thc nominativc to transmittunt , glomerant, relin' 
^ttnfit. — 155. Glom^rare agmifia, 'toform thcmsclvcs into fleeing 
IS s 

At puer Aflcanius mediis in vallibus acri 
Gaudel equo, jamqito hos cursu, jam [>raeterit illos, 
Spumaiilemque iliiri pecora iiiler iiiertia votie 
Oplat aprum, aiit fulvum df sceiniete raonte leonem. 

iuterea magiio misceri murmure coelum 16^ 

Incipit; iu)<e<)uitur commixta grandins ninibus; 
El Tyrii comiloii passim el Trojana juvenlns 
I)aniauiusi|ue ricpos Veneris diverea per agroa 
Tuula metu petiere; ruunt de montibus amuea. 
E^peluiicani Diiio dux et Trojanu? eaudem 162 

Peveniuiil. Prima et TeDus el proiiuba Juno 
Dant si»nuin ; fulgere igiics et couscius aettier 
Connubiis, aummonue uliilamnt verlioe Nymphae. 
Ille dics primus leti primusquo malorum 
Cauasa fnil; tieque enim apecie famaTe iDOTeliir, 170 
Neo jam furiivum Dido meditatnr amorero: 
Conjugium vocat ; hoc pntelexit nomiue cntpun. 

Exlemplo Lib}~Je niagnae it Fama per urbes — 
Fama malnm, quo iiun aliud Telocius uUum; 
Mobilitate vigct, viresque adqnirit eundo; 175 

Parva metu primo ; mox aeae attoUit in UIRW, 
Ingreditur(]ue solo, et cnpul inler uubila condit. 
Illam Terra pareiis, Ira irritBla deomm. 
Exlremam, ut pertubent, Coeo Enceladoqne soTaTem 
Frogenuit, pedibus celerem et pernioibns Blis, 180 

Monslrum horrcndum, ingen», cui, qoot aont ooipoie 

Tot vigilcs oculi Eubler, mlrabile diclu, 
Tot llngnne, tolidem ora sonant, tot snbTigil kmifl. 
Nocte volat cocli media terraeque, pef umbrBm 
Slridens, ucc dulci declinal lumina somnOj 18£ 

Luce sedel cuslos aut summi culmlne teoti, 
Turrlbus aut altic, el magnas territat urbe^ 
Tam iicti pravique tenax, quam nunlla veri. 
Haeo tum multiplioi populos sermone replefaBt 
Gaudens et pariter facta nliiue Infecta canebat : 

licrda.' — 165. Spduaram. Sce : 
— m. Quo; ollicrB rtiid qna.- 

plicd 10 Orion, 1.767.-178. Vii 

ilml nionBlroua rnco of ginnlH, cbUdren of TarlaruB _ 
whom ha inoniions CoeuB and EnceJodua [see Bt iri. 
TerTB wns Bnraged nl Jupiier for driving her children,' 
intoTnnarus — IBl. Virgil rcpresenla Fnme us i 

thera, and bcnoath overy fGBlher an eye, b longue, 

«HT. — 185. Slri/tmi, !lke nn dh-[, whooping all nigbt 
Tiim. Wlicn Aenens wns lingoting In Carthige. — ?' 
[ualificB bolh rcpltbti' and canchal. 

LIBER IV. 211 

'Venisse Aenean, Trojano a sanguine cretnm, 

Cui se pulchra viro dignetur jungere Dido j 

Nunc hiemem inter sc luxu, tiuam longa, fovere 

Regnorum immemores turpique cupidine captos.' 

Haec passim dea foeda virum diffundit in ora. 195 

Protinus ad regem cursus detorquet larban, 

Incenditque animum dictis atque aggerat iras. 

Hic Hammone satus, rapta Garamantide Nympha, 
Templa Jovi centum latis immania regnis, 
Centum aras posuit, vigilemque sacraverat ignem, 200 
Excubias divom aeternas, pecudumquc cruore 
Pingue solum et variis florentia limina sertis. 
Isque amens animi et rumore accensus amaro 
Dicitur ante aras media inter numina divom 
Muha Jovem manibus supplex orasse supinis : 205 

' Jupiter omnipotens, cui nunc Maurusia pictis 
Gens epulala toris Lenaeum libat honorem, 
Aspicis haec? an te, genitor, cum fulmina torques, 
Nequidquam horremus, caecique in nubibus ignes 
Terrificant animos et inania murmura miscenf? 210 

Femina, quae nostris errans in finibus urbem 
Exiguam pretio posuit, cui litus arandam 
Cuique loci leges dedimus, connubia nostra 
Repulit ac dominum Aenean in regna recepil. 
Kt nunc illc Paris cum semiviro comitatu, 215 

Maeonia mentum mitra crinemque madentem 

191. Venissef has come, since we have dimictnr, prescnt. — 193. 
Jliemcmj quam longa sit. Ifow long it is, ' tlie livelong.' We havo 
thc fuli formviii. 86. — 196. larbas, a Gnetulian prince (326), son of 
Hammon, or Ammon (nn Acthiopian dcity, whom the Greeks iden- 
tified with Zaig, and thc Rumans with Jupitor), and an African 
njrmph (Garamantis, Ecl. viii. 41), wns an unsuccessful suitor for 
Dido's hand. Scc 36. — 200. Posuit, he erccted a hundrcd temples, 
but prcviously {sacruverat) hc had ligluod in honour of Jupitcr the 
fircs cvcr burning. — 202. Pingve fuit sohim, rcforring to sacrifices; 
florentia limina^ Xo festal wrcalhs. — 205. yoc at lii. 176. — 206, 
Maurusiaj a namc for Muuriianin, tho wcstcrmost division of North 
Africa. It is here us-cd probably to dcnoto the nation of larbas. — 
207. Lcnaenmt from A»;vdf, the winc prcss, an cpilhot of Bacchus.— 
212. Frelio. Sec i. 367. — 213. Varc Icges loci, while granting a 
district, to subjcct it to thc gonoral laws of tho couniry. — 215. lar- 
bas contemptuously comparos Acnoas with tlic offeminatc Paris, as 
if Dido wcre a sccond lI<?lon {rapto votitur, 217). — 216. Inrbai» 
heaps up accusations of tfloininaoy. The perfumod hair, and the 
Maeonian or Lydian mitro, fast-cned by ribbons benealh tho chin (ix. 
616), are urffcd against Aonoas. Thc word suh^iijous implies tho 
■amo, 118 if his vcry head nccded support. For tho construction of 
th» aecusative of timitation, scc 558, and Zunipt, ^458. 

Subnixus, raplo potilar; iios mmiera lempliB 
Qui|ipt: luiit leriiEUi!!, fiimamque fovemus Lnanem,' 

Tiilibua oraiitt;m iliutiit arnsgue tciientem 
Audiil omiii^ioteus, ooulDsquo ad moonia torait i 

Iloi;ia et oblilos famae melioris amantiH. 
Turn siu Mereuriiim allutjuitur ac talia mandat : 
'Vaik- age, uaic. voca Zejihyros et labero pennis, 
Darilaniumijiie ducem, Tjria Ca.rtha5ine qui nuiio 
£x?pei:la1, talisqiie datiis iion reHpicit urbes, 2 

Alloquere et ueleris defor mea dlcta per auras. 
Koii dlum nobis gcnetri.v piilcherrima lalem 
Promisit, Uriiium(|UO ideo bis vindicat arrois; 
Scd fore, qui gravidam imjieriis belloque frementem 
Iialiam regeret, genus allo a sanguine Teucri 3 

Prodercl, ac toturn sub leges miilcret orbem. 
Si nulla accendit taiitarum gloria leruni, 
Nec auper ipse tua molitur laude laborem, 
Ascanioiie jiater Komanas invidet arcesl 
Qaid Blruit ? aut qua npe inimtca in gente momtar, ! 
Nec prulem AuBOiiiam et Lavinia respioil ami 
Navigcl. Haec summa esl ; hic noatri noatius esto.' 

Dixerat. Ille patris magni jiarere parabat 
Impcrio; et primum pedibus talaria neolit, 
Aurea, quae fubllmem alia, sive aequore ■Dpn S 

Seu lerrum, rapido paricer cum ilamine portaot ; 
Tam virgam capit ; hac animas ille evooat Oroo 
Palleutia, alias Eub Tartara Iristia mitlit, 
Dat somnos adimitque, et lumina morte lesigiut. 
Illa frelUR agit ventos, et turbida tranat S 

Nubila ; jamque volanB apicem et latem anloa oeniit 
Atlautis duiij coelum qui verlice fulcit ; 

. 5G.— 228. Bit. Once fcOM Dioniede, i 
nEsm Irom the vicloiiouB Grecks, when ihej u ' 

Taicri. Seei. S3j, 625 231. Proderel, inntimlXL.. 

UDelidod, — 23l>. .^.uaaRiain. Seo p. 180, line 5. Lavin... 

)23, Mne 9 238. DixetaC. Seo li. (131.-242. Virfam. tfae vreU- 

known cadaccua of Mercury, wilh wiiigB iind «Qlvnning a '- 

Oreo. Sceatii. 398. Here the rcgionBof OrcuB.— !»1 "* 
generally aignilics 1o ' unacal.' Hence it is suppoied 
means hcrc, ' freCB iheir cjea /rom dealh, restorca to lit 
■upnosc it lo mcan, ' rclaxes (heir eyea in the ghaMly gllire of A 
A ihird opinion scoma prcfcralile — as he prcBidcB over ' ' ~ 
laat Beols iigain iii death Iho oyca which he hiB Opeiie^ 
— 345. Compnre wiih tbis fli^ht of Mercury ihe flighi i 
m Milton, Par. Loai, v. 266, &.C. — 247. Atlanti: S- 
The mounlain raitgc on t)tc wrsl coasl of Africa so is 
Taonified. Vertice. Comparo haiiteni, 4S2, i 

Sn. Fatitt 

LIBER IV. 213 

Atlantis, cinctum adsidue cui nubibus atris 

Pinifemm caput et vento pulsatur et imbri j 

Nix humeros infusa tegit ; tum flumina mento 250 

Praecipilant senis, et glacie riget horrida barba. 

Hic primum paribus nitens Cyllenius alis 

Constitit ', hinc toto praeceps se corpore ad undas 

Misit, avi similis, quae circum litora, circum 

Piscosos scopulos humilis volat aequora juxta ; 255 

Haud aliter terras inter coelumque volabat 

Lilus arenosum, ac Libyae venlosque secabat 

Materno veniens ab avo Cyllenia proles. 

Ut primum alatis tctigit magalia plantis, 
Aenean fundantem arces ac tecta novantem 260 

Conspicit. Atque illi stellatus iaspide fulva 
Ensis erat, Tyrioque ardebat murice laena 
Demissa ex humeris, dives quae munera Dido 
Fecerat et tenui telas discreverat auro. 
Continuo invadit : ' Tu nunc Carthaginis altae 265 

Fundamenta locas, pulchramque uxorius urbem 
Exstruis ? heu regni rerumque oblite tuarum ! 
Ipse deum tibi me claro demittit Olympo 
Kegnator, coelum et terras qui numine torquet ; 
Ipse haec ferre jubet celeris mandata per auras : 270 
Quid struis 1 aut qua spe Libycis teris otia terris 
Si te nulla movet tantarum gloria rerum, 
Nec super ipse tua moliris laude laborem, 
Ascanium surgentem et spos heredis luli 
Respice, cui regnum Italiae Romanaque tellus 275 

Debentur.' Tali Cylleuius ore locutus 

head and Bhoulders of Atlos both support the globe in the works of 
tho ancient statuaries. — 251. Praecipitant. Scoi. 234. — 252. Mer- 
cury, the grandson of Atlos by his daughter Maia, is aptly repre- 
sented as lighting on this spot. Ho was, according to tho legends, 
bom on tho Arcadian mountain Cylleno (Ci/Uenius). — 256-258. 
Thesc linca arc by sonio of tho best critics rcgarded as spurious. 
Volahat is, by thc punctuation hcrc adoptcd, mado to govern litus, 
in tho samc way as i. 67, iii. 191, v. 862. — 259. Alatis vlantisj re- 
ferring to the talaria, 239. — 260. Novantem, nova acdincantcm. — 
262. Tyrc, and the coast of Phocnicia gencrally, Laconia, and Ta- 
rentum, wcre famcd for tho mnrcx — tho shell-fish which yicldedthe 
dark purplc so much cateenicd by thc ancients. As this shcll-fiah 
had sharp nrotubcranccs, murex is also takcn to signify a sharp- 
pointed rocK. Scc v. 205. — 2ri3. Muntra rcfers to both cnsts and 
taena, but fecerut and dlscnvcrat only to thc laltcr. — 265. Tu, em- 
phatic. — 267. Thc notion convoyed by tunrum is implied as quali- 
lying reffni i\\ao. — 271. Src 23'2, &c — 271. Ascuninmj luU. This 
enange of nanic bccuis dcsictnodly cmploycd lo conncct empire with 
lulus, as the supposcd foundcr of tho ffeiis Julia. Sce i. 288. — 276 
DdieiUur a fatis. CijlUnius. Scc 252. 

Morlalis visua medio sennono reliquit, 

Et procul in leniiera ex oculls evanuit anram. 

At vero Aeiioas aitpeclu obmutDit aniens, 
Arn^claeciue horrorc c.omaej et tox fauoibus haesit. 280 
Ardut ubiru fup:a duIciM]ue relinquere terras, 
AtlonituB tauto moidlu imperioque deoruna. 
Uaa quiil afintl quo nutic reginam ambire fureQtem 
Audeat adfulu f quac prima exotdia sumatl 
Atque aiiimum imiic huo celerem, nunc dividit iIJdc, 285 
In ])artiHjue rapit varias perque omnia vet«at. 
Haec altorunuti polior sciueiitia viEa est : 
lilnestbea iScrgcstumque vocat fortemque SereEttun, 
ClaeBCm apteut taciti eocioaque ad litora cogant, 
Arma parent, el, quac rebus ait caussa novandis, 2S0 
Disfimulcnl ; sesc intcrea quando optima Dido 
Ncsoiat ct tantus rumpi non speret amores, 
TenlatDium nditusj ct quae mollissima fandi 
Tempora, quia rebux de^Ltcr mndus. Ocius omnes 
Impcrio laeti jiarent ac jusBa focessunt. 2E>fi 

At ic^rina do]us--qui3 fallere possit amantem 1 — 
Praescusii, molusque exccpil pnma fuluros, 
Omnia luta timetis. Eadem impia Fama furenti 
Detulit armari classciri cursumque parari. 
Saevit inops animi, toiamque iocensa per nrbetn 800 
Bacchatur, qualis commotis excila saoris 
Thj-ias, ubi audilo slimukut trieteric* Baooho . 
Orgia nocturnusquo vocat clamoie CithaeTOn. 
Taudem his Aeiieau compellat Tooibaa Dltio:* 

S81. Dulcii tcrrai, Carilingincm. Tliroughoul, it i> to be Doiieed 
that Viigil cndeavoura to icprcseut — though, pcrhaps, wilh no grsat 
■DCC03B — .4.cncnG dh a niau Bncrilicing scif lo ihe will of HaTon' 
(vttK), and iliu trlorioa wbich Ihc Faics hail raaened tar hia n 

through 1] 

'Ihene iwo linM occur >^in, TJiL 19. 90. 

.. -__ ,.id oud disciiminaling glaiteea at diffemit 

of aclion ; rajiete, &.C. a swifl auivcy ul^lhs b«I methoda 
'' ~ 'lis dclcniiini^d couiEO in ilB onward ■leps; mfson, dco* 

lerl/siirvry lolinopoilit nnllioqBhlof. — 289. AfHM. 

oT eflcctiti^ liia dclcitiiini-d couieo in ilB onward ■leps ; 

tlint bisnuislerl/siirvry lolinopoint anlUoaeblof. — 269. AfU 
c icsnli nf liiK lurdiiuiiiiiia HfiuincBibe indiroi^forai; ItwM^i 

, .H Bubjuiiiiivu lioru n-iirescnliiig ths imperati... — ,„ 

taturam icpreKinlinfi ihc iiidicalivc. In llic direct fomi, «M' 
havo hnd anlule. rn^ito. &.R. lcnlnbD. — 297. Ercepil iufe^', 
iinracdinleltniiHlnl^'— tjTiyii-T nicaniiip lo cnlch in ' ""'■ 
ccivian. — £03. K.i'hK, i)i-MTib>'d 173. iS^c.— 301. 
Ihe (■i>li'briiliii'i i>r ilu' wild riiOH of CuccIihh {orfia'), 
yenni da \\k i'i:i"Av iiiiidi- uf i.[ivat>iiip. ihrev yeai 
Cillioiraa. II niiiiiiLiuiii riiuei' bciwccn l)n!nli.i and 

'i)r uigbt {BoriurHBi), iii wliicJi ibo wonion (Z^jrMi, ., 

Ilowcr of BurcbuB— iwo syllablc!') bore a proniineatfiHl^^ 

LIBER IV. 215 

* Dissimulare etiam sperasti, perfide, tantura 305 

Posse nefas, tacitusque mea decedere terra? 
Nec te nosler amor, nec te data dextera iquondam, 
Nec moritura tenet crudeii funere Dido? 
Quin etiam hiberno moliris sidere classem, 
Et mediis properas aquiionibus ire per altum, 310 

Crudelis'? Quid? si non arva aliena domosque 
Ignotas peteres, et Troja antiqua maneret, 
Troja per undosum peteretur classibus aequor 1 
Mene fugis? Per ego has lacrimas dextramque tuam te — 
Quando aliud mihi jam miserae nihil ipsa reliqui — 315 
Per connubia nostra, per inceptos hymenaeos, 
Si bene quid de te merui, fuit aut tibi quicquam 
Dulce meum, miserere domus labentis, et istam, 
Oro, si quis adhuc precibus locus, exue mentem. 
Tc propter Libycao gentes Nomadumque tyranni 320 
Odere, infensi Tyrii; le propter eundem 
Exstinctus pudor et, qua sola sidera adibam, 
Fama prior. Cui me moribundam deseris, hospes? 
Hoc solum nomen quoniam de conjuge restat. 
Quid moror ? an mea Pygmalion dum moenia frater 325 
Destruat, aut captam durat Gaetuhis larbas ? 
Sahem si qua mihi de te suscepta fuisset 
Ante fugam suboles, si quis mihi parvulus aula 
Luderet Aeneas, qui te tamen ore referret, 
Non equidem omnino caj)ta ac deserta viderer.' 330 

Dixerat. lUe Jovis monitis immota tenebat 
Lumina, et obnixus curam sub corde premebat. 
Tandem pauca refert : 'Ego te, quae plurima fando 

306. Posse te, a poetical usage. See Zumpt, ^605. — 307, &c. 
Virgil, it must he admittcd, through his anxicty to elaborate tho 
characteristic feature of Aencas (see 281), exposes his hero to an 
unfftvourablc contrast with Dido. — 314. Ferj &c. The separation 
of the proposition from its subject is to be obscrved. It occurs in 
Greck also, and indicates eamestncss. Soe Zumpt, ^ 794. — 320. 
Libycae / properly tho eastern part of Africa wds callcd Lihya by 
the Romans, but the Greeks knew thc whole country by this name, 
and Virgil follows them. See i. 158. — Ccrtain tribes, from wan- 
dorinj^ in search of pasture iyonh, vinu), wcrc named Nomades, henco 
Numidia. — 324. IIoc nomen, hospcs. — 325. See i. 310, &c. iv. 43. 
— 326. See at 196. — 327. For thc form of the hypothctical pluper- 
fect and imporfect subjunctivc, implying wluit does not exist, see 
Zumpt, % 524. — 329. tamcn rcfcrs to a suppressed idea, qui quam- 
rifl tibi^on par, te tamen. — 333, &c. We can only vindioale, and 
that doubtfully, tho heartlcss lanccuage of Acneas, on tho ground 
ihat he wae supprcssing his own bittcr cmotions (see 281, 399, 449), 
and acting as Btern neccssity required ipro re, 337). 

Enuincrare vales. iiumqaam, Regina, negabo 

Dom memor ipco mei, dum spiritus hoa rettit artUB. 

Pro rc pauoa luiiuiir. Kuijuc cgo Imnc absuoiideru furlo 

(^lieravi, ne liiii;f, ru<{itin, iieo conjugis umquam 

Praeleiiili taeJuH aul tiacc in fueileni veiii. 

Ma si fata meis palereiitur iluci-ic vitara 340 

AuspiciiK et ajrautc mea ccmpciiere curas, 

Urbem Triijaiia.m primum ilulcidque meoruni 

Iteliquias colcrem; Priami tccta alta manerenl, 

Kt recidiva maiiu iw^uisscm Porgama victiB. 

Sett nunc Ilaliam ma^iiam Giyneus ApoIIo, 345 

Italiam I.}'ciae jusDcre capes»ire sortes; 

Hio amor, haec pulria al. bi te Carltiaiginis arcBB, 

Pticenisiiam, Libjcaeque aspcclua detinel urbie, 

Quae tandem, Ausonia Teucms coiisidere lerra, 

Invidia esl? El nos fas e.<Ltera quaerere regna. 3a0 

AIo patri* ADcliisae, quotiea humentibua umbris 

No.\ opcrit terras, quolies nstra ignea sui^nt, 

Admonet lii somuiu cl turbida terret imaguj 

Me puer Ascaniua capilisquo injuiin cari, 

Quem regno Hespcrine fraudo et falalibua arvia. 35S 

Nunc etiam inteipres divom, Jove missui ab ipac — 

Testor uliumque capul — ccleris mandata j^r auiBa 

Detulit; ipi^o dcum mnnifeslo in lumine vidi 

Iiilrantem muros. vocemque his auribuB haDW. 

Desino meque luis incenJere (eque qaarelia; 360 ' 

Ilaliam noii eponto sequoi.' 

Talin dicentem jamdudum aversa tuetnr, 
Huc illuc rolvcns oculos, totumque pereriat 
Luminibusi tauilis, et sic accensa prufatur ; 
'Nec libi diva paiens, gcneris nec Daidanus Baolnr, ast 

dSa. Elisea wns Ibe oiiginal luuneof Dida.' 
icre. Sc« nl 306. — 310. Si paltmtar. 

would (ot iliis niooioni) bo '■lieriiiliinB, 

hsvo foundcd (^wfKuann). — 314.» 
Zum]it,4405. — 313.(?rvflfHa. Se^ax Ed. ' 
Tusponsps of ar — '- -'- "~ 

called XifciuR i 
iii.154, &c.— 

— 355. yalalibiit, prcdtstined bf foli.. 

Sfsoni i. 530, — 3S(j. Tnterprei dieom, Morenrii 
Caput niB genernlly inknn lo refer citlior tt 
or 10 Dido niid Acnons ; hul ihcvmnjrerci 

— 3«3. ncrlnce«iis(iirnednwoy,but8hc__. 

to fool wilh oyrs nakniico, ond for n while SBid nMMligl 
ber indii^natiiiii lnirRi fnrtli, — 3(i3. She dsnios I1&.''"-* 

ii> oflcn. For tlie coui 

MH). with specin' 
intralio. — 349.j4i 

LIBER IV. 217 

Perfide; sed duris genuit te cautibus horrens 

Caucasus, Hyrcanaeque admorunt ubera ti^res. 

Nam quid dissimulo ? aut quae me ad majora reservo ? 

Num iletu ingemuit nostro ? num lumina flexit ? 

Num lacrimas victus dedit, aut miseratus amantem est ? 370 

Quae quibus anteferam ? Jam jam nec maxima Juno, 

Nec Salumius haec oculis pater aspicit aequis. 

Nusquam tuta fides. Ejectum litore, egentem 

Excepi et regni demens in parte locavi ; 

Amissam classem, socios a morte reduxi. 375 

Heu furiis incensa feror ! Nunc augur Apollo, 

Nunc Lyciae sortes, nunc et Jove missus ab ipso 

Interpres divom fert horrida jussa per auras. 

Scilicet is Superis labor est, ea cura quietos 

Sollicitat. Neque te teneo, neque dicta refello ; 380 

I, sequere Italiam ventis, pete regna per undas. 

Spero equidem mediis, si quid pia numina possunt, 

Suppiicia hausurum scopulis, et nomine Dido 

Saepe vocaturum. Sequar atris ignibus absens, 

Et, cum frigida mors anima seduxerit artus, 385 

Omnibus umbra locis adero. Dabis, improbc, poenas. 

Audiam, et haec Manis veniet mihi fama sub imos.' 

His medium dictis sermonem abrumpit, et auras 

Aegra fugit, seque ex oculis avertit et aufert, 

Linquens multa metu cunctantem et multa parantem 390 

Dicere. Suscipiunt famulae, collapsaque membra 

Marmoreo referunt thalamo stratisque reponunt. 

At pius Aeneas, quamquam lenire dolentem 
Solando cupit et aictis avertere curas, 
Muha gemens magnoque animum labefactus amore, 395 
Jussa tamea divom ezsequitur, classemque revisit. 

m ■ ■ ■ I 

nua and Dardanus. See at i. 25. — 366. Constnie horrens with 
eautibus. — 367. CaueoMUMf the mountain range bctween the Biack 
and Caspian Seas. See EcL vi. 42. Ilyrcanae. Hyrcania lay to 
the soutn-east of the Caapian Sea. — 369. Num asks qucstions to 
which it is known ihat a negativc answer will be returned. — 372. 
SatumiuM. Jupiter, the son of Saturn. Sec i. 23. — 374. Excepi 
implies freedom from hesitation. See 297. For Dido^s reception 
of the Troians, see i. 561, &c. — 376. She breaks out into the in- 
credulouB language of bitter indignation, as if all his cxcuses were 
8 mere fiction. —382. Spero te hausurum^ is a bolder instnnce of the 
poeti^cal usa^e referred to in thc notes to 306, 338, and should not 
te imitated 4n prose. — 383. DidOf the accusativo. — 384. As the 
Fariea pursued the guilty with avenging torches, Dido, alive (a6- 
Mw) or dead {umhra), like a Fury, waa to haunt Acncas similarly 
anned.— 387. Jtfanw, heretheregionof departed souls. — 395. See 

19 i 


Tum vero Teucri incumbuiit et litore celsas 

IVducunt tolo navis. Natat uncla oarina, 

FronJentisqu»' lerunt r»'nu)s et robora silvia 

Int':ibricata, tuirae stuiiio. 400 

Mii^rantis eiTiias, totaijue ex uibe ruentis. 

Ac. velut in;ienlem torniicae tarri.s acervum 

Cum populaiit, liiemis memores, tectoque reponuut; 

It nigrum campis a;j:men. praedamque per herbas 

Convectant calle anirusto ; jmrs graudia trudant 405 

Obnixae frumenta humoris; pars agmina cogunt 

Casti<7antque moras ; opere omnis semita fervet. 

Quis tibi tum, Dido, cernenti talia sensus ! 
Quosve dabas gemitus, cum litora fervere lato 
Prospiccres arce ex summa, totumque vide/es 410 

Misceri ante oculos tantis clamoribus aequct! 
Improbe amor, quid non mortalia pectora cogis! 
Ire iterum in lacrimas, iterum tentare precaudo 
Cogitur, et supplex animos submittere amori, 
Ne quid inexpertum frustra moritura reliuquat. 415 

' Anna, vides toto properari litore ? Circum 
Undique convenere ; vocat jam carbasus auros, 
Puppibus et laeti nautae imposuere coronas. 
Hunc ego si potui tantum sperare dolorem, 
£t perferre, soror, potero. Miserae hoc tamen unum 420 
Exsequere, Anna, milii ; — solam nam perfidus ille 
Te colere, arcanos etiam tibi credere sensus; 
Sola viri moUis aditus et tempora noras; — 
I, soror, atque hostem supplex adfare superbum : 
Non ego cum Danais Trojanam exscindere gentem 425 

398. Veducunt. Sce at iii. 71. Uncta pice. — 399. The preparB- 
tions of the Trojans for thcir departuro ore so hosty, that theybring 
from tho woods branchcs with tho leaves still on them, and nn- 
shaped trunks to serve as oars, and planks. — 402. Compare wxth 
this picturc, Proverbs vi. 6-9. — 403. Hiemia memorea. It is cdrtain 
that tbc ants of our country do not provide against the winter ; but 
how fnr this applies to the nnts ot moro southem cHmes, ia not 
known ; and ccrtainly the bolicf iinplied in these worda of Virgil, 
and probably in the passagc of thc Proverbs, was universal with tlM 
ancients. — 401. It, &.c. Thc coniparison is implied, as inii. 686: 

yrM»£ m with moritura. — 418. A mode of oxprcssing joy at tMi'-- 
departure, and thcrcfore agonising to Dido. The line occuni, Gmfittrx\ 
i. 304. — 421. Thc force of this passage seems to be -^ * ainga (^^^ 
have been ablo to look forward to {spcrare^ sce Ecl. viii. gfl> jg|j|p^l 
dreadful grief, I shall also be able to cndure it to the end* Qn \j%\j!^l' j 
'—424. Hottem. Shc now recognises •" Aeneas a publicenemjr.''' .'^1 

LIBER IV. 219 

Aulide juravi, classemve ad Pergama misi, 

Nec patris Ancliisae cinerem Manisve revelli : 

Cur mea dicta negat duras demittere in auris ! 

Quo ruit ? extremum hoc miserae det munus amanti : 

Exspectet facilemque fugam ventosque ferentis. 430 

Non jam conjugium antiquum, quod prodidit, oro, 

Nec pulchro ut Latio careat regnumque relinquat; 

Tempus inane peto, requiem spatiumque furori, 

Dum mea me victam doceat fortuna dolere. 

Extremam hanc oro veniam — miserere sororis ; — 435 

Quam mihi cum dederis, cumulatam morte remittam.' 

Talibus orabat, talisque miserrima fletus 
Fertque refertque soror. Sed nullis ille movelur 
Fletibus, aut voces ullas tractabilis audit ; 
Fata obstant, placidasque viri deus obstruit auris. 440 
Ac, velut annoso validam cum robore guercum 
Alpini Boreae nunc hinc nunc flatibus illinc 
Eruere inter se certant ; it stridor, et altae 
Constemunt terram concusso stipite frondes ; 
Ipsa haeret scopulis, et, quantum vertice ad auras 445 
Aetherias, tantum radice in Tartara tendit : 
Haud secos assiduis hinc atque hinc vocibus heros 
Tunditur, et magno persentit pectore curas; 
Mens immota manet ; lacrimae volvuntur inanes. 

Tum vero infelix fatis exterrita Dido 450 

Mortem orat; taedet coeli convexa tueri. 
Quo magis inceptum peragat lucemque relinquat, 
Vidit, turioremis cum dona imponejet aris — 
Horrendum dicta — latices nigrescere sacros 
Fusaque in obaceaum se vertere vina cruorem. 455 

426. Attlide. The allusion is to the acreoment to eztirpate 
Troy, formed by the Greeks assemblcd at Aulis in BcBotia, before 
they sailed against that city. — 429. HoCj referring to the request 
made in the next line. — 433. Inanet of no value to Aeneas. — 
436. The mcaning of this linc is very uncertain. The followins of 
the rcccived interpretations seems the best : — ' When you snall 
have conferred on me this favour, I shall, in tho hour of death, ro- 

?uite you with raore than odequate retum of gratitude.' Cumulatam. 
'ompare XiUke vi. 38 f^uirpov xaXdv, ircrruafiivov Kai ffeaaXepfiivov koi 
hfrtpsKxvv6ittvov. Tho following conjecture may be hazarded — Quam 
mmi cum dederis cumulatam mortei remittam — * When you have 
^anted me this favour — a favour which I implore, cven if death be 
its crowning work — I shall leave you in peace.' — 438. As in resig" 
nat (244) re has the notion of ' again.' — 440. Alioquin placidoi. — 
445. Ouantum — tetidUy occurs Georg. ii. 291. — 449. Lacrimae, 
probably.of Dido and her sister, though some could wish to under« 
■tand it of Aoneas. — 454. Latices. See i. 686. 

Hoc Tisum nulli, non ipsi effaia eorori. 

Praeterea, fuit in lectis de marmore templum 

Con]un;is anliqui, miro quoil honoro colebat, 

VellenbuB niveis et fesia fronde revinctum: 

Hinc exBudiri voceB et vcrba vocantie 460 

Visa viri, nox tum terras obscura teneret; 

Solaque culminlbus fctali carmine bnbo 

Saepe queri et longas in Hetum duoere vocei; 

Mutiaque praetcrea valum praeilicla piomin 

Terribili monilu horrificant. Agit Ipse furenlem 469 

In aomnis fems Aeneas; semperque relinqai 

Sola sibi, semper longam incomitala videtur 

Ire viam et Tyrios deaerta quaerere ler». 

Eumenidum veluti demens videt agmina PentheuB, 

Et Bolem geminum et duplicis se ostendete Tbebas; 470 

Aut Agamemnonius scenis HgitaluB Otestea 

Armalam facibus malrem et serpenlibuB atris 

Cum fugil, ultricesqae eedenl iu limine Dirae. 

Ergo ubi concepit furias evicta dolore 
Decrevitque mori, tompus Becnm ipM modamqne 47S 
Exigilj et, moeBtam dictiB aggteaae, Bororem, 
ConBiljam voltu tegit, ac spem fronte serenst: 
■Inveni, germana, viam — grataro BOTori — 
Quae mihi reddat eum, vel eo ma Bolvat unantem. 
Oceani tinem juxla solemque cadentem 480 

llltimus Aethiopnm locua est, ubt mB^maa Atlaa 
Axem humero lorquet stellis ardenlibaB apttun : 
Hino mihi MaEsyke gentis monstmta ■ace^m, 
Heaperidum templi custOB, eputsBqne diuoni 

ihui, a ■ihbII cIunL 
toMdin, and the ot&tr 

inGnitives ihat follow, may bs undDf the inflaence of vua. but it 
ersema prBfDreble to regard ihom ns hiatorical iafinicivea (Bea Zmivl^ 
5 599),««™ and verba being ihe nominBtive» to <Miirfiri(Bfr-— — 

it verba) vocantii viri. — 4SS. Virgil alono m 
(lola) witii huho, wgII known aa sbird of ill on 
For ihe goverameat of DFCUBalivea, generally accomp: 
Bttjeclive (longam), by iatransitive verba of a coRnole _ 
Zumpt, i 3B4. — 469, &.C. Virgtl compares tbe turr of 
of Penlhaue, king of Thebcs, wbom ihe FarieB [fiunini 
persocuted for his opposilion la the worahip of Baccbua. 
les {whose fotc wna a fevourile dramstic subjectl, Bee al 
477. Sjirm icrenol, spem Berenain oalendit. — 481. Aetii 
pOTly iho Bbuthcrn AfricanB. bul hara pnt for A&ii 
Ailai. _ Scc al 347. —483, Maiiylat. Seo Bt 132. 
thal ihi« prieslcss waa originallj' u MaBBylian, iben a b<^ 

j .!._. j_a .!__ -rgiijjn fruii jjf (ha Hesperide», 

and now in CitthafB. • 

LIBER IV. 221 

Quae dabat et sacros servabat in arbore ramos, 485 

Spargens humida mella soporiferumque papaver. 

Haec se carminibus promittit solvere mentes, 

Quas velit, ast aliis duras immittere curas ; 

Sistere aquam fluviis, et vertere sidera retro j 

Nocturnosque movet Manis ; mugire videbis 490 

Sub pedibus terram, et descendere montibus ornos. 

Testor, cara, deos et te, germana, tuumque 

Dulce caput, magicas invitam accingier artis. 

Tu secreta pyram tecto interiore sub auras 

Erige, et arma viri, thalamo quae fixa reliquit 495 

Impius, exuviasque omnis, lectumque jugalem, 

Quo perii, superimponant : abolere nefandi 

Cuncta viri monumenta juvat — monstratque sacerdos.' 

Haec effata silet ; paiior simul occupat ora. 

Non tamen Anna novis praetexere funera sacris 500 

Germanam credit, neo tantos mente furores 

Concipit, aut graviora timet, quam morte Sychaei. 

Ergo jussa parat. 

At re^ina, pyra penetrali in sede sub auras 
Erecta mgenti taedis atque ilice secta, 505 

Intenditque locum sertis et fronde coronat 
Funerea j super, exuvias ensemque relictum 
EfHgiemque toro locat, haud ignara futuri. 
Stant arae circum, et crinis elfusa sacerdos 
Ter centum tonat ore deos, Erebumque Chaosque 510 
Tergeminamque Hecaten, tria virginis ora Dianae. 
Sparserat et latices simulatos fontis Averni, 
Falcibus et messae ad Lunam quaeruntur aenis 
Pubentes herbae nigri cum lacte veneni ; 
Quaeritur et nascentis equi de fronte revolsus 515 

490. From videbis, we might infer that mugire refers to motion, 
Bnd not to sdund. Yet see such exprcssions as visae ululare, vi. 
257. — 492. Tealor me arcingier. Sce Zumpt, ^ 605. — 493. ^ecm- 
gier (for accingi)^ eee i. 210. Hcrc it has a deponent use, * to pre- 

Eare to eniploy,' governing the accusative artis. Invitam. Virgil 
erc gives Dido a Koman feeling, which was averse to magic incan- 
tations. Seo i. 73. — 498. Juvat, others xe^Ajuhet. — 505. Construe 
in^enii with taedis. — 506. The magic rilcs, underpretext of which 
Dido was to dcstroy herself, are herc descrihed. Compare Ecl. viii. 
64, &c. — 510. The MassyHan priestess (483) calls loudly on tho 
godsof the lower world — either three hundred, or a hundred thrice 
called, in either case a largc indefinite number — Chaost the primor- 
dial deity, type of confusion ; his son Erehus, the hell-god ; Hecate, 
m Diana, worshipped in thrcc aspccts, Diana, Luna, Proserpine, 
or Hecato. — 512. Averni. Seo p. 180, line 38. — 514. Herbae eum ^ 
iaete; herbac quac habcnt lac, succum. 

Et matn pTaereutns amor. 

rmok maniDugque pii« altaria juxta, 
m exnta pedem vinclia, in Teste reoinala, 
Testalur morilura deos et conscia fati 
Sidera ; tum, si quod non aequo foedere amantiB 52L 

Curae numen habet justumque memoique, precatar. 

Hox erat, et placidum carpebant feasa soporem 
Corpora per terras — Bilvaeque et saeTa quierant 
Aequora — cum medio volvualur eidera lapsu, 
Cum taccl omnis agei ; pecudes pictaeque rolucras, 52S 
Quaeque lacus late liquidos, quaeqce aspeiai duDiiB 
Kuta lenent, somno positae sub nocte eilenti 
LcDibant curaB, et corda oblita laborum. 
At non infeUjc animi Phoenissa, neo umquam 
Solvitur in somnos, oculisve ant peclore &ootem 530 

Accipit: ingeminant curae, Tursusque reHHTgeas 
Saevit amor, magnoque itarum fluctuat aestu. 
Sic adeo insislit, secumque ita oorde Tolutat : 
' F.n, quid ago % rursuBtie pracos irrisa priorM 
Experiar, Nomadumque petam coanubia sapplex, S3fi 
Quos e^o sim toties jam dedi^ala maritMf 
Iliacas igltur classis atque ultiraa Tenonim 
Jussa sequar 1 quiane auxilio juvat Bote laratoa 
Kt bene apud memores veteris Btal KmtiB faotif 
Quie me aulem, fao velle, siaet, ratiauBTe Boperbis 940 
Invisam accipietT neBciH heu, perdilk, seodom 
I^medonteae seatis perjuria geatisl 
Quid tum? sola fuga uaulas comitabor oraotiHf 

516. Tho alluaian heis i» lo ibe huipninaae*, wbich ma ■■id to 
grow on Ihe foiehend of foHla, and if takea off bslbTa tlie mothn 
could devour it tnialri prarrepCui), to be eSiwtiul, di«M)lT«dt M a 
love poiion lninor), — 518, UeBgeB in Bscrifices. — 581, ObMm tha 
conBlruciinn— Aotere nmoJidi curai (dal). — 521 For ■ MDrilBr mb. 

traBl, BCe ii. 250." JS6. Quat^vt — quatqtie Bpoci^ tw< 

ctaaaea of volncrei. — 528, This line hna bBen reJMMd hj m 

The whole pBasage from Noz ta labiiriira Bdmita of aTiriMj «foDi^ 
neclion nnd punotualion. Thal pjven heiB is new, i ' "■ "" 
rendei ihe mcaning clesr. — 523. Phoetiata lenibsl dol 
Irorum, &.C. rcpeslcd ^G4. — 53J. Jdeo adda « nolion 
cdnesB to thc word wiih wliich ii ia joined ; here tic adea, 
a degiee o«n ng Ihie.' — 535. Noniadtm. See 320. — 5" 

Jiiippc eos 1 hcnce tim. — 53S. An BequBTfuia, Slc. — said _ 
avat me eos Inialet eBac. — 542. Jjtomaionteae ptrpiria. 
811. Hera alluaion is lo flia fraud pracliaed OD Apollo — 
inne, who had Bgrced lo build ihe walls of Troy for * 
when tho latlcr refused lo givc them ihe Blipulsled ~ 
'<edon acted Bimilarl}' lowarda Hcicules. DHo ' 
laco werc cqually pcrjuted. 

LIBER IV. 223 

An Tyriis omnique manu stipata meorum 

Inferar, et, quos Sidonia vix uibe revelli, 645 

Rursus agam pelago, et ventis dare vela jubebo 1 

Quin morere, ut merita es, ferroque averte dolorem. 

Tu lacrimis evicta meis, tu prima furenlem 

His, germana, malis oneras atque objicis hosti. 

Non licuit thalami expertem sine crimine vitam 550 

Degere, more ferae, taJis nec tangere curas? 

Non servata fides, cineri promissa Sychaeo V 

Tantos illa suo rumpebat pectore questus. 
Aeneas celsa in puppi, jam certus eundi, 
Carpebat somnos, rebus jam rite paratis. 555 

Huic se forma dei voltu redeuntis eodem 
Obtulit in somnis, rursusque ita visa monere est, 
Omnia Mercurio similis, vocemque coloremque 
Et crinis flavos et membra decora juventa: 
'Nate dea, potes hoc sub casu ducere somnos, 560 

Nec, quae te circumstent deinde pericula, cernis, 
Demens ! nec Zephyros audis spirare secundos ? 
IUa dolos dirumque nefas in pectore versat, 
Certa mori. varioque irarum fluctuat aestu. 
Non fugis hlnc praeceps, dum praecipitare potestas ? 565 
Jam mare turbari trabibus, saevasque videbis 
CoIIucere faces, jam fervere litora fiammis, 
Si te his attigerit terris Aurora morantem. 
£ia age, rumpe moras. Varium et mutabile semper 
Femina.' Sic fatus nocti se immiscuit atrae. 570 

Tum yero Aeneas, subitis exterritus umbris, 
Corripit e somno coipus sociosqae fatigat : 
'Praecipltes yigilate, viri, et considite transtris; 

544. Manu itipata. See a similar construotion with eomitattu, i. 
812. — 545. Sidonia.^ See 75, and i. 361. — 552. Sychaeo used as aii 
adljective. — 553. llta, contrasted with Aeneasj bnngs out the two 
opposing pictures, of the queen's position, and that of Aeneas, on 
tnat dreadful night. — 556. Voltu eodem. See 259, &c. — 558. 
Ofitnia, the accuBative of limitation. Liko Mercury — In what re- 
spectT — In all respects. See 216, and Ecl. i. 55. Coloremque, the 
last syllablo clidea before el. — 561. Deinde, de ita agendo, as the 
conBequence of your present supineness. — 564. Compare the two 
constructions certa morif and certus eundi, 554, and see note on 
110. —565. Praecipitare te. See i. 234. — 569. Varium, . . Femina. 
See Bt Bcl. iii. 80. In such ezpressions, the attribute {varium) is 
applied to the subject (femina), as possessed by it in a high degree, 
when comparcd with all other existences. Femina mutabilis eet, 
'Woman is changcablc,' the predicate drawing no comparison. 
MutdbUe e$t femina, ' woman, comparcd with other existences, li 
noted for changoablcness.' 


Solvite vela cili. Deus aethere mieBUS alMAo 
Fesiinare fu^m tortosque incidere fanis 675 

Kcce itemm Btimulat. Sequimur te, saacte deornm, 
Qaisquix er, impvrioque iterum patemuB ovsjitee. 
Adsifl o pUuiiluHque jnveE, et sideca caelo 
Dexlm fema.' Dixil, V3|;inaque eripit ensem 
Fulmineum, Elrictoque ferit retinacula ferro. SSO 

Idem omnis aimul anloi habet; rapiuntque rauitqus. 
Lilora deseruere ; latet sub claBaibus aequoii 
Adnixi torquent apumas et caenila vernint. 

Et jam ppima navo spargebat iumine terras 
Tithoni croceuin liriquena Aurora cubile. 585 

Re^ina e apeculis ut primum albescere lucem 
Vioit el aBquatis claaaem procedere velii^ 
Liioraque et vacuos aenait sine remige porlns, 
Terque quaterque manu pectua percuBBa decoram 
Flaventiaque abscissa comaa, 'Pro Jupiter! ibit 590 

Hic,' ail, ' et noiitris illuaerit advena regniBl 
Non artHB expedieut, totaqae ax urbe Beqneatur, 
Deripieutque calea alii navalibuaT UOf 
Ferte citi flammas, date lela, impellile remos! — 
Quid loquorl aut ubi Bum? QuM m«item insBDia 
tnutal '] SB5 

Infelix Dido ! nunc le facta impia UDgiml 1 
Tum decuit, cum Bceptra dabas. — En deztn fidesque, 
Queni secum patrios aiunt portare Penalis, 
Quem subiiaae humeriB confeclum oetau pBrentain I — 
Non potui abreplum divellero corpDS et ondia 600 

Spargere 1 non sacios, noa ipsnm absamen fem 

976. Itcru.m, referring lo the obedieace bsfiirB ihowil, 888, Jbc 
Saacle deorum, ' holy amongthe holy godi ;' unleBi we jMn inill 
rfeorum qaisquii e«. — 582. Deieniere, Ihey ^fl*i left — latet, u «m- ^ 
eealcd. ClaiiilmB, a poelical eisg^eration for navihus. — 564, 58S, 
repealcd ix. iHO; 565 is a favounle wilh Vir^il; ii occars pre- 
vioualy. Georg. i. 448. Tbe inyihalogical sllusion ia lo the nwr- 
riage of Auiora, Ihe dawn-goddeaB, with TithonuB, aon of Laoma- 
don, — S86. The aleeplcaa queen at gniy l«ilighl looka forlh fton 
a WBtch-tower, snd aeea ihc fleet making way tiom Carihige. — 
567. Aequalii, wilh llie wind righl ahead, eo ihal ihe Bail-yaidi 
hang perpendioulorly lo iha roaela. — 589. Ptctut pereuna, anolfavr 

— 590. Thi« 

igoing — .: 

which ie ihe more biller, because he 

leheat dramslic power. Ibit, comparedw^ 

I his going as the reault of a previoua moi^ 

.u= i..u/a biller,_6ecauae he . « j . 

LIBER lY. 325 

AscaDinm, patriisque epulandum ponere mensis ? — 
Verum anceps pugnae luerat fortuna — Fuisset ; 
Quem metui moritura'? Faces in castra tulissem, 
Implessemque foros flammis, natumque patremque 605 
Cum genere exstinxem, memet super ipsa dedissem. — 
Sol, qui terrarum flammis opera omnia lustras, 
Tuque harum interpres curarum et conscia Juno, 
Nocturnisqne Hecate triviis ululataper urbes, 
Et Dirae ultrices, et di morientis Elissae, 610 

Accipite haec, meritumque malis advertite numen, 
Et nostras audite preces. Si tangere portus 
Tnfandum caput ac terris adnare necesse esl, 
Et sic fata Jovis poscunt, hic termiims haeret : 
At bello audacis populi vexatus et armis, 615 

Finibus extorris, complexu avolsus luli, 
Auxilium imploret, videatque indigna suorum 
Funera; nec, cum se sub leges pacis iniquae 
Tradiderit, regno aut optata luce fruatur ; 
Sed cadat ante diem mediaque inhumatus arena. 620 
Haec precor, hanc vocem extremam cum sanguine fundo. 
Tum vos, o Tyriij stirpem et genus omne futurum 
Exercete odiis, cinerique haec mittite nostro 
Munera. Nullus amor populis, nec foedera sunto. 
Exoriare aliquis nostris ex ossibus nltor. 625 

Qui face Dardanios ferroque sequare colonos, 
Nunc, olim, quocumque dabunt se tempore vires. 
Litora litoribus contraria, fluctibus undas 

602. FoIIowing the cxample of Procnc. See at Ecl. vi. 79.— 
B03. Fuerat. A supposcd objeciion, put strongly in the indicative. 
Seo at ii. 55. FuUset. Dido grants the possibility of failure. 
Compare with this Macbetht i. 7, where Macbeth says, *If we fail' 
(fuerat), his wife answers, ' We fail!' ifuisset). — 606. Exstinxem. 
See a similar contraction, i. 201. — 608. See at 59. — 609. Hecate, 
See at 511. From the three offices of Diana, she was worshipped 
where three roads met {jLriviis), ZTlulata, See at iii. 14, 690.— 
610. Dirae. See at 469. Dtultores. Elissae. See at 335. — 614. 
HiCt &c. ' This bonndary is (all that is) fixed ;' the rest is in your 
power.— 615, &c. This imprecation prophesies the future wars 
of Aeneas in ItalV (vii. 601, &c.), and nis dcath, which, accordinji; 
to tradition (see itvy, i. 2), took place in battle. — 622, &c. Thia 
prophesies the deadly hate betwcen the Romans and Carthaginians, 
m which there is (625 and 627) a special reference to Hannibal. — 
625. Aliquie ; an instance of the vocative of this word. — 627. 
OltM (from ille, see at i. 254), any time but the present — whether 
MBt or fttture, to be judgcd from the context : here, future time. 
8oimtunes, also, from its twofold forcc, it is ncarly equivalent to 
oar'in£finitei * at times.' See at v. 125. 


Tiaarmi»); pugnent ipsique nepoteiqne.* 
!l partis animum versabat in omnis, 630 

Invisnm quuermis qiiam primtim abrumpera lucam. 
Tum brcviler Barceii uulricem adfatai Sychaei, — 
Kamqiie paam piilria aiiiiqua cinis ater habebat, — 
'Annam, cara mihi iiiitriK huc siste Bororem; 
Dic corpuB properet fluviali ^pargere lympha, 635 

El pecudes secum et moiLstrata piacufa ducat; 
Sic veniat; tuque ipsa pia tege lempora vltta. 
Sacra Jovi Stygio, quae rile incepla paravi, 
Perfiocre est animus, finemqua imponare curis^ 
Dardaiiiique rogum capitis permitlere flammae.' 640 
Sic ait. Illa gradum studio celerabal anilem. 
At trepida, el coeptis immanibus effera Dido, 
Sangaineam volvens aciem, maculisque tramentis 
Interfusa genas, et pallida morte fntura, 
Interiora domus irruinpit limina, et allos 64& 

Consccndit furibunda togos, ensemqne raolDdit 
Danianium, non hos quaeailum mnnuB in nma. 
Hic, poslquam Iliacas vesles notumque oubile 
Conspexit, paulum lacnmis et menie morato, 
Incubuilque toro, dixilque novi»im& verba: 650 

' DulceH exuviae, dum laia deusque ainebat, 
Accipile hanc animam, meque his ezBolvite oaria, 
Vixi, et, quem dederat curaum fortnns, peregi; 
Et nuno magna mei sub terras ibit iiDago. 
Urbem praeclaram etatui ; mea moenia vldi ; 6SS 

Ulta vlrum, poctias inlmico a fralre recepi; 
Felix, heu nimium folix, si litoiB lantam 
Nnmquam Pardaniae tetigiesent nostra carinu !' 
Dixit, elj os Impraesa toro, ' Morlemnt inultae— 
Sed monamur,' ait. = Sic, sic juvat ira sob umliiu. 660 
Hauriat hunc oculis ignem crudelis ab alto 

629. Nepotagae. Thc lnst BvllBble elided liefbre. 
See 38^.-634. Thc posilion of Iho worda bara seev. 
aira miki, Olhera cniiBlruB iiale wilh miAi. — G35. Die 
J^uoioii lymjiha. To bo wivticd in pui 
fiary prepiirQtion for o encrifioo. — 638. 
Kygw OrcD, C99 ; rrgi Slugio,vi. 252; (aQalaol 
JB cBllcd inferaa). rlulo, iho supremB Eod 
dosed hy lh( ^iyx. Heo qi vi. a<)5 646. Rt 

!m in the irnnElulion. — 634. JUiigna iman, a 
of ihc greitiiesa of ihc living to )ha (IJuAd 
""'aHTiat infors oager delighl, vt wa lay 

LIBER IV. 227 

l«irdanus, et nostrae secum ferat omina mortis.' 

Dixerat; atqae illam media inter talia ferro 

Collapsam aspiciunt comites, eiisemque cruore 

Spumantem, sparsasque manus. It clamor ad alta 665 

Atria; concussam bacchatur Fama per urbem. 

Lamentis gemituque et femineo ululatu 

Tecta fremunt; resonat magnis plangoribus aether: 

Non aliter, quam si immissis ruat hostibus omnis 

Carthago aut antiqua Tyros, flammaeque furentes 670 

Culmina perque hominum volvantur perque deorum. 

Audiit exanimis, trepidoque exterrita cursu . 

Unguibus ora soror foedans et pectora pugnis 

Per medios ruit, ac morieutem nomine clamat : 

'Hoc illud, germana, fuit? me fraude petebas'? 675 

Hoc rogus iste mihi, hoc ignes araeque parabant ? 

Quid primum deserta querar? comitemne sororem 

Sprevisti moriens'? Eadem me ad fata vocasses ; 

Idem ambas ferro dolor, atque eadem hora tulisset. 

His etiam struxi manibus, patriosque vocavi 680 

Voce deos, sic te ut posita crudelis abessem ? 

Exstinxti te raeque, soror, populumque patresque 

Sidonios urbemqae tuam. Date, vulnera lymphis 

Abluam, et, extremus si quis super halitus errat, 

Ore legam.' Sic fata gradus evaserat altos, 685 

Semianimemque sinu germanam amplexa fovebat 

Cum gemitu, atque atros siccabat veste cruores. 

lUa, gravis oculos conata attollere, rursus 

Deficit; infixum stridit sub pectore vulnus. 

Ter sese attollens cubitoque adnixa levavit ; 690 

Ter revoluta toro est, oculisque errantibus alto 

Quaesirit coelo lucem, ingemuitque reperta. 

Tum Jano omnipotens, longum miserata dolorem 
Difficilisqae obitas, Irim demisit Olympo, 

663. Her attendantB arrive only to sce hcr fall upon the ground. 
-»667. Femineo — o unelidod. — 672. Anna'8 distraction, when, 
hearing the wailing so charactcristic of a nation from the East, 
■he Buspected, and then found thc causc, is dcscribcd with match- 
Imb power. — 675. JEZoe, referring to the prcsent deed ; illud to 
her beine sent away. Me, mihh emphatic, and full of reproach ; 
wte, whoToved you so well. — 680. Alliriing to hcr execution of Di- 
do'8 orders, 494. — 681. See ii. 644. — Go2. Exstinxti. See at 606. 
-—685. Ore legam^ an afTecting usagc of thc Romans. — 686. Shny' 
iKkvium, Amplexa fovebat. Sce at i. 680. — G89. Striditj alluding 
to the blood issuing out with gurgling sound. — 692. Reperta luce. 
Bome raad repertam. — G93. Juno interfercs instcad of Froscrpine^ 
iMoaUBe Bhe was Dido's tutelarv goddess. — 694. Iris, the personi* 
ioation of the rainbow, was tlie mcssengcr of Juno, as Morcury 


Quae lactantem animam nexosque resolveret artus. 
Nam quia nec fato, merita nec morte peribat, 
Sed misera ante diem, subitoque accensa iurore, 
Nondum illa flavum Proserpina vertice crinem 
Abstulerat, Stygioque caput damnaverat Orco. 
Ergo Iris croceis per coelum roscida pennis, 
Miiie trahens varios adverso sole colores, 
Devolat, et supra caput adstitit : ' Hunc ego Diti 
Sacrum jussa fero, teque isto corpore soIyo.' 
Sic ait, et dextra crinem secat : omnis et una 
Dilapaus calor, atque in ventos vita receseit. 

who performcd similar officcs to thcse now described, see 242, 
was of Jupiter. — G^6. Thc origin of this notion, that death dic 
take place till Proserpine had severed a lock from the head, has ' 
ingeniously conjcctured to arise from a similar practice with re 
to animals about to be slain in sacritice, vi.245. — 699. Stifgio i 
See at 638. — 701. The rainbow here, and v. 609, ia representc 
formed by thc track of Iris through the heavena. — 702. . 
equivalent to Stygio Orco. Fluton is found in Virgil only oiice 


AxKEAB sets sail from Garthage for Italy, foUowed by the flf 
of Dido's funcral pile, ]-7. The threateniDg: aspeot ot 
heavens induces liim to make ibr Sioily, where they ar 
and arc welcomed by the Trojan Acestes, 8-41. Aeneas 
claims a festival and games in memory of Anchiseti oi 
anniversary of his funeral, 43—71. He performs sacred 
nours at the tomb, 72-103. The garaes take place eigfat 
thereafler, bcginning with a contest between fbur galleys, 
285. A foot-race, 286-3G1. A contest with the eauhu^ : 
484. Archery, 485-544. The ludut Trofamu of the 1 
545-002. Iris, sent by Juno, instigates the Trojan woi 
weary with wandering, to burn the ships, 603-663. Foa' 
actually burned, and the rest saved, in answer to the pn 
of Aoneas, 664-699. Following the advice of Naiiie^ 
the shade of his father Anchises, Aeneas resolves to lei,^ 
Sicily the matrons, and all who were unflt for furtfief 
aging, 700-754. He founds a town for tbose left behincL 
761. AAer a farewell festival of nine daya* dnxmtiai 
Trojans again set sail for Ttaly, undor Neptune'8 protactiii 
cured by the intervention of Venus, 762-S34. Pnlinttn| 
pilot, is drowned, to the great grief of Aeneas, BSS-S^^t^' 

LIBER V. 229 

Interea medium Aeneas jam classe teriebat 
Certus iter, fluctusque atros aquilone secabat, 
Moenia respiciens, quae jam infelicis Elissae 
Collucent flammis. Quae tantum accenderit ignem, 
Causa Jatet; duri magno sed amore dolores 6 

Polluto, notumque, furens quid femina possit, 
Triste per augurium Teucrorum pectora ducunt. 

Ut pelagus tenuere rates, nec jam amplius uila 
Occurrit tellus, maria undique et undique coelum : 
Olli caeruleus supra caput adstitit imber, 10 

Noctem hiememque ferens, et inhorruit unda tenebris. 
Ipse gubernator puppi Palinurus ab alta : 
*Heu ! quianam tanti cinxerunt aethera nimbi 1 
Quidve, pater Neptune, paras?^ Sic deinde locutus 
Colligere arma jubet validisque incumbere remis, 15 

Obliquatque sinus in ventum, ac talia fatur : 
^ Magnanime Aenea, non, si mihi Jupiter auctor 
Spondeat, hoc sperem Italiam contingere coelo. 
Mutati transversa fremunt et vespere ab atro 
Consurgunt venti, atque in nubem cogitur aer. 20 

Nec nos obniti contra, nec tendere tantum 
Sufficimus. Superat quoniam Fortuna, sequamur, 
Quoque vocat, vertamus iter. Nec litora longe 
Fida reor fraterna Erycis portusque Sicanos, 
Si modo rite memor servata remetior astra.' 25 

Tum pius Aeneas : ^ Equidem sic poscere ventos 
Jamdudum et frustra cerno te tendere contra. 
Flecte viam velis. An sit mihi gratior ulla, 
Quove magis fessas optem demittere navis, 
Quam quae Dardanium tellus mihi servat Acesten, 30 
Et patris Anchisae gremio complectitur ossa?' 

2. Certusj mente obstinata. See iv. 554. Construe atros with 
juUone. — 3. Elisaae. See iv. 335. — 6. Notumi with its clause, is 
sed as a substantive. — 10. Olli. Soe i. 254. — 15. Arma^ vela. 
rom what follows as to turning the sails with thcir folds obliquely 
) the wind, *tacking,* colligere must mean ' to reef.' — 19. Trans- 
tna. An instance of the poetical usage of employing the accusa- 
ve neuter of an adjective fpr the corresponding adverb. See 
iampt, $^266, 383, aod Ecl. iii. 8. Vespere, the region of the even- 
ig, ihe west, the wind from which would blow them past Italy — 
1. Tantumt as much as is necessary to overcome the wind. — 24. 
Jryjf, who guvo name to the town, was a son of Venus, and there- 
we brother to Aeneas. See p. 182, 1. 5. — 25. Remetiri astra, to 
X on one's position from a remembrancc of the position of the 
tan; just as at 628, emetiri tot sidera, to travcrse an extensive 
pAce, as measured by so many constellations pussed under. See 
lao at i uSO. — 30. Acestenj a Trojan settler, on ihe north-west 
MSt of Sicily ; hence^Ja, 24. See i. 195. —31. See iii. 707. 

Haeo ubi ilicta, pi-tunt porliig, el vela aeeondi 
IiilBiiiliinl Zi'pliyri; fcrlurcitnigQi^ila classis, 
£t taiiilein laeti iiotac ndvrrluiiiiir aretiac. 

At prai'ul i>.\ ei'])ii) mimlua viTtiuo moiitis i 

Adveiitum fneia;<4iie tuli>s ncrurrit Acestes, 
Hurri(iil9 iii jnculis ut iiellt^ [.ibvslidis ursae, 
Truia Crinii»u cuiicpptum llumiue maler 
Quem ;>cnuit. Vuicriitii nott immemot ille patent^jm 
(ic&lalur rediict^s et gnztt ln.p|us afrresti 4 

Excipii, itc lcMos upibus soiatur amicis. 

Puslera cum primo Blellas Oiieiite fugar&t 
Clara dics, wiciua in coeium lilore ab omni 
Advorat Aciifos, lumuliijue ex a^^re &Iar : 
'DacJanidae maj;iii, f;uiius alto a sanguine diTom, 4 
Annuus exactis isompjetur meiisibuB orblB, 
Ex nuo rcliiiuias divitiiiiue ossa parenlis 
Condidimus terra moeslasquc sacraTimus aras. 

Hunu egn Gacliilia o^rem ai Syrlibus exsal, 
Ar^licovc mari dcprc-iiRUs et urbe Mjrctjnae, 
Aimua vota lameit Eollemiiisque ordine pompu 
Ksseijnercr, slrucrcmque suis allaiia donia. 
Nunc ullro ad cinercs ipsius et ossa pareDti^ 
Haud eijuidem bIho meiile reor, Eiiie DDtnins diTom, 
Adsumua el portus deluti inlramiui aminM. 
F.rgo o^ilo, cl Ltetum cuncti celebremnB hoDoremj 
Poscamus vento.i, alquo baec me sacra ^DOtennis 
Urbe velit posiia templis sibi ferre dicaba. 
Biiia boum vobia Troja geneialus Aoestes 
Dat numcro capila in navis: adhibete PeDatis 
Kt patiioa epalts et quos colit hoBpes AoeBtas. 

3.'!. Manlit, prokabiy Eryx. nt iho Ibol of which ms ths ■)wdl~l 
arAccflca. — 37. Litgttiilu, Libycao. SeeiT.390. — 38. Crinitui, \ 
a nv<<r in ihe aoath-wcsi oT Sicily. Mattr, EgBsta, or Segeata.— I 
39. PartntiM, Tnijiinoiuin. — ii. OncAfc (ole. BMina thie aliUtini J 
oriimc— W. !?ceat iii. IliS. — 81. Gaitulit ; S~-^- a—.'— — * 

41. Gailalit is npplicd lo Sartibvt in Ihe Beneri „ 

'fa»i us AFsalica iii ilic ncxtlinc nisnna ihc sea Mimnd ■ 
li. 5.'.. — .«. SHvftnae. Sro i. 283. The uiual ibmr 
Myri^nunim, uiid thc nsanl conslruclion, tlie ablBliTB. J 
f 309. Wiih ich^nril to ihc uUcmnliva -ve, it la to bB ^ 
Apnuus lunkrs iwa hvpotlicaEa, not (hrcc. The fiitt 11 
ing a lilo of cxilo in Atiica; thc sccond -veis, his bBiDflE 
piirpriaed nt euch a linio. in Grccco. which might h 
Ginccian Sce, oud (ft) niinhl Imppcnin Mycenae.— ' 
chisM. — Ijl. Bina, with ite proper forco, iwo lo em 

LIBER V. 231 

Praeterea, si nona diem mortalibus almum 

Aurora extulerit radiisque retexerit orbem, 66 

Priraa citae Teucris ponara certaraina classis j 

Quique pedum cursu valet, et qui viribus audax 

Aut jaculo incedit melior levibusque sagittis, 

Seu crudo fidit pugnam committere caestu — 

Cuncti adsint, meritaeque exspectent praemia palmae. 70 

Ore favete omnes, et cingite terapora rarais.' 

Sic fatus velat materna temiiora myrto. 
Hoc Helymus facit, hoc aevi maturus Acestes, 
Hoc puer Ascanius; sequitur quos cetera pubes. 
Ille o concilio raultis cura raillibus ibat 75 

Ad turaulum, magna raedius coraitante caterva. 
Hic duo rite raero libans carchesia Baccho 
Fundit hurai, duo lacte novo, duo sanguine sacro, 
Purpureosque jacit llores, ac talia fatur ; 
' Salve, sancte parens, iterum : saivete, recepti 80 

Nequidquam cmeres, animaeque umbraeque paternae. 
Non licuit finis Italos fataliaque arva, 
Nec tecum Ausonium, quicumque est, quaerere Thybrim.' 
Dixerat haec, adytis cum lubricus anguis ab imis 
Septem ingens gyros, septena volumina traxit, 85 

Amplexus placide turaulum lapsusque per aras, 
Caeruleae cui terga notae maculosus et auro 

64. According to tho Roman usage, a fcast in honour of the dead 
was cclcbrated on tho ninth (our eighth) day aftcr tho funeral. Seo 
i. 73. — 66. Prima, referring to certamina, mdicatcs that tho gomes 
v^ould bcgin with a naval contest. — -69. Caestu, also, cestu, a spe- 
cies of boxing glovo, constructed in its gentlcst form of stripes of 
lcathcr, or untanned hide {crudo corio), wrapped round the hand ond 
arm. Sometimes, however, theee stripes wcrc interlaced with lead 
and iron. See 404, &c. — 70. Cuncti refcrs to qui valet, &c., out 
mdiorjaculo, &c., qui fidit, &c. — 71. Ore favere, a religious for- 
niula, to liston in solemn silence. — 72. Maternamyrio. See Ed, 
vii. 62. — 73. Hdymu» is in some of the old traditions conjoined 
with Accstes asascttlcr in Sicily. — 81. Nequidquam, because ho 
could not accompany him to Italy. — 82. Fatalia. Scc ii. 165, iv. 
355. --~ 83. Ausonium. See p. 180, line 5. Quicumque est is a con- 
fcBsion of his unacquaintance with the Tiber {Thyhris, a poctical 
form).-784. Anguis. Referring to thc belicf of the ancicnts that 
the gcnii of placos and of mcn appeared in the shapc of serpents. 
Sce95.— 85. Sce ii. 204, &c. Septena. See i. 313, 385. — 87. Con- 
Btnio cui (cujus) terpa caeruleae notae, et (cujus) squamam fulgor ma^ 
culotiu» auro incendehtit. Incendere is a complcx term, meaning to 
inark, and that wiih blazing brightncss. The marking applics por 
ticalarly to terga, and thc blazc to squamam. The back was marlsed 
wjth Bzure strcaks, and thc scaics (of tho whole body) were blazing 
with spots of gold. Or tcrga and squamam only indicate tergi gqua- 
i, and then thc passagc mcans that the 8erpcnt's scales were of 


Squamam incendebat fulgor, ceu nubibus arcus 
Mille jacil varios adverso sole colores. 
Obslupuit visu Aeiieas. Ille agmine longo 9f 

Taiidem inter pateras et levia pocula serpens 
Libaviique dapes, rursusque innoxius imo 
Successit tumulo, et depasta altaria liquit. 
IIoc magis inceptos genitori instaurat honores, 
Iiicertus, Geniumne loci famulumne parentis 95 

Esse putet; caedit binas de more bidentis, 
Totque sucs, totidem nigrantis terga juvencos ; 
Vinaque fundebat pateris, animamque vocabat 
Aiichisae magni JVIanisque Acheronte remissos. 
Nec non et socii, quae cuique est copia, laeti 100 

Dona ferunt, onerant aras, mactantque lavencos; 
Ordine aena locant alii, fusique per herbaia 
Subjiciunt veribus prunas et viscera torrent. 
Exspectata dies aderat nonamque serena 
Auroram Phaethontis equi jam luce vehebanty 105 

Famaque fiiiitimos et clari nomen Acestae 
Excierat ; laeto complerant litora coetn, 
Visuri Aeneadas, pars et certare parati. 
Munera principio ante oculos circoque locantnr 
In medio — sacri tripodes viridesqae coronae 110 

£t palmae pretium victoribus, armaque et ofltro 
Perfusae vestcs, argenti aurique talenta; 

green and gold, all of blazing brightncss. ' With bnmished neck 
of verdant gold.' — MiltorCs Irar. Juost, ix. 501. — 88. Cew, &c. See 
iv. 701. — 90. Agmine. Sce the same word applied to the serpent'! 
trail, ii. 212. — 95. In the belief of the Romans, every man had at 
his birth a epirit, who continued with him throaffh life, and oon- 
ductcd his soul to thc shades. Every place, too, nad its ffenius.-' 
96. Binas, &c. Scc iv. 57. — 97. Ntgrantis terga. BlacHL Tictims 
were sacrificed to thc infcrnal deities. See vi. 243. 8ee lY. 558, 
for the accu&ativc of limitation. — 99. On the Bnpposition tluit tlht 
Manes wcrc allowcd to lcave Acheron^ one of the nyers of the worid 
below (scc at vi. 295), in order to be present at the eacrifice. — * 104. 
Nonamque. Sec 64, &c. — 105. Fhacthon (AaiSw), Sol, — 111. Thi* 
palm was so commonly used as a badgc oi victory, that it ia flltali 
put to dcnoto that badgc gcnerully, whether the palm was apedfio* 
ally uscd or not. Thus, 309, the three victors in the foot-FBoe aft 
to rcccive an olivc crown, but, 339, Diorcs, thc third, ia called tfrfh 
palma, and, 346, subiit palmae. Of thc othcr coronal diatinctioili ia 
thcse gamcs, it may sufiicc hcrc to mention, Cioanthus, the fint hl' 
the boat-race, laurel, 216 ; thc other two, olive, 269 compBred ^jfC 
494; Entellus, in thc cacstus contest, palm, 472, unlesa " '*'" 

put simply to dcnote victory, as in 339, 346 ; Acestee, in mJi ail S -.i! 
laurcl, 539. — 112. Others read talentum. Bat there were *klw'' 
talents bcstowcd; Bce 248. Aurique scoms added for the BBkev t 

LIBER V. 233 

Et tuba commissos medio canit aggere ludos. 

Prima pares ineunt gravibus certamina remis 
Quatuor ex omni delectae classe carinae. 115 

Velocem Mnestheus agit acri remige Pristim — 
Mox Italus Mnestheus, genus a quo nomine Memmi — 
Ingentemque Gyas ingenti mole Chimaeram, 
Urbis opus, triplici pubes quam Dardana versu 
Impelkmt, terno consurgunt ordine remi ; 120 

Sergestusque, domus tenet a quo Sergia nomen, 
Centauro invehitur magna, Scyllaque Cloanthus 
Caerulea, genus unde tibi, Romane Cluenti. 

Est procul in pelago saxum spumantia contra 
Litora, quod tumidis submersum tunditur olim 125 

Fluctibus, hiberni condunt ubi sidera Cori; 
Tranquillo silet^ immotaque attollitur unda 
CampuS; et apricis statio gratissima mergis. 
Hic viridem Aeneas frondenti ex ilice metam 
Constituit signum nautis pater, unde reverti 130 

Scirent et longos ubi circumflectere cursus. 
Tum loca sorte legunt, ipsique in puppibus auro 
Ductores longe enulgent ostroque decori ; 
Cetera populea velatur fronde juventus 
Nudatosque humeros oleo perfusa nitescit. 135 

Considunt transtris, intentaque brachia remis; 
Intenti exspectant signnm, exsultantiaque haurit 
Corda pavor pulsans laudumque arrecta cupido. 
Inde, ubi clara dedit sonitum tuba, finibus omnes, 
Haud mora, prosiluere suis ; ferit aethera clamor 140 
NauticuB, adductis spumant freta versa lacertis. 
Infindunt pariter sulcos, totumque dehiscit 
Convolsum remis rostrisque tridentibus aequor. 

ornament. — 113. T^tba, a Roman usage. Sce i. 73. — 116. Ptistim, 
The vesscls were named from the ngure-heads of the ships, as 
among ourselves. The four ships that startod in this rowing match 
had at their figure-heads, one, a large fish (pristis or pistrix ; see 
iii, 427) ; another, the Chimera ; the third, a Centaur ; and the 
fburth, Scylla. See at vi. 285. — 117. Construo Mnestheus mox 
Italus. Virgil is fond of proving the dcscent of the Romans from 
the Trojans by the analogy of their namcs. Thus Mneatkeus 
ini^aTti) gives rise to the Latin name fancifully of analogical etymo- 
logy, Memmi (gen.) from memini. So also the others. — 119. fTrftit 
instar opus. — 125. Olim. See iv. 627. — 127. TranauiUo, * in calm 
weather;* thc ablative of time. — 134. Populea. Ihe poplar was 
saered to Hercules (sce Ed. vii. 61), who himself had instituted 
fiameH. — 135. Perfusa humcros, the accusative of limitation. — 139. 
Stee 113. — 142. Dehiscit. See i. 106, iv. 24. — 143. This line occuni 

20* V 

Non (am praecipiten biiu^ ceiianiine campam 
Corripuere ruunique cfluBi carcere currus, I4S 

Nec sic immiasls auri^i: uiidautia lora 
ConcusBere jugis pronique in vcrbera pendenl. 
Tum plausu fremituque Tirum stndiisqua faTentum 
Coiisonat omne ncmus, vocemque inclusa volutaut 
Liiora, pulsali colles ciamore resultant. 150 

Effugit anto alioe primisque elabiiur undis 
Turbam inier fremiiumque Gyaa; quem deinde Go- 

Consequitur, melior remia, sed pondere pinug 

Tarda lenet. Post hos aequo disorimine PriatiB 

CenlauruK]ue locum tentlunt superaro piiorem; 155 

Et nnnc Piistia habet, nunc Ticlain praeterit ingeus 

Ceiitaurus, nunc ona ambae junctisque feiUQtur 

Pronlibus et tonga sulcant vada salsa carin&. 

Jamque propinquabant scopulo metamque tenebent, 

Com princcps medioque Gyas in guigite ticIoi 160 

Kectorem niwis compellat voce Menoelen : 

'Quo lanlum mihi dextei abisl huc dirige gresaumi 

LiluB ama, et laeTas etringat sine palmufEi cautea; 

Altum alii leneant.' Dixit ; aed caeca Menoetes 

Saiia limena prcram pelagi detorquet ad Dndaa, 165 

'Quo diversus abisi' ilerum, 'Pete Baxa, Henoetel' 

Cum clamoie Gyaa levccabat; et ecoe Cloanthnm 

ReB^icit instantem tergo, et propiora teneolem. 

Ille inter navemque Gyae Bcopulosqne saoantia ' 

Hadit iler laevum interior, eubiloque priorem 170 

Praelerit e( metis tenet aequora tuta leliatis. 

Tum veio exarsit juveni dolor OBsibus iogenfl, 

Nec lacrimis caruere genae, Begaemque MenoetBU, 

OblitUB decDiisque sui sociumque saluti^ 

In mare praecipitem puppi deturbat ab uta; 175 

IpBe gubernaclo rector subil, ipse magiBler, 

Hoilaturque Tiras, clavumque ad titora lorqtist. 

A( gravis, ut fundo vix landem reddilus imo att, 


149. He compareB the galleys lo chiuiata in ■ race, tba _ 
the chariateeis, end the rowers to tha horBSB. Tb6 piotan 
driveiB shiking ihs rcinH (wliile iha horae* (JttgiM) aie i^ 
(BBBiiiu) lo victnry), aiid hanging foiward to plT ihe whip, 
graphic. — 152. Turbam intcr jranilumgitt ; lurb ' 

Soo Bl Gcorg. ii. 4S6. —162. Sliiii. See al Ecl vL .. , 

inelohislefi hnnd. — 163. Sineal liringal. See Zumpl, iH 

173. Gvas bnd Inkon Ihe rond too fai oiil, and lo ihe ri^l bNQ 
Cloanthua, keeping to iho left, comes betweeo hi 
172. OniAu;; iho dalivo. See SI vi. 473. 

LIBER V. 235 

Jam senior madidaque fiuens in veste, Menoetes 
Summa petit scopuli siccaque in rupe resedit. 180 

Illum et labentem Teucri et risere natantem, 
Et salsos rident revomentem pectore fluctus. 
Hic laeta extremis spes est accensa duobus, 
Sergesto Mnestheique, Gyan superare morantem. 
Sergestus capit ante locum scopuloque propinquat, '.85 
Nec tota tamen ilie prior praeeunte carina; 
Parte prior ; partem rostro premit aemula Pristis. 
At media socios incedens nave per ipsos 
Hortatur Mnestheus : ^ Nunc, nunc insurgite remis, 
Hectorei socii, Trojae quos sorte suprema 190 

Delegi comites; nunc illaspromite vires, 
Nunc animos, quibus in Gaetulis Syrtibus usi 
lonioque mari Maleaeque sequacibus undis. 
Non jam prima peto Mnestheus, neque vincere certo; 
Quamquam o ! — Sed superent, quibus • hoc, Neptune, 
dedisti; 195 

Extremos pudeat rediisse ; hoc vincite, cives, 
Et prohibete nefas.' Olli certamine summo 
Procumbunt; vastis tremit ictibus aerea puppis, 
Subtrahiturque solum; tum creber anhelitus artus 
Aridaque ora quatit j sudor fluit undique rivis. 200 

Attulit ipse viris optatum casus honorem. 
Namque furens animi dum proram ad saxa suburguet 
Interior spatioque subit Sergestus iniquo, 
Infelix saxis in procurrentibus haesit. 
Concussae cautes, et acuto in murice remi 205 

Obnixi crepuere, illisaque prora pependit. 
Consurgunt nautae et magno clamore morantur, 
Ferratasque trudes et acuta cuspide contos 
Expediunt. fractosque legunt in gurgite remos. 
At laetus Mnestheus successuque acrior ipso, 210 

Agmine remonim celeri ventisque vooaiis, 
Prona petit maria et pelago ciecurrit aperto. 

181. JRisere, laugked at him while he fell into the water, and now 
lauzh at him while, &c. — 192. Gaetulis Syrtibus. See at 51. — 
I93~. lonioque, equivalent to Arf^olico, 52. Maleae^ a promontory, 
now St. Anselo, in the south of Laconia. Mnestheus alludes to 
the voyage aescribed iii. 190, &c. — 195. A fine instance of the 
mode of speech noticcd at i. 135. — 196. Hoc nefaz; or, Aoc, ' in 
thist 80 far.' — 199. Solum, hcrc applied to the sea, above which 
the boat rose high, as if heavcd from above it, at each stroke of the 
OBTi. — 203. Tho space was loo narrow (iniquum), — 205. Murice, 
6ee iv. 262. — 210. Successui &c. C ompare po«5unf, &c. 231.— 
213, &M, Pronat in the open sea, out whcro tlio channel begins to 


Qualis spelunca subito commota columba, 

Cui clomu3 tjt (lulces latebroso in pumice nidi, 

Fertur iii arva volans, plausumque exterrita pennis 215 

Dat tecto ingentem, mox arre lapsa quieto 

Iladit iter litiuidum, celeris ne{|ue commovet alas : 

Sic JMnestheus, sic ipsa luij^a secat ultima Pristis 

Aeqnora. sic illam fert impetus ipse volantem. 

Kt priiuum in scopulo luotuntem '^iserit alto 220 

Sergeslum brevibuscjue vadis fruslraque vocantem 

Auxilia, et fractis discentem currere remis. 

Inde Gyan ipsam([ue inijenti mole Chimaeram 

Consecpiitur j cedit, quoniam spoliata magistro est. 

Sohis jamque ipso superest in iine Cloantnus: 225 

Quem peiil, et summis adnixus viribus urguet. 

Tum vero ini;eminat clamor, cunctique seciuentem 

Instifjant studiis, resonatque fragoribus aetner. 

Hi proprium decns et partum indignantur honorem 

Ni teneant, vitamque volunt pro laude pacisci; 230 

Hos successus alit : {^ossunt, quia posse videntur. 

Kt fors ae^juatis cepisscnt praemia rostriB, 

Ni i^almas ponto tendens utrasquo CIoanthuB 

Fuclissetque preces. divosque in vota vocasset : 

^Dij quibus impcrium pelagi est, quorum aequora 

curro, 235 

Vobis laetus e^i^o hoc candentem in litore taanim 
Constituam ante aras, voti reus, extaque salsos 
Porriciam in fluctus et vina liquentia fundam.' 
Dixit, eum([ue imis sub fluctibus audiit omnis 
Nereidum Phorcique chorus Panopeaque virgo, 240 

Kt pater ipse manu magna Portunus euntem 
Impulit : illa Noto citius volucrique sagitta 
Ad terram fugit, et portu se condidit alto. 

Blope to tho Bhore. Sco 130, reverti. — 213. He comjpareB the swift 
but stcndy motion of tho Fristis to the motion of a dove firightened 
from its rocky homc, when, rcossurcd, it calmly Binks down the 
Bky, without moving its wings. — 221. Three Btages in tne eBcape 
of Sergestcs. First ofr the rock ; then in the shallow water at ite 
edgo ; then, uftor a vnin cry for help, trying the broken oaFB. He 
took to his sails at laat ; 281. — 224. Cedit. Chim&era. — 229. JHi, 
theso of Cloanthus. — 231. Hos, theso of MneatheuB. — > 235. Ae^ 
quora curro. A poetical consrmction ; the prose would be, per 
aequora. Scc iv. 25(). — 237. Voli reus ; liable to pay thevow in 
the scnpo mentioncd Ed. v. 80. — 240. Nereidum. See iii. 74," 
Phorais, Phorcys, or Phorcyn, a sca deity, as was Panopes, fioin 
the Greck Uav^iTT]. — 241. Portunus, or Portumnus, the Ronm' 
tutelory god of harboiirs. Through him the ship entered the h^f- ' 
lour. Scc 213. —243. Notico fugit, present, and amdidU, (Jkt9' 

LIBER ^ 237 

Tum satus Anchisa, cunctis ex more vocatis, 

Victorem magna praeconis voce Cloanthum 245 

Declarat, viridique advelat tempora lauro ; 

Muneraque in navis ternos optare juvencos 

Vinaque et argenti magrium dat ferre talentum. 

Ipsis praecipuos ductoribus addit honores: 

Victori chlamydem auratam, quam plurima circum 250 

Purpura Maeandro duplici Meliboea cucurrit, 

Intextusque puer frondosa regius Ida 

Velocis jaculo cervos cursuque fatigat, 

Acer, anhelanti similis; quem praepes ab Ida 

Sublimem pedibus rapuit Jovis armiger uncis — 255 

Longaevi palraas nequidquam ad sidera tendunt 

Custodes, saevitque canum latratus in auras. 

At qui deinde locum tenuit virtute secundum, 

Levibus huic hamis consertam auroque trilicem 

Loricam, quam Demoleo detraxerat ipse 260 

Victor apud rapidum Simoenta sub Ilio alto, 

Donat habere viro, decus et tutamen in armis. 

Vix illam famuli Phegeus Sagarisque ferebant 

Multipiicem, connixi humeris ; ind^itus at olim 

Demoleos cursu palantis Troas agebat. 265 

Tertia dona facit geminos ex aere lebetas, 

Cymbiaque argento perfecta atque aspera signis. 

Jamque adeo donati omnes opibusque superbi 

Puniceis ibant evincti tempora taeniis, 

Cum saevo e scopulo multa vix arte revolsus, 270 

Amissis remis atque ordine debilis uno, 

hidden), perfcct. — 246. See 111. — 247. From ternos we infer ehat 
&ich of the three ships received three heifers, wine, and a talent. — 
248. Dat ferre. See the samo construction, 306, and similarly, 
donat haberei 262. Magnum talentum seems to mean simply a 
mighty tarent, without refercnce to the distinction between the 
greater and the smaller talent propcrl^r so called. — 250. The vic- 
tor'8 special prize was a cloak embroidcred with gold (auratam), 
with two wavme lines of deep {plurima) purple. — 251. The Mae» 
ander is properly a river of Asia Minor, with numerous turnings. 
Meliboea. See p. 181, lino 1. — 252. The story of Ganymede (see i. 
55), bomeby an eagle from Mount Ida, was vividly woven in the cloak. 
— 255. Virgil is blamcd for rcprcscnting Ganymede as both hunting 
and in the grasp of the cagle. But such twofold rcpresentations 
were not unKnown in ancient art. — 258. Qui — huic. See i. 573. — 
259. Sco iii. 467. — 2G0. Demoleos ia only known to us from this 
passage in Virgil. — 261. Hio dlto : o unclided, and short, according 
Xo Greek usnKO. — 265. The coat of mail worn by Demolcos with 
6986, was nlinost too hcavy for the unitcd strength of two men. So 
inuch thc ^riiitrcr the glory of Aencas in vanquishing him. — 269. 
TiumiM pronounco in two syllables. Sce 111. — 271. rt/ine, the 

Irrisam Eine honore ratem Sergeslua agabet. 

QualiB saepe vi»e (leprenBus in Hggere serpenBj 

Acrt-a qui.-m obliquum rola transiit, auc giavis icta 

Semiuccem liquil siud iHCerumque vialor, 27i 

NequidquHm lotigon lugieaa dat corpore tortDB, 

Parie ferox, ardeiisque oculiSj et eibila colla 

Arduus atloIIeuB; [^ra vulnere clauda retentat 

Nexantem nodia seque in Bua membiB plicanlem.: 

Tali remigio navia ae tarda movebat; S8( 

Vela fucit tamen, et velis eubit ostia plenia. 

Sergeslum Aeneas promiaao munere donat, 

Servalam ob navein laetua Bocioaque reductoa. 

Olli serva datur, operum liaud ignara Minervae. 

CieBsa genus, Pholoe, geminique Aub ubere nati. 281 

IIoc piua Aeneaa misao certamine tendit 
Gramiiieum in campum, quem collibns undique cmris 
Cingebant silvae, mediai^ue in valle theatri 
Circus erat; quo se multis cum millibns heroa 
Consessu medium tulil, extrucloque reaedit. EH 

Hic, qui forle veliut rapicto conteaders onraU] 
Invilat pretiia animoa, et praemia poDit. 
Uiidique conveiiiunt Teucri mbilique Sioanij 
NiBus et EuryaluB primi, 

Euryalus forma insignis viridique juTeDta, 2U 

NisuB amore pio pueri; quos deinde seontoa 
Kegius egregia Priami de stirpe Dioren : 
Hunc Salius simul el Patron, quorum allei 
Aller ab Areadio Tegeaeae sanguiDe gentiB ; 
Tum duo Trinacrii juvenesj HelymnH Fanopeaqn^ 
Adsueti ailvis, comJtes seniotis AcbsIbs ; 
Mulii praeterca, quos fuma obscura reoondit. 
Aeneas quibus iii mediia sic deinde locutnt '. 
"Accipile hacc animiSj laelasque advertite meniw. 
Nemo eK huc numero mihi non donaluB abibit. 

■ht]; to n perpnii, Dvcr ivhidi, Iv 

viae}, a whcel linii i!unc ^liiiilin^, ( 

■liiiw. — 3T'l. Coiislniii Erm-if icf», eo ihnl the : 

ictu. — 2SI. Soa at 221. — ^t. DatSr by the a 

gtntu. Anoihor modillontioii ofihe nceuBnlivH , 

Ctrcni Ihcalri, n cinmkr >tpu<M! liirmiii!; n lilline (heatre.- 
triKlaloco. — 2111. ^ce i. 331. Ki^iia and EurysluB ■ 
of onn of Virsira GnpM npiBwiBB. Seo ix. 176, fitc. ■- 

kUled hy Tiiriiim. Seo xTi. 509, — 2US. Aca *" 

a disliicl of Ijrcecr. lo ihc Bomh ol Epiru:. 

lown iD ilio Bouth of Arcadia. — 300, Pam^peMgne. The K_ 
blo elided beforc Adtvli. — 305. OhBcrvo ihis doable^ 

LiBER y. 239 

Gnosia bina dabo levato lacida ferro 

Spicula caelatamque argento ferre bipennem j 

Omnibus hic erit unus honos. Tres praeraia primi 

Accipient, flavaque caput nectentur oUva. 

Primus equum phaleris insignem victor habeto ; 310 

Alter Amazoniam pharetram plenamque sagittis 

Threiciis, lato quam circumplectitur auro 

Balteus, et tereti subnectit fibula gemma ; 

Tertius Argolica hac galea contentus abito.' 

Haec ubi dicta, locum capiunt, signoque repente 315 

Corripiunt spatia audito, limenque relinquunt, 

EfFusi nimbo similes; simul ultima signant. 

PrJmus abit longeque ante omnia corpora Nisus 

Emicat, et ventis et fulminis ocior alis; 

Proximus huic, longo sed proximus intervallo, 320 

Insequitur Salius^ spatio post deinde relicto 

Tertius Euryalus; 

Euryalumque Helymus sequitur j quo deinde sub ipso 

Ecce volat calcemque terit jam calce Diores, 

Incumbens humero; spatia et si plura supersint, 325 

Transeat elapsus prior, ambiguumve relinquat. 

Jamque fere spatio extremo fessique sub ipsam 

Finem adventabant, levi cum sanguine Nisus 

Labitur infelix, caesis ut forte juvencis 

Fusus humum viridisque super madefecerat herbas. 330 

Hic juvenis jam victor ovans vestigia presso 

Haud tenuit titubata solo, sed pronus in ipso 

Concidit immundoque fiino sacroque cruore. 

Nou tamen Eur}'ali, non ille oblitus amorum ; 

making an affirmative — nemo non, the same as quis^ue. — 306. 
Gnosia. See p. 179, line 24. Crete was celebrated for its archery. 
Dahoferro. See248. — 309. See 111. For the poetical construc- 
tion of passive verbs of dress with the accusative, see Zumpt, ^ 458. 
— ;311. The Amazons, or female warriors, generally regarded as 
originally inhabitants of the banks of the Thermodon m Pontus, but 
whom Virgil seems to consider as Thracian in descent {Threiciis ; 
and see xi. 660), were ereat archers. — 312. The broad belt of gold 
embroidery fastenod tne quiver {circumplectiturj used deponently) 
iround the shoulder.— 317. Simul. So great was their speed, tnat at one 
and the same moment they Icave the starting-post (limen), and reach 
the furthest point of the road (ultima). — 320. The spondaic iine 
Becms employed to mark the interval. — 325. These present sub- 
junctives strengthen the probability. * Is tliere any distancc still 
remaining ? irso, hc may, it is certain he will, pass him.' See i. 
58. vi. 293, xi. 912. — 330. Fusutt sanguis. — 332. Tituhata, poeti- 
cally, as if from a deponent verb. — 334. Compare ille here with UU 
457» In both passages it emphasizes the sccond particular of the 

Nam si^se opposuit Salio per labrlca snrgensj 
Ille uulem BpisM jaciiil revolutua arena. 
Einiuat KurroJuH, et muucre \ielar amici 
Prima luiiet, plausuqiie vokt fremituciue seoundo. 
Post Helynius ^iubit, ut iiuui; lertia paima Dioree. 
Hio tolum caveao consessum iiigeijlis et ora 
Frima patrum raagnis SaliuR clamoribus implet, 
Erepluniijue ilolo reddi sibi poscit honorem. 
Tulatur favor Eurynlum, lacriraaeque decoiue, 
Gratior el pulehro voniens in corpore virlUB. 
Adjuvat ei mngita proclamat voue Diores, 
Qui subiit palmac, frustnique ad praemia venit 
Ultiina, si primi Salio T(Hiilantur honoreB. 
Tum paler AencaBj 'Vestnij' iiiquil, 'munera vobis 
Cerla niaiienl, pueri, ct palraam movet ordine nemo; 
Me liceat casus miserari insontis amioi.' 
Sic falus ternum Gaetuli immane leonts 
Dat Salio, villis oiierosum atque unguibas aurets. 
Hic NisuB, 'Si tiinta,' inquit, 'sunl pisemia victis, 
li!t te lapsorum raiseret, quae munera Niso 
Pigna dabis, primam merui qui lainie coroaam, 
B Salium, fortuna inimica tuliuel!' 
*R faciem oslenlabat et udo 

s, quae Sal 

Turpia membra fimo. Risit pater optimua olli, 
£t clipeum efferri jussit, Didyniaonid artis, 
Neptuui sacro Danuis de poste relixum. ■ 
Hoc juvenem egte^ium praestanti Tnunere'donat. 

Post, ubi confecti cursus, et donn peregit : 
'Xunc, bI cui virtus nnimusque iu peotore praauns, 
Adsit, et evinctis atlotlat brachia palmis.' 
Siu oit et geminiim pu^nae proponit honorem, 
Viclori velatum auro vittisque jucencnm, 
Ensem alque insignem galeam solalia vioto. 

33G. Illf. Salius. — 337, Eiirgalof by llie nrBis. 339. Bee 111.- 
3^0. Conctnum mitae, ihe BtsutnbliigD in tbe tboure-likB Talk 

SBB2e7, 4.C, Tbo MfM in ihpoires was Ijie place wtef 

tnlore snl. Ora prima indicales iho foreinQBt Heala, 'n'li._ 

palra {Bco i. 73), occoriling tu Itoman uasge 3i6. 1 

won; fee rnlilantHr, Thcre werc only llireo prize 

351. Terpum. Seo n Biinilar use, i. 3G1. Gadull 

352. Aunit; Iwo BrllabicB. — 354. A'iaa involvcB the Grst p 
liim whn epciikB. hcnra merui. — 3S3. JUerui— (hIuiiI. Soe- 
— H.'ii'. 01 tlic Brtisl DidjrmBon, or the pnrticnliir ezplolE ^M 

Vir[[il hcre rarcrs, we know nolhinc^^— 360. Danai* refii 

frotii thc Grccks, aiid nntiistened. Danait. the dotivus \s 

3G4. Alluding 10 Ihc <im(ii>. See al(i9. — 366. A\ 

LIBER V. 241 

Nec mora ; contlnuo vastis cum viribus effevt 

Ora Dares, magnoque virum se murmure tollit ; 

Solus qui Paridem solitus coutendere contra, 370 

Idemque ad tumulum, quo maximus occubat Hector, 

Victorem Buten immani corpore, qui se 

Bebrycia veniens Amyci de gente ferebat, 

Perculit et fulva moribundum extendit arena. 

Talis prima Dares caput altum in proelia toilit, 375 

Ostenditque humeros latos, alternaque jactat 

Brachia protendens, et verberat ictibus auras. 

Quaeritur huic alius ; nec quisquam ex agmine tanto 

Audet adire virum manibusque inducere caestus. 

£rgo alacris; cunctosque putans excedere palma, 380 

Aeneae stetit ante pedes ; nec plura moratus 

Tum laeva taurum cornu tenet, atque ita fatur : 

* Nate dea, si nemo audet se credere pugnae, 

Quae finis standi ? quo me decet usque teneri ? 

Ducere dona jube.' Cuncti simul ore fremebant 385 

Dardanidae, reddique viro promiasa jubebant. 

Hic gravis Entellum dictis castigat Acestes, 

Proximus ut viridante toro consederat herbae : 

' Entelle, heroum quondam fortissime frustra, 

Tantane tam patiens nuUo certamine tolli 390 

Dona sines ? ubi nunc nobis deus ille, magister 

Nequidquam memoratus, Eryx '^ ubi fama per omnem 

Trinacriam, et spolia illa tuis pendentia tectis V 

Ille sub haec : ^ Non laudis amor, nec gloria cessit 

Pulsa metu ; sed enim gelidus tardante senecta 395 

Sanguis hebet, frigentque efTetae in corpore vires. 

Si mihi, qoae quondam fuerat, quaque improbus iste 

Exsultat fidens, si nunc foret.illa juventas, 

Haud eqaidem pretio inductus pulchroque juvenco 

VenisBem } nec dona moror.' Sic deinde locutus 400 

In medium geminos immani pondere caestus 

Projecit, quibus acer Eryx in proelia suetus 

Ferre manum duroque intendere brachia tergo. 

370. There is no mention elsewhere of Butes, nor of Faris 
•8 a boxer, nor of funerai gamcs in honour of Hector. — 373. 
Amycutt king of the Bebryces, a tribe of Bithynia, was cele- 
brated as a bozer. The construction scems to be, qui veniens Be 
hryciaferebat te esse de gente (race) Amyci. — 389. Frustra. Since 
hifl bravery was now to produce no fruits. Compare ii. 348. — 392, 
Eryx. See at 24. Eryx was celebrated as a boxer. — 393. Trina' 
sriam. See p. 180, line 37.-395. Sed enim. See at i. 19, ii. 164, 
The thought involved here sccms to be, sed non sine causa cunctor. 
g^lid%$ enim. — 400. Moror^ magni aestimo. 
21 V 

ObBlupuers ammi : lanlorum ingentia Bontem 
Tetga boum piumbo innuio ferroque rigeoaat. 4 

Ante om^is gtupet ipM Dares, longeque reeumt ; 
MagnanirouBque Anohisiad^B et ponaus et ipaa 
Huo iliuc vincloram immensa volumina Ternil. 
Tura seiiior taJii: referebat pectora voces: 
'Quid, si qujscaestns IpsiuB et Metctilis artns 4 

Vidisacl trislemque hoo ipaa in litare pugnun 1 
Uaeo germanuB Kryx quondBm tuus arma gerobat;—- 
Sangiime cernisBilhuc sparsoque infectacerebro; — 
Uis magnum Aloiden conlra aletit ; hie ego suelUB, 
Dam meiior vires sanguis dabat, aemula necdum 4 
Temporibus gemlnis canabat sparsa neueclus. 
Sed ai noslca Dates haeu Traius arma recuBat, 
Idque pio sedist Aeneae, probat auclor AcesteB, 
Aequemua pugna»'. Erycis tibi terga remilto ; 
SolvB melas; el lu Trojanos exan caestus.' 4 

Haec fatus dnpticem ex humeris tejecit amlctain, 
El tiuignos membrotum arlus, maj^a OBSa lacarlOBque 
Exuil, alque icgenB medin conBl>.til arima. 
Tum MtUB Anubisa oaeslus palur «ttulil aequoB, 
Et paribuspalmasamboium Juuaxuit arnijti. 4 

CaDstitil in digitoa BjiiBmplD »rnctiu uipiqus, 
Brachiaque ad supetas Inlufritu* exluJit aumit. 
Abduxere relro lengQ capita anlua ab iolu, 
Immiscentquc maiius manibus, pv^naiuqaE 
llic pedum meliof moln, frcttuqnci jQVcnU, 
Hio membtis el mole valonB ; aeJ titnla tr» 
Guuua labant, yastos quatil ax!g«T nriholilu* urlUB. 
Mulla viri nequidquam inler au vutfiwa jactaut, 
Multa cavo lateri iiigeminant ot pcolore vaalos 
Dant sonitus, erratque auriM Bl tempora ctrcum 
Crt»bra manur, duro crapitaDt sub volnere roiUao. 
Slat gravis Entellus nisuquo immotu* eodom, 
Corpore lola modo alque oaulis vigilantibus ei 
Ille, velut ceisnm oppugcai qui molibuB urb«m, 

" , J 

lae iBMMaunt. — H 

iaciaut, ^^M 

«rcum i^^H 

i roaJao. ^^| 

lom, ^H 

irb«m, ^M 

Canebal. — il9. Tibi; ttiE dBtivus CDmmodi. Sfnuav. Sbbdl 
— il3. Lacirlesqiie, -e eiiiied bpibra etnU. Etatm. lilip 
Btrip.' miiyiiB npplieU titliBt lo llie gntmenis or 'li" lifi'- 
Siitiliit T\f.iami iniB wna logiveeffect lo ifaedesaendni" 
nSl.w.-llW.— 432. Gm«a; iwo ByllBbl™. — *37. f.,. 
IIWBsinep«9itionwirtihisieet; heeludec (wil, Bleclii: 
^^i^- itM) tJiaed al liim by Bbifling Iub budy, bis t , ^ - 
. -ri-^ggjnaggnijt. — 439. lllcOuOi. ^^ 

LiBER y. 248 

Aut montana sedet circum castella sub armis, 440 

Nunc hos, nunc illos aditus, omnemque pererrat 
Arte locum, et variis adsultibus irritus urguet. 
Ostendit dextram insurgens EnteUus et alte 
ExtLilit : ille ictum venientem a vertice velox 
Praevidit, celerique elapsus corpore cessitj 445 

Entellus vires in ventum eflfudit, et ultro 
Ipse gravis graviterque ad terram pondere vasto 
Concidit : ut quondam cava concidit aut Erymaatho, 
Aut Ida in magna, radicibus eruta pinus. 
Consurgunt studiis Teucri et Trinacria pubes; 450 

It clamor coelo, primusque accurrit Acestes, 
Aequaevumque ab humo miserans attoUit amicum. 
At non tardatus casu neque territus heros 
Acrior ad pugnam redit, ac vim suscitat ira. 
Tum pudor incendit vires et conscia virtus, 455 

Praecipitemque Daren ardens agit aequore toto, 
Nunc dextra ingeminans ictus, nunc ille sinistra ; 
Nec mora, nec requies : quam multa grandine nimbi 
Culminibus crepitant, sic densis ictibus heros 
Creber utraque manu pulsat versatque Dareta. 460 

Tum pater Aeneas procedere longius iras 
Et saevire animis Entellum haud passus acerbis^ 
Sed finem imposuit pugnae, fessumque Dareta 
. Eripuit, mulcens dictis, ac talia fatur : 
' Infelix, quae tanta animum dementia cepit ? 465 

Non vires alias conversaque numina sentis ? 
Cede deo.' Dixitqne et proelia voce diremit. 
Ast illum fidi aequales, genua aegra trahentem, 
Jactantemque utroque caput, crassumque cruorem 
Ore ejectantem mixtosque in sanguine dentes, 470 

Ducunt ad navis; galeamque ensemque vocati 
Accipiunt ; palmam Entello taurumque relinquunt. 
Hic victor, superans animis tauroque superbas : 
* Nate dea, vosque haec,' inquit, * cognoscite, Teucri, 

445. Cessitf * moved from the spot.' —446. ZHtro, as the result of 
118 own movement. — 448. Erymanthoj a mountain in the north- 
weat of Arcadia.— 449. Ida. See ii. 694.-457. Jlle. See at 334. 
i— 458. Compare this passage with Scott'8 Lady ofthe Ldke : — 

* And showered his blows like wintry rain ; 
And as firm rock, or castle roof, 
Against the winter showcr is proof,* &.c 

—460. Cr^er. See at ii. 627. — 466. Vires alias seems to meant 
' his strength diiferent from what it was in the early part of tha 
xmteBt/ as if tho conversa numina (especially Eryx) had in pitf 
riTenEntellus supernatural vigour. Hence Cededeo. See below, 483« 
.«471. Galeamque, &,c. See367. — 472. See 111. 


£t mihi quae fuerint jnvenali in coipore vireSy 475 

£t qua servetis revocatum a morte Dareta.' 

Dixit, et adversi conlra stetit ora juvenci, 

Qui donum adstabat pugnae, durosque reducta 

Libravit dextra media inter cornua eaestusi 

ArduuB, eifractoque illisit in ossa cereDro. 480 

Steniitur cxanimisque tremens procumbit humi bos. 

Ille super talis elFundit pectore voces: 

'Hanc tibi, £ryX; meJiorem animam pro morte Daretis 

Persolvo ; hic victor caestus artemque repono.' 

Protinus Aeneas celeri certare sagitta 485 

Invitat qui forte velint, et praemia ponit, 
Ingentique manu malum de nave Seresti 
£rigit, et volucrem trajecto in fune colambam, 
Quo tendant ferrum, malo suspendit ab alto. 
Convenere viri, dejectamque aerea sortem 490 

Accepit galea ; et primus clamore secundo 
Hyrtacidae ante omnis exit locus Hippocoontis; 
Quem modo navali Mnestheus certamine victor 
Consequitur, viridi Mnestheus evinctus oliva. 
Tertius £urytion, tuus, o ciarissime, frater, 495 

Pandare, qui quondam, jussus confundere foedas^ 
In medios telum torsisti primus Achiyos." ' 
£xtremus galeaque ima subsedit AcesteSy 
Ausus et ipse manu juvenum tentare laborem. 
Tum validis flexos incurvant viribus arons 1600 

Pro se quisque viri. et depromunt tela pbaretris. 
Primaque per coelum nervo stridente sagitta 
Hyrtacidae juvenis volucris diverbeiat aaras; 

475. Juvenalibus. This form also occurs il. 518.— 478. Hs 
drow back his right hand, poised the caestUB lo as to atriks 
right bctwccn thc homs, and rising on tiptoe (aee 426), craahed in 
■kull and brnin. — 481. Obscrve the efTect of the monosyiliUiic end- 
ing. — 483. He felt himself bound to offer something to hia divinB 
teacher (391) and protcctor (466) Erjrx ; the strife was sacred, aod 
80 he oficred up the bull as a worthier gift than Darea. And wiA 
it, as usual, rclinquishing the practice, he devotes to the ffO|d tte 
arms of his formcr accomplishment — 487. Mslum, not atSaiai.— 

492. Hippocoon, then, was tho brother of Nisus. See iz. 177-^ 

493. Victor : the thrce first in the boat-racc were crowned ai vi» 
tors, 2G9. Mncstheus was the second, 258. — 494. Oliva. 8ee 111» 
— 496. Pandarusy a Lycian auxiiiary of the Trojans, celebraMd 
an archcr. Thc evcnt alludcd to by Virgil is told by Homarf ^ 
iv. 86, &c. whcro wc Icarn that, instigated (Jusmu») by Mii 
he broke a truce thcn subsistmg between the Greeka bbA. l^i 
w501. Fro se quisqueviri, The eoUocation of these worda i 
^oticc and iniitation. . .;.^ 


LiBER y. 245 

Et venit, adversique infigitur arbore mali. 
Intremuit malus, timuitque exterrita pennis 505 

Ales, et ingenti sonuerunt omnia plausu. 
Fost acer Mnestheus adducto constitit arcu, 
Alla petens, pariterque oculos telumque tetendit. 
Ast ipsam miserandus avem contingere ferro 
Non valuit; nodos et vincula linea rupit, 610 

Quis innexa pedem malo pendebat ab alto^ 
Illa notos atque atra volans in nubila fugit. 
Tum rapiduS; jamdudum arcu contenta parato 
Tela tenens, fratrem Eurytion in vota vocavit, 
Jam vacuo laetam coelo speculatus, et alis 516 

Plaudentem nigra figit sub nube columbam. 
Decidit exanimis, vitamque reliquit in astris 
Aetheriis, fLxamque refert delapsa sagittam. 
Amissa solus palma superabat Acestes; 
Qui tamen aerias telum contendit in auras, 620 

Ostentans artemque pater arcumque sonantem. 
Hic oculis subitum objicitur magnoque futurum 
Augurio monstrum ; docuit post exitus ingens, 
Seraque terrifici cecinerunt omina vates. 
Namque volans liquidis in nubibus arsit arundo, 525 

Signavilque viam flammis, tenuisque recessit 
Consumpta in ventos : coelo ceu saepe refixa 
' Transcurrunt crinemque volantia sidera ducunt. 
Attonitis haesere animis, Superosque precati 
Trinacrii Teucrique viri ; nec maximus omen 630 

Abnuit Aeneas ; sed laetum amplexus Acesten 
Muneribus cumulat magnis, ac talia fatur : 
'Sume, pater; nam te voluit rex magnus Olympi 
Taiibus auspiciis exsortem ducere honorem. 
Ipsius Anchisae lougaevi hoc munus habebis, 635 

Cratera impressum signis, quem Thracius olim 

507. Adducto, tho ancient archers drow the strins to the broast» 
not, as the English, to the ear. — 511. Quis, anoldform forquibueu 
For innexa pedcnii and innexa critiem, vi. 211, see iv. 558.— -513. 
Rapidus, as often, for rapide. — 517. Lifo was left behind in the 
«ky, while the arrow fell toearth. — 519. Superabat, supererat. See 
713. — 520. To show his skill, and the excellence of nis bow, he 
shot up into the air, and his arrow rcachcd tho clouds {nvhUfuSf 
525)^ 521. Tho position oipaier shows that his skill was from his 
experiencc. Paicr by the arsis. — 522. This prodigy was probably 
intended by Virgil to have regard to tho burnin^ of the ships, 604, 
^c. ; the soothsaycrs intcrpreting the omen wnen it was too late 
(flera) to avert the evil, and the event itself, not they, with all thMr 
awe-inspiring power {jL^rrijici), had explained the prophetic meaning 
■df the portent. — 533. Olympi. SeeEcLy.56. 

246 AEHBlDOa. 

ADchisae genilori In tnagno muaeie CiBseuB 
Fcrre sui Oedeiat monuioenlum et pignus Hmorio.' 
Sio fiLluB cingit viridanti lempora lauro, 
Kt ptimum Hiite omnis victorem appellat Acaaten. 
Neu bojius Kurylion praelato invidit honori, 
Quamvis oolus avem coelo dejecit ab alto 
Proximus iiigredilur donis, qui vincula rapit, 
Kxlremus, volucri qui fixit armidine raalum. 
At patei Aeneas, noixlum certamioa misao, 
Custodem ad eeee comitemque impubis luli 
Kpytiden vocal, et fidam sic fatur ad aurem : 
'Vade age, et Ascanio, si jam puerile paratum 
Agmcn habet secum, cursuaque inBtruzit eqnormn, 
Ducat avo lurmas, ct sese oetendat in Bjmia, 
DiCj' ait. Ipse oranem longo decedere ciroo 
Infusum populum, et campos jubat esse patentla. 
Incedunl pueri, pariterque ante otlL parentunL 
Frenatis lucent in equis, quos omnia euntis 
Trinacriae mirata fremlt Trojaeqne iuventus. 
Omnibus in morem tonaa coma pressa corona ; 
Cornea bina feruct praefixa haaUlia ferroj 
Fars levis huraero pharetTasj it pectore snmmo 
Flexilis obtorti per collum circuluB aari. 
Tres equitum nuraero tunnae, temlque vaganlur 
DuctoiBB ; pueri bis seni quemque secuti 
Agmine partilo fulgent paribusqne maglatris. 
Una acies javenum, duoit quam pe.rvu8 ovantem 
Nomen avi referens PriamuB, tua clara, PoUte, 
Progenles, auctura Italos ; quem Thraolna albis 
Fortat equua bicolai maculis, vestigia piiml \ 

S3T. Citiait, kingof Thrace iThraem), tathei of Heoai», 
•m'BWifo. — 538. Ferre dtderat. See 24B, 573.-— B^. BM £ 
M7. Such guardiana of youngheioeswerecona»drt ' 
as welt as iliaee of VirEll. Romer mentiotu iRimt, i 
phoB, Bonof EpytuH, Bn nticndant of Anchief 
dic ut ducat. — 550. Avo, the duivQB cominoai, m J 
551. AeneoB onlcrB llic circulor BPBce described 
cleared. — 553, &c. Tho luduB Trojao (600) ►•"~ *' 

8\\ wBS oflcn cclcbrated by Augualus — "" ~ 
56. In nor™, ' in a uniibrm miuiner. xon 

bly of Olive. Seo 77*. Georg. iii. 31. The 

doubtful ; cilhcr pluckcd from tho tres, or picked li 
into proper ehapc. This ohaplet wdB wom nbov ' 
673, vii. 751. — 560, Thoro were three leadcta, 
twolve young horsemen. — 5G1. PoUtt. See 
Awtura llaloi. Sce ol 117. An old eommBn- 
-icoiding to Cftto, Poliles faundsd PoUtorium, 

LIBER V 247 

Alba pedis frontemque ostentans arduus albam. 

Alter Atys. genus unde Atii duxere-Latini, 

Parvus Atys, pueroque puer dileclus lulo. 

Extremus, formaque ante omnis pulcher, lulus 570 

Sidonio est invectus equo, quem candida Dido 

Esse sui dederat monumentum et pi<jnus amoris. 

Cetera Trinacriis pubes senioris Acestae 

Fertur equis. 

Excipiunt plausu pavidos, gaudentque tuentes 575 

Dardanidae, veterumque agnoscunt ora parentum. 

Postquam omnem laeti consessum oculosque suorum 

Lustravere in equia, signum clamore paratis 

Epytides longe dedit insonuitque flagello. 

Olli discurrere pares, atque agmina terni 580 

Diductis solvere choris, rursusque vocati 

Converlere vias infestaque tela tulere. 

Inde alios ineunt cursus aliosque recursus 

Adversi spatiis, allernosque orbibus orbis 

Impediunt, pugnaeque cient simulacra sub armis; 585 

Et nuno terga fu^ uudant, nunc spicula vertunt 

Infensi, facta pariter nunc pace feruntur. 

Ut quondam Creta fertur Labyrinthus in alta 

Parietibus textum caecis iter, ancipitemque 

Mille viis habuisse dolum, qua signa sequendi 590 

Falleret indeprensus et irremcabiiis error ; 

Haxid alio Teucrum nati vestlgia cursu 

Impediunt, texuntque fugas et proelia ludo, 

Delphinum Bimiles, qui per maria humida nando 

Carpathium Libycumque secant, luduntque per 

undas. 595 

Huno morem oursus atque haec certamina primus 

568. Atii. This is soid in honour of Augustus, whose raother 
Atia belonffed to the geru Atia. Hence, too, trom the intermarriage 
of tho famiiieB, Atia oeing the daughter of Julius Caesar^s sister, 
the ingcnioua allusion in the ncxt line, pueroque puer. — 580. Paret, 
dcc. rhey were first in a line ; then thcy gallopped apart {jiiscur- 
rere)j breaking up {solvere) into scparato parties {diductis choris) 
of three each itemi)- At a signal, thev stopped, wheeled round, 
and seemed to commonce an attack. 1 hen clrawn up in opposito 
rows {adverti spatiis)^ they galloppcd through each other'8 ranks, 
and rode in circular windings, ezhibiting a mimic fight with all its 
viciseitudes. — 588. Tho l^byrinth of Crete was contrived by the 
artist Daedalua, and conccalcd in its mazes thc Minotaur. See vi. 
SJ7. — 589. I*urietihu8f four syllables. — 594. Delphinum similee. 
See Zumpt, $ 411. — 595. The island Carpathus lies bctwcen Crete 
and Rhodos, giving name to the adjacent sea. — 596. Others read 
Humc morem,noB curtua, &.c. 


Ascanius, Longam muris cum cingeret Albam, 

Iletulit, et priscos docuit celebrare Latinos, 

Quo puer ipse modo, secum quo Troia pubes; 

Albani docuere suos; hinc maxima porro 600 

Accepit Roma. et patrium servavit honorem; 

Trojaque nunc, pueri Trojanum dicitur agmen. 

Hac celebrata tenus sancto certamina patri. 

Hic primum Formna fidem mutata novavit. 
Dum variis tumulo referunt sollemnia ludis, 605 

Irim de coelo misit Saturnia Juno 
Iliacam ad classem. ventosque adspirat eunti, 
Multa movens, necdum antiquum saturata doiorein. 
Illa, viam celeraiis per mille coloribus arcum, 
Nulli visa cito decurrit tramite virgo. 610 

Conspicit ingentern concursum, et litora Instrati 
Desertosque videt portus classemque relictam. 
At procul in sola secrctae Troades acta 
Amissum Anchisen ilebant, cunctaeque profundum 
Pontum adspectabant fientes. ^ Heu tot vada fessis 615 
£t tantum superesso maris!' vox omnibus una. 
Urbem orant j taedet pelagi perferre laborem. 
Ergo inter modias sese haud ignara nocendi 
Conjicit, et faciemque deae vestemque reponit; 
Fit Beroc, Tmarii conjunx longaeva Dorjrcli, 620 

Cui genus et quondam nomen natiqne faissent, 
Ac sic Dardanidum mediam se matribus infert : 
'0 miserae, quas non manus. inquit;^ Aohaica bello 
Traxerit ad letum patriae suD moenibus ! o gens 

597. Longam Alham. Scc i. 271. — 598. Virgil Beems here to dm 
priscos in thc scnse of ancicnt ; but properly the Prigei £afmt wers 
a pcoplc mado up of two, the Prisci and LatinL-— 600. Scnb at 553. 
— 602. Troja nunc hic cursus (596) dicitur, ptieri, &g. Dwdtir 
agrees witH agmeuTrojanumj instead of pueri, DeoanBe the latter b 
the idca to which Virgil wishes particuiarly to direct attention.-* 
603. Hac tenus celcbrata. Grammarians calf this mode orseparatiiig 
compound words a tmesis (TuTiaiSj r(^va). See yi. 65.— 601. M- 
vare jidem, to make a ncw bargain, treacherously to diange Iwr 
formcr smiles. — 606. Irim. See iv. 701.— 607. Fextoi^iie, 4^ 
See iv. 223. — 608. Saturata dolorem. See at L 8, 25. For the 
construction, scc iv. 558. — 609. Juno is the principal pQiaona|n-of 
the prcccding sentcnce, but in connection with Iris. Then "mmTf 
his subject, hc indicatcs this by i7Za, equivalent to, 'bnt asforlierf 
ehe,' &c. — 620. If thc reading bo correct, we most ■nppoM^t&lt 
Beroe, a Trojan woman {RhoetcXa, 646), had married a nativ» tf' 
Tmaros, a hill in Epirus. — 621. Fit Beroe, cut, quippe ei,,/WlftMW|^'. 
The subiunctive expresscs the rcason why Iris hftd wmamni^plti: J 
' -m — shc was of ancient family. — 623. Miseraef fuaa ' • •*^-" 
• this sub'"n^tivc, scc at ii. 248. 

LiBER y. 249 

Infelix ! cui te exitio Fortuna reservat ? 625 

Septiraa post Trojae excidium jam vertitur aestas, 

Cum freta, cum terras omnis, tot inhospita saxa 

Sideraque emensae ferimur, dum per mare magnum 

Italiam sequimur fugientem, et voivimur undis. 

Hic £rycis fines fraterni, atque hospes Acestes : 630 

Quis prohibet muros jacere et dare civibus urbem ? 

patria et rapti nequidquam ex hoste Penates, 

Nuilane jam Trojae dicentur moenia? nusquam 

Hectoreos amnis, Xanthum et Simoenta, videboT 

Quin agite et mecum infaustas exurite puppis. 635 

Nam mihi Cassandrae per somnum vatis imago 

Ardentis dare visa faces : " Hic quaerite Trojam ; 

Hic domus est," inquit, " vobis." Jam tempus agi res, 

Nec tantis mora prodigiis. En quatuor arae 

Neptuno ; deus ipse faces animumque ministrat.' 640 

Haec memorans prima infensum vi corripit ignem, 

SubJataque procui dextra connixa coruscat, 

£t jacit. Arrectae mentes stupefactac^ue corda 

Iliadum. Hic una e multis, quae maxima natu, 

Pyrgo, tot Priami natorum regia nutrix : 645 

' Non Beroe vobis, non haec Rhoeteia, malres, 

Est Dorycli conjunx ; divini signa decoris 

Ardentisque notate oculos; qui spiritus illi, 

Qui vultus, vocisque sonus, vel gressus eunti ! 

Ipsa egomet dudum Beroen digressa reliqui 650 

Aegram, indignantem tali (juod sola careret 

Munere, nec meritos Anchisae inferret honores.' 

Haec effata. 

At matres primo ancipites oculisque malignis 
Ambiguae spectare rates, miserum inter amorem 655 
Praesentis terrae fatisque vocantia regna : 
Cum dea se paribus per coelum sustulit alis 
Ingentemque fuga secuit sub nubibus arcum. 

^ 626. If Virgil is oonsisteDt with hirnself, this leaves but a short 
tixno for the stay at Carthage. See i. 755, and compare portat with 
vertitur. — 629. Fugientem, * ever escaping our grasp.* See iiu 
496, vi. 61. — 630. See 24.-635. Exurite. Observe the inten- 
sive power of ea:. — 636. Cassandrae. See at ii. 246. — 639. ToH' 
tisprodigiisj the vision of Caesandra. — 645. Totj &c. See ii. 501. 
—646. vobis. See at Ecl. viii. 6. Ehoeteiat from the Trojan pro- 
montory Rhoeteum. Seo 620. — 649. Gressus. For the gait of the 
deities, see at i. 405. — 654. All that the Trojan dames did at first 
wu with malignant glances to gaze onthe ships, because they were 
Esld in suspense between their desire for an immediate settlemem, 
•nd their kjiowledge that, hy the decree of the Fates, other realnis 
Mminoiied their race to empiro. 


Tum vero atlonitae monstris actaeque furore 
Coiic/amant, rapiuntque focis penetralibus ignem^ 660 
Pars spoliant aras, frondem ac virgulta facesque 
Conjiciunt. Furit inimissis Vulcanus habenis 
Transtra per et remos et pictas abiete puppis. 
Nuntius Anchisae ad tumulum cuneosque theatri 
Incensas perfert navis Eumelus^ et ipsi 665 

Kespiciunt airam in nimbo volitare favillam. 
Primus et Ascanius^ cursus ut laetus equestris 
Ducebat, sic acer equo turbata petivit 
Castra, nec exanimes possunt retinere magistri. 
'Quis furor iste novus? quo nunc, quo tenditis,' in- 

quit, 670 

'Heu miserae cives? non hostem inimicaque caatxa 
Argivom — vestras spes uritis. En, ego vester 
Ascanius !' — galeam ante pedes projecit inanem, 
Qua ludo indutus belli simulacra ciebat. 
Accelerat simul Aeneas, simul agmina Teuoram. 675 
Ast illae diversa metu per litora passim 
DifTugiunt, silvasque et sicubi concava fnrtim 
Saxa petunt , piget incepti lucisque, snosque 
Mutatae agnoscunt, excussaque pectpre Juno est. 
Sed non idcirco flammae atque incendia TireB ' 680 

Indomitas posuere ; udo sub robore vivit 
Stuppa vomens tardum fumum, lentnsque carinas 
Est vapor, et toto descendit corpore pestifl^ 
Nec vires heroum infusaque flumina prosnnt. 
Tum pius Aeneas hupieris abscindere veBterai 685 

Auxilioque vocare deos, et tendere palmas : 
^ Jupiter omnipotens, si nondum exosus ad nnnm 
Trojanos, si quid pietas antiqua labores 
Kespicit humanos, da flammam evadere clawi 
Nunc, Pater, et tenuis Teucrnm res eripe leto. 

662. The notion of throwing the reins loose on the back of 
horscs, thus urging them on to unbridled speed, is trassferrad hsn 
to the unchecked progrcss of firo, and vi. 1, tb a fleet ui|;ed oo tt 
utmost spced. Vulcanus. See at ii. 311. — 663. Ez oiMCc, thvM 
syllables. — G64. Cuneos. Thc scats of the Roman theaUfiS -weH» 
formed in rows, like wedgcs, by thc possages which led to Uumil"-' 
667. Ut — s<c, on the instant, without preparation or change.— "^IQL 
hte. Thc pronoun of thc second pcrson. — 673. Guleam. See MjL ' 
—676. Diversa metUj thc scattcritig was the efTect of feBr.-«*€Hi'-:. 
Excutcre detim (sec vi. 79), is to free from the mfluence of a gofl«'||i^ 
a horse is freed whcn it throws its rider. — 683. Ett, See ir. 6 ft^^ ^ 
"85. Ahscindere^ the historical infinitive. Sce Zumpt, t599.«i-n^ 

etas, Sco i. 378, ii. 536. 

LIBER V. 251 

Vel tu — quod superest — infesto fulmine Morti, 
Si mereor, deraitte, tuaque hic obrue dextra.' 
Vix haec ediderat, cum efFusis imbribus atra 
Tempestas sine more furit, tonitruque tremescunt 
Ardua terrarum et campi j ruit aethere toto 695 

Turbidus imber aqua densisque nigerrimus austris; 
Implenturque super puppes ; semiusta madescunt 
Robora ; restinctus donec vapor omnis, et omnes, 
Quatuor amissis, servatae a peste carinae. 

At pater Aeneas, casu concussus acerbo, 700 

Nunc huc ingentis, nunc illuc pectore curas 
Mutabat versans, Siculisne resideret arvis, 
Obhtus fatorum, Italasne capesseret oras. 
Tum senior Nautes, unum Tritonia Pallas 
Quem docuit multaque insignem reddidit arte, 705 

Haec responsa dabat, vel quae portenderet ira 
Magna deum, vel quae fatorum posceret ordo ; 
Isque his Aenean solatus vocibus infit : 
'Nate dea, quo fata trahunt retrahuntque, sequamur; 
Quidquid erit, euperanda omnis fortuna ferendo est. 710 
Est tibi Dardanius divinae stirpis Acestes : 
Hunc cape consiliis socium et conjunge volentem ', 
Huic trado, amissis superant qui navibus, et quos 
Pertaesum magni incepti rerumque tuarum est, 
Longaevosque senes ac fessas aequore matres j 715 

£t quidquid tecum invalidum metuensque pericli est, 
Delige, et his habeant terris sine moenia fessi ; 
Urbem appellabunt permisso nomine Acestam.' 

Talibus incensus dictis eenioris amici ; 
Tum vero in curas animo diducitur omnis, 720 

Et Nox atra polum bigis subvecta tenebat : 
Visa dehino ooelo facies delapsa parentis 
Anchisae subito talis effundere voces : 
' Nate, mihi vita quondam, dum vita manebat, 
Care magis — nate, Iliacis exercite fatis, 725 

#• -^- - ■ 

691. Quod auperest, Death was the only remaining alternative, 
ftfter tbe loss oithe ships, and he prays that it may come instantly. 
— 657. Semiusta. See at iii.578.— 704. Unum. See i. 15. Tri- 
tonia. See li. 171. The gens Nautica had in Rome a charge in the 
worshipof Minerva. — 706. Haecj *the lollowing,* referring to709, 
dLC. Ouae; circa ea quae. The subjiinctives mark that Nautes 
foretold the events in answer to inquiries made at him. Somc read 
Hic, which seems preferable. — 713. Superant, supersunt. See 519, 
U. 643, Ecl. ix. 27. — 717. Haheant sine. See 163. — 718. Virgil 
.oakM Acestes the eponymous hero of the town of Aegesta, or 
Sefesta, ia the north-wcst of Sicily. — 722. Dihinc 

T'. ri!l 

.^1 • '••jum 

- • .'j. .r».»tuoi'j 

:i;:T£:i.t:»j ♦•£ sMt 

lio. '^ 'i- m.- 

z::-. enHttUT Uft, Q 


' • • if • I' 11 > 

• .;. tiO. 

,■ . '.' •.-rr — r4d. 

— .■»! 

LIBER V. 253 

Ipsi transtra novant, flammisque ambesa reponunt 

Robora navigiis, aptaiit remosque rudentisque, 

Exigui numero, sed bello vivida virtus. 

Interea Aeneas urbem-iiesignat aratro 765 

Sortiturque domos j hoc Ilium et haec loca Trojam 

Esse jubet. Gaudet regno Trojanus Acestes, 

Indicitque forum et patribus dat jura vocatis. 

Tum vicina astris Erycino in vertice sedes 

Fundatur Veneri I(ialiae, tumuloque sacerdos 760 

Ac lucus late sacer additur Anchiseo. 

Jamque dies epulata novem gens omnis, et aris 
Factus honos : piacidi straverunt aequora venti, 
Creber et adspirans rursus vocat Auster in altum. 
Exoritur procurva ingens per htora fletus j 765 

Complexi inter se noctemque diemque morantur. 
Ipsae jam matres, ipsi, quibus aspera quondam 
Visa maris facies et non tolerabile numen, 
Ire volunt, omnemque fugae perferre laborem. 
Quos bonus Aeneas dictis solatur amicis, 770 

Et consanguineo lacrimans commendat Acestae. 
Tris Eryci vitulos et Tempestatibus agnam 
Caedere deinde jubet, solvique ex ordine funem. 
Ipse, caput tonsae foliis evinctus olivae, 
Stans procul in prora pateram tenet, extaque salsos 775 
Porricit in fluctus ac vina liquentia fundit. 
Prosequitur surgens a puppi ventus euntis. 
Certatim socii feriunt mare et aequora verrunt. 

At Venus interea Neptunum exercita curis 
Alloquitur, taiis^ue eflundit pectore questus : 780 

' Junonis gravis ira nec exsaturabile pectus 
Cogunt me, Neptune, preces descendere in omnis ; 
Quam neo longa dies, pietas nec mitigat ulla, 
Nec Jovis jmperio fatisque infracta quiescit. 

753. Budentuque ; the last syllable elided before Exigui. — 755. 
Aratroy an ancient Italian usage ailuded to i. 425. — 758. Another 
instanco of Virgirs adhcrcnce to Roman usages. See i. 73. Acestea 
institutes courte of justice and a senatc. — 759. The building of the 
temple to Venus on Mount Eryx is attributed to Aencas. — 760. 
Jdaliae. Sce at i. 681. — 762. Thc funeral feast, as was usual, lasted 
for nine days. Sce at 64. — 772, &c. The rites bjr which Aeneas 
hopes to Bccure tho favour bf the local and sca-deitics arc iicrc de- 
0cribed. — 773. Caedere solvi. Sce at Ecl. vi. 85. — 774. Evxnctue 
mffiU, the accusative of limitation. Tonsae. Sec at 556. — 776 
Liquentia. Sec at i. 432. — 784. Infracta may cither bo an adjec 
tiri, ^unbent,' accounting for her not (nec, ct infracta non) rcsting; 
or nther a participic, ^bcnt,' which would lcad to hcr resting, 
vUeh she doea not do, nec negativing both. See at i. 680. Infrin- 


Non TiieJia dii }^'rili: Phryiriiin exc.liiiKa nefanilis TS9 
Urbi-m uiiiia siiiis csl, iic^u iiinMiam iraxe pi;r omnem 
KiOiijuius Trojae; ciiii-ic^ nlijiif u^usi tK.'r>;mjilae 
liiscquiiur. Cuu^iu toiiti suiiit ilju ruiuris. 
luihi iiii)iiT [.ibjcin lii tcsiis iti undis 
rn niult^m subilo «■xcii-rit : inariiL omiiin coelo 790 
Miscuit, Aeoliis iieiiulilqtiam freU prucellis, 
Iii ri-{:tii3 huc ausa tuis. 

Per »ci']uii eciu! ulium Truianis malrjbus actia 
ExU!<!iit fucile [iu|ipis, ct claKBe Bubcgit 
AmiKsa sucioa ii^tiulac linquere terrae. 795 

Quud KuptTCDl, oro, licttal dare tula per undss 
Vcla libi, licfal Laurciitem atiingeie ThybTim, 
Si cot)ces.-<a peto. si Joiit ea moeiiia Parcae.' 
Tum Salunttus bauc dotnilor maris edidit alli : 
'Fas omiie est, Cythcrea, meis te fidere regnis, 800 

Uiide genus ducis. Merui quoque ; saepe furares 
Compressi ut rabiem laiilam ooclique marisque. 
Nec mitior iii terriG, Xaiithum Simoenlaque testor, 
Aniieae mihi cura lui. Com Troia Achilles 
Exanimaia soqueiis impiii(>eret Bgmina muris, 80S 

Miltia inulta duret lelo, gemerentque repleti 
Amiies, iicu rcjHirire viam atque evolrere pouet 
Iii maro sc Xauihus, Pelidae luuc e^o forti 
Coiii!rc?suin Acneaii nec dis nec viribns aecjaia 
Nube cava mpui, cuperem cum veitere ab imo 81C 

Struula meis maitibus perjurae moenia Trojae. 
Nunc quoque meiiE eadem perstal mihi ; pelle timorem. 
Tutus, <]uos optas, poilui acoedet Avemi. 
Uiius erit lantnm, anussum quem gnrgite qoaeiat ; 

gitur etqnirieit. — 785. Fhrvgun — HrbeM, Ttojsid. Sae al iL 68l 
— TtJi;. Tnnclortrsiisse. See aiinilsrcoDtracluini, i.201; iv.GOG, 
CS2; xi. 118.-788. Illa, emphBlica]. Ske mnr know— no Ooa «fap 
does. — Tti9. Foi ibls ailiision, bdo i. 34, kc. — 796. Ztemt AaoBM 
dare, Scc. TM Becina beia lo mean, ' bs far aa thou nit cooceiaBd.' 

8ee Zumpl, f 4-22 797. Thghrim. Sbg ol ii. 781. Il haa the epfr 

thet Laurenltia, becnnse jt boundcd the letricoiies belai»ing to ihe 
lown Lauienlum, which stood on ihe Bea-cMit, Rdulli otiin maulh. 
— 799. Salutniat. See Bt i. 23. — B(M. Cytherta; for thig Dani4 
and Ihe subiiequent alluaioti, unde, &.c. eee at L 2^7. — 8<M. M3a 
enil. Tai; ooinpare mci» Aentni, i. 231. Cnni, fitc. The Mn*- 
sian hcrc ia lo incidenls in tlic 'rroJBn war deBcnlicd hj Hoi^ra^ 
thouRh Virgi] doca noi foUow the aaiue oider of evenia. — 808."ftt 
liijae, Fclens'8011, Achitles.— 810. Cum, &c. Neptune iBdesCtlfaS^ 
ii. 610, Bs onc of the most ociive in tlie dealiuclion of Tr-iy. — SU, 
ftrmrae. See al iv. 54'i. — 812. Meni, good-will lowilrda A" ' 
~ai3 Arenit. Sce 732.— 814. I7ni«». Palinumai "" 

ecesaa, Stt j 

LiBER y. 255 

Unum pro multis dabitur caput.' 815 

His ubi laeta deae permulsit pectora dictis, 
Jungit equos auro Genitor, spumantiaque addit 
Frena feris, manibusque omnis effundit habenas. 
Caeruleo per summa levis volat aequora curru; 
Subsidunt undae, tumidumque sub axe tonauti 820 

Sternitur aequor aquis, fugiunt vasto aethere nimbi. 
Tum variae comitum facies, immania cete, 
Et senior Glauci chorus, Inousque Palaemon, 
Tritonesque citi, Phorcique exercitus omnis j 
Laeva tenet Thetis, et Melite, Panopeaque virgo, 825 
Nesaee, Spioque, Thaliaque, Cymodoceque. 

Hic patris Aeneao suspensam blanda vicissim 
Gaudia pertentant mentem; jubet ocius omnis 
Attolli malos, intendi brachia vehs. 
Uiia omnes fecere pedem, pariterque sinistros, 830 

Nunc dextros solvere sinus j una ardua torquent 
Cornua detorquentque ; ferunt sua flamina classem. 
Princeps ante omnis densum Palinurus agebat 
Agmen ; ad huno alii cursum contendere jussi. 
Jamquc fere mediam coeli Nox humida metam 83f 

Contigerat ; placida laxarant membra quiete 
Sub remis fusi per dura sedilia nautae : 
Cum levis aetheriis delapsus Somnus ab astris 
Aera dimovit tenebrosum et dispulit umbras, 
Te, Palinure, petens, tibi somnia tristia portans 840 

Insonti ; pnppique deus consedit in aha, 
Phorbanti similis, funditque has ore loquelas : 

817. AurOf aureo jugo. — 819. 6oo a similar passage, i. 155.-- 

820. Axe, curru.- — 822. Facies adsunt. — 823. Deities of the sea, 

who are represeuted as old (sentor), the sea, according to tbe the- 

ogony of the oncients, being the parent of all thin^s. Inous, the 

Bon of Ino. PaJUumon ; identifled by the Romans with Portumnus. 

See at 241. — 824. Triiones, Soe at i. 144. Pkorci, See at 240, as 

also for Panopea. — 825. Some read tenent, Thetis, the sea-goddees, 

mothor of Achilles. Thcn foilow other nymphs of the sea. — 826. 

i See Georg. iv. 338. — 827. Aeneaa was rowing, Neptune breathes 

confidence into his mind, which was hcsitating whether he might 

B trust the wind (suspeTisam), and hc crowds all Rail. — 828. Gaudia, 

y &.C. See a similar exprcssion, i. 502. — 830. Facere pedes ia Sii»i\i' 

^ tical phrasc, meaning to work the ropes at tho foot of the sailyard 

g ihrachia, 829), by which the sail was turned. --• 832. Comua, the 

Jknobs at the end of thc eailyards. Ardua, with torquent detor^ 
quentque, nicanfl that thoy henve hi^h the sailyards, which, in tbe 
operation, woiild vccr from side to side. Sua, secunda, non aliena 
I et inimica. — r 840. Somniitm, properly a dream, denotes what hap« 

fpened under the influcnce of the sleep-god — Wisions fraught witb 


' laside Palinuro, ferunt ipsa aeouora olassem ; 

Aoquatae Bpirant uurae ; datur hora quieti. 

Pune caput, fessoiMjuc oculos turare labori. 845 

Ipse psjo ixiulisper pro te lua munera inibo.' 

Cui vix attoliens Palinurus lumina fatur: 

^jVIcMie salis placidi vultum liuctusque quietos 

Ignorare jubes ? mene huic conlidere monstro? 

A(?nean credam (piid enim fallacibus austris, 850 

Et cooli lotios doceptus traude sereni'?' 

Talia dicta (iabat, clavumque afiixus et haerens 

Nu$(p]am amittebat, oculosque sub astra tenebat. 

Ecce deus ramum Lethaeo rore madentem 

Vique soporatum Stygia super utraque quassat 855 

Tempora, cunctantique natantia lumina solvit. 

Vix primos ino])ina quies laxaverat artus : 

£t superincumbens cum puppis parte revolsa 

Cumque gubcrnaclo liquidas jprojecit in undas 

Praecipitem, ac socios nequiciquam saepe yocantem ; 860 

Ipse volans tenuis se sustulit ales ad auras. 

Currit iter tutum non secius aequore classis, 

Promissisciue patris Neptuni interrita fertur. 

Jamque aueo 8(M)pulos Sirenum advecta subibat— 

Diflicilis quondam multorumque ossibus alboa^ 865 

Tum rauca assiduo longe sale saxa sonabant — 

Cum pater amisso fluitantem errare magiBtro 

Sensit, et ipse ratem noctumis rexit in undis, 

Multa gemens, casuque animum concussQB amici : 

' nimium coelo et pelago confise sereno. 870 

Nudus in ignota, Palmure, jacebis arena.' 

844. Aequatae. Compare iv. 587. — 847, compared with 853| 
eecms to dcnote tbat Palinurus hardly looked at the tempter, 
from close attention to his duty. But vix, in the senBe of 'with 
difhcuhy' (see jBcZ. i. 13), may denote that he was already haif 
asleep, and, like a faithful servant, strove against the inclinatioii. 
— 850, 851. The rcading of thcse linoa is much dispated. Ei hai 
the force of et quidem, 'I, too, who,' &,c. — 854. lAthaw. See at 
vi. 295. — 855. Stygia. See vi. 285. — 856. Cunetanti. See at vi 
473. Natantia. See at Georg. iv. 496. — 861. Ipse, somnaB.— 868. 
Currii iter. Sco at i. 67, also iii. 191, and at iv. 256. — 864. The 
rocks of the Sirenes^ nymphs who, by their swcet muaic, had, in the 
time of Ulysscs iquondam), allured to shipwrcck and death manyeki 
unhappy mariner, are ofFthc south coast of Campania. Adeo. 8aB. 
at iv. 533. — 866. liauca sonahant ; 869, Multa gemens. See at BA,' 
iii. 8. — 871. Nudus, insepultus. The ancients regarded such a ' 
with religious horror. See at i. 92, ond vi. 325. 





LIBER VI. 257 


AsiTEAS arrives in Italy, 1-9. He visits the temple of Apollo 
and Biana at Cumae, in order to consult the Sibyl, 10-37. By 
her orders, Aeneas sacrifices and prays, 38-76. The Sibyi 
utters the divine response, 77-101. Aeneas intreats permis- 
sion to visit his father in the regions of the dead ; the SibyFs 
reply, 102-155. Aeneas returns to his fleet, and finds that 
one of his foUowers has been drowned, 156-174. The funeral 
rites, during the preparations for which Aeneas secures the 
golden branch entitling him to descend to the shades below, 
175-236. Aeneas enters the cave conducting to the infernal 
regions, 237—263. Invocation to the infernal deities, 264—267. 
Tiie confines, 268-272. The porch and the threshold, 273- 
294. The infernal rivers, the shades of the unburied, and 
Charon, 295-336. Interview with Palinurus, 337-382. In- 
terview with Charon, who at last ferries them across, 383- 
417. On the other side,Cerberus, 418-425. Shades of infants, 
of mei\ falsely condemned, and of suicides, 426-439. The 
plains of wo, in which there are sequestered retreats for those 
who have died of love, 440-449. Aeneas vainly excuses 
himself to Dido, 450-476. The region of warriors, 477-493. 
Interview with Delphobus, 494—534. They proceed, and 
have a distant view of Tartarus, the punisbments of which 
are explained by the Sibyl, 635-627. Depositing the golden 
branch at the threshold of Pluto's palace, Aeneas enters £Iy- 
sium, 628-639. Account of its occupants and their employ- 
ments, 640-665. Led by Musaeus, they find Anchises hold- 
ing a muster of his future race, 666-683. Anchises welcomes 
bis son, and explains to bim the process by which the spirits 
of future men are fitted for their destinies on earth, 684—751. 
He also points out to him his descendants, enumerates their 
coming glories, and prepares him for the difScuIties awaiting 
him, 752-892. Aeneas is disraissed through Horn-Grato, 

Sic fatur lacrimans, classique immitit habenas, 
£t tandem £uboici8 Cumarum allabitur oris. 
Obvertunt pelago proras; tum dente tenaci 

1. Sic fatur^ referriug to his lament over the pilot Palinurus, 
drowned, os narrated at tne close of the fifth book. Immittt habenas. 
See at v. 662. — 2. Cumarum. See p. 181, line 10. Euboicis. Cumae 
waa colonised from Chalcis in Euboea, a Grecian island opposite 
Boeotia and Attica. — 3. Tumj &c. See at 902. 
22 ^ w 


Aiicora fund.ibat navis, et litora curvae 

Praftoxuiil piipi>»'s. Juvenum manus emicat ardens 5 

Litus iu H(>speriuin ; quuerit pars semina flammae 

Abstrusa iii venis silici.-*. pars densa ferarum 

Ti'cta rapit silvas. inveiitaque tlumina monstrat. 

At pius A(MH.'as arc(^s, (piibus altus Apollo 

Praesiiiet, horr(MKia(>(]ue procul secreta Sibyilae. 10 

Aiitrum iinnianc, P''ii^ mai^nain cui mentem ammumque 

Delius in.^pirat vates aperitque tutura. 

Jani snbeunt Triviae lucos atque aurea tecta. 

L)a(.uialu.«i. ut faina e.<t. fugiens Minoia regna, 
Praepetibus peniiis aiisus se credere coelo, 15 

Insu(.>tiiiii per iter (^elidas enavit ad Arctos, 
rhaleidicaque levis tandem superadstitit arce. 
Kedditus his priinum terris^ tibi^ Phoebe, sacraTit 
Kemis:ium alarum, posuitque immania templa. 
In foribus letum Androgeo; tum pendere poenas 20 

('ecropidae jussi — miserum ! — septena quot annis 
Cor[X)ra natorum ; stat ductis sortibus urna. 
Contra elata mari respondet Gnosia tellus: 
Hic crudelis amor tauri, suppostaque furto 
Pa.siphae, mixtumriue ;;enus prolesque biformis 25 

IVIinotaurus iiiest, Yeneris monumenta nefandae; 

r». rractfxunt. S(.'c at Ecl. vii. 12. — 6. Jiesperium, Italicum. See 
nt i. !i'M). Svmina flammac. Compare tho Homeric, rr^^a iroptff.— 
8. Rapitj rnpidc Iiistnit. — 9, &.c. The temple of Apollo was situ- 
ntcd on a heii;ht (arccs, sec ii. 322), and in the side of the rock, 
withiii Miiht iprocul ; sce at Ecl. vi. 17), wa^ the Sibyrs lonely 
hnuiit {sccrtta). — 10. SibyUac. A prophetic woman neor Cumae.— 
11. Cui. Sec nt 473. — 12. Dclius vates, ApoIIo. See p. 179, Une 17. 
— 13. Trivitic. Sco nt iv. 609. — 14, &c. Daedalug, with his son 
/carus (31), llcd oii wings frnnied by himaelf from the Labyrinth (aee 
nt v. .')8H) iu Crctc, governcd by Minos (MinouL rerna), becauM 

terris ; rttltlitus in hoc loco terris. — 19. Remigiumalamm, See at 
i. 301. — 20. The workmanHliip of Daedalus, on the doors of the 
teniplc built by him, is dcscribcd. Androffeos, 8on of Minoe, had 
bccn plnin by tnc Athcninns {Cccropidae). Minoa, victoriooe in war, 
dcninndcd, as nn niinunl tributo, scvcn young men and seven yoong 
wuincn, to bc dcvourcd by thc Minotnur. On one occBBion, Theseiu, 
clioHcn by lot, likc thc rcst, was sent. Andro^eo, Greek ffenitiTet 
'Avipdycm. His denth, nnd thc subsequent punishment of the Athe- 
nians, occupies onc ot' thc folding-doors. The work wai in raiMd 
me.tul. — 22. Thc pcrfcct pnrticiple marks that the moment rhoJMB 
for tho picturc is nfter thc lots have becn drawn. — 23. Cantra, OB 
tho opposito door. Bespondct, forms a correspondiDg picton. 
Gnosia. See p. 179, line 24. 

LIBER VI. 250 

Hic labor ille domus et inextricabilis error ; 
Magnum reginae sed enim miseratus amorem 
Daedalus, ipse dolos tecti ambagesque resolvit, 
Caeca regens filo vestigia. Tu quoque magnam 30 
Partem opere in tanto, sineret dolor, Icare, haberes. 
Bis conatus erat casus effingere in auro ; 
Bis patriae cecidere manus. Quin protinus omnia 
Perlegerent oculis, ni jam praemissus Achates 
Afforet atque una Phoebi Triviaeque sacerdos, 3 
Deiphobe Glauci, fatur quae talia regi : 
'Non hoc ista sibi tempus spectacula poscit; 
Nunc grege de intacto septem maclare juvencos 
Praestiterit, totidem lectas de more bidentis.' 
Talibus affata Aenean — nec sacra morantur 40 
Jussa viri — Teucros vocat alta in templa sacerdos. 
Excisum Euboicae latus ingens rupis in antrum, 
Quo lati ducunt aditus centum, ostia centum; 
Unde ruunt totidem voces, responsa Sibyllae. 
Ventum erat ad limen, cum virgo, * Poscere fata 45 
Tempus,' ait; 'deus, ecce, deus!' Cui talia fanti 
Ante fores subito non vultus, non color unus, 
Non comptae mansere comae ; sed pectus anhelum, 
£t rabie fera corda tument ; majorque videri, 
Nec mortale sonans, afflata est numine quando 50 
Jam propiore dei. * Cessas in vota precesque, 
Tros/ ait, ' Aenea? cessas? neque enim ante dehiscent 
Attonitae magna ora domus.' £t talia fata 
Conticuit. Gelidus Teucris per dura cucurrit 
Ossa tremor, funditque preces rex pectore ab imo : 55 
^Phoebe, gravia Trojae semper miserate labores, 

•— ■— ■■■■"^ ■ ' ^-^^— ^^— " ■ III I I ...... . ■■_■ ■■ ■ 

27. Domus ; the labyrinth. — 28. Sed enim. Sce at i. 19 ; ii. 164 ; 
V. 395. Sed non omnio inextricabilis, entm.^31. Si sineret. Icarus 
was drowned in his fiight. — 33. Omniaj pronounce as two syllables, 
omnya. — 34. Perlegerent. This tense indicates an unfinished de- 
sire ; they wished to snrvey the whole marvels of art (and would 
have done it), had not, &c. — 36. The sea-god Glaucus was deemed 
to have prophetic powers. -— 39. Praestiterit. Prophetic certainty 
is here indicated by the future perfcct. A sacrificc shall be founa, 
when all is done, to have been a better employment than gazing on 
sights. Bidentis. See at iv. 57. — 41. Templa. Is this the sacred 
cave described immediately, or the temple of Apollo, with which 
the cave hewn out of the adjoining rock communicated ? Probably 
it means the whole of the ground within the sacred enclosure. — 
46. J)eu9 adest mihi. — 47. Unus, idem atque antea. — 50. MortaU 
Monans. See a similar construction at Ecl. iii. 8, Zumpt, ^ 383.- 
52. JDihiscent. — 53. Attonitae domus rcfers to thc cave, which felt 
tbe dread presence of the cod. See vii. 580. — 56. Phoebus is gene* 
Tmlly represented as friendly to Troy. 


Dardana qui Paridis direxti tela manusque 

Corpus in Aeacidae ; magnas obeuntia terras 

Tot maria intravi, duce te, penitusque repostas 

Massylum ireiitis praetentaque Syrlibus arva; 6C 

Jam taiidem Italiae lugientis prendimus oras. 

Hac Trojaiia tonus fuerit Fortuna secuta ! 

Vos quoqne Pcrgameae jam fas est parcere genti, 

Dique deaeque onnies, quibus obstitit Ilium et ingens 

Gloria Dardaniae. Tuque^ o sanctissima vates, 65 

Praescia venluri, da — non mdebita posco 

Regna mois fatis — Latio considere Teucros 

Errantisque deos agitataque numina Trojae. 

Tmn Phoebo et Triviae solido de marmore templuni 

Instituam, feslosque dies de nomine Phoebi. 70 

Te quoque magna manent regnis penetralia noBtris. 

Hic ego namqae tuas sortes arcanaque fata, 

Dicta meae genti, ponam, lectosque sacrabo, 

Alma, viros. Foliis lantum ne carmina xnanda, 

Ne turbata volcnt rapidis ludibria ventis; 75 

Ipsa canas oro.' Finem dedit ore loquendi. 

At, Phoebi nondum patiens, immanis in antro 
Bacchatur vatcs, magnum si pectore possit 
Kxcussisse deum; tanto magis ille fatigat 
Os rabidum, fera corda domans, fin^tque premendo. 80 
Ostia jamque domus patuere ingentia centum 
Sponte sua, vatisque ferunt responsa per auras : 
' tandem magnis pelagi defuncte periclis^ — 
Sed terrae graviora manent — in regna Lavini 
Dardanidae venient ; mitte hanc de pectore curam ; 85 

57. Achillcs (Acacides ; sec at i. 99) was, according to the legends, 
slain by Poris with an arrow. Phoebus presided over archery.— 60. 
Mdssylum. Sec at iv. 132. Syrtibus. See at i. 111, iv. 41. Ite cue 
may be determiiied by iii. 692. — 61. Fugientis. See at ▼. 629.— 
62. Ilac tenus. Sce at v. 603. Fuerit secuta. This perfect sab« 

i'unctivc cxpresscs a strong wish. ' May the adverse fortune of Trov 
lave foliowcd us thus far — may its influence be now fittigked,* — m. 
He addrcsscs such dcitics as Juno and Minerva, who had been hos- 
tilc to Troy. — 68. Viri^l alludes here to the temple to ApoUo, with 
whosc worship that of Diana was generally conjoined, built byibl* 
gustus on thc Ptilatinc Ilill, and to the ludi ApoIUnares (/estptfVf). 
—71. In tho tcmplc of ApoIIo, Augustus placed the SibylTiiie verNt 
collcctcd by hiin. — 73. Lectosque viros. The Quindecemviri^ whb. 
had the chnrgo of the Sibylline books. — 74. Foliis, &c. Sieui 
441, &c. — 78. Mafrnum, &c. See at v. 679.-79. Bxcutk^J 
for this U.SC of tlic pcriect instead of the present infinitiTe, In^' 
cating pcrhaps an carnest dcsire to do it speedily, see Zumpt, f M|K 
—84. Terrae, gcnitivc govcrned by periculai inferred from the pSfr 
'ious linc. hivini. ^c^^ p. 123. linc 10. " ' 

LIBER VI. 261 

Sed non et yenisse yolent. Bella, horrida bella, 

Et Thybrim muUo spumantem sanguine cerno. 

Non Simois tibi, nec Xanthus, nec Dorica castra 

Befuerint ; alius Latio jam partus Achilies, 

Natus et ipse dea ; nec Teucris addila Juno 90 

Usquam aberit. Cum tu supplex in rebus egenis 

Quas gentis Italum aut quas non oraveris urbes ! 

Caussa mali tanti conjunx iterum hospita Teucris 

Externique iterum thalami. 

Tu ne cede mahs, sed contra audentior ito, 95 

Quam tua te Forluna sinet. Via prima salutis — 

Quod minime reris — Graia pandetur ab urbe.' 

Talibus ex adyto dictis Cumaea Sibylla 
Horrendas canit ambages antroque remugit, 
Obscuris vera involvens : ea frena furenti 100 

Concutit, et stimulos sub pectore vertit Apollo. 
Ut primum cessit furor et rabida ora quierunt, 
Incipit Aeneas heros: 'Non ulla laborum, 
virgo, nova mi facies inopinave surgit ; 
Omnia praecepi atque animo mecum ante peregi, 105 
Unum oro : quando hic inferni janua regis 
Dicitur et tenebrosa palus Acheronte refuso, 
Ire ad conspectum cari genitoris et ora 
Contingat ; doceas iter et sacra ostia pandas. 
Illum ego per flammas et mille sequentia tela 110 

Eripui his numeris, medioque ex hoste recepi; 
Ille meum comitatus iter maria omnia mecum 
Atque omnis pelagique minas coelique ferebat, 
Invalidus, yirts ultra sortemque senectae. 
Quin, ut te supplex peterem et tua limina adirem, 1 15 

86. Construe sed et volent non venisse. — 88. She propheBies events 
Bimilar to what had happened at Troy. See at ii. 27, v. 803. — 89. 
JDefuerint, Looking to tne close of the contest, the fiiture perfect is 
epposit^Iy used. Compare with the foUowing usquam aberit. Aliu$ 
Achilles ; Turnus, the future enemy of Aeneas, born of the nymph 
Venilia (dea ; see x. 76). — 90. For J uno'8 watchfiil hatred {addita) to 
the Trojans, see i. 19, &c. — 91. Cum, quo tempore. — 92. Alluding 
to ihe applications for assistance made by Aeneas to Evander and 
others, recorded in the eighth and subsequent books. — 93. Iterum. 
As Uelen was the cause of Troy's destruction, so shall Lavinia, a 
foreign (hospita) bride, be the cause of war. — 96. Quam, * as far as ;' 
or, with a nobler meaning, increase in boldness, so as to rise above 
the opposition of fortune. Somo read qua. — 97. Graia ; Pallan- 
teum, the city of the Greek Evander. See viii. 97, &c. — 100. Ea; 
talia ut obscuris vcra involvant. — 107. Acheronte refuso, 8ee at 
^5.-110, &c. See close of ii. and iii. 


lilem urans mandata dabat. Gnatique patrisque, 

Alma, prrcor, misererc ; potes namque omnia, nec te 

Ntn[uid(juain lucis Hecaiu praofecit Avernis. 

Si potuit Manis areessere conjuiiis Orpheus, 

Threieia fretus cithara fidibusque canoris, 120 

Si fralrem l*oIlux alterna morte redemit, 

It(]ue reditque viam toties— <iuid Thesea magnutn, 

Qiiid memorem Alciden ? — et mi genus ab Jove summo. 

Talibus orabat (iictis, arasque tenebat, 
Cum sio orsa locjui vates: ^Sate sanguine divom, 125 
Tros xVi]chisiada, facilis descensus Averno; 
Noctes atcjue dies imtet atri janua Ditis; 
Sed revocare iiradnm superasque evadere ad auras, 
Hoc opus, hic l.-tbor est. Pauci, quos aequus amavit 
Jupiter. :<ut :irdeiis evexit ad aethera virtus, 130 

Dis ;L'tMiili poiuen?. Tenent media omnia silvae, 
(.'ocylus(jue sinu labens circumvenit atro. 
Quod si lautus amor meuti. si tanta cupido est 
Bis Sty^ios iiiiiare lacu.s, bis nigra videre 
'J\artara, et insano jnvat indulgere labori, 135 

Accipe, quae pei-a<renda prius. Latet arbore opaca 
Aureus et foliis et lento vimine ramus, 
Juiioni iiifernae dictus sacer; hunc tegit omniB 
Lucus et obscuris claudunt convalhbus umbrae. 
Sed non ante datur telluris operta subire, 140 

Auricomos (jnam quis decerpserit arbore fetUB. 
Hoc sibi pulchra suum ferri Proserpina munuB 
Instiluit. Primo avolso non deficit alter 
Aureus, et sirnili frondescit virga metallo. 
Ergo alte vestiga oculis, et rite repertum 146 

Carpe manu j namque ipse volens facilisque Bequetar, 
Si te fala vocaiit; aliter non viribus ullis 
Vinccre, nec duro poteris convellere ferro. 

IV». Nandttta. Secv. 731,&c. — 119. Orpheus. For this legand- 
of tDe TliraciQn Orplicus, fv.c Gcorg. iv. 4f)7, &c. — 121. PoIIuzaiid 
Cascor werc irnnu»rial and niortal («i alternatedays". — 132. For 2^ 
seut and Akifhs, Ilcrculrs, '.V.)-2, &e. — 123. Et mi, * I, too, w^ 

desccndcrl Irjni ilie ^^(nls — ay, froni Jupitcr, the supreme.' — p IBJ^ . 
Anckisitith'/. l(jii<r hy tlio arsis. fc^ire at v.107. Avemoj in AvemniB^H. 

iara. iSe(j at v. "tM. — 13s, Junoni infi.rnae, PrDsorpine or HPCB^I(t,''/. 
Sec at iv. 510; and fur a £?iniilar cxprcasion applied to Pluto, iv. 699^' :;, 
— 146.. Manu. No violcnce was to bo uscd. — 149. Tt6«, the dativnt'- " 

LIBER VI. 268 

Praeterea jacet exanimum tibi corpus amici — 

Heu nesois — totamque incestat funere classem, 15(1 

Dura consulta petis nostroque in limine pendes. 

Sedibus hunc refer ante suis et conde supulchro. 

Duc nigras pecudes; ea prima piacula sunto. 

Sic demum lucos Stygis et regna invia vivis • 

Aspicies.' Dixit, pressoque obmutuit ore. 155 

Aeneas moesto defixus lumina vuhu 
Ingreditur, linquens antrum, caecosque volutat 
Eventus animo secum. Cui fidus Achates 
It comes, et paribus curis vestigia figit. 
Muha inter sese vario sermone serebant, 160 

Quem socium exanimem vates, quod corpus humandum 
Diceret. Atque ilii Misenum in htore sicco, 
Ut venere, vident indigna morte peremptum, 
Misenum AeoUden, quo non praestantior aher 
Aere ciere viros, Martemque accendere cantu. 165 

Hectoris hic magni fuerat comes, Hectora circum 
£t lituo pugnas insignis obibat et hasta. 
Postquam illum vita victor *poHavit Achilles 
Dardanio Aeheae sese fortissimus heros 
Addiderat socinm, non inferiora secutus. 170 

Sed tum, forte cava dum personat aequora concha, 
Demens et cantu vocat in certamina divos, 
Aemuius exceptum Triton, si credere dignum est, 
Inter saxa virum spumosa immerserat unda. 
Ergo omnes magno circum clamore fremebant, 175 

Praecipiie pius Aeneas. Tum jussa Sibyllae, 
Haud mora, festinant ilentes, aramque sepulchri 

152. By buryins him, enable him to reach the proper home of 
the dead. That DOth notions are involvcd in sedihus suiSf see 

328, 371 153. Verifying the words of Anchises, v. 736. See 

also at V. 97. — 156. Difucus lumina. The accusative of Umitation. 
See at iv. 558. — 159. Figere vestigia seems to be nearly svnonymous 
with premere vestigiaj 197, 331, and to indicate the slow, neavy walk 
of anxicty or watcnfulnesB. — 164. A Trojan of*the name ofAeolus 
is mentioned, zii. 542. — 165. Aere, aerea tuba. Martem. See at 
ii. 311. — 170. Inferiorat referring to Aeneas as not inferior to Hec- 
tor. See xi. 289. — 171. As the contest was with Triton (see at i. 
144), Virgil appropriately equips Misenus with Triton's own instni- 
ment the eotuka, for a description of which, sce Ovid, Met. i. 333, &c. 
— 174. Immerteratj a change of tcnse, from tho poet's mind shifting 
the point of time. This is not uncommon. Sce 339, 524; and an- 
other instance, Bcl. vii. 6. — 175. Fremebant (compared with vident^ 
163) seems to lead us to tho conclusion that Aencas found thcm 
mourning. If so, fremuit is necessary as the verb to Aeneas. — 
177. Haud mora est. Arjm sepulchri, alluding to tho altar-like 
•hape of the funeral pilc. 


SM A&Nltll>0&. 

Congerere aiboribus coeloque ednceie neTtant. 

Itur in atiliquam «ilvanij Blabula alla feranimj 

Procumbutit piceRe. ttonut icta aecuribua ilex, 18C 

Frajiineapque trabes euucis et fissile robor 

Scinditur; advolviint iiigetilis moiilibus ornos. 

Nec non Aeneas opera Jnter talia primus 

Hortatur soclos, paribusque accingitur armis. 

Atque haec ipse buo Irisli cum conle volulat, 185 

Adspectans silvam immensaTn, et sic forle precfttar 

' Si iiuno se nobia iile aureua arbore ramus 

Osleiidal nemorc in tanio ! quando omnia vere 

Heu nimium de te vales, Misene, jocuia est.' 

Vix ea faius erat, geminaa cum forte columbaa 190 

Ipsa sub ora viri coelo venere rolautes, 

Et viridi sedere solo. Tum maxinius herog 

Maiernas agnoscil aves, laeiuaque precalur : 

'Este duces, o, si qua via esl, cureumqaeperaiinB 

Dirigite in lucos, ubi pinguem direa opacat 19S 

Ramus humum. Tnque, o, dubiis ne defice Tebos, 

Diva parens.' Sic effatus vesligia pressit, 

Observans. quae signa ferant, quo tendera pergatit. 

Paiicentes illae tanlum prodira volando, 

Quanlum acie possent ocuti Rervare Beqaenlam. 200 

Inde ubi venere ad fauces giaveolentiB Averni, 

Tollunt se ccleres, liquidumque per a£ni laprae 

Sedibus optalis gomina super arbore sidnnl, 

Dlscolur unde anri per ramo« aura refulait. 

Quale EOlet silvis bnlmali frlgore viscum 20S 

Froiide virere nova, quod non sua seminat &rbH| 

Et croceo fetu terelis ciroumdare truncoa; 

Talis erai species auri frondenliB opaca 

Ilice, sic ieni crepitabat bratdea venlo. 

Corripit Aeneas eitemplo, avidnsque rofringit SIO 

184. Aaingitur. See sl i. 310. Besides, it hu hota ibo furcs of 
the Greek middle voioe. — 186. Foree. Oihers leail •loce. — 187. Si 
citeniiat. A prnyer. See viii. 560. — 188- Qnamfo, &c. Froiu llw 
Sibyrs Itiilh in ono pnilicutiir, Aeneas infera hertiulii in rhs oUiBr. 
— 193. maUrnai ava. Tfac dove was sacred lo \m HKnhel' Teims. 
— m. Frenit. Seeat 15», — 199. Pmriife. The hiBlorical iofitu- 
tive. Sec Zumpt. 4599. The duves alternatBlr Bew and fed.m 
thal AencnB coiitd follow ihcir movemenls.— 300. PiHcnt. T^ 
Bubjunctive marks the inieation of Ihe dove*. — SOI. GTavailmt^, 
iirsi e elidcd. Sec at 337. — 203. (^cniRa, as preBBiHing Ibe natunl 
iree nnd ihe gnldun branch. Olhere read ^minae. — 205. Vfij^ 1 

coinpurea ihe gleam of the gold on ihe ftan iree to the appea 

of Ihe miitleloe, a psiasilical planl which Aowbtb in tTiatww 

LIBER VI. 265 

Cunctantem, et vatis portat sub tecta Sibyllae. 

Nec minus interea Misenum in litore Teucri 
Flebant, et cineri ingrato suprema ferebant. 
Principio pinguem taedis et robore secto 
Ingentem struxere pyram, cui frondibus atris 215 

Intexunt latera, et feralis ante cup^ssos 
Constituunt, decorantque super fulgentibus armis 
Pars calidos latices et aena undantia flammis 
Expediunt, corpusque lavant frigentis et unguunt. 
Fit gemitus. Tum membra toro defleta reponunt, 220 
Purpureasque super vestes, velamina nota, 
Conjiciunt. Pars ingenti subiere feretro, 
Triste ministerium, et subjectam more parentum 
Aversi tenuere facem. Congesta cremantur 
Turea dona, dapes, fuso crateres olivo. 225 

Postquam collapsi cineres et flamma quievit, 
Reliquias vino et bibulam lavere favillam, 
Ossaque lecta cado lexit Corynaeus aeno. 
Idem ter socios pura circumtulit unda, 
Spargens rore levi et ramo felicis olivae, 230 

Lustravitque viros, dixitque novissima verba. 
At pius Aeneas ingenti mole sepulchrum 
Imponit, suaque arma viro remumque tubamque, 
Monte sub aerio, qui nunc Misenus ab illo 
Dicitur, aeternumque tenet per saecula nomen. 236 

His actis propere exsequitur praecepta Sibyllae. 
Spelunca alta fuit vastoque immanis hiatu, 

211. Looking at 146, we must understand cunctantem to mean, 
that to tbe eagerness of Aeneas (avidus) it seemed to hesitate. — 212. 
Hero Virgil describes Roman funeral rites. See at i. 73. — 214. 
Construe pinguem with taedisj and in^entem (indicatine; the rank of 
the deceased) with rohore secto, as in iv. 505. The body of the pile 
was composed of fagots ; the sides were interwoven with black-Ieayed 
branches. In front of the pile, cyprcss trunks were placcd, bearing 
thc arms of the dead hero. — 223. Those who applied the torch, to 
indicate reluctance, tumed away tlieir heads (jnoreparentum), either 
*as ncar relations do,' or 'following the usage of their ancestors.' 
— 228. Corynaeut ia mcnlioned ix. 571. — 229. Socios circumtulit 
unda, the same as undam circum socios tulit. — 230. Bore. Sce at 
Georg. iv. 431. Felicis. See at Ecl. v. 36, for the opposite, infelix, 
whicn is also applicd, Georg. ii. 314, to the barren wiid olive. — 
231. Novissima verba. See at iv. 650. — 235. Aeternumque. The 
promontory Misenum, in Campanin, still bcars the name Miseno. — 
S36. Praecepta. Seo 153. — 237. Virgil now shifts the scene north- 
wards to a cavern on the steep banks of Lake Avemus {tuta lacu). 
This lake was said to have derived its namo from the noisome va 
pours igraveolentis, 201) that arose from it, destroying any birds 
that chanced to fly over it. It is now pure and wholesome. See tt 
23 X 


Scrupea, tuta lacu nigro nemorumque tenebris, 

Quam super haud ullae poterant impune volantes 

Tendere iter pennis : talis sese halitus atris 240 

Faucibus effundens supera ad convexa ferebat : 

Unde locum Graii dixerunt nomine Aoraon. 

Quatuor hic primum nigrantis terga juvencos 

Constituit, frontique invergit vina sacerdos, 

£t summas carpens media inter cornua setas 245 

Ignibus im|)onit sacris, hbamina prima, 

Voce vocans Hecaten^ Coeloque Ereboque potentem. 

Supponunt alii cultros, tepidumque cruorem 

Suscipiunt pateris. Ipse atri velleris agnam 

Aeneas matri Eumenidum magnaec^ue sorori 250 

Ense ferit, sterilemque tibi; Proserpina, vaccam. 

Tum Stygio regi nocturnas inchoat aras, 

£t solida imponit taurorum viscera flammis, 

Pingue super oleum infundens ardentibus extis. 

£cce autom, primi sub lumina solis et ortus 255 

Sub pedibus mugire solum; et juga coepta moveri 

Silvarum, visaeque canes ululare per umbrara, 

Adventautc doa. ^Procul o, procul este, profani,' 

Conclamat vates, 'totoque absistite luco. 

Tuque invade viam, vaginaque eripe ferrum } 260 

Nunc animis opus, Aenea, nunc pectore firmo.' 

Tantum effata, furens antro se immisit aperto; 

Ille ducem haud timidis vadentem passibuB aeqoat. 

Di, quibus imperium est animarum,Umbraeque ailenteSy 
£t Chaos, et Phlegethon, loca nocte taoentia uite| 266 
Sit mihi fas audita loqui ] sit numine vestro 
Pandere res alta tcrra et calimne mersas. 

Ibant obscuri sola sub nocte per umbram, 
Pcrque domos Ditis vacuas et iuania regna: 

Georff. ii. 161. — 212. This lino is universally and justly regarded 
as Bpurious. — 247. Ifemtcn, &c. Sceativ. 510. — 248. &ii|ip0Kiiiif. 
Victims offercd to the infcrnal gods were slain by having their 
throats cut from bclow, the hcad hanging down. — 250. The mothar 
ofthe Eumenides (scc at iv. 4G9) was Nox, whose siater was Tarnu. 

— 252. Styfrio refri. Scc at iv. 638. — 253. Solida «weeni, a hfilOf 
canst. For viscera, sco at Gcorfr. iv. 555.-— 256. Whcn the pairi^ 
voice follows coepi, it, too, is gcncrally uscd in the paesivei BaeM|li 
moveri. — 257. Visae ululare, u strange collocation. See at ir^fHL 

— 258. Dea, Hccate. Procul, &c. Thc usual formulB (Ic^,.-||IK. j 
lcn-t fSifin^oi) used in the sacrcd mystcries, to wam off the uniiiitiiMS 
who had no titlc to bc prcscnt {proftinif pro, fanum). — '265. fjtBJj 
Scc at iv. 510. Phlegethon. Sce at 295.-266. Fa; See at ii. ISt 
Sit fas ; or «i7, iiccat. Scc at Georg. iv. 446. — 268. They hav^kft 
Avcrnus, and are journeying through the cave to the netiier woil& 

LIBER VI. 267 

Quale per incertam Lunam sub luce maligna 270 

£st iter in silvis, ubi coelum condidit umbra 
Jupiter, et rebus nox abstulit atra colorem. 
Yestibulum ante ipsum primisque in faucibus Orci 
Luctus et ultrices posuere cubiiia Curae j 
Pallentesque habitant Morbi, tristisque Senectus, 275 
Et Metus, et malesuada Fames, ac turpis Egestas 
Terribiles visu formae, Letumque, Labosque, 
Tum consanguineus Leti Sopor, et mala mentis 
Gaudia j mortiferumque adverso in limine Bellum, 
Ferreique Eumenidum thalami, et Discordia demens, 280 
Vipereum crinem vittis innexa cruentis. 

In medio ramos annosaque brachia pandit 
Ulmus opaca, ingens, quam sedem Somnia vulgo 
Vana tenere ferunt, foliisque sub omnibus haerent. 
Multaque praeterea variarum monstra ferarum, 285 

Centauri in foribus stabulant Scyllaeque biformes 
£t centumgeminus Briareus ac bellua Lemae, 
Horrendum stridens, flammisque armata Chimaera, 
Gorgones Harp^riaeque et forma tricorporis umbrae. 
Corripit hic subita trepidus formidine ferrum 290 

273. Virgii represents the porch of Orcus (ii. 398, iv. 702) occu- 
pied by phantoms, fit guards of the realms of Death. — 274. UUriceg 
Curae. The pangs of conscience that punish crime. — 279. Beyond 
the vestibulumt and in the threshoid right opposite, were War and 
its accompaniments. Here the slaves that acted as porters had in 
the Roman houses their sieeping apartments (thalami). — 280. Per- 
rei, as two syllables. We have the Eumenides again, 555, &c. ; 
and at Jove*s threshold, xii. 849. — 281. Crinem innexa, See at v. 
511. — 282. Midway between the porch and the threshold grew an 
elm, the haunt of idle dreams. See at 894. — 283. Vulgo (passim) 
tenere seems better than vulgo ferunt. — 286, &c. At the doors 
were housed the Centaur» (see vii. 675), half-men, half-horsee, 
sons of Ixion (see 601) and Nephele (a cloud, see at vii. 675), 
whom he mistook for Juno. Scyllae, See at iii. 424. Briareut 
(identical with Aegaeon, x. 565), one of the Uranides, having a 
hundred hands (fieHtumgeminut)^ and fifty heads, according to one 
tradition, placed at heirs gates to guard the Titans. The Hydra^ 
a many-headed dragon that infested Lema, a iake and river near 
Argos (zii. 518), and was slain by Hercuies. Chimaera, a Ly- 
cian monster, lion, goat, and dragon, that snorted forth flames. See 
vii. 785. Gorsones (see ii. 616), three monstrous forms, originaliy 
women from Libya. Harpyiae. See at iii. 211, 212. And (jeryon 
(Jbrmai &c.), a king in thesouth of Spain, with three bodies, slain 
by Hercules, who took from him his beautiful ozen. See vii. 661, 
and viii. 202. Milton had this passage in his eye whcn ho wrote 
*Gorgons, and Hydras, and Chimeras dire.' — Par. Lost^ ii. 628. 
The reader would do well to compare with this passage of Virgii, 
951-967 of the same book. 

268 AENEiro?. strictaTr.que aciem venie:itil'U5 oiTert ; 
Kt. :.i Jucta cnmes tciu.s s r.e corpore viias 
A imo:i''a: vi..ii:a:t» cava Piib imaiiine tormae, 
Irruil. el jri;<:ra ler! • iiivt'rboret «inbra^. 

H;r.c vi.i. Taria.-i-i .:uae lert Aciieronlis ad iiRdas. 296 
TurbiJus hic cueno vasraijue vorairine j:urges 
Aestuut atijue omi:em CVc\ to eructat arenam. 
I*iiit:tor h.i:» hnrr(.'i:.ii:s aquas et liumina servat 
Terrjbih s :ualore Charon. cui plurima mento 
Cariiiies inculta jacet. .«tant lumina llamma. 300 

^*oriiivlu.«* e.v humeris noJ.o depenJei amictus. 
Ipse ratcm conro .«iubiirilj vclisquc ministrat, 
Kt lerruirinea s.ubvectat corpora cymba. 
Jam senioi-. sed cruda deo viridisque senectus. 
Huc omiiis turba ad ripas elfusa ruebat, 305 

Matrcs atijue viri, dofunctaque corpora vita 
Mainianimum heroum, pueri innuptaeque puellaei 
Im})ositi(]ue rogis juvenes ante ora parentum: 
Uuum inulta in silvis autumni frigore primo 
I^psa cadunt folia, aut ad terram gurgite ab alto 310 
Quam multac f^lomerantur aves, ubi frigidus annus 
Trans pontum tu^at et terras immittit apricaB. 
Stabant orantes primi transmittere cursum, 

293. Admoncaf. >Sre at v. 325. — 295. It is difficult, perhapa im- 
possible, to picturc distinctiy Virgirs notions of the nvera of the 
nethcr world. IIc secins to havc made the Acheron the main 
trunk, flowingr throuch Tartarus, propcrly so called. See at v. 733. 
As it lcaves tlii.s region, it gushcs with mud, sand, and oddving 
watcrs, forniin^ thc deep, sullen Cocytus (297, 323), with ita lake 
(107). Froni thc eamc point of the Acheron, forks off the marahy 
(32L0 rivcr (384) Styx. which flows nine timcs round the confinei 
of all Ilades (139). Hcnce thc namc both of Siyz and Cocytue giTen 
to thc enconipapsing barricr. Round the rcgions of puniBhment 
flows tlic Phlescthon (551), and in thc Klysian iields ie the Letha 
(705). Of thcsc rivcrs, Cocytus and Achcron had their prototypea 
in Kpirus (scc at Georg. ii. 492), and on a smallcr scale m Campa- 
nia, ncar Cuniuc, from which, indeed — thc Phlegraean fielda of the 
Grecks — hc borrows niost of bis infernal scencry ; Styx in Arcadia; 
Letho in Africa Cyrcnaica. Their characteristics, as marked hf 
their etymology, arc fmely shown by Milton in these lines :— 

• Abhorml Styr, thc flood of dcadly hate ; 
Bad Jleheron of Borrow, black and dccp; 
Corytus, nnmcd of lamcntation loud, 
Iloard ou tlie woftil strcam ; fierce Pkle^eUum, 
Whos<i wnvcs of torrent flre inflanie with rage. 
Far oiftVoni these, a slow and Bilent strcam, 
Lethe^ thc rivur of oblivion,' &c. . , 

Par. Loaty ii. 577, fcc. 

^309. Socat C ' 4-- 

LIBER VI. 269 

Tendebantque manus ripae ulterioris amore. 

Navita sed tristis nunc hos nunc accipit illos, 315 

Ast alios longe submotos arcet arena. 

Aeneas, miratus enim motusque tumultu, 

^Dic,' ait, 'o virgo, quid volt concursus ad amnem? 

Quidve petunt animae ? vel quo discrimine ripas 

Hae linquunt, illae remis vada livida verrunt V 320 

Olli sic breviter fata est longaeva sacerdos : 

' Anchisa generate, deum certissima proles, 

Cocyli stagna alta vides Stygiaraque paludem, 

Di cujus jurare timent et fallere numen. ' 

Haec omnis, quam cernis, iriops inhumataque turba 

est ; ■ 325 

Portitor ille Charon ; hi, quos vehit unda, sepulti. 
Nec ripas datut- horrendas et rauca fluenta 
Transportare prius, quam sedibus ossa quierunt. 
Centum errant annos volitantque haec litora circum ; 
Tum demum admissi stagna exoptata revisunt.' 330 

Constitit Anchisa satus et vestigia pressit, 
Multa putans, sortemque animo miseratus iniquam. 
Cernit ibi moestos et morHls honore carentis 
Leucaspim et Lyciae ductorem classis Oronten, 
Quos^ simul a Troja ventosa per aequora vectos, 335 

Obruit Auster, aqua involvens navemque virosque. 

Ecce gubernator sese Palinurus agebat, 
Qui Libyco nuper cursu, dum sidera servat, 
Exciderat puppi mediis effusus in undis. 
Hunc ubi vix multa moestum cognovit in umbra, 340 
Sic prior adloquitur: 'Quis te, Palinure, deorum 
. £ripuit nobis, medioque sub aequore mersit ? 
Dic age. Namque mihi, fallax haud ante repertus, 
Hoc uno responso animum delusit Apollo, 
Qui fore te ponto incolumem, finesque canebat 345 

Yenturum Ausonios. £n h^Slec promissa fides est V 

■■■ »■■ —■■■■—■■ -M_l.. 11 - -»■■■■ ..1 ■! ■!! I III. 11 —^^—^■^^^ 

316. See at i. 680. The reRoIution here is submovet et arcet. — 
321. Olli. See at i. 254. — 324. Jurare numen. See similar in- 
Btances of jurare without ner, 351, xii. 197. To violate this oath, 
inferred a temporary forteiture of divine privileges. — 325, &c. 
Hence the dread of death by drowning. See i. 92, v. 871. Inops, 
helpless, whom nobody assists by burial or funeral ritea. — 326. 
Ule^ pointing to him, SetKriKtag. — 331. See at 159. — 333, &-c. See 
Aen. i. 113, for the loss of Orontes and the Lycians. — 337. Fali-' 
nurus. For the loss of this pilot, see v. 835, &c. — 338. Servat, 
exciderat. See at 174. — 340. Multa umbra explains vix. — 344. 
Nothinj^ of this response appears elsewhere in Virgil. — 345. Fine$, 
8ee at i. 2. — 346. Ausonios. See p. 180, line 5. 

270 AE5EID0S. 

II le autem : ^ Neque te Phoebi cortina fefellit, 

Dux Anchislada) nec me deus aequore mersit. 

Namque gubemaclum multa vi forte revulsuoiy 

Cui datus haerebam custos cursusque regebam^ 350 

Praecipitans traxi mecum. Maria aspera juro 

Non ullum pro me tantum cepisse timorem, 

Quam tua ne, spoliata armis, excussa magistro, 

Deficeret tantis navis surgentibus undis. 

Tris Notus hibernas immensa per aequora noctes 356 

Vexit me violentus aqua ; vix lumine quarto 

Prospexi Italiam summa sublimis ab unda. 

Paulatim adnabam terrae; jam tuta tenebanii 

Ni gens crudelis madida cum veste gravatum 

Prensantemque uncis manibus capita aspera montis 360 

Ferro invasisset, praedamque ignara putasset. 

Nunc me fluctus habet, versantque in litore venti. 

Quod te per coeli jucundum lumen et auraSi 

Per genitorem oro, per spes surgentis Iu]i, 

Eripe me his, invictC; malis. Aut tu mihi terram 365 

Injice, namque potes, portusque require VelinoSj 

Aut tu, si qua via est, si quam tibi diva creatrix 

Ostendit — ^neque enim, credo, sine namioe divom 

Flumina tanta paras Stygiamque innare paludem — 

Da dextram misero, et tecum me tolle per oodaS) 370 

Sedibus ut saltem placidis in morte quiescam.' 

Talia fatus erat, coepit cum talia vates : 

Unde haec, o Palinure, tibi tam dira capido? 

' Tu Stycias inhumatus aquas amnemque sevemm 

Eumenidum aspicles, rlpamve injussus adibis? 276 

Desine fata deum flecti sperare precando. 

Sed cape dicta memor, duri solatia casua. . 

Nam tua finitimi; longe lateque per urbes 

Prodigiis acti coelestibus, ossa piabunt, 

£t statuent, et tumulo sollemnia mittenti 880 

Aeternumque locus Palinuri nomen habebit.' 

347. Cortina, See at iii. 92. — 348. Ant3dnada, See aC 196. 
Nec^ &c. Palinurus did not know that the sleep-god had throini 
him into the sca. — 350. Thc relative is involved in evnict re g Aa m t 
where we should have quo. — 351. Mariajuro. ^ See at 324.— 858. 
Tenebam. ' I was gaimng, and would have gained, had not/ 8c^ 
See at ii. 55. — 361. Ignara. For he had no wealth of whicsh thaV' 
could' despoil him.-— 362. Me, mcum corpus. — 366. He intiiMW 
Acneas cither to sail back to the place where his body waa lvxML.r' 
near Velia in Lucania, or to take him across with him.— 381. ntl0r\ '" 
numque, &c. See at 235. But PalinuruB has not been so fortoiiati^ 
as misenus, the modcrn name otthe cape being Sputameiito. ' ' 

LIBER VI. 271 

His dictis curae emotae, pulsusque parumper 
Corde dolor tristi } gaudet cognomine terra. 

Ergo iter inceptum peragunt, fluvioque propinquant. 
Navita quos jam inde ut Stygia prospexit ab unda 385 
Per tacitum nemus ire pedemque advertere ripae, 
Sic prior adgreditur dictis, atque increpat ultro : 
^Quisquis es, armatus qui nostra ad flumina tendis, 
Fare age, quid venias; jam istinc et comprime gressum. 
Umbrarum hic locus est, Somni Noctisque soporae; 390 
Corpora viva nefas Stygia vectare carina. 
Nec vero Alciden me sum laetatus euntem 
Accepisse lacu, nec Thesea Pirithoumque, 
Dis quamquam geniti atque invicti viribus essent. 
Tartareura ille manu custodem in vincla petivit, 395 

Ipsius a solio regis, traxitque Irementem ; 
Hi dominam Ditis thalamo deducere adorti.' 
Quae contra breviter fata est Amphrysia vates: 
'NuIIae hic insidiae tales; absiste moveri; 
Nec vim tela ferunt; licet ingens janitor antro 400 

Aeternum latrans exsanguis terreat umbras, 
Casta licet patrui servet Proserpina limen. 
Troius Aeneas, pietate insignis et armis, 
Ad genitorem imas Erebi descendit ad umbras. 
Si te nulla movet tantae pietatis imago, 405 

At ramum hunc' — aperit ramum, qui veste latebat — 
^ Agnoscas.' Tumida ex ira tum corda residunt. 
Nec plura his. Ille admirans venerabile donum 

384. Ergo, having thus satisfied Palinurus. — 385. Jam inde, ut, 
db, ali express the instantaneous attempt of Charon to stop them. 
On the instant that he saw them {jam ut) from the place where he 
was (inde), from the stream in which he was sailing in his boat {ah 
ufida). — 389. Jam istinc, &.C. Charon orders them to stop on the 
instant (jam), and from the place where they stood (istinc), not to 
stir a stejp. Compare tstinc of the second person with inde (385) of 
the third. 392. Alciden, a patronymic of Hercules, derived from 
his gran(|father Alcaeus. His dragging Cerberus from Hades was 
his twelfth labour (395, 396). 393. l^eseus, son of Aegeus, and 
mythic legislator of Athens, was the bosom {riendof Firithoua, one 
of the Lapithae, whom he assisted in his mad attempt to carry off 
Proserpine. See 397, 601, 618. — 394. Esaent indicates the know- 
ledge of Charon. Theseas was descended from Neptune, Hercules 
and Pirithous from Jupiter. — 398. ApoIIo, banished from heaven, 
and a shepherd, fed his flocks on the banks of the Amphrysus, a 
Thessalian river; hence the Sibyrs name here. — 400. Licet ut 
terreat. See Zumpt, ^ 624. — 401. Aeternum. Used asan adverh 
8ee 617, and at v. 19. — 402. Fatrui. Proserpine's father was Jupi- 
ter, the brother of Dis. — 403. Pietate. See p. 204, line 9, and at 
i. 378. — 408. Ille, from its antithctic force, leads to the conciusioii 


Fatalia virgae, longo post tempoTe viaDm, 

Caeruleam advertit puppim, npaeque prapinqtuit. 410 

Itide alias aiiimae, quae pei juga longa Bedabant, 

Deiutbat, laxaique foroB; Bimul accipit alveo 

1n;ri.']itein Aeneati. Gemuit Buli pondere oymba 

i>Lililis, et mullam accepit rimosa paludflcn. 

Taiidem trana fluTium incoIumiB Talemqae TinungaB IIS 

Infarmi limo glaucaqiie exponit iu alra. 

CerberuB haec ingens laltalu legna trifaiioi 
Personat, adverso recubans immauiB ia aiitro. 
Cui vates, horrere videns jara colla colubris, 
Melle soporatam et medicatis fragibuB ofiatn 4M 

Objioit. Ille fame rabida tria guttorai pandena 
Corripit objeclam, atque immania terga reBolvit 
Fusus humi, loloque ingens eitenditnr antra, 
Occupat Aeneas adilum cuslode sepullo, 
Evaditque celer ripam irremeabilis undae, 4tS 

Conlinuo auditae voces, ragitUB et ingena, 
Infantumque animae ilentes in limine primi), 
Quos dulcjs vilae exsarlis et ab ubeie laptoa 
Absiulit atra dies et funere meisit acerbo. 
HoB juxla falso damnati crimine mortis. 4S0 

Nec vero hae sine sorte datae, sine jndioa, aedea.: 
Quaesilor MinoB uinam movet ; ille Bllmtnm ' 
CoDciliumque vocal, vilasque et crimina diMlt. 
Proxima deinde tenent moesti loca, qni nbi latiun 
Insontes peperere manu, lucemqas ponoi • 411 

Projecere aaimas. Qaam Tellent aelhato ia alto i; 
Nunc el pauperiem et duroa perfeiia laboraa! 
Fas obslat, tristique palus inamabHia nndK 
Alligat, et novies Slyx inlerfnsa coeioet. 
Nec procul hinc partem fusi monBtnntiiT in omamn 4tt 
Lngeniea campij sio ilioe nomine dionnt. 
Hic, quos duras amor cradeli tabe paiadit, 

that iircp/MraldiiiiOrefora to Ihe Sibyl. — 409. Fatalu. See ■! ii. 
165, — 412. j1Zii«>, Iwo ayllablcs, — 417, CetberuB ia rapFeMDted u 

Iiaving ihree hesda, serpeitla insleul of beil OD iuB neck. iSS, 

^vadere ripam, a poelical cooalructioD, ' to pi«« orar, and leava tb» 

bank.' See nl iv. 256, — 426. Vnca, vagibit, tau^ Viata.i! jienttis 

bII bclong to infantum. — i29. Atra diu, mon. — 431, &.c, Tiqpl 

tere fulluws iho modeloflheRomanlribunBlB. * «"- — .~-»i-^ 

ler and EiirapBi famed foi bia jngtice, sitB ai 

(i. 73), or his dalegate, invesligaling ■ crilna (ji 

out of tlie nrn, by lol, ihe nBmca of the jndicei Belecti, 

LIBER VI. 273 

Secreti celant calles et myrtea circum 

Silva tegit ; curae non ipsa in morte relinquunt. 

His Phaedram Procrinque locis, moestamque Eri- 

phylen, 446 

Crudelis nati monstrantem vulnera, cemit, 
Evadnenque et Pasiphaen ; his Laodamia 
It comes, et juvenis quondam, nunc femina, Caeneus, 
Rursus et in veterem fato revoluta figuram. 
Inter quas Phoenissa recens a vulnere Dido 450 

Errabat silva in magna ; quam Troius heros 
Ut primum juxta stelit agnovitque per umbram 
Obscuram — qualem primo qui surgere mense 
Aut videt, aut vidisse putat per nubila Lunam — 
Demisit lacrimas, dulcique adfatus amore est : 465 

^ Infelix Dido, verus mihi nuntius ergo 
Venerat exstinctam, ferroque extrema secutam ? 
Funeris heu tibi caussa fui? Per sidera juro, 
Per superos et si qua fides tellure sub ima est, 
Invitus, regina, tuo de litore cessi. 460 

Sed me jussa deum, quae nunc has ire per umbras, 
Per loca senta situ cogunt noctemque profundam, 

r- ■ — , - 

443. Myrtea, because the myrtle was sacred to Venus. See EcL 
fh. 62. — 444, &c. Among unhappy lovers, we have Pkaedra^ wife 
of Theseus, who died by hcr own hand for the love of her stepson, 
Hippolytus (see at vii. 765) ; Procris, unwittingly slain by her hus- 
band, Cephalus, king of Phocis, whom, from jealousy, she followed 
whcn he went to hunt. Rustling among the bushes, she was mis- 
taken by him for a wild beast ; Evadne, wife of Capancus, king of 
Argos, who threw herself on the funeral pile of her husband, slain 
in the Theban war; and Dido, from Sidon in Phoenicia, who, ac- 
cording to Virgil (i. iv.) — ^for others place her era long after that of 
Aeneas — loved Aeneas, and slew herself when he left Carthage, 
of which she was the queen. Others are mentioncd, unhappy, but 
not directly from love — En'phyle, who, having treacherously, for 
a nccklace, bctrayed the lurkmg-place of her husband, Amphiaraus 
of Argos, 8o that he was forced to go to the Theban war, where he 
knew that he should be slain, was kiiled by her son Alcmaeon inatt), 
when he heard of his father's death ; Caenis (which some read here^ 
beloved by Neptune, and changed by him, first into a young man, 
Caeneus ijuvenis Caeneua)^ in tne nether world again into a woman ; 
and SichaeuSf the husband of Dido. See i. 343, &c. — 450. Recens a, 
*immediately after.' Vulnere, See iv. 663, &c. — 45L Quam, 
governed by juxta. — 453. Obscuram may qualify ujnbram, but it 
seems better, taking into account the beautiml comparison of Dido 
with the new moon, to conjoin it with quam. — 454. Vidisse se 
putat. See at iv. 306, 382. — 459. Per superos et fidem. See at ii. 
143. — 462. The etymology oisentus (sentis) and situs (sino) leads to 
Hi knowledge of the force of this ezpression— which squalid neglect 
and desolation have crowded with painfal obstacles. 

274 AENEinos. 

Imp'*riis ofr«*ro suiss". nrc crcdere quivi 
Hiiiic taiitum tibi mo ilirfcossu ferre dolorem. 
SiMi* Lrrjidiim. t«Mjui» a^iuvtu ne subtriihe nostro. 465 

Ciu«'in !"u::i> ? cxtriMiium rato, (|uoJ te aJloquori hoc est.' 
TalilMi'^ Aoiicas aidoiilfm ol torva tueutem 
Lfiiibat ilictis nnimum. hicrimasque ciebat. 
Illa solo fixos ocuios avorsa tenebat, 
Nec inauis inccpto vultum sermone movctur, 470 

Quam si liura .sijox aut stct Marpesia cautes. 
Taiulcm coiripuit sese, atque inimica refugit 
In nomus umbriferum, conjunx ubi pristinus illi 
Kospondet curis aequatque Sychaeus amorem. 
Nec minus Aeneas, casu percussus iniquo, 475 

Prosefiuitur lacrimans longe, et miseratur euntera. 
Indt' datum molitur iter. Jamque arva tenebant 
Ultima. ({uae beilo clari secreta frequentant. 
Ilic ilii occurrit Tydeu.s, hic^inclutus armis 
Parthcnopacus et Adrasti ]iallentis imago ; 480 

Ilic multum fieti ad superos beljoque caduci 
Dardaiiidae, quos ille omuis longo ordine cemens 
In;;omuit, Glaucumque Medontaque Thersilochumque, 
Tris Ant«3norida.s, Cererique sacrum Polyphoeten, 
IdaeumquC; etiam currus, etiam arma tenentem. 485 
Circumstant animae dextra laevaque frequentes. 
Nec vidiss(^ semel satis est; juvat usque morari, 
£t cnnferre gradum, et veiiiendi discere.caussas. 
\^ At Panaiim proocMcs A^memnoniaeque phalanges, 

Ut viTtero virum ful^entiaque arma per umbras, 490 

m ■ '—» ■ 

46.5. Afptrtii; ihe dativc. i^rZ. v. 29.— ;-467. Torva, uaed 
advcriiially. iSee v. 19. Tnentem can hardiy qualify anunum, whieh 
may be the accusativc of limitation, Kara ^^fiov. — 468. ObMrve the 
forcc of tiie imperfect Ivnihal (Icnicbat), as indicating an .uniiDished 
act — an attempt. Lacritnas fiuas. — 470. Movetur vuUum. The 
accusative of limitation. Sce at iv. 558. — 471. Marpet$u9 was a 
mountain in Paros (i. 593). whence waa dug the famous marble.— 
473. Both thc Grceks and the Latins, cspeciallv in poetry, uee the 
dativc whcn we should expcct thc genitive, thc dative then em- 
phatically indicating tlie iinal object to wliich the comi^und idea 
conveycd l>y the verb and the immediate object tends. Here the 
sympathy in cares ircsvondet curis) is directcd fmally and emphati* 
cally to Dido (Uli). Sce also v. 172. —479, &c. Of Greeke, ha 
meets Tt/deus, father of Diomede, Farthenopaeus and Adra»tu»t 
both famed in the Theban war; of Trojans {JDardanidae ; see 685), 
B number of individuals, of no great note, mentioned by Hom«r.- 
All these, even the Greeks first mcntioncd, welcomed him (oeeurritm 
479, certainly does not imply flight), but the later Greeke who had' 
foUowed Ago* oimked wn^^n they saw him. 

LIBER VI. 275 

Ingenti trepidare metu i pars vertere terga, 
Ceu quondam petiere rates ; pars lollere vocem 
Exiguam : inceptus clamor frustratur hiantis. 
Atque hic Priamiden laniatum corpore toto 
Deiphobum videt et lacerum crudeliter ora, 495 

Ora manusque ambas, populataque tempora raptis 
Auribus, et truncas inhonesto vulnere naris. 
Vix adeo agnovit pavitantem et dira tegentem 
Supplicia, et notis compellat vocibus ultro : 
*Deiphobe armipotens, genus alto a sanguine Teucri, 500 
Quis tam crudelis optavit sumere poenas ? 
Cui tantum de te h'cuit ? Mihi fama suprema 
Nocte lulit fessum vasta te caede Pelasgum 
Procubuisse super confusae stragis acervum. 
Tunc egomet tumulum Rhoeteo in litore inanem 505 
Constitui, et magna Manis ter voce vocavi. 
Nomen et arma locum servant j te, araice, nequivi 
Conspicere et patria decedens ponere terra.' 
Ad quae Priamides: ^Nihil o tibi amice relictumj 
Omnia Deiphobo solvisti et funeris umbris. 510 

Sed me fata mea et scelus exitiale Lacaenae 
His mersere malis; illa haec monumenta reliquit. 
Namque ut supremam falsa inter gaudia noctem 
Egerimus, nosti ; et nimium meminisse necesse est. 
Cum fatalis equus saltu super ardua venit 515 

Pergama et armatum peditem gravis attulit alvo, 
Illa, chorum simulans, evantis orgia circum 

491. Treptdare, The historical infinitive. — 492. CeUf &c., allud- 
ing to incidents in the Trojan war, as narrated by Homer. — 495. 
J)etpkobum. See ii. 310. Jbacerum ora. The accusative of limita- 
tion. — 498. Adeo. See iv. 533. So mairaed was he, that it was 
wilh difficulty that Aeneas recognised him. — 500. Genusj &c. 
See at 685, and iv. 12. -—505. Rkoeteo. See at v. 646. Tumulum 
inanem. To satisfy the belief embodied 325-328, it was customary 
to erect to the dead, whose bodies could not be found, * an empty 
tomb,* or cenotaph («vdj, rrfdof). — 506. Vocavi. See at i. 219. — 
507. Nomerij &LC. See 233, o&c. Te, unelided and short, after the 
Greek usage. — 509. For the construction, tihi for a te, see Zumpt, 
^ 419. — 511. Lacaenaet Helen (ii. 577), who, according to some tra- 
ditions, was married to Deiphobus, after the death of Paris. It 
must be noticed that Virgil has followci different traditions here, 
and in ii. 566, &c. — 513, &c. For the events alluded to here, see 
ii. 234, &c. — 516. Pergama. See at ii. 177. Gravis. Seefeta 
armis, ii. 238. — 517. Orgia. See at iv. 301. Eyo7, the cry ofthe 
prieflts of Bacchus ; hence evarcj * so to shout in his honour.' Evare 
crgiar^ Greek construction — to celebrate with such shouts the 

Ducebat PhrygiBs; flamraam mtsdia ipaa tenebat 

Ingenlem, et Bumma DanaOB ex arce vocBbat. 

Tum me, conlecliim cDria Bomnoqus gravatnm, SM 

Iiifclix habuit Ihalamus, presfutque jacentem 

Dulcin ul alla quieB placidaeque Bimillima morti. 

Egregia Interea conjunx arma omnia lectia 

Amovel, et tlilum cupili subduietal enBem ; 

lutra lecta vocat &lene1aum, et liinina pondit, SSI 

Scilicet id magnum ?perana fore munoH amanti, 

Kt famam exstingui veterum sic poBM malomm. 

QuidmororT inumpant thalamo; comea additur ana 

Uorlator acelerum AeolideB. Di, talia Graiis 

Instanrale, pio si poenaa ore reposco. 530 

Seil te qui vivum casus, age fare viciMim, 

Atlulermt. Pelagine venis erroribuB actus, 

An monitu divoml an quae le Fortuna f&tigat. 

Vt trislis sine Bole domOB^ loca (arbida, adireii* 

Hac vice scrrnonum roseis Auron quadri^ SU 

Jam medium aetherio cursu trajecerat anam; 

£l fora omne dalum tmherent per talia Wmpna j 

Se<l comea admonuit brevilerque afiala SibyllM Mt: 

' Nox ruil, Aenea ; nos flendo ducirai» horaa. 

Hic locuB cBt, ^rtis ubi se via £ndit in ambaa : 510 

Dextera quae Dilis magni sub moenla tendit; 

Hac iler Eljsium nohis; al laera maloriun 

Exercet poeiiaB, et ad impia Tartam mittiL' 

Deiphobus contra : <Na saevi, raamia MoenliM; 

Discedam, explebo numerum, TedJarqae tenebril. Mf 

I decuB, i, nostrum ; meliorihUB utam fatii.' 

Tantum elTalus, et in verbo veBligia torwt. 

Kespicit Aeneas aubito, et snb rape ainiftra 
Moenia iala videt, triplici circumdata muro, 
Quae rapidufl flaramie ambit lorrentibui amnia, W 

Tartareus Phlegethon, lorquetqae soaautia MJn. 
Porla adversa, ingens, solidoque adamante oolumjia^ 

523. E^renia ; ironicn]. See vii. 5n(i. — 5!4. See U ITi.^tm. 
Aealiilrt, D canlcmpIuauB tCTTn far UlysBes, wlio wasaBul (o b« ite' 
■on of ilic robbcr ^iaypliua, ihe Bon of Aeolua, dte nwtliiQ fiMitidcr 
of Ihc ABolian race.— 535. AeneaH had beeun hu mwifiGes tx lU^ 
ho niiDroBch 10 HadcB about aawn Q!5S). It W(* 
a hcre being idenlioil ■»nai 3^. — fSt, 
iraiierpai, -incy wouio eontinue lo apend.' See at 34. — 5^ 
Rail. nppropernl. — .'i41. J?eirera hic esl. Diltt. See al iv,7l)l.-» 
S43. 5\X Elyiivm. TttTtam. See nt v. 733. Loma pors fvia») a> 
emt pomai ; dui:il ubi poenac eierceulur. — 545. ExjilrSif 
rMm, iimhrQrumquoareliqHi. — 551, Phlfetthm. 3ee><l!U6^ 
See Milton'e imitalioo of this piUKiigc, Par. Latt, U. ' " ~ 

LIBER VI. 277 

Vis ut nulla virum, non ipsi exscindere ferro 

Coelicolae valeant; stat ferrea turris ad auras, 

Tisiphoneque sedens, palla succincta cruenta, 555 

Vestibulum exsomnis servat noctesque diesque. 

Hinc exaudiri gemitus, et saeva sonare 

Verbera ; tum stridor ferri, tractaeque catenae. 

Constitit Aeneas, strepituque exterritus haesit. 

* Quae scelerum facies ? o virgo, effare ; quibusve 560 

Urguentur poenis? quis tantus plangor ad aurasl' 

Tum vates sic orsa loqui : ' Dux inclute Teucrura, 

NulH fas casto sceleratum insistere Jimen; 

Sed me cum lucis Hecate praefecit Avernis, 

Ipsa deum poenas docuit, perque omnia duxit. 565 

Gnosius haec Rhadamanthus habet, durissima regna, 

Castigatque auditque dolos, subigitque fateri, 

Quae qui.s apud superos, furto laetatus inani, 

DistuUt in seram commissa piacula raortem. 

Continuo sontis uhrix accincta fiagello 570 

Tisiphone qiiatit insuhans, torvosque sinistra 

Intentans anguis vocat agmina saeva sororum. 

Tum demum horrisono stridentes cardine sacrae 

Panduntur portae. Cernis custodia quaUs 

Vestibulo sedeat'? facies quae limina servef? 675 

Quinquaginta atris immanis hiatibus Hydra 

Saevior intus habet sedem. Tum Tartarus ipse 

555. Tisiphone (Ww, ^dvos)^ one of the Furics (see at iii. 331), 
wbom Virgil raakes to be three in number (xii. 845). The others 
are Alecto (^Xt^xw), vii. 341, and Megaera intYatpu))^ xii. 846. See at 
280. — 557. Exaudiri. The historical innnitive. — 561. Planeor 
■urgit. — 563. JPa« est. — b&S. Gnosius. See p. 179, Hne 24. Wm- 
damantkus was the brother of Minos, mentioned 14, 432. Virgil as- 
signs him the office, not of judging, but of punishing (castigat) 
known crimes, and by torture, forcing them to confess secret of- 
fences {audit^ue, &c.). In another passage (viii. 670), he represents 
Cato as presiding over the pious. Other traditions add Aeacus to 
the number of judges. — 569. Piacula, scelera per poenas ezpianda. 
-» 570. Sontis quatitt a singular expression for quatiendo flagellum, 
castigat. — 572. Sororum. See at 555. Agmina would seem to in- 
fer bands of assistant executioners. — 573. Tum demum. When 
confession of their guilt is tortured out of them by Rhadamanthus, 
and they have been scourged by Tisiphone, the ^ates of hell fly 
open to receive them to the placc of wo. The Ime is designedly 
harsh. For an imitation, seo MiIton*s Par. Lost, ii. 879, &c. — 
574. The Sibyl teUs Aeneas that dreadful as is the appearance of 
Tisiphone outside the door, slill more appalling is the Hydra within. 
Thia must be another water-dra|»on than the one mentioned 287. — 
577. The place of punishment sinks beneath twice as much as th« 
heaven riBes above the earth. For Olympum, see at EcL v. 56. 


Bifl patet in praecepa tantum tenditque sub umbra% 
Quantus ad aetherium coeli suepectus Olympum. 
Hic genus aiUiquum Terrae, Tilania pubes, i 

Fulmine dejecti fundo volvuntur in imo. 
Hic et Aloidas geminos immania vidi 
Corjx)ra, qui manibus magnum rescindere coelum 
Ap:gressi,-superisque Jovem detrudere regnis. 
Vidi et crudelis dantem Salmonea poenas, 
Dum liammas Jovis et sonitus imitatur Olympi. 
Quatuor hic invectus equis et lampada quassans 
Per Graium popuios mediaeque per Elidis urbem 
Ibat ovans, (livomque sibi poscebat honorem } 
Bemens ! qui nimoos et non .-mitabiie fulmen 
Aere et cornipednm pulsu simularet equorum. 
At pater omnipotens densa inter nubila telum 
Contorsjt — non ille faces nec fumea taedis 
Lumina — praecipitemque immani turbine adegit. 
Nec non et Tityon, Terrae omnipareotis alumnum, 
Cernere erat, per tota novem cui iugera corpus 
Porrigitur } rostroque immanis vuliur obuncO| 
Immortale jecur tondens fecundaque po^is 
Viscera, rimatur^ue epuiis habitatque sUb alto 
Pectore, nec fibris requies datur ulla ren(iti8. 
Quid memorem Lapithas, Ixiona Pirithoomque, . 

580. Titania pules. Sons of CoeiaB and Tern, who firrt 
throned thcir father, and were themselves driven into Tartanu 
Jupiter, who was descended from them. — 58L Defeeti, plur. ni 
reierringMo genua as a collective noun. See 660, v. 106, and Zai 
^ 366. Dejecta would be inadmissible. Whers the adjective ti 
the number, it also takes the gender of the sense. See a aiiig 
cxception. vii. 624. — 582. AloxdaB, Otas and Ephialtea, 10111 
Iphimedcia, who was marricd to Alo8u9. Of gi^ntic eiia 
strength, they wagcd war on the gods, but were alam by Apolk 
585. Salmoneus was another son of Aeolaa (529)» coneifned toi 
ishmcnt whilc engaged in the very act of imitatinff (iIiim) the l^ 
nings and thunders of Jupiter. — 588. Mediae ELim %rhem ; pn 
bly Salmone, ncar the Alpheus, said here to be in the middUi 
Elis, i\\e north-wcstern district of the Peloponnemu.— 591. 
simulnret ; the subjunctive marks the reason why he wa%40 bt 
garded as demena. Othcrs read simularat. -—595. TUytm, who 
offcrcd violence to Latona, and was slain by the arFOwe of her'i 
dren. — 596. Eratj 'it waspermitted me.' See Zampt, ^887. J 
ncarlv cquivalent to cujus. Sce at 473. —-597. His puniehmenfi 
sisted in thc gnawings of a vulture — ^his liver aod entrails prodoi 
dninty food {epulis dai) and a never-failing agony, aa they werai 
rcproduced and devoured. — 601. The Ldjntkae were a people in 
mountains of Thessaly, governed by Pirithous (see at 893), 
that Ixion who had grievously insuited Juno. See at 

LIBER TI. 279 

Quos super atra silex jam jam lapsura cadentique 
Imminet assimilis? Lucent genialibus altis 
Aurea fulcra toris, epulaeque ante ora paratae 
Regifico Inxu ; Furiarum maxima juxta 605 

Accubat, et manibus prohibet contingere mensas, 
Exsurgitque facem attollens, atque intonat ore. 
Hic, quibus invisi fratres, dum vita manebat, 
Pulsatusve parens, et fraus innexa clienti, 
Aut qui divitiis soli incubuere repertis, 610 

Nec partem posuere suis, quae maxima turba est, 
Quique ob adulterium caesi, quique arma secuti 
Impia nec veriti dominorum fallere dextras, 
Inclusi poenam exspectant. Ne quaere doceri, 
Quam poenam, aut quae forma viros fortunave meisit. 616 
Saxum ingens volvunt alii, radiisque rotarum 
Districti pendent ; sedet, aeternumque sedebit, 
Infelix Theseus; Phlegyasque miserrimus omnis 
Admonet et magna testatur voce per umbras : 
^' Discite justitiam moniti, et non temnere divos." 620 
Vendidit hic auro patriam, dominumque potentem 
Imposuit 'j fixit leges pretio atque refixit ; 
Hic thalamum invasit natae vetitosque hymenaeoS; 
Ausi omnes immane nefas, ausoque potiti. 
Non, mihi si linguae centum sint oraque centum, 625 
Ferrea vox, omnis scelerum comprenaere formas, 
Omnia poenarum percurrere nomina possim.' 
Haec ubi dicta dedit Phoebi longaeva sacerdos : 

punishment inflicted upon Ixion is variously told by Virgil. See 
Georg. iii. 38, and iv. 484. — 602. Cadentique, -e elided before imtni- 
^et. — 603. Litcent, &c., may be coonected, as part of the punish- 
(nent of the Lapithae ; but it seems better to regard it as a new 
itatement, referring generally to other criminals, such as Tantaius. 
—609. Clienti. See at i. 73. This passage of Virgil affbrds a strong 
proof of the estimation which the Romans had of the connection 
between patron and client. — 613. Dominorum leads us to infer that 
Virgil here alludes to slaves that have betrayed their masters. Dex- 
Iras, fidem quam data dextra indicabat. — 614. Exspectant. This 
joes not seem to imply another trial to fix their doom, but the ag- 
^avated form of punishment ever looked for. Hence in the next 
ciause, quam expectant poenam, — 615. From 626, scelerum formaSf 
we may infer here \\12xformafortunave refers to the species of crime 
that each one had by his fortune been led to commit. — 617. Aeier- 
num. See at 401. — 618. Theseus. See at 393. Phlegyae^ vl. kins 
of the Lapithae, father of Ixion, who bnrned down the temple 01 
Apollo. — 622. Figere and refigere refer to the Roman practice of 
bstening on the walls the laws, engraved on brazen tablets ; hence 
to make and unmake. — 625. See the same words, Georg.ih, 43. 
Por the force of tho prcsent subjunctive, see at v. 325. 


'Sed jam aj^e^ carpe viam et susceptum perfice moDQs; 
Acceleremus,' ait; ' Cyclopum educta caminis 630 

Moenia conspicio atque adverso fornice porlas, 
Haec ubi nos praecepta jubent deponere dona.' 
Dixerat, el pariter gressi per opaca viarum 
Corripiunt spatium medium, foribnsque propinquant. 
Occui>at Aeneas aditum, corpufque recenti 635 

Spargit aqua, ramumque adverso in limine figit. 

His demum cxactis, perfecto munere divae. 
Devenere locos Jaetos et amoena vireta 
Fortunatorum nemorum sedesque bcatas. 
Largior hic campos aether el iumine vestit 640 

Purpureo, solemque suum, sua sidera noruut. 
Pars in gramiuois exercent membra palaestris, 
Contendunt ludo et fulva luctantur arena; 
Pars pedibus plaudunt choreas et carmina dicunt. 
Nec non Threicius longa cum veste sacerdos 645 

Obloquitur numeris scptem discrimina vocum, 
Jamque cadem digitis, jam pectine pulsat ebumo. 
Hic genus antiquum Teucri, pulcherrima proles, 
Magnanimi heroes, nati melioribus annis, 
Ilusque Assaracusque et Trojae Dardanus auctor. 650 
Arma procul currusque virum miratur mani& 
Stant terra defixae hastae, passimque soluti 
Per campum pascuntur equi. Quae gratia carmm 
Armorumque fuit vivis, quae cura nitentis 
Pascere equos, eadem sequitur tellure repostos. 665 

Conspicit, ecce, alios dextra laevaque per herbam 
Vescentis laetumque choro Paeana canentis 
Inter odoratum lauri nemus, unde supeme 
Plurimus Eridani per silvam volvitur amnls. 

629. From 637, it would seem thot tnuntLs refers to the goldn 
branch, were it not for susceptum, which appears to give it a rsftr* 
ence to the whole task undertaken by Aeneas, of which the O0eria| 
of thc branch wos but a part. — 630. Cndopfim, See at iiL 616.-* 
636. Spargit aqua. Sce ii. 719, &c. — ^38. Devenere locM» Seeit 
i. 365. — 640. Aethcr by the arsis. — 641. Purpureo. See at£ELil> 
40. --645. Threicius sacerdos, Orpheus.— 648. Teueri^ &c. Tte 
Trojan linc ran thus : — Teucrus sives his daughter to IXardamu &• 
167), whosc grandson is Tros. lius, whence sprung Laomedon ani 
Priam, Trojan kings, nnd Assaracus, whence spning AnchiaeB wuk 
Aencas, wcro sons of Tros. — 651. Inanis, unsnbstantial, aa mthB 
land of shadows. — 652. The ancient spears had at the revezBe eal 
a spikc, by which thcy could fix the spear in the ground. Seexit 
130. — 652. Pascuntur. Sco at ii. 471. Quae gratia. Seeati.5H 
Currum for curruum. — 659. Eridani, the Greek name of an ItdiM 
rivcr, which tho Romans idcntified with their Fadut^ the Po. It.ii 

LIBER VI. 281 

Hic manus ob patriam pugnando vulnera passi, 660 

Quique sacerdotes casti; dum vita manebat, 

Quique pii vates et Phoebo digna locuti, 

Inventas aut qui vitara excoluere per artis, 

Quique sui memores alios fecere merendo ; 

Omnibus his nivea cinguntur tempora vitta. 665 

Quos circumfusos sic est affata Sibylla, 

Musaeum aiite omnis; medium nam plurima turba 

Hunc habet, atque humeris exstantem suspicit altis : 

'Dicite, felices animae, tuque, optime vates, 

Quae regio Anchisen, quis habet locus ? illius ergo 670 

Venimus, et magnos Erebi tranavimus amnis.' 

Atque huic responsum paucis ita reddidit heros: 

'Nulli certa domus; iucis habitamus opacis, 

Riparumque toros et prata recentia rivis 

Incolimus. Sed vos, si fert ita corde voluntas, 675 

Hoc superate jugum ; et facili jam tramite sistam.' 

Dixit, et ante tulit gressum, camposque nitentis 

Desuper ostentat ; dehinc summa cacumina linquunt. 

At pater Anchises penitus convalle virenti 
Inclusas animas superumque ad lumen ituras 680 

Lustrabat studio recolens, omnemque suorum 
Forte recensebat numerum carosque nepotes, 
Fataque fortunasque virum moresque manusque. 
Isque ubi tendentem adversum per gramina vidit 
Aenean, alacris palmas utrasque tetendit, 685 

Effusaeque genis lacrimae, et vox excidit ore : 
' Venisti tandem, tuaque exspectata parenti 

>t clear whence Virgil derived the notion of its flowing throujgh Eljr- 
am, except that it is said that immediately after rising, it has a 
ibterraneous passage for about two miles. See Georg, iv. 366, &c. 
•where all the rivers of earth are said to rise in the nether world. 
-660. Manus passi. See at 681. — 667. Muaaeum, a poet of my- 
ic celebrity, who was famed especially for his writings in connec- 
>n with the Eieusinian rites. — 668. Humerist the ablative of 
[cess ; hence the crowd * loolu up to him' ieuspicit). — 670. For 
is use of ergo ilpyf) with the genitive, in tlie sense of causa, see 
iimpt, ^ 679.-675. Fert vo8.--678. Dehinc. See at i. 131, and 
►ntrast with iii. 464, v. 722, d&c. — 679, &.c. In the whoie of the 
ilebrated passage that follows, Virgii embodies the notions of the 
liiosophic sects, principally those of Pythogoras and Plato, which 
aintained the doctrine of tne metempsychosis — ^^that the souls of 
e dead pass again into other bodies. Anchises is represented as 
)lding a sort of census of his own race. — 682. Forte qualifies Zus- 
fibat as well as receneebat. The fortuitousness lay in the coinci- 
luce of the visit of Aeneas at this time— >* it chanced that.' •— 683. 
lanust facta per manus. — 687. Exspectata parenti, for a parente. 
30 Zumpl, ^ 419. 

24* . y 


Victt itardDruin pietnBT datar oni taeri, 

Nate, tua, et notas audira et reddore Toces 1 

Sic equidem dacebam aninui lebarqiia futUTum, 

Tunipora dinumerariB, nec rae mea cura fefttUiL 

Quas ego le turras et quHnta pei aequora Teotutn 

Accipio '. qaanliE jaclatum, nate, periolie ! 

Quam melui, iie quid Libyae tibi regnn nooerflnt f 

Ille aulem: 'Tna me, genitor, tua tristiB imago, ens 

Saepius occurrens, liaec limina tendere adegit ; 

Slaiit KLle Tyrrheno clBSBea. Da jungere deztnii^ 

Da, genitDT, teqne amplexu ne aubtr&na noatro.' 

Sic memoraiis larno fletu Blmul oia rigftbat. 

Ter conatus ibi callo daie braclita ciroum, 700 

Ter fruBlra comprensa mBiiuH effugit imago, 

VtLT levibus Teiiiin voluciique BimiTlinia nnuio. 

Interea vldel Aeneas in valle leducta 
Seclusum iiemuH ei virgulta itonantia «ilns, 
I.ethaeunique^ domoB placidas qui praenatat, anuiBm. T09 
Hunc circutn mnumerae gentea popnliqoe Tolabant; 
Ac, velut in piatiH ubi apes aeetate Herena 
FloribnB ioBidiint variis, et candida oironm 
Lilia funduniur, stiepit omnis mamtnre oampns, 
HoiieBcit visu subilo cauBBaHque requirit - TIO 

InsciuB Aeneaa, quae sint ea fluraioa porro, 
Quive viri lanto complerint agmine ripaa. 
Tum paiei AnchiBeB: 'Animae, qnibns alteia fkto 
Coipora tlebenlui, Lethaei ad fiaminis nti-j^i ni 
Securoa laticea et longa oblivia potanl. 7IS 

Has equiiiem menioiare libi atque OBtendera oonun, 

□ju, pim d:7j. i^tiv V. 101, otc — D». xwrrmmt gmmnmA Wf 
per, batrowcd from ptr afquara. — 69*. Lihm. 8a« at iv. Wl 
Tho alluaian )iere ia lo tlie reBidenca af AanMa jn CutkM. 
delailcd in Ihe lirst, and capccmlly ths founh book. — 697. 5<M 
mnri. TyrrArnum (rrom the Tyirheni, s PelssEian racs, wkou 
Iho eaily Gieeks considered bb tbe iDhibiiaiite of the whote vMl 
coBBl of Italy, aftciwardB conlined to EltMns, norlh of Ihe Tibtr) 
waa dIso callcd '£l>-ii>niin. and /x/Ersm mtre.~69S. Amalaul 
dative. Sce al Ecl. t. 29. — 702. See ii. 794. — 7W. Silax 
eceniB lo give the cause of the ruslliiig sonnd. The biuilM 
wero Bo plcntiful, that ne in woods, the wuid Bighod «udib^j 
throueh thein. Sce iii. 442, xii. 532. — 703. Zethaeam. Sm il 
29S, — 70«. Inagen.thcro may be niBny popuif. — 709. JUuravri. 
wilh Iho biiiz ol thc Bhedee. — 711. RDguiiB (involved in n^tria 
foTTd qsust. Oi porre may refei lo ihe exlended cLnrse of tha 
river. — 714. j4rf UKdoin refera to iheir poHitian on Ihe bnnk of ibe 
riTcr. — 71.'>. /^(uo. SceBti.686. Seeun», k well nowiitem 
foi tecurat icddcnlCB. ^^^^^^^_ 

LIBER VI. 283 

Jampridem hanc prolem cupio enumerare meorum, 

Quo magis Italia mecum laetere reperta.' 

^ pater, anne aliquas ad coelum hinc ire putandum est 

Sublimis animas, iterumque ad tarda reverti 720 

Corpora? quae lucis miseris lam dira cupido?' 

' Dicam equidem, nec te suspensum, nate, tenebo ;' 

Suscipit Anchises, atque ordine singula pandit. 

^Principio coelum ac terras camposque liquentis 
Lucentemque globum Lunae Titaniaque astra 725 

Spiritus intus alit, totamque infusa per artus 
Mens agitat molem et magno se corpore miscet. 
Inde hominum pecudumque genus vitaeque volantum 
Et quae marmoreo fert monstra sub aequore pontus. 
Igneus est ollis vigor et coelestis origo 730 

Seminibus, quantum non noxia corpora tardant 
Terrenique hebetant artus moribundaque membra. 
Hinc metuunt cupiuntque, dolent gaudentque, neque auras 
Dispiciunt clausae tenebris et carcere caeco. 
Quin et supremo cum lumine vita reliquit. 735 

Non tamen omne malum miseris nec funditus omnes 
Corporeae excedunt pestes, penitusque necesse est 
Multa diu concreta modis inolescere miris. 
Ergo exercentur poenis, veterumque malorum 
Supplicia expendunt : aliae panduntur inanis 740 

Suspensae ad ventos ; aliis sub gurgite vasto 
Infectum eluitur sceius, aut exuritur igni. 
Quisque suos patimur Manis; exinde per amplum 

717. Jampridem cupio influences both lines, and the repetition, 
hanc, is equivalent to et. — 719. Ire sublimis, ascendere. Coelum 
means simply the upper world. — 724, &c. See at 679. The 
spiritus, principle of life (^vxh), and mens of intelligence (voSO» 
together constituting the anima mundi, are the source of iife 
and activity. — 725. Titania astra, ihe sun and other heavenly 
bodies. See^at iv. 119. — 728. Inde, &c. From the xpiritus 
and men8 Stoceed the principles of life and activity of animals ; 
730. Ollis (see at j. 254) seminibus, rcferring to these principles. 
— 731. These principles manifest their heavenly source, so far as 
they are not impeded by corporeal bodies injuring their efficacy 
{noxia). — 733. Ainc. From their conneciion with body. Nequt 
dispiciunt, their clear view is- impeded, because clausae in the 
prison-house of the body. — 734. Clausae animae. — 735. Even 
after death, the soui is not wholly freed from the base passiona 
which the contact of eatthly bodies produces. — 739. As in the 
rites of puriiication preparatory to admission into the sacred mys- 
teries, so souls are represented as undergoing various modcs of 
purification by air, water, and fire. — 743, &c. As these lines 
stand, the meaning[ seems to be, that even after this purificatiofi, 
a long residence in Elysium is required wrholly to cleanso the 


Mittimur Elysijim— «t pauoi laeta arva tenemnaH^ 
Donec longa dies, perfecto temporis orbe, - 745 

Concretam exemit iabem, purumque relinqnit 
Aetherium sensum atque aurai simplicis ignem. 
Has omriis, ubi mille rotam volvere per annoa, 
Lethaeum ad fluvium deus evocat agmine magnO| 
Scilicet immemores supera ut convexa revisanti 750 

Kursus et incipiant in corpora velle reverti.' 

Dixeitit Anchises, natumque unaque Sibyllam 
Conventus trahit in medios turbamque sonantemy 
£t tumulum capit, unde omnis longo ordine poeaet 
Adversos legere, et venientum discere vultUB. 755 

'Nunc age, I^rdaniam prolem quae deinde aeqaatnr 
Gloria, qui maneant Itala de gente nepotea^ 
Illustris animas nostrumque in nomen ituraS| 
Expediam dictis, et te tua fata docebo. 
llle — vides ? — pura juvenis qui nititur hasta, 760 

Proxima sorte tenet lucis loca, primus ad aaraa 
Aetherias Italo commixtus sanguine Baiget| 
SilviuSj Albanum nomen, tua posturaa prolefl) 
Quem tibi longaevo serum Lavinia conjanx 
Educet silvis, regem regumque parentem, 765 

Unde genus Longa nostrum dominabitur Alba. 
Proximus ille Procas, Trojanae gloria gentia^ 

Boul. Quisque — Manis. A difficult eiprewion. *Wa waSu 
each his own Manes.' Probably suot Mani§ meaaa tba p tf rK T 
mode of purification which each one required, frmn hii pffftiilffT 
impurities, when he descendcd to the M«UM. — 747. Amr^ 
See ai iii. 354. — 748. Haa amni$t as contruted with fNwet, 9aG,, 
seems to mean that a few, among whom was Anehiaaa, an par* 
mitted to remain in the enjoyment {tenere) of Elymini^, inUi 
the rest ascend. Botam volvere, ' to roU loand the irhool of- tinB.* 
— 752. Dixerat, See at ii. 621. — 753. SomKmimm» 8ee 7D9.— 
756. A passage admirably conceived to gratify the Ronnni, aad 
especiaily Au^ustus. Deinde, post te..— 760. Virgila fiilloviiW 
the traditions tnat ascribe the race of Alban kinga to^^MB daaeenC 
— " itflO), 

ants of Aeneas by Lavinia (see p. 123, line' 

few of them. Ille. Seo at 326. Vide», pareDthetioiiI. ^mm 
a spear without thc iron head, either a reward ftjr |imweM ia 
war, or simply a sceptre. — 761. The ordinary conatnietioB wpali 
reqiiire luci. — 763. Silvius, a child of AenoM by Laviiiia, and 
born in the woods, Aeneas having first died, an old man, waa to be 
the first of the racc of shades that waa to aacend to tho mwr 
world, and to reign in Alba, his name being comnMHi to *il^tha 
Fubsequcnt kings of Alba (Albanum nomen), Zto. i. S..»766< FflC 
thc construction Lonfra Alba, the adiective in proee bein^ aoeaB- 
panicd with tho prcposition in, see Zumpt, % 399. UnloM,- hidBad, 
it mcun,/rmn Alba Longa. — 767. Reckoning ABcanino as thefint 
king of Alba Longa (i. 271), and following the order oitATft ~ 

LIBER VI. 285 

Et Capys, et Numitor, et qui te nomine reddet 

Silvius Aeneas, pariter pietate vel armis 

Egregius, si umquam regnandam acceperit Albam. 770 

Qui juvenes ! quantas ostentant, aspice, vires 

Atque umbrata gerunt civili tempora quereu. 

Hi tibi Nomentum et Gabios urbemque Fidenam, 

Hi Collatinas imponent montibus arces, 

Laude pudicitia celebris, addentque superbos 775 

Pometios, Castrumque Inui, Bolamque, Coramque. 

Haec tum nomina erunt, nunc sunt sine nomine terrae. 

Quin et avo comitem sese Mavortius addet 

Romulus, Assaraci quem sanguinis Ilia mater 

Educet. Viden,' ut geminae stant vertice cristae, 780 

Et pater ipse suo superum jam signat honore ? 

En, hujus, nate, auspiciis illa incluta Roma 

Imperium terris, animos aequabit Olympo, 

Septemque una sibi muro circumdabit arces, 

Felix prole virum : qualis Berecyntia mater 785 

Invehitur curru Phrygias turrita per urbes, 

Laeta deum partu, centum coraplexa nepotes, 

Omnis coelicolas, omnis supera alta tenentis. 

Huc geminas nunc flecte acies, banc aspice gentem 

Homanosque tuos. Hic Caesar et omnis luli 790 

Progeniesj magnum coeli ventura sub axem. 

Hic vir, hic est, tibi quem promitti saepius audis, 

Augustus Caesar, Divi genus, aurea condet 

18 the thirteenth, Capys the seventh, Numitor (grandfather of Rom- 
ulus) the fourteenth, and Aeneas the third. Proximua, then, meana 
fiimply, * standing next Silvius.* — 768. Numitor by the arsis. — 770. 
Sit &c. Accordins: to Servius, he with difficulty escaped the trea- 
cherous designs of nis guardian. Regnandam. See at iii. 14. — 772. 
The corona civilis (or, more commonly, civica) of oak leaves was 
given to him who had saved the life of a citizen. — 773. Of these 
towns, which Virgil represents as colonised from Alba, Nomentum 
and Fidenae (Vir^il uses the rarer singular form) were, in after- 
times, in the temtories of the Sabines, the rest in Latium in its 
widcst sense. — 775. This line is probably spurious. — 776. Fome- 
tio8, Suessa Fometia. /nttt, identified with the Greek Fan. — 778. 
Romulus, son of Mavors, Mars {Mavortius), is associated with Nu- 
mitor, father of his mother Ilia. — 779. Assaraci. See at 648. — 
780. Viden\ See at iii. 319. — 785. Rome, with its numerous he- 
roes, is compared to Cybele (Berecyntia, from Berecyntos, a moun- 
tain m Phrygia, where she was worshipped), who is identified here 
with Rhea or Terra, the mother of the gods. Cybele is generally 
represented as crowned with towers (turrita).— '790. Julius Caesar, 
Juli. See at i. 267. — 792. A splendid compliment to Octavianus 
Caesar, who received the cognomen of Ai^ustus, b. c. 27, eight 
years before Virgil*s death. — 793. Genus. See at iv. 12. 


Saecula qui rursus Latio, regnata per anra 

Saturno (juondam, super et Garamantas et Indos 796 

Profcret imperium ; jacet extra sidera tellus, 

Extra aiini soliscjue vias, ubi coelifer Atlas 

Axem humero torquet stellis ardentibus aptum. 

Hujus in adventum jam nuno et Caspia regna 

Rettponsis horrent divom et Maeotia tellus^ 800 

Kt septemgemini turbant trepida ostia Nili. 

Nec vero Alcides tantum telluris obivit, 

Fixerit aeripedem cervam licet, aut Erymanthi 

Pacarit nemoni, ct Lernam tremefecent arcu ; 

Nec, qui (^impineis victor juga fiectit habenis, 805 

Liber, agens celso Nysae de vertice tigris. 

£t dubitamus adhuc virtutem extendere factis, 

Aut metus Ausoiiia prohibet consistere terra? 

'Quis procul ille autem ramis insignis olivae 

Sacra ferens? Nosco crinis incanaque menta 810 

Rcgis Komani, primam qui legibus urbem 

Fundabit, Curibus parvis et paupere terra 

795. Saturno. Sce viii. 319, dcc. Garamantas, See at Ed, viiL 
44. iTidoB. These words are not to be constnied in their strict 
meaninc. Ilcrc Indos probably alludes generally to Eastem nations, 
as the rarthians. — 796. Virgil, by a strong exaggeration, cxtends 
the Roman arniB, undcr Augustus, beyond tne nortnern hemisphere 
{^extra sidera), and south of tne zodiac (extra anni, &c.). — 797. At» 
las. See at i. 741, iv. 247.-798. See iv. 482.-799. Virml repre- 
sents as cvcn thcn trcmbling at the prospect of the advent of Augus- 
tus, the inhabitants of the shorcs of the Caspian sea — the Hyrca- 
nians and Bactrians ; the inhabitants of the shores of the ralus 
Maeotis, thc sca of Asoph — the Scythians; and the Egyptians on 
tho Banka of the Nile with its scvcn mouths. — 801. Observe *»r- 
hant, used intransitively. See at v. 234. — 802. Virgil prefers the 
expeditions of Augustus to those of Hercules (Alcides^ see at 392), 
and Bacchus {Liber, comparc with Lyaeus, i. 686). — 803. The jour- 
neys and cxploits of Hercules are well known. Traditions of him 
are found connectcd with all countries, from India to the Straits of 
Gibraltar, and the Gcrmans and Celts had their Hercules. Cervam, 
The third labour of Hercules was to catch the brazen-footed stag of 
Ceryneia in Arcadia. He wounded it with an arrow (fixerit), and 
brought it alive to Mycenae. Erymanthi. See at v. 448. To bring 
alive to Mycenae the boar of Eryiiianlhus, was his fourth labour. — 
804. Lernam. See at 286. — 806. The later traditions ascribed to 
Bacchus a wide cxtent of conqucst, from India to Spain. Persecuted 
by JuVio, he .was slieltered in the cave of Mount Nisa in Thrace. 
He is often reprcsented as drawn by tigers. See Ecl. y. 29. — 808. 
Ausonia. See p. 180, line 5. — 809. Quis—'ferens, cither a ques- 
tion put by Aeneas, or an exclamalion of doubt from Anchises him- 
Belf. — 811. Resis, Numa. — 812. Cures, a town of the Sabines, 
whence, accoroing to sonic accounts, thc name given to the Romans 

LIBER VI. 287 

Missus in imperium magnum. Cui deinde subibit, 

Otia qui rumpei patriae residesque movebit 

Tullus in arma viros et jam desueta triumphis 816 

Agmina. Quem juxta sequitur jactantior Ancus, 

Nunc quoque jam nimium gaudens popularibus auris. 

Vis et Tarquinios reges, animamque superbam 

Ultoris Brutij fascesque videre receptos? 

Consulis imperium hic primus saevasque secures 820 

Accipiet, natosque pater nova bella moventis 

Ad poenam pulchra pro libertate vocabit, 

Infelix ! Utcumque ferent ea facta minores, 

Vincet amor patriae laudumque immensa cupido. 

Quin Decios Drusosque procul saevumque securi 826 

Aspice Torquatum et referentem signa Camillum. 

Illae autem, paribus quas fulgere cernis in armis, 

Concordes animae nunc et dum nocte premuntur, 

Heu quantum inter se bellum, si lumina vitae 

Attigerint, quantas acies stragemque ciebunt ! 830 

Aggeribus socer Alpinis atque arce JMonoeci 

Descendens, gener adversis instructus Eois. 

Ne, pueri, ne tanta animis adsuescite bella, 

Neu patriae validas in viscera vertite viris; 

Tuque prior, tu parce, genus qui ducis Olympo, 836 

«f Quirites. See vii. 710. — 815. Tullus Hostilius, the third king 
of Rome. — 816. AncuB Martius, the fourth king of Rome. — 818. 
In mentioning the Tarquinii^ Priscus and Superbus, he may include 
the sixth king, Servius Tullius, as the son-in-law of the former, 
and his heir. — 819. Bruti^ the first Brutus, who was one of the 
principal agents in gaining for the people the power indicated by the 
fasces—^ihe bundle of rods carried before the chief rulers of the state, 
and which originally, even in the time of the consuls, had the se- 
cures (820) attached to them. — 821. Alluding to the well-known 
condemnation to death of the sons of Brutus, by Brutus himself. — 
825. Two of the Decii^ father and son, devoted themselves in battle. 
Of the Druaif there were many celebrated, but they are mentioned 
here probably as a compliment to Livia, the second wife of Augus- 
tus, who was of the family. — 826. Torquatusi as is well known, 
put to death his son, for engaging (though successfuUy) in sinsle 
combat contrary to his orders. CamUlum. The reference is to tne 
victory of CamiUus over the Gauls. — 827. Illaet &c. Pompey and 
Julius Caesar. — 830. Observe attieerint, ciehunt. Their reaching 
the lighl of life, is to precede their iHoody provocation. — 831. Socer. 
Caesar^s daughter, Julia, was married to Pompey. As is well 
known, Caesar^s troops were composed of those veterans who had 
(bught with him in Gaul ; hence aggeribus (montibus) AlpiniSi and 
arce Monoeci Herculis, a promontory, with a templc ot Herculea 
MoQoecus, at the foot of tne Maritime Alps : while tlie forces of 
Pompey were principaliy from the east (Eois^ see at ii. 417). 


Projice tela manu, sanrruis tneus ! — 

IIlo triumphata Capitolia ail alta Corintho 

Victor aget currum, caesis insifftiis Achivis. 

EruL*t ille Argos Asiamemnoniasque Mycenas, 

Ipsumque Aoaciden, gcnus armi(X)tcntis Achilli, 840 

Ultus avos Troja»^, templa el tcmerata Minervae. 

Quis te, maijne Calo, taciium, aut le, Cosse, relinquat? 

Quis Gracchi senus, aut geminos, duo fulmina belli, 

Scipiadas, cladem Libyae, parvoque potentem 

Fabricium, vel te sulco, Serrane. serentem ? 845 

Quo fessum rapitis, Fabii ? tu Maximus ille es, 

Unus qui nobis cunctando restituis rem. 

Excudent alii spirantia mollius aera — 

Credo equidem — vivos ducent de marmore vultus, 

Orabunt causas melius, coelique meatus 850 

Describent radio et surgentia sidera dicent : 

Tu resrere imperio populos, Romane, mementoj 

Hac tibi erunt artes; pacisque imponere morem, 

Parcere subjectis, et debellare superbos.' 

Sic pater Anchises, atque haec mirantibus addit : 855 
'Aspice, ut insignis spo]ii.s Marcellus opimis 

836. Scc nt i. 534. — 837. Jlh. L. Mummius, who took Corinth, 
B. c. 14G. Ohservc thc construction, as if we could say, triumphare 
Corinthum. The crowning act of a triumph was a sacrifice and 
banquet in the Cnpitol. — 839. TZZe, &c. Tne allusion is probably 
to L. Acmilius Paulus, who defeated, B. c. 1G8, Pcrseus, king of 
Maccdonia — thc kings of Macedonia bonsting of beinff descended 
from AchiWas (Aeaciden ; see i. 99). This is poeticalTy macnified 
into the conquest of Grccce. Sce i. 283. — 841. Templa^ &c. There 
is hcrc probably nn allusion to the theft of tho Palladium. See at 
ii. 1(35. — 842. Cato the Censor probably is meant. Cossus elew 
Tolumnius, a cliicf of the Veicntes, and obtained the sccond gpolia 
opima. See at 85G. — 843. Gracchi eenu», the distineuished roce of 
tnc Gracchi, two of whom were celobrated as consuls, and two as 
tribuncs of thc pcople. — 844. The allusion is to thc Scipios^ who 
were the scourge of Africa. — 845. Fabricitt» distinguished himself 
against Pyrrhus, king of Epirus. C. Atilius, whose dictatorship 
wns announccd to him while cngagcd in sowing ; hence his surnamei 
Se.rra7ius. — 846. Of all tho celebrated clan of the Fabiif he selects 
Maximus Cunctator {ctnictando), the cautious opponent of Hannibal. 
— 847. This Hne is said to ho takcn from Ennius. — 848, &c. An 
animatcd npostrophc to thc Roman rnce, and a comparison between 
^heir superiority in war, and that of tho Greeks in tne arts of peace 
-statuarv in bronzc nnd marhle, eloquence, and astronomy. — 851. 
Badio. See at Ecl. iii. 41. — 852. Tm, emphatic. — 856. MarcdUM 
«vas consul b. c. 222, whcn ho slew on horscback (equea)^ with his 
own hand, Viridomnrus, a prince of the Insubrian Gauls, then en- 
gaged in a tumultus in ihe north of Italy. Hcnce he obtained the 
tnird spolia opima. Hc was also on<* of tho most gallant generaJa 

LIBER VI. 289 

Ingreditur, victorque viros supereminet omnis ! 

Hic rem Romanam, magno turbanle tumultu, 

Sistet eques, sternet Poenos Gallumque rebellem, 

Tertiaque arma patri suspendet capta Quirino.' 860 

Atque hic Aeneas; una namque ire videbat 

Egregiura forma juvenem et lulgentibus armis — 

Sed frons laeta parum, et dejecto lumina vultu : 

'Quis, pater, ille, virum qui sic comitatur euutem ? 

Filius, anne aliquis magna de stirpe nepotum ? 865 

Quis strepitus circa comitum ! quantum instar in ipso ! 

Sed nox atra caput tristi circumvolat umbra.' 

Tum pater Anchises, lacrimis ingressus obortis : 

' nate, ingentem luctum ne auaere tuorum ; 

Osiendent terris hunc tantum lata, neque ultra 870 

Esse sinent. Nimium vobis Romana propago 

Visa potens, Superi, propria haec si dona fuissent. 

Quantos ille virura magnam Mavortis ad urbem 

Campus aget gemitus ! vel quae, Tiberine, videbis 

Funora, cum tumulum praeterlabere recentem ! 875 

Nec puer Iliaca quisquam de gente Latinos 

In tantum spe tollet avos, nec Romula quondam 

UIlo se tantum tellus jactabit alumno. 

Heu pietas, heu prisca fides, invictaque bello 

Dextera ! non illi se quisquam impune tulisset 880 

Obvius armato, seu cum pedes iret in hostem, 

Seu spumantis equi foderet calcaribus armos. 

Heu, miserande puer. si qua fata aspera rumpas, 

Tu Marcellus eris. Mambus date lilia plenis, 

that contended against Hannibal {Poenos). — 860. Quiriiio. A name 
for the deiiied Romulus. — 861, &c. This is one ofthe most noted 
passages of the Aeneid, communicating the death of M. Claudiua 
Marcellus, nephew of Augustus, son ofthe emperor^s sister, Octa- 
via, who was destined by Augustus to succeed him, but who died, 
in hid twentieth year, b. c. 23. — 866. Instar may infer likeness to 
his father, but some think that it expresses maiesty, by a rare usc 
of the word. — 870. Referring to his youth when he died. — 874. 
CampuSj the well-known iille) Campus Martius. Tiberinus was the 
name of the river-god. See viii. 31. — 875. His funeral rites were 
celebraied by Augustus with the utmost magnificence, and his re- 
mains were depositcd in the burial-placc of the Julian family, 
erected on the Campus Martius, a little before, by Augiiistus.— 
877. Romula, the more common form is Romulea. — 880. Tulisset / 
881. iret ; indicating what he would have done, in the event of his 
attacking the enemy — which, however, did not happen. — 883. Si 
includes a wish (187) as well as a hypothesis. — 884. * Thou shalt 
he a Marcellus, worthy of the name.' This passage, read by Vir- 
gil to Augustus and Octnvia, is said to have excited overpoworing 
25 z 


Purpureos spargam flores, auimamque nepotis 885 

His saltem accumulem donis, et fungar inaai 

Sic tota passim regione vagantur 
Aeris in campis latis, atque omnia lustrant. 
Quae postquam Anchises natum per singuia daxit| 890 
Incenditque animum famae venientis amore, 
Exin beila viro memorat quae deinde gerenda, 
Laurentisque docet populos urbemque Latini, 
£t quo quemque modo fugiatque feratque laborem. 

Sunt geminae Somni portae, quarum altera fertur 893 
Cornea, qua veris facilis datur exitus Umbris ; 
Altera candenti perfecta nitens elephanto, 
Sed falsa ad coelum mittunt insomnia Manes. 
His ubi tum natum Anchises unaque Sibyllam 
Prosequitur dictis, portaque emittit eburna, 9<K) 

Ille viam secat ad navis sociosque revisit; 
Tum se ad Caietae recto fert litore portum. 
Ancora de prora jacitur; stant litore puppes. 

emotions iii the mother*8 heart. Mdnibuf, &c. Alluding to i 
practicc, common still in many countries, of strewing graves with 
flowers. — 885. Purpureos, referring probably to their beaiity* 
See at Ecl. ix. 40. — 893. Laurentumt on the coast south of tbe li- 
bcr, was the residence of kin^ Latinus. It was said to derive iti 
namc from the laurels with which it abounded (vii. 59, &c.). The 
allusion is to thc war between Aeneas and the Latine, the ■object 
of thc next six hooks. — 894. See iii. 459. — 895, &c It ia not eaiT 
to scc why Virgil has choscn this method of diemiieing Aenets and 
the Sibyl from Hades. The description of the two gatea ie bor- 
rowed from Homcr, Od. xix. 562. Nor can a aatiafactory naaon be 
given why they lcave throu^h the portal of fiilee dreama. Doei 
Virf^il mcan to insinuate that it was more capacious than the otbwt 
— 902. Caieta, said to be named from the nursa of AenoM, who 
dicd there, viii. 1 — a promontory and town of liatium. JBaeCo lahprak < 
means ' in a stroight line along the sbore.' See a eimilar txpm* | 
eion, viii. 57, recto lluminey *straight up the river.' Ilie udM I 
was thrown fronn the prow, which remained in deep water, wtJb 
tho stems were tixcd on the shore. See 3. 



Thk nurse of Aeneas dies, and gives name to Cateta (see at vi. 
900). After which he sails northwards, 1-9. By the favour 
of Neptune, the fleet is waHied safe, during the night, past 
Circaei^ the supposed residence of the sorceress Circe (see p. 
180, line 41), in Virgirs time joined to the main land, though 
they hear the sounds of the beasts, into which the potions of 
the goddess have changed her unhappy visitors, 10-24. At 
dawn, they enter the mouth of the Tiber, 25—36. About to 
narrate the war between the Trojans and the Latins, Virgil 
mvokes the Muse, 37-44. Latinus was formerly king of the 
country, and had one daughter, for whose hand Turnus was a 
suitor, favoured by her mother Amata, 44-57. The marriage, 
however, was opposed by various evil portents, 57-80. La- 
tinus consults the oracle of Faunus at AUnmea^ whose precise 
locality is disputed, and is warned that he must give his 
daughter in marriage to a stranger, 81-101. This response 
was well known in Latium when Aeneas arrived, 10^106. 
Aeneas and his chiefs going on shore and feasting, eat the 
bread which lulus sportively calls their tables, and thus the 
dreadful prophecy of the Harpies (iii. 255, &c.) is explained 
away, 107—119. Overjoyed, Aeneas proclaims a solemn fes- 
tival in honour of the gods, their distinct place of settlement 
being now ascertained, 120—147. Next day, after partially 
exploring the Tiber^ and the adjoining^Aufriiciw, Aeneas sends 
dcputies to Laurentum (see at vi. 891), where they find the 
youth engaged in various sports, 148—165. Latinus admits 
the Trojans to an interview, and profiers them hospitable 
shelter, 166-211. Informed that they want a settlement and 
peace, Latinus deems that Aeneas is the stranger referred to 
by the oracle, offers bim bis daughter in marriage, ttnd dis* 
misses the deputies with costly presents, 212-285. Juno, 
ilying tbrough the heavens, sees that the Trojans have deserted 
the ships, and determines, if she cannot prevent their ultimate 
success, to retard it by war, 266—322. She summons frpm the 
lower world the Fury Alecto, whom she instructs to kindle 
war, 323-340. Amata, stung by Alecto's art, first remonstrates 
with Latinus against the projected marriage, 341-372. She 
becomes wild at his rejection of her remonstrance, and con- 
veys her daughter to the woods, pretending to celebrate the 
rites of Bacchus (see at iv. 301). She is joined by the woroen 
of Latium, 392-405. Alecto betakes berself eastward to Ar- 
dea^ the city of Turnus, kiug of tbe Rutuli, a Latian tribe. 

292 A£>'LlI>OS. 

where she finds the princc asleep, 406—414. She presentt 
herselfin a vision as the aged priestess of Juno, and stirs hira 
to oppose Aeneas, 415— 434. Turnus treats the inatter lightly, 
on which Alecto discloses herself, and he awakes, roused to 
frenzjr, 435-4G6. Ho assembles his warriors, determined on 
war against Aeneas, and Latinus also, if the latter should 
refuse to join him, 407—474. lulns happened to be hunting, 
and Alecto directs his hounds against the pet stag of the 
family of Tyrrheus, the herdsman of king Latinus, 475-495. 
Woimded by lulus, it takes shelter in the house of Tyrrbeus, 
406—502. Tyrrheus calls to arms, Alecto winds the signal 
horn, and the peasants rush to the fray, while lulus is sup- 
ported by reinforcements from the camp, 503—530. The first 
blood is shed, 531-539. Juno orders to her train the exulting 
Fury, who descends by tlie Lake Amasancli^ in the country 
of the Hirpini, a Samnian tribe, 540—571. Jnno conducts the 
continuance of the strife which rages on, the shepherds bearing 
to the city the tidings of the fray, and Turnus, with others, 
joining with them in the demand for vengeance, 572-585. 
Latinus resists, but is overpowered, and leaves the manage- 
xnent of the war to others, 586— GOO. On his refusal to open 
\he temple of Janus — the signal of war — Juno herself does it, 
601-622. The jSusonians (see p. 180, line 5) prepare for 
war, of whose cities are named, perhaps to indicate the con- 
fines, jitina on a branch of the Liris, Tibur on the Anio, ArdMO^ 
jintemnaCj at tbo junction of the Anio and the Tiber, and Crut- 
tumerium on the Sabine side of the Tiber, 623-640. Another 
invocation to the Muses, 641-646. List of Italian kings and 
states engaged in the war. From AgyUot aflerwards Caert^ 
in Etruria, Mezentius, with his son Lausus, 647-654. Aven- 
tinus, from the Aventint hill, in Latium, 655-669. Catillus and 
Coras, Argives, from Tibur, 610-611. Caeculus, from Proe» 
fttste, south-east of Tibur, with the warriors of Gabii (see vi. 
773), the inhabitants of the banks of the jinio, and of the 
jS.ma8enu8f the former a tributary of the Tiber, the latter flow- 
ing into the Tuscan sea at Anxur, and jinagnia in the country 
of the Hernicif 679-^90. Messapus at the head of Tyrrhenian 
Uoops from JPescennwm, FalerO, Mount Soracte, Capena, all 
near the west bank of the Tiber ; Flavinium, whose site is 
unknown ; and the mountain and lake of CifmntM, west of 
Falerii, 691-705. Clausus at the head of Sabine troops from 
Foruli and Amitemum^ aAerwards in the country of the Ves 
tini, near the source of the Aternus ; the Quirites (see at vi 
811), tho men of Erettmi^ and Nomnntum^ near the Allia; Mur- 
tueca^ probably on Mount Lucretilis, east of Curea ; the inha- 
bitants of the country round lako FUtntM, whose waters flow 


Into the Nar ; of Nursia, on Mount TetrieuSj a branch of the 
Apennines, from which the Nar flows ; and SeveruSt probably 
a peak of the same range ; Casperia, on the river Himella, a 
branch of the Tiber ; Fabaris, another branch ; Hortay a town 
on the Tuscan side of the Tiber, near its confluence with the 
Nar ; the Latin tribes in the neighbourhood, and those on the 
banks of tbe Mlia, that unlucky tributary of the Tiber (tnfaus" 
tum nomen)^ where the Romans were defeated by the Gauls, 
706-722. Halesus, the charioteer of Agamemnon, leads war- 
riors from Campania; the Jiurtmci on the south side of the 
Liris, from the Massic hills, celebrated for their vines; Sidicium 
Cales^ in the Falernian district ; Saticulaf on the river Vul- 
turnus ; and the Osci^ a tribe settled further south, 723—732. 
Oebalus also led from Campania, the Sarrastes from the banks 
of the SarnuSf which flows into the sea at Pompeii; the men 
of Rufrae and Jlhella^ near the source of the Cianius ; and from 
Samnium, the men of Batulwn^ and perhaps Celenna, whose 
site is not known, 733—743. Ufens led a body of the Aequi- 
culae, or Aequi, a small but hardy tribe at the source of the 

. Anio; from Nersae, whose situation is unknown, 744—749. 
The priest Umbro headed the Marsi^ from Marrubiumf on the 
norih of Fucinus^ a lake in the Apennines, the grove of wfn- 
guitia being on the south, 760-760. From Aricia (with its 
lake sacred to Diana, humentia litora, and^see 616), north of 
Ardea, came Virbius, son of Hippolytus, aAerwards Virbius, 
and the Nymph Aricia, 761-782. Turnus himself headed the 
Rutulians, with the Jlunmci from the north side of the Liris ; 
the Sicanij the (jlborigines) early inbabitants of Italy; the Sa- 
crani, who probably at one time lived near the lake Fucinus; 
the inhabitants of Labecumy a town west of Praenesti, and of 
the banks of the Tiber SLnd Numidus ; and the town of Cireaei; 
and ^nxur, where Jupiter was worshipped under tbe name 
of Anxurus, and was said to be married to Feronia, wbo had 
a grove and temple near; of tbe marshy country of Satura^ 
which probably formed a part of the Pontine marshes, over- 
flowed by the Ufens and Amasenns, 783—802. The Volseians 
were led by the female warrior Camilla, 803—817. 

In this book Virgil has coUected the traditions of the early settle- 
ments of Italy, without regard to chronological exactness, but 
with that remarkable knowledge of the history of his country, 
and attention to correct delineament, for which ke is de* 
servedly celebrated. 

Tu quoque litoribus nostris, Aetieia nutrix, 
Aeternam moriens famam; Caieta, dedisti; 
Et nunc servat honos sedem tuus, ossaque nomen 

HeifWTia io magna, ai qaa oH ea gloria, Bignat. 

At pius exsequiia Aeneas rite aolutia, 

Aggere composito tuittLili, postquam alta qaiamnt 

Aequora, tendil iler velis, portumque rolinqiiit. 

AdspirHiit aurae iti nactsDi, nec candida cursQH 

Luna negat ; Bplendet iremulo aub InmiDe pontua. 

Froxima Circaeae raduiilur litora terrae, 

Dives iuaccessos ubi Solis filia Incos 

Adsiduo resouat cantu, lectisque snperbis 

Urlt odoralam riocluma in luaiiDa cedmm, 

Arguto tenuis percurrens pectine telaH. 

Hinc e.\auditi gemilus iiaeque leonum, 

Vinola recusatilum et sera sub iiocte rudenlani } 

Saeti^rique sues atque in praesepibus urai 

Saevire, ao formae magnorum ulalare luporuni, 

QuoB hominum ex facie dea HaeTa poleatiboa taerbii 

Induerat Circe in vultus ac leiga ferarum. 

Qnae ne monstra pii palerentur talia Troes 

Delati in portus, neu litora dira sabiieut, 

NeptunUB ventis implev It vela eecunditt, 

Atque fugam dedit, et praeler vada fervida veut. 

Jamque rubescebat radiis mare, el aetfaaia ab «110 I 
Aurora in roBeis fulgebal lutea bigia: 
Cum Tenti pOBuere, ornnisquEs repente resedit 
Flalus, et in lento luctanlut marmore tonaaa. 
Alqae hio Aeneaa ingentem ez aei]Dore lucam 
Prospicit. Hunc inter fluvio TiberinuB amoeno, i 

VorticibuB Tapidis, et mulla flaTDa arena, 
In mare prorumpit. Variae circamque supraqaa 
Aeeuetae ripis volucrea et fluminis alveo 
Aetheia molcebant canlu, iQcoque Tolabonl. 
Flectere iter sociis terraeque acTverlere proraa 3 

Imperat, et laetus Huvio succedit opaco. 

Nunc age, qui reges, Erato, quae tempora renun, 
QuJB Latio antiquo fuerit etHlus, adTena □lassem 
Cum primum Ausoniis exercitus adpulit oria, -^'c- 

Expeuiaro, el primae tevocabo exonlia pngnae. ' i^ 
Ta valem, lu, diva, mone. Dicam horrida bella, 

4. ttfperia. See i. 530. — 5. Pim. Seei.37B.~n. SoHiPit. 
Circo. — 12. SenHtat, Iransitive. as in £d. i 5. — 15. ^ =*-* 

historical tnfinilivD. — 21. Qaae lalia fnfintlra, 'luch p 

clianges as ihese.' — 27. Fotum, &c. See al i. 234,— 33. .lUm. 
pronounce ns a diesyllBbla. —37. Erato, the Mu«v -f love poeuy 
bere rcpieeenling ihe Muse geneiallf. Or, ia ihe i-ii\inT' aEna 
of the word, tho nlluBion may be lo the wai thi 
vinia liitidlcil. —39. AutMiik. Sec p. 180, lino 5. 


Dicam acies, actosque animis in funcra reges, 
Tyrrhenamque manum, totamque sub arma coactam 
Hesperiam. Major rerum mihi nascitur ordo, 
Majus opus moveo. 

Rex arva Latinus et urbes 45 

Jam* senior longa placidas in pace regebat. 
Hunc Fauno et nympha genitum Laurente Marica 
Accipimus; Fauno Picus pater; isque parentem 
Te, Saturne, refert ; tu sanguinis ultimus auctor. 
Filius huic fato divora prolesque virilis 60 

NuUa fuit, primaque oriens erepta juventa est. 
Sola domum et tantas servabat iilia sedes, 
Jam matura viro, jam plenis nubilis annis. 
Multi illam magno e Latio totaque petebant 
Ausonia; petit ante alios pulcherrimus omnis 55 

Turnus, avis atavisque potens, quem regia conjunx 
Adjungi generum miro properabat amore ; 
Sed variis portenta deum terroribus obstant. 

Laurus erat tecti medio in penetralibus altis, 
Sacra comam, multosque metu servata per annos 60 

Quam pater inventam, primas cum conderet arces^ 
Ipse ferebatur Phoebo sacrasse Latinus, 
Laurentisque ab ea nomen posuisse colonis. 
Hujus apes summum densae — mirabile dictu — 
Stridore ingenti liquidum trans aethera vectae, 65 

Obsedere apicero, et, pedibus per mutua nexis, 
Examen subitum ramo frondente pependit. 
Continuo vates, ' Externum cernimus,' inquit, 
'Adventare virum; et partis petere agmen easdem 
Partibns ez isdem, et summa dominarier arce.' 70 

Praeterea, castis adolet dum altaria taedis, 
Ut juxta geaitorem adstat Lavinia virgo, 
Visa, nefas, longis coroprendere crinibus ignem, 
Atque omnem ornatum flamma crepitante cremari, 
Regalisqne acoensa comas, accensa coronam, 75 

43. Tyrrhenum, &-c. See at vi. 697.-47. Faunot an Italian god, 
who protected shepherdB, and pronounced oracles (see 81), aUer- 
wards identified with the Greek Pan. See at Ecl. v. 59.— 
56. TnrnuB, the son of Daunus (x. 116) and Venilia (x. 76), kmg 
of the Rutuli, a tribe of Latium, descended through Danae, daugh- 
ter of Acrisius, king of Argos, from the Argives. See 373. Con- 
junXf Amata, the wife of Latinus. — 64, &c. See at Georg. iv. 558. 
—69. Ab the bees came through the air across the sea (trans aetkera), 
■o a foreiffner was to come across the seas, and settle in the citadel, 
bere betokened by the top of the laurel. — 70. Dominaner^ ioxdomi' 
flMnt. See iv. 493. — 73. Nefatj contrary to the laws of nature, andof 
«vil omen — 75. Comast iho accusative of limitation. See at iv. 558 


gemmis; lum fnmida iDouns fnlvB 
, c tolis Volcanum spsrgera leolia. 

1(1 vero horronilum ac tIbu mir».biIo farri : 
Namquo furn illusircm fama faliaquB eanebuit 
Ipsam, ecd populo magnum porieiidere belliiiii. I 

At rex 6ol1icitus monatriB, oiaciila FBuni, 
Falidici geniloris, adit, lucOEque Bub alta 
Cansulit Atbuiiea, rieraorum quae mctxinu moio 
Faiite EoiiBl, Bacvamque exhalat opacK mephitinia 
Hinc Italae gentea omnisque Oenotria lelluB t 

In dubiis rcaponsa petunt; huc dona sacerdofl 
Cum tulil, et caesarum ovium aub rocie silenti 
Pellibua incubuit stralis BomnoBque petirit, 
Multa raodis simukcra videt vonianlia miril, 
£t varias audit voces, frniluique deonim I 

Colloquio, atque imis Acheronta aAktar ATernLi, 
Hic et lum pater ipse pelena reBponra Latinua 
Centum laiiigems mactabal rile Didentie, 
Alque harum effultus lergo simtiBquo jaoebat 
VerieribuB; subita ex alto voi reddita luco mI; i 

'Ne pete coniiubiis natam eociare Laliiiia, 
O mea progenieH, thalamiB neu credo pnratiaj 
Externi vetiiunt generi, qui Ban^iue noatniia 
Nomen in astra ferant, quommque ab itiipa nn n o l a» 
Omnia Eiub pedibus, qua Sol uirumqne reanrrana U 
Aspicit Oceanum, vertique regique Tidebnnt.' 
Haec responsa patria Fauni moiiitiuqne nlaati 
Nocte datos non ipee buo pramil oreLaliira^ 
Sed circum late voliians jam Fama per orbM 
Ausonias lulerat, cum Laomedonlia pnbM U 

Gramineo ripae religavit ab aggere iiliMiiii 

Aeneas Drimique dnces et pnlehsr Inlna ^ 

Corpota BUD larais deponunt arboris attae, ' ■'' 

Instituunlque dapes, et atiorea liba per herbam 
Subjiciunl epulifi — aio Jupiler ille monebat — M 

77. roIcBnuin. See al ii. 311. — 79. Canshint 

VatBB 82. FatidicL Sesat47.— S5. Ocnotria. See Bl L S 

SB. Bee B Highlnnd uasge eoinewhBt Bimiiar, dsBeribed ii> S 
Lady Bfthe Ijiki!, canio iv, note 2, T. — 91. AtMti-anta, for ui 

--. —91. Tsrgo.loreoribua. — 96. i , 

three eyllables, canau5yi*. — 97. Thahonit paratit, the matiMt 
withTurnua. — 9a. Qai,Vi\eB\uftTaiit. — X(ib.Laoa'~lotata. &t 

..:.. c.n ..: iT.o ,r.^ Tw L.. lasiened iJ > — 

-110. Th. 

foad itpulii) o! witd fruilB (poinu agreilibiu) oi 
(adorca liba) baing tho Biil of C '■ "'' ' 

\. The rope thnt bstened ll VfSMl ot» 



Et Cereale solum pomis agrestibus augent. 

Consumplis hic forte aliis, ut vertere morsus 

Exiguam in Cererem penuria adegit edendi, 

Et violare manu malisque audacibus orbem 

Fatalis crusti, patulis nec parcere quadris: 115 

*Heus. etiam mensas consumimus!' inquit lulus; 

Nec plura alludens. Ea vox audita laborum 

Prima tulit finem, primamque loquentis ab ore 

Eripuit pater, ac stupefactus numine pressit. 

Continuo, ^ Salve fatis mihi debita Tellus, 120 

Vosque,' ait, 'o fidi Trojae salvete Penates: 

Hic domus, haec patria est. Genitor mihi talia namque, 

Nunc repeto, Ancnises fatorum arcana reliquit : 

Cum te, nate, fames ignota ad litora vectum 

Accisis coget dapibus consumere mensas, 125 

Tum sperare domos defessus ibique memenlo 

Prima locare manu molirique aggere tecta. 

Haec erat illa fames; haec nos suprema manebat| 

Exitiis positura modum. 

Quare agite et primo laeti cum lumine solis, 130 

Quae loca, quive habeant homines, ubi moenia geatis, 

Vestigemus, et a portu diversa petamus. 

Nunc pateras libate Jovi, precibusgue vocate 

Anchisen genitorem, et vina reponile mensis.' 

Sic deinde effatus frondenti lempora ramo 135 

Implicat, et Geniumque loci primamque deorum 

Tellurem Nymphasque et adhuc ignota precatur 

Flumina; tum Noctem Noctisque orientia Signa 

Idaeuraque Jovem Phrygiamque ex ordine Matrem 

Iiivocat, et duplicis Coeloque Ereboque parentes. 140 

Hic pater omnipotens ter coelo clarus ab alto 

Intonuit, radiisque ardentem lucis et auro 

Ipse manu quatiens ostendit ab aethere nubem. 

Diditur hic subito Trojana per agmina rumor, 

Adveuisse diem, quo debita moenia condant. 145 

Bolum, V. 199) 114. Malis. See at iii. 257. — 117. AUuderUf 

either Mesting,' or *referring/ alluding to the prophecy (iii. 257) 
thus fulnlled. — 123. Anchises. Either Aeneas.or Virgil has made 
a mistake here. See iii. 257, 394. — 128. Haec famesi the hunger 
now impellin^ us to eat the cakes, erat^ was, at the time of the pro* 
phecy, iZ/a, the hunger tken foretold. See at iii. 558. — 132. 2?»- 
vena, taking different directions. — 136. Genium. See at v. 95. 
Frimami eitner as the mythic origin of all things, or especially the 
earth goddess. — 139. Idaeum. See p. 179, Hne 26. Jupiter was 
Indden tbere by his mother from the devouring jaws of Saturn. 
f krg g km matrem, Cybele. See p. 179, line 34. — 140. His mother 
"^ WM in heaven, his father Anchises among the shades beiow. 

Ccrtatim JnfUunnt epulas, atqne omine nutgntt 
Crateraa laeli slalunnt ei vina coiDuaiit. 

Puslera cum prima Iu9tra.bal lampaJs terna 
Oria ilieii. urbem et finis el lilora gentia 
Uivfrsi Kxploraiil ; haec ronlis rtagna Numici. 
Hunc Thybrim Auviura, hic forlis babilare I 
Tum salus Anchina deleclos ordine ab omiii 
CeiiluTTi oratores augusla. aif moeiiia regii 
Ire jubet, ramis velalos Palladis omnis, 
1}a[ia.qLie fuire viro, pacemque exposcera Teucris. 
Ilut.u1 moia. fe$ti[)ant iussi rapidisque feruntur 
Pa>sibus. Ipee bumili deaiguB.t moenia foan, 
Molilurque locum, primascjue in litore sedea 
Castrorum in morem pinuis atque ag^rere cingit. 
Jamque iler emensi turriB ac lecta Latioomm 
^rdua cernebant juvenes, muroqoe subibant. 
Anle urbem pueri et primaevo nore iuventns 
£.vercciilur equis, domilantque in pulvere curnia, 
Aut ncris lenaunt arcus, aut lenta, lacerlis 
Spicula contorquent, cursuqae ictugue laceHont: 
Cum pracveuIUR cquo longaevi regiB ad ■nria 
Nuiitius ingentis ignota io veste repoilat 
Adveiiisse viros. llle inlra tecla rocari 
Imperat. et Bolio medius conBcdit avito, 
Tectum auguslum, ingens, cenium «Dbliine 
Urbu fuit Eumma, Laurentis regia Pioi, 
Horrendum silvis et religione pa,rentuta. 
Hic BCfpIra accipere el primos attollere faaoM 
Itegibus omeu erat; hoc illis curia templiun, 

Hae saKris sedes epulis; hic arir' 

Ferpeiuis soliti patres considere 
Quin clium veterum efHgieB ez oram 
Autiqua c cedro, Ilaluaque, palerque 

147. Vina tonmant. Sec til Gnrg. ii. S28, tn 
mvtrti. fiee m. — VA. BemU FaOadit. Th( , 

ofpBacD. wnasscrcd ioFbIIob. — 153. Dma, Iheia' 
&C. — IGO. LoiiBanim — uir Glided before.i4niM.. 
Iiia pnlarp, hiii ilio lemple of PiouB, ' ~ ■ " 

mnn ui-BKij wBS for ihe SDnnie lo roi 

canHDitruiril liuildiiiga. — iC^.AvilBi Picus. Bse 
Reoni vi.ttlU, — ITI- Ei-rit hy the arsis. Citriat 
S05._ n.'i. 4riele, ihree syllnblcs. aru^f.— 176. 
iirakrii rnnec "ii piobnlily conlnuted wiih tho . 
bunrd^ uf privatB fciisiB. Sae st i. 733. — ITS. Pn: 
nra licri! cnumcraled, In Islo Ijmes, ihey ' 

nrcch dvitios, tii wlioni ibey boro 

Ccdro—o imclidei. 


Vitisator, curvam servans sub imagine falcem, 
Saturnusque senex Janique bifrontis imago, 180 

Vestibulo adstabant, aliique ab origine reges, 
Martiaque ob patriam pugnando vulnera passi. 
Multaque praeterea sacris in postibus arraa, 
Captivi pendent currus, curvaeque secures, 
Et cristae capitum, et portarum ingentia claustra, 185 
Spiculaque clipeique ereptaque rostra carinis. 
Ipse Quirinali iituo, parvaque sedebat 
Succinctus trabea, laevaque ancile gerebat 
PicuR, equum domitor; quem capta cupidine conjunx 
Aurea percussum virga versumque venenis 190 

Fecit avem Circe, sparsitque coloribus alas. 
Tali intus templo divom patriaque Latinus 
Sede sedens Teucros ad sese in tecta vocavit ; 
Alque haec ingressis placido prior edidit ore : 
'Dicite, Dardanidae, neque enim nescimus et urbem 195 
£t genus, auditique advertitis aequore cursum, 
Quid petitis? quae causa rates, aut cujus egentes 
Litus ad Ausonium tot per vada caerula vexit 1 
Sive errore viae, seu tempestatibus acti, 
Qualia multa mari nautae patiuntur in alto, 200 

Fluminis intrastis ripas portuque sedetis, 
Ne fugite hospitium, neve ignorale Latinos 
Saturni gentem, haud vinclo nec legibus aequam, 
Sponte sua veterisque dei se rnore tenentem. 
Atque equidem memini — fama est obscurior annis— 205 
Auruncos ita ferre senes, his ortus ut agris 
Dardanus Idaeas Phrygiae penetrarit ad urbes 
Threiciamque Samon, quae nunc Samothracia fertur. 
Hinc illum Corythl Tyrrhena ab sede profectum 
Aurea nunc solio steliantis regia coeli 210 

Accipit et nnmerum<divorum altaribus addit.' 
Dixerat , et dicta Ilioneus sic voce secutus ', 

186. Spicula(fui hy the arsis. — 187. Construe ; ipse Picus ...»«- 
lebat Quirinah liluo (an augur^s stafT bent at the end, such as that 
>orne by Quirinus^ RomuTus, hcre taken to rcprcsent the pure 
Roman race) et succinctus parva trabea (a striped togei, appropriated 
:o high functionaries ; parva^ probably to mark the frugality of the 
;ime. See 612). — 190. Aurea, dissyllablo, aurya. — 191. Circey en- 
imoured of Picus (conjunx ; see at jBcl. viii. 18), chan^cd the imwil- 
ing king into the bird bearing his name. — 206. Auruncos. See 
). 180, HneT. — 207. Idaeas. See at ii. 694. Urbes, Troy. — 208. 
Samotkraciat an island in the Ae^ean sca, south of Thrace. Virgil 
wn unites two legends in the history of Dardanus. Sce at i. 625, 
ud iiL 168.— 209. Corythl See at p. 180, line 4. — 212. Dixerat. 


' Ilex, genm egtegmm Fauni, neo fluotibus acloa 

Alra Bulwgit hioms vuslris succeiJere terrJB, 

IS'ec hiJus regionu viae lilusve fefellit ; 

CoiiRilio hauc cniiies auimisque volenlibna urbem 

Adfcrirour] pulsi rei^ts, qune niaxima quandain 

K.vlremo veuiens Sol aspiciebat Olympo. 

Ab Jove principiDm geiieris ; Jove Dardana pubes 

Gaudel avo; tux ipse Jovis de genle auprema, 

Tmius Aenens, liia iioa ad limitia rnisit. 

Quania per Idaeos saevia effuBa Myceuia 

Tempestaa ierit campos, quibus actus uterque 

Eumpae atijue A.iiae fali^ concurrerit orbis, 

Audiil, et si quem tellus exlrema refuso 

Submovet Oceatie, et st quem extenta |ilaganitn 

Quatuor in medio dirimit plaga Solis iniqui. 

Dituvio ex illu tut vasta per aequoia vr "' 

Dia sedem exiftuam piitnis litusque ~- 

Iiinocuum, et cunctis uiidamque aur 

Nou erimus regno iiidccores, neo veslia feietar 

Fama leviH, t.inlive aboleacet gratia faoti, 

Neo Trojam Ausuiiioa "remio exoepiaqa rassbit- 

Fata per Aeueae juro dexlramqae pol^nwij 

Sive iide ssu qois bello est eipertn» Bt axm& i !3 

Molti nos populi, multae— ne lemne, tjabd tillro 

Praeferimus manibus vittas ac verba ptecantia — 

Et petiere aibi el voluere ailjuiigere geutesj 

Sca nos fala deum vcstras exquirere torraa 

Imperiis egere suis, Hinc Dardanus orliiB ; ii 

Huo repetit jusBisque ingenlibuii urguet ApoUo 

Tjrrhenum ad Thybrim et fonlis vada sacra Numici. 

Ikt tibi prasierea Forlunae parva prioris 

Munera, teliquias Tmja ei anlente receptas. 

""" "■-■r AnchiBeB auro libabalad araa; 

li geslamen eral, cum jura vocatis 


213. Gmm. See at iv. 13. — 315. As tii 
oonrBO by ihe BlarB, or iho line of shQre, b mistnltB 
tiona of eilher mighl lend ihem lo a caualry v^hic 
IBntion of viaiiine.-- ai3. Olampo. See at Eel v 
See Bt iii. 169.— 233, M>,rinli (aee i, SflS), pui for 

— 225, Tho elonn thal BWepi over Troy hoa bsen 

north and the Houlh — Ihe torrid lone lying bBlweoo' 
See Ovid. Mii. i. 4S. — 326. Ocenno. B unelided. ' 
— 230. JnKocuum, where we shnll do harra 10 ooni 
Sn pence, and poworful in wnr. — 237. Frccanlia- 
prccanlya. — 246. GeKamm, preBenling aceplce, 


More daret populis, sceptrumque sacerque tiaras 
Iliadumque Jabor vestes.' 

Talibus Ilionei dictis defixa Latinus 
Obtutu tenet ora, soloque immobilis haeret 250 

Intentos volvens oculos. Nec purpura regem 
Picla movet, nec sceptra movent Priameia tantum, 
Quantum in connubio natae thalamoque moraturj 
Et veteris Fauni volvit sub pectore sortem: 
Hunc illum fatis externa ab sede profectum 255 

Portendi generum, paribusque in regna vocari 
Auspiciis; huic progeniem virtute fuluram 
Egregiam, et totum quae viribus occupet orbem. 
Tandem laetus ait : * Di nostra incepta secundent 
Auguriumque suum! Dabitur, Trojane, quod optas. 260 
Munera nec sperno. Non vobis, rege Latino, 
Divitis uber agri Trojaeve opulentia deerit. 
Ipse modrf Aeneas, nostri si tanta cupido est, 
Si jungi hospitio properat sociusque vocari, 
Adveniat, vultus neve exhorrescat amicos. 265 

Pars mihi pacis erit dextram tetigisse tyranni. 
Vos contra regi mea nunc mandata referte. 
Est mihi nata, viro gentis quam jungere nostrae 
Non patrio ex adyto sortes, non plurima coelo 
Monstra sinunt j generos externis affore ab oris — 270 
Hoc Latio restare — canunl, qui sanguine nostrum 
Nomen in astra ferant. Hunc illum poscere fata 
El reor, et, si quid veri mens augurat, opto.' 
Haec effatus equos numero pater eligit omni. 
Stabant ter centum nitidi in praesepib^s altis. 275 

Oranibus extemplo Teucris jubet ordine duci 
Instratos ostro atipedes pictisque tapetis; 
Aurea pectoribus demissa monilia pendent ; 
Tecti auro, fulvum mandunt sub dentibus aurum; 
Absenti Aeneae currum geminosque jugalis 280 

Semine ab aetherio, spirantis naribus ignem, 
Illorum de gente, patri quos daedala Circe 

^i^^— ^^— — ^— !■ ■■■ ■■III » 1 I ■ ■■ I ■ ■■■ ■-.- ■!■-■ ■ ■ ^^*— ^^— ^» » ■ ■ ■ ■ 

253. Connubio. Sec at 96. — 254. Sortem, an oracular responae. 
Bee 96, &c. — 256. Faribus auspiciis, ordained by heaven to have 
joint power with himself. Sec iv. 102. — 259. Secundent. See at 
ni. 36. — 262. Deerit, derit. — 266. Tyrannus in" the simple sense 
of rex. — 273. Latinus both deenis Aeneas to be the chosen one, and 
approTes of the choice. — 277. The coverings of the horses were of 
pnrple ipstro) cloth, embroidered with gola (pictis ; auro tecti, 279) 
—282. Circe had obtaincd, by siealth, a breed of horses from those 
eif- hsr father the sun-god, by a mare of raortal race. Patri quos, 
Vbkh.belonging to her father, or furata patri. 

Suppoaila de matre nothos furala creaTit. 
Talibus Aeitcarlao iloiils ilivlisque Latini 
Sublimes in equis re.leunl, pacemqoe reportant. 
Ecce aulem Iriiichiis sese (Bfurebat ab Argis 
Saeva Jovis cunjuiix, aurasquo invecta leiiebal, 
Et laetum Aeneati classemqiie ex aelhere loiiga 
Daritaiiiam Siculo jiroB|)exil ab usque Pacliyno. 
nioliti jam teota videtj jam ftlere tetrae, 
DcseruisBe rales. Stelit acri lixa ilolore. 
Tum quHBsaiis caput haec effuiiiljt peclore dicta : 
' Heu Rtirpem invisum, et fatis contraria noslria 
Fala Phtjf^m ! num Sigeis occurabete campis, 
Num capli potuetc capi t num iiicensa cremavit 
Troja virosi Meilias acies mediosque per ignia 
Inveiiere viam. At, credo, mea nomina tandem 
Fessa jacent, odiis aut e.vsatutata quievi — 
Quiu etiam paltia excussos infesla pet undas 
Ausa sequi, et prorugis tolo ms opponere ponlo. 
Absumplae in Teucros vires coebque marieqne. 
Quid Sytles, aul Scylla mihi, quid vasia Charjbdis 
Profuil ? oplato conduntur Tbybridis alveo, 
Securi pelagi atque mei. Macs perdere geatem 
Immanem Lapilnum valuit ; conoeiisii in iras 
Ipse deum aiiliquam geniior Caljd< 
Ast ego, magiia Jovia conjunx, nil linquere inaasum 
Quae polui inreiix, quae memet in onuua verti, 
Vincor ab Aenea. Quod ai mea numina non Bnnt I 
Magna salis, dubitem haud eqaid^m implaraie qood 

Fleclere si nequeo Superas, Acherontai movabo. 
Non dahitur regnis, esto, prohibera Latiaii, 

2S6. Inadiui, a river-god and mythic ktng of , 

CoBjuni, Juno. See i. 24. — 289. PatAyn», in 

line43. — 293. SeeapatBllet paBaaae, i._37, J^c— I 

of Troy were cnilcil Sigei, Iroia (ae neighbouriiiB 

that naniG. — 2%. We moy insert— No— ' ihoy h«.. 

WBV,' &.C. See nt iv. 369.-297. Crtda, ironio«l. 

' Nny, Bo far from theit arrival in Ilaly beii^ ihe reaull of HayaU' 

eecencc on my pan, I cvcn ilated, &.c. Sea L 65, &,c., v. 6oi, & 

— 302. Syrtei, .Sce the storm in thc firBt booli, the Syitsl-)M(i 

neing put for ihe Alricon eands generally. ScWia, CiloruMi>, BH 

iii. 554. &c. — 303. .^iJueo. Sce at 33.— 305. iopil/iiiin. Saa*t« 

601. The atlusion is lo tl 

CenlnutH. — 306. Cofyrfono, 

elccled ihe worahip of Diana, waa pui 
monstroua boat. — 313. Eito. 3ee al ii 


Atque Immota manet fatis Lavinia conjunx : 

At trahere, atque moras tantis licet addere rebus ; 315 

At licet amborum populos exscindere regum. 

Hac gener atque socei*cocant mercede suorum. 

San^ine Trojano et Rutulo dotftbere, virgo, 

Et Beiiona manet te pronuba. Nec face tantum 

Cisseis praegnans ignis enixa jugalisj 320 

Quin idern Veneri partus suus et Paris alter, 

Funestaeque ilerum recidiva in Pergama laedae.' 

Haec ubi dicta dedit, terras horrenda petivit; 
Luctificam Allecto dirarum ab sede dearum 
Infeniisque ciet tenebris, cui tristia bella 325 

Iraeque insidiaeque et crimina noxia cordi. 
Odit et ipse pater Pluton, odere sorores 
Tartareae monstrum : tot sese vertit in ora, 
Tam saevae facies, lot pullulat atra colubris. 
Quam Juno his acuit verbis, ac talia fatur: 330 

'Hunc mihi da proprium, virgo sata Nocte, laborem, 
Hanc operam, ne noster honos infractave cedat 
Fama loco, neu connubiis ambire Latinum 
Aeneadae possint, Italosve obsidere finis. 
Tu potes unanimos armare in proelia fratres 335 

Atque odiis versare domos, tu verbera tectis 
Funereasque inferre faces ; tibi nomina mille, 
Mille nocendi artes. Fecundum concute pectus; 
Disjice compositam pacem, sere crimina belli; 
Arma velit poscatque simul rapiatque juventus.' 340 

Exin Gorgoneis Alleclo infecta venenis 
Principio Latium et Laurentis tecta tyranni 
Celsa petit, tacitumque obsedit limen Amatae, 
Quam super adventu Teucrum Turnique bymenaeis 
Femineae ardentem curaeque iraeque coquebant. 345 
Huic dea caenileis unum de crinibus anguem 

317. Hacmerccdej war and bIood8hed. — 319. Pronuha. See at iv. 
9.' — 320. Hecuba {Cissets ; see at v. 537) had dreamed, before the 
irth of Paris, that her oifspring was a blazing torch. Juno applies 
tiis to Venus. Hcr offspring ipartus suus), Aeneas, was to be 
qually a source of destruction {tdem) to his race — to reviving Troy 
recidiva Pergama ; see at ii. 177) as Pam. — 324. Allecto^ the Greek 
ccusative, *AXXi7«crc5. It is sometimes given Alecto. Sede. See vi. 
71. Observe the construction, cui cordi sunt, bring a heartfelt 
elight. — 327. Pluton. See at iv. 702. — 332. Infracta, frora in- 
ringo. Sce at i. 680 : infringatur et cedat. — 333. Connubiis. See 
t 96. —341. Gorfroneis. See at ii. 616, vi. 286. Venenis probably 
efers to the venomous effccts of the serpents with which Allecto 
tang her victims (346), and with which her head was encircled, as 
feaoBa'! was. 


CoiijicLt inquc sjiium praecordia a.(l intinia Rubdit, 

Quo rniibuiKln ilomiiin inonEtro permisceal omaem. 

Illi', iiiliT vriilcs ol levia pcclora lapsiis, 

Vjjlviluralladu nilIIo, fallilqua rurcntein, 3M 

Vijveream inspiraMsaiiimam; iit lorlilo collo 

Aurum iiig<'i;s coluber, fil kingae laenia vitlae, 

Iiiiieulilque comas, el mnmbris lubticus errat. 

Ac dum prima liics udo aablapsa Teiieno 

Perleutat seiisuB alque ossibus implicat igDem, 3» 

Necdum aiiimiin tulo percepit pcctore flammain, 

blollius, ei tmliio malmm ile more, locuta est, 

Alultii fupor iialne lacrimaus PhrjeitMiue bynaenaeia: 

'ExEulibuuie (iHlur duceiida Laviiiia Teucris, 

geuitor? iicc le miserot tialaeque luique^ 3S0 

Neo matris niiseret, quairi primo aquilone reliaquet 

Perfidus, alla petens abduela virgiiie, praedol 

At non sic Plirjgius penctrat Lucedaemona paslor 

Ledaeamque Heleriam Trojanas vexit ad urbea. 

Quid tua sanctafides? quid curaatiliqua tuomm 365 

Et cotisanguiiieo loties ifala dextera Turno f 

Si gener extcrna pelilur de j^nle Lalinie, 

Idque sedel, Faunique premuut 1e juBsa parentlB, 

Omnem equidem sceptris lernim quae IiDeiH mwtrU 

Dissidet, exlernam reor, el sic dicere divoa. BTO 

El Turno, si prima domus repetatur origo, 

InachuB Acrisiusque patres mediaeque M^oenM.' 

His ubi nequidquam dlclis experla Latinnm 
Contra stara videl, penituaque iii viscera UpNm 
Serpeniis furiale malum, totamque pererratj 379 

Tum vero infelix, ingentibus excita moaatria, 
ImmenBam sine more furil lymphala per nrbem: 
Ceu quondam torto volitanB sub veibere tarbo, 
Quem pueri magno in gyro vacua aEria ciroum 

143. Qtm mantlro. 'thm wilh this fearful inHrumenl.' — SJa 
llit. See 01 ii. 744.-354-373. At firgl, wheo iho iDftuonce of 
: viner is small, Amalae trieg persuraion ; then (373, tcc.) under 

-.e sho grows wild with rago.— 360. Ofnitor, Bppo^ 
iiiB lu uiHi Ba Lavinia'B falher. — 362. ^lta pAjna. Ste. * - 
had done wilh Helen. Seo n. 215, tt<:.~563.At, Sr.c. 

LaceJaanona. Ii woB from Locedaetnon ihat naJB CBrried bw»v 
Helen. — 364. Ledomm. See bI i. 651.— 3G7. .Bctgrna \s ihe BO- 
phalic word, — 369. Thc Rululi are independiSvl of I.Uheni\ «nd 
Heparole from ( diraidtn, thc Laurentians ; ther^iM ezteruo. — 33. 
BesidRS. Tornna is nn cxtemui, bei;auM BpTiU(£'fra» iHsnkM ttt i 
286), and Acriiiui (al 5C). .lUvcefui seenu usad «■'W £3; ttte-mr 
beatt (maiNu!) of Grcecc. — 374. Lapnan «Bt. — 378. , Jb 
VirgilB languugc givcs cpio dignit; cvon to tho Bjiinni f 


' Intenti ludo exercent ; ille actus habena 380 

Curvatis fertur spatiis ; stupet inscia supra 
Impubesque manus, mirata volubile buxum; 
Dant animos plagae. Non cursu segnior illo 
Per medias urbes agitur populosque ferocis. 
Quin etiam in silvas, simulato numine Bacchi, 385 

Majus adorta nefas majoremque orsa furorem, 
Evolat, et natam frondosis montibus abdit, 
Quo thalamum eripiat Teucris taedasque moretur, 
* Euoe Bacche !' fremens, solum te virgine dignum 
Vociferans : etenim moHis tibi sumere thyrsos, 390 

Te lustrare choro, sacrum tibi pascere crinem. 
Fama volat, furiisque accensas pectore matres 
Idem omnis simui ardor agit, nova quaerere tecta. 
Deseruere domos, ventis dant colla comasque ; 
Ast aliae tremulis ululatibus aethera complent, 395 

Pampineasque gerunt incinctae pellibus hastas. 
Ipsa inter medias flagrantem fervida pinum 
Sustinet, ac natae Turnique canit hymenaeos, 
Sanguineam torquens aciem, torvumque repente 
Clamat : ^ lo matres, audite, ubi quaeque, Latinae : 400 
Si qua piis animis manet infelicis Amatae 
Gratia, si juris materni cura remordet, 
Solvite crinalis vittas, capite orgia mecura.' 
Talem inter silvas, inter deserta ferarum, 
Reginam Allecto stimulis agit undique Bacchi. 405 

Postquam visa satis primos acuisse furores, 
Consiliumque omnemque domum vertisse Latini, 
Protinus hinc fuscis tristis dea tollitur alis 
Audacis Rutuli ad muros, quam dicitur urbem 
Acrisioneis Danae fundasse colonis 410 

Praecipiti delata Noto. Locus Ardea quondam 

383. AnimoSj velocitatem. — 388. Torches were used in the mar- 
ige processions; hence tae(/a« for nuptias. — 389. On JBao« (pro- 
mnce Euoy), see at vi. 517. — 390. Vociferans virginem tibi (in 
ura honorem) aumerej &c. — 391. Te lustrare ckoro, * that it is for 
ee she leads the sacred dance' — (te) the statue of Bacchus in the 
iddle of the dancers. To Bacchus also the hair was dedicated 
nnem) which flowed loose in ihe orgies. So 394, 403. — 398. 
mU by the arsis. — 399. Torvum. See at Ecl. iii. 8. — 404. Talemt 
uivalent to taU modo, or demum talem factam. — 410. Acrisionets 
by some taken to be a feminine patronymic for Danae. But such 
(brmation is anomalous. 'AKpitri<avtj is tne reguiar form ; hence the 
Jective *AKpnTi(avatos, Acrisioneus. Virgil has here not followed 
usual tradition of Danae, which represents her and her son Per- 
oa as exposed alone in a chest. — 411. Some refer delata to Al* 

26» 2a 


Dictus avis; ct nuno maigium tenet Ardea nomea' 
Sed fortuna fuit. Tectis nic Turnus in altis 
Jam modiam ni|!ra carpebat nocte quietem. 
Allecto torvani faciem et furialia merobra 
Kxuit ;. iii vulius sese transformat anilis 
Kt froiitom obsceuam rugis arat; induit alboa 
Cum vitla crinis; tum ramum innectit olivae; 
Fit Calybc Junoiiis aiius templique sacerdos j 
Kt juviMii aiite oculos his se cum vooibuB offert: 
^Turiie, tot iiicassum fusos patiere laborefl^ 
Kt tu.i Diirdaniis transcribi sceptra colonis? 
Rex tibi coiijui^ium et quaesitas sanguine dotes 
Abiie;;at, oxternusque in regnum quaeritur heres. 
I iiuiic, iiiirnitis offer te, irrise, periclis : 
Tyrrhonas^ i\ sterne acies; tege pace Latinos. 
Haoc ndeo tibi me, placida cum noote jaceres, 
Ipsa palam fari omnipotens Satamia juesit. 
Quare ago, et armari pubem ^rtisque moTeri 
Lactus iii arma para, et Phrygios, qui flumine pnliliio 
Consedere, duces pictasque exure carinaa. 
Coelestum vis magna jubet. Rex ipse TAtinnn^ 
Ni darc conjufrium et dicto parere fatetur, 
Sentiat ot tandem Turnum experiatur in armiB.' 

Hic juvenis, vatem irridens, bio oraa Ticiaaim 
Ore retert : ^ Classis invectaB Thybridis undam 
Non, ut rerc, meas effugit nuntiuB auris: 
Ne taiitos mihi finge metus. Nec regia Jano 
Immemor est nostri ; 
Sed te victa situ verique effeta Benectas, 
O mater, curis nequidquam exercet, et arma 
Regum inter falsa vatem formidine ludit. 
Cura tibi, divom effigies et templa tueri; 
Bella viri pacemque gerant, quis bella gerenda.' 

Talibus Allecto dictis exarsit in iraa. 
At juvcni oranti subitus tremor occupat artoa; 

412. Avis, dat. for ab avis. Some understand ovw to 
the bird called Ardca.— -413. Fuit. See at ii. 325. Thi 
of Ardea is a talo of ancient timcs. — 427. Adeo aeenu lo 
'so important is this.' Sec at iv. 533. — 428. Satumia, Seei 
— 435. It is noticcd by thc critics that Virjgil from the xm 
contrasts the intrnctablc tcmper of Turnuswith the nuMfaplj 
Aeneas. — 438. Tiirnus wns nslcep, and Allecto hadTniS 
(429) that he would not havc beeii so, had he known of ihl': 
of the Trojans. IIo says that he did know, and that he liiid'|i 
fears as she imap[incd. — 439. See at i. 534. — 441. Maim',^ 
vatem. spokcn with ^ood-humourcd contcmpt.— 444. QuikfA 
tiv« for quibus. — 446. Oranti, iicarly equivalent to loctiMil 


Deriguere oculi : tot Erinnys sibilat hydris, 
Tantaque se facies aperit ; tum flammea torquens 
Lumina cunctantem et quaerentem dicere plura 
Reppulit, et geminos erexit crinibus anguis, 450 

Verberaque insonuit, rabidoque haec addidit ore: 

En ego victa situ, quam veri effeta senectus 
Arma inter regum falsa formidine ludit ; 
Respice ad haec : adsum dirarum ab sede sororum; 
Bella manu letumque gero.' 455 

Sic effata facem juveni conjecit, et atro 
Lumine fumantis fixit sub pectore taedas. 
Olli somnum ingens rumpit pavor, ossaque et artus 
Perfudit toto proruptus corpore sudor. 
Arma amens Iremit, arma toro tectisque requirit; 460 
Saevit amor ferri et scelerata insania belli, 
Ira super : magno veluti cum flamma sonore 
Virgea suggeritur costis undanlis aeni, 
Exsultantque aestu latices; furit intus aquai 
Fumidus atque alte spumis exuberat amnis ; 465 

Nec jam se capit unda; volat vapor ater ad auras. 
Ergo iter ad regem polluta pace Latinum 
Indicit primis juvenum, et jubet arma parari, 
Tutari Italiam, detrudere finibus hostem ; 
Se satis ambobus Teucrisque venire Latinisque. 470 

Haec ubi dicta dedit divosque in vota vocavit; 
Certalim sese Rutuli exhortantur in arma. 
Hunc decus egregium formae moviet atque juventae, 
Hunc atavi re^es, hunc claris dextera factis. 

Dum Turnus Rutulos animis audacibus implet, 475 
Allecto in Teucros Stygiis se concitat alis. 
Arte nova, speculata locum quo litore pulcher 
Insidiis cursuque feras agitabat lulus, 
Hic subitam canibus rabiem Cocytia virgo 
Objicil et noto naris contingit odore, 480 

Ut cervum ardentes agerent ; quae prima laborun} 

erhaps with some notion of vehemence attached to it. See x. 96. 
-447. Erinnys. See at ii. 337. — 454. Dirarum, an appropriate 
aithet. See *at iv. 469.-458. Olli. See at i. 254. See the oppo- 
te idea with the same construction, i. 691 ; and see at vi. 473.— 
39. Perfuditt the sweat has bedewed, before he awakes. Others 
iad perfundit. — 460. Arma, &c. See xi. 453. — 462. Super aeema 
) denote that his wrath for thc threatened loss of Lavinia surpassed 
ven his love of war. — 464. Aquai. See at iii. 354. — 470. Satis, 
trom. Latinifque ; an elision before haec. — 474. Hunc — hunc — 
tne. One, another a third. — 477, &'C. The ars nova extends to 
and objicit. —479. HiCf the adverb. Cocytia. See at vi. 295. 


308 AE.VEIDOiS. 

Caussa fuit belloque animos accendit agrestis. 

CtTvns oiat forma praestanti et cornibus ing:enB| 

Tvrrhlclat' purri quem mairis ab ubere raptum 

NutribiUit Tyrrheuwjuo pater. cui regia parent 485 

ArmLMita. et hite custoilia credita campi. 

Assu«'ium imporiis soror omni Silviacura 

Molhbns intextMis ornabat cornua scrtis, 

Pt'ct»*l)atqut» tVrum. purocjue in fonte lavabat. 

Ille mnnnni patiens mensaeque adsuetus herili 490 

Errabat silvis, rursnsqne ad Jimina nota 

Ipse ilomum sera (|uamvis se nocte ferebat. 

Ilunc procul errantom rabidae venantis luli 

Commovere canes. liuvio cum forte secundo 

Dellueret, ripaque aestus viridante levaret. 495 

l]>se etiam. eximiae laudis succensus amore, 

Ascanius curvo direxit spicula cornu ; 

Nec dexlrae erranti deus afuit, actaquo multo 

Penpie uterum sonitu perque ilia venit arundo. 

Saucius at quadrupes nota intra tecta refugit, 500 

Successitque gemens stabulis, questuque cruentus 

Atque imploranti simiiis tectum omne replebat. 

Silvia prima soror, paimis percussa lacertos, 

Auxilium vocat et duro.s conclamat agrestis. 

Olli, Pesiis enim tacitis latet aspera silvis, 505 

Improvisi adsunt, hic torre armatus obusto, 

Stipitis hic fjravidi nodisj quod cuique repertum 

Rimanti, telum ira facit. Vocat agmina Tyrrheus, 

Quadrifidam quercum cuneis ut forte coactis 

Scindebat, rapta spirans immane securi. 510 

At sacva e speculis tempus dea nacta nocendi 

Ardua tecta petit stabuli, et de culmine summo 

Pastorale canit signum, cornuque recurvo 

Tartaream intendit vocem, qua protinus omne 

Contremuit nemus et silvae insonuere profundae; 515 

Audiit et Triviae longe lacus ; audiit amnis 

Sulfurea Nar albus aqua fontosque Velini, 

486. Et cui late^ &c. — 487. Assuetum imperiis, mansuefac- 

tum. — 490. Manumf mnnuum. Secatvi. 653 491. Errabat,6LC 

The imperfects niark a habit. — 493. Procul a domo 495. He wu 

altematcly swiniming and rcsting on the green bank. Setumd» 
*down,* opposcd to adversum, viii. 58. — 503. Pereusea lacerto9, the 
accusative of limilation. — 505. Pestis ; Allecto. — 506. flte— -Jjib. 
See 474.-510. Immanr,. See at.EcZ. iii. 8. — 516. Triviae; Diaiau 
See at iv. 609. Thc lake, near Aricia, is alluded to, 763, &c. Sea 
p. 293, Hne 23. — 517. Thc Nar, noted for sulphurous springB, ib • 
tribuiary of thc Tibcr. Velini. Scc pago 292, linc 46. 


. £t trepidae matres pressere ad pectora natos. 
Tum vero ad vocem celeres, qua buccina signum 
Dira dedit, raptis concurrunt undique telis 520 

Indomili agricolae 3 nec non et Troia pubes 
Ascanio auxilium caslris eflfundit aperlis. 
Direxere acies. Non jam certamine agresti, 
Stipitibus duris agitur sudibusve pi-aeustis, 
Sed ferro ancipiti decernunt, atraque late 525 

Horrescit strictis seges ensibus, aeraque fulgent 
Sole lacessita, et lucem sub nubila jactant : 
Fluctus uti primo coepit cum albescere vento, 
Paulatim sese tollit mare et altius undas 
Erigil, inde imo consurgit ad aethera fundo. 630 

Hic juveuis primam ante aciem stridente sagitta, 
Nalorum Tyrrhei fuerat qui maximus, Almo 
Sternitur j haesit enim sub gutture vulnus et udae 
Vocis iter tenuemque inclusit sanguine vitam. 
Corpora multa virum circa, seniorque Galaesus, 536 

Dum paci medium se oifert, justissimus unus 
Qui fuit, Ausoniisque olim ditissimus arvis: 
Quinque greges illi balantum, quina redibant 
Armenta. et terram centum vertebat aratris. 

Atque ea per campos aequo dum Marte gerunlur, 640 
Promissi dea facta potens, ubi sanguiue belium 
Imbuit et primae commisit funera pugnae, 
Deserit Hesperiam, et coeli conversa per auras 
Junonem viclrix a^atur voce superba : 
' £n, perfecta tibi bello discordia tristi , 545 

Dic, in amicitiam coeant et foedera jungant. 
Quandoquidem Ausonio respersi sanguine Teucro8| 
Hoc etiam his addam, tua si roihi certa voluntas : 
Finitimas in bella feram rumoribus urbes, 
Accendamqne animos insani Martis amore, 550 

Undique ut auxilio veniant ; spargam arma per agroB. 
Tum contra Juno : ' Terrorum et fraudis abunde est : 
Stant belH causae; pugnatur comminus armis; 
Quae fors prima deoit, sanguis novus imbuit arma 
Talia conjugia et tahs celebrent hymenaeos 555 

Fgregium Yeneris genus et rex ipse Latinus. 

520. Dira. See at 454. — 524. PraPustis. — 525. Ferro anctpttt, 
itpennibus. — 533. Udae, &c. The road of his voice (now made) wet ; 
hat ie, his throat choaked with blood. — 536. Justissimus unus. See 
iC ii. 426. — 540. Marte. See at Ecl. v. 69. — 541. Promissi potens, 
laving fulfiUed her proniise made to Juno. — 545. Tibi. The dativus 
iOAimodi. — 546. JJic, &c. ironical. — 552. Abundc ; usedasanin* 
leclioablo substantive. — 553. Stant. Sco at i. 268. — 556. Egrr- 

Te Buper aetherias errare licenthis Baiaa 

Haud Paler ille velil, summi regnator OlTmpi. 

Cede locia. Epo, si qiia super forlana laborum est, 

Ipsa regam.' Tiilia dederat Saturnia Tocea; 560 

lila auiem alinllit stridentis anguibus alai, 

Cocytique pelit sedem, supera ardua lintjueoa. 

Est locuB Iialiae mmlio sub moniibus aliis, 

Nobilis et fama mullis memoralus in oris, 

Amrancti vallen; densis hunc fraudibus atnim 565 

Vrguel utrimquc latus nemoci^ medioque fnigoaaB 

Dal Eoiiilum saxis el lorlo Tertice lorrens. 

Hic [ipecuB horrendum el saevi spiracula IXtis 

Monslraiilur, rupluque ingens Acheronle vorago 

Pestiferas apecit fauces, quis condila ErinDys, gJO 

Invinum numen, lerraa coelumque laTsbat. 

Nec minus interea exlremam Salutuia bello 
Imponit regina manum. Ruit omnis in urbem 
Paslorum ex acie numeras, cae^^sque repoTtant 
Almoiiem puerum foedatique ora GalBesi, BTS 

Imploranlque deos, obCestanturque Latinnm. 
Tumus adesl, mediaque in crimine oaedis et ignls 
Terrorem ingeminat : Teucros in regna rooari : 
Slirpem admiscerj Phrygiam : se limine pelll, 
Tum, quorum attonitae Baccho □Brooi» aTi» matiM S80 
Insullanl Ihiasis — neque euim leva nomen Anrtao 
Undique collecli coeunt, Martemque fatigut. 
Ilicel infandum cuncti conlra omioa bellnm, 
Contra lala deum, pervErso numine posonnt. 
Cerlalim regis circumslant tecta Lftlinij ' fiSS 

Ille velut pelagi rupes immota resiBlit, 
Ut pelagj rupes magno veniente fragora, 
Quae sese, muitiB circum latrantibns undis, 
Male tenet; ecopuli nequidquam et epumes.Cinstt 
Saxa fremuct, laterique illisa refundilur alga. - -■- ^ 
Verum ubi nulla dalur r-aecum exsuperare polq^tigi 
Coiisilium, el saevae nutu Junonis eunt ree 
Mulla deoB aurasque p.tler leslalus inanis, 


gium. Sea nt vi. 533.^-553. Super M(. See ni d.-~S6\. 
StridenHa. Seo m fi-I. i. 3.— 5C5. -' ■ " — ■■ ~ 

and gDtierallr fur thB plncea mpnTioni 
fKineRl — 5<j8. Spiramla. Wtiero Dls breslheB i^ 
IslulionB.— S70. 13«i», qoiliiia. — 580. li oiion 

Mlimilae, rcfBrring 1d ■■'--- " -■- — 

hnnour or. Sco 393, 
TtalattiM, governing two di 
^eaching; or periiapB mulla. 


'Frangimur heu fatis,' inquit, 'ferimurque procella! 

Ipsi has sacrilego pendetis sanguine poenas, 595 

O miseri. Te, Turne, nefas, le triste manebit 

Supplicium, votisquo deos venerabere seris. 

Nam mihi parta quies, omnisque in limine portus; 

Funere felici spolior.' Nec plura locutus 

Sepsit se tectis, rerumque reliquit habenas. 600 

Mos erat Hesperio in Latio, quem protenus urbes 
Albanae coUiere sacrum, nunc maxima/erum 
Roma colit, cum prima movent in proelia tjartem, 
Sive Getis inferre manu lacrimabile bellum * 
Hyrcanisve Arabisve parant, seu tendere ad Indos 605 
Auroramque sequi Parthosque reposcere signa: 
Sunt geminae BelJi portae, sic nomine dicunt, 
Keligione sacrae et saevi formidine Martis ; 
Centum aerei claudunt vectes aeternaque ferri 
Robora, nec custos absistit limine Janus; 610 

Has, ubi certa sedet patribus sententia pugnae, 
Ipse Quirinali trabea cinctuque Gabino 
Insignis reserat stridentia limina Consul; 
Ipse vocat pugnas, sequitur tum cetera pubes, 
Aereaque assensu conspirant cornua rauco. 615 

Hoc et tum Aeneadis indicere bella Latinus 
More jubebatur Iristisque recludere portas. 
Abslinuit tactu pater, aversusque refugit 
Foeda ministeria, et caecis se condidit umbris. 
Tum regina deum coelo delapsa morantis 620 

Impulit ipsa manu portas, et cardine verso 
Belli ferratos rumpil Saturnia postis. 
Ardet inexcita Ausonia atque immobilis ante ; 
Pars pedes ire parat campis, pars arduus altis 

596. Te, &c., prophcsying his dcath, narrated in the twelfth 
book. — 598. Quies. See thc cosnate vcrb similarly used, i. 249. 
— 601. See at i. 73, and p. 293,line 38. Protenus, in unbroken 
succession. — 604. Getae. See at Geor^. iv. 463. — 605. Hyrcanis, 
See at iv. 367. Arabis. The general form is Arahst not Arahus, 
Indos. See at Georg. i\. 170. — 606. Parthos. See at Ed. i. 64. 
Thc design of the passage is to magnify thc greatness of the Roman 
£mpiro under Augustus. Sce vi. 792, &c. The particular allusion 
in Partho» is to a demand made by Augustus, b.c. 23, for the 
standards taken from Crassus, and complieu with, b.c. 20, the year 
before Virgil dicd. — 607. Referrinc; to thc templc of Janus. See 
1^-9931 &c. — 609. Aerei, two syllables. — 612. Quirinali. Sce at 
187. Cinctu Gabino, a pcculiar wajr of wearing the toga, from 
(hlrii (seo at vi. 773), of Etrurian origin, used on solemn occasions 
Sttch as this. — 624. Fars arduust an unprecedentcd use of jparg 
with the mascuHQe singular. For the mas. plur., as in v. 108, it ia 


Pulverulcntus equis furit ; omnos nrma requirunt. 62t 

Piirs |j»vis cIi]VOs ft spirula luciJa ler^rent 

Arviiia pinjLiui, snbiguiilque in cole st-cures; 

Sii^naciue lerre jnvat. sointusque auiiire tubarum. 

UuiiKiue aileo niai;:nae positis iiiendibus urbes 

'iVla novant, Atina potens Tibnri|ue snperbum, 630 

Ariiea Crustninerique et lursijieiae Antemnae. 

Te^niiiia tuta eavant eapituni, llectuntque salignas 

Uinbonuni eratis: alii tiioracas aenos 

Aut le-vis ooreas lenlo ilncunt ariTenio 

Vonieiis hnc et lalcis lioiios. Iinc otniiis aratri 635 

Cessit amor; recoqunnl patrios lornacibus enses. 

Classica jamv]ue sonant; it bello tessera signum. 

Hic sraleam tectis trepidus ra])it; ille frementis 

Aii jui^a coiiit equosj cli])eumque auroque trilicem 

Loncam induilur, tidoque acciiigitur ense. 640 

Paiuiite nunc Heliconaj deae, cantusque movete, 
Qui bello oxi.*ili feges, quae quemquo secutae 


A(i nos vix lennis fainae perlabilur aura. 

Primus iiiit belluin Tyrrhenis asj^er"^ oris 
Contemptor tiivom Mezentius agminaque^^rmat. 
Filius huic juxta Lausus, qno pulchrior allV 
Non fuit, excepto Laurentis cor])ore Turni. \ 650 

Lausus, equum domitor debellatorque feraruflP^ 
Ducit Agyilina nequidquani ex urbe secutos \ 
JVlille viros, dignus, patriis qui laetior osset ^ 
Imperiis, et cui pater haud Mezentius esset. \ 

Post hos insignem palma per gramina currum \ 655 
Victoresque ostentat equos satus Hercule pulchro 
Pulcher Aventinus, clipeoque insigiie paternum • '» 
Centum anguis cinctamque gerit serpentibus Hydramy 
Collis Aventini siiva quem Khea sacerdos ^, 

Furtivum partn sub luminis edidit oras, 66( 

Mixta deo mulier, {xjstquam Laurentia victor 
Geryone exstincto Tirynthius attigit arva, 

easy to account. Sce at vi. 581. — 63L Turrigerae^ -ae unelided 
— 634. It is rure to have a spondee in tlie foiirtli foot of a spondaic 
line. See 631.-- 635. 7/mc, bello. — 639. Auroque. See at iii, 
467. — 641. Ilelicona^ a well-known mountain in Boeotia, the haunt 
of the Muses (dleae). — 652. Nequidquam. Sce thc death of son and 
falhcr, X. 820, &c. — 658. Hydram. See at vi. 286. — 662. See at 
vi. 286, and viii. 200, &c. Tirynthiu». Heroules was reared at 
Tiryns near Argos. 



Tyrrhenoque boves in flumine lavit Iberas. 

Pila manu saevosque gerunt in bella dolones, 

El tereti pugnant mucrone veruque Sabello. 665 

Ipse pedes, tegumen torquens immane leonis, 

Terribili impexum seta, cum dentibus aibis 

Indutus capiti, sic regia tecta subibat, 

Horridus, Herculeoque humeros innexus amiclu. 

Tum gemini fratres Tiburtia moenia linquunt, 670 
Fratris Tiburti dictam cognomine gentem, 
Catillusque acerque Coras, Argiva juventus, 
Et primam ante aciem densa inter tela feruntur : 
Ceu duo nubigenae cum vertice montis ab alto 
Descendunt Centauri, Homolen Othrym(jue nivalem 675 
Linquentes cursu rapido ; dat euntibus mgens 
Silva locum, et magno cedunt virgulla fragore. 

Nec Praenestinae fundator defuit urbis, 
Vulcano genitum pecora inter agrestia regem 
Inventumque focis omnis quem credidit aetas, 680 

Caeculus. Hunc legio late comitatur agrestis; 
Quique altum Praeneste viri, quique arva Gabinae 
Junonis gelidumque Anienem et roscida rivis 
Hernica saxa colunt ; quos dives Anagnia pascit, 
Quos, Amasene pater. Non illis omnibus arma, 685 
Nec clipei currusve sonant ; pars maxima glandes 
Liventis plumbi spargit ; pars spicula gestat 
Bina manu ; fulvosque lupi de pelle galeros 
Tegmen habent capiti ; vestigia nuda sinistri 
Instituere pedis ; crudus tegit altera pero. 690 

At Messapus, equum domitor, Neptunia proles, 
Quem neque fas igni cuiquam nec sternere ferro, 
Jam pridem resides populos desuetaque bello 
Agmina in arma vocat subito, ferrumque retractat. 
Hi Fescenninas acies Aequosque Faliscos, 695 

Hi Soractis habent arces Flaviniaque arva, 
Et Cimini cum monte lacum lucosque Capenos. 
Ibant aequati numero, regemque canebant : 
Ceu quondam nivei liquida inter nubila cycni 
Cum sese e pastu referunt et longa canbros 700 

Dant per colta modos; sonat amnis et Asia longe 
Pulsa palus. 

665. Veru, See at Georg. ii. 167, 168. — 675. Homole and Othrug, 
OWDB of Thessaly, where dwelt the Centaurs, sons of Ixion. See 
t vL 286. — 688. Sina, with its proper form, of two to each. ^ 
95. Hi — hi. See at 474, 506. — 698. Aequati numero seems to rcier 
their equal step to the sound of music. — 701. Amnit. The Cay< 
m. See at Georg. iv. 343. This tract of country abounded in swans. 

27 2b 


Nec quisquam aeratas acics ex a^mine tanto 

Misceri putet, arriam sed gurgite ab alto 

Ur^TUcri volucrum raucarum ad litora nubem. 705 

Ecce, Sabinorum prisco ile sanguine, ma^tmm 
Airmen agens Clausus, magni(]ue ipse Jigmniis instar, 
Clauiiia lunic a quo diirunditur et tribus et gens 
IVr I^itium, post^iuam in partcm data Koma Sabinis. 
Una ingens Amiterna cohors priscique Quirites, 710 

Ereti manus omnis oliviferaequo Mutuscae; 
Qui Nomentum urbem, qui Rosea rura Velini, 
Qui Tetricae liorrenti» rupes montemque Severum 
Casperiamquo colunt, Forulosque et flumeu Himellae : 
Qui Tiberim Fabarimque bibunt. quos frigida misit 715 
Nursia, et Hortinae classes populique Latini ; 
Quosque secans infaustum mterluit Allia nomen : 
Quam multi Libyco volvuntur marmore fiuctus, 
Saevus ubi Orion hibernis conditur undis; 
Vel cum sole novo densae torrentur aristae, 720 

Aut Hermi campo, aut Lyciae flaventibus arvis. 
Scuta sonant, pulsuque pedum tremit excita tellus. 

Hinc Agamemnonius, Trojani nominis hostis, 
Curru jungit Halaesus equos, Turnoque ferocis 
Mille rapit populos, vertunt felicia Baccho 725 

Massica qui rastris, et quos de collibus altis 
Aurunci misere patres Sidicinaquo juxta 
Aequora, quique Cales linquunt, amnisque vadosl 
Accola Vulturni, pariterque Saticulus asper 
Oscorumque manus. Teretes sunt aclydes illis 730 

Teia j seu haec lento mos est aptare flagello. 
Laevas caetra tegit ; faicati comminus enses. 

Nec tu carminibus nostris indictus abibis, 
Oebale, queni generasse Telon Sebethide nympha 
Fertur, Teleboum Capreas cum regna teneret, 735 

Jam senior ; patriis sed non et filius arvis 

705. Eaucarum. See at i. 398. — 710. An ingenious use of the 
tmdition rcsarding the origin of the celebrated gons Claudia. -—718. 
Eoseat thc fcrtile pasture Tnnds in the ncighbourhood of Reate, 80 
callcd from the copious dcws that cnriched the ground. Compare 
with roseo, x. 5. — 719. Orion. See at i. 533. — 721. Hermu See 
at Georg. ii. 136. Lyciae. Sce at iv. 143.— 722. See a similar 
passage, xii. 445. Otners XGVi^pcdum conterrita tellus. — 729. Ob- 
serve the distinction bctwcen incola, a dweller tn, and acoola, a 
dweller near. — 731. Haec tela. — 735. The Teleboae had emigrated 
from an island off the coast of Acarnania to Capreae, off the ceast 
of Campania. Telon thcir king was said to have morried SebeikUi 
the nymph of tae river Sebethua, in Campania. 


Contentus late jam tum ditione premebat 
Sarrastis populos et quae rigat aequora Sarnus, 
Quique Rufras Batulumque tenent atque arva Celennae, 
£t quos maliferae despectant moenia Abellae 740 

Teutonico ritu soliti torquere cateias, 
Tegmina quis capitum raptus de subere cortex, 
Aerataeque micant peltae, micat aereus ensis. 

Et te montosae misere in proelia Nersae, 
Ufens, insignem fama et felicibus armis ; 745 

Horrida praecipue cui gens, assuetaque multo 
Venatu nemorum, duris Aequicula glebis. 
Armati terram exercent, semperque recentis 
Convectare juvat praedas et vivere rapto. 

Quin et Marruvia venit de gente sacerdos, 750 

Fronde super galeam et felici comptus oliva, 
Archippi regis missu, fortissimus Umbro. 
Vipereo generi et graviter spirantibus hydris 
Spargere qui somnos cantuque manuaue solebat 
Mulcebatque iras et morsus arte levabat. 755 

Sed non Dardaniae medicari cuspidis ictum 
Evaluit, neque eum juvere in vulnera cantus 
Somniferi et Marsis quaesitae montibus herbae, 
Te nemus Anguitiae, vitrea te Fucinus unda, 
Te liquidi flevere lacus. 760 

Ibat et Hippolyli proles pulcherrima bello, 
Virbius, insignem quem mater Aricia misit, 
£duct^)n Fgeriae lucis humentia circum 
Litora, pinguis ubi et placabilis ara Dianae. 
Namque ferunt fama Hippolytum, postquam arte no- 
vercae 765 

Occiderit iKttriasque explerit sanguine poenas 
Turbatis distractus equis, ad sidera rursus 
Aetheria et superas coeli venisse sub auras, 
Paeoniis revocatum herbis et amore Dianae. 
Tum Pater omnipotens, aliquem indignatus ab umbris 770 

741. SolUi sunt. — 742. Quist quibus. — 747. Venatit. See at 
Ecl. v. 29. But others consider it as the ablative. — 750. Others 
■write Marruhia, — 751. See at v. 556, and Georg, ii. 477, 486.— 
763. Egeriae, one of the native Italian deities, well known irom her 
oonnection with the history of Numa. — 765. Novercae. Phaedra 
(see at vi. 444), enraged at her stepson for rejecting her love, had 
nlsely accused him to Theseus. He besought his father Neptune 
to ponish the youth. Neptune sent sea-monsters, which frightened 
tbe horses that were drawing the chariot of Hippolytus, who waa 
thrown out and killed.— 769. Faeoniis, from IIa/a»v, the name of 
Apollo, 88 the god who patronises physic. 


Mortalem inteniis ad lumina surgere vita 

Ipsc repertorrm medicinae talis et artis 

Fiilmine Phoi-biirenam Stv"ias cltMrusit atl unclas. 

At Trivia Hipiwlytum socrelis alma recondit 

S*.Hlibus. et nympiiac Kireriae nemori(]ue relcgat, 775 

^hjIus ubi in silvis Italis iirnobilis aevum 

Kxi«reret. versoque ubi nomine Verbius esset. 

Unde etiam templo Triviae Iucis(jue sacratis 

Cornipeiles arceniur equi, quod liloro currum 

Et juvcnem monstris paviJi eirudere marinis. 780 

Filius ardcntes haud secius aequore campi 

Exercebat equos curruque in bella ruebat. 

Ipse inter primos praeslanti corpore Turnus 
Vertitur arma tenens, et toto vertice supra est. 
Cui triplici crinata juba i^Iea alta Chimaeram 785 

Sustinet, Aetnaeos elHantem faucibus ignis, 
Tam magis illa fremens et trislibus effera llammis, 
Quam magis effuso crudescunt sanguine pugnae. 
At levem clipeum sublatis cornibus lo 
Auro insignibat, jam setis obsita, jam bos, 790 

Argumentum ingens, et custos virginis Argus, 
Caelataque amnem fundens pater Inachus urna. 
Insequitur nimbus peditum, clipeataque totis 
Agnnna densentur campis, Argivaque pubes 
Aurunc^ieque manus, Rutuli veteresque Sicani 795 

£t Sacranae acies et picti scuta Labici ; 
Qui saltus, Tiberine, tuos, sacrumque Numici 
Litus arant, Rutulosque exercent vomere collis, 
Circaeumque jugum, quis Jupiter Anxurus arvis 
Praesidet, et viridi gaudens Feronia luco ; 800 

Qua Saturae jacet atra palus, gelidusque per imas 
Quaerit iter vallis atque in mare conditur Ufens. 

Hos super advenit Volsca de gente Camilla, 
Agmen agens equitum et florentis aere catervas, 
Bellatrix, non illa colo calathisve Minervae 805 

Femineas assueta manus, sed proelia virgo 
Dura pati cursuque pedum praevertere ventos. 
Illa vel intactae segetis per summa volaret 


773. Phoehigenam, Aeaculapius. — 785. Chimaeram. See at vL 
M6. — 786. Aetnaeos. Scc at viii. 419. — 789. /o, dau^hter oflna* 
dius (8CC at 286), bclovcd by Jiipiter, and ehanged mto a cow, 
through fear of Juno's jealousy. Juno bcgged the cow from Jupiter» 
and set Argus, thc hundrcd-cyed, to watch hcr. For the reaBon. 
why TumuB had on his shield the Argive lc^cnd dargumentum), s^e 
371. — 796. Ficti scutai the accusativo of Iimitation. — 799. Quit 
quibus. -— 806. Assueta manur, thc accusutive of limitation. 


Gramina, nec teneras cursu laesisset aristas ; 
Vel mare per medium fluctu suspensa tumenti 810 

Ferret iter, celeris nec tingueret aequore plantas. 
Illam omnis tectis agrisque effusa juventus 
Turbaque miratur matrum et prospectat euntem, 
Attonitis inhians animis, ut regius ostro 
Velet honos levis humeros, ut fibula crinem 815 

Auro internectat, Lyciam ut gerat ipsa pharetram 
£t pastoralem praefixa cuspide myrtum. 
■ ■ « ■ ■ 

811. Observe the dactyls, representing rapidity of motion. And 
ropare ii. 68 ; viii. 452, 596. On this subject rope says — 

* Not so when swift Camilla scours the plain, 
Flies o'er the unbending corn, and skims along the main.* 

Essay on Critieiamt 373, 973. 

816. The Lycians (iv. 143) were known as skilful archers. 


[Rf^iL repeats bis statement of the confederacy against Aeneas, 
1-8. Aid is sought from Diomede, Aeneas's old enemy (see 
at i. 97), and who had founded Argyrippa, or Arpi (seex.28), 
a town in Apulia, 9-17. Perplexity of Aeneas, 18-25. The 
river-god appears to him as he sleeps on the Tiber'8 bank, 
26-35. He confirms him in his projected settlement, and ad- 
vises him to seek aid from the Arcadian Evander, aon of Mer- 
cury and Carmenta, who had founded Pallanteam, on the spot 
afterwards named tlie Palatine Hill, 36-65. Aeneas awakes 
and invokes the Nymphs and Thybris, 66-78. An omen fore- 
told by Helenus (iii. 389, &c.), and by the river-god appears, 
as he is preparing to ascend the river, with two galleys, .79-85. 
Aeneas and his followers row up the gentle Tiber early in the 
morning, 86-96. At mid<day they come in sight of £vander*8 
humble settlement, 97-101. Tlie Arcadians happened to be 
celebrating a sacred festival in honour of Hercules, and Pallas, 
Evander's son, angrily inquires why their aolemn rites are in- 
terrupted, 102-1 14. On hearing who they are he gives them 
a friendly welcome, 115-125. Aeneas urges a leagne npon 
Evander, 1^151. This is acceded to, 152-171. Evander 
Invites the Trojans to join in the celebration of the festiTal, 

il8 AENElDOb. 

\i'itli which Aencas complies, 17*2-163. Epivods or Cacus.* 
Kvaiuler nnrrates Iiow the fe&tiral arose from the benefit con- 
ferrLvl un tho lauil by its ilelivcrance froni the monster Cacus, 
whcm Hcrciiled sluw, 184-*J75. At Kvander's invitation, all 
renew tlie joyful rites, and hymn tho praises of Hercules, 270- 
3U5. They rcturn to thc city, aniI,on the road, Evandergives 
an acrnunt of thc early hiiftrtry of the surrounding country, 
30tj-:i30. Hc points out locaiitics aAcrwards famed in Roman 
story; and Aeneas rcposes under his Iiumble roof, 336— 3G8. 
Venus n^ks Vulcan fur armour for hcr son, to which tbe fire- 
god willingly nssents, 300—100. Vulcan rcpairs to Lipare, 
"whore was the workshop of the Cyclopes, and sets them to 
fabricate the ]>romi8cd armour, 407-453. At early dawn, 
Evander holds a conference with Aeneas, 454-469. Apolo- 
gising for his own scanty assistance, hc advises him to secure 
the aid of the Etrurians, who had revolted from Mezentius, 
and ]}|accs undcr him at the same time his beloved son Pallas, 
470-519. The divine armour clangs and gleams in the 
heavcns whilc tlicy are thus engaged, 520—529. Encouraged 
by this, Aeneas, with part of his foUowers, prepares to visit 
tbe Ktrurians, 530—559. Parting address of Evander to Aeneas 
and Pallas, 560-584. Aeneas proceeds and reaches the oamp 
of the Etrurians, near Caere, 585—607. Venus brings her soa 
the armour, on which he gazes witb admiration, 608-624. 
The shield containcd the events of Rome's history, in different 
compartments, 625-629. I. Romulus and Remus, 630-634. 
II. Rape of tho Sabine women, and consequent war, and the 
union of the two nations, 635-641. III. Punishment of Met- 
tus Fufetius, 642-645. IV. Porsenna'8 attack on Rome, 646- 
650. V. Maulius hurling down the Gauls, 651-662. VI. A 
procession of the priests of Mars and Pan, 663-666. VIL 
The infernal regions, with traitors, as Catiline, punished, and 
patriotc apart, with Cato presiding over them, 667-670. VIII. 
Battlc of Actium, gorgeously described, 671— 713. IX. Trium* 
phant eutrance of Octavianus (Augustus) into Rome, 714—728. 
Delight of Aencas, 729-731. 

Ut belli signum Laurcnti Turnus ab arce 
Extulit, et rauco Btrepuerunt cornua cantu, 

1. Bdli Signutn ; vcxillum. Laurenti. See vi. 891. Twmnu. 
For the rcason why l^urnus, and not Latinus, took charge cH tho 
war, see vii. 599, 618. 

* An £pi8ode CEirei(r^^cov), iii Epic poctry, is a Bubordinate narrativa,: 
turally rising out of, but not esscntial to, the main aclion, introduced toglvii 
B gracoful variety to the poem. The two prineipal Episodes in tbe Aenaid, 
■n thii of CacK9, nnd the adventures of JifUua and EurpdMM^ namtad !■ 

L1B£R VIII. 319 

Utque acris concussit equos, utque impulit arma, 

Extemplo turbati animi; simul omne tumultu 

Conjurat trepido Latium, saevitque juventus 5 

Effera. Ductores primi Messapus et Ufens 

Contemptorque deum Mezentius undique cogunt 

Auxilia, et latos vastant cultoribus agros, 

Mittitur et magni Venulus Diomedis ad urbem, 

Qui petat auxilium, et, Latio consistere Teucros, 10 

Advectum Aenean classi victosque Penatis 

Inferre et fatis regem se dicere posci, 

Edoceat, multasque viro se adjungere gentis 

DardaniO; et late Latio increbrescere nomen. 

Quid struat his coeptis, quem, si fortuna sequatur, 15 

Eventum pugnae cupiat, manifestius ipsi, 

Quam Turno regi, aut regi apparere Latino. 

Talia per Latium. Quae Laomedontius heros 
Cnncta videns magno curarum fluctuat aestu ; 
Atque animum nunc huc celerem, nunc dividit illuc, 20 
In parlisque rapit varias perque omnia versat : 
Sicut aquae tremulum labris ubi lumen aenis 
Sole repercussum aut radiantis imagine Lunae 
Omnia pervolitat late loca, jamque sub auras 
£rigitur summique ferit laquearia tecti. 25 

Nox erat, et terras animalia fessa per omnis 
Alitujnn pecudumque genus sopor altus habebat: 
Cuni pater in ripa gelidique sub aetheris axe 
Aeneas, tristi turbatus pectora belio, 
Procubuit seramque dedit per membra quietem. 30 

Huic deus ipse loci iluvio Tiberinus amoeno 
Populeas inter senior se attollere frondes 
Visus ; eum tenuis glauco velabat amictu 
Carbasus, et crinis umbrosa tegebat arundo ; 
Tum sic affari et curas his demere dictis : 35 

' sate gente deum, Trojanam ex hostibus urbem 
Qui revehis nobis aeternaque Pergama servas, 
£xspectate solo Laurenti arvisque Latinis, 

6. Messapus, See vii. 691. Ufeiis. See vii. 744. — 7. Mexm» 
f»«. See vii. 647. — 12. Construe, Aenean dicere se posei regem 
'atis. — 15. Tbis is to arouse the fears of Diomede, as the deadly 
nemy of the Trojjtns.— >18. Laamedontius heros, Aeneas. See 
L 648. — 19, 20. See iv. 285, 286.-27. Alituum, for alitum, as if 
rom alitus. — 29. Turbatus vectora, tbe accusative of limitation. 
(ee at iv. 558. — 35. Affari^ tne historical infinitive. See at i. 423. 
-36. Trqjanam, &LC. Similarly i. 68. — Z7. Hevekis nobis. Alla 
iqg to ^he Italian descent of Dardanus. See at iii. 168. Fergcma, 
!•• «t ii. 177. 



Hic tibi certa domus, certi, ne absiste, PenateSi 

Neu belli terrere minis; tumor omnis et irae 40 

Concessere deum. 

Jamquc tibi, ne vana putes haec fingere somnumi 

Litoreis ingens inventa sub ilicibus sus, 

Triginla capitum fetua enixa, jacebit, 

Alba, solo recubans, albi circum ubera nati. 45 

Hic locus urbis erit, requies ea certa laborum, 

£x quo ter denis urbem redeuntibus annis 

Ascaiiius clari condet cognominis Albam. 

Haud incerta cano. Nunc qua ratione, quod instat, 

Expedias victor, paucis, adverte, docebo. 50 

Arcades his oris, genus a Paliante profectum, 

Qui regem Evandrum comites, qui signa secuti, 

Delegere locum et posuere in montibus urbem 

Pallantis proavi de nomine Palianteum. 

Hi bellum assidue ducunt cum gente Latina ; 55 

Hos castris adhibe socios, et foedera junge. 

Ipso ego te ripis et rccto flumine ducam| 

Adversum remis superes subvectus ut amnem. 

Surge age, nat^ dea, primisque cadentibus astris 

Junoni ifer rite preces, iramque minasque 60 

Supplicibus supera votis. Mihi victor honorem 

Persolves. £go 8um| pleno quem flumine oemis 

Stringentem ripas et pinguia culta secantemi 

Caeruleus Thybris, coelo gratissimus amnis. 

Hic mihi magna domus, celsis caput urbibns, exit.' 65 

Dixit, deinde lacu Fluvius se condidit alto, 
Ima petens; nox Aenean somnus^ue reliquit. 
Surgit, et, aetherii spectans orientia Solis 
Lumina, rite cavis undam de flumine palmis 
Sustinet, ac talis effundit ad aethera voces : 70 

' Nymphae, Laurentes N;^phae, genus amnibns nnde est, 
Tuque, o Thybri tuo genitor cum flumine sancto, 
Accipite Aenean, et tandem arcete periclis. 

40. See at i. 534.-42. ConBtrxie, jacAit tUn, thedativiu com- 
raodi. — 43. LUoreis, &c. See the prophecy ox Helemu, iiL 389» 
&c. — 47. Ex ^uo loco. Others understand the reference to be to 
time, quum aliquando, as if o7. Ter denit. Compare vdth L 867» 
&c. — 48. Albam Longam; so named, it would seem, not firam 
being built on the spot where tbc white sow was fbnnd, bot m 
gratefiil commemoration of the omen. — 54. See at vii. 634. ProawL 
Viigil secms hcre to follow a difTcrent tradition from that meminMd 
138. — 57. Becto Jlumine. See at vi. 9001 — 65. Alluding proplMi* 
cally to Romo. — 70. Sustinett koeps in his hand whiie. pngnqg& 
Others reod suttklit, , : .- ;! 


Quo te cumque lacus, mlserantem incommoda nostra, 
Fonte teiiet, quocumque solo pulcherrimus exis, 75 

Semper honore meo, semper celebrabere donis, 
Corniger Hesperidum Fluvius regnator aquarum. 
Adsis o tantum, et propius tua numina firmes.' 
Sic memorat, geminasque legit de classe biremis, 
Remigioque aptat 3 socios simul instruit armis. 80 

Ecce autem subitum atque oculis mirabile monstrum, 
Candida per silvam cum fetu concolor albo 
Procubuit viridique in litore conspicitur sus: 
Quam pius Aeneas tibi enim. tibi, maxima Juno, 
Mactat, sacra ferens, et cum grege sistit ad aram. 85 
Thybris ea fiuvium, quam longa esr, nocte tumentem 
Leniit, et tacita refluens ita substitit unda, 
Mitis ut in morem stagni placidaeque paludis 
Sterneret aequor aquis, remo ut luctamen abesset. 
Ergo iter inceptum celerant rumore secundo. 90 

Labitur uncta vadis abies; mirantur et undae, 
Miratur nemus insuetum fulgentia longe 
Scuta virum fiuvio, pictasque innare carinas. 
Olli remigio noctemque diemque fatigant, 
£t longos superant flexus, variisque teguntur 95 

Arboribus, viridisque secant placido aequore silvas. 
Soi medium coeli conscenderat igneus orbem, 
Cum muros arcemque procul ac rara domorum 
Tecta vident; quae nunc Romana potentia coelo 
Aequavit; tum res inopes Evandrus habebat. 100 

Ocius advertunt proras, urbique propinquant. 

Forte die sollemnem illo rex Arcas honorem 
Amphiiryoniadae magno divisque ferebat 
Ante urbem in luco. Pallas huic filius una, 
Una omnes juvenum primi pauperque senatus 105 

Tura dabaut, tepidusque cruor fumabat ad aras. 
Ut celsas viuere rates, atque inter opacum 
Allabi nemna^ et tacitis incumbere remis, 
Terrentur visu subito, cunctique relictis 
Consurgunt mensis. Audax quos rumpere Pallas 110 

77. Cornig^r. See at Georg. iv. 371. Hesperidum. See at i. 
S30. — 83. Viridi conspiciturf the efTect of the contrast of colour. — 
84. Enim has the force of utique. — 86. Quam^ &c. Sce at iv. 193. 
•—87. JSefluens. Retuming to its Bource, its noiseless raass ceased 
to flow.— 90. Rumore, the shouts of the rowers, or the gentle rip- 
pUng of the waves. Secundo. See at vii. 495. — 94. OUi. See at 
L dM. •— 98. Frocul by the arsis. — 103. Amphitryoniadae, a patro- 
nyinic pf Herculcs, from the husband of his mothcr. Alcmcna.— 
luC. JFttllS9'Bn\ia ; Fallds^&diB. Una huic, a poetica. construction. 


Sacra vetat. raptoque volat telo obvius ipse. 

Et procul e tumiilo: •Juvenes. quae causa subegit 

Iirnolas tentare vias ? quo tendilis ?' inquil. 

*Qui ^'enus ? uuile domo ? pacemne huc fertis. an arma?' 

Tum jxiter Aenea> puppi sic latur ab alta, 115 

Paciieraeque manu ramum praetendit olivae : 

^Trojusrenas ac tela vides inimica LatiniS; 

Quos illi bt*llo profugos egere superbo. 

Evandrum petimus. Fertc haec, et dicite lectos 

])ardaniac venisse duces, socia arma rogantis.' 120 

Obstupuit tanto percussus nomine Pallas: 

* Egredere o quicumque es/ ait, ' coramque parentem 

Alloquere. ac nostris succede penatibus hospes.' 

Excepit(iue mann, dextramque amplexus inhaesit. 

Progressi subeunt luco. fiuvmmque relinc^uunt. 125 

Tum re^em Aeneas dictis affatur amicis : 
'Optume Grajugenum, cui me Fortuna precari 
Et vitla comptos voluit praeteudere ramos, 
Non equidem extimui, Danaum quod ductor et Arcas 
Quodque ab stirpe fores geminis conjunctus Atridis; 130 
Sed mea me virtus et sancta oracula divom, 
Coiniatique patres, tua tcrris didita fama, 
Conjunxere tibi, et fatis egere volentem. 
Dardanus, Iliacae primus pater urbis et auctor, 
Electra, ut Graii perhibent, Atlantide cretus, 135 
Advohitur Teucros; Electram maximus Atlas 
Edidit. aetherios humero qui sustinet orbis. 
Vobis Mercurius pater est, quem candida Maia 
Cyllenae gelido conceptum vertice fudit; 
At Maiam, auditis si quicquam credimus, AtlaSi 140 
Idem Atlas generat, coeli qui sidera tollit. 
Sic genus amborum scindit se sanguine ab uno. 
His fretus non legatos neque prima per artem 
Tentamenta lui pepigi j me, me ipse meumque 
Objeci caput et supplex ad Jimina veni. 145 
Gens eadem, quae te, crudeli Daunia bello 

114. Qui eenus, a pcculiar modification of the accusative of 
limitation. tfndej equivalcnt to de qua. — 116. Olivae. See at 
vii. 154. — 118. Bcllo. Sce vii. 519, &c. — 122. Coram, used 
adverbially. — 130. Atridis. Sce at i. 458. Conjunctus, Jupiter 
was the father of Tantalus, the anccstor of the Atridae, and of 
Mercury, the father of Evander. — 131. Oracula. See 51, &c.» 
and vi. 96. — 135. Atlas (sec at i. 741, iv. 247), Elcctra, Dardaniu, 
Aeneas; Atlas, Maia, Evandcr. — 139. Cyllenae. See at iv. 252. 
— 143. Construc, Non pcpipi prima tentamenta iui per Cvi. 69S9 
le^toB neque per artem. — 144. Mey me, scc a similar colloeation 
mierring emphasis, ix. 427, xii. 260. — 146. Gen$ Daunia, RntalL 


Insequituj; nos si peliant, niiiil afore credunt, 
Quin omnem Hesperiam penitus sua sub juga mittant, 
£t mare quod supra, teneant, quodque alluit infra. 
Accipe daque fidem. Sunt nobis fortia bello 150 

Pectora. sunt animi et rebus spectata juventus.' 
Dixerat Aeneas. Ille os oculosque loquentis 
Jamdudum et totum lustrabat lumine corpus. 
Tum slc pauca refert : ^ Ut te, forlissime Teucrum, 
Accipio agnoscoque libeus ! ut verba parentis 155 

Et vocem Anchisae magui voltumque recordor ! 
Nam memini Hesionae visentem regna sororis 
Laomedontiaden Priamum, Salamina petentem, 
Protenus Arcadiae gelidos invisere finis. 
Tum mihi prima genas vestibat flore juventa; 160 

Mirabarque duces Teucros, mirabar et ipsum 
Laomedontiaden ; sed cunctis ahior ibat 
Anehises. Mihi mens juvenah ardebat amore 
Compellare virum, et dextrae conjungere dextram ', 
Accessi, et cupidus Phenei sub moenia duxi. 165 

IJle mihi insignem pharetram Lyciasque sagittas 
Discedens chlamydemque auro dedit intertextam. 
Frenaque bina, meus quae nunc habet, aurea, Pallas. 
Ergo et, quam petitis, juncta est mihi foedere dextra, 
Et, lux cum primum terris se crastina reddet, 170 

Auxilio laetos dimittam, opibusque juvabo. 
Interea sacra haec, quando huc venistis amici, 
Annua, quae differre nefas, celebrate faventes 
Nobiscum, et jam nunc socioruni adsuescite mensis.' 

Haec ubi dicta, dapes jubet et sublata repohi 175 
Pocula, gramineoque viros locat ipse sedifi, 
Praecipuumque toro et villosi pelle leonis 
Accipit Aenean, solioque invitat acerno. 
Tum lecti juvenes certatim araeque sacerdos 
Viscera tosta ferunt taurorum, onerantque canistris 180 
Dona laboratae Cereris, Bacchumque ministrant. 
Vescitur Aeneas simul et Troiana juventus 
Perpetui tergo bovis et lustralibus extis. 

36 at vii. 56. — 149. Mare, quod alluit supra; Mare superum. 
!are, qtiod alluit infra; Mare Inferum. See at yi. 697. The 
driatic and Tuscan seas. — 152. Dixerat, Sde at ii. 621. — 157. 
'esioney sister of Priain, married to Toiamon, king of Salamia — 
i ifiJand off the coast of Atiica. — 160. Mihi. See at vi. 473. — 
i5. Fheneusj a town of Arcadia, at the foot of Cyllene. — 166. Ly- 
iMue sagitta». See at vii. 816. — 169. Mihi; a me. Zurapt, % 419. 
•180. Vtscera, See at Georg. iv. 555. — 181. Cereris, Baccho, Sec 
ii.311. — 183. Lustralia exta. Entraiis of avictim offered as a 
rnficatory sacrifice. 


Poptquam cxompla fames t»i amor compressas odendi, 
Rox Eviimlrus ait : • .\om liacc sollLMiiiiia nobisj 185 

Has tvv mort* (lapcs. Iiatic tauti iiumiiiis aram 
Vana superslitio Vfterumqutj iErnara deorum 
Imposuit: sat^vis. hospes Trojaiu\ pcriclis 
S«'ivati facimus meritostjue novamus houores. 
Jam primum s:i\is suspeiis;im haiic aspice rupem, 190 
Disjectae piocul ut moles, ilesertaque montis 
Stat ilomns, et scopuli ingentem traxere ruinam. 
Hic spelunca fuit. vasto submota recessn, 
Semihominis Caci tacies quam dira tenebat, 
Solis inaccessam radiis; semperque recenti 195 

Caedo tepebat humus, foribnsque affixa snperbis 
Ora virum tristi pendebant pallida tabo. 
Huic monstro Volcanus erat pater : illius atros 
Ore vomeiis iq[nis mauna se mole ferebat. 
Attulit et nobis aliquando optantibus aetas 200 

Auxilium adventumciue dei. Nam maximus ultor, 
Tergemiiii iit^ce (ieryonae spoliisque superbus, 
Alcides aderat. tauroscjuo hac victor agebat 
Ingentis, vallemqutj boves amnemque tenebant. 
At furiis Caci mens eirora, ne quid inausum 205 

Aut intraclatum scelerisve dolive fuisset, 
Quatuor a stabulis praestanti corpore tauros 
Avertit. totidem fornia superante juvencas. 
Atque hos, ne qua forent pedibus vestigia rectis, 
Cauda in s|>eluncam tractos versisque viarum 210 

Indiciis raptos saxo occultabat opaco. 
Quaerenti nulla ad speluncam signa ferebant. 
Interea, cum jam stabulis saturata moveret 
Amphitryoniades armenta abitumque pararet, 
Discessu mugire boves, atque omne querelis 215 

Impleri nemus, et colles clamore relinqui. 
Keddidit una boum vocem vastoque sub antro 

191. Veserta, a lonely ruin. — 192. Domus montif, thc cavo on the 
inountain'8 sidc— the Avcntino (231). — 194. Semihominii, -i eUded. 
Compare temiviro (iv. 215), wherc the contrast is between vir aad 
femina, whilo semihomo is hcre contrasted with aemiferus, 267. 
Jlomo is thc genus, vir, a species. Cacus did not evon belong to the 
genua. — 199. SefS-ehat. Hee at iv. 11. — 200. Et nobis, 'to UB 8S 
well as to othcrs.'' — 202. 7'ergemini Geryonae. See at vi. 286 ; vii. 
662. — 203. Alcides. Sce at vi. 392. — 205. Inausum refera to ne 
guid sceleris; intractaium to nc quid doli. — 210. Tractoe — nipfot— 
occultahat. See at i. 680. Trahcbat, rapiebat et occultabat.—^^VL 
Tho constrnction is apparcntly, Boves fereibant nulla indtcia ^00- 
renti. Others make ferebant govern the dative, indieia being the 

LiBER viir/ 325 

MugLt el Caci spem custodita fefellit. 

Hic vero Alcidae furiis exarserat atro 

Felle dolor; rapit arnria manu nodisque gravatara 220 

Robur, et aerii cursu petit ardua montis. 

Tum primum nostri Cacum videre timentem 

Turbatumque oculis; fugit ilicet ocior Euro 

Speluncamque petit; pedibus timor addidit alas. 

Ut sese inclusit, ruptisque immane catenis 225 

Dejecit saxum, ferro quod et arte paterna 

Pendebat, fultosque emuniit objice postis, 

Ecce furens animis aderat Tirynthius, omnemque 

Accessum lustrans huc ora ferebat et illuc, 

Dentibus infrendens. Ter totum fervidus ira 230 

Lustrat Aventini montem; ter saxea lentat 

Limina nequidquamj ter fessus valle resedit. 

Stabat acuta silex, praecisis undique saxis 

Speluncae dorso insurgens, altissima visu, 

Dirarum nidis domus opportuna volucrum. 235 

Hanc, ut prona jugo laevum incumbebat ad amnem, 

Dexter in adversum nitens concussit, et imis 

Avolsam solvit radicibus; inde repente 

Impulit ; impulsu quo maximus intonat aether, 

Dissultant ripae refluitque exterritus amnis. 240 

At specus et Caci detecta apparuit ingens 

Regia, et umbrosae penitus patuere cavernae : 

Non secus, ac si qua penitus vi terra dehiscens 

Infernas reseret sedes et regria recludat 

Pallida, dis invisa, superque immane barathrum 245 

Cernatur, trepidentque immisso lumine Manes. 

Ergo insperata deprensum in luce repente 

Inclusumque cavo saxo atque insueta rudentem 

Desuper Alcides telis premit, omniaque arma 

Advocat, et ramis vastisque molaribus instat. 250 

Ille autem, neque enim fuga jam super ulla pericli, 

Faucibus ingentem fumum, mirabile dictu, 

Evomit involvitque domum caligine caeca, 

Prospectum eripiens oculis, glomeratque sub antro 

Fumiferam noctem, commixtis igne tenebris. 255 

Non tulit Alcides animis, seque ipse per ignem 

Praecipiti jecit saltu, qua plurimus undam 

226.Paterna. See 198. — 228. Tirynthius. See at vii. 662. Om- 
emque, last vowel elided before accessum. — 243. D&iiscens. — 251. 
upeTf superest. — 260. In nodum, the limbs of Cacus knotted toge- 
ler by the grasp of Hercules. Others refer in nodum to the close 
asp of Herculcs. Angit^ angens reddit Chokes him till his eyeg 
:trt from their sockcts. 


Fumus agit nebulaque ingens^pt?cus aestuat atra. 

Hic Cacuni hi tenebris inceniliii vana vomentem 

Corripit in nodum comple.vus. et aii;xit inhaerens 260 

Elisos oculos et siccum sani^uiiu» iruttur. 

Panditur exlemplo foribus domus alra revolsis, 

Abstractaeque boves abjurataeque rapinae 

Coelo ostenduntur, pedibusque informe cadaver 

Protrahitur. Xequeunt expleri corda tuendo 265 

Terribilis oculos, vultum, villosaque setis 

Pectora semiferi atque exstinctos faucibus ignis. 

£x illo celebratus honos, laetique minores 

Servavere diem. primusque Potitius auctor 

£t domus Herculei' custos Pinaria sacri. 270 

Hanc aram luco statuit, quae Maxima semper 

Dicetur nobis, et erit quae maxima semper. 

Quare agite, o juvenes. tantarum in munere laadum 

Cingite fronde comas et pocula porgite dextris 

Cummunemque vocate deum et date vina Tolentes.' 275 

Dixerat : Herculea bicolor cum populus umbra 

Velavitque comas foliisque innexa pependit, 

£t sacer implevit dextram scyphus. Oclus omnes 

In mcnsam laeti libant divosque precantur. 

Devexo interea propior tit Vesper Olympo : 280 

Jamque sacerdotes primusque Potitius ibant, 
Pellibus in morem cincti, fkimmasqne ferebant. 
Instaurant epulas. et mensae grata secundae 
Dona ferunt. cumulantque oneratis lancibus aras. 
Tum Salii ad cantus incensa altaria circum 285 

Populeis adsunt evincti tempora ramis^ 
Hic juvenum chorus, ille senum ; qui carmina landes 
Herculeas et facta fenint : ut prima novercae 
^lonstra manu geminosque premens eliseric angois ^ 
Vl beilo egregias idem disjecerit urbes, 290 

Trojamque Oechaliamque : ut duros mille ]abore8| 
Kege snb Eurystheo fatis Junonis iniquae 

-2b:^. Ahjurctae rapi/iae. plunilor Cthe oxcn) which he had awom ha 
hai r.ever taken. — 06T. StmiftrL See at 194. — 271. 5teC«iC Her- 
cules. Oihers inake dom'^s Pinaria ihe nominative.— 274. JPmwHe, 
coniracred for porrigite. — 0T6. Bicolor, one side of the leavea of tb* 
poplnr is lisrhter iii coloiir !haa the other. Herculea. See ^^ viL 
61. — 0^0. ^rho day-heaven descends inio ihe sea. See at iL850.— 
285. Tho Salii {A snIiendo\ wlio were properly the prieslB of Man, 

Soea. — '292. Eurystheus cking of TirynSf vii. 662), by an aitffice 
"lo, had power over Ilercmes till he should perronn Iwalfa 


Pertulerit. ' Tu nubigenas, invicte, bimembris, 
Hylaeumque Pholumque, manu, tu Cresia mactas 
Prodigia et vastum Nemeae sub rupe leonem. 296 

Te Stygii tremuere lacus, te janitor Orci 
Ossa super recubans antro semiesa cruento ; 
Nec te ullae facies, non terruil ipse Typhoeus, 
Arduus arma tenens; non te rationis egentem 
Lernaeus turba capitum circumstetit anguis. 300 

Salve, vera Jovis proles, decus addite divis, 
Et nos et tua dexter adi pede sacra secundo.' 
Talia carminibus celebrant ; super omnia Caci 
Speluncam adjiciunt, spirantemque ignibus ipsum. 
Consonat omne nemus strepitu, collesque resultant. 305 

Exin se cuncti divinis rebus ad urbem 
Perfectis referunt. Ibat rex obsitus aevo, 
Et comitem Aenean juxta natumque tenebat 
Ingrediens, varioque viam sermone levabat. 
Miratur, facilisque oculos fert omnia circum 310 

Aeneas, capiturque locis, et sitigula laetus 
Exquiritque auditque virum monumenta priorum. 
Tum rex Evandrus Romanae conditor arcis : 
^ Haec nemora indigenae Fauni Nymphaeque tenebant, 
Gensque virum truncis et duro robore nata, 315 

Quis neque mos neque cultus erat, nec jungere taaros, 
Aut componere opes norant, aut parcere parto, 
Sed rami atque asper victu venatus alebat. 
Primus ab aetherio venit Saturnus Olympo, 
Arma Jovis fugiens et regnis exsul aaemptis. 320 

Is genus indocile ac dispersum montibus altis 
CompoBuit, legesque dedit, Latiumque vocari ' 
Maluit, his quoniam J^tuisset tutus in oris. 
Aurea quae perhibent, illo sub rege fuere 
Saecula : sic placida populos in pace regebat ; 825 

Deterior donec paulatim ac decolor aetas 
£t belli rabies et amor successit habendi. 
Tum manus Ausonia et gentes venere Sioanae, 

293. *TUf &c. A burst of the sacrod Bong itself is introducod. 
genasi the Centaurs. See at vi. 286. — 294. Crcaia prodigia^ 
was a wild bull. — 295. Nemeae, in ilio north of Argolis. — 296. 
'«.398,^^.392. Jamtor, Corberus. Sco vi. 400.— 297. 6'«- 
-ielided. — 298. Typhoeus. Soe at i. 665. — 300. Lerna^ut, 
fu 286. — 314. Tho surroundin^ country wns nt ono tinio in- 
^ the ahT^x^ovti, the aborigincs (315), nnd thoir deitios. 
' ^i — 316. Quis, quibus. — 324. Aurea, &*c. Soo at JSel* 
1)6. This is Virgirs account. First, tho Ahoriginetf thon 
(866 p. 180, lino 5), and the &\cani, or Siculi, whotn 


Siiepius et iiomen i>osuit Siiturnia tellus. 

Tutii re^cs aspi-rque irnmani corpore Thybrif», 330 

A quo post Ilali lluvlnni co;nioninie Tliybrim 

Diximus; ainisii vcrum vetus Albula nomen. 

Me pulsuni pairia pflayiipio exlrema sequentem 

Fortuna omnii^otens et ineluctabile tatum 

His posuere locis, matriwiue ejG^ere tremenda 335 

Carmejilis Nymphao monita ei deus uuctor Apollo.' 

Vix ea dicta: ih*hinc progressus nionstrat et aram 

Et Caimontaiem Komani nominc portam 

Quam memorant, Nymphae priwum Carinenfis honorem, 

Vatis tatiilicac, ceciuit quae prima futuros 340 

Acneadas ma;^nos et nobile Paliaitlcum. 

Hinc lucum injifentem, quem Romuhis acer Asylum 

Retulit, et ;^elida monstrat sub rupe Lupercal, 

Parrhasio dictum Panos de more Lycaei. 

Nec noii et sacri monstrat nemus Argileti, 345 

Testaturque locum, et letum docet hospitis Aigi. 

Hinc ad Tarpeiam sedem et Capitolia ducit, 

Aurea nunc, olim silvestribus'horrida dumis. 

Jam tum religio pavidos terrebat agrestis 

Dira loci; jam tum silvam saxumque tremebant. 350 

'Hoc nemus. hunc,' inquit, ^frondoso vertice collem, 

Quis deus incertum est, habitat deus ; Arcades ipsum 

Credunt se vidisse Jovem, cum saepe nigrantem 

Aegida concuteret, dextra nimbosque cieret. 

Haec duo praeterea disjectis Of pida muris, 355 

Reliquias veterumque vides monumenta virorum. 

Hanc Janus pater, nanc Saturnus condidit arcem j 

Janiculum huic, illi fuerat Saturnia nomen.' 

Talibus inter se dictis ad tecta Babibant 

Pauperis Evandri, passimque aiftenta videbant 36C 

others represent as having bcen dispossesscd by the Aborigines.— 
329. Fosuity mutavit. — 331. Po«f, postea. N oa Itali. — 336. Cor- 
tnentisj or Carmcnta, one of the Camcnae, prophetic nymphB, pro- 
perly of Italian origin, but hcre attributed to Arcadia. — 337. 1)$* 
hinc. — 338. Construe, Et portam quam Romani memarant fMmtiu 
Carmentalem. It was at the foot of the Capitol. — 342. The A9i» 
lum of Romulus {Liv. i. 8) was a wooded enclosure on the CapUoL 
— 343. The Lupercal, a cave sacrod to Fan, was on the Falatina. 
— 344. As Pan was called by the Arcadians {Farrhasio, a toWQ of 
Arcadia) Lycaeus, from Xvkos, so Lupercal, from lupus. •"- 345. Argf 
(of Argos) letum (the death). Another ftnciful derivative of toB 
name of a street in Rome characteriatic of ancient etylhplogy.* 
358. Huic — i7Zt, the former, the latter, contrary to the cAnmon HM 
of these words. 


Romanoque foro et lautis raugire Carinis. 

Ut ventum ad sedes : * Haec,' inquit, * limina victor 

Alcides subiit, haec illum regia cepit. 

Aude, hospes, contemnere opes, et te quoque dignum 

Finge deo, rebusque veni non asper egenis.' 365 

Dixit, et angusti subter fastigia tecti 

Ingentem Aenean duxit, stratisque locavit 

Effultum foliis et pelle Libystidis ursae. 

Nox ruit, et fuscis tellurem amplectilur alis. 
At Yenus haud animo nequidquam exterrita mater, 370 
Laurentumque minis et duro mota tumultu 
Yolcanum alloquitur, thalamoque haec conjugis aureo 
Incipit, et dictis divinum adspirat amorem : 
' Dum bello Argolici vastabant Pergama reges 
Debita casurasque inimicis ignibus arces, 375 

Non ullum auxilium miseris, non arma rogavi 
Artis opisque tuae ; nec te, carissime conjunx, 
Incassumve tuos volui exercere labores, 
Quamvis et Priami deberem plurima natis, 
Et durum Aeneae flevissem saepe laborem. 380 

Nunc Jovis^imperiis Rutulorum constitit oris: 
Ergo eadem supplex venio, et sanctum mihi numen 
Arma rogo, genetrix nato. Te filia Nerei, 
Te potuit lacrimis Tithonia flectere conjunx. 
Aspice, qui coeant populi, quae moenia clausis 385 

Ferrum acuant portis in me excidiumque meorum.' 
Dixerat, et niveis hino atque hinc diva lacertis 
Cunctantem amplexu molii fovet. Ille repente 
Accepit solitam flammam, notusque medullas 
Intravit calor, et labefacta per ossa cucurrit : 390 

Non secus atque olim. tonitru cum rupta corusco 
Ignea rima micans pBrcurrit lumine nimbos. 
Sensit laeta dolis et formae conscla conjunx. 
Tum pater aeterao fatur devinctus amore : 
'Quid causas petis ex alto ? fiducia cessit 395 

Quo tibi, diva, mei 1 Simili» si cura fuisset, 
Tum quoque fas nobis Teucros armare fuisset, 
Nec Pater omnipotens Trojam neo fata vetabant 

361. CariniSf between the Falatine, Esquiline, and Caelian hills. 
— 363. SubiU by the arsis. — 368. Lihystidis. See at v. 37.-372. 
Aureo, a dissyllable. — 375. BAiia, destined to fall. — 383. Thetii), 
daughter of the sea-god Ncreus, had obtained from Vulcan armour 
ior her son Achilles, and Aurora (see at iv. 585) for her son Mem- 
non. See i. 489. — 398. Troy*8 doom could not be averted, but il 
might have been postpone^. ^^ 
28* ^c 

lellare paras atqae haeo tibi 
Quidquid in arle mea poasum promittera onrae, 
Quod fieri ferro liquidave polest electm, 
Quanlum i^^nes animaeque valent; absiate praoiuida 
Viribus itidubitare luis.' Ea verba loculus 
Optatos dedii amplexus, placidumque petivit 40S 

Conjugis infusua gremio per membra Hopoiem. 

Inde ubi prlma quies, medio jam noctiB abaotae 
Cuiriculo, expulerat somnum, cuui femina pr imnfn , 
Cui tolerare colo vilam tenuique Minerra 
ImpoBitum, cinerem et Bopitos suscitat ignia, 410 

Noctem addens operi, famulaaque ad lumiaa longo 
Exorcal penso, caslum ul servare cubile 
Conjugis et possit parvoB educere natOB: 
Haud secuBlgnipotcns nec tempore segnior illo 
MollibuB e Btratis opera. ad fabrilis BUi^it. 415 

Insula Sicanium juxta latus Aeoliamque 
Erigitur Liparen, fumantibua ardua Bozi^ 
Quam subter apecuB et Cyclopum exeBa cwiUDis 
Anlra Aelnaea tonant, validique incudibua iotiu 
Audiu refetunt gemitum, atriduntqDe oaTemis 420 

Striclura.e Cbalybum, et fomaoibus iguis anhelat, 
Volcani domus, et Volcania nomine tellua. 
Hoc tuno Ignipatens coelo deccendit ab alto. 
Ferrum exercebant vasto Cyclopca in anlro, 
' Brontesque Sleropesque el nudus membia Pjnatmm. 4SS 
Hls informatum manibus jam parle polita 
Fulmen eral, toto Genitor quae plunma ooelo 
Dejicit in terras; pars imperfecta manebat. 
Tris imbris loiti radios, tria nubia aquoaae 
Addiderant, rutili tris ignis, et tAis AuBtn. 480 

Fulgores nunc lerrilicos Bonilumqua mBtumqiU 
Miscebanl operi ilammisque seqaacibna ins. 
ParW BJia Marti cattuinque Mtaeque Tolnwis 
Inslabant, quibua ille viros, quibus exoitat lubas 

403. Eleelnim, a tnixed mclal, four parta gold, one eilTer. — 4Ul 
Sopilo» igHii. Soe nt v. 743. — illi. Jn.ufu, Hiera, or Vulcani». 
lyiiig beiween Sidly and Lipnre. See at i. .l:;. — 418. CydttpuM. 
BeHBt iii. 616.— *19. .,4(;(»neo, ciiher AWno-like (vii. 786), ot eAm- 
municanngwilti Aelnii.— 421. CWjftnm, n iribe of Pontua. nated 
forlbeirskiliin Ihe mDnufactiire of iraii. Henre Ihe Qee of cAoJiW, 
446.-493. Han. nn old farnl"fiir huBj — 423. Bnnl, jui by itw 
arais. Nvdat membra, the ■ — '^ lilniiiirion.- 436. Infar, 

-427. GcTt, <r, t-jW_ 

tiri. ^^an 



Aegidaque horriferam, turbatae Palladis arma, 435 

Certatim squamis serpentum auroque polibant, 
Connexosque anguis ipsamque in pectore divae 
Gorgona, desecto vertentem lumina collo. 
' Tollite cuncla,' inquit, * coeptosque auferte labores, 
Aetnaei Cyclopes, et huc advertile menlem : 440 

Arma acri facienda viro. Nunc viribus usus, 
Nunc manibus rapidis, omni nunc arte magistra. 
Praecipitate moras.' Nec plura effatus; at illi 
Ocius mcubuere omnes pariterque laborem 
Sortiti. Fluit aes rivis aurique metallum, 445 

Volnificusque chalybs vasta fornace liquescit. 
Ingentem clipeum informant, unum omnia contra 
Tela Latinorum, septenosque orbibus orbis 
Impediunt. Alii ventosis follibus auras 
Accipiunt redduntque ; alii stridentia tinguunt 450 

Aera lacu. Gemit impositis incudibus antrum. 
Illi inter sese multavi brachia toUunt 
In numerum, versantque tenaci forcipe massam. 
Haec pater Aeoliis properat dum Lemnius oris, 
Evandrum ex humili tecto lux suscitat alma 455 

Et matutini volucrum sub culmine cantus. 
Consurgit senior, tunicaque inducitur artus, 
Ef Tyrrhena pedum circumdat vincula plantis ; 
Tum lateri atque humeris Tegeaeum subligat ensem, 
Demissa ab laeva pantherae terga retorquens. 460 

Nec non et gemini custodes limine ab alto ^ ** 

Praecedunt gressumque canes comitantur herilem. 
Hospitis Aeneae sedem et secreta petebat, 
Sermonum memor et promissi muneris, heros. 
Nec minus Aeneas se matutinus agebat. 465 

Filius huic Pallas, illi comes ibat Achates. 
Congresfti jungunt dextras, mediisque residunt 
Aedibus, et licito tandem sermone fruuntur. 
Rex prior haec : 

* Maxime Teucrorum duclor, quo sospite numquam 470 
Res equidem Trojae victas aut regna fatebor, 

436. S^uamis auroque. See Sitixeorg. ii. 477. — 438. Gorgona. 
3ee at vi. 286. — 448. This seems to mean that seven circles of 
}teel were entwined and welded together. — 449, &c. Compare 
(reorg. iv. 170, &.c. — 452. Expressive of laborious motion. See at 
rii. 811. — 454. JPater Lemnius^ Vulcan from his worship at the 
ieland of Lemnos, and the legend of liis fall from heaven upon it.— 
158. Tyrrhena. See at vi. 697. — 459. Tegeaeum. See at v. 299, 
—463. Secretaf the inner pa>t 6f the house. — 466. Huifi, Evandro 
814 Aeneae. Seeat358ii>* 

832 AENCID09. 

\obis ad belli auxilium pro iiomine tanto 

P^\i;;iiae vires: hiiic Tusco claudimur amni, 

Hinc KutuluB premit, et murum circumsonat armis. 

^ed tibi t*go iiigentis populos opuleiitaque regnis 475 

Jungerc custra paro, quum fors inopina salutem 

Oslentat. Fatis huc tc poscentibus adfers. 

Ilaud procul hinc saxo incolitur fundata vetusto 

Urbis Atfyllinae sedes, ubi Lydia quondam 

Gens, bello praeclara, jugis insedit £tru6cis. 48C 

Hanc mnltos liorentem annos rex deinde superbo 

Iniperio ct saevis tenuit Mezentius armis. 

Quid memorem infandas caedes, quid facta tyranni 

Eirerd ? di capiti ipsius generique resen^ent ! 

]\Iortua (juin etiam jungebat corpora vivis, 485 

Componens manibuscjue manus atque oribns ora, 

Tormenti genus, et sanie taboque iiuentis 

Complexu in misero longa sic morte necabat. 

At fessi tandcm cives infanda furentem 

Armati circumsistunt ipsumque domumque, 490 

Obtruncant socios, igncm ad fastigia jactant. 

Ille inter caedem Rutulorum elapsus in agros 

Confugere^ et Turni defendier hospitis armis. 

Ergo omnis furiis surrexit Etruria justis; 

Regem ad supplicium praesenti Marte reposcunt. 495 

His ego te, Aenea, ductorem millibus addam. 

Toto namque fremunt condensae litore puppes, 

Signaque ferre jubent ; retinet longaevus naruspez 

Fata canens : ^' Maeoniae delecta juventus, 

Fios veterum virtusque virum, qnos justus in iiosteni 500 

Fert dolor et merita accendit Mezentius ira, 

Nulli fas Italo tantam subjungere gentem : 

Externos optate duces.'' Tum Etrusca resedit 

Hoc acies campo, monitis exterrita divom. 

Ipse oratores ad me regnique coronam 505 

Cum sceptro misit mandatquo insignia Tarchon, 

Succedam castris, Tyrrhenaque regna capessam. 

Sed mihi tarda gelu saeclisque effeta senectus 

Invidet imperium seraeque ad fortia vires. 

Natum exhortarer, ni mixtus matre Sabella 510 

479. AgylUnae. Scc p. 292, line 29. Lydia. See at ii. 781.— 
487. Tabem scems to mean the putrified matter formed by the gn- 
daal dissolution of the corpscs to which they were boand.— 498. 
Confttgere, the historical infinitive. Befendier^ for defendi; ai at. 
iv. 493. — 499. Maeoniae, Lydiae. See 479. — 507. Maniat mrtL , 
tores, orantcs ut, succedam. — 510. Mixtus. Pallas wasnot orpiiit:' 
foreign extraction. Mafre Sahdl^ SiS his mother waa a SaDini 


Ilinc partem patriae traheret. Tu cujus et annis 

Et generi fata indulgent, quem numina poscunt* 

Ingredere, o Teucrum atque Italum forlissime auctor. 

Hunc tibi praeterea, spes et solatia nostri, 

Pallanta adjungam; sub te tolerare magtstro 515 

Militiam et grave Martis opus, tua cernere facta 

Adsuescat, primis et te miretur ab annis. 

Arcadas huic equites bis centum, robora pubis 

Lecta dabo, totidemque suo tibi noraine Pallas.' 

Yix ea fatus erat ; defixique ora tenebant 520 

Aeneas Anchisiades et fidus Achates; 
Multaque dura suo tristi cum corde putabant, 
Ni signum coelo Cytherea dedisset aperto. 
Namque improviso vibralus ab aethere fulgor 
Cum sonitu venit, et ruere omnia visa repente, 525 

Tyrrhenusque tubae mugire per aethera clangor. 
Suspiciunt; iterum atque iterum fragor increpat ingens. 
Arma inter nubem coeli in regione serena 
Per sudum rutilare vident et pulsa tonare. 
Obstupuere animis alii ; sed Troiius heros 530 

Agnovit sonitum et divae promissa parentis. 
Tum memorat : ^ Ne vero, hospes, ne quaere profecto, 
Quem casum portenta fera/it : ego poscor Olympo. 
Hoc signum cecinit missuram diva creatrix, 
Si bellum ingrueret, Volcaniaque arma per auras 535 
Laturam auxilio. 

Heu quantae miseris caedes Laurentibus instant ! 
Quas poenas mihi, Turne, dabis ! quam multa sub ondas 
Scuta virum galeasque et fortia corpora volves, 
. Thybri pater! Poscant acies, et foedera rumpant.' 540 

Haec ubi dicta dedit, solio se toilit ab alto; 
Et priraum Herculeis sopitas ignibus aras 
Excitat, hestemumque Larem parvosque Penatis 
Laetus adit; mactant lectas de more bidentis 

bl. of manner), he was partly Italian. — 522. Futdbant, et putare 
irstitissent ni. See a similar eliipsis, vi. 358. — 523. Cytherea. 
se at i. 257. — 526. If a trumpet be Tuscan, its peal maybe called 
uscan also. Hence we may sav, Tyrrhenae tubae clangor ; ot, as 
ire, Turrhenus tubae clangor, tne adjective being a common attri- 
ite of both. The tuba is said to have been a Tuscan invention. 
o its peal the shrill clank of the armour is here likened (visus in- 
)Ived in visa), unless, indeed, we suppose that a irurapet actually 
d peal. — 533. Olympo, dat. for ab Oiympo. — 534. This promise 
not mcntioned elsewhere by Virgil. — 542. Et, &,c. The sense 
'tiuB doubtful passage seems to be, that Aeneas springs to the Ara 
«Kinaaof yesterday^s solemnitv. at which (103) other gods were 
oififthipped, but especially HercuTes. 


Evatidrus pariter, pariter Trojana juventus. 545 

Post hiiic ad navis graditur, sociosque revisit ; 
Quorum de numcro, qui sese in beila sequantur, 
Pracstantis virtute lcgit; pars ceteraprona 
Fertur aqua, segnisque secundo detluit anmi, 
Nuntia ventura Ascanio rerumque patrisque. 550 

Dantur equi Teucris Tyrrhena petentibus arva; 
Ducunt exsortem Aeneae, quem fulva leonis 
Fellis obit totum, praefulgens unguibus aureis. 

Fama volat parvam eubito volgata per urbem; 
Ocius ire cquites Tyrrheni ad litora regis. 555 

Vota metu duplicant matres, propiusque periclo 
It timor, et major Martis jam apparet imago. 
Tum pater Evandrus dextram complexus euntis 
Hacrct, inexplotus lacrimans, ac talia fatur : 
' mihi praeteritos referat si Jupiter annos, 560 

Quulis cram, cum primam aciem Praeneste sub ipsa 
Stravi, sculorumque incendi victor acervos, 
Et rcgem hac Erilum dextra sub Tartara misi, 
Nascenti cui tris animas Feronia mater — 
Horrendum dictu — dederat, terna arma movenda; 565 
Ter leto sternendus erat ; cui tum tamen omnis 
Abstuht haec animas dextra, et totidem exuit armis : 
Non ego uunc dulci amplexu divellerer usquam, 
Nate, tuo ; neque iinitimo Mezentius umquam 
Huic capiti insultans tot ferro saeva dedisset 570 

Funera; tam muhis viduasset civibus urbem. 
At vos, superi, et divom tu maxime rector 
Jupiter, Arcadii, quaeso, miserescite regis, 
£t patrias audite preces : Si numina vestra 
Incolumem Pallanta mihi, si fata reservant, 575 

Si visurus eum vivo et venturus in unum, 
Vitam oro ; patior quemvis durare laborem. 
Sin aliquem infandum casum, Fortuna, minaris, 
Nunc, nunc o liceat crudelem abrumpere vitam, 
Dum curae ambiguae, dum spes incerta futuri, 580 

Dum te, care puer, mea sola et sera voluptas, 
Complexu teneo ; gravior neu nuntius auris 
Vohieret.' Haec genitor digressu dicta supremo 
Fundebat; famnli collapsura in tecta ferebant. 

549. Secundo. Sec at vii. 495. — 553. ^um>, a disByllable.— • 
555. Litora. Oihera read limifia. — 55G. Fropiusque^ glc. 'Thc 
approaching daii^or briugs feur closcr to theni.' — 558. EujUi» fiUL 
See <uo, 569. — 500. Si. See at vi. 187. — b6\. PraeneMte, Sse p. 
292, linc 32. Ivsa. Notc the gendcr rcfcrring to urbe, whereas at 
vii. 682 altum tollows the gcnder of Fraenestc. 


Jamque adeo exierat portis equitatus apertis, 585 

Aeneas inter primos et fidus Achates, 
Inde alii Trojae proceres; ipse agmine Pallas 
In medio, chlamyde et pictis conspectus iu armis : 
Qualis ubi Oceani perfusus Lucifer unda, 
Quem Venus ante alios astrorum diligit ignis, 590 

Extulit 08 sacrum coelo tenebrasque resolvit. 
Stant pavidae in muris matres, oculisque sequuntur 
Pulveream nubem et fulgentis aere catervas. 
Olli per dumos, qua proxuma meta viarum, 
Armati tendunt j it clamor, et agmine facto 595 

Quadrupedante putrem sonitu quatit ungula campum. -f- 
Est ingens gelidum lucus prope Caeritis amnem, / 

Religione patrum late sacer ; undique colles 
Inclusere cavi et nigra nemus abiete cingunt. 
Silvano fama est veteris sacrasse Pelasgos, 600 

Arvorum pecorisque deo, lucumque diemqne, 
Qui primi finis aliquando habuere Latinos. 
Haud procul hinc Tarcho et Tyrrhehi tuta tenebant 
Castra locis, celsoque omnis de colle videri 
Jam poterat legio, et latis tendebat in arvis. 605 

Huc pater Aeneas et bello lecta juventus 
Succedunt, fessique et equos et corpora curant. 

At Venus aetherios inter dea candida nimbos 
Dona ferens aderat ; natumque in valle reducta 
Ut procul et gelido secretum flumine vidit, 610 

Talibus affata est dictis, seque obtulit ultro : 
^ En perfecta mei promissa conjugis arte 
Munera; ne mox aut Laurentis, nate, superbos, 
Aut acrem dubites in proelia poscere Tumum.' 
Dixit et amplexus nati Cytherea petivit; 615 

Arma sub adversa posuit radiantia quercu. 
Ille, deae donis et tanto laefus honore, 
Expleri nequit atque oculos per singnla volvit, 
Miraturque interque manus et brachia versat 
Terribilem cristis galeam flammasque vomentem, 620 
Fatiferumque ensem, loricam ex aere rigentem, 

589. Lucifer. See at ii. 80L — 596. The sound echoing th« sense. 
See at vii. 811. — 597. Caeritia. See p. 292, line 29.-599. Abiete, 
three syllables, abyete. — 600. SUvano^ an indigenous rural deity, 
identified often with the Greek Pan. Pelasgos. Vir^il here, for the 
only time, uses this word to indicate the early inhabitants of Italy, 
who are supposed to have sprung from the sarae common stock as 
the Greeks. Elsewhere Pelasei with him is identical with Graeci. 
•-610. Bl gelido. Others reaa e^dido. Secretum, ab aliis, solum 

618. Expleri nequit tucndo, as m 265. 

886 AENElDO.i. 

Sangiiineain, ingentem, qualis cum caerula nnbes 

Solis iiiardescit ratliis longcque refulget; 

Tum levis ocreas electro auroqne R*cocto, 

Hastamque, et clipei non enarKibile textum. 621 

Illic res Ilalas Romanorumque iriumphos, 

Haud vatum ignarus venturique inscius aevi, 

Fecerat Ignipotens; illic genus omne futurae 

Stirpis ab Ascanio, pugnataque in ordine bella. 

Fecerat et viridi fetam Mavortis in antro 630 

Procubuissc Iu])am ; geminos huic ubera circum 

Ludere pendentis pueros, et lambere matrem 

Impavidos ; iliam tereti cervice reilexam 

Mulcere aiternos, et corpora fiiigere lingua. 

Nec procul hinc Romam et raplas sine more Sabinas 635 

Consessu caveae,. magnis Circensibus actis, 

Addidenit, subitoque novum consurgere belluni 

Romulidis Tatioque seni Curibusque severis. 

Post idem inter se posito certamine reges 

Armati Jovis ante aram paterasque tenentes 64C 

Stabant et caesa jungebant foedera porca. 

Haud procul inde citae Mettum in diversa quadrigae 

Ditftulerant — at tu dictis, Albane, maneres I — 

Raptabatque viri mendacis viscera Tullus 

Per silvam, et sparsi rorabant sanguine vepres. 645 

Nec non Tarquinium ejectum Porsenna jubebat 

Accipere, ingentique urbem obsidione premebat| 

Aeneadae in ferrum pro libertate ruebant. 

Ilium indignanti similem, similemque minanti 

Aspiceres, pontem auderet quia vellere Cocles, 65C 

£t fluvium vinclis innaret Cloelia ruptis. 

In summo custos Tarpeiae Manlius arcis 

Stabat pro templo et Capitolia celsa tenebat, 

Romuieoque recens horrebat regia culmo. 

Atque hic auratis volitans argenteus anser 655 

Porticibus Gallos in limine adesse canebat; 

Galli per dumos aderant, arcemque tenebant, 

Defensi tenebris et dono noctis opacae; 

Aurea caesaries ollis, atqne aurea vestis; 

625. Non enarrabile, that cannot bc completely (e) describsd.- 
631. Observe proaibuiase, ludere. The time chosen for repraMiit* 
tion is after thc woH' has lain down, and while the babes ar«-pIayiDa .- 

— 636. ConsesBu, &c. See at v. 340. — 638. Curibus. Seo kt w' - 
812. — 641. Stabont. See at i. 465, and a similar use of the teiliet " v," 
notcd at i. 466. — 650. Auderet marks the causc of Porsenna'8tiureMc.^/^ 

— 654. RecenSj cither newlycarved, or was represented aa neiriif.iSj 
ihatched. .v"^.'!? 


Virgatis lucent sagulis; tum lactea colla 660 

Auro innectuntur; duo quisque Alpina coruscant 

Gaesa manu, scutis protecti corpora longis. 

Hic exsultantis SalioS; niidosque Lupercos, 

Lanigerosque apices, et lapsa ancilia coelo 

Extuderat; castae ducebant sacra per urbera 665 

PiJentis matres in moUibus. Hinc procul addit 

Tartareas etiam sedeS; alta ostia Ditis, 

Et scelerum poenas, et te, Catilina, minaci 

Pendentem scopulo, Furiarumque ora trementem ; 

Secretosque pios ; his dantem jura Catonem. 670 

Haec inter tumidi late maris ibat imago, 

Aurea, sed fluctu spumabant caerula cano ; 

Et circum argento clari delphines in orbem 

Aequora verrebant caudis aestumque secabant. 

In medio classis aeratas, Actia bella, 675 

Cernere erat; totumque instructo Marte videres 

Fervere Leucaten, auroque effulgere fluctus. 

Hinc Augustus agens Italos in proelia Caesar 

Cum Patribus Populoque, Penatibus et magnis Dis, 

Stans celsa in puppi; geminas cui tempora flammas 680 

Laeta vomunt, patriumque aperitur vertice sidus. 

Parte alia ventis et dis Agrippa secundis 

Arduus agmen agens; cui, belli insigne superbum, 

Tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona. 

Hinc ope barbarica variisque Antonius armis, 685 

Victor ab Aurorae populis et litore rubro, 

Aegyptum virisque Orientis et ultima secum 

Bactra vehit ; sequiturque, nefas ! Aegvptia conjunx. 

Una omnes ruere, ac totum spumare, reauctis 

Convolsum remis rostrisque tridentibus, aequor. 690 

Alta petunt; pelago credas innare revolsas 

Cycladas, aut montis concurrere montibus altos: 

Tanta mole viri turritis puppibus instant. 

Stuppea flamma manu telisque volatile ferrum 

663. Salios. See at 285. Lupercos^ priests of Pan. See at 344. 
— 664. The priests (Flamines) set apart to peculiar deities wore 
wool-tufted caps. Ancilia, the famous shields, made in imitation 
of the one that fell from heaven. — 670. Catonem. See at vi. 566. — 
671. Inter. The scenes above described seem to have occupied the 
rim of the shield. The centre is occupied with the battle of Actium. 
—675. Actia. See p. 180, line 21. — 676. Cernere erat. See at 
Georg, iv. 447. — 677. Leucaten. See p. 180, line 19. — 681. Fatrium, 
liefeiTing to Julius Caesar, who adoptcd him. Sec at Ecl. ix. 47.—* 
0n, Agrippaj the faithful friend and son-in-lawof Augustus. — 688. 
Ai^typtia conjunx, Cicopatra. — 692. Cycladas. See p. 179, line 31 
29 2o 


Spiirgitur ; arTa nova Neptunia caede rubescunt. 695 

Regina iii mediis patrio vocat agmina sistro : 

Necdum etiam geminos a tergo respicit anguis. 

Omni£:eiiumque deum monstra et latrator Anubis 

Contra Nepturium et Venerem contracjue Minervam 

Tela tenent. Saevit medio iii certamme Mavors 700 

Caelatus ferro, tristesque ex aethere Dirae ; 

£t scissa gaudens vadit Discordia palla, 

Quam cum sanguineo sequitur Bellona flagello. 

Actius haec cernens arcum intendebat ApoIIo 

Desuper : omnis eo lerrore Aegyptus et Indi, 705 

Omnis Arabs, omnes vertebant terga Sabaei. 

Ipsa vidcbatur ventis re^^ina vocatis 

Vela dare, et laxos jam jamque immittere funis. 

Illam inter caedes pallentem morte futura 

Fecerat Ignipotens undis et lapyge ferri ; 710 

Contra autem magno moerentem corpore Nilum, 

Pandentemque sinus et tota veste vocantem 

Caeruleum in gremium latebrosaque iiumina yictos. 

At Caesar, triplici invectus Romana triumpho 

Moenia, dis Italis votum immortale sacraliat, 715 

Maxima ter centum totam delubra per Urbem. 

Laetitia ludisque viae plausuque fremebant ; 

Omnibus in templis matrum chorus, omnibus arae ; 

Ante aras terram caesi stravere juvenci. 

Ipse, sedens niveo candentis limine Phoebi, 720 

Dona recognoscit populorum aptatque superbis 

Postibus ] incedunt victae longo ordine gentes, 

Quam variae linguis, habitu tam vestis et armis. 

Hic Nomadum genus et discinctos Mulciber Afros, 

Hic Lelegas Carasque sagittiferosque Gelonos 725 

Finxerat; Euphrates ibat jam moliior undis; 

Extremique hominum Morini, Rhenusque bicorniS| 

Indomitique Dahae, et pontem indignatus Araxes. 

697. Anguitj rcferring to the modo of CIoopatra*8 death, by tho 
bito of osps, or an asp. — 698. Anubis, a deity of the E^jptwmM, 
which was represented with the head of a dog. — 706. Ardb§. 
See at 605. Sabaei. See at i. 416. — 708. Jamf jamque, well ex- 
presses her impationce. Sce at ii. 530. Immittere. See at vi. 1. 
— 719. Stravere^ have fallen, and are represented os lying in Im^mi 
on the earth. Observe tho poetical construction, stemere ierram, 
As we say — * thcy strew the ground.* — 724. Nomadum. See at ir. 
320. — 725. Lelegas Carasifuef eariy inhabitants of the wett shoiei 
of Asia Minor, used here tor Asiatics generally. Gdonee. jApeoplft 
of Sarmatia (Russia), east of Borysthenes (tho Dnieper). — 727. Mo' 
rtnt. See Caes. iv. 21. Bicornist alludinjR to its two great diviaioiitv 
Vahalis (the W""!^ «nd Rhenus. — 728. Dahaet near th« Ozuiy 

LIBER IX. 399 

Talia per clipeum Volcani, dona parentis, 
MiratuF) rerumque ignarus imagine gaudet, 730 

AttoUens humero famamque et fata nepotum. 

east of the Caspian Sea. Araxesy an impetuous river {ponUm tn- 
dignatus), flowing into the west of the Caspian Sea. 


Juiro sends Iris to Turnus, counselling him to take advantage of 
the absence of Aeneas, and to attack the Trojan camp, at the 
mouth of the Tiber, 1-13. Turnus marches his forces accord- 
ingly, 14-32. The Trojans, obeying the instructions of Aeneas, 
resolve to act on the defensive, 33—45. Turnus, annoyed at 
this, prepares to burn the fleet, 46-76« Address to the Muses, 
77-79. Berecyntia had asked of Jupiter immortality for the 
ships made of her sacred pines, whereupon Jupiter promised 
to change them into njmiphs, when Aeneas should arrive in 
Italy, 80-106. To the astonishment of all, the ships now dive 
prow foremost to the bottom of the sea, and become nymphs, 
107-125. Turnus interprets the omen in his own favour, and 
eneourages his followers, 126—158. He places a bodyof troops 
to watch, who spend the night in carousal, 159-167. Precau- 
tions of the Trojans, 168-175. Efisodb of Nisus and Eukta- 
Lus. [See note at p. 318.] The Trojan Nisus, a sentinel at 
one of the gates, declares to his friend and comrade Earjralus 
his resolution of setting out alone in search of Aeneas, pro- 
posing that the reward due to such a service should be given 
to Euryalus, 176-196. After some conversation, it is agreed 
that both shall go, and they seek Ascanius, 197-223. They 
explain their plan to a council of war, 224—245. They receive 
high encomiums and proraises, 246—280. Eryalus commends 
his mother to the care of Ascanius, who, with tears, acoepts 
the trust, 281-301. Al^er receiving presents they set out, 302- 
312. They slay and plunder the foe, slumbering under the 
influence of wine, and make their way through them, 313-366. 
A body of Latin cavalry proceeding to the camp, are attracted 
by the gleam of the plundered helmet worn by Euryalus. and 
challenge them, 367-377. They plunge into a wood ; Nisus 

' escapes, but returns to seek Euryalus, whom he finds in the 
6Demy's hands, 378-398. He throws his spear, and slays 
two of the enemy, 399-419. Their leader stabs to death Eu- 


ryalLS, in spite of the interposition of Nisus, \irho ruBhes infi 
the midst, and, fighting, is slain, 4*20-445. Apostrophe to 
Nisus and Euryalus, 446-449. Tlio ^riof of thc Latins whcn 
they arrive at thc beleaguerinj; host, 450-458. In the morning, 
Turnns marshals iiis troops, and displays on spears the heads 
of Nisus and Eur>'alu8, 4 59^ 7 '2. Distraction of the mother 
of Euryahis, 473-502. Assault on thc camp, 503—5*24. Invo- 
cation to the JVIuses, 525—529. A towcr set on fire, with the 
death of Hclenor and Lycus, 530-508. Various combats, 569— 
589. Ascaniusslays his tirst enemyin battle, 590-638. ApoUo 
intcrfercs, and Ascanius is withdrawn from tbe dangers of the 
fight, 639-602. Thc battlo rages with the others, 663-671. 
Daring of tho Trojan Pandarus and Bitias, who throw open 
one of the gates, 672-690. Turnus, aroused, slays Bitias, 691- 
716. Mars favours the Latins, when Pandarus, closing the 
gate, shuts out many of his countrymen, but shuts in Turnus, 
717-733. Pandarus attacks Turnus, who slays him, 734-755. 
Constcrnation of the Trojans, 756-759. Turnus foolishly 
rushes to the slaughter, 760-777. The Trojan chiefs unite 
against him, 778—786. Overpowcred by the onemy, and re- 
luctantly forsakcn by Juno at Jupiter^s command, he plunges 
from the battlements into the Tiber, and rejoins his ftiends, 

Atque, ea diversa penitus dum parte geruntury 

Irim de coelo misit Satumia Juno 

Audacem ad Turnum. Luco tum forte parentis 

Pilumni Tumus sacrata valle sedebat. 

Ad quem sic roseo Thaumantias ore locuta est : 6 

*Tume, quod optanti divom promittere nemo 

Auderet, volvenda dies, en, attulit ultro. 

Aeneas, urbe et sociis et classe relicta, 

Sceptra Paiatini sedemque petit Evandri. 

Nec satis : extremas Corythi penetravit ad urbes, 10 

Lydorumque manum collectos armat agrestis. 

Quid dubitas ? nunc tempus equos, nunc poscere curras. 

Rumpe moras omnis et turbata arripe castra.' 

Dixit, et in coelum paribus se sustulit alis, 

Ingentemque fuga secuit sub nubibus arcum. 15 

1. Dvversa T^rte, at the town of Evander, and the camp of the 
Etrunans, whither Aeneoa had gone to seek assistance. — 2. iran. 
See at iv. 694. Saturnia. See at i. 23. — 4. Filumnu See z. 76, 
where parentts is seen to be used for avi. — 5. Roseo. See at vii. 
712. Thaumantius, a patronymic of Iris irom her father Thaumafl. 
—9. Petit by the arsia, or contracted for petiit. — 10. Corytki. Set 
at iii. 168. — 11. I' - Tuscorum. Sco at viii. 479. 

LIBER IX. 341 

Agnovit javenis, duplicisqne ad sidera palmas 
Sustulitj ac tali fugientem est voce secntns : 
' Iri, decus coeli, quis te mihi nubibus actam 
Detulit in terras ? unde haec tam clara repente 
Tempestas ? medium video discedere coelnm, 20 

Palantisque polo stellas. Sequor omina tanta, 
Quisquis in arma vocas.' Et sic effatus ad undam 
Processit, summoque hausit de gurgite lymphas, 
Multa deos orans, oneravitqne aethera votis. 

Jamque omnis campis ^xercitus ibat apertis, 25 

Dives equum, dives pictSti vestis et auri; 
Messapus primas acies, postrema coercent 
T^Trhidae juvenes; medio dux agmine Turnus 
Vertitur arma tenens^ et toto vertice supra est. 
Ceu septem surgens sedatis amnibus altus 30 

Per tacitum GangeS; aut pingui flumine Nilns 
Cum refluit campis et jam se condidit alveo. 
Hic subitam nigro glomerari pulvere nubem 
Prospiciunt Teucri, ac tenebras insurgere campis. 
Primus ab adversa conclamat mole Caicus : 35 

* Quis globus, o cives, caligine volvitur atra ! 
Ferte citi fermm, date tela, ascendite mnros, 
Hostisadest; eia!' Ingenti clamore per omnis 
Condunt se Teucri portas, et moenia complent. 
Namqne ita discedens praeceperat optimus armis 40 
Aeneas : si qua interea fortuna fuisset, 
Neu stmere auderent aciem, neu credere campo ; 
Castra modo et tutos servarent ag^re muros. 
Ergo, etsi conferre manum pudor iraque monstrat, 
Objiciunt portas tamen et praecepta facessnnt, 45 

Armatique cavis exspectant tnrribus hostem. 
Turnus, ut ante vokns tardum praecesserat agmen, 
Viginti lectis equitnm comitatns et nrbi 
Improvisus adest ; macnlis qnem Thracins albis 
Portat equus, cristaque tegit galea aurea mbra. 50 

' Ecquis erit,' mecum, jnvenes, ' qui primns in hostem — ? 
En,' ait. Et jaculum attorquens emittit in anras, 
Principium pugnae, et campo sese ardnus infert. 
Clamore excipiunt socii, fremituqne sequuntur 

26. Fktai. See at iii. 354. — 27. Mestaput, See vii. 691. — 28. 
Tyrrhidae. See vii. 484. — 29. This line is justly regarded as here 
ipurious, and borrowed from vii. 784. — 30, &c. The steady march 
nthe army is compared to the majestic course of the Gan^s or the 
N^ile, when not overflowing their banks. — 32. Alveot a dissvllable. 
~97. AMeendite. Some retul scandite, the a oftela being maae longi 
it u Baid, before sc. 


Horrisono ; Teucrum mirantur inertia corda : 55 

Non aequo dare se campo, non obvia ferre 

Arma viros, sed castra fovere. Huc turbidus atque huo 

Lustrat equo muros, aditumque per avia quaerit. 

Ac, veluti pleno lupus insidiatus ovili 

Cum fremit ad caulasj ventos perpessus et imbriS| 60 

Nocte super media ; tuti sub matribus agni 

Balatum exercent 3 ille asper et improbus ira 

Saevit in absentis ; collecta fatigat edendi 

£x longo rabies, et siccae sanguine fauces : 

Haud aliter Ilutulo muros etcastra tuenti 65 

Ignescunt irae ; duris dolor ossibus ardet, 

Qua tentct ratione aditus, et quae via clausos 

Kxcutiat Teucros vallo atque effundat in aequum. 

Classem, quae lateri castrorum adjuncta latebat, 

Aggeribus septam circum et iiuvialibus undis, 70 

hivadit, sociosque incendia poscit ovantis, 

Atque manum pinu flagranti fervidus implet. 

Tum vero incumbuntj urguet praesentia Tumi; 

Atque omnis facibus pubes accmgitur atris. 

Diripuere focos 3 piceum fert fumida lumea 75 

Taeda et commixtam Volcanus ad astra favillam. 

Quis deus, o MusaC; tam saeva incendia Teucris 
Avertit ? tantos ratibus quis depulit ignis ? 
Dicite. Frisca fides facto, sed fama perennis. 

Tempore quo primum Phrygia formabat ia Ida 80 
Aeneas classem, et pelagi petere alta parabat^ 
Ipsa deum fertur genetrix Berecyntja magnum 
Vocibus his affata Jovem : ^Da, nate^ petenti, 
Quod tua cara parens domito te poscit Olympo. 
Finea silva mihi, multos dilecta per annos, 85 

Lucus in arce fuit summa, quo sacra feret»mt, 
Nigranti picea trabibus^ue obscurus acemis : 
Has ego Dardanio juveni, cum classis egeret, 
Laeta dedi ; nunc sollicitam timor anxius angit. 
Solve metus, atque hoc precibus sine posse parentem, 90 
Neu cursu quassatae ullo neu turbine venti 

57. Fovere castra^ to keep close within the camp.— 69. Tnmu 
came from the south-east. The camp was between him and ths 
Tiber, and on one side the ships formed a naval camp.~74. A^ 
einftitur. See at vi. 184. — 80. Ida. See at ii. 694; and finr tha j 
building of the flcet, iii. 5, &c. — 82. Berecyntia, See at vi. 7^. ' 
Ab identical with Cybcle, and worshipped on Mount Ida, see at.vb^.vVi 
111. — 85. The construction secms to be, Pinea tUva fUit ■nli^ r*^' ^tj 
86. Lucut, &c. ; lucus (a sacrcd grovc) being in appoBition willb^vf 
fnd cxplunatory ol .«• ' ^rcc Scu at ii. 322. . ; <{''i 

LIBER IX. 848 

Vincanttir; prosit nostris in montibus ortas.' 

Filius huic contra, torquet qui sidera mundi : 

*0 genetrix, quo fata vocas ? aut quid petis istis? 

Morcaline manu factae immortale carinae 95 

Fas habeant, certusque incerta pericula lustret 

Aeneas? Cui tanla deo perraissa potestas? 

Immo, ubi defunctae finem portusque t^nebunt 

Ausonios olim, quaecumque evaserit undis 

Dardaniumque ducem Laurentia vexerit arva, 100 

Mortalem eripiam formam, magnique jubebo 

Aequoris esse deas, qualis Nereia Doto 

£t Galatea secant spumantem pectore pontum.» 

Dixerat, idque ratum Stygii per flumina fratris, 

Per pice torrentis atraque voragine ripas 105 

Adnuit, et totum nutu tremefecit Olympum. 

Ergo aderat promissa dies, et tempora Parcae 
Debita complerant: cum Turni injuria Matrem 
Admonuit ratibus sacris depellere taedas. 
Hic primum nova lux oculis offulsit, et ingens 110 

Visus ab Aurora coelum transcurrere nimbus, 
Idaeique chori ; tum vox horrenda per auras 
Excidit et Troum Rutulorumque agmina complet : 
* Ne trepidate meas, Teucri, defendere navis, 
Neve armate manus j maria ante exurere Turno, llft 
Quam sacras dabitur pinus. Vos ite solutae, 
Ite deae pelagi } genetrix jubet.' £t sua quaeque 
Continuo puppes abrumpunt vincula ripis, 
Delphinumque modo demersis aequora rostris 
Ima petunt. Hinc virgineae, mirabile monstrum, 120 
Quot prius aeratae steterant ad litora prorae 
Keddunt se totidem facies, pontoque ^runtur. 

Obstnpuere anlmi Rutulis ; conterritus ipse 
Turbatis Messapus equis ; cunctatur et amnis 
Rauca sonansj revocatque pedem Tiberinus ab alto. 125 
At non audaci Turno flducia cessit ; 

99. Ausonios. See p. 180, line 5. — 100. Dardanium dueem, 
ieneas was so called. See at vi. 648. Laurentia, See at vi. 893. 
irv€u See at i. 2. — 102. Nereta. See at Ecl. vi. 35 ; Aen. iii. 74. 
Doto, the Homeric Nereid, Atard. — 103. Galatea. See at Ed, vii. 
17. — 104. Stygii. See at vi. 295, 324:— 106. Olympum, See at 
Bd. V. 56. — 107. Parcae. See at Ecl. iv. 47. — 108. Tumi injuria. 
Fhe wrong done by Turnus, the subjective ^enitive. Compare 
vith spretae injuria formae (i. 27), the objective genitive. See 
Sainpt, ^ 423. — 117. Abrumpuntj quaeque sua vincula. — 125. BaU' 
ib ' 8ee at Ed, iii. 8. Tiberinus. The river-god. — 126, &c. See 
H m 435. 


Ultro animos toUit dictis, atque increpat ultro: 

* Troianos haec monstra petunt ; his Jupiter ipse 

Auxilium solitum eripuit, non tela neque ignis 

Exspectant Rutulos. Ergo maria invia Teucris, 130 

Nec spes ulla fugae ] rerum pars altera adempta est; 

Terra autem in nostris manibus ; tot millia, gentea 

Arma ferunt ItaLie. Nil me fatalia terrent, 

Si qua Phryges prae se jactant, responsa deorum : 

Sat fatis Vencrique datum, tetigere quod arva 135 

Fertilis Ausoniae Troes. Sunt et mea contra 

Fata mihi, ferro sceleratam cxscindere gentem, 

Conjugc praerepta ; nec solos tangit Atridas 

Iste dolor, solisque licet capere arma Mycenis. 

Sed periisse semal satis est : — peccare fuisset 140 

Ante satis, penitns modo non genus omne perosos 

Femineum. Quibus haec meciii fiducia valli 

Fossarumque morae, leti discrimina parva, 

Dant animos ; at non viderunt moenia Trojae 

Neptuni fabricata manu considere in ignis? 145 

Secf vos, o lecti; ferro quis scindere vallum 

Apparat et mecum invadit trepidantia castra? 

Non armis mihi Volcani, non mille carinis 

£st opus in Teucros. Addant se protenus omnes 

Etrusci socios. Tenebras et inertia furta 150 

Palladii, caesis summae custodibus arcis, 

Ne timeant ; nec equi caeca condemur in alvo ; 

Luce, palam, certum est igni circumdare muros. 

Haud sibi cum Danais rem faxo et pabe Pelasga 

130. Eutulos. Turnus himsolf was a Rutulian. The terms 
Rutiili BndLatini are often intcrchai^ed by Virgil. — 132. T6t 
mUliai gentes, the nations (formed oi) so many tbousands. -— 
133. Fatalia, quae fata declarant. — 138. Conjuge, Lavlnia. See 
at Ecl. viii. 18. Atridas. See at i. 458. The allusion is to the car- 
rying away of Helen. — 139. Mycenis. See at i. 283. — 140, &c. 
A difficult passage, the meaning of which seems to be taiB^ 
' Does any one say, the Trojans nave sufficiently atoned for their 
euilt in once perisning 7 I answer, their former crime would hare 
oeen enough lor men who had not hated irom the heart («10^0 «m 
penitus perosos) the whole race of women.' Tamus infers that tha 
conduct of Poris and Aeneas indicates a heartfelt hatred to womeiiy 
whom they continued to plunder and betray. Others conatros 
penitus perosos modo non omne — * having leamed to hate almott ■!! 
women — all forcign women.' — 141. Perosoa, tbe accusative aflprae* 
ing with the objcct inferred in peccare. — 142. Ji quibus, d&c mok' 
viderunt, — 145. Neptuni. Sec at ii. 625. — 148. Armis, allndin^' 
to the arms made by Vulcan for Achilles.-^ldl. ValladiL 8ee tt- 
ii. 165. — 152. Equi. -'^'^" *^e Sccond Book. 

LIBER IX. 346 

Esse putent, decimum quos distulit Hector in annum. 155 
Nunc adeo, melior quonlam pars acta diei, 
Quod superest, laeti bene gestis corpora rebus 
- Procurate, viri; et pugnam sperate parati.' 

Interea vigiium excubiis obsidere portas 
Cura datur Messapo et moenia cingere flammis. 160 

Bis septem Rutuli, muros qui milite servent, 
Delecti ; ast illos centeni quemque sequuntur 
^urpurei cristis juvenes auroque corusci. 
Discurrunt, variantque vices, fusique per herbam 
Indulgent vino, et vertunt crateras aenos. 165 

Collucent ignes ', noctem custodia ducit 
Insomnem ludo. 

Haec super e vallo prospectant Troes, et armis 
Alta tenent ; nec non trepidi formidine portas 
Explorant, pontisque et propugnacula jungunt, 170 

Tela gerunt. Instant Mnestheus acerque Serestus, 
Quos pater Aeneas, si quando adversa vocarent, 
Rectores juvenum et rerum dedit esse magistros, 
Omnis per muros legio, sortita periclum, 
Excubat exercetque vices, quod cuique tuendum est. 175 

Nisus erat portae custos, acerrimus armis, 
Hyrtacides, comitem Aeneae quem miserat Ida 
Venatrix, jaculo celerem levibusque sagittis 3 
Et juxta comes Euryalus, quo pulchrior alter 
Non fuit Aeneadum Trojana neque induit arma, 180 

Ora puer prima signans intonsa juventa. 
His amor unus erat, pariterque in bella ruebant; 
Tum quoque comrauni portam statione tenebant. 
Nisus ait : * Dine hunc ardorem mentibus addunt, 
Euryale, an sua cuique deus fit dira cupido? 186 

Aut pugnaro, aut aliquid jamdudum invadere magnum 
Mens agitat mihi, nec placida contenta quiete est. 
Cernis, quae Rutulos habeat fiducia rerum : 
Lumina rara micant ; somno vinoque soluti 
Procubuere ; silent late loca. Percipe porro, 190 

Quid dubitem, et quae nunc animo sententia surgat. 
Aenean acciri omnes, populusque patresque, 
Exposcunt, mittique viros, qui certa reportent. 
Si, tibi quae posco, promittunt — ^nam mihi facti 
Fama sat est — tumulo videor reperire sub illo 195 

170. Fontisy coramunications between the different propugruicuUu 
•176. See Nisus and Euryalus and their friendship, v. 294-361.-- 
fjf Hyrtacides. See at y. 492. -^ 187. Agitat pugnam-Hnvaderit 
bi accusative of the infinitive) tniki. 


Posso viam ad muros et moenia Pallantea. 

Obstupuit mas;no laudum percussus amore 

Euryalus ; simul his ardentem aifatur amicum : 

^Mene isfitur socium summis adjungere rebus, 

Nise, fu£^is? solum te in tanta pericula mittam? 200 

Non ita me genitor, bellis assuetus Opheltes, 

Ar^olicum terrorem inter Trojaecjue labores 

Sublatum enidiit ; ncc tecum taha gessi, 

Magnanimum Aenean et fata extrema secutns : 

Est hic, est animus lucis contemptor, et istum 205 

Qui vita bene credat emi, quo tendis honorem.' 

Nisus ad haec : ' Eqnidem de te nil tale verebar, 

Nec fas ; non : ita me referat tibi magnus ovantem 

Jupiter, aut quicumque oculis haec aspicit aeqnis. 

Sed si quis — quae multa vides discrimme tali — 210 

Si quis in adversum rapiat casusve densve, 

Tc superessc velim ; tua vita dignior aetas. 

Sit, qui mo raptum pugna pretiove redemptnm 

Maiidet humo solita, aut si qua id fortuna vetabit, 

Absenti ferat inferias, decoretquc sepulchro. 215 

Neu matri miserae tanti sim causa doloris, 

Quae te sola, puer, multis e matribus ausa 

Persequitur, magni nec moenia curat Acestae.' 

Ille autem : *■ Causas nequidquam nectis inanis, 

Nec mea jam mutata loco sententia cedit. 220 

Acceleremus,' ait. Yigiles simul excitat. Illi 

Succedunt servanlque vices ; statione relicta 

Ipse comes Niso graditur, regemque requimnt. 

Cetera per terras omnis animalia somno 
Laxabant curas et corda oblita laborum : 225 

Ductores Teucrum primi, delecta jnventns, 
Consilium summis regni de rebus habebant, 
Quid facerent, quisve Aeneae jam nuntins esset. 
Stant longis adnixi hastis et scuta tenentes 
Castrorum et campi medio. Tum Nisns et nna 230 

Euryalus confestim alacres admittier orant ; 
Rem magnam, pretiumque morae fore. PrimuB IqIhs ' 
Accepit trepidos, ac Nisum dicere jussit. 
Tum sic Hyrtacides : ' Audite o mentibus aeqnis^ 
Aeneadae, neve haec nostris spectentur ab annlB, 285 
Quae ferimus. RutuJi somno vinoque soluti 
Conticuere ; locum insidiis conspeximus ipsi, 

196. Pallantea. See viii. 54.— 215. See at vi. 505. — 218. SeeTii' 
V<5, &c. — 223. Regemj Ascanium, as regina, vi. 28. — 231. ji*'.'- 
mttier. See at iv. 4«" ■ ••':.' 

LIBER IX. 347 

Qui patet in bivio portae, quae proxima ponto 3 

Interrupti ignes, aterque ad sidera fumus 

Erigitur; si fortuna permitiitis uti, 240 

Quaesitum Aenean et moenia Pallantea : 

Mox hic cum spoliis, ingenti caede peracla, 

Affore cernetis. Nec nos via fallit euntis : 

Vidimus obscuris primam sub vallibus urbera 

Venatu assiduo, et totura co^noviraus aranem/* 245 

Hic annis gravis atque animi maturus Aletes : 

'Di patrii, quorum semper sub numine Troja est, 

Non tamen omnino Teucros delere paratis, 

Cum taJis animos juvenum et tam certa tulistis 

Pectora.' Sic memorans, humeros dextrasque tenebat 250 

Araborum, et vultum lacrimis atque ora rigabat. 

* Quae vobis, quae digna, viri, pro laudibus istis 

Praemia posse rear solvi ? puJcherrima primum 

Di moresque dabunt vestri ; tum cetera reddet 

Actutum pius Aeneas atque integer aevi 255 

Ascanins, meriti tanti non immeraor umquam.' 

' Immo ego vos, cui sola salus genitore reducto/ 

Excipit Ascanius, ' per magnos, Nise, Penatis 

Assaracique Larem et canae penetralia Vestae 

Obtestor; quaecumque mihi foriuna fidesque est, 260 

In vestris pono gremiis : revocate parentem, 

Reddite conspectum ; nihil illo triste recepto. 

Bina dabo argento perfecta atque aspera signis 

Pocula, devicta genitor quae cepit Arisba, 

Et tripodas gerainos, auri duo magna talenta, 265 

Cratera antiquum, quem dat Sidonia Dido. 

Si vero capere Itaiiam sceptrisque potiri 

Contigerit victori, et praedae dicere sortem : 

Vidisti, quo Turnus equo, quibus ibat in armis 

Aureus 3 ipsum illum, clipeum cristasque rubentis 270 

Excipiam sorti, jam nunc tua praemia, Nise. 

Praeterea bis sex genitor lectissima matrum 

Corpora captivosque dabit, suaque oranibus arma ; 

Insuper his, campi quod rex habet ipse Latinus. 

Te vero, mea quem spatiis propioribus aetas 275 

Insequitur, venerande puer, jara pectore toto 

240. Permittitis uti seems to infer here mittentes, and hence 
M&titum. — 243, Affore nos. — 255. Integer aevi. See at ii. 638. 
•259. Asaaraci. See at vi. 648. — 264. Arisba, a town of the 
road. The event alluded to is unknown. — 265. Auri, &c. See 
V. 248.-266. Sidonia. See at iv. 75. — 268. Dicere, to announco 
K^vlctorious generaL Others read ducere. — 275. Te, addressing 


Accipio et comitem casus complector in omnis 

Nulla meis sine te quaeretur gloria rebus; 

Seu pacem seu belJa geram, tibi maxima rerum 

Verborumque fides.* Contra quem talia fatur 280 

Euryalus : 'Me nulla dies tam fortibus ausis 

Dissimilem arguerit ; tantum, fortuna secunda 

Aut adversa cadat. Sed te super omnia dona 

Unum oro ; genetrix Priami de gente vetusta 

£st mihi, quam miseram tenuit non Ilia tellus 285 

Mecum excedentem; non moenia regis Acestae. 

Hanc ego nunc ignaram hujus quodcumque pericli est 

Inque salutatam iinquo ; Nox et tua testis 

Dextera, quod nequeam lacrimas preferre parentis. 

At tu, oro, solare inopem, et succurre reiictae. 290 

Hanc sine me spem ferre tui : audentior ibo 

In casus omnis.' Percussa mente dedere 

Dardanidae lacrimas ; ante omnis pulcher lulus, 

Atque animum patriae strinxit pietatis imago. 

Tum sic effatur : 295 

' Sponde digna tuis ingentibus omnia coeptis. 

Namque erit ista mihi genetrix, nomenque Creusae 

Solum defuerit, nec partum gratia talem 

Parva manet. Casus factum quicumque sequentur 

Per caput hoc juro, per quod pater ante solebat : 300 

Quae tibi polliceor reduci rebusque secundis, 

Haec eadem matrique tuae generique manebunt.' 

Sic ait iilacrimans; humero simul exuit ensem, 

Auratum, mira qnem fecerat arte Lycaon 

Gnosius atque habilem vagina aptarat eburna. 305 

Dat Niso Mnestheus pellem horrentisque leonis 

Exuvias; galeam fidus permutat Aletes. 

Protenus armati incedunt ; quos omnis euntis 

Primoram manus ad portas, juvenumque senumque, 

Prosequitur votis. Nec non et pulcher lulus, 310 

Ante annos animumque gerens curamque virilem, 

Multa patri mandata dabat portanda. Sed aurae 

Omnia discerpunt, et nubibus irrita donant. 

Egressi superant fossas, noctisque per umbram 
Castra inimica petunt, multis tamen ante futurl 315 . 

282. Arguerit. See at vi. 39. Tantum seems to mean, 'tfais 
much I cari promisc, whatever befalls.' See at ii. 690. — 286. Jlfo6- 
nia, &LC. See v. 746, <fec. — 291. Tmi, -i unelided before audmitmr^ 
— 294. Compare this liric with X. 824. Here patriae fdetaiu JMUnWi 
for a father; at x. 824, ilie love o/a father. Sce also at ii. 5^-^ 
296. Spondere Iiere mcans to assure one'8-8elf of. Othen^niii' 
Bpondeo.— 305. Gnoiius. See p. 179, line 24. * '^^ 

-■*i • . 

L1BER IX. 349 

Exitio. Passim somno vinoque per herbam 

Corpora fusa vident, arrectos litore currus, 

Inter lora rotasque viros, simul arraa jacere, 

Vina simul. Prior Hyrtacides sic ore locutus: 

^Euryale, audendum dextra; nunc ipsa vocat res. 32C 

Hac iter est. Tu, ne qua manus se attollere nobis 

A tergo possitj custodi et consule longe ; 

Haec ego vasta dabo, et lato te limite ducam.' 

Sic memorat, vocemque premit ; simul ense superbum 

Rhamnetem aggreditur, qui forte tapetibus altis 325 

Exstructus toto proflabat peclore somnum, 

Rex idem, et regi Turno gratissimus augur ; 

Sed non augurio potuit depellere pestem. 

Tris juxta famulos temere inter tela jacentis 

Armigerumque Remi premit aurigamque sub ipsis 330 

Nacius equis, ferroque secat pendentia colla ; 

Tum caput ipsi aufert domino, truncumque relinquit 

Sanguine singultantem; atro tepefacta cruore 

Terra torique madent. Nec non Lamyrumque Lamumque 

Et juvenem Serranum, iila qui pUirima nocte 335 

Luserat, insignis facie, multoque jacebat 

Membra deo victus; felix, si protinus illum 

Aequasset nocti ludum in lucemque tulisset. 

Impastus ceu plena leo per ovilia turbans — 

Suadet enim vesana fames — manditque trahitque 340 

Molle pecus mutumque metu ; fremit ore cruento. 

Nec minor Euryali caedes ; incensus et ipse 

Perfurit, ac multam in medio sine nomine plebem, 

Fadumque Herbesumque subit Rhoetumque Abarimque, 

Ignaros ; Rhoetum vigilantem et cuncta videntem ; 345 

Sed magmim metuens se post cratera tegebat : 

Pectore in adverso totum cui comminus ensem 

Condidit assurgenti, et multa morte recepit. 

Purpuream vomit ille animam, et cum sanguine mixta 

Vina refert moriens ; hic furlo fervidus instat. 350 

Jamque ad Messapi socios tendebat ; ibi ignem 

Deficere extremum et religatos rite videbat 

Carpere gramen eqnos : breviter cum talia Nisus — 

Sensit enim nimia caede atque cupidine ferri — 

' Absistamus,' ait; ^nam lux inimica propinquat. 355 

319. Hyrtacides. See 177. — 329. Juxta, near Rhamnes. — 337. 
ilf emira vic^us, the accusative oflimitation. — 347. Cui. See at vi, 
*73. — 349. Mark the contrasl— iZZe, Rhoetus ; hic, Euryalus. — 352. 
JSaAremum seems to mark that Messapus was on the outer pan of 
t^ blockadin^ host. See 356, v?a, &.c. — 354. Sensit Euryalum 
fitm, See at iv. 382. 


Poenarum exhaustum satis est ; via facta per hostis.' 
Multa virum solido argeiito perfecta relinquunt 
Armaque craterasque simul pulchrosciue lapelas. 
Euryalus phaleras Khamnetis et aurea bullis 
Cingula, Tiburti Kemulo ditissimus olim 360 

Quae mittit dona, hospitio cum jungeret absens, 
Caedicus; ille suo moriens dat habere nepoti; 
Post mortem bello Rutuli pugnacjue potiti } 
Haec rapit, atque humeris nequidquam fortibus aptat. 
Tum galeam Messapi habilem cristisque decoram 365 
Induit. Excedunt castris, et tuta capessunt. 
Interea praemissi equites ex urbe Latina, 
Cetera dum legio campis instructa moratur, 
Ibant et Turno regi responsa ferebant, 
Ter centum, scutati omnes, Volscente magistro. 370 

Jamque propinquabant castris, muroque subibant; 
Cum procul hos laevo flectentis limite cernunt, 
£t galea Euryalum sublustri noctis in umbra 
Prodidit immemorem radiisque adversa refulsit. 
Haud temere est visum. Conclamat ab agmine Vol- 

scens : 375 

' State, viri ; quae caussa viae ? quive estis in armis ? 
Quove tenetis iter?' Nihil illi tendere contra, 
Sed celerare fugam in silvas et fidero nocti. 
Objiciunt equites sese ad divortia nota 
Hinc atque hinc, omnemque abitum custode coronant. 380 
Silva fuit late dumis atque ilice nigra 
Horrida, quam densi corapleraat undique sentes } 
Rara per occuUos lucebat semita calles. 
Euryalem tenebrae ramorum onerosaqae praeda 
Impediunt, fallitque timor regione viarum. 385 

Nisus abit j jamque imprudens evaserat hostis 
Atque locos, qui post Albae de nomine dicti 
Albani, tum rex stabula alta Latinus habebat : 
Ut stetit, et frustra absentem respexit amicum; 
'Euryale infelix, qua te regione reliqui? 399 

3G0. TibuHi. See p. 292, line 25. --363. Some think this line to 
be spurious. — 367, &c. We may suppose that TurnuB had sent to 
ask when thc main body of the foot (legio) would join him, and that 
the answcr was brought by thcse three hundred horsemen. — 369. 
Jiegi. Othcrs read rp^ia. — 373. Galea. See 365. — 380. CoroiuaU. 
See at 508. — 383. Eara. The path was seen only at intemilfl, from 
the dubious light, and the woody shadc. — 386. Iw^pruden»» Not 
knowing what had becomc of Euryalus. — 387. Locos, othen, Iwaif. 
~388. Alhani. Places in the tcrritory of Alba Longa. To.wfa||l 
Virgil alludes, is now unknown. 

LIBER IX. 361 

Quave sequar, rursus perplexum iter omne revolvens 

Fallacis silvae V Simul et vestigia retro 

Observata legit, dumisque silentibus errat. 

Audit equos, audit strepitus et signa sequentum. 

Nec longum in medio terapuS; cum clamor ad auris 395 

Pervenit, ac videt Euryalum ; quem jam manus omnis, 

Fraude loci et noctis, subito turbante tumultu, 

Oppressum rapit et conantem plurima frustra. 

Quid faciat ? qua vi juvenem; quibus audeat armis 

Eripere ^? an sese medios moriturus in enses 400 

Inferat, et pulchram properet per vulnera mortem ? 

Ocius adducto torquens nastile lacerto, 

Suspiciens altam Lunam, et sic voce precatur : 

^ Tu, dea, tu praesens nostro succurre labori, 

Astrorum decus et nemorum Latonia custos ; 405 

Si qua tuis umquam pro me pater Hyrtacus aris 

Dona tulit, si qua ipse meis venatibus auxi, 

Suspendive tholo, aut sacra ad fastigia fixi : 

Hunc sine me turbare globum, et rege tela per aoras.' 

Dixerat, et toto connixus corpore ferrum 410 

Conjicit. Hasta volans noctis diverberat umbnuSy 

£t venit aversi in tergum Sulmonis^ ibiqae 

Frangitur. ac fisso transit praecordia ligno. 

Yolvitur ille vomens calidum de peotore flamen 

Frigidus, et longis singultibus ilia pulsat. 415 

Diversi oircumspiciunt. Hoc acrior idem 

Ecce aliud sunmia telum librabat ab aure. 

Dum trepidant, iit hasta Tago per tempud atmmqiiei 

Stridens, trajectoque haesit tepefocta cerebro. 

Saevit atrox Volscens, neo teli conspiclt asqoBiii 490 

Auctorem, nec quo se ardens immittere poaBit. 

*• Tu tamen interea calido mihi sangaine poenas 

Persolves amboram,' inquit ; simiu ense redueo 

Ibat in Earyalnm. Tum vero exterritaa, ameii% 

Conclamat Nisus — ^nec se celare tenebris 4Sfr 

Amplius, aut tantam potuit perferre dolorem^ 

' Me, me. adsum, qui feci, in me convertite femiili| 

O Rntali ! mea frans omnis ; nihil iste nec aasiu, 

Nec potuit; coelum hoc et conscia sidera testor; 

Tantum infelicem nimium dilexit amicam.' 

Talia dicta dabat ^ sed viribus ensis adactas 

^•m- " —IM ■ I I 11 I ■■ I ■ I I I. 11 ■»■ I l^— ^— ^— — ■ Ml M—^^^M^1 

VMl Ohservata, Seo at i. 680, ii. 754. — 403. Pretafur terfut^f 
it^, auipieierui &.C., et sic voee. Others omit ef.— 405. .TatMm^ 
See tt i. 502, iv. 510. — 414. Observe the contrast between "' - 
^j ■*"•— •'in». — 427. Me, tne, &c. See at viii. 144. 


Transabiit costas et candida pectora rumpit. 
Volvitur Euryalus leto, pulchrosque per artus 
It cruor, inque hunieros cervix collapsii recumbit : 
Purpureus veluti cum llos succisus aratro 43£ 

Languescit morieiis lassove papavera collo 
Demisere caput, pluvia cum forte gravantur. 
^At Nisus ruit in medio?. sf)hunque per omnis 
Volscentem petit ; in solo Volscento moratur. 
Quem circum glomerati hostes hinc comminus atqae 
hinc 440 

Proturbant. Instat non secius, ac rotat ensem 
Fulmineum, donec RutuH clamantis in ore 
Condidit adverso, et moriens animam abstulit hosti. 
Tum super exanimum sese projecit amicum 
Confossus, placidaque ibi demum morte quievit. 445 

Fortunati ambo ! si quid mea carmina possunt, 
NuUa dies umquam memori vos eximet aevo, 
Dum domus Aeneae CapitoH immobile saxum 
Accolet, imperiiimque pater Romanus habebit. 

Victores praeda Rutuli spohisque potiti, 450 

Volscentem exanimum flentes in castra ferebant. 
Nec minor in castris luctus Rhamnete reperto 
Exsangui et primis una tot caede peremptis, 
Serranoque Numaque. Ingens concursus ad ipsa 
Corpora seminecisque viros, tepidaque recentem 465 
Caede locum et plenos spumanti sanguine rivos. 
Agnoscunt spolia inter se, galeamque nitentem 
Messapi, et multo phaleras sudore receptas. 

Et jam prima novo spargebat lumine terras 
Tithoni croceum linquens Aurora cubile : 460 

Jam sole infuso, jam rebus luce retectis, 
Turnus in arma viros, armis circumdatus ipse, 
Suscitat, aeratasque acies in proelia cogit 
Quisque suas, variisque acuunt rumoribus iras. 
Quin ipsa arrectis — ^visu miserabile — ^in hastis 465 

Praefigunt capita et multo clamore seqauntur 
Euryali et Nisi. 

Aeneadae duri murorum in parte sinistra 
Opposuere aciem — nam dextera cingitur ainni— 
Ingentisque tenent fossas, et turribus altis 470 

Stant moesti; simul ora virum praefixa movebant^ 

440. Circum quemVoUcentem. — 441. Proturbant Ni8uni.^444^ 
Exanimum, Others, exanimem. So at 451. — 449. JPater StmamA- ■ 
seems to be a personification of tho Roman pcople. — 459,'460«^- 
8ee at iv. 584. --: 

LIBER IX. 353 

Nota nimis miseris, atroque fluentia tabo. 

Interea pAvidam volitans pennata per urbera 
Nuntia Fama ruit, matrisque allabitur auris 
Euryali. At subitus miserae calor ossa reliquit , 475 
Excussi manibus radii, revolutaque pensa. 
Evolat infelix, et femineo ululalu, 
Scissa comam, muros amens atque agmina cursu 
Prima petit, non illa virum, non illa pericli 
Telorumque memor; coelum dehinc questibus implet: 480 
'Hunc ego te, Euryale, aspicio? tune ille senectae 
Sera meae requies, potuisti linquere solam, 
Crudelis ? nec te, sub tanta pericula missum, 
AfTari extremum miserae data copia matri % 
Heu, terra ignota canibus date praeda Latinis 485 

Alitibusque jaces ! nec te tua funere mater 
Produxi, pressive oculos, aut vuinera lavi, 
Veste tegens, tibi quam noctes festina diesque 
Urguebam et tela curas solabar anilis. 
Quo sequar 1 aut quae nunc artus avolsaque membra 490 
Et funus lacerum tellus habet '^ Hoc mini de te. 
Nate, refers? hoc sum terraque marique secuta? 
Figite me, si qua est pietas, in me omnia tela 
Conjicite, o Rutuli, me primam absumite ferro ; 
Aut tu, magne pater divom, miserere, tuoque 495 

Invisum hoc detrude caput sub Tartara telo, 
Quando aliter nequeo crudelem abrumpere vitam.' 
Hoc fletu concussi animi, moestusque per omnis 
Itgemitus; torpent infractae ad proeha vires. 
Illam incendentem luctus Idaeus et Actor 500 

Ilionei monitu et multum lacrimantis luli 
Corripiunt, interque manus sub tecta reponunt. 

At tuba terribilem sonitum procul aere canoro 
Increpuit ; sequitur clamor, coelumque remugit. 
Accelerant acta pariter testudine Volsci ; 505 

Et fossas implere parant ac vellere vallum. 
Quaerunt pars aditum, et scalis ascendere muros, 
Qua rara est acies interlucetque corona 
Non tam spissa viris. Telorum effundere contra 
Omne genus Teucri ac duris detrudere contiS) 510 

477. Femineoj -5 unelided before ululatu. — 480. Dekinc, an 

elision 485. Date Nise. Others read data, agreeing y/ith praeda, 

For the dread entertained of this tombless fate, see at v. 871.— 
486. Funere, with due funereal rites. Others read ^wncra. — 496« 
Toirtara. See at v. 733.— 499. Infractae. See at vii. 332.— 505. 
Ttstudine. Sce at ii. 441. VoUci. See vii. 803. — 508. Cmronm» 
Compare 380, x. 122, and Ovid, Met. xiii. 1, vulgi stante corona. 
30* 2e 

364 lENBIDOS. 

Aaaaeti longo mnro» defendete bello. 

Saia qaoque infesto volvebant ponden 

Poaaent tectam aciciD perrumpeie, cui 

Ferre juvat subter densa teetudine ca» 

Nec jam sufRciutit. Nam qua globus ir 

Immanem Teucri molem volvunlque ruuntmie, 

Quae stravil Rululos lale, armorumque resolvit 

Tegmina. Nec curanl caeco contendere Mula 

AtnpliuB audaces Rululi, sed pellere TaJlo 

Missilibus certani. B 

Parte alia horrendus visa quassabat ElniBoam 

Pinum et fumiferos infert Mezentiua ignis; 

At Messapus equum domitor, Neptunia protea, 

Bescindil vallum el soalaa Jn moenia poscit. 

Vos^ o Calliope, precor, adspiraie canenti, E 

Qnas ibi lum ferio strages, quae faner& TnrDUB 
Ediderit, quem quisque virum demisetit Orco; 
Et mecum ingentis oras evolvite belli. 
Et meministia enim, divae, et memorare potestiB. 

Turris erat vaslo Buspectu et pontibus altis, II 

Opporluna loco; summis quam viribus omnea 
Expugnare Itali summaque evertera opum vi 
Certabant, Traes conlra liefendere saxis 
Perque cavas densi tela intorquere fenestraa. 
Princeps ardentem conjecil lampada TurnuB, I 

Et flammam afiixit kleri ; quae plurima vento 
Corripuil labulas el poatibus haeslt adesis. 
Turbati Irepidare intus, frustraque maloram 
Velle fugam. Dura se glomerant, retroquB reNduut 
In partem, quae peste carel, lum pondere tntriB t 

ProcubnJt Eubilo, et coelum lonat omne fragora. 
Semineces ad terram, immani mole secuta, 
Confixique suis telis et peclora doro 
Transfossi ligno veniunt. Vix unus Helenor 
Et Lycus elapsi; quoium primaevus Heleaor, i 

Maeonio regi quem serva Lioymnia furtim 
Sustulerat velitisque ad Trojam misarat annia, 
Ense levis nudo patmaque mglorius alba. 

Isque nbi fb Tiirni mRHin inter millia vidit, 
Hinc acies alque hiijc acies adel 

SIG. Saunl. Sco ol i. 35 518. Ca 

Ine tealadB. See llic Bamo phiaso, in a 
nt ii. 335.-533. See vii. G91,— 535. CoHiope, the 
poetry. yii». Seo at i, HO. — 527. Ora. See b( 
Matonfa rrgi, A prlnoo of Lydin. Soe nt vjii. ( ' 
lithouT u ligenil, a F^ii;n of ignohililv. or modc^ly. 

LIBER IX. 35ft 

Ut fera, quae, densa yenantum septa corona, 

Contra tela furit, seseque haud nescia morti 

Injicit et saltu supra venabula fertur, 

Haud aliter juvenis medios moriturus in hostis 

Irruit, et; qua tela videt densissima, tendit. 555 

At pedibus longe melior Lycus inter et hostis 

Inter et arma fuga muros tenet, altaque certat 

Prendere lecta manu sociumque attingere dextras. 

Quem Turnus, pariter cursu teloque secutus, 

Increpat his victor : * Nostrasne evadere^ demens, 660 

Sperasti te posse manus?' simul arripit ipsum 

Pendentem, et magna muri cum parte reveilit : 

Qualis ubi aut leporem aut candenti corpore cycnum 

Sustulit alta petens pedibus Jovis armiger uncis, 

Quaesitum aut matri multis balatibus agnum 565 

Martius a stabuiis rapuit lupus. Undique clamor 

ToIIitur; invadunt et fossas aggere complent; 

Ardentis taedas alii ad fastigia jactant. 

Ilioneus saxo atque ingenti fragmine montis 

Lucetium, portae subeuntem ignisque ferentem, 670 

Emathiona Liger, Corynaeum sternit Asilas, 

Hic jacuio bonus, hic longe fallente sagitta ; 

Ortygium Caeneus, victorem Caenea Turnus, 

Turnus Itym Cloniumque, Dioxippum Promolumque, 

Et Sagarim et sunmiis stantem pro turribus Idan ; 575 

Privemum Capys. Hunc primo levis hasta Theraillae 

Strinxerat : ille manum projecto tegmine demens 

Ad vulnus tulit ; ergo alis allapsa sagitta 

Et laevo infixa est lateri manus, abditaque intus 

Spiramenta animae letali vulnere rupit. 580 

Stabat in egregiis Arcentis filius armis, 

Pictus acu chlamydem et ferrugine clarus Hibera, 

Insignis facie, genitor quem miserat Arcens, 

Eductum matris luco Symaethia circum 

Flumina, pinguis ubi et placabilis ara Palici : 685 

Stridentem fundam positis Mezentius hastis 

Ipse ter adducta circum caput egit habena, 

Et media adversi liquefacto tempora plumbo 

Diffidit, ac multa porrectum extendit arena. 

Tum priraum bello celerem intendisse sagittam 590 


564. Jovis armiger, aquila. — 566. Martius lupus, The wolf was 
nered to Mara. See viii. 631. — 570. Lucetium BierniU — 571. Co' 
rynaeum, See at vi. 228. — 572. Hic Liger, hic Asylas. FaUente, 
m^e at iv. 96, x. 754. — 584. Symaethus was a river in the east of 
UuMy, near Etna. — 585. Palici. Ono of two brothers, Sicilian 


Dicitur, ante feras solitus terrere fugacis, 

Ascaiiius, fortemque manu fudisse Numanum ; 

Cui Remulo cogriomen erat, Turnique minorem 

Germanam nuper thalamo sociatus habebat. 

Is primam ante aciem digna atque indigna relatu 595 

Vociferans, lumidusque novo praecordia regno 

Ibat et ingentem sese clamore ferebat : 

*Non pudet obsidione iterum valloque teneri, 

Bis capti Phryges, et morti praetendere muroB? 

£n, qui nostra sibi bello connubia poscunt ! 600 

Quis deus Italiam, quae vos dementia adegit? 

Non hic Atridae, nec fandi fictor Ulixes. 

Durum ab stirpe genus natos ad flumina primum 

Deferimus, saevoque gelu duramus et undis ; 

Venatu invigilant pueri, silvasque fatigant ; 605 

Flectere ludus equos et spicula tendere comu. 

At patiens operum parvoque assueta juventuB 

Aut rastris terram domat, aut quatit oppida bello. 

Omne aevum ferro leritur, versaque juvencam 

Terga fatigamus hasta; nec tarda senectUB 610 

Debilitat vires animi mutatque vigorem: 

Canitiem galea premimus ; semperque recentis 

Comportare juvat praedas et vivere rapto. 

Vobis picta croco et fulgenti murice yeBtis; 

Dcsidiae cordi; juvat indulgere choreiB: 615 

£t tunicae manicas, et habent redimicula mitrae. 

O vere Phrygiae, neque enim Phryges^ ite per alta 

Dindyma, ubi assuetis biforem dat tibia cantum. 

Tympana vos buxusque vocat Berecyntia Matris 

Icfaeae: sinite arma viris, et cedite ferro.' 620 

Talia jactantem dictis ac dira canentem 

Non tulit Ascanius ; nervoque obversus equino 

Contendit telum, diversaque brachia duoens 

Constitit, ante Jovem supplex per yota precatus : 

^ Jupiter omnipotens, audacibus annue coeptis. 625 

593. Cui Remulo, Sec at i. 267. — 596. l^imidus pToeeordia, tiB 
accusative of limitation. Novo regno, referring to the marriage with 
the sister of king Turnus. — 599. Bis. Once by the Greekji, and 
now by the Latins. — 600. En, &c. Ironical. — 609. Vtraaqu^, Even 
agricultural lubour employs the spear. — 610. Fatigamua by the arui. 

— 612. Canitiem. See natos (602), pueri {605)t juverUUM (607)t M 
nectus (610). — 61^. Murice. Sce at iv. 262. — 615. Cordi, 8«to tt 
vii. 324. — 616. Sce at iv. 216. — 618. Dindyma, sine. Dindym]|||,a 
Mysian mountain, celebrated for thc worship of Cj^ele. vffkiwtt 
cantum, alludin^ to the double flute used in the worship of Cy6dbt< 

— 619. BerecyfUia. See at vi. 785. — 620. Idaeae. See p UiL' 
lineg26, 35. ^ T.! 

LIBER IX. 357 

(pse tibi ad tua templa feram sollemnia dona, 

Et statuam ante aras aurata fronte juvencum; 

Candentem, pariterque caput cum matre ferentem, 

Jam cornu petat et pedibus qui spargat arenam.' 

Audiit et coeli Genitor de parte serena 630 

Intonuit laevum ; sonat una fatifer arcus. 

Effugit horrendum stridens adducta sagitta, 

Perque caput Remuli venit et cava tempora ferro 

Trajicit. * I, verbis virtutem illude superbis ! 

Bis capti Phryges haec Rutulis responsa remittunt.' 635 

Hoc tantum Ascanius ; Teucri clamore sequuntur, 

Laetiliaque fremunt, animosque ad sidera tollunt. 

Aetheria tum forte plaga crinitus Apollo 

Desuper Ausonias acies urbemque videbat, 

Nube sedens, atque his victorem affalur lulum : 640 

^Macte nova virtute, puer; sic itur ad astra, 

Dis genite et geniture deos. Jure omnia bella 

Gente sub Assaraci fato ventura resident j 

Nec te Troja capit.' Simul haec effatus ab alto 

Aethere se mittit, spirantis dimovet auras, 645 

Ascaniumque petit. Formam tum vertitur oris 

Antiquum in Buten. Hic Dardanio Anchisae 

Armiger ante fuit fidusque ad limina custos : 

Tum comitem Ascanio pater addidit. Ibat Apollo 

Omnia longaevo similis, vocemque coloremque 650 

Et crinis albos et saeva sonoribus arma, 

Atque his ardentem dictis affatur lulum : 

' Sit satis, Aenide, telis impune Numanum 

Oppetiisse tuis; primam hanc tibi magnus Apollo 

Concedit laudem, et paribus non invidet armis; 655 

Cetera parce. puer, belio.' Sic orsus Apoilo 

Mortalis meaio aspectus sermone reliquit, 

Et procul in tenuem ex oculis evanuit auram. 

Agnovere deum prooeres divinaque tela 

Dardanidae, pharetramque fuga sensere sonantem. 660 

Ergo avidum pugnae dictis ac numine Phoebi 

Ascanium prohibent ; ipsi in certamina rur^us 

Succedunt, animasque m aperta pericula mittunt. 

It clamor totis per propugnacula muris ; 

629. Qui jam, &c. — 632. Horrendum. See at Ecl. iii. 8. Ad' 
ducta. See at v. 507. — 639. Ausonias. See p. 180, line 5. — 642. 
Geniture deos. A conipliment to Augustus. See i. 288. — 646. 
Vertiturformam, accusative of limitation. — 647. Dardanio, -o une- 
lided. — 650. Omnia. See at iv. 558. Coloremque. Last syllable 
eiided hefore Et. — 653. Aenide. Othcrs, Aeneada. — 656. Cetera^ 
accasativo of limitation. 


Intendunt acrisTircus, amentaque torquent. 661 

Sternitur omne solum telis; tum scuta cayaeque 
Dant sonitum flictu galeae; pugna aspera sui^it: 
Quantus ab occasu veniens pluvialibus Haedis 
Verberat imber humum ; quam multa grandine nimbi 
In vada praecipitant, cum Jupiter horridus austris 670 
Torquet aquosam hiemem et coelo cava. nubila rumpit. 

Pandarus et Bitias, Idaeo Alcanore creti, 
Quos Jovis eduxit luco silvestris laera, 
Abietibus juvenes patriis et montibus aequos, 
Portam, quae ducis imperio commissa, recludunt, 675 
Freti armis, ultroque invitant moenibus hostem. 
Ipsi intus dextra ac laova pro turribus adstant, 
Armati ferro et cristis capita alta corusci : 
Quales aeriae liquentia fiumina circum, 
Sive Padi ripis, Athesim seu propter amoenum, 680 

Consurgunt gcminae quercus intonsaque coelo 
AttoUaiit capita et subJimi vertice nutant. 
Irrumpuiit, aditus Rululi ut videre patentis. 
Continuo Quercens et piilcher Aquicolus armis 
£t praeceps animi Traarus et Mavortius Haemon 685 
Agminibus totis aut versi terga dedere, 
Aut ipso portae posuere in limine vitam. 
Tum magis increscunt animis discordibus irae; 
Et jam collecti Troes glomerantur eodem, 
£t conferre manum et procurrere longius audent. 690 

Ductori Turno, diversa in parte furenti 
Turbantique viros, perfertur nuntius, hostem 
Fervere caede nova. et portas praebere patentis. 
Deserit inceptum, atque immani concitus ira 
Dardaniam ruit ad portam fratresque superbos. 695 

£t primum Antiphaten, is enim se primus agebat, 
Thebana de matre nothum Sarpedonis alti, 
Conjecto sternit jaculo j volat Itala cornus 
Aera per tenerum, stomachoque inGxa sub altum 
Pectus abit j reddit specus atri vulneris undam 700 

Spumantem, et fixo ferrum in pulmone tepescit. 

666. Sternitur. See at viii. 719. — 668. Haedis. Time whan. 
Probably \n Duccmbcr. — 670. Praccipitant. See at i. 234, z. fiOi. 
lupitcr, tho air-pjod. — 672. Idaeo. boe at ii. 694. ■— 673. /aefv, 
seeminglv one ot thc Oreades, i. 500. — 674. AhietibuSi abyBtlbB^. 
— 6t^0. Athesim, a rivcr falling into thc Adriatic, north of tliirp4^^ 
now Adigo. — 697. Thehana. Of the many cities of tbi«. "tii^ii^-'' 
from Sarpcdonis (i. 100), we infcr that tlie Thebes mentioiibd ^)F|i- 
ia Lycia. v*.; . 

LIBER IX. 359 

Tum Meropem atque Erymanta manu, tum sternit 

Aphidnum j 
Tura Bitian ardentem oculis animisque frementem, 
Non jaculo j neque enim jaculo vitam ille dedisset ; 
Sed magnum stridens contorta phalarica venit, 705 

Fulminis acta modo; quam nec duo taurea terga, 
Nec duplici squama lorica fidelis et auro 
Sustinuit ; colmp^ ruunt immania membra. 
Dat tellus gemitum, et clipeum super intonat ingens. 
Talis in Euboico Baiarum litore quondam 710 

Saxea pila cadit, magnis quam molibus ante 
Construct^raponto jaciunt; sic illa ruinam 
Prona trahit, penitusque vadis illisa recumbit; 
Miscent sQ maria, el nigrae attolluntur arenae ; 
Tum sonitu Prochyta alta tremit, durumque cubile 715 
Inarime Jovis imperiis imposta Typhoeo. 

Hic Mars armipotens animum viresque Latinis 
Addidit, et stimulos acris sub pectore vertit ; 
Immisitque Fugam Teucris atrumque Timorem. 
Undique conveniunt, quoniam data copia pugnae, 720 
Bellatorque animo deus incidit. 
Pandarus, ut fuso germanum corpore cernit, 
£t quo sit fortuna loco, qui casus agat res, 
Portam vi nmlta converso cardine torquet, 
Obnixus latis humeris, multosque suorum 725 

Moenibus exclusos duro in certamine linquit ; 
Ast alios secum includit recipitque ruentis, 
Demens ! qui Rutulum in medio non agmine regem 
Viderit irrumpentem, ultroque incluserit urbi, 
Immanem veluti pecora inter inertia tigrim. 730 

Continuo nova lux oculis effulsit, et arma 
Horrendum sonuere y tremunt in vertice cristae 
Sanguineae, clipeo(jue micantia fulmina mittit. 
Agnoscunt faciem invisam atque immania membra 
Turbati subito Aeneadae. Tum Pandarus ingens 735 
Emicat, et mortis fraternae fervidus ira 
Effatur : ^Non haec dotalis regia Amatae 
Nec muris cohibet patriis media Ardea Turnum. 

707. Squama et auro. See at Gcorg. ii. 486. — 710. Virffil com- 
pares the fall of Bitias with that of a mass of masonry, sucn as waa 
iised at Baiae (near Cumac ; hcnce Eubotco ; see at vi. 2), in the 
eztraordinary marine structures of which the Romans were so fond. 
-—715. Prochyta ; 716. Inarime (Aenaria or Pithecusa), islands off 
tbe coost of Campania. Typhoeo. For a different legend, jsee at i. 
665.-728. Demens quividerit. Seeatvi. 591. — 732. Horrendum* 
jEW. iii. 8.-737. Amatae. See p. 291, line 11. 


• Castra inimica vicWs ; iiiiUa liinc exiro potestas.' 

Olli subridens sedalo pectore Tarnns : 740 

' Incipe, si qua animo virtus, et consere dextram 
Hic etiam inventum Priamo narrabis Achillen.' 
Dixerat. Ille rudem nodis et cortice crudo 
Intorquet summis adnixus viribus hastam j 
Excepere aurae ; vulnus Saturnia Juno 745 

Detorsit veniens, portaeque infigilur hasta. 
' At non hoc telum, mea quod vi dextera versat, 
Eflfugies; neque enim is teli nec vuineris auctor.' 
Sic ait, et sublatum ahe consurgit in ensem, 
Et mediam ferro gemina inter tempora frontem 750 

Dividit impubisque immani vnlnere malas. 
Fit sonus; ingcnti concussa est pondere tellus; 
Collapsos artus atque arma cruenta cerebro 
Sternit humi moriens, atque illi partibus aequis 
Huc caput atque illuc humero ex utroque pependit. 765 
Difiugiunt versi trepida formidine Trocs; 
Et; si continuo victorem ea cura subisset, 
Rumpere claustra manu sociosque immittere portis, 
Uhimus ille dies bello gentique fuisset. 
Sed furor ardentem caedisque insana cupido 760 

Egit in adversos. 

Principio Phalerim et succiso poplite Gygen 
Excipit j hinc raptas fugientibus ingerit hastas 
In tergum ; Juno vires animumque ministrat. 
Addit Halym comitem et confixa Phegea parma 765 

Ignaros deinde in muris Martemque cientis 
Alcandrumque Haliumque Nocmonaque Prytanimqae. 
Lyiicea, tendentem contra sociosque vocantem, 
Vibranti gladio connixus ab aggere dexter 
Occupat • huic uno dejectum comminns ictu 770 

Cum galea longe jacuit caput. Inde feranim 
Vastatorem Amycum, quo non felicior alter 
Unguere tela manu ferrumque armare Teneno ^ 
Et Clytium Aeoliden, et amicum Crethea Musisy' 
Crethea Musarum comitem, cui carmina semper 775 

Et citharac cordi, numerosque intendere nervis; 
Semper equos atque arina virum pugnasque canebat. 
Tandem ductores, audita caede suorum, 

710. OUi. See at i. 251. — 712. See an expression somewimt 
wmilar, noted at ii. 517. — 743. DiTerat. Sec at ii. 621. 7II«,^ali« 
danis. — 748. /.<<, lalis, tam imbcllis. — 764. Terpim, Otbilii 
tergus. — 767. Noi'/no?iaij[uc hy thc arsis. — 775. Cut cords. 'Bktfft 
"ii. 324. ^^ 


LIBER IX. 301 

Conveniunt Teucri; Mnestheus acerque Serestus ', 

Palantisque vident socios hostemque receptum. 780 

Et Mnestheus : * Quo deinde fugam, quo tenditis V inquit. 

Quos alios muros, quae jam ultra moenia habetis ? 

Unus homo, et vestris, o cives, undique septus 

Aggeribus, tantas strages impune per urbem 

Ediderit ? juvenum primos tot miserit Orco? 785 

Non infelicis patriae veterumque deorum 

Et magni Aeneae, segnes, raiseretque pudetque?' 

Talibus accensi firmantur, et agmine denso 

Consistunt. Turnus paulatim excedere pugna 

Et fluvium petere ao partem, quae cingitur unda. 79C 

Acrius hoc Teucri clamore incumbere mag^no, 

Et glomerare manum : ceu saevum turbaleonem 

Cum telis premit infensis; at territus ille, 

Apper, acerba tuens, retro redit ; et neque terga 

Ira dare aut virtus patitur, nec tendere contra, 795 

IUe quidem hoc cupiens, potis est per tela virosque. 

Haud aliter retro dubius vestigia Tumus 

Improperata refert, et mens exaestuat ira. 

Quin etiam bis tum medios invaserat hostis, 

Bis confusa fuga per muros agmina vertit ; 800 

Sed manus e castris propere coit omnis in unum, 

Nec contra vires audet Saturnia Juno 

Sufficere ; aeriam coelo nam Jupiter Irim 

Demisit, germanae haud mollia jussa ferentem, 

Ni Turnus cedat Teucrorum moenibus altis. 805 

Ergo nec clipeo juvenis subsistere tantum 

Nec dextra valet : injectis sic undique telis 

Obruitur. Strepit assiduo cava tempora circum 

Tinnitu galea, et saxis solida aera fatiscunt ; 

Discussaeque jubae capiti ; nec sufficit urabo 810 

Ictibus 'y ingeminant hastis et Troes et ipse 

Fuiraineus Mnestheus. Tum toto corpore sudor 

Liquitur et piceum — nec respirare potestas — 

Flumen agit ; fessos quatit aeger anhelitus artns. 

Tum demum praeceps saltu sese omnibus armis 815 

In fluvium dedit. Ille suo cum gurgite flavo 

Accepit venientem ac mollib'i:s extulit undis, 

£t laetum sociis abluta caede remisit. 

794. Acerba. See at Ecl. iii. 8. Et^ &c. He will not flee, and 
be eannot resist. — 804. Germanae, Junoni. — 806. Clipeoy defen- 
■ivtly ; dextra, oflrensively. — 811. Et with ipse has the force of, * and 
•bove alU Mnestheus with his thundering might.' — 818. It will bo 
oboerved tbat Aeneas has no share in the events of this book. 

31 2 y 



Ajt assembly of the gods, and address of Jupiter, deprecatlng 
the war betweon the Latins and Trojans, 1-15. Address of 
Venus, recapitulating the past misfortunes of the Trojans, and 
scornfuUy asking for the safety at least of Ascanius elsewhere, 
if Juno is determined to prevent the rise of the power of 
Aeneas in Italy, 16-62. Indignant reply of Juno, who im- 
putes the whole blame to the Trojans themselves, 63—95. Ju- 
piter, amidst various opinions, declares that the Fates shall 
decide the fortune of the day, without Divine interference, 
96-117. The Latins still beleaguer the Trojan camp, which 
is strenuously defended by Ascanius and others, 118—145. 
Aeneas, who had formed a league with the revolted subjects 
of Mezentius, the Etrurian king, is descending the river, 146- 
162. Address to the Muses, 163-165. Account of the Tus- 
can allies, who followed Aeneas in thirty ships, arranged in 
four troops. The first is led by Massicus, at the head of the 
warriors from C/imum, the city of Porsenna, south-west of the 
Trasimene lake, and Coscu on tlie coast, 166—169. The second 
is headed by Abas, with those of Populoniumj on the coast, off 
which lies Ilva (the island of £Iba), which also sends its con- 
tingents, 170-174. The third, by Asiias, with the men of 
Ptsae, founded by a colony from Pisa in Elis, watered by the 
Mphetu (see p. 181, line 38), 175-180. The fourth, by Astur, 
with those from Caere (see p. 292, line 29), Jtftnio, a rivulet of 
Etruria, to the north of Caere ; JPygt, the seaport of Caere ; 
and Graviscae on the coast, north of the Minio, 180-184. 
There also follow auziliaries from JAguria, headed by Cinyrai 
and Cupavo, tbe sons of Cyenus, 185^197. Mantua, head of 
twelve confederate states — four (pop%tH) to each of the three 
{gentes) nations, probably of Etrurians, Umbrians, and Greeka, 
with a preponderance of Etrurian blood— sent troops nnder 
the command of Ocnus, 198-206 ; and probably of Aulestes, 
207-214. Sailing under the moonlight, Aeneas is met by his 
ships, now nymphs, and warned of tbe danger of his camp 
by Cymodoce, ono of them, who pushes on his ship, 215—240. 
Aeneas, amazed, prays to Cybele, and prepares his (K>mpanions 
for the contest, 249-259. The Trojans in the camp seting hit 
approach, sliout and shoot, 260-266. The Rutuliani disooYer 
the cause; but Turnus, notbing daunted, encourages theaii 
267-286. Landing of the troops, and misfortune of TarehoOi 
287-307. YtfVious combats, 308-361. Pallas rallies the fieeii« 
Arcadians, 362-379. Feats of Pallas, 380-425. Feate of 


Lausus, 426-430. Pallas and Lausus are about to meet, 431— 
438. Warned by his sister, Turnus engages Pallas, whom he 
slays, ignorant that this deed shall seal his own doom, 439— 
505. His friends bear off the dead body of Pallas, and the 
tidings rouse Aeneas to terrible havoc, 505-604. Ascanius and 
his party sally forth, 604-605. Jupiter taunts Juno with the 
unaided prowess of the Trojans, but at her request, permits 
her to postpone the death of Turnus, 606-632. She sends a 
phantom-cloud in the guise of Aeneas, who, seeming to flee 
before Turnus, lures him into a ship, and then, after it has 
carried him far away, leaves him to despair ; but, protected 
by Juno, he is borne to his native Ardea, 633-688. Feats of 
Mezentius, and wrath of the Etrurians, 689-746. Other com- 
bats witnessed by the gods, 747—761. Mezentius encounters 
Aeneas, who accidentally kills Antor, and then womids Me« 
zentius, 762-788. Lausus, the gallant son of Mezentius, as- 
sisted by his followers, covers his father's retreat firom the 
sword of Aeneas, 789-809. Aeneas in vain warns Lausus 
of his danger, slays, and bewails him, 809-832. Mezentius, 
while dressing his wounds at the river'8 brink, hears of his 
8on's death, and unable to fight on foot, mounts his favourite 
steed, 833-872. He attacks Aeneas, who slays his horse, and 
then himself, willing to die, 873-908. 

Panditur interea domus omnipotentis Olympi, 
Conciliumque vocat divom pater atque hominum rex 
Sideream in sedem, terras unde arduus omnis 
Castraque Dardanidum adspectat populosque Latinos. 
Considunt tectis bipatentibus ; incipit ipse : 5 

^ Coelicolae magni, quianam sententia vobis 
Yersa retro, tantumque animis certatis iniquis l 
Abnueram bello Italiam concurrere Teucris. 
Quae contra vetitum discordia ? quls metus aut hos 
Aut hos arma sequi ferrumque lacessere suasit ? 10 

Adveniet justum pugnae, ne arcessite, tempus, 
Cum fera Carthago Romanis arcibus olun 
Exitium magnum atque Alpes immittet apertas . 
Tum certare odii& tum res rapuisse licebit. 
Nunc sinite ; et placitum laeti componite foedus.' 15 

Jupiter haec paucis ; at non Venus aurea contra 
Pauca refert : 

1. Olympu See at EcL v. 56.-4. Dardanidum, Trojanonun. 
^ at vi. 648. — 5. Bipatentibusj with double folding-doors. — 13. 
dhiding to the passage of Hannibal over the AIps, and Jano'8 
irtiality for Carthage. See i. 12, &c., and a similar allusioD, iv. 
98» &«. — 15. SinerCf to leave matters alone. 


'0 Pater, homiaum reramque aeterna potestad ! 

Namque aliud quid sit, quod jam implorare queamus? 

Cerais, ut insultent Rutuli, Turausque feratur 20 

Per medios insignis equis tumidusque secundo 

Marte ruat ? Non clausa teguut jam moenia Teucros : 

Quin intra portas atque ipsis proelia miscent 

Aggeribus moerorum, et inundant sanguine fossae. 

Aeneas ignarus abest. Numquamne levari . 25 

Obsidione sines ? muris iterum imminet hostis 

Nascentis Trojae, nec non exercitus alterj 

Atque iterum in Teucros Aetolis surgit ab Arpis 

Tydides. Equidem credo^ mea vulnera restant, 

£t tua progenies mortalia demoror arma ! 30 

Si sine pace tua atque invito numine Troes 

Italiam petiere : luant peccata, neque ilios 

Juveris auxilio ; sin tot responsa secuti, 

Quae Superi Manesque dabant, cur nunc tua quiequam 

Vertere jussa potest ) aut cur nova condere fata ? 35 

Quid repetam ezustas £rycino in litore classis ? 

Quid tempestatum regem, ventosque furentis 

Aeolia excitos? aut actam nubibus Irim? 

Nuno etiam Manin — haec intentata manebat 

Sors reram — movet, et superis immissa repente 40 

Allecto, medias Italum bacchata per urbes. 

Nil super imperio moveor ; speravimuB ista, 

Dum fortuna fuit ; vincant, quos vincere mavis. 

Si nulla est regio, Teucris quam det tua conjunx 

Dura, per eversae, ^enitor, fumantia Trojae 45 

£xcidia obtestor : hceat dimittere ab armis 

Incolumem Ascanium, liceat superesse nepotem. 

Aeneas sane ignotis jactetur in undis, 

£t, quamcumque viam dederit Fortuna, sequatur : 

Huno tegere et dirae valeam subdncere pugnae. 50 

£8t Amathus, est celsa Paphus atque alta Cythera, 

IdaUaeque domus : positis inglorius armis 

18. O never sufTers elision. — 19. Venus has no other refiige than 
Jupiter. — 22. Marte. See at ii. 311. — 24. Moeromm, an old 
form of murorum. — 28. Surgit. See zL 225, &c. Arpi, or Ar- 
gyripa, the city of Diomede il^dides), called Aetolit becanse ha waa 
of Aetolian descent, though an Argive king. — 29. VeDua indig- 
nantly anticipates a second time encoantering Diomede, and being 
affain wounded, as she was on the occasion mentioned at L 97. See 
alBO zi. 276.-36. See v. 641, &c. Erycino. See p. 183, luM 5. 
— 37. Tempettatumy &c. See i. 50, 6lc. — 38. Irim. See at zv. 
694, and iz. 1, &c. — 41. Allecto. See viL 323, &c.-— 51. 
Hois. In the south of Cyprus. PajihuMf i. 415, -St by tha 
Cythera, i. 257.-52. Idjliaegue i. 681. 

LIBER X. 365 

£xigat hic aevum. Magna ditione jubeto 
Carthago premat Ausoniam ; nihil urbibus inde 
Obstabit Tyriis. Quid pestem evadere belli 55 

Juvit et Argolicos medium fugisse per ignis, 
Totque maris vastaeque exhausta pericula terrae, 
Dum Latium Teucri recidivaque Pergama quaerunt % 
Non satius, cineres patriae insedisse supremos 
Atque solura, quo Troja fuit? Xanthum et Simoenta 60 
Redde, oro, miseris, iterumque revolvere casus 
Da, pater, Iliacos Teucris.' Tum regia Juno 
Acta furore gravi : ^Quid me alta silentia cogis 
Rumpere et obductum verbis vulgare dolorem? 
Aenean hominum quisquam divomque subegit 65 

Bella sequi, aut hostem regi se inferre Latino % 
Italiam petiit fatis auctoribus — esto — 
Cassandrae impulsus furiis : num linquere castra 
Hortati sumus, aut vitam committere ventis ? ^ 

Num puero summam belli, num credere muros 1 70 

Tyrrhenamque fidem aut gentis agitare quietas? 
Quis deus in fraudem, quae dura potentia nostri 
Egit? ubi hic Juno, demissave nubibus Iris? 
Indignum est ItalOs Trojam circumdare flammis 
Nascentem, et patria Turnum consistere terra, 75 

Cui Pilurauus avus, cui diva Venilia mater : 
Quid, face Trojanos atra vim ferre Latinis, 
Arva aliena jugo premere atque avertere praedas ! 
Quid, soceros legere et gremiis abducere pactas, 
Pacem orare manu, praefigere puppibus arma ? 80 

Tu potes Aenean manibus subducere Graium, 
Proque viro nebulam et ventos obtendere inanis, 
Et potes in totidem classem convertere Nymphas : 
Nos aliquid Rutulos contra juvisse nefandum est? 
Aeneas ignarus abest : ignarus et absit : 85 

£st Paphus, Idaliumque tibi, snnt alta Cythera. 
Quid gravidam bellis urbem et corda aspera tentas'? 
Nosne tibi fluxas Phrygiae res vertere fundo 
Conaraur ? nos ? an miseros qui Troas Achivis 
Objecit ? Quae caussa fuit, consurgere in arma 90 

54. JJt premat, Ausoniam, See p. 180| line 5.— '55. Ttmis, 
IV. 75. — 56. ArgolkoSy ii. 55. — 58. Pergamat ii. 177. — 60. "XaH' 
thuSj &c. Rivers of Troy. — 64. Construe, vulgare verbis, — 67. 
JPettitj long by the arsis. — 68. Cassandrae^ iii. 183. Linquere, &c. 
AUuding to tne events mentioned in the Eighth Book. — 79. Socb» 
ro»t &c. AUuding to Lavinia. See p. 291, hne 29. — 81. Alla* 
ding to events connected with those referred to at i. 97. See dlso 
▼. 809, &c. — 83. See ix. 80, &c. 


Massicus aerata princeps secat aequora Tigri j 
Sub quo mille manus juvenum, qui moenia CJusi, 
Quique urbem Jiquere Cosas ; quis tela sagitlae 
Corytiquc leves Iiumcris et letifer arcus. 
Una torvus Abas ; Jiuic totum insignibus armis 17(1 

Agmen et aurato fulgebat ApoUine puppis. 
Sexcentos illi dederat Populonia mater 
Expertos belli juvenes ; ast Ilva trecentoa 
Insula, inexhaustis Chalybum generosa metallis. 
Tertius, ille hominum divomque interpres Asilas, 175 
Cui pecudum fibrae, coeli cui sidera jjarent 
£t linguae volucrum et praesagi fulminis ignes, 
Mille rapit densos acie atque horrentibus hastis. 
Hos parere jubent Alpheae ab origine Pisae, 
Urbs £trusca solo. Sequitur pulcherrimus Astur, 180 
Astur equo fidens et versicoloribus armis. 
Ter centum adjiciunt — mens omnibus una sequendi— - 
Qui Caerete domo^ qui sunt Minionis in arvis, 
£t Pyrgi veteres, mtempestaeque Graviscae. 
Non ego te, Ligurum ductor fortissime bello, 185 

Transierim, Cinyra, et paucis comitate Cupavo, 
Cujus olorinae surgunt de vertice pennae — 
Crimen amor vestrum— formaeque insigne patemae. 
Namque ferunt luctu Cycnum Phaethontis amati, 
Populeas inter frondes umbramque sororum 190 

Dum canit et moestum Musa solatur amorem, 
Canentem moiii pluma duxisse senectam, 
Linquentem terras et sidera voce sequentem. 
Filius, aequalis comitatus classe catervas, 
Ingentem remis Centaurum promovet : iJie 195 

Instat aquae, saxumque undis immane minatur 
Arduus, et longa suJcat maria alta carina. 

Ille etiam patriis agmen ciet Ocnus ab oris, 
Fatidicae Mantus et Tusci filius amnis, 
Qui muros matrisque dedit tibi, Mantua, nomen, 200 
Mantua, dives avis; sed non genns omniJbtns unum: 

166. Tigri. See at v. 116.-168. Quif— qoibns. — 174. CMy- 
hum. See at viii. 421. — 186. Thia pasBage seems comipt. : Ta0 
best meaning to be extracted as it stands aeems to be, that Cinynf 
and Cupavo, sons of Cycnus, who is mentioned in connection witk 
the story of Phaethon (Ovid, Met. ii. 369, &c.), led the Lignriittit 
and worc on their crests swans' feathers, and had a swan aom 
ensign of their ship. Vestrum is probably for vestrorum, le& ii riu ig 
both to Cycnus and the sisters {sororumt 190) of PhaSthon| WlinW' 
lovo iamor) for Phaethon Icd thcm to murmur (crimen) agaimt Idjtf-' ' 
death by Jupiter^s thundcrbohs ; and hence their transibrmitiiNli' * ^ : 

LIBER X. 367 

Molirique ignem, nervoque aptare sagittas. 

Ipse inter medios, Veneris juslissima cura, 

Dardanius caput, ecce, puer detectus honestum, 

Qualis gemma micat, fulvum quae dividit aurum, 

Aut colJo decus aut capiti 3 vel quale per artem 135 

Inclusum buxo aut Oricia terebintho 

Lucet ebur 5 fusos cervix cui lactea crinis 

Accipit et molli subnectens circulus auro 

Te quoque magnanimae viderunt, Ismare, gentes 

Vulnera dirigere, et calamos armare veneno, 140 

Maeonia generose domo, ubi pinguia cuha 

Exercentque viri, Pactolosque irrigat auro. 

Adiuit et Mnestheus, quem pulsi pristina Turni 

Aggere moerorum sublimem gloria tolht, 

£t Capys : hinc nomen Campanae ducitur urbi. 145 

Illi inter sese duri certamina belli 
Contulerant : media Aeneas freta nocte secabat. 
Namque, ut ab £vandro castris ingressus £truscis, 
Regem adit, et regi memorat nomenque genusque ; 
Quidve petat, quidve ipse ferat ', Mezentius arma 150 
Quae sibi conciliet, violentaque peclora Turni 
Edocet j humanis quae sit fiducia rebus, 
Admonet, immiscetque preces. Haud fit mora ; Tarchon 
Jungit opes, foedusque ferit ; tum hbera fati 
Classem conscendit jussis gens Lydia divom, 155 

£xterno commissa cluci. Aeneia puppis 
Prima tenet, rostro Phrygios subjuncta leones ', 
Imminet Ida super, profugis gratissima Teucris. 
Hic magnus seaet Aeneas, secumque volutat 
Eventus belli varios ; Pallasque sinistro IGO 

Aflixus lateri jam quaerit sidera, opacae 
Noctis iter, jam quae passus terraque mariqae. 

Pandite nunc Helicona, deae, cantusque movete^ 
Quae manus interea Tuscis comitetur ab oris 
Aenean, armetque rates, pelagoque vehatur. 165 

132. Ipset &c. Ascanius. — 133. Detectus caput, the accasative 
of limitation. See at iv. 558. — 136. Buxo, -d unehded. Oricum, 
a town to the north of Epirus. — 137. Cui accipit crinis, See at vi. 
473. — 141. Maeonia. See at viii. 499. Domot -o unelided. — 142. 
The Pactolos was a river of Lydia, famous for its golden sands. — • 
144. Moerorum. See at 24. — 145. Urbi, Capua. Livy^ iv. 37.— 
149. Regif Tarchon, the leader of the Etrurians. — 154. Liberafatt, 
See Zumpt, ^ 437. And for the allusion, see viii. 502, &c. — 155. 
Lydia, See at ii. 781. — 156. Dtun, -i unelided. — 158. Ida. Sce 
at ii; 694. The neighbourhood of Troy was colonised by Phry- 
gians. — 160. Pallas. See viii. 104, &c. — 163. Helicona. See at 


Massicus aerata princeps secat aequora Tigii j 
Sub quo mille manus juvenura, qui moenia CJuBi, 
Quique urbem Jiquere Cosas ; quis tela sagittae 
Corytiquc leves huraeris et letifer arcus. 
Una torvus Abas; huic totura insignibus armis 17(1 

Agraen et aurato fulgebat Apolline puppis. 
Sexcentos illi dederat Populonia mater 
Expertos belli juvenes; ast Ilva trecentoa 
Insula, inexhaustis Chalybum generosa metaUis. 
Tertius, ille horainura divoraque interpres Asilas, 175 
Cui pecudura fibrae, coeli cui sidera jjarent 
Et linguae volucrura et praesagi fulminis ignes, 
Mille rapit densos acie atque horrentibus hastis. 
Hos parere jubent Alpheae ab origine Pisae, 
Urbs Etrusca solo. Sequitur pulcherrimus Aatur, 180 
Astur equo fidens et versicoloribus armis. 
Ter centura adjiciunt — raens oranibus una seqaendir- 
Qui Caerete dorao, qui sunt Minionis in arvis, 
Et Pyrgi veteres, intempestaeque Graviscae. 
Non ego te, Ligurura ductor fortissime bello, 185 

Transierira, Cinyra, et paucis comitate Cupavo, 
Cujus olorinae surgunt de vertice pennae — 
Criraen araor vestrura — forraaeque insigne patemae. 
Namque ferunt luctu Cycnum Phaethontis amati, 
Populeas inter frondes umbramque soronim 190 

Dura canit et moestum Musa solatur amorem, 
Canentem moIJi pluma duxisse senectam, 
Linquentem terras et sidera yoce Beqaentem. 
Filius, aequalis comitatus classe cateryas, 
Ingentera rerais Centaurum promovet : iUe 195 

Instat aquae, saxumque undis immane minatur 
Arduus, et longa sulcat maria alta carina. 

Ille etiara patriis agraen ciet Ocnns ab oris, 
Fatidicae Mantus et Tusci filius amnis, 
Qui murosrnatrisque dedit tibi, Mantua, nomen, 
Mantua, dives avis; sed non genus omnibiu UDnm: 

166. Tigri. See at v. 116.— -168. Qi*£»— quibnB. — 174. CS(^ 
hum. See at viii. 421. — 186. This passage seenu comipt. r^^nb 
best meaning to be extracted as it stands seems to be, that CHpflV 
and Cupavo, sons of Cvcnus, who is mentioned in conneeticiiLwitli 
the story of Phaethon (Ovid, Met. ii. 369, &c.), led the Liff 
and wore on their crests swans' feathers, and had a swan 
ensign of their ship. Vestrutn is probably for vestronim, xe 
both to Cycnus and the sisters (sororwm, 190) of PhaSthonf 
'ivo iamor) for Phaethon led them to murmur {crimen) agaiqilff|||v'^ 

ath by Jupiter's thunderbolts ; and hence their tranBfoniiBlMk^;^il 

LIBER X. 369 

Gens illi triplex, populi sub gente quaterni ; 

Ipsa caput populis : Tusco de sanguine vires. 

Hinc quoque quingentos in se Mezentius armat, 

Quos patre Benaco velatus arundine glauca 205 

Mincius infesta ducebat in aequora pinu. 

It gravis Aulestes, centenaque arbore iluctum 

Yerberat adsurgens ; spumant vada marmore verso. 

Hunc vehit immanis Triton et caerula concha 

Exterrens freta j cui laterum tenus hispida nanti 210 

Frons hominem praefert, in pristin desinit alvus ; 

Spumea semifero sub pectore murmurat unda. 

Tot lecti proceres ter denis navibus ibant 
Subsidio Trojae^ et campos salis aere secabant. 

Jamque dies coelo concesserat, almaque curru 215 
Noctivago Phoebe medium puJsabat Olympum : 
Aeneas — neque enim membris dat cura quietem — 
Ipse sedens clavumque regit velisque ministrat. 
Atque illi medio in spatio chorus, eoce, suarum 
Occurrit comitum : Nymphae, quas alma Cybebe 220 
Numen habere maris Nymphasque e navibus esse 
Jusseratj innabant pariter nuctusque secabant; 
Quot prius aeratae steterant ad litora prorae. 
Agnoscunt longe regem, lustrantque cnoreis. 
Quarum quae fandi doctissima Cymodocea, 225 

Pone sequens dextra puppim tenet, ipsaque dorso 
Eminet, ac laeva tacitis subremigat undis. 
Tum sic ignarum alloquitur : ^ Vigilasne, deum gens, 
Aenea 1 Vigila, et velis immitte rudentis. 
Nos sumus, Idaeae sacro de vertice pinus, 230 

Nunc pelagi Nymphae, classis tua. Perfidus ut nos 
Praecipites ferro Rutulus flammaque premebat. 
Rupimus invitae tua vincula, teque per aequor 
Quaerimus. Hanc genetrix faciem miserata refecit, 
£t dedit esse deas aevumque agitare sub undis. 235 

At puer Ascanius muro fossisque tenetur 
Tela inter media atque horrentis Marte Latinos. 
Jam loca jussa tenet forti permixtus Etrusco 
Arcas eques ; medias illis opponere turmas, 
Ne castris jungant, certa est sententia Turao. 240 

Surge age, et Aurora socios veniente vocari 
Primus in arma jube, et ciipeum cape, quem dedit ipse 

209. Triton. See at i. 144.— 229. Immitte. See at yi. 1. — 238. 
Akeoieas, we may suppose, had sent the Arcadian (viii. 518) and 
BStrttscah cavalry to meet him at the mouth of the river. Tumus 
^w Jpreventing them from combinine with the Trojans in the camp. 

HSL CUpeum, See at viii. 625, £c. 


Invictum Ignipotens. atque oras ambiit auro. 

Crastina lux, mea si non irrita dicta putaris, 

Ingentis Kutulae spectabit caedis acervos.' 245 

Dixerat j ex dextra discedens impulit altam, 

Haud ijjnara modi, puppim : fugit ilia per undas 

Ocior et jaculo et ventos aequante sagitta. 

Inde aliae celerant cursus. Stupet inscius ipse 

Trus Anchisiades; animos tamen omine tollit. 250 

Tum breviter supera adspectans convexa precatur : 

* Alma parens Iclaea deum, cui Dindyma cordi 

Turrigeraeque urbes bijugique ad frena leones, 

Tu mihi nunc pugnae princeps, tu rite propinques 

Auguriurn, Phrygibusque adsis pede, aiva, secundo.' 255 

Tantum effatus. Et interea revoluta ruebat 

IVIatura jam luce dies, noctemque fugarat : 

Principio sociis edicit, signa sequantur, 

Atquc animos aptent armis, pugnaeque parent se. 

Jamque in conspectu Teucros habct et sua castra, 200 

Stans celsa in puppi : clipeum cum deinde sinistra 

Extulit ardentem. Clamorem ad sidera toUant 

Dardanidae e muris; spes addita suscitat irasj 

Tela manu jaciunt : quales sub nubibus atris 

Strymoniae dant signa grues, atque aethera tranant 265 

Cum sonitu, fugiuntque Notos clamore secundo. 

At Rutulo regi ducibusque ea mira videri 

Ausoniis, donec versas ad litora puppis 

Respiciunt, totnmque allabi classibus aequor. 

Ardet apex capiti, cristisque a vertice ilamma 270 

Funditur, et vastos umbo vomit aureus ignis: 

Non sccus, ac liquida si quando nocte cometae 

Sanguinei lugubre rubent, aut Sirius ardor, 

Ille sitim morbosque ferens mortalibus aegris, 

Nascitur et laevo contristat luminc coelum. 276 

Haud tamen audaci Turno fiducia cessit 
Litora praecipere, et venientis pellere terra. 
Ultro animos tollit dictis, atque increpat ultro : 
'Quod votis optastis, adest, perfringere dextra. 
In manibus Mars ipse, viri. Nunc conjugis esto 280 
Quisque suae tectique memor ; nunc magna referto 
Facta, patrum laudes.' Ultro occurramus ad undaiDi 

252. Deum, deorum. Idaea. Sce at ix. 620. Dindyma. See at 

ix. 618. Cui cordi. Sce at vii. 326. -—253. Turrigerae. See at ▼!. 78S. 

— 258. Ut sequantur. — 265. Strymoni a rivcr in Thrace, was f 

as tho resort of grues. — 2T0. Capiti Aeneae. — 273. la^pibn, 

^ EcL iii. 8. 

LIBBR X. 371 

Dum trepiiii, egressique labant vestigia prima. 
Audentis fortuna juvat.' 

Haec ait, et secum versat, quos ducere contra, 285 

Vel quibus obsessos possit concredere muros. 

Interea Aeneas eocios de puppibus altis 
Pontibus exponit. Multi servare recursus 
Languentis pelagi, et brevibus se credere saltu ; 
Per remos alii. Speculatus litora Tarchon, 290 

Qua vada non spirant nec fracta remurmurat unda, 
Sed mare inoffensum crescenti allabitur aestu, 
Advertit subito proras, sociosque precatur : 
'Nunc, o lecta manus, validis incumbite remis; 
ToUite, ferte ratesj inimicam findite rostris 295 

Hanc terram, sulcumque sibi premat ipsa carina. 
Frangere nec tali puppim statione recuso, 
Arrepta tellure semel.' Quae talia postquam 
Eifatus Tarchon, socii consurgere tonsis 
Spumantisque rates arvis inferre Latinis, 300 

Donec rostra tenent siccum et sedere carinae 
Omnes innocuae. Sed non puppis tua, Tarchon. 
Namque inflicta vadis dorso dum pendet iniquo, 
Anceps sustentata diu, fluctusque fatigat, 
Solvitur, atque viros mediis exponit in undis; 305 

Fragmina remorum quos et fiuitantia transtra 
Impediunt, retrahitque pedem simul unda relabens. 

Nec Turnum segnis retinet mora; sed rapit acer 
Totam aciem in Teucros, et contra in litore sistit. 
Signa canunt. Primus turmas invasit agrestis 310 

Aeneas, omen pugnae, stravitque Latinos, 
Occiso Therone, virum qui maximus ultro 
Aenean petit. Huic gladio perque aerea suta, 
Per tunicam squalentem auro, latus haurit apertum. 
Inde Lichan ferit, exsectum jam matre perempta, 315 
£t tibi, Phoebe, sacrum, casus evadere ferri 
Quod licuit parvo. Nec longe, Cissea durum 

283. Lahant vestigia, the accusative of limitation. — 288. Pontibus, 
gjangways from the ships to the land. Servare (the historical infini- 
tive} recurausi watched when the waves, rushing back, left the sea 
near the shore calm {languentis) ond shallow (brevibus). — 303. Dorso 
probabl)r refers to an accumulation of — 304. Fatigare fittctut^ 
to exercise, to keep in active eraployment the waves, which tossed 
it hither and thither. — 307. Eetrahere pedem, to cause the feet of 
the warriors to draw back, from the slippery nature of the moist- 
ened sand. — 310. Canunt is used both transitively and intransitive- 
1^.-— 313. Herei and at the end of 369, et has bcen ingeniously con* 


Immanemqae Gvan, sternentis agmina clava, 

Dejecit leto; nihil illoB Herculis arma, 

Nec validae juvere manus genitorque Melampus, 320 

Alcidae comes, usque gravis dum terra labores 

Praebuit. Ecce Pharo, voces dum jactat inertis, 

Intorquens jaculum clamanti sistit in ore. 

Tu quoque, flaventem prima lanugine malas 

Dum sequeri» Clytium infelix, nova gaudia, Cydon, 325 

Dardania stratus dextra, securus amorum, 

Qui juvenum tibi semper erant, miserande, jaceres, 

Ni fratrum stipata cohors foret obvia, Phorci 

Progenies, septem numero, septenaque tela 

Conjiciunt ; partim galea clipeoque resultant 330 

Irrita, defiexit partim stringentia corpus 

Alma Yenus. Fidum Aeneas affatur Achaten : 

' Suggere tela mihi ; non ullum dextera frustra 

Torserit in Rutulos, steterunt quae in corpore Grainm 

Iliacis campis.' Tum magnam corripit nastam, 335 

£t jacit; ilia volans clipei transverberat aera 

Maeonis, et thoraca simul cum pectore rumpit. 

Huic frater subit Alcanorj fratremque ruentem 

Sustentat dextra : trajecto missa lacerto 

Protenus hasta fugit servatqne cruenta tenorem, 340 

Dexteraque ex humero nervis moribunda pependit. 

Tum Numitor jaculo fratris de corpore rapto 

Aenean petiit ; sed non et figere contra 

£st licitum, magnique femur perstrinxit Achatae. 

Hic Curibus, fidens primaevo corpore, Clausus , 345 

Advenit, et rigida Dryopem ferit eminus hasta 

Sub mentum, graviter pressa, pariterque loquentis 

Vocem animamque rapit trajecto gutture; at ille 

Fronte ferit terram, et crassum vomit ore craorem. 

Tris quoque Threicios Boreae de gente suprema, 350 

£t tris, quos Idas pater et patria Ismara mittit, 

Per varios sternit casus. Accurrit Halaesns 

Auruncaeque manus ; subit et Neptunia proles, 

Insignis Messapus equis. £xpellere tendunt 

Nunc hi, nunc illi ; certatur limine in ipso 988 

Ausoniae. Magno discordes aethere venti 

Proelia ceu tollunt animis et viribus aequis; .[-^ 

^— ~~* ■ — »— »^^^^— ^j^— ^ 

319. Herculis armaf clava. — 320. Of Melampus and hii cMa^ 

nionship with Hercules we know nothing. — 334. StetBmnt,^^W$» 

Curibus, See at vi. 812. Clausus, vii. 707. — 350. Boreatf a n^fttfa 

foundor of the ancient race (gente suprema) of the Thraciaxw.-*^^^ 

Jemara. See at Ed. vi. 30. — 352. ^aZaesus, vii. 723.— 3S8. JUp- 

runcae. See p. 180, line 7. — 354. Metsapus, vii. 691. ' ^- 

LIBER X. 373 

Non ipsi inter se, non nubila, non mare cedit ; 
Anceps pugna dlu ; stant obnixa oinnia contra : 
Haud aliter Trojanae acies aciesque Latinae 360 

Concurrunt; haeret pede pes densusque viro vir. 

At parte ex alia, qua saxa rotantia Jate 
Impulerat torreiis arbustaque diruta ripis, 
Arcadas, insuetos acies inferre pedestris, 
Ut vidit Pallas Latio dare terga sequaci — 365 

Aspera quis natura loci dimittere quando 
Suasit equoS; — unum quod rebus restat egenis, 
Nunc prece, nunc dictis virtutem accendit amaris : 
^Quo fugitis, socii? per, vos, et fortia facta, 
Per ducis Evandri nomen, devictaque bella, 370 

Spemque meam, patriae quae nunc subit aemula laudi, 
Fidite ne pedibus. Ferro rumpenda per hostis 
£st via. Qua globus ille virum densissimus urguet, 
Hac vos et Palianta ducem patria alta reposcit. 
Numina nuUa premunt ; mortali urguemur ab hoste 375 
Mortales; totidem nobis animaeque manusque. 
Ecce, maris magna claudit nos objice pontus; 
Deest jam terra fugae : pelagus Trojamne petemus V 
Haec ait, et medius densos prorumpit in hostis. 
Obvius huic primum, fatis adductus iniquis, 38C 

Fit Lagus; hunc, magno vellit dum pondere saxum, 
Intorto figit telo, discrimina costis 
Per medium qua spina dabat ; hastamque receptat 
Ossibus haerentem. Quem non super occupat Hisbo, 
f Ile quidem hoc sperans ; nam Pallas ante ruentem, 385 
Dum furit, incautum crudeli morte sodalis, 
Excipit, atque ensem tumido in pulmone recondit. 
Hinc Sthenelum petit, et Rhoeti de gente vetusta 
• Anchemolum, thalamos ausum incestare novercae. 
Vos etiam, gemini, Rutulis cecidistis in arvis, 390 

Daucia, Laride Thymberque, simillima proles, 
Indiscreta suis gratusque parentibus error; 
At nunc dura dedit vobis discrimina Pallas: 
Nam tibi, Th)rmbre, caput Evandrius abstulit ensis; 
Te decisa suum, Laride, dextera quaerit, 395 

9 *6. Quis (quibus, which must be translated by iis) auandot accounts 
br iiie repulse of the Arcadian cavalry (see 238), wno were not ac- 
nis)<nned to fight on foot. — 369. Oro is involyed as governing w»— 
f ¥1"» are not to understand per vos as a legitimate expression. See 
ftSlBid 597.-373 See 239.-378. D eest, one syllable. Trojam, 
£^camp. — 383. Dabat by the arsis. — 384. Quem, Fallanta. Oc' 
i^ipdre superf to surprise while thus engaged. — 394. CapHt by tho 



SemianimeBquc micant digiti ferrumque retractant 

Arcadas, accensos monitu et praeclara tuentes 

Facta viri, mixtus dolor et pudor armat in hostis. 

Tum Pallas bijugis fugienlem Khoi^tea praeter 

Trajicit. Hoc spatium, tantunKiue morae fuit Ilo; 400 

Ilo namque procul vulidam direxerat hastam: 

Quam medins Uhoeteus intercipit, optime Teuthra, 

Te fugiens fratremque Tyren; curruque volutus 

Caedit semianimis Kutulorum calcibus arva. 

Ac velutj optato ventis aestate coortis, 405 

Dispersa immittit silvis incendia pastor; 

Correptis subito mediis extenditur una 

Horrida per latos acies Voicania campos ; 

Ille sedens victor ilammas despectat ovantis : 

Non aliter socium virtus coit omnis in unum, 410 

Teque juvat, Palla. Sed bellis acer Halaesus 

Tendit in adversos^ seque in sua colligit arma. 

Hic mactat Ladona Pheretaque Demodocumque ; 

Strymonio dextram fulgenti deripit ense 

Elatam in jugulum; saxo ferit ora Thoantis, 415 

Ossaque dispersit cerebro permixta cniento. 

Fata canens silvis genitor celarat Halaesum ; 

Ut senior leto canentia lumina solvit, 

Injecere manum Parcae. telisque sacranint 

Evandri. Quem sic Pailas petit ante precatus: 420 

^ Da nunc, Thybri pater, ferro, quod missile libro, 

Fortunam atque viam duri per pectiis Halaesi. 

Haec arma exuviasque viri tua quercus habebit.' 

Audiit illa deus ; dum texit Imaona Halaesns, 

Arcadio infelix telo dat pectus inermum. 425 

At non caede viri tanta perterrita LauBUS, 

Pars ingens belli, sinit agmina ; primus Abantem 

Oppositum interimit, pugnae nocfumque moramqae 

Sternitur Arcadiae proles, sternuntur Etrasci, 

£t vos, o Graiis imperdita corpora, Teucri. 480 

Agmina concurrunt ducibusque et viribus aeqais. 

Kxtremi addensent acies; nec turba moveri 

Tela manusque sinit. Hinc Pallas instat et argoet| 

Hinc contra Lausus, nec multum discrepat aetae^ 

396. iSmuzntmM, semyanimes. So at 404. — 400. The deothcf 
Ilus is only postponed. — 405. Optato, an adverb. — 412. CoUigfn 
§e in 8ua arma^ to prcpare for combat by covering the breast With 
the shield, asit wcrc gathcring the limbs so as to preeent a ■nnH' 
surface. See the opposite, 425. — 419. Parcae. Ed, iv. 47.«^, 
423. A trophy is here alluded to. See zi. 6, dLC.-— 426. ZmfW-. 

See vii.'649. — 433. Sinlt by the arsis. **•" . 

■ ■■•• I 

LIBER X. 375 

Egregii forma ; sed quls fortuna negarat 435 

In patriam reditus. Ipsos concurrere passus 
Haud tamen inter se magni regnator Oiympi ; 
Mox illos sua fata manent majore sub hoste. 
Interea soror alma monet succedere Lauso 
Turnum, qui volucri curru medium secat agmen. « 440 
Ut vidit socios: ^Tempus desistere pugnae; 
Solus ego in Pallanta feror; soli mihi Pallas 
Debetur; cuperem ipse parens spectator adesset.' 
Haec ait ; et socii cesserunt aequore jusso. 
At, Rutulum abscessu, juvenis tum, jussa superba 445 
Miratus, stupet in Turno, corpusque per ingens 
Lumina volvit, obitque truci procul omnia visu, 
Talibus et dictis it contra dicta tyranni : 
' Aut spoliis ego jam raptis laudabor opimis, 
Aut leto insigni : sorti pater aequus utrique est. 450 

Tolle rainas.^ Fatus medium procedit in aequor. 
Frigidus Arcadibus coit in praecordia sanguis. 
Desiluit Turnus bijugis; pedes apparat ire 
Comminus. Utque leo, specula cum vidit ab alta 
Stare procul campis meditantem in proelia taurum, 455 
Advolat : haud alia est Turni venientis imago. 
Hunc ubi contiguum missae fore credidit hastae, 
Ire prior Pallas, si qua fors adjuvet ausum 
Viribus imparibus^ magnumque ita ad aethera fatur : 
' Per patris hospitmm et mensas, quas advena adistii 460 
Te precor, Alcide, coeptis ingentiDus adsis. 
Cernat semineci sibi me rapere arma cruenta, 
Yictoremque ferant morientia lumina Tumi.' 
Audiit Alcides juvenem, magnuihque sub imo 
Corde premit gemitum lacrimasque effundit inanis. 465 
Tum Genitor natum dictis affatur amicis : 
' Stat sua cuique dies ; breve et irreparabile tempus 
Omnibus est vitae ; sed famam extendere factis, 
Hoc virtutis opus. Trojae sub moenibns altis 
Tot gnati cecidere deum ; quin occidit una 470 

Sarpedon, mea progenies. £tiam sua Turnum 
Fata vocant, metasque dati pervenit ad aevi.' 
Sic ait, atque oculos Rutulorum rejicit arvis. 

439. Soror. The nymph Juturna, sister of Tumus. See xiu 
38, 6lc. — 441. Socios, tne Rutulians around Lausus. See 445. 
- 450. Pater, his father Evander, referring to the wish of Turnus, 
43. — 458. Ire, the historical infinitive. — 460. See viii. 362.— • 

61. Alcide. See at vi. 392 463. Victorem me. Ferant : Cele- 

rent.-— 466. Genieor. Jupiter. — 471. See at i. 100. — 472. JPota, 
tc. See zii. 950, &c. 


At Pa]las magnis emittit viribus hastam^ 

Vagiiiaque cava fulgentem cleripit enscm. 475 

Illa volans, humeri surgunt qua legmina summa, 

Incidit, atque, viam clipei molila piT oras, 

Tandem etiam magno strinxit de corpore Turni. 

Hic Turnus ferro praefixum robur iicuto 

In Pallanta diu librans jacit, atque ita fatur : 480 

* Abpice, num mage sit nostrum penctrabile telum.' 

Dixerat: at clipeum, lot ferri terga, tot aeris, 

Quem pellis toties obeat circumdata tauri, 

Vibranti medium cuspis transverberat ictu, 

Loricaeque moras et pectus perforat ingens. 485 

IUe rapit calidum frustra de vulncre telum : 

Una eademque via sanguis animusque sequuntur. 

Corruit in vuhius ; sonitum super arma dedere ; 

Et terram hostilem moriens petit ore cruento. 

Quem Turnus super assistens : 490 

' Arcades, haec,' mquit, ' memores mea dicta referte 

Evandro : Qualem meruit, Pallanta remitto. 

Quisquis honos tumuh, quidquid solamen humandi est, 

Largior. Haud illi stabunt Aeneia parvo 

Hospitia.' Et laeyo pressit pede, talia fatus, 495 

Exanimem, rapiens immania pondera baltei 

Impressumque nefas : una sub nocte jugal: 

Caesa manus juvenum foede, thalamique cruenti; 

Quae Clonus Eurytides multo caelaverat auro ; 

Quo nunc Turnus ovat spolio gaudetqne potitus. 500 

Nescia mens hominum fati sortisque futurae, 

Et servare modum, rebus sublata secundis ! 

Turno tempus erit, magno cum optaverit emptuni 

Intactum Pallanta, et cum spolia ista diemque 

Oderit. At socii muho gemitu lacrimisque 505 

Impositum scuto referunt Pallanta frequentes. 

dolor atque decus magnum rediture parenti ! 

Haec te prima dies belio dedit, haec eadem aufert, 

476. At the place where the coat of mail {tegmina) leaves tha 
Bhoulder bare {summay because the left arm was npraised), the 
spear of Pallas having made its way through the edge (oraa) of tba 
Bnield, grazcd the arm of Turnus. — 48L Penetrahue, active, sble 
to pierce. — 483. Quem obeat, et quamvis obcat.-— 486. lUe. Pallu. 
—487. Una eadem. Ecl. viii. 81 ; Aen. xii. 847. SanttuU by tfao 
areis. — 496. Baltci, two syliablos. — 497. Nefas, the deed of ira* 

{)iou8 guilt which was cmbossed on it. — 498. Caeaa, &c. Tha 
egend on the baldric was the wcll-known story of the Danaldea.— 
503. Turno, &c. See xii. 941, &c. — 506. See thia weU-knoWil. 
practice again alluded to, 841. 


Cum tamen ingentis Rutulorum linquis acervos ! 

Nec jam fama mali tanti, sed cerlior auctor 510 

Advolat Aeneae, tenui discrimine leti 
Esse suos ; tempus, versis succurrere Teucris. 
Proxiraa quaeque metit gladio, latumque per agmen 
Ardens limitem agit ferro, te, Turne, superbum 
Caede nova quaerens. Pallas, Evander, in ipsis 515 
Omnia sunt oculis, mensae, quas advena primas 
Tunc adiit, dextraeque datae. Sulmone creatos 
Quatuor hic juvenes, totidem, quos educat Ufens, 
Viventis rapit, inferias quos immolet umbris, 
Captivoque rogi perfundat sanguine flammas. 520 

Inde Mago procul infensam contenderat hastam. 
Ille astu su bit ; at tremebunda supervolat hasta ; 
Et genua amplectens effatur talia supplex : 
' Per patrios Manis et spes surgentis luli 
Te precor, hanc animam serves natoque patrique. 525 
Est domus alta ; jacent penitus defossa talenta 
Caelati argenti j sunt auri pondera facti 
Infectique mihi. Non hic victoria Teucrum 
Vertitur, aut anima una dabit discrimina tanta.' 
Dixerat. Aeneas contra cui talia reddit : 530 

^ Argenti atque auri memoras quae multa talenta, 
Gnatis parce tuis. Belli commercia Turnus 
Sustulit ista prior jam tum Pallante perempto. 
Hoc patris Anchisae Manes, hoc sentit lulus.' 
Sic fatus galeam laeva tenet, atque, reflexa 535 

Cervice orantis, capulo tenus applicat ensem. 
Nec procul Haemonides, Phoebi Triviaeque sacerdos, 
Infula cui sacra redimibat tempora vitta, 
Totus collucens veste atque insignibus armis. 
Quem congressus agit campo, lapsumque superstans 540 
Immolat, ingentique umbra tegit ; arma Serestus 
Lecta refert humeris, tibi, rex Gradive, tropaeum. 
Instaurant acies Volcani stirpe creatus 
Caeculus et veniens Marsorum montibus Umbro. 
Dardanides contra furit. Anxuris ense sinistram 545 
Et totum clipei ferro dejecerat orbem ; — 
Dixerat ille aliquid magnum, vimque affore verbo 

517. Sulmone. See ix. 412. — 518. Ufens. See vii. 745.^519. 
tferiasi &,c. See zi. 81, &c. — 525. Nato^uet natoque meo.-« 
26. Talenta here is eyidently a weight, equivalent to pondera.^ 
J7. Triviae. See at iv. 609. — 541. Umbra mortis. — 542. Cha 
ivf. See at iii. 35. — 544. Caeculut. See vii. 681. UmbrOfirii, 
52.-647-549. Parenthetical. 

32* 2q 


Crediderat, coeloque animum fortasse ferebat^ 

Canitieraque sibi et longos promiserat annos; — 

Tarquitus exsultans contra fulgentibus armis, 5b0 

Silvicolae Fauno Dryope quem nympha crearat, 

Obvius ardenti sese obtulit. Ille reducta 

Loricam clipeique ingens onus impedit basta; 

Tum caput orantis nequidquam et multa parantis 

Dicere deturbat terrae, iruncumque tepeniem 555 

Provolvens super haec inimico pectore fatur : 

' Istic nunc, metuende, jace. Non te optima mater 

Condet humo, patrioque onerabit membra sepulchro : 

Alitibus linquere feris, aut gurgite mersum 

Unda feret, piscesque impasti vulnera iambent.' 560 

Protinus Antaeum et Lucam, prima agmina Turni, 

Persequitur, fortemque Numam, fulvumque Camertem, 

Magnanimo Volscente satum, ditissimus agri 

Qui fuit Ausonidum, et tacitis regnavit Amyclis. 

Aegaeon qualis, centum cui brachia dicunt 565 

Centenasque manus, quinquaginta oribus ignem 

Pectoribusque arsisse, Jovis cum fuhnina contra 

Tot paribus streperet clipeis, tot stringeret enses : 

Sic toto Aeneas desaevit in ae^uore victor. 

Ut semel intepuit mucro. Qum ecce Niphaei 570 

Quadrijugis in equos adversaque pectora tendit. 

Atque illi, longe gradientem et dira frementem 

Ut videre, metu versi retroque ruentes 

Effunduntque ducem, rapiuntque ad litora currus. 

Interea bijugis infert se Lucagus albis 575 

In medios, fraterque Liger; sed fraler habenis 

Flectit equos, strictum rotat acer Lucagus ensem. 

Haud tulit Aeneas tanto fervore furentis : 

Irruit, adversaque ingens apparuit hasta. 

Cui Liger : 580 

* Non Diomedis equos, nec currum cemis Achilli, 

Aut Phrygiae campos : nunc belli finis et aevi 

His dabitur terris.' Vesano talia late 

Dicta volant Ligeri. Sed non et Troius heros 

Dicta parat contra ; jaculum nam torquet in hostem. 585 

Lucagus ut pronus pendens in verbera telo 

553. Impedit scems to have the double meaning of, figit et iiniti- 
lem reddit, of which the first belongs to loricaniy and the second to 
elipeionus.— ^563. Volscente. See ix. 370. — 564. 'Amyclae, on the 
coast of Latium, west of Caieta. — 565. Aegaeon. See at vL S66. 
— 581. Viomedis. See at i. 97. — 586. PendenSj &c. See tt ▼! 
145. Telo, in his impatience, he has urgcd on thc horses with hif 
•word, and he is prcparing for the fight. 

LIBER X. 379 

Admonuit bijugos, projecto dum pede laevo 

Aptat se pugnae, subit oras hasta per imas 

Fulgentis clipei, tum laevum perforat inguen ; 

Excussus curru moribundus volvitur arvis. 590 

Quem pius Aeneas dictis affatur amaris : 

' Lucage, nuUa tuos currus fuga segnis equorum 

Prodidit, aut vanae vertere ex hostibus umbrae ; 

Ipse rotis saliens juga deseris.' Haec ita fatus 

Arripuit bijugos; frater tendebat inertis 595 

Infelix palmas, curru delapsus eodem : 

* Per, te^ per qui te talem genuere parentes, 

Vir Trojane, sine hanc animam, et miserere precantis.' 

Pluribus oranti Aeneas : ' Haud talia dudum 

Dicta dabas. Morere, et fratrem ne desere frater.' 600 

Tum, latebras animae, pectus mucrone recludit. 

Talia per campos edebat funera ductor 

Dardanius, torrentis aquae vel turbinis atri 

More furens. Tandem erumpunt et castra relinqunnt 

Ascanius puer et nequidquam obsessa iuventus. 605 

Junonem interea compellat Jupiter ultro : 
' germana mihi atque eadem gratissima conjunx, 
Ut rebare, Venus — nec te sententia fallit — 
Trojanas sustentat opes, non vivida bello 
Dextra vires animusque ferox patiensque pericli.' 610 
Cui Juno submissa : * Quid, o pttfeherrime coniunx, 
Sollicitas aegram et tua tristia dicta timentem i 
Si mihi, quae quondam fuerat, quamque esse decebat, 
Vis in amore foret, non hoc mihi namque negares, 
Omnipotens, quin et pugnae subducere Turnum, 615 
Et Dauno possem incolumem servare parenti. 
Nunc pereat, Teucrisque pio det sanguine poenas. 
Ille tamen nostra deducit origine nomen, 
Pilumnusque illi quartus pater ] et tua larga 
Saepe manu multisque oneravit limina donis.' 620 

Cui rex aetherii breviter sic fatus Olympi : 
^Si mora praesentis leti tempusque caduco 
Oratur juveni, meque hoc ita ponere sentis, 
ToIIe fuga Turnum atque instantibus eripe fatis. 
Hactenus indulsisse vacat. Sin altior istis 625 

592. Referring to Niphaeus, 572. — 597. Pcr, te, See 369.— 
599. Talia. See581, &c. — 607, &c. said ironically. — 614. JVam- 

Jrue, emphatically placed next the verb in the sense of assured- 
y. — 618. Nostra origine perhaps refers to the descent mentioned, 
vii. 410. — 623. Jupiter grants arespite to Turnus, on the condition 
that Juno distinctly understands {sentis) that this is all that Jupiter 
decrees (ponere). 

880 AENEID08. 

Sub precibas venia nlla latet, totamque movari 
Mutarive putas bellum, spes pascis inanis.' 
Et Juno allacrimans: ^Quid, si, quae voce gTayaiJfl, 
Meiite dares, atque haec Turno rata vita maneret? 
Nunc maiiet insontem gravis exitas ; ant ego veri 83C 
Vana feror. Quod ut o potius formidine falsa 
Ludar, et in melius tua, qui potes, orsa refleotaa I' 
Haec ubi dicta dedit, coelo se protenus alto 
Misit, agens hiemem, nimbo succincta, per auraei, 
Iliacamque aciem et Laurentia castra petivit. 635 

Tum dea nube cava tenuem sine viribus umbram 
In faciem Aeneae — visu mirabile monstmm^ 
Dardaniis ornat telis^ clipeumque jabasqae 
Divini assimulat capitis, dat inania verbia, 
Dat sine mente sonum, gressusque effingit eantis : 640 
Morte obita qualis fama est volitare figarasi 
Aut quae sopitos deludunt somnia sensas. 
At primas laeta ante acies exsultat imago, 
Irritatque virum telis et voce lacessit. 
Instat cui TurnuS) stridentemqae eminas hantam 645 
Conjicit; illa dato vertit vestigia tergo. 
Tum vero Aenean aversum ut cedere Tumas 
Credidit, atque animo spem turbidas haaait inanem : 
'Quo fugis, Aenea? thalamos ne desere pactos; 
Hac dabitur dextra tellus quaesita per undas.' 650 

Talia vociferans sequitur, strictumque oonucat 
Mucronem ; nec ferre videt sua gaudia yentoa. 
Forte ratis celsi conjuncta crepidine saxi 
Expositis stabat scalis et ponte parato, 
Qua rex CJusinis advectus Osinius oris. 655 

Huc sese trepida Aeneae fugientis imago 
Conjicit in latebras ; nec Turous segnior instaty 
Exsuperatque moras, et pontis transilit altos. 
Yix proram attigerat : rumpit Saturaia funemy 
Avolsamque rapit revoluta per aequora nayem. 660 

Tum levis haud ultra latebras jam quaerit imagp^ 
Sed sublime volans nubi se immiscuit atrae. 
Illum autem Aeneas absentem in proelia posoit i 
Obvia multa vimm demittit corpora morti; 
Cum Turnum medio interea fert aequore tarbo. 

628. The ellipsis seems to be quid tam magnum esset, ci^&e, 
— 630. Vana veriy empty of trulh, deceived. — 644. Ftrmi. Tao-- 
rum. — 654. Ponte. See at 288. — 655. Oainius seems to have bffc 
a princo under Massicus. See 167. — 659. Saturma. Sea at L 
23. — 661-665 are differently arrangod m most other editiona. 

LIBER X. 381 

Respicit ignarus rerum ingratusque salutis, 

Et duplicis cum voce manus ad sidera tendit : 

' Omnipotens genitor, tanton' me crimine dignum 

Duxisti, et talis voluisti expendere poenas? 

Quo feror; unde abii? quae me fuga, quemve re- 

ducitl 670 

Laurentisne iterum muros aut castra videbo ? 
Quid manus illa virum, qui me meaque arma secuti ? 
Quosne — nefas — omnis infanda in morte reliqui, 
Et nunc palantis video, gemitumque cadentum 
Accipio? Quid ago? aut quae jam satis ima de- 

hiscat 675 

Terra mihi ? Vos o potius miserescite, venti ; 
In rupes, in saxa — volens vos Turnus adoro — 
Ferte ratem, saevisque vadis immittite Syrtis, 
Quo neque me Rutuli, nec conscia fama sequatur.' 
Haec memorans animo nunc huc, nunc fluctuat illuc ; 680 
An sese mucrone ob tantum dedecus amens 
Induat, et crudum per costas exigat ensem ; 
Fluctibus an jaciat mediis, et litora nando 
Curva petat; Teucrumque iterum se reddat in arma. 
Ter conatus utramque viam ; ter maxima Juno 685 

Continuit, juvenemque animo miserata repressit. 
Labitur alta secans fluctuque aestuque secundo, 
Et patris antiquam Dauni defertur ad urbem. 
At Jovis interea monitis Mezentius ardens 
Succedit pugnae, Teucrosque invadit ovantis. 690 

Concurrunt Tyrrhenae acies, atque omnibus unl, 
Uni odiisque viro telisque frequentibus instant. 
Ilie, velut rupes, vastum quae prodit in aequor, 
Obvia ventorum furiis expostaque ponto, 
Vim cunctam atque minas perfert coelique marisque, 695 
Ipsa immota manens; prolem Dolichaonis Hebrum 
Sternit humi, cum quo Latagum Palmumque fugacem, 
Sed Latagum saxo atque ingenti fragmine montis 
Occupat os faciemque adversam, pophte Falmum 
Succiso volvi segnem sinit ; armaque Lauso 700 

Donat habere humeris et vertice figere cristas. 

m» — ■ --— ■-!■ .1—1 ..»- ■■--■II .1 I -,.■■ M .i I ■■■ m^ ^m^^m^^mmm 

668. Tanton\ See at iii. 319. — 671. Laurentis. See at vi. 893. 
— 672. Manus faciet. — 673. Quosne, an uncomraon, tbough not 
unprecedented use of the relative gives the clause this force. It in- 
tensifies the idea contained in the emphatic portion of the previoua 
sentence, so as to give a reason for asking the question which that 
sentence contains. Here the main idea of agonising inquiry lies in 
the words oui me, &c. And quosne has this force — ' And is it pos- 
sibie that I have abandoned these men?' — 683. Jaciatf se.— 701. 
DoruU habere. Sec at v. 248. 

882 AENEID08. 

Nec non Euanthen Phrygium, Paridisque Mimanta 

Aequalem comitemque, una quem nocte Theano 

In Jucem genitori Amyco dedit, et face praegnana 

Cisseis regina Parim ; Paris urbe paterna 70» 

Occubat, iirnarum Laurens habet ora Mimanta. 

Ac velut iilo canum morsu de montibus altis 

Actus aper, multos Vesulus quom pinifer annos 

Defendit, multosque palus Laurentia, silva 

Pastus arundinea, postquam inter retia ventnm est, 710 

Substitit, infremuitque ferox et inhorruit armos; 

Nec cuiquam irasci propiusve accedere virtus, 

Sed jacuiis tutisque procui clamoribus instant^ 

Jlle autem impavidus partis cunctatur in omms, 

Dentibus iiifrendens, et tergo decutit hastas : 715 

Haud aliter, justae quibus est Mezentius irae, 

Non ulli est atiimus stricto concurrere ferro; 

Missilibus ionge et vasto clamore lacessunt 

Yenerat antiquis Corythi de finibus Acron, 

Graius homo, infectos linquens profugus hymenaeos ; 720 

Hunc ubi miscentem longe media agmina vidit, 

Purpureum pennis et pactae conjugis ostro : ' 

Impastus staoula alta leo ceu saepe peragrans, 

Suadet enim vesana fames, si forte fugacem 

Conspexit capream, aut surgentem in comua cervum, 725 

Gaudet, hians immane, comasque arrejut, et haeret 

Visceribus super incumbens ; lavit improba teter 

Ora cruor : 

Sic ruit in densos alacer Mezentius hostis. 

Sterniiur infelix Acron, et calcibus atram 730 

Tundit humum exspirans, infractaque tela cruentat. 

Atque idem fugientem haud est dignatos Oroden 

Sternere, nec jacta caecum dare cuspide vuhius ; 

Obvius adversoque occurrit, seque viro vir 

Contulit, haud furto melior, sed fortibua armis, 735 

Tum super abjectum posito pede nixus et hasta : 

' Pars belli haud temnenda, viri, jacet altus Orodes.' 

Conclamant socii laetum paeana secuti. 

Ille autem exspirans : ' Non me, quicumqne es, inQltO) 

705. Cisseis. See at vii. 320. — 707. lllej preparing the mind iot 
quem, &c. — 708. Vesulus, onc of the Cottian AIps, the source of 
the Po. — 709. The copulative in multosque points out that there 
arc 8uch hoars both in Mons Vcsulus and in the tnnrshy fens round 
Laurentum. Othcrs read muliosve. — 711. Inhorruit armo9. The 
accusative of limitation. The expression refers to the raisinK of tbe 
boar'8 bristlcs. — 719. Corj/thi, &c. Etruria. See at p. 180, lina 
4. — 720. Profugus by the arsis. — 726. Jmmane. See at Ed» iiL 8. 

LIBBR X. 388 

Victor, nec longum laetabere ; te quoqae fata 740 

Prospectant paria; atque eadem mox arva tenebis.' 
Ad quem subridens mixta Mezentius ira : 
^Nunc morere. Ast de me divom pater atque hominum 

Viderit.' Hoc dicens eduxit corpore telum. 
OUi dura quies oculos et ferreus urguet 7'15 

Somnus : in aeternam clauduntur lumina noctem. 

Caedicus Alcathoum obtruncat, Sacrator Hydaspen, 
Partheniumque Rapo et praedurum viribus Orseii; 
Messapus Cloniumque Lycaoniumque £ri<sa|ra,' 
Illum infrenis equi lapsu tellure jacentem, 750 

Hunc peditem pedes. Et Lycius processerat Agis; 
Quem tamen haad expers Valerus virtutis avitae 
Dejicit; at Thronium Salius, Saliumque Nealces, 
Insignis jaculo et longe fallente sagitta. 

Jam gravis aequabat luctus et mutua Mavors 755 

Funera; caedebant pariter pariterque ruebant 
Victores victique; neque his fuga'nota, neque ilHs. 
Di Jovis in tectis iram miserantur inanem 
Amborum, et tantos mortalibus esse labores ; 
Hinc VenuS; hinc contra spectat Saturnia Juno. 760 

Pallida Tisiphone media inter miliia saevit. 
At vero ingentem quatiens Mezentius hastam 
Turbidus ingreditur campo. Quam magnus Orion, 
Cum pedes incedit medii per maxima Nerei 
Stagna viam scindens, humero supereminet undasj 765 
Aut, summis referens annosam montibus ornum, 
Ingrediturque solo et caput inter nubila condit : 
Talis se vastis infert Mezentius armis. 
Huic contra Aeneas. speculatus in agmine longo, 
Obvius ire parat. Manet imperterritus ille, 770 

Hostem magDanimum opperiens, et mole sua stat ; 
Atque oculis spatium emensus, quantum satis hastae: 
' Dextra, mihi deus, et telum, quod missile libro, 
Nunc adsint ! Voveo praedonis corpore raptis 
Indutum spoliis ipsum te, Lause, tropaeum 775 

Aeneae.' Dixit, stridentemque eminus hastam 
Jecit ; at illa volans clipeo est excussa, proculque 
Egregium Antoren latus inter et ilia figit, 

745. Olli. Seeat\.254. — 754. Fallente, See at ix. 572. — 761. 
Tiavphone. See at vi. 555. — 763. Orion. See at i. 533. — 764. 
Nerei. See at ii. 419.— 767. See at iv. 177. — 773. Dextra, mih% 
Deut. See at vii. 648. — 775. Lausus clad in the arms of Aeneas, 
would be a kind of trophy, which see described, xi. 5, &c. 


Herculis A.ntoren comitem, qui missus ab Argis 

Haeserat Evandro, atque Ilala coiisederat urbe. 780 

Stcrnitur iiifelix alieno vuliuTe, coelumque 

Aspicit, et dulcis moriens rcniiiiiscitur Argos. 

Tum pius Aeueas hastam jacit ', illa per orbem 

Aere cavum triplici, per liuea terga, tribusque 

Transiit intextum tauris opus, imaquc sedit 785 

Inguine; sed vires haud pertulit. Ocius ensem 

Aeneas, viso Tyrrheni sanguine laetus, 

Eripit a femine, et trepidanti fervidus instat. 

Ingemuit cari gravitcr genitoris amore, 

Ut vidit, Lausus, lacrimaeque per ora volutae. 790 

Hic mortis durao casum tuaque optima factaj 
Si qua fidem tanto est operi laiura vetustas, 
Non equidem, iiec te, juvenis memorande, silebo. 

Ille pedem referens et inutilis inque ligatus 
Cedebat, clipeoque inimicum hastile trahebat. 796 

Proripuit juvenis seseque immiscuit armis, 
Jamque assurgentis dextra plagamque ferentis 
Aeneae subiit mucronem, ipsumque morando 
Sustinuit ] socii magno clamore seqifUntur, 
Dum genitor nati parma protectus abiret, 800 

Telaque conjiciunt, proturbantque eminus hostem 
Missilibus. Furit Aeneas, tectusque tenet se. 
Ac velut efTusa si quando grandine nimbi 
Praecipitant, omnis campis diffugit arator, 
Omnis et agricola, et tuta latet arce viator, 805 

Aut amnis ripis, aut alti fornice saxi; 
Dum pluit in terris, ut possint sole reducto 
Exercere diem : sic obrutus undique telis 
Aeneas nubem belli, dum detonet omnis, 
Sustinet, et Lausum increpitat Lausoque minatur; 810 
'Quo moriture ruis, majoraque viribus audes? 
Fallit te incautum pietas tua.' Nec minus ille 
Exsultat demens; saevae jamque altius irae 
Diirdanio surgimt duciori, exiremaque Lauso 
Parcae fila legunt 3 validum namque exigit ensem 815 
Per medium Aeneas juvenem, tolumque recondit. 
Transiit et parmam mucro, levia arma minacis, 
Et tunicam, molli mater quam neverat auro, 
Implevitque sinum sanguis, tum vita per auras 
Concessit moesta ad Manis, corpusque reliquit. 820 

At vero ut vultum vidit morientis et ora, 

781. Codumque, elision beforo Aspicit. — 802. Teetw^ue, &0. 
See at 412. — 804. Praecipilaiit. See at i. 234, ix. 670. 

L1BER X. 385 

Ora modis; Aiichisiades, pallentia miris, 

Ingemuit miserans graviter, dextramque tetendit^ 

Et mentem patriae subiit pietatis imago. ^ 

^Quid tibi nunc, miserande puer, pro laudibus istis, 825 

Quid pius Aeneas tanta dabit indole dignum ? 

Arma, quibus laetatus, habe tua ; teque parentum 

Manibus et cineri, si qua est ea cura, remitto. 

Hoc tamen infelix miseram solabere mortem : 

Aeneae magni dextra cadis.' Increpat ultro 830 

Cunctantis socios, et terra sublevat ipsum, 

Sanguine turpanlem comptos de more capillos. 

Interea genitor Tiberini ad fiuminis undam 
Vulnera siccabat lymphis, corpusque levabat . 
Arboris acclinis trunco. Procul aerea ramis 835 

Dependet galea, et prato gravia arma quiescunt. 
Stant lecti circum juvenes; ipse aeger, anhelans 
Colla fovet, fusus propexam in pectore barbam; 
Multa super Lauso rogitat, multosque remittit, 
Qui revocent, moestique ferant mandata jparentis. 840 
At Lausum socii exanimem super arma ferebant 
Flentes, ingentem atque ingenti vulnere victum. 
Agnovit longe gemitum praesaga mali mens. 
Canitiem multo deformat pulvere, et ambas 
Ad coelum tendit palmas, et corpore inhaeret. 845 

'Tantane me tenuit vivendi, nate, voluptas, 
Ut pro rae hostili paterer succedere dextrae, 
Quem genui ? Tuane haec genitor per vulnera servor, 
Morte tua vivens? Heu, nunc misero mihi demum 
Exitium infelix ! nunc alte vulnus adactum ! 850 

Idem ego, nate, tuum maculavi crimine nomen, 
Pnlsus ob invidiam solio sceptrisque paternis. 
Debueiam patriae poenas odiisque meonim : 
Omnis per mortis animam sontem ipse dedissem. 
Nunc vivo, neque adhuc homines lucemque relinquo. 855 
Sed linquam.' Simul hoc dicens attollit in aegrum 
Se femur, et, quamquam vis alto vulnere tardat, 
Haud dejectus equum duci jubet. Hoc decus illi, 
Hoc solamen erat ; bellis hoc victor abibat 
Omnibus. Alloquitur moerentem, et talibus infit : 860 
'Rhoebe, diu, res si qua diu mortalibus ulla est, 
Yiximus. Aut hodie victor spolia illa cruenta 
£t caput Aeneae referes, Lausique dolorum 
Ultor eris mecum^ aut, aperit si nulla viam vls, 

,824. See at ix. 294. Others read strinxit, — 832. Z>e tnore, in the 
aanner of his oountrymen, the Eiruriaos. — 852. See viii. 481, dte. 
33 2h 

Occnmbes pariter ; neqne enim, fortisBime, credo 86f 

Jussa diena pati et dominOB digiiabere Teucroa.' 

Dixit, et esceptus lergo conauela locavit 

Membra, maiiaflque ja.culis oneravit acutiti, 

Aere capnt falgens, cristaque hirsutus equins. 

Sio cursum in medias lapidus dedit. Aestuat ingens 870 

Utio in corde pudor mixtoque inNinia luclu, 

Et furiis asiitatuH amor et conscia virtu». 

Atque hic Aenean magiia ter voca vocavit. 

Aeoeas — Bgnovit eiiim, laetusque precatur, 

' Sic pa.ter ille deum faciat, sic attua Apollo ! — 8TS 

Incipiatt conferre manum.' 

Taiilum effatus, et iufesta subit abviuB baels. 

Ille autem : ' Quid me ereplo, gaevissime, iiato 

Terres^ liaec via eola fuit, qua perdere posBes. 

Nec mortem horreroas, neo divom paroimus nlli. SM 

Desine: jam Tenio raorituiiiB, et baec tibi porlo 

Dona priuB.' DiKJt, lelumque intorsit in hoBtemj 

Inde atiud super atqne aliuu figilque, volatque 

Ingenli ej'io; eed Buslinel aureus umbo. 

Ter circum ailHtanlem laevas equJIavil in orbis, 885 

Tuia maiiu jaciens ; ter BCcum Troius heroa 

Immanem aeralo circumferl tegmino eilTsm. 

Inde ubi lot tra.visEe morOB, tol BpicuJa taedat 

Vellere, et urguelur pugna congressus iniqua, 

Multa movens animo jam landem erumpit, et inter BH 

Bellatoris equi cava tempont conjicil haatam. 

Tollit Be arrcctum quadrupes, et calcibne aarsB 

Verberat, eJTusumque equilem super ipee secutiu 

Implicat, ejectoque incuinbil cemuus armo. 

Clamore incendunt coelum Trocsqae Idtiniqae. 8B5 

Advolat AeneuB, vagiuaque eripjl enieiD, 

Et Bupec haec: 'Ubi nuuc MezaniiuB acar, et-nia 

EfTera vis animi V Ontra Tf rrbenuB, ut anima 

Susptciens hausit coelum, raenleraquo reoepit: 

' Hoslis amare, quid increpilas mortemqns nuDuisl BM 

Nulluni in cacde nefas ; iieo sic ad proalia veoi j 

Nec lecum meus haec pepigii mihi foeders LsnsDS. 

Unum hoc, per, ei qiiii cst victis venia hostibns, oro: 

873. Thia lino ia g 
lii. 668. Amor by (1 

«onrteddeulh. and if , 

Iho casG af Diomcdc and Vcnus, a god shaold b 

LIBER XI. 387 

Corpus humo patiare tegi. Scio acerba meorum 
Circumstare odia: hunc, oro, defende furorem; 905 

£t me consortem nati concede sepulchro.' 
Haec loquitur, juguloque haud inscius accipit ensem, 
Undantique animam aiifundit in arma cruore. 


Ok the morning af\er the hattle recorded at tbe end of the Tenth 
Book, Aeneas erects a trophy with the armour of Mezentius, 
prepares to hury the dead, and sends the body of Pallas to his 
father Evander, witb all due honour, 1—99. Ambassadors ar« 
rive from King Latinus, asking leave to perform the funeral 
rites of their dead, which Aeneas grants, and expresses his 
willingness to conclude a peace, 100-119. This proposal is 
favourably received, especially by Drances, an enemy of Tur- 
nus, 120-132. A truce for twelve days is agreed upon, 133— 
148. The grief of the Arcadians, and agony of Evander, on 
the arrival of the corpse of Pallas, 149-181. Funeral rites 
of the dead by the Trojans, 183-202. By the Latins, 203-212. 
Consternation in Laurentum, and contest between tbe friends 
and the opponents of Turnus, 213—224. Unfavourable report 
of tho ambassadors that had been sent to Diomede for aid, 
225—233. A council summoned, when the ambassadors an- 
nounce the refusal of Diomede to join the Latins, and his ad- 
vice to them to make peace with the Trojans, 234—295. Ef- 
fects of this intelligence, 296—299. Speech of Latinus in fa- 
vour of peace, proposing to aid the Trojans either in forming 
a settlement in tlie neighbourhood, or iitting out a new fleet, 
300-335. Drances proposes that in addition to tbese offers, 
Lavinia shall be given to Aeneas in marriage, and appeals to 
Turnus either to yield or to decide the matter by single com- 
bat, 336-375. Turnus answers Drances, endeavours to raise 
the spirit of Latinus, and finally agrees to the single combat, 
376-444. In the meantime, iutelligence arrives tbat Aeneas 
is approaching the city, 445—458. Turnus takes advantage of 
this, rushes to the fray, and the council is broken up, all pre- 
paring for the defence, while the queen, with Lavinia and tho 
Latin dames, supplicates the aid of Minerva, 459-485. Tur- 
nus, rushing to the combat, meets Camilla, with whom he ar- 
ranges that she, with Messapus and others, shall meet the 
cavalry sent forward by Aeneas, while he, with the infantry, 
shall wait in ambush for Acneas himself, crossing the hillt 


with the main body of the forces, 486—521. The place of am« 
bush dcscribcd, 522-531. Diana tcUs tho nymph Opis the 
history of Camilla (which may be dcemed anothcr Efisodx; 
see notc at p. 318), and her fears for the maid, and commis- 
sions her to slay CaniiUa*s slayer, 532-590. Approach of thc cavalry, thc oiislM, and its vicis:>itiide9, 597--647. Feats 
of Camilla, C48-724. Tnn liun, at the inipulsc of Jupiter, op- 
poses her progrcss, tears VlmiuIus from his horsc, and bearin;; 
hini otr on his own, &Tabs hiin, 725-759. Arriins carefully 
watchcs an opportunity of slaying Caniilla, 759—767. Camilla, 
with a woman's love for iinery, exposes herself by pursuing 
Chloreus, gorguously clad, 708-7S2. Arruns prays to ApoIIo, 
and mortally wounds her with his spear, and then flecs, 783- 
815. Mcssago of Camilla to Turnus, and her deatli, 816—831. 
While theTrojan cavalry with their allies, push on, Opis «lays 
Arruns, 832-867. Flight of the Latins, and carnage at the 
gates of Laurentum, which are shut on friends as well as foes, 
868-890. Evcn the women defend the walls, 801-895. Tur- 
nus, on learning these disastrous events, leaves hia ambnsh, 
896-902. Immediately afler, Aeneas crossing the woody 
heights, follows close on Turnus; but both preparing for the 
onset, are prevented by the approach of nigbt, 003—915. 

OcEANUM interea surgens Aurora reliquit : 

Aeneas quamquam et sociis dare tempus humandis 

Praecipitant curae, turbataque funere meDs est. 

Vota deura primo victor solvebat £oo. 

Ingentem quercum decisis undique ramis 6 

Constituit tumulo, fulgentiaque induit arma, 

Mezenti ducis exuvias, tibi, magne, tropaeami 

Bellipotens; aptat rorantis sanguine cristaa 

Telaque trunca viri et bis sex thoraca petitam 

Perfossumque locis, clipeumque ex aere Binistrae 10 

Subligat; atque ensem collo suspendit ebumtim. 

Tum socios, namque omnis eum stipata te^bat 

Tnrba ducum, sic incipiens hortatur ovantis: 

' Maxima res effecta, viri ; timor onuiis abesto^ 

Quod superest; haec sunt spolia et de rege saperbo 15 

Primitiae, manibusque meis Mezentius hio est. 

Nunc iter ad regem nobis murosque Latinos. 

Arma parato animis; et spe praesumite bellami 

No qua mora ignaros, ubi primum rellere sigoa 

1. Bdiquity haa lcft. — 4. Solvebaty was paying.— 7. MettniL WtK 
*he doath of Mezentius, see the end of thc Tcnth Book. — 15. Qmi 
^rest. Comparc thc Greck rb \otr6v. 

LIBER XI. 389 

Annuerint superi pubemque educere castris, 20 

Impediat, segnisve metu sententia tardet. 
Interea socios inhumataque corpora terrae 
Mandemus. qui solus honos Acneronte sub imo est. 
Ite/ ait, * egregias animas, quae sanguine nobis 
Hanc patriam peperere suo, decorate supremis 25 

Muneribus; moestamque Evandri primus ad urbem 
Miltatur Pallas, quem non virtutis egentem 
Abstulit atra dies et funere mersit acerbo.' 

Sic ait illacrimans recipitque ad limina gressum, 
Corpus ubi exanimi positum Pallantis Acoetes 30 

Servabat senior, qui Parrhasio Evandro 
Armiger ante fuit, sed non felicibus aeque 
Tum comes auspiciis caro datus ibat alumno. 
Circum omnis famulumque manus Trojanaque turba 
Et moestum Iliades crinem de more solutae. 35 

Ut vero Aeneas foribus sese intulit altis, 
Ingentem gemitum tunsis ad sidera tollunt 
Pectoribus, moesioaue immugit regia luctu. 
Ipse, caput nivei fultum Pallantis et ora 
Ut vidit levique patens in pectore vuinus 40 

Cuspidis Ausoniae, lacrimis ita fatur obortis : 
^Tene,' inquit, ^miserande puer, cum laeta veniret; 
Invidit Fonuna mihi, ne regna videres 
Nostra, neque ad sedes victor veherere paternas? 
Non haec Evandro de te promissa parenti 45 

Discedens dederam, cnm me complexus euntem 
Mitteret in magnum imperium, metuensque moneret 
Acris esse viros, cum dura proelia gente. 
Et nunc ille quidem spe multum captus inani 
Fors et vota facit, cumulatque altaria donis; 50 

Nos juvenem exanimum et nil jam coelestibus ollis 
Debentem vano moesti comitamnr honore. 
Infelix, nati funus crudele videbis! 
Hi noRtri reditus, expectatique triumphi ? 
Haec mea magna fides? At non, Evandre^ pudendis 55 
Volneribus pulsum aspicies ; nec sospite dirum 

22. Acheronte. Sceatvi.295. — 26. Urbem. Seeviii.53. — 27. For 
le dcath of Pallas, Evander's son, eee x. 441, &c. — 31. Parrhasio 
-o unelided. See also at viii. 344. — 35. Solutae crinem, the accu- 
itive of limitation. See at iv. 558. — 40. Levi. — 41. Ausoniae, See 
. 180, line 5. The allusion is to Turnus. — 52. Nil dAentem^ since 
18 prayers were unheard. See at Ecl, v. SO. — 56. JVcc, &c. The 
ifety of a son purchased by cowardicc, might drivc a father to wiiih 
•r death ; or, from the arrangement of the words, to profer that hts 
>n wcrc dcad ; sospite, dirum ! Optahis, &c. 

390 A£>' El 1>US. 

Optabis nato funus pater. Hei mihi, quantum 
Praesidium Ausonia et quantum tu perdis, lule !' 

Haec ubi deflevit, tolli miserabile corpus 
Imperat, et toto lectos ex agmine mittit ^ 

Mille viros, qui supremum comitentur honorera, 
Intersintque patris lacrimis. solatia luctus 
Exigua ingentis, misero sed debita patri. 
Haud segnes alii cratis et molle feretrum 
Arbuteis texunt virgis et vimine queriio, 65 

Exstructosquc toros obtentu fronuis inumbrant. 
Hic juvenem agresti sublimem stramine ponunt: 
Qualom, virgineo demessum pollice, florem 
Seu mollis violae, seu languentis hyacinthi, 
Cui neque fulgor adhuc, nec dum sua forma recesflit; 70 
Non jam mater alit tellus, viresque ministrat. 
Tum geminas vestes auroque ostroque rigentis 
Extulit Aeneas. quas illl Izieta laborum 
Ipsa suis quonaam manibus Sidonia Dido 
Fecerat, et tenui telas discreVerat auro. 75 

Harum unam juveni supremum -fnoestus honorem 
Induit, arsurasque comas obnubit- amictu ; 
Multaque praeterea Laurentis pra^mia pugnae 
Aggerat, et longo praedam jubet ordine duci. 
Addit equos et tela, quibus spoliaveitat hostem. 80 

Vinxerat et post terga manus, quos mitteret umbris 
Inferias, caeso sparsurus sanguine flanijisam; 
Indutosque jubet truncos hostilibus armfig 
Ipsos ferre duces, iiiimicaque nomina figiv 
Ducitur infelix aevo confectus Acoetes; ^ 85 

Pectora nunc foedans pugnis, nunc unguibSjs ora, 
Sternitur, et toto projectus corpore terrae. \^ 
Ducunt et Kutulo perfusos sanguine currus.^ 
Post bellator equns, positis insignibus, Aeth^|L 
It lacrimans, giittiscjue humectat grandibus orSfc.*,^ 90 
Hastam alii galeamque ferunt; nam cete m Tu w*^ 
Victor habet. Tum moesta phalanx, Teu^"'''*'^ ^ "X 
Tyrrhenique omnes et versis Arcades » 
Postquam omnis longe comitum proc 
Substitit Aeneaa, gemituque haeo ar 
'Nos alias hinc ad lacrimas eadem 

66. Sec at vi. 214. — 69. Languenfis 
See at ix. 266. — 78. Laurcntis. See 
tivorum, quo8. — 82. Inferias. Seo x 
to appcase the Manes of the dcad, ^ 
heroic ages, not unknown in Virgirs t 
to bc borrowcd from thc Roman trium. 

LIBER XI. 391 

Fata vocant : salve aeternum mihi, maxime Palla, 
Aeternumque vale.' Nec plura eilatus ad altos 
Tendebat muros, gressumque in castra ferebat. 

Jamque oratores aderant ex urbe Latina, 100 

Velati ramis oleae, veiiiamque rogantes : 
Corpora, per campos ferro quae fusa jacebant, 
Redderet, ac tumulo sineret succedere terrae; 
Nullum cum victis certamen el aethere c^ssis ; 
Parceret hospitibus quondam socerisque vocatis. 105 

Quos bonus Aeneas, haud aspernanda precantis^ 
Prosequitur venia, et verbis naec insuper addit : 
^Quaenam vos tanto fortuna indigna, Latini, 
Implicuit bello, qui nos fugiatis amicos? 
Pacem me exanimis et Martis sorte perempti» 110 

Oratis? equidem et vivis concedere vellem. 
Nec veni, nisi fata locum sedemque dedissent ^ 
Nec bellum cura gente gero : rex nostra reliquit 
Hospitia, et Turni potius se credidit armis. 
Aequius huic Turnum fuerat se opponere morti. 115 

Si bellum finire manu, si pellere Teucros 
Apparat, his mecum decuit concurrere telis; 
Vixet, cui vitam deus aut sua dextra dedisset. 
Nunc ite et miseris supponite civibus ignem.' 

Dixerat Aeneas. Olli obstupuere silentes, 120 

Conversi(}ue oculos inter se atque ora tenebant. 
Tum senior semperque odiis et crimine Drances 
Infensus juveni Turno sic ore vicissim 
Orsa refert ; ^ fama ingens, ingentior armis, 
Vir Trojane, quibus coelo te laudibus aequem? 125 

Justitiaene prms mirer, belline laborum? 
Nos vero hsCec patriam grati referemus ad urbem ; 
£t te, si qua viam dederit fortuna, Latino 
Jungemus regi. Quaerat sibi foedera Tumus. 
Quin et fatalis murorum attollere rooies, 130 

^xaqua subvectare humeris Trojana juvabit.' 

97. Salve, &c. See at i. 219, iv. 650, vi. 231, 506. Ademum» 

See at Ecl. iii. 8 101. Oleae. See at viii. 116. — 103. Ut rerf- 

ieret. Zumpt, ^ 624. — 105. Soceris. See at ii. 457, amil for the 
allusion, vii. 268, &c. — 108, 109. Indigna, qui fugiatis. Sce at 
vL 591. — 111. OratU by the arsis. — 112. Veniy 1 have come, neCt 
wbich I would not have donc, nisi, &c. See at ii. 55. — 115. Fue^ 
rat. Zumpt, % 518. — 118. Vixet, vixisaet. See at v. 786.— 120. 
Dixerat. See at ii. 621. Olli. See at i. 254. — 126. Juatitiae, if 
^overned by mVer, is a very rare construction, and eeems to be an 
imitation ot the Greek &aviAd^eiv rtv6s. Or is it govemed by causa. 
or laudUut from the previous sentence ? — 130. FataliSf appointed 
by tho FateGk See at ii. 165. 


Dixerat haec. unoque omnes eadem ore fremebant. 
Bis senos pepigere diesj et pace sequestra 
Per silvas Teucri mixtiquo impune Latini 
Erravere jugis. Ferro soiiat alta bipenni 135 

Fraxinus; evertuut actas ad sidera pinos; 
Kobora nec cuneis et olentem scindere cedrum, 
Nec plaustris cessant vectare gementibus ornos. 
£t jam Fama volans, tanti pracnuntia luctus, 
Evandrum Evandrique domos et moenia replet, 140 

Quae modo victorem Latio Pallanta ferebat. 
Arcades ad portas ruere, et de more vetusto 
Funereas rapuere faces ; lucet via longo 
Ordine flammarum, et late discriminat agros. 
Contra turba Phrygum veniens plangenlia jungit 145 

Agmina. Quae postquam matres succedere tectis 
Viderunt, moestam incendunt clamoribus urbem. 
At non Evandrum potis est vis ulla tenere ; 
Sed venit in medios. Feretro Pallanta reposto 
Procubuit super, atque haeret lacrimansque gemens- 
que, 150 

£t via vix tandem voci laxata dolore est : 
^Non haec, o Palla, dederas promissa parenti ! 
Cautiufl ut saevo velles te credere Marti ! 
Haud ignarus eram, quantum nova gloria in armis 
Et praedulce decus primo certamine posset. 155 

Primitiae juvenis miserae, bellique propinqui 
Dura rudimenta ! et nulli exaudita deorum 
Vota precesque meae ! tuque, o sanctissima conjunx, 
Felix morte tua, neque in nunc servata dolorem ! 
Contra ego vivendo vici mea fata, superstes 160 

Restarem ut genitor. Troum socia arma secutum 
Obruerent Rutuli telis ! animam ipse dedissem, 
Atque haec pompa domum me, non Pailanta, referret ! 
Nec vos arguerim, Teucri, nec foedera, nec quas 
Junximus hospitio dextras : sors ista senectae 165 

Debita erat nostrae. Quod si immatura manebat 
Mors natum, caesis Volscorum millibus ante 
Ducentem in Latium Teucros cecidiBse juvaret. 
Quin ego non alio digner te funere, Palla, 
Quam pius Aeneas, et quam magni Phryges, et qoam 170 

135. Alta. Others read acta. — 142. Ruere^ the historical infiiii» 
iive. Zumpt, % 509 — 157. Nulli, a nullo. Zumpt, ^ 419. — 160. 
Vincere sua/afa is to defeat the ordinary rule of fate, that tha MD 
■hould survive the father. — 162. ObrueretU, obruere debebUt.-M 
168. Others read juvahit, — 170. Aeneas dignatus est. 

LIBER XI. 393 

Tyrrhenique duces, Tyrrhenum exercitus omnis. 
Magna tropaea ferunt, quos dat tua dextera leto; 
Tu quoque nunc stares immanis truncus in armis, 
Esset par aetas et idem si robur ab annis^ 
Turne. Sed infelix Teucros quid demoror armis ? 175 
Yadite et haec memores regi mandata referte: 
Quod vitam moror invisam, Pallante perempto, 
Dextera causa tua est, Turnum natoque patrique 
Quam debere vides. Meritis vacat hic tibi solus 
Fortunaeque locus. Non vitae gaudia quaero j 180 

Nec fas; sed nato Manis perferre sub imos.' 

Aurora interea miseris morlalibus almam 
Extulerat Jucem, referens opera atque Jabores: 
Jam pater Aeneas, jam curvo in Jitore Tarchon 
Constiluere pyras. Huc corpora quisque suorura 185 
More tuiere patrum j subjectisque ignibus atris 
Conditur in lenebras altum caligine coelum. 
Ter circum accensos, cincti fulgentibus armis, 
Decurrcre rogosj ter moestum funeris ignem 
Lustravere in equis, ululatusque ore dedere. 190 

Spargitur et tellus lacrimis, sparguntur et arma. 
It coelo clamorque virum clangorque tubarum. 
Hiuc alii spolia occisis derepta Latinis 
Conjiciunt igni, galeas ensesque decoros 
Frenaque ferventisque rotas; pars munera nota, 195 

Ipsorum clipeos et non felicia tela. 
Multa boum circa mactantur corpora Morti, 
Setigerosque sues raptasque ex omnibus agris 
In fiammam jugulant pecudes. Tum litore toto 
Ardentis spectant socios, semiustaque servant 200 

Busta, neque aveUi possunt, nox humida donec 
Invertit coelum stellis ardentibus aptum. « 

Nec minus et miseri, diversa in parte, Latini , 

Innumeras struxere pyras; et corpora partim ^ 

Multa virum terrae infodiunt, avectaque parlim 205 

Finitimos tollunt in agros, urbique remittunt ; 
Cetera, confusaeque ingentem caedis acervum 
Nec numero nec nonore cremant; tunc undique vasti 
Certatim crebris collucent ignibus agri. 
Tertia lux gelidam coelo dimoverat umbram : 210 

Moerentes altum cinerem et confusa ruebant 

172. Tropaea virorum quos. — 181. Ferferre nuncium occisum 
,„Ute Turnum. — 186. Tulere corporOf quisque ferens corpora «uo- 
mfli. — 200. Shniustaf three syllables. — 202. Invertit. See at 
iu 850.— 211. Suerci to separate by tossing over. See at i. 35, and 


Ossa focis, tcpiHoquc oncrabant a£^ere terrae. 

Jam vero in tectis, praedivitis urbe Latini, 

Praecipuus fragor et longi pars maxima luctus. 

Hic matres miseraeque nurus, hic cara sororum 215 

Pectora moerentum, puerique parentibus orbi, 

Dirum exsecrantur bellum Turnique hymenaeos; 

Ipsum armis, ipsumque jubent decernere ferro, 

Qui regnum Italiae et primos sibi poscat honores. 

Ingravat haec saevus Drances, solumque vocari 220 

Testatur, solum \yyBci in certamina Turnnm. 

Multa simul contra variis sententia dictis 

Pro Turno; et magnum reginae nomen obumbrat; 

Multa virum meritis sustentat fama tropaeis. 

Hos inter motus, medio in flagrante tumultu, 225 

Ecce super moesti magna Diomedis ab urbe 
Legati responsa ferunt : nihil omnibus actum 
Tantorum impensis operum ] nil dona neque auruzn 
Nec magnas valuisse preces ; alia arma Latinis 
Quaerenda, aut pacem Trojano ab rege petendum. 230 
Delicit ingenli luctu rex ipse Latinus. 
Fataicm Aeiican manifesto numine ferri 
Admonet ira deum tumulique ante ora recentes. 
Ergo conciliura magnum primosque suorum 
Imperio accitos alta intra Jimina cogit. 235 

Olli convenere, fluuntque ad regia plenis 
Tecta viis. Sedet in inediis et maximus aevo 
Et primus sceptris, haud lacta fronte, Latinua. 
Atque hic legatos Aetola ex urbe remissos, 
Quao referant, fari jubet, et responsa reposcit 240 

Ordine cuncta suo. Tum facta silentia linguis, 
Et Venulus dicto parens ita farier infit : 

^ Vidimus, o cives, Diomedem Argivaque castra, 
Atque iter emensi casus superavimus omnis, 
Contigimusque manum, qua concidit Ilia tellus. 245 

Ille urbem Argyripam patriae cognomine gentis 
Victor Gargani condebat lapygis arvis. 
Postquam introgressi et coram data copia fandi, 
Munera praeferimus, nomen patriamque docemus, 
Qui bellum intulerint, quae causa attraxerit Arpos. 250 

vi. 228. — 22L Testatur. See 115, &c. — 226. Ur&e, ' Argyripi, 
or Arpi. See 246, 250, and p. 317, line 19. — 239. Aetola, x. 28.— 
242. Venulu», viii. 9, &c. Farier. See iv. 493. — 243. Argaa 
See at i. 283. — 246. Patriae gejitis, Arffos liippium, in Greace, 
from which he namcd Argyripa. — 247. Garganus, now Moant St. 
Angelo, in Apulia. lapyxj used adjectively for lapygiuB. 8m 

LIBER XI. 395 

Auditis jlle haec placido sic reddidit ore: 
"O fortunatae gentesj Salurnia regna, 
Antiqui Ausonii, quae vos forluna quietos 
Sollicitat, suadetque ignota lacessere bella? 
Quicumque Iliacos ftJi.o violavimus agros — 255 

JVIitto ea, quae muris bellando exhausta sub altis, 
Quos Simois premat ille viros — infanda per orbem 
Supplicia et scelerum poenas expendimus omnes, 
Vel Priamo miserauda manus; scit trisle Minervae 
Sidus et Euboicae cautes ultorque Caphereus. 260 

Mihtia ex illa diversum ad litus abacti, 
Atrides Protei Menelaus adusque columnas 
Exsulat, Aetnaeos vidit Cyclopas Ulixes. 
Regna Neoptolemi referam, versosque penatis 
Idomenei ? Libycone habitanlis litore Locros? 265 

Ipse Mycenaeus magnorum ductor Achivom 
Conjugis infandae prima intra limina dextra 
Oppetiit; devictam Asiam subsedit adulter. 
Invidisse deos. patriis ut redditus aris 
Conjugium optatum et pulchram Calydona viderem 1 270 
Nunc etiam horribili visu portenta sequuntur, 
Et socii amissi pelierunt aethera pennis 
Fluminibusque vagantur, aves — heu dira meorum 
Supplicia ! — et scopulos lacrimosis vocibus implent. 
Haec adeo ex illo mihi jam speranda fuerunt 275 

Tempore, cum ferro coelestia corpora demens 
Appetii et Veneris violavi vulnere dextram. 
Ne vero, ne me ad lalis impellite pugnas. 
Nec mihi cum Teucris ullum post eruta bellum 
Pergama; nec veterum memini laetorve malorum. 280 

252. Saturnia, See viii. 319, &-c. — 255. Nos quicumqttei &c. 
Dioniede proceeds to narrate the calamities that have befallen the 
Greeks that overthrew Troy. — 259. FcZ, *even.* Minervae. See 
i. 39, &c. — 26L Abacti refers to Mendaus and Ulysses. — 262. 
Protei columnas. Egypt. See at Geor^. iv. 387. — 263. Cydopas, 
&.C. See iii. G13, &c., and viii. 440, &c. — 264. JRegna Neoptolemii 
or Pyrrhi. See at iii. 295, 331. — 265. Idomenei. See at lii. 121. 
Locrt. See p. 180, line 43. Some of them settled in Africa. — 266, 
Mycetiaeusj &c. See at i. 283. For the allusion, see at iii. 331. — 

268. A»tam devictam, Agamemnon, the personification of Asia van- 
quished. Adulter^ Aegisthus, the paramour of Clytemnestra.-^ 

269. Beferam (264) invidissCf &c. — .170. Calydona. See at yii, 
306. — 273, According to one tradition, the Greek foUowers of Dio- 
medo were changed into the sea-birds that haunt the rupes Diome- 
deae (MopieZ», 274) ofF Garganus. — 275. Haec adeOf these strange 
calamitieB. See at iv. 533. Speranda. Ecl.\iii.26. — 276. Penv, 
4bC See at x. 29. Corpora. Mars, too, was wounded by him.-— 
280. Memini lahorvm. 


Munera, quae patrlis ail mo portatis ab oris, 

Verlile ad Aenean. Stelimus tela aspera contra, 

Contulimusque manus : experto creditej quantus 

In clipeum adsurgat, quo turbine torqueat hastam. 

Si duo praeterea talis Idaea tulisset 285 

Terra viros, uitro Inachias venisset ad arbes 

Dardanus, et versis lugeret Graecia fatis. 

Quidquid apud durae cessatum est moenia Trojae| 

Hectoris Aeneaeque manu victoria Graium 

Haesit et in dccimum vestigia retulit annum. 290 

Ambo animiS} ambo insignes praestantibus armis; 

Hic pietate prior. Coeant in loedera dextrae, 

Qua datur; ast armis concurrant arma cavete." 

£t responsH simul quae sint, rex optime, regis 

Audisti, et quae sil magno scntentia bello.' 295 

Vix ea legati : variusque per ora cucurrit 
Ausonidum turbata fremor; ceu saxa morantur 
Cum rapidos amnis, fit clauso gurgite murmur, 
Viciiiaeque fremunt ripae crepitantibus undis. 
Ut primum placati animi, et trepida ora quierunt, 300 
Praefatus divos solio rex infit ab alto : 

' Ante equidem summa de re statuisse, Latini, 
Et vellem, et fuerat melius; non tempore tali 
Cogere concilium, cum muros assidet hostis. 
Bellnm importunum, cives, cum gente deorum 305 

Invictisque viris gevimus, quos nulla fatigant 
Proelia. nec victi possunt absistere ferro. 
Spem si quam adscitis Aetolum habuistis in armis, 
Ponite. Spes sibi quisque; sed haec quam angusta 

Cetera qua rerum jaceant perculsa ruina, 310 

Ante oculos interque manus sunt omnia vestniB. 
Nec quemquam incuso : potuit quae plurima virtna 
Esse, fuit; toto cerlatum est corpore regni. 
Nunc adeo, quae sit dubiae sententia menti, 
Expediam et paucis — animos adhibete — docebo. 315 

Est anti(]uus ager Tusco mihi proximus amni, 
Longus in occasum, finis super usque Sicanos i 

282. Stefimus, &c. i. 97.-285. Idaea terra, Troja, ii. 694.— 
286. Inachias, Grnecns, vii. 286. — 287. DardanuB, Trojani. 8ee 
nt vi. 648, and a similar persoiiilication at ix. 449. — 292. PiMU^^» 
378, and p. 204, line 9. — 307. Nec possuntj et virtus ingenita ynHtL 
See 323.-309. Ponite, deponitc. See this word used witlt tlt 
oppositc meaning, 411. — 316. Tusco amni, the Tiber. Thii lljn* 

•ably takcn from somc old Icgcnd regarding the settloment OMJil 

^«•ojans in Latium. — 317. Sicanos. See viu. 328. 

LIBER XI. 397 

Aurunci Rululique serunt, et vomere duios 

Exercent collis; atque hoiunn asperrima pascunt. 

Haec omnis regio et celsi plaga pinea montis 320 

Cedat amicitiae Teucrorum; et loederis aequas 

Dicamus leges, sociosque in regna vocemus ; 

Considant, si tantus amor, et moenia condant. 

Sin alios finis aliamque capessere gentem 

Est aniraus, possuntque solo decedere nostro : 325 

Bis denas Italo texamus robore navis, 

Seu pluris complere valent; jacet omnis ad undam 

Materies; ipsi numerumque modumque carinis 

Praecipiant; nos aera, manus, navalia demus. 

Praeterea, qui dicta ferant et foedera firment, 330 

Centum oratores prima de gente Latinos 

Ire placet, pacisque manu praetendere ramos, 

Munera portantis aurique eborisque talenta 

Et sellam regni trabeamque insignia nostri. 

Consulite in medium, et rebus succurriie fessis.' 335 

Tum Drances, idem infensus, quem gloria Turni 
Obliqua invidia stimulisque agitabat amaris, 
Largus opum, et lingua melior — sed frigida bello 
Dextera — consiliis habitus non futilis auctor, 
Seditione potens, genus huic materna superbum 340 
Nobilitas dabat, incertum de patre ferebat; 
Surgit, et his onerat dictis atque aggerat iras : 
* Rem nulli obscuram, nostrae nec vocis egentem, 
Consulis, o bone rex; cuncti se scire fatentur, 
Quid fortuna ferat populi; sed dicere mussant. 345 

Det libertatem fandij flatusque remittat, 
Cujus ob auspicium mfaustum moresque sinistros — 
Dicam equidem, licet arma mihi mortemque minetur — 
Lumina tot cecidisse ducum totamque viclemas 
Consedisse urbem luctu, dum Troia tentat 350 

Castra, fugae fidens, et coelum territat armis. 
Unum etiam donis istis, quae plurima mitti 
Dardanidis dicique jubes, unum, optime regum, 
Adjicias; nec te ullius violentia vincat, 
Quin natam egregio genero dignisque hymenaeis 355 
Des, pater, et pacem hano aeterno foedere jungas. 
Quod si tantus h^Lbet mentes et pectora terror, 

318. Aurunci ; p. 180, line 7. Rutuli; p. 291, line 42.— 319. 
Asperrima loca. — 325. Fossunt, virtus einit (see 307); or fata 
«inunt. Others read poscunt. — 334. Traheam, vii. 187. — 336. 
J)ranee$ is evidently the Thersites of Homer, though more polished. 
—339. Dextera erat. — 341. Incertum genus is ferehat — tcnebat . 


Ipsum obtestemur, VLMiianiqiie qrcmus ab .pso: 

Cedat, jus propriuni regi palriae(]ue remillat. 

Quid miseros toties in aperla pericula civis 360 

Projicis, Latio caput liorum ei causa malorum? 

Nulla s;ilus bcllo; (Kicem te poscimus omnes, 

Turne, simul pacis solum inviolabile pignus. 

Primus cgo, invisum quem tu tibi tingis, et esse 

Nil moror, en supplex veaio. Miserere tuorum, 365 

Pone animos, et pulsus abi. Sat funera fusi 

Vidimus, ingentis et dcsolavimus agros. 

Aut, si fama movet, si tantum pectore robur 

Concipis, et si adeo dotalis regia cordi est, 

Aude, atquc adversum (Idens fer pectus in hostem. 370 

Scilicet; ut Turno contingat regia conjunx, 

Nos, animae viles, inhumata infletaque turba, 

Sternamur campis. £tiam tu, si qua tibi vis, 

Si patrii quid Martis habes, ilium aspice contra, 

Qui vocat.' 376 

Talibus exarsit dictis violentia Turni ; 
Dat gemitum, rumpitque has imo pectore voces: 
' Larga quidem, Drance, semper tioi copia fandi 
Tum, cum beila manus poscunt ; patribusque vocatis 
Primus ades. Sed non replenda est curia verbis, 380 
Quae tuto tibi magna volant, dum distinet hostem 
Agger moerorum, nec inundant sanguiue fossae. 
Proinde tona eloquio; solitumtibi; meque timoris 
Argue tu, Drance, quando tot stragis acervos 
Teucrorum tua dextra dedit, passimque tropaeis 385 
Lisignis agros. Possit quid vivida virtus, 
Experiare licet ', nec longe scilicet hostes 
Quaerendi nobis; circumstant undique muros. 
Imus in adversos! quid cessas? an tibi Mavors 
Ventosa in lingua pedibusque fugacibus istis 390 

Semper erit? 

Pulsus ego ? aut quisquam merito, foedissime, pulsuxc 
Arguet. Iliaco tumidum qui crescere Thybrim 
Sanguine et Evandri totam cum slirpe videbit 
Procubuisse domum, atque exutos Arcadas armis? 395 
Haud ita me experti Bitias et Paudarus ingens^ 
Et quos mille die victor sub Tartara misi, 

363. Fignusj Laviniam. — 371. Sciliceti &c. ; ironical. -~389. 
Moerorum. Sec at x. 24. — 384. Quando, &c. ; ironical. — 396* 
Bitiast ^c. See ix. 672, &c. — 397. Die, interdiUi not by ni^» 
Bs the Greeks attacked the Trojans. Turnus is fond of compttnng 
himself with the Greeks. And on this point see iz. 150. Tirimrm. 
V. 734. 

LIBBB XI. 39» 

laclusas muriB hoMiliqne a^ere Eeptus. 

"Nalla salus bello !" Capiti lalia, doniens, 

Dardanio rebuaqoe luls. Proinde orania raagno 400 

Ne ceeea larbare metu, atque extollere virea 

Genlis bis victae, contra premere arma Lalini. 

Nunc et Myrmidonum proceres Phrygia arma tremiscunt, 

Nunc et Tydides et LariEBaeus.AchiEles, 

Amnis et Hadriaeas retro fagit Aufidus undas ! 405 

Vel cum se pavidum contra mea jurgia fingit 

Artificis scems, et formidine crJmen acerbat. 

Numquam animam lalem dextra bac — absisie moveri — 

Amiltes; babitet lecum, el sil peclore in isto. 

Nuiic ad le, et lua magna, pater, consulta revertor. 410 

Si nullam iioslrls ultra epem ponie iii armia, 

Si tam deserli aumus, et semel agmine verso 

Fundilus occidimus, neqne habet Fortuna regreasum, 

Oremus pacem, et desttas tendamos inerlts. 

Quamquam o, si solilae quicquam virtutis adesset, 41S 

llle mihi ante alios fortunalusqne laboram 

Egregiasque animi, qui, ne quid lale videret, 

Procubnit moriens, et humDm aemel ore momordit. 

Sin et opes nobls et adhuc intauta juventos, 

Auxilioque urbes Italae populique supersunl, 420 

Siu et Trojanis com multo gloria venit 

Sangulne — sunt illis sua funera, parque per oraniB 

Tempestas — cur indecores in limine primo 

DeficimoB? onr ante lubam iremor occupat arlusT 

Multa dies variique labor mulal>iliB aevi 425 

Retulit in melius^ multos alleriia revisens 

Luf^il et in solido rarsus Forluna locavit. 

Non erit auxilio nobis Aelolus et Arpi: 

Ai Messapua erii, felixque Tolumniae, et quos 

Tot ppuli misere ducesj nec patva aequelur 430 

Glona delecloB Latio et Laurentibus agria. 

Esl el Volsooram e^regia de genle Camilla, 

Agmen agens equitum et florentis aere calervas. 

J98. See ii. 727. &e. — 399, Nulla, &.e. See 362.— 402. BU, 
. E4S. — 4(^. MynniilBHnm. Sce nl ii. 7. The paasa^e conmiiM 
- '- - ^»1 BlliijiQii ta tbe rafuBBl of Diomede. PkTygta, Trojana. 
*■ 'iia. i. 97. Loriuana. ii. 197. —405. Avjidjii. a river 
lUineimoiUcHiidriatic. — 406. Vel. 'ormark another 
^'Tn.nafwiil cowardice of Drancea.' —411. Sse nl 309, 
■"1 foreeof BllnniBn.— 416. Mrti eaaa vide- 
' ' 7. FtTt*iiai%> lahorum , egregiui aiiiMi. 
•- «il. 691. TUwnniM, zu.358,4Ga 

fii. dca. 


Quud si mo solum Toncri in ci^rtjiniina posciiiit, 

Idque pliicct. tantumquu bonis cotnmunibus obsto 435 

Non atlco has exosa miinus Vicloria ruirit. 

Ut tanla quicquam pro spe l(?nlare recusom. 

Ibo animi.^ contra. vel inairnum praifrJict Achillcii 

Factaque Vulcani manibus paria inJuut arma 

Ille licf»t. Vobi.s aniinam hanc soceroquR Latino 440 

Turnus cjro, haud uin vcteruni virlutc secundu.*!, 

Devovi. ''Solum Aencas vocat.'' Et voccl oro; 

Nec Drances potius, sive cst haee ira dforum, 

Morle luat, sive cst virtns et irloiia, loJlat.' 

II li haec inter se dubiis ile rebus aiiebant 445 

Certantes: castra Aencas aciemqne inovebat. 
Nunlius ingenti per regia tecta tumnltu 
Ecce ruit, maijnisque uibem terroribus implet ; 
Instructos acie Tiberino a ilumine Teucros 
Tyrrhenamque manum lotis descendere campi.s. 450 

£xtempIo turbali animi concussiique vulg^i 
Pectora, et arrectae stimulis haud mollibus irae. 
Arma manu trepidi poscunt : fremit arma juventus, 
Flent moesti mussantquc paires. Hic undique clamor 
Dissensu vario magnus se tollit ad auras : 455 

Haud secus, atque alto in luco cum fortc catervae 
Consedere avium; piscosove amne Padusae 
Dant sonitum rauci per stagiia loquacia cycni. 
'Immo,' ait, 'o cives,' arrcpto tempore Turnus, 
'Cogite cx)ncilium, et pacem laudate scdentes: 460 

Illi armis in regna ruant.' Nec plura locutus 
Corripuit sese et tectis citus extulit altis 
*Tu, Voluse, armari Volscorum edice maniplis; 
Duc, ait, et Rutulos. Equitem, JVlessapus, in armis, 
£t cum fratre Coras, latis diffundite campis. 465 

Pars aditus urbis firmet, turrisque capessat ; 
Cetera, qua jusso, mecum manus inferat arma.' 

Ilicet in muros tota discurritur urbe. 
Concilium ipse pater et magna incepta Latinus 
Deserit, ac tristi turbatus tempore differt, 470 

Multaque se incusat, qui non acceperit nltro 

438. Praestare Achillen^ to enact Achillcs. Licet (440)-p7veiM 
— 439. Sec viii. 447, &c. — 442. Solum^ &c., alludingto the wordi 
of Dranccs, 220. — 450. Tho Tuscan allies of thc Trojans, vi. 697; 
X. 148, &c. Campis, in cnmpos. — 453. Arma fremit, vii, 460.— 
457. Padusae, tlie southcriimost branch of the Po. — 459. 

&c. ; ironical. — 4G3. Mark tho form edice. — 464. MesMoptu fiw 
Messapo. Zumpt, ^ 492. Coras (Cora), vii. 672. — 467. JuMwOf oon- 
tractcd for jusscro. — 169. Patir by tho arsis. — i71. Qui afl eqwr ft t 

LIB£R XI. 401 

Dardanium Aeneari; generumque adsciverit nrbi. 

Praefodiunt alii portas; aut saxa sudesque 

Subvectant. Bello dat signum rauca cruentum 

Buccina. Tum muros varia cinxere corona 475 

Matronae puerique; vocat labor ultimus omnis. 

Nec non ad templum summasque ad Palladis arces 

Subvehitur magna matrum regina caterva, 

Dona ferens, juxtaque comes Lavinia virgo, 

Causa mali tanti, oculos dejecta decoros. 480 

Succedunt matres, et templum ture vaporaut, 

Et moestas alto fundunt de limine voces : 

^ Armipotens, praeses belli, Tritonia virgo, 

Frange manu telum Phrygii praedonis, et ipsum 

Pronum sterne solo, portisque effunde sub altis.' 485 

Cingitur ipse furens certatim in proelia Tumus. 
Jamque adeo Rutulum thoraca indutus aenis 
Horrebat squamis, surasque incluserat auro, 
Tempora nudus adhuc, laterique accinxerat ensetn, 
Fulgebatque alta decurrens aureus arce, 490 

Exsultatque animis, et spe jam praecipit hostem : 
Qualis ubi abruptis fugit praesepia vinciis 
Tandem liber equus, campoque potitus aperto 
Aut ille in pastus armentaque tendit equarnm, 
Aut assuetus aquae perfundi flumine noto 495 

Emicat, arrectisque fremit cervicibus alte 
Luxurians, luduntque jubae per colla, per armos. 
Obvia cui, Volscorum acie comitante, Camilla 
Occurrit, portisque ab equo regina sub ipsis 
Desiluit, quam tota cohors imitata relictis 500 

Ad terram defluxit equis. Tum talia fatur : 
' Turne, sui merito si qua est iiducia forti, 
Audeo et Aeneadum promitto occurrere turmao; 
Solaque Tyrrhenos equites ire obvia contra. 
Me sine prima manu tentare pericula belli ; 505 

Tu pedes ad muros subsiste, et moenia serva.' 
Turnus ad haec, oculos horrenda in virgine fixus : 
* decus Italiae virgo, quas dicere grates, '♦ 
Quasve referre parem ? sed nunc, est omnia quando 
Iste animus supra, mecum partire laborem. 510 

Aeneas, ut fama fidem missique reportant 
Exploratores, equitum levia improbus arma 
Praemisit; quaterent campos ; ipse ardua montis 

vi. 591. — 475. Corona, '\ 508. — 478. Subvehitur. See viii. 665.— 
480. Tanti, -i unelided.y483. Tritonia, ii. 171. — 489. Tempara 
nuduSf the accusativc of Iimitation. 
34 * 2 I 


Per deserfa jugo superans adventat ad urbem. 

Furta paro belii convexo in ti-amite ailvae, 515 

Ut bivia? armato obsidam milite fauces. 

Tu Tyrrhenum equitem collatis excipe eif;nis; 

Tecum acer Messapus erit, turmaeque Latinae. 

Tiburtique manus; ducis et tu concipe cnram.' 

Sic ait, et paribus Messapum in proelia dictis 520 

Hortatur socios(]ue duces, et pergit in hostem. 

£st curvo aiifractu valles, accommoda fraudi 
Armorumque dolis, quam densis frondibus atrum 
Urguet utrinique latus, tenuis quo semita ducit 
Angustaeque ferunt fauces aditusque maligni. 525 

Hanc super in specuiis summoque in vertice montis 
Planities ignota jacet, tutique recessus, 
Seu dextra iaevaque velis occurrere pugnae, 
Sive instare jugis et grandia volvere saxa. 
Huc juvenis nota fertur regione viarum, 530 

Arripuitque locum et silvis insedit iniquis. 

Velocem interea superis in sedibus Opim, 
Unam ex virginibus sociis sacraque caterva, 
Compellabat et has tristis Latonia voces 
Oredabat: ^Graditur beilum ad crudeleCamilla, 535 
virgo, et nostris nequidquam cingitur armis, 
Cara mihi ante aiias. Neque enim novus iste Dianae 
Veiiit amor, subitaque animum duicedine movit. 
Pulsus ob invidiam regno virisque superbas 
Priverno antiqua Metabus curn excederet urbe, 540 

Infantem fugiens media inter proelia belii 
Sustulit oxsiiio comitem, matrisque vocavit 
Nomine Casmiilae. mutata parte, Camillam. 
Ipse sinu prae se portans juga longa petebat 
Solorum nemorum ; teia undique eaeva premebant| 545 
Et circumfuso volitabant milite Volsci. 
Ecce, fugae medio, summis Amasenus abandaas 
Spumabat ripis ; tantus se nubibus imber 
Ruperat. 1110, innare parans, infantis amore 
Tardatur, caroque oneri timet. Omnia Becum 550 

Versanti subito vix haec sententia sedit : 
Telutn immane, manu valida quod forte gerebat 

516. Troops wcre to be at the pass (Jauces) at the entnmce and 
outlet {bivias). — 519. Tiburti, vii. 670, &c. — 534. Latonia, i. 508. 
— 540. Privernum, a town of the Volsci, on tiie AmasemuM (547); 
p. 293, linc 36. — 551. Suhito czprcsses tiie suddonness of bis resola- 
tion ; vix tho instantaneousness of his acting on it when formed. 
It could hardly bo said that hc formed the sudden resolve when 
lio cxccutcd it. — 53-3. Telam, without a verb, thc constniction 

LIBER XI. 408 

BeJdator, solidnm nodis et robore cocto, 

Huic natam, libro et silvestri subere clausam, 

Implicat, atque habilem mediae circumligat hastae ; 555 

Quam dextra ingenti librans ita ad aethera fatur : 

^^ Alma, tibi hanc, nemorum cultrix, Latonia virgo, 

Ipse pater famulam voveo ; tua prima per auras 

Tela tenens supplex hostem fngit. Accipe, testor, 

Diva tuam, quae nunc dnbiis committitur auris." 560 

Dixit, et adducto contortum hastile lacerto 

Immittit : sonuere undae ; rapidum super amnem 

Infelix fugit in jaculo stridente Camiila. 

At Metabus, magna propius jam urguente caterva^ 

Dat sese fiuvio, atque hastam cum virgine victor 565 

Gramineo donum Triviae de cespite vellit. 

Non illum tectis ullao; non moenibus urbes 

Accepere^ neque ipse manus feritate dedisset : 

Pastorum et solis exegit montibus aevum. 

Hic natam in dumis interque horrentia lustra 570 

Armentalis equae mammis et lacte ferino 

Nutribat, teneris immulgens ubera labris. 

Utque pedum primis infans vestigia plantis 

Institerat, jaculo palmas armavit acuto, 

Spiculaque ex humero parvae suspendit et arcum. 575 

Pro crinali auro^ pro longae tegmine pallae, 

Tigridis exuviae per dorsum a vertice pendent. 

Tela manu jam tum tenera puerilia torsit, 

£t fundam tereti circum caput egit habena, 

Strymoniamque gruem, aut album dejecit olorem. 580 

Multae illam frustra Tyrrhena per oppida matres 

Optavere nurum ; sola contenta Diana 

Aeternum telornm et virginitatis amorem 

Intemerata colit. Vellem haud correpfa fuisset 

Militia tali, conata lacessere Teucros : 585 

Cara mihi comitumque foret nunc una mearum. 

Verum age^ quandoquidem fatis urguetur acerbis, 

Labere, Nympha, polo, finisque invise Latinos, 

Tristis ubi infausto committitur omine pugna. 

Haec cape, et ultricem pharetra deprome sagittam : 590 

Hac, quicumque sacrum violarit vulnere corpus, 

Tros Italusve, mihi pariter det sanguine poenas. 

Post ego nube cava mTserandae corpus et arma 

being purposely abrupt. — 553. Cocto, well-seasoned. — 562. SonU' 
erei from the agitated air. — 566. Donum Triviae, vowed {voveOf 
558) to (me) Diana. See at iv. 609. — 580. Strymoniamque gruem, 
X. 265. 


Inspoliata feram tumulo, patriaeque reponam.' 

Dixit ; at illa levis coeli delapsa per auras 595 

In5K)nuit, nigro circumdata turbine corpus. 

At manus interea muris Trojana pro{)inquat 
Etrusciqne duces equitumque exercitus omnis, 
Com{X)siti numero in turmas. Fremit aequore toto 
Insultans sonipes, et pressis pup^nat habenis, 600 

Huc obversus ot huc; tum iate ferreus hastis 
Horret ager, campique armis sublimibus ardent. 
Nec non Messapus contra celeresque Latini 
£t cum fratre Coras et virsfinis ala Camillae 
Adversi campo apparent, hastasque reductis 605 

Protendunt longo dextris, et spicula vibrant ; 
Adventusque virum fremitusque ardescit equorum. 
Jamque intra jactum teli progressus uterque 
Constiierat: subito erumpunt clamore, furentisque 
Kxhortantur equos; fundunt simul undique tela, 610 
Crebra, niyifl ritu, coelumque obtexitur umbra. 
Continuo adversis Tyrrhenus et acer Acouteus 
Connixi incurrunt hastis, primique ruinam 
Dant sonitu ingenti, perfractaque quadrupedantum 
Pectora pectoribus rumpunt; excussus Aconteus 615 
Fulminis in morem aut tormento ponderis aoti, 
Praecipitat longe, et vitam dispergit in auras. 
Extemplo turbatae acies, versique Latini 
Rejiciunt parmas et equos ad moenia vertunt. 
Troes agunt ; princeps turmas induoit Asilas. 620 

Jamque propinquabant portis, rursusque Latini 
Clamorem tollunt, et mollia colla roflectunt : 
Hi fugiunt, penitusque datis referuntur habenis. 
Qualis ubi alterno procurrens gui^te pontus 
Nunc ruit ad terram, scopulosque superjacit unda 625 
SpumeuSj extremamque sinu perfundit arenami 
Nunc rapidus retro atque aestu revoluta resorbeuB 
Saxa fugit, litusque vado labente relinquit. 
Bis Tusci Rutulos egere ad moenia versos ^ 
Bis rejecti armis respectant terga tegentes. 630 

Tertia sed postquam congressi in proelia totaa 
Implicuere inter se acies, legitque virum vir: 
Tum vero et gemitus morientum, et sanguine in alto 
Armaque corporaque et permixti caede viroram 

604. Fratre; vii. 672. — 608. Uterque exercitus. — 609. FttmU» 
isque. Elision bcfore Exhortantur. — 613. Ruinam </ar«, rDere.— 
617. Praecipitat. Seo at ii. 9. — 622. Colla equorum. — 625 
Othere, undam. 

L1B£R XI. 405 

Semianimes volyuntar equi } pugna aspera surgit. 635 
Orsilochus Remuli, quando ipsum horrebat adire, 
Hastam intorsit equo, ferrumque sub aure reliquit. 
Quo sonipes ictu furit arduus, altaque jactat 
Vulneris impatiens, arrecto pectore, crura. 
Volvitur ille excussus humi. Catillus lollan, 640 

Ingentemque animis, ingentem corpore et armis 
Dejloit Herminium, nudo cui vertice fulva 
CaesarieS; nudique humerij nec vulnera terrent; 
Tantus in arma patet. Latos huic hasta per armos 
Acta tremit, duplicatque virum transfixa dolore. 645 

Funditur ater ubique cruor ; dant funera ferro 
Certantes, pulchramque petunt per vuJnera mortem. 

At medias inter caedes exsultat Amazon, 
Unum exserta latus pugnae, pharetrata Camilla; 
£t nunc lenta manu spargens hastilia denset, 650 

Nunc validam dextra rapit indefessa bipennem ', 
Aureus ex humero sonat arcus et arma Dianae. 
Illa etiam, si quando in tergum pulsa recessit, 
Spicula converso fugientia dirigit arcu. 
At circum lectae comites, Larinaque virgo 655 

Tullaque et aeratam quatiens Tarpeia securim, 
Italides, quas ipsa decus sibi dia Camilla 
Delegit, pacisque bonas beilique ministras : i 

Quales Threiciae cum ilumiua Thermodontis 
Pulsant et pictis bellantur Amazones armis, 660 

Seu circum Hippolyten, seu cum se Martia curni 
Penthesilea refert, magnoque ululante tumultu 
Feminea exsultant lunatis agmina peltis. 
Quem telo primum, quem postremum, aspera virgo, 
Dejicis? aut quot humi morientia corpora fundisl 665 
Eunaeum Clytio primum patre } cujus apertum 
Adversi longa transverberat abiete pectus. 
Sanguinis ille vomens rivos cadit, atque cruentam 
Mandit humum, moriensque suo se in vulnere versat. 
Tum Lirim, Pagasumque super ; quorum alter habenas 670 
SufTuso revolutus equo dum colligit, alter 
Dum subit ac de^i^tram labenti tendit inermem, 
Praecipites pariterque ruunt. His addit Amastrum 

635. Semianimes ; four syllables. — 645. Transfixus ia applicd 
either to what is pierced or what pierces ; fixus trans. — 648. Jtma- 
z<m; 659. Threidae, &c., i. 488; v. 311. — 660. Pulsant. On 
horseback, the river being frozen ; or perhaps the banks of the 
river. Bellanturf used deponently. — 661. Hippolyte and Penthesi 
Ua (daughter of Mars), queens of the Amazons.— 667. Abiett, 
abye*e, three syllables. — 671. Others, suffosso. 


Qua vulnus letale ferat ; contra ille repngnans 

Sustlnet a jngulo dextrani} et vim viribus exit. 75C 

Utque volans altc raptum cum fulva draconem 

Fert aquila, implicuitque pede», atque unguibuB hBesit; 

Saucius at serpens sinuosa volumina versat, 

Arrectisque horret squamis et sibilat ore, 

Arduus insurgens; illa haud minus urg^et obunco 756 

Luctantem rostro; simul aethcra verberat alis: 

Haud aliter praedam Tiburtum ex agmiue Tarchon 

Portat ovans. Ducis exemplum eventumque Becati 

Maeonidae incurrunt. Tum fatis debitus Arruns 

Velocem jaculo et multa prior arte Camillam 760 

Circuit, etj quae sit fortuna facillima, tentat. 

Qua se cumque furens medio tulit asrmine viigo, 

Hac Arruns subit, et tacitus vestigia lustrat ; 

Qua victrix redit illa pedemque ex hoste reportat, 

Hac juvenis furtim ccleris detorquet habenas. 765 

Hos aditus, jamque hos aditus, omnemqne pererrat 

Undique circuitum, et cortam quatit improbus hastam. 

Forto sacer Cybelae Chloreus olimque sacerdos 

Idsignis longe Phrygiis fulgebat in armis, 

Spumantemque agitabat equum, quem pellis a&iia 770 

In plumam squamis auro conserta tegebiAt. 

Ipse, peregrina ferrugine clanis et ostro, 

Spicula torquebat Lycio Gortynia coma; 

Aureus ex humero ^onat arcus, et aarea vati 

Cassida : tum croceam chlamydemqae Binoaque or^ 

pantis 775 

Carbaseos fulvo in nodum coUegerat auro, 
Pictus acu tunicas et barbara tegmina oramm. 
Himc virgo, sive ut templis praefigeret arma 
'JVoia, captivo sive ut se ferret in auro, 
Venatrix unum ex omni certamine pagnae 780 

Caeca sequebatur, totumque incauta per agmen 
Femiueo praedae et spoliorum ardebat amore : 
Telum ex insidiis cum tandem tempore oapto 
Cunciiat. et superos Arruns sic voce precatnr: 
* Sunime deum, sancti custos Soractis Apollo, 785 

Qnem primi colimus, cui pineus ardor aoervo 
Pascitur, et medium freti pietate per ignem 

of Vomiliis.— 759. ii/a«mirfa<', viii. 499. — 768. CyMoc. ih. 111.— 
'ili. Firruscine et oftro. Georg. ii. 486. — 773. Zynp. Seovik^llii 
Gortyniay Crctnn. from n town famed for its bows andft 
TS'). Soractis. Sec p. 292, line 38. In honour of ApollOt 
ped on Mount Soracte, his worshippers walked overh 
ing wood. 

LIBER XI. 407 

At juvenis, vicisse dolo ratus, avolat ipse, 

Haud mora, conversisque fugax aufertur kabenis, . 

Quadrupedemque citum ferrata calce fatigat. 

' Vane Ligus, frustraque animis elate superbis, 715 

Nequidquam patrias tentasti lubricus artis, 

Nec fraus te incolumem faliaci perferet Auno.' 

Haec fatur vii^o, et pernicibus ignea plantis 

Transit equum cursu, frenisque adversa prehensis 

Congreditnr poenasque inimico ex sanguine sumit : 720 

Quam facile accipiter saxo sacer ales ab alto 

Consequitur pennis sublimem in nube columbam, 

Comprensaraque tenet, pedibusque eviscerat uncis; 

Tum cruor et volsae labuntur ab aelhere plumae. 

At non haec nullis hominum sator atque deorum 725 
Observans oculis summo sedet altus Olympo. 
Tyrrhenum genitor Tarchonem in proelia saeva 
Suscitat, et stimulis haud mollibus injicit iras. 
£rgo inter caedes cedentiaque agmina Tarchon 
Fertur equo, variisque instigat vocibus alas, 730 

Nomine quemque vocans, reficitque in proelia pulsos. 
' Quis metus, o numquam dolituri, o semper ineiles 
Tyrrheni, quae tanta animis ignavia venit? 
Femina palantis agit, atque haec agmtna vertit ? 
Quo ferrum, quidve haec gerimus tela irrita dextris? 735 
Ai non in Venerem segnes nocturnaque bella, 
Aut, ubi curva choros indixit tibia Bacchi, 
Exspectare dapes et plenae pocula mensae — 
Hic amor, hoc studium— dum sacra secundus haruspex 
Nuntiet, ac lucos vocet hostia pinguis in altos.' 740 

Haec efiktus equum in medios, moriturus et ipse, 
Concitat, et Venulo adversum se turbidus infert, 
Dereptumque ab equo dextra complectitur hostem 
£t gremium ante suum multa vi concitus aufert. 
Tollitur in coelum clamor, cunotique Latini 745 

Convertere oculos. Volat igneus aequore Tarchon, 
Arma virumque ferens; tum summa ipsius ab hasta 
Defringit ferrum, et partis rimatur apertas, 

718. Ignea. See the same strong epithet, 746. —721. Saeery na 
1 Bubject of omens. — 725. Non observans nullU oculis, nearly equi- 
;alent to oculis observans. — 726. Olympo. See at JScL v. 56.- 
^30. AlaSf a term properly applied to horsemen ; iv. 121. — 732. 
T^umquam dolituris^ never willing to submit to pain ; immersed in 
jleasnre. See at 741. — 739. Dum, &c. Waiting till the sooth- 
iayers, with favourable rcport, summon them to the sacriticial feast 
,n the sacred grovc. — 741. Moriturus, with the same force as doli' 
•wn/jr. 732. — 746. Ipnea. See 718. — 748. Pa^is ; in the armonr 


Qua viiluus lettile ferat : contra ille repugnans 

Sustiuet a ju^ulo dextranrij et vim viribus e\it. 75C 

Ut(|ue volans alto raptum cum iulva draconem 

Fert aquila, implicuitque pedt>8, atque uns^uibus haesit ; 

Saucius at serpens sinuosa volumina versat. 

Arrectisque horret squamis et sibilat ore, 

Arduus insurgcns; illa haud minus urguet obunco 755 

Luctantem rostro; simul aethora verberat alis: 

Haud aliter praedam Tiburtum ex «oirmine Tarchoii 

Portat ovans. Ducis exempium eventumque secuti 

Maeonidae incurrunt. Tum tatis debitus Arruns 

Velocem jaculo et multa prior arte Camillam 760 

Circuitj et, quae sit fortuna facillima, tentat. 

Qua 86 cumque furens mcdio tulit airmine virgo, 

Hac Arruns subit, et tacitns vestigia lustrat j 

Qua victrix redit illa pedemque ex hosle re|)ortat, 

Hac juvenis furtim coleris detorquet habenas. 765 

Hos aditus, jamque hos aditus, omnemque pererrat 

Undique circuitum, et certam qnatit improbus hastam. 

Forto sacer Cybelae Chloreus olimque sacerdos 

Insignis longe Phrygiis fulgebat in armis, 

Spumanteniqne agitabat equum, quem pellis acnis 770 

In plnmain squamis auro conserta tegebat. 

Ipse, peregriua ferrugine clams et ostro, 

Spicula torquebat Lycio Gortynia cornu; 

Aureus ex humero ^^onat arcus, ct aurea vati 

Cassida : tum croceam chlamydemquo sinusque cre- 

pantis 775 

Carbaseos fulvo in nodum collegerat auro, 
Pictus acu tunicas et barbara tegmina crurum. 
Hnnc virgo, sive ut templis praefigeret arma 
'JVoia, captivo sive ut se ferret in auro, 
Venatrix unum ex omni certamine pugnae 780 

Caeca sequebatur, totumque incauta per agmen 
Femineo praedae et spoliorum ardebat amore : 
Telum ex insidiis cum tandem tempore capto 
Concitat, et superos Arruns sic voce precatur: 
' Summe deum. sancti custos Soractis ApoUo, 785 

Qneni primi colimus, cui pineus ardor acervo 
Pascitur, et medium freti pietate per ignem 

ofVcnulus. — 759. itfaeowirfac, viii. 499. — 768. Cy&e2ae, iii. 111.— 
772. Ferrugine et ostro. Georg. ii. 486. — 773. Lycio. Seevii. 816. 
Gortyniay Cretan, from a town famed for its bows and hrrows.— • 
785. Soractis. See p. 292, line 38. I-n honour of Apollo, worahip - 
pod on Mount Soracte, his worshippers walked overheaps of bnni* 
ing wood. 

L1B£R XI. 409 

Cultores multa premimus vestigia pruna, 

Da, Pater; hoc nostris aboleri dedecus armis, 

Omnipotens. Non exuvias pulsaeve tropaeum 790 

Virginis, aut spolia ulla peto ; mihi cetera laudem 

Facta ferent ; haec dira meo dum vulnere pestis 

Pulsa cadat, patrias remeabo inglorius urbes.' 

Audiit et voti Phoebus succedere partem 

Mente dedit, partem volucris dispersit in auras : 795 

Sterneret ut subita turbatam morte Camillam, 

Annuit oranti ; reducem ut patria alta videret, 

Non dedit ; inque notos vocem vertere procellae. 

Ergo, ut missa manu sonitum dedit hasta per auras, 

Convertere animos acris oculosque tulere 800 

Cuncti ad reginam Yolsci. Nihil ipsa nec aurae 

Nec sonitus memor aut venientis ab aethere teli, 

Hasta sub exsertam donec perlata papillam 

Haesit, virgineumque alte bibit acta cruorem. 

Concurrunt trepidae comites, dominamque ruentem 805 

Suscipiunt. Fugit ante omnis exterritus Arruns, 

Laetitia mixtoque metu, nec jam amplius hastae 

Credere, nec telis occurrere virginis audet. 

Ac velut ille, prius quam tela inimica sequantur, 

Continuo in montis sese avius abdidit altos 810 

Occiso pastore lupus magnove juvenco, 

Conscius audacis facti, caudamque remulcens 

Subjecit pavitantem utero, silvasque petivit : 

Haud secus ex oculis se turbidus abstulit ArrunS; 

Contentusque fuga mediis se immiscuit armis. 815 

Illa manu moriens telum trahit ; ossa sed inter 

Ferreus ad costas alto stat vulnere mtlcro. 

Labitur exsanguis; labuntur frigida leto 

Lumina ; purpureus quondam color ora reliquit. 

Tum sic exspirans Accam, ex aequalibus unam, 820 

Alloquitur ; fida ante alias quae sola Camillae, 

Quicum partiri curas ; atque haec ita fatur : 

< Hactenus, Acca soror, potui ; nunc vulnus acerbum 

Conficit, et tenebris nigrescunt omnia circum. 

Effuge et haec Turno mandata novissima perfer : 825 

Succedat pugnae Trojanosque arceat urbe. 

Jamque vale.' Simul his dictis linquebat habenas, 

Ad terram non sponte fluens. Tum frigida toto 

Paulatim exsolvit se corpore, lentaque coUa 

£t captum leto posuit caput, arma relinquens, 830 

788. Premimus ; wbat is below presses upwards on the foot. — 
793. Ad urbes, i. 2. — 822 Qui, for qua. 
35 2k 


Vitaquc cum gemitu fugit indignata sub umbraa. 
Tum vero immeusus surgens ferit aurea clamor 
Sidera; deiecta crudescit pugna Camilla; 
Incurrunt densi simul omnis copia Teucrum 
Tyrrhenique duces Evandrique Arcades alae. 835 

At Triviae custos jamdudum in montibus Opis 
Alta sedet summis, spectatque interrita pugnas 
Uuiue procul medio juvenum in clamore furentum 
Prospexit tristi multatnm morte Camillam, 
lnsemuilque deditque has imo pectore voces: 840 

'Heu nimium, virgo, nimium crudele luisti 
Supplicium, Teucros conata lacessere bello I 
Nec tibi desertae in dumis coluisse Dianam 
Profuit, aut nostras humero gessisse sagittas. 
Nou tamen indecorem tua te regina reliquit 845 

Extrema jam in morte ; ncque hoc sine nomine letam 
Per gentis erit, aut famam patieris inultae. 
Nam quicumque tuum violavit vulnere corpus, 
Morte luet merita.' Fuit ingens monte sub alto 
Regis Dercenni terreno ex aggere buslum 850 

Antiqui Laurentis, opacaque ilice tectum ; 
Hic dea se primum rapido pulcherrima nisu 
Sistit, et Arruntem tumulo speculatur ab alto. 
Ut videt laelantem animis ac vana tumentem: 
^Cur,' inquit, 'diversus abis? huo dirige gressum, 855 
Huc, periture, veni, capias ut digna Camillae 
Praemia. Tune etiam telis moriere Dianae?' 
Dixit, et aurata volucrem Threissa sagittam 
Deprompsit pharetra, cornuque infensa tetendit 
Et duxit longei donec curvata coirent 860 

Inter se cnpita, et manibus jam tangeret aequis, 
Laeva aciem ferri, dextra nervoque papillam. 
Extemplo teli stridorem aurasque sonantis 
Audiit una Arruns, haesitque in corpore ferrum. 
Illum exspirantem socii atque extrema gementem 865 
Obliti ignoto camporum in pulvere linquunt;' 
Opis ad aelherium pennis aufertur Olympum. 

Prima fugit, domina amissa, levis ala CamiUae; 
Turbati fugiunt Rutuii, fugit acer Atinas, 
Disjectique duces desolatique manipli 870 

Tuta petunt, et equisaversi ad moenia tendunt. 

850. We know nothing else of Dercennus. — 860, &c. So stoatl/ 
did she bend the bovv, that its two cnds (capita) met; and while it 
was drawn up to the arrow-hcad, so ns to touch her left hand, tha 
«tring pullcd witli the right hand touched her breast. v. 507. 

LIBER XI. 411 

Nec quisquam instantis Teucros letumque ferentis 
Sustentare valet telis; aut sistere contra; 
Sed laxos referunt humeris languentibus arcus, 
Quadrupedumque putrem cursu quatit ungula cam- 

pum. 875 

Volvitur ad muros caligine turbidus atra 
Pulvis, et e speculis percussae pectora matres 
Femineum clamorem ad coeli sidera toUunt. 
Qui cursu portas primi irrupere patentis, 
Hos inimica super mixto premit agmine turba ; 880 

Nec miseram effugiunt mortem, sed limine in ipso, 
Moenibus in patriis atque inter tuta domorum 
Confixi expirant animas. Pars claudere portas; 
Nec sociis aperire viam, nec moenibus audent 
Accipere orantis 3 oriturque miserrima caedes 885 

Defendentum armis aditus, inque arma ruentum. 
Exclusi, ante oculos lacrimantumque ora parentum, 
Pars in praecipitis fossas urguente ruina 
Volvitur, immissis pars caeca et concita frenis 
Arietat in portas et duros objice postis. 890 

Ipsae de muris summo certamine matres — 
Monstrat amor verus patriae — ut videre Camillam, 
Tela manu trepidae jaciunt, ac robore duro 
Stipitibus ferrum sudibusque imitantur obustis 
Praecipites, primaeque mori pro moenibus ardent. 895 

Interea Turnum in silvis saevissimus implet 
Nuntius, et juveni ingentem fert Acca tumultum: 
Deletas Volscorum acies, cecidisse Camillam, 
Ingruere infensos hostis, et Marte secundo 
Omnia corripuisse, metum jam ad moenia ferri. 900 

Ille furens — et saeva Jovis sic numina poscunt — 
Deserit obsessos collis, nemora aspera linquit. : i . 

Vix e conspectu exierat campumque tenebat 
Cum pater Aeneas, saltus ingressus apertos, 
Exsuperatque jugum silvaque evadit opaca. 905 

Sic ambo ad muros rapidi totoque feruntur 
Agmine, nec longis inter se passibus absunt : 

875. See viii. 596. — 880. Aa the crowd of Latin fugitives imped- 
ing the entrance was a source of additional (auper) danger, it is called 
inimica: Others refer turba to the Trojans ; and then super means 
close behind. — 888. Ruiiia, the rush of the crowd. — 890.. Arietatj 
aryctat, three syllables. They spurred on their horses at fiill gallop, 
to burst open the gates. — 892. JJt videre Camillam seems not to 
mean, ' when they saw Camilla fall ;' but, ' as they have lcamed to 
do from seeing Camilla's feats;* only sho threw real, they only 
imitation spears. 


Ac «imul Aeneas fumantis pulvere campos 
Prospexit longe Laurentiaque agmina vidit, 
£t saevum Aenean agnovit Turnus in armis 916 

Adventumque pedum flatusque audivit equorum. 
Continuoque ineant pugnas et proelia tentent, 
Ni roseus fessos jam gurgite Pnoebus Hibero 
Tinguat equos noctemque die labente reducat. 
Considunt castris ante urbem et moenia vallant. 915 

912. Ineant, v. 325, vi. 293. — 913. Tho sca of Spain is put gene- 
rally for the Westem Ocean. 


TuBHUS, stuDg by the events recorded in the Eleventh Book— 
the death of Camilla, the failure of his ambush, knd the de- 
feat of the Latins — demands that arrangements be made for a 
single combat between him and Aeneas, 1-17. Latinns 
counsels him to resignation, and tOiseek another wife, 18-45. 
Turnus persists, 45-53. Amata, the wife of Latinus, intreats 
him to desist, 54-63. The presence of Lavinia rekindles his 
eagerness, and he sends a defiance to Aeneas for the morrow, 
64-80. He demands his horses, and he arms himself, 81-106. 
Aeneas also prepares for the fight, 107-112. Next day the 
lists are measured, the religious solemnities prepared, and both 
parties flock to the scene, 113-133. Juno, behoiding this from 
the Alban Mount, counsels the nymph Juturna, the weeping 
sister of Turnus, to contrive some means to break off the duel, 
which must prove fatal to her brother, 134—160. The solemn 
ceremony of the preliminary agreement on tlie part of Aeneas 
and Latinus described« 161—215. While this is going on, Ju- 
turna, in the guise of Camers, inflames the Latins, already in 
clined to pity Turnus, and rescue him from his apparent doom, 
216-237. While they are in this mood, encouraged by an 
omen, Toluminus throws his spear with fatal aim, and all is 
confusion, 238-281. The altars are torn down, Latinus flees, 
and the strife spreads, 281^310. Aeneas, standing with his 
head uncovered, in vain remonstrates, and, wounded by an 
arrow, retires, 311-323. The feats of Turnus in the absence of 
Aeneas, 324-382. lapis the physician, aAer vain attempts o( 
his own to flt for the battle the impatient Aeneas, extraots the 
arrow by the aid of Yenus, 383-429. Aeneas arms, and after 
embracing Ascanius, rushes to the flght, accompanied by his 
faithful troops, to the consternation of the Latins, and espedAUy 
of Juturna, 430-449. While Aeneas seeks Turnut alonoi hir 


companions slay many others, 450-467. Juturna takes the 
place of the charioteer of Turnus, assuming his appearance, 
and drives far out of the way of Aeneas, 468-480. Aeneas 
pursues, and is roused to fury by the spear of Messapus, 481- 
499. "* Address to the gods, 500-504. Feats of Aeneas and 
Turnus, 505-647. The contest rages, 548-553. At the sug- 
gestion of Yenus, Aeneas prepares to attack the city Lauren- 
tum, hitherto lying in peace, 554—573. His army rushes to the 
assault, and confusion and opposite counsels rage within, 574— 
592. Amata, distracted, hangs herself, and wo overwhelms 
all, especially Lavinia and Latinus, 593—613. Turnus, alarmed 
at the disiant tumult, prepares to assist the citizens, 614—621. 
His sister tries to prevent liim, but he recognises her, aud re- 
monstrates, 622-649. His resolution is confLrmed by the in- 
treaties of a wounded warrior, and the sight of a blazing 
tower ; and, leaping from the chariot, and rushing to the towu, 
he demands to light with Aeneas, 650-696. Aeneas hurries 
to meet him, 697—703. All suspend the fight, and gaze on 
them, 704-709. They first hurl their spears, and then attack 
each other sword in hand, 710-724. Jupiter places theirfates 
in his scales, 725-727. The sword of Turnus (not his own 
of divine temperament, but one which he had hurriedly 
snatched froni his charioteer) breaks, and he fiees, encom- 
passed by enemies and obstacles on every side, 728—745. Ae- 
neas pursues in vain, 746—765. Aeneas snatches at his spear, 
fixed in the root of a wild olive, sacred to Faunus, 766—776. 
At the prayer of Turnus, the spear remains immovable, and 
his own sword is given him by his sister, again in the guise 
of the chariotecr, on which Venus unfastcns the spear, 776— 
790. Jupiter remonstrates with Juno, whom he blames for 
ihe interference of Juturna, and forbids her to proceed farther, 
791-806. Juno asscnts, but intrcats that the Trojans shalL 
lose their name, and the Italians possess their language and 
their habits, 807-828. Jupiter agrees, and Juno, rejoicing, 
quits the spot, 829-842. Jupiter sends, as a messenger to Ju- 
tnrna, ono of the Furies, who, assuming the shape of a bird of 
ill-omen, appals Turnus, and Juturna, in despair, plunges into 
the Tiber, 843-886. Acueas and Turnus taunt each other, 
887-895. Turnus heavcs at Aeneas a huge stonc, which falls 
short, and he looks round in vain for any hope of safety, 898- 
918. Aeneas hurls his spear, and Turnus falls, pierced 
through the thigh, whilo the Rutulians groan, 919-929. Tur- 
nus yields, and is ready to die or live, 930-938. Aeneas is 
about to spare him, when he sees on his shoulder the baldric 
of the Arcadian Pallas, and, furious with wmth, he slays the 
slayer of his youthful friend, 938-952. 

414 AENEiDOS. 

TuRKUS ut infractos adverao Marte LatinoB 

Defecisse videt, sua nunc promissa reposci, 

Se signari ooulis, ultro implacabilis ardet, 

AttolTitque animos. Poenorum qualis in arvifl^ 

Saucius ille gravi venantum yulnere pectus, 

Tum demum movet arma leo, gaudetqne comantifl 

Excutiens cervice toros, fixumque latronis 

ImpaviduB frangit telum, et fremit ore cruento : 

Haud secus accenso gliscit violentia Tumo. 

Tum sic afTatur regem, atque ita turbiduB infit : 19 

'Nulla mora in Turno ; nihil est, quod dicta retraotent 

Ignavi Aeneadae, nec quae pepigere, reousent. 

Congredior. Fer sacra, pater, et concjpe foedoB. 

Aut hac Dardanium dextra sub Tartara mittanii 

Desertorem Asiae — sedeant spectentque Latini — 15 

£t solus ferro crimen commune refelJam ; 

Aut habeat victos, cedat LAvinia conjunz.' 

Olli sedato respondit corde Latinns: 
' O praestans animi juvenis, ^uantnm ipse ferooi 
Virtute exsuperas, tanto me mipenaius aequum mt 20 
Consulere, atque omnis metuentem exjpenaere caflns. 
Sunt tibi regna patris Dauni, sunt oppida oapta 
Multa manu ; nec non aurumqne animnsque Latino est. 
Sunt aliae innuptae Latio et liiurentibus agriiL 
Nec genus indecores. Sine me haec haud mollia fatn 2& 
Sublatis aperire dolis ; simul hoc animo hauri : 
Me natam nulli veterum sociare procomm 
Fas erat, idque omnes divique hominesqne canebant. 
Victus amore tui, cognato sanguine victu^ 
Conjugis et moestae lacrimis, vincla omnia ra|H : 30 

Promissam eripui genero; arma impia sumpfli. 
£x illo (^ui me casus, quae, Tume, seonantnr 
Bella, vides, qnantos primus patiare laDores. 
Bis magna victi pugna vix urbe tuemnr 
Spes Italas ; recalent nostro Tiberina flnenta S5 

Sanguine adhuc, campique ingentes ossibnfl albent. 
Quo referor toties 1 quae mentem inaania mntat 1 
Si Turao exstincto socios sum adscire paratU8| 
Cur non incolumi potius certamina tolfo % 
Quid consanguinei Rutuli ; quid cetera dicet 40 

Italia, ad mortem si te — Fors dicta refutet ! — 

1. Infractos, ix. 499. — 5. Saudus pectiu, accusative of limitatioo, 
3V. 558. — 13. Pater hythe arsis. — 14. Tarfara, v. 733. « 17. ||4i 
victos. — 18. Ollii i. 254. — 24. Laurentibus, yi. 893.— S7, &0.y viL 
59, &<;. — 30. Conjupisj Amatac. — 31. 6r«nero pocto, AeooaOv €Kr 

nero, •(> unclided. — 32. £x tZ/o temporc. 

. -- .u.l 


Prodiderim, natam et connubia nostra petenteml 
Respice res bello varias; miserere parentis 
Longaevi, quem nunc moestura patria Ardea longe 
Dividit.* Haudquaquam dictis violentia Turni 45 

Flectitur; exsuperat magis, aegrescitque medendo. 
Ut primum fari potuit, sic institit ore : 
^Quam pro me curam geris, hanc precor, optime, pro me 
Deponas, letumque sinas pro laude pacisci. 
Et nos tela, pater, ferrumque haud debile dextra 60 

Spargimus; et nostro sequitur de vulnere sanguis. 
Longe illi dea mater erit, quae nube fugacem 
Feminea tegat, et vanis sese occulat umbris.^ 

At regina, nova pugnae conterrita sorte, 
Flebat, et ardentem generum moritura tenebat : 55 

' Turne, per has ego te lacrimas, per si quis Amatae 
Tangit honos animum — spes tu nunc una, senectae 
Tu requies miserae ; decus imperiumque Latini 
Te penes ; in te omnis domus inclinata recumbit — 
Unum oro : desiste manum committere Teucris. 60 

Qui te cumque manent isto certamine casus, 
£t me, Turne, manent; simul haec invisa relinquam 
Lumina, nec generum Aenean captiva videbo.' 
Accepit vocem lacrimis Lavinia matris 
Flagrantis perfusa genas, cui plurimus ignem 65 

Subjecit rubor, et calefacta per ora cucurrit. 
Indum sanguineo veluti violaverit ostro 
Si quis ebur, aut mixta rubent ubi lilia multa 
Alba rosa : talis virgo dabat ore colores. 
IUum turbat amor, figitque in virgine vultus. 70 

Ardet in arma magis. paucisque afifatur Amatam : 
' Ne, quaeso, ne me Jacrimis, neve omine tanto 
Prosequere in duri certamina Martis euntem, 
O mater; neque enim Turno mora libera mortis. 
Nuntius haec, Idmon, Phrygio mea dicta t^ranno 75 
Haud placitura refer : ^' Cum primum crastina coelo 
Puniceis invecta rotis Aurora rubebit, 
Non Teucros agat in Rutulos ; Teucrum arma quiescant| 
£t Rutuli : nostro dirimamus sanguine bellum; 
IIIo quaeratur conjunx Lavinia campo." ' 80 

Haec ubi dicta dedit, rapidusque in tecta recessit, 
Poscit equos, gaudetque tuens ante ora frementis, 

45. Parentis tui, Dauni. — 44. Ardea. See p. 291, line 44. — 52. 
Nube, i. 97. — 53. Vanis ; for Venus too waa wounded, x. 30. — 
56. Fer, &c., iv. 314, ii. 142. — 68. Ebur by the arsis. — 74. Neque 
wwra libera mortis. ' If fate decrees death, delay is beyond mortal 
powcr. — 75. Phrygio tyranno^ Aencae. 


Pilumno quos ipsa decus dedit Orithyia, 
Qui candore nives anteirent, cursibus auras 
Circumstant properi aurigae maiiibusque lacessunt 85 
Pectora plausa cavis et colla comantia pectunt. 
Ipse dehinc auro squalentem alboque orichalco 
Circumdat loricam numeris ; simui aptat habendo 
Ensemque ciipeumque et rubrae cornua cristae ; 
Ensem, quem Dauno ignipotens dous ipse parenti 90 
Fecerat et Stygia candentem tinxerat unda. 
Exin, quae mediis ingenti adnixa columnae 
Aedibus adstabat, vaiidam vi corripit hastam, 
Actoris Aurunci spoiiura, quassatque trementemj 
Vociferans: 'Nunc, o numquam frustraia vocatus 95 
Hasta meos, nunc tempus adest j te maximus Actor, 
Te Turni nunc dextra gerit j da sternere corpus 
Loricamque manu valida lacerare revolsam 
Semiviri Phrygis, et foedare in pulvere crinis 
Vibratos calido ferro myrrhaque madentis.' 100 

His agitur furiis; totoque ardentis ab ore 
ScintUIae absistunt; oculis micat acribus ignis. 
Mugitus veluti cum prima in proelia taurus 
Terrificos ciet atque irasci in cornua tentat, 
Arboris obnixus trunco j ventosque lacessit 105 

Ictibus, aut sparsa ad pugnam proiudit arena. 

Nec minus interea maternis saevus in armis 
Aeneas acuit Martem et se suscitat ira, 
Oblato gaudens componi foedere bellum. 
Tum socios moestique metum solaturluli, * 110 

Fata docens, regique jubet responsa Latino 
Certa referre viros, et pacis dicere leges. 

Postera vix summos spargebat lumine montis 
Orta dies, cum primum alto se gurgite tollunt 
Solis equi; lucemque elatis naribus efflant : 115 

Campum ad certamen magnae sub moenibus urbiB 
Dimensi Kutulique viri Teucrique parabant; 
In medioque focos et dis communibus aras 
Gramineas. Alii fontemque ignemque ferebaQt^ 
Velati limo, et verbena tempora vincti. IW 

Procedit legio Ausonidum, pilataque plenis 
Agmina se fundunt portis. Hinc Troius omnis 
fyrrhenusque ruit variis exercitus armis, 

83. Pilumno, x. 76, 619. Oriihyia. Georg, iv. 463.-84. AiUei' 
retUi an elision. — 87. Dihinc. — c9. Ensemgue by the ar8ii.*^91« 
Stygmy vi. 295. — 94. Aurunci. See p. 180, line 7. — 99. SmiMti^ 
Tiu. 194. — 116. Magnae urbis, Laurenti. — 121. Auaonidvni, 8ea 
p. 180, liiie 5. 

■ 'iiinc Albanus habelar — 
ni honoB aul gloria raonli — 
iiim agpectabat et ambaB 
'n.-ri urbemque Latini. 
Jilfata Bororem, 
fiuaiiiiibueque aonoris 
aelheris allus hojiorem 
litale Bacravit : 

gratiHsima nOBlro, 

quaecumque I.atinae 

lecendere cubile, 

I iri parle locarim : 

, Juturna, dolorem. 

ill, Parcaeque sinebant 


a propinqaat. 150 

hano ocuUs, non foederE poBBum, 
Ftjnid praeEentius aufiea, 

in rnJseros meliora sequenlur.' 
s oculis JDiunia profudit, 
■ raanu pectua percussit huneslum. 155 
lHenipua,' ait ^turriia Juno; 


Solsi avi frp«?cimon ; bii,ns il Turnns in albis, 

Birui inanu lato crispuns liastilia ferro. 105 

Hinc patur Aenoaf, Komanae stirpis origo, 

SLLlereo llaijrans clipeo et coelestibus armis, 

Kt juxta Ascanius, nia;2:nae spes altera Romae, 

Procedunt castris, puraque in vesle sacerdos 

Seti«2ferae letuni ^?uis intonsamque bidentem 170 

Attulit, admovitque pecus ilagrantibus aris. 

IIU ad surjrentem conversi lumina solem 

Dant fruires manibus salsas, et tcmpora ferro 

Smmna notaiit pecudum, patcrisque altaria libant. 

Tum pius Aeneas stricto sic ense precatur : 175 

* Ksto nunc Sol testis et haec mihi Terra vocanti^ 

(iuam propter tantos potui perferre labores, 

Kt Pater omnipotens, et tu Saturiiia conjunx, 

Jani melior, jam, diva, prccor; tuque inclute Mavors, 

Cunota tuo (}ui bella, pater, sub numine torques: 180 

Foiitisquc Fluviosque voco, quaeque aetheris alti 

Kelii;:io, et quae caeruleo sunt numina ponto: 

Cesserit Ausoiiio si fors victoria Turno, 

Coiivenit Kvanclri viclos discedere ad urbem ; 

Codet lulus aijris; nec post arma ulla rebelles 185 

Aeneadae referent, ferrove haec regna lacessent. 

Sin nostrum annuerit nobis Victoria Martem — 

Ut potius reor, et potius di numine Rrment — 

Non eiro nec Teueris Italos parere jubebo, 

Nec niihi rciiiia peto; paribus se legibus ambae 190 

Inviciae genles aolerna in foedera mittant. 

Sacra deosqn») dabo; soeer arma Latinus habeto 

Imp.*rinm sollemne soeer; mihi mocnia Teucri 

ConstiluiMit. urbique dabit Lavinia nomen.' 

Sic prior Aeneas; scquitur sic deinde Latinus, 195 

Suspiciens eoelum, tenditque ad sidera dextram: 

^laec eadem, Aenea, Terram, Mare, Sidera, jnro, 

Latonaeque genus duplex, Janumque bifrontem, 

Vimqne deum iiifeniam et duri sacraria Ditis; 

Audiat Iiaec Genitor, qui foedera fulmine sancit. 200 

Taniro, medios iGriiis et numina testor: 

Nulla ilies pacem lianc Italis nec foedera rumpet, 

Quo res cumquc cadent; nec mo vis ulla voluntem 

Avertet; noii, si tellurem elFundat in unda.<«, 

Ifil. Vinril prrms to draw thc dcsccnt of Latinus through Faiiniit 

or Picus (vii. 47, IHI) from Circc, Sors dnuglitor (vii. 11). — 170» 

Bidvfttcm, iv. ^u. — 181. Fo7)tisqne by the arsia. — 189. TVfrn nfi 

Ecl. iv. .0-).— -197. Por Terram, vi. 324. — 108. Latonae, L 508L 

^inim, vii. 1:^0. — li)y. Vim, &c., viii. 526. PiC», iv. 708, 

UBER XII. 419 

Diluvio miscens, coeJumque in Tartara solval ; 205 

Ut sceptrum hoc' — dextra sceptrum nam forte gerebat — 

'Numquam fronde levi fundet virgulta nec urabras, 

Cum semel in silvis imo de stirpe-recisum 

Matre caret, posuitque comas et brachia ferro ; 

Olim arbos; nunc artificis manus aere decoro 210 

Inclusit, patribusque dedit gestare Latinis.' 

Talibus inter se firmabant foedera dictis 

Conspectu in medio procerum. Tum rite sacratas 

In flammam jugulant pecudes, et viscera vivis 

Eripiunt, cumulantque oneratis lancibus aras. 215 

At vero Rutulis impar ea pugna videri 
Jamdudum, et vario misceri pectora motu ; 
Tum magis, ut propius cernunt non viribus aequis, 
Adjuvat incessu tacito progressus et arara 
Suppliciter venerans demisso lumine Turnus, 220 

Tabentesque genae et juvenali in corpore pallor 
Quem simul ac Juturna soror crebrescere vidit 
Sermonem, et volgi variare labantia corda, 
In medias acies, formam assimulata Camerti — 
Cui genus a proavis ingens, clarumque paternae 225 

Nomen erat virtutis, et ipse acerrimus armis — 
In medias dat sese acies, haud nescia rerum, 
Rumoresque serit varios, ac talia fatur: 
'Non pudet, o Rutuli, pro cunctis talibus unam 
Objectare animam ? numerone an viribus aequi 230 

Non sumus? En, omnes et Troes et Arcades hi sunt, 
Falalisque manus, infensa Etruria Turno. 
Vix hostem, alterni si congrediamur, habemus. 
Ille quidem ad superos, quorum se devovet aris, 
Succedet fama, vivusque per ora feretur ; 235 

Nos, patria amissa, dominis parere superbis 
Cogemur, qui nunc lenti consedimus arvis.' 

Talibus incensa est juvenum sententia dictis 
Jam magis atque magis, serpitque per agmina raurmur ; 
Ipsi Laurentes mutati ipsique Latini. 240