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Now Coimxn. 





The ol|}eet of thts Mries is to present a coarse of elementaiy 'worka soited to 
itt wants of the beginner, as well as accurate texts of the more prominent 
Mtcieat writers, refvised ia aeoordance with the latest investigations and MS8., 
and the most approred principles of modem criticism. These are aooompanied 
with notes and Ulustrations introduced spnringly, avoidlng, on the one hand, th« 
crror of OTorburdening the work with oommentarj ; and on the other, that of 
lettTing tlie stndent entirely to his own resources. The main ol^ect has been to 
•waken tfae scholar^s mind to a sense of the beauties and peeuliarities of hiii 
«nthor, to assist him where assistance is neoessary, and to lead him to think and 
to SnTostigate for himsdf. For tbis pnrpose maps and other engraTings are giTen 
wbererer nseful, and each author is aooompanied with a biographical and crltical 
•keteii. The fbrm in which the Tolumes are prlnted is neat and oonTenien^ 
while it admits of their being sold at prices unpreoedentedly low, thns pladng 
'ttiem wtthin the reach of man j to wliom the eost of elasirfoal works has hithert» 
proTod a bar to tbis department of study. It will be seen, thMrefbre, that the 
fcriea oomUnes the foUowing adTantag«i : 

1. A gradualij asoending aetiw of School Books on « wniCbim pUn^ m» «a i» 
«OMtitata, witliia a deflnite numlwr, a eomplete Latin Curriealam. 

2. Certaia arrangements in the radimentary Tolumes, which will iniara a ^dr 
anoant <^ knowiedge in Roman literatore to tbose who are not designed for 
prafsiiakwiel lits, and who therefore wiil not lequire to extead tbehr atudiea t» tha 
•dTanoed forUon of the Serles. 

3. The text of each author is snch as has been oonstitnted by the most reoent 
ooDations ot manuscripts, and is pre&oed by biographfeal and eritical sketohea 
fai Xnglish, that pupUs may be made aware of the charaetw and peculiarities of 
ttie work tbey are about to stndy. 

4. Tb remoTe dfflienlties, and siutain aa Interest in th« tezt, explaiiatory 
Mtes in Xngiish are (placed at Un toai of emA pi^^ snd iodi eorapariaons 
*»wn M xdaj Mrre to unite the history of the past with the reaUties of modem 

S. The works, genendly, are embellldied with raaps and Ulastratiro engra- 
vfain, — •ooompaniments whidi wUI greatly assist tlie studenfs eompr^enslon 
9t Um ttstore af tha ooiintriefl and le^ng circumstanoes described. 

^ Tho respectiTO Tolumes are issued at a prioe considerably less than that 
^•Mlly «barged; and aathe tezta are tsom the most eminent sources, and tha 
vMe MKftm eoBatrnetod opon a determinate plan, the practioe of issuing new 
M a tta w d «di4ion% wWfllL 1» cemplainad of alike Iqr teacliera and pnpUa, wUl M 

fbUowing Tolnmes constltiite the series, whleh Is now ooipfloU> 

ScliBiits aad ZQmpfs Classical Series •— Coiitlnaed« 

iMndsoiiie 18mo. Tol«me, •xtra cloth, of 236 poges, prioe 50 centi. 

(n.) ADTANCED LATHf EXERCISES.— Witb Selectlons for Beading. 
With Additiont. In one handsome IHmo. volume, eztra clotb, price 50 eelntf. 

(m.) ADTANOED LATIK ORAMMAR.— By Leonhard Schmits, Ph. D., 
F.R.8.B., Kector of the Hlgh Scbool, Edinburgh. In one handaome ISmoc 
Tolnme, of 318 pagen, neatly balf-bound, price 6U oenta. 

Dr. Kaltscbmidt In Two PartHj I^tin-Knglisb, uid English-Latin. FcHrming 
one large and clomly-printed rolume, royal 18mo., of 860 double colomn pagei^ 
■tronglj bound. Prioe, $1.26. 

Part Ih Latin-English, of uearlv 500 pages. Price, 00 cents. 

Part IL, English-Latin, of nearly 400 pages. ttUXf 75 oents. 

Introdnction, En^isb Notes, <c ftc In one handsome royal 18mo. Toliunf^ 
extra cloth. Price, 50 oents. 

With an Introduction, Notes, and a Oeographical Index in Knglisb. Also, • 
Mapof Oanl, and llluntratiTe Engravings. In one handsome 18mo. Tolume^ 
of 232 pages, eztra cloth, price 50 cents. 

(▼n.) P. OVIDII VASONIS OARMINA SELEOTA.— With Introdufiioii, 
Xnglish Notes, Ac In one handsome 18mo. Tolume, eztra doth, of 250 pagefl. 
Prioe, 60 eents. 

Supersunt YIII. With a Map, Introduction, English Notes, Ac. In one hand> 
•Mne 18mo. Tolume, eztra doth, of 326 pages. Prioe, 70 cents. 

daetikm and Notes in KngUsh. Also, a Map of Numidia, and other HIustratiTO 
XDgraTings. In ona handsome 18mo. Tolume, of 168 pages, eztra dotlk 
Prkt^ 60 oents. 

fk.) niBUI TIROILn MARONIS OARMINA.— Wlth an Introduelioa 
and Notee. In one handsome 18mo. Tolume, of 438 pages, extra eloth. Pricik 

tion, Xnglish Notes, fte. In one handsome 18mo. Tolume, extra doth, of 313 
pagM. Prioe, 60 oents. 

ini.) T. Lmi FATAVINI HISTORIARUM, Libri L, H., XXI., XXn.— 
With two Maps, an Introduction, and BngUsh Notes. In one handteme 18bm>. 
Tolnmo, «xtra doCh, of 360 pagee. Priee, 70 oeots. 

trodoetion, biglish N<rtes, Sm^ le. In one handsome 18mo. Tolame, of 300 
pagei^ •ztra doth. Priee, 60 eents. 

The Tolnmes In extra doth ean also he had handsomdy and atta^j haiP 
homnd, at an additional diarge of flTo oents. 

Tho nnmerous adTantages whieh this series poMeeses haTo seenred ft>r it tb« 
Wiqnalifled ^probation <^ almost erery ono to whom it has beeu snbmittedk 
Rom aoto^ seTeral bnndred reeommendatJons, with whieh tb^y baTo baes 
fcTored, the pnbliehers prai«Bt a Um from the Ibllowing emiiieiit irbolars «b# 


aduAilx aB4 Ziinipi'8 Classical flei^s^-CoatiMMl* 

JP^m l'Bor. J. F. SiCHARoa m, Madison Univtrritiif-, OeL 37, IStf. 

I fove the GnuRiDar Bt onoe « rery caretnl examiimlKinj mkI hmT* no hcitetiM tt 

^11: that, for tLc ose of school and coilefe rlasses, I cmisider llie work superior W nm 
r Latin Grammac in our lanituaire wiUi wbich 1 am aaiuainted. i haTe alwM|| 
Ancte«* one of my classes to purchase copies of it. I sbMll aho in^vdure in the i 
tf Om ycar your editi«>n of Viiisil and prot»aUly also tn«t <A ocsar, buth cfwhich 1 1 
' «lhet& as text booka for our clasBes. 

JWm Prot. J. J. Owen, 9Yee Jtcademy, J<tew Terk, Jiug. 31, 1849. 

IlM highiy nleased with jrour excellent publications of the abore seriea, aad as aa «vl» 
■oa of tbe estication in whicli J huld inem, on my reonmmendation, your Viisil bai 

k«n ailopted as a text^iook in the Free Academy in this dty. I shail be happj to 
1 your series to all wiw*! whom I may have auy iuiluence 

Frvm Prof. J. B. Hudson, Oberiin CoUege, O., OeL 13, 18S0. 

1 b«T» enmined the seriesof Elementary Ciasslcs publ'shed by Lea A Blandiard, aaA 
like'(nvat pleMure in sayinir that I regartl tbem as adniirably adapTed tosecure the o«eel 
■npoiBed. I'he text is a higiily appruved one and tiio typoprapliy lias been rareiy excelled 
■I wnrln (tf this snrt for eleamessand beauty. I have detected fewer niiflt||^ in th« 
■raitirar and pmk^tuation of these books than in alaiost auT worlis of a siroiliS^chanicter 
Ibat I naTe seen. The maps too are a great help — an inui8pena»bt6 one inUeed to th* 
great majority of stndents who have no ancient atlas— in understandiii; the georraphical 
■Unaons contained in the text. The selection of notes is judicious; ^''i the whoto 
iesign and execution of the series commend it to ttie notice of thoae who wisu . ^* beoono 
feKh^paident and aelfHPelying achohun. 

^yvM Peof. J. Packard, Theological Smiaary* Faitfut CMiiite, Firginitu 

Mtrek^, 1850. 

The aize of tbe Toltime, the beautjr and correctness of the text, and the jndieiovi 
%lea,B0t 4)ooqpioaatos«pe>«edetheindaatrToftliepiipil.seein toBietolea(TBMitbi^| 
••bedMirad. I doubt not yoor enterprise wiU be rewaroed hy yonr editions taking tha 
■iMec^otben now in use. to wbich there are manf otgections,aiid I will dowfaatio nt 
hm to pronote ttieir ctieolatioa. 

JVwM Pior. J. S. BoifSALL, Frederiek OMege, JWt, Marek 18, 1850. 

HacfiDf osed the fint three Tolnmes of the series for more than a year. I am finee le 
M«r, that I pnfiMr tbeat to any scfaotrf editimw ct the «tme aatfaors witfa whicfa 1 «h 

JVwM Pmor. J. FoRiTTH, CotUge ef AV» Jerteiff, Jiarek 19, 18SIL 

I «m \Mnoy in being able to ««y tbat «Tery succeMJTe Tolnme bas oonflrSMd me tai ttife 
JadgmMit KMmed on tbose first issued, and reoews my deUght that you haTe rsec^Ted t» 
iiaoo tiie wb(d»^tbi« adiairaUe aeriiw of daa«ic«l anthan within the reaeh e& A^^ea 
«todents. The Grammar is already in nae in thia colh^^ «ad 1 aha.'! OMjsiiLy 

JVwM T. J. Sawrs, Esq., CRhCo» Zdborat hutittUe, JfereJltB, 1850. 

V^ hMP» paid them th« oonvlimoi^ of «uddng them ««or tat-feo(As aad 
raam at onoe iato this institute. In siae and price, in design and execation, tfaey se 
to me better fitted fw schoois of tbis class than any others that haTe fallen aiMer 
lli«i]r»ation. A aeat and aceorate text, and brief, bat exoiidt notes, constitate the pria^ 
^^•1 dmracteristics of a good claasicalschool book. Tn^>aediatingaish yoar seriaa, aai 
Sno lliMB a (dafaa to genml diffnsion. 

JVVvm tke Rrt. J. J. Biimi, A. M.^ Sutee^OtuHBntMe, Fc, 4)»rili, VdS^ 

' Wbila al tbe faead of tfae PetersbrTr Ctesstcal Institate.I introduced jKNir OMar, Vii||l 
jsA Si^sat, «s heinr brmy jadgmettt the best sdttiol editions of theee worfcs thall fastvo 
' l bare Dee»ia my «reaei^ pesloralehaige, I faare been tbemeaae^' 

iamypreaei^ p«sloralehaig«,IbaTebeenthei 

and Sallast introduoed into two tehools in this ooanty. Tbaee worim ar« • 

mediimi between the mere text aiul the orerloaded annotations whiidi r aBd« f 
•iftioas bat tha elaiidsBtiae refiogcr of idle «dketA-boya. 

JVwM PBSit9«rr MAiiLr, tMvertitff ef MakaMO^ Jfereft», 1890. 
. •»lMr«slm«f b«coo»alt«d,oth«T«inSoence,IsfaaU«eektofeo«Mihaiid1fc«i*»* 
«ii M«l o#Mad and oheap aeries, ia aU tfae pieparatory sohools of oor r-<^ 

ftifcitti aiid Zavpt^i Ctessica! aerte»-€o«tiMMb 

fVvm A. W. f IKB, Gan., Kemiubumk, M$. DtenOmr H, IM. 

Itafv •xamiiMd wHh mueh care md hii^h ■atisfiMtion, the ftrtt fiv« volttmea ef fts 

ot Dn. Schmitz aud Zompi'» claastcal aenes. The pUm and eienotiea of the 

■ra eaoellent. The noCes appeiMled to the aoveral authora evince fuWj the aoond j«d«- 
Meat and aocnrate criticism of the leunied editora. They are sufficieniljr oopioas to oMa» 
IIm wmntM of the student. without. at the Muiie time. hy their fuiness, «iicoaraging haMM 
•T indolence 1 have. for more than thiriy years, heeii rxMistauily eoKaffed in teaof ' 
Ihe classiix, and 1 hare not seen any edition of the Latin authors, usually read in 
whioh I could commeiid so con^ently, as the ooe you are pubushinf. 

tivm E. EvBftBTT, E94., /(Te» Orl$an», Decemht 14, 1849. 

An Uiese pablicatioiis are Talnable aoqnisitions to our ciassical and school librarieB. I 
Mi particnlarly pleased with the VjrKil ; the noles are a store of leaming ; they rWmiafe 
Ibe student with such hints on the mannera and customs of the Komans ns canuot ftu. ti 
■enre as important aids to the study of Roman history, at the same tiroe that they thnm 
Mw liglit on the text of th« rreat poet. They seem to me to be model notes : they az« 
■Mther so oopiow m to enable the studeut todispense with the ejcsrctse of jadgmsat —4 
, MT ao masgw as to leaTe dtfBcult passagee unejqilaiiied. 

Fmi'^ 'kROMAf CBAfB, £•«., Oam^f^ s, JlfeM., StpUmhT 38, 1849. 

I take irrek; pleasvre in reoommendinff the rarious rolumes of Schmitz and ZumpC% 
rtaarical Series, which hsTe appeared in this country, as admirably adapted for the use 
%. schoids. The character of the editon is a iniarantee of the accaracy of Uie text anl 
ttie oorrectness of the aanotations. The notes are prepared with carefhl scholarahip and 
■ioe discrimination, and the amonnt of infbrmation firen on historical and grammaticd 
pmnts is sufficieut to satisfy the wants of the leamer. while it is uot so great aa to tai 
prejodicial to his habits ofKudy. We haTO introduced the editions of Cesar and of Vir 
flltMMpiM ia thte seriM, taito tka Higk Sohool inthiacity. 

tHm R. B. TicMin»!, £0^ Mhfftlk jSeademif, Jlf«y 31, 1849. 

I reeaiT«d the fovrth T<riiuaM of yoor olasncal s«riMmid take greal pleami« inMbm- 
ki|r yoa ther haTS been the text-book» leoommaaded » this sofaool since their ftrst a^ 
paaraiiM. I haTO foond the text aud typofraphioaleucatioa eqval, and in manT l e apw M 
■aporior to any other editioM that I haTe smo. Bat their ohe i^m es s is deotiMa to «mIm 
them take the plaM of all other school e diti e M . Of courM it wilt take time to aMunM 
the plaM of works already ia om, bat I beliera fally, at no dislant dajr tlieM wiU be th» 
Mle editioM m generBl oae. 

W^mm A. McAM, £■«., Mkntmeket Hkgh Stkeoi^ Jutf 99, 1S49L 

After a sMiiewhat minate ezuniMtioa of the same, in which I haTo cunpared tlmflft, 
Um by Une,«iUi other ediUoM,edited by diflferent gentlemen, which mjr claMM are now 
readinc, I haTe no heritatioti in giTii^ to the aeriM, edited tqr Dn. Seluiiits and ZampL 
^^■ciiMdpwiMMMatoaairwiHiwlBCklam ■cnuainted. ' 

•dition of the daasMS, m flur. I greatly prefor to any otber I haTe Men, fat the ■■• 
wi Mshools. It oombinM the adTaiitairM of iextaa. oorrectneM, chMpneaa, aad pre-eiM* 
■Mtt ability in the annotatkms, thrM thiaifa eapeoiaUy desirable in school booka. I hsfw 
■dopteA tkii aeriei, M for M iMued» to thft ezcf MiMi of aU otben. 

tkt Mmw. E. A. DAUtTVPUi, Epiteopmi Blf Jl Sekeet tf 

tor87, 1849. 

I IwM e n mi n ed tbemwitbeoMe oare, ■ad Imm plearareisstating th«k ttMgr ■!• 
MUokraslyaadcareAaiypreparBdforttMMeofscbooi8andooUefae% TheaetMaraU 
Ae point, and wliat notM to classKal aiithore shoold be, not m roU m to ■ipoonit t9 >. 

information to the stadei •. 
parpoM toiatrodttOB 

InMlation of the tezt, or m meagre m to gire no satisfbctoiy infon 
Mm the beet eTklenM of my approTal, I would ftate that it is my 
tlMM» M oooMiflB M^f ■^■■b Mto th» iMlitatM» oodMr ■!¥ direo&M 

JVvmZ. D. T.KwoiLBT, Esq., WeH Pofot, Jf. r^ JW ro s MWr 6, 184^ 


I ■» Mrjrmoeli pteosed with the Casar and VNwil, mkI prMMM i ahall b»eqarifrM 
~" lahallwlopttbeMLaUBbooksfoirmysofaeoL 

fVvM Pmor. A. F. Boao^ Btt kt mf OeOege, flrgMm^ Deemm§mr7, 18481 

Myopiaioaof theCwaryoabamalreadyhad expressed.MdIwiUepljrodi tholaM 

' fm tiM oompletioa of the mHm hM bMn enhuiced by the TolimM irtiiflli wem 

M. I iiuU «Monmeod tkH» ftir adoptioo MdM HMidtfd •NnotolUB 


> ■ I ■ ■ ■ I 

Sehmitz and Zanpt'8 Classical Series — ContiaaoA» 

Fnm J. S. BoNSALL, Eaq., Frederick College, Md.^ Feb. A, 1849. 

4 hMTi exaniineU thein, and 6nd them nn all {MHuts wbat tbe reputaiion of thc m 
iditMn led uie to ex|Htei frum tliein, and wtiut the;^ desig:n the iKioks to be. 

i know uot that 1 can grive you a better proof ot ihe eMtiniatitm iii whinh I lio.i 
•ten tqr siinply sayin^ that I ani already nsiug Ccsar aud Virgil of the series iu m) c 
Ml «zpeet very aoon to introduce Sailust. 

Wfm Pkof. N. L. Lucdslst, CumberUnd Umiversitf, TVnit., JWv. 33, 18111 

I aai T*ry faTuurably inipresred with the mehts uf Schnritz and Zumnfs dassical serisft 
■• ftf M uy «nga^eDieuts have peruiitted ue toexaniine tbe " Vir^I" and "Sallast/'! 
■H iK»JMiu to believe that ihey are sup^rior to tiie.t>ther editious in conimon use. 

I shail talie pleasure in recoiumeudiug them to leachers aud studeuts iu Uiis triciaity 

Pbot. Gbssn a Harrison, Univereity ef Firginia, Abo. 3, 1848. 

I Tery detidedly approve of the plan of publishing cheap editions of the classics, witt 
M«f BOtes, for the lue of sohools, aud shall recommend this edition to my friends, as rail* 
iMn tar Uusol^eec. 

Fntrn Prop. W. S. Ttlbr, Amherst College, Mase., Dee. 35, 1848. 

Ths Botes are pertinent and pithy, as weil as aocurate and leamed, and contmsC li 
advaotage with soine wboee chief recomBteodation is, that tiiey are desigaecl li 
fmr tlw ittdoleBce of Ute studeut by Uie supererofatory wurlis of tiie editor. 

AwB- JoHR S. Hart, LL. D., CentrtU Higk School, PhUadelfki», Dee. 14. 184B. 

I bare exanuned, with muoh satisfaction jrour editions of Virgil and SaHost, being coa- 
iBMMBtocM of joar reprmt of iJchmilz and Zumpt's classical series, and talce pleas«re ia 
MBBWJiK the recommeudatiim which I gave to the pian of the seiies on the appeanuMB 
«f Cnsar, Tbe noles are admirably adapted to the precise wants of the tearuer. givtus ia 
■bbU space all the neoessary fiiciliUes, without superseding tbe neoessity of duigaBt nai 
aeearate study. 

Prmm C. W. Evxrest, Eoq., Rectory School, Hdmden, CL, Dec. 7, 1848. 

Fkiom ihe bnef examination I have been able to give them, I feel very much {^assi 
wiUi them, both as regards the execution of yuur owu part of the plan, and also that ot 
abto editors. Soch tezt-books are much needed. Instead of thera, we have heaa 
d with ediUons, too often wretchedly printed, and more frequently ruined by a 
ityci Botes. AcceiH my thanks for yoor idndness in sendiug nae the works, aad 
BBSBra IsBBil bo hfl^ipjr to adopc them as tezt-books in my schooL 

FSrom Wm. B. Potts» OrvDigaburg, Pa., Mv. 38, 1848. 

I teBBdSTotad aafiaaat ttBia to tbe examination of yoor ediUons of Casar, Vii]|il, aai 
laaVto aBBhle me to fbrm an estimate of their respecUve merits. I do not heattata «a 
that the uaiformity and cheapness of the works, with tha notes of tbe Isamad aditoa^ 
aUy niustraUve of tbe style and senUments of the authors, and yet not so voluaii- 
to obviate the necessity of careful stody un the part of the student, must recoa- 
■BBd them to the fiivourabie oonsideraUon of those engayed in teaching this intarastiac 
MSMh nf litfirntnrn Wa shali aertaiuiy adopt thia sacies m the aoaden^. 

Fr«m Wm. Oarnbtb, £8<i., JVVnTstt, Fd^ Mn» 99, 184a 

I fitara yoQ my thanks for the oopies of Virgil and Sailust sent to ma. llia piBiMaar 
dl Imtuegea ia tha Norfblk aeademy has introdoced them in this school, and wa (Mak 
iMf wdTBa oaed in all schools, as soob as known to tfaem. I shaU reoommend thSBi Ib 
ail Um taacfaaiB of my Bf!Qnaintanca> 

Wm. Dennis, Esa., Wilmingt&n, DeL^ Miv. 11, 1848. 

I havB raoaiTed the Ctesar and Tirgil of the classical senes now in coorsa of pa' 
||BBB and bBve for some Ume been using the Ctesar with a class. I am satia 
■Ma tfia kaCter aebool ettftioua of thone authors thaa any others tbat I haTe erar 

\ O. W. MsBKBR, Esa., Ckieago, JHf Jm. 17, 1840. 
taMl ba kapnr to reooBanaad tham as tksbest and.moat aooofata edit^MM e# 

fteliiiiilB WLm4. ZHnipfs Classical 8erie»— Contliived. 





fbnnirf on« lai^ royal ISmo. Tolume of 8S0 paciRs, clueeljr print«d in dmibte oola 

^ and strongly bouod.— Price, II 30. 

wilM. Part 1. Lftlin Engliah, iii one liand«ome volume, ■trongly koandi^ «t 

nearJy 5U0 pages.— Price, 90 cts. 

Part IL EBgliih*Latio, neaiiy 400 pages, bound tomaldL— Prioab Tiola. 

While aeveral vahiable and copioua Latin Lezicons have within a few 
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The present voluine has been compiled by l)r. Kaltschmidt, tbe well-knowa 
Oerman Lezicographer, from the best Latin Dictionaries now in uae throu^- 
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Uie objects for which the Dictionary is intended, and because they would baY» 
■welled considerably the bulk of the volume. On the other hand, it has been 
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only tracing it to its Latin or Greek root, hut to roots or kindred forma or 
words occurring in the cognatc languages of the great Indo>Gennanic ftxnily 
This fcature, ^hich distinguishes the prescnt Dictionary from all others, can> 
ttot fail to awaken the learner to the intercsting factof the radical identity of 
many apparently heterogeneoiis languages, and prepare him at an early stag* 
for the delightful study of comparative philology. 

The aiin of the publishers has been to carry out the author's views as IHr ■• 
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and well printed, is small, and the size of the page such as to present an im- 
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Clfttelljr intended for tlie Use ot BelM^rts* 

In one handsome 18mo. volume, of about 175 pagee 

fLe want has lonr been felt and ackiiowledged of an epitome, presentinf in « me4e; 
tats space and at a low prioe. such iuformation as is necessaiy ror the proper crjnprcM 
■«Bsion and appreciation of the classical authors most commoaly read in oor 9*Jiocte 
The object of the present volame is to nnpiAy this want, by affbrdinir in Um niaat ooi^ 
m t m t i foaa, mkI in sach a manner as to admit of its being tkcMroag^ljrmastMed ib3 
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*' ^ ' lofstndy. 







Construoted by WILLIAM HVeHES, 


BY 6E0B6E L0K6, 


With a Sketch of ANGIBNT GEOGRAPHY, and other AddiUons. bj the Ameri- 
ean Kditor. OoDtaining Fifty-two Colored Maps »nd Plans on Twenty*tiro largo 
Imperitil qaarto Plates, beautifollj engraTed on steel in the elearest and most 
Inlsbed fityle. With an Index of Places. Uandsomely half-bound, with dotli 
tfdeH, in one large Tolume. Prioe $3. 


1. THB OBOGRAPHT OF THE ANCIENTS.— Thk World acoordikg to Home» 
(B. C. 900).— Thb World acoordino to HsoatjBUS (about B. C. 500).— Thk Wobli» 
AOOORiNLKO TO HsRODOTUS (about B. 0. 440).— Thb World acoordino to Dkmoori- 
«us (aboutB. 0.300). — Thb World aocordino to Eratosthknis and Strabo 
(ftom Rbout B. C. 200 to A.D. 20) — Wsstern Kuropk aooobdino to Strabo.-— 
Tbb World aocordino to Ptolemt (about A. D 160).— India accordino to Pto> 


5. THK WORLD AS KNOWN TO THK ANCIENTS, with thk Boundart op tui 
Pbbsian Kmpirb under Ctrus. 

8. SMPIRB OF ALKXANDBR THE OREAT, \nTH thk adjoinino Bioiomb 


7. mSPANIA. . 

«. ITALIA (Northem Part). 

0. ITALIA (Southern Part).— GORSKiA ahd SABDiau. 
U. THB ROMAN TBRRtXORT and tbb NsiOBBOBnra OouNTBT, on aa enlarged 

12. 8ICILTA. 





wa onlarsod seale. 











Si. ARABIA PKTH^.A AND PART OF EGYPT, includwo thb Delta. 


26. TH0.I A. — TIIKRMOPYr,.«. — M AR ATIION. — PLAT JfiA. — MANTINKA. — 

It will be observed that in addition to a retj thoroagh swies of maps af all 
Mie countrios known to the ancients, tbe Atlas contains a large number of topo- 
graphical plans, 09 an enlarged soalo, of important places, eluddating in many 
ways, passiftges in the classical writers. In this manner it is believed tbat much 
assistance will be rendered to the student who desires to obtain a clear oompre- 
hension of ancient bistory. 

The name of Mr. Long as a sound and aocurate classical scholar is too widely 
known to render neoeraary any asfuranoes of the eorrectnees of wfaich 
Las enjoyed his editorial care. In reproducing it in this oountry, Tarious addi* 
tions have been thought desirable. A complete, though oompendious, skctdi of 
Ancient Geography bas been prefixed, rendering the volume complete in itseif 
as a text book or work of reference. Two plates have been addod, one oomprisiag 
the views entertained by the ancient geographon, and showing the gradual de- 
velopment of knowledge trom the earliest timcs ; the other consisting of topo- 
graphical plans, on nn enlarged scale, of varlous places of note. From a deslre 
to prosent nothing that was mercly conjectural, Mr. Long inserted no boundariea 
on the maps. While adraitting the impossibility of at present determining with 
abflolute aocuracy the limits of contiguous territories, it yet was thought that 
without some indication of tbeir posilion, as generally received by classical soho- 
Uuw, the student would feel the want of an asdstanoe to whieh he had become 
aocustomed, and they bave aooordingly been introduoed from standard authori- 

Every care has been taken throughout to obtain entire aocunu^ in the most 
«veftil revision of both maps and text by the eompetent scholar who has macl« 
the additions and snperintended the press. Should errors, however, have escaped 
attention, the publishers would respectfully solidt a oommunioation of tiiem 
for immediate correoticm. 

In thus presenting, at so very moderate a prioe, an Atlas more ooraplete in it« 
aoope than any which have yet been offered to the American student, tbe pub- 
lishers trust that their efforts have not been misdirected, aud tbat they will be 
found to have succeeded in producing a work in every way suited to the ia- 
creasing requirementsof the advanoed classical sdiolarship of the age. 

In the preface to his editien gf Casar, Mr. Lenf lias eriiibiled le complete a m«rtery 
at the Keflgraphy of his soblect, th *n readinir hi5 author we alwajrs wished for tiis own 
map of the soene of operations ; u^^ our wish bas now been gratified by the preseBk 
pablication, which, amongst others, contains of course a map of aucient GaoL We wiU 
■et pretend that we have dili^tly exaroined everjr raap ; bot we have examined quiCe 
enouKh to be fuHy justified m dMlarinfr these mape wh&t we are oonscientioasly per- 
•uaded of their being; tbe very best of the sort that have been publistied in Emiland ; 
they are also beautifuilyexecutod, and published at a moderate prioe iur so elaboirato a 
work. , We veiy eamestly reconinaend this list of mapa to every stadent who desires t9 
•tody ancient bteratQre with tall advantajre. — Standard. 

Now that we are so well sapplied with classical dictiouaries, it is hif hly desirahla 
that we shoold alao have aa atlas worthy to aoeompany tfaem. **Batler's Atlas** haa 
long been very useful, but the time has nuwoome for some improveroent apoa it; aad i|i 
the volume before us is to be fomMi all that caa be deeired. The names of those who 
have been ooncemed in its preparation apeak for themaehres. On ezaminatioa, we fiad 
it adapted to the present stute of classical scholanhip. aud distinsnisbed br a s^ierior 
fttyle of execation. The wants of the classical student have beea carefaUy coasaltMl 
tbroughout; all plaees of pecaliar interest, such as Rome, Athens, and its harbura; Sy- 
racose, &c., being given upon an enlarged scale, and the relative positiotis of the pnbhe 
buildings, roads, &c., clearly exhibited. We notioe, also. that places wbich have more 
tLan oae name in the chissics, such as Dyrrachinm and Epidamnus, Carchedon aad Cai^ 
thage, appear with both in the Atlas. As a compani<m to Dr. Smith'a new *' DietioMury 
f>I Geography," this Atlas wili be valaable.— .AMeaotim. 





0»»».^.»<WM».^'i»<»»»W ««»«.» 







Tbs text of tliis edition of Yirgil is mainly adopted £i om that 
of the scbool edition of Wagner, published at Lcipzi^ in 1845. 
In certain matters of orthography, the mode usually pursued in 
thi» country, and to which our dictionaries are adapted, has been 
employed, instead of that to which Wagner has been led, from 
his faithful adherence to manuscript autliority. Thus, for conpo- 
«ere» aaepes, maettiu^ temptabwU^ we have given componerey sepee, 
moettutf tentabunt, Without entering into the complicated ques- 
tions which arise on this topic, it has appeared to us th^t the 
battle must be fought elsewhere ; and that it is our province not 
to lead in such matters, but to foliow. The punotuation, on which 
80 much depends for the right understanding of an author, has 
been carefully attended to, and adjusted so as best to bring out 
the meaning, without that minute subdivision which serves to 
perplex rather than lo guide. 

In the notes, the Editor has of course availed himself of the 
most distinguished commentators, ancient and modern. At the 
same time ho bas exercised an independent judgment in lelecting 
and adapdng them, and in bringing before the reader such views 
of his own as he deemed to be useful. The great object has been 
to give such infbrmation and guidance on points grammntical, 
critical, mythological, geographical, and historical, as may lead 
the learner to understand and to feel the aim, the thoughts, the 
allusions, and the beauties of the author, without interfering with 
Che exercise of his own powers and industry. Peculiarities and 
anomalies in prosody are duly pointed out. Some attention has 
been given to illustrate Yirgit by a comparison with passages in 
our own poets; and these the judicious teacher will do well to 
multiply. Indeed one great aim has been not only to inform the 
scholar, but to guide the less-experienced instructor as to the 
points tc which it is desirable he should direct the attention of 
his pupils. Hence it will be observed that the geographical and 
tnythological notices are of the briefest kind, and enter only into 



8uch explanations as tend to elucidate the passage in which thojr 
occur. More than this is led to tke dictionary. Some pains have 
also been taken to make the Arguments as full as possible, that 
a clear exposition of the author^s main object may awaken a cor* 
responding intelligence on the part of the reader. To under- 
stand the current of a writer's thought, is the only way to un- 
derstand and relish his single passages, his choice of epithets, 
and his skill in weaving a consistent whole. 

It wili be observed that a running commentary has not beea 
given on the whole of the Georgics. They aie seldom read 
throughout in schools ; not for their want of beauty, but because 
a didactic poem is not so well fitted to interest the young as a 
narrative or a dialogue. But there are some passages in the 
Georgics whieh nniversal consent points out as anKHig tbe finest 
efibrts of Yirgirs muse, and whieh are eminently captiTatiag 
even to a young mind. These are the praises of Italy in the 
First, and of a rural life in the Second Book, and the story of 
Aristaeus in the Fourth. To these notes bave been given. 

In conformity with the plan parsued in the various works of 
this series, a life of the Author has been prefixed, in which an 
attempt is made to bring the learner into contact witli him, and 
thus prepare the mind to appreciate his excelieacies, aiid ts 
account for his defects. 

EDiiTBirBM, /k^ 90» 184i 


tho gro»t Epie Po«t <if Roms, wh 

born on th« IStb oT Octolnr, b. ti. 

70, in the oonsulship of Cn. Poro- 

i p«iui,Hnd M. Licinius CTamnSiths 

\ men who, tan ye«ra BRerwaTdi, 

Ucombined wiih Julins Coeiar to 

fbtm what is aomedmes called , 

/Ithe 'Finl Triamvirals.' Horace, 

/ denined to be hi> boiom fyiend, 

WB» boin flvB, and Octavianai, 

Dfterwards Angusliis, on wbom- so 

lUncfa of his life depended, seveD 

years aAer him. His natira placs 

waa Andea, in Cisalpine Gaul, a 

few milei fnnn Mantaa, lo wbich 

' Istlei town bis birth is oflen asciibed, aa when he is leimed 

'*the Mantnan baid.' Mantna ia ailuated on a marshy lake 

Ibrmed by Ihe Minciua (ihe modein MiticJo), abonl twelve miles 

abore the plaee whera ii joina Ihe Po, on iLe noilh bank. Tho 

Miocius flows fVom the Lacns Benacus, a noble lake (now Ihe 

Lago di Gsida), wbich 'Virgil has not lelt unsung.' Aboul three 

miles below Manlaa ia ibe biithptace of oui poet. Traditjon, 

«s eaily at least as the tirae of Danle,* idenlifled, aa it does still, 

Ibis spot with the modern Pi4tola, ■ small but neat village in a 

flat Ibough feitile snd well-wooded councty, stili waving wiih 

tfae spieading beech and ]oSty elm. Heie a faini is slill calied 

FirgiHana, wbich is said to have been iLat possessed by Iho 

poet ; but the reataies of the country in the neighbourhood, 

wbicb ia low and unpicluresqae, do nol beai out the hinls whioh 

we can pathei fiora the poet of his residence; while the Min 

cius, wilh its leedy banks Bnd lai:/ couise, is by him failhlblly 

and graphically described.* 

Theie are various accounts of tbe oceupation of his fuihei ; 
■ «Dd theie «re so blended widi manifest abaurdiiies tegarding tho 

^Gserg. iL leO^Furgalorw, xviii. 82.— *£eJ. vii. 13 ; Gcarg. iii. 14. 


omens which at his birth predicted the futare greatness of &• 
wonderful infant, that we are induced to donbt the whole. Thi» 
much seems certain, that his mother*s name was Maia, and that 
his parents, though obfcure, were possessed of some property^ 
and were neither unable nor nnwilling to impart to their son a 
liberal education. This, accordlng to*the traditions regarding hinit 
preserved by Donatus/ was carried on at Cremona, Mediolanum 
(Milan), and afterwards at Neapolis (Naples). It has been 
conjectured that Yirgil received instructions from Catius, an 
Insubrian professor of the Epicurean philosophy. But this rests 
en no otber foundation than what we learn from Cicero— that 
Catiut was ative about this ti^sie, and that MediotaiBnm, in which 
it is possible that Yirgil tben liyed, was an Insubrian town. We 
have better authority for believing that at Naples he studied 
Greek under Parthenius, a native of Nicaea, in Bithynia, one of 
whose proee works has come down to us, and who, as a writer of 
poetry,' was a great favourite of the noble Romans of his time. 
It seems certain that he enjoyed at Rome, to which he removed 
from Naples, the instrnctions of Syron, an Epicureau philosopher, 
much oommended by Cicero. 

•If we may credit Donatus, Yirgil assumed the toga vtHKs at 
Cremona, on bis birthday, when he had oompleted his fifteenth 
year; in Uie consulship again of Pompey and Craasus, b.c 55. 
I>aring the interval between bis birth aad this event, Pompey 
and Caesar had both consolidated their power. The fbrmer had 
conducted to a saooessful termination tbe Piratic and Mitk- 
ridattc wars ; and the latter had exhibited in Gaul hi« eztraor- 
dinary skill mt a general, prompt, brave, and politic. Buring 
this time also Catiline and Clodiui had, the one gucoumbed to, 
and tbe other triumphed over, the eloquenee of Cicero. It was 
in this year likewise that Caesar first invaded Britain— «toto 
dwi9o$ arbe BnUumio$^ 

We are compelled to eoiijeotore the incidents of our author's 
life aAer he had finished his early studies at Rome. It is 
probable that his bealth (which we learn incidentally Irom 
Horace, as well as directly from his biographer, to have been 
infirm, in consequence of a feeble stomach and an asthmatic 
tendency) prevented hira from aiming at distinction by tbe 
usual means by wbieh obscure men of talent then lose to 

^ A biography of Virgil, beariog this naroe, is generally prefixed to 
<he larffer eaitions. We know nothing of the author. It is conjec- 
tured that he was a grammarian of tbe fifth century, who collected 
tbe floating traditions on the subject ; and that his aecount was inter- 

polated by 9ubse(]uent and ignorant writere ''Yirgil is said to hava 

Dorrowed firom him ; and one line, €ftorg. i. 437, i« particularly men* 
tioned. Macrob. r. 17 ; A. GelHae, ix. 9, ziii. SS.^JSel. i. 67. 

iifTRooucTioib m 

nmliwncft Kt Rome— tbe pursiiiu of the Fofmni «iicl the arts of 
eloqBenoe. Nor does his temperameot seem to have fitted him 
to straggle witb the diffioulties of that troubled time. We need 
BOt wooder, tben, to find him eogaged in rarai pursuits in the 
neighbourhood of his birthplace, on the banks of the Mincius. 

To this period is assigned*the greater 'porUon of certaia poema 
which are by some attributed to Virgil, but which are not gene- 
xally given along with his more notable works in an edition suck 
MB this. The prineipal of these are CttUx^ Cirit^ Moretwn^ Copa^ 
and CataUcta, The CuUx narrates an adventure connected with 
tfae death of a gnat : the Cirit tells the love of Scylla, daughter 
of Nisus, king of Megara, for Minos, her treachery to her father, 
and her change into the bird bearing the name Ciris : the Mor§' 
tmm (said to be an imitation of a Greek poem on the same snb- 
ject by his teaoher Parthenius) is named from a kind of salad, 
the concootion of whioh, aiong with other rustio in-dQor opera- 
tions, preparatory for going to out^loor work, is the subject of the 
poem. These are written in hexameter verse. The Copa {caur 
poj, in elegiac verse, seems intended to illustrate the art with 
which those who kept places of public entertainment allured by- 
paseers to partake of their cheer : the Caiah^a is a ooUection 
of riiort poems of various merits as well as metres. Of these the 
CWez, Ctrti, and a portion of the CataUcta^ have no great impress 
of Yirgirs manner. The rest are not unworthy specimens of his 
younger efibrts.^ 

Public evepts, meaiiwhile, were hastening tp a crisis. The 
ciTil war batween Pompey and Caesar, with the events whioh 
ibUowed, are too well known, and have too little direct bearing 
npon the ibrtunes of onr author, to require roore than mention 
here, But it is absolutely necessary lo notioe more at length tfae 
•absequent tura taken by pubUo afiairs, as they exeroised a pow* 
•rfal influence on his history. 

Julius Caesar was «seassinated oa the 15th March a. c. 44, 
when Yirgii was twenty-^ve, and when Octavius, tbe grandson 
of the diotator'8 sister, adopted by him that very year, was nine- 
teen years of age. Antony, who was consul for the year, and 
faad infiamed the passions of the pc^ulaoe so strongly against 
tfae conspirators that they were immediately obliged to fiee from 
"Bome^ was brought from personal views into hostile coUision 
with Octavianos, who at first naturally looked to him for assisu 

' ' Virgil is a remarkable instance of a man mistaking his vocation. 
His reai calling was lyric poetry, for his sraall lyric poems — ^for in- 
stance that on the villa of Syron, and the one commencing * Si mihi 
susceptam fuerit decurrere munus*— show that he would have been a 
poet like CatuUas if he had not been led away by his desire to writt 
a s^eat Latin poem.' — Niebuhr's JM»tory rfMmM^ vol. v. p. 1S8. 


ance as the aTenger of bis adopted fatber. And tbus we fiad 
Octayianus ibr a time on the side of the constitutiooal partf, 
lauded by Cicero, and tmsted, in appearance at least, by the 
senate. In b. c. 43 he was sent b/ the senate, along with Hir- 
tius and Pansa the consuls, to relieve D. Brutus, whom Antony 
was besieging in Motina. In this they succeeded, and Antonjr 
fled into Gaul ; bnt both the consals were killed. The senate, 
bowever, from some mistrast of Octavianus, instead of conferring 
the command upon him, directed D. Brutus to head the armiet 
against Antony, who was again becoming formidable through the 
aid of Lepidus, then commanding in Transalpine Gaul. Octa- 
vianus, on his retum to Rome, was at first coldly received by the 
senate ; but the soldiers revered the memory of Caesar, and their 
influence procured for him the consulship, and the outlawry of 
the conspirators, of course including D. Brutus, who was betrayed 
by his officers and slain^Antony and his followers being freed 
from a sentence of outlawry passed against him. It was in tbis 
year, b. c. 43, that the Second Triumvirate, which was to continue 
ibr five years, was formed by Antony, Lepidus, and Octavianos, 
who shared among themselves the govemment of the world. 
But it was necessary to put down tlieir enemies at home, and raeet 
the troops under Bmtus and Cassius, who were then engaged in 
Macedonia and in the East. The former was done by a fearful 
proscription, most mercilessly carried into efiect against the per- 
sonal enemies of each member of the Triumvirate. To accom- 
plish the latter, Antony and Octavianus crossed over into Greece, 
and thence proceeded to Macedonia, where, in the two battles of 
Philippi, Cassius and Bmtus were defeated, and slew themselves, 
B. o. 42. Antony, unhappily for himself, proceeded to Asia, while 
Octavianus returned to Italy. One of the objects of the latter in 
doing this was to secure the support of the soldiers, by bestowing 
on them land, on which they might settle, and which had been 
promised them at the very commencement of tbe troubles conse- 
quent on the death of Caesar, as tbe reward of their services. 
This is sometimes done in the case of veteran soldiers by our own 
government, bat always in a new oountry, where no hardship is 
inflicted on any one ; and it is sopposed that thus there is secured 
both a race of sturdy cultivators and of brave adherents to the 
parent country. In the case of the Roman soldiers, it was inevi- 
table that the grossest injustice should be perpetrated, and the 
greatest niisery occasioned, for the scheme was to deprive of their 
estates the actual possessors, and bestow them on the soldiers. The 
miserableinhabitants,despoiledof their lands and homes,crowded 
to Rome, seeking redress and assistance. Tbe evil bad spread 
raore widely than was at first intended ; for it had been found 
tliat the lande originally set apart for the purpose were not sufil 


efent, and heooe ao inditeriminate f poliation took place, reacbing 
to a)l ranks and all partiet. It became evident that the struggls 
was now between a lieentions army and the whole inhabitantt 
of Italy. In the meantime L. Antoniiis, brother of the triumyir, 
and then consuK along with Fulvia, the triumvir's wife, to secure 
to Antony some ofthe popularity wiih the soldiers likely to accrue 
from tfae division of the Uittds, persuaded Octavianus to leave to 
tfie officers of Antony the dnty of assigning to his troops the landt 
which fell to their share. Tbose despoiled by the latter fled in 
tnrn to Octavianus, who at first was not unwilling to eourt the 
popular favour by proteoting them. But he found that, after all, 
tiie army was his great snpport; and he finally entered into theif 
•ause withont restraint, while L. Antonins, in> turn, threw hinuelf 
on the people. 

Thus there were two parties arrayed against each other in open 
war, the subject being the division of the land8-*-L. Antonius at 
the head of the people, and Octavianus at that of the army. The 
siege of Perusia, in Etruria, at the Trasimene Lake, where L. 
Antonius was shut up by Octavianus, eiided unfortunately for the 
latter, b. c. 40, and the army finally triomphed. 

We mustnow look at the bearing which these events have oa 

the history of VirgiL When the division of the Roman world 

among the triumvirs took place, the Gkuls eonstituted one of the 

provinces assigned to Antony. The charge of GalUa Transpadana, 

that portion of Cisalpine Gaul which lay between the Po and 

the Alps, and in which Creraona and Mantua were situated, 

was given to Asinius PoIIio, who was siz years older than Yirgil, 

and had been a faithful adherent of Julius Caesar. He was not 

only a brave soldier, but a celebrated orator ; and in addition to 

liifl historical labours, had devoted himself to poetry. A friend 

and patron of poets, and a literary man, it is fair to infer that he 

fiMtered the growing geniusof the youngVirgil, whocameunder 

bis special notice, as living in his province, engaged in agricul» 

ture and the service of the Muses. It was his office to divide 

among the soldiers the portion of the lands which lay in the 

ooantry over which he presided. If the ordinary aceount be 

correct, PolUo must have found himself unable, by his own au- 

thority, to reserve the lands of the poet, highly though he esteenied 

him. Virgil had already written some of the Eclogues,* by which 

he gave early promise of his future fame; and in a friendlyspirit 

PolUo counselled him to seek the protection of Octavianns. We 

hare no information how the poet obtained access to Octavianus; 

bat his prayer was granted, and his lands in the meantime se- 

eored to him — a service which be celebrates in the first Eclogue. 

^ Frobably tho second, third, and perhaps the fifih. 


Bat his SIICCM8 at Perusia haThig placed all Italy in the hands 
of Octavianus, Pollio was snperseded in his command, and the 
task of assigning the lands committed to Cornelias Gallus, also 
distinguished as a poet and orator, and Yarus, both of whom had 
been feilow-pupils of Virgil under Syron. Even their fevour did 
not protect our poet from the violence of the soldiery. The lands 
about Cremona, which had, from favouring the conspirators, ren- 
dered itself obnoxious to the veterans of Caesar, did not sufficey 
and Mantua, though not in the same position, was, from its 
proximity, ezposed to the same fate. Besides, Antonius Musa, 
wbo was associated with Yarus and Grallus, had private reasoris 
for pressing hard upon the Mantuans. In the conseqnent seizure 
of their lands, the protection before given to the x^oet, and which 
he endeavoured to secure by celebrating Yarus in his sixth 
Eclogue, did not now avail him. He was obliged to flee belbre 
the sword of an augry soldier, and took shelter, it is said, with 
his master Syron, where he wrote the ninth Eclogue, b. c. 40. 

In the meantime Antony, who had behaved himself disgrace- 
iiilly in Asia and Egypt, was sunimoned by his wife, while on 
his march in an expedition against the Parthians, to support his 
declining cause in Italy. He met her in Greece, where she died ; 
but he sailed to Italy, where he found Octavianus at Brundusium 
ready to oppose him. On the other hand, Antony had been 
joined by a strong reinforcement, as Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, 
who commanded the constitutional fleet, was indueed by Pollio 
to come over to his side. In these circumstances neither party 
was averse to peace, which was conducted under the mediation 
of Maecenas on the side of Octavianus, Pollio on that of Antony, 
and Cocceius, a common friend of both-— an event which is com- 
memorated in the fourth Eclogue. It was at this time that An- 
tony married Octavia, ihe sister of Octavianus. Virgil now found 
easy access to Octavianus, and either formed or confirmed his 
friendship with Maecenas. His lands were, in consequence, 
restored to him ; and if we may credit Servius, his influence was 

strong enough to obtain a partial redress for the Mantuans.' 
' ' ' — ^— — — 

> We have thou^ht it right, in such a work as this, to foilow th« 
account of the various steps by which the poet was ultimately se- 
cured in his property, as given in substantially the same roanner by 
all the modern writers who have carefullv consulted Donatus, Ser- 
vius, and the other grammarians, among the most elaborate of whom 
are La Rue, Heyne, Jahn, and Forbiger. But we think it would 
not be diflicult to show, from the position of Pollio, and the situation 
of Gaul in reference to Octavianus, that the application of Virgil to 
Octavianus is aced too early. Without entering into the reasons 
by which this nclusion is arrived at, we shall briefly state the con- 
cfusion itself. Virgil, as well as the other Mantuans, enjoyed his 
lands in peace while Gaul was under the cdministration of Follio, 


Tirgil h«d not yet exhaiBted the stores of his RflfeotSoii to 
Pollio, aod the eighth Eclogue (b. c. 39) bears a pleasant teiti- 
mony to tbe poet'8 gratitnde. From this time Poilio retired into 
private life, taking no part in the subsequent contests between 
Octavianus and Antony. 

For some years Virgil seems to have divided liis time between 
his farra and Rome. It must have been abont this period (b. c. 
39) tljat Iie introduoed Horace to Maecenas.' It was in this year 
also that the triumvirs concluded at Puteoli a peace with Sextus 
Pompeius, son of tbe great Pompey, who had long harassed the 
Italian coasts with his fleet, and intercepted the provisions sent 
the RonMins by sea from abroad. Atter tbis, Antony, with his 
wife Octavia, went to Athens, and Octavianus returned to Rome. 
But the calm was not of long duration. Antony had failed to 
fulfil bis engageraents ; Pompeius either wouid not remain quiet, 
or Octayianus invented tales of piratical attacks on Roman ships 
as a pretext for assailing him. Accordingly next year (b. c. 38) 
war was declared against him by Octavianus, who desired the 
co-operation of Antony. A meeting was fixed at Brundusinm, 
whither Antony repaired^ but as Octavianus had not arrived, 1m 
instantly, to the great surprise of all, returned to Athens. Mae^ 
cenas, with Cocceius and others, and, what is more memorable, 
Horace and Yirgil in his train, arrived at Brundusium, it may be 
conjectured, after Antony^s abrupt departure. From tbe language 
of Horace in describing their journey,* it is evident that Yirgil and 

When the party of Octavianus triumphcd, the poet*8 fears were ex- 
cited — hence Eclogue vi. — and justly. He was too well known to 
be under the protection of Pouio, for his former connection with 
Gallus and Varus to save him-; though it is not unreasonable to sup- 
pose that they wonld have done so had they been able. Leaving his 
lands, he fled, and it was not tiil the Brundusian peace that he re» 
gained his lost property. No wonder that the tertns of the fourth 
Eclogue are so rapturous ; while the language of the flrst Eclo^ue 
will suit this period, to say the least of it, as well as the other. Tnus 
we may account for the circumstance that, with the exception of the 
fact stated in the next paragraph of the text, we find no more notice 
of Pollio in ali the subsequent writings of Virgil, though PoUio long 
survived him.^ Our author seems to have thrown himself entirely 
on the side of Octavianus and Maecenas. Is there no sdlusion to 
this in the lines Ecl. i. 2S-36 ? There is nothing in the early com- 
mentators to oppose this view of the matter, while it is adcquate to 
xneet the historicai facts known to us. 

* Horat. Sat. i. 6, 55, 61, compared with Sat. i. 5. Clinton {Fasti 
lielleniciy vol. iii. p. 221) conjectures that the introduction of Maecenaa 
to Horace took place b. c.41; but if the reasoning of the previous note 
be sound, this is too carly a period. The friend and partisan of Pollio 
could hardly be so intimate at this time with Maecenas — ^not to men- 
lion the total silence of Virgil regarding Maecenas in the Eclogues. 

• Horat. Sat. L 5. Arnold fixes the time of this excursion at the 

h6 were on t|ie mott friendly terms both witb eaoh other and 
with Maeoenas. Nor is the year void of the labour of our autbori 
if it be true that he then produoed the eeventh Eologue, though 
tbere is no evidence, either internal or external, to prevent us 
from placing it in the previous year. To thiit year also soma 
refer the tenth Eclogue, whioh others place in b. c. 37. 

Yirgil was now confirmed in his intimacy with Maecenas. The 
opinion that he was encouraged by Maecenas to his second great 
work, the Greorgics, is ibnnded not roore oa the opinions of the 
ancient grammarians than on his own ezpress statement.' It is 
said that the great object which Maecenas bad in view in sug* 
gesting, and Yirgil in executing Uie poem, was alike to stimulate 
to agrioultural labour, and to instruot in its best metbods. Ital/ 
had been so long devastated by civil wars, tbat its iuhabitairts 
were repeatedly exposed about this time to all tbe horrors of fa> 
mine ; and the inhabitants, trained to the excitements of activo 
military life, had lost agricultural taste and skill. In these cir- 
enmstances, it was of importai^ce not more to instruct than W 
encourage. Axul assuredly he wouUl deserve well of his country 
who coaid so direct tbe feelings o£ his oountrymen, by popular 
•trains, as should lead them to exchange the spear and the sword 
ibr the share and the pruning-book. It is not unftequently th« 
oase that men &il in subiiects prescribed or suggested to tbem bj 
others. But the case here was difierent. We can hardly doubl 
Ihat the poet was sellKiirected to his theme, and that the sugges- 
tion was his own, but encouraged and fostered by Maecenas. 

There seems little doubt tbat the Georgics were completed in 
k. c. 30. This appears both negatively and from positive evi- 
dence, Ibr Virgil alludes to maoy ocQurrences preceding that year. 
When tfae Greorgics were commenced, is not so clear. The older 
oommentators state that they occupied a period of seven years. 
If 80, they must have been begun b. c. 37. But little confidence is 
to be placed in their averments, though there is at least a proba- 
bility that this theme was entered on before b. c. 35. Trusting 
to the lines at the end of the Georgics, we may conclude that the 
main part of this work was eomposed in the city of Naples. If, 
however, the poem actnally occupied so long a tlme as is geoa- 

date of the Brundusian peace (History af the LaterRoman Common' 
v>eaUh, vol. ii. p. 260), referring to Appian, v. 64. But his account 
of the transaction is manifestiy inaccurate ; and the view of He^me, 
Jahn, and others, who refer it to the visit to Brundusium, mentioned 
by Appian, v. 78, has been adopted as the true one. Heyne, how 
ever, places the date of the visit in the year b. c. 39. Niebuhr seema 
to ti^e the same view as the majority of the commentators. Hi» 
tary ofBome, vol. v. p. 124, note. 
^ Georg, iii. 40, 41. 

nllf aseribed to it, it it Idgbly imptobable thmt Yirfil ietide4 ia 
Ihat city at a period when tbe sotttb of Italy wa» in oommotioii^ 
ftom the civil wars ragiog between Ootaviaiuii, Aatony, and 
Sextus PompeiuB. But there is no diffieulty if we assume that 
the poet alludes to his occupationS) as was natoral, towards tha^ 
Gonclusion of liis work. 

While engaged in the composition of the Georgics, Virgil 
appears to have meditated another an^ a greater werk, a main 
object of which should be to exalt Octaviaiuiis Caesar« It is lesa 
•asy to tell what truth there is in the narrative of Donatus, whiok 
is confirmed by Serviue, tfaat our autfaor faad commenced in hia 
yDuth a poem founded on early Roman history, but that the hard* 
ness of the names deterred him. There are, faowever, sufficient 
indications in bis earlier poeqis tfaat some suefa design was entei^ 
tained by him. And in the peace tfaat the world now eiijoyed, 
be at last commenced his great undertaking, wbich oocupied biiit 
till tfae close of fais life. He maaiiested in tfae Aeneid tfae sama 
attention to the passing events conneeted witfa hie exalted patia& 
as he had done in the Georgics. 

Bonatus meQtions that while Augustus wa» engaged in his 
Spanisfa expedition, b. g. 27, fae wrote to Yirgil expresiiag hia 
anxiety to possess some specimens of his labour» We hava a« 
extract from the poet's letter in reply. After aoknowledgiag tfa* 
receipt of several letters from Augustus,be says, ^With regaid to 
my (poem on) Aeneas, if I had anything worthy of your ears, I 
sfaould send it with pleasure. Bnt I have only eatered on tfae 
iobject, whioh is of such a nature, that I seem to myself to faaT» 
undertaken it almost from some fatuity of mind ; especially aa 
you know that I wish to bring to bear oa that work otfaer studies» 
and these of much greater moment.'^ Tfaere have been also 
referred to tbe same period the well-known Unes of PropettiuSi 
celebrating the progress of the Aeneid, and endini^ 

Cedite Romstni scriptores, eedite Graii, 
Nescio quid majus nascitur Iliade.* 

' Maerob. Sai, i. 24.— ^The time at whidi thie was written appeara 
tfoubtfuL Cliifton {F, H. p. 237)placea it at b. g. 24, firom the aUu* 
•ion (91) to the recent death of Gaiius. Tfaere- arises, however, a 
•uspicion from the words— 

* Actia VirgiUam custodis litora PhoBbi 
Caesaris et fortis dicMie posse ratet,* 

tbat Propertius did not write it till the completion of the eighth book 
(mo 675, d&c especially 704) ; which we should conjecture, for rea- 
•ons regarding the seventh book, stated below, was not written tiU 
two years after this. It is certainly possible that Propertius may 
iHiye luiown that Virgil intended to celebrate the glories of the battle 
of Actium. But no one can look at the two pamgea without bemg 

%ir iimtODiTCTioif. 

In the year b. c. 24, Angustus returned to Rome ; and in tbe 
next year he had the misfbrtnne to lose by death Marcellns, the 
son of his sister Octavia by lier first hnsband. This young man, 
who died in his twentieth year, had been adopted by Aupfustus, 
who gave him his daughter Julia in marriage, and bestowed on 
him so many marks of favour, that he was universally regarded 
as his intended snccessor. Yirgil, as usual, laid hold of this event 
in his patron'8 history, and thus enabies us to fix the date of the 
sixih book as posterior to b. c. 23. The foliowing incident is nar- 
rated by Donatus, and alluded to by Servius, in connection with 
Ae death of Marcellus. The poet, when his work was far ad« 
vanced, read to the emperor the seoond, fburth, and sixth books— 
it is to be presumed not all atone sitting. While he was reading 
tiie last book, Octavia was present. When he came to the passage, 
Tu MarteUus em, Octavia fainted away, and the poet received 
from her on her recovery the munificent gift of ten sestertia for 
each of the lines referring to Marcellus.* We are told by the 
same authority that Virgil read with great sweetness, and imparted 
even to dull matter a charm which gave it a life not its own. 

With this date assigned to the sixth book agrees a passage in 
tfae seventh. It has been mentioned that the Parthians, Phraates, 
then reigning as king, and Tiridates, whom a conspiracy, exas- 
perated by the cruelty of the sovereign, had raised up as a com- 
petitor for the throne, had applied for aid to Octavianlis while in 
Syria after the oonqoest of Egypt The son of Phraates was at 
that tinie in the hands of Tiridates, who placed him in the hands 
of the Romans. He was taken to Rome, and application was 
inade for him, b. c. 23, by ambassadors from Phraates, while Tiri- 
dates pleaded his own cause in person. Augustus sent back the 
youth, but on condition that the Roman prisoners and standards 
taken in the disastrous defeat of Crassus, thirty years before, 
should be restored. This was done B. c. 20, and afibrded intense 
gratification to the Romans. But there was in the meantime an 
evident alternative of war, and to this Yirgil alludes in the 
teventh book. If this suggestion of La Rue, sanctioned by 
Heyne, be correct, the six last books of the Aeneid were com- 
posed within a period of three years. During this time Augustus 
was engaged ,in some of those extensive excursions which led 
Suetonius to remark that Africa and Sardinia were the only 
provinces of the Roman empire not visited by him, and which 
seems to have excited tbe admiration of our author. 

Btnick by tbe almost certainty tbat Propertius had read or heard the 
passag^e. And we have the authority of Donatus for stating that 
\ irmi recitavit pluribus. 

^This — ^valuing tbe sestertium at L.7, 16s. 3d.— gives Ii.78, 28. 6d. 
ibr each line, and L.2031, 5s. for tbe wbole. 


li was while retarnmg from one of these exourtkms that tha 
emperor met Yirgil, on what waa destined to be the poet'8 last 
iourney. He bad contemplated, it is said, a tour through Greeoe 
and Asia, to furnisb him with more copious materials, and mora 
lifelike observation, so that the Aeneid, now blocked out, but 
all unpolished, might receive the last touches of Itis master hand. 
Augustus was retuming from Samos, where he had passed tbe 
two preceding winters, and met Yirgil in Athens. The latter, 
either leeling already the incipient weakness of disease, or 
willing to gratify his great friend, abandoned his first intentioB, 
and agreed to return with him.' At Megara, his fatal illness de- 
veleped itself, and increased during the voyage to Italy. A few 
days ailer his arrival at Brundusium, he died, on the 22d of 
September, b.o. 19, within twenty-three days of eompleting his 
fifty-first year, prolmbly the same year that witnessed the death 
of the poet TibuUns. 

According to Donatns, he had spent the later years of hi» lile 
partly in Sicily, but chiefly in Campania. The delightful dimata 
and scenery of Naples being associated with his greatest enjoy- 
ments, he direoted that he should be buried there. Accordingly, 
Augustus ordered his bones to be tmnsferred thitber, and a tomb 
was erected over them near the via Puteolana on Mount Posilipo, 
less than two miles from Naples. A tomb (see tail-piece), almost 
Qniversally believed to be that of Yirgil, is still pointed out, in 
a situation corresponding to that mentioned by Donatus,^ and 
bearing this inscription, referring to the birth, death, and burial- 
place of the poet, as well as his threefold labonrs in the Eclogaes, 
the Georgics, and the Aeneid :-«- 

* Mantua me genuit, Calabri rapuere, tenet nunc 
Parthenope. Gecini pascua, rura, duces.' 

This epitaph Donatus credulously assigns to Yirgil himself. 
His parents, we are told, lived long enough to enable him to 


^The subject of the site of Virgil's tomb is an interesting one, but 
cannot be discussed here. Cluveriua first raised doubts on the sub* 
ject, for universal tradition, so far back as it can be traced up to 
Petrarch, is in its favour ; and Cluverius was followed by Addison 
(Remarks on Italy, p. 138). Holdsworth iRemarks and Dissertationt 
on Virgilt p. 501) examines the matter at great length, and decides, 
it seems on good grounds, in favour of the received notion. This, 
too, is the opinion of Gibbon {Miscellaneoua WorkSf voL ii. p. 204, 
ed. 1796), Eustace, Cramer, and Niebuhr {Hiatory ofRome, vol. v. 
p. 159), who says — *It is adorned with a laurel-tree. I have visited 
the spot with the feelings of a pilgrim, and the branch I plucked 
from tfae laurel-tree is as dear to me as a sacred relic, although it 
Mver occurs to me to place him among the Roman poets of the 
ficst order.' 


«Iiow hig HTeetioa and gratknde bf imiiitaiimqr tbem in aifliietieo 
hi« fatbcr baTing beoome blind. He had k>tt, besides, bf deatta^ 
two brothen; bnt a 8tep4>rolher hj tiie motber, Yalerii» Pro< 
•ulus, survired him. To him he ieft oae-faalf of hi« property, and 
Ihe remainder, in Tariont proportions, lo Augustus, MaecenaSi 
L. yarittfl, and Plotiut Tncea. We caaaot doubt that he hatd 
been enriched by the liberali^ of fais patfone. Accorclkig lo 
Anhis Gellius, a refusal whieh ha met with ftora the people af 
Vola, a town of Campania, aorth of Yesuvins, when he wanted a 
•nppif of water from theif district far an estate of his, led him «o 
•tter Mota to Orm in the seeond QeotpCf ¥ene 225. This incU- 
cates an eari|r possessio n of property ; mid we fiad more thaa onn 
^Mtaace of the hHpreseion made on his suee essons as to fais w^alik 
aad iu soaroe, as weit as the impOTtaaoe of haTing Maecenaset, 
kt order that ihere maf be Yirgiiis. Hejrae hints at a cmijeotura 
derived from a passage in Propertius, tbat he nsay faave had & 
propertjr near Tarentam ; aad Donaias meations not only the 
estate in Campania, bot aaocher in Siciijr. For these, faowever, 
we faara bnt sligfat, or rather ao wafrant* Doaatus ratee his fot- 
tnne at about tea thousaad mttaiim,* and etates tbat fais faoese at 
Rome stood on tfae Esquiiine Hill, near tbe gardens of Maecenaa. 
It majr be aetioed Aat here also Itved Horace ; and tfaat saofa 
was tfae character of ^ place— once deemed unwbolesome-^ 
Ibr its heaJtfaincss, in consequence of reoent impfOTemems, that 
T^rius retired thtther to enjoy healtfa and rerirement. 

We are told tfaat on fais deathbed Virgtl demanded to see his 
papers, intending to barn the Aoneid, then in an ui^nished state. 
His friends remonstmted with htm, and in his will iie Jeft ia- 
structions regarding it, of which we bave various aocounts. He 
either ordered it to be burned, or he left it to the discretion of 
L. Yarius and Plotius Tucca — both mentioned by Horace as 
friends of Virgil, and eminently fitted Ibr such a cbarge — direct- 
Ing tfaem, whateyer diey suppressed, to add nothing— >not even 
to complete nnfinisbed lines. Augustns interfered to save the 
poem from destruction, and by fais directions Varius and Tuoca 
pcrformed the task assigned them, bequeathing it to posterity as 
we now have it 

It is also said, and from Yirgirs own language, as well as 
bis temperament, it is probable enough, that it was his intea- 
tion, aAer he faad given the last ilnish to the work, to devote 
Imnself to philosc^hical pursuits. Without giving credence to 
the absurd fictions contained in his life by Bonatus, we have 
no reason to doubt the statement that the poet had dcvoted 

^P4tt9eiit prope eeutiet eeeterthm; eqaivaleaC« accordiog te tha 
standard mentioned, to jC78,125 of our money. 

' mnch of his early yoacs ta the stndies tbat appeilaia to natiua] 
pbilosophy. f 

With regard to his personal appearance, Yirgil is said to have 
besn tall, and stoutly made, of a swartby colour, and with tbe 
appearance of a farmer. He was slow in speech, and no one 
eonld have judged from bis conversation that he was-tbe most 
leamed of Boman poets. From bis astbroatio tendency, and the 
weak eyes of Horace, arose the saying attributed to Angustasi 
diat with these poets on eitber band, be was sitting between 
n^s and tears. 

Yirgil iived on terms of intimacy not only witb men poUtically 
great, but with those of bis contemporaries who were distin- 
guished for tbeir literary attainments, in tbat brigbt age of 
Augnstan Uterature. His biograpber remarks tbat be was utteriy 
£ree from all literary jealousy, to such a degree, that tbe success- 
fttl prodoctions of others afforded bim as mucb pleasure as if 
they were his own. His library was open to all men of iearning; 
and be often quoted the saying of Euripides, that *■ the property 
of friends was a common good.' Hence towards him tbe voice 
of envy was almost silent ; and Yarius, Tuccai Horace, Propertius, 
and otbers who adorned the time were devotedly attached to 
him. Though, like alt otber distinguished men, he did not want 
detractors, bis transcendant merits were early acknowledged by 
the Romans. On one oocasion, happening to be in tbe tbeatre 
at a time wben some lines of bis own were being recited, tbe 
people in a body rose and salnted bim witb tbe same honours as 
tbey were in the babit of rendering to Ai^ustus. His modesty, 
xnoreover, was equal ta bis greatness. He seldom visited Rome. 
Tbe clear atmospbere and sparkling beauties of Naples attracted 
him, from considerations both of bealth aud of taste. When 
he did appear in tbe streets, crowds foUowed bim with the 
tHbiite of admiration ; but this gave bim so little pleasure, that 
he was iain to find, in tbe sbelter of tbe nearest bouse, a 
refoge from the throng. We can trace downwajrds tbe pio- 
press of his fame. Ovid, who was a ycning man of twenty- 
ioor when Yirgil died, repeatedly takes notice of his writings. 
Qnintilian assigns to bim tbe same place in tbe study of Latin 
which he does to Homer in that of Greek-— tbe very bigbest and 
most desiraUe as an introduction. That be bad been introduced 
into the scbools of Rome as early as the age of Augustus, we 
learn £rom Suetonius. And tbe practioe continued till a late 
period, as we find it both recommended and mentioned by Augns" 
tin and Orosins, wbo wrote about ▲. d. 415. Caligula, however, 
treated alike contemptuously the claims of Yirgil and Livy to 
distinotion; and Adrian preferred Ennius to our poet. Tbe 
popolarity of Yirgil leoured him early a host of oommentators, 
2* B 

mii mTmomutiTam. 

of Yalentinian, a little afler the middle of the fourth eenturf. 
Atilus GelUiis alto (about a. ». 143) has copionfi remajrks oo our 
poet in bis NoeUi AttUat; and Maerobios (about ▲.!!. d90) d$« 
votea fimr out 0!f the seven bookt of his Cowcvmmm Saimrn^ 
Uumm to a critic&l examiaatioa of Vicgil'* m»rits. Tbe xxiotft 
«xtMMvdiaary of the #ffi»ets of his reputationj mmA the helieif |pq»- 
«alent in %be middle agea that he had been a great mai^btaii ; 
wmA of his ieats in thie capaoitj mott wondjerful Uiings are ckw 
rated. Thus a copper fly fixed by him on one of the gatee of 
Naplee, for .e^ht years prarented any fljr irom entering tbat citj. 
fie encompaesed hts houee and garden,in which it «eYer rained, 
with a wall of air, invisible, but impermeable. £ven at this 
dajr his name is assooiated in the minds of the Qoaaoaa people 
ef Naples wich magic and necromaney. 

Crities of more modem times have taken widely different esU- 
mates of ^e merits of Yirgil, especially as regavds the Aeneifl. 
These opinions were at first founded on a sense of tbeobUgatioa 
dne to his produotions, which, more than any otiiers, attracted 
attention at the reviTal of letters in Europe. Henoe there was 
too much inclination to oyervalue him as an epic poet, and 
blindly to compare him, as on equal terms, with Homer. We 
may tak» Blair as a late representative of this.olass. * Bitt,' saxs 
fae, * notwithstaading these defects, wbioh it was naoesaary |o 
lemark, Virgil possesses beauties whieh have justly drawn the 
admiration of ages, and which to tbis day hold the bahinee ia 
•quiiibrium between his iame and diat of HQmer.' The ten- 
danoy is now too much perbaps th^ other way. Niebuhr esp0- 
eialiy seems unduLy to depreoiate Viigil, when he says-^^His 
Aeneid, on the other hand, is a oompiete iailure; it is an im- 
happy idea irom -beginningto end ; but this must aot prevent ns 
iirom aoknowledging that it contains manye&quisite passages.* 
Xhere is^io doubt on the.mind.of anyas to the. exceilenoy of the 
GeoKgics. £ven Niebuhr .says*— ^His didaotic poem on agriciil- 
ture is more sueoessful ; it maintains a happy medium, and wa 
OMEiaot well speak of it otheiwise thpm in terms of praise.' All» 
too, are agreed on the sorvice rendefed h^ Virgil to the Lntin 
langnage and versifieation. To the £>imer he gave dignity^.aad 
as ^mnch of sweetness and soitness as its stinicture lenders .it 
eapable of receiving; and the lattar:he moulded in a s tately aad 
^owing melody unknown .to it befoee. His learning too, his pi^ 
.fimnd skiH in the antiquities, the nsages, and the history of Italyv 
are nniversally aoknowledged. In the words of Niebuhr — > Virg^il 
displays in it [the Aeneid] a leajrqing of wbioh the historian can 
joaroeLy avail himself snough ; aad (he historian who atndi«i tko 
Aanaid ^dioiaughlr miiX e»r ind xm&w Uangs Jo admire.' 

It is now tima to examiiM Tery hnmHf fec o«i«elTe« tbt 
•tbree works contained in tfais volnme. Tfae first is thf 
BvGoucA, or, as it is popularly called, ^ Eclogues of YirgiL 
The early oocupations of the poet— pa^tljr deTOted to niral pav- 
Boits, and partlj to the oultivation of Greek literature— ^mtnraUf 
Interested him in tfae .Writings o€ Tfaeoeritus, wfao wrote in Greek 
"veEse of tfae emplo]mients of the sfaepherd. Sis first ^ioiigfaf 
#eenis to faaye foeen to content faimself witfa an imitatkMi of hii 
master, seeking no otber glory tfaan to transfer to his own natiT« 
•tream and fields, and to fais own verse, tfae sentiments of tfae 
S|nacnsan bard. Hence we find passages from Ifae Idyllia, or 
|iastoral poems of Tfaeooritus, almost iiterally translated by Y irglL 
Few of tfae ten Eologues are strictly pastond. Tfae life of the 
hnsbandman in the norUi of Italy did not pr^ent tbe poet witb 
^qpportunities of drawing from tfae iife a representatioa of tfae 
eesy and sunny existence of bis Sieilian protoQrpe. Acoordingly, 
fflitk the exception of snatcbes faere and tfaere of rural life, we 
-find Httle to imbue us witfa a sfaepfaerd^s feelings or babits of 
tfaii^ng, oTen in tbeir poetised state. And tfae avowed transler- 
ence of Syracusan song to northern Italy leads to a mingting up 
of seenes, and personages, and deities. wfaicfa is unfavourable to 
ooT sense of the real, and brings tfae artist too prominently be- 
Ibre os.' Nevertfaeless, tfaey loe deligfatfui poems. Tfae images 
are simple and suitable, and so is tfae langoage in wbich tb^ 
•re conveyed. It is not muoh to say that tfaey never oftend ; bot 
this is at «U events an advance upon Theooritus* Tbe great «rror 
of Yirgil was^ imagine tfaat tfaey eould ever be suppoaed to be a 
.riiepberd'B represeotatkm of scenes in a sbepberd^a liie. They are 
in reaKty the pictures of a poli^ied mind, playing, if we may nsa 
tfae expression, at riiepfaerd. And we detect, we think, in tfae later 
£clogoes, greater, if not oomplete, independenoe of his master, 
leadini; to tfae invention of tfaat pleasin^, if not wfaolly natuml 
scfaool of poetry, wbere the imagination invests the rural life with 
the obarms of its own refinement Here, too, Yirgil presents us 
with many specimens of tfaat power of descriptioo wfaich we sfaall 
best plpuie beibre tbe reader in the words of a master,' even 
dioagfa it anticipate sometfaing of wfaat remains to be said of the 
Aeneidk < In the £pic, cbaracter Ibrbids tbe appearanoe of descrip- 
^ns of natnral seenes and ofcoects otherwise than as subordinato 
and accidental features, limited to a very small space : individual 
Vocalities are not por^yed, but an intimate understanding and 
Joare of natnre manifest tfaemselves oceasionally with peculiar 
beaoty. Wfaere faave tfae soft play of tfae waves, and tbe repose 

> 8ee for an iliustration Ed. vii. verse 4, compared with 12. 
• Homboldt^a C^mM, vol. iL p. 19, £iiglish tiansUtion. 


of niglit, evet been more bappily described? And boMriinelf do 
these niild and tender images contrast with tbe powerful repre> 
•entations of the gathering and bursting tempest in the first book 
of tbe Georgics, and with the descriptions in the Aeneid of the 
navigation and landing at the Strophades, the crashing fall of the 
rrxk, and of Aetna with iti flames !' In truth, bowever, individual 
l(«calities are often portrayed, and that to tbe life, by Virgil, as 
ffiiy one glancing at tbe scene described in tbe first Eclogue will 
at once admit. In one respect tbe Eclogues have an original 
merit, whiob it becomes ns to notice. Witbout losing sigbt of 
tbat soflness wbicb is a leading cbaracteristio of the true Idyl, he 
gives to some of his tbemes' a simple grandeur, wbich is so far 
from being incompatible with rural images, that the latter twine 
lound the stately stem in most graceful and befitting ornament. 

The next work is tbe Giomaict. It belongs to that difficult 
class of poems called DidactiCi whose object is to convey instruo- 
tion pleasingly and invitingly through tbe medium of poetry. 
Tbe purpose for which it was written has been already men- 
tioned — tbe revival of agriculture in Italy, devastated by the 
long and cruel civil wars. It is dedicated to Maecenas, tbe 
patron and friend of Yirgil. It is divided into four books, each of 
which treats of a different subject. Tbe first treats of tbe culti- 
vation of tbe loil, and the operations of agricultute connected 
with sowing, and the difierent occupations tbat are proper for tbe 
dififerent seasons. Tbe second regards tbe cultivation of trees, 
especially of the vine. The third treats of the various animals 
that are more immediately useful in agriculture — horses, oxen, 
sbeep, goats, aud dogs. Tbe fourth is occupied with the care of 
bees. It is impossible to praise too highly the mode in which 
Vii^il has executed this work ; and though the subject bad before 
exercised tbe pens botb of Greek and Roman writers, and our 
poet had especially before him the Opera et JHet of Hesiod, there 
is little of the close imitation tbat is to be found occasionally in 
the Edogues. Italy was his field, and be confines bimself to 
tbis ; his aim being, in trutb, to benefit his countrymen. Taking 
into view tbe popularity of Virgil, we are entitled to presume 
that his verses, passing from mouth to mouth, contributed mate- 
terially to efiect the object whicb be had in view. And we know 
that not only did the ancient writers on agriculture refer to bioi 
as an nnquestionable authority, but we are told in modern Italy 
his maxims are found to be as sonnd as ever. Martyn — no mean 
aothority — even says: *Though the soil and climate of Itaiy are 
difierent from tbose of England, yet it has been found by expe- 
rience that most of his rules may be put in practice even bere 

' See eBpecially the fbarth Eciogue* 

to advantage.' The dangers to which the poet was exposed were, 
that eitfaer hj treating his subjeet too literally, he should make it 
dry and repulsive; or that he should so overlajrit with ornament, 
as to render his instructions useless and unintelligible ; or that 
be should, by undue elevation of what is apparently mean and 
trivial, degenerate into affectation and bombast. These dangert 
he has completely escaped. He gives rnles with all the preci- 
•ion of a scientific treatise, and all the charms of true poetry, 
IBanifesting that pregnant power of exact expression in which 
lie has no rival. Like all good teachers, he abounds in ilhistra- 
tk>n. What can be apter, for instance, than his reminiscence of 
the old gardeiier, probably visited by him on the journey to Brun^ 
dusium with Horace and Maecenas, which he gives with so 
«Boch enjoyment, and such exquisitely minute tonches, subordi- 
nate, bowever, all the while to his main purpose of teaching 
iiow foees may be most profitably reared ? Belonging also to tbe 
same illustrntive fkculty is his habit of seizing hold of an incident 
«unmoQ enough in rural life, and giving it activity and person- 
«lity, as in his instructions regarding the viper, Cape setxa fnanu^ 
cape roboraip€Utor. But his poetical power is principally displayed 
In those episodes, by which he has enriched the Georgics with 
0ome of the most finished specimens of poetry that exist in any 
language. Donatus tells us that Yirgil, while writing the Georg- 
lcs, was in the habit of dictating tb his amanuensis in the mom- 
ing several lines, and that his sole employment dnring the day 
was to reduce their number, and bring the selected few to the 
proper state of polish ; and adds, that he compared himself not 
onaptly to a bear licking her cubs into shape. Whether this be 
true or oot,^ the result of bis labours undoubtedly is, that in the 
Georgics we have one of the most finished productions of wfaich 
liuman language seems susceptible. 

We cannot say tfae same of tfae third, the lougest and mott 
mmbitious of Yirgirs works — the Asiteid. Bnt in our remarks 
oa this poem, we must remember that it is an unfinished produc- 
tion, aud did not enjoy the master's polishing touches to soflen 
•spertties, to reniove inconsistencies, and to effect those calKdae 
junetwrae which are oflen the result of minute elaboration. The 
«vowed subject is the settlement of Aeneas and the Trojans in 
Italy — tbat tlieme which had been a fayourite tradition of tba 
Romans, at least prior to the time of Naevius.' The poem opens 

^ Donatus, m tbe same pa^sage, says that Virgil first wrote the 
Aeneid in prose. If botfa tfaese assertions faad been made of tfae 
same poem, tfaev would faave been sineularly analogous witfa tiie 
proceoare of Goldsmith in fais exquiBitely^&usfaed poem of tfae Z>«- 
Berted VUlage, 

• B. c. 235. Clinton, F. H. vol. iii. p. 29. Niebufar'£ £^ure$ •* 
I4c Early History ofSomet p. 29. 


tn tbe seventh summer after the destruction of Troy, with tha 
landing of Aeneas on the coast of Carthage, and his hospitable 
reception b^ Dido.^ In the two following books Aeneas narrates 
to Dido his wanderings, from the downfall of Troy up till that 
time. The fourth contains the loves of Aeneas and Dido, the 
departure of the ibrmer by the command of the gods, and the 
despair and voluntary death of the latter. In the fidh, Aeneas 
visits Sicily ; and in the sixth arrives in Italy, where, at Cumae, 
he descends to the shades, and has an interview with his faUiOT 
Anchises. The remaining books are occupied with his struggles 
to obtain a settlement in Italy, the land destined to his race — the 
ofiers of Latinus, king of the Latins, who agrees to marry to hinx 
his daughter, and give him a kingdom-— the opposition of the 
Rntulian king, Turnus, to whom Lavinia had been betrothed— * 
the mustering of allies on both sides— ^die repeated defeats of 
the Rutulians, in spite of the gallant deeds of Turnus— his finai 
overthrow and death, and the triumph of Aeneas. 

Objections have been made to the Aeneid, altogether indepen- 
denily of its being an unfinished work. These resolve them- 
Belves into Virgirs want of originality, his alleged poverty of 
mvention, the sameness of his characters, and, above all, the fatal 
objection that his hero is totally devoid of interest To some of 
these no satisfactory answer can be given. It was an unforto- 
nate tliing that he chose to form himself so much on the model 
of Homer, and to trust too little to his own original powers. That 
be has done so cannot be denied. And if tlie question were, 
whether the Aeneid is to be read solely for its own underived 
excellencies ? we should have to except a very large pordon. 
But the question assumes a very difierent aspect when we wish 
to examine not the powers of the poet, but the charms of the poem. 
In this view we are at liberty to adtnire the new form in which 
Virgil oden reproduces the thoughts of his master. The alleged 
poverty of invention, in incidents at least, is not so apparent. 
The rapid changes of scenery and event, especially in the early 
books, are aconvincing proof that his powers were not esaentially 
deficient in this respect Nor can the charge of sameness of cha- 
racter be admitted. No doubt there is too much of the /or^em^M 
Gyan, fortemque Cloantkum, But there must be walking gentle- 
men in all populous representations. And surely tlie old age 

* As the date of the foundation of Carthage by Dido is generaily 
placed upwards of two hundred years after that assigned to the de- 
Btruction of Troy, Virgil has here been char^ed with an Anachron- 
ism, or error in point of time. From this he is eiaborately defended 
by Martyn in his Dissertations upon the Aeneid of Virgil, pp. 1-26 ; 
tnd by Gibbon, MiMcdlaneous JvorkSt vol. ii. p. 469. Ses non aperam 
fretium est. 


af Ancbises is not that of Evander or Latinus, nor tbe youth of 
Knryalus that of Ascanius, nor the bravery of Mezentius that of 
Turnus, nor the rage of Amata that of Didol The deities also 
preserve their characteristics ; and Jupiter's djgnity is as different 
from that of Neptune, as the lineaments and state of Venus are 
difierent from-those of Juno. The last objection — that founded 
on the character of Aeneas — seems the most serious and irreme- 
diable of all, as it runs through the whole work, and affects itt 
power to please, apart from the question of origiriality. It has 
been alleged that Yirgil has here faiied, because his aim was to 
lepresent Augustus in Aeneas, and that the character of the 
ioTmeT was incompatible with heroic dignity. But, critically 
eonsidered, thougb this were the case, it would only prove that 
be was destitute either of skilt in selection, or of that power of 
creating a character which constitutes the true poet. There is 
no question that be did intend to compliment Augustus. He had 
personally experienced the fearful woes to which his country 
had been subjected by the civil wars. He seems early to have 
abandoned the party of Antony, to which his own retired and medi- 
tative babits had probably never induced him to form an attach- 
ment stronger than that which arose from the ties of personal 
affection to some of its leading men. Thenceforth he flung him- 
self entirely on the side of Maecenas and Augustus, as of men 
who alone could heal the bleeding wounds of the country Which 
he so ardently loved. He fondly hoped that Rome woutd rival 
Greece in arts, as she had before conquered her in arms ; and 
he strove to do his best to acconiplish this end, And in ali this 
Augustus was his hope, as it was that of Horace ^nd other reflective 
and. leading minds of that age. But it seems an over-refinement 
to soppose that in the Aeneid the characters are representations 
of those men that thronged the court of Augustus, or took place 
in tbe events that affected his history, and that the battles and 
struggles are intended to shadow forth the conflicts tbat raised 
Angustus to the empire. Yirgil secms to have had before him 
in Aeneas, not a representation of Augustus, but a distinct con- 
eeption of a cbaracter noble in itself, though, unfortunately for 
his main design, it is difficult, perhaps impossible, to invest it 
with interest whensuccess is to accompany it. His design was, 
having before him the destinies of the mightiest empire that the 
world had ever seen, to give its founder a character befltting. 
He was to be a man of warm affections, eager to see his storm- 
bnffetted (iriends and followers at last reposing in peace, but witli 
implicit reliance on the will of Heaven, and determined to forego 
mll considerations, not for himself, but for that posterity whose 
destinies depended on his obedience to the behests of the goda. 
flence the pius Mneat sacrifices his own feelings at all tiroes t^ 


pcwterity. For thU hs WBndecs froni clime tc clini»— fbr.lhii ha 
givaBup Dido-^oi tbis lie plungei into a bloody war in a stranga 
land. Now 10 inveat Buch a characlar wilb inlereBt, he must b« 
nnjUBcesnrul ; he musl bo ihe object of our adniiratJOQ for the 
leal hmdshipii and evils to which he submiis, bis unselflshne» 
appearing evident in liis meek subminioii. Unfoitunaleiy, it 
WBB QeCHssaril/ Vitgil's plan, as il wbb pait or ihe tiBdition, to 
beslow success an Aeneai ; and ihus bia charBclei is invesieil 
witb an obodience which has no leal irialii hia selfoonflicts all 
eod in liis self-aggiandisement. One Ihing alone could have 
imparteJ interesl to llie Buccesaful AenrBs — a atrong will stiug- 
glit^ manfulJ)', and by ils own indominaQt oneigies. Uufortn- 
nateljr, Ihis is the very atirihute wiih whioh Ibe poet bas endowed 
Tuinus; and it cnnnot be denied ibat the reader is irresiitibly 
diawn to wiah niccess to the enemy of the Roman race, and to 
mouin his fall. 

Bui in spiie of Ihese leiiooa dTawbaclia, Ihe Aeneid, wbile it 
would be folly to demand for il a place wiih the Iliad, wjll evei 
be a lieepiy inleiesting poem. Ita style a model of coiiecl laats, 
its diciion pure and mejestic, iis vetsificaiion full and flowing, iu 
Tivacily unbounded, the spiiit of ile incidents unfailing, >l pie- 
■ODU a cbaiming field over which lo roam in search of the sweet 
and Ibe ■lalely. In one cbaiacteiitlic, at leait, Virgil Burpssses 
Homer — in the exquisite paihoa with which be delineates bumaa 
■uffering; while not Homer himself is more snblirae thaiiTiigil 
in his loniest Hi|;lils, ae when be deecribes ihe gods congregated 
fbr Troy^a downfall, oi the Kgy piiaa fleeing ia awe-sliuck dtoad 
1'rom ibe poiDted arrow of Apotlo. 



Tn title Bucolica was probably that given to these poeins bf 
Yirgil himself. It is borrowed from the Greek word, BovaeoX** 
stoft and signifies, pertaining to the shepherd life — pastoral. The 
title Ecloga was probably added bjr the critics. It also is bor- 
rowed from the Greek, ixXoyfj, a sekcted piece ; so that BttcoUcon 
Mdogae means, telections from pastoral poemSy Bticolicon being 
tbe genitive plural in the Greek form. In consequence of tbis 
title, JEclogaf having been so applied, Eclogue comes to mean 
a pattoral poem. 

The subject of tlie first Eclogue is the gratitude of Virgil to Au- 
gustus, for having restored to him his lands, in the neighbour- 
^ood of Mantua, as has been narrated in his Life, The poet 
brings this out by a dialogue between two shepherds, one of 
whotn, Meliboeus, is fbrced to leave his country by the soldiers. 
The other shepherd, Tityrus, representing one of the dispos- 
sessed inhabitants, is seated in the enjoyment of freedom and 
peace, both of which he had gained in a visit to Rome. This 
ifl intended to indicate, in a general way, Virgirs own condi 
tion ; but the resemblance must not be pressed too closely. 
Tbe Eclogue is supposed to have been written in the aotumn 
€i B. c. 41, wheu Virgil was twenty-nine years old. 



Mel, TiTTRX, ta patulae recubans sub tegmine fagi 
Silvestrem tenoi Musam meditaris avena ; 

No8 patriae finis et dulcia linquimus arva ; 

^— ■ ■ ' ■ » ■ 

2. SUvettrem Musam, The Muse that ioves the woods — the Musa 
of shepherds ; as, in eummer and autumn in Italy, the flocks are 
driven into the woods. Mu9a is* used here to denote that over 
which sbe presided. Miiton imitates this expression of Virgil» Mn* 
$am medilarie^ 

* And strictly meditate tbe thankleM Muae.* 

*»3. Finis, It is necessary to notice this form of tbe accasativtt 
plnrel, that fhe student may not confound its quantity with that of 
the seDitive singular. See Zumpt, Lat* Gnm,, t68, note, 

3 C C34> 


No8 patriam fugimus : tu. Tityre, lentus in umbrji 
Formosam resonare lioces Amarylllda silvas. 6 

Tii. Alpliboee. deus iiobis Kisiec otia fecit. 
Namqoe erit illt; inihi .«'^mper deus; illius aram 
^epe tener nostris ab ovilibus imbnet agnus. 
llle meas errare boves, ut cernis, et ipsum 
Ludere, quae vellem, calamo permisit agresti. 10 

MeL Nonequideminvideo; mirormagis: undiquetotis 
Usque adeo turbatur agris. £n, ipse capellas 
Proteuus aeger ago ; hanc etiam vix, Tityre, duco. 
Hic inter densas corvlos modo namque gemellos, 
Spem gregis, ah ! silice in nuda connixa reliquit. 15 

Saepe malum hoc nobis, si mens non laeva fuisset, 
JDe caelo tactas memini praedicere quercus, 
rSaepe sinistra cava praedixit ab ilice cornix.] 
Sed tamen, iste deus qui sit, da, Tityre, nobis. 

Tit. Urbern, quam dicunt Romam, Meliboee, putavi 20 
Stultus ego huic nostrae similem, quo saepe solemus 
Pastores ovium teneros depellere fetus. 
Sic canibus catulos sirailis, sic matribus haedos 
Noram; sic parvis componere magna solebam. 
Verum haec tantum alias inter caput extulit urbeS| 25 
Quantum lenta solent inter viburna cupressi. 

Mel. Et quae tanta fuit Romam tibi causa videndi? 

Tit, Libertas j quae sera, tamen respexit inertem| 
Candidior postquam tondenti barba cadebat; 
Respexit tamen, et longo post tempore venit, 30 

Postquam nos Amaryllis nabet, Galatea reliquit. 
Namque, fatebor enim, dum me Galatea tenebat, 
Nec spes libertatis erat, nec cura peculi. 
Quamvis multa meis exiret victima seplis, 
Pinguis et ingratae premeretur caseus urbi, 35 

5. The echo of the woods is here alluded to. Afnarvllis is « 
■hepherdess beloved by Tityrus. — 6. Octavianus Caesar, afterwards 
Au^ustus, is the eod alluded to. He was (but not at this time) ac- 
tually deified by tne Roman peo[>Ie, while still living. — 17. In nar- 
ratives, memini is often joined with the present infinitive of a past 
event, as here and EcL ix. 52. See Zumpt, ^589. In such case», 
we may conceive the infinitive the same as the cognate noun ; here 
praedictionemi with the force of its being at present before the roind. 
Before si menSj &c. some sucli clause is tacitly assnmed, as quod 
n&9 monui$get. — 21. Huic nostrae. Mantua» about three miles dia* 
tant from Andes, our poet^s native village. — 33. Peeuli. On thii 
form of the genitive ot substantives in -tum, which alone Virgil em- 
ploys, see Zumpt, $49. He is fond of such contractions as 3t, dit, 
ifdem The peculium was the property, acquired by a slave, which 
a master perm^tted him to consider as his own. 

ECLOGA t. 97 

Non Dmquam gravis aere doniDm mihi dextra redft>at. 

Mel. Mirabar, quid maesta deos, Aroarylli, yocares^ 
Cui pendere sua patereris in arbore poma : 
Tityrus hinc aberat. Ipsae te, Tityre, pinue, 
Ipsi te fontes, ipsa haec arbusta vocabant. 40 

Tit. Quid facerem % neque servitio me exire liceWt^ 
Nec tam praesentisYilibi cbgnoscere divos. 
Hic illum vidi juvenem, Meliboee, quotannis 
Bis senos cni nostra dies altaria fumant. 
Hic mihi responsum primus dedit ille petenti^ 45 

Pascite, ut ante, boves, pueri ; submittrte tauros. 

MeL Fortunate senex, ergo tna rura manebunt ! 
£t tibi magna satis. Quamvis lapis omnia nttdus, 
Limosoque palns t>bducat pascua junco, 
Non insueta gravis tentabunt pabnla fetas, 50 

Nec mala vicini pecoris contagia laedent. 
Fortunate senejc, hic, inter fiumina nota 
£t fontis sacros, frigus captabis opacum ! 
Hinc tibi, quae semper vicino ab limite sepes 
Hyblaeis apibus florem depasta salicti, 55 

Saepe levi somnum suadebit inire susnrro ; 
Hinc aJta sub rupe canet frondator ad anras; 
Nec tamen interea raucae, tua cura, patumbe^ 
Nec gemere aeria cessabit turtnr ab uimo. 

Tit. Ante leves ergo pascentur in aethere cervi, 60 
£t freta destituent nudos in litore pisces, 

36. He spent, in buying presents for Galatea, hia share of the 
market money allowed him as peculium. — 39. Aberat. The final 
syllable long, as the caesural syllable. — 43. Juvenem* The same 
person who is called DeuSi ver. 6. He was at this time twenty- 
ihree years of age, and is stili styled juvenis when twenty-oBeven 
years old. Georg. i. 500. -~ 44. iis senos dies. Probably once 
a-month ; it being usual, on the calends, nones, or ides of each 
month, to worship the Lares domestici, amon^ whom Tityrus reck- 
ons Octavianus Caesar. — 47. Tua, Emphatic, in its contrast with 
the 6elds of his neighbours, which had been seized by the soldiers. 
—50. Fetas means either pregnant or newly delivered. Here, from 
ver. 15, probably the latter, in which case, graves will be equivalent 
(o aegras.--- 52-56. A beautiful picture, though the language of the 
ktter part is too intricate. Sepes is the nom. to suad^it : quae to 
depasta est. The construction is : sepes, quae ab vicino limite (equi* 
valent to vicinus limes) semper depasta fiorem salicti Hyblaeist &c 
Pepasta Jlorem is an example of what is called the Greek accusa- 
tive, which may be called the accusative of limitation. See Zumpt* 
i 458. Avoid saying that Jlorem is governed hy any word under* 
•tood. Hybla, a mountain of Sicily, famous for ita beea and honey. 
—60-64. Tityrus compares the possibility of his forgetting hia 
beiie£u;tor to events that are impossible, such as stags feeding on 


Ante, pererratis ambonim finibas, exsul 

Aut Ararim Parthus bibet, aut Grermania Tigrimi 

Quam nostro illius labatur pectore vultus. 

3Iel, At nos hinc alii sitientis ibimus Afros; €5 

Pars ScytJiiam et rapidum Cretae yeniemua Oaxeiii 
£t penitus toto diTisos orbe firitannos. 
£n umquam patrios longo post tempore finis, 
Pauperis et tuguri congestum cespite culmen, 
Posc aliquot, roea regna videns, mirabor aristasl 70 

Impius haeo tam culta novaiia miles habebit % 
Barbarus has s^etes ? £n, quo discordia civis 
Produxit miseros ! en, quis consevimus agros ! 
Insere nunc, Meliboee, piros; pone ordine vitis. 
Ite meae, felix quondam pecusj ite capellae. 75 

Non ego vos posthac, yiriai projectus in antro, 
Dumosa penaere procul de rupe yidebo; 
Carmina nulla canam ; non, me pascente, capellae, 
Florentem cytisum et salices carpetis amaras. 

Tit, Hio tamen hancmecum poteras requiescere noctem 
Fronde super yiridi: sunt nobis mitia poma, 81 

Castaneae molles et pressi copia laotis : 
£t jam summa procui yillarum culmina fumant| 
Majoresque cadunt altis de montibus umbrae. 

the air. See Ecl, viiL 52. — 63. The Arar (or as here, Ararit) is a 
river of Gaul, a tributary of the Rhodanus, and the Tigris bounds 
Parthia on the west. But a shepherd may be supposea to imagino 
that the Arar (now the Saone) was a German river. — 65. The dis- 

S^ssessed eziles are represented as scattered all over the world. 
ence we have alii contrasted with pars, as in Georg. ii. 10, &.c. ; 
iv. 158, &c. ; Aen. i. 212, &c. ; ii. 399, &c. ; xi. 193, &c. Et — et 
have both the force of alii. Afros. Without a preposition, as if 
the name of a town or country. This is rare, but is used by Taci- 
tus. Zumpt, $ 398. Four different places of the world are se- 
lected: in the sonth, Africa; north, Scythia; east, Crete; west, 
Britain. Of the Oaxes of Crete we know nothing. Britain did noC 
belong to this world, for the latter was surrounded bjr the Oceanus, 
and beyond it lay Britain. Probably settlements in other lands 
were provided for the unhappy exiles. — 70. 'EAihQx post (an adverb) 
miraibor aliquot aristast gaze with astonishment on a head of wheat 
here and there ; aliqttot m the sense of rara : or, post aliquot aris- 
tas ; aristas in the sense of messes for annos. — 73. Quis—qu^us, 
— 80. The indicative is in some verbs used where we emploY the 
■nbjunctive. The infinitive, with such verbs in the imperfectj indi- 
cates what is not, but the time for which is not yet past. Meliboeua 
was going away withdut resting, but Tityrus says * he might repose.* 
Zumpt, V 518. — 82. Castaneae molleSf chestnuts still fresh and 
sweet. Hence the dialogue took place in October, the month whea 
chestnuts become ripe. Fressum lac, cheese. See ver. 35. 

fiCLOOA II. 2# 


*Tbis is the first of sll the £ck>gues written by Virgil, mnd was 
composed b. o. 42. The po«t had seen, in the house of 
Asinius Pollio (then governor of GaUia Tran^eidana), a youth 
named Alexander, who aoted as cup-bearer, and be formed 
for hira the same attachment as Socrates, Plato, an^ others 
manifested to handsorae boys. In the poem, he bears the 
narae of Alexis, Yirgil that of the shepherd Corydon, and 
Asinius that of loUas. Poliio, charmed with this poem^ pre- 
sented Alexander to Yirgil. By him he was carefally edu> 
cated, and became a grammarian. Yirgil has transferred 
many things into this poem from Theocritus.' -* IVam^atetf 
Jrom Wagner, 


FoRMosvM pastor Corydon ardebat Alexim, 
Delieias domini ; nec, quid speraret, habebat. 
Tantnm inter. densas, umbrosa cacumina, fagos 
Assidue veniebat. Ibi haec incondita solus 
Montibus et silvis studio jactabat inant ; 5 

cradelis Alexi, nihil mea carmina curas? 
Nil nostri miserere? mori me deniquercoges. 
Nunc etiam pecudes umbras et frigora captant; 
Nunc viridis etiam occultant spineta lacertos, 
Tbestylis et rapido fessis messoribus aestu 10 

AUia serpyllumque herbas contundit olentis. 
At mecum raucis, tua dum vestigia lustro, 
Sole sub ardenti resonant arbusta cicadis. 
Nonne fuit satius, tristis Amaryllidis iras 
Atque superba pati fastidia ; nonne Meualcan 1 15 

Qaamvis ille niger, quamvis tu candidus esses. 
O fbrraose puer,nimiumne crede colori ! 
Alba ligustra cadunt, vaccinia nigra leguntur. 
Despectus tibi sum, nec, qui sim, quaeris, Alexi, 
Quam dives pecoris, nivei quam lactis abundans : 20 
Mille meae Siculis errant in montibus agnae ; 
Lao mihi non aestate novum, non frigore defit. 
Canto, quae solitus, si quando armenta vocabat, 
Amphion Dircaeus in Actaeo Aracyntho. 

5. Jactahat. Applied to words spoken aloud. Ecl. v. 62 ; Aen. i 
M2. — 18. Ft^om the connection, before alha and nigraf quamvis ja 
iraplied. Cadunt: non leguntur. — 21. Virgil places the scene in 
Sicily. — 34. Ampkiim is called Dircaeus from the Theban fountain 
Dirce, so named from Dircei an enemy of his mother Antiopet 


Neo smn adeo informis : nnper me in litore ridi. 85 

Cum placidum yentis dtaret mare ; non ego Daphnim 

Jndice te metuam, si nuraquam fallit imago. 

O tantnm Jibeat mecum tibi sordida rura 

Atque humilis habitare casas, et iigere ceryos, 

Hoedommque gregem viridi compellere hibisco! 30 

Mecnm nna in silvis imitabere Pana canendo. 

Pan primns calamos cera conjungere pluris 

Instituit; Pan curat ovis oviumque magistros. 

Nec te poeniteat caiamo triyisse labellum : 

Haec eadem ut sciret, quid non faciebat Amyntas? 35 

£st mihi disparibus septem compacta cicutis 

Fistula, Damoetas dono mihi quam dedit oh'm, 

£t dixit moriens : Te nunc habet ista secundum. 

Dixit Damoetas ; invidit stultus Amyiitas. 

Praeterea duo, nec tuta mihi valle reperti, 40 

Capreoli, sparsis etiam nunc pellibus albo ; 

Bina die siccant ovis ubera ; quos tibi servo. 

Jam pridem a me illos abducere Thestylis orat * 

£t faciet, quoniam sordent tibi munera nostra. 

Huc ades, o formose puer : tibi lilia plenis 45 

£cce ferunt Nymphae calathis; tibi candida NaiS| 

Pallentis violas et summa papavera carpens, 

Narcissum et fiorem jungit bene olentis anethi ; 

Tum^ casia atque aliis intexens suavibus herbis, 

Molha luteola pingit vaccinia caltha. 5f 

Ipse ego cana legam tenera lanugine mala, 

(jastaneasque nuces, mea quas Amaryllis amabat ; 

Addam Cerea pruna: honos erit huic quoque pomo; 

£t vos, o lauri, carpam, et te, proxima myrte : 

Sic positae quoniam suavis ibiscetis odores. 55 

*^^ - - - --■--■- .-■ ^ IIIM ■III ^MIIIIW ■_ J, WMiM^^ 

whose body was thrown into it by him and his twin brother Zeihus. 
AracvtUhuB is a mountain between Boeotia and Attica, on which 
Virgu repreaents Arophion as feeding his herds. Amphion wa# 
iamed for his musical powers. Acte is a name for Attica ; hence 
Aracynthus, partly in Attica, is called Actaeut. There was ano- 
ttier mountain of this name in Acarnania. The o of Actaeo is not 
elided before the unusual quadrasyllabic AraciftUhot a Greek modcl 
being followed in both peculiarities. Indeed it seems the transcript 
of a Greek verse: 'A/i^/iuv AipKatoffcV *Aiera/^ 'Apaic^y^.— 32. For 
Pan'B invention of the syrinx, see Ovid, Met, L 689.-53. The 
last sylhble of pruna is left before honatt forming what is called a 
kiatu9. The pause that occurs here accounts for this vioiation of 
the ordinary rule. From the stronff expression of feeling involved 
in Hett, Ae», the former is not elided, ver. 58. And in ver. 65, 
while o is left, it is shortened, as in the Greek in similar circum- 

£CL0G4 in. tl 

Knstictts 69, Corydon : nec munefa eurat Alejda^ 
Nec, 81 muneribus certes, concedat lollas. 
Heu. heu, quid volui misero mihi ! floribus austrum^ 
Peraitus, et liquidis immisi fontibus apros. 

8uem Cugis, an, demens? habitarunt di qiK>que silvas, 60 
ardaniusque Paris. Pallas, quas condidit arces, 
Ipsa colat ; nobis placeant ante omnia silrae. 
Torva leaena ]npum sequitur ; lupus ipse capellam ; 
Florentem cytisum sequitucJasciva capella; 
Te Corydon, o Alexi : trahit sua quemque yoluptas. 65 
Aspice, aratra jugo referunt suspensa juyenci, 
£t sol crescentis decedens dupbcat umbras : 
Me tamen urit amor; quis enim modus adsit amori? 
Ah, Corydon, Corydon, quae te dementia cepit ! 
Semiputata tibi frondosa vitis in ulmo est. 70 

Quin tu aliquid saltem potius, quorum indiget usus, 
Viminibiis mollique paras detexere junco 1 
Invenies alium, si te hic fastidit, Alexinu 


Tbib £cIog«:.e is principally occupied by a contest in poetical 
skill between two shepherds, Menalcas and Bamon. Such 
contests — - still not uncommon among the ImprovUatori of 
Italy— -were carried on in verses, called carmen amoebaeumf 
from tbe Greek d^ioc|3(uo(, anawering alternately, And in them 
no seqnence of ideas was necessary on the part of the chal- 
lenger, but the party challetiged was bound to exceed in lan- 
guage or ideas the thoughts first expressed. The introduction, 
wherein the challenge is given, occupies the iirst fifty-nino 
lines, introducing Palaemon as an arbiter. In the course of 
the amaboean verses, Virgil takes occasion to glorify bis friend 
and patron Pollio, and to sneer at Bavius and Maevius, two 
envious satirists, who attacked both him and Horace. This 
£cIogue is said to have been written b. c. 42. 



Men. Dic mihi, Damoeta^ cujum pecusl an Meliboei'* 
Dam, Non, venmi Aegonis ; nupermihitradidit Aegon. 

1. Cujut-a-um, an antiquated possessive pronoun, perhaps used 
here as a mark ojf rusticity. 


Men. Infelix o seniper, otis, pecus! ipse Neaeram 
Dnm fovet, ac^ ne me sibi praeferat il]a, veretur, 
Hic alienus ovis custos bis mulget in hora 3 5 

£t 8UCCUS pecori et lac subducitur agnis. 

Dam. Parcius ista viris tamen objicienda memento. 
NovimuS; et qui te, transversa tuentibus hircis, 
Et quo — sed laciles Nymphae risere — sacello. 

Men. Tum, credo, cum me arbustum yidere Miconis 10 
Atque mala vitis incidere falce novellas. 

Vam. Aut hic ad veteris fagos, cum Daphnidis arcuni 
Fregisti et calamos : quae tu, perv^erse Menalca, 
£tj cum vidisti^puero donata, dolebas, 
£t, si non aliqua nocuisses, mortuus esses. 15 

Men. Quid domini faciant, audent cum talia fures ! 
Non ego te vidi Damonis, pessime, caprum 
Excipere insidiis, multum latrante Lycisca,? ' 
£t cum c]amarem : ' Quo nunc se proripit ille % 
Tityre, coge pecus;' tu post carecta latebas. 20 

Vam. An mihi cantando victus non redderet ille^ 
Quem mea carminibus meruisset fistula caprum 3 
Si nescis, meus ille caper fuit ; et mihi Damon 
Ipse fatebatur, sed reddere posse negabat. 

Men. Cantando tu illum % aut umquam tibi fistula 
cera 25 

Juncta fuit ? non tu in triviis, indocte, solebas 
Stridenti miserum stipula disperdere carmen ? 

Dam, Vis ergo, inter nos, quid possit uterque, vlcissim 
£xperiamur? ego hanc vitulam — ne forte recuses, 
Bis venit ad mulctram, binos alit ubere fetus — 30 

Depono : tu dic, mecum quo pignore certes. 

men. De grege non ausim quicquam deponere tecum : 

3. Ipse : referring to Aegeon. — 5. Alienus, a hireling, and, as 
Buch, caring nothin^ for the flock, but to profit by them. — 7. Vu 
m .* in its emphatic sense, tnen of manly minds. — 8. Trantversa 
for transverse. The accosative, both singular and plural, of adjeo- 
tives, is often so used for the adverb, as below, ver. 63 ; JBcl. ir. 
43 ; Georg. iii. 149; Aen.Vu 288. — 9. Sacello, a cave sacred to the 
Nymphs. See Aen. i. 168. — 10. Me. Menalcas ironically trana- 
fers to himself the wrong actually done by Damoetas. — 13. Cala'' 
mos : sagittas e calamis factas. — 16. Aa neither of the parties 
seems to be a slave, the force of this line appears to be, * What can 
the masters of flocks do to protect themselves, now that thieves 
have become so daring?' — 18. Lyciscas, the name of a dog. — 
25. Tu vicisti Ulum? A strong emphasis in tu and Ulum. — 27* 
Iraitated by Milton in its harshness — 

— -• tbcir lean and flashy son^, 
Orate oa their ■crannel pipea of wretcM mnm,* 

ECL06A Ilt. 93 

Est inihi namque doml pater, est injusta noveroa; 

Bisque die numerant ambo pecus, alter et haedos. 

Yemm, id quod multo tute ipse fatebere majoii^ 31^ 

Insanire libet quoniam tibi — pocula ponam 

Fagina, caelatum divini opus Alcimedontis: 

Lenta qnibus tomo facili superaddita vitis 

Diffusos hedera vestit pallente corymbos. 

In medio dno signa, Conon, et— <[uis fuit alter, 40 

Descripsit radio totum qui gentibus orbem, 

Tempora quae messor, qnae curvus arator haberet ? 

Necdum illis labra admovi, sed condita servo. 

Dam. £t nobis idem Alcimedon duo pocnla fecit| 
£t molli circum est ansas amplexus acantho, 45 

Orpheaque in medio posuit silvasque sequentis. 
Necdum illis labra admovi. sed condita servo. 
Si ad vitulam spectas, nihil est, quod pocula laudeg. 

31en. Numquam hodie efiugies; veniam, quocumqua 
Andiat haec tantum — vel qui venit— ecce, Pakemon. 50 
Efficiam, posthac ne quemquam voce lacessas. 

jDam. Quin age^ si quid habes, in me mora non erit ulla| 
Nec qnemquam lugio : tantum, vicine Palaemon, 
Sensibus haec imis, res est non parva, reponas. 

Pal» Dicite, quandoqnidem in moili consedimus 
herba. 55 

£t nunc omnis ager, nunc omnis parturit arbos; 
Nunc frondent silvae; nunc formosissimus annns. 
Incipe, Damoeta ; tn deinde sequere, Menalca. 
Alterais dicetis ; amant alterna Camenae. 

Dam. Ab Jove principinm Musae ; Jovis omnia 
plena : 60 

Hle colit terras ; illi mea carmina cnrae. 

37. Who Alcimedon was is unknown. — 38. FacUis expresses the 
ease with which the skilful workman uses his tools. — 39. Pallente, 
The distinction of colour between the ivy leaves and berries is 
finely marked — 40. Conon was a celebrated mathematician and 
aBtronomer, who lived in the times of the Ptolomies, Philadelphus 
and Euergetes, b. c. 283-222. AUer, Probably Eudoxus, another 
oelebrated astronomer, who lived about b. c. 366. His work on 
^mivditcpa was in great repute among Italian agricullurists ; hence 
the aUusion to him in this place. — 41. Radio, The rod of the 
mathematician, with which he drew his iigures on the sand. -— 42. 
CunmM. Aliuding to the stooping posture of a man holding the 
ploogh. — 46. So Horace, Od. i. 12, 7; Ovid, Met. x. 86.— -50. 
About to propose some one as judge, he breaks oiT in the middle, 
with the name suppressed, and says — veZ, &.c. — 59. AUemis, A 
translation of the Greek, il ^iiotpaluv, Camenae, Latia deitief>« 
nearly identical with the Mutes of the Greeks. 


Mm, £t me Phoebns amat; Phoebo soa semper apad 
Blunera sant, lanri et soave rubens hyacinthus. 

Dam. Malo me Galatea petit, laaciva puella, 
£t fugit ad salices, et se cupit ante videri. 65 

Men, At mihi sese oifert ultro, meus i^nis, Amyntas, 
Notior ut jam sit canibus non Delia nostris. 

Dam, Parta meae Veneri sunt munera: namque notavi 
Ipee locum, aeriae quo conge^sere palumbes. 

Men. Quod potui; puero silvestri ex arbore lecta 70 
Aurea mala decem misi ; cras altera mittam. 

Dam, quoties et quae nobis Galatea locuta est ! 
Partem aliquam, venti, divom referatis ad auris ! 

Men, Quid prodest, quod me ipse animo non spemis, 
Si, dum tu sectaris apros, ego retia servo ? 75 

Dam. Phyllida mitte mihi: meus est natalis, lolla; 
Cum faciam vitula pro frugibus, ipse venito. 

Men, Phyilida amo ante alias; nam me discedere flevlt, 
£t loDgum formose, vale, vale, inquit, lolla. 

Dam, Triste lupus stabuJis, maturisfrugibus imbres, 80 
Arboribus venti, nobis Amaryllidis irae. 

Men, Dulce satis humor, depulsis arbutus haediS) 
Lenta salix feto pecori, mihi solus Amyntas. 

Dam. Pollio amat nostram, quamvis est rustica, Mu* 
Pierides, vitulam lectori pascite vestro. 85 

Men, PoIIio et ipse facit nova carmina : pascite taurumi 
Jam cornu petat et pedibus qui spargat arenam. 

Dam, Qui te, Pollio, amat, veniat, quo te quoque gandet; 
Mella fluant illi^ ferat et rubus asper amomum. 

Men. Qui Bavmm non odit, amet tua carmina, Maevi, 90 
Atque idem jungat vulpes et mulgeat hircos. 

Vam, Qui iegitis flores et humi nascentia fraga, 
Frigidus, o pueri, fugite hinc, latet anguis in herba. 

Men, Parcite, oves, nimium proc^dere : non bene ripaa 
Creditur ; ipse aries etiam nunc vellera siccat. 95 

Dam. Tityre, pascentis a flumine reice capellas: 
Ipse ubi tempus erit, omnis in fonte lavabo. 

63. Suave. See note on ver. 8. — 67. See Shenstone'8 imitatioo.^ 
* I have found out a gift fbr my foir/ ^ 

—79. Eilher longum (with protracted sound) inquit^ or longum vale, 
The e in the second vale short, from the hiatus. — 80. Trtstet used 
substantively, and eauivalent to res tristis. Zumpt, ^ 368. Aen. 
iv. 570. — 84. See Argumerit. — 90. See Argument. — 96. Reice, 
contracted for rejice — a natural contraction, especially if, as some 
Buppose, sach words were all anciently written with one i. 


Jt£rfi. Cogite oyis^ pueri ; si Jae praeceperlt aettuf^ 
Ut nuper, frustra pressabimus ubera palmis. 

i>afn. Heu, heu, quam ptugui macer est miiu taurus 
in ervo i 100 

Idem amor exitium pecori pecorisque magistro. 

JkTen. His certe neque amor caussa est; vix ossibut 
Nescio quis teneroe ocukis mihi fascinat agnos. 

Dam. Dic, qoibus in terris — ^et eris mihi maguus 
Apollo — 
Tris pateat caeli spatium non amp]ius ulnas. 105 

Men. Dic, quibus in terris inscripti nomina regnm 
Nascantur flores; et Phyllida solus habeto. 

Pal. Non nostrum inter vos tantas componere lites. 
£t vitula tu dignus; et hic ; et quisquis amores 
Aut metuet dulcis, aut experietur amaros. 110 

Claudite jam rivos; pueri : sat prata biberunt. 

^p^— I [ I I I I ■ I I I I I I ■ I ] I II I m 

102. The force of these two lines is : ' For the disease of your 
bull there is a remedy ; but there is none for that of my sheep. Bad 
as iove is, not it even (neque) is the source of the illness of these 
lambs. They are certainly under the fascination of the Evil Bye.* 
Tbis superstition still lingers in some parts of Eurupe. — 105. One 
answer to this pnzzle is, the bottom of a well. In this country we 
have a similar puzzle and solution — the latter being the bottom of a 
coal-pit. There is a tradition, now generally followed, that Virgil*8 
own solution was aS follows: — In Mantua there was aproiligate 
citizen who sold his all, and had no territory {spatium) Icft but his 
giave, * three paces of the vilest earth.' His name was Caelius, 
Virgil's genitive of which is Cadi. (See Ecl. i. 33.) Ulnas. In the 
later writers, ylna is equivalent to cuhitus^ about a foot and a hal£ 
JBervius ezplains it as meaning here, the whole width between the 
outstretched hands — about four feet. — 107. Flor&i. The hyacinth 
was believed to be marked with the name of Hyacinthus, or of Ajax. 
Ovid. Met. x. 206 ; xiii. 389. Inscripti nomina ; see Ecl. i. 55. — 
109. Ei quisquis — amaros. The meaning seems to be : ' Not onlv 
do both of you, love-inspired, deserve the prize, but all that sbaU 
tremble with fear when love is propitious, or sufier under his frown ; 
in short, all true lovers, such as you.' But the passage is a difficult 
one, and many emendations have been suggested. — 111. Palaemon 
lcaves them to see closed the sluices of the irrigating streams. 

This Eclogue is mainly imitated in Pope^s first Pastoral. 


hr the multitude of conjectures regarding the subject of this Eo- 
logue, Wagner'8 views seem preferable. All Italy had been 
ezposed to dreadful calamities j first from the division of the 


lantls, spoken of in the fixst Eologue, then from the auarrelt 
between Antony and Octavianus, and tbe war which easued, 
B. c. 41 ; and finally, from a niost severe famine, the result of 
tho blockade formed by the fleets of Antony and Sex. Pompeius. 
So much the greater was the joy occasioned by the treaty of 
' Brandusium made in the autnmn of b. c. 40, by which har> 
mony was restored between the two contending ohiefs. Antony'a 
agent in arranging the peace was Virgirs patron, Asinius Pollioi. 
A little afterwards, on his return to Rome, Pollio entered on 
the consulship, and about the same time had a son born to him. 
There was a common belief at the time that a new age was 
dawning on the world ; and as Italy seemed to have escaped 
from its miseries chiefly tbrough the means of Pollio, Virgil, in 
tbis Eclogue, congratulates him on his consulship, and does it 
in sucb a way, as at once to extol him as tbe harbinger of a 
new era of happintjs, and at the same time to augur this, 
from the birth of his son, as au omen of future peac0 and 
prosperity. Tbis Eclogue was written in the autumn of b, g. 40. 


SiCELiDES Muaae, paulo majora canamus l 
Non omnis arbusta javaQt humilesque myricae, 
Si canimuB silvas, silvae ftint Consule dignae.^ 

Ultima Cumaei venit iam carminis aetas; 
Magnus ab integro saeclorum nascitur ordo. 5 

Jam redit et VirgOj redeunt Saturnia regna ; 
Jam nova progenies caelo demittitur alto. 
Tu modo nascenti puero, quo ferrea primuRi 
Destnet, ac toto surget gens aurea mundo, 
Casta fave Lucina : tuus jam regnat Apollo. 10 

Teque adeo decus hoc aevi, te Consule, inibit, 
Poliio, et incipient magni procedere menses; 
Te duce, si qua manent sceleris vestigia nostrii 
Irrita perpetna solvent formidine terras. 
Ille deum vitara accipiet, divisque videbit If 

Permixios heroas, et ipse videbitur illis, 
Pacatumque reget patriis virtutibus orbem. 

— ^M ■■-■■■ — ■ ■ I ■ — ■ ■■ I .1 - II ■ ■ ■ ■ I I _■ —1 . , ■_ I» I ■ II — — — — — ^^l^— — 1— ^ 

1. Sicelides. Theocritus, whom Virgil principally imitated, wai 
a Sicilian.— -4. For the Curaaean Sibyl, see Aen. vL 10. The age 
was the tenth in her books, or Golden Age. — 6. Virgo, Astraea; 
that is, Justice. Ovid. Met. i. 149 ; Georg. ii. 473. Satumia. See 
Greor^. ii. 538.— 10. Lucina. This name (from lux ; that is, the 
light-bringer) is applied to the goddess who presided over childbirth ; 
Bometimes Juno, sometimes, as here, Diana, whom the Romans 
identified with the Greek Artemis, the sister of ApoUo ; hence tuu9 

ECL06A IT. St 

At tibi prtfna, piter, nullo munuscula cultu 

Errantis hederas passim cum bacchare tellus 

Mixtaque ridenti colocasia fundet acantho. 20 

Ipsae lacte domum referent distenta capellae 

Ubera, nec magnos metuent armenta leones. 

Jpsa tibi blandos fundent cunabula flores. 

Occidet et serpens, et fallax herba veneni 

Occidet; Assyrium vulgo nascetur amomum. 25 

At simul heroum laudes et facta parentis 

Jam legere, et quae sit poteris cognoscere yirtus : 

Molli paulatim flaTescet campus arista, 

Incultisque rubens pendebit sentibus uva, 

Et durae quercus sudabunt roscida mella. 30 

Pauca tamen suberunt priscae vestigia fraudis, 

Quae tentare Thetim ratibus, quae cingere muris 

Oppida, quae jubeant telluri infindere sulcos. 

Alter erit tum liphys, et altera quae vehat Argo 

Delectos heroas ; erunt etiam altera bella, 39 

Atque iterum ad Trojam magnus miltetur Achilles. 

Hinc, ubi jam firmata virum te fecerit aetas, 

Cedet et ipse mari vector, nec nautica pinus 

Mutabit merces: omnis feret omnia teilus. 

Non rastros patietur humus. non vinea falcem ; 40 

Robustus quoque jam tauris juga solvet arator^ 

Nec varios discet mentiri lana coloresj 

^pse sed in pratis aries jam suave rubenti 

Murice, jam croceo motabit vellera luto ; 

Sponte sua sandyx pascentis vestiet agnos. 45 

^Talia saecla,' suis dixerunt, 'currite,' fusis 

Concordes stabili fatomm numine Parcae. 

Aggredere o magnos — aderit jam tempus — honores, 

Cara deum soboles, magnum Jovis incrementum ! 

m . ■ ■ I — • — ' — — — ■ • 

18, &.C. Virgil traccs the progress of the world: 1. in the boy- 
Bood, verses 18r25; 2. in the youth, 26-36; 3. in the manhooo, 
97-45; of Pollio'8 son. — 25. Assyrium. This name is ofien em- 
ployed by the poets to indicate eastern countries in general. — 26. 
Simul; that is, simul ac. — 30. See Georg. i. 131; Ovid, Met. i. 
112.-3^. Tketis. A sea goddess. To tempt her, is to tempt the 
•ea. — 34. Tq)hy8. The pilot of the ship Argo, which sailed in the 
eelebrated quest for the golden fleece, with Hercules, Jason, and 
otfaers — ddectos Aeroa*.— 39. There will be no need of navigation, 
for every land will produce everything of itself. — 43. Suave. See 
Ed. iii. 8, 63. —47. Farcae. The Fates ; from parco, to propitiate 
tbem, and induce them to spare. Ages are here said to be sput 
from Their spindles. — 49. Jovis ; the subjective gemtive, Jupiter 
caosing the growing honours of the boy ; or objective, the boy being 
rtguded aa ono raore added to Jupiter'8 race. Incrementum. rot 


Aipice convexo nutantem pondere mnndam, 60 

Terrascfne tractusqne maris caelumque profundam, 
Aspice, venturo laetantur ut omnia aaeclo ! 
O mihi tam longae maneat pars ultima vitae, 
Spiritus et, quantum sat erit tua dicere facta : 
Non me carminibus yincet nec Thracius Orpheus, 55 
Nec Linus, huic mater quamvis atque huic pater adsit, 
* Orphei Calliopea, Lino formosus Apollo. 
Pan etiam, Arcadia mecum si jodice certet, 
Pan etiam Aroadia dicat se juaice victum. 
Incipe. parve puer, risu cognoscere matrem : 60 

Matri ionga decem tnlerunt fastidia menses. 
Incipe, parve puer : cui non risere parentes, 
Nec deus hunc mensa, dea nec dignata cubili est. 

j_U___|^_, ai___l_^_l_ *.M_ I 11 ■» I l_ _ _ I ■■! Mll- - I — I 1 I I I ■■_ ~ 1 I 

the force added to a verse by tbe spondaic quadrasyllable, see Georg, 
i. 221: Aen. ii. 68, viii. 167. — 51. Tractusque. The iast eyHabTe 
long from tbe anU. — 52. Laetantur. The indicative shows the 
poet*B firm conviction of the truth of his statements. It ia not | See 
now aU nature rejoices,' but, ' See ! How does all nature reioice !' 
—55. It is not unusuai fbr a negative proposition to be laiddown 
generally, and then particulars to be stated, stiii with particies of 
negation. Here the generai proposition is, ' There shall not (non) 
any conquer me ;* the particuiar instances arc Orpheus and LinuSt 
both ushered in with nec, nec. In strong negations, in Enjrlish, we 
have something similar; and here we may say, * No one snalt^sur- 
pass me in song; no, not Orpheus,' &.c.—- 60. Risu cognoscere; to 
show thy mother by thy laugh that thou reco^nisest her. — 61. Tu* 
Urunt, For the quantity see Georg. ii. 129, iii. 283, iv. 393 ; Atn. 
ii. 774, iii. 48, 681, x. 334. —62. Cutnon, &c. Hun to whose laugh 
no parents have joyously replied. 

This Eclogue if expressly imitated in Pope*8 Mesiiah, a Saerei 


m 6riginal Daphnis was a Sicilian hero, and his name oocnfS 
iVequently in the ancient Pastorals. It is supposed that this 
Eclogue was written b. c. 42, in which year public rejoicings 
throughoui Italy were ordered to celebrate the deification of 
Juiius Caesar, the month of July being also named a(ter hinu 
According to this conjecture, which is not improbable, Virgil 
celebrates Caesar under the name of Daphnis, though not car* 
rying the resemblance throngh all its features. The poem has 
been extensively imitated, and has furnished materials ibr 
many elegiac Eclogues. The first fiily-two lines consist chiefly 
of lamentatiou ; the lemaining verses celebrate the deification 
jof Daphnif. 



Mfn, CuR non, Mopse, boni quoniam convenimus ambo^ 
Tu calamos inflare levis, ego aicere versus, 
Hic corylis mixta» inter considimus ulmos? 

Mop. Tu major; tibi me est aequum parere, Menalca, 
Sive sub incertas Zephyris motantibus umbras, 6 

Sive antro potius succedimus. Aspice, ut antrum 
Silvestris raris sparsit labrusca racemis. 

Men. Montibus in nostris solus tibi certat Amyntas. 

,Mop. Quid, si idem certet Phoebum superare canendol 

Men. Incipe, Mopse, prior, si (juos aut Pnyllidis ignis, 10 
Aut Alconis nabes lauaes, aut jurgia Codri. 
locipe ; pascentis servabit Tityrus haedos. 

Mop. Immo baec, in viridi nuper quae cortice fiagi 
Carmina descripsi et modulans alterna notavi, 
Experiar. Tu deinde jubeto ut certet Amyntas. 15 

Men. Lenta salix quantum pallenti cedit olivae, 
Puniceis humilis quantum saliunca rosetis, 
Judicio nostro tantum tibi cedit Amyntas. 

Mop, Sed tu desine plura, puer; successimus antio. 

Exstinctum Nymphae crudeli funere Daphnim 
Flebant; vos coryli testes et fliimina Nymphis; 
Cum, complexa sui corpus miserabile nati, 
Atque deos atque astra vocat crudelia mater. 
Non ulli pastos illis egere diebus 

Frigida, Daphni, boves ad flumina; nulla nec amnem 25 
Libavit quadrupes, nec graminis atti^it herbatn. 
Da^phni, tnum Poenos etiam ingemuisse leones 
Interitum montesque feri silvaeque loquuntur. 
Daphnis et Armenias curru subjungere tigris 
Instituit, Daphnis thiasos inducere Bacchi, 30 

»'■' -■ ■■' " ' ■ — 

1. Boni ; that is, periti, It is followed by the infinitive infiar^^ 
which is a poetical usage. See Ecl. vii. 5 — x. 32 ; Geofg. i. 280« 
884; Aen, \x. 772; and Zumpt, ^598. — 7. Sparsit. See Ed. iv» 
52.-8. Tibi certat. So Certent et cycnis ululae. Ed. viii. 55.-^ 
9. Mopsos seems to eneer at Amyntas, as darins to contend not 
wuh him only, but with ApoUo. — 14. Altema. Mopsus inscribed 
Jiis verses^ and then set tnem to music, which, too, he inscribed. 
8ee JSd. lii. 8.—- 23. Atque-~atque ; that is, et — et. Astra. She 
npbraids with eruelty the stars, as influencin^ her son^s fate. Ma-^ 
Ur, Venus, the alleged foundress of tbe Julian race. See Ecl. ix. 
47.-^25. NuUa nec. See Ecl. iv. 65.-29. Curru ior currui; a 
fiDrm neually adopted by Caesar» and not uncommon ia Virgil. See 
Qmrg. it* 158; Am, i. 257> iii. 541. 


£t foliis lentas intexere moIlibuB hastas. 

Yitis ut arboribns decori est, ut vitibus uvae, 

Ut gregibus tauri, segetes ut pinguibus arvis, 

Tu decus omne tuis. Postquam te fata tulerunt, 

Ipsa Pales agros atque ipse reliquit Apollo. 9k 

Grandia saepe quibus mandatimus hordea sulcii^ 

Infelix lolium et steriles nascuntur avenae; 

Pro molli viola, pro purpureo narcisso^ 

Carduus et spinis surgic paliurus acutis. 

Spargite humum foliis^ inducite fontibus umbras, 40 

Pastores ; mandat fieri sibi talia Daphnis ; 

£t tumulum facite. et tumulo superaddite carmen : 

' Daphnis ego in silvis, hinc nsque ad sidera notuS; 

Formosi pecoris custos, formosior ipse.' 

Men, Tale tuum carmen nobis, divine poeta, 45 

Quale sopor fessis in gramine, quale, per aestum; 
Dulcis aquae saliente sitim restinguere rivo. 
Nec calamis solum aequiparas, sed voce magistrum. 
Fortunate puer, tu nunc eris alter ab illo. 
Nos tamen haec, quocumque modo, tibi nostra vicissim 50 
Dicemus, Daphnimque tuum tollemus ad astra ; 
Daphnin ad astra feremus : amavit nos quoque Daphnis. 

mop, An quicquam nobis tali sit munere majus? 
£t puer ipse fuit cantari dignus, et ista 
Jam pridem Stimicon laudavit carmina nobis. 55 

Men. Candidus insuetum miratur limen Olympi, 
Sub pedibusque videt nubes et sidera Daphnis. 

35. Fala, An Italian deity who presided over shepherds. 
ApoUo, One of the offices of the GreeK Apolh>, eepecially dwelt 
on in later timea, and here recognised by Virgil, was that of pro« 
tecting the flocks and cattle. — 3^. In iis sulcis is necessary to com- 
plete the sense. — 37. Infdixt not fitted to sustain life. Aen, iiL 
649. Sterile» avenae. Wild oats, called by Linnaeus avena fatueu 
— 40. He calls upon the shepherds to perform the wonted bonours 
to the tomb of Daohnis, sprmkling leaves, and enveloping in thick 
shades (umbrast plur.) of numerous branches the running waters 
near which his tomb was placed. — 46. Quale. See EcL lii. 80. — 
47. JSestinguere. As tho infinitive is a verbal substantive (See 
Zumpt, ^ 597, &rC.), it corresponds with other substantives, as here 
with sopor. See Georg. i. 25, iii. 181 ; Aen. x. 759. — 49. Alter has 
the force, as often, of secundus. Ah ; the order of immediate suc* 
cession is ezpressed by this preposition with the force of poet.-^ 
54. Cantari dignus. Tne infinitive with the force of the ablative \m 
rare in prose, but not unci-immon in verse. See a similar constra^ 
tion, ver. 89. — 56-80. We have now the deification of Daphnis, ia 
which tho poet ascribes to him all the attributes, and claims for him 
all the honours, of a rural deity. Candidus, Either serenely 
majestic, or glowing with heavenly splendour. Olympu It is ¥rciA 

• £f;go akcria 8UTa& et cetera ruEa volaptas 
Panaque pastoreeque tenet Pryadasque puellas. 
Nec lopus Insidias pecori, nec retia ceryis 60 

UUa dolum meditantur; amat bouus otia Daphnis. - 

r ' Ipsi laetitia voces ad sidera jactaot 

Intonsi montes ; ipsae iam carmina rupes, 

Ij^ sonant arbusta : ' Deus, deus ille, Menalca V 

Sis bonus o felixque tuis ! en quatuor aras: 6C^ 

Ecce duas tibi, Ikphni, duas ajtaria Phoebo. 

• ■ Pocula bina novo spumantia lacte quotannis 
Craterasque duos statuam tibi pinguis olivi, 
£t multo in primis hilarans convivia Baccho, 
Ante focum, si frigus erit, si messis^ in umbra^ 70 

Yina novum fundam calathis Ariusia nectar. 
Cantabunt mihi Damoetas et Lyctius Aegon } 

i Saltantis Satyros imitabitur Alphesiboeus. 

Haec tibi semper erunt, et cum sollemnia vota 
Reddemus Nymphis, et com lustrabimus agros. 76 

Dum juga montis aper, fluvios dum piscis amabit, 
Dumque thymo pa^centur apeS; dilm rore cicadae, 
Semper^onos nomenque tuum laudesque manebunt. 
Ut BMxmo Cererique, tibi sic vota quotaimis * 

Agricolae facient ', damnabis tu quoque votis. 80 

luiown that tfae poets employ this mountain of Thessaly to denote 
liecven, the residence of the gods. See Ed. vi. 86 ; Creorg, u 450 ; 
Aen. i.^74, &c. — 58. Alacris qualifies voluptcLS. — 59. Pana. The 
Greek god of shepherds, identified by the Komans witb their own 
^aunus. Dryadai. The nymphs of trees, from ipCj, any wild- 
"growing lofty tree. — 60. Not only happiness, but serenity prevails. 
*— 61. Bonus, kind. See ver. 65; Aen. xii. 647. *— 63. Intonsi; 
«ilvosL — 65. Aras. Any structure for worship by ofiering was 
ealled ara ; that whereon victims were slain in honour of tbe superior 
deities was called altare. Duas (aras) altaria Phoebo, The cele- 
bration of the birthday of Julius Caesar fell upon the eve of the ludt 
ApoUinareSf the 12th July. — 67. Bifia ; 68. duof. Tivo pocuUt to 
each altar, but only one crater, as larger. Such is the force of the 
numerals here. Zumpt, ^ 119. It is probable that Virgil here de- 
chues his intention to rajik Caesar among the Lares worshipped in 
April, when the harvest began (at the Ambarvalia)^ and at the close 
of the vintage ta autumn. l^o the first refer novo lacte, messis; to 
the latter, otivi and frigus. On both occasions he is to pour forth 
^bations of wine. -— 69. Bacchoj for vino ; as Georg. i. 344; Aen. i. 
1115. — 71. Ariusia. A district of the island of Chios, producing 
the choiccst wines, called here nectar. — 72. Lyctius : equivalent 
td Cretensis ; from Lyctus, a town of Crcte. — 75. Probably a^ain 
sn allnsion to the autumnal feast, and the Amharvalia ; for wbich, 
in oonnection with lustrabimus agros, see Georg. i. 338, &c. — 80. 
A vim (eofiMfi) partook of the natiu^ of a bargain. The worshij^ 
4# D 


Mop, Qttae tibi, qnae tali reddam pro earmine donaf 
Nam neque me tantum venientis sibilus anstri^ 
Nec percussa juvant fluctu tam litora, nec quaa 
Saxosas inter decurrnnt flumina valles. 

Men, Hac te nos fragili donabimus ante cicnta. 85 
Haec nos, ' Formosum Corydon ardebat Alexim,' 
Haec eadem docuit, 'Cujum pecus? an Meliboeit' 

Mop. At tu snme pedum, quod, me cum saepe rogaret^ 
Non tulit Antigenes — et erat tum dignus aman — ' 
Formosum paribns nodis atque aere, Menalca. 90 

pers covenanted to perform some specified service to the god (pcta 
/ecerunt)f on condition that the god granted their prayer. If he did 
80, he was said damnare votit or voto, to find them liable to pajr 
their vows (vota reddere)^ as having had their prayer granted. — 86, 
87. The commencement of the second and third £clogues. 

For the most beautiful imitation of this Eclogue, see Milton'8 


L. ALFiinrs YAavs had been appointed by Octavianns, b. c. 40, 
to preside over Cisalpine Gaul, in room of PoUio, who he^ 
longed to the party of Antony, and had been driven fiom his 
comman(]| With Yarus were associated the poet Corn. Gallafl^ 
a Romah eques, and Octavianus Musa. Yarus and Yirgil had 
before together received instructions in philosophy frorh Siron, 
an Epicurean. In the year b. c. 39, Yirgil, who had fled to 
Rome from violence ofiered to him by the soldiery, even afler 
his lands had been restored, retumed home, and, to conciliata 
Yarus, composed this Eclogue. The subject is principally a 
rapid and poetical account of the Epicurean theory of . the 
creation of the world, along with some c{ the most noted 
mythes, and a delicate compliment to Gallus. 


pRiMA Sjrracosio dignata est ludere versa 
Nostra, nec erubuit silvas habitare, Thalia. 
Cum canerem reges et proelia, Cynthius aurem 

1. Fruna; either^r»< in Latin poetry, or atfirttt forprtmum; as 
Geor0. i. 12. Syraeoeio. Theocritus was a native of Syracuse. Se« 
Ecl. iv. 1 . — 2. Thalia, The Muse that presided over pastoral poetrjTy 
— 3. When Yirgil, who had written pastoral poetry, was attempting 
higher strains, he was checked by Apollo (CyntkiuSi irom Cynthusj 
a mountain m Delos, at the foot of which he was born), and recom 
mended to sing a humble {deducttm) song. 

YeWtj et admonisit: Pastorem, Tityre, pii^is 
Pascere oportet ovis, deductum dicere carmen. i 

Nunc ego — ^namque super tibi erunt, qui dicere landes, 
Yare, tuas cupiant, et tristia condere bella — 
Agrestem tenui meditabor arundine Musam. 
Non injussa cano. Si quis tamen haec quoque, si qnis 
Captus amore l^et, te nostrae, Yare, m^rrioae. 10 

Te nemus omne canet ; nec Phoebo gmtior ulla est, 
Quam sibi quae Yari praescripsit pagina nomen. 

PergitO; Pierides. Chromis et Mnasylos in antro 
Si)enum pueri somno videre jacentem, 
Inflatum hestemo venas, ut semper, laccho; 15 

Serta procul, tantum capiti delapsa, jacebant, 
£t gravis attrita pendebat cantharus ansa. 
Aggressi— nam saepe senex spe carminis ambo 
^ Luserat — injiciunt ipsis ex vincula sertis. 

Addit se sociam timidisque supervenit Aegle — 20 

A^Ie, Naiadum pulcherrima — ^jamque videnti 

Sanguineis frontem moris et tempora pingit. 

Ule dolum ridens, ^Quo vincula nectitisV inquit; 

' Solvite me, pueri ; satis est i>otui88e videri. 

Carmina, quae vultis, cognoscite ; carmina vobis, 25 

Hnic aliud mercedis erit.' Simul incipit ipse. 

Tnm vero in numerum Faunosque ferasque videres 

Ludere, tum rigidas motare cacumina quercus; 

Nec tantum Phoebo gaudet Parnasia rupes, 

Nec tantum Rhodope mirantur et Ismarus Orphea. 30 

Namque canebat, uti magnum per inane coacta 

6. Super tibi erunt ; the same as supererunt. This separation is 
not uncommon. See Georg. ii. 349, 351 ; Aen. ii. 567, vii. 559. — 
8. See Ecl. i. 2. — • 9. Injttssa ; referring to the instructions of Apollo. 
— 13. Chromis et Mnasylos. The names of two Satyrs. — 14. SUo» 
wum. This constant companion of Bacchus, at least in the later 
mythes, b represented as old, and ever indulging in wine. — 15. 
InfUUum venas. See Ecl. i. 55. laccho. A name for Bacchus, from 
idKxaVf to utter loud shouts of joy ; here equivaleni to vino. ' See 
Ed. V. 69. — 17, 18. A brief and graphic picture of the old god, 
Btretched in sleep, still keeping hold oi the wine-jar, and his garland 
lying beside him. Procul indicates interval of space, small or great 
^he interval to be judged of from the context. Here the interval 
is small, near, Tantum^ referable either to time, or rather to epace ; 
from his head, andnomore. — 21. Videnti. Silenus had been awak- 
eoed, and saw what they were doing. — 27. In numerum, keeping 
tbne with the mnsic. — 30. Bhodopeetlsmarus, mountainsof Thraoe, 
the land of Orpheus. Orpl^ to oe pronounced OrphyH. — 31. Hero 
ooounences the Epicurean cosmoeony. Inane ; the void which the 
Epicnreans held to be the original condition of the universe. Tho 
scattered atoms (festma) of eiurth {t^rrarwn^f air (flnimae)^ water 


Semina terrBnmque antmaeqiie mamqae fiMMP^ 
£t li^uidi simd ignis ; ut his exordia pimis 
Omoia. et ipse tener mundi concreverit orbie; 
Tum aurare solum et discludere Nerea ponto 35 

Coeperit^ et reram paulatim sumere fonBoas; 
Jamqne no?um terrae Btnpeant lud^aoece solemi ^ 

Ahius atque ouiaat submotis nubibus imbres; 
Incipiant silvae eum primum surgere, oumqua 
Hara per ignaros errent animalia montis. 40 

Hino lapides Pyrrhae jaotos, Saturnia regna, 
Cancasiasque refert voluores furtumque Promethei* 
His adjungitf Hylan nautae quo fonte relictum 
Clamassent, ut litus, ^Hyla! Hyla!' omne sonaret; 
£t fortunatam, si numquam armenta fuissenti 45 _ 

Pasiphaen nivei solatur amore juvenci. 
Ah, virgo infeliX| quae te dementia oepit ! 
Proetides implerunt falsis mugitibus agros : 
At non tam turpis |»ecudum tamen ulla secuta est 
Concubitus, quamvis coUo timuisset aratrum, 50 

Ecisaepe in levi quaesisset cornua fronte. 
Ah, virgo infelix, tu nunc in montibus erras : 
' Ille, latus niveum molli fultus hyacintho, 
Ilice snb nigra pallentis ruminat herbaS| 
4]lt aliqoam in magno sequitur grege. ' Claudite, Nym- 
phae, - 55 

Dictaeae Nymfmae, nemorum jam claudite saltufl) 
- ' Si qua forte ferant oculis sese obvia nostris 

dmaris), fire (ignit), were united dcoacta) to ^Dim bodies. See Ovidf 
jjdet. i. 81, &c. — 35. Nerea. A sea-god) here put for the walers 
-of the sea, but to be translated literuly. Ponto^ in i)»nlo. ~ 38. 
The rains are represented as fallinff from a greaterheignt, in oonse- 
^ence of the greater elevation otthe elouds. — 39. Cum priinMm 
incipiant, &c. ; that is, Candntt jprimtm ortum sUvarum, et primta 
errores antmalium, &o. •*- 41. SeQ Ovid, Met. i. 348, &€. — 42. 
Prometheus, for havii^ etolen fire irom heaven (furtum), and g^ven 
it to man, was by Jupiter^s command chained to Mouut Caucasus. 
an eagle preying on nis Uver.— 43. The thhrd mythe was that w 
the Argonautic ezpedition, in which Hylas, a youth beloved by Her> 
cules, was carriea off in My^ia, by a nympD, and soueht in vaia. 
Q^ofonte, apud quem fontem. — 44. Hyld, Hylii : neitner a i$ cut 
olr, The first is iong by the arsis, the second ehort before omne. — • 
48. Froetides. The daushterB of Proetus were driven into madness 
by Juno, and believed themselves to have been changed into oows. 
»53. Fultus hyaciniko, Tbe -ue made lone by the arsis. This is 
rare aAer a lonff syllable, and at the end ot the fifth foot, but it ia 
in imitation of the Greek usage. For the construction of latuefuUM9t 
see Eti. i. 55. — 55. Fasiphae herself ia introduced as uttering thes* 
words. — d$. Pictaeaei irom Dicte« amountsin of Crete. 

BClrOOA Tt. 4i 

Errabnnda boyiB reiBligia ^ fonitan illnin, 
Ant herba captnm viridi, ant armenta secntnm, 
Perducant aliqnae stabuta ad Gortynia vaccae.' 60 

Tnm canit Hesperidum miratam mala pnellam ; 
_ Tum Phaetbontiadas museo circnmdat amarae 
Corticis, atque solo proceras erigit alnos. 
Tum canit, errantem Permessi ad flnmina Galium 
Aonas in montis ut duxerit una sororum, 65 

Ulque viro Phoebi chorus assurrexerit omnis; 
Ut Linus haec illi divino carmine pastor, 
Floribus atque apio crinis ornatus amaro, 
Dixerit; 'Hos tibi dant calamos — en accipe — Musae| 
Ascraeo quos ante seni, quibus ille solebat 70 

Cantando rigidas deducere montibus ornos. 
His tibi Grynei nemoris dicatur origo, 
Ne quis sit Incus, quo se plus jactet ApoUo,' 
Quid loquar, ut Scyllam Nisi, quam fama secuta est^ 
(^indida succinctam latrantibus inguina monstris 75 

Dulichias vexasse rates, et gurgite in alto 

60. Gortynia; from Gortyna, a city of Crete. — 61. The fifth 
mythe was that of Atalante, whom Hipppmenes conquered in a foot 
race, and thus gained as a wife, by throwing in her way three golden 
apples, which she stooped to pick up; Ovid, Met. x. 560. virgil 
speaks of these apples as those of the Hesperides, whose office tt 
was to guard the golden apples of the far west. See Aen, iv. 480. 
-— 62. ^haetkmtiadas. The next m^the is that of tho siaters of 
Phaethon ; for which see Ovid, Met. ii. 325, &.c. ; and Aen, x. 190, 
wbere they are said to have been changcd into poplars. CircumdaU 
Silenas is represented as doing what was done in the case of those 
vhom he is celebrating. — 64. Virgil introduces the praises of Com. 
Gallus as a poet. Permessi. A river of Boeotia, rising in Mount 
Helicon, the haunt of the Muses. — 65. Aonas montis. The Boeo- 
tian hilis, of which Helicon was one ; from Aones, the primitive 
kiliabitants. Sororum, the Muses. — 66. This was a mark of re- 
spect. See lliadf i. 533. — 67. Linus. Already mentioned, iv. 56. 
He was a mythic personification of lamentation, said to be the soq' 
of ApoUo and Calliope, and in later times regarded as a poet. Join 
dhnno carmine either with dixeritf or, what seems preferable, with 
pastor. — 70. Ascraeo dederant seni — to Hesiod, so caUed from As- 
CTB, in Boeotia, his birthplace. — 72. Grynei. From Gryneum 
(r^tfvcioy), a town of Aeolis, where Apollo had a celebrated grove 
and tcmple. It wonld seem that Gallus had written, in imitation 
of Hesiod, a poem celebrating this grove and temple. See Bcl. x. 
"50. &c. — 74. Virgil leaves Gallus to take up another mythe, that 
of Scylla, the daughter of Phorcys, chan^ed into a monster sheher- 
\ag in her belly sea-dogs (Ovid, Met. xiv. 1, &c.), whom hc con- 
fettodfi with the daughter of Nisus, changed into a bird (Ovid, Me^, 
vm. 6, &c.). ScyUam, govcrned hy narraverit, ver. 78. — 76. Du' 
liekias. Dulichium waa an island near Ithaca, with which it is often 

4M Bucoucoir soudoae. 

Ah! timido8tMiita8caoUmflae#mseiaarkii»i 

Ant ut matatos Terei narraverit aFtus, 

Qnas illi Philomela dapes, quae ddna pararit^ 

Quo cursu deserta petirerit, et quibus ante 80 

Infeliz 8ua tecta supervolUayerit alis ? 

Qmnia, quae, Pboebo quondam meditante, beatua 

Audiit Eurotas jussitque ediseere laurus, 

IHe canit ; pulsae referunt ad sidera valles ; 

Cogere donec ovis stabulis numerumque reterri 85 

Jussit, et invito processit Vesper Olympo. 

78. This mythe is told by Ovid, Met, vi. 424, &rC. Philomela, 
with her sister Procne, the wife of Tereus, king of Thrace, had, 
in revenge for his infamous conduct, killed his son Itys, and served 
him up (dapeSj dona) to his father. Tereus was changed into k hoo- 
poe, rrocne into a swallow, and Philomela iuto a nigKtingale. Te- 
m — ^two syllables. — 83. The aifection of Phoebus lor Hyacinthusi 
a native oi Laconia, led him to frequent the Eurotas, a river of that 
district. — 85. Cogere — referri. For other instances of this chanee 
of construction, see Georg. i. 130; Aen. iii. 61. — 86. Invito. The 
heaven itself was unwilling to see the advance of the evening star, 
because it stopped the sweet strains of Silenus. 


Aftbb an introdoction, occupying the first twenty lines, this Eo- 
logue contains amoebaean verses (see Argument to EcL iii.), 
in which Corydon, a shepherd of a gentle nature, begins, and 
is replied to by Thyrsis, whose strains are more morose. It is 
supposed to liave been written in the spring of b. c. 38, tbe 
year that Virgil began to write the Georgics, when he was 
thirty-two years old, and had become intimate with Maecenas, 
Horace (then twenty-seven years old), and other men of note. 



MeL FoRTE sub arguta consederat ilice Daphnis, 
Compulerantque greges Corydon et Thyrsis in unumi 
Thyrsis ovis, Corydon distentas lacte eapeIlaS| 
Ambo florentes aetatibus, Arcades ambo, 
£t cantare pares, et respondere parati. B 

1. Areuta ; shrili whistling in the wind. — 4. Ambo indicates that 
the shepherds were together when the remark is made. — 5. Caniartt 
for the prose cantanao, responderet for ad reapondendtim, See JS^ 
T. 47; Zumpt, ^598. 

V _ 

XCLOGA Tlt. m 

Hac nithi, dnin teneras defendo a frfgore myrtos, 
Vir ^regis ipse caper deerraverat ; atque ego Daphmm 
Aspicio. Ille Ai me conlra Tidet : ' Ocins,' inqttit, 
^Huo ades, o Meliboee ! eaper tibi salyns et haedi; 
£t, si quid cessare potes, reqmesce snb umbra. 10 

Hnc ipsi potum venient per prata juvenci; 
Hic viridis tenera praetexit arandine npas 
Mincius, eque sacra resonant examina quercu.' 
Quid facerem? neque ego Alcippen, neque Phyllida habe« 

Depulsos a lacte domi quae clauderet agnos; 15 

Et certamen erat, Corydon cum Thyrside, magnnnou 
Posthabui tamen illorum mea seria ludo. 
Altemis igitur contendere versibus ambo 
Coepere; alternos Musae meminisse volebant. 
Hos Corydon, illos referebat in ordine Thyrsis. 20 

Cor, Nymphae, noster amor, Libethrides, aut mihi car- 
Qnale meo Codro, concedite ; proxima Phoebi 
Versibus ille facit; aut, si non possumus omnes, 
Hic arguta sacra pendebit fistula pinu. 

Thyr. Pastores, hedera nascentem ornate poStam^ 25 
Arcades, invidia rumpantur ut illa Codro ; 
Aut, si ultra placitum laudarit, baccare frontem 
Cingite, ne vati noceat mala lingua futuro. 

Q)r. Saetosi caput hoc apri libi, Delia, parvus 

6. Meliboetm, who narrates the conteet, proceeds to tell how hm 
had corae to witness it. — 7. Deerraverat ; the first two syllablet 
nmke one long ; see Oeorg. ii. 200 ; Aen. x. 378. Atque is often 
nsed to introduce a atatement not only additional, but unexpected. 

— 12. Fraetexo, I weave in the front of— I fringe. See Aeit,YU 5. 
m^t3. Mincius. So Milton in hia Z^etdax— 

* toooth sHding Afinciat, crowned with vocal reeds.* 

— 16. This is a rare apposition, equivalent to, Etcertahant Corydon 
aim Thyrside magnopere. See Aen. v. 339. — 19. Altemos (versus). 
See Eei. iii. 59. — 21. Libetkrides ; from Libethrus, a fountain and 
cave of Helicon. The Nymphs, therefore, may be the Muses, or 
ihe nymphs merely of the grotto and spring. See Ecl. x. 1. — 22. 
Troxtma may be uscd substantively, as in Ecl. iii. 80 ; or it may 
refcr to carmina, involved in carmen in the preceding line. — 24. 
Thoee who left any employment, hung up their implements as a 
tacred ofiering: here to Pan, to whom, as well as to Cybele, the 
pine was 8acred.*-27. JJltra placitumj beyond the real opinion of 
Codrus ; or rather beyond wnat you approve of, as indicating tlie 
flattery of envy, bringing dan^er with it. Baccare. This acted aa 
achann against envy. — 29. PeZuz, a name for Diana, from the ist- 
•nd Delos. These four lines contain a votive inscription, in the 
•tyle of the Epigfammata, such as usually accompanied offerings to 


£t ramoBa Micon vivacis coraoa cervi. 

Si proprium boc fuerit, levi de marmore tota 

Puniceo stabis suras evincta cotburno. 

Thyr, Sinum lactis te baec et liba, Priape, quotamiis 
Ezspectare sat est : custos es pauperis borti. 
Nunc te marmoreum pro tempore fecimus } at to, 85 
Si fetura gregem suppleverit, aureus esto. 

Cor, Nerine Galatea, thymo mibi dulcior Hyblaei 
Candidior cycnis, hedera formosior alba, 
Cum primum pasti repetent praesepia tauri, 
Si qua tui Corydonis habet te cura, venito. AO 

Tkw. Immo ego Sardoniis videar tibi amarior berbiSy 
Horridior rusco, projecta vilior alga, 
Si mihi non haec lux toto jam longior anno est. 
Ite domum pasti, si quis pudor, ite, juvenci. 

Cor, Muscosi fontes et somno mollior herba, 4$ 

£t quae vos rara viridis tegit arbutus umbra, 
Solstitium pecori defendite ; jam venit aestas 
Torrida, jam ]aeto turgent in palmite gemmae. 

Thyr, Hic focus et taedae pingues, hic plurimus ignis 
Semper, et assidua postes fuligine nigri ; ^ 50 

Hic tantum Boreae curamus frigora. quantum 
Aut numerum lupus, aut torrentia numina ripas. 

Cor. Stant et juniperi et castaneae hirsutae; 

the gods — as to Diana a portion of the animals slain in the chace.-— 
31. jhoc. This Buccess. — ^2. Surat wincta. See £cZ. i. 55. Pu* 
nieeo cothumo, Even marble statues were sometimes painted. The 
description is tbat of a buntress. See Aen. i. 337. — 33. Priapua, 
the son of Bacchus and Venus, was worshipped as the ffuardiao 
ifiU9tos) of fields, and especially of gardeos. Smum. Take care 
not to confound this word with sinut. A verse similarly formed, 
without any caesural pause save the Trochaic in PriapCf is rareljr 
found in Virgil.^35. To excel Corydon, Tbyrsis brags of marble 
and ^old. — 37. Galatea, daugbter oi Nereus (Nerinet a rare patro- 
mrmic), was famed in Sicily for her love to Acis. JSyhUie. See 
Ecl. i. 55. — 41. Sardoniis herbis. Sardinia abonnds in an herb called 
by the Greeks ffarpdjaov, by the Romans ranunculus ; of which the 
spocies described by Pliny, xxv. 109, is called by Linnaeus Ranun" 
culus sceleratus, our celery-leaved crowfoot. It is extremely acrid 
(amarior)^ and blisters the skin. When taken inwardly, it was said 
to produce mortal spasms, and to contract the muscles of the face, 
so as to resemble laughter. Hence risus Sardonicust and our Sar* 
donic grin. — 42. Rusco. Probably a species of whin, the ulex £«- 
ropaeus of Linnaeus — 50. Nigri. The Romans had no chimneye 
to carrv ofT the smoke. — 51, 52. The sentiment is, * We do nol 
fear cold in the least, so well are we supplied with the means of 
warming ourselves.' — 53. The picture presented is that of the juni- 
persandrthe chestnuts exhibiting their branches stifT with berries 
and nuts (stant) ; wbile under each tree he In heaps its nauve firuita. 

( . 


Strata jacent passim sua ouaqoe mh arbore poma; 
Omnia nunc rident; at si formosus Alexis 55 

Montibus his abeat, videas et flamina sicca. 

7%3^. Aret ager 5 vitio moriens sitit aeris herba \ ' 
Liber pampineas invidit colhbus nmbras : 
Phyllidis adventu nostrae nraEius omne virelHt) 
Jupiter et ]aeto deseendet plurimus imbri. 60 

Vor, Popuks Alcidae gratiseima, yitis laccho, 
Formbfiae myrtus Venerii sualaurea Phoebo; 
PhylJis amat oorylos. Hlas dum Phyllis amabit, 
Nec myrtus vincet corvlos, nec laurea Phoebi. 

Thyr, Fraxinusin silvis puldierrima, pinus in hortk, 65 
Popuius in fluviis, abies in montibus aJtis; 
Saepius at si me, Lycida formose; revisas, 
iFiBxinufl in silvis cedat tibi, (nnus in hortis* 

Mel, Haee memini, et victum frustra contendare Thyr« 
£x illo Cprydon, Corydon est terapore nobis. 70 

Qa9faneae kirgutae, The ae unelided and lonj^ through the arsi», — « 
60. Juniter. The air-god, personifying the aur. See Georg, ii. 325. 
— 61. ^opulust &c. Compare Phaddrus, iii, 17. Jaeehe, See Ecl, 
vL 15. — ^.70. Corydon e$t Hohi» ; a phrase indicatiye of high satis- 
^tion; as we say colloquiaily, ' Is the man for us.* 


AtTirfvs PoLLio, to whom this Eclogue is addressed, had in b. 0. 
40 completely crasbed tbe Parthini, an Illyrian tribe on tho 
confines of Macedonia, near Dyrrachium. It is probabie that 
the Eclogue was inscribed to him on his return in the subse* 
qaent year. The subject, apart from the address, 6-13, and 
the introdnctory verses, 1-5, 14-16, 62, 63, is twofold. The 

; first part, 17-61, is occupied with the unsuccessful love of a 
shepherd fbr Nisa, as sung by Damon. In the second, Alpbe* 
siboeus represents the grief felt by a shepherdess when aban^ 
dooed, as she supposed, Vjy Dapbnis, and the magical charms 
to which she had recourse to bring him back. Hence the title 
of the Eclogue, borrowed from Theocritus, from the Groek 
fiy^KCWfpiai an encbantress. 




Pastorum Musam Damoms et Alphesiboei, 

Immemor herbaram quos est mirata jaTenca 

Certantis, quoram stupefactae carmine lynceSi 

£t routata suos requierunt flumina cursus^ 

Damonis Musam dicemus et Alphesiboei. i 

Tu mibi, seu magni superas jam saza Timayi| 
Sive oram Illyrici le^is aequoris, en erit umquam 
Ille dies, mitu cum hoeat tua dicere facta % 
£n erit, ut liceat totum mihi ferre per orbem 
Sola Sopbocleo tua carmina digna cothurao I 1% 

A te pnncipiumi tibi desinet. Accipe jussis 
Carmina coepta tuis, atque hanc sine tempora circiim 
Inter victricis hederam tibi serpere lauras*- 

Frigida vix coelo noctis decesserat umbra, 
Cum ros in tenera pecori gratissimus herba ; 15 

Incumbens tereti Damon sic coepit ollvae. 

Dam, Nascere, praeque diem veniens age^ Lucifery 
Conjngis indigno Nisae deceptus amore 
Dum queror, et divos, quamquam nil testibus illis 
Profeci, extrema moriens tamen alloquor hora. 20 

Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, versus. 

1. Musam, equivalent to carmifia,^4. Either mutata eur$u$, see 
Ecl. i. 55 ; or requierunt cur$u$, an analogous construction. — 6« 
Mihi. The dative of personal pronouns is onen used in cases wbere 
it seems superfluous, but where, in reality, it brings home a liveljr 
feeling to the person indicated by the pronoun. Here the feeling is 
of joy. (Zumpt, ^ 408.) It is called in such cases the dative etkicu9, 
Timavi. The Timavus was a river flowing into the Sinu$ Tei^at* 
iinu$, at the head of the Gulf of Venice. The springa of the 
Timavus are numerous, burstine out from rocks i$axa), and thea 
vniting into one stream. See Aen. i. 244. Superare may allude 
either to a voyage or a march. Probably here the former ; and thea 
the alternative would be, whether marching round through Istriay 
from the Parthini (see Argument), or hugging {legi$) the Iliyriaii 
shore in ships. — 7. En ezpresses a^tronff desire. — 8, Virgil ex- 
presses his anxiety to sing the praises of Follioi as a warrior, and 
as a writer of tragedies alone worthv of being ranked with those of 
Sophocles. Cathumu$, a part of the dress peculiar to tragedy, as 
$oeeu$ was to comedy. — 16. Either leanins on a staflfof olive-wood, 
or reclining against an oHve-tree. — 17. Join prae and venien$. — • 
18. CoMugie ; used not in its strict sense, but in that of one who 
waa to be, or who wished to be. So below, verses 30, 66 ; Am. ii. 
344, iii. 330, vii. 189. — 21. Such lines, regularly repeated at inter- 
vals, are common to many lani^ages, especialiy in baliads, «nd 


Maensilad argataniqiie nemas pinosqoe loqnentis 

Semper habet ; seraper pastorum ille aadit amoresi 

Panaqae, qui primus calamos non passus inertis. 

Incipe Maenafios mecum, mea tibia^ versus. 25 

Mopso Nisa datur : quid non speremus amantest 

Jungentur jam grvphes equis, aevoque sequenti 

Cum canibus timidi venient ad pocula damae. 

Mopse, novas incide faces: tibi ducitur uxor; 

Sparge, marite, nuces : tibi deserit Hesperus Oetam. 30 

Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, versus. 

O digno conjuncta viro ! dum despicis omnis, 

Dumque tibi est odio mea fistula, dumque capellae 

Hirsutumque supercilium promissaque barba, 

Nec curare deum credis mortalia quemquam. 35 

Incipe Maenalios raecum, mea tibia, versus. 

SepiDUs in nostris parvam te roscida mala — 

Dux ego vester eram — vidi cum matre legentem. 

Aiter ab undecimo tura me jam acceperat annus; 

Jam fragilis poteram ab terra contingere ramos. 40 

Ut vidi, ut perii! ut me malus abstulit error! 

Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, versus. 

Nunc sciOj quid sit Amor ; duris in cotibus illum 

Aut Tmaros, aut Rhodope, aut extremi Garamantes, 

^— — » ■ I ■ 

called refrains. Maenalio», equivalent to Arf.tdian, from Maenalus, 
a mountain in Arcadia. This refrain was probnbly intended to in- 
troduce a bar of moumful music from the tibia, as preliminary to 
Mch new tbou^ht in the song. — 24. Panaque, See Ecl. ii. 32. 
Pan 18 appropnately introduced in Arcadia, where principally he 
was worshipped. — 26. Daiur nuptum. Speremus, Spes and spero, 
like the Greek iXvts and 2Airc#5ac, often indicate not merely hope-^ 
expectation of good — but expectation of any kind, as here. See 
Aen. i. 543, xi. 275. — 27. Grypkes, These were mythic animala, 
with a Uon's body, but an eagle'8 face and wings, who frequented 
the Rhipean mountains, and were at constant war with horses. — 
29. Allusions are made in these two lines to marriage usages. 
Torches of pine (faces) were burned, and, among the Romans, nuts 
were scattered, by the marriage procession. — 30. Oeia was a moun- 
tain range, forminff the south boundary of Thessaly. The evening 
•tar 18 represented as leaving it ; that is, as appearing in the sky 
above it, and ushering in the evening. The lover must therefore 
be supposed to be on the east part of the range. — 37.* Roscida. 
8till wet with the dew of moming. — 39. Alier ah undecimo, The 
twelfth. See Ecl. v. 49. — 41. Vt—ut — ut. The first ut is equiva- 
lent to simul ac. The others are words of exclamation. There is 
no elision of the i of perii. — 43. Illum at the end of the line indi- 
MtM emphasis. — 44. Tmaros. A mountain range in the north-east 
•f ^irus, above Dodona. Rhodope, a raountain range in the west 
•f Tnrace, an ofishoot firom Haemus. Garamantes. A people mhr 


Neo genoris nostri paonim nec sangninis edunt 49 

Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, yeFfius. 

SaevQs Amor docuit natoram sanguine matrem 

Commaculare manus; cradelis tu quoque. mater; 

Crudeli» mater magis, an mier improbus ille ? 

Improbus ille puer; cradeiis tu quoquey mater, 50 

Incipe Maenalios mecura, mea tioiai versus. 

Nunc et ovis ultro fugiat lupus, aurea durae 

Mala ferant quercus, narcisso floreat a]nu8| 

Pinguia corticibus sudent electra myricacy 

Certent et cycnis ululae, sit Tityrus OrpheuS| 69 

Oqpjheus in silvis^ inter delphinas Arion. 

Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, versus. 

Omniavel medium fiant mare. Vivite, silvae : 

Praeceps aerii specnla de montis in undas 

Deferar; extremum hoc munus morientis habeto« 60 

Desine Maenalios, jam desine, tibia, versus. 

Haec Damon ; vos, quae responderit Alphesiboeus, 
DicitC) Pierides ; non omnia possumus omnes. 

Alph. Effer aquam, et molli cinge haec altaria vittay 
Yerbienasque adole pinguis et mascula tura : 65 

Conjugis ut magicis sanos avertere sacris 
Experiar sensus ; nihil hic nisi carmina desunt. 
Ducite ab nrbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim* 
Carmina vel coelo possunt deducere Lunam; 
Carminibus Circe socios mutavit Ulixi ; 70 

biting the intenor of Africa, south of Libya, notorious for cruelty ; 
hence Amor is here said to be of their race. The e of JRhodope is 
not elided, after the Greek model. — 47. Matrem. Probably an allu- 
sion to Medea, who, from the pangs of violated love, slew her owa 
children by Jason. The meaning of the followins lines seems to 
be : * If it is asked wbether Medea was more crueT, or Amor more 
wicked (magis improbus) ; he was wicked, but she, too, who obe^red 
him, was cruel.* — 54. It was believed that amber was an exudatioa 
from the stately trees (not the lowly myricae) that skirted tbe Po. 
See Ovid, Met. ii. 365. — 56. Arion. A Lesbian lyric poet, who, 
when cast into the sea, was saved by the dolphins {delphinas)^ whom 
he had charmed by his songs. — 58. In his despair, he wishes atl 
nature to become one common (.medium) sea. vel (ve/im), a word 
expressive of wish. Vivite. Equivalent to valete. — 60. Hoc. Thia 
leap of mine. — 64. The poet now; introduces Alphesiboeus. See 
Argument. Daphnis calls to Amafyllis, who is ber attendant, to 
Bupply her witn what is necessary in ber magic rites. Purifica- 
torv water, an altar encircled by a woolien imolli) fillet, vervain 
and strong-smelling (matntla) frankincense, for burning, are firait 
spoken ofT All is ready for the incantations (carmina). — 66. Com* 
ju^. See ver. 18. — 69, &c. She magnifies the efiicacy of incan^ 
tations.— 70. The companions of Ulysses were changed ir to swino 


Frigidus iD pratis cantando rumpitur anguis. 

Ducite ab nrbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Dapfanim. 

Tema tibi haec primum triplici diversa colore 

Licia circumdo, terque haec altaria circum 

EfRgiem duco; numero deUs impare gaudet. 75 

Ducite ab urbe domumi, mea carmina, ducite Daphnhn. 

Necte tribus nodis ternos, Amarylli, colores^ 

Necte, Amarylh, modo. et, * Veneris,' dic, * vincula necto.' 

Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim. 

Limus ut hic durescit, et haec ut cera liquescit 80 

Uno eodemque igni, sio nostro Daphnis amore. 

Spai^e molam, et fra^ilis incende bitumine laurus. 

Daphnis me malus urit, ego hanc in Daphnide laurum. 

Ducite ab urbe domnm, mea oarmina, cfucite Daphnim. 

Talis amor Daphnim, qualis, cum fessa juvencum 85 

Per nemora atque altos quaerendo bucula lucos, 

Propter aquae rivum viridi procumbit in ulva, 

Perdita, nec serae meminit decedere nocti — 

Talis amor teneat, nec sit mihi cura mederi. 

Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim. 90 

Has olim exuvias mihi perfidus il]e reliquit, 

Pignora cara sui ; quae nuno ego limine in ipso, 

Terra, tibi mando; debent haec pignora Daphnim. 

Ducite ab urbe domum. mea carmina, ducite Daphnim. 

Has herbas atque haec Ponto mihi lecta venena 95 

Ipse^dedit Moeris; nascuntur plurima Ponto. 

His ego saepe lupum fieri et se condere silvis 

by the incantations of Ctrce, a sorceress, who lived ia the island of 
Aeaea. Ulixu The s&me as Ulixei, from Ulixes and Ulixeus, 
which is obsolele. Zumpt, § 52 — 73, &c. The sorceress then tiea- 
three threads {tenur for tria), of three different colours, round a 
smail wazen ima^e of Daphnis {.tibi, explained by ima^inem, ver. 75), 
aod then carries it thrice round the altar. Amaryllis is engaged in 
tying up the ends of the threads into love-knots, and is told what 
to say while doing it. — 80. The image of clay was to harden him 
against othcrs. — 81. Uno eodem; pronounce un^ yddem, — 82. She 
then sprinkles the sacred mola of flour and salt, and burns laurel 
branches steeped in bitumen, to produce a black flame and crackling 
{JragUis). The burning of the laurel was emblematic of her wish 
to tum the omen to the heart of Daphnis t» Daphnide {hi ^d<l>viSi). 
— 85. The construction is, Talit amor Daphnim tenmt, qualis amor 
bucuJam tenet cum, &.c. — 88. Nocti decedere. The notion oiyidd- 
ing Xo the infhience of the night is combined with that of moving 
homewards. So Georg. iii. 467, iv. 23. — 91. Exuvias. Garments 
formerly wom by Daphnis. See Aen. iv. 496, 651. These she 
buries in the earth, at the door of her house, to draw him home.— 
95. Along with the garments she buried magical herbs, gathered m 
Pontus, which Medea had rendered famous fbr poisons. — 97. So m 


Moeriix, saepe animas imis excire Bepulchris 

Atque satas alio vidi traducere messis. 

Ducite ab urbe doroum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim. 100 

Fer cineres, Amarylli, foras; rtvoque fluenti 

Transque caput jace ; nec respexerie. His ego Daphnim 

Aggrediar. — ^Niml ille deos, nil carmina curat. 

Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim. 

Aspice, corripuit tremulis altaria ilammis 105 

Sponte soa, aum ferre moror, cinis ipse. Bonum sit ! 

Nescio quid certe e8t~*et Hylax in hmine latrat. 

Credimus? an, qui amant, ipsi sibi somnia fingunt ? 

Parcite, ab urbe venit, jam parcite, carmina, Daphnis. 

Inore modem times tbe loup-garrou, — 99. The magician Moeris— « 
Who he was, is unknown — tranaferred the growing crops from one 
field to another (aZtb). — 101. Amarviiis is directed to take in her hand 
asbes from the altar, to stand with her back to a running stream, 
and, without looking behind her, to throw them over her head. — 
105. While engageain this, a good omen appears. The cinders on 
the altar, not the burning wood, dcinis ipse)t untonched, (sua sponte), 
while she is delaying to help Amaryllis, in carrying them away for 
a last trial, bum tremulously. -^ 107. Hylax, The dog of Daphnis. 
— 108. Qui. Unelided and short, after the Greek model. — 109. 
Pfirciie. She calls upon the incantations to oease, for Daphnis 


Thb division of a part of the lands of Italy'among ihe soldiery, 
has already been spoken of in the Arguments to the first and 
sixth Eclogues, and it has been mentioned that those of Virgil 
had been saved ibr him. But it would seem that the party of 
Octavianus Caesar, headed by Varus, not only dispossessed the 
Mantuans of a portion of their lands, but were either unable 
or unwiiling to maintain Yirgil in his farm, wbo fled from the 
tbreats of a centurion named Arrius (see ver. 16). Virgil re- 
tired to Rome, and wrote this Eclogue, b. c. 40. Moeris, the 
slave of Menalcas (Virgil himself), is represented as driving 
to Mantua some kids, at the bidding of his new master Arrius 
He meets Lycidas, a slave from a neighbouring farm, and eiv» 
tering into conversation, they quote unconnected portions of 
the verses of Menalcas, whicb are admirable imitations o/ 
tbose of Theocritus. 




Lye, Qpo te, Moeri, pedes ? an^ quo via duoit, in urbem ^ 

Moer. O Lycida, vivi pervenimua, advena nostri, 
Quod numquam veriti sumus, ut possessor agelli 
Dioeret : ' Haec mea sunt ; veteres migrate coloni.' 
Nunc victi, tristes, quoniam Fors omnia versat. 5 

Hos illi— quod nec vertat bene — mittimus haedos. 

Lyc, Certe equidem audieram, qua se subducere coUes 
Incipiunt, mollique jugum demittere ciivo, 
Usque ad aquam et veteris, jam fracta cacumina, fagoa, 
Omnia carminibus vestrum servasse Menalcan. 10 

Moer. Audieras? et fama fuit; sed carmina tantum 
Nostra valent, Lycida, tela inter Martia, quantum 
Chaonias dicunt, aquila veniente, columbas. 
Quod nisi me quacumque novas incidere lites 
Ante sinistra cava monuisset ab ilice cornix, 15 

Nec tuus hic Moeris nec viveret ipse Menalcas. 

Lyc, Heu, cadit in quemquam tantum scelus? hen, tua 
P&ene simul tecum solatia rapta, Menalca? 
Quis c^neret Nymphas ? quis humum florentibus herbis 
Spargeret, aut viridi fontis induceret umbra? %f^ 

Vel quae sublegi tacitus tibi carmina nuper, 
Cura te ad delicias ferres, Amaryllida, nostras ? 
'Tityre, dum redeo — brevis est via — ^pasce capeIIaS| 
Et potum pastas age, Tityre, et inter agendum 
Occursare capro, cornu ferit ille, caveto.' 25 

Moer. Immo haec, quae Varo necdum perfecta canebat : 
* Vare, tuum nomen, superet modo Mantua nobis — 

^■^^1 I ■ ■ ■ -■_■,■■— — ■ ■ ■ ■ — ■ I ■ I , , _ ■ ■ -1 — . ■ ^ II , ^ 

1. Ufbem, Mantua.^2. The construction is, Vivi pervenimns (we 
bave Hved to reach thii pass) quod (a thing which) numquam veriti 
9umu$, ut advena, posaessor nostri agelli, diceret. -— 13. Chaonias, 
eolMmbas. The Chaones anciently inhabited that district of Epirus 
where Dodona was, whose oracle depended on its doves. — 14. In- 
adere, devitare, sinistra. Corniz a ainistra facit ratum. Cjc. Viv, 
L39, 85. — 18. Paene. Alluding to Virgirs narrow escape. — 19. 
What the poet cclebrates, he is represented as doing. See JEcZ. vi. 
62, &c. — 21. V(d quis caneret quae, &c. — sublegere tacitus ; quietly 
to leam what another sings, witnout his noticing it {sub). -—22. Love 
being the delight of the shepherd^s (nostras) Iife. — 26. Immo quis 
caneret haec. The poet*8 object seems to be to flatter Vanis with 
the hope of immopTal praise, to induce him to deal leniently with 
Mantua. — 27. Superet. Equivalent to »Mji>er»i«. See AeK. i. 597, 
iii 339, V. 519. 


Mantua vae miserae nimiam vicina Cremonae— 
Cantantes sublime ferent ad sidera cycni.' 

Lyc. Sic tua Cyrneas fugiant examina taxos, 30 

Sic cytiso pastae distendant ubera vaccae ; 
Incipe, si quid habes. £t me fecere poetam 
Pierides ; sunt et mihi carmina ; me quoque dicunt 
Yatem pastores; sed non ego oredulus i^l^. 
Nam neque adhuc Yario videor nec dicere Cinna 3 

Di^a; sed argutos inter strepere anser olores. 

moer. Id quidem ago et tacitus, Lycida, mecum ipse 
Si valeam meminisse; neque est ignobile carmen. 
<Huc ades, o Galatea; quis est nam ludus in undis? 
Hic ver purpureum, varios hic flumina circum 40 

Fundit humus flores, hic candida populus antro 
Imminet, et ientae texunt umbracula vites. 
Huc ades; insani feriant sine litora iluctus.' 

Lyc. Quid, quae te pura solum sub nocte canentem 
Audieram? numeros memini, si verba tenerem. 45 

Moer. ^Daphni, quid antiquos signorum suspicis ortus? 
Ecce Dionaei processit Caesaris astrum^ 
Astrum, quo se^eles gauderent frugibus, et quo 
Duceret apricis in colTibus uva coiorem. 
Insere, Daphni, piros ; carpent tua poma nepotes.' 50 

^a— — ^^W^— — 1— ^— ^W— ^W^— — ^li— — ^— ^»^— i^— — — ^i^i^l^lfc^.— i« ■ ■ ■ «^— — ■■■ !»■ ■■■ ■ ■ ■! ■■ — ■■ ■ ■ ■ ■!!■ 

28. Mantua is at a conaiderable distanee from Cremona, but it 
became involved in its fate, as the lands attached to Cremona, which 
had taken the side of Brutus and Cassius, were found insufficient 
to satisf^ the soldiery. — 29. The Mincius abounded in swans. — 
30. Lycidas intreats Moeris to sing him more of the songs of Me- 
nalcas. Sie. A word introducing a prayer for some good^ to an- 
Other (fua, &,c.fugiant, &c.) depending ori a condition (tfMnjpe, Slc.) 
Cymeatt from KiM^os, Corsica. xioney made from the yew, m which 
Corsica abounded, was said (o be bitter. — 35. Varius and Cinna 
were distinguished poets, and contemporary wilh Virgil.— 40. Pur" 
pureus is an epilhet applied to ali obiects glorious in their beauty— 
as swans, the snow, bright eyes, and here tbe spring. See Georg, 
iy. 54; Aen. i. 590, vi. 490. — 41. Candida populus.' This is our 
silver poplar. — 43. Verbs of permission ana wiliingness, and, in 
general, verbs that are followed by ut with the subjunctive, may 
also be followed by the subjunclive without ut. Here nt feriant «utc 
Zumpt, $ 624. — 46. Antiquos signorum ort us , eq uivalen t to antiqu0m 
rum aignorum ortus. This change is exceedingly common. See 
GeorgA. 52, 211 ; iv. 267; Aen. i. 169, iii. 411. v. 375, vi. 10, x. 
426, xii. 199. Antiquos^ •lone known.* — 47. Vionaei. Dione waa 
the mother of Venus, from whom Julius Caesar was said to be de- 
scended. In the year b. c. 43, a comet, probably that known ih our 
time as Halley*s comct, appeared during the celebration of the fes- 
tival in honour of Julius Caesar, and was held to be his deified 
ipirit. — 50. Pear-trees ingrafted now, under this propitiou» stir 


Oninia fert aetas, animQm qnoqae: saepe ego longot < 

CaDtaDdo pueram memini me oondere soles : 

Naoc oblita mihi tot carmina ; vox quoque Moerim 

Jam fugit ipsa ; lupi Moerim videre priores. 

Sed tamen ista satis referet tibi saepe Menalcas. 55 

Lye. Causando nostrQs in longum ducis amores. 
£t nunc omne tibi stratum silet aequor, et onmes, 
Aspice, ventosi ceciderunt murmuris aurae. 
Hinc adeo media est nobis via ; namque sepulehram 
Incipit apparere Bianoris : hic^ ubi densas 60 

Agricolae stringunt frondes, hic, Moeri^ canamus; 
Hic haedos depone ; tamen veniemus m urbem. 
Aut si; nox pluviam ne colligat ante, veremur, 
Cantantes Hcet usque — ^minus via laedet — eamus; 
Cantantes ut eamus, ego hoo te fasce levabo. 65 

Moer, Desine plura^ puer, et^ quod nunc insta^ 
Carmina tum melius^ cum venerit ipse, canemus. 

will produce ihiit for postcrity. ^ 51. Moeris laments his failinff 
inemory. -— 52. Memini condere. See Ed. i. 17. ^ 53. Oblita, usea 
fn a passive sense. — 54. Lupi, &.c. A rustic superstition, that, to 
be aeen of a wolf/r«£, was to lose one'8 voice. — 57. Ttbi. The 
dativus commodij to give you a better opportunity of being heard. ~ 
59. Adeo, ' exactly.' — 62. Tamen, ^ after all.' — 64, Uaquet ^allthe 
while.' Lieet eamus. See ver. 43. ^ 65. Fasee. To induce the 
old shepherd to sing, he proposes to relieve him of the kida he is 
eanying. See ver. 62. ~ 66. Fuir, long by the arsie. 


C. Comirai.ius GALiua, already mentioned byVirgil, (EcL vi. 64>) 
a man descended of poor ancestors, had, by his military skill 
and his amiable qualities, secured the friendship of Octavianus, 
afterwards Augustus Caesar. His lover, Lycoris — oelebrated 
by Ovid, Propertius, Martial» and Grallus himself-— had deserted 
bim ; and this Eclogue, said to have been composed "n the 
spring of b. c. 37, at Naples, aAer Virgil had begun to write 
the Georgics, commemorates his grief. It consists of an intro* 
duction, 1-8 ; an account of the syropathy that things inanimate, 
shepherds, and gods felt for him, 9-30 ; the mournful strain» 
of Gallus himself, 31-69; and the concluding declaration of 
Virgirs aflection for. the deserted lover. 



ExTRSMUM hunc, Arethusa, mihi concede laborem : 
Pauca meo Gallo, sed quae legat ipsa Lycoris, 
Carmina sunt dicenda : ne^et quis carmina Gallo ? 
Sic tibi, cum fluctus subterTabere Sicanos, 
Doris amara suam non intermisceat undam. 5 

Incipe ; sollicitos Galli dicamus amoreSi 
Bum tenera attondent simae virgulta capellae. 
Non canimus surdis; respondent omnia silvae. 

Quae nemora, aut qui vos saltus habuere, puellae 
Naides, indigno cum Gallus amore peribat f 10 

Nam neque Pamassi vobis juga, nam neque Pindi 
Ulia moram fecere, neque Aonie Aganippe. 
Illum etiam lauri, etiam flevere m^ricae ; 
Pinifer illum etiam sola sub rupe jacentem 
Maenalus et gelidi fieverunt saxa Lycaei. 15 

Stant et oves circum — nostri nec poenitet illas, 
Nec te poeniteat pecoris, divine poeta : 
£t formosuft ovis ad flumina pavit Adonis — 
Yenit et upilio ; tardi venere subulci ; 
UviduR hiberna venit de glande Menalcas. 20 

Omnes, *Unde araor iste/ rogant, ' JibiV Venit Apollo: 
'Galle, quid insanis?' inquit; 4ua cura Lycoris 
Perque nives alium {)erque horrida castra secuta est.' 
Yenit et agresti capitis Silvanus honore, 
Florentis ^rulias et grandia lilia quassans. 25 

^ 1. The n^rmph Arethusa (see Aen. iii. 694-6), pureued by the 
river-god Alpheius, was changed by Artemis into a stream, and 
flowing beneath the sea, rose again near Syracuse. An allusion 
here to the country of Theocritus. See Ed. vi. 1. — 4. Sk. Ect^ 
ix. 30. Fluctu8t Slc See note to ver. 1. — 5. Dorif ; a «ea-god- 
dess, wife of Nereus. See Ecl. vi. 35. — 10. NaKdes, Tho nym^hs 
of rivers, lakes, and fountains. Generallv Naiades. The alluston 
here is probably to the Muses, who are called Nwnphae, Ed. viL 21. 
— • 10. Cum pertbat ; others read periret. See Zumpt, ^ 579. — 11. 
Pama$8i. A two-topped mountain (hence juga) of Phocis, above 
Delphi, a favourite haunt of the Muses. Findi. A mountain raneo, 
forming the western boundary of Thessaly, another haunt of tne 
Muses. ~ 12. Aonie. The final e not elided. For the epithet, see 
Ecl. vi. 65. Aganippe. A fountain in mount Helicon, sacred to the 
Muses. — 15. Arcadian mountains. — 18. Adoni». A beaatiful 
youth, beloved by Venus. — 19. For «^iZtb, upUio. — 20. Menalcas, 
a herdsman, was wet with the water in which he had soaked the 
acoms, the winter food of cattle as weli as swine. — 23. Comparing 
this line with ver. 47, we may infer that Lycoris had foliowed the 
army which, under Agrippa, marched into Gaul, and across the 
Rhme, m the early part of b. c. 37.-25. Quaeeam ; that is, in capite. 


Pta deus Arcadiae venit, ^uem yidimus ipsi 

Sanguinpis ebuli baccis minioque rubentem. 

'Ecquis erit modus?' inquit ; ' Amor non talia curat} 

Nec lacrimis crudelis Amor, nec gramina rivis, 

Nec cytiso saturantur apes, nec fronde capellae.' 30 

Tristis at ille : < Tamen cantabitis, Arcades,' inquit, 

'Montibus baec yestris, soli cantare periti 

Arcades. O mihi tum quam molliter ossa quiescan^ 

Vestra meos olim si fistula dicat amores ! 

Atque utjnam ex vobis unus, vestrique fuissem 35 

Aut custos gregis, aut maturae vinitor uvae ! 

Certe, sive mibi Phyllis, sive esset Amyntas, 

Seu cjuicumque furor — quid tum, si fuscus Amyntas ! 

£t nigrae violae sunt et vaccinia nigra-^ 

Mecum inter salices lenta sub vite jaceret } 40 

Serta mihi Phy]lis legeret) cantaret Amyntas. 

Hic gelidi fontes, hic molha prata, Lycori, 

Hic nemus; hio ipso tecum consumerer aevo. 

Nuno insanns amor duri me Martis in armis 

Tela inter media atque adversos detinet hostis : 45 

Tu procul a patria — nec sit mihi credere tantum ! 

Alpmas ah, dura, nives et frigora Rheni 

Me sine sola vides. Ah, te ne frigora laedant ! 

Abj tibi ne teneras glacies secet aspera plantas ! 

Ibo, et, Chalcidtco quae sunt mihi condita versu fS^ 

Carmina, pastoris Siculi modulabor avena. 

Certum est in silvis, inter ^laea ferarum 

Malle pati tenerisque meos incidere amores 

Arboribus^ creecent illae : crescetis, amores. 

Interea mixtis lustrabo Maenala Nymphis, 55 

Aut acris venabor apros. Non me ulla yetabunt 

Frigora Parthenios canibus circumdare saltus. 

Jam mihi per mpes videor lucosque sonantis 

Ire ', libet Partho torquere Cydonia cornu 

Spicula. — Tamquam naec sit nostri medicina furoris, 60 

Ant deus ille malis hominum mitescere discat ! 

31. lUe; Gallus. Tamen, Referrin^ to a suppressed idea of 
grief : *y^t, as a consolation.' See Aen» iv. 329, x. 509. —32. Can- 
tare. The genitive. See Ed, v. 54. — 44. Gallus was probably en- 
saged in some of the military operations carried on ander Octavuuus 
Caesar. — 46. Nee, &o. Gallus expresses a wish that he may have 
some gronnd to disbelieve a tale so strange. — 47. See ver. 23. •— 
50. Galias had written verses (see Eel, vi. 72), in iraitation of Eu- 
pborion of Chalcis. — 57. PaHhenioe, Parthenius was a mountam 
between Arcadiaand Argolis. —59. Cydonia, from Cydonia, a towa 
of Crete. Both Parthian and Cretan archery was famous. 


Jam neqne HAmadrjades rarauB nec carmina nobis 

Ipsa plocent^ ipne, rafsusooncadite, silvBe. 

NoD illDm DOHtii posaunt mutBra iBboreaj 

Nec ei frigorilMis mediis Hebramque blbamns, 6S 

Sithoniuque niveH hiemis Bubeamua aquosae, 

Neo li, cnm moriens alta libeT aret in ulmo^ 

Aelhiopom vermmus ovis enb sidere Cancn. 

OmnU vincit Amor; et nos cedBmus Amori.' 

Haec sat erit, divae, vesirum cecinisee poStani, 70 
Dom sedet el ffraciii GtM^llam texit hibiiico, 
Pierides; vos haeo fHoietiH maiima Gallo — 
Galto, CQJOH amor tanlum mihi crescit in horafl, 
Quanlnm vere novo riridis se sabjiDii alnns. 
Sni^amuH : Mlet esse gravis oaotantibus umbra ; 7S 

Jumperi gnvis nrabra ; nooent el fnigibus nmbraQ. 
Ite domum, salnrae, venit HeHpenis, iie capellas. 

62. Bamadrifadt: See Gd. v. S9. — M, &.C. Galtiu ii hopBlea 
of relief evea m ihs colda of Tiincs, where winter ia Bavemst , 
(Hebnu, a.iiver, nnd SilhoDia, a dislrict of Thrace), oi in Aethio- 
pia, ev«o in iniiisumnier. — 69, AmSr ; long by Iha onii. — "'9. 
Pieria, in Macedonia, was Haid lo be the birthplace of Ihe Muiei. 
JUuDno, inaximi aealimala, — 71. Se ittb/aere, (o niBe ilself ap 
from under — lo inciease in hetghc. ' TiiDl GsIIub was nol eitber a 
vialent or a diBhonesl man, tbe friendship of Viifril, wha inserib«d 
^Jiim hii lenlh Edogue, tetti&ea.' — BeckBt'B Gallti, 



GBomoiooK, tfae geDitive plural in the Greek form, is derived 
fttrfn ys(df»yc«6$> belonging to husbandmen. This work treats 
of «he v&rious departments of farming, and is divided into four 
boMts. The subject of tha first book, generally, is the cuUiva- 
tioii of the soil, for the growth of crops. More particularly, we 
limv^ an introduction, addressed to Virgirs patron, Maecenas, 
stating the nature of the whole work, 1-5 ; then an invocation 
lo Sol, Luna, Liber, Ceres, the Fauns, the Dryades, Neptune, 
Arislaeus, Pan, Minerva, Triptolemus, Silvanus, and 'all the 
niral deities, along with Augustus Caesar, 5-42. Yirgil then 
discusses the proper time and mode of ploughingand manuring, 
with reference to season, soii, fallow, succession of crops, irri- 
gation, feeding down, and draining, 43-117. In eonoection 
with the trouble necessary to protect the soil from misehievous 
animals and plants, labour and invention are shown to be the 
result of Jupiter's succession to the throne of heaven, 118-159. 
The instruments of agriculture are described, 160-175. Mis- 
cellaneous directions ; regarding the threshing-floor, 176-186 ; 
indications of a heavy or a light produce, 187-192; the medi- 
cating and the choice of seed, 193-203, are then given. The 
proper time for sowing is next taken up, 204-230. The sun'8 
annual course, and the zodiac, 231-256. The four seasons. 
l¥hat should the farmer do in time of rain? 257-267 ; on holy 
days? 268-275. The moon's infiiuence on certain days is 
treated of, 276-286. Some things are better done at night, 
some in the heat of the day, and some in winter, 287-310. 
"We find then a description of the havoc made by an automnal 
storm, 311-334. Therefore we must watch the weather, and 
worship the gods, 335-350. He dwells on the prognostics 
that ibretell winds, 351-369; rain, 370-392; clear weather, 
3D3-423; oiwprognostics derivable from the moon, 424-437 ; 
fiom the sun, 438-^65. And he concludes with a splendid 
patsage on the prodigies which prognosticated the civil war 
that fbllowed the death of Julius Caesar, 466-497, and a 
prayer ibr the preservation of Augustus, 498-514. 

Thomson'8 Seasons fumish the best imitation, in our language 
of passages in the Georgics. _,^ 

5 ^^^ 

08 GBoaoicoif. 



QuiD faciat laetas segetes, quo sidere terram 
Vertere^ Maecenas, iSmisque adjuneere vitis 
Coaveniat; quae cura boum, qui cuTtas habendo 
Sit pecori ] apibus quanta experieatia parcis : 
Hiao caaere incipiam. Vos, o clarissima muadl $ 

Lumina, labeatem coelo quae ducitis annum ', 
Liber et akna Ceres, vestro si munere tellus 
Chaoniam pingui glaadem mutavit arista, 
Poculaque mveatis Acheloia miscuit uvis; 
£t vos, agrestum praeseatia aumiaa, Fauai, 10 

Ferte simul Fauaique pedem Dryadesque puellae : 
Muaera vestra caao. Tuque o^ cui prima fremeatem 
Fudit equum maguo tellus percussa tridenti, 
Ntsptuae ; et cultor aemorum, cui i>iaguia Ceae 
Ter Qeatum nivei toadeat dumeta juveaci; 15 

Ipse nemus linqueas patrium saltusque Lycaei, 
FaU; ovium custos, tua si tibi Maenala curae, 
Adsis, o Tegeaee, favens; oleaeque Minerva' 
• Inventrix ; uncique, puer, monstrator aratri ; 
£t teneram ab radice ferens, Silvane, cupressum; 20 
Dtque deaeque omnes, studium quibus arva tueri, 
Quique novas alitis non ullo semine fruges; 
Quique satis largum coelo demittitis imbrem : 
Tuque adeo, quem mox quae sint babitura deorum 
Concilia, iacertum est ; urbisae iavisere, Caesar, 25 

Terrarumque velis curam, et te maximus orlns 
Auctorem frugum tempestatumque potentem 
Accipiat, cingens matema tempora myrto ; 
An deus immensi yenias maris, ac tua nautae 
Numina sola colant, tibi serviat ultima Thule, 30 

Teque sibi generum Tethys emat omnibus undis ; 
Anne novum tardis sidus te mensibus addas, 
Qua locus Erigonen inter Chelasque seqnentis 
Fanditnr; ipse tibi jam brachia contrahit ardens 
Scorpios, et coeli justa plus parte reliquit : 35 

Qaidquid eris — ^nam te nec sperant Tartara regem, 

1-5. Introduction, stating the object of the whole work. — 5-42. 
Invocation to Sol, Luna (clari$$ima mundi Ztimma), Liber, Ceres, the 
Fauns and Dryades, Neptune, Aristaeus (cultor nemorum), Pan, 
Mmerva, Triptolemus {unci monstrator aratri), SilvanuSi and aU the 
rural deities, along with Augustus Caesar. 

i:.ilifiR i; ' a 

Neo tibi regn&ndi Teniat tam dira cupido 

QuamviB Elysios miretur Gmecia campos, 

Nec repetita sequi curet Proserpina matrem — 

Da facilem cursum, atque audacibus adnue coeptis, 40 

Ignarosque viae mecum miseratus agrestes, 

Ingredere, et votis jam nuno adsuesce yocari. 

Vere novo, gelidus canis cum montibus humor 
Liquitur, et Zephyro putris se gleba resolvit, 
Depresso incipiat jam tum mihi taurus aratro 45 

Ingemere, et sulco attritus splendescere vomer. 
Dlaseges demum votis respondet avari 
Agricolae, bis quae solem, ois frigora sensit; 
Illius immensae ruperunt horrea messes. 
Ac prius ignotum ferro quam scindimus aequor, 50 

Yentos et varium coeli praediscere morem 
Cura sit ac patrios cultusque habitusque locorum ; 
£t quid quaeque ferat regio, et quid quaeque recuset. 
Hic segetes, illic veniunt felicius uvae ; 
Arborei fetus alibi, atque injussa vlrescunt 55 

Gramina. Nonne vides, croceos ut Tmolus odore% 
[ndia mittit ebur, molles sua tura Sabaei ] 
At Chalybes nudi ferrum, virosaque Pontus 
Castorea, £liadum palmas Epiros equarum? 
Continuo has leges aetemaque foedera certis 60 

Imposuit natura locis, quo tempore primum 
Deucalion vacuum lapides jactavit in orbem, 
Uude homines nati, durum genus. Ergo age, terrao 
Pingue solum primis extemplo a mensibus annl 
Fortes invertant tauri, glebasque jacentis 65 

Pulverulenta coquat maturis solibus aestas. 
At si non fuerit tellus fecunda, sub ipsum 
Arcturum tenui sat erit suspendere sulco ; 
Illic, otficiant laetis ne frugibus herbae, 
Hic, sterilem exiguns ne deserat humor arenam. 70 

Alterais idem tonsas cessare novales, 
£t segnem patiere situ durescere campura; 
Aut ibi flava seres, mutato sidere, farra, 
Undo prius laetum siliqua quassante legumen, 
Aut tenuis fetus viciae tristisque lupini 75 

Sustuleris fragiles calamos silvamque sonantem. 
Urit enim lini campum seges, urit avenae. 


Urant Lethaeo perfuiia papavera sottmo 

Sed tamen alterais faciliB labor : arida tantnm 

Ne saturare fimo pingai pudeat sola, neve SO 

£ffet08 einerem immundum jaotare per VLgroB» 

Sic quoqoe mutatis reqoiescunt fetibus arra ; 

Nec nulia interea est inaratae gratia terrae. 

Saepe etiam steriles incendere profuit agros, 

Atque levem etipnlam crepitantibus urere flammis: 85 

Sive inde occohas vires et pabnla terrae 

Pinguia concipiunt ; sive illis omne per ignem 

ExcoQuitur vitium, at^ue exeudat inutilis humor; 

Seu pturis calor ille vias et caeca relaxat 

Spiramenta, novas veniat qua succus in herbas; 90 

Seu durat magis, et venas adstringit hiantis, 

Ne tenues pluviae, rapidive potentia soiis 

Acrior, aut Boreae penetrabiie frigus adurat. 

Multum adeo, rastris glebas qui mingit inertis, 

Yimineasque trahit erates, juvat arva ; neque illum 95 

Flava Ceres aito nequidquam spectat Olympo ; 

£t qui, proBcisso quae euscitat aequore terga, 

Bursus m obliquum verso perrampit aratro, 

Exercetque fre^uens tellurem, atque imperat arvifi.. 

Humiaa solstitia atque hiemes orate serenas, ^ 100 
Agricolae ; hiberao laetissima pulvere farra, 
Laetus ager ; nullo tantum se Mysia cultu 
Jactat, et ipsa soas mirantur Gargara messis. 

Quid dicam, jacto qui semine comminua arva 
Insequitur, cumuiosque rait male piDguis arenae, 105 
Deinde satis fiuvium inducit rivosque sequentis, 
£t, quum exustus ager morientibus aestuat herbis^ 
£cce supercilio clivosi tramitis undam 
£Iicit ? iUa cadens raucum per levia murmnr 
Saxa ciet, scatebri|^ue arentia temperat arva. 1 10 

Quid, qui, ne gravidjs procnmbat culmus aristis, 
Luxuriem segelum tenera depascit in herba, 
Quum primum suleos aequant sata ? quique paludis 
CoIIectum humorem bibula deducit arena? 
Praesertim incertis si mensibus amnis abundans 115 
£xit, et obducto late tenet omnia limo : 
Unde cavae tepido sudant humore lacunae. 

Nec tamen — haec cum sint hominumque boumque la» 
~— — , , ■ 

118-159. In connection with the trouble necessary to protect the 
Boil from mischievous animals and plants, hand-labour and inventioa 
are shown to arise from Jupiter^s succession to the throne of heaven. 

LiBsa I. > 6i 

Tersando terram experti — ^nihii iinprd)us anser, 

Str^inoiuaeqae grues, et amaris intuba fibns 120 

Omciunt, aut umbra nocet. Pater ipse colendl 

Haud facilem esse viam voluit, primusque per «rteAi 

Movit agroe, curis acuens mortalia corda, 

Nec torpere gravi passus sua regna veterno. 

Ante Jovem nulli subigebant arva colonl; 125 

Ne signare quidem aut partiri limite campum 

Fas erat : in medium quaerebant, ipsaque teUus ^ 

Omnia liberius, nullo poscente, fereoat. 

Ille maium virus serpentibus addidit atris, 

Praedarique lupos jussit, pontumque moveri ; 130 

Mellaque decussit foliis ; i^emque removit, 

£t passim rivis currentia vma repressit : 

Ut varias usus meditando extunderet artis 

Paullatim, et sulcis frumenti quaereret herbam; 

Ut silicis venis abstrusum excuderet ignem* 135 

Tuno alnos primum fluvii sensere cavatas, 

Navita tum stellis numeros et nomina fecit, 

Pleiadas, Hyadas, claramque Lycaonis Aroton. 

Tum laqueis captare feras et fallere visco 

Inventum, etmagnos canibus circumdare saltus; 140 

Atque alius latum funda jam verberat amnem 

Alta petensj pelagoqne alius trahit humida lina. 

Tum ferri rigor, atque argutae lamina serrae — 

Nam primi cuneis scmdebant fissile lignum— 

Tum variae venere artes; labor omnia vicit 145 

Improbus et duris urguens in rebus egestas. 

Prima Ceres ferro mortalis vertere terram 

Institutt, cum jam glandes atque arbuta sacrae 

Deficerent silvae, et victum Dodona negaret. 

Mox et frumentis kbor additus, ut mala culmos 150 

Esset robigo, segnisque horreret in arvis 

Carduus : intereunt segetes : subit aspera silva, 

Lappaeque tribulique ; interque nitentia culta 

Infelix lolium et steriles dominantur avenae. 

Quod nisi et assiduis herbam insectabere rastris, 155 

Et sonitu terrebis aves, et ruris opaci 

Falce premes nmbram, votisque vocaveris imbrem : 

Heu ! magnum alterius frustra spectabis aoervum ; 

Concnssaque £unem in silvis solabere quercu. 

Dicendum et, quae sint duris agrestibus arma^ 160 
Quis sine nec potuere seri nec surgere messes : 
Vomis et inflexi primum grave robur aratri, 

160-175. Tlie instruments of agriculture. 
6* r 

M osoftoicoif. 

Tardftque Eleunnae matris volrentia planatra, 

Tribalaqne, trabeaeque, et iniqao pondere rastri ; 

Yirgea praeterea Celei vilisqiie sapelleX; 165 

Arbuteae erates et my^iuu vnnrius laccbi. 

Omnia quae multo ante metuur provisa repones, 

Si te digna manet divina gloria ruris. 

Continuo in silvis magna vi flexa domatur 

In burim, et curvi forraam accipit ulmus aratri. 170 

Huio ab stirpe pedes temo protentus in octo, 

Binae aures, duplici aptantur dentalia dorso. 

Caeditur et tilia ante jugo levis, altaqoe fagus, 

Stivaque, quae cursus a tergo torqoeat imos : 

Et suspensa focis explorat robora fumus. 175 

Possum multa tibi veterum praecepta referre^ 
Ni refugis, tenuisque piget cognosoere curas. 
Area cum primis ingenti aequanda cylindro^ 
£t vertenda manu, et creta solidanda tedkci, 
Ne subeant herbae, neu pulvere victa fatiscat, 180 

Tum variae illudant pestes: saepe exigoas mus 
Sub terris posuitque domos atque borrea fecit; 
Aut oculis capti fodere cubilia talpae ; 
InventusGue cavis bufo^ et quae pIurimA terrae * 
Monstra terunt ; populatque mgentem farris acervum 185 
Curculio, atque inopi metuens formica senectae. 

Contemplator item) cum se nux plurima siivis 
Induet in florem, et ramos curvabit olentis: 
Si superant fetuS) pariter frumenta sequentur, 
Magnaque cum magno veniet tritura calore ; 190 

At si luxuria foliorum exul>erat ambra, 
Nequidquam pinguis palea teret area culmos. 

Semina vidi equidem multos medicare sereates, 
£t nitro prius et nigra perfundere amuroa, 
Grandior ut fetus siliquis fallacibus essei, 195 

£t, quamvis igni exiguo, properata maderent. 
Vidi leota diu et multo spectata labore 
Degenerare tamen, ni vis humana quotannis 
Maxima quaeque manu legeret; sio omnia fatis 
In pejus ruere, ac retro sublapsa referri ; 20C 

Non aliter, auam qui adverso vix flumine lembum 
Kemigiis suoigit, si brachia forte remisit, ■ 
Atque illum in praeceps prono mpit alveus amni. 

Praeterea tam sunt Arcturi sidera nobis 

176-186. Miscellaneous directiona ; the threahing-floor. — 187 
192. Indication of a heavy or a light produce. — 193-203. The me 
dicating and Ihe choice of seed.— 204-240. The proper timea foi 

LIBER I. 07 

HaedoramquG dies servandi et kcidus Anguis, 201 

Quam quibus in patriam ventosa per aequora vectts 

Pontus et ostriferi fauces tentantur Abydi. 

Libra die somnique pares ubi fecerit horas, 

£t medium luci atque umbris jam dividit orbem . 

Exercete, viri, teuros ; serite hordea campis ' 210 

(Jsque sub extremum brumae intractabills imbren. 

Nec non et Jini segetem et Cereale papaver 

Tempus humo tegere, et jamdudum incumbere arutris] 

Dum sicca tellure licet, dum nubila pendent. 

Vere fabis satio; tum te quoque, Medica, putres 215 

Accipiunt sulci, et milio venit annua cura: 

Candidus auratis aperit cum cornibus annum 

Tatirus, et adverso cedens Canis occidit astro. 

At si triticeam in messem robustaque farra 

£xercebi8 humum, solisque instabis aristis, 220 

Ante tibi £oae Atlantides abscondantur, 

Gnosiaque ardentis decedat stella Coronae, 

Bebita quam sulcts committas semina, quamque 

Invitae properes anni spem credere terrae. 

Muki ante occasum Maiae coepere; sed illos 225 

£X8pectata seges vanis eiusit aristis. 

Si vero viciamque seres vilemque faselum, 

Nec Pelnsiacae curam aspernabere lentis, 

Haud obscura cadens mittit tibi signa Bootes ; 

Incipe, et ad medias sementem extende pruinas. 230 

IdciFCO certis dJmensum partibus orbem 
Per duodena regit mundi Sol aureus astra. 
Quinque tenent coelum zonae : quarum una corusoo 
Semper sole rubens, et torrida semper ab igni ; 
Quam circum extremae dextra laevacjue trahuntur, 235 
Caeralea glade concretae atque imbnbus atris. 
Has inter mediamqne duae mortalibus ae^ris 
Munere concessae divum ; et via secta per ambas, 
Obliquus qua se signorum verteret ordo. 
MunduSy ut ad Scythiam Rhipaeasque arduus arces 240 
Consurgit, premitur Libyae devexus in Austros. 
Hic vertex nobis semper sublimis; at illum 
Sub pedibus Styx atra videt Manesque profundi. 
Maximus hic flexu sinuoso elabitur Anguis 
Circum perque duas in morem fluminis Arctos, 245 

Arctos Oceani metuentis aequore tingui. 
IUic, ut perhibent, aut intempesta silet nox, 
Semper et obtonta densantur nocte tenebrae : 

231-256. The 8un*8 annual course, and the zodiac. 


Aut redit a tiobis Aurora diemque redncit, 

Nosque ubi primus eqnis Oriens adflavit anhelii^ 250 

Illic sera rubens accendit lumina Vesper. 

Hinc tempestates dubio praediscere coelo 

Possumus, hinc messiscjue diem tempusque serendi; 

£t quando infidum remis impellere marmor 

Conveniat ', ^uando armatas deducere classes ; 255 

Aut tempestivam silvis evertere pinum. 

Nec frustra signorum obitus speculamur et ortnSi 
Temporibusque parem diversis quatuor annum. 

Frigidus agricolam si quando continet imber, 
Multa, forent quae mox coeio properanda sereno^ 260 
Maturare datur; durum procudit arator 
Vomeris obtusi dentem ; cavat arbore lintres; 
. Aut pecori signum aut immeros impressit acervis, 
Exacuunt alii vallos furcasque bicornis, 
Atqne Amerina parant lentae retinacula viti, 265 

Nunc facilis rubea texatur fiscina virga; 
- Nunc torrete igni fruges, nunc frangite saxo. 

Quippe etiam festis quaedam exercere diebus 
Fas et jura sinunt : rivos deducere nulla 
Religio veluit, segeti praetendere sepem, ^ 270 

Insidias avibus moliri, incendere vepres, 
Balantumque gregem fluvio mersare salubri, 
Saepe oleo tardi costas agitator aselli 
Vilibus aut onerat pomis, lapidemque revertens 
Incusum aut atrae massam picis urbe reportat. 275 

Ipsa dies alios alio dedit ordine Luna 
Felicis operum : quintam fuge; pallidus Orcus 
Eumenidesque satae ; tum partu Terra nefando 
Coeumque lapetumque creat, saevumque Typhoea, 
Et conjuratos coelum rescindere fratres. 280 

Ter sunt oonati imponere Pelio Ossam 
Scilicet, atque Ossae frondosum involvere Olympum ; 
Ter Pater exstructos disjecit fulmine montis. 
Septima post decimam felix, et ponere vitem; 
Et prensos domitare boves, et licia telae 285 

Addere. Nona fugae melior, contraria furtis. 

Multo adeo gelida melius se nocte dedere, 
Aut cum sole novo terras irrorat Eous. 
Nocte leves melius stipulae, nocte arida prata 
Tondentur ; noctes lentus non deficit humor. ' 290 

257-267. The four seasons. What Bhould the farmer do in the 
thne of rain ? —-268-275. What work may the farmer do on hojy 
days ? — 276-2^. The rooon^s iofluence on eertain days. — 287^ 
"96. Some things are better done at night. 

UBBR I. 9t 

£t qBidam seros hibemi ad laminis ignis 

Penrigilat, ferroque faces inspicat acuto ; 

loterea lon^um cantu solata Jaborem 

Argutq conjunx percurrit pectine telas; 

Aut dulcis musti Vulcano decoquit humorem, 295 

£t foliis undam trepidi despumat aeni. 

At rubicunda Ceres medio succiditur aestu, 
£t medio tostas aestu terit area fruges. 
Nudus ara, sere nudus : hiems ignava colono. 
Frigoribus parto agricolae plerumque fruuDtur, 300 

Mutuaque inter se laeti convivia curant. 
Inyitat genialis hiems, curasque resolvit: 
Ceu ]^ressae cum jam portum tetigere carinae 
Puppibus et laeti nautae imposuere coronas. 
Sed tamen et quemas glandes tum stringere tempus, 305 
£t lanri baccas oleamque cruentaque myrta ; 
Tum gruibus pedicas et retia ponere cervis, 
Auritosque sequi iepores; tum figere damas, 
Stuppea torquentem Balearis verbera fundae ; 
Quum nix alta jacet, glaciem qnum flumina trndunt. 310 

Quid tempestates auctumni et sidera dicam % 
Atque, ubi jam breviorque dies et mollior aestas, 
Quae vigilanda viris? vel cum ruit imbriferum yer, 
Spicea jam campis cum messis inhorruit, et cum 
Frumenta in viridi stipula lactentia turgent? 315 

Saepe ego, cum fiavis messorem induceret arvis 
Agricola, et fragili jam stringeret hordea culmo, 
Oronia ventorum concurrere proelia vidi, 
Quae gravidam late segetem ab radicibus imis 
Snblimem expulsam eruerent ; ita turbine nigro 320 

Ferret hiems culmumque levem stipulasque volantis. 
Saepe etiam immensum coelo venit agmen aquarum, 
£t loedam glomerarit tempestatem imbribus atris 
Collectae ex alto nubes; ruit arduus aether, 
£t pluvia ingenti sata laeta bouraque labores 325 

Biluit; impientiir fossae, et cava flumina crescunt 
Cum sonitu, fervetque fretis spirantibus aequor. 
Ipse ^ater, media nimborum in nocte, corusca 
Fulmina molitur dextra : quo maxima motu 
Terra tremit, fugere ferae, et mortalia corda 330 

Per gentis humiles stravit pavor : ille fiagranti 

297'-299. Some things are better done in summer ; 300^310. Some 
io winter. — ^311-334. The havoc made by an autumnal storm. Ad 
niinib]]^ expanded and imitated by Thomson, in his Summer, linefl 

beginning — 

«Bebold, flow ■ettling o*er tbe lurid frove.* 


Ant Athon, ant Bhodoped, aut alta Cerannia telo 
Dejicit; ingeminant aastri et densissinius imber; 
Nunc nemora ingenti yento, nunc litora plangunt. 

Hoo metuens, coeli menses et sidera senra } 335 

Frigida Satumi sese quo stella receptet, 
Quos ignis ooeli Cyllenius erret in orbis. 
Imprimis venerare deos, atque annua ma^ae 
Sacra refcr Cereri, laetis operatus in herbis, 
Extremae sub casum hiemis, jam vere sereno. 340 

Tum pingues agni et tum moliissima vina ; 
Tum somni dulces densaeque in montibus umbrae. 
Cuncta tibi Cererem pubes agrestis adoret, 
• Cui tu lacte favos et miti dilue Baccho ; 
Terque noras circum felix eat hostia fruges, 345 

Omnis quam chorus et socii eomitentnr ovantesi 
Et Cererem clamore vocent in tecta. Neque ante 
Falcem maturis quisquam supponat aristis 
Quam Cereri, torta redimitus tempora quereu, 
Det motus incompositos, et carmina dicat. 350 

Atque haec ut certis possemus discere signis, 
Aestnsque pluviasque et agentes frigora ventos, 
Ipse Pater statuit, quid menstrua Luna moneret; 
Quo si^no caderent austri ; quid saepe videntes 
AgricoTae propius stabulis armenta tenerent. 355 

Continuo, ventis surgentibus, aut freta pontt 
Incipiunt agitata tumescere, et aridus altis 
Montibus audiri fragor; aut resonantia longe 
Litora misoeri, et nemorum increbreseere murmur. 
' Jam sibi tum a curvis male temperat unda cariniS| 360 
Cum medio celeres revolant ex aequore mergi, 
Clamoreraque ferunt ad litora, cumque marinae 
In sicco ludunt fulicae, notasque paludis 
Deserit atque altam supra volat ardea nubem. 
Saepe etiam stellas, vento impendente, videbis 365 

Praecipites coelo labi, noctisque per umbram 
Flammarum longos a tergo albescere tractus ; 
Saepe levem paleam et frondes volitare caducasi 
Aut summa nantes in aqua colludere plumas. 
At Boreae de parte trucis cum fulminat^ et cum 370 
Eurique Zephyrique tonat domus ; omnia plenis 
Rura natant fossis, atque omnis navita nonto 
Humida vela legit. Numquam impruaentibus imber . 

335-350. The farmer must watch the weather and worahip th« 

fods. — 351-369. The prognostics that foretell winds.— 370-39$ 
'he prognostics that foretell rains. 

LIBER I. 71 

Obfuit : aut illom surgentem vallibus imis 

Aeriae fugere grues; aut bucuiacoelum 375 

Suspiciens patulis captavit naribus auras; 

Ant arguta lacus circumvolitavit fairundo ; 

£t veterem in limo ranae cecinere querekm. 

Saepius et tectis penetralibus extulit ova 

Angustum formica terens iter ; et bibit ingens * 380 

Arcus ; et e pastu decedens agmine magno 

Corvorum increpuit densis exercitus alis. 

Jam yarias pelagi volucres, et quae Asia circum 

Dulcibus in stagnis rimantur prata Caystri, 

Certatim largos humeris infundere rores, 385 

Nunc caput objectare fretis, nunc currere in undafl^ 

£t studio incassum videas gestire iavandi. 

Tum cornix plena pluviam vocat improba voce, 

£t sola in sicca secum spatiatur arena. 

Ne nocturna quidem carpentes pensa puellae 390 

Nescivere hiemem, testa cum ardente viderent 

Scintillare oleum, et putris concrescere fungos. 

Nec minns ex imbri soles et aperta serena 
Prospicere et certis poteris cognoscere signis. 
Nam neque tum stellis acies obtusa videtur, 395 

Nec fratris radiis obnoxia surgere Luna, 
Tenuia nec lanae per coelum vellera ferri ; 
Non tepidnm ad solem pennas in litore pandunt 
Dileetae Thetidi alcyones : non ore solutos 
Immundi meminere sues jactare maniplos. 400 

At nebulae magis ima petunt campoque recumbunt ; 
Solis et occasum servans de culmine summo 
Nequidquam seros exercet noctua cantus. 
Apparet liquido sublimis in aere Nisus, 
£t pro purpureo poenas dat Scylla capillo : 405 

Quacumque illa levem fugiens secat aethera pennis^ 
£cce ! inimicuS; atrox, magno stridore per auras 
Insequitur Nisus ; qua se ^rt Nisus ad auras, 
lUa levem fugiens raptim secat aethera pennis. 
Tam liquidas corvi presso ter gutture voces 410 

Aat quater ingeminant ; et saepe cubilibus altis, 
Neecio qua praeter soJitum dulcedine laeti, 
Inter se m foiiis strepitant ; juvat, imbribus actiSj 
Progeniem parvam dulcisque revisere nidos. 
Haud eqnidem credo, quia sit divinilus illis 415 

Ingenium, aut rerum fato prudentia major ; 
Yerum, ubi tempestas et coeli mobilis humor 

393-423. The prognostics that forctell fair weather. 


Mutavere vias, et Jupiter uvidus austris 

Densat, erant quae rara modo, et, quae densa; relaxat, '^ 

Yertuntur species animorum, et pectora motus 420 

Nunc alios, alios^ dum nubila ventus agebat, 

Concipiunt : hinc ille avium concentus in agris, 

£t laetae pecudes, et ovantes gdtture corvi. 

Si vero solem ad rapidum lunasque sequentis 
Ordine respicies, numquam te crastina fallet 426 

Hora, neque insidiis noctis capiere serenae. 
Luna revertentis cum primum colligit ignis, 
(Bi ni^rum obscuro comprenderit aera cornu, 
Maximus agricolis pelagoque parabitur imber. 
At si virgineum sunuderit ore ruborem, * 430 j 

Ventus erit ; vento semper rubet aurea Phoebe. j 

Sin ortu quarto— namque is certissimus auctor- 
Pura, neque obtusis per coelum cornibus ibit : ' 

Totus et ille dies, et qui nascentur ab illo 
Exactum ad mensera, pluvia ventisque carebunt; 435 
Votaque servati solvent in litore nautae 
Glauco et Panopeae et Inoo Melicertae. ^ 

Soi Quoque, et exoriens et cum se condet in undaS| 
Signa aabit ; solem certissima signa sequuntur, 
£t quae mane refert, et quae surgentibus astris. 440 

Ille ubi nascentem maculis variaverit ortum, 
Conditus in nubem, medioque refugerit orbe, 
Suspecti tibi sint inlbres ; namque urguet ab alto 
ArboribusQue satisque Notus pecorique sinister. ( 

Aut ubi sub lucem densa inter nubifa sese 445 ji 

Diversi rumpent radii, aut ubi pallida surget 
Tithoni croceum linquens Aurora cubile : 
Heu ! male tum mitis defendet pampinus uvas ; 
Tam multa in tectis crepitans salit horrida grando. 
Hoc etiam, emenso cum jam decedit Olympo, 450 i 

Profuerit meminisse magis : nam saepe videmas I 

Ipsius in vultu varios errare colores. / 

Caeruleus pluviam denuntiat, igneus Euros ; 
Sin maculae incipient rutilo immiscerier igni, 
Omnia tum pariter vento nimbisque videbis 455 

Fervere. Non illa quisquam me nocte per altum 
IrQ, neque ab terra moneat convellere funem. 
At si, cum referetque diem condetque relatum, 
Lucidus orbis erit^ frustra terrebere nimbis, 
£t claro silvas ceraes aquilone moveri. 460 

424-437. Prognosticaderivablefromthemoon.— 438-463. Prof- 
nofltics derivable from the sun. 

D^nique, quid Te&per ^erus tehal, tinde eerenas 

VentUB agat nubes, quid cogitet humidus AuBter, 

Sol tibi BJgna dabit. Solem quis dicere falsum 

Audeat ? lile etiam caecos instare tumuhus 

Saepe monet, fraudemque et operta tumesoere bella. 465 

Ille etiam exstincto miseratus Caesare Komamj 

Cum caput obscura nitidum ferrugine texit, 

Impiaque aeternam timuerunt saecula noctem. 

Tempore quamquam iUo telhis quoque et aeqnora ponti, 

Obscoenaeqne canes importunaeque volucres 470 

Signa dabant. Quoties Cyclopum etfervere in agros 

y^imuB undantem ruptis fonmcibus ^tnam, 

Flammarumque globos iiquefactaque volvere saxa ! 

Armorum sonitum toto Oermania coelo 

Audiit ; insolitis tremuerunt motibus Alpes. 475 

Yox quoque per lucos vulgo exaudita silentis 

Ingens, et simulacra modis pallentia miris 

Yisa sub obscurum noctis, pecudesque locutae, 

Infandum ! sistunt amnes, terraeque dehiscunt, 

£t maestum illacrimat templis ebur, aeraque sudant. 480 

Prolnit insano conlorquens vortice silvas 

Fluviorum rex Eridanus, <»mpo8que per omnis 

Cum Btabnlis armenta tulit Nec tempore eodem 

Tristibus aut extis fibrae apparere minaces, 

Aut puteis manare cruor cessavit, et altae 485 

Per noctem resonare lupis ululantibns urbes. 

Non alias coelo ceciderunt plura sereno 

Fnlgura. nec diri toCies arsere c<»netae. 

Ergo inter sese paribus concurrere telis 

Romanas acies iterum videre Philippi ; 490 

Nec fuit indignum Superis bis sanguine nostro 

Emathiam et latos Haemi pinguescere campos. 

Scilicet et tempus veniet, cum fmibus itiis 

Agricola, incurvo terram molitus aratro, 

Exesa inveniet scabra robigine pila, 495 

Ant gravibus rastris galeas pulsabit tnanis, 

Orandiaque efibssis mirabitur ossa Bepulchris. 

Di patrii, Indigetes, et Komule, Yestaque mater, 
Qnae Tuscum Tiberim et Romana Palatia servas, 
Hunc saltem everso juvenem succurrere saeclo 500 

Ne prohibete ! Satis jam pridem sanguine nostro 
Laomedonteae luimus perjuria Trojae. 

463-497. The prodigies prognosticating the civil wars that fd* 
lowed the death of Julius Caesar.— 498-^14. A prayer for the pre* 
vation of Augustus. 

7 G 


Jam pridem nobis coeli te regla, Caesar, 

Invidet, atque hominum queritur curare triumphos: 

Quippe ubi fas versum atqtie nefas, tot bella per orbem, 505 

Tam multae scelerum lacie^s : non ullus aratro 

Dignus honos, squalent abductis arva colonis, 

Et curvae rigidum falces conflantur in ensem. 

Hinc movet Euphrates, illinc Germania bellum; 

Vicinae ruptis inter se legibus urbes 510 

Arma ferunt ; saevit toto Mars impius orbe : 

Ut, cum carceribus sese efFudere quadrigae, 

Aadunt in spatia, et frustra retinacula tendens 

Fertur equis auriga, neque audit currus habenas. 


Tbz second book of the Georgics is occupied with the culture of 
trees, particularly of the vine. Virgil first of all states the 
subject, invoking BacchuSf 1-8. He then treats of the various 
modes in which trees are naturally produced ; spontaneously, 
9-13 ; from seed, 14-16 ; from suckers, 17-21. He then shows 
the.artificial methods of propagating trees: from suckers, 
22-24 ; sets, 24, 25 ; layers, 26, 27 ; cuttings, 28, 29 ; pieces of 
'. dry trunk, 30, 31 ; ingrafting, 32-34. Addressing farmers, and 
asking the countenance of Maecenas, he inculcates industry 
and attention to the best mode of improving and cultivating 
trees, 35-46. Trees spontaneously produced may be improved 
by ingrafYing, transplanting, and cuiture, 47-52. Trees natu- 
rally produced from suckers must be transplanted into tho 
open fields, 53-56. Trees naturally produced from seed must 
be treoched and otherwise reclaimed, 57-62. Of trees artift- 
cially propagated, certain methoda ate best adapted for difier- 
ent trees, 63-68. Different fruit-trees are best adapted fbr 
being ingrafled on certain others, 69-72. Inoculating is de» 
scribed, 73-77; and ingrafting, 78-82. There are difierent 
tpecies of the same kinds of tree, 83-88 ; especially of vines, 
89-108. Trees are adapted to their situation, 109-113 ; this is 
illustrated by the products of distant climes, 114-135. This 
intrediia^i the praises of Italy, 136-176. Difierent soils, too, 
have difierent capabilities : one is best suited for the oiive, 
177-1^3 ; another for the vine, 184-194 ; another for pasturea, 
195*202. Difierence between a productive and an unproduc- 
tive soil, 203-225. Rules are given to distinguish soils, 226- 
258. Directions regarding the planting of vines: as to the 
preparation of the ground, 259-264; as to the cuttings, 265- 

, i.IBJBft u.^ 79 

' 272 ; and as to the mode of plantitfg, 273-287. Yarioiis in* 
■tructions and warnings are given, 288-314. He then shows 
the best season for planting, with a glowing description of 
spring, 315-345. Tben follow directions as to the proper steps 
to be taken during and afler planting, 346-357; and as to 
props, 358-362; and prnningt 363-370. Then isa list of evils 
to be guarded against, 371-379; especially the attack of the 
goat, 380-396. Yineyards need constant attention all the year 
Tound, 397-419. Oiives, 420-425; fruit-trees, 426-428; de- 
mand little or no attention. Neither do other trees, which 

^ from their beauty and their usefulness should be extensively 
planted, 429-453 ; they even surpass the vine, which is often 
injurious in its efiects, 454-457. This detail of the various 
advantages derived from planting leads to a splendid eulo» 
gium on rural life, 458-542» 

Hactenus arvoruni cultus et sidera coeli ; 
Nunc te, Bacche, canam, nec non silvestria tecooi 
Yirgulta, et prolem tarde crescentis ollvae. 
Huc, pater o Lenaee ! — tuis hic omnia plena 
Muneribus ; tibi pampineo gravidus auctumno 5 

Floret ager, spumat plenis vindemia labris — 
Huc, pater o Lenaee I veni, nudataque musto 
Tingue novo mecum dereptis crura cothurnis. 

Principio arboribus varia est natura creandia. 
Namque aliae, nullis hominum cogentibus, ipsae 10 

Sponte sua veniunt, camposque et ilumina late 
Curva tenent, ut molle siler lentaeque genestaci 
Populus et glauca canentia fronde salicta. 
Pars autem posito surgunt de semine^ ut altae 
Castaneae, nemorumque Jovi quae maxima frondet 15 
i£sculus, atque habitae Graiis oracula quercus. 
Pullulat ab radice aliis densissima silva, 
Ut cerasis ulmisque ; etiam Parnassia laurus 
Parva sub ingenti matris se subjicit umbra. 
Hos natura modos primum dedit ; his genus omne 20 
Silvarum fruticumque viret nemorumque sacrorum. 

Sunt alii, quos ipse via sibi reperit usus. 
Hic plantas tenero abscindens de corpore matrum 
Deposuit sulcis ; hic stirpes obruit arvo 

■ !■ I I ' ' ' ' ' ' 

1-8. The subject is,stated, Bacchus being invoked. ^ 9-13. Of 
trees propagated naturally, some grow spontaneously. This doc- 
ttmet it may he remarked, is now exploded. — 14-16. Some from 
Med. — 17-21. Some from suckera.»— 22-24. Of trees propo^ed 
arf^ialiy, some are produced from suckers. — 24, 25. Some froni 

ft OAOMl€0»r. 

QBadrilklaaqne «ude« et aoiita robere yalYbs , t5 

t^lTammqae aliae pressos propaginis arcus 
Ezspectant, et viYa sua plantaria terra ; 
Nil radieifl egent aliae, summumqne putator 
Haud dnbitat terrae referens mandare cacumen. 

?ain et eaudicibus sectis — mirabile dictu ! — M 

ruditur e sicco radix oleagina ligno. 
Et saepe alterius ramos impune ridemus 
Vertere in aiterius, mutatamque insita mahi 
Ferre pirum, et prunis lapidosa mbescere coma. 

Quare agite, o, proprios generatim discite coltos, 85 
Agricolae, fractusque feros moUite colendo. 
Neu segnes jaceant terrae : jurat Ismara Baccho 
Conserere, atque olea magnum vestire Taburnum. 
Tuque ades, inceptumque una decurre laborem, 
O decus, o famae merito pars maxima nostrae, 40 

Maecenas, pelagoque volans da rela patenti. 
Non ego cuncta meis amplecti versibus opto, 
Non, mihi m linguae centum sint eraque centum, 
Ferrea rox; ades, et primi lege Ittoris oram; 
In manibus terrae ; non hic te carmine ficto 45 

Atque per ambages et longa exorsa tenebo. 

Sponte sua quae se tollunt in luminis oras, 
Infeounda quid^n, sed laeta et fortia surgunt ; 
Quippe solo natura subest. Tamen haec quoqne, si quis 
Inserat, aut sorobibus mandet mutata subactis, 50 

£xuerint silvestrem animum, cuUuque frequenti, 
In quasoumque roces artis, haud tarda seauentnr. 

Nec non et sterilis, quae stirpibus exit ao imis, 
Hoc faciet, vacuos si sit digesta per agros : 
- Nuno altae frondes et rami matris opacant, 55 

Cretcentique adimunt fetns, urantque ferentem. 

Jam, quae seminibus jactis se sustulit arbos, 
Tarda yenit, seris factura nepotibus umbram ; 
Pomaque degenerant, succos oblita priores ; 
£t tnrpis avibus praedam fert uva racemos. 60 


26, 27. Some firom suckers. — 28, 29. Some from cuttings. — 30, 
31. Some from pieoes of the dry trunk. — 32-35. Ingrafting trans- 
fers to one tree the nature of.another. — 35-46. Addressinff mrmerB, 
aiid asking the countenance of Maecenas, be inculcates industry aaa 
attention to the best mode of improving and CAiltivating trees. — 47~ 
52. Trees spontaneonsly produced roay be improved by ingrafting 
tnmsplantin^, and culture. — 53-56. Trees naturally produced firom 
siiokersmust be transplanted into the open iields. — 57-62. Trew 
DattmiUy prodoced iirom leed must be trenched, and otherwbe Td* 


Scilieet omnibits est labor impetidendas, et omneft 
Cogendae in Balonm ac malta mercede domandae. 

Sed trancis oleae melias, propagine vites 
Respondent, soltdo Paphiae de robore myrtas« 
Plantis et darae coryli nascuntur, et ingens 65 

- Fraxinas, Hercaleaeque arbos umbrosa coronae) 
Chaoniique patris glandes; etiam ardaa palma 
Nascitur, et casa^ abies yisura marinos^ 

Inseritur Tero et nucis arbutus horrida fetu ; 
£t steriies platani malos gessere valentis } 70 

Castaneae fagus, ornusque incanuit albo 
Flore piri, glandemque sues fregere sub iilmis. 

Nec modus inserere atque oculos imponere stmplex. 
Nam, qua se medio trudunt de cortice gemmae, 
£t tenuis rumpant tunicas; angustus iu ipso 79 

Fit nodo sinus ; huc aliena ex arbore germen 
Includunt, udoque docent inolescere libro. 
Aut rursum enodes truuoi resecantur, et alte 
Finditur in solidum cuneis via ; deinde feraces 
Plantae immittuntur : nec longum tempus, et ingentt 80 
£xiit ad coelum ramis felicibus arboS; 
Miraturqae novas frondes et non sua pomia. 

Praeterea genus haud unum, neo fortibus ulmis^ 
Nec salici lotoque, neque Idaeis cyparissis ; 
Nec pingues unam in laciem nascuntur olivae^ 85 

< ' Orchades, et radii^ et amara pausia bacca ; 
Pomaque et Alcindi silvae ; nec sureulus idem 
Crustumiis Syriisque piris gravibusque voIemis« 
Non eadem arboribus pendet vindemia nostrisy 
Quam Methymnaeo carpit de palmite Lesbos. 90 

Sunt Thasiae vites, sunt et Mareotides albae— > 
Pinguibus hae terris habiles, levioribus illae^ 
£t passo Psithia utilior tenuisque Lageos, 
Tentatura pedes olim vincturaque linguam ; 
Purpureae, preciaeque ; et^—quo te carmine dioamj 95 
Khaetioa? nec cellis ideo contende Falemis. 
Sunt et Aminaeae vites, firmissima vina, 
Tmolius adsurgit quibus et rex ipse Phanaeus ; 
Argttisqne minor, cui non certaverit ulla 

j i_ II I I II - ■ ^ ■ - ^ - - — -^ ...... - ■ - f - ■■^-^ ■ ^^ M^ 

63-68. Of trees to be artificially propagated, certain methods are 
best adapted for different trees. — 69-'72. Different fruit-trees aro 
best adapted for ingraftingon certain others. -*- 73-77. Inoculatinj^ 
» descnbed. — 78-82. Ingrafting proper is described. — 83-88« 
There are different species of the sarae kind of tree, -*• 89-108. 
Etfpecially there are different species of vme. ^ 


T9 GBosoicofr. 

Aot tMitaiii flo^re, aot totidetfi dorare per «hms* 100 
Non ego te, dis et mefisiB accepta secundis, 
Tranftierim, Rhodia, et tnmidis, Bumaste, raeemis. 
Sed neque, quam multae apecies, nec, nomina quae sinti 
Est nnmerus; neqne enim numero comprendere lefert; 
Quem qui scire vdit, Libyci Telit aequorifl idem 105 
Discere quam multae Zephyro turbentur arenae j 
Aut, ubi nayigiifl yiolentior in^it Eums, 
Nosse, quot lonii yeniant ad litora fluctua. 

Nec vero tetrae ferre omnes omnia possunt. 
Fluminibus ealices, crassisque paludibus alni 110 

Nascuntur, steriles saxosis montibus orai } 
litora myrtetis laetissima ; denique apertos 
BacchuB amat collis, A<|uilonem et frigora taxi. 
Aspice et extremis domitum cuHohbus orbemi 
Eoasque domos Arabum piotosque Gelonos: 115 

Divisae arboribus patriae : sola India nigrum 
Fert ebenum ; solis est turea yirga Sabs^is. 
Quid tibi odoreto referam sudantia ligno 
Balsamaque et baccas semper frondentis acanthi? 
Quid nemora Aethiopum, moUi canentia lana, 120 

Velleraque ut foliis d^peotant tenuia Seresl 
Aut quos Oceano propior gerit India lueos, 
Extremi sinus orbis^ ubi a^ra yincere summum 
Arboris haud ullae jactu potuere sagittae ? 
£t gens illa q|uidem sumptis non tarda pharetris. 125 
Media fert tnstes succos tardumque saporem 
Felicis naali; quo non praesentius ullum, 
Pocnla si quando saevae infecere novercae^ 
. Miscueruntque herbas et non innoxta verba, 
Auxilium venit, ac membris agit atra venena. 130 

Ipsa ingens arbos faciemque similiima lauro; 
£t, si non alium late jactaret odorero, 
Laurus erat; folia haud uliis labentia ventis; 
„ F)o8 ad prima tenax ; animas et olentia Medi 

Ofa fovent illo, et senibus medicantur anhelis. 135 

Sed neque Medorum silvae ditissima- terra, 
Nec pulcher Ganges atque auro turbddus Hermus 

109-113. Ttees are adapted to certain sitoatione. — 114-135i.^ 
This ia illuatrated by the products of diatant oUmea. — 136-176. 
This iUustration introducea the praiees of Italy. He contrasts it 
CVer. 136) with Media, the most important provmce of the Persian 
empire, producmg the citron; (ver. 137) tJiNB Ganges, on whoso 
imnks the Seres procured the down from the leaves of treea (as was 
befievea in Vir^^s time), whence ^k was fiibricated ; the HenaiM 
a nvcr of Lydia, with its goldftn sands ; (ver. 138) Bactra» ^ie capi^ 

.UB£R II, n^ 

lAndibvm Iteliae certeat; non Bactm, neqne lodi^ 
Totaqoe turiferis Panchaia pioguis arenis. 
Uaec loca non tauri spiirantee naribus ignem 140 

Invertere satis imipanis dentibns hvdri, 
. Nec galeis.densisque virum seges norruit hastis; 
Sed gravidae fruges et Bacchi Massicus humor 
Imptevere; tenent oleae armentaque laeta. 
Ilinc belJator equus campo sese aniuus infert ; 145 

Hinc albi, Ciitumne, greges, et raaxinoa taurus 
Victima, saepe tuo perfusi flumine sacro, 
Romanos ad templa deum duzere triumj^os. 
Hic ver assiduum atque alienis mensibus aest^s } 
Bis gravidae pecudes, bis pomis utilis arbos. 150 

At rabidae tigres absunt et saeva leonum 
^ Semina; nec miseros fallunt aconita legentis; 
Nec rapit immensos orbis per humum, ne^ue tanto 
l^oameus in spiram tiuetu se colligit angms. 
Adde tot egregias urbes operamque laborero, 155 

Tot congesta manu praeruptis oppida saxis, 
Fluminaque antiquos subterlabentia muros. 
An mare, quod supra, memorem^ quodque adhiit iofra ? 
Anne lacus tantost te, Lart maxime, teque, 

Fluctibus et fremitu adsurgens, Benace, marino? 160 
^— »— — — ~^— *—— "— ^— — — ^— — ^— I — «~— ■ — »-^^fc»«— ^ 

ttl of Bactria, a north-eastern province of the Persian empire, and 
India, and (139) Panchaia, an islandofTthe coast of Arabia, probably* 
ftbled hy Euemerus, a lo^ographer of Messana. — 140-142. He con- 
trasts Italy favourably with Colchis, alludlng to the story of Jason, 
and the bulls (others have horses) snorting fire, and the dragon*8 
teeth, which, when sown, prodaced a crop of armed men. DerUu 
haut the dat. for, to receive. — 143. Matsicui, a hill famons for its 
^es ; it was in Campania, which produced the most celebrated 
wines of ancient Italy. — 146. The Clitumnus was a river of Um- 
bria, still a faraous pasture country. It was believed that the cattle 
that drank its waters becarae white. And white bulls were the 
proper sacrifice in the Roman triumphs, where they were led before 
the victor*8 car. — 149. Alienis. £ven the months not belonging 
to «ommer seem to be under hcr genial influence. Bii per singulos 
annoB.— "151, &c. With these aavantages, Italy is free from wild 
beasts, poisonous plants, and large serpents. — 153. Tanto, quanto 
in aliis terris.*^ 155, &c. Italy abounds in proud and ancient cities, 
ifi Doble rivers, seas, lakes, harbours, mountains full of metallic 
venv* The cities are either beautiful by art, or are piled on rug^ed 
liicks, or adom the banks of rivers. — 158. Supra, the Adriatic ; 
v^mj the Tnscan sea. — 159. Lari, Larius lacus, a magnificent 
UjLe m Crallia Cisalpina, filling a hollow at the south of the AIps ; 
the modern lake oi Como, in Austrian Lombardv. — 160. Senace, 
3enaco8, the modern Garda, a large and noble lake enclosed by 
mountains, ezoept at the south. Hence the gusts that lash it iale 
-Hke fny {Jrem%u marineh 


An niemoTem portns Lncrinoqae addita daustrai 
Atque indignatum ihagnis stridoribus aequor, 
Julia qua ponto longe sonat unda refuso, 
Tyrrhenusque fretis immittitur aestus Avernis? 
Haec eadem argenti rivos aerisque metalla 165 

Ostendit venis, atque auro plurima fluxit. \ 

Haec genus acre virum Marsos pnbemque Sabellami 
Adsuetumque malo Ligurem Volscosque verutos 
Extulit ; haec Decios, Marios magnosque Camiilos^ 
Scipiadas duros bello, et te, maxime Caesar, 170 

Qui nunc, extremis Asiae jam victor in oris^ 
Imbcllem avertis Romanis arcibus Indum. 
Salve, magna parens frugum, Saturnia tellus, 
Magna virum ; tibi res antiquae laudis et artis 
Ingredior, sanctos ausus recludere fontis, 175 

Ascraeumque cano Eomana per oppida carmen. 

Nunc locus arvorum ingeniis : quae robora cuiqne| 
Quis color, et quae sit rebus natura ferendis. 
Difficiies primum terrae coUesque maligni, 
Tenuis ubi argiUa et dumosis calculus arvis, 180 

Palladia gaudent silva vivacis olivae. 
Indicio est tractu surgens oleaster eodem 
Piurimus, et strati baccis silvestribus agri. 
At quae pinguis humus dulcique uligine laeta, 

161-164. An allusion is here made to a harbour of refuge formed 
in the bay of Baiae by Octavianus Caesar, called the Portus Julius. 
Two small lakes, the Avernus and the Lucrinus, both close on the 
bay, were united with it by ezcavation, the Lucrinus forming tha 
middle basin. It shrank into a shallow pool, from an euthquake 
and volcanic eruption, a. d. 1538 ; on which occasion Avemus, the 
northern basin, assumed its present banks, now covered with vine- 
yards. — 167. Mattos,^ The Marsi lived among the Apennines, on 
the north-east of Latium. Sahellam. The Sabines occupied the 
Apennines to the north of Latium. — 168. Ligurem. The Ligurians 
occupied that portion of Gallia Cisalpina which was overlooked by 
the maritime Alps. The soil was poor and rocky ; hence adsuetum 
malo. Volscot, a Latin people who fought with a light spear— vem, 
hence verutot. See Aen. vii. 665. — 169, &c. DecioSt &c. Men 
famous in Roman history. — 171. In the years. c. 30, Octavianus 
Caesar, having conquered Antony in the previous year, was on the 
banks of the Euphrates, by poetic exaggeration, extremis Asiae ui 
oriSf pacifying tne Asiatics, Indum. — 173. Satumia. See Aen. 

viii. 319. — 174. Tibi. See Ecl. viii. 6 176. Ascraeum. See JEdL 

vi. 70. For a celebrated imitation of this fine passage, see Thom«^ 
Ron^s SeasonSf Summer, the Hnes beginning, 

♦Happy Britannia, when the Queen of Arts.' 
177-183. Different soils have different capabilities ; one is best 
s«ited for the olive — 184-194. Another soil is best suited for the vme» 

LIBfilt II. St 

Qoiqne frequens lierbis et fertilis ubere cainpiis; 185 
Qaalem saepe cava inontis convalle solemus 
Despicere — ^huc summis liquuntur rupibus amnes, 

• Felicemque trahnnt limum — quique edilus Austro, 
Et filicem curvis invisam pascit aratris ; 

Hic tibi praevalidas olim multoque fluentis 190 

Sufficiet Baccho vitis : hic fertilis uvae, 

Hic laticis, qualem pateris libamus et auro, 

Inflavit cum pinguis ebur Tyrrhenus ad aras, 

Lancibus et pandis fumantia reddimus exta. 

Sin armenta magis studium vitulosque tueri, 195 

Aut fetus ovium, aut urentis cnlta capellas; 

Sahus et saturi petito longinqua Tarenti, 

£t qnalem infelix amisit Mantua campum, 

Pascentem niveos herboso flumine cygnos : 

Non liquidi gregibus fontes, non gramina deerunt ; 200 

£t, quantum longis carpent armenta diebuS; 

£xigua tantum gelidus ros nocte reponet. 

Nigra fere et presso pinguis sub vomere terra, 

Et cui putre solum — namque hoc imitamur arando — 

Optima fromentis: non ulfo ex aequore cernes 205 

Piura domum tarais decedere plaustra juvencis ; 

Aut unde iratus silvam devexit arator, 

£t nemora evertit multos i^iava per annos, 

Antiquasque domos avium cum stirpibus imis 

£ruit : illae altum nidis petiere relictis; 210 

At rudis enituit impulso vomere eampus. 

Nam jejuna quidem clivosi glarea ruris 

Tix humilis apibus casias roremque ministrat ; 

£t tophus scaber et nigris exesa chelydris 

Creta negant, alios aeque serpentibos agros 215 

Dulcem ferre cibum et curvas praebere latebras. 

Quae tenuem exhalat nebulam fumosc^ue volucris, 

£t bibit humorem et, cum vult, ex se ipsa remittit ; 

Qoaeque suo semper viridis se gramine vestit, 

Nec scabie et salsa laedit robigine ferrum : 220 

Illa tibi laetis intexet vitibus ulmos ; 

Illa ferax oleo est ; illam experiere colendo 

£t facilera pecori et patientem vomeris unci. 

* Talem dives arat Capua, et vicina Vesevo 

Ora jogo, et vacuis Claniuilnon aequus Acerris. 225 

Nunc, quo quamque modo possis cognoscere, dicam. 

195-202. Anotherforpastures, — 203-525. Differcnce between a 
^rodiirtiTe and an unnroductive soil. — 226-258. Rulcs are given to 
diatiogttish soilB. 


Rara sit an sapm morem si denta requlias — 

Altera frumentis quoniam favet, altera Baccho, 

Densa magis Cereri, rarisBima quaeque Lyaeo— 

Ante locum capjes oculis, alteque juoebis 230 

In solido puteum demitti, omnemque repones 

Rursus humum, et pedibus summas aequabis areiaa. 

Si deerunt, rarum pecorique et yitibus almis 

Aptius, uber erit ^ sin in sua posse negabunt 

Ire loca, et scrobibus superabit terra repletis, 235 

Spissus ager; glebas cunctantis crassaque terga 

Exspecta, et validis terram proscinde juvencis. 

Salsa autem tellus et quae perhibetur amara, 

Frugibus infelix— ea nec mansuescit arando, 

Nec Baccho genus, aut pomis sua nomina servat-^ 240 

Tale dabit specimen : tu spisso vimine qualos 

Colaque prelorum fumosis deripe tectis ; 

Huc ager ille malus, dulcesque a fontibus undae 

Ad plenum calcentur : aqua eluctabitur omnis 

Scilicet, et grandes ibunt per vimina guttae; 245 

At sapor indicium faciet, manifestus et ora 

Tristia tentatum sensu torquebit amaror. 

Pingnis item quae sit tellus, hoc denique pacto 

Discimus : haud umquam manibus jactata fatisoit, 

Sed picis in morem ad digitos lentescit habeudo. 250 

Humida maiores herbas alit^ ipsaque justo 

Laetior. Ah nimium ne sit mini fertilis illa, 

Neu se praeyalidam primis ostendat aristis ! 

Quae gravis est, ipso tacitam se pondere prodit. 

Quaeque levis. Promptum est oculis praeaiscere ni- 

gram, 255 ^ 

£t quis cui color. At sceleratum exquirere frigua 
Dimcile est; piceae tantum taxique nocentes 
Interdum, aut hederae pandunt vestigia nigrae. 

His animadversisi terram multo ante memento 
Excoquere, et magnos scrobibus concidere montis, 260 
Ante supinatas Aquiloni ostendere glebas 
Quam laetum infodias vitis genus. Optima putri 
Arva solo; id venti curant gelidaeque pruinae, 
£t labefacta movens robustus jugera fossor. 
At si quos haud ulla viros vigilantia fugit, 265 

Ante locum similem e^quirunt, ubi prima parelur 
Arboribus seges, et quo mox digesta feratur, 
Mutatam ignorent subito ne semina matrem. 

259-264. Directions regarding the planting of vines; as to ihm 
prepara*ion of the ground. — 265-272. As to the cuttings* 

I,tBER I^ €3 

Quin etiam ooeli regionem in cortice Bignant, 
Ut, quo quaeque modo steterit, qua parte calores 270 
Austrinos tulerii, quae terga obverterit axi, 
Restituant. Adeo iii teneris consuescere multum est. 

Collibus, an plano melins sit ponere vitem, 
Quaere prius. Si pinguis agros metabere campi, 
Densa sere, in denso non segnior ubere BacchuS; 275 
Sin tumulis acclive solum coiiisque supinos, 
Indulge ordinibus, nec seciusomnis in unguem 
Arboribus positis secto yia limite quadret. 
Ut saepe ingenti bello oum longa cohortis 
£xplicuit legio, et campo stetit agmen aperto, 280 

^ Directaeque acies, ac late fluctuat omnis 
Aere renidenti tellus, neo dum horrida miscent 
Proelia, sed dubius mediis Mars errat in armis : 
Omnia sint paribus numeris dimensa viarum ; 
Non animum modo uti pascat prospectus inanem, 285 
Sed quia non aliter vires dabit omnibus aequas 
Terra, neque in vacuum poterunt se extendere rami. 

Forsitan et, »crobibu3 quae sint fastigia, quaeras. 
Ausim vel tenui vitem committere sulco. 
Altior ac penilus terrae defigitur arbos — 290 

Aesculus m primis, quae, quantum vertice ad auras 
Aetherias, tantum radice in Tartara tendit. 
Ergo non hiemes illam, non flabra neque imbres 
Convellunt ; immota manet, multosque nepotes, 
Multa virum volvens durando saecula vincit; 295 

Tum fortis late ramos et brachia tendens 
Huc illae, n^ia ipsa ingentem sustinet umbram. 

Neve tibi ad solem vei^nt vineta cadentem ; 
Neve inter vitis corylum sere ; neve flagella 
Summa pete, aat summa defringe ex arbore plantas : 300 
Tantus amor terrae ! neu ferro laede retunso 
Semina; neve olea silvestris insere truncos: 
Nam saepe incaatis i^astoribus excidit ignis, 
Qui, furtim jnngui primum sub oortice teotus, 
RoDora comprendit, frondesque elapsus in altas 305 

Ingentem coelo sonitum dedit ; inde secutus 
Per ramos victor perque alta cacumina regnat, 
£t totum involvit flammis nemus, et ruit atram 
Ad coelum, picea crassus oaligine, nubem; 
Praesertim si tempestas a vertice silvis 310 

Incubuit, glomeratque ferens incendia ventus. 

' 873-287. As to the mode of pianting. — 288-314. Varioas inBtruo- 
d(Mi0 and wamings are given. 

M oiosGiGOir. 

Hoc ubi, non a stiipe valent caesaeqne rererti 
PoasQDt, atque ima siraiies revirescer e terra ; 
Infelix superat foliis oleaster amaris. 

Nec tibi tam prudens quisquam persuadeat aactof 3 15 
TeUurem Borea rigidam spiraqte moyere. 
Rura gelu tum claudit hiems; nec semine jaoto 
CoDcretam patitor radicem adfigere terrae. 
Optima vinetis satio, cum vere rubenti 
Candida venit avis longis invisa colubris; 320 

Prima vel autumni sub frigora, cum rapidus Sol 
Nondum hiemem contingit equis, jam praeterit aestas. 
Ver adeo frondi nemorum, ver utile silvis} 
Vere tument terrae et genitalia semina poaount. 
Tum pater omnipotens fecundis imbribus Aether 320 
Conjugis in gremium laetae descendit, et omnis 
Magnus alit, magno commixtus corpore, fetus. 
- Avia tum resonant avibos virgulta canoriS| 
£t Venerem certis repetunt armenta diebus; 
Parturit ahnus ager, Zephyrique tepentibus auris 330 
Laxant arva sinus; superat teuer omnibus httzm>ff; 
Inque novos soles audent se germina tuto 
Credere ; nec metnit surgentis pampinus AustroS) 
Aut actum coelo magnis Aquilonibus imbrem, 
Sed trudit gemmas, et frondes ezplicat onmis. 335 

Non alios prima creseentis origine mundi 
Illuxisse dies aliumve habuisse tenorem 
Crediderim : ver illud erat ; ver magnus agdbat 
Orbis, et hibemis parcebant flatibus Enri, 
Cum prtinae lucem pecudes hausere, virumque 340 

Terrea progenies duris caput extulit arvis, ' 

Immissaeque ferae silvis et sidera coelo. 
Nec res hunc tenerae possent perferre kiboreniy 
Si non tanta quies iret frigusquo caloremque 
Inter, et exciperet coeli indulgentia terras. 345 

Quod superest) quaecumque premes virguha per agro8| 
Sparfi^e fimo pingui, et multa memor occuie terra ; 
Aut lapidem bibulum, aut squalentis infode conchaS ; 
Inter enim labentur aquae^ tenuisque subibit 
Halittts, atque animos tollent sata. Jamqne repertl| 350 
Qui saxo super atque ingentis pondere testae 
Urguereot ; hoc en^sos munimen ad imbris, 
Hoc, ubi hiulca siii findit canis aestifer arva. 

S15-§45. He then shows the best season for plaDting, with « 
flowing description of sprine.— 346-357. Directioiis as to the prc^ier 
•teps to be taken during ana after-planting. 

UBSR II. 8i 

Seminibtrs^ positis, superest didaoere lerrani 
Saepius ad capita, et duros jactare bidentisj 355 

Aat presso exercere solum sub vomere, et ipsa 
Flectere luctantis inter vineta juvencos: 
Tum levis calamos et rasae hastilia virgae 
Fra3tineaB(}ue aptare sudes furcasque valentis, 
Viribus eniti quarum et contemnere ventos 360 

Adsuescant, summascjue sequi tabulata per ulmog. 

A(v dum prima novis adolescit frondibus aetaa, 
Parcendum teneris ; et dum se laetus ad auras 
Palmes agit, laxis per puram immissus habenisi 
Ipsa acie nondum falcis tentanda, sed uncis 365 

Carpendae manibus frondes interque legendae. 
Inde ubi jam validis amplexae stirpibus ulmos 
Exierint, tum stringe comas, tum brachia tonde : 
Ante reformidant ferrum ; tum denique dura 
Exerce imperia, et ramos compesce fluentis. 370 

Texendae sepes etiam, et pecus omne tenendum ; 
Praecipue dum frons tenera impradensque laborura, 
Cui, super indignas hiemes solemque potentemi 
Silvestres uri adsidue capraeque sec^uaces 
Illudunt, pascuntur oves avidaeque juvencae. 375 

Frigora nec tantum cana concreta pruina, 
Aut gravis incumbens scopulis arentibus aestaSi 
Quantum illi nocuere greges durique venenum 
Dentis et admorso signata in stirpe cicatrix. 
Non aliam ob culpam Baccho caper omnibus ariB 380 
Caeditur, et veteres ineunt proscaenia ludi, 
Praemiaque ingeniis pagos et compita circum 
Thesidae posuere, atque inter pocula laeti 
MoIIibus in pratis unctos saluere per utres. 
Nec non Ausonii, Troja gens missa, coloni 385 

Versibus incomptis ludunt risuque soluto, 
Oraque corticibus sumunt horrenda cavatis; 
£t te. Bacche, vocant per carmina laeta, tibique 
Oscilla ex alta suspendunt mollia pinu. 
Uinc omnis largo pubescit vinea fetu ; 390 

Complentur vallesque cavae saltusque profundi, 
£t quocumque deus circum caput egit honestum. 
£rgo rite suum Baccho dicemus honorem 
Carminibus patriisj lancesque et liba feremus, 

358-362. Direetions as to props. — 363-370. Directions u to 
DnuiiDfr. — 371-379. A list of evils to be guarded against. — 380- 
906. Tne goat is especially to be excluded. 

69 GBORoicoir. 

£t duotas coma stabit sacer hircos ad aram, 395 

Pinguiaque in yeribua torrebimu.s exta colarms. 

Est etiam ille labor curandis vitibus alteri 
€ui numquam exhausti satis est ; namque omne quctannift 
Terque quaterque solum scindendum, glebaque verais 
Aeternum frangenda bidentibus; omne levandum 400 
Fronde nemus ', redit agricolis labor actus ia orbem, 
Atque in se sua per vestigia volvitur annus. 
Ac jam olim, seras posuit cum vinea frondes, 
Frigidus et silvis Aquilo decussit honorem; 
Jam tum acer curas venientem extendit in annam 405 
Rusticus^ et curvo Saturni dente relictam 
Persequitur vitem attondens, fingitque putando, 
Primtis humum fodito^ primus devecta cremato 
Sarmenta, et valios pnmus sub tecta referto ; 
Postremus metito. Bis vitibus ingruit umbra; 410 

Bis segetem densis obducunt sentibus herbae : 
Durus uterque labor. Laudato ingentia rura, 
Exiguum colito. Nec non eliam aspera rusci 
Vimina per silvam, et ripis fluvialis arundo 
Caeditur, incultique exercet cura salicti. " 415 

Jam vinctae vites, jam falcem arbusta reponunt, 
Jam canit efTectos extremus vinitor antes. 
SoIIicitanda tamen tellus, pulvisque movendus; 
£t jam maturis metuendus Jupiter uvis. 

Contra non ulla est oleis cultura, neque illae 420 

Procurvam exspectant falcero rastrosque tenaces^ 
Cum seroel haeserunt arvis, auras(jue tulerunt. 
Ipsa satis tellus, curo dente recluditur unco, 
Sufficit humoreni, et gravidas, cum vomere, fruges. 
Hoc pingoem et placitam Paci nutritor olivam. 425 

Poma quoque, ut primuro truncos sensere valentis, 
£t vires habuere suas, ad sidera raptim 
Vi propria nituntur, opisque haud indiga nostrae. 

Nec minus interea fetu nemus omne gravescit, 
Sanguineisque inculta rubent aviaria baccis. 430 

Tondentur c^rtisi, taedaa silva alta roinistrat. 
Pascunturque ignes nocturni et lumina funaunt. 
£t dubitant homines serere atque impendere curaml 
Quid majora sequar? Salices numilesque genestae, 
Aut illae pecori frondem, aut pastoribus umbras 43 i 

Sufficiunt, sepemque satis, et pabula melli. 

397-419. Vineyards need constant attention all the year round.- 
420-425. Olives do not need much attention. — 426-428. Neither do 
(ruit-trees. — 429-453. Nor do other trees, which, from their bewHy 
and their usefulness, should be eztensively plantedL 



Et javat andantem baxo speotare Cytoranii 

Naryciaeque picis lucos ; juvat arva videre 

Non rastris, hominum non ulli obnoxia curae. 

Ip8ae Caucasio steriles in vertice silvae, 440 

Quas animosi £uri assidue franguntque feruntque, 

Dant alios aliae fetus; dant utile lignum, 

Navigiis pinos, domibus cedrumque cupressoscjue. 

Hinc radios trivere rotis, hinc tympana plaustris 

Agricolae, et pandas ratibus posuere carinas. 445 

Viminibus salices fecundae, frondibus ulmi^ 

At myrtus validis haslilibus, et bona bello 

Cornus ', Ituraeos taxi torquentur in arcus. 

Nec tiliae leves aut tomo rasile buxum 

Non formam accipiunt, ferroque cavantur acuto ; 450 

Nec non et torrentem undam levis innatat alnus, 

Missa Pado ; nec non et apes examina condunt 

Corticibusque cavis vitiosaeque ilicis alveo. 

Quid memorandum aeque Baccheia dona tulerunt ? 

Bacchus et ad culpam causas dedit; ille furentis 455 

Centauros leto doniuit; Rhoetumque Pholumque 

£t magno Hylaeum Lapithis cratere minantem. 

fortunatos nimium, sua si bona norint; 
Agricolas, quibus ipsa, procul discordibus armis, 
Fandit humo facilem victum justissima tellus ! 460 

Si non ingentem foribus domus alta superbis 
Mane salutantum totis vomit aedibus undam; 
Nec varios inhiant pulcra testudine postis 
Ulusasque auro vestes Ephyreiaque aera; 
Alba neque Assyrio fucatur lana veneno, 465 

Nec casia liquidi corrumpitur usus olivi : 

454-457. Other trees sarpass the vine, which is often iojurious in 
its effects. — 458-542. This detail of the various advantages derived 
from planting, leads to a splendid eulo^ium on rural Gfe. » 459. 
iMa; of its own accord; that is, bountifuUy and willingly. — 460. 
Fundit and facilem both refer to the plenty of the fruits of the earth 
^ee Aen. i. 445)| and justissima to the return of crop from seed. -— 

■ Wbat tbou|;h the dome be wantini^, whose proud gate 
Each morning vomlts out the sneaking crowd,* &c. 

T^msori^a Seasons — jtutum». 

The allusion is to the Roman practice of clients visiting their patron 
asrly in the morning. — 463. Inhiant ; that is, agricolae. Inhiare 
geocrally governs the dative. — 464. Ephyreta. Ephyra was an an- 
cient name for Corinth. Vessels made of Corinthian bronze were 
nre, and highly esteemed. — 465. Ass^rio veneno. Assyria is often 
taken to signify Syria : here Phoenicia, a portion of it. Venenum 
•imply denotes the purple dye for which Phoenicia was celebrated. 
"*466. Casia* This does not seem to be the catid meationed in vec 


At secura quies et nesoia fallere Tita, 
Dives opum yariaram ; at latis otia fundls, 
Speluncae vivique lacus; at frigida Tempe 
MQgitusque boum moUesque sub arbore somni 470 

Non absunt; illic saltus ac lustra ferarum 
Et patiens operum exiguoque adsueta juventus, 
Sacra deum, sanctique patres j extrema per illos 
Justitia excedens terris vestigia fecit. 

Me vero primum dulces ante omnia Musaey 475 

Quarum sacra fero ingenti percussus amore, 
Accipiant, caelique vias et sidera monstrent, 
Defectus solis varios lunaeque labores : 
Unde tremor terris ; qua vi maria alta tumescant, 
Objicibus ruptis, rursusque in se ipsa residant ; 48D 

Quid tantum oceano properent se tinguere sOles 
Hibemi, vel quae tardis mora noctibus obstet. 
Sin, has ne possim naturae accedere partis, 
Frigidus obstiterit circum praecordia sanguis ; 
Rura mihi et rigui placeant in vallibus amnes, 485 

Flumina amem silvasque inglorius. O, ubi campi 

• I I ■ II ■ ■ '^" ■- ■ ^i ■■■■■■■■■ .,», !■ ■ «i w m mmmatm^^m^i^^mt^mi^m 

213, Georg. iv. 30, 182, 304, which was probably sptirge flaz. It is 
eRrident that this casia was an odoriferous plant used to perfame their 
ungnents. — 467. At. For the force of a^ see Zumpt, ^ 349. ivoi- 
lere, The genitive. See Ed. v. 47. The force oi jallere here is to 
disappoint with false hope. — 468. As Virgil (ver. 412) recommends 
■mall farms, ItUisfundis must here mean tne open expanse of view 
that the country yields. — 469. Tempe. This delightful valley, in 
Thessaly, between Olympus and Ossa, watered by the Peneiis, ie 
often used to denote any rural scene of surpassing beauty. — > 47^ 
Juititia. See Ecl. iv. 6. — 475. Trimum, Virgil wishes^r»* to l>e 
apoet and philosopher ; next, if that be unattamable, to be blessed 
with a country life. See 483, &c. Join duUet ante omnia. — 47i& 
Saerafero. roets are sometimes called priests of the Muses, and 
it was part of the duty of the priest, ferre sacra. Fereussus amorwk 
* Smit with the love of sacred song.' — Miiton, Par. Loitj iii. ver. 39. 
— 477. Vias et sidera, equiyalent to vias siderum. So verses 486, 
487, campi Sperckeosquei equivalent to campi Sperchei, and so in other 
passages, wnere the last term modifies or explains the first. Thos 
Aen. vii. 751. Fronde etfelici comtus olirn ; crowned with a leafy 
chaplet, and that {et) of the blessed olive — 481, 482. The short 
days of winter, when the sun seems to hurry to his ocean bed. 
and the long days of summer, when night seems to be obstrnctea 
in her approach, aro alluded to. See a similar passago, the subject 
being a favourite one with some of the earlier Greek poets, Aem. i. 
740, &c. — 483, &c. Virgil prays that if the dulness of his facultioa 
(arisine from the coldness of his blood — a hypotbesis of some ai^ 
cient pnilosophers) prevented him from being a poet and a philoeo- 
pher, he might enjoy rural delights. See ver. 476. — 486, 487 
Campi Spetcheosqus. For this form of speech, which the gramma 

ciBn 11. a^ 

Sbercheosqae et yii^ibus baechata Laoaeiiit 

laygeta ! o, qui me gelidis in vallibus Haemi 

Sistat, et ingenti ramorum protegat umbra ! 

Felix, qui potnit rerum cognoscere causas, 490 

Atque metus omnis et inexorabile fatum 

Subjecit pedibus strepitumque Acherontis avari ! 

Fortanatns et ille, deos qui novit agresiis, 

Panaque SiWanamque senem Nymphasque sorores ! 

Ulum non populi fasces, non purpnra regum 499 

Flexit, et infidos agitans discordia fratres; 

Aut conjurato descendens Dacas ab Histro ; 

Non res Romanae peritnraque regna ; neque ille 

Aut doluit miserans inopem, aut invidit habenti. 

Quos rami fructus, quos ipsa Yolentia rura 500 

Sponte tulere sua, carpsit ; nec ferrea jura 

Insanumque forum, aut populi tabulari^ vidit. 

Sollicitant alii remis freta caeca, ruuntque 

In ferrum, penetrant aulas et limina regum ', 

Hic petit excidiis urbem miserosque Penatis, 505 

Ut gemma bibat, et Sarrano dormiat ostro ; 

Condit opes alius, defossoque incubat auro ; 

naiis call Hendiadys ijtv Sid SvoTv^ one term by two), see ver. 477« 

The Spercbeos was a river of Thesaaly. — 488. Taygeta ( juga). 

The Taygetus was a mountain range of Laconia, on wnich tbe La- 

oonian maids celebrated the rites of Bacchus ivirginibtiSj &c)u 

HaemL A wooded mountain range of Thrace. — * 489. Finely imi- 

tated by Cowper — 

. * Oh for a lodge in some vast wilderness, 
Some bounmess contiguity of shade.* 


— 490. Happy the philosopher, happy, too (fortunatus et itte, ver- 
493) ihe peasant. — 492. Acherontia avari. The Acheron was a 
small river of Epirus, but was supposed to communicate with the 
infernal regions. Here the poet alludes to it as an emblem of insa« 
tiable death, the fearof which the philosopher overcomes. — 495. 
Fasces. The ensigns of power for power itself. — 496. Fratres^ 
Probably Phraates and Tiridates, near relations, who were contend* 
uig for the throne of Parthia. — 497. Dacus. The Dacians, who 
Kved along the north of the Danube {Hister), west from the Black 
Sea, made constant inroads on the Romans ; nor were they finaliy 
SQbdued till the time of Trajan. Conjurato used actively. Zumpt, 
$633. — 499. Peasants are freed from beggary and wealth — thejr 
hare a competency. — 503-512. Virsil descnbes the passions and 
Tieas of a city life ; 503, 504, love of military glory temptins somo 
fo aeek fame abroad; 50.5, 506, luxuriousness tempting others to 
dvil war ; 507, some are misers ; 508-510, others are attracted by 
iSke desire of distinction, aa lawyers and statesmen ; 510-512, ana 
•ome, stained with blood, are forced to settle in foreign climea. -« 
M6. Sarrano. Tyrian. See ver. 465. 
8* H 



Hic stnpet attomtBS Roetris; irane plai»iiB hiaotem 

Per cnneoB genttnatiis enim plebiflqne Patnimqae 

Corripuit ; gaudent perfnsi sanguine fratrum} 610 

£x8ilioque domos et dulcia limina mutant, 

Atque alio patriam quaerunt sub sole jacmitem. 

A^ricola incurvo terram dimovit aratro : 

Hmc anni labor; hinc patriam parvosque nepotet 

Suatinetyhinc armenta boum meritosque juvencoe. 515 

Nec requies, quin aut pomis exuberet annus, 

Aut fetu pecorum, aut Cerealk mergite culmi, 

Proventuque ctneret suicoO} atque horrea vinoat. 

Venit hiems: teritur Sicyonia oacca trap^tis; 

Glande suea laeti redeunt ; dant arbuta silvae, 520 

£t varios ponit fetus autumnus, et ahe 

Mitis in apriois coquttur vindemia saxis. 

Interea dulces pendent circum oscula nati; 

C^ta pudicitiam servat domus ; ubera vaccae 

Lactea demittnnt. pinguesque in gramine laeto 525 

Inter se adversis luctantur comibus haedi. 

Ipse dies agitat festos, fususque per herbam, 

Ignis ubi in medio et socii cratera coronant, 

Te. libans, Lenaee, vocat, pecorisque magistris 

Velocis jaculi certamina ponit in ulmo; 530 

Corporaque agresti nudant praedura palaestrae. 

Hanc olim veteres vitam coluere Sabmi, 

Hanc Remus et frater ; sic fortis £truria crevit 

Scilicet, et rerum facta est pulcherrima Roma| 

Septemque una siln muro circumdedit arces. 531^ 

Ante etiam soeptrum Dictaei rems, et ante 

Impia quam caesis ^ens est epuTata juvencisy 

Aureus hanc vitam in terris Saturnus agebat. 

Necdum etiam audierant inflari classica, necdum 

^^»»— I I I . I I I I I » I n ■■ I II I 

509. Cuitiot. Tfae w«dgd-fonned divisifMis of th^ RomaB thea 
tres. JSntm has here the force of a etrong affirmative. See Aem, 
viii. 84. — 513| &c. How different are the pursmts of the peaeantt 
^516. He enjoys constant and innocent retums to his labour aU 
the year round. — 519. Sicyon, west of Corinth, was famoos for ita 
olives. — 527. Ipse dominus agitat ; presides at the holiday rejoicings. 
— 528. Ignis. The altar iire. Cratera. From this the caps of lifiii- 
tion were fiUed. Cotonant. Encircle with a chaplet of iiowers (ae« 
Atn. iii. 525), as was the usage of our poet's time. — 536. Dickftu 
An epithet applied to Jupiter, from Dicte, the mountain in Crale 
where he was bora. — 537. The carly Romans deemed it impioiia 
to eat so useful an animal as the oz.— 538. Satumus. Acooiding to 
the old Italian mythes, the Oolden Age, full of rural innocence and 
peace, flourished under tfae patemal rale Qi Satum. See Atm* viii» 
319, &c. 

L1B£B UI. fl 

Inmoflitos dur» erepitare kioiidtbtts enses. 540 

Sed nos immensnm epaliie confecimas aequor, 
£t jam tenipus eqnum famantia solrere ooiia. 


!■ the tliird Book of the Geoi^^, Virgil treats of tbe aoimaU 
employed in agriculture, and wliich are the famier'8 peeuliar 
care — hOTseBi ozen, sheep, goats, and dogs. He introduces his 
anbject 1-8, by addresstng Pales, the goddess of shepherds, 
Apollo, and Arcadia, and by expressing his intentkm to shun 
the mythic themes of ordinary poets. He is to make Mantua 
renowjied for producing a poet, who, yictorious in tbe oontest 
of genius, shall celebrate in song and feetal games, and with a 
Yotive temple, the praises of Caesar, 9-39. But he infi>rmt 
Maecenas that first he wiil deal, at his request, with rural 
Hiemes, 40-48. The breeding of horses and ozen, 49-156. 
The rearing and training c^oxen, 157—178. The rearing and 
training of horses, 179-208. The efiects of love on animals, 
209-283. Virgil, aiter some introductory remarks, giyes direo- 
tions for the care of sheep in winter, 284-299. Direotiont 
fegarding goats, which, for some purposes, be recommends at 
preferabie to ^eep, 300-317. Directions regarding the care 
of goats durii^ winter, 318-321. Directions regarding the 
summer pasturing of sheep and goats, 322-338. The Nomadio 
tribes of Libya doscribed, 339-348. The shepherd tribes of 
oold Scythia described, 349-383. Directions to those who 
cnltivate sheep Ibr the sake of the wool, 384-393; for the 
lake of the milk, 394-403. Tbe care and uses of dogs» 404- 
413. To beware of serpents, 414-439. The caases and cure 
of disease in sheep, 440-463. The necessity of promptness 
iirged from ^e danger of infectioo, 464-473. This introduces 
(474-481) a striking deseriptaon of an autumnal epidemio 
among cattle in ^e Noric Alps and neighbourhood. Compii* 
cated Dature of the disease, 482-485. Its sudden e^ts on 
sheep, 486-493 ; on heifers in the pastures, 494, 495; on dogs 
aad «wiae, 496, 497. Commencement of the disease in horses, 
. 498-^2. Ifis pro^ress, 503-514. Sufferinge of the ittnoeent 
■teers at work, 615-530. Hardships thereby imposed on the 
people, 531-536. Other animals shared the evil effects, 537- 
547. All remedies were unavailing, 548-550. Fearfiil havoo 
made by the pestilenoe,and its perntuons efiects on the animai 
fystem, 551-566. 

0t GBOfelCHCOlCi 

Tc quoqae, magna FrI€8, et te memorande, canemas, 

Pastor at) Amf&yao, tos, siivae amnesque Lyca^. 

Cetera, quae Tacuas tenmssent carmine ment^ 

Omnia jam vulgata. Quie aut Eurysthea durumi 

Ant illaudati nescit Busiridis aras ? 8 

Cui non dictus Hylas puer, et Latonia Delos, 

Hippodameque, numeroque Pelops insignis ebnmo, 

Acer equis 1 Tentanda via est; qua me quoque possim 

ToUere humo. victorque virum volitare per ora. 

Primus 000 m patriam mecum, modo vita supersit, !• 

Aonio recuens deducam vertioe Musas ; 

Primus Idumaeas referam tibi, Mantua, pahnas; 

Et viridi in campo templum de marmore ponam 

Propter aquam, tardis ingens ubi flexibus errat 

Minoius, et tenera praetexit arundine ripas. 15 

In medio mibi Caesar erit, templumque tenebit. 

IUi victor ego et Tyrio conspectus in ostro 

Centum quadrijugos agitabo ad flumina eurros. 

Cuncta mihi, Alpheum linquens lucosqne Molorohi, 

Cursibus et crudo decemet Graecia caestu } tO 

Ipse, caput tonsae foliis ornatus oUvae, 

Dona feram. Jam nnnc sollemnis ducere pompas 

Ad delubra juvat, caesosque videre juvencos ; 

Yel scaena ut versis discedat frontibus, utque 

Purpnrea intexti toUant aulaea Britanni. 35 

In foribus pugnam ex auro solidoque elephanto 

Gangaridum fociam, victorisque arma Quirini ; 

Atque hic undantem bello magnumque fluentem 

Niium, ac navali surgentes aere columnas. 

Addam url>es Asiae domitaS; puisumque Nipltaten, 30 

Fidentemque fuga Parthum versisque sagittis, 

£t duo rapta manu diverso ex hoste tropaea, * 

Bisque triumpliatas utroque ab iitore gentis. 

Stabunt et Parii iapides, spirantia signa, 

Assaraci proies, demissaeque ab Jove gentis StS 

Nomina^ Trosque parens et Trojae Cyntliius auctor. 

Invidia mfeiix Furias amnemque sevemm 

Cocyti metuet, tortosque Ixionis anguis 

Immanemque rotam, et non exsuperabiie saxum. 

■ * I i . 1 I . I ■■ I I I < I I ■ I I II - t ■ I i I 

1-8. Vireii introduces his siibject— •horses, oxen, slieep, goats, 
and dogs— -by addressing Fales, tlie goddes^ of eheplierds, Ap<>Uo 
{Pattor ah Amphrifso)^ and Arcadia, and by expressine his intention 
to shun the mythic themes of ordinary poets. — 9-39. He is to make 
JVfantua renowned for producing a poet, who, victorious in the con 
tevt of genius, shail ceiebrate in Song, and with festai games, and a 
votive temple, the praises of Caesar. 


Interea Dryadum silTas saltasque seqaamiir 40 

Intactos, tua, Maeoenas, haud mol]ia jassa. 
Te sioe ni] aitum mens inctioat. En age, aegnis 
Rumpe moras ; vocat ingenti clamore Cithaeron, 
Taygetiqne canes, domitrixque EjHdaurue e^uorumi 
£t vox assensu nemorum ingeminata remugit. 45 

Mox tamen ardentis accingar dicere pugnas 
. Caesari?, et nomen fama tot ferre per annos, 
Tithoni prima quot abest ab origine Caesar. 

Seu quis, Olympiacae miratus praemia pahnae, 
Pascit equos, seu quis fortis ad aratra juvenoos^ 50 

Corpora praecipue matrum legat. Optima torvae 
Forma l)ovis, cui turpe caput, cui plurinm cervijc, 
£t crurum tenus a mento palearia pendent ; 
Tum iongo nu]]us Jateri modus ; omnia magna^ 
Pes etiani, et camuris hirtae sub cornibus aures. 55 

Nec mihi displiceat maculis insignis et albo ; 
Aut juga detractans, interdumque aspera como, 
£t faciem tauro propior, quaeque ardua tota, 
£t gradi^M ima verrit vestigia oauda. 
Aetas Lucinam justosque pati hymenaeos 60 

Desinit ante decem. post quatuor incipit annos; 
Cetera nec feturae nabilis, nec fortis aratris. 
Interea, superat gregibus dum laeta juventas, 
Solve mares; mitte in Venerem pecuaria primaS| 
Atque aliam ex alia generando suffice profem. 65 

Optima quaeque dies miseris mortalibus aevi 
Prima fugit ; subeunt morbi tristisque senectus ; 
£t labor et durae rapit inciementia mortis. 
Semper eruAt, quarum mutari corpora malis : 
Semper enim refice ; ac, ne post amissa requiras, 70 
Anteveni, et sulsoiem armento sortire quotannis. 

Nec non et pecori est idem delectus equino. 
Tu modo, quos in spem statues submittere gentis, 
Praecipuum jam inde a teneris impende lal)orem. 
Continuo pecoris generosi puilus in arvis 75 

A]tius ingreditur, et mollia crura reponit 
Primus et ire viam, et fluvios tentare minaoes 
Audet, et ignoto sese committere ponti ; 
Nec vanos horret strepitus. Illi ardua cerviz, 
Argutumque caput, brevis alvus, obesaque terga ; 80 
Luxuriatque toris animosum pectus. Honesti 

40-48. But first, he informs IVIaecenas that he wiil deal, at his re- 
fiiest, with rural themes. -— 49-156. The breeding of oxen anA 

M ' GS€MiQioair« 

Spadicea glanciqiie ; coJor deterrimns albiA 

£t giivo. Tuoi; ei qua Bouum piocul arma deden^ 

Stare loco nescit, micat auribuB, et tremit artus, 

Collectumque fremens Yolvit sub naribus ignem. 85 

Densa iuba, et dextro jaclata reeumbit in armo ; 

At duplex agitur per lumbos spina ; cavatque 

Teliurem, et solido graviter sonat ungula corna* 

Talis Amycla^i domitus Poliucis habenis 

Cyliarus, et, quorum Graii meminere poelae, 90 

Martisi equi bijuges, et magni currus Acbilii : 

Talis et ipse jubam cervice effudit equina 

Conjugis adventu pernix Saturnus, et aJtum 

Pelion binnitu fugiens impievit acuto. 

Hunc quoque, ubi aut morbo gravis, aut jam segnior 
annis 99 

Deficit, abde domo; neo turpi ignosce senectae. 
Frigidus in Yenerem senior, frostraque laborem 
Ingratum trahit , et, si quando ad proelia yentum eet^ 
Ut quondam in stipulis magnus sine viribus ignis^ 
Incassum furit. £rgo animos aevumque uotabis . 100 
Praecipue; hinc aiias artis, prolemque parentum, 
£t quis cuique doior victo, quae gloria palmae. 
Nonne vides, cum praecipiti certamine caropum 
Corripuere, ruuntque effusi carcere currus ; 
Cum spes arrectae juvenum, exsultantiaque haurit 105 
Corda pavor pulsans: illi instant verbere torto, 
£t proni dant lora j volat vi fervidus axis j 
Jamque humiles, jamque elati sublime videntur 
Aera per vacuum ferri atque adsurgere in auras; 
Nec mbra, nec requies; at fulvae nimbus arenae 110 
Toliitur; humescunt spumis flatuque sequentum : 
Tantus amor laudum, tantae est victoria curae. 
Primus £richtbonius currus et quatuor ausus 
Jungere equos, rapidusque rotis insistere victor. 
Frena Pelethronii Lapitnae gyrosque dedere, 115 

Impositi dorso, atque equitem docuere sub armis 
Insultare solo et gressus glomerare superbos. 
Aequus uterque labor , aeque juvenemque magistri 
£xquirunt caiidumque animis et cursibus acrem ; 
Quamvis saepe fuga versos ille egerit hostis, 120 

£t patriam £pirum referat fortisque Mycenas, 
Neptunique ipsa deducat origine gentem. 

His animadversis instant sub tempus, et omnis 
Impendunt curas denso distendere pingui^ 
Quem legere ducem et pecori dixere mantum ; 125 

Florentisque sei^ant herbas, Auviosque ministrant 

- tlBM tth 

Farraqne, ne biando nequeat snperesse latjori, 

Invalidique patrura referant jejunia nati. 

Ipsa autem macie tenuant armenta volentes, 

Atque, ubi concubitus primos jam nota voluptaa 130 

Soliicitat, frondesque neganL et fontibus arcent; 

Saepe etiam cnrsu quatiunt, et sole fattgant, 

CuiTgniviter tansis\emit area frugibu^ et cnm 

Surgentem ad Zephyrum paleae jaetantur inanes. 

Ho& faciunt, nimio ne luxu obiunsior usus 135 

Sit genitali arvo, et sulcos oblimet inertis; 

Sed rapiat sitiens Venerem interiusque recondat. 

Rnrsus cura patrum cadere, et succedere matram 
Incipit. Exactis gravidae cum mensibus errant, 
Non ilkis gravibus quisquam juga ducere plaustris, 140 
Non saltu superare viam sit passus, et acri 
Carpere prata fnga, fluviosque innare rapaces. 
Saltibus in vacuis pascunt et plena secundum 
Fiumina; muscus ubi et viridissima gramine ripa, 
Speluncaeque tegant, et saxea procubet umbra. 145 

£st lucos Silari circa ilicibusque virentem 
Plurimus Alburnum volitans— -cui nomen asilo 
Romanum est, oestrum Graii vertere vocantes — 
Asper, acerba sonans ; quo tota exterrita silvis 
Dinugiunt armenta : furit mugitibus aether 150 

Concussus siivaeque et sicci ripa Tanagri. 
Hoc quondam monstro horribiies exercuit iras 
Inachiae Juno pestem meditata juvencae. 
Hunc quoque — nam mediis fervoribus acrior instat— 
Arcebis gravido pecori, armentaque pasces 155 

Sole recens orto, aut noctem ducentibus astris. 

Post partum cura in vitulos traducitur omnis; 
Continuoque notas et nomina gentis inurunt, 
£t, quos aut pecori malint submittere habendo, 
Aut aris servare sacros, aut scindere terram, 160 

Et campum horrentem fractis invertere glebis. 
Cetera pascuntur viridis armenta per herbas. 
Tu quos ad studium atqne usum formabis agrestera, 
Jam vitulos hortare, viamque insiste domandi, 
Dum faciles animi juvenum, dum mobilis aetas. 165 

Ac primum laxos tenui de vimine circlos 
Cervici subnecte ; dehinc, ubi libera colla 
Servitio adsuerint, ipsis e torquibus aptos 
Jnnge pares, et coge gradum conferre juvencos: 
Atque illis jam saepe rotae ducantur inanes 170 


157-178. The rearing and training of oxen. 

M OBomoiooN. 

Per terimm, et snmmo Testigia pulTere sigDent ; 
Post valido nitens sub pondere faginas axis 
Instrepat, et junctos temo trahat aerens orbiib 
Interea piibi indomttae non gramina tantum, 
Nec veBcas salicum frondes ulvamque palustremi 17f 
Sed frumenta manu carpes sata. Nec tibi fetae, 
More patrum, ni?ea implebunt mulctmria vaccae, 
Sed tota in dulcis consument uberajiatos. 

Sin ad bella magis studium turmasque ferocis. 
Aut Alphea rotis praelabi flumina Pisae, 180 

£t Jovis in luco currus agitare volantis : 
Primus equi labor est animos atque arma videre 
Bellantum, lituosqne pati, tractuque gementem 
Ferre rotam, et stabulo frenos audire sonantis; 
Tum magis atque magis blandis gaudere magistrt 180 
Laudibus, et plausae sonitum cerviois amare. 
Atque haec jam primo depulsus ab ubere matris 
Audeat, inque vicem det mollibus ora capistris 
Invalidus, etianoque tremens, etiam inscius aevL 
At tribus exactis ubi quarta accesserit aestas^ ^ 190 

Carpere mox gyrum incipiat gradibusque sonaro 
Compositis, sinuetque alterna volumina crurum, 
Sitque laboranti similis ; tum cursibus auras, 
Tum vocet;^ ac per aperta volans, ceu liber habenis. 
Aequora, vix summa vestigia ponat arena : 195 

Qualis Hyperbordis Aquilo cnm densus ab oris 
Incubuit, Scythiaeque hiemes atque arida differt 
Nubila : tum segetes altae campique natantes 
Lenibus horrescunt flabris, summaeque sonorem 
Dant silvae^ longique urguent ad litora fluctus; 200 

Hle volat, simul arva fuga, simul aequora verrens 
Hic vel ad Elei metas et maxima campi 
Sudabit spatia^ et spumas aget ore cruentas; 
Belgica vel molli melius feret esseda collo. 
Tum demum crassa magnum farragine corpus 205 

Crescere, jam domitis, sinito ; namque ante domandum 
Ingentis tollent animos, prensique negabunt 
Verbera lenta pati, et duris parere lupatis. 

Sed non ulla magis vires industria firmat, 
Quam Venerem et caeci stimulos avertere amoris, 210 
Sive boum sive est cui grati«r usus equorum. 
Atque ideo tauros procul atque in sola relegant 
Pascua, post montem oppositum et trans flumina lata 

179-908. The rearing and trainuig of horses.— 209-283. Tfei 
elTects of love on animals. 


Aut intus clausos satura ad praesepia senrant. 

Carpit enim vires paullatim uritque videndo 215 

Femina ; nec neraorum patitur meminisse, nec herbae. 

Dulcibus illa quidem illecebris et saepe superbos 

Cornibus inter se subigit decernere amantis. 

— Pascitur in magna SiJa formosa juvenca — 

Illi alternantes multa vi proelia miscent 220 

Yulneribus crebris ; lavit ater corpora sanguis, 

Yersaqne in obnixos urguentur cornua vasto 

Cum gemitu ; reboant silvaeque et longus Olympus. 

Nec mos bellantis una stabulare; sed alter 

Yictus abit, longeque ignotis exsulat oris, 225 

Multa gemens ignominiam plagasque superbi 

Yictoris; tum, quos amisit inultus, amores^ 

£t stabula adspectans regnis excessit avitis. 

Ergo omni cura vires exercet, et inter 

Dura jacet pernox instrato saxa cubili, 230 

Frondibus hirsutis et carice pastus acuta, 

£t tentat sese, atque irasci in comua discit 

Arboris obnixus trunco, ventosque iaoessit 

Ictibus, et sparsa ad pugnam proludit arena. 

Post, ubi collectum robur viresque refecCae, 235 

Signa movet, praecepsque oblitum fertur in hostem ', 

Fluctus uti medio coepit cum albescere ponto, 

Longius ex altoque sinum trahit; utque volutus 

Ad terras iramane.sonat per saxa, neque ipso 

Monte minor procumbit ; at ima exaestuat unda 240 

Yerticibus, nigramque alte subjectat arenam. 

Omne adeo genus in torris hominumque ferarumque| 
£t genus aequoreum, pecudes, pictaeque volucres, 
In Hirias ignemque ruunt : amor omnibus idem. 
Tempore non alio catulorum oblita leaena 245 

Saevjor erravit campis, nec funera vulgo 
Tam muita informes nrsi stragemque dedere 
Per siivas; tum saevus aper, tum pessima tigris. 
HeUj male tum Libyae solis erratur in agris. 
Nonne vides, ut tota tremor pertentet equorum 250 

Corpora, si tantunLnotas odor attulit auras? 
Ac neque eos jam frena virum, neque verbera saeva, 
Non scopuli rupesque cavae atque objecta retardant 
Flumina, correptos unda torquentia montis. 
Ipse rnit dentesque Sabellicus exacuit sus, 
£t pede prosubigit terram, fricat arbore costaSi 
Atque hinc atque illinc humeros ad vulnera durat. 
Quid juvenis, magnum cui veraat in ossibus igpdem 

» I 


Duras amorl Nempe abrnptis turbata procellia 
Nocte natat caeca serus freta^ quem super ingens 2iA 
Porta tonat coeli, et soopnlis illisa reclamant 
Aequora; nec miseii pus^iint rovocare parentes, 
Nec moritura super crudeli fuuere virgo. 
. Quid lynces Bacchi variae, et genus acre luporum 

Atque canum ? quid, quae imbelles dant proelia cervi 1 266 
Scilicet ante omnis furor est insignis equarum ; 
Et mentem Venus ipsa dedit, quo tempore Glauci 
Potniades malis membra absumpsere quadrigae. 
Illas ducit amor trans Gargara transque sonantem 
Ascanium : superant montis et flumina tranant. 270 

Continuoque avidis ubi subdita flamma medullis,— 
Vere magis, quia vere calor redit ossibus — illae 
Ore omnes versae in Zephyrum stant rupibus altis, 
Exceptanque levis auras, et saepe sine uUis 
Conjugiis, vento gravidae — mirabile dictu — 275 

Saxa per et scopulos et depressas convallis 
Jpiffugiunt, — non, Eure, tuos, neque Solis ad ortus,— 
In Borean Caurumque, aut unde nigerrimus Auster 
Nascitur, et pluvio contristat frigore coelum. 
Hic demum, hippomanes vero quod nomine dicunt 280 
Pastores, lentum destillat ab inguine virus; 
Hippomanes, quod saepe malae legere novercae, 
Miscueruntque herbas et non innoxia verba. 

Sed fugit interea, fugit irreparabile tempus, 
Singula dum capti circumveclamur amore. 285 

Hoc satis armentis. Superat pars altera curae, 
Lanigeros agitare greges hirtasque capellas. 
Hic labor j hinc laudem fc^ies sperate coloni. 
Nec sum animi dubius, verbis ea vincere magnum 
Quam sit, et angustis hunc addere rebus honorem ; 290 
Sed me Parnassi deserta per ardua dulcis 
Raptat amor; juvat ire jugis, qua nulla priorum 
Castaliam molli devertitur orbita clivo. 
Nunc, veneranda Pales, magno nunc ore sonandum. 

Incipiens, stabulis edico in mollibus herbam 295 

Carpere ovis, dum mox frondosa reducitur aestas; 
Et multa duram stipula filicumque maniplis 
Sternere subter humum, glacies ne frigida laedat 
MoIIe pecus, scabiemque ferat turpisque podagras. 
Post, hinc digressus, jubeo frondentia capris 300 

284-299. Vireil, after some introductory remarks, gives directions 
for the care of sheep in winter. — ^300-317. Directions regarding ffoats» 
which, for aome parposes, he recommends as preferable to sheep. 


Arbnta stifficere et flayios praebere recentis, 

Et dtabula a ventis hiberno opponere soli 

Ad medium convecsa diem, cum frigidus olim 

Jam cadit extremoque irrorat Aquarius anno. 

Hae quoque non cura nobis leviore tuendae, 305 

Nec minor usus erit^ quamvis Milesia magno 

Vellera mutentur Tyrios incocta rubores : * 

Bensior hino soboles, hinc largi copia lactis. 

Quam magis exhansto spumaverit ubere mulctra, 

Laeta magis pressis manabunt flumina mammis. 310 

Nec minus interea barbas incanaque menta 

Cinyphii tondent hirci, setascjue comantis 

Usum in castrorum et miseris velamina nautis. 

F^untur vero silvas et summa Lycaei, 

Horrentisque rubos et amantis ardua dumos ; 815 

Atque ipsae memores redeunt in tecta, suosque 

Ducnnt, et gravido superant vix ubere limen. 

£rgo omni studio glaciem ventosque nivalis, 

Quo minor est illis curae mortalis egestas, 

Avertes, victumque feres et virgea laetus 320 

Pabula, nec tota claudes foenilia bruma. 

At vero, Zephyris cum laeta vocantibus aestas 
In saltus utrumque gregem atque in pascua mittet, 
Luciferi primo cum sidere frigida rura 
Carpamus, dum mane novum, dum gramina canent| 325 
£t ros in tenera pecori gratissimus herba. 
Inde, ubi quarta sitim coeli collegerit hora 
£t cantu querulae rumpent arbusta cicadae, 
Ad puteos aut alta greges ad stagna jubeto 
Currentem ilignis potare canalibus undam ; 330 

Aestibus at mediis umbrosam exquirere vallem, 
Sicubi magna Jovis antiquo robore quercus 
Ingentis tendat ramos, aut sicubi nigrum 
Ilicibus crebris sacra nemus accubet umbra; 
Tum tenuis dare rursys aquas, et pascere rursus 335 
Solis ad occasum, cum frigidus aera vesper 
Temperat, et saltus reficit jam roscida luna, 
Litoraque alcyonen resonant, acalanthida dumi. 

Quid tibi pastores Libyae, quid pascua versu 
Prosequar, et raris habitata mapalia tectisl 340 

Saepe diem noctemque et totum ex ordine mensem 
Pascitur itque pecus longa in deserta sine ullis 

318-321. Directions for the care of goats in winter. ~ 322-338. 
Directions regarding the summer pasturing of sheep and goats. — • 
919-348. The Nomadic tribes o^ Libya described. 


Hospitiis : tantam campi jacet. Omnia secum 
Armentarins Afer agit, tectumque Laremque 
Armaque Amyclaeumique oanem Cressamque phare- 
tram; 345 

Non secus ac patriis acer Romanus in armis 
Injnsto 8ub fasce viam cum carpit, et hosti 
. Ante exspectatum positis stat in agmine castris. 
At non, qua Scytniae gentes Maeotiaque unda, 
Turbidus et torquens flaventis Hister arenas, 350 

Quaque redit medium Rhodope porrecta «ub axem. 
Iliic clausa tenent stabulis armenta, nec ullae 
Aut herbae campo apparent, aut arbore frondes : 
Sed jacet aggeribus niveis informis et alto 
Terra geluTate, septemque adsurgit in ulnas; 355 

Seroper hiems, semper spirantes frigora Cauri. 
Tum Sol pallentis haud umquam discutit umbras : 
Nec cum invectus equis altum petit aethera, nec cam 
Praecipitem Oceani rubro larit aequore currum. 
Concrescunt subilae currenti in flumine crustae, 360 
Undaque jam tergo ferratos sustinet orbis, 
Poppibus illa prius, patulis nunc hosj)ita plaustris : 
Aeraque dissiliunt vulgo, vestesque rigescunt 
Indutae, caedunt(jue securibus humida vina, 
£t totae solidam in glaciem vertere lacunae ; 365 

Stiriaque impexis induruit horrida barbis. 
Interea toto non secius aere ninguit ; 
Intereunt pecudes, stant circumfusa pruinis 
Corpora magna boum, confertoque agmine cervi 
Torpent mole novaj et summis yix cornibus exstant. 370 
Hos non immissis canibus, non cassibus ullis 
Punicaeve agitant pavidos formidine pinnaO; 
Sed frustra oppositum trudentes ipecXore montem 
Comminus obtruncant ferro, graviterque rudentes 
Caedunt, et magno laeti clamore reportant. 375 

Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta 
Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora totasque 
Advolvere focis ulmos, ignique dedere. 
Hic nootem ludo ducunt, et pocula laeti 
Fermento atque acidis imitantur vitea sorbis. 380 

Talis Hyperboreo Septem subjecta trioni 
Gens effrena virum Rhipaeo tunditur Euro^ 
£t pecudum fulvis velatur corpora setis. 
Si tibi lanitium curae, primum, aspera silva 

349-383. The shepherd tribes of cold Scythia described. — 384 . 
393. Directions to those who cultivate sheep for the sake ot Um 


Lai^eque tribolique abeint ; fuge pabnla laeta ; 385 

Continuoque greges villis lege rooilibus albos. 

Illum autem, quamvis aries sit candidus ipse, 

Ni^ subest udo tantum cui lingua palato, 

Kejice, ne maculis infuscet vellera pullis 

Nascentum, plenoque alium circumspice campo. 3^ 

Munere sic niveo lanae, si credere dignum est, 

Pan, deus Arcadiae, captam te, Luna^ fefellit, 

In nemora alta vocans ; nec tu aspernata vocantem. 

At cui lactis amor, cytisum lotosque frequentis 
Ipse manu salsasque ferat praesepibus herbas. 395 

Hinc et amant fluvios magis, et magis ubera tendant| 
£t salis occultum referunt in lacte saporem. 
Mnlti jam excretos prohibent a matribus haedos, 
Primaque ferratis praefigunt ora capistris. 
Quod surgente die mulsere horisque diurniS) 400 

Nocte premunt; quod jam tenebris et sole cadente, 
Sub lucem exportans calathis adit oppida pastor; 
Aut parco sale contingunt hiemique reponunt. 

Nec tilti cura canum fuerit postrema, sed una 
Yelocis Spartae catulos acremque Molossum 405 

P^e sero pingui. Numquam, custodibus illis, 
Nocturnum stabulis furem incursusque luporumi 
Aut impacatos a tergo horrebis Hiberos. 
Saepe etiam cursu timidos agitabis onagros, 
£t canibus leporem, canibus venabere damas ] 410 

Saepe volutabris pulsos silvestribus apros 
Latratu turbabis agens, montisque per altos 
Ingentem clamore premes ad retia cervum. 

Disce et odoratam stabulis accendere cedrum, 
Galbaneoque agitare gravis nidore chelvdros. 415 

Saepe sub immotis praesepibus aut maia tactu 
Yipera delituit caelumque exterrita fugit ; 
Aut tecto adsuetus coluber succedere et umbrae, 
Pestis acerba boum, pecorique adspergere virus, 
Fovit hnmum. Cape saxa manU; cape robora, pastori 420 
Tollentemque minas et sibila colla tumentem 
Bejice. Jamque fuga timidum caput abdidit alte| 
Cum medii nexus extremaec^ue agmina caudae 
Solvunturi tardosque trahit smus ultimus orbis. 
£st etiam ille mains Calabris in saltibus anguisi 425 

Squamea convolvens sublato pectore terga, 

394-403. Directions to those who cuhivate sheep for the sake of 
tha milk. — 404-413. The care and uses of dogs. — 414-439. To 
beware of s^rpentcr. 

109 GEORGICOir. 

Atque notis longam inaculosu8 grandibus alvum, 
Qui, dum amnes ulli rumpuntur fontibus, et dum 
Vere madent udo terrae ac pluvialibus austris, 
Stagna colit, ripisque habitans hic piscibus atram 430 
Improbns ingluviem ranisque loquacibus explet ; 
Postquam exusta palus, terraeque ardore dehiscunt, 
Exsilit in siccum, et flammantia lumina torquens 
SaeTit agris; asperque siti atque exterritus aestu. 
Nec mihi tum mollis sub divo carpere somnos, 435 

Neu dorso nemoris libeat jacuisse per herbaS| 
Cum positis novus exuviis nitidusque juventa ^ 

Yolvitur, aut catulos tectis aut ova relinquens, 
Arduus ad solem, et linguis micat ore trisulcis. 

Morborum quoque te causas et signa docebo. 440 

Turpis ovis tentat scabies, ubi frigidus imber 
Altius ad vivum persedit et horrida cano 
Bruma gelu, vel cum tonsis illotus adhaesit 
Sudor, et hirsuti secuernnt corpora vepres. 
Dulcibus idcirco fluviis pecus omne magistri 445 

Perfundunt, udisque aries in gurgite villis * 
Mersatur, missusque secundo defiuit amni ; 
Aut tonsum tristi continguunt corpus amurca, 
£t spumas miscent argenti et sultura viva 
Idaeasque pices et pinguis unguine ceras 450 

Scillamque helleborosque gravis nigrumque bitumeu. 
Non tamen ulla magis praesens fortuna laborum est, 
Quam si quis ferro potuit rescindere summum 
Ulceris os : alitur vitium vivitque tegendo, 
Dum medicas adhibere manus ad vulnera pastor 455 
Abnegat, aut meliora deos sedet omina poscens. 
Quin etiam, ima dolor balantum lapsus ad ossa 
Cum furit, atque artus depascitur arida febris, 
Profuit incensos aestus avertere, et inter 
Ima ferire pedis salientem sanguine venam ', 460 

Bisaltae (][uo more solent acerque Gelonus, 
Cum fugit in Rhodopen atque m deserta Getarum, 
£t lac concretum cum sanguine potat equino. 
Quam procul aut molli succedere saepius umbrae 
Videris, aut summas carpentem ignavius herbas^ 465 
£xtreniamque sequi, aut medio procumbere campo 
Pascentem. et serae solam decedere nocti ; 
Contihuo culpam ferro compesce, priusquam 
Dira per incautum serpant contagia vulgus. 

440-463. The causes and cure of disease in sheep. — 464-473 
Tlie necMsity of promptness urged from the danger of infoction. 


Non tam creber agens hiemem ruit aequore turbo. 470 
Quam multae pecudum pestes. Nec singula morDi 
Corpora corripiunt, sed tota aestiva repente, 
Spemque gregemque simu), cunctamque ab origine 

Tum sciat, aerias Alpis et Norica si cjuis 
Castella in tumplis et lapydis arva Timavi 475 

- Nunc quoque post tanto videat, desertaque regna 
Pastorum, et longe saltus lateque vacantis. 

Hic quondam morbo coeli miseranda coorta est ^ 

Xempestas totoque autumni incanduit aestu, 
Et genus omne neci pecudum dedit, omne ferarumi 480 
Corrupitque lacus, infecit pabula tabo. 
Nec via mortis erat simplex ; sed ubi ignea venis 
Omnibus acta sitis miseros adduxerat artus^ 
Rursus abundabat fluidus liquor omniaque m se 
Ossa minutatim morbo collapsa trahebat. 485 

Saepe in honore deum medio stans hostia^d aramj 
Lanea dum nivea circumdatur infula vitta, 
Inter cunctantis cecidit moribunda ministros. 
Aut si quam ferro mactaverat ante sacerdoS) 
Inde neque impositis ardent altaria fibris, 490 

Nec responsa potest consultus reddere vates, 
Ac vix suppositi tinguuntur sanguine cultri, 
Summaque jejuna sanie infuscatur arena. 
Hmc laetis vituli vulgo moriuntur in herbis, 
Et dulcis animas plena ad praesepia reddunt ; 495 

Hinc canibus blandis rabies venit, et quatit aegros 
Tussis anhela sues ac faucibus angit obesis. 
Labitur infelix studiorum atque immemor herbae 
Yictor equus, fontesque avertitur et pede terram 
Crebraferit; demissae aures; incertus ibidem 500 

Sudor, et ille quidem morituris frigidus^ aret 
Pellis et ad tactum tractanti dura resistit. 
Haec ante exitium prirois dant signa diebus; 
Sin in processu coepit crudescere morbus, 
Tum vero ardentes oculi atque attractus ab alto 505 

Spiritus, interdum gemitu gravis, imaque longo ^ 
Ilia singultu tendunt, it naribus ater 

474-481. Introduction to a striking description of an autumnal 
epidemic amone cattle in the Noric Alps aDa its neighbourhood. — ' 
482-485. CompTicated nature of the disease. — 486-493. Its sudden 
^flfects on sheep. — 494, 495. Its sudden effects on heifers in the 
pasturea. — 496, 497. On dogs and swine. — 498-502. Comnience- 
ment of the disease in horses. — 503-514. Progress of the disease 


Sanguis, et obsessas fauces premit aspera lingna. 
Profuit inserto latices infundere cornu 
Lenaeos^ ea visa salus morientibus una. 510 

Mox erat hoc ipsum exitio, furiisque refecti 
Ardebant, ipsique suos jam morte sub aegra — 
Di meliora piis, erroremque hostibus illum ! — 
Discissos nudis laniabant dentibus artus. 
Ecce autem duro fumans sub vomere taurus 515 

Concidit et mixtum spumis yomit ore cruorem 
Extremosque ciet gemitus. It tristis arator, 
Moerentem abjungens fraterna morte juvencnm, 
Atque opere in medio defixa relinquit aratra. 
Non umbrae altorum nemorum, non mollia possunt 520 
Prata movere animum; nou; qui per saxa volutus 
Purior electro campum petit amnis ', at ima 
Solvuntur latera, atque oculos stupor urguet inertis, 
Ad terramque fluii devexo pondere cervix. 
Quid labor aut benefacta juvant? quid vomereterras 525 
Invertisse gravis? Atqui non Massica Bacchi 
Munera, non illis «pulae nocuere repostae : 
Frondibus et victu pascuntur simplicis herbae, 
Pocula sunt fontes liquidi atque exercita cursu 
Flumina, nec somnos abrumpit cura salubris. 530 

Tempore non alio dicunt regionibus iliis 
Quaesitas ad sacra boves JunoniS) et uris 
Imparibus ductos alta ad donaria currus. 
Ergo aegre rastris terram rimantur, et ipsis 
Unguibus infodiunt fruges, montisque per altos 535 

Contenta cervice trahunt stridentia plaustra. 
Non lupus insidias explorat ovilia circum, 
Nec gregibus nocturnus obambulat ; acrior illum 
Cura domat. Trniidi damae cervique fugaces 
Nunc interque canes et circum tecta vagantur. 540 

Jam maris immensi prolem et genus omne natantum 
Litore in extremo, ceu naufraga corpora, fluctus 
Proluit ; insolitae fugiunt in flumina phocae. 
Interit et curvis frustra defensa latebris 
Vipera, et attoniti squamis adstantibus hydri. 545 

Ipsis est aer avibus non aequus, et illae 
Praecipites alta vitam sub nube relinquunt. 
Praeterea jam nec mutari pabula refert, 

615-530. SufTerings of the innocent steers at work. — 531-536. 
Hardships imposed on the people. — 537-547. Other animals ex- 
perienced the evil effects ot the diseasc— 548-550. AU remedies 
were unavaiUng. 


^ LIBER 'V. 106 

Quaesitaeqne nocent artes; cessere magistri, 
Phillyrides Chiron Amythaoniusque Melampus. 650 

Saevit, et in lucem Stygiis emissa lenebris, * . 
Pallida Tisiphone Morbos agit ante Metumque, 
Inque dies avidum surgens caput altius effert. 
Balatu pecorum et crebris mugitibus amnes 
Arentesque sonant ripae collesque supini. 555 

Jamque catervatim dat stragem atque aggerat ipsis 
In stabulis turpi dilapsa cadavera tabo, 
Donec humo tegere ac foveis abscondere discunt. 
Nam neque erat coriis usus, nec viscera quisquam 
Aut undis abolere potest, ant vincere flamma ; 560 

Ne tondere quidem morbo inluvieque peresa 
Yellera, nec telas possunt attingere putris. 
Yemm etiam invisos si quis tentarat amictus, 
Ardentes papulae atque immundus olentia sudor 
Membra sequebatnr, nec longo deinde moranti 565 

Tempore contactos artus sacer ignis edebat. 

551-566. Fearful havoc made by the pestiience, and its pernicious 
effects on the animal system. 


Tbk care of bees ibrms the subject of the fourth Book of the 
Georgics, which begins with an address to Maecenas, stating 
the argument, 1—7. The choice of a place fii for bees (8—24), 
and what should be done to render it advantageous (25—32) 
are then discussed. Directions are given as to the hives, 33— 
46. Certain things to be avoided, 47—50. How to induce 
4hem to settle when they issue forth in early spring, 51-66 
What to do when they fight under rival kings, 67-94. De 
scription of the best kind of l>ees, 95-102. How to keep them 
at home when in an unsettled state, 103—115. A brief allu- 
8i<m to fiower-gardeos, 116-124. A description of ground, 
otherwise useless, profitable as a garden, 125—148. The na- 
ture of bees described generally, 149-167. Their ceaseless 
and varied employments, 168-178. The work bf the aged, 
178, 179. The work of the young, 180-188. Their night re- 
pose, 189, 190. Their employment when rain threatens, 191- 
196. Their mode of producing young bees, 197-209. Their 
devotion to their king, 210—218. Inference drawn by some 
pbilosophers from the nature of bees, 219—227. How to pro- 
e«ed when their honey is desired, 228-238. rrecautiom 


agaiast vermin duTing winter recommended, 239-250. Dis 
eases ofbees, and their remedies, 251-280. If the swarm of 
bees has died.out, a metbod of replacing them, from the putri* 
fied carcase of a heifer, mentioned as universal in Egypt, and 
first practised by Aristaeus, 281-294. This method described, 
295-314-. Tbe origin of it detailed, 315-558. General con- 
clusion to the Georgics, 559-566. 

pROTENUs aerii mellis caelestia dona 

Exsequar. Hanc etiam, MaecenaS) aspice partem. 

Admiranda tibi levium spectacula renim, . 

Magnanimosque duces, totiusque ordine gentis 

Mores, et studia, et populos, et proelia dicam. 5 

In tenui labor ; at tenuis non gloria, si quem 

Numina laeva sinunt auditque vocatus ApoIIo. 

Principio sedes apibus statioque petenda, 
Quo neque sit ventis aditus — nam pabula venti 
Ferre domum prohibent — neque oves haedique petulci 10 
Floribus insultent, aut errans bucula campo 
Decutiat rorem, et surgentis atterat berbas. 
Absint et picti squalentia terga lacerti 
Pinguibus a stabulis, meropesque, aliaeque volucres, 
£t manibus Procne pectus signata cruentis; 15 

Omnia nam late vastant, ipsasaue volantis 
Ore feruut dulcem nidis inmitious escam. 
At liquidi fontes et stagna virentia musco 
Adsint, et tenuis fugiens per gramina rivus, 
Palmaque veslibulum aut ingens oleaster inumbret, tO 
Ul, cum prima novi ducent examina reges 
Vere suo, ludetque favis emissa juventus, 
Vicina invitet decedere ripa calori, 
Obviaque hospitiis teneat frondentibus arbos. 
In medium, seu stabit iners, seu profluet humor| 25 

Transversas salices et grandia conjice saxa, 
Pontibus ut crebris possint consistere, et alas 
Pandere ad aeslivum solem, si forte morantis 
Sparserit aut praeceps Neptuno immerserit Eurus. 
Haec circum casiae virides et olentia lale 30 

Serpylla et graviter spirantis copia thymbrae 
Floreat, irriguumque bibant violaria fontem. 

Ipsa autem, seu corticibus tibi suta cavatis, 

1-7. The care of bees forms the subject of this book, which be 
gins with an address to Maecenae, statmg the argument. — ■'9-24. A 
place suitable for bees should be chosen. «-25-32. What shoald l>e 
done to rcnder the place advantageous. — 33-46. Directions regard 
ing the hires. 

LIBER lY. 107 

Seu lento faerint alvearia vimine t6xta, 

Angustos habeant aditus : nam frigore mella 35 

Cogit hiems, eaderaque calor liquefacta remittit. 

Utraque vis apibus pariter metuenda j neque illae 

Nequidquam in tectis certatim tenuia cera 

Spiramenta linunt, fucoque et floribus oras 

Explentj collectumque haec ipsa ad munera gluten 40 

Et visco et Phijgiae sei-vant pice lentius Idae. 

Saepie etiam em)ssis, si vera est fama, iatebris 

Sublerra fovere larem, penitusque repertae 

Pumicibusque cavis exesaeque arboiis antro. 

Tu tamen e levi rimosa cubiiia limo 45 

Ungue fovens circum, et raras superinjice frondis. 

Neu propius tectis taxum sine, neve rubentis 

Ure mco cancros, altae neu crede paludi, 

Aut ubi odor caeni gravis, aut ubi concava pulsu 

Saxa sonant vocisque ofTensa resultat imago. 50 

Quod superest, ubi pulsam hiemem Soi aureus egit 
Sub terras, coelumque aestiva luce reclusit, 
Illae continuo saltus silvasque peragrant, 
Purpureosque metunt floreS} et flumina libant 
Summa leves. Hinc nescio qua dulcedine laetae * 55 
Progeniem nidosque fovent, hinc arte recentis 
Excudunt ceras et mella tenacia fingunt. 
Hinc ubi jam emissum caveis ad sidera coeli 
Nare per aestatem liquidam suspexeris agmen, 
Obscuramque trahi vento miiabere nubem, 60 

Contemplator : aquas dulcis et frondea semper 
Tecta petunt. Huc tu jussos adsperge sapores, 
Trita melisphylla et cerinthae ignobile gramen, 
Tinnitusque cie et Matris quate cymbala circum: 
Ipsae consident medicatis sedibus; ipsae 65 

Intima more suo sese in cunabula condent. 

Sin autem ad pugnam exierint — nam saepe duobus 
Regibus incessit magno discordia motu ; 
Continuoque animos volgi et trepidantia bello 
Corda licet longe praesciscere ; namque morantis 70 
Martius ille aeris rauci canor increpat, et vox 
Auditur fractos sonitus imilata tubarum ; 
Tum trepidae inter se coeunt. pennisque coruScant, 
Spiculaque exacuunt rostris, aptantque lacertos, 
£t circa regem atque ipsa ad praetoria densae 75 

47-50. Certain things to be avoided. — 51-66. How to induce the 
bees to settle when thev issue forth in early spring. 67 -94. Wh«« 
t0 do when the bees fight under rival kings. 


Mittcentur, magnisqae vocant clamoribos hostem. 

£rgo ubi ver nactae sodum camposque natentis, 

Erumpont portis: concurritur; aethere m alto 

Fit 8onitus ; magnum mixtae glomerantur in orbem| 

Praecipitesque (»dunt ; non densior aere grando, S$ 

Nec de concussa tantum pluit ilice glandis. 

Ipsi per medias acies insignibus alis 

Ingentis animos angusto in pectore versant, 

Usque adeo obnixi non cedere, dum gravis aut hos 

Aut hos versa fuga victor dare terga subegit. — 85 

Ui motus animorum atque haec certamina tanta 

Pulveris exigui jactu compressa quiescunt. 

Verum ubi ductores acie revocaveris ambo, 
Deterior qui visus, enm, ne prodigns obsit, 
Dede neci ; melior vacua sine regnet in aula. 90 

Alter erit maculis auro scjualentibus ardens; 
Nam duo sunt genera; hic melior, insignis et ore| 
£t rutilis clarus squamis^ ille horridus alter 
Desidia latamque trahens inglorios alvum. 

Ut binae regum facies, ita corpora plebis. 95 

Namque aliae turpes horrent, ceu pulvere ab alto 
Cum venit et sicco terram spuit ore viator 
Aridus ; elucent aliae et fulgore coruscant, / 
Ardentes auro et paribus lita corpora guttis. 
Haec potior suboles; hinc coeli tempore certo 100 

Dulcia mella premes, nec tantum dulcia, quantum 
£t liquida et durum Baochi domitura saporem. 

At cum incerta volant caeloque examma ludunt, 
Contemnuntque favos et frigida tecta relinquunt, 
Instabilis animos ludo prohibebis inani. 105 

Nec magnus prohibere iabor : tu regibus alas 
£ripe; non illis quisquam cunctantibus altum 
Ire iter aut castris audebit vellere signa. 
Invitent croceis halantes floribus horti, 
£t custos fnrum atque avium cum falce saligna 110 

Hellespontiaci servet tutela Priapi. 
Ipse thymum pinosque ferens de montibus altis 
Tecta serat late circum; cui talia curae ; 
Ipse labore manum duro terat, ipse feracis 
Figat numo plantas et amicos irriget imbris. .115 

Atque equidem, extremo ni jam sub fine laboram 
Vela traham et terris festinem advertere proram, 

95-102. Description of the best kind of bees. — 103-115. How tc 
ceep them at home when in an unsettled state. — 116-124. A brief 
allusion to gardens. 


Forsitaa et, pingtiis hortos quae cum colendi 

Omaret, canerem, biferique rosaria Paesti, 

Quoque modo potis gauderent intuba rivis 120 

£t virides apio ripae, tortusque per herbam 

Cresceret in ventrem cucumis; nec sera comftTitem 

Naroissum aut flexi tacuissem Timen acanthi, 

Pallentisque hederas et amantis litora myrtos. 

Namque sub Oebaliae memini me tnrribus altis, 125 

Qua niger humectat flaveniia cnha GalaesuS; 

Coryciom yidisse senem, cui panca relicti 

Jugera ruris erant, nec fertilis illa juvencis, 

Nec pecori opportuna seges, nec commoda Baccho. 

Hic rarum tamen in dumis olus albaque circum 130 

Liha verbenasqne premens vescnmqoe papaver, 

Regnm aequabat opes animo, seraque revertens 

Nocte domum dapibus mensas onerabat inemptis. 

Primus vere rosam, atque auctumno carpere poma, 

£t cura tristis hiems etiamnum frigore saxa 135 

Rumperet et glacie cursus frenaret aquarum, 

lUe comam mollis jam tondebat hyacinthi, 

Aestatem increpitans seram zephyrosque morantis. 

£rgo apibus fetis idem atque examine multo 

Primns abutidare, et spumantia cogere pressis 140 

Mella favis; iili tiliae atque uberrima pinus^ 

Quotque in flore novo pomis se fertilis arbos 

Induerat, totidem autumno matura tenebat. 

Ille etiam seras in versum distulit ulmos, 

£duramque pirum, et spinos jam pruna ferentis, 145 

Jamque ministrantem plataiium potantibus umbras. 

Verum haec ipse equidem spatiis exclusus iniquis 

Praetereo, atque aliis post me memoranda relinquo. 

Nunc age, naturas apibus quas Juppiter ipse 
Addidit, expediam, pro qua mercede, canoros 150 

Curetom sonitus crepitantiaque aeA secntae, 
Dictaeo caeli Regem pavere sob antro. 
Solae communis natos. consortia tecta 
Urbis habent, magnisque agitant sub legibus aevum, 
£t patriam solae et certos novere penatis; 155 

Venturaeque hiemis memores aestate lat>orem 
£xperiuntur, et in medium qnaesita reponunt. 
Namque aliae victu invigilant et foedere pacto 

£xercentur agris ; pars intra septa domorum 

- . 

125~148. A description of ground, otherwise useless, profitable 
M • nrden. '— 149-157. The peculiar nature of bee« aescribc<} 
{«oerally. — 158-178. Their ceaseless and varied employments. 

10 GBORGlCOlf. 

Narcissi lacrimam et lentom de cortice g]nteD| 160 

Prima favis ponunt fundamina, deinde tenacis 

Suspendunt ceras; aliae, spem gentii}, adultos 

Educunt fetus ; aliae purissima meMa 

Stipant et liquido distenJunt nectare cellas. 

Sunt, quibus ad portas cecidit custodia sorti, 165 

Inque vicem speculantur aquas et nubila caeli, 

Aut onera accipiunt venientum, aut, agmine facto 

Ignavum fucos pecus a praesepibus arcent ; 

Fervet opus, redolentque thymo fragrantia mella. 

Ac veluti, lentis Cyclopes fulmina massis 170 

Cum properant, alit taurinis folltbus auras 

Accipiunt redduntque, alii stridentia tinguunt 

Aera lacu; gemit impositis incudibus Aetna; 

Illi inter sese magna vi brachia tolhuit 

In numerum, versantque tenaci forcipe ferrum: 175 

Non aliter, si parva licet componere magnis, 

Cecropias iiuiatus apes amor urguet habendi| 

Munere quamque suo. Grandaevis oppida curae, 

£t munire favus, et daedala fingere tecta. 

At fessae multa referunt se nocte minores, 180 

Crura thymo plenae; pascuntur et arbuta passim 

£t glaucas salices casiamque crocumque rut>entem 

£t pinguem tiliam et furrugineos hyacinthos. 

Omnibus una quies operum, labor omnibus unus. 

Mane ruunt portis; nusquam mora; rursus easdem 185 

Vesper ubi e pastu tandem decedere campis 

Admonuit, tum tecta petunt, tum corpora curant; 

Fit sonitus, mussantque oras et limina circum. 

Post, ubi jam thalamis se composuere, siletur 

In noctem, fessosque sopor suus occupat artns. 190 

Nec vero a stabulis, pluvia impendente, recedunt 

Longius, aut credunt coelo adventantibus £uris; 

Sed circum tuta^ sub moenibus urbis aquantur, 

£xcursusque brevis tentant, et saepe lapillos, 

Ut cymbae instabiles, fluctu jactante, saburram, 195 

Tollunt — his sese per inania nubila librant. 

Illum adeo placuisse apibus mirabere morem, 
Quod neque concubitu iiidulgent^ nec corpora segneB 
In Venerem solvunt, aut fetus nixibus edunt; 
Verum ipsae e foiiis natos et suavibus herbis 200 

Ore legunt, ipsae regem parvosque Quirites 

178. 179. The work of the aged. — 180-188. The work of the 
young. — 189, 190. Their night repose. — 191-196. Theiremploy 
ment when rain threatens. — 197-209. Their mode of producinf 
yoong bees 

UBER 17. 111' 

Snfficiunt, aulasqae et cerea regna refingnnt. 

Saepe etiam duris errando in cotibus alas 

Attrivere, ultroque animam sub fasce dedere: 

Tantus amor florum et generandi gloria mellis* 205 

Ergo ipsas quamvis angusti t^rminus aevi 

Excipiat — neque enim plus septima ducitur aestas — 

At genus immortale manet, multosque per annos 

Stat fortuna domus, et avi numerantur avorum. 

Praeterea, regem non sic Aegyptus et ingens - 210 

Lydia, nec populi Parthorum aut Medus Hydaspes 

Observant. Rege incolumi, mens omnibus una est ; 

Amisso, rupere fidem, constmctaque meUa 

Diripuere ipsae, et crates solvere lavorum. 

Ille operum custos, illum admirantur, et omnes 215 

Circumstant fremitu denso, stipantque frequentes, 

£t saepe attollunt humeris, et corpora bello 

Objectant, pulchramque petunt per vuinera mortem. 

His quidam signis, atque haec exempla secuti, 
£sse apibus partem divinae mentis et haustus 220 

Aetherios dixere ; deum namque ire per omnis 
Terrasque tractusqne maris coelumque profundum ; 
Hinc pecudes, armenta, viros, genus omne ferarum, 
Quemqne sibi tenuis nascentem arcessere vitas; 
Seilicet huc reddi deinde ac resoluta referri 225 

Omnia, nec morti esse locum ; sed viva volare 
Sideris in numerum atque alto succedere caelo. 

Si quando sedem angustiim servataque mella 
Thesauris relines, prius haustu pparsus aquarum 
Ora fove, fumosque manu praetende sequacis. 230 

Bis gravidos cogunt fetus, duo tempora messis, 
Taygete simul os terris ostendit honestum 
Plias et Oceani spretos pede repulit amnis, 
Aut eadem sidus fugiens ubi Piscis aquosi 
Tristior hibernas caelo descendit in undas. 235 

Illis ira modum supra est^ laesaeque venenum 
Morsibus inspirant, et spicula caeca relinquunt 
Affixae venis, animasque in volnere ponunt. 

Sin duram metues hiemem parcesque futuro 
Contunsosque animos et res miserabere fractas, 240 

At suffire thymo, cerasque recidere inanis, 
Quis dubitet ? nam saepe favos ignotus adedit 
Stellio, et lucifugis congesta cubiiia bluttis, 

210-218. Their devotion to their king [queen] . — 219-227. Infer 
•ooe drawn by some philoaophers from tne nature of bees. — 228 
S38. How to proceed when their honey is desired. — 239^250. Fro 
caotionB against vermin during winter recommended. 

l\i Gsimoi€Oir« 

Immunisque «edens alieoa ad pabnk fneiu; 
Aut asper crabro imparibua se immiscuit armii| 245 

Aut (lirum, tiniae, genus, aut invisa Minervae 
Laxos in foribus suspemiit aranea casses. 
, Quo magis exhaustae fiyrint, hoc acrius omnes 
Iiicumbent generis lapsrsarcire ruinas, 
Complebuntque foros et floribus horrea texent. . 250 

Si yero, quoniam casus apibus quoque nostros 
Vita tulit, tristi ]anguebunt corpora morbo — 
Quod jam non dubiis poteris cognoscere signis: / 
Continuo est aegris aJius color ', horrida voltum 
Deformat macies j tum corpora luce carentum 255 

Exportant tectis et tristia funera ducunt ; 
Aut illae pedibus connexae ad limina pendent, 
Aut intus clausis cunctantur in aedibus, omnes > 
Ignavaeque fame et contracto frigore pigrae. 
Tum sonus auditur gravior, tractimque susurrant ; 260 
Frigidus ut quondam siivis immurmurat Auster, 
Ut mare solhcitum stridit refluentibus undis, 
Aestuat ut clausis rapidus fornacibus ignis — 
Hic jam galbaneos suadebo incendere odores, 
Mellaque arundineis inferre canalibus, uhro 265 

Hortantem et fessas ad pabula nota vocantem 
Proderit et tunsum gallae admiscere saporem 
Arentisque rosas, aut igni pinguia roulto 
Defruta, vel Psithia passos de vite racemos 
Cecropiumque thymum et grave olentia centaurea. 270 
Est etiam nos in pratis, cui nomen amello 
Fecere agricolae, facilis quaerentibus herba; 
Namque uno ingentem tollit de cespite silvam) 
Aureus ipse, sed in foliis, quae pluruna circum 
Funduntur, violae sublucet purpura nigrae ; 275 

Saepe deum nexis omatae torquibus arae ; 
Asper in ore sapor; tonsis in vallibus illum 
Pastores et curva legunt prope flumina MeUae. 
Hujus odorato radices incoque Baccho, 
Pabulaque in foribus plenis adpone canistris. 280 

Sed 81 quem proles subito defecerit omnis. 
Nec, genuB unde novae stirpis revocelur, habebit, 
Tempus et Arcadii memoranda inventa magislri 
Pandere, quoque modo caesis jam saepe juvencis 
Insincerus apes tulerit cruor. Altius omnem 285 

' ' ■ — — ~ — 

251-280. rfiseases of bees, and their remedies. — 281-294. If tfae 
Bwarm of bees has died out, a raethod of replacin^ them firom the 
puttified carcase of 'a beifer, mentioned as bemg universal in Egypt, 
and first practised by Aristaeus. 

LiBER iT. iiar 

Expediam prima repetens ab origine famam. 

Nam, qaa Pellaei gens fortunata Canopi 

Accolit effuso stagnantem flumine Nilum, 

£t circum pictis yehitur sua rura phaselis, 

Qnaque pharetratae yicinia ^ersidis urgnet, 290 

£t diyersa ruens septem discurrit in ora 

Usque coloratis amnis devexus ab Indis, 

£t viridem Aegyptum nigra fecundat arena, 

Omnis iii hac certam regio jacit arte salutem. 

£xiguus primum, atque ipsos oontractus ad usus, 29S 

£ligitur locus; hunc angnstique imbrice tecti 

Parietibusque premunt arctis, et quatuor addunt, 

Quatuor a ventis, obiiqua luce fenestras. 

Tum vitulus bima curvans jam cornua fronte 

Quaeritur; huic geminae nares et spiritus oris 300 

Multa reluctanti obstruitur, plagisque perempto 

Tunsa per integram solvuntur viscera pellem. 

Sic positum in clauso liquunt, et ramea costis 

Subjiciunt fragmenta, tn^mum; casiasque recentis. 

Hoc geritur Zephyris pnmum impellentibus undas, 305 

Ante novis rubeant quam prata coloribus. ante 

Garrula quam tignis nidum suspendat hirundo. 

Interea teneris tepefactus in ossibus humor 

Aestnat, et visenda modis animalia miris, 

Trunca pedum primo, mox et stridentia pennis, 310 

Miscentur, tenuemque nyigis magis aera carpunt, 

Donec, ut aestivis effusus nubibus imber, 

£rupere, aut ut, nervo pulsante, sagittae, 

Prima leves ineunt si quando proelia Parthi. 

Qnis Deus banc, Musae, quis nobis extudit artem 1 315 
Unde nova ingressus hominum experientia cepit? 

Pastor Aristaeus fugiens Peneia Tempe, 
Amissis, ut fama, apibus morboque fameque, 
Tristis ad extremi sacrum caput adstitit amnis, 
Multa querens, atque hac affatus voce parentem : 320 
* Mater, Cyrene mater, quae gurgitis hujus 
Ima tenes, quid me praeclara stirpe deorum — 

^ < 

295-314. This method described. — 315-558. The origin of it de- 
tailed. — 317. Aristaeus, a rural god, worshipped in Arcadia, Thes- 
•aly, and Boeotia, was the son of Apollo and Cyrene. Fugiens ; 
he fled from Tempe, at the mouth of the river, where he usually 
dwelt, and sought the source. Tmpe, a valley celebrated for its 
pietoresque beauty, situated in Thessaly, between the roountains 
Oiympus and Ossa, watered by the Feneiis (Peneia). — 319. Caput, 
§aaB. See ver. 368. Amnit, the Peneus. 3ee ver. 355. — 321. 
Cffrene, Daughter, or granddaughter, of Peneus, the river-god. 
10* £ 

1 14 oEOReicoir. 

Si modo, qoem perhrfoes, pater est Tli^nnbmeus ApoUo— 

Invisum fatis genuisti ? aut quo tibi nostri 

Pulsus amor? quid me coelom sperare jobebast 325 

En etiam huuc ipsum ritae mortalis honorem; 

Quem mihi vix frugum #t pecodum custodia soUera 

Omnia tentanti extuderat, te matre, relinquo. 

Quin age, et ipsa mann felicis erue siivas, 

Fer stabuiis inimicnm ignem atque interfice meseisi 330 

Ure sala, et validam in ritis molire bipennem, 

Tanta meae si te ceperunt taedia laudis.' 

At mater sonitum thalamo sub fluminis alti 
Sensit £am circum Milesia Tellera Nymphae 
Carpebant, hvali satnro fucata colore, 335 

Drymoque, Aanthoqne, Ligeaque, PhvUodoceqae, 
Caesariem eflusae nitidam per candida colla 
Nesaee, Spioque, Thaliaque, Cymodoceque, 
Cydippeque et flava Lycorias, altera virgo, 
Altera tum primos Lucinae experta labore^ 340 

Clioque et Beroe soror, Oceanitides ambae, 
Aml)ae auro, pictis incinctae pellibus amlMie, 
Atque Ephyre, atque Opis, et Asia Deiopea, 

Et tandem positis velox Arethusa sagittis. 


323. Thymbra was a town of Troas, where ApoUo had a tera- 
ple. — 324. The forms nostrumt vestrum^ are partitiye genitivesj 
nostrii vestrif ar^ iised in other constructions. Nostri may be used 
in the sense of met\ as here ; nostrum cannot. Zumpt, ^^ 431, 694. 
— 327. Vix, multo cum labore. — 328. Tematre. The languag^e of 
reproachful surprise, quarovis tu, dea, mater sis.— 333. Sonitum, 
Cyrene perceived only {sensit) that there was a sound above, bat 
did not distinctly hear the words. The imperfects that foUow mark 
fineljr the continuous acts, which were interrupted by the sin^Ie 
acts indicated by the perfects sensitf impulit, &>c. — 334. MUeiia, 
from Miletus, a town of Caria, celebrated, among other thinss, for 
its fine wool. — 335. As it was not the colour or dye whicfc was 
McUurt but the wool, we must refer this to the class of figures noticed 
Ed, ix. 46.-336. Homer, and after him Virgil, and especially Ovid» 
are fond of occasionally giving long lists ot nymphs. Tho^e hetm 
enumerated are of all kinos — sea, wood, mountain, and river nymphs. 
Spe ver. 383. VryTnoqul, Xanthoque. The qui made long before 
the double consonant «, or more probably Irom the arsis. — 337. 
Caesariem efusae. For this construction, see Ecl, i. 52-56. — 338. 
This line is here probably supposititious. It occurs again Aen, v. 
826. — 340. Lucinae. See Ecl. iv. 10. — 342. These ooean nymphs, 
admitted by Diana among her train, had, as became huntresses, 
dresses of epotted skins, and a girdle of gold. — 343. Ephyre, The 
final e not elidcd. Asia. The first vowel long, indioatinff a tract 
of marshy ground on the banks of the Cayster, m Lydia. The first 
vowel ol Asia, the quarter of the globe, is short. — 344. Anihm9a% 
8ee Bcl, z. 1. 

LIBER W. 115* 

' Inter qOafl carem Clvmene narrabat inanem' 345 

Volcani, Martifiqne dolos et dulcia furta, 
Aque Cbao densos divum numerabat amores. 
Carmine quo captae dum fueis mollia pensa 
Devolvunt, iterum matern^ impultt auris 
Luctus Aristaei, vitreisque sedilibus omnes 359 

Obstupuere ; sed ante alias Arethusa sorores 
Prospiciens summa flavnm caput extulit unda, 
Et procul : * O gemitn non frustra exterrita tantc, 
Cyrene soror, ipse tibi. tua maxima cura, 
Tristis Aristaeus Penei genitoris ad undam 356 

Stat lacrimans, et te crudelem nomine dicit.' 
Huic percussa nova mentem formidine mater, 
< Duc, age, duc ad nos ; fas illi limina divum 
Tangere,' ait. Simul alta jubet discedere late 
Flumina, qua juvenis gressus inferret. At illum 360 
Curvata in montis faciem circumstetit unda 
Accepitque sinu vasto misitque sub amnem. 
Jamque domum mirans genetricis et humida regna, 
Speluncisque lacus clausos, lucosque sonantis, 
Ibat, et ingenti motu stupefactus aquarum 365 

Omnia sub magna labentia flumina terra 
Spectabat diversa locis, Phasimque, Lycumque, 
£t caput, unde altus primum se erumpit Enipeus, 
Unde pater Tiberinus, et unde Aniena fiuenta, 
Saxosus(}ue sonans Hypanis, Mysusque Caicus, 370 

£t gemina auratus taurino coraua voltu 
£ridanus, quo non alius per pinguia culta 
In mare purpureum violentior effluit amnis. 

Postquam est in thalami pendentia pumice tecta 

354. TtbL See Ecl, viii. ^. — 355. Penei. A dissyllable.— 
362. The place which we enter is said accipere; through which 
we pass, i»i^l«re.-— 363. In this magnificent description of the 
palace of Cyrene, Virgil presents to us her residence, as formo 
lae a part of that mighty cavem where, accordiog to some 
oi the ancient philosophers and poets, all the rivers and waters 
of tbe earth had their common source. — 367, &c. Fhasis, A 
river of Colchis, Lycus, of Pontus, En^euM, of Thessaly, Tiber 
and Aniot of Italy. ^ypanif (the Bog), of Sarmatia, Catcus, of 
Mysia, Eridanus (thfe ro), of Italy. — 370. Saxotut, propter saxa 
frequentia. Others read saxogum, used adverbially, with the same 
force. — 371. River-gods are often represented with a buirs head, 
either from their violence, or roar, or their horn-like tributaries. 
Auratus is either a mere general epithet, or refers to pinguia culta 
in the next liT\e, The Po is not now a river of notable rapidity. — 
373. Purpureum, This epithet must have a reference to the impetu 
omty of toe Po darkening the waters of the sea. 

116 GBORGt€OK. 

Penrentam, et ntti fletas cognorit inanis 27$ 

Cyrene, manibus liquidos dant ordine fontis 

Germanae, tonsisque ferunt manteJia villis; 

Pars epulis onerant mensas et plena reponunt 

Pocula ; Panchaeis adolescunt ignibus arae ; 

£t mater, < Cape Maeonii carchesia Bacchi : 3H9 

Oceano libemus,' ait. Simul ipea precatur 

Oceanumque patrem rerum Nympbasque sorores, 

Centum auae silyas, centum quae flumina seryant. 

Ter liquiuo ardentem perfudit nectare Yestam, 

Ter flamma ad summum tecti subjecta reluxit. 385 

Omine quo flrmans animum sic incipit ipsa: 

^Est in Carpathio Neptuni gurgite vates, 
Caeruleus Proteus, magnum qui piscibus aequor 
£t juncto bipedum curru roetitur equorum. 
Hic nunc £mathiae portns patriamque revisit 390 

Pallenen ; hunc et ^fymphae veneramur, et ipse 
Grandaevus Nereus ; novit namque omnia vates, 
Quae sint, quae fuerint, quae mox ventura trahantur , 
Quippe ita Neptuno visum est, immania cujus 
Armenta et turpis pascit sub gurgite phocas. 395 

Hic tibi, nate, prius vinclis capiendus, ut omnem 
£xpediat morbi causam, eventusque secundet. 
Nam sine vi non ulla dabit praecepta, neque illum 
Orando flectes ; vim duram et vincula capto 

375. The lamentations of her son appeared to the alarmed Cyrene 
manis, after she had heard them ; for she was certain she could find 
a remedv. — 377. Napkins of wool, the rough ends being carefdlly 
removed, so as to present a smooth surface. — 378. Et, and (at the 
end of the first course) reponunt ; re having its proper force.— 379. 

Panchaeig. Arabian. See Georg. ii. 139 380. Ihe feasts of tho 

ancients were closed with a libation to the gods. See Aen. i. 728. 
Maeonii Baccki, Lydian wine. See next note. — 384. Vettam, for 
ignem. See a similar usage, Ecl. iv. 32, v. 69, and other paasages. 
—386. Animum. Either of Aristaeus, or more probably her own. 
— 387, &,c. Virgil, imitating Homer (Od, iv. 364, &c.), represents 
Cyrene as recommending Aristaeus to consult Proteus, an Egyptian 
sea-god (hence Carpathio, from the island Carpathus, between Crete 
and Rhodes, that part of the Mediterranean which washed the 
shores of Egypt), who was skilled in a knowledge of all events. 
FoUowine an old myth, Virgii represents Proteus as vbitin^ his 
nativo Pallene, a promontory of Macedonia, calied here Emathuu^ 
393. So Homer {IL i. 70) describes Calchas — 

Z( J^i| rd r* idvra, rd r' lcc6^tva^ irp6 r iSvra, 

—397. Secundare eventue, secundum reddere quod male evenit.-^* 
399. Vim tende, fiffurative ; vincula tende, literal. This is not au* 
common. So in Pope— 

* Where gentle Anna, whom three realmi obey, 
Doei lometimeB e0un$«l uke, and Mmetimes tea.* 

uras iy« 117 

Tende ; doH oiieam biee demnm fmngsntar inanes. 400 

Ipsa ego te, medios cnm soi aceenderit aestus, 

Cum sitiunt herbae, et pecori jam gratior nmbra est, 

In secreta senis ducam, quo feasus ab undis 

Se recipit, facile ut somno aggrediare jacentem. 

Yerum ubi correptom manibus vincliMoe tenebisy 405 

Tum Yariae eludent gpecies atque ora lerarom. 

Fiet enim subito sus horridos, atraque tigrie, 

Squamosusque draco, et fulra cervice leaena; 

Aut acremflammae sonitum dabit, atque ita vinclis 

Excidet, aut in aquas tenuis dilapsus abibit. 410 

Sed quanto iila ma^ formas se vertet in omnis, 

Tanto, nate, magts contende tenacia vincla, 

Donec talis erit mutato corpore, (jualem 

Yideris, incepto tegeret cum luroma somno.' 

Haec ait, et liquidum ambrosiae diffundit odoremi 415 
Quo totum nati corpus perduxit ; at ilJi 
Dulcis compositis spiravit crinibus aura, 
Atque habiiis membris venit vigor. £st specus ingens 
Exesi latere in monti^ quo plurima vento 
Cogitar inque sinus scmdit sese wida reductos, 420 

Deprensis olim statio tntissima nautis ; 
Intus se vasti JProteus tegit objice saxi. 
Hic juvenem in latebris, aversum a lumine, Nympha 
Collocat ; ipsa procul nebulis obscura resistit. 
Jam rapidus torrens sitientis Sirius Indos 425 

Ardebat caelo, et medium sol igneus orbem 
Hauserat; arebant herbae, et cava Aumina siccis 
Faucibus ad limum radii tepefacta coquebant : 
Cum Proteus consueta petens e fluctibus antra 

400. Circum haec. A singular use of circum, round about ; that 
18, through means of. — 408. Leaena. It has been asked, why a 
Utmestt And how had a lioness a msne^ fulva cervicet — 410.' 
Tbese transformations will reraind the voung_readcr of a similar 
struggle to escape in the 'Arahian Nignts* Entertainments,' and 
may suggest the fact, that there is a wonderful similarity in popular 
traditioos all over the world. — 415, &>c. Cyrene anointed Aristaeus 
with Bweet-smeiliog ambrosia, to give him the strength necessary 
ibr the achievement before him. — 416. llli. Not governed by duU 
m, but tpvraviii with the force oi ah illo. — 42Q. Sinus reductoM, 
Either the kimost windings of the cave, or rather the convex curves 
that waves are formed into when they dash against the rocks. See 
Aen. i. 161.— 421. In front of this cave, and sheUered by the moun- 
tain, was safe anchorage for ships caught in astorm. — 424. FrocuL 
See Bd. vi. 16. — 425. Sirius expresses the time of the vear, tbe 
bottest period, when the dog-star rises, about the end of July.— « 
427. JSauMerat, This expresses the time of day — mid-day^when 
die Biui is hottest. MauritMi completely to dffainp-4o &u8h. 


Ibat ; eura vasti circnm gens hnrnida ponti 490 

Exsultans rorem late dispersit amarum. 
Sternunt se somno diversae in litore phocae; 
Ipse, velut stabuli custos in montibus olim, 
Vesper ubi e pastn vitulos ad tecta reducit, 
Auditisque lupos acuunt balatibus agni, 435 

Considit scopulo medius, numerumque recenset. 
Cujus Aristaeo quoniam est oblata facultas, 
Vix defessa seiiem passus componere membra, 
Cum clamore ruit magno, manicisque jacentem 
Occupat. Ille suae contra non immemor artis 440 

Omnia transformat sese in miracula rerum, 
Ignemque) horribilemque feram. fluviumque liquentem. 
Yerum ubi nulla fugam reperit iallacia, yictus 
In sese redit, atque hominis tandem ore locutus : 
'Nam quis te, juvenum confidentissime, nostras 445 

Jussit adire domos? quidve hincpetisl' inquit. At ille: 
' Scis, Proteu, scis ipse ; neque est te fallere quidquam ; 
Sed tu desine velle. Deum praecepta secuti 
Venimus, hinc lapsis quaesitum oracula rebus.' 
Tantum efiatus. Ad haec vates vi deniqoe multa 450 
Ardentis oeulos intorsit lumine glauco, 
£t graviter frendens sic fatis ora resolvit: 
'Non te nuUius exercent numinis irae : 
Magna luis commissa : tibi has miserabilis Orpheus 
Haud quaquam ob meritum poenas, ni Fata resistant, 455 
Suscitat. et rapta graviter pro conjuge saevit. 
liia quidem, dum te fugeret per numina praeceps, 
Immanem ante pedes hydrum moritura puella 
Servantem ripas alta non vidit in herba. 
At chorus aequalis Dryadum clamore supremos 460 
Implerunt montis ; flerunt Rbodopeiae arces, 

431. Rorem, Rot is applied to any liquid. See Aen, vi. 229, 
Here it is sea-water. — 432. Somno, Either the abl. tn, or the da* 
tive/or. Divergaei diversis locis. See Aen, i. 70. — 444. In iese, 
in suam formam. Ad te redire is a common pbrase, applied not to 
the ^od;^, but to the mind. — 445. JVbm refers to a 8up|>o8ed train ot 
thought on the part of Proteus, such as, ' I would fain know how 
you came to know my secret haunt.' — 447. Eel. For et^ with tho 
force of lieeti see Zumpt, $227. Quidquam. The accusative of tho 
remoter object, as it is called; equivaient to uUa ex parte. — 448. 
FeZZe effugere. — 452. Fatis. The dative, to announce. — 453. Non 
nHllite. Equivalent to alicujue. Nullius by the arsis. — 454, 455. 
MiserahUis kaud quaquam ob meritum. For a most spirited version 
of the quest of Orpheus, see Pope's Odefor Musie on CeeUia*s Datf, 
tv.-vi. — 460. Ae^ualis. Her companions. — 461. Virgil representH 
fhrace as mounung for Eurydice. This he varies by introdncinc 

UBKR IT. 110 

Altaque Piuigaea, et Rhesi Mavortia telkiii^ 

Atque Getae, atque Hebrus, et Actias Orithyia. 

Ipse, cava solans aegrum testudine amorem, 

Te, dulcis conjunx, te solo in litore secum, 465 

Te reniente die, te decedente canebat. 

Taenarias etiam fauces, alta ostia Ditis, 

£t caligantem nigra formidine lucum 

Ingressus, Manisque adiit Regemque tremendum, 

Nesciaque humanis precibus mansuescere corda. 470 

At cantu commotae Erebi de sedibus imis 

Umbrae ibant tenues simulacraque Ince carentum ; 

Quam multa iu foliis avium se millia condunt, 

Vesper ubi aut hibernus agit de montibus imber; 

Matres atque viri, defunctaque corpora vita 475 

Magnanimum heroum, pueri innuptaeque puellae, 

Impositique rogis juvenes ante ora parentum ; 

Quos circum limus niger et deformis arundo 

Cocyti tardaque palus inamabilis unda 

Alligat, et novies Styx interfusa coercet. 480 

Quin ipsae stupuere domus atque intima Leti 

Tartara, caeruleosque implexae crinibus anguis 

Eumenides, tenuitque iuhians triaCerberus ora,- 

Atque Ixionii veQto rota constitit orbis. 

Jamque pedem referens casus evaserat omnis, 485 

Reduitaque Eurydice superas veniebat ad auras, 

Ponesequens — tiamque hancdederatProserpina legem — 

Cum subita incautum dementia cepit amantem, 

Ignoscenda quidem, scirent si ignoscere Manes : 

Restitit, Eurydlcenque suam, jam luce sub ipsa, 490 

Immemor, heu ! victusque animi respexit. Ibi omnis 

Effusus labor, atque immitis rupta tyranni 

the heiefats of Rhodope and Fangaeus, Thracian mountains — the 
land of llhesus, kingof Thrace (see Am. i, 471) — the Getae, a peo- 
ple bordcnns on Thrace-~the Hebrust a river of Thrace, and Ori- 
tbyia, daugnter of Erechtheus, king of Athens (hence ActiaSt a 
feminine patronymic, from Actef a name for Attica), carried into 
Thrace by Boreas. Rhodopeiae. The last syllabie unelided, and 
■hort, botD according to the Greek usage. — 463. The ae of G^ae 
vnelided. Orithyia, a word of four syllables ; in Grcek, 'Hftci^via. 
—457. Taenariat. One of the entrances to the infernal resions 
waa said to be by the Promontorium Taenarium^ in the south oi La* 
eonia. — ^475-477. These lines are repeated. Aen. vi. 306-308. — 
484. Vento. Join rota orhi» with vento, having this sense — that the 
rotation was caused by the wind — the wind-caused revoluticn 
ceased. — 491. Victus animi. In imitation ofthe Greek idiom for 
ammnt, See Zumpt, $437. — 492. Effusus, A figurative ezpression, 
from water poured out and lost. 

tt0 GSOBQICmf. 

Foedera, teiqne fmgor stognis andilns Averms. 

Illa, ^^QqIb et me," inquit, ^'miseram^ et te perdidk, Or- 

Quis tantus furor I £n iterum crudelia retro 495 

Fata vocant, conditqne natantia lomina somnns. 
Jamque vale ! Feror ingenti circumdata nocte, 
iDYalidasque tibi tendens, heu non tua, palmas !" 
Dixit, et ex oculis subito, ceu fumus in auras 
Commixtus tenuis, fugit diversa, neque ilJum, 500 

Prensantem nequidqoam umbras et multa volentem 
* Dicere, praeterea vidit ; nec portitor Orci 
Amplius objectam passns transire paludem. 
Quid faceret ? quo se rapta bis conjuge ferret 1 
Quo fletu Manis, qua Numina voce moveretl 505 

Illa quidem Stygia nabat jam frigi<ia cymba. 
Septem illum totos perhibent ex ordine mensee 
Rupe sub aerta deserti ad Strymonis undam 
Flevisse, et gelidis haec evolvisse sub antris, 
Mulcentem tigris et agentem carmine quercus; 510 

Qualis populea moerens philomela sob umbra 
Amissos queritur fetus, quos durus arator 
Observans nido implumis detraxit ; at illa 
Fiet noctem, ramoque sedens miserabile carmen 
Integrat, et moestis late loca questibus implet. 515 

NuIIa Yenus, non ulli animum flexere hymenaei. 
Solus Hyperboreas glacies Tanaimque nivalem 
Arvaqne Rbipaeie numquam viduata pruinis 
Lustrabat, raptam Eurydicen atque irrita-Ditis 
Dona querens; spretae Ciconum quo munere matres, 520 
Inter sacra deum nocturnique orgia Bacchi, 
Discerptum latos juvenem sparsere per agros. 

496. Natantia. The same expression is again applied to the eyes 
of one dying, Aen. v. 856 ; and is used by other authors. — 500. Te- 
nuis 1 }om to auras. — 502. Portitor Orci. Charon. — 506. Observe 
the force of the iniperfect ruibat ; she was saiiing away, while he 
knew not what to do. — 507. Exordine. Hae thc lorce ofcontinuoa, 
— 511, &,c. Qualis, &c. One of the noblest siiniles inpoetry.— • 
514. Noctem. So Milton— 

* Nor iben tbe sotemii nigbtingale ceased warblias, 
But »11 nigkt tuned ber soft lays.* 

—Par. Lost, vii. 435. 

-—517. Tanaim (the Don), a river of Sarmatia.— 518. BkipaeU 
Properly the Oural Monntains ; but often used, as here, to (jtenote 
any northern chain. — 520. Cieonum. A tribe of the Thracians ; 
here taken for the Thracians generally. Quo munere. Munus must 
here mean tbe affectionate duty dischargeil by Orpheus to the me 
mory of Eurydice. 


LtBCR fT. 121 

^ Tom quoque roarmorea capnt a cervice reyukmm 
Gorgite cnm medio portans Oeagrias Hebrus 
YoJyeret, Eurydicen yox ipsa et frigida lingua, 525 

Ah miseram Eurydicen ! anima fugiente vocabat; 
Eurydicen toto referebant fiumine ripae.' 

Haec Proteus, et se jactu dedit aequor in altnm, 
Quaque dedit, spumantem undam suD vertice torsit. 
At non Cyrene ; namque ultro affata timentem : 530 

'Nate, licet tristis animo deponere curas. 
Haec omnis morbi causa ; hinc miserabile Nymphae, 
Cum qnibus illa choros lucis agitabat in altis, 
Exitium misere apibus. Tu munera supplex 
Tende petens pacem, et facilis venerare Napaeas; 53t> 
Namque dabunt veniam votis, irasque remittent 
Sed modus orandi qui sit, prius ordine dicam. 
Quatuor eximios praestanti corpore tauros, 
Qui tibi nunc viridis depascunt summa Lycaei, 
Delige, et intacta totidem cervice juvencas. 540 

Quatuor his aras alta ad delubra dearum 
Constitue, et sacrum jugulis demitte cruorem, 
Corporaque ipsa boum frondoso desere luco. 
Post, ubi nona suos Aurora ostenderit ortus, 
Inferias Orphei Lethaea papavera mittes, 545 

£t nigram mactabis ovem, lucumque revises; 
Placatam Eurydicen vitula venerabere caesa.' 

524. Oeagrius. From Oeager, king of Thrace, fathcr of Or- 
pheus. — 529. Sub vertice. Suh has the notion of motion upwards, 
•nd vertex that of an eddying efiect, the whirl upwards ; the foam- 
ing water, forming an eddy all around. — 530. Cyrenc did not seek 
her native waves, but counselled her trembling son as to the remcdy . 
of the evii, the cause only of which Proteus had shown. — 538, &c. 
The mode of expiation is here describcd. Aristaeus is to sacrifice 
to ihe Nymphs of the woody valleys (callcd, vcr. 535, Najmea») 
four bulls, at four separate aitars, and to leave the carcases in the 
wood. On the ninth moming after the sacrifice he is to offcr pop- 
pies and a black shecp to Orpheus. He is then to go back to the 
wood where he had left the bulls ; and on finding that Eurydicc 
(with the other Nymphs) is appeased, he is, in tokcn of gratitude 
Ibr his bees restored, to sacrifice in her honour a hcifcr. There ia 
a difference of opinion as to the proper arrangcmcnt of the lines 
545-547; but the one adopted, as hcro explaincd, secrns to bc the 
best ; and it is supported by the majority of the manuscripts. — 539. 
Lycaei, A mountain to the south- west of Arcadia, whcre Aristaeus 
waB worshipped, and where he is here said to have flocks. Sce v. 
317. — 540. Inlacta, Jugo completes thc sciise. — 545. For the 
form Orpheij see Zumpt, $52. Lethaea, a derivat>ve from Leihe, 
the river of foi^ctfulncss. — 546. Nigram. Black victims wcrc of- 
fered to the infcrnai dcities. See Aeti. vi. 243, 249. 
11 L 


Hand mora; oontintio matris praecepta faceflsitj 
Ad delubra venit, monstratas excitat aras, 
Quatuor eximios praestanti corpore tauros 560 

Ducit, et intacta totidem cervice juvencas. 
Post, ubi nona suos Aurora induxerat ortus, 
Inferias Orphei raittii, lucumque revisit. 
Hic vero subitum ac dictu mirabile monstrum 
Aspiciunt, liquefacta boum per viscera toto 559 

Stndere apes utero et ruptis effervere costis, 
Immensasque trahi nubes, jamque arbore summn 
Coniluere et lentis uvam demittere ramis. 

Haec super arvorum cultu pecorumque canebam 
Et super arboribus, Caesar dum magnus ad altum 560 
Fulminat Euphraten bello, victorque volentis 
Per popuios ctat jura, viamque affectat Olympo. 
IIIo Virgilium me tempore dulcis alebat 
Partheiiope, studiis fiorentem ignobilis oti, 
Carmina qui lusi pastorum, audaxque juventa, 565 

Tityre. te patulae cecini sub tegmine fagi. 

549. Monstratas, a matre. — 554, &c. The infinitives in apposi* 
tion with monstrum, furnish a fine illustration of the nature of the 
iiifinitive, as the substantive form of the verb. — 555. Viscera in- 
eludes the wbole carcase within the skin. — 557. iVtt&65 avium.— i 
558. Uvam. The p^rape-Iike clustering of bees had struck Homer, 
who calls it fiorpvSdv (II. ii. 89). See a picture somewhat 8imilar« 
JLen, vii. 64, &.c.-* 559-566. General conclusion to the Georgics. 




This is an Epic poem, which, according to the deflnition of 
Blair, is *the recital of some illustrious enterprise in a poetical 
form.' The title Aeneis is derived from Aeneat {Aivtiai)y ihr 
hero of the poem. Its professed object is to celebrate the ad 
Tentures of Aeneas, while sailing from Troy, after the de 
struction of that city, in search of a settlement — his final land- 
ing in Italy— and his triumphant struggle with his enemies, 
and his rival, Turnus, in that conntry, leaving him free to 
marry Lavinia, the daughter of Latinus, king of the Latins, 
and to found Lavinium, the mother city of Rome, with all her 
glories. It is supposed by many that Virgil had a further 
object — to exalt his gteat patron, Augustus, whose character 
and martial deeds, according to this^view, he shadows forth 
in the person of Aeneas. There can be no doubt that he in- 
tends to gratify Roman pride, by eihbodying in lofty song the 
legends that told of their descent from gods and heroes. 

Tbe legends of Aeneas followed by Virgil develop themselves 
in the course. of the poem. It is proper to observe that they 
materially difier, in many respects, from the account of Aeneas 
given by Homer. 

The first Book may be thus divided :— Proposition of the subject, 

with address to the Muse, 1-11. Causes of Juno's hatred 

towards Aeneas, 12-33. Her feelings, when, in the seventh 

summer of his wanderings, she sees him sailing from Sicily to 

Italy, his destined home, 34—49. Her plans to prevent hit 

reaching Italy, by persuading Aeolus to sink or disperse his 

fleet, 50—80. The consequent storm, in which one of the ships 

is lost, and the rest are scattered, 81-123.. The interference 

of Neptune to calm the storm, 124—156. Aeneas, with seven 

oul of twenty ships, lands on the coast of Africa, 157-222. 

Conversation between Jupiterand Venusregarding the fate of 

AenoM and his posterity, 223-296. Mercury sent down to 


124 AElfEIDOS. 

render Dido, queen of Carthage, fViendly to Aeneas, 297-3(M. 
Interview between Aeneas and Yenus, at first in the guise of 
a buntress, 305-409. He proceeds to Carthage, along with 
Achates, both rendered invisible by the cnre of Venus, 411« 
420. Description ofrising Cartbage, 421-436. Aeneas visits 
the '.emple of Juno, and sees depicted there the Trojan wara, 
437-493. Dido visite the temple, 494-508. A deputatioa 
from the twelve missing ships of the Trojans waits on Dido, 
to complain of the outrages of her people, and bewail the loss 
of Aeneas, 509->560. Dido consoles them, and ofiers them a 
tettlement, 561-578. Aeneas, freed from the cloud, appears, 
and addresses Dido, who replies kindly, and prepares U> 
entertain him and his followers, 579-642. Aeneas sends fbr 
Ascanius, 643-656. Venus substitutes Cupid for Ascanius, 
657-698. The banquet in Dido's palace, 699-747. Dido 
asks Aeneas to narrate the downfall of Troy, and his wander- 
ings, 748-756. 
It may be seen from this that Virgil does not, as a histOrian 
would, introduce the subject with the fall of Troy, and con- 
duct Aeneas, in the order of time, through his adventures till 
their conelusion. Following the example of Homer, in both 
his great Epics, the Iliad ahd the Odyssey, he dashes at once 
into the middie of tbe subject — a plan praised by Horace (D« 
^rte Poet. 148), and observed by the writers of Epic poems in 
modern times, as in MiIton's Paradise Lost, which does not 
begin with the creation of the world, but takes up the subject 
after the world has been created, and many events bearing oq 
tbe main action have already occurred. 

Ille ego, qui quondam gracili modulatus avena 
Carmen, ett e^ressus silvis, vicina coegi ' 
Ut quamvis avido parerent arva colono, 
Gratum opus agricolis ; at nunc horrentia Martis. 

^RMA vYrCmqtt^ cano, Trc^ae quijprimus ab^oris 
ItStl^m, ia^W pn5fu|gijrs, lialviniSCque VCml 

Many regard the first four lines as a spurious addition of some 
later writer. They are uot, however, unworthy of Virgfil — pro- 
vided they be regarded as a mere inscription. Hence, it will be 
observed that in this edition these lines are not reckoned as part of 
the poem itself. 1. Arma virumque; eilher virum clarum armu, or 
perhaps arma is a general, virum a specific proposition. Primu» 
may mean either 'nrst,* or, 'in ancient times,' or, ^surpassing &U 
in fame.' The first seems preferabte, as the most obvious ; and 
although Antenor (see v. 242) settled in Cisalpine Gaul, Vtrgil may 
have regarded it as no part of Italy. — 2. JftaZtoifi, without ad, a 

LIBER I. 125 

EilVrtrf-nfQltumlile ^t feATs jsdoitife rf^iUtP 
VT ^pdHIm, «aiKr^ml^mdi^tai JtlhOhS JftTirahij 
Mlfltft qu^ue et bsllff p^ETs, dtTra' ctJnd^rSt^Crb^ra, 
Inferretqne deos LatiO; genus unde Latinum 
Alb^nique patres atque altae moenia Romae. 
vMiIsa^ mihi causas mSmOTS[, quTSmttmTn^^tlSe^, ~ 

Tmptn^^. TSixksC&ne Smmis cOelSstt^lirae I 


Urbs antiqua fuit, Tyrii tenuere d6Ionj^ 
Carthago, Italiam contra Tiberinaque longd 
Ostia, dives opum studiisque asperrima belli ; 
Quam Juno fertur terris magis omnibus unam 15 

Posthabita coluisse Sarao ; hic illius arma, 
Hic currus fuit 3 hoc regnum dea gentibus esse, 
Si qua fata sinant, jam tura tenditque fovetque. 
Progeniem sed enim Trojano a sanguine duci 
Audierat, Tyrias olim quae verteret arces^v 20 

Hinc populnm late regem belloque superbum 
Venturum excidi(^ Libyae : sic volvere Parcas. 
rd metuens veterisque memor Saturnia belli, 
Prima quod ad Trojam pro caris gesserat Argis — 

poetical construction. Zumpt, ^ 401. Laviniaque; pronounce 
jLavinyaque as four syllables. — 3. llle, with jactatus and passus 
(▼. 5), is to be regarded as in apposition with qui. — 4. Superum 
seems to have the generic force of divorum. Aeneas was exposed 
to the violent opposition, not only of Juno, but of Aeolus, Juturna, 
and others. — 5. Dum conderet. Conderet seems to have a poten- 
tial force: *till he was able to.' — 8. Quo numine laeso. As no 
otber deity than Juno ^regina deum) is mentioned by Virgil as ac^- 
grieved by the enterprise of Aeneas, it is difBcult to understand the 
precise force of tliese words. Virgil, in a subsequent passage, re- 
fers the resentment of Juno to two causes — ^the destined triumph of 
Rome over Carthage, and the insults to which she had been ex- 
posed from the Trojan race. Perhaps the easiest mode of inter- 
pretation is to conceive quo numine (divino consilio) laeso to refer to 
the first, and quidve dolens to the latter cause : both bein^ conjoined 
with regina deum. — 12. Antiqua. In reference to Virgil's own 
time. — 15. Unam. Alone in respect to the degree in wnich Juno 
favoured it. — 16. Samo. The final not elided. Virgil represents 
Juno as preferring Carthage even to Samos, an island ofT the coast 
of lonia, where juno was worshipped with great observance. — 19. 
Sed enim. In such expressions, 9ed infers an objection to a previoua 
statement, enim introduces the reason of the objection. Here, Sed 
metuebat de regno Carthaginis, audierat enim, &c. — 21. JRegem^ 
fegpantem. — 23. Satumia. Juno was the daughter of Satum. — 24. 
Pri$aa, oUm ; or, foremost in the ranks of the hostile deities. Argit. 
The capital of Argolis, where Juno was worshipped with special 


NecJum etiam caame iraram saeriqae dolores 25 

Exciderant animo; manet alta mente repostnm 

Judicium Paridis spretaeque* injuria formae, 

£t genus invisum, et rapti Ganymedis honores; 

His accensa super — ^jactatos aequore toto 

Troas, reliquias Danaum atque immitis Achilli| 30 

Arcebat longe Latio, multosqne per annoe 

Errabant, acti fatis, maria omnia circum. 

Tantae molis erat Romanam condere gentem. 

Vix e conspectu Siculae telluris in altum 
Yela dabant laeti et spumas salis aere ruebant, 35 

Cum Juno, aeternum servans sub pectore vulnus, 
Haec secum: 'Mene incepto desistere victam, 
Nec posse Italia Teucrorum avertere regem ? 
Quippe vetor fatis. NPallasne exurere classem 
Argiv^ atque ipsos potuit submergere ponto^ 40 

Unius ob noxam et furias Ajacis Oifei? 
Ipsa, Jovis rapidum jaonlata e nubibus ignem, 
Disjecitque rates evertitque aequora ventis ; 
Illum exspirantem transfixo pectore flammas 
Turbine corripuit soopuloque infixit acuto. 45 

Ast ego, quae divW incedo regina Jovisqu^ 
£t soror et conjunx, una cum gente tot annos 
Bella gero. £i quisquam numen Junonis adorat 
I Pra eterea^aut supplexaris imponet honoreml' 

l^alia flammato secum dea eorde voIutanS)' 50 

Nimborum in patriam, loca feta furentibus au3trjB| 
Aeoliam venit. Hic vasto rex Aeolns antro 
Luctantis ventos tempestatesque sonoras 4 
Imperio premit, ac vmclis et carcere frenat. 

honoar, is put for all Greece. » 25. Thist and tbe four followins 
lines to fuper, are thrown in parenthetically. They state additionu 
causes of Jnno'8 resentment : the golden apple, the prize of beauty, 
assigned to Venus ; the descent of Aeneas from Dardanus, hated aa 
the son of Jupiter and Electra ; the office of cupbearer transferred 
from Hebe, her daughtert to the Trojan Ganymede. — 31. Arcebat. 
This term finelv marks tbe continued action, at the time the poem 
opens. — 35. Aere ; that is, Navibus aeratis. Rudnnt. Used 
transitively for ruere faciebant. — 37. Mene desistere; an abrupt 
form of intcrro^ation, indicatin^ strong emotion. See v. 97. — 41. 
Ajax, son of Oiieus, is to be distinguished from the greatcr Ajax, 
the 8on of Telamon. The former ofTered violence to Cassandra in 
the temple of Minerva. — 48. Gero. See a similar passage, vii. 904 
-310. — 49. Praetereaf posthac. — 52. Aeoliam. One of the Aeo* 
lian islands, volcanio rocks, to the north of Sicily — probably Lipara, 
Aen, viii. 417 ; small islands are, like towns, construed without pre* 


Illi indignantesjtnagno cubi raurmnre montis, 55 

Circnm claustra fremunt ', celsa sedet Aeolus arce 
Sceptra tenenS; mollitque animos et temperat iraSyV 
Ni faciat, maria ac terras coelumque profundum 
Quippe ferant rapidi secum yerrant^ne per auras. 
Sed pater omnipotens speluncis abdidit atris, 60 

Hoc metuens, molemque et montis insuper altos 
Imposuit, regemque dedit, qui foedere certo 
£t premere et laxas sciret dare jussus habenas. 
Ad quem tum Juno supplex his Tocibus usa est : 

' Aeole, namque tibi divom pater atque hominum rex 65 
£t mulcere dedit fluctus et tolJere vento, 
€rens inimica mihi Tyrrhenum navigat aequor, 
Ilium in Italiam portans victosque Penatis: 
Incute yim yentis submersasque obrue puppis, 
Aut age diyersos et disjice corpora ponto. 70 

Sunt mihi bis septem praestanti corpore Nymphae, 
Quarum quae forma pulcherrima Deiopea, 
Connubio jungam stabili propriamque dicabo, 
Omnis ut tecum meritis pro talibus annos 
£xigat, et pulchra faciat te prole parentem.' 75 

>Aeolus haeo contra : ^Tuus, o regina, quid optes, 
£xplorare labor^ mihi jussa capessere fas est. 
Tu mihi, quodcumque hoc regni, tu sceptra Joyemque 
Concilias, tu das epulis accumbere diyom, 
Nimborumque facis tempestatumque potentem.' 80 

Haec ubi dicta, cayum conversa cuspide montem 
Impulit in latus : ac yenti, velut agmine facto, 
Qua data porta, raunt et terras turbine perflant. 
IncObuere mari, totumque a sedibus imis 
Una £urusque Notusque ruunt creberque procellis 85 

61. Molem et mantes ; equivalent to molem montium. Insuperi 

iiear«y equivalent to super. — 67. Navigat; used transitively ; a 

poetical hcence, which occurs also in rhetorical prose, common also 

m EDglish — 

* Sbe sails the aSrial space.*— Pop«. 

— 68. Viclos, because unable to defend Troy. — 73. Connubio. The 
second syllable seems always lone. Pronounce here connubyo aa 
three syllables. Virgil displays throughout great knowledge and 
observance of Roman forms and usages» besioes much antiquarian 
research. Of the former, we have here an instance in connubio, 
which was the technical term for a marriage legal in all its condi- 
tiona. — 78. Oljserve the emphasis derived from the repetition of 
tu.^ 82. Jn latus, * on its side,* or * over on its side.* — 83. Ccn» 
trast ruunt intransit. with ruunt transit., v. 85. See also v. '.!5. 
Compare this description of a storm at sea with another, Aen. ui. 

128 AENEIDOfl. 

Africas, et vastos volvunt ad litora fluctus. 
inseguitur clamorque virum stridorque rudentum. 
Eripiunt subito nubes coelumque diemque 
Teucrorum ex oculis: ponto nox incubat atra. 
Intonuere poli, et crebns micat ignibus aether, 90 

Praesentei^ue viris intentant omnia niortem.\ 
Exteraplo Aeneae solvuntuif frigore membra ; 
Ingemit, et duplicis tendens ad sidera palmas 
Talia voce refert : 'O terque quaterque beati, 
Quis ante ora patrum Trojae sub moenibus altis 95 

Contigit oppetere I o Danaum fortissime gentis 
Tydide ! mene Iliacis occumbere carnpis 
Non potuisse, tuaque animam hanc enundere dextra? 
Saevus ubi Aeacidae telo jacet Hector, ubi ingens 
Sarpedon, ubi tot Simois correpta sub undis 100 

Scuta virum galeasque et fortia corpora volvit.' 

Talia jactanti stridens Aquilone procella 
Velum adversa ferit, lluctusque ad sidera tollit. 
Franguntur remi ; tum prora avertit, et undis 
Dat latus^ insequitur cumulo praeruptus aquae mons. 105 
Hi Pummo in fluctu pendent; his unda dehiscens 
Terram inler fluctus aperit; furit aestus arenis. 
Tris Notus abreplas in saxa latenlia torquet — . i 
Saxa vocanl Itali, mediis quae in fluctibtfs, Aras — ^ 
Dorsum immane mari 6ummo| tris Eurus ab alto 110 

90. The extremities of the supposed axis, on which the heavens 
were helieved to revolve, were called poli ; which hence -comes to 
signify the heavens from poie to pole. — 92. Aeneae ; rather the 
dative govemed by solvunlurt than the genitive. The cxcessive 
emotion of Aeneas must not be judged of according to our standaFd. 
First, the ancients, from rcligious leelings, regarded death by ship- 
wreck differently from us. And secondly, southern nations express 
their feelings more vividly than we do. — 95. Quis. See Bd. i. 73. 
— 97. Tydide. Tydeus' son, Diomedes, with whom, according to 
Homer {II. v. 239), Aeneas engaged in single combat, and woald 
have been slain, but for the intervention of Venus and Apollo. 
Mene. See v. 37. — 99. Saevus implies no reproach; it indicates 
what in war was esteemed faonourable, 'dreadful in his fury.* Aea^ 
cidae. Achilles, the grandson of Aeacus. — 100. Sarpedon, king of 
Lycia, killed by Patroclus. — 102, &c. The wind, right ahead, 
splits the sail, and sweeps away the oars ; the vessel becoroes un- 
manageable, and the prowvawing reund, ships sea after sea, and 
the desolation is completed by one mountain wave with foaming 
crest. — 109. Either an etymological remark — ^ltali vocant saxa, quae 
(jacent) in mediis fluctibus, Aras ; or exegetical of gaxa Zaf entui— ^ 
Saxa quae (jacentia) mediis in fluctibus Itali vocant Aras. Th« 
former, though singularly placed, is the more natural constroc* 

LIBER I 139 

In breyia et syrtis .urguet, miserabile yisu, 
Illidit aue vadis atque aggere cingit arenae. 
tfnam, quae Lycios fidumqne vehebat Oronten, 
Ipsius ante oculos ingens a vertice pontus 
In puppim ferit : excutitur pronusque magister 115 

Yolvitur in caput ; ast iilam ter fluctus ibidem 
Torquet agens cird^m^ et rapidus vorat aequore vortex. 
ApparfentTari nantes irf guTgitevasto'; *" ^' ^ ^ ^ 

^rma virom, tabulaequc; et Troia gaza per undas. 
jam validam Ilionei navem, jam fortis Achatae, 120 

£t qua vectus Abas, et qua grandaevus Aletes^ 
Yicit hiems ; laxis laterum compagibus omnes 
Apciptunt inimicum imbrem, rimisque fatiscunt. * 
^nterea magno misceri murmure pontum, 
Emissamque liiemem sensit Neptunus et imis> 125 

Stagna refusa vadis, graviter commotus; et alto 
Prospiciens, summa placidum caput extulit unda. 
Disjectam Aeneae toto videt aequore classem, 
Fluctibus oppressQs Troas coelique ruina. 
^ec latuere doli fratrem Junonis et irae. 130 

Eurum ad se Zephyrumque vocat, dehinc talia fatur : 

^Tantane vos generis tenuit fiducia vestri ? 
Jam coeium terramque meb sine numine, Venti, 
Miscere, et tantas audetis tollere moles % 
Quos e^o — ! Sed tnotos praestat componere fluctua. *135 
Post mihi non simili poena comraissa luetis. 
ISTatnrate fugam, regique haec dicite vestro : 
Non iili imperium pelagi saevumque tridentem, 
Sed mihi sorte datum. Tenet iile immania sa^ 

111. Brevia and ByHis seem to have nearly the sarae meaninff, the 
latter not being the African Syrtis, properiy so called, but shallows 
forther west. — 113, &c. A huge sea strilces from the stern one of 
the ships, and rising hieh above it, in its descent dashes head fore» 
mo8t into tiie ocean the pilot (tnagister, Aen. v. 176) Leucaspis 
(Aen. vi. 334) ; then an eddyins wave whirls the ship forcibiy round, 
and forming a whirlpool, sucks it beneath the flood. — 118. The 
stmggims swimmers are few (fari) when seen on the boundlesa 
{vasto) guff. The spondees indicate effort. — 122. Hiems, tempestas. 
— 123. ifn&rm, aquam raarinam. — 124. Misceri. Mark this imper- 
fect, as contrasted with the follov^ing pluperfects : the sea voas in 
confusion, in consequence of the storm thai had been senl forth. — 
127. Though grat-itercommotus, his consciousnessof powerexhibited 
io 'Septum plaeidum caput. — 129. Ruina, quasi coelum rueret- 
tbe crash of eiements. — 131. Dehinc, the e elided. — 135. Quos ego. 
Neplune abruptiy breaks off, caiming himself, that he may mstantiy 
quell the tumult. See a similar instance, Exodus, xxxii. 32. See 
«lao, Aen. ii. 100, v. 195. Grammarians call this mode of speaJung 


Vestras, Eure, domos; illa se jaotet in aula 140 

Aeolus, et clauso ventorum carcere regnet.' 
NSic ait. et tlicto citius tumida aequora placat, 
Collectasque fugat nubes solemque reducit. 
Cyraothoe simul et Triton adnij^^s acuto 
Detrudunt navis scopulo^ levat ipse tridenti; 145 

Et vastas aperit syrtis, et temperat aequor, 
Atque rotis sUmmas levibus perlabitur unuas 
Ac veluti magno in populo cum saepe coorta est 
Seditio, saevitque animis ignobile vulgus; 
Jamque faces et saxa volant, furor arma ministrat ; 150 
Turri, pietate gravem ac meritis si forte virum quem 
Conspexere, silent, adrectisque auribus adstant^ 
llle regit dictis animos, et pectora muJcet : 
Sic cunctus pelagi cecidit fragor, aequora postqaam 
Prospiciens genitor, coeloque invectus aperto, 155 

Flectit equos curruque volans dat lora secunijo. 
Defessi Aeneadae, quae proxima litora, cursu 
Contendunt petere, et Libyae vertuntur ad oras^ 
Sst in secessu longp locus: insula portum 
Efficit objectu laterum^ quibus omnis ab alto 160 

Prangitur inque sinus scindit sese unda reductos. 
Hinc atque hinc vastae rupes geminique minantur 
In coelum scopuli, quomm sub vertice late 
Aequora tuta silent j tum silvis scena coruscis 
Desuper horrentique atrum nemus imminet umbra; 165 

140. Vestras, plural; Eure, singular. So Aen. ix. 525, xi. 686. 
In such passases a number of individuals. is addressed, but one 
individual is seleeted, and named as the representative of the rest. 
— 144. Cymothoe and Triton were sea deities; the former a 
daughter of Nereus, the latter a son of Neptune. — 146. Aperit^ 
viam facit per. — 148. Veluti cum has the force of ut£eri solet cunu 
Saepe, no rare occurrence. — 152. Adrectis, probably taken from 
those animals that prick up their ears when anv noise attracts their 
attention. — 153. llle indicates emphasis, and a change firom tho 
objective to the subjective. — 155. On the sea, but ufuier a cloud* 
less fiky. — 1-56. Curru. See Ecl. v. 29. But curru may be th* 
ablative ; curru volans dat lora equis. — 159, &c. A beautiful 
scene, which should be carefully studied in all its parts. Between 
an island and the mainland is a long creek or strait. Sailin&r 
up this, Aeneas found a natural harbour formed by the mainland 
on the one side, and two projecting limbs of the island on the other. 
The waves spent their fury on the island ; and all within, at tho 
' base of two ciiffs, crowned with embowering woods, and guardinif 
the cntrance on either side, was calm. Presenting itself in front 
of the mainland view, on entrance, was a cave, formed by the ov»- 
hanging rocks, and within this was a spring of delicious water. — 
161. See Georg, iv. 4510. 


LIBER I 131 

Fronte sub adversa scopulis pendentibus antrum ; 
Intus aquae dulces vivoque sedilia saxo, 
Nympharum domus. Hic fessas non vincula navis 
UJla tenent, unco non alligat ancora morsu. 
Huc septem Aeneas collectis navibtis omni 170 

Ex numero subit^ ac magno telluris amore 
Egressi optata potiuntur Troes arena, 
£t sale tabentis artus in litore ponunt. 
Ac prlmum silici scintillam excudit Achates, 
Suscepitque ignem foliis atque arida circum 175 

Nutrimenta dedit, rapuitque in fomite ILimmam. 
Tum Cererem corruptam undis Cerealiaque arma 
Expediunt fessi rerum, frugesque receptas 
£t torrere parant fiammis et frarigere saxo. 
>^eneas scopulum interea conscendit et omnem 180 
Prospeclum late pelago petit, Anthea si quem 
Jactatum vento videat Phrygiasque biremis, 
Aut Capyn, aut celsis in puppibus arma Caici. 
Navem in conspectu nullam ; tris litore cervos 
Prospicit errantis ; hos tota armenta sequuntur 185 

A tergo, et longum per vallis pascitur agmen. 
Constitit hic, arcumque manu celerisque sagittas 
Corripuit, fidus quae tela gerebat Achates; 
Ductoresque ipsos primum. capita alta ferentis 
Coniibus arboreis, sternit, tum vulgus, et omnem 190 
Miscet agens telis nemora inter frondea turbam j 
Nec prius absistit, quam septem ingentia victor 
Corpora fundat humi et numerum cum navibus aequet. 
Hinc portum petit, et socios partitur in omnis. 
Yina bOnus quae deinde cadis ouerarat Acestes 195 

170. Septem. The ship of Aeneas, with three driven on the rocka 
(v. 109), and three on the quicksands (v. 111), but relieved by Nep- 
tune and his attendants (v. 144, &c.). — 173. Salej aqua salse. — 
176, Nutrimenta, wood and leaves. Rapuk. Eapere here probabljr 
means, to kindle quickly by blowing, or by the rapid motion of 
Bome substance, creating a quick circulaiion of air. — 177. Cererem^ 
frumentum. See Ecl. v. 69. — 178. Fessi rerum. This ia a Greek 
construction. ^See Zumpt, ^437. — 181. Anthea, \n apposition with 
quem, which is used substantively. Si has the force of an. See 
Aen. iv. 110. — 183. Arma. Probably the shield which was exhi- 
bited at the stern of ships of war. See Aen. viii. 92. — 190. See a 
similar expression, derived from the branchdike appearance of the 
horns, in Ecl. vii. 30. — 193. Fundat. Fundit would express his 
torically the ifiCXyfundat denotes the motive which Aeneaa had in 
the perseverance shown in ihe words nec ahsistit. — 194. Note the 
use of in for inler. — 195. Deinde is to be connected with dividit. 
8ee Aen. iii. 609, v. 400. Acestes. Aeneas, in his wanderings, had 


Litore Trinacrio, dederatqae abeuntibns herofl^ 
Dividit, et dictis moerentia pectora mulcet : 

^O 8ocii — ^neque enim ignari sumus ante maloram — 
passi graviora,^abit deus his quoque finem. 
Yos et ^yllaeam rabiem penitusque sonantis 200 

Accestis scopuloB, vos et Cyclopia saxa 
Experti : revocate animos, moestumque timorem 
Mittite ; forsan et haac olim nieminisse juvabH^ 
Per varios casus, per tot discrimina rerum 
Tendimus in Latium, sedes ubi fata quietas 205 

Ostendunt; illic fas regna resurgere Trojae. 
Durate, et vosmet rebus servate secundis.' 
-^fTalia voce refert, curisque ingentibus aeger 
Spem voltu simulat, premit altum corde dolorem. 
lUi se praedae accingunt dapibusque futuris: 210 

Tergora deripiunt costis et viscera nudant ; 
Pars in frusta secant veribusque trementia figunt ; 
Litore aena locant alii, flammasque ministrant. 
Tum victu revocant viris, fusique per h^rbam 
Implentur veteris Ba^hi pinguisque fenhae. 215 

Postquam exempta fames epulis mensaeque remotae, 
Amissos longo socios sermone requirunt, 
Spemque metumque inter dubii, seu vivere credant, 
Sive extrema pati nec jam exaudire vocatos. 
Praecipue pius Aeneas nunc acris Oronti, 220 

Nunc Amyci casum gemit et crudelia secum 
Fata Lyci, fortemque Gyan, fortemque Cloanthum. 

£t jam finis erat, cum Jupiter aethere summo 
-'Despiciens mare velivolum terrasque jacentis 
Litoraque et latos populos, sic vertice coeli 225 

1 I !■ 

visited {Aen. v. 692, &.c.) Sicily {litus Trinacrium), where he had 
been entertained by the hospitable (Jbonut) Acestes, himself a Trojan. 
— 198. Nequcy &c. Similar consolation may be found in Hor. i. 7, 
30. — 200. Scyllaeam rabiem. See Ecl. vi. 75. — 201. AccestiSy for 
accessistis. Cyclopia. The Cyclops lived in Sicily, near Aetna. 
For the dangers incurred there by ttie followers of Aeneas, see Aen* 
iii. 554. &c. — 210. Se accingunt. The ancients cenerally wore long 
flowing robes ; hence, when they wished to work, they found it ne- 
cessary to gird tight their loose garments ; and thus ttccingere se and 
similar expressions come to denote simply to prepare for work. — > 
211. Viscera. See Georg. iv. 555. — 215. See Ecl. y. 69. Imfleor 
here follows ihe analogy of plenusj governiri^ the genitive. See 
Zumpt, ^ 4G3. — 216. Memotae. With the ancients, when the feast 
was done, the table was withdrawn. — 219. Phrases expressive of 
death. The latter is an allusion to the practice of calling upon the 
names of the dead {conclamare) immediately after their decease, with 
th« words ave or vale.— 225. Sic, In the attitude described before. 


ConBtitit et Libyae defixit lumiiia regnls. i- H ^"' *^ 
Atque illum talis jactantem pectore curaSj 
Tristior et lacrimis oculos suffusa nitentis, 
Adloquitnr Venus : ^O qui>res hominumque deamque 
Aetemis regis imperiis, et fulmine terres, - 230 

Quid meus Aeneas in te commiitere tantum, 
Quid Troes potuere, quibus, tot funera passis, 
Cunotus ob italiam terrarum clauditur orbis? 
Certe hinc Romanos olim, volventibus annis, 
Hinc fore ductores, revocato a sanguine Teucri, 235 

Qui mare, qui terras omni ditione tenerent, 
Pollicitus. Q\!iae te, genitor, sen^entia vertit ? 
Hoc equidem occasum Trojae tristisque ruinas 
Solabar, fatis contraria fata rependens. 
Nunc eadem fortuna viros tot casibus actos 240 

Insequitur. Quem das finem, rex magne, labommf 
Antenor potuit, mediis elapsus Achivis, 
Ulyricos penetrare sinus atque intima tutus 
Regna Liburnorum, et fontem superare Timavi, 
Unde per ora qpvem vasto cum murmure montis 245 
It mare proruptum, et jpelago premit arva sonanti. 
Hic tamen ille urbem Patavi sedesque locavit 
Teucrorum, et genti nomen dedit armaque fixit 
Troia ; nunc placida compostus pace quieflcit^ 
Nos, tua progenies, coeli quibus adnuis arcem, 250 

Navibus, infandum ! amissis, unius ob iram 
Prodimur, atque Italis longe disjungimur oris. 
Hic pietatis honos? sic nos in sceptra reponis?' 
Olli subridens hominum sator atqne deorum 
Tultu, quo coelum tempestatesque serenat, 255 

From tales curas (v. 227}» anxiety seems involved in his position, 
which led him to observe the situation of Aeneas. — 228. Triatior 
quam mos erat. Oculos auffusa. See Ecl. i. 55. -—233. 06, ne 
adeant. — 234. Volvent^s. Transitive verbs, principally tho8« 
denoting chanffe» are often used intransitively» or with the force oi 
the Greek middle voice. See Zumpt, ^ 145. — 238. Occasum $ola 
har, dolorem ob occasum. — 242. For the settlement of the Heneti 
or Veneti under Antenor, see Liv. i. 1. — 244. TimavL See EcL 
viii. 6. — 246. The Timavus, immediately on issuing frora its rocky 
sprin^, 18 compared to a^sea foaming with breakers. — 247. Tamen ; 
in spne of all the difiiculties of the country. Patavi. The modem 
Paoua. The construction is rare : the usual form would be urbem 
Patavium. — 248. Nomen. The inhabitants received the nanie of 
the Henelh Paphlagonian followers of Antenor. Figere arma is, to 
bang up arms as no longer needed — a sign of peace. — 249. The 
happiness of Antenor has been consummated by a peaceful death« 
— 251. Unius. Juno is referred to. — 254. OUi, an antiqnated fom 



Oscula libavit natae, dehinc talia fatur: 
'Parce metu, Cytherea, manent immcta tuonim 
Fata libij cerneti uibpm rt promissa Lavini 
Moenia, sublimemque ieics ail sidera coeli 
Ma^na.amum Aenean 3 neque me seatentii2. vertit. 260 
Hic^ibi — fabor enim, quando haec te cura remordet| 
. Longius et volvens fatorum arcana movebo — 
Bellum ingens geret Italia populoscjue ferocis 
Contundet, moresque viris et moenia ponet, 
Tertia dum Latio regnantem viderit aeHtas, 265 

Temaque transierint Rutulis hiberna subactis. 
At puer AscanioSj cui nunc cognomen lulo 
Additur — IIus erat, dum res stetit Ilia regno — 
Triginla magnos^volvendis mensibus^rbis 
Imperio explebit, regnumque ab sede Lavini 270 

Transferet, et longam muha vi muniet Albam. 
Hic jam ter centum totos regnabitur annos 
Gente sub Hectorea, donec regina sacerdos 
Marte gravis geminam partu dabit Ilia prolem\ 
Inde lupae fulvo nutricis tegmine laetus 275 

Romulus excipiet gentem, et Mavortia condet 
Moenia Romanosque suo de nomine dicet. 
His ego nec metas rerum nec tempora pont 
Imperium sine fine dedi. Quin aspera Junt>, 
Quae mare nunc terrasque metu coelumque fatigat, 280 

256. Dehinc. See 131. — 257. Metu. See Ecl. v. 29. Cytkerea,? 
fiame for Venus, from the island Cythera, near which she is said ti^ 
have sprung from the froth of ihe sea. — 261. Tiii. See Ecl. viii. 
6. — 262. The present participle has often the force of describing 
the act by whicn a resuit (here moveboj with the sense of removebo) 
is effected — volvensi hy unroiling the mysterious scroU — *I shali 
take away the bbscurity that hangs over the decree» of.* — 264. 
MoreSy leges ; see Aen. vi. 853. Ponere leges may be used, as well 
as ponere moenia, though different verbs wifl be required in Enffiish. 
— 266. Rutulis subactis ; eiiher the ablative absolute, or the dative 
governed by transierint. — 267. lulo. Besides this construction of 
the dative of the name, in attraction with that of the person c»t, w« 
find the nominative (lulus) in attraction with cojrnometij and also the 
genitive (luli) governed by cognomen. See Zumpt, $421. The 
statement is a poetical fiction, intBnded to gratify Augustus, adopted 
into the gens Julia. — 268. Res stetit regno ; see a fuller form, Jlcn. 
ii. 88 ; stahat re^no incolumis. In both places the notion conveyed 
by stare is, abiding firm in the possessioii of sovereignty. — 269. 
Magnos orbis. Annos. — 274. lliaj elsewhere called Rhea Sylvia, 
of royal blood (re^ina), and priestess of Vesta (sacerdos). — 276. JEr- 
eipere is, ' to receive in succession' — * to succeed to.* Then follows a 
fiplendid passage in honour of Roman glory and the famc of Augus 

LIBER 1. . 135 

CJonsilia in melius referet, mecumque foredit 

Romanos, rerum dominos, gentemque togatam. 

Sic placitum. Yeniet lustris labentibus aetas, 

Cum domus Assaraci Phthiam clarasque Mycenas 

Servitio preraet ac vicfis dominabitur Argis. 285 

Nascetur pulchra Trojanus origine Caesar, 

Imperium Oceano, famam qui terminet astris, 

Julius, a magno demissum nomen lulo. 

Hunc tu olim coelo, spoliis Orientis onustura, 

Accipies secura 3 vocabitur hic quoque votis. 290 

Aspera tura positis mitescent saecula bellis ; 

Cana Fides, et Vesta, Remo cum fratre Quirinus, 

Jura dabunt; dirae ferro et compagibus arctis 

Claudentur Belli portae , Furor impius intus, 

Saeva sedens s';per arma, et centum vinctus aenis 295 

Post tergum uodis, fremet horridus ore cruento.' 

)(^aec ait, et Maia genitum demittit ab alto, 

Ut terrae, utque novae pateant Carthaginis arces 

Hospitio Teucris, ne fati nescia Dido 

FiniDus arceret. Volat ille per aera magnum 300 

Remigio alarum, ac Libyae citus adstitit oris. 

Et jam jussa facit, ponuntque ferocia "^ 

Jiit jam lussa lacit, ponuntque lerocia Foerli ^ ' 
Corda-volente "^o^-i^Jm-imi^re^iim Afi^^ / 

Accipit in Teucros aYlnnam ffi^erfiqcre^enigrAm. 

At pius Aeneas, per noctem/plurima volvens, 305 

Ut primum lux ahna data est, exire locosque 
Explorare novos, quas vento accesserit oras, 
Qui teneant, nam inculta videt, hominesne feraene, 

282. Togatam, No ono but a Roman was allowed to wear the toga, 
See 73. — 283. Jupiter foretelis the subjugation of the victorioua 
Grecks (Phthia in Thessaly was the native country of Achilles, My- 
cenae the city of Agamemnon, and Arffos of Diomedes) under the 
Romanfi, descended from the Trojan Assaracus, the great-grand- 
father of Aeneas. — 286. Caesar. Probably Augustus, called, v. 288, 
Julius, for the reason stated at v. 267. Others refer this to Julius 
Caesar. — 287. A future clause introduced by a relative which is 
dependeDt on another future, is expressed by the present subjunc- 
tive : nasc^ur quitermiTiet. — 292. Quirinus^ the name of the deified 
Romulus. — 293. Dirae, &c. Referring to the fact, that the temple 
of Janus was shut, as a sign of peace, the third time from tho 
foundation of the city, in tne reign of Auguslus, b. c. 29. — 297. 
Maia genitum, Mercurium. — 301. Remigio. The similarity be 
tween sailing and flying involved in this expression appears also in 
Greek and in finglish, as 

*Saits between worlds and worlds.' 

Milt4m'8 Paradi»9 Lost, vi. 968. 

8ee Aen, vi. 19. — 308. VidH ; made long by the arsis. 


Quaerere constituit, sociisque exacta referre. 
Clasftem in convexo uemorum sub rupe cavatA 310 

Arboribus clausam circum atque horrentibus umbris 
Occulit; ipse uno graditur comitatos Achate, 
Bina manu lato crispans hastilia ferro. 
Cui mater media sese tulit obvia silva, 
Yirginis os habitumque gerens et virginis arma, 315 

SpartanaC) vel qualis equos Threissa fatigat 
Haipalyce volucremque fuga praevertitur Hebrum. 
Namqne humeris de more habilem suspenderat arcum 
Yena.tix, dederatque comam difTundere ventis, 
Nuda genu, nodoque sinus collecta fluentis. 320 

Xc prior, ' Heus, inquit, juvenes, monstrate, mearum 
Yidjstis si quam hic errantem forte sororum, 
Succinctam pharetra et maculosae tegmine lyncis, 
Aot spumantis apri cursum clamore prementem.' 
\ Sic Venus ; et Veneris contra sic filius orsus : 325 

'NuIIa tuarum audita mihi neque visa sororum, 
O—quam te memorem^ virgol namque haud tibi vultus 
Mortalis, nec vox hominem sonat — o, dea certe ; 
An Phoebi soror? an Nympharum sanguinis una? 
Sis felix, nostrumque leves, quaecumque, laborem, 330 
£t, quo 6ub coelo tandem, quibus orbis in oris 
Jactemur, doceas; ignari hominumque locorumque 
Erramus, vento huc vastis et fluctibus acti : 
Multa tibi ante aras nostra cadet hostia dextra.' 

Tum Venus: ^Haud equidem tali me dignor honore; 335 
Virginibus Tyriis mos est gestare pharetram, 
Purpnreoque alte suras vincire cothurno. 
Punica regna vides, Tyrios et Agenoris urbem ; 
Sed fines Libyci. genus intractabile bello. 

310. See the description, 159, &c. — ^312. Comitatus. Mark thepas* 
8176 sense, and that it is accompanied by the ablative. -;- 313. Binat 
duo, a poetical usage. — 317. Harpalyce, to whom Venus is here com* 
pared, was a Thracian princess, of manly accomplishments. H«- 
brum. See Ecl. x. 64. — 318. This description seems to have been 
aken from a statne of Diana. — 320. Nuda genu. Her tunic was» 
shortened, so as to reach only to the knee, and the folds were 
gathered together, so as to form a knot. Sinus collecta. Ed, i. 55. 
— 326. M arK audita mihi for the more ordinary a me. — 329. An — 
an do not follow each other as alternative particles ; that would re- 
quire utrumr-—an. Translate both clauses as distinct questions. — 
332. Locorumque. Qu^ elided before e of Erramus. — 337. Alte. 
The cothum.u8 reached high up the leg, to defend the wearer while 
hunting in brakes and thickets. — 338. Punica regna. — 339. JPmes 
Libyci. The immediate country is under the rule of Phoenicians— 
the district is in Libya. Fines is an apposition with gentts. See 

LIBER I. 137 

Imperium Dido Tyrla regit urbe profecta, 340 

Germanum fu^iens. Longa est injuria, longae 

Ambages; sed summa sequar fastigia rerum.V 

Huic conjunx Sychaeus erat^ ditissimus agri 

Phoenicum, et magno miserae dilectus amore, 

Cui pater intactam dederat^ primisque jugarat 345 

Ominibus. Sed regna Tyri germanus habebat 

Pygmalion, scelere ante alios immanior omnis. 

Quos inter medius venit furor. Ille Sychaeum 

Impius ante aras atque auri caecus amore 

Clam ferro incautum superat, securus amorum 350 

Germanae ; factumque diu celavit, et aegram, 

Multa malus simulans, vana spe lusit amantem. 

Ipsa sed in somnis inhumati venit imago 

CoDJugis, ora modis attollens pallida miris; 

Crudelis aras trajectaque pectora ferro 355 

Nudavil, caecumque domus scelus omne retexit. 

Tum <^lerare fugam patriaque excedere suadet, 

Anxiliumque viae veteris tellure recludit 

Thesauros, ignotum argenti pondus et auri. 

His commota fugam Dido sociosque parabat. 360 

Conveniunt, quibus aut odium crudele tyranni 

Aut metus acer erat ; navis, quae forte paratae, 

Corripiunt, onerantque auro. Portantur avari 

Pygmalionia opes pelago j dux femina facti. 

Devenere locos, ubi nunc ingentia cernes 365 

Moenia surgentemque novae Carthaginis arcem, 

Mercatique solum, facti de nomine Byrsam, 

Taurino quantum possent circumdare tergo.\^ 

Sed vos qui tandem, quibus aut venistis ab oris, 

Quove tenetis iter V Quaereuti talibus ille 370 

Suspirans imoqne trahens a pectore vocem : 

'O dea, si prima repetens ab origine pergam, 
£t vacet annalis nostrorum audire laborum, 
Ante diem clauso componet Vesper Olympo. 

fc»^— ■ M ■■.._— - - II ■ M , ^ -— — — ■ .l-ll.^l I ■■■ ■■■■— ■»■■■ I ■ 

Aen, iv. 40. Agenor, twin brother of Belus, was king of Phoeni- 
eia, and an ancestor of Dido, whose story Venus proceeds to narrate. 
—343. Observe the double construction of ditUsimus agri^ ditissi* 
w»u9 Fhomicufn. — 344. Miserae dilectus, See 326. — 347. Mark 
mimanior antCj &c.| instead of the ablative. — 350. Securus, sine 
cura. — 353. Inhumati, This increased the atrocity of the deed, a» 
the ancients regarded with religious horror the fate of being un- 
bnried. — 358. jTellure recludit : not w, but from the earth. — 365. 
Devenere locos. Mark the construction for ad locos. — 367. Byrsam^ 
commonly derived from BtJptra, a hide. — 374. Night is poeticalljf 
described. Vesper shuts the gate of heaven (seo Ech v. 50), ana 
prepares for the rest of the day-god. 
12* M 


Nos Troja anti^ua — si vestras forte per auris 375 

Trojae nomen iit — diversa per aequora vectos 

Forte sua Libycis tempestas appuJit oris. 

Sum pius Aeneas, raptos qui ex hoste Penatis 

Classe veho mecum, faroa super aethera notus. 

Italiam quaero patriam et genus ab Jove summo. 380 

Bis denis Phrygium conscendi navibus aequor, 

Matre dea monstrante viam, data fata secutus ; 

Yix septem convulsae undis Earoque supersunt. 

Ipse ignotus, egens, Libyae deserta peragrO; 

Europa atqne Asia pulsus.' Nec plura querentem 385 

Passa Yenus medio sic interfata dolore est : 

\Auisquis es, haud, credo, invisus coelestibus auras 
Yitalif carpis, Tyriam qui adveneris urbem. 
Perge mouo, atque hinc te reginae ad limina perfer. 
Namque tibi reduces socios classemque relatam 390 
Nuntio et in tutum versis aquilonibus actam^ 
Ni frustra augurium vani docuere parentes.\ 
Aspice bis senos laetantis agmine cycnos, 
Aetheria quos lapsa plaga Jovis ales aperto 
Turbabat coelo; nunc terras ordine longo 395 

Aut capere aut captas jam despectare videntur : 
Ut reduces illi luctunt stridentibus alis, 
£t coetu cinxere polum, cantusque dedere, 
Haud aliter puppesque tuae pubesque tuorum 

1—1^———»^— II I ■■ I ■■ — ■^— — ■^— ■ I . — ■■ I ■ .1 ..■..■■■■■ !■ ■ ■ » ■ ■ »■ ■■ .1.11 I ■ ■■»»»■■»■■■■ ■ ■ ■■^— — ^— 1^^ 

377. Forte «twi, casu tempestati proprio. — 378. Pius. The lead- 
ing characteristic of Aeneas in Virgil expresses the firmest posses- 
fiion of ali the natural afiections, which is the proper meaning of 
piu$f as to the gods, to one's father or children. This Virgii main* 
tains throughoat in his delineation of Aeneas. — 379. Fama, &.c. 
This is not so much personal boasting, as a reference to the celebrity 
of all those concerned in the Trojan war. — 380. Referring to the 
Wend that connected Dardanus, the ancestor of Aeneas, and son 
otJupiter, with Etruria. See Aen. iii. 163, &c. — 381. Denis. Seo 
313. — 383. £uro. These words for the winds are used without 
any special reference to the direction from which thcy biow ; as in 
line 391, aguilonibus. — 388. Advenerisi with ^ut, has the force of 
quoniam advenisti. It gives her ground for stating that he is haud 
invifus coelestibus. Auras^ &c., equivalent to vivis. — 389. The 
Tper in pergo (perrego) and perfer expresses the intensity, the com- 
pletion of the action. — 391. versis aquHonibua ; either the abla- 
tive absolute, or the dative, governed by actam. — 393. Senos, for 
sex. See w. 266, 313. Cycnos. The swan was sacred to Venus. 
—394. Jovis ales, aquila. — 395. TurhaJbatj was lately. — 396. Ca* 
pere seems here to be equivalent to eligere, to select a place on 
which to alight. — 398. The perfect tenses mark what has preceded 
their present joyful return to the safe earth. Cantus, For the 
hoarse note of the swan. See Aen, xi. 458. 


LIBER I. 139 

Aut portum tenet, aut pleno subit oetia velo. 40f 

Perge modo, et, qua te ducit via, dirige gressum/ 
V Dixit, et avertens rosea cervice refulsit, 
Ambrosiaeque comae divinum vertice odorem 
Spiravere; pedes vestis defluxit ad imos; 
£t vera incessu patuit dea. Ille ubi matrem 405 

Agnovit, tali fugientem est voce secutus : 
' Quid natum toties, crudelis tu ^uoque, falsis 
Ludis imaginibus? cur dextrae jungere dextram 
Non datur, ac veras audire et reddere voces?* 
Talibus incusat, gressuraque ad moehia tendit. 410 

At Venus obscuro gradientis aere sepsit, 
£t multo hebulae circum dea fudit amictu, 
Cernere ne quis eos, neu quis contingere posset, 
Molirive moram, aut veniendi poscere causas. 
Ipsa Paphum sublimis abit, sedesque revisit 415 

Laeta suas, ubi templum ilii, centumque Sabaeo 
Thure. calent arae sertisque recentibus halant. 
\Corripuere viam interea, qua semita monstrat. 
Jamque ascendebant coliem, qui plurimus urbi 
Imminet adversasque adspectat desuper arces. 420 

Miratur molem Aeneas, magalia quondam, 
Miratur portas strepitumque et strata viarum. 
Instant ardentes Tyrii ; pars ducere muros, 

401. Modo. This brings back the mind to 389.— 402. Rosea, 
The same remark applies to this as to purpureum. Ecl. ix. 40. — 
403. Ambrosiaey used by the deities as an unguent. — 404. Defiuxit. 
Her huntress dress reached only to her knees. See 320. — 405. In* 
cessu. Compare vv. 46, 497, for the notion of stateliness involved 
in incedo. The walk of the deities was represented as a gliding 
motion, nnlike the mortai pedetentim. Ded ; the a not elided. Jlle, 
with its emphatic force, 'he on the other hand.' — 409. Veras, 
wherein they would speak as mother and son — their true position. 
—410. Gressum. The gait of Venus was tncc«»w« ; XheiXQ gressus, 
— 412. Dea. From its position, it is evident that this is no mere 
epithet applied to Venus, but has ihis force — * by her divine power.' 
—415. Jraphum. A town on the south-west of Cyprus, celebrated 
for its worship of Venus. — 416. Sabaeo. The south-west of Ara- 
bia Feliz was called Sabaea. It was celebrated for its wealth (see 
the account of the queen of Sheba, Saba, in the Scriptures) and foi 
its Bpices. See Georg. i. 57, ii. 117; Miiton's Paradise Lost — 

• North-east winds blow 
Sabaean odours from the Bpicy shores 
Of Araby the blest.*— iv. 161. 

No blood was shed in the worship of Venus. — 419. PlunmuSy al- 
tissimus collium qui adstant. — 421. For a description of the primi- 
tive wigwams {magalia) of the Numidians, see Salluat, BeU. Ju' 
gurth., c. 18.— 423. Ducere. The historical infinitive, taking th« 


Molirique arcem et manibas subvolyere saxa, 

Pars optare locum tecto et concludere sulco ', 425 

Jura magistratusque legunt sanctumque senatuoCj 

Hic portus alii enodiutit; hic alta theatris 

Fundamenta locant alii, immanisque columnas 

Rupibus excidunt; scenis decora alta futuris. 

Qualis apes aestate nova per florea rura 430 

£xercet sub sole labor, cum gentis adultos 

Educunt fetus, aut cum liquentia mella 

Stipant et<iulci distendunt nectare cellas, 

Aut onera accipiunt venientum, aut agmine facto 

Ignavum fucos pecus a praesepibus arcent ; 435 

Fervet opus, redolent^ue thymo fragrantia mella. 

*0 fortunati, quorum jam moenia surgunt!' 

Aeneas ait, et fastigia suspicit urbis. 

Infert se septus nebula — mirabile dictu — 

Per medios, miscetque viris, neque cernitur ulli. 440 

Xucus in urbe fuit raedia, laetissimus umbrae, 
Quo primum jactati undis et turbine Poeni 
EfToclere loco signum, quod regia Juno 
Monstrarat, caput acris equi ; sic nam fore bello 

^Egregiam et facilem victu per saecula gentem. 445 

'Tlic templum Junoni ingens Sidonia Dido 
Condebat, donis opulentum et numine divae, 
Aereacuigradibus surgebant limina nexaeque 
Aere trabes, foribus cardo stridebat aenis. 
Hoc primum in luco nova res oblata timorem 450 

Leniit, hic primum Aeneas sperare salutem 
Ausus et amictis mellus confidere rebjjs. 
Namque sub ingenti lustrat dum singula templo, 

place of the imperfect indicative, and conveying the notion of anj- 
mated progression. Zumpt, ^599. — 425. Sulco. The plough Oi' 
Bpade was used by the Romans to mark boundary lines. — 426. Le» 
gunt is applied to the three substantives, but will require in Eng- 
lish one verb, equivalent to constituunt, when used with jurat and 
another with the other two. — 430. There is implied in this sen- 
tence — Talis labor Foenos exercet, qualisj &c. — 432. JJquentia, 
Similarly -4en. ix. 679. Lfquentia. Aen. v. 238, 776. — 438. Ae- 
neas saw all this while crossing the hill, but he was now at the foot 
of it ; hence suspidt. — 441. In conformity with this legend, the 
Carthaginian coins bore a horse^s head. — 445. Victu. Is this from 
vivo or vinco ? As the horse is useful in war, and in transporting 
goods, probably Virffil alludes to the twofold opulence of Carthage 
derived from war and merchandise. Then facilem victu will mean 
— * abounding in the resources of easy affluence.' — 448. Nexaeques 
que elided before Aere in the next line. — 449. Aere trabes ; eith»;; 
the posts were brazen or more probably were nexae aere. 

LIB£R I. 14t 

Reginam opperiers, dum, quae fortuna sit urbi, 
Artificumque manus inier se operumque laborem 455 
Miratur, videt Iliacas ex ordine pugnas 
Bellaque jam fama totum vulgata per orbem, 
Atridas, Priamumque, et saevum ambobus Achillen. 
Constitit, et lacrymans, 'Quis jam locus,' inquit, *Achate, 
Quae regio in terris nostri non piena laboris? 460 

£n Priamus. Sunt hic etiam sua praemia laudi, 
Sunt lacrymae rerum et mentem mortalia tangunt. 
'^lve metus; feret haec aliquam tibi fama salutem.' 
Sic ait, atque animum pictura pascit inani, 
Multa gemens, largoque humectat flumine voltum. V 465 
Namque videbat, uti bellantes Pergama circum 
Hac fugerent Graii, premeret Trojana juventus j 
Hac Phryges, instaret curru cristalus Achilles. 
Nec procul hinc Rhesi niveis tentoria velis 
Agnoscit lacrymans, primo quae prodita sonrmo 470 

Tydides multa vastabat caede cruentus, 
Ardentisque avertit eq^uos in castra, prius quam 
Pabula gustassent Trojae Xanthumque bibissent. 
Parte alia fugiens amissis Troilus armis, 
Irifelix puer atque impar congressus Achilli, 475 

Fertur equis, curruque haeret resupinus inani, 
Lora tenens tamen : huic cervixque comaeque trahuntur 
Per terram, et versa pulvis inscribitur hasta. 
Interea ad templum non aequae Palladis ibant 

'458. Achilles had quarrelled with the Greeks, especially with 
Agamemnon, therebv damaging the cause of Menelaus, both in- 
cluded in the word Atridas ; and he was the relentless foe of the 
Trojans, here represented by Priam. — 461. Hic etiam is to be con- 
sidered as belonging to sunt lacrymae rerum (the tears of, due to 
hfe'8 incidents), and to tangunt, &c. — 463. In his emotion, Aeneas 
forgets Achates, and soliloquises. — 465. In this description of the 
picture, composed of six compartments, a great deal depends ia 

freserving the notion of the tenses, as given by Virgil. —466-468. 
n this first compartment Virgil has probably in view the slaughter 
of the Trojans by Achilles, when infuriated by the death of Patro- 
clus. Fugerent, were (represented in the picture as) in the act of 
fleeing; and so with the other imperfects. — 469-473. The second 
compartment represents the capture of the horses of Rhesus. See 
Ovid, "Met. xiii. 249, &-c. — 472. Avertit, the present i» driving 
away,. but with the real force of an imperfect ; hence gustassent.^ 
473. Priws quamgustaBsent. This subjunctive indicates that it was 
the intention of Diomede (Tydiiles) to driye away the horses before, 
&.C. — 474-478. The third compartment is that ot Troilus, Priam*s 

Joungest son, slain by Achilles, dragged by his chariot. — 478. 
^ulvU; long by the arsis. — 479-482. The fourth compartment ia 
atax of ihe Trojandames ^fiering to Pallas the peplust orsacred robo. 


Crinibas Iliades passis peplumque ferebant, 48fl 

Suppliciter tristes et tunsae pectora palmis; 
Diva solo fixos oculos aversa tenebat. 
Ter circum Iliacos raptaverat Hectora muros, 
Exanimumque auro corpus vendebat Acbilles. 
Tum vero ingentem gemitum dat pectore ab imo, 485 
Ut spolia, ut curruS; utque ipsum corpus amici^ 
Tendentemque manus Priamum conspexit inermis. 
Se quoque principibus permixtum agnovit Achivis 
Eoasque acies et nigri Memnonis arma. 
Ducit Amazonidum lunatis agmina peltis 490 

Penthesilea furens, mediisque in millibus ardet, 
Aurea subnectens exsertae cingula mammae, 
Bellalrix. audetque viris concurrere virgo. 
^'Waec dum Dardanio Aeneae miranda videntur, 
Dum stupet, obiutuque haeret defixus in uno, 496 

Regina ad templum, forma pulcherrima Dido, 
Incessit, magna juvenum stipante calerva. 
Qualis in Eurolae ripis aut per juga Cynthi 
Exercet Diana choros, quam mille secutae 
Hinc atque hinc glomeranlu r Oreades j illa pharetram 50O 
Fert humero, gradiensque deas supereminet omnis; 
Latonae tacitum pertentant gaudia pectus: 
Talis erat Dido, talem se laeta ferebat 
Per medios, instan^ operi regnisque futuris. 
Tum foribus divae, media testudine templi, 505 

Septa armis, solioque alte subnixa, resedit. 
Jura dabat legesque viris, operumque laborem 
Partibus aequabat justis, aut sorte trahebat : 
Cum subito Aeneas concursu accedere magno 
Anthea Sergestumque videt fortemque Cloanthum, 510 
Teucroruraque alios, ater quos aequore turbo . 
Dispulerat penitusque alias avexerat oras. 

483-487. The fifth compartment is that of Friam ransoming the 
dead body of Hector. SeeAen. ii. 272. — 488-493. In this sizth 
compartment we have a general engagement, wherein figure Ae- 
neas, the Greek princes, the black Memnon, son of Tithonus and 
Eos or Aurora, with his Aethiopian followers, Penthesilea at the 
head of the Amazons, with their crescent bucklers, herself with 
naked breast and golden baldrick. — 498. Eurotae. See Ecl. vi. 83. 
Cynthi. A mountain in the island Delos, Apollo and Di- 
ana. — 500. OreadeSj from Spos, the mountain nymphs. 'llla. See 
405.— -502. Latonae. The mother of Apollo and Diana. — 505. In 
tbe middle of the temple, where the vaulted rooi ijtestudo) was over- 
ftead, but at the door of the inner holy place, where the goddess had 
a statue. It was usual in Rome (see 73) for the senate to meet in a 

LIBER I. 148 

Obstupait simul ipse, simal percussus Achates 
La^^titiaque metuque; avidi conjungere dextraa 
Artlebaiil ; sed res animos incognita turbat. 515 

Dissimulant, et nube cava speculantur amicti, 
Quae fortuna viris, classem quo litore linquant, 
Quid veniant ; cunctis nam lecti navibus ibant, 
Orantes veniam, et templum clamore petebant. 
^ostquam introgressi et coram data copia fandi| 520 
Maximus Ilioneus placido sic pectore coepit : 
*0 Regina, novam cui condere Jupiter urbem 
Juf»titiaque dedit genlis frenare superbas, 
Troes te miseri, ventis maria omnia vecti, 
Oramns : prohibe infandos a navibus ignis, 525 

Parce pio generi, et propius res aspice nostras, 
Non nos aut ferro Libycos populare Penatis 
Venimus, aut raptas ad litora vertere praedas; 
Non ea vis animo, nec tanta superbia victis. 
Est locus, Hesperiam Graii cognomiredicunt, 530 

Terra antiqua, potens armis atque ubere glebae; 
Oenotri coluere viri ; nunc fama, minores 
Italiam dixisse ducis de nomine gentem. . 
Hic cursus fuit : 

Cum subito adsurgens fluctu nimbosus Orion 535 

In yada caeca tulit, pcniiusque procacibus austris 
Perqae undas, superante salo, perque invia saxa 
Dispulit; hnc pauci vestris adnavimus oris. 
Quod genus hoc hominum? quaeve hunc tam barbara 

Permittit patria? hospitio prohibemur arenae; 540 

Bella cient, primaque vetant consistere terra. 

515. The reason of their perplexity is expressed by the ndjective 
incognita. -^ 521. MaximuSt natu et auctoritate. — 526. Fropius^ 
accuratius. — 527. Povulare. Populatum would be the prose con- 
ptruction. Fenates, tne gods presiding over the household, here 
equivalent to domos, sedes. — 530. Hesperus (?o-7repo(), the evening 
star — the west. Hesperia, any land west of the speaker; Spain 

«ometimes ; here Italy, called (569) Hesperia magna 532. Oenotri, 

m tribe of Petaseians, early inhabitants of the west of Southern 
Italy. — 533. Italus ; a fabulous prince of Italy is alluded to. Such 
Dames, derived from the country, but said to give name to it. are 
called eponymous. — 534. Hicj &c. The reader wili often lind in 
the Aeneid such unfinished lines. arising probably from the prema- 
tore death of Virgil beforo he had time to revise his great poem. - 
535. Orion^ a famous hunter in the old mythes, then a consteiiation 
whose rising was supposed to be accompanied with violent storms. 
See Aen. iii. 517, iv. 52. Mark short, in iii. 517 long — 54(K 
Folrta, referring to tbe prcvious hominutn. 

144 AENBID08. 

m genus humanum et mortalia temnitis arma, 

At sperate deos memores fandi atque nefandi. 

Rex erat Aeneas nobis, quo juslior alter 

Nec pietate fuit, nec bello major et armis. 545 

Quem si fata virum servant, si vescitur aura 

Aetheria, neque adhuc crudellbus occubat umbris^ 

Non metus, officio ne te certasse priorem 

Poeniteat. V Sunt et Siculis regionibus urbes 

Arvaque, Trojanoque a sanguine clarus Acestes. 650 

Quassatam ventis liceat subducere classem, 

Et silvis aptare trabes et stringere remos } 

Si datur Itaiiam, sociis et rege recepto, 

Tendere, ut Italiam laeti Latiumque petamus ; 

Sin absumpta salus, et te, pater optume Teucrum, 555 

Fontus habet Libyae, nec spes jam restat luli, 

At freta Sicaniae saltem sedesque paratas, 

Unde huc advecti, regemque petamus Acesten.' 

Talibus Ilioneus; cuncti smiul ore fremebant 

Dardanidae. 560 

Tum breviter Dido, vultum demissa, profatur: 
'Solvite corde metum, Teucri, secludite curas. 
Res dura et regni novitas me talia cogunt 
Moliri, et late finis custode tueri. 

Quis genus Aeneadum, quis Trojae nesciat urbem, 565 
Yirtutesque virosque, aut tanti incendia belli? 
Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Poeni, 
Nec tam aversus equos Tyria Sol jungit ab urbe. 
Seu vos Hesperiam magnam Saturniaque arva, 
Sive Erycis finia regemque optatis Acesten, 570 

Auxilio tutos dimittam, opibusque juvabo. 
Vultis et his mecum pariter considere regnis? 
Urbem quam statuo, vestra estj subducite navis; 

%— I »-■ I II ■■■ ■ l»lll»l.«.l ■■ -■ .1 ■ ■ 111 ■■ — II.M». ■■■■ ■! ■ — ■■■■ ^ 

543. At, saltcm ; a common meaning of at. Sperate ; see JEcl, 
viii. 26. — 548. Officio certasse prior, means, *to have taken the lead 
m the mutual contest of kinaly deeds.* — 550. Acestes. See 196. 

— 551, &c. Either Aeneas would be restored, and then the Tro- 
jans would repair to Italy, or, if not, thev would return to Sicily. 

— 557. At. See 543. — 564. Moliri. This verb always indicates 
effort. Here it insinuates the reluctance with which she had re- 
course to such expedients. — 565. Quis nesclat. A strong potential 
form — ' who so ignorant as not to know of.* — 568. Almding to a 
notion, that cold regions produced stupid inhabitants. — 569. See 
530. Satumia. Saturn, dethroned by Jupiter, was said to have 
taken refuge in Italy. — 570. Erycis. A mountain in the west ol 
Sicily ; also a king of that name. See 533. — 573. We may notice 
four forms of the construction and position of *the antecedent and 
relative. 1. Tbe substantive may be in the antecedent clause, and 

LIBSR I. 14d 

Tros Tyriueque mihi nullo dincrtmine agetnr. 

Atque ntinam rex ipse Noto compulsus eodem 575 

Adforet Aeneas ! £quidem per litora certos 

Dimittam et Libyae lustrare extrema jubebo, 

Si^uibus ejectus silvis aut urbibus errat.' 

"wis animum adrecti dictis et fortis Achates 

£t pater Aeneas jamdudum erumpere nubem 580 

Arcfebant. Prior Aenean compeliat Achates : 

'Nate dea, quae nunc animo sententia surgit ? 

Omnia tnta vides, classem sociosque receptos. 

Unus abest, medio in fluctu quem vidimus ipsi 

Submersum ; dictis respondent cetera matris.' 585 

Yix ea fatus erat, cum circumfusa repente 

Scindit se nubes et in aethera purgat apertum. 

Bestitit Aeneas claraque in luce refulsit, 

Os humerosque deo similis ; namque ipsa decoram 

Caesariem nato genetrix lumenque juventae 590 

Purpureum et laetos oculis adflarat honores : 

Quale manus addunt ebori decus, aut ubi flavo 

Argentum Par^sve lapis circumdatur auro. 

Tum sio reginam adloquitur, cunctisque repente 

Improvisus ait: 'Coram, quem quaeritis, adsum, 595 

Troius Aeneas, Libycis ereptus ab undis. 

sola infandos Trojae miserata labores, 

Quae nop, reliquias Danaum, terraeque marisque 

Omnibus exhaustos jam casibus, omnium egenos, 

Urbe, domo socias, grates persolvere dignas 600 

Non opis est nostrae, Dido, nec quidquid ubique est 

Grentis Dardaniae, magnum quae sparsa per orbem. 

nnexi^resscd in the relative clause : quam statuOi urbs vestra est. 
This is the niost common construction. 2. The Bubstantive may 
be expressed in both clauses : quam urbem statuo, vestra urbs est, 
Caesar is fond of this iteration. 3. The substantive may be ex« 
pressed in the relative clause, and unexpressed in the antecedent 
clause, the relative coming first : quam urbem statuo, vestra est. 
4. As in the third method, the relative coming last. Both these 
last are rare. In this and similar instances, the circumstance of the 
•ubstantive coming first seems to demand attention to the substan* 
thre : * The city which I am rearing— -even it.* — 576. CertoSt fidos. 

— 584. See 113, &c.— 585. See 390, «Slc.--587. Both tdndit and 
jmrffat refer to »e. — 589. For this construction, see Zumpt, ^ 458. 
-—591. Furpureum. See Eel. ix. 40. — 593. Fariu». Paros was an 
island of the Cyclades, celebrated for its sparkline marble. The 
comparison is between Aeneas and his increased oeauty, and the 
kirilliant effects produced by artistic skill on ivory, silver, or marble. 

— 601. Opis, &>c, A singular expression, equivaient to 'non pofl- 

13 N 

146 ASN1ID08. 

Di tlbi, 81 qna pios respectant nnmina, si qaid 

Usquam justitia est et mens sibi conscia recti, 

Praemia digna leiant. Quae te tam laeta tulerunt 6(^5 

Saecula? qui tanti laleiu gpmicrc parentesl 

In freta dum fluvii current, dum moutibus umbrae 

Lustrabunt convexa, polus dum sidera pascet, 

Semper honos nomenque tuum laudesque manebunt, 

Quae me cumque vocant terrae.' Sic iatus, amicum 619 

Ilionea petit dextra, laevaque Serestum, 

Post alios, fortemque Gyan, fortemque Cloanthum. 

P>Obstupuit primo adspectu Sidonia Dido, 

Casu deiuvle viri tanto, et sic ore locuta est : 

^Quis te. nate dea, per tanta pericula casus 615 

Insequitur? quae vis immanibus applicat orisl 

Tune ille Aeneas, quem Dardanio Anchisae 

Alma Veniis Phrygii genuit Simoentis ad undam ? 

Atque equidem Teucrum memini Sidona venire 

Finibus expulsum patriis, nova regna petentem 620 

Auxilio Beli ; genitor tum Belus opimam 

Vaslabat Cyprum, et victor ditione tenebat. 

Tempore jam ex illo casus mihi cognitus urbis 

Trojanae nomenque luum regesque Pelasgi. 

Ipse hostis Teucros insigni laude ferebat, 625 

Seque ortum antiqua Teucrorum ab slirpe volebat. 

Quare agite, q^tectis, juvenes, succedite nostris. 

Me quoque per multos similis fortuna labores 

Jactatam hac demum voluit consistere terra. 

Non ignara mah" miseris succurrere disco.' 630 

Sic memorat j simul Aenean in regia ducit 

Tecta, simul divom lemplis indicil Konorem. 

Nec minus interea sociis ad litora mittit 

Viginli tauros, magnorum korrentia centum 
■ — " — ■ ' ' ' ■ 

607. In freta^ &c. For a similar passage, see Ecl. v. 76, &c. — 
608. Convexa, valles. Polus, the heaven (see 90) is represented aa 
the pasture ground from which ihe stars are fed with celestial fire. 
—-611. llionea, ^lXtovffa. — 614. Ore, not pleonastic, but to be trans* 
lated 'aloud.* — 617. Dardanio Anchisae ; d not elided. — 619. Tcm- 
trum ; son of Telamon. Returning from Troy without Ajax, who 
had kilied himself, he was driven by his father from his native Sa- 
lamis, and founded Salamis in Cyprus. Memini venire. See EH, 
i. 17. — 621. Beli. See 338. — 625. Teucros ; the Trojans were so 
named from another Teucer (Aen. iii. 108) ; he gave his daughter to 
the Tuscan Dardanus, who succeeded to the throne. — 626. By hia 
mother llesione, daughter of the Trojan Laomedon. — 632. Simul, 
&c. This supplicatio or thanksgivin^ is according to the Roinan 
method, not tnat of Homeric times, m which the victim was slain 
in tho hou«e of the host. Sec 73. 

LIBER I. 147 

Terga suum. pinguis centnm cum matribus agnos, 635 

Munera laetitiamque dii. 

At domus interior regali splendida luxu 

Instruitur, mediisque parant convivia tectis: 

Arte laboratae vestes ostroque superbo, 

Ingens argentum mensis, caelataque in auro 640 

Fortia facta patrum, series longtssima rerum, 

Per tot ducta viros antiquae ab origine gentis. 

^neas — neque enim patrius consistere mefitem 
Passus amor — rapidum ad navis praemittit Achaten, 
Ascanio ferat haec, ipsumque ad moenia ducat ; 645 
Omnis in Ascanio cari stat cura parentis. 
Munera praeterea, Iliacis erepta ruinis, 
Ferre jubet, pallam signis auroque rigentem, 
£t circumtexlum croceo velamen acantho, 
Ornatus Argivae Helenae, quos illa Mycenis, 650 

Pergama cum peteret inconcessosque Hymenaeos, 
Extulerat, matris Ledae mirabile donum; 
Praeterea sceptrum, Ilione jquod gesserat olim, 
Maxima natarum Priami, colioque monile 
Baccatum, et duplicem gemmis auroque coronam. 655 
Haec celerans iter ad navia tendebat Achates. 

At Cytherea novas artes, nova pectore versat 
Consilia, ut faciem mutatus et ora Cupido 
Pro dulci Ascanio veniat, donisque furentem 
Incendat reginam, atque ossibus implicet ignem ; 660 
Quippe domum timet ambiguam Tyriosque biiinguis; 
Urit atrox Juno, et sub noctem cura recursat. 
Ergo his aligerum dictis affatur Amorem : 
*Nate, meae vires, raea magna potentia, solus, 

636. J)ii. For diei ; to celebrate the dav. Dci, that is, Bacchi 
^ee Aen iz. 337), is also read. Then we snould have laetitiamque 
JDei ; vinum, connected with tauros, terga, agnos, and munerat 
would be a common attribute of the four, and in apposition with 
them. — 645. Ferat, For this use of the subjunctive &{xeT praemittit 
without ut, see Zumpt, ^624. — 646. Stat infers constancy. See 
268. — 650. Argivae, in its wider sense of Grecian, and with still 
greater iicence. Mycenis for Sparta. — 651. Peterlt by the arsis. — 
652. Ledae, wife of Tyndarus, king of Sparta, mother of Castor, 
Potlax, Cljrtemnestra, and Helen. — 655. Baccatum, so cailed from 
the berry-like ehape of pearls. Duplicem refers to the twofoid ma- 
terials. — 657. Cytkerea ; see 257. Artes referring to faciem, &c. ; 
amtUia to donisque, &c. — 658. Faciem, the whole appearance ; 
_ »ra, the features. — 659. Join incendat donis. Furentem, ut furat. 
— 661. JBilinguis. Compare the well-known expression Punica 
jiden. — 664. Join solus with qui, Some place no comma after/)o- 
teniia, joining moIus with mea magna potentia, in this senseV qoi 
$olus es. 

148 AENEID08. 

Nate, patris stimmi qni tela Typhoia temnia^ 66fl 

Ad te confugio et supplex tua numina posco. 
Frater ut Aeneas pela^o tuus omnia circum 
Litora jactetur odiis Juoonis iniquae, , 

Nota tibi, ftt nnfttm Hnlniftti Raftpg^clnj^rft. \ 

Hunc Phoenissa tenet Dido blandisque moratur 670 

Vocibus ; et vereor, quo se Junonia vertant 

Hospitia; haud tanto cessabit cardine rerum. 

Quoeirca capere ante dolis et cingere flamma 

Reginam meditor, ne quo se nnmine mutet, 

Sed magno Aeneae mecum teneatnr amore. 675 

Qua facere id possis, nostram nunc accipe mentem : 

Regius accitu cari genitoris ad urbem 

Sidoniam pner ire parat, mea maxima cura, 

Bona ferens, pelago et flammis restantia Trojae ; 

Hunc ego sopilum somno super alta Cythera 680 

Aut super Idalium sacrata sede recondam, 

Ne qua scire dolos mediusve occurrere possit. 

Tu faciem illius, noctem non amplius unam, 

Falle dolo, et notos pueri puer indue vultus, 

Ut, cum te gremio accipiet laetissima Dido 685 

Regalis inter mensas laticemque Lyaeum, 

Cum dabit amplexus atque oscula dulcia figet, 

Occulttim inspires ignem fallasque veneno.' 

Paret Amor dictis carae genetricis, et alas 

Exuit, et gressu gaudens incedit Juli. 690 

At Venus AscanTo placidam per mem]3ra qnietem 

Irrifi^t, et fotnm gremio dea tollit in altos 

IdaTiae locos, ubi mollis amaracus illum 

Floribus et dulci adspirans complectitur umbra. 

-Jfcl— ^»^M»l I ■ -lll.l ■■ ■ ■-!■ I ■■ ■■ 

665. Tela Typhoiaf fulmina. With these Jupiter struck dowa 
the giant Typnoeus, and buried him under Mount ^tna. — 666, 
Numina^ divmam opem. — 669. Nota for notum, in imitation of the 
Greek idiom. — 674. Ne involves iit non, both qualifying OT»<e<, ut 
alone qualifying teneatur, Numine referring prineipally to Juno. — 
680. Sopitum, Perfect participles often indicate an act prior to, and 
performed by, the same person as that belongins to the principal 
verb; here sopiam et recondam, Sopire infers deep slecp. — 681, 
Idaltum, A mountain in Cyprus, where was a temple satred to Ve- 
nus. —684. Falle. Fallere faciem is to counterfeit the aspect of an- 
other. Observe the collocation of pueri puer. — 686, Laticem; 
properly runninc water — sometiraes applied to wine copiously used. 
JLyaeumf an epitnet of Bacchus, from Avato^, and that from Xt;«, as 
(reeing man's mind from cares. — 690. Incedit ; referring to his arch 

Sride m imitating the gait of Julus. See 405.-691. Atcanio^ the 
yativu» commodi, Zumpt, ^405. — 692. Resolve /o^tfin tollit as in 
680. . -^ 

LIBER I. 149 

Jamque ibat dicto parens et dona Cupido 695 

Regia portabat Tyriis, duce laetus Achate. 

Cum venit, aulaeis jam se regina superbis 

Aurea composuit sponda mediamque locavit ', 

Jam pater Aeneas et jam Trojana juventus 

Conveniunt, stratoque super discumbitur ostro. 700 

Dant famuli manibus lymphas, Cereremque canistrit 

Expediunt, tonsisque ferunt mantelia villis. 

Qumquaginta intus famulae, quibus ordine longam 

Cura penum struere, et flammis adolere PenatiS; 

Centum aliae, totidemque pares aetate ministri, 705 

Qui dapibus mensas onerent et pocula ponant. 

Nec non et Tyrii per liraina laeta frequentes 

Convenere, toris jussi discumbere pictis. 

Mirantur dona Aeneae, mirantur lulum, 

Flagrantisque dei vultus simulataque verba, 710 

Pallamque et pictum croceo velamen ac^tho. 

Praecipue infelix, pesti devota futurae, 

£xpleri mentem nequit ardescitque tuendo 

Phoenissa, et pariter puero donisque movetur. 

Ille nbi complexu Aeneae coiloque pependit 715 

£t magnnm falsi implevit genitoris amorem, 

Reginam petit. Haec oculis, haec peciore toto 

Haeret et interdum gremio fovet, inscia Dido 

Insideat quantus miserae deus. At memor ille 

Matris Acidaliae paulatim abolere Sychaeum 720 

Incipit, et vivo tentat praeverlere amore 

Jam pridem resides animos desuetaque corda. 

695. Virgil preserves great exactness in the use of his tenses. 
See 467 and 697. Here ih-xt and portdbat mark what Cupid wag 
doin^ at the time that Ascanius slumbered in the perfumea groves 
of Idaliam.— 697. For the reason mentioued in the previous note, 
be carefnl to translate vinit composuity &c. according to their strict 
times.— 700. Strato ostro, ledia purpureis. — 701. Cererm, panes, 
88 in Ecl. V. 69. There are^ three sets of slaves here described. 
One attendsto the guests, aYiother to the cooking, and the third to 
the banquet.— 702. Tonsigque. See Georg. iv. 377. Observe, wa- 
ter to wash^he hands, towels to dry them, and bread for the tables. 
— 703. Lon^am penum. Dapium longam seriem. — 704. Struere, 
the DOminative oi the infinitive after erat involved in cura. Flam" 
mis, &c. Alluding to the fact, that the Penates were worshipped 
in the innermost part of the house, exposed to the smoke of the 
hearths, where the cooking was goingon, — 708. Pictis acu.— 711. 
See 649. — 713. Expleri mentem. See Zumpt, $458. — 716. Imple 
mit—petit» See 697. — 720. Acidaliae. From a spring in Boeotia, 
sacred to the Graces, the attendants of Venus. — 721. Praevertere. 
What is the force of prae t Perhaps, prae Sychaeo, ' in preferenc» 



i^ostquam prima quies epuliB, mensaeque remotae, 
Crateras magnos statuunt et vina coronaut. 
Fit strepitus tectis, vocemque per ampla volutant 725 
Atria ; dependent lychni laquearibus aureis 
Incensi, et noctem flammis funalia vincunt. 
Hic regina gravem gemmis auroque popo.scit 
Implevitque mero pateram, quam Belus et omnes 
\A Belo soliti ; tum facta silentia tectis : 730 

' Jupiter, hospitibus nam te dare jura loquuntur, 
Hunc laetum Tyriisque diem Trojaque profectis 
Esse velis, nostrosque hujus meminisse minores. 
Adsit laetitiae Bacchus dator, et bona Juno ; 
Et vos, o, coetum, Tyrii, celebrate faventes.' 736 

Dixit, et in mensam laticum libavit honorem, 
Primaque, libato, summo tenus attigit ore ; 
Tum Bitiae dedit increpitans; ille impiger hausit 
Spumantem pateram, et pleno se proluit auro ', 
Post alii proceres. Cithara crinitus lopas 740 

Personat aurata, docuit quae maximus Atlas. 
Hic cauit errantem lunam solisque labores; 
Unde hominum genus et pecudes; unde imber et ignes; 
Arcturum pluviasque Hyadas geminosque Triones; 
Quid tantum Oceano properent se tinguere soles 745 
Hiberni, vel quae tarais mora noctibus obstet. 
Ingeminant plausu Tyrii, Troesque sequuntur. 
Nec non et vario noctem sermone trahebat 
Infelix Dido, longumque bibebat amorem, 
Multa super Priamo rogitans, super Hectore multa ; 750 
Nunc, quibus Aurorae veuisset filiuivarmis, 
Nunc, quales Diomedis eqai, nunc, quantus Achilles. 
'Immo age, et a prima, dic, hospes, origine nobis 

723. Mensae; probablythe movable boards on which the dishes 
were brought in and placed. See 216. — 724. Vina coronatU, See 
Georg. ii. 528. — 726. Aureis ; pronounce as two syllables. — 729. 
Quam ; repeat implere from implevit. — 731. Among his other attii- 
butesi Jupiter was supposed to preside over the iaws of hospitality. 
Hence he was called by the Greeks ^fvtos, by the Romans, Hotpi" 
talis. — 738. JiTtp^er, nothing loath. — 740. Cithara, Sjfch accom- 
paniments to entertainments were common in the Homeric a^s, 
and were not unknown to tbe Romans. — 741. Atlas. The African 
Atlas, mythologically famed as king, astronomer, and the supporter 
of the heavens, is aptly introduced as the instructor of the African 
bard in meteorolo^y, natural history, and astronomy. — 745. Tho 
shortness of the wmter, and (746, vel quae) the length of the sum- 
mer days — 751. Sce 489 — 752. Equi; probably the horses ho 
took from Rhesus. See 472.-753. Ori^ine. Evidently not tho 
ongin pf the war, but of the wiles of the Greeks— the subject of tfa« 
eecond Book. 

LIBEB II. 151 

Insidias,' inquit, ' Danaum. casusque tuonim, 
Erroresque tuos; nam te jam septima portat 755 

Omnibus errantem terris et fluctibus aestas.' 


Tbs Sficond and Third Books are artfully contrived to gire an 
account of the downfall of Troy, and tlie wanderings of Ae- 
neas thereafler, till tho time that we find him in the position 
described in the First Book. 

The Second Book comprises the destruction of Troy, as narrated 
by Aeneas in compliance with the wishes of Dido. After a 
brief introduction, 1-13, we have an account of the entrance 
into Troy of the wooden horse, fuU of armed men, with tho 
treachery of Sinon, and the fate of Laocoon and his children, 
13—250. Night comes, and the Greeks descend from the 
horse, and invade the city, 250-267. Aeneas, Ibrewarned by 
a dream, and alarmed by the tumult, rushes into the confiict, 
the result of which is for some time doubtful, 268-401. The 
gods decide in favour of the Greeks, 402-437. Attack on 
Priam's palace, and death of Priam, 438-558. Aeneas, on 
his way homeward to save his father, is prevented from slay- 
ing Helen by a vision, 559-631. Anchises refuses to seek 
safety, but at last, encouraged by heavenly signs, consents, 
632-704. The flight, 705-735. Creusa, the wife of Aeneas, 
is lost in the confusion, 736-746. Aeneas, returning in search 
of her to the city, finds it wholly occupied by the Greeks, 747— 
767. The ghost of Creusa appears to him, consoles, and coun- 
sels him to depart, 768—794. He returns to his father and fol* 
lowers, and takes shelter in Mount Ida, 795-804. 

CoMTicuiiiRE omnes, intentique ora tenebant. 
Inde toro pater Aeneas sic orsus ab alto : 

'Infandum, Regina, jubes renovare dolorem, 
TvOjaiias ut opes et lamentabile regnum 
Eruerint Danai ; quaeque ipse miserrima vidi, 5 

£t quorum pars magna fui. Quis talia fando 

1. Conticuere; in translating, retain the force pf con, Orot oca- 
lo8 et vultus. — 3. Jubej renovare ; for this construction o( jubet 
without the accusative (here mc), s^e Zumpt, ^617. — 6. Fando ; 
ttsed in a general sense to denote * during the act of narrating,' and 
.o be deemed active or passive aceording to the context ; here, pro- 
oably active, dum fatur; in line 81, pasjiive, dum aliquod narratum 
Mt» mter narrationes aliquas. 


Myrmidonuni Dolopumve aut duri miles Ulixi 

Temperet a lacrimis ! £t jam nox humida coelo 

Praecipitat. suadentque cadentia sidera somnos. 

Sed 5i tantus amor casus cognoscere nostros 10 

Et breviter Trojae supremum audire iaborem, 

Quamquam animus meminisse horret, luctuque refagit| 


* Fracti bello fatisque repulsi 
Ductores Danaum, tot jam labentibus annis, 
Instar montis eqiium divina Palladis arte 15 

Aedificant, sectaque intexunt abiete costas; 
Votum pro reditu simulant; ea fama vagatur. 
Huc delecta virum sortiti corpora furtim 
Includunt caeco lateri, penitusque cavemas 
Ingentis uterumque armato milite complent. 20 

* Est in conspectu Tenedos, notissima fama 
Insula, dives opum, Priami dum regna manebant| 
Nunc tantum sinus et statio male fida carinis. 
Huc se provecti deserto in litore condunt. 
Nos abiisse rati et vento petiisse Mycenas. 25 

Ergo omnis longo solvit se Teucria luctu ; 
Panduntur portae; juvat ire et Dorica castra 
Desertosque videre locos litusque relictum. 
"Hic Dolopum manus, hic saevus tendebat Achillesj 
Classibus hic locua ] hic acie certare solebant." 30 

Pars stupet innuptae donum exitiale Minervae, 
Et molem mirantur equi j primusoue Thymoetes 
Duci intra muros hortatur et arce locari, 
Sive dolo, seu jam Trojae sic fata ferebant. 
At Capys, et quorum melior sententia menti, 35 

• 7. The Myrmidones and Dolopes were Thessaliaos, the former 
the immediate followers of Achilles, the latter of Phoenix, Achilles^s 
preceptor. — 9. Praecipitat. See i. 234. Night commences its 
downward course into the ocean : it was past midnight. — 12. Hor' 
rci pres., *»<t7Z shudders;' r efugit perf.j *ha8 long recoiled from.* 
14. Tot. Ten. — 15. The constructor of the horse was Epeus (264), 
taught by Pallas. — 16. Ahiete. Pronounce abjete. — 21. ^ene^«. 
A small island ofT the coast of Mysia, opposite and nliBarlaroy. — 
25. Nos emphatical. Abiise eos. See Zumpt, ^605. Myceims, 
Graeciam. See i. 284, 650. — 26. Teticriat simply the Teucri, Tro- 
jani. Seei. 625. — 27. Donca, Graeca. — 29. Tnis is the language 
of the overjoyed Trojans — * in this place,* pointing to it (deurtKd^). 
Tendehat tentoria. — 31. Slwpet, rapt amazement first; mirantur, 
then admiration. Donum Minervae, gen. not of but to. — 32. THy» 
moetes, mentioned as one of the council of Priam. (Hom. /Z., iii, 
146.) — 34. Dolo. According to Servius, he had a just causcof ro- 
sentment against Priam, forhaving slain his wife and son. — 35, &.c. 
Tnere were two separate proposals : 1. To destroy the horse, fmd 

LIBER 11. 153 

Aut pelago Danaum insidias suspectaque dona 
Praecipitare jubent, subjectisque urere flammis, 
Aut terebrare cavas uteri et tentare latebras. 
Scinditur incertum studia in contraria vulgus. 

' PrinHis ibi ante omnis, magna comitante catervai 40 
Laocoon ardens summa decurrit ab arce, 
Et procul: '-O miseri, quae tanta insania, cives* 
Creditis avectos hostis? aut ulla putalis 
Dona carere dolis Danaum? sic notus Ulixes? 
Aut hoc inclusi ligno occultantur Achivi, 45 

Aut haec in nostros fabricata est machina muros, 
Inspectura domos venturaque desuper urbi, 
Aut aliquis latet error; equo ne credite, Teucri. 
Quidquid id est, timeo Danaos et dona ferentis.'' 
Sic fatus validis ingentem viribus hastam 50 

In latus inque feri curvam compagibus alvum 
Contorsit. Stetit illa tremens, uteroque recusso 
InsoBuere cavae gemitumque dedere cavemae. 
Et, si fata deum, si mens non laeva fuisset, 
Impulerat ferro Argolicas foedare latebras, 55 

Trojaque nunc stares, Priamique arx aUa maneres. 

* Ecce, manus juvenem interea post terga revinctum 
Pastores magno ad regem clamore trahebant 

Ihat m two ways — some recomineDding that it should be hurled into 
the sea {pelago)^ and (hence the que of subjectisque) others, that it 
should be burned. 2. To ezamine its hollow depths. — 41. Lao' 
eoon; the priest of Neptune. See 202. — 42. Frocul. This indi- 
cates Laocoon'6 eager impatience, which is also shown by his bro- 
ken questions. — 44. Danaum ; a name for the Greeks, properly of 
the Argives, from tbe Egyptian king Danaus, who, according to the 
poets, settied in Argos. — 45. Similarly Achivi^ properly the name, 
first of a Thessaliau tribe, then of the inhabitants of Peloponnesus, 
and Ittstiy of Achaia, is used to indicate aii the Greeks generaliy.— - 
51. Peri, equi. See v. 818. — 54. Sifatadeum. The most natural 
construction seems to be non laeva (in the sense of unpropitious) 
fuiseent. But it may he fata fuissent, voiuissent. — 55. Impulerat. 
Indicative, as if the effect had actually foiiowed. A hypothesis 
TOrccedev^-tqe favour of the Fates and the acuteness of the Trojans. 
That grantea as a fact («t, sit), the resuit is equaily a fact. But the 
bv]>othe8is is unfounded; the result, therefore, does not foliow. 
1 his seems to be the rationale of such expressions as those where 
fbrce is given to the statement, as if the result had been so nearly 
effected, that it had passed from the possible to the actual. See also 
Zumpt, $519. Observe, moreover, the subjunctives which foiiow, 
stares and maneres. Foedare. See Zumpt, $615. Argolicas. 
Froperly Argolic, from Argos, but used for Graecas. See 44, 45. 
57. Juvenem, Sinon (see 79), according to the post-Homeric poeta» 
• relatioQ of Ulysses. 


Dardanidae, qui Be ignotum venientibus nltro, 

Hoc ipsum ut strueret Trojamque aperiret Achivls, M 

Obtulerat, fidens animi; atque in utrumque paratuS| 

Seu versare dolos, seu certae occumbere morti. 

Undique visendi studio Trojana iuventus 

Circumfusa ruit, certantque illuclere capto. 

Accipe nunc Danaum insidias, et crimine ab ano ^ 

Disce omnis. 

Namque ut conspectu in medio turbatus, inermis, 

Constitit atque oculis Phrygia agmina circumspexit : 

" Heu, quae nunc tellus," inquit, " quae rae aequora pos- 

Accipere? aut quid jam misero mihi denique restat^ 70 
Cui neque apud Danaos usquam locus^ et super ipsi 
Dardanidae infensi poenas cum sangume poscunt." 
Quo gemitu conversi animi, compressus et omnis 
Impetus. Hortamur fari. quo sanguine cretus, 
Quidve ferat; memoret, quae sit fiducia capto. 75 

Ille haec, deposita tandem formidine, fatur : 

"Cuiicta equidem tibi, Rex, fuerit quodcumque, fatebor 
Vera," inquit; "neque me Argolica de gente negabo ; 
Hoc primum ; nec, si miserum Fortuna Sinonem 
Finxit, vanum etiam mendacemque improba finget. 80 "*^ 
Fando aliquod si forte tuas pervenit ad auris 
Belidae nomen Palamedis et incluta fama 
Gloria, quem falsa sub proditione Pelasgi 
Insontem infando indicio, quia bella vetabat, 
Demisere neci, nunc cassum lumine lugent: 85 

Illi me comitem et consanguinitate propinquum 
Pauper in arma pater primis huc misit ab annis. 

60. Hoc ipsum^ quod jam narrabo. — 62. He knew that he ran the 
risk of certain death if he should not havo an opportunity versart 
dolo». He was prepared for either contingency. — 65. Crimme, 
Properly crimen is an accujsation of guilt ; thence it comes to signi^ 

Siilt itself, with the motive, howevcr, of that guilt being stated. 
ere it is obviously put for an example of proved villany. — 16. Sca 
i. 534. Omnis Danaos. — 68. The spondaic line marks Sinon'« 
cautious gaze. Phrygia, Settlers from Phrygia coloiiized a por- 
tionofMysia; hence nere for Trojana. — 71. <Sw;)cr, insuper.— 72* 
Dardanidae, a patronymic for the Trojans, from Dardanus. Sce L 
621. — 74. Observe the change of construction, Hortamur fari — tut) 
tnemoret. Quaey &c. His exclamations, 69-72, taken in connec- 
tion with his volunlary surrender, inferred that, though a prisoner 
of war, he had hope of pardon. — 81. Fando. See v. 6. — 82. Fala* 
medis. A descendant of Belus {BeUdaef the i anomalously ions), 
the victim of the treachery of Ulysses, according to some of tne 
Doat-Homcric pocts. See Ovid, Met. xiii. 56-60. — 87. PrimiM 
anni$. Does tnis mcan the beginning of- the war,^r from ♦he first 


LIBER II. 155 

Dnm Rtabat regno incolumis regumque vlgebat 

Consiliis, et nos aliquod nomenque decusque 

Gessimus. Invidia postquam pellacis Ulixi — 90 

Uaud ignota loquor — superis concessit ab oris, 

Adfliclus vitam in tenebris lucluque trahebam, 

£t casum insontis mecum indignabar amici. 

Nec tacui, demens, et me, fors si qua tulisset, 

Si patrios umquam remeassem victor ad Argos, 95 

Promisi ullorem, et verbis odia aspera movi. 

Hinc mihi prima maii labes. hinc semper Ulixes 

Criminibus terrere novis, hinc spargere voces 

In vulgum ambiguas, et quaerere conscius arma. 

Nec requievit enim, donec Calchante ministro— 100 

Sed quid ego haec autem nequidquam ingrata revolvo ? 

Quidve moror, si omnis uno ordine habetis Achivos, 

Idque audire sat est? Jamdudum sumite poenas; 

Hoc Ithacus velit, et magno mercentur Atridae.'' 

*Tum vero ardemus scitari et quaerere causas, 105 
Ignari scelerum tanlorum artisque Pelasgae. 
Prosequitur pavitans, et ficto pectore fatur: 

"Saepe fugam Danai Troja cupiere relicta 
Moliri et longo fessi discedere bello — 
Fecissentque utinam ! — saepe illos aspera ponti 110 

Interctusit hiems, et terruit Auster euntis. 
Praecipue, cum jam hic Irabibus contextus acernis 
Staret equus, toto sonuerunt aethere nimbi. 
Suspensi Eurypylum scitantem oracula Phoebi 
Mittimus, isque adytis haec tristia dicta reportat: 115 

'Sanguine placastis ventos et virgine caesa, 

■ I I I ■ ■ 

years of my manhood ? Probably the latter. Such companionshipe 

ma that of ralamedes and Sinon were common in the Heroic times. 

— 88, Stahat. Seei. 268. — 94. Tulisset. The EngJish idiom pre- 

vents us irom seeing the full significance of this tense. Promisi is 

past, and at this past time the opportunity was conceived as com» 

r^eted ('pa8t-ji>erfect) imor to the threatened revenge. — 98. Terrere, 

The historicar infinitive, which takes the place of the imperfect 

indicative. See Zaropt, ^ 599. — 100. Enim may have the force of 

* in good truth ;' or, resolving nec^ et arma adeptus est, non requievit 

enim. Caichaa was the grcat soolhsayer of the Greeks during the 

Trojan war. For this mode of speech, see i. 135. — 101. Sed~^ 

autem, a rare connection, especially when thus separated. May it 

not be that the idea negutdguam ingrata is referred to? There 

mi^ht be a motive to dwell on distastefui subjects, hut not on those 

which were neguidquam ingrata. — 103. Jamdudumy * it is now more 

than time.' — 104. IthacuSy a contemptuous expression for Ulysses. 

Atridae. See L 458. — lli. Euntis, *in the very act of going.' — 

il4. Scitantem, qui scitetur. — 116. Aifuding to the detention of the 

ffhips at Aa^is, where Iphigenia was sacrificed. See Ovid, Met, 

ziii. 181 -195. 

156 AKNKllSOf. 

Cum primtiin Iliaeas, Danai) venistis ad oras ; 

Sanguine quaerendi reditus, animaque litandum 

Argolica.' Vulgi quae vox ut venit ad auris, 

Obstupuere aniini, gelidusque per ima cucurrit 120 

Ossa tremor, cui fata parent, quem posoat Apollo. 

Hic Ithacus vatem magno Calchanta tumuitu 

Protrahit in medios; quae sint ea numina divomi . 

Flagitat. £t mibi jam multi crudele canebaut 

Artificis sceius, et taciti ventura videbant. 125 

Bis quittos silet ille dies, tectusque recusat 

PlFodere voce sua quemquam aut opponere morti. 

Yix tandem, magnis Ithaci clamoribus actusj 

Composito rumpit vocem, et me destinat arae. 

Adsensere omnes, et, quae sibi quisque timebaty 130 

Unius in miseri exitium conversa tulere. 

Jamque dies infanda aderat; mihi sacra parari, 

£t salsae fruges. et circum tempora vittae. 

£ripui, fateor, leto me, et vincula rupi, 

Limosoque lacu per noctem obscurus in ulva 135 

Delitui; dum vela darent, si forte dedissent. 

Nec mihi jam patriam antiquam spes ulla videndi, 

Nec dulcis natos exoptatumque parentem ; 

Quos illi fors et poenas ob nostra reposcent 

£ffugia, et culpam hano miserorum morte piabunt. 140 

Quod te per superos et conscia numina veri, 

Per, si qua est, quae restet adhuc mortalibus usquam 

Intemerata fides, oro, mfserere laborum 

Tantorum, miserere animi non digna ferentis." 

<His lacrimis vitam damus, et miserescimus ultro. 145 
Ipse viro primus manicas atque arcta levari 
Vincla jubet Priamus, dictisque ita fatur amicis: 
'^Quisquis es, amissos hinc jam obliviscere Graios; 
Noster eris; mihique haec edissere vera roganti: 
Quomolemhancimmanisequistatuere? quisauctor? 150 
Quidve petunt? quae religio? aut quae machina belli?" 

121. Parent moTtem. — 126. Quinos. Sce i. 313. — 132. Pararu 
See 98. — 133. Sahae frueeSy mola salsa ; see Ecl. viii. 82. It was 
Bprinkled on the head of tne animal to be sacrificed. — 135. Ulva, 
according to Martyn, on Georg. iii. 165, is the same with typha, 
cat'8-tail or reed-mace, which ' grows only where there is mud, and 
is tall enough to conceal any person.' ~- 139. According to this 
reading (others read ad poenas)^ quos is in apposition with poenaSf 
* as a satisfaction.' £/, etiam. — 141. Q uod refera to the previous 
iiarrative, as a ground for what follows : * In tl\ese circumstances.* 
^143. Per intemeratam fidem. — 145. Et — ultro. Et seems to 
have the force of our *ay, even unasked.* — 151. The questiona 


LIBBR fl. m " 

Dixerat. IBe/ dolis instructas et arte Pelssga, 

Sustulit exutas yinclis ad sidera palmas : 

" Vos, aeterni iffne», et non violabile vestram 

Testor numen," ait, " vOa arae ensesque nefandi 155 

Quos fugi, vittaeque deum, quas hostia gessi : 

Fas mihi Graiorum sacrata resolvere jura, 

Fas odisse viros, atque omnia ferre sub auras, 

Si qua tegunt;'teneor patriae nec Jegibus ullis. 

Ta modo promissis manea^ servataque serres 160 

Troja fidem, si rera feram, si magna rependam." 

"Omnis spes Danaum et coepii fiducia belli - 
Palladis auxiliis semper stetit.* Impius ex quo 
Tydides sed enim scelerumque invenlor Ulixes, 
Fatale adgressi sacrato avellere templo 165 

Palladium, caesis summae custodibus arcis, 
Corripuere sacram efiigiem, manibusque cruentis 
Virgineas ausi divae contingere vitlas : 
Ex illo fiuere ac retro sutlapsa referri 
Spes Danaum, fractae vires, aversa deae mens. 170 

Nec dubiis ea signa dedit Tritoftia*monstris. 
Vix positum castris simulacram : arsere ooruscae 
Lumlnibus flammae arrectis, salsusque per artus 
Sudor iit, terque ipsa solo — mirabile dictu — 
Emicuit, parmamque ferens hastamque trementem. 175 
Extemplo tentanda fuga canit aequora Calchas, 
Nec posse Argolicis exscindi Pergama telis, 
Omina ni repetant Argis, numenque reducant, 
Quod pelago et curvis secum avexere carinis. 
Et nunc, quod patrias venlo petiere Mycenas, 180 

quae religio? aut quae? &c. are only a fuller development of the 

general question quid petu7it ? — 157. Fas. What ia ordained or 

permitted by Heaven. From the cormection of this passage with 

teneor, &c. fast evidently impli^s est : Heaven permits, and no 

(buman) laws of country now bind me. — 161. Rependam, pro vita 

et lit)ertate. — 163. Stetit. Stare, in such expressions, means, * to 

Test upon.* — 164. Sed enim. See Aen. i. 19. Sed hujus auxilia 

deperdiderant impius enim. — 165. Fatale ; fatet^, pregnant with 

fate — not fataZ. For the seizure of the Palladium, or image of Pallas 

fastened down with chains, see Ovid, Met. xiii. 337, &c. — 167. 

JiianAus cruentis. See 717, &c. — 169. Ex illo refers back to ex 

quo tempore. Fluere, &c. A metaphor from a vesfeel borne back by 

the receding of a river. — 171. Ea signa dedit, id siffnificavit. Tri- 

tonia. A name for Pallas, from her worship at the Take Tritonis in 

Libya, near which, according to some legends, she first appeared. 

— 173. LuminibuSy ocuiis. — 177. Argolicis. See 55. Pergama 

Pergamus (neut. in the plural).was properly the citadel of Troy- — 

178. Numen, the favour of Heaven. — 179. Avexere, indicative ; 

therefore a remark of Sinon's. — 180. Mycenas, See i. 283. 



Arma deotqn^ pftrant comites, pelagoque remcnoo 
Improvisi aqerunt. Ita digerit omina Calchas. 
Hanc pro Palladio, moniti, pro numine lacso 
. Effigiem statuere, nefas quae triste piaret. 
llanc tamen immensam Calchas attollere molem 185 
Hoboribus textis coeloque educere jussit, 
Ne recipi portis, aut duci in moenia possit, 
Neu populum antiqua eub religione tueri. 
Nam si veatra manus riolasset dona Minerrae, 
Tum magnum exitium — quod di prius omen in ipshrti 190 
Convertant !• — Priami imperio Phrygibusc|ue futurum; 
Sin manibus vestris vestram ascendisset m urbem, 
Ultro Asiam magno Pelopea ad moenia bello 
l Venturam, et nostros ea fata manere nepotes." 

! 'Talibus insidiis perjurique arte Sinonis 195 

n Credita res, captique dolis lacrimisque coactis, 

Quos neque Tydides, uec Larissaeus Achilles, 
^ Non anni domuere decem, non mille carinae. 

'Hic aliud majus miseris multoque tremendum 
Objicitur magis, atque improvida pectora turbat, 200 
Laocoon, ductus Neptuno sorte sacerdos, 
Sollemnis taurum ingentem mactabat ad aras. 
Ecce autem gemini a Teoedo tranquilla per alta — 
Horresco referens — immensis oibibus angues 
Incumbunt pelago, pariterque ad iitora tendiint; 205 
Pectora quorum inter iluctus arrecta jubaeque 

182. Omina. Those derived from the Palladium. — 184. Qttam 
maret, ut ea piaret. — 185. Tamen has a reference to an idea in- 
Volved in the previous statement. Though they erected the horse, 
and left it here as an expiatory oifering, yet it was necessary to pre- 
vent its iniroduction into Troy as a second Palladium. — 187. iVa— . 
autt refer to one idea, the possible introduction of the horse — neu 
to another consequent thereon. — 189. After nam there is implied 
some such idea as praedixit involved in the previous ju«stt. Ob- 
■erve violastet, (ucendisset ; the contingency is spoken of as com- 
pleted when looked forward to from a past time, otherwise violarit. 
— 191. Phrygibus. See 68. — 193. Felovea, from Pelops, the epo- 
nymous hero of the Peloponneaus, fatner of Atreus ; his walls 
simpiy mean the cities of Greece. — 197. LarissaeuSt from Larissa, 
a town in Thessaly, near the disirict whence Achilles came. — 199. 
An incident admirably introduced and told, and the subject of a 
celebrated piece of statuary, known by the name of tho Laocoon. 
MajuSy than the horse and Sinon'8 capture ; that is, as it seemed to 
them. — 200. Turbat. So that they were less able to form a correct 
judgment as to what they should do with the horse. — 201. Duciu» 
torte. Thia was not unusual in the cboice of priests. Neptune 
was one of the tutelary crods of Troy. — 203. Gemini, with iwri- 
terque (205), mdicatas theu- combined motion. 

LIBBR 11. 159 

Sangfiineae stipenmt nndas ; pare cetera pontum 

Pone legit sinuatque immenBa volumine terga. 

Fit sonitus spumante safo ; jamque arva tenebant| 

Ardentisque oculos suffeCti sanguine et igni, 210 

Sibila lambebant linguis vibrantibus ora. 

Diffugimus visu exsangues. II ii agmine certo 

Laocoonta petunt; et primum parva duorum 

Corpora natorum serpens amplexus uterque 

Implicat, et miseros morsu depascitur artns ; 215 

Post ipsum, auxilio subeuntem ac tela ferentem, 

Corripiunt, spirisaue ligant ingentibus; et jam 

Bis medium ampiexi, bis collo squamea circum 

Terga dati, suf^erant capite et cervicibus altis. 

Ille sinrul manibus tendit divellere nodos, 220 

Perfusus sanie vittas atroque veneno, 

Clamores simul horrendos ad sidera tollit : 

Qualis mugitus, fugit cum sancius aram 

Taurus et incertam excussit cervice securira. 

At gemini lapsu delubra ad summa dracones 225 

Effuginnt saevaeque petnnt Tritonidis arcem, 

Sob pedibusque cleae clipeique snb orbe teguntur. 

Tum vero tremefacta novus j>er peclora cunctis 

Insintiat pavor, et scelus expendisse merentera 

Laocoonta ferunt, sacrura qui cuspide robur 230 

Laeserit et tergo sceleratam intorserit hastam. 

Ducendum ad sedes simulacrura orandaque divae 

Numina conclamant. 

Dividimus muros et moenia pandimus urbis. 

Accingunt omnes operi, pedibusque rotarum 235 

Subjiciunt lapsus, ec stuppea vincula collo 

208. Legit. Slowly traverses. Sinuat terga^ in sinus tcrga plicat. 
— 210. OculoB suffeeti. See Ecl. i. 52, &c. — 212. Agmine. Sefe v. 
90. — 216. Post^ postea. — 217. The richness of vocables is deserv- 
ing of notice: orhibuSi volumine, sniris. — 218. Bis. Their size is 
to be inferred from this, that thougn two folds were round his waist 
and iwo round his neck, their necks and heads rose above his. Ctr- 
cumdati collo ; the ordinary constriiction; eircumdati terga^ Ecl. i. 
52. — 221. Vittas. Even the eacred fillet could not protect him. — 
223. Quali» mugitus. Clamores taliStquaJis mugitus taurus saucius 
tollit. — 226. Tritonidis. See 171. This increased the' probability 
of Sinon*8 tale. The serpent was sacred to Pallas. — 230. Qui—-' 
laeserit. This subiunctive marks the ground on which the popular 
opinion pronounced Laocoon'8 doom as deserved — ' inasmuch as he.' 
— 233. Conclamant ; con, all whh one voice. — 234. Et gives an 
intensive force — * we break down the wails ; ay, we throw open tho 
battlements.' — 235. Accingunt, se. See the full form, Aen, i. 210, 
and iK>te. Molantm lapsus s rotas iabentes. 



Intendunt. Scandit fatalis machio» muros, 

Feta armis. Puerl circum innuptaeque puellae 

Sacra caount, funemque manu contingere gaudent. 

Illa subit, mediaeque minans illabitur urbi. 240 

O patria, o divom domus Ilium, et incluta bello " " 

Moenia Dardanidum ! quater ipso in limine portae 

Substitit, atque utero sonitum quater arma dedere; 

Instamus tamen immemores caecique furorei 

£t monstrum infelix sacrata sistiraus arce. 245 

Tunc etiam fatis aperit Cassandra futuris 

Ora, dei jussu non umquam credita Teucris. 

Nos cielul)ra deum miseri, quibus ultimus esset 

Ille dies, festa velamus fronde per urbem. 

' Vertitur interea coelum et ruit oceano Nox, 250 

Involvens umbra magna terramque polumque 
Myrmidonumque dolos; fusi per moenia Teucri * 
Conticuere; sopor fessos complectitur artus: 
£t jam Argiva phalanx instructis navibi^s ibat 
A Tenedo, tacitae per amica silentia lunae 255 

Litora nota petens, fiammas cum regia puppis 
Extulerat ) fatisque deum defensus iniqui^ 
Inclusos utero Danaos et pinea furtim 
Laxat claustra Sinon. Ilios patefactus ad aums 
Reddit equus, laetique cavo se robore promunt 260 

Thessandrus Stbenelusqae duces et dirus U]ixes, 
Demissam lapsi per funem, Acamasque, Thoasque, 
Pelidesque Neoptolemus, primusque Machaon, 

237. Fatalis. See 165. — 238. Fueri^ &c. As to a virgin goddess. 
— 240. The onward progress of the horse is described. Subit, 
ascendin^ at the entrance ; Ulahitur, gentle motion onward, when 
in the middle of the city ; substititf stoppages at the gate of the 
citadel; «}Aftmu«, its amval there. — 246. Cassandra, A daughter 
of Priam, who obtained from ApoIIo the gift of prophecy, but with 
the condition mentioned in the next line. Honce her name is still 
used to indicate any one who truthfuUy foretells evil, and is not 
believed. — 248. Miseri — quibus esset. The subjunctive marks in 
what respect they were wretched — 'inasmuch as.' Their real 
misery is contrasted with their rejoicings. — 250. A peaceful picture, 
to heighten the eflect of the description of the subseqnent tumult. 
Heaven is represented as a concave sphere roliing round — tho 
night-heaven rises from the ocean. — 254. Fhalanx — instructis ; 
allindicative of preparation. — 255. The moon's light (see 340) was 
favourable to the Greeks, unless, wiih some, we make sUentia 
lunae to mean a time when the moon was obscured. See 360. 
Tradition bore that Troy was captured at full moon. — 259. Laxat, 
Liberans Danaos laxat claustra.—263. Neoptolemus or Pyrrhus, son 
uf Achilles, and consequently grandson of Peleus {Fdides). FrimuM 
r oremost m the descent, or perhaps first in his art ; he was a phy- 

LtBSR If. 1611 

Et Menelatis, et ipse doli fainicator lEpeos, - 
Inyadant urbem somno yinoque sepaitam; ^ 265 

Jaeduntnr vigiles, ^KJTttsque patenttbus omnis 
Accipiunt socios atque agmtna conacia jungnnt. 

'Tempus erat, quo prima quies mortalibus aegria 
Incipifet dono divom gratissima serpit. 
In somnisj ecce, ante ogu]os moestissimus Hector 270 

*■ Visus adesse mihi, largosque effundere fletus, 
Raptatus bigis, ut quondam, aterque cruento 
Pulvere, perque pedes trajectas lora tumentis. 
Hei mihi, qualis erat I quantum mutatus ab illo 
Hectore, qui redit exuvias indutus Achilli^ 276 

^ Vel Danaum Phrygios jaoulatus puppibus ignis ! 
Squalentem bart>am et concretos sanguine crinis 
Volnemque illa gerens, quae circnm plurima muros 
Acceptt patrios. Ultro flens ipse videbar 
Compellare virnm et moestas expromere voces : 280 
'^O lux Dardaniae, spes o fidissima Teucrum, 
Quae tantae tenuere morae 1 qutbus Hector ab oris 
£zspectate venis? ut te post multa tuorum 
Fnnera, post varios hominumque urbisque labores, 
Defessi aspicimos ! . quae caussa indigna serenos 285 
Foedavit vultus % aut cur haec vulnera cemo 1"- 
IUe nihil, nec me quaerentem vana moratur, 
Sed graviter gemitus imo de pectore ducens, 
" Heu fuge, nate dea, teque his," ait, ^^ eripe fiammis. 
Hostis habet muros ; ruit aito a culmine Troja. 290 

Sat patriae Priamocjue datum : si Pergama dextra 
Defendi possent, etiam hac defensa fuissent. 
Sacra suosque tibi commendat Troja Penatis ', 
Hos cape fatorum comites, his moenia quaere, 
Magna pererrato statues quae denique ponto.'' 295 

Sio ait, et nranibus vittas Vestamque potentem 
Aetemumque adytis effert penetralibus ignem. 

BMTtan. — 265. JJrhem. From the ciladel. — 270. Hector, The weH* 
kDown hero of Troy, son of Priam, whom AGhilles having slaiQ» 
dreg^ed thrice at his chariot round the walls of Trov (according to 
Virgil, i. 484). — 275. Exuvias. Hector had slain and spoiled Patro* 
elos, who wore the armonr of Achillee. -^ 276. Jaeulatus. After he 
had darted. — 279. Ipse. * I as weli as he.* — 287. The reader must 
have discovered that snch words as dixU are frequentiy left to his 
mind to supply, as in ille nihU. Nec moratur ; that is, by answer* 
hig my idle questions. — 292. Si possetU implies a ne^ative^' if 
they could be defended, which they cauld not he.* Such is the force 
of the imperfect subjunctive in similar sentenoes.— <297. Aetemum, 
beeause tne fires of vesta were never allowed to die out. Hector is 
Te^Monted as giving Aeneas these sacred things which he had 
14* o 

169 ABNBlim. 

* DiTerao interea mitcentur moenia kictu, 
Et magis atqae magis, quamquam seoreta parentis 
Anchisae domus arboribusque obteota recessit, 300 

Clarescunt sonitus, armorumque ingruit horror. 
Excutior somno, et summi fastigia tecti 
Ascensu supero, atque arrectis auribus adsto : 
In segetem veluti cum flamma furentibus austris 
Incidit, aut rapidus montano flumine torrens ' 80$ 

Sternit agros, stemit sata laeta b<)umque laboree^ 
Praecipitisque trahit silvas^stupet inscius alto 
Accipiens sonitum saxt de vertice pastor. 
Tum vero manifesta fiides, Danaumque patescunt 
Insidiae. Jam Deiplrabi dedit ampla ruinam , 310 

Yolcano superante domus, jam proxumus ardet ' 
Ucalegon; Sigea igni freta lata relucent. 
Exoritur clamotque virum clangorcjue tubarum. * 
Arma amens capio ; nec sat rationis in armis ; • 
Sed glomerare manum bello et concurrere in arcem 315 
Cum sociis ardent animi ; furor iraquementem 
Praecipitant, puichrumque mori succurrit ki armiB^^ 

' £cce autem telis Panthus elapsus Achivomi 
Panthus Othryades, arcis Phoebique sacerdos, 
Sacra manu victosque deos parvumque nepotem 320 
Ipse trahit, cursuque amens ad limina tendit. ^ 
" Quo res summa loco, Panthu ? quam prendimus arcem V^ 
Yix ea fatus eram, gemitu cum talia reddit : 
'* Venit summa dies et ineluctabile tempus ^ 
Dardaniae. Fuimus Troes, fuit Ilium, et ingens 325 
Gloria Teucrorum j ferus omnia Jupiter Argos 

saved from the holy place of Vesta's temple, adytia penetralibuM. — 
298. Miscentur Itictu, turbantur variis formis luctus. — 300. Two 
circumstances rendered the house of Anchises sequestered {recessiO 
— -it was far separated from otfaer houses, and it stood amidst trees. 

— 302. Excutior, excutio me : with the force of a Greek middle 
verb. — 304, &,c. Astriking simile, where the feelings of Aeneas, 
while listening to the frightful tumult, are likened to those of a 
shepherd heanng the roar of flames, or of a swollen torrent. »307« 
Inscius, because ignorant of the cause. — 309. Fides ; referringy 
probably, to Sinon ; and ironical, as in the expression Punicafides* 

— 310. Deiphobi, a son of Priam. See Aen. vi. 495, &c. — 311. 
Volca^, for igne. See Ecl. v. 69 ; Aen. i. 177, and numerous simi- 
lar passages. — 312. Sigea, A promontory near Troy, named Si* 
geum, gives name here to the adjoining sea (freta). Lata means, 
*m all their breadth.'— 315. Bello, the dative.^319. Arcis, &c 
Plu>d)i^ cujus fanum in arce erat. — 322. Hes summa. The publie 
jafety was the chief concern. Arcem, a height ; afortress generally 
buiU on a height; here, any place of strength.— 325. Fuimus, «tf 
&OI1 amphus sumus — 326. Argos, See 55. 



Transtulit : imkmA DiUDfn dcsaiimntor in nrbe. 

Arduus armatoB mediis in moenibus adstans 

Fundit equus, victorque Sinon inoendia misoet 

Insultans. Portis alii bipatentibus adsunt, 330 

Millia quot magiiis umquam venere Myeenis ; 

Obsedere alii teiis angusta viamm 

Oppositi; stat ferri acies mu<arone conisco 

Stricta, parata neci ; vix primi proelia tentant 

Portarum vigiles, et caeco Marte resistunt.'' 335 

Talibus Othryadae dictis et numine divom 

In flammas et in arma feror, quo tristis £f iafiySy 

Quo freroitus vocat et sublatus ad aethera clamor. 

Addunt se sooios Rhipeus et maximus armis 

Epytus, oblati per lunam, Hypanisque Dymasouei 

£t lateri aggbmerant nostro, juvenisque Coroeou^ 

Mygdonides. Uii^ ad Trojam forte diebus 

Yenerat, insano Cassandrae incensus amore, 

£t gener auxilium PrianK> Phrygibusque ferebat, 

Infelix, qui non sponsae praecepta furenlis 345 


Quos ubi confertos audere in proelia vidi, 

Incipio super his : ^* Juvenes, fortissima frustra 

Pectora^ si vobis audentem extrema cupido 

Certa sequi, quae sit rebus fortuna videtis; 350 

£xcessere omnes, adytis arisque relictis, 

Di, quibus imperium iioc steterat; suocurritis nrbi 

Incensae : moriamur, et in media arma ruamns. 

Una salus victisy nullam sperare salutem." 

Sic anunis juvenum furor additus. Inde, lupi ceu 355 

Raptores atra in nebula, quos improba ventris 

328. MoenHbus ; referring to the fortifications of the citadel in 
which the horse now was. See 234. — 329. MUcetj passim jactat. 
-»334. Frimi. Those first exposed to their attack. — 335. Uaecu§ 
Mars is an engagement (see EcL v. 69), in which the resistance is 
roade at random, and, here by inference, without hope of success. 
^ 337. Erinn^s (*Epivt)f), a term designatinff some one of the god 
desses iosti^ting to, and punishing crime ; Itnown to the Latins by 
the name Durae or Furiae. — 339. Addunt se, This indicates a vo« 
luntary act on theirpart. — 340. Perlunam, See 255. — 341. Ag- 

filomerant. See i. 234. Foolish and rash.— 342. Mvgdonidet, from 
is fiftther Mysdones. Forte. He did not come by cnance, bat it so 
efaaoccd that bis coming to marry Cassandra (see 246) was contem* 
poraneons with these events. — 344. Gener^ applied to one who 
wished to bc Priam^s son-in-Iaw. See Ecl. viii. 18. — 346. Audie» 
rit. See i. 388, ii. 248.-348. Swper hi». * On the snbject of our 
present enterprise.* — 352. Di. Referring to the Roman notion, 
tkat the tutelary gods forsook a doomed city or nation. ^uibut^ 
dative. See 163 356. Jmproba. The force of iwipnbu» m sucfc 

164 ▲BNSIBM. 

Exegit caeeo0 mbies, catnliqae relieti 
Faooibus ezspectant siccis, per tela, per hostie 
Yadiinus hand dabiam in mortem, mediaeqtie tenemHS 
Urbis iter } nox atra cava circumvolat umbra. 360 

Quis cladem illius noctis, quis funera fando 
Expiicet, aut possit iacrimis aequare labores? 
Urbs antiqna ruit, multos dominata per annos ; 
Plurima perqne vias stemuntur inertia passim 
Corpora, perque domos et religiosa deorum 868 

Limina. Neo soli poenas dant sanguine Teueri ; 
Quondam etiam victis redit in praecordia virtus, 
Yictoresque cadunt Danai. Crndelis ubique 
Luctus, ubique pavor, et plurima mortts imago. 

' Primus se, Danaum magna comitante oater? a, 370 
Androgeos offert nobis^ socia agmina credens 
Inscins, atque ultro verbis compellat amieis : 
"Festinate, viri. Nam quae tam sera moratur 
Segnities ? a]ii rapiunt incensa feruntque 
Pergama; vos ceisis nunc primum a navibus itis?" 375 
Dixit, et extemplo, neque enim responsa dabantur 
Fida satis, sensit medios delapsus in hostis. 
Obstupuit, retroque pedem cum vooe repressit. 
Improvisum a^ris ve]uti qui eentibus anguem 
Pressit humi nitens, trepidusque repente refugit 380 
Attollentem iras et caerula colia tumentem ; 
Haud secus Androgeos visu tremefactns abibat. 
Irruimus, densis et circumfundimur armis, 
Ignarosqne loci passim et formidine captos 
St^mimus. Adspirat primo fortuna labori. 385 

Atque bic successu exsultans animisque Coroebns ; 
'^ socii, qua prima,'' inquit, ^^ fortuna salutis 
Monstrat iter, quaque ostendit se dextra, sequamur : 
Mutemus clipeos, Danaumque insignia nobis 
Aptemus. Dolus an virtus, quis in hoste requirat ? 390 

oxpressions— here applied to hunger — is what deprives of all sense 
of rifi;ht and wrong; reckless. — 359. Vadimut — tenemus ; both im* 
ply steady re8olution.-->360. Nox, See 255, — 362. Observe the 
succession of explkeij poesit aequare. Aepuire lacrymiMj to shed all 
the tears called for. — 367. Quondamt aliquando. •— 369. Plurima. 
Death in manY a varied form. — 373. Sera, Seros reddens. — 375. 
Voe ; emphatic. — 377. Seneit ddapeuty for se delapsum esse. Thi» 
10 according to the Greek usage. See Zumpt, ^612.: — 378. Both 
pedem and eum voee refer to repreeeit : so our Engliah, to check the 
Btep and apeech. — 379.*^itpm for asperis. — 380. Pressit, refugU, 
382. Alibat, In the simue the man Aa« started back at the niD* 
ment the picture b taken. Androgeoa «»« retreating. — 386. C» 
roefrtM. See 341. 

USKR Ik 105* 

Arma dabuot ipsL" Sto fatus, deiiide comftojtem 
Androgei galeam clipeique insigne decorum 
Induitur, laterique Argivum accommodat ensem. 
Hoc Rhipeus, hoc ipse Dymas omni«que juvenlus 
Laeta facit; spoliis se quisque recentibus armat. 395 
Yadimus immixti Danais haud numine nostro, 
Multaque per coecam congressi proelia noctem 
Conserimus, multos Daoaum demittimus Orco. 
Diffugiunt alii ad navis, et iitora cursu 
Fida petunt; pars iiigentem formidine turpi 400 

Scandunt rursus equum, et nota conduntur in alvo. 

Heu nihil invitis fas quemquam iidere divis 1 
Ecce trahebatur passis Priameia virgo 
Crinibusa templo Cassandra adytisque Minervae, 
Ad coelum^ tendens ardentia lumina frustra — 405 

Lumina, nam teneraa arcebant vincula palmas. 
Non tulit hanc speciem furiata mente Coroebus, 
£t sese medium injecit periturus in agmen. 
Consequiraur cuncti et densis incurrimus armis. 
Hic primum ex alto delubri culmine telis 410 

Nostrorum obruimur, oriturque miserrima caedes 
Armorum facie et Graiarum errore jubarum. 
Tum Danai, gemitu atque ereptae virginis ira, 
Undique collecti invadunt — acerrimus Ajax, 
£t gemini Atridae, Dolopumque exercitus omnis; 415 
Adversi rupto ceu quondam turbine venti 
Confligunt, Zephyrusque Notusque et laetus £ois 
£urus equis; stridunt silvae, saevitque tridenti 
Spumeus atque imo Nereus ciet aequora fundo. 
Illi etiam, si quos obscura nocte per umbram 420 

395. MecentibuSt recenter acquisitis. — 396. Numine nostro; re- 
ferring eitfaer to the images of the gods on the armour (clypei insigne 
deeorum^ 392), or, rather, meaning against the will of our gods. oee 
402. — 398. Orco. A name for the death-god Pluto. — 401. Condun- 
tur (with the force of the Greek middie voice), se condunt. — 402. 
Inviiis divis. The ablative absolute. — 405. jLttmina. See 173.— < 
407. Coro^hus mente /uriata non^ &c. — 409. Coneequimur. Con, 
tt> acsompany him. Armis, the dative. — 410. Primumy the first 
check we received. Ddubri. The temple of Minerva (425), from 
which Cassandra was being dragged (403), and in the citadel.— 
412. Juharum. See comantem, 391.— -414. Ajax. See i. 41. — 415. 
Atridas. See i. 458. Dolopum. See 7. — 416. Turbine. The turbo 
18 represented as a mass, tne bursting of which occasions the storm, 
There is a suppressed comparison. The onslaught of the Greeks 
is like a whirlwiiui's fury. — 417. Eois. From the region of the 
morning; from fwj. See i. 489. — 419. Nereus. One of the sea 
gods. The trident is properly the insigne oi Neptune. 


Fudfmtis msidiis totaqne agitayimas urbe, 

Apparent; primi clipeos mentitaque teia 

Agnoscunt^ atque ora sono discordia signant. 

Ilicet obruimur numero; primusque Coroebns 

Penelei dextra divae armipotentis ad aram 425 

Procumbit : cadit et Rhipeus, justissimus unus 

Qui fuit in Teucris et servantissimus aequi — 

Dis aliter visum; pereunt Hypanisque Dymasque 

Confixi a sociis; nec te tua plurima, Panthu, 

Labentem pietas nec Apoilinis infula texit. 430 

Iliaci cineres et flamma extrema meorum, 

Testor, in occasu vestro nec lela nec uJIas 

Vitavisse vices Danaum, et, si fata fuissent, 

Ut oaderem, meruisse manu. Divellimur inde; 

Iphitus et Pelias mecum : quorum Iphitus aevo 435 

Jam gravior, Pelias el vulnere tardus Ulixi. 

Protinus ad sedes Priami clamore vocati. 

Hic vero ingentem pugnam, ceu cetera nusquam 

Bella forent, nulli tola morerenlur in urbe, 

Sic Marteni indomitum, Danaosque ad tecta raentis 440 

Cernimus, obsessumque acta testudine limen. 

Haerent parielibus scalae, postisque sub ipsos 

Nituntur gradibus, clipeosque ad tela sinistris 

Protecti objiciunt, prensant fastigia dextris. 

Dardanidae contra turris ac tecla domorum 445 

Culmina convellunt; his se, quando ultima cernnnt, 

Extrema jam in morte parant defendere telis; 

Auratasque trabes, veterum decora alta parentum, 

Devolvunt ] alii strictis mucronibus imas 

Obsedere fores ; has servant agmine denso. 450 

421. Insidiis ; ihe false armour. — 422. Frimi. Tura primum. 
Mentita. The perfect participles of certain deponent verbs are 
sometimes used in a passive sense. See Zumpt, $ 632. — 425. 
J)ivae armipotentis. See 404. — 426. Rhipeus. See 339. UnuSf 
with respect to integrity. See i. 15. — 428. Dis, &c. The notion 
13, that nad the gods regarded him with the favour which man 
deems to be due to integrity, they would not have permitted hki 
death.— -429. -Socits. Trojanis. i^anf^tt. See 318. — 430. in/ttte. 
See 221. — 433. Vitavisse me. This omission of the accusative 
when the leading and the infinitive verb have the same subject, ia 
not uncommon m poetry, but should not be imitated in prose. — 
439. Nulli. As if the whole city did not witness scenes of death. - 
iiO. Martem. See 335 ; Ecl.v. 69. — 441. Testudine. A militaiy 
engine, roofed, and moving upon wheels, under cover of which a 
besieging army assailed tne walls. — 442. Parietibus, parjetibas. 
The whole picture is full of life. — 443. Nituntur, A change 
of subject from that to haerent in the previous line. — 446, I&, 
iurribus, d&c. ; 447, teliM, as weapons of oflUBnce. 

Instanrati animi^ regis saocurrere tectis, 
Auxilioque levare viros, vimque addere victis./ 

'Limen erat caecaeque fores et pervius usus 
Tectorum inter se Priami, postesque relicti 
A tergo,, infelix qua se, dum regna manebant, 455 

Saepius Andcomache ferre incomitata solebat 
Ad soceros, et avo puerum Ast^anacta trahebat. 
Evado ad summi fastigia cubuinis, unde 
Tela nianu miseri jactabant irrita Teucri. 
Turrim in praecipiti stantem summisque sub astia 460 
Eductam lectis, unde omnis Troja videri 
£t Danaum solitae naves et Achaia castra, 
Aggressi ferro circum, qua summa labantis 
Juncturas tabulata dabant, convellimus altis 
Sedibus, impulimusque; ea Japsa repente ruinam 465 
Cum sonitu trahit et Danaum super agmine late 
Incidit. Ast alii subeunt, nec saxa, nec uUum 
Telorum interea cessat genus. 

* Vestibulum ante ipsum primoque in limine Pyrrhus 
Exsultat, telis et luce coruscus aena ; 470 

Qualis ubi*in Juoem coluber mala gramina pastus, 
Frigida sub terra tumidum quem bruma tegebat, 
Nunc, positis novus exuviis nitidusque juventa, 
Lubrica convolvit sublato pectore terga 
Arduus ad solem, et linguis mlcat ore trisulcis. 475 

Una ingens Periphas, et equorum agitator Achillis, 

451. Animi nobis. — 454. Aeneas describes a secret (caecae) pas- 
Mge by a private {relicti) door at the back, which formed a commu- 
nication between the part of Priam's palace where the king himself 
resided, and that where dwelt Hector, with his wife Andromache 
and his son Astyanax, sometimes caDed Scamandrius. — 457. Soce' 
ros ; socerum et socrum. See 579. — 458. Evado, per has fores.— 
459. Tela. See 447. — 460. In praecipiti, with reference to the 
Greeks below. — 464. Dabant, convellimus, a good instance of the 
distinction between the imperfect and i^erfect tenses. The state of 
the tower was continuous, the tearing it up was a single act. — 469. 
Pyrrhus. See 263. — 470. Coruscus expresses brightness in flashes, 
cUttering where there is a.pia3r of light whhout shadc. Hence its 
beaatifui appiication to a wood (i. 164), whose leaves glitter in the 
sonlight — 471. Mala, venenosa. Pastus. Pasco is used intran* 
siltvely, Ecl. iii. 96 ; or transitively — * to furnish with food' — Ecl. i. 
78, and its passive sometimes, as here, deponently, and followed 
by the accusative — 'to feed upon.* — 473. AUuding to the fact ia 
natural history, that the serpent repeatediy casts its skin in summer. 
—476. In the^ancient war-chariots, the warrior was accompanied 
by a cbarioteer, whose main business it was to manage the chariot, 
as subservicnt to the active combatant. Virgil makes the charioteer 
if Achilles the armour-bearer of his son. 

169 AINBI90B. 

Armiger Antomedon, nna omnis Scyria pabes 
Succedunt tecto, et ^mmas ad culmina jactant. 
Ipse inter primos correpta dura bipenni 
Limina perrumpit, postisque a cardine veilit 480 

Aeratos; jamque excisa trabe firma cavayit 
Robora, et ingentem lato dedit ore fenestram. 
Apparet domus intus, et atria longa patescunt ; 
Apparent Priami et veterum penetralia regnm, 
Armatosque vident stantis in limine primo. 485 

' At domus interior gemitu miseroque tumultu 
Miscetur, penitusque cavae plangoribus aedes 
Femineis uluiant ; ferit aurea sidera clamor. 
Tum pavidae tectis matres ingentibus errant) 
Amplexaeque tenent postis atque oscula figunt. 490 

Instat vi patria Pyrrhus ; nec claustra, neque ipsi 
Custodes sufferre valent ; labat ariete crebro 
Janua, et emoti procumbunt cardine postes. 
Fit via vi ; rumpunt aditus, primosque trucidant 
Immissi Danai, et late ioca milite complent. 495 

Non sic, aggeribus ruptis cum spumeus amnis 
Exiit) oppositasque evicit gurgite moles, ' 
Fertur in arva furens cumulo, camposque per omnis 
Cum stabulis armenta trahit. Vidi ipse furentem 
Caede Neoptolemum geminosque in limine Atridas ; 500 
Vidi Hecubam centumque nurus, Priamumque per araa 
Sanguine foeiiantem, quos ipse siicraverat, ignis. 
Quinquaginta iili thalami, spes tanta nepotum, 
Barbarico postes auro spoliisque superbi, 
Procubuere ; tenent Danai\ qua deftcit ignis. 505 

' Forsitan et, Priarai fuerint quae fata, requiras. 
Urbis uti captae casum convolsaque vidit 
Limiua tectorum et medium in penetralibus hostemj 
Arma diu senior desueta trementibus aevo 

477. Scyria ; from Scyros, one of the Cyclades, where was bom 
Pyrrhus, of Deidamia. — 479. lp$e, Pyrrhus. — 480. Compare 469 
*vith 485, and it will be found that Aeneas is here speaking of the 
limen of the vestibulum. — 485. Limine primo, of the inner part of 
the palace, damus interior. — 487. Penitus ; in the inmost recesses. 
— 489. ErratU ; a strong expression — ' lose their way.' — 490. O*- 
tula. Bidding them farewell. — 492. Arietey arjete. — 493. Janua, 
See 480, 485. — 496. Non sic ; non amnis tanto cum impetu furit.— 
498. Cumulo. Compare i. 105. — 501. Hecubani, the wife of Priam. 
Nurus ; filias (quinquaginta) et nurus (quinquaginta). — 504. Bar* 
barico. Virgil here foliows the Greeks in the application of this epi- 
thet to Trojan gold, though it may be that the allusion is to spoilfl 
taken by the Trojans frora the tariari.-- 509. J)iu senior desueta 

LIBER II. 169 

Circamdat neqtiidqQam hameris, et inntile ferram 510 

Cingitur, ac densos fertur moriturus in hostis. 

Aedibus in mediis, riudoque sub aelheris axe, 

Ingens ara fuit juxtaque veterrima laurus, 

Incumbens arae atque umbra complexa Penatis. 

Hic Hecuba et natae nequidquam altaria circum, 515 

Praecipites atra ceu tempestate columbae, 

Condensae et diyom ampiexae simulacra sedebant. 

Ipsum autem sumptis Priamum juvenalibus armis 

Ut yidit, "Quae mens tam dira, miserrime conjunx, 

Impulit hi» cingi telis ? aut quo ruis V^ inquit. 520 

"Non taii anxilio nec defensoribus istis 

Tempus eget ; non, si ipse meus nunc adforet Hector. 

Huc tandem concede ; naec ara tuebitur omnis, 

Aut moriere simul." Sic ore effata recepit 

Ad sese et sacra longaevum in sede locavit. 525 

* Ecce autem elapsus Pyrrhi de caede Polites, 
Unus natorum Priami, per tela, per hoslis 
Porticibus longis fugit, et vacua atria Justrat, 
Saucius. Ulum ardens infesto vulnere Pyrrhus 
Insequitur, jam jamque manu tenet et premit hasta. 530 
Ut tandem ante oculos evasit et ora parentum, 
Concidit, ac multo vitam cum sangume fudit. 
Hic Priamus, quamquam in media jam morte tenetar, 
. Non tamen abstinuit, nec voci iraeque pepercit : 
" At tibi pro sceiere," exclamat, " pro talibus ausis, 535 
Di, si qua est coeio pietas, quae talia curet, 
Persolvant grates dignas et praemia reddant 
Debita, qui nati coram me cernere ietum 

l^he position of these words shows that the long disuse arose from 
his age. — 512. There waB n vestibulum ; then tlie palace, forming 
a square, with its spacious rooms, and in ihe middle a court, open 
to the heaven, where, as was usual in ancient houses, stood an altar 
to the Fenates. Axe, See i. 90. — 515. The positiun ofnequidquam 
next allaria indicates the impious crueity of the Greeks ; even the 
altars were no protection. — 519. Qucb mens tam dira impulit. Such 
expressions are equivalent to est tam dira ut impellat. — 520. The 
want of the pronoun before cingi may be expiained on the same 
priociple as is stated, Ecl. i. 17; cinctionem. — 522. Non: defenso' 
ribus eget from the previous sentence is involved, without the istis. 
Non eget infers that their safety is beyond all hope, as we would say 
of a dead man, he needs no help now. — 524. Ore. Sec i. 614.— 
530. The chase is here most graphically described by ihe presents, 
aod /am, jamque. — 533. Media morte ; death is represented as a 
bancT encompassing him on all sides. — 535. At tibi ; emphatic. * To 
thee, at least — whatever may be the fate of the other Greeks.' — 
536. Coelo. See i. 378, to ascertain how in heaven there may be 

15 P 


Feoisti et patrios foedasti fanere valtiui. 
At non ille, satum quo te mentiris^ Achilles 540 

Talis in hoste fuit Priamo; sed jura fidemque 
Supplicis erubuit; corpusque exsangue sepulchio 
Reddidit Hectoreum, meque in mea regna remisit," 
Sic fatus senior, telumque imbelle sine ictu 
Conjecit, ratico quod protinus aere repulsum 545 

£t Rummo clipei nequiquam umbone pependit. 
Cui Pyrrhus : ^' Referes ergo haec et nuntius ibis 
Pelidae geuitori ; illi mea tristia facta 
Degeneremque Neoptolemum narrare memento. 
Nunc morere." Hoc dicens altaria ad ipsa tremen* 

tem 550 

Traxit et in muito lapsantem sanguine nati, 
Implicuitque connram laeva, dextraque coruscum 
£xtulit ac lateri capulo tenus abdictit ensem. 
Haec finis Priami fHtorum; hic exitus illum 
Sorte tulit, Trojam incensam et prolapsa Tidentem 555 
Pergama, tot quondam populis terrisque superbum 
Regnatorem Asiae. Jacet ingens litore truncus, 
Arulsumque humeris caput; et sine nomine corpus. 
' At me tum primum saevus circumstetit horror. 
Obstupui ; subiit cari genitoris imago, 560 

Ut regem aequaevum crudeli vulnere vidi 
Yitam exhalantem ; subiit deserta Creasa, 
£t direpta domus, et parvi casus luli. 
Respicio, et, quae sit me circum copia, lustro. 
Deseruere omnes defessi, et corpora saltu 565 

540. Priarn denies it to be possible that the murderous Pyrrhua 
ean be a son of the high-souled Achilles, who restored to his prayers 
the body of Hector. — 541. In hoste. The ordinary construction is 
hostem. Sallust especially is fond of the abiative in such construc- 
tions. — 544. Jctu, It merely ^lanced on, but did not strike. — 546. 
Umbofiei the centre of the shield, which projected. It sometimes 
terminated in a spike, which might, as here, catch a dart, so as to 
cause it to dangle from it. — 547, &c. Similarly in Shakspeare. 
Richard, annoyed at the taunts of Henry VI., says, *Down, down 
to hell ; and say — I sent thee thither.' — 550. Ipsa. Ezpressive of 
the impiety of the deed. — 555. Sorte, fato. — 556. Pipulist dative, 
insiead of the usual genitive, governed by regnatorem. — 557. Astaep 
in the Roman sense, of the sea-board (principally) of Asia Minor. 
The truncuB and caput make the corpus. — 559. Aeneas had forgot- 
ten his father. The mental law of association recalled him now for 
the first time. — 563. Domus^ by the arsis. — 564. Aeneas seems 
stiil to be on the house-top, and, while in no situation to render ps- 
Bistance, to have beheld the fatal scene in the court below. — 565 
Peieruere ; * kave forsaken me.* 

tlBlfiR lU 171 

Ad terram mifi^re aut ignibtis aegra dedere. 

' Jamque adeo saper unus eram. cum limina Yestae 
Servantem et tacitam Becreta in sede latentem 
Tyndarida aspicio ; dant clara incendia lucem 
Erranti passimque oculos per cuncta ferenti. 570 

Illa sibi infestos eversa ob Pergama Teucro^ 
£t poenas Danaum et deserti conjugis iras 
Praemetuens; Trojae et patriae communis Erinnys, - 
Abdiderat sese atc[ue aris invisa sedebat. 
Exarsere ignes animo; subit ira cadentem 575 

Ulcisci patriam et sceleratas sumere poenas. 
Scilicet haec Spartam incolumis patriasque Mycenas 
Aspiciet ? partoque ibit regina triumpho, 
Conjugiumque, domumque, patres, natosque videbit, 
Iliadum turba et Phrygiis comitata ministris? 580 

Occiderit ferro Priamus ? Troja arserit igni 1 
Dardanium totiens sudarit sanguine litus ? 
Non ita. Namque etsi nullum memorabile^omen 
Feminea in poena est, nec habet victoria laudem, 
Exstinxisse nefas tamen et sumpsisse merentis 585 

Laudabor poenas, animumque explesse juvabit 
Ultricis flammae, et cineres satiasse meorum. 
Talia jactabam, et furiata mente ferebar, 
Cum mihi se, non ante ocutis tam clara, videndam 
Obtulit et pura per noctem in luce refulsit 590 

Alma parens, confessa deam, qualisque videri 
Coelicolis et quanta solet, dextraque prehensnm 
Continuit, roseoque haec insuper addidit ore : 

566. Ignibus aegra. The position of the words marks tbat their 
ate was in consequence of their weariness. The twenty-two lines 
oUowing were rejected, we are told, by the critics who reviewed 
tbe Aeneid for Augustns, because inconsistent with vi. 517, &c., 
and to avoid the slur cast upon Aeneas for his proiected violence to 
a woman. — 567. Aeneas leaves the palace, and wanders home- 
wards. — 569. Tyndarida. Sce i. 652. — 570. Erranti. Inthecon- 
iiision of the hour he lost his way. See 489. — 572. ConjugiSf Me- 
nelai. — 573. Erinnys. See 337. — 574. Invisa, non visa. — 576. 
SceUrattUf scelerum. — 577, &c. This represents the current of his 
thoughts. Spartamy the home of M enelau», her husband. Mycenas, 
Graeciam. See i. 650. — 579. Patres. See 457. — 580. Comitata. 
See i. 312. — 581. Oceiderit. The action is regarded as completed at 
^future time, represented by ibit. — 584. Victoria de femina. — 585. 
Note laudabor exstinxisse, the resolution of which seems to be 
laudes habebo extinxisse, in the genitive. — 587. Flammae. See i. 
215. — 590. Pura, ut coelesti. Per noctem, night though it was.— 
591. Qudlist ss to beauty and general appearance ; 592, quanta, as 
to majesty. — 593. Eos£o, See k 402 ; Ed, ix. 40. 

in AENEID08. 

<'Nate, quis indomitas tantus dolor excitat irasf 

Quid furis? aut quoDam nostri tibi cura reoessit^ 595 

Non prius aspicies, ubi fessum aetate parentem 

Liqueris Anchisen ? superet conjunxne Creusa, 

Ascaniusque puer? quos omnis undique Graiae 

Circumerrant acies, et, ni mea cura resistat; 

Jam flammae tuierint, iuimicus et hauserit ensis. 600 

Non tibi Tyndaridis facies invisa Lacaenae 

Culpatusve Paris, divom inclementia, diYom, 

Has evertit opes sternitque a culmine Trojam. 

Aspice — namque omnem, quae nunc obducta tueati 

Mortalis hebetat visus tibi et humida circum 605 

Caligatj nubem eripiam; tu ne qua parentis 

Jussa tune, neu praeceptis parere recusa — 

Hic, ubi disjectas moles avolsaque saxis 

Saxa vides mixtoque undantem pulvere fumum, 

Neptunus muros magnoque emota tridenti -610 

Fundatnenta quatit totamque a sedibus urbem 

Eruit. nic Juno Scaeas saevissima portas 

Prima tenet, sociumque furens a navibus agmen 

Ferro accincta vocat. 

Jam summas arces Tritonia, respice, PaJIas 615 

Insedit, nimbo efTulgens et Gorgone saeva. 

Ipse Pater Danais animos viresque secundas 

oufficit, ipse deos in Dardana suscitat arma. 

£ripe, nate, fugam, finemque impone Jabori. 

Nusquam abero, et tutum patrio te limine sistam." 620 

Dixerat, et spissis noctis se condidit umbris. 

Apparent ciirae facies inimicaque' Trojae 

Numina magna deum. 

594. Tantus excitat, tantus ut excitet. See 519. — 595. Nestrt, 
See Georg. iv. 324. — 599. Resistat, tulerit. The English idiom 
requires a close attention to the precise meaning of these tenses. 
The completion of their destruction is a contingency only pre- 
vented by (nt) another act in the course of being now realised, 
and also expressed contin^entiy ; * M y present resistance alone pre- 
vents the present completion of their destruction.' In English, we 
use pasts lor the hypothesis — ' Were it not tJiat my care opposesj by 
this time tJie flame would have.* — 60L Lacaenae. See 577. — 605. 
Humida, from its position, is not a mere epithet, but indicates the 
canse of the darkness. — 606. Tu, emphatical. — 612. The Scaeaii 
gate of Troy was the one next the sea. — 615. Tritonia. See 171 
— 616. Gorgone. Medusa's head — she was one of the Gorgonei^ 
which turned into stone every one who looked on it, was placed oc 
the breastpiate or shield of Fallas.— 617. Fater, Jupiter. — 62L 
Vvcerat has the force of, * she finished speaking.* — 622. Adparemt 
Ihia vision is masterly bolh in conception and execution. — 623. 
Jyumina deum, th© gods exerting their power. 


'Ttim vero omne mihi visum considere in ignis 
Ilium et ex imo verti Neptunia Troja ; 625 

Ac veluti summis antiquam in montibus oraum 
Cnm ferro. accisam crebrisaue bipennibus instant 
Eruere agricolae certatim j itla usque minatur 
£t tremefacta comam concusso vertice nutat,- 
Volneribus donec paulatim evicta supremum 630 

Congemuit, traxitque jugis avulsa ruinam.. 
DescendO; ac ducente deo flammam inter et hostis 
£xpedior; dant tela locum, flammaeque recedunt./ 

' Atque ubi }am patriae perventum ad limina seais 
Antiquasque domos, genitor, quem tollere in altos 635 
Optabam primum montis primumque petebam, 
Aonegat excisa vitam producere Troja 
Exsiliumque pati. " Vos o, quibus integer aevi 
Sanguis," ait, " solidaeque suo stant robore vires, 
Yos agitate fugam. 640 

Me si coelicolae voluissent ducere vitam, 
Has mihi servassent sedes. Satis una superque 
Yidimus exctdia et captae superavimus urbi. 
Sic o sic, positum affati discedite corpus. 
Ipse manu mortem inveniam; miserebitur hostis 645 
Exuviasque petet. Facilis jactura sepulchri. 
Jam pridem mvisus divis et inutilis annos 
Demoror, ex quo me divom pater atque hominum rex 
Fulmlnis adflavit ventis et contigit igni." 

' Talia perstabat memorans, fixusque manebat. 650 
Nos contra effusi lacrimis, conjunxque Creiisa 

634. Mthif a me. — 625. Neptunia. Neptune (and Apollo) had 
bniit Troy. — 626. Velutit Troja ruit velutiy &c. — 627. Acci»am, not 
cut through, but partially. Grdyris^ expressing blow close follow- 
ing blow. — 630. ouvremumy w&qA adverbially. — 632. Descendo ex 
arce. Deo, generically a deity, without reference to sex, as in vii. 
498. — 638. Aevi for aevo, a Ureek construction. See Zumpt, % 437. 
— 642. Una; an instance of the plural of unus. Anchiscs refers 
to the previous capture of Troy by Hercules. — 643. Supemvimut, 
having the force and the construction of superfuimus urbi. — 644. 
For the use of perfect participles, see i. 680. The resolution of this 
sentence would be, ponite et adfamini, dein discedite. Affatif in 
allnsion to the last {arewell. See i. 219. Sic, without further in- 
treaty, they were to leave him as he was, and consider him already 
dead, — 645. Alternative. * Either I shall slay myself, or the ene- 
my, partly through pity, partly for the sake of spoil, will slay me.* 
— 646. In his insane grief, he regards as slight the loss even of a 
tomb — a fate above alT others dreaded by the ancients. — 649. He 
had been struck by a flash of lightnmg for revealing that Venus wa» 
the mother of Aeneas. 


174 ASNEIDOi. 

Aseaniasque omDiaque domus, ne vertere secom 
Cuncta pater fatoque urguenti incumbere vellet. 
Abnegat, inceptoque et sedibus haeret in isdem. 
Rursus in arma feror, mortemque miserrimus opto. 655 
Nam quod consilium ant quae jam fortuna dabatur ? 
^^ Mene effere pedem, genitor, te posse relicto 
Sperasti, tantumque nefas patrio excidit ore % 
8i nihil ex tanta Buperis placet urbe relinqui, 
£t sedet hoc animo, perituraeque addere Trojae 660 

Teque tuosque juvat, patet isti janua leto, 
Jamque aderit multo Priamt de sanguine Pyrrhus, 
Gnatum ante ora patris, patrem qui obtruucat ad aras. 
Hoc erat, alma parens, quod me per tela, per ignis 
Eripis, ut mediis hostem in penetralibus, utque 665 

Ascanium patremque meum juxtaque Creusam 
Alterum in alterius mactatos sanguine ceraam ? 
Arma, yiri, ferte arma ; yocat lux ultima victos. 
Reddite me Dansus; sinite instaurata revisam 
Proelia. Numquam omnes hodie moriemur inulti.'* 670 

' Hinc ferro accingor rursus ; clipeoque sinistram 
Insertabam aptans. meque extra tecta ferebam : 
£cce autem compiexa pedes in limine conjunx 
Haerebat, parvumque patri tendebat Julum : 
''Si periturus abis, et nos rape in omnia tecum; « 675 
Sin aliquam expertns sumptis spem ponis in armis^ 
Hanc primum tutare domum. Cui parvus luius, 
Cui pater, et conjunx quondam tua dicta relinquor?" 

Talia vociferans gemitu tectum omne replebat, 
Cum subitum dictuque oritur mirabile monstrum. 680 
Namque manus inter moestorumque ora parentum 
£cce levis summo de vertice visus luli 
Fundere lumen apex, tactuque innoxia moUis 

653. Incumbere. To (lean on so as to) bring on our heads. ^654. 
Incepto, sedibus haeret. See Georg. iv. 399. — 657. The address of 
Aeneas to his father. — 658. Sperasti. See Ecl. viii. 26. — 659. Si 
•edet. JVith.the indicate markmg a fact, since. — 661. i*«t, the de- 
monstrative pronounof the second person. — 663. See 550, — 669. 
Sinite ut revisam. See Ed. i. 43. tnstaurata, instaurem et. See 
644. — '670. Numquam hodie, a curious use of a general and a speci- 
fic term of time together. See Ecl. iii. 49. — 671. The tenses here 
deserve attention. Accingor, the historical present ; Aeneas girds 
dn his sword. That finisned, all the other actions are incompleted ; 
he was inthe act of fitting on his shield, and rushing out, and his 
wife toM intheaa of clinging to him, and holding out lulus, and 
filling the house with her wailings, when oritur, 680, another histo- 
ncal present. — 682. Bcce, &c. This prodigy {xMmtrum) seems to 
be taken from the well-known legend of Servius Tullius. Liv. i. 39 
8c« a smiilar prodigy, vii. 73, &c. Visus, was seen. 

UBSR II. 175 

Lambere flamma oomas et circum tempora pascL 

Nos payidi trepidare metu, crinemque flagrantem 685 

Excutere et sanctos restinguere fontibus ignis. 

At pater Anchises oculos ad sidera laetus 

Extulit, et coelo palmas cum voce tetendit : 

" Jupiter omnipotens, precibus si flecteris ullis, 

Aspice nos; hoc tantum; et, si pietate meremur, 690 

Da deinde auxilium, pater, atque haec omina firma." 

'Vix ea fatus erat senior. subitoque fragore 
Intonuit laeyum, et de coeJo lapsa per umbras 
Stelia facem ducens multa cum luce cucurrit 
Illam, 8umm« super labentem culmina tecti, 695 

Cernimus Idaea claram se condere silva 
Signantemque vias; tum longo limite sulcus 
Dat lucem, et late circum loca sulfure fumant. 
Hic yero victus genitor se toUit ad auras, 
Adfaturque deos et sanctum sidus adorat. 700 

'Uam jam nulla mora est; sequor, et, qua ducitis; adsum. 
Di patrii; servate domum, servate nepotem. 
Vestrum hoc augurium, vestroque in numine Troja est. . 
Cedo equidem, nec, nate, tibi comes ire recuso." 
Dixerat ille ; et jam per moenia clarior ignis 705 

Auditur, propiusque aestus incendia volvunt. 
<<£^go age, care pater, cervici imponere nostrae; 
Ipse subibo humeris, nec me labor iste gravabit ; 
Quo res cumque cadent, unum et commune periclum, 
Una salus amDobus erit. Mihi parvus lulus 710 

Sit comes, et longe servet yestigia conjuux. 
YoS; famuli, quae dicam, animis advertite vestris. 
£8t urbe egressis tumulus templumque vetustum 

684. Lambere; hence our expression, alamhefit flame. Pasci. See 
471. — 685. Trevidare. See 98. Crinem^ue flagrantem, crinium fla- 
grationem. — 688. See a similar expression, 378. — 690. Hoc tantum, 
' Thii — a look of kind regard (flspice) — is all we now ask ;' 691. deinde, 
* then we shall ask more,' even assistance.* — 693. Intonuit ; imper- 
sonal.^ Laevum, This was a good omen. — 694. A star, with a train of 
liffht (Jacem ducens)^ heralded thc way from the house of Anchises to 
Mount Ida, in the immediate neighbourhood of Troy. — 697. Sulcus, 
the furrow-like wake in the heavens, resembling a snip'8 wake in the 
waters. — 702. Nepotem, whom the omenseemedprincipally to regard. 
.»704. Cames here retains its notion of inferionty. Aeneas was to 
be the dux, Anchises the comes. — 705. Dixerat. See 621. — 706. 
Auditur. The crackling of the flames ; hence clarior refers to the 
ears, not the eyes. — 707. Ergo ; the conclusion of Aeneas from all 
that preceded. Imponere. Te impone. — 708. Humeris ; the abla- 
tive. — 711. Longe; to escapo observation. — 713. Urhe egressi$, 
(To those having left ; that is) ' after you have left the city.* 

170 ABNBID08. 

Desertae Cereris, jaxtaque antiqtta cupressus 

Religione patrum multos servata per annos. 715 

Haho ex diverso sedem veniemus in unam. 

Tu, genitor, cape sacra manu patriosque Penatis; 

Me, Dello e tanto digressum et caede recenti, 

Attrectare nefas, donec me iiumine vivo 

Abluero." 720 

Haec fatus, latos humeros subjectaque colla 

Veste super fulvique instemor pelle leonis, 

Succedoque oneri ; dextrae se parvus lulus 

Impiicuit^ sequiturque patrem non passibus aequts; 

Pone subit coniunx. Ferimur per opaca locorum ; 725 

£t me, quem dudum non ulla injecta movebant 

Tela neque adverso glomerati ex agmine Graii, 

Nunc omnes terrent aurae^ sonus excitat omnis 

Suspensum et pariter comitique onerique timentem. 

Jamque propinquabam portrs, oranemque videbar 730 

Evasisse viam, subito cum creber ad auris 

Visus adesse pedum sonitns, genitorque per umbram 

Proapiciens, "Nate," exclamat, "fuge, nale; propinquant. 

Ardentis clipeos atque aera micantia cemo.'' 

Hic mihi nescio quod trepido male numen amicum 735 

Confusam eripuit mentem. Namque avia cursu 

Dum sequor et nota excedo regione viarumj • 

Heu ! misero conjunx fatone erepta Creiisa 

714. Desertae Cereris. Desertum templutn Cereris. This was pro* 
bably occasioned by the lensth of the siege, or it may simply mean 
* lonely.' — 717. Sacroi &c. He had received them from Hector, and, 
perhaps, from Panthus, 320. — ^719. Nefas, &c. See 167. — ^722. Inster' 
«or, * I wrap myself, but not all, only humeros,^ See Zumpt, % 458.— 
723. Onerij Anchises. — 724. Implicuit, sequitur. The accurate con- 
ception of these tenses gives the language of Virgil all the distinct- 
ness of apicture. The moment is seized when Jules has entwined, and 
is foUowinff. — 725. Ferimur. The readermust have notieed how fond 
Virgil ia of this verb, indicative of impetuous motion. See 337, 672. 
Opaca locorum indicates an intentional mention only of such placea 
as were obscure ; not obscure spots merely, but spots chosen pur- 
posely because they were obscure. — 729. Comiti. Was this Asca- 
nius or Creusa ? — 730. Videbar. The whole joumey was not over, 
but, in his anxiety and his joy at having got through the city in 
safety, it seemed to be. — 731. Crdier^ an expressive word. Seo 
627. — 735. Nescio quod and quid. A form of expression used ad- 
jectively, to denote some vague, imcertain object, and having no 
influence on the verb. The meaning is not— * I am ignorant of tho 

deity who ; otherwise we should have eriperet-^' But some deity 

Lr^^^^T J!i*?°' ^'«'c amtcwm / infestura. See a similar junction, 
^lZl -;.; J^if ^''a-^'*'^ ^'■^'^ """st qualify the whole of the hypo- 
theses stated by Aeneas. However she was lost, it was the work 

UBER II. 177 

Substitit? erravitne yia? seu lassa resedit? 

Incertnm ; nec post oculis est reddita nostris. 740 

Nec prius amissam respexi animumve r^fiexi, 

Quam tumulum antiquae Cereris sedemque sacratam 

Venimus; hic demum collectis omnibus una 

Defuit, et comites natumque virumque fefellit. 

Quem non incusavi amens hominumque deorumque, 745 

Aut quid in eversa vidi crudelius urbe ? 

Ascanium Anchisenque patrem Teucrosque Penatis 

Commendo sociis et curva valle recondo; 

Ipse urbem repeto et cingor fulgentibus armis. 

Stat casus renovare omnis, omnemque reverti 750 

Per Trojam, et rursus caput objectare periclis. 

Principio muros obscuraque iimina portae, 

Qua gressum extuleram, repeto, et vestigia retro 

Observata sequor per noctem, et lumine lustro. 

Horror ubique animos, simul ipsa silentia terrent. 755 

Inde domum, si forte pedem — si forte ! — ^tulisset, 

Me refero. Irruerant Danai, et tectum omne tenebant. 

Ilicet ignis edax summa ad fastigia vento 

Volvitur; exsuperant flammae, furit aestus ad auras. 

Procedo, et Priami sedes arcemque reviso. 760 

Et jam porticibus vacuis Junonis asylo, 

Custodes lecti, Phoenix et dirus Ulixes 

Pra&dam adservabant. Huc undique Troia gaza 

Incensis erepta adytis mensaeque deorum, 

Crateresque auro solidi, captivaque vestis 765 

Congeritur. Pueri et pavidae longo ordine matres 

Stant circum. 

Ausus quin etiam Yoces jactare per umbram 

of fate. Hence the ne is placed in a rare, though not in an unpre- 
cedented part of the sentence. The marks of interrogation, placed 
here fpr the first time, give liveliness to the expression of the hero*s 
^ef, and are demanded by the indicatives. — 744. FefeUit. Fallere, 
ui the sense of escaping the notice of, generally infers intention on 
the part of ihe snbject to the verb ; but not always, as here. — 745. 
Deorumque. The que cut off before aut. — 750. Stat ; constituo. 
Thi8.return of Aeneas is finely contrived to bring before us the utter 
niin of Troy, and its condition as possessed by the Greeks. — 754. 
Observata seauor ; observo et sequor. Lumine lustro omnia. See 
173. — 755. Terrent seems to involve the notion of stringit, which 
governs animos meos. — 756. The second siforte seems to express 
wonder at his own credulousness. — 757. Irruerant — tendtant. 
Mark the force of these tenses. — 762. Phoenix, thc aged tutor of 
Achilles, was on guard in the galleries of Juno*s tcmple, a sacred 
asylum. — 765. Solidi, ex solido. — 766. Fueri, Trojans, now tho 
slaves of the Greeks. 


Irnplevi cJainore vias, moestnsque Creilsam 

Nequidquam ingeminansiterumque iterumque vocavi.770 

Quaerenti et lectis urbis sine fine furenii 

Infelix simulacrum atque ipsius umbra Creusae 

Visa mihi ante oculos et nota major imago. 

Obstupui, steteruntque comae et vox faucibuB haesit. 

Tum sic adfari et curas his demere dictis : 775 

"Quid tantum insano juvat indulgere dolori, 

dulcis conjunx 1 Non haec sine numine divom 

Eveniunt : nec te comitem portare Cretisam 

Fas, aut ille sinit superi regnator Olympi. 

Longa tibi exsilia, et vastum maris aequor arandmn. 780 

Et terram Hesperiam venies, ubi Lydius arva 

Inter opima virum leni fluit agmine Thybris : 

Illic res laetae regnumque et regia conjunx 

Parta tibi ; lacrimas dilectae pelle Creusae. 

Non ego Myrmidonum sedes Dolopumve superbas 785 

Aspiciam, aut Graiis servitum matifbus ibo, 

Bardanis, et divae Veneris nurus; 

Sed me magna deum Genetrix his detinet oris. 

Jamque vale, et nati serva communis amorem." 

Haec ubi dicla dedit, lacrimantem et multa volentem 790 

Dicere deseruit, tenuisque recessit in auras. 

Ter conatus ibi collo dare brachia circum; 

Ter frustra comprensa manus effugit imago, 

Par levibus ventis volucrique simillima somno. 

Sic demum socios consumpta nocte reviso. 795 

'Atque hic ingentem comitum adfluxisse novorum 
Invenio admirans numerum, matresque, virosque, 
C(Jllectam exsilio pubem, miserabile vulgus. 
Undique convenere, animis opibusque parati, 
In quascumque velim pela^o deducere terras. 800 

Jamque jugis summae surgebat Lucifer Idae 
Ducebatque diem, Danaique obsessa tenebant 

72. Infelixt me reddens infelicem. — 773. Vi»a tnihu See 624. 

— /74. Stelirunt, This Hne occurs again, iii. 48. — 780. Tibi sunt. 

— /81. Hes^eriam. See j. 530. Lydius Thyhris. Tiberis, the Tiber, 
ol which Ihvbris is a poetical form, rises in Tuscany, tradition- 
ally peopled by Lydians, from Asia Minor. — 783. Re^ia conjunx, 
Lavinia, daughter of king Latinus. — 784. Creusae, gennive. See i. 
462.-785. See7.— 788. Deum Genetrix ; Cybeie.— -792. Co7iatus 
Bum. — 794. This line occurs again, vi. 702. — 797. Numerum. One 
tccoujt, with absurd minuteness, gives 3400. —800. Deducere ; this 
was the proper term applied to him who headed a Roman colony. — 
801. fiucifer, Venus, Hesperus, are the same planet, sometimes 
seen m the west in the evening, at others, as here, seen in the east, 
nearsunnse. o » i 

MBffS Ul. 17t 

Lknina portanim) nec spe& opis ulia dabatur. 
Ceasi et sublato montes genitore petivi. 

i ; , — . 

804. The plural is also used, 636. 


Ur the Third Book, Aeneas proceeds to give an account of hit 
seven years' wanderings after the destruction of Troy. 

MirMi ytar.* Aeneas and his followers build, during winter, a 
fleet ai jintandrosj at the foot of the mountain range of Ida (see 
ii 694), and set saii in the beginningof the next summer, 1—12. 

Steond year. They first visit Thrace, a country of Europe, to tbe 
Dortb-west of Troy, much given to the worship of Mars (terra 
Mavortia)j and buiid a town ^moenia prima^ referring to the 
town called Jienoi by the geographer Mela), 13—68. 

Tkird and Fourth years. They leave Thrace (whose fields are 
called CUtica, from the Getae, see Georg. iv. 463), deterred by 
a frightful incident which occurs there. They sail southwards 
tbrough the Jiegean Sea or Archipelago [Neptuno Aegaeo) to De- 
los (called also Ortygia^ from some legend connected with 
iptvytit quails), which, as tradition tells, was once a floating 
isiand, but on the occasion of the birth of Apollo and Diana, 
was fastened to the neighbouring islands of Gyaros and MycO' 
«o*— and here cousuiting the priest of Apollo, they receive an 
ambiguous answer, 69«^98. Anchises interprets it as advising 
them to sail to the island of Crete (called Gnosia regna^ from 
Gnosus, a town in the north of the island), where in the cen- 
tre was the mountain range of Ida (^mons Idaeus), 99—120. 
They leave Delos, passiug in tlie way Naxos — the largest of 
the Cyclades, rich in vines, where the worship of Bacchus 
prevailed— i>o)iu«a, Olearos (or Antiparos as opposite Paros), 
and Parot (see i. 593), all islands in the Archipelago, princi- 
palty belongiug to that group cailed the Cyclades (from xvxha^)^ 
121—130. Arrived in Crete, whence had come tlie Corybantes, 
and wbere lived the Curetes, the armed priests of the goddess 
Cybele, who was worshipped on a mountain in Pltrygia bear- 
ing her name, they founded the city Pergameum, and iutended 
finally to settie there j but alarmed by a pestilence, they medi- 

* A^ tejam septima portat — aestas^ ii. 755-6. Heyne's airaM^nienv of tha 
fears has becn foUowed. It lias l)een deemed advisable to givr in tliis Argu* 
■0nt brief geographical notices of the numerous places mentioned, that the 
notes may not be overcrowded. T)ae places mentioned by Virgil are prtnted 


tated a secoad voyage to Belos, 131-146. Aeneas is warned 
by tbe gods in a vision to leave Crete [Dictuea arva^ from 
Didei a mountain range in the eastof the island), and to settle 
in Italy (called Corythm^ from an Italian hero of that name, 
the king of Tuscany, and terra jiusonia, from the Ausones, an 
indigenous race inhabiting the middle regions of Italy, calied 
also Aurunci and Opici, of whom the Volscians were probably 
a tribe)— tidings which Anchises hears joyfuUy, 147—189. 

Fifth year, They once more set sail, but lose their way in % 
ftorm, 190-208. They take shelter at two islaiids in the opea 
sea [jonio mari in magno) to the west of Messenia in the Pe- 
loponnesus, called Strophadea (from at^i^)', in consequence of 
a legend regarding the Harpies, who are a great source of an- 
Doyance to the wandering Trojans, 209-267. Sailing north- 
wards, they pass Zacyntkutf the modern Zante— Du/id^tuin 
(see Ecl. vi. 76) — Same^ or Cephalenia, tbe modern Cephak>- 
nia-»iVm^os, in the immediate neighbourhood of Ithaca, but 
whose precise site is unknown — Ithaca^ the well-known island 
of La&rtes and his son Ulysses — Lettcate, off Acarnania, now 
Santa Maura — all islaods in the lonian Sea, off the conat of 
Greece, 268-274. They land at Actium (jparvae urbi)^ a town 
in Acarnania, famous for a temple of ApoUo, and celebrate 
games there, 275-288. 

Sixth year. They again set sail, passing Corcyra, now Corfu, tben 
inhabited by the SiciUan PAoeaces— and the coast of jEJjnn», 
the country north of Acarnania — anchoring at Pelodes, the 
harbour of Buthrotum, a town of Epirus, 289-293. Aeneas 
bere, to his great surprise, finds Andromache and Helenns, 
who had named the country (which lay west of Dodona^ so 
celebrated for its oracle of Jupiter, see 466, and Ecl. ix. 13) 
Chaonitty from the Trojan Chaon, and had revived in rivers 
near Buthrotum the Trojan names of the Xanthut and the Si- 
moHs. having also a Scaean gate (see ii. 612), 294—355. Aeneas 
consuUs Helenus, who had great fame as a prophet, and re- 
ceives a response, assuring him of uitimate success, but wam- 
ing hitn that he has a long voyage before him, as he must pass 
the Sicilian Sea (^Trinacria unda, Sicily being called Trinacria 
from its three promontories)— Lake Avernus in Campania, an 
entranc-e to the lower world (infemi lacus) — and an island in tbe 
.Tuscan Sea (Salie ,^u8oni%)y whose site is now unknown, inbab» 
ited by the sorceress Circe, named jieaea (from Jiea^ a town of 
Colchis, whence she carae) j and he directs him to shun the 
lower parts of Italy, as the Locri, from the town Naryx, on tbe 
coast of Greece, opposite the island of Euboea, had planted a 
colony among the Brutii— Idomeneus of Lyctus, in Crete, had 
•ettled among tbe Sallentini in Calabria— end PhUoctetu of MtU 



ftoca, in Thessaly, had founded Petelia among the Brutii (390— 
402). Helenus also gives bim directions how to approach Italjr 
BO as to propitiate the gods, 403-409. He advises him, on get- 
ting near the straits at PeloruSf the north-eastern promontory of 
Sicily, to sail southwards and round the island, thus avoiding the 
rock SeyUa^ on the Italian, and the whirlpool Chartfbdif, on the 
Sicilian side of the straits, even though the course by Packtfnum^ 
the southern promontory, wasmuch longer, 410-^32. Heespe- 
oially counsels him to propitiate Juno, arid when he comes to 
OiMnae, a town in Campania, near Naples, to consult the Sibyl, 
433-462. Aftet receiving presents, interchanging farewells, and 
predicting the alliance of Rome and Epirus, which probably 
refers to the foundation of the town of Nicopolis by Augustns, 
aAer tbe battle of Actium, constituted by him an allied towa 
(^eognataique urbei), Aeneas sets sail, passing the Ceraunii montes, 
which stretch along the northern part of the coast of Epirus. 
Afler spending a portion of the night on land, they get a favour- 
able wind, reach Italy next day, and enter the PorhM Veneris, 
the harbour of Hydruntum in Calabria, on a hill nelar which was 
» temple of Minerva, 463-548. They leave this, passing Taren' 
tmn in Apulia, traditionally said to be fbunded by Hercules — the 
promontory Lacinium (now the Capo delle Colonne, from the re- 
maining pillars of a ruined temple of Juno)— the town of Cath 
Am, sitnated on a height— «nd Scylaceum, whose bay, now that 
of Squillace, is exposed to dangerous winds^navt^agiim)— all in 
the country of the Brutii ; thence rounding the south of Italy, 
they see the distant smoke and flame of Aetna, and approaching 
too near Scylla and Charybdis, hear their dreadful roar, which 
urges them to take refuge near jietnay in the land of the Cyclopes, 
549-569. Aetna's fires are described and accounted for, 570— 
587. Ad ventures of Achemenides, one of the followers of Ulys- 
ses, 588-654. The Trojans take him on board, and with diffi- 
culty escape from the Cyclops Polyphemus ; they pass in their 
southward course the river Pantagia^ with a rocky mouth — the 
towns Megara and Thaptut^ all south of Leontini, on the east 
coast of Sicily ; then, further south, the Bay of Syracuse (nnift 
Sicanio) — and, at the entrance of the Syracusan harbour, the 
island Ortygiay in which the Mpheutj a river of Elis, in the Pelo- 
ponnesus, according to the legend, emerges from the sea, and 
mingles with the waters of the ^rethuta {Ed. x. 1) — ^the pro- 
montory of Plemmyriwn^ on the other side of the harbour, 655— 
697. Thereafter they pass the river HeloruSy north of Pachy- 
num ; they round Pachynum itself ; then on the south of the 
islaiid, proceeding westwards, they sail along by the towni 
Camarinay with its lake, which the oracle of ApoUo forbade 
the inhabitants to drain {mmquam conceMta tnoveri^^^Gila, witb 


its fertile plaint (eamjri GM) — ^Agngentmn, on Moant AaM$at^ 
ffunous ibr tbe succesi of its bocses in tlie great games of 
Greece — and SeHuus, abonnding with wild pahns, 698—705. 
Roonding LUybaeumf the w estern promontory of Sicily, they 
proceed a short way nortb to Drepanum^ near £ry;c, where An- 
. cbisef dies, 706—715. Thus ends the narrative of Aeoeas 

' PosTauAM res Asiae Priamique evertere gentem 
Irameritam visum Superis, ceciditque superbum 
Uium et omnis humo fumat Neptuaia Troja, 
Divenia exsilia et desertas quaerere terras 
Auguriis agimur divom, classemque sub ipsa 5 

Antandro et Phrygiae molimur montibus Idae, 
Incerti. quo fata ferant, nbi sistere detur ; 
Contraiiimusque viros. Vix prima inceperat aestaa, 
£t pater Anctiises dare fatis vela jubebat ] 
Litora cum patriae lacrimans portusque relinquo 10 

£t campos, ubi Troja fuit. Feror exsul in altum 
Cum sociis natoque, Penatibus et magnis dis. 

^Terra procul vastis colitur Mavortia campis — > 
Thraces arant, acri qnondam regnata Lycurgo — 
Hospitium antiquum Trojae sociique Penates, 15 

Dum fortuna fuit. Feror huC; et litore curvo 
Moenia prima loco, fatis ingressus iniquis, 
Aeneadasque meo nomen de nomine fingo. 

'Sacra Dioneae matri divisque ferebam 
Auspicibus coeptorum operum, superoque nitentem 20 
Coeiicolum regi mactabam in iitore tauram. 
Forte fuit juxta tumulus, quo comea summo 
Virgulta et densis hastilibus horrida myrtus. 
Accessi, viridemque ab humo convellere siivam 
Conatus, ramis tegerem ut frondentibus aras, 25 

Horrendum et dictu video mirabile monstrum. 
Nam, quae prima solo ruptis radtcibus arbos 

1-12. Account of First i^ear. — 1. Asiae. See ii. 557. — 3. Nep» 
tunia. See ii. 625. — 4. Diversa^ referring to himself and Antenor. 
See i. 242. — 11. Fuit. See ii. 325. — 12. Penatibus, &c. Ei.her 
et has a mere emphatic force, the Penates and the magni di being 
the same, or the latter refers to Vesta, given to Aeneas by Hector, 
and the former to the gods saved by Fanthus, iL 256. 320. The 
Ime is spondaic. — 13-68. Account of Second year. — 14. Lycurgus, 
*" ^ R®"* *^^"S ^^ Thrace, is called acris, because he boldly op- 
posed Bacchus. Regnata, a poetic use of an intransitive verb.— 
15. Hoejntium and Penates are in apposition with terra. — 17. In 

Jreteu» terram, — 19. Dioneae. According to some, Venus was 
aughter of the nympk Dione.— 21. Hegi, Jovi. 

LIBBR m. i6S 

VelKtoT, htiie atro liquantQr saiiguine gnttae 

Et terram tabo macnlant. Mihi frigidus horror 

Membra qnatit, gelidusque coit formidine sangnis. 30 

Rursus et allerius lentum convellere vimen 

Insequor et causas penitus tentare latentis: 

Ater et alterius sequitur de cortice sanguis. 

Multa movens animo Nymphas venerabar agrestis 

Gradivumque patrem, Geticis qui praesidet arvis, 35 

Rite seeundarent visus omenque levarent. 

Tertia sed postquam majore hastilia nisu 

Aggredior genibusque adversae obluctor arenae— 

Eloquar, an sileam ? — gemitus lacrimabilis imo 

Auditur tumulo^ et vox reddita fertur ad auris : 40 

"Quid miserum, Aenea, lacerasl jam parce sepulto; 

Parce pias scelerare manus. Non me tibi Troja 

Extemum tulit, aut cruor hic de stipite manat. 

Heu ! fuge crudelis terras, fuge litus avarum. 

Nam Polydorus e^o. Hic confixum ferrea texit 45 

Teloram seges et jaculis increvit acutis." 

Tnm vero ancipiti mentem formidine pressUs 

Obstupui, steterantque eomae et vox faucibus haeslt 

'Hunc Polydorum auri quondam cum pondere magno 
Infelix Priamus fnrtim mandarat alendum 50 

Threicio regi, cum jam diffideret armis 
Dardaniae, cingique urbem obsidione videret. 
Ille, ut opes fractae Teocrum, et Fortuna recessit, 
Res Agamemnonias victriciaque arma secutus, 
Fas omne abrumpit ; Polydorum obtruncat, et auro 55 
Vi potitur. Quid non mortalia pectora cogis, 
Auri sacra fames ! 

'Postquam pavor ossa reliquit, 
Delectos populi ad proceres primumque parentem 
Monstra deum refero, et, quae sit sententia, posco. 
Omnibus idem animus, scelerata excedere terra, 6d 

35. Gradivum, a name for Mars, from his martial step, ffradior. 
— 36. Venerahar ut secundarent ; $ecundare, Xo turn to gooa. — 42» 
4tc Construe non with externum. The idea involved in this latter 
word probably rectirs in tbe next clause, extemus cruor. Or etipitt 
may be emphatical; *it is not from the treey but from mc' — 45. 
Fdydorun, a son of Priam. Confixum me. — 48. See ii. 774. — 51. 
J?ert. His name was Polymnestor. — 56. Fotitur. This present 
imficative and infinitive, and the imperfect subjunctive of this verb, 
are sometimes found, especially in the poets, of the third conjuga- 
tion. Cogif. Add this to the liet of verbs goveming two accusatives, 
the one ^iog that of the person, and the other m the deed, forced 
lienerally expressed by a pronoun. See iv. 412. —57. Sacra diis 
in&ris, exsecranda. 


Linqni poliatnm hospitiam, et dare classibas aastros. 
£rgo instauramus Polydoro funus : et ingens 
A^eritur tumulo tellus ; stant Manibus arae^ 
Caeruleis maestae vittis atraque cupressO; 
£t circum Iliades crinem de more solutae; 6S 

Inferimus tepido spumantia c^mbia lacte, 
Sanguinis et sacri pateras, animamque sepulchro 
Condimus, et magna supremum Toce ciemus. 

' Inde, ubi prima fides pelago, placataque venti 
Dant maria et lenis crepitans vocat auster in altam^ 70 
Deducunt socii navis et litora complent. 
Provehimur portu, ferraeque urbesque recedunt. 
Sacra mari colitur medio gratissima tellus 
Nereidum matri et Neptuno Aegaeo, 
Quam pius Arcitenens oras et litora circum 75 

Errantem Mycono e celsa Gyaroque revinxit, 
Immotamque coli dedit et contemnere ventos. 
Huc feror ; haec fessos tuto placidissima portu 
Accipit. Egressi veneramur Apollinis urbem. 
Rex Anitts. rex idem hominum Phoebique sacerdofl^ 80 
Vittis et sacra redimitus tempora lauro, 
Occurrit; veterem Anchisen agnoscit amicum. 
Jungimus hospitio dextras, et tecta subimus. 

'Templa dei saxo venerabar structa vetusto: 
'^ Da propriam, Thymbraee, domum j da moenia fessis 85 
El genus et mansuram urbem; serva altera Trojae 
Pergama, reliquias Danaum atque immitis Achilli. 
Quem sequimur? quove ire jubes? ubi ponere sedest 
Da, pater, augurium, atque animis inlabere nostris." 

* Vix ea fatus eram : tremere omnia visa repente, 90 
Limina^ne laurusque dei, totosque moveri 
Mons circum, et mugire adytis cortina reclosis. 

61. After excedere, and with dare^ we should expect linquere. Bat 
•uch changes are not rare. — 62. Ergo^ &c. This description of a 
funeral is adapted to Roman usage. See i. 73. — 64. Cupresso; in 
many countries the emblem of mourning. See vi. 216. — 65. Cfinem 
tolutae; for this common construction, see note on EcL i. 52, &.e. 
— 68. Supremum. See i. 219, ii. 644. — 69-189. Account of Third 
and Fourth year». — 71. Deducunt. For another compound with an 
opposite meaning, see 135. — 74. Doris, the mother of the Nereids, 
and Neptune (equivalent to the Greek Poseidon), were deities of tha 
Mediterranean, and especially of the Aegean Sea. Mairi, Neptuno ; 

i and -d unelided. — 75. Arcitenens. ApoIIo was famed as an ar- 
cher. — 80. Aniusy a son of Apollo. According to aGreek tradition, 
Aeneas married his daughter.--85. Thymbraee. See Georg. iv.323. 

-91. Lvninaque by the arsia.— 92. Cortina here signifies the slab, 
rc Bting on the tripod, from which the servants of Apollo pronounced 
theur oracular responaes. In this passage the god himself speaks. 


Submissi petimus terram, et vox fertur ad auris ; 

" Dardanidae duri, quae vos a stirpe parentum 

Prima tulit tellus, eadem vos ubere laeto 95 

Accipiet reduces. Antiquam exquirite matrem. 

Hic domus Aeneae cunctis dominabitur oris, 

Et nati natorum, et qui nascentur ab illis.'' 

Haec Phoebus ; mixtoque ingens exorta tumulta 

Laetitia, et cuncti, quae sint ea moenia, qnaemnt, lOC 

Quo Phoebus vocet errantis jubeatque reverti ? 

Tum genitor, veterum volvens monumenta viroram, 

" Audite o proceres," ait, "et spes discite vestras: 

Creta Jovis magni medio jacet insula ponto; 

Mons Idaeus ubi, et gentis cunabula nostrae. 105 

Centum urbes habitant magnas, uberrima regoa , 

Maximus unde pater, si rite audita recordor, 

Teucrus Rhoeteas priraum est advectus ad oras, 

Optavitque locum regno. Nondum Ilium et arces 

Pergameae steterant ; habitabant vallibus imis. 1 10 

Hinc maler cultrix Cybelae Coiybantiaque aera 

Idaeumque nemus ; hinc fida silentia sacris, 

£t juncti currum dominae subiere leones. 

£rgo agite, et, divom ducunjt qua jussa, seqnamur } 

Placemus ventos et Gnosia regna petamus. 115 

Nec longo distant cursu; modo Jupiter adsit, 

Tertia lux classem Cretaeis sistet in oris." 

Sio fatus, meritos aris mactavit honores, 

Tauram Neptuno, tauram tibi, pulcher Apollo, 

Nigram Hiemi pecudem, Zephyris felicibus albam. 120 

'Fama volat pulsum regnis cessisse paterais 
Idomenea ducem, desertaque litora Cretae, 
Hoste vacare domos, sedesque adstare relictas. 
Linquimus Ortygiae portus, pelagoque volamus, 
Bacchatamque jugis Naxon viridemque Donusam, 125 
Olearon, niveamque Paron, sparsasque per aequor 
Cycladas, et crebris legimus freta consita terris. 

94. Quae. See i. 573, $ 3. — 97. Hict in tellure jam dicta. — 106. 
Homer, too, speaks of the hundred cities, calhng Crete UarSfiroXis. 
— 110. Hdbitabant Troiani. —111. Aeneas here traces the Fhrygian 
worship of Cybele, with the brazen symbols of her priests, her mys- 
terious rites, and the tradition of her iron-yoked chariot — even th» 
name of tho mountain Ida — to Crete. — 112. Nemus by the arsis.-^ 
121. There was a tradition that the Cretans had expelled Idome 
neus, a brave prince, who had aided the Greeks in the Trojan war, 
because he had sacrificed his son to Neptune, in consequcnce of a 
▼ow for his safe return, and that he settled in Calabria. — 125. Nax* 
0n, &c., all under the influence of legimus. See Ecl. viii. •*. — 127 
CrebrtM terri», alluding to the islands, thickly sown in thosc seas- 
16* Q 

186 AKNE1D06. 

Nanticas exoritnr yario certamine olamor; 
Hortantur socii; Cretam proavosque petamus. 
Prosequitur surgens a puppi ventus euntis, IM 

£t tandem antiquis Curetum adlabimur oris. 

< £rgo avidus muros optatae molior urbis, 
Pergameamque voco, et laetam cognomine gentOTH 
Hortor amare focos arcemque attollere tectis. 
Jamque fere sicco 8ul)ductae litore puppes; M 

Connubiis arvisque novis operata juventus; 
Jura domosque dabam : subito cum tabida membrifl^ 
Corrupto coeli tractu, miserandaque venit 
Arboribusque satisque lues et letifer annus. 
Linquebant dulcis animas, aut aegra trahebant 140 

Corpora ; tum sterilis exurere Sirius agros ; 
Arebant herbae, et victum seges aegra negabat 
Rursus ad oraclum Ort^giae Phoebumque remenso 
Hortatur pater ire mari, veniamque precari : 
Quam fessis iinem rebus ferat ^ unde laborum 145 

Tentare auxilium jubeat j qno vertere cursus. 

'Nox erat, et terris animalia somnus habebat: 
£fiigies sacrae divom Phrygiique Penates, ^ 

Quos mecum a Troja mediisque ex ignibus urbis 
£xtuleram; visi ante oculos adstare jacentis 150 

InsomniS) multo manifesti lumine, qua se 
Plena per insertas fundebat luna fenestras ; 
Tum sic adfari et curas his demere dictis: 
'^Quod tibi delato Ortygiam dicturus Apollo est, 
Hic canit, et tua nos en ultro ad limina mittit. 155 

Nos te, Dardania incensa, tuaque arma secuti, 
Nos tomidum sub te permensi classibus aequor, 
Idem venturos tollemus in astra nepotes, 
Imperiumque urbi dabimus. Tu rooenia magnis 
Magna para, longumque fugae ne linque laborem. 'j60 
Mutandae sedes. Non haec tibi litora suastt 

-- 1 - - -■ ■ I II I II - 

129. Hortantur ut petamus. See Zumpt, ^624. — 134. Hort^r, 
with the infiniliye amaret a poetical constniction, at least in Virgil'8 
time. See Zampt, $ 616. Tectis. For, to protect. Dativus coio» 
modi. — 135. Subductae. See 71.— 136. Connubiis. See i. 73.— 
137. The other operations were over, and Aeneas toa« engaged in 
legislation» daham. See a similar expression in i. 507. — 145. 
Ferat, pTecari ut dicat. — 151. lutomnis. *A8 I lay, unabte, 
nrom anxiety, to aleep.' Thia seems required by 173. Others, 
nowevert read in somnis, and suppose nec sopor illud erat to mean, 

Xior was that the empty pageant of a mere dream^sleep ; it was a 
real vision. — 153. J.e^art does not seem to be govemed byt»t»t, 
but tobe the historical infinitive — 159, 160. Mark the emphaais 
donved from the juxtaposition of magnis magna. 

UBBR III. 187 

Deltus, aut Cretae jussit considere, Apollo. 
Kst locus, He^riam Grraiicognoniine dicunt, 
Terra antiqua, potens armis atque ubere glebae; 
Oenotri coluere viri ; nunc fama minores 165 

Italiam dixisse ducis de nominegentem: 
Hae nobis propriae sedes ; hinc Dardanus drtuS| 
lasiusque pater, genus a quo principe nostrum. 
Surge age, et haec laetus longaevo dicta parenti 
Haud dubitanda refer: Corytbum terrasque requirat 170 
Ausonias. Dictaea negat tibi Jupiter arva." 
Talibus attonitus visis et voce deorum — 
Nec sopor illud erat, sed coram agnoscere vuhus 
Velatasque comas praesentiaque ora videbar; 
Tnm gelidus toto manabat corpore sudor — 175 

Corripio e stratis corpus, tendoque supinas 
Ad coelum cum voce manus. et munera libo 
Intemerata focis. Perfecto laetus honore 
Anchisen facio certum, remque ordine pando. 
Agnovit prolem ambiguam geminosque parentes^ 180 
S^ue novo velerum deceptum errore locorum. 
Tpm memorat : " Nate, Iliacis exercite fatis, 
Sola mihi talis casus Cassandra canebat. 
Nunc repeto haec generi portendere debita nostro, 
£t saepe Hesperiam, saepe Itala regna vocare. 185 

Sed quis ad Hesperiae venturos litora Teucros 
Crederet? aut quem tum vates Cassandra moveretl 
Cedamus Phoeoo, et moniu meliora sequamur." 
Sic ait ; et cuncti dicto paremus ovantes. 
Hanc quoque deserimus sedem, paucisque relictis 190 
Vela damus, vastumque cava trabe currimus aequor. 
'Postquam altum tenuere rates, nec jam amplius ullae 

162. Crelae, The prose construction would be * in Creta.* — 163-166. 
8ee i. 530-533. — 168. Ia$iu$ was, according to some traditions, brother 
of Dardanus, and son of Jupiter or Corythus, a Tuscan prince. Driven 
irom their native country Etruria, Dardanus emigrated to Troy, and 
lasius to Samothrace. — 173. See 151. -> 176. Supinaf. It was the 
costom to offer to the Di superi prayers with the palms upwards, to 
tfae Di inferi with the paims downwards (pronas). — 180. Frciem 
Bmhiguam. Referring to Teucrus as one ancestor from Crete, and 
Parcumus another from Italy. See 108, &c. — 181. Novo veterum, 
This antithesis marks that the lensth of time since these places had 
been inhabited by the founders of the Trojan race had led to the 
mifltake of a later day inovo). — 183. Ca8$andra, See ii. 246. --- 184. 
Mepeto portendere, Two things are to be noticed here — the omission 
of eam the subject to the infinitive, which is poetical (see ii. 25), aiid 
mrtendere for portendiflse. See Ecl, i. 17. — 190-288. Account ot 
Fifth year. 


Adparent terrae, coelnm nndique et undK|ue pontus, 
Tum mihi caeruleus supra^caput adstitit imber, 
Noctem hiememque ferens, et inhorruit unda tenebris. 195 
Continuo venti yolvunt mare magnaque surgunt 
Aequora; dispersi jactamur gurgite vasto ; 
Inyolvere diem nimbi, et nox humida coelum 
Abstulit ; ingeminant abruptis nubibus ignes. 
Excutimur cursu, et caecis erramus in undis. 200 

Ipse diem noctemque negat discemere coelo, 
Nec meminisse viae media Palinurns in unda. 
Tris adeo incertos caeca caligine soles 
Erramus pelago, totidem sine sidere noctes. 
Quarto terra die primum se attollere tandem 205 

Visa, aperire procul montis, ac volvere fumum. 
Vela cadunt, remis insurgimus ; haud mora, nautae 
Adnixi torquent spumas et caerula verrunt. 
Servatum ex undis Strophadum me litora primum 
Accipiunt ; Strophades Graio stant nomine dictae, 210 
Insulae lonio in magno, quas dira Celaeno, 
» Harpyiaeque colunt aliae, Phinela postquam 

^ Clausa domus, mensasque metu liquere priores. 

3 Tristius haud illis monstrum, nec saevior ulla 

^ Pestis et ira deum Stygiis sese extulit undis. 215 

^ Virginei volucrum vultus, foedissima ventris 

i Proluvies, uncaeque manus, et pallida semper 

Ora fame. 

" Huc ubi delati portus intravimus, ecce ! 
^ Laeta boum passim campis armenta videmus 220 

^ Caprigenumque pecuS; nullo custode, per herbas. 

7 Irruimus ferro, et divos ipsumque vocamus 

In partem praedamque Jovem ; tum litore curvo 
^, Exstruimusque toros dapibusque epulamur opimis. 

'2 At subitae horrifico lapsu de montibus adsunt 22t» 

'2 Harpyiae et magnis quatiunt clangoribus alas, 

S Diripiuntque dapes contactuque omnia foedant 

Immundo j tum vox tetrum aira inter odorem. 
■ ■ ' ' ■ 11 

202. Nec arises from negat^ dicit non. -—211. Insulae, -ae 
nnelided, and made short according to the Greek usage. Cdamo, 
with Aello and Ocypete, were the Harpies C^P^ici ^om ^iC^w), 
loathsome creatures, half women half birds of prey, ever greedy, 
defiling and plundering food, were driven from the palace of tM 
Thracian king Phineus. In their flight, Jupiter permitted them to 
tum at the Strophades, and dwell there. — 212. Harpyiae ; pro» 
n«unce as in the Greek, in three syllables. — 213. Metu, of the Ar- 

Spnauts who expelled them from the house of Phineus.— 223. 
artem praedamque, equivalent to partem praedae. 


RurBum in «ecessn longo sub rupe cavata, 

Arboribus clausi circum atque horrentibus umbriS; i,ZO 

Instruimus mensas arisque reponimus ignem : 

Rursum ex diverso coeli caecisque latebris 

Turba sonans praedam pedibus circumvolat uncis, 

PoHuit ore dapes. Sociis tunc, arma capessant, 

Edico, et dira bellum cum gente ge^-endum. 235 

Haud secus ac jussi faciunt, tectosque per herbam 

Disponunt enses et scuta latentia condunt. 

Ergo ubi delapsae sonitum per curva dedere 

Litora, dat signum specula Misenus ab alta 

Aere cavo. Invadunt socii, et nova proelia tentant, 240 

Obscenas pelagi ferro foedare volucres. 

Sed neque vim plumis ullam nec volnera tergo 

Accipiunt, celerique fuga sub sidera lapsae 

Semesam praedam et vestigia foeda relinquunt. 

Una in praecelsa consedit rupe Celaeno, 245 

Infelix vates, rumpitque hanc pectore vocem : 

'^Bellum etiam pro caede boum stratisque juvencis^ 

Laomedontiadae, bellumne inferre paratis 

£t {)atrio Harpyias insontis pellere regno? 

Accipite ergo animis atque naec mea figite dicta. 250 

Quae Phoebo pater omnipotens, mihi Phoebus ApoUo 

Praedixit, vobis Furiarum ego maxima pando. 

Italiam cursu petitis; Tentisque vocatis 

Ibitis Italiam, portusque intrare licebit: 

Sed non ante datam cingetis moenibus urbem, 255 

Quam vos dira fames nostraeque injuria caedis 

Ambesas subigat malis absumere mensas." 

Dixit, et in silvam pennis ablata refugit. 

At sociis subita gelidus formidine sanguis 

Derignit; cecidere animi, nec jam amplius armis, 260 

Sed votis precibusque jubent exposcere pacem, 

Sive deae, seu sint dirae obscenaeque volucres. 

£t pater Anchises passis de litore palmis 

Numina magna vocat, meritosque mdicit honores : 

'* Di, prohibete minas : di, talem avertite casum, 265 

231. Aris, To the gods were offered during the repast the pars 
praedae vowed to them. — ^232. Diverso, used substantively for diversa 
parte. — 234. Ut capessant. — 239. Misenus was the trumpeter of 
Aeneas (see vi. 162), hence aere for aerea tuba. — 241. Foedare, usfcd 
BS a substantive in apposition with oroeZta. See Ge^rg, iv. 534.— 
252. Furiarum, The Furies and the Harpies are here confounded. — 
254../toZta}ii. The prose construction would require in or ad. — 257. 
Mslis, icom niala. For the fulfilment of this prophecy, see viL 
116, d&c. 

• 8 


£t placidf senrate pios !" Tum litore fanem 
Deripere, excussosque jqbet laxare rudentis. 

^Tendunt vela Noti; fugimus spumantibus UDdiSi 
Qua cursum ventusque gubernatorque vocabat. 
Jam medio adparet fluctu nemorosa Zacynthos 270 

Dulichiumqne Sameque et Neritos ardua saxis. 
Effugimus scopulos Ithacae, Laertia regna, 
Et terram altricem saevi exsecramur Uiixi. 
Mox et Leucatae nimbosa cacumina montis 
£t formidatus nautis aperitur Apollo. 275 

Hunc petimus fessi et parvae succedimua urbi ; 
Aucora de prora jacitur, stant litore puppes. 

' Ei^o insperata tandem tellure potiti 
Lustramurque Jovi. votisque incendimus aras, 
Actiaque Iliacis celebramus litora ludis. 280 

Exercent patrias oleo labente palaestras ^ 

Nudati socii ; juvat evasisse tot urbes 
Argolicas mediosque fugam tenuisse per hostis. 
Interea magnum sol circumvolvitur annum, 
£t glacialis hiems aquilonibus asperat undas; 285 

Aere cavo clipeum, raagni gestamen Abantis, 
Postibus adversis figo, et rem carmine signo : 
Aeneas haec de Danais victorihus arma, 

'Linquere tum portus jubeo et considere transtris. 
Certatim socii feriunt mare et aequora verrunt. 290 

Protinus aerias Phaeacum abscondimus arces, 
Litoraque Epiri legimus portuque subimus 
Chaonio et celsam Buthroti accedimus urbem. 
Hic incredibilis rerum fama occupat auris, 
Priamiden Helenum Graias regnare per urbes, 295 

— — — — ^— I Ml I .Ml I ■ ■ ■ I ■■ ■ I 11 ■ 1—^^—^— ■■ ■ ■ —^W^ W ■■■■■■■! 1 !■ ■ ^ ^ . ^ - I 11 ■ M ^ M ■ M— ^— — I^M^^^^K^^M^— ^^^^ 

275. FormidatuBy on account of its rocks. Aperiturt * is opened to our 
view as we approach ;' iust as, 291, ahecondimus has the oppostte mean* 
ing — * we pass, and lose sight of.' — 276. Parvae urbi, Actium. — 
S79. The slaughter of the cattle of the Harpies required a puriiicatory 
sacrifice {Jiuetramur)^ and that to Jupiter, who had been invoked to 
•hare the spoil. See 223. — 283. Argolicae, See ii. 55. — 284/ 
Magnum circumvolvitur annum, ' forms in its revolution a complete 
year.' — 286. Abantis. There was a king of Argos, of the name of 
Abas, whose shield was famous in old traditions. Accordioe to 
Virgil, one of his descendants had been stripped of this shield by 
Aeneas. — 289-718. The Sixth year of the wanderings of Aeneas. 
— 291. Abscondimus. See 275. — 292. Legimus. See JEcZ. viii. 6. 
Portu. See Ecl. v. 29. — 295. Helenus, a son of Priam, had been 
taken prisoner by Ulysses, and conveyed to Epirue by Pyrrhus, son 
^ AchiUes, tbe king of Epirus, who had married Andromache 
Hector s widow. After the death of Pyrrhus, Heleuus sacceedec* 
him both in marriage and in his kingdom. 

— i" 

UBBIl Ifl. If } 

Coiijugie Aeaddae Pyrrhi sceptrisque pQtitmii, 

£t patrio Andromacheii iteium cessisse marito. 

Obstupui, miroque iiicensum pectus amore, 

Compellare virum et casus cognoscere tantos. 

Progredior portu. claaBis et litora linquens ; 300 

Sollemnis cum forte dapes et tristia dona 

Ante urbem in luco falsi Simoentis ad undam 

Libabat cineri Aiidromache, Manisque vocabat * 

Hectoreum ad tumulum, viridi quem cespite inaaeoi 

£t geminas, causam lacrimis, sacraverat aras. 305 

Ut me conspexit venientem et Troia circum 

Arma amens vidit, magnis exterrita monstris 

Derignit visu in medio, calor ossa reliquit ; 

Labitur, et longo vix tandem tempore fatur : 

'^ Verane te facies, verus mihi nuntius adfers, 310 

Nate dtea ? vivisne 1 aut, si lux alraa recessit, 

Hector ubi est V^ dixit, lacrimasque effudit et omnem 

Impievit clamore locum. Vix pauca furenti 

Subjicio, et raris turbatus vocibus hisco : 

" Vivo equidem, vitamque extrema per omnia duco ; 316 

Ne dubita, nam vera vides. 

Heu ! quis te casus dejectam conjuge tanto 

£xcipit? aut quae digna satis fortuna revisit? 

Hectoris Andromache Pyrrhin^ connubia servas?" 

Dejecit vultum et demissa voce locuta est : 320 

" felix una ante alias Priameia virgo, 

Hostilem ad tumulum Tiojae sub moenibus altis 

Jussa roori, quae sortitus non pertulit ullos, 

Nec victoris heri letigit captiva cubiie ! 

Nos, patria incensa, diversa per aequora vectae 325 

Stirpis Achilleae fastus juvenemque superbum, 

Servitio enixae, tulimus ; qui deinde, secutus 

Ledaeam Hermionen Lacedaemoniosque hymenaeos, 

Me famulo famulamque Heleno transmisit habendam. 

Ast iltum, ereptae magno inflammatus amore 330 

307. Ament. The position of this word indicates tbat it was th« 
«iffht of the Trojan army that had made her amens. — 319. Fyrrhi»*, 
Tbe interrogative particle -ne is often elided in comic poctry, and 
^ometimes by Virffil. See vi. 779. The question shows that Aenoas 
had not believed the report raentioned 294, &c. -:,321. Folyxena, a 
daughter of Friam, was slain on the grave of Achilles, to whom sh* 
was on the point of bcing married when Faris slew hira. — 327. 
JEnisae. Andromache had borne three children to Fyrrhua. — 328. 
Hermione, granddaughter of Leda, and daughter of Menciaus, kinff 
of Sparta, had been t>etrothed to Orestes, son of Agamemnon ana 
ClytemneBtra.— 329. To a servant gave me, who was also a servaot 


Conjngif et soelenun Furiis agitatus, Orestes 
Excipit incautum patriasque obtruncat ad aras. 
Morte Neoptolemi regnorum reddita cessit 
Pars Heleno, qui Chaonios cognomine campos 
Chaoniamque omnem Trojano a Chaone dixit, 835 

Pergamaque Iliacamque jugis hanc addidit arcem. 
Sed tibi qoi cursum venti, (^uae fata dederel 
Aut quisnam ignarum nostris deus adpulit oris? 
Qnid puer Ascanius ? superatne ? et vescitur aura, 
Qoae libi jam Troja — 340 

Ecqua tamen puero est amissae cura parentis? 
£cquid in antiqnam virtutem animosque virilis 
Et pater Aeneas et avunculus excitat Hector 1" 
" Talia fundebat lacrimans longosque ciebat 

Incassum fletus. cum sese a moenibus heros 345 

Priamides muUis Helenus comitantibus adfert, 

Agnoscitque suos, laetusque ad limina ducit, 

£t multum lacrimas verba inter singula fundit. 

Procedo, et parvam Trojam simulataque magnis 

Pergama et arentem Xanthi cognomine rivum 350 

Agnosco, Scaeaeque amplector limina portae. 

Nec non et Teucri socia simul urbe fruuntur. 

IIIos porticibns rex accipiebat in amplis ; 

Aulai medio libabant pocula Bacchi, 

Impositis auro dapibu^ paterasque tenebant. 355 

' Jamque dies atterque dies processit, et aurae 
Yela vocant tumidoque infiatur carbasus austro : 
His vatem aggredior dictis ac talia quaeso: 
"Trojugena, interpres divom, qui numina Phoebi, 
Qui tripodas, Clarii laurus, qui sidera sentis 360 

£t volucrum linguas et praepetis omina pennae, 

331. Conju^. Hermione was betrothed to him. See EcL viii. 
18. The Furies, the instigators and avengers of crimes, had driven 
to madness Orestes for slaying Clytemnestra, who had murdered 
Agamemnon. Pyrrhus was slain at DeJphi', where he had erected 
an altar to Achilles. — 340. Qttae; others read quem, Either the 
passage is corrupt, or it indicates that, while Andromache was pro- 
ceeding to ask regarding the fate of Creusa, she was warned by tbe 
countenance of Acneas that his wife was dead. She stops abruptly, 
and asks if Ascanius still remembered him. — 343. Avuneulut 
means a mother*8 brother. According to one tradition, Creusa 
was the sister of Hector. — 354. Aulat, an antiquated form of the 
genitive singular. See vi. 747, vii. 464, ix. 26. — 360. Clani, a 
name for Apollo, from an lonian town, Claros, where he had a 
temple and prophetic cave. The laurel was sacred to Apollo. — 
861. Omens among the Romans were taken either frotn the chirping 
'Atnguas), or the flight of birds (praepetis pennae) ; hence th« distinc 


Fare «ge— namc^ne cmiD^xi cursnm milii preqpera ctodt 
Religio, et cuncti suaserunt numine diyi 
Itaiiam petere et terms tentare repostas ; 
Sola noYum dictuque nefas Harpyia Celaeno 365 

Prodigium canit, et tristis denuntiat iras, 
Obscenamque famem — quae prima pericula vito '^ 
Quidve sequens tantos possim superare laboresl'' 
^ Hic Helenus, caesis primum de more juvencis, 
Exorat pacem divom^ vittasque resolvit 370 

Sacrati capitis, meque ad tua limina, Phoebe, 
Ipse manu multo suspensum numine ducit, 
Atque haec deinde canit dlvino ex ore sacerdos : 

^' Nate dea ; nam te majoribus ire per altum 
Auspiciis manifesta fides : — sic fata deum rex 375 

Sortitur, volvitque vices ; is verlilur ordo — 
Pauca tibi e multis, quo tutior hospita lustres 
Aequora et Ausonio possis considere portU; 
Expediam dictis; prohibent nam cetera Paroae 
Scire Helenum, farique vetat Saturnia Juno. 380 

PrincipiO; Italiam, quam tu jam rere propinquam; 
Vicinosque; ignare, paras invadere portus, 
Longa procul iongis via dividit invia terris. 
Ante et Trinacria lentandua remus in unda, 
Et salis Ausonii lustrandum navibus aequor 385 

Infernique lacus Aeaeaeque insula Circae, 
Quam tuta possis urbem componere terra. 
Signa tibi dicam y tu condita mente teneto ; 
Cum tibi sollicito secreti ad fluminis undam 
Litoreis ingens inventa sub ilicibns sus 390 

Triginta capilum felus enixa jacebit, 
Alba, solo recubans, albi circum ubera nati, 
Is locus urbis erit, requies ea certa laborum. 
Nec tu mensarum morsus horresce futuros : 
Fata viam invenient, aderitque vocatus ApoUo. 395 

Has autem terras, Italique hanc litoris oram, 
Proxima quae nostri perfunditur aequoris aestu, 

tion between oscines and praepetes. — 363. Rdigio, the commands 

of heaven. See 94, &c., 163, &c 365. See 255, &c. •— 374. 

Jidajoribua solito. — 379. Parcae. See Ecl. iv. 47. — 383. Invia, 
impassable by land, as Aeneas could not make his way over the 
intervening territories (longis terris) from the Greek colonies on tho 
coasts. — 389. Cunij &c. See this prophecy repeated by the river- 
god TJberiniis, viii. 43, &c. — 392. Alba. From this, accordins to 
the usages of his time, Virgil derives the name of the town Alba. 

395. Viam, a way by which the fulfilment of the prediction will 

prove to be harmless. — 396. Hanc, the coast nearest— the east coast. 
— 397. Noatri aeqttoris, the Adriatic. 
17 R 


Sffngf^; «miota malis habitaDtur inoenia Graiia. 

Hic et Narycii posuerant moenia Locri, 

Et SSallentinos obsedit milite campos 400 

Lyctius Idomeneus ; hic iila ducis Meliboel 

Parva Philoctetae subnixa Petelia muro. 

Quin, ubi transmissae steterint trans aequora classesi 

£t positis aris jam vota in litore solves, 

Purpureo yelare comas adopertus amictu, 405 

Ne (^ua inter sanotos ignis in honore deorum 

Hostilis faoies occurrat et omina turbet. 

Hunc socii morem sacrorum, hunc ipse teneto j 

Hac casti maneant in religione nepotes. 

Ast ubi digressum Siculae te admoverit orae 410 

Yentus, et angusti rarescent claustra Pelori, 

Laeva tibi telTus et longo laeva petantur 

Aequora circuitu ', dextrum fuge litus et undas. 

Haec loca vi quondam et vasta convolsa ruina — 

Tantnm aevi loiiginqua valet mutare velustas — 415 

Dissiluisse ferunt, eum protinus utraque tellus 

Una foret j venit medio vi poutus et undis 

Hesperium Siculo latus abscidit, arvaque et urbes 

Litore diductas angusto interluit aestu. 

Dextrum Scylla latus, laevum implacata Charybdis 420 

Obsidet, atque imo barathri ter gurgite vastos 

Sorbet in ab^uptum fluctus, rursusque sub auras 

£rigit alternos et sidera verberat unda. 

At Scyllam caecis cohibet spelunca latebris, 

Ora exsertantem et navis in saxa trahentem. 425 

Prima hominis facies et pulchro pectore virgo 

Pube tenuS; postrema immani corpore pislrix, 

Delphinum eaudas utero commissa lupqrum. 

Praestat Trinacrii metas lustrare Pachyni 

401. Idomeneut, See 121. — 402. Either J^etelia PhUoct etae, OT 
muro Philoctetaey as there was a tradition that the town existed be* 
fore, and that it was only walled in by Philoctetes. The force of 
tubnixa muro seems to be ' raised high on the wall.' Philoctetea 
was the friend of Hercules. — 405. Velare comas. For the constnic* 
tion of passive verbs of dressing with the accusative, see Zumpt, $ 
458. The practice of sacrificing with the head covered was Roman. 
See i. 73. — 411. Earesceiitj 'snall begin to appear in all their nar- 
TownesB.* — 412. Laeva, sailin^ westward, the south course is to 
the left. ---.424. Scylla, according to the tradiiions, was a woman 
changed into the monster here described by Virgil, as looking forth 
from her den, to seize and destroy ships — half woman, half fish, 
endmg m two dolphins' tails, and having her belly inhabited by sea- 
wolves or dogs. See 432, and Ecl. vL 74. See also MUton, Por. 
Lottj u. 650, &c. 

CessanteiB, loingds et cironmfiectere cum^ 430 

Quam semel infurmem vasto vidisse sub antro 
Scyllam et caeruleis canibus resonantia saxa. 
Praeterea, si qua est Heleno prudenitia, vati 
Si qua iides, animum si veris implet Apollo^ 
Unum illud tibi^ nate dea, proque omnibus unum 435 
Praedicam, et repetens iterumque iterumque moneDo : 
Junonis magnae primum prece numen adora } 
Junoni cane vota libens^ aominamque potente|n 
Supplicibus supera donis : sie denique victor 
Tnnacria finis Italos mittere relicta. 440 

Huc ubi delatus Cumaeam accesseris urbem 
Divinosque lacus et Avema sonantia silvis, 
Insanam vatem aspicies, quae rupe sub ima 
Fata canit foliisque notas et nomina mandat. 
Quaecnmque in foliis descripsit carmina virgo, 445 

Digerit in numerum atque antro seclusa relinquit. 
Illa manent immota locis neque ab ordine cedunt. 
Verum eadem, verso tenuis cum cardiue ventus 
Impulit et teneras turbavit janua frondes, ^ 

Numquam deinde cavo volitantia prendere saxo, 450 
Nec revocare situs aut jungere carmina curat. 
Inconsulti abeunt, sedemque odere Sibyllae. 
Hic tibi ne qua morae fuerint dispendia tanti, 
Quamvis increpitent socii, et vi cursus in altum 
Yela vocet possisque sinus implere secundos, 455 

Quin adeas vatem precibusque oracula poscas 
Ipsa canat, vocemque volens atque ora resolvat. 
Illa tibi Italiae populos venturaque bella, 
£t quo quemque modo fugiasque ferasque laborem, 
Expediet, cursusque dabit venerata secundos. 460 

Haec sunt, quae nostra liceat te voce moneri. 
Vade age, et ingentem factis fer ad aethera Trojam." 
^Quae postquam vates sic ore effatus amico est, 

430. Cessantem te. — 434. Fides^ trustworthinefis. — 435. Pro 
mnnibus, * for,' that is, * as what alone will be of as much value tm 
all other means.'— 440. Finis, nd Ji^iis, — 442. Sonantia silvis, 
*re-echoing the rusthng woods.' —443. Insanam. Full of prophetic 
frenzy. — 445. Carrnina, prophecies ; but as these were generally 
in verse, the word here may have its proper meanins. — 446. /» 
numerum, in the order — probably — of time. — 452. Inconsulti, a 
peculiar use of the word, applied to those who, having sought 
counsel from the Sibyl, are mocked by the dispersed leaves, and 
depart unadvised. — 453. Hic^ &lc. Helenu? advises Aeneas to 
vafue the advice of the Sibyl, as counterbalancing any disadvantage 
from a delay of however long a duration. — 457. See vi. 74. — 460. 
Vemerata, passive. See Zumpt, % 632. 

Dona dehinc aaro graTia sectoque dbphanto 

Imperat ad navis ferri, stipatque carinis 465 

Ingens argentum, Dodonaeosque lebetas, 

Loricam consertam hamis auroque trilicem, 

£t conum insignis galeae cristasque comantis, 

Arma Neoptolemi. Sunt et suc^ dona parenti. 

Addit equos, additque duces; 470 

Remigium supplet ; socios simul instruit armis. 

' Interea classem velis aptare jubebat 
Anchises, fieret vento mora ne qua ferenti. 
Quem Phoebi interpres multo compellat honore : 
'^ ConjugiOy Anchisa, Veneris dignate superbo, 475 

Cura deum, bis Pei^mels erepte ruinis, 
Ecce tibi Ausoniae tellus ; hanc arripe velis. 
£t tamen hanc pelago praeterlabare necesse est ; 
Ausoniae pars illa procul, quam pandit ApoUo. 
Yade/' ait, "o felix nati pietate. Quid ultra 480 

Provehor et fando surgentis demoror austros?" 
Nec minus Andromache, digressu moesta supremo, 
Fert picturatas auri subtemine vestes 
£t Phrvgiam Ascanio chlamydem ; nec cedit honod, 
Textilibusque onerat donis, ac talia fatur : 485 

'^ Accipe et haec, manuum tibi quae monumenta mearum 
Sint, puer, et longum Andromachae testentur amorem, 
Conjugis Hectoreae. Cape dona extrema tuorumi 
O mihi sola mei super Astyanactis imago. 
Sic oculos, sic ille manus, sic ora ferebat y 490 

£t nunc aequali tecum pubesceret aevo.'" 
Hos ego digrediens lacrimis adfabar obortis; 
" Vivite felices, quibus esl fortuna peracta 

464. GraviS by the arsis. — 466. The lebetef were brazen ewem, 
and were used by the priests in Dodona, for the purpose of predict- 
ing future events, from the sounds returned by them when struck. 
-*-467. Loricam. The coat of mail was of that dcscription called 
by us chain-armour, the rings, in three plies, being of gold. — 469. 
Parentif Anchisae. — 476. Bis. See ii. 642. — 477. Ecce, pointing 
to the opposite coast. — 478. Hanc^ yonder shore — the eastem pait 
of Ilaly.— 481. Vemoror, * prevent you from availing yourselves of.* 
— 484. Neccedit honori. The meaning of these words is doubtfuL 
Perhaps this explanation may prove satisfactory : Helenus had 
given presents, and bidden a respectfui (A<wtore, 474) farewell to 
Anchises. Andromache gives presents to Ascanius, and bids him 
farewell with equal respect. She not only gives presents, but is not 
inferior (* does not yiela') in her language to the respectful language 
of her husband. — . 486. The force of this line will then be, * and m 
presentme her gifts of woven skill (the veste» and chlamys mentiooed 
betore), she thus addresses Ascanius.' — 489. Super, superatee. 



Jam sua ; nos aKa ex aHis in £ata yooamur, 

Vobis parta quies; nuUum niaris aequor arandum, 495 

Arva neque Ausoniae semper cedentia retro 

Quaerenaa. Effigiem Xantiii Trojamque videtis, 

Quam vestrae fecere manus, melioribus. opto, 

Auspiciis, et quae fuerit minus obvia Graiis. 

Si quando Thybrim vicinaque Tbybridis arva 500 

Intraro gentique meae data moenia cernam, 

Cognatas urbes olim populosque propinquos, 

EpirO; Hesperia, quibus idem Dardanus auctor 

Atque idem casus, unam faciemus utramque 

Trojam animis ; maneat nostros ea cura nepotes." 505 

' Provehimur pelago vicina Ceraunia juxta. 
Unde iter Italiam cursusque brevissimus unais. 
Sol ruit interea et montes umbrantur opaci. 
Stemimur optatae gremio telluris ad undam, 
Sortiti remoS) passimque in litore sicco . 510 

Corpora curamus ; fessos sopor irrigat artus. 
Necdum orbem medium Nox horis acta subibat : 
Haud segnis strato surgit Palinurus et omnis 
Eigplorat ventos, atque auribus aera captat ; 
Sidera cuncta notat tacito labentia coelo, 515 

Arcturum pluviasqne Hyadas geminosque Trionesi 
Armatumque auro cireumspicit Oriona. 
Postquam cuncta videt coelo constare sereno, 
Dat clarum e puppi signum 3 nos castra movemus^ 
Tentamusque viam et velorum pandimus alas. 520 

Jamque rubescebat stellis Aurora fugatis, 
Cum procul obscuros collis humilemque videmus 
Italiam. '^ltaliam!" primus conclamat Achates, 
Italiam laeto socii clamore salutant. 
Tum pater Anchises magnum cratera corona 525 

Induit implevitque mero, divosque vocavit 
Stans celsa in puppi : 
" Di maris et terrae tempestatumque potentes, 

494. Suafortuna^ the changcs of fortune made peculiar, destined 
by fate. — 499. Fuerit. Thisfuture perfect refers to the foundation 
01 the Epirotian Troy. Its finished foundation, it is hoi>ed, wUl be 
less in danger than that of ancient Troy. — 503. In Epiro. Idem. 
His descendants foundin^ Rome and Nicopolis. — 504. Casusj ut 
by the arsis. — 505. Trojam, in apposition with urhes populosque» 
— 513. JPalinurusy abeady mentioned as the pilot of Aeneas, 202. — 
517. Oriona. See i. 535. A spondaic line ; see ii. 68. — 519. Sig- 
num, either by a light (ii. 256), or a trumpet (v. 139). — 523. ThuJ 
repeated cry ot Italiamj brings to mind Xenophon*8 ^dXarra ! SdXar' 
m! Anab. iv. 7, 24.-525. Cratera. See Georg, ii. 528.-528. 
CoDStrue potentes with maris, 


Ferte ti am yento faeilem et spirale seottndi." 

' Crebrescunt eptatae aurae, portusque patescit 536 
Jam propior^ templumque adparet in arce Mtnervae. 
Vela legunt socii, et proras ad litora torquent. 
Portus ab Euroo fluctu curratus in arcum ; 
Objectae salsa spumant aspergine cautes^ 
Ipse latet ; gemino demittunt brachia mnro 535 

Turriti scopuli, refugitque ab litore templum. 
Quatuor hio, primum omen, equo8 in gramine vidi 
Tondentis campum late, candore niyali. 
£t pater Anchises ; '< Bellnm, o terra hospita, porta^ ; 
Bello armantur equi, belium haec armenta minantur. 540 
Sed tamen idem olim curru succedere sueti 
QuadrupedeS; et frena jngo concordia ferre: 
Spes et pacis," ait. Tum numina sancta precamor . 
I%lladie armisonae, quae prima acoepit ovantis^ 
£t capita ante aras Phrygio velamur amictu } 545 

Praeceptis(jue Heleni, dederat quae mazima, rite 
Junoni Argivae jussos adolemus honores. 
Haud mora, continuo perfectis ordine votis, 
Cornua velatarum obvertimus antennarum^ , 

Grajugenumque domos suspectaque linqumfius arva. 550 

' Hinc sinus Herculei, si vera est fama, Tarenti 
Cernitur ; attollit se diva Lacinia contra, 
Caulonisque arces et navifragum Scylaceum. 
Tum procul e ftuctu Trinacria cemitur Aetna, 
£t gemitum ingentem pelagi pulsataque saxa 555 

Audimus longe fractasque ad litora voces, 
£xsultantque vada, atque aestu miscentur arenae. 
£t pater Anchises : " Nimirum haec illa Charybdis ; 
Hos Helenus scopulos, haec saxa horrenda canebat. 
£ripite, o socii, pariterque insnrgite remis." 560 

Haud minus ac jussi faciunt, primnsque rudentem 
Contorsit laevas proram Palinurus ad undas ; 
Laevam cuncta cohors remis ventisque petivit. 

530. Patescit. See 275. — 531. Arce. See ii. 322. — 535. Ipse 
portas.— 536. BefugU. The temple standinz on a height removed 
trom the shore, is represented as retreating nrom it in the view of 
those approaching, who would naturaliy, in the distance, deenei it 
close to the sea. — 540. Belloj dative. — 543. Spes et pacis. See i. 
445. — 545. Capita velatnur. See405. — 547. Junoni. See435, &c. 
-^549. Obverttmuay so as to face the sea. — 550. Grajugenumque, 
&c. See 396, &c.— 552. Diva, templum divae.— 558. Haee tUa. 
A fine mstance of the difference between these pronouns. Haec — 
pomni^r to it— this that toe hear ; illa, that of which Hetenut spake, 
See420.— 562. Zactw». See412. 

IklBBR III. 199 

ToHiinttr ir coelBm oonrato gurgke, et idem 

Subducta ad Manis imos desidimus unda. 165 

Ter soopuli clamorem inter cava saxa dedere ; 

Ter 8pumam.elisam et rorantia vidimus astra. 

Interea fessos ventus cum sole reliquit, 

Ignarique viae Cyclopum adlabimur oris. 

'Portus ab accessu ventorum immotus et ingens S^O 
Ipse ', sed horrificis juzta tonat Aetna ruinis, 
uiterdumque atram prorumpit ad aethera nubem, 
Turbine fumantem piceo et candente favilla, 
Attollitque globos mmmarum et sidera lambit ; 
Interdum scopulos avolsaque viscera montis 575 

Erigit eructans, liquefactaque saxa aub auras 
Cum gemitu glomerat, fundoque exaestuat imo. 
Fama est Enceladi semiustum fulmine corpus 
Urgueri mole hac, ingentemque insuper Aetnam 
Impositam ruptis flammam exspirare camiois ; 580 

£t fessum quotiens mutet latus, intremere oimiem 
Murmure Trinacriam, et coelum subtexere fuoio. 
Noctem illam tecti silvis immania monstra 
Perferimus, nec, quae sonitum det causa, videmns ; 
Nam neque erant astrorum ignes, nec lucidus aethra 585 
Siderea polus, obscuro sed nubila coelo, 
£t Lunam in nimbo nox intempesta tenebat. 

' Postera jamque dies primo surgebat Eoo, 
Humentemque Aurora polo dimoverat umbram : 
Cum subito e silvis, macie confecta suprema^ 590 
Ignoti nova forma viri miserandaque cultu 
Procedit supplexque manus ad litora tendit. 
Respicimus. Dira illuvies immissaque barba, 
Consertum tegumen spinis; at cetera Graius, 

565. Desedimus. Others read destdimus. — 566-7. These two 
lines particularise the two precedin^. Thrice they sunk so low as 
to hear the roar of the waves, which, breaking against clifTs (sco- 
yuli), bellowed in the cavems of the rock {cava saxa) ; thrice they 
were heaved up on the foam-wave dashed back from the rock. 
fiearing was the sense most appalled by the first, and sight by the 
eecond phenomenon. — 578. Encdadi, a hundred-handed giant, son 
of Tartarus and Terra. In the war between the gods and the gi- 
«nts, he was overthrown by Jupiter, and buried under Mount Aetna. 
Bee Ovid, Met. v. 346, &c. who represents Typhoeus as the buriea 
gpant. Scndustum ; pronounce semyustum. ^580. The cavems of 
Aetna burst, and from these fumaces the mountain breathes forth 
fije. — 585. There were no stars visible, nor was the heaven spark 
ling with the constellations that deck the pure regions of aether. — 
587. Iniempesta, biackest night, because it is no time to work.-— 
594. His tattered dress was held together by thoms instead of 
Uixeads, but his anns were Grecian. 


Et quondam patrlls ad Trojam misBiis in annif . 595 

Isque ubi Dardanios habitus et Troia vidit 

Arma procul, paulum aspectu conterritus haesit, 

Continuitque gradum ; mox sese ad litora praeceps 

Cum fletu precibusque tulit : '* Per sidera testor, 

Per superos atque hoo coeli spirabile lumen, 600 

Tollite me, Teucri; quascumque abducite terras; 

Hoc sat erit. Scio me Danais e classibus unum| 

£t bello Iliacos fateor petiisse Penatis. 

Pro quo, si sceleris tanta est injuria nostri, 

Spargite me in fluctus, vastoque immergite ponto. 605 

Si pereo, hominum manibus periisse juvabit." 

Dixerat, et genua amplexus genibusque volutans 

Haerebat. Qui sit, fari, quo sanguine cretus, 

Hortamur ; quae deinde agitet fortuna, fateri. 

Ipse pater dextram Anchises, haud multa moratus, 61G 

I^t iuveni, atque animum praesenti pignore flrmat. 

Ille naec, deposita tandem formidine, fatur : 

'^Sum patria ex Itbaca, comes infelicis Ulixi, 

Nomen Achemenides, Trojam genitore Adamasto 

Paupere^ — mansissetque utinam fortuna! — ^profectus. 615 

Hio me, dum trepidi crudelia limitla linquunt, 

Immemores socii vasto Cydopis in antro 

Deseruere. Domus sanie dapibusque cruentis, 

Intus opaca, ingens. Ipse arduus, altaque pulsat 

Sidera — ^Di, talem terris avertite pestem ! — 620 

Nec visu facilis nec dictu adfabilis ulli. 

Visceribus miserorum et sanguine vescitur atro. 

Vidi egomet, duo de numero cum corpora nostro 

Prensa manu magna medio resupinus in antro 

595. Etj 'andwhat is more.' — 600. Smralile lumen, a strange 
coUocation. It must refer to the air, tne mediam of light and 
breath. — 601. Terras. Ad terras, Seei. 2. — 606. Pereo, -o uneli- 
ded, and kept long by the arsis. — 607. Dixerat. See ii. 621. Vo» 
lutans. See i. 234. — 614. Ntmien. est mihi Achemenides. For the 
construction, see i. 267. — 615. He wishes that his ambition had not 
led him to forsake his father/s humble fortunes. — 616. This is the 
completion of an adventure narrated by Homer, Od. ix. 177, &.c 
Ulysses and his companions had unwittingly taken shelter in the 
cave of Folyphemus, one of the Cyclopes^ a race of one-eyed mon- 
sters, who, of ffigantic size, tendea theirfiocks at the foot of Mount 
Aetna. Polyphemus was devouring the Greeks one by one, when 
Ulvsaes at once avenffed the dead, and saved the hving, by the ex- 
pedient here recorded, 630, &c., and which will remind the reader 
ot the similar mcident in the third voyage of Sinbad the Sailor in 
the Arahwn Nightt' Entertainment9. When Ulysses and his com- 
tTbeh' d ^^*^®™®*"^«fi» according to Virgil, was accidentally 

LIBER in. 301 

Frangeret ad saxum, sanieqne exspersa natarent 625 

Limina; vidi atro cum membra fluentia tabo 

Manderet, et tepidi tremerent sub dentibus artus. 

Hand impune quidem ; nec talia passus Ulixes, 

Oblitusve sui est Ithacus discrimine tanto. 

Nam simul expletus dapibus vinoque sepultus 630 

Cervicem inflexam posuit, jacuitque per antram 

Immensus, saniem eructans et frusta craento 

Per somnum commixta mero, nos, magna precati 

Numina sortitique viceS; una undique circum 

Fundimur, et telo lumen terebramus acuto, 635 

Ingens, quod torva solum sub fronte latebat, 

Arg^ici clipei aut Phoebeae lampadis instar, 

£t tandem laeti sociorum ulciscimur umbras. 

Sed fugite, o miseri, fugite, atque ab litore funem 

Rumpite. ^ 640 

Nam qualis quantusque cavo Polyphemus in antro 

Lanigeras claudit pecudes atque uoera pressat, 

Centum alii curva haeo habitant ad litora vulgo 

Infandi Cyclopes, et altis montibus errant. 

Tertia jam Lunae^ se cornua lumine complent, 645 

Cum vitam in silvis inter deserta ferarum 

Lustra domosque traho, vastosque ab rupe Cyclopad 

Prospicio, sonitumque pedum vocemque tremisoo. 

Yictum infelicem, baccas lapidosaque corna, 

Dant rami, et volsis pascunt radicibus herbae. 650 

Omnia collustrans, hanc primum ad litora class^m 

Conspexi venientem. Huic me, quaecumque fuisset, ~ 

Addixi : satis est gentem effugisse nefandam. 

Vos animam hanc potius quocumque absumite leto." 

' Vix ea fatus erat, summo cum monte videmus 655 
Ipsum inter pecudes vasta se mole moventem 
Pastorem Polyphemum et litora nota petentem, 
' Monstrum horrendum, informe, ingcns, cui lumen 

634. Sortiti vices, in this perilous adventure, the followers of 
Ulysses settled by lot which part each should act. — 635. The telum 
WB8, according to Homer, a tree pointed and hardened in the fire. 
(IjU7nen)\ See ii. 173. — 637. The clipeus Argelicus was round. 
Compare, with this i^assage, and with 645 {,cornua complent), * The 
moon that rose last night, round as my ehield, had not yet filled her 
horns.' — Home^a Douglas. — 639. The elisions and hexameters of 
this line mark the impatience of despair. — 643. VulgOy everywhere 
around. — 645. Tcrtia, &c. Three months had elapsed. See 637. 
*- 648. Tremisco poetically govems the accusative. See xi. 403. — 
654. Fotiut, in preference to the horrid fate that awaited him in tha 
hands of Folyphemus. — 658. This line, with its spondees and eli- 
•ions, visibly represents the crashing movement of the giant. 

862 A1NBID08. 

Trar^ manu pinus regit, et yestigia firmat ; 

Lanigerae comitantur oves; ea sola voluptas 660 

Solamenque niali. 

Postquam altos tetigit fluctus et ad aequora venit, 

Luminis elTossi fluidum ]avit inde cruorem, 

Dentibus infrendens gemitu, graditurque per aequor 

Jam medium. necdum fluctus latera ardua tinxit. 665 

Nos procul inde fugam trepidi celerare, recepto 

Supplice sic merito, tacitique incidere funem ; 

Verrimus et proni certantibus aequora remis. 

Sensit, et ad sonitum vocis vestigia torsit. 

Yerum ubi nulla datur dextra adfectare potestas 670 

Nec potis lonios fluetus aequare sequendo, 

Clamorem inmensum toUit, quo pontus et omnes 

Contremuere undae, penitusque exterrita tellus 

Italiae, curvisque immugiit Aetna cavernis. 

At ^enus e silvis Cyclopum et montibus altis 675 

Excitum ruit ad portus et litora complent. 

Cernimus adstantis nequid(juam lumine torvo 

Aetnaeos fratres, coelo capita alta ferentis, 

Concilinm horrendum : quales cum vertice celso 

Aeriae quercus, aut coniferae eyparissi 680 

Constiterunt, silva alta Jovis, lucusve Dianae. 

Praecipitis metus acer agit quocumque rudentis 

Excutere, et ventis intendere vela secundis. 

Contra jussa monent Heleni^ Scyllam aique Charybdim 

Inter, utramque viam ieti discrimine parvo, 685 

Ni teneant cursus; eertum est dare lintea retro. 

Ecce autem Boreas angusta ab sede Pelori 

Missus adest. Yivo praetervehor ostia saxo 

Pantagiae Megarosque sinus Thapsumque jacentem. 

Talia monstrabat relegens errata retrorsus 690 

669. Vocis. The cry of the rowers. — 671. The motion of the 
waves bore Aeneas away with a rapidity too great for him to over- 
take them. — 676. Buit et complent. See Zumpt, ^366. Perhaps 
the notion is, ' as one body they rush, but in scattered groups they 
fill.* — 681. ConstUirttnt. Quercua referring to aUva JoviSf cyfparissi 
to Ineusve Dianae, who must here be identified, as often, with He- 
cate. — 684-686. A difiiciilt passage, and one that has j^ven much 
troable to the commentators. According to the punctuation adopted, 
the meaning will be, ' On the other hand, the instructions of Hele- 
nus (410, &c.) wam us, that unless they (the ships, or rather the 
sails, vela) keep their way right between Scylla and Charybdhs, 
both courses expose to almost inevitable destruction : (yet, so great 
18 our fear of Folyphemus,) we determine to sail back.*^ — 687. Au» 
l«». They were delivered from their danger in sailing northwaids, 
by the rismg of the north wind.— -690. Errata, poetically employed 
m this sens», the verb being intransitive. Ulysses, and of course 

LIBfiR lY. 208L 

I«itora Achemenides, comes infellcis Ulixi. 

^Sicanio praetenta einu jacet insula contra 
Plemmyrium undosum : nomen dixere priores 
Ortygiam. Aipheum fama est huc Elidis amnem 
Occultas egisse vias subter mare ; qui nunc 695 

Ore, Arethusa, tuo Siculis confunaitur undis. 
Jussi numina magna ioci veneramur; et inde 
Exsupero praepingue solum stagnantis Helori. 
Hinc altas cautes projectaque saxa Pachyni 
Radimus, et fatis numquam concessa mQveri 700 

Adparet Camarina procul campique Geloi, 
Immanisque Gela nuvii cognomine dicta. 
Arduus inde Acragas ostentat maxima Jonge 
Moenia, maguanimum quondam generator equoram; 
Teque datis linquo ventis, palmosa Selinus, 705 

£t vada dura lego saxis LiJybeia caecis. 
Hinc Drepani me portus et inlaetabilis ora 
Accipit. Hic, pelagi tot tempestatibus actus, 
Heu genitorem, omnis curae casusque levamen, 
Amitto Anchisen. Hic me^ pater optime, fessum 710 
Deseris, heu, tantis nequidquam erepte periclis ! 
Nec vates Helenus, cum multa horrenda moneret, 
Hos mihi praedixit luctus, non dira Celaeno. 
Hic labor extremus, longarum haec meta viarum. 
Hinc me digressum vestris deus adpulit oris.' 715 

Sic pater Aeneas, intentis omnibus, unus 
Fata renarrabat divom, cursusque docebat. 
Conticuit tandem, factoque hic fine quievit. 

Achemenides, had sailed from the coast of Afriea previously to the 
Bdventure with the Cyciopes. — 697. Jussi. By whom? rerhapd 
bv Anchises, or it may be in compliance with the instructions of 
iielenus, as generally appiicable. — 702. GeUk. Immanis ia probably 
an epithet of fluviij as a destructive river. — 711. Nequidquam; 
flince, after all, he had not reached Italy. — 716. Intentis, bnnging 
back the mind to ii. 1, ' Intentique ora tenebant.* 


l>i]io loves Aeneas, 1-5. She reveals her love to her sister Anna, 
6.-30. Anna encourages her to marry him, 31-55. They offer 
sacrifices, in order to propitiate the gods, 56-67. Progress of 
Dido^s love, 68—89. Juno, alarmed, proposes to Venus the 
marriage of Aeneas and Dido, with the junction of the two 
nations; to which Venus seemingly assents, 90-1 2&. The 


Carthaginians and Trojans go forth to bnnt, 129-159. Jn • 
storm, raised by Juno, Aeneas and Dido, separated from their 
companions, are married, 160—172. Fame (who is described) 
bears tfae tidings through Libya, 173-197. This irritates king 
larbas, a rejected suitor of I>ido's, who prays to his father Ju- 
]uter, 198—218. Jupiter sends Mercury to hasten the voyage 
of Aeneas to Italy, 219-237. Flight of Mercury, 238-258. 
Mercury^s message to Aeneas, 259—278. Aeneas, whose lead* 
ing characteristio is obedience to the will of Heaven (ptiM), 
prepares for his departure, attempting to conceal his plans 
from Dido, 279-295. The queen divines his intentions, and 
upbraids him, 296-330. His reply, 331-361. Dido'8 resent- 
ment and grief, 362-392. Aeneas, sorrowful, persists in his 
preparations, 393-407. Anna, at Dido's request, interposes, 
but in vain, 408-449. Dido is appalted by frightful omens, 
and prepares for death, but conceaiing her design from her 
sister, pretends that she is making preparations to win back 
Aeneas by magical rites, 45(^52. Aeneas, warned by Mer- 
cury, in a vision, to depart on the instant, sets sail, 553—582. 
The queen sees his fleet departing, and stabs herself, 583-665. 
The general consternation, and Anna's despair, 666-687. Ago- 
nies of Dido, till Iris, by Juno'8 command, interposes to release 
Ber by deatb, 688-705. 

At regina gravi jamdudum saucia cura 

Yulnus alit venis, et caeco carpitur igni. 

Multa viri virtus animo, multusque recursat 

Gentis honos; haerent infixi pectore vultus 

Verbaque, nec placidam membris dat cura quietem. 5 

Postera Phoebea lustrabat lampade terras 

Humentemque Aurora Jwlo dimoverat umbrara, 

Cum sic unanimam alloquitur male sana sororem : 

' Anna soror, quae me suHpensam insomnia terrent ! 

Quis novus hic nostris successit sedibus hospes ! 10 

Quem sese ore ferens ! quam forti pectore et armis ! 

Credo equidem, nec vana fides, genus esse deorum. 

Degeneres animos timor arguit. Heu, quibus ille 

Jactatus fatis ! quae bella exhausta canebat ! 

III. Ti ■ - -■ — ^— 

1. At seems to connect this book with the preceding narrative. 
Aeneas had concluded his talc, but long before he was done, tbo 
queon was smitten with the pains of love. — 2. Carpoy the primitive 
notion of which involves separation into fragments, infers a ffradual 
process. — 6,7. Lustrahaty dimoverat. Aurora /lac^ dispelled previ- 
owsly, and was lighting up. — 8. Male sana, insana. See at ii. 735. 
— 11. Ferresese refers to the general deportment. See a similar 
expression, i. 503 — 12. Ges^us, prolem. 

Si mihi non animo fixMm immotumque sederet, 19 

Ne cui me vinclo vellem sociare jugali, 

Postquam primus amor deceptam morte fefellit; 

Si non pertaesum thalami taedaeque fuisset, 

Uuic uni forsan potui succumbere culpae. 

Anua — fatebor euim — miseri post fata S^chael 20 

Conjugis et sparsos fraterna caede Penatis, 

Solus hic inflexit sensus, auimumque labantem 

Impulit. Agnosco veteris vestigia ilamnMie. 

Sed mihi vel tellus optem prius ima dehiscat, 

Yel Pater omnipotens adigat me fulmine ad umbraui| 25 

Pallentis umbras Erebi noctemque profundam, 

Ante, Pudor, qnam te violo, aut tua jura resolvo. 

Ille meos, primus qui me sibi junxit, amores 

Abstulit ; iJle habeat secuni servetoue sepulchro.' 

Sic effata sinum lacrimis implevit obortis. 30 

Anna refert: '0 luce magis dilecta sorori, 
Solane perpetua moerens carpere juventa, 
Nec dulcis natos, Yeneris nec praemia noris ? 
Id cinerem aut Manis credis curare sepultosl 
Esto : aegram nuUi quondam flexere mariti, 85 

Non libyae, non ante Tyro ; despectus larlMui 
Ductoresque alii^ quos Africa terra triumphis 
Dives alit ; pkcitone etiam pugnabis amori ? 
Nec venit in mentem; q«K)rum consederis arvis? 
Hinc Gaetulae urbes^ genus insuperabile bellO) 40 

£t Numidae infreni cingunt et inhospita Syrtis; 

15. Sederet. Tbis term indicates the unalterableness of her reso* 

lation. See Zumpt , ^ 524. — 17. Fefellit. This clause is no part 

of her resolution, otnerwise we Bhould have fefellisaet, It is narra- 

t ive merely , and had better be taken in after «t. — 19. Potuu Stronglv 

put instead oi potsem, See ii. 55.^20. Sychaei. See 1^343-35^ 

—^24. Prius. An apparent pleonasra, with antequam, 27. But 

prius may have a general reference, antequam a more precise refer- 

ence to what follows. Dihiscat. — 28. Jule—primus. The Roman 

feeling was strongly against the marriages of widows. — 31. VUecta 

^arori, for a sorore. See Zumpt, % 419. — 35. Granted {esto) that 

you have rightfully indulged your wounded feelings iaegram) in re- 

jectin^ so many suitors, why resist a passion fondlv cherishedf 

j^tggritt' See Ecl, viii. 18. — 36. Libyae^ in pro^e wouid be, in Li- 

hy^ See 320, and iii. 162. larhas. See 196, &c. — 37. Virgirs 

ezpreasions refer constantly to Roman usages (see i. 73), as here» 

wbere he makes frcquent triumphs to indicate the warlike nature 

ef tlie Africans ; the triumph bems peculiar to Rome. — 39. Conse* 

Jierisi in the subjunctive, because nypothetically put at the thought 

of PiilO' — 41. Infreni. Riding horses without bridles. See x. 750. 

Cingunt. Dido was surrounded on all sides by wild races : on the 

aAum "were the Gaetulians, on the west the Numidians, on the eaat 

•^ 18 

^06 4EN£n>0«. 

* ' Hino deserta siti regio, lateque furentes 
Barcaei. Quid t>ella Tyro surgentia dicani, 
Germanique mliias ? 

Dis equidem auspicibus i oor pt Junone secanda 45 

Hunc cursum liiacas yento teuuisse carinas. 
Quam tu urbem, soror, hanc cemes, qnae surgere regna 
Conjugio tali ! Teucrum comitantibus armiS; 
Punica se quantis attollet gloria rebus ! 
Tu modo posce deos reniam, sacrisque litatis 50 

Indulge hospitio, caussasque innecte morandi, 
Dum pelago desaevit hiems et aquosus Orion, 
Quassataeque rateS; dum non tractabile coelum.' 

His dictis incensum animum inflammaTit amore, 
Spemque dedit dubiae menti, solyitque pudorem. 55 
Principio delubra adeunt, pacemque per aras 

^ Exquirunt ; mactant lectas de more bidentis 
Legiferae Cereri Phoeboque patrique Lyaeo, 
Junoni ante omnis, cui vincla jugalia curae. 
Ipsa, tenens dextra pateram, pulcherrima Dido 60 

Candentis vaccae media inter cornua fundit ; 

' Aut ante ora deum pinguis spatiatur ad aras, 
Instauratque diem donis, pecudumque reclusis 
Pectoribus inhians spirantia consulit exta. 
Hei^. vatum ignarae mentes ! quid vota furentem, 65 

Quid delubra juvant ? Est mollis flamma medullas ^ 
Interea, et tacitum vivit sub pectore vulnus. 
Uritur infelix Dido totaque vagatur 
Urbe furens ; qualis conjecta cerva sagitta^ 

! Quam procul incautam nemora inter Cresia fixit 70 

the quicksands called Syrtis^ bordered bv savage dnhospita) tribes, 
and a san^y desert, across which roamed the inhabitante of Barca 
in Cyrene. — 52. Orion. See at i. 533. — 55. Pudorem^ her desire 
to remain anmarried. —^56,. Pttcem deorum. — 57. Constme de more^ 
''aecording to solemn ritual,' with mactantj as well as bidentis. .Sv 
dentis, properly sheep two years old, from the notion that sheep of 
%his affe have two teeth raore prominent than the rest (bis, dene) ; 
birt taKen to sigfnify sheep of any age. — 58. Legiferae Cerert ; Cerea 
introducing agriculture, introduced also laws, and marriafe, the 
bond of civiliaation. Fhoebus was one of the gods especia^ wor- 
Bhipped at Carthage. Lyaeo, See at i. 686; 734. — 59. JunmtL 
Bee I. 15, &c. Juno presided over marriage ; hence called pronMia, 
166. 0«t' sunt curae. Juffalia, hence Juno was called JugaHs, as 
the Greek •*Hpa was callea ^t>y/a.~64. Pectoribus inhianB, by the 
arsiB.-j—es. Heuy &o. The soothsayers knew not Dido'8 object i» 
consulting them, or, knew not the future wocs of Dido, so as to 
«vert them^66. Est. Not from the verb sum.— 69, &c. Virgy 
^rete^J^Ve • ) to a stag wounded by a random dart in the woods til 

f- . 

LIBER ly. ;9^ 

Pastor agens tell% Uguitque Tolattle fermm 
Nescius; illa fuga silvas saltusque peragrat 
t Dictaeos ; haeret lateri letalis arundo. 

Nunc meclia Aenean secum per moenia ducit, 

Sidoniasque ostentat opes urbemque f^aratam : 75 

Incipit enari; mediaque in voce resistit , 

Nuuc eadem labente die convivia quaerit^ 

Iliacosqne iterum demens audire labores 

Exposcit, pendetque iterum narrantis ab ore, 

Post, ubi digressi, lumenque obscura vicissim * 80 

Luna premit, suadentque cadentia sidera somnos, 

Sola domo moeret vacua, stratisque reiictis 

Incubat. IlJum absens absentena auditque videtque, 

Aut gremio Ascanium, genitoris imagine capta, 

Detinet, infandum si fallere possit amorem. 85 

Non coeptae adsurgunt turres, non arma juventus 

Exercet, portusve aut propugnacula beilo 

Tuta parant 3 pendent opera interrupta minaeque 

Murorum ingentes aequataque machina coelo, 

Quam simul ac tali persensit peste teneri 90 

Cara Jovis conjunx, nec famam obstare furori, 
Talibus adgreditur Venerem Saturnia dictis; 
* Egregiam vero laudem et spolia ampla refertis 
Tuque puerque tuus; magnum et memorab^Ie numfin, 
Una dolo divom si femiria victa duorum est. 95 

Nec me adeo fallit, veritam te moenia nostra 
Suspectas habuisse domos Carthaginis altae. 
Sed quis erit modus, aut quo nunc certamina tanta? 
Quin polius pacem aeternam pactosque hymenaeos 
Exercemus ? Habes, tota quod mente petisti : lOO 

Ardet amans^Dido traxitque per ossa furorem. 
Communem hunc ergo populum paribusque regamus 

Ift, Dictaeos. See at Ecl. y\. 56. — 75. Sidoniat. The Cartha^i- 
nians had come from Sidon, which Virgil uses indifTerently with 
Tjrte, both being; Phoenician cities. See i. 338. — 77. Construe 
eadem vrith convivia. — 78. Iterum. See end of i., and the U. and 
m. hooks. — 80. Lumen suum. — 81. Suadentque, &c. See ii. 9.-^ 
82. Selicti$, in' the one clause, seems to be compared with vacua in 
the other, and to refer to the desire of appeasing the sense of desc 
lation felt in the absence of a beloved object — ^here rduAis ab Aenea. 
— 86. The works, so vividly describcd i. 423, &c., are suspended. 
— 93, &c. Spoken ironically. — 94. JMLemorahiLe estnumeh \es\xvim» 
—96. Adeo, to the degree ihat you suppose. See 533. Fallere 
sometimes means *to elude notice.' See ix. 572. — 97. Suspectas. 
See i. 670, &c. — 98, Certamina tendunt. — 102. Juno proposea 
that she and Venus shall preside over the united nations with equal 
power and protection. 

tM AElfBlPOS. 

Auspiciis ; liceat Phr jgio serrire marito, 

Dotalisque tuae Tyrios permittere dej^trae.' 

Olli — sensit enim simulata mente locutam, 105 

Quo regnum Italiae Libycas averteret oras — 

Sic contra est ingressa Yenus : ^ Quis talia demeoB 

Abnuat, aut tecum malit contendere bello? 

Si modo, quod memoras^ factum fortuna sequatur. 

Sed fatis incerta feror, si Jupiter unam 110 

Esse velit Tyriis urbem Trojaque profectis, 

Miscerive probet populos, aut foedera jungi. 

Tu conjunx ; tibi las animum tentare precando. 

Perge ; sequar.' Tum sic excepit regia Juno : 

' Mecum erit iste labor. Nunc qua ratione, quod instat, 1 15 

Confieri possit, paucis, adverte, docebo. 

Yenatum Aeneas unaque miserrima Dido 

In nemus ire parant, ubi primos crastinus ortus 

Extulerit Titan radiisque retexerit orbem. 

His ego nigrantem commixta grandine nimbum, 120 

Dum trepidant alae, saltusque indagine cingunt, 

' Desuper infundam, et tonitru coelum omne ciebo. 
DifTugient comites et nocte tegentur opaca : 
Speluncam Dido dux et Trojanus eandem 
Devenient. Adero, et, tua si mihi certa voluntas, 125 
Connubio jungam stabiii propriamque dicabo. 
Hic hymenaeus erit.' Non adveisata petenti 
Adnuit, atque dolis risit Cytherea repertis. 

Oceanum interea surgens Aurora reliquit. 
It portis jubare exorto delecta juventus ; 130 

^— ^— ' 

103. Lieeat reginae tervire ; the lattert purposely, a etrong word 
for wtt5ere. — 105. Ollu See at i. 254. — 106; Ad oras, See at i. 2. 
— 107. QuiSi &c. Equivaient to qui» tam demens ut abnuat. See 
at ii. 519. —110. Fatisj the ablative; her uncertainty of action ans- 
ing from the Fates, not her course of action arising from uncertainty 
as to the wili of the Fates, otherwise we Bhould navefatorum. 8ee 
at 564.— .117. Mark the different uses of the infinitive and supine» 

farant ire venatum, prepare the act of going, in order to hnnt. — 
19. Titan, in conformity with an old legend, is used here for the 
Bun-god, 88 often. — 121. Alae. Either horsemen employed to en* 
close the forest, and, frightening the game, todrive it into the nets ; 
or feathers fastened to ropes {iwiagine), the flapping of which (ercpt- 
dant) was used for the same purpose. — 122. Note that here Juno is 
represented as possessed of the power of thundering, as Minerva is, 
i. 42.— 124. Ad spduncam. See at 106.— 126. See at i. 73. — 128. 
Dolis. Either the ablative of cause, or the dative, governed by 
rutt, which also governs the accusative. Dolis repertis may reier 
to Juno 8 contrivance of the artfui scheme, or Venus's discovery 
ot it. In the latter case, dolis repertis may be the ablative abaolate. 

LIBER lY. 909 

Retia rara, ^agae) lato venabala ferro^ 
lilaBsyliqae ruuDt equites et odora canum vis. 
Reginam thalamo cunctantem ad limina primi 
Poenorum exspectant, ostroque insignis et auro 
^. , Stat sonipesac frena ferox spumantia mandit. 135 

Tandem progreditur magna stipante catervaf 
Sidoniam picto chlamydem circumdata limbo ; 
Cui pharetra ex auro ; crines nodantur in auruni; 
Aurea purpuream subnectit fibula vestem. 
Nec non et Phrygii comites et laetus lulus 140 

Incedunt. Ipse ante alios pulcherrimus omois 
Infert se socium Aeneas atque agmina jungit. 
Qualis ubi hibernam Lyciam Xanthique flueata 
Beserit ac Delum maternam invisit Apollo, 
Instauratqae choros, mixtique altaria circum 145 

Cretesque Dryopesque fremunt pictique Agatbyrsi} 
Ipse jugis Cynthi graditur, moliique lluentem 
Fronde premit crinem fjngens atque implicat auro^ 
Tela sonant humeris : haud illo segnior ibat 
Aeneas; tantum egregio decus enitet ore. 150 

Postquam altos ventum in montis atque invia lostra. 
Ecce ferae, saxi dejectae vertice, caprae 
Decarrere jugis ; aria de parte patentis 
Transmiltant cursu campos atque agmina cervi 
Pulverulenta fuga glomerant montisque relinquunt. 155 

m i ■ _ I ■ • ' ■ ■ ■ I I ■ <«i ^ 1 1 

132. Massylii the inhabitants of the district west of Carthage, 
comprehending the Roman nrovince of Numidia. They were cele- 
brated for horsemanship. Odora canum vis, equivalent to odorum 
canum vis. Odorua is used aclively, * quick-scented,' and vis refers 
to number and strength. We use the word /orcc in a similar sense. 
—137. Chlamydem cireumdata. For this poeticat construction of the 
accusative with passive verbs of dress, see Zumpt, ^ 458. — 138. 
The hair was gathered up into a network of gold thread. — ;141. /«- 
eedunt. See at i. 405, 690. — 143, &c. Aeneas is compaFed to 
ApoUo, when, having left Lycia (in the south-west of Asia Minor), 
his winter's haunt ihibemam), where the river Xanthus iiowed past 
Patara, famous for his temple and oracle, the god leads the dance 
frmnihe top of Cynthus, a hill in Delos. See p. 179, line 17. — 146. 
In thia sacred dance ioin the Cretans iCretes), the Dryopes from the 
south of Doris, and the Agaihyrsi in Sarmatia, between the modem 
Niemen and Dwina, who were tattooed tpicti). AU these— the Aga- 
thvrsi being taken to represent the inhabitants of the far north, the 
Hvperborei — were peculiarly connected with the worship of Apollo. 
Ohserve Cretesque. — 149. The rattling of the quiver on his snoul 
ders indicates the active step of the god. — 153. Decurrere here 
seems to mean, *to cause to leap down.' — 154. Trans campos ae 
mittunt, Cervi is the nominative to transmittunt, glomerant, rdin- 
fMMitf. — 155. Ghmerare agmina, 'toform themselve» into fleeing 
18 » 

210 AKlfSIDOS. 

At paer Ascanias medns in vallibas aori 
Gaudet eqno, jaroqtie hos cursu, jam praeterit illoS| 
Spamantemque dari pecora inter inertia votis 
G^tat aprum, aut fulvum descendere monte leonem. 

Interea magno misceri murmure coelum 160 

Incipit j insec|uitur commixta grandine nimbns ; 
Et Tyrii comites passim et Trojana juTentus 
Dardaniueque nepos Veneris diversa per agroA 
Tecta metu petiere; ruunt de montibus amnea. 
Speluncam Dido duz et Trojanus eandem 165 

Deveniunt. Prima et Tellus et pronnba Juno 
Dant signum ; fulsere ignes et conscius aether 
Connubiis; summocjue uiularunt vertice Nymphae. 
Ille dies primus leti primusque malorum 
Caussa fnit ; neque enim specie famave movetur, 170 
Nec jam furtivum Dido meditatur amorem ; 
Conjugium vocat; hoc praetexit nomine culpam. 

Extemplo Libyae magnas it Fama per nrbes — 
Fama malum, quo non aliud velocius ullum ; 
Mobilitate viget, viresque adquirit eundo; 175 

Parva metn primo ; mox sese attoliit in auras, 
Ingrediturque solo, et caput inter nubila eondit. 
Illam Terra parens, ira irritata deorum) 
Extremam, ut perhibent, Coeo Enceladoque sororem 
Progenuit, pedibus eelerem et pemicibus alis, 180 

Monstrum horrendum, ingens, cui, quot sunt corpore 

Tot vigiles oculi subter, mirabile dictu, 
Tot linguae, totidem ora sonant, tot subrigit auris. 
Nocte volat coeli medio terraeque, per umbram 
Stridens, nec dulci declinat lumiha somno ; 185 

Luce sedet custos aut summi culmine tecti, 
Turribus aut altis, et magnas territat urbes, 
Tam ficti pravique tenax, quam nuntia veri. 
Haec tum multiplici populos sermone replebat 
Gaudens et pariter facta atque infecta canebat : 190 

herds.' — 165. Stteluncam. See 124. — 166. Pronuba. See at 59. 
— 174. Quo ; others read qua. — 177. This line occurs again, ap- 
plied to Orion, x. 767. — 178. Vir^il makes Fame the youngest of 
that monstrous race of giants, chiidren of Tartarus and Terra, of 
whom he mentions Coeus and Enceladus (see at iii. 578), when 
Terra waa enraged at Jupiter for drivinc her children, the Tittns, 
intoTartarus — 181. Vireil represents Fame as covered with fea 
thers, and beneath every feather an eye, a tongue, a mouth, and an 
^?''"" WL *'if'^*' ^^^^ *" ^'^^* whooping all night long. — 189. 
-L1k« V fw "^fneas was lingering in Carthage— 190. Oaud 

LIBBR IV. 911 

* Venisse Aenean, Trojano a sanguine cretnm, 

Cui se pulehra viro dignetur jungere Dido ; 

Nuuc hiemem inter se luxu, quam longa, fovere 

Begnorum immemores turpique cupidine captos.' 

Haec passim dea foeda virum difiundit in ora. 195 

Protihus ad regem eursns delorquet larban, 

Incenditque animum dictis atque aggerat iras. 

Hte Hammone satus, rapta Garamantide Nympha, 
Templa Jovi centum latis immania regnis^ 
Centum aras posuit, vigilemque sacraverat ignem, 200 
Excubias divom aeternas, pecudumque cruore 
Pingue solum et variis fiorentia Hmina sertis. 
Isque amens animi et rumore accensus amaro 
Dicitur ante aras media inter numina divom 
Muha Jovem manibus supplex orasse supinis : 205 

' Jupiter omnipotens, cui nunc Maurusia pictis 
Gens epulata toris Lenaeum libat honorem, 
Aspicis haec? an te, genitor, cum fulmina torques, 
Nequidquam horremus, caecique in nubibus ignes 
Terrificant animos et inania murmura miscent? 210 

Femina, quae nostris errans in &iibus urbem 
£xiguam pretio posuit, oui litus arandum 
, Cuique loci leges dedimus, connubia nostra 
Repulit ac dominum Aenean in regna recepit. 
£t nunc iile Paris cum semiviro comitatu, 215 

Maeonia mentum mitra crinemque madentem 

191. Venisfei haa coihe, since we have diffnetur^ present. — 193. 
JSiemem, quam longa sit. How long it is, * toe livelong.' We have 
the fuil Ixam viii. 86. — 196. larbas, a GaetuUan prince (326), son ot 
Hammon, or Ammon (an Aethiopian deity, whom the Greeks iden- 
tified with ZcOy, and the Romans with Jupiter), and an African 
n^rmph (Garamantis, Ecl. viii. 44), was an unsuccessful suitor fot 
liido^s hand. See 36. — 200. Posuit, he erected a hundred temples, 
but previously {sacraverat) he had li^hted in honour of Jupiter the 
fires ever buming. — 202. Fingue fuit solum, referring to sacrifices; 
fiorentia limina, to festal wreaths. — 205. See at lii. 176. — 206. 
Maurusia, a name for Mauritania, the westermost division of North 
Africa. It is here used probably to denote the nation of larbas. — 
207. Lenaeum, from Xiyvdj, the wine press, an epithet of Bacchus.— > 
212. Pretio. See i. 367. — 213. Dare leges loci, while granting a 
district, to subject it to the general laws of the country. — 215. lar- 
bas contemptuously compares Aeneas with the eflQ^minate Paris, as 
if Dido were a second Helen (rapto votitur, 217). — 216. larbaa 
heaps up accusations of effeminacy. The perfumed hair, and the 
Maeonian or Lydian mitre, fastened by ribbons beneath the chin (ix. 
616), are urged against Aeneas. The word subnixus imphes the 
same, as if his very head needed support. For the construction ol 
this accusative of limitation, sce 558, and Zumpt» ^458. 


SobnixuB, rapto potitur ; nos munera templis 
Quippe tuis lerimus. famamque fovemus ioanem.' 

Taiibus orantem dictis arasque teneotem 
Audiit omnipoteos, oculosque ad moeoia torsit 220 

Regia et oblitos famae melioris amantis. 
Tum sic Mercurium alloquitur ac talia mandat: 
' Yade age, nate. Toca Zephyros et labere pennis, 
Dardanium(jue ducem, Tyria Carthagine qui nupo 
Exspectat, iatisque datas non respitjit urbes, 225 

AUoquere et celeris defer mea dicta per auras» 
Non illum nobis genetrix pulcherrima talem 
Promisit, Graiuraque ideo bis vindicat armisj 
Sed fore, qui gravidam imperiis belloque frementem 
Italiam regeret, genus alto a sanguine Teucri 230 

Proderet, ao totum sub leges mitteret orbem. 
Si nulla accendit tantarum gloria rerum, 
Nec super ipse sua molitur iaude laborem, 
Ascanione pater Romanas invidet arces ? 
Quid struit? aut qua spe inimica in gente moratur, 235 
Nec prolem Ausoniam et Lavinia respicit arva ? 
Naviget. Haec summa est ; hic nostri nuntius esto.' 

Dixerat. Ille patris magni parere parabat 
ImperiO; et primum pedibus talaria nectit, 
Aurea, quae sublimem alis; sive aequora supra 240 

Seu terram, rapido pariter oum flamine portant ; 
Tum virgam capit ; hac animas ille evocat Oroo 
Pallentis, alias sub Tartara tristia mittit, 
Dat somnos adimitque, et lumina morte resignat. 
Illa fretus agit ventos, et turbida tranat 245 

Nubila ; jamque volans apicem et latera ardua cernit 
Atlantis duri, coelum qui vertice fulcit ; 

217. Potitur. See iii. 56. — 228. Bis. Once from Diomede, and 
agam from the victorious Greeks, when they took Troy. — 230. 
Teucri. See i. 235, 625. — 231. Froderet y tr&nemitteTet. — 235. Spe, 
unelided. — 236. Ausoniam. See p. 180, line 5. Lavinia. See p. 
123, line 9.-238. Direrat. See li. 621.— 242. Vir^am, the well. 
known caduceus of Mercury, with wings and entwming serpents 
Orco. See at ii. 398. Here the resions of Orcus. — 244. Resignar» 
generally signifies to * unseal.' Hence it is supposed that virgil 
means here, * frees their eyes fram death, restores to life.* Others 
Buppose it to mean, * relazes their eyes in the ghastly glare of death.* 
A third opinion seems preferable — as he presides over sleep, he at 
last seals agom in death the eyes which he has opened. See 438. 
'"^•1* ^o^npwe with this flight of Mercury the flight of Raphael 
m Milton, Par. Lo8t, y. 266, &c.— 247. Atlantis. See at i. 741, 
Ihe mountam ran^e on the west coast of Africa so called ia hero 
persomfied. Vertu:e, Compare humero, 482, and viu. 137. Tho 

UBSR IV. 213 

Atlantis, cinctum adslduQ cui nubibus atris 

Piniferum caput et vento pulsatur et imbri; 

Nix humeros infusa tegit ; tum flumina mento 250 

Praecipitant senis, et glacie riget horrida barba. 

Hic primum paribus nitens Cyllenius alis 

Constitit^ hinc toto praeceps se corpore ad undas 

Misit) avi simiiis, quae circum litora, circum 

PiscosoB scopulos humilis volat aequora juxta; 255 

Haud aliter terras inter coelumque volabat 

Litus arenosum, ac Libyae ventosque secabat 

Matemo veniens ab avo Cyllenia proles. 

Ut primum alatis tetigit magalia plantis, 
Aenean fundantem arces ac tecta novantem 260 

Conspicit. Atque illi stellatus iaspide fulva 
Ensis erat, Tyrioque ardebat murice laena 
Demissa ex humeris, dives quae munera Dido 
Fecerat et tenui telas discreverat auro. 
Continuo invadit : ^ Tu nunc Carthaginis altae 265 

Fundamenta locas, pulchramque uxorius urbem 
Exstruis? heu regni rerumque oblite tuarum ! 
Ipse deum tibi me claro demittit Olympo 
Kegnator, coelum et terras qui numine torquet ; 
Ipse haec ferre jubet celeris mandata per auras: 270 
Quid struis 1 aut qua spe Libycis teris otia terris 
Si te nulla movet tantarum gloria rerum^ 
Nec super ipse tua moliris laude laborem, 
Ascanium surgentem et spes heredis luli 
Respice, cui regnum Italiae Romanaque tellus 27$ 

Debentur.' Tali Cyllenius ore locutus 

hcad and shoulders of Atlas both support the globe in the works of 
the ancient statuaries. — 251. Praecipitant. Seei.234. — 252. Mer- 
cury, the grandson of Atlas by his daughter Maia, is aptly repre* 
sented as Iighting on this spot. He was, according to the legends, 
born on the Arcat^jan mountain Cyllene (Cyllenius). — 256-253. 
These lines are by some of the best critics regarded as spurioua. 
Volahat is, by the punctuation here adopted, made to govern litm, 
in the sarae way as i. 67, iii. 191, v. 862. — 259. Alatis plantist re- 
ferring to the talaria, 239. — 260. Novantem, nova aedincantem. — 
262. T)rre, and ihe coast of Phoenicia generally, Laconia, and Ta- 
rentum, were famed for the murex — the shell-fish which yielded the 
dark purple so much esteemed b^ the ancients. As this shell-fish 
bad sharp protuberances, murex is also taken to signify a sharp- 
pointed rock. See v. 205. — 263. Munera refers to both ensis and 
laenoj but fecerat and discreverat only to the latter. — 265. Tu^ eni- 
phatic. — 267. The notion conveyed by tuarum is implied as quali- 
lying re^nt also. — 271. See 232, &.c. — 274. Ascaniumy luli. Thi» 
change of name seems designedly employed to connect empire with 
lulus, as the supposed founder oi the gens Julia, See i. 288.-276- 
DibeiUur a fatis. Cyllenius. See 252. 

214 AENEID08. 

Mortalis vi8us medio sennone reliquit, 

£t procui in tenuem ex ocalis eiranuit auram. 

At vero Aeneas aspectu obmutuit amens, 
Arrectaeque horrore comae, et vox faucibus haesit. 280 
Ardet abire fuga dulcisque relinquere terras, 
Attonitus tanto monitu imperioque deorum. 
Heu quid agat? quo nunc reginam ambire furentem 
Audeat adfatu ? quae prima exordia sumat ? 
Atque animum nunc huc celerem, nunc dividit illuCy 285 
In partisque rapit varias perque omnia versat. 
Haec ahernanti potior sententia visa est : 
Mnesthea Sergestumque vocat fortemque Serestum, 
Classem aptent taciti sociosque ad litora cogant, 
Arma parent, et, quae rebus sit caussa novandis, 290 
Dissimulent ; sese interea quando optima Dido 
Nesciat et tantos rumpi non speret amores, 
Tentaturum aditus, et quae mollissima fandi 
Tempora, quis rebus dexter modus. Ocius omnes 
Imperio laeti parent ac jussa facessunt. 295 

At regina dolos — quis fallere possit amantem? — 
Praesensit, motusque excepit prima futuros, 
Omnia tuta timens. Eadem impia Fama furenti 
Detulit armari classem cursumque parari. 
Saevit inops animi, totamque incensa per urbem 300 
Bacchatur, qualis commotis excita sacris 
Thyias, ubi audito stimulant trieterica Baccho 
Orgia nocturnusque vocat clamore Cilhaeron. 
Tandem his Aenean compellat vocibus ultro : 

281. Dulcis terraSj Carthaginem. Throaghout, it is tq be noticed 
that Virgil endeavours to represent — though, perhaps, with no great 
fiuccess — Aeneas as a man sacrificing self to the will of Heaven 
Xpius), and the glories which the Fates had reserved for his race 
tnrough him. — 285-286. These two lines occur again, viii. 19, 20. 
Dividere, &c. implies rapid and discriminating glances at different 
courses of action ; rapere, &c. a swift survey oi the best methods 
of efFecting his determined course in its onward steps ; versare, &c. 
that his masterly survey left no point unthought of. — 289. Aptent, 
The resuU of his meditations assumes the indirect form; hence the 
present subjunctive here representing the imperative, and (293) ten' 
taturum representing the indicative. In the direct form, we should 
have had aptaie, cogite, &c. tentabo. — 297. Excepit infers Dido*s 
immediate Knowledge — excipere meaning to catch in immediate suc- 
cession. — 298. Eadem, described 173, &c. — 301. An allusion to 
the celebration of the wild rites of Bacchus {orgia), once every two 
years (in the Greek mode of speaking, three years, Tpurrjpli), on 
Cithaeron, a mountain range between Boeotia and Megaris, partly 
by night {noctur^ius), in which the women (Thyias, &mas, a iemalo 
toUower of Bacchus— two syllables) bore a prominent part. 

XIBER if, 21 f 

'Djsslmulare etiam sperasti, perfide, tantnm 305 

Posse riefas, tacitusque mea decedere terra? 
Nec te noster amor. nec te data dextera quondam, 
Nec moritura tenet crudeli fanere Dido? 
Quin etiam hiberno moliris sidere classem, 
£t mediis properas aquilonibus ire per altum, 310 

Crudelis *? Quid ? si non arva aliena domosque 
Ignotas peteres, et Troja antiqua maneret, 
Troja per undosum peteretur classibus aequorl 
Mene fugis'? Per ego has lacrimas dextramque tuam te— 
Quando aliud mihi jam miserae nihil ipsa reliqui— ^ 315 
Per connubia nostra, per inceptos hymenaeos, 
Si bene quid de te merui, fuit aut tibi qnicquam 
Dulce meum, miserere domus labentis, et istam, 
Oro, si quis adhuc precibus locus, exue mentem. 

. Te propier Libycae gentes Nomadumque tyranni 320 
Odere, infensi Tyrii ; te propter eundem 
Exstinctus pudor et, qua sola sidera adibam, 
Fama prior. Cui me moribundam deseris, hospes? 
Hoc solum nomen quoniam de conjugerestat. 

. Quid moror? an mea PygmaHon dum moenia frater 325 
Destruat, aut captam ducat Gaetulus larbas? 
Saltem si qua mihi de te suscepta fuisset 
Ante fugam suboles, si quis mihi parvulus aula 
Luderet Aeneas, qui te tamen ore referret, 
Non equidem omnino capta ac deserta viderer.' 330 

Dixerat. IUe Jovis niiqpitis immota tenebat 
Lumina, et obnixus curam sub corde premebat. 
Tandem pauca refert: *Ego te, quae plurima fando 

- 306, Fosse te, a poetical usage. See Zumpt, $ 605. — 307, &c. 
Virgil, it must be admitted, through his anxiety to elaborate the 
characteristic feature of Aeneas (see 281), exposes his hero to aKi 
nnf£vourabIe contrast with Dido. — 314. JPer, &c. The separation 
of the proposition from its subject is to be observed. It occurs io 
Greek also, and indicates eamestness. See Zumpt, ^ 794.— 320. 
JJbycae ; properly the easlern part of Africa was called Libya by 
the Romans, but the Greeks knew the whole country by this name, 
Wid Virgil follows them. See i. 158. — Certain tribes, from wa». 
derin^ in search of pasture (vo^^, v//i(i»), were named Nomadet, hence 
Kumidia. — 324. HocTumen, hospes. — 325. See t. 340, &.c. iv. 43. 

— 326. See at 196. — 327. For the form of the hypothetical pluper- 
fect and imperfect suWunctive, implying what does not exist, see 
Zumpt,.^ 524. — 329. Tamen refers to a suppressed idea, qui quam'- 
▼is tibi non par, tetamen. — 333, &c. We can only vindicate, and 
that doubtfUlIy, the heartless lan^uage of Aeneas, on the ground 
tbat he wae suppressing bis own bitter emotions (see 281, 399, 449)^ 
and acting as stem necessity required ipro re, 337). 

916 AS2VEID0S, 

Enumenire vales; numquam, Reglna, negaba 
Promeritam ; nec me meminisse pigebit Elissae, 335 
Dom menior ipse mei, dum spiritus hos regit artus. 
Pro re pauca loquar. Neque ego hanc abscondere furto 
Speravi, ne finge, fugam, nec conjugis umquam 
Praetendi taedas aut haec in foedera veni. 
Me si fata meis paterentur ducere vitam 340 

Auspiciis et sponte mea componere curas, 
(Jrbem Trojanam primum dulcisque meorum 
Reliquias colerem, Priami tecta alta manerent, 
£t recidiva manu posuissem Pergama victis. 
Sed nunc Italiam magnam Gryneus Apollo, 345 

Italiam Lyoiae jussere capessere sortes; 
Hic amor, haec patria est. Si te Carthaginis arces, 
Phoenissam, Libycaeque aspectus detinet urbis, 
Quae tandem, Ausonia Teucros considere terra, 
Invidia est ? £t nos fas extera quaerere regna. 350 

' Me patris Anchisae, quoties humentibus umbris 
Nox operit terras, quoties astra ignea surgunt, 
Admonet in somuis et turbida terret imago; 
Me puer Ascanius capitisque injuria cari, 
Quem regno Hesperiae fraudo et fatalibus arvis. 355 
Nunc etiam interpres divom, Jove missus ab ipso — 
Testor utrumque caput— -celeris mandata per auras 
Detulit; ipse deum manifesto in iumine vidi 
Intrantem muros, vocemque his auribus hausi. 
Desine meque tuis incendere teque querelis ; 360 

Italiam non sponte sequor.' 

Talia dicentem jamdudum aversa tuetur, 
Huc illuc volvens oculos, totumque pererrat 
Luminibus tacitis, et sic accensa profatur : 
'Nec tibi diva parens, generis nec Dardanus auctor, 965 

335. Elissa was tfae original name of Dido. — 338. Speravi ahscon* 
dere, Bee &i 306. — 3iO. Si paterentur. See 327. — 343. CoZer«B. 
would (at this momcnt) be cheriahing, because I should (before) 
have founded (posuissem). — 344, Victis, the dativus commodi. See 
Zumpt, $ 405. — 345. (xryneus. See at Bcl. vi. 72. —346. Sortes, the 
responses of an oracle, as often. For the counsels of Apollo (here 
called Lyciae sortesy see 143), with special reference to Italy, see 
iii. 154, &C.--347. Hic, in Italia. — 349. Ausonia. See p. 180, line 5. 
^^35^. Fatalibusj predestined by fate. See at ii. 165. Hesperiae» 
See at i. 530. — 356. Interpres divom, Mercurius. — 357. Utrumque 
'Mputwre generally taken to refer either to Aeneas and Ascanms, 
**' Q?fj 2? ^^^ Aeneas ; but they may refer to Jupiter and Mercury. 
--?63. ller tace was turned away, but she surveyed hini from head 
to foot with eyes askance, and for a while said nothing (tacitis), thett 
her mdignfttion burst forth.— 365. She denies his descent from Ve- 

LIBBR ITr 217 

Perfide; sed duris genait te cautibus horrens 

Caucasus, Hyrcanaeque adnnorunt ubera tigres. 

Nam quid dissimulo ? aut quae me ad majora reservo? 

Num Aetu ingemuit nostro ? num lumina flexit 1 

Num laprimas victusdedit, autmiseratusamantemest? 370 

Quae quibus anteferam ? Jam jam nec maxima Juno, 

Nec Satumius haec oculis pater aspicit aequis. 

Nusquam tuta fides. Ejectum litore, egentem 

Excepi et regni demens in parte locavi -, 

Amissam classem, socios a morte reduxi. 375 

Heu furiis incensa feror ! Nunc augur Apollo, 

Nnnc Lyciae sortes, nunc et Jove missus ab ipso 

Interpres divom fert horrida jussa per auras. 

Scilicet is Superis labor est, ea cura quietos 

SoHicitat. Neque te teneo, peque dicta refello ; 380 

I, sequere Italiam ventis, pete regna per undas. 

Spero equidem mediis, si quid pia numina po8Sunt| 

Supplicia hausurum scopulis, et nomine Dido 

Saepe vocaturum. Sequar atris ignibus absens, 

£t, cum frigida mors anima seduxerit artus, 885 

Omnibus umbra locis adero. DabiS; improbe, poenas. 

Audiam, et haec Manis veniet mihi fama sub imos.' 

His medium dictis sermonem abrumpit, et auras 

Aegra fugit, seque ex oculis avertit et aufert, 

Linquens multa metu cunctantem et multa parantem 390 

Dicere. Suscipiunt famulae, collapsaque membra 

Marmoreo referunt thalamo stratisque reponunt. 

At pius Aeneas. quamquam lenire dolentem 
Solando cupit et dictis avertere cums, 
Muha gemens magnoque animum labefactus amore, 395 
Jussa tamen divom exsequitur, classemque revisit. 

m - ' — — — — 

11118 and Dardanus. See at i. 25. — 366. Construe horrens with 
eautHmM, — 367. Caucasu»^ the mountain range between the Black 
and Caspian Seas. See Ecl. vi. 42. HyrcaTiae. Hyrcania lay to 
the south-east of the Caspian Sea. — 369. Num asks questions to 
which it 1s known that a negative answer will be returned. — 372.^ 
SatumiuB. Jupiter, the son of Saturn. See i. 23. — 374. Excepi 
implies freedom from hesitaiion. See 297. For Dido*s rcception 
of the Troians, see i. 561, &c. — 376. She breaks out into the in- 
credulous fanguage of bitter indignation, as if all his excuses were 
a mere fiction. — 382. Spero te hausurum^ is abolder insiance of the 
poctical usage referred to in the notes to 306, 338, and should not 
bc imitated in prose. — 383. Dido, the accusative.-^SS^. As the 
Furies pursued the guilty with avenging torches, Dido, alive (aft- 
Bens) or dead {umhra), like a Fury, was to haunt Aeneas similarly 
armed. — 387. Manist here the regionof departed souls.— 395. Se« 
28X, 333. 

19 T 


TQm veioTeacri incambnnt et litore Celsas 

DedncDnt toto navis. Natat uncta carina, 

Frondentisqi^e ferunt remos et robora silvis 

Infabrioata, fugae studio. 400 

Migrantis cernas, totaque ex urbe ruentis. 

Ac, Telut ingentem formicae farri» acervum 

Cum populant, hiemis memores, tectoque reponuut; 

It nigrum oampis agmen, praedamque per berbas 

Convectant caile angusto ; pars grandia trudunt 409 

Obnixae frumenta humeris; pars agmina cogunt 

Castigantque moras; opere omnis semita fervet. 

Qais tilM tum, Dido, cernenti talia sensus ! 
Quosve dabas gemitus, cum litora frrvere late 
Prospiceres arce ex summa, totumque videres 410 

Misceri ante oculos tantis clamoribus aequcv! 
Improbe amor^qnid non mortaiia pectora cogis! 
Ire iterum in lacrimas, itcrum tentare precando 
Cogitur, et snpplex animos submittere amori, 
Ne quid inexpertum frustra moritura relinquat. 415 

* Anna, vides toto properari litore ? Ciroum 
Undi(jue convenere ^ vocat jam carbasus aurad, 
Pupptbus et laeti nautae imposuere coronas. 
Hunc ego si potui tantum sperare dolorem, 
£t perferre, soror, potero. Miserae hoc tamen unum 420 
Exsequere, Anna, mihi ; — solam nam perfidus ilie 
Te colere, arcanos etiam tibi credere sensus; 
Sola viri mollis aditus et tempora noras ] — 
I, soror, atque hostem supplex adfare superbum : 
Non ego cum Danais Trojanam exscindere gentem 425 

398. Deducunt. See at iii. 71. Uncta pice. — 399. The prepara- 
tions of the Trojans for their departure are so hasty, that theybiing 
firom the woods branches with the leaves still on them, and un-> 
shaped trunks to serve as oars, and planks. — 402. Compare with 
this picture, Proverhs vi. 6-9. -^403. Iliemis memores. It is certaia 
that the ants of our country do not provide against the winter; but 
hov far this applies to the ants of more southern climes, is not 
known ; and certainly the belief implied in these words bf Virgil» 
ind probably in the passage of the Froverbs, was universal with the 
ancients. — 404. /t, &'C. The comparison is implied, as in ii. 626 ; 
that is, in the lan^age of the grammarians, the protatis infers tho 
apodosis. — 407. Fej^yet. Conipare with ^erwirc, 409. — 412. Iwt» 
probe. See at ii. 356. Cogis. See at lii. 56. — 415. Construo 
/rtt«<ra with moritura. — 418. A mode of expressing joy at their 
departure, and therefore agonising to Dido. The line occurs, Georg, 
L 304 — 421. The force of this passage seems to be — 'sincc («i) I 
5j3[f heen able to look forward to {sperare, see Ecl. viii. 26) this 
^AOA S^^^* I shall also be able to endure it to the end' (petfertei, 
—424. Hostem. She now recognises in Aeneas a public enemy. 


UBER iT. 2t4: 

Aulide jurayi, olasseinve ad Pergama min, 

Nec patris Anchisae cinerem Manisve reTelli: 

Cur mea dlcta negat duras demittere in anrisl 

Quo ruit? extremum hoc miserae det munu8*amanti f • 

Exspectet facilemque fugam ventoeque ferentis. 430 

Non jam conjugium antiqnnm, quod prodiditjOTO, 

Nec pulchro ut Latio careat regnUmque relinquat 5 

Tempus inane peto, requiem spatiumque furori, 

Dum mea me victam doceat fortuna dolere. 

£xtremam hanc oro veniam — miserere sororis ;— 435 

Quam mihi cum dederis, cumulatam morte remittam.' 

Talibus orabat, talisque miserrima fletus 
Fertque refertque soror. Sed nullis ille movetor 
Fletibus, aut voces ullas tractabilis audit ; 
Fata obstant; placidasque viri deus obstruit auria. 440 
Ac, veJut annoso validam cum robore querenm 
Alpini Boreae nunc hinc nunc flatibus illinc 
Eruere inter se certant ; it stridor, et altae 
Consternunt terram concusso stipite frondes; 
Ipsa haeret scopulis, et, quantum vertice ad auras 445 
Aetherias, tantum radice in Tartara tendit: 
Haud secus assiduis hinc atque hinc vocibus heros 
Tunditur, et magno persentit pectore curas; 
Mens immota manet ; lacrimae volvuntur inanes. 

Tum vero infelix fatis exterrita Dido 450 

Mortem oratj taedet coeli convexa tueri. 
Quo magis inceptum peragat lucemque relinquat, 
Vidit, turicremis com dona imponeret aris — 
Horrendom dictu — latices nigrescere sacros 
Fusaque in obscenum se vertere vina cruorem. 455 

426. Aidide. The allusion is to the agreement to extirpi^e 
Troy, formed by the Greeks assembled at Aulis in BcBOtia, before 
tbey sailed against that city. — 429. Hoc, referring to the request 
inade in the next line. — 433. Inane^ of no value to Aeneas.— « 
436. The meaning of this line is very uncertain. The foUowinflr of 
the received interpretations seems the best : — * Whcn vou snall 
bave conferred on me this favour, I shall, tn the hour of death, re- 

^uite you with roore than adequate return of gratitude.* Cumulatatn. 
'ompare Luke vi. 38 — uirpov caAdv, veiruvftivo» xai eeoa^nikhov Kot 
hirtpeKxvv6nevov. The following conjecture may be hajzardedr— Qnaiit 
mAi cum dederis cumulatam morte, remtMawi— ' Wnen you have 
l^anted me ihis favour — a favour which I implore, even if death be 
its crowning work — I shall leave you in peace.* — 438. As in reaig' 
nat (244) re has the notion of * again.* — 440. Alioquin plactdoM. — 
445. (htantum^tendit, occurs Georg. ii. 291. — 449. Lacrimaef 
probably of Dido and her sister, thougn some could wish to under- 
•tand it of Aeneas. -— 454. Zaticei, See i. 686. 

220 AENEID08. 

Hoo ▼isani nulli, non ipsi efiata sorori. 

Praeterea, ftiit In tectis de marmore templum 

Conjugis antiqui; miro quod honore colebat, 

Velleribtis niveis et festa fronde revinctum : 

Hinc exaudiri voces et vcrba vocantis 460 

Visa viri, nox tum terras obscura teneret; 

Solaque cuiminibus ferali carmine bubo 

Saepe queri et longas in fietum docere voces; 

Multacjue praeterea vatum praedicta piorum 

Terribili monitu horrificant. Agit ipse furentem 465 

In somnis ferus Aeneas ; semperque relinqui 

Sola sibi, semper longam incomitata videtur 

Ire viam et Tyrios deserta quaerere terra. 

Eumenidum veluti demens videt agmina Pentfaelis, 

£t solem geminum et duplicis se ostendere Thebas; 470 

Aut Agamemnonins scenis agitatus Orestes 

Armatam facibus matrem et serpentibus atria 

Cum fugit, ultricesque sedent in limine Dirae. 

Ergo ubi concepit furias evicta dolore 
Decrevitque mori, tempus secum ipsa moduraqne 475 
Kxigit, et, moestam dictis aggressa sororem, 
Consilium voltu tegit, ac spem fronte serenat : 
* Inveni, germana, viam — gratare sorori — 
Quae mihi reddat eum, vel eo me solvat amantem. 
Oceani finem juxta solemque cadentem 480 

Ultimus Aethiopum locus est, ubi maximus Atlas 
Axem humero torquet stellis ardentibus aptum: 
Hinc mihi Massylae gentis monstrata sacerdos, 
Hesperidum templi custos, epulasque draconi 

456. A sure sign of despair. — 457. Templnm, a emall chapel 
dedicated to the manes of Sychaeus. — 460. Exaudirit and the other 
infinitives that follow, may be under the influence of visa^ but it 
seems preferable to regard them as historical infinitives (see Zumpt, 
% 599), voees and verha being tbe nominatives to exaudiri (pisa voces 
et verba) vocantis viri. — 462. Virgil alone uses a feminine adjectivo 
'»ola) with buhof well known as a bird of ill omen.^468. Ireviawu 
For the government of accusatives, generally accompanied with an 
adjective {longam)^ by intransitive verbs of a cognate meaning, see 
Zumpt, ^ 384. — 469, &c. Virgil compares the fury of Dido to tbat 
of Pentheus, king of Thebes, whom the Furies iEumenides, JHrae) 
persecuted for Jiis opposition to the worship of Bacchus. For Orra-> 
tes (whose fate was a favourite draipatic subject), see at iii. 331. 
477. Spem serenat, spem serenam ostendit. — 481. Aethiopum, pro- 
perly the southern Africans, but here put for Africans generitlly< 
.4«a«. See at 247.-483. Massylae. See at 132. It wouid seem 
ibat this priestess was originally a Massylian, then a keeper of thtt 
draron that guarded the golden fruit of the Hesperides, thus pUee4 
by Virgil m the fer west, and now in Carthagc, 

UBSR IV. 221 

Quae dabat et sacros servabat m arbore raiDO% 485 

Spargens hucQula mella soporiferumque papaver. 

Haec se carminibus promittit solvere mentes, 

Quas velit, ast aliis duras immittere curas ; 

Sistere aquain iluviis, et vertere sidera retro ; 

Nocturnosque movet Manis; mugire videbis 490 

Sub pedibus terram, et descendere montibus ornos. 

Testoi:, cara, deos et te, germana, tuumque 

Dulce c^put; magicas invitam accingier artis. 

Tu secreta pyram tecto interiore sub auras 

Erige, et arma viri, thalamo quae fixa reliquit 495 

Impius, ejpiviasque omnis, lectumque iugalem^ 

Quo perii, superimponant : abolere neumdi 

Cuncta viri monumenta juvat — monsiratque sacerdoi^.' 

Haec effata silet ; pallor simul occupat ora. 

Non tamen Anna novis praetexere funera sacris 500 

Germanam oredit, nec tantos mente furores 

Concipit, aut graviora Umet, quam morte Sychaei. 

£rgo juasa parat. 

At regina, pyra penetrali in sede sub auraa 
Erecta ingenti taedis atque ilice secta^ 505 

Intenditque locmn sextis et fronde corouat 
Funerear; super, exuvias ensemque relictum 
Effigienoque toro locat, haud ignara futuri. 
Stant arae circum, et crinis efiusa sacerdos 
Ter centum tonat ore deos, Erebumque Chaosque 510 
Tergeminamque Hecaten, tria^ virginis ora Dianae. 
Sparserat et latices simulatos fontis Averni, 
Mioibus et messae ad Lunam quaeruntur aenia 
Pubentes herbae nigri cum lacte veneni ; 
Quaeritur et nascentis equi de fronte revolsus 515 

490. From vidthist we might infer that umgire refers to motioiiy 
mad DOt to sound. Yet eee such ejcpressions a» visae ululare, vu 
257. — 492. Deslor me accingier, See Zumpt, $ 605.^493. Aixinm, 
0ier (for aceiHgiit see i. 210. Here it has a deponent use, ' to pre« 
■•re to employ,* governinff the accusative arti». Jnvitam. Virffiil 
befe gives Dido a Rpmaa leeiing, which was averse to magic incan* 
tatioDS. See i 73.-^498. Juvat, otbers read.^«5e^— 505. Constru^ 
mf^nti with taedie. — 506. The magic riles, under pretext of which 
Pido was to destroy berself, are here described. Compare Ecl. viii 
64» d&o.— rdlOw The Mass^rlian priestess (483) calls ioadly on tha 
goda of the lower worid^^ither three hundred, or a hundred thrice 
oslied, in either case a large indefinite number~CAao«, the primor- 
dial deity, type of confusion ; his son Erebusi the heU-god ; HecatSt 
OK Diana, worshipped in tbree aspects, Diana, Luna, Proserpine* 
ta Hecate. — - 512. Anemi. See p. 180, line 38.— -514. Berbae tum 
iade; herbae quae habent lac, succum. 


£t matn praereptus amor. 

Ipsa mola manibusque piis altaria juxta, 

Unum exuta pedem ▼inclis, in yeste reoincta, 

Testatur mohtnra deos et conscia fati 

Sldera; tum, si quod non aequo foedere amantis 59C 

Carae numen habet iustumque memorque, precatur. 

Nox erat, et placidum carpebant fessa soporem 
Corpora per terras — silTaeque et saeva quierant 
Aequtfra— cum medio volyuntur sidera lapsu, 
Cum tacet omnis ager ; pecudes pictaeque ToIncTes, 52!r 
Quaeque lacus late iiqnidos, quaeque aspera dumis 
Rura teneut, somno positae sub nocte silenti 
Lenibant curas, et corda oblita laborum. 
At non infelix animi Pboenissa, nec umquam 
Solvitur in somnos, oculisve aut pectore noctem 530 

Accipit : ingeminant curae, rursusque resurgens 
Saevit amor, magnoque irarum fluctuat aestu. 
Sic adeo insistit, secumque ita corde voiutat : 
' £n, quid ago ? rursusne procos irrisa priores 
£xperiar, Nomadumque petam connubia supplex, 535 
Quos ego sim toties jam dedignata maritos? 
Iliacas igitur classis atque ultiraa Teucrum 
Jussa sequar ? quiane auxilio juvat ante levatos, 
£t bene apud memores veteris stat gratia facti % 
Quis me autem, fac velle, sinet^ ratibusve supcrbis 540 
Invisam accipietl nescis heu, perdita, necdum 
Laomedonteae sentis perjuria gentis? 
Quid tuml sola fuga nautas comitabor ovantis? 

516. The aliusion here is to the hippomanes, which was said to 
frow on the forehead of foals, and if taken ofT before the mother 
could devour it (pmtri praerepius)^ to be efTectual, dissolved, as a 
love potion {amor). — 518. Usages in sacrifices. — 521. Observe the 
construction — habere amantis curae (dat). — 522. For a similar cou- 
trast, see ii. 250. — 526. Quae^ue — quaeque specify two diflfemit 
classes of volucres. — 528. This line has been rejected by some. 
The whole passage from Nox to laborum admits of a variety of con- 
nection and punctuation. That given here is new, and seems to 
render the meaning clear.— 529. l^hoenissa lenibat doIorem.-^532. 
Irarumj &c. repeated 564. — 533. Adeo adds a notion of unexpect- 
edness to the word with which it is joined ; here sic adeoi *to sudi 
a degree even as this.* — 535. NomMtum. See 320. — 536. Qwtot, 
miippe eos ; hence sim. — 538. An sequaf ^ta, &c. — said ironioally. 
Juvatme coe levatot esse. — 542. Laomedonteae perjuria. ^ee v. 
811. Here allusion is to the fraud practised on ApoIIo and N«p- 
tune, who had agreed to build the walls of Troy for Laomedon, 
when the latter refuBed to give them the stipulated reward. Lao- 
raedon acted similarly towards Hercules. Dido insmaates tfa^ mJl 
the race were equally peigured. 


LIBER IV. . %i9 

* An Tyriis omnique manu stipata meorum 
Inferar, et, quos Sidonia vix uibe revelli, 545 

Rursus agam pelago, et ventis dare vela jubebo ? 
Quin morere, ut merita es, ferroque averte dolorem. 
Tu laerimis evicta meis^ tu prima furentem 
HiS) germana, malis oneras atque objicis hosti. 
Non licuit thalami expertem sine crimine vitam 550 

Degere, more ferae, talis nec tangere curas? 
NoD servata fides, cineri promissa Sychaeo !' 

Tantos illa suo rumpebat pectore questus. 
Aeneas celsa in puppi, jam certus eundi, 
Carpebat somnos, rebus jam rite paratis. 555 

Huic se forma dei voltu redeuntis eodem 
Obtulit in somnis, rursusque ita visa monere est, 
Omnia Mercurio similis, vocemque coloremque 
£t crinis flavos et membra decora juventa : 
' Nate dea, potes hoc sub casu ducere somnos, 560 

Nec, quae te circumstent deinde pericula, cernis, 
DemenS ! nec Zephyros audis spirare secundos % • 
Illa dolos dirumque nefas in pectore versat, 
Certa mori. varioque irarum fluctuat aestu. 
Non fugis ninc praeceps, dum praecipitare potestasl 565 
Jam mare turbari trabibus, saevasque videbis 
Collucere faces, jam fervere litora flammis, 
Si te his attigerit terris Aurora morantem. 
£ia age, rumpe moras. Varium et mutabile semper 
Femina.' Sic fatus nocti se immiscuit atrae. 570 

Tum vero Aeneas, subitis exterritus umbris, 
Corripit e somno corpus sociosque fatigat : 
*Praecipites vigilate, viri, et considite transtris; 
^— »- ■ — ■ — ' 

544. Manu stipata. See a similar construction with comitatus, i. 
S12. — 545. Sidonia, See 75, and i. 361. — 552. Stfchaeo used as an 
a^^ective.*— 553. lUa, coDtrasted with Aeneatt bnngs out the two 
opposing pictures, of the queen'8 position, ahd that of Aeneas, on 
toat dreadful night.-r-556. Voltu eodem. See 259, &c. — 558. 
Owima, the accusative. of limitation. Like Mercury — ^ln what re- 
•pect7-*In all respects. See 216, and Ed. i. 55. Coloremque, the 
UtBi syllabie elided before et.-^56l. Veinde, de ita agendo, as the 
consequence of your present supineness. — 564. Conipare the two 
coBBtructioDS certa mori, and certu» eundi, 554, and see note on 
110. ^^565. Praecipitare te. See i. 234. — 569. Varium, . . Femina. 
See at Ecl. iii. 80. In such expressions, the attribute {varium) is 
applied to the subject (Jemina), as possessed by it in a high degree, 
mi»n compared with all other existences. Jcemina mutahUis est, 
'woman is changeable,* the predicate drawing no comparison. 
MMtabHe ett femina, * woman, compared with other existences, w 
DOCed for changeableness.' 

M4 ABmiDos 

Solvite vela oiti. Dens aethere missos al^ alto 
Festinare fugam tortoeque incidere funis S75 

£cce iterum stiroulat. Sequimur te, sancte deorumi 
Quisquis es, imperiocjue iterum paremus ovantes. 
Adsis placidusque juves^ et sidera coelo 
Dextra feras.' Dixit, vagmaque eripit ensem 
Fulmineum. strictoque ferit retinacula ferro. 580 

Idem omnis simui ardor habet;'Fapiuntque ruuntqua. 
Litora deseruere j latet sub classibus aequor ; 
Adnixi torquent spumas et caemla verrunt. 

£t jam prima novo spargebat lumine terras 
Tithoni croceum linquens Aurora cubile. 585 

Regina e speculis ut primum albescere lucem 
Vidit et aequatis classem procedere velis, 
Litoraque et vacuos sensit sine remige portus, 
Terque quaterque manu pectus percussa deoorum 
Flaventisque abscissa comas, ^ Pro Jupiter ! ibit . 590 
Hic,' ait, 'et nostris illuserit advena regnis? 
Non arma expedient, totaque ex urbe sequentur, 
Deripientque rates alii navalibus ? Ite, 
Ferte citi jQammas, date tela, irapellite remos ! — 
Quid loquor? aut ubi sum? Quae mentem insania 
mutaf? 695 

Infelix Dido ! nuoc te facta impia tangunt ? 
Tum decuit, cum sceptra dabas. — £n dextra fidesque, 
Quem secum patrios aiunt portare Penatis, 
Quem subiisse humeris confectum aetate parentem! — 
Non potui abreptum divellere corpus et undis 600 

Spargere ? non socioS) non ipsum absumere ferro 

576. Iterumt referring to the obedience before shown, 288, &c. 
Sancte deorunit * holy amongrthe holy gods ;* unless we join sanct^' 
deorum quisquis e». — 582. Deseruere, they have left— tefrt, %g con- 
cealed. ClassibuSt a poetical exaggeration for navibus. — 584, 585, 
repeated ix. 460: 585 is a favounte with Vir^il; it occurs prc- 
viously, Georg. i. 448. The mytholo^cal allusion ia to the mar- 
riage of Aurora, the dawn-goddess, with Tithonus, son of Laome- 
don. — 586. The sleepless queen at gray twilight looks forth from 
a watch-tower, and sees the fleet making way from Carthage. — 
587. AequatiSf with the wind right ahead, so that the saii-yards 
hung perpendicularly to the masts. — 589. Pectus percussa^ another 
instance of the accusative of limitation. See 558. — 590. This so- 
liloquy is full of the highest dramatic power. Ihitj compared with 
xlluserit, 591, indicates his going as the resull of a previous mock- 
mg, which is the more bitter, because he was an advena, and she 
was queen, (rcgrni,). — 597. Decuit tangere.— 598. Quem, nuM 
quem. For the fects, see ii. 720, &c. ^ 

LIBER IT. 225 

Ascaninm, patriisqne epulandum ponere mensis? — 
i Verum anceps pugnae fuerat fortuna — Fuisset ; 
Quem metui morilura? Faces in castra tulissem, 
Implessemque foros flammis, natumque patremque 605 
Cum genere exstinxem, memet super ipsa dedissem. — 
Sol, qui terrarum flammis opera omnia lustras, 
Tuque harum interpres curarum et conscia Juno, 
Noctamisque Hecate triviis ululataper orbes, 
£t Dirae ultrices, et di morientis Elissae, 610 

Accipite haec, meritumque malis advertite numen, 
Et nostras audite preces. Si tangere portus 
Infandum caput ac terris adnare necesse est, 
£t sic fata Jovis poscuiit, hic terminus haeret: 
At bello audacis populi vexatus et armis, 615 

Finibus extorris, complexu avolsns luli, 
Auxilium imploret, videatque indigna suorum 
Funera; nec, cum se sub leges pacis iniquae 
Tradiderit, regno aut optata luce fruatur ; 
Sed cadat ante diem mediaque inhumatus arena. 620 
Haec precor, hanc vocem extremam cum sanguine fundo. 
Tum vos, Tyrii| stirpem et genus omne futurum 
Exercete odiis, cmerique haec mittite nostro 
Munera. Nullus amor populis, nec foedera sunto. 
Exbriare aliquis nostris ex ossibus ultor, 625 

Qui face Dardanios ferroque sequare colonos, 
Nunc, olim, quocumque dabunt se tempore vires. 
Litora litoribus contraria, fluctibus undas 

602. Following the example of Procne. See at Ecl. vi. 79. — 
603, Fuerat. A supposed objection, put strongly in the indicative. 
See at ii. 55. Fuisset. Dido gracnts the possibility of tailure. 
Compare with this Macheth, i. 7, where Macbeth says, * If we fail* 
(fuer€U)f his wife answers, ' We fail!' ifuiaset). — 606. Exstinxem, 
See a similar contraction, i. 201. — 608. See at 59. — 609. Hecate. 
See at 511. From the three offices of Diana, she was worshipped 
where three roads met ijtriviis), Ululata, See at iii. 14, 690. •— 
-610. Dirae, See at 469. Diultores. Elissae, See at 335. — 614. 
Hief &>c, * This boundary is (all that is) 6xed ;' the rest is in your 
power. — 615, &c. This imprecation prophesies the future wars 
of Aeneas in Italy (vii. 601, &c.), and his death, which, according 
to tradition (see Livy^ i. 2), took place in battle. — 622, &c. This 
prophesies the deadly hate between the Romans and Carthaginians, 
m which there is (625 and 627) a special reference to Hannibal. — 
625. Aliquis ; an instance of the vocative of this word. — 627. 
Oltm (from ille, see at i. 254), any time but the present — ^whether 
past or fature, to be judged from the context : here, future time. 
Sometimes, also, irom its twofold force, it is nearly equivalent to 
•ur indefinite, ' at times.' See at v. 125. 


Imprecor arma armis; pugnent ipsique nepotftsque.' 

Haec ait, et partis animuro versabat in omnis, 630 

Invisam quaerens qiiam primum abrumpere lucem. 
Tum breviter Barcen nutricem adfata Sychaei, — 
Namque suam patria antiqua cinis ater habebat, — 
'Annam, cara mihi nutrix huc siste sororem; 
Dic corpu^ properet fiuviah spargere lympha, 635 

£t pecudes secum et monstrata piacula ducat; 
Sic veniat ; tuque ipsa pia tege tempora vitta. 
Sacra Jovi Stygio, quae rite incepta paravi, 
Perficere est animus, finemque imponere curis, 
Dardaniique rogum capitis permittere flammae.' 640 

Sic ait. IUa gradum studio celerabat anilem. 
At trepida, et coeptis immanibus effera Dido, 
Sangumeam volvens aciem, maculisque trementis 
Interfusa genas, et pallida morte futura, 
Interiora domus irrumpit limina, et ahos 645 

Conscendit furibunda rogos, ensemque recludit 
Dardanium, non hos quaesitum munus in nsus. 
Hic, postquam Iliac^s vestes notumque cubile 
Conspexit, paulum lacrimis et mente morata, 
Incubuitque toro, dixitque novissima verbai 650 

'Dulces exuviae, dum fata deusque sinebat, 
Accipite hanc animam, meque his exsolvite curis. 
Vixi, et, quem dederat cursum fortnna, peregi ; 
Et nunc magna mei sub terras ibit imago. 
Urbem praeclaram statui j mea moenia vidi ', 655 

Ulta virum, poenas inirriico a fratre recepi; 
Felix, heu nimium felix, si lilora tantum 
Numquam Dardaniae tetigissent nostra carinae !' 
Dixit, et, 08 impressa toro, ' Moriemur inultae — 
Sed moriamur,' ait. 'Sic, sic juvat ire sub umbras. 660 
Hauriat hunc ocuh's ignem crudelis ab aho 

629. Nepotesque. The last syllable ehded before haec, — 630. 
8ee 286. — 634. The position of the words here seems to demand 
cara mihi. Others construe siste with miki. — 635. Dic ut properel* 
Fluviali lymjtha. To be washed in pore river-water was a neces- 
sary preoaration for a sacrifice. — 638. Jovi Stugio, equivalent to 
Stygio Orco, 699 ; regi Stygioy vi. 252; (so also '^oserpine, vi. )38, 
is called Juno inferna). r luto, the supreme god of the regions en- 
closed bv the Styx. See at vi. 295. — 646. Eogos, described 504 
&c. — 649. Mente, in deep thought on her griefs. — 650. Novissima 
verha ; ave or vale. See at i. 219, vi. 231. — 651. Bring dukes next 
to dum inthe translution. — 654. Magna imago, a natural transfer- 
Sf* V • g>:®»^"®88 of the livmg to the tWwAov of the dead. — 
§61. Hauriat infers eager delight, as we say * to drink in with thd 

tv&m it^ 227 

i^miaiias, et nostrae seoum ferat omina mdrtis.' 

I/ixerat; atqae illam raedia inter talia ferro 

Collapsam aspiciuiit comites, ensemque cruore 

Spumantern, sparsasque manus. It clamor ad alta 665 

Atria; concussam bacchatur Fama per urbem. 

Lamentis gemituque et femineo ululatu 

Tecta fremunt; resonat magnis plangoribus aether: 

Non aliter, quam si immissis ruat hostibus omnis 

Carthago aui antiqua Tyros, flammaeque furentes 670 

Culmina perque hominum volvantur perque deorum. 

Audiit exanimis, trepidoque exterrita cursu 

Unguibus ora 8oror foedans et pectora pugnis 

Per medios ruit, ac morientem nomine clamat : 

*Hoc illud, germana, fuit^ me fraude petebas? 675 

Hoc rogus iste mihi, hoc ignes araeque parabant ? 

Quid primum deserta querar? comitemne sororem 

Sprevisti moriens? Eadem me ad fata vocasses ; 

Idem ambas ferro dolor, atque eadem hora tulisset. 

His etiam struxi manibus, patriosque vocavi 6S0 

Voce deos, sic te ut posita crudelis abessem? 

Exstinxti te meque, soror, populumque patresque 

Sidonios urbemque tuam. Bate, vuinera lymphis 

Abluam, et, extremus si quis super halitus errat, 

Ore legam.' Sic fata gradus evaserat altos, 685 

Semianimemque sinu germanam amplexa fovebat 

Cnm gemitu, atque atros siccabat veste cruores. 

lUa, gravis oculos conata attollere, rursus 

Deficit; infixum stridit sub pectore vulnus. 

Ter sese atlollens cubitoque adnixa levavit ; 690 

Ter revoluta tpro est, oculisque errantibus alto 

Quaesivit coelo lucem, ingerauitque reperta. 

Tum Juno omnipotens, longum raiserata dolorem 
Difficiiisque obitus, Irim demisit Olympo, 

663. Her attendants arrive only fo see her fall upon the ground. 
—.667. Femineo — o unelided. — 672. Anna's distraction, when, 
bearing the wailing so characteristic of a nation from the East, 
•he suepeoted, and then found the cause, is described with match- 
less power. — 675. Hoc, referring to the present dced ; illud to 
her beins sent away. JWc, mthi^ emphatic, and full of reproach ; 
flMe, whoToved you so well. — 680. Ailuding to her execution of Di- 
do'8 orders, 494. — 681. See ii. 644.-682. ExftinxH. See at 606. 
—-685. Ore legam, an affecting usage of the Romans. — 686. Smy- 
aHvnem. Amflexa fovebat. See at i. 680. — 689. Stridit^ alluding 
to the blood issuing out with gurgling sound. — 692. Reperta \y\ce. 
Some read repertam. — 693. Juno interferes instead of rroserpine, 
because she was Dido'8 lutelary goddess. — 694. Iris, the persom- 
fication of the rainbow, was the messenger of Juno, as Mercury 


Qaae lactantem animam nexosque resolveret artoA. 695 

Nam quia nec fato, merita nec morte peribat, 

Sed misera ante diem, subitoque acceiisa iurore, 

Nondum illa flavum Proserpina vertice crinem 

Abstulerat, Stygioque caput damnaverat Orco. 

Ergo Iris croceis per coilum roscida pennis, 700 

MiTle trahens varios adverso sole colores, 

Devolat, et supra caput adstitit : ' Hunc ego Diti 

Sacrum jussa fero, teque isto corpore solvo.' 

Sic ait, et dextra crinem secat : omnis et una 

Dilapsus calor, atque in veiitos vita recessit. 705 

ivho performed similar offices to these now described, see 242, &c.) 
was of Jupiter. — 696. The origin of this notion, that death did DOt 
take place till Proserpine had sev^red a lock from the head, has been 
ingeniously conjectured to arise from a aimilar practice with resard 
to animals about lo be slain in sacrifice, vi. 245. — 699. Stygio Orco, 
See at 638. — 701. The rainbow here, and v. 609, is represented as 
formed by the track of Iris through the heavens. — 702. Ditif 
equivaient to Stygio Orco. Pluton \& found in Virgil only once, viL 


AxvBAS sets sail from Garthage for Italy, followed by the flamet 
of Dido's funeral pile, 1—7. The threatening aspect of the 
beavens induces him to make for Sicily, where they arrive, 
and are welcomed by the Trojan Acestes, 8-41. Aeneas pro- 
claims a festival and games in memory of Anchises, on tlie 
anniversary of his funeral, 42-71. He performs sacred ho- 
nours at the tonib, 72-103. The games take place eight days 
thereafter, beginning with a contest between four galleys, \0A'^ 
285. A foot-race, 286-361. A contest with the caegtus, 362.- 
484. Archery, 485-.544. The ludut Trqjanu» of tbe boys, 
545-602. Iris, sent by Juno, instigates the Trojan women, 
weary with wandering, to burn the ships, 603-663. Four are 
actually burned, and the rest saved, in answer to the prayers 
of Aeneas, 664—699. Following the advice of Nautes, and 
the shade of bis father Anchises, Aeneas resolves to leave in 
Sicily the matrons, and nll who were unfit for further voy- 
■ging, 700-754. He founds a town for those left behind, 755- 
761. After a farewell festival of nine days' duration, the 
Trojans again set sail for Italy, under Neptune's protection, se- 
cured by the intervention of Venus, 762-834. Palinurus, the 
pilot, 18 drowned, to the great grief of Aeneas, 835-871. 

LIBER t. 990 

Intxrea mediam Aeneas jam classe tenebat 
Certus iter, flnctusque atros aquilooe secabat, 
Moenia respiciens. quae jam infelicis Eliseae 
Collucent flammis. Quae tantum accenderit igneniy 
Causa latet ; duri magno sed amore ddores 5 

PollutO; notumque, furens qnid femina possit, 
Triste per augurium Teucrorum pectora ducunt. 

Ut pelagus tenuere rates, nec jam ampHps uJIa, 
Occurrit tellus, maria undique et undiqae coelum : 
Olii caeruleus supra caput adstitit imoer, 10 

Noctem hiememque ferens, et inhorruit unda teDebrii. 
Ipse gubernator puppi Palinurus ab alta : 
'Heu! quianam tanti cinxerunt aethera nimbi ? 
QEridve, pater Neptune, paras V Sic deinde locutos 
Colligere arma juoet validisque incumbere remis, 15 

Obliqnatque sinus in ventum, ao talia fatur : 
' Magnanime Aenea, non, si mihi Jupiter auctor 
Spondeat, hod sperem Italiam contingere coek>. 
Mutati transversa fremunt et vespere ab atro 
Consurgnnt venti, atque in nubem cogitur aer. 20 

Nec nos obniti contra, nec tendere tantum 
Snfiicimus. Superat quoniam Fortuna, seqaamnr, 
Quoque vocat, vertamus iter. Nec litora longe 
Fida reor fratema Erycis portusque Sicanos, 
Si modo rite memor servata remettor astra.' 25 

Tum pius Aeneas : ' Equidem sic poscere ventos 
Jamdudum et frustra cerno te tenuere contra. 
Flecte viam velis. An sit mihi gratior ulla, 
Quove magis fessas optem deinittere navis, 
Quam (juae Dardanium tellus mihi servat Acesten, 30 
£t patris Anchisae gremio complectitur ossa?' 

. 2. CertuSf mente obetinata. See iv. 554. Construe atros with 
tquUone, — 3. Elissae, See iv. 335. — 6. Notum^ with its clause. is 
tised as a eubatantive. — 10. Olli. See i. 254. — 15. Arma^ vela. 
From what foilows as to turning the sails with their folds obliquely 
to the wind, 'tacking/ colligere niuat mean ' to reef.* — 19. TrauM' 
versa. An instance of the poetical usage of employing the accusa- 
tive neuter of an adjective for the correspondinj^ adverb. See 
Zumpt^ ^^266, 383, and Ecl. iii. 8. Vespere, the region of the even- 
ing, the west, the wind from which would blow them past Italy.— 
21. Tantum, as much as is necessary to overcome the wind. — 24. 
Eryx^ who gave name to the town, was a son of Venus, and there- 
fore brother to Aeneas. See p. 182, l. 5. —25. Remetiri astra, to 
l^ on one*s position from a remembrance of the position of the 
•tars ; jaat as at 628, em^iri tot sidera, to traverse an extensive 
BiHice, as measured by so many constellations passed under. See 
al80 at i .SoO.— 30. Acegten, a Trojan aettler, on the norih-weat 
coast of Sicily ; hence jWa, 24. See i. 195. —31. See iU. 707. 


Haeo nbi dictsu petnnt portus^ et vela seonndi 
Intendant Zeptiy^ri ; fertnr cita gurgite classisi 
£t tandem Jaeti notae advertuntur arenae. 

At procul ex celso iiniatuA vprtice montis 3S 

Adventum sociasque rates occurrit Acestes, 
Horridus in jaculis et pelle Lib^stidis ursaoi 
Troia Crimiso conceptum flurome mater 
Quem genuit. Veterum non immemor ille parentjm 
Gratatur reduces et gaza laetus agresti 40 

Excipit, ac fessos opibus solatur amicis. 

Postera cum primo stellas Oriente fugarat 
Clara dies, socios in coetum litore ab omni 
Advocat Aeneas, tumulique ex aggere fatur : 
'Dardanidae magni, genus alto a sanguine divom, 45 
Annuus exactis completur mensibus orbis, 
£x quo reliquias divinique ossa parentis 
Condidimus terra moestasque sacravimus aras. 
Jamque dies, nisi fallor, adest, quem semper acerbam, 
Semper honoratum — ^sic di voluistis — habebo. 50 

Hunc ego Gaetulis agerem si Syrtibus exsul, 
Argoltcove mari deprensus et urbe Mycenae, 
Annua vota tamen sollemnisque ordine pompas 
£xsequerer, strueremque suis altaria doiiis. 
Nunc ultro ad cineres ipsius et ossa parentisy 55 

Haud equidem sine mente reor, sine numine divom, 
Adsumus et portus delati intramus amicos. 
£rgo agite, et laetum cuncti celebremus honorera; 
Poscamus ventos, atque haec me sacra ^uotannis 
Urbe velit posita templis sibi ferre dicatis. 60 

Bina boum vobis Troja generatus Acestes 
Dat numero capita in navis : adhibete Penatis 
£t patrios epulis et quos colit hospes Acestes. 

35. Montis, probably Eryx, at the foot of which was the abode 
of Acestes. — 37. Libystidis, Libycae. See iv. 320. — 38. Crimisus, 
a river in the south-west of Siciiy. Mater, Egesta, or Segesta. — 
39. Parentum, Trojanorum. — 42. Oriente sole, seems the ablative 
of time. — 45. See at iii. 168. — 51. Gaetulis ; Syrtihus. See at iv. 
41. Gaetulis is applied to Syrtibus in the general sense of African ; 
just as Argolico m the next line means the sea around Greece. See 
li. 55. — 52. Mycenae. See i. 283. The usual form would be, 
Mycenarum, and the usual construction, the ablative. See Zumpt, 
^ 399. With regard to the alternative -ve, it is to be noticed that 
Aeneas makes two hypotheses, not three. The first is, his spend- 
mg a hfe of exiie in Atricaj ihe second -»cis, his being unwitlingly 
turprised at such a time, m Greece, which might happen in the 
C^raecian Sea, and {et) might happen in Mycenae. —60. Velit. An 
cmses. 61. Bma, with its proper force, two to each. 

LIBBR T. ^l 

Praeterea, si nona diem mortalibtis almnm 

Aurora extulerit radiisque retexerit orbem, 65 

Prima citae Teuoris ponam certamina classis ; 

Quique pedum cursu valet, et qui yiribus audax 

Aut jaculo incedit melior levibusque sagittis, 

Seu crudo fidit pugnam committere caestu — 

Cuocti adsint, meritaeque exspectent praemia palmae. 70 

Ore favete omnes, et cingite tempora ramis.' 

Sic fatus velat materna tempora myrto. 
Hoc Heiymus facit, hoc aevi maturus Acestes, 
Hoc puer Ascanius^ sequitur quos cetera pubes. 
Ille e concilio multis cum millibus ibat 75 

Ad tumulum, raagna medius comitante caterva. 
Hic duo rite mero iibans carchesia Baccho 
Fundit humi, duo lacte novo, duo sanguine sacro, 
Purpureosque jacit flores, ac talia fatur : 
' Salve, sancte parens, iterum ; salvete, recepti 80 

Nequidquam Cineres, animaeque umbraeque patenlae. 
Non licuit finis Italos fataliaque arva, 
Nec tecum Ausonium, quicumque est, quaerere Thybrim.' 
Dixerat haec, adytis cum lubricus anguis ab imis 
Septem ingens gyros, septena vOlumina traxit, 85 

Amplexus placide tumulum lapsusque per aras, 
Caeruleae cui terga notae maculosus et auro 

64. According to the Roman usage, a feast in honour of the dead 
was celebrated on the ninth (our eighth) d&y after the funeral. Seo 
i. 73. — 66. Prima, referring to certamina, mdicates that the games 
would begin with a naval contest. — 69. Caestu, also, cestu, a spe- 
ctes of boxing glove, constructed in its gentlest form of stripes of 
leather, or untanned hide (crudo corio), wrapped round the hand and 
arm. Sometimes, however, these stripes were interlaced with iead 
and iron. See 404, &c. — 70. Cuncti refers to qui valet, &.C., out 
melior jaculOf &c., qnifidU, &c. — 71. Ore favere, a religious for- 
inala, to iisten in solemn silence. — 72. Materna myrto. Bee EcL 
vii. 62. — 73. Hdymus ij in som^ of the old traditions conjoin^ 
with Acestes as a settler in Sicily. — 81. Nequidquam, because he 
could not accompany him to Italy. — 82. Fatalia. See ii. 165, iv. 
353. — 83. Ausonium. See p. 180, line 5. Quicumque est is a con- 
Ibssioa of his unacquaintance with the Tiber (Thybris, a poetical 
form). ~,84. Anguis. Refernng to the belief of the ancients that 
the genii cf places and of men appeared in the shape of serpents. 
See 95.-85. Seeii. 204, &c. Septena, See i. 313, 385.-87. Con- 
strue cui (cujua) terga caeruleae notae, et (cujus) squamam fulgor ma- 
eulotus auro incendebat. Incendere is a complex term, meaning to 
mark, and that with blazing bnghtness. The marking applies par 
ticularly to terga, and the blaze to squamam. The back was marKed 
with azure streaks, and the scales (of the whole body) were blazing 
with spots of gold. Or terga and squamam only indicate tergi squa* 
and then the passage means that the serpenfs scaies were ol 


aaamam inceodebat fa^r^ ceu imbibas arcaB 
ille jacit varios adverso sole colores. 
Obstapait visu Aeneas. Ille agraine longo 
Tandem inter pateras et ievia pocula serpens 
Libaviiqae dapes, nirsusque innoxius imo 
Successit tumulO; et depasta altaria liquit. 
Hoc magis inceptos genitori instaurat honores, 
Incertus, Geaiumne loci famulumne parentis 95 

Esse putet ; caedit binas de more bideiUiS) 
Totque sues^ totidem nigrantis terga juvencos ; 
Yinaque fundebat pateris, animamque vocabat 
Anchisae magni JVlanisque Acheronte remissos. 
Nec non et eocii, quae cuique est copia, laeti 100 

Dona ferunt, onerant aras, mactantque iuvencos ; 
Ordine aena locant alii, fusique per herbam 
Subjiciunt veribus prunas et viscera torrent. 
ffxspectata dies aderat nonamque serena 
Auroram Phaethontis equi jam iuce vehebant, 105 

Famaque finitimos et clari nomen Acestae 
Excierat \ laeto complerant litora coetu, 
Visuri Aeneadas, pars et certare parati. 
Munera principio ante oculos circoque locantar 
In medio — sacri tripodes viridesque coronae 110 

£t palmae pretium victoribus, armaque et ostro 
Perfusae vestes, argenti aucique talenta \ 

green and gdd, all of blazing bri^htness. * With burnisbed neck 
of verdant goW.* — Miitoi^t Par, £ostt ix. 501. — 88. Ce», &c. See 
iv. 701. — §0. Agmine. See the same word applied to the serpent^s 
trail, ii. 212. — 9b, In the belief of the Romans, every man had at 
his birth a spirit, who continued with him through life, and con* 
dttcted his soiit to the Bhades. Every place, too, bad its eenius. —» 
96. Bina»t &'C. See iv. 57. — 97. Ntgrantis terga. Black victims 
were sacrificed to the infcrnal deities. See vi. 243. See iv. 558, 
for the accusative of limitation. — 99. On the supposition that the 
Manes were allowed to leave Acheronf one of the rivere of the world 
below (see at vi. 295), in order to be present at ihe sacrtfice. — 104. 
Nonamque. See 64, &c. — 105. Phaelhon (dai^y), Sol. — 111. The 
palm was so commonly used aa a badge of victory, that it is oftea 
put to denote that badge generally, whether the palm was spee^o 
ally used or not. Thus, 309, the three victors in the foot-race ave 
te receive an olive crown, but, 339, Diores, the third, is called tertim 
ftc^ma, and, 346, tubiit pahnae. Of the other coronal distinctione in 
these games, it may auffice here to mention, Cloanthus, the firat ia 
tbe boat-race, laurel, 246 ; the other two, olive, 269 compared wkh 
494; Entellus, in the caestua contest, palm, 472, u^ess pahma ia 

K"* ®i*"?iX '** denote viotory, as in 339, 346 ; Acestes, in areherj, 
lurel, 539.— 112. Others read talentum. But there were three 
taienta beatowed ; aee 248. Aurique seema added for the aakm ni 


£t toba commissos medio canit aggete ludo6. 

Prima pares ineunt gravibus certamina remis 
Quatuor ex omni delectae classe carinae. 1 16 

Velocem Mnestheus agit acri remige Pristim — 
Mox Italus Mnestheus, genus a quo nomine Memmi — 
Ingentemqne Gyas ingenti mole Chimaeram, 
Urbis opus, triplici pubes quam Dardana versa 
Impelkint, terno consurgunt ordine remi ; 120 

Sergestusque, domus tenet a qno Sergia nomen, 
Centauro invehitnr magna, Scyllaque Cloanthus 
Caerulea, genus unde tibi, Bomane Cluenti. 

Est procul in pelago saxum spumantia contra 
Litora, quod tumidis snbmersum tunditur olim 125 

FlnctibuS; hibemi condunt ubi sidera Cori ; 
Tranquillo silet, immotaque attollitur unda 
Campus, et apricis statio gratissima mergis. 
Hic viridem Aeneas frondenti ex ilice metam 
Constituit signum nautis pater, unde reverti 130 

Scirent et longos ubi circumflectere cursus. 
Tum loca sorte legunt, ipsique in puppibus auro 
Ductores longe enulgent ostroq^ue decori ; 
Cetera populea velatur fronde luventus 
Nudatosqne humeros oleo perfusa nitescit. 135 

Considnnt transtris, intentaque brachia remis; 
Intenti exspectant signum, exsultantiaque haurit 
Corda pavor pulsans laudumque arrecta cupido. 
Inde, ubi clara dedit sonitum tuba, fiinibus omnes, 
Hand mora, prosiluere suis ; ferit aethera clamor 140 
Nauticus, adductis spumant freta versa lacertis* 
Infindunt pariter sulcos, totumque dehiscit 
Convolsum remis rostrisque tridentibus aequor. 

•fiiament.^ — 113. Jhiba, a Roman usaee. See i. 73. — 116- Pristim, 
Tbe vessels were naraed from the ngure-heads of the ships, as 
mmong ourselves. The four ships that started in this rowing match 
had at their figure-heads, one, a large iish (pristis or pistrix ; see 
iii. 427); another, the Chimera; the third, a Centaur; and the 
fourth, Scylla. See at vi. 285.— 117. Construe MnestkeuM mo9 
Itahts, Vur^l is fond of proving the descent of the Roraans firom 
the Trojans by the analogy of their names. Thas MnetthemB 
Oiv9mf) gives nse to the Latin name fancifuUy of analogieal etyino* 
logy, Memmi (gen.) from memini. So also the others. — lld. Urhit 
instar &j^8, — 125. Olim. See iv. 627. — 127. TranquiUo, * in caha 
weather;' the ablative of time. — 134. P&pulea, The poplar wa» 
«aened to Hercules (see Ecl. vii. 61), who himself haa instituted 
gaiiies. — 135. Petfuta humeroSj the accusative of limitation. — • 139. 
8ee 113. — 142; D&iiecit, See i. 106, iv. 24. — 143. This Une oeouni 
viii. 690. 

20* V 


Non tam praeeipites bijo^ eertamtfie Ofttiipmii 
Corripaere raontqae effasi carcere carras, 145 

Nec sic immissis aarigae ondantia lora 
I Concnseere jagis preniqoe in rerbera pendent. 
Tam plaasa fremttaqae riram stadiisqae faventam 
Consonat omne nemns, yocemqae tnclusa Tolutaitt 
Litora, pakati coUes clamore resultant. 150 

Effugit ante alios primisque elabitar undis 
Turbam inter fremitumque Gyas; quem deio^te Clo* 

Consequitur, melior remis, sed pondere pinna 
Tarda tenet. Post hos aeqao discrimine Pristis 
Centaurasque loonm tendum auperare priprem ; 155 

£t nunc Pristis habet, nanc yictam praeterit ingoBS 
Centaurus, nunc una ambae jnnctisque ferantur 
Frontibus et longa sulcant vsida salsa carina. 
Jamque propinqnabant scopulo metaniqoe tenebaat, 
Cum princeps medioqne Gyas in gurgite victor 160 

Rectorem navis compellat voce Menoeten : 
'Quo tantum mihi dexter abis$ huc dirige gressum; 
Litus ama,^t laevas stringat sine palmula cautea; 
Attum alii teneant.' Dixit ; sed caeca Meooetes 
Saxa timens promm pelagi detorquet ad undas. 165 

'Quo diversus abisV iteram, ^ Pete saxa, Menoete!' 
Cum clamore O^ras revocabat ; et ecce Cloantham 
Respicit instantem tergo, et propiora teneniem. 
Ille inter navemque Gyae 8copulo8<)ae sonanUs 
Radit iter laevnm interior, subitoque priorem 170 

Praeterit et metis tenet aeqnora tuta reiictis. 
Tum vero exarsit juveni dolor ostibus ingens, 
Nec lacrimis caruere genae, segnemque Menoeten, 
Oblitus decorisque sui sociumque salutis, 
In mare pmecipitem pnppi deturbat ab alta ; 176 

Ipse gubernaclo rector subit, ipse magister, 
Ilortaturque viros, clavumque ad litora torquet. 
At gravis, ut fundo vix tandem redditus imo est, 

145. He compares the galleys to oharioCs in a raee, the leadetB to 
ihe charioteers, and the rowers to the hoiBes. The pictnre of tho 
drivers ahaking the reins (whiie the horsea (JugiM) are uijg^ oa 
immiasiB) to victory), and hanging forward to piy tlie whip, is tmly 
ffrapfaic. — 152. Tttt^m inter Jremitumque ; turbae inter ireinitiiiik 
See at Georg, ii. 486. — 162. Mihi, See at JScl. viu. 6. Hmc, p<naU 

1% ^^ " ^?^ ***"^- "" ^^* '^*'** "* ttringat. See Zampt, % 6d4. — 
170. Gyaa had taken the road too ftir out, aod to the right hand^ 
Crtoamhue. keeping to tha left, comea betwoMi him and the rock.- * 
172. Qseibus ; the dative. See at vi. 473, 

UBBR T. 286 

Jam senior mftdidaaiie flnens in yeate, Menoetes 
Summa petit soopuTi siocaque in rupe resedit. 180 

Ilium et labentem Teuori et risere natantem, 
£t salsos rident revementem pectore fluctus. 
Hio laeta extremis spes est accensa duobus, 
Sergesto Mnestheique, Gyau superare morantem. 
Sergestus oapit ante looum scopuloque propinquaty '.85 
Nec tota tamen ille prior praeeunte carina; 
Parte prior ; partem rostro premit aemula Pristis. 
At media socios incedens nave per ipsos 
Hortatur Miiestheas : ' NaoO) nunc insorgite remiff, 
Hectorei socii, Trojae quos sorte suprema 190 

Delegi oomites; nuno ilias promite vires, 
Nuno a&fmos, quibus in Gaetulis Syrtibus usi 
loniocpie mari Maleaeque seqnaoibus undis. 
Non jam prima peto Mnestbeus, neque vinoere certo; 
Qounquam o! — Sed raperent, quibus hoo, Neptune, 
dedisti; 195 

£xtremos pndeat rediisse ; hoe vinoite, oives, 
£t prohibete nefas.' Oili oertamine summo 
Procumbunt; vastis tremit ictibus aerea puppis, 
Subtrahiturque soltun ; tum creber anhehtus artus 
Aridaque ora quatit ; sudor fluit undique rivis. 200 

Attnlit ipse viris optatum casus honorem. 
Namqne furens animi dum proram ad saxa suburguet 
Interior spatioque subit Sei^estns iniquo, 
Infelix saxis in procnrrentilMis haesit. 
Concussae eautea, et acuto in murice remi 205 

Obnixi crepuere, iUisaque prora pependit. 
Consurgnnt nautae et magno clamore momntur, 
Ferratasqoe trudes et aoota eui^ide contoa . 
£xpediunt, fractosque legont in gurgite remos. 
At laetus Mnestheus successuque acrior ipso, 210 

Agmine remorum celeri ventisque vocatis, 
Prona petit maria et pelago decurrit aperto. 

» ' ■ . . I , I w ' 

181. Biaeret laughed at him while he {ell into the water, and now 
Imgh at him while, &c. — 192. Gaetulia Syrtibut. See at 51. — 
1931 J^te^uet eqaivalent to Argolieo, 52. Maleae, a promontory, 
■ow St« Aaselo, in ihe south of Laconia. Mnestheus alludes to 
the voyage oeseribed iii. 190, &c. — 195. A fine instance of tho 
■M>de of speech noticed at i. 135. — 196. Hoc n^as ; or, Aoc, ' in 
this, «o lar.' — 199. Solum, here applied to the sea, above which 
ihe boat roee bigh, as if beaved from above it, at each stroke of the 
oar».— 203. The space was too narrow {tnijuum), — 205. Murice. 
See iv. 262. — 210. Sueceeeu, &c. Compare possunt, &c. 231.— 
812, &^. Frona, in the open sea, out where the channel begm» to 


QuaKs spelanca stibito oominota oolaniba, 

Cui domus et clulces latebroso in pumiee nidi, 

Fertur in arva volans, plauiiamque exterrita peaoifl . 215 

Dat tecto ingentem, mox aere lapsa quieto 

Radit iter liquidum, celeris neqae commoyet alas : 

Sic Mnestheus, sic ipsa fuga secat ultima Pristis 

Aequora, sic iilam fert impetas ipse volantem. 

£t primum in scopulo luctantem 'eserit alto 220 

Sergestum brevibusque vadis frustraqoe vocantem 

Auxilia, et fractis discentem carrere remis. 

Inde Gyan ipsamcjae ingenti mo}e Chimaeram 

Conse^uitur; cedit, quoniam spoliata masistro est. 

Solus jamque ipso superest in fine Cloantnus : 225 

Quem petit, et summis adoixus viribus nrguet. 

Tum vero ingeminat damor, cunctique sequentem 

Instigant studiis, resonatque fragoribus aether. 

Hi proprium decus et partum iadignan(ur honorem 

Ni teneant, yitamque volunt pro laude pacisci ; 230 

Hos successus alit : possunt, quia posse videntur. 

Et fors aequatis cepissent praemia rostris, 

Ni palmas ponto tendens utrasque Cloantbas 

Fudissetque preoes, divosque in vota vocasset : 

'Di, quibus imperium petagi est, quorum aeqaera 

curro, 235 

Yobis laetns ego hoo candentem in litore taurom 
Constituam ante aras, voti reus, extaque saisos 
Porriciam in fluctns et vina liquentia fundam.' 
Dixit, eumque imis sub fluctibus audiit omnis 
Nereidum Phorcique chorus Panopeaque virgo, 240 

Et pater ipse manu magna Portunus euntem 
Impulit : illa Noto citius volucrique sagitta 
Ad terram fngit, et portu se condidit alto. 

•lope to the shore. See 130, reverfu — 213. He compares the swift 
but steady motion of the Pristis to the motion of a dove Irightened 
from its rocky home, when, reassured, it calmly sinks down the 
sky, without moving its wings. — 221. Three stages in tne escape 
of Sergestes. First off the rock ; then in the shallow water at ita 
edffe ; then, aftdr a vain cry for help, trying the broken oars. Ho 
took to his saib atlast; 281.— 224. Cedit, Chimaera. — 229. Hi^ 
these of Cloanthus. — 231. HoSi these of Mnestheus. — 235. Ae^ 
quora curro. A poetical conatruotioo ; the prose would be, per 
aequora, See iv. 256. — 237. Voti reue ; liable to pay the vow ia 
the sense mentioned EcL v. 80. — 240. Nereidum. See iii. 74U 
Pkorcusy Phorcys, or Phorcyn, a sea deity, as was Panopea, ftom. 
the Greek navrfirif.— -241. Portunus, or Portumnus, the Romaa 
tutelary god of harbours. Through him the ship entered the har- 
bour. Seo 243.-243. Notice fugU, present, and condiiii, ihoB 


Tum satas Anohisa, ounctis ex more vocat», 

Victorem ma^a praeconis YOoe CloaQthmu 245 

Deekrat, virKJique advelat tempora lauro ; 

Muneraque in navts ternos optare javeneos 

Vinaque et argenti magnum dat ferre talentam. 

Ipsis praecipoos ductoribos addit honores: 

Victori chlamydem auratam, quam plurima cifoam 250 

Purpura Maeandro duplici Meliboea cocarrtt, 

Intextuscfue puer frondosa regius Ida 

VeJocis jac^ilo cervos cursuque fatigat, 

Acer, anhelanti similis ; quem praepes ab ida 

Sublimem pedibus rapuit Jorts armiger uncis— 255 

Longaevi palmas nequidqoam ad sidera tenduat 

CustodM; saevitque canum latratus in auras. 

At qui deinde locum tenuit virtute secundam, 

Levibas huic hamis consertam auroque trilicem 

Lorioam, quam Demdeo detraxerat ipse 260 

Victor apnd rapidum Simoenta sub IHo alto, 

Donat habere viro, deeus et tutamen in armis. 

Vix illam faronli Phegeos Sagarisque ferebant 

Multiplicem, oonnixi humeris ; indatas at olim 

Demoleos cursa pakntis Troas agebat. 265 

Tertia dona facit geminos ex aere lebetas, 

Cymbiaque argento perfecta atque aspera signis^ 

Jamqae adeo donati omnes opibusque superbi 

Puniceis ibant evincti tempora taeniis, 

Cum saevo e scopnlo multa vix arte revolsas, 270 

Amissis remis atque ordine debiiis uno, 

■» ■ ■■ I ... .11 I 

hidden), perfect. — 246. See 111. — 247. From ternos we infer that 
eack of the three ahips received three heifers, wine, and a talent,— 
248. Dat ferre. See the same construction, 306, and similarly, 
donat habere^ 262. Magnum talentum seems to mean simply a 
mighty talent, without reference to the distinction between the 
greater and the smalier talent properlyso called. — 250. The vic- 
tor'd special priKe was a cloak embroidered with gold (auratam), 
with two wavine lines of deep {jdurima) purple. — 251. The itfa«- 
tmder is properly a river of Asia Minor, with numerous turnings. 
MeUboea, See p. 181, line 1.— 252. The story of Ganymede (see u 
55), bome hy, ^n eagle from Mount Ida, wa« vivialy wdven in the cloak. 
— 255. Virgil is blamed for representing Ganymede as both hunting 
and in the grasp of the eagle. But such twofold representations 
were not unimown in ancient art. — 258. Qui — huic. See i. 573.-7* 
259. See iii. 467. — 260. Demoleo» is only known to us from this 
passage in Virgil.-«261. llioalto : o unelided, and short, according 
to Greek nsage. -^ 265. The coat of mail worn by Demoleos with 
ease, was almost too heavy for the united strength of two men. So 
much the greater the giory of Aeaeas in vanquishing hira. — 269. 
Shmtk proaounce in twosyllables. See 111. — 271. Chdine, tba 


Irrisam sine honore ratem Sergestus agebat. 
Qualis saepe yiae deprensus in aggere serpens, 
Aerea quem obliquum rota transnt, aut gravis icta 
Seminecem liquit saxo lacerumque viator, 275 

Nequidquam longos fiigiens dat corpore tortus^ 
Parte ferox, ardensque ocults, et sibila colla 
Arduns attollens; pars vulnere clauda retentat 
Nexantem nodis seque in sua membra plicantem : 
Tali remigio navis se tarda movebat ; 280 

Yela facit tamen, et yelis subit ostia plenis. 
Sergestum Aeneas promisso munere donat, 
^ Servatam ob navem laetus sociosque reductos. 
Olli serva datur, operum haud ignara Minervae^ 
Cressa genus, Pholoe, geminique sub ubere nati. 285 

Hoc pius Aeneas misso certamtne tendit 
Gramineum in campum, quem collibus undique curvis 
Cingebant silvaC; media(jue in vaile tbeatri 
Circus erat ; quo se multis cum millibus heros 
Consessu medium tulit, extructoque resedit. 290 

Hic, qui forte velint rapido contendere cursu, 
Invitat pretiis animos, et praemia ponit. 
Undique conventunt Teucri mixtique Sicani; 
Nisus et Euryalus primi, 

Euryalus /orma insignis viridique juventa, 295 

Nisus anfore pio pueri ; quos deinde secutus 
Regius egregia Priami de stirpe Diores ; 
Hunc Salius simul et Patron, quorum alter Acaman, 
Alter ab Arcadio Tegeaeae sanguine gentis; 
Tum duo Trinacrii juvenes^ Helymus Panopesque, 300 
Adsueti silvis, coraites senioris Acestae ; 
Multi praeterea, quos fama obscura recondit. 
Aeneas quibus in mediis sic deinde locutus : 
^'Accipite haec animis, laetasque advertite mentes. 
Nemo ex hoc numero mihi non donatus abibit. 305 

row on the side next the rock. — 273. He compares the maimed 
ship to a eerpent, over which, lying on the carriage-way {aggere 
viae), a wheel has gone slanting, or which has been wounded Dy a 
BtoiM. — 274. Constnie gravis iciUj so that the force may hegmm 
ietu. — 281. ^ee at 221. — 284. Datur by the arsis.-— 285. Cresea 
genns. Another modification of the accusative of limitation. — 288. 
Circua theatri, a circular space forming a fitting theatre. — 290. JSx- 
tructo loco. — 294. See i. 534. Nisus and Euryalus are the heroea 
of owi of Virgirs fineat episodes. See ix. 176, &c. — 297. Dioree, 
kiljed by Turnus. See xii. 509. — 298. Acaman, firom Acarnania, 
a dietrict of Greece, to the south of Epirus. — 299. Tegea was a 
lown in ihe south of Arcadia. — 300. Fanopesque. The last sylla- 
ble elided before Ad8ueti.-^205. Observe this double negatit« 


Gnosia bina dabo le^o lucida ferro 

Spicula caelatamque argeiito ferre bipennem; 

Oinnibus hic erit unus honos. Tres praemia primi 

Accipient, flavaque caput nectentur oliva. 

Primus equtm phaleris insignem victor habeto ; 310 

Alter Amazoniam pharetram plenamque sagittis 

Threiciis, lato quam circumplectitur auro 

Balteus, et tereti subnectit fibula gemma; 

Tertius Argolica hac galea coutentus abito.' 

Haec ubi dicta, locum capiunt, signoque repente 315 

Corripiunt spatia audito, limenque relinquunt, 

Effusi nimbo similes; simul ultima signant. 

Primus abit longeque ante onrnia corpora Nisus 

Emicat, et ventis et fulminis ocior alis; / 

Proximus huic, longo sed proximus intervallo, 320 

Insequitur Salius; spatio post deinde relicto 

Tertius Euryalusj 

£uryalumque Heiymus sequitur ; quo deinde sub ipso 

£cce volat calcemque terit jam calce Diores, 

Incumbens humero; spatia et si plura supersint, 325 

Transeat elapsus prior, ambiguumve relinquat. 

Jamque fere spatio extremo fessique sub ipsam 

Finem adventabant, levi cum sanguine Nisus 

Labitur infelix, caesis ut forte juvencis 

Fnsus humum viridisque super madefecerat herbas. 330 

Hic juvenis jam victor ovans vestigia presso 

Haud tenuit titubata solo, sed pronus m ipso 

Concidit immundoqne fimo sacroque cruore. 

Non tamen Euryali, non ille oblitus amorum ; 

» ■ ■ 

making an affirmative — ncTno non, the same as quis^ue. — 306. 
Chtosia. See p. 179, line 24. Crete was celebrated for its archery. 
Dabo/erro. See 24&. — 309. See 111. For the poetical construc- 
tion of passive verbs of dress with the accusative, see Zumpt, ^ 458. 
— 311. The Amazons, or female warriors, generally regarded as 
originally inhabitants of the banks of the Thermodon m Pontus, but 
whom Virgil seems to consider as Thracian in descent (Thretciia ; 
and see xi. 660), were great archers. — 312. The broad belt of gold 
embroidery fastened tne quiver {jcircumplectitur, used deponentiy) 
round tbe shoulder.— 317. Simul. So great was their speed, tbat at 000 
Mid the same^moment they leave the starting-post (limen), and rcach 
the furthest point of the rqad iultima). — 320. The spondaic line 
«eems employed to roark the interval. — 325. These present sub- 
junctives streneihen the probability. * Is there any distance still 
rcmaining ? If so, he may, it is certain he wili, pass him.' See i. 
58. vi. 293, xi. 912. — 330. Fusutt sanguis. — 332. Titubata, poeti- 
callyy as if from a deponent verb. — 334. Compare ille here with ilU 
467. Iq both passages it emphasizes the second particular of tho 


Nam sese opposBtt Salio per lubrlea suigenf ; ?85 

Ille aulem spissa jaouit revolutug arena. 

Emicat Euryalus, et munere victor amici 

Prima tenet, piausuque volat fremituque seoundo* 

Post Helymus subit, et nunc tertia palm)i Diores» 

Hic totum eaveae consessum ingentis et ora 340 

Prima patrum magnis Salius ckmoribue impkti 

Ereptumque dolo reddi sibi posoit Jiooorem. 

Tutatur favor Euryalum, korimaeque decorae^ 

Gratior et pulchro veniens iii corpore virtus. 

Adjuvat et magna proclamat voce Diores, 345 

Qui subiit palmae, frustraque ad praemia veait 

Ultima, si primi Salio reddantur honores. 

Tura pater Aeneas, ' Vestra,' inquit, ^munera Tobis 

Certa manent, pueri, et palmam movet ordiBd nomo; 

Me liceat casus miserari insontis amioi.' 350 

Sic fatus tergum Gaetuli immane leonis 

Dat Salio, villis onerosum atqoe unguibus aureis» 

Hic Nisus, ^Si tunta,' inquit, 'sunt praemia vieda^ 

£t te lapsorum miser^, quae munera Niso 

Digna dabis, primam merui qui laude coronami 355 

Ni me, quae Salium, fortuaa inimioa tuliaset V 

£t simul his dictis ^ciem ost^itabat et udo 

Turpia membra fimo. Risit pater opUmus oUif 

£t clipeum efferri jussit, Didymaonis arti% 

Neptuni sacro Danais de poste reflxum. 360 

Hoc juvenem egregium praestanti munere donst. 

Post, ubi confecti cursas, et dona peregit : 
'Nunc, si cui virtus animusque in pectore praeseB% 
Adsit, et evinctis attollat brachia palmrs.' 
Sic ait et geminum pugnae proponit honorero, 365 

Victori veTatum auro vittisqu^ juvencum, 
£n8em atque insignem galeam solatia victo. 

336. Jlle Salius. — - 337. Euryalus by the arsis. 339. See 111 

340. Concestum caveae^ the assemblage in tbe theatre-Iike valiey. 
See 287, &c. The cavea in theatres was the place where the spec* 
tators sat. Ora prima indicates the foremost seats, whe>e sat the 
patres (see i. 73), according to Roman usage. — 346. Svbiki kas 
won ; see reddantur, There were only three prizes ; see 308. — - 

351. Tergum. See a similar use, i. 361. Gaeiuli. See iv. 41.*»- 

352. Aureis ; two syllables. — 354. iVt«o involves the first persoa^ 

him who speaks, hence merui. — 355. Merui^uli8»et. Sese ii. 55. 

--359. Of the artist Didymaon, or ihe particular ezploit lo whioh 

Virgil here refers, we know nothing. — 360. J)anQ*8 rejixwn, taken 

irom the Gr^ks, and unfastened. Danais, tbe dativus ioeommodi. 

o64. Alludmg to the caestus, See at 69 366. Auro vUUmm, 

auratis vittis. 


Nec moim ; eofithrao vastis cum Ttribos efiimrt 
Ora Dares, magnoque virum se murmure tollit; 
Solus qui Paridem solitas contendere eoutra, 370 

Idemque ad tumulum, quo maximus occubat Heotor, 
Vjctorem Buten immani corpore, qui se 
Bebrycia veniens Amyci de gente ferebat, 
Perculit et fulya moribundum extendit arena. 
Talis prima Dares oapot altum in proelia toUit, 375 

Ostenditque humeros latos, alternaque jactat - 
Brachia protendens, et Terfoerat ictibus auras. 
Quaeritur huic alius; nec quisquam ex agmioe tanto 
Audet aciire virom manibusque inducere caestus. 
£rgo alacris, ctmctosque putans excedere palma, 380 
Aeneae stetit ante pedes ; nec plura moratus 
Tum laeva taurum comu tenet, atque ita fatur : 
'Nate dea, si nemo audet se credere pognae, 
Quae iinis standi ? quo me decet osqoe teneri ? 
Ducere dona jobe.' Concti simol ore fremebant 385 
Dardanidae, reddique viro promissa jubebant. 
Hic gravis Entellum diotis castigat Aoestes, 
Proximos ot viridante toro oonsederat herbae : 
' Entelle, heroom qoondam fortissime f rastra, 
Tantane tam patiens noUo certamine toUi 390 

Dona sinesl obi nonc nobis deos ille, magister 
Neqoidquam memoratus, £ryx ? ubi fama per oranem 
Trinacriam, et spolia illa tuis pendentia tectis V 
Ille sub haec : < Non laudis amor, nec gloria cessit 
Pulsa metu ; sed enim gelidus tardante senecta 395 
Sanguis hebet, frigentque effetae in oorpore vires. 
Si mihi; quae quondam fuerat^ qoaqoe improbos iste 
£xsultat fidens, si nonc foret illa iuventas, 
. Haud equidem pretio iuductos puichroque juvenco 

VeDissem ; nec dona moror.' Sio deinde locutus 400 
In roedium geminos immani pondere caestus 
Projecit, quibus acer £ryx in proelia suetus 
Ferre manum duroque intendere brachia tergo, 

- 370. There is no menfion elsewhere of Butes, nor of Paris 
•8 a boxer, nor of funeral games in honour of Hector. — 373. 
Amycus, king of the BebtyceSf a tribe of Bithynia, was cele- 
brated as a boxer. The constniction seems to he,Qui venietu Be 
hrycittferebat ee ease de gente (race) Amyci. — 389. Fntstra. Sinco 
hia bravery was now to produce no fruits. Compare ii. 348.-392. 
Eryx. See at 24. Eryx was celebrated as a boxer. — 393. Trina» 
eriam. See p. 180, line 37.-395. Sed enim. See at i. 19, ii. 164, 
Tbe thought involved here seems to be, ied non sine caosa cunctor; 
gdtdua «nun.— 400. Moror, magni aestimo. 
21 y 

fe4$ A^mn>o%. 

Obstnpoere atiimi: tantoram ingenfia seii^em 

Terga boum plumbo insuto ferroque Hgebant. 405 

Ante omnis siupet ipsp Dares, longeque recusat ; 

Magnanimnsque Auciiis..i>lf's nt ponnus et ipsa 

Huc illuc vinciorum immensa volumina versat. 

Tum senior talis referebat pectore voces: 

^Quid, si (juis caestns ipsins et Hercnlis arma 410 

Vidisset tnstemqoe hoc ipso in litore pugnam ? 

Haec germanus £ryx quomiam tuus arma gerebat;— 

Sanguine cernis adhuc sparsoque infecta cerebro;^ 

His magnum Alciden contra stetit ; his ego suetus, 

Dum melior vires sanguis dahsLtj aemula necdum 415 

Temporibus geminis canebat sparsa senectus. 

Sed si nostra Dares haeo Trolus arma recusat, 

Idque pio sedet Aeneae, probat auctor Acestes, • - 

Aequemus pugnas. Erycis tibi terga remitto; 

Solve metus ; et tu Trojanos exue caestus.' 420 

Haec fatus duplicem ex humeris rejeoit amietnm, 

£t magnos membrorum artus, magna ossa lacertosque 

£xuit, atque ingens media consistit arena; 

Tum satus Ancnisa oaestus pater extuKt aequos, 

£t paribus palmas ambomm innexuit armis. 425 

Constitit m digitos extemplo arrectus uterque, 
Brachiaque aci superas interritus extulit auras. 
Abduxere retro longe oapita ardua ab iotu, 
Immiscentque manus manibus, pugnamque lacessunt. 
Ille pedum melior motu, fretusque juventa, 430 

Hic membris et mole vaiens ; sed tarda trementi 
Genua labant, vastos quatit aeger anhelifus artus. 
Multa viri nequidcjuam inter se vulnera jactant, 
Multa cavo lateri nigeminant et pectore vastos 
IMnt sonitus, erratque auiis et tempora eircum 435 

Crebra manus, duro crepitant sub vulnere malae. - 
Slat gravis £ntellus nisuque immotus eodem, 
Corpore tela modo atque oculis vigilantibus exit. 
Ille, veiut oelsam oppugnat qui molibus urbem, ' 

' 405. See at 69.-.-407, Anehi$iadei j Anchisae filius, Aenea».-* 
410. Caesiu» et arma ipsius Herculis. See at Georg. ii. 486. — 416. 
CSnebat. — 419. Tr&i; thedativuscommodi. Bemitto. Seeativ. 436. 
•^ 422. Laceptosquet "6 elided before exuit, Exuere, like our ' to 
•trip/ may be applied either to the garments or the limbs. — 426. 
Digifos pedum ; this was to give effect to the descending blows. Seo 
arduHs, A80. — 432. Genua ; two syllables. — 437. Entellos keepa 
the same position with his feet ; he eludes (erie, a technical term) iim 
blow» «elo) aimed at him hy shifting his body, his oye watcfaioi 
cvery movement of his antagonist. ^439. lUe, Dares. 

Ant numtnna sed^ ciroani castella sub armis^ 440 

Nunc nos, duuc illos aditus^ oninemque pererrat 
Arte locum, et variis adsultibus irritus urguet. 
Ostendit dextram insurgens Entellus et alte 
Extulit : ille ictum venientem a vertice velox 
Praevidit, celerique elapsus corpore cessit; 445 

Entellus vires in ventum e^Tudit, et ultro 
Ipse gravis graviterque ad terram pondere vasto 
Ceneidit : ut quondam cava concidit aut £rymaatbO} 
Aut Ida in magna, radicibus eruta pinus. 
Consurgunt studiis Teucri et Trinacria pubes; 490 

It clamor coelo, primusque accurrit Acestes, 
Aequaevumque ab humo miserans attoIHt amicum^ 
At non tardatus casu neque territus heros 
Acrior ad pugnam redit, ac vim suscitat ira. 
Tum pudor incendit vires et conscia virtus, 455 

^ Praecipitemque Dareii ardens agit aequore toto, 
Nunc deztra ingeminans ictus, nunc ille sinistra ; 
Neo mora, nec requies : quam multa grandiae nimbi 
Culminibus crepitant, sic densis ictibus heros 
Creber utraque manu pulsat versatque Dareta. 460 

Tum pater Aeneas procedere longius iras 
£t saevire animis £ntellum haud passus acerbis; 
Sed iinem imposuit pugnae, fessumque Dareta 
£ripuit, mulcens dictis, ac talia fatur : 
' Infelix, quae tanta animum dementia cepit ? 465 

Non vires alias conversaque numina sentis % 
Cede deo.' Dixitque et proelia voce diremit. 
Ast illum fidi aequales, genua aegra trahentem, 
Jactantemque utroque capiit, crassumque cruorem 
Ore ejectantem mixtosque in sanguine dentes, 470 

Ducunt ad navis; galeamque ensemque vocati 
Accipiunt; palmam £ntelio taurumque relinquunt. 
Hic victor, superans animis tauroque superbus: 
* Nate dea, vosque haec,' inquit, ' cognoscite, Teucri, 

445. Cessit, *moved from the spot.'— -446. UUro, asthe result of 
Ili8 own movement. — 448. Erymahthoy a mountain in the north- 
west of Arcadia.~-449. Ida. See ii. 694.-457. lUe. See at 334. 
—458. Compare this passage with Scott^s Lady ofthe Ldke : — 

*And8howered bis blows like wintry rain; 
And as firin rock, or castle roof, - 
Against the winter showcr is proof,* &e. 

^460. Creber, See at ii. 627. — 466. Vires alias seeins to meant 
' bis strength different from what it was in the early part of tho 
eontest/ as if the conversa numina (especially £ryx) had in pitir 
given Entellus supernatoral vigour. Hence Cededeo, See l>elow, 48s* 
—471. Galeamque, &>c, See367. — 472. See 111. 


£t mHii qoae fuerint JQTenaH in corpore Tire^ 47S 

£t cjoa seryetJB revocatum a morte Dareta.' 

Dixit, et adversi conlra stetit ora juvenci, 

Qui donttm adstabat pugnae, dorosque redncta 

Libravit dextra media inter cornua caestus, 

Arduus, effracto(^ue illisit in ossa cerebro. 480 

Sternitur exanimjsque tremens procumbit humi bos, 

Ille anper talis effundit pectore voces: 

^Hanc tibi, Eryx, meliorem animam pro morte Daretis 

Persolvo \ hic victor caestus artemque repono.' 

Protinus Aeneas celeri certare sagitta 485 

Invitat qui forte velint, et praemia ponit, 
Ingentique manu malum de nave Seresti 
Erigit, et volucrem trajecto in fune colnmbam, 
Quo tendant fermm, malo suspendit ab alto. 
Convenere riri, dejectamqne aerea sortem 490 

Accepit galea ; et primus clamore secondo 
Hyrtacidae ante omnis exit locns Hippocoontis ; 
Quem modo navali Mnestheus certamine victor 
Consequitur, viridi Mnestheus evinctus oliva. 
Tertius Enrytion, tuus, o clarissime, frater, 495 

Pandare, qui quondam, jussns confnndere foedos, 
In medios telum torsisti primus Achivos. 
Extremus galeaque ima subsedit Acestes, 
Ausvs et ipse manu juvenum tentare laborem. 
Tum validis flexos incurvant viribus areus 500 

Pro se quisque viri, et depromunt tela pharetris. 
Primaque per coelum nervo stridente sagitta 
Hyrtacidae juvenis volucris diverberat auras; 

475. Juvenalibus. This form also occurs ii. 518. — 478. He 
drew back his right hand, poised the caestas so as to strike 
right between the noms, and rising on tiptoe (see 426), crashed in 
skull and brain.— 481. Observe the effect of the monoByllabic end- 
ing. — 483. He felt him^elfbound to oifer something to his divine 
.eaeher (391) and protector (466) Eryx ; the strife was sacred, and 
io he oflfered up the bull as a worthier gift tfaaa Darea. And with 
it, as usual, reiinquishing the practice, he devotes to the god^ho 
arms of his former accomplishmem. — 487. Malum, not mMum,'^ 

492. Hippocoon, then, was the brother of Nisus. See ix. 177. -« 

493. Victor : the three first in the boat-race were crowned a« vic- 
tors, 269. Mnestheu8*wa8 thesecond, 258.^494. Olwa, See 111. 
—496. Pandarusy a Lycian auxitiary of ihe Trojans, celebrated «s 
an archer. The event alluded to by Virgil is told by Homer, 1/. 
iv. 86, &c. where we leam that, instigated (jusBU») by Minerva, 
T*iv? D* ^^^^ then Bubsistmg between the Greeks and Trojans. 
•i- 501 . Pro $e qunque viri, The collocation of these words desenres 
iKMice and imitation. 

LIBER y. 24§ 

Et venit, adversique infigitur arbore mali. 

Intremoit malus, timuitque exterrita pennis 505 

AleSj et ingenti sonuerunt omnia plausu. 

Post acer Mnestheus adducto constitit arcu, 

Alta petens, pariterque oculos telumque tetendit. 

Ast ipsam miserandus avem contingere ferro 

Non valuit; nodos et vincula linea mpit, 510 

Quis innexa pedem malo pendebat ab alto ; 

Illa notos atque atra volans in nubila fugit. 

Tum rapidns^ jamdudum arcu contenta parato 

Tela tenens, fratrem Eurytion in vota vocavit, 

Jam vacuo laetam coelo speculatus, et alis 515 

Plaudentem nigra figit sub nube columbam. 

Decidit exanimis, vitamque reiiquit in astris 

Aetherib, fixamque refert delapsa sagittam. 

Amissa solus palma superabat Acestes; 

Qui tamen aerias telum contendit in auras, 520 

Ostentans artemque pater arcumque sonantem. 

Hic oculis subitum objicitur magnoque futurum 

Augurio monstrum ^ docuit post exitus ingens, 

Seraqne terrifici cecinerunt omina vates. 

Namque volans liquidis in nubibus arsit arundo, 525 

Signavitque viam nammis, tenuisque recessit 

Consumpta in ventos: coelo ceu saepe refixa 

Transcurrunt crinemque volantia sidera duount. 

Attonitis haesere animis, Superosque precati 

Trinacrii Teucrique viri ; nec maximus omen 530 

Abnuit AeneaS; sed laetum amplexus Acesten 

Muneribus cumulat magnis, ac talia fatur : 

*Sume, pater; nam te voluit rex magnus Olympi 

Taiibus auspiciis exsortem ducere honorem. 

Ipdus Anchisae longaevi hoc munus habebis, 535 

Cratera impressum si)^ni8, quem Thracius olim 

507. AdductOj the ancient archers drew the strine to the breast» 
not, as the English, to the ear. — 511. Quit, an oldform for quibus. 
For innexa pedemi and innexa crinenij vi. 211, see iv. 558.-— 513. 
jRapiAuBj as often, for rapide.— -517. Life was left hehind in the 
sky, while tbe anrow fell toearth. — 519. Superahat, supererat. See 
713. — 520. To show his skill, and the excellence of his bow, he 
sbot «p into the air, and his arrow reachcd the clouds {nubib^, 
525). — 521. The position oipater shows that his skiil was from his 
ezpeiience. Fater by the arsis. — 522. This prodigy was probably 
intended by Virgil to have regard to the barning ofthe ships, 604, 
^e. ; the sootheayers interpreting the omen when it was too late 
i^era) to avert the evii, and the event itself, not they, with all thoir 
awe-inspiring power {terrijicii, had explained the prophetic meanin^ 
of the portent.— 533. Olympi, Stee EcL v. 56. 

S46 AEKB1D08. 

Anchisae geoitori in magno mnnere Ciflsens 
Ferre sui dederat motiumentcim et pignus amoris.' 
Sic fatus cingit viridanti tempora lauro, 
£t primum ante omnis victorem appellat Aoestea. 540 
Nec bonofl Eurytion praelato invidit honort, 
.Quamvk nelus avem coelo dejecit ab alto 
Proximus ingreditnr donis, qui vinoula rupit, 
Extremus, volucri qui fixit arundine mahim. 

At pater Aeneas, nondum certamine missc^ 545 

Custodem ad sese comitemque impobis Inli 
£py tiden vocaty et fidam sic fatur ad aurem : 
' Yade age, et Aseanio, si jam pnerile paratmn 
Agmen babet secum, cursusque instruxit eqwmim, 
Ducat avo turmas, et sese ostendat tn armis, 550 

Dic,' ait. Ipee omnem longo deeedere circo 
Infusum populum, et campos jubet esse patentis* 
Incedunt pueri, pariterque ante ora parentum 
Frenatis lucent in equis, quos onmis euntis 
Trinacriae mirata fremit Trojaeque juventus. 555 

Omnibus in morem tonsa coma pressa corona ; 
Cornea bina ferunt praefixa hastilia ferro ; 
Pars levis humero pharetras ; it pectore summo 
Flexilis obtorti per collum circulus anri. 
Tres equitum numero turmae, temtqne vagantnr 560 
Ductores ; pueri bis seni quemque secuti 
Agmine partito fulgent paribnsque magistris. 
Una acies Juvenum, ducit quam parvus ovantem 
Nomen avi referens Priamus, tua clara, Polite, 
Progenies, auctura Italos ] quem Thracius albis 565 

Portat equus bicolor maculis, vestigia primi 

537. Cisseus, king of Thrace iThracitu)^ father of Hecabo, Pri- 
8m'8 wife. — 538. Ferre dederat, See -«48, 572. —539. See 111. — 
547. Such guardians of youns heroes were common in heroic timesy 
as well as those of Virgil. Homer mentions {lUad^ xvii. 3123) Peri- 
phas, 8on of Epytus, an attendant of Anchises. — 548, &c Ascofnmf 
dic ut duccU."^ 550. Avo, the dativus commodi, in honorem avi. <-• 
551. Aeneas orders the circular space described 206, &c. to be 
cleared. — 553, &c. The ludus Trojae (600) here described by Vir- 
gil was often celebrated by Augustus and succeeding emperois. -* 
556. In tnoremt * in a uniform manner.* Tonsa erat corona, pr^>a 
bly of Olive. See 774, Georg. iii. 21. The meamng of tonsa ia 
^ouhtful ; either piucked from the tree, or picked leaves, or dipped 
mto proper shape. This chaplet was worn above the faehnet. See 
673, vu. 751. — 560. There were three leaders, who each headed 
twelve young horsemen. — 564. Polite. See ii. 526, &c.— 565. 
'S^^J^ .1' ®^® ^ 117. An old commentator mentions that, 
•ccordmg to Cato. PoUtes fbunded PoUtorimm, a Latin towB. 

XIBSR V t4!7 

Alba pedis frontemque oetentans ardans albam. 
Alter Atys, genus unde Atii duxere I^tini, 
Parvus Atya, pueroque puer dilectus lulo. 
£xtremu8, formaque ante omnis pulcher, lulus 570 

Sidonio eet inrectus equo, quem candida Dido 
Esse sui dederat moiiumentum et pignus amoris. 
Cetera Trinacriis pubes senioris Acestae 
Fertur equis. 

Excipiunt pkusu pavidos; gaudentqne tuentes 575 

Dardanidae, veterumque agnoscunt ora parentum. 
Postquam omnem laeti consessum oculosque suomm 
Lnstravere in equis^ signum clamore paratis 
EpytldeB longe dedit insonurtque ilagello. 
OIIi discurrere pares, alque agmina terni 580 

Diductis solvere choris, rursusque vocati 
Convertere vias infestaque tela tulere. 
Inde alios ineunt cursus aflbsque recursus 
Adversi e^tiis, altemosque orbibus orbis 
ImpedinQt^ pugnaeque cient simulacra sub armis ; 585 
. £t nunc tei^ fuga tiudant, nunc spioula vertunt 
Infensi, facta pariter nunc pace feruntur. 
Ut quondam Creta fertur Labyrinthus in alta 
Parietibus textum caecis iter, ancipitemque 
^ Mille viis habnisse dolum, qua signa sequendi ' 590 
Falleret indeprensus et irremeabilis error ; 
Haud alio Teucmm nati vestigia cursu 
Impediunt, texuntque fugas et proelia ludo, 
Deiphinum similes, qui per maria hnmida nando 
Carpathium Libycumque secant, luduntque per 

undas. 595 

Hunc morem cursus atque haec certamina primus 

568. Atii. This is said in honour of Augustus, whose mother 
Atia beioB^d to the gens Atia. Hence, too, n^om the intermarriage 
of the fiuniiies, Atia Deing the daughter of Julius Caesar^s sister, 
the inftenious allusion in tbe next line, ptieroque puer. — 580. Pares, 
ig,c. They were first in a line ; then they gallopped apart {ditcur' 
rere), breaking up (solvere) into separate parties (diductis chorit) 
«f thiee each (terni). At a signal, they stopped, wheeled round, 
SBd seemed vj commenee an attack. Then drawn up in opposite 
tCfWB iadversi spatii*), they gallopped through eacb other*8 ranks, 
mnd rode in circular windings, exhibiting a mimic fight with all its 
Tieiseitudes. —588. The J^hyrinth of Crete was contrived by tho 
Mtist Daedalus, and conceaied in its mazes the Minotaur. See vi. 
87.-589. P&rietibus, four syllables. — 594. Delphinum similes, 
8ee ZuTODt, $ 411. — 595. The island Carpathus lies between Creto 

Std Rbedes, giving name to the adjacent sea. — 596. Others reaa 
une morem, ao» cursui, &c. 


Ascanius, Longam muris cnm cingeret Albam, 

Retulit, et priscos docuit celebrare Latinos, 

Quo pner ipse modo, secum quo Troia pubes; 

Albani docuere suos ; hinc maxima porro 600 

Accepit Roma, et patrium servavit honorem ; 

Trojaque nuncj pueri Trojanum dicitur agmen. 

Hac celebrata tenus sancto certamina patri. 

Hic primum Fortuna iidem mutata novavit. 
Dum variis tumulo referunt sollemnia ludis', 605 

Irim de coelo misit Saturnia Juno 
Iliacam ad classem, ventosque adspirat eunti, 
, Multa movens, necdum antiquum saturata dolorem. 
Illa, viam celerans per mille coloribus arcum, 
^^ulii visa cito decurrit tramite virgo. 610 

Conspicit ingentem concursum, et litora lustrat, 
Desertosque videt portusj^lassemque relictam. 
At procul in sola secretae Troades acta 
Amissnm Anchisen flebant, cunctaeque profundum 
Pontum adspectabant ilentes. ^Heu tot vada fessis 615 
Et tantum superesse maris!' vox omnibus una. 
Urbem orant ; taedet pelagi perferre laborem. 
Ergo inter medias sese haud ignara nocendi 
Conjicit, et faciemque deae vestemque reponit; 
Fit benoe, Tmarii conjunx longaeva Dorycli, 620 

Cui genus et quondam nomen natique fuissent; 
Ao sic Dardanidum mediam se matribus infert : 
'O miserae, quas non manus. inquit, Achaica bello 

Traxerit ad letum patriae suo moenibus ! o gens 

■II. II I ^ 

597. Longam Alham. See i. 271. — 598. Virgil seems here to uso 
priscos in the sense of ancient ; but properly the Frisci Latini wera 
a people made up of two, the Prisci and Latini.~-600. See iC 553. 
—602. Troja nunc hic cursus (596) dicitur^ nueri, &c. Dteitur 
agrees with agmenTrojanum^ instead of rmerij because the latter is 
the idea to wnich Virgil wishes particufarly to direct attention.— 
603. Hac tenu8 cdebrata. Grammarians call this mode of separating 
Gompound words a tmesis {Tu%vii, rifivta). See vi. 62.— 604. JVb- 
vare fidem, to make a new bargain, treacherously to change her 
£i>rraer smiles. — 606. 7rm. See iv. 701. — 607. Ventotque, &c. 
See iv. 223. — 608. Saturata dolorem. See at i. 8, 25. For the 
constraction, see iv. 558. — 609. Juno is the principal persona^ of 
the precedine sentence, but in connection with Iris. Then shifHng 
his Bubject, he indicates this by ilUir equivalent to, * but as for her, 
•he,' &c. — 620. If the reading be correct, we must suppose thal 
Berofe*, a Troian woman {Ehoeteta, 646), had married a native of 
TJnaroM.B. hill in Epirus.— 621. Fit Beroe, cui, quippe ehfuitseni, 
l he submnctive expresses the reason why Iris had assiuned her 
torm— she was pf ancienl family.— 623. Miserae, quat traxen$. 
roT thia lubjunctive, see at ii. 248 


LIBER y. ^4t) 

Infelix ! cui te exitio Fortuna reservat ? 625 

Septima post Tiojae excidium jam vertitur aestas, 

Cum freta, cum terras omnis, tot inhospila eaxa 

Sideraqne emensae ferimur, dum per mare magnum 

Italiam sequimur fugientem, et volvimur undis. 

Hic Erycis fines fraterni, atque hospes Acestes : 630 

Quis prohibet muros jacere et dare civibus urbem? 

O patria et rapti nequidquam ex hoste Penates, 

Nullane jam Trojae dicentur moenia? nusquam 

Hectoreos amnis, Xanthum et Simo^nta, videbo? 

Quin agite et mecum infaustas exurite puppis. 635 

Nam mihi Cassandrae per somnum vatis imago 

Ardentis dare visa faces : " Hic quaerite Trojam ; 

Hio domus est,'' inquit, " vobis." Jam tempus agi res, 

Nec tantis mora prodigiis. En qualuor arae 

Neptuno; deus ipse faces animumque ministrat.' 640 

Haec memorans prima infensum vi corripit ignem, 

Subfataque procul dextra connixa coruscat, 

Et jacit. Arrectae mentes stupefactaque corda 

Iliadum. Hic luia e multis, quae maxima natn, 

Pyrgo, tot Priami natorum regia nutrix : 645 

'Non Beroe vobis, non haec Rhoeteia, matre», 

Est Dorycli conjunx; divini signa decoris 

Ardentisque notate oculos; qui spiritus illi, 

Qui vultus, vocisque sonus, vel gressus eunti ! 

Ipsa egomet dudum Beroen di^ressa reliqui 650 

Aegram, indignantem tali (juod sola careret 

Munere, nec meritos Anchisae inferret honores.' 

Haec effata. 

At matres primo ancipites oculisque malignis 
Ambiguae spectare rates, miserum inter amorem 655 
Praesentis terrae fatisque vocantia regna : 
Cum dea se paribus per coelum suslulit alis 
Ingenteroque fuga secuit sub nubibus arcum. 

626. If Virgil is consistent with himself, this leaves but a short 
time for the stay at Carthage. See i. 755, and compare portat with 
verlitur. — 629. Fugientemy * ever escaping our grasp.* See iii. 
496, vi. 61. — 630. See 24. -—635. Exurite: Observe the inten- 
sive power of ex. — 636. Cassandrae. See at ii. 246. — 639. Tan- 
tis prodiffiisi the vision of Cassandra. — 645. Tot, &c. See ii. 501. 
— 646. Vohis. See at Ed. viii. 6. Rhoeteta, from the Trojan pro- 
montory Rhoeteum. See 620. — 6i9. Gre.<fgu8. For ihe gait of the 
deities, see at i. 405. — 654. AU that the Trojan dames did at first 
was with malignant glances to gaze on the ships, because they were 
held in suspense between their desire for an immediate settlemeni, 
and their knowledge that, hy the decree of the Fates, other realms 
•ammoned their race to empiro. 

Tam Tero attonltae monstris actaeque furore 
Conc/amant, rapiuntque focis penetralibus ignem; 660 
Pars spoliant aras, frondem ac virgulta facesque 
Conjiciunt. Furit immissis Vulcanus habenis 
Transtra per et remos et pictas abiete puppis. 
Nmitius Anchisae ad tumulum cuneosque theatri 
Incensas perfert navis Eumelus, et ijpsi 665 

Bespiciunt atram in nimbo volitare iavillam. 
Primus et Ascanius, cursus ut laetus equestris 
Duoebat, sic acer equo turbata petivit 
Castra, nec exanimes possunc retinere magistri. 
<Quis furor iste novus? quo nunc, quo tenditis,' in- 

quit, 670 

'Heu miserae cives? non hostem inimicaque castr» 
Argivom — vestras spes uritis. En, ego vester 
AscaniusP — galeam ante pedes projecit inauenii 
Qua ludo indutus belli simulacra ciebat. 
Accelerat simul Aeneas, simul agmina Teucrum. 675 
Ast illae diversa metu per litora passim 
Diffugiunt, silvasque et sicubi concava furtim 
Saxa petunt ; piget incepti lucisque, suosque 
Mutatae agnoscunt, excussaque pectore Juno est. 
Sed non idcirco flammae atque incendia vires 680 

Indomitas posuere^ udo sub robore vivit 
Stuppa vomens tardum fumum, lentusque carinas 
Esl vapor, et toto descendit corpore pestis, 
Nec vires heroum infusaque flumina prosunt. 
Tum pius Aeneas humeris abscindere vestem, 685 

Auxihoque vocare deos, et tendere palmas : 
' Jupiter omnipotens, si nondum exosus ad unum 
Trojanos, si quid pietas antiqua labores 
Respicit humanos, da flammam evadere classi 
Nunc, Pater, et tenuis Teucrum res «ripe leto. 690 

662. The notion of throwing the reins loose on tfae baek of 
horses, thus urging them on to unbridled speed, is tra^sferred hera 
to the unchecked progress of fire, and vi. 1, to a fleet urged on at 
utmost epeed. Vulcanu$. See at ii. 311. — 663. Ex ahiete^ three 
eyllables. — 664. Cuneo». The seats of the Roman theatres wcre 
formed in rows, like wedges, by the passages which led f o jthem. — 
667. Ut — sic, on the instant, wiihout preparation or change. — 670. 
Iste. The pronoun of the second person. — 673. Galeam. See 556. 
•—•676. Diversa metu, the scattering was the eflfect of fear. — 679. 
Excutere deum (see vi. 79), is to free from the mfluence of a god, as 
SJl°"?r^^ ^'^^^^ ^^®" " throws its rider. — 683. Est. See iv. 66. — 
^5 AhBctndere, the historicai infinitive. See Zumpt, ^ 599.-688. 
Ptelo». See i. 378, u. 536. 

Vel tn — qaod stiperest — infesto fulmitie Mbrti, 
Si mereor, demilie, tuaque hic obrue dextra.' 
Vix haec ediderat, cum effusis imbribus atra 
Tempestas sine more furit, tonitruque tremescunt 
Ariiua terrarum et campi; ruit aethere toto 695 

Turbidus imber aqua densisque nigerrimus austris; 
Implenturque super puppes; semiusta madescunt 
Rot>ora ; restinctus doiiec vapor omnis, et omnes, 
Quatuor amissis, serratae a peste carinae. 

At pater Aeneas, casn concussus acerbo, 700 

Nuiic huc ingeiitis, nnnc illuc pectore curas 
Mutabat versans, Sicnlisne resideret arris, 
Oblitus fatorum, Italasne capesseret oras. 
Tum senior Nanles, unum Trilonia PaDas 
Quem docuit muitaque insignem reddidit arte, 705 

Naec responsa dabat, vel quae portenderet ira 
Magna deum, vel quae fatorum posceret ordo; 
Isqne his Aenean solatus vocibus infit : 
<Nate dea, quo fata trahunt retrahuntque, sequamur; 
Quidqnid erit, superanda omnis fortuna ferendo est. 710 
Est 4iDi Dardanius divinae stirpis Acestes : 
Hunc cape consiliis socium et conjunge volentem ; 
Nuic trade, amissis snperant qui navibus, et quos 
Pertaesum magni incepti rerumque tuarum est, 
Longaevosqne senes ac fessas aequore matres ; 715 

£t guidquid tecr.m invaltdum metuensque pericli est, 
Delige, et his habeant terris sine moenia fessi ; 
(Jrbem appelhibunt permisso nomine Acestam.' 

Talibus incensus dictis senioris amici ', 
Tum vero in curas animo diducitur omnisi 720 

Et Nox atra polum bigis subvecta tenebat : 
Vi^a dehinc coelo facies deiapsa parentis 
Anchisae subito talis effundere voces: 
' Nate, mihi ^ta quondam, dum vita manebat, 
Care magis — nate, Iliacis exercite fatis, 725 

69%. Quod superest, Death was the only remaining alternative, 
•ftet tbe loAs ofthe ships, and he prays that it may come instantly. 
— 6^7. Semiutta. See at iii.578.— 704. Unum. See i. 16. Tri» 
tonia, See li. 171. Thege^is Nautica had in Rome a charge in the 
worship of Minerva. — 7w. HaeCf * the following,* referring to 709, 
4c.c. QHoe ; circa ea quae. The subjunctives mark tbat Naates 
foretold the events in answer to inquiries made at him. Some read 
Hur, wbich seems preferable. — 713. iSuperamf , supersunt. See 519, 
iL 643, Eel. ix. 27. — 717. Habeant aine. See 163. — 718. Virgil 
makes Acestea the eponymous hero of the town of Aogesta* ot 
Spgesta, in the north-west of Sicily. — 722. Dikine. 

8M AXN£ll>Oi. 

Imperio Jotis hao veBiO) qai elassibm igaem 

Depulit, et coelo tandem miseratus ab suto est. 

Consiliis pare, quae nunc pulcberrima Nautes 

Dat seoior ; lectos juvenes, fortissima corda, 

Defer in ItaJiam. Gens dura atque aspera cuUa 73C 

Debelianda tibi Latio est. Ditis tamen ante 

Infemas aocede domos, et Avema per alta 

Congressas pete, nate, meos. Non me impia naiDqiie 

Tartara habent tristesve umbrae, sed amoena pionim 

Conciiia fUysiumque colo. Huc casta Stbylla 735 

Nigrarum multo pecudum te sauguine ducet. 

Tum genus omne tuum, et quae dentur moenia, disoes. 

Jamque vale ; torquet medios Nox humida cursas, 

£t me saevus equis Oriens afflavit anhelis.' 

Dixerat, et tenuis fugit, ceu fumus, in auras. 740 

Aeneasi ^Quo deinde ruis? quo proripisi' inquit, 

' Quem fugis ? aut quis te nostris complexibus arcet V 

Haec memorans cinerem et sopitos suscitat ignis, 

Pergameumque Larem et cauae penetralia Yestae 

Farre pio et plena supplex veneratur acerra. 745 

Extemplo socios primumque arcessit Acesten, 
£t Jovis imperium et cari praecepta parentis 
Edocet, et quae nunc animo sententia constet. 
Haud mora consiliis, nec jussa recusat Acestes. 
Transcribunt urbi matres, populumqae volentem 750 
Deponunt, animos nii magnae landis egentis. 

731. DUis. See at iv. 702. Helenus had previouajy enjoined 
the sarae thing on Aeneas, but his father was then alive, and the 
promise now made was an additional induccment to this dread en- 
terprise, which is recorded in the next book. — 732. Avema, See 
p. 180, line 38, at Georg. ii. 161, and vi. 125. Fer alta, through the 
deep caverns of. — 733, ^c. Tartam$ (vi. 577, plur. Tartara), the 
abode of impious and wretched shades (but often used to sigmfy the 
nether world generally), is here contrasted with Elysium, the plea- 
sant scene where pious shades meet in happy corapanies. For both, 
eee next book. — 735. Colo, -o unelided. Sibylla. See vi. 10.— 
737. For the fulfilment of this promise, see vi. 756, &c.— 739* 
Oriens. 'See 42. The reader will observe the universality of tb« 
belief, that spirits floe at the approach uf dawo. So in Hamletf L 5» 
the ghost says — 

*Fare tbee well at oiMel 
Tbe glow-worm shows the matin to be near,* Jbc 

— 740. Dixerat. See at ii. 621. Tenuit. See at Georg. iv. 500. 
743. Sopitos, &,c. See a similar expression, viii. 410, 542. — 744. 
Larem ; either Anchises worshipped as one of the Lares, or tbe 
singular for the plural, the godstaken from Troy.-^746, &c. Aces* 
tes founds the city mentioned at 718. — 751. Animos in apposition 
with populumj aa virtus (754) is conjomed with ^it wiguu 

LIBER Y. 2ft9 

Ipsl transtra novant, fiammisqiie ambesa reponunt 

Hobora navigiis, aptant remosque rudentisque, 

Exigui nuraero, sed bello viviaa virtus. 

Interea Aeneas urbem designat aratro 765 

SortiClirque domos ; hoc Ilium et haec loca Trojam 

£sse jubet. Gaudet regno Trojanus Acestes, 

Indicitque forum et patribus dat jnra vocatis. 

Tum vieina asiris Erycino in vertice sedes 

Fundatur Veneri Idaliae, tumulocjue sacerdos 760 

Ac lucus late sacer additur Anchiseo. 

Jamqae dies epulata novem gens omnis, et aris 
Factus honos : placidi straverunt aequora venti, 
Creber et adspirans rnrsus vocat Auster in altum. 
Exoritur procurva ingens per litora fletus ; 765 

Complexi inter se noctemque diemque morantur. 
Ipsae jam matres, ipsi, quibus aspera quondam 
Visa maris facies et non tolerabile numen, 
Ire volunt, omnemque fugae perferre laborem. 
Quos bonus Aeneas dictis solatur amicis, 770 

£t consanguiueo lacrimans commendat, Acestae. 
Tris £ryci vitulos et Tempestatibus agnam 
Caedere deinde jubet, solvique ex ordine funem. 
Ipse, caput tonsae foliis evinotus olivae, 
Stans procul in prora pateram tenet, extaqne salsos 775 
Porricit in fluctus ac vina Jiquentia fundit. 
Prosequitur surgens a puppi ventus euntis. * 

Certatim socii feriunt mare et aequora verrunt. 

At Venus interea Neptunum exercita curis 
Alloquitur, talisque effuridit pectore questus: 780 

' Junonis gravis ira nec exsaturabile peclus 
Cogunt me, Neptune, preces desceudere in omnis; 
Quam nec longa dies, pietas nec mitigat ulla, 
Nec Jovis imperio fatisque infracta quiescit. 

753. Jiudentisque ; the last Byllable elided before Exigui. — 7.55. 
Aratrot an ancient Italian ueuge alluded to i. 425. — 758. Another 
instance of Virgirs adherence to Roman usages. See i. 73. Acestes 
iBstitutes courts of justice and a senate. — 759. The building of the 
teinple to Venus on Mount Eryx is attributed to Aeneas. — 760. 
Jdaliae. See at i. 681. — 762. The funeral feast, as was usual, lasted 
for nine days. See at 64. — 772, &c. The rites bjr which Aeneas 
hopes to secure the favour of the local and sea-deities are here de« 
Bcribed. — 773. Caedere tolvi. See at Ecl. vi. 85. — 774. Evinctus 
camtt, the accusative of limitation. Tansae. See at 556. — 776 
C^entia. See at i. 432.-784. Infracta may eilher be an ad;ec 
tive, *unbent,' accouuiine for her not (,nec, et infracta non) resting} 
or rather a participle, * bent,' which would lead to her rcsting, 
which she does not do, nec negativing both. See at i. 680. Infrui- 


Non media de gente Phrjgam exedisse nefandis 785 
Urbem odns satis est, nec poenam traxe per omnem 
Reliqnias Trojae ; .cineres atque ossa peremptae 
Insequitur. Causas tauti sciat illa furoris. 
Ipse mihi nuper Libycis tu testis in undis 
Quam molem subito excierit : maria omnia coelo 7)0 
Miscuit, Aeoliis nequidquam freta procellis, 
In regnis hoc ausa tuis. 
Per scelus ecce etiam Trojanis matribus actis 
Exussit foede puppis, et classe subegit 
Amissa sooios ignotae linquere terrae. 795 

Quod superest, oro, liceat dare tuta per undas 
Vela tibi, liceat Laurentem attingere Thybrim, 
Si concessa peto. si dant ea moenia Parcae.' 
Tum Satuniius haec domitor maris edidit alti : 
'Fas omne est, Cytherea, meis te fidere regnis, 800 

Unde genus ducis. Alerui quoque j saepe furores 
Compressi et rabiem tantam coelique marisque. 
Nec minor in terris, Xanthurn Simoentaque testor, 
Aeneae mihi cura tui. Cum Troia Achilles 
Exanimata sequens impingeret agmina muris, 805 

Millia multa daret leto, gemerentque repleti 
Amnes, nec reperire viam atque evolvere posset 
In mare se Xanthus, Pelidae tunc ego forti 
Congressum Aenean nec dis nec viribus aecjuis 
Nube cava rapui, cnperem cum vertere ab imo 81C 

Structa meis manibus perjurae moenia Trojae. 
Nunc quoque mens eadem perstat mihi ; pelle timorem. 
• Tutus, quos optas, portus accedet Avemi. 

Unus erit tantum, amissum quem gurgite quaeret ; 

gitur et jiMtc«ci(.— 785. Phrygum — urhem, Trojam. See at ii. 68. 
—786. Traxe for traxisse. See similar contractions, i. 201 ; iv.606, 
682; xi. 118. — 788. lHa, emphatical. jSAcmayknow — ^no one else 
does. — 789. For this allusion, see i. 34, &c. — 796. Lieeat Aeneft» 
dare, &.c. Tibi eeems here to mean, ' as far as thou art concerned.* 
See Zumpt, % 422.-797. Thyhrim. See at ii. 781. It has the epi- 
thet Laurentem., because it bounded the territories belonffing to m% 
town Laurentum, which stood on the sea-coast, south ofits moatk. 
— 799. Saturnius. See at i. 23. — 800. Cytherea ; for this name, 
and the subsequent ailusion, unde^ &c. see at i. 257. — 804. M^ 
erat. Tui; compare meus Aeneas, i. 231. Cwra, &c. The allu- 
eion here is to incidents in the Trojan war described by Homer, 
though Virgil does not follow the same order of events. — 806. Ple- 
tidae, Peleua* son, Achilles. — 810. Cumj &c. Neptune isdescribed, 
II. 610, as one of the most active in the destruction of Troy. — 811. 
/'«niira*. See at iv. 542. — 812. Men8, good-will towards Aeneas. 
— 813. A«er»t. See 732. — 814. l7nM«. Palinurus ; see 838, dtc 


UDum pro multis dabitur caput.' . 815 

His ubi laeta deae permulsit pectora dictls, 
Jungit equos auro Genitor, spumantiaque addit 
Frena feris, manibusque omnis effundit habenas. 
Caeruleo per summa levis volat aequora ci^ru ; 
Subsidunt undae, tumidumque sub axe tonanti 820 

Sternitur aequor aquis, fugiunt vasto aethere nimbi. 
Tum variae comiium facies, immania cete, 
Et senior Glauci chorus, Inousque Palaemon, 
Tritonesque citi, Phorcique exercitus omnis; 
Laeva tenet Thetis, et Melite, Panopeaque virgo, 825 
Nesaee, Spioqiie, Thaliaque, Cymoaoceque. 

Hic patris Aeneae suspensam blanda vicissim 
Gaudia pertentant mentem ; jubet ocius omnis 
AttoIIi malos, intendi brachia velis. 
Una omnes fecere pedem, pariterque sinistros, 830 

Nunc dextros solvere sinus ; una ardua torquent 
Cornua delorquentque ; ferunt sua flamina classem. 
Princeps ante omnis densum Palinurus agebat 
Agmen ; ad hunc alii cursum contendere jussi. 
Jamque fere mediam coeli Nox humida metam 83f 

Contigerat ; placida laxarant membra quiete 
Sub remis fusi per dura sedilia nautae : 
Cum levis aetheriis delapsus Somnus ab astris 
Aera dimovit tenebrosum et dispulit umbras, 
Te, Palinure, petens, tibi somnia tristia portans 840 

Insonti; puppique deus consedit in alta, 
Phorbanti similis, funditque has ore loquelas : 

^— >^^— - I ■ I ■■■—I. I II ■^■■■■M ■■! ^M^^». — — — ■^—^— — ^■^— ^— ^^— ^— ^— ^^I^^I^^M^M^ 

817. Auro, aureo jago. — 819. See a similar passage, i. 155.— 
890. Axe, curru. — 822. Fades adsunt. — 823. Deities of the sea, 
^o are represented as old ismior), the sea, according to the the* 
og^ny of the ancients, being the parent of all thin^s. Inous^ the 
600 m Ino. Palaemon ; identified by the Romans with Portumnus. 
15ceat241.— 824. Tritones. See at i. 144. Phorci, See at 240, as 
aiao for Panopea,. -— 825. Some read tenent. Thetut^ the sea-goddess, 
mother of Achilles. Then foUow other nymphs of the sea. — 826. 
See Geiitg. iv, 338. — 827. Aeneas was rowing, Neptune breathes 
coofidence into his mind, which was hesitating whether he might 
tmst the wind isuspensam)^ and he crowds all sail. — 828. Gaudiaf 
d&c. See a eimilar expression, i. 502.^830. Facerepedes is a nau- 
tical phrase, meaning to work tbe ropes at the foot of the sailyard 
(iracAaa, 829), by which the sail was lurned. -- 832. Comua, the 
kfiobs at the end of the sailyards. Ardua^ with torauent detor" 
^^entguef means that they heave hi^h the sailyards, which, in the 
(q>eration, would veer from side to side. Suaj secunda, non aliena 
«tiniinica. — 840. Somnium, properly a dream, denotes what hap- 
pened uiider the influence of the sleep-god — * visions fraught with 


'laside Palinure, fenint ipsa aeqtiora classein ; 

Aequatae spirant aurae ; datur hora quieti. 

Pone caput, fessosque oculos furare labori. 845 

Ipse ego paulisper pro te lua munera inibo.' 

Cui vix attoliens Palinurus lumina fatur: 

^ Mene salis placidi vultum fluctusque quietos 

Ignorare jobesl mene huic confidere monstro? 

Aenean credam quid enim fallacibus austris, 850 

Et coeli toties deceptus fraude sereni V 

Talia dicta dabat, clavumque afiixus et haerens 

Nusquam amittebat, oculosque sub astra tenebat. 

Ecce (leus ramum Lethaeo rore madentem 

Vique soporatum Stygia super utraque quassat 855 

Tempora, cunctantique natantia lumina solvit. 

Vix primos inopina quies laxaverat artus : 

£t superincumDcns cum puppis parte revolsa 

Cumque gubernaclo liquidas projecit in undas 

Praecipitem, ac socios nequiclquam saepe vocanteni; 860 

Ipse volans tenuis se sustulit ales ad auras. 

durrit iter tutum non secius aequore classis, 

Promissisque patris Neptuni interrita fertur. 

Jamque aaeo scopulos Sirenum advecta subibat — 

Difficilis quondam mukorumque ossibus albos, 865 

Tum rauca assidoo longe sale saxa sonabant — 

Cum pater amisso fluitantem errare magistro 

Sensit, et ipse ratem noctumis rexit in undis, 

Multa ^emens, casuque animum concussus amici : 

'O nimium coelo et pelago confise sereno, 870 

Nudus in ignota, Palinure, jacebis arena.' 

844. Aequatae, Compare iv. 587. — 847, compared with 853, 
eeems to denote that Palinurus hardly looked at the tempter, 
from cloee attention to his duty. But vix^ in the sense of * with 
difficulty* (see JScZ. i. 13), may denote tbat he was alreadyhalf 
asteep, and, like a faithful servant, strove against the inclination. 
— 850, 851. The reading of these lines is much disputed. Et has 
the force of et quidem, *I, too, who,' &c. — 854. LetJtaeo. See at 
vi. 295. — 855. Stygia. See vi. 285. — 856. Cunctanti, See at vL 
473. Natantia. See at Georg. iv. 496. — 861. /o«c, somnus. — 862. 
Currit iter. See at i. 67, also iii, 191, and at iv. 256. — 864. Tho 
rocks of the Sirenes, nymphs who, by their sweet music, had, in the 
time of Ulysses (quondam), allured to shipwreck and death many aa 
unhappy mariner, are ofTthe south coast of Campania. Adeo. See 
at iv. 533. — 866. Eauca soTiahant ; 869, Multa gemens. See at EcL 
iii. 8. — 871. Nudus, insepulius. The ancients regarded such a fate 
with religioua horror. See at i. 92, and vi. 325. 



LIBBR VI. 26t 


Amsas artives in Italy, 1-9. He visits the temple of Apollo 
and Diana at Cumae, in order to consult the Sibyl, 10-*37. By 
lier orders, Aeneas sacrifioes and prays, 38-76. The Sibyl 

r Wtters the divine response, 77-101« Aeneas intreats permis- 
sion to visit his fathex in the regions of the dead ; the Sibyl'8 
reply, 102-155. Aeneas returns to his fleet, and iinds that 
one of his foUowers has been drowned, 156-174. The funeral 

.' fites, during the preparations for which Aeneas secures the 
golden branch entitling him to descend to the shades below, 
176-236. Aeneas enters tbe cave conducting to the infernal 
regions, 237-263. Invocation to the infernal deities, 264—267. 
The confines, 268-272. The porch anc\ the threshold, 273- 

. 294. The infernal rivers, the shades of the unburied, and 
CharoQ, 295-336. Interview with Palinurus, 337-382. In- 
terview with Charon, who at last ferries them across, 383— 
417. On the other side,Cerberus, 418—425. Shades of infants, 
of men falsely condemned, and of suicides, 426—439. The 
plains of wo, in which there are sequestered retreats for those 
who have died of love, 440-449. Aeneas vainly excuses 
himself to Dido, 450-476. The region of warriors, 477-493. 
Interview with Delphobus, 494—534. They proceed, and 
bave a distant view of Tartarus, the punishments of which 
are explained by the Sibyl, 535-627. Depositing the golden 

* branch at the threshold of Pluto's palace, Aeneas enters £Iy- 
eium, 628-639. Account of its occupants and their employ- 
ments, 640-665. Led by Musaeus, they find Anchises hold* 
ing a muster of his future race, 666—683. Anchises welcomes 
bis son, and explains to him the process by which the spirits 
bf future men are fitted for their destinies on earth, 684—751. 
He also points out ta him his descendants, enumerates their 
coming glories, and prepares him for the difficulties awaiting 
him, 752-892. Aeneas is dismissed through Horn-Grate, 

Sic fatur lacrimans, classique immitit habenas, 
£t tandem Euboicis Cumarum allabitur oris. 
Obvertunt pelago proras; tum dente tenaci 

1. Sic fatur, referring to his lament over the pilot Palinums, 
drowned, as narrated at tne close of the fifth book. Immitit hahenas. 
See at v.662. — 2. Cumarum. See p. 181, line 10. Eubotcia, Cumae 
waa colonised firom Chalcis in Euboea, a Grecian island opposite 
Boeotia and Attica. — 3. Tum, &c. See at 902. 
22* w 

996 AENB1I>08. 

Anoora fandabat navis, et litora ottnrae 

Praetezant puppes. Juyenuin manus emioat ardena 5 

Litus in Hesperium : quaerit pars semina flanmiae 

Abstrusa in venis silicis, pars densa feiarum 

Tecta rapit silvas, inventaque flumina raonstrat. 

At pius Aeneas arces, quibus altus Apollo 

Praesidet, horrendaeque procul secreta SibyUae^ 10 

Antrum immane, petit, magnam cui mentem anmiunqne 

Delius inspjrat vates aperitque futura. 

Jam subeunt Triviae lucos atque aurea tecta. 

Daedalus, ut fama est, fugiens Minoia regna, 
Praepetibus pennis ausus se credere coelo, 15 

Insuetum per iter gelidas enavit ad Arctos^ 
Clialcidica(jue levis tandem superadstitit arce. 
Redditus his primum terris^ tibi, Phoebe, sacravit 
Remigium alarum, posuitque immania templa. 
In foribus letum Androgeo; tum pendere poenas 20 

Cecropidae jussi — miserum ! — septena quot annis 
Corpora natorum ; stat duotis sortibus urna. 
Contra elata mari respondet Gnosia tellus : 
Hic crudelis amor tauri, suppostaque furto 
Pasiphae, raixtumque genus prolesque biformis 25 

Minotaurus inest, Veneris monumenta nefandae; 

5. Praeiexunt. See at Ecl. vii. 12. — 6. Hesperium, Italicum. See 
at i. 530. Semina jlammae. Compare tbe Homeric, vxioiia fnp4(. — 
8. JRapitf rapide lustrat.—- 9, &>c. The temple of Apollo was situ- 
ated on a height {areeaj see ii. 322), and in tbe side of the rock, 
within sight ^rocul; see at Ecl. vi. 17), was tbe Sibyrs lonely 
haunt {secreta). — 10. Sibyllae. A prophetic woman near Cumae.— . 
11. Cui. See at 473. — 12. Delius vates^ ApoUo. See p. 179, line 17. 
— 13. ^ Triviae. See at iv. 609. — 14, &.c. VaedaluSf with his son 
Icarus (31), fled on wings framed by himself from the Labyrinth (see 
at V. 588) in Crete, governed by Minoa {Minota regna)^ because 
Minos was enraged at him for conducting by a cfew (jSZo, 30), 
through the mazes, Tbeseus, whom the Cretan princess {reginae^ 
28) Ariadne loved. — 17. Chalcidicaque. See at 2.^18. Redditut Ats 
terria ; redditus in hoc loco terris. — 19. Remigium alarum, See at 
i. 301. — 20. The workmanship of Daedalus, on the doors of tha 
temple built bv him, is described. Andro^eos, son of Minos, had 
been slain by tne Athenians (Cecropidae). Minos, victorious in war, 
demanded, as an annual tribute, seven young men and seven yoong 
women, to be devonred by the Minotaur. On one occasion, Theseus, 
chosen by lot, like tbe rest, was sent. Andro^eo, Greek genitive, 
'AvipSym. His death, and the subsequent punishment of the Athe- 
nians, occupies one of the folding-doors. The work was in raised 
metal — -22. The perfect participie marks that the moment chosea 
Jor tne picture is after the iots have been drawn. — 23. Omtra, on 
Jie opposite door. Respondet, forms a corresponding pictar«. 
GnoMta. See p. 179, Une 24. r -^ ir^ 

IJBSS Yf. tU^9 

Ric labor Ole dmnas et ioextricabilis enor ; 
Hagnnm reginae sed enim miseratus amorem 
Baedalos, ipse dolos tecti ambagesqoe resolvit, 
Caeca regens filo Testigta. Tu qnoqne magnam 30 
Fartem opere u> tanto, sineret dolor, Icare, haberes. 
Bis conatns erat casus effingere in auro ; 
fiis patriae cecidere manus. Quin protinus omnia 
Perfegerent ocnlis, ni jam praemissus Achates 
Afforet atque una Phoebi Triviaeque sacerdoS) 3 
Deiphobe Glaoci, fatur quae talia regi : 
'Non hoc ista sibi tempus spectacula poscit; 
Nnnc grege de intacto septem mactare juvencos 
Praestiterit, totidem lectas de more bidentis.' 
Talibus afiata Aenean — ^nec sacra morantur 40 
Jussa Tiri — ^Teucros vocat alta in templa sacerdos. 
Excisnm Euboicae latus ingens rupis in antrum, 
Quo lati ducunt aditus centum, ostia centum ; 
Unde nrant totidem voces, responsa Sibyllae. 
Ventum erat ad limen, cum virgo, < Poscere fata 45 
TempuS)' ait ; ' deus, ecce, deus !' Cui talia fanti 
Ante fores subito non vultus, non color unus, 
Non comptae mansere comae ; sed pectus anhelumi 
£t rabie fera corda tument ; majorque videri, 
Nec mortale sonans, afflata est nuraine quando 50 
Jam propibre dei. ' Cessas in vota preoesquei 
Tros,' ait, ' Aenea? cessas'? neque enim ante dehisoent 
Attonitae magna ora domus.' £t talia fata 
Conticuit. Gelidus Teucris per dura cucurrit 
Ossa tremor, fundit<^ue preces rex pectore ab imo : 55 
*Phoebe, gravis Trojae semper miserate labores, 

87. DmKM9 ; the labyrinth. — - 28. Sed enim. See at i. 19 ; ii. 164 ; 
V. 395. Sed non omnio inextricabilis, eRtm.~ 31. Si sineret, Icaru$ 
was drowned in his flight.~d3. Omniat pronounce as two syllables, 
omnya. — 34. Ferlegerent, This tense indicates an unfinished de- 
sire y they wished to survey the whole marvels of art (and would 
bave done it), had not, &,c, — 36. The sea-god Glaucus was deemed 
tohave prophetic power8.-^39. Praestiterit. Prophetic certainty 
is here indicated by the fntare perfect. A sacrifice shall be found, 
when all is done, to have been a better employment than gazing on 
eighu. Bidentis, See at iv. 57. — 41. Tempfa. Is this the sacred 
eave deeoribed immediately, or the temple of ApoUo, with which 
the cave hewn out of the adjoining rock communicated ? Probably 
it means the whole of the ground within the sacred enclosure. — • 
46. Deut adest mihi. — 47. UnuSf idem atque antea. — 50. MortaU 
Bpmms. See a similar construction at Ecl. iii. 8, Zumpt, ^ 383.- 
5% JMiseent. — 53. Attonitae damus Tefers to thc cave, which felt 
tne droad presence of the eod. See vil 580. —-56. Phoebus is genc- 
raUy represented aa friendly to Troy. 



Bardana qui Paridis direxti tda imiimqas 

Corpus in Aeacidae ; magnas o^enntia terras 

Tot maria intravi, duce te, penitusque repos^ 

Massylum gentis praetenta^ue Syrtibus arva ', * 10 

Jam tandem Italiae fugientis prendimus oras. ^ 

Hac Trojana tenus fuerit Fortuna secuta ! 

Vos quoque Pergameae jam fas est parcere gentiy 

Dique deaeque omnes, qnibus obstitit Ilium et ingens 

Gloria Dardaniae. Tuque^ o sanctissima vatesi 65 

Praescia yenturi, da — non indebita posco 

Regna meis fatis — Latio considere Teucros 

Errantisque deos agitataque numina Trojae. 

Tum Phoebo et Triviae solido de marmore templom 

Instituam, festosque dies de nomine Phoebi. 70 

Te quoque magna manent regnis penetralia nostris. 

Hio ego namque tnas sortes arcanaque fata, 

Dicta meae genti, ponam, lectosque sacrabo, 

Alma, viros. Foliis tantum ne carmina manda, 

Ne turbata volent rapidis ludibria ventis; 75 

Ipsa canas oro.' Finem dedit ore loquendi. 

At, Phoebi nondnm patiens, immanis in antro 
Bacchatur vates, raagnum si pectore possit 
Excussisse deum i tanto magis ille fatigat 
Os rabidum, fera corda domans, fingitque pr»nendo. 80 
Ostia jamque domns patuere ingentia centum 
Sponte sua, vatisque ferunt responsa per auras : 
* tandem magnis pelagi defunote periclis^ 
Sed terrae graviora manent — in regna Lavini 
Dardanidae venient ; mitte hanc de pectore curam ; 85 

57. Achilles {Aeacides ; see at i. 99) was, according to the legendsf 
slain by Faris with an arrow. Pboebus presided over archery. — 60. 
Massylum. See at iv. 132. Syrtibus. See at i. 111, iv. 41. Its case 
may be determined by iii. 692. — 61. Fugientis. See at v. 629.^ 
62. Hac tenus. See at v. 603. Fuerit secuta. This perfect snb* 
mnctive expresses a strong wish. * May the adverse fortune of Troy 
nave followed us thus far — ^may its influence be noto finished,* — 64; 
He addresses such deities as Juno and Minerva, who had been hoa* 
tile to Troy. — 68. Virffil alludes here to the temple to ApoUo, with 
whose worship that of Diana was generally conjoined, built by Au- 
gustus on the Palatine Hill, and to the ludi Apollinares Ifestosque). 
—71. Inthe temple of Apollo, Augustus placed the Sibylline verse« 
collected by him. — 73. Zectosque viros. The Quindecemvtri, who 
bad the charge of the Sibyliine books. — 74. Foliis, &c. See iiL 
441, &c — 78. Magnum, &c. See at v. 679.-79. Excussisse ; 
lor this use of the perfect instead of the present infinitive, indi- 
a±^ 6? P^ *" earnest desire to do it speedily, see Zumpt, ^ 580. 
Z\^u lir.f^lJ genitive governed by ^crwwto, inferred from the pre. 
vious Ime. Lavmi. See p. 123, line 1(X 

UBER TI. 261 

l$ed non et yenisse volent. Bella, horrida bella, 
£t Thybrim multo spnmantem sanguine cerno. 
Non Simois tibi, nec XanthuS; nec Dorica castra 
Defuerint ; alius Latio jam partus Acbilles, 
Natus et ipse dea ; nec Te^cris addita Juno 90 

Usquam aberit. Cum tu supplex in rebus egenis 
Quas gentis Italum aut quas non oraveris urbes ! 
Caussa mali tanti conjnnx iterum hospita Teucria, 
' Externique iterum thalami. 
Tu ne cede malis, sed contra audentior ito. 95 

' Quam tua te Fortuna sinet. Via prima salutis — 
Quod minime reris — Graia pandetur ab urbe.' 

Talibus ex adyto dictis Cumaea Sibylla 
Horrendas canit ambages antroque remugit, 
Obscuris vera involvens : ea frena fnrenti 100 

Concutit, et stimulos sub pectore vertit Apollo. 
Ut primunf cessit furor et rabida ora quierunt, 
Incipit Aeneas heros: 'Non uUa laborum, 
O virgo, nova mi facies inopinave surgit ; 
Omuia praecepi atque animo mecum ante peregi, 105 
Unum oro : quando hic inferni janua regis 
Dicitur et tenebrosa palus Acheronte refuso, 
Ire ad conspectum cari genitoris et ora 
Contingat ; doceas iter et sacra ostia pandas. 
Illum ego per flammas et mille sequentia tela 110 

Eripui his humeris, medioque ex hoste recepi; 
Ille meum comitatus iter maria omnia mecum 
Atque omnis pelagique minas coelique ferebat, 
Invalidus, viris ultra sortemque senectae. 
Quin, ut te supplex peterem et tua limina adirem, 1 15 

86. Construe^ei et volent non venisse. — 68. She prophesies events 
Biinilar to what had happened at Troy. See at ii. 27, v. 803. — 89. 
Defuerint, Looking to the close of the contest, the future perfect is 

?>positeIy used. Compare wiih the following usouam aberU. AliuM 
chiUes ; Tumus, the future enemy of Aeneas, bom of the nymph 
enilia (dea ; see x. 76). — 90. For J uno'8 watchful hatred {addUa) to 
the Trojans, see i. 19, &c. — 91. Cum, quo tempore. — 92. Attudinff 
to the applications for assistance made by Aeneas to Evander and 
others, recorded in the eighth an4 snbsequent books. — 93. Iterum, 
As Helen was the cause of Troy^s destruction, so shall Lavinia, a 
foreign Qiospita) bride, be the cause of war. — 96. Quam, * as far as ;' 
or, with a nobler meaning, increase in boldness, so as to rise above 
the opposition of fortune. Some read aMc. — 97. Graia; Fallan- 
temn, the city of the Greek Evander. See viii. 97, &-c — 100. Ea; 
talia ttt obscuris vera involvant. — 107. Adieronte r^u$o, f^ at 
2tf5. — 110, d&c. See close of ii. and iii. 

M2 AfiNKlboS. 

Idem urans mandata dabat. Gnalique patrlsque, 

Alma^ precor, miserere; potes namque omnia, nec te 

Nequicfquam lucis Hecate praefecit Avernis. 

Si potuit Manis arcessere conjugis Orpheus, 

Threicia fretus cithara fi(iibusque canoris, 120 

Si fralrem Pollux ahema morte redemil, 

Itque reditque viam toties — quid Thesea magnum, 

Quid memorem Alciden?— -et mi genus ab Jove summo. 

Talibus orabat dictis, arasque lenebat,* 
Cum sic orsa loqui vates : 'Sate sanguine divom, 125 
Tros Anchisiada, facilis descejisus Averno ; 
Noctes atque dies patet atri janua Ditis ; 
Sed revocare gradum superasque evadere ad auras^ 
Hoc opns, hic labor est. Pauci, quos aequus amavit 
Jupiter, aut ardens evexit ad aethera virtus, 130 

Dis geniti potuere. Tenent media omnis^silvae, 
Cocytusque sinu labens circumvenit atro. 
Quod si tantus amor menti, si tanta cupido est 
Bis Stygios innare lacus, bis nigra videre 
Tartara, el insano juvat indulgere labori, . 135 

Accipe, quae peragenda prius. Latet arbore opaca 
Aureus et foliis et lento vimine ramus, 
Junoni infernae dictus sacer j hunc tegit omnis 
Lucus et obscuris claudunt convallibus umbrae. 
Sed non ante datur telluris operta subire, 140 

Auricomos quam quis decerpserit arbore fetus. 
Hoc sibi pulchra suum ferri Proserpina munus 
Instituit. Primo avolso non deficit alter 
Aureus, et simili frondescit virga metallo. 
Ergo alte vestiga oculis^ et rite repermm 145 

Carpe manu; namque ipse volens facilisque seqnetur, 
Si te fata vocant; aliter noii viribus ullis 
Vincere, nec duro poteris convellere ferro. 

W ■• I I I I I I I I . I I I . II 1 I I ■ 

V\, Mandata. Seev. 731, &c.~119. Orpheus, For this legend 
of too Thracian Orpbeus, see Georg, iv. 467, &c. — 121. Polhucanil 
Cascor were immortai and mortai on alternate days. » 122. For Tke^ 
9€UB and Alctdett Hercules, see 392, &c. — 123. Et mt, *I, too, aoi 
descended irom the sods-— ay, from Jupiter, the aupreme.' — 126. 
Anchisiadfl, iong by tne arsis. See at v. 407. Avemo, ia Avermuoy 
a rare ccnHtruotion. Some read Averni ; but Averno may be xh^ 
ablative, «quivaient to Avema per aita, v. 732. — 132. Coeytus. Seeat 
295. .-. 134. Marlc the construction of cupido with innare, £is, <mca 

now, aml a seoond time after death. Stygios. See at 295 135. Tar^ 

tara. See at v. 734. — 138. Juwmi infemae, Proserpine or Heo«te« 

lic *\?^®' *"*^ ^^ * similarexpression applied to Pluto, iv. 638. 
incomm^*'*' No violence waa to be uaed 149. TiW, the daOffl* 

UBER VI. 96| 

Praeterea jacet exanimum tibi corpos amioi — 

Heu nescis — totamque incestat funere classem, 151 

Dum consulta petis nostroque in limine pendes. 

Sedibns hunc refer ante suis et conde supulchro. 

Duc nigras pecudes; ea prima piacula sunto. 

Sic demum lucos Stygis et regna invia vivis 

Aspicies.' Dixit, pressoque obmutuit ore. 155 

Aeneas moesto defixus iumina vultn 
Ingreditur, linquens antrum, caecosque volutat 
Eventus animo secum. Cui fidus Achates 
It comes, et paribus curis vestigia figit. 
Muha inter sese vario sermone serebant, 160 

Quem socium exanimem vates^ quod corpus humandum 
Diceret. Atque illi Misenum m litore sicco, 
Ut venere, vident indigna morte peremptum, 
Misenum Aeoliden, quo non praestantior alter 
Aere ciere«viros, Martemque accendere cantu. 165 

Hectoris hic magni fuerat comes, Heclora circum 
£t lituo pugnas insignis obibat et hasta. 
Postquam illum vita victor ^poliavit Achilles 
Dardanio Aeneae sese fortissimus heros 
Addiderat socium, non inferiora secutus. 170 

Sed tuin, forte cava dum personat aequora concha,^ 
Demens et cantu vocat in certamina divos, 
Aemulus exceptum Triton, si credere dignum est, 
Inter saxa virum spumosa immerserat unda. • 
Ergo omnes magno circum clamore fremebant,- 175 

Praecipue pius Aeneas. Tum jussa Sibyllke, 
Haud mora, festinant flentes, aramque sepulchri 

152. By buryinff him, enable him to reach the proper home of 
the dead. That both notions are involved in sedibus suist see 
328, 371. — 153. Verifying the words of Anchises, v. 736. See 
idso at v. 97. — 156. Dmxus lumina. The accusative of limitation. 
See at iv. 558. — 159. Figere vestigia seems to be nearly svnonymous 
with premere vestigia, 197, 331, and to indicate the slow, neavy walk 
9i auxiety or watchfulness. — 164. A Trojan of the name of Aeolus 
m meBtioned, zii. 542. — 165. Aere^ aerea tuba. Martem. See at 
iL 311. -* 170. Inferioraj referring to Aeneas as not Hiferior to Hee* 
tar. See xi. 289.-^171. As the contest was with Triton (see at i. 
144>, Virgil appropriately equips Misenus with Triton's own instru* 
meni the eoncht^ fur a description of which, see Ovid, Met. i. 333, &,c, 
•^ 174. Jmmerseratt a change of tense, from the poet'8 mind shifting 
the point of time. This is not uncommon. See 339, 524 ; and an- 
other instance, Ed. vii. 6. — 175. Fremebant (compared with vident, 
163) seems to lead us to the conclusion that Aeneas found thcm 
iQouming. If so, fremuit is neceasary as the verb to Aeneas. — 
177. Haud mora est. Arim sepukhri, alluding to the altar-Uke 
■faape of the £anen^ piio. 

264 ASNEIDO&. 

Congerere arboribus coeloque educere certant. 

Itur in antiquam sUvam, stabuJa alta ferarum ; 

Procombunt piceae, sonat icta securibus ilex, 18C 

Fraxineaeque trabes cuneis et fissile robur 

Scinditur; advolvunt ingentis montibus ornos. 

Nec non Aeneas opera inter talia primus 

Hortatur socios, paribusque accingitur armis. 

Atque haec ipee suo tristi cum corde volutat, 185 

Adspectans silvam immensam, et sic forte precatur 

^Si nunc se nobis ille aureus arbore ramus 

Ostendat nemore in tanto ! quando omnia vere 

Heu nimium de te vates, Misene^ locuta est.' 

Viz ea fatus erat, geminae cum forte columbae 190 

Ipsa sub ora viri coelo venere volantes. 

£t viridi sedere solo. Tum maximus neros 

Maternas agnoscit aves, laetusque precatur: 

' Este duces, Oj si qua via est, cursumque per auras 

Dirigite in lucos, ubi pinguem dives opacat 195 

Ramus humum. Tuque, o, dubiis ne defice rebas, 

Diva parens.' Sic effatus vestigia pressit, 

Observans, quae signa ferant, quo tendere pergant 

P^scentes iliae tantum prodire volando, 

Quantum acie possent oculi servare sequentum. 200 

Inde ubi venere ad fauces graveolentis Averni, 

ToUunt se celeres, liquidumque per aera lapsa^ 

Sedibus optatis geraina super arbore sidunt, 

Discolor unde auri per ramos aura refulsit. 

Quale solet silvis br umali frigore viscum 205 

Fronde virere nova, quod non sua seminat arbos^ 

Et croceo fetu teretis circumdare truncos: 

Talis erat species auri frondentis opaca 

Ilice, sic leni crepitabat bractea vento. 

Corripit Aeneas extemplo, avidusque refringit 210 

184. Accin^itnr. See at i. 210. Besides, it has here the force of 
the Greek middle voice. — 186. Forte. Others read voce. — 187. Si 
Mtendat. A prayer. See viii. 560. -^ 188. Quando, &,c. From the 
Sibyrs truth in one particular, Aeneas infers her truth in thc other. 
— 193. Matemas aves. The dove was sacred to his mother Venus. 
— 197. Prensit. See at 159. —199. Prodire. The historical inani- 
tive. See Zumpt, ^599. The doves alternately flew and fed, so 
that Aeneas could follow their movements. — 200. Postent. The 
mibjunctive marks the intention of the doves. — 201. Graveolentit, 
firat e ehded. See at 237. — 203. Gemina, as presenting the natural 
tree and the gplden branch. Others read geminae. ^205. Virgil 
coraparea the gleam of the gold on the green tree to the appearanc* 
ot tbe mistletoe, a parasitical plant which flowers in winter. 

tiBER vr. tS^ 

Cnnctantem, et yatis portat sub tecta Sibyllae. 

Nec minoB interea Misenum in litore Teucri 
Flebant, et cineri ingrato suprema ferebant. 
Principio pinguem taedis et robore secto 
Ingentem struxere pyram, cui frondibus atris 215 

Intexunt latera, et feralis ante cupressos 
Constituunt, decorantque super fulgentibus armis 
Pars calidos latices et aena undantia flammis 
Expediunt) corpusque lavant frigentis et unguunt. 
Fit gemitus. Tum membra toro defleta reponunt, 220 
Purpureasque super vestes, velamina nota, 
Conjiciunt. Pars ingenti subiere feretro, 
Triste ministerium, et subjectam more parentum 
Aversi tenuere facem. Congesta cremantur 
Turea dona, dapes, fuso crateres olivo. 225 

Postquam collapsi cineres et flamma quievit, 
Beliquias vino et bibulam lavere favillam, 
Ossaque lecta cado texit Corynaeus aeno. 
Idem ter socios pura circumtulit unda, 
Spargens rore levi et ramo felicis olivae, 230 

Lustravitque viros, dixitque novissima ver^a. 
At pius Aeneas ingenti mole sepulchrum 
Imponit, suaque arma viro remumque tubamque, 
Monte sub aerio, qui nunc Misenus ab illo 
Dicitur, aeternumque tenet per saecula nomen. 235 

His actis propere exsequitur praecepta Sibyllae. 
Spelunca alta fuit vastoque immanis hiatu, 

211. Lookiag at 146, we must understand eunctantem to mean, 
that to the eacernefis of Aeneas (flvidus) it seemed to hesitate. — 212. 
Here Virgil describes Roman funeral rites. See at i. 73. — 214. 
Construe pinguem. with taedU, and in^entem (indicatins the rank of 
the deceased) with robore sectoy as in iv. 505. The boay of the pile 
was composcd of fagots ; the sides were interwoven with black-leaved 
branches. In front of the pile, cyprees trunks were placed, bearing 
tbe arms of thc dead hero. — 223. Those who applied tbe torch, to 
indicate reluctance, turned away their heads {more jMrentumyy either 
*as near relations do,' or 'following the usage of their ancestors.' 
— 228. CorynaeuM is mentioned ix. 571. — 229. Sociss circumtulii 
unda^ the same as undam circum socios tutit. — 230. Bore. See at 
Georg. iv. 431. Fdici», See at Ecl. v. 36, for ihe opposite, infehx, 
whicn is also applied, Georg. ii. 314, to the barren wild olive. — 
231. Novififima verha. See at iv. 650. — 235. Jetemumoue. The 
promonlory Misenum, in Campania, still bears the name Misena.'^ 
236. Praecepta. Sec 153. — 237. Virgil now shifts the ecene north- 
wards to a cavern on the steep banks of Lake Avernus (tuta lacu), 
This lake was said lo have derived its name from the noisome va 
pours (graveolerUis, 201) that arose from it, destroying any bird» 
tbat chanced to fly over it. It is now pure and wholesome. See »* 
23 X 


Scrapei^ tuta laca nigro nemorumqne tenebrifl^ 

Quam supei haud ullae pottirant impune volautes 

Tendere iter pennis : talis sese halitus atris 240 

Faucibus effundens supera ad convexa ferebat : 

Unde locum Graii dixerunt nomine Aornon. 

Qnatuor hic primum nigrantis terga juvencos 

Coustituit, frontique invergit vina sacerdos, 

£t summas carpens media inter cornua setas 242 

Ignibus imponit sacris, libaminaprima^ 

Voce vocans Hecaten, Coeloque Ereboque potentem* 

Supponunt alii culiros, tepidumaue cruorem 

Suscipiunt pateris. Ipse atri velleris agnam 

Aeneas matri Eumenidum magnaec^ue sorori 250 

Ense ferit) steriiemque tibi, Proserpma, vaccam. 

Tum Stygio regi nocturnas inchoat aras, 

£t solida imponit taurorum viscera flammis, 

Pingue super oleum infundens ardentibus extis. 

£cce autem, primi sub lumina solis et ortus 255 

Sub pedibus mugire solum, et juga coepta moveri 

Silvarum; visaeque canes ululare per umbram, 

Adventante dea. ^ Procul o, procul este, profani,' 

Conclamat vates, 'totoque absistite luco. 

Tuque invade viam, vaginaque eripe ferrum ; 260 

Nun(f animis opus, Aenea, nunc pectore firmo.' 

Tantum effata, furens antro se immisit aperto; 

Ille ducem haud timidis vadentera passibus aequat. 

Di, quibus imperium est animarum,Umbraeque silentes, 
£t Chaos, et Phlegethon, loca nocte tacentia late, 265 
Sit mihi fas audita loqui; sit numine vestro 
Pandere res alta terra et caiigine mersas. 

Ibant obscuri sola sub nocte per umbram, 
Perque domos Ditis vacuas et inania regna : 

Gmrg. ii. 161. — 242. This line is universally and justly regarded 
•8 spurioas. — 247. Hiecaten, &c. Seeativ. 510. — 248. SupponuiU, 
Victims offered to the infernal gods were slain by havmg their 
throats cut from below, the head hanging down. — 250. The mother 
of the Eumenides (see at iv. 469) was Nox, whose sister was Terra. 
-—252. Stygio regu See at iv. 638. — 253. Solida viscera, a holo- 
caust. For viscerot aee at Georg, iv. 555. — 256. When the passive 
voice follows coepit it, too, is geaerally used in the passive, as coqda 
moveri. — 257. Visae ululare, a strange coUocation. See at iv. 460. 
--258. Dea, Hecate. Procul, Slc. The usual formula (tjca^, /«if, 
u* ^fP''}*^^ »*8ed in the sacred mysteries, to warn ofT the uninitiated, 
who had no title to be present (profani, pro, faniim). —265. Ckaos, 
«ee at iv. 510. Phlegethon. See at 295.-266. Fas. See at ii. 157 
Avi^j °' '*f' ^*^®*'- See at Georg. iv. 446.-268. They have kft 
Ayernua, and are joumeying through the cave to the nether wodd. 

LIBER YI. 267 

Qnale per incertam Lunam sub luce maligna 270 

£st iter in silvis, ubi coelum condidit umbra 
Jupiter, et rebus nox abslulit atra colorem. 
Vestibulum ante ipsum primisque in faucibus Orci 
Luctus et ultrices posuere cubilia Curae ; 
Pallentesque babitant Morbi, tristisque Senectus, 275 
£t MetUs, et malesuada Fames, ac turpis £gesta8 
Terribiles visu formae, Letumque, Labosque, 
Tum consanguineus Leti Sopor, et maia mentis 
Gaudia ; mortiferumque adverso in limine Bellum, 
Ferreique £umenidum thalami, et Discordia demens, 280 
Vipereum crinem vittis innexa cruentis. 

In medio ramos annosaque brachia pandit 
Ulmus opaca, ingens, quam sedem Somnia vulgo 
Vana tenere ferunt, foliisque sub omnibus haerent. 
Multaque praelerea variarum monstra ferarum, 285 

Centauri in foribus stabulant Scyllaeque biformes 
£t centumgeminus Briareus ac beliua Lernae, 
Horrendum stridens, ilammisque armata Chimaera, 
Gorgones Harpyiaeque et forma tricorporis umbrae. 
Corripit hic subita trepidus formidine ferrum 290 

273. Virgil represents the porch of Orcus (ii. 398, iv. 702) occu- 
pied by phantoms, fit guards of the realms of Death. — 274. Ultricea 
Curae. The pangs of conscience that punish crime. — 279. Beyond 
the vestUmlum, and in the threshoid right opposite, were War and 
its accompaniments. Here the slaves that acted as portcrs had in 
the Roman houses their sleeping apartments {thalami). — 280. JPer- 
ret, as two syliables. We have the Eumenides again, 555, &c. ; 
and at Jove's threshold, xii. 849. — 281. Crinem innexa. See at v. 
511. — 282. Midway between the porch and the threshold grew an 
clm, the haunt of idle dreams. See at 894. — 283. Vulgo (passim) 
tenere seems better than vulgo ferunt. — 286, &c. At the doors 
were housed the Centaurt (see vii. 675), half-men, half-horses, 
sons of Ixion (see 601) and Nephele (a cloud, see at .vii. 675), 
whom he mistook for Juno. tScyllae. See at iii. 424. BriareuM 
(identical with Aegaeon, x. 565), one of the Uranides, having a 
hundred hands {centumseminut), and fifty heads, according to one 
tradition, placed at helPs gates to guard the Titans. The Hydra. 
a many-headed dragon that infested Lerna, a lake and river near 
Argos (xii. 518), and was slain by Hercules. Chimaera, a Ly- 
cian monster, lion, goat, and dragon, that snorted forth flames. See 
vii. 785. Gorgones (see ii. 616), three monstrous forms, ori^inally 
women from Libya. Harpyiae. See at iii. 211, 212. And Geryon 
iforma, &c.), a king in the south of Spain, with three bodies, slain 
by Hercules, who took from him his beautiful oxen. See vii. 661, 
and viii. 2(^2. Milion had this passage in his eye when ho wrote 
^Gorgons, aod Hydras, and Chimeras dire.' — Far. Lost, n. 62t8. 
The reader would do well to compare with this passage of VirgiU. 
951-967 of the same book. 


Aeneas, strictamqQe aciem yenientibns oflfert ; 
£t. ni docta comes tennis sine corpore vitas 
Aamoneat Tolitare cava sub imagine formae, 
Irniat, et frustra ferro diverberet umbras. 

Hinc via, Tartarei quae fert Acherontis ad undas. 295 
Turbidus hic coeno vastaque voragine gurges 
Aestuat atque omnem Cocyto eructat arenam. 
Portitor has horrendus aquas et flumina servat 
Terribili squalore Charon, cui plurima mento 
Canities inculta jacet, stant lumina flamma, 300 

Sordidus ex humeris nodo dependet amictus. 
Ipse ratem conto subigit, velisque ministrat, 
Et ferru^inea subvectat corpora cymba, 
Jam senior, sed cruda deo viridisque senectus. 
Huc omnis turba ad ripas effusa ruebat, 305 

Matres atque viri, defunctaque corpora vita 
Magnanimum heroum, pueri innuptaeque puellae, 
Impositique rogis juvenes ante ora parentnm; 
Quam multa in silvis autumni frigore primo 
Lapsa cadunt folia, aut ad terram gurgite ab alto 310 
Quam multae glomerantur aves, ubi frigidus annus 
Trans pontum fugat et terras immittit apricas, 

Stabant orantes primi transmittere cursum, 

« ■ ■ 

293. Admoneat. See at v. 325. — 295. It is difficult, perhaps im- 
pOBsible, to picture distinctly Virgirs notions of the nvera of the 
nether world. He seems to have made tbe Acheron the main 
trunk, flowing through Tartarus, properly so called. See at v. 733. 
As it leaves this region, it cushes with mud, sand, and eddying 
waters, forming the deep, sullen Cocytus (297, 323), with its lake 
(107). From the same point of the Acheron, forks oiT the marshy 
(323) river (384) Styx, which flows nine times round the confines 
of all Hades (439). Hence ihe name both of Styx and Cocytus given 
to the encompassing barrier. Round ihe regions of punishment 
flows the Phlegethon (551), and in the Elysian fields is the Lethe 
(705). Of these rivers, Cocytus and Acheron had their prototypea 
in Epirus (see at Georg. ii. 492), and on a smaller scale m Campa- 
nia, near Cumae, froni which, indeed — the Phlegraean fields of tha 
Greeks — he borrows most of his infernal scenery ; Styx in Arcadia ; 
Lethe in Africa Cyrenaica. Their cbaracteristics, as marked bf 
their etymology, are finely shown by Milton in these lines :— • 

• Abhorred Styx^ the flood of deadly hate ; 
Sad jSckeron of Borro w, black and deep ; 
Coeytus, named of lamentation loud, 
Heard ou the woful etream ; fierce Phlegetkon^ 
Whose waves of torrent fire inflame with rage, 
Far ofTfrom these, a slow and silent stream, 
J^Ae, the riTer of oblivion,* &c. 

Par. Loatt ii. 577, 
— 309. See at Georg. iv. 475. 

UBER TI. ' 2i9 

Tendebantqne manns ripae nUerioiris ambra. 

Navita sed tristis nunc hos nunc aceipit illos, 315 

• Ast alios longe submotos arcet arena. 
Aeneas, miratus enim motusque tumultu, 
'Dic.' ait, *o virgo, qoid volt concursas ad amnemt 
Quiave petunt animae? vel quo discrimine ripaB 
Hae linouunt, illae remis vada livida verrunt V 320 

' Olli sic Dreviter fata est longaeva sacerdos : 
* Anchisa generate, deum certissima proles, 
Cocyti stagna alta vides Stygiamque palndem, 
Di cnjus jurare timent et fallere numen. 
Haec omnis, qnam cernis, inops inhumataque tnrba 

est ; 325 

Portitor ille Charon ; hi, quos vehit unda, sepulti. 
Nec ripas datur horrenaas et rauca fluenta 
Traiisportare prius, qnam sedibus ossa (juiemnt. 
Centum errant annos voiitantque haec Iitora circum ; 
Tum demum admissi stagna exoptata revisunt.' '^30 
Constitit Anchisa satus et vestigia pressit, 
Multa putans, sortemqne animo miseratus iniquam. 
Cemit ibi moestos et mortis honore carentis 
Leucaspim et Lyciae ductorem classis Oronten, 
Quosj simul a Troja ventosa per aequora vectoe, 335 
Obruit Auster, aqua involvens navemqne virosque. 

£cce gubernator sese Palinums agebat, 
Qur Libyco nuper cursu, dum sidera servat, 
Exciderat puppi mediis efTusus in undis. 
Hunc ubi vix multa moestum cognovit in nmbra, 340 
Sic prior adloquitur: 'Quis te, Palinure, deorum 
£ripuit nobis, medioque sub aequore mersit ? 
Dic age. Namque mihi, fallax naud ante repertus, 
Hoc uno responso animum delusit Apollo, 
Qui fore te ponto incolumem, finesque canebat 345 

Ventumm Ausonlos. En haec promissa fides est V 

316. See at i. 680. Thc resolution here is submovet et arcet, — 
321. OUi» See at i. 254.-— 324. Jurare numen, See Bimilar in- 
stances of jwrare without per, 351, xii. 197. To violate this oath, 
inferred a temporary forleiture of divine privileges*— 325, &c. 
Hence the dread of death by drowning. See i. 92, v. 871. Inopi, 
helpless, whom nobody assists by burial or funeral rites.— 326. 
lUe, ]>ointing to him, ieiKTiKQg. — 331. See at 159. — 333, Slc. See 
Aen. L 113, for the loss of Orontes and the Lycians. — 337. Po/t- 
nurus, For the loss of this pilot, see v. 835, &c.-»338. Servat, 
auHderat. See at 174. — 340. MuUa umbra explains vix, — 344. 
Nothing of this response appears elsewhere in Virgil. — 345. Finee» 
See at 1. 2. — 346« Aueonios, See p. 180, line 5. 


nieantem : 'N«qae te Phoebi corUoa fefelUty 

Dux Anchiftiada, nec me deus aequore mersit, 

Namque gubernaclum multa vi forte revuisum, 

Cui datus haerebam custos cursusque regebamj 350 

Praecipitans traxi mecum. Maria aspera juro 

Non ullum pro me tantum cepisse timorem, 

Quam tua ne, spoliata armis, excussa magistro, 

Deficeret tantis navis surgenlibus undis. 

Tris Notus hibernas immensa per aequora noctes 355 

Vexit me violentus aqua; vix luraine quarto 

Prospexi Jtaliam summa sublimis ab unda. 

Paulatim adnabam terrae ; jam tuta tenebam, 

Ni gens crudelis madida cum veste gravatum 

Prensaotemque uncis inanibus capita aspera mootis 360 

Ferro invasisset, praedamque ignara putasset. 

Nunc me Huctus habet, versantque in litore venti. 

Quod te per coeli jucundum lumen et auras, 

Per genitorem oro, per spes surgentis luH, 

Eripe me his, invicte, malis. Aut tu mihi terram 365 

Injice, namque potes, portusque require Yelinos ; 

Aut tu, si qua via est, si quam tibi diva creatrix 

Ostendit — neque enim, credo, sine numine divom 

Flumina tanta paras Stygiamque innare paludem — 

Da dextram misero, et tecum me toUe per undasj 370 

Sedibus ut saltem placidis in morte quiescam.' 

Talia fatus erat, coepit cum talia vates : 

Unde haec, o Palinure, tibi tam dira cupido? 

' Tu Stymas inhumatus aquas amnemque severum 

Eumenidum aspicies, ripamve injussus adibis? 375 

Desine fata deum flecti sperare precando. 

Sed cape dicta roemor, duri solatia casus. 

Nam tua finitimi; longe lateque per urbes 

Prodigiis acti coelestibus, ossa piabunt, 

£t statuent, et tumulo soUemnia mittent, 380 

Aeternumque locus Palinuri nomen habebit.' 

347. Cortina, See at iii. 92. — 348. AnchUiada. See at 126. 
^Vcc, &c. Palinums did not know that the sleep-god had throwa 
him into the sea. — 350. The relative is involved in curstis regtham^ 
where we should have quo. — 351. Mariajuro. See at 324. — 358. 
Tenebam. *I was gaimng, and would have gained, had not/ &;c. 
See at ii. 55. — 361. Ignara, For he had no weaUh of which ihey 
conld despoil him. — 362. Mci meum corpus. — 366. He intreats 
Aeneas either to sail back to the place where his body was lying, 
near Velia in Lucania, or to take him across with him. — 381. Aeter^ 
••**jy««» ^c* See at 235. But Palinurus has not been so fortunate 
ms Misenus, the modern name of the cape being Spartamemo. 

L|1&R VI. 27 1 

His dictis carae emoCae, ptUeusque pammper 
i Cordedolor tristi; gaudet cognomine terra. 

Ergo iter inceptum peragunt; fluvioque propinquant. 
Navita quos jam inde ut Stygia prospexit ab unda 385 
Per tacitum nemus ire pedemque advertere ripae, 
Sic prior adgreditur dictis, atque increpat ultro : 
. '^Quis^is es, armatus qui noetra ad ilumina tendis, 
Fare age, qu id venias ; jam istinc et comprime gressum. 
Umbrarum bic Jocus est, Somni Noctisque soporae ^ 390 
Corpora viva nefas Stygia vectare carina. 
Nec vero Alciden me sum laetatus euntem 
Accepisse lacu, nec Tbesea Piritboumque, 
Dis quamqnam geniti atque invicti viribus essent. 
Tartareum iile manu custodem in vincla petivit^ 395 
Ipsius a solio regis, traxitque trementem ; 
Ui dominam Ditis tbalamo deducere adorti.' 
Quae contra breviter fata est Ampbrysia vates: 
'Nullae bio insidiae tales; absiste mdveri; 
Nec vim tela ferunt ; licet ingens janitor antro 400 

Aetemum latrans exsanguis terreat umbras, 
Casta licet patrui servet Proserpina limen. 
TroXus Aeneas, pietate insignis et armis, 
Ad genitorem imas Erebi descendit ad umbras. 
Si te nulia movet tantae pietatis imago, 405 

At ramum hunc' — aperit ramum, qui veste latebat — 
' Agnoscas.' Tumida ex iiu tum corda residunt. 
Nec plura iiis. Ule admirans venerabile donum 

384. Ergo, having thus satisfied Palinurus. — 385. Jam inde, ui, 
ab, all express the instantaneous attempt of Charon to stop them. 
On the instant that he saw them ijam ut) from the place waere he 
was (inde), from the stream in which he was sailing in his boat (ab 
uitda). -* 389. Jam istinc, &>c, Charon orders them to stop on the 
instant ijam), and from the place where they stood {istinc), not to 
8tir a step. Compare utinc of the second person with inde (385) of 
the thira. 392. Jiciden, a patronymic ot Hercules, derived from 
his grandfather Alcaens. His dragging Cerberus from Hades was 
his twelfth labour (395, 396). 393. l^es eus, aon of Aegeus, and 
mjthic legislator of Atbens, was the bosom friend ofPirithous, one 
of the Lapithae, wbom he assisted in his mad attempt to carry off 
Proeerpine. See 397, 601, 618. — 394. Essent indicates the know- 
ledge of Charon. Theseus was descended from Neptune, Hercules 
aaa Firithous from Jupiter.— 398. Apollo, banished from heaven, 
aed a shepherd, fed his fiocks on the banks of the Amphrysus, a 
Tfaeesalian river; hence the Sibyrs name here. — 400. Licet ut 
tgrreiH. See Zumpt, % 624. — 401. Aeternum, Used as an adverb. 
See 617, and at v. 19. — 402. Patrui. Proserpine*s father was Jupi- 
ter, the brother of Dis. — 403. Pietate. See p. 204, line 9, and at 
i. 378. — 4P8, lUe, from its antithetic force, leads to the conclusio» 

272 AElfEI^OS. 

Fatalis virgae, longo post tempore tisori, 

Caeruleam advertit pappim, ripaeque propinqoat. * 410 

Inde alias animas, auae per juga longa sedeMiiti 

Deturbat, laxatqne fbros; simul accipit alveo 

Ingentem Aenean. Gemuit sub pondere cymba 

Sutilid, et multam accepit rimosa palndem. 

Tandem trans fluvium incolumis vatemque vinunqnB 415 

Informi limo glaucaque exponit in nlva. 

Cerberus haec ingens latratu regna trifauoi 
Personat, adverso recubans immanis in antro. 
Cui vates, horrere videns jam colla colubris, 
Melle soporatam et medicatis frugibos offam 420 

Objicit. nie fame rabida tria guttura pandens 
Corripit objectam, atque immania terga resohrit 
Fusns humi, totoque ingens extenditur antro. 
Occupat Aeneas aditum custode sepnlto, 
Evaditque celer, ripam irremeabilis undae. 425 

Continuo auditae voces, vagitus et ingens, 
Infantumque animae flentes in limine prim4 
Quos dulcis vitae exsortis et ab ubere raptos 
Abstuiit atra dies et funere mersit aoerbo. 
Hos juxta falso damnati orimine mortis. 430 

. Nec vero hae sine sorte datae, sine jodiee, sedes: 
Quaesitor Minos urnam movet ; ille silentnm 
Conciliumque vocat, vitasque et crimina discit. 
Proxima deinde tenent moesti loca, qut sibi letom 
Insontes peperere manu, lucemque perosi 435 

Projecere animas. Quam vellent aethere in alto 
Nunc et pauperiem et duros perferre labores ! - 
Fas obstat, tristique palus inamabilis unda 
AUigat, et novies Styx interfusa coercet. 
Nec procul hinc partem fusi monstrantur in omaem 440 
Lugentes campi ; sio illos nomine dicunt. 
Hic, quos durus amor crudeli tabe peredit, 

that nec plura (dixit) refers to the Sibyl. — 409. FakUiM, See at ii«. 
165. — 412. ^veo, two syllables. — 417. Cerberus is represented «i 
having three heads, and serpents instead of hair on his neck.^425. 
J^vadere ripam, a poetical construction, ' to pass over, and leave the 
bank.' See at iv. 256. — 426. VoeeSj vagitut, wckd animae JtaUeWf 
all belong to infantum. — 429. Atra dies, mors. — 431, &c. Virgii 
here follows the model of the Roman tribunals. Minoe, son of Jupir 
ter and Earopa, famed for his justice, sits as the Roraan praetor 
(i. 73); or his deleeate, investigatins a crime {quaesitin'), He takee 
out of the um, by lot, the names ofthe judices selecti, or jurjrmeiiy 
who are to assist him, and he summons the shades to jndgment. 
Theae three lines are evidently meant to apply to all the ckMes of 
•hades mentioned. — 438. Sfee Georg, iv. 479, and at 285. 

LIBU Tk 279. 

Secroti celant ealles et niyrtea ciroam 

Silva tegit ; curae non ipsa in morte reiinquunt. 

His Phaedram Procriiique Jocis, moestamque Eri- 

phylen, 445 

Crudelis nati monstrantem vulnera, cerBit, 
£?adnenque et Pasiphaen ; his Laodamia 
It comes, et juvenis quondam, nunc femina, Caeneus, 
Rursus et in veterem fato revoluta figuram, 
Inter quas Phoenissa recens a vulnere Dido 450 

Errabat silva in magna ; quam Troius heros 
Ut primum juxta stetit agnovitque per umbram 
Obscuram—qualem primo qui surgere mense 
Aut yidet, aut vidisse putat per nubila Lunam -<- 
Demisit lacrimas, dulcique adfatus amore est : 455 

^ Infelix Dido, verus mihi nuntius ergo 
Venerat exstinctam, ferroque extrema secutam ? 
Funeris heu tibi caussa fui? Per sidera juro, 
Per superos et si qua fides tellure sub ima est, 
Invitus, regina, tuo de litore cessi. 460 

Sed me jussa deum, quae nunc has ire per umbras, 
Per loca senta situ cogunt noctemque profundam, 

443. Myrteay because the myrtle was sacred to Venus, See EcU 

tii. 62. — 444, &c. Among unhappy lovers, we have Phaedrat wife 

of l^heseus, who died by her own nand for the love of her stepson, 

Hippolytus (see at vii. 765); Procri», unwittingly slain by her hus- 

band, Cephalus, king of Phocis, whom, frora jealousy, she followed 

when be went to hunt. Rustling among the bushes, she was rais- 

taken by hira for a wild beast ; Bvadne, wife of Capaneus, kinff of 

Argos, who threw herself on the funeral pile of her husband, slain 

in the Theban war ; and DidOf from Sidon in Fhoenicia, who, ac-* 

cording to Virgil (i. iv.) — ^for others place her era long after that of 

Aeneas — loved Aeneas, and slew herself when he left Carthage, 

crf^which she was the queen. Others are raentioned, unhappv, but 

not directly frora love — Enphyle^ who, having treacherously, for 

a necklace, betrayed the lurkmg-place of her husband, Araphiaraos 

o€ Argos, 80 that he was forced to go to the Theban war, where he 

knew that he should be slain, was killed by her son Alcmaeon (natt), 

when he heard of his father's death ; Caenis (which some read hereX, 

beloved by Neptune, and changed by him, first into a young raan, 

Caeneus (Juvenis Caetieus), in the nether world again into a woraan; 

and Sichaeuiy the husband of Dido. See i. 343, &c. — 450. Recens a, 

*immediately after.' Vulnere. See iv. 663, &c. — 451. Quamt 

governed by juxta. — 453. Obscuram raay qualify umbram, but it 

aeeme better, taking into account the beautilul coraparison of Dido 

with the new raoon, to conjoin it with quam. — 454. Vidisse se 

putat. Seo at iv. 306, 382. — 459. Per superos et fidem. See at ii, 

143. — 462. The etymology ofsentu» (sentis) and situs (sino) leads to 

tt knowledge of the force of this expression— which squaiid neglect 

mnd desolation have crowded with painftil obstacles. 

5^4 ' ASKETDOS/ 

Imperiis egere puis; nec credere quiri 
Hunc tantum tibi me discessu ferre dolorem. 
Siste gradum, teque aspectu ne subtrahe nostro. 465 

Quem fugis? extremum fato, quod te adloquor, hoc est.' 
Talibus Aeneas artfentem et torva tuentem 
Lenibat dictis animum, lacrimasqne ciebat. ' 

Illa solo fixos oculos aversa tenebat, 
Nec magis incepto vultum sermone movetnr, 470 

Quam 81 dura silex aut stet Marpesia cantes. 
Tandem corripuit sese, atqne inimica refugit 
In nemus umbriferum, conjunx ubi pristinus ilH 
Respdndet cnris aequatque Sychaeus amorem. 
Nec minns Aeneas, casu percussus iniquo, 475 

Prosequitur lacrimans longe, et miseratur euntem. 
Inde datum molitur iter. Jamque arva tenebant 
Ultima, quae bello clari secreta frequentant. 
Hic illi occurrit Tydeus, hic inclutns^rmis 
Parthenopaeus et Adrasti pallentis imago ; 480 

Hic multum fleti ad superos belloque caduci 
Dardanidae, quos ille omnis longo ordine cernens 
Ingemuit, Glaucumque Medontaque Tbersilochumque, 
Tris Antenoridas, Cererique sacrum Polyphoeten, 
Idaeumque, etiam currus, etiam arma tenentem. 48& 
Circumstant animae dextra laevaque frequentes. 
Nec vidisse semel satis est ; juvat usque morari, 
£t conferre gradum, et veniendi discere caussas. 
At Danaiim proceres Agamemnoniaeque phalanges, 
Ut videre virum fulgentiaque arma per umbras, 490 

465. A$pectu; the dative. See at Ed. v. 29. — 467. Torva, used 
adverbially. See v. 19. Tueniem can hardly qualify animum^ which 
may be the accusative of limitation, «or^ ^^ov. — 468. Observe the 
force of the imperfect lenibat (leniebat), as mdicating an unfinished 
act — an attempt. Lacrimas suas. — 470, Movetur vultum, Tho 
accusative of hmitation. See at iv. 558. — 471. Marpessun waa a 
mountain in Paroa (i. 593), whence was dug the famous marble. — 
473. Botb the Greeks and the Latins, especiallv in poetry, use th* 
dative when we should expect the genitive, the dathre then em* 
phatically indicating the iinal object to which the compound idea 
conveyea by the verb and the immediate object tends. Here the 
sjrmpathy in cares {respondet curis) is directed iinally and emphati- 
cally to Dido (illt). See also v. 172. —479, &c. Of Greeks, he 
meets Tydeust father of Diomede, Parthenopaeus and Adrastus, 
both famed in the Theban war ; of Trojans {JJardanidae ; see 685), 
a number of individuals, of no great note, mentioned by Homer. 
All these, even the Greeks first mentioned, welcomed him (ficcurrit^ 
r 11 * ^*?"]'*!^ does not imply flight), but the later Greeks who haa 
ioUowed Agamenmon quaied when they saw him. 


UBEB VI. ^7§ 

Ingeoi^trepiclare metu ; pars vertere terg9; 
Ceu quondam peliere rates; pars tollere vocem. 
Exiguam : inceptus clamor frustratur hiantis. 
Atque hic Priamiden laniatum corpore toto 
Deipnobum videt et lacerum crudeliter ora, 499 

Ora manusque ambas, populataque tempora raptis 
Auribus^ et truncas inhonesto vulnere naris. 
• Vix adeo agnovit pavitantem el dira tegentem 
Supplicia, et notis compellat vocibus ultro : 
'Deiphobe armipotens, genus aho a sanguine Teucri, 500 
Quis tam crudelis optavit sumere poeuas ? 
Cui tan^^m de te licuit ? Mihi fama suprema 
Nocte tulil fessum vasta te caede Pelasgum 
Procubuisse super confusae stragis acervum. 
Tunc egomet tumulum Hhoeteo in litore inanem 505 
Constitui, et magna Manis ter voce vocavi. 
Nomen et arma locum servant ; te, amice, nequivi 
Conspicere et patria decedens ponere terra.' 
Ad quae Priamides: 'Nihil o tibi amice relictum; 
Omnia Deiphobo solvisti et funeris umbris. 510 

Sed me fata mea et scelus exitiale Lacaenae . 

His mersere malis ; illa haec monumenta reliquit. 
Namque ut supremam falsa inter gaudia noctem 
£gerimus, nosti ; et nimiurn meminisse necesse est. 
Cum fatalis equus saltu super ardua venit 515 

Pergama et armatum peditem gravis attulit alvo, 
Illja, chorum simulans, evantis orgia circnm 
* ■ ■ ■ ■■ 

491. Trepidare. The historical infinitive. — 492. Cctt, &c., allud- 
iDg to incidents in the Trojan war, as narraied by Homer. — 495, 
Deipkobum. See ii. 310. JLacerum ora. The accusative of limita- 
tion. — 498. Adeo. See iv. 533. So maimed was he, that it was 
wilh difficulty that Aeneas recognised him. — 500. Genus^ &c. 
See at 685, and iv. 12. — 505. Ehoeteo. See at v. 646. Tumulum 
inanem. To satiafy the belief embodied 325-328, it was customary 
Xo erect to the dead, whose bodies could not be found, ' an empty 
tomb,' or cenotaph («vJj, rd^os). — 506. Vocavi. See at i. 219. — 
507. Nomen, Slc. See 233, occ. Te, unelided and short, after the 
Greek usage. — 509. For the construction, tibi for a te, see Zumpt» 
% 419.-511. Lacaenae, Helen (ii. 577), who, according to some tra- 
ditions, was marned to Deiphobus, after ihe death of Paris. It 
mnst be noticed that Virgil has followed difTerent iraditions here, 
and in ii. 566, &c. — 513, &.c. For the events ailuded tb here, see 

pnests . 

orgia — a Greek construction — to celebrate with such shouts the 

dtes of Bacchus. 


Ducebat I^rygias ] flammam media ipsa tenebat 

Ingentem, et summa Danaos ex arce vocabat. 

Tum me. confectum curis somnoque gravatum, 520 

Infeiix habuit thalamus, pressitque jacentem 

Dulcis et alta quies placidaeque simillima morti. 

Egregia interea conjunx arma omnia tectis 

Amovet, et fidum capiti subduxerat ensem ; 

Intra tecta vocat Meneiaum, et limina pandit, 525 

Scilicet id magnum sperans fore munus amanti, 

^ £t famam exstingui veterum sic posse malorum. 

Quid morof ? iriumpunt thalamo ; comes additur ona 
^ Hortator scelerum Aeolides. Di, talia Graiis 

Instanrate, pio si poenas ore reposco. 530 

Sed te qui vivum casus, age fare vicissim, 

Attulerint. Pelagine venis erroribus actus, 

An monitu divom? an quae te Fortuna fatigat, 

Ut tristis sine sole domos, loca turbida, adiresV 

Hac vice scrmonum roseis Aurora quadrigis 535 

Jani medium aetherio cursu trajecerat axem ; 

£t fors omne datum traherent per talia tempus; 

• Sed comes admonuit breviterque affata Sibylla est: 
'Nox ruit, Aenea; nos ilendo ducimus horas. 
Hic locus est, partis ubi se via findit iu ambas : 540 

Dextera quae Ditis magni sub moenia tendit; 
Hac iter Elysium nobis j at laeva malorum 
£xercet poenas, et ad impia Tartara mittit.' 
Deiphobus contra : *Ne saevi. magna sacerdos; 
Discedam, explet)o numerum, reddarque tenebris. 545 
I decus, i, nostrum ; melioribus utere fatrs.' 
Tantum effatus, et in verbo vestigla torsit. 

Respicit Aeneas subito, et sub rupe sinistra 
Moeuia lata videt, triplici circumdata muro, 
Quae rapidus flammis ambit torrentibus amnis, 550 

Tartareus Phlegethon, torquetque sonantia saxa. 

Porta adversa, ingens, solidoque adamante columnae, 
* ■ ■ ■ ■ 

523. Egregia ; ironical. See vii. 556. — 524. See at 174. — 529 
Aeolides, a contemptuous term for Ulysses, who was said to be the 
Bon of the robber Sisyphus, the son of Aeolus, the mythic founder 
of the Aeolian race. — 535. Aeneas had begun his sacrifices at nigfat 
(252), and entered the approach to Hades about dawn (255). It was 
now past mid-day, Aurora here being identical with Sol. — 537. 
Traherenf, * they would continue to spend.' See at 34. — 539. 
i?Mt<, approperat. — 541. Dex/era hic est. Ditis. See at iv. 701.— 
542, 543. Elysium, Tartara. See at v. 733. Laeva pars (viae) ex* 
ercet poenas ; ducit ubi poenae exercentur. — 545. Expldto nuTne* 
iwn, umbrarum (luas religui.7-551. Phlegethon. See at 295.— 55» 
K^e Milton 8 imitation of this passage, iPar. Lost, u. 643, &c. 

xiBSii VI. f77 

Vit ut nulla virum, non ip«i exscindere ferro 

Coeliooiae valeant; stat terrea turris ad auras, 

Tisiphoneque sedens, palla succincta cruenta, 555 

Yestibulum exsomnis servat noctesque diesque. 

Hinc exaudiri gemitus, et saeva sonare 

Yerbera ; tnm strkior jferri, tractaeque catenae. 

Constitit AeneaS; strepituque exterritus haesit. 

^Quae scelerum facies? o virgo, efiare; quibusve 560 

Urguentnr poenis? quis tantus plangor ad aurasi' 

Tum vates sio orsa loqui : ' Dux inclute Teucrum, 

NuUi fas casto sceleratum insistere limen ; 

Sed me cum lucis Hecate praefecit Avernis, 

Ipsa deum poenas docait, perque omnia duxit. 565 

Gnosius haec Rhadamanthus habet, durissima regna, 

Castigatque auditque dolos, subigitque fateri, 

Quae quis apud superos. furto laetatus inani, 

DistuUt in seram commissa piacula mortem. 

Continuo sontis ultrix accincta flagello 570 

Tisiphone quatit insultans, torvosque sinistra 

Intentans anguis vooat agmina saeva sorornm. 

Tnm demum horrisono stridentes cardine sacrae 

PandUntur portae. Cernis custodia quaiis 

Vestibulo sedeat ? facies q[uae limina servet ? 575 

Quinquaginta atris immanis hiatibus Hydra 

Saevior intus habet sedem. Tum Tartarus ipee 

555. Tisiphone {riut, <p6vos), one of the Furies (see at iii. 331), 
whom Virgii makes to be three in number (zii. 845). The others 
are Alecto {aXtjKti), vii. 341, and Megaera (ftc^a/^), zii. 846. See at 
280. — 557. Exaudiri. The historical innnitive. -^ 561. Flangor 
surgit. — 563. Fas e8t.--566. Gnosius. See p. 179, line 24. ma» 
damanihuB was the brother of Minos, mentioned 14, 432. Virgil as- 
^igns him the office, not of jadging, but of punishing (cattigat) 
known crimes, and by torture, forcing them to confess secret of- 
fences (audit^ue, &c.). In another passage (viii. 670), he represents 
Cato as presiding over the pious. Other traditions add Aeacus to 
the number of judges. — 569. Fiacula^ scelera per poenas ezpianda. 
» 570. Sontis quatit^ a singular expression for quatiendo flagellum, 
castigat. — 572. Sororum. See at 555. Agmina would seeni to in» 
fer bands of assistant executioners. — 573. Tum demum. When 
copfession of their guilt is tortured out of them by Rhadamanthus, 
and they have been scourged by Tisiphone, the ^ates of hell fly 
open to receive them to the place of wo. The line is desisnedly 
harsh. For an imitation, see Milton^s Far. Logt^ ii. 879, &C. — • 
574. The Sibyl tella Aeneas that dreadfiil as is the appearance of 
Tisiphone outside thedoor, siill more appalling is the Hydra within. 
This must be another water-dragon than the one mentioned 287.-— 
577. The place of punishment sinks beneath twice as much as Um 
hcaven rises above the earth. For Olyn^m, see at EeL v. 56. 


Biii patet in praeoeps tantmn tenditqae sab urabrai^ 

Quantus ad aetherium coeli suspectus Olympum. 

Hic genus antiquum Torrne, Titania pubes, 580 

Fulmine deieoti fundo vuivnntur in imo. 

Hic et Aloidas geminos immauia vidi 

Corpora, qui manibus magnum rescindere ooelum 

Aggressi, superisque Jovem detrudere regnis. 

Vidi et crudelis dantem Salmonea poenas, 585 

Dum flammas Jovis et sonitus imitatur Olympi. 

Quatuor hic invectus equis et lampada quassans 

Per Graium populos mediaeque per £iidis urbem 

Ibat oyans, divomque sibi poscebat honorem ; 

Demens! qui nimboset non mitabiie fu]men 590 

Aere et cornipmlum pulsu simularet equorum. 

At pater omnipotens densa inter nubila telum 

Contorsit — non ille faces nec fumea taedis 

Lumina — praecipitemque immani turbine adegit. 

Nec non et Tityon, Terrae omniparentis alumnum, 595 

Cernere erat, per tota novem cui iugera corpus 

Porrigitur ; rostroque immanis yuliur obunco, 

Immortale jecur tondens fecuhdaque poenis 

Viscera, rimatnrque epulis habitatque sub alto 

Pectore, nec fibris requies datur ulla renatis. 600 

Quid memorem Lapithas, Ixiona Pirithoumque, 

580. Titania mtbes, Sons of Coelus and Terra, who first de 
tbroned their fatner, and were themseives driven into Tartaros by 
Jupiter, who waa descended from them. — 581. Dejectij plur. maa., 
reierringto genus as a collective noun. See 660* v. 108, and Zumpt, 
$366. Vejecla would be inadmissible. Where the adjective takes 
the number, it also takes the gender of the sense. See a singular 
exception, vii. 624. — 582. Aloidas, Otus and Ephialtes, eona of 
Iphimedeia, who was married to Aloeus. Of gi^antic size and 
strength, they waged war on the gods, but were siam by Apollo. — - 
585. SalmoneuB was another son of Aeolus (529), consigned to piin* 
isbment while engaged in the very act of imitating (dum) the light- 
nings and tbunders of Jupifer. — 588. Mediae Elidis urbem ; proba- 
bly Salmone, near the Alpheus, said here to be in tbe middle of 
Elis^ the north-western district of the Peloponnesus. — 591. Qut 
$imutaret ; the subjunctive marks the reason why he was to be re- 
garded as dement. Others read simularat. — 595. Tityon^ who had 
ofiered violence to Latona, and was slain by the arrows of her chil- 
dren. —596. jBrat, *it waspermitted me.* See Zumpt, $227. Cni, 
nearly equivalent to cujus. See at473. — 597. His punishment con- 
eisted in the gnawings of a vulture — his liver and entrails producing 
damty food (^epulis dat) and a never-failing agony, as they were ever 
reprodoced and devoured. — 601. The Lapithae were a people in tha 
mountams of Thessaly, governed by Pirithous (see at 393), son of 
ihat Ixion who had grievously insulted Juno. See at 286- The 


Qqos Boper atra tWex jam jam lapsnra cadenf ique 
Imminet as&imilis? Lacent genialibas altis 
Aurea fulcra toris, epnlaeque ante ora paratae 
Regifico luxu ; Fnriarum maxima juxta 605 

Accubat, et manibus prohibet contingere mensas, 
ExBurgitque facem attollens, atque intonat ore. 
HiC; quibns invisi fratres, dum vita manebat, 
Pulsatusve parens, et fraus innexa clienti, 
Aut qui divitiis soli incubuere repertis, 610 

Nec partem posuere suis, quae maxima turba est, 
Quique ob adulterium caesi, quique arma secuti 
Impia nec veriti dominorum fallere dextras, 
Inclusi poenam exspectant. Ne quaere doceri, 
Quam poenam, aut quae forma viros fortunave meisit 615 
Saxum ingens volvunt alii, radiisque rotarum 
Districti pendent ; sedet, aeternumque sedebit, 
Infelix Theseus; Phlegyasque miserrimus omnis 
Admonet et magna testatur voce per umbras : 
** Discite justitiam moniti, et non temnere divos." 620 
Vendidit hic auro patriam, dominumque potentem 
Imposuit ; fixit leges pretio atque refixit ; 
Hic thalamum invasit natae vetitosque hymenaeos; 
Ausi omnes immane nefas, ausoque potiti. 
Non, mihi si linguae centum sint oraque centum, 625 
Ferrea vox, omnis scelerum comprenaere formas, 
Omnia poenarum percurrere nomina possim.' 
Haec ubi dicta dedit Phoebi longaeva sacerdos : 

panishment inflicted upon Ixion is variously told by Virgil. ^ See 
Georg. iii. 38, and iv. 484. — 602. Cadentique, -e elided before immu 
net. — 603. Ijucenty &.C., maj be connected, as part of the punish- 
ment of the Lapithae ; but it seems better to regard it as a new 
statement, referring generally to other criminals, such as Tantalus. 
—609. ClieiUi. See at i. 73. This passage of Virgil affords a strong 

Goof of the estimation which the Romans bad of the corfAectiofi 
ttween patron and client. — 613. Dominorum leads us to infer that 
Virgil here alludes to slaves that have betrayed their masters. Der* 
trasj fldem quara data dextra indicabat. — 614. Exspectant. This 
does not seem to impi^ another trial to fix their doom, but the ag- 
gravated form of punishment ever looked for. Hence in the next 
clause, quam expectant ;>o«nam. — 615. From 626, scelerum formag, 
we may infer here xhaiformafortunave refers to the species of crime 
that each one had by his fortune been led to commit. — 617. Aeter" 
num, Seeat401. — 618. Theseus. See at 393. Phlegyas,^ king 
af the Lapithae, father of fxion, who burned down the temple of 
Apollo. — 622. Figereiind refigere refer to the Roman practice of 
iSsistening on the walls the laws, engraved on brazen tablets ; henc« 
to make and unmake.— 625. See the same words, Georg.u.42. 
For the force <^ the present sabjsnctive, see at v. 325. 


'Sed jam age^ carpe ▼iam et suseeptmn perfiee mnmis ; 
Accelererous,' ait ; ' Cyclopum edueta camtnis 630 

Moenia conspicio atque adverao fomice portas, 
Haec ubi nos praecepta jubent deponere dona.' 
Dixerat, et pariter gressi per opaca viarum ' 
Corripiunt c^tium medium, foribusque propinqnant. 
Occupat Aeneas aditum, corpusque recenti 635 

Spargit aqua, ramumque adverso in limine figit. 

His demum exactis, perfecto munere divae, 
Devenere locos Jaetos et amoena vireta 
Fortqnatorum nemorum sedesque beatas. 
Largior hic campos aether et lumine vestit 640 

Purpureo, solemque suum, sua sidera norunt. 
Pfeirs in gramineis exercent membra palaestris, 
Contendunt ludo et fulva luctantur arena ; 
Pbrs pedibus plaudunt choreas et carmina dicnnt. 
Nec non Threicius longa cum veste sacerdos 645 

Obloqnitur numeris septem discrimina vocum, ^ 
Jamque eadem digitis, jam pectine pulsat ebumo. 
Hic geuus antiquum Teucri, pulcherrima proles, 
Magnanimi heroes, nati melioribns annis, 
Ilusque Asittracusqne et Trojae Dardanus anctor. 650 
Arma procui currusque virum miratur inanis. 
Stant terra defixae hastae, passimque soluti 
Per campum pascuntur equi. Quae gratia curmm 
Armorumque fuit vivis, quae cura nitentis 
Pascere equos, eadem seqnitur tellure repostos. 655 

Conspicit, eccej alios dextra laevaque per herbam 
Vescentis laetumque choro Paeana canentis 
Inter odoratum lauri nemus, unde superne 
Plurimus Eridani per silvam volvitur amnis. 

» ■ I I I ... I m—^m^ 

629. From 637, it would seem that munug refers to the golden 
branch, were it not for susceptum, which appears to give it a refer- 
ence to the whole task undertaken by Aeneas, of which the offering 
of the branch was but a part. — 630. Cyclopttm. See at iii. 616.— 
636. Spargit aqua, See ii. 719, &c. — 638. Devenere locos. See at 
i. 365. — ^O. Aetker by the arsis. — 641. Purpureo. See at Ecl. ix« 
40. — 645. ThreiciuB sacerdos, Orpheus. — 648. Teucri, &c. The 
Trqjan line ran thus : — Teucrus cives his daughter to DanUtnut {hi. 
167), whose grandson is Tros. jut», wbence sprung Laomedon an^ 
Priam, Trojan kings, and Aasaracu», whence sprung Anchises and 
Aeneaa, were sons of Tros. — 651. Inania, unsubstantial, as in the 
land of shadows. — 652. The ancient spears had at the reverse end 
a spike, by which they could fix the spear in the ground. See xii. 
idu — 653. Pascuntur. See at ii. 471. Quae gratia. See at i. 673. 
r;!^rr*!!u- t5V'^«'» — 659. Eridani, the Greek name of an Italiaa 
river, which the Romans identified with their Padus, the Fo. Il ia 


Hic manus ob patriam pugnande vtilnera passi, 660 

Quique sacerdotes casti, dum vita manelMit, 

Quique pii vates et Phoebo digna locuti, 

Inventas aut qui vitam excoluere per artis, 

Quique sui memores alios fecere merendo ; 

Omnibns his nivea clnguntur tempora vitta. 665 

Quos circumfusos sic est afiata Sibylla, 

Musaeum ante omnis; medium nam plurima turba 

Hunc habet, atque humeris exstantem suspicit altis: 

'Dicite, felices animae, tuque. optime vates, 

Quae regio Anchisen, quis haoet locus'^ illius ei^ 670 

VehimuS; et magnos Erebi tranavimus amnis.' 

Atque huic responsam paucis ita reddidit heros: 

'NuIIi certa domus; lucis habitamus opacis, 

Riparumque toros et prata recentia rivis 

Incolimus. Sed vos, si fert ita corde voluntas, 675 

Hoc superate jugum; et facili jam tramite sistam.' 

Dixit, et ante tulit gressum, camposque nitentis 

Desuper ostentat ; dehinc summa cacumina iinquunt. 

At pater Anchises penitus convalle virenti 
Inclusas animas superumque ad lumen ituras 680 

Lustrabat studio recolens, omnemque suornm 
Forte recensebat numerum carosque nepotes, 
Fataque fortunasque virum moresque manusque. 
Isque ubi tendentem adversum per gramina vidit 
Aenean, alacris palmas utrasque tetendit, 685 

Effusaeque genis lacrimae, et vox excidit ore : 
' Yenisti tandem, tuaque exspectata parenti 

not clear whence Virgil derived the notion of its flowin^ through Eljr- 

siuni, except that it is said that immediately after nsing, it has a 

subterraneous passage for about two miles. See Georg. iv. 366, &c. 

— where all the rivers of earth are said to rise in the nether world; 

-—660. Manu9 pagsi. See at 681. — 667. Musaeum, a poet of my- 

thic celebrity, who was famed especially for his writings in connec- 

tion with tbe Eleusinian rites. — 668. Humerisy the ablative of 

excess ; hence the crowd * looks up to him* (suspicit). — 670. For 

this use of ergo (HpYV) whh the genitive, in the sense of causa, see 

Zampt, ^ 679.— -675. Fert vos. — 678. Dehinc. See at i. 131, and 

. contrast with iii. 464, v. 722, &.c. — 679, &c. In the whole of the 

eelebrated passage that follows, Virgil embodies the notions of tho 

philosophic sects, principally those of Pythagoras and Plato, which 

maintained the doctrine of the metempsychosis — ^^that the souls of 

the dead pass again into other bodies. Anchises is represented as 

holding a sort oTcensus of his own race. — 682. Forte qualifies Z«#* 

trabat as well as recensebat. The fortuitousness lay in the coinci» 

dence of the visit of Aeneas at this time — * it chanced that.* — 683. 

Manug, facta per manus. — 687. Exspectata parentt^ for a parento. 

See Zumpt, ^ 419. 

24* y 


Yicit iter dnrom pietul datur ora toari^ 

Nate, tua, et not&s audire et reddere Tooes ? 

Sic equidem ducebam animo rebarque futurom, 690 

Tempora dinumerane, nec me mea cura fefellit. 

Quas ego te terras et quanta per aequora veetum 

Accipio ! quantis jaotatum, nate, periclis ! 

Quam metui, ne quid Libyae tibi regna nocerent f 

lUe autem : ' Tua me, genitor, tua tristis imago, 695 

Saepius occurrens, haec limina tendere adegit ; 

Stant sale Tyrrheno cJasses. Da jnngere dextrai% 

Ba, genitor, teane amplexu ne subtrahe nostro.' 

Sic memoraos largo fletu simul ora rigabat. 

Ter conatus ibi coilo dare brachia circum, 700 

Ter frustra comprensa manus effugit imago, 

Par levibus ventis volucrique simillima somno. 

Interea videt Aeneas in valle reducta 
Seclusum nemus et virgulta sonantia silvis, 
Lethaeomquep domos placidas qui praenatat, amnem. 705 
Hunc circum mnumerae gentes populique volabant; 
Ac, velut in pratis ubi apes aestate serena 
Floribus insidunt variis, et candida circum 
Lilia funduntur; strepit omnis murmure campus. 
Horrescit visu subito caussasque requirit 710 

Inscius AeneaS; quae sint ea flumina porro, 
Quive viri tanto complerint agmine ripas. 
Tum pater Anchises : ^ Animae, quibus altera £ato 
Corpora debentur, Lethaei ad fluminis undam 
Securos latices et longa oblivia potant. 715 

Has equidem memorare tibi atque ostendere coram, 

690, and 695. See v. 731, &.c. — 692. Terras, governed by 
per, borrowed from per aequora. — 694. Libyae. See at iv. 320. 
The allusion here is to tne resideoce of Aeneas in Cartbage, 
detailed in the first, and especially the fourth book. — 697. Sale^ 
mari. Tyrrhenum (from the Tyrrheni, a Pelasf^ian race, wkom. 
the earhr Greeka considered as the inhabitants of the whole west 
coast of Italy, afterwards confined to Etruria, north of the Tiber) 
was also called Etruscumt and Jnferum mare. — 698. Amplexu ; 
dative. See at Ecl. v. 29. —702. See u. 794. — 704. Savis 
seems to eive the cause of the rustling sonnd. The bushea 
were so plentifiil, that as in woods, the wiud sighed audib^y 
through them. See iii. 442, xii. 522. — 705. Lethaeum. See at 
S95.— 706. In Kgens there may be m&ny populi. — 709. Murmure^ 
with the buzz oi the shades. — 711. Rogans (involved in requtritl 
porro quae. Or porro may refer to the eztended course of tho 
river. — 714. Ad undam refers to their position on the bank of tho 
river. — 715. Latices. See at i. 686. Securoi, a well-known figur« 
for $eeuro» reddentes. 


Jampridem hano prolem ciipio eQuiaerare meorum, 
Quo magis Italia mecum laetere reperta.' 
^O pater, anne aliquas ad coelum hitic ire putandum est 
Sublimis animas, iterumque ad tarda reverti 720 

Corpora % quae lucis miseris tam dira cupido?' 
'Dicam equidem, nec te suspensum, nate, tenebo;' 
Susciplt Ajichises, atque ordine singula pandit. 

'Principio coelum ac terras camposque liquentis 
Lucentemque globum Lunae Titaniaque astra 725 

Spiritus intus alit, totamqne infusa per artus 
Mens agitat molem et magno se corpore misoet. 
Inde hominum pecudumque genus vitaeque volantum 
£t quae marmoreo fert monstra sub aequore pontus. 
Igneus est oUis vigor et coelestis origo 730 

Seminibus, quantum non noxia corpora tardant 
Terrenique nebetant artus moribundaque membra. 
Hinc metuunt cupiuntque, dolent gaudentque, neque anras 
Dispiclunt clausae tenebris et carcere caeco. 
Quin et supremo cum lumine vita reliquit, 735 

Non tamen omne malum miseris nec iunditus omnes 
Corporeae excedunt pestes^ penitusque necesse est 
Multa diu concreta modis molescere miris. 
£rgo exercentur poenis, veterumque malorum 
Supplicia expendunt : aliae panduntur inanis 740 

Suspensae ad ventos ; aliis sub gurgite vasto 
Infectum eluitur scelus, aut exuritur igni. 
Quisque suos patimur Manis; exinde per amplum 

717. Jampridem cupio influences both lines, and the repetition, 
hanc, is equivalent tp et. — 719. Ire sublimis, ascendere. Coelum . 
means simply the upj^r world. — 724, &c. See at 679. The 
gpiritus, principle of life (^vjfri), and mens of intelligence (voS$), 
tosether constituting the anima mundi, are the eource of life 
nJM. activity. — 725. Titania astra, the sun and other heavenly 
bodies. See at iv. 119. — 728. Jnde, &c. From the spiritus 
and mens proceed the principles of life and activity of animals; 
730. OUis (see at i. 254) seminibus, referring to these principles. 
.^731. These principies manifest their heavenly source, so far as 
they axe not impeded by corporeal bodies injuring their efficacy 
inoxid), — 733. Hinc, From their connection with body. Nequt 
dispiciuntf their clear view is impeded, because clausae in the 
prison-house of the body. — 734. Clausae animae. — 735. Even 
after death, the soul is not wholly freed from the base passions 
which the contact of earthiy bodies produces. — 739. As in thc 
ritee of purificalion preparatory to admission into the sacred mys- 
teries» eo souls are represented as undergoing various modes of 
porification by air, water, and fire. — 743, &c. As these lines 
stand, the meaning seems to be, that even after this purification, 
a long residence in Elysium is required whoUy to cleanae tne 

284 ABKEIX^. 

Miftimor Elystam — et panci keta arva tenemns^ 
Donec longa dies^ perfecto temporis orbe, 745 

Concretam exemit labem, puromque reltnqait 
Aetherium sensum atque aural simplicis ignem. 
Has omnis, ubi mille rotam volvere per annos, 
Lethaeum ad fluvium deus evocat agmine magno, 
Scilicet immemores supera ut convexa revisant, 750 

Rursus et incipiant in corpora velle reverti.' 

Dixerat Anchises, natumque unaque Sibyllam 
Conventus trahit in medios turbamque sonantem, 
£t tumulum capit, unde omnis longo ordine posset 
Adversos legere, et venientum discere yuitus. 755 

'Nunc age, Dardaniam prolem quae deinde sequatur 
Gloria, qui maneant Itala ue gente uepotes, 
Illustris animas nostrumque in nomen ituras, 
Expediam dictis, et te tua fata docebo. 
Ille — videsl — pura juvenis qui nititur hasta, 760 

Proxima sorte tenet lucis loca, primus ad auras 
Aetherias Italo commixtus sanguine surget, 
Silvius, Albanum nomen, tua postuma proles, 
Quem tibi longaevo serum Lavinia conjunx 
Educet silvis, regem regumque parentemj 765 

Unde genus Longa nostrum dominabitur Alba. 
Proximus ille Procas, Trojanae gloria gentis, 

^^^^ — - ■ I .1 ■ ■ ■ I ■ » i 11 ■ ■ ■ I I ■ - I I ■■ I I ■■■■■■■ > ■ » ■■— — i ^— ■MM^— ^M m 

soul. Quisque — Manis. A difficdlt expression. * We suffer 
each his own Manes.' Probablv suos Manis means the peculiar 
mode of purification which each one required, from his pecnliar 
impurities, when he descendcd to the Manes. — 747. Aurat. 
See at iii. 354. — 748. Has omnis, as contrasted with pauct, &rc., 
seems to mean that a few, among whom was Anchises, are per- 
mitted to remain in the enjoyment (tenere) of EHysium, Mmich 
the rest ascend. Eotam volvere, * to roll round the wheel of time.' 
— 752. Dixerat, See at ii. 621. — 753. SonarUem. See 709.—. 
756. A passage admirably conceived to gratify the Romans, and 
especially Augustus. Deinde, post te. — 760. Virgil, foUowing 
the traditions tnat ascribe the race of Alban kings to the descend- 
ants of Aeneas by Lavinia (see p. 123, line 10), enumerates « 
fewofthem. llle. Sec at 326. Fu2e«, parenthetical. Purahastaf 
a spear without the iron head, either a reward for prowess in 
war, or simply a sceptre. — 761. The ordinary construction would 
require luci. — 763. Silvius, a child of Aeneas by Lavinia, and 
born in the woods, Aeneas having first died, an old man, was to be 
the lirst of the race of shades that was to ascend to the upper 
world, and to reign in Alba, hia name being common to all the 
eubsequent kings of Alba (Albanum nomen), Ziv. i. 3. —766. For 
the conatruction Longa Albaj the adjective in prose being accom- 
panied wuh ihc preposition in, see Zumpt, ^ 399. Unless, indeed, 
IM!"®*?'/?^/'^^* Longa. — 767. Reckoning Ascanius as the first 
kmg of Alba Longa (i. 271), and foltowing the order of Livy, Proca» 

£IBER TI. 289 

Et Capys, et Numitor, et qui te nomine reddet 

Silvius Aeneas, pariter pietate vel armis 

Egregius, si umquam regnandam acceperit Albam. 770 

Qui juvenes ! quantas ostentant, aspice, vires 

Atque umbrata gerunt civili tempora quercu. 

Hi tibi Nomentum et Gabios urbemque Fidenam; 

Hi CoIIatinas imponent montibus arces, 

Laude pudicitia celebris, addentque superbos 775 

Pometios, Castrumque Inui, Bolamque, Coramqne. 

Haec tum nomina erunt, nunc sunt sine nomine terrae. 

Quin et avo comitem sese Mavortius addet ' 

Romulus, Assaraci quem sanguinis 11 ia mater 

Educet. Viden,' ut geminae stant vertice cristae, 780 

£t pater ipse suo superum jam signat honore? 

£n, hujus, nate, auspiciis illa incluta Roma 

Jmperium terris, animos aequabit Olympo, 

Septemque una sibi muro circumdabit arces, 

Felix prole virum : qualis Berecyntia mater 785 

Invehitur curru Phrygias turrita per urbes, 

Laeta deum partu, centum complexa nepotes, 

Omnis coelicolas, omnis supera alta tenentis. 

Huc geminas nunc flecte acies, haiic aspice gentem 

Romanosque tuos. Hic Caesar et omnis luli 790 

Progenies, magnum coeli ventura sub axem. 

Hic vir, hic est, tibi que*m promitti saepius audis, 

Augustus Caesar, Divi genus, aurea condet 

18 the thirteenth, Capys the seventh, Numitor (grandfather of Rom- 
ulus) the fourtcenth, and Aeneas the third. Proximus, then, means 
Biraply, * standinff next Silvius.* — 768. Numitor by the arsis. — 770. 
Sit Slc. Accorcfing to Servius, he with difficulty escaped the trea- 
cherous designs of his guardian. Regnandam. See at iii. 14. — 772. 
The corona civilis (or, more commonly, civica) of oak leaves was 
given to him who had saved the life of a citizen. — 773. Of these 
towns, which Virgil represents as colonised from Alba, Nomentum 
and Fidenae (Vir^il uses the rarer singular form) were, in after- 
times, in the temtories of the Sabines, the rest in Latium in its 
widest sense. -— 775. This line is probably spurious. — 776. Fome" 
tios^ Suessa Pometia. Inui, identified with the Greek Pan. — 778. 
Romulus, son of Mavors, Mars {Mavortius), is associated with Nu- 
mitor, father of his mother ilia. — 779. Assaraci. See at 648.— 
780. f^iden', See at iii. 319. — 785. Rome, with its numerous he 
roes, is compared to Cybele {Berecyntia, from Berecjrntos, a moun 
tain m Phrygia, where she was worshipped), who is identified hero 
with Rhea or Terra, the mother of the gods. Cybele is generally 
represented as crowned with towers {turrita). — 790. Julius Caesar 
luli. Sce at i. 267. — 792. A splendid compliment to Octavianus 
Caesar, who received the cognomen of Augustus, b. c. 27, eight 
years before Virgirs death. — 793. Genus, See at iv. 12. 


Saecnla qai itireas Latio, regnata per arra 

Saturno quondam, super et Garamantas et Indos 795 

Proferet inrperium j jacet extra sidera tellus, 

Extra anni solisque vias, ubi coelifer Atlas 

Axem humero torquet stetlis anlentibus aptum. 

Hujus in adventum jam nunc et Caspia regna 

Responsis horrent divom et Maeotia tellus^ 800 

£t septemgemini turbant trepida ostia Nili. 

Nec vero Alcides tantnm telfnris obivit, 

Fixerit aeripedem cervam licet, aut Krjrmanthi 

Pacarit nemora; et Lemam tremefecerit arcn ; 

NeC; qui pampinein victor juga flectit habenis, 805 

Liber, agens celso Nysae de vertice tigris. 

£t dubitamufl adhuc virtutem extendere factis, 

Aut metus Ausonia prohibet consistere terral 

' Quis procul ille autem ramis insignis olivae 

Sacraferens? Nosco crinis incanaque menta 810 

Regis Romani, primam qui legibus urbem 

Fundabit, Curibus parvis et paupere terra 

795. Saturtto. See viii. 319, &.C. Garamantas. See at Ed. viii. 
44. Indos. These words are not to be oonstmed in their strict 
meaning. Here Indos probably alludes generally to Eastern nations, 
as the Parthians. — 796. Virgil, by a stronff exaggeration, extends 
the Roman arms, under Aucustus, beyond ine nortnern hemisphere 
iextra siiera), and south of ttie zodiac {extra annij &c.). — 797. At' 
las. See at i. 741, iv. 247.-798. See iv. 482.-799. Virml repre- 
sents as even then trembling at ihe prospect of the advent uf Augos- 
tu8, the inhabitants of tbe shores of the Caspian sea — the Hyrca- 
nians and Bactrians ; the inhabitants of the shores of the Palua 
Maeotig, the sea of Asoph — the Scythians ; and the Egyptians on 
tbe banks of the iVi7e with its seven mouths. — 801. Observe tur^ 
hant^ used intransitively. See at v. 234. — 802. Virgil prefers the 
expeditions of Augustus to those of Hercules {Alcidee, see at 392), 
and Bacchus (Liber^ compare wiih Lyaeus, i. 686). — 803. The jour- 
neys and exploits of Hercules are well known. Traditions of him 
are found connected with all countries, from India to the Straits <^ 
Gibraltar, and the Germans and Celts had their Hercules. Cervam. 
The third labour of Hercules was to catch the brazen-footed stag of 
Ceryneia in Arcadia. He wounded it with an arrow (Jucerii), axid 
brought it alive to M ycenae. Erymanthi. See at v. 448. To bring 
»live to Mycenae ibe boar of Erymantbus, was his fourth labour. — 
S04. Lemam. See at 286. — 806. The later traditions ascribed to 
Bacchus a wide extent of conquest, from India to Spain. Persecuted 
by Juno, he was sheltered in the cave of Mount Nisa in Thrace. 
He is often represented as drawn by tigers. See Ecl. v. 29. — 808. 
AuMonia. See p. 180, line 5. — 809. Quis^erens, either a oaes* 
tion put by Aeneas, or an exclamation of doubt irom Anchises him- 
■«I*-"~8I1- Eegis, Numa. — 812. Cures, a town of the Sabines, 
whence, according to some accoants» the name given to tbe fiLomans 

UBER VI. 987 

Missas in imperittm magnum. Cui deinde subibit, 

Oiia qui rumpei patriae residesque movebit 

Tullus in arma viros et jam desueta triumphis 815 

Agmina. Quem juxta sequitur jactantior Anciis, 

Nunc quoque jam nimium gaudens popularibus auris. 

Vis et Tarquinios reges, animamque superbam 

Ultoris Bruti, fascesque videre reoeptos ? 

Consulis imperium hic.primus saevasque secures 820 

Accipiet, natosque pater nova bella moventis 

Ad poenam pulchra pro libertate vocabit, 

Infelix ! Utcumque ferent ea facta minores, 

Vincet amor patriae laudumque immensa cupido. 

Quin Decios Drusosque procul saevumque securi 825 

Aspice Torquatum et referentem signa Camiilum. 

Illae autem, paribus quas fulgere cernis in armis, 

Concordes animae nunc et dum nocte premuntur, 

Heu quantum inter se bellum, si lumina vitae 

Attigerint, quantas acies stragemque ciebuut ! 830 

Aggeribus socer Alpinis atque arce Monoeci 

Descendens, gener adversis instructus £ois. 

Ne^ pueriy ne tanta animis adsuescite bella, 

Neu patriae validas in viscera vertite viris; 

Tuque prior, tu parce, genus qui ducis Olympo, 835 

of Quirites. See vii. 710. — 815. Tullut Hostiliust the third king 
of Roaie. — 816. Awut Martius, tbe fourth king of Rome. — Sl^S. 
In mentioning the Tarquiniii Priscus and Superbus, he may include 
the sixth king, Servius Tullius, as the son-in-law of the former, 
and his heir. — 819. Brutu the first Brutus, who was one of the 
principal agents in gaining for the people the power indicated by the 
/asees—^the bundle of rods carried before the chief rulers of the state, 
and which originally, even in the time of the consuls, had the se» 
eures (820) atiached to them. — 821. Alludins to the well-known 
condemnation to death of the sons of Brutus, by Brutus himself — 
825. Two of the Decii, father and son, devoted themselves in battle. 
Of the Drusit there were many celebrated, but they are mentioned 
hcre probably as a compliment to Livia, the second wife of A ugus- 
tus, who was of the family. — 826. Torquatus, as is well known, 
put to dcath his son, for engaging (thoi^h successfully) in single 
eombat contrary to his orders. CamUlum. The reference is to the 
▼ictoiy of Camillus over the Gauls. — 827. lllaei &c. Pompey and 
Julius Cae8ar.~830. Observe attiperintt ciebunt. Their reaching 
the lighi of life, is to precede their bloody provocation. — 831. Socer» 
Caesar^s daughter, Julia, was married to Pompey. As is well 
known, Caesar^s troops were composed of those veterans who had 
(bught with him in Gaul ; hence aggeribus (montibus) Alpinisy and 
arce Monoeci Herculis, a promontory, with a temple ot Hercules 
Monoecus, at the foot of tne Maritime AIps: while the forces of 
Pompey were principally from the east {Eo'is, see at ii. 417). 

t9S AElfKlDOS. 

Projtce te)a manti, sangnis nietis ! — 

Ille triumphata Capitolia ad alta Corintho 

Victor aget carrum, cafesis insignis Achivifl. 

Eruet ille Argos Agamemnoniasque Myeenas, 

Ipsumque Aeaciden, genus armipotemis Achilli, 640 

Uhus avas Trojae, templa et temerata Minervae. 

Quis te, magne Cato, tacitum, aut te, Cosse, relinquat 1 

Quis Graechi s^enus, aut geminos, duo fulmina belli, 

Scipiadas, claaem Libyae, parvoque potentem 

Fabricium, vel te sulco, Serrane, serentem ? 845 

Quo fessum rapitis, Fabii ? tu Maximns ille es, 

Unus qui nobis cunclando restituis rem. 

Excudent ahi spirantia mollius aera — 

Credo equidem — vlvos ducent de marmore vultus, 

Orabunt causas melius, coelique meatus 850 

Describent radio et snrgentia sidera dicent : 

Tu regere imperio populos, Romane, memento ; 

Hae tibi erunt artes; pacisque imponere morem, 

Parcere subjectis, et debellare superbos.' 

Sic pater Anchises, atc[ue haec mirantibus addit : 855 
'Aspice, ut insignis spoliis Marcellus opimis 

836. See at i. 534. — 837. iVLe. L. Mummius, who took Corinth, ' 
B. c. 146. Observe the construction, as if we could say, triumpkare 
Corinthum. The crowning act of a triumph was a sacrifice and 
banquet in the Capitol. — 839. Hle, &c. Tne allusion is probably 
to L. Aemilius Paulus, who defeated, b. c. 168, Perseus, king of 
Macedonia — the kinp of Macedonia boasting of being descended 
from Achilles (Aeaciden ; see i. 99). This is poeticalTy magnified 
into the conquest of Greece. See i. 283. — 841. Temvla, &c. There 
is hcre probably an allusion to the theft of the Palladium. See at 
ii. 165. — 842. Uato the Censor probably is meant. Cossus slew 
Tolumnius, a chief of the Veientes, and obtained the second spolia 
opima. See at 856. — 843. Gracc^t flr«wK»i the distinguished race of 
tne Gracchi, two of whom were ceTebrated as consuls, and two as 
tribunes of the peoole. — 844. The allusion is to the Scipios, who 
were the scourge ot Africa. — 845. Fabricius distinguishea himself 
against Pyrrhus, king of Epirus. C. Atilius, whose dictatorship 
was announced to him while en^aged in suwin^ ; hence his surname, 
Serra7ius. — 846. Of all the celebrated clan of the Fabii, he selects 
Maximus Cunctator {cunctando), the cautious opponent of Hannibal. 
— 847. This line is said to be taken from Ennius. — 848, &^. An 
animated apostrophe to the Roman race, and a comparison between 
•heir supenority in war, and that of the Greeks in the arts of peace 
-statuarv in bronze and marble, eloquence, and astronomy. — 851. 
Badio. See at Ecl. iii. 41. —852. Tu, emphatic. — 856. Marcellut 

^^^ k°"!? -5' ^- ^*^^' ^^^*^" ^^ ^^^^ ^^ horseback ieques), with hia 
own hand, Viridomarus, a prince of the Insubrian Gauls, then en- 
fh^S .!!!»? «MmttZfMs in the norih of Italy. Hence he obtamed the 
tmra spolia opima. He was also one of ihe most gallant generalB 

LTBER TI. 889 


Ingreditur, victorque viros supereminet ohinis ! 
Hic rem Romanam, magno turbanle tumultu, 
Sistet eques, sternet Poenos Gallumque rebeilem, 
Tertiaque arma patri suspendet capta Quirino.' 860 

Atquenic Aeneas; una namque ire videbat 
Egregium forma juvenem et fulgentibus armis — 
Sed frons laeta parum, et dejecto lumina vultu : 
^Quis, paler, ille, virum qui sic comitatur euntem ? 
Filius, anne aliquis magna de stirpe nepotum ? 865 

Quis strepitus circa comitum ! quantum instar in ipso ! 
Sed nox atra caput tristi circumvolat umbra.' 
Tum pater Anchises, lacrimis ingressus obortis : 
' nate, ingentem luctum ne quaere tuoruni ; 
Ostendent terris hunc tantum fata, neque uhra 870 

£sse sinent. Nimium vobis Romana propago 
Visa potens, Superi, propria haec si dona fuissent. 
Quantos ille virum magnam Mavortis ad urbem 
Campus aget gemitus ! vel quae, Tiberine, videbis 
Funora, cum tumulum praeterlabere recentem ! 875 

Nec puer Iliaca quisquam de gente Latinos 
In tantum spe toUet avos, nec Romula quondam 
Ullo se tantum tellus jactabit alumno. 
Heu pietas, heu prisca fides, invictaque bello 
Dextera ! non illi se quisquam impune tulisset 880 

Obvius armato, seu cum pedes iret in hostem, 
Seu spumantis equi foderet calcaribus armos. 
Heu, miserande puer, si qua fata aspera rumpas, 
Tu Marcellus eris. Manibus date lilia plenis, 

that contended against Hannibal (Pocno»). — 860. Quirino. Aname 
for the deified Romulus. — 861, &,c. This is one of the most noted 

Sassages of the Aeneid, communicatin^ the death of iVh Ciaudiug 
larcellus, nephew of Augustus, son of the emperor*s sister, Octa- 
via, who was destined by Augustus to succeed him, but who died, 
jn hid twentieth year, b. c. 23. — 866. Instarmay infer likeness to 
bis father, but some think that it expresses majesty, by a rare use 
of the word. — 870. Referring to his youth when he died. — 874. 
CampuSt the well-known iille) Campus Martius. Tiberinus was the 
narae of the river-god. See viii. 31. — 875. His funeral rites were 
celet>rated by Augustus with the utmost magnificence, and his re- 
mains were deposited in the burial-place of the Julian family, 
crected on the Campus Martius, a little before, by Augustus. — 
977. jRomulat the more common form is Romulea. — 880. Tulisset ; 
881. iret ; indicating what he would have done, in the event of his 
attacking the enemy — which, however, did not happen. — 883. Si 
includes a wish (187) as wcll as a hypothesis. — 884. *Thou shalt 
be a Marcellus, worthy of the name.' This passage, read by Vir- 
gil to Aogostus and Octavia, is said to have ezcited overpoweiing 
25 z 

9M MMnmiws* 

Parporeos spargam flores, aDiioamqad nepotis • 6B$ 
His sahem aocumulem doois, et fungar inani 

Sic tota passim regione vagantur 
Aeris in campis latis. atque omnia lustrant. 
Quae postquam Anchises natum per singula daxit| 890 
Incenditque animum famae venientis amore, 
EUin bella viro memorat quae deinde gerenda, 
Laurentisque docet populos urbemque Latini, 
EX quo quemque modo fugiatque feratque laborem. 

Sunt geminae Somni portae, quarum altera fertur 895 
Cornea, qua veris facilis datur exitus Umbris; 
Altera candenti perfecta nitens elephanto, 
Sed falsa ad coelum mittunt insomnia Manes. 
His ubi tum natum Anchises unaque Sibyllam 
Prosequitur dictis, portaque emittit eburna, 900 

Ille viam secat ad navis sociosque revisit; 
Tum se ad Caietae recto fert litore portum. 
Ancora de prora jacitur; stant litore puppes. 

emotions in the niother's heart. MHnibutt^ &.c. Alluding to a 
practice, common still in many countries, of strewing gravee witli 
nowers. — 885. Purpureot, referring probably to their beauty. 
See at Erl. ix. 40. — 893. Laurentum, on the coast south of the Ti- 
ber, was the residence of kin^ Latinus. It was said to derive its 
name from the laurels with which it abounded (vii. 59, &c.). The 
allusion is to the war between Aeneas and the Latins, the subject 
of the next six books. — 894. See iii. 459. — >895, &c. It is not easy 
to see why Virgil has chosen this method of dismissing Aeneas ana 
the Sibyl froni Hades. The description of the two gates is bor- 
rowed irom Homer, Od. xix. 562. Nor can a satisfactory reason he 
ffiven why they leave through the portal of false dreams. Does 
Yirgil mean to msinuate that it was more capacious than the othert 
^ ^2. Caieta, said to be named from the nurse of Aeneas, wbo 
died there, viii. 1 — a promontory and town of Latium. Recto litare, 
means * in a straight iine along tbe shore.' See a similar expre»* 
«ion, viii. 57, recto llumine, 'straight up the river.* The ancbor 
xras thrown from the prow, which remained in deep water, wliile 
the •terna were iixed on the shore. See 3. 



Tbi nurse of Aeneas dies, and gives name to Caieta (see at tI. 
900). After which he sails nortbwards, 1-9. 6y the favour 
of Neptune, the fleet is waf^ed saf^, during the night, past 
Circaeij the supposed residence of the sorceress Circe (see p. 
180, line 41), in Yirgirs time joined to the main land, though 
they hear the sounds of the beasts, into which the potions of 
the goddess have changed her unhappy visitors, 10-24. At 
dawn, they enter the mouth of the Tiber, 25-36. About to 
Darrate the war between the Trojans and the Latins, Yirgil 
tnvokes the Muse, 37—44. Latinus was formerly king of the 
country, and had one daughter, ibr whose hand Turnus was a 
suitor, favoured by her mother Amata, 44-57. The raarriage, 
bowever, was opposed by various evil portents, 57-80. La- 
tinus consults the oracle of Faunus at Albimea, wliose precise 
locality is disputed, and is warned that he must give his 
daughter in marriage to a stranger, 81-101. This response 
was well known in Latium when Aeneas arrived, 102-106. 
Aeneas and his chiefs going on shore and feasting, eat the 
bread which lulus sportiveiy oalls their tables, and tlius the 
dreadful prophecy of the Harpies (iii. 255, &c.) is explained 
away, 107— 119. Overjoyed, Aeneas proclaims a solemn fes- 
tival in honour of the gods, their distinct place of settlement 
being now ascertained, 120-147. Next day, after partially 
exploring the Tiber^ and the adjoining Numiaut^ Aeneas sends 
dcputies to Laurentum (see at vi. 891), where they find the 
youth engaged in various sports, 148—165. Latinus admits 
the Trojans to an interview, and proffers them hospitable 
flbelter, 166—211. Informed that they want a settlement and 
peace, Latinus deems that Aeneas is the stranger referred to 
by the oracle, offers him his daughter in marriage, and dis* 
misses the deputies with costly presents, 212-285. Juno, 
fljring through the heavens, sees that the Trojans have deserted 
tbe ships, and determines, if she cannot prevent their ultimate 
succesv, to retard it by war, 286—322. She summons from the 
]ower world the Fury Alecto, whom she instructs to kindle 
war, 323^40. Amata, stung by AIecto's art, first remonstrates 
with Latinus against the projected marriage, 341-372. She 
becomes wild at his rejection of her remonstrance, and con- 
veys her daughter to the woods, pretending to celebrate the 
tites of Bacchus (see at iv. 301). She is joined by the women 
of Latium, 392-40^. Alecto betakes herself eastward to *ir- 
Jro, the city of Turnus, kictg of the Rutuli, a Latian ttibe, 


where she finds the prince asleep, 406-414. She presentt 
herself in a vision as the aged priestess of Juno, and stirs him 
to oppose Aeneas, 415-434. Turnus treats the matter lightly, 
on which Alecto discloses herselff and he awakes, roused to 
frenz]r, 435-466. He assembles his warriors, determined on 
war against Aeneas, and Latinus also, if the latter should 
refuse to join him, 467-474. lulns happened to be hunting, 
and Alecto directs his hounds against the pet stag of tho 
famiiy of Tyrrheus, the herdsman of king Latinus, 475-495. 
Wounded by lulus, it takes shelter in the house of Tyrrheus, 
496—502. Tyrrheus calls to arms, Alecto winds the signal 
horn, and the peasants rush tb the fray, while lulus is sup- 
ported by reinforcements from the camp, 503-530. The flrst 
blood is sbed, 531-539. Juno orders to her train the exulting 
Fury, who descends by the Lake J^masofictij in the country 
of the Hirpini, a Samnian tribe, 540-571. Juno conducts the 
continuance o{ the strife which rages on, the shepherds bearhng 
to the city the tidings of the fray, and Turnus, with others, 
joining with them in the demand for vengeance, 572-585. 
Latinns resists, but is overpowered, and leaves the manage- 
ment of the war to others, 586-600. On his refusal to open 
he temple of Janus — the signal of war — Juno herself doee it, 
601-622. The Aiuornan» (see p. 180, line 5) prepare for 
war, of whose cities are named, perhaps to indicate the oon- 
fines, Atina on a branch of the Liris. Tibur on the Anio, JSrdta^ 
jintemna£f at the junction of the Anio and the Tiber, and Cruf- 
tumerium on the Sabine side of the Tiber, 623-640. Another 
invocation to the Muses, 641-646. List of Italian kings and 
states engaged in tlie war. From AgyUa^ afierwards Caere^ 
in Etruria, Mezentius, with his son Lausus, 647-654. Avea- 
tinus, from the Aventine hill, in Latium, 655-^69. Catillus and 
Coras, Argives, from Tihur^ 670-677. Caeculus, frora Prae» 
nette^ south-east of Tibur, with the warriors of GMi (see vi. 
773), the inhabitants of the banks of the w^nto, and of the 
jSmasenus, the former a tributary of the Tiber, the latter flow- 
ing into the Tuscan sea at Anxur, and jinagnia in the country 
of the Hernici^ 679-690. Messapus at the head of Tyrrheniaa 
troops from Fescennium, FaUrii^ Mount Soractty Capena, all 
near the west bank of the Tiber ; Flavinium, whose site is 
unknown ; and the mountain and lake of Ciminm, west of 
Falerii, 691-705. Ciausus at the head of Sabine troops from 
Foruli and Amitemum^ afterwards in the country of tho Ves 
tini, near the source of the Aternus ; the Quiritee (see at vi 
811), the men of Eretvm^ and Nomentum^ near the Allia ; JVm- 
UMca^ probably on Mount Lucretilis, east of Cures ; the ioha- 
bitants of the country round lake VeUnm^ whose waters flow 



into the Nkrj of Hfwf^ oa Moont Tariem^ a bnnch of th*e 
* Apennines, from 'which the Nar flows ; and Severu», probably 
a peak of the same range ; Catperia, on tbe river Himella, a 
branch of ^e Tiber ; Fabaris^ another branch ; Horta^ a town 
on the Tnscan eide of the Tiber, near its confluence wiih the 
Nar ; the Latin tribes in the neighbourhood) and those on the 
banks of the AlUa^ that nnlucky tributary of the Tiber [infaua- 
tum nomen)^ where the Romans were defeated by the Gauls, 
706-722. HalesBS, the charioteer of Agamemnon, leads war- 
riors from Campania ; the Jturund on the south side of the 
Liris, from the Masiie hills, celebrated for their vines; Sidicium 
CaleSj in the Falemian district; Saticula, on the river Vul- 
turnus ; and the Oeciy a tribe settled further south, 723—732. 
Oebalus also led from Campania, the Sarrattes from the banks 
of the Santus^ which flows into the sea at. Pompeii ; the men 
ofSufnu wad Abdta^ near the source of the Cianius ; and from 

^ Samnium, the men of BatvHum, and perhaps Celenna^ wbose 
site is not known, 733—743. Ufens led a body of the Aequi- 
culae, or Aequi, a small but hardy tribe at the source of the 
Anio; from Nersae, whose situation is unknown, 744—749. 
The pHest Umbro headed the Marsiy from Marrubium^ on the 

• nofth of Fueinus, a lake in the Apennines, tbe grove of An- 
guitia being on the soutb, 750-760. From jiricia (with its 
lake sacred to Diana, kumentia litoray and see 516), north of 
Ardea, came Yirbios, son of Hippolytus, aflerwards Yirbius, 
and the Nymph Aricia, 761-782. Turnus himself headed the 
MutuliatUf with the jAurunci from the north side of the Liris ; 
the Sicani, the (Jiborigines) early inbabitants of Italy ; the Sa- 
crani, who probably at one time Uved near the lake Fucinus ; 
the inhabitants of Zabectm^ a town west of Praenesti, and of 
the banks of die Tiber and Numicius ; and the town of Circaei; 

' and jinxm\ where Jupiter was worshipped under tbe name 
of Anxurus, and was said to be married to Feronia, wbo bad 
a groTe smd temple near ; of the marshy country of Satura^ 
which probably formed a part of the Pontine marsbes, over- 
flowed by the UftiiS and Amasenus, 783-802. Tbe Volscians 
were led by the iemale warrior Camilla, 803—817. 

|n this book Virgil has coUected the traditions of the early settle- 
ments of Italy, without regard to chronological exactness, but 
with diat remarkable knowledge of the history of his country, 
and attention to correct delineament, for which he is d«* 
servedly celebrated. 

Tv quoque litoribus nostrls, Aeneia nutrlx, 
Aeteruam cnoriens famam, Caieta, dedisti; 
Et nunc sef vat honos sedem tuus, ossaque nomea 


He8|>eria in xDBfpMif si qua est ea gloria, sigiiat. 

At pius exseqai» Aeneas rite solutis, h 

Aggere composito tumuli, postquam alta quieraat 

Aequora, tendit iter velis, portumque relinquit. 

Ad^iraut aurae in noctem, nec candida cureus 

Luna negat ; splendet tremulo sub lumine pontus. 

Proxima Circaeae raduntur litora terraOi 10 

Dives inaccessos ubi Solis filia lucos 

Adsiduo resonat cantu, tectisque superbis 

Urit odoratam noctuma in lumina cedrum, 

Arguto tenuis percurrens pectine telas. 

Hinc exaudiri gemitus iraeque leonum, 15 

Vincla recusantum et sera sub uocte rudentum ; 

Saetigerique sues atque in praesepibus ursi 

Saevire, ac formae magnorum uiulare luporum, 

Quos hominum ex facie dea saeva potentibus herbis 

Induerat Circe in vultus ac terga ferarum. 20 

Quae ne monstra pii piterentur talia Troes 

Delati in portus, neu litora dira subirent, 

Neptunus ventis implevit vela secundis, 

Atque fugam dedit, et praeter vada fervida vexit. 

Jamque rnbesoebat radils mare, et aethere ab alto 25 
Aurora in roseis fulgebat lutea bigis : 
Cum venti posuere^ omnisque repento resedit 
Flatus, et in lento luctantur marmore tonsae. 
Atque hic Aeneas ingentem ex aequore luoum 
Prospicit. Hnnc inter fluvio Tiberinus amoenO| 30 

Vorticibus rapidis, et multa flavus arena, 
In mare prorumpit. Variae ciroumque supraque 
Assuetae ripis volucres et fluminis alveo 
Aethera mulcebant cantu, Incoque volabant. 
Flectere iter sociis terraeque advertere proras 35 

Imperat, et laetus fluvio succedit opaco. 

Nunc age, qui reges, Erato, quae tempora rerumy 
Quis Latio antiquo fuerit status, advena classem 
Cum primum Ausoniis exeroitus adpUlit oris, 
Expediam, et primae revocabo exordia pngnae. 40 

Tu vatem^ tu, diva, mone. Dicam horrida bella, 

4. Hesperia. See i. 530.^5. Piu$. See i. 378. — 11. SoligjUiaf 
Circe. — 12. Besonati transitive, as in Ed. i. 5. — 15. Exaudiri^ 
historical infinitive. — 21. Quae talia monstra, 'such portentous 
changes as these.* — 27. Fosuerey &c. See at i. 234. — 33. Alveot 

Eronounce as a dissyllable. —37. Erato, the Muse of love poetry.. 
ere representing the Muse generally. Or, in the peculiar sense 
^\ ^"? .^PM» *he allusion may be to the war that love for La« 
▼uua kmdlcd.--39. Autifniis, See p. 180, line 5. 


Dicam acieS) aetosque animis in funera reges, 
Tyrrhenamque manum, totamque sub arma coaotam 
Hesperiam. Major rerum mihi nascitur ordo, 
MajoB opns moveo. 

Rex arva Latinus et nrbes 45 

Jam senior ]onga placidas in pace regebat. 
Hunc Fauno ^ nympha genitum Laurente Marica 
Accipimus; Fauno Picus pater ; isque parentem 
Te, Satume, refert ; tu sanguinis uhimus auctor. 
Filius huic fato divom prolesque virilis 50 

Nulla fuit, primaque oriens erepta juventa est. 
Sola domum et tantas servabat fiiia sedes, 
Jam matura viro, jam plenis nubilis annis. 
Multi illam magno e Latio totaque petebant 
Ausonia; petit ante alios pulcherrimus omnis 55 

TurnuS; avis atayisque potens, quem regia conjnnx 
Adiungi generum miro properabat amore ; 
Sed variis portenta deum terroribus obstant. 

Laurus erat tecti medio in penetralibus altis, 
Sacra comam, multosque metu servata per annos 60 

Quam pater inventam, primas cum conderet arces, 
Ipse ferebatur Phoebo sacrasse Latinus, 
Laurentisque ab ea nomen posuisse colonis. 
Hujus apjes summum densae — mirabile dictu — 
Stridore ingenti liquidum trans aethera vectae, 65 

Obsedere apicem, et, pedibus per mutua nexis, 
Examen suDitum ramo frondente pependit. 
Continuo vates, ' Extemum cernimus,' inquit, 
'Adventare virum, et partis petere agmen easdem 
Fartibus ex isdem, et summa dominarier arce.' 70 

Praeterea, castis adolet dum altaria taedis, 
Ut jnxta genitorem adstat Lavinia virgo, 
Visa, nefas, longis comprendere crinibus ignem, 
Atque omnem ornatum flamma crepitante cremari, 
Regalisque accensa comas, accensa coronam, 75 

43. Tyrrhenum, &c. See at vi. 697.-47. Fauno, an Italian god, 
who protected shepherds, and pronounced oracles (see 81), atter- 
wards identified with the Greek Pan. See at Ecl. v. 69.— 
56. Tumus, the son of Daunus (x. 116) and Venilia (x. 76), king 
of the Rutuli, a tribe of Latium, desceiided through Dana*, daugh- 
ter of Acrisius, king of Arsos, from the Argives. See 373. Cwi- 
junXf Amata, the wife of Latinus. — 64, &c. See at Georg, iv. 558. 
—69. As the bees came through the airacross the sea (trans aetheray, 
90 a foreigner was to come across the seas, and settle in the citadel, 
here betokened by the top of the laurel. — 70. Dominarter, for Awrit- 
nari. See iv. 493. — 73. Nefat, contraryto the laws of nature, ando* 
evil omen. — 75. Comas, the accusative of limitation. See at iv. 558 

Insiffuem gemmM; tom fmiuda lamine fuhFO 

InTdviy ao totis yolcanom spargere teotis. 

Id vero horrendum ac visu mirabile ferri : 

Namque fore illustrem fama fatisque canebaut 

Ipsam, sed popuio magnuro portendere bellum. ^ 80 

At rex sollicitus monstris, oracula Fauni, 

Fatidici genitoris, adit, iucosque sub alta 

Consulit Albunea, nemorum quae maxima sacro 

Fonle sonat, saevamque exhalat opaca mepbitim. 

Hinc Italae gentes omnisque Oenotria tellus 85 

In dubiis responsa petunt ; huc dona sacerdos 

Cum tulit, et caesarum ovium sub nocte silenti 

Fellibus incubuit stratis somnosque petivit, 

Multa modis simulacra videt volitantia miris, 

£t varias audit voces, fruiturque deorum 90 

Colloqoio, atque imis Acheronta affatur Avernis. 

Hic et tum pater ipse petens responsa Latinus 

Centum latngeras mactabat rite oidentis, 

Atque harum effultus tergo stratisque jacebat 

Veueribus} subita ex alto vox reddita luco est: 95 

'Ne pete connubiis natam sociare Latiuis, 

O mea progenies, thalamis neu crede paratis; 

Externi veniunt generi, qui sanguioe uostrum 

Nomen in astra ferant, quorumque ab stirpe nepotes 

Omni^ sub pedibus, qua Sol utrumque recurrens 100 

Aspicit Oceanum, vertique regique videbunt.' 

Haec responsa patris Fauni monitusque silenti 

Nocte datos non ipse suo premit ore Latinus^ 

Sed drcum late volitans jam Fama per urbes 

Ausonias tulerat, cum Laomedontia pubea 105 

Gramineo ripae religavit ab aggere classem. 

Aeneas primique duces et pulcher lulus 
Corpora suo ramis deponunt arbqris altae, 
Instituuntque dapes, et adorea liba per herbam 
Subjiciunt epulis — sic Jupiter iUe monebat — 110 

77. Volcanum, See at ii. 311. — 79. Can^nt, praedicebant 
yrBiee. ^ 82. Fatidicu See at 47. — 85. Oenotrta. Seeat 1.532.— 
68. See a Highland usa^e somewhat eimilar, described in Scott*8 
Lady ofthe £akey canto iv. note 2, T. — 91. Acherontat for umbras 
Acbierontis. See at vi. 295. Avernis. See at v. 732. — 93. itfac- 
teiat, &.C. Seeativ. 57. — 94. Ter^o, ter^oribus. — ^^. ConnUbitip 
three syllabka, connuhyis. — 97. Tkalamis paratiSj the marriagd 
with Tuniua. — 98. Qut» talea ut/era«t. — 105. Laowiedontia. Se^ 
ativ. 542, vi. 648. — 106. The rope ihat fastened the vessel pro- 
cei^ed from the shore, ah aggere, litore. — 110. They place tneir 
loPQ i^liM) of wild fruits (pomis agrestibus) on their cakes of flour 
Morea 2i&a) being the gift of CereS (i. 177, CereaU), as a sUpport 


£t Cereale solam pomis agrestibas angent. 
Consumptis hic forte aliis, ut vertere morsus 
Exiguam in Ccrerem penuria adegit edendi, 
£t violare manu malisqup audacibus orbem 
Fatalis crusti, patulis nec parcere quadris: 115 

' 'Heus, etiam mensas consumimus!' inquit Ti^Ius; 
Nec plura aliudens. £a vox audita laborum 
Prima tulit finem, primamque loquentis ab ore 
£ripuit pater, ac stupefactus numine pressit. 
Continuo, ' Salve fatis mihi debita Tellus, 120 

Vosque,' ait, *o fidi Trojae salvete Penates: 
Hic domus, haec patria est. Genitor mihi talia namque, 
Nunc repeto, Anchises fatorum arcana reliquit : 
Cum te, nate, fames ignota ad litora vectum 
Accisis coget dapibus consumere mensas, 125 

Tum sperare domos defessus ibique memento 
Prima iocare manu molirique aggere tecta. 
Haec erat illa fames ; haec nos suprema manebat, 
£xitiis positura modum. 

Quare agite et primo laeti cum lumine solis, 130 

Quae loca, quive habeant homines, ubi moenia gentis, 
Vestigemus, et a portu diversa petamus. 
Nunc pateras libate Jovi, precibusque vocate 
Anchisen genitorem, et vina reponite mensis.' 
Sic deinde effatus frondenti tempora ramo 135 

Implicat, et Geniumque loci primamque deorum 
Tellurem Nymphasque et adhuc ignota precatur 
Flumina; tum Noctem Noctisque orientia Signa 
Idaeumque Jovem Phrygiamque ex ordine Matrem 
Invocat, et duplicis Coeloque £reboque parentes. 140 
Hic pater omnipotens ter coelo clarus ab alto 
Intonuit, radiisque ardentem lucis et auro 
Ipse mann quatiens ostendit ab aethere nttbem. 
Piditur hic subito Trojana per agmina rumor, 
Adveuisse diem, quo debita moenia condant. 145 

gdumf V. 199). — 114. Malis. See at iii. 257. — 117. AUudens, 
either Mesting,' or *referring,* alluding to the prophecy (iii. 257) 
thu8 fulnlled. — 123. Anchises. Either Aeneas or Virgil has mad« 
a mistake here. See iii. 257, 394. — 128. Haec famest the hunger 
now impelline us to eat the cakes, eratj was, at the time of the pro- 
phecy, iZZa, the hunger then foretold. See at iii. 558. — 132. i>t- 
versaf taking different directions. — 136. Genium. See at v. 95. 
JPrimamj either as the mythic origin of all things, or especially the 
earth goddess. — 139. Idaeum. See p. 179, line 26. Jupiter wae 
hidden there by his mother from the devouring jawe of Satum. 
Phrygtam matrem^ Cybele. See p. 179, line 34, — 140. His mother 
Venus was in heaven, his father Anchises among th« shades below. 


Certatim iostaarant epalas, atque omiae magno 
Crateras laeti Btatuunt et vina coronant. 

Postera oum prima lustrabat lampade terras 
Orta diefl^ urbem et finis et litora gentis 
/ Diversi explorant ; haec fontis stagna Numici, 150 

Hunc Thybrim fluvium, hic fortis habitare Latinos. 
Tum satus Anchisa delectos ordine ab omni 
Centum oratores augusta ad moenia regis 
Ire jubet, ramis velatos Palladis omnis, 
Donaque ferre viro, pacemque exposcere Teucris. 155 
Haud mora, festinant jussi rapidisque feruntnr 
Passibus. Ipse humili designat moenia fossa, 
Moliturque locum, primasque in litore sedes 
Castrorum in morem pinnis atque aggere cingit. 
Jamque iter emensi turris ac tecta Latinorum 160 

4rdua cernebant juvenes, muroque subibant. 
Ante urbem pueri et primaevo flore juventus 
Exercentur equis, domitantque iu pulvere ourrus, 
Aut acris tendunt arcus, aut lenta lacertis 
Spicula Gontorquent, cursuque ictuque lacessunt : 165 
Cum praevectufl equo longaevi regis ad auris 
Nuntius ingentis ignota in veste reportat 
Advenisse viros. IlJe intra tecta vocari 
Imperat. et solio medius consedit avito. 
Tectum augustum, ingens, centum sublime columnis, 170 
Urbe fuit summa, Laurentis regia Pici, 
Horrendum silvis et religione parentum. 
Hic sceptra accipere et primos attollere fasces 
Regibus omen erat; hoc illis curia templumi 
Hae sacris sedes epulis ; hic ariete caeso 175 

Ferpetuis soliti patres considere mensis. 
Quin etiam veterum efRgies ex ordine avorum 
Antiqua e cedro, Italusque, paterque Sabinus 

147. Vina eoronant. See at Georg. ii. 528, and Aen. i. 73. — 150, 
Diversi. See 132. — 15A. Eamis Palladis. The olive, the svmbol 
of peace, was sacred to Pallas. — 155. Donay these are specifiea, 245, 
^c — 160. Latinorum — umelided before ^r<2ua. — 168. Teitaf not 
his palace, but the temple of Picus, deacribed 170, &c. The Ro 
man usage was for the senate to receive embassies iu temples or 
coosecrated buildings. — 169. Avito ; Ficus. See 48. — 173. Faseet^ 
See at vi. 819. — 174. jEmt by the arsis. Curia templum. See at v. 
A0& — 175. Ariete, three syllables, aryete. — 176. Ferpetuis, an un- 
broden range of ; probably contrasted with the sinsle tables or 
boards of private feasts. See at i. 723. — 178. Pure Italian deities 
jire here enumerated. In late tiraes, they were confounded with the 
Greek deitieg, to whom they bore a resemblance in attributea. 
Cedr»— 5 unelided. 


LIBER Vlf, tt$ 

Vitisatdr, etinram Sdnrans sab imagine faldem, 
Saturnusque senex Jani^e bifrontis imago, 180 

Vestibulo adstabant, aliique ab origine reges, 
Martiaque ob patriam pugnando Tulnera passi. 
Multacjue praeterea sacris in postibus arma, 
Captivi pendent currus, curvaeque secures, 
£t cristae capitum, et portarum ingentia claustra, 185 
Spiculaque ctipeique ereptaque rostra carinis. 
Ipse Quirinali lituo. parvaque sedebat 
Succinctus trabea, laevaque ancile gerebat 
PicuA, equum domitor; quem capta cupidine conjunx 
Aurea percussum virga versumque venenis 190 

Fecit avem Circe, sparsitque coloribus alas. 
Tali intus templo divom patriaque Latinus 
Sede sedens Teucros ad sese in tecta vocavit ; 
Atque haec ingressis placido prior edidit ore: 
' Dicite, Dardanidae, neque enim nescimus et urbem 195 
£t genus, auditique advertitis aequore cursum, 
Qnid petitisl quae causa rates, aut cujus egentes 
Litus ad Ausonium tot per vada caerula vexit 1 
Sive errore viae, seu tempestatibus acti, 
Qualia multa mari nautae patiuntur in alto^ 200 

Fluminis intrastis ripas portuque sedetis, 
Ne fugite hospitium, neve ignorate Latinos 
Satumi gentem, haud vinclo nec legibus aequam. 
Sponte sua veterisque dei se rnore tenentem. 
Atque equidem memini — fama est obscurior annis — > 205 
Auruncos ita ferre senes, his ortus ut agris 
Dardanus Idaeas Phrygiae penetrarit ad urbes 
Threiciamque Samon, quae nunc Samothracia fertur. 
Hinc illum Corythi Tyrrhena ab sede profectum 
Aurea nuno solio stellantis regia coeli 210 

Accipit et numerum divorum altaribus addit.' 
Dixerat; et dicta Itioneus sic voce secutus; 

186. Spiculaqul by the arsis. — 187. Construe ; ipse Picus . . . «c- 
Stbat Quirinali lituo (an augur's staff bent at the end, such as that 
bome by Quiriuutt RomuTus, here taken to represent the purs 
Roman race) et tuccinctus parva trabea (a striped toga, appropriated 
to high functionaries ; parva, probably to mark the fragality of tfae 
time. See 612). — 190. Aureay dissyllable, aurya, — 191. CtVce, en- 
amoured of Picns {conjunx ; see at Ecl. viii. 18), changed the unwil- 
ling king into the bird bearing his name.-~206. Auruncot. See 
p. 180, hne7. — 207. Idaeas. See at ii. 694. Urbes, Troy. — '208. 
Samathracia, an island in the Ae^ean sea, south of Tbrace. Virgit 
here unites two legends in tha history of Dardanus. See at i. 625, 
and iii. 168.-^209. CorythL See at p. 180, liae 4.-*212. Dixerat. 
8ee at ii. 621. 


< Rez, genns egregimn Fauni; oec flootibas aetos 

Atra Bubegit hiems vestris succedere terrisi 

Nec sidus regione viae litusve fefellit ; 215 

Consilio hauc omnes animisque volentibus urbem 

Adferimur, pulsi reguis, quae maxima quondam 

Extremo veniens Sol aspiciebat Olympo. 

Ab Jove principium generis ; Jove Dardana pubes 

Gaudet avo ; rex ipse Jovis de gente suprema, 220 

Troius AeneaS) tua nos ad limina misit. 

Quanta per Idaeos saevis effusa Mycenis 

Tempestas ierit campos, quibus actus uterque 

Europae atque Asiae fati:i concurrerit orbis, 

Audiit, et si quem tellus extrema refuso 225 

Submovet Oceano, et si quem extenta plagarum 

Quatuor in medio dirimit plaga Solis iniqui. 

Diluvio ex illo tot vasta per aequora vecti 

Dis sedem exiguam patriis litusque rogamus 

Innocuum, et cunctis undamque auramque pateniem. 230 

Non erimus regno indecores, nec vestra feretur 

Fama levis, tantive abolescet gratia facti, 

Nec Trojam Ausonios gremio excepisse pigebit. 

Fata per Aeneae juro aextramque potentem, 

Sive hde seu quis bello est expertus et armis : 23o 

Multi nos populi, multae — ne temne, quod ultro 

Praeferimus manibus vittas ac verba precantia — 

£t petiere sibi et voluere adjungjsre gentes ; 

Sed nos fata deum vestras exquirere terras 

Imperiis egere suis. Hino Dardanus ortus ; 240 

Huc repetit jussisque ingentibuH urguet Apollo 

Tyrrhenum ad Thybrim et fontis vada sacra Numict. 

Dat tibi praeterea Fortuoae parva prioris 

Munera, reliquias Troja ex ardente receptas. 

Hoc mter Anchises auro libabat ad aras; 245 

Hoc Priami gestamen erat, cum jura vocatis 

213. Genus. See at iv. 12. — 215. As the ancients directed their 
course by the stars, or the line of shore, a mistake in their observa- 
tions of either might lead them to a country which tbey had no in* 
teniion of vi8itiDg.--218. Olympo. See at Ecl. v. 56. — 219. Jov, 
See at iii. 168. — 222. Mycenis (see i. 283), put for Greece generally. 
— 225. The storm that swept over Troy has been heard t^th in the 
north and the south — the torrid zone lying between the other four. 
See Ovid, Met. i. 48.-226. Oeeano, o unelided.—229. Dt», diis. 
7-230. Innocuum, where we ahail do harm to none. — 235. Faithfiil 
m peace, and powerful in war.— 237. Frecantia, three syllablcs, 
Sered**^ — ^*^' ^****"*"*» presenting sceptre, crown, and embrot 

LIBER TII. 8€ft 

More daret popiiliai, sceirtraniqae saeerqne Uaras 
Uiadumque Jabor vestes.' 

Talibus Ilionei dictis defixa Latinus 
Obtutu teDet ora, soloque immobilis haeret 250 

Intentos volvens oculos. Nec purpura regem 
Picta movet, nec sceptra mo?ei)t Priameia tantumi 
Qnantum in connubio natae thalamoque moretur } 
£t veteris Fauni volvit sub pectore sortem : 
Hunc illum fatis externa ab sede profectum 255 

Portendi generum, paribusque in regna vocari 
Auspiciis; huic progeniem virtute futuram 
Egregiam, et totum quae viribus occupet orbem. 
Tandem laetus ait : ^ Di nostra incepta secundeut 
Auguriumque suum ! Babitur, Trojane, quod optas* 260 
Munera nec sperno. Non vobis, rege Latino, 
Divitis uber agri Trojaeve opuJentia deerit. 
Ip&e modo Aeneas, nostri si tanta cupido est, 
S iungi hospitio properat sociusque vocari, 
Adveniat, vultus neve exhorrescat amicos. 265 

Pars mihi pacis erit dextram tetigisse tyranni. 
Vos contra regi mea nunc mandata referte. 
£st mihi nata, viro gentis quam jungere nostrae 
Non patrio ex adyto sortes, non plurima coelo 
Monstra sinunt ; generos externis affore ab oris^ 276 
Hoc Latio restare— canunt, qui sanguine nostrum 
Nomen in astra ferant. Hunc illum poscere fata 
£t reor, et, si quid veri mens augurat, opto.' 
Haec effatus equos numero pater eligit omni. 
Stabant ter centum nitidi in praesepibus altis. 275 

Omnibus extemplo Teucris jubet ordine duci 
Instratos ostro alipedes pictisque tapetis; 
Aurea pectoribus demissa monilia pendent; 
Tecti auro, fulvum mandunt sub dentibus aurum ; 
Absenti Aeneae ccirrum geminosoue jugalis 260 

Semine ab aetheriO| spirantis naribus i|^nem, gente, patri quos daedala Circe 
» ■ ■ ■ 

253. C&nttubio. See at 96.-- 254. SoHem^ an oracular response. 
Bee 96, &c. — 256. Panbu$ auspiciisy ordained by heaven to have 
joint powerwith himself. See iv. 102.— 259. Secundent, See at 
mL 36.-262. Deeritf derit. — 266. Tyrannu» in the simple sense 
of rex. — 273. Lotinus both deems Aeneas to be the chosen one, and 
approves of the choice. — 277. The coveringa of the horses were of 
purple (ostro) cloth, embroidered with gold (pictis ; auro teeti, 279) 
— 282. Ciree had obtained, by stealth, a breed of horses firom thoee 
of her fatber the sun-god, by a mare of mortai race. Falri qu—t 
which belooging to her £ither, oxfurata patri. 


Sapposita de matre nothos fbrata crearit. 

TaliDus Aeneadae donis dictisque Latini 

Sublimes in equis redf unt, pacemque reportant. 2S5 

Ecce autem Inachiis 6ese leferebat ab Argis 
Saeva Jovis conjunx, aurasque invecta tenebat, 
Et laetum Aenean classemque ex aethere longe 
Dardaniam Siculo prospexit ab nsque Pachyno. 
Moliri jam tecta videt, jam fidere terrae, 290 

Deseruisse rates. Stetit acri fixa dotora. 
Tum quassans caput haec effundit peclore dicta : 
' Heu stirpem invisam, et fatis contraria nostris 
Fata Phrygum ! num Sigeis occumbere campisj 
Num capti potuere capi ? num incensa cremavit 295 

Troja viros? Medias acies mediosque per ignis 
Invenere viara. At, credo, mea numina tandem 
Fessa jacent, odiis aut exsaturata quievi — 
Quin etiam patria excussos infesta per undas 
Ausa sequi, et profugis toto me opponere ponto. 300 

Absumptae in Teucros vires coelique marisque. 
Quid Syrtes, aut Scylia mihi, quid vasta Charybdis 
Profuit ? optato conduntur Thybridis alveo, 
Securi pelagi atque mei. Mars perdere gentem 
Immanem Lapithum valuit; concessit in iras 305 

Ipse deum antiquam geniior Calydona Dianae — 
Quod scelusaut Lapitha8tantum,autCalydonamerentem? 
Ast ego, magna Jovis conjunx, nil linquere inausnm 
Quae potui infelix, quae memet in omnia verti, 
Vincor ab Aenea. Quod si mea numina non sunt 310 
Magna satis, dubitem haud equidem implorare quod 

usquam est. 
Flectere si nequeo Superos, Acheronta movebo. 
Non dabitur regnis, esto, prohibere Latinis, 

■ 886. Inachust ariver-god and mythic king of Argoe. — 287. Saeva 
eonjunx, Juno. See i. 24. — 289. Padiynoy in Sicily. See p. 180, 
Jine 43. — 293. See a parallel pasaage, i. 37, &c. — 294. The plaina 
of Troy were called Sigei, from the neighbouring promontory of 
that name. — 296. We may insert — No— *they have found their 
way,* &'C. See at iv. 369. — 297. Credo, ironical. — 299. Quiit. 
* Nay, 80 far from their arrival in Italy being the result of any qoi- 
escence on my part, I even dared, &c. See i. 65, &c., v. 604, a&c 
— 302. Syrtes. See the storm in the first book, the Syrtes here 
Deing put for the African sands generally. Seyllaj Charybdis. See 
iii. 554, &c. — 303. Alveo. See at 33. — 305. Ijapithum. See at vi. 
^Oi. The allusion is to the war between the Lapithae and the 
Contaurs.— 306. Cedydona, a town in Aetolia, which, having ne- 
^lcoted the worship of Diana, was punished by the ravases of m 
monttrous boar. — 313. E$to. See at iv. 35. 


Atqne immota manet ieUis Lavmia conmnx : 

At trahere, atque moras tantis licet addere rebus; 315 

At licet amborum populos exscindere regum. 

Hac gener atque socer coeant mercede suorum. 

Sanguine Trojano et Rutulo dotabere, virgo, 

Et Beiiona manet te pronuba. Nec face tantum 

Cisseis praegnans ignis enixa jugalis^ 320 

Quin idem Veneri partus suus et Paris alter, 

Funestaeque iternm recidiva in Pergama taedae.' 

Haec uoi dicta dedit, terras horrenda petivit; 
Luctificam ^llecto dirarum ab sede dearum 
Infernisque ciet tenebris, cui tristia bella 325 

Iraeque insidiaeque et crimina noxia cordi. 
Odit et ipse pater Pluton, odere sorores 
Tartareae monstrum : tot sese vertit in ora^ 
Tam saevae facies, tot pullulat atra colubris. 
Quam Juno his acuit verbis, ac talia fatur : 330 

< Hunc mihi da proprium, vii^o sata Nocte, laboremi 
Hanc operam, ne noster honos infractave cedat 
Fama loco, neu connubiis ambire Latinum 
Aeneadae possint, Italosve obsidere finis. 
Tu potes unanimos arraare in proelia fratres 335 

Atque odiis versare domos, tu verbera tectis 
Funereasque inferre faces , tibi nomina mille, 
Mille nocendi artes. Fecundum concute pectus; 
Disjice compositam pacem, sere crimina belli } 
Arma velit poscatque simul rapiatque juventus.' 340 

Exin Gorgoneis Allecto infecta venenis 
Principio Latium et Laurentis tecta tyranni 
Celsa petit, tacitumque obsedit limen Amatae, 
Quam super adveutu Teucrum Turnique hymenaeis 
Femineae ardentem curaeque iraeque coquebant. 345 
Huic dea caeruleis unum de crinibus anguem 

317. Hacmercedey war and bloodshed. — 319. Pronuba. See at iv. 
59. — 320. Hecuba (Cissets ; see at v. 537) had dreamed, before the 
birth of Paris, that her ofTspring was a blazing torch. Juno applies 
this to Venus. Her offspring (parlus suus)^ Aeneas, was to be 
^aally a source of destruction {idem) to his race — to reviving Troy 
{reeidiva JPergama ; see at ii. 177) as Pam. — 324. Allecto, the Greek 
accusative, 'AXX>7Kra>. It is sometimes given Alecto. Sede. See vi. 
571. Observe the construction, cui cordi sunt, bring a heartfelt 
delight. — 327. Pluton. See at iv. 702. — 332. Infrada, from in- 
fringo. Seeati. 680: infringatur et cedat. — 333. Connuhiis. See 
at 96. — 341. Gorgonexs. See at ii. 616, vi. 286. Venenis probably 
refeiB to the vcnomous effects of the serpents with which Allecto 
stang her victims (346), and with which her head was encircled, as 
iledttsa'8 was. 


CoDJicit inqne sinmn praecordia ad intima Rubdit, 

Quo faribunda domum monstro permisceat omnem. 

Ille, inter vestes et levia pectora lapsus, 

Yolvitar attactu nullo, fallitque furentem, 350 

Yipeream inspirans animam ; fit tortile collo 

Aurum ingens coluber, fit longae taenia vittae, 

Innectitque comas, et membris lubricus errat. 

Ac dum prima lues udo sublapsa veneno 

Pertentat sensus atque ossibus implicat ignem, 355 

Necdum animus toto percepit pectore flammam, 

Mollius, et Bolito matrum de more, locuta est, 

Multa super natae lacrimans Phr^giisque hymenaeis : 

'Exsulibusne datur ducenda Lavmia Teucris, 

O genitor % nec te miseret nataeque tuique ? 360 

Nec matris miseret, quam primo aquilone relinquet 

PerfiduB, alta petens abducta virgine, praedo ? 

At non sic Phrygius penetrat Lacedaemona pastor 

Ledaeamque Helenam Trojanas vexit ad urDes. 

Quid tua sancta fides ? quid cura antiqua tuorum 365 

£t consanguineo toties data dextera Tumo ? 

Si gener extema petitur de gente Latinis, 

Idque sedet, Faunique premunt te jussa parentis, 

Omnem equidem sceptris terram quae libera nostris 

Dissidetj extemam reor, et sic dicere divos. 370 

£t Turao, si prima domus repetatur origo, 

Inachus Acrisiusque patres mediaeque Mycenae.' 

His ubi nequidquam dictis experta Latinum 
Contra stare videt, penitusque in viscera lapsum 
Serpentis furiale malum, totamque pererrat, 375 

Tum vero infelix, ingentibus excita monstris, 
Immensam sine more furit lymphata per urbem: 
Ceu quondam torto volitans sub verbere turbo, 
Quem pueri magno in gyro vacua atria circum 

348. Quo tnonstroj 'that with this fearful instniment.' — 350. 
Fdllit. See at ii. 744. — 354-372. At first, when the influence of 
the viper is small, Amatae tries persuasion; then (373, &c.) under 
its full influence she grows wild with rage. — 360. Genitor^ appeal- 
ing to him as Lavinia*8 father. -— 362. ^lta petenst &c. As Paris 
had done with Helen. See iv. 215, &c. — 363. Atj &c. ; ironicaL 
Lacedaemona. It was from Lacedaemon that Paris carried away 
Helen. — 364. Ledaeam. See at i. 651. — 367. Externa is the em- 
phatic word. — 369. Tho Rutiili are independcnt of (Ztftcro), and 
Mparate from ( dvtsiderij the Laurentians ; therefore extema. — 372. 
Besides, Tumus is an extemusi because sprung from Inachus (at 
^6), and Aerigius (at 56). Mycenae seems used as in 222; the very 
heart (maftae) of Greece. — 374. Lapsiim est. —378. Obscrve how 
virgira language gives epic dignity cven to the spinning of a top. 


Intentilodo exeroent; nieactushabena S80 

Carvatis fertar spatiis; stupet inscia sapra 
Impabesque manus, mirata volubile buxum; 
. ' " Dant animos plagae. Non cursu segnior illo 
Per medias arbes agitur populosque ferocis. 
Quin etiam in silvas, simulato numine Bacchi, 385 

Majus adorta nefas majoremque orsa furoremi 
Evolat, et natam frondosis montibus abdit, 
Quo toalamum eripiat Teucris taedasque moretur, 
' JSuoe Bacche !' fremens^ solum te virgine dignum. 
Yociferans: etenim mollis tibi sumere th^rsos, 390 

Te lustmre choro, sacrum tibi pascere crmem. 
Fama volat, furiisque accensas pectore matres 
Idem omnis simul ardor agit, nova quaerere tecta. 
Deseruere domos, ventis dant coUa comasque ; 
Ast aliae tremulis ululatibus aethera complent, 395 

Pampineasque gerunt incinctae pellibus hastas. 
Ipsa inter medias flagrantem fervida pinum 
Siistinet, ac natae Tumique canit hymenaeos, 
Sanguineam torquens aciem, torvumque repente 
Clamat : ' lo matres, audite, ubi quaeque, Latinae : 400 
Si qua piis animis manet infelicis Amatae 
Gratia, si juris materni cura remordet, 
Solvite crinaiis vittas, capite orgia mecum.' 
Talem inter silvas, inter deserta ferarum^ 
Reginam Allecto stimuHs agit undique Bacchi. 405 

Postquam visa satis primos acuisse furores, 
Consiliumque omnemque domum vertisse Latini| 
Protinus hinc fuscis tristis dea tollitur alis 
Audacis Bntuli ad muros, quam dicitur urbem 
Acrisioneis Danae fundasse colonis 410 

Praecipiti delata Noto. Locus Ardea quondam 

383. Animosy velocitatem. — 388. Torches were used in the mar- 
riage processioQs; hence ^aee^as for nuptias. — 389. OnEuoeipro» 
Doonce Euoy), see at vi. 517. — 390. vociferans virginem tibi (in 
tuttm hoBorem) sumere, &c. — 391. Te lustrare choro, ' that it is for 
thee riie leads the sacred dance*— (t«) the statue of Bacchus in the 
middle of the dancers. Ti» Bacchus also the hair was dedicated 
ifirinem) which flowed loose in the orgies. So 394, 403. — 398. 
CanM by the arsis. — 399. Torvum, See at Ed. iii. 8.— 404. Tdlem, 
•quivalent to tali modo, or demum talem factam. — 410. Acrisionets 
i$ hf •ome taken to be a feminine patronymic for Danae. But such 
a ^nnation is anomaloas. 'JLxpiauiwt is the regular form ; hence the 

906 AENKlDOfl. 

Dictas aTis; et nunc ma^um tenet Ardea nomea* 

Sed fortuna fuit. Tectis hic Tumus in altis 

Jam mediam nisra carpebat nocte quietem. 

Allecto tonram faciem et furialia membra 418 . 

Exuit ; in vultus sese transformat anilis 

£t frontem obscenam rugis arat , induit albos 

Cum yitta crinis ; tum ramum innectit oliTae ; 

Fit Calybe Junonis anus templique saoerdos ; 

£t juveni ante oculos his se cum yocibns offert : 420 

' Tume. tot incassum fusos patiere labores, 

£t tua bardaniis transcribi sceptra colonia? 

Rex tibi conjugium et ^juaesitas sanguine dotea 

Abnegat, exterausque m regnum quaeritur heres. 

I nunc, ingratis ofTer te, irrise, periclis ] 425 

Tyrrhenas, i, steme acies; tege pace Latinos. 

Haec adeo tibi rae^ placida cum nocte jaceres, 

Ipsa palam fari omnipotens Saturaia jussit. 

Quare age, et arroari pubem ^rtisque moveri 

Laetus in arma para, et Phrygios, qui flamine pulchro 430 

Consedere, duces pictasque exure carinas. 

Coelestum vis magna jubet. Rex ipse Latinns, 

Ni dare conjugium et dicto parere fatetur, 

Sentiat et tandem Turaum experiatur in armis.' 

Hic iuvenis, vatem irridens, sic orsa vicissim 435 

Ore refert : ^Classis invectas Thybridis undam 
Non, ut rere, meas effugit riuntius auris : 
Ne tantos mihi finge metus. Nec regia Juno 
Immemor est tiostri ; 

Sed le victa situ verique effeta senectus, 440 

O mater^ curis nequidquam exercet, et arma 
Regum mter falsa vatem formidine ludit. 
Cura tibi, divom effigies et templa tueri ; 
Bella viri pacemque gerant, quis bella gerenda.' 

Talibus Allecto dictis exarsit in iras. 445 

At juveni oranti subitus tremor occupat artus; 

412. Avis, dat. for ab avis. Some understand avia to mewn 
the bird called Ardea. — 413. Fuit. Sce at ii. 325. The gloi^ 
of Ardea is a tale of ancient time8.-*427. Adeo seems to mean, 
' 80 important is this.* See at iv. 533. — 428. SeUurnia. See at i. 23 
—435. It is noticed by the critics that Virjgil from the veiy first 
contrasts the intractable temper of Tumus with the modest piety of 
Aeneas. — 438. Turnus was asleep, and Allecto had insmnated 
(429) that he would not have been so, had he known of the arriv»l 
of the Trojans. He says that he did know, and that he had no such 
fears as she imagined. — 439. See at i. 534. —441. MiUer, and 442, 
twfcm, spoken with good-humoured contempt.— 444. Quit, tbe da* 
tive tor quibus — 446. Oranti, nearly equivalent to loqaemi, b«l 

LiBBR rn. 907 

Deriguere ocnli : tot Erinnys sibilat iiydris, 
Tantaque se facies aperit; tum flammea torquens 
Lumina cunctantem et quaerentem dicere plura 
Keppulit, et geminos erexit crinibus anguis, 450 

Yerberaque insonuit, rabidoque haec addidit ore: 
£n ego victa situ, quam veri effeta senectus 
Arma inter regum falsa formidine ludit ; 
Respice ad haec : adsum dirarum ab sede sororum; 
Bella roanu letumque gero.' 455 

Sic effata facem juveni conjecit, et atro 
Lumine fumantis fixit sub pectore taedas. 
Olli somnum ingens rumpit pavor, ossaque et artus 
Perfudit toto proruptus corpore sudor. 
Arma amens fremit, arma toro tectisque requirit; 460 
Saevit amor ferri et scelerata insania belli, 
Ira super : magno veluti cum flamma sonore 
Virgea suggeritur costis undantis aeni, 
Exsukantque aestu latices; furit intus aquai ^ 

Fumidus atque alte spumis exuberat amnis ; 465 

Nee jam se capit unda ; volat vapor ater ad auras. 
Ergo iter ad regem polluta pace Latinum 
Indicit primis juvenum, et jubet arma parari; 
Tutari Italiam, detrudere miibus hostetn ; 
Se satis ambobus Teucrisque venire Latinisque. 470 

Haec ubi dicta dedit divosque in vota vocavit, 
Certatim sese Rutuli exhortantur in arma. 
Honc decus egregium formae movet atque juventae^ 
Hunc atavi reges, hunc claris dextera factis. 

Dum Turnus Rutulos animis audacibus implet, 475 
Allecto in Teucros Stygiis se concitat alis. 
Arte nova, speculata locum quo litore pulcher 
Insidiis cursuque feras agitabat lulus, 
Hic subitam canibus rabiem Cocytia virgo 
Objicit et noto naris contingit odore, 480 

Ut cervum ardentes agerent ; quae prima laborum 

perhaps with some notion of vehemence attached to it. See x. 96. 
—447. Erinnys. See at ii. 337. — 454. Dirarum, an appropriate 
epithet. See at iv. 469.-458. Olli. See at i. 254. See the oppo- 
site idea with the Bame construction, i. 691 ; and see at vi. 473.- * 
459. Perfudity the sweat has bedewed, before he awakes. Othere 
read perfundit. — 460. Arma, &c. See xi. 453. — 462. Super seems 
to denote that his wrath for the threatened loss of Lavinia surpassed 
cven his love of war. — 464. Aquai. See at iii. 354. — 470. Satis, 
parem. Latinisque; an elision before kaec. — 474. Hunc — hunc — 
hune. One, another a third. — 477, &c. The ars nova extends to 
speculata and objicit. —479. HiCf the adverb. Cocytia. See at vi. 295. 

368 A£lffElDOS. 

CauMa fuit belloqae aaimos aceeodit agrestift. 
Cer?us erat forma praestanti et cornibus ingena^ 
Tyrrhidae pueri quetn matris ab ubere raptum 
Nutribant Tyrrheusque pater, cui regia parent 485 

Arraenta, et late custodia credita campi. 
Assuetum imperiis soror omni Silvia cura 
Mollibus intexens ornabat cornua sertis, 
Pectebatque ferum, puroque in fonte lavabat. 
Ille manum patiens mensaeaue adsuetus herili 490 

Errabat silvis, rursusque ad Jimina nota 
Ipse domum 8era quamvis se nocte ferebat. 
Honc procul errantem rabidae venantis luli 
Commovere canes, fluvio cum forte secundo 
Defiaeret, ripaque aestus viridante levaret. 495 

Ipse etiam, eximiae laudis succensus amore) 
Ascanius curvo direxit spicula cornu ; 
Nec dextrae erranti deus afuit, actaque multo 
Perque nterum sonitu perque iiia venit arundo. 
Saucius at quadrupes nota intra tecta refugit, 500 

Suocessitque gemens stabulis, questuque cruentus 
Atque imploranti similis teetum omne replebat. 
Silvia prima soror, paJmis percussa lacertos, 
Auxilium vocat et auros conclamat agrestis. 
OUi, Pestis enim tacitis latet aspera siivis, 505 

Improvisi adsunt, hic torre armatus obusto, 
Stipitis hic graviai nodis; quod cuique repertum 
Rimanti, telum ira facit. Vocat agmina TyrrheuSy 
Quadrifiaam quercum cuneis ut forte coactis 
Scindebat, rapta spirans immane securi. 510 

At saeva e speculis tempus dea nacta ndcendi 
. Ardua tecta f>etit stabuli, et de culmine summo 
Pastorale canit signum, cornuque recurvo 
Tartaream intendit vocem, qua protinus omne 
Contremuit nemus et silvae msonuere profundae; 515 
AiSdiit et Triviae longe lacus } audiit amnis 
Sulfurea Nar albus aqua fontesque Velini, 

486. Et cui latCi &c. — 487. Assuetum imperiUi mansuefae* 
ium. — 490. Manumy manuum. See at vi. 653. — 491. Errc^tai, &c. 
The imperfecU mark a habit. — 493. Procul a domo. —495. He wa9 
alternately swimming and resting on the green bank. SecuntU 
•down,* opposed to adversumt viii. 58. — 503. Percussalacertot, th^ 
accusative of limitation. — 505. Pestis ; Allecto. — 506. Hic — hic> 
See 474. —510. Immane. See at Ecl. iu. 8. — 516. Triviae ; Diana. 
See at iv. 609. The lake, near Aricia, is alluded to, 763, &c. See 
p. 293, hne 23 — 517. The Nar, noted for sulphuroufl springs, is m 
tnbuiaryoftheTiber. Vdini. See page 292, line 46. 


Et trepidae matres pressere ad pectora natos. 
Tum vero ad vocem celeres, qua buccina signum 
Dira dedit, raptis concurrunt undique telis 520 

Indoraiti agricolae ; nec non et Troia pubes 
Ascanio auxilium castris effundit apertis. 
Direxere acies. Non jam certamine agresti, 
Stipitibus duris agitur sudibusve praeustis, 
"^ Sed ferro ancipiti decernunt, atraque late , 525 

Horreteit strictis seges ensibus, aeraque fulgent 
Sole lacessita, et lucem sub nubila jactant : 
Fluctus uti primo coepit cum albescere vento, 
Paulatim sese tollit mare et aitius undas 
Erigit, inde imo consurgil ad aethera fundo. 530 

Hic juvenis primam ante aciem stridente sagitta, 
Natorum Tyrrhei fuerat qui maximus, Almo 
Sternitur; haesit enim sub gutture vulnus et udae 
Vocis iter tenuemque inclusit sanguine vitam. 
Corpora multa virum circa, seniorque Galaesus, 535 

Dum paci medium se offert, justissimus unus 
Qui fuit, Ausoniisque olim ditissimus arvis : 
Quinque greges illi balantum, quina redibant 
Armenta. et terram centum verlebat aratris. 

Atque ea per campos aeqno dum Marte geruntur, 540 
Promissi dea facta potens, ubi sanguine belTum 
imbuit et primae commisit funera pugnae, 
Deserit Hesperiam, et coeli conversa per auras 
Junonem victrix affatur voce superba : 
*En, perfecta tibi bello discordia tristi, 545 

Dic, in amicitiam coeant et foedera jungant. 
Quandoquidem Ausonio respersi sanguine Teucros, 
Hoc etiam his addam, tua si mihi certa volunlas : 
Finitimas in bella feram rumoribus urbes, 
Accendamque animos insani Martis amore, 560 

Undique ut auxilio veniant ; spargam arma per agros. 
Tum contra Juno : 'Terrorum et fraudis abunde est : 
Stant belli causae; pugnatur comminus armis; 
Quae fors prima dedit, sanguis novus imbuit arma 
Talia conjugia et talis celebrent hymenaeos 555 

Egregium Veneris genus et rex ipse Latinus. 

520. Dira. See at 454. — 524. Prahistis. — 525. Ferro anctpvtt, 
bipennibus. — 533. Udae, &c. The road of his voice (now made) wet ; 
•^hat 18, his throat choaked with blood. — 536. Justissimus unus. See 
at ii. 426. — 540. Marte. See at EcL v. 69. — 541. PromissipotenSf 
having fulfilled herproniise made to Juno. — 545. Tibi. The dativus 
eommodi. — 646. DiCf &c. ironical. — 552. Ahunde; usedasanin- 
declinable substantive. — 553. Stant, See at i. 268. — 556. Egrp 

9W ABNB1D08. 

Te Bnper aetherias errare licentius auras 

Haod Pater ille velit, summi regnator OiyrojH. 

Cede locis. £go, si qua super lortuna laborum eflt, 

Ipsa regam.' Talis dederat Saturnia voces; 560 

llla autem attollit etridentis anguibus alas, 

Cocytique petit sedem, supera ardua linquens. 

Est locus Italiae medio sub montibus altisy 

Nobilis et fama multis memoratus in oris, 

Amsancti valles; densis hunc frondibus atrum 565 

Urguet utrimque latus nemoris^ medioque fragosos 

Dat sonitum saxis et torto veHice torrens. 

Hic specus horrendum et saevi spiracula Ditis 

Monstrantur, ruptoque ingens Acheronte vorago 

Pestiferas aperit fauces, quis condita Erinnys, 570 

Invisum numen, terras coeiumque levabat. 

Nec minus interea extremam Saturnia bello 
Imponit re^ina manum. Ruit omnis in urbem 
Pastorum ex acie numerus, caesosque reportant 
Almonem puerum foe(]atique ora Galaesi, 575 

Implorantque deos, obtestanturque Latinum. 
Turnus adest, medioque in crimine caedis et ignis 
Terrorem ingeminat : Teucros in regna vocari y 
Stirpem admisceri Phrygiam : se limine pelii. 
Tum, quorum attonitae Baccho nemora avia matres 580 
Insultant thiasis — ^neque enim leve nomen Amatae-^ 
Undique collecti coeunt, Martemque fatigant. 
Ilicet infandum cuncti contra omina belium, 
Contra fata deum, perverso numine poscunt. 
Certatim regis circumstant tecta Latini; 585 

Ille velut pelagi rupes immota resistit, 
Ut pelagi rupes magno veniente fragore, 
Quae sese, multis circum latrantibus undis, 
Mole tenet; scopuli nequidquam et spumea circum 
Saxa fremunt, laterique iliisa refunditur alga. 590 

Yerum ubi nulla datur caecnm exsuperare^potestas 
Consilium, et saevae nutu Junonis eunt res, 
Multa deos aurasque pater testatus inanis, 
■ ■ II 1 1 I I ...11» 

gium. See at vi. 523. — 559. Super est, See ut 6,^561, 
Stridentis. See at Ecl. i. 3. — 565. Amsancti. See p. 292, line 15 1 
and generally for the places mentioned in tbis book, consult the Ar» 
ttument, — 568. Spiracula. Where Dia breathes forth noisome eX" 
Balations. — 570. Quisj quibus. — 580. li quorumt &c., coeuni. 
Attonitae, referring to Allecto. See at vi. 53. Baccho, dat. in 
honour of. See 392. Nemora inMuUant. See 392, &c. — 593, 
lestatust governing two accusatives, like verbs of askinff «uJ 
leaching; or perhapa muU9, as in £cl. iii. 8. 



*Frangimur heu fatis,' inquit, 'ferimurque procella! 

Ipsi has sacrilego pendetis sanguine poenas, 595 

O miseri. Te, Turne, nefas, le triste manebit 

Supplicium, votisque deos venerabere seris. 

Narn mihi parta quies, omnisque in limine portus ; 

Funere felici spolior.' Nec plura locutus 

Sepsit se tectis, rerumque reiiquit habenas. 600 

Mos erat Hesperio in Latio, quem protenus urbes 
Albanae coluere sacrum. nunc maxima rerum 
Roma colit, cum prima movent in proeha Martem| 
Sive Getis inferre manu lacrimabile bellum 
Hyrcanisve Arabisve parant, seu tendere ad Indos 605 
Auroramque sequi Parthosque reposcere signa : "• 
Sunt geminae Belii portae, sic nomine dicunt, 
Keligiohe sacrae et saevi formidine Martis ) 
Centum aerei claudunt vectes aeternaque ferri 
Robora, nec custos absistit limine Janus; 610 

Has, ubi certa sedet patribus sententia pugnae, 
Ipse Quirinali trabea cinctuque Gabino 
Insignis reserat stridentia limina Consul ] 
Ipse vocat pugnas, sequitur tum cetera pubes, 
Aereaque assensu conspirant cornua rauco. 615 

Hoc et tum Aeneadis indicere bella Latinus 
Mor6 jubebatur tristisque recludere porlas. 
Abstinuit tactu pater, aversusque refugit 
Foeda ministeria, et caecis se condidit umbris. 
Tum regina deum coelo deiapsa morantis 620 

Impulit ipsa manu portas, et cardine verso 
Belli ferratos rumpit Saturnia postis. 
Ardet inexcita Ausonia at^ue immobilis ante ; 
Pars pedes ire parat campis, pars arduus altis 

596. Tct &c., prophcsying his death, narrated in the twelfth 
book. — 598. Quies. See the cosnate verb similarly useci, i. 249. 
—601. See at i. 73, and p. 293, line 38. Protenut^ in unbroken 
fettccession. — 604. Getae. See at Georg, iv. 463. — 605. Hyreanis. 
See at iv. 367. Arahis. The general form is Arahtt not Arabus. 
Indot, See at Georg, ii. 170. — 606. Parthos. See at Ecl. i. 64. 
The design of the passage is to magnify the greatness of the Roman 
£mpire under Augustus. See vi. 792, &c. The particular allusion 
in Parthos is to a demand made by Augustus, b.c. 23, for the 
standards taken from Crassus, and complied with, b.c. 20, the year 
before Virgil died. — 607. Referrinff to the temple of Janus. So« 
L 2^, &.C. — 609. Aerei, two syllaDles. — 612. Quirinoli. See at 
167. Citiclu Gahinoy a peculiar way of wearing the toga, from 
Oabii (sec at vi. 773), of Etrurian origin, used on solemn occationt 
such as this. ^ 624. Part arduut, an unprecedented use of par9 
with the masculine singular. For the mas. plur., «s in v. 106, a i» 

dll^ AKNKID08. 

PalTerulentas equis furit ] oibnes arma requirant. ^ 

Pars levis clipeos et spicula lucida tergent 

Arvina pingui, subiguntque in cote secures; 

Signaque ferre juvat. sonitusque audire tubarum. 

Quinque adeo magnae positis incudibus urbes 

Tela novant, Atina potens Tiburque superbum, 630 

Ardea Crustumerique et turrigerae Antemnae. 

Tegmina tuta cavant capitum; flectuntque salignas 

Umbonum cratis : alii thoracas aenos 

Aut levis ocreas lento ducunt ai^ento 

Vomeris huc et falcis honos, huc omnis aratri 635 

Cessit amor; recoquunt patrios fornacibus enses. 

Classica jamque sonant ; it belio tessera signum. 

Hic galeam tectis trepidus rapit; ille frementis 

Ad juga cogit equos : clipeumque auroque trilicem 

Loncam induitury fiuoque accingitur ense. 640 

Pandite nunc Helicona, deae, cantusque movete, 
Qui bello exciti reges, quae quemque secutae 
Complerint campos acies, quibus Itala jam tum 
Floruerit terra alma viris, quibus arserit armis; 
Et meministis enim, divae, et memorare potestis; 645 
Ad nos vix tenuis lamae perlabitur aura. 

Primus init bellum Tyrrhenis asper ab oris 
Contemptor divom Mezentius agmmaque armat. 
Filius huic juxta Lausus, quo pulchrior alter 
Non fuit, excepto Laurentis corpore Tumi. 650 

Lausus, equum domitor debellatorque ferarum| 
Ducit Agyilina nequidquam ex urbe secutos 
Mille viros, dignus, patriis qui laetior esset 
Imperiis, et cui pater haud Mezentius esset. 

Post hos insignem palma per graraina currum 655 

Victoresque ostentat equos satus Hercule pulchro 
Pulcher Aventinus, clipeoque insigne paternum 
Centum anguis cinctamque gerit serpentibus Hydram ', 
Collis Aventini silva quem Khea sacerdos 
Furtivum partu snb luminis edidit oras, 660 

Mixta deo mulier, postquam Laurentia victor 
Geryone exstincto Tirynthius attigit arva, 

easy to account. See at vi. 581. — 631. Turrigeract -ae unelided. 
-^ 634. It is rare to have a spondee in the fourth foot of a spondaiC 
line. See 631. — 635. Huc, bello. — 639. Auroque. See at iiu 
467 — 641. Helicona, a wcU-known mountain in Boeotia, the haant 
of the Muses «feae). — 652. Nequidquam. See the death of son and 

iaiher, x. 820, &c. — 658. Hydram. See at vL 286 662. See at 

▼I; 286, and viii. 200, &c. TirynlhiuM, Hercules was reared at 
Tiryna near Argos. . 

UBER Tll. 813 

Tyrrhenoque boves in flumine laTit Iberas. 

Pila manu saevqsc^ue gerunt in bella dolones, 

£t tereti pugnant mucrone veruque SabeUo. 669 

Ipse pedes, tegumen torquens immune leoniS| 

Terribili impexum seta, cum dentibus albis 

Indutus capiti, sic regia tecta subibat, 

florridus, Herculeoque humeros innexus amictu. 

Tum gemini fratres Tiburtia moenia linquunt| 670 
Fratris Tiburti dictam cognomine g^entem, 
iiatillusque acerqne Coras, Argiva juventus, 
£t primam ante aciem densa inter tela feruntur : 
Ceu duo nubigenae cum vertice montis ab alto 
Descendunt Centauri, Homolen Othrymque nivalem 675 
Linquentes cursu rapido ; dat euntibus ingens 
Silva locum, et magno cedunt virgulta fragore. 

Nec Praenestinae fundator defuit urbis, 
Vulcano genitum pecora inter agrestia regem 
Inventumque focis omnis quem credidit aetas, 680 

^ Caeculus. Hunc legio late comitatur agrestis; 
Quique altum Praeneste viri, quique arva Gabinae 
Junonis gelidumque Anienem et roscida rivis 
Hemica saxa colunt; quos dives Anagnia pascit, 
Quos, Amasene pater. Non illis omnibus arma, 685 
Nec clipei currusve sonant ; pars maxima glandes 
Liventis plumbi spargil; pars spicula gestat 
Biiia manu ; fulvosque lupi de pelle galeros 
Tegmen habent capiti ; vestigia nuda sinistri 
Instituere pedis; crudus tegit altera pero. 690 

At Messapns, equum domitor, Neptunia proleSi 
Quem neque fas igrii cuiquam nec sternere ferro, 
Jam pridem resides populos desuetaque bello 
Agmina in arma vocat subito, ferrumque retractat. 
Hi Fescenninas acies Aequosque Faliscos, 695 

Hi Soractis habent arces Fiaviniaque arva, 
£t Cimini cnm monte lacum lucosque Capenos. 
Ibant aequati numero, regemque canebant : 
Ceu quondam nivei liquida inter nubila cycni 
Cum sese e pastu referunt-et longa canoros 700 

Dant per colla modos; sonat amnis et Asia longe 
Pulsa palns. 

« ^W^— I » ^ ■_-— ■ ■i.^l ^.-1 I ■■■ ..■■■--■l ■■II. ■ ■■! ■■-.. II-. M ■M»M 

6C5. Veru. See at Georg. ii. 167, 168. — 675. Homole and Othrvt, 
towns of Thessaly, where dwelt the Centaurs, sons of Ixion. See 
at \\. 286. — 688. Bina, wiih ifs proper form, of two to each.~ 
695. Hi^hi. See at 474, 506.— 698. Aequati numero seems to refer 
to their equal step to ihe sound of music. — 701. Amnis* The Cay- 
ater. SeeatCre«>rg.iv.343. This tract of country abounded in •wanb 
27 2b 

•14 ABNBiMS* 

Neo qai«qiiam aenlts aoias ex agmioe tanto 

Misceri potot, aeriam aed gurgite ab alto 

Uixaeri voiuerum rauoarum ad iitora oubem. 7M 

Ecce, Sabinorum prisco de aanguine, magnum 
Agmen agens Clausus, naagnique ipse agminis instari 
Claudia nunc a quo dinunditur et tribus et gens 
Per LAtium, postquam in partem data Roma Sabinis. 
Uiia ingens Amiterna cofaors priscique QuiriteS) 710 

Ereti manus omnis oliviferaeque Mutuscae; 
Qui Nomentnm urbem, qui Rosea rara Velini, 
Qui Tetricae liorrentis rupes montemque Severum 
Casperiamque oolunt, Forulosqne et numen Himellae: 
Qui Tiberim Fabarimque bibunt, quos frigida misit 715 
Nursia. et Uortinae oJasses populique Lalmi ; 
Quosque seoans infaustum interhiit Allia nomen : 
Quam multi Libyoo volvuntur roarmore fluctus^ 
S^evus ubi Oriou hibernis conditor undis; 
Vel cum sole uovo densae torrentur aristae, 720 

Aut Hermi campo, aut Lyciae flaventibus arvis, 
Scuta sonant, pulsuque pedum tremit excita telius» 

Hinc Agamemnonius, Trojani uomiais hostis, 
Curru jungit HaJaesus equos, Tornogue ferocis 
Mille rapit populos, vertuiU felicia Baccho 725 

Massioa qui rastris, et quos de coliibus aitis 
Aurunci misere patres Sidicinaque juxta 
. Aequora, quique Cales lioquunt, aninisque vadosi 
Accola Vulturni) pariterque Saticulus asper 
Oscorumque manus. Teretes sunt aclydes illis 730 

Tela ; sed baec lento mos est aptare ilagello. 
Laevas caetra te^^it; falcati comminus enses. 

Nec ta carminibus nostris indictus abibis, 
Oebale, quem generasse Telon Sebethitle nympha 
Fertur, Teleboum Capreas cum regna teneret, 735 

Jam senior ; patriis aed non et filius arvis 

705. Baucarum. See at i. 398. — 710. An ingenions use of the 
tradilivm reffarding \he erigin ef the ceiebrated gens Claudia, —-712. 
RSseOi the fertile pasture lands in the neighbourhood of Reate, 80 
calied from the copious dews that enriched the ground. Compaie 
with roseo, x. 5. — 719. Orion, See at i. 533. — 721. Hermi. Sce 
at Georg. ii. 136. Lyciae. See at iv. 143.— 722. See a simiUr 
passage, xii. 445. Oihers read pedum conterrita teUut. — 729. Ob- 
serve the distinction between incola, a dweller in, and accola, a 
dweller nea-. — 731. Haec tela. — 735. The reZe6<Hic had emigrated 
frpm an island off the coast of Acarnania to Capreae, off the coast 
w ^*"^'"* Telon fheir king was said to have married Seibetkif, 
the nymph of tae river Sebelhus, in Campania. 

ContentQs late jam tam dhtoiie preraabat 
Sarrastis populos et quae rigat a!eqt]ora Samus, 
Quique fiufras Batulumque {enent atque arva Ceknnae, 
£t quos maliferae despeciant moenla Abellae 740 

Teutonico ritu sohti torquerecateias, 
Tegmina quis capitum raptus de subere cortex, 
Aerataeque micant peltae, mioat aereus ensis» 

£t te montosae misere in proelia Nersae, 
Ufens, insignem fama et felicibusfirmta; 745 

Horrida praecipue cui gens, assuetaque rmilto 
Venatu nemorum, duris Aequioula glebis. 
Armati terram exercent, semperque reeentis 
Convectare juvat praedas et vivere rapto. 

Quin et Marruvia venit de gente sacerdoS) 750 

Fronde super gaieam et felici comptus oliva, 
Archippi regis missu, forttssimns IJmbro. 
Vipereo generi et graviter spirantibus hydris 
Spargere qui somnos cantuque manuque solebat 
Mulcebatque iras et morsus arte levabat. 755 

Sed non ]>strdaniae medioari cusptdis ictum 
£va1uit) neque eum juvere in vulnera cantus 
Somniferi et Marsis quaesitae montibus herbae. 
Te nemus Anguitiae, vitrea te Fucinus unda, 
Te liquidt flevere lacus. 760 

Ibat et Hippolyti proles pulcherrima bello, 
Virbius, insignem quem mater Aricia misit, 
£dnctum £geriae hicis humentia cireum 
Litora, pinguis ubi et placabilis ara Dianae. 
Namque femnt fama Hippolytum, postquam arte no- 
vercae 765 

Occiderit patriasque explerit sanguine poenas 
Torbatis aistractus equis, ad sidem rursus 
Aetheria ei superas coeli venisse sub auras, 
Paeoniis revocatum herbis et amore Dianae. 
Tum Pater omnipotens; aliquem indignatus ab umbris 770 

741. Soliti sunt. — 742. Quin, quibus.— 747. Vetiatu, See at 
Eel. V. 29. But others consider it as the abUtive. — 750. Others 
write Marrubia. — 751. See at v. 556, and Geortr, ii. 477t 486.—* 
763. EgeriaCf one of the native Italian deities, well known from her 
«onnection with the history of Numa.— 765. Novercae. Fhaedra 
(see at vi. 444), enraged at her stepson for rejecting her love, had 
fidsely accused him to Theseus. He besought his tather Neptune 
to punish the youth. Neptune sent sea-monsters, which frightened 
Ihe horses that were drawing the chariot of Hippolytus, who was 
Arown out and killed. — 769. Paeonii», from Uaiw, the oaaic of 
ApoUo, as the god wbo patroniaes physic. 


Mortalem Mtn» md lomiim mrg^m Yila 

Ip#e repertorem medicioae talis et artis 

Fulmme Phoebigenam ^ygias detrasit ad andas. 

At Trivia Hippdytom Mcretis alma recoodit 

Sedibos, et nymptoe £genae nemorique relegat, 7X5 

Solus ubi in flilrie Italis ignobilis aerum 

Exi^erety Tereoque ubi nomine Verbius esset. 

Unde etiam teinplo TriTtae lueisqae sacratis 

Cornipedes aroeniiir equi^ quod litore Gurrum 

£t juveoem monstris pavidi effudere marinis. 780 

Filios ardentes haud secius aequore campi 

£xercebat eqaos earruque in bella ruebat. 

Ipse inter primos praestanti corpore Tumus 
Yertitar arma tenens, et toto vertice supra est. 
Cui triplici crinata juba galea a]ta Chimaeram 785 

Sastinet, Aetnaeos efflantem faucibus ignis, 
Tam magis illa fremens et tristibus edfera flammis^ 
Quam magis effuso crudesouut sanguine pugnae. 
At levem clipeum sublatis coraibus lo 
Auro insignibat, jam setis c^ita, jam bos, 790 

Argumentum ingens. et custos virginis Argns, 
Caelataque amnem lundens pater Inachus uraa. 
Insequitur nirabus peditum, clipeataqne totis 
Agmnia densentur campis, Aigivaque pnbes 
Aurancaeque manus, Rutuii veteresque Sicani 795 

£t Saoranae aoies et picti seata Labici ; 
Qui saltus, Tiberine, tuos, saorumque Numici 
Litus arant, Ratnlosque exercent vomere collis, 
Circaeumque jugum, quis Jupiter Anxoras arvis 
Praesidet, et viridt gaudens Feronia luco; 800 

Qua Saturae jacet atra palas, gelidusqae per imas 
Quaerit iter valHs atque in roare oonditur Ufens. 

Hos super advenit Volsca de gente Camilla, 
Agmen agens equitnm et floreniis aere catervas, 
Beilatrix, non illa oolo calaihisve Minervae 805 

Femineas assueta manus, sed proelia virgo 
Dura pati cursuque pedum praevertere ventos. 
Illa vel intactae^egetts per summa volaret 

773. Phoebigenam^ Aesculapius. — 785. Chimaeram. See at vL 
286. — 786. Aetnaeos. See at viii. 419. — 789. /o, dau^hter of Jiui- 
chus (see at 286), beloved by Jupiter, and changed mto a cow, 
through fear of Juno's jealousy. Juno begged the cow from Jupiter, 
and set Argus, the hundred-eyed, to watch her. For the reason 
why Turnus had on hie shield the Argive le^end (argumentunii, see 
*71.— 796. Picti scutat the accusative of luatjitation. — 799. Qutt 
qttibiui.— 806. Agtueta manut, the accusative of limitation. 


Ommina, neo teneras onnni laansBet mmUtBj 

Vel mare per mediam flactu saspensa tamenti 810 

Ferret iter, celeris neo tingaeret aeqnore plaatas. 

Illam omnis tectis agrisqae efiasa juTentas 

Turbaqae miratur matrum et prospectat eantemi 

Attonitis inhians animis^ ut regius ostro 

Velet honos levis humeros, ut fibula orinem 815 

Auro intemectat, Lyciam at gerat ipea pharetram 

£t pastoralem praefixa cuspide myrtum. 

811. Obsenr.e thc dactyls, representing rapidity of motion. And 
compare ii. 68 ; viii. 452, 596. On this subject Pope tays^ 

* Not flo when swifl Camilla scours the plain, 
Fliefl o*er tbe unbending cora, and flkimfl alottg the nuuii.* 

£w«f m CrUitum^ 373, 973. 

^ 816. The Lycians (iy. 143) were known as skiUiil archen. 


Tim«iL repeats his statement of the confederacy against Aeneas, 
1-8. Aid is sought from Diomede, Aeneas^s old enemy (see 
at i. 97), and wbo had founded Argyfippa,or Arpi (see x. li^), 
a town in Apnlia, d-17. Perplexity of Aeneas, 18-*2d» The 
river-god appears to him as he sieeps on the Tiber's bank, 
26^35. He confirms him in his projected setUement, and ad- 
yises him to seek aid Arom the Aroadian Evander, soa of Mer- 
cbry and Carmenta, who had founded Pallanteum, on the spot 
aAerMnards named the Palatine Hill, 36*65. Aeneas awakes 
and invokes the Nymphs and Thybris, 66-78. An omen fore- 
told by Helenus (iii. 389, &c.), and by the river-god appears, 
as he is preparing to ascend ^CNriver, with two galleys, 79-85. 
Aeneas and his followers row up the gentle Tiber early in the 
morning, 86—96. At mid*day they come in sight of £vander's 
humble settlement, 97-101. The Arcadians happened to be 
celebrating a sacred festival in honour of Hercules, and Pallas, 
Evander's son, angrily inquires why their solemn rites are in- 
terrupted, 102-1 14. On hearing who they are he gives them 
a friendly welcome, 115—125. Aeneas urges a league. upon 
Evander, 126-151. This is acceded to, 152-171. Evander 
invites the Trojans to join in the celebration of the festivalt 
27 ♦ 


with whicb AeneAS compUes, 170-183. EmoiMi ov Caciti.* 
Evander nartmtes how tbe festival arose from the beneiit con- 
ferred on the land hy its deliverance from the monster Cacus, 
whom Hercnles ilew, 184-275. At £vander's Invitation, all 
renew the joyful rites, and hjmn the praises oi* Heroules, 276- 
305. They return to the city,and,on the road, Evandergives 
mn account of tbe early history of the surrounding coontry, 
306-335. He points oot localitles afterwards famed in Roman 
story ; and Aeneas reposes under his bumble roofj 336—368. 
Yenus asks Yulcan for armour for her son, to wbich the fire- 
god willingly assents, 369-406. Yulcan repairs to Lipare, 
wbere was the worksbop of the Cyclopes, and sets them to 
fabricate the promised armour, 407—453. At early dawn, 
Evander bolds a conference witb Aeneas, 454—469. Apolo- 
gising ibr bis own scanty assistance, he advises him to secure 
tbe aid of tbe Etrurians, who bad revolted from Mezentins, 
and pTaces under him at the same time bis beloved son Pallas, 
470-519. Tbe divine armour clangs and gleams in the 
heavens while they are thus engaged, 520-529. Encouraged 
by this, Aeneas, with part of bis followers, prepares to visit 
tbe EtrurianSf 530—559. Parting address of Evander to Aeneas 
and Pallas, 560—584. Aeneas proceeds and reaches the camp 
of tbe Etrurians, near Caere, 585-607. Yenus brings her soa 
the armour, on which he gazes witb admiration, 608-624. 
The shield contained tbe events of Rome's bistory, in difierent 
eompartments, 625-629. L Romulus and Remus, 630-634. 
n. Rape of tbe Sabine women, and consequent war, and the 
nnion of the two nations, 635-641. UL Punishment of Met- 
tus Fnfetius, 642-645. lY. Porsenna's attack on Rome, 646- 
650. y. Maulius hnrling down the Gauls, 651^62. YL A 
procession of the priesu of Mars and Pan, 663-^66. YIL 
Tbe infernal regions, with traitors, as Catilioe, punished, and 
patriots apart, with Cato presiding over tbem, 667-670. VIIL 
Battle of Actium, gorgeously desoribed, 671-713. IX. Trium- 
phant entrance of Octavianus (Augustus) into Rome, 714— 72& 
Delight of Aeneas, 729-731. 

Ut belli signum Laurenti Turnus ab arce 

Extulit, et rauco strepuerunt cornua cantu, 
— - I 

1. Bdli Signum; vezillum. LaurentL See vi. 891. tZVntt». 

For the reason wby Tumus, and not Latinus, took charge of tho 

war, see vii. 599, 618. 

• An Episode CEirucdStov)^ in Epic poetry, is a fubofdinate Barrathre, na 
tuBUiy rising out of, but not essential to, tlie main aciion» introduced to »!▼» 
IrrSE?'*/?^®*^ ^® ^^ voem. The two principal Epiaodes in tbe AeiMid, 
w^uujof Cacus, and tbe adventures of M$u* and EufjalMS, narrated ia 

LIBER Vni. $19 

Utque fteris ooiMmestt e^os, iKqtte impvHt arma, 

Extemplo torbati animi, simul omne ttmiultu 

Conjurat trepido I^tium, saevitque joTeatus 5 

Effera. Ductores primi Messapus et Ufens 

Contemptorque deum Mezentios undique cogunt 

Auxilia, et latos^vastant cuhoribus agros, 

Mittitur et magni Venulus Diomedis ad nrbem, 

Qui petat auxilium, et, Latio consistere Teucroi, 10 

"Adyectum Aenean classi vtctosqu» Penatit 

Inferre et fatis regem se dioere posci, 

Edoceat, multasque viro se adjungere gentis 

Dardanio^ et late Latio increbrescere tiomeit. 

Quid struat his coeptis, qnem, si fortuna seqoatur, 15 

Eventum pngnae cupiat, manifestius ipsr, 

Quam Tumo re^i, aut regi apparere Latino. 

TaHa per Latium. Quae Laomedontius heros 
Cuncta yidens magno curarum fkictoat aestu ; 
Atque animum nunc huc celerem, nunc dividit illu<^ 20 
In partisque rapit varias perque omnia versat: 
Sicutaqnae tremulum labris ubi lumen aSnis 
Sole repercussum aut radiantis imagine Lunae 
Omnia pervolitat late loca, jamque sub auras 
Erigitur summique ferit laquearia tecti. 25 

Nox erat, et terras animalia fessa per omnis 
Alituum pecudumque genus sopor altus liabebat : 
Cum pater in ripa gelidique sub aetheris axe 
Aeneas, tristi torbatus pectora bello. 
Procubuit seramque dedit per memora qnietem. 80 

Hnic deus ipse loci fluvio Tiberinus amoeno 
Populeas inter senior se attollere frondes - 
Visus ; eum tenuis glauco velabat amictu 
Carbasus, et crinis umbrosa tegebat arundo ; 
Tum sic aflari et curas his demere dictk : 35 

'O sate gente deum, Trojanam ex hostibns nrbem . 
Qui revehis nobis aetemaque Pergama servas, 
Exspectate solo Laurenti arvisque Latinis, 
■— ^^— — I - II I I ■ II .1 

6. Meitapus. See vii. 69L Ufens, See vii. 744. — 7. Mezm- 
tiu9. See vii. 647. — 12. Construe, Aenean dicere se posei regem 
/otiM, ^ 15. Tbis ia to arouse the feara of Diomede, as the deadly 
enemy of tbe Trojans.-— 18. Laomedontiuf heros. Aeneas. See 
vL 64S. -* 19, 20. See iv. 285, 286. — 27. AlUuum, fbr alitam, as if 
irom alitus. — 29. Turbatus pectora, the accusative of limitation. 
See at iv 558. — 35. Affari^ the historical infinitive. See at i. 423. 
— 36. Tro^nom, &c. Similarly i. 68. — 37. J?«>cfcw no6i». AUu 
ding tatbe Itaiian descent of Dfurdanus. See at iii. 168. Fergama, 
8ee at iL 177. 


Hio ttbi eerta doinvs, eerti, ne alMuste, Feoatep , 

Nea belli terrere miois; tamor omnis et irae 49 

Conceflvere deom. 

Jamque tibi, ne vana pates haec fingere somnmni 

Litoreis ingens inyenta aob ilicibus suo, 

Triginta capitom fetas enixa, jacebil, 

All», sok) recubans, albi circum ubera nati. 45 

Hic locnsurbis erit, reqnies eacerta laborum, 

£z quo ter denis urbem redeuntibus annis * 

Ascanius dari condet cognominis Albam. 

Haud inoerta cano. Nunc qua ratione, quod instati 

Expedias viotor, paucis, adverte, docebo. 50 

Arcades his oris, genus a Pallante profectum, 

Qui regem fivandram oomites, qui signa secuti| 

Delegere locum et posuere in montibus urbem 

Pallanlis proayi de nomine Pallanteum. 

Hi belkim assidue docunt cum gente Latina; 55 

Hos castris adhibe socioS) et foedera junge. 

Ipse ego te ripis et reoto flumine ducam, 

Adyersam remis superes subvectus ut amuem. 

Surge age, natardea, primisque cadentibus astris 

Junoni ter rite preces, iramque minasque 60 

Supplicibus supera votis. Mihi victor honorem 

Persolves. £go sum, pleno qnem flumine cernis 

Stringentem ripas et pinguia cuha secantem, 

Caeruleus Thybris, coelo gratissimus amnis. 

Hic mihi magna domus, celsis caput urbibus, exit.' 65 

Dixit, deinde lacu Fluvius se condidit alto, 
Ima petens; nox Aenean somnusque reliquit. 
Surgit, etj aetherii spectans orientia Solis 
Lumina, rite cayis undam de flumine palmis 
Sustine^ ac talis effundit ad aethera voces : 70 

' Nymphae, Laurentes N^rmphae, genus amnibus nnde e8t| 
Tuque, o Thybri tuo genitor cum iiumine sanctOi 
Accipite Aenean, et tandem arcete periclis. 

40. See at i. 534. »42. Cormtme, jacebit tibit the dativos com- 
modi.— -43. LUoreis, &c. See the prophecy of Helenus, iii. 389, 
&c. — 47. Ex ^uo loco. Otbers understand the reference to be to 
time, quam aliquaodo, as i^ o7. Ter denis. Compare with i. 267, 
^. — 48. Albam Longam; so named, it would seem, not frora 
being built on the spot where the white sow was found, but in 
mteful conmiemoration of the omen. — 54. See at vii. 634. ProavL 
Virgil seems here to follow a difTerent tradition from that mentioned 
138. — 57. Seeto fiumine, See at vi. 900. — 65. Alluding propheti' 
wJly to Rome. — 70. Suttinet, keeps in his hand whife prayins. 
Others read t«t<»Zie. *- j "© 


Qao te camqne laca», miserantem incommoda nostra, 
Fonte tenet, quocumqae solo puksherrimus exis, *75 

Semper honore meo, semper celebrabere donis, 
Comiger Hesperidum Fluvius regnator aquarum. 
Adsis o tantum, et propibs tua numina firmes.' 
Sic memorat, geminasque legit de classe biremis, 
Remigioque aptat ; socios simul instruit armis. 80 

Ecce autem subttum atque oculis mirabile monstrumi 
Candida per sikam cam fetu eoncolor albo 
Procubuit viridique in litore conspicitur sus: 
Quam pius Aeneas tibi enim, tibi, maxima Juno, 
Mactat, sacra ferens, et cum grege sistit ad aram. 85 
Thybris ea fluvium, quam longa est, nocte tumentem 
Leniit, et tacita refluens ita substitit unda, 
Mitis ut m morem stagni placidaeque paludis 
Stemeret aequor aquis, remo ut luctanien abesset. 
Ergo iter inceptum celerant rumore secundo. 90 

Labitur uncta vadis abies; mirantur et undae, 
Miratur nemus insuetum fulgentia longe 
Scuta virum fluvio, pictasque innare carinas. 
Olli remigio nocteraque diemque fatigant, 
£t longos superant flexus, variisque teguntur 95 

Arboribus, viridisque secant placido aequore silvas. 
Sol medium coeli conscenderat igneus orbem, 
Cum muros arcemque procul ac rara domorum 
Tecta yident ; quae nunc Romana potentia coelo 
Aequavit ; tum res inopes Evandrus habebat. 100 

Ocius advertunt proras, urbique propinquant. 

Forte die sollemnem illo rex Arcas honorem 
Amphitryoniadae magno divisque ferebat 
Ante urbem in luco. Pallas huic filius una, 
Una omnes juvenum primi pauperque senatus 105 

Tura dabant, tepidusque cruor fumabat ad aras. 
Ut celsas videre rates, atque inter opacum 
Allabi nemus, et tacitis incumbere remis, 
Terrentur visu subito, cunctique relictis 
CoQSurgunt mensis. Audax quos rumpere Pallas 110 

77. Citmieer. See at Georg. iv. 371. Hesperidum. See at i. 
R30. — 83. Viridi conspicitur, the eflfect of the contrast of coloar. — 
84. JBnim has the force of utique. — 86. Qu>am, &c. Sce at iv. 193. 
•i~87. Befluens. Returning to its source, its noiseless mass ceased 
to flow. — 90. Rumore, the shouts of the rowers, or the gentle rip- 
pling of the waves. Secundo. See at vii. 495. — 94. OUi. See at 
I. 254. — 98. ProcUl by the arsis. — 103. Amphitryoniadae. a patro^ 
nymie of Hercules, from the husband of his mother. Alemena.—- 
» 104. Fa088'BniiB ; PoZi^-adis. Una huic, a poetica. constructien» 

8M AUfBIPOft. 

Sftora Tetat| reptoqae volat telo obvius ipse, 

£t procol e tumulo: ' Juvenes, quae cansa aubegit 

Ignotas tentare vias? quo tenditis?' inquit. 

' Qui genus 1 unde domo ? pacemne huc fertis, an arma V 

Tum pater Aeneas puppi sic fatur ab alta, 115 

Paciferaeque manu ramum praetendit olivae : 

' Trojugenas ac tela vides iuimica Latinis, 

Quos iili bello profugos egere superbo. 

Evandrum petimus. Ferte haec, et dicite lectos 

Dardaniae venisse duces, socia arma rogantis.' 120 

Obstupait tanto percussus nomine Pallas : 

'Egredere o quicumque es^' ait, 'coramque parentem 

Alloquere, ac nostris succede penatibus hospes.' 

Excepitque manu, dextramque amplexus inhaesit. 

Progressi subeuot luco, fluvmmque relinquunt. 125 

Tum regem Aeneas dictis afiatur amicis : 
'Optume Grajugenum, cui me Fortuna precari 
£t vitta comptos voiuit praetendere ramos, 
Non equidem extimui, Danaum quod ductor et Arcas 
Quodque ab stirpe fores gemiois conjunctus Atridis; 130 
Sed mea me virtus et sancta oracula divom, 
Cognatique patres, tua terris didita fama, 
Conjunxere tibi, et fatis egere volentem. 
Bardanusi Iliacae primus pater urbis et auctor, 
£Iectra, ut Graii perhibent, Atlantide cretus, 135 
Advehitur Teucros ; Electram maximus Atlais 
£didtt, aetherios humero qui sustinet orbis. 
Yobis Mercurius pater est, quem candida Maia 
Cyllenae gelido conceptum vertice fudil; 
At Maiam, auditis si quicquam credimus, AtlaS) 140 
Idem Atlas generat, coeli qui sidera tollit. 
Sic genus amborum scindit se sanguine ab uno. 
Uis fretus non legatos neque prima per artem 
Tentamenta tui pepigi ; me, me ipse meumqne 
Objeci caput et supp&x ad limina veni. 145 
Gens eadem, quae te, crudeli Daunia bello 

114. Qui genuM, a pecaliar modification of the accvsative of 
limitation. Undej equivalent to de qua.~116. OUvae* See at 
vii. 154.— 118. Bdlo, See vii. 519, &c.— 122. Coram, used 
adverbiallv. — 130. Atridit. See at i. 458. Conjunctus, jupiter 
waa the iather of Tantalus, the ancestor of the Atridae, and of 
Mercury, the father of £vander. — 131. Oracula, See 51, &c., 
and vi. 96. — 135. Atlas (see at i. 741, iv. 247), Electra, Dardanua, 
Aeneaa; Atlas, Maia, Evander. — 139. CyUenae. See at iv. 252. 
^143. Construe, Non jpepigi prima tentamenta tui per (vi. 69^ 
iegatoB neque per artem, — 144. Jlfe, me, see a similar coIlocatioB 
uiremng emphasis. U. 427, xiL 260. — 146. Gen$ Daunia^ Ratull 


Insequttur; nos si pellant, nifail afore oredrait, 
Quin omnem Hesperiam penitns sua sub juga mittant, 
£t mare quod supra, teneant, quodque aliuit infra. 
Accipe daque fidem. Sunt nobis fortia bello 150 

Pectora. sunt anirai et rebus spectata juventus.^ 
Dixerat Aeneas. Ille os oculosque loquentis 
Jamdudum et totum lustrabat iumine corpus. 
Tum sic panca refert : ' Ut te, fortissime Teuorom, 
Accipio agnosooque libens ! ut verba parentis 155 

£t vocem Anchisae magni voitumque reeordor ! 
Nam memini Hesionae visentem regna sororis ■ 
Laomedontiaden Friamum, Saiamina petentem, 
Protenns Arcadiae gelidos invisere finis. 
Tum mihi prima genas vestibat flore jnventa; 160 

Mirabarqne duces Teucros^ mirabar et ipsum 
Laomedontiaden ; sed cunctis ahior ibat 
Apchises. Mihi mens juvenali ardebat amore 
Compellare virum, et dextrae conjungere dextram i 
Accessi, et cupidus Phene! sub moenia duxi. 165 

lilemihi insignem pharetram Lyciasque sagittas 
Discedens chlamydemque auro dedit intertextam, 
Frenaque bina, meus quae nunc habet, aurea, Palias. 
£rgo et, quam petitis, juneta est mihi foedere dextra, 
£t. lux cum- primum terris se crastina reddet} 170 

Auxilio laetos dimittam, opibusque juvabo. 
Interea sacra haec, quando huc venistis amici, 
Annua, quae diiferre nefas, celebrate faventes , 
Nobiscum, et jam nuno sociorum adsuescite mensis.' 

Haec ubi dicta, dapes jubet et sublata repont 175 
Ppcula, gramineoque viros locat ipse sedili, 
Praecipuumque toro et villosi pelle ieonis 
Accipit Aenean, solioque invitat acerno. 
Tum lecti juvenes certatim araeque sacerdos 
Viscera tosta ferunt taurorum, onerantque canistris 180 
Dona laboratae Cereris, Bacchumque ministrant. 
Vescitur Aeneas simul et Trojana juventus 
Perpetui tergo bovis et lustralibus extis. 

See at vii. 56. — 149. Mare^ quod alluit supra ; Mare superum. 
Mare, quod alluit infra; Mare Inferum. See at vi. 697. The 
Adriatic and Tuscan seas. — 152. Dixerat. See at ii. 621. — 157. 
Hesione, eister of Priam, married to Telamon, king of Salamit-^ 
an island ofT ihe coast of Attica. — 160. Mihi. See at vi. 473. — 
165. Pheneus, a town of Arcadia, at the foot of Cyllene. — 166. Ly- 
ciasque sagittas. See at vii. 816. — 169. Mihit a me. Zumpt, % 419. 
-rlSO. Viscera. See at Georg. iv. 555. — 181. CereriSy Baccho. Seo 
at ii. 311. — 183. Lustralia exta. Entrails of avictim ofiered as a 
purificatory sacrifice. 


PostqQatn exempta fames et amor compressns 6^ndi, 
Rex Evandrus ait : ' Non haec sollemnia nobis^ 185 

HaB ex more dapes, banc tanti nnminis aram 
Yana superstitio veterumque ignara deorum 
Imposuit : saevis, hospes Trojane, periclis 
Servati facimus meritosque novamus honores. 
Jam primom saxis snspensam hanc aspice rupemi 193 
Disjectae procui ut moles, desertaque montis 
Stat domus, et scopuli ingentem traxere ruinam. 
Hic spelunca fuit. vasto submota recessn, 
Semihominis Caci facies quam dira tenebat, 
Solis inaccessam radtis ; semperque recenti 195 

Caede tepebat humus, foribusqae affixa superbts 
Ora virum tristi pendebant pallida tabo. 
Huic monstro Volcanus erat pater : iliius atros 
Ore vomens ignis magna se mole ferebat. 
Attulit et nobis aliquando optanlibus aetas 200 

Auxilium adventumque dei. Nam maximus nltor, 
Tergemini nece CreryotAe spoliisque superbuS| 
Alcides aderat, taurosqae hac victor agebat 
Ingentis; valleraque boves amnemque tenebant. 
At furiis Caci mens effera, ne quid inansom 205 

Aut intractatum scelerisve dolive fuisseti 
Quatuor a stabulis praestanti corpore tauros 
Avertit, totidem forroa superante juvencas. 
Atque hoS| ne qua forent pedibus vestigia rectisi 
Cauda in speluncam Iractos versisque viarom 210 

Indiciis raptos saxo occultabct opaco. 
Quaerenti nulla ad speluncam signa ferebant. 
Interea, cum jam stabulis saturata raoveret 
Amphitryoniades armenta abitumqae pararet| 
Discessu mugire boves, atque omne querelis 215 

Impieri nemus, et colles ciamore relinqni. 
Reddidit una boum vocem vastoque sub antro 

^^^" ' ' " ■ — ■ ' " ■— " ■■ ■ 11 ■ I ■ ■ ■■ ■1.11 J ■ I i ■ ■ ■ ■—— 1^»^ 11 I I ■! I I ■ ■llll — ^— ^M— ^— ^— 

191. Deserta, a lonely ruin. — 192. Domus montis, the cave on the 
inountain'8 side— the Aventine (231). — 194. Semthominis, -I elided. 
Compare temiviro (iv. 215), where the eontrast is between vir and 
femina, while semihomo is here contrasted with semiferus, 267. 
Homo is the genus, vir, a species. Cacas did not even belong to the 
genus. — 199. Seferebat. See at iv. 11. — 200. Et nohisy Mo ns as 
well as to others.' — 202. Tergemini Geryonae. See at vi. 286 ; vii 
662. — *03. Alcides. See at vi. 392. — 205. Inausum refers to ntf 
quid sceleris; intractatum to ne quid (foZt. — 210. Tractos — rapto* — 
occultabat. See at i. 680. Trahebat, rapiebat et occuUahat. — 212. 
The constniction is apparently, Boves ferebant nulla indicia quae-' 
renti. Others make ferehant goVem the dative, indieia being the 
nommative. • 

MugLi et Caci flpem custodiU fefellit.- 
Hic vero Alcidae furiis exarserat atro 
Felle dolor; rapit arma inanu nodisque gravatam 220 
Robur, et aerii cursu petit ardua montis. 
Tum primum nostri Cacum videre timentem 
Turbatumque oculis; fugit ilicet ocior Euro 
Speluooamque petit ', pedibus timor addidit alas. 
XJt sese inclusit, ruptisque immane catenis 225 

Dejecit saxum, ferro quod et arte paterna 
Peudebat, fultosque emuniit objice postis, 
Eoce furens animis aderat Tirynthius, omnemque 
Accessum lustrans huc ora ferebat et illuc, 
Dentibus infrendens. Ter totum fervidus ira 230 

Lustrat Aventini montem; ter saxea tentat 
Limina nequidquam; ter fessus valle resedit. 
Stabat acuta silex, praecisis undique saxis 
Speluncae dorso insurgens, altissima visu, 
Krarum oidis domus opportuna volucrum. 235 

Hanc, ut prona jugo laevum incumbebat ad amnem| 
Dexter in adversum nitens concussit, et imis 
Avolsam solvit radicibus; inde repente 
Impulit ', impulsu quo maximus intonat aetheri 
Dissuitant ripae renuitque exterritus amnis. 240 

At specns et Caci detecta apparuit ingens 
Regia, et umbrosae penitus patuere cavernae : 
Non secus, ac si qua penitus vi terra dehiscens 
InCernas reseret sedes et regna recludat 
Pallida, dis invisa, superque immane barathrum 245 
Cernatur, trepidentque immisso lumine Manes. 
r £rgo insperata deprensum in luce repente 
Inctusumque cavo saxo atque insueta rudentem 
Desuper Alcides telis premit, omniaque arma 
Advocat, ei ramis vastisaue molaribus instat. 250 

II le autem, neque enim luga jam super ulla pericli| 
Faucibus ingentem fumum, mirabile dictu, 
Evomit involvitcjue domum caligine caeca, 
Prospectum eripiens oculis, glomeratque sub antro 
Fumiferam noctem, commixtis igne tenebris. 255 ' 

Non tulit Alcides animis, seque ipse per ignem 
Praecipiti jecit saltu, qua plurimus undam 

236. FaterruL See 198.-^228. Tirynthuu, See at vii. 662. Oin. 
memquef last vowel elided before acceesum. —•2i^. JDihiscen». —251. 
Super, superest. — 260. In nodum, the Itmbs of Cacus knotted toge- 
ther by the grasp of Hercules. Others refer m nodum to the close 
elasp of Hercules. AngU, angens reddit Chokes him tiil his eyet 
«tart from their sockettf. 

826 AElfKIDOS. 

Fumus agit nebulaque ingens speous aestuet atra. 

Hic Cacum in tenebris incendia vana vomentem 

Corripit in nodum romplpxus. et angit inhaerens 260 

Elisos oculos et sicoum t^insrnine guttur. 

Panditur extemplo foribus domus atra revolsis; 

Abstractaeque boves abjurataecjue rapinae 

Coelo ostenduntur, pedibusque mforme cadaver 

Protrahitur. Nequeunt expleri corda tuendo 265 

Terribilis oculos, vultum, villosaque setis 

Pectora semifert atque exstinctos faucibus ignis. 

Ex i)lo celebratus honos, laetique rainores 

Servavere diem, primus^ue Potitius auctor 

£t domus Herculei' custos Pinaria saori. 270 

Hanc aram luco statuit, quae Maxima semper 

Dicetur nobis, et erit quae maxima semper. 

Quare agite, o juvenes, tantarum in munere laudum 

Cingite fronde comas et pocula porgite dextris 

Communemque vocate deum et date vina volentes.' 275 

Dixerat : Herculea bicolor cum populus umbra 

Velavitque comas foliisque innexa pependit, 

£t sacer implevit dextram soyphus. Ocius omnes 

In mensam laeti libant dl^sque precantur. 

Devexo interea propior fit Vesper Olympo : 280 

Jamque sacerdotes primusque Potitius ibant, 
Pellibus in morem cincti, flammasque ferebant. 
Instaurant epulas, et mensae grata secundae 
Dona ferunt, cumulantque oneratis lancibus aras. 
Tum Salii ad cantus incensa altaria ciroura 285 

Populeis adsunt evincti tempora ramis, 
Hic juvenum chorus, ille senum ; qui carmJne laudea 
Herculeas et facta ferunt : ut prima novercae 
Monstra manu geminosque premens eliserit anguis; 
Ut bello egregias idem disjecerit urbes, 290 

Trojamque Oechaliamque ; ut duros mille labores, 
Rege snb Eurystheo fatis Junonis iniquae 

263. Ahjuratae rapifiae, plunder (the oxen) which he had swom b* 

had never taken. — 267. Sennferi. See at 194.— 271. SlatuU Her- 

cules. Others make domus Jrinaria the nominative.— 274. Ptnrrtie, 

contracted for porrigite. — 276. Bicolor, one side of the leav«»<H th« 

poplar is lighter in colour than the other. HeraUea. See JScL vii 

61. — 280. The di^yrheaven descends into the sea. See at ii. 250.— 

285. The Salii (a s^liendo), who were properly the priests of Bfars, 

are here given toHercules. — 288, &c. Alluaing to events in th« 

mvtholoffical history of Hercules. Novercae, Jun&. — 291. Trpjtm; 

when defrauded by Laome^on. See iv. 542. Oeehaliam, a town in 

Etiboea. — 292. Eurystheus (kine of Tiryns, vii. 662), by an artifiee 

^J*"?' **^^ power over Hercules till he should jpenoTm twel*i 
(wulle) labours. 


Pertulerit. *Ta nubigenas, invicte, bitnembris, 
Hylaeunaqne Pkolnmque, manu, tu Cresia mactas 
Prodigia et vastum Nemeae sub rupe leonem. 296 

Te Stygii tremuere lacus, te janiior Orci 
Ossa saper recubans antro semiesa cruento ; 
Nec te ullae facies, non terruit ipse Typhoeus, 
Arduns arma tenens; non te rationis egentem 
Lernaeus turba capitum circumstetit anguis. 300 

Salve, yera Jovis proles, decas addite divis, 
£t nos et tua dexter adi pede sacra secundo.' 
, Talia carminibus celebrant; super omnia Cacl 
Speluncam adjiciunt, spirantemque ignibus ipsnm. 
Ckinsonat omne nemus strepifu, collesque resultant. 305 

Exin se cuncti divinis rebus ad urbem 
Perfectis referunt. Ibat rex obsitus aevo, 
Et comitem Aenean juxta natumque tenebat 
In^rediens, varioque viam sermone levabai. 
Miratur, facilisque oculos fert omnia circum 310 

Aeneas, capiturque locis, et singula laetus 
Kxquiritque auditque virum monumenta prlorum. 
Tum rex Evandrus Romanae conditor arcis : 
*Haec nemora indigenae Fauni Nymphaeque tenebant, 
Gensque virum truncis et duro robore nata, 315 

Quis neque mos neque cultus emt, nec jungere tauros, 
Aut componere opes norant, aut parcere parto, 
Sed rami atque asper victu venaius alebat. 
Primus ab aetherio venit Saturnus Olympo, 
Arma Jovis fugiens et regnis exsul ademptis. 320 

Ib genus indocile ac dispersum montibus altis 
Composuit, legesque dedit, Latiumque vocari 
Maluit, his quoniam latuisset tutus in oris. 
Aurea quae perhit)ent, illo sub rege fuere 
Saecula : sic placida populos in pace regebat ; 325 

Deterior donec paulatim ac decolor aetas 
£t belli rabies et amor successit habendi. 
Tum manus Ausonia et gentes venere Sicanae, 

393. ' T«, &c. A burst of the sacred song itself is introdaced* 
Nnhigemai; the Centaurs. See at vi. 286. — 294. Cresia prodigia^ 
This was a wiid buIL — 295. Nemeae^ in ihe north of Argolia. — 29ft, 
8ee at iL 398, vi. 392. Janitor, Cerberas. See vi. 400.— 297. Se* 
mieaa, -t elided.— 298. Typhoiius. See at i. 665.« — 300. Lernaeus» 
6ee at vi. 286. — 314. The surroundin^ country was at one tinie uu 
luibited by the ahr^x^^y^iy tbe aborigines (315), and their deities. 
See atv. 96. —316. Qmm, quibus. — 324. Aurea, &c. See 9X EcU 
^^**^328. This is Virgirs account. First, i\i.% Aborigine^t then 
fhe Ausones (see p. 180, line 5), and the &'.cani, or Siculi, whom 


Saepius et Domen posuit Saturnia tellus. 

. Tum reges asperque immani corpore Thvbris, 334 

A quo post Itali nuvium cognomine Thybrim 
Diximus; amisit verum vetus Albula nomen. 
Me pulsum {)atria pelagique extrema sequentem 
Fortuna omnipotens et ineluctabile fatum 
His posuere locis, matrisque egere tremenda . 33C 

Carmentis Njmphae monita et deus auctor ApoUo.' 
Yix ea dicta : dehinc progressus monstrat et aram 
£t Carmentalem Romani nomine portam 
Quam memorant, Nymphae priscum Carmentis honorem, 
Yatis fatidicae, cecinit auae prima futuros 340 

Aeneadas magnos et nooile Pallanteum. 
Hinc lucum ingentem, quem Romulus acer Asylam 
Retulit, et gelida monstrat sub rupe Lupercal; 
Farrhasio (Ectum Panos de more Lycaei. 
Nec non et sacri monstrat nemus Argileti, 345 

Teetaturque locum, et letum docet hospitis Argi. 
Hinc ad Tarpeiam sedem et Capitolia ducit, 
Aurea nunc. olim silvestribus horrida dumis. 
Jam tum religio pavidos terrebat agrestis 
Dira loci; jam tum silvam saxumque tremebant. 350 
* Hoc nemuS; hunc/ inquit, ^ frondoso vertice collem, 

' Quis deus incertum est, habitat deus ; Arcades ipsum 
Credunt se vidisse Jovem, cum saepe nigrantem 
Aegida concuteret, dextra nimbosque cieret. 
Haec duo praeterea disjectis oppida muris, 355 

' Reliquias veterumque vides raonumenta virorum. 
Hanc Janus pater, nanc Satnrnus condidit arcem; 
Janiculum huic, illi fuerat Saturnia nomen.' 
Talibns inter se dictis ad tecta subibant 

- Pauperis £vandri, passimque armenta videbant 36C 

others represent as having been dispoesessed by the Aborigines.— 
329. Potuitf mutayit. — 331. Post, postea. Nos j&c?i. — 336. Car» 
mentiSf or Carmenta, one of the Camenae, prophetic nymphs, pro* 
perly of Italian origin, but here attributed to Arcadia. — 337. i^*- 
imc— 338. Constnie, Et portam quam Somani memorant nammt 
Carmentalem. It was at the foot of theCapitoI. — 342. TheA$ih 
ium of Romulus iLiv. i. 8) was a wooded enclosure on the CapitoL 
— 343. The Lupercali a cave sacred to Fan, was on the Palatine. 
—344. As Pan was called by the Arcadians (Parrhasio, a towB of 
Arcadia) Lycaeuif from X^kosi so Lupereal^ from lupus. — 345. Argi 
(of Argos) letum (the death). Another fancif[il derivative of tM 
hame of a street in Rome characteristic of ancient etyroology.- 
f ®V -^««c — Uli, ihe former, the latter, contrary to the commoB ust 
•r these word». 

tlBBR Yllf. ' SI9 

Bomanoque foro et lautis mugire Carinis. 

Ut ventum ad sedes : ^.Haec,' inquit, ^limina victor 

Alcides subiit, haec illum regia cepit. 

AudO; hospes, contemnei-e 0{>eSj et te quoque dignnm 

Ftnge deo, rebusque veni non asper egenis.' 365 

Dijcit, et angusti subter fastigia tecti 

Ingentem Aenean duxit, stratisqoe locavit 

Effultum foliis et pelle Libystidis ursae. 

Nox ruit, et fuscis tellurem amplectitur alis. 
At Yenus haud animo nequidquam exterrita mateT) 370 
Laurentumque minis et duro mota tumultu 
Yolcanum alloquitur, thalamoque haec conjugis aoreo 
Incipit, et dictis divinum adspirat amorem : 
' Dum bello Argolici vastabant Pergama reges 
Debita casurasque inimicis ignibus arces, 375 

Non ullum auxilium miseris, non arma rogavi 
Artis opisque tuae ; nec te, carissime conjunx, 
Incassumve tuos volui exercere labores, 
Quamvis et Priami deberem plurima natis, 
£t durum Aeneae flevissem eaepe laborem. 380 

Nuoe Jovis imperiis Rutulorum constitit oris . 
Ergo eadem supplex venio, et sanctum mihi numen 
Arma rogo, genetrix nato. Te filia Nerei, 
Te potuit lacrimis Tithonia flectere conjunx. 
Aspice, qui coeant populi, quae moenia clausis 385 

Ferrum acuant portis in me excidiumque meorom.' 
Dixerat, et niveis hinc atque hinc diva lacertis 
Cunctantem amplexu molii fovet. Ille repente 
Accepit solitam flammam, notosque medullas 
Intravit calor, et labefacta per ossa cucurrit: 390 

Non secus atque olim, tonitru cum rupta corusco 
Ignea rima micans percurrit lumine nimbos. 
Benmi laeta dolis et formae conscia conjunx. 
Tnm pater aetemo fatur devinctus amore : 
'Quid causas petis ex alto ? fiduoia cessit 395 

Quo tibi, diva, mei 1 Similis si cura fuisset, 
Tum quoque fas nobis Teucros armare fuisset, 
Neo Pater omnipotens Trojam neo fata vetabant 

361. Carinis, between the Palatine, Esquiline, and Caelian hills. 
— 363. Subut by the arsis. — 368. Libysttdit, See at v. 37.-372. 
Aureoj a dissyllable. — 375. Vebitaj destined to fall. — 383. Thetis, 
^uehter of the sea-god Nereus, had obtained from Vulcan armour 
foi her son Achilles, and Aurora (see at iv. 585) for her son Mem« 
non. See i. 489. — 398. Troy*fl doom couldnot be averted, but it 
might have been postponed. 

28* 2c 


Stare, decemqve alios Priatnmii snpefeMe per annbs. 
Et DQDO, si bellare paras atque baec tibi roens e8t| 40C 
Qaidquid in arte mea poseam promittere cnrae; 
Qood fieri ferro lic^uidove potest electro^ 
- ' Quantam ignee animaeqne yalent ; absiete precando 
Yiribas indabitare taia.' £a Verba loctttus 
Optatos dedit amplexus, plaeidnmque petivit 405 

Conjngis infnsus gremio per membra eoporemf 

Inde nbi prima quies, medio jam noctis abactae 
Oinicub, expnlemt soiSinnm, cum femina primun, 
Cui tolerare cok) vitam tenuique Minerra 
Impoeitum, cinerem et sopitos snscitat ignis, 410 

Noctem adklens operi, fareulasque ad lumina kxigo 
Exereet penso, castum ut servare eubile 
Conjugis et possit panros edoeere natos : 
Haud secos lgnij[K>tens neo terapore eegnior iUo 
Mollibns e stratis opera ad fobrilia surgit. 41$ 

Insula Sicanium juxta latns Aeoltamque 
Erigitur Liparen, fumantibus ardoa saxis, 
Quam subter specus et Cyclopum exesa caminis 
Antra Aetnaea tonant, validiqne incudibns ictus 
'Aoditi referunt gemitum, striduntqoe cavemis 420 

Stricturae Cbalybum; et fomacibus ignis anhelat, 
Yolcani domns, et Volcania nomlne tellns. 
Hoc tuno Ignipotens coelo descendit ab alto. 
Fermm exercebant vasto Cyelopes in antro, 
firontesque Steropesque et nudus membra Pjrracmon. 425 
His informatum manibns jam parte polita 
Fulmen erat, toto Genitor quae plunma coelo 
' Beiicit in terras; pars imperfecta manebat. 
Tris imbris torti radios, tris nubis aquosae 
Addrderant, ratili tris ignis, et alitis Aostrt. 430 

Fulgores nnnc terrifioos sonitumque metumque 
Miscebant raeri flammisque seqoacibns iras. 
• Farte alia Marti currnmque rotasque voincris 
Instababt, quibos ille viros, quibos excitat urbes; 

402. Sleeimm,' a mixed ^nietal, four parts goldt one silver. -- — 410L 

^Si^patM ignU» See at v. 743. — 416. Imula, Hiera, or yulcania* 

lyiDg between Sicily and Lipare. See at i. 52. — 418. Cydofmmu 

' See at iii. 616. — 419. Aetnaea, either Aetna-Iike (viL 786), or com- 

' tnunicatinff with Aetna.*— 421. Chalyhum, a tribe of Pontus, noted 

' fbr their BkiUin the manufacture of iron. Hence the use of d^j^, 

.**€.• — 4^. Hoc, an old form for huc.-r-425. Bronteaque bv tlie 

.ams. N^u» wumbra, the accusative of limitation.-^426. ia/bl-- 

m^i to block mto shape. 8ee 447.— 427. Genitor, Jupiter 

Qmme plurma fvduunau—idO. Jna alitie Amtru* -T^ .. 


Aegidaqae^orrifemm, turbatae Palladis arma, 435 

Certatira «quamis serpentum auroque polibant, 
Cobnexosque anguis ipBamque in pectore divae 

t ■ Gorgona, desecto Tertentem lumina collo. 

' Tollite ouncta,' inquit, * coeptosque auferte laboret, 
Aetnaei Cydc^s, et hnc advertile mentem : 440 

Arma acri facienda viro. Nunc yiribus osus, 
Nunc manibufl rapidis^ omni aunc arte magistra* 
Praecipitate moras.' Nec plura ef&itus; at illi 
Octos mcobuere omnes pariterque laborem 
Sortiti. Fluit aes rivis aurique metalium, 445 

Volnificasque chalybs vasta fomace liquescit. 
Ingentem clipeum informant, unum omnia oontra 

( :> Tela Latinorum, septenosque orbibus orbis 
Impediunt. Alii ventosis follibus auras 
Accipiunt redduntque ; aiii stridentia tinguunt 450 

Aera lacu. Gemit impositis incndibus antrum. 
Illi inter sese multa vi brachia tollunt 
' In numermn, versantque tenaci forcipe massam. 
Haec.pater Aeoliis properat dum Lemnius oris, 
EvandFum ex humili tecto lax suscitat ahna 455 

£t matutini volucrum sub culmine cantus. 
Consurgit senior, tunicaque inducitnr artus, 

r £t Tyrrhena pedum circumdat vincula plantis ', 

Tum lateri atque humeris Tegeaeum subligat ensem, 
Demissa ab laeva pantherae terga retorquens. 460 

Nm non et gemmi custodes limine ab aho 
Praecedunt gressumque canes comitantur herilem. 

( Hoi^itis Aeneae sedem et secreta petebat, 
Sermonum memor et promissi muneris, heros. 
Nec minus Aeneas se matutinus agebat. 465 

Filius huic Pallas, illi comes ibat Acfaates. 
Congressi.jungunt dextms, mediisqae residunt 
: Aedibus, et lieito tandem sermone fruuntur. 

Rcxjprior haec: 
• ^Majiime Teuerorum ductor, qno so^te numquam 470 
Res e<|uk!em Trojae victas aut regna fatebor, 

; 436. S^uamis auroque. See at Georg. ii. 477. — 438. G^rgona, 
JSee at vi. 286. — 448. This seems to mean that seven circles of 
jtteel were entwined and welded together. — 449, &c. Compare 

G^rg, iv. 170, &c. — 452. Expressive of laborioua motion. See at 
.yii. 811. — 454. Pater LemniuSf Vulcan from his worship at the 
^isIaBd of Lemnos, and the legend of his fall from heaven upon it.— 

45§. Tyrrkena. See at vi. 697. — 459. Tegeaeum. See at v. 299. 
.—463. SecreCn, the inner part of the house,— 466. Huict Evandro 
JU\ A^ea^« ^eat358« 

883 ABNKID08* 

Nobis ad belli auxiliam pro nomine tantb 

Exiguae vires : hiiic Tusco claudimur amni, 

Hinc Rutulus premit, et murum circumsonat armis. 

Sed tibi ego ingentis populos opulentaque regnia 475 

Jongere castra paro, quam fors inopina salutem 

Ostentat. Fatis huc te poscentibus adfers. 

Haud procul hinc saxo incolitar fundata vetasto 

Urbis Agrllinae sedes, ubi Lydra quondam 

Gens, belto praeclara, jugis insedit Etruscis. 480 

Hanc multos florentem annos rex deinde superbo 

Imperio et saevis tenuit Mezentius armis. 

Quid memorem infandas caedes, quid facta tyranni 

Effera ? di capiti ipsius generique reser\'ent ! 

Mortua quin etiam jurigebat corpora viris, 485 

Componens manibusque manus atque oribus ora| 

Tormenti genus^ et sanie taboque fluentis 

Complexu in misero longa sic morte necabat. 

At fessi tandem cives infanda furentem 

Armati circumsistunt ipsumque domnmqne^ 490 

Obtruncant socios, ignem ad fastigia Jactant. 

Ille inter caedem Rutulorum elapsus m agros 

Confugere, et Tumi defendier hospitis armis. 

Ergo omnis furiis surrexit Etruria justis; 

Regem ad sopplicium praesenti Marte reposcunt. 495 

His ego te, Aenea, ductorem millibus addam. 

Toto namque fremunt condensae litore puppes, 

Signaque ferre jubent ^ retinet longaevus naruspez 

Fata canens : '^ Maeoniae delecta juventuS; 

Flos veterum virtusque virum, quos justus in hostem 500 

Fert dolor et merita accendit Mezentius ira, 

NuIIi fas Italo tantam subjungere gentem: 

Externos optate duces." Tum Etrusca resedit 

Hoc acies campo, monitis exterrita divom. 

Ipse oratores ad me regnique coronam 505 

Cum sceptro misit mandatque insignia Tarchon, 

Saceedam castriS; Tyrrhenaqve regna capessam. 

Sed mihi tarda geia saeclisque e^ta senectas 

Invidet imperium seraeque ad fortia vires. 

Natum exhortarer, ni mixtus matre Sabella 510 

479. Agyllinae, See p. 292, line 29. Lydia. See at ii. 781.— 
487. Tabem Beems to mean the putriiied matter formed by thc gra 
duiil dissolution of the corpses to which they were bound. — 493. 
yo^^f^ere, the historical infinitive. Defendier, for defendi ; as at 
IV. 49S. — 499. Maeoniae, Lydiae. See 479. — 507. Mandai mra 
toret, orantes ut, ,Kcc6rfam — 510. Mixtus. Pallas wasnot of pui« 
lor^ign extraciion. Matre SaheUa, as his mother waa a ^abiiM 


lEnc partem patriae traheret. Tu cujus et annia 

Et generi fata indulgent, quem numiiia poscunt, 

Ingredere, o Teucrum atque Italum fortissime ductor. 

Hunc tibi praeterea, 8pes et solatia nostri, 

Pallanta adjungam; sub te tolerare magistro 515 

Militiam et grave Martis opus, tua cernere facta 

Adsuescat, primis et te miretur ab annis. 

Arcadas huic equites bis centum, robora pubis 

Lecta dabo, totidemque suo tibi nomine Pallas.' 

Vix ea fatus erat ; deiixique ora tenebant 520 

Aeneas Anchisiades et fidus Achates; 
Multaque dura suo tristi cum corde putabant, - 
Ni signUm coelo Cytherea dedisset aperto. 
Namque improviso vibratus ab aethere fuJgor 
Cum sonitu venit, et ruere omnia visa repente, 525 

Tyrrhenusque tubae mugire per aethera cJangor. 
Suspiciunt ; iterum atque iterum fragor increpat ingens. 
Arma inter nubem coeli in regione serena 
Per sudum rutilare vident et pulsa tonare. 
Obstupuere animis alii ; sed Trolus heros 530 

Agnovit sonitum et divae promissa parentis. 
Tum memorat : * Ne vero, hospes, ne quaere profecto, 
Quem casum portenta ferant : ego poscor Olympo. 
Hoc signum cecinit missuram diva creatrix, 
Si bellum ingrueret, Volcaniaque arma per auras 535 
Laturam auxilio. 

Heu quantae miseris caedes Laurentibus instant ! 
Quas poerias mihi, Turne, dabis ! quam multa sub undas 
Scuta virum galeasque et fortia corpora volves, 
Thybri pater ! Poscant acies, et foedera rumpant.' 540 

Haec ubi dicta dedit, solio se tollit ab alto; 
Et primum Herculeis sopitas ignibus aras 
Excitat, heslernumque Larem parvosque Penatis 
Laetus adit; mactant lectas de more bidentis 

1. of inaDner), be was partly Italian. — -^522. Putahant, et putare 

gerstitisserit ni. »See a similar eliipBis, vi. 358. — 523. Cytherea, 
ee at i. 257. — 526. If a trumpet be Tuacan, its peal may be called 
Tuscan also. Hence we may say, Tyrrhenae tubae clangor ; or, as 
here, Tyrrhenus tuhae clangor^ the adjective being a common attri- 
bute of botfa. The tuha is said to have been a Tuscan invention. 
To its peal the shrill clank of the armour is hcre likened (visus in- 
VOlved in visa)^ unless, indeed, we suppose that a frumpet actually 
did peal. — 533. Olympo, dat. for ab Olympo. — 534. This promise 
is not mcntioned elsewhere by Virgil. — 542. Etj &c. The sense 
of this doubtful passage seems to be, that Aeneas springs to the Ara 
Maxima of yesterday s solemnity, at which (103) other gods wer9 
worshipped, but especially Hercutes. 


Evatidrus pariter^ pariter Trojana juventus. 54S 

Post hinc ad navis graditur, sociosque revisit; 
Quorum de numero, qui sepe in bella sequantur, 
Praeslanlis virlute legit 3 pars cetera prona 
Fertur aqua, segnisque secundo defluit amni, 
Nuntia venlura Ascanio rerumque patrisque. 550 

Dantur equi Teucris Tyrrhena petentibus arva j 
Dncunt exsortem Aeneae, quem fulva leonis 
Pellis obit totum, praefulgens unguibus aureis. 

Fama volat parvam subilo volgata per urbem; 
Ocius ire equites Tyrrheni ad liiora regis. 559 

Yota melu duplicant matres, propiusque periclo 
It timor, et major Martis jam apparet imago. 
Tum pater Evandrus dextram complexus euntis 
Haeret, inexpletus lacrimans, ac talia fatur : 
'O mihi praeteritos referat si Jupiter annos, 560 

Qualis eram, cum primam aciem Praeneste sub ipsa 
Stravi, scutorumque incendi victor acervos, 
£t regem bac Erilum dextra sub Tartara misi, 
Nascenti cui tris animas Feronia mater — 
Horrendum dictu — dederat, terna arma movenda j 565 
Ter leto sternendus erat ; cui tum tamen omnis 
Abstuiit haec animas dextra, et totidem exuit anms : 
Non ego nunc dulci amplexu divellerer usquam, 
Nate, tuo ; neque fiinitimo Mezentius umquam 
Huic capiti insultans tot ferro saeva dedisset 570 

Funera, tam multis viduasset civibus urbem. 
At vos, o superi, et divom tu maxime rector 
Jupiter, Arcadii, quaeso, miserescite regis, 
£t patrias audite preces : Si numina vestra 
Incolumem Pallaiita mihi, si fata reservant| 975 

Si visurus eum vivo et venturus in unum) 
Yitam oro ; patior quemvis durare laborem. 
Sin aliquem infandum casum, Fortuna, minariS| 
Nunc. nunc o liceat crudelem abrumpere vitam, 
Dum curae ambigiaae, dum spes incerta futuri, 580 

Dum te, care puer, mea sola et sera voluptas, 
Complexu teneo ; gravior neu nuntius auris 
• Vohieret.' Haec genitor digressu dicta supremo 
Fundebat ; famuli collapsum in tecta ferebant. 

549. Secundo. See at vii. 495. — 553. AureiSf a dissyllable.-w 
555. Litora. O thers read Zmina. — 556. I^ropiusquet olc. * Thit 
approacbing danger brings fear closer to them.' — 558. EutUis filii* 
See tuo, 569.-560. Si. See at vi. 187. — 561. Prameate. See p. 
^^*/?oS® ^?' ^V^^* Note the ^ender referring to ttrbe« wher^M «t 
vu. 683 altum foliows the gender oi Praetiette, 


Jamque adeo exierat portis eauitatus apertis, 585 

Aeneas inter primos et fidus AchateS; 
Inde atii Trojae proceres; ipse agmine Pallas 
In medio, chlamyde et pictis conspectus in armis: 
QuaJis ubi Oceani perfusus Lucifer unda, 
Quem Yenus ante alios astrorum diligit ignis, 590 

Extulit 03 sacrum coelo tenebrasque resolvit. 
Stant pavidae in muris matres, oculisque sequuntar 
Pulveream nubem et fulgentis aere catervas. 
Olli per dumos, qua proxuma meta viarum, 
Armati tendunt j it clamor, et agmine facto 595 

Quadrupedante putrem sonitu quatit ungula campnm. 
£st ingens gelidum lucus prope Caeritis amnem, 
Religione patrum late sacer; undique colles 
Inclusere cavi et nigra nemus abiete cingunt. 
Silvano fama est veteris sacrasse Pelasgos, 600 

Arvorum pecorisque deo, lucumque diemque, 
Qui primi finis aliquando habuere Latinos. 
Haud procul hinc Tarcho et Tyrrheni tuta tenebant 
Castra locis, celsoque omnis de colle videri 
Jam poterat legio, et latis tendebat in arvis. 605 

Huc pater Aeneas et bello lecta jnventus 
Succedunt, fessique et equos et corpora curant. 

At Venus aetherios inter dea candida nimbos 
Dona ferens aderat ; natumque in valle reducta 
Ut procul et gelido secretum flumine vidit, ^ 610 

Talibus affata est dictis, seque obtulit ultro: 
' Exi perfecta mei promissa conjugis arie 
Munera; ne mox aut Laurentis, nate, superbos, 
Aut acrem dubites in proelia posoere Turnum.* 
Dixit el amplexus nati Cytherea petivit ; 615 

Arma sub adversa posuit radiantia quercu. 
Ille, deae donis et tanto laetus honore, 
Expleri nequit atque oculos per singnla volvit, 
Miraturque interque manus et brachia versat 
Terribilem cristis galeam flammasque vomentem, 620 
Fatiferumque ensem, loricam ex aere rigentem, 

589. Lucifer. See at ii. 801. — 596. The sound echoing the sense. 
8ee at vii. 811.— 597. Caeritis. See p. 292, Hne 29. -—599. Ahiete, 
three syllables, abyete. — 600. SUvano, an indigenous roral deity, 
identified often with the Greek Pan. PelasgoB. Vir^I here, for tne 
only time, uses tbis word to indicate the early inhabitants of Italy, 
who are supposed to have sprung from the same common stock ai 
the Greeks. Elsewhere Pelassi with him is identical with Graeci. 
—610. Et gelido. Others read e^dido. Secretum, ab aliis, solum 

618. JSxpleri nequit tuendo, as m 265. 

SangQinearn, ingeBtem, qualis cum caerula nubes 

Solis inardescit raiiiis longeque refulget ; 

Tum.levis ocreas electro auroque recocto, 

Hastamque, et clipei non enarrabile textum. 62S 

Illic res Italas Romanorumque triumphos, 

Haud vatum ignarus venturique inscius aevi, 

Fecerat Ignipotens; illic genus omne futurae 

Stirpis ab Ascanio, pugnataque in ordine bella. 

Fecerat et viridi fetam Mavortis in antro 630 

Procubuisse lupam ; geminos huic ubera circum 

Lndere pendentis pueros, et lambere matrem 

Impavidos; illam tereti cervice reflexam 

Mulcere altemos, et corpora fingere lingua. 

Nec procul hinc Romam et raptas sine more Sabinas 635 

ConsessQ caveae. magnis Circensibus actia, 

Addiderat, subitoque novum consurgere bellum 

Romulidis Tatioque seni Curibusque severis. 

Post idem inter se posito certamine reges 

Armati Jovis ante aram paterasque tenentes 64C 

Stabant et caesa jungebant foedera porca. 

Haud procul inde citae Mettum in diversa quadrigae 

Distulerant — at tu dictis, Albane, maneres ! — 

Raptabatque viri mendacis viscera TuIIus 

Per silvam, et sparsi rorabant sanguine vepres. 645 

Nec Qon Tarquinium ejectura Porsenna jubebat 

Accipere, ingentique urbem obsidione premebat; 

SLeneadae in ferrum pro libertate ruebant. 

Illum indignanti similem, similemque minanti 

Aspiceres, pontem auderet quia vellere Cocles, 65C 

£t fluvium vinclis innaret Cloelia ruptls. 

In summo custos Tarpeiae Manlius arcis 

Stabat pro tempto et Capitolia celsa tenebat, 

Romuleoque recens horrebat regia culmo. 

Atque hic auratis volitans argenteus anser €55 

Porticibus Gailos in limine adesse canebat; 

Galli per dumos aderant, arcemque tenebant, 

Defensi tenebris et dono noctis opacae ; 

Aurea caesaries ollis, atque aurea vestis; 

625. Non enarrahUe^ that cannot be completely (e) described. • 
631. Observe procubuisse, ludere. The time chosen for represents 
tion is after the wolf Aa^ lain down, and while the babes are playing 

— 636. Consessu^ &,c. See at v. 340. — 638. Curibus. See at y\ 
812. — 641. Stahant. See at i. 465, and a similar use of the tensoi 
notod at i. 466. — 650. Auderet marks the cause of Porsenna'8 threats 

— 654. Recen», either newly carved, or was represented as newly 
thatched. / i *- s 


Tirgtttfs lacent sagulis; tum laotea cG^la 660 

Auro innectuntur: duo quisque Alpina corusoant 
Gaesa nianu, scutis protecti corpora longis. 
- Hic exsuhantis SaJios, nudosque Lupercos, 
Lanigerosque apices. et lapsa ancilia coelo 
Extuderat ; castae ducebant sacra per urbem 665 

Pilentis matres in moliibus. Hinc procnl addit 
Tartareas etiam sedes, alta ostia Ditis, 
£t scelerum poenas, et te, Oatilina, minaoi 
Pendentem scopulo; Furiarumgue ora trementem f 
Secretosque pios ; his dantem jnm Catonem; 670 

Haec inter tumidi late maris ibat imago, 
Aurea, sed fluctu spumabant caerula cano } 
£t circum argento clari delpbines in orbem 
Aequora verrebant caudis aestumque secabant. 
In medio classis aeratas, Actia belia, 675 

Cemere erat; totumque instructo Marte videres 
Fervere Leucaten, auroque effulgere iluctns. 
Hinc Augustus agens Italos in proelia Caesar 
Cum Patribus Populoque; Penatibus et magnis Dis, 
Stans celsa in puppi ; geminas cui tempora ^mmas 680 
Laeta vomunt, patriumque aperitur vertice sidus. 
Parte alia ventis et dis Agrippa secundis 
Arduus agmen agens; cui, belli insigne superbcuo, 
Tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona. 
Hine ope barbarica variisque Antonius armis, 685 

Viclor ab Aurorae populis et litore rubro, 
Aegyptum virisque Orientis et ultima secum 
Bactra vehit] sequiturque, nefas ! Aegyptia conjanx. 
Una omnes ruere^ ac totum spnmare, raduetis 
Convolsum remrs rostrisdue tridentibus, aequor. 690 

Alta petunt ; pelago cre(ias innare roTolsas 
Cycladas, aut montis c-oncnrrere montibus altos: 
Tanta mole viri turritis puppibus instant. 
Stuppea flamma manu telisque volatile ferrum 

m* . I ■ — _ _ — . . — . ■ 

663. Salios. See at 285. LupercoSj priests of Pan. See at 344. 
— 66i. The priests (Flamines) set apart to peculiar deities wore 
vrool-tufted caps. Anciliat the famous sbields, made in imitaticHi 
«f the one that fell from heaven. — 670. Catonern. See at vi. 566.— 
€^tl . Inter. The scenes above described seem to have oecupied th« 
tim of the shield. The centre is occupied with the battle of Aetium. 
— 675. Actia. See p. 180, line 21. — 676. Cemere erat. See at 
Georg. iv. 447. — 677. Leucaten. See p. 180, line 19. — 681. Patrium, 
referring to Julius Caesar, who adopted him. See at Ecl. ix. 47.<~* 
682. Agrippa^ the faithful friend and son-in-law of Augustas. —-688. 
Aegyptia 4»HJUHtc, Cleopatra. — 692. C-tfcloda». See p. 179, line 9i. 
29 2d 

Spargitur; arva nova Neptunia caede rabeseaat. - 695 

Regina in mediis patrio vocat agmina sistro: 

Necdum etiam geminos a tergo respicit anguis. 

Omnigenumque deum monstra et iatrator Anubis 

Contra Neptunum et Venerem contraque Minervam 

Tela tenent. Saevit medio in certamme Mavors 700 

Caetatus ferro, tristesque ex aethere Dirae ; 

£t scissa gaudens vadit Discordia palla, 

Quam cum sanguineo sequitur Beliona flagello. 

Actias haec ceniens arcum intendebat Apollo 

l)esuper: omnis-eo terrore Aegyptus et Indi, 705 

Omiiid Arabs, omues vertebant terga Sabaei. 

Ipsa videbatnr ventis re^ina vocatis 

Yela (iare, et laxos jam jamque immittere funia. 

Illam inter eaedes palientem morte futura 

Fecerat Ignipotens undis et lapyge ferri ; 710 

Contra autem magno moerentem corpore Nilum, 

Pandentem(jue sinus et tota veste vocantem 

Caeruleum in gremium ifttebrosaque flumina victos. 

At Caesar, triplici invectns Romana triumpho 

Moenia, dis Italis votum immortale sacratiat, 715 

Maxima ter ceutum tolam delubra per Urbem. 

Laetitia ludinque viae plausuque fremebant; 

Omuibus in templis matrum chorus, onmibus arae ; 

Ante aras terram caesi stravere juvenci. 

Ipse, sedens niveo candentis iimine Phoebi, 720 

Dona recognoscit populorum aptatque superbis 

Postibus ; incedunt viotae longo ordine gentes, 

Quam variae linguis, habitu tam vestis et armis. 

Hic Nomadum genus et discinctos Mulciber Afros, 

Hic Lelegas Carasque sagittiferosque Gelonos 725 

Finxerat; Enphrates ibat jam mollior undis; 

Extremique hominum Morini, Rhenusque bicornis) 

Indomitique Dahae, et pontem indignatus Araxes. 

697. AnguU, referring to the mode of CIeopatra*s deatb, hy tha 
bite of aspst or an asp. — 698. Anubisj a deity of the EgyptifHM, 
which was represented with the bead of a do^. — 706. Arabg, 
See at 605. Sdbati. See at i. 416. — 708. Jam,jamque, well ex- 
presset her impatience. See at ii. 530. Immittere. See at vi. i. 
—719. Stravere, luive fallen, and are represented as lying in hoaps 
on the earth. Observe the poetical construction, stemere terrawu. 
As we say — ' they strew the ground.* — 724. Nomadum. See at it, 
320.-^725. Zidegas Carasquej early inhabitants of the west shoiea 
of Asia Minor, used bere lor Asiatics generally. Gelonos. A peopl6 
of Sarmatia (Russia), east of Borysthenes (the Dnieper). — 727. ifc- 
5**u i^® Cae». iv. 21. BicomiSf alluding to its twogreat divisioiis, 
Vahahs (tho Waal) aad Rhenus. — 728. Dahae^ near the Oxi^a, 


l^alia per clipeum Volcani, dona parentis, 
Miratnr, rerumque ignarus imagine gaudet; 730 

Attollens humero famamque et fata nepotum. 

•ast of the Caspian Sea. Araxea, an impetaous river (pantem ui- 
4ignatu$)t flowlDg iato the weet of the Caspian 8ea. 


Juiro sends Irls to TarnuS) counselling him to take advantage of 
tbe absence of Aeneas, and to attack the Trojan camp, at the 
month of the Tiber, 1—13. Tumus marcbes his forces accord- 
ingly, 14-32. The Trojans, obeying the instructions of Aeneas, 
resolye to act on the defensiye, 33—45. Tnrnus, annoyed at 
tfais, prepares to burn the fleet, 46-76. Address to the Muses, 

• 77*-79, Berecyntia had asked of Jupiter immortality for the 
flhips made of her saored pines, whereupon Jupiter promised 

, to change them into nymphs, when Aeneas should arriire in 
Italy, 80-106. To the astonishment of all, the ships now di-ve 
prow foremost to the bottom of the sea, and become nymphs, 
107-125, Turnns interprets the^ omen in his own Ikvour, and 
encourages his followers, 126—108. He places a bodyof tfoops 
to watch, who spend the night in carousal, 159—167. Precau- 
tions of the Trojans, 168—175^ Episodk or Nisus attd Eohta- 

l' Z.US. [See note at p. 318.] The Trojan Nisus, a sentinel at 
one of the -gates, deolares to bis friend and comrade Euryalui 
his resolution of setting out alone in search of Aeneas, pro- 
posing that the reward due to suoh a service should be given 
to Euryalus, 176—196. Afler some conversation, it is agreed 
tfaat both shaU go, and they seek Ascanius, 197-223. They 
explain their plan to a council of war, 224—245. They receive 
. high encomiums and promises, 246-280. Eryalus comntends 
his mother to tbe care of Ascanius, who, with tears, accepts 
the trust, 281-301. After receiving presents they set out, 302— 
312. They slay and plunder the foe, slumbering under the 
influence of wine, and make their way through them, 313— 366. 
A body oC Latin cavalry proceeding to the camp, are attracted 
by the gleam of the plundered helmet worn by Euryalus, and 
challenge them, 367-377. They plunge into a wood ; Nisus 
«scapes, but returns to seek Euryalus, whom he finds in the 

. flnemy'8 bands, 378-398. He throws his spear, and slaye- 
iwo of the eaemy^ 399-419. Their leader stabs to de»th Gii» 


rjolij, in spite of the interpo8itk>n of Nisns, wbo nnhefl inf4 
tfae midst, and, fighting, is siain, 420-445. Apoetiophe to 
Nisns and Euiyalus, 446-449. The grief of the Latins when 
they arrive at the beleaguering host, 450-458. In the tnorninf^ 
Tumiu marshals his troops, and displays on spears the headt 
of Nisus and Eurjralus, 459-472. Distraction of the roother 
of Euryalus, 473-502. Assault on the camp, 503—524. Invo- 
cation to the Muses, 525-529. A tower set on fire, with tlie 
deyth of Helenor and Lyciis, 530-568*. Various combats, 569- 
589. Ascanius slays his first enemy in battle, 590-638. ApoIIo 
interferes, and Ascanius is withdrawn from the dangers of the 
fight, 639-662. The battle rages with the others, 663-671. 
Daring of the Trojan Pandarus and Bitias, who throw open 
one of the gates, 672-690. Turnns, aroused, slays Bitias, 691— 
716. Mars favours the Latins, when Pandams, closing the 
gate, shuts out many of his eountrymen, but shuts in Turnus, 
717-733. Pandarus attacks Turnus, who slays him, 734-765. 
Con?ternation of the Trojans, 756-759. Tnrnus foolisbly 
rushes to the slaughter, 760-777. The Trqjan chieis unite 
against him, 778—786. Overpowered by the enemy, and re- 
luctantly forsaken by Juno at Jupiter's command, he plunges 
from the battlementfl into the Tiber, and rejoins his friends, 

Atque, ea diversa penitus dam parte gemntufy 
- Irim de coelo misit Saturnla Juno 

Audacem ad Turnum. Luco tum forte pareutis 

Filumni Turnus sacrata valle sedebat. 

Ad quem sic roseo Thaumantias ore locuta est : 5 

' Turne, quod optanti divom promittere nemo 

Auderet, volvenda dies, en, attulit ultro. 

Aeneas, urbe et sociis et classe relicta, 

Sceptra Palatini sedemque petit Evandri. 

Nec satis : extremas Corythi penetravit ad urbes^ 10 

Lydornmque manum collectos armiat agrestis. 

Quid dubitas 1 nunc tempus equos, nunc poscere curras. 

Rumpe moras omnis et turbata arripe castra.' 

Dijcit; et in coelum paribus se sustuiit alis, 

Ingentemque fuga secuit sub nubibus arcum. 15 

1. Diversa ^rtti &t the town of Evander, and the camp of tha 
Etrurians, whither Aeneas had gone to seek assistance. — 2. Irim. 
See at iv. 694. Saturnia. See at i. 23. — 4. Pilumni. See x. 76- 
where parcntw is seen to be used for avi. — 5. Rogeo. See at vii. 
712. TkaumantiuSy a patronymic of Iris from her fatlier Thaumas. 
"*"?.•. -P**»* by the arsis, or contracted for petiit. — 10. Corythi» 
at m. lea. — 11. Lydorwn. Tuscorum. See at viiL 479. 

LIBER IX« 141 

AgQOTit jnTenis, dtiplioisque ad mdem paluias 
^ustulit, ao tali fugientem est voce secutus: 
' Iri, decus coeli, quis te mihi nubibus actam 
Detulit in terrns 'i uode haeo tam clara repente 
Tempestas ? medium video discedere coelum, 20 

Paiantisque polo stellas. Sequor omina tanta, 
Quisquis in arma vocas.' £t sio effatus ad undam 
Processit, summoque hausit de gUrgite lymphas, 
Multa deos orans, oneravitque aethera votis. ^ 
Jamque omnis campis exercitus ibat apertis^ ^ 25 
' Dives equum, dives j»ct&i vestis et auri ; 
Messapus primas aoies, postrema codrcent 
Tyrrhidae juvraes; meaio dux agmtne Turnus 
Vertitur aitna tenenS; et toto vertice supra est. 
Ceu septem surgens sedatis amnibus altus 30 

Per tacitum Ganges, aut pingui flumine Niius 
Cum refluit campis et jam se condidit alveo. 
Hic subitam nigro glomerari pulvere nubem 
Prospiciunt Teucri, ac tenebras insurgere campis. 
Primus ab adversa conclamat mole C^ious : 35 

' Quis globuS; o cives; caligine volvitur atra ! 
Ferte citi femim; date tela, aseendite muroS) 
Hostis adest ; eia !' Ingenti damore per omnis 
Condunt se Teucri portaS; et moenia complent. 
Namque ita discedens praeceperat optimus armis 40 
Aeneas : si qua interea fortuna fuiaset, 
Neu straere auderent aciem, neu credere campo ; 
Castra modo et tutos servarent aggere muros. 
£rgo, etsi oonferre manum pudor iraque monstrat, 
Objiciunt portas tamen et praeoepta facessunt, 45 

Armatique cavis exspeotant turribus hostem. 
TurnuS; ut ante Tolens tardum praecesserat agmen, 
Viginti lectis equitum comitatus et urbi 
Improviflus adest ; maculis quem Thracius albis 
Portat equus, cristaque tegit galea aurea rubra. 50 

' fk^uis erit/ mecum, juvenes, ' qui primus in hostem — I 
£n/ ait. £t jaculum attorquens emittit in auras, 
Principium pugUae, et campo sese arduus infert. 
Clamore excipiunt socii, fremituque sequuntur 

26. PktdL See at iii.354.--27. Me»sajm9, See vii. 691. —28. 
Tyrrkiiae, See vii. 484. — 29. This line is justly regarded as here 
spurious, and borrowed from vii. 784. — 30, &c. The steady mardi 
of the army is compared to the majestic course of the Ganges or the 
Nile, when not overflowing their banks.— 32. Alveoj a dissyllable. 
7-37. Aaeendite, Some reM seandite, the a of tdahevag maae long, 
it ifl said, before $e, .... 



HorrisoBo; TencniiiiiniraQturiiieftiacorda: > 51 

Non ae(}uo dare se campo, non obvia ferre 

Arma viros, sed castra fovere. Huo turbidus atqae hao 

Lustrat equo muros, aditum(}ue per avia quaerit. 

Ac, veluti pleno lupus insidiatus ovili 

Cum fremit ad caulas, ventos perpessus et imbrisi 60 

Noote super media ; tuti sub matribus agni 

Balatum exercent ; ille asper et improbus ira 

Saevit in abseutis; collecta fatigat edendi 

£x loogo rabies, et siccae sanguine fauces: 

Haud aliter Eutulo muros et castra tuenti 65 

Ignescunt irae ; duris dolor ossibus ardet, 

Qua tentet ratione aditus, et quae via clausos 

Excutiat Teucros vallo atque effundat in aequum. 

Classem, quae lateri castrorum adjuncta latebat, 

Aggeribus septam circum et fluvialibus undis, 70 

Invadit,.80ciosque incendia poscit ovantis, 

Atque manum pinu flagranti fervidus implet. 

Tum vero incumbunt y urguet praesentia Turni; 

At^ue omnis facibus pubes accingitur atris. 

Dinpuere focos , piceum fert fumida lumen 75 . 

Taeda et commixtam Yolcanus ad astra favillam. 

Quis deus, o MusaO; tam saeva incendia Teucris 
Avertit ? tantos ratibus quis depulit ignis } 
Dioite. Prisca fidea facto, sed fama perennis. 

Tempore quo primum Phrygia formabat in Ida 80 
Aeneas classem, et pelagi petere alta parabat^ 
Ipsa deum fertur genetrix Berecyntia magnum 
Vocibus his afiata Jovem : ^ Da, nate^ petentiy 
Quod tua cara parens domito te poscit Olympo. 
Pinea silva mini, multos dilecta per annos, 85 

Luous in arce fuit summa, quo sac^ ferebiant, 
Nigranti picea trabibusq^ue obscurus acemis : 
Has ego Dardanio juveni, cum classis egeret, 
Laeta dedi ; nunc sollicitam timor anxius angit. 
Solve metus, atque hoc precibus sine posse parentem, 90. 
Neu cursu quassatae ullo neu turbine venti 

5T. Fovere ea$tra, to keep cloae within the camp.-— 69. Tumus 
-came from the south-east. The camp was betweea him and tho 
Tiber, and on one aide the ships formed a naval camp.— -74. Ae" 
einffitur, See at vL 184. — 80. Jda. See at ii. 694; and for the 
bnuding of the fieet, iii. 5, &c. — 82. Berecyntia, See at vi. 785, 
As identical with Cybele, and worshipped on Mount Ida, see at iii. 
m. —85. The conatruction seema to be, Pinea eUva fuit mtftt. — 
.86. £»caM, &c. ; lucue (a aacred grove) being in apposition with« 
% nd explanatory of tylva. Arce, See at ii. 322. 

LIB&B IX. 84% 

Vinoantiur; prosit nostris in Biontibus ortas.' 
Filius hnic contra, torquet qoi sidera mundi : 
< O genetrix, quo fata vocas ^? aut quid petis istis I 
Mortaline manu factae immortale carinae 95 

Fas habeant, certusque incerta pericula lustret 
Aeneas ? Cui tanta deo permissa potestas ? 
Immo, ubi defunctae finem portusque tenebunt 
Ausonios olim, auaecumque evaserit undis 
. Dardaniumqne ducem Laurentia vexerit arva, IdO 

Mortalem eripiam formam, magnique jubebo 
Aequoris esse deas, qualis Nereia Doto 
£t Galatea secant spumantem pectore pontum. 
DLxerat, idque ratum Stygii per flumina fratriS| 
Per pice torrentis atraque voragine ripas 105 

Adauit, et totum nutu tremefecit Olympum. 

Ergo aderat promissa dies, et tempora Parcae 
Debita complerant : cum Tumi injuria Matrem 
Admonuit ratibus sacris depellere taedas. 
Hio primum nova lox oculis offulsit, et ingens 110 

Visus ab Aurora coelum transcurrere nimbus, 
Idaeique chori ; tnm vox horrenda per auras 
Excidit et Troum Rutulorumque agmina complet : 
' Ne trepidate meas, Teucri, defendere navis, 
Neve armate manus; maria ante exurere Turno, 115 
Quam sacras dabitur pinus. Vos ite solutae, 
Ite deae pelagi y geuetrix jubet.' £t sua quaeque 
Continup puppes abrumpunt vincula ripis, 
Delphinumque modo demersis aequora rostris 
Ima petunt. Hinc virgineae, mirabile monstrum, 120 
Quot prius aeratae steterant ad litora prorae 
Reddnnt se totidem facies, pontoque feruntur. 
Obstupuere animi Rutulis ; conterritus ipse 
Turbatts Messapus equis ; cunctatur et amnis 
Rauca sonansj revocatque pedem Tiberinus ab alto. 125 
At non audaci Tufbo fiducia cessit ; 

m ' ' 

99. Au9onio8, See p. 180, line 5. — 100. Dardanium dueemt 
Aeneas was so called. See at vi. 648. Laurentia, See at vi. 893. 
Atwi, See at i. 2. — 102. Nereta. See at Ecl. vi. 35 ; Aen. iii. 74. 
DotOi the Homeric Nereid, AiorA. — 103. Galatea. See at Ecl. vii. 
87. — 104. Stygii. See at vi. 295, 324.— 106. Olymjmm. See at 
Ed, V. 56. — 107. Parcae. See at Ecl. iv. 47. — 108. Tumi injuria. 
The wrong done by Tnmus, the subjective ^enitive. Compare 
with opretae injuria farmae (i. 27), the objective genitive. Sce 
Zaiapt, ^ 423. — 117. Abrumpunii quaeque $ua vineula. — 125. Saw 
m, See at £bl. iil 8. Tiberinue, The river-god.— 126» &c 8— 
at vii. 435. 


Ultro animos toHit dictis, atqne inerepat ultro: 
' Trojanos haec monstra petnnt ; hts Jupiter ipee 
Auxjlium solitum eripuit, non tela neque ignis 
Exspectant Rutolos. Ergo maria inWa Teuerie, 130 
Nec spes ulla fugfie ; rerum pars altera adempU eet; 
Terra autem in nostris manibus ; tot millia, gentea 
Arma ferunt Itahie. Nil me fatalia terrent, 
Si qua Phryges prae se jaetant, responsa deorum : 
Sat fatis Venerique datum, tetigere quod arva 139 

Fertilis Ausoniae Troes. Sunt et mea contm 
Fata mihi, ferro sceleratam exscindere gentem, 
Conjuge praerepta ; nec solos tangit Atridas 
Iste doior, soHsque licet capere arma Mycenis. 
Sed periisse semel satis est : — peccare fuisset 140 

Ante satiS) penitus modo non g^nus omne perosos 
Femineum. Quibus haec medii iSducia valli 
Fossarumque morae, leti ditfcrimina parra, 
Dant animos ; at non viderunt moenia Trojae 
Neptuni fabrieata manu considere in ignis? 145 

Sea vos, o lecti, ferro quis scindere vallum 
Apparat et mecum invadit trepidantia ^istfa? 
Non armis mihi Volcani, non mille carinis 
. Est opus in Teucros. Addant se protenus omTOB 
Etrasci socios. Tenebras et inertia fcH-ta 150 

Palladii, caesis summae custodibus ai-cis, 
Ne timeant ; nec equi caeca condemur ia alvo ; 
Luce, i)alam, certum est igni eircumdare muros. 
Haud sibi cum Danais rem faxo et pube Pelasga 

130. JRutulos, Turnus himself was a Rutulian. The temui 
Mutuli wad' Latini are often interchanged by Virgil. — '132. T&t 
millia, gentes, the nations (formed of) so many thoasands.-— 
133. Fatalia, quae feta deciarant. •— 138. C&njuge, Lavinia. See 
at Ecl. viii. 18. Atriebu, See-at L 458. Tbe aiiusion is to the car- 
tyin^ away of Helen. — 139. Mycenis, See at L 283. — 140, &c. 
A difficult passage, the meaning of which seems to be this-^ 
*Does any one say, the Trojans nave sufficiently atoned for their 
euilt in once perishing? I answer, their former crime wodld hSave 
been enough ibr men who had not hated from the heart (modo niw 
penitus perosos) the whole race of women.* Tumus infers that the 
conduct of Paris and Aeneas indicates a heartfeh hatred to womeD, 
whom they continued to plunder and betray. Otfaers construe 
penituB perosos modo non omne — ^ having iearned to hate almost all 
women — all foreign women/ — 141. Per&soSf the acousative agree- 
mg with the object inferred in peccare. — 142. Ji quibuSf dtc. n<m 
viderunt, — 145. Neptuni. See at ii. 625. -^148. Armi^ aUodiog 
' tp the arms made by Vulcan for- Achilles.— 151. VoUadiu See ttt 
u. 165.— 152. Equi. See the Second Book. • - • 


Esse pntent, decimtiin qooa dtstulit Heetor in annnra* 155 
Nunc adeo, melior quoniam pars acta dtei, 
Quod superest, laeti bene gestis corpora rebus 
Procurate, viri ; et pugnam sperate parati.' 

Interea vigilum excubiis oosidere jportas 
Cura datur Messapo et moenia ciogere flammis. 160 

Bis septem Rntuli, muros qui mitite servent, 
Delecti ; ast illos centeni quemque sequuntur 
Purpnrei cristis juvenes auroque corusci. 
Discurrunt, variantqne vices, fusique per herbam 
Indulgent vino, et vertunt crateras aenos. 165 

Collucent ignes ; noctem custodia ducit 
losomnem ludo. 

Haec super e vallo prospectant TroeS) et armls 
Alta tenent ; nec non trepidi formidine portas 
£xpIorant, pontisque et propugnaoula jungunt, 170 

Tela gerunt. Instant Mnesthens acerque Serestus, 
Quos pater AeneaS) si quando adversa vocarent, 
Rectores juvenum et rerum dedit esse magistros, 
Omnis per muros legio, sortita periclum, 
£xcubat exercetque vices, quod cuique tuendum est, 175 

Nisus erat pertae costos, acerrimus armis, 
Hyrtacidee, comiiem Aeneae quem miserat Ida 
Venatrix, jaculo celerem levibusque sagittis ; 
£t juxta comee Euryalus, quo pulcbrior alter 
Non fuit Aeneadum Trojana ne<jue induit arma, 180 
Ora puer prima signans intonsa juventa. 
His amor unus erat, pariterque in bella ruebant ; ^ 
Tum quoque communi portam statione tenebant. 
Nisus ait : ' Dine hunc ardorem mentibus addunt, 
Euryale^ an sua cuique deus fit dira cupido ? 185 

Aut pugnam, aut aliquid jamdudum invadere magonm 
Mens agitat mibi, nec placida contenta quiete est. 
Cemis, quae Rutulos habeat fiducia rerum : 
Lumina rara micant ; somno vinoque soluti 
Procubuere ; silent late loca. Percipe porro, 190 

Qoid dubitem; et quae nunc animo sententia surgat. 
Aenean acciri omnes, poputusque patresque, 
Exposcunt, mittique viros, qui certa reportent. 
Si, tibi quae posco, promittunt — nam mihi facti 
Fama sat est — tumulo videor reperire sub illo 195 

170. Pontis, communications between the different pr(mugnaeula» 
— 176; See Nisus and Euryalus and their friendship, v. 294-361. ~ 
177. Hyrtaeides. See at v. 492. — 187. Agitat pugnam — innader^ 
(th« accusative of the infinitive) mikL 

846 AMintwoM. 

PbsBe ▼iam ad rhuros et moeoia FallaRted. 

Obstupuit magQO laudum percussus amore 

£urya)u8 j simul his ardentem affatur amicum : 

< Mene igitur socium summis adjungere rebus, 

Nise, fugis ? solum te in tanta pericnla mittam % tOO 

Non ita me genitor, bellis assuetus Opheltes, 

Argolicum terrorem inter Trojaeque laborca 

Sublatum erndiit ; neo tecum talia gessi, 

Magnanimum Aenean et fata extrema aecutus : 

£st hic, est animus lucis contemptor, et istum 205 

Qui vita bene credat emi, quo tendis honorem.' 

Nisus ad haeo : ' £quidem de te nil tale verelmr, 

Nec fas ; non : ita me referat tibi magnus ovantem 

Jupiter; aut quicumque oculis haec aspicit aequis. 

Sed si quis — quae multa vides discrimine tali — 210 

Si quis in adversum rapiat casusve deusve, 

Te superesse velim ; tua vita dignior aeta& 

Sit, qui me raptum psgna pretiove redemptum 

Mandet hamo solita, aut si qua id fortuna vetabit, 

Absenti ferat inferias, decoretque sepulchro. 215 

Neu matri miserae tanti sim causa doloris, 

Quae te sola, puer, multis e matribus ausa 

Persequitur, magni nec moenia curat Acestae.' 

Ille autem : *■ Causas nequidquam nectis inanis, 

Nec mea jam mutata loco sententia oedit. 220 

Acceleremus,' ait. Yigiles simui exoitat. IIU 

Succedunt servantque vices; statione relicta 

Ipse comes Niso graditur; regemque requirunt. 

Cetera per terms omnis anirnalia eomno 
Laxabant curas et corda oblka laborum : 225 

( Ductores Teucrum primi, delecta juventos^ 
• Consilium summis regni de rebus habebant, 
Quid facer^nt, quisve Aeneae jam nuntius esset. 
Stant longis adnixi hastis et scuta tenentee 
Castrorum et eampi medio. Tum Nisus et una 230 

£uryalus confestim alacres admittier orant ; 
-Rem magnam) pretiumque morae fore« Primua lalas 
Accepit trepidos, ac Nisum dicere jussit. 
Tum sic Hyrtacides : ' Audite o mentibus aequie, 
Aeneadae, neve haec nostris spectentur ab annis, 235 
Quae ferimus. Rutuli somno vinoque soluti 
Conticuere ; locum insidiis conspeximus ipsi, 

196. Pallantea, See viii. 54. —215. See at vi. 505. — 218. See t. 
^"S, &c.— 223. jRtgem, Aacanium, aa regina, vi. 28.— 231. iW- 
mMtter, See at iv. 493. 

LIBSR IX.' 9^* 

Qui palet in bivio poftae, qn^e proxima ponto y • • 

Interrupti ignes, aterque ad sidera fumus 

Erigitnr ; si fortuna permittitis uti, 240 

Quaesitum Aenean et moenia Paliantea : 

Mox hic cum spoliis, ingenti caede peracta, 

Affore cernetis. Nec nos via fallit euntis: 

Vidimus obscuris primam sub vallibus urbem 

Venatu assiduo, et totum coghovimus amnem.' 245 

Hic annis gravis atque animi maturus Aletes : 

'Di patrii, quorum semper sub numine Troja est, 

Non tamen omnino Teucros delere paratis, 

Cum talis animos juvenum et tam certa tulistis 

Peotom.' Sic memorans, humeros dextrasque tenebat 250 

Amborum, et vultujfn lacrimisatque ora rigabat. 

' Quae vobis, quae digna, viri, pro laudibus istis 

Praemia posse rear solvi ? pulcherrima primum 

Di moresque dabunt vestri ; tum cetera reddet 

Actutum pius Aeneas atque integer aevi 255 

AscaniuS; meriti tanti non immemor umquam.' 

' Immo ego ros. cui sola salus genitore reducto,' 

Excipit Ascanius, 'per magnos, Nise, Penatis 

Assaracique Larem et canae penetralia Vestae 

Obtestor; quaecumque mihi fortuna fidesque est, 260 

In vestris pono gremiis: revocate parentem) 

Reddite conspectum; nihil illo triste recepto. 

Bina dabo argento perfecta atque aspera signis 

Pocula, devicta genitor quae cepit Arisba, 

£t tripodas geminos, auri duo magna talenta, 265 

Cratera antiquum, quem dat Sidonia Dido. 

Si vero capere Italiam sceptrisque potiri 

Contigerit victori, et praedae dicere sortem: 

Vidisti, quo Turnus^uo, quibus ibat in armis 

Aurens; ipsum illum, clipeum cristasque rubentis 270 

Excipiam sorti, jam nunc tua praemia, Nise. 

Praeterea bis sex.genitor lectissima matrum 

Corpora captivosque dabit, suaque omnibus arma; 

Insuper his, campi quod rex habet ipse Latinus. 

Te Tero, mea quem spatiis propioribus aetas 275 

Insequitur, renerande puer. jam pectore toto 

240. Permittitis nti soems to infer here mittentes, and hence 
quaefitum. — 243, Afore nos. — 255. Integer aevi. See at ii. 638. 
— 259. Assaraci. See at vi. 648. — 264. Arisbot a town of tho 
Troad. The event alluded to is unknown. — 265. Auri, &c. Sce 
at V. 248. — 266. Sidonia. See at iv. 75. — 268. Dicere, to announco 
■8 a yictorious general. Others read ducere. — 275. Te^ addressing 

84B AKNE1I>08. 

Accipk) et comitem casns coraplector in omtM 

NuUa meis sine te quaeretur ^loria rebus ; 

Seu pacem seu bella geram, tibi maxima rerum 

Verborumque fides.' Contra quem talia fatur 280 

Euryalus : ^ Me nulla dies tam fortibus ausis 

Dissimilem arguerit ; tantum, fortuna secunda 

Aut adversa cadat. Sed te super omnist dona 

Unum oro ; genetrix Priami de gente vetusta 

Est mihi, quam miseram tennit non Ilia tellus 285 

Mecum excedentem, non moenia regis Acestae. 

Hanc ego nunc ignaram hujus quodcumque pericli est 

Iiique salutatam linquo ; Nox et tua testis 

Dextera, quod ne(jueam lacrimas preferre parentis. 

At tu, oro, solare inopem, et succurre relictae. 290 

Hanc sine me spem ferre tui : audentior ibo 

In casus omnis.' Percussa mente dedere 

Dardanidae lacrimas ; ante omnis pulcher luluS; 

Atque animum patriae strinxit pietatis imago. 

Tum.sic efiatur: 295 

'Sponde digna tuis ingentibus omnia ooeptis. 

Namque erit ista mlhi genetrix, nomenque Creusae 

Solum defueritj nec partum gratia talem 

FSirTa manet. Casus factum quicumque sequeniur 

Per caput hoc juro, per quod pater ante soleoat : 300 

Quae tibi polliceor reduci rebusque secundis, 

Haec eadem matrique tuae generique manebunt.' 

Sic ait illacrimans; humero simul exuit ensem, 

Auratum, mira quem fecerat arte Lycaon 

Gnosius atque habilem vagina aptarat eburna. 305 

Dat Niso Mnestheus pellem horrentisque leonis 

Exuvias; galeam fidus permutat Aletes. 

Protenus armati incedunt; quos omnis euntis 

Primomm manus ad portaS| juvenumque senumque, 

Prosequitur votis. Nec non et pulcher lulus, 310 

Ante annos animumque gerens curamque virilemi 

Multa patri mandata dabat portanda. Sed aurae 

Omnia discerpunt, et nubibus irrita donant. 

Egressi superant fossas, noctisque per nmbram 
Castra inimica petunt, multis tamen ante fnturi 31J» 

' 282. Arguerit, See at vi. 39. Tantum seems to roean, * thia 
tnuch I can promise, whatever befalls.* See at ii. 690. — 286. JMoe» 
nia, &c. See v. 746, &c. — 291. Tui, -i unelided before audeHiwr. 
—294. Compare this line with x. 824. Here patriae pietatts is l<fn 
M a father; at x. 824, the love o/a father. See also at ii 559.— 
296. Spondere here means to assure one*s-8elf of. Others read 
•jwmdco.— 305. Gnosiut, See p. 179, iine 24. 

LtBSR <Z. 8<ift 

fisdlk). Pastsiin sobirio vinoque per herbara 
Corpora fusa vident, arrectos litore currus, 
Inter lora rotasque viros, simul arma jacere, 
Vina simul. Prior Hyrtacides sic ore locutus: 
' ' Euryale, audendum dextra } nunc ipsa vocat res. 320 
Hac iter est. Tu, ne qna manus se attollere nobis 
A tei^ poBsit, custodi et consule longe ; 
Hsiec ego vasta dabo, et lato te limite ducam.' 
Bio memorat, vocemque premit ; simul ense superbam 
Rhamnetem aggreditur, qui forte tapetibus altis 325 

Exstnictus toto proflabat pectore somnum, 
Rex idem, et regi Turno gratissimus augur^ 
Sed non augurio potuit depeliere pestem. 
Tris jnxta ramulos temere inter tela jacentis 
Armigerumque Remi premit aurigamque sub ipsis 330 
Nactus equis, ferroque secat pendentia colla ; 
Tum caput ipsi aufert domino, truncumque relinquit 
Sanguine singultantem ; atro tepefacta cmore 
Terra torique madent. Nec non Lamyrumque Lamumque 
£t juvenem Serranum, illa qui plurima nocte 335 

Luserat, insignis facie. multoque jacebat 
Membra deo victus ; felix, si protinus illum 
Aequasset nocti ludum in lucemque tuliilbet. 
Impastus ceu plena leo per ovilia turbans — 
Suadet enim vesana fames — manditque trafaitqQe 340 
Molle pecus mutumque metu ; fremit ore cruento. 
Nec mmor Eurvali caedes; incensus et ipse 
Perfurit, ac muitam iu medio sine nomine plebem, 
Fadumque Herbesumque subit Rhoetumque Abarimqne, 
Ignaros ; Rhoetum vigilantem et cuncta videntem ; 345 
Sed magnum metuens se post cratera tegebat : 
Pectore in adverso totum cui comminus ensemc 
Condidit assurgenti, et multa morte recepit. 
Purpuream vomit ille animam, et cum sangnine mixta 
Yina refert moriens; hic furto fervidus instat. 350 

Jamque ad Messapi socios tendebat ] ibt ignem 
Deficere extremum et religatos rite videbat 
Carpere gramen equos : breviter cum talia Nisus — 
Sensit enim nimia caede atque cupidine ferri — 
' Absistamus,' ait ; ^nam lux inimica propinqnat. 355 

319. Hyrlacides. See 177. — 329. JuxtOt near Rhamnes. — 397. 
Memhra victus, the accusative of limitation.— 347. Cui. See at vi« 
473. — 349. Mark the contrast — Ulef Rhoetus ; hie, Euryalus. — 352. 
Bxtremum seems to mark that Messapus was on the outer pan of 
th* blockadin^ host. See 356, via, o&c. — 354. Setuit Euryalnni 
ferru See at iv. 382. 

SM jubnsidos. 

Joenanim exhansttim satis est ; yia faeta per boMtft.' 
lulta virnm solido argento perfecta relinquant 
Armaqne crateiusque f^imul pulchrosque tapetas. 
Euryalus pbaleras Khaiuii(>tis et aurea buUis 
Cingula, Tiburti Remulo ditissimus uiim 360 

Qoae mittit dona; hospitio cum iungeret absens, 
Caedicus; ille suo moriens dat nal^re nepoti^ 
Post mortem bello Rutuli pugnacjue potiti ; 
Haec rapit) atque humeris nequiuquam fortibus ap^. 
Tum galeam Messapi habilem cristisque decoram 365 
Induit. Excedunt castris, et tuta capessunt. 
Interea praemissi equites ex urbe Latina, 
Cetera dum legio campis instructa moratur, 
Ibant et Tumo regi responsa ferebantj 

^ Ter centum, scutati omnes, Volscente magistro. 370 

Jamque propinquabant castris, muroque subibant, 
Com procul hos laevo flectentis limite cemunt, 
£t galea Euryalum sublustri noctis in umbra 
Prodidit immemorem radiisque adversa refulsit. 
Haud temere est visum. Conclamat ab agmine Yol* 

scens : 375 

'State, viri; quae caussa viae? quive estis in armisl 
Quove tenetis iter?' Nihil illi tendere contra, 
Sed celerare fngam in silvas et fiderc nocti. 

' ' Objioiunt equites sese ad divortia nota 

Hinc atque hinCj omnemqne abitumcustode coronaitt. 380 

Silva fuit late dumis atque iiice nigra 

Horrida, quam densi complerant undique sentes ; 

.' Rara per occultos lucebat semita calles. 

y Euryalem tenebrae ramorum onerosaque praeda 

Impediunt, fallitque timor regione viarum. 385 

Nisus abit ; jamque imprudens evaserat hostis 
Atque locoSj qui post Albae de nomine dicti 
AlDani, tum rex stabula aha Latinus habebat ; 

^ Ut stetit, et frustra absentem respexit amicum ; 

^Euryale infelix, qua le regione reliquil 39^ 

360. Tiburti. See p. 292, line 25. —363. Some think this line to 
be Bpurious.— <-367f &c. We may suppose that Tumus had aent to 
■lu^k when the main body of the foot (Ze^to) would join him, and that 
the answer was bruught by these three hundred horsemen. — ^69. 
,iiegL Othersread r^is. — 373. Galea. See365. — 380. Coromant. 
,See ot 508. — 383. JRara. The path was seen only at intervals, from 
the dubious liffht, and the woody shade. — 386. Imprudens. Not 
Mnowing whathad become of Euryalus. — 387. Locos, others, lacAs, 
*P M ^^^'^^ Pl^ces iq the territory of Alba Longa. To iv.hat 
virgii alludes, is riow unkrioVn. " 


Qaave se^tuuv ruftaB perplexnm iter onane nevo lf eai 
FallacJB silvae V Simul et Testigla retro * 

Observata legit, duinisque silent^us errat. 
Audit eqnos, audit strepitus et signa sequentum. 
Nec longum in medio tempus, cum clamor ad auris 395 
Pervenit, ac videt Euryalum ; quem jam manus ooinisi 
Fraude loci et noctis, subito turbante tumulta, 
Oppressum rapit et conantem plurima frustra. 
Qutd faciat % qua vi juvenem, quibus audeat armis: 
Eripere ? an sese medios moriturus in enses 400 

Inferat, et pulchram properet per vulnera mortem 1 
Ocius adducto torquens nastiie lacerto, 
Suspiciens altam Lunam, et sic voce preeatur: * 
' Tu, dea, tu praeaens nostro succurre labori, 
Astroram decus et nemorum Latonia custos ; 405 

Si qua tuis umquam pro me pater Hyrtacus aris 
Dona tulit, si qua ipse meis venatibus auxi, 
Snspendive tholo, aut sacra ad fastigia &ii: 
Hunc sine me turbare globum, et rege tela per «uraa.* 
Dixeraty et toto connixus corpore ferrum 410 

Conjicit. Hasta volans noctts diverberat ombraS) 
£t ventt aversi in teigum Sulmonis^ ibique 
Frangitur, ao fisso transit praecordia ligno. 
Volvitur iile vomens calidum de pectore flumea 
Frigidus, et longis singultibus ijia pulsat. 415 

Diversi circumspiciuat. Hoc acrior idem 
Ecce aliud summa telum librabat ab aure. 
Dum trepidant, iit basta Tago per tempus ntramqil0| 
Stridens, trajectoque baesit tepefactii cerebro. 
. . Saevit atrox VoIscenS) nqp teh conspicit usquam ' 420 
Auctorem^ nec quo se ardens immittere possit. 
^Tu tamen interea calido mihi sanguine poenas 
Persolves amborum,' inquit ; simul ense recluso 
Ibat in Euryalum. Tum vero exterritus, amenSy 
Conclamat Niaus — ^nec se celare tenebris 425 

Amplius, aut tantum potuit perferre dolorem — 
' Me, me. adsum, qui feci, in me convertite fernam, 
O Rutuli ! mea fraus omnis; nihil iste nec ausus, 
Nec potuit; coelum hoc et conscia sidera testor; 
. Tantum infelicem nimium dilexit amicum.' 430 

Talm dicta dabat ; sed viribus ensis adactus 

M3. Ohservata, See at i. 680, ii. 754. — 403. Preeatur torqueiu, 
4fco,» euipicientt &o., et sic voce. Others omit et. — 405. JLatoma» 
8ee at i. 502, iv. 510. — 414. Observe the contrast between coiJcltM» 
wad/rigidus, — 427. Me, me, d&c See at viii. 144. 


fVninibiit eottu et oandida peotora ranipit. 
Yolyitur EarjnJat leto, pulebrooqae per artiis 
It croor, inqiie bnmeros oenrix ooUapaa reoambit: 
ParpareoB veluti oom floe saceisus aratre 435 

Langiieecit moriena laaeof e papaveta collo 
Bemiaere eapat| pluYia oom forte gATantar. 
At Nisoe rait in medios, eolomqae per eniiiie 
VolaoeBtem petit } in solo Volaeente momtttr. 
Qbem oifcam glomerati boetes biae comeBiniM atqoe 
bino 440 

Protinbaot. Inetat non eeeiae, ae lotat eneem 
Faimineam, denee Rutali dasiaatis in ore 
Condidit adTeno, et mcHrieiiB animam abstolit bostL 
Tam saper exanimom Bote projeoit «mieam 

( ' Confossos, plaeidaqae iln denram mocte qaierit* 445 
F<Mtanati ambo ! oi quid mea earmiaa poeaunti 
NuUa diee amqoam memori yos eximet eeYO| 
Dum domas Aeneae Oapitoli immobile eazom 
' Accolet, imperiamque pater Romanos babebit 

t Victoree praeda Rntnli spoliteqoe potiti, . 450 

Volsoeniteaa ezanimam fleotes in castm ferebaat. 
Nec minor in oastris lactas Rbamncte reperto 
Exsangni et primis nna tot oaede peremptis, 
Serraiieqne Nnmaqne. Ingens ooncorsus ad ipsa 
Corpora semineoisqae yiros, tepidaqae reoentem 455 
Caede locnm et plenos spamanti sangoiope riYoe. 
Agnoscantspolia inter se, galeamqae nitentem 
MnMspi, et molta pbaleras sndore receptas. 

Et jam prima noYO spargebal kunine <erra8 
Titboni erooeum liDquens Aarora cabile : 460 

Jam sole infuso, jam rebus luce retectis, 
Tamos in arma yiros^ armis oircamdatus ipse, 
Suscitaty aeratasque acies in proeba oogit 
Quisqiie saas, Tariisqae aeuont rumoribns iras. 
Quin ipsa arreotis — ^Yieu misendE>ile-*in hastts 465 

Praefieunt capita et mnlto clamove eequflBntur 
Enrjali et Nisi» 

Aeneadae duri murorum in pavte sinistra 
Opposoere aciem-<«4mm dextera cingitar amni— 

t Ingentisqoe teneat fossas, et tarribas altis 470 

Stant moesti ; simul ora Yirum praefixa moYebant, 

,440. Ctre»iR f ttem Vobcentem — 441. Proturiant Ntsani*— 444« 
Emantmum. O thers, exanmem, So at 451. ~ 449. Paier Hsmamtm 
E?**t ^^ ^* pereonification of tho Roman peoplc 459, 464k 


Nota nimis miseris, atroqne fkentia tabou 

InteiBa pA? idaai wlkans peimata per atbem 
Nimtia Fama rait, matrisqiie aUabitnr anm ' 
Earyali. At sabitns miserae calor OMa reliqctit ^ 476 
Bxcnssi manibna radii^ reTo4ataque penn. 
Evolat tnfi^ix, et femineo nJolatU) 
Scissa ooroam, mnro» amens atque agmina cwm 
Prima petit, imhi illa vimm^ non illa poficli 
Telorumque memor; coelum dehinc queattbns implel: 480 
' Hnne ego te, Euryale, aspicio ? tune iile seaeolae 
Sera raeae reqniet, potnisti linqnere solam, 
Cmdelis? nec te, sub tanta pericola niissum^ 
Affari extremum miserae diUa copia matri I 
Heu^ terra i^pota canibtts date praeda Latinia 485 

Alitibnsqne jaces ! nec te tua fanere mater 
Produxiy preseiTe oouloa) ant ynloera laviy 
Veste tegens, tibi quam noetes festina diesqoo 
Urguebajn et tela cnras solabar aailis. 
Quo sequar ^ ant qnae nunc artus aTolsaqne membm 490 
£t fnnus laceram teilns babet ? Hoe miai de te« 
Nate, vefers? hoosnm terraqne mariqoe sacntat ' 
Figite me, si qna est pietas, in me omnia tela 
Conjicite, fintnli, me primara abeomite fsno^ 
Ant tu, jBagne pater divom, misererey tuoqna ' 496 

Inrisum hoc detmde capnt sub Tartaraleio, 
Quando aliter nequeo crudelem abrnmpere ritatt/ 
Hoc fletn conoussi animi, moestnsqne per omnia 
It gemitnsi torpeat infraetae ad proelia Tires. 
Illam incendentem Inetus Idaeus et Actor 500 

Ilionei monilu et muitnm iaorimantis luli 
Corripinnt, interqne manns eub tecta repennnl^ 

At tuba terribilem somtnm proonl aere eanoro 
Increpuit ; sequitur clamori ooehimaue remngit. 
Acceieraot aota pariter testudine Volsoi ; 505 

. £t fossaa implere parant ao vellere vailnm. 
Quaerunt paTs aditum, et scalis ascendere muros^ 
Qoa rara est aoies interlncetqne corona 
Non tam spissa viris. Teloram effundere oontra 

Omne genus Tencri ac dnrie detrudere oontis^ 510 

»11 , ■ 

477. FemineOf -o unelided before ululatu, — 480. JDehinCt an 
elision. — 485. Date Nise. Othera read data, agreeing yfiihpraeda, 
F«rthe dread entertained of this tombless fate, aee at v. 871.—» 
4B6» Funere^ with due ^nereal rites. Others read funera. — •496« 
%\trtara* See at v. 733.-499. Infraetae. See at vii. 832.— 605, 
Tettudine, See at ii. 441. VoUci, See vii. 803.--508. Coroim 
Compve B8e, z. 133| and Ovid, Met. aiii* 1, vtt]gistante «orona^ 
30* 2e 

Assoeti long» nmm defendere bello. 
Saia qvoqve infeato TolTebaot pondere,. ei qoa 
Possent teotam.acieia pecmmpeie, cnm tameaooiM 
Ferre jiiTat sabter deaea testiidioe caeos. 
Nec jam saffienint. NamqoaglolmsimmioetinfeiiA 515 
Immanem Teocri molem relyootqoe raoQtqiiey 
Quao ttatLint BotoItM bie^ armommqne rewMTit 
Tegmioa. Neo eoraat caeoo oontendere Ikfoil* 
JUiapliiie avdaces Rutnli, sed pellere yaJlo 
MtsaBitM» eertaot. 520 

Parte alia faenendtts viso qoassabat fitroseam 
Pinum et f omifierDs kitet Mezeotios igois ; 
At MessapoB eqoom dQimtor) Neptunia proles^ 
« Rescinctit Taikim et scalas in moeoia poseit. 

Vos^ o Galliope, preeor, adspirate eaoeflti| 525 

Qoas ibi tum ienro strageS) qoae fonera Taratts 
Ediderit, qoem qoisqae rirom deraiserit Oieo ; 
£t mecum ingentis oras evolTlte belli. 
E^ raemiiiistts eaim, dirae; et memomre potestis. 

Torris eiat vaste su^peoto et pontibos altis, 530 

Opportana loeo; sommis qoam viribos omnea 
Expn^iiare Itali summaqae evertere opom Ti 
Certabant, Trois eontm defendere saxis ' 
PerqoecaTas denst tela intorqoere fenestn». 
Princeps aidentem conjflNott lampada Tumo^, 535 

Elftuomam aficnt lateri ; qoae pbirimajveale 
Corripoit tabolas et postilHis haesit adesie. 
Turbati trepidare iotos, frttstraque roalorQm 
' Yelle fbgam. Dora se glomerant, retroqoe residant 
In partem, quae peste caret, tum pondere torrta 540 
Procoboit sobito, et coehim tonat omne fragore. ^ 
Semioeeee ad terram, immaai moh» flecota, 
Conflxrqiie.eui8 telis et peetora doro 
Transfossi ligno Tenkint. Yix ttoos Helenor 
£t Lycu&alapsi^ qooram^priwMTnsHelenor, 545 

Maoonio regi <)«em serva LieyaBnia furtim 
Sustulerat Tetitisqoe^ad Tro^am mtsemt anaifl, 
Ense leTis mido patmaqoe inglorios alba. 
Iflqoe obi se lynmi media inter millia Tidit, 
Hinc aoies atqne hino acies adstare Latinas : 590 

516. Muwnt, See at i. 85.-518. Caeco MaHB, under oover ^ 
tfie teHndo. 8ee the same phrase, in a somewhat di^rent sefi0e> 
at ii. ^ — 523. See vu. 691 525. CuUiopt, the ranse of Bpie 

LIBKR IX^ - 358^ 

Ut fera, qaae; densa Tenantnm septa coroim, 

Contra tela farit, seseque haad neseia morti 

Injicit "et saha supra renabala fertar^ 

Haad aliter javenis medios morituras in hostis 

Irrart, et, qua tela videt densiesima, tendit. 555 

At pedKbas longe melior Lyeus inter et iiost» 

Inter et arma niga mtiros tenet, altaqae certat 

Prendere tecta mana sociamqae attingere dextias* 

Quem TamuS) pariter ctirsu teloqae secutus, 

Increpat his victor: 'Nostrasne evadere, demenSi 560 

Sperasti te posse manus?' simul arripit ipsam 

Pendentem, et magna muri cmn parte revellit : 

QuaEs abi aut leporem aat candenti oorpore ejoniim 

Sustulit aha petens pedibas Jovis armiger unois, 

Quaesitum aat matri mahis balatibos agnum 565 

Martias a stabulis rapuit lapus. Undique chimor ' 

ToIIitur; invadant et fossas aggere compient^ 

Ardentis taedas aHi ad fastigia jaetant. 

Ilioneutt sazo atque ingenti fragmine montis 

Lucetium, portae subeuntem ignisque ferentem, 570 

Emathiona Liger, Corvnaeum stemit Asiias, 

Hic jaxmio bonus, hto longe fallente sagitta ; 

Ortygium Gaeneus, victorem (^ienea Turhus, 

Turnus lijm Cioniumque, Dioxippam Promohimqae, 

£t Sagarim et summis stantem pro turribus Idan ; 575 

Privemum Capys. Honc primo levis hasta ThemiUae 

Strinxerat : ille manum proiecto tegmine demens 

Ad vulnus tulit; ergo alis allapsa sagitta 

£t laevo infixa est lateri manus, abdttaque intus 

^ Spiramenta animae ietali valnere rupit. 580 

Stabat in. egregiis Arcentis iilius armis, 
Pictus acu chkimydem et ferragine darus Hibera, - 
Insignis facie, genitor quem miserat Arcens, 
£ductam matris luco Symaethia circum 

' Flumina, pinguis ubi et plaoabilis ara Palici : 585 

Stridentem fandam positis Mezentius hastis 
Ipse ter adducta eireum caput egit habena, 
£t media adversi liquefacto tempera plumbo 
Diflidit, ac multa porrectum extendit arena. 

Tum primum bello celerem intendisse sagittam 590 

* 564. Jevi» armigeT, aqoila. — 566. MaHius lupus, The wolf was 
nered to Mars. oce viii. 631. — 570. Ltteetium Bterait. — 57L C»- 
tynaeum, See at vi. 228. — 572. Hic Liger, Aic Asylas. FaUeiUe. 
Bee at iv. 96, x. 754. — 584. Symaeihue was a river in the east of 
Siciiy, near Etna.— 585. FuUci» One of two teotjiers, Sidlian 
dmties* ' ^ 

K .1 

Wt. AKNEID08, 

Dicitnr, ante feras 8(^itus terrere fugacis, 

Ascanius, fortemque roanu fudisse Numanum; 

Cui Remulo cognomen ers^t) Turnique minorem 

Germanam nuper thalamo sociatus habebat. 

Ifl primam ante tciem digna atque indigna relata 595 

Yociferans, tumidusque novo praecordia regno 

Ibat et ingentem sese clamore ferebat : 

'Non pudet obsidione iterum valloque teneri, 

Bis capti Phryges, et morti praetendere muros? 

£n, qui nostra sibi bello connubia poscunt ! 600 

Quis deus Italiam, quae vos dementia adegit? 

Non hic Atridae, nec fandi fictor Ulixes, 

Pttrum ab stirpe genus natos ad flumina primum 

Deferimus, sae?oque gelu duramus et undis; 

Venatu invigilant pueri^ silvasque fatigant ; 605 

Fleotere ludus equos et spicula tendere cornu, 

At patiens operum parvoque assueta juventus 

Aut rastris terram domat, aut quatit oppida bello. 

Omne aevum ferro teritur, versaque juvencum 

Terga fatigamus hasta; neo tarda senectus 610 

Debilitat vires auimi mutatque vigorem : 

Canitiem galea premimus; semp»rque recentis 

Comportare juvat praedas et vivere rapto. 

Vobis picta croco et fulgenti murice vestis; 

Desidiae cordi; juvat indulgere choreis: 615 

£t tunicae manicas, et habent rediraicufa mitrae. 

O vere Phrygiae, necjue enim Phryges, ite per alta 

Dindyma, ubi assuetis biforem dat tibia cantum. 

Tvmpana vos buxusque vocat Berecyntia Matris 

Idaeae: sinite arma viris, et cedite ferro.' 620 

Talia jactantem dictis ac dira canentem 

Non tulit Ascanius ; nervoque obversus equino 

Contendit telum, diversaque brachia ducens 

Constitit, ante Jovem supplex per vota precatus : 

' Jupiter omnipotenS) audacibus annue coeptis. 625 

* — ■ ■ ' ■ 'I II 

593. Cui Eemulo. See at i. 267. — 596. Tutnidus praeeordiK, t\m 
accusative of limitation. Novo regnoi referring to the raarrHiee with 
tbe sister of king Tamus. -— 599. Bis, Once by the Greeka, and 
Dowbvthe Latins. — 600. JBn, &c. Ironical. — 609. Versaque, Even 
ffricultural labour eraploys the spear. — 610. Fatigamus by tbe arsia. 
—612. Caniiiem, See natos (603), pueri (605), juventus (607), «e 

neetus (610). — 614. Murice, See at iv. 262 615. CordL See at 

vii. 324.— 616. See at iv. 216.— 618. Dindyma, sing. Dindymus, a 
Mysian mountain, celebrated for tbe worship of Cybele. Biforem 
^"iT^ afluding to tbe double flute used in tbe worsbip of Cybele. 
Unef 26 35'*^'***"* ^ *^ ^'* 785, — 620. Idaeas. See p 179,' 

XIBBR IX. 35^ 

* fpse tibi ad lua templa feram soHemnia dona, 
Et dtatuam ante aras aurata fronte juvencum, 
CandenTem, pariterque caput cum matre ferentem, 
Jam cornu petat et pedibus qui spargat arenam.'. 
Audiit et coeli Genitor de parte serena 630 
Intonuit laevum ; sonat una fatifer arcus. 

EfTugit horrendum stridens adducta sagitta, 
Perg^ue caput Remuli venit et cava tempora ferro 
Trajicit. *I, verbis virtutem illude superbis! 
Bis capti Phryges haec Rutulis responsa remittunt.' 635 
Hoc tantum Ascanius; Teucri clamore sequuntur, 
Laetitiaqne fremunt, animosque ad sidera tollunt. 
Aetheria tum forte plaga crinitus Apollo 
Desuper Ausonias acies urbemque videbat, 
Nube sedens, atque his victorem affatur lulum : 640 
' ^Maote nova virtute, puer; sic itur ad astra, 
Dis genite et geniture deos. Jure omnia bella 
Gente sub Assaraci fato ventura resident ; 
Nec te Troja capit.' Simul haec efiatus ab alto 
Aethere se mittit, spirantis dimovet auras, 645 

* A8oaniam<jue petit. Formam tum vertitur oris 
Anti^num m Buten. Hic Dardanio Anchisae 
Armiger ante fuit fidusque ad limina custos : 
Tum comitem Ascanio pater addidit. Ibat ApoHo 
Omnia longaevo similis, vocemque coloremque 650 
£t crinis albos et saeva sonoribus arma, 

Atque his ardentem dictis affatur lulum : 
' Sit satis, Aenide, telis impune Numanum 
Oppetiisse tuis; primam hanc tibi magnus Apolk) 
Conoedit landem, et paribus non invidet armis; 655 

Ceteraj[)arce, puer, bello.' Sic orsus Apollo 
Mortalis medio aspectus sermone reliquit, 
£t procul in tenuem ex oculis evanuit auram. 
Agnovere deum proceres divinaque tela 
Danfanidae, pharetramque fuga sensere sonantem. 660 
£rgo avidum pugnae dictis ac numine Phoebi 
Ascaninm pronibent ; ipsi in certamina rarsua 
Snecedunt, animasque m aperta perioula mittunt. 

It clamor totis per propugnacuta muris ; 

^ — . — ■ ■ ' . . I ■ . > 

629. Qui janiy &c. — 632. Horrendum. See at Ecl. iii. 8. Ad- 
dncta, See at v. 507. — 639. Ausonias, See p. 180, line 5. — 642. 
Oeniiure deos, A coihpliment to Augustus. See i. 288. — 646. ' 
Vertiiurformam, accusative of limitation. — 647. Dardanio, -o une- 
lided. — 650. Omnia, See at iv. 558. Coloremque, Laat syllabto 
elided before Et. — 653. Aenide. Others, Aeneada. — 656. Cetera^ 
•ccoMittve of limitation. 

Intendant •cr» arcnsi amenta<pe torqa^nt. •; 601 

Sternitur omne Bolum telis; tum scuta cavaeqae 
Dant eonitum flicta galeae; pugoa aspera surgit: 
Qu^tu§ ab occasu veniens pluvialibus Haedis 
Verberat imber humum ; quam raulta graodin^ nimbi 
In vada praecipitant, cum Jupiter horridus austris 670 
Torquet aquosam hlemem et coelo cava nubila run^it. 

Pandarus et Bitias^ Idaeo Alcanore creti, 
Quos Jovis eduxit luco silvestris laera^ 
Abietibus juvenes patriis et montibus aequos, 
Portam, quae ducis imperio commissa, rec]udi;nt| 675 
Freti armis, ultroque invitant moenibus hostem* 
Ipsi intus dextra ac laeva pro turribus adstan^ 
Armati ferro et cristis capita alta corusci : 
, Quales adriae liquentia flumina circum, 
Sive Padi ripis, Athesim seu propter amoenum^ 680 

Consurguot geminae quercus intonsaqoe coelo 
Attollunt capita et subiimi vertice nutant. 
Irrumpunt, aditus Rutuli ut videre patentis. 
Continuo Quercens et piilcher Aquicolus armis 
£t praeceps animi Tmarus et Mavortius Uaeoioa 685 
Agminibus totis aut versi terga dedere^ 
Aut ipso portae posuere in limine vitam. 
Tum magis increscunt animis discordibus irae; 

' Et jam collecti Troes glomerantur eodem, 

£t conferre manum et procurrere longius audent. 690 

Ductori Turno, diversa in parte fureoti 
Turbantique viroS) perfertur nuntiuSy hostem 
Fervere caede novaj et portas praebere patentis, 
Deserit inceptum> atque immani concitus ira 
Dardaniam ruit ad portam fratresque superbos. 695 

Et primum Antiphaten, is enim se primus agebat, - 
Thebana de matre nothum Sarpedonis alti^ 
Conjecto sternit jaculo ; volat Itala corous 

' Aera per tenerum, stomachoque infixa sub altum 

Pectus abit ; reddit specus atri vulneris undam 700 

Spumantem, et fixo ferrum in pulmone tepescit. 

666. Sterniiur, See at viii. 719.— 668. Haedis, Time wheiu 
Probably in December. — 670. Praecimtant. See at i. 234, x. 804. 
fupitcr^ the air-^od. — 672. Idaeo. See at ii. 694. — 673. laera^ 
Beeminglv one of the Oreades, i. 500. — 674. Ahietibust abyStlbtuu 
— 680. Athesim, a river falling into the Adriatic, north of the Po, 
now Adige. — 697. Thehana. Of the many eiiies of this nanie« 
from Sarpedonis (i. 100), we infer that ihe Thebee meHtioBed 
m liycia. 

Tam Mehmetft atmie Eryttiartta mann, tam sternit 

Tunk Bitrati ardentem oculis animisque frementem, 
Non jacuK) ; neque enim jaculo vitam ille dedisset; 
Sed magnum stridens contorta phalarica venit, 705 

Fulminis acta modo ; quam nec duo taurea terga, 

' Nec dupiici sqttama lorica lidelis et auro 
.Sustinuit ; eollapsa ruunt immania membra. 
Dat tellus gemitum, et clipeum super intonat ingens. 
Talis in Euboioo Baiarum liiore quondam 710 

Saxea pila.eadit, magnis quam molibus ante 
Constructam ponto jaciunt; sic illa rninam 
Prona trahit, penitusque vadis illisa recumbit; 
Miscent se maria, et nigrae attolhiutur arenae ; 
Tum sonitu Prochyta alta tremit, durumque cubile 716 
InariAie Jovis imperiis imposta Typhoeo. 
'^ Hic Mars armipotens animum viresque Latinis 

Addidit, et stimulos acris sub pectore vertit ; 
Immisitque Fugam Teucris atrumque Timorem. 
Undiqae conveniunt, quoniam data copia pugnae, 720 
Bellatorque animo deus incidit. 

■ Pandarus, ut fuso germanum corpore cernit, 
Et quo sit fortuna locoj qui casus agat res, 
Portam vi nmlta converso cardine torquet, 
Obnixus latis humeris, multosque suorum 725 

Moenibus exclusos duro in certamine linquit j 
Ast alios secum includit recipitque ruentis, 
Demens ! qui Rutulum in medio non agmine regem 
Viderit irrumpentem, nltroque incluserit urbi, 
Immanem veiuti pecora inter inertia tigrim. 730 

Continuo nova lux oculis effulsit, et arma 

" Horrendum sonuere ; tremunt in vertice^ristae 
Sanguineae, clipeo^ue mieantia fulmina mittit. 
Agnoscunt faciem mvisam atque immania membra 
Turbati subito Aeneada». Tum Pandaras ingens 735 
Emicat, et mortis fratemae fervidus ira 
Efiatur: *Non haec dotalis regia Amatae 
Nec murifl cohibet patriis media Ardea Turnum. 

707. Squama et auro, See at Georg. ii. 486. — 710. Virgil con^ 
pares the fall of Bitias with that of a mass of masonry, sucH as waa 
used at Baiae (near Cumae j hence Euho'ico ; see at vi. 2), in the 
extraordinary marine stmctures of which the Romans were so fond. 
— 715. Prockyta ; 716. Inarime (Aenaria or Pithecusa), islands otr 
<he coest of Campania. Typhdeo. For a diflferent legend, see at L 
665. — 728. JDemens qui viderit. See at vi. 591 . — 732. Horrendum, 
EcL iii. 8. — 737. Amatae, See p. 291 , line 1 1 . ' 

CasUa inimiea vides ; nu])a hino exire potestas.' . 
OUi subridens sedato pectore Turnus: 740 

* locipe, si qua animo virtus, et consere dextram 
Hic etiam inventum Priamo narrabis Achilleo.' 
Dixerat. Ille rudem nodis et cortice crudo 
Jutorquet summis adnixus viribus hastam; 
Excepere aurae ; vulnus Saturnia Juno 745 

Detorsit veniens, portaeque in%itur hasta. 
< At Don hoc telum, mea quod vi dextera versat, 
EfTugies; neque enim is teli nec viilneris auctor.' 
Sic ait, et sublatum alte consurgit in ensem, 
£t mediam ferro gemina inter tempora frontem 750 

Dividit impubisque immani vulnere malas. 
Fit sonus; ingenti concussa est pondere tellus; 
CoIlapsoR artus atque arma cruenta cerebro 
Sternit humi moriens, atque illi partibus aequis 
Huo caput atque illuc humero ex utroque pependit. 755 
DifTugiunt versi trepida formidine Troes; 
£t, si continuo victorem ea cura subisset, 
Rnmpere claustra manu sociosque immittere portis, 
Ultimus ille dies bello gentique fuisset. 
Sed furor ardentem caedisque insana cupido 760 

£git in adversos. 

Principio Phalerim et succiso poplite Gygen 
£xcipit ; hinc raptas fugientibus ingerit hastas 
In tergum ; Juno vires animumque ministrat. 
Addit Halym comitem et confixa Phegea parma 765 
Jgnaros deinde in muris Martemque oientis 
Alcandrumque Haliumque Noemonaque Prytanimqne. 
Lyncea, tendentem contra sociosque vocantem, 
Vibranti gladio connixus ab aggere dexter 
Occupat ; huic uno dejectum comminus ictu 770 

Cum galea longe jacuit caput. Inde ferarum 
Vastatorem Amycum, quo non felicior alter 
Unguere tela manu ferrumque armare veneno ; 
£t Clytium Aeoliden, et amicum Crethea Musis, 
Crethea Musarum comitem, cui carmina semper 775 
£t citharae cordi, numerosque intendere nervis; 
Semper equos atque arma virum pugnasque canebat. 
Tandem ductores, andita caede snorumj 

740. OUi. See at i. 254. — 742. See an expression soroewhat 

imilar, notcd at ii. 547. — 743. Vixerat. See at ii. 621. itte, Pan- 

danis. — 748. 7«, talis, tam imbellis. — 764. Tergum, Others, 

<«!»«;•— 767. Noemonaque by the arsis.— 775. Cuieorda. See U 

▼11. 9«4* 

LIBKR IX. 8lfi 

Conveniunt Teucri, Mnestheus acerque Serestus ; 

Palantisque vident socios hostemque receptum. 780 

£t Mnestheus : ^ Quo deinde fugam, quo tenditis V inquit. 

QuQS alios muros, quae jam ultra moenia habetis } 

Unus homo, et vestris, o cives. undique septus 

Aggeribus, tantas strages impune per urbem 

Ediderit? juvenum primos tot miserit Orcol 785 

Non infelicis patriae veteramque deorum 

Et magni Aeneae, segnes, miseretque pudeique V 

Talibus accensi firmantur, et agmine denso 

Consistunt. Tumus paulatim excedere pugna 

£t fluvium petere ac partem, quae cingitur unda. 796 

Acrius hoc Teucri clamore incumbere magno, 

£t glomerare manum : ceu saevum turba leonem 

Cum telis premit infensis; at territus ille, 

Asper, acerba tuens, retro redit ; et neque terga 

Ira dare aut virtus patitur, nec tendere contra, * 795 

Ille quidem hoc cupiens, potis est jper tela virosque. 

Haud aiiter retro dubius veStigia Turnus 

Improperata refert, et mens exaestuat ira. 

Quin etiam bis tum medios invaserat hostis, 

Bis confusa fuga per muros agmina vertit ; 800 

Sed manus e castris propere coit omnis in unum, 

Nec contra vires audet Saturnia Juno 

Suflicere ; aeriam coelo nam Jupiter Irim 

Demisit, germanae haud mollia jussa ferentem, 

Ni Turnus cedat Teucrorum moenibus altis. 805 

Ergo nec clipeo juvenis subsistere tantum 

Nec dextra valet : injectis sic undique telis 

Obruitur. Strepit assiduo cava tempora circum 

Tinnitu galea, et saxis solida aera fatiscunt ; 

Discussaeque jubae capiti ; nec sufficit umbo 810 

lotibus ; ingeminant hastis et Troes et ipse 

Fulmineus Mnestheus. Tum toto corpore sudor 

Liquitur et piceum — nec respirare potestas — 

Flumen agit ; fessos quatit aeger anhelitus artus. 

Tum demum praeceps saltu sese omnibus armis 815 

In fluvium dedit. Ille suo cum gurgite flavo 

Accepit venientem ac moIIibi?s extuiit undis, 

£t laetum sociis abluta caede remisit. 

794. Acerha. See at Ed. iii. 8. Et, &c. He wUl not flee, and 
he eannoi resist. — 804. Oermanaet Junoni. — 806. Clipeo, defen- 
•irely ; dextra, oflensively. — 811. JBf with vptehoB the force of, 'and 
above all, Mnestheua with his thundering migbt.' — 818. It wiU b« 
observed that Aeneas has no share in the events of this book. 

31 2f 

•K iOBimiMf. 


Av assembly of the gods, and address of Jupiter, deprecating 
tfae war between the Latins and Trojans, 1-15. Address of 
Yenus, recapitulating tbe past misfortunes of the Trojans, and 
Bcornfuliy asking for the safety at least of Ascanius elsewhere, 
if Juno is determined to prevent tbe rise of tlie power of 
Aeneas in Italy, 1&-62. Indignant reply of Juno, who im- 
putes the whole blame to the Trojans^themselves, 63-95. Ju- 
piter, amidst various opinions, declares tlmt the Fates shall 
decide the fortune of the day, without Divine interference, 
96—117. The Latins stiH beleaguer the Trojan camp, which 
is strenuously defended by Ascanius and others, 118—145. 
Aeneas, who had formed a league with the revolted subjects 
of Mezentius, tlie Etrurian kiug, is descending the river, 146— 
162. Address to the Muses, 1G3-165. Account of the Tus- 
can allies, who followed Aeneas in thirty ships, arranged in 
four troops. The first is led by Massicus, at tlie head of the 
warrioTs from Clusiumj ihe city of Porsenna, south-west of the 
Trasimene lake, and Cosae on the coast, 166-169. The second 
is beaded by Abas, with tliose of Populonium, on the coast, off 
which lies llva (the island of Elba), which also sends its con- 
tingents, 170-174. The tliird, by Asilas, with the men of 
Pisae, founded by a colony from Pisa in Elis, watered by the 
Mphem (see p. 181, line 38), 175-180. The fourth, by Astur, 
with those from Caere (see p. 292, line 29), Minio, a rivulet of 
Etruria, to the north of Caere; Pyrgi, the seaport of Caere; 
and Chraviscae on the coast, north of the Minio, 180-184. 
There also follow auxiliaries from Xiguruz, headed by Cinyras 
and Cupa.vo, the sons of Cyenus, 185-] 97. Jdantuaj head of 
twelve confederate states — four (populi) to each of the three 
{gentet) nations, probably of Etrurians, Umbrians, and Greeks, 
with a preponderance of Etrurian blood — sent troops under 
the command of Ocnus, 198-206 ; and proI>abIy of Aulestes, 
207-214. Sailing under the moonlight, Aeneas is met by hit 
ships, now nymphs, and warned of the danger of his camp 
by Cymodoce, ono of them, who pushes on his ship, 215—249. 
Aeneas, amazed, prays to Cybele, and prepares his.companions 
for the contest, 249-259. The Trojans in the camp se«ing hia 
approach, shout and shoot, 260^266. The Rutulians diecovef 
the cause; but Turnus, nothing daunted, encourages them, 
267—286. Landing of the troops, and misfortune of Tarcho^, 
8«7-307. Various combats, 308-361. Pallas rallies the fleeii^ 
Afcadians, 362-379. Feats of Pallas, 380-425. Feats of 


Lanstis, 426-430. Pallas and LaGsns are about to meet, 431— 
438. Warned by his sister, Turnus engages Pallas, whinn he 
slays, ignorant that this deed sfaall seal his own doom, 439— 
505. His friends bear off the dead body of Palias, and the 
tidings rouse Aeneas to terrible havoc, 505-604. Ascanius and 
his party sally iorth, 604-^05. Jupiter taunts Juno with the 
unaided prowess of the Trojans, but at her request, permits 
her to postpone the death of Turnus, 606-632. She sends a 
phantom-clond in the guise of Aeneas, who, seeming to flee 
before Turnus, lures him into a ship, and then, after it has 
carried him far away, leaves him to despair ; but, protected 
by Juno, he is borne to his native Ardea, 633-688. Featt of 
Mezentius, and wrath of the Etrurians, 689—746. Other com- 
bats witnessed by the gods, 747—761. Mezentius encountert 
Aeneas, who accidentally kills Antor, and then wounds Me- 
zentius, 762-788. Lausus, the gallant son of Mezentias, as- 
sisted by his foUowers, covers his father^s retreat from the 
sword of Aeneas, 789—809. Aeneas in vain warns .Lausus 
of his danger, slays, and bewails him, 809-832. Mezentius, 
while dressing fais wounds at the river'8 brink, hears of his 
8on's death, and unable to fight on foot, mounts his favourite 
steed, 833-^72. He attacks Aeneas, who slays his horse, and 
.then himself; willing to die, 873-908. 

Panditur interea domus omnipotentis Olympi, 
Conciiiamqne vocat divom pater atque hominum rex 
Sideream in sedem, terras unde arduus omnis 
Castraque Dardanidum adspectat populosque Latinos. 
Considunt tectis bipatentibus j incipit ipse : 5 

'Coelicolae magni^ quianam sententia vobis 
Versa retro, tantumque animis certatis inic[uis? 
Abnueram belk) Italiam concurrere Teucris. 
Quae contra vetitum discordia? quis metus aut hos 
Aut faos arma sequl ferrumque lacessere suasit? 10 

Adveniet justum pugiiae, ne arcessite, tempus, 
Cum fera Carthago Romanis arcibus oJim 
Exitium magnum atque Alpes immittet apertas . 
Tum certare odiigL tum res rapuisse licebit. 
Nunc sinite ; et placitum laeti componite foedus.* 15 

Jupiter haec paucis ; at non Venus aurea contra 
Pauca refert : 

1. Olympi. 8ee at Ecl. v. 56.-4. Dardanidum, Trojanorun|. 

See atvi. 648. — 5. Bipalentibua, wiih doubie folding-doors 13. 

Alluding to the passage of Hannlbal over the AIps, and Juno'fl 
partiality for Carthage. See i. 12, &c., and a similar aliusion, iv. 
622, &c. — 15. Sinere, to leave mattere alone. 


'0 Pater, o homiiiuin reramqne aeterna potestas! 

Namque alind quid sit, quod jam implorare queamust 

Cerais, nt insuitent Rutuli, Turnusque feratur 21 

Per medios insignis equis tumidusque secundo 

Marte ruat? Non clausa teguut jam moenia Teucros: 

Quin intra portas atque ipsis proelia miscent 

Aggeribus moerorum, et inundant saiiguine fossae. 

Aeneas ignarus abest. Numquamne levari 25 

Obsidione sines? muris iterum imminet bostis 

Nascentis Trojae, nec non exercitus alter ; 

Atque iterum in Teucros Aetolis surgit ab Arpis 

Tydides. Equidem credo, mea yulnera restant, 

£t tua progenies mortalia demoror arma ! 30 

Si sine pace tua atque inyito numine Troes 

Italiam petiere : luant peccata, neque illos 

Juveris auxilio; sin tot responsa secuti, 

Quae Superi Manesque dabant, cur nunc tua quisquam 

Vertere jussa potest ? aut cur nova condere fala ? 35 

Quid repetam exustas £rycino in litore classis? 

Quid tempestatum regem, ventosque furentis 

Aeolia excitosl aut actam nubibus Irim? 

Nunc etiam Manis — haec intentata manebat 

Sors rerum — movet. et superis immissa repente 40 

Allecto, medias Italum bacchata per urbes. 

Nil super imperio moveor ; speravimus ista, 

Dum lortuna fuit ; vincant, quos vincere mavis. 

Si nulla est regio, Teucris quam det tua conjunx 

Dura, per eversae, genitor^ fumantia Trojae 45 

£xcidia obtestor : liceat dimittere ab armis 

Incolumem Ascanium, liceat superesse nepotem. 

Aeneas sane ignotis jactetur in undis, 

£t, quamcumque viam dederit Fortuna, seqnatar : 

Hunc tegere et dirae valeam subducere pugnae. 50 

£st Amathus, est celsa Paphus atque alta Cythera, 

Idaliaeque domus : positis inglorius armis 

18. O never suflTers elision. — 19. Venus has no other refuge than 
Jupiter — 22. Marte. See at ii. 311. — 24. Moerorum, an old 
form of murorum. — 28. Sursit. See xi. 225, &c. Arpi, or Ar- 
gyripa, the city of Diomede {Tydides), called Aetoli, because he waa 
of Aetolian descent, though an Argive king. — 29. Venus indig- 
nantly anticipates a second time encountering Diomede, and being 

r'n wounded, as she was on the occasion mentioned at i. 97. 8e€ 
xi. 276.-36. See v. 641, &.c. Erycino. See p. 182, line 5. 
"t37. Tempeatatum, &c. See i. 50, &c. — 38. Irim, See at vr. 
€94, and ix. 1, &c. — 41. AUecto. See vii. 323, &c. — 51. AmtL- 
•wiM. In the south of Cyprus. Paphus, i. 415, -«# by the anie. 
Gyihera, I. 257. - 52. IdiUaegue i. 681. 


ExSgat hic aoTum. MagAa dhione jubeto 
Carthago premat Ausoniam; nihil nrbibus inde 
Obstabit Tyriis. Quid pestem evadere beili 55 

Juvit et Argolicos medium fugisse per ignis, 
Totque maris vastaeque exhausta pericula terrae, 
Dum Latium Teucri recidivaque Pergama quaerunt ? 
Non satius, cineres patriae insedisse sopremos 
Atque solum, quo Troja fuit ? Xanthtim et Simoeota ^O 
Redde, oro, miseris. iterqmqoe revolvere casus 
Da, pater, liiacos Teucris.' Tnm regia Juno 
Acta furore gravi : ^ Quid me aha siientia cogis 
Rumpere et obdoctum verbis vulgare dolorem? 
Aenean iiominum qnisquam divomque sul>egit 65 

Beila sequi, aut hostem regi se inferre Latino ? 
Itaiiam petiit fatis auctoribus — esto^ 
Cassandrae impulsus furiis : num linquere castra 
Hortati sumus, aut vitam committere ventis? 
Num puero summam belli, num credere muros? 70 

- Tyrrhenamque fidem aut gentisagitare quietas ? 
Qnis deUB in fraudem, quae dura potentia nostri 
£git1 ubi hic Juno, demissave nubibus Iris? 
Indignum est Itaios Trojam circumdare flammis 
Naseentem, et patria Tumum consistere terra, 75 

Cui Pilumnus avus, cui diva Yenilia mater : 
Quid, face Trojanos atra vim ferre Latinis, 
Arva aiiena jugo premere atque avertere praedas f 
Quid) soceros legere et gremiis abducere pactas, 
Pac^m orare manu, praefigere puppibus arma 1 80 

Ta potes Aenean manibus subducere Oraium, 
Proque viro nebulam et ventos obtendere inanis, 
£t potes in totidem classem convertere Nymphas : 
Nos aliquid Rutulos eontra juvisse nefandnm est? 
Aeneas ignarus al>est : ignarus et absit : 85 

£st Paphus, Idaiiumque tibi, sunt aita Cythera. 
Quid gravidam beiiis urbem et corda aspera tentas? 
Nosne tibi fluxas Phrygiae res vertere fundo 
Conamur? nos? an miseros qui Troes Achivis 
Objecit ? Quae caussa fuit, consurgere in arma 90 

54. Vt premat, Autoniam» See p. 180| line 5. — 55. IWttft 
IT. 75. — 56. ArgolicoSf ii. 55. — 58. Pergamaf ii. 177. — 60. JTtm* 
ihuM, &.C. Rivers of Troy. — 64. Constme, vulgare verbis. — 67. 
Petut, iong by the arsis. — 68. Caasandrae, iii. 183. Linquerej &e. 
Aliuding to tne events mentioned in the Eighth Book. — 79. Soee- 
ro9, &c. Ailuding to Lavinia. See p. 291, line 29. — 81. Alia- 
ding to events connected with those referred to at i. 97. See also 
T. 809, &>c. — 83. See iz. 80, &c. 


Eoiopainqtte Asiaroqiie, et foedera nolYere furtot 

Me dace Dardanias Spartam expngnavit adulter, 

Aat ego tela dedi, fovive Cupidine bella % 

Tum decuit metuisse tuis ; nunc sera querelis 

Haud justis assurgis, et irrita jurgia jactas.' $6 

Talibus orabat Juno, cunctique fremebant 
Coelicolae assensu vario ; ceu flamina prima 
Cum deprensa fremunt silvis, et caeca volutant 
Murmura, venturos nautis prodentia ventos. 
Tum Pater omnipotens, rerum cui prima potestas, 100 
Infit j eo dicente, deum domus alta silescit. 
£t tremefacta solo tellus ; silet arduus aether ; 
Tum Zephyri posuere ; premit placida aequora pontoft. 
' Accipite ergo animis atque haec mea figite dicta. 
Quandoquidem Ausonios conjungi foedere Teucris 105 
Haud licitum, nec^estra capit discordia finem : 
Quae cuique est fortuna hodie, quain quisque secat spem, 
Tros Rutulusve fuat, nullo discrimine nabebo, 
Seu fatis Italum castra obsidione tenentur, 
Sive errore malo Trojae monitisque sinistris. 110 

Nec Rutulos solvo. Sua cuique exorsa laborem 
Fortunamque ferent. Rex Jupiter omnibus idem. 
Fata viam invenient.' Stygii per flumina fratris, 
Per pice torrentis atraque voragine ripas 
Annuit^ et totum nutu tremefecit Olympum. 115 

Hic finis fandi. Solio tum Jupiter aureo 
Surgit, coelicolae medium quem ad limina ducunt. 

Interea Rutuli portis circum omnibus instant 
Stemere caede viros, et moenia cingere ilammis. 
At legio Aeneadum vallis obsessa tenetur, 120 

Nec spes ulla fugae. Miseri stant turribus alti» 
Nequidquam, et rara muros cinxere corona: 
Asius Imbrasides Hicetaoniusque Thymoetes. ' 

Assaracique duo et senior cum Caslore Thymbris, 
Prima acies ; hos germani Sarpedonis anibo, 125 

£t Clarus et Themon, Lycia comitantur ab alta. 
Fert ingens toto connixus corpore saxum, 
Haud partem exiguam montis, Lymessius Acmon, 
Nec Clytio genitore minor, nec fratre Menestheo. 
Hi jaculis, illi certant defendere saxis, 130 

92. ^datZter, Paris. — 96. Orabat, vil 446 103. Fosuere. See 

•t i. 234. — 108. JFuatf from the obsolete verb fuo (^^w), from whieh 
we have fui, &c. — 113. Siygiiy vi. 324. — 116. Aureo, a dissyllable. 
~ 117. Medium^ &c. A Koman usage. See at i. 73. — 122. Cf- 
^jwy». ix. 508. — 135. SarpedonU, i. 100. — 126. Xycta, iv. 143.— 
128. Lymeeeiust from Lyrnessus, a town of Mysia. 

UBER X. 307 

MoIiriqDe ignetn, nervoque aptare sagittas. 

Ipse inter medios, Veneris justissima cura, 

Dardanius caput, ecce, puer detectus honestum, 

Qualis.gemma micat, fulvum quae dividit aurum, 

Aut colJo decus aut capiti ; vel quale per artem 135 

Inclusum buxo aut Oricia terebintho 

Lucet ebur j fusos cervix cui lactea crinis 

Accipit ot molli subnectens circulus auro 

Tc quoque magnanimae viderunt, Ismare^ gentes 

Ynlnera dirigere, et calamos armare veneno, 140 

Maeonia generose domo, ubi pinguia culta 

Exercentque viri, Pactolosque irrigat auro. 

Adfuit et Mnestheus, quem pulsi pristina Turni 

Aggere moerorum sublimem gloria tollit, 

£t Capys : hinc nomen Campanae ducitur urbi. 145 

Illi mter sese duri certanuna belli 
Contnlerant : media Aeneas freta nocte secabat. 
NamquOj ut ab Evandro castris ingressus Etruscis, 
Regem adit, et regi memorat nomenque genusqne ; 
Quidve petat, quidve ipse ferat^ Mezenlius arma 150 
Quae sibi conciliet, violentaque pectora Tumi 
£docet ; humanis quae sit fiducia rebus, 
Admonet) immiscetque preces. Haud fit mora; Tarchon 
Jungit opes, foedusque ferit ; tum libera fati 
Classem conscendit jussis gens Lydia divom, 155 

Externacommissa duci. Aeneia puppis 
Prima tenet, rostro Phrygios subjuncta leones ; 
Imminet Ida super, profugis gratissima Teucris. 
Hic magnus sedet Aeneas, secumque volutat 
Eventus belli varios ; Pallasque sinistro 160 

AffixQS lateri jam quaerit sidera, opacae 
Noctis iter, jam quae passus terraque marique. 

Pandite nunc Helicona, deae, cantusque movete, 
Qoae manus interea Tuscis comitetur ab oris 
Aenean, ^rmetque rates, pelagoque vehatur. 165 

132. Ipse, &.C. Ascanius. — 133. Detectus caput, the accusative 
of limitation. See at iv. 558. — 136. Buxo, -o unelided. Oricutn, 
a town to the north of Epirus. — 137. Cui accipit crinis. See at vi. 
473. — 141. Maeonia. See at viii. 499. Domo, -o unelided. — 142. 
The Pactolos was a river of Lydia, famous for its golden sands. — 
144. Moerorum. See at 24. — 145. Urbi, Capua. Livy, iv. 37.— 
149. Begiy Tarchon, the leader of the Etrurians. — 154. Ltberafati, 
See Zumpt, ^ 437. And for the allusion, see viii. 502, &c. — 155. 
Lydia. See at ii. 781. — 156. Duci, -tunelided. — 158. Ida. See 
at ii 694. The neighbourhood of Troy was colonised by Phry- 
gians. — 160. Fallas. See viii. 104, &c. — 163. Helicona, See at 
Tii. 641. 


Massicus aerata prinoepe seeat aequora Tigri } 
Sub quo mille manus juvenum, qui moenia CTuei, 
Quique urbem Jiqnere Cosa»; quis tela sagittae 
Corylique leves humeris el leiifer arcus. 
Una torvus Abas ; huie totum insignibus armis 179 

Agmen et aurato fulgebat ApoUine puppis. 
Sexcentos illi dederat Populonia mater 
Expertos belli juvenes; ast Ilva trecentos 
Insula, inexbaustis Chalybum generosa metallis. 
Tertius, iHe hominum divomque inf^rpres Asilas, 17S 
Cui pecudum fibrae, coeli cui sidera parent 
£t linguae volocrum et praesagi fulminis ignes, 
Mille rapit densos acie atque horreotibus hastis. 
Hos parere jubent Alpheae ab origine Pisae, 
Urbs Etrusca soio. Sequitur puJcherrimus Astui^ 180 
Astur equo fidens et versicoloribos armis. 
Ter centum adjiciunt — mens omnibus una sequendi^ 
Qui Caerete domOp qui sunt Minionis in arvis, 
Et Pyrgi veteres, mtempestaeque Grraviscae. 
Non ego te, Ligurum doctor fortissime bello, 185 

Transierim, Cinyra, et paucis comitate Cupavo, 
Cujus olorinae surgunt de vertice pennae — 
Crimen aroor ves|rom — formaeque insigne patemae. 
Namque ferunt luctu Cycnum Phaethontis amati, 
Populeas tnter fronde» umbramque sororum 190 

Dum canit et moestum Musa solatnr amorena, 
Canentem molii pluma duxisse seneotam, 
Linquentem terras et sidera vooe sequentem. 
Filius, aequalis comitatus classe catervas, 
Ingentem remis Centaurum pomovet : ille 195 

Instat aquae, saxumque undis immane minator 
Arduus, et longa suloat maria alta carina. 

Ille etiam patriis agmen <»et Ocnns ab oris, 
Fatidicae Mantus et Tusci filius amnis, 
Qui muros matrisque dedit tibi, Mantoa, nomen, 200 
Mantua, dives avis; sed non genus omuibus unum : 

166. Tigri. See at v. 116.-168. Q«»— quibns. — 174. CMv* 
htm. See at viii. 421. — 186. This passage seems corrupt. l^e 
best meaning to be extracted as it stands seems to be, that Cinjnraa 
and Cupavo, sons of Cycnus, who is mentioned in connection with 
the story of Phaethon (Ovid, Met. ii. 369, &c.), led the Ligurians, 
and worc on their crcsts swans' feathers, and had a swan as the 
ensign of their ship. Vestrum is probably for vestrorum, referrins 
both to Cycnus and the sisters {jtororum, 190) of Phaethon, whoea 
j ^u*?"*''? ^^^ Phaethon led them to murmur (crimen) against hia 
aeath by Jupiter'8 thunderbolts ; and hence their transforroatioa. 


Gens illi triplex, poptili sub gente quatemi ; 
Ipsa caput populis : Tusco de sanguine vires. 
• Hinc quoque quingentos in se Mezentius armat, 
Quos patre Benaco velatus arundine glauca 205 

Mincius infesta ducebat in aequora pinu. 
It gravis Aulestes, centenaque arbore Auctum 
Yerberat adsurgens; spumant vada marmore verso. 
Hunc vehit immanis Triton et caerula concha 
Exterrens freta; cui laterum tenus hispida nanti 210 
Frons hominem praefert, in pristin desinit alvus; 
Spumea semifero sub pectore murmurat unda. 

Tot lecti proceres ter deifis navibus ibant 
Subsidio Trojae, et campos salis aere secabant. 

Jamque dies coelo concesserat, almaque curru 215 
Noctivago Phoebe medium pulsabat Olympura : 
Aeneas — neque enim membris dat cura quietem — 
Ipse sedens clavumque regit velisque ministrat. 
Atque illi medio in spatio chorus, ecce, suarum 
Occurrit comitum: Nymphae, quas alma Cybebe 220 
Numen habere maris Nymphasque e navibus esse 
Jusserat, innabant pariter fiuctusque secabant; 
Quot prius aeratae steterant ad litora prorae. 
Agnoscunt longe regem, lustrantque choreis. 
Quarum quae fandi doctissima Cymodocea, 225 

Pone sequens dextra puppim tenet, ipsaque dorso 
Eminet, ac laeva tacitis subremigat undis. 
Tum sic i^arum atlocjuitur: 'Vigilasne, deum gens, 
Aenea ? Vigila, et vehs immitie rudentis. 
Nos sumus, Idaeae sacro de vertice pinus, 230 

Nunc pelagi Nymphae, elassis tua. Perfidus ut nos 
Praecipites ferro Kutulus flammaque premebat, 
Kupimus invitae lua vincula, teque per aequor 
QuaerimuR. Hanc genetrix faciem miserata refecit, 
Et ded it esse deas aevumque agitare sub undis. 235 

At puer Ascanius muro fossisque tenetur 
Tela inter media atque horrentis Marte Latinos. 
Jam loca jussa tenet forti permixtus Etrusco 
Arcas eques; medias illis opponere turmas, 
Ne castris jungant, certa est sententia Turno. 240 

Surge age, et Aurora socios veniente vocari 
Primus in arma jube, et clipeum cape, quem dedit ipse 

209. Triton. See at i. 144.— 229. Immitte. See at vi. 1. — 238. 

Aeneas, we may suppose, had sent the Arcadian (viii. 518) and 

Etruscan cavalry to meet him at the mouth of thc river. Turnus 

wna preventing tbem from combinin^ with the Trojans in the camp. 

• 242. Clipeum. See at viii. 625, &c. 


Inyiotum Ignipotens, atqa« oms ambiit aaro. 

Crastiiia lux, mea si non irrita dtota putaris, 

Ingentis Rutulae spectabit oaedis acervos.' 245 

Dixerat ; ex dextra discedens inipulit altam, 

Haud ignara moili, puppim : fugit iJla per undas 

Ocior et jaculo et rentos aequante sagitta. 

Inde aliae celerant cursus. Stupet inscius ipse 

Trus Anchisiades ; animos tamen omine tollit. 250 

Tum breviter supera adspectans conrexa precatur: 

* Alma parens Idaea deum, oui Dindyma cordi 

Turrigeraeque urbes bijugique ad fcena (eones, 

Tu mihi nnnc pugnae princeps, tu rite propiuques 

Augurium, Phrygibus(jue adsis pede, diva, secundo.' 255 

Tantum effatus. £t mterea revoluta ruebat 

Matura jam luce dies, noctemque fugarat : 

Priiicipio sociis edicit, signa sequantur, 

Atque animos aptent armis, pugnaeque parent se. 

Jamque in conspectu Teucros habet et stia castra, 260 

Stans oelsa in poppi : clipeum cum deinde sinistra 

Extulit ardentem. Clamorem ad sideia tollunt 

Dardanidae e muris; spes addita suscitat iras; 

Tela manu jaeiunt : quales sub 'nut>ibus atris 

Strymoniae dant signa grues, atque aethera tranant 265 

Cum sonitU; fugiuntque Notos clamore secundo. 

At Rutulo regi ducibusque ea mira videri 

Ausoniis, donec versas ad litora puppis 

Hespiciunt, totumque allabi classibns aeqaor. 

Ardet apex capiti, cristisque a vertiee flamma 270 

Funditur, et vastos umbo vomit aureus ignis: 

Non secuB, ao liquida si quando nocte cometae 

Sanguinei lugubre rubent, aut Sirius ardor, 

Ille sitim morbosque ferens mortalibus aegrisi 

Nascitur et laevo contristat lumine coelum. 275 

Haud tamen audaci Tumo fiducia cessit 
Litora praecipere, et venientis pellere terra. 
Ultro aairoos tollit dictis, atque increpat ultro: 
' Quod votis optastiS) adest, perfringere dextra. 
In manibus Mars ipse, viri. Nuno conjugis estot 280 
Quisque suae tectique memor; nunc magna referto 
Facta, patrum laudes. Ultro occurramus ad undam} 
^— »»■ i ■ ' .1111 111 

252. Deunij deorum. Idaea. See at ix. 620. Dindpna. See at 
ix. 618. Cui cordi. See at vii. 326. — 253. Turrigerae. See at vi. 785- 
—258. Ut tequantur, — 265. Strymon, a river in Thrace, was &nied 
•8 thc resort of grues.-— 270. Capiti Aeneae.— 273. Lugubre, Sea 
■« Ecl. 111. 8. 

JLUSS & 971 

Dum trepidi, egres^ique labant vestigia prima;. 
Audentis fortuna juvat.' 

Haec ait, et secum versat, quos ducere contra, 2Si 

Yel quibus obaessos possit concredere tnuros. 

Interea Aeneas socios de puppibus altis 
Pontibus exponit. Multi servare recursus 
Languentis pelagi, et brevibus se credere saltu) 
Per remos alii. Speculatus litora Tarchon, 290 

Qua vada non spirant nec fracta remurmurat unda, 
Sed mare -inoffensum crescenti alJabitur acBtu, 
Advertit subito prorasj sociosque precatur: 
'Nunc, lecta mauus, validis inoumbite remis; 
ToIIite, ferte rates; inimicam findite rostris 295 

Hanc terram, sulcumque sibi premat ipsa carina. 
Frangere nec tali puppim statione recuso, 
Arrepta tellure semel.' Quae talia postquam 
££fatu6 Tarchon, socii consurgere tonsis 
Spumantisque rates arvis inferre Latinis, 300 

Donec rostra tenent siccum et sedere carinae 
Omnes innocuae. Sed non puppis tua, Tarchon. 
Namque iniiicta vadis dorso dum pendet iniquO| 
Anceps sustentata diu, fluctusque fatigat, 
Solvitur, atque viros mediis exponit in undis; 305 

Fragmina remorum quos et fluitantia transtra 
Impediunt, retrahitque pedem simul unda relabens. 
Nec Turnum segnis retinet mora; sed rapit acer 
Totam aciem in Teucros, et contra in litore sistit. 
■ Signa eanunt. Primus turmas invasit agrestis 310 

Aeneas, omeu pugnae, stravitque Latinos, 
Oocido Therone, virum qui maximus ultro 
Aenean petit. Huic gladio perque aerea suta, 
Per tunicam squalentem auro, latus haurit apertum. 
Inde Lichan ferit, exsectum jam matre perempta, 3 15 
£t tibi, Phoebe, sacruni; casus evadere ferri 
Quod licuit parvo. Nec longe, Cissea durum 

283. Lahant vestiffkif the accusative of iimitation. — 288. Fonttbut, 
f^gways from the ships to the land. Servare (the historical infini- 
tive) recursuSt watched when the waves, rushing back, left the sea 
near the shore calm (JLanguentis) and shallow (Jbrevibus). — 303. Dorso 
probabljr refers to an accumulation of sand. — 304, Fatigare jluctut^ 
lo exercise, to keep in active employment the wavea, which tossed 
k hitberand thither. — 307. Retrahere 'pedem^ to cause the feet of 
the warriors to draw back, from the slippery nature of the moi8t>- 
ened sand. — 310. Canunt is used both transitively and intransitive» 
i^. — 313. HerOf and at the end of 369, et has been ingeniously coa* 

872 AElfEIDOS. 

Immanetnqne Gyan, stementis agmina clava, 

Dejecit leto; nihil illos Herculis arma, 

Nec validae javere manus geiiitorque Melampus, 320 

Alcidae comes, usaue gravis dum terra labores 

Praebuit. Ecce Pnaro, voces dum jactat inertis, 

Intorquens jaculum clamanti sistit in ore. 

Tu quoque, flaventem prima lanugine malas 

Dum sequeris Clytium infelix, nova gaudia, Cydon, 325 

Bardania stratus dextra, securus amorum, 

Qui juvenum tibi semper erant, miserande, jaceres, 

Ni fratrum stipata cohors foret obvia, Phorci 

Progenies, septem numero, septenaque tela 

Conjiciunt ; partim galea clipeoque resultant 330 

Irrita, defiexit partim stringentia corpus 

Alma Venus. Fidum Aeneas affatur Achaten : 

'Suggere tela mihi; non ullum dextera frustra 

Torserit in Rutulos, steterunt quae in corpore Graium 

Iliacis campis.' Tum ma^nam corripit hastam, 335 

Et jacit,' illa volans clipei transverberat aera 

Maeonis, et thoraca simul cum pectore rumpit. 

Huic frater subit Alcanor, fratremque ruentem 

Sustentat dextra: trajecto missa lacerto 

Protenus hasta fugit servatque cruenta tenorem, 340 

Dexteraque ex humero nervis moribunda pependit. 

Tum Numitor jaculo fratris de corpore rapto 

Aenean petiit ; sed non et figere contra 

Est licitum, magnique femur perstrinxit Achatae. 

Hio Curibus, fidens primaevo corpore, Clausus 345 

Advenit, et rigida Dryopem ferit eminus hasta 

Sub mentum, graviter pressa, pariterque loquentis 

Yocem animamque rapit trajecto gutture ; at ille 

Fronte ferit terram, et crassum vomit ore cruorem. 

Tris quoque Threicios Boreae de gente suprema, 350 

Et tris, quos Idas pater et patria Ismara mittit, 

Per varios sternit casus. Accurrit Halaesus 

Auruncaeque manus; subit et Neptunia proles, 

Insignis Messapus equis. Expellere tendunt 

Nunc hi, nunc illi ; certatur limine in ipso 855 

Ausoniae. Magno discordes aethere venti 

Proelia ceu tollunt animis et viribus aequis; 

■ ■ 

319. Herculis armaf claya. — 320. Of Melampus and his compa- 
nionship with Hercules we know nothing. — 334. StHBmnt. — ^5. 
Curibus. See at vi. 812. Clausus, vii. 707.-350. Boreas, a mythic 
founder of the ancient race (gente suprema) of the Thracians. — 351. 
Jtmara. See at Ed. vi. 30.— 352. Halaesus, vii. 723.-353. An- 
runcae. See p. 180, line 7.-354. Messapus, vii. 691. 

LIBER X. 878 

Non ipsi inter se, non nubila, non mare cedit ; 
Anceps pugna diu; stant obnixa omnia contra: 
Haud aliter Trojanae acies aciesque Latinae 360 

Concurrunt ; haeret pede pes densusque viro vir, 

At parte ex alia^ qua saxa rotantia Jate 
Impulerat torrens arbustaque diruta ripis, 
Arcadas, insuetos acies inferre pedestris, 
Ut vidit Pallas Latio dare terga sequaci — 365 

Aspera quis natura loci dimittere quando 
Suasit equos, — unum quod rebus restat egenis, 
Nunc prece, nunc dictis virtutem accendit amarls: 
*Quo fugitis, socii? per, vos. et fortia facta, 
Per ducis Evandri nomen, aevictaque bella, / 370 

Spemque meam^ patriae quae nunc subit aemula laudi, 
Fidite ne pedibus. Ferro rumpenda per hostis 
Est via. Qua globus ille virum densissimus urguet, 
Hac vos et Pallanta ducem patria alta reposcit. 
Numina nuUa premunt ; mortali urguemur ab hoste 375 
Mortales; totidem nobis animaeque manusque. 
Ecce, maris magna claudit nos objice pontus; 
Deest jam terra fugaeu pelagus Trojamne petemus V 
Haec ait, et medius densos prorumpit in hostis. 
Obvius huic primum, fatis adductus iniquis, 38C 

Fit Lagus; hunc, magno vellit dum pondere saxum, 
Intorto figit telo, discrimina costis 
Per medium qua spina dabat ; hastamque receptat 
Ossibus haerentem. Quem non super occupat Hisbo, 
nie quidem hoc sperans; nam Pallas ante ruentem, 385 
Dum furit, incautum crudeli morte sodalis, 
Excipit, atque ensem tumido in pulmone recondit. 
Hinc Sthenelum petit, et Rhoeti de gente vetusta 
Anchemolum, thalamos ausum incestare novercae. 
Vos etiam, gemini, Rutulis cecidistis in arvis, 390 

Daucia, Laride Thymberque, simillima proles, 
Indiscreta suis gratusque parentibus error; 
At nunc dura dedit vobis discrimina Pallas: 
Nam libi, Thymbre, caput Evandrius abstulit ensis; 
Te decisa suum, Laride, dextera quaerit, 395 

^^^^ I ■ II . ■ I -~ ' • • — .. .- - — — 

3 <». Quis (quibus, which must be translaled by iia) quando, accountt! 
for . Ae repulse of the Arcadian cavalry (see 238), who were not ac- 
cna iined to fight on foot. — 369. Oro is invoived as governing t»»— 
if V7 I are not to understand per vos as a legitimate expression. See 
313 iMid 597.-373 See 239.-378. Deest, one syllable. Trojam, 
the camp. — 383. Dabdt by the arsis. — 384. Quem^ Pallanta. Oc- 
cup^re superj to surprise while thus engaged. — 394. CapiU by tha 


t74 AflNBIBOB. 

Semiantmesqse micant digiti fernimque retntctant' 

Arcadas, accensos monita et praeclara tuentes 

Facta viri, mixtus dolor et pudor armat ia hostis. 

Tum Pallas bijugis fugientem Rhoetea praeter 

Trajicit. Hoc spatium, tantumque morae fuit Ilo; 400 

Ilo namque procul validam direxerat hastam : 

Quam medius Rhoeteus intercipit, optime Teuthray 

Te fugiens fratremque Tyren; curruque voiutus 

Caedit semianimis Kutulorum calcibus arva. 

Ac velut, optato ventis aestate coortis, 406 

Ditpersa immittit silvis iucendia pastor; 

Correptis subito mediis extenditur una 

Horrida per latos acies Yolcania campos; 

lile sedens victor flammas despectat ovantis : 

Non aliter socium virtus coit oinnis in unum, 410 

Teque juvat, Palla. Sed beJlis acer Halaesus ' 

Tendit in adversos, seque in sua colligit arma. 

Hic mactat Ladona Pheretague Demodocumque; 

Strymonio dextram fulgenti deripit ense 

£!atam in jugulum ; saxo ferit ora Thoantis, 415 

Ossaque diftpersit cerebro permixta cruento. 

Fata canens silvis genitor celarat Halaesum; 

Ut senior leto canentia lumina soJvit, 

Injecere manum Parcae, telisque sacrarunt 

Evandri. Quem sic Pailas petit ante precatus: 420 

^Da nunc, Thybri pater, ferro, quod missile libro, 

Fortunam atque viam duri per pectus Halaesi. 

Haec arma exuviasque viri tua quercus habebit.' 

Audiit illa deus; dum texit Imaona Halaesus, 

Arcadio infelix telo dat pectus inermum. 425 

At non caede viri tanta perterrita Lausns,, 

Pars ingens belii, sinit agmina ; primus Abantem 

Oppositum interimit, pugnae nodumque moramqae 

Stemitur Arcadiae proles, sternuntur Etrusci, 

£t vos, o Graiis imperdita corpora, Teucri. 430 

Agmina concurrunt ducibusque et viribus aequis. 

£xtremi addensent acies; nec turba moveri 

TeJa manusque sinit. Hinc Pallas instat et urguetj 

Hinc contra Lausus, nec multum discrepat aetas, 

396. S emianvnes j Bemy&nimea. So at 404. — 400. The death «f 
Ilu9 is only postponed. — 405. Optato, an adverb. — 412. CoUiger§ 
»e in Bua arma, to prepare for combat by covering the breast ■with 
the shield, as it werc gathering the limbs so as to preeent a small 
«urface. See the opposile, 425.-419. Parcae. Ecl, iv._ 47.— 
«3. A trophy is here alluded to. See xi. 6, &c. — 426. 
feee vu. 649.-433. SinU by the arsis. 

LtBBR X. dfTH 

Egregii forma ; ned quis fortima n^arat 435 

In patriam reditos. Ipsos concurrere passas 
Haud tamen inter se magni regnator Olympi ; 
Mox illos sua fata manent majore sub hoste. 
Interea soror alma monet succedere Lauso 
Turnum, qui volucri curru medium secat agmen. 440 
Ut vidit aocios: *Tempus desistere pugnae; 
Soli» ego in Pallanta feror ; soli mihi Pallas 
Debetur ; cuperem ipse parens spectator adeseet.' 
Haec ait ; et socii cesserunt aequore jusso. 
At, Rutulum abscessu, juvenis tum, jussa superba 445 
Miratus, stupet in Tumo, corpusque per ingens 
Lumina volvit, obitque truci procul omnia visu, 
Talibus et dictis it contra dicta tyranni : 
' Aut spoliis ego jam raptis laudabor opimis, 
Aut leto insigni : sorti pater aequus utrique est. 450 

ToIIe minas.' Fatus roedium procedit ui aequor. 
Frigidus Arcadibus coit in praecordia sanguis. 
Desiluit Tumus bijugis; pedes apparat ire 
Comminus. Utque ieo, specula cum vidit ab alta 
Stare procul eampis meditantem in proelia taurum, 455 
Advolat : haud alia est Turni venientis imago. 
Hunc ubi contiguum missae fore credidit hastae, 
Ire prior Pallas^ si qua fors adjuvet ausum 
Yiribas imparibus, magnumque ita ad aethera fatur : 
'Per patris hospitium et mensas, quas advena adisti, 460 
Te precor, Alcide, coeptis ingentibus adsis. 
Cemat semineci sibi me rapere arma cruenta, 
Victoremque ferant morientia lumina Turni.' 
Audiit Alcides juvenem. magnumque sub imo 
Corde premit gemitum lacrimasque efTundit inanis. 465 
Tum Genitor natum dictis afTatur amicis : 
'Stat sua cuique dies; breve et irreparabile tempus 
Omnibtis est vitae ; sed famam extendere factis, 
Hoc virtutis opus. Trojae sub moenibus altis 
Tot gnati cecidere deum ; quin occidit una 470 

Sarpedon, mea progenies. £tiam sua Turnura 
Fata vocant, metasque dati pervenit ad aevi.' 
Sic ait, atque oculos Rutulorum rejicit arvis. 

439. Soror. The nymph Juturna, sister of Turnus. See xi\, 
138, &c. — 441. Soeios, the Rutulians around Lausus. See 445. 
— 450. Faier^ his father Evander, referring to the wish of Turnus, 
443. — 458. Ire, the historical infimtive. — 460. See viii. 362,— 
461. Alcide. See at vi. 392. — 463. Victoremme. Ferant s Celo' 
brettt.— -466. 6?ent«or. Jopiter. — 471. Se€ at i. 100. — 472. JPaf «« 
6lc See xii. 950, &c. 


At Pallas mag;nis emittit yiribtfs hastam, 

Vaginaqne cava fulgentem deripit ensem. 475 

Illa volans, hameri surgunt qua t^mina snmma, 

Incidit, atque, viam clipei molita per oras, 

Tandem etiam magno strinxit de corpore Tumi. 

Hic Tumus ferro prae6xum robur acnto 

In Pailanta diu librans jacit, atque ita fatur : 480 

* Abpice, num mage sit nostrum penetrabile telam.' 
Dixerat : at clipeum^ tot ferri terga, tot aeris, 
Quem peliis toties obeat ciroumdata tauri, 
Vibranti medium ouspis transverberat ictu, 
Loricaeque moras et pectus perforat ingens. 485 
Ille rapit calidum frastra de vulnere telum : 

Una eademque via sanguis animusque sequuntur. 

Corruit in vuinus ; sonitum super arma dedere ; 

£t terram hostilem moriens petit ore cruento. 

Quem Tumus super assistens: 490 

* Arcades, haec,' inquit, ' memores mea dicta referte 
Evandro : Qualem merait, Pallanta remitto. 
Quisquis honos tumuli, quidquid solamen humandi estj 
Largior. Hand illi stabnnt Aeneia parvo 

Hospitia.' £t laevo pressit pede, talia fatus, 495 

£xanimem, rapiens immania pondera baltei 

Impressumque nefas: una sub nocte jugal: 

Caesa manus juvenum foede, thalamique craenti; 

Quae Clonus £urytides multo caelaverat auro; 

Quo nunc Tumus ovat spolio gaudetqne x>otitU8. 500 

Nescia mens hominum fati sortisque futurae, 

£t servare modum, rebus sublata secundis! 

Turno tempns erit, magno cum optaverit emptum 

Intactum Pallanta, et cum spolia ista diemque 

Oderit. At sooii multo gemitu lacrimisque 505 

Impositum scuto referunt Pallanta frequentes. 

dolor atque decus magnum rediture parenti ! 

Haec te prima dies bello dedit, haec eadem aufert, 

476. At the place where the coat of mail {tegmina) leaves the 
shoulder bare (aumma, because the left arm was upraised), the 
epear of Pallas having made its way throngh the edge (oras) of the 
ehield, grazed the arm of Turnus. — 481. Penetrabile, active, able 
to pierce. — 483. Quem obeat, et quamvis obeat. — 486. Ille. Psllas. 
— 487. Una eadem. Ecl. viii. 81 ; Aen. xii. 847. Saneuis by the 
arsis. — 496. Baltei, two syllables. ~ 497. Nefas, the deed of im* 
P19U8 guilt which was embossed on it. — 498. Caesa, &c. The- 
legend on the baldric was the well-known story of the Danaides. — 
3JW. Twmo, &.C. See xii. 941, &C.-.506. See this well-known 
practice agam alluded to, 841. 


UBBR X 399 

Cnm tftmen ingentis RBfQlornm linqnift aeenros! 

Nec jam fama ma]i tanti, sed cerlior auctor 510 

Advolat Aeneae, tenui discrimine leti 
Esse suos; tempus, yersis succurrere Teucris. 
Proxima quaeque metit gladio, latumque per agmen 
Ardens limitem agit ferro, te, Turne, superbum 
Caede nova quaerens. Pallas, Evander, in ipsi» • 515 
Omnia sunt oculis, mensae. quas advena primas 
Tunc adiit, dextraeque datae. Sulmone creatos 
Qnatuoi' hic juvenes, totidem, quos educat Ufens, 
Viventis rapit, inferias auos immolet umbris, 
Captivoque rogi perfundat sanguine flammas. 520 

Inde Mago procul infensam contenderat hastam. 
Ille astu subit; at tremebnnda supervolat hasta; 
£t genua amj^ectens effatur talia supplex : 
'Per patrios Manis et spes snrgentis luli 
Te precor, banc animam serves natoque patrique. 525 
£st domus alta ; jacent- penitus defossa talenta 
Caelati argenti; sunt auri pondera facti 
Infeetique mihi. Non hic vicioria Teucrum 
Vertitnr, ant anima una dabit discrimina tanta.' 
Dixerat. Aeneas contm cui talia reddit: 530 

' Argenti atqne auri memoras quae multa talenta, 
Gnatis parce tuis. Belli commercia Turnus 
Susto^it iata prior jam tum Pallante perempto. 
Hoc patris Anchisae Manes, hoc sentit luius.' 
Sie fatus galeam laeva tenet, atque, reiiexa 535 

Cervice orantis, capulo tenus applicat ensem. 
Nec procul Haemonides, Phoebi Triviaeque saoerdos, 
Infula cui sacra redimibat tempora vitta, 
Totus collucens veste atque insignibus armis. 
Quem congfessus agit campo, iapsumque superstans 540 
Immolat, ingentique umbra tegit ; arma Serestus 
Leeta refert humeris, tibi, rex Gradive, tropaeum. 
Instaurant acies Volcani stirpe creatus 
Caeculus et veniens Marsorum montibus Umbro. 
Dardanides oontra furit. Anxuris ense sinistram 545 
Et totum clipei ferro dejecerat orbem ; — 
Dixerat ille altquid magnum, vimque afibre verbo 
. — — -«— _- ^ 

517. Sulmone, See iz. 412.-518. Ufens, See vii. 745.^519. 
Jnferiaa, 6lc. See zi. 81, &.c. — 525. Natoque, natoque meo.— 
5^'. TaletUa here is evidently a weigbt, equivalent to pondera.-^ 
537. Triviae. See at iv. 609. — 541. CTmtro mortis. — 542. G^ 
4tM. See at iii 35. — 544. Caeculut, See vii. 681. Umbro, vii 
752. — 547-549. Farenthetical. 

32* 2o 

878 4Klfi»D08. 

Credid^ut, coeloqae animum fortasse ferebaty- 

Canilieroque sibi et longos promiserat annos;— 

Tarquitus exsultans contra fulgentibus armis, 5bO 

Silvicolae Fauno Dryope quem nympha crearat, 

Obvius ardenti sese obtulit. Ille reducta 

Loricam clipeique ingens onus impedit basta; 

Turo caput orantis nequidquam et multa parantis 

Dicere c^turbat terrae, truncumque tepentem 555 

Provolvens super haec inimico pectore fatur : 

' Istic nunCy metuende, jace. Non te optima mater 

Condet humo, patrioque onerabit membra sepulchro: 

Alitibus linquere feris, aut gurgite mersum 

Unda feret, piscesque impasti vulnera lambent.' 560 

Protinus Antaeum et Lucam, prima agmina Tumi, 

Persequitur, fortemque Numam, fulvumque Camertem, 

Magnanimo Volscente satum, ditissimus agri 

Qui fuit Ausonidum, et tacitis regnavit Amyclis. 

Aegaeon qualis, centum cui brachia dicunt 565 

Centenasque manus, quinquaginta oribus ignem 

Pectoribusque arsisse, Jovis cum fulmina contra 

Tot paribus streperet clipeis, tot stringeret enses : 

Sic toto Aeneas desaevit in ae^uore victor, 

Ut semel intepuit mucro. Quin ecce Niphaei 570 

Quadrijugis in equos adversaque pectora tendit. 

Atque ilii, longe gradientem et dira frementem 

Ut videre, metu versi retroque ruentes 

Effunduntque ducem, rapiuntque ad litora currus. 

Interea bijugis infert se Lucagus albis 575 

In medios, fraterque Liger ; sed f raler habenis 

Flectit equos, strictum rotat acer Lucagus ensem. 

Haud tulit Aeneas tanto fervore furentis : 

irruit, adversaque ingens apparuit hasta. 

Cui Liger: 580 

' Non Diomedis equos, nec currum cemis Achilii, 

Aut Phrygiae campos : nunc belli finis et aevi 

His dabitur terris.' Yesano talia late 

Dicta volant Ligeri. Sed non et Troius heros 

Dicta parat contra ; jaculum nam torquet in hostem. 585 

Lucagus ut prouus pendens in verbera telo 

553. Impedit seems to have the double meaning of, figit et inuti- 
lem reddit, of which tfae first belon^s to loricam, and the second |o 
€iipeionu8. — 563. Volscente. See ix. 370. — 564. Am^daef on the 
ooast of Latium, west of Caieta. — 565. Aegaeon. See at vi. 286. 
— 581. Viomedig. See at i. 97. — 586. Fendent^ &c. See at v. 
145. Telo, in his impatience, he luu urged on the horses vvith hit 
•word, and he ia preparing for the fight. 

LIBBR X. 879 

Admonnit bijngos, projecto dam pede laevo 

Aptat se pugnae, subit oras hasta per imas 

Fnlgentis clipei, tum laevum perforat. in«;uen ; 

Excussns curru moribundus volvilur arvis. 590 

Quem pius Aeneas dictis affatur amaris : 

'Lucage, nulla tuos currus €uga segnis equorum 

Prodidit^ aut vanae vertere ex hostibus umbrae ^ 

Ipse rotis saliens jnga deseris.' Haeo ita fatus 

Arripuit bijugos; frater tendebat inertis 595 

Infelix palmas, cnrru delapsus eodem : 

< Per, te^ per qui te talem genuere parentes, 

Yir Trojane, sine hanc animam, et miserere preoantfs.' 

Pluribus oranti Aeneas : ' Haud talia dudum 

Dicta dabas. Morere, et fratrem ne desere frater.' 600 

Tum, latebras animae, pectus mucione recludit 

Talia per campos edebat funera ductor 

Dardanius, torrentis aquae vel turbinis atri 

More furens. Tandem erumpunt et castra relinquunt 

Ascanius puer et nequidquam obsessa juventus. 605 

Junonem interea compellat Jupiter ultro : 
' germana mihi atque eadem gratissima conjunX| 
Ut rebare, Venus — nec te sententia falUt — 
Trojanas sustentat opes, non vivida bello 
Dextra vires animiisque ferox patiensq^ue pericli.' 610 
Cui Juno submissa : ^ Quid, o pn^hemme coniunx, 
Sollicitas aegram et tua tristia dicta timentem i 
Si mihi, quae quondam fuerat, (^uamque esse decebat, 
Yis in amore foret, non hoc mihi namque negares, 
Omnipotens, quin et pugnae subducere Turnum, 615 
£t Dauno possem incolumem servare parenti. 
Nunc pereat, Teucrisque pio det sanguine poenas. 
Ille tamen nostra deducit origine nomen, 
Pilumnusque illi quartus pater ; et tua larga 
Saepe manu multisque oneravit limina donis.' 620 

Cui rex aetherii breviter sic fatus Olympi : 
' Si mora praesentis leti tempusque caduco 
Oratur juveni, meque hoc ita ponere sentis, 
ToUe fuga Tumum atque instantibus eripe fatis. 
Hactenus indulsisse vacat. Sin altior istis 625 

592. Referring to Niphaeus, 572. — 597. Per, te. See 369.— 
599. Talia. See 581, &c.— 607, &c. eaid ironically.— 614. NaM' 
futt empfaatically placed next the verb in the sense of assared- 
ijr, — 618. Nostra origine perhaps refers to the descent mentioned, 
rh, 410. — 623. Jupiter grants arespite to Tamas, on the conditioQ 
Cbat Jnno distinctly understands {setUis) that this is all that Japtter 
decieet ifonere). 


Snb precibas yenm ulla latet, totamqne xnoT«ri 

Mutarive putas bellum, spes pascis inanis.' 

£t Juno allacrimanB: 'Quid, si, quae voce gravaris^ 

Menle dares, atque baec Turno rata vita maneret 1 

Nunc manet insontem gravis exitus ; aut ego veri 63G 

Vana feror. Quoii ut o potius formidine falsa 

Ludar, et in melius tua, ani potes, oraa reflectas !' 

Haec ubi dicta dedit, coeio se protenus a)to 

Misit, agens hiemem, nimbo succincta, per auraSi 

Iliacamque aciem et Laurentia castra petivit. 635 

Tum dea nube cava tenuem stne viribus umbrani 

In faciem Aeneae^visu mirabile nHHistrum— 

Dardaniis omat telis, clipeumque jubasque 

Divini assimulat capitis, dat inania verba^ 

Dat sine mente fk)num, gressusque effingit eimtiB : 640 

Morte obita qualis fama est volitare figurasi 

Aut ^uae sopitos deludunt somnia sensus. 

At primas laeta ante acies exsuhat imago, 

Irritatqoe virum telis et voce lacessit. 

Instat cui Tumus, stridentemque eminus hastam 645 

Omjicit; illa dato vertit vestigia tergo. 

Tum vero Aenean aversum ut cedere Tumus 

Credidit, atque animo spem turbidus hausit inanem : 

'Quo fugis, Aenea? thalamos ne desere paetos; 

Hac dabitur dextra tellus quaesita per unaas.' 650 

Talia vocifemns sequitur, strictumque coruscat 

Mucronem ; nec ferre videt sua gaudia ventos. 

Forte ratis celsi conjuncta crepidine saxi 

Expositis stabat scalis et ponte parato, 

Qua rex Clusinis advectus Osinius oris. 655 

Huc sese trepida Aeneae fugientis imago 

Conjicit in latebras ; nec Tumus segnior instat, 

Exsuperatque moraS) et pontis transilit altos. 

Vix proram attigerat : rumpit Satumia funem, 

Avoisam^ue rapit revoluta per aequora navem. 660 

Tnm levis haua ultra latebras jam quaerit imagOy 

Sed sublime volans nubi se immiscuit atrae. 

Illum autem Aeneas absentem in proelia poscit ; 

Obvia multa virum deraittit corpora morti ; 

Cum Turnum medio interea fert aequore turbo. 665 

628. The ellipsis seems ta be qidd tam magnum easet, «t| &e. 
—"630. Vana veri, empty of trulh, deceived. — 644. Virum, Twk 
nmi. — 654. Ponte. See at 288. — 655. Osiniua seems to have beea 
5,P^je under Maaaicus. See 167.— 659* Satumia. See at ii 
-«J. b6i>665 are difTerently arranged m moat other editions. 

LIBER X. 881 

Respicit ignarus rerum ingratusque salutis, 

£t duplicis cum voce manus ad sidera tendit : 

'Omnipotens genitor, tanton' me crimine dignum 

Duxisti, et lalis voluisti expendere poenas? 

Quo feror; unde abii? quae me fuga, quemve re- 

ducitl 670 

Laurentisne iterum muros aut castra videbo 1 
Quid manus illa virum, qui me meaque arma secutil 
Quosne — nefas — omnis infanda in morte reliqui, 
Et nunc palantis video, gemitumque cadentum 
Accipio? Quid ago? aut quae jam satis ima de- 

hiscat 676 

Terra mihi 1 Vos o potius miserescite, venti , 
In rupes, in saxa — volens vos Turnus adoro — 
Ferte ratem, saevisque vadis immittite Syrtis, 
Quo neque me Rutuli, nec conscia fama sequatur.' 
Haec memorans animo nunc huc, nuncfluctuat illuC; 680 
An sese mucrone ob tantum dedecus amens 
Induat, et crudum per costas exigat ensem ; 
Fluctibus an jaciat mediis, et litora nando 
Curva petat, Teucrumque iterum se reddat in arma. 
Ter conatus utramque viam ; ter maxima Juno 685 

Continuit, juvenemque animo miserata repressit. 
Labitur alta secans fluctuque aestuque secundo, 
£t patris antiquam Dauni defertur ad urbem. 
At Jovis interea monitis Mezentius ardens 
Succedit pugnae, Teucrosque invadit ovantis. 690 

Concurrunt Tyrrhenae acies, atque omnibus uni, 
Uni odiisque viro telisque frequentibus instant. 
Ille, velut rupes, vastum quae prodit in aequor, 
Obvia ventorum furiis expostaque ponto, 
Vim cunctam atque minas perlert coeiique marisque, 695 
Ipsa immota manens; prolem Dolichaonis Hebrum 
Stemil humi, cum quo Latagum Palmumque fugacem, 
Sed Latagum saxo atque ingenti fragmine montis 
Occupat os faciemque adversam, poplite Palmum 
Succiso volvi segnem sinit; armaque Lauso 700 

Donat habere humeris et vertice figere cristas. 

668. Tanton*, See at iii. 319. — 671. Laurentig, See at vi. 893. 
— 672. Manus faciet. — 673. Quoane, an uncommqn, though not 
finprecedented use of the relative gives ihe clause this force. It in- 
tensifies thc idea contained in the emphatic portion of the previous 
sentence, so as to give a reason for asking the question vt^hich that 
sentence contains. Here the main idea of agonising inquiry lies in 
tfae words aui me, &c. And quosne has this force — ' And is it pos- 
0ible that 1 faave abandoned these menr — 683. Jaciat, se. — 701, 
JPonat habere. See at v. 248. 


Nec non Euantben Phrygiura, Paridifique Mlmanta 

Aequalem. comiteraque, una quem nocte Theano 

In lucem genitori Amyco dedit, et face praegnans 

Cisseis regina Parim; Paris urbe paterna 70» 

Occubat, ignarum Laurens habet ora M imanta. 

Ac velut ille canum morsu de montibus altis 

Actus aper, multos Vesulus quem pinifer annos 

Defendit, mullosque palus Laurentia, silva 

Pastus arundinea, postquam inter retia ventum est, 710 

Substitit, infremuitque ferox et inhorruit armos; 

Nec cuiquam irasci propiusve accedere virtus, 

Sed jaculis tutisque procul clamoribus instant; 

Ille auten^ impavidus parlis cunctatur in omnis, 

Dentibus infrendens, et tergo decutit hastas : 715 

Haud aliter, justae quibus est Mezentius irae, 

Non ulli est animus stricto concurrere ferro: 

Missilibus longe et vasto clamore lacessunt 

Venerat antiquis Corythi de finibus Acron, 

Graius homo, infectos linquens profugus hymenaeos; 720 

Hunc ubi miscentem longe media agmina vidit, 

Purpureum pennis et pactae conjugis ostro : 

Impastus staoula alta leo ceu saepe peragrans, 

Suadet enim vesana fames, si forte fugacem 

Conspexit capream, aut surgentem in cornua cervum^ 725 

Gaudet, hians immane, comasque arrexit, et haeret 

Visceribus super incumbens; lavit improba teter 

Ora cruor : 

Sic ruit in densos alacer Mezentius hostis. 

Sternitur infelix Acron, et calcibus atram 730 

Tundit humum exspirans, infractaque tela cruentat. 

Atque idem fugientem haud est dignatus Oroden 

Slernere, nec jacta caecum dare cuspide vulnus; 

Obvius adversoque occatrit, seaue viro vir 

Contulit, haud furto melior, secf fortibus armis, 735 

Tum super abjectum posito pede nixus et hasta: 

' Pars belli haud temnenda, viri, jacet altus Orodes.' 

Conclamant soQJt laetum paeana secuti. 

Ille autem exspirans: 'Non me, quicumque es, inuhO) 

- - ■ - ■ — -■ -— - 

705. Cisaeis. See at vii. 320. — • 707. JWc, preparing the mind lor 
quem, &c. — 708. Vesuhia, one of the Cottian Alps, the source ot 
the Po. — 709. The copulative in multosque points out that there 
are such boars both in Mons Vesulus and in the marshy fens round 
Laurentum. Others read multosve. —711. /?tAorrttt< anno». The 
accusative of limitation. The expression refers to the raising of th« 
r"'i''w^l®''— 719. Corythi, &c. Etruria. See at p. 180, liiMi 
•• — '20. Profugw by the arsis. — 726. Immane, See at JBrf: BL 8. 


UB£R X. 

Viotmr, neo lon^m laetabere ; te qnoqae fata 740 

Prospeotant paria, atque eadem mox arva tenebis.' 
Ad quem subridens mixta Mezeutius ira: 
'Nunc morere. Ast de me divom pater atque hominum 

Viderit.' Hoc djcens eduxit corpore telum. 
OUi dura quies ocplos et ferreus urguet 745 

Somnus: m aeternam clauduritur lumina noctem. 

Caedicus Alcathoum obtruncut, Sacrator HydaspeHy 
Partheniumque Rapo et praedurum viribus Orsen, 
Messapus Cloniumque Lycaoniumque £rioeten, 
Illum infrenis equi lapsu tellure jacentem, 750 

Hunc peditem pedes. Et Lycius processerat Agii; 
Quem tamen haud expers Yalerus virtutis avitae 
Dejicit; at Thronium Salius, Saliumque Nealce^ 
Insignis jaculo et longe fallente sagitta. 

Jam gravis aequabat luctus et mutua Mavors 755 

Funera; caedebant pariter pariterque ruebant 
Victores victique ; neque his fuga nota, neque illls. 
Di Jovis in tectis iram miserantur inanem 
Amborum, et tantos mortalibus esse Iat>ores^ 
Hinc Venus, hinc contra spectat Saturnia Juno. 760 

Pallida Tisiphone media inter millia saevit. 
At vero ingentem quatiens Mezentius hastam 
Turbidu^ ingreditur campo. Quam magnus Orion, 
Cum pedes incedit medii per maxiraa Nerei ■ 
Stagna viam scindenS; humero supereminet undas, 765 
Aut, summis referens annosam montibus ornum, 
Ingrediturque solo et caput inter nubila condit: 
Talis se vastis infert Mezentins armis. 
Huic contra Aeneas, speculatus in agmine longo, 
Obvius ire parat. Manet imperterritus ille, 770 

Hostem magnanimum opperiens, et mole sua stat ', 
Atque oculis spatium emensus, quantum satis hastae: 
'Dextra. mihi deus, et telum, quod missile libro, 
Nunc adsint ! Voveo praedonis corpore rnptis 
Indutum spoliis ipsum te^ Lause, tropaeum 775 

Aeneae.' Dixit, stridentemque eminus hastara 
Jecit ; at illa volans clipeo est excussa, prooulque 
Egregium Antoren latus inter et ilia figit, 

745. OWi. Seefiil254.'— 754. Fallente. See at ix. 572. — 761. 
Titipkone. See at vi. 555. — 763. Orion. See at i. 533.-764. 
tferei. See at ii. 419.— 767. See at iv. 177.-773. Dextra, miki 
i}tus. See at vii. 648. — 775. Lausus clad in the arms of Atueas, 
would be a kind of trophy, which see describedi xi. 5, ^c 


Herculis Antoren comitem, qni missus ab Argis 

Haeserat £vandro, atque Itata consederat urbe. 780 ^ 

Stemitur infelix alieno vulnere^ coelumque 

Aspicit, et dulcis moriens reminiscitur Argos. 

Tum pius Aeneas hastam jacit ; illa per orbem 

Aere cavum triplici, per linea terga. tribusque 

Transiit intextum tauris opus, imague sedit 785 

Inguine; sed vires haud pertulit. Ocius ensem 

Aeneas, viso Tyrrheni sanguine laetus, 

Eripit a femine, et trepidanti fervidus instat. 

Ingerouit cari graviter genitoris amore, 

Ut vidit, Lausus, lacrimaeque per ora volutae. 790 

Hic mortis durae casum tuaque optima facta, 
Si qua fidem tanto est operi latura vetustas, 
Non equidem, nec te, juvenis memorande, silebo. 

Ille pedem referens et inutilis inque ligatus 
Cedebat, clipeoque inimicum hastile trahebat. 795 

Prorfpuit juvenis seseque immiscuit armis, 
Jamque assurgentis dextra plagamque ferentis 
Aeneae subiit mucronem, ipsumque morando 
Sustinuit; socii magrio clamore sequuntur, 
Dum genitor nati parma protectus abiret, 800 

Telaque conjiciunt, proturbantque eminus hostem 
Missilibus. Furit Aeneas, tectusque tenet se. 
Ac velut effusa si quando grandine nimbi . 
Prafecipitant, omnis campis diffugit arator, 
Omnis et agricola, et tuta latet arce viator, 805 

Aut amnis ripis, aut alti fomice saxi, 
Dum pluit in terris, ut possint sole reducto 
Exercere diem: sic obrutus undique telis 
Aeneas nubem belli, dum detonet omnis, 
Sustitiet, et Lausum increpitat Lausoque minalur; 810 
'Quo moriture ruis, majoraque viribus audes? 
Failit te incautum pietas tua.' Nec minus ille 
Exsultat demens; saevae jamque altius irae 
Dardanio surgunt ductori, extremaque Lauso 
Parcae fila legunt ; validum namque exigit ensem 815 
Per medium Aeneas juvenem, totumque recondit. . 
Transiit et parmam mucro, levia arma minacis, 
£t tunicam, molli mater quam neverat auro, 
Implevitque sinum sanguis, tum vita per auras 
Concessit moesta ad Manis, corpusque reliquit * 820 
At vero ut vultum vidit morientis et ora, 

i^'*^^ p/^J^^^ue, elision before Aspicit. -- 802, Tectusquet 
Bee at 412. —804. Praecipitant. See at i. 234, ix. €70. 


Ora tnodia, Anchisiadeff, pallentia miria, 
Ingemuit raiseraris graviter, dextramque tetendit, 
£t mentem patriae subiit pietatis imago. 
'Quid tibi nunc, miserande puer, pro iaudibus istiii^ 825 
Quid pius Aeneas tanta dabit indole dignum ? 
Arma, quibus laetatus, habe tua ; teque parentum 
Manibus et cineri, si qua est ea cura, remitto. 
Hoc tamen infelix miseram solabere mortem : 
Aeneae magni dextra cadis.' Increpat ultro 830 

Cunctantis socios, et terra sublevat ipsum, 
Sanguine turpantem comptos de more capillos. 
Interea genitor Tiberini ad fluminis undam 
Yulnera siccabat lymphia, corpusque levabat 
Arboris acclinis trunco. Procul aerea ramis 835 

Dependet galea, et prato gravia arma quiescunt. 
Stant lecti circum juvenes ] ipse aeger, anhelans 
CoUa fovet, fusus propexam in pectore barbam^ 
Multa super Lauso rogitat, multosque remittit, 
Qui revocent, moestique ferant mandata parentis. 840 
At Lausum «ocii exanimem super arma ferelmnt 
Flentes, ingentem atque ingenti vulnere victum. 
Agnovit longe gemitum praesaga mali mens. 
Cuiitiem multo deformat pulvere, et ambas 
Ad coelum tendit palmas, et corpore inhaeret. 845 

'Tantane me tenuit vivendi, nate, voluptas, 
Ut pro me hostili paterer succedere dextrae, 
Quem genui 1 Tuane haec genitor per vulnera serror^ 
Morte tua vivens ? Heu, nunc misero mihi demnm 
Exitium infelix ! nunc alte vulnus adactum ! 850 

Idem ego, nate, tuum maculavi crimine nomen| 
Pnlsus ob invidiam solio sceptrisque paternis. 
Debueram patriae poenas odiisque meorum : 
Omnis per mortis animam sontem ipse dedissem. 
Ntinc vivo, neque adhuc homines lucemque relinquo. 855 
Sed linquam.' Simul hoc dicens attollit in aegrum 
Se femur, et, quamquam vis alto vulnere tardat, 
Haud dejectus equum duci jubet. Hoc decus illii 
Hoc solamen erat ; bellis hoc victor abibat 
Omnibus. Alloquitur moerentem, et talibus infit : 880 
^ Rhoebe, diu, res si qua diu mortalibus ulla est, 
Viximus. Aut hodie victor spolia illa cruenta 
Et caput Aeneae referes, Lausique dolorum 
Ultor eris mecum, aut, aperit si nulla viam vis, 

824. See at ix. 294. Others read strinxit, — 832. J)e mor; in tte 
Buamer of his countnrmen, the Etrorians. — 852. See viii. 481, 4Im. 
33 2h 

Occiuiibes parit^r ; neque enim, fortissime, credo 861 

Jassa aliena pati et dominos dignabere Teucros." 

Dixit, et exceptus tergo consueta locavit 

Membra, manusque ambas jaculis otieravit acutifl, 

Aere caput fulgens, cristaque hirsutus equina. 

Sic cnrsum in medios rapidus dedit. Aestuat ingens 870 

Uno in corde pudor mixtoque insania luctu, 

£t furiis agitatus amor et conscia virtus. 

Atque hic Aenean magna ter voce vocavit. 

Aeneas — agnovit enim, laetusque precalur, 

<Slc pater ille deum faciat, sic aitus Apollo! — 870 

Incipias conferre manum.' - 

Tantum effatusj et infesta subit obvius hasta. 

Ille autem : ' Quid me erepto, saevissime, nato 

Terres ? haec via sola fuit, qua perdere posses. 

Nec mortem horremus, nec divom parcimus ulli. 880 

Desine: jam venio moriturus, et haec tibi porto 

Dona prius.' Dixit, telumque intorsit in hostem ; 

Inde aliud super atque aliud figitque, volatque 

Ingenti gyro; sed sustinet aureus umbo* 

Ter circum adslantem laevos equitavit in orbis, 885 

Tela manu jaciens ; ter secum Troius heros 

Immanem aerato circumfert tegmine silvam. 

* ' Inde ubi tot iraxisse moras, tol spicnla taedet 

Vellere, et urguetur pugna congressus iniqua, 

Multa movens anirao jam tandem erumpit, et inler 890 

Bellatoris equi cava lempora conjicit hastam. 

Tollit se arrectum quadrupes, et calcibus auras 

Verberat, efFusumque equitem super ipse secutus 

Implicat, ejectoque incumbit cemuus armo. 

Clamore incendunt coelum Troesque Latinique. 895 

Advolat Aeneas, vaginaque eripit ensem, 

Et super haec : *Ubi nunc Mezentius acer, et illa 

* EfTera vis animiV Contra Tyrrhenus, ut auras 
Suspiciens hausit coelum, mentemque recepit : 

< Hostis amare, quid increpitas mortemque minarisl 900 
NuIIum in caede nefas; nec sic ad proelia veni; 
Nec tecum meus haec pepigit mihi foedera Lausus. 
^ Unum hoc, per, si qua est victis venia hostibus, oro: 

872. This line is generally regarded here as spurioas.* It oceura 
xii. 668. Amor bv the arsis. — 880. Either must die. Mesentiua 
courted death, and if he could, he would slayAeneas, though, as m 
tho caae of Diomede and Venus, a god should be wounded in hia 
dpfence. —887. Silvam telorum. — 894. Ejecto Mezentio, the dative ; 

?-^1iJt "'?''• ""^^^' ^iimue, an elision before -Acfwla*. — 903. 
^^t 8tc. SeB at ii. 142. 

I4BEB Xlf 391 

Coipas homo patiare tegi, Scio aoerba meoreia 
Ciicurnstare odia : hancy oro, defende furorem ; 905 

£t me consortem nati concede sepulcluro.' 
Haec loiquitar, juguloque haud inscius accipit ensemi 
Undantique animam diffundit in arma cruore* 


Oir the xnorning after the battle recorded at the end of the Tenth 
Book, Aeneas erects a tropbjr with tlie armour of Mezentias, 
prepares to bury the dead, and sends the body of Pallas to his 
father Evander, with all due honour, 1-99. Ambassadors ar« 
rive from King Latinus, asking leave to perform the funeral 
rites of their dead, which Aeneas grants, and expresses his 
willingness to conclude a peace, 100-*419. This proposal is 
favourably received, especially by Drances, an enemy of Tur- 
nus, 120-132. A truce for twelve days is agreed upon, 133— 
148. Tbe grief of the Arcadians, and agony of Evander, on 
the arrival of the corpse of Pallas, 149-181. Funeral rites 
of the dead by the Trojans, 18^-202. By the Latins, 203-212. 
Consternation in Laurentum, and contest between the friends 
and the opponents of Turnus, 213-224. Unfavourable report 
of the ambassadors that had been sent to Diomede for aid, 
225—233. A council summoned, when the ambassadors an- 
nonnce the Tefusal of Diomede to join the Latins, and his ad* 
vice to them to make peace with the Trojans, 234-295. Ef- 
fects of this inteliigence, 296—299. Speech of Latinus in fa* 
YOUT of peace, proposing to aid the Trojans either in fbrming 
a settlement in the neighbourhood, or fitting out a new fleet, 
300^35. Drances proposes that in addition to these offers, 
I^avinia shall be given to Aeneas in marriage, and appeals to 
Tornus either to yield or to decide the matter by single com- 
bat, 336—375. Turnus answers Drances, endeavours to raise 
the spirit of Latinus, and finally agrees to the single combat, 
376-444. In the meantime, intelligence arrives that Aeneas 
18 approaching the city, 445-458. Turnus takes advantage of 
this, Tushes to the fray, and the council is broken up, all pre- 
paring for the defence, whiie the queen, with Lavinia and the 
Latin dames, supplicates the aid of Minerva, 459-485. Tur- 
Dus, Tushing to the combat, meets Camilla, with wbom he ar- 
ranges that she, with Messapus and others, shall meet the 
caralry sent forward by Aeneas, while he, with the infkntry, 

*" ihall wait in ambush for Acneas himself, crossing the hilli 


with th« tnain body of the forces, 480-521. Tho pfaoe of atb* 
htish deaotibed, 522-531. Biana teils the tiymph Opis tbn 
bistory of Camilia (whioh mny be deemed another Episodi; 
see note at p. 318), and her fears ibr the maid, and commis* 
•ions her to slay CamiHa^s siayer, 532-596. Approach oT the 
Trojan cavalry, the onset, and its vicissitudes, 597-647. Feats 
of Camilla, 648—724. Tareho% at the impulse of Jupiter,op- 
poees her progress, tears Venulus from his horse, and bearing 
bim off on his own, stabs. hira, 725-759. Arruns carefullj 
watches an opportunity of slaying Camilla, 759-767. Camilla, 
. witb a woman's Jove for finery, exposes herself by pursuing, 
Chloreus, gOrgeously clad, 768-782. Arruns prays to Apollo, 
and mbrtally wounds her with his spear, and then flees, 783- 
815. Message of Camilla to Turnus, and her deatb, 816—831. 
While the Trojan cavalry with llheir allies, push on, Opis slays 
Arruns, 832-867. Flight of the Latins, and carnage at the 
gates of Laurentum, which are shut on friends as well as foes, 
* 868-890. Even the women defend tbe walls, 891-895. Tur- 
nus, on learning these disastrous events, leaves his ambush, 
890-902. Immediately afler, Aeneas crossing the woody 
beights, follows close on Turnus ; but both preparing for the 
ODset, are prevented by tbe approach of night, 903-915. 

OccANUM interea surgens Aarora reliquit : 

Aeneas quamquam et sociis dare terapus humandis 

Praecipitant curae, turbataque funere mens est. 

Vota deum primo victor solyebat Eoo. 

Ingentem quercum decisis undique ramis 5 

Constituit tumulo, fulgentiaque induit arma, 

Mezenti ducis exuvias, tibi, magne, tropaeum, 

Bellipotens ; aptat rorantis sanguine cristas 

Telaque truncaviri et bis sex thoraca petitum 

Perfossumque locis, clipeumque ex aere sinistrae 10 

Subligat, atque ensem collo suspendit eburnum. 

Tum socios, namque omnis eum stipata tegebat 

Turba ducum, sic incipiens bortatur ovantis: 

'Maxima res eiTecta, viri; timor omiiis abe^to, 

Quod superest; haec sunt spolia et de rege superbo 15 

Primitiae, manibusque meis Mezentius hic est. 

Nuno iter ad regem nobis murosque Latinos. 

Arma parate animis, et spe praesumite bellumy 

Ne qua mora ignaros, ubi primum vellere signa 

thll^^^^ll^ left.— 4. Solvtbat, was paying.— 7. MezerUL For 
l«!ll.!!i" oX^®^®"'*"3» see the end of the Tenih Book. — 15, Qmo4 
•uperett. Gompare the Greek rd Xotirrf». 

AnnuQniit superi pnbemque educere castriS| 20 

Impediat, segnisve metu sententia tardet. 
Interea socios inhumataque corpora terrae 

( Mandemus, qul solus honos Acneronte sub imo est*- 
ItC;' ait, 'egregias animas, quae sanguine nobis 
Hanc patriam peperere suo, decorate sopremis 25 

Muneribus; moestamque £vandri primus ad urbem 
Mittatur Paillas, quena non virtutis egentem 
Abstulit atra dies et funere mersit acerbo.' 

Sic ait illacrimans recipitque ad limina gressum, 
Corpus ubi exanimi positum Pallantis Acoetes 30 

Servabat senior, qui rarrhasio Evandro 
Armiger ante fuit, sed non felicibus aeque 
Tum comes auspiciis caro datus ibat alumno. 
Circum omnis famulumque manus Trojanaque turba 
£t moestum Iliades crinem de more solutae. 35 

Ut vero Aeneas foribus sese intulit altis, 
Ingentem gemitum tunsis ad sidera tollunt 
Pectoribus, moestoque immugit regia luctu. 
Ipse, caput nivei fuJtum Pallantis et ora 
Ut vidit levique patens in pectore vulnus 40 

Cuspidis Ausoniae, lacrimis ita fatur obortis : 
*Tene/ inquit, ^miserande puer, cum laeta veniret^ 
Invidit Fortuna mihi, ne regna videres 
Nostra, neque ad sedes victor veherere paternas *? 
Non haec £vandro de te promissa parenti 45 

Discedens dederam, cum me complexus euntem 
Mitteret in magnum imperium, metuensque moneret 

, Acris esse viros, cum dura proelia gente. 

£t nunc ille quidem spe multum captus inani 
Fors et vota iacit, cumulatque altaria donis^ 50 

Nos juvenem exanimum et nil jam coelestibus ullia 
Debentem vano moe