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NAVAL OFFICERS 



THEIE HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT 



BY 

CHARLES BENEDICT DAVENPORT 

DIRECTOR OF DEPARTMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL EVOLUTION AND OF THE 

EUGENICS RECORD OFFICE, 
CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



ASSISTED BY 

MARY THERESA SCUDDER 

RESEARCH COLLABORATOR IN THE 
CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 




PUBLISHED BY THE CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

WASHINGTON, 1919 






CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 
PUBLICATION No. 259 



PAPER No. 29 OF THE STATION FOR EXPERIMENTAL EVOLUTION AT 
COLD SPRING HARBOR, NEW YORK 



THE-PLI UPTON-PR ESS 
NORWOOD-MASS-O-S-A 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 
PART i. 

PAGE 

I. STATEMENT OP PROBLEM 1 

II. AN IMPROVED METHOD op TESTING THE FITNESS OP UNTRIED OFFICERS .... 2 

1. General Considerations 2 

2. Special Procedure 3 

III. RESULTS OF STUDY 4 

1. Types of Naval Officers 

2. Temperament in Relation to Type 

3. Juvenile Promise of Naval Officers of the Various Types 6 

Fighters 6 

Strategists 7 

Administrators 7 

Explorers 

Adventurers 

Conclusion as to Juvenile Promise 8 

4. The Hereditary Traits of Naval Officers 9 

General 9 

The Inheritance of Special Traits 25 

Thalassophilia, or Love of the Sea 25 

Source of Thalassophilia (or Sea-lust) in Naval Officers . . 25 

Heredity of Sea-lust 27 

The Hyperkinetic Qualities of the Fighters 29 

Source of Nomadism in Naval Officers 31 

IV. CONCLUSIONS 33 

V. APPLICATION OF PRINCIPLES TO SELECTION OF UNTRIED MEN 33 



PART II. 

BRIEF BIOGRAPHIES OF NAVAL OFFICERS, WITH ESPECIAL REFERENCE TO THEIR JUVENILE 

PROMISE AND THEIR PERSONAL TRAITS. 

PAGE 

1. William Bainbridge 36 

2. Joshua Barney 37 

3. John Barry 40 

4. Philip Beaver 41 

5. Charles William de la Poer Beresford 42 

6. George Smith Blake 44 

7. Robert Blake 47 

8. Jahleel Brenton 49 

9. Moses Brown 51 

10. Franklin Buchanan 53 

11. Thomas Cochrane 56 

12. Cuthbert Collingwood 59 

13. William Barker Gushing 60 

14. John Adolf Dahlgren 64 

lil 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PART II. CONTINUED 

PAGE 

15. Stephen Decatur 68 

16. George Dewey 70 

17. Adam Duncan 74 

18. George Keith Elphinstone 76 

19. David Glasgow Farragut 79 

20. Matthew Flinders 83 

21. Andrew Hull Foote 86 

22. Ebenezer Fox 90 

23. John Franklin 91 

24. Thomas Masterman Hardy 93 

25. Edward Hawke 95 

26. John Hawkins 96 

27 Esek Hopkins 98 

28. Geoffrey Thomas Phipps Hornby 100 

29. William Hoste 103 

30. Richard Howe 104 

31. John Jervis 107 

32. Catesby ap Roger Jones 109 

33. John Paul Jones 112 

34. Henry Keppel 114 

35. James Lawrence 118 

36. Thomas Macdonough 120 

37. John Newland Maffitt 122 

38. Alfred Mahan 125 

39. John Markham 127 

40. Frederick Marryat 129 

41. Francis Leopold McClintock 131 

42. Fairfax Moresby 133 

43. Charles Morris 134 

44. Horatio Nelson 137 

45. Jeremiah O'Brien 148 

46. William Harwar Parker 151 

47. Hiram Paulding 154 

48. Edward Pellew 157 

49. George Hamilton Perkins 160 

50. Perry family 162 

51. John Woodward Philip 172 

52. Arthur Phillip 174 

53. Porter family 175 

54. Edward Preble 181 

55. Walter Raleigh 185 

56. John Rodgers 187 

57. George Brydges Rodney 192 

58. Joshua Ratoon Sands 193 

59. James Saumarez 196 

60. Raphael Semmes 198 

61. Edward Hobart Seymour 200 

62. William Sidney Smith 201 

63. Robert Field Stockton 203 

64. Josiah Tattnall 207 

65. Marten Harperts Tromp 210 

66. John Randolph Tucker 211 

67. John Ancrum Winslow 212 

68. William Wolseley 214 



IV 



NAVAL OFFICERS 

THEIR HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT 



BY 

CHARLES BENEDICT DAVENPORT 



ASSISTED BY 

MARY THERESA SCUDDER 



PART I. 

I. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM. 

A nation at the beginning of a great war, after prolonged peace, is 
executing a great increase of its naval and military forces. For these 
forces officers must be selected in large numbers, as many as 1,000 officers 
for each division of 20,000 men, or 50,000 officers for 1,000,000 men. So, 
too, in the naval organization every ship has its commander and lieu- 
tenants, and there are captains and admirals of the various grades for the 
command of groups of officers. Each of these officers holds in his hands, 
as it were, the lives of from 100 to 100,000 men. Obviously it is a matter 
of the gravest concern that they should be properly selected. Yet the 
number is so vast and the personal knowledge about the appointee on the 
part of those who must appoint is necessarily often so slight that every 
assistance in the general method of making the selection may well be 
carefully considered. In time of actual battling, selection for advance- 
ment is made on the ground of performance - - the inferior officers fail, 
the successful ones are given the higher commands. Our Civil War showed 
this clearly. It also showed the melancholy fact that the selections made 
at the outset were often inadequate, and many a colonel and even general 
confidently appointed at the outbreak of the war was recalled as a failure. 
The method of selecting exclusively by trial and error is a sure method, 
but one that is frightfully wasteful of lives and property. What is the 
best method of selecting untried men for positions as officers? 

Diverse methods of selecting untried officers have been employed in 
the past. In the navy those who have made good records at the Naval 
Academy have been selected. Admission to the Academy is ordinarily 
made on the recommendation of a congressman. The applicant undergoes 
a physical and perhaps a mental examination. No doubt it is true, as 
Filchett (1903, p. 3) says: "In these days where the foot rule and the 
stethoscope and the examination paper are the tests by which our embryo 
Nelsons and Wellingtons are chosen, the future hero of the Nile and of 
Trafalgar would infallibly have been rejected." A war may be lost by 
rejection on a physical examination as certainly as by inadequacy in the 
supply of men or munitions. All too much is made of the physical exami- 
nation; all too little of temperament and intelligence. The modern 
psychological and psychiatric examinations of officers and recruits are 
excellent. I recall one instance in our Civil War when a colonel ordered 
a futile attack in which a regiment was nearly annihilated. Investigation 
quickly showed that the commander was insane and had been so for some 
tune. On the other hand, the elimination of the feeble-minded must 
be made intelligently. There is at least one instance in our Civil War 
where a feeble-minded sharpshooter did great execution. A feeble-minded 
man may have fired the musket shot that killed the great Nelson. Fight- 
ing leaders must possess insight, judgment, audacity, and pertinacity. 
Sharpshooters require little of these qualities, but above all ability to aim 

1 



2 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

accurately and quickly. Each man should be selected for the qualities 
that fit him for the special r61e he has to play. Joseph Jefferson would 
have failed as Hamlet. Many a perfect physical specimen of a man would 
make a poor naval strategist. 

It is undoubtedly true, also, that at the outbreak of our Civil War 
many untried men were chosen as officers merely because they had shown 
some interest in the organization of companies and, moreover, were friends 
of congressmen who urged their appointment upon the War Department. 
We are told that in selection for the present war no political influence is 
permitted. But political influence is a most insidious thing; often it 
comes to the harassed Army Department as a welcome and valued sug- 
gestion. With the best intentions in the world the recomnaender may be 
urging an utterly unfit appointment. It is the insufficiency of the method 
that is at fault. Is there any additional test of fitness? x 

II. AN IMPROVED METHOD OF TESTING THE FITNESS OF 

UNTRIED OFFICERS. 

1. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS. 

We start with the principle enunciated by Mahan: "Each man has 
his special gift and to succeed must act in accordance with it." Our 
problem is, then, how can we determine, in advance, what is a man's special 
gift? Or, in our special case, how can we tell whether or not an applicant 
for admission to the Naval Academy or for a naval commission has a gift 
for the place he seeks? 

"The child is father of the man." Each well-marked trait of adult 
character passes through developmental stages. Its beginnings are already 
to be seen in the child. We recognize this fact in the case of physical 
traits. The dark skin-color of the negro develops rapidly, beginning a 
few hours after birth; curliness of hair shows in the first permanent coat; 
hair-color is slower in getting its final shade, but usually does so within 
the first decade. Mental traits, also, early show their quality. Imbeciles 
show retardation even at 5 or 6 years; idiots much earlier. On the other 
hand, Galton at 4 years had the intellectual advancement of a boy of 8 
years. Special traits, as every experienced parent knows, may show at 
a very early age, such as neatness, altruism, frankness, jollity, cautious- 
ness. Audacity in the adult is foreshadowed by adventurousness a 
desire of the boy to "try stunts." The courageous man was fearless as 
a boy. In the early years of school special interests and capacities for 
drawing, arithmetical work, memorizing, reasoning, are clearly shown. 
The visualist and auditist are already differentiated long before adoles- 
cence. The significance of the combination of boyish traits may not be 
fully realized even by the parents or other close relatives; their interpre- 
tation has to be made by the expert. "What has poor little Horatio done," 
cried his uncle, Captain Suckling, when young Nelson was brought to him, 
at 12 years, to be taken on his ship, "that he, being so weak, should be sent 
to rough it at sea? But let him come, and if a cannon ball takes off his 

1 This book was written in the summer of 1917; hence certain anachronisms. 



STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM. 6 

head, he will at least be provided for." He did not understand the signifi- 
cance of the introspective, brooding silence, that tenacious regard for his 
honor, that willingness to undertake hazardous enterprises without claim- 
ing any material reward, which Horatio Nelson had already shown and 
continued to show to the day of his death. We must test the hypothesis 
that the special gifts required for a naval fighter are foreshadowed hi the 
child; for, if this prove to be correct, the principle should be utilized hi 
making selection of untried officers. 

The "special gift" is, as its name implies, something that has come, 
willynilly, through the germ plasm. Such hereditary traits are usually 
family traits and recur again and again in the family. We have, therefore, 
to note the indications of a special gift in the boy by an examination of the 
family, to see where that gift has been developed elsewhere. In the case of a 
few traits we know rather exactly the relationship that two or more persons 
in successive generations showing a "gift" may be expected to bear to each 
other. Such knowledge will be a useful check on the indications of juvenile 

promise. 

2. SPECIAL PROCEDURE. 

To get at the requisite facts for the present investigation into the 
juvenile promise shown by great naval commanders, and hereditary factors 
present in their families, the reading of a considerable number of biog- 
raphies of naval men was undertaken. In some instances, as notably 
in the case of Nelson, several distinct "lives" were read; in most cases only 
one. In the case of British officers the Encyclopaedia Britannica was 
found of assistance; in the case of American officers, the National Cyclo- 
pedia of American Biography was used (with caution) ; also the American 
"Who's Who." For family histories research was made in the genealogical 
libraries of Greater New York, and for British families Burke's "Peerage 
and Landed Gentry" and other like official genealogies were found very 
useful. In all this work I had the assistance of my wife, Gertrude C. 
Davenport, and especially of my assistant, Miss Mary T. Scudder, who 
did most of the tracing of genealogies and arranged the pedigree charts. 
This work would hardly have been possible except for an arrangement 
with the Brooklyn Public Library, which generously mailed to us all the 
books that we desired from its extensive collections. The compilation of 
the facts has taken six or eight months of steady work. 

In regard to the method of selection of officers. First of all, this 
was determined by the availability of full biographies. There are some 
naval officers quite as eminent as those included in our list about whom 
we could get few pertinent data. Many biographies gave little infor- 
mation about juvenile promise or family history and these could not 
be used. No selection, it need hardly be said, was made with the aim 
of supporting any preformed conclusions. Practically all the information 
that we gathered that would throw light on our problem has been set 
forth, nearly or exactly, in the words of the biographer. We have been 
always alive to the error introduced by substituting for the descriptive 
terms of the author terms of our own which could hardly avoid being 



4 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

somewhat " colored" by our prepossessions. Naturally in the "Tables" 
it often becomes necessary to place individuals into certain categories 
not named by the biographer. For the full data that justify this assign- 
ment the reader must consult the work or works cited at the ends of the 
biographies in Part II. In a word, we have tried to approach this sub- 
ject hi the inductive spirit and to draw only such conclusions as the 
facts seem to warrant. How far the attempt has been successful each 
reader, being in possession of all of the facts, may judge for himself. 

III. RESULTS OF STUDY. 
1. TYPES OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

Successful naval officers are of various types. This is because, as 
Mahan (1901, p. 151) says: "Each man has his special gift, and to succeed 
must act in accordance with it." It is also true that different kinds of 
gifts can be utilized to advantage hi the navy; for the navy needs not only 
fighters and tacticians, but also strategists, administrators, diplomats, 
explorers, and surveyors. It can make use of inventors, constructors, 
teachers, and writers. Indeed, especially in times of peace, advancement 
is made chiefly by seniority, and a naval officer may reach highest rank 
merely by longevity. The term "naval officers" consequently corresponds 
to a single trait no more than "officer," but a larger proportion of naval 
officers have a common trait than the group of "officers." The three 
commonest traits are: (1) love of sea; (2) capacity for fighting; (3) capac- 
ity for commanding or administering. One person may combine in himself 
all these three and even other important traits; so in studying a trait at 
a time we may consider an individual more than once. For example, 
Nelson was a great strategist and a great tactician, and had the traits 
that make a man a brilliant, gallant fighter. 

2. TEMPERAMENT IN RELATION TO TYPE. 

Temperament is the general quality of response shown by a person. 
Three principal kinds of temperament are recognized, and they are sub- 
divided and combined in various ways. We may reckon the tempera- 
ments as overactive, hyperkinetic; underactive, hypokinetic, and inter- 
mediate or normal. The hyperkinetic temperaments are the choleric 
and the nervous (or sanguine). The hypokinetic temperaments are the 
phlegmatic and the melancholic. The intermediates are prevailingly calm 
and cheerful. "The nervous person is active, irritable, excitable, ambitious, 
given to planning, optimistic, usually talkative and jolly. The choleric 
person is overactive, starts on new lines of work before completing the 
old, brags, is usually hilarious, hypererotic, often profane, liable to fits of 
anger, destructive, assaultative, and even homicidal." ' The phlegmatic 
temperament is characterized by quietness, seriousness, conservativeness, 
pessimism. The person of melancholic temperament is unresponsive 
(often mute), lachrymose, given to worry, weak and incapable, feels life 
a burden, often longs for death as a relief." The possessor of the inter- 
mediate or normal mood "works and plays moderately, laughs quietly, does 



TYPES OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 5 

not weep easily, feels little drive, and on the other hand is always respon- 
sive and cooperative." (Davenport, 1915.) The hyperkinetic and 
hypokinetic moods may alternate with each other and with the normal 
mood. 

Table 1 shows the relation between temperament and the type of naval 
officer. Our best judgment was used in assigning the categories, and the 
assignment to type and temperament was made as independently as pos- 
sible in each case. It appears that most naval officers who were primarily 
fighters were of the hyperkinetic type; although one is with some hesita- 
tion classified as hypokinetic. On the other hand the great strategists and 
even the tacticians and most of those whose chief service was in administra- 
tion are hypokinetics or intermediates. Nelson stands alone in combining 
great strategic insight, tactical skill, and fighting gallantry of the first order, 
and this he was able to do because of the combination in him of hyperkinesis 
and hypokinesis. John Paul Jones had a similar mixed temperament but 
not the strategic insight. There are, however, many details in the career 
of Paul Jones and Nelson that bear a remarkable resemblance. 

TABLE 1. Temperament in Relation to Type. 

Strategic-tactic-combative gifts 

Hyperkinetic-hypokinetic: Nelson 1 
Combative gift 

Hyperkinetic (nervous or romantic): Bainbridge, Barney, Barry, R. Blake, Farragut, Hoste, 
Keppel, Lawrence, MacDonough, Morris, O'Brien, Pellew, Perkins, O. H. Perry, 
D. Porter, D. D. Porter, Stockton, Tromp, Beresford, Dewey, Smith, Decatur, 
Foote 23 

Intermediate: Blake, Elphinstone (Keith) 2 
Hypokinetic (phlegmatic or classic) : Wolseley 1 
Combative and adventurous gifts 

Hyperkinetic-hypokinetic: John Paul Jones 1 

Hyperkinetic (nervous or romantic) : Cochrane, Gushing, Maffitt, Raleigh 4 
Tactic gift 

Intermediate: Saumarez 1 

Hypokinetic (phlegmatic or classic) : Collingwood, Howe 2 
Strategic gift 

Intermediate: Paulding, M. C. Perry, Preble, Semmes 4 
Hypokinetic (phlegmatic or classic) : Mahan, Hardy 2 
Diplomatic gift 

Intermediate: Tattnall 1 
Administrative gift 

Hyperkinetic (nervous or romantic): Jervis (?), Philip, Rodgers (?) 3 

Intermediate: Blake, Hopkins, Hornby, Markham, Moresby, W. H. Parker, Sands, 

Seymour, Tucker, Winslow, Rodney 11 

Hypokinetic (phlegmatic or classic) : Beaver, Brenton. Phillip 3 
Adventurous-literary gifts 

Intermediate: Marry at 1 
Thallasophilic gift 

Intermediate: Brown, Hawkins 2 
Explorative gift 

Intermediate: Flinders, Franklin 2 
Hypokinetic: McClintock 1 
Constructive gift 

Intermediate: Buchanan 1 
Inventive gift 

Hyperkinetic: Dahlgren 1 
Intermediate: R. Jones 1 



6 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

The practical conclusion is drawn that to select a future great fighting 
man it is almost essential that he should be of a prevailingly hyperkinetic 
temperament. 

3. JUVENILE PROMISE OF NAVAL OFFICERS OF THE VARIOUS TYPES. 

FIGHTERS. 

To this class we assign 31 as typical. These are: 1, Bainbridge; 
2, Barney; 3, Barry; 5, Beresford; 7, R.Blake; ll,Cochrane; 13, Gushing; 
15, Decatur; 16, Dewey; 17, Duncan; 18, Elphinstone (Lord Keith) ; 19, 
Farragut; 21, Foote; 29, Hoste; 33, John Paul Jones; 34, Keppel; 35, 
Lawrence; 36, Macdonough; 43, Morris; 44, Nelson; 45, O'Brien; 48, 
Pellew; 49, Perkins; 50, O. H. Perry; 53, David Porter and D. D. Porter; 
59, Saumarez; 62, W. Sidney Smith; 63, Robert F. Stockton; 65, Tromp; 
68, Wolseley. Of these 31 persons I was able to get no juvenile history in 
the case of Nos. 3, 7, 34, and 43. Of the remaining 27 we have the follow- 
ing behavior recorded: 

TABLE 2. 

1. Bainbridge: Early love of sea; sailor at 15; 44. Nelson: Desire to go to sea; love of ad- 

fond of risky, boyish undertakings. venture for adventure's sake; hon- 

2. Barney: Nomadism, fearlessness of respon- orable. 

sibility; intrepidity, quick temper. 45. O'Brien: Love of the sea. 

5. Beresford: Adventurous, full of pranks and 48. Pellew: Love of sea and of adventure; fear- 
practical jokes. lessness. 

11. Cochrane: Nomadic. 49. Perkins: Fearlessness and adventurous- 

13. Gushing: Love of adventure; poor and ness; poor student. 

unmanageable student in Naval 50. 0. H. Perry: Fearless, adventurous, 

Academy. choleric, studious, had intellectual 

15. Decatur: Love of sea; fiery nature. curiosity; was midshipman at 14. 

16. Dewey: Love of adventure and quickness 53. Porter: Nomadic, impulsive, belligerent, 

of response. pertinacious, courageous. 

17. Duncan: Nomadic. 53. D. D. Porter: Love of sea and adventure. 

18. Elphinstone: Love of sea (at 15 years). 59. Saumarez: Had a taste for the navy. 

19. Farragut: Love of sea and adventure. 62. Smith: Nomadic. 

21. Foote: Love of sea; adventurousness, 63. Stockton: Ambitious, scholarly; champion 
jollity, poor scholarship. of the weak, fought the strong. 

29. Hoste: Ever restless and buoyant; love of 65. Tromp: At sea when 9 years old; when 
hunting and fishing. his father was killed the lad called on 

33. Jones: Nomadic, active, independent. the marines to avenge his death. 

35. Lawrence: Longing for the sea. 68. Wolseley: Nomadic. 

36. Macdonough: Fondness for adventure and 

practical jokes. 

In the above table either an early taste for the sea or "nomadism" 
is mentioned 19 tunes, also going to sea at 9 and 14 years respectively hi 
2 cases. Here, too, should doubtless be included 5 cases of adventurous- 
ness, making a total of 26 cases (out of the 27 recorded) who are early 
fond of the sea, nomadic, restless, and fond of adventure. Of the remaining 
case, Stockton, it is stated that as a boy he showed personal courage, was 
champion of the weak, won victories over the strong. Also he was early 
fired with an ambition to excel Nelson; and he entered the navy at the 
outbreak of the War of 1812 at the age of 17 years. It is probable that 
Stockton is like the other 26, and we may conclude that great naval fighters 



TYPES OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 



are nomadic or "fond of the sea" or adventurous or belligerent in their 
childhood and youth. Contrariwise, it is not probable that a boy who 
does not show these traits will become a great naval fighting officer. 

STRATEGISTS. 

The successful strategist is one who plans successful campaigns, can 
foresee the enemy's probable plans, and can take the appropriate steps 
to block them and start a series of offensive operations that shall bring 
the war to a close. Great strategists are relatively few. Those placed in 
this category in the present study are as follows: 44, Nelson; 31, Jervis 
(Lord St. Vincent); 38, Mahan; 47, Paulding; 50, Matthew C. Perry; 54, 
Preble; 56, Rodgers; 60, Semmes; 24, Hardy. We have no data about the 
juvenile reactions of No. 38. Of the remaining 8 the following behavior 
is recorded. 

TABLE 3. Juvenile Reactions of Naval Strategists. 

24. Hardy: Loved the sea and adventure. 54. Preble: Ran away to sea; fond of hunting 

31. Jervis: Fond of sea, energetic. and adventure. 

44. Nelson: Love of adventure for adventure's 56. Rodgers: Ran away to sea at 13; fearless of 

sake; honorable. responsibility. 

47. Paulding: Desirous of adventure. 60. Semmes: Nomadic. 
50. M . C. Perry: Fond of adventure, fearless. 

Thus of these 8 strategic naval officers every case showed as a boy a 
fondness of adventure or of the sea. Two ran away early to go to sea. 
They had not merely certain desires, but knew how to secure the realization 
of those desires. They early show, on the whole, greater intelligence than 
the fighters. 

ADMINISTRATORS. 

Of the men whose success in the navy was primarily administrative, 
some were good strategists, but they were chiefly noteworthy for organi- 
zation and the maintenance of discipline; or for administrative work on 
land. Every navy has need of some of these, especially in time of peace. 
The English navy develops a great many of them. To this group are as- 
signed 18 naval officers, namely: 4, Beaver; 5, Beresford; 6, G. S. Blake; 
8, Brenton; 28, Hornby; 30, Howe; 31, Jervis; 39, Markham; 42, Moresby; 
46, W. H. Parker; 51, J. W. Philip; 52, Arthur Phillip; 56, Rodgers; 57, 
Rodney; 58, Sands; 61, Seymour; 66, Tucker; 67, Winslow. 

The juvenile traits of 14 of these are more or less fully recorded in 
table 4: 

TABLE 4. Juvenile Reactions of Naval Administrators. 



4. Beaver: Nomadism; scholarship. 

5. Beresford: Full of pranks and practical 

jokes; an adventurous sportsman. 

6. Geo. Smith Blake: Fearlessness of responsi- 

bility. 

8. Brenton: Nomadism. 
28. Hornby: Nomadism; fondness for hunting, 

fishing, etc. 

31. Jervis: Fondness of sea; great energy. 
42. Moresby: Fondness for sea. 



46. W. H. Parker: Fond of adventure and fun. 
51. J. W. Philip: Nomadism; fondness for 
pranks; good humor. 

56. Rodgers: Fearlessness of responsibility; 

ran away at 13 to see ships. 

57. Rodney: Went to sea at 13 years. 
61. Seymour: Fondness for sea. 

66. Tucker: Longing for the sea. 

67. Winslow: Fondness for adventure and sea. 



8 



HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 



Of the foregoing 14 persons, nomadism or fondness for the sea is found 
in 11. Love of adventure is found in 3; fearlessness of responsibility is 
specially mentioned in 3, and fondness for fishing, hunting, etc., in 3 others. 
Three of them show love of fun or pranks. There is no case of quarrel- 
someness or pugnacity. This group shows less pugnacity in boyhood than 
the future fighters; at least 2 of them showed an early willingness to assume 
responsibility. 

EXPLORERS. 

Of exploring naval officers the most noteworthy on our list are: 16, 
Matthew Flinders; 18, John Franklin; 34, McClintock; 35, Moresby. 
Flinders was nomadic in his youth, had a strong desire to go to sea, and 
was a good student. Franklin had early a love of discovery and adven- 
ture and a great native curiosity; McClintock was a great walker and 
had considerable mechanical ability and Moresby was fond of the sea. 
These 4 were all early nomads and showed a love of travel. A juvenile 
love of discovery and curiosity is to be expected in the youth of a future 
explorer. 

ADVENTURERS. 

Of adventurous naval officers the most striking on our list are: 11, 
Cochrane; 13, Gushing; 33, John Paul Jones; 37, Maffitt; 40, Marryat. 
To these may be added William De Rohan, brother of No. 14 (Dahlgren). 
Cochrane was nomadic in his youth; Gushing, adventurous and a poor 
student ; Maffitt, a lover of adventure and fearless ; and Marryat, nomadic 
and adventurous. Of the early history of De Rohan we have no record. 
The strikingly adventurous naval officers were especially adventurous in 
their youth. 

CONCLUSION AS TO JUVENILE PROMISE. 

The conclusion that may be drawn from this study is that in their 
youth future successful naval officers show love of travel or of the sea. 
In addition, they frequently show adventurousness if they are to be great 
fighters; may actually run away from home if they are to be future strate- 
gists; may be especially good-natured, if they are to be successful adminis- 
trators; are apt to show a juvenile love of travel or an interest hi 
scientific matters if they are to be future explorers. 

Examples of juvenile promise outside of our series of 68 naval officers 
are common. I cite two from the history of Dutch admirals. 

Michael Adrianszoon de Ruyter (b. 1607, at Flushing), when 10 or 
12 years old, climbed the church steeple and sat on the ball at its top and 
waved to the people below. Workmen had meantime taken away the 
ladder by which he had ascended, and when he was ready to come down 
he kicked away the slates and made a foothold on the slats to which they 
were fastened. He was regarded as the naughtiest boy in Flushing, despite 
his father's thrashings. He did not study well at school, but played tricks 



TYPES OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 9 

upon the masters. Put to work in a rope-yard, he shortly organized 
the boys into a company to fight the boys of another part of the town. 
He did not stick to his work and became more and more unmanageable. 
" Always at the waterside, or in boats, or up the mast of some ship, or going 
about with young sailors just returned from a long voyage, to whose yarns 
he listened with eagerness, he no sooner got to his wheel or in the rope- 
yard than he showed signs of laziness and unwillingness to act the drudge." 
(De Liefde, 17: 152-3.) Sent out as boatswain's boy in 1618, "He seemed 
to have left all of his vices ashore with his old clothes." He was without 
fear. Made a prisoner in Spain by pirates, he walked all the way home. 
He became very fond of mathematics and map-making. Many of his 
maps are still in use. 

Witte Cornells de Witt did so much mischief at school when he was 
11 years of age that his mother lectured him and made him promise that, 
as a Baptist, he would not fight again. The boys jeered him when they 
heard of his promise, so he quietly joined the Lutherans in order to be free 
to fight as much as he wanted to. He now tried all sorts of trades, but 
everywhere fought the other apprentices and lost his jobs. He hated the 
trades, anyway. At 17 years he went as a cabin boy hi an East Indian 
merchantman bound for Java. He became a harsh, cruel, jealous, over- 
bearing man, but a great fighter. He was engaged in 50 sea fights and 
commanded in 15 great battles. He could not curb his temper. His body 
was covered with wounds. He died poor and without friends. It is said: 

" At the age of 17 he entered the navy, and even then his smartness and ac- 
tivity, his feats of daring and his spirit of resolute independence awakened remark 
and pointed him out as one specially fitted to distinguish himself in his profession." 
(Encyclop. Britt. X, 73.) 

4. THE HEREDITARY TRAITS OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

The performance of any man depends to a large degree upon his 
inherent, inheritable traits; for behavior is reaction to stimulus, and the 
nature of the reaction is determined in part by the nature of the reacting 
nervous machinery. The nature of this nervous machinery depends upon 
hereditary factors of whose development the course is influenced by environ- 
ment. Thus heredity and environment are closely interwoven in deter- 
mining the history of a man's performance, as Manan so clearly states in 
the words quoted (page 4). Since heredity is so potent in determining 
the product, and particularly the vocation which a man selects and in 
which presumably he is more or less successful, it is worth while to con- 
sider the occupations of close relatives of the propositus (table 5). Since 
for our purpose it is desirable to consider less the administrative than the 
belligerent naval officers, especial emphasis is laid upon the occurrence of 
vocations related to that of the naval fighter. 



10 



HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 



TABLE 5. 





Naval officer. 


Coun- 
try. 


Type. 


Temperament. 


Juvenile promise. 


Consort. 


1 


W. Bainbridge. 


U.S. 


Fighting. . 


Hyperkinetic. 


Love of sea early, 




2 


J. Barney 


u. s. 


Fighting. 


Hyperkinetic. 


sailor at 15, fond of 
risky boyish under- 
takings. 

Nomadism, fearless- 




3 


J. Barry 


U.S. 


Fighting 


Hyperkinetic. 


ness of responsibility, 
intrepidity, quick 
temper. 




4 


P. Beaver 


Eng. 


Administrator. 


Hypokinetic. 


Nomadism, scholarship. 




5 


C. Beresford. . . 


Eng. 


Fighter, admin- 


Hyperkinetic. 


Full of pranks and 




6 

7 


G. S. Blake. . . 
R. Blake 


U.S. 
Eng. 


istrator. 

Administrator. 
Fighter 


Intermediate. 
Intermediate. 


practical jokes, ad- 
venturous sportsman. 

Fearless of responsibil- 
ity. 


Daughter of 
Commodore 
James Barren. 


8 


J. Brenton. . . . 


Eng. 


A dTnipifit,ra.t,oi t T 


Hypokinetic. 


Nomadism 


A distant 


q 


M. Brown. . . . 


U.S. 


Sailor 


Intermediate. 




cousin. 
A Coffin, of 


10 


F. Buchanan. . 


U. S. 


Constructor. 


Intermediate. 




Newburyport 
Daughter of 


11 


T. Cochrane. . . 


Eng. 


Adventurer, 


Hyperkinetic. 


Nomadic 


governor of 
Maryland. 


12 


C. Collingwood. 


Eng. 


fighter, inventor 
Tactician. 


Hypokinetic. 


Good student, mild, 




13 


W. B. Gushing. 


U.S. 


A d venturous, 


Hyperkinetic. 


showed no talents, re- 
served, longing for sea. 

Poor and disturbing 




14 


J. A. Dahlgren. 


U.S. 


fighter. 
Inventor 




student in Naval 
Academy, love of ad- 
venture. 

Desire for navy and 


Daughter of 












sea, good at mathe- 
matics, active. 


merchant. 



TYPES OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 



11 



TABLE 5 Continued. 



Children. 


Sibs. 


F. 


F's brothers 


M. F. 


M's brothers. 




Lawyer, died young 




Physician. . 




Wealthy cit- 




1 


6 sons: 1 a naval 


1 brother, un- 


Farmer 


No brother 


izen. 




2 


officer, 1 member 
of Congress. 


known; 1 brother 
temporarily a ma- 
rine officer; kept 
a hotel. 










3 




1 brother, major; 


Clergyman. . . 




Clergyman. . 




4 




1 clergyman. 
All 5 sportsmen 1 


Clergyman. 


1 killed at 






5 


Son naval fighter 


dare-devil cow- 
boy, 1 soldier (gal- 
lant), 1 had charge 
of king's race- 
horses. 

1 bro grad Har- 


Lawyer 


hunting. 
1 surgeon 






6 


in Civil War, lieut. 
commander. 


vard; d. at ISyrs; 
1 bro. 
2 naval 1 sea cap- 


Merchant, 


in navy. 


Wealthy. . . . 




7 


1 son died young 


tain, 1 merchant, 
1 in army, 1 law- 
yer, 1 banker. 

1 capt in navy and 


sailor. 
Officer in Colo- 








8 


wished to become 
a naval command- 
er; 1 landsman. 

2 sea captains 1 


reformer; 1 killed 
as lieut. in navy. 

1 followed sea as 


nial navy. 
Infantry capt 








9 


cooper on ship- 
board. 

1 rice broker 1 


cooper; 1 unknown. 
1 naval paymaster" 


in French war. 
Physician 




T. McKean, 




10 


daughter had 
naval son. 


1 farmer. 


Hyperkinetic, 


1 colonel in 


signer of 
Declaration, 
fighter. 




11 


None. 


1 captain in navy 


inventive. 
Merchant. 


army. 






12 




1 navy paymaster 


Physician 






1 lost at sea. 


13 


1 naval officer and 


2 army officers, 
killed in battle. 

Innvnl fifrKtpr of 


TVflVplpr anH 


1TIQ Vfll 


Soldier 


All of sister's 
sons, naval 
officers. 


14 


engineer, 1 army 
artillery officer 
killed in battle, 1 
army officer. 


fortune. 


merchant. 


surgeon. 









12 



HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 



TABLE 5 Continued. 





Naval officer. 


Coun- 
try. 


Type. 


Temperament. 


Juvenile promise. 


Consort. 


15 


S Decatur. . . . 


U. S. 


Fiehter. . 


Hyperkinetic. 


Love of sea, fiery na- 




16 


Geo Dewey. 


U S 


Fighter, tacti- 


Intermediate 


ture. 
Love of adventure, 




17 


A. Duncan .... 


Ene. 


cian. 
Fighter 


hyper kinetic. 


quickness in response. 
Nomadic 


Half sister of 


18 


G Elphinstone. 


Ene 


Fighter . . . 


Hypokinetic. 


Love of sea (at 15 


general and 
governor. 


19 


D. G. Farragut. 


U. S. 


Fighter . . 


Hyperkinetic. 


years). 
Loved sea and adven- 




20 


M Flinders 


Ens 


Explorer 


Sliehtlv hvD- 


ture. 
Good student, navy at 




?,1 


A. H. Foote. . . 


U. S. 


Fiehtine . 


erkinetic. 
Hyperkinetic. 


15, nomad, loved dis- 
covery, call of sea 
strong. 

Adventuresome, jolly, 


2d cousin. 


22 


E Fox 


U S 


Nomadic 




love of sea. 
Nomadic, love of sea. 




23 


J Franklin 


Ene 


Explorer 


Intermediate 


Curiosity, love of dis- 




94 


T M Hardv 


En? 


Strat.pcn^t, 


TTvnnltinpt.ip 


covery and adventure. 
Love of sea and adven- 




25 


E. Hawke . . 


Ene. 


Fighting, tac- 


Calm. ... 


ture. 




26 


J. Hawkins . . . 


Ene. 


tician. 
Sea-rover 


Intermediate. 




Daughter of 


27 


E. Hopkins 


U S 


Political sea- 


Intermediate. 




treasurer of 
navy. 
Daughter of 








loving. 






shipmaster. 



TYPES OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 



13 



TABLE 5 Continued. 



Children. 


Sibs. 


F. 


F's brothers. 


M. F. 


M's brothers. 






1 fighter 


Sea captain 




Irish gentle- 




15 


1 traveling sales- 


1 in life insurance 


and captain 
in navy. 

Hyperkinetic, 




man. 




16 


man. 
Henry captain in 


business. 
1 colonel in army 


physician. 








17 


navy, Alex, lieut. 
col. of infantry. 


1 in East India Co. 
1 in navy and East 








Frank, sol- 


18 


Courageous 


India Co., John in 
army and lieut. 
governor, George 
in navy. 

William in navy 


Adventurous 




Kentucky 


dier of for- 
tune; 
George, sol- 
dier and dip- 
lomat. 


19 


Da 11 & Vi ti p r's son 


George drowned at 
10 years. 

1 lieut in royal 


and daring, 
sailor, ex- 
plorer, sol- 
dier, charge 
of gunboat. 

Surgeon 




pioneer. 




20 


Wm. Flinders Pe- 
trie, leading ar- 
cheologist. 


navy. 


AJVpsf, TnHifl 




General mer- 


None 


?,1 


employ. 1 other 
son. 




merchant, 
senator, gov- 
ernor. 
Tailor . . . 




chant in 
West India 
trade. 




22 




1 in army and in- 


Banker . . 








23 




terested in science, 
F.R.S., 1 judge at 
Madras. 










24 






Barrister 




Barrister . . . 


Commis- 


25 






ftp5i par*t,j}in 






sioner of 
trade and 
plantations, 
in Parlia- 
ment. 


26 


miral and knight. 
John B captain in 


Stephen a states- 


and naval 
officer. 




Surveyor . . . 


Surveyor .... 


27 


navy, fighter. 


man (signer of 
Declaration 
of Independence), 
John and Samuel 
sea captains. 













14 



HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 



TABLE 5 Continued. 





Naval officer. 


Coun- 
try. 


Type. 


Temperament. 


Juvenile promise. 


Consort. 


m 


G. P. Hornby. 


Eng. 


Diplomatist, 


Calm 


Nomadic, fond of hunt- 




?9 


W. Hoste 


Ene. 


administrator. 
Fighter 


Hyperkinetic. 


ing, fishing, etc. 
Ever restless and buoy- 




30 


Richard Howe. 


Eng. 


Tactician and 


Hypokinetic. 


ant, liked to hunt and 
fish. 




31 


J. Jervis 


Ene. 


administrator. 
Strategist, ad- 


Hyperkinetic. 


Fond of sea 5 energetic. 




32 


Catesby Jones. 


U.S. 


ministrator. 
Inventive. . . . 


Intermediate. 






33 


J. P. Jones. . . . 


U.S. 


Naval fighter 


Hyperkinetic- 


Nomadic, independent, 




34 


H. Keppel. . . 


Ene. 


of fortune. 
Fighter 


hypokinetic. 
Hyperkinetic. 


active. 




35 


J. Lawrence. . . 


U.S. 


Fighter 


Hyperkinetic. 


Longed to go to sea. 




36 


T. Macdonough. 


U.S. 


Fighter 




Fond of adventure and 




37 


J. N. Maffitt. . 


U.S. 


Adventurous. . 


Hyperkinetic. 


practical jokes. 
Love of adventure, ab- 




38 


A. Mahan .... 


U.S. 


Strategist. . . . 


Hypokinetic. 


sence of fear. 




39 


J. Markham . . 


Eng. 


Administrator. 


Intermediate. 






40 


F. Marryat . . . 


Eng. 


Adventurous, 


Intermediate. 


Nomadic, adventurous. 










literary. 









TYPES OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 



15 



TABLE 5 Continued. 



Children. 


Sibs. 


F. 


F's brothers. 


M. F. 


M's brothers. 






1 captain in Royal 


Naval officer. 


2 clergymen 


General Bur- 




2S 




Engineers. 
Edward an excel- 


Clergyman. . . 




goyne (Sara- 
toga). 




fl9 


3 daughters. . . 


lent sailor became 
1 i e u t. in navy, 
George distin- 
guished army en- 
gineer. 

1 naval officer, killed 


In Parliament 








30 


None 


in battle of Ticon- 
deroga. William, 
general in Revolu- 
tionary War. 

1 connected with 


and governor 
of Barbados. 

Council to Ad- 




Judge 


Baron of ex- 


31 




court. 
1 army surgeon, 1 


miralty. 
Lieutenant of 






chequer. 
Capt. U.S.N., 


32 




lieut. U.S.A., 1 
brig. gen. U. S. A., 
2 in Confed. army, 
1 Confed. navy, 
1 business in San 
Francisco. 

1 migrated early to 


marines. 
Landscape 




A free land- 


brig. gen. 
Confederate 
Army. 


33 


1 distinguished 


America. 
1 in navy and later 


gardener. 
Lover of racing 




holder. 




34 


naval officer. 


in ministry, 1 gen- 
eral and traveler. 

Sister's son, Charles 


A lawyer, loy- 








35 




S. Boggs, rear-ad- 
miral. 

1 midshipman 


alist, coura- 
geous. 

In Revolu- 


1 in Revol- 


Captain of 






1 in C S N lieu- 




tionary War. 
Nomadic 


utionary 
War. 

1 migrated 


Colonial 
militia. 




37 


tenant. 




preacher. 
Professor of 


to America. 






38 


Fred a soldier and 


David a major of 


engineering. 
Clergyman. . . 








39 


big game hunter; 
1 clergyman. 

2 in navy 


infantry killed in 
battle, William 
country gentle- 
man, Osborne a 
barrister, 2 clergy- 
men. 

2 authors 


Political pam- 




Migrated to 




40 






phleteer, in 
parliament. 




Boston from 
Hesse. 







16 



HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OP NAVAL OFFICERS. 



TABLE 5 Continued. 





Naval officer. 


Coun- 
try. 


Type. 


Temperament. 


Juvenile promise. 


Consort. 


41 


F. McClintock. 


Eng. 


Exploring .... 


Hypokinetic. 


Great walker, mechan- 




42 


F. Moresby. . . 


Eng. 


Administra tive, 


Intermediate. 


ical. 
Fond of sea 




43 


C. Morris. . . 


U. S. 


exploring 
Fighting. 


Hyperkinetic. 






44 
45 


H. Nelson. . . . 
J. O'Brien. . . . 


Eng. 
U. S. 


Strategic, tact- 
ical and fight- 
ing. 

Fighting. 


Hyperkinetic, 
hypokinetic. 

Hyperkinetic. 


Love of adventure for 
adventure's sake; 
honorable. 

Love of sea 


Wilful. 




W. H. Parker. 


U.S. 


Administrator. . 


Intermediate. 


Fond of adventure and 




46 


H. Paulding. . . 


U.S. 


Diplomatist, 


Intermediate. 


fun. 
Desire for adventure. 




47 


E Pellew. 


Eng 


strategist. 
Dashing fighter 


Hyperkinetic. 


Fearlessness, love of sea 




48 


G. H. Perkins. 


U.S. 


Fighter 


Hyperkinetic. 


and of adventure. 
Fearless and adven- 




49 


M. C. Perry. . . 


U.S. 


Strategist. . . . 


Intermediate. 


turesome; poor stu- 
dent. 

Loved adventure; fear- 




50 


J. W. Philip. . 


U. S. 


Administrator. 


Hyperkinetic. 


less. 
Full of pranks and good 




51 


A. Phillip 


Eng. 


Administrator. 


Hypokinetic . 


humor, nomadic. 




52 

53 


D. D. Porter.. 
E. Preble 


U.S. 
U.S. 


Fighting 
Strategist. . . . 


Hyperkinetic. 
Intermediate. 


Nomadic, impulsive, 
belligerent, pertina- 
cious. 

Love of hunting and 


Dau. of com- 
modore and 
sib of head of 
Coast Survey. 

Dau. of a navi- 


54 










adventure; ran away 
to sea. 


gator. 



TYPES OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 



17 



TABLE 5 Continued. 



Children. 


Sibs. 


F. 


F's brothers. 


M. F. 


M's brothers. 




2 in army 1 in navy. 


1 lieut. colonel in 


Custom-house 




Archdeacon 




41 


Nomadic adven- 


army. 


official, 1 
member 3d 
Dragoons. 




of Water- 
ford. 




49, 


turous, explorer. 
2 were soldiers 1 a 


1 lieut in navy 


In Rev war 








43 


sailor. 
1 daughter, wilful. . 
Son a sailor 


capt. of artillery 
army, 1 lieut. in 
army. 

2 clergymen, 1 
clerk, 1 indolent 
died young. 

5 set out on a sloop 


sea captain. 
Clergyman . . . 

In Colonial 


Clergyman. 


Clergyman . . 


Naval capt. . . 


44 
45 


[brother's son's 
son a reformer 
and statesman.] 


to capture a war 
vessel. 

1 commodore U.S. 


militia. 
Comm o d o r e 




Gen. Robert 




46 


1 son (out of 4) be- 


N.; 1 master in 
U.S. Volunteer 
navy, 1 colonel of 
infantry. 

1 naval officer 


U. S. navy. 
Major of mili- 




Bogardus in 
War of 1812. 




47 


came col. of cav- 
alry. 

2 clergymen 2 naval 


1 admiral ... 


tia, captured 
Maj. Andre 1 . 

Commander of 








48 


officers. 
None 




a packet at 
Dover. 

Judge of pro- 




M M F capt. 


Sea captain. 


49 




Oliver Hazard Perry j 


bate. 
Naval c a p - 




in Rev. War. 
Hyperkinetic 




50 


1 naval service 


James A. Perry, 
sword from Con- 
gress for part in 
naval battle; 2 
other naval offi- 
cers. 


tain, auda- 
cious. 

Practiced med- 




stock. 
Professor of 




51 


None 




icine. 
Teacher of lan- 




surgery Vt. 
Med. Coll. 




52 


3 sons in navy. . . . 


3 in navy 


guages. 
F sea-fighter, 


John a na- 


In Continen- 


Something of 


53 


1 nomadic 


2 marine traders 1 


FF bred to 
the sea. 

Sailing master 


val com- 
mander. 


tal Army. 
A shipmaster. 


"fire eater." 


54 




merchant. 


and brig. gen. 











18 



HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 



TABLE 5 Continued. 





Naval officer. 


Coun- 
try 


Type 


Temperament 


Juvenile promise 


Consort 


55 


W. Raleigh. . . . 


Eng. 


Fighter, ad- 


Hyperkinetic. 


Love of adventure and 


A lady of Queen 








ministrator, 




fighting. 


Elizabeth's 








nomad. 






Court. 


KA 




U S 


Strategist and 


Hyperkinetic. 


Ran away at 13 to see 




\J\J 




W f~J 
















administrator. 




ships; fearless of re- 














sponsibility. 




57 


GB Rodnev 


Ene 


Administrator. 


Intermediate. 


Went to sea at 13 yrs. 




CM 


J-' * XvVJvUJLwjr 


* JJ1 o* 












T R Sands 


U S 


Administrator. 


Intermediate. 






5Q 


V Al* k_Jc*llViD* 

JSfti i m fl TP7 


v/ Iw'. 

Ene 


Tactician 


Intermediate. 


Taste for navy 




v7 


LJclLlUUCli. Ci/ > 


* J1 'o* 










60 




U S 


Strategist. 


Intermediate. 


Nomadic 




\JV/ 


.... 


x^ kJ. 










61 


E. H. ScviDOur* 


E 


Administrator. 


Intermediate. 


Love of sea 




vrJL 




* 










62 


WS Smith 


Ene. 


Fighter. 


Hyperkinetic. 


Nomadic 




WA 


kJ UU-AAU.H* * * 

R"R Rtnrktnn 


*o 

U S 


Dashing fighter 


Hyperkinetic. 


Scholarship, ambition; 




vO 


J. J JlM'_ iV LVJLJ. 


\s k^ 
















(frigate type). 




courage, pugnacity. 




fU 


T Tfl.ttnA.il 


U S 


Di lomatic 


Intermediate. 


Love of sea and of ad- 




Urt 


U. .L lt I'll illl. 


^/ w 


' 




venture. Scholarship 














high. 






MTT Trnmn 


Dutch 


T f ' d 


Hyperkinetic. 


At sea when nine years 






JLL. JL 1 VJill^J 


1 ' Li 1 1--1 1 
















fighter. 




old; when his father 














was killed he called on 














marines to avenge his 














death. 




66 


JTJ TuMrPi* 


U S 


AHminiflt.rfltor 


Intermediate. 


Longing for the sea. . 




uu 


-LV. A UvlVd 


\J i-* 


JA* i 1 1 1 i 1 IIP VI il L V/l . 








67 


J. A. Winslow. 


U.S. 


Administrator. 


Intermediate. 


Went to sea at 10 yrs. 


Cousin . . . 












in a "ship's boat." 




68 


W \XTnl BP!PV 


Encr 


Fighter 


Hypoklnetic. 


Nomadic 




uo 


TT UlDCiV.'jr . 


J - J1J O" 











TYPES OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 



19 



TABLE 5 Continued. 



Children. 


Sibs. 


F. 


F's brothers 


M. F. 


M's brother. 




1 son in navy; died 


Half brothers: Sir 


A country gen- 




M M F: a 


Vice admiral 


55 


in Guiana. 
4 marine officers, 1 


Humphrey Gil- 
bert, navigator 
and explorer; Sir 
John Gilbert, dep- 
uty vice admiral. 

George, commodore 


tleman. 
Officer in Rev. 




great soldier. 


of the West; 
int e r e s t e d 
in making 
plantations 
in Ireland. 


56 


col. of militia. 


U. S. N. 


war. 
Commander 








57 






of the Royal 
Yacht. 

Wealthy mer- 




Surgeon in 




58 


1 clergyman, 1 col- 


1 lieut. in army; 1 


chant. 


2 capt. in 


British 
Army. 




59 


onel in army. 
1 naval captain. . . . 


general in army; 
1 surgeon. 

2 in law 




navy. 






60 








Vice ad- 






61 








miral. 












Army officer, 


A general in 






62 


3 lawyers 


1 lawyer, 1 lieut. in 


hyperkinetic. 
Lawyer 


the army. 






63 




army. 


Colonel and 




Of a distin- 




64 


1 became rear- 




governor of 
Georgia. 

Naval captain. 




guished 
family. 




65 


admiral in Dutch 
fleet. 




Immigrated to 




Physician 




66 


2 naval officers .... 




U. S. from 
Bermuda. 

Commercial . . 




Chairman of 




67 






W. N. Wolse- 




committee 
of safety. 

Gov. gen. of 


1 captain in 


68 






ley, captain 
in infantry. 




Nova Scotia. 


army, 1 
commanded 
in navy. 





20 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

TABLE 6. Fighting naval officers and the allied vocations of their close relations. 

44. HORATIO NELSON. Preeminent strategist, tactician, and fighter; hero of the Nile, Copen- 
hagen, and Trafalgar. 

Maternal side: Mother: a woman "of some force of character." Mother's brother, captain 
in the navy and comptroller in the naval board. The mother's mother's mother's 
brother, Sir Robert Walpole, prime minister of England; also his brother Gal- 
fridus Walpole, of the navy, a fighter. 

Paternal side: The only distinguished ones were clergymen. 

Comment: Nelson's strategic insight may be an inheritance from both sides; a nomadic 
tendency may be in his mother's brother (Captain Suckling). His hyperkinetic 
reaction is possibly a new mutation. 

11. COCHRANE. Naval commander, wherever fortune led him. 

Maternal side: Mother's father, a captain of the Royal Navy. 

Paternal side: Father, enlisted in army; transferred to navy and became an acting lieuten- 
ant; grew weary of this and turned toward natural science; a speculator in scien- 
tific matters and an inventor. Father's brothers: Charles, a colonel in the British 
army, killed at Yorktown; Alexander, a distinguished admiral of the blue; Andrew, 
a colonel in the army "who threw up the service in disgust and became a mem- 
ber of Parliament." The father of the foregoing fraternity entered the army early, 
but retired with the rank of major. 

Comment: There is perhaps inconstancy rather than pure nomadism on the paternal side, 
although Alexander persisted in his nomadic profession. There was probably a 
love of the sea in the mother's father. 

13. GUSHING. Love of adventure. 

Maternal side: A brother of the mother "was lost or died at sea," presumably as a seaman 
of some sort. A sister of the mother, Elizabeth W. Smith, married John Pillsbury, 
a printer, and had a son, John Elliott, who was a graduate of the U. S. Military 
Academy, 1862, who served continuously in the navy until retired in 1908 and 
is best known for his inventions of deep-sea measuring apparatus. 

Paternal side: The father was Milton Gushing, who graduated in medicine; removed to 
Zanesville, Ohio, where he was a local merchant; then to Columbus, Ohio, and in 
1837 to Wisconsin where he was appointed justice of the peace; in 1844 to Chicago 
and 1847 back to Ohio, where he died. 

Comment: On both sides there is restlessness; on the mother's side, at least, a love of the 

sea. 

26. HAWKINS, JOHN. "Patriarch of the sea rovers"; brother was a ship-owner who commanded 
his own flotilla. 

Maternal side: Little known; his mother's father's father was Sir John Trelawny, warrior 
with King Henry at Agincourt. 

Paternal side: Father, one of the greatest sea captains in the west of England, an officer of 
the navy of Henry VIII, the first Englishman to sail into the southern seas; he made 
at least three voyages to Brazil. 

Comment: Here is evidence of adventurousness on both sides, but most marked on the 
paternal. The same trait reappears in the son of the propositus, who, at the age 
of 33 (1593), went on an expedition of exploration around South America, was 
made a captive, and was sent to Spain for several years; he died at the age of 62, 
while engaged against the Algerian pirates. 

28. HORNBY. An able commander, nomadic and thalassophilic. One brother was captain of 
the Royal Engineers; another was provost of Eton College. 

Maternal side: His mother's father was General "Saratoga" Burgoyne, a decidedly uncon- 
trolled sort of a man, given to gambling; also a writer of plays; a gallant army 
officer, who in the year 1759 introduced light cavalry into the British army. His 
son, Sir John Fox Burgoyne, was a great army engineer. 

Paternal side: Father, a naval officer of no great distinction, who was appointed to the 
Board of Admiralty. Father's brother became lieutenant colonel and father's 
father was a colonel in the army for a time and then a clergyman. 

Comment: The maternal side shows the greater brilliancy and restlessness; apparently 
love of the sea is more marked on the paternal side. 



HEREDITARY TRAITS OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 21 

TABLE 6. Fighting naval officers and the allied vocations of their close relations Continued. 

34. KEPPEL. A hyperkinetic naval fighter. Two of his brothers were army officers and one was 
for a time in the navy. 

Maternal side: The mother's father was a member of Parliament and acquired the title of 
Baron de Clifford; his son who succeeded to the title was also in Parliament. The 
mother's mother (Sophia Campbell) was a very intelligent, lively woman, of great 
personal courage. At the age of 80 years she discharged her pistols at thieves 
climbing over the garden wall. 

Paternal side: The father was "master of the horse" at court and a member of Parliament. 
The father's father was colonel of the King's Own regiment of dragoons and com- 
manded the Cuban expedition sent in 1762 to reduce Havana. His brother, 
Augustus Keppel, became a naval commander at 22 years, negotiated a treaty 
with the piratical dey of Algiers, and was a brave naval fighter; in his later years 
he became suspicious and quarrelsome. The father's father's father was, in 1748, 
commander in chief of the British forces serving in the Low Countries and was 
later ambassador to France; his wife was the sister of Charles Lennox, from whom 
are descended the great Napier family of generals and admirals. Charles Lennox 
was grandson of Charles II, King of England. 

Comment: On both sides are strains of courage. The paternal side (descended from Charles II) 
includes more military men and Admiral Augustus Keppel. 

36. MACDONOUGH. Adventurous and belligerent naval commander; a brother was midship- 
man in the navy. 

Maternal side: The mother's father, Samuel Vance, was a captain in the Delaware colonial 
militia. 

Paternal side: The father distinguished himself in active service as major of the Delaware 
battalion, 1776. In February 1777 he was elected member of the privy council 
and speaker of the council of Delaware, 1784, 1787. He was made second justice 
of the court of common pleas and orphan's court of New Castle county, Delaware. 

Comment: Macdonough was of belligerent blood from both sides; high intelligence and 
leadership is obvious in the father. His energy is probably especially from the 
paternal side. 

40. MARRY AT. Adventuresome, fearless, literary; of a literary fraternity. 
Maternal side: Mother's father, a Hessian settler in Boston, England. 
Paternal side: Father, parliamentarian; author of political pamphlets. 
Comment: If the mother's father as an immigrant was nomadic, Marryat's reaction can be 
easily understood. Literary taste and capacity are clearly shown in the paternal side. 

45. O'BRIEN. Naval fighter, of a fighting fraternity. 
Maternal side: The mother's father was a sea captain. 

Paternal side: The father fought in the colonial army that took Louisburg. 
Comment: This family history is a fragment, but probably there is a love of the sea on the 
maternal side. 

46. PARKER (W. H.). Fond of adventure, of a fraternity of fighters and administrators. 
Maternal side: Mother's father, a colonel of infantry (regulars) in the War of 1812. 
Paternal side: Father, Commodore Foxhall A. Parker. 

Comment: Adventuresomeness and belligerency probably on both sides. 

47. PAULDINQ. Brave, adventurous, diplomatic. 

Maternal side: Mother's brother, John Ward, an officer in the Loyal America regiment during 

the Revolution; later settled in New Brunswick. 

Paternal side: Father, major of militia, one of the captors of Major John Andre". 
Comment: There is a certain loyalty and willingness to fight for ideals on the mother's side; 

the father also was a fighter. 

49. PERKINS. Hyperkinetic, adventuresome, pertinacious. 

Maternal side: Mother's brother, a "remarkably efficient" captain. Mother's mother's 

father, a captain in the Revolutionary war. 
Paternal side: Father, studied at Harvard Law School and for 16 years presided over the 

probate court of Merrimac county, New Hampshire. 
Comment: So far as the record goes the fighters were on the maternal side only. 



22 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

TABLE 6. Fighting naval officers and the allied vocations of their close relations Continued. 

50. PERRY, OLIVER. Pertinacious fighter. Matthew, pertinacious diplomat and naval adminis- 
trator. 

Maternal side: Mother's brother, served in army under Cornwallis and also commanded a 
merchantman; another brother served under Cornwallis. The mother's mother's 
father was a Wallace of the famous Scotch family of fighters. 

Paternal Side: Father, a sea captain who served with distinction during the Revolutionary 
war upon armed vessels and in 1798 became a captain in the United States navy. 
The father's father was chief justice of the court of common pleas and president of 
the town council of Kingston, Rhode Island. 

Comment: There are fighters and sea captains on both sides. 

53. PORTER, DAVID DIXON. Nomadic and adventurous; four of his brothers died while serving 
in the navy as officers or midshipman; two of his sons were naval officers. 

Maternal side: The mother's brother is said to have been "something of a fire-eater"; the 
mother's father at the age of 15 joined the Continental army and served five years; 
he held various political offices and in 1809 was elected to Congress, retaining his 
seat until 1815; he was a county judge and a collector of customs. 

Paternal side: The father, David Porter, jr., commander of the Essex, was nomadic and hyper- 
kinetic. His brother John was a commander in the navy. Their father, David 
senior, also was a lover of the sea and so was his father, in turn a merchant captain. 
One of David senior's daughter's sons was a lieutenant in the Mexican navy, killed in 
action. Of John's sons, one was a general and one as a midshipman was lost at sea. 

Comment: The Porter family is one of our most remarkable naval families. Through 5 
generations without a break extends naval efficiency of a high order, through 3 
generations of the highest order. The marriages, so far as known, usually tended 
to maintain or exaggerate the traits. 

56. RODGERS, JOHN. Fearless, orderly, able to organize, fond of the sea, willing to accept responsi- 
bility. His brother George received a medal from Congress for gallantry in the 
navy during the War of 1812. 

Maternal side: The mother was a woman of "great strength of character," the daughter of 
a Presbyterian minister. 

Paternal side: The father, born in Scotland, was captain in command of a regiment of militia 
during the American Revolution. 

Comment: The origin of the fine fraternity of the Rodgers brothers remains unexplained for 

lack of details of earlier generations. 
63. STOCKTON. Dashing, hyperkinetic, diplomat. 

Maternal side: Mother's father, ambassador to Austria and Russia, secretary of state for 
New Jersey in 1794. One mother's brother's son became a lieutenant in the navy, 
but later retired to a plantation in Mississippi; another became United States 
senator. 

Paternal side: Father, leader of the New Jersey bar at the age of 25 years, a presidential 
elector at 28, and a United States senator at 32. His only brother was United States 
district attorney for New Jersey. His sister, whose husband was chaplain in the 
navy, had a son who became a major general (David Hunter, 1802-1886) in the 
United States army and another who, after serving as naval surgeon through 
the Mexican and Civil wars, was retired with the rank of commodore. 

Comment: Though the nearest relatives are legal, administrative, and parliamentarian, yet 
on each side are naval and fighting first cousins. Doubtless a hyperkinetic tendency 
came through the precocious father and the father's father, signer of the Declara- 
tion of Independence. The origin of Stockton's diplomatic capacity is not difficult 
to discover on the maternal side. 
67. WINSLOW. Nomadic, fearless, energetic. 

Maternal side: The mother's mother's mother's mother's father was William Rhett, the 
only near relative regarded as having the ambition and qualities necessary for 
becoming a naval warrior. One of his granddaughters married a British admiral 
and six of their grandchildren were naval officers, including four British admirals. 

Paternal side: The father was "engaged in commercial pursuits"; nothing more is known of 
his family. 

Comment: This is a striking case of nomadism carried through 4 generations of females. 



HEREDITARY TRAITS OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 23 

TABLE 6. Fighting naval officers and the allied vocations of their close relations Continued. 

16. DEWEY. Quick in response, fond of adventure, cool and brave in emergency. A brother was 

quartermaster of infantry in the Civil War and this brother's son is a naval officer. 
Maternal side: Little evidence of adventurousness or hyperkinesis. None of the known rela- 
tives on this side show love of the sea. 
Paternal side: Father, a physician, sometime army surgeon and president of an insurance 

company. The father's father's father was a captain of militia in the Revolution; his 

brother was a gunsmith with Ethan Allen at Ticonderoga. Of these brothers the 

mother's mother's father was George Denison, the most brilliant pioneer soldier of the 

Massachusetts colony, from whom also is descended Commodore John Rodgers (q. v.). 
Comment: In absence of fuller details about grandparents it is hard to interpret the origin 

of Dewey's traits. Probably the father had something of his quickness in response. 
21. FOOTE. An excellent organizer and gallant fighter; audacious. Brother, a congressman. 
Maternal side: Mother's father, a brigadier general of militia. 
Paternal side: Father voyaged to West Indies; was a member of the United States Senate 

and House of Representatives; also governor of Connecticut. 
Comment: The fighting capacity seen in mother's side; administration in father. 
25. HAWKE. A fighter. 

Maternal side: Mother's mother's father a general in the army, of the well-known fighting 

Fairfaxes. 

Paternal side: Father, a lawyer. 

Comment: A restlessness comes down through an exclusively female line. 

54. PREBLE. Liable to outbreaks of temper; fond of the sea, a good disciplinarian and dip- 
lomat. Two of his brothers were captains of merchantmen. 
Maternal side: The mother's father was a shipmaster and merchant and held many town 

offices. His brother was similarly a shipmaster and merchant of much enterprise. 
Paternal side: The father was a sea captain, entered the army, and attained the rank of 

brigadier general. It is said that he was the first white man to ascend Mount 

Washington; he had a violent temper. 
Comment: The violent temper is clearly a Preble trait and the father was also fond of 

mountain climbing (nomadic trait). The love of the sea is a trait shown on both 

sides. 
61. SEYMOUR. Thalassophilic, administrative. 

Maternal side: Mother's father, a member of Parliament; mother's mother's father, a member 

of Parliament. 
Paternal side: Father, a clergyman, two of whose brothers were naval officers: Michael an 

admiral and Edward a captain; another brother had a son who was a vice admiral. 

Father's father, a distinguished admiral. Father's mother's father, a captain in 

the Royal Navy. 
Comment: On the face of the pedigree chart, the maternal side brought legislative ability and 

the paternal side love of the sea and gallantry. Seymour combined these traits. 
64. TATTNALL. Fearless, judicious, brilliant, beloved, diplomatic. 

Maternal side: Of the mother's father little is known except that the Fenwicks were a family 

of great influence. The mother's younger sister had a son, Christopher Gadsden, 

commander of the United States brig Vixen. 
Paternal side: Father's father was a Loyalist and returned to England with "Father"; the 

latter declined a commission in the Royal army, returned to America, and fought 

with the colonial troops; became a brigadier general, United States senator, and 

governor of Georgia. 
Comment: The only naval man found in this record is on the maternal side; but fighting 

capacity and diplomacy are found in the father. 
68. WOLSELEY. Somewhat nomadic, hypokinetic. 

Maternal side: His mother's brother, Phillips Cosby, became a British admiral and another 

brother was captain in the army. The mother's father was a lieutenant in the army 

and lieutenant governor of Nova Scotia. 
Paternal side: The father was a captain of infantry; and his father's father was in the army 

in Ireland under William III and later a member of Parliament. 
Comment: The nearest relative with his love for the sea is his mother's brother, Admiral 

Cosby. Field Marshal Viscount Wolseley (born 1833) was the grandson of a second 

cousin. 



24 



HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 



TABLE 7. Summary of evidence. 



No. 



Propositus. 



Maternal side. 



Paternal side. 



44 

11 
13 
26 

28 
34 
36 

40 
45 
46 
47 
49 
50 

53 

54 
56 

61 
63 

64 

67 

68 

16 
21 

25 



Nelson. 



Thalassophilic, nomadic 

Adventurous 

"Sea rover" 

Thalassophilic, nomadic, able. 

Hyperkinetic, combative 

Energetic, adventurous, com- 
bative. 

Adventurous, fearless 

Combative, thalassophilic. . . 

Adventurous, combative 

Adventurous, diplomatic 

Hyperkinetic, adventurous. . . 

Thalassophilic, pertinacious, 
audacious, diplomatic. 

Thalassophilic, combative, ad- 
venturous. 

Ill-tempered, thalassophilic, 
diplomatic. 

Thalassophilic, fearless, ad- 
ministrative. 

Thalassophilic, administrative. 

Hyperkinetic, restless, diplo- 
matic. 

Fearless, judicious, diplo- 
matic, combative, nomadic. 

Nomadic, fearless, energetic. . 

Combative, nomadic, hypo- 
kinetic, administrative 

Hyperkinetic, adventurous. . . 

Administrative, audacious, 
combative. 

Combative. . 



M. B. thalassophilic, 

strategic, diplomatic. 
M. F. thalassophilic. . . . 

Restless 

Adventurous 

Brilliant, restless 

Legal, courageous 

Combative 

Nomadic (?) 

Thalassophilic 

Combative 

Combative, loyal 

Combative 

Combative, thalassophilic. 



Combative. . 



Thalassophilic 

Administrative (?).. 



Administrative. 
Diplomatic. . . . 



Thalassophilic (?). 



Nomadic, combative. . . . 
Thalassophilic, nomadic, 
combative. 



Combative 
Combative. . 



Faithful. 

Inconstant, nomadic. 
Restless. 
Adventurous. 
Thalassophilic. 
Combative, nomadic (?). 
Combative, energetic, in- 
telligent. 
Literary. 
Combative. 
Thalassophilic. 
Combative. 
Administrative. 
Combative, thalassophilic. 

Thalassophilic, adventurous. 
Ill-tempered, nomadic. 
Combative. 

Thalassophilic, brave. 
Hyperkinetic. 

Combative, diplomatic. 

"In commerce." 
Administrative. 

Hyperkinetic. 
Administrative. 

Legal. 



Table 7 may be still further summarized as follows: There is evidence 
of thalassophilia in the maternal side of the propositus in 7 cases, on the 
paternal side in 5. Restlessness, nomadism, or adventuresomeness appear 
6 times on the maternal side and 6 times on the paternal side. Hyper- 
kinesis (energy) is mentioned 3 times on the paternal side and not at all 
on the maternal; but combative is indicated 10 times as a characteristic 
on the maternal side and 7 times as a characteristic on the paternal side. 
Diplomatic is mentioned twice on maternal side and once on paternal; 
administrative is recorded 2 and 3 times and courageous 1 and 1 times on 
maternal and paternal sides respectively. Similar traits in about similar 
proportions are thus shown on each side when the close relatives of the 
propositus are considered en masse. What the table brings out clearly 
is that the successful naval officer arises in families that have in other 
instances shown the traits upon which his success has depended. 



INHERITANCE OF SPECIAL TRAITS! THALASSOPHILIA. 25 

THE INHERITANCE OF SPECIAL TRAITS OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 
THALASSOPHILIA, OR LOVE OF THE SEA. 

Source of Thalassophilia (or Sea-lust] in Naval Oncers. --The sea makes 
to different people a varied appeal. There are those who dread to go 
upon the great waters; there are those who have a genuine mania for the 
sea. The love of the sea, sea-lust or thalassophilia, is apparently a specific 
trait to be differentiated from wanderlust or love of adventure; several 
sailors with whom I have spoken (at Sailors' Snug Harbor), while they 
admit a strong love for travel on the sea, deny that they care for travel 
on land; conversely, the gypsies are notorious as wanderers, but are 
not notorious as sailors. Also, it is clear that many find their love of 
adventure fully satisfied by fighting Indians or living on the frontier as 
cowboys, etc., and have no longing for the sea. Moreover, the modern 
merchant vessel plying between New York and Liverpool offers, hi times 
of peace, as little probability of adventure as that of conductor on a rail- 
road train; and we have seen, on the increase of danger from submarines, 
seamen declining to undertake trips on the sea because of the added hazard 
of the trip; so that it is not adventure that leads them to become seamen. 
To the landsman the sea is often regarded as exceedingly dangerous; how, 
then, does it happen that some persons have been lured to undertake the 
discomfort, disease, and dangers of life on the sea, even from an early age 
of life, and at an era when little regard was had for the comfort or even 
health of the sailor. It is because men are driven into sea life by their 
instinctive fondness for the sea. 

That sea-lust is an inherited, racial trait is demonstrated by its dis- 
tribution among the races of the globe. It is natural that races with a 
sea-lust should make their way to the seacoast; and so we find Phoeni- 
cians, Carthaginians, and even Romans developing great marine fleets. 
That it is not proper to conclude that peoples are sea-lovers merely because 
they live on the sea is illustrated in the history of the Jews, who (though 
located on the Mediterranean, but without good natural harbors) were 
never a great maritime people. Even the Greeks, though realizing at times 
their dependence for national existence upon ships, were aroused with diffi- 
culty before the battle of Salamis and declined readily after the Syracusan 
expedition (415-413 B.C.). The Turks rose to sea-power only during a 
part of the sixteenth century. The great naval nations of the modern 
world have been the English, Scandinavian, and Dutch; though France, 
Spain, and Portugal have at times had great fleets and great sea fighters. 
Though the marine commerce of the Germans has risen in recent years to 
the first rank, their great navy has won no important victories. During 
the early part of the nineteenth century our coastal states (settled largely 
from England, Sweden, and Holland) produced great sea fighters, and dur- 
ing the War of 1812-1814 inflicted a series of humiliating defeats on the 
English navy. 



26 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

While few of the native African tribes, though fronting on the sea, 
developed significant sea-power, and though even the Chinese were not 
given to long voyages, yet the Polynesians are the most maritime of all 
peoples and centuries ago traversed hundreds of miles of ocean in open 
canoes and proved themselves such gallant fighters that they conquered 
remote inhabited countries, like New Zealand, which they reached in their 
journeys. 

That sea-lust is a racial trait is recognized by seamen themselves, 
who hold themselves apart as a different race from the " land-lubber." 
Seamen know very well that their cravings for the sea are racial "it 
is in the blood," they say. 

As Hoppin (1874, p. 19) writes: "The sea is a magnet that draws its 
own to it wherever they may be. ... The love of the sea is one of the 
instincts that are original in the nature of some." 

Just what there is in the sea that makes the appeal is a question. 
I have repeatedly inquired of sailors, especially at Sailors' Snug Harbor, 
Staten Island, as to this matter. Some reply naively that there was a 
good living to be made on the sea and therefore they naturally entered 
upon it. One can imagine that if one asked a tern why it lived on the sea 
instead of inland, like robins, it might reply because "I get my food from 
the sea." It is more in accordance with correct thinking to conclude 
that a tern feeds on the sea because its instincts lead it to live on the sea; 
and a fisherman or a sea captain finds his living on the sea because, for- 
tunately for him, he can make a living where his instincts draw him. As 
Robert Hare, 1810, wrote concerning the adoption by America of the 
policy of abandoning the sea: "The utter impossibility of enforcing this 
abandonment in practice has already been demonstrated. A portion of 
our countrymen are amphibious and we might as well forbid the birds 
to fly or the fishes to swim as deny them access to their favorite element." 

Other seamen have told me that it was the "romance of the sea" 
that attracted them. One stated that it was the form of the ship with 
sails spread that lured him; and to the visualist this sight makes a strong- 
appeal. We have the statement that John Rodgers as a boy left his home 
at Havre de Grace and walked to Baltimore because he wanted to see a 
square-rigged ship. Also, many sailors have been visualists, fond of objects 
of natural history of all sorts, bringing home collections of shells and fruits 
and works of "savage" art to find place in local museums. Still, this is not 
the whole explanation, for a steady stream of applicants for the navy con- 
tinues, even in time of peace, despite the replacement of sails by steam. 

One sailor suggested that the young man who has returned from the 
sea carries a glamor of romance and heroism that attracts young women 
and enables him to make a better marriage selection. This would natu- 
rally be a strong incentive and, no doubt, in sea-loving communities like 
Salem, Marblehead, Sag Harbor, etc., it played an important part in 
securing the mating of two thalassophilic strains and in establishing a 



INHERITANCE OF SPECIAL TRAITS: THALASSOPHILIA. 27 

pure thalassophilic race; but as an explanation of sea-lust it seems to me 
inadequate : first, because only certain of the young men of the community 
have the sea-lust ; second, because only certain of the young women are thus 
especially attracted toward seamen. It seems probable that such young 
women belong to a strain that carries sea-lust ; and that the eugenic explana- 
tion of love of the sea is one that applies only to maritime communities. 

It seems probable, indeed, that sea-lust is a definite instinct which 
has appeared in a few strains of mankind. It appeared in the Vikings, 
who doubtless carried it to England and perhaps to the Netherlands. 
It appeared in the Phoenicians and hi their colonies of Carthage and Syra- 
cuse and possibly of the east coast of Spain. No doubt the trait of sea-lust 
has arisen in other strains. However it has arisen, in some way it has 
got into a population and through consanguineous matings it has increased 
until it is found in a marked proportion of the population, which we then 
speak of as a great maritime people. 

The decline of a great maritime people is likely to coincide with a 
great naval defeat. Says Admiral Bridge (Encycl. Brit., xxiv, 552): "A 
remarkable characteristic of sea-power is the delusive manner in which 
it appears to revive after a great defeat." This failure properly to revive 
may be due to the heavy loss in the first defeat of germ plasm with the 
sea-lust, such that sufficient regeneration of it can not occur. The navy 
may be rebuilt, but " artificially " so, to use Bridge's term, and lacking 
in sailors with the real instinct. Apparently the Spanish fleet which met 
defeat off Cuba in 1898 lacked sailors with the proper hereditary traits. 
Of sea-power Bridges says: "To reach the highest degree of efficiency it 
should be based upon a population naturally maritime." 

Sea-lust, it must be conceded, is a fundamental instinct, and a man 
who has it is as clearly differentiated from one who lacks it as a tern is 
differentiated from a thrush in its choice of habitat. The presence of the 
instinct shows itself in a desire for life on the broad expanse of the waters. 
It seems to be the opposite of the trait known to psychiatrists as "claus- 
trophilia," or the feeling of contentment when surrounded by walls and 
living in a spacially restricted world. Thalassophilia, on the contrary, 
is a love of limitless expanse of horizon and of area for movements over 
the face of the planet. Traveling on land does not satisfy the instinct 
because movements are less free and the horizon more restricted. No 
doubt the changing color and moods of the water, the sun, and clouds, 
the dangers, the novel scenes in distant parts, all constitute part of the 
pleasurable sensations which lure the freedom-loving sailor or naval man. 

Heredity of Sea-lust. One of the most striking characteristics of sea- 
lust is that it is almost wholly a male character, apparently much more 
so than nomadism; quite as much so as the beard. Even among the 
Polynesians the women are not given to going to sea. This may be in 
part due to the mores; since to sit in a boat was formerly for a woman 
taboo in the Marquesas Islands. Sea fighting is not wholly unknown 



28 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

among women, as the two cases of Mary Anne Talbot and Hannah Snell 
(Encycl. Brit.) indicate; but the rarity of such cases suggests that they 
are examples of psychic sex inversion. Nomadism, which leads to a fond- 
ness for travel equally on land or sea, is not rare among women; and the 
wives of sea captains not infrequently accompany their husbands; but 
these are not typical cases of sea-lust. It is possible, accordingly, that the 
irresistible appeal of the sea is a trait that is a sort of secondary sex 
character in males of certain races, just as a large rose comb is a male 
characteristic in some races of poultry. Females of the race have rose 
combs, to be sure, but they are relatively small things; but the sons of 
such females have* huge combs again. As the great development of the 
comb of the cock occurs under the stimulus of the secretions of the male 
germ gland, so the appeal of the sea develops under the secretion of 
the germ gland in the boy or young man who belongs to a thalassophilic 
race. The behavior of this secondary sex character in heredity seems 
to be like this: If the father is thalassophilic and the mother belongs to a 
nonthalassophilic race, the sons will not be thalassophilic, as we see in the 
case of the sons of Hiram Paulding. When, on the other hand, both 
father's and mother's close male relatives are thalassophilic, probably the 
entire fraternity of the propositus will be so. This particular combination 
is less often realized than would be useful for testing this hypothesis. The 
following cases realize it approximately: 

36, PREBLE. Father, sailing master and brigadier general: mother's father, a 
ship-master: sons: 1, Edward, commodore; 2, Ebenezer, a distinguished merchant 
of Boston; 3, Joshua, little known; 4, a sea trader from 16 to 61; 5 a sea trader. 

As in those days the merchants often sailed, or sailed with, then- ships, 
Ebenezer was probably attracted to the business of merchant through a 
love of the sea, or began as a sailor before he was a merchant. 1 If we sup- 
pose this to have been the case with Ebenezer (and omitting the little-known 
Joshua), then all 4 of the known sons of this mating were thalassophilic. 

Again John Adolph Dahlgren married the daughter of a merchant 
and had 3 sons. One became a commander in the navy, and the other 2 
were fighters in the Civil War. Of these, 1 died in battle at the age of 22; 
the other became United States consul at Rome. 

George Smith Blake married the daughter of Commodore James 
Barren. Their only son was Francis Blake, who became a lieutenant com- 
mander in the navy during the Civil War and was a gallant fighter. 

Captain Moses Brown married a Coffin of Newburyport, a center 
of sailor-folk. Of his 4 sons we know nothing about the youngest. Of 
the others, 2 became sea captains and 1 a cooper on shipboard. 

1 Marvin, W. L. (1902. The American Merchant Marine. New York: Scribners. 444 pp.), says 
p. 81: "Every capable officer (of a ship) of those times looked forward to becoming 
a merchant himself." In the E. R. O. records (57: 462) we find: "J. S. (born 1748) 
early engaged in commerce with the West Indies and commanded his own vessels." 
He served in the navy during the Revolution. 



INHERITANCE OF SPECIAL TRAITS! HYPERKINESIS. 29 

Admiral David Dixon Porter married a daughter of a commodore in 
the navy. Of then* 4 sons, nothing was found about Richard. Essex 
became a major in the United States army; C. P. Porter served in the 
United States Marine Corps, and Theodoric served 43 years in the navy, 
retiring when he was a commodore. 

John Ancrum Winslow, whose father was in commerce, married his 
paternal cousin and of his 2 sons one was a paymaster in the navy and the 
other became a commander in the navy. 

I add two examples from the Eugenics Record Office files: 

CASE 1. The father was "passionately fond of the sea and of marine sports"; 
he also liked to travel and became a man of great business ability. His mother's 
father was a ship captain. The mother was of a retiring disposition and fearful 
of ships and the sea; but her father traveled widely, especially at sea, had a clear 
wanderlust and little business ability. The children were 2 sons and a daughter. 
One son was extremely fond of travel, geography, ships, and the sea, and was with- 
out business ability. The second son is fond of aquatic sports, but hates travel 
and has good business ability. The daughter is fond of social activity. (E. R. O., 
Cor 3.) 

CASE 2. The propositus lived on the sea for many years, served in the 
Civil War, went out to Missouri, after a year returned to Pennsylvania, and settled 
down to farming. His mother's brother was a sea captain. (E. R. O., 28: 155.) 

Thus we see that thalassophilia acts like a recessive, so that, when 
the determiner for it (or the absence of a determiner for dislike) is in each 
germ-cell the resulting male child will have a love of the sea. Sometimes 
a father who shows no liking for the sea, like Perkins's father, may carry 
a determiner for sea-lust recessive. It is theoretically probable that some 
mothers are heterozygous for love of the sea, so that when married to a 
thalassophilic man half of their children will show sea-lust and half will not. 

THE HYPERKINETIC QUALITIES OF THE FIGHTERS. 

Studies made on other and more extensive material have led (Dav- 
enport, 1915, p. 94) to the conclusion that hyperkinesis is a dominant con- 
dition and passes through the generations without skipping any. The 
tendency is equally apt to be shown in father or mother, and not commonly 
in both. Of our 67 naval officers, 31 may be reckoned as primarily fighters 
and, as such, most are of the hyperkinetic type. This total includes Nelson, 
who is equally great as strategist and tactician, and Oliver Hazard Perry 
and David Porter, jr., who are not on our mam list. Of these 30 the hyper- 
kinetic tendency apparently comes from the paternal side in 15, namely: 
Blake, Cochrane, Dewey, Foote, Keppel, Lawrence, Macdonough, Morris, 
Perkins, 0. H. Perry, David Porter, D. D. Porter, Smith, Stockton, Tromp. 
The hyperkinesis apparently comes from the maternal side in 6 cases; 
namely, Beresford, Gushing, Keith, Nelson, O'Brien, Wolseley. In 1 case 
it probably came from both sides, namely, Farragut; in the 8 remaining 
cases the temperament of neither parent is sufficiently known. There are 



30 



HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 



apt to be more cases of hyperkinetic fathers than mothers, since biographers 
tend to consider the latter less fully than the former. 

Though the evidence of the biographies is, in some cases, not satis- 
factory, yet the hyperkinesis of the propositus is usually shown in some 
degree by one of the parents also. 

TABLE 8. Vocations of the grandchildren of naval officers. 



Name. 



Sons' sons. 



Daughters' sons. 



Barney . . . 

Buchanan 

ochrane . 

Dahlgren . 



Duncan . 
Flinders . 
Hawkins . 



1, inventor. 

2, commander in Confederate navy. 



1, lieutenant general. 

2, lieutenant colonel in army. 
1, 



2, professor of biology. 
1, member of Parliament. 



Howe . 
Morris 



1, went to sea. 

2, 3, ... 



Paulding 
Pellew . 



Perry, O. H. 
Perry, M. C. 

Perry, C. R. 



Preble 

Rodgers, John 



Rodgers,G.W. 



1, United States Military Academy; 
captain of artillery 

1, in insurance business 

2, farmer 

1, commander, Royal Navy. 2, ... 

3, officer in Madras cavalry. 

4, lieutenant in Royal Navy. 5, major 
in infantry. 

1, author. 

2, ... 



1, lieutenant United States navy 

2, graduate West Point 

3, physician 



1, commander in navy. 
1, commander in navy 



2, rear admiral 

3, rear admiral 



1, captain, United States army. 

2, lieutenant United States navy. J 

3, rear admiral. 2 



1, Naval Academy, youngest 
member of class. 



1, 2, young. 



1, leading British Egyptologist. 



1, 2, ... 

1, lieutenant, United States navy. 

2, ensign, United States navy. 

3, rector. 

1, in naval reserve. 

2, 3, not in navy. 



1, rear admiral. 

2, rear admiral. 

3, 4, bankers. 

5, graduate of U. S. Naval Acad- 
emy; 2 years in navy. 

1, rear admiral. 

2, naval commander. 

3, naval captain. 

4, soldier. 

1, brigadier general, United States 
army. 

2, 3, majors. 
4, engineer. 



1 Also daughter's sons of M. C. Perry. 

2 Also sister's sons of Alexander Mackenzie, naval officer and brother (with change of name) 

of Jane Slidell, who married M. C. Perry, and Julia Slidell, who married C. R. P. 
Rodgers. 



INHERITANCE OF SPECIAL TRAITS: NOMADISM. 



31 



TABLE 9. Summary of Table 8. 



Classification. 


Son's sons. 


Daughter's sons. 


No. 


Per cent. 


No. 


Per cent. 


Naval officers 


10 
1 
7 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

25 


40 

4 
28 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 

100 


10 
3 

1 

1 
2 
1 

18 


56 
16.5 

5.5 
5.5 
11 
5.5 

100 


At sea 


Army officers 


Inventor 


Professor of biology 


Member of Parliament 


Insurance business 


Farmer 


Author 


Physician 


Esvotoloeist 


Rector 


Not in navy 


Engineer 


Total 





SOURCE OF NOMADISM IN NAVAL OFFICERS. 

Nomadism is a trait which leads its possessor to restlessness, change 
of scene, travel. The manifestation of this trait is often periodic. It is 
shown more in early than later life. Typical nomads, like gypsies and 
Bedouins, are satisfied with roaming over the land; the "sea rovers" have, 
there is reason for thinking, another and different instinct: a love of the 
sea, thalassophilia. That these two instincts are distinct is shown by the 
fact that many sea rovers have a distaste for travel on land, or at least find 
little satisfaction on it. Foote wanted to go to sea against his parents' 
wishes and was entered at West Point as a compromise; but this did not 
satisfy, so he transferred to the navy. 

Nomadism appears to be a simple "unit character" whose germinal 
determiner is sex-linked, i. e., is found only in such sperm cells as produce 
female offspring. This matter has already been worked out at the Eugenics 
Record Office (Davenport, 1915). 

Since nomadism is an important element that leads to a naval (as 
well as to a military) career, it is interesting to inquire whether, in the 
mass, there is any difference between males and females in the tendency to 
have naval sons. To make the comparison we must consider in parallel 
columns the distribution of occupations in the sons of persons who hold 
exactly similar relationship to the propositus. An attempt has been made 
to do this in table 8. 



32 



HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 



TABLE 10. Showing for the respective histories the frequency of occurrence of various occupations 
among the brothers of the father and the mother respectively of the propositus. 



Occupations. 


Father's brothers. 


Per 

cent 


Mother's brothers. 


Per 
cent 


Naval officer 


History Nos. 
5, 11, 20, 32, 42, 43, 53, 


25 


History Nos. 
32, 44, 55, 68 


20 




59 (bis), 61 (bis) . . (11) 








Lost at sea 


43, 50 


5 


13 


5 


Merchant sailor 


43, 58 


5 


27 


5 


Army officer x 


5, 11 (3), 39, 63 


14 


28, 47, 49, 68 


20 


Soldier in Amer. Revolution 
Naval surgeon 


36 (bis) 
6, 14 


5 
5 






Pioneer 


37 


?! 


25 


5 


Hunter 


5 


?, 






Clergyman 


11, 28 (4) 


1? 


16,32 


10 


Surveyor 






27 


K 


Baron of exchequer 






31 


5 


Commerce, trade, and plan- 
tations . 






25 


R 


Judge 


5, 46 (bis), 59 


q 


10, 49, 63 (bis) 


20 


Merchant 


10 


2 






Physician ... 


17, 50 


5 






Farmer 


43, 60 


q 

















1 Excluding a number of the less important English army officials. 

TABLE 11. Absolute and percentage frequency of occurrence of each of several classes of 
occupations among sons of the brothers and the sisters, respectively, of the proposituses. 



Classification 


Brother's sons (10). 


Sister's sons (8). 


Frequency. 


Per cent. 


Frequency. 


Per cent. 


Naval officers 


13 
9 
2 
3 
6 
2 
4 
4 


30 
21 
5 
7 
14 
5 
9 
9 


10 
3 

1 

2 
1 
1 

18 


56 
16.5 

5.5 

11 
5.5 
5.5 


Army officers 


Farmers 


Civil service 


Sailors 


Merchants 


Shipmasters 


Miscellaneous 


Surgeon in navy 


Clergy . . 


Total 


43 


100 


100 





In comparing for the families of naval officers the contribution of the 
paternal and maternal sides we should first compare the occupation of male 
relatives on the two sides holding similar relationship to the propositus, and 
accordingly we compare the brothers of the father and of the mother. 
Unfortunately the number of such relatives of which the occupation is 
known is not large on either side larger on the paternal than the maternal 
just because biographers always lay more stress on the paternal side. 



SELECTION OF UNTRIED MEN. 33 

The foregoing tables lead to the conclusion that, on the whole, male 
relatives of naval officers who are related to the propositus through females 
are somewhat (40 per cent) more apt to be naval officers than those re- 
lated through males. Since this is the method of inheritance of nomadism, 
the excess is probably due to an inheritance of nomadic instinct in some 
naval men. 

IV. CONCLUSIONS. 

In making selection of untried men for naval commissions advantage 
may well be taken of the assistance that is afforded by the facts of juvenile 
promise and family history. Naval fighters are chiefly hyperkinetics. 
In their youth they were nomadic, thalassophilic, adventurous. Future 
strategists have in more than one instance arisen from boys who succeeded 
in carrying out their plan of leaving homes to go to sea. Administrators 
have been rarely quarrelsome. The adventurous type of admiral was 
markedly adventurous in his youth. The juvenile history gives a precious 
indication of future success in the navy. 

It is probable that if there is not a history of love of the sea in close 
male relatives on at least one side the youth will not become a great sea 
captain or naval officer. It is usually true that one of the parents should 
be a hyperkinetic, especially if the son is to be a successful naval fighter. 
Since naval officers are frequently nomadic, and since nomadism is sex- 
linked, an untried candidate whose family history shows naval men on the 
maternal side only is more apt to be successful than one showing instances 
of naval men on the paternal side only. 

In general, unless a candidate shows a history in youth of adventur- 
ousness and thalassophilia, it is improbable that he will make a great naval 
officer. Unless he has a hyperkinetic temperament it is not probable that 
he will make a successful naval fighter. Unless a love of the sea appears 
on at least one side of the house, hyperkinesis in at least one parent, or 
a case of an eminent naval man among the male relatives of the mother, 
one is justified in doubting if the applicant for a naval commission will 
become an eminent officer. 



V. APPLICATION OF PRINCIPLES TO SELECTION OF UNTRIED MEN. 

Admitting that a knowledge of juvenile promise and family history 
might assist in the selection of untried men for commissions, the practical 
question remains: How can such knowledge be obtained promptly enough 
to aid in officering a new army? Every new undertaking requires methods of 
its own. The acquisition of facts of juvenile promise and of family history 
requires the use of persons trained in this work. A body of such workers has 
already been organized and has been doing work of this sort since 1910. They 
are the eugenics field workers of the Eugenics Record Office. These field 
workers constitute a body of about 130 picked women and men, mostly col- 



34 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

lege graduates and especially trained in psychology and psychiatry. They 
are located throughout the country from California and Utah to Maine and 
North Carolina and from Minnesota to Louisiana. Through these field work- 
ers as a nucleus, a body of investigators sufficient to report on the personal 
and family history of 50,000 men in three months could be organized and 
the cost would be less than two days' pay for each person considered. 



PART II. 

BRIEF BIOGRAPHIES OF NAVAL OFFICERS, WITH ESPECIAL REFERENCE TO THEIR 
JUVENILE PROMISE AND THEIR PERSONAL TRAITS. 

The brief biographies of naval officers in these pages are written 
according to the following plan. First is an account of the achievements 
and other events in the life of the man. In a few cases it has been found 
convenient to include here details of the man's juvenile reactions. The 
second part of the account is an analysis of the traits or "gifts" which 
have colored or determined the output of the subject. In this treatment 
there are often considered similar reactions of the man's kin and the develop- 
ment in the individual of each of these gifts. In some cases, in default of 
details concerning the kin, a mere outline of the man's genealogy is given. 

In reading the biographies the pedigree charts (when furnished) should 
be frequently consulted. These charts (with their rather full legends) 
serve to show the position in the family tree of the relatives named in the 
text and to give some idea of the distribution of traits throughout the 
genetic complex. All children of a fraternity, whether eminent or attained 
to maturity or not, are given in order that the "density" in the family tree 
of the special gifts may be measured. Names of persons and places are 
given rather fully, as they may help the student in other pedigree investi- 
gations. As the charts are highly condensed representations of descriptive 
facts some account of the way to interpret them is given below. 

KEY TO PEDIGREE CHARTS 

Each symbol represents a person: D males, O females. All symbols suspended from 
the same continuous horizontal line constitute one fraternity. The vertical line leads upwards 
from the fraternity line to the short horizontal line connecting the parents of said fraternity. 

Dotted lines indicate illegitimacy. Dot-and-dash line . . means mere descent 

without attempt to represent the generations. The generations are numbered at the left from 
top to bottom; the individuals in each generation are numbered from left to right for ease of 
reference. The chronological order of individuals in the fraternity is usually not indicated by the 
order on the chart. A number inside of or just below a symbol indicates that the symbol stands 
for that number of individuals. 

The following is a key to the special marks on the symbols. 



'2 




B B Q 





10 






B a 

11 12 



13 




14 



15 



16 



17 



18 



H 



n Q a 



19 



20 



21 



1. Naval officer, usually of rank of cap- 

tain or higher. 

2. Naval officer of low rank (usually lieu- 

tenant or lower) or of slight eminence. 

3. Seaman, including captain of a mer- 

chantman. 

4. " Merchant " of the old days, interested 

in shipping, sometimes going with his 
cargo. 



5. Sea traveler or ship's surgeon. 

6. Of naval promise ; died young. 

7. Nomad. 

8. Reformer. 

9. Explorer. 

10. Army officer. 

11. Army officer of unrealized promise. 

12. "In army." 

13. In army service, but not as fighter. 

35 



14. Administrator. 

15. Legislator. 

16. Clergyman. 

17. Fearlessness. 

18. Authorship. 

19. Inventiveness. 

20. Musical capacity. 

21. Artistic capacity. 



36 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 



1. WILLIAM BAINBRIDGE. 

WILLIAM BAINBRIDGE was born at Princeton, New Jersey, May 7, 1774. 
He was educated under the direction of his mother's father and at the age of 15 
became a sailor on a merchant ship about to sail from Philadelphia. Such apti- 
tude did he show that at 18 he was made first mate of a ship in the Holland 
trade. During his first voyage as mate the crew mutinied, but he rescued her 
commander and suppressed the uprising; in consequence, he was made captain 
of the vessel at 19 and continued for many years in the merchant service. He 
had remarkable power with crews; he was once called upon by the captain of 
another vessel to quell a mutiny and succeeded in doing so. Once, coming out 
of the harbor of St. Thomas, he was fired on by a British vessel of 8 guns; with 
his 4 guns he kept up such an effective return fire that the antagonist surrendered, 
but he refused to take her as a prize. On one occasion one of his seamen was 
impressed; in reprisal he seized a seaman from the next English ship he met. His 
reputation led to his appointment as lieutenant in the newly organized United 
States navy, in which capacity he was in command of the schooner Retaliation. 
This schooner was shortly after, in 1798, captured by French frigates and he was 
held captive for a time and then released. During the next two years he pro- 
tected American shipping around the West Indies and in 1800 was made captain 
for his eminent services. In the same year he commanded a frigate to convey 
tribute to the bey of Algiers and, through diplomacy in Turkey, reduced the 
haughty spirit of the bey. In 1801 his ship, the Philadelphia, was sent in a 
squadron against the Moors and he captured the Moorish cruiser Meshboha, but 
later he fell, with the Philadelphia, into the hands of the Moors and was held a 
prisoner until 1805. He then reentered the merchant service, but upon the begin- 
ning of the War of 1812 was assigned to the command of the Constitution, which 
destroyed the British frigate Java; on his return he was set to work on the con- 
struction of the frigate Independence. Again, in 1815, he went against the Barbary 
States, now as commander of a squadron, and forced them to respect the American 
flag. After that he established a naval training school and served as president 
of the board of promotion of naval officers. For three years he was chief of the 
board of naval commissioners in Washington, District of Columbia. He died in 
Philadelphia, July 1833. 

He had four daughters by his wife, Susan Hyleger, and also a son who 
graduated at Princeton with honor, studied, law, was "a ripe scholar" with pure 
principles and sound judgment, and "inherited sentiments of high honor and 
chivalry which distinguished his father." This son died as a young man. 

William Bainbridge was vigilant, untiring in endeavor, exacting in discipline, 
and equal to any emergency. He sought rather than avoided responsibility. Or- 
dinarily he was courteous and hospitable. About 6 feet tall, his frame was muscular 
and his dress neat. The traits that determined his vocation were as follows: 

1. He was thalassophilic. He early became inspired with a desire to be a 
sailor and actually became such at the age of 15. From that time on he was for 
only short periods at a fixed land abode. 

2. He was adventurous and fearless. As a boy his "dauntless spirit urged 
him into the foremost rank in every boyish enterprise where peril was to be en- 
countered." As a naval officer he encountered antagonists superior to himself 
with a courage which did not consider too carefully the risk. 




BAINBRIDGE BARNEY. 37 

3. He was a hyperkinetic. He reacted quickly and vigorously. Herein lay 
his power with men who respect bravery, dash, and vigor. Like most hyper- 
kinetics, he showed at times a violent temper, a fierce and vehement reaction. 
He spoke rapidly, but, when speaking vehemently, sometimes had difficulty in 
expressing himself. He inspired confidence and courage in others. 

FAMILY HISTORY OF WILLIAM BAINBRIDGE. 

I 1 (MF), John Taylor, of Monmouth county, New Jersey, 

a citizen of wealth and respectability, much interested in the , 
education of his grandson. 

II 1 (F), Absalom Bainbridge, a physician who practiced in 
Princeton, New Jersey; later he removed to New York City, rj 
where he died in 1807. II 3 (consort's F), John Hyleger, of 
Holland, for many years governor of St. Eustatius, West Indies. 

III 1 (Propositus), William Bainbridge. Ill 2 (consort), m. 
Susan Hyleger. 

Children of Propositus: IV 1, Bainbridge, was ad- ^ p -^ ^- . 

mitted to the bar at Philadelphia; later he removed to Pittsburgh; rvr] (VQ OO-Q () 
he died young, in 1831. IV 3, Captain Thomas Hayes, of the 
navy. IV 6, Ashbel G. Jaudon, a merchant of Philadelphia. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

HARRIS, T. 1837. The Life and Services of Commodore William Bainbridge. Philadelphia: 
C. Lea and Blanchard. xvi + 254 pp. 

2. JOSHUA BARNEY. 

JOSHUA BARNEY was born at Baltimore, Maryland, July 6, 1759. At the 
age of 13 he left his father's farm and became an apprentice on a small brig going 
to Liverpool and made numerous other voyages on her. Three years later, the 
captain having died on board and the first mate having abandoned the vessel, 
the 16-year-old lad assumed command, made Gibraltar with his sinking ship, 
sold his cargo, and brought the vessel safely back to Baltimore. On the breaking- 
out of the Revolution he was taken as master's mate on the sloop-of-war Hornet, 
later was transferred to the Wasp, and in a fight with a British brig so distin- 
guished himself that he was appointed lieutenant in the navy. Later, he was 
captured by the British and confined for five months in a prison ship, exchanged, 
and again captured and again exchanged. As an officer of the Saratoga he led in 
the boarding of three British vessels, but these were recaptured the next day and 
he was put in prison at Plymouth, England, for nearly a year. He escaped twice 
and made his way to Philadelphia. In 1782 he took command of a gunboat and 
captured a war vessel of greater armament than his own. He engaged in busi- 
ness at the close of the war, going frequently on trading voyages. In 1795 he 
entered the French navy with a rank corresponding to commodore, but he resigned 
in 1800. On the outbreak of the War of 1812 he offered his services, was commis- 
sioned captain in the navy, and given command of a flotilla for the defense of 
Chesapeake bay. Here he received a wound in the leg, from the effects of which 
he died four years later. 

The traits of Joshua Barney that determined his success were, first, a strong 
nomadic tendency. At 10 years he was through with school and wanted to go to 
sea; indeed, "long before this period he had wearied his father by continued 
entreaties to be a sailor." In his twelfth year he was entered on a pilot-boat, and 



38 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

this so obviously accorded with his bent that his father placed him under the care 
of Captain Thomas Drysdale, the boy's brother-in-law, and he began his career 
as a seaman, described above. His nomadic tendencies manifested themselves 
on the land also. In 1786 he purchased lands in Kentucky, and in November 
1787 set out to explore them. He became " very adept with a rifle and thoroughly 
enjoyed life in the wilderness." In 1816, urged by his old love of rambling, he again 
undertook a journey to Kentucky; he went again in 1818, and died at Pittsburgh 
on returning homeward. 

A second trait was fearlessness, intrepidity. When he was 16 years old his 
captain died on a voyage, and when the first mate had left the ship he assumed 
command: "was neither dismayed by the additional weight of care and responsi- 
bility which thus devolved upon him, nor depressed by the perilous condition of 
the ship. . . . On the contrary, his courage rose with the occasion; the ship 
sprang a leak and he put into Gibraltar." This fearlessness led him to return again 
and again to naval service and to attempt to escape repeatedly after capture. 
"No dangers or difficulties could divert" him from his object. 

In general, Barney was a hyperkinetic. Enthusiastic, ardent, energetic, with 
a ready wit, and a cheerful and entertaining companion, he was dearly beloved 
in his family circle, and "those who once served under him were always ready 
to offer their services a second time." He was, however, quick in anger. Once, 
when about to fire at the enemy, his captain forbade him and in anger Barney 
threw the match-stick at him and so cowed the captain that he withdrew to his 
cabin, while the youth assumed full command. Says his biographer: "When 
excited there was a lightning-like splendor in the coruscations of his glance that 
few persons could meet without perturbation." 

It is a phase of the hyperkinetic nature that there was seldom much interval 
between decision and action. It was not so much that he was so prompt in 
making up his mind as that his mind did not interfere with his response. His 
liberality and indulgence to his children knew no bounds; he showed an uncal- 
culating wastefulness of expenditure when at home; he relieved the distresses of 
the poor in the vicinity. For a brief interval after the wound in his leg he was 
greatly depressed, lost his facial glow, became emaciated. The society of his 
friends became irksome and he was peevish. From this mood he recovered after 
a few months. Physically, Barney had a close-knit, muscular, vigorous frame and 
was graceful. 

FAMILY HISTORY OF JOSHUA BARNEY. 

I 1 (F F), William Barney, emigrated in 1795 to Maryland, where he prospered and left 
a "handsome fortune" at his death in 1746. I 2, Elizabeth Stevenson. 

Fraternity of F: II 1, Martha Barney. II 2, Richard Hooker. II 3 (F), William Barney 
(1718-1773), lived in Baltimore, but later removed to a farm about 8 miles from that town. 

II 4 (M), Frances Holland Watts, an heiress to a large property. II 5 (first consort's F), Gun- 
ning Bedford, an alderman of Philadelphia. 

Fraternity of Propositus: III 1, Elizabeth and Peggy Barney. Ill 2, Margaret Barney. 

III 3, John Holland Barney (1742-1840). Ill 4, William Stevenson Barney (b. 1754) was a 
marine officer of Virginia; he is said to have kept a hotel in Georgetown. Ill 5 (second consort), 
Harriet Cole died in 1849. Ill 6 (Propositus) , JOSHUA BARNEY. Ill 7 (first consort), Ann 

Bedford, died 1808. Ill 8, - - Hindman. Ill 9, Nicholson. Ill 10, Samuel Nicholson 

(1743-1813) was a lieutenant on the Bon Homme Richard under Paul Jones. In 1779 he was 
appointed captain; he superintended the building of the Constitution and was her first commander. 
Ill 11, James Nicholson (1727-1804), in 1776 was appointed ranking captain in the navy; in 
1777 commander in chief of the navy. Ill 12, John Nicholson was appointed a captain of the 
navy in 1779. 



BARNEY. 



39 



IV 1, George Deverell, of Jamaica, West Indies. Children of Propositus: IV 3, Eliza 
Barney. IV 4, Joshua Barney. IV 5, Nathan Barney. IV 6, Hannah Carey. IV 7, William 
Barney (1781-1838), held the rank of major in the War of 1812 and was deputy naval officer 
for the port of Baltimore. IV 8, Louis Barney (1783-1850). IV 9, Anne Stedman Van Wyck. 
IV 10, Henry Barney, born 1790. IV 11, Caroline Barney, born 1787. IV 12, Nathaniel Wil- 
liams. IV 13, Adele Barney. IV 14, Isaac Waddy. IV 15, John Barney (1785-1856), was a 
member of Congress from Baltimore, 1825 to 1829. IV 16, Elizabeth Nicholson Hindman. 
IV 17, James Rogers of Delaware. 

Children's children of Propositus: V 1, Mary Deverell. V 2, Nathan Barney (1819-1902) 
was a well-known inventor; he organized the Barney Dumping Boat Company. His automatic 
dumping boat, used by the New York street-cleaning department, dumps 700 tons in 60 seconds. 
He invented fish-plates to hold the ends of railroad rails together. V 3, Elizabeth Wother- 
spoon, of New York. V 4, Joseph Nicholson Barney (1818-1899) in 1832 entered the United 
States navy, but resigned in 1861 to enter the Confederate States navy, with the same rank of 
lieutenant. For gallant service at Hampton Roads in the engagement between the Monitor 
and Merrimac he was made commander. He went to Europe to see to the fitting out of vessels 
for the Confederate States navy but his health failed in 1863. For a time he retired to farm life 
in Virginia but afterwards engaged in the insurance business. V 5, Eliza Jacobs Rogers. 

Children's children's children of Propositus: VI 2, George Deverell Barney (b. 1865), a 
surgeon of note; he devised a new treatment for consumption and demonstrated the communi- 
cableness of bovine tuberculosis to man. VI 3, James W. Barney, cashier of a Kansas City bank. 
VI 4, Thomas Holcomb. VI 5, Elizabeth Barney. 

Children's children's children's children of Propositus: VII 1, Rebecca Holcomb. VII 2, 
James and Thomas Holcomb. VII 3, Franklin Porteous Holcomb (born 1884) graduated from 
the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis. 



i tfjc? 




BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

ADAMS W. F. 1912. Commodore Joshua Barney. Privately printed. Springfield, Massa- 
chusetts. 228 pp. 

BARNEY MARY. 1832. A Biographical Memoir of the late Commodore Joshua Barney. Boston: 
Gray and Bowen. xvi + 328 pp. 



40 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

3. JOHN BARRY. 

JOHN BARRY was born at Tacumshane, Ireland, in 1745. He went to sea 
when a boy and commanded a vessel when in his twenty-first year. At 21 years 
of age he emigrated to Philadelphia and sailed merchant ships until 1775, when 
he arrived from England in the Black Prince just as the Continental Congress 
had resolved to fit out two armed cruisers. He offered his ship and his services, 
and was commissioned captain of the 16-gun brig Lexington. Thus he was the 
first officer appointed in the new navy. In April 1776 he captured his first prize, 
an English vessel, and carried her to Philadelphia. He did some privateering 
until October 1776, when by an act of Congress he was appointed captain of the 
Effingham (28 guns), which lay in the Delaware river above Philadelphia. Before 
taking to sea, however, he organized a company of volunteers to assist Wash- 
ington, who was retreating from Trenton but blocking the progress of the British 
toward Philadelphia by land. Returning to his vessels, Barry received orders to 
sink the Effingham to prevent her capture; this he reluctantly did after some 
delay. Shortly after, he manned four small boats, passed Philadelphia at night, 
and captured a larger schooner of 10 guns and four British transports. All of these 
he destroyed to prevent them from being recaptured. This undertaking won 
admiration from both sides and an offer from the British of 20,000 and com- 
mand of a squadron, which he indignantly refused. During the following years 
of the war Barry had a series of encounters with the enemy at sea. In June 1780, 
in command of the Alliance, a 32-gun frigate, he sailed from France with Colonel 
Laurens, commissioner to France. On the outward trip he captured a privateer. 
Returning with his ship loaded with dry goods, he captured two privateers on 
April 2 and on May 28 ran upon two more. As the wind subsided he was at the 
mercy of his antagonists for an hour and was wounded; then, as a breeze sprang 
up, he sent the Alliance between her two antagonists and delivered such a fire 
that both vessels struck. In August 1782, in a brief three-weeks' cruise from New 
London, he captured eight vessels. In 1783, returning with specie from the West 
Indies, he was attacked by three frigates; despite the heavy odds against him he 
fought bravely until, a French vessel coming to his assistance, the British ships 
sailed away. This was the last naval fight of the Revolution. Captain Barry 
was one of the delegates to the convention at Philadelphia to revise the Articles 
of Confederation. On the last day but one of the session the resolution to refer 
the Constitution to a convention of the States was before the house. Postpone- 
ment until afternoon was asked for and granted; members who were opposed to 
the bill kept away in the afternoon to prevent a quorum. Two additional mem- 
bers were required, and Captain Barry led a party that carried by force two 
members from their rooms to the meeting, thus securing a vote. When the new 
navy was formed Barry was the first of the six captains named by Washington. 
In 1797 he completed building the frigate United States and was placed in com- 
mand of her. He was authorized, in 1798, to capture armed French vessels, and 
did so effectively. He died September 1803. 

John Barry was a hyperkinetic. His reactions were wonderfully quick and his 
judgment correct. "The promptitude and propriety of Captain Barry's decisions 
on sudden emergencies was wondered at and admired. Waked out of sleep, on 
deck in an instant, and all hands set to work, whether it be in the case of a vessel 
in sight, a violent gale, or otherwise, and the propriety of the order appeared in 
no countermanding becoming necessary." His passions on some occasions were 



BARRY - - BEAVER. 41 

violent. Thus, once in hoisting a foretopmast steering-sail a blunder was made 
and twice repeated; Barry flew forward like lightning and struck the boatswain 
with his trumpet; yet he was affectionate toward his men. In the case of the 
boatswain whom he had hit with a trumpet, he later visited him in his cabin and 
expressed sorrow for the violence of his passion. Barry liked fun, and often gave 
the call, "all hands to play." It was his prompt decision and his intrepidity 
that enabled him to attack and overcome superior forces of the enemy. 

Of Barry's relatives little is known. On his mother's side he is said to have 
been descended from John Stafford, an officer in Cromwell's army. Barry married, 
but left no children. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

MARTIN, I. J. 1897. The History of John Barry. Philadelphia: The American Catholic His- 
torical Society. 261 + xiv pp. 

4. PHILIP BEAVEK. 

PHILIP BEAVER was born at Lewkner, England, in 1766. At the age of 11 
he wanted to go to sea, and shipped under Admiral Keppel, who in 1778 fought 
that French squadron commanded by D'Estaing which had been sent to help the 
American colonies. Beaver was in the battle between the two squadrons at St. 
George's Bay. The lad studied navigation and naval astronomy with the ship's 
mate. At this time his temperament was prevailingly buoyant, with sedate 
spells. Later he cruised in the Windward Isles, destroying Spanish and French 
vessels. At the age of 16 he was placed in charge of a prize American brig, but 
this was recaptured and Beaver was taken prisoner and later exchanged. He 
was placed on a naval privateer and navigated a prize to port; had a danger- 
ous fever and was reported dead. At the close of the American war in 1783 he 
returned to England and went thence to Boulogne to learn French. In his other 
studies he was assisted by his brother, Rev. James Beaver, his preference being 
for history and natural philosophy. In 1789 he was appointed first lieutenant. 
He went on a colonizing venture to an island off the coast of Sierra Leone, but 
this was a failure. He went on the Stately, 64 guns, to take the Cape of Good 
Hope from the Dutch; his handling of his ship in a squall attracted admiration 
and he was transferred to the flagship. He was with Keith in the Mediterranean, 
watching the Spaniards in 1799, and was sent to carry five prizes to port. As 
assistant captain under Keith, he had charge of the bombardment of Genoa, which 
capitulated to him, but after he had sailed for England it was lost again. In 1801 
he was sent to help expel the French from Egypt, and after that cruised in the 
Mediterranean and made charts for the Admiralty. In 1810 he was one of the 
squadron that captured Mauritius and as senior officer remained in command at 
the Mauritius station, and in that capacity captured the Seychelles Islands. He 
then proceeded against Batavia, in the capture of which in 1811 he played an 
important part. Seeking mast timber in East Africa, he was taken ill and died 
at Cape Town of "inflammation of the bowels." 

Beaver was a slender man, capable of great fatigue of body and mind. He 
was scholarly rather than pugnacious. He knew well the science of navigation, 
preferred reading and writing in his cabin to pacing the deck, and wrote an account 
of some of his campaigns. On shipboard he was firm, almost austere; but gentle 
and playful on shore. He was courageous in carrying out what he undertook. 




42 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

Of Beaver's family we know little. His father was a clergyman who died in 
straitened circumstances. The father's father was Herbert Beaver, a man of wit 
and urbanity. The mother, Jane Skeeler, was the daughter of a clergyman, Rev. 
Thomas Skeeler. Of the sibs of Captain Philip Beaver, one brother was a major 
and died in the East Indies, and another was a clergyman; a sister married John 
Gillies, an author of historical works. 

r FT~ 

FAMILY HISTORY OF PHILIP BEAVER. 

I 1 (F F F), Edward Beaver, a clergyman. 

II 1 (F F), Herbert Beaver, of Oxford. II 3 (M F), Thomas 
Skeeler, a clergyman. 

III 1 (F), James Beaver, a clergyman who studied at Oriel. 
Ill 2 (M), Jane Skeeler. 

Fraternity of Propositus: IV 2, Beaver, a major who 

died in the East Indies. IV 3, James Beaver, a clergyman. IV 5, 
John Gillies, a Scottish historian. IV 6 (Propositus), PHILIP TV" 
BEAVER. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

SMYTH, W. 1829. The Life and Services of Captain Philip Beaver, late of his Majesty's Ship 
Nisus. London: J. Murray. 



5. CHARLES WILLIAM DE LA POER BERESFORD. 

LORD CHARLES WILLIAM DE LA POER BERESFORD was born in Ireland in 
1846, the second son of the fourth Marquis of Waterford. He entered the Brit- 
annia as a naval cadet in 1859; became lieutenant in 1868 and commander in 1875. 
He was in Parliament 1874-1880, as a conservative with special interest in naval 
administration. In command of the Condor, 1882, on the occasion of the Egyp- 
tian crisis, he won lasting renown and a captaincy by taking his ship in close to 
the forts and engaging them with conspicuous gallantry. He served in Egypt in 
1884-1885, under Lord Wolseley, and commanded a naval brigade. He returned 
to Parliament in 1885, and in 1886 he became lord of the admiralty and worked for 
a stronger navy, but, not receiving adquate support, he resigned in 1888 with dra- 
matic effect. In the House he succeeded in putting through the naval defense 
act of 1889. For four years more he was on the Mediterranean and then in com- 
mand of the steam reserve at Chatham. Rear admiral in 1897, he alternated 
between Parliament, a mission to China on behalf of commerce and, in 1905, the 
command of squadrons and fleets; in 1906 he became a full admiral. He has 
stood always for a large increase in the English navy. 

Charles Beresford's great daring was evidenced as a cadet and shown in his 
attack on Alexandria. At the Falkland Islands he found delight in shooting; at 
Vancouver he went hunting by canoe and stalked deer at night; in China he 
went out pig-sticking and tiger-shooting. He was always taking hazardous 
chances and won bets that involved courage and daring. This daring is shown 
in his brothers also. He says of them: ' The five brothers were keen sportsmen, 
hard riders, men of their hands, high-couraged, adventurous." John, his 
eldest brother, became crippled while hunting. William won the Victoria Cross 
by cool and audacious gallantry in the Zulu war of 1879 and was renowned for 
his reckless hardihood. "There was hardly a bone in his body which he had not 
broken." "He might have been a great soldier, a great diplomat, a great political 



BERESFORD. 



43 



officer, had not his passion for the turf diverted a part of his energies." Brother 
Marcus took charge of the King's race horses. Brother Delaval went to Mexico 
as a young man, where he was known as a dare-devil rider and an excellent 
rancher, rounding up his stock and branding his own cattle. He was killed in a 
railway accident. 

Their mother, Christina Leslie, a daughter of Charles Powell-Leslie, became 
a noted rider to hounds after her fortieth year. Their father's father married 
a Delaval, of whom it is said they "would seem to have been a high-spirited, reck- 
less, and spendthrift race." One of their ancestors, George Delaval, as vice 
admiral fought off Cape Barfleur, 1692. Their father's brother, Henry, was killed 
on the hunting field. A brother of their father's father, Admiral Sir John Poo 
Beresford (III 1), a natural son of the first Marquis of Waterford, was a great 
sea fighter, and another natural son of the first marquis, William Carr Beresford, 
was a great fighter but too impetuous and quick-tempered to be a great general. 
He made a great success as reorganizer of the Portuguese army. Thus Beresford's 
ancestry on both sides shows daring and adventurousness. His own father was a 
clergyman. The great-uncle, John Poo Beresford (III, 1) played a conspicuous 
part in Parliament and was junior lord of the admiralty, and another brother 
became primate of all Ireland. Earlier ancestors were members of Parliament. 

Charles Beresford was a statesman of breadth of view, as is shown by his 
insistence on the needs of the navy; these views he successfully instilled into 
Parliament, and thus he became the father of the modern British navy. 

Charles was jovial and full of pranks and practical jokes. At school he and 
his two brothers were known as the three "wild Irish." The Delavals were given 
to extravagant entertainments, to amateur theatricals, and to practical jokes. 
Like many of his relatives, Charles was beloved of his men and had a great 
influence over them. 



*" 



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FAMILY HISTORY OF CHARLES DE LA POER BERESFORD. 

II (F F F F) Sir Marcus Beresford, first Earl of 
Tyrone (1694-1763). 12 (F F F M) Katherine, Baroness 
de la Poer. 13 (F M M F) Lord Delaval. 

Fraternity of F F F: II 1, John Beresford (1738- 
1805), appointed commissioner of revenue, became in 
fact ruler of Ireland. II 3 (F F F), George de la Poer 
Beresford, first Marquis of Waterford (1735-1800). II 5 
(F F M), Elizabeth Monck. II 6 (F M F), George Car- n 
penter, second Earl of Tyrconnel. II 7 (F M M), Lady 
Delaval, famed for her beauty. 

Fraternity of FF : III 1, Sir John Poo Beresford 
(born 1768?), entered the Royal Navy in 1782 and rose m 
to the rank of admiral after distinguished service in 
the West Indies and off Lisbon (1810). He was a con- 
spicuous member of Parliament and junior lord of the ^r 
admiralty. Ill 2, Viscount William Carr Beresford 
(1768-1854), "a born fighter and a great administrator," 
bore a distinguished part in the Peninsular war, during 
which he was made a marshal in the Portuguese army, v 
III 3, John George Beresford (1773-1862), primate of 
all Ireland. Ill 4, George Thomas Beresford (1781- 8 

1839), a privy councilor. Ill 6 (F F) Henry de la Poer Beresford, second Marquis of Waterford 
(1772-1826), a privy councilor. Ill 7 (F M), Lady Susanna Carpenter, a singularly beautiful 
woman. Ill 8 (M F), Charles Powell-Leslie. 





Js J* JsjfjR Is I? 

H H H LH E] H 



44 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

Fraternity of F: IV 1, Henry de la Poer Beresford, third Marquis (1811-1859), was killed 
in the hunting field. IV 2, William Beresford (1812-1850), of the First Life Guards. IV 3, James 
Beresford (1816-1841), an officer in the army. IV 4, Sarah Elizabeth Beresford. IV 5, Henry 
John Talbot, eighteenth Earl of Shrewsbury (1803-1869), an admiral of the Royal Navy. IV 6 
(F), John de la Poer Beresford, fourth Marquis (1814-1866), in holy orders. IV 7 (M), Chris- 
tina Powell-Leslie (1820-1905), a noted rider to hounds. 

Fraternity of Children of F's Sib: V 1, Charles John Talbot, nineteenth Earl of Shrewsbury 
(1830-1877), lord high steward of Ireland. V 2, Walter (Talbot) Carpenter (1834-1904), an 
admiral of the Royal Navy. V 3, Sir Reginald Talbot (born 1841), a major-general in the army. 

Fraternity of Propositus: V 5, John Henry de la Poer Beresford, fifth Marquis of Waterford 
(18441895), a captain in the army and master of the buckhounds. V 6, William Leslie de la 
Poer Beresford (1847-1900), V.C., a colonel in the army and military secretary to the governor- 
general of India. V 7, Marcus Beresford (born 1848), equerry to the king and manager of His 
Majesty's stud. V 8, Delaval James de la Poer Beresford (1862-1906), an army lieutenant and 
a rancher. V 9, (Propositus) CHARLES DE LA POER BERESFORD. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

BERESFORD, C. 1914. The Memoirs of Admiral Lord Charles Beresford. Boston: Little, 

Brown, and Co. 2 vols. 
BURKE, SIR B., and A. BURKE. 1909. A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Peerage and 

Baronetage. London : Harrison and Son. 2570 pp. 

6. GEORGE SMITH BLAKE. 

GEORGE SMITH BLAKE was born at Worcester, Massachusetts, in 1802. He was 
appointed to the United States navy as midshipman in 1818 and assigned to the 
schooner Alligator. When, in 1821, the Alligator was attacked near the Cape Verde 
islands by a Portuguese ship, the latter was captured and Blake was sent back with 
her and a prize crew to the United States. After a few years of mercantile service, 
Blake was commissioned lieutenant, March 1827, and cruised in the West Indies 
after pirates. In 1835 he was appointed to the command of the schooner Experiment, 
in the United States Coast Survey, and charted many of the bays and inlets of the 
east coast of the United States. Blake was later for a time attached to the Phila- 
delphia navy yard. In 1846 he was appointed to the command of the brig Perry 
in the Gulf squadron, which was wrecked on the Florida reefs in a gale. How- 
ever, he got her off the rocks and with a temporary rudder and jury spars brought 
her to Philadelphia. In 1849 he was appointed to command the Mediterranean 
squadron ; and after that he was for some years assigned to various ordnance and 
construction duties. In 1857 he was appointed superintendent of the Naval 
Academy and served until 1865. When the Civil War broke out sympathizers 
with the Confederacy tried to seize the frigate Constitution and the Naval Academy 
at Annapolis, but his prompt measures saved them, and the Academy was removed 
during the war to Newport, Rhode Island. He was prevailed upon to continue 
the supcrintcndency during the war at the request of the Secretary of the Navy, 
Gideon Wells. He was commissioned commodore, July 1862, and after the war 
was made a lighthouse inspector. He wrote the lives of naval officers for the 
New American Encyclopedia. He died at Longwood, Massachusetts, June 24, 1871. 

Few data are available relating to Blake's personality. A study of the 
pedigree chart shows clearly, however, that success in the navy comes easily to 
this family. Blake's father was at the head of the legal profession in Worcester, 
Massachusetts; he had a brother who was surgeon in the navy. George S. Blake's 
mother was Elizabeth A. Chandler, of a distinguished conservative (Loyalist) 
family of Worcester county, of whom some were eccentric. A sister of George 



BLAKE. 



45 



Blake had a son, who assumed the name Charles Follen Blake, was lieutenant 
commander on the Brooklyn in the battle of Mobile Bay, and "fought his gun 
nobly and well," according to his captain. George Blake married a daughter of 
Commodore James Barren, and then- son, Francis Barren Blake, graduated from 
the United States Naval Academy, 1857, was active and gallant in naval under- 
takings of the Civil War, was made lieutenant commander in 1863, and resigned 
in 1870 to enter business. He was a banker in 1881. 



FAMILY HISTORY OF GEORGE SMITH BLAKE. 

II (M F F F), John Chandler (born New London, Connecticut, 1693), came of the most 
distinguished and influential family in Worcester county, Massachusetts, for nearly half a 
century. He was a surveyor and held many important town offices. I 2 (M F F M), Hannah 
Gardiner. 

II 1, Dorothy Paine. II 2 (M F F), John Chandler (born New London, Connecticut, 1720), 
held many town offices, and was judge of probate; a Loyalist who died in London in 1800. II 3 
(M F M), Mary Church. 114, Samuel Bancroft (born 1715), is referred to as a "wise coun- 
selor and an able speaker"; was selectman and representative. II 5, Lydia Parker, born 1716. 

Half Fraternity of M F: III 1, John Chandler (born 1742), was a successful merchant 
who in later life became melancholy and hanged himself. Ill 2, Gardiner Chandler, born and 
died 1743. Ill 3, Clark Chandler (1743-1804), was joint register of probate and was con- 
sidered odd. Ill 4, Dorothy Chandler (1745-1818). Ill 5 (M F), Gardiner Chandler (born 
1749), was a justice of the peace; a Loyalist. Ill 6 (M M), Elizabeth Ruggles. Fraternity of M F: 
III 7, Rufus Chandler (born 1747), after being graduated from Harvard College, became an 
influential lawyer; a Loyalist. Ill 8, Nathaniel Chandler (born 1750), also was graduated at 
Harvard and became a lawyer. As a Loyalist he commanded a volunteer corps. Ill 9, William 
Chandler (1752-1793), was graduated at Harvard; a Loyalist. Ill 10, Charles Chandler (born 
1755), a merchant. Ill 11, Samuel Chandler (1757-1813), was educated at Harvard; a manu- 
facturer; one of the committee to confer on the commercial treaty with Great Britain. Ill 12, 
Sarah (1758-1819), Mary (born 1759), and Elizabeth (1722-1820) Chandler. Ill 13, Benjamin 



n 




VI 



and Frances Chandler, drowned at an early age. Ill 14, Thomas Chandler, was graduated at 
Harvard and became a merchant. Ill 15, Lucretia Chandler (1765-1839), a woman of great 
conversational powers and ardent social feelings. Ill 6, Aaron Bancroft (born 1755), a pioneer 
Unitarian preacher. 

Fraternity of F: IV I, John Blake. IV 2, George Blake (born 1769), after having been 
graduated at Harvard College, took a high place in legal and political affairs. He was United 
States district attorney for Massachusetts, served in both houses of the State legislature, and 
was the first Democratic candidate for mayor of Boston. IV 3, Charles Blake, was educated at 
Harvard Medical School and became a surgeon in the navy and later in the army. He was 
wounded on board the Constitution. IV 4, Joshua Blake. IV 5 (F), Francis Blake, was gradu- 



46 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

ated from Harvard College in 1789. He rose to the head of the law profession in Worcester and 
became a member of the State senate: he died in 1817. IV 6 (M), Elizabeth Augusta Chandler. 
IV 7 (Consort's F), James Barren, of Virginia (1769-1851), came of well-known naval stock, and 
became a sailor in his youth. He was in command of the Chesapeake when she was boarded 
by officers from the Leopard (1807) and he was suspended from the navy for five years for setting 
out for sea unprepared. IV 9, George Bancroft (born 1800), was appointed secretary of the 
navy and was instrumental in establishing the Naval Academy at Annapolis; he also acted as 
secretary of war; was United States minister to England, to Prussia, and the German Empire. 
He is noted as a historian. IV 10, Henry Bancroft (1787-1817), was an East Indian captain 
and was in command of one of Commodore MacDonough's ships on Lake Champlain in 1814. 
IV 11, John Bancroft (1789-1821), an East Indian captain. IV 13, Thomas Bancroft (born 
1877), was a seafaring man. IV 14, Jane Putnam Bancroft (1798-1839). IV 15, Donati Gherardi, 
a teacher of Italian in the Round Hill School, Northampton, Massachusetts. IV 16, Charles 
Bancroft, born and died in 1805. 

Fraternity of Propositus: V 1, Francis Arthur Blake (1796-1814), was a graduate of 
Harvard College (1814). V 2, Juliana Blake. V 3, Charles C. Tucker. V 4, Joseph Gardiner 
Blake (born 1800). V 5, Charlotte Caldwell Blake (born 1804). V 6, Rev. Thomas R. Sulli- 
van. V 7, Elizabeth Blake (1806-1810). V 8, Dorothea Ward Blake. V 9, Oliver Hunter 
Blood. V 10 (Propositus) GEORGE SMITH BLAKE. V 11 (consort), Mary Allen Barren. V 12, 
Bancroft Gherardi (born 1832), rose to the rank of a rear admiral in the United States navy. 

VI 1, Charles Follen Blood, changed his name to C. F. Blake. After being graduated 
from the United States Naval Academy in 1861, he was appointed a lieutenant; and, in 1866, 
was lieutenant commander on the Brooklyn. Child of Propositus: VI 3, Francis Barren Blake 
(born 1837), was graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1857, and in 1861 was 
appointed a lieutenant on board the frigate Colorado. He helped destroy the privateer Judith, 
while she was moored at Pensacola under the guns of the navy yard. Later he was attached to 
the steamer Kennebec and was on her during her attempted passage of Forts St. Philip and Jackson, 
April 24, 1862. He rose to the rank of lieutenant commander in 1863, but resigned in 1870, when 
he became a banker. VI 4, Walter Gherardi, a lieutenant in the United States navy. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

BLAKE, F. 1871. Memoir of George Smith Blake. Cambridge University Press. 25 pp. 
CHANDLER, G. 1883. The Chandler family. Worcester: C. Hamilton, vi (2) 1315 pp. 
DWIGHT, B. 1874. The History of the Descendants of John Dwight. New York: J. Trow and 

Son. 2 vols. in 1. xxix + 1144 pp. 
SOMERBY, H. 1881. Record of Blakes of Somersetshire, especially in the line of William Blake 

of Dorchester, Massachusetts. Boston: Privately printed; 64 pp. 
STURGIS, MRS. E. 1904. Sketch of the Chandler Family in Worcester, Massachusetts. Worcester: 

Press of C. Hamilton. 33 pp. 



BLAKE. 47 

7. ROBERT BLAKE. 

ROBERT BLAKE was born at Bridgewater, in Somersetshire, September 1599. 
He was well educated and had a taste for literature. He entered Oxford at 
16 years of age, was assiduous in books, lectures, and devotions, and liked fishing 
and shooting. His course at the university was impaired by his reputation for 
Puritan leanings and by his short stature, against which one of the officials had 
a prejudice. At 27 his father died and Robert abandoned his scholarly ambitions 
to pay his father's debts. Having now become a pronounced Puritan, Blake ran 
for Parliament (1640), and when war broke out with the King's party, in 1642, 
he served with the parliamentary forces under Sir John Horner. He resisted Roy- 
alist forces in southwestern England and reentered Parliament from Taunton in 
1645. In 1649 he was appointed, with two others, to the command of the fleet. 
He fought three great campaigns. The first was against the royalist fleet under 
Prince Rupert. This fleet had entered the harbor of Kinsale, Ireland, and 
there Blake blockaded it. Reduced to desperation, Rupert's fleet tried, suc- 
cessfully, to break the blockade, and Blake followed it to the Tagus river and 
blockaded it there. Since the King of Portugal refused Blake's demand for per- 
mission to attack the enemy, Blake fell on the Portuguese merchant fleet return- 
ing from Brazil and captured seven ships as prizes, burning three. Prince Rupert's 
fleet, denied further refuge at the Tagus, fled to the Mediterranean, and here, in 
1650, near Cartagena, Blake destroyed the greater part of it. 

The second campaign began in 1652 with the declaration of war against the 
Dutch. In May Tromp's fleet of 45 ships met Blake's of 20 ships off Dover, and 
the Dutch, having lost 2 ships, withdrew at night. Blake captured a large part 
of the Dutch fishing fleet and drove off the Dutch fleet under De Ruyter and 
De Witt. Again the Dutch fleet appeared under Tromp, and this time Blake was 
defeated and forced to take refuge in the Thames. He fought against the Dutch 
fleet twice more, driving them off. 

The third campaign was in the south, against the Moors and the Spanish. 
The former were forced to cease their piratical attacks on the British, and when 
Tunis resisted its two fortresses were destroyed. Learning that the Plate fleet 
of Spain lay at anchor in the bay of Santa Cruz, Teneriffe, Blake proceeded there 
and reduced the castle and forts and burned the ships, losing only one of his own. 
The Spaniards declared that they had to fight against devils and not men. At this 
time a new principle was established, that naval vessels might be effective against 
castles and land fortifications. Blake died in 1657. 

Robert Blake was simple in tastes and habits, dignified and refined. A pure 
patriot, frank, generous, sincere, modest, magnanimous. He was blunt in speech 
and had a sense of humor. 

Robert Blake was one of a famous fraternity. Humphrey, born in 1600, 
was tried for nonconformity and fled to Carolina; later, he was in Robert's fleet, 
but the latter felt he did not do his duty at Teneriffe and sent him home in dis- 
grace. William, born in 1603, became a learned man, a doctor of laws of the Uni- 
versity of Padua. George became a goldsmith and banker. Samuel was a farmer, 
joined with his brothers in the English Civil War, and was killed; his son 
Robert served in his uncle's fleet. Nicholas, like his father and grandfather, 
engaged in Spanish trade. Benjamin went to sea and became captain in the navy. 
Alexander was probably farmer. 



48 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

The father of this fraternity was Humphrey Blake, who was a merchant 
engaged in Spanish trade. He used to go to sea on his own vessels and would 
eat and sleep on deck. He had many tales to tell his children of pirates. Although 
once rich, he lost much money in later life. His father, Robert Blake, was also 
a merchant in Spanish trade. He was thrice magistrate of his town of Bridgewater 
and left it by will 240 for the poor and for highways. 

In Robert Blake's fraternity some individuals are characterized by great 
learning, others by finance and thrift and mercantile life, others by domesticity, 
and others by nomadism and love of the sea. Robert was a scholar, but also a 
reformer and a fighter. Certain traits of refinement and dignity doubtless come 
from the paternal side. Lack of knowledge about the maternal side prevents us 
from deriving the origin of other traits. 

FAMILY HISTORY OF ROBERT BLAKE. 

II (F F) Robert Blake, a merchant in the 

Spanish trade, and thrice chief magistrate of FS-i-O PTrO 

Bridgewater. I 2 (F M), Margaret Symonds. 13 
(M F), Humphrey Williams, master of Plainfield, 
Somersetshire. 1! 

II 1 (F), Humphrey Blake, a merchant in 




the Spanish trade, who manned his own ships in I i 1 2 \a 4 [6 |e IT 18 19 JUoJi* 

the Moorish pirate days. II 2 (M), Sara Williams, m 3 D DrQ H Q 03 U 
an heiress. dy8 ' 4 

Fraternity of Propositus: III 1, Humphrey If 

Blake, at one time captain of a ship-of-war; non- IV Ll 

conformist. Ill 2, William Blake, a learned man. 

Ill 3, George Blake, a banker. Ill 5, Samuel Blake, a farmer and fighter. Ill 6, Nicholas 
Blake, in the Spanish trade. Ill 7, Edward, Benjamin, and John Blake. Ill 8, Benjamin 
Blake, a captain in the navy. Ill 9, Alexander Blake. Ill 11 (Propositus), ROBERT BLAKE. 

IV 1, Benjamin Blake, who had a taste for letters. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 
DIXON, H. 1852. Robert Blake, Admiral and General at Sea. London: Chapman and Hall. 



BRENTON. 49 

8. JAHLEEL BRENTON. 

JAHLEEL BRENTON was born August 22, 1770, in Rhode Island. He removed 
to England with his Loyalist father in 1780. In 1781 he embarked as midshipman 
in the armed Queen, of which his father was then commander, and in 1783-1785 
he spent two years in a maritime school at Chelsea. In March 1790 he passed 
his examination for lieutenant and, seeing no chance for active service in England, 
enlisted in the Swedish navy against the Russians in the gulf of Finland, return- 
ing to England in November of the same year. During the next ten years he won 
distinction in minor actions. His most brilliant success was fought with a flotilla 
of Franco-Neapolitan vessels outside of Naples in May 1801. Here he was severely 
wounded. Thenceforth, unable to bear sea service, he did shore service and took 
an active part in philanthropic work in association with his brother, Captain 
Edward P. Brenton, a writer on naval and military history. 

Thalassophilia is a family trait. The propositus went to sea at the age of 
11 years. His two brothers and their father were all naval officers, respectively 
lieutenant at the time when killed in action, captain, and rear admiral in the 
British navy. Jahleel's son Jervis "from his infancy expressed a wish to follow " 
his father's profession "and had appeared confirmed in the resolution"; he went 
to sea with his father at the age of 11 years; but this son died at 16 years. The 
propositus, after being wounded, explored (in 1817) the country to the north of 
the Knyzna, in South Africa. 

Brenton was a good administrator. With his brother Edward he organized 
a reformatory for juvenile delinquents. Their great-great-grandfather, William 
Brenton, was governor of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations (1666-1669). 
William Brenton's sons held important positions in the colony. 

There is evidently conservatism rather than radicalism; calmness under dis- 
appointment; capacity for enduring hardships; firmness and self-reliance. "His 
taste so refined, his manners so gentle, his kindness so constant, that much of what 
the world calls goodness seemed to grow up in him spontaneously and cost him 
nothing. He was amiable without an effort, benevolent without reflection, and 
habitually thinking more of others than himself." Such a man would naturally 
take an interest in reforms. Probably it was this same conservatism which was in 
his father and led him to refuse the proffers of high rank in the colonial navy and 
to abandon his property in America rather than his allegiance to his king. 

It appears that Jahleel was an artist also, and as a youth seriously con- 
sidered becoming a painter, especially of landscapes, for scenery always awakened 
an esthetic sense in him. 

FAMILY HISTORY OP SIR JAHLEEL BRENTON. 

II (F F F F), William Brenton, settled as a merchant in Boston in 1634, and was the 
following year chosen a deputy of the general court. Later he removed to Rhode Island, of 
which colony he was, in 1667-1668, governor. He died in 1674. 12 (F F F M), Mary Burton. 
13 (F M F F), John Cranston, born in England about 1620, came to Rhode Island and was 
appointed major and given command of the militia during King Philip's war. He served as 
deputy governor and, in 1678, was elected governor, serving till his death in 1680. I 4 (F M F M), 
Mary Clarke. I 5, Walter Clarke (1640-1714), was colonial governor of Rhode Island in 1676- 
1677, 1686, 1696-1698, and frequently acted as deputy governor. 

Fraternity of F F F: II 1, Sarah Brenton. II 2, Joseph Eliot (see Foote family). II 3, 
Ebenezer Brenton. II 4, Jahleel Brenton, collector, surveyor, and searcher of the customs 
within the colonies of New England. II 6 (F F F), William Brenton. II 7 (F F M), Martha 



50 



HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 



Church. II 8 (F M F), Samuel Cranston (1659-1727), after his marriage went to sea and was 
captured by pirates. He held the military office of major for the islands of the colony and in 
1698 succeeded his uncle as governor, remaining in office till his death. With him "the Quaker 
regime went out and that of 'the world' came in." 

Fraternity of F F: III 1, Ebenezer and Benjamin Brenton. Ill 2 (F F), Jahleel Brenton. 
Ill 3 (F M), Frances Cranston. Ill 4 (M F), Joseph Cowley, formerly of England. Ill 5 
(M M), Penelope Pelham. 

IV 3 (F), Jahleel Brenton (1729-1802), very early in life entered the navy, and at the 
outbreak of the Revolution, although he was but a lieutenant, he was offered the highest naval 
rank that the Congress could give. But he left Rhode Island secretly and joined his majesty's 
forces, rising to the rank of admiral. IV 4 (M), Henrietta Cowley. IV 5, James Brenton (a rela- 
tive), a judge of Halifax, Nova Scotia. 




Fraternity of Propositus: V 3, Edward Pelham Brenton (1774-1839), foUowed the sea 
and held the rank of captain in the Royal Navy. In later years he was much interested in 
establishing a reformatory for juvenile delinquents; he was author of a naval history of Great 
Britain. V 4, James Wallis Brenton, was in the British navy and was killed in action when 
first lieutenant of H. M. S. Petrel, in command of a boat expedition in chase of an enemy's vessel 
near Barcelona. V 5 (first consort), Isabella Stewart, of Annapolis, Maryland (1771-1817). 
V 6 (Propositus) SIR JAHLEEL BRENTON. V 7 (second consort), Harriet Brenton. 

Children of Propositus: VI 1, John Jervis Brenton (1803-1817), accompanied his father 
upon a voyage in 1812 as "he had from infancy expressed a wish to follow his father's profes- 
sion." VI 2, Isabella Brenton, born 1806. VI 3, Sir Launcelot Charles Lee Brenton (born 1808), 
was a landsman; he bad no artistic taste; was a nonconformist, a scholar, and a critic. He 
edited his father's "Life." VI 4, Harriet Mary Brenton, born 1823. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

RAIKES, H. 1860. Memoir of Vice-Admiral Sir Jahleel Brenton. Ed. by C. Brenton. London: 

Longman and Co. cxxxv + 521 pp. 
BRENTON, E. P. 1825. The Naval History of Great Britain. London: C. Rice. 5 vols. 



BROWN. 51 

9. MOSES BROWN. 

MOSES BROWN was born at Salisbury, Massachusetts, January 23, 1742. 
He received a limited education and at 15 years of age was apprenticed to 
Captain William Coffin, of a merchant vessel. Thereafter his life was, he says, 
"a single, continuous, uninterrupted voyage." In his second year at sea Captain 
Coffin intrusted him to sell Coffin's schooner Sea Flower in the West Indies, and the 
next year the Sea Nymph at St. Christopher's. During 1761, in the schooner 
Phoebe, he fought two French privateers and was shot in the arm. He continued 
his mercantile voyages until the outbreak of the Revolutionary war, when, being 
found in Venice, he made a pretended sale of his ship, loaded her with currants 
for London, and sold her there for 800. Sailing for the Dutch West Indies, he 
made his way eventually to Philadelphia and overland to New York, where he 
offered his services to the navy. He sailed for the West Indies in April 1777, in 
command of the brig Hannah, but he was captured by the British and put in a 
prison-ship in Rhode Island. After being exchanged, he was given command (in 
August 1777) of the cruiser General Arnold. He had various adventures. His 
crew conspired to kill him and take the ship to Halifax, but failed. In trying out 
the guns one burst and killed and injured several men. He fought against the British 
ship Gregson, of double his strength. The English lost 18 men in the battle, but 
the ship got away. On May 20 the English privateer Nanny was sunk by him 
and her captain sent to Cadiz, while Brown escaped in sight of eight British ships- 
of-the-line and frigates. Next he captured the George, but she was recaptured by 
the British, and a little later the General Arnold was captured by the English ship 
Experiment, 50. guns, and Captain Brown was placed aboard a prison-ship at 
Savannah, Georgia, from which he was exchanged in November. From 1780 
to 1783 he commanded the privateer Intrepid and was instructed to bring dry goods 
from France, which he did. For the following fifteen years he was captain of 
various merchant craft. Owing to an extension of privateering, a national navy 
was established, and when the merchants of Newburyport built the Merrimac for 
the government, Captain Brown was placed in command of her and during the 
next three years captured four French vessels. Upon his inauguration Jefferson 
disposed of nearly half of the vessels of the navy, including the Merrimac, and 
Brown returned to merchant ships. He died of apoplexy at sea in 1804. 

Brown was first of all a born sailor a lover of the sea and doubtless a 
nomad. He was 47 years at sea and made 65 voyages, some of them two years long. 
He married Sarah Coffin, of Newburyport, doubtless of maritime stock, and his 
sons William and Joseph both made sea voyages. His son Moses (like William) 
was lost at sea. 

Brown was a brave fighter, like his father who was in the French War. His 
courage is evinced in the anecdote that while a prisoner on the English ship Experi- 
ment he toasted George Washington. He was quietly religious like his mother 
(Dorothy Pike), was fond of children and enjoyed telling stories to them. He 
was known to his crew as "Gentleman Brown"; he maintained good discipline 
and had a good feeling for his crew; was averse to flogging and kept his ship 
neat and his men temperate. 



52 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

FAMILY HISTORY OF MOSES BROWN. 

I 1 (F F), Edward Brown, died in 1737, aged 57. I 2 (F M), Sarah, died in 1737, aged 
60 years. I 3 (M F), Timothy Pike, of Newbury, Massachusetts. 

II 1 (F), Edward Brown (1707-1775), followed the trade of cooper in Salisbury; later he 
was deputy sheriff and had care of the prison in Newbury. During the French War he was a 
captain. II 2 (M), Dorothy Pike (1710-1790). 

Fraternity of Propositus: III 1, Sarah Brown (1732-1817), was a pleasant, kind, amiable, 
and religious woman. Ill 2, Dorothy Brown (1733-1770). Ill 3, Susanna Brown (1735-1805), 
had a taste for reading; was of kindly disposition but somewhat depressed before her death. 
Ill 4, Edward Brown (1737-1815), followed the sea as a cooper from early life. In the old 
French War he was made a prisoner and confined on a prison-ship in the West Indies. From the 
age of 20 he suffered from a sort of chorea. He also exhibited marked phobias and was very 
punctilious as to certain trivial or senseless performances. He was regarded as "bewitched." 
Ill 5, Esther Brown (1740-1824). Ill 6, Elizabeth Brown (1743-1791), a nurse. Ill 7, Mary 
Brown (1745-1746). Ill 8, Anne Greenough, died 1774. Ill 9, Nicholas Brown (1747-1819). 
Ill 10, Lucy Lamprey (born 1760). Ill 11, Mary Brown (1750-1834). Ill 12 (Propositus) 
MOSES BROWN. Ill 13 (consort), Sarah Coffin, of Newburyport. 

i 2 3 _4 

I DrO DyO 



n 




HI 



IV 1, Edward Brown (1771-1819), was a cooper and employed in the West India trade. 
Later he was a ferryman; then, inspector of provisions. IV 2, Ann Greenough Brown (born 
1773). IV 3, Moses Brown, born 1778 and lost at sea, 1818. IV 4, Anne Brown, born 1782. 
IV 5, Alexander McCulloch, a sailing-master of the United States navy. IV 6, Abigail Brown 
(born 1788). IV 7, Eliphalet Woodbury, a seaman. IV 8, Nathan Brown (born 1795), a ship- 
master. IV 9, Lucy Brown, born 1792. IV 10, Lawrence Brown (1790-1824), a shipmaster who 
died at sea. IV 11, Ruth Brown (1799-1807). IV 12, Dorothy Brown, born 1797. IV 13, John 
Brown (1802-1825), a shipmaster, lost at sea. IV 14, Nicholas Brown (born 1784), a shipmaster. 
Children of Propositus: IV 15, William Brown, became a shipmaster and was lost at sea in 1799. 
IV 16, Moses Brown, a shipmaster who was drowned in 1797. IV 17, Joseph Brown (born 
1774), went on his first voyage as a cooper, sailing with his father to South America in 1794. 
IV 18, James Brown. IV 19, Sarah Brown. IV 20, David Reed. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

MACLAY, E. S. 1904. Moses Brown, captain United States navy. New York: The Baker and 

Taylor Co. 220 pp. 
TENNEY, S. 1913. Genealogical Data concerning the family of Captain Edward Brown of 

Newbury, Massachusetts. Millis, Massachusetts: W. Tenney. 3 pp. 



BUCHANAN. 53 

10. FRANKLIN BUCHANAN. 

FRANKLIN BUCHANAN was born at Baltimore, Maryland, September 17, 
1800. He was appointed midshipman in the navy January 1815, lieutenant in 
1825, and master commandant in 1841. He organized and was the first super- 
intendent of the Naval Academy at Annapolis, serving until 1847; he participated 
in the capture of Vera Cruz and commanded the Susquehanna, flagship of Perry's 
fleet, on the expedition to Japan. Made captain in 1855, he was assigned to the 
command of the navy yard at Washington in 1859. In April 1861, believing that 
Maryland was about to secede, he resigned, but when he found that the State 
was to remain in the Union he desired to withdraw his resignation, but was not 
reinstated. So, in September 1861, he entered the Confederate navy as captain. 
He superintended the construction of the ram Merrimac and commanded her in 
her destructive work in Hampton Roads, but, as he was wounded, he could not 
command her against the Monitor, a few days later. In 1863 he was given 
command of the naval defenses of Mobile and built the ram Tennessee. He com- 
manded her against Farragut's fleet, August 5, 1864, was compelled to surrender 
and was taken prisoner. After the war he was president of the Maryland Agri- 
cultural College and agent for a life-insurance company. He died in 1874. 

Of his fraternity there is McKean Buchanan, who, after two years at the 
University of Pennsylvania, went into mercantile life, became a warrant clerk 
in the Navy Department, and in 1826 was commissioned purser (later paymaster) 
in the navy. He was in the first American man-of-war that cruised around the 
world ; seven times he rounded Cape Horn and once went around the Cape of Good 
Hope. He gained the rank of commodore. He was very agreeable, prompt, 
accurate, and responsible. Another brother, George, was a farmer all his life; 
he married Sarah G. Miles, daughter of Evan Miles, and both of their sons, who 
grew up, were killed in action during the Civil War; one as captain in the army 
and one as a lieutenant commander on the Mississippi. A sister, Mary Ann, born 
in 1792, married Edward J. Coale, in the diplomatic service, and one of their 
sons was assistant surgeon in the navy. 

Franklin Buchanan married Ann Lloyd, daughter of Governor Edward 
Lloyd of Maryland, a gentleman of wealth. Buchanan's only son, Franklin 
(born in 1827), was the largest rice-broker in Savannah. The latter's sister, Eliza- 
beth, had a son, Franklin Buchanan Sullivan, born in 1871, who was appointed a 
naval cadet at large and was the youngest member of his class at Annapolis, being 
under 15 years of age on admission. 

Franklin Buchanan's father was George Buchanan, a physician, whose father 
was a brigadier general of the Maryland troops. Franklin's mother was a 
daughter of Thomas McKean, one of the original revolutionists of Delaware, who, 
with two others, drew up the address to the House of Commons and boldly 
denounced the chairman when he refused to sign it. He was active on commit- 
tees, promoted the Declaration of Independence, and signed it. Then he led a 
force, of which he was colonel, to General Washington at Perth Amboy, New 
Jersey, and took part in several skirmishes. Returning, he framed a constitution 
for Delaware in a single night and under it became president of the State in 1777. 
From 1777 to 1799 he was chief justice of Pennsylvania and from 1799 to 1808 
was governor of that State. He died in 1817. Letitia McKean's mother's father, 
Joseph Borden (born in 1719), was not less notable. He was a member of the 
first revolutionary convention that met at New Brunswick, July 1774, and was 
active in the inner circles until war broke out, when he became a colonel of the 



54 



HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 



Burlington militia and fought in most of the battles on New Jersey soil. His son 
Joseph was a gallant cavalryman and quartermaster in the Revolutionary war. 
Another daughter of Thomas McKean (besides Letitia) was Anne, who married 
Andrew Buchanan, brother of Franklin Buchanan's father. They had a son, 
Thomas McKean Buchanan, who became a lieutenant in the navy in 1827. He 
had a sister, Anne, who married Colonel Richard Wade and had a son, Robert 
Buchanan Wade, a captain in the United States army and professor of military 
science in Missouri State College. A son of Thomas McKean, the signer, was 
Joseph Borden McKean, who became an associate judge of the district court of 
Philadelphia, and had a son, William Wister McKean, who became a commodore 
in command of a part of the Gulf Squadron. 

Thus Franklin Buchanan's family abounded in administrative, legislative, 
and fighting capacities, and in an attachment to the sea. 

FAMILY HISTORY OF FRANKLIN BUCHANAN. 

II (F F F) George Buchanan, born in Scotland about 1680; in 1723 came to Maryland, 
where he practiced medicine. In 1729 he was one of the commissioners to lay out the city of 
Baltimore; in 1749 he was elected a member of the general assembly of Maryland. I 2 (F F M), 
Eleanor Rogers, daughter of Nicholas Rogers. I 3 (M M F), Joseph Borden (1719-1791), in 1765 



YMrMfc)" fflO 




v oa'choa' 

j 

VI 



assumed entire control of the stage and boat line between Philadelphia and New York. He was 
a member of the committee of correspondence and, in February 1775, one of the committee of 
observation; a member of the Provincial Congress that met in Trenton; one of the committee of 
safety; was also a judge of the court of common pleas. He was a colonel of the First regiment 
of Burlington (New Jersey) militia and in 1776 was appointed quartermaster. I 4 (M M M), 
Elizabeth Watson (died 1807, aged 81 years), was the daughter of Marmaduke Watson. 

II 1 (F F), Andrew Buchanan (1734-1786), a justice, became, in 1776, brigadier general of 
the Maryland state troops. He was also a member of the committee of correspondence in 1774 
and of the committee of observation in 1775. II 2 (F M), Susan Lawson. II 3 (M F), Thomas 
McKean, of Scotch-Irish ancestry, was born in Chester county, Pennsylvania, in 1734. He be- 
came speaker of the general assembly of Delaware. He was a member of the Stamp Act Congress 
of 1765 and a member of the Continental Congress from 1774 to 1783, and signed the Declara- 
tion of Independence. II 4, Mary Borden. Fraternity of M M: II 5, Joseph Borden (1755-1788) 
was an ardent patriot who raised and commanded the Burlington (New Jersey) troop of light 
horse; he was also quartermaster of the militia. II 6, Ann Borden. II 7, Francis Hopkinson 
(1737-1791), a well-known statesman and jurist who signed the Declaration of Independence 
and was judge of the admiralty for Pennsylvania. 

III 1 (consort's F), Edward Lloyd (1779-1834), governor of Maryland. Ill 2 (consort's M), 
Sallie Scott Murray. Ill 3 (M), Letitia McKean (1769-1845). Ill 4 (F), George Buchanan 
(1763-1808), took his medical degree in Philadelphia and practiced. Fraternity of F: III 5, 
Andrew Buchanan. Fraternity of M : III 6, Anne McKean (born in 1773). Ill 7, Robert McKean 



BUCHANAN. 55 

(born 1766), a merchant in Philadelphia. Ill 8, Elizabeth McKean (born 1767). Ill 9, Mary 
McKean (born and died 1781). Ill 10, Joseph Borden McKean (1764-1845), a judge. Ill 11, 
Hannah Miles. Ill 12, Joseph Hopkinson (1770-1842), a prominent jurist of Philadelphia who 
is better remembered as the author of "Hail Columbia." Ill 13, Emily Mifflin, of Philadelphia. 

IV 1 (consort), Ann Lloyd. IV 2 (Propositus) , FRANKLIN BUCHANAN. Fraternity of 
Propositus: IV 3, Susanna Buchanan (1790-1795). IV 4, Thomas (born 1791) and Andrew 
Buchanan (1794-1796). IV 5, Rebecca Susan Buchanan (born 1793). IV 6, Mary Ann Bu- 
chanan (1792-1866). IV 7, Edward J. Coale, a lawyer who became consular agent of Russia for 
Maryland and vice consul of Brazil. IV 8, George Buchanan (born at Baltimore, 1796), after 
being graduated from the University of Pennsylvania, turned to agricultural pursuits. IV 9, 
Sarah G. Miles (1806-1844), daughter of Evan Miles. IV 10, McKean Buchanan (1798-1871), 
became pay director of the navy of the United States, with the rank of commodore. IV 11, 
F. Selina Roberdeau. IV 12, Susan (born 1798) and Mary Buchanan (born 1800). IV 13, 
Thomas McKean Buchanan (born 1802), was appointed a midshipman in the United States navy 
in 1818 and became a lieutenant in 1827; died unmarried. IV 14, Anne McKean Buchanan 
(born 1803). IV 15, Colonel Richard Wade, United States army. IV 16, Mary (born 1787), 
Catherine (born 1788), Elizabeth (born 1794), Ann (1796-1800), Letitia (1798-1800), Letitia 
(born 1802), Caroline (born 1805), and Adeline McKean (born 1809). IV 17, Thomas McKean 
(1791-1792). IV 18, Samuel McKean (born 1789), after being graduated from the University 
of Pennsylvania, became a clerk in the treasury department. IV 19, Joseph McKean (born 
1792), a lawyer. IV 20, William Wister McKean (1800-1865), was appointed a midshipman in 
1814; in 1821-1822 he was in command of the schooner Alligator in Porter's squadron and was 
active in suppressing piracy in the West Indies. In 1861 he had command of the Gulf squadron 
as flag officer. As commodore he was placed on the retired list in 1862. IV 21, Davis Rosa 
Clark, born 1806. IV 22, Thomas Mifflin, Francis (died 1870), George, James, and Joseph 
Hopkinson. IV 23, James and John Joseph Hopkinson. IV 24, Elizabeth and Emily Hopkin- 
son. IV 25, Alexander Hamilton Hopkinson, entered the United States navy and died in 
1827 in the Mediterranean. IV 26, Oliver Hopkinson, was a lieutenant colonel of the First 
Regiment Infantry, Delaware Volunteers, in the Civil War. IV 27, Edward C. Hopkinson, a 
midshipman in the United States navy, was killed when 17 years of age. 

Children of Propositus: V 1, Sally Lloyd (born 1835), Letitia (born 1837), Alice L. (born 
1839), Rosa (born 1840), and Ellen (born 1841) Buchanan. V 2, Nannie Buchanan (born 1841). 
V 3, Lieut. Julius Meiere, of the United States Marine Corps. V 4, Elizabeth Buchanan (born 
1845). V 5, Felix R. Sullivan, an insurance agent. V 6, Franklin Buchanan (born 1847), was 
the largest rice broker in Savannah. V 9, William E. Coale, became an assistant surgeon in the 
navy in 1837. V 10, Evan Miles Buchanan (1834-1864), was educated as a civil engineer. In 
1860 he accepted the position of captain's clerk offered him by his relative, Commodore McKean. 
On the outbreak of the war he was appointed military secretary to General McCleilan. He was 
captain and commissary of subsistence, United States army, in March 1862, and then chief com- 
missary of Third Division, Third Army Corps. In 1864 he was captured by guerillas and shot. 
V 11, Letitia (born 1835) and Mary (born 1844) Buchanan. V 12, Thomas McKean Buchanan 
(1837-1863), was graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1855; rose to the rank 
of lieutenant commander in the navy of the United States, and was killed in action. V 13, 
George (1839-1859) and John Buchanan (1841-1842). V 14, Roberdeau Buchanan (born 1839), 
mathematician at the Nautical Almanac Office, United States Naval Observatory; a genealogist. 
V 15, Robert Buchanan Wade (born 1844), was appointed a cadet in July 1861 and rose to the 
rank of captain. He became professor of military science in Missouri State College, Columbia, 
Missouri. V 16, Mary and Elizabeth McKean. V 17, Joseph Borden McKean (born 1827), 
a farmer in Virginia. V 18, Franklin Buchanan McKean (1830-1853), entered the navy as 
a midshipman in September 1845, but resigned, May 1847. V 19, Caroline, Elizabeth (born 
1836), Catherine, Mary (born 1843), Rosa, and Adeline McKean. V 20, William Buchanan 
McKean (born 1840), was commissioned in the United States Marine Corps in 1861 and was 
promoted to captain in 1869. V 21, Samuel McKean, a farmer. 

Children of children of Propositus: VI 1, Franklin Buchanan Sullivan (born 1871). VI 2, 
Mary and Nannie Sullivan. VI 3, Felix Sullivan (born 1874). 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

MCKEAN, C. 1902. McKean Genealogies. Des Moines: Kenyon Printing & Mfg. Co. 213pp. 
SCHARF, J. 1874. The Chronicles of Baltimore. Baltimore: Turnbull Bros. viii + 756pp. 
WOODWARD, E., and J. HAGEMAN. 1883. History of Burlington and Mercer Counties, New 
Jersey. Philadelphia: Everts and Peck. 888 pp. 



56 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

11. THOMAS COCHRANE. 

THOMAS COCHRANE (tenth Earl of Dundonald) was born at Annsfield, in 
Lanarkshire, December 14, 1775. Provided with a commission, he entered the 
infantry service, although he had been put on the books of a man-of-war while 
still a boy. He disliked military life and in 1793 went to sea in the ship of which 
his father's brother was captain. He became a lieutenant in 1796 and was court- 
martialed on account of a quarrel with a superior officer. Placed in command of 
a brig in 1800, "he gained a great and deserved reputation as a daring and skillful 
officer." He captured a Spanish frigate in 1801, by an act of unparalleled audacity. 
Having secured an election to Parliament, "he soon made his mark as a radical 
and as a denouncer of naval abuses." Engaged in an attack on the French squad- 
ron, April 1809, under Lord Gambier, his own work was brilliant, but he brought 
on a court-martial of the admiral which led to nothing but his own discomfiture. 
Meanwhile, he plunged into politics and speculations on the stock exchange and 
was dragged down by the peculations of an uncle and imprisoned. In 1817, on 
the invitation of the Chilean government, he commanded its naval forces against 
Spain and captured a Spanish frigate by an act of daring. In 1823 he helped 
Brazil in similar fashion to independence, but by 1825 he had fallen out with the 
Brazilians and returned to Europe. He then helped the Greeks for a time in their 
struggles with the Turks. Except for a command of three years at North American 
and West Indian stations (1848 to 1851) and certain relations with the Crimean 
War, he spent the last twenty-five years of his life in experiments and invention. 
He took out patents for lamps to burn oil of tar (his father was a pioneer inventor 
in the field of illuminating gas), for the propulsion of ships at sea, for facilitating 
excavation, mining, and sinking, and for rotary steam-engines. By 1843 he was 
advocating the use of steam and the screw propeller in warships. He died in 
October 1860, and was buried in Westminister Abbey. 

Lord Dundonald was a hyperkinetic. He possessed abnormal restlessness, 
insatiable energy, and "a passionate though unconscious egotism." He was 
always self-assertive, frequently insolent to his superiors, daring as a naval officer, 
"saturated with the sense of his superiority, impatient of all control." "Never 
was a man more emphatically a man of action. Action was the breath of his 
nostrils. Give him an enemy to overcome and he was in his element; force him 
to concentrate his whole activity on that enemy and he was safe." "His whole 
life was made up of a series of quarrels." "To his combative nature, rejoicing in 
its strength, a new enemy can hardly be said to have been unwelcome." 

This hyperkinesis is also shown in his father, who entered the army at the 
age of 16, but turned to the navy and became acting lieutenant. Ever restless, 
he left the navy and turned to physical and chemical experimentation, but in this 
he showed lack of balance. He established manufactories where the result of his 
researches could be practically applied, but, as these failed to bring a return, he 
plunged deeper and deeper into his manufacturing speculations. This father 
had a brother who was a colonel in the army, but threw up the service in disgust 
and became a member of Parliament. The father's father and father's father's 
father of the propositus were military men, but details as to their temperament 
and that of their consorts are lacking. One generation further back is John 
Cochrane, who was implicated in the Rye House plot in 1683, and was compelled 
to flee for his life to Holland. Two years later he returned to enter into the 
insurrection of Argyll. He was always turbulent and dissatisfied. 



COCHRANE. 



57 



Dundonald had great inventive capacity, like his father; but, like him, too, 
he did not have pertinacity enough to follow up and improve upon his inventions. 
He was suspicious by nature. This was the basis of most of his quarrels. As 
he grew older this grew into a veritable paranoia; he maintained that he had been 
shamefully ill-treated by his son. "So loudly and openly did he complain of these 
imaginary injuries that Cochrane [his son] was compelled to contradict his state- 
ments by advertisements in the newspapers." The earl's autobiography is largely 
the story of a grievance. 



n 



81 3_L 4 I 6 I 6 _7_l_8_l 8 110 I U 




IX 



X 



FAMILY HISTORY OF THOMAS COCHRANE, EARL DUNDONALD. 



II (FFFFFF), Alexander Blair, took the name of Cochrane. I2(FFFFFM), 
Elizabeth Cochrane. 

Fraternity of F F F F F: II 1, Sir John Cochrane, a colonel in the army of Charles I. II 3. 
Four other Cochranes were fighting men in the service of Charles I. II 5 (F F F F F), Sir Wil- 
liam Cochrane, first Earl Dundonald. II 6 (F F F F M), Eupheme Scott. 

Fraternity of F F F F: III 1, William, Lord Cochrane. Ill 2 (F F F F), Sir John Coch- 
rane, in 1683 was implicated in the Rye House plot and was compelled to flee to Holland; two 
years later he returned to enter into the insurrection of Argyll, and was ordered to be hanged, 
but his father secured his release. Ill 2 (FFFM), Margaret Strickland. 

IV 1 (F F F), William Cochrane. IV 2 (F F M), Lady Mary Bruce. 

V 3 (F F), Thomas Cochrane, eighth Earl of Dundonald (died 1778), entered the army 
early, but retired with the rank of major. V 4 (F M), Jane Stuart (died 1808). V 5, Captain 
James Gilchrist, of the Royal Navy. 

Fraternity of F: VI 2, Charles Cochrane (1749-1781), a colonel in the army and aide-de 
camp to Lord Cornwallis, was killed at Yorktown in 1781. VI 3, John Cochrane, deputy com- 
missioner to the forces in North America. VI 4, James Cochrane (1751-1823), vicar of Mans- 
field. VI 5, Basil Cochrane (1753-1826), a civil servant of the East India Company. VI 6, 
Sir Alexander Forrester Cochrane (1758-1832), a distinguished admiral of the blue. VI 7, Maria 
Shaw. VI 8, George Augustus Cochrane (born 1762), a lieutenant colonel in the army. VI 9, 



58 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

Andrew Cochrane-Johnstone (1767-1834), a colonel in the army; became a member of Parlia- 
ment. VI 10, Elizabeth Cochrane. VI 11 (F), Archibald Cochrane, ninth Earl of Dundonald 
(1748-1831), at 16 years of age a cornet in the Third Dragoons, later turned to the navy, but 
grew weary of this life, for his bent "lay towards natural science." VI 12, Anne Gilchrist. 

VII 1, John E. Cornwallis Rous, second Earl of Stradbroke (1794-1886), served in the army 
with distinction, winning a medal with five clasps. VII 2, Augusta Musgrave. VII 3, Charles 
and Andrew Cochrane. VII 4, Sir Thomas John Cochrane (1789-1872), G. C. B. and admiral 
of the fleet. VII 5, Rosetta Cuffe. VII 6, Anna Maria and Jane Cochrane. Fraternity of 
Propositus: VII 7, Basil Cochrane (died 1816), a lieutenant colonel in the army. VII 8, William 
Erskine Cochrane (died 1871), a major, Fifteenth Hussars; served in Peninsular war. VII 9, 
Mary Anne Manson. VII 10, Edward Fitzgerald, a lieutenant colonel. VII 12, Archibald 
Cochrane (1783-1829), a captain of the Royal Navy. VII 13, Hannah Jane Mowbray. VII 
14 (Propositus), THOMAS COCHRANE, tenth Earl of Dundonald. VII 15 (consort), Katherine 
Frances Corbet Barnes. 

VIII 1, George Edward Rous, third Earl of Stradbroke (born 1862), vice admiral of Suffolk. 
VIII 3, Adela Rous. VIII 4, Sir Thomas Belhaven Cochrane (born 1856), admiral of the fleet. 
VIII 5, Francis Arthur Charles Cochrane. VIII 6, Rosetta and Annette Cochrane. VIII 7, 
William Marshall Cochrane (1817-1898), a colonel in the army. VIII 8, Mary Hussey. VIII 
9, John Owen, captain Royal Navy. VIII 11, Sally C. Fitzgerald. VIII 12, Basil Edward 
Arthur Cochrane (1817-1895). VIII 13, Robert Cochrane (1816-1907). VIII 14, Archibald 
H. (1819-1907), and Arthur (born 1826) Cochrane. Children of Propositus: VIII 16, Thomas 
Cochrane, eleventh Earl of Dundonald (1814-1885), a captain in the army. VIII 17, Louisa 
Mackinnon. VIII 18, William Horatio Cochrane (1818-1900), in the army. VIII 1 >, Sir 
Arthur A. L. P. Cochrane (1824-1905), an admiral of the Royal Navy who distinguished himself 
at Acre; commanded the Niger, and was wounded at the destruction of the Chinese fleet, 1857. 
VIII 20, Ernest Grey L. Cochrane (born 1834), a captain of the Royal Navy, retired and became 
high sheriff of Donegal. VIII 21, Elizabeth K. Cochrane (died 1868). VIII 22, George Boyle, 
sixth Earl of Glasgow (1825-1890), Lord Clerk Register of Scotland. VIII 23, Hon. Montagu 
Cromby. 

IX 1, Thomas B. H. Cochrane (born 1856), a lieutenant of the Royal Navy. IX 2, William 
Francis Cochrane (born 1847), a colonel in the army. IX 3, Thomas Erskine Cochrane (1849- 
1906), a commander of the Royal Navy. IX 4, John Palmer Cochrane (born 1852), a captain 
in the army. IX 5, Arthur H. D. Cochrane (born 1856). IX 6, Caroline Katherine and Edith 
Hamilton Cochrane. IX 7, Cornelia Ramsay Owen. IX 8, Basil Edward Cochrane (born 
1841), a vice admiral of the Royal Navy. Children's children of Propositus: IX 12, Douglas 
Mackinnon Baillie Hamilton Cochrane, twelfth Earl of Dundonald (born 1852), a distinguished 
cavalry officer who became a lieutenant general in 1907. IX 14, Thomas Horatio A. E. Cochrane 
(born 1857), served in the army in South Africa; was under secretary of state for the home depart- 
ment. IX 15, Lady Gertrude Boyle. 

X 1, Archibald Cochrane (born 1874), a commander of the Royal Navy. X 2, Edward 
Owen Cochrane (born 1881), a lieutenant of the Royal Navy. X 3, Grizel and Gwervyl Cochrane. 
Children's children's children of Propositus: X 4, Thomas George, Ralph Alexander, and Roger 
Cochrane. X 5, Archibald Douglas Cochrane (born 1885), a lieutenant of the Royal Navy. 
X 6, Louisa, Marjorie, Katherine, and Dorothy Cochrane. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

BURKE, SIR B., and A. 1909. A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Peerage and Baronet- 
age. London: Harrison and Son. 2570 pp. 
FORTESCUE, J. 1895. Dundonald. London: Macmillan & Co. ix + 227 pp. 



COLLINGWOOD. 59 

12. CUTHBERT COLLINGWOOD. 

CUTHBERT COLLINGWOOD (Lord Collingwood), was born at Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
in September 1750. He was put on board the Shannon at the age of 11 years, 
under command of an uncle, Captain (after Admiral) Brathwaite. He gained his 
lieutenancy in the naval brigade at Boston, 1775, and four years later was made 
commander. From the age of 32 he was associated with Nelson until the latter's 
death, and frequently succeeded the older man when promotions occurred. In 
1783 he, with Nelson, commanded at the West Indies to prevent the United States 
from trading there. As captain of the Barfleur he displayed judgment and courage 
in the naval battle of June 1, 1794, and on February 14, 1797, under Sir John 
Jervis, he assisted in defeating the Spanish fleet off Cape St. Vincent, and gained 
great fame in the battle by his vigorous support of Nelson at a time when the 
latter was suffering for his bold but hazardous stroke. As vice admiral he was 
sent in 1799 to watch the naval forces of France and Spain in the Mediterranean, 
and in 1803 he watched the French fleet off Brest and later at Cadiz. It was off 
the latter port that the battle of Trafalgar was fought, and here, as leader of the 
first attacking column, while Nelson led the second, Collingwood showed consum- 
mate valor and skill while his great flagship was shot almost to pieces. Trafalgar 
was won, but Nelson was killed and Collingwood took his place. He was raised to 
the peerage. He fought no more naval battles, but was constantly employed in 
cruises that involved good sense and political sagacity until he died at sea, 1810. 

Collingwood was of the hypokinetic type. His father was a merchant who 
was rather ineffective. As a lad Collingwood was diligent at school, was fond of 
books, and exhibited then, as he always retained, the art of writing with a "polish, 
a sweetness of language and archness of humor, very close to some of the happiest 
compositions of Addison." At school he was a mild boy and showed no brilliant 
talents. He was reserved from boyhood; he was considered cold in his bearing, 
rather inaccessible, firm, and resolute. He lacked Nelson's sociable qualities. 
He would have silent moods when he would not speak a word for a day. However, 
at times he showed temper; but he was never known to swear or otherwise forget 
himself in his anger. 

Collingwood's great strength lay in his thoroughness, good judgment, attach- 
ment to reality, self-reliance, and pertinacity. His thoroughness and good judg- 
ment made him invaluable in blockade and in watching the enemy's ships. "He 
deliberated carefully, weighing every contingency which his sagacity and fore- 
thought presented to him, and never overlooked anything of importance which it 
was possible for him to foresee." " His decisions were . . . reached by thoughtful 
processes. . . . His resolutions formed, they were as good as accomplished; he 
dispensed with self-questionings, and never flinched a hair's breadth from carry- 
ing them out." "His resolution was adamant; so that whoever came into close 
opposition to it must give way or be crushed. . . . His determination to be 
obeyed was absolute; disobedience meant destruction. Yet he rarely flogged, but 
preferred as punishment watering the grog and extra duty." He was always 
perfectly dignified in his deportment and constantly attended to his religious 
duties. Yet he was not without features of the hyperkinetic ; was fond of society, 
joked in a quiet way, mostly by puns, and interspersed his conversation with 
humorous remarks and anecdotes. In the battle of Trafalgar his flagship pene- 
trated into the very center of the enemy's fleet and almost alone finished the Santa 



60 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

Anna, the flagship of the Spanish Admiral Alava; but he showed in this battle 
rather the devotion to duty and pertinacity of the solid, unexcitable sort. 

There is no evidence that Collingwood had a special longing for the sea. 
Constantly he regrets that he can not return to his home. During his brief sojourn 
on land he made historical studies and educated his two daughters. He had a 
brother, Wilfred Collingwood, captain of the Rattler in the West Indian service, 
who died prematurely, and of whom the Duke of Clarence (later William IV) said : 
"his majesty has lost a faithful servant and the service a most excellent officer." 

FAMILY HISTORY OF CUTHBEKT COLLINGWOOD. i Ja ~J3 

I D-rO O-iS 
I 1 (F), Cuthbert Collingwood (died 1775), an unsuccessful merchant. |^ * 

I 2 (M), Micah Dobson. Fraternity of M: 1 3, Dobson. I 4, I , 

Admiral Brathwaite (died 1805, aged 80 years). fj 1 2 | 3 

Fraternity of Propositus: 112, Wilfred Collingwood (died 1787), D0 H [J 
captain of a naval vessel in the West Indian service. II 4 (Propositus), , 

CUTHBERT COLLINGWOOD. II 5 (consort), Miss Blackett, of naval stock. 

Children of Propositus: I 1, Sarah (born 1792) and 2, Mary Patience 
(born 1793) Collingwood. m() 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

DA VIES, W. 1875. A Fine Old English Gentleman, exemplified in the life and character of 

Lord Collingwood. London: Sampson, Low, Marston and Searle. 263 pp. 
RUSSELL, W. C. 1891. Collingwood. London: Methuen & Co. 271 pp. 

13. WILLIAM BARKER GUSHING. 

WILLIAM BARKER GUSHING was born at Delafield, Waukesha county, Wis- 
consin, November 1842. He was appointed to the Naval Academy in 1857, and 
resigned under pressure, without having distinguished himself in his studies, in 
March 1861. In May of the same year he was appointed master's mate, attached 
to the frigate Minnesota, one of the blockading squadron. Having shown great 
spirit, Gushing was appointed a lieutenant in July and in October was put in charge 
of a gunboat and ordered to capture Jacksonville, North Carolina, and seize any 
vessels found on the New river. He captured the city and three schooners, but 
on the return trip his gunboat ran aground. Sending off all its contents by one of 
the prize vessels, he fought the enemy as best he could on its arrival, then set fire 
to the gunboat and escaped in a skiff. For two years more Gushing played the 
part of a blockader with skill, vigilance, and energy. In October 1864, the Con- 
federate ironclad ram Albemarle sank Federal naval vessels and threatened to regain 
control of Albemarle sound. Gushing had a plan for her destruction. He brought 
from New York an open launch provided with a boom to carry and direct a tor- 
pedo. At night he approached the Albemarle (lying in the Roanoke river), which 
opened fire upon him. As she was encircled by logs to ward off torpedoes, Gushing 
drove his launch through the cordon of logs and right up to the hull of the 
Albemarle; by lines attached to his body he aimed the torpedo, which exploded 
under the Albemarle' s hull and sank it. At the same moment his launch was 
sunk by the enemy's fire, and out of the entire party only two, including Gushing, 
escaped. By swimming and rowing he made his way into Albemarle sound and 
to the Federal fleet; for this exploit he was promoted to be lieutenant commander. 
In similar daring fashion he attacked and reduced Fort Fisher. After the war 
he commanded the Maumee and was advanced to the grade of commander. He 
died of brain fever, December 1874, at the age of 32 years. 



GUSHING. 61 

The prevailing trait of William Gushing was love of adventure. As a lad 
he was never happier than when playing some joke upon one of his elder brothers. 
Once he followed one of his brothers and a young lady to prayer-meeting and, 
sitting behind them, sang improvised personalities until sent out in disgrace by 
a church official. The father had died and his mother's cousin, Commodore 
(afterward Admiral) Joseph Smith, had him entered at the Naval Academy. Here 
his pranks and "sheer deviltry" continued and culminated towards the close of 
the winter of 1861, when he fixed a bucket of water over the door through which 
his teacher of Spanish was to pass on his way to an evening party; the teacher 
was deluged and the lad was permitted to resign. On one occasion during the war 
he wore General Hooker's new uniform coat to the theater. His naval exploits 
in the war partook largely of the nature of adventures. 

Another trait was fearlessness, well illustrated by his aiming the torpedo 
accurately while only a few feet from the Albemarle's guns. He was a pronounced 
hyperkinetic. He was animated and enthusiastic in conversation. He spoke 
fluently, wrote easily and charmingly. He was generous and expressed his emo- 
tions fully. He would fight any man without the slightest hesitation, and was 
quick to resent an insult. 

Gushing belonged to fighting stock, as the history of his three brothers shows. 
They were : 

Milton, born in 1837, became a paymaster in the United States navy and was 
promoted to paymaster of the fleet, then in the Mediterranean. He was retired 
for disability and died, without issue, January 1886. 

Howard B., born in 1838, at 14 years of age became a printer's "devil" 
in a weekly newspaper office at Fredonia, New York; later he became a pressman 
in Boston, and then a type-setter in Chicago. In 1861 he raised a company of 
newspaper men in Chicago, but their services were not required. In 1862 he 
enlisted as a private in an Illinois volunteer artillery regiment. In 1863 he was 
promoted to a lieutenancy in the regular artillery. In 1867 he was lieutenant of 
Troop F, Third Cavalry, and was engaged in Indian warfare in Arizona and Texas. 
He was spare, active as a cat, and famous all over the southwestern border for cool- 
ness and energy. He was killed in May 1871, by the Apache Indians. 

Alonzo, born in January 1841, was appointed cadet at West Point. Here 
he showed "himself modest in demeanor, but always efficient in his work and 
kindly toward under-classmen." He was appointed second lieutenant in artil- 
lery on graduating in June 1861, and was promoted to first lieutenant the same 
day. In Washington he drilled artillerymen, became ordnance officer, and later 
acted as aide-de-camp to Sumner in charge of topographical work. He advanced 
rapidly as topographical engineer through the grades to lieutenant colonel, up to 
the time of his death in battle, July 3, 1863. Elements contributing to his success 
were faithfulness in the discharge of every duty and thoroughness in its perform- 
ance. "Possessed of mental and physical vigor, joined to the kindest of hearts, he 
commanded the love and respect of all who knew him. His fearlessness and resolu- 
tion displayed in many actions were unsurpassed." One says of him, he "looked 
more like a school girl than a warrior, but he was the best fighting man I ever saw." 

The father of this fraternity, Dr. Milton B. Gushing (born in 1800), was a 
restless man (see legend), but one of great personal attractiveness and sympathetic 
for the higher side of public questions. He suffered from ill health and left his 
family unprovided for. His father, Zattu Gushing, superintended the construction 
of a ship on an island opposite Erie, Pennsylvania. He was an upright, dignified, 
clear-headed man, and was for years a county judge. 



62 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

The mother, Mary Butler Smith, married in 1836, when she was 29 years of 
age. She had a splendid physical and mental constitution and was "fortunately 
endowed with a passionate love for life in an open, free atmosphere, as near as 
practicable to nature itself. She had been reared among the most highly cultivated 
people of Boston, and was related to such distinguished families as the Adamses, 
Hancocks, and Phillipses." Just before the birth of her second son she was a bit 
gloomy and homesick. After the death of her husband she went to Fredonia, 
where she established a school. 

Mary Smith's father's brother Albert's son, Commodore Joseph Smith of 
the navy, afterwards rear admiral, was born in Boston in 1790. He became mid- 
shipman in 1809 and lieutenant in 1813. As first lieutenant of the brig Eagle 
he took a conspicuous part in the battle of Lake Champlain, in September 1814, 
and was wounded. For his services he was voted a silver medal by Congress. 
In 1815 he participated in the war against Algiers; in 1827 he was commissioned 
commander. In 1837 he became captain; during 1846-1869 he was chief of the 
bureau of yards and docks, becoming rear admiral in 1862. From 1869 to 1871 
he was president of the examination board for the promotion of officers, and died 
at Washington in 1877. His son, Joseph B. Smith, made a midshipman in 1841, 
had a reputation for rare courage. He became a lieutenant in 1855 and in 1862 
was killed on the Congress in battle with the Merrimac in Hampton Roads. 

Mary Smith had a sister, Elizabeth Winkle Smith, who married John Oilman 
Pillsbury. Their son was John Elliott Pillsbury, born December 1846, at Lowell, 
Massachusetts. Through the influence of the Hon. Albert Smith, he was made 
a page in the House of Representatives, 1859. At the request of Admiral Joseph 
Smith he was appointed midshipman in September 1862. He was graduated from 
the Naval Academy and was sent to the North Pacific squadron. In 1869 he 
was stationed at the Boston navy yard. He joined the Colorado (Admiral John 
Rodgers) for a cruise in Asiatic waters; in 1875 he was on the Blake for deep-sea 
soundings. He was assigned in 1879 to the Kearsarge, North Atlantic squadron, 
and in 1884 to the United States Coast Survey. Put in command of the Blake, 
he devised instruments to measure currents at various depths. He published 
"Dangers of the South Pacific," "Atlantic Local Coast Pilot Sub-division 19, 
1885," and "The Gulf Stream." He married, in 1877, Florence Greenwood, and 
had one daughter, Elsie, bora in 1877. 

FAMILY HISTORY OF WILLIAM B. GUSHING. 

Fraternity of M M F: II,- -Bass, one of the "Boston Tea Party." 12 (M M F), 
Moses Belcher Bass. I 3 (M M M), Margaret Sprague. I 4 (M F F), Josiah Smith. I 5 (M 
F M), Mary Barker, her consort's second cousin. I 6, Captain Robert L. Eells. I 7, Ruth 
Copeland. 

II 1 (F F), Zattu Gushing (born about 1771), left Plymouth, Massachusetts, in 1791 and 
went to Ballston Spa, New York. In 1799 he superintended the construction of a ship on an 
island opposite Erie, Pennsylvania; in 1805 he settled in Fredonia, New York, where he was 
a judge for 14 years. Fraternity of M M: II 3, - Bass, a youth of great promise who died 
at 25 years of age on a voyage to England for his health. II 4 (M M), Mary Butler Bass. II 
5 (MF), Elisha Smith. Fraternity of M.F.: II 7, Bosen Smith. II 8, Mary Barker. II 9, 
Josiah Smith, a shipbuilder. II 10, Albert Smith, a captain who commanded large ships. II 
11, Anne Lenthal Eells. 

III 1 (F), Milton Gushing (born 1800), studied at what is now Colgate University and 
practiced medicine; removed to Zanesville, Ohio, where he was a local merchant, then to Colum- 
bus, Ohio, and in 1837 to Wisconsin, where he was appointed justice of the peace. In 1844 he 
went to Chicago and practiced medicine and in 1847 went back to Ohio, where he died. Ill 2 
(M), Mary Butler Smith. Fraternity of M: III 3, Cordelia Miller Smith. Ill 4, William Robert 



GUSHING. 



63 



Pearman. Ill 5, Joseph Bass Smith (born 1810), was lost or died at sea. Ill 6, Margaret 
Sprague Smith, an author of prose and verse. Ill 7, Joshua Loring Banker. Ill 8, Elizabeth 
W. Smith. Ill 9, John G. Pillsbury, a printer. Ill 10, Jane Read Smith. Ill 11, John Henry 
Batchelder. Ill 12, Sir Albert Jones Smith, a naval commander. Ill 14, Joseph Smith, a 
rear admiral of the United States navy. Ill 16, Albert Smith, a lawyer. Ill 17, Elizabeth 
Smith. Ill 18, Sarah Barker Smith. Ill 19, Joseph Eells. 



6 




Fraternity of Propositus: IV 1, Milton Gushing (1837-1886), became a paymaster of the 
fleet. IV 2, Ellen Grosvenor. IV 3, Howard B. Gushing (1838-1871). IV 4, Alonzo Gushing 
(1841-1863). IV 5 (Propositus}, WILLIAM B. GUSHING. IV 6 (consort), Kate L. Forbes. IV 
7, Walter and Mary R. Gushing. IV 8, Eli Bouton. IV 9, Mary Isabel Gushing (born 1847). IV 
10, Edward F. Gayle. IV 11, John Elliott Pillsbury (born at Lowell, Massachusetts, 1846). 
IV 12, Joseph B. Smith, appointed a midshipman in 1841, became a lieutenant in 1855, and was 
killed in 1862 on the Congress in the conflict with the Merrimac at Hampton Roads. IV 13, Albert 
Smith, became a captain in the army and died from the effects of service during Civil War. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 
Genealogy of the Gushing Family. 



Montreal: Perrault Printing Co. 



GUSHING. J. S. 1905. 
Ixx + 596 pp. 

HAIGHT, T. 1910. Three Wisconsin Cushings. Wisconsin History Commission, xiv + 109 pp. 

SMITH, S. 1895. Memorial of Rev. Thomas Smith (second minister of Pembroke, Massachu- 
setts) and his descendants. Plymouth. 147 pp. 



64 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

14. JOHN ADOLF DAHLGREN. 

JOHN ADOLF DAHLGREN was born at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Novem- 
ber 13, 1809. He was forced by the early death of his father to earn a living at 
the age of 15. Having only one strong taste, he applied for admittance to the navy 
as midshipman, but was not successful until February 1, 1826. After six years 
of service he successfully passed his examination. On account of his proficiency 
in mathematics he was detailed, in 1834, to the United States Coast Survey under 
Hassler, and entered upon triangulation work, particularly the measurement of 
the base on Long Island. In 1836 Dahlgren was made second assistant of the 
survey, with direction of a triangulation party. On account of eye-strain, Lieu- 
tenant Dahlgren visited France for relief and was obliged to retire to a farm from 
1838 to 1842, but during this period he reported on the rocket-firing system of the 
French army. For a year or two he resumed active service in the navy and on the 
outbreak of the war with Mexico he was assigned to ordnance duty, especially 
in the rocket department. Having by experimentation proved the defects in the 
naval guns then in use, he devised first, in 1850, a light howitzer for small-boat use 
and then his 9-inch and 11-inch shell-guns, which introduced new principles into 
naval armament. He published technical books on ordnance and brought the ord- 
nance department of the navy to great system and perfection. In 1857 he was 
given charge of the sloop of war Plymouth, of less than 1,500 tons, with permission 
to arm and equip her as he thought best. With her battery of 4.7-inch and 
1.9-inch guns she became the most formidable craft afloat. In his voyage with the 
Plymouth, Commander Dahlgren was able to settle various diplomatic difficulties 
with other countries. Dahlgren experimented next on rifled cannon and urged 
the construction of ironclads, but his recommendations led to no response from an 
unprogressive naval board, and the Civil War found the government unprepared. 
Dahlgren's guns, nevertheless, won many important victories in the years that 
followed. Dahlgren was tremendously active on the Chesapeake and Patriotic; he 
was appointed chief of the bureau of ordnance with rank of captain in July 1862, 
and armed and equipped ironclads. As rear admiral from February 1863, he closed 
the Atlantic ports of the Confederacy. From 1868 to 1870 he was again chief of the 
ordnance bureau, and a few months before his death was appointed, for the second 
time, commandant of the Washington navy yard. He died in July 1870. 

The most striking trait shown by Dahlgren was a desire to go into the navy. 
This is quite possibly a nomadic trait; certainly there is an appeal of the sea, 
as such. In the letter sent with his application for admission to the navy, at 15 
years of age, occur such phrases as: "The decided wishes of John are for the 
navy and a seafaring life and no other object has any temptation for him." Again, 
"He is . . . so passionately bent on the destination of the navy of the United 
States that he can not be diverted from it," and he himself writes: "Having long 
been anxious to adopt as a profession the naval service of my country . . ." This 
desire for the navy was seen in his younger brother William, who, owing to a mis- 
understanding with John, vowed he would never be known as Dahlgren again; 
so he assumed his mother's name and thereafter was called William de Rohan. 
The National Cyclopedia of American Biography (V, 24) states of William: 

"He went to Europe, where his family connections and ample means brought 
him into intimacy with persons of the highest rank in life, including Admiral Hobart 
(Pasha), with whom he took service under the Sultan, with the rank of captain. 
Leaving the Turks, he went to the Argentine Republic with Garibaldi and com- 



DAHLGREN. 65 

manded the naval forces of that country that brought about independence (1846). 
After that, when Garibaldi came to the United States, De Rohan went to Chile 
and became admiral of the Chilean navy. He took an active part with Gari- 
baldi in the unification and independence of Italy. At this period he was not only 
made admiral of the Italian navy, but furnished money to buy 3 steamers, 
the nucleus of the Italian fleet. During the siege of Rome, De Rohan commanded 
the marine division and supervised the artillery fire. He spent many years in 
England, where he became interested in the workings of the British naval reserve, 
in which he was commissioned a commander by the admiralty. He was anxious 
to fight for the Union in the American Civil War, but was restrained by fear of 
being brought under the command of his brother. He was possessed of a large 
fortune when he entered the Italian navy, but lost it all because the Italian gov- 
ernment refused to reimburse him. He sought redress in diplomatic circles, but 
all to no purpose, and he died in Philadelphia, the city of his birth, a poor man, in 
April 1891." 

The trait of nomadism was in the father also, Bernard Ulrik Dahlgren, 
born in 1784. He was graduated from Upsala and was an adventuresome traveler 
at an early age, making frequent expeditions to hyperborean regions. At the age 
of 20, having become involved in an attempt to disseminate republican principles 
at Gefle, he was obliged to flee from Sweden and his property was confiscated by 
the Crown. After traveling extensively and incurring much hazard, he finally 
embarked from Spain for New York, where he landed December 1806. He was 
made Swedish consul at Philadelphia and held that post until his death. He was 
well known as a merchant of ability and great integrity. His judgment was clear 
and impartial, so that it commanded great confidence, and his arbitration was 
accepted as conclusive. He was a man of herculean stature and strength, being 
6 feet 4 inches tall and well proportioned. 

Father's brother, Sir Carl Adolf, was graduated at Upsala and was made 
a subphysician in the Royal Navy in 1797. He left the navy in 1800, but upon 
the outbreak of war in 1808 he offered his services to the government. He was 
appointed staff surgeon to the army of Finland, in which capacity he served until 
the close of the war. Thereupon he reentered the navy and thereafter held posi- 
tions as court physician and field surgeon in chief to the army. He was created 
a knight of Wasa in recognition of his long and eminent service. He died at Stock- 
holm in 1844. His son, Sir Johan Adolf, was the author of various dissertations 
on chemistry and medicinal botany and a "discoverer in the domain of practical 
chemistry." He also was created a knight of Wasa in recognition of prolonged 
and useful service. In 1871 he resigned the directorship of the Royal Military 
Hospital in Stockholm and after that led a retired life until his death in 1876. 

Father's father, Johan Adolf Dahlgren, born at Norrkoping in 1744, was 
educated by private tutors. He then studied chemistry and pharmacy and became 
a protege* and friend of Linnaeus. He matriculated (1764) at the University of 
Upsala and was graduated with the degree of doctor of medicine. He was a man 
of great activity, a skillful physician, and a voluminous writer on medical subjects. 
In 1789 he was named chief physician of the province of Finland. He died in 1797. 

Mother, Martha Rowan, was "richly endowed with the best qualities of head 
and heart." She had a special taste for designing, and her son often said that he 
inherited from her his inventive faculty. 

Mother's father, James Rowan, was a Revolutionary soldier, who served 
as commissary in General Lacy's brigade and sustained heavy losses in his support 



66 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

of the war. It is probable that he was related in some degree to Stephen Clegg 
Rowan, born near Dublin, Ireland, in 1808, who, when a child, came with his parents 
to the United States, was appointed midshipman in 1826, fought gallantly on land 
in Mexico, during the Civil War played an important part in blockading the coast 
of North Carolina, and eventually gained the rank of rear admiral, commandant 
of the Norfolk navy yard, commander in chief of the Asiatic squadron in 1870, 
superintendent of the Naval Observatory, and chairman of the lighthouse board 
in 1883. He died in Washington in 1890. 

John A. Dahlgren as a young student was good in mathematics, as well as in 
Latin and Spanish. His teacher says: "He has received more honors than any 
other individual in my classes in the same time." At the age of 10 or 11 "he was 
continually occupied in reading universal history, particularly that of Greece and 
Rome." As midshipman, John Dahlgren's "mathematical training and pro- 
ficiency and some knowledge of the use of instruments speedily attracted the 
attention of the learned chief of the Survey, Mr. Hassler." 

Dahlgren had a keen sense of form. He had a fondness for birds speaks 
of one that is hopping about in his cabin, resting on his knee at tunes. His manu- 
script books are "a marvel of painstaking care. Every letter and figure is drawn 
with the incisive clearness of a steel engraving, and no sign of weariness or haste 
is anywhere indicated." 

John Dahlgren was enthusiastic in talking, affectionate in nature, and felt 
keenly the loss of each of such of his children as died. He is said to have been 
a man of severe nature. "To remain idle was not in his nature." 

Dahlgren married twice: first, Mary Clement Bunker, a bright, joyous, 
generous, unselfish woman, a free spender, of gentle, affectionate nature and rare 
conversational powers. By her he had three children: 

1. Charles Bunker Dahlgren, born in October 1839, near Philadelphia. He 
was educated at Rittenhouse Academy, Washington, and was graduated in 1857. 
He then studied ordnance and steam engineering at the West Point foundry, 
entered the engineer corps, United States navy, and was graduated at the head 
of a large class, but was transferred from the engineers corps to the line at the 
outbreak of the war. In 1863 he participated in the naval siege and capture of 
Vicksburg and was so efficiently active that he received a command. After three 
months in the hospital, he served under his father in front of Charleston and was 
in the bloody assault on Fort Fisher. After the war he practiced civil engineering, 
wrote a book on Mexico's historic mines, and participated on the Resolute in the 
Spanish-American war. He married in 1867, Augusta, daughter of William A. 
Smith. One of his sons is Ulric Dahlgren, born in 1870, professor of biology at 
Princeton, and author of memoirs on production of light and electricity by animals. 

2. Ulric Dahlgren, born in Bucks county, Pennsylvania, 1842, was educated 
in Washington and was studying law at the outbreak of the early war. He was 
commissioned as captain and placed a battery of Dahlgren guns at Harper's Ferry 
in a difficult position. He made a daring and successful raid with one company 
into Fredericksburg and held the town against the opposition of a large force of 
the enemy's cavalry, and also served as aide to Generals Sigel, Burnside, Fremont, 
Hooker, and Pope. "At Chancellorsville he stayed the Confederate advance by a 
desperate charge." At the second Bull Run he was chief of artillery and prevented 
a disaster to the disorganized Union troops. In the Gettysburg campaign he 
destroyed 179 wagons of Lee's train, lost a leg, and won a colonelcy. He lost his 
life in a daring attempt to liberate Federal prisoners at Libby Prison and Belle Isle. 



DAHLGREN. 



67 



3. Paul was a lieutenant in the army, who resigned in 1873 and was appointed 
United States consul at Rome, where he died in 1874. 

John A. Dahlgren's second wife was Mrs. Madeleine Vinton Goddard, the 
daughter of Hon. Samuel F. Vinton of Ohio, who for nearly a quarter of a century 
was a conspicuous member of Congress. On account of his knowledge of "the 
rules, great prudence, and sound judgment," he was "perhaps the most prominent 
leader on the Whig side." Her mother's father was Pierre Bureau, who immi- 
grated to Ohio in 1792, and was one of the earliest state senators. Samuel Vin- 
ton 's grandfather was Abiathar Vinton, a soldier in the Revolutionary war. 

Of their children, John Vinton Dahlgren (born at Valparaiso, Chile, in April 
1868) was graduated from Georgetown University, Washington, D. C., at the head of 
his class, was admitted to the bar in 1892, and began the practice of law in New York 
in 1894. In 1895 he became attorney for the department of buildings. In 1896 his 
eyesight began to fail (as had his father's) and he resigned. In 1898 the governor 
nominated him to the State Board of Charities. He married Elizabeth, daughter of 
the banker, Joseph W. Drexel, and died at Colorado Springs, Colorado, 1899. 

Another son, Eric Dahlgren, who was graduated from Harvard College in 
1889, married Lucy Drexel, sister of Elizabeth. They had 7 children. Even- 
tually they were divorced, as he appeared to be inadequately endowed with inhi- 
bitions. He was affectionate by nature. One of the daughters, Katherine Drexel 
Dahlgren, has a love of speeding in high-powered motor cars; another entered a 
Roman Catholic sisterhood. 

FAMILY HISTOKY OP JOHN ADOLPH DAHLGREN. 

I 1 (consort's F F F), Abiathar Vinton, a soldier in the Revolutionary war. 

II 1 (F F), John Adolf Dahlgren (born in Norrkoping, Sweden, in 1744), a leading Swedish 
man of science. II 3 (M F), James Rowan, a Revolutionary soldier. II 7 (consort's M F), 
Pierre Bureau, emigrated to Ohio in 1792, and was one of the earliest state senators. 

Fraternity of F: III 1, Sir Carl Adolf 
Dahlgren, a pre-eminent government phy- j 
sician (see text). Ill 3 (F), Bernard Ulrik 
Dahlgren (1784-1824), a traveler and political 
refugee (see text). Ill 4 (M), Martha 
Rowan. Ill 5 (first consort's F), Nathan 
Bunker, an influential merchant of Phila- 
delphia. Ill 7 (second consort's F), Samuel 
Vinton, a conspicuous member of Congress 
from Ohio. 

IV 1, William A. Smith. IV 3, Sir 
Johan Adolph Dahlgren, was the author of 
various dissertations on chemistry and medi- 
cinal botany and a "discoverer in the domain 
of practical chemistry"; he was director of 
the Royal Military Hospital in Stockholm. 
Fraternity of Propositus: IV 4, William Dahl- 
gren (1819-1891), changed his name to William 

De Rohan, because of family disagreements. He was a soldier of fortune (see text). IV 6 
(first consort), Mary Clement Bunker (died 1855). IV 7 (Propositus), JOHN ADOLPH DAHLGREN. 
IV 8 (second consort), Madeleine Vinton. IV 9, Hon. Daniel Convers Goddard. IV 10, Joseph 
W. Drexel (born at Philadelphia in 1831), a banker of eminence. IV 11, Lucy Wharton, an 
art and book collector. 

V 1, Augusta Smith. V 2, Charles Bunker Dahlgren (born 1839), entered the engineer 
corps, United States navy. He participated in the naval siege and capture of Vicksburg and 
received a command. After the war he practiced civil engineering. V 3, Elizabeth Dahlgren 
(1840-1858), died of consumption. V 4, Ulric Dahlgren (1842-1864), was a volunteer militiaman 
of national reputation in the Civil War, and lost his life in a daring attempt to liberate Federal 



DrO" 

Josephl ^^ 
DrexelJ 




68 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

prisoners at Libby Prison and Belle Isle. V 5, John Dahlgren (born 1844). V 6, Paul Dahlgren 
(1846-1874) (see text). V 7, Lawrence Dahlgren, died young in 1851. V 8, Eva Dahlgren, died 
in 1870. V 9, Eric Dahlgren, of St. Paul and New York. V 10, Mary Drexel. V 11, Elizabeth 
Drexel. V 12. John Vinton Dahlgren (1868-1899), a brilliant lawyer who died prematurely. 

VI 1, John A. Dahlgren. VI 2, Ulric Dahlgren (born 1870), professor of biology at Princeton 
since 1911. VI 3, Katherine Drexel Dahlgren. VI 4, Lucy Dahlgren, entered a Roman Catholic 
sisterhood. VI 5, Madeleine, Ulrica, and Olga Dahlgren. VI 6, Joseph and Eric Dahlgren. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

DAHLGREN, M. V. 1882. Memoir of John A. Dahlgren. Boston: J. Osgood and Co. xi 
+ 3 + 660 pp. 

15. STEPHEN DECATUR. 

STEPHEN DECATUR was born January 5, 1779, at Sinepuxent, Worcester 
county, Maryland. He went on a cruise with his father at 8 years of age, and 
"was thus early introduced to the sea, toward which his inclination and ancestry 
ever urged him." He went to school until he was 17 years of age, when he entered 
the counting-house of a firm of ship-owners, but, at the beginning of the war 
with France, he showed such desire for naval service that he was taken by Com- 
modore Barry on his ship United States as midshipman, 1798, and the next year 
was promoted to be lieutenant. In 1801 war had broken out with the Barbary 
States, and in 1802 Decatur sailed as first lieutenant for the Mediterranean, but 
was sent home for arranging a fatal duel between two young naval officers. He, 
however, soon returned to the Mediterranean fleet, under Commodore Preble, 
and was given command of the schooner Enterprise. In this he captured a Tri- 
politan ketch which was renamed the Intrepid. The American frigate Philadelphia 
having been captured, with all on board, by the Tripolitans, Decatur volunteered 
to "cut her out" with the Intrepid and was instructed by Preble to do so. The 
Philadelphia lay at anchor under the batteries (200 guns) of Tripoli, surrounded 
by 25 of the enemy's war vessels, and protected by nearly 30,000 men ashore and 
afloat. To oppose this force Decatur had one small (50-ton) ketch filled with 
combustibles and 84 armed men. At night he and his men, mistaken for traders, 
were allowed to come alongside of the Philadelphia to moor. They boarded the 
ship, killed 20 men, and routed the rest, without the wounding of a single American. 
They then set fire to the Philadelphia and rowed away just as the shore batteries 
began to fire upon them, but they were soon out of range (February 1804). Five 
months later Preble set sail to destroy the fleet in the harbor of Tripoli. Decatur 
was in command of one division of three gunboats and had to face, almost alone 
at first, the much more numerous fleet and the shore batteries of Tripoli. Stephen 
Decatur captured one gunboat by boarding her in a desperate encounter. His 
brother James had been treacherously killed while attempting to take a gunboat 
that had surrendered to him, and Stephen, learning of this, set out for the gunboat 
with 11 men, and killed and wounded so many of the officers and crew that the 
boat surrendered. The Tripolitans did not, thereafter, venture into a hand-to- 
hand encounter. Decatur was made captain at the age of 25. 

In the War of 1812 Decatur was given command of the famous United States 
to hunt for English vessels. On October 25, 1812, he came upon the Macedonian, 
a new frigate somewhat inferior in fighting strength to the United States, as 5 to 7, 
and captured her with a loss only one-ninth that of his opponent. Returning 
to New York, he was transferred to the frigate President. In January 1815 he 
decided to run the blockade. The President grounded, on running out in a half 



DECATUR. 69 

gale of wind, and was badly strained in getting off; also five British men-of-war 
chased her. One of these, the Endymion, he defeated; but the others coming 
up captured him and the President. Peace was signed shortly afterwards, and 
Decatur returned to his country. He was again, in charge of a squadron, sent to 
the Mediterranean against the Moors. He captured the Meshoiida, 46 guns, and 
forced treaties at Algiers and at Tripoli. Returning to America, he was appointed 
to serve with Commodores Rogers and Porter on the board of naval commissioners. 
He was killed in a duel with Commodore James Barren, March 1820. 

Decatur possessed from boyhood a "love of the sea." This was recognized 
at the age of 8 years. It is said to have led him to oppose his mother's wish that 
he should become a priest and induced Commodore Barry to appoint him mid- 
shipman. He was, throughout life, averse to anything sedentary. His father 
and father's father were seamen. Little is known about the family of his mother, 
Anna Pine, who is said to have been the daughter of an "Irish gentleman." 

Decatur had a righting instinct that could be completely set into action. 
As a child his nature was considered fiery. His undertaking to burn the Phila- 
delphia was a desperate one which succeeded by its pure audacity. When the 
President was discovered and chased by the British fleet he fought the swiftest of 
his opponents until she was helpless, until 24 on his ship were killed and 55 wounded, 
and until he was surrounded by three fresh, powerful enemy vessels. He fought two 
duels and was killed in one. It is said of him: "The high temper with which he 
had been born was kept under control, except in rare instances, when he was excited 
by injustice, deceit, or oppression." His brother James was a similar fighter. 

He was tenacious, as in his hopeless battle with the Endymion. After he 
had suffered terrible slaughter he still kept on until every sail had been stripped 
from her yards and her battery had been completely silenced. 

He was quick in decision, as when he jumped into the sea to rescue a man who 
had fallen overboard, and when, having learned of his brother's death by treachery, 
he chased and defeated the Tripolitan gunboat that had caused James's death. 

FAMILY HISTORY OF STEPHEN DECATUR. 

II (F F), Etienne Decatur, of French and Dutch ancestry, became a citizen of Rhode Island 
in 1753. He was a sailor and a bold privateer sman. He died in Philadelphia, leaving his family 
in straitened circumstances. 

I 2 (F M), Mrs. Priscilla (George) Hill. I 3 (M F), Pine, an Irish gentleman. 

II 1 (F), Stephen Decatur (born 1752), commanded 
merchant ships and privateers with brilliant success during I 
the Revolution. After the war he entered into partnership 
with a Philadelphia firm and made many voyages to France. 

In 1798 he was commissioned a captain of the navy. II 2 
(M), Anna Pine, hoped that the propositus would be a clergy- 
man. 

Fraternity of Propositus: III 1, Decatur. Ill 2, 

James Decatur, as lieutenant, had command of a gunboat off 
Tripoli and was mortally wounded in boarding a Tripolitan. 
III 3, John P. Decatur. Ill 5, Captain James M'Knight, 
of the marine corps. Ill 6, Decatur. Ill 7, Dr. Hurst, of Philadelphia. Ill 8, (Pro- 
positus), STEPHEN DECATUR. 

Children of brother: IV 1, Stephen Decatur, a lieutenant in the navy. IV 2, John P. Deca- 
tur, a midshipman. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

BRADY, C. 1900. Stephen Decatur. Boston: Small, Maynard & Co. xviii + 142 pp. 
MACKENZIE, A. 1846. Life of Stephen Decatur. Boston: C. Little & J. Brown, xi + 443 pp. 




70 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

16. GEORGE DEWEY. 

GEORGE DEWEY was born at Montpelier, Vermont, December 26, 1837. 
He attended schools in Montpelier and Johnson, Vermont, and in 1851 he was 
admitted to the military academy at Norwich, Vermont. He decided to enter the 
Naval Academy, to which he was admitted in 1854 and from which he was grad- 
uated in 1858. He was active in the naval operations of the Civil War, especially 
as executive officer on the Mississippi, and was commissioned lieutenant com- 
mander for meritorious conduct in the attack on Fort Fisher. He taught in the 
Naval Academy, 1868 to 1870; was with the Pacific Survey; was on the lighthouse 
board; was at the European station in command of a ship, and eventually of the 
flagship, 1884 to 1888. Commissioned commodore, he was, in 1898, given com- 
mand of the Asiatic station. When war with Spain broke out, Dewey, at Hong 
Kong, was cabled to operate against the Spanish fleet at the Philippine Islands. 
He steered his small fleet of 6 vessels at night through the narrow and mined 
entrance into Manila bay. At daybreak he destroyed the entire Spanish fleet 
of 12 vessels, his casualties being only 7 wounded. In the ensuing days and weeks 
he met such dangerous situations as the acts of the German admiral at Manila 
bay and the resistance of Aguinaldo with such judgment that the grade of ad- 
miral (previously held only by Farragut and David D. Porter) was revived in his 
favor. From 1900 until his death Dewey was president of the general board 
of the navy. He died at Washington of arteriosclerosis, January 16, 1917. 
The traits that determined Dewey's career were: 
Love of adventure. Of his life at the district school he says : 

"I was full of annual spirits and I liked things to happen wherever I was. 
Probably I had a gift for stirring up other boys to help me in my enterprises. A 
life of Hannibal which I received as a present fired my imagination. In winter 
it was easy to make believe that in storming a neighboring hill I was making the 
passage of the Alps. If there were no other soldiers to follow me, I might draft 
my sister Mary, who was 2 years my junior. . . . 

"One of my favorite deeds of bravado was descending the old State House 
steps blindfolded, with the onlookers wondering whether I would slip on the way 
and take the rest of the flight head first." 

On one occasion he thought it would be a great exploit to drive a horse and 
wagon across the swollen river; he escaped only by abandoning the wagon and 
climbing upon the horse's neck. To break his father's punishment he said: "You 
ought to be glad that I am alive!" At the Norwich Academy, when 17 years of 
age, he was disciplined for breaking up a service of hymns by standing outside and 
singing rival melodies. Even at Annapolis the "old faculty of making things 
happen had given me 113 demerit marks." Two hundred meant dismissal. 

Dewey was excellent at mathematics, good in French and Spanish, but poor 
in history. "My weakness in history I overcame later in life, when I grew fond 
of reading." 

He was quick in response. "A cadet who sat opposite me called me a name 
at mess which no man can hear without redress. I did not lose a second, and 
springing around the table, I went for him and beat him down under the table 
before we were separated." When, at Annapolis, a Southern cadet challenged him 
to a duel he accepted with alacrity. Rear Admiral Aaron Ward says of him: 



DEWEY. 71 

" Dewey was a generous commander and made allowances for our greenness and 
was disposed to be indulgent with the average 'middy's' prank. . . . But this 
does not mean he was not a disciplinarian. . . . Slackness in work, untidiness, 
tardiness, and other shortcomings were abhorrent to him and he would not tolerate 
them." 

He was always extremely prompt and Farragut was his beau ideal. In any 
difficult situation he asked himself: "What would Farragut do?" "I was think- 
ing of him the night we entered Manila bay." 

Brave and cool, he took the Mississippi (of Farragut's West Gulf squadron) 
through the river by the batteries of St. Philip and Jackson and stood intrepid 
on the bridge while the forts belched at him. When a Confederate ram suddenly 
appeared, he had the entire starboard broadside fired at her and sank her. The 
Mississippi lost her bearings in the smoke of battle and ran aground. She was 
burned and abandoned. Dewey was about the last person to leave, and while 
swimming to shore he saved a sailor from drowning at the risk of his own life. On 
opening the battle of Manila bay, he impressed all with his coolness as he com- 
manded: "You may fire when you are ready, Gridley." He was a quick thinker, 
a sharp fighter, a precisian in courtesy and always neatly dressed. Like many other 
naval officers, he considered recognition of his own achievement as very important. 
He showed consideration for others, and relied on those he felt he could trust. 

George Dewey's father was Julius Yeomans Dewey, a doctor of medicine 
of the University of Vermont; he was a man of vigorous constitution and active 
temperament, and a natural leader to whom men turned for advice, and who was 
very fixed in his ideas of right and wrong. The father's father of Dr. Julius Y. 
Dewey was Captain William Dewey, who was active in the Revolutionary war. 
He had a brother, Ensign Simeon Dewey, who accompanied Ethan Allen when 
he demanded the keys to the fortress at Ticonderoga. Dr. Julius Y. Dewey's 
father's father's mother was Mercy Saxton, a daughter's daughter of Captain George 
Denison, the "Miles Standish" of the Roxbury settlements. He was, except, per- 
haps, Captain John Mason, without equal in the colonies for conducting war against 
the Indians. He reminds us of the border men of Scotland. From him is descended 
also Minerva Denison, the mother of Rear Admiral John Rodgers (1812-1882). 

On the mother's side we find that Admiral Dewey's mother's mother's father 
was a captain in the Revolution and the mother's mother's mother's father was 
the son of Captain Charles Maudsley, a lieutenant in King Philip's war. 

Thus there are lines on both sides reaching back to fighters and a connection, 
through the Denisons, with Rear Admiral John Rodgers. 

FAMILY HISTORY OF GEORGE DEWEY. 

Fraternity of F F F F F F F: II, Jedediah Dewey (born 1647). 12, Sarah Orton. 13 
(F F F F F F F), Josiah Dewey (1641-1731), was a carpenter and an influential and active citizen. 
I4(FFFFFFM), Hepzibah Lyman. I5(FFFFMMM), Bridget, who died in America. 
I 6 (F F F F M M F), George Denison (ca. 1618-1694), came to New England about 1631, but 
in 1643 returned to England, where he served in the army under Cromwell and was wounded at 
Naseby. Afterwards he returned to America and finally settled in Stonington, Connecticut. 
He is considered as great and brilliant a soldier as Miles Standish. "Our early history presents 
no character of bolder and more active spirit than Captain Denison. He reminds us of the 
border men of Scotland." I 7, Ann Borodell, of Irish ancestry, married Captain Denison soon 
after the battle of Naseby. From this marriage descended Minerva Denison, who married 
Commodore John Rodgers. 



72 



HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 



II 1, Jedediah Dewey (born 1670), a sergeant. II 3 (F F F F F F), Josiah Dewey (born 
1666), a farmer. II 4 (F F F F F M), Mehitable Miller. II 5 (F F F F M F), Captain Joseph 
Saxton. II 6 (F F F F M M), Hannah Denison. 

III 1, Jedediah Dewey (1714-1778), was a man of independent views who separated from 
the church and became a preacher, settling in Bennington, Vermont. He was one of the 
leaders in the efforts of the Vermont settlers to maintain their land titles. He preached to his 
people to take arms and go out to fight. Tradition has it that he adjourned church service to 
go to fight the British at the battle of Bennington, whence his name of "fighting parson." Ill 
2, Mindwell Hayden. Ill 3 (F F F F F), William Dewey (born 1692). Ill 4 (F F F F M), 
Mercy Saxton. Ill 5 (M M F M F), Captain John Moseley. 



l! 2 |3 4 ^5 6 7 



5 dkJ a 




vm 



DC 



IV 1, Elijah Dewey (1744-1818), was a private in the first military company formed in 
Bennington, Vermont, in 1764. He was captain of a company in the early days of the Revolution 
and was at Ticonderoga, at the battle of Bennington, and at Saratoga. IV 2 (F F F F), Simeon 
Dewey (1770-1863), a farmer. IV 3 (F F F M), Anna Phelps. Fraternity of M M F F: IV 4, 
Elizur Talcott (born 1709), from whom are descended George Talcott (born 1786), a brigadier 
general in the United States army, and other men of military and engineering fame. IV 5 (M M F 
F), Captain Samuel Talcott (born Glastonbury, Connecticut), 1708. IV 6 (M M F M), Hannah 
Moseley. 

Fraternity of F F F: V 1, Simeon Dewey (1745-1830), a blacksmith and gunsmith, was 
with Ethan Allen at Ticonderoga. V 2 (F F F), William Dewey (1746-1813), in 1776 moved 
to New Hampshire, where he farmed and did the work of a mechanic. He served as a corporal 
upon the Lexington alarm of 1775. V 3 (F F M), Rebecca Carrier (1746-1837). V 4 (M M F), 
Samuel Talcott (born 1733). V 5 (M M M), Mary Smith. 

VI 1 (F F), Simeon Dewey (1770-1863), was a farmer who filled various town offices. 
VI 2 (F M), Prudence Yeomans, of Norwich, Vermont (1772-1844). VI 3 (M F), Zachariah 
Pen-in (1748-1838). VI 4 (MM), Mary Talcott (1758-1828). Fraternity of MM: VI 5, 



DEWEY. 73 

Samuel Talcott (1765-1839). VI 6, Abigail Hooker. VI 7, Nehemiah Talcott (1766-1848). 

VI 8, Hannah Talcott (1759-1848). VI 9, Epaphras Hills. 

VII 1 (consort's F), Ichabod Goodwin (1796-1882), was a shipmaster who, as governor of 
New Hampshire during the Civil War, was known as the "Fighting Governor." VII 2 (con- 
sort's M), Sarah Parker Rice. VII 3 (F), Julius Yeomans Dewey, M.D. (1801-1877), practiced 
in Montpelier, Vermont. He was surgeon of the first regiment of the state militia, and presi- 
dent of the National Life Insurance Company. VII 4 (M), Mary Perrin (1799-1843), was edu- 
cated in private school; was fond of books; she came from cultured stock. Fraternity of M: 

VII 5, Polly Perrin (1781-1798). VII 6, Betsey Perrin (born 1783). VII 7, Rev. James Hobart. 
VII 8, Pamela Perrin (1787-1813). VII 9, Deacon David Nye. VII 10, Porter (1790-1871) 
and Samuel (1785-1844) Perrin. VII 11, Truman Perrin (1796-1822), was graduated from 
Dartmouth College and became a clergyman. VII 12, Proncy Tyndal, of Alabama. VII 13, 
William Perrin (1792-1824), a clergyman of South Carolina. VII 14, Sophia Perrin (born 1801). 

VII 15, Captain Joseph Somerby, removed to Michigan. VII 17, Elizur Hills (born 1782), 
was lost at sea. 

VIII 1 (first consort), Susie B. Goodwin (died 1872). VIII 2 (Propositus}, GEORGE DEWEY. 

VIII 3 (second consort), Mildred (McLean) Hazen. Fraternity of Propositus: VIII 4, Charles 
Dewey (born 1826), became president of the National Life Insurance Company; was elected state 
senator three terms and appointed state inspector of finance. VIII 5, Betsey Tarbox. VIII 
6, Edward Dewey (born 1829), became a director of the family firm. In 1864 he entered the 
United States militia as quartermaster of the Eighth Vermont Volunteers; in 1865 was promoted 
to captain and assistant quartermaster in the staff department of the United States Volunteers. 
VIII 7, Susan Griggs Lilley. VIII 8, Mary Perrin Dewey (born 1839), of a modest, retiring 
disposition. VIII 9, George Preston Greeley, a surgeon in the army. 

Child of Propositus: IX 1, George Goodwin Dewey (born 1872), after being graduated 
from Princeton College, became a traveling salesman. Children of sibs: IX 2, William Tarbox 
Dewey (born 1852), became a lieutenant in the Vermont National Guard; was director of the 
Vermont Mutual Fire Insurance Company. IX 3, Theodore Gibbs Dewey (born 1859), was 
graduated from the Naval Academy at Annapolis. In 1882 he was appointed midshipman on 
the United States Coast Survey; in 1897 he was promoted to lieutenant. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

BALDWIN, J., and C. 1881. A Record of the Descendants of Captain George Denison of 

Stonington, Connecticut. Worcester: Tyler and Seagrave. 423 pp. 
BARNETT, J. 1899. Admiral George Dewey. New York: Harper's. 280 pp. 
CATJLKINS, F. 1852. History of New London, Connecticut. New London: Press of Case, 

Tiffany & Co. xi + 670 pp. 
DEWEY, A. 1899. The Life and Letters of Admiral Dewey. New York: The Woolfall Co. 

559 pp. 
DEWEY, G. 1913. Autobiography of George Dewey. New York: C. Scribners' Sons, xii 

+ 337 pp. 
DEWEY, L. 1898. Life of George Dewey, Rear Admiral United States Navy and Dewey Family 

History. Westfield: Dewey Publishing Co. 1117 pp. 
TALCOTT, S. V. 1876. Talcott Pedigree in England and America. Albany: Weed, Parsons 

& Co. 316 pp. 



74 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

17. ADAM DUNCAN. 

ADAM DUNCAN was bora July 1, 1731, at Lundie, Forfarshire, Scotland. 
After receiving the rudiments of an education at Dundee, he went to sea in 1746, 
under his mother's brother's son, Captain James Haldane. In 1755 he was lieu- 
tenant on the Norwich, one of the fleet under Admiral Keppel, which convoyed 
General Braddock's forces to America. In 1780, as captain in the Monarch, 
under Sir George Rodney, he was the first to engage the Spanish enemy off Cape 
St. Vincent. In May 1797, as rear admiral, he took his station off the Texel, 
where lay the Dutch squadron of 15 sail under De Winter. Owing to the wide- 
spread mutiny in the British fleet, he had only two ships. From time to time he 
caused signals to be made, as if to the main body of his fleet in the offing, and by 
this ruse prevented an attack on his helpless ships until, the mutiny quelled, he 
became heavily reinforced. On October 11 the enemy put to sea and he attacked 
them with a slightly superior force, capturing 11 of the 19 Dutch vessels. The 
water was shoal, the shore near, and a gale coming on ; so he ceased action and took 
his battered prizes homeward, one sinking en route. For this victory he was created 
Viscount Duncan of Camperdown. He died 1804. 

Duncan was a fighter of fighting stock. He declined a preferred command 
in order to watch and defeat the Dutch off the Texel. He married Henrietta 
Dundee, whose half-brother was a general in the army and the governor of Cape 
of Good Hope. Duncan's brother Alexander, a lieutenant colonel in the army, saw 
service in Canada and was the Major Duncan of Fenimore Cooper's "The Path- 
finder." Another brother, John, was in the employ of the East India Company. 
Adam's son Henry (V 13) was a captain in the Ptoyal Navy, and another son, 
Alexander, was a lieutenant colonel of the Coldstream Guards. Four second cousins 
of these sons (children of Captain James Haldane) gained some distinction in the 
navy. The first was Robert (1764-1842), who was under Adam Duncan on the 
Monarch and gained distinction; but in 1783 he left the navy to organize religious 
movements, in which he was somewhat successful. With others he organized the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel at Home. The other son was James 
Alexander (1768-1851), who at 17 became a midshipman, and eventually a captain. 
During a long detention of his ship he began the study of the Bible, abruptly 
quitted the naval service, began open-air preaching, and made repeated missionary 
journeys. He helped his brother organize the Propagandist Society and was or- 
dained pastor of a large independent congregation. The scanty available genea- 
logical data does not disclose the source of this family tendency to piety late in life. 

FAMILY HISTORY OF ADAM DUNCAN, FIRST VISCOUNT DUNCAN. 

I 1 (consort's F F F), Robert Dundas, Lord Arniston, an eminent lawyer; member of 
Parliament. I 2 (consort's F F M), Margaret Sinclair. 13 (F F F), Alexander Duncan, provost 
of Dundee, 1682-1685. He defended Dundee when John Graham tried to seize its municipal 
charters. I 5 (F M F), Sir Patrick Murray. I 6 (F M M), Margaret Haldane, daughter of 
Mungo Haldane, of Gleneagles county, Perth. 

II 1, Anne Gordon. II 2 (consort's F F), Robert Dundas (1685-1753), was solicitor-general, 
1717, and lord advocate of Scotland, 1720; a judge of session and, in 1748, president of the court. 
II 3 (consort's F M), Elizabeth Watson. II 4 (F F), Alexander Duncan (died 1719), provost, 
1717. II 5 (F M), Isabella Murray. II 6 (M F), John Haldane of Gleneagles, member of 
Parliament. 

Ill 1, Henry Dundas, first Viscount Melville (1742-1811), became solicitor-general to 
Scotland and then lord advocate. In 1791 he was home secretary; 1794-1801, secretary of war; 
in 1804 first lord of the admiralty, of which he was treasurer between 1782 and 1800. Ill 2, 



DUNCAN. 



75 



n 

in 

IV 

v 

VI 

vn 



Elizabeth Rennie. Ill 4 (second consort of consort's F), Jean Grant. Ill 5 (consort's F), 
Robert Dunclas (1713-1787), solicitor-general of Scotland, lord advocate and lord president. 

III 6 (consort's M), Henrietta Carmichacl (died 1755). Fraternity of F: III 7, Sir William Dun- 
can (died 1774), was physician in ordinary to George III. Ill 8 (F), Alexander Duncan, provost 
of Dundee (1744-1746). Ill 9 (M), Helen Haldane. 

IV 1, Elizabeth Dundas (died 1852). Half Fraternity of Consort: IV 2, Robert Dundas, 
(born 1753), was lord chief baron of the court of exchequer in Scotland and later solicitor-general 
and lord advocate. IV 3, Francis Dundas, lieutenant general and governor of the Cape of Good 
Hope. IV 4, William Dundas, privy councilor and secretary of war, 1804. IV 5, Philip Dundas, 
governor of Prince of Wales Island. Fraternity of consort: VI 7, Margaret and Anne Dundas. 

IV 8, Elizabeth Dundas. IV 9, Sir John Lockhart Ross (1721-1790), a gallant and highly dis- 
tinguished naval officer. IV 10 (consort), Henrietta Dundas (died 1832). IV 11 (Propositus) , 
ADAM DUNCAN, first Viscount Duncan. Fraternity of Propositus: IV 12, Margaret Duncan 
(died 1818). IV 13, William Tait. IV 14, Alexander Duncan, a lieutenant colonel in the army. 
IV 16, John Duncan. IV 17, Katherine Duncan (died 1774). IV 18, James Haldane, a captain 
in the navy. IV 19, Daniel Rutherford, a professor. 




tfflW 



V 1, Robert (born 1797) and William Pitt Dundas. V 2, Henry Dundas, a vice admiral 
of the Royal Navy. V 4, Charles Lockhart-Ross, a colonel in the army. V 5, James Lockhart- 
Ross Farquharson, a captain of the Royal Navy. V 6, George Lockhart-Ross (born 1775), 
an advocate and judge. V 7, John Lockhart-Ross, a lieutenant colonel in the army, who was 
killed in 1809. V 8, Robert Lockhart-Ross, a colonel in the army. Children of Propositus: V 9, 
William Duncan (died at 9 years of age). V 10, Robert Duncan, second Viscount Duncan and 
first Earl of Camperdown (1785-1859); assumed the name of Haldane. V 11, Janet Dalryrnple- 
Hamilton. V 12, Alexander Duncan (died 1803), a lieutenant colonel in the army. V 13, Sir 
Henry Duncan (1786-1835), a captain of the Royal Navy, C. B., K. C. H. V 14, Jane Duncan 
(died 1852). V 15, Sir Hew Dairy mple-Hamilton. V 16, Henrietta Duncan (died 1850). 
V 17, Sir James Fergusson. V IS, Adamina Duncan (died 1857). V 19, John Hamilton, Earl 
of Stair. V 20, Mary Tufton Duncan (died 1867). V 21, James Dundas of Dundas. V 22, 
Catherine Duncan (died 1833). V 23, Robert Haldane (1764-1842), served in the navy, but 
became a missionary (see text). V 26, James Alexander Haldane (1768-1851), served in the navy, 
but took up missionary work (see text) . V 27, Rutherford. 

Son's son of Propositus: VI 1, Adam Haldane Duncan, second Earl of Camperdown (1812- 
1867), was a member of Parliament. VI 2, Juliana Philips. VI 3, Robert Haldane, a writer to 
the signet. VI 4, Mary Elizabeth Burdon-Sanderson. VI 5, John Scott Burdon-Sanderson 
(1828-1905), a well-known physiologist. VI 6, Daniel Rutherford Haldane (1824-1887), a prom- 
inent Scotch physician and president of Edinburgh College of Physicians. 

Son's son's son of Propositus : VII 1, Robert Adam Philips Haldane-Duncan, third Earl 
of Camperdown (born 1841), was lord of the admiralty, 1870-1874. He is the author of "Ad- 
miral Duncan." VII 2, Elizabeth Sanderson Haldane, was a member of the arbitration board 
under the board of trade, of Scottish universities committee, and of the school board; vice chair- 



76 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

man of territorial nursing service. In cooperation she has translated Hegel's " History of Philos- 
ophy" and is a writer of biography. VII 3, John Scott Haldane (born 1860), a physiologist, 
is joint editor and founder of the Journal of Hygiene. VII 4, Hon. Richard Burdon Haldane 
(born 1856), a British statesman who became secretary of state for war in 1905. He took first 
class honors in philosophy at Edinburgh University. VII 5, William Stowell Haldane (born 
1864), author. VII 7, James Aylmer Lowthorpe Haldane (born 1862), is now a brigadier general 
in the army and has served with distinction in India and South Africa, winning medals and clasps. 
He has written, "How we Escaped from Pretoria." 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

BTJRKE, SIR B., and A. 1909. A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Peerage and 

Baronetage. London: Harrison and Son. 2570 pp. 
CAMPERDOWN, EARL OF. 1898. Admiral Duncan. London: Green and Co. 

18. GEORGE KEITH ELPHINSTONE. 

GEORGE KEITH ELPHINSTONE was born near Stirling, Scotland, January 7, 
1746. He went to sea at the age of 15 years (1761), sailing on the Gosport, 44 guns, 
under Captain Jervis. Later he sailed on other naval vessels and then, since 
prevailing peace gave no chance for advancement, together with his brother he 
went into the East India Company, in whose service he was commissioned a lieu- 
tenant in 1767. Reentering the navy, he was assigned to the Mediterranean. 
Finding English deserters in Nice, he demanded that the authorities deliver them, 
and when they did not he took up his position off port until he got them. When, 
on entering the Bay of Naples in command of a small naval vessel, he was not 
officially received, he threatened to turn back no slaves that escaped to his ship. 
In 1775, as post captain in command of the Romney, he participated in the Ameri- 
can revolution, taking American and French ships as prizes. He took an impor- 
tant part in the seizure of Charleston, South Carolina, where were captured 
4,000 Americans, numerous weapons, and four war vessels. Sent back to England 
with dispatches, he was elected to Parliament and later returned to North America, 
where he helped fight two French vessels off Delaware bay. In 1787 he married 
a Miss Mercer, an heiress, and in 1788 a daughter was born, the only child of this 
union. In 1793, as captain of the Robust (74 guns), he joined the Mediterranean 
fleet to fight against the French revolutionists. At Toulon he was sent- to support 
the land forces, and seized the shore forts. When Toulon was finally evacuated 
by the English, Elphinstone distinguished himself by getting away all the soldiers 
and thousands of the refugees. He was now made rear admiral and in 1795 com- 
mander in chief in Indian waters. He went to Cape Town and participated in 
the siege and capture of the Cape territory. As the French were now intriguing 
in India, Elphinstone, after organizing a naval station at Cape Town, made his 
way to Madras, where he was very ill. Learning that the combined French and 
Dutch fleets threatened Cape Town, he returned thither despite his illness, found 
the fleets in Saldanha bay, cut off all means of retreat for them, and caused them 
all to surrender without battle (August 1796). He then took the ships to Cape 
Town, turned them into English ships of war, and returned to England, where he 
was created Baron Keith. When the mutiny of the Nore broke out, 1797, Keith 
investigated it and was soon able to restore order; and he was similarly successful 
at Plymouth. In 1798 Keith was sent as second in command to Jervis, Earl 
St. Vincent. Owing to lack of harmony among the officers of the fleet, the French 
squadron at Brest escaped, and though forced by bad weather to return, none of 
the squadron was captured. St. Vincent's illness now left Keith in supreme com- 



ELPHINSTONE. 77 

mand. In 1800 he was ordered to Egypt to recover it from the French. He made 
an admirable landing at Aboukir and captured Cairo and Alexandria in 1801. 
Returning to England in 1803, Keith was given command of the meager North 
Sea fleet and had to plan the coast defenses of England against France. His 
attempt to destroy French ships off Brest by means of fire-ships failed. In 1810 
he was appointed admiral of the red and commander of the Channel fleet; as such 
he directed measures to meet the threatened invasion. When Bonaparte sur- 
rendered, Keith had to manage his care and keeping and expressed to the Emperor 
the decision of the government. Keith now retired to the estates that he was able 
to purchase with his great wealth. He built a large house at Kincardine-on- 
Forth, and planned piers, embankments, and reclamation walls. He was fond 
of society, but eschewed politics. He died in 1823. "Lord Keith was an accom- 
plished and gallant officer, methodical, attentive, and correct; but otherwise he 
rose little above the commonplace." (Mahan, 1899, p. 364.) 

Keith was a fighter of fighting stock, especially on his mother's side. Her 
mother's brother Francis (1696-1758) was graduated from the University of Edin- 
burgh, and early showed a decided preference for a soldier's career; but as a Jacobite 
he and his brother George had to flee England (1715). He obtained a colonelcy 
in the Spanish army (1726-1727), later took command of a regiment in Russia 
(1728), and gained a high reputation. In 1747 he offered his services to Frederick 
II of Prussia, who made him field marshal and gave him and his brother George 
evidences of high personal regard. In 1756, when the Seven Years' War broke out, 
Francis Keith was given high command and gained still higher reputation for "res- 
olution and promptitude of action as well as care and skill." After repeated engage- 
ments he was killed in 1758 at the battle of Hochkirch. Francis's brother George was 
less of a fighter and more of a diplomat; and having conveyed valuable information 
to Lord Chatham he was pardoned by George II and returned to Scotland in 1759. 

Lord Keith had a brother, William (IV 7), who entered the Royal Navy, 
but later became connected with the East India Company and eventually became 
a director of it. Another brother, John (IV 5), entered the army and was later 
lieutenant governor of Edinburgh Castle; his son, Montstuart Elphinstone (1779- 
1859), received a civil appointment in the East India Company, through his uncle 
William, became attached as diplomatist to the mission of Sir Arthur Wellesley 
to the Mahrattas, and, though a civilian, acted virtually as Wellesley's aide-de- 
camp. At the battle of Assaye he displayed such military knowledge and insight 
that Wellesley told him he should have been a soldier. Appointed resident at 
Poona, he suspected treachery under the friendly mask of the peshwa and when 
that mask was thrown aside and war was declared Elphinstone assumed command 
of the British troops at a crisis in the battle of Kirkee and defeated the peshwa. 
Of his later career it is stated (Encyl. Britt., llth ed.) : "He may fairly be regarded 
as the founder of the system of state education in India." He twice refused 
the governor-generalship of India. He published a great history of India (1841). 
Still another brother of Keith was Charles (IV 6), who was also in the navy and 
who died on the Prince George when she took fire off Ushant Island in 1757. 

The quality of diplomacy was marked in George also and had to be exercised 
at the Cape of Good Hope as well as in his relations with the captured Napoleon. 
George Lord Keith believed in obeying orders, however, and adhered to discipline 
even when his obedience of St. Vincent's orders lost him the capture of Bruix's fleet. 
He was just, considerate, and merciful, and was even reproved by the admiralty 
for furnishing a better diet to the sick than was prescribed by that authority. 



78 



HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 




FAMILY HISTORY OF GEORGE KEITH ELPHINSTONE, VISCOUNT KEITH. 

II (M M F), William Keith, ninth Earl Marischal of Scotland. 

Fraternity of M M: II 1, George Keith, tenth Earl Marischal (1693-1778), served under 
Marlborough and was a zealous Jacobite, taking part in the uprising of 1715, after which he 
escaped to the Continent. He lived for many years in Spain; then in 1745 he went to Prussia, 
where he held various diplomatic posts. II 2, Francis Edward James Keith (1696-1758), received 
a careful education under a relative, Robert Keith, Bishop of Fife, during which he "acquired 
that taste for literature which afterwards secured him the esteem of the most distinguished savants 
of Europe"; a field marshal in Russia. II 3 (M M), Lady Mary Keith (died 1799). II 4 (M F), 
John Fleming, sixth Earl Wigtoun. II 5 (F F), Charles Elphinstone, ninth Lord Elphinstone. 
II 6 (F M), Elizabeth Primrose. 

III 1, James, third Lord j 
Ruthven. Ill 2, Anne Stuart. Ill 

3 (M), Clementine Fleming, a 
woman of great beauty and en- IE 
ergy. Ill 4, Charles Elphinstone, 
tenth Lord Elphinstone. Fraternity 
of F: III 5, James and John Elphin- 
stone. Ill 6, Archibald Elphin- 
Btone, an officer in the army. Ill 
7, Grizel and Primrose Elphin- 
stone. 

IV 1, Cornelius Elliot. IV 3, 
John Ruthven (died 1771), a cap- v 
tain of the Royal Navy. IV 4, Anne 
Ruthven. Fraternity of Propositus: 

IV 5, John Elphinstone, eleventh VI 
Lord Elphinstone (1737-1794). IV 

6, Charles Elphinstone, of the Royal Navy. IV 7, William Fullerton-Elphinstone, an East 
India director and previously commander of an Indianman. IV 8, Elizabeth Fullerton. IV 
9, Mary, Eleanor, Primrose, and Clementina Elphinstone. IV 11, Sir Edward Duller, an admiral 
of the Royal Navy. IV 13 (first consort), James Mercer (died 1789). IV 14 (Propositus), 
GEORGE KEITH ELPHINSTONE, Viscount Keith. IV 14 (second consort), Hester Maria Thrale. 

V 1, Janet (Elliot) Hyndford. V 2, John Elphinstone, twelfth Lord Elphinstone (died 1813), 
a lieutenant general in the army. V 3, Charles Elphinstone Fleming (born 1774), an admiral 
in the navy and governor of Greenwich Hospital. V 4, Donna Catalina Alessandro, a Spanish 
lady. V 5, James Elphinstone (died 1828) of Bengal, India. V 6, Mountstuart Elphinstone 
(1779-1859), a commissioner in India and governor of Bombay; one of the most able and dis- 
tinguished men of his time in India. V 7, Anne, Clementina, Elizabeth, and Keith Elphinstone. 

V 8, John Elphinstone (died 1854), lived in India. V 9, Charles Elphinstone (born 1784) was 
in the Royal Navy and lost on the Blenheim. V 10, William George Keith Elphinstone, a major 
general in the army; died in command in India, 1842. V 11, James Buller-Fullerton-Elphinstone 
(1788-1857), a lieutenant colonel of the army. V 12, Anna Maria Buller. Children of Propositus: 

V 14, Margaret Mercer Elphinstone, Baroness Keith. V 15, Georgiana A. H. Elphinstone. 

VI 1, John Elphinstone, thirteenth Lord Elphinstone (1807-1860), a captain in the army; 
governor of Madras and later of Bombay; created Baron Elphinstone in 1859. VI 2, John 
Elphinstone Fleming, fourteenth Lord Elphinstone (1819-1861), lieutenant colonel in the army. 

VI 4, William Buller Fullerton, fifteenth Lord Elphinstone (1828-1893), a captain in the Royal 
Navy. VI 5, Edward Charles Buller Fullerton (born 1832), a captain in the army. V 16, 
John Frederick Buller Fullerton (1837-1874), a lieutenant colonel in the army. VI 7, George 
James Buller Fullerton (1841-1879). 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

ALLARDYCE, A. 1882. Memoir of the Hon. George Keith Elphinstone, Viscount Keith, Ad- 
miral of the Red. Edinburgh and London: W. Blackwood and Sons. 

BURKE, Sir B., and A. 1909. A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Peerage and 
Baronetage. London: Harrison and Son. 2570 pp. 



FARRAGUT. 79 

19. DAVID GLASGOW FARRAGUT. 

DAVID GLASGOW FARRAGUT was born at Campbell's Station, near Knox- 
ville, Tennessee, on July 5, 1801. He spent a hardy and adventurous boyhood, 
first in Tennessee and then near New Orleans. An intimate friendship sprang 
up between the Farragut family and Commander David Porter, and the latter 
adopted young Farragut, since at the age of 8 years and shortly after the death 
of his mother he seemed to want to go to sea. He quickly became "fond of this 
adventurous sort of life. " (Farragut, L., 1879, p. 11.) After a year of study in the 
East he received a midshipman's commission, December 1810. His first voyage 
was made on the Essex, of which his foster-father was captain, and he served on 
that ship during her romantic and fateful cruise in the Pacific in the War of 1812. 
He was in the bloody battle off Valparaiso when the ship was lost. Returning 
to the United States under parole, he studied for some months and in April 1815 
sailed to Algiers. He soon returned to America, but in the spring of 1816 he sailed 
again for the Mediterranean, where he remained until 1820, becoming lieutenant 
at the end of that same year. He distinguished himself in encounters with pirates 
in the West Indies and showed decided ability and originality as a teacher on a 
receiving-ship. He served as an officer at the Norfolk navy yard and was execu- 
tive officer of the Pennsylvania during the Mexican war. To him was assigned, 
in 1854, the establishment of the Mare Island navy yard, California. He was hi 
San Francisco bay during the activities of the vigilance committee and steered 
a course of wisdom that tended to calm an excited population. After a year or 
two of service in the Gulf of Mexico, watching a revolution in Mexico, he returned 
to Norfolk, where he was stationed when Virginia seceded. He remained loyal. 
In 1862 he was appointed to the command of the Western Gulf blockading squad- 
ron, whose secret purpose was to open up the Mississippi from the gulf. He ran 
his fleet by the Forts Jackson and St. Philip, in the face of a terrific fire and 
with relatively slight loss. A few weeks later he carried his flotilla past the bat- 
teries at Vicksburg. He was now commissioned rear admiral. In March 1863 
he passed the strongly placed batteries at Port Hudson in his flagship Hartford, 
but, with the exception of one gunboat, the remainder of the squadron was unable 
to follow. He remained between Port Hudson and Vicksburg, blockading the 
mouth of the Red river, until the fall of Vicksburg and Port Hudson in July 1863. 
After a few months in New York for recuperation and the repair of his ships, he 
departed, in January 1864, on the Hartford, to blockade Mobile. On August 5, 
1864, he entered Mobile bay, despite strong fortifications and mines and the power- 
ful ironclad Tennessee. A torpedo sunk the Federal monitor Tecumseh, which was in 
the van, and Farragut unhesitatingly seized the line at the critical moment; lashed 
to the mast, he ordered his flagship at full speed, taking the lead. The mines 
failed to explode and the bay was safely entered, though at the loss of many men, 
especially on the flagship. The British Army and Navy Gazette called him "the 
first naval officer of his day, as far as actual reputation, won by skill, courage, and 
hard fighting, goes." In the battle of Mobile bay shells were freely used instead 
of solid shot. A few days later all the forts were surrendered, with hundreds of 
men and scores of guns. 

After the war Farragut had command for a time of the European squadron; 
he was voted the rank of admiral by Congress in 1866, and then retired from 
active service. He died at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in 1870. 



80 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

Farragut had "moral courage in assuming responsibility." At the age of 
12, on the Essex, he was given command by Porter of the recaptured American 
ship Barclay, which had been seized by the British. The captain of the Barclay 
was furious at being superseded by such a lad, and when Porter's flagship had set 
sail this captain went for his pistols to prevent the seamen from executing Far- 
ragut's orders. Says Farragut, of this incident: 

"I called my right-hand man of the crew and told him my situation. I 
also informed him that I wanted the main topsail filled. He answered with a clear, 
'Ay, ay, sir!' in a manner which was not to be misunderstood, and my confidence 
was perfectly restored. From that moment I became master of the vessel, and 
immediately gave all necessary orders for making sail, notifying the captain not to 
come on deck with his pistols unless he wished to go overboard, for I would really 
have had very little trouble in having such an order obeyed." 

When Farragut later reported to his superior, Captain Downes, the Barclay's 
captain's behavior, the latter insisted that he only tried to frighten the lad. "I 
replied by requesting Captain Downes to ask him how he succeeded." (Mahan, 
1892, p. 26.) 

When 12 years and 9 months of age he was on board the Essex in her final 
battle off Valparaiso, in which only 75 of her crew of 225 were uninjured. When 
Captain Porter was told that a gunner had deserted his post, Porter ordered Far- 
ragut to do his duty and the boy seized a pistol and went in pursuit of the fellow, 
but he had already left the ship in a boat. Of his gallantry in this engagement 
Porter made special mention in his dispatches. Of his activities during the ter- 
rible naval battle young Farragut says: "I performed the duties of captain's aid, 
quarter gunner, powder boy, and in fact did everything that was required of me." 
When, after the battle, Captain Hillyar, of the victorious English ship, saw Far- 
ragut's discomfiture, he spoke kindly, saying: "Never mind, my little fellow, 
it will be your turn next perhaps"; to which, says Farragut, "I replied I hoped 
so, and left the captain to hide my emotion." (Mahan, 1892, p. 49.) 

Before he was 18 years of age Farragut, as acting lieutenant, was given com- 
mand of a brig. He says of this circumstance: "I consider it a great advantage 
to obtain command young, having observed, as a general rule, that persons who 
come into authority late in life shrink from responsibility and often break down 
under its weight." (Mahan, 1892, pp. 60-61.) 

When the passage of Forts Jackson and St. Philip was proposed to Farragut 
he showed "delight and enthusiasm," so that the secretary of the navy doubted 
for a moment if he were not too enthusiastic. The secretary soon "saw that in 
modest self-reliance he considered himself equal to the emergency and the expec- 
tation of the government." 

Later, at the forts, Farragut decided to pass them without waiting to reduce 
them, as his orders from the navy department strictly implied. In this action 
he was opposed by Commander David D. Porter. Later Farragut passed the 
powerful forts at Port Hudson on his own responsibility. At the entrance to 
Mobile bay, when it was necessary for him to go in, the warning cry came that 
there were torpedoes ahead. "Damn the torpedoes," shouted the admiral in the 
exaltation of his high purpose. "Four bells [high speed], Captain Drayton, go 
ahead!" and none of the torpedoes exploded. Says Mahan (1892, pp. 318, 319): 



FARRAGUT. 81 

"One of the greatest of naval commanders, whose experience with men 
extended through an unusually long and varied career - - Earl St. Vincent - - has 
declared that the true test of a man's courage is his power to bear responsibility; 
and Farragut's fearlessness of responsibility in order to accomplish necessary 
ends, while yet captain of a single ship, was the subject of admiring comment 
among his subordinates, who are not usually prone to recognize that quality in 
their commanders. 'I have as much pleasure in running into port in a gale of 
wind,' he wrote, 'as ever a boy did in a feat of skill.' The same characteristic 
was markedty shown under the weight of far greater issues in his determination 
to pass the river forts, in spite of remonstrances from his most able lieutenant, 
of cautious suggestions from other commanding officers, and with only the ambig- 
uous instructions of the navy department to justify his action. It was not that the 
objections raised were trivial. They were of the most weighty and valid character, 
and in disregarding them Farragut showed not only the admirable insight which 
fastened upon the true military solution, but also the courage which dared to accept 
on his sole responsibility the immense risks of disaster which had to be taken. 

"For the power to take these momentous decisions, Farragut was indebted 
to nature. He indeed justified them and his general course of action by good 
and sufficient reasons, but the reasons carried instant conviction to him because 
they struck a kindred chord in his breast. He once said: 'My motto in action 
is (quoting Danton), L'audace, et encore de 1'audace, et toujours de 1'audace." 

Farragut had a love of the sea, though he was born far inland. It is said that 
the vast internal tracts and mountain slopes that he was free to roam over did not 
satisfy his craving. We have seen that, at a very early age, he had a love of adven- 
ture, a quality that marked his father. 

Farragut as a lad, "while by no means insensible to the natural temptations 
of youth, . . . was ever more attracted to and influenced by the good than by the 
evil around him." He fortunately fell into good hands, and says: "Never having 
had any real love for dissipation, I easily got rid of the bad influences that had 
assailed me in the John Adams" (Mahan, 1892, p. 53.) 

Strategic insight was shown in his method of passing forts, without reducing 
them, and depending for their fall upon their loss of communications, as at New 
Orleans and Mobile bay. 

The temperament of Farragut was complex. He was subject to depressions, 
like Nelson, only less so. Bad news from Galveston, in January 1863, while he was 
in the lower Mississippi, depressed him greatly. But on the whole, especially in 
battle, he was very active. His temperament was of the kind that reacted strongly 
to insult. "At the age of 8 years, knowledge that a British naval vessel had 
fired into an American brig caused him to feel that the news was an insult to be paid 
in kind, and he was anxious to discharge the debt with interest." 

Father. -- George Farragut was born September 29, 1755, and "was sent to 
school at Barcelona, but was seized with the spirit of adventure and emigrated 
to America at an early age. ... He arrived in 1776, promptly sided with the 
colonists, and served gallantly in their struggle for independence, as also in the 
War of 1812." In the mountains of eastern Tennessee he engaged in surveying. 
About 1802 "George Farragut moved to Louisiana, where he soon after entered 
the naval service and had charge of a gunboat on the Mississippi." "He was 
engaged in establishing the claim of the United States to the eastern Louisiana 
seacoast, occupied in part by the Spanish authorities." In 1811 he was "sailing 
master." Thus an official of the new territory reports: "At the special request 



82 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

of the inhabitants of Pascagoula, by whom he is greatly beloved, I prevailed on 
Sailing Master George Farragut to accept the commission of magistrate." He 
served with General Jackson in the Indian campaigns. Of him the admiral says: 
"a restless disposition and a mind filled with enterprise, courage, and a desire 
for novelty." He was for a time major of cavalry in the State of Tennessee. 
(Loyall Farragut, 1879, pp. 4-7.) He died in Louisiana in 1817. He was during 
his life sailor, soldier, explorer, pioneer, and planter. 

George Farragut was a man of great energy and daring, as the following 
statements of his son show: 

"The most daring enterprise that my father ever performed by water was 
in going from New Orleans to Havana in a pirogue, a species of canoe made of two 
pieces of wood instead of one. . . . This fondness for the sea was very strong with 
him, but his health was not sufficiently good, at that period of his life, to endure 
the hardships of actual service, or to indulge in the pleasures of an extended cruise; 
so he contented himself with making frequent trips across the Lake (Pontchar- 
train), with his children, in the yawl; a practice he kept up until the day of his 
death. When the weather was bad we usually slept on the beach of one of the 
numerous islands of the lake, or else on the shore of the mainland, wrapped in 
the boat sail, and, if the weather was cold, we generally half buried ourselves in 
the dry sand." (L. Farragut, 1879, pp. 9, 10.) 

Mother. Elizabeth Shine, of North Carolina, was "of the good old Scotch 
family of Mclven." The admiral writes: 

"I remember that on one occasion, during my father's absence, a party of 
Indians came to our house, which was somewhat isolated. My mother, who was 
a brave and energetic woman, barred the door in the most effectual manner, and 
sent all of us trembling little ones up into the loft of the barn, while she guarded 
the entrance with an axe. The savages attempted to parley with her, but she kept 
them at bay." (L. Farragut, 1879, p. 8.) 

It is said of Farragut that from his Scotch ancestry came his canny judgment, 
his keen sense of humor, his coolness in danger, and his deeply religious nature. 

FAMILY HISTORY OF DAVID G. FARRAGUT. 

II (F F) Antonio Ferragut, born in Majorca, a son of Jorge Ferragut and Ursula Guitart. 
12 (F M), Juana Mesquida, daughter of Juan Mesquite and 
Juana Bagur. 13 (M F), John Shine, was in western North 
Carolina in the middle third of the eighteenth century, and 
was thus a pioneer. I 4 ( M M), Ellenor Mclven ("the good 
old Scotch family of Mclven." L. Farragut, 1879, p. 6). 

II 1 (F), George Farragut, born at Minorca, Balearic 
Islands, 1755. "In his veins flowed the blood of a large line 
of soldiers, sailors, and adventurers." He was for a time 
engaged in seafaring pursuits. He went to America in 1776, 
and fought with the colonial army. II 2 (M), Elizabeth 
Shine. II 2, Jordan Merchant, of Norfolk, Virginia. II 5, jy 
William Loyall, esq., of Norfolk, Virginia. 

Fraternity of Propositus: III 1, William Farragut, procured an appointment in the navy 
through his father before 1808. He joined his brother David in a cruise against the pirates of 
the West Indies in the spring of 1823; he became crippled with rheumatism while on duty in the 
West Indies and died at New Orleans in 1859. Ill 3, George A. Farragut (born 1S05), was 
drowned by falling overboard from a boat that was being towed by a schooner, 1815. Ill 4 
(consort), Susan C. Marchant, married Farragut, September 24, 1823, at Norfolk, Virginia. 
She suffered from neuralgia for many years and had to be carried about like a child; she died 




FARRAGUT FLINDERS. 83 

in 1839. Ill 5 (Propositus), DAVID G. FARRAGXJT. Ill 6 (consort), Virginia Loyall, married 
Farragut, December 26, 1843. When the war broke out she decided to leave her family and go 
with her husband. 

Child of Propositus: IV 1, Loyall Farragut, joined his father at Pensacola, October 1862, 
and was present with his father at the passing of Port Hudson, March 1863, where he showed 
great bravery and coolness; "he wanted to be stationed on deck and see the fight," though urged 
to go below. He was cool under fire (Farragut, 1879, p. 343). He wrote a life of his father in 
1879. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

BARNES, J. 1899. David G. Farragut. Boston: Small, Maynard & Co. xviii + 132 pp. 
CHOATE, J. H. 1911. American Addresses, pp. 27-50. New York: The Century Co. 
FARRAGUT, L. 1879. The life of David Glasgow Farragut. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 

vi + 586 pp. 
HAYWOOD, M. 1903. Major George Farragut. (In: The Gulf States Historical Magazine, 

Vol. II, No. 2, pp. 90-98.) 
HEADLEY, P. C. 1865. Life and Naval Career of Vice Admiral David Glasgow Farragut. 

New York: W. Appleton. 7-342 pp. 
MAHAN, A. T. 1892. Admiral Farragut. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 333 pp. 



20. MATTHEW FLINDERS. 

MATTHEW FLINDERS was born, March 16, 1774, at Donington, England. 
He studied in the high school, from his twelfth to his fifteenth year, Latin, Greek, 
and mathematics. He then entered on a naval vessel, October 1789, and was made 
midshipman, July 1790, being assigned first to the Bellerophon. The next year 
he went under Captain William Bligh, on the Providence, to Tahiti, whence 500 
young breadfruit trees were brought to St. Vincent and 500 to Jamaica, West 
Indies, the return route lying through Torres Strait. Upon his return to England 
Flinders was made aide-de-camp to Pasley on the Bellerophon and was in a battle 
off Brest in which Pasley lost a leg. In 1794 plans were made to send a new gov- 
ernor (Hunter) to Australia and Matthew Flinders and his brother Samuel Ward, 
who desired to go also, received appointments on the expedition. They left 
Plymouth in February 1795 and arrived at Port Jackson in September. He and 
another officer, Bass, at once set out to explore the coast in a boat 8 feet long 
with 5-foot beam and a sail. They went south to Botany Bay and beyond to Port 
Hacking. After spending some time on shore duty, Flinders, in February 1798, 
went in the schooner Francis on a trip to rescue some marooned sailors at the east 
end of Bass Strait and on this trip made extensive observations on the birds and 
mammals of the islands. Later in the year Flinders set out, accompanied by 
Bass, in command of a 25-ton sloop, the Norfolk, and circumnavigated Tasmania, 
thus making the first passage of Bass Strait. Returning to Sydney, Flinders sailed 
north along the Queensland coast looking in vain for large river-mouths. In 
March 1800 he returned to England with the ship that brought him. In the 
spring of 1801 while he was negotiating to be sent on an exploring and surveying 
trip to Australia, he married Ann Chappell, a sailor's daughter; and his plans 
to take his wife along were frustrated after they had nearly defeated his plans of 
the expedition. He finally sailed, July 18, 1801, in the 334-ton sloop Investigator 
with a company of 80, including John Franklin as midshipman and a number 
of other young, scientifically trained men. They made Cape Leeuwin, southwest 
Australia, in December 1801. 

Flinders now carefully surveyed the south coast of Australia, particularly 
from King George's Sound eastward, so that many of his determinations and most 



84 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

of his names serve to-day. He was the first white man to enter Spencer's Gulf 
and Gulf of St. Vincent, on which Adelaide now stands. He reached Port Jack- 
son, May 8, 1802, pushed on and completed the circumnavigation of the continent 
in June 1803, the trip having been hastened because of the rottenness of the planks 
of his ship. Flinders now determined to go to England to carry his report to the 
admiralty and secure a better vessel in which to continue his explorations. On 
the return voyage he was wrecked on the Great Barrier Reef, but practically all 
of the company were landed on a sandy island. Flinders and an assistant rowed 
in an eight-oar cutter with 12 sailors back to Port Sydney, 700 miles. He returned 
with three vessels, by which the party was sent, some to Sydney, some to Canton, 
and a few with himself to England, via Torres Strait and Cape of Good Hope. 
In his 29-ton schooner Flinders was forced to stop at Mauritius, where the governor 
detained him from December 1803 to June 1810. Upon his return to England he 
set himself to prepare his charts and his book, "A Voyage to Terra Australis." 
As the book was passing through the press, Flinders died, at the age of 39, of some 
"constitutional internal trouble" which had caused him pain at Mauritius. 

Flinders was a nomad with intellectual curiosity. He had a love of dis- 
covery. "As a child, he was one day lost for hours. He was ultimately found in 
the middle of one of the sea marshes, his pockets stuffed with pebbles, tracing 
the rivulets of water, so that by following them up he might find out whence 
they came." Asked in later life for juvenile anecdotes illustrative of personal 
character, he replied, that he was "induced to go to sea against the wishes of friends 
from reading Robinson Crusoe." But the book merely afforded the stimulus to 
which the mind and temperament of the reader determined the reaction. "The 
call of the sea was strong within him." The trip to Tahiti stimulated his "passion 
for exploring new countries," as Flinders says. 

Whence this trait came is not clear from the biography; the father was a surgeon 
and so was the father's father. However, the father's brother, John, was in the 
navy, but did not altogether like it and was not successful in it. We naturally 
look for this nomadism among the male relatives of the mother, but about them 
we have no data. We know only that the mother's name was "Susannah Ward 
(1752-1783)." 

The younger brother, Samuel Ward Flinders, desired to accompany his 
brother to Australia on two trips and became a lieutenant in the Royal Navy. 
Most interesting is the fact that Flinders's daughter Anne, who married a William 
Petrie, had a son, William Matthews Flinders Petrie, bom 1863, who is the leading 
British Egyptologist, professor of Egyptology in the University College, London - 
as great a discoverer in his field as his mother's father was in another. 

Flinders was a visualist. This shows itself in his neat, beautiful hand- 
handwriting, in his careful, neat maps, in the appeal made upon him by organic 
as well as topographic forms. Indeed, it was largely the desire to see new things 
that lay at the basis of his love of discovery. Perhaps, as is often the case, his 
paternal ancestors were surgeons because of an appeal of form. 

Flinders was intrepid. He started out in a 8-foot boat to explore the rugged 
shores of Australia. He pushed on around Australia in a sloop whose unseaworthi- 
ness was demonstrated shortly after the start on the voyage. He crossed the 
Indian Ocean in a schooner of 29 tons that leaked almost to the capacity of the 
pumps working night and day. He rowed in an open cutter 700 miles from Wreck 
Reef to Sydney along the coast of Australia. 



FLINDERS. 



85 



He was industrious and conscientious. He was just; he opposed in naval 
court the sentencing of a man whom he believed to be wronged. He was haughty, 
and refused his captor's invitation to dinner a refusal that brought him 7 years 
of internment. He was dogged; else he could never have succeeded with small or 
rotten ships and where the elements were arrayed against him. 

Like most hyperkinetics (of which he was a mild representative), he was, 
when relaxed, a lively companion, a warm friend, and an entertaining conversa- 
tionalist. He attracted men to him. He was generous to others, including other 
geographical discoverers on his own ground. 

He was scholarly. He wrote a theory of tides, a paper on the magnetism 
of the globe, and a treatise on spherical trigonometry. Flinders was careful, 
conscientious, and accurate. "The excellence of his charts was such that to this 
day the Admiralty charts for those portions of the Australian coast where he did 
his original work bear upon them" his name. 



n 



FAMILY HISTORY OF MATTHEW FLINDERS. 

I 1 (F F), John Flinders (born 1737), a surgeon. 

II 1 (consort's F), Chappell, a shipmaster. Fraternity 

of F: II 3, John Flinders (1766-1793), a lieutenant in the Royal 
Navy. II 4 (F), Matthew Flinders, a surgeon of excellent reputa- 
tion who read a clinical paper before the Medical Society of 
London. II 5 (M), Susannah Ward (1752-1783). 

III 1 (consort), Ann Chappell (1770-1852). Ill 2 (Pro- 
positus) MATTHEW FLINDERS. Fraternity of Propositus: III 3, 
Samuel Ward Flinders (1782-1842), a lieutenant in the Royal 
Navy. 

Child of Propositus: IV 1, Ann Flinders. IV 2, William Petrie. 

Child of child of Propositus: V 1, William Matthew Flinders 
Petrie (born 1863), the leading British Egyptologist and Professor 
of Egyptology in the University College, London. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

SCOTT, E. 1914. The Life of Captain Matthew Flinders, R. N. Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 
xviii + 492 pp. 




V 



86 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

21. ANDREW HULL FOOTE. 

ANDREW HULL FOOTE was born at New Haven, Connecticut, September 12, 
1806. He was a lively boy, indisposed to study or routine of any kind, and, though 
he had no bad traits, he loved freedom and fun. He led his brothers in pranks. 
Once, as a young lad, while crossing a field with his younger brother, Augustus, 
who was dressed in a red frock, he encountered an excited ram, which charged 
on the red frock. Andrew bravely threw himself in the way and received the shock 
of the ram, and this he did several times, until they had reached the fence in 
safety. He was ready to fight on occasion. At one time as a lad he entered a 
shoemaker's shop in the winter and neglected to close the door. One of the 
workmen ordered him peremptorily to shut the door. Not liking the tone of the 
order, Andrew refused to shut the door unless asked civilly. The workman replied 
that if he did not shut the door he would thrash him; Andrew, now aroused, 
knocked the workman down. "As a boy he was full of fun and frolic, a real boy, 
but he was genial, kind, and popular." 

At Cheshire Academy he was not a good student, but was noted for his 
amiability and tact in getting out of the difficulties which his frolicsome dispo- 
sition plunged him into. He early declared his intention of going to sea. His 
father compromised by entering him at West Point, but a few months later, at 16, 
he was transferred to the navy. 

His first service in the navy was on the schooner Grampus, which was sent 
to exterminate the pirates around the West Indies. In March 1824 he started 
for the Pacific Ocean and served there for two years on the frigate United States, 
the flagship of Commodore Isaac Hull. During this voyage, at the age of about 
18 years, he became "converted." He was commissioned lieutenant in May 
1830 and cruised for some years in the Mediterranean. In 1837 he was assigned 
to the East India squadron and circumnavigated the globe in the John Adams. 
While at Honolulu he was a leading spirit in preparing and publishing a letter 
which corrected unfortunate misjudgments concerning American missionaries and 
maintained the principle that American missionaries everywhere are under the 
protection of the American flag. 

In 1841 he was appointed to the Naval Asylum in Philadelphia and shortly 
after was put in full charge. At that time the asylum combined the functions 
of hospital and school and was the parent of the Naval Academy at Annapolis. 
Lieutenant Foote directed the care and education of the midshipmen. He also 
introduced the reform of no grog for the old seamen and supplied them all with 
Bibles. Foote was now sent in the brig Perry to the coast of Africa, to suppress 
the slave trade. Here he filled a difficult position with energy and clearheadedness. 
His relations with the English slave-ship hunters were cordial, but he could not 
consent to permit the British commander to board any vessel flying an American 
flag except on his own responsibility. In this he showed much diplomatic skill 
and secured British adherence to his main contention. His largest capture was 
the slaver Martha, whose captain denied having papers, but, on an examination 
of something floating near by, the captain's desk was discovered with information 
that resulted in the captain and crew going in irons to New York, where the ship 
was condemned as a slaver. She had planned to carry 1,800 slaves. The loss of 
the Martha, and slightly later of the slaver Chatsworth, did much to check the slave- 
trade. During four years ashore (1852-1856), Foote wrote a book, "Africa and 



FOOTE. 87 

the American Flag"; also, he delivered lectures on temperance, on Liberia, and 
on Christian missions. He served on the Naval Efficiency Board at Washington. 

In April 1856 Commander Foote was ordered to the East India station to 
join Commodore Armstrong's fleet in the Portsmouth, a sloop-of-war provided with 
Dahlgren guns. He was sent to the river at Canton, China, to protect Americans 
there. The Chinese and British were at war and Foote maintained an armed neu- 
trality. On one occasion his boat was fired upon by the Chinese, without provo- 
cation. It was determined to prevent a recurrence of such an attack and all 
four forts guarding the river were captured, partly by fire from the ships and partly 
by storming, with a loss to the Americans of 7 killed and 22 wounded and to the 
Chinese of 200 to 500. This action made the American flag respected and paved 
the way for the advantageous treaties of Mr. Reed and Mr. Burlingame. 

Upon his return to Atlantic waters Foote was placed in charge of the 
Brooklyn Navy Yard. Here his energy and executive talent led to improved 
discipline and to his frequent appointment as president of courts-martial. He also 
put in force his progressive ideas as to scientific as well as technical training for 
naval men. 

When the Civil War broke out Foote was placed in command of naval opera- 
tions on the "western rivers," meaning the rivers about the mouth of the Ohio. 
Nine iron-clad gunboats and numerous mortar-boats were being built and three 
wooden vessels had been purchased. By tremendous activity Foote got most of 
them ready for action before February 6, 1862, on which day he cooperated with 
Grant's troops in the attack on Fort Henry. Steaming his ironclads close up to 
the fort, they were fought, following his careful orders, with such vigor and accuracy 
that the fort was surrendered in a few hours, with a Union loss of only 2 men 
killed. 

A few days later Foote cooperated again with Grant before Fort Donelson. 
This fort was placed partly on a high bluff and partly at the water's edge and was 
much stronger than Fort Henry. Foote planned to destroy the lower battery 
and then, ascending the river still farther, enfilade the front of the fort with broad- 
sides. The fortifications were badly damaged, but the fleet had suffered so from 
the fire of the land guns that the boats had to retire just as the fort was about to 
fall. It was abandoned the following night. Foote was wounded in the foot 
and leg. This dangerous wound was eventually the cause of his death. Foote 
was for pushing the advantage of the fall of Fort Donelson by advancing up the 
river, but he was prevented from doing so fully by the military arm of the service. 
He was now directed to proceed toward Fort Columbus, on the Mississippi River. 
It occupied a powerful position, but the fall of the other river forts and the 
appearance of Foote's reinforced fleet in the river led his enemy to seek a parley 
under a flag of truce. Foote's curt replies still further shook their confidence and 
the fort was evacuated. Island No. 10, farther down the river, was passed at 
night by two gunboats which brought land forces across to the rear of its batteries. 
The batteries were thereupon abandoned and the island itself soon surrendered 
(April 7, 1862). The admiral had now to demand relief from service on account 
of his wound. He died June 26, 1863. 

Andrew Hull Foote was self-reliant and adventurous, even audacious. His 
father once said that he had succeeded pretty well in controlling all of his boys 
except Andrew; him he had attempted only to guide. It was because he was so 
self-reliant and adventuresome that he succeeded in destroying the barrier forts 



HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

in the Canton river and the forts in the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers. Naval 
vessels are not ordinarily able to reduce strong land fortifications, as Nelson found 
to his sorrow at Teneriffe. It was highly audacious for Foote to bring his small 
fleet close to such strong fortifications; he succeeded because his vessels were 
the first naval ironclads in action. There was a good deal of this same self-reliance 
combined with pertinacity hi his father, Samuel A. Foote, who was speaker of the 
Connecticut legislature, 1825-1826, and a member of Congress for three terms. He 
then was sent to the United States Senate, where he introduced the resolution as 
to the sale of public lands that was intended to raise the nullification doctrine and 
which led to the famous debate between Hayne and Webster. He forced the states' 
rights men to "show their colors." He became governor of Connecticut in 1834. 

Foote was a fighter, even as a boy, as we have seen. His mother's father, 
Andrew Hull (1758-1827), became brigadier general of the Connecticut militia and 
was a distinctly efficient officer. At his death he was marshal of Connecticut. 

Foote early declared his intention of going to sea, and at the age of 16 entered 
the navy. His mother's father, General Andrew Hull, was a merchant in the 
West India trade; he owned, among others, the brig Trenton, which was lost at 
sea. In those days many merchants went themselves to sea, as supercargo, to 
sell their merchandise and buy in exchange. Hull probably had a liking for the 
sea. Andrew's father was also in the West India trade for a time with his father- 
in-law and occasionally made voyages. Another grandson of General Andrew 
Hull was in the navy for a tune William Augustus Hitchcock, a son of Mary 
Hull and William R. Hitchcock. 

General Andrew Hull had a second cousin, Joseph Hull, who during the 
Revolutionary war commanded a flotilla on Long Island Sound and later engaged 
in the whale fishery. His son, Isaac Hull (1773-1843), was born in Derby, Con- 
necticut; with an "unconquerable passion for the sea," he became a cabin-boy on 
a merchant ship at the age of 14 years. It is related that, when the vessel was 
shipwrecked some two years later, young Hull saved the captain's life by sup- 
porting him in the water until they reached shore. Given command of a ship 
sailing to the West Indies, he gained such a reputation as a skillful mariner that, 
on the organization of the United States navy in 1798, he was commissioned a 
lieutenant and assigned to the Constitution. Sent by his captain, in 1799, to 
"cut out" the French letter-of -marque Sandwich at Puerto Plata, he boarded 
her successfully and spiked the guns of the land battery; but the illegal order and 
its consequences cost the Government dearly. Hull commanded a ship in Preble's 
squadron that was sent against the Barbary States. In 1811 he commanded 
the Constitution, which came near to an action with the British. During the war of 
1812 the Constitution destroyed the Guerriere. After the war Hull served on the 
Navy Board and in charge of navy yards. He died in Philadelphia at the age of 70. 

Foote loved fun from boyhood up, as we have seen. His brother, John 
Alfred Foote (1803-1891), was also especially fond of fun. Of his father it is said: 
'There was a vein of kindly humor in his make-up." 

Foote was markedly pious, as shown repeatedly in the above history. His 
father, too, was a pious man and both the father's father and the father's mother's 
father became pastors of the Congregational Church at Cheshire, Connecticut. 

The father of the propositus, Governor Samuel Augustus Foote, had a 
remarkably good heredity, especially on the mother's side. His mother's father, 
Samuel Hall (1695-1776), was a graduate of Yale College, sometime tutor there, 



FOOTE. 



89 



and later pastor at Cheshire; one of his brothers, John, was representative to 
the general court of Connecticut, and John's son, Lyman, signed the Declaration 
of Independence from Georgia and was elected governor of that State. John's 
sister, Eunice Hall, married Jonathan Law (1674-1750), governor of Connecticut 
(1741-1750); and her only son, Richard Law (1733-1806), was nominated to 
the Continental Congress that passed the Declaration of Independence, which 
he would have signed had he not been confined to the hospital at the time. In 
1786 he was appointed chief-justice of the supreme court of the State and cooper- 
ated with Roger Sherman in revising the code of law of the State. This same 
Governor Jonathan Law was the mother's mother's father of Governor Samuel A. 
Foote. This line goes back to John Eliot, "Apostle to the Indians." 



FAMILY HISTORY OF ANDREW HULL FOOTE. 



12 



II (FMMMFF), John Eliot (1604-1690), the "Apostle to the Indiana." 
(F M M M F M), Hannah Mumford. 

II 1 (F M M M F), Joseph Eliot (born 1638), a clergyman. II 2 (F M M M M), Sarah 
Brenton. Fraternity of F M M M M: II 3, William Brenton, from whom was descended Admiral 
Jahleel Brenton (see Brenton family). 



n 



'in 




vn 



III 1 (F M M F), Jonathan Law (1674-1750), governor of Connecticut. Ill 2 (F M M M), 
Anne Eliot (born 1677). Ill 3 (M F F F), Caleb Hull (1695-1788), was an ensign who at the 
age of 80 years marched to the relief of Boston. Ill 4 (M F F M), Mercy Benham. Fraternity 
of M F F F: III 5, Joseph Hull (born 1694), a sea captain and a representative to the general 
assembly. Ill 6, Sarah Bennett. 

IV 1, Mary Street. Fraternity of F M F: IV 2, John Hall (1692-1773), a representative 
to the general court. IV 3, Elihu Hall (born 1714), was graduated from Yale College; held 
the military rank of colonel; went to London. IV 4, Benjamin (died in infancy), Benjamin, 
Eliakim, and Caleb Hall. IV 5, Esther, Sarah, and Nancy Hall. IV 6, John Prentiss, com- 
manded the armed colonial vessel Defence. IV 8, Eunice Hall (born 1700). IV 9 (F M F), 
Samuel Hall (1695-1776), pastor in Cheshire, Connecticut. IV 10 (F M M), Anna Law (born 
1702). IV 11 (M F F), Andrew Hull (1726-1774). IV 12 (M F M), Lowly Cook. IV 13, Cap- 
tain Joseph Hull (1728-1775). IV 14, Elizah Clark. 

V 1, Lyman Hall (1731-1790), a physician of Georgia, who signed the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. V 2, Hannah, Eunice, Susannah, Rhoda, and Mary Hall. V 3, John, Street, and 



90 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

Giles Hall. V 4, Anne Prentiss. V 5, Richard Law (1733-1806), member of the Continental 
Congress. V 7, Lucy, Ann Mary, and Sarah Hall. V 8, Brenton and Jonathan Hall, were 
farmers. V 9, Samuel and Elisha Hall, were graduated from college. V 10 (F M), Abigail 
Hall (1748-1788). V 11 (F F), John Foote (born 1742), became pastor of the Congregational 
Church in Cheshire, Connecticut. V 12 (M F), Andrew Hull (born 1758), a brigadier general 
of the militia. V 13 (M M), Elizabeth Atwater. V 14, William Hull (1753-1800), served with 
distinction through the Revolution and was appointed lieutenant colonel in 1783. In the War 
of 1812 as brigadier general he surrendered to the English at Detroit. V 15, Joseph Hull, a 
lieutenant of artillery in the Revolutionary war; in early life was in the West India trade. 

VI 1, John Law (born 1761), a lawyer. VI 2, Richard Law (born 1763), was captain of 
one of the first steam packets running between New York and New Haven; became a mid- 
shipman on the Trumbull and commandant and collector of the port of New London. VI 3, 
Jonathan (born 1765) and Christopher Law. VI 4, Benjamin Law (1767-1812), was in the 
United States navy. VI 5, Anne (1768-1849) and Mary (born 1775) Law. VI 6, Lyman Law 
(born 1770), a lawyer and member of Congress. Fraternity of F: VI 8, Mary Ann Foote (born 
1770). VI 10, William Lambert Foote. VI 11, Lucinda Foote (born 1772), was qualified at the 
age of 12 years to enter Yale College. VI 12 (F), Samuel Augustus Foote (1780-1846), occa- 
sionally made voyages to the West Indies, having given up the study of law on account of his 
health. He was elected to both houses of Congress and in 1834 was chosen governor of Con- 
necticut. VI 13 (M), Eudocia Hull, a "true executrix of the household." Fraternity of M: VI 15, 
MarabHull. VI 16, Henry Whittlesley. VI 17, Elizabeth Hull. VI 18, Rev. Dr. A. Todd. VI 19, 
Sarah and Elizabeth Hull. V 20, Mary Hull. VI 21, William Hitchcock. VI 22, Isaac Hull 
(1773-1843), showed such skill in the West India trade that he was commissioned 4th lieutenant 
upon the organization of the United States navy in 1798. He distinguished himself in the War 
of 1812 as commander of the Constitution in the action with the Guerriere. A nephew of Isaac 
Hull, Joseph Bartine Hull (1832-1890), from 1862 to 1864 superintended the building of gunboats 
at St. Louis and commanded at the Philadelphia navy yard in 1866. 

Fraternity of Propositus: VII 1, John Alfred Foote (1803-1891), member of Congress. 

VII 3, Augustus Edwin Foote. VII 4 (consort), Caroline Flagg. VII 5 (Propositus) ANDREW 
HULL FOOTE. VII 6 (consort), Caroline Street. 

Children of Propositus: VIII 2, Josephine Foote (born 1837). VII 3, Augustus Foote 
(born 1847), in government employ at Washington, D.C. VIII 4, William Foote (1848-1862). 

VIII 6, John Foote (born 1859). 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

DAVIS, C. 1870. History of Wallingford, Connecticut. Meriden: The Author, pp. 806-821. 

FOOTE, A. 1907. Foote Family. Rutland: Marble City Press. 5-607 pp. 

HALL, S., and N. 1886. Genealogical Notes ... of Hon. Lyman Hall of Georgia. Albany: 

J. Munsell's Sons, viii, 9-191 pp. 

HOPPIN, J. 1874. Life of Andrew Hull Foote. New York: Harper & Bros, x, 14-411 pp. 
MASON, P. 1894. A record of the Descendants of Richard Hull. Milwaukee: 3-78 pp. 

22. EBENEZER Fox. 

EBENEZER Fox was born at Roxbury, Massachusetts, January 30, 1763. 
He was the son of a tailor and belonged to a poor and large family. He was 
placed with a farmer at the age of 7 years. At 12 years of age, at a time when 
rebellion was in the air, he and another boy walked to Providence to go to sea; 
the love of freedom, the spirit of adventure, were with them. Fox shipped to the 
island of Santo Domingo and returned to near Providence, when two British war 
vessels intercepted them, their vessel was run aground, and Fox swam to shore. 
He entered the naval service, was captured, and kept on the prison-ship Jersey, 
but later he was sent to Jamaica, from which island he escaped and returned to 
America after the surrender of Cornwallis. In his autobiography he repeatedly 
admits a wanderlust. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Fox, E. 1847. The Adventures of Ebenezer Fox in the Revolutionary War. Boston: Fox. 
240 pp. 



FRANKLIN. 91 

23. JOHN FRANKLIN. 

JOHN FRANKLIN was born at Spilsby, Lincolnshire, England, April 16, 1786. 
At about 14 years he cruised on a merchantman and at 15 was entered as mid- 
shipman on the Polyphemus and participated in her in the battle of Copenhagen 
(April 1801). Two months later he joined the Investigator, a ship of discovery, 
commanded by Captain Matthew Flinders (his kinsman), on which for nearly 
two years he surveyed the coasts of Australia. He was wrecked on a coral reef 
off Australia. Having returned to England, he joined the Bellerophon and was 
in charge of its signals during the battle of Trafalgar. At the close of the war 
with France (until which he was engaged in various naval services), he took up 
again the work of surveying. In 1818 he started for the Northwest Passage, in 
command of the Trent, but the accompanying Dorothea having become damaged 
by ice, Franklin had to convoy her home. The next year he was placed in com- 
mand of an exploring party that started overland from the shores of Hudson's 
Bay to the Arctic shore near the mouth of the Coppermine river and back, a 
distance of 5,500 miles. In 1825 Captain Franklin was so steadfastly bent on going 
to sea that "to settle to business would be merely impossible." It was in action 
that his restless spirit always found it hardest to bear; a year and a half ashore was 
always a sufficient spell of the landsman's life for him. This year he went to 
Canada, descended the Mackenzie River to its mouth, and traced the North 
American coast as far as nearly to 150 West longitude. Honors were showered 
on him on his return to England, and he published, with Dr. Richardson, an 
account of his discoveries. He was next placed on the Mediterranean station for 
a few years and then, in 1836, he was made lieutenant governor of Tasmania, where 
he democratized the government, founded a college and a scientific society, and 
assisted in the formation of a magnetic observatory at Hobart Town. In 1844 
he returned to England, where he entered into plans that had already been laid for 
polar research and was given charge of the expedition to discover a northwest 
passage. He left Greenland in high spirits, and this was the last heard of him 
directly. Subsequent search revealed that he spent the winter of 1845-1846 on 
Beechey Island; in the autumn of 1846 his ships Erebus and Terror were beset by ice 
and held by it during the following winter and summer. Sir John Franklin died in 
June 1847, and the survivors started, in April 1848, on an overland journey through 
northern Canada, but all perished on the way, leaving only their journals and bones 
to tell their fate to the search expeditions, notably that of McClintock (q. t.). 

A brother, James (III 9), entered the East India Company's service as a cadet 
and served in the Pindari War; and a brother, Willingham, went to Madras as judge. 

John Franklin had a native love of discovery a curiosity. As a child he 
had an irrepressible desire to watch callers upon a family across the way who enter- 
tained a great deal. From the time of his visit in an exploring trip to Australia 
it was certainly maritime discovery rather than naval warfare upon which his 
mind was fixed. In 1835, while waiting for employment, he made a tour of Ireland 
with his wife; "Franklin's untiring intellectual curiosity and thirst for informa- 
tion made it impossible for him to regard any sojourn in a new country from the 
point of view of mere amusement, and his well-filled notebooks attest the diligence 
with which he endeavored to make himself thoroughly acquainted with the rural 
and economical conditions of Irish life." In Tasmania "he continued to lose him- 
self and an exploring party in the hitherto unthreaded bush, from which, indeed, they 



92 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

did not ultimately emerge into known or habitable regions until after his alarmed 
subjects had dispatched at least one expedition for his discovery and relief." 
"He loved adventure for adventure's sake, he reveled hi strife, as strength and daring 
always revel. The thirst for discovery of the unknown glowed in his veins with an 
unquenchable and lifelong ardor." "He was a devourer of books of every kind." 

A trait of scientific inquiry was in others of his family. His brother James in 
India became an officer of considerable scientific attainments and was employed 
on important surveys and was elected a fellow of the Royal Society. The well- 
known archeologist, William Matthew Flinders Petrie, is stated to be a grandson 
of Franklin's aunt. 1 

Other elements were a "dogged pertinacity and immovable self-control." 
His mother was a woman of great resolution of character. " He was frank in speech 
and bearing and had an open and affectionate disposition and a hot but generous 
temper, quick impetuosity, and marvelously elastic spirits. His manner was very 
quiet, as of one accustomed to command others." He received enthusiastic 
devotion from his followers. 

FAMILY HISTORY OF SIR JOHN FRANKLIN. 

I 1 (F F), John Franklin. 12 (F M) - , "a woman of masculine capacity"; kept a 
email shop. 13 (M F) , a substantial farmer. 

II 1 (F), Willingham Franklin, in early youth was apprenticed to a grocer and draper in 
Lincoln; became a banker. II 2 (M) Hannah . 



6 6 17 8 19 110 11 




Jl8 |18 14 J15 If 

DOtlOrffl 




Fraternity of Propositus: III 3, Willingham Franklin (1779-1824), was educated at Oxford; 
a barrister. In 1822 he was appointed puisne judge of the supreme court at Madras. Ill 4, 
Elizabeth Franklin, died at an advanced age. Ill 7, Sarah Franklin, died early. Ill 8, Mr. 
Selwood. Ill 9, James Franklin (1783-1834), entered the East India Company's service as a 
cadet in 1805 and became an officer of considerable scientific attainment. He surveyed all of 
Bundelkhand and executed a valuable map of that region. Ill 10, Hannah Franklin. Ill 11, 
John Booth. Ill 13, Isabella Franklin. Ill 14, Thomas Robert Cracroft. Ill 15, Henrietta 
Franklin, died in extreme old age. Ill 16, Rev. Richard Wright. Ill 17 (first consort), Eleanor 
Anne Porden, had poetical ability. Ill 18 (Propositus), SIR JOHN FRANKLIN. Ill 19, Jane Grif- 
fin, sent out the relief expedition of 1857, which brought back the news of the fate of Sir John 
Franklin and records of the voyage. 

IV 2, Alfred, Lord Tennyson, poet laureate of England. IV 3, Mary Booth. IV 4, Sir 
John Richardson (1787-1865), a famous surgeon and naturalist. IV 5, Canon Wright, Rector 
of Coningsby, Lincolnshire. 

Child of Proposilus: IV 6, Eleanor Franklin (born 1824). 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

MARKHAM, A. 1890. Life of Sir John Franklin and the Northwest Passage. New York: Dodd, 

Mead & Co. xii + 324 pp. 
TRAILL, H. 1896. The Life of Sir John Franklin, R. N. London : J. Murray, 6 + 454 pp. 

1 Traill, 1896, states that Captain Matthew Flinders married an aunt of Franklin. The 
name of Flinders's consort was Ann Chappell. The name of Franklin's mother is not known. 



HARDY. 93 



24. THOMAS MASTERMAN HARDY. 

THOMAS MASTERMAN HARDY was born April 5, 1769, in Dorset, England. 
After some early schooling he, in November 1781, went on board the naval brig 
Helena as "captain's servant" to Captain Francis Roberts. As a child, when the 
boys of the family were offered ponies by their father, he replied that Joe and 
Jack might have horses but that he wanted a wooden one, meaning, to go on a 
ship. From April 1783 to January 1784, he was on shore for an education. The 
story is told of his mounting the abbey tower with another boy and letting a third 
down by a rope to get eggs from a bird's nest. He then threatened to cut the 
rope unless the boy promised to give him 2 out of the 4 eggs. 

Hardy was enrolled in the navy from January 1784 to October 1785, after 
which he evidently spent some time with his recently widowed mother and some 
time in the mercantile marine. In February 1790 he joined the Hebe as midship- 
man, cruised on the Channel, and was made lieutenant in 1793. In 1796 he moved 
into the Minerve, a large frigate recently captured from the French and upon which 
Nelson, now commanding, hoisted his pennant. In December 1796 the Minerve was 
in a battle with certain French frigates, one of which fell a prize, and Hardy was put 
in charge of it. But a Spanish squadron appeared just then, recaptured the frigate, 
and made Hardy prisoner; however, he was exchanged six weeks later. He took 
part in the naval victory off Cape St. Vincent. In May 1797 his ship came upon 
the beautiful and speedy French brig Mutine and Hardy was put in command of 
the boats sent to board her, and board her he did in daylight without the loss of 
a man; he was then promoted to the rank of commander and appointed to the 
Mutine. He accompanied Nelson to the Nile and in the battle his vessel did such 
service that he was promoted to be captain of Nelson's flagship. He was with 
Nelson during the latter's wasted months at and about Naples; was home for a 
time, and then again captain of Nelson's flagship on his expedition into the Baltic 
and before the battle of Copenhagen. In 1803 he was made captain of Nelson's 
ship Victory, and with it helped in the blockade of Toulon; in 1805 he led one 
squadron in Trafalgar (October 21, 1805), where Nelson was killed. Nelson had 
Hardy witness his will, and he died almost in Hardy's arms. Hardy was created a 
baronet in 1806. He now commanded ships in the North Atlantic and made some 
captures of American ships in the War of 1812. In 1815 he was appointed to a 
captaincy of the royal yacht Princess Augusta, which he retained for three years. 
In 1819 he was made commander in chief of the South Atlantic squadron, a posi- 
tion which, on account of the revolutions occurring in South American countries, 
required great tact and courage. In 1825 he was appointed rear admiral and was 
made chairman of a committee on changes in naval construction. He favored 
more 3-decked ships-of-the-line of 90 to 120 guns. He ended active service at sea on 
October 21, 1827, at the age of 58 years. For four years, 1830-1834, he was first 
sea lord of the admiralty; as such he "lived for the future," held opinions 30 years 
in advance of other admirals of his time, and appreciated the changes that science 
and steam were effecting. He favored large ships carrying heavy armament, 
and also he used to say: "Happen what will, England's duty is to take and keep 
the lead." From 1834 to 1839 Hardy was governor of the Greenwich Hospital. 
He died September 28, 1839, at the age of 70 years. 



94 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

His traits were, first, a love of the sea, which showed itself very early and 
persisted; second, a quickness in meeting crises, as when he jumped into a boat 
to rescue a sailor who had fallen overboard. Nelson said of him: "Providence 
had imbued him with an intuitive right judgment." Hardy had no gift of elo- 
quence and was was no politician. He was a reformer, especially in matters of 
the navy, in which he showed great foresight. 

He showed great tact and diplomacy. It is said of him (by Hall in Marshall's 
Naval Biography, page 180): 

" Hardy was trusted everywhere, and enjoyed in wonderful degree the con- 
fidence and esteem of all parties. His advice, which was never obtruded, was never 
suspected, and a thousand little disputes were at once settled amicably, and to 
the advantage of all concerned, by a mere word of his, instead of being driven into 
what are called national questions, to last for years, and lead to no useful end. 
When this respect and confidence had once become fully established, everything 
went on so smoothly under his vigilant auspices that it was only those that chanced 
to be placed near the scene who could perceive the extent, or appreciate the impor- 
tance, of the public good that he was quietly dispensing." 

He had courage: 

" He had always made his mark for good; raising, when the exigencies of the 
situation required it, the prestige of the English flag by some bold stroke of firm 
insistence." 

Humanity was another of his traits, page 122: 

"One of the most prominent characteristics of Hardy's generous and kindly 
nature was a solicitude for the comfort and happiness of those placed under his 
command. His anxiety about the young officers and sailors 'of his various ships 
is often quite touching. Even at that period, when the navy served as a sort 
of refuge for the very dregs of society, he believed in treating the British sailors 
as rational human beings, instead of as animals amenable only to fear of punish- 
ment. In the matter of discipline he was far in advance of his tunes. He was 
the first who had the courage to trust to the honor of his men and to dispense with 
the patrol of boats around the ships for the prevention of desertion. ... At 
Greenwich Hospital Sir Thomas Hardy found a new sphere for his geniality and 
human sympathy. He rapidly became as popular with the pensioners ... as 
he formerly was with the middies and the 'captains' servants.' . . . That 
which endeared him to every one was his amiable simplicity" (page 122). 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

BBOADLET, A. M., and R. G. BARTELOT. 1909. Nelson's Hardy, His Life, Letters and Friends. 
London: J. Murray, xx + 310 pp. 



HAWKE. 



95 



25. EDWARD HAWKE. 

EDWARD HAWKE was born in 1705. He entered the British navy in 1720, 
was made post captain in 1734, and in 1743 was assigned to the command of the 
ship-of-the-line Berwick. In January 1744, under Admiral Mathews, he took part in 
the naval battle off Toulon and won distinction by the spirit he showed, engaging 
his antagonist in close action and capturing her. The king personally favored him 
and helped to advance him to the position of rear admiral in 1747. At that time 
he was given command of fourteen ships to intercept a French convoy. On October 
14 he sighted the merchant fleet and its convoy of nine ships. He fought the con- 
voy and six of its ships fell into his hands. In 1848 he became vice admiral of the 
blue squadron, having already been elected to Parliament, a seat which he re- 
tained for 30 years. On the outbreak of the war with France in 1756, Hawke was 
made full admiral. France was planning to invade England and Hawke was 
watching the French fleet under de Conflans in the Channel. When Hawke learned 
that the French fleet was at sea he put on all sail and after a chase of three days 
caught up with it. The enemy made for Quiberon bay, full of dangerous rocks and 
on a lee shore. Without order of battle the pursuers engaged the enemy's ships 
as they came up with them and poured shot into them. In three hours two French 
ships had sunk and two had struck, eight had run ashore, including the flagship, 
and eight had escaped. The British lost two ships on a shoal, but most of the 
people on board were saved. This great victory brought deserved recognition and 
the admiral was created Baron Hawke. He was lord of the admiralty from 1776 
to 1781, when he died. 

Hawke had the spirit of a fighter. There is insufficient knowledge as to his 
hereditary elements. We know, however, that his mother belonged to the Fair- 
faxes, one of England's greatest fighting families, and that his mother's mother's 
father was a general in the Parliamentary army in the early part of the seventeenth 
century. 

FAMILY HISTORY OF SIR EDWARD HAWKE. 

I 1 (M F F), Thomas Bladen, a physician. I 2 
(M F M), Sarah, daughter of Lord Blayney. I 3 
(MM F), Sir William Fairfax of Steeton (born 1610), 
a general in the army, who saved the Parliamentary 
army from defeat and lost his life at the battle of 
Montgomery. I 4 (M M M), Frances Chaloner. I 5, 
Robert Stapleton. I 6, Catherine Fairfax, daughter of 
Viscount Thomas Fairfax of Gilling, a distant relative 
of M M F. 

II 1 (M F), Nathaniel Bladen of Lincoln's Inn, 
barrister-at-law. II 2 (M M), Isabella Fairfax (1637- 

1691). Fraternity of M M: II 3, Thomas Fairfax (1633-1712), a general in the army and governor 
of Limerick. II 4, Catherine and Mary Fairfax. II 5, William Fairfax (1630-1672), saw military 
Bervice. II 6, Catherine Stapleton. 

III 1 (F), Edward Hawke, of Lincoln's Inn, barrister-at-law. Ill 2 (M), Elizabeth Bladen. 
Fraternity of M: III 3, Colonel Martin Bladen, comptroller of the mint, a Lord of Trade, and 
editor of a superb edition of " Caesar's Commentaries." Ill 4, Hammond (died young) and 
Hammond Bladen. Ill 5, William Bladen, settled in Maryland. Ill 6, Frances and Isabel Bladen. 
Ill 7, Althea, Elizabeth, and Frances Fairfax. Ill 8, William Fairfax (died 1694). Ill 9, Robert 
Fairfax (1666-1725), was of a roving disposition and not fond of study. He first went to sea 
in a merchant ship. He was first lieutenant on the Bonaventure in the battle of Bantry Bay; 




96 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

in 1690 he became captain and in 1708 was made vice admiral and later a lord of admiralty. 
Finally he retired to his estates and became a member of Parliament and lord mayor of York. 
He had sound judgment, was resourceful in an emergency, prompt, cool, and brave. 
IV 1 (Propositus), SIR EDWARD HAWKE. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

BURKE, SIR B., and A. 1909. A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Peerage and Bar- 
onetage. London: Harrison and Sons. 2570 pp. 

M AH AN, A. 1913. Types of Naval Officers Drawn from the History of the British Navy. Boston: 
Little, Brown & Co. pp. 77-147. 

MARKHAM, C. 1885. Life of Robert Fairfax of Steeton. London: Macmillan & Co. 

NEILL, E. 1868. The Fairfaxes of England and America in the Seventeenth & Eighteenth 
Centuries. Albany: J. Munsell. 234 pp. 

26. JOHN HAWKINS. 

JOHN HAWKINS was born at Plymouth, England, in 1532, of a family of men of 
of the sea. He "was bred to the sea in the ships of his family." He early sailed 
to the Guinea coast, robbed the Portuguese slavers, and then smuggled the cap- 
tured negroes into the Spanish possessions of the New World at a tune when 
foreign trade with them was strictly forbidden. His first voyage was in 1562-1563; 
later he lost two vessels, confiscated by the Spanish; but he repeated his earlier 
voyage with success, and thereby gained such a reputation that he was granted 
a coat of arms, with a negro, chained, as his crest. A third trip was undertaken as 
a national venture; again he kidnaped negroes, again he smuggled them into the 
Spanish colonies. Finding the settlement unfortified, he entered Vera Cruz harbor, 
but was caught there by a strong Spanish fleet and only two of his vessels (including 
his own) escaped. He now remained for a tune on land, being, however, inter- 
ested speculatively in privateering. In 1573 he became treasurer of the navy, 
succeeding his father-in-law. For the rest of his life he was the principal ad- 
ministrator of the navy. In 1588 he was sent, as rear admiral, against the Spanish 
armada and was knighted for his services. He twice went out to capture Spanish 
treasure-ships, but failed, and died at sea November 1595. 

Hawkins "craved adventure," especially on the sea. He is called "the 
patriarch of the sea-rovers." Seamanship was his fixed passion; he read mathe- 
matics and studied navigation, theoretically and practically. "His devotion to 
the profession of the sea and his skill in it became a proverb in his own time." He 
lived on the sea from boyhood to the time when national duty "called him to 
administration"; but he went back to the sea and died on it. His father, William, 
was a great sea-captain. "In later years his seamanlike skill, his knowledge of 
the world, his adventurous disposition, and his genius for business obtained for 
him the distinguished favor of bluff King Hal." He was valiant in action and sage 
in counsel, a war commander of extreme versatility. On his mother's side the 
propositus was a son's daughter's son of Sir John Trelawny, who fought with 
King Henry at Agincourt and was rewarded for his bravery with a pension and 
an addition to his coat of arms. His brother, William, was a ship-owner and sailed 
to the Spanish Main in command of his own flotilla. Sir Richard, the son of the 
propositus, had similar daring. He fought with Drake and against the Spanish 
Armada, then set out for himself to prey on Spanish possessions in America under 
the guise of discovery. He entered the harbor of Valparaiso and plundered the 



HAWKINS. 



97 



town, and came on to the bay of San Mateo, where he was captured by the 
Spaniards. He was imprisoned in Spain for five years and on his return to Eng- 
land was knighted. As vice admiral he went, in 1620-1621, to the Mediterranean 
to reduce the Algerian corsairs. His mother's father and grandfather were treas- 
urers of the navy. 

Associated with Hawkins's love of adventure was business astuteness, for the 
daring piratical raids and smuggling adventures were highly profitable. His father 
was thrifty, also, and was accounted perhaps the richest man in Plymouth. The 
son, Richard (V 5), commanded his Uncle William's ships on a trading expedition 
to the West Indies. 

Another striking characteristic was statesmanship. "Among the richest of 
Britain's traders, they sought to establish the freedom of the seas" (though it 
involved piracy). They did much to destroy Spain's contention that she alone 
could trade with her colonies. Later in life his naval policy foreshadowed much 
that has since been worked into the English naval system." His brother was 
similarly a great administrator; he was tacitly regarded as governor of the port of 
Plymouth; he obtained from Queen Elizabeth a revised charter for the town and 
was early the town mayor. "Indeed, his local importance appears to have tended 
a little in the direction of monopoly." Their father in his early voyages to the coast 
of Brazil showed the characteristics of a statesman and a diplomat with his tact, 
discretion, and sagacity in dealing with the natives. He, too, was mayor of 
Plymouth and represented it in Parliament. Richard Hawkins also showed 
political sagacity in planning his trip to South American ports. 

The propositus was bluff and blunt, sagacious and wily in council; his 
"nerve never deserted him." He was slow in formulating his own view, but when 
deliberately formed he could not be moved from it; but he was quick to see and 
prompt to act in urgent cases. 



FAMILY HISTORY OF SIR JOHN HAWKINS. 

I 1 (MFF), Sir John Trelawny (see text). I 2 

(M F M), Blanche Pownde. I 3 (consort's F M F), - , I 
Hussey, an admiralty judge. 

II 1 (F F), John Hawkins. II 2 (FM), Joan 
Amadas. II 3 (M F), Roger Trelawny. II 5 (consort's 
F F), William Gonson, treasurer of the navy in the 
reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI, and Mary. II 6 
(consort's F M), Ursula Hussey. 

III 1 (F), William Hawkins, one of the greatest 



II 



in 



sea captains in the west of England ; an officer in the navy 
of Henry VIII; the first Englishman who sailed a ship into 
southern seas, making at least three voyages to Brazil. 
He was mayor of Plymouth and a member of Parlia- 
ment. Ill 2 (M), Jane Trelawny. Ill 3 (consort's F), 
Benjamin Gonson, of Sebright Hall, near Chelmsford; 
treasurer of the navy (1549-1573). 

Fraternity of Propositus: IV 2, William Hawkins, 
the most influential resident of Elizabethan Plymouth, 

of which town he was mayor; a ship-owner and commander, who held a commission under 
Prince Conde". IV 3, Mary Halse. IV 4 (Propositus), SIR JOHN HAWKINS. IV 5, (consort) 
Katherine Gonson. Fraternity of M: IV 6, Benjamin Gonson, born 1551. IV 7, Thomasine 
Gonson. IV 8, Edward Fenton, a noted navigator; captain of the Gabriel in the Arctic 
voyage of 1577 with Frobisher. 




98 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

V I, William Hawkins (1565-1613), made voyages to the Straits of Magellan and the 
West Indies in 1582, sailing with Captain Fenton as lieutenant-general of his fleet, and being 
brought back in irons. In 1607 he sailed for the East Indies as captain of the Hector; founded 
the East India Company's first trading-house at Surat; was ambassador to the Great Mogul at 
Agra. V 2, Judith, Clare, and Grace Hawkins. V 3, Richard, Francis, Nicholas, and William 
Hawkins. V 4, Frances, Mary, and Elizabeth Hawkins. Child of Propositus: V 5, Sir Richard 
Hawkins (ca. 1560-1622), was his father's constant companion and was brought up to a sea life. 
In 1582 he made his first voyage to the West Indies with his uncle, William Hawkins; in 1585 
he sailed with Drake and Frobisher to the West Indies. He commanded the Swallow against 
the Spanish Armada. In 1593 he went on an expedition of exploration around South America, 
was made a captive and sent to Spain for several years. He returned to England in 1603, was 
knighted, became vice admiral of Devon, a privy councilor and a member of Parliament. He 
died when engaged against the Algerian pirates. V 6, Judith. 

Child of child of Propositus: VI 1, John Hawkins (born 1604), went to sea. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

HAWKINS, M. 1888. Plymouth Armada Heroes. The Hawkins Family. Plymouth: W. Bren- 
don & Son. 189 pp. 

MARKHAM, C. R. 1878. The Hawkins' Voyages during the Reigns of Henry VIII, Queen Eliza- 
beth, and James I. London: Printed for the Hakluyt Soc., vol. 57, liii: 453 pp. 

WALLING, R. 1907. A Sea-Dog of Devon. A Life of Sir John Hawkins. New York: The 
John Lane Co. xii + 288 pp. 

WORTH, R. N. 1886. A History of Devonshire. London: E. Stock, x + 347 pp. 

27. ESEK HOPKINS. 

ESBK HOPKINS was born at Scituate, Rhode Island, 1718. At the age of 20 
years he shipped on a vessel going to Surinam. He soon rose to the command of 
a vessel and became a prominent New England master mariner. He married in 
1741 and moved to Providence in 1748. He served for a time on the school com- 
mittee. Later he was, for 20 years, a trustee of Rhode Island College; also tax 
assessor, etc. From 1754 to 1763 he was privateering on French and Spanish 
vessels. He had become rich by 1756 and owned a farm of 200 acres and a house 
on it for his family; but he preferred "the dash and excitement incident to life on 
board a privateer." While on shore he was active in politics. When his brother 
Stephen was running for governor of the colony against Samuel Ward, Esek entered 
into the contest "with activity and acrimony." He was elected, in 1763 and 1764, 
to the general assembly; and he made long voyages to Africa, China, and the 
West Indies for four years. In 1771-1773 he was returned to the legislature. In 
1775 a battery was established on Fox Hill in Providence Harbor and Hopkins 
was put in command of it. Shortly afterward he was appointed commander-in- 
chief of the fleet of the colony. In November 1775 he was appointed by Congress 
commander-in-chief of the continental navy. In February 1776 he started on 
a cruise to New Providence to get gunpowder, and secured cannon, shell, and 
a little gunpowder. Returning early in April, he captured a 6-gun English tender, 
Hawke, and the bomb-brig Vulcan, 8 guns. He next attacked the Glasgow, 29 
guns, but she, being much larger than any of his fleet, succeeded in escaping. He was 
heavily censured for letting this ship escape, first by the people of the colonies and 
then by Congress, in August 1776. After some months of inactivity he was "dis- 
honorably discharged" from the service, in April 1777. He passed the remainder 
of his life in Rhode Island, and was for many years a member of the assembly. 

Hopkins was highly social and the struggles of political life appealed to him. 
In this respect he resembled his brother Stephen Hopkins (1707-1785), a signer 



HOPKINS. 99 

of the Declaration of Independence. Stephen was a surveyor as a young man, 
an occupation implying a high grade of scientific achievement for those days. He 
passed through all the political grades town clerk, president of the town council, 
member of the assembly, and speaker thereof; he was also justice of the court 
of common pleas and later clerk of the court. In 1755 he opened an insurance 
office in Providence, and as he made money he bought books. In 1750 he sent 
to London for a collection of books. He became chief justice, 1751-1755; con- 
tinental colonial governor, 1755-1762, 1763, 1764, and 1767-1768; and delegate 
to the colonial congresses of 1741, 1754, and 1757. In 1754 he espoused Franklin's 
plan for a union of the colonies, and during the whole period leading up to the 
Revolution he was one of the most active advocates of that plan. He signed the 
Declaration of Independence. He was a member of the Rhode Island council 
of war and a delegate to the convention of New England States. He helped found 
Rhode Island College (now Brown University) and was its first chancellor. He 
was editor, astronomer, historian, "orator, legislator, jurist, executive officer, and 
public-spirited citizen." He developed a marked paralysis agitans and died in 1785. 

Esek Hopkins had a love of the sea. His brothers John and Samuel were 
masters of vessels. Esek married Desire Burroughs, daughter of Ezekiel Bur- 
roughs, a leading merchant and shipmaster of Newport, Rhode Island. One, at 
least, of their sons had the love of the sea (like Esek and his consort's father) 
and had the love of fighting like his own father. This son was John Burroughs 
Hopkins (1742-1796), who participated (at 30 years of age) in the burning of the 
Gaspe in Newport Harbor, 1772. He was a captain of one of the vessels of his 
father's fleet, the Cabot, in 1775. He led in the fight with the Glasgow and his ship 
suffered great damage, four of his crew being killed outright and seven wounded, 
including himself. 

Esek Hopkins was a fearless man, despite his enemies' allegations. So too 
was his son. His father's father, a man of learning, when warned by the colonial 
authorities with others to remove to Newport for greater protection from the 
Indians, refused to do so; and, in 1698, he was put in command of the military 
forces of the mainland settlement of the colony. 

Esek belonged to an intellectual strain; his own interest in learning led him 
to be put on school committees and to be made a trustee of the college. His 
father's father is said to have been a man of learning, a surveyor. Also, his mother's 
brother and father were surveyors. This love of learning, so marked in Stephen, 
was also found in Esek's daughter Heart (1744-1825), a woman of great culture, 
who, quite in advance of the period, took the regular course of study at the college 
under the special direction of its president, the husband of her sister, Susanna 
Maxey. 

FAMILY HISTORY OF ESEK HOPKINS. 

I 1 (F F F), Thomas Hopkins (born in England, 1616), joined in an agreement for a form 
of government for Providence Plantations; was commissioner, deputy, and town councilman. 
13 (M M F), Rev. William Wickenden. 

II 1 (F F), William Hopkins (born ca. 1645), was a surveyor and military leader, and a 
man of learning and of courage (see text). II 2 (F M), Abigail Whipple. II 3, Samuel Dexter. 
II 4 (M F), Samuel Wilkinson, an expert surveyor and justice of peace. II 5 (M M), Plain 
Wickenden. 

III 1, Major Sylvanus Scott. Ill 3 (F), William Hopkins, a farmer. Ill 4 (M), Ruth 
Wilkinson (1686-1738). Fraternity of M: III 5, Samuel Wilkinson (1674-172-), was a farmer, 
tanner, currier, and shoemaker. Ill 6, John Wilkinson (1677-1751), went to New Jersey and 
from thence to Pennsylvania. Ill 7, William Wilkinson (born 1680), was a preacher among 



100 



HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 



I 



n 



m 




IV 



the Friends; went to Barbados and South America with a cargo and from thence to England, 
where he remained. Ill 8 (consort's F), Ezekiel Burroughs, a leading merchant and shipmaster 
of Newport, Rhode Island. Ill 10, Susannah Wilkinson, born 1688. Ill 11, James Angell. 
Ill 12, Joseph Wilkinson (1682-1740), a landowner and surveyor who held many offices. Ill 13, 

Martha Pray. 

IV 1, Sarah Scott. Fraternity of Propositus: IV 2, Stephen Hopkins (1707-1785), a signer 
of the Declaration of Independence (see text). IV 3, William Hopkins (1705-1744), "early 

manifested a predilection for 
the sea" and became an expert 
navigator. In 1739 he was 
given command of an armed 
vessel to operate against the 
Spanish. IV 4, John Hopkins, 
master of a vessel. IV 5, 
Samuel Hopkins, master of a 
vessel. IV 6, Hope Hopkins. 
IV 7, Henry Harris, IV 8, 
Abigail Hopkins. IV 9, Susan- 
nah Hopkins. IV 10, Nathan 
Angell. IV 11 (Propositus). 
ESEK HOPKINS. IV 12 (con- 
sort), Desire Burroughs. IV 
13, Benjamin Wilkinson (1713- 
1803). [See Morris family, No. 43, FM F.] IV 14, Mary Rhodes. 

V 1, Rufus Hopkins (born 1727), was master of a ship and later a judge. V 2, John Hopkins 
(born 1728), a sea captain. V 3, Ruth and Lydia Hopkins. V 4, Sylvanus Hopkins (1734-1753), 
was a commander of a vessel at 18; was shipwrecked, and murdered by Indians. V 5, Simon 
Hopkins. V 6, George Hopkins, a sea captain who sailed from Providence and never was heard 
from again. Children of Propositus: V 7, John Burroughs Hopkins (1742-1796), a captain in 
his father's fleet. V 8, Heart Hopkins (1744-1825). V 9, Abigail, Amey, and Desire Hopkins. 
V 10, Samuel (born 1748), Stephen (1753-1761), Esek (1758-1777), and Samuel (died 1782) 
Hopkins. V 11, Susannah Hopkins (1756-1803). V 12, Jonathan Maxey, president of Rhode 
Island College. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

FIELD, E. 1898. Esek Hopkins, commander in chief of the Continental Navy (1775-1778)- 

Providence: The Preston & Rounds Co. ix + 280 pp. 
WILKINSON, I. 1869. Memoirs of the Wilkinson Family. Jacksonville: Davis & Penniman. 

585 pp. 

28. GEOFFREY THOMAS PHIPPS HORNBY. 

GEOFFREY THOMAS PHIPPS HORNBY, was born at Winwick Church, England, 
February 20, 1825. At the age of 12 he went to sea in the flagship of Sir Robert 
Stopford, was present at the capture of Acre, in November 1840, visited the Cape 
of Good Hope, served as flag lieutenant to his father in the Pacific, and came home 
as a commander. In 1853 he married and, being politically out of favor of the 
admiralty, managed his father's estate until 1858, when he was sent to China 
to convoy a body of marines to Vancouver Island to contest with the United States 
the ownership of the archipelago of San Juan. As senior naval officer there Hornby's 
moderation prevented a fight and paved the way for arbitration. He kept at sea 
in various parts of the world until 1869. He then commanded the Channel fleet, 
and was for two years a junior lord of the admiralty. In 1877 he began service 
as commander in chief of the Mediterranean fleet; here he showed skill in 
maneuvers, disciplinary power, tact, and determination in conducting foreign re- 
lations at the time of the Russian advance on Constantinople, for all of which he 
was knighted. By 1880 he was regarded as the ablest commander on the active 
list of the navy. In 1888 he was promoted to be admiral of the fleet. He died 
March 1895. 



HORNBY. 101 

Traits of Hornby's character are as follows: 

Nomadism and love of the sea. - - His great passion in childhood was the navy; 
every evening his occupation was to carve little boats out of small pieces of wood. 
He was fond of fishing, hunting, and shooting; "a sedentary life was entirely for- 
eign to his habits and inclinations." Doubtless the elements of his tastes come 
to him from both sides. His mother's father was General "Saratoga" Burgoyne, 
who entered the army at an early age, eloped with a daughter of the Earl of 
Derby, soon had to sell his commission to meet his debts, and then lived abroad 
for seven years; and gambled recklessly. Later he devoted much time to art and 
drama. He fought against the American colonists and was badly defeated at Sara- 
toga and deprived of his command. By an opera singer he had several illegitimate 
children, of whom one (Sir John Fox Burgoyne) became a British field marshal. 
Hornby's father was a naval officer who was given command of the Pacific squadron 
at 63 and was later appointed on the board of admiralty. 

Love of knowledge. This was early manifested at school. His favorite 
studies (next to strategy) were geology and chemistry. In later life he showed 
a scrupulous honesty and dislike of any half-truths. He took a keen interest in 
everything that came his way. One of his brothers studied at Oxford, and then 
became a captain in the Royal Engineers. Their mother was the "wisest woman 
that ever lived," her granddaughter writes. 

Appeal of form. This is shown in his interest in woodcraft, beginning with 
his childish carving of boats. As a boy he had a great passion for animals, especially 
horses and dogs. In the summer he gave much time to the care and study of bees. 

He was of a calm temperament. As a boy he had a bad temper which he 
later brought under control. As a midshipman he was a "great favorite." He had, 
as an adult, "a wonderful charm of manner, a light-hearted bonhomie, and his eyes 
were lighted with an irresistible twinkle." He stirred others to enthusiasm by his 
keenness. He spoke shortly and to the point, sometimes very humorously. He 
was fond of the hunt. He was a man of judgment and insight into affairs, like his 
father, who was appointed to the board of admiralty. 



n 



in 




I 



FAMILY HISTORY OF SIR GEOFFREY THOMAS PHIPPS HORNBY. 

II (F F M F), John Winckley. 13 (M F F F), Sir John Burgoyne, reckless and extrava- 
gant. I 4 (M F F M), Constance Lucy. I 5 (M F M F), Charles Burnestone, a wealthy London 
merchant. 



102 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

II 1 (F F F), Edmund Hornby. II 2 (F F M), Margaret Winckley. II 3 (F M F), James, 
Lord Stanley (1616-1671). II 4, Lucy Smith. II 5 (M F F), John Burgoyne, a captain in the 
army; ended his days on the King's Bench. II 6 (M F M), Maria Burnestone. 

Ill 1 (F F), Geoffrey Hornby was a colonel in the army; afterwards he was rector of Win- 
wick church. Ill 2 (F M), Lucy Stanley. Ill 3, Edward Stanley, twelfth Earl of Derby (1752- 
1834). His first marriage was unhappy; he became enamoured of a celebrated actress, whom 
he married six weeks after his first wife's death. He undertook the maintenance of the Bur- 
goyne children. Ill 4, Charlotte Derby. Ill 5, John ("Saratoga") Burgoyne (1722-1792), 
entered the army early, made a runaway marriage, and had to sell his commission to pay his 
debts. He afterwards served in the Seven Years' War as brigadier general in Portugal, where 
he won distinction, and at the beginning of the American War of Independence he was given a 
command. For his defeat at Saratoga he was deprived of his regiment. Later he was appointed 
commander in chief in Ireland. Ill 6, Susan Caulfield, an opera singer. 

Fraternity of Father: IV 1, Edmund Hornby (1773-1857). IV 2, James John Hornby 
(1777-1855), rector of Winwick. IV 3, Geoffrey Hornby (1780-1850), rector of Bury. IV 4, 
Edward Hornby (born 1782), in holy orders. IV 5, George Hornby (1790-1872), in holy orders. 
IV 6, Charles Hornby (1791-1867), lieutenant colonel in the army. IV 7, Lucy Hornby. IV 8, 
Rev. H. Champneys. IV 8, Charlotte Hornby. IV 10, Edward, thirteenth Earl of Derby. 
IV 12 (F), Sir Phipps Hornby (1785-1867), entered the navy; was mate on the Victory under 
Nelson. March 1811 he commanded a 22-gun ship off Lissa and was awarded a gold medal. IV 

13 (M), Maria Sophia Burgoyne, of lovely character. Fraternity of Mother: IV 15, Parker. 

IV 16, John Fox Burgoyne (1782-1871), obtained his commission in the army in 1798. He won 
his brevets of major and lieutenant-colonel in 1812 for his skillful performance of engineer duties 
and after the war was made C. B. He finally rose to the rank of field marshal. IV 18 (con- 
sort's F), Rev. J. J. Coles. 

Fraternity of Propositus: V 1, Phipps John Hornby (1820-1848), a captain of the Royal 
Engineers. V 2, James John Hornby (1826-1909), provost of Eton College. V 3, Maria Eliza- 
beth Hornby. V 4, Caroline Lucy Hornby. V 5, Major General Sir William Denison. V 6, 
Susan Hornby. V 7, William Hornby. V 8, Lucy Hornby. V 9, Rear Admiral Robert Stop- 
ford. V 10, Elizabeth Hornby. V 11, Rev. John Cross. V 12 (Propositus), SIR GEOFFREY 
PHIPPS HOKNBY. V 13 (consort), Emily Frances Coles. 

Children of Propositus: VI 2, Hornby, author of biography of her father. VI 3, 

Egerton. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

BURKE, J. 1914. A Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Landed Gentry of Great 
Britain and Ireland. London: Harrison and Sons. 2102 pp. 

BURKE, SIR B. and A. 1909. A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Peerage and Bar- 
onetage. London: Harrison and Sons. 2570 pp. 

DE FONBLANQUE, E. 1876. Political and Military Episodes in the Latter Half of the Eighteenth 
Century, Derived from the Life and Correspondence of the Right Hon. John Burgoyne. 
London: Macmillan & Co. xiii + 500 pp. 

EGERTON, MRS. F. 1896. Admiral of the Fleet Sir Geoffrey Phipps Hornby. Edinburg and 
London: W. Blackwood & Sons, xi + 404 pp. 

WROTTEBLEY, G. 1873. Life and Correspondence of Field Marshal Sir John Burgoyne. 2 vole. 
London: R. Bentley & Sons. 



HOSTE. 103 

29. WILLIAM HOSTE. 

SIR WILLIAM HOSTE was born at Ingoldsthorpe, England, August 26, 1780. 
He entered the navy at 13 years of age under Nelson's special care. He was present 
at the battle of the Nile as lieutenant of the Theseus and after that battle was 
appointed commander and, in 1802, post captain. He continued operations in 
the Mediterranean and Adriatic until the end of his active career. From 1808 
to 1814 he was watching for or fighting the French in the Adriatic and made a 
fortune from "prizes" of war. In 1811 his force of 4 frigates was attacked by 
a French squadron of six frigates and five small vessels; but Hoste, by his superior 
gunnery and maneuvering, defeated the enemy. He married Harriet, third daughter 
of Horatio, Earl of Orford, by whom he had 3 sons and 3 daughters. He died 
December 1828. 

The traits that determined Hoste's success were: 

Restless activity. As a boy he was ever restless and buoyant; however, it is 
stated that he did not strongly prefer the navy but was placed in it by his parents. 
His favorite recreations were hunting and gunning, and these he continued to 
enjoy to the end of his life. In service he was ever active and vigilant. His brother 
Edward made an excellent sailor. He had an exceptional insight into the best 
way to meet a given naval situation, just as his brother George, a distinguished 
army engineer, was successful in meeting engineering problems. 

Hoste was good-natured and generous. These traits endeared him to all 
who knew him. On shipboard he was universally beloved and followed with 
enthusiasm. 

FAMILY HISTORY OF SIR WILLIAM HOSTE. 

II (F F F), James Hoste, of Dutch ancestry. 12 (F F M), Anne Burleigh. 

II 1 (F F), Theodore Hoste. II 2 (F M), Mary Hilmore. II 3 (M F), Henry Stanforth. 

III 1 (F), Dixon Hoste, rector of Godwick and Sittershall. 

Ill 2 (M), Margaret Stanforth. Ill 3 (consort's F), Horatio .-J ,-$ 
Walpole, first Earl of Orford. Lrr\J 

Fraternity of Propositus: IV 1, George Hoste, received his 
commission in the corps of engineers in 1802; in 1805 he went 
with an expedition to Gibraltar and Italy and saw active service. 
Later he was present at the taking of Alexandria in Egypt. In H r7~ J 

1810 he served at sea with Captain Brenton; during his service in ,TT m__/) r~ 

Holland, in 1813, he obtained the brevet rank of major. He 
greatly distinguished himself at the battle of Waterloo, where 
he was attached to the Prince of Orange's corps (first) as com- 
manding engineer, and was made C. B. He served on various 
military committees. IV 2, Dixon Hoste (1779-1805), was 
educated for the church and took a senior optime degree at 
Cambridge; was elected fellow of Trinity but soon after died of 
consumption. He was a young man of brilliant ability and promise. IV 4, Edward Hoste, went 
into the navy, serving under his brother; in 1813 he was appointed acting lieutenant of the brig 
Wizard. IV 5 (Propositus), SIR WILLIAM HOSTE. IV 6 (consort), Harriet Walpole. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

HOSTE, MRS. W. 1883. Memoirs and Letters of Captain Sir William Hoste. London: R. Bentley. 
2 vols. 




104 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

30. RICHARD HOWE. 

RICHARD HOWE, EARL HOWE, was born at London, March 8, 1726. He was 
a grandson of a mistress of George I ("a relationship," says David Hannay, in 
Encycl. Britt., eleventh ed., " which does much to explain his early rise in the 
navy"). At the age of 14 he entered the Severn as midshipman and started for 
the South Seas, but the ship, having been disabled in a storm, returned to England. 
He went next to the West Indies on the Burford (Captain Lushington); in an 
attack on La Guayra the ship was damaged and the captain killed. In 1744 he was 
made acting lieutenant; and in the next year he commanded the sloop Baltimore 
and was wounded in the head in a fight with two French privateers. Made post 
captain in 1746, he commanded the Cornwall and brought her back injured from 
a fight with the Spaniards off Havana. He held various other commands between 
that time and the beginning of the Seven Years' War, and during that war he 
engaged in various trivial operations against the coast of France, which, whether 
failures or triumphs, added to his fame. In 1759, as captain of the Magnanime, 
he led Hawke's fleet to victory at Quiberon. From 1762 until the outbreak of 
the American Revolution Howe did shore duty; he ran for Parliament and was 
elected; was a member of the admiralty board and treasurer of the navy. In 
1775 he was appointed vice admiral. In 1776 Lord Howe was appointed commander 
in chief of the North American station, with powers to treat with the disaffected 
colonists, as it was known that he was friendly to them. He conferred with 
governors of the colonies and communicated with George Washington, but mean- 
time kept a firm hold on the cities of New York and Philadelphia. The sending 
of a new peace commission to America offended Howe and led him to resign, but 
before he could return to England the French fleet under d'Estaing, of nearly twice 
the strength of Howe's, arrived and he stayed on. He prevented it from enter- 
ing New York harbor and forced it out of Newport harbor, so that it eventually 
found refuge in Boston harbor, where it was of least value. These maneuvers were 
a fine combination of caution and calculated daring. Howe returned to England 
and refused further service, embittered at the ministry's bungling and antagonism 
to him. In 1782 a change of ministry occurred and Howe was appointed admiral 
of the blue and ordered to watch the Dutch fleet in the Channel. He also pro- 
tected incoming ships from the combined French and Spanish fleet. He next 
convoyed a large number of supply ships to the beleaguered garrison at Gibraltar 
and, though the fleet of the enemy was superior to his own, he landed his supplies 
and men and returned without injury, due to his extraordinarily fine handling of 
his fleet and to the incapacity of the enemy's. From the age of 56 to 67 years he per- 
formed land service, much of the tune as first lord of the admiralty. In 1790 he 
was again called upon to command the Channel fleet, as admiral of the white. 
Finally, as admiral and commander in chief of the fleet, he, in 1794, fought the 
"battle of the first of June," in which he won a brilliant victory by hard fighting, 
though it was not decisive. He died five years later, his one remaining service 
being to compose an extensive mutiny, largely due to failure in discipline re- 
sulting from his advanced age. He quieted the disturbance by granting the 
mutineers all they asked. He died August 1799. 

Howe was of the hypokinetic type, though not so depressed as Nelson. He 
was remarkably taciturn. Once, early in his career, an army officer of rank addressed 
him questions without receiving a reply and said: "Mr. Howe, don't you hear me? 



HOWE. 105 

I have asked you several questions." Howe answered: "I don't like questions." 
Says a contemporary: "Howe was undaunted as a rock, and as silent, the charac- 
teristics of his whole race." "Howe never made a friendship except at the mouth 
of a cannon." Howe was thorough. His most important success was with a large 
fleet whose maneuvers he planned with great detail and completeness. He was 
a great tactician, but not so much of a fighter as Nelson. He was a rigid disciplin- 
arian. Howe was patient, was without great personal ambitions, and never sought 
pension or remuneration. 

Howe was fearless. To a lieutenant who came to him in perturbation saying 
"the ship is on fire close to the magazine; but don't be frightened, we shall get it 
under control shortly," Howe replied, "Frightened, sir! What do you mean? 
I never was frightened in my life." He was composed under suspense. Once in 
a stormy night, when there was danger of the ships running afoul of each other, 
a captain who had spent a sleepless night asked him how he had slept. Lord Howe 
replied that "he had slept perfectly well, for as he had taken every possible pre- 
caution he could before dark, he laid himself down with a conscious feeling that 
everything had been done which it was*in his power to do for the safety of the 
ships . . . and this conviction set his mind at ease." The stimulus of impending 
battle, even at the age of 70, revived the fires of youth ; he displayed an animation 
of which he would hardly have been thought capable at his age. 

He felt deeply, as hypokinetics are wont to do; so he resented the treat- 
ment he had received while in America from the British ministry. His brother 
William, commander in chief of the British forces in America in the early part of 
the Revolution, resigned his command at about the same time with the same feeling. 

His elder brother, George Augustus, ranked third in the naval list and was 
killed in the Ticonderoga expedition of 1758. Howe was a fighter, if necessary. 
He came of fighting stock, but he was at his best as tactician and administrator. 
His father was governor of the Barbados; his father and his father's father were 
members of Parliament. 

FAMILY HISTORY OF RICHARD, EARL HOWE. 

II (F F F F), Sir Richard Grubham Howe. 13 (F F M F), Emanuel Scrope, Earl of 
Sunderland. 

II 1, Prince Rupert. II 3 (F F F), Sir John Howe. II 4 (F F M), Anabella Scrope, a 
natural daughter, who was afterwards legalized by an act of Parliament. II 5, John, Earl of 
Rutland. II 7 (F M F), Lord William Allington. 

III 1, Ruperta, a natural daughter. Fraternity of F F: III 2, Emanuel Howe. Ill 3, 
John Howe, member of Parliament. Ill 4, Charles Howe. Ill 6, Lady Anabella. Ill 7 (F F), 
Scrope Howe (born 1648), was a member of Parliament and was created Baron Clenarolly and 
Viscount Howe. Ill 8 (F M), Juliana. Ill 9 (M F), Baron Kielmansegge. Ill 10 (M M), 
Countess of Darlington, mistress of George I. 

IV 3 (F), Emanuel Scrope, second Viscount Howe, was a member of Parliament and in 
1732 was appointed governor of the Barbados, where he died. IV 4 (M), Mary Sophia Char- 
lotte. IV 5 (consort's F), Colonel Chiverton Hartop, of Walby. 

Fraternity of Propositus: V 1, George Augustus, third Viscount Howe, was third on the 
naval list in the attack on the French in America. V 2, William, fifth Viscount Howe (died 1814), 
held the rank of lieutenant colonel general and was hi command in America, but relinquished his 

command to General Clinton. V 3, Howe, was "a clever, eccentric woman: well known 

in London society." V 4 (Propositus), RICHARD, EARL HOWE. V 5 (consort), Mary Hartop. 

VI 1, Robert, sixth Earl of Cardigan. VI 2, Penelope Cooke. VI 3, Sir John Gore, admiral 
of the Royal Navy. VI 5, Hon. Penn Assheton Curzon. Children of Propositus: VI 6, Sophia 



106 



HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 



n 



in 



IV 



Charlotte Howe (1762-1835). VI 7, Sir Jonathan W. Waller. VI 8, Maria Howe. VI 9, Lord 
Altamont, Marquis of Sligo. VI 10, Louisa Catherine Howe. VI 11, Sir William Scott, Lord 
Stowell. 

VII 1, George Anson (1797-1857), a major general; commander in chief in Italy. VII 2, 
Isabella Weld. VII 3, Harriet Georgiana, died 1836. Children's children of Propositus: VII 4, 
Richard William Penn Curzon (1796-1870), Viscount Curzon and first Earl Howe. VII 5, Anne 
Gore. VII 6, George Augustus Curzon (1788-1805). VII 7, Marianne Curzon, died 1820. VII 8, 
Brigadier General Halifax. 

VIII 1, John Winston, seventh Duke of Marlborough (1822-1883), lord lieutenant of 
Ireland. VIII 2, Lady Frances Vane. VIII 3, Isabella Anson. Children's children's children 

of Propositus: VIII 4, George 
Augustus Curzon (1821-1876), 
second Earl Howe, a lieutenant 
colonel of volunteers. VIII 5, 
Richard William Penn Curzon, 
third Earl Howe (1822-1900), 
lord lieutenant of Leicester 
county, a colonel in the army. 
VIII 6, Frederick Curzon (1825- 
1881), a captain in the Royal 
Navy. VIII 7, Henry D. Cur- 
zon born 1824. VIII 8, William 
Henry Curzon (born 1827), a 
major in the army; served in 
the Crimea and received a medal 
and clasp and a Turkish medal; 
won a medal in India. VIII 9, 
Sir Leicester Smyth (1829-1891), 
served in the Crimea; com- 
manded troops in the southern 
district, 1889; governor and 
commander in chief, Gibraltar. 
VIII 10, Ernest George Curzon 
(1828-1885), assistant adjutant 
and quartermaster general at 
Aldershot; deputy adjutant 
general in Ireland. VIII 11, 
Augusta Halifax. VIII 12, Mon- 
tagu Curzon (1846-1907), colonel 
in the army. VIII 13, Assheton 
Gore Curzon-Howe (born 1850), joined the Royal Navy as a cadet, 1863; made vice admiral 
1905; K. C. B. 1905. VIII 14, Mary Anna Curzon. VIII 15, James, second Duke of Abercorn. 

IX 1, Lady Georgiana Spencer Churchill. Children's children's children's children of Pro- 
positus: IX 2, Richard George Penn Curzon-Howe, fourth Earl Howe (born 1861), a member of 
Parliament; treasurer of Her Majesty's household, lord chamberlain to Queen Alexandra. IX 3, 
Ernest C. Penn Curzon (born 1856), a major of reserve of officers. IX 4, Fitz Roy Edmund Penn 
Curzon (born 1859), a lieutenant colonel in the army; present at Khartoum and was specially 
mentioned in the dispatches; in the Sierra Leone expedition and in the South African war his 
work received special recognition. 

Children's children's children's children's children of Propositus: X 1, Francis Richard, 
Viscount Curzon (born 1884), a commander in the Naval Reserve. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

BARROWS, SIR JOHN. 1837. The Life of Richard, Earl Howe, K. G., Admiral of the Fleet and 

General of Marines. London: J. Murray. 
BURKE, SIR B. f and A. 1909. A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Peerage and 

Baronetage. London: Harrison and Son. 2570 pp. 



VI 



vn 



vm 



IX 




16 



JERVIS. 107 

31. JOHN JERVIS. 

JOHN JERVIS, ADMIRAL LORD ST. VINCENT, was born January 9, 1735, in Staf- 
fordshire, England. He entered the navy January 4, 1749, became lieutenant in 
1755, and participated in the conquest of Quebec in 1759, being made commander 
the same year. During the next twelve or fifteen years he traveled somewhat 
widely through Europe, making professional notes. During the American Revo- 
lution he commanded in the English Channel, participated at Gibraltar, and was 
for years in Parliament. From 1793 to 1795, as vice admiral, he cooperated with 
the army in the conquest of the French islands in the West Indies. As Admiral, 
in 1795, he took command of the Mediterranean fleet, facing the allied fleets of 
France and Spain. In 1797, off Cape St. Vincent, he defeated the allies against 
heavy odds (in which affair Nelson won great honors), and was made Earl St. 
Vincent. His health having broken down, he resigned his command in 1799, but 
later took command of the Channel fleet and subsequently was, for some time, first 
lord of the admiralty. In 1810 he retired. He died in 1823. He had married his 
cousin, Martha Parker, who died childless, 1816. 

The most striking traits that Jervis showed were the following: 

Self-reliance. His father wished him to follow law, but he preferred the 
advice of his father's coachman; and when he had once evinced his predilection 
for the sea no expostulations on the part of his parents could shake him. When 
his uncle got him placed, through the admiralty, on a guardship at the age of 13 
years, he concluded that he should be going on some expedition of importance and 
volunteered for regular service. When he drew on his father for 20 and the draft 
came back protested, he says: "I immediately changed my mode of living, quitted 
my mess, lived alone, and took up the ship's allowance, washed and mended my 
own clothes, made a pair of trousers out of the ticking of my own bed." When 
he had leave on hah" pay he traveled over Europe to get a first-hand view of condi- 
tions. At sea he used his unlimited power, and would quell mutiny by hanging 
or flogging those of his men who offended him. His opinions of his officers were 
formed with great independence and held tenaciously. In action he showed 
resource in a moment of danger. As for himself he despised cant, prized inde- 
pendence, and was fearless in decision. As head of the admiralty he was a vigor- 
ous and thoroughgoing reformer and applied the same autocratic methods there 
that he had employed on shipboard. 

Administrative ability. Jervis was extremely industrious and a great 
organizer and disciplinarian. He studied hard, and had surprising aptitude and 
a fine memory for all branches of professional and general knowledge. He under- 
stood human nature and ruled his men "by a wise combination of prompt severity 
tempered by judicious clemency." To his discipline and his organization of his 
squadron the success of the battles of St. Vincent and, to a certain extent, Nelson's 
squadron at the Nile, were due. "The instant repair of any damages to the ships, 
whether caused by storrn or battle, was almost a mania with him." In the ad- 
miralty he reformed notorious corruptions in the dockyards. 

He was always energetic. When on half pay he went to France and nearly 
ruined his health in study to make up early deficiencies in his education. Again, 
in time of peace, he entered Parliament. At 71 years of age he took up with 
alacrity the command of the Channel fleet and carried out a naval campaign. It 
is said that he was extremely punctual in all his concerns, even the most trifling, 
and "answered every letter the moment he received it." His father also was a 



108 



HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 



good administrator and lawyer, was counsel to the admiralty, and auditor of 
Greenwich Hospital. 

He had the slighter grade of hyperkinesis; was forcible, animated, humorous, 
quick, and determined; but dignified and patient in large matters. 

FAMILY HISTORY OF JOHN JERVIS, VISCOUNT ST. VINCENT. 

II (M M M F), Colonel Samuel Moore, made a gallant defense of Hampton Castle in the 
old English wars and kept a diary of the siege. I 3 (M F M F), James Carrier. I 4 (M F M M), 
Elizabeth Parker, of Browsholme. I 5, Janet Parker. I 6, Charles Carrier. 



10 




Sirw,ll,3m 

ParKer 



vn 



Vffl 



II 1 (F M F), John Swynfen, a noted member of Parliament; his plainness of demeanor 
gave him the name of "Russet Coat." II 3 (M M F), Sir John Turton, puisne judge in the 
court of the exchequer; afterwards in the king's bench. II 4 (M M M), Anne Moore. II 5 
(M F F), William Parker, commanded a company of foot under Charles I; was also distinguished 
during the reign of Charles II. He was present at Marston Moor and Naseby. II 6 (M F M), 
Bridget Carrier. II 7, Janet Carrier. II 8, Thomas Parker, first Earl of Macclesfield ; lord 
chancellor. II 9, Elizabeth (or Isabella) Carrier. II 10, William Anson. 

III 1 (F F), John Jervis. Ill 2 (F M), Mary Swynfen. Ill 3 (M M), Margaret Turton. 

III 4 (M F), George Parker, of Stafford county, a justice of peace. Ill 5, George Anson, Baron 
Anson (1697-1762), entered the navy in 1712; in 1740 he was sent to attack Spanish possessions 
in South America, and while he was gone he circumnavigated the globe. Afterwards as a member 
of the admiralty board he did much to improve naval conditions; he rose to the rank of admiral 
and was known as the "Father of the British Navy." 

IV 2 (F), Swynfen Jervis (1700-1784), counsel and solicitor to the admiralty; treasurer 
of Greenwich Hospital. IV 3 (M), Elizabeth Parker. Fraternity of M: IV 4, Martha Strong. 

IV 5, Sir Thomas Parker, chief baron of the court of the exchequer. IV 6, Anne Whitehall. IV 7, 
John Turton. IV 9, Mabella Swynfen. 

V 1, George Carnegie, sixth Earl of Northesk, admiral of the white. Fraternity of Propositus: 

V 3, William Jervis (1728-1813), gentleman usher of the privy chamber. V 4, Jane Hatrell. 
V 5, Mary Jervis. V 6, William Henry Ricketts, bencher of King's Inn. V 7, Richard, Earl of 
Cavan. V 9 (Propositus), JOHN JERVIS, VISCOUNT ST. VINCENT. V 10 (consort), Martha Parker. 
Fraternity of consort: V 11, Laetitia Parker. V 12, Rev. Thomas Heathcote. V 13, Thomas 
Parker. V 14, Mary Hawe. V 15, George Parker. V 16, Elizabeth Turton. 

Fraternity of children of sib: VI 1, William Carnegie (died 1831), rear admiral; was third 
in command at Trafalgar. VI 2, Mary Ricketts. VI 3, William Henry (Ricketts) Jervis (1764- 



JERVIS - - JONES. 109 

1805), became a captain in the Royal Navy and was drowned at sea. VI 4, Lady Elizabeth Jane 
Lambert. VI 5, Hon. Cassandra Twiselton. VI 6, Edward (Ricketts) Jervis, second Viscount 
St. Vincent, VI 7, Mary Parker. VI 8, Thomas and Robert Parker. VI 10, - - Parker, died 
unmarried. VI 11, Elizabeth Parker. VI 12, John Nutthall. VI 15, Edward Parker, a cap- 
tain of the Royal Engineers; killed 1814. VI 16, John Parker (died 1812), rector of St. George 
Botolph. VI 17, George Parker (died 1809), private secretary to Lord St. Vincent. VI 18, 
William Parker (died 1866), entered the navy in 1793 when 11 years of age; served with dis- 
tinction and became naval commander in chief in China and India; in 1863 he was made admiral 
of the fleet. 

Fraternities of children's children of sib: VII 1, George Carnegie, Lord Rosehill, lost on board 
the Blenheim in his sixteenth year. VII 2, Swynfen Thomas Carnegie (born 1813), a captain of 

the Royal Navy. VII 3, Carnegie, Earl of Northesk. VII 4, Lieutenant General Sir William 

Cockburn. VII 5, Martha Jervis. VII 6, Osborne Markham. VII 7, Henrietta Elizabeth Jervis. 
VII 8, Captain Edmund Palmer, of the Royal Navy; C. B. 

VIII 2, John Jervis Palmer, became a lieutenant in the navy in 1843 and served on Sir 
William Parker's flagship in the East. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

ARMYTAGE, G., and W. RYLANDS. 1912. Staffordshire Pedigrees, etc. London: Publications 

of the Harleian Society. Vol. Ixiii. 295 pp. 

ANSON, W. 1912. Life of G. A. Anson, Admiral Lord Anson. London: J. Murray. 202 pp. 
ANSON, W. 1913. The Life of John Jervis, Admiral Lord St. Vincent. London: J. Murray. 

xiii + 368 pp. 
BRENTON, E. 1838. Life and Correspondence of John, Earl of St. Vincent, G. C. B., Admiral 

of the Fleet. London: H. Colburn. 2 vols. 
M AH AN, A. 1913. Types of Naval Officers drawn from the History of the British Navy. Boston: 

Little, Brown and Co. xiv + 500 pp. 
O'BRYNE, W. 1849. A Naval Biographical Dictionary, comprising The Life and Services of 

Every Living Officer in Her Majesty's Navy. 1400 pp. 
PHILLMORE, A. 1876. The Life of Admiral of the Fleet Sir William Parker. 3 vols. London: 

Harrison. 
PITT, W. 1817. A Topographical History of Staffordshire. Newcastle-under-Lyme : J. Smith. 

xxvi + 319 pp. 
TUCKER, J. 1844. Memoirs of Admiral the Right Hon. the Earl of St. Vincent. London: 

R. Bentley. 2 vols. 

32. CATESBY AP ROGER JONES. 

CATESBY AP ROGER JONES was born in Clarke county, Virginia, about 1830. 
He became a midshipman under his father's brother, Thomas ap Catesby Jones, 
then in command of an exploring expedition. Later he served in the United States 
Coast Survey with Maury. He studied with Dahlgren. When his State seceded 
he went with her, in June 1861. At this time the Federal government abandoned 
the Norfolk Navy-yard, and as it did so burned or scuttled the naval vessels at 
the wharves. The new steam frigate Merrimac had been sunk and Lieutenant 
Jones was intrusted with the task of raising her. He also wholly reconstructed her 
so as to make an ironclad steam ram, rechristened the Virginia, When she was 
ready Jones was executive officer and third in command, Buchanan being cap- 
tain. On the second day's engagement, that with the Monitor, both of his superiors 
were wounded and the command of the Virginia devolved upon Jones; but he could 
do nothing against the Monitor. He was superseded by Commodore Tatnall, 
who was unable to effect anything against the Monitor. Jones died in 1877. 

Jones was a man of great purity of life and practice, quiet and firm, but very 
determined in time of danger. His work on the Merrimac puts him in the rank 
of great naval constructors. His pedigree clearly shows that he was of fighting 
stock. 



110 



HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 



FAMILY HISTORY OF CATESBY AP ROGER JONES. 

II (F F F F), Colonel Thomas Jones (died 1758), had large plantations in Virginia. I 2 
(F F F M), Elizabeth Pratt, daughter of William Pratt, a wealthy merchant. 13 (F F M F), 
James Skelton. 14 (F F M M), Jane Meriweather. 15 (M F F F), John Page (born 1720). 
16 (M F F M), Jane Byrd. 

Fraternity of F F F: II 3, Frederick Jones (born 1732), removed to North Carolina. II 4, 
William Jones (born 1734), went to sea before he was 16 years of age; he held some official posi- 
tions in the colony. II 5, Walter Jones (born 1745), received his degree of doctor of medicine 
at the University of Edinburgh; was a member of Congress. II 6 (F F F), Colonel Thomas Jones 
(1726-1785-6), owned a large plantation; was clerk of Northumberland county court for years. 
II 7 (F F M), Sally Skelton. II 8 (F F M), John Tuberville. II 10 (M F M), Mary Mason 
Seldon. II 11 (M F F), Mann Page (born 1742). Fraternity of M F F: II 12, John Page, was 
a member of Phi Beta Kappa. II 13, Elizabeth Burwell. 



djCT 



11 J2 13 14 

n SDH 

d /g ~~* 



m 



IV 



2J3 




Fraternity of F F: III 1, Thomas ap Thomas Jones, was a major in the Revolutionary war, 
acting as recruiting officer. He owned a schooner which was largely used for pleasure excursions. 
Ill 2, Jekyll Jones, a political writer of some note. Ill 3, Meriweather Jones (born 1766), 
was a lawyer and a distinguished political writer and leader of Richmond. He was said to have 
eloped at 17; he engaged in many duels and was finally killed in one. Ill 4, Lucy Franklin Reed. 
Ill 5, Franklin Reed, of the United States navy. Ill 6, Bathurst Jones, a member of the Vir- 
ginia assembly. There is a tale that he took his life because of his wife's jealousy. Ill 7, Skelton 
Jones, a lawyer and editor; was the participant in many duels and the number of men he had 
killed made him morose and remorseful; he was finally killed in a duel. Ill 9 (F F), Major 
Catesby Jones, a high-spirited, cultured gentleman and an active, energetic business man. Ill 10 
(F M), Lettice Corbin Tuberville. Ill 11 (M F), William Byrd Page (born ca. 1768), was a 
planter; he was appointed assistant inspector of ordnance. Ill 12 (M M), Anne Lee, born 1776. 
Fraternity of M M: III 13, Henry Lee (1756-1818), known as "Light Horse" Harry Lee. He 
received a gold medal from Congress for his distinguished gallantry during the Revolutionary 
war. Ill 14, Anne Hill Carter. Ill 16, Octavius Augustus Page (1765-1813), a lieutenant in 
the United States navy, served on the Chesapeake. Ill 17, Peyton Randolph Page (born 1776), 
was in the United States navy and captured by the British. Ill 18, Lewis Burwell Page (1778- 
1826), a sailing-master in the United States navy. Ill 19, Hugh Nelson Page (born 1788), entered 
the United States navy as a midshipman in 1811. He volunteered for Perry's squadron, taking 
an active part in the battle of Lake Erie. He was voted a sword by Congress for his gallantry. 
He served in various capacities in South American waters, in the Levant, and on the Pacific 
coast, retiring with the rank of captain in 1855. Ill 20, Jane Page. 

IV 1, Walter Jones, an officer in the United States navy. IV 2, Taylor, of Norfolk, 

Virginia. Fraternity of F: IV 3, Thomas ap Catesby Jones (1789-1858), entered the navy in 1805 
and rose to the rank of captain in 1829. He engaged in suppressing piracy, smuggling, and the 
slave-trade in the Gulf of Mexico, 1808-1812. In 1814 he attempted with a small flotilla to 
intercept a British squadron of 40 vessels but was obliged to surrender. IV 4, Mary Walker 
Carter. IV 5, Philip de Catesby Jones (born 1792). IV 10 (F), Roger Jones (1788-1852), was 
appointed second lieutenant of marines in 1809 and in 1812 was transferred to the artillery with 
the rank of captain. He was breveted major for his services in the battles of Chippewa and 



JONES. Ill 

Lundy's Lane. In 1825 he was appointed adjutant general and finally reached the rank of major 
general. He was a man of strong character and independent nature; aggressive and courageous. 
IV 11 (M), Mary Ann Mason Page. Fraternity of M: IV 13, Charles Page, a clergyman. IV 15, 
Richard Lucian Page (born 1807), entered the United States navy in 1824 and served continu- 
ously until the Civil War, reaching the rank of commander. At the outbreak of the war he 
joined the Confederate States navy, was promoted to captain, and established an ordnance con- 
struction depot in North Carolina. Later he had charge of the outer defenses of Mobile Bay, and 
was promoted to the rank of brigadier general. After the war he was appointed superintendent 
of the public schools in Norfolk, Virginia. He was actuated by a strong sense of duty and his 
simple uprightness of life made him greatly beloved. His nephew, the propositus, has many 
points of similarity with him. IV 16, Alexina Taylor of Norfolk, Virginia. IV 17, Robert E. Lee 
(1807-1870), the commander in chief of the Confederate army. IV 18, Sidney Smith Lee (1802- 
1869), was appointed a midshipman in the United States navy and commanded his own vessel 
in the war with Mexico. He rose to the rank of commodore, having been commandant of the 
United States Naval Academy at Annapolis and chief of the Bureau of Coast Survey. At the 
outbreak of the Civil War he offered his services to the Confederate States navy and became 
chief of orders and details at Richmond. 

V I, Walter Jones, of the United States navy, died 1855. V 3, Meriweather P. Jones, a 
lieutenant in the United States navy. V 4, Marck C. Jones. Fraternity of Propositus: V 8, 
Eusebius Jones (1827-1876), in 1852 settled in New York to practice medicine, but in 1873 he 
removed to California, where he died. During the Civil War he had charge of a large govern- 
ment hospital on David's Island, near New York City. V 9, William Page Jones, was graduated 
from West Point among the first of his class. He became a lieutenant and was killed at Fort 
Henry, near Baltimore. V 10, Walter Jones became a lieutenant in the United States army, 
but upon the outbreak of the Civil War he joined the Confederate forces. V 11, Charles Lucian 
Jones, became an officer in the Confederate States navy. After the war he carried on a com- 
mission business in Georgia. V 12, Thomas Skelton Jones (born 1837), served in the United 
States navy for three years as clerk to his uncle, Commander R. L. Page. He was admitted to 
the bar. During the Civil War he became a captain in the Confederate States army and 
afterwards followed mercantile pursuits in various states. V 13, Winfield Scott Jones, went to 
California when a mere youth and became vice president of the Security Savings Bank of San 
Francisco. V 14, Roger Jones, was graduated from West Point and became inspector general in 
the United States army with the rank of brigadier general. V 15 (Propositus), CATESBY AP ROGER 
JONES. V 16, Fanny Page. V 17, Captain Whittle, United States navy. V 18, William B. Page, 
a mining engineer. V 19, Alexina and Edmonia Page. V 20, Walter Page, an analytical chemist 
who removed to Nebraska. V 21, Thomas S. Page, a physician. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

JONES, L. H. 1891. Captain Roger Jones of London and Virginia. Albany: J. Munsell's Sons. 

295 pp. 

LEE, E. 1895. Lee of Virginia. Philadelphia: Franklin Printing Co. 586 pp. 
PAGE, R. 1893. Genealogy of the Page Family in Virginia. 2d ed. New York: Press of the 

Publishers' Printing Co. x + 275 pp. 
SCHARF, J. 1894. History of the Confederate States Navy. Albany: J. McDonough. pp. 

553-554, 710-711. 



112 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

33. JOHN PAUL JONES. 

JOHN PAUL JONES was born as John Paul at Kirkbean, Kirkcudbright, Scot- 
land, July 7, 1747. After a meager education he was apprenticed, at the age of 12, 
to a merchant in the American trade, and in this capacity visited Virginia and while 
there stayed with his brother William. On the failure of his employer, John was 
appointed a British midshipman and later served on two slavers, passing rapidly 
from third to first mate. In 1868 he abandoned this business in disgust and re- 
mained stranded in Jamaica, where he accepted a temporary position as actor in 
the company of John Moody. This did not appeal to him, and he started back 
to Scotland as a passenger on the John. During the passage both officers died, 
Paul brought the vessel into port, and for this service was made master. Between 
1766 and 1770 he made commercial voyages. In the latter year a sailor whom he 
formerly had flogged for insubordination died and John Paul was held responsible. 
His firm dissolved and he was thrown out of employment. He entered into trade 
on his own account and was accused of smuggling. In 1773 his crew mutinied and 
he unfortunately killed a man, and fled, entering "upon a truly melancholy period 
of homeless and nameless wandering" from June 1773 to the winter of 1775. He 
fled from Tobago under an assumed name and, unable openly to claim his rightful 
property, he emerged as John Paul Jones, a regularly appointed officer in the 
American army. Later he refers to himself as during this period a "son of for- 
tune." It was during the latter part of this period that he is said to have fallen 
into a condition of dangerous melancholy. In December 1775 John Paul Jones 
was commissioned first lieutenant in the Continental navy. As commander first 
of the Providence and then of the Alfred he attacked New Providence, and dam- 
aged British shipping and fisheries in the North Atlantic; in October 1776 he was 
made captain, though he felt he deserved a higher rank. In November 1777 
he sailed from France in the sloop Ranger with dispatches for the American com- 
missioners asking that Jones be supplied a swift frigate in which to harass the 
coasts of England. He failed to get the frigate and so sailed in the Ranger from 
Brest (April 10, 1778), and two days later surprised the garrison of the forts at 
Whitehaven, spiking the guns and attempting to fire the shipping. Four days 
later he encountered the British sloop-of-war Drake, somewhat superior to his 
own, and defeated it. In this cruise Jones landed a party at St. Mary's Isle to cap- 
ture Lord Selkirk. Failing in this, his crew took a quantity of plate from the 
Selkirk house and sold it ; but this Jones later redeemed and returned to its owner. 
With the rank of commodore he was now put at the head of a squadron of 5 ships, 
his flagship being the Bon Homme Richard. He set sail, August 1779, with his 
fleet and 2 French privateers, but the latter and 3 of his men-of-war deserted him 
in the cruise. He captured prizes, and finally the Bon Homme Richard and Pallas 
captured the powerful British men-of-war Serapis and Countess of Scarborough. 
During 1780 Jones spent much of his time in Paris, where royalty made much 
of him. In 1781 he returned to America to be given a new command, but peace 
was soon restored. Two years later he was sent to Paris to collect prizes for the 
ships he had captured. Here he engaged much in social affairs and even private 
enterprises, but fulfilled his mission well. In 1788 he entered the service of the 
Empress Catherine of Russia as rear admiral. He engaged in naval battles 
against the Turks, but his enemies later forced him to remain in idleness in St. 
Petersburg while they assailed his private character. He returned to Paris in 
1790 and died there, 1792, of dropsy, at the age of 45 years. 



JONES. 113 

The elements that determined the successful vocation of John Paul Jones were : 

Nomadism. - - While yet a child it was his custom to wander off to the Carse- 
thorn at the mouth of the river Nith, where he listened to the stories of the mariners. 
The village legends of his native town bear witness to his early talent for seamanship 
while he was more child than boy. At school he was proficient in his studies, but 
showed a roving spirit, an active imagination, and promise of unusual independ- 
ence. Throughout his life inactivity led to irritation and eventually to illness. 

Hyperkinesis and hypokinesis. Jones showed periods of vast reckless energy, 
but also at times deep depression. The hyperkinesis is shown in his enthusiasm, 
which awakened the same state in others. "He was delighted with his crew, who 
were equally devoted to him" (de Koven, 1913, p. 125). It is shown in his tre- 
mendous activity, especially in action. "In the rapture of the strife he was, like 
Nelson, gay in demeanor and ideal in command" (1913, p. 427). His hyperkinesis 
was associated with initiative and courage. He was the first to see an oppor- 
tunity and the first to avail himself of it. It also led to free expression of opinion 
and feelings and his "white-hot anger." The pleasure of doing and of succeeding 
fed his ambition, "the first and ruling passion" of his life. "This ambition, 
abnormal in its intensity, was the motive power which determined his career. 
While yet of tender years he abandoned his position in the Royal Navy for lack 
of opportunities for quick advancement. This same ambition, combined with 
great capacity, procured him the position of mate and commander of trading-vessels 
while he was still exceedingly youthful; and after disastrous adventures and 
reverses brought about his astonishing advancement to his conspicuous place 
in the United States navy." l He was adventuresome, as when in the Ranger 
he captured the Drake, a ship more powerful than his own. "He commanded 
a vessel disguised as a merchantman; he made sudden and stealthy midnight 
descents upon their vessels and their ports; his method of warfare, brilliantly 
skillful as it was, had a coolness and a daring unexpectedness which recalled the 
legends of the early Vikings." 

His depression was no less marked and was evidenced at the time of his 
seclusion, 1773-1775. At the time (1777) when he was waiting for arrangements 
to be completed that he might sail for France "he became again a prey to torment- 
ing reflections" (p. 220). In 1783 he left America in a mood of depression; in 
general, says his biographer, "he was dangerously prone to brood over his mis- 
fortunes." "This tendency was a natural and inevitable concomitant of the mind of 
genius and, as has been seen, nearly overwhelmed him in the long period of melan- 
choly retirement which followed the mutiny at Tobago." "He was never again 
free, except for brief intervals, from a disposition to dwell upon his misfortunes." 

Jones had little erotic control, like many another hyperkinetic. He had an 
inclination toward feminine society which was greatly aided by his engaging per- 
sonality. "During his second long residence in Paris it had been fully indulged in. 
It is thought that a son was born to him at this tune" 3 (p. 279). A contempo- 
rary writes: "He is said to be a man of gallantry and a favorite among the French 
ladies, whom he is frequently commending for the neatness of their persons, their 
easy manners, and their taste in dress." Apparently he came under the seductive 
influence of Catherine of Russia. 

At times Jones showed a combination of self-esteem and suspicion, amount- 
ing almost to paranoia. "Ambition, working unhindered upon his immensely 

1 De Koven, 1913, p. 327. 2 De Koven, p. 293. 3 De Koven, 379. 




114 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

vigorous imagination, built the delusion of an aristocratic extraction upon circum- 
stantial evidence, wholly devoid of definite facts. From his self-love and burning 
determination to force his own valuation of himself into public recognition grew 
the extraordinary conception of carrying off his supposed father (Lord Selkirk) 
as a captive. From the height to which his untrammeled fancy had raised him 
he announced himself as the impartial defender of the insulted rights of human 
nature, declaring himself 'totally unfettered by the little mean distinctions of 
climate or of country." His attitude of confirmed suspicion toward the United 
States and its officials was of the same type. 

Of his heredity, little can be said. His mother is not described. What is 
known of his family is shown on the chart. 

FAMILY HISTORY OF J. PAUL JONES. 

II (F F) Paul, kept in Leith, Scotland, a 

"mail garden," a combination of tavern and market j 
garden. I 3 (M F), McDuff, a "free landholder." 

Fraternity of F: II 1, George Paul, a landscape 
gardener at St. Mary's Isle. II 2 (F), John Paul, a land- -,- 
scape gardener in Leith. II 3 (M), Jeannie McDuff. 

Fraternity of Propositus: III 1, William Paul, de- 

parted for America, early in life. II 2, Elizabeth Paul, ^ JL? <^t_r~f 

died unmarried. Ill 3, Jean Paul. Ill 4, Mr. Taylor, a ^ w W~LJ d f(rf 

watchmaker in Dumfries. Ill 5, Mr. Young. Ill 6, Mary 

Ann Paul. Ill 7, Mr. Lowden. Ill 9 (Propositus), JOHN PAUL JONES. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

DE KOVEN, MRS. R. 1913. The Life and Letters of John Paul Jones. New York: C. Scribner's 
Sons. 2 vols. 

34. HENRY KEPPEL. 

HENRY KEPPEL was born June 14, 1809. He studied at the naval academy 
at Portsmouth and entered the navy in 1822; he reached the rank of commander 
in 1833. He was engaged hi suppression of the slave trade and did service in the 
China sea against Malay pirates. At the siege of Sebastopol he commanded a 
naval brigade and won renown in the operations around that fortress. Sent to 
China in command of the Raleigh, he lost his ship on a rock, but in three small 
vessels with his crew he fought the Chinese at Fatshan Creek (1857) and was 
knighted for his success. He was made admiral in 1877 and died 27 years later, 
at the age of 95. He wrote his autobiography. 

Keppel was a hyperkinetic. He was high-spirited, had a personal enthusiasm, 
a magnetic personality, and an infection of geniality. In battle he had the pug- 
nacity of a bulldog and showed reckless daring. He was of the Albemarle tribe. 
His brother, the sixth earl, was a general, who served in the Waterloo campaign, 
at Mauritius, the Cape, and India, and was also a great traveler. Their father 
was a lover of racing, like his son Henry. Henry disliked funerals and broke out 
of the military procession held at his brother's death. 

He was literary. He wrote two books, later combined in his autobiography. 
His brother, the earl, wrote an account of his travels. 

His naval career was advanced by his social position. Many of the Albe- 
marles were generals or naval officers. He himself became an admiral ; his brother 
Tom went into the navy as a youngster, but later became a clergyman and has a son 
who is a rear admiral. A son, Colin, is a distinguished naval officer who saw service 
on the Nile and was made rear admiral in command of the Atlantic fleet in 1909. 



KEPFEL. 



115 



FAMILY HISTORY OF HENRY KEPFEL. 

II (F F F M F), Adam van der Duyn, governor of 
Bergen op Zoom, and a major general in the Dutch service. 

I 3 (F F M F F), Charles II, king of England. I 4 (F F 
M F M), Louise de K6roualle, Duchess of Portsmouth, 
mistress of Charles II; a woman of great cleverness and 
strength of will. 

II 1 (M F M F), Edward Watson, Viscount Sondes. 

II 2 (M F M M), Catherine Tufton. Fraternity of M F 
M M: II 3, Lady Margaret Tufton, haughty and ruled 
her household with a rod of iron. II 4, Thomas Coke, 
Earl of Leicester (born 1697), "achieved celebrity for his 
fine taste in art and literature," but was passionate and 
cruel. II 5 (F F F F), Arnold Joost van Keppel (born in 
Holland, 1670), attended King Wilh'am into England, 
1688; he was created Baron Ashford and Earl of Albe- 
marle. He returned to Holland, where he became com- 
mander in chief of the Dutch army. High-spirited. II 
6 (F F F M), Gertrude van der Duyn. II 7 (F F M F), 
Charles Lennox, first Duke of Richmond (1672-1723). 

II 8 (F F M M), Anne Brudenel. 

III 1 (M F F), Edward Southwell, Viscount Sondes. 

III 2 (M F M), Catherine Watson died 1765. Ill 3 (M 
M F), Samuel Campbell. Ill 5, Edward Coke (1719- 
1753), led a life of debauchery, extravagance, and excess, 
and died from his excesses. Ill 6 (F M F), Sir John 
Miller of Hants. Ill 8 (F F F), William Anne Keppel, 
second Earl of Albemarle (1702-1754) at the age of 15 
was appointed to the rank of a lieutenant colonel in the 
army. In 1748 he was made commander in chief of the 
British forces serving in the Low Countries. In 1749 he 
was appointed ambassador at Paris and remained at this 
post until his death. Ill 9 (F F M), Lady Anne Lennox. 
Fraternity of F F M: III 10, Charles Lennox, second Duke 
of Richmond (1701-1750), was a "soldier of 
distinction." Ill 11, Lady Sarah Cadogan. 

III 12, John Russell, fourth Duke of Bed- 
ford (1710-1771), first lord of the admiralty 
and secretary of state for the southern 
department. 

IV 1 (M F), Sir Edward Southwell, 
Baron de Clifford (1732-1777), was sheriff of 
the county of Gloucester and member of Par- 
liament. IV 2 (MM), Sophia Campbell 
(died 1828). She was governess to Princess 
Charlotte of Wales. She was a very intelli- 
gent, lively woman, full of anecdote, and of 
great personal courage, who when over 80 
discharged her pistols at thieves climbing 
over the garden wall. Fraternity of F M: 

IV 5 (F M), Anne Miller, was a formal, not 
very good-tempered woman who was "not 
attractive to her grandchildren." IV 6 (F F), 
George Keppel, the third Earl of Albemarle 
(1724-1772), served in the army under the 
Duke of Cumberland at Fontenoy and Cul- 
loden and carried dispatches of the victory of 
Culloden to the king. He was commander 
in chief of the celebrated Cuban expedition at 
the reduction of Havana in 1762 and was 
created K. G. in 1765 in recognition of his 
services. Fraternity of F F: IV 7, Augustus 
Keppel (1725-1784), went to sea at 10 years 
of age and circumnavigated the globe at 15; 




o 



116 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

was commander at the age of 22. He won a treaty from the dey of Algiers, after many 
difficulties. In the battle of Quiberon his ship was the first to get into action. His later years 
were embittered by suspiciousness and quarrelsomeness, and though for a time he was first lord 
of the admiralty, his popularity soon disappeared entirely. IV 9, William Keppel (1727-1782), 
was a lieutenant general and commander in chief in Ireland, 1773. IV 10, Frederick Keppel 
(1728-1777), was bishop of Exeter and dean of Windsor. IV 16, Lady Caroline Keppel (born 
1737 and died in childbirth), is thought to have composed the ballad "Robin Adair" when her 
family would not consent to her marriage. IV 17, Robin, or Robert, Adair (born 1790), became 
inspector general of military hospitals and then royal staff surgeon and surgeon of Chelsea hos- 
pital. IV 18, Lady Elizabeth Keppel (died 1768), a very beautiful woman; she was one of the 

bridesmaids of Queen Caroline. IV 19, Russell, marquis of Tavistock, who was killed 

while out hunting at the age of 22. IV 20 (second consort's M F), Robert Walpole, second 
Earl of Orford (1701-1751). IV 21 (second consort's M M), Margaret Rolle. 

Fraternity of M: V 1, Edward Southwell, Baron de Clifford (1767-1832), member of Parlia- 
ment. V 2, Sophia Southwell. V 3, John Thomas Townshend, Viscount Sydney. V 4, Cather- 
ine Southwell (died 1802). V 5, Colonel George K. Coussmaker. V 7, William Gamier, preb- 
endary of Winchester Cathedral. V 8, Dr. Thomas Gamier, Dean of Winchester. V 10 (M), 
Elizabeth Southwell (1776-1817), was not yet 16 years of age when she married, and one of her 
early bride exploits was sliding down the banisters and having her head trepanned in conse- 
quence. V 11 (F), William Charles Keppel, fourth Earl of Albemarle (1772-1849), was appointed 
master of the horse in 1830; was a member of Parliament. V 12 (F's second consort), Char- 
lotte Hunloke. V 13, Sir Coutts Trotter. V 16, Sir Robert Adair, a distinguished diplomat who 
died in 1844, aged 80 years. V 17, Sir Thomas Lennard. V 19 (second consort's F), Martin 
J. West. V 20, Maria Walpole. V 21, Captain Hon. George Harrington. V 23, Francis Rus- 
sell, fifth Duke of Bedford (1765-1802), became a leader in the House. V 24, William Russell 
(born 1767), lived abroad at Geneva. V 25, Charlotte Anne Bussy. V 26, John Russell, sixth 
Duke of Bedford (1766-1839), lord lieutenant of Ireland. V 27, Georgiana Elizabeth Byng. 

VI 1, Hon. Sir Alan Napier M'Nabb, first and last British premier of Canada. VI 3, 
George Gamier, studied at the Royal Naval College. In 1822 he sailed for the Cape of Good 
Hope and was never heard of again. VI 4, Thomas Gamier, Dean of Lincoln. Fraternity of 
Propositus: VI 5, Caroline Keppel (died 1898), a sensitive child, but popular as a young woman; 
of charming personality, prompt in action and a great walker. VI 7, Augustus Frederick, fifth 
Earl of Albemarle (1794-1851), served in the Peninsular war with the Foot Guards. In later life 
he became eccentric and had to be placed under restraint; believed himself possessed of unbounded 
wealth. A post-mortem examination revealed a fracture of the skull. VI 8, George Thomas 
Keppel, sixth Earl of Albemarle (1799-1891), took part in the Waterloo campaign. He served 
in Africa and India and returned to England in 1823, traveling overland through Persia, Moscow, 
and St. Petersburg. He visited the seat of the Russo-Turkish war in 1829 and was with the 
British fleet in Turkish waters; rose to the rank of general, wrote books of travel. VI 9, Susan 
Trotter. VI 10, Mary Keppel (died in 1884, aged 80 years); was a great walker. VI 11, Henry 
Stephenson (died 1850). VI 12, Sophia Keppel (died 1824). VI 13, Sir James MacDonald. VI 
14, Charles Keppel (1805-1817), killed in a shooting accident. VI 15, Edward Southwell Keppel 
(1800-1883), rector of Quidenham and canon of Norwich. VI 16, Thomas Robert Keppel (1811- 
1863), studied at the naval college, but later became rector of North Creake and honorary canon 
of Norwich. VI 17, Frances Lennard. VI 18, John Keppel (1815-1823). VI 19, Georgiana 
Charlotte (died 1854). VI 20, Edward E. Hill. VI 21, Anne Amelia Keppel (died 1844). VI 
22, Thomas Coke, first Earl of Leicester (1754-1842), a famous agriculturist. VI 24 (first consort), 
Catherine Crosbie (died 1859). VI 25 (Propositus), HENRY KEPPEL. VI 26 (second consort), 
Jane Elizabeth West. Fraternity of second consort: V 27, Rt. Hon. Sir Algernon West (born 
1832), was a clerk in the admiralty; was secretary at the India office and to Mr. Gladstone when 
he was prime minister. VI 28, Mary Barrington. Second cousins of Propositus: V 29, Francis 
Russell (1793-1832), a lieutenant colonel in the army. VI 32, John Russell (1796-1835), a com- 
mander of the Royal Navy. VI 33, Francis Russell, seventh Duke of Bedford (1788-1833). 
VI 34, George William Russell (1790-1846), a major general in the army, sometime envoy extraor- 
dinary and minister plenipotentiary at Berlin, and aide-de-camp, to Queen Victoria. VI 35, 
John Russell (1792-1878), created Earl Russell; sat in the House of Commons 47 years; a 
distinguished statesman, orator, and writer; fond of travel. VI 36, Wriothesley Russell 
(1804-1886), rector of Chenies, Bucks, and canon of Windsor. VI 37, Edward Russell (1805-1887), 
C. B.; an officer of the Legion of Honor. VI 38, Charles James Fox (1807-1894), formerly 
in the army; sergeant at arms, House of Commons. VI 39, Francis John Russell (1808-1869), 



KEPPEL. 117 

a captain of the Royal Navy. VI 40, Henry Russell (1816-1842), a captain in the Royal Navy. 

VI 41, Cosmo George Russell (1817-1875), a major in the army. VI 42, Alexander George 
Russell (1821-1907), a general in the army. 

Children of fraternity of Proposilus and consorts: VII 1, Sophia Mary M'Nabb. VII 2, 
William Coutts Keppel, seventh Earl of Albemarle (1832-1894), became an ensign, but retired 
from the army in 1853. He was a member of Parliament, superintendent of Indian affairs for 
Canada, and treasurer of the Queen's household. VII 4, Augustus Stephenson. VII 5, Henry 
Stephenson (born 1842), entered the Royal Navy in 1855 and retired in 1904 with the rank of 
admiral. VII 7, Sussex Stephenson. VII 8, Leicester Chantrey Keppel, a midshipman on 
the H. M. S. Bellerophon in 1854, served continuously and with distinction, retiring as a rear 
admiral. VII 9, Thomas William Coke, second Earl of Leicester (born 1822), became lord lieu- 
tenant of Norfolk and keeper of the privy seal. VII 10, Juliana Whitbreak. VII 11, Edward 
Coke (1824-1889), a captain in the army, member of Parliament, and high sheriff of Derby- 
shire. VII 12, Henry John Coke (born 1827), entered the Royal Navy and served in China, 
1840-1842; has written books of travel. VII 13, Wenman C. Coke (1828-1907), served in Crimea 
as aide-de-camp to Lord Rokeby. Children of Propositus: VII 17, Rufus Keppel, born 1839. 

VII 18, Mary Keppel, born 1865. VII 19, Frederick T. Hamilton (born 1856), a rear admiral 
of the Royal Navy. VII 20, Sir Colin Keppel (born 1862), was educated on H. M. S. Britannia, 
1775, and became rear admiral; 1909-1910, in command of the Atlantic fleet; C. B. 1898; K. C. 
V. O., 1908. VII 21, Gilbert West, entered the navy, but died early. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

ALBEMARLE, EARL OF. 1876. Fifty Years of My Life. London: Macmillan & Co. 2 vols. 

BURKE, SIR B., and A. A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Peerage and Baronet- 
age. London: Harrison and Sons. 2570 pp. 

CLIFFORD, A. 1817. Collectanea Cliffordiana in Three Parts. Paris: M. Nouzon. 

GIBBS, V. 1912. Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the 
United Kingdom, ed. by G. E. C. London: G. Bell & Sons. Vol. II. 

KEPPEL, HON. SIR H. 1899. A Sailor's Life under Four Sovereigns. London: Macmillan 
& Co. 3 vols. 

KEPPEL, HON. & REV. THOMAS. 1842. The Life of Augustus Viscount Keppel. Admiral 
of the White. London: H. Colburn. 2 vols. 

STIRLING, A. 1908. Coke of Norfolk and his Friends. London: J. Lane. 2 vols. 

STIRLING, A. 1916. A Painter of Dreams. London & New York. J. Lane, xvi + 366 pp. 

WALPOLE, S. 1889. The Life of Lord John Russell. London: Longmans, Green & Co. 2 vols. 

WEST, A. 1905. Memoir of Sir Henry Keppel. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 186 pp. 



118 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

35. JAMES LAWRENCE. 

JAMES LAWRENCE was born at Burlington, New Jersey, October 1, 1781, 
passed through grammar school, and in 1798 was appointed a midshipman. In 
1801 he went to Tripoli in the Enterprise and remained there for five years. From 
1808 to 1812 he commanded various naval vessels. After the outbreak of the War 
of 1812 he wrought some destruction on the enemy's ships in the West Indies. 
Ordered to the command of the Chesapeake, he accepted a challenge to battle made 
by the British frigate Shannon. The Chesapeake was a poor ship. After a few 
broadsides the ships fouled and Lawrence received a musket ball in the leg 
and later in the abdomen. As he was carried below he cried, "Don't give up the 
ship"; but the enemy had already boarded it. Captain Lawrence died in a few 
days, June 6, 1813. The loss of this young officer was regarded as a keen blow 
to the national defense. 

The elements of Lawrence's character were: 

Love of the sea. "While still a boy he longed to go to sea," but his father 
opposed, wanting him to become a lawyer. But when his father died he, at 18, 
began a theoretical course in navigation with his brother's aid. 

Fearlessness. His courage was of the highest order; he accepted battle 
with his inferior ship against a superior. He was calm in action. 

Hyperkinesis. He was high strung and sensitive, quick and impulsive, but 
hi all critical situations his coolness was remarkable. He inspired all with ardor 
and was a general favorite with his men. When a coordinate was promoted over 
his head he protested first to the naval board, then to the United States Senate, 
and won his case. He was chivalrous, generous, just, kind of heart, gentle, and 
pure. Physically he was nearly six feet tall and very broad-shouldered. 

James Lawrence had a sister Mary, who married Robert Boggs and bore 
a son, Charles S. Boggs. He entered the navy as a midshipman in 1826, served 
with distinction in the Mexican and Civil Wars, and died a rear admiral. He 
was courteous and mild, but strict in the enforcement of discipline. During the 
Civil War he was in command of the Varuana, attached to Farragut's fleet. This, 
the first ship to force its way past the batteries protecting New Orleans, was 
rammed by a Confederate ironclad and sunk. For gallantry in this action Boggs 
was voted a sword by his native State of New Jersey. In July 1862 he was placed 
in command of the Sacramento, of the blockading squadron off the Cape Fear 
river. On account of ill-health he was on shore duty during 1864-1865 and super- 
intended the building and fitting out of a fleet of picket steamboats planned by 
himself. 

James Lawrence's father was John Brown Lawrence, of Burlington, New 
Jersey, who was a lawyer, a staunch loyalist, a member of the council, and regarded 
by his townspeople as a man of importance. He was mayor of Burlington in 1775. 
He was a man of courage. He met the Hessians and prevailed on them to spare 
the town and later succeeded in stopping the firing of an American man-of-war 
when it was thought that Burlington was in the hands of the British. Arrested 
as a loyalist, he finally settled in Canada and died there in 1796. In the direct 
Une of ancestors there are merchants and a major. 

James Lawrence's mother, Martha Tallman, of Trenton, New Jersey, died 
when the propositus was an infant; nothing is recorded of her traits. 



LAWRENCE. 



119 



1 



n 



FAMILY HISTORY OP JAMES LAWRENCE. 

II (F F F), Elisha Lawrence (born 1666), was a merchant on the south side of Raritan 
bay, New Jersey. I 2 (F F M), Lucy Stout. 

II 1 (F F), Elisha Lawrence. II 3, Samuel Leonard, of Perth Amboy, New Jersey. 

III 1 (consort's F), Montaudevert, a French sea-captain, who was lost off the Scilly 

Islands. Ill 5 (M), Martha Tallman, of Trenton, New Jersey. Ill 6 (F), John Brown Law- 
rence, a lawyer of note and, in 1775, 

mayor of Burlington, New Jersey. He 
was arrested as a loyalist and finally 
went to Canada, where he died. Ill 7, 
Ann Leonard. 

IV 1 (consort) Julia Montaudevert. 
IV 2 (Propositus), JAMES LAWRENCE. 
Fraternity of Propositus: IV 3, Sarah 
Lawrence. IV 4, James Goellette. IV 5, 
Katherine Lawrence. IV 6, Jackson 
Brown French. IV 7, Anne Lawrence. 
IV 8, John Parker. IV 9, Mary Law- 
rence. IV 10, Robert Boggs. Half 
fraternity of Propositus: IV 11, Eliza- 
beth Lawrence, better known as "Ma- 
dame Scribblerus," a woman of poetical and literary ability, 
gentleman of great social prominence. 

Children of Propositus: V 1, Mary Lawrence, a beautiful and accomplished woman, who 
died in Italy, 1843. V 2, William Preston Griffin, of the navy. V 3, Lawrence, a post- 
humous son, who died in infancy. V 4 (sister's child), Charles S. Boggs, entered the navy as 
a midshipman in 1826, served with distinction in the Mexican and Civil wars and died a rear 
admiral in 1888. V 5 (half -sister's child), Lawrence Kearney, died a commodore in 1868. 




IV 12, Michael Kearney, an Irish 



CLEAVES, A. 1904. 
Chesapeake. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

James Lawrence, Captain United States Navy. Commander of the 
New York and London: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 337 pp. 



120 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

36. THOMAS MACDONOUGH. 

THOMAS MACDONOUGH was born in Newcastle county, Delaware, December 
23, 1783. At the age of 17 years he received a midshipman's warrant and served 
on the Philadelphia, but was not captured when she was lost to the Moors. Later 
he was in the Enterprise under Captain Stephen Decatur. His bravery as one 
of a party under Decatur that recaptured and destroyed the Philadelphia received 
special commendation. At 24 years he was made lieutenant and 6 years later mas- 
ter commander. At the outbreak of the War of 1812 he was stationed at Lake 
Champlain. In the summer of 1814 a British fleet carrying about 95 guns and 
1,000 men, supported by a land force of 1,500, attacked his fleet of 80 guns and 850 
men. The British were defeated. It is said that, though commanding the fleet, 
Macdonough insisted on pointing his favorite gun, "putting his mathematical 
knowledge to the closest test and invariably making a death blow." As a reward 
he was made captain and received a gold medal from Congress. His last com- 
mand was with the Mediterranean squadron. He died in November 1825, at the 
age of 42 years. 

Some of the elements that fitted Macdonough for his work were the following : 

He was fond of adventure and fighting; as a lad he liked practical jokes. 
As we have seen, he was specially commended for work done on the nocturnal 
exploit of recapturing and burning the Philadelphia. When, after the War of 1812, 
he was assigned only to land service, he protested that he wished to employ him- 
self "in the arts of my profession." All of the Macdonough boys were reputed 
to be "full of life." Thomas's brother James was also a midshipman. His father's 
brother Micah saw service under General St. Clair. His father was wounded 
while gallantly fighting in the Revolutionary War. His mother's father was a 
captain in the colonial militia. 

He had great foresight and tactical skill. Says Roosevelt concerning the 
Lake Champlain battle: "He had a decidedly superior force to contend against. 
He forced the British to engage at a disadvantage by his excellent choice of posi- 
tion; and he prepared beforehand for every possible contingency. His skill, 
seamanship, quick eye, readiness of resource, and indomitable pluck are beyond 
all praise." An "example of foresight and accurate reasoning in preparation for 
the battle, as well as of undaunted perseverance, gallantry, and skill in conducting 
it to a successful issue," says another critic. 

He had tireless energy and patience which enabled him to prepare himself 
for the fight that was coming and to collect the necessary men and materials despite 
discouraging conditions. He had no sympathy with idlers. He was punctilious 
in the discharge of every duty; he knew he could point his best gun better than 
any other man and reserved that function for himself. This energy and patience 
were in his father also, who was trained in medicine, but when occasion arose fought 
well, later served for many years on the privy council and as justice of the court 
of common pleas, and showed a naturally sound judgment. His father's father, 
too, was energetic and possessed of business ability of a high order. 

Macdonough was a man of fine character. He received the sword of his 
naval opponent on Lake Champlain without boasting, pointing out certain defects 
in the work of the smaller vessels of his opponent. His autobiography is modest 
and unassuming. His charity was broad and catholic and of his own he gave 
generously, just as his father's father, "a man of fine character and of strong 
convictions," did to his children during his lifetime. 



MACDONOUGH. 



121 




IV 



V 



d.yg- 



FAMILY HISTORY OF THOMAS MACDONOUGH. 

II (F F F), Thomas Macdonough, of Ire- 
land. I 2 (F F M), Jane Coyle. I 3 (F M F), 
Peter Laroux, of Huguenot extraction. I 5 
(M F F), John Vance. 

Fraternity of F F: II 1, John Macdon- 
ough, settled in Newton, Long Island. II 2, 
Augustin Macdonough, went to the West Indies. 
II 3 (F F), James Macdonough (died 1792), who 
settled in New Castle county, Delaware, was a 
physician and an able business man. 114 (F M), 
Lydia Laroux (1729-1764). 115 (M F), Samuel 
Vance, who settled in Delaware about 1707, was 
the owner of a grist-mill and a captain in the 
Delaware colonial militia. 

Fraternity of F: III 1, James Macdonough, 
died early in the service of the country in the 

Revolutionary war. Ill 4, Micah Macdonough, was an officer under General St. Clair in an 
expedition against the Indians in 1791. Ill 5 (F), Thomas Macdonough (1747-1795), in March 
1776 was commissioned a major of the Delaware battalion and distinguished himself in active 
service. In February 1777 he was elected a member of the privy council and served for several 
years, being elected speaker of the council in 1784 and again in 1787. Later he was made second 
justice of the court of common pleas and orphans' court of New Castle county. Ill 6 (M), 
Mary Vance (1751-1792). Ill 7 (consort's F), Nicolas Shaler, of New York City. 

Fraternity of Propositus: IV 1, Lydia, Hannah, Mary, Hester, and Jane Macdonough. 
IV 2, Samuel, John, and Joseph Macdonough. IV 3, James Macdonough, a midshipman in 
the navy, who took part in the action between the Constellation and the Insurgente in 1799. IV 
4 (Propositus), THOMAS MACDONOUQH. IV 5 (consort), Lucy Ann Shaler. 

Children of Propositus: V 2, James Edward Fisher Macdonough (1816-1849). V 3, 
Charles Shaler MacDonough (1818-1871). V 4, William Joseph Macdonough. V 5, Augustus 
Rodney MacDonough (1820-1907). V 6, Frances Brenton McVickar. V 7, Thomas Mac- 
Donough (1822-1894). V8, Charlotte Rosella Macdonough (1825-1900). V 9, Henry G. 
Hubbard. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

MACDONOUGH, R. 1895. A Paper on Commodore Thomas Macdonough, United States 

Navy. (In: Historical and Biographical Papers of the Historical Society of Delaware. 

Vol. II. 22 pp.) 
MACDONOUGH, R. 1909. Life of Commodore Thomas Macdonough. Boston: The Fort 

Hill Press, S. Usher. 12 + 313 pp. 
VANDERGRIFT, L. 1895. Memoir of Commodore Thomas Macdonough. (In: Historical and 

Biographical Papers of the Historical Society of Delaware. Vol. II, pp. 3-14.) 



122 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

37. JOHN NEWLAND MAFFITT. 

JOHN NEWLAND MAFFITT was born at sea, February 22, 1819. He was 
brought up chiefly in North Carolina at the home of his uncle, Dr. William Maffitt. 
He returned to his father in White Plains, New York, at the age of 9 years, travel- 
ing alone, "with a ticket pinned to his jacket." He went to school for a time 
and at the age of 13 he was commissioned midshipman in the United States 
navy. In 1835 he was ordered to the Constitution and went to the Mediterranean. 
Appointed acting lieutenant; in 1842 he was detached and ordered to the Coast 
Survey for a while under Hassler, and in 1843 under Blake. Thus he continued with 
Gulf Stream and harbor surveys and the like for 13 years, when the naval board 
voted to furlough him, but having protested that he was only following orders he 
was restored and placed in command of the United States brig Dolphin (1857). In 
1859 he was ordered to the command of the United States steamer Crusader and 
sent to capture slavers and pirates. In June 1861 he resigned from the navy and 
joined the staff of General Robert E. Lee a little later in the year. In January 
1862 he took command of the blockade-runner Cecile and later secured the Florida, 
which repeatedly ran the blockade of the southern ports, carrying cotton to Nassau 
and returning with British gunpowder. After the war Maffitt became a farmer 
near Wilmington, North Carolina, and devoted his evenings to literary pursuits 
and to reading. He died May 15, 1886. 

Maffitt's primary characteristic was a love of adventure and absence of 
fear. As a small boy he was a leader in all boys' sports and used to run about the 
woods "like a Mohawk Indian"; at the age of 9 years he willingly traveled 
alone from North Carolina to White Plains, New York, and this in the days of 
stage-coaches. His adventurousness and courage are illustrated by his own vivid 
description of running a blockade, in The United Service Magazine, June and 
July, 1882. 

Coming down the Cape Fear River in the swift steamer Cecile, to run out 
to Nassau, he reaches the mouth of the river. "Night glasses scan the bleared 
horizon for a time in vain; suddenly an officer with bated breath announces several 
steamers. Eagerly pointing, he reports two at anchor and others slowly cruising. 
Instantly out of the gloom and spoondrift emerges the sober phantom form of the 
blockading fleet. The moment of trial is at hand; firmness and decision are 
essential for the emergency. Dashing between two at anchor, we pass so near 
as to excite astonishment at our non-discovery; but this resulted from the color 
of our hull, which, under certain stages of the atmosphere, blended so perfectly 
with the haze as to render the steamer nearly invisible. [The pilot declared they 
would get through undisturbed.] 

" Ere a response could be uttered, a broad-spread flash of intense light blazed 
from the flag's drummond, for in passing to windward the noise of our paddles 
betrayed the proximity of a blockade runner. ' Full speed' I shouted to the engi- 
neer. Instantly the increased revolutions responded to the order. Then came 
the roar of heavy guns, the howl of shot and the scream of bursting shells. Around, 
above and through the severed rigging the iron demons howled, as if pandemonium 
had discharged its infernal spirits into the air. 

"Under the influence of a terrible shock the steamer quivers with aspen 
vibrations. An explosion follows; she is struck! 
' What is the damage?' I asked. 

"A shell, sir, has knocked overboard several bales of cotton and wounded 
two of the crew,' was the response of the boatswain. 



MAFFITT. 123 

"By the sheen of the drummond lights the sea is so clearly illuminated as 
to exhibit the perils of our position, and show the grouping around us of the fleet, 
as their batteries belched forth a hailstorm of missiles, threatening instant annihi- 
lation. ... As perils multiplied, our Mazeppa speed increased and gradually 
withdrew us from the circle of danger. At last we distance the party." 

Maffitt's daughter, Florence (1842-1883), showed a similar absence of fear. 
On one occasion, during the running of blockades, she was sent to the States on 
board the steamer Nassau, which at that time was captured by an enemy ship. 
As told by the enemy: 

"She sat on the open deck of the Nassau during our firing at her to make her 
bring to, until the captain warned her of her danger and advised her to go to her 
cabin. She would watch our guns, and as she saw the flame and smoke jut out 
would manifest just enough excitement to give the appearance of being well enter- 
tained. And she continued to enjoy the amusement through the window of her 
cabin when she went below. It must be borne in mind that the Nassau had tons 
of powder on board, to realize the awful danger of her situation. A single shell 
exploding in that cargo would have blown her into a thousand atoms. Her family 
were told by some who were on board the Nassau at the time that Florence urged 
the captain not to surrender, and when he reminded her of the danger from the 
cargo of powder and his duty to her father, she exclaimed, with tears in her eyes, 
that her father would prefer her being blown up than that the steamer should be 
captured." 

Maffitt's son, Eugene A., was a midshipman on the Confederate States steamer 
Alabama under Semmes, and was in her when she was sunk by the Kearsarge. 
He and Semmes plunged into the water as the Alabama sunk, were picked up by 
the British Deerhound, and taken to England. On returning to the United States 
in 1865 he for a tune suffered military imprisonment. 

Maffitt was highly intelligent, as evinced by his employment on the coast 
survey. In blockade-running he was full of resources, devices, and deceptions to 
escape capture. He came of intellectual stock, especially on the paternal side. 
His father, Rev. John Newland Maffitt (born at Dublin in 1794; died at Mobile, 
Alabama, in 1850), was a graduate of Trinity College, Dublin, of wealthy parents, 
and a "born preacher"; he traveled in Ireland as a missionary, and occupied the 
highest place in popular esteem. Coming to New England, he was an itinerant 
Methodist preacher there (1822-1830); he then went to Nashville, Tennessee, 
and issued there the first number of the Western Methodist, now the Christian 
Advocate. In 1841 he was elected chaplain to the lower house of Congress. 

His father's sister Emily had a mind that sparkled with wit and intelligence; 
she married into the nobility of England. Her brother William was a physician, 
who also came to the United States. 

Of Maffitt's sibs, Eliza was celebrated for her intellectuality as well as for her 
beauty; living in Texas, she was called the "Belle of the Brazos." Another sister, 
Matilda, married a Texas judge and is reputed to have written some of her hus- 
band's speeches. A third sister, Henrietta, married General Mirabeau Lamar, 
the second president of Texas. 

Maffitt expressed himself well in writing. He wrote "Nautilus, or Cruising 
under Canvas" (autobiographical); also articles on "Blockade-running," an extract 
from one of which is given above. Admiral D. D. Porter remarks on his genial 
humor as a messmate. 



124 



HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 



Maffitt was a great favorite in the United States navy before his resignation, 
and later with his associates in blockade-running and raiding. He was good- 
looking and was graceful in manners. Grace and beauty characterized his sisters 
and his father and father's sister. 

FAMILY HISTORY OF JOHN N. MAFFITT. 

Fraternity of F: I 1, Dr. William Maffitt, who came to Fayetteville, North Carolina. I 2, 
Emily Maffitt, had a "mind that sparkled with wit and intelligence " ; she married into the nobility 
of England. I 3 (F), John Newland Maffitt (1794-1850), was a graduate of Trinity College, 
Dublin, and a "born preacher"; coming to America, he was famous as an itinerant Methodist 
preacher and editor. In 1841 he was elected chaplain to the lower house of Congress. I 4 (M), 
Ann Carnic. 



- 19 - LO 




Fraternity of Propositus: II 1, William H. Maffitt. II 2, Frederick Maffitt. II 3, Caroline 
McKeen. II 4, Judge R. D. Johnson. II 5, Matilda Caroline Maffitt. II 6, Henrietta Maffitt. 

II 7, General Mirabeau Lamar. II 8, Thomas Budd. II 9, Eliza Maffitt, celebrated for her 
intellectuality as well as her beauty. II 10, Dr. Alexander, of Texas. II 11 (first consort), 
Mary Florence Murrell, of Alabama. II 12 (Propositus), JOHN NEWLAND MAFFITT. II 13 
(third consort), Emma Martin, author of "Life and Services of John Newland Maffitt." II 14 
(second consort), Mrs. Caroline Laurens Read. 

Children of sibs: III 1, Walter C. Maffitt. Ill 2, Matilda Maffitt. Ill 3, Benjamin 
Crew. Ill 4, Samuel Calder. Ill 5, Loretta Lamar. Ill 6, Captain Tucker, of Virginia. 

III 7, Caroline Budd. Children of Propositus: III 10, Florence Laurens Maffitt (1842-1883), 
was devoid of fear. Ill 11, Eugene A. Maffitt (see text). Ill 12, John Laurens Maffitt. Ill 
13, Colden Rhind Maffitt. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



MAFFITT, E. 1906. 
lishing Co. 



The Life and Services of John Newland Maffitt. New York: Neale Pub- 



MAHAN. 125 

38. ALFRED THAYER MAHAN. 

ALFRED THAYER MAHAN was born at West Point, New York, September 
27, 1840. He went to boarding-school, then to Columbia College, New York 
City, in 1854, and to the Naval Academy in September 1856 (at 15 years of age), 
whence he was graduated in 1859, and went on a cruise in the Congress to the South 
Atlantic. Commissioned lieutenant in 1861, he saw service in the blockade of the 
Southern and Gulf States. For the next twenty years he was in active service at 
sea. While in the Asiatic squadron he saw much of China and Japan. He was 
appointed president of the newly established Naval War College at Newport, 
Rhode Island, and served in that capacity from 1886 to 1889 and in 1892-1893. 
In 1890 his "The influence of sea power upon history, 1660-1783," was published. 
It has been used as a text-book in all naval colleges of the world. While in com- 
mand of the Chicago in European waters, he was given the honorary degrees of 
D. C. L. by Oxford and LL. D by Cambridge in recognition of the value of this 
work; similar degrees were given him by universities of the United States. He 
was a member of the naval board during the war with Spain and was appointed 
by President McKinley a delegate to the Hague Peace Conference. He wrote 
numerous works on naval matters; a history of his experience in the blockade, 
"Influence of Sea Power on the French Revolution and Empire," "Life of Far- 
ragut," "Life of Nelson" (the greatest of Nelson biographies), "The Interest of 
America in Sea Power," "Lessons of the War with Spain," "Sea Power in its Re- 
lation to the War of 1812," and others, including an autobiographical work "From 
Sail to Steam," 1907. He died December 1, 1914. 

Mahan had the hypokinetic temperament which is so common among the 
Irish. This appears clearly in the following self-revelation : 

" While I have no difficulty in entering into civil conversation with a stranger 
who addresses me, I rarely begin, having, upon the whole, a preference for an intro- 
duction. This is not perverseness; but lack of facility. I have, too, an abhorrence 
of public speaking, and a desire to slip unobserved into a back seat wherever I 
am, which amounts to a mania; but I am bound to admit I get both these disposi- 
tions from my father, whose Irish was undiluted by foreign admixture." 

This hypokinesis forms the background of his thorough work. He found 
pleasure in study and writing; he did not feel pressure to rush his work, and took 
time to do it well. His philosophic insight permeates it all. As a writer on 
naval history he has never been equaled. He understands the essential features 
of the naval battle he has to describe and he knows how to set them forth. He 
ranks among the first of the world's biographers. More, perhaps, than any other, 
he has pointed out how inherited traits of personality have determined performance. 
Since his biographies are rich in incidents showing the reaction of the propositus 
to particular situations, they are of the greatest importance for a psychological 
analysis of the personality. Of his own reactions as an author he writes: "The 
favorable criticism upon the first sea-power book not only surprised me, but had 
increased my ambition and my self-confidence." "I now often recall with envy 
the happiness of those days, when the work was its own reward, and quite sufficient, 
too; almost as good as a baby." "None but a blockhead would write for money, 
unless he had to." (Mahan, 1907, p. 311.) 

Mahan belongs to a philosophical, scholarly race. His father, Dennis Hart 
Mahan, born April 1808, was professor of engineering, civil as well as military, 



126 



HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 



at West Point, for over 40 years. He was of pure Irish blood. He lived for 
a while in Norfolk, Virginia, was graduated at West Point, and earned a distin- 
guished reputation there. He was sent to France for higher military education. 
He had no strong bias toward arms, but was very fond of drawing and sought the 
Military Academy as a means to this end. The following incident illustrates his 
thoughtfulness: Once he was on a board where an objectionable project was 
offered by an influential officer. A young member of the board asked his advice 
about opposing it, hesitating on account of the odium that such opposition would 
bring to him. Mahan advised the young man against such action and then threw 
the force of his great influence against the proposition and defeated it. 

FAMILY HISTORY OF ALFRED T. MAHAN. 

II (F F), John Mahan, was born in Ireland and came to New 
York whence he removed to Virginia. I 2, Mary Cleary, born in 
Ireland. 13 (M F), John Okill, of English stock. 14 (M ), Mary 
Jay, of Huguenot descent, a vivacious woman. 

II 1 (F), Dennis Hart Mahan (1802-1871), led his class upon 
being graduated from the United States Military Academv. He 
was promoted to the corps of engineers, but remained at the academy 
as instructor. In 1832 he was appointed professor of civil and mili- 
tary engineering at the academy and, in 1838, dean of the faculty. HI 
He published many civil and military text-books. II 2 (M), Mary 
Helena Okill. 

Fraternity of Propositus: III 1, Frederick Augustus Mahan (born 1847), was graduated 
from the United States Military Academy at West Point with the actual rank of second lieu- 
tenant of engineers. He served in various capacities as engineer, rising to the rank of major 
in 1894; in 1900 he retired. He aided in editing the last edition of his father's "Civil Engi- 
neering." Ill 2, Dennis Hart Mahan (born 1849), was graduated from the United States Naval 
Academy in 1869. He served in the Philippine campaign, 1899-1900, on the U. S. S. Brooklyn; 
he was at Kingston, Jamaica, during the earthquake rescue, commanding U. S. S. Indiana. Ill 
4 (Propositus), ALFRED THAYER MAHAN. Ill 5 (consort), Ellen Lyle Evans. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

ABBOT, H. 1788. Memoir of Dennis Hart Mahan. (In: Biographical Memoirs of Nation. 
Acad. of Sciences, 1886. Vol. II, pp. 29-37.) 

MAHAN, A. T. 1907. From Sail to Steam. Recollections of a Naval Life. New York: Har- 
per & Bros, xvii + 326 pp. 




MAEKHAM. 127 

39. JOHN MARKHAM. 

JOHN MARKHAM was born at Dean's Yard, June 13, 1761. He was sent to 
Westminster School at the age of 8 years, was appointed a midshipman at 14 
(1775), and sailed for Newfoundland. His ship chased privateers, and at 15 he 
was made prize-master of a sloop-of-war. In 1779 he took a gallant part in the 
capture of Charleston, South Carolina, was promoted to a lieutenancy and put in 
charge of the prize frigate Confederacy, and at 20 was given command of a British 
naval vessel. During this time he seems to have made no important error of 
judgment, but in May 1782 he mistook a ship sailing under a flag of truce for an 
enemy and was court-martialed, but later he was restored to his rank. In 1783 
Markham commanded a naval vessel in the Mediterranean; later he traveled with 
a friend through Europe and to America. After the French war broke out he 
obtained command of a ship (1793) and cruised in the French West Indies. In 
1797 he took part in the blockade of Brest, but in 1801 resigned his command. 
He was then elected a lord of the admiralty and entered Parliament; in 1804 he 
was made rear admiral; in 1806 first sea lord. His health began to decline and he 
died at Naples in 1827. 

John Markham was not prudent or cautious and was a fearless though not a 
great fighter. He was honorable, warm-hearted, generous, and never forgot a friend, 
and his affection for his relatives was deep and strong. He had great application. 

By a consort of good family (whose mother's mother's father was secretary 
of war) he had 4 sons, of whom one, Frederick (1818-1855), became a soldier and 
saw service in Canada, India, and the Crimea, was extremely fond of hunting big 
game, and wrote two books on hunting and travel. He never married. A second 
son, like his father's brothers, father's father, and mother's brother, was a clergyman. 

John Markham's father (William Markham) was a clergyman, an Arch- 
bishop of York. Like his son he had great application, "an attention that nothing 
could disturb," also he was affectionate toward his children. He was especially 
interested in geography. "Dr. Markham often seemed to show a partiality for 
the profession of a soldier. He, no doubt, possessed in an eminent degree those 
qualities which would have led to distinction in military life. His judgment was 
cool, his courage undaunted, his decision quick, his mind energetic, active and 
enterprising, his constitution capable of enduring fatigue and patience not to be 
subdued." He was interested in military tactics. Of his sons, besides John, one, 
David, was remarkably bright and clever and an excellent Latin scholar. He 
entered the army by inclination, was sent to India, was wounded, returned home, 
and became major of infantry in 1793, and later, while commanding at Jamaica, 
lieutenant colonel. He was killed while leading his men at San Domingo in 1795. 
An intellectual and resolute man; at the same time gentle and warm-hearted. 

Two other brothers became clergymen. One, William, after a few years in 
the civil service in India, settled down in Yorkshire as a country gentleman and 
indulged his taste for literature, especially the classics. He early became crippled 
by gout. From William and his wife Elizabeth Bowles are descended David, 
a clergyman, canon of Windsor, and the father of Sir Clements Markham, the 
explorer and author; and John, a captain in the Royal Navy and father of 
Admiral Sir Albert Hastings Markham, the explorer and author. Brother Osborn 
was a barrister. The fraternity showed a high degree of talent, with diverse tastes 
and constitutions. 



128 



HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 



FAMILY HISTORY OP SIR JOHN MARKHAM. 

1 1 (F F F), Daniel Markham, a colonel in the army, who settled in Ireland. 12 (F F M), 
Elizabeth Fennel, a granddaughter in the maternal line of Oliver Cromwell. I 3 (consort's 
M F F), Baron Talbot, lord chancellor. I 4 (consort's M F M), Cecil Matthews, a Welsh 
heiress. I 5 (consort's M M F), Adam de Cardonnell, secretary of war. 

II 1 (F F), William Markham (1686-1771), a major in the army after many years of service. 
II 2 (F M), Elizabeth Markham, a fourth cousin once removed. II 3 (M F), John Goddard 
(1690-1766), settled in Rotterdam as a merchant. II 4 (M M), Elizabeth Smith. II 5 (consort's 
M F), William Earl Talbot. II 6 (consort's M M), Mary de Cardonell. 



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Fraternity of F: III 1, Elizabeth Markham. Ill 2, George Markham, entered the navy at 
an early age, but left in disgust after many years because he did not get the desired promotion. 

III 3, Enoch Markham, was a volunteer for American service; later he became major command- 
ant of the Royal Musketeers and then a colonel in the army. Ill 4 (F), William Markham 
(1719-1807), a scholar, who became head of Winchester School and Archbishop of York. Ill 5 
(M), Sarah Goddard (1738-1814). Ill 6, John Goddard. Ill 7 (consort's F), Hon. George 
Rice, M. P. Ill 8 (consort's M), Lady Cecil Talbot. 

Fraternity of Propositus: IV 1, George Markham (1763-1822), dean of York. IV 2, Eliza- 
beth Sutton. IV 3, Alicia Markham, born 1771. IV 4, Rev. H. F. Mills. IV 5, David Mark- 
ham (1766-1795), was killed at San Domingo while gallantly leading his men. IV 6, Robert 
Markham (1768-1837), became canon residentiary of York in 1802. IV 7, Frances, daughter 
of Sir Gervase Clifton. IV 8, Osborne Markham (born 1769), a barrister-at-law. IV 9, Martha 
Jervis (see Admiral John Jervis). IV 10, Henrietta Markham, born 1764. IV 11, Evan Law. 

IV 13, Sir W. Milner, high sheriff, a first cousin on the maternal side of Charles Sturt, the 
renowned Australian explorer. IV 14, Selina Clements. IV 15, Elizabeth Markham, born 1765. 
IV 16, W. Barnett. IV 17, Cecilia Markham (born 1783). IV 18, Rev. R. P. Goodenough. 
IV 19, Frederica Markham, born 1774. IV 20, William, Earl of Mansfield. IV 21, William 
Markham (1760-1815), a county gentleman with a taste for literature. IV 22, Elizabeth Bowles. 
IV 23 (Propositus), SIR JOHN MARKHAM. IV 24 (consort), Hon. Maria Rice, born 1773. Fra- 
ternity of consort: IV 25, Henrietta Rice, born 1758. IV 26, Magens-Darrien Magens, a banker. 
IV 27, George Rice, Lord Dynevor (1765-1852). IV 28, Edward Rice (1776-1862), Dean of 
Gloucester. 

V 3, George Markham (1796-1834), a lieutenant in the navy. V 4, Edward Markham 
(1801-1865), in the East India civil service. V 5, Robert Markham, a captain in the army, 
who was killed in a duel in 1832. V 6, Henry Markham (died 1844), canon of York. V 8, 
Georgina Markham. V 9, George, tenth Earl of Haddington. V 10, Martha Markham. V 11, 
Rev. William H. Pearson. V 12, Catherine Milner. V 13, David Markham (born 1800), canon 
of Windsor. V 14, John Markham (born 1797), a captain of the Royal Navy. IV 15, Marianne 



MARKHAM MARRYAT. 129 

Wood. V 16, Warren Markham (1801-1836), a captain in the army. V 17, Charles Markham 
(1803-1843), a lieutenant colonel in the army. V 19, Colonel William Markham (1796-1852). 
V 20, Lucy Holbech. Children of Propositus: V 21, William Rice Markham (1803-1877), vicar 
of Moreland. V 22, Jane Clayton. V 23, John Markham (1801-1837), educated at Westminster. 

V 24, Frederick Markham (1818-1855), a major general, sportsman, and traveler. V 25, Maria 
Frances Markham (1806-1S36). 

VI 1, George Baillie Hamilton, eleventh Earl of Haddington, high sheriff, and an army cap- 
tain. VI 2, Major Robert Baillie Hamilton (1828-1891). VI 4, Henry Baillie-Hamilton (1832- 
1895), a commander, Royal Navy. VI 5, Arthur Baillie Hamilton (born 1838), vicar of Badley. 

VI 7, David Markham (1828-1850), died at sea. VI 8, Clements Markham (1830-1916), "as aboy 
always evinced a decided penchant for the sea." He became renowned as a geographer, explorer, 
and author of books of travel. VI 12, Sir Albert Hastings Markham, (born 1841), entered the 
Royal Navy in 1856 and rose to the rank of rear admiral. He is well known as an explorer and 
writer. VI 13, Alfred Markham, of the Royal Navy. VI 15, Sir Edwin Markham (born 1833), 
a colonel commandant, Royal Artillery, served in Crimea and India. VI 16, William Markham, 
born 1830. VI 17, Captain Francis Markham, born 1837. Children of children of Propositus: 
VI 18, Maria Markham, born 1842. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

MARKHAM, SIR C. 1883. A Naval Career of the Old War. Being a Narrative of the Life of 
Admiral John Markham. London: S. Low, Marston, Scarle & Rivington. viii + 
289 pp. 

MARKHAM, D. 1854. A History of the Markham Family. London: J. B. Nicols & Sons. 
xi + 96 pp. 

40. FREDERICK MARRYAT. 

FREDERICK MARRYAT (1792-1848) was born at Westminster, July 10, 1792. 
He was precocious, learned and forgot easily, and was frequently flogged for 
inattention. He often ran away from school once to avoid wearing his brother's 
cast-off garments and he always ran toward the sea. At last, at 14 years of 
age, his father arranged for him to enter the navy in 1806, where he first saw service 
on the Imperieuse, under Lord Cochrane, in the Mediterranean. During the next 
two and a half years Marryat was in fifty engagements. His captain mentioned 
him for his bravery. Between 1809 and 1815 he served in North American waters 
and in the West Indies under various commanders. In 1812 he was made lieu- 
tenant and in 1815 commander; he directly afterward married. In 1824 he was 
at Rangoon, in command of the naval forces there. In 1825 he commanded an 
expedition up the Bassein river. Returning to England, he was awarded the order 
of Companion of the Bath and, though often invited to the court of the King, 
was not in great favor because of his publication against impressment of seamen. 

Now began a new life for Marryat, one of great literary productiveness, 
particularly in the field of novels based on sea-life. He purchased 1,000 acres 
in Norfolk, but as he could not endure its monotony he went back to London for 
fifteen years. There he edited a magazine in addition to writing books. In 
1837 he went to America and traveled extensively. When the French under Papi- 
neau revolted in Canada, 1837-1838, he hastened to offer his services. He finally 
returned to his estate and tried farming again in 1843; but his experiments in this 
avocation were costly and consumed the large income derived from his books; 
evidently he had the desire to see things doing when he was on land also. He 
died in 1848, much depressed by the death of his son Frederick, whose ship sank 
in 1847. 

Marryat loved adventure and was without fear. As a young man he played 
pranks, and in this respect his son Frederick resembled him. It is said that he 



130 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

rescued 27 men who had fallen overboard; he early received the medal of the 
Humane Society for this. His son Frederick went overboard to rescue men in 
the same way. On one occasion when, off New York harbor, the ship was on her 
beams end, Maryatt alone had the courage to cut away her main yards. He was 
restless. Probably there was a nomadic tendency on the mother's side, as her 
father was a Hessian who had emigrated to Boston, England. 

Marryat had the impulse to write and the ability to write well. Novels, 
books of travel, poems even, flowed from his pen. Several of his brothers and 
sisters were authors, partly of travels. His father wrote political pamphlets. 
The father's father was a physician, author of "Therapeutics, or the art of healing, " 
and "The Philosophy of Masons"; also verse. Moreover, a cousin, Sir Edward 
Belcher, wrote two books of travel and a book on surveying. Marryat's son 
Frank had begun to write books of travel before his untimely death. 

Marryat was a visualist and very skillful in sketching and caricaturing. Dur- 
ing the Burmese war he made a series of sketches representing scenery, people, 
and engagements of the war. His son Frank, who died young of yellow fever, 
had his father's ability to draw. Marryat's eldest brother collected china and 
wrote a book on the subject; a sister wrote a "History of Lace." Doubtless this 
family appeal of the beauty of form was one of the things that made ships fasci- 
nating. He was also something of an inventor. He worked out a signal code 
for merchant vessels and invented a cipher for secret correspondence. He was 
very resourceful in bridge-building while at Rangoon. 

FAMILY HISTORY OF FREDERICK MARRYAT. 

I 1 (F F), Thomas Marryat, a physician and an author. 13 (M F), Frederick von Geyer, 
a Hessian settler in Boston; a loyalist. 

II 1 (F), Joseph Marryat, member of Par- 
liament; author of political pamphlets. II 2 I 
(M), Charlotte von Geyer. II 3 (consort's F), Sir 
Stephen Shairp, counsel general at the court of 
Russia. 

Fraternity of the Propositus: III 1, Joseph 
Marryat, a collector of china; author of "Pottery 
and Porcelain." Ill 2, Horace Marryat, author of 

"One Year in Sweden." Ill 3, Marryat, wrote 

"Nature and Art" and "History of Lace." Ill 4, 
Bury Pattison. Ill 7 (Propositus), FREDERICK 
MARRYAT. Ill 8 (consort), Catherine Shairp, had 
talent and literary taste. 

Children of the Propositus: IV 1, Frederick Marryat, a lieutenant in the navy who was 
lost in the wreck of the Avenger, in 1847. IV 2, Frank Marryat, died a midshipman in the navy. 
IV 3, Emily, Augusta, and four other sisters. IV 4, Florence Marryat, novelist and author 
of "Life and Letters of Captain Marryat." IV 5, Ross Church. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 
MARRYAT, F. 1872. Life and Letters of Captain Marryat. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 




McCLINTOCK. 131 

41. SIR FRANCIS LEOPOLD MCCLINTOCK. 

FRANCIS LEOPOLD MCCLINTOCK was born at Dundalk, Ireland, July 8, 
1819. He entered the Royal Navy at the age of 12 years. At 24 he passed his 
lieutenant's examination and joined the Gorgan steamship, which was driven ashore 
at Montevideo but salvaged. In 1848 he joined the search for Sir John Franklin, 
and on his third voyage, in 1854, commanded the Intrepid. He developed the 
system of sled traveling. After the admiralty had abandoned the rescue work, 
Lady Franklin fitted out the Fox in 1857 and put it in command of McClintock, 
who in 1859 discovered skeletons, other remains, and a manuscript record of the 
expedition. He also added 800 miles of new coast to our knowledge of the Arctic 
region. On his return he was knighted. He sounded the North Atlantic for the 
submarine-telegraph cable route in the sixties. He was elected a fellow of the 
Royal Society in 1865, was made vice admiral in 1877, and commanded the West 
Atlantic fleet. He was made K. C. B. in 1891. His book on the "Voyage of the 
Fox" passed through several editions. He died in 1907. 

McClintock was a visualist; form and color appealed to him. He says him- 
self that it was in part a print of Admiral Berkeley in uniform, which hung in his 
father's dressing-room, that led him to choose a naval career. Also the appear- 
ance of his cousin, Lieutenant Bunbury McClintock, probably dressed as an officer, 
made an appeal. At any rate, at the age of 12 years he "wanted to go to sea" 
and went on his cousin's ship, taking with him a bag of marbles that he prized 
highly (color and form) . Returning home on one occasion, he explored the steeple 
of the Dundalk church, which he had always believed "was built of some beautiful 
green stone"; but he found it made of wood coated with copper. To him all 
sorts of organic and even artificial forms were attractive. At 14 years of age he 
was much interested in the prehistoric antiquities that abounded in his region, 
and explored the numerous "Danish" forts. Mineralogy, botany, and zoology were 
favorite sciences, and he read extensively about them, and in the Arctic he col- 
lected fossils, minerals, plants, and animals. He was an ardent hunter. This 
love of form extended also to machinery. At the age of 24 years he had already 
mastered the structure of steam machinery, and when, in the Arctic in 1859, the 
engineer who had taken the engines to pieces died, the commander was the only 
one on board who could get them into working order again. Some of the elements 
of the foregoing are found in his father, who hung the print of Admiral Berke- 
ley in his own room and was himself a lover of the horse and of sport. His brother 
became an eminent physician, president of the College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons in Ireland. 

McClintock was something of a nomad; he longed to see new countries. 
As a young man he was a great walker. In the first Arctic trip he walked 770 
miles in 80 days, exploring Melville Island for traces of the Franklin party. 

Ability in command is another trait. He understood and managed men. 
His book reveals abundant evidence of his "consummate leadership." Those 
who worked with him or served under him felt the most unbounded confidence in 
his judgment and resolution. This ability appears also in the son of his father's 
brother John. Lieutenant W. Bunbury McClintock did not drink or swear and 
exerted a good influence on those under him. He was one of the first, if not the 
first, to introduce the use of "port" instead of "larboard" into the service. One of 
McClintock's sons was appointed a commander in the Royal Navy in 1905; another 
was a major in the Royal Engineers who served in Nigeria and in South Africa. 



132 



HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 



McClintock was something of a hypokinetic. As admiral he was "reserved 
and somewhat indisposed to talk." He was self -controlled. He was habitually 
quiet and perfectly calm, seeing everything done himself without noise or fuss. 
He weighed a question for some time before acting, but when once his mind was 
made up he acted promptly. He was "full of a kindly quiet humor, which smoothed 
away difficulties. He seemed to live above the petty annoyances of daily life. 
His judgment of others was always generous, and scandalous or unkind talk never 
failed to arouse his indignation." He was economical, even rigid toward himself 
in money matters, and very generous to others. When he became a lieutenant 
he began making a regular allowance to his mother. His personal tastes and 
habits were simple. He was governed by a deep religious feeling. His writings 
are accurate and free from display. 

For the hypokinetic, adventure and a touch of danger bring a grateful stimulus. 
Such a situation "seemed to inspire him with the lofty touch of exhilaration." 
His face lit up with animation and his words came with more than usual readiness 
and cheerfulness of tone. This hypokinesis is common in the Scotch-Irish. A 
kinsman is Rev. William Alexander, D. D., archbishop of Armagh and primate 
of all Ireland. McClintock's mother was the daughter of the Venerable Doctor 
Fleury, D. D., archdeacon of Waterford; so a religious tendency probably came 
from this side also. 

FAMILY HISTORY OF FRANCIS LEOPOLD MCCLINTOCK. 

I 1 (F F), John McClintock (born 
1742), was a large landed proprietor and 
a member of Parliament in the Irish 
House of Commons. 12 (F M), Patience 
Foster. 13 (M F), Doctor Fleury, arch- 
deacon of Waterford; was of Huguenot 
ancestry. I 4 (M M), - - an English lady. 



I 5 (consort's M F), Viscount Ferrard. 

I 6 (consort's MM), Viscountess Mas- 
sereene. 

Fraternity of F: II 1, Miss Bunbury. 

II 2, John McClintock. II 3, Lady 

Elizabeth Trench. II 4 (F), Henry McClintock (died 1843), was in the army; afterwards he was 
in charge of the custom-house in Dundalk. II 5 (M), Elizabeth Melesina Fleury, a "pretty 
woman of remarkable ability and energy." II 6 (consort's F), R. F. Dunlop. II 7 (consort's 
M), Anna Skeffington. 

Ill 1, - - McClintock, an officer in the Portsmouth garrison. Ill 2, W. B. McClintock, 
who afterwards changed his name to McClintock Bunbury; entered the navy and at the age 
of 36 years became a commander. Subsequently he inherited a fortune, retired from the navy, 
and went into Parliament. Fraternity of Propositus: III 3, Louis McClintock, died young. 

III 4, Alfred Henry McClintock (born 1821), became an eminent physician in Dublin and was 
president of the College of Surgeons of Ireland. Ill 5, Theodore Ernest McClintock, a lieu- 
tenant colonel. Ill 6, Charles Fortescue McClintock. Ill 24 (Propositiis) , FRANCIS LEOPOLD 
MCCLINTOCK. Ill 25 (consort), Annette Elizabeth Dunlop. 

Children of Propositus: IV 1, Henry Foster McClintock, was in the secretary's depart- 
ment of the general post office; served as a reserve officer in the South African war for 3 years; 
received medals for his services. IV 2, John William Leopold McClintock, entered the navy and 
became a commander in 1905; won a medal for saving a seaman's life. IV 3, Robert Singleton 
McClintock, served in the British army abroad; in 1904 was made brevet major of the Royal 
Engineers; in 1908 he joined the staff college. He won 3 medals. IV 5, Bernard Eyre Greenwell. 




MABKHAM, SIR C. 1909. 
xx + 370 pp. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 
Life of Admiral Sir Leopold McClintock. 



London: J. Murray. 



MORESBY. 133 

42. FAIRFAX MORESBY. 

FAIRFAX MORESBY was born at Calcutta, India, in 1787. He was reared 
as a child at Lichfield, England. It was said of him: 

" Far inland as his home was, all his predilections were for the seafaring life, 
and in the long summer his delight was to lie concealed in the waving grass, watching 
its billowing with half-shut eyes, until, seeing only the blue sky and undulating 
green, he could imagine himself on the lonely ocean, far out of sight of land in the 
centre of circling horizons. . . . The realization of his dream came with the offer 
from a neighbor and friend, Captain William Parker, of a berth on board, and 
acceptance was a foregone conclusion. There was never a moment's hesitation." 

When a midshipman on the Amazon the severity of the captain made young 
Moresby desert; he left the ship at Portsmouth and "set out on a hopeless tramp 
to Coshan," but on the way he met a kindly captain who returned him to his ship 
and arranged matters for him. As a midshipman he was constantly in charge of 
prizes and was captured on one of them and taken prisoner to Malaga. Exchanged, 
he served for a time under Nelson. He formed one of Napoleon's sea-guard at St. 
Helena. Under his superintendence the first settlement was made at Port Elizabeth, 
on the east coast of Africa, to stop the slave traffic; he had many adventures. 
His health failed prematurely. In later years he was intrusted with diplomatic 
missions. He became rear admiral (1849) and later vice admiral. 

Fairfax Moresby had a compound of high idealism and almost romantic 
gallantry, subdued by a devotion to the practical side of duty. He was always 
ready to accept responsibility and was prompt in decision, tactful, and prudent. 

A brother of Fairfax was Robert Moresby, a surveyor and explorer, the first to 
survey the northern half of the Red Sea. His next great survey was that of the coral 
islands, and this work was of great assistance to Charles Darwin in preparing his 
work on the structure and distribution of coral reefs. (Markham, 1909, p. 336.) 

John Moresby (born 1830), son of the preceding, spent his childhood in Aller- 
ford, England, where his father rented a farm and was living on half pay. Auto- 
biographically, he says: "The magnet which chiefly drew our restless feet was the 
mill, with its dripping water-wheel and mighty grinding-stones. "At the age 
of 12 he was appointed volunteer on H. M. S. Victor in the West Indies. After 
sundry cruises he sailed (1850) on the Amphitrite for the Pacific and delighted in 
the hunting at Falkland Islands and in the vicinity of Valparaiso. At Vancouver 
he gained leave of the captain to explore the mountains. He also made a success- 
ful trip to a distant tribe of Indians to capture the murderer of a white man. After 
some further years of miscellaneous service he was given (1871) command of the 
Basilisk and explored some 600 miles of the until then unvisited coast of New 
Guinea, adding to the chart some 140 islands and islets, and surveying many 
excellent harbors, including Port Moresby, now the capital of British New Guinea. 
From 1872 to 1875 he cruised and explored in Melanesia and New Zealand. He 
published two books on New Guinea and a life of himself and his father. 

Comparing father and son, we see that both have a taste for adventures. The 
former is more a diplomat; the latter, an explorer. As an explorer his tastes were 
almost exactly like his father's brother's. Both father and son readily accepted 
responsibility. The father's father was a lieutenant colonel in the militia. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

MARKHAM, C. R. 1909. Review of Two Admirals, etc. Geogr. Journal, xxxiv. pp. 336-338. 
MORESBY, JOHN. 1909. Two Admirals: Admiral of the Fleet Sir Fairfax Moresby and his 
son, John Moresby. London: J. Murray, xii + 419 pp. 



134 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

43. CHARLES MORRIS. 

CHARLES MORRIS was born July 26, 1784, at Woodstock, Connecticut, 
and spent the first fifteen years of his life there, working on the farm and reading 
everything he could lay his hands on. Charles entered the navy as a midshipman 
at the age of 15 years, through the assistance of his father, who was purser in the 
navy. He first was on ships with his father. He saw his first war service on board 
the Constitution, Commodore Preble, during the war with Tripoli. His father's 
brother now became secretary to Commodore Preble, so young Morris had the 
benefit of his company and advice. After the Philadelphia had grounded and was 
captured by the Tripolitan gunboats, Morris was one of a party who undertook 
to drift into the harbor at night, on a vessel disguised as a merchantman, and who 
boarded the Philadelphia, set fire to her, and escaped. After some further experi- 
ences in various vessels he returned to America; but after a time was at sea again 
as first lieutenant (1809), enforcing the embargo. On the Constitution, under 
Captain Isaac Hull, he was one night at Portsmouth, England. An American 
sailor who had deserted to a British man-of-war, Havana, was not given up on the 
ground that he claimed to be a British subject. Shortly afterwards, a deserter 
swam to the Constitution and stated (in Irish brogue) that he was an American. 
When the British sent a boat for him, Morris (in the absence of Captain Hull) 
refused to surrender him, giving the same reason that the British had given shortly 
before; the British threatened to use force, but the swift Constitution outsailed 
them. When the War of 1812 broke out the Constitution was at Annapolis and 
was ordered to New York, but in Chesapeake Bay she fell in with a small block- 
ading squadron under Captain Broke. A dead calm ensued, so that no flight 
or pursuit was possible, but the Constitution got away by use of the device of kedg- 
ing suggested by Morris - - rowing the kedge-anchor out for a mile beyond the 
ship and hauling in at the ship end. Thus the Constitution eluded her pursuers 
and reached Boston. Thence she went to Nova Scotia and captured a number of 
English vessels and, on August 19, 1812, met the Guerriere. Morris had charge 
of the firing and was with difficulty restrained until the two vessels had come close 
enough so that every shot of the Constitution would tell. The battle was won; 
Morris was wounded badly, but recovered. In March 1813 he was promoted to 
be captain. He remodeled the signal-book for the secretary of the navy. In 1814 
he was put in charge of the sloop-of-war Adams, blockaded in the Potomac, and, on 
January 18,1814, ran the blockade during a snowstorm and put to sea. During the 
next seven months he captured 10 merchantmen carrying in all 161 guns. On the 
Maine coast he ran upon the rocks, was pursued by a British squadron, got his 
vessel off at high tide and into the Penobscot river, where he burned the leaking 
Adams and escaped with all of his men. After this episode he was employed in the 
Boston navy-yard. In 1816 he commanded a squadron in the Gulf of Mexico, where 
the Spanish were making trouble, and in 1819-1820 was in South American waters 
during a revolution in Buenos Aires. From 1823 to 1827 he was a navy com- 
missioner. In 1825 he was chosen to convey La Fayette to France in the Brandy- 
wine, and while in Europe he visited the dockyards in France and England. He 
was again a navy commissioner through 1832-1841, during which time he sent out 
the exploring expedition under Wilkes. He was for some time director of the 
United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, and in the last five years of his life 
was chief of the bureau of ordnance and hydrography. 

Charles Morris was a fighter of fighting stock. His father, Charles Morris, 
born in 1762, enlisted in the Continental Army under General La Fayette at the 



MORRIS. 



135 



age of 16; later he shipped on board a privateer, was made prisoner, and confined 
in the hulks at New York until the close of the war; after that he commanded 
a merchant vessel in the South American trade. He and his crew were captured 
by pirates, his vessel was confiscated, and all were held prisoners for two years, 
until he escaped to an English war-vessel in the Orinoco river. 

Of the brothers of the propositus, Horace (1789-1862) entered the War of 
1812, becoming third lieutenant in 1813. He was then in the navy for a short 
time. The vessel on which he served was boarded by the British, who ordered 
him aboard their ship. He refused to go and, springing into the rigging, threat- 
ened death to anyone who tried to take him. He had an " active temperament" 
and was very courageous. He loved study and reading and was little inclined to 
talk. Another brother, George (born 1790), entered the army during the war of 
1812 and rose to be a captain of artillery, remaining in the army after the war; his 
son Robert (1822-1839) was fond of botany, became a midshipman in the United 
States navy, undertook extensive cruises. Still another brother (1792-1812) was 
a lieutenant in the army, March 1812, and was killed in the attack on Queens- 
town in October of that year; he died unmarried. Two sons of the propositus 
(Charles William and Robert Murray Morris) were soldiers. 

Love of the sea is also a family trait. The father and the father's brother, 
Noadiah Morris, were naval men and one of the sons of the propositus (George 
Upham Morris, 1830-1875) was a sailor. 

FAMILY HISTORY OF CHARLES MORRIS. 

II (F F F), Samuel Morris (born at Roxbury, Massachusetts, 1695), served during the 
French and Indian war. 13 (F M F), Benjamin Wilkinson (1713-1803), an enterprising keeper 
of a tavern (see Hopkins, IV 13). I 4 (F M M), Mary Rhodes. 



kkW<W<3Wom<5tf f 




Fraternity of F F: II 1, Mehitable (1729-1730), Mehitable (1731-1750), Anne (born 1739), 
Abigail (born 1742), Susanna (1743-1768), and Lucretia (1749-1750) Morris. II 2, Samuel 
Morris (1731-1801), served in the Revolutionary war. II 3, Henry Morris (1734-1808), was 
a corporal in the French and Indian war; in 1758 a sutler at Lake George; in May 1775 he enlisted, 
becoming corporal and later sergeant. He was a great pedestrian and jumper; at the age of 70 
years he could clear a fence at a bound. He removed to New Hampshire in 1790. II 4, Hannah 
Frizzell. II 5, John Morris (born 1735). II 6, William Morris (born 1740), served in the Revolu- 
tionary war and later moved to Vermont. II 7, Edward Morris (1745-1821), a farmer who was a 
lieutenant in the army. II 8, 9, Elizabeth and Hannah Morris, born 1747. II 10 (F F), Lemuel 
Morris (1737-1813), lived in Thompson, Connecticut, and then removed to Scituate, Rhode 
Island, but finally settled in Woodstock, Connecticut. He was a farmer who served in the French 
and Indian war. II 11 (F M), Lydia Wilkinson, born in Scituate, Rhode Island, 1744. II 12 
(M F), Captain Jonathan Nichols, of Mansfield, Connecticut. II 13 (M M), Sarah Bassett. 



136 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

Ill 1, Lucretia (died at 13 years of age) and Lucretia Morris (born 1763). Ill 2, Henry 
Morris, was a prisoner of war on the Jersey. Ill 3, Simeon Morris, a midshipman. Ill 4, 
Benjamin Morris, disappeared in the War of 1812. Ill 5, William and Adolphus. Ill 6, Samuel 
(born 1774) and Ebenezer Morris (born 1778). Fraternity of F: III 7, George Morris (born 
1763), went to England and was probably lost at sea. Ill 8, Samuel Morris (born 1767), re- 
moved to Otsego, New York. Ill 9, Rufus Morris (born Scituate, Rhode Island, 1772), was 
a farmer who moved to Florida, New York, where he held the office of supervisor. In the War 
of 1812 he was an officer in the State troops and was stationed at Sacketts Harbor. Ill 10, 
Pardon Morris (1776-1855), went to New York State; a farmer. Ill 11, Lydia (1779-1793) 
and Robert Morris (1781-1782). Ill 12, Lemuel Morris (born 1783), in 1808 was in South America 
and in 1809-1810 on the frigate President as secretary and chaplain to Captain Bainbridge. Then 
he engaged in commercial business in Rio de Janeiro. In 1813 he was on the Adams, commanded 
by Captain Charles Morris. In August, as a captain of the "Sea Fencibles" he was stationed 
at Sandy Hook. Later he was again at sea, then in France and South America. Ill 13, Noadiah 
Morris (1774-1808), entered the navy as secretary to Commodore Talbot and served in various 
capacities. In 1803 he went to Tripoli as secretary to Commodore Preble. In July 1803 he 
became a chaplain in the navy and in December was appointed purser. In 1805 he was in the 
Navy Department, but in 1806, engaging in commercial enterprises, he traded to Liverpool and 
the Mediterranean, and later to South America. Ill 14, Mary Morris (1786-1865). Ill 15 (F), 
Charles Morris (born 1762), at the age of 16 years served in the Continental army, then on board a 
privateer. After the war he engaged in commercial pursuits, sailing to the West Indies and South 
America. In 1799 he was a purser in the old navy on board the Baltimore. In September of that 
year he was elected to Congress. Ill 16 (M), Miriam Nichols (1764-1809). Ill 17 (consort's F), 
William Bowen (died 1812, aged 96 years), an eminent physician of Providence, Rhode Island. 

Fraternity of Propositus: IV 1, Lucy Morris, born 1787. IV 2, David Hopkins of Middle- 
bury, Vermont. IV 3, Horace Morris (1789-1862), served in the army and navy (see text). 

IV 4, George Morris (born 1790), became a captain of artillery, United States Army. IV 5, 
Sarah Mumford of New York. IV 6, Robert Morris (1792-1812), at the battle of Queenstown, 
October 13, 1812, was wounded in the arm, but kept on with his company until he was killed in 
action. IV 7, Maria Morris, born 1802. IV 8, Benjamin Lear. IV 9 (Propositus), CHARLES 
MORRIS. IV 10 (consort), Harriet Bowen (1791-1878). Fraternity of Consort: IV 11, William 
Corlis Bowen, studied medicine and went abroad, where he became interested in chemical pur- 
suits and finally lost his property and his life in experiments. 

V 1, Robert S. Morris (1822-1839), was appointed a midshipman in the United States 
navy, December 1837. He cruised to Africa, India, Manila, and the Hawaiian Islands, where 
he died. Children of Propositus: V 2, Charles William Morris (1815-1846), was appointed a 
midshipman of the United States navy in September 1829. During the war with Mexico he 
engaged in an expedition to Tobasco and, while going to the assistance of a brother officer, was 
mortally wounded. V 3, Caroline Devons. V 4, Harriet Bowen Morris, born 1817. V 5, 
Dr. James Ringgold. V 6, Louise Amory Morris (1818-1840). V 7, William Corcoran, a phi- 
lanthropist. V 8, Elizabeth Morris (born 1821.) V 9, Dr. John Fox, of the United States navy. 

V 10, Helen Maria Morris (1822-1843). V 11, George Upham Morris (1830-1875), followed 
the sea. V 12, Robert Murray Morris (1824-1880), was graduated from the United States Mili- 
tary Academy in 1842. He received the brevet of first lieutenant for gallant and meritorious 
conduct in the battle of Contreras, August 1847; brevet of captain at Chepultepec; and brevet 
lieutenant colonel at Dinwiddie Court House, Virginia, 1865. V 13, Maria Lear Morris, born 
1828. V 14, Rev. Thomas Duncan. V 15, William Bowen Morris (1826-1878), a physician. 
V 16, Julia Howe Morris, born 1832. V 17, Dr. S. Ridout Addison, of the United States navy. 

Children of children of Propositus: VI 1, Lieutenant Arthur Watson, of the United States 
Marine Corps. VI 2, Caroline Morris (born 1841). VI 3, Charles Morris (born 1844), upon being 
graduated from the United States Military Academy, was appointed second lieutenant and in 
1867 took part in Hancock's Indian expedition. From 1878 to 1881 he was professor of military 
science at the Massachusetts Agricultural College; in 1882 he was raised to the rank of captain of 
the artillery. VI 4, Charles Fox (born 1851), a lieutenant, United States navy. VI 5, William 
Fox, born 1857. VI 6, Helen (1848-1854) and Elizabeth (1853-1880) Fox. VI 7, Murray (born 
1858) and Richard (born 1868) Duncan. VI 8, William Duncan (1859-1876) . VI 9, Louis Duncan 
(born 1861), an ensign, United States navy. V 10, Charles Addison (born 1856), a clergyman. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

MORRIS, C. 1880. Autobiography of Commodore C. Morris. Annapolis: A Williams and Co. 
MORRIS, J. 1887. A Genealogical and Historical Register of the Descendants of Edward 

Morris of Roxbury, Massachusetts, and Woodstock, Connecticut. Hartford: Case, 

Lockwood and Brainard Co. xvii + 406 pp. 



NELSON. 137 

44. HORATIO NELSON. 

HORATIO NELSON was born at Burnham Thorpe, county of Norfolk, England, 
September 29, 1758, the fifth son of a clergyman in limited circumstances. Two 
stories told of his childhood were significant for his future. One winter day he and 
his elder brother were going to school upon their ponies. The snow was so deep as 
to hinder their progress and to lead them to return home, where the elder reported 
that they could not get on. It is stated that the father replied: "If that be so, 
I have of course nothing to say; but I wish you to try again, and I leave it to your 
honor not to turn back, unless necessary." On the second attempt the elder brother 
was for returning, but Horatio persisted, repeating continually: "Remember it 
was left to our honor," and the difficult journey was successfully accomplished. 
The other story is to the effect that the master of the school had a fine pear tree 
covered with ripe fruit, which the boys wanted but dared not pick. Finally 
Nelson climbed the tree by night, carried off the pears, gave them all to his school- 
mates, and refused to eat any of them, saying that he had taken them only because 
the others were afraid. All through life he was picking the fruit of victory and 
asking little for himself except the honor. 

When Horatio was 12 years of age he suggested to his father the plan of going 
to sea with his mother's brother, Captain Maurice Suckling, then in command of 
the Raisonnable, 64 guns, and this plan was carried out. His uncle having been 
assigned to a station on the river Medway (Thames estuary) saw to it that Horatio 
got experience on the sea and sent him on a merchantman to the West Indies. 
His uncle next assigned him to duty in the cutter and decked long-boat attached 
to the war-vessel. In charge of these boats he became a good pilot of the estuary, 
and learned confidence and responsibility. At about 16 he went on a north polar 
expedition. The story is told of his daring pursuit of a polar bear on the ice; 
he was saved from probable death only by a gun fired from the ship to terrify 
the animal. Next he went, at his urgent request and through his uncle's in- 
fluence, on a small naval vessel to the East Indies. Next he served for six months 
in the Mediterranean, and then passed his examination as lieutenant at the age 
of 19 years. The young officer was now attached to the naval frigate Lowestoft, 
Captain William Locker, which went to the Jamaica station. He got himself 
assigned to a schooner, tender of the Lowestoft, and carefully studied all the passages 
through the keys north of Cuba. As Captain Locker had to return to England 
because of illness, he got Nelson transferred to the flagship, under Admiral Sir 
Peter Parker a move of great advantage to Nelson's future. Nelson's independ- 
ent career begins with his appointment as post captain to the Hinchinbrook frigate 
in June 1779, in which he cruised about the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean sea. 
He convoyed an expedition of 500 men to Nicaragua; but, though his duty was 
done when the troops were brought to Grey town, he took 47 seamen and marines 
in boats up the river, captured a small outpost by storm, and urged that Fort 
San Juan be reduced in the same way; but the military commander preferred 
the method of siege, though this led to delay and a heavy loss of life from yellow 
fever, malaria, and dysentery. Nelson himself barely survived the last-named 
disease; but, returning to England, was recovered by August 1781 sufficiently 
to enter upon his appointment to the frigate Albemarle for convoy duty in the 
Baltic and after that to Quebec. Thence he went with Lord Hood's fleet to the 
West Indies and shortly afterwards home to England. He then spent some months 
in France. 



138 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

Nelson was next, at the age of 26, appointed to the command of the Boreas 
frigate, in which he sailed for the West Indies. Here his breadth of view and 
tenacious temperament showed themselves markedly. When his ship entered 
the French harbor at Martinique and did not receive the proper salute from land, 
Nelson demanded and received amends; when at Antigua he found a British 
vessel, whose captain was junior to him, flying a commodore's pennant (signifying 
superiority in rank and command), he demanded the meaning of this. Informed 
that the venerable captain who was commissioner of the navy at the dockyard 
there had so ordered it, Nelson took the ground that no civil appointee could 
exercise naval command and he refused to obey the captain's orders. Again 
he insisted that, under the navigation laws, American merchantmen could not 
trade in the West Indies. In this stand Nelson opposed his own easy-going 
admiral and the desires of the governors and peoples of the islands; but he was 
technically correct and was supported by the government. Here, at Nevis, he 
met and married the widow of Dr. Josiah Nisbit. 

After some years of non-employment in the navy, Nelson, now 34 years of 
age, was given command of the Agamemnon. This was in 1793, during the height 
of the French revolution. Nelson's rise was henceforth to lie parallel to that of 
Napoleon; and the defeat of the plans of the latter on the sea was due primarily 
to the genius of the former. Nelson now entered the Mediterranean, which was 
to be the scene of his activity for the next seven years. He helped in the blockade 
and occupation of Toulon and cooperated from his squadron with the Austrian 
army which was disputing Napoleon's progress into Italy along the Riviera. When 
it seemed to the admiralty wisest to abandon the Mediterranean, Nelson evacu- 
ated Bastia, on Corsica, bringing with him all the British property, despite the 
resistance of the inhabitants; and later he effected the evacuation of Elba. Under 
Jervis he fought in the battle of St. Vincent. As his ship proceeded in battle- 
line, according to orders, past the enemy's fleet, he saw clearly that the thing to 
do was to leave the battle-line to prevent the separated portions of the enemy's 
fleet from uniting. This he did, singlehanded, without orders, and his ship was 
terribly punished before he was supported by Collingwood and others; but his 
action prevented the union of the enemy and insured the greater victory. In 
this engagement two of the enemy's ships had become entangled in each other's 
rigging. Nelson ran alongside of one and boarded both of them, receiving the 
swords of two vanquished Spanish captains at once. Again he had seen the big 
thing to do and had done it. For his gallantry and intelligence he was knighted. 
He next attempted to capture the island of Teneriffe, but was defeated and lost 
his right arm in the effort (July 1797). 

The way was now prepared for Nelson's three great campaigns, in which he 
showed his unrivaled strategy and tactics. The first was his campaign to inter- 
cept Napoleon's naval expedition to Egypt. Though Napoleon eluded him, 
Nelson found the French fleet in Aboukir bay as the day was closing. Without 
hesitation he descended on the fleet and fought into the darkness; and only two 
of the French vessels escaped, to yield to his ships some months later. 

Ordered west, he sailed for Naples to make repairs. Here he met Lady 
Hamilton, his infatuation with whom persisted throughout his life and led to the 
divorce of his wife and the scandal of England. At Naples he wasted much of 
two years. In 1800 he returned overland to England in the company of Sir 
William and Lady Hamilton. In the spring of 1801 he was sent, under Admiral 



NELSON. 139 

Sir Hyde Parker, to destroy the confederacy against England (of Denmark, Sweden, 
and Russia) instigated by Napoleon. When the fleet arrived at the bay of Copen- 
hagen the admiral regarded the enemy as impregnable; but Nelson was per- 
mitted to attack with 12 ships-of-the-line and, though his losses were heavy, he 
won what his fleet was sent for - - the dissolution of the confederacy. Nelson 
was promptly given full command over the fleet, relieving Parker. 

The third great campaign was that against the French-Spanish naval com- 
bination with which Napoleon planned to invade England. After much effort 
he finally succeeded in engaging the main fleet off Trafalgar, October 21, 1805. 
He had already carefully instructed his captains as to tactics; but on the day of 
battle the position of the enemy's fleet was unexpected. Rapidly adjusting his 
tactics to meet the emergency and signaling "England expects that every man 
will do his duty," he ordered Collingwood, second in command, to cut the enemy's 
line in two near the middle while Nelson engaged the enemy's flagship just in front 
of the middle. With his 27 ships Nelson defeated the 33-ship fleet of the allies 
and took or destroyed in action 18 of them. But Nelson was killed by a musket- 
shot from the rigging of the enemy and died on the day of his victory. 

In attempting to interpret the life-work of Nelson we do well to consider the 
words of his greatest biographer, Mahan (1897, i, p. 2) : 

"The man's self and the man's work, what he was and what he did, the nature 
which brought forth such fruits, the thoughts which issued in such acts, hopes, 
fears, desires, quick intuitions, painful struggles, lofty ambitions, happy oppor- 
tunities have blended to form that luminous whole, known and seen of all, but 
not to be understood except by the patient effort to resolve the great result into 
its several rays, to separate the strands whose twisting has made so strong a cord." 

Of this "nature" the most striking characteristic is a dualism on the one 
hand a prevailing depression and on the other a tendency at times to loose all 
fetters of his spirit and exhibit as little control of it as a young child. In the latter 
state ambition rises; fear, even reasonable caution, disappears; action follows 
close upon ideas, and ideas often crowd one upon the other; the output of energy, 
of joy, of self-satisfaction is extreme; responsibility is readily assumed. This 
state is that of feeble inhibition; in an extreme type of this state "hysterical" 
symptoms are shown. 

Nelson was often depressed. He repeatedly writes in this strain. Thus, 
in June 1795: "I am out of spirits, although never in better health." (Mahan, 
i, p. 175.) Some time after the battle of the Nile, while at Palermo, he writes: 
"My only wish is to sink with honour into the grave, and when that shall please 
God, I shall meet death with a smile. ... I am ready to quit this world of trouble, 
and envy none but those of the estate six feet by two." Says Mahan (i, 413): 
"Mingled as these expressions were with despondent broodings over his health, 
even if the latter were well founded, they are the voice of a mind which has lost 
the string of self-content. The sense of duty abides, but dogged, cheerless; 
respondent rather to the force of habit than to the generous ardor of former days." 
Again, on Channel service, in 1801, he writes to Lady Hamilton: "My heart is 
ready to flow out of my eyes. I am not unwell but I am very low [i.e. in spirits]]- 
I can only account for it by my absence from all I hold dear in this world" (Mahan, 
n, 139). As a young man of 27, at the island of St. Nevis, it was observed of him 
at a party: "He came up just before dinner, much heated, and was very silent; 
but he seemed, according to the old adage, to think the more. Having drunk 



140 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

the toasts, he uniformly passed the bottle, and relapsed into his former taciturnity. 
It was impossible ... to make out his real character; there was such a reserve 
and sternness in his behaviour" (Mahan, i, 66). 

In obvious contrast to the depressed state is the active, self-satisfied, joyful 
one which in Nelson often found himself. Of him at the age of 22 years Mahan 
(i, 28) says: "His instinct . . . was ever inclined to instant and vigorous action." 
Much later, in 1805, he suggested (correctly) that Spain was contemplating declar- 
ing war with England and without instructions ordered a general seizure of Spanish 
vessels of war and commerce throughout his station. And Mahan (i, p. 259) 
adds: "What a wonderful instinct it shows in him that, with action ever prompt 
to the verge of precipitancy, he made so few blunders in deed." This promptness 
of reaction is a hyperkinetic symptom. In such state the inhibitory mechanism 
seems to be inactive, and consideration of consequences, the weighing of advan- 
tages and disadvantages, is omitted. If the hyperkinetic has a good memory 
of past experiences and of historical incidents and is a keen and sympathetic ob- 
server, his "intuitions" are corrected as they are formed and his action is generally 
approved. If, on the other hand, the hyperkinetic has poor memory and obser- 
vation he is called rash, precipitous, and is generally regarded as dangerous. Nel- 
son's "intuitions" were usually correct. It is characteristic of the hyperkinetic 
that he wants strongly to act in accordance with his ideas; and if prevented he 
becomes excited. This excitation which follows blocking may be regarded as 
being biologically "useful," since in excitement the superrenals secrete copiously 
and their secretions strengthen muscular contractions, and this added power tends 
to enable the excited person to overcome the obstacle. In Nelson's case the excite- 
ment showed itself sometimes in the form of impatience. Having decided to buy 
a house in the Downs, he found difficulty in doing so. "As usual," says Mahan 
(n, 149), "in undertakings of every kind, he chafed under delays." "[Even] 
'if the Devil stands at the door,' he tells St. Vincent, 'we shall sail to-morrow 
forenoon.' The admiralty . . . imposed upon him a delay under which he chafed 
angrily" (Mahan, n, 188). Angry outbursts are, indeed, the next strongest symp- 
toms of excitement. When the admiralty refused to let him leave his Channel fleet 
and come to London, he breaks out angrily: "'They are beasts for their pains,' he 
says : ' it was only depriving me of one day's comfort and happiness, for which they 
have my hearty prayers.' His spleen breaks out in oddly comical ways: 'I have 
a letter from Troubridge [of the admiralty; a former captain under Nelson, much 
lauded by him] recommending me to wear flannel shirts. Does he care for me? 
No, but never mind.' 'Troubridge writes me, that as the weather is set in fine 
again, he hopes I shall get walks on shore. He is, I suppose, laughing at me; but 
never mind.' " And these petulant remarks Mahan (n, p. 142) properly ascribes 
to "the excitement of baffled longings." When he lost the French fleet at the West 
Indies because of incorrect information, he wrote " wrathf ully " : "There would 
have been no occasion for opinions had not General Brereton sent his damned 
intelligence from St. Lucia." After the French fleet had escaped him out of Toulon 
he is described "as almost raving with anger and vexation" (Mahan, n, 289). 

When, on the other hand, the impulse was followed by action, the accom- 
panying emotions were in every way agreeable. The excitement of doing weak- 
ened the inhibitions, and further action followed easily and pleasurably. It is 
stated by Southey that in battle Nelson became animated and even jovial. Says 



NELSON. 141 

Mahan (n, 52): "The exultant delight unquestionably felt by Nelson in battle 
did not indicate insensibility to danger, or to its customary effects upon men, 
but resulted from the pleasurable predominance of other emotions which accepted 
danger and the startling tokens of its presence as the accompaniments, that only 
enhanced the majesty of the part he was called upon to play." At the battle of 
Copenhagen his superior officer signaled him to leave off action. "Leave off 
action!" he repeated, and then added, with a shrug, "'Now damn me if I do I' 
He also observed, I believe to Captain Foley, 'You know, Foley, I have only one 
eye-- I have a right to be blind sometimes/ and then with an archness peculiar 
to his character, putting the glass to his blind eye, he exclaimed, 'I really do not 
see the signal.'" l 

This capacity for full expression of his impulses and emotions is thus due to 
the circumstance that at times his inhibitions were feeble. All sorts of emotions 
at such times were on the surface; repression was weak. Thus he often expressed, 
naively, his longing for glory and distinction. One of his friends, Lord Radstock, 
states: "A perpetual thirst of glory was ever raging within him" (Mahan, I, 152). 
While defending the Channel he writes to St. Vincent: "I feel myself, my dear 
Lord, as anxious to get a medal or a step in the peerage as if I had never got either. 
If I succeeded, and burnt the Dutch fleet, probably medals and an earldom." Be- 
fore going into battle in the Mediterranean days he writes: "Before this time 
to-morrow I shall have gained a peerage or Westminster Abbey." To this love 
of glory, vanity is closely allied. Of the period about 1796 Mahan (i, 256) writes: 
"Already at times his consciousness of distinction among men betrays something 
of that childlike, delighted vanity, half unwitting, which was afterward forced into 
exuberant growth and distasteful prominence by the tawdry flatteries of Lady 
Hamilton and the Court of Naples." 

This abundant emotional output is seen in his love affairs. At the age of 24 
years in Canada, he fell desperately in love with a fair Canadian and would impru- 
dently have offered to marry her had not a cool-headed friend successfully inter- 
vened. A year later in Paris he met a young Englishwoman, had an exaggerated 
sense of her good qualities, writes "the most accomplished woman my eyes ever 
beheld," and asks for money to enable him to marry; but the lady seems to have 
refused him. At the age of 27 years he met a young widow at Nevis, West Indies, 
and married her. Later, after the battle of the Nile, he became enamored of Lady 
Hamilton, a woman with a disreputable past, and lived with her publicly, causing his 
wife to divorce him. " Principle apart, and principle wholly failed him, all else," 
says Mahan (i, 67) "that most appeals to a man's self-respect and regard for the 
esteem of others was powerless to exert control. Loyalty to friendship, the sanctity 
which man is naturally fain to see in the woman he loves, and, in Nelson's own 
case, a peculiar reluctance to wound another all these were trampled under foot, 
and ruthlessly piled on the holocaust which he offered to her whom he worshipped." 
This is the natural reaction where the inhibition the self-control - - is weak. 

Nelson showed strong religious, emotional output, perhaps not to be wondered 
at in the son of a minister. This is strongest at times of great excitement. After 
the battle of the Nile he began his dispatch: "Almighty God has blessed His 
Majesty's arms." As he is departing for his last sea voyage, ending in Trafalgar, 
he writes in his diary: "May the great God whom I adore enable me to fulfill the 

1 Statement by Colonel William Stewart, in Mahan, n, 90. 



142 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

expectations of my country; and if it is His good pleasure that I should return, 
my thanks will never cease being offered up to the Throne of His mercy, etc." 
(Mahan, n, 335). His ship's chaplain, who was also his confidential secretary, 
said: "He was a thorough clergyman's son I should think he never went to bed 
or got up without kneeling down to say his prayers." He always had divine service 
on shipboard whenever the weather permitted (Mahan, u, 160). 

A part of this same emotional output was his strong expression of affection 
for his men and fellow-officers. This was characteristic. When his squadron 
was striving to beat the French fleet to the West Indies he wrote to the captain of 
the slowest ship not to worry, he appreciated that his ship was doing all it could. 
When, on the eve of the battle of Trafalgar, he happened to learn that a midship- 
man had forgotten to post his letter on the naval frigate that was already under 
way for England, he had the frigate recalled to take the letter. Such thoughtful- 
ness for his men won their loyalty and their enthusiastic support in the battles 
planned by him. 

To the superficial observer Nelson thus appears as a strange contradiction. 
Lord Minto wrote of him: "He is in many points a really great man, in others 
a baby." The childish reaction of an adult is often referred to as the criterion of 
hysteria; and Nelson's behavior, at times, seems to fit more nearly that category 
than any other. The emotional characteristic of the hysterical is lack of control 
easy excitability, with show of vanity, joy, affection, religion; but also sometimes 
overactive drive and fearlessness of consequences. On the physical side the hys- 
terical often show temporarily numb areas on the skin or they suffer temporary 
paralysis. Such symptoms Nelson repeatedly suffered. After his trip to India 
(1776) he for some time lost the use of his limbs. This happened again in 1780. 
He writes in 1781: "I have now perfect use of all my limbs, except my left arm, 
which I can hardly tell what is the matter with it. From the shoulder to my 
fingers' ends are as if half dead." In 1801, on duty in the English Channel, he 
writes: "I have all night had a fever, which is very little abated this morning; 
my mind carries me beyond my strength, and will do me up; but such is my nature. 
I require nursing like a child" (Mahan, n, 139). He was apparently at other times 
subject to such fevers, which resembled the so-called hysteric fevers that follow 
great excitement. 

Nelson was not only extraordinary temperamentally, but also intellectually. 
As Mahan (i, 83) says: "Good generalship, on its intellectual side, is simply the 
application, to the solution of a military problem, of a mind naturally gifted there- 
for, and stored with experience, either personal or of others." Now, Nelson's 
education, like that of most midshipmen who enlisted at 12 years of age, was 
unsystematic, and he never learned to express himself well in writing; but despite 
this he had the mental qualities of a "great intellect." His memory was tena- 
cious, his observation close and constant, and he acquired knowledge by extensive 
intercourse with men and, like Napoleon I, by provoking others to debate and 
listening to the discussion (Mahan, n, 233). He also, especially in his hypo- 
kinetic moods, thought deeply and his mind naturally saw relations of cause and 
effect. Hence he was able to become a great strategist. At 30, even, he impressed 
the home office with the "justice and correctness of his views, the result, as they 
were, of reflection based upon a mastery of the data involved." He showed great 
capacity in diplomacy. At Naples, in 1793, he knew that troops were wanted at 



NELSON. 143 

Toulon and secured, without the knowledge of his superior officer, the promise 
of 6,000 Italians to meet this need. In Corsica, when the relations between the 
general and admiral became strained, he was the intermediary who secured the 
desired cooperation. It was so throughout life. His own affectionate, winning 
nature, his pertinacity, and thorough insight into the motives of men added to his 
success. The hypokinetic man is the intellectual ruminant, the philosopher, 
because in that state grosser movements are inhibited and there is time to think. 
Nelson's depressed states made him a strategist and statesman; his excited states 
made him a tactician and fighter. 

The advantage of Nelson's hysteroidal, feebly-inhibited temperament for a great 
naval fighter is shown in the battle of Copenhagen in contrast with the calm, 
deliberate (normal) temperament of Sir Hyde Parker, who was in command of 
the expedition. Parker was very doubtful of the feasibility of attacking the enemy's 
strong force in Copenhagen harbor, but permitted Nelson to go with 12 battle- 
ships up close to the Danish ships and batteries; and against these Nelson fought 
so successfully that the Danes readily agreed to an armistice on terms practically 
of Nelson's dictation. The calm Parker, meantime, stands with the main fleet 
some 5 to 4 miles out and, without having fired a gun himself, signals Nelson in 
the midst of the battle to leave off action a signal which Nelson deliberately 
disobeys. Nelson was able to throw precaution and other minor considerations 
to the wind in the excitement of the anticipated battle; but Parker could not do 
so and remained inactive. 

Three other traits of Nelson remain to be discussed ambition, sense of duty, 
and pertinacity: 

Ambition. The desire to excel arises from love of esteem, an amour propre, 
a dislike to be considered inferior. In extreme cases it leads, by perversion, to 
a desire for power and supremacy at any cost. The instinct to be first, doubtless, 
is a part of the sexual instinct. It shows itself in male animals which fight for 
leadership in the herd; such leadership gives them the choice in matings. It 
shows itself in females which make themselves as attractive as possible in order 
to secure attention from the males. It was strong, but not to a perverted degree, 
in Nelson. As a lad he would not be turned back from going to school by the 
deep snow, as his father relied on his honor to get through if possible. While 
second lieutenant, the captain called for volunteers to board a captured prize when 
the sea was running high. The first lieutenant failed in the attempt; Nelson 
succeeded and his success gave him the keenest satisfaction. Nelson expressed 
himself as "determined to climb to the top of the tree" and neglected no chance, 
however slight, that could help him on. Of this work at San Juan in Nicaragua 
he says: "I made batteries and afterwards fought them and was the principal 
cause of our success." Thus he shows a naive, almost childlike delight in his own 
performances, which, indeed, he had not overstated. When on the North Atlantic 
station, after the American Revolution, he desired to be transferred to a squadron 
going to Jamaica, his chief reminded him that where he was was a good place to 
make prize money. "Yes," he replied, "but the West Indies is the station for 
honor" (Mahan, i. 37); and he said on another occasion: "True honor, I hope, 
predominates in my mind far above riches." Thus Nelson's ambition and insight 
combined led him to prefer the supremacy of achievement by daring and national 
aggrandizement to the supremacy of wealth. 



144 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

Sense of duty. This is closely related to ambition. In Nelson's case it was 
the appreciation of the fact that he must subordinate the immediate gratification 
to larger interests. As he tells his betrothed: "Duty is the great business of a 
sea officer all private considerations must give way to it, however painful it 
is." Again, he writes to his wife: "I have pride in doing my duty well, and a 
self-approbation, which if it is not so lucrative, yet perhaps affords more pleasing 
sensations" (Mahan, i, 133). His last signal at Trafalgar before "close action" 
was "England expects every man will do his duty," and his last words: "Thank 
God, I have done my duty; God and my country." 

It is to be noted that his devotion to duty did bring him that fame which he 
idolized. If devotion to duty and fame did not achieve the end of a eugenical 
mating it was because a certain feebleness in the inhibition of the sex impulse 
led him to marry before he had acquired fame. It did make possible a later ille- 
gitimate mating, with Lady Hamilton, at a higher social level than the first, and 
its product was Horatia, his only child who survived infancy. 

Strength and tenacity of convictions. This trait is a part of the depressed 
temperament. The hyperkinetics readily and quickly change their ideas and 
even ideals, but the hypokinetics are tenacious of them. Nelson said: "I feel 
I am perfectly right, and you know upon these occasions I am not famous for 
giving up a point." As a captain in the West Indies he disputed the right of a 
civil officer "Commissioner of the Navy" to fly the commodore's pennant 
and to give him orders, and insisted on this principle. "Under a conviction 
of right he throughout life feared no responsibility and shrank from no conse- 
quences" (Mahan, p. 52). He stuck to his conviction that American ships, after 
the Revolution, had no right to trade in the British West Indies, although in doing 
so he opposed his naval superior and the civil governments of the islands. Finally 
the courts decided that his contention was correct. These instances are char- 
acteristic of his reactions throughout life. 

Let us now consider the origin of the constitutional traits which determined 
Nelson's reactions. We look with interest for the traits of Nelson's descendants, 
and here we find few data. Of Horatia, generally regarded as his daughter by Lady 
Hamilton, it was observed by Nelson, Grenville, and Hamilton: "Horatia is Like her 
mother; will have her own way, or kick up a devil of a dust." This insistence upon 
carrying out ideas was, of course, strongly seen at times in Nelson also. Horatia 
married Philip Ward and had a son, Nelson Ward, about whom details are wanting. 

Nelson's fraternity comprised 11, of whom 3 died in infancy. Besides Horatio 
there were: 

Maurice, born in 1753, who secured through the assistance of his mother's 
brother, Captain Maurice Suckling, a comptroller of the navy, a position as clerk 
in the navy office. Maurice was rather apt to be in debt and difficulties, from which 
he was once rescued by Horatio. It was not until he was over 40 that his father 
was able to write: "He has the income of a gentleman" (Matcham, 1911, p. 126). 
In 1801 he was promoted to the principal seat in the naval office and great regret 
was felt when he died, childless, shortly after. 

Susannah (1755-1813), who married, in 1780, Thomas Bolton. She had a 
cheerful, affectionate, plucky temperament. She had 2 sons and 4 daughters. 
Of the sons Thomas became the second Earl Nelson and had many descendants, 
including Rear Admiral Maurice Horatio Nelson (1832-1906). George died at 
sea at the age of 12 years. 



NELSON. 145 

William (1757-1835), who was an M. A. of Christ College, Cambridge, became 
rector of Little Brandon, 1773. In 1784 he tried sea-life as chaplain on his brother's 
ship Boreas, but not caring for the life he left after a voyage and returned to Eng- 
land, "thereafter living quietly and snugly" (Matcham, 1911, p. 20). He settled 
on the family advowson of Hilborough, was a prebendary of Canterbury and a 
doctor of divinity. On the death of the admiral he became the first Earl of Nelson 
and immediately assumed an attitude of ungraciousness that led to a temporary 
estrangement from his sisters. His only son died suddenly at the age of 20. His 
daughter Charlotte inherited the title, from the admiral, of Duchess of Bronte and 
married the second Baron Bridport, great-nephew of Admiral Alexander Hood. 
Despite this union of the strains of two of England's greatest admirals, neither 
her son Alexander nor any of her 6 grandsons showed exceptional performance. 

Anne (1762-1783), who died in her twenty-first year after nine days' illness, 
due to coming out of a ballroom immediately after dancing. (Matcham, 1911, 20.) 

Edmund (1762-1790), who was unenterprising and unsuccessful. He joined 
in partnership with his sister Susannah's husband in various undertakings, and 
died, unmarried, of tuberculosis. 

Suckling (1764-1799), who was "silent and reserved," good-natured, indolent, 
and fond of sport. He tried business with no success, was constantly in financial 
difficulties, and yet he was easily influenced for good. He took holy orders, was 
his father's curate, and died when still young and unmarried. 

Catherine (1767-1842), the "Kitty" of Nelson and his favorite sister, who 
was the most like him of any of the family - - warm-hearted, energetic, petulant 
at times, thorough and content in domestic life, and constantly interested in men 
and things. In 1787 she married George Matcham (1753-1833), who was born 
in Bombay, where his father was superintendent of the marine of the East India 
Company. Sent early to London to school, Matchman entered the service of the 
company in India, traveled extensively, went from India to England overland, and 
finally settled in England, 1785, as a country gentleman, being especially interested 
in inventions and public improvements. Of their three sons, two attained some 
success in the law and one migrated to Australia, where he died. 

Thus it appears that all four of Nelson's brothers were without the drive 
that characterized him; indeed, they were somewhat, or even strikingly, indolent 
and from them all was descended only one child, a daughter, who survived to marry. 
The sisters were livelier and two of them had descendants; but these descendants 
apparently showed few traits of the admiral. It would be interesting to learn 
more about Catherine's son, whose migration to Australia suggests a love of new 
scenes and perhaps ambition. 1 

On the paternal side Lord Nelson is said to have come from a family of clergy- 
men. His father, Rev. Edmund Nelson (1722-1802), is shown by his letters 
(Matcham, 1911) to be a gentle, sweet-tempered English gentleman, interested 
affectionately in the affairs of his numerous children, who were early bereft of their 

1 Female lines in which a future admiral may arise are: 1, daughters of Susanna: a, Catherine, 
who married (1803) Capt. Sir William Bolton, Royal Navy; b, Elizabeth, who married 
Rev. Henry Girdlestone; 2, daughters of Catherine: a, Catherine, who married (1820) 
John Bendyshe, lieutenant, Royal Navy, of Cambridgeshire, and had 5 sons and 4 daugh- 
ters; b, Elizabeth, who married (1824) Arthur Davies, post captain, Royal Navy; 
c, Harriet, who married (1819) Edward Blanckley, captain, Royay Navy; d, Horatia 
who married (1826) Henry W. Mason, lieutenant, Royal Navy; and e, Susannah, who 
married, 1832, Alexander M. Moore, of County Tyrone. 



146 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS.' 

mother. He brought up his children with gentleness and religious instruction 
and followed them with frequent letters. To his boys he used to say: "Remem- 
ber, I leave it to your honor." He won respect and affection from all. He was 
of a contented nature, but somber rather than jolly. Ambition, drive, dash, 
statesmanship were not his traits. His constitution was weak and sickly. His 
only brother died unmarried; one of his sisters married Rev. John Goulty, rector 
of Hilborough, and their grandson was Robert Monsey, Lord Cranworth, a leading 
legal light, noted for his sound sense. The father's father, Edmund Nelson (1693- 
1747), was rector of Hilborough, Norfolk, and was without distinctive char- 
acteristics. Two of Horatio's first cousins on the Nelson side were clergymen. 
The father's mother was Mary, daughter of John Bland of Cambridge, gentleman, 
and sister to a chaplain of the Duke of Encaster. Thus, the paternal side shows 
no example of the striking traits revealed by the great admiral. 

Let us examine the maternal side. His mother was Catherine Suckling, 
a woman of "some force of character" (Moorhouse, 1913, p. 9). Her brother, 
Captain Maurice Suckling, was an ambitious naval fighter; as we have seen, 
he married a distant cousin, Mary Walpole, but I have no record of any children. 
Another brother, William, had a grandson, William B. Suckling, who became a 
rear admiral. 

The mother's father was Rev. Maurice Suckling, D. D., of whom I have no 
further data. His brother Robert had a great grandson, Maurice, who was in the 
Royal Navy. 

The mother's mother was Anne Turner, of whose traits there is no infor- 
mation, but her mother was Mary Walpole, the sister of Sir Robert Walpole (1676- 
1745), England's great prime minister, created first Earl of Orford. On this side, 
then, we find ambition, great capacity for work, and the hyperkinetic drive. 
Another brother of Mary was Gilfridus Walpole (1683-1726), who commanded 
the Lion, of 60 guns, in a gallant action in the Mediterranean, in 1711. He died 
at the age of 43 years. Here we see a possible nomadic trait, love of adventure, 
and capacity for naval fighting. 

While the gene for nomadism is sex-linked and may be carried in eggs through 
generations, but not in male zygotes, this is not true of the genes for hyperkinesis. 
Since there is no evidence of a hyperkinetic temperament in either parent, or 
even in the four grandparents, it seems probable that in Nelson that inhibition 
to danger, which is so marked in other members of the family, was prevented 
by a dominant mutation that permitted the weakening of such inhibitory 
mechanism. 

FAMILY HISTORY OF HORATIO NELSON. 

II (M F F F), Robert Suckling, high sheriff of Norfolk. 12 (M F F M), Anne Wode- 
house. 13 (M M M F), Robert Walpole (1650-1700), a prominent Whig in Parliament. I 4 
(M M M M), Mary Burwell, daughter of Sir Jeffrey Burwell. 

I 1 (M F F), Robert Suckling, high sheriff of Norfolk. II 2 (M F M), Sarah Skelton. 
II 3 (M M F), Sir Charles Turner, died 1738. II 4 (M M M), Mary Walpole, died 1711. Fra- 
ternity of M M M: II, 5 Robert W r alpole, first Earl of Orford (1676(1745), the celebrated prime 
minister of England. II 6, Horatio Walpole (1678-1757), a diplomat of the first class. II 7, 
Galfridus Walpole, of the Royal Navy. 

Fraternity of M F: III 1, Robert Suckling. Ill 2, Dorothy Berney. Ill 3 (M F), Rev. 
Maurice Suckling. Ill 4 (M M), Anne Turner, died 1768. Ill 5 (F F), Rev. Edmund Nelson 
(1693-1747). Ill 6 (F M), Mary Bland. Fraternity of F M: III 7, Rev. John Bland. Ill 8, 
Bryant Bland. 



NELSON. 



147 




IV 1, Richard Suckling. IV 2, Anne Kibert. Fraternity of M: IV 3, Maurice Suckling, 
of the Royal Navy. IV 4, William Suckling. IV 5, Elizabeth Browne. IV 6 (M), Catherine 
Suckling (1725-1767). IV 7 (F), Rev. Edmund Nelson (1722-1802). IV 10, Rev. John Goulty. 

V 1, Robert Suckling (died 1812), of the army. V 2, 
Susanna Webb. V 3, Colonel William Suckling (born 1762). 
V 5, Thomas Bolton. Fraternity of Propositus: V 6, Susanna 
Nelson (1755-1813). V 7, Anne Nelson (1762-1783). V 9, 
Maurice Nelson (born 1753), a clerk in the Navy Office. 
V 10, William Nelson (1757-1833), a rector. V 11, Sarah 
Yonge. V 12, Catherine Nelson (1767-1842). V 13, George 
Matcham (1753-1833), in the service of the East India 
Company. V 14, Edmund Nelson (1762-1790). V 15, 
Suckling Nelson (1764-1799), a curate. V 16 (consort), 
Frances Woodward. V 17 (Propositus), HORATIO NELSON. 

V 18, Lady Hamilton. 

VI 1, Robert George Suckling, a captain, Royal Artil- 
lery. VI 2, Maurice Suckling (died 1820), of the Royal Navy. 

VI 3, Rev. John Suckling. VI 4, Anna Maria Suckling 
(1765-1848). VI 5, Sir Charles Burrard (1793-1870), an 
admiral of the Royal Navy. VI 6, Louisa Lushington. 
VI 7, William Benjamin Suckling, a rear admiral. VI 9, 
Catherine Bolton. VI 10, Sir William Bolton, of the Royal 
Navy. VI 11, Elizabeth Anne Bolton. VI 12, Rev. Henry 
Girdlestone. VI 13, Thomas Bolton (1786-1835), second 
Earl Nelson. VI 14, Frances Eyre. VI 15, George Bolton 
(1787-1799), died at sea. VI 17, Charlotte Nelson. VI 18, 
Samuel, second Lord Bridport. VI 19, Catherine Matcham. 
VI 20, John Bendyshe, a lieutenant, Royal Navy. VI 21, 
Elizabeth Matcham. VI 22, Arthur Davies, a post captain, 
Royal Navy. VI 23, Harriet Matcham. VI 24, Edward 
Blanckley, a captain, Royal Navy. VI 25, Horatio Matcham. 
VI 26, Henry Mason, a lieutenant, Royal Navy. VI 27, 
Susannah Matcham. VI 28, Alexander Moore. VI 29, 
George Matcham (born 1789), a lawyer and author. VI 30, 
Charles Horatio Matcham (1806-1844), went to Australia. 
VI 31, Nelson Matcham (1811-1886), a barrister-at-law. 

VI 32, Horatia Nelson. VI 33, Philip Ward. VI 43, Robert 
Monsey, Lord Cranworth. 

VII 1, Emily Burrard. VII 2, Maurice 
Horatio Bolton (1832-1906), a rear admiral. 

VII 3, Horatio Bolton, third Lord Nelson. 
VII 4, John Horatio Bolton (born 1825), 
vicar of Scottow. VII 5, Rev. Edward 
Bolton (1833-1859). VII 6, William Henry 
Bolton (1835-1863). VII 8, Alexander 
Nelson Hood, first Viscount Bridport, a 
colonel of the Scots Guards. VII 11, 
Richard Bendyshe (born 1822), a curate. 
VII 14, Henry D. Blanckley, became a lieu- 
tenant in the navy in 1844. VII 15, Alex- 
ander Moore (born 1833), a general. 

VIII 1, Maurice Henry Horatio Bolton 
(born 1864), a commander of the Royal 
Navy. VIII 2, Rev. Edward John Bolton 
(bom 1867). VIII 3, Lieutenant Colonel 
Charles Burrard Bolton, born 1868. VIII 
4, Horatio William Bolton (born 1871), 
registrar of the supreme court, Ceylon. 



148 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

BURKE, SIR B., and A. 1909. A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Peerage and 

Baronetage. London: Harrison and Sons. 2570 pp. 
BURKE, SIR B. 1914. A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Landed Gentry of Great 

Britain. London: Harrison. 2102 pp. 

CALLENDER, G. 1912. The Life of Nelson. London: Longmans, Green & Co. xxxviii + 154 pp. 
MAHAN, A. 1897. Life of Nelson. Boston: Little and Brown. 2 vols. 

MATCHAM, M. 1911. The Nelsons of Bur nham Thorpe. London and New York: J. Lane. 306pp. 
MOORHOUSE, E. H. 1913. Nelson in England, A Domestic Chronicle. New York: E. P. 

Button & Co. xi + 274 pp. 
NELSON, T. 1908. A Genealogical History of the Nelson Family with an Introduction by the 

Right Hon. The Earl Nelson. King's Lynn: Thew and Son. 

O'BRYNE, W. 1849. A Naval Biographical Dictionary. London: J. Murray. 1400 pp. 
RUSSELL, W. 1890. Horatio Nelson and the Naval Supremacy of England. New York: 

G. Putnam's Sons, xiv + 357 pp. 

45. JEREMIAH O'BRIEN. 

JEREMIAH O'BRIEN was born in 1744, at Kittery, Maine. As a young man 
he was engaged in lumbering and shipping and became a leader in the town. In 
June 1775 a Boston merchant, convoyed by a British armed schooner Margaretta, 
appeared at Machias for lumber. Having learned of the battle of Lexington and 
believing that the lumber would be used to fortify the British in Boston, the towns- 
people, led by the father of the propositus (Morris O'Brien), at first declined to sell, 
but later agreed to exchange lumber for the needed provisions that the merchant 
vessel carried; but the captain refused to sell food to the leaders of the opposition. 
This, and the demands of the officer in charge of the Margaretta that the liberty 
pole which the townspeople had erected should be taken down, stirred the reso- 
lution of the patriots. A number of the residents of nearby towns met at Morris 
O'Brien's house and decided to seize the Margaretta. One day a local sloop, the 
Unity, was filled with townspeople carrying various kinds of weapons, a small cannon 
was mounted on the deck, six of Morris O'Brien's sons went on board, and 
Jeremiah was elected captain. They ran alongside the Margaretta, boarded and 
captured her, and made her officers and crew prisoners. This was the first naval 
battle of the Revolution. When two armed sloops were sent out from Halifax, 
to capture O'Brien, he and Captain Foster, of the Machias Liberty and Falmouth 
Packet, respectively, captured the two sloops and brought them both to Machias. 
Then O'Brien took his prisoners to Portland by vessel and thence to Cambridge 
overland. Commissioned by the Massachusetts provincial congress, Jeremiah 
and John O'Brien, commanding the Machias Liberty and the Diligence (captured 
from the British), respectively, cruised for two years on the coast of the Gulf 
of Maine and captured various British vessels. In 1780 the brothers built the 
Hannibal, 24 guns, for privateering, but she was captured by two British frigates 
and Jeremiah was placed in the prison-ship Jersey. Taken to Plymouth, England, 
he escaped from prison and crossed the English Channel in a boat propelled by 
oars. He returned to Machias, where he remained the rest of his life as collector 
of customs. When, during the War of 1812, the British officers searched his house, 
he gave them refreshments and as they toasted the king he toasted success to the 
American arms. He died at Machias, September 1818. 

Brothers. - - John 'Brien, born in Scarboro, Maine, 1750, was one of the 
party that on June 12, 1775, captured the British armed schooner Margaretta off 
Machias. He was the first to board the Margaretta when the Unity collided with 



O'BRIEN. 149 

her and, as the latter withdrew, was left alone on the enemy's ship. Seven mus- 
kets were discharged at him, but he was not hit; then they charged at him with 
bayonets, but he jumped overboard and swam to the Unity uninjured, despite 
the hail of balls from the British vessels. John was made first lieutenant on the 
Vigilant after she and the Machias Liberty had been fitted out. In 1780 he and 
his brother Joseph built the Hannibal, carrying 24 guns, for privateer service. 
John captured important prizes in her during her first cruise. As captain of 
various vessels he made numerous captures in the next year or two. Once, chased 
by a naval frigate into Long Island Sound, he ran up the Thames river (up which 
the frigate could not go at night because of her draft). He made a sort of raft, 
put lights upon it, and sent it down the river the same night; the frigate fired 
at it and sailed away concluding that it had sunk its opponent. After the war 
he settled in Newburyport and was ship-owner and captain; was a man of public 
affairs and charitable; he exercised a large hospitality and, by his contemporaries, 
is said to have had no idea of the meaning of fear. He died in 1826. 

Gideon, born at Scarboro, Maine, January 14, 1746, was on the Unity in her 
capture of the Margaretta, and was a captain in the Continental army, 1782, being 
detailed at Machias. In 1822 he was elected representative to the Maine legis- 
lature. 

William, also one of the Unity crew, always followed the sea and died at Bil- 
boa, Spain, 1781. He married Lydia Clarkson (Widow Toppan) in 1790 at New- 
buryport, and had a daughter, Lydia, who was the mother of John Parker Hale. 
This grandson of William O'Brien (born at Rochester, Straff ord county, New 
Hampshire, March 31, 1806) was graduated at Bowdoin, 1827 and entered law 
practice in 1830 and the legislature in 1832. In Congress, 1843-1845, he defended 
the right of petition and in 1845 he refused to vote for the annexation of Texas, 
against the direction of his State legislature. In 1846 he was again in the State 
legislature, was made speaker, and six days later elected to the United States 
Senate. There he was the first and for two years (1847-1849) the only avowed 
opponent of slavery. He was eloquent, witty, and full of good humor, which 
made him liked, despite his views. Always a reformer, between 1850 and 1852 
he secured laws to abolish flogging and grog rations in the navy. He declined 
a presidential nomination by the Liberty party in 1847, but accepted that of the 
Freesoilers in 1852. In 1853 he removed to New York, but in 1855 went again 
to the Senate from New Hampshire and kept his seat there until 1865, gradually 
witnessing the success of the views early advocated by him. Sent to the court of 
Spain, he had some disagreements with the secretary of the legation that caused a 
scandal. Later mental as well as physical disorders appeared and he died in 1873. 

Brother Dennis O'Brien also was one of the Unity crew, and, finally, Joseph, 
a lad of 16 years, the youngest, who was forbidden to go, but nevertheless secreted 
himself on the sloop, was a brave fighter in the attack on the Margaretta. 

The most distinguishing character of this fraternity is great daring and absence 
of fear. Of Jeremiah an acquaintance said "a man who knew no fear." Again, 
"Captain Jeremiah O'Brien was as fearless as the king of the forest, not for a mo- 
ment hesitating to throw himself into the forefront of any cause by him freely 
espoused or to face any peril, however great, toward which the voice of duty called 
him in the prosecution of that cause." Similarly, John O'Brien all alone, practi- 
cally unarmed, leaps on a war vessel full of armed men a rash and reckless act. 
So, too, the 16-year-old Joseph, though warned of danger, stows himself away to be 



150 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

carried to the fight. And in later life we find the three older brothers active in the 
Revolution, on sea or land, in some of the most hazardous occupations. 

Unfortunately nothing is known of the maternal side except that the mother's 
father was a sea captain. The father was at the siege of Louisburg, but was 
ordinarily a tailor and later a lumberman. 

Love of the sea was marked in this fraternity; the lads were taught to sail a 
boat by their father. 

It is clear that Jeremiah O'Brien is a typical hyperkinetic. "Into whatever 
undertaking he enlisted he threw his whole soul"; he was outspoken and fiercely 
patriotic, of a high sense of honor, a man of "that temperament which is sus- 
ceptible of high excitement, constitutional ardor, spirit, full of fire." 1 "By tem- 
perament he was impulsive almost to the point of rashness and, in action, particu- 
larly when thoroughly aroused, he was impetuous and irresistible as the raging 
torrent exhibiting at such times a forcef ulness of character which under ordinary 
circumstances was not apparent to the casual observer." "Outspoken he was 
and fear of consequences was never, so far as the author has been able to gather, 
allowed to bridle his tongue when once indignant feeling or great thought throbbed 
in heart or brain and pressed for utterance, and individual and aggregate of indi- 
viduals found the same when once Captain O'Brien felt his keen sense of justice 
outraged." 

FAMILY HISTORY OF JEREMIAH O'BRIEN. 

I 1( M F), Keen, a sea captain 

sailing from Portsmouth, New Hampshire. 
I 2 (M M), died quite young. 

II 1 (F), Morris O'Brien (1715-99), 
learned the tailor's trade, migrated from 
Ireland to United States in 1738. In 1750 

he was in Scarboro, Maine; in 1765 he 

removed to Machias, where he started a _, /^VT~f Bw n| HrO H H () 

sawmill and became a prosperous lumber WLJ r T v -' V-/ 

man. He was present at the siege of 

Louisburg, 1745. When his sons went to 

attack the British vessel Margaretta he 

followed down the river in a rowboat with 

a surgeon. II 2 (M), Mary Keen. 

Fraternity of Propositus: III 1, Mary 
O'Brien. Ill 3, Gideon O'Brien (born 

1746), one of the Unity crew (see text). Ill 4, John O'Brien (born Scarboro, Maine, 1750) (see 
text). Ill 5, William O'Brien, (see text). Ill 6, Lydia Clarkson. Ill 7, Dennis O'Brien, one 
of the Unity crew. Ill 8, Joseph O'Brien, at the age of 16 years was on the Unity (see text). 
Ill 9, Martha O'Brien. Ill 10, Joana O'Brien. Ill 11, (Propositus), JEREMIAH O'BRIEN. 

III 12 (consort), Hannah Toppan. 

IV 1, Lydia O'Brien. IV 2, Hale. Children of Propositus: IV 3, Maria O'Brien. 

IV 4, Rev. Jeremiah Chaplin, president of Waterville College, Maine. IV 5, John O'Brien 
(1790-1866), was a captain of the marines in the War of 1812 and was confined for ten months 
in an English prison. Later he became superintendent of the Dead Letter Office in Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

V 1, John Parker Hale (see text). 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

SHERMAN, A. 1902. Life of Captain Jeremiah O'Brien, Commander of the first American 

Naval Flying Squadron of the War of the Revolution. 
SMITH, W. B. 1863. Historical Sketch in Memorial of the Centennial Anniversary of the 

Settlement of Machias (Maine). Machias: C. Fairbush. 

1 Sherman, 1902, p. 105. 






PARKER. 151 



46. WILLIAM HARWAR PARKER. 

WILLIAM H. PARKER was born in 1827. As a boy he read Marryat's 
novels, was always fond of adventure, of hearing and telling stories, and of fun. 
He entered the navy as a midshipman in October 1841, at the age of 14 years, and 
was ordered to the Carolina, one of Matthew C. Perry's squadron, where he studied 
navigation. In 1846 he was on the Potomac, sent to Port Isabel to support General 
Taylor. In 1847-1848 he studied at Annapolis. After passing his examination 
and in search of adventure, he selected a sloop-of-war going to Africa rather than 
a fine frigate for the Mediterranean. When an American brig dragged ashore 
in a storm, young Parker rowed over to her in a gale and helped save her. In 
1853 to 1857 he was an instructor in mathematics at the Naval Academy and after- 
wards in navigation and astronomy, then in seamanship and naval tactics. In 
April 1861 he resigned his lieutenant's commission and joined the Confederates 
and was attached to the Beaufort squadron. He participated in the battle of 
Roanoke island and the weak defense of Elizabeth City. In command of the 
Beaufort, he participated in the battle between the Merrimac and the Cumberland 
and Congress the day before the Monitor arrived in Hampton Roads. He was 
called on for the examination and classification of midshipmen in the Confederate 
Navy and, in July 1863, he organized the Confederate Naval Academy, of which 
he was superintendent until the fall of the Confederacy. At the fall he and his 
naval men guarded the coin chest of the Confederacy for over 30 days. He was 
in the service of the Pacific Mail Company from 1865 to 1874, and for a time the 
captain of a steamer running between Panama and San Francisco. He was the 
author of several works on naval tactics and in 1883 published his entertaining 
"Recollections of a naval officer." He died suddenly in 1896. 

Captain Parker had 4 brothers: (1) Robert. (2) Foxhall Alexander, who 
was executive officer at the Washington navy yard at the outbreak of the Civil 
War and did much to protect Washington in the early days of the war; he became 
a commodore in the United States navy, and chief signal officer ; commanded the 
Boston navy yard in 1877-1878, and was superintendent of the Naval Academy at 
Annapolis at the time of his death in 1879. Like his brother William, he had 
literary gifts. He wrote two books on tactics and two on the howitzer, all of 
which are used as text-books in the Naval Academy. A son, William H., is in 
the navy. (3) Richard, who was a young man of fine intellect, became master 
in the United States volunteer navy. (4) Daingerfield, who entered the army in 
1861 and was breveted for gallantry at Gettysburg; he became a colonel of infan- 
try and retired in 1896. Thus this was a fraternity of fighters and administrators, 
with a preference, on the whole, for the sea. 

The father of William H. Parker's fraternity was Foxhall Alexander Parker, 
who rose to the highest rank (commodore) of his day in the United States navy. 
The mother was Sara, daughter of General Robert Bogardus, of New York City, 
who was colonel of the Forty-first regiment of infantry in the War of 1812. The 
father's father was William Harwar Parker (born in 1752), who was an officer 
in the Virginia navy. Two of the latter's sons became brilliant lawyers, one a 
United States senator. In his fraternity all the males were fighters. These are 
all descended in the male line from George Parker, who early settled in Accomac 
county, Virginia, from whom also are descended the Parker-Upshurs. 



152 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

To the latter branch belongs Thomas Parker, a captain of infantry at German- 
town (1777) ; he was captured by the British and, as the British commander rode 
along and asked each of the Americans what his occupation was, Parker stood 

erect and said: "I am, as my father before me was, a gentleman, and be d d 

to you!" His brother George was a judge. A sister, Anne Parker (born 1763), 
married Littleton Upshur and had a large family. One of her sons, George Parker 
Upshur (1799-1852), rose in the United States navy to the rank of commander. 
Another, Abel Parker (1790-1844J, went with his brother Arthur to Yale, but left 
and entered Princeton in 1806. Abel was suspended, along with ten others, as a 
leader of resistance to the authority of the college. He studied law under William 
Wirt and was admitted to the bar in 1810. Abel had a sister who married a Mr. 
Nottingham and had a son, John Henry, who changed his surname to Upshur at 
the time he was appointed midshipman, November 1841. He participated in the 
Mexican war under Commodore Perry and, as lieutenant on the frigate Cumber- 
land, helped to suppress the African slave-trade in 1858-1859. During the Civil 
War he was on the blockading squadron, helped to reduce the forts at Hatteras 
Inlet, North Carolina, and Port Royal, led successful expeditions up the rivers of 
South Carolina, and participated in the capture of Fort Fisher in 1865. He was 
created rear admiral in 1884, was commander in chief of the Pacific squadron in 
1884 and 1885, retired at his own request June 1885 (N. C. A. B., iv, 316), and 
died May 1917. It is noteworthy that John Henry's fighting qualities came 
through the maternal side. 

FAMILY HISTORY OF WILLIAM H. PARKER. 

Common ancestor, Captain George Parker, high sheriff of Accomac county, Virginia. 

II (F F F F), Dr. Alexander Parker. 12 (F F F M), Susanna. 

III (FFF), Judge Richard Parker (died 1815). 113 (F M F), Sturman. 114 

(F M M), Foxhall. 




William H 
Perhei- 



Fraternity of F F: III 1, Richard Parker (born about 1752), entered the army in 1776 
and became a colonel of the First Virginia regiment. He was killed at Charleston, South Caro- 
lina. Ill 2, Alexander Parker, was a colonel of the Fifth Infantry, United States army; resigned 
1809. Ill 3, John Parker, was drowned while attempting to board his ship. Ill 4, Thomas 
Parker, commanded the forces at Norfolk, Virginia, in 1813 or 1814. Ill 6, William Harwar 
Parker (1752 (?)-1840), was an officer in the Virginia navy during the Revolution, commanding 



PARKER. 153 

a vessel. After the war he returned to his plantation. Ill 7, Mary Sturman. Ill 8, General 
Robert Bogardus, a distinguished lawyer and colonel of the Forty-first regiment of infantry 
(Regulars) in the War of 1812. Ill 10, Ada Bagwell. Ill 11, George Parker (1735-1784). 

III 12, Susan Andrews. 

Fraternity of F: IV 1, Juliet Parker. IV 2, Le Roy Daingerfield, a first cousin. IV 3, 
Robert Elliot Parker (died 1840), was a colonel in the War of 1812; a judge of the court of appeals 
and United States Senator. IV 4, John Parker. IV 5, William Chilton Parker, a brilliant orator 
and lawyer, who served in the War of 1812. IV 6 (F), Foxhall Alexander Parker (born ca. 1789), 
entered the navy and rose to highest rank of his day commodore. IV 7, Sara Bogardus. 

IV 8, George Parker (died in infancy). IV 9, Anne Parker, born 1763. IV 10, Littleton Upshur. 
IV 11, Captain Thomas Parker, who was captured at Germantown (see text). IV 12, George 
Parker (1761-1826), a judge. IV 13, Margaret Eyre. IV 14, - - Reed. IV 15, Elizabeth 
Parker. IV 16, - -Teackle. IV 17, John A. Parker (born 1779), a member of the house of 
delegates. IV 18, Jacob Parker (born 1782). 

V 1 (Propositus) , WILLIAM H. PARKER. Fraternity of Propositus: V 2, Robert Bogardus 
Parker. V 3, Richard LeRoy Parker, was master of a vessel in the United States (volunteer) 
navy. V 4, Daingerfield Parker, entered the army in 1861 and became colonel of the Eighteenth 
Infantry, retiring in 1896. He was breveted for gallantry at Gettysburg. V 6, Foxhall Alex- 
ander Parker, a commodore in the United States navy. V 8, Abel Parker Upshur (1790-1844), 

a lawyer who was appointed secretary of the navy in 1841. V 9, Parker. V 10, - 

Nottingham. V 11, George Parker Upshur (1799-1852), entered the navy as midshipman in 
1818 and became a commander in 1847, when he had charge of the United States Naval Academy 
at Annapolis. 

VI 1, William Harwar Parker, became lieutenant commander in the United States navy. 
VI 2, John Henry Upshur (1823-1917), assumed his mother's name. He accompanied Perry 
to Spain and was active in the Civil War (see text). He spent the later years of his life in 
Washington. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

McCABE, R. 1901. Abel Parker Upshur. (The John P. Branch Historical Papers of Randolph- 

Macon College. Richmond: E. Waddey Co.) pp. 188-205. 
PARKER, W. 1883. Recollections of a Naval Officer (1841-1865). New York: C. Scribner. 

372 pp. 
SHIPPEN, R. 1898. The Parker Family. Va. Mag. of Hist. Vol. VI, pp. 301-307, 412-418. 



154 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

47. HIRAM PAULDING. 

HIRAM PAULDING was born December 11, 1797, at Cortland, Westchester 
county, New York. He lost his mother at the age of 8 years. His boyhood was 
spent on a farm. He early desired to enter the army, but finally accepted an 
appointment in 1811 to enter the navy as midshipman. Here he studied mathe- 
matics and navigation. Ordered in 1813 to report for duty on the northern lakes, 
he saw service on the Ticonderoga and as lieutenant had charge of the quarter-deck 
guns in the great battle of Lake Champlain, and when the "matches" for firing 
the guns gave out he substituted the flash of his loaded pistol. He was highly 
praised for his bravery and received from Congress a sword and prize-money. 
In 1815 he was on the frigate Constellation under Commodore Decatur, which 
captured the Algerine cruisers, and the next year he was commissioned lieutenant. 
He then cruised for five years, and later took a year or two on land for further 
schooling at the military academy at Norwich. On a four-year cruise in the 
frigate United States he performed special service in conveying secret dispatches 
from Commodore Hull to General Bolivar, traveling nearly 1,500 miles on horse- 
back, through a wild, mountainous country. He wrote an account of this trip, 
entitled "Bolivar in his Camp." Next he was assigned to the schooner Dolphin, 
commanded by John Perceval, to search for the mutineers of the whaleship Globe. 
When the two survivors were found, Paulding seized one of them in the face of 
hundreds of natives armed with spears and clubs and, covering his own body 
with that of his captive, marched to the boat, holding a cocked pistol to the ear 
of his prize. In 1831 Paulding wrote an account of this experience, full of interest 
and humor. After various minor cruises he was ordered, in 1848, to command 
the St. Lawrence and cruise along the coast of Europe. Here he exercised the 
arts of diplomacy and received on board several young Prussians for instruction 
in nautical affairs; one of these later became commander in chief of the German 
navy. The St. Lawrence also visited Southampton. From 1851 to 1854 Pauld- 
ing was in command of the navy yard at Washington. During 1855 he was in 
command of the home squadron and cruised in the West Indies. In 1857 he 
visited Nicaragua in the W abash, and in December of that year secured the sur- 
render of the filibuster General William Walker. For this act he was given a sword 
by the president of Nicaragua; but the War Department disapproved and relieved 
him of his command; so he retired to Huntington, Long Island. 

After the inauguration of Lincoln, Paulding was called upon to take charge 
of the Bureau of Detail. Here he arranged for the building of ironclads. He 
urged the building of the Monitor from Ericsson's plans. On the secession of 
Virginia he was sent to the Norfolk navy yard and took out of the navy yard 
what little could be saved; he destroyed the rest, and towed the Cumberland 
to safety. The navy yard was then completely destroyed by fire. In December 
1861 he was retired by law, having reached the age limit, and in July 1862 he was 
created rear admiral. He commanded the Brooklyn navy yard, 1861 to 1863; 
here he pushed forward the fitting out of the Monitor and dispatched her to For- 
tress Monroe, withholding contrary dispatches received just before her departure. 
When the draft riots occurred in New York City, Paulding dispatched two com- 
panies of marines and placed small gunboats with light armaments at the foot 
of the principal streets. In 1866 he was sent to the Naval Asylum at Philadelphia 
as governor, and in 1869 was appointed port admiral of Boston, which post he held 
for a tune. He died October 20, 1878. 



PAULDING. 155 

Paulding was of a buoyant temperament, took a cheerful and hopeful view 
of things, and was ready for fun; but he had a horror of practical jokes and of 
puns. He often said: "Life is too short for controversy." 

Hiram Paulding married, in 1828, Anne M. Kellogg, of Flatbush, New York, 
who had been educated by her father, Jonathan W. Kellogg, a graduate of Yale 
and the headmaster of Erasmus Hall in Flatbush. They had 6 children: (1) 
Anna; (2) Tattnall, who was colonel of the Sixth Cavalry, United States army, 
and served throughout the Civil War. He married Hannah Huddell and had a son 
John, who is in the insurance business and is fond of sailing, and a daughter Caro- 
line, who married Lieutenant Raymond Naile; (3) Rebecca, married Lieutenant 
Richard Worsam Meade (born 1837), became a vice admiral, United States navy, 
and was the author of two books, one on "Boat Exercises" and one on "Naval 
Construction." Among their children are: (a) Clara, married to George Breed, 
who was a graduate of Annapolis, but who resigned from the navy to go into 
electrical work, and has 3 sons, all of whom are naval officers; (6) Richard W., 
who served in the Spanish- American War and in the Naval Reserve; is now presi- 
dent of the Fifth Avenue omnibus line, New York City; (4) Mary Paulding, who 
married Robert L. Meade, brother of Richard, and brigadier general of United 
States marines. (Another brother, Henry Meigs Meade, is paymaster in the 
United States navy; their father was in the navy and helped lay out San Francisco.) 
Mary had 4 children: (a) May and (6) Henrietta are appealed to by form and 
color and do beautiful work inlaying butterflies, etc. Neither of the sons, (c) 
Robert, who died at 38 years, or (d) John, was interested in the navy, though 
they sailed boats. (5) Hiram, who was not fond of the water and did not learn to 
sail a boat; he married Virginia Mulligan and has 3 daughters and a son Hiram 3d, 
who is fond of farming and also of the water and is a scoutmaster. (6) Emma, 
who likes to help organize and promote undertakings for the good of the community. 

Of Hiram Paulding's sibs little is known. George was apparently a farmer, 
and Leonard was a naval officer of merit and distinction and showed marked 
gallantry at the capture of forts Donelson and Fisher. He was a man of charm- 
ing character, beloved by all who knew him. His father was John Paulding 
(1758-1818), who in 1775 was a private in a militia regiment and at the close of 
the Revolutionary war was a major of militia. While patrolling the Hudson with 
two others, John Paulding captured Major Andre", found the incriminating papers 
from Benedict Arnold upon his person, refused the bribe he offered them for his 
release, and brought him to headquarters. John Paulding was thrice captured 
by the British. By his second wife, Esther Ward, he had Hiram and Leonard 
Paulding, naval fighters, and 4 other sons. It is probable that the dash, fearless- 
ness, and nomadic tendencies of Hiram Paulding came chiefly from his mother's 
side though strengthened from the paternal side. 

FAMILY HISTORY OF HIRAM PAULDING. 

I 1 (M F), Caleb Ward (1728-1792), of Peekskill, New York. I 2 (M M ), Mary Drake 
(1731-1801), daughter of Benjamin Drake. 

Fraternity of M: II 1, Benjamin Ward (1750-1817). II 2, Abigail Ward. II 3, Solomon 
Fowler. II 4, John Ward (1752-1846), an officer in the Loyal American regiment who entered 
the service of the Crown as early as 1776. During the Revolution he was frequently in battle. 
In 1783 he settled in New Brunswick, where he became a citizen and merchant of renown. II 5, 
Phoebe Ward. II 6, Samuel Jones. II 7, Mary Ward. II 8, James Perrott. II 9 (M), Esther 
Ward, died 1804. II 10 (F), John Paulding (1755-1818), a major of the militia and one of the 
capturers of Major Andre 1 . II 11 (consort's F), Jonathan Kellogg, headmaster of Erasmus 



156 



HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 



Hall. II 12 (consort's M), Mary Tuttle. II 13, Richard Meade (born 1778), navy agent and 
consul at Cadiz, Spain. II 15, Henry Meigs, a volunteer in the War of 1812, was commissioned 
adjutant. He was a member of Congress, president of board of aldermen, and recording 
secretary of the American Institute. II 16, Julia Austin, of Philadelphia. 




VI 



Fraternity of Propositus: III 1, George Paulding, born 1791. Ill 2, John Ward Paulding, 
born 1793. Ill 3, Sarah Teed Paulding, born 1796. Ill 4, James Paulding, born 1794. Ill 5, 
Leonard Paulding (born 1799), a naval officer. Ill 6, Mary Paulding (1802-1803). Ill 7, 
Susan Paulding (1804-1834). Ill 8, Caleb Paulding (born 1804), a farmer. Ill 9 (Propositus}, 
HIRAM PAULDING. Ill 10 (consort), Anne Marie Kellogg. Fraternity of consort: III 11, War- 
ren Comstock Kellogg, an insurance agent. Ill 12, George Kellogg, a physician. Ill 13, George 
Gordon Meade (1815-1872), a major general of the United States army, who commanded the 
Army of the Potomac at Gettysburg and to the end of the Civil War. Ill 14, Richard W. Meade 
(1807-1870), a captain in the United States navy. Ill 15, Clara Forsythe Meigs. Ill 16, 
Julia Austin Meigs, had musical ability. Ill 17, Walter Oddie, a landscape artist. Ill 18, 
Henry Meigs (born 1809), was president of the New York Exchange. Ill 19, Theodore Meigs 
(born 1814), was paying teller of the Bank of America. 

Children of Propositus: IV 1, Anna Paulding, was interested in philanthropic work; a 
woman of great strength of character. IV 2, Tattnall Paulding. IV 3, Hannah Huddell. IV 
4, Hiram Paulding, a farmer. IV 5, Virginia Mulligan. IV 6, Richard Mulligan, a physician. 
IV 7, Emma Paulding, greatly interested in philanthropic work. IV 8, Rebecca Paulding, 
compiler of her father's biography. IV 9, Richard W. Meade (born 1837), a rear admiral of the 
United States navy. IV 11, Henry Meigs Meade, born 1840. IV 12, Mary (born 1845) and 
Clara (born 1849) Meade. IV 13, Robert Learny Meade (born 1841), a brigadier general, 
United States Marines. IV 14, Mary Paulding. 

Children's children of Propositus: V 1, John Paulding. V 2, Caroline Paulding. V 3, 

Raymond Neale. V 4, Helen, Julia, and Virginia Paulding. V 5, Hiram Paulding. V 6, 

Anna Meade. V 7, Clara Meade. V 8, George Breed, who is serving in the navy. V 9, Richard 

Meade. V 10, Rebecca Meade. V 11, Charlotte Meade. V 12, Henrietta Meade. V 13, 

- Wootton. V 14, May Meade. V 15, Robert Meade. V 16, John Meade. 

Children's children's children of Propositus: VI 1, Richard Breed, a graduate of Yale, is 
now in the Coast Guard service. VI 2, Edward Breed, who was graduated from Annapolis, is 
an ensign, United States navy. VI 3, - - Breed, was graduated from the Naval Academy, 
Annapolis, 1917. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

BOLTON, R. 1881. History of County of Westchester, New York. New York: C. F. Roper. 

2 vols. 
MEADE, MRS. R. 1910. Life of Hiram Paulding. New York: Blake & Taylor Co. ix + 

321 pp. 
MEIGS, H. 1901. Record of the Descendants of Vincent Meigs. Baltimore: J. Bridges. 

374 pp. 



PELLEW. 157 

48. EDWARD PELLEW. 

EDWARD PELLEW was born at Dover, England, April 19, 1757. He lost his 
father in 1765 and at 11 years of age was, with his brothers, thrown upon the 
world. 

" The resolute, active, and courageous character of the lads, however, brought 
them well forward among their equals in age. At school Edward was especially 
distinguished for fearlessness. Of this he gave a marked instance, when not yet 
twelve, by entering a burning house where gunpowder was stored, which no other 
of the bystanders would approach. Alone and with his own hands the lad brought 
out the powder. A less commendable but very natural result of the same ener- 
getic spirit was shown in the numerous righting matches in which he was engaged. 
If flogged, he declared, he would run away; and as a decided taste for a seafaring 
life had already manifested itself, his guardian thought better to embrace at once 
the more favorable alternative and enter him regularly in the navy." (Mahan 1913.) 

On his first cruise in the Mediterranean, a midshipman was set ashore at 
Marseilles on account of a quarrel with the commander of the ship, who was grossly 
in the wrong. Pellew insisted on accompanying his messmate and at the age of 
14 years had to find his way home. Assigned to the ship that was to take Bur- 
goyne to America in 1775, he startled the general, who saw him standing on his 
head on a yard-arm. He dived from a yard-arm of a fast-moving ship to save 
a seaman who had fallen overboard and succeeded in rescuing him. 

Pellew saw active service on Lake Champlain in 1776, when the command of 
the Carleton fell to him, and he fought with skill and pertinacity. On one occa- 
sion the Carleton lay close to shore, so that the wind did not fill her jib. Pellew 
sprang out on the bowsprit in the face of a hail of rifle bullets from shore to bear 
the jib over. Returning to England, Pellew was made lieutenant and served again 
under Captain Pownoll on the frigate Apollo. In a fight with the French frigate 
Stanislas Pownoll was killed and the command fell on Pellew, who fought until 
the enemy's ship went aground and claimed protection of the neutral flag. Later he 
drove ashore and destroyed several French privateers and was made post captain. 
Peace followed (1783-1793), and Pellew tried farming, but it was too slow for him. 
For five years of this period he commanded frigates. He showed himself as active 
as the youngest sailors among the yards and rigging. Once, dressed in full uniform 
to attend a state dinner on shore, Pellew watched the crew swimming around the 
ship while one of the ship's boys on deck called out to the bathers that he would 
soon have a good swim too. "The sooner the better," said Pellew, coming behind 
and tipping him overboard. Then he quickly saw that the lad could not swim, 
so in he went himself, with all his fine clothes on, to rescue the boy. Pellew had 
remarkable capacity in handling a ship; and this did not fail him in his first battle 
as full-fledged commander of a frigate, the Nymphe. She came on the French 
Cleopatrie, and, sailing alongside of her, engaged her in a duel. The French 
frigate lost wheel and mizzenmast and, thus uncontrolled, ran straight into the 
Nymphe. The British boarded and captured her. Pellew was knighted, and 
his brother Israel, who had assisted him, was made post captain. In continuing 
the war with France, Pellew repeatedly showed acts of personal bravery and bold 
artifice, as when he personally saved the passengers and crew of a merchantman 
who had gone on the shore at Plymouth, and when he sailed Into the French fleet 



158 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

at night and, by making false signals, confused and rendered futile the signals of 
the commander in chief. Accompanied by the Amazon, Pellew in the Indefati- 
gable fell upon the French frigate Droits de I'Homme, returning from Ireland toward 
France. With one frigate on the right and the other on the left of their quarry 
they forced it through a thick and gloomy night in a westerly gale upon the west 
coast of France. The Amazon could not beat her way off against the wind and 
was also lost on shore, but the Indefatigable, after a fight with the gale for 24 hours, 
cleared the last promontory and escaped serious damage. In 1802 Pellew was 
a member of Parliament. In 1804, having been created rear admiral and com- 
mander in chief in India, he cleared the Indian ocean of French cruisers. In 
1814 he was created Baron Exmouth. In 1816 he destroyed the Algerine fleet, 
shattered the sea defenses of Algiers, and forced the Bey to liberate the 3,000 white 
men he held as slaves. For this victory Pellew was made viscount. He was 
shortly after retired and made vice admiral of England. He engaged in various 
activities and died in 1833. He married Susannah Frowde, and had 4 sons, of 
whom 2 became clergymen and 2 naval officers, respectively admiral and captain. 
A son of the latter died at 28, a lieutenant in the navy. 

Of Edward Pellew's brothers, Israel became an admiral. He had dis- 
tinguished himself under Nelson at Trafalgar and on other occasions. Another 
brother was a surgeon, and another, as ensign, was early killed in the battle of 
Saratoga. The father of this fraternity was Samuel Pellew, who commanded 
a post-office and packet on Dover Station. His mother was a Langford. Of the 
reactions of the parents and their families little is known. 

Pellew was a typical hyperkinetic. He was not a great strategist, but a 
brilliant, dashing frigate commander, corresponding to a cavalry leader on land. 
A hyperkinetic tendency must, we may infer from other studies, have shown itself 
in one or both of his parents. 

"Throughout his youth the exuberant vitality of the man delighted in these 
feats of wanton power. To overturn a boat by press of canvas, as a frolic, is not 
unexampled among lads of daring; but it is at least unusual, when a hat goes 
overboard, to follow it into the water, if alone in a boat under sail. This Pellew 
did, on one occasion, when he was old enough to know better, being at the moment 
in the open channel, in a small punt, going from Falmouth to Plymouth. The 
freak nearly cost him his life, for, though he had lashed the helm down and hove-to 
the boat, she fell off and gathered way whenever he approached. When at last 
he laid hold of her rail, after an hour of this fooling, barely strength remained to 
drag himself on board, where he fell helpless, and waited long before his powers 
were restored. It is trite to note in such exhibitions of recklessness many of the 
qualities of the ideal seaman, though not so certainly those of the foreordained 
commander-in-chief. Pellew was a born frigate captain." l 

FAMILY HISTORY OF EDWARD PELLEW, FIRST VISCOUNT EXMOUTH. 

II (F F F), Pellew, a captain In the navy. 

II 1 (F F), Humphrey Pellew (died 1721), a merchant of importance who had a tobacco 
plantation on Kent Island, Maryland. II 2, Judith Sparnon (died 1753). II 3, (M F), Edward 
Langford. 

III 2 (F), Samuel Pellew (born 1712), commanded the post-office and a packet on Dover 
Station. Ill 3 (M), Constantia Langford. Ill 4, James Frowde. 

Fraternity of Propositus: IV 1, Samuel Pellew, a collector at the port of Falmouth; surgeon 
at the stockyards, Plymouth. IV 2, Sir Israel Pellew (died 1832), an admiral in the Royal Navy. 

1 Mahan. 1913. Page 432. 



PELLEW. 



159 



He commanded the Conqueror at Trafalgar and distinguished himself on other occasions. Ill 3, 
Mary Gilmore. IV 4, John Pellew, an ensign in the army, was killed at the battle of Saratoga. 
IV 5, Catherine Pellew. IV 6, Charles Louis, Count Jejerskjold, vice admiral of Sweden. IV 
7, Jane Pellew. IV 8, Lieutenant Spriddle, of the Royal Navy. IV 9 (Propositus) , EDWARD 
PELLEW, FIRST VISCOUNT EXMOUTH. IV 10, Susannah Frowde, (died 1837). IV 11, Mungo 
Dick. 



U 



ffl 




V 1, Rev. Philip Anderson. V 3, Edward Pellew, a captain in the army, was killed in 
a duel. Children of Propositus: V 4, Fleetwood Broughton Pellew (1789-1861), an admiral of 
the blue. V 5, George Pellew (1793-1866), dean of Norwich and prebendary of York; author 
and divine. V 6, Edward Pellew (1799-1869), a clergyman. V 7, Marianne Winthrop. V 8, 
Emma Mary Pellew (died 1835). V 9, Admiral Sir Lawrence William Halsted. V 10, Julia Pellew 
(died 1831). V 11, Richard Harward, a captain of the Royal Navy. V 12, Harriet Barlow. 
V 13, Pownoll Bastard Pellew, second Viscount Exmouth (1786-1833), a captain in the Royal 
Navy. V 14, Georgiana Dick. 

Children's children of Propositus: VI 1, Dorothy M. Anderson. VI 2, Fleetwood Hugo 
Pellew (1838-1906), a commissioner of Dacca. VI 3, Edward (1830-1880), Rev. George Israel 
(born 1831), and Arthur Samuel (1841-1897) Pellew. VI 4, Pownoll William Pellew (1831- 
1872), a commander in the Royal Navy. VI 6, Edward Pellew, third Viscount Exmouth (1811- 
1876). VI 7, Percy T. Pellew (1814-1848), an officer in the Madras cavalry. VI 8, Juliana 
Pellew. VI 9, Pownoll Fleetwood Pellew (1823-1851), a lieutenant in the Royal Navy. VI 10, 
Fleetwood John Pellew (1830-1866). VI 11, Barrington Reynolds Pellew (1833-1858), was a 
major who served with distinction in the Kaffir war, at the siege of Sebastopol, the storming of 
Canton, and at the assault and capture of Lucknow, where he was killed. VI 12, Caroline Emma 
Pellew (died 1832). 

Children's children's children of Propositus: VII 1, Fleetwood Hugo Pellew (born 1871), 
a captain in the army. VII 2, John Edward Pellew (born 1886), of the Royal Navy. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

BURKE, SIR B., and A. 1909. A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Peerage and Baron- 
etage. London: Harrison and Sons. 2570 pp. 

MAHAN, A. 1913. Types of Naval Officers drawn from the History of the British Navy. 
Boston: Little, Brown and Co. xiv + 500 pp. 



160 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

49. GEORGE HAMILTON PERKINS. 

GEORGE HAMILTON PERKINS was born December 20, 1836, at Hopkinton, Mer- 
rimack county, New Hampshire. He was an active country boy, not partial to 
books. At 15 years he entered the Naval Academy at Annapolis, October 1851, 
being graduated there in 1856, after taking an extra year's work, with "the lowest 
stand made in his class." He was assigned to the sloop Cyane, which went to the 
isthmus of Panama to preserve order; thence he transferred to the bark Release, 
on which he went to the Mediterranean and then to Paraguay. In April 1859 
he successfully achieved the grade of passed midshipman, and four months later 
went to the west coast of Africa in the Swnter, to help suppress the slave-trade. 
There he suffered shipwreck and fevers and returned home, already a lieutenant 
and with an acquired taste for reading, in the autumn of 1861. In February 
1862 he began service on the gunboat Cayuga, 500 tons, which went to the mouth 
of the Mississippi river and attempted, with other ships, the ascent to New Orleans. 
With Perkins as pilot, the Cayuga took the lead in passing Forts Jackson and 
Philip, which guarded New Orleans on the south. On board was Captain Bailey 
also, in charge of the first three divisions of the fleet. The Cayuga and the other 
ships passed at night with few casualties, despite a terrific bombardment by the 
forts. Reaching New Orleans, Captain Bailey and Perkins, without guard or 
arms, walked through the streets, surrounded by a howling, threatening mob, 
to the city hall and arranged for raising the Union flag. They returned unharmed. 
For gallantry in this affair Perkins was promoted to be lieutenant commander. 
He was now assigned to blockade duty at the mouth of the Mississippi, from 
June 1862 until the summer of 1863, when he was given command of the gunboat 
New London, which passed up and down the river carrying powder to Banks's 
army. She passed a Confederate battery five times successfully, but on the sixth 
her boiler was pierced and exploded. Nevertheless, Perkins saved both ship and 
men. Placed now in command of the gunboat Scioto, he engaged in blockade duty 
from July 1863 to April 1864, capturing a prize. Given charge of the monitor 
Chickasaw, he participated in the battle of Mobile Bay, in which his boat was 
hit several times. When the Confederate armed ram Tennessee attacked the 
fleet, Perkins was told to go in and fight it, the other monitors being out of action. 
In this fight the Chickasaw worked her guns at 50 to 10 yards from the ironclad. 
One of her shots carried away the Tennessee's smokestack, an 11-inch shell jammed 
her turret, and another destroyed the steering-gear; no one was hurt on the Chick- 
asaw. A few hours later the Chickasaw advanced on Fort Powell, guarding the 
entrance to the bay, steamed to within 100 yards of it, and reduced it so that 
it was evacuated and blown up by the defenders during that night. Perkins 
remained on duty in Mobile bay until the end of the war and then returned home. 
During 1865-1866 he was superintendent of ironclads at New Orleans; then 
followed a 3 years' cruise to the Pacific on the Lackawanna. From 1869 to 
1871 he was at the Boston navy yard, and in September 1870 married Miss Anna 
M. Weld. In 1871 he was made commander and, in charge of the storeship Relief, 
carried food to the famishing people of France. He was in active service until 
in 1891, when, heart trouble having developed, Captain Perkins returned to his 
paternal farm in New Hampshire. Here he bought land and purchased and drove 
race-horses. He lived during the winter in Boston, enjoying reading and com- 
panionship until he died in October 1899, of valvular heart trouble. 



PERKINS. 161 

The prevailing trait of Perkins is absence of fear combined with adventure- 
sameness and pertinacity. When about 5 years of age he set out to catch a colt 
in a field. The colt eluded him and crossed a river to another part of the field; 
the boy stripped, swam across, cornered the colt, fastened the bridle (which while 
swimming he had carried about his own neck) and, mounting the colt, recrossed 
the river, dressed, and rode home in triumph. At 6 years he was sent on a neces- 
sary errand alone in the winter to Concord, New Hampshire, 10 miles away and, 
tied in the sleigh, made the trip without mishap. At the Naval Academy he 
constantly broke the rules, entertained friends late at night, boxed on the porch, 
and got into numberless other scrapes. "Indeed, at times, he seemed almost 
reckless and daredevilish." So in war, he was always first in danger and enjoyed 
it. Of his walk to the city hall of New Orleans surrounded by a mob, George 
W. Cable, an eye-witness, says: "It was one of the bravest deeds I ever saw done." 
In the early hours of the battle of Mobile Bay, Perkins was seen on top of the turret 
waving his hat and dancing about with delight and excitement. When the gun- 
ners in the turret, struck with fear by the rapid sinking of the mined sister-monitor 
Tecumseh, were about to rush from the turret, Perkins sprang in front of them and 
threatened to shoot the first man who left his post, and thus ended the trouble. 
When Perkins received the order to fight the Tennessee the messenger reported: 
"Happy as Perkins habitually is, I thought he would turn a somersault over- 
board with joy when I told him." Said Admiral Farragut of him in his report: 
"No braver man ever trod a ship's deck." He was "as cool as Gushing; had as 
little anxiety for personal safety as Nelson." Of Captain Perkins's father, Hamil- 
ton Eliot Perkins, it is said he was "brave and plucky a positive man, from whom 
George must have inherited much of his natural courage." Also, Captain Perkins's 
mother had a brother, Captain Paul R. George, who was "remarkably efficient." 

Perkins was a hyperkinetic. His good humor was unfailing, his joviality con- 
tagious, his flashing eye commanded attention. He would often say the opposite of 
what he meant to enjoy the discomfiture or indignation of the reaction, but he was 
never cruel in his fun. He was versatile and constantly in action, even from boyhood. 

Perkins had a great liking for animals and pets of all kinds, "a family trait, 
come from the Georges." For horses he had a veritable passion. He early had 
a pony of his own and rode with his father through the woods. After he returned 
to the farm he purchased and drove race-horses; perhaps it was their action as 
well as beauty of form that appealed to him. 

He was not scholarly. His teachers counted him dull, since he did not take to 
books; so he was withdrawn from school and taught at home. At the Naval Acad- 
emy he was at the bottom of his class and it was only through the intervention of 
a teacher that he escaped dismissal. He lacked confidence in his mental ability. 
He once rubbed out an exercise that he had put on the board correctly because, 
on turning around, he happened to see a classmate laughing. Yet, in later life, 
he came to appreciate books and enjoyed biography and history. However, he 
had never scholarship enough to be a strategist but was eminently a fighting cap- 
tain. He was trustful of others and employed on his farm a man who had been 
convicted of forgery. He was devoted to his family; "has a quality that can not 
fail to touch the heart." His father too, was genial, full of kindly humor. 

His love of the sea developed late. At 8 years of age he moved with his father 
to Boston, where he saw much of the trading-ships in which his father was inter- 
ested, but showed no longing to go on them and willingly returned to the country. 
So in later Me he seemed contented as a gentleman farmer. 



162 



HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 




FAMILY HISTORY OP GEORGE HAMILTON PERKINS. 

II (M F M F), Captain Benjamin Harriman. II 3 (MM F), 
Benjamin Emery, a captain in the Revolutionary war. Ill 1 (F F), 
Roger Eliot Perkins (1769-1825). 

IV 1 (F), Hamilton Eliot Perkins, studied at the Harvard Law 
School and for sixteen years presided over the probate court of Merri- 
mac county; was interested in lumbering. IV 2 (M), Clara Bartlett 
George. Fraternity of M: IV 3, Captain Paul R. George, who was 
remarkably efficient. IV 4, John H. George, one of the most brilliant 
lawyers in New Hampshire. 

V 1 (Propositus), GEORGE HAMILTON PERKINS. 

Child of Propositus: VI 1, Isabel Perkins. VI 2, Larz Anderson 
(born in Paris, 1866), after being graduated from Harvard, spent two 
years in travel around the world. He was a captain and assistant 
adjutant general, United States volunteers, during the Spanish Ameri- 
can war; was appointed ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary 
to Japan in 1912. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

CARROLL, S. George Hamilton Perkins, U. S. N., His Life and Letters. Boston: Houghton 
Mifflin Co. 

50. PERRY FAMILY. 

MATTHEW CALBRAITH PERRY was born at Newport, Rhode Island, 1794. 
He entered (March 1809) the United States navy as a midshipman at the naval 
station in New York City. Within a few months he was on board his brother's 
ship, the Revenge, and a little later was made Commodore Rodgers's aid on board 
the President. He took part in the affair of the Little Belt, which precipitated the 
War of 1812. He accompanied Commodore Rodgers on his cruise in the seas of 
northern Europe. In 1813 he became lieutenant. After the war he made a voyage 
to Holland on his father's merchantman, but in 1817 reentered the navy. He 
was connected with the colonization of Liberia. He had many encounters with 
pirates, and in 1824 he sailed to the Mediterranean as part of the squadron to 
protect United States commerce from these pirates. In command of the Brandy- 
wine, he induced the city of Naples to pay the claims of American citizens for 
ships and cargoes that had been confiscated. During his ten years of shore duty 
he organized the Brooklyn (New York) naval lyceum; conceived and advocated 
the use of the ram on war vessels; studied the system of light-houses on the French 
and English coasts; introduced successfully the dioptic system of illumination; 
and was superintendent of the school of gun-practice at Sandy Hook. Because 
of his great activity in modernizing the navy, he is known as the "Father of the 
Steam Navy." In 1840 he was appointed commodore in command of the Brook- 
lyn navy-yard and the New York naval station. In 1843, as commander of a 
squadron of 80 guns, he sailed on a mission to suppress piracy and the slave-trade. 
His services in the Mexican war were most important in gaining control of the 
Western coast. In 1853 he visited Japan, and the next year secured a treaty 
whereby Japan was opened up to the civilization of the West. Upon his return 
he wrote a report that was published in three volumes. He suffered long from 
a "rheumatic" infection which caused his death in 1858. 

Matthew Perry was superior to his brother Oliver in most matters of judg- 
ment and administration. He gave attention to detail, had a sense of humor, 



PERRY. 163 

carried on a voluminous correspondence, had a liking for the classics, reread the 
Bible on every long voyage, often read the service on shipboard. He was a fair 
player on the flute. His hatred of debt bordered on the morbid. He was active, 
energetic, alert, systematic, expectant, eager, and earnest. He had a tense set of 
mind. He was stern and austere in appearance, but gentle underneath. He was 
never afraid of responsibility, had a manly independence, and was very courageous, 
positive, and self-reliant. He was liked by children, to whom he brought pets 
from foreign shores and collections of shells. He had a magnetic personality, and 
though blunt in his manner he was genial socially and a sincere friend. 

OLIVER HAZARD PERRY (brother of Matthew) was born at South Kingston, 
Rhode Island, 1785. He was educated principally in Newport, Rhode Island, 
and in 1799 received his commission as midshipman. When the navy was reduced 
in 1801 he was assigned to the frigate Adams, and that vessel with two others was 
sent to the Mediterranean to clear the sea of pirates. When the embargo was 
laid by Congress in 1807 he was placed in command of a flotilla of gunboats on the 
Newport, Rhode Island, station until 1810. In 1812 he sought and obtained per- 
mission to join the forces on the lakes. There he cleverly defeated the English 
at the battle of Lake Erie by abandoning his riddled ship for a fresh one. The 
United States Congress voted him thanks, presented him with a sword, and gave 
him the rank of captain. He took an important part in the military operations 
around Detroit during the rest of the war and attained the rank of commodore. 
He married Elizabeth Mason. While in command of a vessel in the West Indies 
he died of yellow fever in 1819. 

He was tall and graceful. His brow was massive, full, and lofty; his features 
regular and elegant; his eyes full, dark, and lustrous; his mouth uncommonly 
handsome; his teeth large, regular, and white. His countenance was cheerful 
and mild, and he seemed to have an uncommon share of beauty. He had a strong, 
well-poised mind and good common sense. He was fond of horses and was an 
excellent rider; he was also an excellent fencer. For the pen he had an extreme 
aversion, though he was well versed in history and biography. He had a fine 
taste for music and was a skilled performer on the flute. He wrote a rapid, easy, 
elegant hand. He was industrious, energetic, prompt to decide, decisive, and 
discriminating. As a naval officer he was sensitively alive to the appearance of 
his ship. He had a sweet and gentle disposition, though he was easily aroused by 
injustice. His temper was violent when aroused, but he was not disturbed by petty 
irritability. He was enterprising, firm, daringly courageous, and immovable in his 
decisions. He had the faculty of arousing strong affection for himself in others; he 
was affectionate, courteous, unsuspicious, generous, strict, and domestic in taste. 

Let us now analyze further the Perry traits, especially as seen in Oliver H. 
and Matthew C. Perry. 

Love of adventure and absence of fear. Of Oliver it is said that, as a child, 
one of his chief characteristics was "an utter disregard of danger. He knew no 
fear, a quality which was nobly exemplified throughout life." An incident reveal- 
ing Oliver's confiding and thoroughly courageous disposition is still preserved in 
the family. When scarcely more than 2 years of age, he was playing one day with 
an older child in the road in front of his grandfather's house. A horseman was 
rapidly approaching, when the older boy, seeing the danger, ran out of the way, 
calling to Oliver to do the same. But the little fellow sat still until the horse was 
almost upon him, when, as the man drew rein, he looked up and lisped to him, 



164 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

"Man, you wud'nt wide over me, wud youh." The horseman, who was a friend 
of the family, dismounted and carried Oliver into the house, where he related the 
occurrence with great interest and with as much pride as if it had been his own 
child. He thought the boy's conduct gave token of some very worthy qualities. 

At 5 years of age Oliver went to school and, as the school was some distance 
from his home, he used to take his cousins, who lived on an adjoining farm, to and 
from their lessons. They had no brother and, although they were older than 
Oliver, were glad to accept his boyish protection in adventures on the road. No 
one thought it strange, as he was large for his years and inspired a confidence in 
his manliness which was amply justified. From his earliest boyhood he seemed to 
exercise an influence over those who approached him, which was soon converted 
into affectionate regard by his graceful manners and by a display of quiet firmness 
and calm self-composure. The distinction that he afterwards acquired excited 
no astonishment among the friends of his youth; it seemed but the realization of 
the promise which his early years had inspired." 1 

Oliver was a fearless and well-poised rider of horses, of which he was very 
fond. At the age of 16 years he commanded the naval schooner Revenge. Having 
succeeded in capturing the American ship Diana, whose captain was fraudulently 
retaining her and had put her under the protection of two British gunboats, Oliver 
fell in with a large and powerful British ship which demanded the nature of his 
convoy. This Oliver refused to give and put himself and crew into position to 
board suddenly the powerful and menacing ship if she attempted force. The diffi- 
culty was amicably adjusted. When, in January 1811 (through the fault of the 
pilot), his schooner went on the rocks west of Point Judith, he stayed on the schooner, 
over which the wintry waves dashed, until as the sun set she began to go to pieces; 
and he was thus able to save most of her valuables. When the War of 1812 broke 
out Oliver preferred the post of adventure on the Great Lakes to the Newport 
Station. On Lake Erie he fought one of the bloodiest naval battles in history, 
considering the number of persons engaged. After all of his guns had been rendered 
unworkable and four-fifths of his men were dead or severely wounded, he rowed 
to a fresh vessel. "Unconscious or unmindful of danger, Perry continued to stand 
erect in the boat, with his brave oarsmen imploring him not to expose himself 
thus needlessly. For . . . the enemy . . . had at once directed a heavy fire 
of great guns and musketry at the 'small boat." "Yet the unconquerable Perry 
stood unmoved and defiant." In the fresh vessel he won a decisive victory and 
complete capture of the British fleet. A few weeks later Perry, on horseback, 
acting as General Harrison's aide, participated in the defeat of the British land 
forces. It is said that a British broadside threw the American cavalry into con- 
fusion, from which they were rallied by a call from Perry, who dashed in among 
them. Oliver was at that time 28 years of age. 

Matthew Perry showed the same traits of love of adventure and fearlessness. 
At 13 years of age, on hearing of the fight between the Leopard and the Chesapeake, 
he desired to go into the navy. Of him at 25 years of age it is said: "A thirst 
for enterprise and adventure" led Perry to apply for an appointment on the Cyane, 
going to Guinea, Africa." The dangers of the coast lured him." (Griffis, 1890, 
p. 51.) After his death, Admiral Sands wrote of him: "He was a man of great 
personal bravery, as well as all the Perrys, of undaunted courage and gallantry." 
(Griffis, p. 400.) 

1 Mills, J. C., 1913., p. 5. 



PEREY. 165 

A younger brother, James Alexander Perry (born 1801), was with Oliver on 
the Lawrence in the battle of Lake Erie, at the age of 13 years. "Having two 
musket balls pass through his cap, and his face blackened by powder and smoke, 
the little fellow was laid low in front of the commander, by the flying hammock, 
which had been torn from the nettings by a cannon ball. He was only bruised and 
slightly wounded by small particles and soon resumed his duties." He received 
a sword of honor from Congress for his conduct. He was drowned while still 
young, attempting to save a sailor's life. 

This adventurousness and fearlessness are found elsewhere in the family. 
The following incidents indicate the nature of the reactions of their father, Captain 
Christopher Raymond Perry (Mills, p. 17) : 

"Capt. C. R. Perry was sent to St. Domingo to aid Toussaint against the 
rebel Rigaud. On the 9th of February, 1800, while cruising off Cape Tiburon, 
a number of Rigaud 's barges were discovered at anchor under the protection of 
three forts on the coast. Captain Perry at once stood in, and, after a spirited bom- 
bardment of the forts for about 30 minutes, they were silenced with a loss to them 
of a number of killed and wounded, the General Greene, meanwhile, receiving 
only a few shots in her hull and rigging." But he was prevented from seizing 
the gun-vessels by the arrival of an unfriendly vessel. 

"On approaching Havana harbor convoying a merchant ship, a British 
line-of-battle ship appeared and fired a shot across the bow of the merchantman. 
As the warship now sent out a boat to board the merchantman Captain Perry 
sent a shot between the brig and the boat. The line-of-battle ship at the same time 
bore down, and her commander hailed Captain Perry to demand in no uncertain 
tone why his boat had been fired upon. 'To prevent her from boarding the Ameri- 
can brig which is under my convoy and protection,' the captain promptly replied. 
This brought the rejoinder that it was very strange that one of His Majesty's 
74-gun ships could not board an American brig. 'If she were a first-rate ship 
with her 120 guns/ replied Captain Perry in thundering tones, 'she should not do 
so to the dishonor of my flag.' ' 

Christopher R. Perry's sister, Elizabeth, married a farmer named Stephen 
Champlin, a distant cousin, who had served in the Revolution. Their son, Stephen 
Champlin, ran away to sea at the age of 16, and was in command of the little 
schooner Scorpion, of 2 guns, in the battle of Lake Erie. The first shot in the battle 
was fired from the British flagship. Perry could hardly restrain his men. The 
first shot in reply was made by Champlin, who had a long gun, and it is stated 
that Champlin fired the last shot. The Scorpion stood near the Lawrence and kept 
up a constant fire. (Mills, pp. 129, 147.) For a little gunboat the Scorpion played 
her part no less well under Champlin's command than the Lawrence under Perry's. 

The mother's side contributed fearlessness, also. Sarah Alexander "believed 
her own people the bravest in the world." (Griffis, 1890, p. 14.) Of her it is said 
that she had "a degree of force of mind and energy of character not often found 
in her own sex and seldom equaled in ours"; and, again, "Mrs. Perry was a 
woman of strong feelings and eminently courageous temperament." (Mackenzie, 
N. S., p. 843, pp. 21, 28.) After the battle of Lake Erie an old farmer stoutly 
maintained that it was Mrs. Perry who had "licked the British." (Griffis, p. 14.) 

A sister of Oliver and Matthew, Ann, married Commodore George W. 
Rodgers, himself a gallant officer and commodore in the navy. Of their sons, 
Alexander was killed while leading a regiment in the storming of Chapultepec and 



166 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

George W. entered the navy at the age of 14 years and was killed in 1863, while 
chief of staff of Dahlgren, who said that he was an officer "of the highest pro- 
fessional capacity and courage." 

This trait of fearlessness is widely disseminated among more distant male 
relatives of the Perrys. Thus General Nathanael Greene, perhaps second only to 
Washington among colonial generals, was a second cousin to Christopher R. Perry. 
C. R. Perry's mother's father, Oliver Hazard, was second cousin to General Benedict 
Arnold. A more remote cousin is Ezek Hopkins, first head of the Colonial navy. 

Pertinacity is another Perry trait. This was marvelously displayed by Oliver 
in the battle of Lake Erie. Only 18 out of 101 of the men on board the Lawrence 
were uninjured. A British officer reported of the Lawrence that "it would be im- 
possible to place a hand on the broadside, which had been exposed to the enemy's 
fire, without covering some portion of a wound, either from grape, round, canister, 
or chain shot." The masts were so much injured that they rolled out in the first 
severe gale. Yet not till every gun was out of commission did Perry move, and then 
not to surrender the helpless ship but to retire to another and continue the fight ! 

Matthew had much of this quality, which he showed in diplomacy with the 
Japanese. On his first arrival at Uraga, the vice governor called and stated that 
discussion could be held only at Nagasaki; he was informed that the admiral 
would not go to Nagasaki. The next day the governor called and was again 
informed that the admiral would not go to Nagasaki. Finally, the Japanese 
yielded and agreed to receive the letter from the president of the United States. 
After delivering the letter Perry stated that he would return in a few months 
for the reply. He did so, and decided that he would receive the reply at the capital 
city. Repeatedly he was told that that was impossible; he persisted, the Japanese 
acceded; they met at Yokohama. As point by point was haggled over, "Perry 
intimated his readiness to stay in the bay a year or two if necessary." (Griffis, 
p. 363.) Finally a satisfactory treaty was arranged and signed. "It was Perry's 
pertinacity that first conquered for himself a fleet (to go to Japan); his thorough- 
going method of procedure in every detail and his powerful personality and in- 
vincible tenacity in dealing with the Japanese that won a quick and permanent 
success without a drop of blood." (Griffis, p. 374.) 

In temperament the two Perrys differed slightly. From youth Oliver was 
the more excitable and liable to occasional outbursts of temper. (Mills, p. 26.) 
At the age of 13 years he and some fellows were sailing boats and planks on the 
shallow waters of the Pawcatuck near his home. In a play sea-fight, Oliver's craft 
happened to be run down by that of his playmate. Whereupon "Oliver's rage 
became ungovernable, and for a minute or two he was anxious for an actual set- 
to, to recover the lost advantage of the day." (Mills, p. 13.) After his victory in 
his ship in Tunis bay in 1816, he struck one of his officers a blow for showing what he 
(Perry) conceived to be a disrespectful attitude. Over this a duel was eventually 
held, in which Perry, who was ready to apologize, refused to fire at his opponent. 
Matthew seemed to have his temper better in hand, but he was regarded as "some- 
thing of a martinet." Both were very energetic, working hard and keeping tense. 
Both were insistent on discipline and stood for duty all over. 

Oliver was a man of action, primarily, and reached his highest achievement 
in battle. He wrote little, and disliked writing. But he made rapid progress 
in mathematical astronomy, so that when he left school at 13 years of age his 
teacher declared "that he was the best young navigator in Rhode Island." (Mills, 



PERRY. 167 

p. 10.) After his first trip to Algeria it was noted that he had formed the habit 
of studious thought and reading for improvement of his mind and he then devoted 
himself to advanced courses in mathematics and astronomy. Matthew was 
the greater student. At every port he made a study of conditions and people. 
"On the cruise of the Brandywine he directed the studies of the young midship- 
men, advised them what books to read, what historical sites to visit, and what was 
most worth seeing in the famous cities." (Griffis, p. 97.) While stationed at the 
Brooklyn navy-yard he organized the Lyceum "to promote the diffusion of useful 
knowledge, to foster a spirit of harmony and a community of interests in the 
service," etc. Specimens were collected and cared for; books and pictures were 
gathered. Matthew Perry became recognized as a scientific student and was 
offered command of the United States exploring expedition to the Antarctic, which 
he declined and which was eventually led by Charles Wilkes. Meanwhile, he 
showed such special knowledge of, and interest in, steam naval vessels that he was 
given command of the first one built for our navy, the Perry, 1837, and met with 
intelligence as well as pertinacity the opposition of seamen to replacing sails by 
propellers and steam-engines. In the same year he suggested the utilization of 
the ramming facility of the steam war-vessel. In 1838 Perry's knowledge and 
scientific interest were utilized in a trip to Europe to look into the matter of an 
extended system of light-houses, which he had urged, and the new methods that were 
revolutionizing naval methods. Never was more brilliantly illustrated the value to 
a nation of the student in the navy than in the case of Matthew C. Perry. He was 
a good deal of a naturalist also; he brought shells and plants from his distant trips. 
His report of the Japanese expedition is accompanied by scientific reports on species 
brought back and examined by naturalists. A son of Oliver and Matthew's sister, 
Ann Maria, is Christopher Raymond Perry Rodgers, who was in 1874-1878, and 
again later, superintendent of the Naval Academy, an evidence of scholarship. 

Both of the Perrys were self-reliant, each in his own way. Early trained to 
assume responsibility, they did so in emergencies and with such intelligence, 
courage, and pertinacity that they were invincible. Both were faithful to duty. 
This involved a certain conservatism, and this was shown in the way in which they 
cherished throughout life the religious teachings of their mother. "She trained 
them to the severest virtue, purest motives, faithfulness for sacred things. The 
habit which Matthew C. Perry had of reading his Bible through during every 
cruise, his scrupulous regard for the Lord's day, the American Sunday, his taste 
for literature, and his love for the English classics were formed at his mother's 
knee." (Griffis, pp. 13, 14.) Oliver was less evidently religious. Yet, as he 
returned after his victory on the Niagara to the decks of the Lawrence, he said: 
"The prayers of my wife have prevailed in saving me"; and in reporting to the 
secretary of the navy he begins: "It has pleased the Almighty to give to the arms 
of the United States a signal victory." The emotional side of Oliver was, indeed, 
well developed; he had a fine taste for music and was a skilled performer on the 
flute. He was affectionate and aroused strong affection for himself in others. 
When the British officers surrendered their swords to him at Lake Erie he re- 
quested them to retain their sidearms. Later the British commander toasted 
"Commodore Perry, the gallant and generous enemy." Much of the native 
culture and grace shown by the Perrys is found in their father's mother's family, 
the Hazards. Of Mercy Hazard's father, Oliver Hazard, it is said, "he had ele- 
gant manners and cultivated tastes." 



168 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

PERRY FAMILY. 

Fraternity of F M F M F F F: 13, Joanna Arnold. I 4, William Hopkins (from whom Is 
descended Esek Hopkins, No. 27). 

II 1 (F M F M F F), Benedict Arnold (1615-1678), president of the Providence Planta- 
tions and colonial governor of Rhode Island. II 2 (F M F M F M), Damaris Westcott. 

III 1 (F M F M F), Caleb Arnold (born 1644). Fraternity of F M F M F: III 3, Bene- 
dict Arnold. Ill 4, Mary. Ill 5 (M M F F F), James Wallace, Lord of Dundonald, was a 
colonel of the British army until he signed the Solemn League and Covenant of 1643 and was 
forced to flee to Holland, where he died in 1678. He was in direct descent from Sir Richard Wal- 
lace, own paternal uncle of William Wallace, the great Scotch patriot. Ill 7, Ann Borodel, 
of Irish ancestry. Ill 8, George Denison, born about 1618, a brilliant Indian fighter (see George 
Dewey, FFFM M F). 

IV 1 (F F F F), Edward Perry (born in England, 1630), came to New England, where he 
showed himself "an unusually militant Broadbrim and retaliated upon his persecutors by writing 
a railing accusation against the court of Plymouth." IV 2 (F F F M), Mary Freeman. IV 3, 
(F M F F), George Hazard, a large land-owner who was a lieutenant colonel of the militia. IV 
4 (F M F M), Penelope Arnold. IV 5, Captain Benedict Arnold. IV 6, Hannah King. IV 
7 (M M F F), James Wallace, settled in Ireland. IV 9, George Denison (1653-1711). 

Fraternity of F F F: V 1, Rest Perry. V 2, Jacob Mott. V 3 (F F F), Benjamin Perry 
(1677-1742), removed to Rhode Island. V 4 (F F M), Susannah Barber. V 5 (F M F), Oliver 
Hazard, a man of property. V 6 (F M M), Elizabeth Raymond. V 7, Benedict Arnold (1741- 
1801), a general in the Continental army and a traitor. V 8 (M M F), James Wallace. V 10, 
Samuel Denison (born 1686). 

VI 1, Mary Mott. VI 2, Nathanael Greene, a Quaker preacher. VI 3 (F F), Freeman 
Perry (1733-1813), a physician who owned surveying instruments. He was chief justice of the 
court of common pleas and president of the town council of Kingston. VI 4 (F M), Mercy 

Hazard (1740-1810). VI 5 (M F), Alexander, of Ireland. VI 6 (MM), Wallace. 

Fraternity of M M: VI 7, William Wallace. VI 9, Thomas Reynolds, a Presbyterian minister 

of Delaware. VI 11, Gideon Denison (born 1724). VI 12, Elizabeth . VI 13, Benjamin 

Butler (1739-1787), a blacksmith of Norwich, a witty and original man who was very eccentric. 
In 1776 he was imprisoned on charge of "defaming the Honorable Continental Congress." VI 
14, Diadema Hyde. 

VII 1, Nathanael Greene (1742-1786), a brilliant general of the Continental army, who 
had command of the southern army during the Revolution. Fraternity of F: VII 2, Joshua 
Perry (1756-1802), a surgeon in Colonel Church's battalion. VII 3, Oliver Hazard Perry, lost 
at sea in about 1873. VII 4, Elizabeth Perry (1762-1811). VII 5, Stephen Champlin, a farmer, 
a double distant cousin. VII 6, Mary and Susan Perry. VII 7, George Hazard Perry. VII 8, 
Christopher Raymond Perry (1761-1818), a sea captain who served with distinction upon armed 
vessels during the Revolutionary war; in 1798 he became a captain in the United States navy. 
Later he became collector of internal revenue at Newport and Bristol. VII 9 (M), Sarah Alex- 
ander Wallace, born in Ireland, 1768. VII 10, William Bailey Wallace, an attorney of the King's 
Bench, Dublin. VII 11, Robert Wallace. VII 12, James Wallace, served under Cornwallis 
in India, where he died, 1794. VII 13, Alexander Wallace, served in the army under Cornwallis, 
and also commanded a merchantman. VII 14, Charles Wallace, was a surgeon in the British 
army and was on board the Invincible when Howe defeated the French in 1795. VII 15, John 
Rodgers, born in Scotland, 1726, settled in Maryland about 1750. He was a captain of a regiment 
of militia during the Revolution. VII 16, Eliza Reynolds (born in Delaware in 1742 or 1743), 
was a woman of great strength of character. VII 17, Gideon Denison (born 1753), was a merchant 
of Norwich, Connecticut, who removed to Maryland where he engaged in land speculation. VII 
18, Jerusha Butler (born 1762), an active and energetic woman. VII 19, Thomas Butler (born 
1769), was educated at Yale College. VII 20, Benjamin Butler (born 1764), practiced medicine 
for a time, then became a merchant, and later a shipping merchant. Afterwards he went to New 
York, where he engaged in brokerage, but finally settled in Oxford, New York. 

VIII 2, Stephen Champlin (1789-1870), rose to the rank of commodore in the United 
States navy. Fraternity of Propositus: VIII 3, OLIVER HAZARD PERRY (see text). VIII 4, 
Elizabeth Mason. VIII 5, Jane Perry (1799-1875). VIII 6, William Butler (1790-1850), 
a surgeon in the United States navy, and agent to the Cherokee Indians. From this marriage 
came the Butlers of South Carolina, who were noted for their military ability. VIII 7, Ray- 
mond Henry Jones Perry (1789-1826), a captain in the United States navy. VIII 8, James Alex- 



PERRY. 169 

ander Perry (born 1801), a naval officer. VIII 9, Nathanael Hazard Perry (born 1802), became 
a midshipman in the United States navy and later a purser. VIII 10, Sarah Wallace Perry, 
a bit eccentric. VIII 11, Ann Marie Perry (1797-1856). VIII 12, George Washington Rodgers 
(1787-1832), entered the navy in 1804 and was on board the Wasp when she engaged the Frolic. 
For gallantry in the War of 1812 he received a medal from Congress and a sword from Maryland. 

VIII 13, Maria Ann Rodgers. VIII 14, William Pinkney (1764-1822), a statesman, senator, 
and diplomat of considerable note, independent and eloquent. His brother Ninian was a soldier, 
traveler, and author. VIII 15, Rebecca Rodgers. VIII 16, Andrew Gray. VIII 17, Alexander 
Rodgers. VIII 18, Thomas Reynolds Rodgers, a physician. VIII 19, Mary Rodgers. VIII 
20, Howes Goldsborough. VIII 21, Elizabeth Rodgers. VIII 22, JOHN RODGERS (1733-1832), 
rear admiral (see No. 56). VIII 23, Minerva Denison (1784-1877), musical. VIII 24 (Proposi- 
t^^s), MATTHEW CAILBRAITH PERRY. VIII 25, (consort) Jane Slidell (born 1797), sister to VIII 
28, a very beautiful woman. Fraternity of consort: VIII 26, John Slidell (1793-1871), a states- 
man who was captured during the Civil War with his compatriot, Mason, on the Trent. VIII 27, 
Alexander Slidell Mackenzie (1803-1848), assumed the surname of his maternal uncle. At the 
age of 12 years he entered the navy and rose to the rank of commander. He had considerable 
literary ability and wrote several naval biographies. VIII 28, Julia Slidell, sister to VIII 25, 
married C. R. Perry (see also IX 9). 

IX 2, Oliver Hazard Perry (born 1815), a lieutenant in the United States navy, who re- 
signed in 1848. IX 3, Christopher Raymond Perry (born 1816), was graduated from the United 
States Military Academy, West Point. IX 4, Christopher Grant Perry (born 1812), a physician. 

IX 5, Frances Sergeant. IX 6, Elizabeth Perry (1819-1842). IX 7, Rev. Francis Vinton. IX 
8, Christopher Raymond Perry Rodgers (1819-1892), became a midshipman in 1833, distin- 
guished himself during the Civil War, and in 1874 was commissioned a rear admiral. IX 9, 
Julia Slidell (VIII 28). IX 10, John Rodgers, a captain in the United States navy. IX 11, 
George Washington Rodgers (1822-1863), a naval commander during the Civil War. IX 12, 
Alexander Perry Rodgers, who was killed at Chepultepec. IX 13, Sarah Rodgers (1831-1901). 
IX 14, Charles Pinkney (1797-1835), a diplomatist and journalist. IX 15, Edward Coate 
Pinkney (1802-1828), entered the navy when 14 years of age but resigned because of a quarrel 
with his superior officer; went to Mexico intending to join the navy, but killed a native and had 
to flee from the country. He wrote a number of exquisite poems. IX 16, Frederick Pinkney, 
journalist, poet, and attorney. IX 18, John Rodgers (1812-1882), a rear admiral. IX 19, 
Ann Elizabeth Hodge. IX 20, Frederick Rodgers. IX 21, Henry Rodgers, a lieutenant in the 
United States navy. IX 22, Augustus Frederick Rodgers, head of Coast and Geodetic Survey, 
was in the naval service. IX 23, John H. Rodgers. IX 24, William Pinkney Rodgers, a lawyer. 
IX 25, Ann Minerva Rodgers. IX 26, Col. John Navarre Macomb. IX 27, Jerusha and Eliza- 
beth Rodgers. IX 28, Louisa Rodgers. IX 29, Montgomery Meigs (1816-1892), upon being 
graduated from the United States Military Academy, West Point, was commissioned a lieutenant 
in the Engineer Corps. During the Civil War he was quartermaster general. Later he became 
an engineer and architect. IX 30, Colonel Robert S. Rodgers. Children of Propositus: IX 31, 
Sarah Perry. IX 32, Oliver Hazard Perry, a lieutenant in the United States Marines, became 
consul to Hong Kong. IX 33, Jane Hazard Perry. IX 34, John Hone. IX 35, John and Wil- 
liam Perry. IX 36, Anna and Susan Perry. IX 37, Matthew Calbraith Perry, became a mid- 
shipman in the United States navy in 1835, and rose to the rank of captain, retiring in 1867. 

IX 38, Harriet Taylor. IX 39, Caroline Slidell Perry. IX 40, August Belmont (born 1816), 
a well-known banker. IX 41, Isabella Perry. IX 42, George Tiffany. 

X 1, Thomas Sergeant Perry (born 1841), sometime editor of the North American Review. 

X 2, Lilla Cabot, an artist and author. X 3, Oliver Hazard Perry (1842-1913). X 4, Frances 
Sergeant Perry. X 5, Dr. William Pepper. X 6, John F. Rodgers, a captain in the United 
States army. X 7, Thomas Slidell Rodgers, a lieutenant in the United States navy. X 8, 
Raymond Perry, was executive officer on the Iowa throughout the Spanish American war and was 
advanced five numbers in rank for "eminent and conspicuous conduct" in the battle off Santiago; 
holds the rank of rear admiral. X 9, William Ledyard Rodgers, a commander of the United 
States navy. X 10, Fredericka and Helen Rodgers. X 11, Montgomery Meigs Macomb (born 
1852), was graduated fourth in his class from the United States Military Academy, and served 
during the Spanish American war, being created a brigadier general in 1910. X 12, Augustus 
C. Macomb, a major in the United States army. X 13, Charles and Vincent Meigs. X 14, 
John Rodgers Meigs (born 1842), was graduated at the head of his class from the United States 
Military Academy and was killed in 1864, having been advanced to captain and major for gal- 
lantry. X 15, Mary Meigs (born 1843). X 16, Colonel Joseph Taylor, United States army. 



170 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

X 17, Montgomery Meigs (born 1847), an engineer of note. X 18, Louisa Meigs (born 1854). 
X 19, Archibald Forbes, a noted English war correspondent. Children's children of Propositus: 
X 20, Frederick Rodgers (born 1842), was appointed to the United States Naval Academy in 
1857 and served with the blockading squadron during the Civil War. He had command of the 
Puritan during the Spanish-American war and was promoted rear admiral 1899. X 21, John 
Augustus Rodgers (born 1848), was appointed to the United States Naval Academy in 1863 
and saw active service during the Civil War. In 1897-1S98, as executive officer of the Indiana, 
he took part in the destruction of Cervera's fleet and was advanced five numbers in rank for 
"eminent and conspicuous service," being made rear admiral in 1898. X 23, Jane Rodgers. 
X 24, John F. Meigs. X 25, Perry Belmont (born 1851), member of Congress, envoy extraor- 
dinary and minister plenipotentiary to Spain; a major inspector general in the United States 
Volunteers; a capitalist of New York City. X 26, August Belmont (born 1853), a capitalist and 
financier. X 27, Oliver Hazard Perry Belmont (1858-1908), was educated at the United States 
Naval Academy and served in the navy two years; later a banker and politician. X 28, Freder- 
icka Belmont, born 1854. X 29, Samuel Rowland. X 30, Raymond Belmont (1866-1887). X 
31, Jane Perry Belmont (1856-1875). 

XI 1, John Taylor, a captain, United States army. XI 2, Mongtomery Meigs Taylor, 
a lieutenant, United States navy. Children's children's children of Propositus: XI 3, John 
Rodgers, a lieutenant, United States navy. 

BlBLIOGBAPHY. 

BALDWIN, J., & W. CLIFT. 1881. A Record of the Descendants of Captain George Denison 
of Stonington, Connecticut. Worcester: Tyler & Seagrave. 5 + 423 pp. 

DEAN, J., H. DROWNE, and E. HUBBARD. 1879. Genealogy of the Family of Arnold in 
Europe and America with Brief Notices. (In: New England Historical and Genea- 
logical Register for Oct. 1879.) 

GRIFFIS, W. 1880. Matthew Calbraith Perry. Boston: Houghton Mifflin & Co. xvi + 
459 pp. 

HALL, A. 1909. Biographical Memoir of John Rodgers. (Nat. Acad. of Sci. Biogr. memoirs) 
Washington. Vol. 6, pp. 81-92. 

HAZARD, C. 1895. The Hazard Family of Rhode Island. Boston: Hazard, vi + 293 pp. 

LYMAN, O. 1905. Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry. New York: Harper & Bros. 2 vols. 

MILLS, J. 1913. Oliver Hazard Perry and the battle of Lake Erie. Detroit: J. Phelps. 6 
+ 278 pp. 

NILES, J. 1821. The Life of Oliver Hazard Perry. Hartford. O. Cooke. xii + 14-384 pp. 

PATJLLIN, C. 1910. Commodore John Rodgers. Cleveland: A. Clarke & Co. 434 pp. 

PERKINS, M. 1895. Old Houses of the Ancient Town of Norwich. Norwich: Press of the 
Bulletin Co. 621 pp. 

PERRY, C. 1913. The Perrys of Rhode Island. New York. T. Wright. 7-115 pp. 

RICHARDS, G. 1833. Memoir of Alexander Macomb. New York: McElrath, Bangs & Co. 
x, 11-130 pp. 



PERRY. 



171 




172 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 



51. JOHN WOODWARD PHILIP. 

JOHN WOODWARD PHILIP was born at Kinderhook, Columbia county, New 
York, August 26, 1840. He entered the Naval Academy September 1856, and 
in July 1862 was commissioned lieutenant. Until 1865 he was executive officer 
of the Chippewa, Pawnee, and Montauk in succession, blockading the South Atlan- 
tic seaboard. After the war he was executive officer of various flagships. For 
two years he commanded a Pacific mail steamer; in April 1877 he commanded the 
Woodruff scientific expedition around the world, and for several years was assigned 
to survey work on the coast of Mexico and Central America. He was given vari- 
ous commands, was inspector of the cruiser New York while building, was for three 
years commandant of the Boston navy-yard, and in October 1897 was given com- 
mand of the battleship Texas. At the outbreak of the Spanish-American war the 
Texas went with Commodore Schley's squadron to the south coast of Cuba. In May 
1898 they lay off the entrance of Santiago harbor, and on July 3, when Cervera's 
fleet essayed to escape from the harbor, the 12-inch shells of the Texas did remark- 
able execution and the Texas was herself little damaged. At the close of the war 
Philip was made commodore and placed in command of the North Atlantic squad- 
ron. He was commandant of the Brooklyn navy-yard from 1899 until his death 
the next year. 

Philip was prevailingly of the nervous type of temperament, with little tendency 
to repress his emotions. "As a boy he was full of pranks; was in all the devilry 
in a mild form which his mates indulged in chalking the teacher's rush-bottomed 
chair, freezing up the academy bell so that it couldn't be rung, shooting beans 
from the back of a large hall at the time of an 'exhibition' of compositions and 
recitals at the Academy. With a deep-seated belief in democracy, he caught a 
long-haired son of a rich family and filled his hair with burrs, so that the hair had 
to be cut off. While still in his kilts he would fight his brother at family prayers. 
At the Academy he led a hazing party that tarred and feathered an unpopular 
midshipman. His humor was irrepressible. At the Naval Academy he would 
get his section laughing while he sat stolid; he received demerits almost daily 
for loud laughing in the mess-hall. Indeed, in his course, he received more than 
the maximum of demerit marks, mostly for loud laughing, smoking a pipe, or 
endeavoring to cover the shortcomings of others." 

His initiative was shown when at 8 years of age his father sent him to drive 
a horse and carriage to an adjoining town. When but a short distance from home 
a wheel of the carriage broke down. Instead of returning home he unhitched 
the horse, got on his back, went on to a smithy, ordered the wheel repaired, rode 
on to fulfil his errand and on returning picked up the repaired vehicle. As a young 
lieutenant, left in charge of the ship off Havana harbor, which the captain thought 
wise not to try to enter because of adverse winds, he brought the ship into the 
harbor. As an executive officer he was remarkably successful in obtaining favor 
and respect of his commanding officers. 

He was honorable. Even as a boy he paid for the pane of glass in a neigh- 
bor's house which he accidentally broke with a stone. He resented having his 
word doubted. 

He early had a nomadic tendency. As a boy he wrote on the flyleaf of a book: 
'Would I were a missionary." 



PHILIP. 



173 



He was quick in response in an emergency. In the battle off Santiago the 
Texas was chasing the Spanish ships when the Brooklyn emerged out of the smoke 
right ahead. He instantly ordered "full speed astern," which prevented the 
collision. 

He was full of sympathy, as when in the battle the Vizcaya of Cervera's fleet 
blew up on the beach and the men on the Texas started to cheer, Captain Philip 
held out his hand and said: "Don't cheer, men; those poor fellows are dying!" 
His emotional output is illustrated by the incident that when the battle was over 
he called all hands aft and invited those who felt so inclined to stand bareheaded 
and offer silent thanks to God. At the Brooklyn navy-yard Philip was interested 
in developing the Young Men's Christian Association. 

Of relatives of Philip we have secured little information. One of his sons 
entered the naval service. His father, John Henry Philip, received instruction at 
the Troy Polytechnic Institute and after studying medicine at Vermont Medical 
College practiced medicine in Columbia county. A great-grandfather, George 
Philip, was a captain in the American army during the Revolution and served 
as commissary of subsistence. The mother's father was Dr. Theodore Woodward, 
professor of surgery at Vermont Medical College. 



FAMILY HISTORY OF JOHN WOODWARD PHILIP. 

I 1 (F F F), George Philip (died 1806, aged 54), was a captain in the 
American army during the Revolutionary war and served as commissary 
of subsistence. 12 (F F M), Jane Ostrander. 

Ill (FF), John G. Philip (1783-1834). 113 (M F), Theodore 
Woodward, was one of the founders as well as professor of surgery at the 
Castleton Medical College, Castleton, Vermont. 

III 1 (F), John Henry Philip (born 1811), practiced medicine. Ill 
2 (M), Woodward. 

IV 1 (Propositus} , JOHN W. PHILIP. 

Children of Propositus: V 1, Woodrow Philip, a midshipman in the 
navy. V 2, Barrett Philip. 




IV 



V 



MACLAY, E. S. 1903. 
280 pp. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 
Life and Adventures of Jack Philip. New York: Illustrated Navy. 



174 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

52. ARTHUR PHILLIP. 

ARTHUR PHILLIP was born in London, October 11, 1738. At 13 years of age 
he was sent to Greenwich school; at 17 he was bound to the ship Fortune, serving 
under Captain Everet; and at 23 was a lieutenant. In 1763 he married and 
settled down as a country gentleman and farmer. When Portugal, in 1775, went 
to war with Spain, he offered his services and organized the Portuguese fleet, 
but resigned hi 1778, after having given services that were highly appreciated. 
In 1787 he was commissioned captain general and governor in chief of New South 
Wales and took 600 male and 180 female convicts to Botany Bay. As governor 
he displayed energy and wisdom, 1788-1792. In 1814, shortly before his death, 
he was made admiral. 

Phillip was an organizer and administrator. He invariably knew how to go 
about the work in hand and had confidence in his ability to complete it. In start- 
ing on his voyage which led to the foundation of Australia, he suggested that a 
ship be sent to the Friendly Islands to bring the breadfruit plant and women to 
Australia. He strongly recommended marriage among the convicts, of whom 
he took both sexes. Later he urged free immigration, saying: "I would not wish 
convicts to lay the foundations of an empire." 

He made few personal friendships, and would shrink from, if not abhor, talking 
or writing about himself, even to his relatives. During his long exile in Australia 
he never alluded to his family, with whom he could communicate only at long 
intervals. He left no children. Little is known about his family. His father 
was born in Frankfurt, Germany, and taught languages in England. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

BECKE, L., and W. JEFFREY. 1899. Admiral Phillip. New York: Longmans, Green & Co. 
xxx + 336 pp. 



PORTER. 175 

53. PORTER FAMILY. 

DAVID DIXON PORTER was born at Chester, Pennsylvania, in 1813. He served 
with his father (David 2d) when 11 years old in a cruise against the West Indian 
pirates. At the age of 13 he received a midshipman's commission from Mexico and 
served with credit under his father throughout her war with Spam. Having been 
captured by a Spanish frigate, the lad was taken to Havana, guarded for a time, 
and then released. In February 1829 he was commissioned a midshipman in the 
United States navy. For 12 years he was on the Mediterranean and the United 
States Coast Survey. The Mexican war gave Lieutenant Porter a better oppor- 
tunity to show his valor. As captain of the Spitfire he took part in the actions at 
Vera Cruz and Tuxpan. After the war he commanded mail steamers plying 
between New York and Panama. He once entered Havana harbor against the 
prohibition of the Spanish government and defied the guns of Morro Castle, which 
were not fired upon him. On the breaking out of the Civil War, Porter was assigned 
to the command of the Powhatan and ordered to secure Fort Pickens, Pensacola, 
to the Union, and this he did. While blockading the mouth of the Mississippi 
river, the idea of capturing New Orleans came to him and, after it had been accepted 
by the Navy department, he cooperated with Farragut in carrying it out, and 
ran by Fort Jackson and Fort St. Philip, which defended New Orleans on the 
river. Later, Porter bombarded the Vicksburg forts from the river while Farra- 
gut passed them. In September 1862 he was made acting rear admiral and given 
command of the Mississippi squadron, which aided in an important way the fall 
of Vicksburg. Toward the end of 1864 he captured Fort Fisher the main one of 
the defenses of Wilmington, North Carolina, after the general commanding the 
land forces had concluded it was impregnable. After the war Porter was made 
vice admiral and succeeded to the rank of admiral on Farragut's death in 1870. 
From 1865 to 1869 he was superintendent of the United States Naval Academy. 
He wrote a life of his father, the "History of the Navy in the War of the Rebellion" 
(1887), two novels, anecdotes of the war, and numerous essays; he greatly prized 
his novels. He died at Washington, February 13, 1891. He married, in 1839, 
Georgia Ann, daughter of Commodore Daniel Tod Patterson, who commanded 
the naval forces cooperating with General Jackson at the battle of New Orleans, 
and sister of Captain Carlisle P. Patterson, superintendent of the United States 
Coast Survey (1874-1881). They had 4 sons: Major Essex Porter, United States 
army, retired; Captain Carlisle P. Porter, of the United States marine corps; 
Lieutenant Theodoric Porter, born in 1849, graduate of the United States Naval 
Academy, United States navy; and Richard Porter. They had also 2 daughters, 
the elder the wife of Captain Leavitt C. Logan, United States army, and the 
younger the wife of Charles H. Campbell. 

Some of the Porter traits which were responsible for his achievements were: 

Nomadism. As a child, contact with naval men who visited his father 
roused a desire to go to sea, and he was at sea most of his life from the age of 10 
years. 

Love of adventure. This alone could lead a boy to court the dangers of naval 
warfare at the age of 16 years. 

Intrepidity. When he challenged Rowan to a duel he was fearless of conse- 
quences. His plans to capture the fort at San Juan, to reduce Forts Jackson and 
St. Philip before Vicksburg, and to capture Fort Fisher, were made with con- 



176 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

sideration of the requirements of each case but undeterred by the tremendous 
personal danger involved. As his biographer says, there was "in him an entire 
absence of bodily fear." 

Porter was a marked hyperkinetic. He was "self-confident, self-reliant, 
filled with the courage of his convictions" 1 (p. 48). He had "an irrepressible 
good humor, a positive exhilaration of spirits, at tunes an almost boyish jocu- 
larity." 2 He had a jesting, easy way of taking the most perilous situations. 3 His 
was a curious vein of humor, almost sardonic in its character, never malicious, 
but rising at times to the level of an impish audacity. 4 He had a boyish fondness 
for skylarking which he never entirely outgrew. Perhaps the most compre- 
hensive term to describe in a word his peculiar temperament is buoyancy. He 
was never discouraged. No matter how bad the conditions, no matter how much 
circumstances seemed to make against him, his spirits rose in adversity and carried 
him lightly over what would have been to other men the most dismal prospects 
of disaster. 6 He had an impulsive frankness of expression which not infrequently 
carried him beyond the bounds of prudence. He always had a ready command 
of expletive which he did not hesitate to use. 6 

"He was, in his youth, full of alertness and dash." There was about him all 
his life a certain quality, "lawless or dare-devil " - - that went far to make the strong 
personality of the future admiral. 7 Porter's bold plans were conceived by a mind 
"essentially original, lawless, dare-devil." 8 

"In temperament Porter was restless, eager, energetic. He had the mental 
make-up of a born fighter, of an officer who finds his true opportunity only in war 
and in struggle, who before and during the contest had but one idea to whip 
the enemy and who bends all his ingenuity and resource, all his mental and 
physical force to that end without too much regard to the risk of consequences 
either to himself, his ship, or his men. He was not only alert and daring in battle, 
but he had the temperament which makes the battle everything for the moment, 
and which seems to develop instantly within the man who has all the qualities of 
mind and heart that the battle demands." 9 "The actual moments of fighting 
have for him an uncommon zest which showed itself plainly in his high spirits and 
more intense mental activity." 10 

Like most hyperkinetics, Porter was very attractive to others. All of the 
officers who served under him showed a personal devotion to him. 11 It is said 
that, among other things, "his directness of speech, his independence of routine 
and contempt for red tape, and last, but perhaps not least, his strong vein of boy- 
ish humor, which he never took pains to repress all attracted the President." 12 

His books, which he seemed impelled to write, were not of "any marked 
importance, for the admiral was not a man of letters but a man of action, and 
he had no faculty of literary construction or expression." 13 

Executive ability. - - Porter had not only dash but also self-control enough to 
plan and carry out details. "But that which distinguished him from others was 
that ... he had to an uncommon degree those qualities of independent judg- 
ment, boldness, energy, and tenacity combined with a rapid and instinctive stra- 

1 Soley, 1903, p. 48. Ibid., p. 472. 8 Ibid., p. 59. u Ibid., p. 258. 

* Ibid., p. 474. Ibid., p. 476. Ibid., p. 63. Ibid., p. 232. 

' Ibid., p. 478. Ibid., p. 40. 10 Ibid., p. 475. l3 Ibid., p. 463. 
Ibid., p. 476. 



PORTER. 177 

tegic perception which mark the greatest of naval commanders. In addition, he 
had a certain mental habit, rarely found in its full development in such an eager 
and original nature, but almost equally impressive in ship life, of careful and 
exact attention to important details of preparation. . . . He was not fussy 
or overminute, and he was never tied down by any preconceived theories as to the 
use of a particular instrument or agency where any other would do as well; but he 
looked narrowly into the conditions that were to confront him and took care 
to be ready to meet them." l 

As an organizer he was superior. "His two great objects were celerity and 
efficiency. He cared very little about methods. He had a perfect sense of logical 
proportion in the affairs with which he was dealing; and whether large or small, 
provided they were important, he could give them the attention they deserved. 
This faculty of taking in the whole of a large field of view at a single glance and at 
the same time giving minute application to essential details was characteristic of 
all of Porter's work, whether he was dealing with questions of organization or 
with the larger problems of strategy in the conduct of actual operations." 

The combination of executive ability and hyperkinetic dash was a fortunate 
one. "It is in these moments of battle that we see Porter at his best, for here we 
find in its fullest development that extraordinary combination of a cool and even 
professional judgment, operating with arrow-like swiftness and precision in direct- 
ing his entire force, with a most intense physical energy and activity." 3 

Literary impulses. These were, as we have seen, strong, though the product 
was not of high grade and lacked finish. His father wrote two books. 

DAVID PORTER (David 2d) was born at Boston, February 1, 1780. At the 
age of 18 he was appointed midshipman on the frigate Constellation and received 
award for his services when that vessel fought L'Insurgente* 1799. He was com- 
missioned lieutenant in 1800, was assigned to the schooner Experiment, and fought 
West Indian pirates. He was active in the naval battles against Tripoli, was 
captured with the Philadelphia 6 and imprisoned in Tripoli until the close of the 
war (1805). In 1808, as commander, he succeeded his father as sailing-master 
at the New Orleans naval station. In July 1811 he was assigned to the command 
of the frigate Essex, 32 guns, which, at the outbreak of the War of 1812, set out 
with orders to pursue British ships. On August 13, the Essex captured the 
Alert. Porter decided to take his ship to the Pacific and destroy the British whal- 
ing interests there. During the year 1813 he captured numerous British whalers, 
several of which he equipped for fighting, and added them to his fleet. British 
frigates having been sent to seize him, he put into the Marquesas Islands for 
repairs, was led to slaughter the Typee villagers, and then set sail for Valparaiso, 
arriving there January 1814. Here he was "bottled up" by the British frigate 
Phcebe, 36 guns, accompanied by the sloop-of-war Cherub (20 guns). He even- 
tually engaged them both, but the range of the enemy's guns were greater than his 
own and, as his own ship had lost its maintop in a storm, he could not get near 
enough to the enemy to inflict damage. When only 75 of his crew of 225 were 
left effective for duty and his ship was on fire he surrendered to save the lives of 
the wounded. The survivors returned home hi one of the captured whalers, 
under parole. Off Sandy Hook they were held up by a British frigate, but Porter 
rowed ashore to Long Island in a whaleboat at night to avoid parleying with the 

1 Soley, 1903, pp. 93, 94. Ibid., p. 471. 6 Ibid., pp. 24, 58, 109, 185. 

1 Ibid., p. 468. Ibid., p. 187. 



178 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

British captain. For eight years (1815-1823) Porter was on the board of naval 
commissioners, and then resigned. From 1824 he had charge of a fleet for sup- 
pressing piracy in the West Indies. Considering the nation insulted by a certain 
incident at Porto Rico, he demanded a prompt apology, was found guilty of a 
breach of international law, and, feeling outraged, resigned his commission. In 
August 1826 he became commander in chief of the Mexican navy; he served through 
the Spanish-Mexican war and then returned to the United States. He served in 
diplomatic posts in the Barbary States and Constantinople, where he died in 1843. 

The traits of David Porter which were related to his achievements were: 

Love of sea. At an early age the boy displayed the restless energy which 
ever afterwards characterized him. As he grew in years he developed a fondness 
for a sea life. His desires were abundantly satisfied in his early career. But 
serving on the board of navy commissioners was not to his taste. "Captain 
Porter's restless nature would not permit him to sit quietly in an office, attending 
to ministerial affairs. Before he had been a year on the board of commissioners 
he began to weary of the work." 

He was hyperkinetic. As a boy he indulged in "madcap pranks," for being 
a boy of ungovernable spirits he was always getting into scrapes which frequently 
caused him much inconvenience. 1 "As a young naval officer his spirits never 
flagged; he was impulsive and sometimes too severe, but his impulsiveness was 
tempered by a generous spirit." His temper was very quick and he would flash 
up like powder at anything he considered in the least insulting or showing a want 
of respect towards him. While a midshipman, he was called by an abusive name 
by the drunken officer of the deck; Porter knocked him down. It was only in 
trifles that he lost his self-control. Under great provocation he often maintained 
command of his temper. He was fond of practical jokes. 

There was an artistic element in David Porter. He made sketches on his 
cruise on the Essex and some of these were published in his account of the cruise. 
This esthetic appeal showed itself in a fondness for horses 2 that led him to pur- 
chase some fine Arabians; also, he was a great admirer of female beauty. 3 

Obstinacy is a marked trait. In a desperate encounter on the Experiment, 
in which the captain gave up his ship for lost, Lieutenant Porter took command 
himself, ignoring his superior, and fought the battle to a successful issue. Off 
Valparaiso he fought, in the Essex, two British vessels, though his maintop had 
been carried off by a storm. Porter returned their fire "with so great effect as 
to compel his enemies to retire for repairs; but the Phoebe, on returning to the 
action, opened on him with her long-range guns from a point beyond his carron- 
ades. Porter saw that his only hope now lay in the desperate chance of boarding 
the larger of his adversaries, and with this hope bore down on her with the little 
sail he could still carry, but the Englishmen kept steadily away, and the Essex, 
hulled at almost every shot, became a helpless wreck, filled with dead and wounded 
seamen." He planned to run her ashore and blow her up, but adverse winds pre- 
vented. "Still he made another effort to board, only to subject himself to repeated 
raking, then let go his sheet anchor to bring his broadside to bear again, only to part 
with his hawsers in the effort, and kept up a steady cannonade until his ship was on 
fire, his boats shot away and but 75 men out of 225 left for effective duty." "His 
obstinate bravery won the enthusiastic admiration and respect of all his foes." 4 

1 Porter, 1875, p. 11. Ibid., p. 411. 

* Ibid., p. 408. 4 National Cyclopedia of American Biography, ii, p. 99. 



PORTER. 179 

DAVID PORTER senior was bred to the sea. He commanded the sloop Delight 
(6 guns),. detailed in 1778 to intercept British supply-ships; later he commanded 
the Aurora (10 guns), with the rank of captain. He was captured and confined 
in the prison-ship Jersey, on which his brother Samuel was confined and died. 
David made his escape and continued his active cruising to the end of the war. 
He then commanded a ship in the West India trade. Once in Santo Domingo 
his ship was boarded by a British press-gang. "Porter armed his men and after 
a short and sharp struggle drove the intruders from the ship with considerable 
loss." "His courage and spirit on this occasion were rewarded by an appoint- 
ment as sailing-master in the reconstructed navy." He spent his declining years 
at the naval station at New Orleans, of which his son had command. He died 
in 1808. 

In David Porter senior we see the same love of the sea, the same quickness in 
an emergency that are found in his son and grandson. Obstinacy showed in him, 
also. The love of the sea goes back on the male line to Alexander Porter, father 
of David, senior, who was a merchant captain and served in the colonial wars. 

Obstinacy and audacity are seen also in Captain David H. Porter (VI 1), 
son of David 2d's sister Anne, who married her cousin, Alexander Porter. David 
H. Porter was a most capable naval officer who accompanied David senior, his 
uncle, to Mexico and was given command of the Esmeralda, in which raider David 
Porter 2d was placed. The Mexican crew mutinied, but Lieutenant David 
H. handled the situation well with stern discipline. In a second expedition, when 
compelled to retire before a superior force, Captain David H. was planning with 
"the stubborn tenacity which he possessed in common with the rest of his family, 
an audacity that was little less than sheer recklessness," to give the slip to his 
pursuer and return for his quarry. But his ship was overtaken and he was killed 
while in action. 

FAMILY HISTORY OF DAVID DIXON PORTER. 

I 1 (F F F), Alexander Porter (born 1727), was a merchant and a captain who served in 
the colonial wars. 

Fraternity of F F: II 1, Samuel Porter, was bred to the sea and sought active service at 
the outbreak of the Revolutionary war. He was captured and confined on the prison-ship 
Jersey, where he died from his wounds. II 4 (F F), David Porter (died 1808), was bred to the 
sea; in 1780 he was commissioned a captain in the State navy of Massachusetts (see text). II 6, 
William Anderson, born Chester county, Pennsylvania, 1763, at the age of 15 joined the Con- 
tinental army and served 5 years. He held various political offices and in 1809 was elected to 
Congress, retaining his seat till 1815. Ill 7, Elizabeth Dixon, of Virginia. 

III 1, Alexander Porter. Fraternity of F: III 2, Anne Porter. Ill 4, Mary Porter. Ill 
5, Brown. Ill 6, John Porter, entered the United States navy in 1806 and died a com- 
mander in 1831. Ill 8 (F), David Porter (1780-1843) (see text). Ill 9 (M), Evelina Anderson. 
Fraternity of M: III 10, Thomas Anderson, "something of a fire-eater" (quarrelsome); had a 
strong sense of humor. Ill 11 (consort's F), D. J. Patterson, a commodore in the navy. 

IV 1, David H. Porter, a lieutenant in the Mexican navy who was killed in action (see 
text). IV 2, John R. Brown, a diplomat at Constantinople. IV 3, Fitz-John Porter (born 
1822), entered the United States Military Academy, and served with distinction through the 
Mexican and Civil Wars, rising to the rank of general. IV 4, Bolton Porter, a midshipman, 
was lost at sea. Fraternity of Propositus: IV 5, Evelina Porter. IV 6, Captain Harris Heap. 
IV 7, Imogene Porter. IV 8, - -Harris. IV 9, William D. Porter (1810-1865), served through- 
out his life in the navy. During the Civil War he commanded the Essex and distinguished himself 
in the capture of the Arkansas. He died as a result of his injuries. IV 10, Theodoric Porter, 
was the first officer killed in battle during the Mexican war. He was a lieutenant in the Fourth 
Infantry and was killed after volunteering to search for another officer. IV 11, Thomas Porter, 
entered the Mexican navy and died of yellow fever while a midshipman. IV 12, Henry Ogden 



180 



HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 



Porter, also entered the navy. He was executive officer of the Hatteras when she was sunk by 
the Alabama. He died of his wounds in 1869. IV 13, Hambleton Porter, died of yellow fever 
when a passed midshipman in the home squadron. IV 14 (Propositus) , DAVID DIXON PORTER. 
IV 15 (consort) Georgia Ann Patterson. Fraternity of Consort: IV 16, Carlile Patterson, entered 
the navy, but left it to engage in the United States Coast Survey, of which he became head. 



a 12 




Children of Propositus: V 2, Captain L. C. Logan, United States navy. V 3, Essex Porter, 
a major in the United States army. V 4, C. P. Porter, served in the United States marine corps. 
V 5, Richard Porter. V 7, Charles H. Campbell. V 8, Theodoric Porter (born 1849), was 
graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1869. He rose to the rank of commodore 
and retired in 1908. He served 43 years in the United States navy, 20 years being spent at sea. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

JOHNSON, W. 1883. Historical Sketch of Chester, on Delaware. Chester: Republican Steam 

Printing House, vi + 336 pp. 
PORTER, D. 1875. Memoir of Commodore David Porter of the United States Navy. Albany: 

J. Munsell. ix + 427 pp. 
SOLEY, J. R. 1903. Admiral Porter. New York: D. Appleton & Co. vii + 499 pp. 



PREBLE. 181 

54. EDWARD PREBLE. 

EDWARD PREBLE was born at Falmouth, Maine, August 15, 1761. He was 
blessed from boyhood with a vigorous constitution and was little inclined to seden- 
tary amusements. His leisure hours of youth were devoted to hunting and other 
active exercise and he was very skillful with a gun. Thus on one occasion he 
brought down five sparrows singly at successive shots. He was sent to Dummer 
Academy to be fitted for college, but close study was not adapted to his temper- 
ament. He left school and worked for a time on his father's farm, until one day 
he suddenly threw down his hoe, declaring he would do no more such work, and, 
trudging afoot to Falmouth, he entered at the age of 16 on board a privateer. 
Thus he realized a desire he had long expressed - - to go to sea. In 1779 his father 
procured for him a midshipman's warrant in the Massachusetts State marine. 
He made several cruises in the ship Protector, in one of which she was captured 
by the British and Preble was confined for a time in the prison-ship Jersey, but 
eventually released through the intervention of a friend at New York. As first 
lieutenant he entered on board the sloop of war Winthrop, under Captain George 
Little, and distinguished himself by capturing, in Penobscot harbor, an armed 
English brig more powerful than his own vessel. After the war he visited various 
parts of the world and resided in foreign countries as agent of an American com- 
mercial house. In 1798 he was commissioned lieutenant and the following year 
captain. In 1803 he took command of a squadron of six vessels, of which the 
Constitution was the flagship, and set out to protect American commerce from 
the attacks of the Barbary States. The Sultan of Morocco readily yielded to the 
display of force and firmness of Preble, and he next turned to Tripoli and sent 
the Philadelphia and Vixen to blockade its coast. In chasing an enemy vessel the 
Philadelphia unfortunately ran aground in the harbor of Tripoli and was seized 
by the enemy, who took her into the inner harbor and made her officers and men 
prisoners. Through the intrepidity of Stephen Decatur, jr., who entered the 
harbor and fired the ship, the capture of the Philadelphia was rendered of little 
avail. The following summer Preble bombarded Tripoli with such destruction 
of the Tripolitan navy lying there that negotiations for peace were begun; but the 
terms offered not appearing suitable to Preble, he prepared for a second assault 
and subsequent attacks were made. Before satisfactory terms were definitely 
arranged Preble was relieved of his command by Commodore Barren, who arranged 
the treaty that provided for mutual exchange of prisoners and waived further 
payment of tribute the terms originally set by Preble. On returning home 
Preble was offered the secretaryship of the navy, but failing health led him to 
decline. He died in 1807. 

Edward Preble was a large man, over 6 feet tall, and of striking figure. His 
manners were polished and courtly and his address pleasant. His naval operations 
against the Barbary States were comprehensive, direct, and sufficient. "He acted 
upon the principle that 'the boldest measures are the safest." He had an "un- 
governable temper, yet had the rare faculty of making and retaining friends." 
He was a good disciplinarian and no feuds arose among his officers. 

Preble married Mary Deering (1770-1851), whose father, Nathaniel Deering 
(1739-1795), of Kittery, Maine, was a boat-builder and shipped merchandise 
after the war. They had a son, Edward Deering Preble (1806-1846), who is said 
to have had a predilection for the sea, but his mother opposed his desires in this 



182 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

respect. He graduated from Bowdoin College in 1825, indulged in literary pur- 
suits, and traveled much in foreign countries. On his final return home he was 
frequently a member of the city government, and commanded the Portland rifle 
corps. Courteous, like his father, he rather shunned society. He married Sophia 
Wattles, of Alexandria, Virginia. Their son, Edward Ernest, born 1842, entered 
the United States navy as midshipman 1859 ; he was navigator of the United States 
steam sloop Kearsarge when she met and defeated the Alabama; was lieutenant 
on the Susquehanna at the capture of Fort Fisher; was lieutenant commander 
1866, and in 1870 in the Pacific squadron. 

Of Edward Preble's sibs there are: (1) Martha, married to Thomas Oxnard, 
a man who was fonder of study and meditation than of action, but all of whose 
sons were seamen and two were privateersmen. (2) Ebenezer, a merchant. (3) 
Joshua, about whom little is known. (4) Enoch, who began his trading voyages 
at the age of 16 and went to all the countries touching the Atlantic. He held 
many positions of trust and honor after he abandoned the sea at the age of 61 
years. He was prudent, discreet, temperate in habits, and physically strong and 
healthy. He married Sally Cross and had two sons; the elder, Eben (1802-1845), 
had a great predilection for the sea, but his father discouraged it. He was a 
merchant all his life. He also had a natural taste for drawing, especially ships. 
The younger son was George Henry (1816-1885), who entered the navy, partici- 
pated actively in the Mexican and Civil wars, and was a man of ripe scholarship, 
a lover of books, and an author of several historical works. (5) Statira, who mar- 
ried Captain Richard Codman and had two sons who died young. (6) Henry, 
who (1770-1825) went repeatedly from the United States to Paris and went to 
Italy intending to open a mercantile house in Tuscany, but abandoned the plan. 
Subsequently he opened houses in various cities of France. He suffered financial 
losses and plunged into deep melancholy. He was United States consul at Palermo 
and first United States commercial agent to Turkey. He visited Algiers, Tunis, 
Tripoli, and other ports. He had the family taste for drawing and painting. 
He married Frances Wright and had two daughters, both with artistic talent, 
and a son, Edward, who died at the age of 20 years of tuberculosis, having planned 
to be a merchant. The younger daughter, Frances, married Thomas Barlow, 
secretary to the United States legation to France, and both of their sons were 
nomadic. Of the elder, Francis Joel Barlow, it is said he had "the Preble roving 
tendency." He wished to be a surgeon in the navy. He died in Australia, at the 
age of 26 years. The younger son, Frederick (1830-1864), was a clerk on river 
boats, entered the United States navy as engineer, and was eventually drowned 
in the sinking by a torpedo of the monitor Tecumseh as she attempted to enter 
Mobile bay at the van of Farragut's squadron. 

The foregoing family history is instructive, inasmuch as the sons of Martha, 
the sister of Edward and Frances, the daughter of Henry Preble the nomad, are 
markedly nomadic. The son of Enoch Preble and Sally Cross became, it is true, 
a rear admiral, but we know little about the mother's family. Edward Preble's 
son was nomadic, but this son's mother's father was a navigator. 

Attention is called to the artistic and literary faculty in the Prebles. Doubt- 
less, the "call of the sea" is often a keen appeal to an artistic sense. 

For the origin of the Preble traits we look to the father, Jedediah, sailing- 
master and brigadier general, who had a violent temper like his son Edward; 
and to the mother's father, Joshua Bangs, who was a shipmaster. Jedediah 



PREBLE. 



183 



married a second time, Martha Junkins, about whose parents nothing is known, 
and 3 of their 4 sons were at sea and the other was an Indian interpreter and soldier. 
A grandson became a religious paranoiac. 



FAMILY HISTORY OF EDWARD PREBLE. 

Fraternity of M F: I 1, Edward Bangs (1694-1756), was a shipmaster and merchant of 
much enterprise. I 2 (M F), Joshua Bangs (born Brewster, Massachusetts, 1691), settled in 
Falmouth, Maine, in 1735, where he was a shipmaster and merchant who held many town offices. 
I 3 (M M), Mehitable Clarke (1686-1761). 



,6 ^7 



n 



nr 




II 1 (consort's F), Nathaniel Deering (born Kittery, Maine in 1739 and died in 1795), 
was a boat-builder. II 2 (consort's M), Dorcas Milk, of Falmouth, Maine. II 3 (M), Mehitable 
Bangs, a bustling, energetic woman, "fully alive and attentive to the interests and business of 
her husband." She died of apoplexy in 1805. II 4 (F), Jedediah Preble (born at York, 
Maine, 1707), held a captain's commission in 1746, and was commissioned lieutenant colonel 
of a regiment that took part in the expedition to the eastern frontiers of the province. He accom- 
panied the expedition that removed the French Acadians, and finally held the rank of brigadier 
general. He is reputed to have been the first to ascend to the summit of Mount Washington. 

II 5, Martha Junkins. II 6, Samuel Barlow, a farmer. 

III 1 (consort), Mary Deering (1770-1851). Ill 2 (Propositus), EDWARD PREBLE. Fra- 
ternity of Propositus: III 3, Martha Preble (1754-1824). Ill 4, Thomas Oxnard (born in Boston, 
1740), was, until the outbreak of the Revolution, a collector of customs in Maine. In 1787 he 
officiated as reader of the Episcopal church but eventually he became a Unitarian clergyman 
(see text). Ill 5, Ebenezer Preble (1757-1817), was a distinguished merchant of Boston. Ill 
6, Joshua Preble (1759-1803). Ill 7, Enoch Preble (1763-1842), a shipmaster and office holder. 

III 8, Sally Cross. Ill 9, Statira Preble (1767-1796). Ill 10, Captain Richard Codman. 
Ill 11, Henry Preble (1770-1825), made numerous trading voyages. Ill 12, Frances Wright, 
married during the French revolution, when a young English girl in a convent school. Ill 13, 
Jedediah Preble (1734-1782), died from the effects of a shipwreck. Ill 14, Samuel Preble, died 
in the West Indies. Ill 15, John Preble, (1742-1787), was an Indian interpreter who was lieu- 
tenant colonel of the St. John's Expedition of 1777. Ill 16, William Preble went to sea and was 
never heard from again. Ill 17, Lucy Preble, born 1744. Ill 18, Jonathan Webb, of Boston. 
Ill 19, Joel Barlow (1754-1812), served in skirmishes of the Revolutionary war, and became 
a brigade chaplain. He then took up the study of law and followed literary pursuits, becoming 
quite renowned as a poet. In 1795 he was consul at Algiers and in 1811 minister plenipotentiary 
to France. 

Child of Propositus: IV 1, Edward Deering Preble (1806-1846). IV 2, Sophia Wattles, of 
Alexandria, Virginia. IV 3, Thomas Oxnard (born 1775), commanded, in the War of 1812, the 
celebrated privateer, True Blooded Yankee, which created havoc in the English Channel. He 
engaged in mercantile pursuits in France. IV 4, Edward Oxnard (born 1777), was lost in the 
privateer Dash, which foundered at sea in the War of 1812. IV 5, Ebenezer Oxnard (born 1782), 



184 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

died in Demerara, 1800. IV 6, John Oxnard (born 1785), was lost at sea in 1812. IV 7, Martha 
Oxnard (1786-1860). IV 8, Mary Oxnard (1787-1796). IV 9, Henry Oxnard (1789-1843), at 
the age of 15 years became a mariner, and later in the double capacity of master and supercargo 
made numerous voyages about the world. He finally established himself in Boston, where he be- 
came a large ship-owner and builder. IV 10, Charlotte Farnham. IV 11, Eben Preble (1802-1845) 
(see text). IV 12, Adeline Preble (born 1805), was interested in church work and philanthropy. 
IV 13, Ellen Bangs Preble (1808-1867), had the family talent for drawing and painting. IV 14, 
George Henry Preble (1816-1885), served during the Mexican war as executive officer of the 
Petrel. In the Civil War aided in the capture of New Orleans and was in active service through- 
out most of the war. He was promoted to the rank of rear admiral in 1876. IV 15, Susan Cox. 
IV 16, Harriet Preble (1795-1854), had considerable linguistic, literary, musical, and artistic 
talent. IV 17, Edward Henry Preble (1805-1826), a very promising youth with a superabun- 
dance of animal spirits, who broke down his health by overstudy. He had considerable musical 
and artistic talent. IV 18, Frances Arnica Preble (born 1797), was of a lively disposition, with 
a talent for drawing, but she never liked traveling. She enjoyed books of travel and history. 

IV 19, Thomas Barlow (1784-1859), was adopted by his uncle, Joel Barlow, and was his secretary 
at Paris. 

Children of child of Proposilus: V 1, Mary Preble (1834-1835). V 2, Mary A. Preble, 
born 1835. V 3, Edgar Tucker. V 4, Alice Preble, born 1839. V 5, William H. Anderson, 
a paymaster, United States navy, who later became governor of Maine. V 6, Edward Preble 
(born 1842), of the United States navy. V 7, Mehitable Oxnard, born 1791. V 8, Enoch Oxnard 
(1793-1812), was lost at sea. V 9, Stephen Oxnard (born 1795), was captain of a merchantman 
sailing out of Portland. V 10, Anna Maria Gracie. V 11, Henry Oxnard Preble (born 1847), 
was captain's clerk on the United States sloop-of-war St. Louis during the Civil War. He 
became assistant professor of chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. V 13, George 
Henry Preble, bora 1859. V 14, Francis Emma Barlow (1818-1845). V 15, Hugh Wilson. 

V 16, Arnica Barlow (born 1821), had artistic talent. V 17, John D. Chambers. V 18, Harriet 
Barlow (1824-1827). V 19, Francis Joel Barlow (1828-1854) "dreamed of the navy"; went 
to Australia. V 20, Frederick Stephen Barlow (1830-1864), an engineer in the navy during the 
Civil War. He volunteered on the monitor Tccumseh and was drowned when she sank in Mobile 
bay. 

VI 1, Stephen Oxnard (1823-1840), was captain of a merchantman. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

DUDLEY, D. 1896. History and Genealogy of the Bangs Family in America. 360 pp. 
PREBLE, G. H. 1868. Genealogical Sketch of the First Three Generations of Prebles in America. 
Boston: D. Clapp & Son. iv + 336 pp. 



RALEIGH. 185 

55. WALTER RALEIGH. 

WALTER RALEIGH was born in 1552 in Devonshire, between Exmouth and 
Sidmouth. He attended Oxford for one year and there showed proficiency in 
oratory and philosophy. He left Oxford in 1566 for the French wars in a company, 
led by his cousin Henry Champernoun, that was supporting the Huguenot cause, 
and he remained there 5 or 6 years. He was almost certainly in Paris at the 
time of the massacre on St. Bartholomew's eve in 1572. In 1578, as captain of 
the Falcon, he accompanied his half-brother, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, on an expe- 
dition to find the northwest passage, but this failed because of internal dissen- 
sions. Impoverished, he sought to rehabilitate his fortunes at the court and 
attached himself to the queen's favorite. He also entered the Irish service, advo- 
cated a ruthless policy, and recommended assassination as a means of getting 
rid of the Irish leaders. Returning to England, he became a favorite and lover 
of Queen Elizabeth. He now put into operation a plan he had long cherished - 
that of colonizing the American continent from crowded London. Accordingly, 
Sir Humphrey Gilbert was sent with a colony to St. John's, Newfoundland, in 
1583. In the following year Raleigh ordered two captains, Armadas and Barlowe, 
to explore the east coast of North America, and in 1585, he sent out his first colony, 
which settled for a time on Roanoke island and on their return brought with them 
the tobacco plant. Colonies were sent out in the two following years, but they 
also failed. In 1588 he was serving as vice admiral in looking after the coast de- 
fenses of Devon. In 1592 he was at sea with a fleet to intercept the Spanish trade. 
In 1595 he undertook a voyage of exploration, gold-hunting, and conquest to South 
America, and wrote his book "Discoverie of Guiana." In 1596 he took part 
in the capture of Cadiz, and in 1597 he cooperated in an expedition to the Azores. 
With the death of the Queen, Raleigh's fortunes fell and he was deprived of many 
sources of income. In revenge he took part in some conspiracies directed against 
James I and was imprisoned. In confinement he made chemical experiments, 
wrote treatises, and began his "History of the World." Promising to bring gold 
from Guiana, he was released to direct the expedition. But all he accomplished 
was to lose his son, his favorite captain, and his prestige; and the old sentence 
of death was executed in October 1618. 

Raleigh had a craving for adventure. He could not long remain on land in 
comparative inactivity. In Ireland he, with 6 men, rode through an ambush, 
of whose presence he was aware, to meet a friendly leader on the other side. He 
was fond of fighting. As we have seen, he left Oxford to take part in the French 
wars and was actively engaged in Ireland and at Cadiz. He was twice arrested 
for dueling. This adventurous and nomadic trait is seen in his mother's brothers 
and his half-brother, Sir Humphrey Gilbert. 

Raleigh was a hyperkinetic. He had restless energy and much initiative. 
He protested violently against the mismanagement of the Irish war. He trusted 
his own opinion and did everything with all his might. He had imagination and 
vision. He early urged that the surplus from England should be transplanted 
to the new continent; this was partly also to secure these lands for England. 
Like many another hyperkinetic, he had weak control over his sex-impulses. He 
carried out even bizarre ideas that occurred to him. Thus he plastered the mouth 
and beard of a great talker with sealing wax. Having made prisoner an Irishman 
who carried withes and who, answering a demand, declared with spirit they were 



186 



HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 



to hang English churls with, he bade his men hang the prisoner to the nearest 
tree, saying "they shall serve for an Irish kerne." Raleigh had numerous ideas, 
many of which were wise. His orders for discipline and sanitation on shipboard 
were eminently fitting and in advance of his time. He expressed his ideas readily, 
as his poetry, his treatises, and his history prove. He was throughout a lover of 
knowledge and found interrogation of nature a solace in captivity. 

FAMILY HISTORY OF SIR WALTER RALEIGH. 

II (M M M F), Sir William Huddesfield. 12 (M M M M), Elizabeth Bozome. 

II 1 (M M F), Sir Edmund Carew, a great soldier who fought at Bosworth Field. II 2, 
(M M M), Katherine Huddesfield. 

Fraternity of M M: III 1, Sir William Carew. Ill 3, George Carew, D. D. Ill 4, Anne 
Harvey. Ill 5, Sir Henry Norreys. Ill 7, (MM), Katherine Carew. Ill 8 (M F), Sir Philip 
Champernoun, of Modbury. Ill 9, (F's consort's F) Giacomo de Ponte, a merchant of Genoa. 
Ill 11 (F's consort's F), John Drake, of Exmouth. 




IV 1, Count de Montgomery, leader of the Huguenot cause. IV 3, Sir Peter Carew. IV 4, 
Sir Peter Carew, connected with the western conspiracy against Queen Mary of England. IV 
5, Sir George Carew, Earl of Totnes, a noted and accomplished naval commander, who perished 
in the celebrated Mary Rose, sunk off Portsmouth, 1545. IV 6, Mary Norreys. IV 7, Sir Arthur 
Champernoun, was involved in the conspiracy against Queen Mary and was sent to the tower. 
Later he was vice admiral of the west and was associated with his nephew Sir Humphrey Gilbert 
in making plantations in Ireland. IV 8, John Champernoun, of Modbury. IV 9, Katherine, 
daughter of Lord Mountjoy. IV 10 (M's consort), Otho Gilbert, a gentleman of Compton. 

IV 11 (M), Katherine Champernoun. IV 12 (F), Walter Raleigh, a country gentleman. IV 
13 (F's consort), Elizabeth de Ponte. IV 14 (F's consort), Joan Drake. 

V 1, Sir Thomas Fulford, of illustrious stock distinguished for its military and naval enter- 
prise. V 3, Gabrielle de Montgomery. V 4, Gawen Champernoun served in France during the 
civil wars under Count de Montgomery and in other military capacities. V 5, Elizabeth Cham- 
pernoun. V 6, Sir Edward Seymour. V 7, Henry Champernoun, leader of a band of English 
volunteers to the Huguenot camp, 1569. Half Fraternity of Propositus: V 8, Sir Humphrey 
Gilbert (1539-1583), was intended for the law, but in 1566 he secured an appointment in the 
army, having previously petitioned for an expedition in search of the Northeast Passage. He 

later became a noted navigator and explorer, and perished at sea. V 9, Aucher. V 10, 

Sir John Gilbert, a deputy vice admiral of Devon who in 1598 was preparing for an expedition 
to Guiana with a fleet of 13 ships, but the enterprise did not materialize. V 11, Adrian Gilbert. 

V 12 (Propositus), Sm WALTER RALEIGH. Fraternity of Propositus: V 14, Carew Raleigh. V 15, 
John Radford. V 16, Margaret Raleigh. V 17, Mr. Hull. V 18, George and John Raleigh. 
V 19, Mary Raleigh. V 20, Hugh Snedale. 



RALEIGH- -RODGERS. 187 

V 1, Sir Ferdinando Gorges, a famous navigator and explorer. VI 2, Mary Fulford. VI 
3, Bridget Fulford. VI 4, Arthur Champernoun, was "no less fond of adventure, and endowed 
with no less mental capability, than his ancestors." He was the owner of many vessels and in 
voyages became widely acquainted with New England. In 1636 secured a large grant of land in 
Maine. VI 6, Sir John Gilbert. VI 7, Captain Raleigh Gilbert, one of the leaders in the great 
enterprise of making settlements in North America, especially to the Kcnnebec river, 1607. Child 
of Propositus: VI 8, Walter Raleigh, was killed in Guiana. 

VII 1, Francis Champernoun (1614-1687), one of the early settlers of Maine. "He seems 
to have had a fondness for maritime life and adventure and to have held some position in the 
Royal Navy." Child's child of Propositus: VII 2, Carew Raleigh. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

DE SELINCOTJRT, H. 1908. Great Raleigh. London: Methuen & Co. xiii + 310 pp. 
EDWARDS, E. 1868. The Life of Sir Walter Raleigh. 2 vols. London: Macmillan & Co. 
STEELING, W. 1891. Sir Walter Raleigh. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, xii + 413 pp. 
TUTTLE, C. 1889. Captain Francis Champernowne, The Dutch Conquest of Acadie and 
other historical papers. Boston: J. Wilson & Son. xvi + 426 pp. 



56. JOHN RODGERS. 

JOHN RODGERS was born in Harford county, Maryland, in 1773. He 
attended village school and at about the age of 13 years ran away to Baltimore 
"to see square-rigged ships," and refused to return home with his father; conse- 
quently the latter bound him out for five years as an apprentice to Captain Ben- 
jamin Folger, leaving him with an injunction never to touch strong drinks, an 
injunction he ever followed. Young Rodgers's steady habits, willingness to assume 
responsibility, and skill as a sailor soon won for him the favorable appreciation 
of his captain. Before he was 18 years of age he became first mate of the Harmony. 
His apprenticeship completed, his master recommended him, in 1793, to the com- 
mand of a fine merchant vessel, the Jane, 300 tons, plying to European ports. As 
master of the Jane, Rodgers exacted absolute obedience from his crew, who early 
learned to fear and respect him. In all his career he never lost a vessel or ran one 
aground. When the United States naval vessel Constellation was launched in 1798, 
Rodgers was appointed her first lieutenant and executive officer (1799). He served 
under Truxton, displayed great gallantry in the fight (February 9, 1799) with the 
French frigate L'lnsurgente, was promoted to the rank of captain, given command 
of the Maryland, a 20-gun sloop, and ordered to watch for enemy (French) vessels 
at Surinam. When Jefferson (1801) decided upon reducing the size of the American 
navy, Rodgers's status was for a time uncertain, and during this period he took 
a schooner of goods to Santo Domingo. Thus he happened to be present at the 
burning of Cristophe by the natives to keep it from falling into the hands of the 
French, and he there played no insignificant part in saving life and property. 
By the following year it had been decided to retain Rodgers, and he was sent, 
in command of the John Adams (of 28 guns), to cooperate with Commodore Rich- 
ard V. Morris against Tripoli. Here he secured an important treaty with the 
emperor of Morocco and was for a time acting commodore of the Mediterranean 
squadron. After a trip to the United States, he returned to the Mediterranean, 
where he soon assumed command, and concluded, with the aid of Consul Tobias 
Lear, an honorable treaty of peace with the pasha of Tripoli and the release of the 
prisoners taken from the Philadelphia. In the summer of 1805, by taking a bold 
and spirited position, he secured a favorable treaty with the Bey of Tunis. 



188 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

From 1809 to 1812 he was in command of the New York flotilla and naval 
station; he presided at the court-martial of Commodore Barren, superintended 
the building of 23 gunboats, and performed numerous other duties devolving 
on a celebrated and effective naval commodore on shore. In 1810 he was sent 
out with a fleet to protect American merchantmen from having their seamen 
impressed by the British navy. In command of the President he fell in with the 
Little Belt (May 16, 1811), which fired upon his ship and led Rodgers to reply so 
vigorously, though it was already dark, that the smaller vessel succumbed to him. 
This event helped to precipitate the War of 1812. Throughout that war he was 
in active service, fought with the Belvidere, and had his leg broken by the explosion 
of a gun. During the rest of the war he captured many English merchantmen. 

After the war was over he was offered the position of secretary of the navy, 
but declined it. He was then made the head of the board of naval commissioners 
from 1815 until 1824 and again from 1827 until 1837; he was in command of the 
squadron in the Mediterranean from 1824 to 1827. His death occurred in 1838, 
his constitution having been shattered, in 1832, by an attack of Asiatic cholera 
contracted in Washington while nursing the son of his old friend Tobias Lear. 

John Rodgers was a man of about medium height, erect figure, and military 
carriage. His frame was solid, compact, and well proportioned. His face was 
stern and imperious. He had a powerful physique, performed feats of skill, and 
was rarely ill. 

John Rodgers' special traits were: 

Absence of fear. It is stated that, as a boy, hunting wild ducks on the banks 
of the mouth of the Susquehanna river, he would sometimes break the ice and 
swim after the wild duck he had shot and killed from the river bank. He led the 
boys of his village in many a daring venture (Paullin, 1910, p. 19). Shortly after 
he had finished his apprenticeship and commanded a merchant ship, he found 
himself carried by adverse winds into the North Sea, with provisions nearly gone, 
and with so low a temperature that three of his crew were frozen to death and the 
rest in sullen despair. When young Rodgers ordered them to go aloft and secure 
the frozen rigging they refused. But he, stripping off jacket and shirt, went aloft 
himself to "show them what a man could do." At the age of 23 he witnessed in 
Liverpool a political procession favoring for Parliament Sir Banastre Tarleton, 
of ill fame in the American revolution. One banner represented Tarleton on horse- 
back charging a band of fleeing Americans whose national flag was being trampled 
in the dust by the charging hoofs. When Rodgers saw this banner he pushed his 
way through the crowd, knocked down the astonished standard-bearer, and re- 
turned to the inn. Then, arming himself heavily, he called on General Tarleton, 
and was assured the banner would be destroyed. A party of Tarleton's sup- 
porters carried young Rodgers on their shoulders to his lodgings in admiration 
of his spirit. 

While serving as lieutenant on the Constellation under Truxton the French 
frigate L'Insurgente was sighted and engaged in battle, Rodgers commanding one 
division of the guns. When the French vessel struck her colors Rodgers was 
ordered to board her and to send the officers to the Constellation. There was rela- 
tively little loss on the American side. Truxton praised Rodgers's work highly 
and placed the prize in his charge with 11 seamen. During a storm the following 
night she separated from the Constellation and the 163 prisoners on board planned 
to seize the ship. Rodgers acted with great promptness and resolution. Seizing 



RODGERS. 189 

all the small arms, he drove the mutinous men into the lower hold of the ship and 
stationed at each hatchway a sentinel armed with a blunderbuss, a cutlas, and 
pistols and gave him orders to fire should the men attempt to force a passage. 
For two days and three nights Rodgers guarded the prisoners and navigated the 
ship, being ably assisted by Midshipman Porter. Only by the presence of mind, 
courage, and vigilance of the young commander were the prisoners held in sub- 
jection." After the gale was over I/' Insurgents rejoined the Constellation. 

In 1802 he was at Santo Domingo which the French had planned to capture. 
When the blacks burned Cristophe, Rodgers spent the whole night on shore in 
rescue and succor. The American consul writes: he "displayed that dauntless 
spirit which he is known to possess, and saved many lives. " 

At Tripoli between 1 and 2 o'clock in the morning, he went in a boat to 
make soundings along shore and observe the position of the enemy's cruisers and 
gunboats. He went close enough to the shore to hear people conversing with 
each other. 

One spring, at Havre de Grace, when the ice of the river was breaking up 
and moving clown the river with great force, an object was reported to him floating 
on a block of ice. By means of a spyglass he discovered that it was a woman. 
Rodgers offered one hundred dollars to any one who would go with him to her 
rescue, but none accepted the offer. 

"Resolving to act alone, Rodgers seized two planks and, by laying them 
alternately from one piece of ice to another, finally reached the middle of the 
swollen stream where the frightened woman, now nearly overcome with cold and 
terror, was still supported on her frail craft [an ice block]. Taking her under his 
arm, he began his perilous return, which to the great astonishment of the spec- 
tators he accomplished, reaching the shore a considerable distance below the town." 
(Paullin, 1910, p. 173.) 

Such was the man who fought the Little Belt at night; who remained on deck 
in the fight with the Belvidere, though his leg was broken, and who did more than 
any other one man to cripple England's commerce during the War of 1812. 

Just how the hereditary basis of fearlessness passes through the generations 
is not known. The father was active in the Revolutionary war, was commissioned 
captain and possibly became colonel. The mother was a woman of "great energy 
and strength of character." A brother, George W. Rodgers, received a medal 
from Congress and a sword of honor from his State for gallantry shown as lieutenant 
on the Wasp in her fight with and capture of the British brig Frolic, and was later 
advanced to the rank of commodore. He died at the age of 45 years. 

John Rodgers, by his wife Minerva Denison, 1 had: Robert S. Rodgers, a 
colonel in the Civil War; Frederick, a midshipman in the United States navy, who 
was drowned at the age of 17 years while trying to rescue a companion; William 
Pinkney, a lawyer in New York City; Henry, a lieutenant in the navy, who was 

1 Minerva Denison was the daughter of Gideon Denison (born in 1753), whose father's father's 
father's father was George Denison (born in England in 1618), excepting Captain John 
Mason the greatest Indian fighter of colonial days. Minerva Denison's mother was 
Jerusha Butler (born in 1762), whose father, Benjamin Butler (1739-1787), was of a 
hyperkinetic temperament, by occupation a blacksmith. He was witty, original (counted 
"eccentric"), and a strong Tory, who in 1776 was imprisoned on the charge of "de- 
faming the Honorable Continental Congress." His two sons were men of ability; 
they were educated, but restless. 



190 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

lost at sea in 1854; Ann Minerva, who married Colonel John Navarre Macomb 
(a nephew of Alexander Macomb, general in chief of the United States army, 
1828-1841), and had two military sons: Augustus F., who became head of the United 
States Coast Survey party in California, and John Rodgers (born 1812), the 
most distinguished of the fraternity. He showed the same sort of courage that his 
father showed. In November 1862 he was ordered to take command of the 
Weehawken, one of the new monitors. On her first cruise out of New York the 
Weehawken encountered a severe gale and doubts were entertained of her ability 
to keep the sea. But Rodgers refused to put into a refuge near at hand, saying 
that he was there to test the sea-going qualities of the new class of vessels. In 
an attack on Fort Sumter, April 7, 1863, he headed the line in the Weehawken 
and remained under fire of the batteries for 2 hours, during which time his vessel 
was struck 53 times. Two months later the Weehawken encountered the armored 
Atlanta, carrying 6 and 7 inch rifles. The Weehaivken fired 5 shots, 4 of which 
struck the Atlanta, so injuring her that she surrendered. Rodgers became rear 
admiral in 1869 (Hall, 1909, pp. 81-91). Frederick, the brother who was drowned, 
showed great courage in his death. With three companions he was capsized 
in a sailboat; one was drowned immediately. One of the others could not swim 
and the other two sought, with the aid of an oar, to bring him to shore, but failed. 
Rodgers, completely exhausted in the effort, also sank before succor arrived. 
(Paullin, p. 383.) 

A second marked trait of John Rodgers was orderliness and capacity for organi- 
zation. From the start he "exacted absolute obedience from his crew." (Paullin, 
p. 26.) To find out how near his ship might approach the batteries of Tripoli, he 
sounded systematically at night. As commodore his ships were models of order, 
neatness, and regularity. He "took much pride in his profession and exacted 
of his officers an unhesitating obedience and a minute observance of naval cus- 
toms." (Paullin, p. 163.) Intemperance, because bound to cause disorderliness, 
he despised. When appointed to his first command, the Maryland, he immedi- 
ately issued a list of 44 regulations and posted them in plain sight of the officers 
and crew; these related to the ship's economy, cleanliness, gun-practice, and 
minute observance of naval customs. When, in 1815, a board of navy com- 
missioners was established he was appointed president and held the office for 
19 years. This commission issued the most minute and detailed rules concerning 
the duties of officers, equipment of ships, and the navy-yard. They prescribed 
the navy ration. These rules remind one, in their detail, of Rodgers' 44 regula- 
tions posted on the Maryland. But he and his fellow commissioners organized 
larger matters, such as dry docks, naval hospitals, a naval academy, a national 
gun factory, and ordnance department. They recommended a system of increase 
of naval vessels. These recommendations were gradually adopted. 

This capacity for organization is found also in his son John, who organized 
the present Naval Observatory, Washington City. He planned and carried out 
experiments in acoustics and optics and was one of the founders of the National 
Academy of Sciences. 

John Rodgers had an innate love of the sea. As a boy, growing up on the 
broad estuary of the Susquehanna, he hunted on the sea. It is said that books 
treating of sailors and seafaring life especially fired his imagination and aroused 
his curiosity. At about 13 years of age he ran away to Baltimore to see big ships 
(as stated above), where his father found him and could not prevail on him to 



RODGERS. 191 

return home. Thereafter he was persistently at sea, except for short rests at home 
or brief shore duties, until 1815, when he was 42 years of age. After that time he 
was at sea for comparatively short periods. A similar love of the sea is widespread 
in the family --in his brother, George W. Rodgers; in his son, John, who entered 
the navy as midshipman in his sixteenth year (Hall, p. 84), explored the Arctic 
sea north and northwest of Bering Strait, and in Henry, Augustus F., and Frederick, 
all of whom were occupied on the sea. Moreover, there are the following grand- 
sons in the navy: Rear Admiral Frederick Rodgers and Rear Admiral John A. 
Rodgers (who are at the same time grandsons of Matthew C. Perry), and Com- 
mander William L. Rodgers, a son of John Rodgers, Jr. 

A willingness to accept responsibility showed itself early in John Rodgers, 
even as an apprentice (Paullin, p. 20). As captain of the New York he made an 
honorable treaty with Morocco, without paying a cent for tribute or presents. 
In treating with the pasha of Tripoli his "conduct during the negotiations on 
board was mixed with that manly firmness and evident wish to continue the war 
if it could be done with propriety, while he displayed the magnanimity of an 
American in declaring that we fought not for conquest but to maintain our just 
rights and national dignity." (Paullin, p. 139, quoting Consul Tobias Lear.) 
Similarly he was successful in negotiating a treaty with the Bey of Tunis. His 
brother, George W., was sent on a diplomatic mission to Brazil. John Rodgers 
Jr. was, as we have seen, willing to assume responsibility for bringing the monitor 
Weehawken through the gale without seeking shelter. Later, at Valparaiso, the 
seaport of Chile, which was fighting with Spain, he observed and preserved neu- 
trality, "while endeavoring to mitigate the harsh severities of war." (Hall, p. 
89.) The secretary of state of the United States later praised his record in Val- 
paraiso, saying, "enough of his methods have become known to add to his pre- 
vious reputation, that of being an able negotiator and diplomatist." In 1870 he 
was sent with Mr. Low, minister to China, to negotiate a treaty with Korea. In 
this visit he had to punish a bit of Korean treachery. The family of Rodgers thus 
for two generations was never called on in vain to make momentous decisions touch- 
ing the honor and prosperity of the nation. 

For chart, see the Perry-Rodgers family, No. 50. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

HALL, A. D. 1909. Biographical Memoir of John Rodgers. (In: National Acad. of Science 

Biogr. Memoirs. Washington: vol. 6, pp. 81-92.) 
PAULLIN, C. O. 1910. Commodore John Rodgers. Cleveland: A.Clarke and Co., 434 pp. 

See Perry, No. 50. 



192 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

57. GEORGE BRYDGES RODNEY. 

GEORGE BRYDGES RODNEY was born February 1719. He studied at Harrow, 
went to sea at 13 years of age, and served for seven years in the Channel fleet. 
As commander of the Eagle (60 guns), he participated in Hawkes's victory off 
Ushant (October 14, 1747) over the French fleet. The Eagle was heavily engaged, 
had her wheel shot to pieces, but pursued, unsuccessfully, the two French vessels 
that escaped. In May 1749 he was appointed governor and commander in chief 
of Newfoundland, with the rank of commodore; but he returned to England in 
1752 and was elected to Parliament. He performed well various minor naval 
duties in the Channel and at Cape Breton (Louisburg), and in 1761, England 
then being at war with France, he was sent to the Leeward Islands, of which he 
took several from the French. In the West Indies Rodney took a large view of 
his duties and tried to adjust his actions to the protection of England's interests, 
even outside the particular region assigned to him. For a period of fifteen years 
from 1763 there was peace and Rodney had little to do. He got into money 
trouble through extravagance and gambling. For five years he was governor 
of the Greenwich hospital and for three years commander in chief at Jamaica. 
In 1779 Rodney received orders to command at the Leeward Islands and to relieve 
Gibraltar, now besieged by Spain, on his way. As good luck would have it, he 
captured a Spanish convoy of 22 vessels, 7 being warships. Of these 12 were 
provision ships, which he turned in to feed Gibraltar. Eight days later he defeated 
the Spanish Admiral de Langara off St. Vincent, taking or destroying 7 ships. 
Learning at Santa Lucia that a French fleet under De Guichen was sailing from 
Martinique, Rodney went to meet them. He issued definite orders, but these 
were not lived up to by all of his captains, so that the French fleet escaped severe 
injury. Rodney's insistence on discipline during the following two years put his 
fleet into better shape to meet the next battle with the highly organized French 
fleet on April 12, 1782. In this battle, between fleets of 33 and 35 ships respec- 
tively, Rodney's fleet won a tactical victory, capturing 5 of the enemy's ships 
and sinking 1. Had the survivors been followed more energetically many of them 
might have been captured, but as it was the threatened island of Jamaica was 
saved and French naval prestige was ruined. Rodney seemed to feel that he had 
done enough and had little desire to fight for the love of fighting; but he was 63 
years of age and in poor health. Rodney was made a baron and died ten years 
later, after having lived in retirement. 

Of Rodney, Mahan (1901, p. 151) says: 

"Intolerance of dereliction of duty, and uncompromising condemnation of 
the delinquent, were ever leading traits in Rodney's course as a commander-in- 
chief. He stood over his officers with a rod, dealt out criticism unsparingly, 
and avowed it as his purpose and principle of action so to rule. It is not meant 
that his censures were undeserved or even excessive; but there entered into them 
no ingredient of pity. His dispatches are full of complaints, both general and 
specific. When he spared, it was from a sense of expediency -- or of justice, 
a trait in which he was by no means deficient; but for human weakness he had no 
bowels. Each man has his special gift, and to succeed must needs act in accordance 
with it. There are those who lead and those who drive; Hawke belonged to one 
class, Rodney to the other." 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

MAHAN, A. 1913. Types of Naval Officers, drawn from the history of the British Navy. Bos- 
ton: Little, Brown & Co. 



SANDS. 193 

58. JOSHUA RATOON SANDS. 

JOSHUA RATOON SANDS was born at Brooklyn, New York, May 13, 1795. 
He entered the navy September 1812, and for a while was with Commodore Chaun- 
cey on Lake Ontario. In 1846, as commander of the Vixen, he aided in the capture 
of Alvarado, Tabasco, and Laguna, and was for some time a governor of Laguna. 
During the bombardment of Vera Cruz he was conspicuous for his bravery, and 
in 1847 was sent to Washington City with dispatches. In 1857 he was engaged 
in laying the Atlantic cable, and in 1858 cooperated with Admiral Paulding in the 
capture at Nicaragua of the filibuster Walker. From 1859 to 1861 he commanded 
the Brazilian squadron and was retired from active service in 1861, being in his 
sixty-seventh year. He died at Baltimore in 1883. 

His father, Joshua Sands (1772-1825), was a wealthy merchant of New York, 
for a time collector of the port, and twice elected to Congress. Joshua was brother 
of Comfort, born at Sands Point, Long Island, about 1740, a merchant and active 
supporter of the patriot cause. He was a large ship-owner and the eighth presi- 
dent of the Chamber of Commerce, New York. 

The mother of Joshua R. Sands was Ann Ascough, whose father Richard 
was a surgeon in the British army. Probably a nomadic tendency came from 
this side. A sister of Joshua R., Eliza, married Edward Trenchard (1784-1824), 
who at the age of 16 decided to enter the United States navy and in 1812 super- 
intended the building of the sloop-of-war Madison for Commodore Chauncey on 
Lake Ontario. She was launched November 26. "Eight weeks before," says 
Cooper, "her timber was growing in the forest." Trenchard took part in the 
engagements against the Barbary pirates in 1815-1816. In 1819 he was in com- 
mand of the Cyrene, cruising off Africa to suppress the slave-trade, and fell in 
with 2 brigs and 5 schooners near the mouth of the river Gallinos. He captured 
them all and, finding them slavers, shipped officers and crews to the United States. 
On account of illness he was given shore duty in 1822-1823, and died in Brooklyn 
in 1824. His son, Stephen D. Trenchard (born at Brooklyn, July 10, 1818), 
became a midshipman in the navy, 1834. He was long assigned to the Coast 
Survey, and so distinguished himself in the rescue of the British bark Adieu, 
threatened with shipwreck off Gloucester, Massachusetts, that he received a sword 
from Queen Victoria. At the outbreak of the Civil War he helped salvage govern- 
ment property at the Norfolk navy-yard and was then given command of the 
steamer Rhode Island. She was detailed to tow the Monitor from Hampton Roads 
to Beaufort, North Carolina, and only by Trenchard's alertness was the whole crew 
of the Monitor saved from drowning when she foundered off Cape Hatteras. Later 
he captured prizes and Confederate blockade-runners. His only son is an artist 
who "is most successful in his painting of waves and surf." 

A grandson of Comfort Sands is Ferdinand Sands, who married Susan Bard, 
a daughter's daughter of Nicholas Cruger. Nicholas was a West India merchant 
who carried on an extensive business at Santa Cruz and was twice captured by the 
British. Ferdinand and Susan had a son, Louis Joseph Sands, who went as secre- 
tary with Joshua R. Sands, his grandfather's first cousin, while laying the Atlantic 
cable (1857), and later to Nicaragua. During the Civil War he was on the Seminole 
under Admiral Dupont at the capture of Hilton Head, South Carolina. While 
in temporary command of a small gunboat in the Roanoke river the boat struck 
a torpedo and several of the crew were killed, while the survivors saved themselves 
by swimming until picked up by boats. After the war he studied art and devoted 
himself to painting. 



194 



HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 



In the case of these naval officers it is probable that some of their most essen- 
tial qualities came in the maternal germ-plasm; for Joshua R. Sands's mother 
had a father who was an army surgeon; Stephen D. Trenchard's mother was 
a sister of Admiral Joshua R. Sands and of Louis Joseph Sands; the mother's 
mother's father was Nicholas Cruger, the merchant voyager. 

FAMILY HISTORY OF JOSHUA RATOON SANDS. 

I 1 (F F F F F), James Sands (born in England, 1622), came to America in 1658 and became 
one of the leading men of Block Island. 12 (F F F F M), Sarah Walker, the only physician 
and midwife on the island. 

II 1 (F F F F), John Sands (1649-1712), a sea captain. II 2 (F F F M), Sybil Ray. Fra- 
ternity of F F F F: II 4, Sarah Sands. II 5, Mercy Sands. II 6, Joshua Raymond. 

I 

n 



m 



IV 




III 1 (F F F), John Sands, born 1683. Ill 2 (F F M), Catherine Guthrie. 

IV 1, George Trenchard, attorney general of west New Jersey in 1767. IV 3 (M F), 
Richard Ascough, a surgeon in the British army. IV 5 (F F), John Sands (born Block Island, 
1708-1709). IV 6 (F M), Elizabeth Cornwell. 

V 1, James Trenchard, a designer and engraver of book plates and editor of the Columbian 
Magazine. V 4 (M), Ann Ascough, born 1761. V 5 (F), Joshua Sands (born Sands' Point, 
New York, October 1757, and died 1835), supplied clothing and provisions for the American 
army; was collector of customs, port of New York; manufactured rigging and cables for his 
own vessels; was Congressman and financier. V 6, Comfort Sands (1748-1834), in 1762 went 
to New York, where he entered upon a mercantile career, commencing business upon his own 
account in 1769. He was very active during the Revolution, and in 1777 was a member of the 
State constitutional convention, and for many years afterwards sat in the State legislature. After 
the war he became a large ship-owner, and from 1794 until 1798 was president of the Chamber 
of Commerce. V 7, Sarah Dodge. V 8, Ann de Nully, of Santa Cruz, of French and Dutch 
extraction. V 9, Nicholas Cruger, a West India merchant. V 10, Tileman Cruger, a West 
India merchant who lived on the island of Curagoa. V 11, John Harris Cruger, was chamber- 
lain of the city of New York and at the outbreak of the Revolution became a lieutenant colonel 
in the British army. V 16, Henry Cruger, entered a counting-house in Bristol, England, and was 
elected to Parliament. In 1790 he returned to the United States and became a member of the 
New York State senate. 

VI 1, John Mortimer Barclay, a captain of the United States army. VI 3, Edward Trench- 
ard (1784-1824), in 1800 entered the navy as a midshipman and served with distinction in the 
West Indies and off Tripoli. During 1811 and 1812 he was executive officer of the New York 



SANDS. 195 

navy-yard and saw active service during the war. His arduous duties in helping to suppress 
the slave traffic on the African coast impaired his health. In 1823 he was honored with the brevet 
rank of commodore, an exceptional honor, as the rank of captain was then the highest in the 
service. V 4, Eliza Sands. V 5 (Propositus) , JOSHUA RATOON SANDS. V 6, Cornelia Sands. 

V 7, Nathaniel Prime. V 8, Joseph Sands (1772-1825). V 9, Kampfel, of Lisle, France. 

V 10, William Bard, born 1778. V 11, Catherine Cruger. 

VII 1, Ann O'Connor Barclay. VII 2, Stephen Decatur Trenchard (1818-1883), a rear 
admiral, 1875. He retired in 1880 after having charge of the North Atlantic squadron, the 
largest fleet assembled under one head after the war (see text). VII 4, Rufus Prime, a banker 
of New York City and president of the Chamber of Commerce. VII 5, Ferdinand Sands. VII 
6, Susan Bard (1812-1838). 

VIII 1, Edward Trenchard (born 1850), a painter of marine scenes who served in the navy 
and traveled extensively. VIII 2, Louis Joseph Sands (born 1836) (see text), served in the navy 
and afterwards studied painting. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

DELANCEY, E. 1875. Original Family Records, Cruger (In: New York Genealogical and 

Biographical Record), vol. VI, pp. 74-80. 

PRIME, T. 1886. Descent of Comfort Sands and of his children. New York. 81 pp. 
THOMPSON, B. 1843. The History of Long Island. New York: Banks and Co. 2 vols. 



196 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

59. JAMES SAUMAREZ. 

JAMES SAUMAREZ was born March 11, 1757, in Guernsey, one of the Channel 
isles. He had early shown a taste for the navy, so his father, who had 6 sons and 
a restricted income, arranged with a naval captain to have his name borne on the 
books of a ship-of-war at the early age of 10. At the age of 18 he was appointed 
passed midshipman on the Bristol, the flagship of Commodore Peter Parker's 
squadron, then starting out to help quell the rising revolution in America. Lord 
Cornwallis was on board and was so struck by Saumarez's activity and efficiency 
that he offered him a commission in his own regiment as his aide-de-camp, but 
Saumarez, after some hesitation, declined. In his first action against Charleston, 
South Carolina, the Bristol was driven off, but not before Saumarez had shown 
a bravery that won him a lieutenancy. His gallantry at a fight with a Dutch 
fleet on the Dogger bank in 1781 resulted in a command. As captain of the Rus- 
sell he fought under Rodney and Sir Samuel Hood in the battle with the French 
fleet, April 12, 1782. The two fleets passed each other in single file, going in oppo- 
site directions, exchanging broadsides. Saumarez, near the head of the column, 
had cleared the French rear when he saw a neighboring British vessel, commanded 
by a captain of senior rank, turn out of the line to pursue the enemy. Without 
orders Saumarez gladly did the same, but, while the former captain (apparently 
concluding that he should wait for orders) returned to the line, Saumarez kept on 
after the French ships. Just then, Rodney in the center and Hood in the rear, 
taking advantage of a favorable wind, started to dash through the enemy's line. 
The battle-line changed to a confused battle between individual ships and by good 
fortune the Russell engaged the French flagship and had already defeated her 
when Hood arrived in time to receive her surrender. This brilliant achievement 
was due to the good fighting sense of Saumarez and his willingness to take responsi- 
bility, although only 25 years of age and less than 12 months from his lieutenancy. 
After 10 years of retirement on land, the outbreak of war with the French in 1793 
brought him another opportunity. In the frigate Crescent he intercepted on 
October 20, 1793, the French frigate Reunion, which was in the habit of attacking 
British merchant ships at night. By adroit tactics he succeeded in defeating 
the enemy's ship, losing one man to 118 of the French. For this exploit he was 
knighted. Saumarez was now attached to Jervis's fleet and participated in the 
battle off St. Vincent. Also, he was under Nelson in the battle of the Nile, 
where his ship Orion was largely responsible for the destruction of 3 of the enemy's 
ships, including the flagship Orient, which blew up. Returning to England, 
Saumarez was given command of the Ccesar (84 guns); for 3 or 4 months he 
blockaded the storm-swept bay of Brest, and in 1800 was sent against the French 
and Spanish fleet at Cadiz. Learning that 3 French ships had anchored off Alge- 
ciras, Saumarez (now rear admiral) went for them with 6 ships-of-the-line, attacked 
them under the guns of the fortifications, but was defeated, losing one of his ships. 
However, a few days later, his opportunity came; 2 giant Spanish ships and 4 
others of large size appeared, united with the 3 French vessels, and began to 
engage his 5 wounded ones. At night the swiftest of Saumarez's fleet engaged 
the Spanish giants, which in the darkness mistook each other for the enemy 
and destroyed each other. A third was forced to strike her colors. The enemy's 
fleet was broken up. 



SAUMAREZ. 197 

In 1809 Saumarez was sent in charge of the Baltic fleet. Napoleon had 
been making trouble for England in the Baltic countries and Sweden had been 
forced to declare war against England. Saumarez had here to play the diplomat. 
He also brought pressure to bear on the countries which had submitted to Napo- 
leon, by destroying their vessels for local commerce while protecting England's 
trade to and from the Baltic. His wise and temperate conduct later brought 
praise from a Swedish statesman. Retiring from the Baltic in 1812, Saumarez 
returned to Guernsey, at the age of 55 years; was made a baron in 1831, and died 
in 1836, in his eightieth year. 

Saumarez is classified by Mahan as primarily a fighter, one who would have done 
as well on land as on the sea. Of his family it is said that many had distinguished 
themselves in the naval service. Two others of the name were famous in war. 
James Saumarez married Martha, daughter of Thomas le Marchant, of Guernsey, 
and had 3 daughters; also 3 sons, of whom one was John, a colonel in the army. 
James Saumarez had brothers: Philip, a lieutenant in the navy; John Thomas, 
a general in the army, who fought throughout the American War of Independence; 
Richard, a surgeon; and Nicholas, without issue. 

The father's father was Matthew, a colonel of the militia. A brother of 
the father was Philip (1710-1747), who was made a captain in the Royal Navy 
and fell while in command of the Nottingham in the naval battle off Brest, October 
14, 1747, under command of Lord Hawke. Another brother, Thomas, was a 
captain in the navy and as commander of the Antelope, 50 guns, captured the 
Belliqueux of 64 guns, in the British channel. 

FAMILY HISTORY OF JAMES SAUMAREZ. 

II (F F), Matthew de Saumarez (born 1685), 
of the island of Guernsey. I 2 (F M), Anne I 
Durell, daughter of the bailiff of the island of 
Jersey. I 3 (M F), James le Marchant. 

Fraternity of F: II 1, John de Saumarez (1706- n 
1773), attorney general of Guernsey. II 3, Philip 

Saumarez (1710-1747), was first lieutenant with ~ , . R . . . 

Anson in his voyage around the world and in the in Hj fj W r~\ rj (4) H~i O 
expedition to the South Seas. He fell gloriously * 

commanding his ship in Lord Hawke's action off r- r- ST 1. 

Brest, October 1747. 114, Thomas Saumarez (1720- iv EH LJ H (?) 

1764), was with Lord Anson in his expedition and 

subsequently, when commander of the Antelope, captured a larger vessel in the British Chan- 
nel. II 5 (F) Matthew Saumarez (1718-1778), was drowned in a passage to England. II 6 
(M), Carteret le Marchant. II 7 (consort's F), Thomas Le Marchant, of Guernsey. 

Fraternity of Propositus: III 1, Philip Saumarez, a lieutenant of the Royal Navy. Ill 2, 
John Saumarez (1755-1832). Ill 3, Thomas Saumarez, was a general in the British army; 
in 1813 became commander in chief of New Brunswick. Ill 4, Richard Saumarez, a surgeon 
of Surrey. Ill 5, Nicholas Saumarez. II 16, Anne, Charlotte, Mary, and Carteret Saumarez. 
Ill 7 (Propositus), JAMES SAUMAREZ. Ill 8 (consort), Martha Le Marchant. 

Children of Propositus: IV 1, James Saumarez (1789-1863), rector of Huggate, County 
York. IV 2, Thomas Saumarez (1803-1834). IV 3, John St. Vincent Saumarez (1806-1891), 
a colonel in the army. IV 4, Mary, Martha, Carteret, and Amelia Saumarez. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

BURKE, SIR B., and A. 1909. A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Peerage and 

Baronetage. London: Harrison and Sons. 2570pp. 
MAHAN, A. 1901. Types of Naval Officers, drawn from the History of the British Navy. 

Boston: Little, Brown and Co., pp. 382-427. 




198 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

60. RAPHAEL SEMMES. 

RAPHAEL SEMMES was born in Charles county, Maryland, September 27 > 
1809. He was early left an orphan and at 10 years of age was sent to live with 
his uncle, Raphael Semmes. Here he worked in the wood-yard, roamed the 
country and received some private schooling. At the age of 16 he was appointed 
midshipman from Maryland, entered on a cruise to the West Indies and the 
Mediterranean, and passed an examination as midshipman in 1832. After that 
he studied law with his brother for two years and for about a year was in charge 
of naval chronometers. In 1835 he was ordered to the Constellation as acting 
master and cruised chiefly in the West Indies. On his return he was admitted 
to the bar. He married Anne Elizabeth Spencer, daughter of Oliver M. Spencer 
and Electra Ogden. In March 1837 Semmes was promoted to a lieutenancy. 
It was a period of little naval activity. Semmes was employed in naval routine, 
in navy-yards, on harbor surveys, etc. He bought land on the Perdido river, 
Alabama, and settled his family there. He carried a diplomatic message to Vera 
Cruz and overland to Mexico City; later, he joined the fleet at Vera Cruz in 1846, 
and there commanded the brig Somers, of 10 guns. While on blockading duty 
his fidelity was noted by the commodore of the fleet. When a blockade-runner 
went in under the guns of the fort he, with 10 men, rowed to it in the darkness 
and set fire to the ship, whose cargo of powder soon exploded. In a gale the Somers 
capsized and half of his crew of 100 was drowned, but he was picked up by a boat 
and eventually succored by a foreign man-of-war. He was exonerated for the 
loss of his ship. He worked hard at Vera Cruz, landing infantry and cannon, 
and then attached himself to Scott's army in order that he might be in the fight- 
ing. Everywhere his gallantry was praised by his superior officers. Between 
the Mexican and Civil Wars he commanded various naval vessels and spent five 
years in Mobile studying and practicing law. In February 1861 he resigned from 
the Federal service and offered his services to Jefferson Davis, who commissioned 
him to go north and buy munitions, which he did. Then he proposed that he 
should go to sea and prey on the enemy's commerce. He learned of a steamer 
that he thought would do and the next day was off for New Orleans, with the 
orders, "Do the enemy's commerce the greatest injury in the shortest time." 
Semmes now lost all of his old inertness and became a new man. He pushed 
the Sumter, whose renovation he completed in two months, through the Mississippi 
pass with the blockader Brooklyn only 5 miles away. He caught several prize 
ships and took them to a Cuban port; here he argued his right of doing so; but 
the authorities decided against him and he lost his prizes. When, at the Dutch 
island of Curasao, the governor was considering his demand to enter the harbor, 
he fired a shell near to the council chamber and the governor decided to admit him. 
At various other ports Semmes had to argue his rights as a belligerent; sometimes 
he succeeded but usually he failed. At Gibraltar he sold the Sumter and sailed 
for England, and eventually secured the Alabama, which had just been finished 
there. In the following months he captured scores of American merchant ships 
and held court over doubtful cases, his legal training enabling him to decide in 
accordance with international law. Finally, in his cruises, he reached Cher- 
bourg in June 1864, and was here met and defeated, offshore, by the Kearsarge. 
He escaped to England. Returning home, he was assigned to the Confederate 
fleet in the James river (February 1865), and when Richmond was evacuated 



SEMMES. 199 

he blew up his ship and organized his officers and men as infantry. At the close 
of the war he returned to Mobile, opened a law office, and practiced law until 
his death in 1877. He published four books on his experiences. 

Semmes was prevailingly not hyperkinetic, but calm, cheerful, and occasion- 
ally depressed, as, e.g., when in the Indian Ocean. He gave the impression of a 
grave and reverend professional man rather than of a dashing captain. (Brad- 
ford, G., 1904, p. 227.) He was stern in discipline and lashed heavily. In his 
books he discourses philosophically upon the feudal system and other social con- 
ditions in Mexico and argues for the extension of the United States to minimize 
the influence of single powerful states. He sought to clear up the mystery of the 
northers, to account for the heavy rainfall of Jalapa and for yellow fever. He 
argues in his early books for the suppression of privateering and makes use of his 
legal knowledge and methods in his operations against American commerce, which 
were strictly in accordance with international law. He was fond of reading liter- 
ature and was an excellent writer and an entertaining talker. He tended to be 
somewhat inert in the absence of excitement and, no doubt, like Nelson, found 
relief in the presence of danger. He had an artist's eye for landscapes and 
describes them in detail in his writings. His diary reads almost like that of a 
naturalist, "showing close, intelligent and affectionate observation of nature." 
(Bradford, 1904, p. 236.) He grew more violent in his expression as he grew 
older; he always showed a streak of "detestable facetiousness." 

Semmes's close relatives were prevailingly lawyers and legislators. On 
his mother's side he was descended from Arthur Middleton, signer of the Declara- 
tion of Independence. His son was for a time in command of a Confederate 
gunboat. 

FAMILY HISTORY OF RAPHAEL SEMMES. 

Ancestor: Arthur Middleton (1742-1787), came of a line 
of men prominent in the political life of the country. He was a 
leader in South Carolina and in 1776 signed the Declaration of 
Independence. He married Mary Izard. Many of the Middle- 
tons and Izards were connected with the navy. 

I 1 (consort's F F), Oliver Spencer, mayor of Cincinnati, 
Ohio. 

Fraternity of F: II 1, Raphael Semmes of Georgetown, 
D. C. II 3, Benedict Semmes, a farmer of Maryland; a State 
legislator and a member of Congress in 1829. II 4 (F), Richard 
Thompson Semmes. II 5 (M), Catherine Hooe Middleton, died 
early. II 6 (consort's F), Oliver Marlborough Spencer. II 7 
(consort's M), Electra Ogden. 

Ill 1, Thomas Jenkins Semmes (1824-1899), United States attorney in Louisiana, and, 
during the Civil War, a member of the Confederate States senate. 

Fraternity of Propositus: III 2, Samuel Middleton Semmes, a lawyer of Cumberland, 
Maryland. Ill 3 (Propositus), RAPHAEL SEMMES. Ill 4 (consort), Anne Elizabeth Spencer. 

Child of Propositus: IV 1, O. J. Semmes was a captain in the Confederate States navy and 
had command of a gunboat at Grand Lake, Louisiana, March 1863. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

ALLEN. 1867. Memorial of Pickering Dodge Allen. Boston: H. W. Dutton and Son. 174 pp. 
BRADFORD, G. 1904. Confederate Portraits. Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin 

Co. xviii + 291 pp. 
CHEVES, L. 1900. Middleton of South Carolina. (So. Carolina Historical and Genealogical 

Magazine, vol. II, pp. 228-282.) 
MERIWEATHER, C. 1913. Raphael Semmes. Philadelphia: G. Jacobs. 




200 



HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 



61. EDWARD HOBART SEYMOUR. 

EDWARD HOBART SEYMOUR was born April 1840. He states of his child- 
hood: "As soon as I had sense enough to form a real wish it was to go to sea 
a choice I have never regretted." He entered the British navy in November 
1852, after an examination in the rudiments, and in 1853 on the frigate Terrible 
was ordered to the Mediterranean station. In 1854 he took part in the Crimean 
campaign. In 1857 he went to China and joined the squadron of his father's 
brother, Sir Michael Seymour, and was made signalman of the fleet. Invalided 
home on account of illness, he was "made to go back," which he did in 1859. On 
his homeward journey he leaped into the sea to save a sailor who had fallen over- 
board. In the western Pacific he was given command of small vessels to go up 
Canton river to hunt for shipwrecked sailors on the Carolina island, etc. He 
cruised to the Arctic and saw service in the west coast of Africa, where he was 
wounded in rescuing Europeans from natives. He had command of the first ship 
of steel (1880) and later of the Inflexible, at that time the largest and most powerful 
ship of the navy. In 1889 he became rear admiral, cruised around the world, 
was in Chinese waters at the Boxer uprising, and was senior officer in the allied 
expedition to Pekin. In 1902 he was commander in chief at Plymouth. 

Seymour belongs to one of England's most distinguished naval families. A 
father's brother Michael was vice admiral; another father's brother's son, Sir Michael 
Culme Seymour, is admiral. The latter married Mary Watson, daughter of Lavinia 
Quin, whose brother Richard was rear admiral. Their mother was a Spencer of a 
naval family. Edward H. Seymour's father's father was Admiral Sir Michael Sey- 
mour, whose wife was a daughter of James Hawkes, a captain in the Royal Navy. 

FAMILY HISTORY OF EDWARD HOBART SEYMOUR. 

II (F F F), Rev. John Seymour (died 1795), of Palace, Limerick county. I 2 (F F M), Grizel 
Hobart, died 1822. 13 (F M F), James Hawkes, a captain in the Royal Navy. 15 (M M F), 
John Smith (died 1819), member of Parliament for Wiltshire. 16 (M M M), Sarah Gilbert. 

II 1, Rev. Thomas Culme. II 3 (F F), Sir Michael Seymour (1768-1834), was an admiral 
in the Royal Navy who distinguished himself in several gallant actions and died at Rio Janeiro 

when commander in chief of the Southeast 
coast of America. II 4 (F M), Jane Hawkes, 
died 1852. II 5 (M F), Charles Smith (died 
1814), of Suttons, Essex county, a member 
of Parliament. II 6 (M M), Augusta Smith, 
died 1846. 

Ill 1, Elizabeth 
Culme. Fraternity of F: 
III 2, John Hobart Culme 
Seymour (1800-1880), 




III 



IV 

s,r~i *"A 3, Maria 1 

died 1887. Ill 4, James 
Seymour (1801-1827), captain in the army. Ill 5, Sir Michael Seymour (1802-1887), became an 
admiral in the Royal Navy. He was vice admiral of the United Kingdom and commander in 
chief of the East Indian station, Canton, and Portsmouth. Ill 6, Edward Seymour (1804-1837), 
a captain in the Royal Navy. Ill 7, William Hobart Seymour (1820-1859), of the army. Ill 8, 
Jane, Dora, Mary, Caroline, Elizabeth, and Ellen Seymour. Ill 9 (F), Richard Seymour (1806- 
1880), canon of Worcester. Ill 10 (M), Frances Smith. Fraternity of M: III 11, Frances 
Seymour, died 1897. Ill 12, Spencer Smith (1806-1882). Ill 13, Drummond Smith (1812- 
1832). Ill 14, Sir Charles Joshua Smith. 

IV 1, Sir Michael Culme Seymour (born 1836), was vice admiral of the United Kingdom, 
commander in chief of the Pacific fleet, of the Channel squadron, and of the Mediterranean fleet. 
Ill 2, John Hobart (1837-1887), a lieutenant colonel. IV 3, Henry Seymour (born 1847), re- 



SEYMOUR SMITH. 201 

ceived his degree of M. A. at Oxford; in the army. IV 5 (Propositus}, EDWARD HOBART 
SEYMOUR. Fraternity of Propositus: IV 6, Walter Richard Seymour, born 1838. IV 7, Albert 
Seymour (born 1841), archdeacon of Barnstable. IV 8, Richard Arthur Seymour (1843-1906). 
IV 9, John Seymour (1843-1866), in the army. IV 11, Augusta. IV 12, Captain St. John 
Mildmay, of the Royal Navy. IV 15, Seymour Spencer Smith (1841-1893), was a captain in 
the Royal Navy. IV 16, Rev. Orlando Smith, born 1843. IV 17, Gilbert Joshua Smith, a 
captain in the army. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

BURKE, SIR B., and A. 1909. A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Peerage and 

Baronetage. London : Harrison & Sons. 2570 pp. 
SEYMOUR, SIR E. 1911. My Naval Career and Travels. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 429pp. 

62. WILLIAM SIDNEY SMITH. 

WILLIAM SIDNEY SMITH was born at Westminster, near London, July 21, 
1764. He entered the Navy before he was 12 years of age. For bravery in action 
near Cape St. Vincent, Portugal, in 1780, he was appointed lieutenant of the 
Alcide. For gallantry in action under Graves off Chesapeake Bay in 1781 and under 
Rodney at the Leeward islands in 1782, he was made a captain. From 1785 to 
1792 he was absent from the service. During the last two years of this period 
he advised the king of Sweden in the war with Russia. Returning to England 
he was sent on a mission to Constantinople and, upon his return from that city, 
attempted to burn the enemy's ships and arsenal at Toulon. Later he hunted 
French privateers in the Channel and was carried onto the French shore by the 
tide and wind and made prisoner in April 1796. By means of forged orders for 
his removal to another prison he escaped to Havre and crossed the Channel in a 
small skiff in 1798. Appointed to the command of the Tigre in the Mediterranean, 
he learned of Bonaparte's approach to St. Jean d'Acre, hastened to its relief, 
captured (March 1799) the enemy's flotilla, and compelled Napoleon to raise the 
siege and retreat in disorder, leaving all his artillery behind. For this brilliant 
exploit he received the thanks of Parliament. In January 1800 he took upon 
himself to make a convention with the French by which they were allowed to 
evacuate Egypt, an act disallowed by his superiors, who required the French to 
surrender. In 1803 he was commissioned to watch the French in the Channel; 
in 1806 he was made rear admiral, and the following year was dispatched on 
secret service for the protection of Sicily and Naples. Here he was led into quar- 
rels with military officers; he relieved Gaeta and captured Capri, but was ordered 
to leave next year for Malta to act against the Turks. He destroyed the Turkish 
fleet and spiked the shore batteries. Next he blockaded the Tagus, took the 
Portuguese royal family to Rio de Janeiro, and was sent as commander in chief 
to the coast of South America in 1808. Here he quarreled with the British minister 
and was summarily recalled. He was made vice admiral in 1810 and admiral 
in 1821, but he was practically retired in 1814. He died in 1840. 

Willam Smith was a typical hyperkinetic, like his father, Captain John Smith, 
who, as aide-de-camp to Lord George Germain, became disgusted with the treat- 
ment accorded Germain, left the army, and "passed the greater part of his life in 
that extraordinary building or boathouse, at Dover, long known as Smith's Folly." 
The father's father, Captain Edward Smith, commanded a frigate at the attack 
upon La Guayra, where he received wounds from which he eventually died. 

William's hyperkinetic tendencies are shown by his "restless activity and 
enterprise, his promptness and energy, his good humor and high spirits." He was 



202 



HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 



a spendthrift and of unlimited generosity; his manners were lively and agreeable. 
He showed also a manly daring and determination. Like his father he was tena- 
cious of his opinions, and his vanity and self-assertion led him into collision with 
his contemporaries. His hyperkinesis was an effective trait in his small naval 
encounters. 

Smith was nomadic. On leave at the age of 20, he spent two years in France, 
visited Spain, journeyed through Morocco, where he volunteered his services in case 
of war, went to St. Petersburg and to Stockholm, where he became a military 
adviser of the Swedish king; then returned to the navy. Everywhere he showed 
restlessness. His mother's sister had a son, Lord Camelford, who entered the navy 
and became a commander. He shot and killed a lieutenant on another vessel for not 
obeying his commands; he committed an assault in Drury Lane theater and was 
found guilty, but disappeared. Five years afterwards he returned to England and 
was wounded in a duel. In his will he desired that his body should be buried under a 
certain tree in the canton of Berne, Switzerland, "at whose foot," he says, "I form- 
erly passed many solitary hours, contemplating the mutability of human affairs." 

William Smith was of a mechanical turn of mind and interested in inventions. 
He was a patron of the arts. His memory was so great that he could repeat pages 
of poetry. He loved to entertain parties of young ladies by clever tricks, charades, 
and conundrums, for all of which he demanded as payment a kiss from each. At 
the age of 76 years, as death was near, he fancied himself as strong or at least as 
capable of coping with an enemy at sea or ashore as in the prime of life. But this 
euphoria soon passed into mental and bodily decay until he died of a total paralysis. 

FAMILY HISTORY OF WILLIAM SIDNEY SMITH. 

I 1 (FFF), Captain Cornelius Smith (1661-1727). 

II 1 (F F), Captain Edward Smith, commander of a frigate. II 3 (M F), Pinkney Wilkin- 
son, an opulent merchant of London, who disinherited his daughter, Mary. II 5, William Pitt, 
first Earl Chatham (1708-1778). 

Fraternity of F: III 2, General Edward Smith, 
commander of the Forty-third regiment and governor 
of Fort Charles, Jamaica. Ill 3 (F), Captain John 
Smith, of the Guards, quitted the service in disgust. 
Ill 4 (M), Mary Wilkinson, married against her father's 
wishes. Fraternity of M: III 5, - - Wilkinson. Ill 
6, Thomas Pitt, first Baron Camelford (1737-1793), an 
English politician. 

Fraternity of Propositus: IV 1, Charles Douglas 
Smith, lieutenant colonel and governor of Prince 
Edward's Island. IV 2, John Spencer Smith (died 
1840), held a commission in the Guards but quitted 
the service to enter the field of diplomacy. He be- 
came minister plenipotentiary at Constantinople. IV 
4 (Propositus), WILLIAM SIDNEY SMITH. IV 5 (consort), 
Lady Caroline Mary - . IV 6, Thomas Pitt, second 
Baron Camelford (1775-1804), had an adventurous and 
wayward career in the navy, attaining the rank of com- 
mander. He was finally killed in a duel. 

V 1, Edward Herbert Smith, a clergyman of the Established Church. V 2, William 
Sidney Smith, a captain in the Royal Navy. Children of Propositus: V 4, Captain Arabin, 
Royal Navy. V 6, Baron de Delmar. V 8, Colonel de St. Clair. V 9, Sir William Rumbold 
Smith, died in India. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

BAUROW, SIR J. 1848. Life of Sir William Sidney Smith. London: Bentley. 2 vols. 




STOCKTON. 203 

63. ROBERT FIELD STOCKTON. 

ROBERT FIELD STOCKTON was born at Princeton, New Jersey, August 20, 
1795. As a small boy he showed personal courage, a strong sense of honor, hatred 
of injustice, generosity, and loyalty to friends. At school he was the champion 
of the weak and won victories over the strong. He entered Princeton College 
at 13 years of age and stood first in his class. He excelled in elocution and was 
apt in language and mathematics. The Bible and the writings of Cicero, Shake- 
speare, and Lord Bacon were his favorite books. One of his professors declared 
he was the best-informed man he had ever met. He was habitually temperate. 
He had ability for the law, but the war with England broke out before he was 
graduated; he was fired with an ambition to excel Nelson and he entered the 
navy as midshipman and cruised with Commodore Rodgers on the President 
in 1812. When the President fought the Belvidere, Stockton won the sobriquet 
"Fighting Bob," and this hung to him ever after. He was in the fight with the 
Plantagenet (74 guns) near Boston for five hours. He went with Rodgers to 
Washington to see Secretary of Navy Jones, and became Jones's aide, but he shortly 
after resigned and went with Rodgers to defend Alexandria and later Baltimore. 
He worked incessantly, building small craft, fire-boats, and rafts. In September 
1814 he was commissioned lieutenant. Then came the war with Algiers. Stock- 
ton on the Guerriere assisted in the capture of the Algerian flagship Mishouri. 
Off the Spanish coast he drove an Algerian brig ashore, led the boarding party 
in person, got the brig off the shoals, and sent her to a Spanish port. After the 
war he became first lieutenant on the Erie. He now had some leisure and spent 
it in studying common, martial, and international law and was called upon in 
courts-martial. He worked for improved discipline and for the abolition of the 
"cat." He also felt the humiliation of the arrogant attitude of the British naval 
officers and did his best to end this. A Neapolitan supply-provider came on board 
the Erie with credentials signed by an English naval officer which contained an 
insulting remark on Yankee seamen. Stockton challenged the subscriber to a 
duel or apology. They fought and Stockton hit the Englishman in the leg at the 
first shot. Soon thereafter the Erie arrived at Gibraltar. Here he found that 
an American merchant captain had been thrown into jail as a criminal for failure 
to carry a lantern at night. The British officer called him a "damned Yankee 
merchantman." Stockton challenged the English officer to a duel. He wounded 
the officer and his seconds refused further fight except on their own terms. So 
Stockton some time later fought on these terms and wounded the officer a second 
time. The English tried to detain Stockton, who now saw that they were trying 
to ensnare him. He knocked down one of the foot-guards, pulled another from 
his horse, mounted the horse, and rode to his own men, who were waiting for him 
on the shore. The governor of Gibraltar now proceeded to compose the difficulties 
between the English and Americans. Stockton was opposed to dueling, but a duel 
seemed the only method of putting the American navy right with the British. 

In 1821 Stockton was asked by Judge Washington and Francis Key to aid 
the Colonization Society to secure a site in Africa. In a naval schooner he set 
out to look for a healthy locality. Finally, at Cape Mesurado, he found a high, 
undulating, and fertile country; he began to trade with the natives and finally 
negotiated with King Peter and, despite the opposition of a powerful mulatto 
slave-trader, secured the execution of a treaty by which Liberia was acquired; 



204 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

he then cruised for pirates for a time. In 1825 he married and settled at Prince- 
ton on a furlough until 1838. Here he organized the New Jersey Colonization 
Society, established a newspaper, promoted the building of the Delaware and 
Raritan canal, largely with his own money, worked for the Trenton and New 
Brunswick railroad, and took an active part in politics; he also imported and 
raced thoroughbreds. In 1838, as captain, he commanded the Ohio on a cruise 
to the Mediterranean, and about this time made a model of a steamship with 
its machinery below the water-line. In 1841 he was offered the secretaryship 
of the navy, but declined it. He now planned and supervised the building of our 
first steam war-vessel, Princeton. On February 28, 1844, she was being dedicated 
and a large wrought-iron gun was being fired in the presence of President Tyler, 
Secretary of State A. P. Upshur, Secretary of the Navy T. W. Gilmer, and 
others. Stockton stopped firing the gun and refused to continue, but was ordered 
to fire once more. The gun burst and killed several, including Messrs. Upshur 
and Gilmer. In 1844 he was sent by President Tyler to carry the annexation 
resolutions to the government of Texas. In 1845, just before war broke out with 
Mexico, he was sent in the Congress to convey Commissioner Ten Eyck to Hono- 
lulu. While at Callao he found that an American merchant captain had been 
imprisoned while trying to quiet a quarrel between some of his men and some 
Peruvian sailors. Stockton demanded the release of the captain and was refused 
in an overbearing manner. He then gave the authorities fifteen minutes to release 
the man or he would train his ship's guns on the city. The captain was promptly 
released. At Ha wan he composed the quarrel between the king and the American 
representative, Brown. He then went to Monterey, California, and organized 
the citizens of the United States who were in California into a battalion and 
in 1846 issued a proclamation authorizing civil government in the State. He 
attacked the Mexicans at Los Angeles and San Pedro, so that the troops fled and 
the Mexican governor surrendered. Raising an army, he cleared Southern Cali- 
fornia of the enemy, established a newspaper in San Francisco, and organized 
schools. Having been superseded, he returned overland to the East, successfully 
evading threatened Indian attacks en route. He was the recipient of distinguished 
honors in Philadelphia and elsewhere. He resigned from the navy in 1850, to 
devote himself to private interests and State matters. Elected to the United 
States senate in 1850, he introduced a bill to abolish flogging in the navy and urged 
coast defense. Resigning in 1853, he retired to private life. He was elected 
president of the Delaware and Raritan Canal Company, was chosen a delegate 
to the peace congress of 1861, and died at Princeton in 1866. 

Stockton represents the brilliant "frigate-captain" type --a dashing hyper- 
kinetic, who does various jobs well, but organizes no extensive naval campaign. 
His interest in diplomacy was marked from the time of his youthful study of law. 
He was intelligent and administrative. 

He married Harriet, daughter of John Potter, of Charleston, South Carolina, 
and had 6 daughters and 3 sons, of whom none became sailors. (1) Richard be- 
came a lawyer and treasurer of the Camden and Amboy railroad. (2) John was 
a lawyer who went as United States minister to Rome, 1857. He was elected 
United States senator in 1864, and again in 1868; as senator he advocated the 
establishment of life-saving stations on the coast. He served as attorney general 
of New Jersey. (3) Robert Field (1802-1898), was graduated at Princeton in 
1851, admitted to the bar, became brigadier general in 1858, adjutant general 
of the State until 1867, and comptroller of New Jersey, 1877-1888, He was 



STOCKTON. 



205 



president of the Delaware and Raritan Canal Company and director of the United 
New Jersey Railroad and Canal Company. This fraternity illustrates how a 
certain marriage of a nomadic fighter may result in children without his tastes. 

The father of Robert Field Stockton, Richard Stockton, was graduated from 
Princeton and was a leader of the New Jersey bar. Legal talent evidently came 
from this side, for Stockton's brothers had legal (as well as military) interests. 
The father's father was Richard Stockton, a signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence and a lawyer of great coolness and courage. He married Annis Bou- 
dinot, a literary woman full of courage and high spirit, whose presence of mind 
enabled her in the Revolution to save important state papers during the battle 
of Princeton. Her brother Elias was president of the Continental Congress and 
threw himself heart and soul into the patriotic struggle. 

The mother of Robert F. Stockton was Mary Field, daughter of Robert 
(born 1775) and Mary (Peale) Field, of Burlington, New Jersey. Her brother 
Robert married Abigail, a sister of Richard Stockton and a daughter of the signer, 
and had a son, Robert Field (born in 1795), who was a naval officer, but resigned, 
at the age of 25, upon his marriage, to go on a plantation. 

The hyperkinetic tendencies of the propositus probably came from the Bou- 
dinot blood, probably reinforced by certain traits of the Field germ-plasm. 

FAMILY HISTORY OF ROBERT FIELD STOCKTON. 

I 1 (F M F), Elias Boudinot (1706-1770), of Huguenot ancestry. I 2 (F M M), Catherine 
Williams, of Antigua, of Welsh stock. I 3 (F F F), John Stockton (1701-1758), a man of edu- 
cation and influence, and judge of the court of common pleas; a patron of Princeton College. 
14 (F F M), Abigail Phillips, a first cousin on the Stockton aide. 




Fraternity of F M: II 1, Elisha Boudinot, a lawyer of high reputation. II 2, Elias Bou- 
dinot (1740-1821), a lawyer of note; president of the Continental Congress and president of 
the American Bible Society. II 3, Annis Boudinot (1736-1801), a beautiful and gifted woman, 
who had some poetical ability and contributed to periodicals. II 4 (F F), Richard Stockton 
(1730-1781), a jurist of high reputation who signed the Declaration of Independence. II 5 
(M F), Robert Field (1723-1775), in 1774 was chairman of a public meeting of Burlington county 
which sent delegates to the State convention. II 6 (M M), Mary Peale, daughter of Oswald 
Peale. Fraternity of F F: II 9, John Stockton (born 1744), was drowned by the upsetting of 
a yawl. II 10, Samuel W. Stockton (1751-1795), went as secretary of the American commission 
to the courts of Austria and Russia, and was secretary of state for New Jersey in 1794. Ill 11, 
Rev. Philip Stockton, born 1746. 

Fraternity of F: III 1, Lucius Horatio Stockton, United States district attorney for New 
Jersey. Ill 2, Julia Stockton. Ill 3, Benjamin Rush (1746-1813), a signer of the Declaration 
of Independence and a famous physician of Philadelphia. Ill 4, Susan Stockton. Ill 5, Alex- 



206 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

ander Cuthbert, of Canada. Ill 6, Mary Stockton. Ill 7, Andrew Hunter (1752-1823), a 
missionary who became a brigade chaplain in the Revolutionary army and later a chaplain in 
the navy. Ill 8 (F), Richard Stockton (born 1764), stood at the head of the bar in New Jersey 
at the age of 25 years. He was a Presidential elector; a United States senator, and a member of 
Congress from 1813-1815. Ill 9 (M), Mary Field (1766-1837). Fraternity of M: III 11, 
Lydia Field. Ill 12, Adam Hubly. Ill 13, Robert Field (born 1775), a Princeton graduate. 
Ill 14, Abigail Stockton. Ill 15, Richard Howell (1754-1803), served in the army throughout 
the Revolutionary war. Afterwards he practiced law and was elected governor of New Jersey. 

III 16, Miss Burr. Ill 17, Lucius Stockton (born 1771), a lawyer. Ill 18, Eliza Core. Ill 
19, Zachary Cantey, a general of South Carolina. 

IV 1, Richard Rush (born 1780), attorney general of Pennsylvania and United States 
minister to England. IV 2, James Rush (born 1786), followed scientific and literary pursuits. 

IV 3, David Hunter (1802-1886), was graduated from the United States Military Academy 
at West Point in 1822, but afterwards engaged in business in Chicago (1836). Later he served in 
the Mexican war and as brigadier general of volunteers won distinction in the Civil War, being 
made a major general of the United States army in 1865. IV 4, Lewis Boudinot Hunter (born 
1804), served as a surgeon in the Mexican and Civil Wars, retiring with the rank of commodore 
in 1871. IV 5, Mary Hunter. Fraternity of Propositus: IV 6, Samuel Witham Stockton, a 
lieutenant in the United States navy. IV 7, Mary Stockton. IV 8, William Harrison. IV 9, 
Richard Stockton (born 1791), became judge of the Mississippi supreme court, and attorney 
general. IV 10, Julia Stockton, born 1793. IV 11, John Rhinelander. IV 13, Caroline Stock- 
ton. IV 14, William Rotch. IV 15, Annis Stockton, born 1804. IV 16, Hon. John Renshaw 
Thomson, United States senator. IV 17 (Propositus), ROBERT FIELD STOCKTON. IV 18 (con- 
sort), Harriet Maria Potter, of Charleston, South Carolina. IV 19, Robert Field (1767-1850), 
at 12 years of age shipped before the mast on board a man-of-war with his cousin Robert 
Stockton. He became a lieutenant in the navy; and in 1822 resigned and took up plantation 
life in Mississippi. IV 20, Richard Stockton Field (1803-1870), became attorney general of New 
Jersey, 1838-1844. He was professor of law in the New Jersey Law School (1847-1855), and in 
1862 was elected to the United States senate. IV 22, Major Richard Lewis Howell. IV 23, 
Rebecca Stockton, born 1798. IV 24, Charles C. Stockton (born 1796), removed to Kentucky, 
where he died young. IV 25, Lucius W. Stockton (born 1799), was the leading spirit in building 
the historic National Road, the precursor of the trunk-line railroads. IV 26, Mary Remington. 

IV 27, Philip Augustus Stockton (1802-1876), entered the navy in 1819 and served 11 years. 
In 1856 he was appointed consul general for Saxony. IV 28, Sarah Cantey (1813-1835). 

V 1, Samuel Witham Stockton, an aide on the staff of Major General David Hunter in the 
Civil War. V 2, Sarah Hodge. V 3, Mary Stockton. Children of Propositus: V 4, Catherine 
Elizabeth Stockton, died 1875. V 5, William Armstrong Dod, a noted preacher and educator. 

V 6, Richard Stockton (1824-1876), a lawyer, and treasurer of the Camden and Amboy Railroad. 
V 7, John Potter Stockton (born 1826), was United States minister to Rome in 1857 and as United 
States senator in 1869 he advocated the establishment of life-saving stations. He became attor- 
ney general of New Jersey. V 8, Robert Field Stockton (1832-1898), a lawyer and capitalist; 
was a brigadier general in 1858 and adjutant general of New Jersey. V 9, Caroline Stockton. 
V 10, Captain William Rawle Brown, of the United States navy. V 11, Harriet M. Stockton, 
born 1834. V 12, Julia Stockton, born 1837. V 13, Edward M. Hopkins. V 14, Annis Stock- 
ton. V 15, Franklin Howell. V 16, Mary Elizabeth Stockton, born 1830. V 17, John C. 
Howell (born Philadelphia, 1819), entered the navy in 1836 and served in various capacities; was 
acting secretary of the navy at various times between 1874 and 1878, being promoted in 1377 
to rear admiral. V 18, Howard Stockton (born 1842), was a brevet captain, United States army. 
V 19, Philip A. Stockton, was graduated from the United States Military Academy; served in 
the Confederate States army as colonel. V 20, Edward Stockton (born 1849), was a lieutenant 
in the United States navy; entered the Confederate States navy, afterwards an engineer. 

VI 1, Charles Stockton, a civil engineer who died in Nicaragua. VI 2, Samuel Stockton, 
with the "Rough Riders" in Cuba. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

BAYARD, S. T. 1856. A Sketch of the Life of Commodore Robert Field Stockton, with an 

Appendix. New York: Derby and Jackson. 

PEIRCE, F. 1901. Field Genealogy. Chicago: Hammond Press. 2 vols. 
STOCKTON, T. C. 1911. The Stockton Family of New Jersey. Washington: The Carnahan 

Press, xxviii + 350 pp. 



TATTNALL. 207 

64. JOSIAH TATTNALL. 

JOSIAH TATTNALL was born November 9, 1795, in Bonaventura, near Savan- 
nah, Georgia. He became an orphan at an early age and was sent, with his sister 
and brother, to England to be educated. At school, from 10 to 16 years of age, his 
conduct was exemplary and manly; he studied faithfully, but he always retained 
a strong love for outdoors. In 1811 he returned to America, studied medicine for a 
time in Savannah, but found it disgusting and depressing, and so, following his 
inclinations, applied to the navy department and was made a midshipman in 
April 1812. After studying mathematics for a time in Washington, he was ordered 
in August to the Constellation under Commodore Bainbridge. His first engage- 
ment was against the British at Hampton Roads. He helped man the shore bat- 
teries on Craney island which repulsed the British barges, and he was one of those 
who waded out and took possession of the barges which had grounded. Sent 
on special duty to the Lake Erie squadron, he was detailed to arrest deserters. 
Having chastised one who resisted arrest, he was criticized for so doing by his 
commanding officer. Resenting the injustice, he promptly resigned. Later, he 
was induced to withdraw his resignation and was shortly restored to the navy. 
In the meantime, however, the English had captured Washington city. Young 
Tattnall attached himself to a company of volunteers and participated in the dis- 
astrous battle of Bladensburg (August 24, 1814). In his rapid retreat he became 
greatly exhausted and was proffered succor by a planter who discovered him, but he 
declined. He went with Decatur's squadron to the Algerian war and remained 
for some time in Mediterranean waters, profiting by its historical surroundings. 
Upon his return to the United States he was, after examination, promoted to a 
lieutenancy in April 1818. He next served on the Macedonian (on which his inti- 
mate friend Paulding was also lieutenant), and sailed for Valparaiso and a Pacific 
cruise. On account of a disagreement with his captain, he returned to the United 
States in advance of his ship. He was fully exonerated by the Navy Department. 

In 1821 he married a daughter of his mother's sister. While off duty he 
studied mathematics and also perfected himself in the use of the sword, pistol, 
and rifle. He was at this time fond of exercise and a rapid and enduring pedes- 
trian. In 1823 he was on the schooner Jackal, of Commodore Porter's mosquito 
fleet, organized to suppress piracy in the West Indies. From 1814 to 1825 he was 
with the Mediterranean squadron. In 1828 he reported as first lieutenant to 
Commander Turner on board the Erie and, as such, successfully conducted the 
cutting-out expedition for salvage of the Federal. 

In 1829 he surveyed the Dry Tortugas for the government fortifications 
subsequently built there. During the next few years Tattnall saw a varied service 
on the Gulf of Mexico, connected, more or less directly, with the storm brewing 
between Mexico, Texas, and the United States. Thus, in 1835, he brought the 
defeated Santa Anna to Vera Cruz, where the soldiery were hostile, and handed 
him over to his friends. In 1838 he was appointed commander and placed in 
charge of the Boston navy yard. Next being put in charge of a fine new corvette, 
the Saratoga, he was caught in a southeast gale before he had cleared the New 
England coast, so that he was nearly driven upon the shore and only saved himself 
by cutting away the masts and anchoring. After refitting, he carried Commodore 
Perry, in the Saratoga, to the west coast of Africa to watch slavers. 

In the Mexican war he commanded the mosquito division of small vessels 
that covered the landing of General Scott's army at Vera Cruz, and also helped 



208 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

bombard the city. He bombarded Tuxpan, also, and was wounded severely in 
the arm by stray shrapnel; consequently he had to return home to recuperate 
(1847). Sent to the coast of Cuba, where American ships were filibustering, 
he found that attempts would be made by an American naval commander to 
release captured American ships in possession of Spanish war-ships on the high 
seas. Tattnall, realizing that this meant war, so informed the governor general 
of Cuba, who ordered that all American vessels taken into Cuban ports should 
be held there and not brought over to Havana harbor. Thus the clash of naval 
vessels was averted. His course was warmly applauded by his government. 
In 1857 he was ordered to take charge of the China squadron a well-warranted 
tribute to his diplomacy. Ordered to take the new American minister to Pekin, 
he was a witness of the English and French attack on the Chinese forts at the 
mouth of the Pei-ho. In this battle he took a more active part than strict neu- 
trality warranted, but his explanation, "blood is thicker than water," was accepted 
by our government. He shortly afterward returned to the United States, where 
he received many honors. 

In February 1861, Georgia having seceded, Tattnall resigned from the navy 
of the United States, reported to the governor of Georgia, and was placed in defense 
of the waters of South Carolina and Georgia. In this capacity he fought the naval 
battle of Port Royal harbor and was defeated by the greater force of the enemy. 
He continued to attack the squadron blockading the Savannah river, erected 
batteries, and hindered as he could the operation of the Federal naval forces. 
After the battle between the Monitor and the Merrimac (the latter commanded 
by Franklin Buchanan, who was wounded), he was given command of the Con- 
federate fleet at Norfolk, with directions to hoist his flag on the Virginia (i.e., the 
Merrimac). This he did, but was unable to fight his ship and, finally, when the 
Federals captured the Norfolk navy yard, he burned her. He was court-martialed 
for the act and acquitted. Sent to defend Savannah harbor, he set to work to 
make a fleet, but this he had to destroy (January 1865) when Savannah was cap- 
tured. After the war he resided for four years in Halifax, but lack of funds made 
it necessary for him to return to Savannah, where the post of inspector of the 
port was created for him (1870). He died June 14, 1871. 

Tattnall was fearless. As a mere lad he helped salvage the grounded barge 
of the enemy under the guns of the enemy's fleet. When his captain found a cap- 
tured American ship, the Federal, in the port at St. Bartholomew, it was Tattnall 
who undertook to row to the vessel, which lay right under the guns of the fort, 
to hoist her sails and weigh anchor. Just then the midnight exploit was detected 
by the garrison of the fort, whose cannonading, however, came too late to be 
effective. Being denounced for this act by an American filibuster, who threat- 
ened him with "chastisement at sight," Tattnall "sought the threatener, who 
then fled at sight of him and went into hiding." When he brought Santa Anna 
to Vera Cruz and noticed the hostile troops that threatened Santa Anna, Tattnall 
took his arm and walked with him to the hotel. The mob was so impressed by 
the boldness of the act that the idea of assassination was replaced by enthusiastic 
welcome. "Tattnall knew the danger, but danger seemed always a welcome 
guest to him." Similar courage was shown by his father, also, as when, at the 
age of 18 years, he left his loyalist father in England and disobediently returned 
to America to fight on the colonial side, and as when, after the war, he organized 
militia bands to quell Indian troubles in Georgia. 



TATTNALL. 209 

Tattnall's judgment in diplomacy was excellent. This may be in part due to 
the great interest in history which he had from early youth. When at 16 years 
of age the ship in which he was leaving England for America was held up at Cowes 
by adverse winds, he says: "I resided on shore and visited places of historical 
note in the vicinity, thus indulging a natural taste which has increased with the 
years." Later, when with Decatur's squadron in the Mediterranean, he profited 
by a long sojourn to examine its historical surroundings. When off duty and not 
otherwise employed, he was much given to reading. With a well-stored mind, 
stored especially with historical data, he was able to act wisely, whether in dis- 
agreeing with superior officers, preventing a war with Spain over Cuba, or han- 
dling a delicate situation with Chinese officials. His judgment in maneuvering 
his section of the impotent Confederate navy was excellent, and when he was 
overruled disaster followed. His act in saving the Saratoga by cutting away its 
masts was a novel but an extremely wise method of meeting the emergency. His 
father, also, must have shown good judgment to gain the ever-increasing regard 
of his fellow-citizens, which during war brought him rapid promotion and during 
peace carried him to the governorship of Georgia. 

Tattnall had a keen sense of honor. When criticized unjustly by a superior 
officer in the navy he resigned. At Valparaiso he fought one duel and was ready 
for a second, but could find no antagonist. After the English naval officer had 
helped him off the shoal of the Pei-ho, on which his vessel had struck, he felt it 
his duty to help the English officer when he was getting badly whipped in battle 
with the Chinese fort. He insisted on a court of inquiry and court-martial when 
criticized for his course in the Confederate navy. 

Generosity was a marked trait of Josiah Tattnall. He twice made large 
loans while on the Mediterranean, "as he was easily prevailed upon to do." The 
first debtor died before he had a chance to repay; with the second Tattnall later 
quarreled and when, through a friend, the loan was returned, Tattnall, remarking 
"Tell the gentleman the debt is paid," tossed the money into the sea. 

He was affable and companionable in his intercourse with his fellow-officers, 
and with his friends joyous, guileless, and playful. His conversation, "adorned 
by anecdote, and with a remarkable felicity of illustration, enlivened by humor, 
and sparkling with wit was genial and charming in the extreme; with an over- 
flowing spirit of kindliness at the helm, neither severity nor sarcasm ever entered 
there." 

He loved the excitement of warfare. He writes: "The belief that, even in 
these dull times, there is a possibility of seeing some service more exciting than 
mere making and taking in of sail, has given us something of a war animation." 
When shot, at Tuxpan, it is stated that he cared little for the wound, since the 
expedition was successful. It is interesting that his father was a successful Revo- 
lutionary general and that his mother's sister's son, Christopher Gadsden, com- 
manded the United States brig Vixen. 

"No man that trod a deck ever came to a decision more promptly than he, 
or forced its execution through all opposing circumstances with more energy and 
resolution." His perception was like the lightning's flash. The execution followed 
and with a force sufficient to overcome the resistance to be encountered. This 
rapidity of thought and action gave to his conduct, at times, an appearance of 
rashness. 



210 



HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 




FAMILY HISTORY OF JOSIAH TATTNALL. 

II (F F F), Tattnall, went from Eng- 
land to South Carolina in 1700. I 2 (F F M), 

Barnewall, granddaughter of an Irish peer. I 3 
(F M F), Colonel John Mulryne, purchased the 
Bona ventura estate a few miles below Savannah and 
settled it in 1762. 

Fraternity of F F: II 2, Thomas Boone, royal 
governor of the province of South Carolina. II 3 
(F F), Josiah Tattnall, a loyalist; returned to Eng- 
land, 1776; his estates were confiscated. II 4 
(F M), Miss Mulryne. II 5 (M F), Edward 
Fenwick, of South Carolina, came of a family of 
great influence and antiquity. 

III 1, Colonel Boone, of the Guards. Fraternity of F: III 2, John Tattnall, returned 
to England. Ill 3 (F), Josiah Tattnall, went to England with his parents but declined a com- 
mission in the Royal Army and, against his father's wishes, returned to America, where he served 
under General Greene until the end of the war. Later he was colonel of the First Georgia regi- 
ment and then brigadier general of the First Brigade of State forces; elected a number of the 
legislature and of the United States senate, and made governor of Georgia. He died in the West 

Indies in 1804 in his thirty-seventh year. Ill 4 (M), Fenwick, died ca. 1803. Fraternity 

of M: III 6, Ebenezer Jackson, served with distinction in the Revolutionary army. Ill 8, 
Christopher Gadsden. 

Fraternity of Propositus: IV 1, Edward Fenwick Tattnall, educated in England. IV 2, 

Tattnall, educated in England. IV 3 (Propositus), JOSIAH TATTNALL. IV 4 (consort), 

Jackson. IV 5, Christopher Gadsden, commanded the United States brig Vixen. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 
JONES, C. 1878. Life and Services of Commodore Josiah Tattnall. Savannah: x + 259 pp. 



65. MARTEN HARPERTS TROMP. 

MARTEN HARPERTS TROMP was born at Brielle, South Holland, in 1597. 
He went to sea in his father's boat at 9 years of age. In a fight off Gibraltar he 
was told by his father to stay in the cabin but, in the thick of battle, he came on 
deck just in time to see his father die. He turned to the sailors and urged them 
to avenge his father's death. Left now an orphan, he began at the bottom as 
cabin-boy, and became captain of a Dutch naval frigate at the age of 27. In 1639 
he surprised, off the Flemish coast, a large Spanish fleet which he completely 
destroyed. The circumstances were these: The Spanish fleet comprised 67 men- 
of-war, 2,000 guns, and 24,000 men. The Dutch had only 31 ships. The first 
attack was made in the moonlight and was so severe that the Spanish fleet sought 
refuge off the Downs, England, where the English admiral warned the Dutch not to 
attack. Tromp blockaded the fleet until he had added to his own vessels. Finally 
he sailed into the Spanish fleet, of which 22 ships deliberately ran ashore; the 
giant of the fleet was set in flames by a fire-ship and exploded; 11 surrendered 
without a shot. Of the 67 men-of-war only 18 reached Dunkerque and they 
were in a pitiable condition; the rest were destroyed or taken. A large part of 
the 24,000 men were lost in the battle and its after effects. In this battle 
Tromp showed great audacity in opposing the orders of the British admiral. He 
defeated the British in November 1652 and again, in February 1653, prevented 
a great British fleet from destroying his convoy. He is one of the few naval com- 
manders who defeated a British fleet. 

His son Cornelius van Tromp (1629-1691) at the age of 19 commanded a 
small squadron against the Barbary pirates. In 1653 he was made rear admiral 



TROMP TUCKER. 211 

in consequence of his gallantry in action with the English fleet off Leghorn, one 
of which (the Phcenix) he boarded and took after a severe fight, and the rest of 
which he helped defeat in a bloody battle. He was impetuous, even rash, and not 
always amenable to discipline. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 
LIEFDE, JACOB DE. The Great Dutch Admirals. London: H. S. King & Co. 351 pp. 

66. JOHN RANDOLPH TUCKER. 

JOHN RANDOLPH TUCKER l was born at Alexandria, Virginia, January 31, 
1812. He was educated in the schools of his native city. He early showed a 
longing for the sea and entered the United States navy as midshipman at 15 years 
of age. He passed some years in the Mediterranean station, and was made lieu- 
tenant in 1837. He entered the Mexican war on the Stromboli, a bomb-brig, 
and at its close was lieutenant commander. After additional service in the Medi- 
terranean he was made commander of the Pennsylvania, a receiving ship at Nor- 
folk, and was ordnance officer at the New York navy yard when Virginia seceded. 
He thereupon became a commander in the Confederate navy and was given charge 
of the Patrick Henry, a paddle-wheel steamer, partly protected by iron plates. 
He took part in the naval battle in Hampton Roads when the Merrimac (Virginia) 
rammed and sank the Cumberland. After the retreat up the James, the guns 
of the Patrick Henry were placed on Drury's Bluff and used to drive off the Federal 
ironclad fleet that essayed to pass it. At Charleston, South Carolina, Tucker 
kept the Federal fleet from attacking the city and helped repulse the attack on 
Fort Sumter. After the evacuation of Charleston, Tucker went to Richmond 
and did not leave until he saw the city evacuated. After the war he was offered 
(in 1866) the command of the Peruvian fleet as rear admiral, accepted it, and 
commanded the fleets of Peru and Chile in their war with Spain. As president 
of the Peruvian Hydrographical Commission of the Amazon, he explored the 
upper courses of that river, coming twice to the United States for light-draft 
steamers. Again he returned to the States to publish his maps, but, as Peru was 
now financially unable to pay for the work, Tucker went to Petersburg, Virginia, 
where he died, hi 1883, of heart disease. 

His family history has not been well worked out. His father, John Tucker, 
came to Virginia from Bermuda, and his mother's father, Dr. Charles Douglas, 
from England. 

1 Rochelle, J. H. 1903. The Life of Rear Admiral John Randolph Tucker. Washington: 
The Neale Publishing Co. 112 pp. 



212 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

67. JOHN ANCRUM WINSLOW. 

JOHN ANCRUM WINSLOW was born at Wilmington, North Carolina, Nov- 
ember 19, 1811. He was appointed a midshipman in February 1827. In 1839 he 
was commissioned a lieutenant; during the Mexican war he took part in various 
skirmishes on the coast, and was left for six weeks at Tampico to guard the 
arsenal. After the war he was commissioned a commander, was a light-house 
inspector for two years and, on the breaking out of the Civil War, was ordered 
to join Foote's Mississippi River flotilla, which, with half a dozen other officers, 
he practically constructed. Winslow took two of the flotilla down the river to 
Cairo. In 1863 he was given command of the Kearsarge and was sent to Europe 
to destroy Confederate cruisers. While off Cherbourg he found the Alabama 
there and received a challenge from her to fight. The fight ensued. The Ala- 
bama fired rapidly, aimed badly, and was sunk. Winslow fought his ship coolly 
and with special admonitions against too rapid firing and careless aim. The 
Kearsarge also had the advantage of two 11-inch Dahlgren guns. Promoted to 
commodore and later to rear admiral, Winslow for two years was in command of 
the Pacific squadron. He died in 1873. His striking traits were: 

Nomadism. As a boy he frequented the docks and shipping of Wilmington, 
North Carolina, and at the age of 10 years induced his brother Edward to "accom- 
pany him upon an impromptu voyage. They cast themselves adrift in a ship's 
boat, erected a bush for a sail, and, favored by the wind and tide, were swept 
rapidly to sea." Fortunately they were rescued by an incoming vessel. He 
liked to roam the woods with his dog. When ready for college he desired to enter 
the navy and secured a commission. 

Fearlessness. He early learned to use firearms, and was given dogs and a 
gun that he might hunt wild beasts. 

He was simple, persevering, steadfast, of indomitable energy, iron will, and 
defiant courage, yet modest, unassuming, and gentle; he looked more like a divine 
than a fighter. He combined "in his inheritance the simplicity, perseverance, 
integrity, and fortitude of the Plymouth Rock Pilgrims with the courage, chivalry, 
and dash of the gentry of Carolina. 

He married his cousin, Catherine Amelia Winslow, daughter of Benjamin 
Winslow, of Boston, and had, among others, two sons who were in the navy: 

Herbert Winslow, born in 1848, was graduated at the United States Naval 
Academy in 1869; he commanded the United States steamer Fern at the battle 
of Santiago; was in the Boxer Rebellion in China, and landed the first detachment 
of marines at Taku. He became a rear admiral in 1909 and died in 1914. 

William Randolph Winslow was a paymaster in the navy, and died in 1869. 
He had a son, Eben Eveleth Winslow, who was graduated from West Point at the 
head of his class in 1869, and became a captain, corps of engineers, United States 
army. 

John A. Winslow's mother's mother's mother's father was Colonel William 
Rhett, speaker of the House of Commons of South Carolina when he was com- 
missioned as vice admiral in 1704 and placed in command of an improvised naval 
force. With this he defeated a force of French and Spaniards who sailed against 
Charleston. In 1716 he captured "Blackboard," a well-known pirate. Later he 
was appointed governor general of the Bahamas, but he never accepted the posi- 
tion. "From this hero of Carolina, Winslow inherited the ambition to become 
a naval warrior and the qualities necessary for success in such a calling." 



WINSLOW. 



213 



FAMILY HISTORY OP JOHN ANCRUM WINSLOW. 

II (M M M F F), Robert Wright, chief justice 
of South Carolina. 1 3 (M M M M F), William Rhett 
(1666-1722) (see text). 14 (M M M M M), Sarah 
Cooke (1665-1745). I 5, Nicholas Trott (1663-1740), 
chief justice of South Carolina; a man of profound 
scholarship and an eminent legal writer. 

II 1 (M M F F), James Hasell, chief justice of 
North Carolina colony. Fraternity of M M M F: II 
3, Sir James Wright (1714-1785), the last royal gover- 
nor of Georgia. II 4 (M M M F), Richard Wright 
(1698-1744). II 5 (M M M M), Mary Rhett (1714- 
1744). Fraternity of M M M M: II 7, Sarah Rhett 
(1697-1761). II 8, Eleazar Allen, chief justice of 
North Carolina. II 9, Catherine Rhett (1705-1745). 
II 11, William Rhett (1695-1728). II 12, Mary Trott. 

III 1 (M M F), James Hasell (1727- 
1769). Ill 2 (M M M), Sarah Wright 
(1736-1754). Ill 3, Sir Thomas Frank- 
land, an admiral of the Royal Navy. 
Ill 4, Sarah Rhett, born 1722. Ill 6, 
Mary Jane Rhett. Ill 7, John, eighth 
Lord Colville. 

IV 1 (M F), John Ancrum (died 
1779), chairman of the committee of safety 
in the Revolution. IV 2 (M M), Mary 
Hasell (1753-1794). IV 5, Sir Thomas 
Frankland (1750-1831). IV 6, Ann 
Frankland, died 1842. IV 7, John Lewis, 
member of the British Parliament. IV 8, 
Dinah Frankland, died 1795. IV 9, Wil- 
liam Bowles. IV 10, Catherine Frank- 
land. IV 11, Sir Thomas Whinyates, an 
admiral of the Royal Navy. IV 12, 
Charlotte Frankland. IV 13, Robert 
Nicholas, member of Parliament. IV 14, 
William Frankland (died 1816), member 
of Parliament and lord of admiralty. IV 
17, Roger Frankland (died 1816), canon 
of Wells. IV 18, Catherine Colville. 

V 1 (consort's F), Benjamin Winslow, 
of Boston. V 3 (F), Edward Winslow 
(born Boston, 1788), in 1807 removed to 
Wilmington, North Carolina, where he 
engaged in commercial pursuits. V 4 (M), 
Sarah Eliza Ancrum, died 1837. V 5 
(first consort of M), James McAlister. 
V 6 (second consort of M), William G. 
Berry. Fraternity of M: V 7, James 
Hasell Ancrum. V 8, Jane Washington. 
V 9, Sir Thomas Frankland Lewis (1780- 
1855) ; member of Parliament ; vice presi- 
dent of the Board of Trade; treasurer of 
the navy. V 11, Sir William Bowles (died 
1869); admiral of the white; K. C. B. V 12, Sir George Bowles, a general of the army; 
K. C. B. V 13, Henry Bowles. V 15, Sir Thomas Whinyates, an admiral of the Royal Navy. 
V 16, Edward Whinyates, a colonel in the British army. V 17, Frederick Whinyates, a captain 
of engineers, Royal army. V 18, Francis Whinyates, a captain in the East India service. V 20, 
Edward Nicholas (died 1828), in the diplomatic service. V 21, Robert Nicholas (died 1828), 




214 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

a post captain of the Royal Navy. V 22, William Nicholas, a major in the army; killed at Bada- 
joz, Spain, 1812. V 23, Thomas Nicholas, a lieutenant in the Royal Navy; lost at sea. V 24, 
Charles Nicholas, a barrister. V 26, Sir Frederick William Frankland (1793-1873). V 27, 
Katharina Margaret Scarth. V 28, Edward Augustus Frankland, a rear admiral of the Royal 
Navy. V 29, Charles Colville Frankland (died 1876), an admiral of the Royal Navy. 

VI 1 (consort), Catherine Amory Winslow, a cousin. VI 2 (Propositus), JOHN ANCRTJM 
WINSLOW. Fraternity of Propositus: VI 3, Edward Davis Winslow, born 1810. VI 5, James 
Hasell Winslow (1816-1830). Half-fraternity of Propositus: VI 6, Louisa McAlister. VI 7, 
Captain James Ward. VI 10, Frederick Roger Frankland, died of fever while a midshipman 
off Sierra Leone. VI 11, Thomas Frankland (1828-1857), killed at Lucknow. VI 12, Harry 
Albert Frankland, died while a midshipman off Vera Cruz. VI 13, Sir William A. Frankland 
(born 1837), a lieutenant colonel of the Royal Engineers. 

Children of Propositus: VII 1, James (born 1839) and Chilton Rhett (born 1840), Winslow, 
died unmarried. VII 2, William Randolph Winslow (1841-1869), a paymaster in the United 
States navy. VII 3, Catherine Eveleth. VII 4, Frances Amory (born 1843) and Mary Catherine 
(1845-1895), Winslow, died unmarried. VII 5, Herbert Winslow (born 1848) (see text). 

Children's children of Propositus: Eben Eveleth Winslow (born 1867), graduated at the 
head of his class from the United States Military Academy in 1889 and became captain, corps 
of engineers, United States army. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

ELLICOTT, J. 1902. The Life of John Ancrum Winslow. New York: C. P. Putnam's Sons. 

x + 275 pp. 
HEYWARD, B. 1903. The Descendants of Col. William Rhett of South Carolina. (In: The 

South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine. Vol. IV, pp. 37-74: 108-189.) 



68. WILLIAM WOLSELEY. 

WILLIAM WOLSELEY was born at Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia, in 1756. 
In 1764 his family removed to Ireland, where he went to school for two years. 
In 1769 he was put on a naval vessel under the command of the husband of his 
mother's sister. Two years later he attended a naval school for some months and 
then sailed to Jamaica as a midshipman. In 1773 he sailed for the East Indies 
and was gone five years. In 1778 he was, as a lieutenant, in action with the French. 
Then he was sent again, by his own request, to the East Indies, where he led a 
storming party at Ceylon and was severely wounded. After participating in 
four great naval battles in the Indian Ocean, he was made a captain, but he was 
taken prisoner by the French and released only when peace was declared. In 
1785 he was appointed captain of the Trusty, the flagship of his mother's brother, 
Commodore Cosby, in the Mediterranean. In his later years Admiral Wolseley 
spent most of his time on shore and died in 1842 from the results of an old wound. 

Wolseley seems to have been somewhat nomadic and, even in his later years 
on land, took frequent excursions. He was apparently somewhat hypokinetic 
a man of strong religious principles, who secured a high position in the navy by 
steady good conduct and strict performance of duty. His kindness and amia- 
bility won him the affection and esteem of others, including his sailors. 

His father's father's father, Captain Richard Wolseley, was in the army 
under William III, and later was a member of Parliament. From him is descended 
also Field Marshal Viscount Wolseley, born in 1833. His father was William Ne- 
ville Wolseley, who, in 1750, was a captain in the Forty-seventh regiment serving 
in Nova Scotia. 

His mother was Ann Cosby, of Nova Scotia. Her eldest brother was a cap- 
tain in the army and was killed and scalped by Indians in 1748. Her younger 



WOLSELEY. 



215 



brother, Phillips Cosby, entered the navy and succeeded to the family property 
in 1774, but was too fond of his profession to exchange it for that of a country 
gentleman, so he continued to serve and commanded the Centaur (74 guns) in an 
engagement with the French. In the engagement of March 1781, in command of 
the Robust (74 guns) he bore the brunt of the battle. As vice admiral he was put 
in command of the Mediterranean squadron and in 1790 was made commander 
in chief of the Irish coast. One notes a strong resemblance between his career 
and that on the propositus. 

Ann Cosby's father was Alexander, the lieutenant governor of Nova Scotia 
until his death in 1743, and one of his brothers, Lieutenant General William Cosby, 
was for a time governor of New York and the Jerseys. He died in 1736. 

FAMILY HISTORY OF WILLIAM WOLSELEY. 

I 1 (F F F), Richard Wolseley, was in the army in Ireland under William III; later was 
a member of Parliament. I 2 (F F M), Frances Burneston. I 3 (F M F), Mr. Waring, a 
gentleman of County Kilkenny. I 5 
(M F F), Alexander Cosby. 1 7 (M M F), 
Alexander Winniett, of Annapolis Royal. 

Fraternity of F F: II 1, Richard 
Wolseley, created a baronet in 1744; 
member of Parliament. II 3, William 
Wolseley, fifth baronet. II 4 (F F), Robert 
Wolseley. II 5 (F M), Miss Waring. 
Fraternity of M F: II 6, William Cosby 
(died 1736), a lieutenant general; governor 
of New York and the Jerseys. II 7, 
Elizabeth Cosby. II 8, Richard Phillips, 
governor of Nova Scotia. II 10 (M M), 
Anne Winniett. Fraternity of M M: II 
11, Winnett, a judge. 

III 1 (consort's F), John Moore, of 
County Down. Ill 3 (F), William Neville 
Wolseley, a captain in the army, served 

in Nova Scotia; later he sold out and returned to England. Ill 4 (M), Anne Cosby. Frater- 
nity of M: III 5, Elizabeth Cosby. Ill 6, Captain Foye. Ill 7, Captain Charles Cotterhill. 

III 8, Mary Cosby. Ill 9, Captain John Buchanan. Ill 10 William Cosby (died 1748), 
a captain in the army. Ill 11, Phillips Cosby (died 1808), rose to the rank of admiral of the 
white (see text). 

IV 1 (consort's B), Hugh Moore, a captain in the army. IV 2 (consort), Jane Moore 
(died 1820), an amiable and beautiful woman. IV 3 (Propositus}, WILLIAM WOLSELEY. Fra- 
ternity of Propositus: IV 5, Elizabeth Wolseley. IV 6, Lamphier, of the Royal Navy. 

IV 7, Robert Wolseley, born Annapolis Royal, 1753. 

Children of Propositus: V 1, John Hood Wolseley (born Ireland, 1796), was a midshipman 
on the Superb and served in the attack upon Algiers, August 1816, being favorably mentioned 
in the dispatches. Later he was appointed a lieutenant and sailed for Rio Janeiro; died 1827. 

V 2, Cosby William Wolseley (1805-1868), was appointed in 1828 an ensign in the army, but 
retired from the army in 1839. He "was intended for the church" but disliked that profession. 
V 3, Sydney Anne Wolseley (1808-1870). V 4, Colonel John Madden. V 5, Mary Jervis 
Wolseley (1801-1886). V 6, Arthur Innes, justice of the peace of County Down. 

VI 1, Garnet Joseph Wolseley (born Ireland, 1833), distinguished himself in China, India, 
Canada, Africa, and Egypt and was created a viscount for his services. In 1894 he was promoted 
to be field marshal and in 1895 he was made commander in chief of the British forces. VI 2, 
Mary Innes, author of "A Memoir of William Wolseley." 




BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

INNES, M. 1895. A Memoir of William Wolseley. 
& Co. 249 pp. 



London: K. Paul, Trench, Trubner 



INDEX. 



Abbot, H., 126 

Abercorn, James, Duke of, 106 
Adair, Robert, 116 
Addison, Charles, 136 

, Dr. S. Ridout, 136 

Alava, Admiral, 60 
Albemarle, Earl of, 117 
Alessandro, Donna Catalina, 

78 
Alexander, Dr., 124 

, Sarah, 165 

, William, 132 

Allardyce, A., 78 
Allen, Eleazar, 213 
Allen, Ethan, 23, 71 

, Pickering Dodge, 199 

Allington, Lord William, 105 
Altamont, Lord, Marquis of 

Sligo, 105 
Amadas, Joan, 97 
Ancrum, James H., 213 

, John, 213 

, Sarah E., 213 

Anderson, Dorothy M., 159 

, Evelina, 179 

, Larz, 162 

, Philip, 159 

, Thomas, 179 

, William, 179 

, William H., 184 

Andre, Major John, 17, 21, 

155, 156 

Andrews, Susan, 153 
Angell, James, 100 

, Nathan, 100 

Anson, George, 106, 108 

, Isabella, 106 

, Lord, 197 

, William, 108, 109 

Arabin, Captain, 202 
Armadas, Captain, 185 
Armstrong, Commodore, 87 
Armytage, G., 109 
Arnold, Benedict, 155, 166, 

168, 202 

, Caleb, 168 

, Joanna, 168 

, Penelope, 168 

Ascough, Ann, 193, 194 

, Richard, 193, 194 

Atwater, Elizabeth, 90 
Aucher, , 186 
Austin, Julia, 156 

Bacon, Lord, 203 
Bagwell, Ada, 153 



NAMES OF PERSONS. 

Bailey, Captain, 160 
Baillie-Hamilton, Henry, 129 
Bainbridge, Absalom, 37 

.William, 5, 6, 10, 36, 207 

Baldwin, J., 73, 170 
Bancroft, Aaron, 45 

, Charles, 46 

, George, 46 

, Henry, 46 

, Jane Putnam, 46 

, John, 46 

, Samuel, 46 

, Thomas, 46 

Bangs, Edward, 183 

, Josiah, 182, 183 

, Mehitable, 183 

Banker, Joshua Loring, 63 
Barber, Susanna, 168 
Barclay, Ann O'Connor, 195 

, John Mortimer, 195 

Bard, Susan, 193 

, William, 195 

Barker, Mary, 62 
Barlow, Arnica, 184 

, Frances Emma, 184 

, Francis Joel, 182, 184 

, Frederick, 182 

, Frederick Stanley, 184 

, Harriet, 159, 184 

, Joel, 183, 184 

, Samuel, 183 

, Thomas, 182, 184 

Barlowe, Captain, 185 
Barnes, J., 83 
Barnett, J., 73 

, W., 128 

Barnewall, , 210 
Barney, Elizabeth, 38, 39 

, George Deverell, 39 

, Henry, 39 

, James W., 39 

, John, 39 

, John Holland, 38 

, Joseph, 5, 6, 10, 30, 37, 

38 

, Joseph Nicholson, 39 

, Joshua, 38, 39 

, Louis, 39 

, Margaret, 38 

, Martha, 38 

, Nathan, 39 

, Peggy, 38 

, William, 38-39 

, William Stephenson, 38 

Barrington, Capt. George, 116 

, Mary, 116 

217 



Barren, Sir James, 10, 44, 46, 
69, 181, 188, 202 

, Mary Allen, 44, 46 

Barrows, Sir John, 106 
Barry, John, 5, 6, 10, 40, 41, 69 
Bass, Mary Butler, 62 

, Moses Belcher, 62 

Bassett, Sarah, 134 
Bayard, S. T., 206 
Beaver, Edward, 42 

, Herbert, 42 

, James, 42 

, Rev. James, 41 

-, Philip, 5, 7, 10, 41, 42 



Bedford, Ann, 38 

- , Gunning, 38 
Beeke, L., 174 
Belcher, Sir Edward, 130 
Belmont, August, 169, 170 

- , Fredericka, 170 

- , Jane Perry, 170 

- , Oliver Hazard Perry, 

170 
Perry, 170 



, Raymond, 170 



Bendyshe, John, 145-147 

- , Richard, 147 
Benham, Mercy, 89 
Bennett, Sarah, 89 
Beresford, Charles, 44 

- , Lord, Charles William 

de la Poer, 5, 6, 7, 
10, 29, 44 

- , Delaval, 43 

- , George de la Poer, 43 

- , George Thomas, 43 

- , Henry de la Poer, 43, 

44 

- , Henry John Talbot, 44 

- , James, 43 

- , John, 42 

- , John George, 43 

- , Sir John Poo, 43 

- , John de la Poer, 44 

- , Marcus, 43 

- , Sarah Elizabeth, 44 

- , William, 42, 44 

- , Viscount William Carr, 

43 

- , William Leslie de la 

Poer, 44 

Berkeley, Admiral, 131 
Berner, Dorothy, 146 
Berry, William G., 213 
Blackboard, 212 
Bladen, Elizabeth, 95 



218 



NAMES OF PERSONS. 



Bladen, Frances, 95 

, Hammond, 95 

, Isabelle, 95 

, Col. Martin, 95 

, Nathaniel, 95 

, Thomas, 95 

Blake, Alexander, 47, 48 

, Benjamin, 47, 48 

, Charles Pollen, 45, 46 

, Charles Follen Blood, 

45, 46 

, Charlotte Caldwell, 46 

, Dorothea Ward, 46 

, Elizabeth, 46 

, Francis, 28, 46 

, Francis Arthur, 46 

, Francis Barren, 45, 46 

, George, 45, 47, 48 

, George Smith, 6, 7, 10, 

44, 46, 52 

, Humphrey, 47, 48 

, John, 45 

, Joseph Gardner, 46 

, Joshua, 45 

, Julianna, 46 

, Nicholas, 47, 48 

, Robert, 5, 6, 10, 28, 29, 

47, 48, 122 

, Samuel, 47, 48 

, William, 46, 47, 48 

Blanckley, Edmund, 145 

, Henry D., 147 

Bland, Bryant, 146 

, Rev. John, 146 

, Mary, 146 

Blaney, Lord, 95 

, Sarah, 95 

Bligh, Capt. William, 83 
Bogardus, Gen. Robert, 17, 

151, 153 

, Sarah, 151, 153 

Boggs, Charles S., 15, 118, 119 

, Robert, 118, 119 

Bolivar, Gen. Simon, 154 
Bolton, Catherine, 145, 147 

, Charles Burrard, 147 

, Rev. Edward, 147 

, Rev. Edward John, 147 

, Elizabeth, 145, 147 

, Harriet, 145 

, Horatio, 145, 147 

, Horatio William, 147 

, John Horatio, 147 

, Maurice Henry Ho- 
ratio, 147 

, Maurice Horatio, 147 

, Susanna, 145 

, Thomas, 144, 147 

, Sir William, 145, 147 

, William Henry, 147 

Bonaparte, Napoleon, 77, 133, 

138, 139, 142, 196, 

201 

Boone, Thomas, 210 
Booth, John, 92 

, Mary, 92 

Borden, Ann, 54 
, Joseph, 53, 54 



Borden, Mary, 54 
Bcrodell, Ann, 72, 168 
Boudinot, Annis, 205 

, Elias, 205 

, Elisha, 205 

Bouten, Eli, 63 

, Mary Isabel, 63 

Bo wen, Harriet, 136 

, William, 136 

, William Corlis, 136 

Bowles, Elizabeth, 127, 128 

, Sir George, 213 

, Henry, 213 

, William, 213 

, Sir William, 213 

Boyle, Lady Gertrude, 58 
Braddock, General, 74 
Bradford, G., 198, 199 
Broadley, A. M., 94 
Brady, C., 70 
Bartelot, R. G., 94 
Breed, Edward, 156 

, George, 155, 156 

, Richard, 156 

Brenton, Benjamin, 50 

, C., 50 

, Ebenezer, 50 

, Edward P., 49, 50, 103, 

109 

, Harriet May, 50 

, Henrietta, 49 

, Isabella, 50 

, J., 5, 7, 10, 49, 50 

, Sir Jahleel, 49 

, James, 50 

, James Wallace, 50 

, Jervis, 49 

, John James, 50 

, Sir Launcelot Lee, 50 

, Sarah, 89 

, William, 49, 89 

Brereton, General, 140 
Bridge, Admiral, 47 
Bridport, Baron, 145 

, Samuel, Lord, 147 

Broke, Captain, 134 
Bronte, Duchess of, 145 
Brown, Abigail, 52 

, Annie, 52 

, Ann Greenough, 52 

, Dorothy. 52 

, Dorothy Pike, 51 

, Capt. Edward, 52 

, Elizabeth, 52 

, Esther, 52 

, James, 52 

, John R., 179 

, Joseph, 51, 62 

, Lawrence, 52 

, Lucy, 52 

, Mary, 52 

, Moses, 6, 10, 28, 51, 52 

, Nathan, 52 

, Nicholas, 52 

, Ruth, 52 

, Sarah, 52 

, Sarah Coffin, 52 

Brown, Susanna, 52 



Brown , William, 51, 52 

, William Rawle, 206 

Browne, Elizabeth, 147 
Bruce, Lady Mary, 57 
Brudinel, Anna, 115 
Bruix, Admiral, 77 
Buchanan, Adeline, 55 

, Alice L., 55 

, Andrew, 54, 55 

, Ann, 55 

, Ann Lloyd, 53 

, Ann McKean, 55 

, Caroline, 55 

, Catherine, 55 

, Elizabeth, 55 

, Ellen, 55 

, Evan Miles, 55 

, Franklin, 5, 10, 30, 53, 

55, 109, 208 

, George, 53, 54, 55 

, John, 55, 215 

, Joseph, 53, 55 

, Letitia, 55 

, Mary, 55 

, Mary Ann, 53, 55 

, McKeen, 53, 55 

, Nannie, 55 

, Rebecca Susan, 55 

, Roberdeau, 55 

, Rosa, 55 

, Samuel, 55 

, Sarah G., 53, 55 

, Susan, 55 

, Susan Louise, 64 

, Susanna, 55 

, Thomas, 55 

, Thomas McKean, 55 

, William Webster, 55 

Budd, Caroline, 124 

, Thomas, 124 

Buller, Anna Maria, 78 

, Sir Edward, 78 

Bunbury, McClintock, 132 

, Miss, 132 

Bunker, Mary Clement, 66, 67 

, Nathan, 67 

Burdon-Sanderson, John Scott, 

75 

, Mary Elizabeth, 75 

Bureau, Pierre, 67 

Burgoyne, Sir John Fox, 20, 

101, 102 

, Maria Sophia, 102 

, General ("Saratoga"), 

15, 101, 102, 157 
Burke, A., 76, 78, 96, 102, 117 
, Sir B. f 44, 76, 78, 96, 

106, 117, 169, 147, 

201 

, J., 102 

Burlingame, Anson, 87 
Burnestone, Charles, 101 

, Frances, 215 

, Maude, 102 

Burr, Miss, 206 
Burrard, Sir Charles, 147 

, Emily, 147 

Burroughs, Desire, 99, 100 



NAMES OF PERSONS. 



219 



Burroughs, Ezekiel, 99, 100 
Burton, Mary, 49 
Burwell, Elizabeth, 110 

, Sir Jeffrey, 146 

, Mary, 146 

Bussy, Charlotte Ann, 116 
Butler, Benjamin, 168, 189 

, Jerusha, 168, 189 

, Thomas, 168 

, William, 168 

Byng, Georgianna Elizabeth, 

116 
Byrd, Jane, 110 

Cable, George W., 161 
Cabot, Lilla, 169 
Cadogan, Lady Sarah, 115 
Calder, Samuel, 124 
Callender, G., 148 
Camelford, Lord, 202 
Campbell, Charles H., 176, 180 

, Samuel, 115 

, Sophia, 21, 115 

Cantey, Sarah, 206 

, Zachary, 206 

Cardonnell, Adam de, 128 

, Mary de, 128 

Carew, Sir Edward, 186 

, Sir George, 186 

, George, 186 

, Katherine, 186 

, Sir Peter, 186 

, Sir William, 186 

Carey, Hannah, 39 
Carnegie, George, 108, 109 

, Swinford Thomas, 109 

, William, 108 

Carnic, Ann, 124 
Caroline, Queen, 116 
Carpenter, George, 43 

, Lady Susanna, 43 

, Walter Talbot, 44 

Carrier, Bridget, 108 

, Charles, 108 

, Elizabeth (or Isabella), 

108 

, James, 108 

, Rebecca, 73 

Carroll, S., 162 
Carter, Anna Hill, 110 

, Mary Walker, 110 

Catherine of Russia, 112, 113 
Caulkins, F., 73 
Cevera, Pascual, 172 
Chaloner, Frances, 95 
Chambers, John D., 184 
Champernoun, Sir Arthur, 186, 

187 

, Elizabeth, 186 

, Francis, 187 

, Garven, 186 

, Henry, 185 

, John, 186 

, Katherine, 186 

, Sir Philip, 186 

Champlin, Stephen, 165, 168 
Champneys, Rev. H., 102 
Chandler, Benjamin, 445 



Chandler, Charles, 45 
, Clarke, 45 

, Dorothy, 45 

, Elizabeth, 44, 45 

, Elizabeth Augusta, 46 

, Francis, 45 

, Gardiner, 45, 46 

, John, 45 

, Lucretia, 45 

, Mary, 45 

, Nathaniel, 45 

, Rufus, 45 

, Samuel, 45 

, Sarah, 45 

Chaplain, Jeremiah, 150 

Chappell, Ann, 83, 85, 92 

Charles I, 57 

Charles II, 21 

Chatham, Lord, 77 

Chauncey, Commodore, 193 

Cheves, L., 199 

Choate, Joseph H., 83 

Church, Mary, 45 

, Ross, 130 

Churchill, Lady Georgianna 
Spencer, 106 

Clark, Elizabeth, 89 

, Mehitable, 183 

, Rosa Davis, 55 

Clarkson, Lydia, 149, 150 

Clayton, Jane, 129 

Cleary, Mary, 126 

Clements, Selina, 128 

Clifford, A., 117 

, Baron de, 21 

Clift, W., 170 

Clifton, Frances, 128 

, Sir Gervase, 128 

Coale, Edward J., 53, 55 

, William S., 65 

Cochran, Alexander (Blair), 20, 
57 

, Sir Alexander For- 
rester, 57 

, Andrew, 20, 58 

, Annette, 58 

, Archibald, 58 

, Archibald Douglas, 58 

, Archibald H., 58 

, Arthur, 58 

, Sir Arthur A. L., 58 

, Arthur H. D., 58 

, Basil, 57 

, Basil Edward, 58 

, Caroline Catherine, 58 

, Charles, 20, 57 

, Charles D., 58 

, Dorothy, 58 

, Douglas MacKinnon 

B. H., 58 

, Edith Hamilton, 58 

, Edward Owen, 58 

, Elizabeth, 58 

, Elizabeth K., 58 

, Ernest Grey L., 58 

, Francis Arthur Charles, 

58 

, George Augustus, 57 



Cochran, George Edward 

Lewis, 58 

, Grizel. 58 

, Gwervyl, 58 

, James, 57 

, Sir John, 56, 57 

, John Palmer, 58 

, Katherine, 58 

, Louise, 58 

, Marjorie, 58 

, Ralph Alexander, 58 

, Robert, 58 

, Roger, 58 

, Rosetta, 58 

, Thomas, 5, 6, 8, 10, 20, 

29, 30, 56, 57, 58, 

129 
, Sir Thomas Belhaven, 

58 

, Thomas B. H., 58 

, Thomas Erskine, 58 

, Thomas George, 58 

, Thomas Horatio A. E., 

58 

, Sir William, 57 

, William, 57 

, William Erskine, 58 

, William Francis, 68 

Cockburn, Sir William, 109 
Codman, Capt. Richard, 182, 

183 
Coffin, Sarah, 10, 28, 51 

, Capt. William, 51 

Coke, Edward, 115, 117 

, Henry John, 117 

, Sir Thomas, 115, 116 

, Thomas William, 117 

, William C., 117 

Cole, Harriet, 38 

Coles, Elizabeth Frances, 

102 

, Rev. J. J., 102 

Collingwood, Cuthbert, 5, 10, 

59, 60, 138, 139 

, Mary Patience, 60 

, Sarah, 60 

, Wilfred, 60 

Conde, Prince, 97 
de Conflans, , 95 
Cook, Lowly, 89 

, Penelope, 105 

Cooke, Sarah, 213 
Copeland, Ruth, 62 
Corcoran, William, 136 
Core, Eliza, 206 
Cornwallis, Lord, 22, 90, 168, 

196 

, Elizabeth, 194 

Cosby, Alexander, 215 

, Anne, 214 

, Elizabeth, 215 

, Mary, 215 

, Philip, 23 

, Phillips, 214, 215 

, William, 215 

Cotterhill, Capt. C., 215 
Coville, John Lord, 213 
, Catherine ,213 



220 



NAMES OF PERSONS. 



Coussmaker, Col. George K., 

116 
Cowley, Henrietta, 50 

, Joseph, 50 

Cox, Susan, 184 

Coyle, Jane, 121 

Cracroft, Thomas Robert, 92 

Cranston, Frances, 50 

, John, 50 

, Samuel, 50 

Crew, Benjamin, 124 
Cromwell, Oliver, 41, 128 
Crosbie, Catherine, 116 
Cross, Rev. John, 102 

, Sally, 182, 183 

Cruger, Catherine, 195 

, Henry, 194 

, John Harris, 194 

, Nicholas, 193, 194 

, Tileman, 194 

Cuffe, Rosetta, 58 
Culme, Elizabeth, 200 

, Rev. Thomas, 200 

Cumberland, Duke of, 115 
Curzon, Ernest C. Penn, 106 

, Ernest George, 106 

, Fitz Roy Edmund 

Penn, 106 

, Viscount, Francis Rich- 
ard, 106 

, Frederick, 106 

, George Augustus, 106 

, Henry D., 106 

, Sir Leicester Smyth, 

106 

, Marianne, 106 

, Mary Ann, 106 

, Montague, 106 

, William Henry, 106 

Curzon-Howe, Assheton Gore, 

106 

, Penn Assheton, 105 

, Richard George Penn, 

106 
Cushing, Alonzo, 61, 63 

, Howard B., 61, 63 

, J. S., 63 

, May Isabel, 63 

, May R., 63 

, Milton, 20, 61, 63 

, Dr. Milton B., 61, 62 

, Walter, 63 

, William Baker, 5, 6, 8, 

10, 20, 29, 60, 61, 

62, 63, 161 

, Zattu, 61 

Cushings, Wisconsin, 63 
Cuthbert, Alexander, 206 



Dahlgren, Bernard Ulric, 65, 67 
, Sir Carl Adolph, 65, 67 

, Charles Bunker, 66, 68 

, Elizabeth, 68 

, Eric, 67, 68 

, Eva, 68 

, Johan Adolf, 65, 66, 67 

, John, 68 



Dahlgren, John Adolph, 5, 10, 
28, 30, 64, 65, 66, 
67, 68, 109, 166 

, John Vinton, 67, 68 

, Katherine Drexel, 68 

, Laurence, 68 

, Lucy, 68 

, Madeleine, 68 

, M. V., 68 

, Olga, 68 

, Paul, 67, 68 

, Ulric, 66, 68 

, Ulrica, 68 

, William (W T illiam de 

Rohan), 8, 64, 67 
Daingerfield, LeRoy, 153 
Dalrymple-Hamilton, Sir Hew, 
75 

, Janet, 75 

Danton, , 81 
Dirlington, Countess, 105 
Darwin, Charles, 133 
Dnvios, Arthur, 145, 147 

, W., 60 

Davis, C., 90 

, Jefferson, 198 

Dean, J., 170 
Decatur, Etienne, 69 

, James, 68, 69 

, John P., 69, 70 

, Stephen, 5, 6, 12, 68, 

69, 70, 120, 207, 209 

, Stephen, Jr., 181 

Deering, Mary, 181, 183 

, Nathaniel, 181, 183 

DeFonblanque, E., 102 
DeGuichen, , 192 
DeKoven, Mrs. R., 114 

, Richard, 113 

De Lancey, E., 195 
Delaval, George, 43 

, Henry, 43 
De Liefde, , 9 
Delmar, Baron de, 202 
Denison, Bridget, 172 

, George, 23, 71, 72, 73, 

168, 189 
, Gideon, 168, 189 

, Minerva, 169, 189 

, Samuel, 168 

, Sir William, 102 
Derby, Charlotte, 102 

, Edward, Earl of, 102 
DeRuyter, Michael Adrian- 

zoon, 47 

D'Estaing, Count, 41, 104 
Deverill, George, 39 

, Mary, 39 
Devons, Caroline, 136 
Dcwey, A., 73 

, Charles, 73 

, Edward, 73 

, Elijah, 72 

, George, 70, 71, 73. 168 
, George Goodwin, 73 

, Jedcdiah, 71 

, Josiah, 71 

, Julius Yeomans, 71, 73 



Dewey, L., 73 

, Mary Perrin, 73 

, Simeon, 71, 72, 73 

, Theodore Gibbs, 73 

, William, 71, 72, 73 

, William Tar box, 73 

DeWitt, Cornelis, 9, 47 
Dexter, Samuel, 99 
Dick, Georgiana, 159 

, Mungo, 159 

Dixon, Elizabeth, 179 

, H., 48 

Dobson, Micah, 60 
Dod, William Armstrong, 206 
Dodge, Sarah, 194 
Douglas, Charles, 211 
Downes, Captain, 80 
Drake, 96 

, Benjamin, 155 

, Joan, 186 

, John, 186 

, Mary, 155 

Drayton, Captain, 80 
Drexel, Elizabeth, 67, 68 

, Joseph W., 67 

, Katherine, 67 

, Lucy, 67 

, Mary, 68 

Drowne, H., 170 
Drysdale, Capt. Thomas, 38 
Dudley, D., 184 
Duncan, Adam, 6, 12, 13, 30, 
74, 75 

, Adam Haldane, 75 

, Adamina, 75 

, Alexander, 74, 75 

, Catherine, 75 

, Henrietta, 75 

, Henry, 13, 74, 75 

, Jane, 75 

, John, 74 

, Katherine, 75 

, Louis, 136 

, Margaret, 75 

, Mary Tyfton, 75 

, Murray, 136 

, Richard, 136 

, Robert Adam Philips, 

75 

, Robert (Haldane), 75 

, Rev. Thomas, 136 

, William, 75, 136 
Dundas, Anne, 75 
Elizabeth, 75 

, Francis, 75 

, Henrietta, 75 

, Henry, 74, 75 

, James, 75 

, Margaret, 75 

, Philip, 75 

, Robert, 74, 75 

, William, 75 

-, William Pitt, 75 
Dundee, Henrietta, 74 
Dundonald, Lord (Thomaa 

Cochran, q. p.). 

Dunlop, Annette Elizabeth, 132 
, R. F., 132 



NAMES OF PERSONS. 



221 



Dupont, Admiral, 193 
Durell, Anne, 197 
Duyn, Adam van der, 115 

, Charles van der, 115 

, Gertrude van der, 115 

Dwight, B., 46 
, John, 46 



Edward VI, 97 

Eels, Anne Lenthal, 62 

, Joseph, 63 

, Capt. Robert Lee, 62 

Edwards, E., 187 

Egerton, Mrs. F., 102 

Eliot, Annie, 89 

, John (the Apostle), 

89 

, Joseph, 89 

Elizabeth, Queen, 97, 98, 185 

Elliot, Cornelius, 78 

Elphinstone, A. H., 78 

, Annie, 78 

, Archibald, 78 

, Charles, 78 

, Clementina, 78 

, Eleanor, 78 

, Elizabeth, 78 

, Frank, 13 

, George Keith, 5, 6, 12, 

13, 29, 41, 76, 77, 
78 

, Georgiana, 78 

, Grizell, 78 

, James, 78 

, James Duller Fuller- 
ton, 78 

, John, 13, 78 

, Keith, 78 

, Margaret Mercer, 78 

, Mary, 78 

, Primrose, 78 

, William George Keith, 

78 

Emery, Benjamin, 162 

Encaster, Duke of, 146 

Ericsson, John, 154 

Evans, Ellen Lyle, 126 

Eveleth, Catherine, 214 

Everett, Captain, 174 

Eyre, Frances, 147 

, Margaret, 153 

Exmouth, Baron, 158 



Fairfax, Althea, 96 

, Catherine, 95 

, Elizabeth, 96 

, Frances, 96 

, Isabella, 98 

, Mary, 95 

, Robert, 96 

, Thomas, 95 

, William, 95, 96 

Farnham, Charlotte, 184 
Farquharson, James Lockhart 

Ross, 75 
Farragut, Antonio, 82 



Farragut, David Glasgow, 12, 
29, 53, 56, 70, 71, 
79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 
125, 161, 175 

, George, 13, 82, 83 

, George A., 82 

, Jorge, 82 

William, 13, 82 

Fennel, Elizabeth, 128 

Fenton, Edward, 97, 98 

Fenwick, Edward, 210 

Ferguson, Sir James, 75 

Ferrard, Viscount, 132 

Field, E., 100 

, Lydia, 206 

, Mary, 205, 206 

, Mary Peale, 205 

, Richard Stockton, 206 

, Robert, 205, 206 

Filchett, , 1 

Flagg, Caroline, 90 

Fleming, Charles Elphinstone, 
78 

, Clementine, 78 

, John, 78 

, John Elphinstone, 78 

Fleury, Dr., 132 

, Elizabeth Melesina, 

132 

Flinders, Annie, 84, 85 

, John, 84, 85 

, Matthew, 5, 8, 12, 30, 

83, 84, 85, 91, 92 

, Samuel Ward, 83, 84 

, William, 133 

Foley, Captain, 141 

Folger, Capt. Benjamin, 187 

Foote, Augustus Edwin, 90 

, Andrew Hull, 6, 12, 23, 

29, 31, 50, 86, 87, 
88, 90, 212 

, John, 90 

, John Alfred, 89, 90 

, Joseph Eliot, 49 

, Josephine, 90 

, Lucinda, 90 

, Mary Ann, 90 

, Samuel Augustus, 88, 

90 

, William, 90 

, William Lambert, 90 

Forbes, Archibald, 170 

, Kate L., 63 

Foster, Captain, 148 

, Patience, 132 

Fowler, Solomon, 155 

Fox, Charles, 136 

, Charles James, 116 

, E., 12 

, Ebenezer, 90 

, Elizabeth, 136 

, Helen, 136 

, Dr. John, 136 

, William, 136 

Foxhull, , 152 

Foye, Captain. 215 

Frankland, Ann, 213 

, Catherine, 213 



Frankland, Charles C., 214 

, Charlotte, 213 

, Dinah, 213 

, Edward A., 214 

, Frederick R., 214 

, Sir F. W., 214 

, Harry A., 214 

, Roger, 213 

, Thomas, 213, 214 

, William, 213 

, Sir William A., 214 

Franklin, Benjamin, 99 

, Eleanor, 92 

, Elizabeth, 92 

, Hannah, 92 

, Henrietta, 92 

, Isabella, 92 

, James, 91, 92 

, Sir John, 5, 8, 12, 83, 

91, 92, 131 

, Lady, 131 

, Sarah, 92 

, Willingham, 91, 92 

Freeman, Mary, 168 
French, Jackson Brown, 119 
Frizzell, Hannah, 134 
Frobisher, , 97 
Frowde, James, 158 

, Susanna, 158, 159 
Fulford, Bridget, 187 

, Mary, 187 

, Sir Thomas, 186 

Fullerton, Edward Charles Bul- 
ler, 78 

, Elizabeth, 78 

, George James Buller, 

78 

, John Frederick Buller, 

78 
, William Buller, 78 

, Elphinstone William, 
78 

Gadsen, Christopher, 209, 210 
Gale, Edward F., 63 

, Mary Isabel Gushing, 

63 

Gambier, Lord, 56 
Gardiner, Hannah, 45 
Garibaldi, Guiseppi, 65 
Gamier, George, 116 
, Thomas, 116 

, Dr. Thomas, 116 

, William, 116 
George I, 104, 105 
George II, 77 
George, Clara Bartlett, 162 

, John H., 162 

, Capt. Paul R., 161, 

162 

Germain, Lord George, 201 
Geyer, Charlotte von, 130 

, Frederick von, 130 
Gherardi, Bancroft, 46 

, Donati, 46 

, Walter, 46 

Gibbs, V., 117 
Gilbert, Adrian, 186 



222 



NAMES OF PERSONS. 



Gilbert, Sir Humphrey, 19, 185, 
186 

, Sir John, 19, 186, 187 

, Otho, 186 

, Capt. Raleigh, 187 

, Sarah, 200 

Gilchrist, Anne, 58 

, Capt. James, 57 

Gillies, John, 42 

Gilmer, Mary, 159 

, T. W., 204 

Girdlestone, Rev. Henry, 145, 
147 

Gladstone, William E., 116 

Gleaves, A., 119 

Goddard, Hon. Daniel Con- 
nors, 67 

, John, 128 

, Madeleine Vmton, 67 

, Sarah, 128 

Goellette, James, 119 

Goldsborough, H. Howes, 169 

Gonson, Benjamin, 97 

, Katherine, 97 

, Thomasine, 97 

, William, 97 

Goodenough, Rev. R. P., 128 

Goodwin, Ichabod, 73 

Goodwin, Susie B., 73 

Gordon, Anne, 74 

Gore, Sir John, 105 

Gorges, Sir Ferdinando, 187 

Goulty, Rev. John, 146 

Gracie, Anna Maria, 184 

Graham, John, 74 

Grant, Jean, 75 
, Ulysses S., 87 

Gray, Andrew, 169 

Greeley, George Preston, 73 

Greene, Gen. Nathanael, 166, 
168 

Greenough, Anne, 52 

Greenwell, Bernard Ezra, 132 

Griffen, Jane, 92 

, William Preston, 119 

Griffis, W., 164, 165, 166, 167, 
170 

Grosvenor, Ellen, 63 

Guitart, Ursula, 82 

Guthrie, Catherine, 194 

Haddington, George, Earl of, 

128 

Hageman, J., 55 
Haldane, Daniel Rutherford, 75 
, Elizabeth Sanderson, 

75 

, Capt. James, 74, 75 

, James Alexander, 74, 

75 
, James Aylmer Low- 

thorpe, 76 

, John, 74 

, John Scott, 76 

, Margaret, 74 

, Mungo, 74 

, Hon. Richard Burden, 

76 



Haldane, Robert, 74, 75 

. William Stowell, 76 

Hale, John Parker, 149, 150 

, Lydia, 149 
Halifax, Augusta, 106 

, Brigadier General, 106 

Hall, , 94 

, Abigail, 90 

, A. D., 190, 191 

, Ann Mary, 90 

, Benjamin, 89 

, Brenton, 90 

, Elihu, 89 

, Elisha. 90 

, Emma, 89 

, Esther, 89 

, Giles, 90 

, Hannah, 90 

, John, 89 

, Jonathan, 90 

, Lucy, 90 

, Lyman, 89, 90 

, Mary, 89 

, Nancy, 89 

, Rhoda, 89 

, Samuel, 88, 89, 90 

, Sarah, 89, 90 

, Street, 89 

, Susanna, 89 

Halstead, Adm. Sir Lawrence 

William, 159 
Hamilton, C., 46 

, Frederick F., 117 

, George Baillie, 129 

, John, 75 

, Lady, 138, 139, 141, 

144, 147 

, Maj. Robert Baillie, 129 

, Sir William, 138, 144 

Hannay, David, 104 

Hardy, Thomas Masterman, 

5, 7, 12, 93 
Hare, Robert, 26 
Harriman, Capt. Benjamin, 162 
Harris, Henry, 100 

. T., 37 

Harrison, Gen. William Henry, 

164 

, William, 206 

Hartop, Col. Chiverton, 105 

, Mary, 105 

Harvey, Anne, 186 
Haseil, James, 213 

, Mary, 213 

Hassler, F. R., 66 

Hatrell, Jane, 108 

Haward, Richard, 159 

Hawe, Mary, 108 

Hawke, Sir Edward, 12, 23, 95, 

96, 104, 192, 197 
Hawkes, James, 200 

, Jane, 200 

Hawkins, Clare, 98 

, Elizabeth, 98 

, Francis, 98 

, Grace, 98 

, John, 5, 12, 20, 30, 96, 

97, 98 



Hawkins, Judith, 98 

, Mary, 98 

, Nicholas, 98 

, Richard, 13, 98 



-, Sir Richard, 96, 97, 98 
-, William, 96, 97, 98 



Hayden, Mindwell, 72 

Hayes, Capt. Thomas, 37 

Haywood, M., 83 

Hazard, C., 170 

, George, 168 

, Mercy, 167, 168 

, Oliver, 167, 168 

Hazen, Mildred (McLean), 73 

Heap, Capt. Harris, 179 

Heathcote, Rev. Thomas, 108 

Hegel, George William Freder- 
ick, 76 

Henry VIII, 20, 96, 97 

Hill, Priscilla, 69 

Hills, Elizur, 73 

, Epaphras, 73 

Hillyar, Captain, 80 

Hilmore, Mary, 103 

Hindman, Elizabeth Nichol- 
son, 39 

Hitchcock, William, 90 

, William Augustus, 88 

, William R., 88 

Hobart, Grizel, 200 

, James, 73 

Hodge, Ann Eliza, 169 

, Sarah, 206 

Holcomb, Franklin Porteous, 39 

, James, 39 

, Rebecca, 39 

, Thomas, 39 

Hone, John, 169 

Hood, Alexander, 145 

, Alexander Nelson, 147 

, Lord, 157 

, Sir Samuel, 196 

Hooker, Abigail, 73 

, Richard, 38, 60 

Hopkins, Abigail, 100 

, Amy, 100 

, David, 136 

, Desire, 100 

, Edward M., 206, 

, Esek, 5, 12, 98, 100, 

134, 168 

, George, 100 

, Heart, 99, 100 

, Hope, 100 

, John, 13, 99, 100 

, John Burroughs, 13, 

99, 100 

, Lydia, 100 

, Rufus, 100 

, Ruth, 100 

, Samuel, 13, 99, 100 

, Simon, 100 

, Stephen, 13, 98, 100 

, Susanna, 100 

- Sylvanus, 100 

, Thomas, 99 

, William, 99, 100, 168 

Hopkinson, Ann Borden, 54 



NAMES OF PERSONS. 



223 



Hopkinson, Edward C., 55 

, Elizabeth, 55 

, Emily, 55 

, Francis, 54, 55 

, George, 55 

, James, 55 

, John Joseph, 55 

, Joseph, 55 

, Thomas Mifflin, 55 

Hoppin, J., 90 

Hornby, Caroline Lucy, 102 

, Charles, 102 

, Charlotte, 102 

, Edmond, 102 

, Edward, 102 

, Elizabeth, 102 

, Geoffrey, 102 

, Geoffrey Thomas 

Phipps, 5, 7, 14, 20, 

100, 101, 102 

, George, 102 

, James John, 102 

, Lucy, 102 

, Maria Elizabeth, 102 

, Phipps John, 102 

, Susan, 102 

, William, 102 

Hoste, Dixon, 103 

, Edward, 15, 103 

, George, 15, 103 

, James, 103 

, Theodore, 103 

, Sir William, 5, 6, 14, 

103 
Howe, Charles, 105 

, Emanuel, 105 

, Emanuel Scrope, 105 

, George Augustus, 105 

, Harriet Georgiana, 105 

, John, Earl of, 105 

, Sir John, 105 

, Juliana, 105 

, Louise Catherine, 105 

, Maria, 105 

, Richard, 5, 14, 30, 104, 

105 
, Sir Richard Grubham, 

105 
, Richard William Penn 

Curzon, 106 

, Robert, 105 

, Scrope, 105 

, Sophia Charlotte, 105 

, Sir William, 15, 103, 

105 
Ho well, Frank! yn, 206 

, John C., 206 

, Richard, 206 

, Richard Lewis, 206 

Rowland, Samuel, 170 
Hubbard, E., 170 

, Henry G., 121 

Hubley, Adam, 206 
Huddell, Hannah, 155, 156 
Huddesfield, Katherine, 46 

, Sir William, 186 

Hull, Andrew, 88, 89, 90, 170 
, Caleb, 89 



Hull, Elizabeth, 90 

, Eudocia, 90 

, Commander Isaac, 86, 

88, 90, 134, 154 

, Joseph, 88, 89, 90 

, Joseph Bartine, 90 

, Marab, 90 

, Mary, 88 

, Richard, 90 

, Sarah, 90 

, William, 90, 186 

Hulse, Mary, 97 
Hunloke, Charlotte, 116 
Hunter, Andrew, 206 

, David, 22, 206 

, Louis Boudinet, 206 

, Mary, 206 

Hussey, Ursula, 97 
Hyde, Diadema, 168 
Hyleger, John, 37 

, Susan, 36 

Hyndeford, Janet Elliot, 78 

Innes, Arthur, 215 

, Mary, 215 

Izard, Mary, 199 

Jackson, Ebenezer, 210 
, Gen. "Stonewall," 82, 

175, 210 

James I, 98, 185 
Jandon, Ashbel G., 37 
Jay, Mary, 126 
Jefferson, Joseph, 2 

, Thomas, 187 

Jeffrey, W., 174 

Jejeiskjold, Count Charles 

Louis, 159 
Jervis, Edward Ricketts, 109 

, Henrietta Elizabeth, 

109 

, John, 108 

, Admiral John (Lord 

St. Vincent), 5, 7, 

14, 59, 76, 107, 108, 

128, 138, 196 

, Martha, 109, 128 

, Mary, 108 

, Swynfen, 108 

, William, 108 

, William Ricketts, 108 

Johnson, Judge R. D., 124 

, W., 180 

Jones, Bathurst, 110 

, Catesby ap Rogers, 14, 

109, 110, 111, 210 

, Charles Lucian, 111 

, Eusebius, 111 

, Frederick, 110 

, Jekyl, 110 

, John Paul, 5, 6, 8, 14, 

112, 113 

, L. H., Ill 

, Marck C., Ill 

, Meriweather, 110, 111 

, Philip de Catesby, 110 

, Capt. Roger, 5, 110, 

1H 



Jones, William, 203 

, Samuel, 156 

, Skelton, 110 

, Col. Thomas, 110 

, Thomas ap Catesby, 

109, 110 
, Thomas ap Thomas, 

110 

, Thomas Skelton, 111 

, Walter, 110, 111 

, William, 110 

, William Page, 111 

, Winfred Scott, 111 

Junkins, Martha, 183 

Kampfel, , 195 
Kearney, Lawrence, 119 

, Michael, 119 

Keen, Macy, 150 

Keith, Charles, 77 

, Francis Edward James, 

77,78 
, George, 77, 78 (See El- 

phinstone, Geo. K.) 

, John, 77 

, Lady Mary, 78 

, Montstuart Elphin- 

stone, 77, 78 
, Robert, Bishop of Fife, 

78 
-, William, 77, 78 



Kellogg, Anna Marie, 155, 156 

, George, 156 

, Jonathan W., 155, 156 

, Warren Comstock, 156 

Keppel, Ann Amelia, 116 

, Arnold Joost van, 115 

, Augustus, 21, 115 

, Augustus Frederick, 

116 

, Caroline, 116 

, Lady Caroline, 116 

, Charles, 116 

, Sir Colin, 114, 117 

, Edward E., 116 

, Edward Southwell, 116 

, Lady Elizabeth, 116 

, Frederick, 116 

, George, 115 

, George Thomas, 116 

, Gertrude Charlotte, 116 

, Admiral Henry, 4, 5, 6, 

14, 21, 29, 74, 114, 

116, 117 

, John, 116 

, Leicester Chantry, 117 

, Mary, 116, 117 

, Rufus, 117 

, Sophia, 116 

, Rev. Thomas, 117 

, Thomas Robert, 116 

, Tom, 114 

, William, 116 

, William Anne, 115 

, William Charles, 116 



-, William Coutts, 117 



Keroualle, Louise de. Duchess 
of Portsmouth, 115 



224 



NAMES OF PERSONS. 



Key, Francis. 203 
Kibert, Anne, 146 
Kielmansegge, Baron, 105 
, Mary Sophia Char- 
lotte, 105 
King, Hannah, 168 

Lacy, General, 66 
La Fayette, General, 134 
Lamar, Gen. Mirabeau, 123, 124 
Lambert, Lady Elizabeth Jane, 
109 

, Richard, Earl of 

Cavan, 108 
Lamphier, , 215 
Langara, Aaron de, 192 
Langford, Constantia, 158 

, Edward, 158 

Larner, Loretta, 124 
Laroux, Lydia, 121 

, Peter, 121 

Law, Anna, 89, 90 

, Benjamin, 90 

, Christopher, 90 

, Evan, 128 

, John, 90 

, Jonathan, 89, 90 

, Lyman, 90 

, Mary, 90 

, Richard, 89, 90 

Lawrence, Anne, 119 

, Elisha, 119 

, Elizabeth, 119 

, James, 5, 6, 14, 29, 118, 

119 

, John Brown, 118 

, Katherine, 119 

, Mary, 118, 119 

, Sarah, 119 

Lear, Benjamin, 136 

, Consul Tobias, 187, 

188, 191 
Lee, Anna, 110 

, E., Ill 

, Henry ("Light Horse 

Harry"), 110 

Gen. Robert E., Ill, 

122 

, Sydney Smith, 111 
Lennard, Frances, 116 

, Sir Thomas, 116 
Lennox, Lady Anne, 115 
, Charles, 21, 115 
Leonard, Ann, 119 

, Samuel, 119 
Leslie, Charles Powell, 43 

, Christine, 43 

Lewis, John, 213 

, Sir Thomas F., 213 
Liefde, Jacob de, 210, 211 
Lil ley, Susan Greggs, 73 
Lincoln, Abraham, 154 
Linnaeus, Carl von, 65 
Little, Capt. George, 181 
Lloyd, Ann, 53, 54 

, Edward, 53, 54 
Locker, Capt. William, 137 
Lockhart-Ross, Charles, 75 



Lockhart-Ross, George, 75 

, John, 75 

, Robert, 75 

Logan, Leavitt C., 175, 180 
Long, Joshua, 63 
Loyall, Virginia, 83 

, William, 82 

Lucy, Constance, 101 
Lushington, Capt. L. C., 104 

, Louisa, 147 

Lyman, Hepzibah, 72 

McAlister, James, 213 

Louisa, 214 

Macdonald, Sir James, 116 
Macdonough, Augustine, 121 

, Augustus Rodney, 121 

, Charles Shaler, 121 

, Charlotte Rosella, 121 

, Hannah, 121 

, Hester, 121 

, James Edward Fisher, 

121 

, John, 121 

, Joseph, 121 

, Lydia, 121 

, Micah, 120, 121 

, Mary, 121 

, R., 121 

, Samuel, 121 

, Thomas, 5, 6, 14, 21, 

29, 12, 121 

, William Joseph, 121 

MacKenzie, Alexander, 30, 70 

, N. S., 165 

Maclay, E. S., 52, 179 
Macomb, Alexander, 190 

, Augustus C., 167 

, Col. John Navarre, 

169, 190 
, Montgomery Meigs, 

169 

Madden, Col. John, 215 
Maffitt, Golden Rhine, 124 

, Elizabeth, 123, 124 

, Emily, 123 

, Eugene A., 123, 124 

, Florence, 123, 124 

, Frederick, 124 

, Henrietta, 123, 124 

, John Laurens, 124 

, John Newland, 5, 8, 14, 

122, 123, 124 

Matilda, 123, 124 

, Matilda Caroline, 124 

, Walter C., 124 

, Dr. William, 122, 124 

, William H., 123, 124 

Magens-Darrien, Magens, 128 
Mahan, A. T., 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 14, 

77,80,81,83, 95,96, 

109, 125, 126, 139, 

140, 141, 142, 144, 

148, 157, 159, 192, 

197 

, Dennis Hart, 125, 126 

, Frederick Augustus, 

126 



Mahan, John, 126 
Mansfield, William, 128 
le Marchant, Carteret, 197 

, James, 197 

, Martha, 197 

Marchant, Susan C., 82 
Markham, Sir Albert Hastings, 

127, 129 

, Alfred, 92, 129 

, Alicia, 128 

, Cecelia, 128 

, Charles, 129 

, Sir Clements, 98, 127, 

129, 132, 133 

, Daniel, 128 

, David, 15, 127, 128, 

129 

, Edward, 128 

, Sir Edwin, 129 

, Elizabeth, 128 

, Enoch, 128 

, Capt. Francis, 129 

, Frederick, 15, 127, 128, 

129 

, George, 128, 147 

, Georgiana, 128 

, Henrietta, 128 

, Henry, 128 

, John, 5, 14, 128, 129 

, Sir John, 127, 128 

, Maria, 129 

, Maria Frances, 129 

, Martha, 128 

, Osborne, 109, 127, 128 

, Robert, 128 

, Warren, 129 

, William, 127, 128, 129 

, William Rice, 129 

Marryat, Augusta, 130 

, Emily, 130 

, Florence, 130 

, Frank, 130 

, Frederick, 5, 8, 14, 21, 

129, 130, 151 

, Horace, 130 

, Joseph, 130 

, Thomas, 130 

Martin, Emma, 124 

, I. J., 41 

Marvin, J. S., 41 

, W. L., 28 

Mary, Queen, 97, 186 
Mason, Elizabeth, 163, 168 

, Henry, 145, 147 

, Capt. John, 71 

, Minerva, 71, 72 

, P., 90 

Massereene, Viscountess, 132 
Matcham, Catherine, 147 

, Charles Hunter, 147 

, Elizabeth, 145, 147 

, George, 145, 147 

, Harriet, 145, 147 

, M., 148 

, Nelson, 147 

, Susanna, 147 

Matthews, Admiral, 95 
, Cecil, 128 



NAMES OF PERSONS. 



225 



Maudsley, Capt. Charles, 71 
Maxey, Jonathan, 100 

, Susanna, 99 

M'Cabe, R., 153 
McClellan, Alexander, 52 

, George B., 55 

McClintock, Alfred Henry, 132 

, Lord Bunbury, 131 

, Charles Fortescue, 132 

, Francis Leopold, 5, 8, 

16, 131, 132 

, Henry, 132 

, Henry Foster, 132 

, John, 131, 132 

, John William Leopold, 

132 

, Louis, 132 

, Robert Singleton, 132 

, Theodore, Ernest, 132 

, W. B., 132 

McDuff, Jeanne, 114 
Mclven, Eleanor, 82 
McKean, Adeline, 55 

, Annie, 54 

, Caroline, 55 

, Elizabeth, 54, 55 

, Franklin Borden, 55 

, Letitia, 53, 54 

, Mary, 54, 55 

, Robert, 54 

, Rosa, 55 

, Samuel, 55 

, Thomas, 11, 53, 54, 55 

, William, 55 

McKeen, Caroline, 124 
McKinley, William, 125 
M'Knight, Capt. James, 69 
M'Nabb, Hon. Sir Alan Napier, 

116 

McVicar, Francis Brenton, 121 
Meade, Annie, 156 

, Charlotte, 156 

, Clara, 155, 156 

, George Gordon, 156 

, Henrietta, 155, 156 

, Henry Meigs, 155, 156 

, John, 155, 156 

, Mary, 155, 156 

, Rebecca, 156 

, Richard, 155, 156 

, Richard Worsam, 155, 

156 

, Robert, 155, 156 

, Robert Learny, 155, 

156 

Meiere, Lieut. Julius, 55 
Meigs, Charles, 169 

, Clara Forsythe, 156 

, Henry, 156 

, John F., 170 

, John Rodgers, 169 

, Julia Austin, 156 

, Louisa, 170 

, Mary, 169 

, Montgomery, 169, 170 

, Theodore, 156 

, Vincent, 169 

Mercer, Jamea, 78 



Merchant, Jordan, 82 
Merriweather, C., 199 

, Jane, 110 

Mesquite, Juan, 82 

, Juana, 82 

Middleton, Arthur, 198, 199 

, Catherine Hooe, 199 

Miffliu, Emily, 55 

Mildmay, Capt. St. John, 201 

Miles, Evan, 53 

, Hannah, 55 

Milk, Dorcas, 183 
Miller, Annie, 115 

, Sir John, 115 

Mills, J., 165, 166, 176 
Mills, Rev. H. F., 128 
Milner, Catherine, 128 

, Sir W., 128 

Minto, Lord, 142 

, Sophia May, 117 

Monsey, Robert, Lord Cran- 

worth, 146, 147 
Montaudevert, Julia, 119 
Montgomery, Count de, 186 

, Gabrielle de, 186 

Moody, John, 112 
Moore, Alexander, 147 

, Alexander M., 147 

, Anne, 108 

, Hugh, 215 

, Jane, 215 

, John, 215 

, Col. Samuel, 108 

Moorhouse, G. H., 146, 148 
Moresby, Sir Fairfax, 5, 7, 8, 

16, 133 

, John, 133 

, Robert, 133 

Morris, Abigail, 134 

, Adolphus, 135 

, Benjamin, 135 

, Caroline, 136 

, Charles, 5, 6, 16, 29, 30, 

134, 136 

, Charles Wm., 134, 136 

, Ebenezer, 135 

, Edward, 134, 136 

, Elizabeth, 136 

, George, 134, 135, 136 

, George Upshur, 134, 

136 

, Hannah, 134 

, Harriet Bowen, 136 

, Helen Maria, 136 

, Henry, 134, 136 

, Horace, 134, 136 

, John, 134 

, Julia Howe, 136 

, Lemuel, 134, 136 

, Louise Amory, 136 

, Lucretia, 134, 135 

, Lucy, 136 

, Lydia, 136 

, Maria, 136 

, Maria Lear, 136 

, Mary, 136 

, Mehitable, 134 

, Noadiah, 134, 136 



Morris, Pardon, 136 

, Com'dore Richard, 187 

, Robert, 134, 136 

, Robert Murray, 134, 

136 

, Robert S., 136 

, Rufus, 136 

, Samuel, 134, 135 

, Simeon, 135 

, Susanna, 134 

, William, 134, 135 

, William Bowen, 136 

Moseley, Hannah, 72 

, Capt. John, 72 

Mott, Jacob, 168 
Mountjoy, Catherine, 186 

, Lord, 186 

Mulligan, Richard, 156 

, Virginia, 155, 156 

Mulryn, Sir John, 210 
Mumford, Hannah, 89 

, Sarah, 136 

Murray, Isabella, 74 

, J., 42, 106 

, Sal lie Scott, 54 

Murrell, Mary Florence, 124 
Musgrave, Augusta, 58 



Naile, Lieut. Raymond, 155 

Napier family, 21 

Neale, Raymond, 156 

Neill, E., 96 

Nelson, Anne, 145, 147 

, Catherine, 145 

, Charlotte, 145, 147 

, Edmund, 145, 146, 147 

, Horatio, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 

7, 16, 20, 24, 29, 
59, 81, 88, 133, 134, 
137, 138, 140, 142. 
143, 144, 158, 168, 
196, 203 

, Maurice, 144, 147 

, Rear-Adm. Maurice 

Horatio, 144 

, Suckling, 145, 147 

, Susanna, 144, 145, 147 

, T., 148 

, William, 144, 147 

Nicholas, Charles, 214 

, Edward, 213 

, Robert, 213 

, Thomas, 214 

, William, 213 

Nichols, Capt. Jonathan, 134 

, Miriam, 136 

Nicholson, James, 38 

, John, 38 

, Samuel, 38 

Niles, J., 170 

Nisbit, Dr. Josiah, 138 

Norreys, Sir Henry, 186 
, Mary, 186 

Nottingham, John Henry, 152 

Nully, Ann de, 194 

Nutthall, John, 109 

Nye, David. 73 



226 



NAMES OF PERSONS. 



O'Brien, Dennis, 149, 150 

, Gideon, 149, 150 

, Jeremiah, 5, 6, 16, 21, 

29, 148, 149, 150 

, Joana, 150 

, John, 148, 149, 150 

, Joseph, 149, 150 

, Lydia, 150 

, Maria, 150 

, Martha, 150 

, Mary, 150 

, Morris, 148, 150 

, William, 149, 150 

O'Bryne, W., 109, 148 
Oddie, Walter, 156 
Ogden, Electra, 198, 199 
Okill, John, 126 

, Mary Helena, 126 

Orange, Prince of, 103 
Orton, Sarah, 71 
Ostrander, Jane, 173 
Oxnard, Ebenezer, 183 

, Edward, 183 

, Enoch, 184 

, Henry, 184 

, John, 184 

, Martha, 184 

, Mary, 184 

, Mehitable, 184 

, Stephen, 184 

, Thomas, 182, 183 

Page, Alexina, 111 

, Charles, 111 

, Edmonia, 111 

, Fanny, 111 

, Hugh Nelson, 110 

, Jane, 110 

, John, 110 

, Lewis Burwell, 110 

, Mann, 110 

, Mary Ann Mason, 111 

, Octavius Augustus, 110 

, Peyton Randolph, 110 

, Richard Lucien, 111 

, Dr. Thomas S., Ill 

, Walter, 111 

, William Byrd, 110, 111 

Palmer, John Jervis, 109 
Papineau, , 129 
Parker, Abel, 152 

, Alexander, 152 

, Anne, 152, 153 

, Arthur, 152 

, Daingerfield, 151, 153 

, Edward, 109 

, Elizabeth, 108, 109, 153 

, Foxhall, Alexander, 21, 

151, 153 
, George, 108, 109, 151, 

152 

, Sir HyrH 139, 143 

, Jacob, 153 

, Janet, 108 

, John, 109, 119, 152, 153 

, John A., 153 

, John Henry, 153 

, Juliet, 153 



Parker, Laetitia, 108 

, Martha, 107, 108 

, Mary, 109 

, Adm. Sir Peter, 137, 

196 

, Richard, 151, 152 

, Richard Le Roy, 153 

, Robert, 109, 151 

, Robert Bogardus, 153 

, Robert Eliott, 153 

, Thomas, 108, 109, 152, 

153 

, Upshur, 151 

, William, 108, 109 

, William Harwood, 5, 

7, 16, 21, 69, 102, 

133, 151, 152, 153 
Pasley, , 83 
Patterson, Capt. Carlisle, 175, 

180 

, Commodore D. J., 179 

, Commander Daniel 

Tod, 175 

, Georgia Ann, 175, 180 

Paul, Elizabeth, 114 

, George, 114 

, John, 114 

, Mary Ann, 114 

, William, 112, 114 

Paulding, Anna, 155, 156 

, Caleb, 156 

, Caroline, 155, 156 

, Emma, 155, 156 

, George, 155, 156 

, Helen, 156 

, Hiram, 5, 7, 16, 21, 28, 

30, 154, 155, 156 

, James, 156 

, John, 155, 156 

, John Ward, 156 

, Julia, 156 

, Leonard, 155, 156 

, Mary, 155, 156 

, Rebecca, 155, 156 

, Sarah Teed, 156 

, Susan, 156 

, Tattnal, 155, 156 

, Virginia, 156 

Paullin, Admiral C., 170, 188, 

189, 190, 191, 193 
Peale, William Robert, 62 
Pearson, Rev. William H., 128 
Pelham, Penelope, 50 
Pellew, Arthur Samuel, 159 
, Barrington Reynolds, 

159 

, Caroline Emma, 159 

, Catherine, 159 

, Edward, 5, 6, 16, 30, 

157, 158, 159 

, Emma Mary, 159 

, Fleetwood Boughton, 

159 

, Fleetwood Hugo, 159 

, Fleetwood John, 159 

, George, 159 

, Rev. George Israel, 

159 



Pellew, Humphrey, 158 

, Sir Israel, 158 

, Jane, 159 

, John, 159 

, Julia, 159 

, Juliana, 159 

, Percy T., 159 

, Pownoll Bastard, 159 

, Pownoll Fleetwood, 159 

, Pownoll William, 159 

, Samuel, 158 

Pepper, Dr. William, 169 

Perceval, John, 154 

Perkins, George Hamilton, 5, 

6, 16, 21, 29, 160, 

161, 162 

, Hamilton Eliot, 161, 

162 

, Isabel, 162 

, M., 170 



-, Roger, Eliot, 162 



Perrin, Betsey, 73 

, Mary, 73 

, Pamela, 73 

, Polly, 73 

, Porter, 73 

, Samuel, 73 

, Sophia, 73 

, Truman, 73 

, William, 73 

, Zachariah, 73 

Perrott, James, 156 
Perry, Ann, 165 

, Anna, 169 

, Ann Marie, 167, 169 

, Benjamin, 168 

, Caroline Slidell, 169 

, Christopher Grant, 169 

, Christopher Raymond, 

30, 165, 166, 168, 

169, 170 

, Edward, 168 

, Elizabeth, 165, 168, 

169 

, Francis Sergeant, 169 

, Freeman, 168 

, George Hazard, 168 

, Isabella, 169 

, James Alexander, 17, 

168, 169 

, Jane, 168 

, Jane Hazard, 169 

, John, 169 

, John Edward, 167 

, Joshua, 168 

, Mary, 168 

, Matthew Calbraith, 

5, 7, 16, 22, 30, 110, 
151, 152, 153, 162, 
163, 164, 166, 167, 

169, 207 

, Nathaniel Hazen, 169 

, Oliver, 166, 187 

, Oliver Hazard, 5, 6, 17, 

22, 29, 30, 53, 162, 
163, 164, 165, 166, 
168, 169, 170 
, Raymond, 169 



NAMES OF PERSONS. 



227 



Perry, Raymond Henry James, 
168 

, Rest, 168 

, Sarah, 169 

, Sarah Wallace, 169 

, Susan, 168, 169 

, Thomas Sergeant, 169 

, William, 169 

, William Ledyard, 169 

Peter, King, 203 

Petrie, William, 84, 85 

, William Matthew Flin- 
ders, 84, 85, 92 

Phelps, Anna, 72 

Phillip, Abigail, 205 

, Adm. Arthur, 5, 16, 173 

, Barrett, 173 

, George, 173 

, John G., 173 

, John Henry, 173 

, John Woodward, 5, 7, 

16, 172 

, Woodrow, 173 

Phillips, Richard, 215 

Philyss, Juliana, 75 

Pierce, F., 206 

Pike, Dorothy, 51 

, Timothy, 52 

Pillsbury, Elsie, 62 

, Florence Greenwood, 

62 

, John, 20 

, John Elliott, 20, 62, 63 

, John Gilmore, 62, 63 

Pine, Anna, 69 

Pinkney, Charles, 169 

, Edward Coate, 169 

, Frederick, 169 

, Ninian, 169 

, William, 169 

Pitt, Thomas, 202 

, William, Earl Chat- 
ham, 202 

Poer, Catherine de la, 43 

de Ponte, Elizabeth, 186 

Porden, Eleanor Anne, 92 

Porter, Alexander, 179 

, Anne, 179 

, Bolton, 179 

, Capt. Carlisle, 29, 175, 

180 

, David, 5, 6, 22, 29, 69, 

79, 80, 177, 178, 
179, 180 

, David Dixon, 5, 6, 16, 

22, 29, 70, 79, 80, 
123, 175, 176, 178, 
179, 180, 189 

, David H., 179 

, Essex, 29, 175, 179, 180 

, Evalina, 179 

, Fitz-John, 179 

, Hambleton, 180 

, Henry Ogden, 179 

, Imogen, 179 

, Commander John, 17, 

22, 179 



-, Mary, 179 



Porter, Richard, 29, 175, 180 

, Samuel, 179 

, Theodoric, 29, 175, 180 

, Thomas, 180 

, William D., 179 

Portugal, King of, 47 

Pctter, Harriet, 204 

, Harriet Maria, 206 

, John, 204 

Powell-Leslie, Charles, 43 

, Christine, 48 

Pownall, Stanislaus, 157 

Pratt, Elizabeth, 110 
, William, 110 

Pray, Mary, 100 

Preble, Adeline, 184 

, Alice, 184 

, Eben, 182, 184 

, Ebenezer, 28, 182, 183 

, Edward, 5, 7, 16, 23, 

28, 30, 134, 136, 
181, 182, 183, 184 

, Edward Deering, 181, 

183 

, Edward Henry, 184 

, Ellen Bangs, 184 

, Enoch, 28, 182, 183 

, Frances Arnica, 184 

, Francis, 182 

, George Henry, 182, 184 

, Harriet, 184 

, Henry, 182, 183 

, Henry Oxnard, 184 

, Jedediah, 182, 183 

, John, 183 

, Joshua, 28, 183 

, Lucy, 183 

, Martha, 182, 183 

, Mary, 184 

, Samuel, 183 

, Statira, 182, 183 

, William, 183 

Prentiss, Annie, 90 

, John, 89 

Prune, Nathaniel, 195 

, Rufus, 195 

^ x .) J.yo 

Primrose, Elizabeth, 78 

Quin, Lavina, 200 

Radford, John, 186 
Radstack, Lord, 141 
Raikes, H., 50 
Raleigh, Carew, 186, 187 

, George, 186 

, John, 186 

, Margaret, 186 

, Mary, 186 

, Walter, 5, 18, 185, 186, 

187 

Ray, Sybil, 194 
Raymond, Elizabeth, 168 

, Joshua, 194 

Read, Caroline Laurens, 124 
Reed, David, 50 

, Franklin, 110 

, Lucy Franklin, 110 



Remington, Mary, 206 
Rennie, Elizabeth, 75 
Reynolds, Elizabeth, 168 

, Thomas, 168 
Rhett, Catherine, 213 

Mary, 213 

Sarah, 213 

, William, 22, 212, 213, 

214 

Rhinelander, John, 206 
Rhodes, Mary, 100, 134 
Rice, Edward, 128 

, Hon. George, 128 

, Henrietta, 128 

, Hon. Maria, 128 

, Sarah Parker, 73 

Richards, G., 170 
Richardson, Sir John, 102 
Ricketts, Mary, 108 

, William Henry, 108 

Ringgold, Dr. James, 136 
Roberts, Capt. Francis, 93 

, Jack, 93 

, Joe, 93 

Rochelle, J. N., 211 
Rodgers, Alexander, 169 

, Alexander Perry, 169 

, Ann Minnie, 169, 190 

, Augustus Frederick, 

169, 190 

, Christopher Randolph 

Perry, 30, 167, 169 

, Elizabeth, 169 

, Elizabeth Jacobs, 39 

, Frederica, 169 

, Frederick, 169, 170, 

189, 190 

, George Washington, 

19, 22, 30, 69, 162, 
165, 169, 189, 191 

, Helen, 169 

, Henry, 169, 189 

, James, 39 

, Jane, 170 

, Jerusha, 169 

, Admiral John, 5, 7, 18, 

22, 23, 26, 30, 62, 
71, 72, 168, 169, 

170, 187, 188, 189, 

190, 203 

, John Augustus, 169, 170 

, John F., 169 

, Louise, 169 

, Mary, 169 



-, Rebecca, 169 



, Robert, 169, 189 

, Sarah, 169 

, Thomas Reynolds, 169 

, Thomas Slidell, 169 

, William Pinkney, 169, 

189 

Rodney, Sir George, 74 
, George Bridges, 5, 18, 

192, 196, 201 

de Rohan, William, 8, 64, 67 
Rokeby, Lord, 117 
Rolle, Margaret, 116 
Ross, Sir John Lockhart, 75 



228 



NAMES OF PERSONS. 



Rotch, William, 206 
Rous, Augusta, 58 

, John E. Cornwallis, 58 

Rowan, James, 66, 67, 175 

, Martha, 65, 67 

, Stephen Clegg, 66 

Ruggles, Elizabeth, 45 
Rupert, Prince, 47, 105 
Ruperta, Princess, 105 
Rush, Benjamin, 205 

, James, 206 

, Richard, 206 

Russell, Alexander George, 117 

, Cosmo George, 117 

, Edward, 116 

, Francis, 116 

, Francis John, 116 

, George William, 116 

, Henry, 117 

, John, Duke of Bed- 
ford, 115 

, William, 116, 148 

, W. C., 60 

, Wriothley, 116 

Rutherford, Daniel, 75 
Ruthven, Anne, 78 

, James, Lord, 78 

, John, 78 

Rylands, W., 109 

Sands, Comfort, 193, 194 

, Cornelia, 195 

, Eliza, 193, 195 

, Ferdinand, 193, 195 

, James, 194 

, John, 194 

, Joseph, 195 

, Joshua, 193 

, Adm. Joshua Ratoon, 

5, 18, 164, 193, 194, 

195 
, Louis Joseph, 193, 194, 

195 

, Mercy, 194 

, Sarah, 194 

Saumarez, Amelia, 197 

, Anne, 197 

, Carteret, 197 

, Charlotte, 197 

, James, 6, 6, 18, 196, 

197 

, John, 197 

, John de, 197 

, John St. Vincent, 197 

, John Thomas, 197 

, Martha, 197 

, Mary, 197 

, Matthew, 197 

, Nicholas, 197 

, Philip, 197 

, Richard, 197 

, Thomas, 197 

Saxton, Mercy, 71, 72 
Scarth, Katharina M., 214 
Scharf, J., 55, 111 
Schley, Commodore, 172 
Scott, E., 85 
, Gen. Winfield, 207 



Scott, Major Sylvanus, 99 

, Sir William, 105 

Scrope, Anabella, 105 

, Lady Anabella, 105 

, Emanuel, Earl of 

Sunderland, 105 
, John, Earl of Rutland, 

105 

Scudder, Mary T., 3 
Selden, Mary Mason, 110 
Selkirk, Lord, 112, 114 
Selwood, , 92 
Semmes, Benedict, 199 

, Oliver J., 199 

, Raphael, 5, 7, 18, 123, 

197, 199 
, Richard Thompson, 

199 

, Samuel Middleton, 199 

, Thomas Jenkins, 199 

Sergeant, Frances, 169 
Seymour, Albert, 201 

, Augusta, 201 

, Caroline, 200 

, David, 200 

, Sir Edward, 186, 201 

, Edward Hobart, 6, 7, 

18, 23, 200, 201 

, Elizabeth, 200 

, Ellen, 200 

, Frances, 200 

, Henry, 201 

, Jane, 200 

, Rev. John, 200 

, John, 201 

, John Hobart, 201 

, John Hobart Culme, 

200 

, Mary, 200 

, Michael, 23 

, Sir Michael, 200 

, Sir Michael Culme, 

200, 201 

, Richard, 200 

, Richard Arthur, 201 

, Walter Richard, 201 

, William Hobart, 200 

Shairp, Catherine, 130 

, Sir Stephen, 130 

Shakespeare, William, 203 
Shaler, Lucy Ann, 121 

, Nicholas, 121 

Sherman, A., 150 

, Roger, 89 

Shine, Elizabeth, 82 

, John, 82 

Shippen, R., 153 
Skeeler, Jane, 42 

, Rev. Thomas, 42 
Skeffington, Admiral, 132 
Skelton, James, 110 

, Sally, 110 

, Sarah, 146 
Slidell, Jane, 169 

, John, 169 

, Julia, 169 

Smith, Hon. Albert, 62, 63 
, Sir Albert Jones, 63 



Smith, Augusta, 66, 200 
, Lady Caroline Mary, 

202 

, Charles, 200 

.Charles Douglass, 202 

, Sir Charles Joshua, 

200 

, Cordelia Miller, 62 

, Capt. Cornelius, 202 

, Drummond, 200 

, Edward, 201, 202 

, Edward Herbert, 202 

, Elizabeth, 63, 128 

, Elizabeth Winkle, 20, 

62, 63 

, Frances, 200 

, Gilbert Joshua, 201 

, Jane Read, 63 

, John, 200, 201, 202 

, John Spencer, 202 

, Joseph Bass, 62, 63 

, Josiah, 63 

, Lucy, 102 

, Margaret Sprague, 63 

, Maria Louisa, 200 

, Mary, 73 

, Mary Butler, 61, 62 

, Rev. Orlando, 201 

, Sarah Barker, 63 

, Seymour Spencer, 201 

, Spencer, 200 

, Rev. Thomas, 63 

, William A., 66, 67 

, W. B., 150 

, Sir William Rumbold, 

202 
, W. Sidney, 5, 6, 18, 29, 

201, 202 
Smyth, W., 42 
Sneddle, Hugh, 186 
Snell, Hannah, 28 
Soley, J. R., 176, 177, 180 
Somerby, H., 46 

, Capt. Joseph, 73 

Southey, Robert, 140 
Southwell, Catherine, 116 

, Sir Edward, 115, 116 

, Elizabeth, 116 

, Sophia, 116 

Sparnon, Judith, 158 
Spencer, Anne Elizabeth, 198, 

199 
, Oliver Marlborough, 

198, 199 

Sprague, Margaret, 62 
Spriddle, Lieutenant, 169 
Stafford, John, 41 
Stanforth, Margaret, 103 
Stanley, Edward, 102 

, Lord James, 102 

Stanley, Lucy, 102 
Stapleton, Catherine, 95 

, Robert, 95 

St. Clair, General, 120, 121 

, Col. de, 202 

Stebling, V., 187 
Stephenson, Augustus, 117 
, Elizabeth, 38 



NAMES OF PERSONS. 



229 



Stephenson, Henry, 116 

, Sussex, 117 

Stewart, Col. Wm., 141 

Stirling, K., 117 

Stockton, Abigail, 205, 206 

, Annis, 206 

, Caroline, 206 

, Catherine Elizabeth, 

206 

, Charles, 206 

, Charles C., 206 

, Edward, 206 

, Harriet M., 206 

, Howard, 206 

, John, 204, 205 

, John Potter, 206 

, Lucius, 206 

, Lucius Horatio, 205 

, Lucius W., 206 

, Mary, 206 

, Mary Elizabeth, 206 

, Rev. Philip, 205 

, Philip Augustus, 206 

, Rebecca, 206 

, Richard, 204, 205, 206 

, Robert Field, 5, 6, 18, 

22, 29, 203, 204, 

206 

, Samuel, 206 

, Samuel Witham, 205, 

206 

, Susan, 205 

, T. C., 205 

Stopford, Sir Robert, 100, 102 
Stout, Lucy, 119 
Street, Caroline, 90 

, Mary, 89 

Strickland, Margaret, 57 
Strong, Martha, 108 
Stuart, Anne, 78 
Stuart, Charles, 128 
Stuart, Jane, 57 
Sturgis, Mrs. E., 46 
Sturman, , 152 
Sturman, Mary, 153 
St. Vincent, Earl of, 81 
Suckling, Anna Maria, 147 

, Catherine, 146 

, Rev. John, 147 

, Maurice, 2, 20, 1 137, 

144, 146, 147 

, Richard, 146 

, Robert, 146, 147 

, Robert George, 147 

, William, 146, 147 

, William Benjamin, 146, 

147 
Sullivan, Felix, 55 

, Felix, R., 55 

, Franklyn Buchanan, 

53, 55 

, Mary, 55 

, Nannie, 55 

, Rev. Thomas B., 46 

Sutton, Elizabeth, 128 
Swynfen, John, 108 

, Mabella, 108 

, Mary, 108 



Symonds, Margaret, 48 

Talbot, Baron, 128 

, Commander, 136 

, Charles John, 44 

, Mary Anne, 28 

, Sir Reginald, 44 

, William, Earl, 128 

Talcott, Elizur, 72 

, George, 72 

, Hannah, 73 

, Mary, 73 

, Nehemiah, 73 

, Samuel, 72, 73 

, S. V., 73 

Tallman, Martha, 118 
Tarbox, Betsy, 78 
Tarleton, Sir Banastre, 188 
Tart, William, 75 
Tattnall, Edward Fenwick, 210 

, John, 210 

, Josiah, 5, 18, 23, 109, 

207, 208, 209, 210 
Taylor, Alexina, 111 

, Gen., 151 

, Harriet, 169 

, Jane, 170 

, John, 37 

, Col. Joseph, 169 

, Montgomery Meigs, 

170 

Teackle, , 153 
Ten Eyck, Commissioner, 204 
Tenney, S., 52 
Tennyson, Lord Alfred, 92 
Thompson, B., 195 
Thompson, Hon. John Ren- 

shaw, 206 

Thrale, Hester Maria, 78 
Tiffany, George, 169 
Todd, Rev. A., 90 
Toppan, Hannah, 150 
Townsend, John Thomas, 116 
Traill, H., 92 
Trelawny, Sir John, 20, 96, 97 

, June, 97 

, Roger, 97 

Trench, Lady Elizabeth, 132 
Trenchard, Edward, 193, 195 

, George, 194 

, James, 194 

, Stephen D., 193, 194, 

195 

Tromp, Cornelius Van, 211 
, Martin Harperts, 5, 6, 

18, 29, 47, 210 
Trott, Mary, 213 

, Nicholas, 213 

Trotter, Sir Coutts, 116 

, Susan, 116 

Troubridge, John, 140 
Truxton, , 188 
Tuberville, John, 110 

, Lettice Corbin, 110 

Tucker, Edgar, 184 

, John, 109, 124, 211 

, John Randolph, 5, 7, 

18, 211 



Tufton, Catherine, 115 

, Lady Margaret, 115 

Turner, Anne, 146 

, Sir Charles, 146 
Turton, Elizabeth, 108 

, John, 108 

, Sir John, 109 

, Margaret, 108 

Tuttle, C., 187 

, Mary, 156 

Twistleton, Hon. Cassandra, 

109 

Tyler, President John, 204 
Tyndall, Proncy, 73 

Upshur, Abel Parker, 152, 153, 

204 
, George Parker, 152, 

153 

, Littleton, 152, 153 

Usher, S., 121 

Vance, John, 121 

, Mary, 121 

, Samuel, 21, 121 

Vandergrift, L., 121 
Vane, Lady Francis, 106 
VanWyck, Anne Stedman, 39 
Victoria, Queen, 116, 193 
Vinton, Abiathar, 67 

, Rev. Francis, 169 

, Hon. Samuel F., 67 

Waddy, Isaac, 39 

Wade, Annie McKean, 55 

, Col. Richard, 55 

, Robert Buchanan, 55 

Walker, Sarah, 194 

, Gen. William, 149, 154, 

193 
Wallace, Alexander, 168 

, Charles, 168 

, James, 168 

, James (Lord Dun- 

donald), 168 

, Sir Richard, 168 

, Robert, 168 

, Sarah Alexander, 168 

, William, 168 

, William Bailey, 168 

Waller, Sir Jonathan, 105 

Walling, R., 98 

WalpoJe, Galfridus, 20, 146 

, Harriet, 103 

, Horatio, 103, 146 

, Maria, 116 

, Mary, 146 

, Robert, 116, 146 

, Sir Robert, 20, 146 

, S., 117 

Ward, Rear-Admiral Aaron, 71 

, Abigail, 155 

, Benjamin, 155 

, Caleb, 155 

, Esther, 155 

, Capt. James 214 

, John, 21, 155 

, Mary, 156 



230 



NAMES OF PLACES. 



Ward, Nelson, 144 

, Philip, 144, 147 

, Phoebe, 156 

, Samuel, 98 

, Susanna, 84, 85 

Washington, George, 40, 51, 53, 
104 

, Jane, 213 

Watson, Lieut. Arthur, 136 

, Catherine, 115 

, Edward, 115 

, Elizabeth, 54, 74 

, Marmaduke, 54 

, Mary, 200 

, Richard, 200 

Wattles, Sophia, 182, 183 
Watts, Francis Holland, 38 
Webb, Jonathan, 183 

, Susanna, 147 

Webster, Daniel, 88 
Weld, Anna M., 160 

, Isabella, 106 

Wellesley, Sir Arthur, 77 
Wellington, Duke of, 1 
West, Rt. Hon. Sir Algernon, 
116 

, A., 117 

, Jane Elizabeth, 116 

, Gilbert, 117 

, Martin J., 116 

Westcott, Damaris, 168 
Wharton, Lucy, 67 
Whinyates, Edward, 213 

, Francis, 213 

, Frederick, 213 

, Sir Thos., 213 

Whipple, Abigail, 99 



Whitbreak, Juliana, 117 
Whitehall, Anne, 108 
Whittle, Captain, 111 
Whittlesley, Henry, 90 
Wickenden, Rev. William, 99 

, Plain, 99 

Wilkes, Charles, 134, 167 
Wilkinson, Benjamin, 100, 137 

, I, 100 

, John, 99 

, Joseph, 100 

, Lydia, 134 

, Mary, 202 

, Pinkney, 202 

, Ruth, 99 

, Samuel, 99 

, Susanna, 100 



-, William, 99 



William, King I, 115 
William IV, 60 
Williams, Catherine, 205 

, Humphrey, 48 

, Sarah, 48 

Wilson, Hugh, 184 
Winckly, John, 101 

, Margaret, 102 

Winniett, Alexander, 215 

, Anne, 215 

Winslow, Benjamin, 212, 213 

, Catherine A., 212, 214 

, Chilton R., 214 

, Eben E., 212, 214 

, Edward, 212, 213 

, Edward D., 214 

, Frances A., 214 



-, Herbert, 212, 214 
-, James H., 214 



Winslow, John A., 5, 7, 18, 

22, 29, 212, 214 
-.Mary C., 214 



-, William R., 214 



Winston, John, Duke of Marl- 
borough, 106 

Winthrop, Marianne, 159 

Wirt, William, 152 

Wodehouse, Anne, 146 

Wolseley, Cosby W., 215 

, Elizabeth, 215 

, Field Marshal, 214 

, Garnet T., 215 

, John H., 215 

, Mary T., 215 

, Robert, 215 

, Capt. Richard, 214, 215 

, Sydney A., 215 

, W., 5, 6, 18, 23, 29, 

42, 214, 215 



, W. N., 19, 214, 215 

Wood, Marianne, 129 
Woodbury, Eliphalet, 52 
Woodward, E., 65 

, Frances, 147 

, Dr. Theodore, 173 

Wootton, , 156 
Worth, R. N., 98 
Wright, Canon, 92 

, Frances, 182, 183 

, Sir James, 213 

, Rev. Richard, 92, 213 

, Robert, 213 

, Sarah, 213 

Wrottesley, G., 102 

Yeomans, Prudence, 73 



NAMES OF PLACES. 



Abercorn, 106 

Aboukir, Egypt, 77 

Aboukir Bay, 138 

Accomac County, Va., 151, 152 

Acre, Syria, 58, 100 

Adelaide, Aus., 84 

Adriatic Sea, 103 

Agincourt, 20 

Agra, 98 

Alabama, 73, 212 

Albany, N. Y., 73, 90, 96, 111, 

180 

Albemarle, 115, 116, 117 
Albemarle Sound, 60 
Aldershot, Eng., 106 
Alexandria, Egypt, 42, 77, 103 
Alexandria, Va., 182, 203, 211 
Algeciras, 196 
Algiers, 20, 21, 62, 69, 79, 116, 

133, 158, 167, 183, 203, 215 
Alps, 70 
Alvarado, 193 
Amazon River, 211 



Amboy, 204, 206 

Annapolis, Md., 39, 44, 46, 61, 

52,53,70,73,86, 111, 134, 

136, 151, 153, 155, 156, 160 
Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia, 

214, 215 
Annsfield, Lanarkshire, Eng., 

56 

Antigua, 138, 205 
Argentine, 61 
Argyle, Scotland, 56 
Arizona, 61 
Armagh, Ireland, 132 
Assaye, 77 
Australia, 83, 84, 85, 91, 145, 

147, 174 
Austria, 22 
Azores, 185 

Badajoz, Spain, 214 
Bahamas, 212 
Balearic Islands, 111 
Ballston Spa, 62 



Baltic Sea, 93, 197 

Baltimore, Md., 26, 37, 38, 39, 

63, 54, 55, 156, 187, 190, 

193, 203 
Bantry Bay, 96 
Barbadoes, 15, 100, 105 
Barbary States, 36, 68, 88, 178, 

181, 193, 211 
Barcelona, 81 
Barfleur, Cape, 43 
Barnstable, 201 
Bass Strait, 83 
Bastia, Corsica, 138 
Batavia, 41 
Beaufort, N. C., 193 
Bedford, 115, 116 
Beechey Island, 91 
Behring Strait, 191 
Belle Isle, 67, 68 
Bengal, India, 78 
Bennington, Vt., 72 
Bergen-Op-Zoom, 115 
Berlin, 116 



NAMES OF PLACES. 



231 



Bermuda, 19, 211 

Berne, Switzerland, 202 

Bladensburg, Md., 207 

Block Island, 194 

Bombay, 78, 145 

Bonaventure, Ga., 207 

Boston, Eng., 21, 130 

Boston, Mass., 15, 39, 44, 58, 
61, 62, 68, 70, 83, 89, 90, 
95, 96, 104, 108, 121, 130, 
134, 148, 155, 160, 161, 
170, 172, 177, 183, 184, 
187, 192, 197, 199, 203, 
207, 212 

Bosworth Field, 186 

Botany Bay, 83, 174 

Boulogne, 41 

Bowdoin, 149, 182 

Brazil, 20, 47, 56, 191 

Brest, 59, 76, 77, 83, 112, 127, 
196, 197 

Brewster, Mass., 183 

Bridgewater, Eng., 47, 48 

Bristol, R. I., 168 

British New Guinea, 133 

Brooklyn, N. Y., 87, 154, 162, 
167, 172, 173, 193 

Browsholme, 108 

Bucks County, Pa., 66 

Bucks, Eng., 116 

Buenos Ayres, 134 

Bundelkhand, India, 92 

Burlington, N. J., 54, 55, 118, 
119, 205 

Burnham Thorpe, County of 
Norfolk, Eng., 137 

Bury, 102 

Cadiz, Spain, 51, 59, 156, 185, 

196 

Cairo, Egypt, 77 
Cairo, 111., 212 
Calcutta, India, 133 
California, 34, 111, 190, 204 
Callao, 204 

Cambridge, 103, 144, 146, 148 
Cambridge, Eng., 125 
Cambridgeshire, Eng., 145 
Camden, N. J., 204, 206 
Camelford, 202 

Campbell's Station, Tenn., 79 
Canada, 74, 91, 116, 117, 118, 

119, 127, 129, 141, 206 
Canterbury, Eng., 145 
Canton, China, 84, 87, 159, 200 
Canton River, 88, 200 
Cape Breton, 192 
Cape Fear River, 122 
Cape of Good Hope, 41, 53, 74, 

75, 77, 84, 100, 116 
Cape Hatteras, 193 
Cape Horn, 53 
Cape Leeuwin, 83 
Cape Mesurado, Africa, 203 
Cape St. Vincent, 59, 74, 193, 

201 

Cape Tiburon, 165 
Cape Town, Africa, 76 



Cape Verde Islands, 44 
Capri, 201 
Cardigan, 105 
Carolina, 117 
Caroline Islands, 200 
Carsethorne, Scotland, 113 
Carthage, 27 
Carthagenia, 47 
Castleton, Vt., 173 
Ceylon, 147,214 
Chancellorsville, 66 
Chapultepec, 165, 169 
Charles Co., Md., 198 
Charleston, S. C., 66, 76, 127, 

196, 204, 206, 211, 212 
Chatham, 42 
Chelmsford, 97 
Chelsea, Eng., 49, 116 
Chenies, Eng., 116 
Cherbourg, 197, 212 
Chesapeake Bay, 37, 134, 201 
Cheshire, Conn., 88, 89, 90 
Chester, Pa., 54, 175, 177, 180 
Chicago, 111., 20, 61, 62, 206 
Chile, 65, 191, 211 
China, 42, 98, 100, 109, 117, 

125, 191, 200, 208, 212 
China Sea, 114 
Chippewa, 110 
Cincinnati, O., 199 
Clarke Co., Va., 109 
Cleveland, 0., 170, 190 
Colorado Springs, 67 
Columbia Co., N.Y., 173 
Columbus, O., 20, 62 
Concord, N. H., 161 
Coningsby, Lincolnshire, Eng., 

92 

Connecticut, 23, 88, 89 
Constantinople, 100, 178, 179, 

201, 202 
Contreras, 136 
Copenhagen, 20, 91, 93, 139, 

141, 143 
Corsica, 143 
Cortland, West Chester Co., 

N. Y., 154 
Coshan, 133 
County Tyrone, 145 
Cowes, Eng., 209 
Craney Islands, 207 
Cristophe, 187, 189 
Cuba, 27, 137, 172, 206, 208, 

209 

Culloden, 115 
Cumberland, Md., 88, 199 
Curacoa Islands, 194 

Dacca, 159 
David's Island, 111 
Deans Yard, Eng., 127 
Delafield, Waukesha Co., Wis., 

60 
Delaware, 21, 39, 53, 54, 55, 

121, 168, 180, 204 
Denmark, 139 
Derby, Conn., 81, 102 
Derbyshire, 117 



Des Moines, 55 

Detroit, 90 

Devon, Eng., 19, 98, 185, 186 

Devonshire, Eng., 185 

Dinwiddie Court House, Va., 

136 

Dogger Bank, 196 
Dorchester, Mass., 46 
Dorset, Eng., 93 
Dover, Eng., 17, 47, 156, 158, 

201 

Down Co., Ireland, 215 
Downes, Eng., 210 
Drury's Bluff, 211 
Dry Tortugas, 207 
Dublin, Ire., 66, 123, 124, 132, 

168 

Dumfries, 114 
Dundalk, Ire., 132 
Dundas, 75 
Dundee, Farfarshire, Scotland, 

74,75 

Dunkerque, 210 
Dutch West Indies, 51 

East Indies, 42, 74, 76, 86, 87, 
92, 98, 128, 137, 147, 200, 
214 

Edinburgh, Scotland, 76, 77, 
110 

Egypt, 41, 77, 138, 201 

Elba, 138 

Elizabeth City, 151 

Encaster, 146 

England, 20, 21, 23, 25, 27, 40, 
41, 46, 47, 49, 50, 65, 72, 
73, 76, 77, 83, 84, 91, 93, 
95, 97, 98, 99, 100, 104, 
112, 115, 116, 117, 123, 
129, 134, 136, 137, 138, 
139, 140, 142, 143, 145, 
148, 158, 168, 174, 185, 
189, 192, 194, 196, 197, 
198, 201, 202, 203, 206, 
207, 208, 209, 210, 211 

English Channel, 95, 100, 104, 
107, 142, 148, 183 

Erie, Pa., 61 

Exeter, 116 

Exmouth, Eng., 185, 186 

Falkland Islands, 42, 133 

Falmouth, Me., 158, 181, 183 

Fatshan, China, 114 

FayetteviJle, N. C., 124 

Fife, Scotland, 78 

Finland, 65 

Flatbush, N. Y., 154 

Florida, N. Y., 136 

Flushing, N. Y., 8 

Fontenoy, 115 

Fort Charles, Jamaica, 202 

Fort Columbus, 87 

Fort Donelson, 87, 155 

Fort Fisher, 61, 66, 70, 152, 

155, 175 182 
Fort Henry, 87, 111 
Fort Jackson, 46, 79, 80, 84 



232 



NAMES OF PLACES. 



Fort Pickens, Fla., 175 

Fort Powell, 160 

Fort San Juan, 137 

Fort St. Philip, 46, 71, 79, 80, 
175 

Fort Sumter, 190, 211 

Fortress Monroe, 154 

France, 21, 25, 40, 51, 59, 64, 
68, 69, 77, 91, 95, 107, 112, 
113, 126, 134, 136, 137, 
157, 158, 160, 182, 183, 
186, 202 

Frankfurt, Germany, 174 

Fredonia, 62 

Friendly Isles, 174 

Gal linos, 193 

Galveston, Texas, 81 

Gefle, Sweden, 65 

Geneva, 116 

Genoa, 41, 186 

Georgia, 19, 89, 111, 208, 209, 

210, 213 

Georgetown, D. C., 38, 199 
Germantown, 152 
Gettysburg, 66, 151, 153, 156 
Gibraltar, 37, 38, 103, 104, 106, 

107, 191, 198, 203, 210 
Gilling, 95 

Glastonbury, Conn., 72 
Gleneagles Co., Perth, Scotland, 

74 

Gloucester, Eng., 200 
Gloucester, Mass., 115, 128, 193 
Grand Lake, La., 199 
Great Barrier Reef, 84 
Great Britain, 50, 102, 1 17 
Great Lakes, 164 
Greece, 66 
Greenland, 91 
Greenwich, Eng., 78, 93, 94, 

108, 174, 192 
Greytown, 134 
Guernsey Islands, 196, 197 
Guiana, 19, 164, 185, 187 
Guinea, 96 

Haddington, 128, 129 

Hague, 125 

Halifax, Nova Scotia, 50, 51, 

148, 208 
Hampton Roads, 53, 62, 63, 

151, 193, 207, 211 
Hants, Eng., 115 
Harford Co., Md., 187 
Harper's Ferry, 66 
Harrow, Eng., 192 
Hartford, Conn., 136, 170 
Hatteras Inlet, N. C., 152 
Havana, 21, 82, 104, 115, 136, 

165, 172, 175, 208 
Havre, France, 201 
Havre de Grace, 26, 189 
Hawaii, 204 
Hesse, 15 

Hilborough. Norfolk, 146 
Hilton Head, S. C., 193 
Hobart Town, 91 



Hochkirch, 77 

Holland, 25, 36, 37, 56, 103, 

115, 162, 168 
Hong Kong, 70, 169 
Honolulu, 86, 135, 204 
Hopkinton, Merrimack Co., 160 
Hudson Bay, 91, 153 
Huggate, County York, 197 
Huntington, Long Island, 164 

India, 44, 76, 77, 92, 106, 109, 
114, 116, 127, 129, 136, 
142, 143, 145, 168, 202 

Indian Ocean, 158, 199 

Ingoldsthorpe, 103 

Ireland, 42, 43, 102, 106, 116, 
117, 121, 126, 128, 131, 
132, 158, 168, 185, 186 

Island Number 10, 87 

Italy, 64, 103, 138, 182 

Jackson, Miss., 71 
Jacksonville, Fla., 100 
Jalapa, 199 
Jamaica, W. I., 39, 83, 90, 112, 

127, 137, 192, 214 
James River, 198, 211 
Japan, 53, 125, 162, 166 
Java, 9 

Jersey, Island of, 197 
Johnson, Vt., 70 

Kansas City, 39 

Kennebec, 187 

Kent Island, 158 

Kentucky, 38 

Khartoum, 106 

Kilkenny Co., Ireland, 215 

Kincardine-on-Forth, 77 

Kinderhook, Columbia Co., 
N. Y., 172 

King George's Sound, 83 

Kingston, Jamaica, 126 

Kingston, R. I., 22 

Kinsdale, Iceland, 47 

Kirkbean, Kirkcudbright, Scot- 
land, 112 

Kirkee, 77 

Kittery, Me., 148, 181, 183 

Knoxville, 79 

Knyzna, Africa, 49 

Korea, 191 

La Guayra, 104, 201 

Laguna, 193 

Lake Champlain, 46, 62, 120, 

154, 157 
Lake Erie, 110, 163, 164, 165, 

170 

Lake George, 135 
Lake Ontario, 193 
Lake Pontchartrain, 82 
Leeward Islands, 192, 201 
Leghorn, 211 
Leicester Co., Eng., 106, 115, 

116, 117 
Leith, Scotland, 113 



Lewkner, Eng., 41 

Lexington, Mass., 73, 148 

Liberia, 87, 162, 203 

Lichfield, 133 

Lincoln, 116 

Lincoln's Inn, 95 

Lissa, 102 

Liverpool, 25, 37, 136, 188 

London, Eng., 44, 48, 50, 58, 
60, 76, 84, 85, 89, 92, 94, 
96, 98, 99, 101, 102, 103, 
104, 105, 106, 109, 111, 
117, 119, 129, 132, 133, 

140, 145, 147, 148, 159, 
174, 185, 187, 197, 201, 
202, 210, 211 

Long Island, N. Y., 64, 88, 149, 

178 

Longwood, Mass., 44 
Los Angeles, 204 
Louisburg, 21, 150, 192 
Louisiana, 34, 81, 82, 199 
Lucknow, India, 214 

Machias, Me., 148, 150 

Mackenzie River, 91 

Madras, Spain, 13, 30, 31, 76, 

78, 91, 92, 159 
Magellan Strait, 98 
Mahratta, 77 

Maine, 34, 134, 148, 149, 183, 

184, 187 

Majorca, Balearic Isles, 82 
Malaga, 133 
Malta, 201 
Manila, 70, 71, 136 
Mansfield, Conn., 138 
Mansfield, Eng., 57 
Marblehead, Mass., 26 
Mare Island, Cal., 79 
Marquesas Islands, 27, 177 
Marseilles, France, 157 
Marston Moor, 108 
Martinique, 138, 192 
Maryland, 10, 53, 54, 58, 95, 

168, 169, 198, 199 
Massachusetts, 23, 136, 179, 

181, 184 

Mauritius, 41, 84, 114 
Mediterranean Sea, 23, 41, 42, 

47,54,55,59,61,68,69,76, 

79, 86, 91, 97, 107, 120, 
127, 129, 136, 137, 138. 

141, 146, 151, 157, 160, 
162, 163, 175, 187, 188, 
198, 200, 201, 204, 207, 
208, 211 

Medway River, 137 

Melanasia, 133 

Melville Islands, 131 

Mercer County, 55 

Meriden, 90 

Merrimac, Mass., 21, 162 

Mexico, 42, 64, 66, 79, 110, 

111, 169, 172, 175, 179, 

198, 199, 204 
Mexico Gulf, 134, 136, 137, 

207 



NAMES OF PLACES. 



233 



Michigan, 73 

Milwaukee, 90 

Minnesota, 34 

Minorca, Balearic Isles, 82 

Mississippi, 23, 79, 81, 100, 

103, 175, 198, 206 
Missouri, 54, 55 

Mobile, 53, 79, 123, 198, 199 
Mobile Bay, 81, 111, 160, 161, 

182, 184 

Modbury, Eng., 186 
Monmouth Co., N. J., 37 
Monterey, Cal., 204 
Montevideo, 131 
Montpelier, Vt., 70, 73 
Montreal, Quebec, 63 
Morocco, 181, 187, 190 
Moscow, 116 
Mount Washington, 183 

Nagasaki, Japan, 166 

Naples, 49, 76, 93, 127, 138, 

141, 142, 162, 201 
Naseby, 108 
Nashville, Tenn., 123 
Nassau, 122 
Nebraska, 111 
Nevis, West Indies, 141 
New Brunswick, N. J., 21, 53, 

155, 197, 204 
Newbury, 52 
Newburyport, Mass., 10, 51, 

148 
New Castle Co., Del., 21, 120, 

121 

Newcastle-on-Tyne, 59 
New England, 49, 72, 98, 99, 

123, 168, 187, 207 
Newfoundland, 127, 192 
New Guinea, 133 
New Hampshire, 73, 135, 149, 

160, 162 

New Haven, Conn., 86, 90 
New Jersey, 23, 99, 118, 204, 

205, 206, 215 
New London, Conn., 40, 45, 

73, 90 
New Orleans, La., 79, 81, 82, 

118, 160, 161, 175, 177, 

179, 184, 198 
Newport, Rhode Island, 44, 99, 

100, 104, 125, 162, 163, 

164, 168 
New Providence, B. W. I., 98, 

112 

New River, 60 
New South Wales, 174 
Newton, Long Island, 121 
New York, 25, 37, 39, 46, 51, 

52, 54, 60, 65, 67, 68, 69, 

73, 79, 83, 86, 90, 92, 98, 

104, 111, 114, 117, 119, 
121, 124, 125, 126, 130, 
134, 136, 148, 149, 151, 
153, 154, 155, 156, 162, 
168, 170, 173, 174, 175, 

180, 181, 188, 189, 193, 
194, 195, 199,206,211,215 



Nicaragua, 137, 143, 154, 193, 

206 

Nice, 76 
Nigeria, 131 
Nile river, 20, 26, 103, 107, 

114, 132, 139, 141, 193, 

196 

Nith river, 113 
Norfolk, Va., 66, 79, 82, 109, 

110, 111, 117, 126, 129, 
146, 152, 154, 193, 208, 
211 

Norrkoping, Sweden, 65, 67 
Northampton, Mass., 46 
Northbeck, 108, 109 
North Carolina, 34, 60, 66, 

82, 110, 111, 213 
North Creek, 116 
Northeast Passage, 186 
North Sea, 188 
Northumberland Co., 110 
Northwest Passage, 91 
Norwich, Conn., 73, 168, 170 
Norwich, Eng., 116, 154, 159 
Nova Scotia, 19, 23, 134, 214, 

215 

Ohio, 62, 67 

Orford, 116, 141 

Oriel, Eng., 42 

Orinoco river, 135 

Otsego, N. Y., 136 

Oxford, Eng., 47, 92, 101, 125, 

126, 185, 187, 201 
Oxford, N. Y., 168 

Padua, 47 

Palace, Limerick Co., 200 

Palermo, 139, 182 

Panama, 151, 160, 175 

Paraguay, 160 

Paris, France, 112, 113, 115, 
117, 141, 162, 182, 184, 185 

Pascagoula, 82 

Pawcatuck river, 166 

Peekskill, N. Y., 155 

Peiho river, 208, 209 

Pekin, China, 200, 208 

Pembroke, Mass., 63 

Pennsylvania, 53, 54, 99, 206 

Penobscot, 134, 181 

Pensacola, Fla., 46, 83, 175 

Perdido River, 198 

Persia, 116 

Perth Amboy, N. J., 53 

Peru, 211 

Petersburg, Va., 211 

Philadelphia, Pa., 36, 37, 38, 
40, 41, 54, 55, 64, 65, 66, 
67, 69, 70, 86, 88, 90, 104, 

111, 154, 156, 204, 205, 206 
Pittsburgh, Pa., 37, 38, 70, 126 
Plymouth, Eng., 37, 157, 158, 

200 
Plymouth, Mass., 62, 63, 76, 

83, 148 

Point Judith, 164 
Poona, 77 



Port Elizabeth, Africa, 133 

Port Hacking, 83 

Port Hudson, Miss., 79, 80, 83 

Port Isabel, 151 

Port Jackson, New South 

Wales, 83, 160, 175 
Portland, Me., 148, 182, 184 
Port Moresby, 133 
Porto Rico, 178 
Port Philips, 160 
Port Royal, 132, 208 
Portsmouth, Eng., 114, 115, 

186, 200 
Portsmouth, N. H., 79, 132, 

133, 134, 150 
Port Sydney, 84 
Portugal, 25, 102, 174, 201 
Potomac River, 134 
Pretoria, 76 

Prince Edward Islands, 202 
Princeton, N. J., 36, 37, 66, 68, 

73, 162, 203, 204, 205, 206 
Providence, R. I., 49, 90, 98, 99, 

100, 136, 168 
Prussia, 77 
Puerte Plata, 88 

Quebec, 107, 137 
Queenstown, 135, 136 
Quiberon, 95, 104, 116 

Rangoon, 130 

Raritan, N. J., 118, 204 

Red River, 79 

Red Sea, 133 

Rhode Island, 49, 51, 69, 98, 

99, 100, 166, 168 
Richmond, Va., Ill, 115, 153, 

198, 211 
Rio de Janeiro, 136, 200, 201, 

215 

Riviera, 138 

Roanoke River, 60, 185, 193 
Rochester, Stafford Co., 70, 83 
Rome, 28, 65, 66, 67, 204, 206 
Roxbury, Mass., 71, 90, 135, 136 
Russia, 22, 55, 77, 78, 112, 113, 

130, 139, 201 
Rutland, 90 

Sackett's Harbor, 136 

Sag Harbor, 26 

Saldanha Bay, 76 

Salem, 26 

Salisbury, Mass., 51 

San Domingo, 90, 127, 128, 

165, 187, 189 

Sandy Hook, 136, 162, 177 
Sands Point, 193, 194 
San Francisco, Cal., 79, 111, 

151, 155, 204 
San Juan, 100, 143, 175 
San Mateo Bay, 97 
San Pedro, 204 
Santa Cruz, 193 
Santiago, 170, 173, 212 
Saratoga, N. Y., 72, 101, 102, 

168, 169 



234 



NAMES OF VESSELS. 



Savannah. Ga., 51, 53, 55, 207, 

208, 210 

Scarboro, Me., 148, 150 
Scituate, R. I., 98, 135, 136 
Scotland, 23, 54, 71, 75, 77, 78, 

112, 117, 146, 168 
Sebastopo), 114, 159 
Seychelles Islands, 41 
Sicily, 201 

Sidmouth, Eng., 185 
Sierra Leone, 41, 106, 214 
Sinepuxent, Worcester Co., 

Md., 68 
Sligo, 106 

Southampton, Eng., 154 
South Carolina, 73, 152, 168, 

199, 206, 208, 210, 212, 213 
South Kingston, R. I., 163 
Spain, 8, 20, 25, 27, 56, 57, 65, 

70, 78, 97, 98, 107, 125, 

140, 149, 153, 170, 174, 

175, 191, 192, 202, 209, 

211 

Spencer Gulf, 84 
Spilsby, Lincolnshire, Eng., 91 
Springfield, Mass., 39 
Stafford Co., Eng., 108 
Staffordshire, Eng., 107, 109 
Staten Island, 26 
St. Bartholomew, 208 
St. Eustatius, W. I., 37 
Stirling, Scotland, 46 
St. George's Bay, 41 
St. Helena, 133 
St. Jean d'Acre, 201 
St. Johns, Newfoundland, 183, 

185 

St. Lucia, 140, 192 
St. Louis, 90 
St. Mary's Isle, 112, 114 
St. Nevins Island, 139 
Stockholm, 65, 67, 202 
Stonington, Conn., 72, 73 
St. Paul, Minn., 68 
St. Petersburg, 202 
St. Thomas Island, 36 
St. Vincent, 84, 107, 109, 138, 

192, 196 
Suffolk, 58 
Sunderland, 105 
Surat, 98 
Surinam, 98, 187 
Surrey, Eng., 197 



Susquehanna, 188, 190 
Suttons, Essex Co., 200 
Sweden, 25, 65, 130, 139 
Sydney, Australia, 83, 84 
Syracuse, 27 

Tabasco, 136, 173 

Tacumshane, Ire., 40 

Tagus River, 47, 201 

Tahiti, 83, 84 

Taku, 212 

Tampico, Mexico, 212 

Tasmania, 83, 91 

Taunton, Eng., 47 

Tavistock, 116 

Teneriffe, 47, 88, 138 

Tennessee, 81, 82, 88 

Texas, 61, 123, 124, 149, 204, 

207 

Texel, 74 

Thames River, 47, 149 
Thompson, Conn., 135 
Ticonderoga, 15, 23, 71, 72, 

73, 105 

Tobago, 112, 113 
Torres Strait, 83, 84 
Toulon, 76, 93, 95, 138, 140, 

142, 201 
Trafalgar, 1, 20, 59, 91, 93, 

108, 139, 141, 142, 144, 

158, 159 
Trenton, N. J., 40, 54, 118, 119, 

204 
Tripoli, 68, 69, 118, 134, 136, 

177, 181, 182, 190, 191, 

195 

Troy, 173, 187 
Tunis, 47, 166, 182, 187, 191 
Turkey, 36, 182 
Tuscany, 182 
Tuxpan, 175, 208, 209 
Typee, 177 

Upsala, Sweden, 65 
Uraga, Japan, 166 
Ushant, 192 
Utah, 34 

Valparaiso, Chile, 67, 79, 80, 
97, 133, 177, 178, 191, 
207, 209 

Vancouver Island, 100, 133 



Vera Cruz, 53, 96, 175, 193, 

198, 207, 208, 214 
Vermont, 71, 73, 135, 173 
Vicksburg, Miss., 66, 68, 79, 175 
Virginia, 38, 79, 110, 111, 112, 

124, 126, 151, 152, 154, 

177, 183, 211 

Walby, 105 

Wales, 115 

Wasa, 65 

Washington, D. C., 36, 53, 62, 
66, 67, 70, 87, 150, 151, 
153, 154, 170, 175, 190, 191, 
193, 203, 206, 207, 211 

Waterford, 42, 43, 132 

Waterloo, 103, 114, 116 

Waterville, Me., 150 

Westfield, Mass., 73 

West Indies, 23, 36, 40, 44, 51, 
52, 54, 58, 79, 82, 86, 88, 
90, 97, 98, 104, 107, 118, 
121, 127, 129, 133, 137, 
138, 140, 142, 143, 144, 
154, 163, 175, 177, 178, 
179, 183, 193, 194, 195, 
198, 207, 210 

Westminster, 127, 129, 201 

West Point, N. Y., 30, 61, 66, 
86, 111, 125, 126, 169 

Whitehaven, 112 

White Plains, N. Y., 122 

Wilmington, N.C., 122, 175, 212 

Wiltshire, Eng., 200 

Winchester, Eng., 116, 128 

Windsor, 116, 127, 128 

Windward Isles, 41 

Winwick Church, 100, 102 

Wisconsin, 20, 62 

Woodstock, Conn., 134, 135, 
136 

Worcester, Eng., 200 

Worcester, Mass., 44, 45, 46, 
170 

Wreck Reef, 84 

Yokohama, 116 
York, Eng., 96, 127, 128, 159 
York, Me., 183 
Yorkshire, 127 
Yorktown, 20, 57 

Zanesville, Ohio, 20, 62 



Adams, 134, 136, 163 

Agamemnon, 138 

Alabama, 123, 180, 182, 198 

Albemarle, 60, 61, 137 

Alcide, 201 

Alert, 177 

Alfred, 112 



NAMES OF VESSELS. 

Alliance, 40 
Alligator, 44, 65 
Amazon, 133, 158 
Amphitrite, 133 
Antelope, 196 
Apollo, 157 
Arkansas, 180 



Atlanta, 190 
Aurora, 179 
Avenger, 130 

Baltimore, 104 
Barclay, 80 
Barfleur, 59 



Basilisk, 133 

Beaufort, 151 

Bellerophon, 83, 91, 117 

Belvidere, 188, 189, 203 

Berwick, 95 

Black Prince, 40 

Blake, 62 

Blenheim, 78 

Bonaventure, 96 

Bon Homme Richard, 38, 112 

Boreas, 138, 145 

Brandywine, 134, 162, 167 

Bristol, 196 

Brittania, 42 

Brooklyn, 45, 46, 126, 173, 198 

Burford, 104 

Cabot, 99 

Caesar, 196 

Carleton, 157 

Caroline, 151 

Cayuga, 160 

Cecile, 122 

Centaur, 215 

Chatsworth, 86 

Cherub, 177 

Chesapeake, 46, 64, 110, 118, 

164 

Chicago, 125 
Chickasaw, 160 
Chippewa, 172 
Cleopatrie, 157 
Colorado, 46, 62 
Condor, 42 
Confederacy, 127 
Congress, 62, 63, 125, 151, 204 
Conqueror, 159 
Constellation, 121, 154, 177, 

187, 188, 198, 207 
Constitution, 36, 38, 44, 45, 88, 

90, 122, 134, 181, 189 
Cornwall, 104 

Countess of Scarborough, 112 
Crescent, 196 
Crusader, 122 

Cumberland, 151, 152, 154, 211 
Cyane, 160, 164 
Gyrene, 193 

Dash, 183 
Deerhound, 123 
Delight, 179 
Diana, 164 
Diligence, 148 
Dolphin, 122, 154 
Dorothea, 91 
Drake, 112, 113 
Droits de l'Homme, 158 

Eagle, 62, 192 

EfEngham, 40 

Endymion, 69 

Enterprise, 68, 118, 120 

Erebus, 91 

Erie, 203, 207 

Esmeralda, 179 

Essex, 22, 79, 80, 177, 178, 179 

Experiment, 44, 51, 177, 178 



NAMES OF VESSELS. 

Falcon, 184 
Falmouth Packet, 148 
Federal, 207, 208 
Fern, 212 
Florida, 122 
Fortune, 174 
Fox, 131 
Francis, 83 
Frolic, 169, 189 

Gabriel, 97 

Gaspe, 99 

General Arnold, 51 

General Greene, 165 

George, 51 

Glasgow, 98, 99 

Globe, 154 

Gorgan, 131 

Gosport, 76 

Grampus, 86 

Gregson, 51 

Guerriere, 88, 90, 134, 203 

Hannah, 51 
Hannibal, 148, 149 
Harmony, 187 
Hartford, 79 
Hatteras, 180 
Havana, 134 
Hawke, 98 
Hebe, 93 
Hector, 98 
Helena, 93 
Hinchenbrook, 137 
Hornet, 37 

Imperieuse, 129 
Indefatigable, 158 
Independence, 36 
Indiana, 126 
Inflexible, 198 
Intrepid, 51, 68, 131 
Investigator, 83, 91 
Invincible, 168 
Iowa, 169 

Jackal, 207 

Jane, 187 

Java, 36 

Jersey, 90, 136, 148, 179, 181 

John, 112 

John Adams, 81, 86, 187 

Judith, 46 

Kearsarge, 62, 123, 182, 198, 

212 
Kennebec, 46 

Lackawanna, 160 
Lawrence, 165, 166, 167 
Leopard, 46, 164 
Lexington, 40 
L'Insurgente, 121, 177, 187, 

188, 189 
Lion, 146 

Little Belt, 162, 188, 189 
Lowstoft, 137 



235 

Macedonia, 69, 207 

Machias Liberty, 148, 149 

Madison, 183 

Magnanime, 104 

Margaretta, 148, 149, 150 

Martha, 86 

Mary Rose, 186 

Maumee, 60 

Merrimac, 39, 51, 53, 62, 63, 

109, 151, 208 
Meshboha, 36 
Meshouda, 69 
Minerva, 93 
Minnesota, 60 
Mishouri, 203 
Mississippi, 53, 70, 71 
Monarch, 74 
Monitor, 39, 53, 109, 151, 154, 

193, 208 
Montauk, 172 
Mutine, 93 

Nanny, 51 
Nassau, 123 
New London, 160 
New York, 172 
Niagara, 167 
Niger, 58 
Norfolk, 83 
Norwich, 74 
Nottingham, 196 
Nymphe, 157 

Ohio, 204 
Orient, 196 
Orion, 196 

PaJlas, 112 

Patrick Henry, 211 

Patriotic, 64 

Pawnee, 172 

Pennsylvania, 79, 211 

Perry, 44, 86, 167 

Petrel, 50, 184 

Philadelphia, 36, 68, 69, 120, 

134, 177, 181, 187 
Phcebe, 51, 177, 178 
Phcenix, 211 
Plantagenet, 203 
Plymouth, 64 
Polyphemus, 91 
Portsmouth, 87 
Potomac 151 
Powhatan, 175 

President, 69, 136, 162, 188, 203 
Prince George, 77 
Princess Augusta, 93 
Princeton, 204 
Protector, 181 
Providence, 83, 112 
Puritan, 170 

Queen, 49 

Raisonnable, 137 
Raleigh, 114 
Ranger, 112, 113 



236 



TRAITS. 



Rattler, 60 
Release, 160 
Relief, 160 
Resolute, 66 
Retaliation, 36 
Reunion, 196 
Revenge, 162, 164 
Rhode Island, 193 
Robust, 76, 215 
Romney, 76 
Russel, 196 

Sacramento, 118 
Sandwich, 88 
Santa Anna, 59 
Saratoga, 37, 207, 209 
Scioto, 160 
Scorpion, 165 
Sea Flower, 51 
Sea Nymph, 51 
Seminole, 193 
Serapis, 112 
Severn, 104 



Shannon, 59, 118 
Somers, 198 
Spitfire, 175 
Stanislas, 167 
Stately, 41 
St. Lawrence, 164 
St. Louis, 184 
Stromboli, 211 
Sumpter, 160, 198 
Superb, 215 
Susquehanna, 63, 182 
Swallow, 98 

Tecumseh, 79, 161, 182, 184 

Tennessee, 53, 79, 160, 161 

Terrible, 200 

Terror, 91 

Texas, 172, 173 

Theseus, 103 

Ticonderoga, 154 

Tigre, 201 

Trent, 91 

Trenton, 88 



True-blooded Yankee, 183 
Trumbull, 90 
Trusty, 214 

United States, 41, 68, 69, 86, 

154 
Unity, 148, 149, 150 

Varmana, 118 
Victor, 33 
Victory, 93, 102 
Vigilant, 149 
Virginia, 109, 208 
Vixen, 23, 181, 193, 209 
Vizcaya, 173 
Vulcan, 98 

Wabash, 154 
Wasp, 37, 168, 189 
Weehawken, 180, 191 
Winthrop, 181 
Wizard, 103 



Activity, 45, 56, 103, 113, 135, 

140, 157 
Administrativeness, 43, 49, 88, 

97, 105, 107, 151, 162, 174, 

188, 201 
Adventurousness, 33, 36, 42, 

43, 51, 54, 61, 70, 81, 87, 

90, 92, 96, 120, 122, 129, 

133, 146, 152, 155, 163, 

164, 175 

Aggressiveness, 87 
Ambitiousness, 113, 139, 143, 

146, 185 
Artistic Sense (form), 65, 101, 

135, 155, 178, 182, 193, 

194, 195, 199 

Audacity, 61, 87, 88, 163, 179 
Austerity, 41 

Bravery, 37, 71, 82, 83, 96, 157, 

161, 163, 201 
Brilliancy, 101, 103, 158 
Buoyancy, 41, 103, 155 

Carefulness, 85 
Chivalry, 36, 212 
Claustrophilia, 27 
Combativeness, 56, 114, 152, 

155, 161, 163, 175, 177, 
190 

Constructiveness, 109 
Courage, 36, 38, 41, 42, 59, 62, 

94, 127, 135, 155, 161, 

163, 165, 198 
Dash, 212 

Decisiveness, 122, 127, 163 
Diplomacy, 36, 77, 94, 97, 135, 

156, 166, 204, 208 
Energy, 38, 107, 120, 139, 145, 

163, 176, 201, 212 
Enthusiasm, 38 



TRAITS. 

Tearfulness, 29, 139 

Fearlessness, 36, 38, 61, 99, 105, 
118, 122, 123, 127, 129, 
149, 155, 161, 163, 164, 
165, 166, 188, 208, 212 

Firmness, 41, 59, 109, 122, 163 

Fortitude, 212 

Gallantry, 39, 42, 45, 153 

Generosity, 85, 103, 118, 123, 
132, 202, 209 

Hunting, fondness for, 212 

Independence, 163 
Indolence, 145 
Industry, 85 
Intelligence, 122, 123 
Intrepidity, 38, 84, 175 
Inventiveness, 39, 57, 65, 130, 
202 

Jocularity, 43, 61, 129, 172 
Judiciousness, 36, 40, 59, 65, 

82, 92, 101, 120, 127, 162, 

176, 208 

Legislative Ability, 44, 45, 54, 
89, 114, 151, 195, 199 

Literary Ability, 130, 177, 182, 
199 

Love of Hunting, 42, 43, 44, 47, 
101, 127, 161, 164 

Militarism, 25, 37, 43, 54, 61, 
68, 71, 74, 88, 95, 103, 105, 
109, 120, 134, 146, 151, 
161, 197 

Nomadism, 27, 28, 31, 37, 38, 
41, 64, 65, 84, 101, 113, 
131, 146, 155, 173, 175, 
182, 202, 205, 211,212 

Obstinacy, 178 
Orderliness, 190 



Perseverance, 212 
Pertinacity, 37, 92, 143, 161,166 
Promptitude, 40, 69, 94, 97, 179 

Quarrelsomeness, "56 

Recklessness, 43, 158 
Religiousness, 141, 145, 167, 183 
Resourcefulness, 120 
Responsibility, 37, 38, 53, 133, 

139, 163, 167, 191 
Responsiveness, 38, 70, 172, 

173, 209 
Restlessness, 29, 56, 61, 82, 

101, 103, 133, 201, 205 
Scholarship, 36, 41, 47, 50, 65, 

77, 85, 87, 89, 99, 101, 

167, 186 

Self-control, 92, 112 
Self-reliance, 49, 53, 81, 87, 

88, 120, 167 
Strategic Insight, 29, 81, 101, 

135, 142 
Sternness, 192, 199 

Tactical Ability, 29, 105 

Temper, 38, 40, 41, 43, 92, 101, 
113, 140, 166, 178, 181 

Tenacity, 144, 176 

Thallasophilia, 25, 26, 27, 28, 
29, 31, 33, 36, 48, 49, 56, 
64, 68, 69, 81, 88, 93, 96, 
99, 101, 107, 118, 129, 135, 
151, 152, 161, 178, 179, 
181, 190, 200, 201, 207 

Vigilance, 103 
Visualism, 26, 130. 131 
Vivacity, 85, 86 

Wanderlust, 25, 29, 90 (see 

Nomadism) 
Wit, 38, 42, 123, 149 



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