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Full text of "The Carnivorous Plants"

THE BOOK WAS 
DRENCHED 



00 



OU1 66580 >m 



A NEW SERIES OF PLANT SCIENCE BOOKS 

edited by Frans Verdoorn 

Volume IX 



THE CARNIVOROUS PLANTS 



FRANCIS ERNEST LLOYD was born in 1868 of Welsh 
Parentage in Manchester, England, coming to the United 
States in 1882. After graduation at Princeton in 1891, he 
taught at Pacific University in Oregon for five years and 
was then appointed Associate Professor of Biology at 
Teachers College, Columbia University. During this period 
of ten years he studied with GOEBEL (Munich) and STRAS- 
BURGER (Bonn). In 1906 he became Investigator, ap- 
pointed by the Carnegie Institution of Washington to work 
at the Desert Laboratory at Tucson, Ariz. Research here 
resulted in The Physiology of Stomata (Cam. Inst. Publ. 
no. 82). He then entered into a contract with the Con- 
tinental-Mexican Rubber Company of New York to study 
the biology of guayule (Parthenium argentatum) in the 
state of Zacatecas, Mexico, and in 1911 the book on Gua- 
yule, a Rubber Plant of the Chihuahuan Desert ap- 
peared (Carnegie Institution Publication no. 139; reissued 
in 1942). After four years as Professor of Botany in the 
Alabama Polytechnic Institute, where he studied boll-shedding 
in cotton (Environmental Changes and their Effect on 
Boll-Shedding in Cotton, Gossypium herbaceum, Ann. 
N. Y. Acad. Sci. 29: i-i 31, 1920) he was appointed Mac- 
donald Professor of Botany in McGill University, and 
Emeritus in 1935. Was chairman of Sect. G., A. A A.S., in 
1923; President of the American Society of Plant Physiolo- 
gists in 1927; of the Royal Society of Canada in 1933 and of 
the Botanical Section of the British Association in 1931 
He is a Barnes Life Member of the American Society of 
Plant Physiologists, Honorary British Fellow of the Botani- 
cal Society of Edinburgh, and has received the D.Sc. honoris 
causa, from the University of Wales and from Masaryk Uni- 
versity. In 1903 he married MARY ELIZABETH HART, 
formerly Professor of Biology in The Western College for 
Women, Oxford, Ohio. 



TL 

CARNIVOROUS 
PLANTS 



BY 

FRANCIS ERNEST LLOYD 

D. Sc. k c. ( Wal f ,) ; F. R. S. C., F. L. S. 

Emeritus Professor of Botany, M.cGill University 




1942 
WALTHAM, MASS., U.S.A. 

Puomned oy the Cnronica Botanica Company 



First published MCMXLH 

By the Chronica Botanica Company 

of Waltham, Mass., U. S. A. 



All rights reserved 



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Made and printed in the U. S. A. 



PREFACE 

The experience which has led to the writing of this book began in 1929 
when, examining a species related to Utricularia gibba, / made an observation 
of some importance in understanding the mechanism of the trap. This begot 
a desire to study as many other species of the genus as I could obtain for com- 
parison, primarily to determine the validity of my conclusions. My feeling 
that research in this field was promising was strengthened by the discovery that 
the pertinent literature was singularly barren of the information most needed, 
that is to say, precise accounts of the structure of the entrance mechanisms of 
the traps. And an examination of much herbarium material, because of the 
meagreness of the underground parts of the terrestrial types resulting from 
indifferent methods of collection, forced the conclusion that, even had other 
difficulties inherent in studying dried material not intervened, it would be 
necessary to obtain adequately preserved specimens. This meant a wide cor re- 
spondence and, if possible, extensive travel. The uncertainty of achieving the 
latter made the former imperative. 

The responses to my requests for help were numerous and generous from 
all parts of the world, with the result that there came to me from many sources 
well preserved material which fairly represented the genus, for it brought to me 
some 100 of the total of 250 or more species. The most lavish single contribu- 
tion was put at my disposal by my teacher and friend, KARL VON GOEBEL, 
who gave me a collection of Utricularia collected by him in the tropics of the Old 
and New Worlds, and in temperate Australia. Many others, while they may 
have contributed less in amount, could have been no less generous, for the work 
of collecting, preserving, packing and posting specimens is by no means an 
easy job. 

Travels included two journeys, one to Africa and one to Africa and Aus- 
tralia, the latter made possible by a parting gift from my colleagues of McGill 
University on my retirement from the Macdonald Chair of Botany in 1935. 
At the university centres visited I was afforded all kinds of help: laboratory 
space, guidance to promising localities and means of transportation. Several 
summers were spent also at the Botanical Institute of the University of Munich 
on the original invitation of Professor GOEBEL, seconded, after his death, by 
Professor F. VON WETTSTEIN and his successor Dr. F. C. VON FABER. 

During my preoccupation with Utricularia / had to prepare two presi- 
dential addresses, and I was thus led, as has many another in like circum- 
stances, to give an account of the whole field of plant carnivory. My interests 
were widened in this way, and soon I became imbued with the idea of bringing 
together, and perhaps of adding to, our knowledge of this fascinating group of 
plants. This extended my list of desiderata. On my requests sent to various 
correspondents I received material of every group, some living, some preserved, 
e.g., living material of Heliamphora nutans from the Edinburgh Botanical 
Garden, where also I saw and studied Cephalotus. 

On the study of the material received from many sources, therefore, the ac- 
counts in this book rest, and not, in the first instance, on the published papers 



Francis E. Lloyd viii Carnivorous Plants 

of the many excellent workers who have busied themselves in this field, excepting, 
however, the studies of fungi, of digestion and, in some forms, of motility. 

In view of so much help I cannot forbear from making some, if inadequate, 
acknowledgement: 

First of all I should acknowledge the hospitality of the botanical staffs of the Uni- 
versities visited and made use of as centers of activity during my travels. At the Edin- 
burgh Botanical Garden, Sir WILLIAM WRIGHT SMITH, Mr. M. Y. ORR and Dr. J. M. 
COWAN (who helped me by raising seedlings of Utricidaria}\ at the Royal College of 
Surgeons, my friend Dr. J. BEATTIE; at the University of Capetown, Miss E. L. STEPHENS 
who has been a constant help for some years. My stay there was made profitable by 
the practical assistance in transportation and guidance afforded by Mrs. FRANK BOLUS, 
Professor R. H. COMPTON, Mrs. M. R. LEVYNS and Mr. A. J. M. MIDDLEMOST; at Bris- 
bane University, Professor D. A. HERBERT and Mr. C. T. WHITE; at the University of 
New South Wales, Sydney, Professor JOHN McLucKiE, Dr. PAT BROUGH, Professor I. V. 
NEWMAN (now of the University at Wellington, N. Z.) and other members of the staff; 
at the University in Melbourne, the late Professor A. J. EWART and Miss ETHEL I. MC- 
LENNAN; at the Melbourne Herbarium, the late Director Mr. F. J. RAE and Mr. P. F. 
MORRIS; at the University of Adelaide, Dr. A. E. V. RICHARDSON (of the Australian 
National Research Council) and Professor J. G. WOOD; and at Perth, Professor J. C. 
ARMSTRONG and Miss ALISON BAIRD; at the Western Australian State Herbarium, Dr. 
C. A. GARDNER. Without their knowledge of local conditions and immediate assistance, 
always put promptly at my disposal, my work would have been much delayed and always 
less fruitful. 

To those who as individuals have given me various forms of help, often involving 
much effort, I offer these mere thanks into which I ask them to read my highest appre- 
ciation. Dr. J. W. ADAMS, Morris Arboretum; Dr. A. AKERMAN, Svalov; Miss E. BEA- 
TRICE ASHCROFT, Auckland University College; Dr. Joji ASHIDA, Ky6t6; Professor L. G. 
M. BAAS BECKING, Leiden and Buitenzorg; the late Professor EDWARD BARNES, Madras 
Christian College, India; Mr. CHARLES BARRETT, Editor, The Victorian Naturalist, 
Melbourne; the late Mr. H. BLATTER, Panchgani, India; Professor Y. BHARADWAJA, 
Benares Hindu University; Dr. K. BISWAS, Botanic Gardens, Sibpur near Calcutta; the 
late Dr. H. R. BRITON- JONES, Trinidad; Mr. J. H. BUZACOTT, Maringa, N. Queensland; 
Mr. E. J. H. CORNER, Botanic Gardens, Singapore; Miss LUCY M. CRANWELL, The 
Museum, Auckland, N. Z.; Dr. J. M. CURRY, Health Department, Panama (Canal Zone); 
Mr. F. C. DEIGHTON, Department of Agriculture, Sierra Leone; Professor H. H. DIXON, 
Trinity College, Dublin; Mr. WM. DUNSTAN, Manager, The Herald, Melbourne; Dr. J. H. 
EHLERS, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.; Miss KATHERINE ESAU, University 
of California, Davis, Calif.; Professor M. L. FERNALD, The Gray Herbarium, Harvard 
University; Mr. M. FREE, Brooklyn Botanic Garden; Mr. A. V. GIBLIN, Hobart, Tas- 
mania; the late Prof. H. GLUCK, Heidelberg; Professor T. H. GOODSPEED, University of 
California; Professor JOHN E. HOLLOWAY, The University, Dunedin, N. Z.; Mr. R. E. 
HOLTTUM, Botanic Gardens, Singapore; Dr. F. C. HOEHNE, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Dr. M. 
HOMES, The University, Brussels; Mr. F. W. JANE, University College, London; Dr. 
W. KARSTENS, Leiden; Dr. S. B. KAUSIK, Central College, Bangalore, India; Professor 
L. P. KHANNA, Rangoon, Burma; Professor W. KUPPER, Botanical Institute, Munich; 
MtsA M. H. LEA, Fairhope, Ala.; Frere LON, Cuba; Dr. GUNNAR LOHAMMAR, Uppsala; 
Mr. ALLAN MC!NTYRE, Hobart, Tasmania; Mr. C. MACNAMARA, Arn Prior, Ont.; Dr. 
E. B. MARTYN, now of Jamaica; Mr. O. MELLINGEN, Hanau, Germany; Dr. E. M. 
MERL, Munich; the late Professor G. E. NICHOLS, Yale University, New Haven, Conn.; 
Mr. C. E. PARKINSON, Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun, India; Dr. D. Y. PADMA- 
PERUMA, Royal College, Colombo, Ceylon; the late Mrs. EMILY H. PELLOE, Perth, W. A.; Dr. 
A. QUINT ANILHA, The University, Coimbra, Portugal, later of Paris; Mrs. LESTER ROWN- 
TREE, Carmel, Calif.; Mr. E. 0. G. SCOTT, Launceston, Tasmania; Professor em. GEO. 
H. SHULL, Princeton Unversity, Princeton, N. J.; Mr. N. D. SIMPSON, Botanical Garden, 
Peradeniya, Ceylon; Dr. C. M. SMITH, De Land, Fla.; Mr. J. H. SMITH, Atherton, Queens- 
land; Mr. H. STEEDMAN, Perth, W. Australia; Mr. E. J. STEER, Capetown, S. Africa; 
Mr. D. R. STEWART, Albany, W. Australia; Dr. G. H. H. TATE, American Museum of 
Natural History, New York, N. Y.; Professor R. B. THOMSON, The University, Toronto, 
Ont.; Dr. J. C. TH. UPHOF, Orlando, Fla.; Dr. C. A. WEATHERBY, Gray Herbarium, 
and Professor WM. H. WESTON, both of Harvard University; Dr. FR. v. WETTSTEIN, 



Carnivorous Plants ix Preface 

K. Wilhelm Institut f. Biologic, Dahlem; Professor EDGAR J. WHERRY, University of 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.; Mr. J. WYER, N. Queensland Natural History Club, 
Cairns, N. Queensland. 

Finally my thanks are due to the Carnegie Institution of Washington, at Stanford 
University, for technical help. 



From time to time during the last 50 or 60 years there have appeared in various 
popular magazines and newspapers accounts giving more or less detailed descriptions of 
fabulous man-eating trees. The earliest of these, apparently, is one which was written 
by Dr. CARLE LICHE, quoted at length by CHASE S. OSBORN in his book Madagascar, 
the land of the man-eating tree. This lurid title was used avowedly to "enmesh the interest 
of possible readers", not to propagate the faith. A summary of this and of a number of 
other yarns has been provided by SOPHIA PRIOR in a bulletin issued by the Field Museum 
of Natural History in 1939. If the reader cares to inform himself concerning this lore, 
these two sources will set him on his way. Miss PRIOR'S paper is documented, and in- 
cludes reproduction of some of the illustrations which constitute part of the original but 
unconvincing evidence offered in the various accounts reviewed by her. Extensive use 
has been made of the Field Museum bulletin by Dr. AsfLio FKRNANDES in an article 
entitled Morphologia e biologia das plantas carniwras (see under Drosophyllum). 

An amusing, perhaps also tragic, circumstance is to be found described in LICHE'S 
account, in which a highly imaginative illustration shows that, instead of a native maiden 
being sacrificed by her tribe by yielding her up to the man-eating tree (possibly a ficti- 
tious kind of cycad), a beautiful magazine cover blonde was the lamb brought to the 
slaughter . . . 

A certain carnivorous-plant-mindedness shown by the general public has been due 
also to occasional cartoons in papers and magazines. In these it is usually the flowers 
which are incorrectly if amusingly represented as the traps. Such contributions to the 
more evanescent literature are happily intended less for instruction than for titillation. 
The misconceptions which arise in this way, while doing little harm, awaken curiosity, 
the mother of knowledge. 

All the illustrations in this book are originals, prepared by the author, 
unless specifically noted otherwise. The names of authorities in many cases 
are not accompanied by dates. In such cases only a single publication, to be 
found in the literature lists, can be referred to. Passages in languages other 
than English have been translated. 

The arrangement of chapters may appear illogical. The principle under- 
lying it is the increasing complexity of the traps. But for this, the fungi may 
be thought to appear in a strange setting. 



Finally I wish to acknowledge assistance, in the reading of proofs, of Professor C. B, 
VAN NIEL, of Stanford University; of Dr. MARY MITCHELL MOORE (Mrs. A. R. MOORE). 
and Mrs. F. VERDOORN, who also prepared the indices. Dr. MICHAEL DOUDOROFF, 
University of California, and the editors of CHRONICA BOTANICA have kindly helped me in 
checking a number of references to the literature. 



CAROLI GOEBELII 

PRAECEPTORIS ILLUSTRISSIMI 
AMICI FIDELIS 
MEMORIAE 



CONTENTS 



INTRODUCTION 



Number of species, genera .... 


i Analogs 


3 


Geographic distribution 


i Origin, evolution 


7 


Kinds of traps tabulated 


2 Literature 


8 


Chapter 


/: HELIAMPHORA 




Heliamphora nutans 


9 The pitcher 


. . 12 


Discovery 


9 Drainage slit 


. . 12 


Habitat 


9 Histology 


'3 


Appearance 


9 Trichornes 


. - 13 


The pitcher 


10 Glands 


. . 14 


Abnormal leaves 


1 1 Prey and its fate 


. . 16 


Other species .... .... 


ii Literature 


. . 16 


Habitat 


ii 




Chapter 


II: SARRACENIA 




Original description 


17 Habitat 


. . 23 


Known species 


17 Pitcher 


. . 24 


Geographical distribution 


17 Development 


24 


Sarracenia pur pur ea 


1 8 Interior surface 


25 


History 


1 8 Sarracenia Courtii 


. . 26 


Pitcher 


1 8 Sarracenia minor . . . . 


. . 26 


Early ideas .... 


1 8 Sarracenia Drummondii 


27 


Distribution 


19 Precarious footing for flies . . 


29 


Pitcher-leaf ... 


19 Sarracenia flam 


. . 29 


Form ... . . 


19 Sarracenia Jonesii 


30 


Structure 


19 Leaf 


30 


Outer surface 


20 Morphology 


. 30 


Inner surface . . ... 


20 Digestion 


32 


Leaves, juvenile 


22 Absorption 


. 32 


Histology 


22 Animal inhabitants 


. 35 


Glands 


22 Literature 


- - 38 


Trichomes 


22 




Sarracenia psittacina 


23 




Form 


23 




Chapter III: DARLINGTONIA CALIFORNICA 


Distribution 


40 Trichomes 


. . 44 


Habitat 


40 Glands 


. . 44 


Habit 


40 Absorption 


45 


Leaves 


40 Locus of 


- 45 


Juvenile 


40 Pitcher leaf 


. . 46 


Adult 


42 Development 


. . 46 


Form 


42 Digestion 


. . 48 


Color 


43 Absorption 


. . 48 


Fenestrations 


43 Pitcher fluid 


. . 48 


Entrance 


43 Wetting power 


. 48 


Structure 


43 Enzymes 


. . 49 


Wing 


43 Bacteria 


. . 49 


Fishtail 


43 Literature 


49 



Francis E. Lloyd 



-xii 



Carnivorous Plants 



Chapter IV: NEPENTHES 



Geographical distribution 51 

Habitat 51 

General characters 51 

Seedling 53 

Morphology 53 

Form of leaves 53 

Adventitious shoots 54 

Leaves 54 

Pitcher 55 

Form 55 

Color . . . 55 

Mouth and lid 56 

Spur 57 

Peristome . 57 

Anatomy 57 

Form, variety of 57 

Morphology 59 

Histology ... 63 

Peristome 63 

Glands 64 

Wall 65 

Anatomy ... . 65 

Vascular system 66 

Interior surface . . . .66 

Waxy zone . . 66 

Digestive zone . . 68 



Digestion 69 

Pitcher fluid 69 

HOOKER 69 

TATE 70 

REES and WILL . ... 70 

GORUP-BESANEZ 70 

VINES 70 

DUBOIS 71 

TISCHUTKIN 71 

GOEBEL 71 

COUVREUR 71 

WALLACE 72 

GRIMM . 72 

MOHNIKE 72 

CLAUTRIAU 73 

FENNER . 73 

HEPBURN et al 74 

STERN and STERN ... ... 74 

DE KRAMER 76 

Pitcher liquor 76 

Antisepsis 76 

Animal life of 77 

Folklore 78 

Uses 78 

Literature . . 79 



Chapter V: CEPHALOTUS FOLLICULARIS 



Distribution 
Habit . . . . 
Habitat . . 
Leaf . 

Foliage . . 
Pitcher . . 

Development 
Morphology . 



81 Anatomy .... 

8 1 External surface . 

8 1 Internal surface . 

8 1 Glands 

8 1 Glandular patches 

82 Digestion . . 

82 Literature . . 
82 



85 
85 
85 
86 

87 
88 
89 



Chapter VI: GENLISEA 



Discovery 
Distribution 
Early studies 

WARMING . 

GOEBEL 
Flower . . . 



90 Trap 



90 
90 
90 
90 
90 



Leaves 90 



Prop cells 
Size . . 
Form 
Anatomy 
Histology 



92 
93 
93 
93 



Foliage 90 Literature 



Glands 94 



94 



Chapter VII: BYBLIS 



Species 95 

Occurrence .... 95 

Appearance 95 

Systematic position 95 

Habitat 95 

Habit 95 

Leaf ... 96 

Form . . . . . 96 



Structure 96 

Glands 96 

Structure 96 

Functions 97 

Digestion 97 

Absorption 97 

Literature 98 



Carnivorous Plants 



xni 



Contents 



Chapter VIII: DROSOPHYLLUM LUSITANICUM 



Occurrence 

Habitat 

Appearance 

Habit 99 

Leaf 99 

Form 

Circination 

Marcescence 



99 Glands . . . 
99 Structure 

99 Secretion . . . 

Digestion . . . 

Cytology . . 

99 Recent work . 

99 QUINTANILHA 

99 Literature . . 



100 
zoo 
101 
102 
103 
103 
104 
105 



Chapter IX: PINGUICULA 



Geographical distribution 106 

Appearance 106 

Habitat 106 

Leaves 107 

Glands 107 

Structure 107 



DARWIN'S studies 
Movements . 

Secretion; Digestion 

Uses of leaves 

Literature . . . 



107 
1 08 
109 

112 
114 



Chapter X: DROSERA 



Species 

Number 

Distribution . . 

Habitat 

Form, habit . . . 

Leaf-roots 
Leaf 

Unfolding movements 

Form 

Anatomy . 

Starch content 

Tentacles 
Glands of 
Development of 
Function of parts 

Sessile glands . . 

Function of . . 
Absorption, Locus of 
Reproduction 

Seed . . 

Tubers . . 

Gemmae 

Leaf buds . . . 

Condition for incidence 

Polarity . . 
Carnivory 

Early observation 



115 Mucilage 

115 Locus of secretion . . 

115 Movements :- 

115 Tentacles . . . 

116 Leaf -blade 

117 Direction of bending 
Duration of response 

117 Leaf-blade and stimulus 

117 Stimulus . . . 

118 Path of 

119 Intensity of (DARWIN) . 

1 20 Nature of stimulant . 

121 Tentacles . . 

123 Mechanism of movement 

124 Specificity of reaction 

125 Aggregation: DARWIN, C. 

126 DARWIN, F., GARDINER . 

127 DE VRIES . . 
129 AKERMAN .... 

129 COELINGH 

130 JANSON . . 

131 HOMES . 

131 Cytoplasm and nucleus 

133 Digestion, enzymes 

134 Carnivory, significance of . 

135 Literature 

135 



136 

137 

138 
138 



140 

140 
140 
141 
142 
142 
J 43 
MS 
146 

H7 
148 
149 
151 
152 
156 
158 
162 
165 



Chapter XI: CARNIVOROUS FUNGI 



Zoophagy (Cordyceps) . .... 169 

Earliest discovery by ZOPF 169 

Loop snares :- 

Swelling 170 

Adhesive 171 

Eel-bob snare :- 

Zobphagus, Sommerstorjfia 171 

GICKLHORN'S studies 172 



Capture of rhizopods by:- 
Adhesive alone . . . 
Adhesive organs . . 

Literature 



173 
i73 
175 



Francis E. Lloyd 



xiv 



Carnivorous Plants 



Chapter XI la: DIONAEA 



General description 177 

Discovery by DOBBS 1 78 



Original description by ELLIS 
DIDEROT 

Later work 

CURTIS, OUDEMANS, CANBY 
C. DARWIN, GOEBEL . . . 

Seed, seedling 

Leaf 

Trap 

Cilia 

Lobes, posture of . 
Trichomes (stellate) . 
Glands (digestive, alluring) 
Closure of trap . ... 



179 
179 
180 
1 80 
1 80 
181 
182 
182 
182 
183 
183 
183 
184 



Sensitive hairs 

Internal structure of trap 
Physiology 

Stimulus 

Perception, localisation of 

Mechanism of closure 
ZlEGENSPECK, C. DARWIN 
MUNK, BATALIN 
BROWN, MACFARLANE 

VON GUTTENBERG 
ASHIDA 

HABERLANDT 
Digestion; absorption 
Literature 



184 
185 
186 
186 
187 
188 

l88 

189 
190 

191 
192 

193 
194 
210 



Chapter Xllb: ALDROVANDA 



General description 

Discovery . .> 

Distribution 

Leaf 

Seed, seedling . 

Mature leaf 

Bristles 

Petiole 

Trap, posture of . 

Development 

Terminology (ASHIDA) 

Structure . . 

Trichomes, glands . . . 

Sensitive hairs ^ 

Mechanics of trap movement 
Locus of bending 
Dionaea, comparison with 



194 Recapitulation 204 

195 Stimuli, responses to 205 

195 Electrical 205 

195 Temperature effects on . . . . 206 

195 Chemical . 206 

196 Sugar, glycerin 206 

196 Neutral salts, acids, alkalis . . 207 

196 Other organic substances . . 208 

197 Formalin, ether, ethyl alcohol . . 208 

197 Chloroform 208 

197 Ethyl alcohol, chloroform .... 208 

197 Digestion; absorption J <- 208 

199 Vesicles, interpretations of ... 209 

200 Culture 209 

201 Literature 210 

201 

202 



Chapter XIII: UTRICULARIA, BIOVULARIA and 
POLYPOMPHOLYX 



Form of plant 213 

Traps, variety of 214 

Prey 214 

Flowers 214 

Distribution ... ... 215 

Embryology 216 

Seed ..." 216 

Embryo 217 

Germination 217 

Utricidaria capensis, etc. . . 217 

Utricntaria vidgaris, etc 218 

Utricidaria purpurea . . . . 219 

Types of Utricularia 219 

Utricularia v ulgaris type 219 

Freely floating 220 

Floats . 221 

Rhizoids 221 

Foliar dimorphism 222 

Dwarf shoots 222 

Branching; inflorescence .... 222 



Anchored forms 224 

Terrestrial forms ... . 226 

Epiphytic forms 226 

Biovularia type 227 

Utricularia purpurea type . . . 228 

Utricularia dichotoma type 229 

Freely floating 229 

Anchored 230 

Other types, according to trap struc- 
ture :- 

Utricularia cornuta 231 

Utricidaria caendea *"! 231 

Utricularia rosea, Warburgii .... 231 

Utricularia orbiculata, etc. ... 232 

Utricidaria simpletfjfat 232 

Utricidaria globulariaefolia .... 232 

Utricidaria Kirkii 232 

Utricularia nana . . . ' 232 

Utricularia Idoydii 232 

Literature 267 



Carnivorous Plants 



xv 



Contents 



Chapter XIV: The UTRICULARIA TRAP 



General description 233 

Terminology 233 

Early ideas 234 

BENJAMIN to COHN, DARWIN ... 234 

Later advances 237 

BROCHER, EKAMBARAM, WITHY- 
COMBE 236 

MERL, CZAJA .238 

HEGNER 240 

Watertightness of trap 242 

The two valves 242 

Anatomy and 

Histology 242 

Walls 243 

Glands 244 

Path of fluid through walls . . 244 

Cytology 245 

Entrance '. r . 245 

Development 246 

Threshold . 246 

Pavement 247 

Velum, origin of 247 



Door 248 

Histology 249 

Contact with threshold 250 

Relation of velum 251 

Sucking in of prey 251 

Velum 253 

GOEBEL 254 

ROGER FRY 254 

Mechanical types of trap as to posture 

of door and depth of entrance . . 254 

Utricularia vulgaris 254 

Utricidaria capensis 255 

Utricularia monanthos 256 

Polypompholyx 257 

Varieties of traps :- 

With short tubular entrance ... 257 

With long tubular entrance .... 258 

Digestion 263 

Prey and its fate 265 

Appendix: models of the trap .... 266 

Literature . 267 





THE EARLIEST KNOWN ILLUSTRATION OF Nepenthes (Nepenthes mirabilis (Lour.) Men.) PROM RUMPHIUS, 
HERBARIUM AMBOINENSE 5:59 (PUBLISHED IN 1747, BUT DRAWN IN THE SECOND PART OP THE I7TH 
CENTURY). THE PLANT AT THE RIGHT is Flagellaria indica. THE VIGNETTE ON p. xv HAS BEEN RE- 
PRODUCED FROM CLUSIUS' RARIORUM PLANTARUM HISTORIA (cf. p. 18), ONE OF THE FIRST DRAWINGS 
or A Sarracenia. THE Drosera VIGNETTE ON p. 271 HAS, BY COURTESY OF PROF. BAAS BECKING, BEEN RE- 
PRODUCED FROM A PRINT, MADE DIRECTLY FROM A l6TH CENTURY BLOCK USED FOR DoDONAEUS' HERBALS. 



INTRODUCTION 



The purpose of this book is to give an historical review and sum- 
mary of our present knowledge about the carnivorous or insectivorous 
plants, the former being the better term. Of these there are about 450 
or more species, representing 15 genera, belonging, aside from the 
fungi, to six families, indicated in the present table (TABLE i), to- 
gether with their geographic distribution. 



TABLE i 



FAMILY AND GENUS 



No. OF 

SPECIES 



GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION 



Sarraceniaceae 

Heliamphora 5 British Guiana; Venezuela. 

Sarracenia 9 Eastern N. America: Labrador to S. E. United 

States of America. 

Darlingtonia i N. California and S. Oregon. 

(Chrysamphora) 
Nepenthaceae 

Nepenthes 65 

Droseraceae 

Dionaea i 

Aldrovanda i 

Drosophyllum i 

Drosera 90 
Byblidaceae 

Byblis 2 
Cephalotaceae 

Cephalotus i 
Lentibulariaceae 

Pinguicula 30 

Utricularia 275 

Biovularia 2 

Polypompholyx 2 (4) 

Genlisea 10 
Fungi (various genera 20 or more, 

with trapping mech- 
anisms) 

Roridula, formerly regarded as carnivorous, has now been shown 
by me not to be so, and is excluded from the above list. The " man- 
eating tree of Madagascar" must at present also be excluded, since the 
evidence of its existence is elusive. 

The table shows that the carnivorous plants are divisible into two 
groups, one lot (Sarraceniaceae to Cephalotaceae) belonging to the Chori- 
petalae, the rest to the Sympetalae, with personate flowers. This wide 
separation is a remarkable indication that the carnivorous habit has 
arisen among the higher plants at two points at the fewest, (as well as 
among the fungi), in the course of evolution. The methods of captur- 
ing prey are in some measure common to the two lots, the greatest 
height of specialization having been reached by Dionaea and Aldro- 



Eastern Tropics to Ceylon and Madagascar. 

North Carolina and northern South Carolina, 

U. S. A. 
Europe, India, Japan, Africa and Queensland, 

Australia. 

S. Portugal, S. W. Spain, Morocco. 
Ubiquitous. 

Australia, from N. W. to S. W. 
Australia, extreme S. W. 

N. hemisphere in Old and New Worlds. 

Ubiquitous. 

Cuba; eastern S. America. 

S. and S. W. Australia. 

W. African and E. South American tropics. 

Ubiquitous. 



Francis E. Lloyd 2 Carnivorous Plants 

vanda among the Choripetalae and by Utricularia among the Sympetalae. 
For this reason the arrangement (TABLE 2) which has been followed is 
that which groups the plants according to the character of their trap- 
ping mechanisms, named for their obvious analogs among human 
devices. By ' active traps' is meant those which display special move- 
ments necessary or contributory to the capture of prey. 

TABLE 2 
KIND OF TRAP GENUS 

Pitfalls (passive traps), the pitcher plants Heliamphora 

Sarracenia 
Darlingtonia 
Cephalotus 
Nepenthes 

Lobster pot (passive trap) Genlisea 

Snares (noose, some active; sticky discs, etc., passive) Certain Fungi 

Bird lime or fly-paper traps 

Passive Byblis 

Drosophyllum 

Active Pinguicula 

Drosera 

Steel-trap (active) Dionaea 

Aldrovanda 

Mousetrap Utricularia 

Biowlaria 
Polypompholyx 

The above table mentions merely the form of the trap. There are, 
however, other characters which contribute in some way to the effi- 
ciency of action. These include methods of attracting the prey by 
means of lures: the odor of violets in Sarracenia, of honey in Droso- 
phyllum, of fungus in Pinguicula; the secretion of nectar by glands 
either on the traps or on parts leading to them as in Nepenthes, etc. ; the 
exhibition of attractive colors and of bright fenestrations in Sarracenia, 
Darlingtonia, Cephalotus; of brilliant points of light reflected from 
drops of mucilage in Pinguicula, Drosera, etc. ; the secretion of mucilage 
in Drosera, etc., movements of various degrees of rapidity, as in Pin- 
guicula, Dactylella, Drosera, Dionaea and Utricularia. There are also, 
with few exceptions, means for digesting the prey when caught: en- 
zymes and acids are excreted. When these, together with the captured 
prey, are accumulated in some sort of a receptacle, something much 
like the animal stomach results. Involved in all this there are special 
structures: hairs, glands, specialized stomata (Cephalotus, Nepenthes), 
waxy excretions (Nepenthes), emergencies (tentacles of Drosera). 

From the purely physiological point of view the carnivorous plants 
are concerned in a somewhat special way in the acquisition of nutrient 
substances containing protein, possibly vitamins and perhaps the salts 
of potassium and phosphorus, and even others. In this way they re- 
ceive some profit, though what they receive is no sine qua non, as it is 
with many other plants. As PFEFFER pointed out, many fungi are 
wholly carnivorous, as in the cases of Cordyceps, Empusa, etc. Among 
the higher plants are some which get all their food materials indirectly 



Intro- 3 duction 

through agencies such as mycorrhizal fungi. Our so-called carnivorous 
plants are therefore not peculiar in this habit. 

What then distinguishes the carnivorous plants from the rest of the 
plant world? Why should we still share the feelings of the naturalists 
of the 1 8th century who regarded them as miracrda naturae? We do so, 
I think, because a carnivorous plant in the sense here meant is one 
possessing a trap which, though merely a constellation of structures and 
functions, many of them common enough elsewhere among plants, is a 
special organ for the capture and digestion of animal prey, thus turning 
the tables on animals, which directly or indirectly are herbivorous. 

But may these traps as such be regarded as something unique? The 
answer to this question must be sought in such analogs as we may find 
among plants in general. 

Pitfalls in the form of pitchers are of rather widespread occurrence. 
In some flowers the corolla is tubular and the inner surface is supplied 
with downward pointing hairs, and there is emitted a luring, if not al- 
luring, smell. Flies are attracted and caught, but after effecting polli- 
nation, and the hairs having withered, are released (Aristolochia). In 
other flowers one or more members of the perianth are tubular and se- 
crete and hold nectar (Aquilegia, Marcgravia, Delphinium). Perhaps 
the closest parallel is found in the pitcher leaves of some species of 
Dischidia, a tropical genus of the old world. They are invaded by 
adventitious roots from nearby stems of their own plant, and are often 
occupied by ants who use them as shelters. Probably in their native 
habitats they often contain moisture available for their invading roots. 
An inturned marginal rim surrounding the narrow mouth reminds one 
of the rim of the carnivorous pitcher, but it seems to have no well 
marked special function. In some species of Dischidia the pitchers are 
represented merely by dished leaves facing each other. At the other 
extreme Dischidia pectinoides has a double pitcher, one inside the other, 
according to GOEBEL. Ldthraea squamaria, a root parasite of Europe, 
has hollow leaves, the hollow lined with glands. GOEBEL regards them 
as reservoirs for reserve stuffs. The upper leaf lobes of Azolla are also 
hollow, but these are inhabited by Anabaena azollae in symbiotic re- 
lationship. Among the liverworts are species in which the leaves are 
partly converted into " water sacs" (GOEBEL), notably Fruttania 
cornigera of New Zealand, though our own species offer sufficiently 
good examples. Lejeunea behaves similarly, but the sacs are simpler. 
Most impressive are Colura and Physiotum. In P. majus occur nearly 
closed sacs the mouths of which are guarded by two lips closed to- 
gether like the lips of a mussel shell (GOEBEL). Moreover one of the lips 
is moveable, being provided with a hinge region, thus serving as a valve. 
Precisely how this valve works is not clear. GOEBEL, to whose account 
I am indebted, points out that such an arrangement is known only in 
Utricularia, but it must be remembered that this comparison loses some of 
its cogency for the reason that GOEBEL thought the valve of the Utric- 
ularia trap to be a simple check valve. There is no evidence that these 
arrangements in the liverworts indicate a carnivorous habit, though 
they are inhabited, like any liverwort or moss, by protozoa, nematodes, 
etc. That they are water holders is evident. 

The common teasel (Dipsacus sylvestris) has been regarded in all 



Francis E. Lloyd 4 Carnivorous Plants 

probability to be a carnivorous plant by MILLER CHRISTY (1923). 
This biennial herb is well known for its water catching reservoirs formed 
by the connation of the opposed leaves at their bases. A large plant 
attains a height of 6 feet. Eight plants, with an average height of 5 feet 
8 inches, were found by CHRISTY to retain an average of a half pint of 
water. It is of interest to know that the teasel for this reason claimed 
the attention of TURNER (1551), who remarked the catching of "rayne" 
and "dew" (Herball, o.iiij, 1551) and GERARD (Herball, p. 1005, 1597) 
wrote quaintly, as it now appears to us, "The leaves growe foorth of the 
iointes by couples, not onely opposite or set one against an other, but 
also compassing the stalke about, and fastened togither, and so fas- 
tened that they hold deaw and raine water in manner of a little bason. " 

CHRISTY rejects the ideas that the primary object of the collection 
of water is the succour of the plant in times of drought, and the pro- 
tection of its nectar from predatory insects. The presence of dead in- 
sects, rendering the water filthy, seems to point to these as a source of 
nutriment. "The cups undoubtedly form most efficient traps/' FRAN- 
CIS DARWIN had said. CHRISTY suspected the water to have some 
narcotizing or intoxicating substance (F. DARWIN had noticed that 
beetles drown in it more rapidly than in pure water), and he further 
expressed the conviction that "the plant does profit by the insects 
caught in the cups". In view of the general evidence CHRISTY draws 
the conclusion that the teasel is a carnivorous plant, but without ad- 
vancing any definite experimental proof. 

The lobster-pot of Genlisea, though an exceedingly specialized 
structure, is fundamentally nothing more than a narrow pitcher with its 
interior armed with downward pointing hairs. Even the curious 
method of holding the lips of the narrow slit-like mouth in rigid rela- 
tion to each other by an adhesion of cells finds its parallel in other 
situations such as the adhesions of algal cells and those of mycelia. 
In form, the ( prop-cells' responsible find a loose analog in the cystidia 
of Coprinus. But, after all, their structure and method of function is 
unique. 

The snares found among the carnivorous fungi those having def- 
inite traps are more obscure in their analogies, and, it would appear, 
have originated within the group. Apparently unique is the noose of 
Arthrobotrys, etc. The adhesive disc is found among the orchids, in 
which it is the mechanism for attaching the pollinia to visiting insects. 
Obviously the orchids did not invent this originally the fungi prob- 
ably did so. The loop of the pollinia of Asdepias is a sort of noose 
snare (CARRY). 

The snare of Zoophagus is a variant of the adhesive disc, but is re- 
markable as a device resembling in its manner of working a common 
fish-line and hook, or perhaps better an ' eel-bob.' 

The plants which catch their prey by means of a viscid secretion 
are only a few of a multitude of others that excrete sticky substances 
by which small insects are caught. These substances are in general of 
three kinds: oily (often aromatic), resinous and mucilaginous. Among 
the carnivorous plants, only the last is found, as a watery medium is 
the only one that can carry an enzyme, as in Drosera. Adhesive (mu- 
cilaginous or resinous) glands are very common, and often small insects 



Intro- 5 duction 

are captured, as, e.g. in the case of the catch-fly (Silene). Suspecting 
that many such plants might turn out to be carnivorous DARWIN 
investigated the behavior of some of them: Saxifraga umbrosa, S. 
rotundifolia (?), Primula sinensis, Pelargonium zonale, Erica tetralix, 
Mirabilis longifolia and Nicotiana tabacum. But while he thought to 
have proved that the hairs of these plants can in some instances absorb 
organic nutrients, he regretted that he did not try if they could " digest 
or render soluble animal substances/' FERMI and BUSCAGLIONE in 1899 
tried some of these and still others (Martynia, Hydrolea, Sparmannia) 
for digestion with negative results, whereas those of the recognized 
carnivorous plants which they tried were positive. This brings into 
relief the fact that there are many plants which resemble our carniv- 
orous plants so closely that we can decide about them only through 
experiment. 

Though the glands involved are in structure similar in some cases 
(BybliSj Pinguicula) to those found among other plants, those of Dro- 
sophyllum and Drosera, fundamentally the same in structure in both, 
are unique as entireties. Those of Drosera are raised on emergencies 
which display motility in no respect different, except perhaps in speed, 
from that of ordinary growth. The histological elements of the glands 
are common enough; again it is the constellation of characters which 
stands out. 

The most complete analog to a carnivorous plant of this type is one 
which was until recently regarded as one itself. This is the Roridula, 
of which there are two species, in South Africa. I myself included it 
among the carnivores in an account published in 1933. Since that 
time, on receiving material preserved in formalin from Munich, it was 
at once apparent that the secretion which appears as glistening drop- 
lets in the living plant, was intact and still adherent to the glands, and 
could therefore not be a mucilage. Had the preservative been alcohol 
this might have escaped attention. The leaves bear many tentacles 
superficially similar to those of Drosera. Examination showed them to 
be anatomically quite different, and that they exude a resinous secre- 
tion. There are no other glands, so that on this evidence the carniv- 
orous habit seems to be quite excluded (LLOYD, 1934). These two 
species, relatives of Drosera, are, like them and Byblis, used by certain 
insects (certain bugs and crab spiders) as habitual feeding grounds. 
When insects are freshly caught, they are attacked for their body juices. 
How these commensal forms avoid capture is another matter, but an 
interesting one. 

The trap of Dionaea and Aldrovanda, with its close resemblance to 
a steel-trap, has been, and still is regarded by some as " perhaps the 
most marvellous in the world," to quote MORREN (1875) who, in say- 
ing this, was only repeating what DARWIN had already said. It appears 
to be quite unique when regarded as a total mechanism. But an analog, 
in some measure at any rate ; was suggested by DELPINO, quoted by 
HOOKER in his Presidential Address at the meeting of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science in 1874. HOOKER had 
already described a plant from Tierra del Fuego under the name Caltha 
dioneaefolia " which," DELPINO in effect remarked, "is so analogous in 
the structure of its leaves to Dionaea, that it is difficult to resist the 



Francis E. Lloyd 6 Carnivorous Plants 

conviction that its structure also is adapted for the capture of small 
insects". 

Contributory structural features of these traps are the glands, phys- 
iologically of two kinds, but of identical (Dionaea) or different (Aldro- 
vandd) structure, and the sensitive hairs, which are local points of 
greater sensitivity. The latter only are unique in structure. There is 
also motile tissue which, startling in rapidity though its movements 
are, appears to work in much the same way as that of tissues exhibit- 
ing geotropic responses, according to BROWN. But should Caltha 
dioneaefolia, as DELPINO suggested, turn out to be quite parallel to 
Dionaea, it would only add another member to a very small unique 
group. 

A curious case of an insect-catching grass, Molinia coerulea, briefly 
described by F. LUDWIG in 1881, may here be indicated as an analog, 
albeit a very loose one, to the trap of Dionaea. It appears that this 
grass can catch small insects between its paleae, which act as the jaws 
of a spring trap, after the fashion of a s-cent spring mousetrap. It is 
well known that, during flowering, the paleae are forcibly separated 
by the swelling lodicules, and are held there for the space of anthesis. 
The lodicules then shrink and allow the paleae to close. If now, during 
the period, an insect, attracted by the shining, sappy and turgid masses, 
attacks them by biting or puncturing, the resulting reduction of turgor 
is sufficient to allow the outer palea to close, which it does "with sur- 
prising swiftness" (HILDEBRAND, fide LUDWIG) thereby trapping the 
offending insect. This action, LUDWIG points out, disadvantages the 
plant in curtailing the time during which the flower would normally 
remain open. No compensating benefit seems to accrue. 

The trap of Utricularia, minute though it is, is compared in the 
present account to a mousetrap. There are mousetraps and mouse- 
traps however, from simple to complex in structure, from a 5 cent 
dead-fall to an elaborate, automatic self-setting one, which catches 
them as fast as they come. If to this should be added a disposal plant 
(Prof. TRACY I. STORER informs me that such a mousetrap has been 
invented) so that nothing is left at last but hair and bones, the com- 
parison would be fairly complete, especially if the trap should work in 
any position and at the same time under water. These are constructed 
of rigid parts, while that of Utricularia is composed of soft, yielding 
parts. Previous to 1911, the Utricularia trap was thought to be rela- 
tively simple: a soft " pitcher" or vesicle guarded by a simple check- 
valve; now it is known to have two valves, a tripping mechanism, a 
spring which opens the door (one of the valves) which then automati- 
cally closes, barely to indicate the complexity of the mechanism, the 
complexity and perfection of which are extraordinary. In 1891 GOEBEL 
said that the Utricularias are "among the most interesting of plant 
forms, whether we view them from the point of view of their morphol- 
ogy, anatomy or biology." If this was true at that date, it is, because 
of the added knowledge about the complexity of the trap, much more 
true now, as indeed GOEBEL personally admitted to me in conversation. 

For my own edification I have attempted to indicate the structure 
of a mousetrap which, as closely as may be, duplicates the trap of 
Utricularia without, however, hoping for the reward for him who invents 



Intro- 7 duction 

a mousetrap, promised, I believe, by EMERSON. In this I am yielding 
to the importunities of many of my friends, whose urgings I must as- 
sume to be disinterested. I have, somewhat apologetically, relegated 
the drawings and description (very necessary I fear) to an appendix 
to the chapter on Utricularia. 

For such a mechanism we cannot find an analog among other 
plants. Though it has moving parts, the property of irritability is not 
used. Particularly, after the door opens, which it does only passively, 
it instantly recovers its original position all in 1/33 second. Though its 
movements are made possible by its turgidity, there is no change of 
turgor hence the instant reversibility of movement. But this again 
depends on a structure which finds some analogy in the walls of anthers, 
but only a partial one. Without further amplification we may regard 
Utricularia as unique. 

It is not without interest to note that among the Lentibulariaceae 
we find examples of the simplest traps (Pinguicula), the most complex 
of the pitfall type, (in the lobster pot of Genlisea), and the incomparable 
trap of Utricularia, whose only rival is that of Dionaea. Which of the 
two is the more " wonderful" (I refer now to DARWIN'S statement that 
he thought Dionaea the " most wonderful plant in the world") will 
perhaps be a matter of opinion, but the evidence seems to favor Utricu- 
laria. 

How all these traps work and how we came to know about them, 
it is the purpose of this book to tell. But I have not confined myself 
to the traps, for it seemed necessary to present an adequate picture of 
the plants as a whole. This was especially true of Utricularia^ as, in 
spite of many studies, a survey of the entire genus (and those of Poly- 
pomp holy x and Biovularia) has not been made since the 1891 publica- 
tion of GOEBEL. No genus more fully substantiates the saying of 
CARUEL "La pianta cresce ciascuna alia sua idiosincrasia", for which 
allusion I am indebted to Professor GOEBEL. The survey presented 
seems to indicate with some fairness the extraordinary variety of form 
and behavior of these plants, but necessarily as briefly as possible in 
the interest of space saving. 

About the origin and evolution of the carnivorous plants, however 
much these questions may intrigue the mind, little can be said, nor 
have I attempted to discuss them. The evidence from fossils is meagre, 
for these plants, even the most prolific of them, have seldom been pre- 
served. A Utricularia (U. Berendii Keilhack) is recorded from the old- 
diluvial of Oberohe (ENGLER and PRANTL). No others, so far as I 
know, have been recorded. The water lilies are recorded for the Ter- 
tiary, and it is probable that Utricularia was contemporary. The fact 
that they have originated at two or more distinct points in the phylo- 
genetic tree is of major importance. How the highly specialized organs 
of capture could have evolved seems to defy our present knowledge. 

J. G. PEIRCE (1926) remarks that the wide distribution of the car- 
nivorous plants and the permanence of their peculiar morphological 
and physiological characters mark them as descendants of ancient 
forms, but we have to add that only some of them are widely dis- 
tributed (Drosera, Pinguicula , Aldrovanda (Old World only) and Utric- 
ularia) while others, though related in one taxonomic group or the 



Francis E. Lloyd 8 Carnivorous Plants 

other, are of restricted, sometimes very restricted, distribution. The 
two categories exist side by side in that ancient continent, Australia. 
Are the latter young scions derived from the more ancient stocks? And 
may we regard the Australian types of Utricularia as ancient types and 
in some measure as analogs of ancient animal forms of that continent? 
Since we cannot answer these questions, it is perhaps as well to say no 
more. 

Literature Cited: 

CARRY, T. H., On the structure and development of the gynostegium and the mode of 

fertilization in A sclepias Cornuti Decaisne. Trans. Linn. Soc. London, II, 2:173-208, 

1881-1887. 

CHRISTY, M., The common teasel as a carnivorous plant. Journ. Bot. 61:33-45, 1923. 
CRAMER, C, Uber die insectenfressenden Pflanzen. A lecture. Zurich, 14 Dec. 1876. 

Seen. No more explicit data given. 
DARWIN, F M On the protoplasmic filaments from the glandular hairs on the leaves of the 

common teasel (Dipsacus sylveslris). Quart. Journ. Micros. Sci. n. s. 25:245-272, 1877. 
DRUDE, 0., Die insectenfressenden Pflanzen. SCHENK'S Handbuch der Botanik, Breslau, 

1881, 1:113-146. 

FERMI and BUSCAGLIONE (see under Utricidaria). 
FRANCA, C., La question des plantes carnivores dans le pass6 et dans le present. Bol. Soc. 

Brot. 1:38-57, 1922. 

GOEBEL, K., Organographie der Pflanzen, 3. Auflage, Jena, 1928-33. 
HOOKER, J. D., Address to the Department of Zoology and Botany, 1874. B. A. A. S., 

Report of the Forty-fourth Meeting, 1874:102-116, 1875. 

JONES, F. M., The most wonderful plant in the world, with some unpublished correspon- 
dence of CHARLES DARWIN. Nat. Hist. 23:589-596, 1923. 

LLOYD F. E., Is Roridula a carnivorous plant? Can. Journ. Res. 10:780-786, 1934. 
LUDWIG, F., Molinia coendca als Fliegenfangerin. Bot. Centralbl. 8-87, 1881. 
MORREN, ED., La thdorie des plantes carnivores et irri tables. Bull, de 1'Acad. Roy. Belg. 

II, 40:1040 seq. (seconde edition revue et ameliore*e dans Bull. Fed. Soc. Hort. 1875). 
OSBORN, C. S., The land of the man-eating tree. Pp. 442, New York, 1924. 
PEIRCE, J. G., The physiology of plants. New York, 1926. 
PFEFFER, W., tJber die fleischfressenden Pflanzen und iiber die Ernahrung durch Aufnahme 

der organischen Stoffe iiberhaupt. Landw. Jahrb. 6-969-998, 1877. 
PLANCHON, J.-E., Les plantes carnivores. Rev. des deux mondes, 13:231-259, 1876. 



Chapter I 
HELIAMPHORA 

Discovery. Appearance of //. nutans. Discovery of other species. Habitat. 
Leaf structure. Leaf forms. Comparison of species. 

The genus Heliampkora is based on a plant, //. nutans, collected by 
SCHOMBURGK who found it growing "in a marshy savannah, at an ele- 
vation of about 6000 ft. above the level of the sea on the mountain of 
Roraima," "the fruitful mother of streams," on the borders of British 
Guiana. (BENTHAM 1840; SCHOMBURGK 1841). IM THURN (1887) de- 
scribed its habitat and appearance. " the most remarkable 

plant of the swamp is the South American pitcher plant, Hel- 

iamphora nutans Benth., which grows in wide-spreading, very dense 
tufts in the wettest places, but where the grass happens not to be long. 
Its red-veined pitcher-leaves, its delicate white flowers raised high on 
red tinted stems, its sturdy habit of growth, make it a pretty little pic- 
ture wherever it grows it attains its full size and best de- 
velopment up on the ledges of the cliff of Roraima and even 

on the top." (!M THURN 1887). 

For many years only the one species, II. nutans Bentham (/ i), was 
known. The meagre literature deals almost solely with this plant. 
Four other species are now known. Three of these were discovered on 
Mt. Duida, Venezuela, by Dr. G. H. H. TATE just previous to 1931, 
and were described by Dr. H. A. GLEASON in 1931. An examination 
of the herbarium material (all type specimens in the herbarium of the 
New York Botanical Garden) was made possible for me through the 
kindness of Dr. GLEASON, and my notes on these species have been 
published (1933). A fourth species, also discovered by Dr. TATE in 
1937-8 in the same general region, is H. minor (TEXT FIG. i). The 
three Mt. Duida species, //. Macdonaldae (i 2), //. Tyleri and H. 
Tatei, are closely related and furnish a striking example of closely 
related species arising within a restricted region (LLOYD 1905). Fur- 
ther exploration may show the genus Heliamphora to be as prolific 
of species as the North American Sarracenia, or even more so. 

Heliamphora grows in a region of vast rainfall, under extremely wet 
conditions of soil and air. It is cultivated only with difficulty, but 
successfully at the Edinburgh Botanical Garden, and I am indebted to 
Sir WILLIAM WRIGHT SMITH for both preserved and living material of 
the species H. nutans, on which the present account is based. The 
name Heliamphora means swamp-pitcher. 

The accounts of H. nutans given us by ZIPPERER (1885), MAC- 
FARLANE (1889, 1893), GOEBEL (1891), and by one of his students, 
KRAFFT (1896), leave little to be added. The plant consists of a rosette 
of basal leaves arising from a strong rootstock. It produces a simple 
racemose inflorescence of white or pale rose colored apetalous flowers. 
The 4-6 sepals are ovate-acuminate in form, with numerous stamens 
and a trilocular ovary with a single style. The normal mature leaves 



Francis E. Lloyd 10 Carnivorous Plants 

may attain a length of 30 cm.; in cultivation, they are rarely longer 
than 15 cm. On side shoots of the rhizome arise depauperate branches 
bearing leaves in various stages of arrested development (2 2-4), 
which have been duly described by the above authors. 

Structure of the leaf. The normal pitcher leaf is an insect trap of 
the pitfall type. Its form is that of a gracefully curved funnel, widen- 
ing above the base to contract somewhat just below a leafy expansion, 
the bell (2 i; TEXT PIG. i). The apex of the bell normally ends in a 
spoon-shaped, thick-walled structure resembling superficially the lid of 
Nepenthes, which stands upright as represented by BENTHAM, and not 
bent forward as GOEBEL suggested as a protection of the nectar se- 
creted against rain. The spoon is lacking in some of the leaves on 
plants which I have seen growing in greenhouses, where many of the 
leaves are small and lacking in vigor, but seems to be normally present 
and upright in position in wild plants, judging from a photograph 
made by TATE (LLOYD 1933). 

Mrs. ARBER (1941) regards the spoon ("hood" she calls it) as the 
continuation of the rudimentary curve-over of the pitcher-lip. The 
indications of this curve-over are stated to be "very slight". My ma- 
terial, derived from the same source as hers, shows no such indication. 
To be sure, the sides of the spoon are the incurled margins of the leaf 
apex, but these have no relation, it seems to me, to anything corre- 
sponding to a putative "outward roll-over". 

The flaring bell is oval in form, the margins sweeping forward to 
meet at once or to run parallel for a short distance before joining. At 
this point they continue into two narrow wings running down the mid- 
ventral surface of the pitcher, toward the base of which they enlarge 
and spread to form a wide membranous spreading and clasping base. 
Above the wings are closely approximated, and in this respect Heliam- 
phora, according to MACFARLANE, occupies an intermediate position be- 
tween Nepenthes, with widely removed wings and Sarracenia and 
Darlingtonia with a single keel (representing fused wings). The outer 
surface of the pitcher bears numerous twin unicellular trichomes which 
have inverted V-shaped spreading arms quite unique and peculiar to 
this plant (2 6 and TEXT FIG. i), stomata, and many minute glands 
which probably secrete nectar (2 10). These are numerous on the 
wings, and are probably part of a general lure for insects. The inner 
surface can be divided for the purpose of description into four zones. 
Zone i (2 i) is the spoon, which is quite smooth on its concave sur- 
face, but here bears a number of glands which are larger than else- 
where, and some of them very large, usually three or four on each 
flank. These are nectar glands. Zone 2 begins just below the spoon 
and is indicated by a dense clothing of downward pointing, delicate 
hairs in great numbers covering the whole of the surface of the bell 
(which occasionally is smooth), and the upper constricted portion of 
the tubular part of the pitcher. They are found in reduced numbers 
for a short space just below the constriction, and here they are very 
long and straight. Below a certain point, however, the hairiness sud- 
denly ceases, and gives way to the next zone (3) in which the epidermis 
is glistening smooth. While in zone 2 there are very numerous nectar 
glands, interspersed between the bases of the hairs, here in zone 3 there 



Chapter I 11 Heliamphora 

are none at all. Below the lower limit of the smooth area there be- 
gins zone 4, which again is clothed, but more sparsely than the bell, 
with downwardly directed hairs. These are very stout and claw-like 
(2 5), while those of the bell are longer and flexible. Both kinds 
are longitudinally ridged with delicate folds of cuticle, the hairs of the 
bell especially so. The difference of stature and rigidity is related to 
their functions. The hairs of the bell afford an unstable footing for 
insects which are trying to get at the nectar on the surface between 
them, and their flexibility adds to the instability, while those in the 
depths of the pitcher have the r61e of retention, and for this purpose 
the stronger they are the better. There are no glands in zone 4. 
There are no digestive glands present in this trap. 

The abnormal leaves on the reduced side shoots are of various forms 
(2 2-4). The base of the shoot is enveloped in scale leaves. Fol- 
lowing these there may be underdeveloped leaves, described by KRAFFT, 
in which the tube is very slender and would have a very limited func- 
tion as a trap, and acts simply as a petiole. The bell is relatively large 
so that the whole behaves as nothing more than a photosynthetic organ. 
A spoon is not developed. The inner surface of the blade (bell) is free 
of hairs, but carries nectar glands. At the lower limits of the bell 
there is a trapping zone of hairs, but the rest of the tube is quite 
smooth. It is to be noticed that the "tube" is not truly such, since its 
edges are not fused. This I judge from KRAFFT'S drawing, though he 
does not state so specifically. GOEBEL described a sort of juvenile leaf 
at the base of normal shoots consisting of a closed tube, winged with 
two wings as in the normal, but with a much reduced bell with out- 
turned edges and no spoon. KRAFFT added some details, pointing out 
that the whole of the inner surface, save a small zone at the base, is 
lined with downward pointing hairs. The bell, with the exception of 
the outturned edges, is also hairy, but the spoon this is not evi- 
dently such, nor did GOEBEL recognize it is without hairs or glands. 
GOEBEL described a still simpler and more elementary condition in 
leaves seen on much reduced side shoots. These were small, with an 
undeveloped bell, and the tube was open, though appearing closed by 
the juxtaposition of the edges of the leaf margins, or perhaps some- 
times closed by the concrescence or adhesion of these edges, a mode of 
development which he argues is different from that of the normal leaf 
which arises as a peltate structure. This idea has been elaborated by 
TROLL who generally supports GOEBEL'S thesis that the tube of the 
pitcher of Sarracenia and Heliamphora is fundamentally a peltate leaf. 
The condition of concrescence or adhesion of the leaf margins is ac- 
tually realized in the case of //. Tyleri in its fully developed normal 
leaves, as we shall see. 

The latest described species, H. minor Gleason was found by Dr. 
G. H. H. TATE on Mt. Auyan-Tepui, Venezuela in December, 1937 at 
an altitude of 2,200 meters. Generally similar to H. nutans, it differs 
in the more sturdy and less graceful leaves, 10 to 12 cm. long. The 
spoon is larger and deeper, and orbicular in form. The bell is densely 
hairy only along the marginal zone, with a few scattered small down- 
ward directed hairs on the general surface, with many nectar glands. 
The slight constriction at the base of the bell is hairy, with slen- 



Francis E. Lloyd 12 Carnivorous Plants 

der hairs, and very glandular. The twin hairs on the outer surface are 
finely tuberculate (TEXT FIG. i). 

The other recently described species H. Tatei, H. Tyleri and //. 
Macdonaldae (GLEASON 1931) are tall shrubby plants (4 feet), but 
otherwise present only a few differences which concern us here. The 
leaf is in all three much elongated, the major elongation being in the 
bell which becomes tubular, expanding only at the top where it is sur- 
mounted by a rather large and massive overhanging lip-like appendage, 
which, like the spoon in //. nutans, carries large nectar glands. The 
most divergent of the three is H. Macdonaldae, in which the inner sur- 
face of the bell is quite smooth except along the free margin and for a 
narrow zone at the lower limit of the neck about 2 cm. wide. The 
distribution of small glands on the outer surface is much the same as 
in //. nutans except that they do not occur on the outer faces of the 
extensive stipular wings. 

Glands are absent from the interior surface of the bell where the 
surface is smooth, while even when in H. nutans the surface of the bell 
is smooth, as it sometimes is, glands occur nevertheless. 

An adaptive feature of very great interest is one reported by TATE: 

"The question arose as to how the pitchers, closely packed 

and unable to bend over as they were, maintained a constant water 
level and succeeded in getting rid of the excess water poured into them 
during the frequent heavy rains. Upon examination it was found that 
each leaf had a small pore in the seam (opposite the midrib) placed 
just at the juncture of the basal water containing part of the pitcher 
and the terminal portion, through which the excess fluid might run 
out. This observation was made on //. Macdonaldae, but in all prob- 
ability holds for other species as well. " (TATE, quoted by GLEASON, 

I93 1 )- 

I have examined the material collected by Dr. TATE with much 

care and interest, so far as it was permitted, and I have found that 
the condition described above is to be found in its most pronounced 
form in H. Tatei. To understand the morphology involved let us 
compare the structure of the leaf with that of //. nutans, in which the 
closed tubular portion ends abruptly in a bell, slit for a short dis- 
tance along the ventral border, the margins running downward as the 
ventral wings as above described, to be continued as the stipular 
wings. In //. Tatei the leaves are from 40 to 50 cm. long, and the 
stipules, in accordance with the shrubby habit of the plant, are very 
long, clasping the bearing stem and adjacent leaf bases. The ventral 
wings are short and foliose, while the bell is very long, being slit 
down the ventral side for some distance. The edges of the trumpet 
are here also confluent with the ventral wings, but above the morpho- 
logical limit of the slit they are concrescent except for a space of about 
one centimeter at its lowest limit. Here the edges of the bell remain 
free, forming a short elongated-oval slit, which we may call the drain- 
slit or pore (TEXT FIG. i). The head of water released by flowing 
through the slit amounts to 5 cm. in some leaves, or possibly more, 
often less. This would have the effect of lowering the center of gravity 
of the water loaded leaf very considerably. In H. Macdonaldae, in a 
leaf of nearly the same length (37 cm.), the region of fused edges was 



Chapter I 



13 



Heliamphora 



much shorter in the only leaf I could examine, while in H. Tyleri (of 
which I examined two leaves) there is but a slight commissure above 
the drain slit, or it may be quite open, as it is in H. nutans. The 
length of the slit is about i cm. more or less, and has ciliated margins, 
since it lies within the hairy zone of the bell near its lower limit. 
Owing to the fact that the specimens were dried and pressed " types ", 
I was limited in my examination. Where the slit of the bell in //. 
Macdonaldae seemed to be open, this may have been due to the sepa- 
ration of the fused margins in drying (LLOYD 1933). 




FIG. i. i, Heliamphora Tatei; 2, //. Macdonaldae; 3, //. minor, the zonation of the 
interior surface is indicated by the numbers 1-4; 4, H. minor; 5, IJ. nutans; 6, retrorse 
hair of //. minor; 7, twin hairs of //. minor. 

It is quite evident that the presence of the drain slit discovered 
by TATE would render tall plants, which grow to the height of four 
feet and inhabit a very rainy habitat, far less top-heavy. The up- 
right position of the leaves is further assured by the ample, tightly 
clasping, stipular wings. At the same time it is to be observed that 
the adaptation is not equally expressed in all three species, being least 
so in H. Tyleri, in which the slit may not be present at all, the bell 
being slit all the way down to the limit of the hairy zone. So far as 
the effect is concerned, this amounts to the same thing, since the 
water is drained off to the lowest open point of the bell in any case. 

Trichomes. There are two kinds of hairs to be found on the inner 
surface of the pitcher, those of the bell and adjacent tube, that is of 
the conducting surface of HOOKER, and those of the basal portion of 
the tube. They are of identical morphology, but differ in important 



Francis E. Lloyd 14 Carnivorous Plants 

details of structure. They are unicellular hairs with the bases embed- 
ded in a raised mass of epidermis and underlying parenchyma. They 
taper from the base gradually to the sharp tip, and the cuticle is 
raised to form folds or ridges, beginning at or near the base and con- 
verging on the apex, where they gradually fade away. These ridges 
are more pronounced on the hairs of the conductive surface, and are 
much weaker to scarcely distinct on the hairs of the detentive surface. 
The former are relatively longer, more slender and distinctly flexible, 
the more so in the lower parts of the conductive surface. KRAFFT 
suggested that these ridges have use as strengthening elements, but 
the effect is not to make the hairs rigid. They may make it more 
difficult for flies to use their foot organs. Their chief efficiency lies, 
I imagine, in their number and flexibility, so that an insect cannot 
place its feet on the bell surface, but can only hook onto the hairs 
which by their flexibility give way and permit the insect to slip into 
the pitcher. The hairs of the detentive surface on the other hand 
are short, very thick walled and rigid, thereby making escape difficult. 
BENTHAM (1840) said of these that "they have all the appearance of 
ordinary secreting hairs," but this was a mistake. They are cer- 
tainly not secretory. 

The structure of the nectar gland of the pitcher in Heliamphora 
has been described, though not quite correctly, by KRAFFT (1896). 
There are, for purposes of description, two kinds: (a) those which 
are relatively small and have few cells, about 12 in number (2 10). 
These are found scattered over the whole of the bell, and on the outer 
surfaces, including the wings, and are regarded as nectar glands 
by GOEBEL, who detected a sweetness in the excreted fluid; and 
(fe) large glands found only on the inner surface of the spoon (2 7). 
KRAFFT spoke of three kinds of glands, distinguishing those on the 
inner from those on the outer surfaces. But they are all quite the 
same in structure, differing somewhat in size, those on the outer sur- 
faces being shallower, the glandular cells of a gland having little more 
depth than that of the surrounding epidermis. 

The structure of the smaller glands is as follows: They appear in 
surface view to consist of six cells, four in a single course in the level 
of the epidermis, covered partially by two cells, the " cover cells" of 
GOEBEL. The area of the exposed surface of the gland is about equal 
to that of a stoma. It is difficult to resist the theory that the glands 
are derived phylogenetically from stomata, but there is no support 
for this beyond the suggestive appearance of the two cover cells. 
Beneath the course of four cells, there is a second inner course of cells 
which appeared to KRAFFT to be four in number. One usually can 
count at least six cells, two cells lying beneath the two cover cells. 
But the glands are of irregular structure, and one cannot say definitely 
that there are only so many cells. These constitute the gland proper, 
and are all derived from the epidermis. They are surrounded by a 
cuticularized membrane, except at the base, which, though being 
partially covered with this membrane, is not entirely so, there being 
left a " window" (KRAFFT used this word), so that the active gland 
cells lie in direct contact with usually two, sometimes one, or three 
to four, parenchyma cells below. 



Chapter I 15 Heliamphora 

The walls of these cells which lie in contact with those of the 
gland immediately above (if we assume an orientation of up and 
down, the cover cells being up) are always strengthened by curved 
thickenings like those of xylem vessels. KRAFFT seems to have re- 
garded these cells also to be cuticularized, and the wall thickenings 
to be on the lateral walls in contact with surrounding parenchyma 
cells. On both these points he was mistaken. The wall thickenings 
are found on the walls only where the cells impinge on the gland cells, 
and are not cuticularized in any part. This arrangement is found also 
in the glands of Sarracenia, as GOEBEL showed, to be described be- 
yond. The function of these parenchyma cells is not known, but it 
serves to call them transmitting cells. But whether they do more 
than permit movement of substances from the leaf tissues to the 
gland, is not known. There is no reason to particularize as to the 
distinction between the glands of the inner and outer surfaces, be- 
yond the fact that where the outer surface glands impinge on the 
underlying parenchyma, the parenchyma cells in immediate contact 
are sometimes so large that it is very easy to recognize the fact that 
the wall thickenings occur only where the gland cells are in contact 
with the parenchyma cells. In cases where the section has run through 
the gland at right angles to the common axis of the contingent pa- 
renchyma walls beneath the gland, it becomes apparent why cell 
walls carrying the thickenings appear to be other than those exactly 
in contact with the glands, namely, because of the oblique position. 
In making a drawing one is usually forced to show them as if they 
were anticlinal, instead of periclinal walls. For this reason one can 
understand how KRAFFT may have been misled. Viewing the gland 
from beneath, possible in tangential sections, leaves no doubt about 
the facts. 

The glandular cells and the contingent parenchyma cells were 
regarded together as constituting the gland by KRAFFT, and the 
whole was attributed by him to an epidermal origin. But the pa- 
renchyma cells are certainly not of glandular nature, judging by their 
meagre protoplasmic contents, and are of equal certainty not of epider- 
mal origin. One hardly needs to see developmental stages to draw 
this conclusion. FENNER'S account of the origin of the Sarracenia 
nectar gland, which is of the same structure as that of Heliamphora, 
also includes the parenchyma cells. 

The large glands are found only on the inner surface of the spoon. 
KRAFFT correctly traces this type of gland to an epidermal origin, 
but does not show that in this gland also there are to be found the 
xylem-like parenchyma cells. He attributes to the gland an identity 
with the large glands found in Cephalotus which, as we shall see when 
we discuss the latter, is not justified. These glands occur to the 
number of about 20, larger and smaller in size, the larger ones being 
in a more lateral position. And these are very large. In surface 
view they consist of a number of cover cells and first course cells, 
underlain by about four courses of thick walled cells beneath which 
lies the mass of glandular cells proper. The periphery of this mass 
is irregular, as if there was a tendency of the glandular mass to branch 
or lobe. The contingent parenchyma by the same token intrudes 



Francis E. Lloyd 16 Carnivorous Plants 

cells between the lobes. So large are these glands that they must 
contain about 1000 cells. There are only a half-dozen such large 
glands, the rest within the spoon being of various sizes, but all smaller 
and showing a structure more obviously like that of the rest of the 
glands of the inner and outer surfaces. One of the smallest I show 
in Plate 2 7, in which it is seen that some of the parenchyma cells 
in contact with the gland have spirally and reticulately thickened walls. 
One finds them in the large glands, but only occasionally; they are 
very difficult to find, however. In any event the wall thickenings 
seem to be less pronounced and distinct. The large gland is often 
in close contact with the vascular tissue. 

The cuticularization, as in the small glands of the general surfaces, 
extends around the gland, with, however, areas furnishing contact 
with the surrounding parenchyma. 

GOEBEL leaned towards the opinion that the glands above de- 
scribed are different in structure from those of Sarracenia, but the 
evidence to be later deduced will, I think, show otherwise. MAC- 
FARLANE described the glands as being depressed and surrounded 
by thick walled neighbor cells, "the upper part of which may over- 
hang " the gland. He did not study the gland structure further, 
as KRAFFT did later, and suggested that the glands of Heliamphora 
stand in an intermediate position between those of Sarracenia and 
those of Nepenthes. This idea seems lacking in justification. 

Prey and its fate. That insects are caught by the pitchers of 
Heliamphora was not known to BENTHAM, who handled the first ma- 
terial to reach London. I found insect remains in the pitchers of 
H. Tyleri and KRAFFT did so in the pitchers of //. nutans sent to him 
from England by Veitch and Sons. The odor accompanying decay 
of insect bodies was noticed by KRAFFT. As there are no digestive 
glands to be found, we must conclude that the proteins of animal 
bodies are made available to the plant only by means of bacterial 
digestion. That no work has been done on this plant can be ex- 
plained by the rarity of the material, due to the difficulties of cul- 
tivation. 

Literature Cited: 

ARBER (see under Cephalotus). 

BENTHAM, G., Heliamphora nutans, a new pitcher plant from British Guiana. Transact. 
Linn. Soc. 18, 1840. 

FENNER, C. A., Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Anatomic, Entwicklungsgeschichte und Biologic 
der Laubblatter und Driisen einiger Insektivoren. Flora 93:335-434, 1904. 

GLEASON, H. A. and E. F. KILLIP, Botanical results of the Tyler-Duida Expedition. Bull. 
Torr. Bot. Club 58:277-586, 1931. 

GLEASON, H. A., Brittonia 3:164, 1939 (Description of Heliamphora minor). 

GOEBEL, K., Pflanzenbiologische Schilderungen. Marburg, 1891. 

IM THURN, E. F. and D. OLIVER, The botany of the Roraima Expedition of 1884. Trans. 
Linn. Soc. London II, 2:249-300, 1887. 

KRAFFT, S., Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Sarraceniaceen-Gattung Heliamphora. Diss. Mu- 
nich, 1896. 

LLOYD, F. E., Isolation and the origin of species. Science, N. S. 22:710-712, 1905. 

LLOYD, F. E., The carnivorous plants. Trans. R. S. C. 27:3-67, 1933. 

MACFARLANE, J. M., Observations on some pitchered insectivorous plants, I. Ann. Bot. 
3:253-266, 1889; H. Ann. Bot. 7:403-458, 1893. 

SCHOMBURGK, R. H., Reisen im Guiana . . . Leipzig 1841. 

TROLL, W., Morphologic der schildformigen Blatter. Planta 17:153-314, 1932. 

ZIPPERER, PAUL, Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Sarraceniaceen. Diss. Erlangen, 1885. 



Chapter II 
SARRACENIA 

Discovery. Known species. Descriptions of: S. pur pur ea. S. psittacina. S. 
Courtii. S. minor. 5. Drummondii. S. fiava. S. Jonesii. Morphology of the leaf. 
Digestion and absorption. Animal life of the pitchers. 

The genus Sarracenia is based on TOURNEFORT'S original description 
(1700) of a plant sent to him by Dr. M. S. SARRAZIN from Quebec, 
Canada. The name was adopted by LINNAEUS (1737). The earliest 
known illustration of Sarracenia is to be found in DE LABEL'S Nova 
Stirpium Adversaria, evidently of a leaf of S. minor, probably re- 
ceived from some Spanish explorer in Florida (p. 430, 1576 ed.). Ac- 
cording to UPHOF (Engler and Prantl, 2 ed.) there are nine species. 
WHERRY (1933) distinguishes between the northern form of 5. pur- 
purea and a southern form, namely, the subspecies S. purpurea gib- 
bosa and S. purpurea venosa, respectively. All species are distinguished 
by the possession of pitcher leaves either upright or decumbent, of con- 
siderable variety of form, to be detailed later. The following is a 
list of the species and their geographic distribution, according to 
WHERRY (1935). 

Species with upright tubular pitcher leaves: 

S. oreophila (Kearney) Wherry. Green pitcher plant. Of very 
limited distribution: Taylor Co., Georgia, and in the Appalachian 
Mountains of Alabama (Cherokee, DeKald, and Marshall Cos.). 

S. Sledgei Macfarlane. Pale pitcher plant. S. Alabama, Missis- 
sippi, Louisiana and E. Texas. One or two colonies are reported 
to survive in the Cumberland Plateau of Tennessee, presumably in 
its ancestral home before the rise of the peneplain of the Cretaceous. 

S. flava L. Yellow pitcher plant (/ 7). N. and S. Carolina ; 
Georgia, extreme N. Florida and S. Alabama, in the coastal plain. 

5. Jonesii Wherry. Red pitcher plant. There is a singular and 
striking survival of this plant in an isolated spot in Buncombe and 
Henderson Cos., N. Carolina. Otherwise it is found chiefly in S. 
Alabama and in restricted regions nearby in Florida and Mississippi. 

S. Drummondii Croom. (/ 6). White-top pitcher plant. Chiefly 
S. Alabama, with slight extensions into Mississippi, Georgia, and N. 
Florida. It forms two isolated colonies in Georgia (Sumter Co.) and 
in Florida (Madison Co.). 

S. rubra Walter. Sweet pitcher plant. North Carolina (from 
Moore Co. southward) through S. Carolina into Georgia, away from 
the coast except in N. Carolina. 

S. minor Wall. (/ p) . Hooded pitcher plant. " Fly-traps " (MEL- 
LICHAMP). Eastern half of the peninsula of Florida, in the north of 
that state, southern Georgia, western S. Carolina and slightly into 
N. Carolina. 

Species with decumbent leaves: 

S. psittacina Michaux (/ 8). Parrot pitcher plant. From a 



Francis E. Lloyd 18 Carnivorous Plants 

short distance E. of New Orleans, Mississippi, through S. Alabama, 
S. Georgia to the coast and in N. Florida. 

S. purpurea venosa (Rafinesque) Wherry. Southern pitcher plant. 
This species has an interrupted distribution from southern New Jersey 
to S. Mississippi. Only small isolated colonies are to be found be- 
tween N. Carolina, where it is widespread, and a similarly wide- 
spread area in S. E. Georgia, extreme N. E. Florida, S. Alabama, 
from which a narrow tongue extends to near the Mississippi River 
N. of New Orleans. 

S. purpurea gibbosa (Rafinesque) Wherry. (/ 3-5). Northern 
pitcher plant. Found throughout a vast area, beginning with a nar- 
row strip embracing the coastal regions of Maryland, Delaware and 
New Jersey, it spread westerly through N. Pennsylvania, N. Ohio, 
N. Illinois, Wisconsin, through the whole region north and east to 
the Atlantic coast, and N. W. through the region of Winnipeg into 
uncharted regions. The northern limits are not known. 

Sarracenia purpurea Linn, has had a long history, and we are in- 
debted to HOOKER (1875) f r digging out the facts. From an early 
sketch by an unknown author, which found its way to Lisbon and 
thence to Paris, CLUSIUS (Rariorum pi. historia, 1601, p. Ixxxij) 
published a figure, which thirty years later was copied by JOHNSON 
in his edition of GERARD'S Herbal, in the hope that someone would 
find the plant. The hope was realized when JOHN TRADESCANT, 
whose name is perpetuated in the genus Tradescantia, found it in 
Virginia and succeeded in bringing it alive to England in 1640. In 
1700 TOURNEFORT described the plant, naming it Sarracenia (or Sar- 
racena) in honor of Dr. M. S. SARRAZIN, who had sent it to him from 
Quebec. The name was adopted by LINNAEUS in his Hortus Clif- 
fortianus, 1737. The plant in question is then called Sarracenia 
purpurea L., and is the best known of all the species chiefly by reason 
of its above mentioned wide distribution. 

Quite naturally the structural features of these peculiar plants 
were the first to attract attention. The terminal lobe or flap not 
only looked like a lid, but was believed by MORISON (Plantarum 
Historiae, 1699, 3:533) to be hinged and capable of movement, as 
many non-botanists believe today. LINNAEUS and others adopted 
this idea, thinking this behaviour to conserve the water within. BUR- 
NETT (1829) seemed very sure of this. "In many instances the ap- 
paratus is fitted with a lip or lid, by which the mouth may be shut or 
opened; the machinery of which limb is so contrived that, when the 
cavity within is well supplied, it closes to prevent evaporation; and 
when the stock is diminished or consumed, the lip is raised, so that the 
mouth is again raised to receive the falling rain or rising dew." 
CATESBY (Nat. Hist, of Carolina 2:69, 1743) had the idea that the 
hollow leaves were a refuge for insects from the animals (frogs, etc.) 
which might devour them. WILLIAM, son of CHARLES BARTRAM, in 
his Travels in N. and S. Carolina, Georgia and Florida (1791) re- 
corded the objection suggested earlier by COLLINSON (see SMITH, 
1821) that many insects, on the contrary, are caught and destroyed 
in the pitchers. 

Later more meticulous observations on S. adunca led MACBRIDE 



Chapter II 19 Sarracenia 

(1817) to find that the tube of the pitcher leaf is lined with down- 
wardly pointed hairs, which he could ''plainly see at the bottom of 
the tube," and he saw also that there is about the mouth of the tube 
a viscid substance which attracts flies. 

Then MELLICHAMP, a physician like MACBRIDE, resident of the 
same region and a contemporary of HOOKER, did the first real ex- 
perimentation on this plant and compared the rate at which fresh veni- 
son showed disintegration in the pitcher fluid and in distilled water, 
concluding that bacterial action was at work. He found also that 
the pitcher fluid did not allow the escape of flies when they fell into 
it as water does, indicating that there is an " anaesthetic action." 
There is also, he saw, a nectar baited pathway up the outside of the 
pitcher to its mouth. Thus MELLICHAMP'S work opened up the field 
of physiological research to which reference will be made later. 

Since then there have been numerous descriptions of the structure 
of the various plants of the genus, not always of unimpeachable ac- 
curacy. We now consider this aspect of the matter in what follows. 

Sarracenia purpurea is the most widely distributed, and longest 
and best known, species, ranging from Labrador to Florida along the 
Atlantic seacoast of N. America, and westward to Wisconsin and 
Minnesota, successfully withstanding the rigors of the northern win- 
ters. It has been successfully introduced in Switzerland. With S. 
psittacina Michx. it is associated in the section Decumbentes Uphof, 
both being characterized by having their leaves more or less spread- 
ing as a rosette. It is to be found in bogs, usually in company with 
much Sphagnum, anchored therein by its strong ascending rhizomes 
clothed with the remnants of dead leaf bases and sending out thick 
fibrous roots. It may often be found in company with other plants, 
making large floating or semi-floating masses of vegetation about the 
edges of ponds, as described by MACFARLANE and STECKBECK for 
Davenport Lake, near Toms River, N. J., U. S. A. (1933). In com- 
mon with carnivorous plants in general the roots are devoid of mycor- 
rhiza (MAcDoucAL 1899). 

It is a beautiful plant (/ 3). Its leaves, which have a very grace- 
ful form, are clustered into a rosette and are deep green with rich 
crimson markings along the venation of the "flap" and more or less 
uniform similar coloration in the upper portion of the body of the 
leaf, depending on the exposure to light. 

Form and structure of the leaf. The pitcher leaf of Sarracenia 
has many times been the subject of description from the anatomical 
point of view by VOGL (1864), MACBRIDE (1817), MELLICHAMP (1875), 
HOOKER (1875), ZIPPERER (1885), GOEBEL (1891), MACFARLANE 
(i88g, B 1893). 

Aside from the cotyledons, which present no especially peculiar 
features, there are two forms of the pitcher leaf, a juvenile and a ma- 
ture, both mentioned by TROLL (1932). The mature form may be 
likened to an elegant cornucopia curving however only in one plane. 
Arising from a winged base, the wings embracing the bearing stem, it 
becomes cylindrical for a shorter or longer distance according to cir- 
cumstances. The lower part of this is solid; in its upper part may 
be found the deepest portion of the hollow interior of the pitcher. 



Francis E. Lloyd 20 Carnivorous Plants 

Along the upper (ventral) surface of the cylindrical petiolar portion arises 
very gradually a single ridge, the ala ventralis, which attains consider- 
able depth further up the leaf (i 4; 2 12). At the same time 
the leaf becomes expanded into a curved conical hollow vessel, ex- 
tending to the mouth. As this point is approached the ventral wing 
begins to show evidence of a double character in that its edge is longi- 
tudinally fissured to form two parallel ridges which are continuous 
with the edges (nectar roll) of the bell, which in this species has a very 
peculiar form. The abaxial two-thirds are expanded into a cordate 
"flap," the sides of which where they meet the adaxial part of the 
bell become helicoidal. The edge of the helix can be seen to continue 
as the edge of a convolute margin of the pitcher the adaxial part 
just mentioned which I have called the nectar roll, and which is noth- 
ing more or less than the adaxial part of the bell. TROLL'S (1932) 
description says that the abaxial part of the pitcher is lengthened as 
the lid. This is true enough as far as it goes, but this and all other 
descriptions, as far as I am aware, neglect to point out the nature of 
the curious rolled margin around the adaxial limb of the opening. 
At the midpoint of this rolled margin there is on the surface no sign 
of its nature. Examination by means of sections, however, shows that 
the two ridges of the ventral wing spread to right and left to continue 
as its involuted margins. One is reminded of the volutes of the 
capital of an Ionic column. To sum up in a word, the flap and nectar 
roll are to be taken together as the edge of the pitcher, wide and 
leaf-life abaxially and tightly rolled outwardly adaxially. 

But this comes out quite clearly in the juvenile form of pitcher, 
found on seedlings and delicate shoots. These are slender, the tubular 
portion being narrow and only very gradually widening toward the 
mouth (2 13). This is surmounted by an overhanging hood-like 
expansion, the margins of which do not become rolled along the ab- 
axial reach of the mouth, but run obliquely, meeting to form the 
ventral wing. According to this description the ventral wing is a 
single structure below and double above, so far as external evidence 
goes. 

Mrs. ARBER (1941) has recently argued that the lid in Sarracenia 
"is merely a localized development of the collar". This may be 
questioned on the evidence above stated, that the collar (nectar roll) is 
not present in juvenile leaves. 

The whole of the outer surface of the mature pitcher is supplied 
with scattered nectar glands (2 15, 16). It is also somewhat rough 
and hairy with scattered trichomes (j 2) with peculiar thicken- 
ings in the form of waves of surface expansion rather than continuous 
ridges, such as occur on the trichomes of the interior. The external 
glands may be regarded, as MACFARLANE suggested, as alluring in 
function, leading creeping prey to the mouth. 

The internal surface shows, as HOOKER pointed out, distinct zo- 
nation. He recognized four zones and described them as follows. 
Zone i (2 12) embraces the cordate emarginate flap. The epider- 
mis carries stomata, glands and strong downwardly directed hairs. 
The lower limit of this zonation is clearly marked by an irregular line 
where the character of the epidermis cells abruptly changes. In zone 



Chapter II 21 Sarracenia 

2, the epidermis cells have very thick outer walls each ending in an 
umbo, and more or less imbricated with its neighbors below (2 14). 
There are numerous glands here. The appearance to the eye is vel- 
vety, the surface being broken up by the imbrication and by the very 
numerous, fine, downwardly directed ridges concentering on each outer 
cell wall on the umbo. This zone forms a collar about i cm. in width. 
While zone i is highly colored with red along the venations, green be- 
tween, zone 2 is less colored, though the red still follows the main 
veins. There are no stomata here. 

Zone 3 is smooth and glassy and reflects the light strongly. The 
epidermal cells have wavy thick walls, and except for a narrow strip 
just below zone 2, there are throughout numerous glands (I count 
15-20 per mm 2 ), but no stomata. This zone occupies about one- 
half the whole interior. Below it is zone 4, which is devoid of cuticle 
(BATALIN 1880) except for a small space surrounding the base of each 
hair. These are numerous, downwardly pointed, long, slender and 
glassy, and are effective in the detention of prey. The lack of cuticle 
can be very easily demonstrated by exposing the interior surface of a 
leaf to a weak solution of methylene blue (or other suitable dye) or 
potassium permanganate. It shows some discoloration, being brown- 
ish as compared with the rest of the surface. At the lower limit of 
zone 3 the sinuous walled epidermis abruptly changes to an epidermis 
with plain walls, and the cells appear strictly isodiametric. There are 
neither glands nor stomata. 

For the above zones we may adopt HOOKER'S descriptive terms, 
which, for zone i, is attractive, zone 2, conducting, zone 3, glandular, 
and zone 4, detentive, even though these terms are incomplete in sig- 
nificance. Zone i is not only attractive but is also a place of very 
insecure foothold, because of the form and direction of the hairs. 
Zone 2 is also both attractive because of the nectar secreted, as in 
zone i, and affords a precarious foothold. Zone 3 has a hard, glassy 
surface, extending the glacis of zone 2, all three zones forming a facilis 
descensus Averno. Zone 4 is probably not only detentive, but also 
absorptive. 

And to these should be added a fifth zone. This is a relatively 
narrow zone below zone 4, in which the cuticle is permanent, and 
which is hairy only in its upper part, the lower being completely 
smooth. There are no glands, and the epidermal cells are quite like 
those of zone 4. FENNER (1904) calls this zone (but he was describing 
5*. flava) an absorption zone, but I think without good reason. It is 
true that these cells do not completely resist the entrance of methyl- 
ene blue, but this enters them much less easily than into the cells of 
zone 4, though evidently more easily than into those of zone 3, which 
are completely resistant. 

MACDOUGAL recognized the zones as I have described them. 
When subjected to total darkness, the petiolar region of the leaf elon- 
gates greatly, while the upper zones become shorter, zones i and 2 
showing the greatest reduction in size. Fully etiolated leaves are 
twice the length of normal ones, but the petiolar region, including 
the basal part of the pitcher, is five times the normal length. The 
ventral wing does not develop, the leaf being wedge-shaped in trans- 



Francis E. Lloyd 22 Carnivorous Plants 

verse section. The ascidium is present. Corresponding dimensional 
changes take place in the component cells, but there is also, according 
to MACDOUGAL, an actual increase in the number of cells in the 
elongated portion of the detentive region (which partakes in elonga- 
tion with the petiole) and an actual decrease in the number of cells 
of the conductive surfaces (zones i and 2). Thus the pitcher of Sar- 
racenia behaves, in relation to light, as if it were a leaf blade (zones 
i, 2 and the upper part of 3) and the rest as if it were petiolar (1903, 
pp. 173-6). IriSj when grown in the dark, grew only slightly in excess 
of the normal. We recall that GOEBEL compares the Sarracenia leaf 
with that of Iris. 

The juvenile leaves, which are also pitcher leaves, differ in some 
details from the mature. While they display the same zonation, the 
characters as they have been described for the mature leaves overlap. 
They can be described as follows: 

Zone i is the same as in the mature leaves. The margin of the flap 
is ciliated with more or less curved blunt hairs. The epidermal cells 
are sinuous walled, the glands present but few. Stomata are present 
and the hairs stout and curved. 

Zone 2. The epidermis of zone i changes abruptly in that all the 
cells become trichomatous, but very short and produce the effect of 
imbrication, as described above. Glands are large and numerous, 
more so towards the lower limit of the zone, where the epidermis 
again changes. 

Zone 3. The epidermal cells are again sinuous walled but, unlike 
the mature leaf, there are numerous trichomes. Glands are here also 
present, but no stomata. 

Zone 4. The epidermal cells become straight, the cells isodiametric, 
with numerous very slender hairs, and no glands, and no cuticle. 

Zone 5 has the same sort of epidermis as zone 4, but is devoid of 
hairs. 

As we shall see, the juvenile leaf of S. purpurea resembles in struc- 
ture that of S. psittacina. 

We come to the details of the glands and trichomes, The glands 
(j i) are all of one type (the "Sarracenia type/' GOEBEL, 1891). 
Viewed as part of the general surface, each gland exposes normally 
six cells to view, four in a rough circle and two, the cover cells (GOE- 
BEL) in the middle (2 15). The cover cells overlap the four bor- 
dering cells to a greater or less extent. Those on the outer surface 
have relatively large cover cells, which jut out further beyond the 
general level of the surface. Those of the glands of zone 2 are rela- 
tively much smaller. 

The outer surface glands (2 15, 16) are the smallest and simplest 
in structure, derived from a single epidermal cell, according to ZIP- 
PERER and to FENNER. Undoubtedly the gland is of epidermal ori- 
gin, and the idea is not precluded that it may represent originally a 
stomatal apparatus, the cover cells arising originally as guard cells. 
But this is admittedly speculation. The four peripheral cells lie in 
the general level of the surrounding epidermal cells, while the two 
cover cells are conical and are wedged in between the peripheral cells. 
Against the interior faces of the peripheral cells there is usually one, 



Chapter II 23 Sarracenia 

sometimes two cells, the adjunct cells, which appear to be derived 
from the parenchyma. The walls of the adjunct cell, or cells in con- 
tact with the gland cells, are variously thickened, reticulately and 
circularly, as represented by GOEBEL (1891). FENNER thought that 
the adjunct cells are also derived from the epidermis (FENNER called 
them "Durchlasszellen")? but their denser protoplasmic content in- 
dicates that they have more than a passive role. The outer walls 
of the cover and peripheral cells are all cuticularized, staining with 
fat stains (Congo Red, etc.) except a part of those making the contact 
with the adjunct cell or cells. These walls resist sulfuric acid along 
with the outer walls of the surrounding epidermal cells. But meth- 
ylene blue easily permeates these glands in the living leaf. 

The interior glands (j i) are of similar structure, but are of 
two courses, evidently, as FENNER indicates, derived from originally 
four peripheral cells. The gland, aside from the adjunct cells, there- 
fore consists of normally 10-12 cells, the outer course having four periph- 
eral and two cover cells, the inner course usually four to six cells. The 
cover cells are slenderly conical, are wedged in the middle of the outer 
peripheral cells, extending inwardly till more or less in contact with 
the inner course. Their walls are considerably thickened and cuti- 
cularized throughout. The base of the gland is in contact with two 
to four or five adjunct cells with reticulate, circularly or spirally 
thickened walls of contact which give a positive reaction with phloro- 
glucin and HC1. Here, however, there is no suberization of the gland 
cells so that there is left a "window" (FENNER'S term) allowing 
communication by ready diffusion between the adjunct and gland 
cells proper. The glands of the nectar roll, while identical in struc- 
ture with those elsewhere, show a certain distortion consequent on the 
growth movement resulting from torsion during the development. 

The structure of the glands in whatever zone they occur is the 
same, though they function differently. On the outer surface of the 
pitcher and on the inner in zones i and 2, they secrete nectar. Though 
HOOKER was in doubt on this point, I am sure of it from my own 
observation. I have also, on a warm, sunshiny day watched flies in 
numbers busily sucking the nectar and some of them getting trapped 
by slipping down the surface of zones i and 2. The glands of zone 
3, however, probably secrete digestive ferments, judging from the 
results of HEPBURN et al. (1927), to be discussed later. 

Sarracenia psittacina Michx. This species (i 8) is associated 
with S. purpurea in the Decumbentes by UPHOF, because of the posi- 
tion of the leaves which lie more or less parallel with the ground. The 
leaf considered as a trap, is, however, quite different in this species, 
and is much more efficient mechanically or at least it appears so. 
No account I know of quite brings this point out. The leaf which 
GOEBEL described as the "first pitcher leaf " is a juvenile form (3 5). 

Its habitat is low, wet, sandy meadows subject to inundations 
by the acid waters of nearby swamps (WHERRY). 

It is regarded taxonomically as associated with S. purpurea, but 
it is as much or more like Darlingtonia. The pitcher consists of a 
narrow, tapering curved tube (j 4), somewhat flattened dorsiven- 
trally, with a wide ventral wing, and with the top of the pitcher 



Francis E. Lloyd 24 Carnivorous Plants 

curved over to form a hood, with an entrance of narrow caliber facing 
horizontally, instead of downwards as in Darlingtonia. It is deep 
red in color, mottled by angular white fenestrations which allow 
diffused light to enter the tube on all sides, more especially on the 
ventral aspect of the tube which, because of the decumbent position 
of the leaf, lies uppermost. In some other species, the fenestrations 
occur on the dorsal aspect of the tube. The pitchers are rigid, and 
are of striking shape, suggesting the specific and common name. The 
above mentioned fenestrations have a more opaque look than those 
of Darlingtonia, and on examination they were found to have extensive 
intercellular spaces, the effect of which is to diffuse the light, thus 
producing a snowy whiteness. 

The form and structure of a pitcher can be best seen in one cut 
sagittally (j 4). The upper part of the tube is strongly curved, so 
as to direct the opening toward the leaf base. The end of the mid- 
vein is indicated by a low umbo, the organic apex of the pitcher. Be- 
yond this point the hood is closed by the forwardly curved lobes of 
the "flap," the margins of which are closely apposed, sometimes even 
to mutual adherence, though sections show their histological inde- 
pendence (3 6). The more ventral reaches of these lobes are en- 
larged and bend inwards to form the entrance tube. Inspection of 
this shows that it is formed partly by the upper short stretch of the 
ventral pitcher wall and the proximate parts of the lobes, a condition 
duplicated in the aberrant juvenile leaf of Darlingtonia (5 3). Thus 
is formed a short cylindrical entrance tube (j 6), making the trap 
of the lobster-pot type. The inner free edge of the entrance tube is 
stiffened not only by the strong epidermis, but by a weal running 
parallel to the free edge (j 4). This weal is continuous with the 
exact edge of the lobes above the entrance tube, and must be re- 
garded as the morphological margin. The edging beyond this forms 
a shelf bearing numerous nectar glands, and is clothed on both sides 
with tessellated epidermis of umbonate, striated cells, characteristic 
of the inner general surface of the entrance tube, where also glands 
are found. 

This shelf corresponds exactly with the inwardly curved nectar 
roll of Darlingtonia (5 10), from the pitcher of which that of S. 
psittacina differs in the fact that the organic apex of the tube lies 
within the periphery of the hood, while in Darlingtonia it lies beyond. 
The two lobes of the fishtail appendage of Darlingtonia correspond 
to the two lobes of S. psittacina. MACFARLANE regarded this species 
as the most aberrant of all the species of Sarracenia, and its similar- 
ity to Darlingtonia supports this view. It is on the whole more 
similar to Darlingtonia than to S. pur pur ea. 

The earlier stages in the development of the leaf are practically 
indistinguishable from that of other species examined. The feature 
peculiar to this species, however, the infolded edge of the flap, is a 
character which appears quite late in the course of development. In 
a leaf which, though embryonic in form, was large enough to be ex- 
posed to the light, the hood measured about 0.75 mm. and in this 
the fold has just commenced to develop (5 n). In one with the hood 
2 mm. long the ingrowth was marked, but far from fully developed. 



Chapter II 26 Sarracenia 

In this early stage the structure resembles that of Darlingtonia, save 
for the forward developing fishtail appendage, which here does not 
appear at all. 

The interior surface of the pitcher presents a zonation which cor- 
responds roughly with that in S. purpurea, but is by no means as 
distinct as in that species. This lack of distinction arises from the 
overlapping of the zones 3 and 4, and the restriction of zone 2 to the 
inner surface of the entrance tube, the ventral portion of which is part 
of the pitcher tube proper. This point must be appreciated as other- 
wise it would be difficult to recognize zone 2 at all. 

Zone i (j 4) is the whole of the inner surface of the hood ex- 
cepting the inturned edge of the re-entrant tube. The epidermis is 
of wavy-walled cells with stomata and many nectar glands, and scat- 
tered, relatively few downwardly directed, curved weak hairs, as com- 
pared with the flap of S. purpurea, or Heliamphora. Since the chief 
mechanism for the capture of insects is the re-entrant tube, these hairs 
are of little importance. This is compensated for by the presence of 
very many stiff hairs in the dorsal aspect of the dome, to which zone 

3 reaches. 

Zone 2 corresponds to this zone in S. purpurea in function, though 
it is not a complete zone geometrically speaking. It embraces a short 
reach of the ventral wall of the pitcher with the contiguous sides of 
the re-entrant tube, including the shelf, which is within the morpholog- 
ical edge of the lobe. The shelf and the inner surface of the tube 
sides are clothed with an epidermis of tessellated straight walled cells 
each with a low striated umbo, pointing inward and downward, as in 
zone 2 of S. purpurea. Glands are present, in greater number proxi- 
mally than distally. They are absent under the shelf, but the shelf 
itself bears a great many. This is the principal lure evidently, but the 
insect which advances into the re-entrant tube to sip the nectar is 
invited to enter further by the shining white fenestrations, mullioned 
in red, of the pitcher wall. The outer surface bears many small glands 
also, which, with those of the general outer pitcher surface, constitute 
a general lure. 

Zone 3. Like zone 3 of 5. purpurea this carries some stomata and 
many glands, but, unlike that species, the whole surface is clothed 
with a dense felt of downwardly pointed, slender stiff hairs, continuous 
with those of zone 4. It may be described as an advance of zone 4 
to overlap zone 3. The parallelism between this species and S. pur- 
purea is seen in the many glands of this zone. These are possibly 
peptic glands, though the evidence is at present not conclusive (see 
p. 34). The epidermis is of a mixture of wavy- walled cells, and smaller 
straight walled cells, these becoming more numerous as the next zone 

4 is approached. It is underlain by a course of wavy-walled cells, the 
walls of which are thick and afford stiffening to the pitcher wall. 

Zone 4 is devoid of glands, but has a dense clothing of trapping 
hairs down to the very end of the pitcher tube, where they are shorter, 
fitting better the reduced bore of the tube, and leaving a lumen. 
MACFARLANE described the whole of zones 3 and 4, as above delimited, 
as the detentive zone, but having glands in the upper one-third. In 
S. purpurea zone 3 is secretive, and has a glissade surface, while in 
S. psittacina the surface is hairy. 



Francis E. Lloyd 26 Carnivorous Plants 

The structure of the glands is like that in S. purpurea (3 3). 

GOEBEL described the seedling leaves which appear directly fol- 
lowing the cotyledons. In form they resemble closely the juvenile 
leaves of S. purpurea. The leaves of the two species in the juvenile 
state are regarded by W. P. WILSON (1888) as indistinguishable, and 
he regarded them as closely related. The presence of the umbo, how- 
ever (3 5), clearly separates S. psittacina from S. purpurea. The 
forward margin of the mouth is simple, and the inturning valvular 
nectar roll with its marginal thickening is absent. Absent also are 
the two lateral lobes. The interior surface is divided into four zones: 
(/) the under surface of the hood, with scattered retrorse hairs with 
interspersed glands; (2) the gliding zone with a lining of imbricated 
cells with downward directed points; (3) a wide zone with many long 
downward pointed hairs with glands between; and (4) the bottom 
zone with smooth epidermis. GOEBEL'S zone (2) corresponds to zones 
2 and 3 in my description of the adult form of leaf above. 

Sarracenia Courtii. This is a hybrid between S. purpurea and 
S. psittacina, and in its structure reflects the characters of both in the 
zonation of the pitcher leaf. As in 5. purpurea, the conductive zone, 
zone 2, is broader than in S. psittacina, and occupies a transverse band 
around the interior of the leaf, narrowing dorsally, thus separating 
zones i and 3 almost completely. Zone 3 is much less hairy than this 
zone in 5. psittacina, but is glandular, as in that species. The general 
aspect of S. Courtii resembles that of S. psittacina, but the plant is 
larger. 

Sarracenia minor. In this species the leaf stands in a vertical 
position, and the opening is overhung by a wide, domed lid (/ 9; 
3 7-9). The wall of the pitcher opposite the opening, and for some 
distance up and down, is fenestrated with white patches as in Darling- 
tonia. These are slightly thinner areas of the wall, devoid of chloro- 
phyll, and there is no palisade tissue anywhere. These white spots 
may be regarded as a visual lure for insects. The lower edge of the 
mouth is thickened by an outwardly reflexed edge of the wall, as in 
5. purpurea, to form the nectar roll. The body of the pitcher is a 
tapering tube slightly curved, and carrying a wing in front the 
ala ventralis which has a double edge above, the edges flowing 
right and left into the edge of the lid, but a single one below, and is 
not confluent with the stipular wings of the leaf base. The ventral 
wing starts at the top of the tube and attains its greatest width about 
half way down. 

The outer surface is sparsely hairy with short, curved hairs with 
finely tuberculated walls. There are numerous glands scattered all 
over the outer surface, and these are especially active in secretion along 
the upper part of the edge of the wing, where drops of nectar which 
have been excreted by them may be seen (3 9). I have not seen 
nectar collecting visibly elsewhere on the outer surface. The interior 
surface presents a zonation visible to the eye but somewhat dif- 
ferent from that of 5. purpurea and more like that of S. psittacina. 
MELLICHAMP (1875) recognized three "belts" or zones: (/) embracing 
the internal honey secreting portion; (2) a belt lined with soft and 
velvety pubescence affording no foothold for most insects; and (3) 



Chapter II 27 Sarracenia 

that of coarse straw-colored hairs extending to the bottom of the tube 
where a watery fluid is secreted. Essentially correct, this description 
does not specify closely enough the distinction which actually exists. 
Though the zonation does not stand out so clearly as in S. purpurea, 
we can nevertheless recognize four zones. 

Zone i, that of the under surface of the lid which ends in an oblique 
line extending obliquely upwards from the lower margin of the mouth. 
This is covered rather densely with curved hairs downwardly directed. 
Interspersed are numerous nectar glands which are evidently active, 
for one can see minute drops of nectar studding the surface. At the 
line of demarkation the epidermis abruptly changes to a smooth, con- 
tinuous surface of tessellated cells, each of which is downwardly sharply 
umbonate (3 10). Interspersed are very numerous glands which 
are very active. In the upper part stand large drops which run to- 
gether to form a flood of nectar. This is continuous along the lower 
lip of the mouth and for a centimeter down from there and elsewhere 
around the tube. This I call zone 2. At its lower limit the umbonate 
cells give way gradually to cells of identical structure, but having 
the umbo lengthened into a longer slender spike, still with many 
glands scattered between. This zone measures about 3 to 4 cm. in 
depth. It is evidently glaucous, with a white sheen. This is zone 3. 
Below begins zone 4, recognizable to the eye by the pale green, non- 
glaucous appearance. It soon becomes brownish in color and bears 
numerous scattered long slender hairs with a detentive function (j 
n), with more or less straight walled cells between. In the upper 
part of this zone there are a few glands, but none much below a 
depth of i cm. Below the epidermis in zones 2, 3 and 4, the pitcher 
wall is conspicuously strengthened by a hypodermis of wavy walled 
cells with walls rather thin above, but in the general region of zone 4 
very thick and underlain by a second course of wavy walled cells with 
thinner walls. It is obvious that these cells add materially to the 
rigidity of the tubular wall. The epidermal walls themselves are 
straight or only very slightly wavy. The edges of the lid are con- 
tinuous with the true edge of the lower reach of the mouth border. 
The nectar roll, as in 5. purpurea, is covered with tightly imbricated 
umbonate cells with numerous nectar glands (3 10, 12). On the 
whole, the pitcher lining is similar to that of the juvenile pitchers 
of that species, in which, however, zone 3 is much shallower than in 
S. minor. In general form this species resembles S. purpurea with its 
bell turned forward so as to shade the opening, but as far as the 
epidermal lining is concerned is more like either the juvenile leaves 
of S. purpurea, or the mature leaves of S. psittacina. In the course 
of evolution it is possible that S. purpurea has been derived from a 
plant resembling S. minor simply by a change in the posture of the 
leaves from vertical to spreading, and by an extension of one zone 
at the expense of another. A change from S. minor to 5. psittacina 
could have been accomplished by an additional elaboration of the 
region surrounding the mouth by extending the dimensions of the 
nectar roll, and reversing it, curling it to the inside instead of to 
the outside. This is speculating, of course. 

Sarracenia Drummondii. This is a tall species, the trumpet- 



Francis E. Lloyd 28 Carnivorous Plants 

shaped leaves attaining a length of 2-3 ft. and standing in a strictly 
erect posture (i 6). The tapering tube gradually widens to the 
top, but contracts somewhat just below the opening, the bulge being 
scarcely wider than the opening, which is oblique. About two-thirds 
of the margin is occupied by a nectar roll, the free edges of which 
are continuous with the two edges of the ventral wing, as in other 
species already described. The abaxial third of the edge of the open- 
ing is extended into a spreading, over-hanging lid supported by its 
broad stalk. The posture changes somewhat with age, passing from 
a more horizontal to a more oblique position, and, according to GOEBEL 
and others, serves to divert rain water from the interior of the tube. 
The lid and upper portion of the tube are highly colored in a motley 
of white and red, with green except in the white fenestrations, which 
occur here as in S. minor and Darlingtonia. 

The external surface is supplied with small nectar glands and is 
roughly hairy on the upper part of the tube. The hairs, which are 
like those in S. purpurea, point in various directions, and not uni- 
formly in one direction. 

The internal surface is clearly divisible into zones. Zone i is the 
inner surface of the lid as far as a distinct line crossing the isthmus 
supporting it. There are many glands and stomata, and the surface 
is studded with curved, downwardly pointed hairs of slender form 
and bending under the pull of a fly's foot. Zone 2 starts at the line 
across the stalk of the lid, and, including the nectar roll, extends down- 
ward inside the tube a distance of 18 cm. in a leaf 60 cm. tall. The 
surface is clothed with oval cells which form short sharp hairs, retrorse 
as elsewhere. There are large nectar glands on the nectar roll and 
in the upper one-half of the zone, but none below. There are no 
stomata (ZIPPERER). This is the conducting zone (MACFARLANE). 
Zones 3 and 4 are not separable to the eye except for the fact that, 
in the upper region of the combined zones, which are detentive, there 
are a few glands in a narrow belt just below the lower limit of zone 2. 
Though to the eye the line of demarkation between zones 2 and 3 is 
distinct, the transition under the microscope is not a very sudden one, 
since the change from very short hairs (zone 2) to the very long ones 
of zone 3 is gradual. In zone 2, every epidermal cell is a trichome 
(except of course where glands occur); in the zone below this is true 
only of relatively few epidermal cells. In the upper part of zone 3, the 
epidermal cells have more or less sinuous walls, giving way soon to 
cells with oval outline, and this region we may recognize as zone 4. 
The bottom of the tube is quite smooth for nearly five cm. From the 
whole of zones 3 and 4 the cuticle is absent. The tube throughout its 
length is greatly strengthened mechanically by the presence of a wavy 
thick walled second layer. 

MACFARLANE denied the presence of glands in the upper part of 
the detentive zone, saying that there are stomata surrounded by 
groups of cells. I think he was mistaken in this. The glands, which 
are few in number, are somewhat distorted, owing to the character 
of the epidermis of many imbricated hairs, but are nevertheless clearly 
glands. There are no stomata (ZIPPERER). 

In addition to the normal pitcher leaves there are others in which 



Chapter II 29 Sarracenia 

the tube is not developed. The leaf then consists of a cylindrical 
stalk with a wide ventral wing. At the apex there is more or less 
of a depression. Such leaves are photosynthetic only, and have been 
compared by GOEBEL to the unifacial leaf of Iris. These leaves de- 
velop later in the growing season (GOEBEL). 

Having favorable material at Munich, I arranged the upper part 
of a leaf under a bell jar and put a blue bottle fly inside. The leaf 
stood vertically in shallow water in a vial. The fly was soon attracted 
by the nectar secreted by the glands of the external surface and gradu- 
ally worked his way by an erratic path to the rim. Mounting this 
he began to sip the nectar, either on the under surface of the lid as 
far as he could reach without letting go his hold with his hind legs 
on the edge of the lid, or of the rim. Swinging about he explored 
the surface inside the rim, always hanging on by his hind legs; and 
it was evident that he was aware of the precarious foothold, for he was 
loth to free his hind foot or feet. But on getting what seemed to be 
a foothold and reaching as far as possible for the nectar, he would 
let go and then invariably fall plump into the abyss. A bit of the 
tube was cut away above the water level so that he could escape, 
and in consequence he performed for me again and again. His actions 
were repeated a dozen times without failure of being trapped. If 
he ventured on the under side of the lid, as he sometimes did, he 
could remain there as long as he grasped the edge with one foot, seiz- 
ing the hairs with the other; but the moment he let go of the edge, 
down he fell into the tube. There is therefore no question but that 
the surface of zones i and 2 is one which gives no foothold to such 
flies and, to infer from the variety of prey found in the pitchers, to 
most other insects as well. 

Sarracenia Jlava. This species resembles S. Drummondii in many 
respects, but is stouter and coarser, and its prevailing color is greenish- 
yellow, with the latter color quite dominant. The tube tapers gradu- 
ally from the mouth down, being widest at this point. The lid is 
more erect and has a narrower and stouter neck, and is backwardly 
recurved at the edges. The apex, instead of being emarginate as in 
some species, is acute (i 7). A leaf 24 cm. long, examined at Munich, 
shows zonation as follows. 

Zone i is the under surface of the lid and carries many short, 
stout, downwardly pointed hairs and many nectar glands. The lower 
limit of this zone is very irregular, the hairiness following the promi- 
nent veins, the spaces between being smooth and glaucous and con- 
tinuous with zone 2, which is lined with an epidermis of imbricated 
pointed cells with many glands scattered over the surface. This zone 
extends about 2 cm. downwards, and includes most of the neck, the 
nectar roll and a narrow zone below it, as in S. minor. This is deep 
yellow, glaucous and the imbricated cells of the epidermis are short 
pointed. There are glands present in great numbers, and, quite as in 
other species described, this is a dominant place of lure. The lower 
limit of this zone is not defined but fades into zone 3 (8 cm. deep), 
in which the imbricated cells have longer retrorse points. The num- 
ber of glands is reduced so that in the lower regions there are none 
to be found. The whole area is glaucous. The lower limit of zone 3 



Francis E. Lloyd 30 Carnivorous Plants 

is very irregular, but readily distinguished by the eye by the change 
in color, due to absence of cuticle in zone 4. Under the microscope 
there is a sudden transition from imbricated apiculate hairs to scat- 
tered, very long, curved ones, characteristic of zone 4. Underlying 
both zones there is a hypodermis of wavy, thick walled cells. The 
lowest portion of zone 4 is quite smooth, is lined with a small, straight 
walled epidermis, and is 6 cm. in depth. 

Sarracenia Jonesii. Living material from Flat Rock, North 
Carolina, collected by Dr. L. E. ANDERSON through the courtesy of 
Professor F. A. WOLF, was examined and showed quite the same char- 
acters of the epidermis and of zonation as have been described for 5. 
Drummondii and S. flava. Such differences as occur are those of the 
shape of the lid, which is smaller and ovate, similar to that of S. 
minor save that it is more erect and apiculate. The color is green, 
veined with red, with no fenestrations. There are no glands in the 
lower part of zone 3, or in zone 4. 

Morphology of the leaf. TROLL (1932) has summarized our knowl- 
edge on this subject, adding his own views. 

BAILLON (1870) compared the leaf of Sarracenia with that of 
Nelumbo, expressing the opinion that "the wide but shallow cone 
of the (peltate) leaf of Nelumbo becomes in Sarracenia deeper and 
narrower in such a manner as to produce definitively the form of a 
long, obconical trumpet/' thus recognizing the relation between the 
epiascidiate pitcher of Sarracenia with peltate leaves. 

As we have already seen, the pitcher consists of a spreading bi- 
facial leaf base surmounted by a tubular, gradually widening pitcher 
bearing a strong ventral wing and the foliaceous flap continued in 
front as the nectar roll. When the ascidium fails of development, as 
it sometimes does (as in S. flaw, etc.), the leaf presents a certain 
likeness to that of Iris and the phyllodia of Acacia sp. ASA GRAY 
(1895-7) designated the ventral wing or keel as a "phyllodial wing. " 
Various earlier authors (LINDLEY 1832, SAINT-HILAIRE 1840, MORREN 
1838, DUCHARTRE 1867) regarded the pitcher as a leaf blade with the 
margins fused, some of them thinking the tube to be the winged 
petiolar region and the flap the leaf blade. GRAY accepted this view, 
saying, "they are evidently phyllodia." Of them, however, MORREN 
believed the flap to be only the apical portion of the leaf blade, the 
most of which is involved in the tube. MACFARLANE (1889-90) was 
firmly of this opinion. He regarded the keel as compound of the 
fused leaf edges, comparing the condition with that in the leaf of 
Iris as he interpreted the anatomy of this. The single keel of Sar- 
racenia is equivalent to the pair of apposed wings of Heliamphora 
and the more widely separated ones in Nepenthes, according to the 
nature of the fusion. The flap of Sarracenia is to be regarded as 
compound of two pinnae, as is the lid of Nepenthes (1893). TROLL 
regards this view as false, based on a misconception of the mor- 
phology of the Iris leaf, which he insists is congenitally a strictly uni- 
facial leaf. He accepts GOEBEL'S intrepretation that the Sarracenia 
pitcher is a unifacial leaf in the form of a tube and turns to the de- 
velopment of it for support. He recalls that in plants with sword- 
shaped leaves the leaf blade (Oberblatt) arises as an outgrowth of the 



Chapter II 31 Sarracenia 

back mass (abaxial side) of the leaf base (GOEBEL 1881), which 
then enlarges its own apex behind and above the " primary leaf apex," 
that of the leaf base proper. 

The development of the embryo leaf follows the same course except 
that the upper side of the primordium of the lamina is not completely 
suppressed but is limited to a minute depression between the leaf 
base and the apex of the leaf blade (Oberblatt). This is limited 
below by an as yet extremely narrow transverse zone, which cor- 
responds to the transverse zone of a peltate leaf, and at the same 
time may be taken as an indication of a unifacial petiole primordium, 
one, however, which experiences no further development. It is im- 
portant to note that the leaf blade apex does not rise much above 
that of the leaf base and that therefore the leaf blade stands nearly 
normal to the base. This, however, soon changes. The apex now 
grows rapidly and the primordium widens, flattening dorsiventrally, 
and changes in curvatures ensue to produce the helmet-shaped form 
of the lid. Meanwhile the adaxial side elongates and the keel appears, 
below which the transverse weal of the leaf-base runs; otherwise said, 
the edges of the leaf base are not concurrent with the keel. The 
similarity to the Iris leaf is unmistakable, only allowing that the leaf 
blade is hollow. Thus the unifacial character of the leaf blade comes 
into expression, not as a shallow saucer but as a narrow furrow. The 
upper side of the lamina primordium is at first confined to the adaxial 
side of the leaf blade. Growth progresses less by spreading than by 
upward growth of the margins to form the tubular leaf. The petiole 
is not developed, but instead the blade greatly lengthens, in S. flava 
to the extent of i meter. The terminal portion, whose edges are 
free, becomes the lid. 

I have examined the development of the leaf of S. minor and can 
generally agree with TROLL. In this species, however, the primordia 
stand out perhaps more clearly because of the greater tendency to 
grow in length, as compared with S. purpurea. In this, however, all 
leaves do not act alike, for there is sometimes a greater lengthening 
of the petiolar region, so that even in this species the petiole is not 
absent, though normally much reduced (2 12). 

In S. minor the earliest stage of development available was a leaf 
only o.i mm. in height in the form of a low cone, its base reniform, 
about 0.4 mm. in greatest diameter, its convex edge adaxial (j 13). 
The extremities of this edge had a talus-like slope, the cone melting 
into the overhanging front of the body of the leaf. This rose to a 
very low apex, evidently a growing point, scarcely evident as a 
distinct boss. There could be seen a very shallow groove from the 
top down the adaxial face of the overhanging mass. In this very 
early and undifferentiated condition there is recognizable a leaf base 
with very thick edges, a groove, a sign of the coming invagination, 
and a very low boss. It is not, however, possible to localize a definite 
growing point for the leaf base, while even at this young stage, the 
apex of growth of the leaf blade is just visible. 

In a leaf 0.3 mm. (j 14, 15) in height the apex stands out well, 
and below it adaxially one now sees a short groove, the leaf base 
margins distinctly passing transversely across, some * distance below 



Francis E. Lloyd 32 Carnivorous Plants 

the groove. But there is no conclusive evidence that the only apex 
ever seen, the leaf-apex, is secondary, as in the case of 7m, though I 
hesitate to deny the parallel accepted by TROLL. 

In a leaf 0.8 mm. long (j 16) the initial groove is surrounded 
by a lip which is evidently the rim of the pitcher, surrounding the 
mouth. With further growth this is raised upward on a laterally 
compressed stalk on the adaxial side of which the wing now appears 
as a solid longitudinal outgrowth. In these later stages it is quite 
evident that the margins of the leaf base meet transversely, and that 
the wing arises quite independently of it. The zone between the lower 
end of the wing and the upper end of the leaf base must, I think, be 
regarded as petiolar. It is solid, and has unifacial structure. In the 
mature leaf one can see that the wing is, near the mouth, slightly 
doubled (3 17, 18). 

Digestion and absorption. It was once thought that the tubular 
leaves were a device for holding water. COLLINSON wrote to LINNAEUS, 

"the leaves are open tubes, contrived to collect rains and dews, 

to nourish the plant in dry weather. " This prompted LINNAEUS 
to regard Sarracenia leaves as derived morphologically from those 
of Nymphaea, but adapted to holding water for its needs, thus enabling 
it to occupy drier situations, incidentally providing water for thirsty 
birds. But as GOEBEL, from whom we have drawn these notes, re- 
marks, Sarracenia lives in swamps, a fact with which WILLIAM BAR- 
TRAM was familiar, but who yet thought that the water caught by the 
hollow leaves was for the u refreshment " of the plant. 

GOEBEL, however, showed that it is easy enough to demonstrate 
that the pitchers can and do absorb a not inconsiderable amount of 
water: 6.8 cc. out of 20 cc., and 2 cc. out of 10 cc. in two cases. Fibrin 
which he introduced remained unaffected, and meat extract, neutral- 
ized with sodium carbonate, was attacked by bacteria. These and 
other similar experiments led GOEBEL to the conviction that while 
absorption can take place, there is no digestion beyond that attribut- 
able to bacteria, and there is no antiseptic action. Previous to 
GOEBEL several authors had expressed suggestions, opinions, even 
convictions about the matter. Sometimes the remarks made did 
little more than show that a question had arisen in the mind, as in 
the case of MACBRIDE (1817). HOOKER (1875) merely recognized a 
possibility that digestion occurs. MELLICHAMP (1875) was the first 
to do some experiments which, though crude, led him to conclude that 
the fluid of the pitchers hastens the decomposition of insects, without 
at all evaluating the role of bacteria. BATALIN (1880) interpreted the 
exfoliation of the cuticle in the deeper zone of the pitcher as evidence 
that in the absence of glands, which he incorrectly stated to be absent 
from Sarracenia, digestive stuffs (Losungsmittel) for the solution of 
proteins were released. No experiments to prove the occurrence of 
digestion were done. SCHIMPER (1882) showed that changes, due to 
the absorption of food materials, occur in the epidermal cells similar 
to the changes called aggregation by DARWIN, but he could not find, 
from experiments, that there is evidence of digestion aside from bac- 
terial action. That nitrogenous compounds are absorbed was shown 
by HIGLEY (1885). ZIPPERER (1885), concerned chiefly with anatomy, 



Chapter II 33 Sarracenia 

did only two superficial experiments, one proving to his mind that 
diastase, and a second that a pepsin is present. 

Following GOEBEL, LAMBERT (1902) showed absorption to take 
place in certain regions, by following the entrance of methylene blue 
or fuchsin. That digestion occurs was no more than a conviction 
without proof. FENNER (1904) like SCHIMPER observed that absorp- 
tion takes place and is followed by cytological changes in the epider- 
mal cells. He observed quantitatively considerable amounts of fluids 
absorbed. As to digestion he expressed the opinion that Sarracenia 
flava is an insectivorous plant with a digestive enzyme. ROBINSON 
(1908) found evidence that sucrose and starch can be digested to, 
presumably, simple sugars by the pitcher fluid, confirming ZIPPERER 
as to starch, but none that there is either fat or protein digestion. 

Thus stood the evidence when in 1918 HEPBURN, ST. JOHN and 
JONES started their exhaustive studies on these physiological questions 
presented by Sarracenia (and Darlingtonia, mentioned elsewhere). 
These authors did an immense lot of work and travelled extensively 
for the purpose of doing field experiments. To their results we now 
turn. 

For the purpose of learning about the presence or absence of 
digestion, they examined S. flava, Drummondii, Sledgei, rubra, minor, 
psittacina and purpurea. Tests were made on the fluid from both 
unopened and opened pitchers, with and without the addition of weak 
acid (HC1) and alkali (sodium carbonate), and always in the presence 
of trikresol as a bactericide. Carmine fibrin was used as a substrate 
in the field, and this, edestin, casein and coagulated egg albumin in 
the laboratory. The evidence was strengthened by duplication, trip- 
lication, or even quadruplication of the tests. Generally composite 
samples of fluid drawn from a number of pitchers were used. All 
experiments were done quantitatively, even to measuring the amount 
of substrate, a matter of importance often disregarded. 

In S. flava a protease was shown to act on fibrin in both closed 
(that is, still unopened) and open pitchers. It is more active in weak 
acid (0.2%), than in weak alkali, but there was no action in their 
absence. Edestin was digested in 1.5 to 2 hours. The fluid from closed 
pitchers was vigorous, acting completely in 30 min. at 37.5 C. and 
almost so at room temperature. Casein was partially digested in 2 
hours. With coagulated egg-white negative results only were obtained. 

S. Drummondii and S. Sledgei. When the fluid of closed pitchers 
was acidified and then tested the results were purely negative. With 
that of open pitchers, six experiments of eight were negative, but 
partial or complete digestion occurred in two on sustained exposure 
(49-57 days). When neither acid or alkali were added the fluid of 
closed pitchers failed to act even after 50-55 days in four experiments; 
in two others digestion occurred in 7 and 21 days respectively for S. 
Drummondii. For S. Sledgei one experiment was negative, while 
others acted slowly but completely in 37 to 49 days. The results 
stand in marked contrast with those in which the fluid was modified 
by alkali, showing that digestion occurred in 1.5 to 1 8 days in 20 ex- 
periments, while in two others it required 32-36 days, the slowness 
being due to a reduced concentration of sodium carbonate, which 



Francis E. Lloyd 34 Carnivorous Plants 

was probably neutralized by the acid proper to the fluid which had 
been shown to be present. There was no marked difference between 
the fluid of open and of closed pitchers. It was concluded that a 
protease was present which, however, acted best in an alkaline medium. 

Edestin was slightly attacked by the fluid of open pitchers. Casein 
was digested completely in 2-8 hours at 37.5 C., and coagulated 
egg-white, in the absence of acid or alkali, was not attacked, nor was 
it in the presence of acid, but, on the addition of alkali, " incipient 
digestion was noted in 24 hours, marked digestion in 48 and 144 
hours and advanced digestion in 168 and 216 hours respectively" for 
two experiments. 

,5. rubra. Only a single sample of fluid was available, but this 
on division showed that in the presence of alkali digestion proceeded 
rapidly, o.oi gram of fibrin being completely digested in 1.3 cc. of 
fluid in 2 hours. In the part with acid added " partial solution was 
noted at the end of 9 days, complete solution at the end of 50 days." 

5. minor. Experiments were done in the field. No digestion oc- 
curred in 30 days (trikresol present) in the absence of acid or alkali, 
but it did occur when either acid or alkali was added to the fluid, 
but less vigorously in the alkaline, than in the acid medium. This 
species therefore stands in contrast to the others aforementioned. 

S. psittacina. Field observation showed that fluid was being se- 
creted in the pitchers, but in such small amounts that it had to be 
collected by dilution with water (0.5 cc. in each of 50 pitchers free 
of insects). The results were inconclusive, but indicated that a pro- 
tease is present which is active in the presence of acid. 

Sarracenia purpurea. The secretion in this species is very small 
in amount, being found as beads of moisture on the walls. Experi- 
ments were done by flushing the pitchers, emptying, and adding 10 
to 15 cc. of water to each pitcher. After some days this was removed 
and tested. The fluid thus obtained showed an ability when alka- 
line to digest fibrin to a marked extent in 8, 24, 72, and 87 hours 
(4 samples), and completely in 42, 48, 120, and 135 hours, respectively. 
Three other experiments gave positive results in 42 and 87 hours. 
In acid, the results were equivocal. 

The general conclusions reached by HEPBURN and his colleagues 
are that a protease is present in all the Sarraceniae, but that in most 
cases it acts best in an alkaline medium. In some cases, however, it 
acts in an acid medium. 

It was shown experimentally that pitcher fluid retains its power 
of digestion after being kept at room temperature for as long as 370 
days, either with or without a bactericide; and that this is also re- 
tained on dilution, which is of importance in view of the fact that 
dilution by rain may always be expected in the habitat. In contrast 
with Nepenthes, neither mechanical nor food stimulation was found 
to have any effect. 

In the fluid of closed pitchers there is evidence that there are both 
invertase and lipase, while maltase, emulsin, diastase, urease, and 
esterase were present. It will be recalled that ZIPPERER claimed the 
digestion of starch and ROBINSON that of sucrose and starch. 

It is generally understood that the water of swamps and sandy 



Chapter II 35 Sarracenia 

soils is acid, though not always. WHERRY found bog water to be 
sometimes alkaline, though the sphagnum hummocks would contain 
acid water. Generally he found that when growing in acid water, 
the pitcher fluid was acid, but not always in the same degree. But 
occasionally the fluid would be alkaline or neutral. On the same 
plant the fluid of a young pitcher might be alkaline, and of old pitchers 
acid this for Sarracenia purpurea. HEPBURN et al. found for some 
southern species acidity and alkalinity about equally distributed for S. 
Drummondii and 5. Sledgei. Five pitchers of S. flava all held acid fluid. 

HEPBURN and ST. JOHN examined the bacterial content of closed 
and open pitchers. Closed pitchers were always sterile. The fluid 
of open pitchers which had captured prey always contained bacteria, 
as is to be expected, and these always digested several different sub- 
stances. The interesting fact is pointed out, however, that these 
" bacteria digested the proteins so slowly that their part in the di- 
gestion of prey must be a minor one in the genus Sarracenia, the 
protease of the pitcher liquor playing the leading role." "The bac- 
teria apparently live in symbiosis with the Sarracenias, drawing their 
nutriment from the digested insects, and aiding, to a certain extent, 
in the digestion of the prey. " An exception must be made for Dar- 
lingtonia where there is no digestion by the pitcher fluid proper (see 
beyond). Reference is made to the odors of putridity and of am- 
monia and amines noticed when such bacteria are active. 

The earlier observations of others that water is absorbed was 
verified, and it was further found that, when nitrogenous substances 
in solution were used, the absorption of the solutes proceeded more 
rapidly than that of the water. In the presence of a phosphate buffer, 
the nitrogenous compound would be absorbed while the total amount 
of water increased. When a neutral phosphate solution was used, 
the absorption of the phosphate was less rapid than that of the water. 
The percentage of compound absorbed usually increased with the 
length of the period of absorption. The actual entrance of substances 
into the tissues was demonstrated by the presence of the lithium ion, 
after introducing lithium citrate into the pitcher fluid. It is thus 
indicated that the products of proteolysis and phosphates are ab- 
sorbed by the walls of the pitcher and utilized by the plant. Data 
on the chemical composition of the tissues are also furnished, but 
are of only secondary interest here. 

This brief summary of the work of HEPBURN and his colleagues, 
it is gratifying to record, has furnished a comprehensive view of the 
physiology of the pitchers of Sarracenia in its relation to digestion, 
which might have remained unwritten but for their evident enthusiasm 
and diligence. 

Animals which live in the pitchers of Sarracenia and Darlingtonia. 
It is a matter of common observation that the pitcher plants attract 
a horde of insects of all kinds: "ants, wasps, bees, butterflies and 
moths " by their nectar, and other forms (beetles, spiders) for other 
reasons. Spiders frequent the opening of the pitcher in the not vain 
hope of visits of small insects which may be caught by them. ED- 
WARDS observed this in Darlingtonia. They occur on Drosera, Byblis, 
Nepenthes and probably others for the same reasons. Minute wasp- 



Francis E. Lloyd 36 Carnivorous Plants 

like creatures parasitize pitcher inhabitants. The caterpillars of a 
moth live in burrows formed by feeding on the tissues of the rhizome, 
and form characteristic, more or less upright, above-ground tubes 
of the debris. This is Papaipema appassionato,, the moth being maroon 
and yellow in color. Of especial interest here are those which habitu- 
ally use the pitchers as their homes, and live in them and nowhere 
else. They find their food either in the tissues of the pitcher walls, 
or in the mass of dead insects caught by the trap, or merely live in 
the water from which, however, they must derive their food. Animals 
other than insects include a small tree-toad and a small chameleon 
lizard, whose bones are sometimes found in the inclosed debris. The 
toad rests just inside the mouth of the pitcher, doubtless awaiting 
the chance of capturing prey. But to come to the obligate inhabit- 
ants: 

A small mosquito (Wyeomyia Smithii) lays its eggs in the pitchers 
of Sarracenia purpurea. In the pitcher fluid (always diluted by 
rains) the larvae grow to maturity, hibernating frozen in ice during 
the winter. It is harmless to man. It is said not to breed elsewhere, 
and is found well beyond the Canadian border, though it is tropical 
in its affinities. 

Similarly the larvae of a minute gnat, Metriocnemus Knabi, breeds 
in the same manner. A closely related species, M. Edwardsii, de- 
scribed by JONES (1916), was discovered to occur in the pitchers of 
Darlingtonia calif ornica by Mrs. AUSTIN about the year 1875. The 
larvae are minute thread-like " worms" circulating in the decaying 
insect debris, which appears as writhing masses, so numerous are the 
larvae. According to HEPBURN and JONES (1919), such forms pre- 
serve themselves against the digestive action of the surrounding fluid 
by means of antienzymes. In this connection it may be mentioned 
that, in discussing the anthelmintic action of papain (in the crystal- 
line form), BERGER and ASENJO (1940) tested the effect of this enzyme 
on Ascaris lumbricoides (from pig intestine) and found that these 
organisms were attacked, that is, ulcerations were formed on them 
inside of 16 hours in a 0.02% solution in a phosphate buffer of pH 5, 
and the animals were completely digested in 16 hours in a 0.11% solu- 
tion. The same authors showed that the bromelin of fresh pineapple 
juice acts similarly. Evidently Ascaris has no sufficient protection 
against this enzyme in the concentrations used, though presumably it 
has an antienzyme which protects it within its normal environment. 

The most intriguing of all the animal associates are three closely 
related species of a small moth of the genus Exyra, because of the 
striking adaptations which they display to a special environment 
(JONES 1921). These moths lay their eggs singly or in groups in the 
mouth of the pitcher. When laid singly, the hatched larva enters 
the tube and feeds on the superficial tissues of its wall. This is true of 
the species Ridingsii and semicrocea. If more than one larva happens 
to occupy a pitcher, one of them ruthlessly drives out or kills its 
neighbors. The third species, Rolandiana, lays a group of eggs in a 
pitcher of a single plant (of S. purpurea), and when hatched the 
larvae spread to various closely placed pitchers, readily possible in 
this species because of the dense massing of the pitchers (/ 3). 



Chapter II 37 Sarracenia 

Eventually only a single larva occupies a pitcher. The wide separa- 
tion of pitchers of S. flava, rubra, Drummondii, Sledgei and minor are 
a practical hindrance to such movements of very young larvae from 
one pitcher to the other, and it is in these that the other species of 
Exyra lay their eggs singly. "Thus," says F. M. JONES, "the habit 
of growth of the food plant determines the egg-laying habit of the 
associated insect" (1921). 

The newly hatched larva is very small (2.6 mm.), and being trans- 
lucent and half buried in the tissues on which it feeds and partly 
covered by debris enclosed within the tube, seems pretty well pro- 
tected without further ado. E. Ridingsii on hatching retires to the 
grooves in the lid-stalk of S. flava, and there forms for itself a small 
tent of silk and frass, on the floor of which it continues feeding. The 
older larvae of all three species make use of a method of isolating 
themselves from the outside world as follows. They spin a diaphragm 
of silk webbing across the mouth of the tube, either transversely or 
more or less obliquely according to the position of the lid, and in 
S. psittacina, across the mouth of the entrance tube. Any accidental 
openings are closed by webbing, and thus they immure themselves 
in a food chamber from which rain is prevented entrance. Larvae 
of a spring brood, when they find themselves in young tender pitchers, 
use another quite extraordinary method of insuring for themselves a 
safe retreat. The young larva then eats away a ringing groove near 
the top of the pitcher. Above this the pitcher wall dies, dries, and 
becomes indurated, sagging over and barring the entrance. In the 
chamber thus formed the larva feeds and hibernates. In the pitchers 
of S. flava, which die down during the winter, the larva retires to the 
lower regions of the pitcher, and there ensconces itself in a chamber 
plugged by webbing and frass, where it awaits the spring. A curious 
variant of this habit is displayed by the caterpillar of Exyra Ridingsii, 
which before pupation prepares for the future by cutting an emergence 
hole above its point of pupation, so that the moth may easily escape, 
and below a small hole for the drainage of water, so that its pupation 
chamber may not be flooded. It then forms its chamber by webbing 
spun loosely so as to allow water to pass, and then spins its cocoon 
of webbing and frass. Exyra semicrocea, when it pupates in the pitchers 
of S. psittacina, handles its situation somewhat similarly, but with 
special attention to the peculiarities of the host plant. Usually when 
the larva intends to pupate it passes into an uninjured pitcher. Since 
that of S. psittacina has a lobster-trap entrance, out of which escape 
would be difficult not because of the size of the opening, but be- 
cause of its re-entrant character the larva first cuts an escape hole 
in the roof region of the hood. 

After hibernation the larvae (the third instar), are voracious, and, 
emerging in the spring, attack not only the pitcher, but the flowers 
and young fruit which they devour. When ready to pupate the larva 
cuts a hole in a young growing leaf still unopen, ascends the tube, 
and feeds on the inner tissues. This causes the tops of the pitchers 
to wither and the dead portion to topple over. E. Rolandiana does 
the same in S. purpurea. The larvae of these moths have lateral 
tubercles or "lappets" which, according to JONES, prevent them from 



Francis E. Lloyd 38 Carnivorous Plants 

entering and so getting pinched in too narrow spaces. The species 
(E. Rolandiand) peculiar to S. purpurea, with its wide, amply spacious 
pitcher, does not possess the lappets. These in the very young larvae 
are scarcely more than bristles, but with successive instars the tubercle 
becomes larger, and armed with a prominent bristle. 

A solitary wasp, Chtorion Harrisi, habitually makes use of Sar- 
racenia pitchers for its nest of several stories which are supplied with 
food and each an egg. Dr. JONES informs me, however, that this 
insect is not confined to Sarracenia. He found it in 1939 nesting in 
abandoned beetle-burrows on Martha's Vineyard, Vineyard Island, 
where Sarracenia does not occur. 

A fly, Sarcophaga, produces large white maggots which feed upon 
the remains of insects in the pitchers. The protective enzyme studied 
by HEPBURN and JONES was extracted from Sarcophaga larvae. Sev- 
eral species of this genus, peculiar to Sarracenia, were described by 

RlLEY. 

There is a minute fly (2-3 mm.), Dorniphora venusta, which is found 
in the pitchers of S. flava late in the season when they are relatively 
dry and have lost their trapping abilities, as they apparently do 
(JONES, 1918). The larva feeds upon the captured insects. 

Another small fly, 3-3.8 mm. in length, described under the name 
Neosciara Macfarlanei by F. M. JONES (1920) has similar habits, and 
is found in the vertical tubed Sarracenias. Its presence is betrayed 
by a frothy looking product of the larvae about to pupate, which 
fills the pitcher tube just above the mass of dead insects on which 
they have fed. Both these flies, as well as the Sarcophagids above 
mentioned, appear to be confined to Sarracenia, but some doubt 
remains as to this. 

The purpose of the above brief account is merely to point out 
the more general facts about the constant insect associates of Sar- 
racenia and Darlingtonia. To exhaust the present knowledge of all 
the insects which attack and feed upon and pollinate these plants 
would go beyond our purpose. A general summary of this knowledge 
is supplied by JONES in WALCOTT'S book of illustrations of the Sar- 
racenias, in which a bibliography is to be found. It is upon this 
author that I have depended for these notes. It may be added as a 
matter of speculation that further investigation would certainly dis- 
cover many other associates, including Crustacea, protozoa and pro- 
tophyta, some of which might turn out to be obligate inhabitants, 
as in the case of Nepenthes. 

Literature Cited: 

ARBER (see under Cephalotus). 

BAILLON, H., Sur le deVeloppement des feuilles des Sarracenia. C. r. Acad. Sci. Paris 
71:630, 1870. Also in Adansonia 9:331, 1868-1870 (through TROLL). 

BARTRAM, WM., Travels in N. and S. Carolina, Georgia and Florida. Philadelphia 1791. 

BATALIN, A., Uber die Function der Epidermis in den Schlauchen von Sarracenia und 
Darlingtonia. Acta Hort. Petropol. 7:345-359, 1880. 

BERGER, J. & C. F. ASENJO, Anthelmintic activity of crystalline papain. Science II, 91: 
387-388, 1940. 

BURNETT, G. T., On the functions and structure of plants, with reference to the adumbra- 
tions of a stomach in vegetals. Quart. Journ. Sci. Lit. and Art, Vol. for Jy.-Dec., 
1829:279-292. 



Chapter II 39 Sarracenia 

CANBY, W. M., Darlingtonia calif ornica, an insectivorous plant. Proc. A. A. A. S. 1875, 

B 164-72. 

CATESBY, Nat. Hist, of Car., Vol. 2, p. 69, 1743 (through HOOKER). 
COLLINSON, (see SMITH 1765). 
DARWIN, (see under Drosera). 

DUCHARTRE, P. E., l6mens de botanique. Paris 1867 (through TROLL). 
FENNER (see under Nepenthes). 
GOEBEL, K., Blattentwickelung von Iris (under the heading of "Litteratur"). Bot. Zeitung 

39:95-101, 1881. 

GOEBEL, K. (see also under Nepenthes). 

GRAY, ASA, Sarraceniaceae. Synoptical Flora of North America 1:79, 1895-7, New York. 
HEGNER, R. W., The protozoa of the pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea). Biol. Bull. 50: 

271-276, 1926. 
HEPBURN, J. S., F. M. JONES, & ELIZ. Q. ST. JOHN, The absorption of nutrients and allied 

phenomena in the pitchers of the Sarraceniaceae. Journ. Franklin Inst. 189 -.147-184, 1920. 
HEPBURN, JONES & ST. JOHN, The biochemistry of the American pitcher plants (Secondary 

title: Biochemical Studies of the North American Sarraceniaceae). Trans. Wagner 

Free Inst. of Science 11:1-95, 1927. Full bibliography. 
HIGLEY, Bull. Chic. Acad. Sci. 1:41-55, 1885 (through HEPBURN). 
HOOKER, J. D., Address to the Department of Botany and Zoology. Rep. 44th Meeting 

Brit. As. Adv. Sci. Belfast 1874:102-116, 1875. 
JONES, F. M., Pitcher-plant insects. Ent. News 15:14-17, 1893. 
JONES, F. M., Pitcher-plant insects, II. Ibid. 18:413-420, 1907. 
JONES, F. M., Pitcher-plant insects, III. Ibid. 19:150-156, 1908. 
JONES, F. M., Two insect associates of the California pitcher-plant, Darlingtonia califor- 

nica. Ibid. 27:385-392, 1916. 

JONES, F. M., Dorniphora venusta Coq. in Sarracenia flava. Ibid. 29:299-302, 1918. 
JONES, F. M., Another pitcher-plant insect. Ibid. 31:91-94, 1920. 
JONES, F. M., Pitcher plants and their moths. Nat. Hist. 21:296-316, 1921. 
JONES, F. M., Pitcher plants and their insect associates. In WALCOTT, 1935, pp. 25-34. 
KRAFFT (see under Heliamphora). 

LAMBERT, Ann. de Hygidne et de Med. col. Paris 1902, 5:652-662 (through HEPBURN). 
LINDLEY, J., Introduction to Botany. London, 1832. 
MACBRIDE, JAMES, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 12:48-52, 1817. 
MAcDoucAL, D. T., Symbiotic saprophytism. Ann. Bot. 13:1-47, 1899. 
MACDOUGAL, D. T., The influence of light and darkness upon growth and development. 

Mem. N. Y. Bot. Card. 2, 319 pp., New York 1903. 
MACFARLANE, J. M., & D. W. STECKBECK, Sarracenia purpurea var. stolonifera, A note- 

\v orthy morphological and ecological type. Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew, No. 4, 1933 :i6i-i69. 
MACFARLANE (see also under Nepenthes). 
MELLICHAMP, J. H., Notes on Sarracenia variolaris. Proc. Am. Ass. Adv. Sci. 23 meeting. 

1875, 8:113-133. 
MORREN, CH., Morphologic des ascidies. Bull. Acad. R. Belg. Bruxelles 5:430, 1838 

(through TROLL). 
RILEY, C. V., On the insects more particularly associated with Sarracenia variolus (spotted 

trumpet-leaf). Proc. A. A. A. S. 1875, 8:18-25. 
ROBINSON, WFNIFRED J., A study of the digestive power of Sarracenia purpurea. Torreya 

8:181-194, 1908. 

SAINT-HILAIRE, A. DE, Lecons de botanique etc. Paris 1840 (n.v ). 
SCHIMPER, A. F. W., Notizen tiber insectenfressenden Pflanzen. Bot. Zeitung 40:225-234; 

241-248, 1882. 
SMITH, Correspondence of LINNEAUS. Vol. i, p. 69, 1821. Reference to COLLINSON 

(through HOOKER, 1875). 

TROLL, W., Morphologic der schildformigen Blatter. Planta 17:153-314, 1932. 
UPHOF, J. C. TH., Sarraceniaceae. Die natiirlichen Pflanzenfamilien, 2. Aufl., Vol. i7b: 

1-24, 1936. 
VOGL, A., Phytohistologische Beitrage, II. Die Blatter der Sarracenia purpurea Linn. 

Sitzungsber. Wien. Akad. Wiss. Math.-Wiss. Kl. 50:281-301, 1864. 
WALCOTT, MARY V., Illustrations of North American pitcher plants. Smith. Inst. Wash. 

J 935 (containing contributions by WHERRY and by JONES). 

WHERRY, E. T., Acidity relations of the Sarracenias. Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. 19:379-390, X 9 2 9- 
WHERRY, E. T., The geographic relations of Sarracenia purpurea. Bartonia No. 15, 

1933:1-8. 

WHERRY, E. T., Exploring for plants in the southeastern states. Sci. Mo. 38:80-85, 1934. 
WHERRY, E. T., Distribution of the North American pitcher plants. WALCOTT, 1935, Pp. 1-23. 
WILSON, W. P., On the relation of Sarracenia purpurea to S. variolaris. Proc. Acad. Nat. 

Sci. Phila. 1888:10-11. 
ZIPPERER, PAUL, Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Sarraceniaceen. Diss. Univ. Erlangen. Munich 

1885, Pp. 34. 



Chapter III 
DARLINGTONIA CALIFORNICA 

Discovery. Distribution. Habit. Leaves: kinds. Structure. Place of absorp- 
tion. Development of leaf. Digestion and absorption. 

The genus name Darlingtonia is used here because of its wide 
familiarity and use in horticultural literature. Under the International 
Rules of Botanical Nomenclature this name is invalid because of being 
a later homonym, and is to be replaced by Chrysamphora Greene. 

This highly localized pitcher plant of Oregon and California called 
locally the " cobra plant " was discovered in October 1841 by Mr. J. D. 
BRACKENRIDGE, Assistant Botanist of the U. S. Exploring Expedition, 
under Captain WILKES, on a journey from Oregon to San Francisco. 
It was found in a marsh bordering a small tributary of the Upper 
Sacramento River a few miles south of Mt. Shasta. In the opinion of 
JOHN TORREY, who described it in 1853, ft was sufficiently different from 
Sarracenia to warrant the new generic name which he gave it, dedi- 
cating it to his "esteemed friend " Dr. WILLIAM DARLINGTON, of West 
Chester, Pa., "whose valuable works have contributed so largely to the 
scientific reputation of our country." The range of this species is now 
known to extend into the Siskiyou Mountains of S. Oregon, down to 
sea-level along the coast (I found it 6 miles north of the town of 
Florence) and in the contiguous region of California. As an example 
of a restricted geographical distribution, this is comparable to that of 
Cephalotus follicularis in S. W. Australia, 

Darlingtonia has the same general habit of growth as that of the 
other Sarraceniaceae, a strong perennial rootstock, bearing a sort of 
rosette of leaves and clothed with the dead remains of older leaves. 
The larger leaves attain a length of 2-3 feet ("3 ft. 6 in.", EDWARDS) 
and present a unique appearance, owing to the torsion of their tubes 
and the large motley domes with their fishtail-shaped appendages. 
"The leaves are most beautiful and singular, having a fanciful re- 
semblance to a number of hooded yellow snakes with heads erect 
in the act of making a final spring, suggesting the name 'caput ser- 
pentisV' wrote EDWARDS in 1876. He states that the leaves all twist 
in the same direction, which is not the case (KURTZ) (4 1-5). 

There are two kinds of leaves, juvenile, produced by seedlings 
and by small shoots, and the leaves of maturity. The juvenile leaves 
(5 1-4, 6; 6 17), which have been described by GOEBEL, follow 
directly on the very simple lanceolate cotyledons, and on small lateral 
shoots of restricted growth on rhizomes. They are tubular, tapering 
downwardly, with a clasping base. The opening is oblique, the leaf 
being drawn out on the abaxial side into a tapering acute or bifid 
apex. The edges of the opening are simple, that is, are not curved 
in- or outwardly. On the adaxial aspect the opening is bayed or 
sometimes slit downwards. The whole outer surface of the leaf is 
studded with somewhat raised stomata and many nectar glands which 



Chapter III 41 Darlingtonia 

scarcely exceed the stomata in size. These glands are found even 
on the outer surface of the overhanging apex. The inner surface can 
be roughly divided into three zones. The uppermost embraces the 
whole of the apex and some distance into the interior from the open- 
ing. The inside surface of this portion is furrowed longitudinally from 
the extreme apex to a point well within the tube. The floor of this 
furrow is lined with smooth epidermis which for some distance forms 
a low swelling on each side of the furrow. Among these cells are a 
very few groups which have distinctly the structure of a nectar gland, 
but I have not been able to determine positively that nectar is se- 
creted. They seem not to be quite so highly specialized in form at 
least as the glands of a mature or adult type of pitcher. The epider- 
mis in general of this zone is of the "fishscale" type, that is the cells 
are imbricated and are downwardly sharply pointed, the more sharply 
the more deeply placed in the pitcher. As zone 2 is reached, fewer 
of the cells are trichomes, which are now much longer, the remaining 
cells being quadratic and elongated to some extent. In the depths 
of the pitcher, hairiness ceases, and the epidermis, in zone 3, is quite 
smooth. Like the senile leaves, the juvenile tube leaf is twisted 
through 1 80 degrees from base to apex, so that the opening comes 
to face downwards, more or less. In size they may be as small as i 
cm. and up to 10 cm. 

Occasional juvenile leaves display aberrancies from the normal 
course of development. Rather frequently one finds a leaf with the 
apex forked, and having no median vein, clearly corresponding to 
the fishtail appendage of the adult leaf. Accompanying this con- 
dition there may or may not be developed an ala ventralis. In most 
cases the rim of the mouth remains simple, but in one leaf I found 
that a distinct nectar roll had been developed along both sides, but 
not meeting anteriorly, as in the adult leaf, to fuse (5 3). This 
indicates pretty clearly that the place where the two sides of the 
nectar roll meet is a site of concrescence in the fully elaborated leaf. 
As in all these forms of juvenile leaves there are nectar glands, which 
are confined to a broad band along the inside of the hood and apex 
but not elsewhere on the inner surface (6 18). The epidermis is 
all of tesselated umbonate cells above, becoming longer pointed further 
down. The glands are not quite so elaborate here as in the adult 
leaf. Those on the outer surface are typical in appearance. 

A single juvenile leaf was found in which there was a closure of 
the mouth for only a short distance above the base. What might 
have been the tube was laid quite open, and formed no trap at all. 
Glands were present on the apical appendage and along a midband, 
as usual. The epidermis was tesselated. That is, the leaf was a nor- 
mal juvenile leaf in all respects except that the edges remained free 
(5-6). 

Cases of this kind might be used as evidence that the pitcher 
arises by fusion of the leaf margins (MACFARLANE) but can as well 
be explained as resulting from disharmony of growth. On various 
grounds another explanation is to be preferred. (See beyond). 

It may be noted in the juvenile leaves that the margins of the 
" total stipule" (TROLL) run far up the petiolar region. In a juvenile 



Francis E. Lloyd 42 Carnivorous Plants 

leaf about 30 mm. long, the ends of the stipular margins were encoun- 
tered about half the way up (ca. 15 mm.). This very gradual running 
out of the stipular margins conveys the impression that the edge of 
the wing is doubled throughout its length, and inasmuch as in the 
adult leaf the edge of the wing in its upper reaches is, as a matter of 
fact, also double, this doubling seems continuous with that of the 
stipular wings. We shall, however, see elsewhere that the one had 
nothing to do with the other. In the juvenile leaf, however, the wing 
is single above so that the end of the stipulation is clear. This in- 
volves the study of transverse sections (5 4). 

At the same time it can be seen that the outgrowth to form the 
wing had already started its growth beneath the stipular margins. 
A study of the development of the leaf shows why this takes place. 

The adult leaves have been described a number of times, by TOR- 
REY, HOOKER, MACFARLANE, KURTZ, GOEBEL and others, but despite 
this, the precise morphological relations of the parts about the mouth 
of the pitchers remain only vaguely comprehended. 

Adult leaves are produced both on short shoots, when they may 
be quite small (1.5 cm. to 10 cm.) and on large vigorous rhizomes when 
they attain a stature of a meter more or less. When seen in its native 
habitat, growing thickly in large clumps, with its tall leaves standing 
straight up, it affords a spectacular sight. The picture which is seen 
reproduced (4 i) was taken in an open glade on a steepish wet 
hillside in the mountains east of Crescent City, Calif, in August 1938, 
when many of the leaves were just approaching maturity. The seeds 
were already fully ripe, since the flowers (4 2, 3) are produced in 
early spring, before the leaves start to grow. 

The pitcher arises from a clasping base, the wings of which appear 
concurrent with the ventral wing, the edge of which is doubled as in 
Sarracenia (6 15). The tube is tapering, widening upward. At 
the top the tube spreads suddenly and at the same time is bent sharply 
forward to form a dome, bringing the mouth into a horizontal posi- 
tion underneath. From the front of the mouth a prominent forked 
appendage, of " swallow-tail " (LEMMON) or fishtail form, hangs 
down with a forward curve. In the largest leaves the dome may be 
10 cm. long, 6 broad and 5 deep, while in a very small, but still per- 
fectly formed pitcher 1.5 cm. long, the dome measures only 2.5 mm. in 
length. A feature peculiar to Darlingtonia is the twisting of the tube 
either to the right or left so that the helmet-shaped dome is turned 
about 1 80 degrees from the axis of the plant. All the leaves then 
are turned outwardly, a position conceivably of advantage in attract- 
ing prey. The small leaves often lie more or less prostrate and the 
fishtail appendage lies on the surface of the ground forming a ramp 
leading small creeping things to the opening (6 14). 

When the leaf is yet immature, but of full extent, the tissues of 
the dome are still soft, and the two sides lie against one another. In 
attaining their final shape the sides expand, the dome is inflated, and 
then becomes indurated, so that, supported by the sclerotic cell walls 
and other mechanical tissues, the dome attains a marked firmness, 
like a hard hat. The wings of the appendage spread to form a plat- 
form leading to the opening, its ventral surface secreting much nectar 



Chapter III 43 Darlingtonia 

as a lure. Light green at first, the color gradually deepens and at 
last becomes splashed with red. The roof of the dome and the back 
of the upper part of the tube are mottled with numerous white flecks, 
devoid of chlorophyll, glands and hairs, and, to an insect at the 
mouth, form a visual lure (4 4, 5). Such fenestrations or areolae 
are found in Sarracenia minor, S. psittacina, and S. Drummondii and 
perhaps some others. The transparency of an areole is traceable to 
the entire absence of chlorophyll-bearing tissues and of intercellular 
spaces. Each areole lies in a mesh of the vascular tissue surrounded 
by an irregular edging of chlorophyllous tissue with, inside, stomata, 
glands and blunt curved downward pointing hairs, the latter encroach- 
ing a little more on the clear tissue, which is composed of wavy walled 
epidermis on both surfaces, with three or four courses of thick-walled, 
perfectly clear cells. There is no pigment of any kind, except in old 
leaves, when a yellow tinge may be detected. So complete is the ab- 
sence of air-spaces and pigment, that the areole is quite glassy. A 
few coarse starch grains occur especially toward the margins. 

We will now consider the structures about the mouth. We note 
in the first place that the ventral wing just below the mouth as in 
all the Sarraceniae has a doubled edge, less conspicuous in some species 
(S. purpurea) than in others (S. minor). This is most conspicuous in 
Darlingtonia^ in which the double margin may be traced down a long 
way and appears, as it did to TORREY and to KURTZ, to be continuous 
with the edges of the basal stipular wings. The embryology shows, 
however, that this is not the case (See beyond}. If it were not so, 
then we should have to explain a condition in Darlingtonia which is 
not common to the Sarraceniae. As the evidence indicates, the ven- 
tral wing or keel originates in the same way in both these genera. 
The condition in Heliamphora, which has a pair of independent wings, 
cannot in the absence of embryological evidence be brought into 
comparison, as TROLL also remarked. 

Now these two admittedly shallow free edges of the keel mark 
the margins of the mouth. In Darlingtonia they may be traced along 
the nectar roll and marking its outer limb. The wing edges are ac- 
companied by the major wing veins, and these run forward to the 
base of the fishtail, and enter it, one on each side, where they branch. 
The appendage receives the end of the midvein also, but this 
immediately branches. The fishtail is evidently due to deep emargi- 
nation, as GOEBEL maintained, and is not a pair of pinnae, as MAC- 
FARLANE believed. The condition in Darlingtonia is not parallel to 
that in S. psittacina, in which the inrolled edges of the flap lobes 
form valves with a weal along the edge of each representing the nectar 
roll, but not of the same form. This receives only a minor branch of 
the keel veins, which continues along the margins of the flap lobes. 
In Darlingtonia the nectar roll results from hypertrophy of the leaf 
edge in a lateral direction. The strong venation is correlated with 
the supply necessary to the fishtail with its large number of active 
glands and its large size. As already remarked, the veins running 
along the outer limb of the nectar roll (5 7-10) pass forward to 
enter the fishtail near its outer margins, there branch and furnish 
the main supply lines. One readily infers that the outer marginal 



Francis E. Lloyd 44 Carnivorous Plants 

zone of each lobe of the fishtail is a continuation of the nectar roll 
on its own side. Its position and topographical relations in the defini- 
tive pitcher leaf show that it gets these as a result of torsion and con- 
traction of the tissues at its base. I have been prompted to make 
a guess as to what a primitive condition of the Darlingtonia leaf might 
have been. PLATE 6 13 represents such a hypothetical condition. 
In order to get B, which with a little more forward curvature would 
represent the modern pitcher, all that need occur is the transverse, 
contraction of the base of the flap accompanied by bending forward. 
It should be noted that there is no fusion of the two sides of the nec- 
tar roll in front, so that the inner superficies of the hood are con- 
tinuous through the gap between the forward ends of the two sides 
of the nectar roll with the ventral (upper) surface of the fishtail. That 
a change of this nature has occurred in the process of evolution is 
indicated by the case above mentioned of a juvenile leaf with a nectar 
roll and an emarginate apex, but not contracted transversely at its 
base (5 3). In this case the edge of the nectar roll is clearly con- 
tinuous with the edge of the apical appendage. This is an objective 
example of the hypothetical primitive condition presented in 6 u. 

The fishtail appendage on its outer (dorsal) surface has stomata 
and simple glands in great numbers. The inner or ventral surface has 
no stomata, but there are numerous glands, and a good many stiff, 
thick, blunt hairs turned morphologically downwards, but, because of 
the upsidedownness of the hanging appendage, point upward and 
furnish a rough surface which assists, rather than impedes, a climbing 
insect, lured by the abundant nectar. To the presence of this there 
is abundant evidence in the living plant. The converging folds of 
the appendage, as an insect crawls upward, (4 5; 5 9), guide it 
toward the entrance into the hood, where it meets the inturned nectar 
roll. Once inside, the insect has to face the dangers of the inner 
surface. It is not to be supposed that insects will insist on using the 
appendage. Nectar glands occur everywhere on the outer surface. 
The ventral wing, as well as the appendage, may act as a wing-fence 
to guide them to the opening. Meeting the heavy exudation of nectar 
on the nectar roll is an added spur to entrance, however they may 
have been attracted thus far. 

To turn to the conditions found in the interior of the pitcher. The 
forward (upper) portion, the dome, is lined with many stiff, coarse 
hairs so directed as to urge insects toward the depths of the tube. These 
are largely absent from the areolae, though small ones may occur. 
They are most plentiful on the floor, where there are no areolae. In- 
termingled with the hairs are many nectar glands, so that the whole 
forward portion of the floor of the dome serves as a feeding ground, 
from which also insects can feed with great convenience on the nectar 
roll, as from a table. The rear of the dome, however, the surface of 
which extends down into the tube, has no glands, but the imbricated 
epidermal cells are elongated, each into a sharp downwardly pointed 
hair, which offers no foothold. This continues far into the tube, as 
far as a point where there are no more fenest rations in the wall. Here 
the character of the hairs gradually changes, and they become fewer 
and longer. In the extreme depth of the tube the hairs are absent, 



Chapter III 45 Darlingtonia 

and there are no glands. If the absence of glands indicates anything 
it is that in Darlingtonia the only digestion which may occur is that 
induced by bacteria, and that this at least takes place has been testi- 
fied by J. G. LEMMON in a letter to CANBY who mentions the obser- 
vation in a paper in 1875. LEMMON remarked that he detected a 
strong smell of decay at some distance, as did JONES and others later. 

The structure of the nectar glands is quite unique, though they 
evidently may be regarded as conforming to the Sarracenia type. 
On the surface a gland appears as one of the epidermal cells, or if 
compound from two to five or six such cells (6 18, 19, 22). It ap- 
pears filled with cytoplasm and a nucleus is always distinctly visible, 
sometimes two or three (in the thin superimposed cells). Focussing 
more deeply the gland cells become larger and rounded in outline. 
The reason for this is understood when a section is examined (6 20, 
21, 23). It is then seen that the diameter of the glands increases 
with depth and is composed of a row of flat cells, evidently derived 
by periclinal division of an original epidermal cell. Underlying each 
gland (if simple) is usually a single parenchyma cell, which in the 
glands of the outer surface is quite deep, suggesting to MACFARLANE 
the adjective "globoid" (6 20, 21). 

When the gland is compound there will be seen in section two 
(rarely more because of the unfavorable chances of such a section) 
tiers of flat cells. These glands are not only compound but are much 
larger than those on the outer surface, where they are invariably small 
(about the size of the stomata) and simple. Compound glands occur 
in great numbers on the nectar roll, and, to a less extent, on the for- 
ward interior face of the dome. 

When a pitcher is allowed to lie in a weak solution of methylene 
blue, the glands of the outer surface become stained throughout, 
though the surrounding epidermal cells remain colorless. There is 
evidently ease of diffusion through the external cells. MACFARLANE 
explained this by the absence of cuticle from the outer gland cell, say- 
ing that he could observe the torn edges of the cuticle in a surface 
view, but I have been unable to verify this. By the evidence of ex- 
posure to methylene blue it also appears that the walls of the gland 
are cutinized (GOEBEL) except at the base, as is the case with the 
glands of other genera of the Sarraceniaceae. 

In the absence of digestive glands, but on the presumptive nutri- 
tion of the plant from the decaying insects which are caught in great 
numbers (EDWARDS counted 33 spp.), the question as to what part, if 
any, of the interior surface of the tube can absorb the products of such 
decay, is pertinent. We have seen that zone 4 in 5. purpurea is devoid 
of cuticle. In Darlingtonia it is surprising to note that the whole of 
the surface from the lower limit of zone i, that is, below about two- 
thirds of the dome, is capable of absorption. When a leaf is plunged 
into a weak methylene blue solution for 20 hours the tissues, as far 
as and including the outer part of the third layer of parenchyma, become 
dyed, while no dye enters through the outer surface epidermis, except 
through the nectar glands. There can hardly be any question, there- 
fore, that the inner surface of the pitcher is capable of absorbing so- 
lutes which result from the decay of insects within it. This is due, 



Francis E. Lloyd 46 Carnivorous Plants 

probably in a large part, to the absence of cuticle from the whole area 
occupied by the long detentive hairs, according to BATALIN (1880) 
who observed the loosening of the cuticle from the free surface of the 
cells by the formation of blisters (in Sarracenia flava). BATALIN even 
suggests that this non-cuticularized epidermis takes over in the ab- 
sence of glands, their function, not only of absorption but also of di- 
gestion, since throwing off the cuticle seems to be indicative of the 
excretion of some substance, possibly digestive. The condition in 
Darlingtonia does not seem to be wholly parallel to that described 
by BATALIN for Sarracenia. I placed a pitcher in methylene blue over- 
night and found the whole inner surface stained deeply in the morn- 
ing. On sectioning, the whole inner epidermis was found deeply 
colored. On staining with Sudan III there was distinct evidence of 
cuticularization, especially in the radial walls. The outer walls were 
thinly stained, sometimes not at all, while the cuticle of the outer 
epidermis was obviously thick and richly stained. I could not, how- 
ever, find clear evidence that the matter stands as BATALIN describes 
it. 

Development of the leaf. Material for the study of the development 
of the leaf in Darlingtonia was obtained on May 22, 1938, growing in a 
sphagnum swamp 6 miles N. of Florence, on the coast of Oregon at a 
few feet above sea level. At that time the plant was in full flower, and 
in some plants very young leaves were beginning to make their ap- 
pearance. New leafage would be achieved in the course of a month, 
the present leaves having persisted since the previous season. In the 
depths of the pitchers were to be found merely the chitinous remains 
of insects long since caught, and no odor, such as has been detected 
by others during the active season, was noticed. 

The morphology of the leaf is easily the most complicated of all 
the pitcher plants of the Sarracenia type. This is because of the 
torsion of tissues which occurs at the outer (distal) extremities of the 
two sides of the nectar roll, and the edges of the fishtail flap. The 
nectar roll appears to be extended as an infold of the outer edges of 
the fishtail flap, which hangs down from the distal sector of the open- 
ing, its ventral face being that one which faces the tube of the pitcher. 
We may follow the development of the leaf in examining the follow- 
ing series of stages, chosen conveniently. 

Case i. A very early stage of development (6 i) in which the 
whole leaf consists of a flat cone 0.3 mm. high. This may be regarded 
as identical with the corresponding early stage of Sarracenia purpurea 
as represented by TROLL (1932) and earlier by GOEBEL (1891), though 
in GOEBEL'S figure the mouth of the beginning pitcher is too wide, 
and the leaf-base is not shown. The mouth is not set so nearly hori- 
zontal as in Sarracenia. The margins of the leaf-base wings are con- 
tinuous transversely from one side to the other. A small stretch of 
tissue separates this from the edges of the mouth, already well marked. 
The rim of the mouth is continuous all around, making peltation com- 
plete. 

Case 2. Leaf 0.7 mm. tall (6 2). The mouth and its continuous 
rim form a definite papilla, the upper margin taking the lead in up- 
ward growth. The tissues between the lower transverse rim of the 



Chapter III 47 Darlingtonia 

mouth are somewhat raised to form a low ridge. The twisting, charac- 
teristic of the Darlingtonia leaf, has already begun. 

Case 3. A leaf 1.5 mm. long (6 3). The leaf base has elongated, 
carrying the margins of its wings up some distance. Above, the rim 
of the mouth has been extended down as a low double ridge and the 
lateral reaches of the rim now begin to form the two sides of the ter- 
minal fishtail of the mature leaf (6 6). The ascidium reaches well 
down into the leaf base. 

Case 4. Leaf 2.6 mm. long (6 7). The wings of the leaf base 
have now developed so that the distinction between this and the leaf- 
blade is sharp. The double ridge, continuous with the two sides of 
the mouth is longer and is raised up on the edge of the ala ventralis. 
The close apposition of this with the apex of the leaf-base wings shown 
by TROLL for Sarracenia does not occur here. It has now become 
clear that the double character of the edge of the ala ventralis is de- 
rived from the rim of the mouth. If not so extended in Sarracenia, 
yet the origin of the double edge is the same. In this case the twist 
of the leaf is to the right. 

Case 5. A trifle older than case 2, not so old as case 3, in sagittal 
section (6 4). Here can be clearly seen the identity of the side lip 
of the mouth and the edge of the keel. The pore of the mouth is still 
small. The section being truly sagittal, the other keel edge is not seen. 
No indication of the nectar roll is yet visible. Advance beyond this 
stage consists of the enlargement of the lateral reaches of the lips of 
the mouth concomitant with the laying down of the nectar roll and 
its continuation along the outer margins of the fishtail. 

Cases 6, 7 and 8 (6 5, 6, 10). Successive stages following on 
case 5, showing the development of the fishtail from the sides of the 
mouth, the apex being now arrested and of slower growth. In cases 
7 and 8, the outer marginal roll of the one side of the fishtail is seen, 
and that it is continuous with the nectar roll which has also appeared. 
The fold between the distal ends of the nectar roll has begun develop- 
ment. 

Case 9 (6 16). Surface view of a somewhat later stage, about 
like that shown by GOEBEL. The difficulty of interpretation is obvious. 

Case jo (6 8). The dome has begun development and the tube 
is twisted through 90 degrees. The distinction between the edges of 
the wings of the leaf base has become obscure, except in transverse 
sections (5 5). Seen in sagittal section the dome is represented in 
6 9. The fold (6 10) has now come into a vertical position as the 
dome has enlarged fore and aft, and the outer marginal roll of the one 
side of the fishtail is seen continuous with the nectar roll, which has 
pushed forward. The ventral surface of the fishtail is continuous with 
the inside surface of the dome. 

In a word, all parts are now clearly defined, and the glands have 
appeared. The final condition may be seen in various figures illustrat- 
ing the mature leaf. At the time growth is complete, the leaf has 
twisted through an angle of 180 degrees, though it may be as small as 
90 degrees or as large as 270 degrees. The torsion does not involve the 
dome. It is either to the right or left in any given plant (antidromy 
of MCCLOSKY). 



Francis E. Lloyd 48 Carnivorous Plants 

Digestion and Absorption. EDWARDS (1876) and GOEBEL were of 
the opinion that true digestion, that is, by means of a secreted enzyme, 
does not take place in Darlingtonia. More recently HEPBURN and 
his collaborators ST. JOHN and JONES (1920, 1927) examined the fluid 
of unopened, cotton-plugged and open pitchers with regard to its 
effect chiefly on carmine fibrin and fibrin in the presence of a bacteri- 
cide (0.2% trikresol). Of a total of 57 experiments in the laboratory 
and field, none gave a definitely positive result, occasional, very slight 
aberrancies being due probably to the presence of bacterial ferments. 
On anatomical grounds this is to be expected, though as above noted, 
BATALIN made a suggestion that the non-cuticularized cells of the 
depths of the pitcher might take over the function of the glands. But 
that the function of the secretion of a protease could be one seems, 
in view of the above cited results, to be out of the question. That 
insects are disintegrated by bacteria is obvious, and that their products 
are available as nutriment to the plant is indicated by the fact that 
absorption of various substances can and does take place as shown 
also by HEPBURN and his colleagues, and as would appear to be the 
case in view of the non-cutinized tissues of the pitcher through which 
methylene blue readily passes. HEPBURN, ST. JOHN and JONES showed 
that water is absorbed, and dissolved lithium was found to have been 
taken up by the tissues. When various nitrogenous substances were 
introduced, both these and the solvent were absorbed, but in the 
presence of a phosphate buffer the water might increase though the 
compounds were absorbed. Mrs. AUSTIN had found (1876) that when 
stimulated by the introduction of bits of meat, the amount of fluid 
increased in the pitchers. Her results were quoted by ASA GRAY 
(1876). Though the experiments were done in the field, there is as- 
surance of the exclusion of rain which, if any fell, which is quite un- 
likely, could gain no entrance into the hooded pitchers. HEPBURN 
et al. investigated this point, also in the field (Plumas Co., Calif.) and 
found that when milk was introduced into the pitchers, there was in- 
variably an increase in the amount of fluid ranging from 20 to 1242 
per cent in periods of 1-7 days. They studied 77 pitchers, and the 
amount of increase of volume varied independently of the time, so 
that some pitchers were much more active than others. When beef 
broth was used, there was an increase of from 302 to 387 per cent in 
fluid content in five days. When bits of meat were used the results 
depended on whether the meat was cooked or raw. If cooked there was 
little if any increase, because only small patches of the surface were 
affected. If raw, an increase of volume of from 48 to 157 per cent 
was observed. No results were obtained with raw or coagulated egg- 
white, nor with cheese, casein or fibrin " possibly for the same reason 
as with meat. " When acids and alkalis in very dilute solutions were 
introduced, there was no very "marked tendency'' for the volume of 
fluid to " increase or decrease ", but it was noted that, as in the human 
stomach, the fluid returned to neutrality whatever the nature of the 
introduced reagent. 

Has the fluid of pitchers the power of wetting insects, when im- 
mersed, more than pure water? While positive evidence was ob- 
tained for other species of Sarraceniaceae, that from Darlingtonia, 
from experiments done in the field, was purely negative. 



Chapter HI 49 Darlingtonia 

Experiments done by the same authors to determine if other 
enzymes than protease might be detected in Darlingtonia gave nega- 
tive results except for diastase, of which, however, only a trace could 
be detected. Maltase, invertase, emulsin and urease were absent. 
It seems, therefore, indisputable that this plant depends solely upon 
the activity of bacteria to provide the absorbable protein and other 
nutrients, if any, through the pitcher walls. EDWARDS' opinion, ex- 
pressed in 1876, turned out to be correct. 

The presence of bacteria and their activities were observed by 
HEPBURN et al. A chemical study of the pitcher fluid was made by 
these authors who found that in closed, plugged and open pitchers, a 
small amount of nitrogen could be recovered, viz. 0.027% from closed 
pitchers, 0.015 % to 0.009% from plugged pitchers and 0.034 % to 0.049 % 
from open pitchers. The fluid studied has a specific gravity of 1.003 
at 15 degrees C. and contained 0.213% solids, 0.104% ash, and 0.046% 
calcium oxide (lime) forming 44.23 % of the ash. Chlorides were present. 
No reducing sugars could be found, though it is quite probable that 
such may sometimes be present by contamination with the nectar 
found elsewhere on the walls of the pitcher. 

Literature Cited: 

AMES, MARY E. P., Calif. Horticulturalist and Floral Magazine 10:225-229, 1880. Quotes 
a letter from Mrs. AUSTIN re increase of fluid in pitchers of Darlingtonia. 

ARBER (see under Cephalotus). 

AUSTIN, R. M. L., Brief an Dr. K. KECK, iiber Darlingtonia. Oester. Bot. Zeitschr. 1876: 
170-171. 

BARNHART, J. H., BRACKENRIDGE and his book on Ferns. Journ. N. Y. Bot. Card. 23:117- 
124, 1919. 

BATALIN, A., t)ber die Function der Epidermis in den Schlauchen von Sarracenia und Dar- 
lingtonia. Acta Hort. Petropolitani 7:346-359, 1880. 

BRAUN, A , Uber Darlingtonia californica Torrey. Sitzungsber. d. Gesellsch. naturf. 
Freunde, Berlin 1873:73-75. 

CANBY, WM. M., Darlingtonia californica^ an insectivorous plant. Proc. A. A. A. Sci. 
1874:64-72, Salem, Mass. 1878. Reprinted in Oester. Bot. Zeitschr. 1875:287-293. 

DARWIN, C., Insectivorous Plants. London 1875. 

EDWARDS, HENRY, Darlingtonia californica Torrey. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 6:161-166, 1875 
(published in 1876). 

GOEBEL, K., Pflanzenbiologische Schilderungen. Part 2, V. Insectivoren. Marburg, 1891. 

GRAY, ASA, (Description of the seed of Darlingtonia). Amer. Journ. of Science and Arts, 
2 ser. 35:136-7, 1863. 

GRAY, ASA, Darwiniana. Appleton, New York 1876, 330 pp. (Cites AUSTIN'S Observa- 
tions on fluid in pitchers of Darlingtonia). 

HEPBURN, J. S., F. M. JONES & ELIZ. Q. ST. JOHN, Biochemical studies of North Ameri- 
can Sarraceniaceae. Trans. Wagner Free Inst. Phila. 11:1-95, 1927. A very full bib- 
liography. 

HOOKER, J. D., On the carnivorous habits of some of our brother organisms plants. 
Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci., Belfast 1874. 

KURTZ, F., Zur Kenntnis der Darlingtonia californica Torrey. Verhandl. Bot. Vereins 
Brandenburg, meeting June 2, 1878, 24 pp. 

LEMMON, J. G., Brief an Dr. K. KECK iiber Darlingtonia. Oester. Bot. Zeitschr. 1876:35. 

MACBRIDE, J., On the power of Sarracenia adunca to entrap insects. Trans. Linn. Soc. 
London 12:48-52, 1817 (read in 1815). 

MACFARLANE, J. M., Observations on the pitchered insectivorous plants, I. Ann. Bot. 
3:253-266, 1889, 1890. 

MACFARLANE, J. M., Observations on the pitchered insectivorous plants, II. Ann. Bot. 
7:403-458, 1893. 

MELLICHAMP, J. H., Letter to Dr. HOOKER on the California pitcher plant. Gard. Chron. 
1871:46. 

MELLICHAMP, J. H., Notes on Sarracenia variolaris. Proc. A. A. A. S. 23 meeting, 1874. 
1875:113-133. An earlier communication appeared in Gard. Chron. 1874:818-819, 
earlier published in the N. Y. Tribune by ASA GRAY. 



Francis E. Lloyd 60 Carnivorous Plants 

TORREY, JOHN, On Darlingtonia californica, a new pitcher plant from Northern California. 

Smithsonian Contrib. to Knowledge 5:1, 1853. (Year of discovery given as 1842. 

According to BARNHAUT, 1919, the year must have been 1841). 
TROLL, W., Morphologic der schildf6rmigen Blatter. Planta 17:153-314, 1932. 
VOGL, A., Die Blatter der Sarracenia purpurea. Sitzungsber. Wien. Akad. Wiss. 50, Oct. 

1864. 



Chapter IV 
NEPENTHES 

Geographical distribution. Habitat. General character. Morphology of the leaf 
and the seedling. Development of the leaf and adventive shoots. The pitcher (Mor- 
phology; Variety of form, color etc.; The mouth; The lid; Spur; Special anatomy). 
The rim or peristome. Histology of the peristome. The glands: their histology. 
Anatomy of the pitcher- wall (Vascular system; The interior surface; Wax zone; Digestive 
zone; Rim). Digestion. The animal life of the pitchers. Folklore, uses. Antisepsis 
of pitcher fluid. 

The species of Nepenthes are found scattered throughout the tropics 
of the Old World with the center of distribution in the region of 
Borneo, being found as far East as N. Australia and New Guinea, 
and to the West in Ceylon and in Madagascar, its extreme outpost 
(DANSER). Madagascar, indeed, was the scene of its first discovery by 
the Governor, FLACOURT, in the middle of the ryth century, and it was 
reported from Ceylon a little later by PAUL HERMANN, a physician, 
who sent the specimens to COMMELIN in Amsterdam. (WUNSCHMANN 
1872). 

They grow with rare exceptions only in moist or very moist situa- 
tions, and they are successfully cultivated in greenhouses only if the 
relative humidity is kept very high; in particular, a slightly reduced 
humidity inhibits the development of pitchers. In their vertical dis- 
tribution they occur from near sea-level to 9000 ft. altitude (Nepenthes 
Rajah and villosa, on Kina Balu, Borneo). They are chiefly jungle 
plants, though one species at least (N. destillatoria in Ceylon) grows 
in wet savannahs where it climbs on scattered shrubs. N. gracilis was 
found by KORTHALS (1839) in "dry sandy, stony ground" though it 
was found to prosper better in other, moister situations. The de- 
mands of the plant are for wet soil and hot to cool temperatures ac- 
companied by a high humidity of the air. 

It is most rarely that they can be successfully cultivated outdoors 
in temperate regions but it was reported some years ago at a meeting 
of the Naturalists Club of Sydney, N. S. W. that two unidentified 
species were grown out of doors on a trellis, at Parramatta, not far 
from Sydney. This is a region where staghorn ferns are grown out of 
doors by everybody, and the Nepenthes species above mentioned may 
be especially hardy. 

In general appearance the species of this genus are pretty uniform, 
the more striking differences being found in the size and shape of the 
pitchers. . The plant consists of a creeping rhizome from which spring 
coarse, clambering vines with thick, glossy leaves of frequently con- 
siderable length (i meter) arranged in a 2ls phyllotaxy, though one 
species (N. Veitchii) is wholly distichous (TROLL 1939). The leaf con- 
sists of a spreading winged base narrowing into a short isthmus 
beyond which it spreads into a ligulate to orbicular blade beyond which 
extends a short or long tendril which can twine about a support and 
ending in a pitcher with a lid overhanging the mouth, behind which 



Francis E. Lloyd 52 Carnivorous Plants 

is a small or larger spur. The pitcher is always held in an upright 
position. When young the various parts are clothed with a tight rusty 
pubescence of curiously branched hairs. In climbing, often to the 
crowns of tall trees (16 to 20 meters: N. bicalcarata, Rafflesiana, etc. 
according to MACFARLANE), the plant supports itself by means of the 
stout tendrils. It sometimes grows epiphytically, as in the case of 
A r . Veitchii (BURBIDGE, 1880). Such species may have climbing stems 
3 cm. in diameter. TROLL (1932) has given us an excellent word 
picture of the appearance of N. ampullaria (4 9) in its habitat. 

"I came across N. ampullaria among the massive vegetations of a 
swamp-forest on the island of Siburut, off the west coast of Sumatra. 
It was a fabulous, unforgettable sight. Everywhere, through the 
network of lianas the peculiarly formed pitchers of this species gleamed 
forth, often in tight clusters; and, most remarkably, the muddy, moss 
overgrown soil was spotted with the pitchers of this plant, so that one 
got the impression of a carpet. How is this peculiar behavior to be 
explained? 

"N. ampullaria develops a rhizome which creeps in the earth or 
between clumps of moss. This sends out one or more liana-like shoots 
which climb high into the trees, and at their ends, where they can en- 
joy bright illumination, they become leafy. The leaves of these long 
shoots are of the usual type they possess a well developed lamina 
and a functional tendril. Elsewhere the lianas are bare or have re- 
mains of dead leaves clinging to them. 

"Of quite a different appearance are the pitcher leaves which are 
found on the ground. True, the pitchers are well developed, but the 
tendrils are always short and serve only to hold them in an upright 
position. 

"If one searches for the attachments of these simplified leaves, 
they will be found to occur on short branches, just as GOEBEL de- 
scribed them. It has been overlooked, however, that they are not con- 
fined to the main rhizome but spring also from numerous prostrate 
stems which attain a considerable thickness. Such branches may be 
followed for a distance of several meters along the soil surface quite 
easily because of the numerous dense clusters of pitchers which are 
strung along them." (Translated). 

Earlier observers in some cases thought that the lid of the pitcher 
is capable of motion, and so to close and open its mouth. LOUREIRO 
is mentioned by SIMS (1826) to have held this view. But this of 
course is not the case the lid attains a quite fixed posture, usually 
overhanging the mouth of the pitcher, but sometimes turned quite back. 

The morphology of the very highly specialized leaf of Nepenthes 
can best be considered by a comparison of the mature condition with 
that met with in the leaves of seedlings and of adventitious shoots 
on cuttings. The former have been studied by DICKSON, J. D. HOOKER, 
GOEBEL, MACFARLANE and STERN. In spite of a general uniform- 
ity of evidence, with exceptions to be noted, there is a wide divergence 
of opinion as to the homology of the parts, MACFARLANE regarding 
the leaf as a p : nnate structure and GOEBEL as a simple leaf with a 
highly specialized region forming the ascidium or pitcher. These and 
other interpretations will be considered. 



Chapter IV 53 Nepenthes 

Seedlings. The primary leaves of the seedling (first described by 
BISCHOFF in 1834), the cotyledons, are elongate oval and present no 
noteworthy features. The following leaves, which will for convenience 
be called primary, consist of a short spreading and clasping base, 
narrowing briefly to expand at once into a pitcher (KORTHALS) with the 
edges of the leaf base extending up its ventral (adaxial) face as two 
wings which either meet transversely somewhat beneath the rim of the 
pitcher mouth (HOOKER, 1859, DICKSON, MACFARLANE), or end 
abruptly without meeting (GOEBEL). STERN, restudying GOEBEL'S 
material, verified this but pointed out that he found a row of gland- 
like tentacles (7 5) and these might indicate a transverse connection. 
TROLL strongly favored the view that there occurs actually or funda- 
mentally a union of the wings below the rim to express " total stipula- 
tion. " The edge of the mouth of the pitcher is armed with a transverse 
rim usually well developed, and occupies about one-half to two-thirds 
of the periphery, the rest being taken up by the base of a lid, that is, 
in the primary leaves the lid base is very broad (7 7, 9) while in 
the adult leaf type it is narrow, with the consequence that the veins 
are spread apart in the former and crowded together in the latter. 
The venation of the lid appears quite evidently to be an extension of 
the plan of that of the pitcher, and not secondary as is that of the rim, 
if we may lean on juvenile leaf forms arising on small forced shoots. 
The lid bears a number of tentacle-like emergencies at its edges and 
upper surface, and behind it extends an appendage which is properly 
regarded as the organic apex of the leaf, the "spur." With the advance 
of age, the region between the leaf base and the pitcher elongates, so 
that a blade now intervenes, with its margins continuous with the wings 
of the pitcher. The intercalation of a tendril at this region is indicated 
in the narrowing of the blade (7 7, n), and in the more mature 
condition a tendril is realized. The leaf then consists of an expanded 
base, a blade, generally of some length, a tendril which becomes 
functional as such, supporting at its end the pitcher which is always 
winged, though less obviously, it may be, than in the seedling (4 7, 
8). In some species the pitchers on the higher parts of the plant have 
the wings reduced to mere ridges. 

The early development of the pitcher leaf has been described by 
J. D. HOOKER (1859), BOWER, STERN, who, as to the facts, agree. 
In the very early condition, there is to be observed a depression just 
below the apex of the yet merely low conical structure (7 i). The 
lid develops as a transverse ridge at the distal limb of the depression 
and is independent of the true apex (7 2). The lid is therefore not 
the tip of the leaf, but an outgrowth on the ventral face of the leaf 
near its apex (HOOKER). It grows downward over the opening, which 
in the meantime becomes deeper to form the acidium. It has the 
appearance of a two lobed affair (7 4), and that it is really such 
has been thought by BOWER and by MACFARLANE who cite in support 
of their view the fact that the lid in the mature leaf is often emargi- 
nate. The conical apex continues its development into an expanded 
leaf tip which may at length bear one to several expanded lobes 
(N. ampullaria) , "pinnae" as they have been called, and MACFARLANE 
regards them as supporting evidence of his theory that the whole leaf 



Francis E. Lloyd 54 Carnivorous Plants 

is a pinnate structure obscured by secondary changes. They are more 
or less conspicuous on mature leaves in some species (N. ampullaria) 
while on others the spur, as it is called, is a tapering simple conical 
projection often much displaced by the secondary growth of the tissues 
beneath it so that the lid is moved forward to occupy an apparently 
terminal position (4 10; 7 23). Meanwhile the leaf blade de- 
velops more or less in front, i.e. on the ventral surface, of the enlarging 
ascidium in two usually deep ridges, the margins of which are con- 
tinuous to the base. From their position it appears clear that the 
ascidium is formed by the expansion chiefly of the lower moiety of 
the midrib, so that at full growth the leaf margins mark the limits of 
the upper surface of the midrib. 

In adventitious shoots produced by forcing cuttings, good material 
of which I obtained at Munich, various embryonic conditions of the 
leaf are preserved in the mature condition, which are always small 
and embryonic ("juvenile") in appearance as in fact. This is to be 
referred to the failure locally of the incidences of growth which would 
mold the leaf into the mature form, such as the failure of the leaf to 
elongate in the region giving rise to the tendril; or the continuation of 
growth where it is normally suppressed, such as in the narrowing of 
the blade at the base of the ascidium. The former is shown in Fig. 
7 ii which is nearly mature, the leaf blade being here narrowed in 
the region which in a completely developed leaf would have become 
the tendril. The second condition is shown in Fig. 7 13 in which 
it is seen that the leaf blade has expanded, beginning to do so at the 
middle point of the ascidium instead of below the base. In both these, 
as in other early stages of development, the apparent "two-lobed" 
condition of the lid, seen by BOWER and others, stands out. That this 
is more than appearance may be doubted. It may be contended that 
the lobing may be an appearance due merely to the infolding of the 
middle longitudinal zone, the marginal zones resting on the rim of the 
pitcher, which during the earlier stages of development is laterally 
compressed so that the sides of the mouth, that is of the rim, are 
close together and parallel (7 24; 8 19). The presence of emargi- 
nation is not by any means general, and at best, as GOEBEL points out, 
its presence is not an indication of lobation. In any event emargina- 
tion may easily occur when it does, from the manner of longitudinal 
folding by mutual pressure of the rim and lid apex. 

The spur (we continue to treat of juvenile leaves of short shoots) 
is usually broad and lobed, and, being the organic leaf apex (HOOKER) 
receives the terminal part of the mid vein, which does not pass into 
the lid, so that this is devoid of a midvein (7 7-10). Below the base 
of the spur, however, the midvein of the pitcher may send anastomoses 
joining it with lateral veins. The venation of the spur is made up 
almost wholly of lateral veins derived from far down at the base of the 
pitcher, swerving around from back to front, and then back again 
below the rim. In specimens resembling the more adult type of 
pitcher, veins appear in the lid which, though suggesting a midvein, are 
really branches and anastomoses between the laterals and the midvein 
(7 9; TEXT FIG. 2, p. 63). 

The mature leaf may in some species attain a length of one to 



Chapter IV 66 Nepenthes 

three feet. It consists of an expanded base, sometimes connate about 
the supporting stem, and expands above into an elongate blade cor- 
responding morphologically to the narrowed portion of the seedling 
leaf. At the apex it may sometimes be found to be peltate (N. clip- 
eata), and this, as above said, is compared by MACFARLANE to the 
peltation observed by him of the two ventral ridges just below the 
mouth of the pitcher. Beyond this there occurs a tendril which is 
short and non-functional as such in soil rosettes (e.g. N. ampullaria), 
but which in the climbing forms becomes long, stout and twining. 
SACHS (1896, through GOEBEL) held that the tendril activity (the 
actual winding) acts as a stimulant to the growth of the pitcher, but 
the evidence is not convincing, for it is quite usual to find well de- 
veloped pitchers when no winding has intervened (4 7, 8). Though 
the tendrils wind about supports, they may wind even when supports 
are not available; but it is not true, as OUDEMANS thought, that this 
winding is a means of bringing the pitchers into the proper position. 
The sensitive tissues which are responsible for this occur at the base 
of the pitcher and neighboring portion of the tendril (STERN). 

The Pitcher. It is with the structure and behavior of the mature 
pitcher that we are chiefly concerned. It shows a considerable variety 
of form, from that of a cylinder (N. phyllamphora, N. gracilis), a 
cylinder modified by a basal globular expansion (N. ventricosa, N. 
LowO), an open funnel, narrowest at the base (N. inermis, N. dubia), 
to an oval sac slightly compressed laterally (N. ampullaria). All of 
these forms have been illustrated by DANSER (1928). In most species, 
and this is especially noticeable in the approximately cylindrical ones, 
the upper one-third, more or less, is somewhat constricted, correspond- 
ing in extent to the waxy zone within (to be described beyond). From 
some species this is absent (N. ventricosa, N. bicalcarata, N. ampul- 
laria) or may be very narrow (N. intermedia). It is said to be ex- 
ceptionally present in forms from which it is normally absent. The 
size of the pitcher may reach in some species the length of a foot, 
with a capacity great enough to accomodate small mammals, birds, 
etc., e.g. N. rajah 25-30 cm. by 12 cm. (HOOKER). The majority of 
species have pitchers which range from 5 to 15 cm. in length. 

The pitchers produced even in a single individual, this being a 
character of the species, may be of two or even three different forms, 
that is, they may be mono-, di-, or tri-morphic (MACFARLANE). When 
this occurs, the rosette leaves in contact with the soil differ from the 
cauline, the uppermost of these being again different from those mid- 
way of the plant. Thus N. ampullaria has rosette leaves with goblet 
shaped pitchers, the cauline ones being cylindrical; while in N. Bosch- 
iana, N. maxima and N. Vieillardii y the lowermost pitchers are globose, 
the lowei; cauline tubular and the uppermost inf undibulif orm or cornu- 
copioid. (So different are they that different pieces of the same species 
have been described as different species. In some cases the internal 
structure differs, there being a wax zone in some pitchers and not in 
others. In color the pitchers are usually green with more or less 
splotchings of red, and when this occurs in the rim the color lies in 
very definitely regular transverse stripes, obviously connected with the 
regular, straight-rowed arrangement of the cells. Some species have, 



Francis E. Lloyd 56 Carnivorous Plants 

according to MACFARLANE, " porcellaneous white " pitchers marked 
with "deep crimson splotches " (N. Rafflesiana var. nivea, N. Bur- 
Udgei). Others have uniform deep red color, even when growing in 
the shade, or covered with a growth of moss, while the pitchers ex- 
posed to greater illumination are less deeply colored, (N. Rajah, N. 
Edwardsiana) . These relations, in perhaps less striking fashion, 
are shown by N. ampullaria in which the soil pitchers are splotched 
with red while the cauline pitchers are almost or entirely free of color. 
Some species have pale green pitchers with no markings at all (N. 
ventricosa) (4 7). On account of the frequently brilliant coloring, be- 
lieved by TROLL to be, in addition to the nectar, attractive to insects, 
the pitchers are regarded by Malayans as "bungabunga" (flowers) 
(TROLL 1939). The glossy rim may be entirely red or trans- 
versely striped with red, or devoid of color other than green. The 
outer surface of the pitcher is usually clothed with a rough pubescence 
of many branched hairs, each rising from a unicellular stalk with thin 
walls, those of the rest of the cells forming the branching complex 
being very thick (8 4). There are also low sessile stellate hairs 
which in some species (N. intermedia) stand in a pit (8 1-3). 
The four arms forming the star are each two-celled, but the whole 
may be composed of eight to sixteen cells. They are regarded as 
hydathodes by STERN (1916). These trichomes are by no means con- 
fined to the pitchers, however, the whole plant showing a marked de- 
gree of the rough hairiness, especially along the tendrils and the backs 
of the "phyllode." 

Borne on a tendril, often hanging, the pitcher in order to function 
must stand upright. This is accomplished by tropisms resident in 
the region between the pitcher base and the end of the tendril. Since 
the tendril is positively geotropic, and the pitcher " geotropically con- 
ditioned, " though not simply negatively geotropic (STERN), the usual 
position is a sharply upturned pitcher on the end of the vertically 
hanging tendril. 

In one species at least (N. bicalcarata) the portion of the tendril 
near the pitcher is swollen and hollow to form a formicary, but the 
space is separated from that of the pitcher by a partition and it re- 
mains filled with air. Ants usually eat away an entrance into the in- 
terior, as they do e.g. into the stems of Cecropia and the thorns of 
Acacia sp. etc., and use the hollow as a nest. 

The mouth of the pitcher is always more or less oblique, and dur- 
ing development is hermetically sealed by the lid, which opens only 
when the definitive size and shape of the pitcher is almost attained. 
It is well known that, until this happens, the contained fluid, of which 
there is a considerable amount, is kept in a bacteria-sterile condition. 
The method by which the edge of the lid is kept hermetically sealed 
during development is both interesting and unique. There is, it must 
be observed, no concrescence or fusion of tissues (7 24; S 19). 
What happens is that the edge of the lid is in the first place tightly 
applied. Then, whatever chink there may be left is tightly sealed by 
a dense growth of branching hairs which clothe the outer face of the 
pitcher mouth and the edge of the lid (MACFARLANE 1908). These 
interweave so as to produce a firm wad of cottony stuff. As long as 



Chapter IV 67 Nepenthes 

the growth of the two parts is synchronous the sealing remains effec- 
tive. During the last phase of development differences in growth cause 
the lid and pitcher mouth to separate and the former, as the result of the 
growth of the isthmus of tissue between the lid and pitcher edge, is 
lifted in many cases a considerable height above the mouth (7 22, 23). 
In its final position the lid may overhang the mouth, becoming a 
more or less effective bar to the entrance of rain, especially in such 
forms as N. Rajah Hook, in which the lid continues to grow and attains 
a sufficiently large size to overshade the opening entirely. In other 
species it remains small and narrow and turns completely back, fully 
exposing the mouth of the pitcher (.V. ampullaria Jack, N. dubia 
Dans.) (4 9), and though overhanging the mouth, is obviously 
quite ineffective as a roof (N. inermis Dans.). When the lid is large 
and overhanging in position, it is thin, more or less emarginate, in- 
dicating to BOWER and to MACFARLANE that the two halves of the lid 
represent paired pinnae In some species there is a median ridge on 
the inner surface bearing numerous nectar glands (7 25), and in 
other species there is a shallow invagination near the apex, the function 
of which, if it has one, is not clear; or, as in N . Ladenburgii, there is a 
short clavate projection. In N. Tiveyi (and, says MACFARLANE, in N. 
maxima) there is a short, thick, glandular crest or ridge near the base 
and near the apex a sharp thorn-like projection, hollow on its forward 
surface (7 25). 

I The under surface of the lid is the seat of numerous nectar glands 
except in a few species (N. ampullaria, N. inermis probably). In 
N. Lowii Hook., it is supplied with many small appendages or bristles, 
as DANSER calls them, with nectar glands on the general surface be- 
tween their bases. 

At or below the base of the lid on the outside of the pitcher stands 
the spur. This, as may readily be ascertained by examining the young 
pitcher during development, is the apical portion of the leaf (HOOKER) 
and it appears that the lid is an outgrowth over the upper surface. 
The spur is very small in some species and stands just at the base of 
the lid (N. inermis). In N. bicalcarata, e.g., it becomes considerably 
displaced downwardly, and stands out, quite suggesting a spur, from a 
neck of tissue which raises the lid far above the opening (N. bical- 
carata) (7 23). Sometimes the spur is compound and bears pinnae- 
like laterals, suggesting lateral leaflets (MACFARLANE) (N. ampullaria, 
N. phyllamphora). * 

Special anatomy. The edge of the mouth of the pitcher is of dis- 
tinctly peculiar structure. It appears to be a parapet standing on the 
edge, sloping inwardly on the whole, but with the outer margin some- 
times turned more or less down. In a section of it made transversely, 
it is T-shaped with the arms of the T of various lengths, according to 
the species. In the majority both arms are of some length, so that the 
parapet in such cases overhangs as much on the outside as on the in- 
side, and with a general slope as much away as toward the opening of 
the pitcher. N. ventricosa may be cited as an example of this con- 
dition (7 1 6). In others (7 15, 17) the inner arm is short, 
the outer long, while in N. inermis (7 20) both are very short, the 
outer a trifle longer than the inner. In N. Veitchii the width of the 



Francis E. Lloyd 68 Carnivorous Plants 

rim towards the lid is so great (up to 60 mm, says DANSER) as to bear 
a likeness to a " Marie Stuart collar" (DE RUITER 1935). The greatest 
reduction of the inner arm is found in N. Lowii (7 18), which has 
been described as without a peristome (DANSER). There is, however, a 
row of glands embedded in tissues which project to form a slight, 
interrupted shelf while the outer arm is of some width relatively. At 
the other end of the series stand such forms as N. bicalcarata, N. 
intermedia and N. ampullaria (7 19), in which the outer arm is very 
short and tightly re flexed and the inner very long; in these species the 
peristome has a very pronounced funnel shape. In N. ampullaria, 
which forms rosettes of pitchered leaves on the forest floor, the pitchers 
partly buried on the humus, the whole constitutes a group of pitfalls, 
each with a broad overhanging edge which would prevent escape quite 
effectively in many cases. 

Of the two arms of the T, one, the outer, represents the true 
pitcher mouth edge, outwardly reflexed. The inner arm is an out- 
growth from the inner wall near the edge. This is easily seen to be 
the case in young pitchers during their development (HEIDE, 1910) 
(8 19). In any case it can be seen that the vascular tissues of the 
inner arm are derived by sharp branching from the main trunks which 
extend to and along the edge proper. 

But although the peristome is composed as it were of two flanges, 
an outer, the edge of the pitcher mouth, and an inner, growing out as 
a ridge from the inner wall, the whole during late development is so 
moulded that the two flanges are amalgamated to constitute a single 
organ, the inner surface of the edging flange and the outer surface of 
the side flange becoming a continuous uninterrupted surface. The 
whole is mechanically very rigid, for it is strengthened by a very thick 
cuticle and the surface is broken up into minute striae and coarser 
corrugations (4 n). The latter give the peristome their ribbed 
appearance, and their most pronounced expression is reached in N. 
villosa Hook. On the inner edge of the peristome the corrugations 
end in minute teeth, and between each pair of teeth (7 21) there is 
an opening, the mouth of a large nectar gland which lies buried in the 
tissues. The nectar oozes in a drop held between a pair of teeth, of 
access to insects standing on the rim and reaching down. This ar- 
rangement together with the nectar glands on the under side of the 
lid constitute a lure, the "attractive zone" of HOOKER. The hard, 
glossy surface of the peristome is not, as it may seem to the eye, a 
smooth, slippery one, for as a matter of observation, small insects 
(ants, etc.) can walk freely on it, using their footpads. When the 
tissues below the base of the lid are considerably extended, as they 
are in N. bicalcarata and N. intermedia (7 22, 23), the peristome is 
extended likewise, and in these two cases, but only in these, there is, at 
its extreme upper ends which are separated by the base of the lid, a 
very strong development of the last dozen or so corrugations to form 
two long sharp thorns, resembling the canine teeth of a cat. In 
N. bicalcarata, these are long, solid, curved, very sharp and distinctly 
canine in appearance. A rather fanciful explanation of the use of these 
was advanced by BURBIDGE (1880) who pointed out that the Tarsius 
spectrum , a small, insectivorous, monkey-like mammal, "visits the 



Chapter IV 59 Nepenthes 

pitchers of N. Rafflesiana" (which is similar to N. bicakarata in all 
respects except that it lacks the canine-like thorns), "and empties 
them of their prey, but not those of N. bicakarata, in which the very 
sharp spurs are so arranged that the tarsius is certainly held and 
pierced when he inserts his head to see what there is in the pitcher. " 
GOEBEL remarks of this idea that more study of the matter in the 
habitat is required. In N. intermedia the spurs are interesting because 
they are broad, and are quite obviously made up of a group of corru- 
gations; they are not sharp and tooth-like, and could not act in the 
manner described by BURBIDGE for N. bicakarata. Yet so far as we 
know, the latter shows no superiority over the former or over N. 
Rafflesiana in the struggle for existence. N. intermedia is a hybrid of 
borneensis and Rafflesiana (the former parent is uncertain, MAC- 
FARLANE). If this occurred in nature it would be doubtful if the 
specialized tooth-like portion of the peristome could act adaptively as a 
beginning for the condition seen in N. bicakarata. 

The several interpretations of the morphology of the Nepenthes 
leaf, as resumed in part by TROLL (1932, 1939), are the following: 

/. The lid is the lamina of the leaf, the rest is the petiole with 
highly specialized regions, phyllodial at the base. This view is trace- 
able to A. P. DE CANDOLLE (1827). Among others GOEBEL took this 
position in his earlier writings (1884). The recognition by HOOKER 
that the spur is the true organic apex of the leaf threw this out of 
court. According to BOWER, GOEBEL regarded the lid as only a part 
of the lamina, the rest appearing in modified form as the pitcher, 
tendril, etc. 

2. Instead of regarding the laminar portion of the leaf as petiolar, 
WUNSCHMANN (1872) preferred to see in it the "lower part of the leaf 
blade", and therefore that the leaf is non-petiolate. The evidence 
from development denies this. 

j. The pitcher has arisen phylogenetically as an apical gland, 
which through enlargement and specialization became the complex of 
organs which we now know. This, HOOKER'S interpretation, was 
based in part on embryological observations and by comparison with 
such leaves as that of Flagellaria, Gloriosa which have a cirrhus, a 
terminal tenuous apex serving as a tendril. FAIVRE held a somewhat 
similar view that the pitcher arises in the elongated midrib. But the 
spur is, as said above, the organic apex of the leaf (HOOKER). 

4. The leaf arises as a peltate one. According to this view the 
pitcher is a peltate leaf in which the margin is contracted so that the 
upper surface lines a hollow organ, the pitcher. Its outer surface is 
the lower leaf surface. DICKSON, receiving his impulse from BAILLON'S 
examination of the embryology of the Sarracenia leaf, and impressed 
by the analogy supplied by the interrupted leaf of Codiaeum sp., wrote 
"it seems highly probable that in Nepenthes we have to deal with a 
leaf, the lamina of which is interrupted in the middle of its course by 
becoming reduced to a midrib and that, while the proximal portion of 
the lamina retains its typical form of a flat expansion, the distal por- 
tion becomes peltately expanded into a funnel or pitcher." But 
TROLL, though conceding the outward resemblance, one which strikes 
anyone who has made the comparison, even to the peltation of the 



Francis E. Lloyd 60 Carnivorous Plants 

lower moiety of the blade with a similar condition found in N. clipeata 
Dans., points out that the resemblance is but superficial, since the 
Codiaeum leaf is petioled while the "blade" of Nepenthes is more 
probably an expansion of the leaf base (Blattgrund) to be compared 
with the primary leaf of Pathos. GOEBEL also held the view that the 
pitcher is a peltate leaf developed into a tubiform one, and compared 
the pitcher of Nepenthes with that of Utricularia, which is also ter- 
minal either to a single "leaf" (Polypompholyx, Utricularia Menziesii, 
etc.), and has a lid (door) which springs laterally from the true apex of 
the trap visible as such in some species, e.g. U. Welwitschii, or to a leaf 
segment. 

5. The leaf of Nepenthes is not simple but compound. According 
to BOWER the lid arises as a double organ, the two congenitally fused 
(7 4), and represents two leaflets. This was based on embryological 
observations. MACFARLANE went still further and claimed to be able 
to analyze the whole leaf into "3 to 4 or 5 pair of leaflets", the basal 
lamina, the wings on the ventral surface of the pitcher, the lobes of the 
lid (BOWER), and one or two pairs of lateral appendages sometimes 
occurring on the spur, which itself terminates the leaf. This idea goes 
back to CH. MORREN (1838) (GOEBEL 1891) who regarded the leaf as 
having fused folioles and the lid as a terminal leaflet. GOEBEL (1923) 
remarked that this view might have been entertained if, in the circle of 
relationship, plants with compound leaves were known. 

6. TROLL put forward the theory that the Nepenthes leaf is a com- 
plete parallel to the ordinary foliage leaf consisting of a basal zone 
(Blattgrund), a petiole, and blade which is the pitcher (Oberblatt) 
disturbed, however, by a modification of the petiole whereby it is at- 
tended by a displacement upwards of the edges of the leaf base to 
become the wings of the pitcher. Such a displacement occurs in Syn- 
gonium podophyllum, and I have shown (1914) that it occurs in Gos- 
sypium in which the flower peduncle normally suffers displacement up 
the internode above, bringing the flower into an unusual position. 
More specifically, TROLL sets forth that (i) the leaf base consists of a 
clasping bottom leaf zone which is contracted briefly to reexpand to 
form the conspicuous lamina, and which in some species extends at its 
apex across the base of the tendril in total stipulation (N. clipeata, 
and others). (2) The blade is differentiated into the petiole and true 
leaf blade. The former takes the form of a tendril, the latter the 
pitcher, the blade in peltate form. But here the relation between the 
petiolar structure and the peltation does not behave so simply as in 
simple peltate leaves, (j) The spur is unifacial (as in Pothos). ARBER 
(1941) questions this view. At its base, the edge of the blade grows 
to form a transverse connection from which the lid arises. This again 
is total stipulation. 

The supporting evidence is now briefly stated. (/) In the first 
place the tendril is of bifacial structure (TROLL) (8 20), and not, as 
C. P. DE CANDOLLE (1898) thought, unifacial. The arrangement of the 
fibrovascular bundles is not concentric with respect to phloem and 
xylem, since the wood faces ventrally in the ventral moiety of the 
organ. I can confirm this. (2) Reexamining the embryology of the 
leaf, it is clear that in the primary leaf (in seedlings) the thinned out 



Chapter IV 61 Nepenthes 

basal part is composed of two halves which separate above and now 
appear as the wings on the adaxial pitcher wall to form a transverse 
membrane below the rim (HOOKER, DICKSON, MACFARLANE). When 
the transverse connection is absent (which GOEBEL held to be the case), 
there is often an indication of it in the presence of a row of gland-like 
emergencies indicating such a connection (STERN observed such). 
MACFARLANE said that a transverse strand of the venation also is to be 
taken as an indication, but I cannot substantiate this (7 7, 9). 
HOOKER'S view that the pitcher is "the hollowed out upper half of the 
petiole" is discarded, and DICKSON'S theory of contracted peltate leaf 
blade accepted. The earlier embryological condition is now examined. 
In an early stage, when the leaf appears as a low conical structure, 
there is a pit just below the apex on the adaxial side. Just below it is a 
transverse weal, the transverse connection of the edges of the leaf base. 
The leaf blade, it is important to note, arises on the abaxial side of 
the leaf base, the latter, as in Iris, presenting total stipulation. The 
blade cannot therefore be an extension of the apex of the stipule, but 
though near it must arise below, abaxially. If without further differ- 
entiation this embryonic stage passes into permanent form, a primary 
leaf results, in which the pitcher stands in a dorsal position. What 
authors have designated the blade is therefore only the leaf base 
showing total stipulation, of which the transverse sector, as already 
said, may be suppressed. In support of this I may point out that the 
extent of the pitcher wings is not commensurate with that of the 
veins beneath them, the wings often extending beyond the venation, 
which swerves away to pass around the mouth of the pitcher. This 
in the adult leaf. In intermediate forms, the development of the 
rudiments proceeds further, especially the tendril, by contraction be- 
low the pitcher. Nevertheless the wings of the pitcher pass down 
along the edges of the tendril. In purely adult forms the tendril be- 
comes entirely wingless. TROLL now asks: (/) May the tendril be re- 
garded as the petiole of the leaf between the pitcher as blade and 
the leaf base? (2) How are the wings of the pitcher to be understood? 
To answer these he analyzes the embryonic condition. In this a peti- 
ole is not recognizable as such, but assuming that it must be there, he 
postulates a zone of tissue, broad abaxially and narrow or absent 
adaxially, the narrow adaxial edge of this wedge of tissue impinging 
on the leaf base at its transverse weal (Wulst). The elongation of 
this petiolar zone meets, however, an impediment in the leaf base tis- 
sues, which converge below the mouth depression. In consequence, the 
leaf base is dragged out along with the petiole and adaxial side of the 
pitcher up to the edge of the mouth (but not quite, it may be added). 
The whole adaxial side of the young leaf from the leaf base to the 
mouth (I should say not quite) belongs to the leaf base and one may 
come to the view that the tendril is an extension of the leaf base as 
GOEBEL showed to be the case for the fan-palms. Nevertheless TROLL 
insists that the tendril is a petiole, though it may in some instances 
(such as N. clipeata) have an unifacial structure in the lower portion. 
But the leaf base is never unifacial, always bifacial. But where the 
tendril is bifacial it should be regarded not as entirely independent 
indeed, but concrescent with the leaf base. 



Francis E. Lloyd 62 Carnivorous Plants 

As to the pitcher wings, which show a wide variety of definitive 
development, they may be considered as secondary outgrowths, like 
those of Cephalotus or, as GOEBEL held, like the keel of Sarracenia. 
Others have held them to be leaf margins. TROLL comes to the con- 
clusion that they are the edges of the leaf base dragged out (ver- 
schleppte), while growing themselves, by the growing petiole and leaf 
beneath. Concerning the lid, its interpretation, before HOOKER rec- 
ognized the spur as the true apex of the pitcher leaf, was easy, as 
being the true apex. STERN'S suggestion that it arises by a longitudinal 
splitting of the apical meristem is untenable in view of the anatomical 
facts. The views of BOWER, MACFARLANE and GOEBEL are also dis- 
carded. The key to the problem, says TROLL, is to be found in the 
structure of the spur, which is unifacial, from which it follows that 
the edges of the leaf blade at its base run together and unite (total 
stipulation). Important here is a fact, pointed out by HEIDE (1910) 
that the inner (lower) face of the lid is anatomically identical with that 
of the interior of the pitcher, and the upper (outer) with that of the 
outer pitcher surface. The lid cannot therefore be an " outgrowth of 
the upper surface " as GOEBEL held. It should here be noted that 
DICKSON stated (and truly) that the base of the lid in primary leaves 
(as also in other juvenile leaves) is very broad, extending " around 
fully one half of the orifice of the pitcher" (7 7). TROLL'S view as 
just stated is certainly supported by an examination of the venation of 
even old adult pitchers in which the isthmus between the orifice and 
the lid is very narrow. A macerated preparation of N. formosa demon- 
strates this, by which it is seen that, as already indicated in discussing 
primary leaves, the venation is but that of a totally stipulate leaf 
blade, sharply constricted below the apex. The apical portion, the lid, 
may in adult leaves be supplied with a midvein which is secondary 
since in primary leaves such a midvein does not exist. And when pres- 
ent, as it is in adult leaves, it is evidently smaller and is dominated 
by the lateral veins. 

A novel interpretation of the rim, lid and spur has been advanced 
by Mrs. ARBER (1941). In doing this she rejects all earlier views, that 
of TROLL included, which hold that the lid is a transversal pinna. If 
TROLL is right, she says, the veins of the lid should have their wood 
upwards, not downwards. She questions also the statement of TROLL 
that the spur is unifacial, though admitting that the veins of the spur 
"tend toward a radial arrangement." Had TROLL selected N. intermedia 
and/or N. bicalcarata for study, his evidence would have been still 
more convincing. Having disposed of the spur as the leaf apex, Mrs. 
ARBER argues that "both the lid and the median point are merely 
localized expressions of collar-forming activity, which is responsible for 
the double curve-over of the aperture edge .... the lid, which is 
turned down in youth, corresponding to the inner curve-over, and the 
median point to the outer curve-over." 

"The relative hypertrophy of the lid and median point may be 
correlated with the special character of the venation .... of the 
parallel type as in other pitchers. The midrib passes directly to the 
junction of the lid and median point, while the veins of the adaxial 
part of the pitcher also show a strong tendency to converge upon the 



Chapter IV 



63 



Nepenthes 



apical region. The median point and the lid can thus draw upon a 
richer vascular supply than the rest of the collar, which is entered 
only by minor lateral veins, and thus overgrowth of the median region 
may be stimulated." 

It may be answered (/) that the midrib vein enters and traverses 
the spur to its tip (7 9, 10; TEXT FIG. 2). (2) The lid cannot be 
regarded as the inner " curve-over" since the surface of the rim would 
then be a part of the outer pitcher surface, which the histology of the 
rim denies. The " inner curve-over" would then have to be sought as 
an outgrowth of the under surface of the lid, and that does not exist, 
(j) The vascular system of the lid, assuming its origin as a transverse 
weal, along the pitcher edge (TROLL), is as it should be. (4) The 
anatomy of the spur shows it to be the organic apex of the leaf 




FIG. 2. Nepenthes (various species). i, Venation of lid and spur of a pitcher 
i cm long; 2, of a pitcher 2 cm long; 3, of a pitcher 2.5 cm long; 4, of a full sized pitcher; 
the veins (dotted lines) lie at a different level and more ventral to the rest (solid lines); 
5, Section of pitcher wall just below the insertion of the spur in N. intermedia; 6, Section 
through the spur of N. bicalcarata. 

(HOOKER), this being supported by additional evidence here from 
N. intermedia and N. bicalcarata (TEXT FIG. 2). (5) The wide dis- 
placement of lid and spur in these and other species is not accounted 
for. 

Histology of the peristome or rim. If we examine into the minute 
anatomy of the hard, glossy surface tissue of the peristome we find 
that it is composed of straight rows of cells, running across following 
the transverse curve. In each row the cells overlap very much, in one 
direction, the tapering tail of one cell overlapping the next and forming 
a sharp ridge along it (8 7). The rows being straight, the cells 
not imbricated as in the other pitcher plants, the ridges of successive 
cells overlap the one over the other, to form a single sharp ridge, 
about 0.017 mm. from its parallel neighbor. The general surface is also 
formed into sulci separated by sharp secondary ridges about 0.17 mm. 



Francis E. Lloyd 64 Carnivorous Plants 

apart, there being about 10-12 rows of cells to each sulcus (N. am- 
puttaria) (S 17). Whether the very large ridges that occur in N. 
mllosa are secondary, or of the third order I cannot say, as I have 
had no opportunity of examining the plant. The published drawing of 
HOOKER (1859) suggests the former. 

The epidermis seen in a transverse section is complicated and re- 
quires elucidation. One may see a row of cells equal in size or larger 
cells separated by a pair of smaller ones (8 18). The latter are the 
backward extensions of two cells which straddle the large one between 
them. Two small cells, one on each side of the larger one, are therefore 
really the backward extensions of a single cell. Atop each large cell 
there is a central projection of various dimensions. This is the over- 
lapping point of another neighbor cell, and appears as a solid mass of 
cellulose, or with a lumen, according to the position of the section. 
It is evident that the ridge is composed of the continuity of overlaps 
(HEIDE 1910). N. Lowii presents a different appearance (S 12). The 
overlapping spur is not lengthened so that no sharp ridge can be seen in 
transverse sections. Only where the secondary ridges occur do the cells 
give indication of striae; these not as well marked as in N. ampullaria. 
With regard to these details MACFARLANE'S account (1908) is inadequate. 

The ridges of the second order of magnitude, those readily seen 
by the naked eye, end at the inner edge of the peristome in more or less 
prominent teeth. When these are definite and prominent there can 
be seen between them re-entrant bays marking the marginal pits, at 
the bottom of which lie the flask-shaped glands first observed by HUNT 
(1874), further studied by DICKSON (1883) and called by him "mar- 
ginal glands." The conformation of the bays is such as to afford a 
seat for sustaining a large drop of nectar in position to attract insects 
to the peril of falling into the pitcher. 

The secondary ridges of N. Lowii are very low and not conspicuous 
enough to catch the unaided eye except where, at their inner extrem- 
ities, they become more elevated and end in a tooth beneath which 
rests the large nectar gland. In N. inermis a few low ridges converging 
on the broad tooth overhanging the gland may be seen. That it is 
true that the general surface of the peristome affords a precarious foot- 
hold for insects, ants at least, is as I have already said, doubtful. 
KNOLL found that they can use their footpads, for which, in spite of 
the minute ridges, the surface is sufficiently smooth. 

Histology of the glands. BRONGNIART (1824) was the first to notice 
the glandular character of the inner surface of the Nepenthes pitcher. 
TREVIRANUS, MEYEN (1837) and KORTHALS (1839) recognized the glands 
but thought that they were subepidermal, an error corrected by 

OUDEMANS (1864). 

The pitchers of Nepenthes are conspicuously supplied with glands, 
those which serve to attract prey, the alluring glands, and those which 
secrete the fluid of the pitcher, which is digestive. The alluring glands 
are to be found on the under surface of the lid (8 8) and 
between the teeth of the inner edge of the peristome (8 13). The 
former are usually dished, biscuit-shaped, sessile glands resting in deep- 
ish depressions. Some of these glands, in shallower depressions, are 
to be found in the imagination near the apex of the lid in N. Tiveyi, 



Chapter IV 65 Nepenthes 

suggesting that the pocket may serve to hold a drop of nectar when 
the pitcher is in active condition. In this species also, and in others 
perhaps, in which a strong ridge stands on the median line on the 
under surface of the lid, there occur on this ridge a number of nectar 
glands, deeply enough sunken so that the surrounding rim makes a 
distinct duct (8 16). The gland tissues are limited by a course of cells 
with suberized radial walls. The most strikingly developed alluring glands 
are to be found, as MACFARLANE showed, distributed here and there 
on the other leaf parts (midrib, tendril) serving to attract a wander- 
ing population of ants which sooner or later find their way to the 
pitcher. These glands are among the most highly developed struc- 
turally in the plant kingdom, notably because of the deep duct (8 15). 

Digestive glands occur on the inner surface of the pitcher wall in 
great numbers as many as 6000 per cm. in N. stenophylla, as few as 
100 in N. gracillima (DANSER). 

Both nectar and digestive glands have the same structure. They 
consist of a single course of deep columnar cells resting on two courses 
of rounded cells, these lying in turn on a single course of cells having 
their radial walls suberized, called by MACFARLANE the "limiting" 
layer, and being in strict continuity with the surrounding epidermis. 
This indicates their origin which, according to OUDEMANS, MACFARLANE 
and STERN, is wholly epidermal, though FENNER has asserted that they 
involve also the underlying parenchyma. His drawing is not convinc- 
ing. As to the origin of the marginal nectar glands, these too have 
been regarded by MACFARLANE as of epidermal origin, but STERN has 
maintained that they have two centers of origin, the deeper portion 
of the gland being of mesophyll, and only the upper portion of epider- 
mal origin. I have examined N. ampullaria (8 13), the species that 
STERN worked with, and the evidence favors a doctrine of uniformity, 
that they are of wholly epidermal origin. The presence of the limiting 
layer seems to be decisive evidence. 

Anatomy of the pitcher wall. The wall of the pitcher is thin but 
of great strength, attributable chiefly to the thick-walled epidermis 
both within and without, supported by the veins which have a gen- 
erous supply of sclerenchyma. The most interesting feature of the 
wall anatomy is the occurrence of large idioblasts with spirally thick- 
ened walls first seen by UNGER in Nepenthes (according to MAN- 
GIN 1882). These are very large spindle- or rod-shaped cells with 
clear contents, apparently merely sap, and multispiral wall thicken- 
ings. These, when the tissues are cut or torn, are drawn out as long 
cottony conspicuous thread. The natural expectation that these pe- 
culiar cells are connected with the vascular tissue system is not real- 
ized (GILBURT 1881) as they do not stand in any relation to, and are 
not at any point in contact with it. 

Similar cells occur in some if not all species of Crinum (MANGIN); 
also in some orchids (Pleurothallus, Bulbophylluni) (TRECUL, through 
MANGIN); and in Salicornia (DuvAL-JouvE 1868). MANGIN con- 
sidered them as organs of support; and it is quite possible that they 
contribute to the walls of the pitcher a considerable degree of mechani- 
cal strength which they certainly display. In Dischidia the walls of the 
pitchers have in analogous situations sclerenchyma fibers. DUVAL- 



Francis E. Lloyd 66 Carnivorous Plants 

JOUVE thought them to be organs of aeration, and that they were al- 
ways in contact with sub-stomatal cavities, which is surely not the 
case. I have satisfied myself that they are quite independent of all 
other cells than those of the parenchyma in which they lie. They 
occur elsewhere than in the pitchers. It is probable that they are more 
properly to be regarded as water-reservoirs (KNY and ZIMMERMANN 
1885). 

The vascular system. The course of the vascular strands is such as 
to indicate that the pitcher is produced by the expansion chiefly of the 
abaxial moiety of the leaf, and this is also indicated by the mutual 
approximation of the wings along the edges of the ventral surface (MAC- 
FARLANE). The finer endings of the vascular tissue often but not 
always (MACFARLANE) abut on the under side of the surface 
glands found on the interior surface of the pitcher and of the lid. The 
fact that unopened pitchers which have been removed from the plant 
soon lose their juice (invariably found in young pitchers before open- 
ing) observed by DE ZEEUW (1934) seems to be related to this fact. 

Surface anatomy. By this we mean the anatomy of the epidermis, 
that of the interior surface of the pitcher being of primary interest to 
us. Examination of the interior of the pitcher (4 6) will show that, 
with some exceptions (N. ampullaria, bicalcarata, ventricosa, inermis) 
there is a broad zone, beginning just beneath the rim, having a glau- 
cous, opalescent appearance caused by an ample waxy secretion with 
a pebbly surface. The epidermal cells here are simply polygonal with 
the exception of a large number of slightly projecting lunate ones, so 
placed that their concave edges are turned downwards (8 5). They 
have the appearance, at once perceived, of half stomata, each in itself 
looking like a guard cell. OUDEMANS (1864) thought them to be wax- 
secreting glands. WUNSCHMANN would have none of this (1872) and 
pronounced them to be squat hairs, broader than long. DICKSON 
(1883) was the first to arrive at the correct interpretation: "I have 
here to note that each crescentic ledge consists of a semilunar cell 
which overlaps a lower and smaller one. Occasionally these two cells 
puzzlingly resemble deformed stomata, " he wrote. His sometime 
associate MACFARLANE confirmed this, as did HABERLANDT, independ- 
ently, and later BOBISUT (1910) showed that they are completely non- 
functional stomata, having no pore, though MACFARLANE had thought 
otherwise. MACFARLANE thought, too, that they exude water; and 
GOEBEL that they might serve for gas exchange (1891), neither of 
which can be true in the absence of a pore. I (19336) have confirmed 
BOBISUT'S observations. The lunate cell is one guard cell, projecting 
somewhat above the general level of the surface, hiding beneath itself 
the second guard cell (8 6), the whole having been rotated on the 
longer axis. The whole waxy zone is a "conductive" (HOOKER) or 
slippery surface (Gleitzone, GOEBEL) on which insects such as ants 
can find no foothold. 

It is interesting to note in this connection that MACBRIDE, in 1817, 
made the suggestion that the inability of insects to cling to the surface 
of the pitcher of Sarracenia adunca might be due to the presence of 
an impalpable powder, or to the breaking away of fine hairs. To this 
question in relation to Nepenthes KNOLL (1914) has directed some 
painstaking experimentation. 



Chapter IV 67 Nepenthes 

KNOLL found that if he placed an ant on a cleaned surface of an 
iris leaf (Iris pallida), the waxy secretion thus being locally removed, 
and then placed the leaf in a vertical position, the ant could not get 
away from the smooth, clean part. It seems that the ant clings to 
smooth surfaces by means of its foot-pads, not by its claws, since there 
is no roughness available. It cannot cling to the glaucous surface of 
the Iris leaf, however, because the waxy secretion is loose and pulls off, 
cumbering the foot-pads so that the ant must stop to clean them be- 
fore they are again useful. This KNOLL proved experimentally by 
seeing if an ant can walk on a smooth surface as of glass when it has 
been coated with a thin layer of a powder such as talc or carbon and 
found that it cannot do so. Since the ant can walk on clean glass or 
a smooth wax surface (beeswax melted onto a glass plate) it is quite 
evident that the difficulty for the ant lies in the particles which come 
off on his pads and prevent him from clinging. Experiments with the 
loose waxy covering of the iris leaf first removing it and then applying 
it again, showed the same result. Coming to the waxy zone of most 
Nepenthes pitchers, BOBISUT had already experimented and believed 
to have found that ants could not climb the surface when in the verti- 
cal position; even after he had (as he thought) removed the waxy 
surface. Believing that he had failed to remove the waxy covering 
perfectly, KNOLL continued his experiments in the same sense as be- 
fore with 7m, etc. He removed the wax thoroughly with chloroform, 
rubbing downwards to avoid breaking the lunate cells and produced a 
smooth green surface showing clearly the red markings, and upon this 
he found that the insects could climb and run in any direction. When 
now he scattered talc powder or wax powder obtained from the pitchers 
themselves, they failed, showing that their ability to climb on the 
smooth surface was due to the absence of a deterrent to the use of their 
pads. He observed, however, that ants could readily negotiate the 
gliding zone of older pitchers in greenhouses, and thought that this is 
due to the removal of the wax by the vigorous sprinkling with water 
which the plants usually receive, just as rain is known to remove the 
waxy covering from plants like Cotyledon, etc. KNOLL'S observations 
on the walking behavior of ants and the effectiveness of the waxy 
zone as a precipitating mechanism have been repeated by my friend 
Prof. W. KUPPER and myself. The plant was a vigorously growing 
one of N. gracillima (aff.?), one which is evidently very attractive to 
ants as they are always to be seen in numbers rapidly walking hither 
and yon especially about the tops of the pitchers. We observed that 
they persistently visit the lid and the rim. They run no risk of capture 
on the lid. On the rim, however, it is supposed that they do. As a 
matter of fact, however, they do not, for they can walk on it in any 
direction with rapidity, and they frequently stop to take the nectar 
from the marginal glands. They even passed underneath the rim and 
back several times in one excursion without danger. If, however, they 
venture on to the waxy zone they at once display a quite different 
behavior. They cannot then by any chance move rapidly forward. 
If they progress at all, it is very slowly and with much groping with 
the legs as if searching for a hold. Usually this ends in a complete 
loss of foothold, and the ant falls into the abyss. One pitcher I ex- 



Francis E. Lloyd 68 Carnivorous Plants 

amined held a collection of ants which must have run into the thou- 
sands. With regard to the ability of flies (houseflies and blue-bottles) 
to retain a foothold on the rim, my friend Professor A. H. REGINALD 
BULLER repeatedly observed many years ago that, in trying to 
straddle the rim, they promptly fell into the pitcher, in N. Master- 
siana. 

BOBISUT further thought that the curious deformed stomata could 
furnish a foothold for the claws of the ants, etc. but KNOLL showed 
that the conformation, position and size of the ant's claws and of the 
apparently available points for grasping with claws make them un- 
available. From the ant's point of view the projecting guard cells 
should have been turned the other way. HABERLANDT thought that 
they helped an insect to crawl downward but not upward, since they 
afforded no foothold for the claws, but since the claws are not used, 
but the pads only (KNOLL), and since ants cannot climb downwards 
any better than upwards on the surface, KNOLL, not being able to 
avoid the impression that the stomata are in some way connected 
with trapping of insects, has advanced the following suggestion, namely, 
that the numerous projecting guard cells serve, when the waxy surface 
has more or less been removed by various means (rain, much traffic of 
insects), as a means of joggling the body of the ant by the slipping of 
a foot over them, somewhat as when, on climbing on a steep, precarious 
rocky surface, a hand should slip from its hold of a ledge and slap the 
rock surface just below. " Riitteleinrichtungen " KNOLL calls the 
projecting half-moon shaped cells, and regards them, briefly, as an 
arrangement for hindering the climbing of the walls of the slipping 
zone (HOOKER'S conducting zone). It must be remembered that an 
ant uses its footpads and not the claws in trying to climb a smooth 
surface. The frequent irregularities in form of the surface make it the 
more perilous, according to KNOLL. The theory is ingenious and may 
very well represent the facts, which to KNOLL are such in view of his 
observations. 

Below the slide or conducting zone, when present, the whole of the 
remaining surface constitutes the detentive or digestive zone (4 6). 
It is a glossy green or red (N. ventricosa) in color, and stands out in 
sharp contrast with the glaucous color of the waxy zone above. The 
surface is richly supplied with glands. Each gland stands in a slight 
depression, the upper edge of which projects and overhangs the gland like 
an eave, sometimes slightly, more often covering at least half the gland 
(8 10, n), or in the case of N. Peroillei (7 14) forming a deep pit. 
In the depths of the pitcher, the glands often become more or less ir- 
regular in shape and are devoid of any overhang (MACFARLANE, STERN). 

There seems to be every reason to regard these glands as both diges- 
tive (or peptic as MACFARLANE called them) and absorptive. Their ac- 
tivity becomes evident long before the pitcher reaches its maturity, 
young unopened pitchers always having the cavity half-filled with 
fluid. Later a plentiful additional secretion occurs when organic, but 
not so plentiful if inorganic materials are placed in the pitcher 
(HOOKER). That they are capable of reabsorbing the fluid is evident 
in the fact that in a rather short time (24 hours or so) the fluid may 
entirely disappear from unopened pitchers (DE ZEEUW), and GOEBEL 



Chapter IV 69 Nepenthes 

showed that nitrogen, as ammonia and peptone, is rapidly reabsorbed 
(1891). 

Concerning the overhanging eave-like coverings of the glands, 
KNOLL argued that they serve to prevent the use of the gland for foot- 
hold by insects, but incidentally prevent also damage by their claws to 
the glands themselves. 

Digestion. The students of digestion in Nepenthes (as in other 
insectivorous plants) have been divided into two camps (a) of those 
who argued that it is a function of the plant itself carried out by the 
secretion of an appropriate enzyme and (&) of those who have believed 
it to be the result of bacterial action (decay or rotting, DUBOIS). If 
the latter only takes place (as seems to be true in Darlingtonia, Hel- 
iamphora, and perhaps some spp. of Sarracenia) this fact does not 
disqualify these as carnivorous; bacterial action is an invariable ac- 
companiment of some animal digestion (e.g. of cellulose in herbivores). 
Bacterial action is often unavoidable in open pitchers and it has not always 
been possible to separate the different digestive processes. Nepenthes 
offers a special condition in that the pitchers secrete a quantity of fluid 
before they open. The nature of this fluid was investigated by VOEL- 
KER (1849). He described it as limpid and colorless, with a slight 
agreeable odor and taste, and containing a non-volatile acid. The 
total solids in percentage of the fluid ranged from 0.27 to 0.92 of 
which 63.94% to 74.14% was non-volatile substances. Potassium, 
sodium, magnesium, calcium, chlorine (as hydrochloric acid) and 
organic acids were found, chiefly malic, with a little citric. TAIT 
found that pitcher fluid from unopened pitchers was "sometimes acid, 
but frequently not. When flies had found their way into open pitchers 
the fluid became much more acid as well as more viscid. According 
to VON GORUP and WILL (1876) the fluid is colorless, clear or slightly 
opalescent, odorless, tasteless and of various consistency. After stimu- 
lation the fluid changes from being neutral or only slightly acid, to 
decidedly acid. "Hiss R. BOK found that carefully washed beakers 
of Nepenthes filled with distilled water did not show any acid pro- 
duction while the addition of 2o/mgr./liter NH 4 C1 would cause prompt 
acid production. The pH went down to about 3.0 in 24 hours ". 
(BAAS BECKING, in ep.}. 

It is an important and well attested fact that the fluid of unopened 
pitchers is above all free of bacteria, owing in part to the tight sealing 
around the edge of the lid by interwoven branching hairs, a precursor 
in Nature of the cotton plug used in bacteriological technique. 

The pioneer work, constituting a prime stimulus to the investiga- 
tion of digestion in carnivorous plants, was done by J. D. HOOKER, 
announced in his address before the Biological Section of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science in August 1874. HOOKER 
was in touch with CHARLES DARWIN, and his interest was a natural 
outcome of this contact; for DARWIN was finishing his book on car- 
nivorous plants at the time. HOOKER found that bits of egg-white, 
meat, fibrin and cartilage, when placed in the pitchers, showed un- 
mistakable evidence in 24 hours of disintegration, but that this action 
was by no means so pronounced in fluid placed in test tubes. From 
this HOOKER inferred that the digestion depends not on the first fluid 



Francis E. Lloyd 70 Carnivorous Plants 

secreted by the glands, but that there is a direct response to the 
presence of the material to be digested. He saw evidence also of 
antiseptic action in that odor was not developed so rapidly in the 
pitcher fluid as in water. His general conclusion may be stated in his 

own words: " it would appear probable that a substance acting 

as a pepsine does is given off from the inner wall of the pitcher, but 

chiefly after placing the animal matter in the acid fluid; " In 

the following year (1875) LAWSON TATE announced that he had suc- 
ceeded in separating a substance " closely resembling pepsin" from 
the secretion of Drosera dichotoma and a little later he obtained a sim- 
ilar substance from the fluid taken from the pitchers of several species 
of Nepenthes, but did not subject these extracts to the appropriate 
tests. The preparations seem to have been glycerin extracts, in which 
both were soluble. At the same time REES and WILL of Erlangen 
(1875) made preparations of Drosera, drying the leaves with absolute 
alcohol and extracting the ground material with glycerin. Such ex- 
tracts, but only when slightly acidified with HC1 (.2%), caused the 
disappearance of swollen fibrin at 40 degrees in 18 hours, peptones 
being produced, thus confirming the work of DARWIN on Drosera. At 
about the same time VON GORUP-BESANEZ (1874) studied the fluid of 
Nepenthes pitchers, and found that when he subjected shreds of fibrin 
to the naturally acid secretion, they were nearly digested in an hour at 
40 degrees, peptones then being present. Additional acid as above 
accelerated the action. 

VON GORUP and WILL (1876) investigated further. They compared 
the behavior of the fluid from stimulated pitchers (to which insects 
had had access) with that from unstimulated pitchers. The former 
was filtered and tested with acidulated fibrin, raw meat, coagulated 
egg-white, legumin and gelatin, obtaining positive evidence in all cases 
with the Biuret reaction, the gelatin excepted. This yielded a non- 
jelling gelatin-peptone. The fluid of unstimulated pitchers was found 
to fail to act unless acidified, but responded in the presence of HC1, 
formic, malic, citric, acetic and propionic acids. The efficiency of these 
was various, formic acid being very active ("fast momentan"), followed 
by malic, citric, acetic and propionic in the order named. The length 
of time in which positive results were obtained, as indicated by the 
Biuret reaction, varied from 10 minutes to three hours or more accord- 
ing to the activity of the acid and the temperature. 

VINES was busy at the same time. Following the method of REES 
and WILL, he (1877) alcohol-dried pitcher walls bearing the glands of 
Nepenthes and ground and extracted them with glycerin. In testing 
his extracts he used the following method. In each of three test tubes 
he placed (i) extract acidified; (2) extract only and (3) acid only, and 
added a bit of swollen fibrin and kept the tubes at 40 degrees. Only 
the first of the preparations gave a positive result and a peptone reac- 
tion could be detected; the other two were negative. VINES noticed 
that the pitcher fluid in VON GORUP-BESANEZ' experiments appeared to 
be more active than his own extracts. Following the lead of EBSTEIN 
and GRUETZNER and of HAIDENHAIN (through VINES), who had ob- 
tained more active extracts of animal glands by previous treat- 
ment with acid, VINES then treated the pitcher walls bearing glands 



Chapter IV 71 Nepenthes 

with i% acetic acid for 24 hours, before extracting with glycerin, and 
found that this extract was more powerful than that of the control 
prepared without previous acid treatment. This indicated that, as in 
the case of animal glands (HAIDENHAIN), the ferment exists in the 
glands as a zymogen, a basic substance from which the ferment is 
derived by acidification. The facts seemed to bring the whole phe- 
nomenon of plant digestion into line with that in animals. This was 
the beginning of a sustained investigation on the part of VINES on this 
subject. DUBOIS and TISCHUTKIN held that there is no digestion 
proper to the Nepenthes pitcher, and that such digestion as takes place 
is bacterial. GOEBEL'S examination of the matter, however, afforded 
experimental evidence in agreement with that of VINES (1877), who 
now, however, repeated and extended his earlier work and drew the 
conclusion that settled the matter to all appearances. For instance, 
he showed that digestion goes on in the fluid of (unopened) pitchers 
in the presence of poisons deadly to bacteria (HCN, thymol, KCN, 
chloroform); but as opened pitchers were used the possibility is not 
excluded that a bacterial ferment had already accumulated. VINES 
concluded that the ferment present in the pitchers is secreted by the 
pitcher glands, is not a product of bacteria, but is tryptic in na- 
ture, like that of certain seeds (GREEN 1899) not producing pep- 
tones, or if it does, these are broken down at once into other bodies 
(leucine, etc.). It is remarkably stable and has an antiseptic action. 
The pitcher liquid is usually distinctly acid, contrary to the prevailing 
views, the acidity therefore not depending on the supposed stimula- 
tion by foreign bodies. In his third paper (1898) VINES showed more 
in detail that the enzyme is unusually stable towards heat and alkalis, 
for while exposure to these agencies does reduce its activity, "it re- 
tains a sort of residual digestive power which asserts itself in a very 
slow and prolonged digestion, and which can only be destroyed by 
very strong measures." The enzyme exists in the tissues as a zymo- 
gen, is essentially tryptic in character, and among its products of di- 
gestion true peptones are present. In his last paper published in 1901, 
VINES proposed the name "nepenthin" for the proteolytic ferment 
which he had previously studied and made further tests of the action 
of the pitcher fluid on fibrin and on Witte peptone, exposing them to 
action for several days at 38.5 degrees C. with the addition of HC1 
or citric acid. The results showed the presence of tryptophane, char- 
acteristic of tryptic digestion. 

The detail of VINES' general conclusions, that the digestion is 
rather of the tryptic kind, was later called in question by ABDERHALDEN 
and TERUUCHI (1906). From data obtained by experiments in which 
glycyl-1-tyrosin was used, which gave negative results, they concluded 
that the Nepenthes protease is not a trypsin, though they did not as- 
sert certainty in view of the lack of sufficient material for further work 
(See STERN and STERN, beyond). 

Quite opposite conclusions were drawn by TISCHUTKIN (1891), 
DUBOIS (1890) and COUVREUR (1900). TISCHUTKIN placed small cubes 
of egg-albumin in unopened pitchers by passing them through a small 
window cut in the wall under sterile conditions, and saw no digestion. 
When the test material was placed in pitcher fluid in vitro, digestion 



Francis E. Lloyd 72 Carnivorous Plants 

occurred after some days during which bacteria had accumulated. 
DUBOIS (1890) found the sterile fluid from unopened pitchers without 
action, but that from recently opened pitchers, while still clear, acted 
vigorously on egg-albumin. DUBOIS voted for the bacterial action 
theory. COUVREUR (1900) argued that VINES' results were due to the 
interaction of the reagents on one another. This totally negative 
attitude had been combatted by GOEBEL (1893). ^ n a preliminary ex- 
periment, he took a pitcher of N. paradisiaca (a hybrid) which contains 
a " clear, odorless and tasteless fluid" and in it placed a bit of fibrin, 
with one in water as control. In six days the fibrin was broken up 
and bacteria were plentiful, and the fluid showed a neutral or slightly 
alkaline reaction. A yellow reaction was obtained in the water but not 
in the pitcher, by which the products had been resorbed. No peptone 
had been produced. Cultures showed the presence of Bacterium 
fluorescens liquefaciens. This result admittedly agreed with those of 
DUBOIS and TISCHUTKIN. But GOEBEL pointed out that the plant was 
not normal. When he took a strong, well grown plant he found other- 
wise. It had three pitchers, an old one, a strong vigorous one and an 
unopened one. In the old one, a wasp was attacked and digested. In 
three days the fluid was alkaline and bacteria and infusoria were plenti- 
ful. In the open but vigorous pitcher a fly had been caught. A bit of 
fibrin was introduced and was attacked in one hour. In 3 hours pep- 
tone was demonstrable. Another bit of fibrin together with 0.2% HC1 
were introduced, and this was digested in 40 minutes, and no bacteria 
could be found. The fluid of the unopened pitcher was neutral. In 
its fluid fibrin accompanied by i% formic acid was digested in 12 
hours, and no bacteria were detected after 8 days. He concluded 
therefore that a peptone forming ferment was present in the fully 
normal pitchers. He further showed that normal pitchers, when stim- 
ulated by the presence of an insect, secrete formic acid. By way of 
further control he tried to see if fibrin might be digested by the secre- 
tions of the lid, with negative results. To do this he fastened a bit of 
fibrin on the under side of the lid with moist filter paper. Thus 
GOEBEL confirmed VINES' conclusions. In general support of the view 
that the bacteria of decay have nothing to do with the digestion of 
insects in normal plants in their native habitats GOEBEL quoted 
WALLACE who wrote in The Malay Archipelago as follows: "We had 
been told that we should find water at Padangbatu, but we looked for 
it in vain, as we were exceedingly thirsty. At last we turned to the 
pitcher plants, but the water contained in the pitchers (about half a 
pint in each) was full of insects and otherwise uninviting. On tasting 
it, however, we found it very palatable, though rather warm, and we 
all quenched our thirst from these natural jugs." And still earlier 
HERMANN NICOLAUS GRIMM recorded (in 1682) the discovery of "aqua 
dulcis, limpida, amabilis, confortans et frigida" in the pitchers, and the 
fluid from six to eight of them was sufficient to satisfy a thirsty person. 
That our greenhouse cultivated plants, because of their compara- 
tively feeble vitality as compared with plants in their native habitats, 
may often behave abnormally, is indicated by the observation of 
MOHNIKE, whom GOEBEL cites, who said that the pitcher almost al- 
ways contains a mass of dead insects including even large beetles. 



Chapter IV 73 Nepenthes 

The larvae of Apogonia spherica were found entire but quite digested 
internally. Insects die in the pitcher fluid much more quickly than in 
distilled water. In 48 hours or so, insects are disintegrated, only their 
chitinous skeletons remaining. Such statements, encountered in other 
writings, indicate a very vigorous action. GOEBEL ventured the state- 
ment that of all the pitchered carnivorous plants Nepenthes is the most 
vigorous in these matters. 

CLAUTRIAU (1899-1900) took the opportunity of studying Nepen- 
thes in its habitat in Java. His results fully corroborate in general 
GOEBEL and VINES. He observes: 

While the fluid in unstimulated pitchers is neutral, it becomes acid 
on the introduction of foreign bodies. Even shaking has this effect, 
the strongest acidity obtained being equal to that of a liter of water 
acidified with 2 cc. of fuming HC1. In the fluid there is a thermolabile 
substance which acts as a wetting agent, so that insects are quickly 
drowned but are not killed by any poison. Insects are digested with- 
out any putrefaction. Antiseptics such as formaldehyde, chloroform, 
etc. inhibit both the secretion of acid and digestion, and the pitchers 
presently die. On the introduction of egg-white, both digestion and 
absorption occurred. If a small quantity was used absorption equalled 
digestion in rate; if a too large quantity was used, the products re- 
mained in quantity sufficient to afford a culture medium for bacteria. 
Quantitative experiments showed that 5 cc. of egg-white (10 cc. to 90 
cc. water) is completely digested in vigorous pitchers in 2 days. If a 
pitcher were separated from the plant, digestion was inhibited, and 
CLAUTRIAU usually found that in vitro experiments gave negative re- 
sults. At home in Brussels he showed by refined methods that al- 
bumin is completely digested to peptone. This is readily absorbed by 
the pitcher walls, so that he was able to give successive doses of food 
(albumin) and see that they were digested perfectly by the pitchers of 
N. M aster siana. 

CLAUTRIAU concluded that the enzyme is a true pepsin as it acts 
only in an acid medium and produces true peptone as an end result. 
No other products could be found. No amylase was detected. The 
evidence indicated that an ample secretion of both enzyme and acids 
required stimulation, and, on microchemical evidence, that peptone is 
absorbed by the glands and stored as protein. A superabundance of 
food may allow the play of bacteria, and the products of their activity 
(amino acids and ammonia) may be used by the plant. These do not 
necessarily damage the pitcher itself. 

FENNER has (1904) advanced an interesting presentation of what 
he believes goes on in natural conditions. The original pitcher fluid is 
slightly acid (formic acid, GOEBEL). If a few gnats are introduced, 
they float on top of the fluid. If alive they endeavor to escape by 
climbing up the wall, and in this way they come in contact with the 
glands below their overhanging eaves, which, HABERLANDT has sug- 
gested, serve the purpose of retaining fluid by capillarity. The body 
of an insect wet with pitcher fluid thus applied serves to stimulate the 
glands to action, when they secrete a highly viscid, active fluid which 
attacks the insect so vigorously that it is digested in 5-8 hours. 
FENNER tested this view experimentally by taking an opened pitcher 



Francis E. Lloyd 74 Carnivorous Plants 

and placing an insect (a gnat) on an area of the wall which had been 
dried. A slight amount of secretion then occurs which is insufficient to 
act and readily dries up. But if an insect wet with pitcher fluid is used, 
an ample secretion from the gland ensues and the insect is digested in 
the time indicated above. It would appear according to FENNER'S in- 
terpretation that the pitcher fluid acts as a stimulant to secretion. In 
this way the body of a small insect comes into contact with a more 
vigorous secretion. The greater activity, therefore, is not within the 
depths of the pitcher fluid but in the films of fluid by which the bodies 
of the insect adhere to the glands. Into this position they come nat- 
urally enough since they float towards the walls, and the fluid level, 
by shaking (as by the wind), is moved so that insects stick on the 
walls above it. 

The collection of Nepenthes accumulated at the University of 
Pennsylvania by Professor MACFARLANE, furnished an abundant amount 
of material for the study of proteolysis by HEPBURN (1919), who car- 
ried out his experiments with unopened pitchers, and opened pitchers 
from which insects were excluded by means of cotton wool plugs. Some 
of these were stimulated by the introduction of glass beads after shak- 
ing. A distinction between " stimulated" and " unstimulated " pitchers 
became evident: Their fluid was found to differ in its activity. Bac- 
teria were carefully excluded by means of active bactericides, and all 
experiments were controlled. With various substrates (ovalbumin, 
fibrin, ovomucoid, Heyden's nutrient and Witte peptone) and by 
means of fonnol titration (SORENSEN) he found that the fluid from 
stimulated pitchers digested all of them; but not that of unstimulated. 
In the presence of very dilute HC1 edestin was also acted upon by 
fluid of stimulated but not by that of unstimulated pitchers. Carmine 
fibrin in the presence of acid was digested by both, but not by that of 
unstimulated pitchers in the absence of acid. Protean (from the globu- 
lin of the seed of castor bean, Ricinus communis) and ricin were 
attacked by the fluid of both stimulated and unstimulated pitchers if 
in the presence of very dilute acid. With sufficiently long exposure, 
glycyltryptophane was " apparently" hydrolysed by the fluid of 
stimulated pitchers. It appeared that the fluid of stimulated pitchers 
possessed proteolytic power in the absence of acid (as well as with 
acid) while that of unstimulated pitchers always required the ad- 
dition of acid. It is not clear how the stimulation acts: whether by a 
change of acidity creating a favorable medium for an enzyme already 
present, or by the activation of a zymogen already present or by an 
increase in the secretion of the protease of the glands. 

In 1932 STERN and STERN reopened the question. They chose a 
series of substrates (gelatin, casein, edestin, ovalbumin and serum 
protein), and tested the effect of the pitcher secretion on them through- 
out the whole physiological range of pH, and found that they obtained 
two maxima, one at pH 4.7 and 7.0 for gelatin, pH 3 and 8 for edes- 
tin, pH 4 and 8 for ovalbumin. Serum protein was not measurably 
attacked between pH 1.5 and 8.4. The behavior of casein is anoma- 
lous. The curve shows two maxima, at pH 3 and 5.5, with a deep dip 
between, due probably to the flocking of the protein at the isoelectric 
point and the binding of the enzyme. The tryptic optimum was not 



Chapter IV 76 Nepenthes 

evident, due possibly to the inhibiting effect of the glycerine present. 
These results were obtained on pitcher secretion preserved with 50% 
glycerine, from N. Hibberdii and N. mixta. The secretion from open 
pitchers containing insects, mostly ants, was used. In order to exclude 
the effect of microbes and the enzymes of insect bodies, the authors 
also took the glandular walls, comminuted and extracted them with acetic- 
glycerine. The extract they found active on gelatine at pH 8, and on 
ovalbumin only in the region of pH 3-3.5, thus supplying evidence that 
a tryptic ferment is secreted by the glands of the Nepenthes pitcher. 
In order to compare the enzymes of Nepenthes with those of animals 
they made tests of the effect on them of certain activators, known to 
affect other proteinases, with negative results. Neither HCN, H 2 S or 
cystein have any effect on the proteinase, nor does enterokinase on the 
tryptase; the latter STERN had shown for the proteinase of white 
blood cells. 

The conclusions of STERN and STERN, that there are two enzymes 
present, a catheptic and a tryptic, and that the latter is not attribut- 
able to the presence of bacteria, led W. DE KRAMER (1932) in BAAS 
BECKING'S laboratory at Leiden to re-examine the question. He came 
to the conclusion that the opinion that the tryptic action is due to 
bacteria is justified. DE ZEEUW, who quotes DE KRAMER'S unpublished 
results, attacked this question. Both catheptic and tryptic action was 
found by them. DE ZEEUW experimented with unopened pitchers 
which were allowed to open under sterile conditions, using bromine 
water and sterile cotton for insurance against bacterial infection, and 
with unopened ones, which were always found sterile. 

The fluid of unopened pitchers does not digest fibrin until an acid 
is added, an enzyme is therefore present. It becomes active within 
the pH range of 3.4 to 4.4, phosphoric, malic and citric acid having 
been used, and a phosphate buffer. That from an aseptically opened 
pitcher acted at pH 3.6 in phosphoric acid, while that from normally 
opened pitchers was active at pH 3.2 with phosphoric acid and from 
7.2 and 8.6 with phosphate buffer. The last named was not sterile. 
Bacterium fluorescent liquefaciens, B. prodigiosum and two others were 
present, and all of these were found to exert tryptic action. By way of 
control the fluid of a pitcher, opened under sterile conditions, of 
N. Morganiana, was tested and found to digest fibrin at pH 4.4 to 5.5, 
the pH increasing steadily during 15 days. An acetic acid-glycerine 
extract was found to digest fibrin at pH 2.3 to 4.2, in direct contra- 
diction to the results of STERN and STERN (1932) who also believed 
their extract to be bacteria-free. 

Open pitchers display a wide range of pH (3.0-7.2), 33% reacting 
neutral or basic, 36 pitchers being examined. When completely di- 
gested insect cadavers were present, the fluid was neutral or weakly 
basic; when digestion was in its early stages, acid. Into a pitcher 
which showed an acid reaction (pH 3.0) the acid was neutralized by 
means of lime water, and a pH of 8.2 established. Since digestion was 
proceeding, the next morning the fluid was found to be at pH 3.0 again. 
Pitchers after being washed out thoroughly with distilled water were 
then supplied with distilled water (pH 7). When fibrin was added, the 
pH dropped to 3.5, as also when egg-albumin (such as used by CLAUTRIAU) 



Francis E. Lloyd 76 Carnivorous Plants 

was used. This is interpreted as demonstrating that the addition of a 
protein to the fluid stimulates the secretion of acid; but DE ZEEUW was 
unable to bring this about by mechanical stimulation, the contrary 
having been reported by HEPBURN (see above). The secretion of un- 
opened pitchers had been found by DE KRAMER to be always neutral, 
and this was re-examined by DE ZEEUW who found the pH ranging 
from 4.2 to 7 (ave. 6.6 1.2) in October and from 4.2 to 4.8 (ave. 
4.5 0.3) in November and December, a difference possibly attribut- 
able to the time of year, with a lower temperature prevailing (in the 
greenhouse?). The fluid of pitchers opened under sterile conditions, 
therefore without chemical stimulation, always reacted acid (pH 4.2 to 
5.8) but required additional acid to secure digestion. When acidified to 
pH 3.0 to 3.5 with certain acids (phosphoric, HC1, formic, malic, 
and succinic acid), and kept sterile with toluene, digestion proceeded, 
but not with the others tried, which probably destroyed the enzyme. 
What kind of acid is secreted by the pitcher, aside from the fact that it 
is not a volatile one, was not determined. But the acid reaction of the 
glands indicated that these are responsible. DE ZEEUW therefore 
reached the conclusion that the enzymes present are catheptic and 
tryptic, but that the former only is present in sterile pitcher fluid, the 
latter occurring only in opened pitchers to which bacteria had had 
access. Acid is secreted by the gland when stimulated by chemical 
but not by mechanical means. 

As the matter stands at the present, therefore, the positive evidence 
that a catheptic proteinase is secreted by the pitchers of Nepenthes is 
conclusive. That tryptic digestion in the absence of bacteria takes 
place there seems little doubt, but this cannot yet be said to be com- 
pletely proven. 

Antisepsis of pitcher fluid. Reference has been made to the fact, 
usually accepted as such, that the pitcher fluid of normal actively di- 
gesting pitchers is free of bacterial action. WALLACE has already been 
quoted as testifying to this in the natural habitat in Borneo. GOEBEL 
atributed this, in the experiments he conducted, to the presence of for- 
mic acid secreted by the pitcher glands. ROBINSON (1908) observed 
that meat extract might remain in the pitchers of N. destillatoria for 
two weeks without the odor of foulness. Although they confirmed the 
generally accepted belief that the fluid of unopened pitchers is sterile, 
HEPBURN et al. (1919, 1927) found that opened pitchers, whether 
containing insects or not, invariably contained bacteria in large num- 
bers, whose activity in digesting proteins they found was low, and that 
they play only a secondary r61e in the digestion of insects, the leading 
r61e being played by the protease proper to the pitcher itself. They 
argued that the bacteria live in symbiosis with the plant, assisting some- 
what in the digestion of insects, thereby drawing nutrition therefrom. 
Since the plants they experimented with were under cultivation, the 
argument that their results do not reflect the conditions found in 
nature, as indicated by such experiences as WALLACE, seems justified. 
Testimony is, however, not uniform on this point. JENSEN (1910) speaks 
twice of the horrible stench arising from pitchers loaded with centi- 
pedes, cockroaches, butterflies and a huge scorpion found in pitchers 
near Tjibodas, Java. This may mean merely that the pitchers were 



Chapter IV 77 Nepenthes 

overloaded beyond the limits at which the antiseptic effect could be 
expected to work. On the basis of experiments, JENSEN regards it as 
sure that certain larvae which live on the debris in pitchers have an 
antiferment which is not possessed by the same kind of larvae when 
inhabiting water in pools. 

Under the title, "The animal world of Nepenthes pitchers", AUGUST 
THIENEMANN (1932) brought together all that at the time of publi- 
cation was known about the fauna to be found in the pitchers of 
Nepenthes. Long ago, as early as 1747, G. E. RUMPHIUS, the renowned 
explorer, remarked in his Herbarium Amboinense (pt. 5, p. 122): 

"In aperto varii repunt vermiculi et insecta, quae in hoc moriuntur, 
excepta parva quadam squilla gibba, quae aliquando in hoc reperitur 

et vivit " Since that time innumerable observations have been 

made and it would scarcely be profitable to detail them. 

The first question which will occur to one interested in this fact is 
one which JENSEN (1910) asked, namely, how can animals live in the 
digestive fluids of the pitchers. In answer he said that he believed 
there was indicated the presence of an antipepsin formed by the 
animals in question. DOVER (1928) agreed with him, but did not go so 
far as to assert the presence of an antipepsin, though he believed that 
mosquito larvae do possess such, and suggested that the "presence of 
neutral salts in the tissues of the larvae might possibly retard peptic 
digestion ;" THIENEMANN, however, maintained that there is no bind- 
ing evidence that there is an antipepsin and goes further in saying that 
he sees no special problem to be involved. The numerous internal 
parasites of the animal body live in body fluids rich in ferments. 
DOVER, himself, observed that the larvae of Megarhinus acaudatus can 
remain alive in a very weak iodine and in a strong pepsin solution and 
in the latter lived some days, pupated and hatched out. Are we then 
to expect if an antipepsin is present that there is also an antiiodine? 
We may recall here that HEPBURN and JONES (1919) believe that they 
demonstrated the presence of antiproteases in the larvae of Sarcophaga 
which inhabit the pitchers of Sarracenia flava. 

The inhabitants of the pitchers are divided by THIENEMANN into 
three classes, (a) those which are occasionally found, but which belong 
properly in other places (nepenthexene) ; (b) those which occur, find in 
the pitcher suitable conditions and can pass their watery lives there 
but which are not confined to them (nepenthephile) and thirdly those 
which live only in the pitchers and are not found elsewhere (nepen- 
thebionts). Since the pitchers are commonly only partly filled with 
fluid, namely, ca. up to the waxy zone, there is a "terrestrial fauna " 
as well as an aquatic fauna. 

Of the former, aside from 2 species of leaf miners (which, however, 
have been claimed to behave in relation to the water level) which are 
questionably peculiar to Nepenthes pitchers, there are four spiders, 
three of which are claimed to be nepenthebiont. The 4 species are 
Misumenops nepenthicola, M. Thienemannii, Thomisus callidus and Th. 
nepenthephilus. Th. callidus is nepenthephile; the others have been 
found up till the present only in pitchers of Nepenthes, but are not 
confined to any one species. But they are excluded from N. ampul- 
laria because there is no waxy zone, states THIENEMANN; they should 



Francis E. Lloyd 78 Carnivorous Plants 

also be absent from N. ventricosa. Since the spiders above named find 
their food in insects attracted to the pitchers, they may be regarded 
as commensal. The case is somewhat if not quite the same as that of 
the spider-plant combination of Roridula (LLOYD, 1934). 

The " aquatic fauna" nepenthexene forms include protozoa, myx- 
ophyceae, desmids and diatoms, rotatoria, Oligochaetes, crustaceae 
and also larvae of various Diptera and a very occasional tadpole. 
Such forms occur relatively infrequently, but are most abundant in 
those pitchers of N. ampullaria which stand half buried in the sub- 
stratum, as would be expected. The nepenthephile animals occur in 
only very small numbers; only three known in fact. It is interesting 
to know that of these one is represented by two races, one of which 
lives in hollows of bamboos. The nepenthebionts include the remark- 
able number of 26 species; of the Phoridae 6, Chironomidae i, and of 
the Culicidae 19. All these are Diptera, 19 of which are mosquitos. 
It is admitted that further research may reduce or enlarge this number 
somewhat, but it can hardly alter the general weight of the evidence 
that there is a strikingly large number of animals which habitually live 
in the pitchers of Nepenthes and nowhere else. They feed on the ani- 
mal detritus found there. To account for this large number of forms 
adapted only to Nepenthes as commensals, THIENEMANN points out 
that DANSER refers the origin of the genus to a time earlier than 
the beginning of the Tertiary, in the Chalk, but DANSER thinks of the 
genus as a young one. 

Folklore, uses. It is inevitable that such an unusual and curious 
plant as Nepenthes should figure in the folklore of the peoples in con- 
tact with it. In this connection I quote an interesting passage from 
RUMPHIUS (Herbarium Amboinense 5:123) containing notes made 
about 1660 in the Far East. This was kindly translated for me by 
Prof. BAAS BECKING, who indeed drew my attention to it. 

"Uses. This remarkable plant mostly serves as a curiosity, to keep its pitchers amongst other 
strange objects which are worth keeping to show the nice playfulness of nature. To this end open 
pitchers are preferred. They are emptied and wind-dried, filled with cotton or other fine material 
in order that the natural form may be preserved. Or the dried pitchers are placed in a book and 
pressed flat. However, to show the curiosity more completely, one should have the leaf still at- 
tached. 

"The natives are unwilling to bring them to us from the mountains, because of an old super- 
stition according to which if one cuts off the pitchers and pours out the water one will meet with a 
heavy rain before reaching home. As this happened a few times when I had ordered them to fetch 
me the largest species from the mountains of Mamalo, they were strengthened in their superstition, 
notwithstanding the fact that I convinced them that it had rained on the two days previous to this 
expedition. Others go to the mountains when the rain has not fallen for a long time, and empty 
all pitchers which they can reach with a stupid zeal as they want to bring rain to the land in this 
way; but the converted natives do not dare to perform such tricks, out of respect to our and to the 
Mohammedan priests. 

"Now listen to the contrary effect. If children often wet the bed, the native goes to the moun- 
tains and fetches a few of the filled and still unopened (sic) pitchers, the water of which he pours over 
the head of the children and makes them drink of it, as they also do to adults who are unable to 
keep their water. 

"As it seems, one or the other must be a lie or a great miracle, if one could by means of this 
little pitcher draw the water from the heavens and also keep it in the children's bellies." 

At a guess, the virtue attributed by the natives to the open pitchers, 
out of which water can be poured, and the unopened pitcher, lies fun- 
damentally in the fact that the latter holds its water. The symbolism 
appears evident. 



Chapter IV 79 Nepenthes 

B. H. DANSER (1927) remarks that no trace of these superstitions 
is to be found nowadays, but that the Malayans from Malacca and the 
Riouw Archipelago use the fluid from the unopened pitchers to wash 
their eyes or put it on inflamed skin until the new skin is formed. 

He points out also that the long viney stems (lianas) of N. ampul- 
laria are used as ropes for slinging foot-bridges. Possibly other species 
are similarly used. 

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VINES, S. H., Jour. Anat. a. Physiol. n: 124-127, 1876/1877. 
VOELKER, A., On the chemical composition of the fluid in the ascidia of Nepenthes. Ann. 

and Mag. Nat. Hist. II, 4:128-136, 1849. 
VOUK, V., Physiologischer Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Entwickelung des Nepenthes-RlMes. 

Bot.-Physiol. Inst. d. K. Univ. Zagreb, 22 Jan. 1918 (In support of the GOEBEL inter- 
pretation of the leaf morphology, based on growth localization). 
WALLACE, A. R., The Malay Archipelago. loth ed., p. 24, London, 1913. 
WUNSCHMANN, E., Uber die Gattung Nepenthes. Diss. Berlin, 1872, 46 S. 
ZACHARIAS, E., Uber die Anatomic des Stammes der Gattung Nepenthes. Inaug. Diss. 

Strassburg, 1877. 
ZEEUW, J. DE, Versuche iiber die Verdauung in Nepenthesksmmn. Biochem. Zeitschr. 

269:187-195, 1934. 



Chapter V 
CEPHALOTUS FOLLICULARIS 

Distribution. Habit. Habitat. Foliage leaf. Pitcher leaf. Development of 
pitcher leaf. Morphology. Anatomy. Digestion. 

The West Australian Pitcher Plant is a unique form and, though 
related to Sarracenia and Nepenthes, diverges from them in many de- 
tails of form and structure. It occurs in a lunate area, in extreme 
S. W. Australia, one horn of the crescent lying about 150 miles S. of 
Perth, the other at the Fitzgerald River, the southern rim of the area 
passing through Albany. Its first collector was probably ARCHIBALD 
MENZIES, naturalist of the Vancouver's Expedition of 1791. MENZIES 
" landed at King George's Sound and made large collections." But as 
these were not studied till much later by ROBERT BROWN, the plant, 
if actually found, did not become known. In the following year, 1792, 
came the expedition under D'ENTRECASTEAU (" Voyage a la recherche de 
la Perouse"). The naturalist was LA BILLARDIERE. He landed first "on 
one of the islands of Esperance Bay and then on the mainland" (GARD- 
NER 1926). Here the naturalist of the expedition found the plant 
which he later (1806) described under the name Cephalolus follicularis. 

The plant is of rosette habit, the rosette, where primary, surmount- 
ing a tap-root (LA BILLARDIERE), and in older plants ending branches of 
a freely forking rootstock. These branches when small produce for 
some time only minute leaves and pitchers; more massive branches 
produce at once larger or even normal sized organs. The flowers, in a 
short panicle, and borne on a very long slender scape, triangular at its 
base, are small, apetalous, have a six-parted calyx and twelve stamens 

(9 S) 

The habitat is the drier parts of peaty swamps. The leaves are, 
as has been known since the publication of LA BILLARDIERE'S descrip- 
tion, of two very distinct kinds: the foliage leaves, or " non-ascidif orm " 
(DICKSON 1878) (9 6) and the pitcher or ascidiform leaves (9 1-3). 

The foliage leaves attain a length of about 13 or 14 cm. when of 
large size. The blade is ovate and acute, about the length of the peti- 
ole, which, as TROLL has shown, is of unifacial structure. Two of the 
vascular strands, dorsal and ventral, facing each other wood to wood, 
enter and extend up into the blade, thus indicating, according to TROLL, 
the peltate structure of the leaf. The ventral strand enters and sup- 
plies vascular tissues to the lid of the pitcher when this develops in 
place of a flat leaf. The blade is furthermore inclined to transverse 
thickening above the petiole (9 6 at left). This becomes very pro- 
nounced in intergrade forms between pitchers and foliage leaves which 
in this plant occur very frequently, and will be described below. 

The leaf is thick, coriaceous and supplied with nectar glands, and 
its surface smooth and glassy. The margins are ciliated with the 
peculiar hairs mentioned by DICKSON (1878). Their peculiarity con- 



Francis E. Lloyd 82 Carnivorous Plants 

sists in the secondary filling in of the lumen by callus (or callus-like 
substance), the protoplast withdrawing toward the base. A central 
thread-like core of protoplasmic substance with more or less con- 
tinuity can be traced through the otherwise solid mass of callus. 

Foliage leaves are produced in seasonal rhythm. Of this A. G. 
HAMILTON (1904) wrote, "I believe that the ordinary leaves develop 
in the autumn, reaching their full maturity in the spring, and then 
gradually going off, while the pitchers grow in winter and spring and 
are fully formed and functional in summer when the insects which they 
capture are most plentiful." This seems to be a true account. I can 
only add that at the time of my visit to the classical ground of Albany 
in the spring (Oct. 1936), the pitchers were in full representation, and 
foliage leaves much less conspicuous. 

The pitchers when full sized measure in length about 5 cm. or 
slightly more. The majority measure less, say about 3 cm. in length, 
and about 2 cm. in transverse measurement, somewhat compressed 
from front to back. The orifice is oval in form, wider transversely 
than from back to front, measuring in a pitcher 5 cm. long, i x 1.5 cm. 
(inside measurement). HAMILTON well compares the form of the 
pitcher with that of a loose slipper, with the heel turned over to form 
a lid. Its stalk (the petiole) stands approximately at right angles with 
the axis of the pitcher, and in this at once we see a marked divergence 
from the morphology of Sarracenia and Nepenthes, in that the mouth 
of the pitcher faces the base of the petiole in Cephalotus, while the 
opposite occurs in the other two genera. 

This is best understood by examining the development, as did 
EICHLER (1881) and GOEBEL, or by comparing the various aberrant 
pitchers which in this species are rather common and have been re- 
marked by DICKSON, GOEBEL, and HAMILTON. The true orientation 
is clearly seen in a pitcher only i to 3 mm. long. Such a one in longi- 
tudinal section is seen in the figure (10 6), in which it is evident 
that the lid does not terminate the leaf (DICKSON), but is an outgrowth 
from the upper surface of the petiole below the pitcher proper while 
the pitcher has been produced by a ventro-dorsal invagination of the 
upper, more distal region. Abnormal leaves, which occur in sizes be- 
tween i mm. to a few cm., bear out the above interpretation, and fur- 
ther show that the lid represents the transverse extension of the leaf 
margins across the basal zone of the blade, that therefore the pitcher is 
a peltate leaf highly differentiated into the complicated apparatus that 
it is (10 13-18). The orientation and course of the vascular bundles 
are in accord with this interpretation, though ARBER argues that the 
absence of a median ventral vein in the petiole does not agree with 
TROLL'S description, and that this raises doubt as to the truly peltate 
condition. With ARBER, I find no median ventral bundle (10 2). 
The mouth of the pitcher is surrounded by a corrugated rim, each 
corrugation forming a claw-like tooth extending inward and downward, 
much as in Nepenthes, except here the teeth are coarser and are not 
provided with glands. There are about 24 such teeth, the numbers on 
each side not being always symmetrical. I counted 12 on one side and 
ii on the other in a particular specimen. They are largest in front 
(the ventral aspect of the opening) and are smaller and smaller as one 



Chapter V 83 Cephalotus 

swings around the curve towards the lid, and are longitudinally ridged. 
The largest teeth, however, are opposite the median and lateral ridges 
(10 2). The purse of the pitcher externally has three strong ridges, 
one a ventral one, T-shaped in transverse section, extending along the 
front of the pitcher along its whole length, along and below the midrib 
of the pouched leaf, the other two lateral and obliquely placed. These, 
too, are T-shaped though less obviously so. The lateral and median 
wings are connected by a low ridge, readily discernible only in strongly 
developed pitchers. From each lateral wing there runs a similar but 
more vague ridge toward the petiole (10 i, n). All three bear 
strong cilia, chiefly on the edges of the lateral wings (10 7). These 
cilia develop early, so that a young pitcher looks, as HAMILTON put it, 
like a ''vegetable hedgehog." These ridges must be regarded as ena- 
tions from the ventral and subventral surfaces of the leaf (GOEBEL 
1891, TROLL 1932). In addition to these there are low but quite evi- 
dent ridges between them, especially evident near the toothed rim, and 
which may pass for mere rugosities, but which are probably more than 
that. The rest of the frontal (appearing ventral but really dorsal) 
surface presents low rugosities. The lid overhangs the opening more or 
less closely according to age, and is nicely arched, but is not, as once 
believed (WOOLLS), moveable. It is traversed radially by narrow 
patches of green ciliated tissue, often forking once or twice toward the 
margin of the lid; and lying between them are clear patches devoid of 
chlorophyll, which present window-like areas framed in green, or in 
nature usually bright red mullions. Whatever their purpose is, they are 
evidently analogous to the fenestrations in Sarracenia and Darling- 
tonia: they arc to insects apparently open spaces and the insects are 
thus tempted to escape through them, to rebound into the depths of 
the pitcher. The lid is emarginate, a feature which can be seen in 
abnormal intergrade forms, in which the transverse pad at the base of 
the blade betrays itself as a bilobed structure (10 n, etc.). In the 
unopened pitcher the apical notch of the lid lies beneath the end of the 
median enation and straddles its wing, the lid margin inclosing the 
teeth. The edge of the lid is ciliated, the hairs becoming reduced and 
more or less contorted along the frontal region. It is devoid of a mid- 
vein, being supplied by two pairs of veins from the ventral moiety of 
the petiole bundles (10 4, 8). The veins traverse the green strips of 
the lid between the white patches. From each of the angles of the lid 
and mouth edge runs a low ridge (scarcely " wings " as ARBER puts it) 
demarking, according to DICKSON, the ventral aspect of the pitcher 
(10 i, n). 

Mrs. ARBER (1941) has advanced the suggestion that "the lid .... 
may be interpreted as a hypertrophy of the collar region ", that it is 
"essentially of the same nature as the collar" being "indicated by the 
fact that the cornice continues unaltered below both the collar and the 
lid. It is possible that the thickened ribs of the expanded lid are 
equivalent to the hooks of the collar". To this it may be replied that 
the teeth of the rim are developed from the margin of the abaxial, distal 
part of the leaf and that the lid is the whole adaxial, basal part of the 
leaf which, as the teratological evidence shows (10 13-18), arises as 
two lobular extensions that fuse (concrescence), the indication of this 



Francis E. Lloyd 84 Carnivorous Plants 

fusion being found in the emargination of the lid, and in its "dual" 
structure, to be expected in peltate leaves. 

The whole of the pitcher, " slipper " shaped as already said, has a 
gentle forwardly concave curvature. The under side is the thinnest 
region, and rests, in nature, on the surface of the soil, in such a manner 
that the pitcher stands more or less obliquely (9 i, 2). 

The interior of the pitcher is divisible into two distinct zones, the 
upper of which forms a collar with, at its lower edge, an overhanging 
eave. The epidermis of this collar ("conducting shelf ", DICKSON) 
forms a surface of low pointed trichomes which are downwardly di- 
rected, supplying a smooth, glistening, chalk-white face. This surface 
is continuous with that of the lid, where the trichomes point in the 
same sense but here they are very low and appear as imbricated. 
Among them are numerous nectar glands. 

The jutting eave overhangs, like the entrance of a lobster pot, the 
far interior of the pitcher. Here the surface is smooth, and the epider- 
mal cells are wavy-walled, the radial synclinal walls supported by 
numerous buttresses from the angles of the undulations. There are in 
the upper region (ca. one half of the surface) extending further down 
in front than behind, many glands, which are smaller above, becoming 
larger below. These are, it may be fairly argued, digestive in function. 
In the lower half there is on each side an obliquely placed kidney- 
shaped mass, in reality a thickened bolster of tissue, called by DICK- 
SON the "lateral coloured patch," since it is usually deeply red colored, 
and which HAMILTON preferred to call the "lateral gland mass." The 
upper zone of this bolster is the seat of a number of very large glands 
though they are not wholly confined to it (g 4). Its lower half has 
a very peculiar feature in the presence of numerous immobile stomata 
with widely open mouths first observed but not properly understood 
by DICKSON (10 23). The function of the glands also is digestive, 
the general evidence for which was offered by DAKIN (see below). The 
Iqwer portion of the general surface of the pitcher interior is entirely free 
of glands. HAMILTON thinks that normally only the lower portion of 
the pitcher holds fluid and the obliquity of the distribution of the 
glands in the upper zone is correlated therewith, since the pitchers 
usually lie somewhat obliquely on the ground. My own observations 
lead me to doubt this as a matter of fact; particularly it is difficult to 
agree that the quantity of fluid is so definitely restricted. While it is a 
curious enough fact that the distribution of the glands is as described 
above, there may very well be another explanation, for the glands of 
the lateral patches in any event would, according to the HAMILTON 
view, be submersed. 

Slender rhizomes produce very small pitchers, having a slightly 
different aspect in detail from that of the normally larger pitchers. 
They attain a size in general of about i cm. in length, often less, with 
tissues correspondingly thinner and more delicate. A major difference 
is in the development of the teeth surrounding the mouth: there 
are fewer of them and all arise from an external low ridge, and stand 
freely independent of the actual edge of the mouth (10 9-12), one 
opposite each of the three wings, and two further back on each side. 
A further important difference is the relatively greater width of the 



Chapter V 85 Cephalotus 

collar, as will be clear in the figures. Correlated with size are the 
simpler venation and small number of glands. HAMILTON drew atten- 
tion to this condition (1904). In the large pitchers the teeth are 
concrescent with the rim and overhang it inwardly. Another feature 
of juvenile pitchers is the large size of the lid, which is strongly arched 
and widely overhangs the opening, so that it more effectually pre- 
vents the entrance of rain water, or appears to. As I have observed 
these small pitchers are efficient in catching correspondingly small 
insects. 

Transition forms between the large and small pitchers have not 
been observed. When a relatively large pitcher appears after a number 
of small ones have been produced, the passage from the small to the 
large form is made at once in a jump. 

We turn to the anatomy of the pitcher (10 3, 6, 12). The 
venation is derived from two systems of bundles in the petiole, a dorsal, 
of three veins, and a ventral of two, these splitting near the pitcher 
into four, then six and branching further in spreading. Referring to 
the figures in which the veins are numbered, we see that of the ventral 
system, Vi, (median ventral pair) passes into the lid, right and left 
of the midline; V 2 sends veins into the sides of the lid and into the 
collar; Vs goes entirely to the upper part of the digestive cavity, 
anastomosing with the dorsal veins. It seems quite doubtful that 
ARBER'S statement about "the relatively high development of the 
ventral system of the pitcher's venation " corresponds with the facts, 
since one third of it is not connected with the lid at all, and only a 
small part of it with the collar. Of the three dorsal veins of the 
petiole, the median is the midvein of the pitcher, passing entirely 
around it, and ending, not in the point of the median ridge, as DICKSON 
claimed, who therefore regarded it as the leaf apex, but in the collar, 
opposite the middle tooth, there branching. Of the laterals (D 2 ) each 
runs obliquely down the side of the pitcher toward the upper end of 
the glandular patch, having just before reaching it sent a branch into a 
lateral ridge, whence it emerges in the collar. Traversing the glandular 
patch obliquely it leaves it near the middle point and then runs up the 
wall parallel to the midvein, and ending in the collar. The midvein 
(Di) sends branches right and left into the lower part of the pitcher. 
This basic arrangement of the vascular system of the pitcher c^ti be 
most clearly seen in a very young one, 3 mm. long (10 5). 

The external surface of the pitcher is covered with an epidermis of 
'isodiametric cells with thick walls, and is supplied with stomata and 
nectar glands. On the lid the epidermis of the green patches is of 
more or less wavy-walled cells, with glands and stomata interspersed, 
while in the fenestrations the cells are isodiametric and straight walled, 
with glands but no stomata. 

The epidermis of the interior surface of the lid and collar has been 
already described above. That of the far interior is of wavy-walled 
cells, the walls thick and buttressed at the angles. Scattered through- 
out the surface, except along a narrow strip beneath the eave of the 
collar, and the deeper portion of the pitcher demarked by an oblique 
line running downward and forward from about the middle point of 
the back surface across the top of the glandular bolster, there are 



Francis E. Lloyd 88 Carnivorous Plants 

physiologically is hard to resist in view of their number and general 
relations. GOEBEL'S idea that they are water pores seems the most 
acceptable, that is, that they pour a fluid into the pitcher cavity; but 
this fluid may contain substances in solution, more likely enzymes, 
possibly one or more enzymes different from those of the glands. I 
did a simple experiment with living pitchers to test GOEBEL'S idea. 
Halving a pitcher longitudinally, and cleaning it out thoroughly, I 
placed it in contact, by its outer surface, with water in a closed damp 
chamber. In the course of some hours beads of moisture appeared 
from the mouths of the glands, larger ones from the larger glands but 
none from the stomata, at least in appreciable quantities. This seems 
to indicate that water excretion by the " water pores" plays a minor 
role, if any, and that DARIN'S suggestion that their function is that of ab- 
sorption cannot be dismissed without further examination. Any in- 
terpretation of the activity of these stomata must take into account 
the constant presence of a large amount of starch in large grains in the 
mesophyll of the glandular patches. 

The problem of digestion by the pitchers has been examined in any 
thoroughgoing way only by DAKIN (1918), who spent a vacation at 
Albany, W. A., making as careful a study as he could, under laboratory 
conditions. To be sure, DICKSON (1878) had reported that LAWSON 
TATE had examined into the matter somewhat and had found that 
" fluid taken from virgin or unopened pitchers" showed "that it ex- 
erted a similar digestive action on animal substances to that exhibited 
by the Nepenthes pitcher, etc." DAKIN made use only of the fluid 
from opened pitchers, which did not surprise me when on .careful ex- 
amination of all the unopened pitchers which I could come by on my 
own visit to Albany, I found no one of them containing any sign of 
fluid, a matter of disappointment as I had intended to conduct experi- 
mentation on such fluid if it could be found. DAKIN'S results are 
as follows: He found that the pitchers capture many insects, notably 
ants, as others had found. They are represented usually by fragmen- 
tary remains of the chitinous parts. Even the very small pitchers, as I 
have previously said, catch small insects. That the soft parts undergo 
dissolution in some sort is at once evident. But, DAKIN asked, is this 
the result of digestion by enzymes secreted by the pitcher glands, or of 
bacterial action, or of both ? Fibrin was his test substrate. The ex- 
periments were conducted with pitcher fluid with an antiseptic (HCN) 
and with and without weak acid (HC1) or alkali. The specific 
results which he records showed that pitcher fluid in vitro in the 
presence of added acid does digest fibrin, and that it contains a di- 
gestive ferment which will break up proteins into peptone-like bodies 
in the presence of acid. Since non-acidulated pitcher fluid does not act 
thus, it cannot be concluded that this process actually takes place in 
the pitchers under normal circumstances. Pitcher fluid alone procures 
dissolution of fibrin with the odor of putrefaction. DAKIN admits the 
possibility that digestion by pitcher fluid may, however, take place 
very slowly in the pitchers. 

He raises, however, the question of the usefulness or necessity of 
this to the plant. He kept plants under his eye in the laboratory 
where they grew thriftily and flowered without having been supplied 



Chapter V 89 Cephalotus 

with insects. In view of the work of BUSGEN (Utricularia) and of F. 
DARWIN (Drosera) he does not exclude a " carnivorous tendency. " 
On the whole, therefore, at the present moment, the evidence favors 
the view that both the secretions of the pitcher and the action of 
bacteria contribute to the breaking down of proteins making the 
products available to the plant. Experiments with starch showed no 
evidence of the presence of diastase. 

Literature Cited: 

ARBER, AGNES, On the morphology of the pitcher-leaves in Heliamphora, Sarracenia, 

Cephalotus, and Nepenthes. Ann. Bot. n.s. 5:563-578, 1941. 
BROWN, ROBERT, General remarks on the botany of Terra Australis. Miscellaneous 

Botanical Works i :76~78, 1866. 

DAKIN, W. J., The West Australian pitcher plant (Cephalotus foil ictdaris) , and its physi- 
ology. Journ. Roy. Soc. W. Austr. 4:37-53, 1917/1918. 
DICKSON, A., The structure of the pitcher of Cephalotus follkularis. Journ. of Bot. 16:1-5, 

1878. 
DICKSON, A., On the morphology of the pitcher of Cephalotus follicularis. Trans, and Proc. 

Bot. Soc. Edin. 14:172-181, 1882. 
EICHLER, A. W., liber die Schlauchblatter von Cephalotus. Jahrb. des Berliner Bot. Gart. 

1:193-197, 1881 (through ENGLER u. PRANTL). 
GARDNER, C. A., The history of botanical investigation in Western Australia. Handbook 

for B. A. A. S. i8th meeting, Perth, W. A., 1926 (Pp. 40-52). 
GILBURT, W. H., Notes on the histology of pitcher plants. Quekett Microscopic Journal 

6:151-164, 1881. 
GOEBEL, K., Pflanzenbiologische Schilderungen, Pt. 2. Marburg 1891. (Cephalotus: pp. 

110-115; 170-173)- 
HAMILTON, A. G., Notes on the West Australian pitcher plant (Cephalotus follicularis La 

Bill.). Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 29:36-53, 1904. 
LLOYD, F. E., The carnivorous plants a review with contributions (Presidential Address). 

Trans. Roy. Soc. Can. Ill, 27:1-67, 1933. 
MAURY, PAUL, Note sur 1'acidie du Cephalotus follicularis La Bill. Bull. Soc. Bot. France 

34:164-168, 1887. 

TATE, LAWSON, Phil. Trans. Birmingham 1878 (through HAMILTON). 
TROLL (see under Nepenthes'). 
WOOLLS, W., Lectures on the vegetable kingdom, p. 100 (through HAMILTON). 



Chapter VI 
GENLISEA 

Discovery. Early studies. Two kinds of leaves. Anatomy of trap-leaf. 

The specimens on which the genus Genlisea is based were discovered 
by AUGUSTE DE SAINT-HILAIRE in Brazil in 1833. Most of the species 
are found in the New World in Brazil, the Guianas and Cuba, while 
two are known from west tropical Africa. The Cuban species, found 
many years ago by C. WRIGHT at the time he found Biovularia olivacea, 
has never again been collected. 

For our information about these plants we are indebted first of all 
to WARMING (1874) and to GOEBEL (1891). All the species are small 
plants which inhabit swampy places and apparently live mostly sub- 
mersed in shallow water, only the inflorescence, as in Utricularia, pro- 
jecting above the surface. This is to be inferred from the absence of 
stomata and from the fact that colonies of algae have been observed by 
me attached to the surfaces of the leaves. BENJAMIN in the Flora Bra- 
siliensis says merely "herbae paludosae. " The close relationship to 
Ulricularia is shown by the fact that the structure of the flower is the 
same in the two genera, that of Genlisea differing in having a five- 
parted calyx instead of the two-parted calyx of Utricularia. All are 
rosette plants with two kinds of leaves, foliage and trapping, arising 
from a vertical or sometimes nearly prostrate rootstock. Like Utric- 
ularia, there are no roots, though the trap leaves look superficially 
much like them and have been mistakenly so regarded by some (9 7 ; 

-5). 

The first thorough description, though lacking in an important de- 
tail, was published by WARMING in 1874. This work was known to 
DARWIN, whose son FRANCIS repeated WARMING'S observations and 
afforded the description given by DARWIN in his Insectivorous 
Plants (P. 360, 2nd ed. of 1875). GOEBEL'S description of 1891, though 
incorrect in certain details, leaves otherwise little to be desired. The 
plant which these authors studied was Genlisea ornata, the largest 
known species. The present account is based on herbarium specimens 
(British Museum of Natural History and Kew) but more particularly 
on alcohol material kindly sent to me by Dr. F. C. HOEHNE, collected 
in Butantan, Brazil. As far as the anatomy is concerned the genus is 
very homogeneous. DARWIN, it is true, described G. filiformis as 
bearing bladders like those of Utricularia and being devoid of "utricu- 
liferous leaves " characteristic of the other species. I examined all 
the specimens of Genlisea filiformis at Kew, which was the source of 
DARWIN'S material, but could find no evidence to corroborate him. 
It seems quite certain that he examined a plant which, had been grow- 
ing with a Utricularia whose stolons had intermixed with the Genlisea 
leaves. Indeed, I saw a case of this. 

There are two kinds of leaves, true foliage leaves, linear or spatulate 



Chapter VI 91 Genlisea 

in form, and trap leaves, all arising densely crowded and without trace- 
able order, from a slender rhizome, very much as the leaves and stolons 
arise from the radially symmetrical corm-like stem of the seedling of 
Utricularia. There are no axillary buds, again as in Utricularia, 
but the rhizome produces a few branches toward the apex, which is 
the widest part. The trap leaves arise like the stolons of Utricularia 
and at first look like them. At first cylindrical with a tapering grow- 
ing point, they grow out for some distance (i cm. or more or less) be- 
fore any further differentation takes place. In structure this portion 
consists of epidermis inclosing a very extensive intercellular air space 
of lysigenous origin. In the dorsal sector lies a cord of relatively few 
parenchyma cells surrounding the vascular tissue, again quite like a 
Utricularia stolon. This portion may be called the foot stalk, but not 
petiole since this leaf region is produced by intercalary extension be- 
tween the leaf base and the apex, while, as GOEBEL pointed out, the 
base at the foot stalk is the oldest portion of the trap leaf, which ex- 
tends solely by apical growth. At length the end of the footstalk be- 
gins to widen and an invagination takes place just behind the tip and 
on the ventral (upper) side. The basal portion of the invagination be- 
comes a subspherical hollow bulb. The neck of this bulb extends for 
some distance to form a tube, which toward the mouth gradually 
widens to right and left, so that the opening becomes a transverse slit, 
with the lips dorsal and ventral, the latter being shorter, and the for- 
mer being more or less arched over the opening. The angles of the 
mouth develop into two long arms with circinate apices, the slit being 
on the outer curve of the crook (// 3, 4, 7). During elongation and 
resulting from rotatory growth, the arms become twisted, the one on 
the right, clockwise, the other counter clockwise (n 8, 10). In 
consequence one lip of the mouth of the arm, which extends through- 
out its length, becomes longer than the other, so that, if an arm be 
laid open it takes the form of a spiral ribbon (// 9). The arms may 
be likened to two ribbons folded longitudinally and twisted on the long 
axis so that the two edges form spirals roughly parallel to each other. 
One edge becomes the inner, and in the plant is the shorter. In the 
actual trap, the two edges are anchored to each other at short inter- 
vals. This is accomplished by large marginal cells, cystid-like in ap- 
pearance, which during growth become pressed into, and adherent to, 
the tissue of the apposed edge. These large cells we may with GOEBEL 
term prop-cells. They were first described by GOEBEL (1891) but not 

quite correctly. He wrote " the funnel shaped entrances are 

formed by the occurrence at certain distances apart of two large clear 
cells which lie the one upon the other, and which may be called prop- 
cells. They are merely the end cells of the rows of trapping hairs in 
which, however, the hair itself is merely one-celled, while the cell be- 
neath is swollen to a giant size." By making a paper model it will be 
seen, continues GOEBEL, "that in order that the two prop-cells shall 
really meet each other it is necessary that the shorter edge of the arm 

shall be bent outwardly. One can see the two prop-cells " 

This passage is quoted to indicate that GOEBEL thought that there is 
a row of prop-cells along each margin of the arm entrance, and that 
during development these meet and adhere in pairs, the one prop-cell 



Francis E. Lloyd 92 Carnivorous Plants 

to the other. The facts are otherwise. There is a row of prop-cells 
on only one edge, and the prop-cell is only the middle cell of a three- 
celled hypertrophied trichome, the basal cell of which is much enlarged, 
while above it the middle cell is enormously large and ends in a small 
knob-shaped cell terminating the trichome (12 15). In structure 
they are, therefore, not at all different from the neighboring trapping 
hairs, except for relative sizes of the component cells. The size of the 
basal and middle cells is so large that, in sections which are bound to 
be pretty complicated to the eye, they appear as two apposed and ad- 
herent cells. GOEBEL represented them thus in his figures (70 and 76, 
plate 16, 1891). It is significant that GOEBEL showed a terminal cell 
on only one of each pair of prop-cells, as he regarded them to be (Figs. 
6 and 76). In this detail GOEBEL was correct. What he took for the 
prop-cells along the shorter border of the ribbon-like arm are the scar- 
like depressions, optically suggesting raised surfaces, which are really 
dished out surfaces against which the prop-cells of the longer border 
lay and to which they were attached (// 6). When the two 
margins of the arms are torn apart in dissection, it happens more 
frequently than otherwise that the whole of the prop-hair is torn away 
from its moorings, leaving bare the depressed surface to which it was 
attached. The depression so caused is spoon-shaped, the bottom being 
formed of cells which have been more or less distorted by the pressure 
of the prop-cell during growth (12 18). On the other hand, the prop- 
cell is sometimes torn away from its basal cell, and remains on the 
wrong margin, a perfidious witness whose evidence is hereby impeached. 

A striking analog of the prop-cells is to be found in the cystidia in 
Coprinus atramentarius in which they serve to keep the slender gills 
at a certain distance apart, allowing the free dispersal of spores, as 
described by BULLER (1922), in his Researches on Fungi, where he in- 
troduces the engineering term "distance pieces" for the cystids. 
Protruding from one gill, from which they arise, their free ends are 
attached to the surface of the next gill. 

The size of the trap leaf in Genlisea repens, one of the smallest 
species, is as follows. The footstalk is about i cm. in length support- 
ing the bulb-shaped flask which is about i mm. long and 0.7 mm. 
broad. The surmounting tube is about i cm. long, and 0.27 mm. in 
outside diameter. The arms extend i cm. beyond the transverse mouth 
and are little more than 0.5 mm. in width. In a large African species, 
the traps are about three to five times the foregoing dimensions, the 
tube being relatively shorter. The footstalk may be 5 cm. long, the 
tube two and the arms 3 to 5 cm. long. The bulb is about 4 mm. long 
and 2 mm. in diameter. The turns of the arms are looser and make a 
larger angle with a transverse plane. 

The outer surface of the plant is supplied with a large number of 
sessile globular, glandular trichomes, similar to those of Utricularia, 
and which secrete mucilage (12 n). The trap, whose inner surface 
is most complicated, has excited the wonder of all who have busied 
themselves with this object. DARWIN referred to it as " a contrivance 
resembling an eel-trap though more complex. " GOEBEL (1891) re- 
marked of it that "it is in the highest degree remarkable; one might say 
of it that it is constructed with over-weening care and anxiety so as 



Chapter VI 93 Genlisea 

to allow only very small animals to enter and then to hold them ir- 
revocably ". This remarkable structure is as follows. 

In form, the bulb and tubular neck (the tube) may be compared to 
a chianti flask. Within the flask there are two ridges (if we were 
speaking of an ovary they would be called placentae), one ventral and 
one dorsal, extending from the base up the sides about two-thirds the 
distance to the neck above (12 10). Within the tissue of the ridges 
runs in each a branch of the single vascular strand arriving from the 
footstalk, while the surface bears numerous glands, which may be pre- 
sumed to be digestive and absorptive, either but probably both. A 
few additional glands are to be found on the rest of the surface. The 
two vascular strands, each of a single spiral vessel accompanied by a 
thin strand of phloem, the one dorsal and the other ventral, pass up- 
ward from the bulb into the walls of the tube without change of di- 
rection. Near the mouth of the tube they divide, a branch from each 
supplying each arm, which then has two vascular strands quite as if it 
were a closed tube branched from the main tube. The inner surface 
of the tube is broken up into a series of some forty transverse ridges 
each formed of a transverse row of radially thickened cells, each of 
which sends downward toward the flask a stiff curved trichome (9 
8; 12 8, 9, 13). Of these cells there are about 50, so that there are 
that number of slender stiff bristles projecting inward and downward 
from each ridge. Each section of the tube below and including a 
transverse ridge is therefore of the form of the entrance to an eel trap, 
or lobster pot, if you will. The whole tube, 0.13 to 0.42 mm. inside 
diameter, is a series of such traps, some forty to fifty in number, each 
with its funnel extending into the next below. In addition to these 
downwardly directed hairs, and just below the ridges in each section 
there are one or two transverse rows of glandular trichomes (12 8, 
9, 1 6). The zone where these occur broadens toward the outer end 
of the tube and is composed of wavy-walled cells, while the bristle 
bearing cells are conspicuously straight and narrow, lengthwise the 
tube. 

On approaching the open end, the tube widens somewhat, and 
spreads out to form the arms. The open end is formed of the upper 
and lower sides to form two lips, the upper (ventral) somewhat shorter 
than the lower, and fixed in a position a little distance apart by the 
ballooned cells above mentioned (prop-cells) (n 1-4; 12 2, 3). 
These are closely enough placed so that in between, alternating with 
them, a series of funnels, guarded by inward pointing hairs, is formed. 
This is repeated along the open slit of the arm (n n) quite to the 
apex. 

In passing up into the arms, the same general structure described 
for the tube is repeated (12 i, 4), but the ridges are now curved 
obliquely, comformably with the directions and amounts of growth 
(// 6, 9). Along the edges of the arm, as one inspects it if laid 
open, the ridges run almost parallel thereto, each ridge beginning in a 
prop-cell. Passing obliquely inward and forward they gradually ap- 
proach the other edge in a harmonic curve. When past the middle of 
the arm they bend rather sharply back and approach a direction again 
parallel to the other edge and then end at the scar-like depression 



Francis E. Lloyd 94 Carnivorous Plants 

formed by its prop-cell at the other end (// 6). In consequence of 
this development, the trapping hairs stand approximately at right 
angles to the edges of the funnel formed by the prop-cells, so that al- 
though oblique, the ridges with their trapping hairs function as in the 
straight tube, although no two hairs on the same ridge have pre- 
cisely the same direction. The whole structure is one to arouse won- 
der in the observer. 

The inner surface, except that occupied by the bristle ridges, is 
made up of wavy-walled cells with scattered glandular hairs, repeating 
again the structure of the tube (// 6). The funnel shaped mouths 
of the tube and arms are guarded, outside the level of the prop-cells, 
by shorter stiffer hairs, claw-like in shape (12 12), allowing some 
room for the entrance of prey, but nevertheless inveigling them to- 
ward the interior. The captures consist of copepods, and the like, 
small water spiders, nematodes and plenty of other forms, many of 
which I have seen in the Brazilian material studied. 

In both species examined, the structure is the same, with the slight 
difference that the large African species structures are not so crowded 
and in consequence are easier to decipher. 

The glands are all of the same type, that common to this genus and 
Utricularia, consisting of a basal cell anchored in the epidermis, a short 
neck cell, and the capital of two to eight cells. It is wholly a matter 
of speculation as to the function of these glands. They may supply 
only mucilage to lubricate the interior and facilitate the movements of 
prey downwards through the arms and neck, or they may secrete 
digestive enzymes or both. I have observed that prey only half way 
down the tubular neck shows signs of a far degree of disintegration, 
but, as bacterial action cannot at the moment be excluded, it boots 
nothing to do more than indicate the possibilities. The goal of prey is 
the flask at the bottom of the neck. Here one finds various remnants 
of the animals, copepods, spiders, nematodes, together with algae. 

According to GOEBEL, the twisting growth of the arms facilitates 
their penetration of the substrate which, being filled with water, is 
quite loose. This explanation does not help for the trap leaf up till the 
time when the arms begin to form, which is a good deal more than half 
the time of its growth activity. If teleological interpretation be of any 
use, one might venture that the twisted form of the arms results in the 
presentation in all direction of entrances to the interior so that prey 
find openings in whatever direction they may approach. 

Literature Cited: 

BENJAMIN, L., Flora Brasiliensis, 10:252, 1847. 

BULLER, A. H. REGINALD, Researches on Fungi, Vol. 2, 1922. 

DARWIN, C., Insectivorous Plants. 2d. ed., London 1875. 

GOEBEL, K., Pflanzenbiologische Schilderungen, 1891. Zur Biologic von Genlisea. Flora 

77:208-212, 1893. 

ST. HILAIRE, A. DE, Voyage au district des Diamans, 11:428, 1833. 
ST. HILAIRE & F. DE GIRARD, Monographic des Primulac6es et des Lentibularie*es du Bre"sil 

meridional et de la Rpublique Argentine. Me*m. Soc. roy. des Sci. etc. d'Orteans 5, 

1840. 
TUTIN, T. G., New Species from British Guiana, Cambridge University Expedition, 1933. 

Journ. Bot. 1934:306-341. 
WARMING, EUG., Contribution & la connaissance des Lentibidariaceae, I. Genlisea ornata 

Mart.; II. Germination des graines de VUtricularia vulgaris, Vidensk. Medd. f. 

Naturhist. For. Kj0benhavn 1874:33-58. R6sum6 in French (appendix 8). 
WRIGHT, C., in GRISEBACH'S Catalogus plantarum Cubensium. Leipzig, 1866. 



Chapter VII 
BYBLIS 

Occurrence. Appearance and systematic position. Habitat. Structure. Func- 
tions of the glands. 

Byblis is a genus confined to western Australia, where it is endemic. 
There are two species, B. linifolia Salisb. and B. gigantea Lindl., the 
latter being much the larger plant, one about 50 cm. tall. It is a half- 
shrub in habit, consisting of a woody rhizome bearing in any one 
season the dying parts of the previous and the growing ones of the 
present season (/j i). These consist usually of a single chief stem 
with one to three branches from near the base, all bearing long (1-2 
dm.) linear leaves, clothed with numerous stalked mucilage glands. 
The color, a yellow-green, is characteristic, and the surface is charged with 
numerous glistening mucilage droplets. The flowers, raised on axillary 
peduncles, are violet or rose colored, have a deeply five lobed rotate 
corolla, which appears superficially as polypetalous, the lobes alter- 
nating with five oval attenuate sepals and with the five stamens. The 
systematic position of this plant has not been at all clear. PLANCHON 
(1848) and BENTHAM (Flora australiensis 2:469) believed that it is re- 
lated to the Pittosporaccae rather than to the Droseraceae. Later 
LANG, stressing too much its sympetaly, advanced reasons for its re- 
lation to Pinguicula and its inclusion within the Lentibulariaceae, while 
more recently DOMIN (1922) has placed it in a new family, the Bybli- 
daceaej of which B. linifolia is the type. 

Byblis gigantea was found growing abundantly in sandy, swampy 
places in the Swan River district not far from Perth, where also are 
to be found very characteristic species of Polypompholyx, (P. tenella 
and multifida) and the peculiar Australian species of Utricularia, U. 
Menziesii, Hookeri, etc., and all, except Polypompholyx tenella , confined 
to W. Australia. Byblis gigantea is, however, to be found in drier and 
better drained parts of such swamps, as for example at Cannington 
where it grows around the base of a low hillock on which stood a house, 
and not, as Ross suggests, in very wet places on the banks of streams. 
The substrate was a coarse quartz sand with some admixture of fine 
white or yellow clay, and little humus. Specimens of Byblis linifolia 
were received from N. E. Arnhem Land where it was found growing 
" around rocky pools in the bed of a river". 

The stem arises from a slender rhizome with triarch (LANG) or, as 
I have observed, diarch roots often showing a considerable degree of 
secondary thickening with a thick cortex loaded with starch and tannin- 
emulsion-colloid (LLOYD 1911). Both of these may be regarded as 
storage material. From the perennating rootstock arises the new an- 
nual stem with its appendages, which are secondary branches, leaves 
and long peduncled flowers. All these parts are clothed with two kinds 
of glands, sessile and stalked. In all parts except the sepals, the 
epidermis is composed of elongated straight-walled cells, all of which 



Francis E. Lloyd 96 Carnivorous Plants 

in young organs lie at the same level. With maturity, the epidermis 
becomes ribbed with sunken furrows between the ribs. The floor of 
the furrow is composed of a double row of shorter cells, each pair 
bearing a sessile gland (14 10, 13), In scattered positions occur 
stalked glands which secrete abundant mucilage. In the sepals the 
epidermal cells are wavy-walled on both surfaces, less so on the outer 
(lower) surface toward the base. On the outer, dorsal face of the leaf 
occur both sessile and stalked glands, the latter very numerous, on the 
inner face only sessile glands occur (9 9). Stalked glands are to be 
found even on the ovary wall. Stomata occur on both faces of the 
sepals, and on the leaves and stem they are to be found interrupting 
the rows of sessile glands (14 13). They are somewhat raised and 
extend considerably above the ditch bottom. In this way according to 
FENNER the stomatal pore does not become clogged with the secretion 
of the sessile glands, which probably fills that reach of the ditch oc- 
cupied by them. 

The leaves are long, slender and linear in form, tapering toward 
the apex. When in the bud they display, in the case of B. gigantea, 
no circi nation, the apices showing only a very meagre outward curva- 
ture, if any. In B. linifolia,) however, the leaves are outwardly cir- 
cinate, as in Drosophyllum. This somewhat surprising fact was clearly 
seen in the material from Arnhem Land sent me by my friend Mr. 
CHARLES BARRETT, and figured in 14 7. B. gigantea is seen in 14 
8. Of this DIELS (1930) says merely that the leaves are spirally in- 
rolled at the tip. 

In transverse section the leaves are triangular with round angles 
(14 IT). Toward the tip they become nearly cylindrical and the tip 
itself is somewhat enlarged to form a knob, properly interpreted to be 
a hydathode (LANG, FENNER). Its interior is occupied by a large 
mass of tracheidal tissue in contact with and ending the vascular 
strand which reaches thereto. One or two protuberant stomata are to 
be found at the apical surface, not by any means always at the extreme 
apex, together with both stalked and sessile glands. The rigidity of 
the leaf, which is very slender for its length, is attained by the very 
thick-walled epidermis and the strands of mechanical tissue accom- 
panying the vascular bundles. Beneath the epidermis on all sides 
there is a thick layer of chlorenchyma in which there is no sharp de- 
markation between palisade and spongy tissue. All of the cells are 
oval rather than columnar and lie in three courses. Beneath the 
epidermis the palisade cells have expanding ends in contact with it 
(14 9, 10). This, FENNER explains, ensures a contact for lively 
diffusion between the glands and the vascular system. The upper leaf 
surface is rather flat, with a very shallow depression along the middle. 
On this surface there are very few stalked glands, which on the lower 
surface are very numerous. Sessile glands are as numerous here as 
elsewhere (9 9) . 

The sessile gland (14 10, 13) stands upon a pair of epidermal 
cells, and consists of a capital of eight radially disposed cells, supported 
on a single very short stalk cell, this resting on two short epidermal 
cells, which according to FENNER originate from a single basal cell of 
the very young trichome. The furrow in which the sessile glands stand 



Chapter VII 97 Byblis 

is sufficiently deep and narrow so that the sides of the glands lean 
against and are supported by the sides of the furrow. 

The stalked gland (14 12-15) has a capital of usually 32 cells 
radiating from the centre and standing out like an umbrella top. These 
cells all abut on a central short cell resting on the top of the long stalk 
cell. This in turn stands on a group of basal cells which may be as 
many as eight in number, or as few as two in the case of a small 
stalked gland. The latter may also have as few as four cells in the 
capital, the mature glands showing no great degree of uniformity in 
this regard. The stalk cells of the larger glands have strongly striated 
thick cellulose walls, the striations reaching deeply, as far as the cuticle. 
These striations run obliquely (as in the cotton fiber) and when the 
gland dries (in air or alcohol), the stalk cells twist, as noted by DAR- 
WIN (14 14). FENNER regards this arrangement as one to allow 
bending of the trichome without collapse. 

While the gland capitals are covered with a thin cuticle there is 
access by diffusion through pores, mentioned but not described by 
FENNER. I found them (19336) to be rather large oval openings ar- 
ranged in a circle about and some distance away from the centre of the 
capital. They become evident on treatment of the stalked glands with 
sulfuric acid (14 12). Both the sessile and stalked glands are 
readily penetrable by dyes (methylene blue). 

Our earlier knowledge of the function of the glands bearing on the 
question of the carnivorous habit of the plant we have at the hands of 
A. NINIAN BRUCE (1905). Her work is clearly indicative of this, but 
the question needs further investigation, which in this type of plant is 
not easy. BRUCE placed minute cubes of coagulated egg-albumen in 
contact with the sessile glands, and after a period of some days (two 
to eight) the whiteness has completely disappeared. During the 
progress of digestion the round white core of the cube of albumen could 
be observed to suffer gradual reduction in size. This material placed 
in contact with the heads of stalked glands failed to show any evi- 
dence of digestion, but when removed and placed in contact with the 
sessile glands promptly did so. This seems to indicate that bacterial 
action does not supervene. Some observations by FENNER justify 
BRUCE'S results. When insects are caught, he says, and come in contact 
with the sessile glands, a secretion is thrown out by them which is 
much less viscous than that of the stalked glands. After four to six 
hours, the group of glands affected again become dry and an examina- 
tion of them shows that the contents of the gland cells and even of 
the stalk cells betray evidence of absorption in the presence of a greater 
density of the protoplasm and the presence of large rounded dark 
masses. These changes are not to be observed in the stalked glands, 
which do nothing else than secrete mucilage. I attempted to prove 
the matter for myself at Perth, W. Australia. Byblis appeared late in 
the season, during the latter part of my visit, so that I had only lim- 
ited time at my disposal. My method consisted in placing minute 
fragments of carmine fibrin in contact with the glands of the living 
leaf, on the plant, and in a small vial with a dozen short pieces of leaf 
with and without a little added water, with and without added weak 
HC1, and with and without ammonium nitrate. The results were en- 



Francis E. Lloyd 98 Carnivorous Plants 

tirely negative, even after two weeks, though there was at length a dis- 
tinct and unpleasant odor emitted. 

I first learned from Mr. A. G. HAMILTON that Byblis harbours a 
small insect which he called a "buttner". In Perth I received the 
same information from Mr. H. STEDMAN, who kindly took me to a 
locality at some distance north of Perth where we found a lot 
of plants growing. All of these were infested with a small wingless 
capsid which turns out to be a new genus and will be described by 
Dr. W. R. CHINA of the British Museum (Natural History) (13 i). 
While small insects in general are caught by the mucilage secreted by 
the stalked glands, this capsid moves about freely without difficulty, 
just as do similar insects, also capsids, over the surface of Drosera 
leaves in Australia, and of the African genus Roridula^ once thought 
to be carnivorous. How the insect manages this is a bit puzzling. It 
is noticeable that it prefers to walk on the upper leaf surface where 
there are very few and usually smaller glands but when alarmed it 
progresses rapidly in any direction without becoming entangled with 
the mucilage. Full sized insects are perhaps too big to be readily en- 
cumbered, but the smaller ones move about just as freely. Their food 
consists of freshly captured flies, the juices of which they suck, the re- 
lation of insect and plant affording a sort of commensalism, but this 
term could hardly be used in the case of Roridula (non-carnivorous) 
the secretion from whose glands is resinous (LLOYD 1934). 

Literature Cited: 

BRUCE, A. NINIAN, On the activity of the glands of Byblis gigantea. Notes Hoy. Bot. Gar- 
den Edin. 16:9-14, 1905, also 17:83, 1907. 
DIELS, L., Byblidaceae, Nat. Pflanzenfamilien. i8a. 1930. 
DOMIN, K., Byblidaceae, a new archichlamydeous family. Contr. to the Australian flora, 

undated, but about 1920. Extracted from MS. and published separately in Acta Bot. 

Bohem. 1:3-4, 1922. 
FENNER, see under Nepenthes. 
HAMILTON, A. G., Notes on Byblis gigantea. Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales 28:680- 

684, 1903. 
LANG, F. X., Untersuchungen tiber Morphologic, Anatomic und Samenentwickelung von 

Polypompholyx und Byblis gigantea. Flora 88:3-60, 1901. 
LLOYD, F. E., The tannin-colloid complexes in the fruit of the persimmon. Biochem. Journ. 

1:7-41 (pi. 1-3), 1911. 
LLOYD, 1933 (see under Heliamphora). 
LLOYD, 1934 (see under Introduction). 
PLANCHON, J. E., Sur la famille des Drose'race'es. Ann. sci. nat. bot, 3 s^r., 9:79-99, 1848. 

(Contains also descriptions of Drosera carpels bearing tentacles, these being intergrades 

between normal leaves and carpels). 
Ross, H., Byblis gigantea. Gartenflora 51:337-339 (pi- I S), 1902- 



Chapter VIII 

DROSOPHYLLUM LUSITANICUM 

Drosophyllum lusitanicum Lk. ( 1 3 2) is a plant with much the ap- 
pearance of Byblis, but it is larger and shrubbier (1-1.6 m. tall) and is 
unusual, for the carnivorous plants, in growing not in a wet, but in a 
very dry habitat in Morocco and nearby Portugal and Spain. HARSH- 
BERGER visited a locality in Sra. de Valongo near Oporto, where he 
found Drosophyllum growing in open formations, scattered over the 
quartz-rocky soil. He observed its leaves to be crowded with small 
gnats. Its flowers are bright sulphur yellow, are i-iJ/2 inches in 
diameter, and have convolute aestivation. It is called locally "herba 
piniera orvalhada" (dewy pine) in allusion to its bedewed appearance 
due to the numerous glands carrying large droplets of clear mucilage. 
The base is strongly woody, and its abundant roots penetrate deeply 
into the dry soil. "Mr. W. C. TAIT informs me that it grows plenti- 
fully on the sides of dry hills near Oporto, and that vast numbers of 
flies adhere to the leaves. The latter fact is well known to the vil- 
lagers, who call the plant the 'fly-catcher/ and hang it up in their 
cottages for this purpose" wrote DARWIN (1875). Inquiry by corre- 
spondence with Dr. QUINTANILHA has elicited doubt of the correctness 
of TAIT'S statement as to the use by the paisanos of the plant as a 
fly-catcher, though it seems reasonable enough. 

The leaf is linear with a deep furrow along the upper side. It 
is traversed by three vascular bundles, a median and two lateral, arising 
from a single bundle entering at the base (14 5). 

A peculiar feature is found in the reverse circination (14 4) the 
rolled leaf-tip facing outwardly while in Drosera very generally the 
opposite holds. Although in Byblis gigantea the leaves are nearly 
straight, showing no evident circination, in Byblis linifolia the be- 
havior is like that of Drosophyllum. FENNER expresses the opinion 
that this arrangement has its significance in permitting the free de- 
velopment of the stalked glands, but he overlooks the fact that the 
circination of Drosera is in the opposite sense without any prejudice 
to the development of the tentacles. The case of Byblis linifolia was 
not known to him. In any event, in the tight coils the dorsal and 
ventral leaf surfaces are mutually compressed; and assuming that the 
tentacles (hairs in the case of Byblis} develop after uncoiling, the ven- 
tral (upper) surface is freer than the dorsal, where the most of the 
tentacles or hairs are to be found. 

Another characteristic behavior of the leaves is their marcescence. 
Instead of falling away as they die, they remain attached, forming a 
grass-skirt about the stem. FRANCA (1922) regarded this as a symptom 
of a condition which he regarded as pathological, due to overnutrition 
and the inability, because of the absence of an excretory apparatus, to 
throw off waste. QUINTANILHA, however, disagrees with this and, in 
our opinion, justly. 



Francis E. Lloyd 100 Carnivorous Plants 

In the seedling, the cotyledons withdraw from the seed during 
germination and develop into broadly linear tapering members, sup- 
plied with glands enabling them to capture prey (FRANCA). 

The leaf bears two kinds of glands, stalked mucilage glands and 
sessile digestive glands (14 i, 2, 6). Their position is determined if 
at all only to a slight extent by the three vascular bundles, from 
which, however, they receive branchlets ending at the bases of the 
glandular tissues. There are three double files of stalked glands, one 
along each leaf margin, roughly speaking, and two rows along the 
under leaf surface, one on each side of the midvein. The sessile glands 
are more scattered, and apparently only in some degree determined in 
position by the vascular tissues. Sessile glands occur on both upper 
and under leaf surface, stalked glands only on the under surface and 
along the margins. 

Structure of the glands. Drosophyllum differs from Byblis in that 
the glands, instead of being trichomes, are emergences, and, as DARWIN 
pointed out, have much the same structure as those of Drosera, with- 
out, however, being endowed with the power of movement. This 
refers of course to the stalked glands. These have a stout stalk sur- 
mounted by a large nearly hemispherical capital, and, as DARWIN put 
it, have the " appearance of miniature mushrooms. " 

The capital (14 2) consists of three courses of cells running 
parallel with the outer surface. The outer of these, the epidermis, is of 
rather thick, wavy-walled cells, with strong buttress thickenings, stiffen- 
ing the angles of the radial walls (14 3). The dense protoplasmic 
contents and prominent nuclei speak for their glandular activity. 
These are covered with a cuticle, which according to FENNER is finely 
porous, thus permitting the exudation of the mucilaginous secretion. 
I have not succeeded in convincing myself that the pores are optically 
demonstrable, but it is certain that the cuticle offers no impediment to 
the diffusion of methylene blue, for less than a minute's exposure to a 
watery solution of this dye results in the deep staining of the whole 
capital while the dye does not penetrate the remaining epidermis at 
all. MEYER and DEWEVRE also failed to see the pores but demon- 
strated on killing the escape through the cuticle of the pigment which 
renders the gland conspicuous. They found also that lithium nitrate 
taken up through the roots is found 12 hours later in the mucilaginous 
secretion. The cells of the second course underlying the epidermis are 
somewhat more irregular in form, but are likewise provided with but- 
tress-thickenings in the radial walls, though they are not so numerous 
and prominent as in the epidermal cells. The general character of 
these two courses is the same; they were called, by PENZIG (1877), the 
secretion-layer. Underlying these two courses is a third, of flat cells, 
of greater size in the transverse direction (with reference to the axis of 
the gland) with their contiguous radial walls strongly cuticularized, so 
that in a cleared preparation when suitably stained, as with congo red, 
one sees a strong network lying within the capital. Contrary to an 
earlier view (SOLEREDER 1899, P- 3^?) not the entire but only the 
radial walls are cuticularized, thus (GOEBEL 1891) leaving a free 
diffusion passage. This feature is held in common with other gland- 
ular structures described elsewhere. 



Chapter VIII 101 Drosophyllum 

The third layer (limiting layer of PENZIG) caps a mass of short 
irregular tracheids constituting the expanded end of a strand of vas- 
cular tissue extending through the stalk and communicating with the 
vascular tissues of the leaf. This strand consists of both xylem and 
phloem elements (FENNER contra MEYER and DEWEVRE) affording, 
according to FENNER, not only a pathway for water but, in the case of 
the phloem, for the transmission of stimuli to the neighboring sessile 
glands, which have been shown to show secretory activity in response 
to such stimulus received from the stalked glands. The stalk itself is 
made up of the epidermis and an underlying course of parenchyma, sur- 
rounding the vascular strand. The capping secreting cells contain 
brilliant red coloring matter, interpreted as an optical lure for insects, 
and when the capital bears its shining droplet of clear mucilage, which 
acts as a light collecting lens, the glands appear as brillliant red dots. 
The sessile glands have no such coloring matter. These (14 6) have 
the same structure as the stalked glands, differing only in the absence 
of the stalk. Occasionally an intergrading condition is met with; 
GOEBEL found one such, with a very short stalk. The sessile glands 
are usually oval, generally smaller, and have a less extensive contact 
with the vascular system. Each gland, however, is underlaid by a 
group of cavernous looking tracheidal cells, with no protoplasmic con- 
tent, evidently an important part of the gland but with what function 
we do not know. If FENNER saw this feature, he regarded it as the 
end of the tracheidal system. For there is also to be found at the base 
of each gland the end of a branch of the vascular system. These 
glands are devoid of a mucilaginous secretion, as of coloring pigment 
and even of chlorophyll, for they appear whitish. 

The mucilage secreted by the stalked glands is peculiar, in that it 
is not readily drawn out into slender viscous threads, but is easily 
pulled off the gland by a touch of even a needle point as DARWIN ob- 
served. "From this peculiarity, when a small insect alights on a leaf 
of Drosophyllum, the drops adhere to its wings, feet or body, and are 
drawn from the gland; the insect then crawls onward and other drops 
adhere to it; so that at last, bathed by the viscid secretion it sinks 
down and dies, resting on the small sessile glands with which the sur- 
face of the leaf is thickly covered" (DARWIN, 1875, 2nd ed., p. 271). 
The secretion of mucilage continues after removal and DARWIN 
found that when a plant is kept under a bell glass to prevent evap- 
oration the secretion is produced in such quantities as to run down 
the leaf surface in droplets; and further that the secretion shows an 
acid reaction. GOEBEL found that among the possible acids pres- 
ent formic acid is one, and believed that this is effective in pre- 
venting bacterial action. Emanating from these glands, probably, is 
an odor which GOEBEL likened to that of honey, which would be at- 
tractive to insects and thus act as a lure. 

In the case of many carnivorous plants " overfeeding " usually re- 
sults in the damage and death of the leaf wholly or locally, notably in 
the pitcher plants. This has not been observed to occur in Drosophyl- 
lum, and may be accounted for by the inhibition of bacterial action as 
just indicated. 

The sessile glands do not exude a secretion unless stimulated 



Francis E. Lloyd 102 Carnivorous Plants 

(DARWIN, GOEBEL, FENNER, QUINTANILHA). The secretion appears 
normally when the mucilage glands are stimulated by the catching of 
prey, but not merely mechanically, as by placing on them sand grains, 
bits of paper, etc. FENNER showed in considerable detail by appropri- 
ate experiments that the maximum activity of the sessile glands is ob- 
tained when, after the stalk glands nearby have received prey, both 
prey and mucilage secretion are brought into contact with them. But 
in the presence of mucilage removed from the stalked glands and mixed 
with the juices of prey, leaving the stalked glands unstimulated, the 
sessile glands work only slightly if at all. FENNER concluded that the 
maximum activity of the sessile glands is called forth by something 
passing through the tissues by way of the vascular elements (phloem). 
The sessile and stalked glands must, therefore, be considered as a single 
mechanism in which one part is dependent on the other. 

There is a general agreement on the part of the authors mentioned 
that Drosophyllum exercises its own proper power of digestion, and that 
this is not the result of bacterial activity. As mentioned already, 
GOEBEL regarded digestion as too rapid for bacterial action, and that the 
presence of formic acid excludes such activity, and though he was 
unable to state the concentration of acid present, he supports his in- 
ference by inoculating nutrient gelatine plates with negative results. 
The activity of formic acid may not, however, GOEBEL adds, be con- 
fined to that of an antiseptic, but it may consist in an initial dis- 
solution of the proteins of the body of the prey, with the escape of 
materials which then affect the sessile glands and stimulate them to 
greater activity. 

DARWIN found that fragments of egg albumen, fibrin, were acted 
upon rapidly when they came in contact with the sessile glands. If 
only in contact with the stalked glands, they were not attacked. If 
then placed on the sessile glands, there was a copious secretion, and 
the albumen was completely dissolved in 7 to 22 hours. "We may 
therefore conclude, either that the secretion from the tall glands has 
little power of digestion, though strongly acid, or that the amount 
poured forth from a single gland is insufficient to dissolve a particle of 
albumen which within the same time would have been dissolved by the 
secretion from several of the sessile glands." Fibrin likewise, when 
placed on the stalked glands, was not attacked, though, as in the case 
of albumen, the secretion was absorbed (together with whatever es- 
caped into it from the fibrin). But when the fibrin was slipped onto 
the sessile glands, digestion proceeded rapidly (17 to 21 hours) with an 
abundant exudation of fluid from the glands. DARWIN thought the 
digestion more rapid than in Drosera. He had not excluded the action 
of bacteria, which, however, as above said, GOEBEL did by suitable 
culture experiments. He observed a more rapid action than did 
DARWIN. A fibrin flock i cm. long and one-fourth the width of the 
leaf was noticeably attacked in a half-hour on a warm summer day, 
and in an hour no trace could be seen, though the spot had been care- 
fully marked by a bit of paper. With a lens small fragments could 
still be seen. A true digestion, he concluded, is therefore present. The 
enzyme is secreted in response to a special stimulus, and chiefly, if not 
exclusively, by the sessile glands. The stalked glands are chiefly a 
trapping apparatus (GOEBEL 1891). 



Chapter VIII 103 Drosophyllum 

In 1894 came MEYER and DEWEVRE. They managed to collect 1.6 
grams of mucilage and investigated it. It was stiff, clear, had the odor 
of honey and was strongly acid. It contained no free reducing sugar, 
but on heating with HC1 it reduced Fehling, and gave a weak red 
color with thymol and H 2 SO 4 (indicating polysaccharides). The 
presence of a sugar was indicated by a yellow coloration with chlor- 
zinc-iodide as also its precipitation by lead acetate, by barium hydrox- 
ide and by alcohol. No proteins were present. It was poor in salts, 
only Ca being present. No K, phosphates or nitrates were found. 
The acidity was due to a non-volatile acid, and not to formic acid, as 
GOEBEL had held. These authors verified DARWIN'S observation that 
the sessile glands secrete only on stimulus by a protein. Insects are 
attracted both by the odor and by the glistening of the droplets of 
mucilage. They recorded observations also which indicate that there 
are two periods of activity in the plant, (i) From the beginning of 
vegetative activity to the beginning of seed ripening (from Jan. 15 to 
May 15, in the greenhouse). During fruit ripening the leaves begin 
dying from apex to base and the glands do not secrete vigorously. The 
soil must be kept "dry" during this period. (2) After fruit ripening is 
complete (Aug. i to Oct. 15) secretion and odor are both strong, es- 
pecially in sunny weather. The experience of DARWIN was again sub- 
stantiated in finding that coagulated egg albumen, meat and fibrin 
were acted upon, especially if well smeared with mucilage and placed 
on the sessile glands. The time necessary for complete digestion was 
about the same as in DARWIN'S experience. GOEBEL'S figures were 
criticised as being too low but an error of proofreading may have 
crept in, rather than, as is suggested, incorrect observation. It was 
found that very small fragments of albumen were attacked in the 
mucilage of a stalked gland and completely digested in 7 days. If large 
bits were imposed, they absorbed the mucilage, and damage might re- 
sult to the gland in consequence. No diastase was found. Bacteria 
were never found and it was clear that the mucilage, as GOEBEL said, 
is antiseptic. 

FRANCA (1925) gave a general account of the plant, and studied 
especially the cytological changes which he observed in the glands 
during digestion and absorption, using both living material viewed 
microscopically, and fixed material stained with iron haematoxylin and 
fuchsine, etc. He found evidence that the two courses of the glandular 
cells (the outer and second) have different functions, that the outer 
course is secretory only, the inner both secretory and absorptive. The 
sessile glands have only the power of secretion. This evidence con- 
sists in the cytological appearances observed during digestion and ab- 
sorption. Changes of the bright red color in the glands to a deeper, 
much darker shade, had been noted by DARWIN. When such glands 
are examined, the cells of the outer layer of the gland are seen to have 
remained unchanged, while those of the second layer are now charged 
with large black granules. These rise to a maximum some hours after 
the glands have been supplied with muscle fiber. Some similar granules 
are found also in the more distal short cells of the stalk of the gland 
and finally in approximate leaf tissues. Such dark granules are seen 
when an insect has been captured, but only in the deeper gland cells. 



Francis E. Lloyd 104 Carnivorous Plants 

With neutral red the protoplasm displays a great number of small red 
granules, considered to be granules of secretion. On the other hand 
the deeper cells are filled with voluminous granulations of dark red 
color. In this way it is supposed that the power of absorption is 
demonstrated, for when prey has been captured, the superficial cells 
show only the small granules, while the deeper cells and the distal 
stalk cells are at the same time found crowded with grey or black 
granules in addition to the secretory granules seen also in the outer cell 
layer. The recounted facts are held to support FRAN^A'S conclusion 
that the outer glandular layer of cells is secretory only and the inner 
layer both secretory and absorptive. Additional and supporting evi- 
dence is found by FRANCA in the presence of canaliculi. Some occur 
"in the thickness " of the membranes between the cells of the two 
layers and open on the outside of the gland by means of minute oval 
mouths. It is these which permit the entrance of absorbed substances 
to the deeper cell layer. Others occur in "the thickness" of the but- 
tresses of the epidermal cells (between which fingers of the protoplasm 
project, as described by HABERLANDT for Drosera), and these "without 
doubt" permit the escape of secretion. I have carefully examined 
preparations after treatment with H 2 S04, followed by Sudan III and 
have been unable to find any evidence of pores. The evidence in the 
form of a drawing in his plate has little convincing effect. 

A critical study of Drosophyllum was undertaken by QUINTANILHA 
at Coimbra. His results, published in 1926, briefly stated are as fol- 
lows. Drosophyllum is indeed a carnivorous plant, acting by means of 
a proteolytic ferment of the type of animal pepsin. A mosquito can 
be completely digested in 24 hours. Bacterial digestion does not 
enter into the picture (in this agreeing with GOEBEL, whose experi- 
ments were repeated and verified). The stalked glands are essentially 
organs of capture but at the same time they are "signales d'alarme"; 
that is, on capture of an insect, they send a stimulus to the sessile 
glands and provoke their activity. These are exclusively organs of di- 
gestion and absorption, but they act only on stimulation. Experimen- 
tally and under favorable conditions, the stalked glands may digest 
very small amounts of albumen without the intervention of the sessile 
glands, but the proteolytic properties of the mucilage are always in- 
significant. Experimentally it was shown also that the sessile glands, 
when previously excited, can digest and absorb albumen without the 
intervention of the stalked glands which had been removed by ampu- 
tation, and in this condition the absorption is as rapid, or even more 
rapid, than it would be in collaboration with the stalked glands be- 
cause of dilution of the secretion. In the normal state the stalked 
glands act as traps and furnish stimuli to the sessile glands. 

Excitation of the sessile glands can be procured directly by chemi- 
cal but not by mechanical means and indirectly by both means. Simple 
pressure or friction of the stalked glands does not procure excitation 
of the sessile. However, the cutting off of the glands from the stalks 
can excite indirectly and mechanically the sessile glands. The ex- 
citation is slow of transmission and is limited to an area of about i cm. 
from the tentacle stimulated. On anatomical grounds QUINTANILHA 
inclines to believe with FENNER that the phloem of the vascular system 



Chapter VIII 105 Drosophyllum 

serves to transmit the stimulus. The digestive capacity of the plant 
is reduced after fructification. 

The same author studied the cytological concomitants of the di- 
gestive and absorptive activity, and his findings are of interest in con- 
nection with those of HOMES and others on aggregation in Drosera 
and with those of FRANCA above given. He found that the state of 
aggregation can be procured independently of digestion. During 
digestion there occur " black concretions " in the inner course of cells 
of the stalked glands. These are not the " spherules alimentaires " of 
FRANCA, but intravacuolar precipitation of anthocyanin compounds. 
In the sessile glands, however, concretions appear in the cells derived 
from the absorption of albumins impregnated with melanin. The 
chondriome of the glandular cells does not act directly in the elabora- 
tion of proteolytic enzymes and it does not present alterations which 
allow us to attribute to them an important role in the phenomenon of 
digestion. Only in the internal secretory layer of the sessile gland 
the elements of the chondriome are considerably reduced in volume 
during intracellular digestion. The number of the chondrioconts is also 
reduced and that of the mitochondria is increased proportionally. 

On the other hand, the vacuome appears to be the seat of the 
elaboration of ferments and certainly has an important role in the 
processes of digestion and secretion. 

Pathological conditions in the plant due to overfeeding have not 
been observed. It is clear that Drosophyllum profits by food materials 
supplied by animals, and that this compensates for an insufficient 
mineral nutrition, QUINTANILHA says in general conclusion. 

Literature Cited: 

DARWIN, C., Insectivorous Plants. 2d. ed., London 1875. 1908 reprint. 

FENNER, C. A., Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Anatomic, Entwickelungsgeschichte und Biologic 

der Laubblatter und Driiscn einiger Insektivoren. Flora 93:335-434, 1904. 
FERNANDES, AsfLio, Morphologia e biologia das plantas carnivoras. Anudrio da Sociedade 

Broteriana 6:14-46, 1940; 7:16-52, 1941. A third part appeared later in 1941; the 

whole was issued as a brochure, repaged, in 1941. Good photographs of Drosophyllum 

and of its habitat. 
FRANCA, C., La question des plantes carnivores dans le pass et dans le present. Bol. Soc. 

Broteriana I (2 ser.) 138-57, 1922. 
FRANCA, C., Recherches sur le "Drosophyllum lusitanicum" et remarques sur les plantes 

carnivores. Arch, portug. d. Sci. biol. 1:1-30, 1925. 
GOEBEL, K., Pflanzenbiologische Schilderungen. Marburg 1889-1891. 
HARSHBERGER, J. W., Notes on the Portuguese insectivorous plant, Drosophyllum lusitani- 

cum. Proc. Amer. Philosoph. Soc. 64:51-54, 1925. 
MEYER, A. & A. DEWEVRE, Ubcr Drosophyllum lusilanicum. Bot. Centralbl. 60:33-41, 

1894. 

PENZIG, O., Untersuchungen iiber Drosophyllum lusitanicum. Diss. Breslau, 1877. 
QUINTANILHA, A., problema das plantas carnivoras. Dissertation Coimbra, 1926, 88 pp 

(Contains a very full bibliography of the literature pertinent to carnivorous plants. 

French resume). Extr. from Bol. Soc. Brot. 4, 
SOLEREDER 1899 (see under Dionaea). 



Chapter IX 
PINGUICULA, BUTTERWORT 

Distribution. General appearance. Habitat. The leaves. Two kinds of glands 
(Points of structure. Early work of DARWIN: movements. Secretion and digestion). 
Popular uses. 

The genus Pinguicula consists of about 30 species distributed 
throughout the northern hemisphere in temperate or cool temperate 
regions. Although making use of a far different mode of capture of prey, 
it is closely related to Utricularia and Genlisea, and is one of the three 
lentibulariaceous genera, as shown by the flower structure. The 
personate corolla is blue, purple or yellow, and differs from that of 
Utricularia principally in the five-parted calyx. 

All the species are of very uniform character. The plant consists 
of a short vertical stem giving rise to a compact rosette of leaves which 
usually lie flat on the ground, or in some species (P. gypsicola] are 
directed obliquely upward also. They exhale a distinct fungus-like 
odor. The tissue tensions in the leaves are such that when a plant is 
uprooted from the soil they become at once strongly reflexed, as 
DARWIN observed; but this is a feature common to rosette plants. 
The leaves are entire, usually ovate (P. vulgaris) or broadly ovate (P. 
cuneata), with upcurled margins. In color they are a pale faded green, 
yellowish in bright light (BATALIN), deeper green in the shade, in P. 
vulgaris pale purple due to the presence of pigment in the lower epider- 
mis. They are very soft and yielding, easily bruised and torn; and, 
being " greasy" to touch, the name, derived from the Latin pinguis, 
fat, was suggested, according to accounts. The dorsal surface is quite 
smooth and shiny, the ventral glistening with myriads of minute 
mucilage glands. In addition to their glands, both surfaces bear num- 
erous stomata peculiar in having no chlorophyll, though there is pres- 
ent according to BATALIN a pale yellow pigment. The flowers are 
borne singly on slender, glandular, pubescent scapes, have a five-parted 
corolla, with a slender spur, so large and showy in some species of the 
genus that they are found in glasshouse cultivation. Although the 
peduncles also have glandular hairs, DARWIN thought them devoid 
of digestive function. The seedlings have a short taproot possessed 
of a few root hairs, but this does not persist and soon gives way to 
adventitious roots arising from the stem above. In possessing a tap- 
root, even though fugacious, this genus differs from the others of the 
family, in which there is none. There is but one cotyledon, which 
arises as a semicircular ridge around the plumule, and when fully 
developed is strongly folded lengthwise and may in longitudinal 
sections be easily interpreted as two, as GOEBEL pointed out. 

Pinguicula grows in wet places, with mosses, etc., in chinks of wet, 
dripping rocks, on hummocks in swamps (13 4) and similar situa- 
tions, in general conformity with the majority of carnivorous plants. 
Towards the end of the growing season the plant produces very com- 



Chapter IX 107 Pinguicula 

pact buds of various sizes (brood-buds) which can reproduce the plant 
in the following growing season (HOVELACQUE). 

The entire leaves and peduncles are provided with two kinds of 
glands, stalked and sessile (13 10, n), densely scattered on the 
upper surface, with a much smaller number of sessile glands with four- 
celled capitals on the lower dorsal surface (15 2-4). According to 
FENNER the latter are hydathodic in character for he observed a 
minute droplet of fluid water, presumably, on each gland. They may 
safely be excluded from taking part in the capture and digestion of 
prey. GOEBEL had thought their secretion to be mucilaginous but 
this seems not to be the case. All these glands are of epidermal origin 
(GRESSNER, 1877; FENNER, 1904). The stalked glands of the upper 
surface stand on an epidermal cell, the stalk cell displaying a marked 
entasis, ending in a single short domed cell supporting the capital com- 
posed of 1 6 radiating cells. This secretes and supports a globule of 
stiff mucilage which serves to entrap and smother the prey, which 
must be small only small insects are effectively caught such as 
aphides, minute flies of various kinds, etc. The sessile glands have a 
similar structure, but the stalk cell is not cut off from the foundation 
epidermis cell, and there is no elongation of it. The base of the gland, 
therefore, lies flush with the general surface. The capital has only 
eight cells. The sessile glands of the under surface have capitals with 
only four cells. All these have been described by FENNER. This in- 
vestigator further adds that some four rows of cells along the very 
thin leaf margin are also glandular, and that these secrete mucilage. 
The margin is of only three cells in thickness, a single course of cells 
being embraced between the two epidermes (15 5). It is always 
curled upwards through about 180 degrees, and this has been inter- 
preted as an adaptation for conserving the digestive fluids which escape 
from the glands on stimulation. FENNER believes also that the escape 
of secretions from the glands is made possible by the occurrence of 
pores in the cuticle. I have not been able to see them, but treatment 
with methylene blue proves the easy passage of solutes, for if a leaf is 
plunged into a solution of medium strength the capitals of the glands 
are almost immediately and deeply stained. The capitals of the stalked 
glands are also stained but not so quickly as those of the sessile glands, 
perhaps because of the presence of mucilage. With regard to the struc- 
ture of the cells along the margin of the upper surface, I can see no 
cytological evidence, such as claimed by FENNER, that they are glandu- 
lar, nor have I seen a band of mucilage as described by him. J. R. 
GREEN (1899, p. 214) cites DARWIN to the effect that Pinguicula 
secretes a digestive fluid on the edges of the upper surface of the leaf 
which folds over to enclose its captive. On perusing DARWIN'S account 
I am unable to subscribe to GREEN'S statement. True, DARWIN does 
use the expression " placed among one margin" or "on one margin " but 
this was not meant to indicate that when secretion occurred it was 
confined to the margin, but that the nearby stalked glands contributed. 
Drops of meat infusions could not be confined to the margin without 
coming into contact with nearby glands. DARWIN in his first set of 
experiments was concerned with the possibility of leaf movement which 
he demonstrated to his own satisfaction. In his experiment on di- 



Francis E. Lloyd 108 Carnivorous Plants 

gestion he invariably placed the substrate to be acted on "on the 
leaf", and I think it is quite evident from the context that DARWIN 
did not think of the margin of the leaf as having a localized digestive 
action. 

Pmguicula was first studied and shown to be carnivorous by DAR- 
WIN. "I was led to investigate the habits of this plant by being told 
by Mr. W. MARSHALL that on the mountains of Cumberland many 
insects adhere to the leaves" (Insectivorous Plants, p. 297). He noted 
the presence of two kinds of glands, sessile and stalked, later studied 
carefully by FENNER. Having studied Drosera extensively DARWIN 
first looked for and discovered movements of the leaves. In a se- 
ries of 17 experiments small flies, or portions of larger flies, smaller 
and larger fragments of meat, meat juice stabilized in small bits of 
sponge, even fragments of glass were placed in various positions in 
rows parallel to the margin, near the apex, and along the midrib, and 
he found curvatures of the leaf margin to occur within periods of a few 
(2-4) hours, to increase for some hours and finally to disappear. The 
apex of the leaf never shows motion, this being confined to the margins. 
He found evidence leading him to believe that the stimulus could be 
transmitted to a distance of about 6 mm. (his exp. 13). A weak so- 
lution of ammonium carbonate caused marked incurvation of the leaf 
margin in 3.5 hrs., a stronger solution (i to 218 H 2 0) causing no move- 
ment, probably due to damage. Mechanical irritation of the leaf 
surface either before or after the application of meat juice, thus im- 
itating the actions of dying prey, did not hasten or increase the re- 
sponse. The effect produced by fragments of glass was as rapid as 
that following the application of nitrogenous substances, but the de- 
gree of curvature was less. The substances used other than glass in- 
cited a more or less copious flow of secretion. 

DARWIN commented on the brevity of the response action, there 
being a complete restoration of form within 24 hours. He was thus 
prompted to doubt the usefulness of the behavior, but ventured the 
idea that the infolded margin could prevent the washing away of prey, 
as in fact was observed by a friend of DARWIN in Wales. If the prey 
is large the infolding leaf margin pushed it further toward the middle 
of the midrib, thus bringing it into contact with more glands, an effect 
comparable to the action of the tentacles in Drosera. The margins of 
the leaf are always curved up, and this DARWIN thought to help to 
conserve the fluids from loss, keeping them on the leaf surface to be 
absorbed. GOEBEL could not substantiate DARWIN'S conclusions about 
the sensitivity of the Pinguicula leaf, his experimental results being 
mostly negative. On the other hand, FENNER, one of GOEBEL'S 
students, did find slight movements on the application of fragments 
of glass, followed by quick recovery. The secretion of mucilage is 
thereby excited. When an insect falls on or near the leaf margin, an 
abundant secretion follows, overwhelming it. This escape of fluids 
from the leaf alters the tensions and this results in the inrolling of 
the leaf margin which does not occur in older mature leaves. When the 
insects sink down to the leaf surface and come into contact with the 
sessile glands (13 n), an acid secretion of greater viscosity and con- 
taining a digestive enzyme escapes from these. GOEBEL had shown 



Chapter IX 109 Pinguicula 

that the abundant mucilaginous secretion following application of 
granules of sugar is without digestive power. 

Having cultivated material of P. vulgaris collected in the mountains 
of California east of Crescent City, I repeated such experiments as 
done by DARWIN, GOEBEL and FENNER on about a dozen leaves, with 
definitely positive results. I cite only one as typical, this being il- 
lustrated in 15 i, see also 13 6. The total activity extended over 
more than six days. Four minute flies were observed caught in a row 
parallel to one margin and two similarly placed with respect to the 
other margin. Already the one margin was slightly curved upwards 
on Oct. 2, the other showed no motion until the night of Oct. 3-4. On 
the morning of Oct. 4 both margins were well curved, enough to hide 
all the flies. On Oct. 6, the inward rolling of the margins was well 
developed, and next day it had begun to recede, again exposing the 
flies to one's vision. This behavior was typical of the whole series of 
cases. This and a number of other cases observed seem to throw doubt 
on the validity of DARWIN'S statement that the time leaves remain 
incurved, even though the exciting objects remain in position, is but 
short, i.e., not more than twenty-four hours. It is further well known 
that the contact of an insect with the leaf at a point removed from the 
margin, i.e., near the midrib, results in the dishing of the leaf below 
the insect (DARWIN, BATALIN). This, as BATALIN suggests, is the 
same phenomenon as observed in Drosera, and must be attributed to 
growth and not to injury as DARWIN supposed. When flies are ar- 
ranged along and more or less parallel to the leaf margin the growth 
results in the rolling of it. There is little doubt of the correctness of 
this explanation; and moreover it agrees with our knowledge of the 
procedure in Drosera and Dionaea. 

Movement in Pinguicula is then an undoubted fact. How much sig- 
nificance may be attached to it is a question. GOEBEL attached little. 
DARWIN thought that the rolling of the leaf margin brings more glands 
into contact with the prey, and in some cases pushes it into new posi- 
tions further away from the margin. DARWIN probably underesti- 
mated the persistence of the change in movement, and therefore its 
importance. The upward curved leaf margins help to hold the se- 
cretion in place. This is probably as much as we can say about the 
matter. 

DARWIN then turned his attention to the question of secretion and 
digestion. He found that when he placed prey (small flies), fragments 
of meat, cartilage, fibrin, albumen (egg-white, coagulated), gluten and 
gelatin, etc., on the leaf surface, there was an increase of secretion, 
often copious, and that this was acid. Evidence of digestion was 
clear: insects fell apart readily, and other substances showed the ex- 
pected signs of disintegration. Objects not containing soluble nitrog- 
enous matter, or other soluble matter do not excite secretion. Non- 
nitrogenous fluids can cause free flow of the secretion, but this remains 
neutral (non-acid). Among the substances or objects which incite 
acid secretion were small leaves (Erica tetralix), pollen and various 
seeds, all often seen to adhere to leaves in the open, all, of course, con- 
taining nitrogen from which DARWIN argued that these objects also, as 
well as animal prey, help to nourish the plant. Since the peduncles are 



Francis E. Lloyd 110 Carnivorous Plants 

equally glandular with the leaf, and since the life of a peduncle is fully 
a month or more, whatever benefit may be derived from prey caught 
by leaves may also be said to accrue from that caught by the peduncles. 

Cytological changes. DARWIN examined the condition of the glan- 
dular cells after being in contact for some time with sources of matter 
which was plainly absorbed, and found evidence of change in structure 
and appearance of the protoplasm and its content, usually in the ap- 
pearance of granular matter colored brownish, or in the cell contents, 
at first limpid, being aggregated into slowly moving masses of proto- 
plasm. The difficulties of observation and inference are obviously 
great, a great deal more so than in the case of Drosera. DARWIN re- 
ferred the appearances to the absorption of food materials. 

NICOLOSI-RONCATI (1912) endeavored to relate cytoplasmic changes 
observed in fixed and stained material to secretive activity, in P. 
hirtiflora. In actively secreting glands (mucilage glands presumably), 
the cytoplasm is vacuolated and contains many fuchsinophile granules 
scattered toward the periphery of the cell with moniliform bodies in 
the vicinity of the nucleus. The nucleolus, large and intensely fuch- 
sinophile at the beginning of secretion, diminishes notably in volume 
and in capacity for staining in evidently secreting cells. The author 
concluded that the first impulse to secretion comes from the nucleolus, 
the primary granules of secretion being formed by the chromatin. 
These diffuse throughout the body of the cell definitively elaborating 
secretory substance. This work, while affording a beginning, does not 
lead us very definitely forward, as at this time we are unable to dis- 
tinguish the kind of secretion dealt with, whether of mucilage or en- 
zymes. 

TISCHUTKIN (1889) carried out experiments similar to those of 
DARWIN, and worked also with glycerin extracts of leaves and mix- 
tures of leaf secretion, withdrawn by means of a pipette, with glycerin, 
acidified variously (HC1, formic, malic acids). Both glycerin extracts 
and mixtures gave only negative results. Albumen, gelatin and 
fibrin placed on the leaves gave results for him much the same as for 
DARWIN. TISCHUTKIN states then that in Pinguicula insects which 
are caught call forth a secretion of acid sap which can procure a cer- 
tain alteration of their substance. Examining the work of REES, 
GORUP and WILL (later substantiated) he sees in its deficiencies ev- 
idence of bacterial action and he comes to the conviction that the role 
of the plant is the secretion of a medium which is suited to the life 
and activity of microorganisms (bacteria), and concludes without fur- 
ther experimental evidence that in Pinguicula we are dealing with 
bacterial action, in this agreeing with MORREN (1875). 

Somewhat later GOEBEL also attacked the problem of digestion in 
Pinguicula. When he put particles of fibrin on the leaves, the secre- 
tion was intensified, and the smallest particles digested in 24 hours. 
The secretion was weakly acid. When insects (those, as already said, 
are always small, for Pinguicula is adapted to the capture and di- 
gestion of only small ones) are found in an advanced stage of digestion, 
the glands are found to contain droplets of fat. Large insects or fibrin 
fragments are overcome by decay. By ad hoc culture experiments 
GOEBEL showed that TISCHUTKIN'S views are not justified. He showed 



Chapter IX 111 Pinguicula 

that when even small flies, partly digested, were transferred to nutrient 
gelatin plates, no evidence of bacterial activity was forthcoming. He 
convinced himself, on experimental evidence, that Pinguicula secretes 
an antiseptic substance which prevents bacterial action, and, while his 
procedure cannot be regarded as beyond criticism, yet it is to be 
noted that later LOEW and Aso (1907) claimed to have found benzoic 
acid in the leaves. Naturally the amount present is not sufficient to 
meet all conditions, since in nature the Pinguicula catches only minute 
flies, and only small amounts of the antiseptic agent are called for. In 
TISCHUTKIN'S experiments, says GOEBEL, he used too large masses of 
material with erroneous results. The capacity of the stomach to digest 
cheese, he added, cannot fairly be judged by feeding a kilo of cheese at 
one time. 

GOEBEL made an experiment which seems to distinguish between 
the action of the sessile and stalked glands, substantiating DARWIN'S 
findings that " non-nitrogenous fluids if dense cause the glands to pour 
forth a large supply of viscid fluid, but this is not in the least acid. 
On the other hand the secretion from glands excited by contact with ni- 
trogenous solids and fluids is invariably acid ". TISCHUTKIN had 

tried to extract leaves by placing them in glycerin, with negative results. 
By strewing granular cane sugar on the leaf surface of some 70 plants, 
GOEBEL collected about i cc. of secretion which was neutral and after 
the addition of 0.2% formic acid a particle of fibrin remained in it 
undigested at 35 C. From this it appears that an abundant se- 
cretion (probably from the stalked glands) is not necessarily correlated 
with digestive activity. On the other hand if leaves are stimulated by 
strewing particles of fibrin, smeared with meat juice and finally placed 
in meat juice, with 1.5% formic acid added and allowed to stand for 
1 8 hours, a fluid was obtained which digested swollen fibrin in 25 hours. 
No bacteria were present, due to the hindering action of the formic 
acid. In any event, the amount of enzyme obtainable is small. 

In the foregoing it will be seen that the conclusion that Pinguicula 
is a true carnivorous plant rests on the evidence that fragments of 
nitrogenous matters and insects are disintegrated by the secreted 
juices, and that this takes place in the absence of bacteria (GOEBEL). 
DERNBY (1917) pushed the matter further, and by means of glycerin 
extracts obtained a true tryptase, not observed elsewhere among 
plants. There is also a weak and incomplete pepsidase effect, as small 
amounts of amino-compounds are set free at pH 8. The tryptase at- 
tacked caseinogen at pH 8-9. 

But this has not gone without further challenge. 

MIRIMANOFF (1938) found that the gland cells of both stalked 
and sessile glands, where an insect was attached, showed aggregation. 
His description of this agrees with that of DARWIN and others. He 
could not induce it, however, with other substances (egg-white, cheese, 
meat extract). It appeared to him that only certain products of 
deamination were responsible for disturbir^g the osmotic equilibrium 
of the cell, inducing the changes leading to aggregation. It is revers- 
ible, and different from those irreversible changes observed on the ap- 
plication of neutral red, though by some observers they have been 
regarded as similar or alike. Incidentally, pointing out the total con- 



Francis E. Lloyd 112 Carnivorous Plants 

tradiction between the results of TISCHUTKIN, who denied the rdle of 
other than bacterial digestion, and COLLA, who argued the opposite, 
he states his belief that digestion by the leaf is extraordinarily feeble, 
and it seemed to MIRIMANOFF that Pinguicula would better be re- 
garded as a "semi-carnivore". Following up this hint OLIVET and 
MIRIMANOFF (1940) re-examined the matter by a new method. They 
applied (a) a sterilized insect (Drosophila) to a bacteria-sterile leaf, 
and (6) one to a non-sterile leaf; and (c) a non-sterile insect to a non- 
sterile leaf. In the first case there was no evidence of digestion, and 
none of aggregation and no discoloration of the glands. In the second 
there was an evident discoloration of the glands, and aggregation was 
observed. Tested, the fly now was swarming with bacteria among 
which were gelatin-liquifying motile forms. In the last case digestion 
of the insect proceeded with abundant evidence of aggregation and 
discoloration. It was tried to obtain the putative protease by diffusion 
into gelatin-sugar in the cold. On warming at ordinary temperatures 
there was no liquifaction. They concluded that the digestion of insects 
on Pinguicula is the result of bacterial activity, and while the authors 
do not deny the presence of a protease secreted by the plant, they hold 
its action to be negligible. 

Thus the question has been reopened, and demands further critical 
examination. 

Pinguicula has long been supposed to have the ability to curdle 
milk. LINNAEUS (Flora Lapponica, p. 10) tells us that the Lapps used 
it for the curdling of milk and that the peasants of the Italian Alps use it 
similarly (PFEFFER, through OPPENHEIMER). FRANCIS DARWIN also 
records the fact that the same use was made of it by the farmers of 
Wales "for the past 30 years" as previous to 1875. This probably 
means a very much longer time (F. DARWIN, in a footnote in DARWIN, 
1888). 

The fact that some plants can cause coagulation in milk (notably 
Galium verum) was known to the ancients, according to CZAPEK. It 
is not clear what precisely the function of a rennet on this plant would 
be, but it seems that it is not a substance per se, but that the pro- 
teolytic enzymes have the property of coagulation, as will be seen 
beyond. In relation to this question, the following quotations were 
sent me by Dr. OKE GUSTAFSSON, translated and transmitted by 
Dr. JENS CLAUSEN, to both of whom I owe thanks: 

"This 'tatort' (Pinguicula vulgaris) has long been used in some of the more northern 
provinces of Sweden, as for example Jamtland and Dalarne. It has been mixed with fresh 
milk by smearing either the milk-sieve or the container with the glutinous leaves. For 
a long time it has been a common view that the milk was changed to ropy- or long-milk 
by its tough and viscid slime similar to cheese-lep (The milk has been given this name be- 
cause it is so thick and tough [viscid] that it can be pulled into long strands). Through 
experiments it has now been found that long-milk cannot always be produced with Pin- 
guicula (the 'tatort'), if ever, but that on the contrary such milk can originate without 
this medium." (LINDMAN). 

Properties and uses in Norway and Denmark. "When the leaves 
are laid in milk it will curdle, although without separating from the 
whey, and this milk, in Norway called 'Taettemaelk' (ropy milk) will 
make other milk curdle. From this the Norwegian name 'Taettegrses' 
(curdlegrass) and the Faroe name 'Undslaeva Greas' have their 



Chapter IX 113 Pinguicula 

origin. Especially the milk of reindeer is supposed to curdle. However, 
it had been impossible for me to obtain information that at the present 
time this plant is used in Norway for production of ropy milk, be- 
cause usually the left-overs of milk curdled in this manner are used to 
thicken fresh milk with. 

" Previously this plant has been accused of producing liver sickness 
(rot) in sheep but we now know that this is an effect of the liver 
fluke, Distomum hepaticum, which lives in wet pastures (Note by 
J. CLAUSEN, in ep.). The bees seek this plant, but stock do not eat it. 
It is told that it will stain yellow. It is an indicator of moist, so-called 
sour soil. In places it is used mixed with linseed oil as a home-remedy 
against wounds. " (HORNEMANN). 

DERNBY considered this whole question fully, citing the popular 
belief in Scandinavia that both Pinguicula and Drosera procure when 
in contact with milk a "long", that is, a very viscous coagulum. 
Although the work of TROILI-PETERSSON and OLSEN-SOPP (Centralb. 
f. Bact. II 33: 1912) shows that these plants have nothing to do with 
"l&ngmjolk", yet the expressed sap of Pinguicula leaves does have 
a definite effect on sweet milk, that is, on its casein. It produces a 
viscous fluid of alkaline reaction, but the casein is not coagulated, but 
broken down into simpler bodies. DERNBY states the following con- 
clusions from experimental evidence: (i) Dialysed expressed sap of 
Pinguicula cannot make milk " thick"; (2) On the other hand it splits 
casein of milk, but only partly, in a weakly alkaline field, just as 
it does Witte-peptone under the same conditions; (j) The enzyme is very 
similar to trypsin, working at an opt. pH of ca. 8; (4) No enzyme of 
pepsin-erepsin character could be found. 

Therapeutic effects. P. GEDDES pointed out that all alpine peasan- 
try apply the leaves to the sores of cattle, and its healing effect, if such 
there is, might be referred to the antiseptic properties. More recently 
there have been more exact studies made of this property (McLEAN, 
1919) indicating the truth of GEDDES' report. 

Summarizing, we may conclude that Pinguicula is a carnivorous 
plant inasmuch as it catches small insects and digests them, at least 
in part, by means of its own ferments. The possible part played by bac- 
teria is not excluded. Its leaves are very sensitive to too great "por- 
tions" of food as GOEBEL truly said. Only minute insects can be 
captured in nature, this being a matter of common observation. Large 
insects or bits of fibrin, unless very small, cause decay beneath with 
permanent injury to the tissues. A closer understanding of the chem- 
ical nature of the digestive ferments has been attained by DERNBY. 

As to the power of the leaf to move, first observed by DARWIN, 
there can be no doubt of the fact, and that the stimulus, supplied 
by the application of various kinds of substances, organic and in- 
organic, is transmitted in some fashion, but only slowly. The short- 
est time in which DARWIN observed movement was 2 hours 17 minutes, 
the stimulus being transmitted over a very short distance, a matter 
probably of not more than 2 to 6 mm. Movements can be induced 
by substances which do not cause increased secretion, such as fine 
grains of sand, as I have also observed. Increased secretion follows 
the application of sugar and proteins among others. But that following 



Francis E. Lloyd 114 Carnivorous Plants 

sugar does not contain ferments, indicating the abeyance of activity 
on the part of the sessile glands in this case. 

Literature Cited: 

BATALIN, A., Mechanik der Bewegungen der insektenfressenden Pflanzen. Flora 60:33-39; 

54-58; 65-73; 105-111; 129-144; I4S-I54, 1877 (Pinguicida, pp. 150-154). 
COLLA, SILVIA, Sui fermenti secret! da Pinguicida alpina L. Annuario della Chanousia 

3:144, 1937 (through MIRIMANOFF). 

CZAPEK, F., Biochemie der Pflanzen. 3 vols. 825 pp. Jena, 1925. 
DARWIN, C., Irritability of Pinguicida. Card. Chron. II, 2:15 and 19, 4 July, 1874. 
DARWIN, C., Insectivorous Plants. 2d Ed., 1875. 
DERNBY, K. G., Die proteolitischen Enzyme der Pinguicida vulgaris. Bioch. Zeitschr. 80:152- 

158, 1917. 

FENNER (see under Nepenthes). 

GEDDES, P., Chapters in modern Botany. New York 1893, 2O1 PP- 
GOEBEL, K., Pflanzenbiologische Schilderungen, TI. 1891. 
GORUP, (see under Nepenthes) 
GREEN, J. R., (see under Nepenthes). 
GRESSNER, H., Botanische Untersuchungen, i. Beobachtungen iiber Pinguicida vulgaris. 

Jahresber. d. evangel. Fiirstl. Bentheim'schen Gymn. Arnold, z. Burgsteinfurt. Iser- 

lohn 1877. 
HORNEMANN, J. W., Fors^g til en dansk oekonomisk Plantelaere. Kj^benhavn 1821, pp. 

27-28. 

HOVELACQUE, M., Sur les propagules de Pinguicida vulgaris. C. R. 106:310, Feb. 1888. 
KLEIN, J., Pinguicida alpina, als insektenfressende Pflanze und in anatomischer Beziehung. 

Beitr. z. Biol. d. Pflanzen. 3:163-185, 1880. 

LINDMAN, C. A. M., Bilder ur Nordens flora, p. 100. Stockholm, 1922. 
LOEW, 0. & R. Aso, Benzoesaure in Pinguicida vulgaris. Bull. Agri. Coll. Tokyo Imp. 

Univ. 7:411-412, 1907. 
McLEAN, R. C., The anaerobic treatment of wounds in life and its maintenance. New 

York, 1919. 
MIRIMANOFF, A., Aggregation protoplasmique et contraction vacuolaire chez Pinguicula 

vulgaris L. Bull. Soc. Bot. de Geneve II, 29:1-15, 1938. 
MORREN, E., Observations sur les procd6s insecticides des Pinguicula. Bulh Acad. roy. 

d. Sci. etc. Belg., 2 s6r., 39:870, 1875. 
NicoLOSi-RoNCATi, F., Contribute alia conoscenza citofisiologica delle glandule vegetali. 

Bull. Soc. Bot. Ital. 1912:186-193. 
OLIVET, R. & A. MIRIMANOFF, Pinguicida vulgaris L. est-elle une plante carnivore? Bull. 

Soc. Bot. Geneve II, 30:230-235, 1940. 

OPPENHEIMER, C., Die Fermente und ihre Wirkungen. vol. 2, pp. 1106-1111. Leipzig, 1925. 
REES, (see under Nepenthes). 
TISCHUTKIN, N., Die Rolle der Bacterien bei der Veranderung der Eiweisstoffe auf den 

Blattern von Pinguicula. Ber. d. d. bot. Ges. 7:346-355, 1889. 
WILL (see under Nepenthes). 
VON WILLER, Vital-Microscopische Beobachtungen an Insektenfressenden Pflanzen. Trudy 

Inst. Fiz. Narkomprosa (Trav. Inst. Rech. Phys. Moscou) 2:517-519, 1936. Not seen. 

Describes a method of observing a single gland of Pinguicula exclusively, all others 

being left intact, to be stained vitally and otherwise experimented on. 



Chapter X 
DROSERA 

Number of species. Geographical distribution. Habitat. Form and habit of the 
plant. Unfolding movements of the leaf. The leaf (Form. Anatomy. Appendages. 
Tentacles. Sessile glands, origin and structure, function. Locus of absorption. Other 
glands). Reproduction. Carnivory, early observations. Mucilage, origin. Move- 
ments of the "tentacles (Early observations. NITSCHKE and DARWIN). Direction of bend- 
ing. Duration of response. Leaf blade not receptive to stimulus. Path of stimulus. 

Intensity of stimulus. Mechanism of movement. BEHRE'S studies. Aggregation. 

Digestion. Enzymes. The significance of carnivory for the plant. 

The genus Drosera contains more than 90 species found in almost 
all parts of the world. It reaches its greatest development in Australia 
and is well represented in S. Africa. The most widely known, at least 
historically, is the common sundew, ros solis, D. rotundifolia, the plant 
which chiefly formed the subject of DARWIN'S extensive studies. This 
and its allies, D. anglica, D. intermedia and filiformis, also well known 
in the North Temperate zone, are modest representatives of the genus 
as compared with such forms as D. gigantea of Australia or D. regia of 
S. Africa. 

Habitat. It is very generally understood that Drosera grows 
where the soil is poor in nutrient substances. Such a statement ap- 
plies fully enough to the best known species of the northern hem- 
isphere, D. rotundifolia, intermedia, filiformis, etc., but seems not to be 
true of some species such as D. Whittakeri of S. Australia, where I 
saw it growing on wooded slopes with a general vegetation. Even this, 
however, though probably a richer soil than that of a sphagnum 
swamp, is not a rich soil. One commonly finds D. rotundifolia in any 
swamp where Sphagnum grows, and it grows plentifully in the chinks 
of partially decayed -floating or stranded logs, a favorite place. In the 
Sequoia National Park, California, it is found in the wet open mead- 
ows surrounded by Sequoia gigantea, growing on a dense floor of moss 
(not Sphagnum). A more accurate picture is afforded by WEBER (1902) 
in his monograph describing the great swamps of Augustumal, in the 
delta of the Memel River. There is in this swamp, as of course in 
swamps elsewhere, a zonation of the vegetation. As one proceeds from 
the margin to the middle, one finds that the ash content of the soil 
and soil water becomes more and more reduced. It is only in the more 
central parts that D. anglica and D. rotundifolia are to be found, and 
these are the parts which are most lacking in salts. The vegetation 
here consists of Spagnum with Cladonia uncinalis, Scirpus caespitosus, 
Eriophorum vaginatum, Scheuchzeria palustris, Rhynchospora alba, 
V actinium oxycoccus, and Andromeda polifolia and therefore of few 
species. This habitat was found to have a soil with the following com- 
position in absolute and relative terms. In quoting these data, SCHMII> 

AUGUSTUMAL DILUVIAL CLAY 

SWAMPS SOIL 

Potassium 0.044 (0 I -<>6 ( 2 4) 

Phosphoric acid 0.075 ( J ) - J 8 ( 2.4) 

Calcium 0.217 (i) 2.86 (13.1) 

Magnesia 0.138 (i) 0.88 ( 5.9) 



Francis E. Lloyd 116 Carnivorous Plants 

points out the absence of data on the nitrogen content, and cites, in 
order to fill the gap, the fact, stated by WOLLNY (1897), that the soil 
(raw humus) of a pine forest as compared with that of the Drosera 
habitat, contains nitrogen in the proportion of 27:1. Even more strik- 
ing than the fact that the habitat is of such poor quality in respect to 
salt content is the further observation that the first immigrants onto 
the newly cut turf surfaces after the removal of peats, is Drosera, and 
this remains for a long time the only inhabitant of these raw peat 
surfaces. We may recall in this connection that CORRENS (1896) 
showed that tap water at a high temperature (54.4 C.) does not 
cause movements of the tentacles, but that water devoid of CaCO 3 
and CO 2 called forth reactions at that temperature. In this way he 
detected a toxic effect of Ca and inferred that this substance in the 
soil (at least too much of it) might be toxic. 

Form and habit of the plant. The commonest type of Drosera 
consists of a slender stem crowned by a rosette of leaves with flowering 
scapes growing in the leaf axils. It arises from a seedling (D. rotundi- 
folia) which has a fugacious taproot, which, however, serves for the 
formation of the earliest rosette of leaves (NITSCHKE, 1860). Ac- 
cording to HEINRICHER (1902) the taproot fails to elongate, but swells 
into a rounded mass covered with root hairs. The cotyledons are 
simple, spatulate, followed by leaves of the mature type, though small 
and with fewer appendages (tentacles) than the latter. As the plant 
grows the stem dies off behind. In winter the rosette is reduced to a 
tight compact winter bud which may have no extending stem or roots. 

Growing as it (D. rotundifolia e.g.) does in mats of Sphagnum, the 
differential growth rates of these plants brings it about that Sphagnum 
by its more rapid growth during the cool months, overtops the Drosera 
and in the warmer months the latter in its turn overtops the Sphagnum. 
One sees, therefore, in a Drosera plant, which has grown in this way, 
successive dead rosettes clinging to the dead stem, ending above in a 
living rosette, as figured by NITSCHKE. Such are our familiar species 
of the northern hemisphere. The leaves of the rosette when fully ex- 
panded may be relatively small, as in D. rotundifolia, intermedia, etc., 
or very large and ligulate, as in a remarkable species, D. regina, de- 
scribed by Miss E. L. STEPHENS from S. Africa. In this species the 
leaves are 2 cm. broad by 35 cm. long. Or again the leaves may be 
large and fern-like in aspect, with strong terete petioles with a once to 
thrice parted leaf blade as in D. binata, D. dichotoma (S. Africa, Aus- 
tralia). These make showy greenhouse plants, and have often been 
cultivated and used for study, to be reported upon in some detail 
beyond. 

Or again the main stem may be elongated upward, only slightly in 
Z?. capensis, an often cultivated form from S. Africa, with ligulate leaf 
blades supported on rather long petioles (13 5, 7). In the most stately 
species D. gigantea the stem may be a meter long and many plants together 
form a dense half shrubby tangle crowned with the numerous flowers 
in panicles. The stems climb or clamber, partly by twisting and partly 
by means of certain long-petioled leaves in which the leaf blade be- 
comes a disc of attachment, its dense secretion forming an adhesive 
(GOEBEL 1923). The stems are wiry, the leaves peltate and deeply 
cupped. It is a pronounced sclerophyll, according to CZAJA. 



Chapter X 117 Drosera 

Some species, after the seedling stage is passed, form tubers which 
perennate, and send up strong stems ending in a rosette or whatever 
type of above-ground parts it has. From the stems grow axillary, 
positively geotropic shoots (droppers), at the ends of which new tubers 
arise (See beyond for details). These species have no roots, while in 
general the roots are always meagre in numbers and extent, a fact 
which is well known (Scmim). The root hairs are numerous in some 
species and their walls are suberized and persistent. In other species 
the root hairs are sparse. MARLOTH has reported both conditions in 
S. African species. In some species the roots are apparently replaced 
by rhizoids. DIELS has thus described for D. erythrorhiza the root-like 
productions one to three in number from the base of each scale leaf. 
These have no root cap, but are provided with "root" hairs (DiELS 
1906). GOEBEL comments on the nature of these structures, called 
by the equivocal name of leaf-roots ("Blattwurzeln"), pointing out 
that in the apex, while no root cap is present, there is an apical mer- 
istem just behind the epidermis, the outer walls of which are thick- 
ened, and which are evidently a protective mail for a boring apex, 
which may be regarded perhaps as a reducing or reduced root end. 
Their origin according to DIELS, however, is exogenous, and he called 
them leaf rhizoids, but leaves details of their origin not fully under- 
stood. I have verified DIELS' observation. 

I have examined the " leaf roots" of D. erythrorhiza from West 
Australia and am able to confirm GOEBEL'S observation of very thick 
outer cell walls of the apical cells (15 19). There is a meristem, but 
this does not lie immediately behind the epidermis, but just back of 
three cell layers within. The apex itself is composed of enlarged 
epidermal cells underlain by other cells of similar appearance derived 
from two subepidermal layers, and heavily loaded with large starch 
grains. The apical cells constitute a boring organ which does not 
slough off as does the root cap. If there is any renewal of substance, 
this would be in new secretion of cell wall. The plant grows, however, 
in very loose soil where friction against the growing tip is minimum in 
amount. At all events I have examined a large number of " leaf- 
roots " and have not found any evidence of renewal of epidermal cells. 

In the axis of each rhizoid-bearing scale small tubers, having evi- 
dently the function of reproduction, can be produced (GOEBEL 1933). 

Unfolding movements of the leaf. In many of the species of Dro- 
sera (D. rotundifolia, D. pygmaea), the petiole is bent so that the 
upper face of the blade becomes applied to the petiole (16 17). This 
is brought about by the hyponasty of a more or less narrow zone of the 
petiole at the base of the blade. In other species, however, 
those in which the leaf blade is slender and filiform, there oc- 
curs true circination, as in D. filiformis, D. regia (with slender 
ligulate leaves with short petioles), D. binata, D. dichotoma, with 
the volute facing the stem, and due again to hyponasty. Just 
the opposite occurs in Drosophyllum and in Byblis linifolia. These 
two directly opposite behaviors appear, according to FENNER (1904), 
to be related to the need for protection of the tentacles since they are 
on the upper surface in Drosera and on the lower in Drosophyllum y 
but, it is to be noted, along the margins in both, with the result that 



Francis E. Lloyd 118 Carnivorous Plants 

in the volute a large number of the tentacles are exposed and cannot 
receive protection from the overlying turn of the volute. I have ob- 
served this and can confirm GOEBEL on the point. On the other hand, 
GOEBEL proposes a causal explanation as follows. The production of 
a great extension of surface by the growth of tentacles can act to in- 
hibit the growth rate of that surface, and thus permit the more rapid 
growth of the other face of the leaf, the lower in Drosera, the upper 
in Drosophyllum (GOEBEL, 1924). In Byblis gigantea the leaf shows no 
such movements. The leaf grows in a basal zone, and the filiform blade 
extends always straight on. In this the glands are more numerous on 
the lower surface. Here the distribution of the very numerous glands 
either has no inhibiting effect, or has an equal effect on all sides of the 
leaf. 

Of particular interest to us here are the leaves, which are the 
mechanism for catching and digesting prey. These present a variety of 
forms from a simple orbiculate bifacial leaf of small size (D. rotundi- 
folia i cm. diam.) through linear (D. filiformis) to broad liguliform 
tapering at both ends (D. regia}. Or the blade may be once to twice 
forked (D. binata, D. dichotoma) the petioles firm and cylindrical 
("rush-like" as DARWIN put it). Further, the leaf may be peltate, 
either obliquely (D. pygmaea) or centrally (D. gigantea, D. peltata y 
D. subhirtella) , sometimes with two basal lobes (D. auriculatd) making 
the leaf base angular, a condition reaching its maximum expression in 
D. lunata (E. Asia). In the seedlings of the peltate leafed species the pri- 
mary seedling leaves are usually non-peltate, those of D. peltata re- 
sembling the following leaves of D. rotundifolia (DIELS, GOEBEL). 

The leaf is conspicuous because of its glands raised on elongated 
stalks, each bearing a drop of mucilage which is extremely viscid and 
serves to entrap small insects. ERASMUS DARWIN thought that " Dro- 
sera mucilage prevents small insects from infesting the leaves" (The 
Botanic Garden, vol. 2, Canto i, p. 229). 

Anatomy of the leaf blade. The epidermis is composed of straight- 
walled cells in D. rotundifolia and D. capensis, but in D. Whittakeri 
the lower epidermis is wavy-walled, the upper straight-walled. In 
these species the cells have many chloroplasts, absent from the lower 
epidermis of D. rotundifolia (SOLEREDER). 

The internal parenchyma has no palisade, as pointed out by 
NITSCHKE, the whole being made up of rounded cells in rather few 
courses, more in some species (D. Whittakeri) than in others (D. ro- 
tundifolia). In the latter species there are, in the case examined by me, 
3 to 5 courses of cells. The smallest are in contact with the upper 
epidermis. Below there are much larger cells, the third course in con- 
tact with the lower epidermis unless a fourth course occurs, when the 
cells are somewhat smaller, but still larger than the upper course 
cells (15 15). All the cells, usually including the epidermis (SOLERE- 
DER), contain chloroplasts. Stomata occur on both surfaces. The in- 
tercellular spaces are large. This general structure is, as SCHMID 
(1912) has said, rather primitive, a quality which is shared, in varying 
degree, with insectivorous plants in general, indicating that this qual- 
ity stands in a probable relation to carnivory. In these plants the 
elaboration of starch and its metabolism and withdrawal are all slow 
processes. 



Chapter X 119 Drosera 

It was observed by SCHMID that during the absorption of materials 
from the bodies of prey, the starch content of the tissues at the base 
of the tentacles is lost. According to SPOEHR (1923) the amino acids 
are concerned with the metabolism of starch. From this GIESSLER 
(1928) was prompted to investigate the influence of salts on the me- 
tabolism of starch in the leaf of Drosera capensis. He found that in 
this species, when the leaf is fed with insects or with various salts, 
there is a disappearance of starch from the leaf. The leaves of D. 
capensis are in summertime heavily loaded with starch. The starch 
content is not lowered even when the plant is kept in the dark. Even 
after 45 days in the dark in contact with distilled water, the leaf (at 
temp. 36-38 C.) showed no reduction in starch. The sugar con- 
tent is minute. In winter the leaves are starch-free, but there is as 
little sugar as in summer. These facts, together with the high respira- 
tory intensity, indicated to GIESSLER that the physiology of Drosera 
resembles rather that of the animal than of the plant, in that there 
is a protein respiration. He suggests that the starch is used in the 
secretion of mucilage and in supplying the energy for the bending of 
the tentacles and leaf blade in response to stimulation. In support of 
his thesis he points out the abundant occurrence of labile albumin 
(LOEW) in many carnivorous plants and mentions in support of this 
the work of ERNA JANSON on aggregation, to which reference is made 
elsewhere. It has often been asked if the carnivorous plants are not 
animal-like in view of their habits, and this is at present answered as 
above. 

The absence of a palisade tissue in Drosera, already mentioned, is 
not confined to this genus, but is generally though not universally true 
of carnivorous plants. This lack stands, according to SCHMID, in re- 
lation to insectivory, the latter affording compensation. But Kos- 
TYTSCHEW questioned this, and did experiments which he regarded as 
proving that both Drosera and Pinguicula are quite as active as the 
control plants which he used. As his figures are the only ones avail- 
able, I give them. The amount of CO 2 assimilated per i dm 2 of leaf 
surface: Drosera rotundifolia, 4 cc., Tussilago farfara (control) 3.8 cc., 
Pinguicula vulgaris, 38.4 cc., Aegopodium podagraria 18.1 cc. 

"Thus KOSTYTSCHEW'S experiments answered the question whether a carnivorous plant 
can obtain its carbon nutrition through photosynthesis in the affirmative. The scant ex- 
perimental data show, and the text implies, that Drosera and Pinguicula leaves, which 
have not had access to animal nutrition for some time, carry on photosynthesis at a normal 
rate. The observed rates are in good agreement with those established by WILLSTATTER 
and STOLL for a wide variety of green plants. KOSTYTSCHEW'S comparisons with Auricu- 
laria and Lemna also bear this out. 

"From his data on photosynthesis of Drosera it appears, however, that the rate of 
carbon dioxide assimilation would have increased materially after feeding the plants with 
insects. The experimental details have not been recorded in sufficient detail to permit of 
a definitive decision. But the discovery of a measurable effect of the ingestion of animal 
material on the rate of photosynthesis would open up a new approach to a study of the 
problem of photosynthesis itself. The importance of such a possibility made it an easy 
matter to obtain the co-operation of Dr. W. ARNOLD in carrying out some preliminary ex- 
periments. 

"Drosera and Pinguicula plants, previously not animal fed, were used for the experi- 
ments. Single leaves were placed in distilled water in the center-cups of Warburg vessels. 
A mixture of sodium carbonate and bicarbonate was introduced into the main chamber 
in order to insure a constant carbon dioxide pressure in the gas phase. Photosynthesis 



Francis E. Lloyd 120 Carnivorous Plants 

was measured manometrically at 27 C. The rate was constant over a period of six hours, 
at the end of which one leaf was fed with a fly and some egg albumen, while another was 
kept as a control. Repeated measurements over a period of some 20 hours following the 
feeding showed that the control leaf maintained a practically constant rate of both pho- 
tosynthesis and respiration. The rate of oxygen production of the experimental leaf 
appeared somewhat depressed, but its respiratory rate was considerably higher than that 
of the control. By correcting the photosynthesis measurements for respiration in the 
usual way it was found that the corrected values do not differ significantly from the orig- 
inal ones. The increased respiration obviously resulted from the availability of substrates 
for oxidation on the outside of the leaf, and may be caused by the plant itself or by con- 
taminating micro-organisms. These experiments lend no support whatever to the idea of 
an influence of feeding upon the rate of photosynthesis of carnivorous plants." (C. B. VAN 
NIEL, in ep.). 

The appendages of the leaf. There are several kinds of appendages 
but they are not all common to all species of Drosera. Some are im- 
portant physiologically in relation to the carnivorous habit, others not. 
To the former belong the tentacles and sessile glands, common to all 
species; to the latter are tfie glandular and eglandular trichomes seen 
in D. rotundifolia and other N. hemisphere species and the glandular 
trichomes found in such species as D. gigantea, and distributed over 
the whole plant body (75 16). We may add, at this point, that 
the fringes of trichome-like structures were regarded collectively as a 
ligule by NITSCHKE. It is a fringed membrane formed at the sides and 
across the leaf base in D. rotundifolia and some other species (16 18), 
but is absent from many others (D. Whittakeri, D. peltata, D. gigantea, 
etc.) It has been regarded as stipular and is so called in the taxonomic 
literature (DIELS) though SMALL (1939) takes another view 2 that the 
apparent membrane is merely a linear cluster of trichomes. That 
similar trichomes are found abundantly on the rest of the petiole sup- 
ports his contention. On the other hand it is difficult not to see in 
the huge ligulate " stipule " possessed by some species (D. paleacea, 
D. pygmaea) (16 18) in Australia, in which they serve to protect 
the bud during periods of drought (DIELS), an integration of a fringe 
as it occurs e.g. in D. rotundifolia. 

Tentacles. Of these, the stalked glands or tentacles are the most 
conspicuous and have most frequently been described. They have often 
called forth exclamatory remarks of wonder at their complex structure. 
They have been described, but not always correctly, by GRONLAND, 
TRCUL, NITSCHKE, WARMING, DARWIN, HUIE, FENNER, HOMES and 
probably others. The tentacles occur on the margin and upper surface 
of the leaf blade and in some species on the tapering upper region of 
the petiole, excepting those species which are strictly peltate. 

The "tentacle'' consists of a tapering stalk topped by an oval gland. 
The stalk arises from the leaf surface, as a mass of tissue including all 
the elements of the leaf structure, epidermis, parenchyma and vascular 
tissue. The terms "trichome" and "hair" are therefore not suitable, 
though they have been used. 

The term "tentacle" is not a strict one; it has been equated with 
"emergence" and serves if we think of the tentacle as an extension 
of the leaf adapted to certain functions which makes*them so trichome- 
like that they are no longer distinguishable from trichomes (DIELS). 
NITSCHKE and others regarded the tentacles as extensions of the leaf, 
WARMING as trichomes and PENZIG as intergradients between 
phyllome and trichome. 



Chapter X 121 Drosera 

In the upper reach the tentacle consists of the epidermis and one 
course of parenchyma cells surrounding a very slender vascular strand 
which extends from the leaf system up into the gland (15 6). This 
was seen by MEYEN in 1837, who supposed that it entered the gland. 
This structure led TRECUL (1855) to compare the tentacle with the 
dicotyledonous stem, and to regard the adventitious buds described 
first by NAUDIN as metamorphosed tentacles. GRONLAND called 
them lobes, and SCHACHT, projections of the leaf. On the surface 
as part of the epidermal system there are a few small sessile glands, 
these being found also on the general leaf surface. They formed con- 
venient marks by which H. D. HOOKER was able to record changes 
in the length of the tentacles during movement. The widened base 
of the tentacle has, naturally, an increasing number of parenchyma 
cells as the general leaf surface is approached. Similarly the vascular 
system, consisting of spiral tracheids, may here consist of two or more 
vessels, but above there is usually found only a single strand except 
where two may overlap. FENNER did not see any phloem, and I can 
only support him in this (75 7). The single vessel sets into a dense 
mass of thick and short tracheids occupying the middle of the gland 
(75 6) which, oval in form save when on a strictly marginal tentacle, 
sits atop the narrow neck of the stalk. Those tentacles arising from 
the leaf margin are bilaterally symmetrical, the stalk being extended 
under the glandular structure proper in the form of a spoon holding 
the gland in its bowl (75 9, n ; 16 1-3). DARWIN records finding 
intermediate forms, which I have also seen. The tentacles spring- 
ing from the surface are increasingly radially symmetrical as the 
margin of the leaf is left, are oval, and present the following struc- 
ture. 

The oval head of the tentacle consists of four layers of cells (75 
6, 8). The innermost of these is a roughly oval mass of tracheids which 
is connected by means of the vascular strand of spiral vessels in the 
stalk with the system in the leaf. Surrounding this xylem mass, 
three outermore layers cover it as a thimble, the flaring mouth of it 
articulating with the somewhat expanded tip of the stalk. The layer 
of cells in contact with the xylem mass is distinctly bell-shaped, and 
was called by FENNER the parenchyma bell. The flaring wall of the 
bell is composed of a single layer of elongated, curved cells, the ex- 
posed ends of which come to the surface of the gland, and whose cuti- 
cle is continuous with that of the gland above and the stalk below. 
The inner ends articulate, at a point about half-way up the bell, with 
shorter cells, forming the top of the bell. Both the transverse and 
longitudinal walls of all cells are cuticularized so that when a gland has 
been treated with sulfuric acid, these walls remain as a network (75 
12) or, as it were, a cage formed of a continuous band of cuticularized 
cell wall. In transverse section this band is T-shaped, the cross bar of 
the T being narrow and placed towards the outside with respect to the 
gland as a whole. HUIE believed that only the outer part of the wall 
(approximately one-half) is cuticularized, and abuts at the middle of 
the wall on a pit connecting adjacent bell cells, the inner moiety of the 
wall being lignified. FENNER did not see this, and I have been unable 
to verify HUIE'S description. This parenchyma bell appears to func- 



Francis E. Lloyd 122 Carnivorous Plants 

tion as an endodermis, though FENNER questions GOEBEL'S view that 
water may pass only in one direction (outwardly). The outer ends of 
these cells form a continuous single row of rounded outlines like a string 
of beads, seen in an entire gland, which limits the gland proper from the 
uppermost transverse course of stalk cells. These cells were seen by 
WARMING, whose drawing DARWIN reproduces. But DARWIN (1875 
2d. ed., p. 5) himself failed to see them, nor, said he, did NITSCHKE, 
though one of his drawings seems to indicate that he did. Neither 
did GRONLAND (1855) or TRCUL (1855) see them. 

Fitting over the parenchyma bell are the two layers of glandular 
cells. The outer course is made up of columnar epidermal cells, 
polygonal en face, their outer ends covered by a cuticle and their 
radial, and sometimes outer walls strengthened by cellulose buttresses 
and beams (75 13), as shown by FENNER. They are most pro- 
nounced throughout the lateral reaches of the gland and diminish in 
stature toward its apex, from which they are quite absent (HUIE), 
though Honfes thinks they occur here, but are smaller, in much smaller 
numbers and far apart (1928). Careful examination persuades me to 
agree with HUIE. They are obvious in the apical cells of the glands 
of D. pygmaea. Naturally enough, the protoplasm of the cell fits into 
the bays between the buttresses, and by the use of weak H 2 S0 4 for 
maceration, the protoplasts may be isolated and are then seen edged 
with crenellations, interpreted by HABERLANDT as sensitive papillae. 
If this is a correct view, we must think that the glands are more sensi- 
tive along their sides than on the apex, for which we have no evidence 
one way or another. 

The cuticle covers over the whole of the gland and is continuous 
with that of the stalk. As HUIE has said, it is quite continuous and is 
not penetrated by pores (GARDINER) nor is it absent from the apical 
cells (GOEBEL). GOEBEL'S statement to this effect appears to have 
been due to the observation of the earlier penetration of solutes through 
these cells, but I have satisfied myself that methylene blue enters 
equally rapidly over the entire surface of the gland. Prolonged treat- 
ment with sulphuric acid leaves a very delicate continuous membrane 
covering it. Yet as HUIE says, the cuticle is readily penetrated by 
silver nitrate, just as by methylene blue. Another observation of 
HUIE'S I can confirm, namely, that in life the lateral walls of the 
apical cells are often separated from each other by fissures tapering 
inwardly between them, as if the walls had separated along the middle 
line. It is possible that this is what FRANCA saw in Drosophyllum, 
interpreted by him as canals leading to the inner course of glandular 
cells. The nucleus of these cells lies near the base and the cytoplasm 
has a large vacuole in the outer moiety of the cell (in the resting con- 
dition see beyond under aggregation). 

The second layer of glandular cells lies between the epidermis and 
the parenchyma bell, and is composed of more depressed and irregular 
cells, overlooked by NITSCHKE, but seen by DARWIN, and correctly 
described by WARMING. The cells are irregular in shape fitting the 
irregular bases of the epidermal cells without intercellular spaces. 
The functions of these two glandular layers differ according to HOM&S 
as we shall see. 



Chapter X 123 Drosera 

The emplacement of the glandular tissues is different in the marginal 
tentacles. Here the end of the tentacle stalk is formed into a spoon, 
in the bowl of which lies the gland. There is, as it were, a torsion of 
the upper part of the tentacle so as to bring the gland on the upper 
ventral surface. The complete homology of the two types is seen on 
examination of a transverse section of the marginal gland (15 9, n; 
16 i, 2). 

To be included as a specialized portion of the gland, or better a 
portion of the tentacle acting in a specialized way in cooperation with 
the gland, is, according to FENNER (1904), the uppermost course of 
epidermal cells of the stalk, those, namely, which are in direct contact 
with the tissues of the gland at its base. These cells are short and 
being epidermal, they form a circle of 8~io cells called by FENNER the 
"Halskranz", or as we may call them, the neck cells. Sometimes 
there are two rows of neck cells (KONOPKA), and this I note may be 
the case in D. Whittakeri. The neck cells surround the parenchyma 
cells of the same transverse course but these latter are not included in 
the " Halskranz", as defined by FENNER, who describes the anatomi- 
cal relations as follows. The neck cells are in contact above with the 
lower ends of the emergent parenchyma bell cells, and with the outer 
zone of the xylem mass of the gland. Inwardly they lie in contact 
with the short parenchyma cells of the stalk, these in turn lying against 
the inner zone of xylem tracheids and with the end of the stalk vascu- 
lar bundle. Below, the neck cells impinge on the stalk epidermis. 
They are, as one may say, in a strategic position to carry on a special 
function, if FENNER is right in his interpretation. That they have a 
function he believes is evidenced by the presence of numerous pits in 
their walls which lie against the parenchyma bell cells and those of the 
xylem, and furthermore, by the fact that their cuticle is porous. He 
gives the following interpretation. The neck cells receive water from 
the bell cells which bring water from the upper part of the xylem mass, 
and from the lower xylem cells, presumably also from the parenchyma 
transversely within the neck cells, and pass it outwardly through the 
pores of the cuticle supplying fluid to dilute the viscid mucilage se- 
creted by the glandular cells above. The glistening drop of mucilage 
supported on the tentacle head is, says FENNER, pear-shaped, the 
broad part of the drop being around the neck cells because the fluid 
exudes chiefly from them. The reasoning here appears disingenuous. 
Nor is his statement that the cuticle is porous acceptable since dyes 
(methylene blue) never enter the outer surface of the neck cells, but 
pass into the stalk only by diffusion through the gland, as I have 
verified repeatedly. While crediting FENNER with imagination, it is 
still permitted to doubt the correctness of his interpretation and even 
the supposed facts on which it is based. KONOPKA indeed has taken 
issue with FENNER, and his view is stated beyond. 

The development of the tentacle has been worked out by Honfes, 
and it becomes evident that the outermost layer of the gland is purely 
epidermic in origin, as would appear on the face of it. The second 
layer, which might be interpreted as of epidermic origin, is shown to 
be of parenchymatous origin. The third layer, the parenchyma bell, 
is partly epidermic and partly parenchymatous (FENNER). Those 



Francis E. Lloyd 124 Carnivorous Plants 

cells which come to the surface at the base of the gland are epidermic. 
They are narrower and longer than the others, which are of parenchy- 
matous origin. The inclosed mass of reticulated, and annular and 
spiral vessels are obviously an extension of the leaf vascular tissue 
(16 4-6). The developmental behavior of the gland in Drosera cor- 
responds point for point with that of Drosophyllum (FENNER). 

Functions of gland parts. Such a complicated gland as above de- 
scribed can scarcely be a simple matter physiologically. The reception 
and transmission of stimuli, the secretion of mucilage, of one or more 
ferments, probably of an odoriferous principle, water, and in the op- 
posed direction, the absorption of the products of digestion are car- 
ried on. Is it possible to assign any degree of specialization to the 
various elements of structure? HOMES (19296), having studied with 
meticulous care the behavior of the cells in the matter of aggregation, 
assigned to the outer layer, the epidermis, the function of "responding 
directly to the necessities of secretion by the variation of its vacuome". 
Its cells elaborate the substance secreted. That of the second layer is 
the regulation of osmotic pressure. The third layer, the parenchyma 
bell, takes no part in secretion (HoMfes, 19296, p. 49). It may be as- 
sumed, of course, that the cells of the bell allow the rapid transfer of 
water from the inclosed xylem, but whether the movement is a one- 
way one only, as GOEBEL suggested, or not, is difficult to say. 

Reference has been made above to HABERLANDT'S view that the 
protoplasmic processes lying between the buttresses of the epidermal 
cells are sensitive organs, analogous to those seen by him in tendrils 
and other plant parts. KONOPKA preferred another suggestion in 1930, 
that the increased * surf ace due to crenellation may be important also 
in secretion and absorption, as a secondary advantage. GOEBEL has 
regarded them in this way. 

With respect to other parts of the gland KONOPKA has made some 
further suggestions. The xylem bundle mass is, he says, composed of 
spiral vessels of narrower bore in the central part, with wider lumened 
tracheids surrounding them, and the more central vessels widen 
in contact with the apical portion of the gland. The central vessels 
are indeed often narrower than the outer, but other details it is diffi- 
cult to accede. KONOPKA would attribute different functions to the 
two regions, but beyond this regards the whole as a water storage 
organ, which rather obviously it seems to be. He has, however, ex- 
amined the behavior of the nuclei, and finds that during digestion and 
absorption there occur changes in them which he interprets as con- 
nected with taking up and transmitting nutrients from the outer tis- 
sues of the gland to the stalk cells. He asserts that the nuclei of the 
endodermis, of the xylem and of the stalk cells, show a gradient of such 
changes, the nuclei of the more superficial tissues showing greater 
changes in a quantitative sense than those of the deeper and more 
removed tissues. To the endodermis (parenchyma bell) he attributes 
the special function of a protective filter. It must be questioned 
whether KONOPKA has advanced sufficient evidence to support this 
hypothesis. Aside from the nuclear changes claimed to occur by 
KONOPKA, there is no other change such as characterizes the secretion 
cells, namely aggregation (HoMfes), during periods of activity. This 



Chapter X 126 Drosera 

seems to indicate that whatever the function of the endodermis, it is a 
different one from that of the secretion layer, and this I believe is as 
far as we can go in interpretation beyond admitting that substances 
are transmitted, but not differentially. 

KONOPKA also questions FENNER'S view about the neck cells. He 
does violence to FENNER'S definition of the neck cells by including the 
uppermost parenchyma cells which lie somewhat (but very little) above 
the level of the ring or circle ("Kranz") of neck cells. The neck cells, 
as he uses the term, have membranes which resist the action of 
concentrated sulfuric acid, and are similar in this respect to the endo- 
dermis cells. Discarding FENNER'S idea that they are especially con- 
cerned with the transmission of water to the surface, he thinks that, 
on the basis of his observation of the nuclear changes, which are sim- 
ilar to those seen in the endodermal, tracheid and stalk cells, they 
transmit absorbed materials downwardly to the stalk. This seems to 
be a simple and natural view of the matter. But I have been unable 
to see cuticularized walls in these cells, and FENNER says nothing of 
this (75 12). Nor have others (HuiE, HOMES, myself) seen nuclei in 
the xylem of the mature gland. 

We may summarize what has been said in the few preceding para- 
graphs by emphasizing the very complex functioning of the tentacle 
gland, that it is, as a mechanism, relatively complex as compared with 
many other known plant glands, but that we are far from recognizing 
specific correlations between structure and function. It would seem 
that the complexity of function is much greater than recognizable 
structural differentiation. 

Sessile glands. In addition to the stalked glands or tentacles 
there are very numerous, small sessile glands, or, as DARWIN called 
them, "papillae". They were described for the European species by 
NITSCHKE and others, and in detail by FENNER, who traced their 
development. They are to be found on both leaf surfaces, on the 
stalks of the tentacles, and elsewhere (petioles, scapes). The glands 
project dome-shaped from the leaf surface, are little larger than the 
stomata in area, and consist of a capital of two cells, which may be 
rounded and compact, or more or less elongated into obliquely placed 
cylinders. These stand on a short stalk of compressed cells in two 
courses, each course of two cells. The basal cells have cuticularized 
inner walls. These in turn stand on two epidermal cells (75 18). 
FENNER describes also a variant of the fundamental form. It occcurs 
on the petioles, and consists of a more or less elongated stalk with a 
capital of about four cells. 

The origin of the sessile glands is purely epidermal (FENNER). 
The mother cells are two short epidermal ones which by tangential 
division give rise to a pair of capital cells, the base of which is again 
cut off to make stalk cells. The remaining true capital cells are two 
in number and may remain rounded, or elongate more or less into two 
divergent short cylindrical cells, seen on the base of the tentacles and 
on the petiole (NITSCHKE). In D. Whittakeri these glands are much 
larger and more complicated in structure and consist of twelve cells, 
eight outer surrounding a core of four inner, the whole being supported 
on a very short biseriate stalk of longitudinally compressed cells. 



Francis E. Lloyd 126 Carnivorous Plants 

Other glandular trichomes occur in D. gigantea (seen by DARWIN) and 
probably in other species. These are stalked, bear an oval gland, and 
look superficially like the tentacles, but do not have their elaborate 
differentiation. They are to be found scattered on the petioles and 
stems; on the latter they are quite numerous. I failed to observe any 
secretion. Though the gland is covered with cuticle, they absorb dye 
readily. Their structure is indicated in 15 16. In origin they are 
epidermal, but in the base there is a small involvement of parenchyma 
as it is rather broad, the stalk tapering upward into a uniseriate por- 
tion just beneath the gland. What function these can serve, if any, is 
not known. Small flies have been observed sticking to them. 

Function of sessile glands. DARWIN observed that aggregation 
takes place in the sessile glands during the digestion of prey, and 
thought therefore that they are concerned in the absorption of sub- 
stances derived therefrom, "but this cannot be the case with the pa- 
pillae on the backs of the leaves or on the petiole. " It is not clear if 
he meant this merely because of unfavorable position. But FENNER 
held that the sessile glands of the concave leaf surface are alone capable 
of absorption, pointing out that those of the dorsal surface are small, 
and usually lose the capital cells. The active glands display cytoplas- 
mic changes (DARWIN'S aggregation evidently) during the absorption 
of nutriment. Because nuclear changes also intervene, ROSENBERG 
aligned himself with these authors. To all this KONOPKA opposes a 
contrary opinion. Nuclear changes such as ROSENBERG observed are 
also to be seen in other glands, certainly not concerned in the absorp- 
tion of substances; and the "middle layer" (endodermis) also is to be 
found in nectaries, hydathodes, etc. He believes the sessile glands to 
be hydathodes. They never, he continues, show such far-reaching 
changes in nuclear behavior as do the tentacle cells, and there never 
occur the " Digestionsballen " which he found in tentacle gland cells. 
Nor have the glands any connection with the vascular tissues; they 
develop much earlier than the tentacles, and occur on both leaf faces. 
These points argue that the sessile glands are not absorptive. There 
is, KONOPKA believes, much greater probability that they serve the 
purpose of water secretion. In support of this view he cites as facts 
(a) the "not small" vascular system of the roots; (ft) the rich supply 
of root hairs; (c) the wetness of the substrate; (d) the active passage 
of water through the plant and (e) the high relative humidity of the 
habitat, tending to reduce transpiration. And SCHMID, he says, had 
found that there is only a slow transfer of water to the tentacle glands 
following the experimental removal of the mucilage drop, while on the 
capture of prey there is an extraordinary increase of fluid supplied 
from the leaf during the digestion of prey (as DARWIN and others have 
observed), all speaking for a process of guttation. Admitting the 
above as facts (though SCHMID'S results seem to question some of 
them) KONOPKA arrives at an interesting interpretation of the whole 
situation: the sessile glands draw off water from the leaf, supplying it 
for the process of digestion and thus at the same time exert suction on 
the tentacles, thus increasing absorption by them. These glands, he 
says, may be roughly compared with the animal kidney which with- 
draws water from the body thus making room for more to be absorbed. 



Chapter X 127 Drosera 

In support of the idea he recalls the case of the trap of Utricularia, 
which is known to excrete water from the glands on its outer surface 
(glands not much dissimilar from the ones in question) and to absorb 
nutrition and water from the interior by means of the bifid and quad- 
rifid trichome glands. Since these two sets of glands in Utricularia are 
the only non-cuticularized areas of the inner and outer surfaces of the 
trap and since the cuticle elsewhere is impermeable (e.g. to dyes) we 
are forced to recognize its peculiar glandular action as involving the 
two sets of glands, as CZAJA, MERL and NOLD have believed. This 
view would harmonize our ideas about the two apparently widely 
different structures, leaf and trap. 

The free flow of watery secretion observed during the earlier stages 
of digestion or just previous thereto, even if KONOPKA'S view is correct, 
does not preclude the possibility that the sessile glands may not con- 
tribute to the efficiency of the leaf by exercising the function of ab- 
sorption as well. We may, therefore, direct our attention briefly to 
the specific question of locus or loci of absorption of the leaf. 

The locus of absorption. Previous to the studies of OUDMAN, there 
had always been a vagueness about the point of entrance of substances 
absorbed by the leaf. Three possibilities there are: (i) that they enter 
through the tentacles; or (2) through the papillae; and (3) through the 
epidermis, which according to NITSCHKE, has no cuticle. The last may 
be at once excluded as NITSCHKE'S statement is not true. Aside from 
direct proof with sulfuric acid, the diffusion of e.g. caffeine (KOK) into 
the leaf takes place through the papillae, and not through nearby 
epidermal cells. 

With regard to the tentacles the fact of aggregation in the stalk 
cells following on the application of various substances (insects, caffeine, 
etc.) would seem to indicate at once that absorption can and does take 
place through the glands. DARWIN indeed regarded aggregation as 
proof of absorption. PFEFFER, however, pointed out that this might 
be the result of the stimulating effect of minimal quantities of ma- 
terial with no quantitative relations indicating absorption. Some such 
substance has been thought to be necessary to procure aggregation, 
that is, a specific aggregation-stimulating substance formed in the 
gland (AKERMAN, 1917; COELINGH, 1929). ALI KOK determined the 
rate of transport of caffeine from the glands into the tentacle stalks. 
Changes in the structure of the cytoplasm and nucleus (studies by 
HUIE, ROSENBERG, KONOPKA and ZIEGENSPECK, and KRUCK on Utricu- 
laria), were referred by them to the activity of these structures (cyto- 
plasm and nucleus) in response to the absorption of various foods. 
Taking up of food by the tentacles has been generally assumed, as 
e.g. by GOEBEL, FENNER, RUSCHMANN. OUDMAN points out, however, 
that there is little positive information and that even if the tentacles 
do absorb, their role may be small and of secondary significance. 

That the papillae, small sessile glands of various sizes, smallest on 
the tentacle stalks, largest on the leaf blade, where they occur on both 
surfaces, are concerned in absorption has been expressed by DARWIN, 
and by ROSENBERG, both of whom saw the ready passage of sub- 
stances through them into the tissues. ROSENBERG used methylene 
blue (as I have repeatedly done). FENNER and COELINGH, as also 



Francis E. Lloyd 128 Carnivorous Plants 

DARWIN and ROSENBERG, saw that aggregation and granulation occur 
in response to the entrance of various substances, but this is true of 
the tentacles, also, and proves as much and as little in both cases. 
To be sure it was thought that the papillae produce no secretion ex- 
ternally escaping, and this has perhaps influenced the judgment. As 
OUDMAN remarks, here also as in the case of tentacles quantitative 
results had not been forthcoming. He therefore endeavored to supply 
these. 

Having first assured himself that the N-content of the leaves (of 
Drosera capensis) under the circumstances under which he worked, is 
nearly constant, OUDMAN then arranged a simple experiment (/) so 
that the more marginal tentacles were surrounded by agar (2%), with 
asparagin (1.5%), and (2) so that the mixture was poured on the back 
of the leaf taking precautions against capillary flow. He obtained 
these results: 

_, T N IN % OF INCREASE IN 

TREATMENT OF THE LEAP FREgH WIGHT ^ goURS 

Control 2.07 

Asparagin on the marginal tentacles 3.54 1.47 

Asparagin on the back of the leaf 3.31 1.24 

A second experiment, greater precautions against capillary flow: 

Control 2.01 

Asparagin on the bordering tentacles 3.53 1.52 

Asparagin on back of the leaf 3.38 1.37 

From these figures it was evident that asparagin is taken up both 
by the tentacles and by the back of the leaf. By comparing the total 
area of the tentacle glands with that of the back of the leaf he found 
that the amount of asparagin absorbed by the tentacles was six times 
that absorbed by the back of the leaf. Two explanations presented 
themselves, namely, either that the tentacle heads (glands) are better 
adapted to this purpose than the leaf epidermis (which would be ruled 
out by the fact that the epidermis is cuticularized, as above said); 
or that the absorption by the leaf-back takes place only at certain 
points, that is, through the papillae, through which it has been ob- 
served that entrance can take place (DARWIN, ROSENBERG, KOK). 
OUDMAN adopted the latter view, and inferred that in nature both the 
tentacles and the papillae are made use of for the absorption of food, 
but rather the papillae of the upper side of the leaf than those of the 
lower. OUDMAN also examined into the question of the influence of 
various factors (temperature, concentration of the applied materials, 
the course of absorption in relation to time, the nature of the ap- 
plied material, the influence of the glands and narcosis). 

As would be expected, the higher the temperature within physio- 
logical limits, the more rapid the absorption. But whether this is 
due to the greater rapidity of transportation, or to the greater uptake 
by the glands, does not appear. The same with increasing concentra- 
tions of applied substance (asparagin). In the course of absorption, 
the rate was greater after the first period (3-6 hrs.), than at first, and 
falls off again after 9 hours. This, it may be suggested, may be due to 



Chapter X 129 Drosera 

the dilution of the applied material by the secretion of the glands 
during the beginning period, and to equilibrium during the later period. 

All substances are not absorbed at equal rates. DARWIN noted 
that they did not procure aggregation at the same rate. OUDMAN 
found that caffeine is much more rapidly absorbed than asparagin, 
although the latter has the smaller molecule. This may be due to the 
path taken. Caffeine enters the vacuole and is there precipitated, and 
fresh caffeine must traverse the zone of precipitation. Asparagin 
probably passes along the path provided by the protoplasm. By 
following the localization of fluorescence it was shown that fluorescein 
does this. If the tentacles are removed, leaving the stalks open at the 
outer end (due to the operation), less material is absorbed, but the 
difference is not related to the exposed surface, it being much greater 
for tentacles with the glands removed. The glands therefore offer 
some hindrance, perhaps because they are quite complex organs, excreting 
at the same time as absorbing. The presence of an endodermis (the 
parenchyma bell, FENNER) may have some regulatory effect, but this 
is not known to be the case. It is worthy of note that narcosis (with 
ether) inhibits the penetration of asparagin more than caffeine, the 
former traversing the protoplasm, the latter the vacuole. Caffeine is 
known to penetrate into the vacuole with great rapidity (BOKORNY, 
AKERMAN, ERNA JANSON) and in any event it has to pass only a thin 
layer of cytoplasm while asparagin is forced to pass lengthwise the 
cells within the cytoplasm. 

In a later paper by ARISZ and OUDMAN (1937), making use of an 
improved method of applying the reagents to the tentacles, OUDMAN'S 
figures describing the rate of absorption of caffeine and of asparagin 
were confirmed. Caffeine is absorbed in the fashion of a physical 
diffusion, while asparagin shows a maximum penetration in the second 
period, and low rates in the first and third periods. Nevertheless more 
asparagin penetrated into the leaf blade as shown by tests after the 
removal of the tentacles before analysis. It seems obvious that the 
conclusion that the paths followed by these substances are different is 
justified, namely that caffeine travels by way of the vacuoles and 
asparagin through the cytoplasm, yet in spite of the narrowness of the 
path through the cytoplasm, the latter moves more readily. This again 
seems to be due to the taking up of the caffeine by precipitation, a 
subsequent wave of diffusion having to overstep the zone of pre- 
cipitation. 

An attempt was made by ARISZ and OUDMAN to determine the in- 
fluence of aggregation upon the transport of asparagin. Aggregation 
was first induced by suitable reagents (salicin 0.25% and KH 2 PO 4 
0.1% solutions) with a "remarkable result" that now more asparagin 
was taken up during the first period (contrary to the above mentioned 
rates). Since asparagin itself causes aggregation, during the first 
period aggregation takes place, and during the second period, ag- 
gregation now having taken place, penetration goes on more rapidly 
because of this earlier induced aggregation. This behavior, that is, 
aggregation, has on the other hand no effect on the rate of transport 
of caffeine. 

Reproduction by seeds and by buds ^regeneration"}. While Dros- 



Francis E. Lloyd 130 Carnivorous Plants 

era reproduces itself through seeds, it is, on the other hand, extraor- 
dinarily prolific by means of non-sexual multiplication making use of 
brood bodies (D. pygmaea, GOEBEL) and tubers, of strong axillary buds 
and especially and above all of budding from the leaves. So frequently 
and vigorously is the last method used that it would seem to rival 
that by seed (BEHRE). 

The seedlings are very small, the cotyledons either escaping from 
the seed coat (NITSCHKE, LUBBOCK, GOEBEL) or remaining perman- 
ently embedded therein (D. peltata and D. auriculata, VICKERY 1933). 
The earlier leaves in all cases are rounded (spatulate), indicating this 
to be the primitive form for this genus (LEAVITT, 1903, 1909). The 
leaf blades are provided with a few glands, both marginal (NITSCHKE) 
and on the disc, 5 on each (D. rotundifolia, LEAVITT). The radicle 
is short, provided with root hairs and fugacious. As the shoot develops, 
adventitious roots put out from the stem, and, as this dies away with 
the extension of growth, new adventitious roots are produced above. 
The root system cannot be said to be abundant (SCHMID). 

In some species, e.g. D. rotundifolia (NITSCHKE), the axillary buds 
below the rosette form at once secondary rosettes, similar to the chief 
rosette, and as the stem decays they are separated, to propagate the 
plant. In one group (Ergaleium) tubers are formed. These have been 
described in their static condition by DIELS (1906) and MORRISON 
(1905), and very fully, from the point of view of development, 
by VICKERY, from whose paper (1933) the present account is taken. 
She worked with the two species D. peltata and D. auriculata which I 
saw growing about Sydney, N. S. W. When exhumed, the' stem below 
the epigaeal rosette extends downward a matter of a few centimeters, 
is clothed with scale leaves, and emerges from a small hard rounded 
tuber clothed with loose membranous envelopes, which when peeled 
off leave a smooth white tuber. This at the upwardly directed apex 
bears an "eye", a depressed scaly bud which can develop into a new 
plant (16 n, 12). The genesis of this structure is seen in the seed- 
ling as an axillary shoot bearing normally only scales and growing 
downwards (16 13). This is a "dropper". Reaching a certain 
depth the end bends upward, and develops into a corm. While this 
structure normally elongates upward to form a rosette at the surface 
of the ground, if more or less exposed to light it may produce at once a 
partial or complete rosette of normal leaves. Such leaves may arise 
even from the extending dropper instead of scale leaves. An old tuber, 
as it becomes exhausted, is usually replaced by another produced 
laterally on the end of the dropper axis close to it. In Australia es- 
pecially this form of reproduction is of common occurrence. 

The underground tubers, as GOEBEL has pointed out, are doubtless 
important as storage reserves of food and water which can tide the 
plant over during a season when the rosette of leaves disappears. Some 
of the Australian species have strong coloring matter in their tissues, 
as is evident from the staining of herbarium sheets on drying. It con- 
tains two substances, a red one CnHsOs, and a yellow CnH 8 04, the 
latter in only small amounts. RENNIE (1893) had shown "that the 
Os-compound formed a triacetate and was probably a trihydroxy- 
methylnaphthaquinone, whereas the O 4 -compound gave a diacetate 



Chapter X 131 Drosera 

and appeared to be a dihydroxymethylnaphthaquinone." This was 
confirmed by MACBETH, PRICE and WINZOR, who called these sub- 
stances hydroxydroserone and droserone respectively, determining the 
constitution of the hydroxydroserone. 

Reproduction by means of gemmae. The case of D. pygmaea de- 
scribed by GOEBEL (1908) is one of a small group of species in which a 
very highly specialized method of non-sexual reproduction takes place, 
viz., by means of gemmae. D. pygmaea is a very small plant, about 
1.5 cm. in diameter, and consists of a tight rosette of minute acentri- 
cally peltate leaves with fleshy petioles which appear to be the im- 
portant chlorophyllous parts. On the approach of the resting season 
there are formed small brood bodies, resembling superficially those of 
Marchantia, clustered in the center of the rosette. The gemma itself 
is a small, ovate, hard mass of tissue, flattish on the dorsal surface, with 
a deep depression at the base of the ventral surface, in which develops 
a minute bud which gives rise to a plant (16 14-17). At the base it 
is attached to a cylindrical hyaline stalk of some length. At the point 
of attachment to the brood body it is constricted, and is here fragile, 
so that the brood body is easily detached. The stalk is marcescent, 
drying up in situ. The brood bodies measure about 0.5 by 0.7 mm. 
and contain an abundance of food in the form of fat and starch. 

I received material of D. pygmaea collected by Dr. PAT BROUGH 
near Sydney, N. S. W., in response to my request, on two occasions, 
viz., in Nov., 1939 and in April, 1940. In the former no signs of gem- 
mae were to be found; in the latter they were present in various stages 
of development. In none of the specimens could brood bodies be seen 
openly exposed, as represented in GOEBEL'S drawing (1908). The plants 
were perhaps still too young. The structure of the gemmae was as GOEBEL 
described them. He suggested their homology with leaves, but it is to 
be noticed that there is no suggestion of stipules. They arise in a 
ring about a dished growing point, and stand in several ranks around 
it (16 17). Around them young leaves have already begun develop- 
ment, the older of these expanding. The gemmae seem therefore to 
represent the culmination of a growth period, and they would be 
set free during the winter season in the natural habitat. Professor 
BULLER suggests to me that the rosette, with its gemmae at the center, 
may be regarded as a " splash cup", like those of the bird's nest fungi. 

Of much more general occurrence is another method, namely, by 
budding from the leaf. This is by no means of recent observation. 
First seen by NAUDIN in 1840, it has been described by numerous 
others, at least thirteen in number. The historical aspect of this mat- 
ter has been well summarized by BEHRE (1929). 

NAUDIN in D. intermedia (1840) and KIRSCHLEGER (1855) in D. 
longifolia had observed the fact of budding from the leaf surfaces, and 
that the origin was " probably endogenous" (NAUDIN). NITSCHKE'S 
account was sufficiently extended and exact so that BEHRE found little 
to correct, so far as general morphology was involved. The earliest 
anatomical study was made by BEIJERINCK (1886), establishing the exo- 
genous origin of the leaf buds. LEAVITT (1899, 1903, 1909) pointed 
out that the earlier leaves of the leaf buds of even such extreme forms 
as D. binata, have rounded leaves characteristic of D. rotundifolia, 



Francis E. Lloyd 132 Carnivorous Plants 

regarding this a repetition of phylogeny. WINKLER (1903) observed the 
lack of polarity in the occurrence of leaf buds in D. capensis, as in 
Torenia and Begonia, and further for the first time showed clearly that 
the buds arise not from retained embryonal tissue, but by redifferentia- 
tion of the leaf tissues. 

Exact studies of the mode of origin of the adventitious buds of the 
leaf surface have been made by BEHRE (1929) and by VICKERY (1933), 
the latter author independently confirming the former in all essentials. 
Such leaf buds arise on the blade always from the bases of tentacles, 
usually on the adaxial surface, but occasionally laterally or even adax- 
ially (BEHRE). They are often visible in a few days if during that time 
the leaf has been separated from the plant and kept under moist con- 
ditions. The cells involved have in all cases arrived at maturity, and 
there is no sign of the persistence of embryonic tissue. The cells there- 
fore undergo a true rejuvenation passing from an adult, vacuolated 
condition into one of high protoplasmic content with accompanying 
changes in the nucleus. They then undergo cell division previous to 
growth, the earliest divisions, in general, being anticlinal, followed by 
periclinal (16 7, 8). Increase in size now overtakes the newly active 
cells, and a simple outgrowth emerges exogenously, this gradually in- 
volving the whole of the base of the tentacle (VICKERY) (16 9, 10). 
The vegetation point having been defined at the scene of the earliest 
divisions, this is now raised by the growth activities of the paren- 
chyma of the upper moiety of the mother leaf in the immediate vicinity, 
carrying up the tentacle so that this now appears to arise from the bud, 
rather than the bud from it. Whether the new vascular tissue, that of 
the bud, becomes articulated with the older, that of the leaf, is not 
clear. Doubtless this occurs if the leaf does not decay, as observed by 
VICKERY. If, however, the leaf does decay, this may be questioned. 
ROBINSON (1909) asserts that no connection occurs. The vegetation 
point having been established, leaves appear on the bud and a new 
plantlet becomes established, roots being formed secondarily. The 
earlier leaves frequently show abnormalities, as I have observed, 
such as the lateral fusion of contiguous leaf primordia, producing more 
or less laterally doubled leaves. Nepionic leaves occur. LEAVITT 
(1903) was able to produce such even from the terminal bud by cutting 
off the stem below it and removing the leaves as they expanded. D. 
intermedia, which bears only radially symmetrical tentacles normally, 
under such condition of " malnutrition " bears on nepionic leaves 
spoon-shaped lateral tentacles like those of D. rotundifolia. The fre- 
quency and ease with which all this occurs, as already mentioned, 
makes it probable that this method of reproduction rivals, in its re- 
sults, reproduction by seed. I have at my hand now a small flower 
pot which a few months ago carried three small plants sent to me from 
Ontario by my friend Professor R. B. THOMSON. These at the present 
writing have died down to winter buds, and I count at least a dozen 
minute plantlets which I observed to have arisen from old and at 
length decaying leaves. 

BEHRE has further described the origin of plantlets from the leaf 
stalk. As in the case of the blade, such always occur on the upper 
surface, with the exception of D. capensis and D. binata, in which they 



Chapter X 133 Drosera 

may occur on the under side. Due to the different anatomical struc- 
ture, the origin is more various, for the epidermis may not in all cases 
take active part in the earlier cell divisions. These occur usually in 
the vicinity of stomata or near the bases of trichomes or of sessile 
glands, but can arise also on the stalk of the inflorescence or even from 
the latter itself, as axillary buds however (ROBINSON 1909). Since the 
flower stalk is radial in structure, the buds arise on all sides, and on 
account of the closed cylinder of sclerenchyma, they never articulate 
with the vascular system of the flower stalk. Adventitious buds may 
arise from roots also, in which case they are, as would be expected, 
endogenous in origin. 

In the case of D. spathulata BEHRE found regeneration by bud for- 
mation to take place indirectly from callus, previously formed on the 
cut end of a leaf stalk. 

Miss MOULAERT (1937) obtained adventitious buds from leaves, 
isolated petioles, hypocotyls, stems, scapes, receptacles and sepals. 
Following the formation of epiphyllous buds, she observed the develop- 
ment of cushions of tissue (" bourrelets ") extending from the base of 
the plantlet toward the petiole. These are of three kinds, those which 
remain as mere thickenings in the parenchyma above the veins, and 
which she called " undifferentiated " ; those which act as a liaison be- 
tween the plantlet and a root which has already differentiated ad- 
ventitiously nearby and in which a vascular connection between shoot 
and root becomes established; and third, a kind which is formed near 
the plantlet which does connect with it, an example of "affolement 
cellulaire. " 

Another observation made by MOULAERT is the occurrence of ab- 
sorbing hairs, structures quite like root hairs, which arise from the 
upper surface of the leaf blade or from the basal part of the stem of 
the plantlet. They are very abundant and their walls are brown as 
in the case of root hairs. 

Conditions determining the incidence of leaf buds. --It has gen- 
erally been observed that the production of adventitious buds takes 
place only under conditions of high humidity, and apparently the 
higher the better. In order to obtain them the practice is to remove 
leaves and place them on moist moss, or float them on water, in cov- 
ered vessels (GRAVES 1897; GROUT 1898; AMES 1899; ROBINSON 1909; 
LEAVITT 1903; SALISBURY 1915; VICKERY 1933, and others). But the 
matter seems not to be quite so straight-forward as this. DIXON (1901) 
found that such buds occur on plants in abundance when they have 
been allowed to dry out gradually on their bed of Sphagnum under a 
bell-jar, during a period of two months. Confirmatory of this is 
BEHRE'S observation that leaves which had been removed and sus- 
pended in a moist chamber, but not so moist as to prevent some wilt- 
ing, will produce many buds. A too great plenitude of moisture 
therefore appears to mask a delicate balance of affairs between the 
leaf and its environment. 

As to temperatures, AMES (1899) thought that low temperatures 
were favorable. VICKERY found a wide favorable range. My own 
experience favors the idea that D. rotundifolia at any rate is active in 
this way at prevailing cool temperatures. 



Francis E. Lloyd 134 Carnivorous Plants 

Wounding, necessary in such plants as Begonia (GOEBEL 1903), in 
itself is of no influence (BEHRE). It has been thought that the removal 
of the chief shoot (particularly the growing shoot) is a stimulus, that 
is to say, the disturbance of correlations (BEHRE), which is attained 
simply by the removal of the leaf. The weight of this point seems not 
to be great since budding occurs in abundance on leaves still attached, 
in the case of D. peltata, though rather more slowly than when the 
leaves have been removed (VICKERY). When some of the glands have 
been injured or removed, the leaf will still produce buds, but only from 
the bases of uninjured glands (VICKERY), indicating that the gland may 
contribute something in the form of a growth substance (see COE- 
LINGH 1929). 

Nevertheless BEHRE did find certain correlations. The removal of 
the growing point always increased the leaf budding, though em- 
bedding it in gypsum plaster did not. If the removal of the growing 
point incited the development of an axillary bud, this itself would 
inhibit bud formation, though if at the same time the vascular tissue 
had been suitably cut, before the axillary bud was put into activation, 
buds were formed. BEHRE further did this experiment: after removal 
of the growing point the leaves were cut longitudinally in some cases 
and transversely, but not sufficient for amputation, in others. Only 
on the outer parts of transversely cut leaves did buds arise, while on 
plants similarly treated but with the growing point not removed, the 
result was negative. Yet BEHRE recorded the occurrence of an ad- 
ventitious bud on a leaf on a plantlet, itself produced adventitiously 
from a scape, with the growing point active (1929, Fig. i). These results 
with D. rotundifolia could not be obtained with D. capensis. But the 
facts as they stand support the view that there is a delicate inter- 
relation between the growing point and the inclination to regeneration 
(GOEBEL) as observed in numerous other plants. Thus we are led to 
consider what the internal conditions in the plants may be which de- 
termine or control such phenomena. Here the food materials may 
play a role or hormones may act as regulators, but this question is too 
far away from our present purpose, though it may as well be pointed 
out that BEHRE did experiments in which he reduced leaves to a con- 
dition of pronounced hunger in darkness with the deprivation of C0 2 
and yet obtained regeneration, from which he concluded that " the re 
is no doubt that regeneration is put into activity by some other stimu- 
lus than a surplus of nutrient materials," thus indicating the presence 
of specific substances, hormones perhaps, which could procure the 
results. 

Polarity. The fact of polarity is one of so general observation 
that BEHRE naturally raised the question in regard to Drosera, finding 
but little evidence that it obtains, except to a slight extent in the case 
of D. capensis and D. filiformis. Adventitious buds are not related in 
position to the stronger vascular strands, but are found scattered in- 
differently, arising usually from the abaxial surfaces of tentacle bases, 
though they may be found on the side or on the adaxial aspect. If 
small pieces of the leaf blade are made, more buds arise than would 
otherwise, and even on the leaf margin where they do not occur except 
when a narrow band (i mm. broad) is made by a cut parallel to the 



Chapter X 135 Drosera 

margin. They never arise on the lower leaf surface. That buds arise 
on other parts where there are no tentacles indicated that if it were 
possible to obtain leaf pieces large enough and free of tentacles, they 
would arise also from the upper leaf surface proper. The age of the 
leaf makes little or no difference. It is remarkable in this connection 
that even young leaves when removed from the plant will continue 
their development under suitable conditions of light and moisture. If 
the entire leaf, blade and stalk are removed, buds occur on the blade. 
If the blade is then removed, buds occur on the outer end of the 
petiole where there are tentacles, though not always on a tentacle base. 
If the tentacle bearing part is now removed, a bud may arise at any 
point, no polarity being shown. If now the conditions are so ar- 
ranged that the petiole is kept moist and the blade relatively dry, the 
petiole will regenerate instead of the blade. In D. capensis, however, 
there is a distinct tendency for buds to appear near the leaf apex, this 
species having long leaves with narrow blade which unrolls during 
growth. This is true in both old and young leaves, and is regarded by 
BEHRE as evidence of polarity. This polarity may be easily masked, 
however, by placing a leaf with its petiole in moist sand and the blade 
in the air, when buds now appear toward the basal end. WINKLER 
(1913) had observed a similar behavior in D. filiformis, which has long 
cylindrical leaves. It is curious that the long slender leaves of such 
species as D. binata do not exhibit the same tendency. The readier 
production of buds near the leaf apex in D. capensis, but in the case of 
young, not older scapes, is conditioned by the young state of the 
tissues. The readiness of roots to produce buds is well known and 
made use of for propagating exotic species, but here also they may 
arise quite indifferently in position, and no polarity can be de- 
tected. 

Carnivory. The attention of botanists was first attracted to 
Drosera as an insectivorous plant by the observation that the tentacles 
are capable of movement. This was made in 1779 (HOOKER 1875), 
when a physician of Bremen, Dr. A. W. ROTH, noted as follows: "that 
many leaves were folded together from the apex toward the base, and 
that all the hairs were bent like a bow, but that there was no apparent 
change in the leaf stalk. " When he opened the leaves he found cap- 
tured insects, and was driven to compare Drosera with Dionaea, think- 
ing that it had the same power of motion as the latter. He records an 
experiment which he did. "With a pair of tweezers I placed an ant 
upon the middle of the leaf of Drosera rotundifolia but so as not to 
disturb the plant. The ant endeavored to escape, but was held fast 
by the clammy juice at the points of the hairs, which was drawn out 
by its feet into fine threads. In some minutes the short hairs on the 
disc of the leaf began to bend, then the long hairs, and laid themselves 
on the insect. After a while the leaf began to bend, and in some hours 
the end of the leaf was so bent inwards as to touch the base. The ant 
died in fifteen minutes, which was before all the hairs had bent them- 
selves " (fide HOOKER, 1875). At about this time (1780) similar ob- 
servations were made independently by Dr. WHATELY, "an eminent 
London surgeon" (E. DARWIN: Botanic Garden, pt. 2, p. 24) as re- 
ported by his friend Mr. GARDOM, a Derbyshire botanist. "On in- 



Francis E. Lloyd 136 Carnivorous Plants 

specting some of the contracted leaves we observed a small insect or 
fly very closely imprisoned therein, which occasioned some astonish- 
ment as to how it happened to get into so confined a situation. After- 
wards, on Mr. WHATELY'S centrically pressing with a pin other leaves 
which were yet in their natural and expanded form, we observed a 
remarkable sudden and elastic spring of the leaves, so as to be inverted 
upwards and, as it were, encircling the pin, which evidently showed the 
method by which the fly came into its embarrassing position. " 
(WITHERING 1796). It is unfortunate that Dr. WHATELY did not 
record his observations himself since the rate of movement seems, by a 
trick of memory, to have been exaggerated by the writer, Mr. GARDOM. 
As late as 1855 the facts were denied by TRECUL, but in 1860 NITSCHKE 
made a thoroughgoing study, substantiating the earlier observations, 
to be followed by DARWIN, who had been heralded both by HOOKER 
and by ASA GRAY, to whom DARWIN had previously communicated 
his results. Of 267 pages of DARWIN'S book on Insectivorous Plants 
230 are devoted to an extraordinarily minute examination of the activ- 
ities of Drosera, attesting to his immense patience and determination 
to uncover every secret possible. 

Following DARWIN various trends of investigation can be followed. 
His observation of the phenomenon of aggregation was the beginning 
of numerous studies of the cytological changes in glandular and other 
cells, summarized by HOMES. Other trends have been in the field of 
anatomy, already discusssed, of digestion and nutrition and of the 
nature of the movements, all to be duly considered. 

Mucilage. While the papillae have not been observed to throw 
off secretion, unless it be water (KONOPKA), the glands of the tentacles 
are very conspicuous because each bears a drop of mucilage of high 
viscidity, clear and glistening, secreted by and supported on it (13 9). 
The glands are charged with red pigment, so that the shining drops of 
mucilage lend to the leaf a brilliant red hue. Since these persist as 
well during the sunshine as otherwhile, we have the name "sundew" 
common among Europeans. This mucilage, because of its brilliance 
and reflected color, may be interpreted as a visible lure; it is at all 
events an effective means of capturing prey of small dimensions, if it 
ventures to alight on the glands. A delicate fungus-like odor which 
has been detected by various observers (GEDDES) may be an additional 
factor of allure. The insect caught is soon (NITSCHKE: 15 min.) wet 
all over and smothered by the secretion, which upon stimulation is said 
to flow more freely. DARWIN investigated the secretion activity on 
the application of various kinds of substances and found that not only 
does the secretion increase in the gland directly stimulated, but in 
nearby glands as well, as the result of transmitted stimulus. When 
the stimulating material is nitrogenous the secretion becomes acid, sup- 
plying an important condition for digestion. The amount of secretion 
which becomes applied to the captured prey is increased not only by a 
more ample supply of secretion, but by the movement of the tentacles 
which bring more glands than originally stimulated into contact with 
the prey. The secretion, DARWIN showed, is possessed of antiseptic 
properties, and thus inhibits the action of bacteria. In his experiments 
he found that bits of meat and of albumen placed on the Drosera leaf 



Chapter X 137 Drosera 

underwent changes, shown to be due to digestion, and were found to 
be free of bacteria, while similar pieces of material placed on wet moss 
" swarmed with infusoria. " 

Chemically the mucilage appears to be a sort of hydrocellulose, but 
the seat of its secretion is not known. Like other cases of mucilage it 
may be a product of an alteration of the cell wall, or it may be an 
exudation from the protoplast. In any event it is permeated by other 
substances in which its power of digestion rests enzyme, acid, some 
antiseptic substances, and latterly WEBER has suspected the presence 
of ascorbic acid. 

SMALL (1939) has advanced the notion that the mucilage is se- 
creted only by the lateral cells of the gland, and not by the apical cells. 
His evidence is seen in internal reflecting surfaces, stated to be present 
at the apex and absent from the lateral cells, between them and the 
mucilage. For my part I fail to find such reflecting surfaces. On the 
other hand, if a piece of leaf with glands which have been thoroughly 
wiped off with filter paper is placed in paraffin oil and carefully ex- 
amined to find glands on which no trace of mucilage is visible, these 
in the course of one to several hours will show numerous droplets of 
mucilage oozing away from the surface as well at the apex as on the 
sides of the gland (15 14). WEBER (1938) by means of sodium 
oleate has demonstrated to his own satisfaction rods or streams of 
mucilage radiating from the gland surface at every point. I have not 
been able to confirm this. If the glands are watched under a binocular 
dissecting microscope, in the course of a short time it will be noticed 
that the surface of an opalescent mucilage drop is wrinkled longi- 
tudinally, and by this time the surface of the drop has lost its glassy 
look. It is evident that there is a surface concentration of some sub- 
stance or substances. As one watches steadily, one sees an occasional 
explosion on the surface as if some minute particle or droplet had on 
arriving there from inside immediately spread over it. As the wrink- 
ling progresses the drop becomes pear-shaped, the broad end above the 
apex. With cessation of evaporation, the drop will assume its oval 
form. The mucilage is a jelly-like mass. If two glands with drops are 
approached so that they touch and then are moved apart, the drops 
will largely separate, adhering by only a slender thread. If a drop is 
touched with a corner of filter paper at its basal margin and, on ad- 
hering, the mucilage is pulled away upwards toward the gland apex, it 
will tear away and extend asymmetrically from the gland apex. When 
a drop is pulled out, it at first refuses to leave the gland. Only when 
there is sufficient adhesion and pull, the whole mass, after a certain 
amount of stretching, will pull away suddenly. These and similar 
evidences indicate that the mucilage has a sort of structure. When 
dry, it shows double refraction, but not when wet (WEBER). It is not 
so stiff a jelly as that of Drosophyllum, which pulls away readily in a 
mass, but is otherwise similar. 

One other apparently trifling observation which I have made may 
be mentioned here. I have noticed that, over the apical half of a 
gland there are in the immediate vicinity of the gland surface minute 
plaques of clear colorless substance not soluble in sulfuric acid, rounded 
or sometimes angular in shape (15 10). Sulfuric acid dissolves the 



Francis E. Lloyd 138 Carnivorous Plants 

mucilage, and the cuticle remains intact. They might be delicate 
flakes of cuticle exfoliated from the remaining cuticle, but of this there 
is no certainty. 

Movements of tentacles and leaf blade. We must go back to 1782 
to find the first record of studies of the modes of behavior of the ten- 
tacles and leaf blade. These were carried on by the above mentioned 
Dr. ROTH, botanist as well as physician. He was stimulated to study 
Drosera by reading ELLIS' letter to LINNAEUS in 1770 announcing the 
discovery of Dionaea muscipula; and in his essay he makes cogent 
comparisons between these two, the only then known carnivorous plants. 

According to ROTH, if an ant be placed on a leaf, the glands re- 
spond by bending, first the centrally placed, then, but much more 
slowly, the glands most distant. Finally the leaf blade bends either 
transversely, its apex approaching its base, or if the stimulus, say a 
small fly, has been placed laterally, the side may bend over. The 
rates of movement depend on external conditions, and are most rapid 
in warm sultry weather. He remarks that D. longifolia reacts more 
readily than D. rotundifolia, and that rain reduces sensitivity. 

The next contribution of major importance, by NITSCHKE, did not 
appear till 1860, eighty years later. Meanwhile, however, several bota- 
nists had observed and discussed the matter. Somewhat previous to 
1835 A. P. DE CANDOLLE had observed the response of the tentacles. 
TREVIRANUS (1838) quoted ROTH (1782) but said that he failed to get 
the results described by him. HAYNE (date about this time, see 
NITSCHKE 1860) saw the response of the tentacles and that, at length, 
the leaf blade bent and became spoon-shaped. In 1837 MEYEN re- 
viewed previous observations and while he could confirm the fact that 
the tentacles as also the leaf blade were bent, he maintained the idea 
that it was due not to irritability, but to the activity of a struggling in- 
sect pulling over the tentacles toward itself. MILDE (1852), however, 
put this right by experiment. He placed small flies on the leaf, and ob- 
served in 5 min. the outer tentacles bending inwards. Next day 
the whole leaf was bent, and in 5 days again unrolled. A useful skep- 
tic appeared in 1855 i n the person of TRECUL, who thought that the 
insects were caught by young leaves which then retained their youth 
position. Came then NITSCHKE (1860), who was the first to attack the 
problem in a sustained way and with a critical attitude. His first 
argument was directed against TRCUL, and he established the general 
correctness of ROTH'S observations. He believed that when a stimulus 
has been applied at some point by the application of an insect, the 
surrounding tentacles bend their heads directly toward this point, 
whether the position of the stimulating object is central or lateral. 
The marginal tentacles move, he says, always in the "most direct " 
path toward the point of stimulation. On this point the reader is re- 
ferred to the work of BEHRE beyond. NITSCHKE regarded the behavior 
as an expression of true irritability, and that MEYEN'S view that the 
action of the tentacles is purely passive is wrong for a number of 
reasons, especially cogent being the fact that young leaves do not se- 
crete mucilage, and that neither they nor aged leaves are sensitive. 
First when the leaves are widely open and rich in secretion is this the 
case; even dead insects procure movements, if indeed somewhat less 



Chapter X 139 Drosera 

vigorous ones. He found, however, no response to simple mechanical 
stimulation, but this was found later to be wrong. Equally so his view 
that a stimulating body attached to the back of a leaf induced re- 
sponses whereby the tentacles turned backward to embrace the body 
quite as well as forward. He found that the leaf may repeat the per- 
formance after recovery on renewal of secretion, and further that the 
effect of a given stimulus depends on the distance it has to travel. The 
movements can take place under water and in response to solid bodies 
and acids in weak solution. The rate of response is affected by tem- 
perature but not by light. It is then chiefly to NITSCHKE and to DAR- 
WIN that we owe many original observations which furnish a picture of 
the direction and rapidity of the movements of the leaf and tentacles. 
The general facts first and most readily observed are the following. 
If a suitable stimulus is received by any group of leaf tentacles, say 
near the middle of the leaf, or on or near the "disc" in the case of 
D. rotundifolia, in the course of a few minutes a bending of the near- 
by tentacles is to be observed until, the stimulus evidently travelling 
radially, it reaches even the extreme marginal tentacles which then 
bend over. If the stimulus is sufficient even the leaf blade responds 
in like manner. GOEBEL figures a leaf of D. intermedia which had com- 
pletely folded over to embrace the body of a large fly which had been 
caught. D. capensis was found to be particularly good at this. I 
placed a single Drosophila flylet on a leaf and in the course of time the 
marginal tentacles, as well of course as those nearby, had responded. 
Finally the whole apex of the leaf bent over (ij 8). With regard to 
the leaf blade not all the species of Drosera behave in this way. GOE- 
BEL observed that D. binata does not, nor does D. dichotoma, and 
probably others. From such observations it is evident that the stim- 
ulus received by a tentacle travels to its base and radially from there 
to neighboring tentacles, which then respond. A casual glance at a 
leaf displaying these responses, one in which the tentacles are bent 
over towards the middle of the disc (speaking of D. rotundifolid) sug- 
gests that the normal movement of the tentacles is along radial lines. 
The dorsiventral flatness of the tentacles would seem to condition them 
to move thus. But NITSCHKE saw that the matter is not so simple. 
He said that the tentacles receiving the stimulus bend over in the di- 
rection of the point at which the stimulus was received, irrespective of 
its position, so that, if a fly is caught at some eccentric point, the 
tentacles affected bend over toward this point and not toward the 
center of the disc. Apparently the direction of movement of the stim- 
ulus determined the appropriate direction of movement of the tentacle. 
There is an apparent exception to be noted. DARWIN found that 
when a marginal tentacle is stimulated, it bends over, but no response 
is called forth in the neighboring marginal tentacles. Only when the 
marginal tentacle originally stimulated brings its glands with its stimu- 
lating material into contact with the glands of the disc, is a stimulus 
provided by the latter which now calls forth a response of the mar- 
ginal tentacles hitherto not affected. 

The duration of the response depends on the nature of the stimu- 
lus. Here I quote from DARWIN (p. 19) "The central glands of a leaf 
were irritated with a small camel's hair brush, and in 70 minutes 



Francis E. Lloyd 140 Carnivorous Plants 

several of the outer tentacles were inflected; in 5 hours all the sub- 
marginal tentacles were fully inflected; next morning after an interval of 

22 hours they were fully expanded I then put a dead fly in the 

center of (a) leaf, and next morning it was closely clasped; five days 
after the leaf reexpanded and the tentacles, with their glands sur- 
rounded by secretion, were ready to act again. " 

A given stimulus acting somewhere on one side of the leaf will affect 
the marginal tentacles on that side sooner than those of the other side 
further away; or indeed, only one side of the leaf may be called into 
action. In the case of a cup-shaped peltate leaf (D. gigantea) I have 
observed that the total result of such movements is to bring the prey 
into the depths of the cup, where, in the course of time, only the chitin- 
ous remains of the captured insects are to be found. This result is 
perhaps contributed to by the surface tension of the drop of secretion 
which more or less fills the cup. 

It was thought by NITSCHKE that even the back of the leaf could 
accept stimuli and transmit them to the tentacles, but DARWIN was 
unable to cause any response by stimulating the leaf blade proper, on 
the front or the back. In order to locate the sensitive or sense per- 
ceptive points, DARWIN removed the gland from a tentacle, whereupon 
the latter made a brief response by slightly bending but soon regained 
its erstwhile posture. When stimulus was applied to the cut tentacle, 
no response followed. But if now the disc tentacles were stimulated, 
the amputated tentacle responded, as if the head were not missing. 
The stalk of a tentacle, no more than the leaf or petiole, can receive a 
stimulus. In any event, the marginal tentacles are not so* sensitive as 
the rest, nor are they affected by rain drops. SMALL (1939) denies 
this. That the disc tentacles are more sensitive may appear to be the 
case because the stalks of these are very short, and the tentacles are 
closer together so that a given stimulus does not have to travel so far 
to elicit response. And although the stimulus travels radially from a 
point of stimulation, DARWIN found that it travels more readily longi- 
tudinally than transversely across the leaf blade. The stimulus may 
travel quite across the blade so that when it is applied to the tentacles 
on one margin, those of the opposite may respond; but in spite of 
repetition of the stimulus, the opposite tentacles will open again, from 
which DARWIN argued that the " motor discharge must be more power- 
ful at first then afterward. " It was asked by DARWIN whether the 
motor impulse travels through the vascular tissue, but this turned out 
not to be the case, certainly "not exclusively," for the tentacles of a 
group surrounding the point of stimulus will respond all at a uniform 
rate notwithstanding the fact that the vascular connections are very 
unequal in length; indeed the course of the vascular tissues in the leaf 
as a whole does not permit the view in question when the uniformity 
of response of the tentacles is considered. 

The intensity of the stimulus necessary to procure response was a 
matter of much concern to DARWIN. He endeavored to get some 
measure of intensity by weighing small pieces of hair, etc., which would 
prove efficient. The following quotation embodies an expression of his 

reflections on this " it is an extraordinary fact that a little bit of 

soft thread 1/50 of an inch in length and weighing 1/8197 of a grain, 



Chapter X 141 Drosera 

or of a human hair 8/1000 of an inch in length and weighing only 
1/78740 of a grain (.003822 milligram) or particles of precipitated 
chalk, after resting for a short time on a gland, should induce some 
change in its cells, exciting them to transmit a motor impulse through- 
out the whole length of the pedicel, consisting of about 20 cells, to 
near its base, causing this part to bend, and the tentacle to sweep 
through an angle of above 80 degrees ". 

It was generally conceded by both NITSCHKE and DARWIN that 
dead bodies do not provoke so much response as living and therefore 
moving bodies. This was explained by PFEFFER by pointing out that 
mere constant contact does not produce response, but that there must 
be both direct contact with the gland and friction on its surface. The 
mucilaginous drop can prevent direct contact as in the case of rain or 
quicksilver (which PFEFFER tried) or even particles suspended in it un- 
less by their weight they fall against the sensitive surface. That the 
minute particles of hair used by DARWIN should produce the results 
observed may be understood better when, as PFEFFER showed, vibra- 
tion of the table or floor causes movements of such particles on the 
surface of the gland sufficient to stimulate it. 

In addition to non-living substances, DARWIN tested the reactions 
of the tentacles to a large variety of organic materials with the purpose 
of determining what digestive juice or juices are secreted by the leaves 
of Drosera. His contribution to the problem of digestion will more 
suitably be considered under the appropriate caption beyond. Here 
it will be mentioned that he seemed to regard the movements of the 
tentacles and the length of time they remain inflected as evidence of 
the nutritional value to the plant of the material exposed to them. 
But he himself records a various behavior of the tentacles in this re- 
gard. He says in conclusion "The substances which are digested by 
Drosera act on the leaves very differently. Some cause much more 
energetic and rapid inflection of the tentacles and keep them inflected 
for a much longer time, than do others. We are thus led to believe 

that the former are more nutritious than the latter " This 

generalization can hardly hold. ROBINSON found that pure creatin was 
digested but caused no bending of the tentacles. As SCHMID points 
out, DARWIN'S work, rightly or wrongly, led emphasis to be too strongly 
placed on the Drosera mechanism being an adaptation for the obtain- 
ing of protein nutrition. While it is true that, to quote DARWIN again, 

" inorganic substances, or such substances as are not attacked by 

the secretion, act much less quickly and efficiently than organic sub- 
stances yielding soluble matter which is absorbed" it is also true that 
some nitrogenous bodies equally do not, and therefore it is impossible 
to formulate a rule. DARWIN himself records the failure of urea to 
procure movements. What explanation serves when HC1, boric acid, 
malic acid and camphor stimulate to movement when Ca, Mg and K 
salts generally do not? And ammonium phosphate was found more 
energetic than other ammonium salts though containing less nitrogen. 
But because potassium phosphate is taken up DARWIN argued a need 
for phosphorus. SCHMID, considering this phase of the insectivory 
problem, himself tested the action of pure salts and concluded that the 
movements of tentacles alone cannot lead to any real index of the 
value of insectivory from the nutritional-ecological point of view. 



Francis E. Lloyd 



142 



Carnivorous Plants 



As little 'indeed may one thus argue as about the nutritional value 
of food taken by man from the action of the salivary glands, adds 
SCHMID. It seems proper to conclude that the reactions of the ten- 
tacles are general rather than specific. The length of time they remain 
inflected, however, seems, in the absence of injury (several times noted 
by DARWIN) to be generally correlated with their opportunity for ab- 
sorption. 

Mechanism of tentacle movement. NITSCHKE pointed out that al- 
though the tentacles can bend, there are no special motile organs, such 
as occur e.g. in Mimosa. What then is the nature of the bending 
movements of the tentacle? Though DARWIN obtained no light on this 
question, it was answered by BATALIN (1877). He made spaced marks 
on the sides of the tentacle, and found that after a movement was com- 
pleted, the distances had increased. When the recovery is complete, 
these distances are maintained, showing that the bending is a growth 
phenomenon. This was shown true also of the leaf blade. H. D. 
HOOKER (1916) investigated the matter more thoroughly. In making 




FIG. 3. Drosera rotundifolia. A, Side views of a tentacle in process of bending, 
beginning with the bottom figure; B, same in process of unbending, beginning with the 
top figure; C, Side views of the same tentacle before and at close of the reaction (after 
HOOKER). 

his measurements of the tentacles during bending he made use of 
natural marks supplied by the minute sessile glands to be found on the 
surface of the tentacle stalk. By means of these measurements and of 
camera lucida drawings, he got a detailed record of changes in dimen- 
sions during bending and recovery. A set of his drawings are here re- 
produced (TEXT FIG. 3). HOOKER found, as did BATALIN, that the 
movement, whether bending or unbending, is a growth phenomenon. 
During bending acceleration of growth begins near the base along the 
back (the convex surface) of the tentacle, and moves upward during the 
bending phase, so that the tentacle end moves through an angle 
of 215 to 270 degrees, beginning the movement within 1.5 minutes, 
completing it in a few hours, or sometimes in as short a time as 17 
min. 30 sec. (DARWIN). The unbending movement results from in- 
creased growth on the now concave side, and takes place at once if the 
stimulus was a brief one, or is delayed as when the tentacles have 
closed over prey. Here also growth begins near the base and moves 
upward toward the gland. During neither phase is the growth neces- 



Chapter X 143 Drosera 

sarily limited to one side, but the difference of rate is obvious and 
produces the same result. Since the movement of the tentacle is a 
matter of growth, and since there is a limit of total growth, the num- 
ber of times bending may be repeated is limited. DARWIN found the 
number is three, and this was confirmed by HOOKER. Though the two 
movements constitute practically a continuous reaction, at least when 
a single brief stimulus is originally applied, the unbending reaction fol- 
lows a stimulus inherent in the internal conditions (such as tissue ten- 
sions) set up during bending, and is tropic (autotropic, autonomous, 
BEHRE) in nature. Since the entire armament of tentacles may not be 
used in any one grasping of prey, the leaf as a whole may react more 
than three times, even though a single tentacle cannot. The short 
radially structured tentacles of the disc do not react by bending to 
stimuli applied directly to the glands, but only to stimuli received 
through the glands of other tentacles. HOOKER regards the response as 
tropic while the original response of the lateral tentacles is evidently 
nastic, though the unbending response is tropic. Both DARWIN and 
NITSCHKE recorded their belief that marginal tentacles when stimu- 
lated indirectly bend toward the point of stimulation. HOOKER takes 
exception to this, saying that he was unable to get evidence of it, 
and thinks that they normally bend toward the middle of the disc, that 
is, nastically. 

Exceptions to this he thought "to be purely accidental." None- 
theless, HOOKER was sufficiently impressed with his observations 
to state that "most of the marginal tentacles which reacted to the 
conducted impulse" from the discal tentacles "in bending toward the 
center of the leaf bent likewise in the direction of the source of excite- 
ment. " The bending of the discal tentacles is, however, always toward 
the point of original stimulation, and cannot be stimulated directly. 
The response is tropic, but "in all probability" the movements "are 
likewise the result of differential growth on opposite sides" of the 
tentacle base. The method used was not applicable to the determina- 
tion of this fact. 

BEHRE (1929) admitted that HOOKER'S conclusions were nearly 
right, but was evidently impressed by the discrepancies admitted 
by him. He, therefore, attacked the problem at this point, and ana- 
lysed the movement of the tentacles more rigorously, controlling his ob- 
servation by means of a horizontal measuring microscope with a scale 
in the field. He recorded accurately the movements of tentacles rela- 
tive to each other and to the position of the source of stimulation, and 
made them available to the reader by means of maps showing the 
paths of movements. 

In the case of D. rolundifolia he found that, according to their be- 
havior the tentacles can be divided into three groups, namely, (a) mar- 
ginal, the outermost standing exactly on, or very near to the leaf mar- 
gin; (b} an outer zone of discal tentacles of one to three rows, called by 
him the "surface outer tentacles"; and (c) the discal tentacles within 
(6), or "central tentacles". With some slight differences due to the 
posture of the tentacles, the same holds for other species investigated 
(D. binata, intermedia, capensis, spathulata) . His observations yielded 
the following results, and here it may be injected that he used in most 



Francis E. Lloyd 144 Carnivorous Plants 

cases small and uniformly sized objects for stimulation, viz., the eggs 
of the wood-louse. 

The responses of the strictly marginal (" outer marginal") tentacles 
are somewhat slower than those standing just within the margin ("in- 
ner marginal")- Their reaction to a direct stimulus (that is, one ap- 
plied to the glands of these tentacles) is, however, always strictly 
nastic; their function is to bring the prey into contact with the discal 
glands. The sensitivity and quickness of reaction are surprising. The 
reaction may begin in 10 seconds, and was seen to make a complete 
excursion of 180 degrees in 20 seconds, the movement being visible to 
the naked eye. This was a maximum, however. It must be clear that 
the direction of movement is in a single plane normal to the leaf mar- 
gin. Prompt and rapid as their response to direct stimulus is, they re- 
spond to indirect stimulus, derived from stimulated discal tentacles, 
only slowly and weakly. At best, a reaction may be detected in 10 
minutes, but the total excursion is short. Only when the leaf is heavily 
fed, especially with living prey, do the marginal tentacles indirectly stim- 
ulated actually reach the prey. If the stimulus is derived from a small 
insect, the excursions of the marginal tentacles are incomplete, are soon 
reversed and can be of no use to the plant, though, since complete 
bendings can occur only three times at best, the meagreness of re- 
sponse may be regarded as an economy of effort. Full expenditure of 
effort is made only when the prey falls on the marginal tentacles, when 
by bending fully they bring it into contact with the inner tentacles 
thus exposing it to much greater digestive surface. The movements 
are at first nastic. Since in D. rotundifolia the orbicular form* of the 
leaf results in nastic and tropistic reactions acting in the same direc- 
tion, the observer is and has been naturally deceived. Only when the 
reactions are observed in such leaves as those of D. intermedia and D. 
binata is it seen clearly that, while the reaction of the marginal ten- 
tacles to direct stimulation is at first nastic, in the course of the ex- 
cursion the direction of movement may be modified by tropistic re- 
actions, especially clear in D. binata, and in this is the account of 
HOOKER amplified. 

In the case of the central or discal tentacles, there is no response to 
direct stimulus, that is, stimulating material placed on a single tentacle 
produces no movement in that tentacle. But the stimulus is quickly 
transmitted to nearby tentacles and these then bend toward the point 
of stimulation, that is tropistically. The rate of reaction is here much 
more dependent on temperature from an hour to 20 or so, according 
to circumstances. 

Between the central disc tentacles and the marginal lies a narrow 
zone of outer surface tentacles, in size grading between them, being in 
such species as D. binata as long as the marginal tentacles, or longer. 
Their reactions are more complicated than those of the tentacles of the 
other two zones, since they combine properties of both. They react 
nastically to direct stimulus and as rapidly as the marginal tentacles, 
and this character distinguishes them at once from the central disc 
tentacles. Toward indirect stimulus their reactions are both nastic and 
tropistic, and the resulting excursions are rapid and more extended than 
those of the marginal tentacles to indirect stimulus, and result in bring- 



Chapter X 146 Drosera 

ing the glands into contact with the prey. The tropistic movement is 
slower. The case of D. binata well illustrates the behavior, because of 
the cylindrical form of the leaf. A small fragment of meat was placed 
on an outer surface tentacle. This responded at first quickly, and in 
the course of five hours brought the prey into contact with the discal 
tentacles. In two hours the nearby outer surface tentacles began their 
excursions which were at first (for four and a half hours) nastic. The 
next morning it was evident that tropistic movements had set in, 
since by then all the glands were in contact with the prey. When, 
however, in this species the stimulus is applied to the discal tentacles, 
the reactions of the outer surface tentacles are entirely, or very nearly 
entirely, tropistic. The case of D. capensis was of peculiar interest, 
since in this species stimulus of an outer tentacle procured tropistic 
reactions of its neighbors so that their glands would have travelled 
the shortest way to the place where the prey was deposited on the 
discal tentacles (the completion of the movement was not observed by 
BEHRE) and not as in D. binata, at first nastically (carrying the glands 
away from a direct path) and later tropistically, correcting the error. 

BEHRE, having pointed out such minor differences in behavior as 
between different species, remarks that, since the nastic and tropic re- 
sponses are influenced differently by different temperatures, as when 
the nastic responses are arrested by a high temperature while the tro- 
pistic are stimulated, such differences may account in part at least for 
various behaviors. By and large, however, the various species act in 
the same way. 

Aggregation. DARWIN observed that, following stimulation, the 
contents of the gland cells first and later of those of the pedicel, dis- 
play changes in appearance due to a rearrangement of the protoplasm 
and vacuole which he termed "aggregation." The total effect is suf- 
ficient to be seen by the naked eye, if pigment is present, in the change 
of color of the gland. In this way it is possible to follow the direction, 
if not the extent of the movement of a stimulus. While DARWIN'S de- 
scription of these changes was incorrect, they stimulated a great 
amount of work directed toward their elucidation. Those who have 
seen at Down House the tools DARWIN worked with may well wonder 
at the extent and acuteness of observation which characterize his work 
in this particular. Taken with the general state of the knowledge of 
the cell in his day, the observations of DARWIN are the more sur- 
prising. 

DARWIN gives his observations as follows: "If tentacles that 

have never been excited or become inflected be examined, the cells 
forming the pedicels are seen to be filled with a homogeneous purple 

fluid. The walls are lined by a layer of protoplasm ". " If a 

tentacle is examined some hours after a gland has been excited by re- 
peated touches, or by an organic or inorganic particle placed on it, or 
by the absorption of certain fluids, it presents a wholly changed ap- 
pearance. The cells, instead of being filled with a homogeneous purple 
fluid, now contain variously shaped masses of purple matter suspended 

in a colorless fluid By whatever cause the process may have 

been excited, it commences with the glands, and then travels down the 
tentacles The little masses of aggregated matter are of the 



Francis E. Lloyd 146 Carnivorous Plants 

most diversified shapes, often spherical or oval, sometimes much 
elongated, or quite irregular with thread- or necklace-like or club- 
formed projections they consist of thick, apparently viscid mat- 
ter .... " " .... these little masses incessantly change their form 

resembling the movements of Amoebae, or white blood corpuscles." 
" We may therefore conclude that they consist of protoplasm." 

FRANCIS DARWIN in 1876 concurred with his father, but later in 
1888 reversed his position, pointing out that DARWIN was in error in 
thinking that the aggregated masses consisted merely of protoplasm, 
but that they are concentrations or precipitations of the cell sap, and 
that their amoeboid movements are the result of streaming protoplasm 
which moulds the passive masses into a variety of forms" (DARWIN, 
2d. ed. 1875, note by FRANCIS DARWIN, p. 34) in agreement with 
PFEFFER'S views as pointed out in his Osmotische Untersuchungen. FRAN- 
CIS DARWIN'S volte face resulted from the publication of views by 
SCHIMPER, by GARDINER, and by DE VRIES. These we presently ex- 
amine. SCHIMPER made his studies while in the U. S. A. where he was 
evidently impressed with his opportunities. He examined Sarracenia 
pur pur ea, Drosera intermedia and Utricularia cornuta. 

Examining the epidermal and subepidermal cells of the tissues of 
the lower part of the pitcher of Sarracenia, when such cells had been 
exposed to nutrient substances, he observed that they showed, in con- 
trast to those not fed, the following behavior. The single vacuole 
containing tannin was found to be now broken up into two or more, 
becoming, because of the concentration of their tannin solution, more 
highly refringent. These vacuoles were found not to be suspended in 
the cell sap, but themselves represented the whole of the sap, and were 
found now to be suspended in a swollen protoplasm. " That under 
the influence of certain substances the protoplasm attains a greater 
capacity for swelling seems probably to be of direct significance for 
nutrition." 

Recalling DARWIN'S statement that the aggregations are suspended 
in the cell sap, SCHIMPER examined Drosera intermedia tentacles. Here 
he found, as in Sarracenia, that the protoplasm is swollen, the tannin 
bearing vacuoles contracted. " By plasmolysis (with NaCl) it is seen 
with the greatest clearness that here also that which appears to be the 
cell sap is really only the much swollen protoplasm. After extraction 
with alcohol, the protoplasm remains as a beautiful framework of 
meshes." 

GARDINER in 1886, apparently without having seen SCHIMPER'S 
paper, described his own observations thus. " The chief phenomena 

induced in the stalk cells" " most marked when stimulated by 

food" u are that the protoplasmic utricle swells up and encroaches 

on its own vacuole, that granules appear in the protoplasm and that 
the movement of rotation increases in vigor." The cell becomes less 
turgid. " The protoplasm in swelling abstracts water from its own 
vacuole and in so doing leaves the sap in a more concentrated con- 
dition." Going on to describe the protoplasmic activity of move- 
ment he says that the reduced vacuole becomes fragmented, the re- 
sulting small vacuoles become droplets, pear-shaped bodies and long 
string-like processes (77 i), just as described by DARWIN. 



Chapter X 147 Drosera 

DE VRIES' studies were most illuminating. He examined cells of the 
tentacle stalk. He says that the whole process of aggregation falls into 
two periods. In the earlier period there is a pronounced increase in the 
rate of cyclosis of the protoplasm, accompanied by growing complexity 
of the currents (" differentiation"). Many accounts ignore this, 
though GARDINER mentioned it. During the second period there is a 
breaking up of the vacuole into a varying number of smaller ones, the 
more obvious phase usually seen. These periods are not sharply de- 
fined, the first passing over gradually into the second. 

The rapidly circulating protoplasm, with its breaking up into new 
streams, furnishes a mechanism for subdividing the originally single 
vacuole which in the meantime loses some of its sap. This escapes 
through the wall of the vacuole (the " tonoplast") into the space be- 
tween this and the protoplasm. This escaped sap retains its osmotic 
pressure, since tentacles in aggregation are as rigid as otherwise. Left 
behind, however, are the pigment, albuminoids and tannin which can 
be precipitated within the resulting vacuoles. The vacuoles, however, 
are now less rigid and more readily broken up by the cutting streams 
of protoplasm. There result eventually many lesser vacuoles as drop- 
lets of various shapes, especially slender tubular ones, constantly stirred 
up by the moving protoplasm, and thus constantly changing positions. 
DE VRIES attempts an interpretation of these changes by suggesting 
that the heightened circulation of protoplasm may serve to facilitate 
the movements of nutritive materials absorbed by the glands; that 
the contraction of the vacuoles is connected with the partition of sub- 
stances (acids, enzymes). 

Here it should be pointed out that the process of aggregation, 
thought to be observed in stimulated tentacles, is quite independent of 
the process of inflexion of the tentacles, as DARWIN pointed out. I 
myself have observed that the bending of the tentacles occurs in a 
region where no aggregation had taken place. As pointed out by Josx 
(BENECKE-JOST, 1924) aggregation takes place in a primarily stimu- 
lated tentacle downwards from cell to cell, but also later in those 
tentacles secondarily stimulated, but does not in these precede the 
bending movement, and moreover proceeds not from the base upwards 
but from the gland downward. Aggregation can, therefore, have no 
relation to the transmission of stimulus, likely enough as it first seemed. 

I have mentioned above that, on the escape of sap from the vac- 
uoles, there is left behind a variety of substances, pigment, tannin, 
albumin, which can be precipitated by various chemical agents (al- 
kaloids, weak bases) and then appear as minute droplets or granula- 
tions which coalesce into larger ones, and which in the case of tannin 
and albumin can become brittle masses. Such precipitation was con- 
fused by DARWIN with true aggregation. GARDINER called this " pas- 
sive aggregation," GOEBEL " granulation." GLAUER (1887) (fide F. 
DARWIN in DARWIN, 1875) and BOKORNY (1889) extended the dis- 
tinction, the latter recognizing other kinds of aggregation to the num- 
ber of four, viz.: the contraction of the entire protoplasmic utricle, 
contraction and division of the vacuoles (" true aggregation"), the 
precipitation of albumin in the vacuoles and fourth, in the protoplasm. 
The albumin in question has been called " active albumin" by 0. 



Francis E. Lloyd 148 Carnivorous Plants 

LOEW and BOKORNY, so designated by them because of its imputed 
peculiar properties which place it in a category of substances which 
may be regarded as bridging the gap between the non-living and the 
living parts of the cell. These peculiarities were recited by ERNA 
JANSON, who, working in LOEW'S laboratory, examined aggregation 
from the point of view thus indicated. Her paper (1920) cannot be 
said to indicate a full apprehension of the observations of those workers 
(GARDINER, DE VRIES, AKERMAN, especially the last two named) who 
had described in much detail the curious and complicated happenings 
which take place during aggregation in the Darwinian sense. Before 
resuming JANSON'S work, it would profit us to look first at that of 
AKERMAN, who while differing from DE VRIES in the interpretation of 
certain details, nevertheless agrees with him about the general trend of 
affairs. AKERMAN used pepsin as the stimulating substance which, 
when applied to the gland, quickly causes movement responses and ag- 
gregation. The course of events he described as follows: 

At first the peripheral protoplasm is thin, and displays rotation 
(cyclosis). This movement, as threads and ultimately plates of proto- 
plasm arise, becomes more complicated, and changes into a true circu- 
lation, becoming more and more active. Meanwhile the peripheral 
layer of protoplasm thickens, even to twice the original thickness. 
Folds of protoplasm, impinging on the vacuole, become strands which 
become thicker and more and more extensive till they cut into the 
vacuole and ultimately break it up into numerous small ones. The 
change in volume of the protoplasm is accompanied by a reduction in 
volume of the vacuoles, the substances in solution therein (the red pig- 
ment, tannin, etc.) becoming more concentrated till the specific gravity 
of the two are reversed, that of the sap increasing, as shown by cen- 
trifuging. At length the vacuoles display remarkable activity. They 
elongate, become vermiform and move, creeping about each other in a 
most dramatic fashion. In my own experience it has been found diffi- 
cult to make drawings of them as the movements, apparently slow, are 
fast enough to defy adequate representation of the proceedings. AKER- 
MAN affords a fair idea of the condition regarded for the moment as 
static in his Fig. 3, but even this does not do the matter justice. But 
the photographic reproduction of three exposures of a single cell two 
and fifteen minutes apart and two two minutes apart, are truly 
illuminating (17 i). We may here recall DE VRIES' own figures, not 
to be ignored. Such activity can be sustained for hours, even days. 
At last a reversal of changes sets in and proceeds till at length the 
primary condition is attained. During the forward progression 
SCHIMPER thought to have observed the formation of new vacuoles, 
new evidently as they did not contain red pigment; DE VRIES also. 
These AKERMAN did not see. He also supports GARDINER, SCHIMPER, 
GOEBEL in his view that there is no separation and independence of the 
vacuole walls (" tonoplast" of DE VRIES) from the peripheral proto- 
plasm, and no accumulation of water between them. Indeed, he goes 
so far as to state it as his considered opinion that the important and 
characteristic feature of aggregation is the swelling of the protoplasm, 
the vacuolar phenomena being resultant and secondary. In support 
of this view AKERMAN again tested a long series of substances and 



Chapter X 149 Drosera 

found that some (albumin, pepsin, peptone, phosphoric acid, ethyl 
alcohol) cause swelling of the protoplasm and the accompanying ap- 
pearances of aggregation, while others (basic substances such as am- 
monia, carbonates of ammonia, sodium or potassium, alkaloids), do not 
cause protoplasmic swelling, but only a precipitation in the vacuole 
with unchanged volume. Further, that these latter substances can in- 
hibit the action of the former. 

The difference between true aggregation and " granulation" in 
which merely precipitation occurs within the vacuole, is emphasized by 
the results of plasmolytic studies. AKERMAN found that during ag- 
gregation there is an increase in turgor pressure of about 5 atm. in the 
cells involved. DE VRIES, it is true, found no changes while GARDINER 
believed that they " lose their turgidity" (he made no experiments to 
show this). As COELINGH points out, the difference in the use of the 
terms turgidity and turgor pressure (dependent on the concentration of 
the sap) is to be noted. In the case of cells in which precipitation oc- 
curred, there is no change. 

From experiments to determine if there is an influence of the gland 
on aggregation, AKERMAN found that in pieces of tentacle stalk from 
which (a) the gland with one-third and (b) with two-thirds of the stalk 
removed, no aggregation at all could be procured in the remaining 
portion of the tentacle. If only the gland and one-third of the stalk 
had been removed, a weak or no aggregation occurred, according to the 
test substance used. AKERMAN tried eight agents. 

That injury is not involved is shown by the fact that aggregation 
intervenes in small pieces of the upper region of the tentacle when pep- 
sin or meat extract are applied. 

These results in AKERMAN'S opinion pointed to the presence of a 
substance, resident or formed in the gland and in the more apical stalk 
cells, which can on suitable stimulation procure aggregation. It looks 
therefore, as if two substances are required to cause aggregation, one 
inherent and one which must be supplied from the outside as a stimu- 
lant. As DARWIN recorded, however, aggregation occurs when the 
tentacles are stimulated by mechanical means only. If a second sub- 
stance is required, this must mean that the second substance is also 
formed in the gland when so stimulated (see beyond). 

Miss COELINGH, working at Utrecht, where the study of growth 
substances was then being actively prosecuted, repeated some of AKER- 
MAN'S work, supporting his conclusion that during the progress of ag- 
gregation there is an increase in the osmotic value of the sap, but that 
this also takes place when the tentacles are successfully stimulated by 
mechanical means. Having also verified AKERMAN'S observation on the 
effect of the gland on aggregation in the stalk (finding slight but 
not significant differences) COELINGH proceeded to test the value of 
his theory of an aggregation-promoting substance. To this end she 
made extracts of glands in distilled water. Such extracts may be 
preserved dry, and can then withstand heating to 100 C. In 
order to determine the virtue of gland-extract, COELINGH proceeded 
to obtain " empty" pieces of tentacle stalk, that is, such as would 
not show aggregation when a " stimulating " agent (beef extract) was 
applied. Such were obtained of four kinds: (/) small strips of leaf 



Francis E. Lloyd 150 Carnivorous Plants 

blade with mere stumps of tentacles, (2) such pieces, or short pieces 
of tentacle stalk placed for some time in a slightly hypotonic solu- 
tion of cane sugar, remaining a few days to allow the putative sub- 
stance to escape by diffusion; (j) young, still unfolded leaf tentacles, 
the glands being removed and (4) a young but fully unfolded leaf 
plunged into ethyl alcohol (96%) for 4-6 seconds. The alcohol be- 
cause of the relative penetrability of the cuticles could not penetrate 
into the leaf beyond the glands so that living tentacles with dead 
glands were provided. Various difficulties involved need not be re- 
cited here. 

On testing the responses of thus prepared material to a " stimulat- 
ing" substance in the presence and absence of gland-extract, it was 
found that, with few exceptions, aggregation did not occur in the 
presence of either alone, but only when both were presented together. 
As control the author used extracts of Drosera leafstalks, with negative 
results. 

COELINGH also suspected that the aggregation-promoting substance 
may occur also in the capital cells of other glandular structures of 
Drosera since by the use of a stimulant (such as pepsin) she found it 
possible to get aggregation in stalk cells of sessile and other glandular 
trichomes and in leaf blade cells, even on the lower surface opposite 
the bases of tentacles. On the other hand she could never obtain ag- 
gregation in other parts of the plant where tentacles do not occur: 
petals, sepals, ovary-wall, adventitious roots, young stipules. 

It was found also that there are substances (saliva, diastase, tryp- 
sin) which act as the theoretical aggregation-promoting substance, 
and in a search for a possible clue as to its nature, some such sub- 
stances were tested on " empty " tissues. Saliva added to pepsin acts 
positively, even after heating to exclude enzymes, but saliva also acts 
alone, as I have found. The composition of saliva being known, the 
various components were tried and only the phosphates were active. 
For example a 0.1% solution of Na 2 HPO 4 was active and saliva di- 
luted to this concentration of that salt was also. Aggregation follows 
on the use of pepsin plus growth-substance of Indian corn on "empty" 
pieces of tentacle, while pepsin or meat-extract alone have no effect. 
Among organic N-substances, aspartic acid, asparagin and leucine have 
the greatest action; creatin, alanine and urea are doubtful or negative; 
guanine and ethylurethane no effect whatever. Substances which 
lower surface tension (saponin, amylalcohol) have no effect. The 
presence of oxygen, as DARWIN had found, is necessary. Since the 
swelling of protoplasm is considered characteristic of aggregation, per- 
haps the chief one (SCHIMPER), it was thought that the pH of the ag- 
gregating agents would betray an influence, but on experimentation 
only negative results were obtained. 

COELINGH in a discussion of all the facts observed fully agrees with 
AKERMAN, that two substances are needed to procure aggregation: 
i) one with property A, which does not cause aggregation, but which 
conditions cells to aggregate; and 2) one with B, which provides a 
stimulus (pepsin, etc.) to aggregation. But it may not be assumed that 
all substances have only one of these properties A and B but not both, 
for some may have both in various degrees of efficiency. This is indi- 



Chapter X 151 Drosera 

cated in the behavior of various substances. It seems sure, however, 
that some substances have only the property B, such as meat extract, 
pepsin, peptone Witte, none of which can procure aggregation in empty 
cells, that is cells devoid of A. But substances having A only seem 
not to occur. On the other hand some substances can cause aggre- 
gation in both normal and "empty" cells, e.g., saliva, gland extract, 
etc., and these, therefore, seem to have both properties A and B. 
If this were true, we would be helped in understanding why aggrega- 
tion can be procured by merely mechanical stimulation by assuming 
that a substance containing AB is secreted only on stimulation, then 
to diffuse into the stalk cells. To this it can be objected that the 
cells of tentacle stalks with the glands removed can respond to pepsin 
alone, indicating that B is already present in the stalk cells. 

But more, for it appears that tentacles are to be found in a state 
of aggregation when they have never been stimulated in any way so 
far as this can be ruled out by conditions of culture, as HOM&S 
subsequently showed. The hypothetical substance we are looking 
for must therefore inhere and have both properties A and B. Since, if 
this is to be assumed to be the case, aggregation may not be present 
till stimulation occurs, it must be argued that stimulation merely ac- 
tivates B. 

Thus Miss COELINGH brings her argument into a purely theoretical 
atmosphere which she, herself, finds hard to breathe, and says that 
speculation without further experimentation affords no sure guidance. 
But it must be evident that the problem of aggregation is most in- 
triguing. 

To the previously cited results of SCHIMPER, GARDINER, DE VRIES, 
AKERMAN, in which they clearly distinguished between true aggregation 
and GOEBEL'S granulation, ERNA JANSON took a diametrically opposite 
position, stating that all aggregation is due to the precipitation of mate- 
rials in solution in the cell sap. Neither the tonoplast (DE VRIES) nor the 
swelling of the protoplasm have any part in the process. It does not 
appear in her paper, however, that she has taken sufficient cognisance of 
that condition called by DE VRIES " true " aggregation. Her figures, which 
are very crude, give no hint that she brought this into her field of con- 
sideration. She showed, what BOKORNY also had shown at length, 
that certain reagents (alkaloids, other weak bases) procure precipita- 
tions in the vacuoles. Beyond this she failed to show that "true 
aggregation" could thus be achieved. Nor did BOKORNY'S figure of 
aggregation in Drosera show more. Considered as contributions to 
the nature of the vacuolar contents, these papers have value. As 
furnishing enlightenment on the nature of that kind of aggregation 
which follows on mechanical stimulation and on feeding with pepsin, 
peptone, etc. (though in these was suspected the presence of ammonia), 
the work of JANSON is very limited. For it is quite certain, and I 
speak now from my own observations, that during true aggregation 
there is no slightest evidence of precipitation from beginning to end. 

Following the studies of DARWIN and GARDINER on aggregation a 
new phase of the subject was entered upon, in which the cytological 
changes taking place within the cells of the gland especially were ex- 
amined. LILY HUIE examined the behavior of the nucleus during se- 



Francis E. Lloyd 152 Carnivorous Plants 

cretion, digestion and absorption (1897-9). Much later KRUCK (1931) 
did the same for the gland cells within the traps of Utricularia (to be 
mentioned elsewhere). 

QUINTANILHA (1926) (on Drosophyllum) , DUFRNOY and HOMES ex- 
amined the cells as a whole with reference to the comportment of the 
vacuome. HOMES has carried on most meticulous studies. He set 
himself the task of determining first of all what happens during the 
development of the cell during the ontogeny of the leaf and gland. 
The next step was to determine if it is possible to describe definitely 
the conditions of the glandular cells during repose, so far as this con- 
dition might be realized. To this end he depended not on plants col- 
lected in the field, but on those raised under control, and which there- 
fore, though secreting, were known not to have been stimulated by 
insects, etc., but only by light, humidity, temperature. He then 
studied glands during " digestion", that is glands which were actively 
secreting enzymes and absorbing. 

The development of the vacuome during the ontogeny of the vari- 
ous tissues, including the glands, follows a general course beginning 
with minute droplets of material in solution (primordia or metachro- 
mata). These enlarge, remaining spherical or more or less elongating, 
and then give rise to rods or fine filaments which are straight or curved, 
simple or branched, giving rise to thicker, short, large and massive 
rods, turning gradually into vacuoles of very irregular shape. From 
these by confluence arises a single massive vacuole with concentrated 
contents from which may arise a vacuome with a fine, becoming a 
coarser, even large and massive network from which in turn a defini- 
tive single vacuole with " diluted contents" arises. HOMES then re- 
marks that these observed stages are not strictly common to all tissues, 
e.g., parenchyma cells do not pass through a network stage, which 
stage in any event is very transitory, and marks tissues or cells which 
are very active, or are at a moment of particular cell activity. There 
are, he continues, the following two essential phases: growth by the 
augmentation of vacuolar substance, followed by growth by simple hy- 
dration. All tissues commence with a vacuome in the form of meta- 
chromata, and finish (certain tissues, including the glands, apart) with a 
single vacuole with dilute contents. The more, however, a region 
preserves the capability of specialization, the slower the evolution of 
the vacuole. The glands, therefore, remain in a relatively juvenile 
condition, and consequently more capable of immediate activity. 

In his second paper HOMES followed the behavior of glandular cells 
in order to find out what happens in them during the secretion of mu- 
cilage only, so as to be able to distinguish later between this activity 
and that which takes place during digestion and absorption. 

He found first of all that under natural conditions the gland cells 
presented no uniform structural condition. But since in nature, that 
is in plants studied in situ, it is impossible to know the precise history 
of a given leaf, since it may have been digesting and recovered, HoMfes 
raised plants from winter buds under control, regulating within ap- 
preciable limits the amount of illumination and humidity. Much to 
his surprise, the glands of such plants were as little uniform in cytolog- 
ical features as those in situ. That is, instead of finding a uniform 



Chapter X 153 Drosera 

condition in the gland cells supposedly in a state of repose, he found 
all possible conditions. It should be here noted that various authors 
had previously described the resting condition in various ways. DARWIN, 
SCHIMPER, DE VRIES, BOKORNY, GOEBEL, AIRMAN thought that in 
this condition the gland cells have a single large vacuole. GARDINER 
described the gland cell as consisting of a fine meshwork of protoplasm 
holding red sap in the interstices. DUFRNOY held a similar view, be- 
lieving that there are many small vacuoles. QUINTANILHA found a 
meshwork of threadlike vacuoles. Allowing for discrepancies of under- 
standing it is obvious that HOMES' findings bring these various views 
into some harmony, since no one condition prevails in the resting gland 
cells. 

Having compared living and fixed material it was established to 
HOMES' satisfaction that his fixative (osmic acid, 2%, i part; mercuric 
chloride 2.5%, 4 parts) preserved the cell structure accurately. Know- 
ing also that the glands in the middle of the leaf are more active in 
secretion than those standing along the limb (since the inhibiting 
action of the environment on the former is less effective), he made a 
statistical study of the gland cells as to the form of the vacuome. But 
a statistical study called for standard conditions. These were supplied 
by growing plants under three sets of conditions, inciting minimum, 
medium and maximum secretory activity. From these plants HOM^S 
obtained evidence of the behavior of the gland cells under these various 
conditions, and found that, though all states of activity occurred in all 
cases, there was a preponderance of one state over the others in any 
one experimental set of conditions. Relying on the relative abundance 
of the different structural states of activity, four " witness" glands 
were chosen to serve as criteria, called types A, B, C, and D. Briefly 
stated, and neglecting details, the outer glandular cells of these types 
have vacuomes of the following character: 

Type A. the vacuome consists of a single large vacuole. 

Type B. numerous small droplets. 

Type C. fewer, larger droplets. 

Type D. a thicker reticulum. 

It was then found that glands at minimum, medium and maximum 
secretory activity displayed the above cytological characters in the 
following percentages: 

GLANDS OF A B C D VARIANTS 

Minimum activity 97 % o o o 3 % 

Medium " o 30% 65% o 5% 

Maximum " o 15% 25% 60% o 

showing clearly that when glands are at minimum activity, the 
glandular cells are in the state in which they have a single large vacu- 
ole, while when in maximum activity, the vacuome is a thick reticulum. 
Intermediate conditions characterize glands of approximately medium 
activity. In the second layer there is a similar course of events, but 
these are not so pronounced, and do not follow the changes of the outer 
layer promptly, scarcely ever doing more than fragmenting the 
vacuole into two or three parts. The cells of the parenchyme bell (the 



Francis E. Lloyd 154 Carnivorous Plants 

third layer) never show these changes. There would, therefore, seem 
to be a difference of function of these layers, the innermost taking no 
part in secretion. Under severe conditions calling for active secretion, 
the outer layer may display a certain degree of plasmolysis, the cells 
recovering by drawing water from the second layer. HOMES regards 
this plasmolysis as a normal event, and attributes it to the concentra- 
tion of the mucilage by rapid evaporation so that it becomes hyper- 
tonic to the cell-sap. Though normal, it occurs infrequently in plants 
under usual conditions. Such plasmolysis can cause directly the frag- 
mentation of the vacuole, as shown by plasmolysis studies in general. 

Summarizing, it seems certain that the rate of secretion obeys 
changes in the external conditions, quite apart from any responses to 
irritability to chemical substances which are presented at and during 
digestion. The changes described as aggregation under which these 
can be subsumed are therefore not alone the result of stimulation in 
the usual sense (mechanical, chemical). 

The purpose of HOMES' final paper was to determine if during di- 
gestion there is a specific activity of the glandular cells different from 
that during secretion of mucilage. The same methods were used as 
previously and the various behaviors of gland cells fed with raw egg 
albumin compared with those from leaves without nourishment. We 
recall that during secretion, according to its intensity, any one of four 
types of condition above mentioned may be found, these types being 
a) cells with one large vacuole, b) cells with many small round drop- 
lets, c) cells with irregular droplets, and d) cells with a thick reticulum. 

"If now the glands are fed, at whatever state they may be at the moment, a first 
rapid change will occur in the direction from A to D, or from B to D, but if they are al- 
ready in the state D, no change will be apparent. Later, after the reticulum stage has 
been reached, a gradual concentration of the vacuole takes place till a single concentrated 
vacuole is present hi each glandular cell. Then this single vacuole becomes more and 
more hydrated and finally a large diluted vacuole is present and persists till the end of the 
digestion. Practically any type of vacuole present during digestion can thus be found in 
a "resting" tentacle, and it is consequently impossible, by examining a single tentacle, to 
tell if it is, was or is going to be in the process of digestion. 

"But the vacuolar changes revealed by the statistical study can also be related to the 
intensity of the secretory process or even more generally to the exchange of water between 
the gland and the external medium. The first change towards the reticulum expresses 
the increase of secretion which takes place immediately after feeding; the later hydra tion 
of the single vacuole indicates the decrease of secretion and the beginning of absorption. 

"Aggregation is thus not the characteristic result of * excitation' in a carnivorous plant, 
but simply the expression of any rapid change in the water content, as can happen during 
secretion or absorption of a liquid." (HoM^s in ep.). 

Thus stands the problem at the present. We are impressed with 
what appears to be a relatively simple cytological behavior of the 
cytoplasm (not speaking for the moment of the nucleus) and by the phys- 
iological complexities indicated by the behavior of the glands and 
tentacles during the process of digestion during which there must be 
secretion and escape of enzyme (even though they may be al- 
ready present in the mucilage), acid or acids, a substance inhibiting 
bacterial action (GOEBEL), perhaps an odorous principle, and a more 
active secretion of mucilage which ceases at the end of digestion and 
absorption. Meanwhile, absorption takes place. Simple as the cyto- 
logical behavior may be, it is, I feel, not yet thoroughly understood. 



Chapter X 165 Drosera 

From studies during the past three summers I can confirm HoMfcs in 
his claim that resting glands, that is glands found on young vigorous 
resting leaves, can be found in a resting condition, meaning with cells 
having a single grand vacuole, or with its cells in a condition which is 
distinctly otherwise, that is, with an appearance which may be in- 
terpreted as a mass of smaller irregular vacuoles, or as a network, prob- 
ably fairly represented by HOMES' fig. 60-63, 1932. Guided by what 
we have seen in the tentacle cells, in which it seems reasonably certain 
that the vermiform condition can give rise by confluence to a network, 
temporary though it may be, we may agree that the same occurs in 
the gland cells, as HOMES believes, and he may be quite right. 

I have seen evidence, however, that, during the period after feed- 
ing (with raw and purified egg albumin, pepsin, peptone Witte, 
saliva) while aggregation follows in the tentacle cells, meaning specifi- 
cally the breaking up of the grand vacuole into smaller ones, these be- 
coming numerous, slender, actively agitated vermiform bodies of high 
refringence (as so well depicted by AKERMAN), to suffer at length con- 
fluence and total reversion, this series of changes is not followed in the 
cells of both glandular courses, though some approach to it may be 
observed in the lateral epidermal cells seen en face, and in the apical 
cells of a gland which were distinctly not in the grand vacuolar state, 
having instead a number of smaller irregular vacuoles, in appearance 
at any rate. 

Lateral cells viewed en face present a crenated outline in conformity 
with the buttresses which cut up the periphery of the cell into bays, 
seen by FRANCA in Drosophyllum. I observed that in these cells, in 
saliva, a droplet containing pigment would be formed in each bay, 
there being as many droplets as bays. DUFRNOY'S drawings indicate 
that he saw the same condition, which he called aggregation, but ap- 
parently did not connect the early form of the vacuole with the cre- 
nated walls. These droplets formed in the bays might remain as such 
or might run together to form a single drop containing all the pigment 
of the cell, depending apparently on the size of the droplets and the 
vigor of the process. In the apical cells, also in saliva, the whole mass 
of vacuoles, whatever may have been their exact state, became con- 
fluent and there was formed a single large drop, corresponding to 
HOMES' condensed vacuole. Here then we have a case which appears 
to conform with HOMES' observations. On the other hand, when the 
gland cells are, to begin with, in the dilute vacuolar state, each having a 
single grand vacuole (HOMES' " vacuole diluee") when treated with 
egg albumin, raw or purified, the first sign of response is to be seen in 
ten minutes in the cells of the internal course in the lateral region of 
the gland. The change advances toward its apex. In 90 minutes simi- 
lar droplets appear in the epidermis lateral cells low down near the 
base of the gland, again advancing toward the apex. These droplets 
do not apparently appear in the grand vacuole but in the cytoplasm, 
but this is a point very difficult to make out. In the course of time 
the confluence of droplets yields a single large drop. This seems to be 
what DARWIN saw: " In 15 min. I distinctly saw extremely minute 
spheres of protoplasm aggregating themselves in the purple fluid; these 
rapidly increased in size, both within the cells of glands and of the 



Francis E. Lloyd 156 Carnivorous Plants 

upper ends of the pedicels." In my preparations aggregation, in the 
generally understood sense, occurred in the upper end of the tentacle 
stalk. Similar appearances were seen in glands treated with pepsin, 
and peptone Witte (each i% soln.), in that the first thing noted is the 
appearance of drops and there is no breaking up of the grand vacuole 
into parts, as is to be constantly observed in the tentacles. In KH 2 - 
PO 4 (tried by COELINGH as a component of saliva) in i% soln. the 
gland cells behaved so far differently that its action can be only doubt- 
fully compared with that of saliva since vacuoles without pigment are 
formed which push aside the cell contents, producing a distinctly path- 
ological effect. Aggregation occurred in the tentacles, but this also oc- 
curs in water. In order to check on my observation, I took a piece of 
leaf which had lain in oil for 48 hours, and which showed very clearly 
that there was no aggregation at all in any gland cells. After removing 
the oil, which does not adhere to the glands because of the mucilage, I 
treated it with saliva. In 15 min. droplets had appeared in the lateral 
cells of the inner course of gland cells (C-II), the epidermis (C-I) re- 
maining quite clear. At the end of 50 min. all the cells of C-II had each 
a large drop, appearing in the apical cells last. All the lateral cells of 
C-I had drops in them, a few small droplets in some apical cells. In 
an hour's time, droplets had appeared in many of the apical cells of 
C-I and they were evidently enlarging. 

These observations seem to indicate that during the ordinary course 
of events when the glands are secreting mucilage the condition of the 
gland cells may be found in various states such as HOMES had de- 
scribed. If the glands are fed they may follow one of two courses. 
If the gland cells are filled with smaller vacuoles (are aggregated), these 
become confluent to form a single large drop, the condensed vacuole of 
HOMES. If the gland cells are in the resting condition, that is, are in 
the grand vacuolar stage with no sign of aggregation, the course of 
events on feeding consists in the formation of small droplets in the 
cells of the inner glandular course in the lateral regions of the gland. 
This advances till the apical cells of this course have all formed drop- 
lets. These grow until by their size they form an optically dense layer. 
In the meantime, droplets have appeared in the epidermis, in the 
lateral region. This also progresses toward the apex, until all the epi- 
dermal cells are involved. The drops all contain pigment. In the 
course of change, the gland becomes denser and darker in color as DAR- 
WIN observed. During six hours aggregation had occurred in the tenta- 
cles and by next morning it had progressed quite to their bases and 
into the leaf tissue about their bases. 

Whatever the final agreement as to the course of aggregation, which 
appears to be different in detail, if the same in results, in gland and 
tentacle, the whole activity is most extraordinary, and demands much 
further study before any final answer can be given as to the relation of 
aggregation to secretion and absorption. 

Studies of cytoplasm and nucleus. The studies of the living cell 
leading to our knowledge of aggregation led to a desire to know more 
of those details of behavior of the cytoplasm and especially of the 
nucleus which cannot be discovered by the methods used for obser- 
vation of the living material. Accordingly the method of fixation fol- 



Chapter X 157 Drosera 

lowed by sectioning and staining came into use first by GARDINER, 
followed later by LILY HUIE, ROSENBERG and KONOPKA. HOMES' 
work we have already mentioned as especially bearing on aggregation. 
GARDINER believed that the mucilage of the glands is secreted as a 
" formed matter' 7 within vacuoles which grow after stimulation, the 
protoplasm being reduced in amount to be later restored by new 
growth from the vicinity of the nucleus. He observed the presence of 
the crystalloid " rhabdoids". It is not unfair to say that his work was 
rather meagre in amount, and he did not use staining reactions. HUIE 
on the other hand did a sustained piece of work. She traced rhythmic 
changes in cytoplasm, nucleus and nucleolus, attempting to interpret 
these as chemical and morphological reactions connected with and 
following stimulation by food materials of various kinds, which, ac- 
cording to their nature, were followed by quantitatively various re- 
actions, though qualitatively similar. We may leave out of account 
the reactions to non-organic substances which produced in any event 
only very fleeting cytological changes. Following feeding there is a 
reduction in the volume of the basophile cytoplasm until it becomes 
scanty in amount and eosinophile in character confirming GARDINER'S 
similar observation. Following this but preceding the restoration of the 
cytoplasm there is an increase in the volume of the basophile chromo- 
somes accompanied by a reduced amount of nucleolar chromatin. The 
beginning of restoration of the cytoplasm is to be seen in an accumula- 
tion of neutrophile dense cytoplasm surrounding the nucleus correspond- 
ing chemically (as indicated by color reaction) and morphologically 
(size of granules) to the intranuclear plasm. At completion of 
cytoplasmic restoration the nuclear chromatin is reduced in amount, 
and the nucleolar chromatin increases. What is left of the chromoso- 
mal bodies (chromatin) is finally aggregated into definite V-shaped 
bodies of a constant number (eight) characteristic of the plant, which 
" proves '' that this is a mark of nuclear activity and not merely a 
feature of mitosis. HUIE'S second paper (1899) adds nothing to the 
above account in general, but she concludes that the nucleus is the 
seat of metabolic activity, and that the usefulness of a food can be 
judged by the condition of the " nuclear organs." 

ROSENBERG (1899) supported and extended HUIE'S studies. He 
saw similar changes, but in lesser degree, in the endodermis, tracheids 
and stalk cells. He diverged, however, from her interpretation of the 
masses of chromatin as chromosomal, for he found them in no constant 
number, nor did he find splitting as in prophase, but on the contrary 
much difference in form and size. He observed, however, certain 
bodies lying on or near the nuclear membrane, called generally "pseu- 
donucleoli", which he termed prochromosomes. These occur in a con- 
stant number, and are the chromosomes. 

KONOPKA and ZIEGENSPECK (1929) studied D. rotundifolia, D. 
binata and D. anglica. After the glands have been fed 24 hours with 
various proteins, including pollen, droplets appear in the cytoplasm 
near the nucleus (intermediate food products) at first always in the 
inner gland cells layer, later in the outer, and also in endodermis 
(parenchyme bell) tracheids, stalk cells and leaf blade cells. They in- 
crease in number and size, and at length are overtaken by a sort of 



Francis E. Lloyd 168 Carnivorous Plants 

disruption, show hollows and cracks, and appear to be in some vague 
but perhaps intimate connection with the nucleus, indicating that they 
are products taken up by it. At the " high point " of feeding the 
nucleus has enlarged and the membrane becomes less definite and 
finally disappears so that the chromosomes and nuclear materials ap- 
pear to lie free in the cytoplasm, or at any rate in a nuclear lymph. 
KONOPKA observed in the resting stage the bodies which ROSENBERG 
called prochromosomes, but could not confirm his belief that they oc- 
cur in a constant number, regarding them rather to be of nucleolar 
nature. After feeding the nucleoli become reduced in size, and lie in a 
large vacuole (" Hof") from which, in many cases, he could observe 
canals leading to the cytoplasm, bringing the nucleus into more inti- 
mate contact with the cytoplasm. Here it is to be regretted that cost 
prevented the reproduction of his photographs, since the figures are 
unsatisfactory to a degree, and show no convincing evidence of this. 
The chromatin on the other hand exhibits increase and occurs in larger 
masses of various form. After 24 hours they become very evident by 
their clearness and size, and besides granules of various sizes there ap- 
pear rod-shaped structures (" Rhabdoids"?) lying near the periphery 
(of the nucleus) sometimes paired and connected by fibers with the 
interior of the nucleus, but in no constant number. The nucleolus has 
now been dissolved, and appears as a pale, rather than, according to 
ROSENBERG, a distinct body. The chromatin rods now unite to form 
threads and rings. Among them the granules, which ROSENBERG 
thought to be prochromosomes, are secondary nucleoli, indicating 
enhanced nucleolar activity. They always lie in vacuoles (" Hof") 
and have no connection with the nuclear structure, show disinte- 
gration and disappearance at the high point of the reaction. During 
long periods of digestion these events appear not to progress steadily, 
but rather to pulsate there is a rhythm in behavior. These nucleolar 
structures are regarded by KONOPKA as supplying materials for forming 
mucilage and for digestion, and he is inclined to regard the central and 
peripheral nucleoli as having different functions. The whole aspect of 
the changes in the chromatin and nucleolus indicates that these changes 
are connected with ferment production. With the escape of the fer- 
ment the chromatin shrinks in ring forms, so that one might regard the 
nucleus now as being in a spireme stage, leading to mitosis, or merely 
as a reformation of chromosomes in a somatic condition. They are at 
all events true chromosomes. 

It has been attempted to summarize the above work with not 
too great brevity, so that the reader may appreciate the difficul- 
ties of interpretation. It is not too much to say that, while it has 
been shown experimentally that changes in the cell do indeed occur 
during digestion, and while we have become aware to some extent 
what, in detail, these changes are, it must still be recognized that we 
are yet lacking general agreement as to the precise nature of many of 
these details, and much less are in a position to attribute precise func- 
tions to the various structures seen. 

Digestion; enzymes. DARWIN (1875) proclaimed the digestive 
power of the secretion of Drosera tentacles. He fed the leaves proteins, 
connective tissue, cartilage, gelatin, to find that these were attacked. 



Chapter X 169 Drosera 

The presence of acid being a condition for peptic digestion, he observed 
that the inner tentacles of the disc of the leaf were more acid than the 
outer. This may have been because of the greater number of tentacles 
per unit of area. DARWIN thought that the acidity of the secretion of 
the leaf is increased on the absorption of nitrogenous substances de- 
rived from the captured insect. 

Opposed to the general trend of opinion was that of MORREN 
(1875), BATALIN (1877), TISCHUTKIN (1889), an ^ of DUBOIS (1899), a ^ 
of whom were persuaded that the digestion of insects by Drosera is 
always the result of bacterial action, so that the results of others, to 
be detailed below, were not without opposition. 

REES and WILL (1875) made a glycerin extract of the leaves and 
found it weakly acid and to contain an enzyme which in the presence 
of weak HC1 exercised a peptonizing action. LAWSON TATE (1875) 
collected the secretion from the tentacles, sweeping the leaves with a 
feather (he used Drosera dichotoma), mixed it with water and pre- 
cipitated it with cholesterin. The precipitate was found to coagulate 
milk, and this he referred to the action of a ferment which he named 
droserin. In 1911 Miss J. WHITE reinvestigated the matter; leaves 
were removed, washed with previously boiled water with added chloro- 
form and chopped with a sterile knife. The bits were then placed in 
lukewarm boiled water with chloroform as antiseptic, shaken vigor- 
ously for 2 hours. To the filtrate was added an equal part of satu- 
rated ammonium sulfate, from which a filtrate was obtained which 
contained a principle which could attack fibrin but only in an acid 
medium. The product gave the biuret reactions. ABDERHALDEN 
(1906) had found that in its presence peptides are not split. 

DERNBY in 1917 obtained a glycerin extract of the leaves from 
which by means of dialysis he obtained an enzyme which he regarded 
as a pepsin. This worked at an acidity of pVL 5 as optimum. No 
tryptase or ereptase was found. 

Miss ROBINSON (1909) tested the digestive effect of Drosera on 
" purer proteins " then available. She found that acid-albumin, alkali 
albuminate and edestin were digested, but " somewhat less readily 7 ' 
than dry egg-white, fibrin, tendo-mucoid and nucleoproteins. Col- 
lagen and elastin proved entirely indigestible. Though creatin did not 
cause a bending of the tentacles, it was readily dissolved, meanwhile 
remaining in contact with the leaf for three days. It is important, in 
view of DARWIN'S opposed idea, that the lack of movement of the 
tentacles is not an indication of the non-nutritional value of the sub- 
stances applied; nor did DARWIN find that the positive response indi- 
cates the contrary. 

Beginning in 1930 OKAHARA published a series of papers dealing 
with the matter. He first dealt with the question of the actual oc- 
currence of a digestive ferment in Drosera. The leaves were extracted 
with glycerine and water for several days (with toluene) and the press 
juice then filtered off. The mother solution thus obtained showed 
strong acidity. The enzyme was separated by means of acetone and 
redissolved for experimentation. 

He concluded that there exists in the leaves of Drosera a powerful 
proteolytic enzyme which, acting on proteins, hydrolyses them to 



Francis E. Lloyd 160 Carnivorous Plants 

proteoses and peptones, with an optimum activity at pH 1.5, an acidity 
high for plant enzymes and suggesting a resemblance to animal pepsin. 
In order to determine to what extent the Drosera pepsin is identical in 
action with animal pepsin, OKAHARA observed the influence of poisons 
(quinine hydrochloride and atoxyl) on them. He failed to find a strict 
parallel, since the enzyme activity under certain conditions was re- 
pressed in the one and accelerated in the other. 

OKAHARA'S second paper (19306) is of a more general nature, deal- 
ing with the effect of toxic substances on pepsin with a view to 
illuminating his earlier observations cited just above. Though the sub- 
ject may be regarded as controversial, it remains true that there is a 
substance capable of digestion of proteins in Drosera leaves. 

In a third paper (1931) OKAHARA gave the results of inquiry into 
the optimum acidities of various acids for the enzyme activity. He 
had observed the occurrence of formic acid in Drosera, and was 
prompted to investigate the comparative effect of various acids on the 
action of a proteolytic enzyme on edestin and found that the optimum 
acidities for various acids differ, and that the decrease from the op- 
timum acidity parallels the decrease of the electrical dissociation con- 
stant. 

While OKAHARA'S second and third papers do not immediately 
concern Drosera, they have been mentioned in this connection since 
their bearing will doubtless be made clear by further studies. His 
fourth paper, however, bears directly on the controversial question, 
do bacteria play a r61e in the digestion of carnivorous plants and in 
particular of Drosera? Nepenthes was examined also in this connection. 
The paper was published in 1933. The author isolated from the plants 
studied a series of bacteria and moulds. Experiments with these 
in media held at two acidities, pH 5-6 and pH. 3.3, afforded the following 
results. Three of the moulds acted on Witte's peptone and glycocoll 
at />H 3.3. The other organisms attacked various nitrogenous com- 
pounds supplied (Witte's peptone, glycylglycine, glycocoll and alanine) 
falling into two groups which cooperate to reduce these substances to 
ammonia. OKAHARA concludes, that, while the plant enzymes may 
themselves take a leading part in the breaking down of proteins, 
such organisms as were isolated from the plants mentioned "may 
also cooperate in the completion of the process." OKAHARA to this 
extent supports the views of LABBE (1904) and of STUTZER (1926), 
the former for Drosera and the latter for Utricularia. 

Following OKAHARA, LINDERSTR0M-LANG and HOLTER (1934) again 
raised the question whether digestion in Drosera rotundifolia is es- 
sentially different from that in other plants and similar to that in 
animals, or do they depend on resorption of the products of bacterial 
action? 

Accordingly, the secretions from the glands and from the leaf 
tissues (from the blade, that is) were examined separately, in order 
to answer specific questions, to wit: (i) whether proteinase is secreted 
by the glands; (2) what position among the proteolytic enzymes 
it takes; (3) in what quantities it occurs and how these quantities 
behave in relation to the endoproteinase to be expected in the leaf 
tissues. 



Chapter X 161 Drosera 

Their method of obtaining the enzymes was as follows. The se- 
cretion of the glands was taken up by filter paper and because of its 
viscosity was diluted. That of the leaf tissues was extracted with 
glycerin. Both were tested on edestin. 

It was found that the gland secretion, with its optimum at pR 
3.3, was far more active than that of the leaf blade, with its opti- 
mum at 4.6, or even of the secretion, extracted from removed glands 
with maximum activity at pH 3.8. It is admitted that the last may 
be due to the overlapping of the action of the two enzymes in ques- 
tion. The authors concluded, "We have to do with a quite different 
distribution of two enzymes, of which the one occurring in the se- 
cretion is a proteinase for the purpose of digestion. " Further it was 
pointed out that the distinct function of a proteinase, optimum activity 
at pU. 3.2, does not harmonize with DERNBY'S results who found 
the maximum activity on acid albumin at pR 5, nor with OKAHARA'S 
with carmine fibrin, maximum activity at pH. 1.4. DERNBY'S results 
may have come about because he used masses of total leaf, but those 
of OKAHARA'S are regarded as distinctly antagonistic. This may be 
due to the possibility that the Japanese plant may differ physiolog- 
ically from the European. MERCK'S pepsin acted on edestin at ptl 
1.8; therefore, the proteinase of Drosera and pepsin are not iden- 
tical. 

Recent and still unpublished work done by A. AKERMAN and 
L. G. M. BAAS BECKING using D. capensis yielded definite evidence 
that peptic fermentation takes place. The method used was the fol- 
lowing: A single tentacle on the leaf edge was plunged into distilled 
water held in a small paraffin cup. Under these conditions the water 
retained its initial pH of 5 -8 for at least 24 hours. When, however, 
a solution of NH 4 C1 (cone. 25 mgr/L) was used the pH fell from 5.8 
to 2.0, from which it is evident that this salt served to stimulate the 
production of acid. Equivalent solutions of CaCl 2 , NaCl and MgCl 2 
gave no action, while KC1 produced only a very slight change in 
pH. When egg albumin (^H 7.0) was placed on a tentacle, the pH 
changed to 3.0. Carmine-fibrin when treated with a leaf extract was 
digested indicating the presence of a peptic enzyme, effective at an 
optimum plEL of 2-3.0 while it has been shown by J. DE ZEEUW that 
digestion in Nepenthes takes place at about pH 4.0. Since the leaf 
extract was not bacteria free, Prof. BAAS BECKING (Sept. 1935) pointed 
out that the proof for Drosera is not absolute, and final proof will 
require experiments with bacteria-free plants. It is further noted 
that Drosera proteinase takes a middle position between pepsin and 
papain (in ep.). 

DARWIN observed that milk when placed on Drosera leaves was 
soon coagulated. GREEN mentions this under the heading " Vegetable 
Rennet, " presumably because of the more obvious inference that milk 
coagulation is brought about by a rennet, as perhaps is the case 
when Galium verum is used for the preparation of curds for cheese 
making, also mentioned by GREEN. As has been seen, a similar ac- 
tion of Pinguicula in coagulating milk is not attributed to the pres- 
ence of a rennet (DERNBY 1917), and if so, this may be equally true 
of Drosera. DARWIN does not speak of a rennet, but does remark 



Francis E. Lloyd 162 Carnivorous Plants 

on the digestive effect of the secretion on casein, which harmonizes 
with DERNBY'S view that a trypsin is present (in Pinguicula). 

The general conclusion may be drawn from the foregoing summaries 
of work done on digestion in Drosera that this plant does indeed 
secrete a ferment which can act upon proteins and reduce them to 
substances which can be and are absorbed for nutriment. If food 
materials in the form of an abundance of insects, pollen, etc. (DARWIN) 
are present so that the antiseptic effect is incomplete, bacteria may 
(particularly according to OKAHARA) assist in rendering such foods 
available to the plant. 

The abundance of fats in the bodies of insects would suggest 
the presence of a lipase in Drosera, but such has not been found. 
Whether lecithin and fatty acids might be absorbed by infiltration 
(as lecithin is taken in by the human intestine according to SHOCOT- 
YOFF, fide SCHMID, 1912) is a matter of speculation, though GOEBEL 
thought that he found fats to be absorbed by the glands of Pingui- 
cula and Utricularia. 

Significance of carnivory for the plant. Although DARWIN left 
no room for doubt that Drosera is able to catch, digest and absorb 
the products of digestion, it remained a question if this ability is 
of advantage to the plant in furthering its growth and development. 
It was natural that FRANCIS DARWIN (1878) should take up the cud- 
gels in his father's behalf. He grew plants, obtained from the field, 
in shallow dishes duly protected so as to prevent insects from reaching 
them. These he divided into two lots, one of which he fed, the other 
remaining unfed. The result showed the indubitable conclusion that 
the plants which were fed were more vigorous, produced more and 
stronger inflorescences and seed than the unfed. Similar results were 
obtained by KELLERMANN and v. RAUMER (1878). BUSGEN (1883) 
then pointed out that plants grown from winter buds show a wide 
range of development to begin with, so that an experiment with these 
is really a handicap race. To avoid this he used plants grown from 
seed, so that his plants started out from scratch. The results were 
even more striking than those of the previous workers. In the table 
herewith the results of the three authors are compared in terms of 
percentage, the quantities for the unfed plants being 100: 



FR. DARWIN 

1878 


KELLERMANN & 
v. RAUMER, 1878 


BUSGEN 
1883 


Number of inflorescences 
Number of capsules 
Total weight of seed 


164.9: 
194.4: 
379.7: 


IOO 
IOO 
IOO 


152: 
174: 
capsules 205: 


IOO 
IOO 
IOO 


300: loo 
533: loo 


AND IN 


TERMS OF DRY WEIGHT: 


SOLUTION 

NUTRIENT 


SPRING 

WATER 



Winter buds, i Feb 1 73 : 100 

Winter buds, 3 Apr 213: 100 

Entire plant, end of 2nd. year 296 : 100 1 74 : 100 

Inflorescences 141.1 : 100 

Plants minus Inflorescences 121.5: 100 

(fide BUSGEN) 

While these figures speak for themselves, I venture to quote briefly 
from these authors. KELLERMANN and VON RAUMER: "The general 



Chapter X 163 Drosera 

result is not to be doubted, that in all essential points the fed plants 
forge ahead of the unfed"; BUSGEN: "We must therefore take it 
as proven that animal stuffs are transferred to the plant and that 
they are of great significance to it for its development, namely, for 
the development of its fruit, etc."; and finally FRANCIS DARWIN 
said: "These results show clearly that insectivorous plants derive 
great advantage from animal food." 

Just previously to the publications of KELLERMANN and v. 
RAUMER'S work PFEFFER (1877) had grown Drosera rotundifolia plants 
from winter buds under cover to prevent the access of insects, and 
observed that they grew vigorously, evidently leading to the conclu- 
sion that the carnivory is not always a necessity. REGEL (1879) wen t 
further than this, claiming that the carnivorous habit is a distinct dis- 
advantage because he observed that the leaves (Drosera filiformis) 
were often injured by feeding, and that fed leaves die sooner than 
unfed ones. It is, however, well known, as GOEBEL pointed out, 
that overfeeding often causes decay of the leaf; and to deplore the 
earlier passing of fed, not overfed, leaves is to ignore the possible 
good which may have accrued to the plant in the meantime. And 
HABERLANDT was of the opinion, based on field observations in Java, 
that Nepenthes pitchers appeared to have but a meagre booty, that 
insectivory is a sort of semi-superfluous, luxus adaptation. In this 
MASSART (through HABERLANDT), having had similar field experiences, 
agreed. Nor did GOEBEL regard the r61e of insectivory in the struggle 
for existence very seriously it is useful, he said, but not obligatory, 
and the plant does not meet much competition in its natural habitat. 
Such more or less contrary views have in the long run been brought 
to a focus in the idea now generally accepted that carnivory is a very 
striking and useful adaptation, which, though not always obligatory, 
can under circumstances better the condition of the plant. Ad- 
ditional questions, no less important, however, arose. It will be 
noted that the above researches were overshadowed by the sole idea 
of animal food, as supplying chiefly proteids, and this has crept into 
the textbooks as the dominant thought. STAHL, in 1900, published 
a long dissertation on the significance of mycorrhizal arrangements 
in plants, in which he instituted comparisons between those plants 
with the carnivorous plants, all of which grew in sterile soils. Sar- 
racenia had been shown by MACDOUGAL (1899) t be free of mycor- 
rhiza, nor had it been found otherwise in Pinguicula (SCHLICHT, 1889, 
through STAHL), Drosera^ or Nepenthes QANSE, 1896, through STAHL) 
and this is now known to be the case for all carnivores. As com- 
pared with true parasites, mycorrhizal plants and autotrophic plants 
with very extensive roots, those plants which avail themselves of capil- 
lary water and in which many forms of animal life perish and are 
entangled in the foliage (e.g. mosses), and carnivores have poor roots 
and therefore little means for obtaining the materials of the soil no- 
tably lacking in salts, especially those of phosphorus and potassium, 
in which they grow. And while it may be true that it may be shown 
by experiment that carnivores may obtain all their requirements 
through their roots, if plentifully supplied to the substrate, this does 
not show that in a state of nature their arrangements for obtaining 



Francis E. Lloyd 164 Carnivorous Plants 

these materials are superfluous or useless, since they live in nature 
and not under experimental conditions. STAHL indicated the low ash 
content of the leaves of carnivores, and advanced this additional fact 
as an argument for the significance of carnivory. There is generally 
also a depression of transpiration due to situation in the habitat, 
and where transpiration is low, some other means of obtaining salts 
is called for. The leaves of Nepenthes, when exposed to situations 
where transpiration can act freely, do not make pitchers, and have 
a higher ash content than those low down and exposed to higher 
humidity, where also, as in the case of seedlings (GOEBEL), pitchers 
are immediately produced following the cotyledons. STAHL thus 
argues: the carnivory has been dominated by the idea that it is 
an adaptation to obtain proteins; but the soils in which carnivorous 
plants grow are notoriously poor ones, and therefore the question of 
how the carnivorous plants obtain substances aside from nitrogen is 
in need of investigation. This in 1900. PFEFFER had indicated 
this problem (1877), thinking particularly of phosphorus compounds, 
and his and STAHI/S suggestions were fruitful ones.* 

In 1912, WEYLAND and SCHMID both entertained this idea, WEY- 
LAND showing that there was little of K and P to be found in the 
meagre roots of Drosera, and SCHMID finding these elements present 
in the leaves of this plant after insect feeding, whereas before this 
they were not to be found or only in meagre amounts (RUSCHMANN, 
1914). OOSTERHUIS (1927) pushed investigation further along in this 
direction. He asked the question whether the lack of any particular 
mineral in the soil could be compensated for by insect feeding. He 
summed up his experiments by saying that (i) mineral nutrients can 
be taken up by the roots; (2) even if an abundant supply of nutrient 
salts is present, the plants can not grow as well as if insect-fed; (3) in 
view of the fact that in his experiments plants grown on a substrate 
poor in salts but insect-fed prospered beyond plants grown on salt- 
rich medium but not insect-fed, he argued that the significance of 
insectivory lies in the uptake of the cleavage-products of proteins 
out of insects by the plant. The absorption of salts from the in- 
sect is not excluded, but is not the important factor. Summarily 
stated, in the lack of nitrogen in the soil, the plants can be supplied 
this by insect prey, and then flourish better than when grown in 
a substrate with Knop's solution supplying all elements. That plants fed 
with insects have a higher nitrogen content than those grown as seedlings 
on turf carrying Knop's solution strengthened him in this view. 

BEHRE (1929), stimulated by an expression of doubt by DIELS 
(1906) as to the value of insectivory, asserted that such value had 
not been proved, and instituted experiments of his own to test the 
matter. He found that plants grown in distilled water but plenti- 
fully fed with flies or meat throve very much better than those grown 
in distilled water, or even in a weak Knop solution (% cone.), in 
both cases not fed. The differences noted became much more evident 
toward the end of the second summer. He concluded that insectivory 
is indeed of great moment to the plant. An important value, it 
seemed to BEHRE, lies in the taking up of inorganic salts, and that 

* PEYRONEL (1932) argues that if mycorrhizal fungi are parasitic, they should be found 
in carnivorous plants, but he found none in Drosera or Pinguicnla. Mycorrhiza occurs 
chiefly when soils are poor in nitrates and ammoniacal salts, but rich in organic matter. 



Chapter X 165 Drosera 

the lack of such salts in the natural environment is compensated for 
in this way. 

Came OUDMAN in 1936 with further proofs. The virtue of his 
experiments lies in the fact that his experimental plants (Drosera 
capensis) were grown from seed, and the seedlings carefully chosen 
for their uniformity, and in the further fact that the plants were 
grown on a very uniform substrate of powdered peat which had pre- 
viously been very thoroughly washed. Several sets of plants with 
(a) distilled water, (b) nutrient solution without N, and (c) Knop's 
solution, were set up and either not fed at all, or fed with asparagin 
1.5%, peptone 1.5%, gelatin 2% (against dist. water alone), gelatin 
plus Knop (against dist. water only in the substrate), Knop solution 
alone, and finally with insects. He found that plants grown on salt- 
poor substrate, but fed insects, were quite normal. Plants grown 
on N-free substrate could make use of asparagin and peptone as well 
as the N-compounds occurring in insects. Plants well supplied with 
nutrient salts, incl. nitrogen compounds, can grow well in the absence of 
leaf-feeding with insects. Drosera can obtain nitrogen if this is not pres- 
ent in the substrate, through its leaves, and this in organic form. 
It can also take up through its leaves not only N, but other salts 
as well. OUDMAN 's conclusions correspond quite fully with those of 
OOSTERHUIS. There can, therefore, be no sort of doubt that the 
ability to absorb substances (mineral salts as well as N) is of sig- 
nificance to the plant. It should be added that gelatin and glutin, 
a derivative of gelatin, cause degeneration of the tentacles, so that 
in time they entirely disappear. 

The presence of ascorbic acid in D. intermedia, suspected by WEBER 
(1938), was soon after demonstrated in the leaves of this plant by 
NEUBAUER (1939) who claims to have found a content nearly as high as 
that of a "well known paprika preparation", which itself contains 
2o-fold that of lemon juice. On this WEBER (1940) again examined 
the leaves of the same species after having been fed peptone powder, 
and obtained evidence of a heightening of cell activity, accompanied by 
an increase in vitamin-C content. This being a non-nitrogenous com- 
pound, the significance of these results is quite problematical. 

Literature Cited: 

AKERMAN, A., Untersuchungen iiber die Aggregation in den Tentakeln von Drosera rotun- 

difolia. Bot. Notiser 1917:145-192. 

AMES, O., An easy method of propagating Drosera filiformis. Rhodora 1:172, 1899. 
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Francis E. Lloyd 166 Carnivorous Plants 

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HOOKER, J. D., Address to the Dept. of Botany and Zoology, B. A. A. S. Belfast Meet- 
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HUIE, L. M., (a) Changes in the cell organs of Drosera rotundifolia produced by feeding 

with egg-albumin. Q. Journ. Mic. Sci. 39:387-425, 1897. 



Chapter X 167 Drosera 

(b) Further studies of cytological changes produced in Drosera. Q. Journ. Mic. Sci. 
42:203-222, 1899. 

(c) Changes in the gland cells of Drosera produced by various food materials. Ann. 
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JANSE, 1896 (through STAHL 1900). 

JANSON, E., Studien liber die Aggregationserscheinungen in den Tentakeln von Drosera. 
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JOST, L., see BENECKE-JOST. 

KELLERMANN, CH. & E. v. RAUMER, Vegetationsversuche an Drosera rotundifolia, mit und 
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KONOPKA, K. & ZIEGENSPECK, H., Der Kern des Droseratentakels und die Fermentbildung. 
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KOSTYTSCHEW, S., Die Photosynthese der Insektivoren. Ber. D. Bot. Gesellsch. 41:277-280, 
1923. 

KRUCK, M., (see under Utricularia). 

LABBE, E., Du r61e des microorganismes dans . . . digestions observes chez Drosera rotundi- 
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LEAVITT, R. G., Adventitious plants of Drosera. Rhodora 1:206-208, 1899. Reversionary 
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LEAVITT, R. G., Translocation of characters in plants. Rhodora 7:13-20, 1005. 

LINDERSTR^M-LANG & H. HOLTER, Ergebnisse der Enzymforschung 3 :309~334, 1 934. 

LUBBOCK, J., A Contribution to our Knowledge of Seedlings. London 1892. 

MACBETH, A. KILLEN, JR., J. R. PRICE, F. L. WINZOR & A. B. BECK, The coloring mat- 
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droxynaphthaquinones. Journ. Chem. Soc. 1:325-333, 1935. 

MACBETH, A. K. & WINZOR, F. L., The coloring matters of Drosera Whittakeri, II. Journ. 
Chem. Soc. 1935 '334~336. 

MACDOUGAL, D. T., Symbiotic saprophytism. Ann. Bot. 13:1-47, 1899. 

MARLOTH, R., Flora of South Africa, II (i):26, 1925. 

MASSART, J., Un botaniste en Malaisie. Gand 1895, p, 253. 

MEYEN, F. T. F., liber die Secretionsorgane der Pflanzen. A memoir published in 1837. 

MILDE, J., Uber die Reizbarkeit der Blatter von Drosera rotundifolia L. (through NITSCHKE, 
1860). Bot. Zeit. 10:540, 1852. 

MIRIMANOFF, A., Remarquessur la se"cr6tion des tentacules de Drosera. Protoplasma 33, 1939. 

MORREN, fi., La the*orie des plantes carnivores et irri tables. Bull, de 1'Acad. Roy. Belg., 
II, 40:1040 seq., 1875 (1876) (seconde Edition revue et ame'liore'e dans Bull. Fe"d. Soc. 
Hort 1875). 

MORREN, fi., Note sur les proc6d6s insecticides du Drosera rotundifolia. Bull. Acad. Roy. 
Belg. II, 40:7, 1875 (seconde Edition dans la Belg. Hort. 25, 1875). 

MORREN, fi., Note sur le Drosera binata, sa structure et ses proce'de's insecticides. Bull. 
Acad. Roy. Belg., II, 40, No. 11, 1875. 

MORRISON, A., Note on the formation of the bulb in Western Australian species of Drosera. 
Trans. Proc. R. Bot. Soc. Edin. 22:419-424, 1905 (n.v.). 

MOULAERT, B., La reg6ne*ration asexuelle chez Drosera. Bull. Soc. R. Belg. Bot. 19:154, 1937- 

NAUDIN, M., Note sur les bourgeons n6s sur une feuille de Drosera intermedia. Ann. d. 
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NEUBAUER, MARIA, Vitamin C in der Pflanze. Protoplasma 33:345-370, 1939. 

NITSCHKE, TH., Wachstumsverhaltnisse des rundblatterigen Sonnentaues. Bot. Ztg. 18:57- 
61; 65-69, 1860. 

NITSCHKE, TH., Uber die Reizbarkeit der Blatter von Drosera rotundifolia. Bot. Zeitg. 
18:229-234; 237-243; 245-250, 1860. 

NITSCHKE, TH., Morphologic des Blattes von Drosera rotundifolia. Bot. Zeitg. 19:145-151; 
2 33- 2 35; 241-246; 252-255, 1861. 

OELS, W., Vergl. Anat. der Droseraceen. Diss. Breslau, 1879. 

OKAHARA, K., Physiological studies on Drosera, I. On the proteolytic enzyme of Drosera 
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OKAHARA, K., Studies, II. On the effect of quinine and atoxyl on pepsin. Ibid. 5:739- 

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OKAHARA, K., Studies, III. The effect of various acids on the digestion of protein by pep- 
sin. Ibid. 6:573-595, 1931. .,,.... 

OKAHARA, K., On the role of microorganisms in the digestion of insect bodies m insectiv- 
orous plants. Bot. Mag. Tok. 46:353-357, 1932 (In Japanese with resume" in English). 



Francis E. Lloyd 168 Carnivorous Plants 

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K. Akad. v. Wetensch. Amsterdam, Proc. 38:3-15, 1935. 
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Drosera capensis. Proefschrift, Groningen. Amsterdam, Mulder & Zn. 1936. Ext. Rec. 

Trav. bot. N^erl. 33'35i-433> I 93^- 

PEYRONEL, B., Bol. Sez. Ital. Soc. Int. Microb. 4:483, 1932. 
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ganischer Stoffe uberhaupt. Landwirtsch. Jahrb. 6:969-998, 1877. 

PFEFFER, W., Zur Kenntnis der Kontaktreize. Unters. Bot. Inst. Tubingen 1 483, 1884. 
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33:713, 1875 (see also under Nepenthes). 
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Zeitung 37:645* ^79 (n.v.). 
RENNIE, E. D., The coloring matters of Drosera Whittakeri. Journ. Chem. Soc. 63:1083- 

1089, 1893. 
ROBINSON, W. J., Experiments on Drosera rotundifolia as to its protein digesting power. 

Torreya 9:109-114, 1909. 

ROBINSON, W. J., Reproduction by budding in Drosera. Torreya 9:89-96, 1909. 
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Upsala 1899. 

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SCHLICHT, 1889 (through E. STAHL). 

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1897. 



Chapter XI 
CARNIVOROUS FUNGI 

Occurrence. Habit. Glands. Secretion. Digestion. 

Among the multifarious activities of fungi, that of zoophagy has 
been well known for a very long time. Of this one of the best known 
examples is the behavior of Cordyceps, which invades the bodies of 
caterpillars of various species and sizes. After displacing the substance 
of the body of the larva attacked, preserving its form, however, in the 
sclerotium thus formed, the fungus then sends up a linear stalk bearing 
the fruiting bodies, the sclerotium being buried in the soil (since 
it was there that the larva was destroyed), and the fruiting stalk 
rising above in free air. The study of this kind of pathology in rela- 
tion to lower forms (algae, small water animals) was being pursued 
by the botanist, W. ZOPF, in Austria, when there came to his atten- 
tion just previous to 1888 a fungus which attacked eelworms (Anguil- 
lulidae). 

In the various cultures which he was observing, there were numer- 
ous living eelworms and many dead ones tangled with and variously 
penetrated by the hyphae of the fungus. The question then arose 
in his mind as to whether the fungus is purely saprophytic, pene- 
trating only already dead worms, or does the fungus attack and kill 
the living animal? In answering this question experimentally, ZOPF 
made the first discovery of a fungus which traps a living animal. 

The fungus was Arthrobotrys oligospora, first described by FRES- 
ENIUS (1850-63). It is found in all kinds of more or less decayed 
matter mats of old algae for example and makes a thin veil of 
mycelium of septate hyphae over the surface. From it there 
extend slender septate conidiophores bearing pear-shaped two-celled 
spores. The peculiar feature is the occurrence on the hyphae of many 
slings or loops of various sizes, formed by the sharp curving of a 
growing branch which turns upon itself and fuses by its end with its 
base. From one loop a second and from this a third may arise, and 
thus is formed a tangle of loops lying in all positions, as WORONIN 
had already observed. It was ZOPF, however, who first saw that 
living eel-worms were actually caught by these loops, either by the 
tail or by the head. The fact that when once the worm has by chance 
inserted one end or the other into a loop, it cannot free itself again, 
was definitely observed. The eelworm he used was Telenchus scandens, 
which infests wheat. One observed, on being caught, struggled vio- 
lently for a half -hour, then became quieter and finally died in 2.5 
hours. Why the eelworm cannot free itself when once trapped he 
attempted to explain by analogy, using as a model a rubber loop 
just big enough to allow a finger to enter. When one attempts to 
withdraw the finger, the rubber band clamps on the surface and holds 
the finger. The clamping effect is due to springiness of the loops, he 



Francis E. Lloyd 



170 



Carnivorous Plants 



thought. After the animal succumbs, branches from the loop penetrate 
its body, and withdraw nutriment (TEXT FIG. 4). 

What happens in the case of another similar organism, Dactylella 
bembicoides Drechsler, was explained by COUCH (1937). In this 
plant the loops are composed of a short branch of three cells turned 
upon themselves. Fusion occurs between the end and basal cells, 
and a neat ring is thus formed. By growing the fungus on agar 
to allow of clear microscopic observation, he saw an astonishing thing, 
that when an eelworm pokes his head or tail into a ring, the ring 
immediately clamps on it by the sudden swelling of the three cells 
(TEXT FIG. 4, D, E, i). COUCH records his opinion that the rings are 
formed most abundantly in media poor in " available food supply," 




FIG. 4. A, B, Zoophagus insidians (after GICKLHORN 1922); C, Dactylella tylopaga 
attacking Amoeba (after DRECHSLER 1935^); D, E, F, Dactylella bembicoides which attacks 
nematodes (after COUCH 1937); G, H, Arthrobotrys oligospora, which attacks nematodes 
(after ZOPF 1888); I, Dactylella bembicoides (after COUCH). 

judging from experiments which he did. He attempted to get rings 
to close on fine glass rods, with limited success, so that it seemed 
unlikely that mechanical stimulation suffices. He did find, however, 
that heat (water, at 33 to 75 C.) will cause the rings to close, 
but that the temperature of the animal's body enters in as a factor 
in nature is quite unlikely. COUCH therefore fell back on the perhaps 
correct explanation that the fungus responds to a chemical stimulus 
from the worm's body. A i% solution of lactic acid caused a slight 
swelling. While this was uncertain, COUCH observed that in every 
case "when a nematode thrusts its head or tail into one of the rings 
it closes practically instantaneously by the simultaneous swelling of 
the three cells of the ring." Later, new hyphal branches penetrate 
the body of the prey. Among these predacious species are included 
Trichothecium, Arthrobotrys, Dactylaria, Monacrosporium and Dactylella, 
all figured by DRECHSLER (19340). Still others may be expected to 
turn up. 

But not all the ring forming fungi act in the same way. We owe 



Chapter XI 171 Carnivorous 

much knowledge about these to DRECHSLER, who points out (1933^) 
that some species have loops the component cells of which do not 
swell to constrict the loop, and that these catch their prey by means 
of a strong adhesive found on the inner surface of the loop. It is 
not unlikely that this is the case in the plant studied by ZOPF who 
did not observe constriction of the loops. One species has the loop 
borne on a very slender stalk which may be broken off during the 
struggles of the worm, but this does not obviate death and destruc- 
tion, as the cells of the loop can still form their penetrating hyphae 
(DRECHSLER, 1933^). 

Some of these species, e.g. Dactylaria Candida (Nees) Sacc., have 
in addition to the loops a second organ for the catching of the prey, 
called " globular " bodies. These are round knobs on short hyphae. 
On the knob is secreted a patch of strong adhesive, by which the 
eelworm is caught. In the course of a short time, a penetrating haus- 
torium grows through the adhesive pad and enters the animal's body. 
In these and the other cases above mentioned, after the prey is per- 
meated with haustorial hyphae, and after these have withdrawn all the 
available nutriment, the fungal protoplasm withdraws, leaving an 
empty shell (DRECHSLER, 19336, c; 1935^). 

A similar method of capture is used by a species in which the 
catching organs consist merely of the ends of hyphal branches, pro- 
vided, as on the globose organ, with an adhesive. The .penetrating 
haustorial tube swells up after entrance, and from the swelling the 
haustorial complex of hyphae grows. 

A similar, very striking case of a fungus which catches armoured 
Rotatoria, the first of its kind known, was described in 1911, follow- 
ing ZOPF'S original discovery of a carnivorous fungus in Arthrobotrys, 
by SOMMERSTORFF under the name Zoophagus insidians n. gen., n. sp. 
This plant grows epiphytically on Cladophora, and consists of a net- 
work of septate hyphae which bear "short" branches scattered at 
irregular intervals along them. These short branches have dense 
glistening contents, and are the organs of capture. Rotatoria (of 
the genera Salpina, Metopidia, Colurus, Monostyla), feeding among 
the threads of the algae and associated fungus, take hold of the ends 
of the short branches, and remain attached, unable to break loose. 
By pulling off a newly captured animal he (SOMMERSTORFF) was able 
to determine that the end of the hypha had enlarged, apparently by 
the swelling of the membrane, which now took up methylene blue 
with avidity. Previous to having captured an animal, there appears 
to be no adhesive, since no detritus could be observed sticking to 
the ends of the short branches, nor did they take up the stain. SOM- 
MERSTORFF concluded that the swelling takes place on the stimulation 
occurring when the animal takes the short branch into its mouth. 
Generally the prey cannot escape, despite his size. But as it has 
no other organs of locomotion save the cilia, the 'tail' only is avail- 
able for struggling. If he can get leverage with this on a neighboring 
algal filament, he may and sometimes does escape. After struggling 
ceases and death is intervening, the capturing branch grows into a 
penetrating tube which then sends numerous thin-walled haustorial 
hyphae to withdraw nutriment. 



Francis E. Lloyd 172 Carnivorous Plants 

This organism was studied later also by MIRANDE and by GICKL- 
HORN. The former generally verified SOMMERSTORFF'S observations. 
He observed, also, the capture of Stylonychia and of other organisms 
than armoured Rotatoria, which have the same manner of feeding. 
By staining he thought to have identified a substance in the short 
hyphae capable of quick swelling. 

GICKLHORN however paid closer attention to the contents of the 
short hyphae, the organs of capture. By means of staining and solu- 
bility tests he came to the conclusion that an oval glistening body, 
observable in the short hyphae, is a discrete body of callose capable 
of great swelling. It is always present in organs ready for capture 
as a definite plug. In unstimulated branchlets it is always on the 
inside; on stimulated ones it occurs as a mucilaginous cap. Dead 
organs are always free of the mucilage and are cut off from the bear- 
ing hypha by a partition. After a short time following capture (10- 
30 minutes) the callus plug is emptied into the maw of the prey and 
spreads out entangling the whole of its ciliary mouth apparatus. 
There is no further discharge of mucilage after the expulsion of the 
one shot. These results were indeed foreshadowed by SOMMERSTORFF, 
but not proven. His suggestion that the mucilage was provided by 
the swelling of the outer membrane GICKLHORN could not verify. 
GICKLHORN on the other hand failed to show how the callus plug 
makes its escape, since no pore or other point of exudation could be 
observed (TEXT FIG. 4A, B). 

GICKLHORN studied the mode of capture and its sequelae, confirm- 
ing and amplifying such observations as had been made by SOMMER- 
STORFF. He observed in freshly caught animals which had succeeded 
in escaping that the ciliary apparatus was in a swollen condition. 
He asserts that only certain sorts of Rotatoria are caught (Colurus, 
Distyla, Metopidia, Monostyla, Salpina and Squalella species) and 
never those which are supplied with a strong ciliary apparatus, such 
as Brachionus, Noteus, Anuria, Rotifer and Philodina, all of which 
were subjected to experimental observation. He was unable to ob- 
serve that infusoria such as Stylonychia, Stentor, Paramaecium and the 
flagellates Euglena and Paranema were ever caught. This fact, which 
he held to be such, indicates at once that not only is the plant a 
capturing one but that the animal must be capturable. He admits 
observing some infusoria "caught", but they were stuck to the catch- 
ing organs, and this does not prove that they were properly caught 
in the manner of Rotatoria. He concludes that instead of speaking 
of the animal as being caught one should say that it gets itself caught, 
since only those armoured Rotatoria which are able to swallow the bait 
can be caught. In a culture with many animals the process was 
followed and this account is given. If an animal hits against the 
main hypha or against a short hypha sideways, these bend a little 
under the impact and then recover. The animal, on hitting, infolds 
its ciliary apparatus; if, however, it approaches a short hypha, the 
trapping organ, end on, so that it enters the ciliary apparatus, the 
latter immediately clamps down on it and draws it in. This is done 
repeatedly for 5-10 minutes during which interval repeated attempts 
are made by the ciliary apparatus to open, only to clamp down again 



Chapter XI 173 Carnivorous Fungi 

in response to the mechanical stimulus provided by the short hypha. 
At the end of this interval it can now be shown by staining methods 
that the callus plug has been emptied and that it has swollen and 
spread out to involve the entire ciliary apparatus, which is now ren- 
dered useless. In this condition the animal finds its weak foot useless 
in effecting escape, and in the course of another period of twenty 
minutes it ceases to struggle. From these observations GICKLHORN 
draws the following conclusions. In the first stage of capture, there 
is no adhesive effect on stimulation of the short hypha, as SOMMER- 
STORFF thought, but repeated mechanical grasping of it by the re- 
tractile ciliary apparatus of the animal. Secondarily there follows 
the excretion of the mucilage. This is an active process on the part 
of the living short hypha on stimulus, and is not a simple swelling 
of the membrane. He tried, with success, to stimulate short hyphae 
to throw off their mucilage by stroking them with a fine hair. The 
short hypha now begins to send out haustoria which penetrate through- 
out the body of the animal. Even at the end of digestion, the mucilage 
plug, which can still be seen, is found to have hardened and become 
yellow in color, holding the shell of the animal in position. The 
growth of the haustoria proceeds till the interior of the body is a mass 
of hyphae which send out conidiophores projecting from the animal 
and in swarm-spores produced in a sac which escape through the 
mouth end. 

A plant with a similar method of capturing its prey as that em- 
ployed by Zoophagus insidians is Sommerstorffia spinosa, described by 
ARNAUDOW (1923). Both of these species have been collected in 
Massachusetts and observed by SPARROW (1929). 

An extraordinary group of fungi which prey upon species of Amoeba 
and shelled rhizopods has been uncovered and studied by DRECHSLER. 
His accounts include the minutiae of taxonomic interest as well as 
the mode of capture. We need not take consideration of the former 
here. They are nearly all plants with septate hyphae producing 
conidia of various forms, and in some cases the sexual method of 
reproduction is known. The method of capture is quite similar in 
all cases. The species of Amoeba appear to be large, Amoeba ter- 
ricola or related species being often the victim. There is evidence 
that certain fungi can attack only one kind of Amoeba and not an- 
other. In some fungi an adhesive has been observed, in others not, 
leaving it for conjecture that a non-visible adhesive occurs. There 
is seldom any preformed structure with the function of capture, but 
this occurs in Dactylella tylopaga Drechsler. In this " prolate el- 
lipsoidal protuberances" are provided with an adhesive. An animal 
sticks to one of these, which then sends out a tube of penetration. 
This grows inside the animal into a branching mass of short hyphae 
which absorb the body of the animal. 

Pedilospora dactylopaga captures shelled Rhizopods (DRECHSLER 
1934). Eight species of Acaulopage have been described by DRECHS- 
LER, all of which capture Amoebae in much the same way as Dac- 
tylella tylopaga except that there is no special organ involved in capture. 
"An Amoeba after capture is always to be seen attached whether 
to a mycelial element or as is often the case in some species, to a 



Francis E. Lloyd 174 Carnivorous Plants 

fallen conidium by means of a minute mass of golden yellow adhesive 
material." "From the mycelial element or the conidium is thrust 
forth a narrow process which passes through the deposit of adhesive 
material and perforates the animal's pellicle to give rise inside to a 
more or less characteristically branched haustorium or haustorial 
system. When the protoplasmic contents of the Amoeba are nearly 
exhausted, the protoplasm of the haustorium begins to withdraw 
back into the parent mycelial filament. Eventually the haustorium 
is completely evacuated and thereupon, like the collapsed pellicle 
surrounding it, becomes altogether invisible; so that an instance of 
capture is afterwards found recorded, and then usually only rather 
dubiously, in an inconspicuous scar-like or slightly protuberant modi- 
fication of the contour of the hypha or conidium" (TEXT FIG. 40), 
(DRECHSLER 19356, p. 183). In the case of another fungus, Endo- 
cochlus asteroides Drechsler, the animal is attacked by conidia picked up 
in its wanderings. Sticking to the surface of the pellicle, they form a 
small bulbous body, serving apparently as an appressorium, through 
which a slender tube punctures the pellicle and enters the animal, pass- 
ing in to some distance. There the end swells up, taking in the proto- 
plasm of the conidium, which becomes detached and is usually thrown 
off by the animal. Sometimes the conidium is ingested, however. 
Owing to the fact that the animal may be infected a number of times, 
because of the numbers of fallen spores, it may have a corresponding 
number of bulbous bodies, each derived from a conidium. After the 
conidium with its germ tube is loosened and cast off, the remaining 
globular thallus becomes considerably enlarged and turgid. As it length- 
ens it curves and with elongation becomes a helicoidal mass. In the 
meantime, the animal remains alive and active, so that we are con- 
templating here a case of parasitism. The briskness of action per- 
sists for some time, until the bulk of the animal becomes reduced, 
and it finally succumbs. The inclosed fungus then sends out slender 
hyphae which penetrate the pellicle to the exterior, where spores 
and sexual apparatus are produced, to produce new hyphae which 
begin the cycle again. The same story is presented by Cochlonema 
verrucosum Drechsler, and in C. dolichosporum, but in these it is 
started by conidia which are first ingested by the animal, one having 
the same dimensions as Amoeba sphaeronucleus. In Bdellospora heli- 
coides Drechsler the infection takes place as in Endocochlus asteroides. 
In Zoopage phanera Drechsler the manner of capture is a matter 
of inference rather than direct observation. The animal captured 
is an Amoeba from 35-110 micra in diameter. An adhesive is in- 
dicated, though DRECHSLER suggests that the small botryoidal or- 
gans seen in a captured animal could be taken for grappling organs. 
At all events they are very distinctive in form as his figure shows. 
In the forms above described it is evident that we are dealing 
with organisms that stand between plants which have elaborated 
organs designed if we may use the word for first trapping an 
animal before disposing of it, and those which infect an animal by a 
process which must be repeated in a very many cases, as for instance 
that of Cordyceps and related plants already mentioned. Carnivorous 
the latter are, but they can hardly be regarded as "trapping" plants. 



Chapter XI 175 Carnivorous Fungi 

The significance of carnivory for Zoophagus (and hence by implica- 
tion for fungi in general) has been indicated experimentally by GICKL- 
HORN (1922). By culturing it for two months in properly prepared 
water, free of animals, he found that it could persist saprophytically, 
as many other fungi do. Under these conditions, however, it became a 
" hunger form", with the "long hyphae", though normal as to branch- 
ing, weakly developed, and with depreciated cellular contents. In two 
days after the addition of Rotatoria, the hyphae became appreciably 
stronger and were well filled with contents, " After such evidence one 
can hardly avoid the thought that the capture of animals by Zoophagus 
supplied an important source of nutrition and that we have before us a 
highly specialized adaptation" (I.e. p. 217). 



Literature Cited: 

ARNAUDOW, N., Zur Morphologic und Biologic von Zoophagus insidians Sommerstorff. 

Jahrb. d. Univ. Sofia 15-16:1-32, I9i8-(i92i) (Bulgarian with German summary). 
ARNAUDOW, N., Ein neuer Radertiere (Rotatoria) fangender Pilz (Sommerstorjfia spinosa 

nov. gen., nov. sp.). Flora 116:109-113, 1923. 
ARNAUDOW, N., Untersuchungen liber Sommerstorjfia spinosa nov. gen., nov. spec. Jahrb. 

d. Univ. Sofia Bd. 19, H. 2, Abt. 10, 1923. 
ARNAUDOW, N., Untersuchung liber den Tiere fangenden Pilz Zoophagus insidians Som. 

Flora 118-119:1-16, 1925. 

BUDDE, E., tiber die in Radertieren lebenden Parasiten. Arch. f. Hydrob. 18:442-459. 
COUCH, J. N., The formation and operation of the traps in the nematode-catching fungus, 

Dactylella bembicoides Drechsier. Jour. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 53:301-309, 1937. 
DRECHSLER, C., Morphological features of some fungi capturing and killing Amoebae. 

J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 23:200-202, 19330. 
DRECHSLER, C., Morphological diversity among fungi capturing and destroying nematodes. 

J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 23(3) .-138-141, 19336. 

DRECHSLER, C., Morphological features of some more fungi that capture and kill nema- 
todes. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 23(5)1267-270, 19336. 
DRECHSLER, C., Several more fungi that prey on nematodes. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 23(7): 

355-357, 1933^ 

DRECHSLER, C., Organs of capture in some fungi preying on nematodes. Mycol. 26:135- 
144, 19340. 

DRECHSLER, C., Pedilospora dactylopaga n. sp., a fungus capturing and consuming testa- 
ceous rhizopods. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 24:395-402, 19346. 

DRECHSLER, C., Some conidial Phycomycetes destructive to terricolous Amoebae. Mycol. 
27:6-40, 19350. 

DRECHSLER, C., Some non-catenulate conidial Phycomycetes preying on terricolous Amoe- 
bae. Mycol. 27:176-205, 19356. 

DRECHSLER, C., A new species of conidial Phycomycete preying on nematodes. Mycol. 
27:206-215, 1935^ 

DRECHSLER, C., A new Mucedinaceous fungus capturing and consuming Amoeba verrucosa. 
Mycol. 27:216-223, 19350*. 

DRECHSLER, C., A new species of Stylopage preying on nematodes. Mycol. 28:241-246, 
19360. 

DRECHSLER, C., New conidial Phycomycetes destructive to terricolous Amoebae. Mycol. 
28:363-389, 19366. 

DRECHSLER, C., A Fusarium-Uke species of Dactylella capturing and consuming testaceous 
rhizopods. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 26:397-404, 1936*;. 

DRECHSLER, C., New Zoopagaceae destructive to soil rhizopods. Mycol. 29:229-249, 19370. 

DRECHSLER, C., Some Hyphomycetes that prey on free-living terricolous nematodes. My- 
col. 29:447-552, 19376. 

DRECHSLER, C., New Zoopagaceae capturing and consuming soil Amoebae. Mycologia 
30:2:137-157, 1938. 

DRECHSLER, C., A few new Zoopagaceae destructive to large soil rhizopods. Mycologia 
31:2:128-153, 1939. 

DRECHSLER, C., Five new Zoopagaceae destructive to Rhizopods and Nematodes. My- 
cologia 31:4:388-415, 1939. 

FRESENIUS, Beitrage zur Mycologie. Frankfurt, 1850-63, p. 18, pi. 3, figs. 1-7 (fide ZOPF). 

GEITLER, L., t)ber einen Pilzparasiten auf Amoeba proteus und liber die polare Organisation 
des Amoebenkorpers. Biol. Zentralbl. 57:166-175, 1939. 



Francis E. Lloyd 176 Carnivorous Plants 

GICKLHORN, J., Studien an Zoophagus insidians Som., einem Tiere fangenden Pilz. "Glas- 

nik" Kroat. Nat. Ges. 34(2): 199-288, 1922. 
GICKLHORN, J., Aphanomyces ovidestruens nov. spec., ein Parasit in den Eiern von Diap- 

tomus. Lotos 71:143-156, 1923. 
KONSULOFF, ST., Untersuchungen tiber Rotatorienparasiten. Arch. f. Protistenk. 36:353- 

361, 1916. 
MIRANDE, R., Zoophagus insidians Sommerstorff, capteur de Rotiferes vivants. Bull. Soc. 

Myc, Fr. 36:47-53, 1920. 
RENNERFELT, E., Untersuchungen tiber die Entwicklung und Biologic des Krebspestpilzes, 

Aphanomyces astaci Schikora. Mitt. Anst. f. Binnenfischerei bei Drottningholm, Stock- 
holm, No. 10, 21 pp., 1936. 
SCHERFFEL, A., Endophytische Phycomyceten-Parasiten der Bacillariaceen und einige neue 

Monadinen. Archiv Protistenk. 52:1-141, 1925. 
SCHIKORA, F., tiber die Krebspest und ihren Erreger, Aphanomyces Magnusi Schikora. 

Verhandl. Bot. Verein Prov. Brandenburg 63:87-88, 1922. 
SOMMERSTORFF, H., Ein Tiere fangender Pilz (Zoophagus insidians nov. gen., nov. sp.). 

Oest. Bot. Zeitschr. 61:361-373, 1911. 
SPARROW, F. K., Jr., A note on the occurrence of two rotifer-capturing Phycomycetes. 

Mycol. 2i(2):9O~96, 1929. 
VALKANOV, A., Uber Morphologic und Systematik der rotatorienbefallenden Pilze. Archiv 

Protist. 74(i):5-i7, 1931. 
VALKANOV, A., Uber die Morphologic und Systematik der Rotatorien befallenden Oomy- 

ceten (bulgarisch). Jahrb. Univ. Sofia, 27, 1931. 
VALKANOV, A., Nachtrag zu meiner Arbeit iiber rotatorienbefallende Pilze. Archiv Protist. 

78(2)^85-496, 1932. 
ZOPF, W., Zur Kenntniss der Infectionskrankheiten niederer Thieren und Pflanzen. Nova 

Acta d. Lcop.-Carol. Akad. d. Naturf. 52:315-375, 1888. 



Chapter XII 

DIONAEA MUSCIPULA AND ALDROVANDA 
VESICULOSA 

Dionaea: general description. Early discovery. Original description by ELLIS. 
Work of CURTIS (1834), OUDEMANS (1859), CANBY (1868), DARWIN, GOEBEL. Mor- 
phology (Seed and seedling. Structure of mature leaf : trap. Lobes, glands, sensitive hairs. 
Internal structure). Physiology. Aldrovanda: general description. Discovery, dis- 
tribution. Morphology (Seed. Germination. Mature leaf. Posture of the trap). 
Physiology. 

These two monotypic genera are members of the family Droser- 
aceae y and while the former, Dionaea, is well known, it being widely 
grown in greenhouses, Aldrovanda is well known chiefly to such bot- 
anists as have a special interest in these curious plants. Dionaea 
has a very restricted geographical range, Aldrovanda a very wide 
one. Though the method of trapping animals is identical, the one 
is a land plant, and Aldrovanda a submersed water plant. We con- 
sider these separately. 

Dionaea muscipula Ellis, Venus' fly trap: This is a small 
plant (17 2), consisting of a rosette of leaves three to six inches 
across arising from a rootstock growing more or less horizontally. 
The rootstock is apparent even in the young seedling (SMITH 1931). 
Long scapes are sent up bearing several flowers in a short cyme with 
two to fourteen flowers. These are of pentamerous structure, five 
small elliptical sepals alternate with five white cuneate and somewhat 
oblique petals, usually fifteen stamens. The leaf consists of two re- 
gions, a basal " footstalk" as DARWIN called it, articulated by means 
of a short cylindrical portion (midrib) with the blade which is a trap. 
The footstalk is a more or less expanded leaf-like structure, either 
broadly obcordate to narrowly obcordate in form, depending on ex- 
posure to light and the presence of surrounding vegetation. The 
upper part of the leaf, a " striking and noteworthy" trap, to quote 
GOEBEL, consists of two dished lobes of trapezoidal form. The outer 
margins are " ciliated," that is, are provided with a row of coarse 
projections, prongs or teeth. ELLIS (1770) spoke of the arrange- 
ment as "a miniature form of a rat-trap," and CURTIS (1834) com- 
pared it to "two upper eyelids joined at their bases." Springing 
from the upper surface of the two lobes there are six slender, sensi- 
tive hairs, three on each side placed in triangular position (in ex- 
ceptional cases a smaller or larger number has been noted (18 i). 
The rest of the surface is covered rather densely with two kinds of 
sessile glands, most of which under usual circumstances are colored 
with brilliant red pigment, giving a bright red tinge to the surface. 
When with suitable temperatures the sensitive hairs are moved, the 
two lobes swing swiftly on their common axis, and the finger-like 
cilia intercross to form a barred cage. DARWIN interpreted this ini- 
tial posture as an arrangement to allow small insects, relatively value- 



Francis E. Lloyd 178 Carnivorous Plants 

less on account of their size, to escape before final closure, a view 
for which F. M. JONES has adduced constructive evidence. Subse- 
quent movement progressing during #-i2 hours approximates the 
lobes more closely and even causes them to become flatter, bringing 
the inner surfaces into closer apposition. 

If by this reaction an insect, the normal agent of stimulation, 
has been caught, the body may be more or less compressed between 
the lobes (17 3). The glands then secrete a digestive fluid and 
in a few days the insect body disintegrates and the products are 
absorbed. In the course of ten days the lobes open again, and are 
ready to catch other prey. This may be repeated two or three times 
before the leaf reaches its complete maturity, when it dies. Of this 
arrangement CURTIS (1834) remarked, "if it were a problem to con- 
struct a plant with reference to entrapping insects, I cannot con- 
ceive of a form and organization better adapted to secure that end 
than are found in Dionaea muscipula" 

" This plant, which LINNAEUS called miraculum naturae , appears 
to have first been discovered by ARTHUR DOBBS, Governor of North 
Carolina, and he sent the following account of it to Mr. COLLINSON 
in a letter dated at Brunswick, Jan. 24, 1760. After describing the 
Schrankia, he proceeds: 'But the great wonder of the vegetable 
kingdom is a very curious unknown species of sensitive; it is a dwarf 
plant; the leaves are like a narrow segment of a sphere, consisting 
of two parts, like the cap of a spring purse, the concave part out- 
ward, each of which falls back with indented edges (like an iron 
spring fox trap); upon anything touching the leaves, or falling be- 
tween them, they instantly close like a spring trap, and confine any 
insect or anything that falls between them; it bears a white flower; 
to this surprising plant I have given the name of Fly Trap Sensitive/ 
Mr. COLLINSON, in a memorandum, has recorded the death of Gov- 
ernor DOBBS in 1765" (DILLWYN 1843). 

It may be inferred from the note by Governor DOBBS, written 
in 1760, but which did not gain publicity till the appearance of the 
Hortus Collinsonianus in 1843, that the Dionaea was well known in 
North Carolina when, in 1763, a Mr. YOUNG, "the Queen's botanist, " 
had his attention drawn by some friends to a "peculiar plant" which 
he subsequently found in great abundance in North Carolina and 
in some parts of South Carolina. Still later YOUNG brought living 
plants to England, he also introduced them in Kew (SiMS 1804) and 
from these ELLTS, a London merchant, drew his description and 
figure sent by him to LINNAEUS in 1770 (YOUNG 1783). These were 
published in a small volume entitled, Directions for Bringing over 
Seeds and Plants from the East Indies and oilier Distant Countries in a 
Slate of Vegetation, in 1770. ELLIS' description was published in 
Latin at a subsequent date in Nova A eta Soc. Scient. Upsaliensis 
1:98, 1773. Though ELLIS' description was based on living material, 
he had just previously received from JOHN BARTRAM of Philadelphia, 
through Mr. PETER COLLINSON, an herbarium specimen which furnished 
material which enabled Dr. SOLANDER and himself to determine that 
they had before them a new genus allied to Drosera (ELLIS 1770). But 
ELLIS, who from the dried material got no hint of the motility of the 



Chapter XII 179 Dionaea and Aldrovanda 

leaves, did so when he examined the material brought to England by 
YOUNG, and he was the first to publish a definite statement of the 
carnivorous habits of the plant. It is this, expressed in the letter to 
LINNAEUS, which interests us here. Having recalled that Mimosa is 
irritable, but shortly recovers from its position of response, ELLIS 
continues: 

"But the plant, of which I now inclose you an exact figure, with 
a specimen of its leaves and blossoms, shews, that nature may have 
some view towards nourishment, in forming the upper joint of the 
leaf like a machine to catch food: upon the middle of this lies the 
bait for the unhappy insect that becomes its prey. Many minute 
red glands, that cover its inner surface, and which perhaps discharge 
sweet liquor, tempt the poor animal to taste them; and the instant 
these tender parts are irritated by its feet, the two lobes rise up, 
grasp it fast, lock the rows of spines together, and squeeze it to death. 
And, further, lest the strong efforts for life, in the creature thus taken, 
should serve to disengage it, three small erect spines are fixed near 
the middle of each lobe, among the glands, that effectually put an 
end to all its struggles. Nor do the lobes ever open again, while 
the dead animal continues there. But it is nevertheless certain that 
the plant cannot distinguish an animal, from a vegetable or min- 
eral, substance; for if we introduce a straw or a pin between the 
lobes, it will grasp it full as fast as if it were an insect. " 

The above paragraph, quoted also by HOOKER in 1875, was taken 
from the original, a copy of which is to be found in the Library of 
Congress, Washington. It shows us clearly what ELLIS thought 
about the plant. LINNAEUS, to whom was sent the letter contain- 
ing the above quotation, did not, however, fully respond to ELLIS' 
evident enthusiasm, and merely regarded the movement as a special 
case of irritability like that in Mimosa, and believed that on reopen- 
ing the captured insect was released (Mantissa plantarum altera, 
Holmiae 1771); nor did he see eye to eye with ELLIS about the func- 
tion of the " three small erect spines" whether from sagacity, as 
HOOKER suggests (1875), or as P ar ^ of his general non-responsiveness 
to ELLIS' interpretations, it is hard to say. It happens, of course, 
that ELLIS was wrong; the idea was even fantastic. No less was 
that of ERASMUS DARWIN who wrote: "In the Dionaea muscipula 
there is a still more wonderful contrivance to prevent the depreda- 
tions of insects: the leaves are armed with long teeth, like the an- 
tennae of insects, and lie spread upon the ground around the stem, 
and are so irritable, that when an insect creeps upon them they fold up 
and crush or pierce it to death. " (The Botanic Garden 2 : canto I, p. 39). 

. MORREN (1875) in a footnote calls attention to a description 
by the French encyclopaedist DENIS DIDEROT (1713-1784) of "Plante 
de la Caroline appellee Muscipula Dionaea ", of which he says, at 
the close of his description "Voil une plante presque carnivore". 
The essay from which this is quoted is said to be dated 1774-1780, 
not 1762 as M. CATALAN told Dr. MORREN. It is of interest to 
record DIDEROT'S speculation "Je ne me doute point que la Muscipula 
ne donnat a Tanalyse de Palcali volatil, produit caracteristique du 
regne animal." 



Francis E. Lloyd 180 Carnivorous Plants 

In 1834 M. A. CURTIS (quoted on p. 177), a minister resident in Wil- 
mington, N. C., published his observations, which led him to think 
that the sensitiveness resides only in the hair-like processes, and 
that other parts of the leaf may be touched or pressed without any 
response. This is not quite true, as has later been found. Further, 
that insects captured are not always crushed on being caught, for 
if the trap were opened again they might escape; but that in time 
they were surrounded by a mucilaginous fluid by which the insects 
were more or less consumed. The fact that a special sensitivity 
resides in the six slender hairs of the upper surface of the trap had 
been noted by a botanical draughtsman, SYDENHAM EDWARDS, em- 
ployed by Dr. JOHN SIMS in illustrating CURTIS 's Botanical Magazine. 
This observation was recorded by SIMS (1804) in the description of plate 
785 of vol. 20 which reads: " These small spines are mentioned and 
figured by ELLIS and supposed by him to assist in destroying the en- 
trapped animal; but that they are only irritable points, and that any 
other part of the leaf may be touched with impunity, was discovered 
by our draughtsman, Mr. EDWARDS, several years ago, when taking a 
sketch of a plant flowering at Mr. LIPMAN'S, Mile End, and has since 
been repeatedly confirmed. The same observation was made, without 
knowing it had previously been noticed, by our friend Mr. CHARLES 
KONIG" (HOOKER 1875). 

In 1859 OUDEMANS, a Dutch botanist, rediscovered the sensi- 
tivity of the trigger hairs, and did a number of experiments which 
afforded results which anticipated some of DARWIN'S. He found 
that there is no periodic closure of the trap, as MEYEN has claimed, 
and that traps, after closure, opened again during the night. MEYEN 
had said that the closure was too slow to catch insects, to which 
OUDEMANS answered that at sufficiently high temperatures it is rapid, 
which we now know to be true. He recorded that the trap does 
not open after catching prey until several days after its death. When 
the trap does, the prey is found lying in a slimy liquid; and further 
that the trap does not remain closed over inanimate objects such as 
paper, reopening in 36 hours or less. Though he thought that the 
stimulus was transmitted to the mid-vein, he attributed closure to 
alterations of strain in the parenchyma. 

In 1868 CANBY thought it might be that the fluids collecting 
in the closed trap might escape and, flowing down the petioles of 
the leaves, might enrich the soil at the base of the plant. Experi- 
ments showed him, however, that this is not the case, but that, on 
feeding the leaf, the insect is entirely destroyed and absorbed, thus 
confirming CURTIS, thirty-four years his predecessor. He concluded 
by saying, "so that, in fine, the fluid (secreted by the leaves) may 
well be said to be analogous to the gastric juice of animals, dissolv- 
ing the prey and rendering it fit for absorption by the leaf." 

That, however, the sensitive hairs are the only sensitive spots 
in the leaf was shown by DARWIN and by GOEBEL (1891) not to be 
true. "It is sufficient to rub the upper or lower surface, and not 
too strongly, with a solid object to procure immediate closure of the 
two halves of the trap" (GOEBEL). This, as will be seen, has later 
been confirmed. 



Chapter XII 181 Dionaea and Aldrovanda 

We now direct our attention to certain of the more intimate de- 
tails of the life history and structure of the plant. 

The seed and seedling (SMITH 1931). The seed is a small pear- 
shaped mass with a lid at the micropylar end. The embryo, also 
pear-shaped, lies with its two broad cotyledons in contact with an 
abundant endosperm. The cotyledon-ends remain in contact with 
the endosperm for an extended period, while their bodies enlarge, 
become green, and eventually spread apart, becoming elongate in 
form. Meanwhile the primary root has developed, bears a mass of 
root hairs, but does not persist. From the plumule there arises at 
once a rhizome bearing small leaves which are similar to the mature 
leaves in all points, except that they are small (GOEBEL 1891, HOLM 
1891), the shape of the trap is more rectangular, and the glands 
are fewer in number. This story, as we shall see, is similar to that 
of Aldrovanda. 

Although, as Miss SMITH says, the juvenile leaves (those of seed- 
lings) are similar to those of mature plants, there are differences 
worthy of note, among which are the following: Traps 2 mm. long 
have poorly developed marginal spines of rather irregular form and 
little rigidity, and may arise symmetrically, so that those of the 
opposing lobes face each other (18 8) ; or there may be a conspic- 
uous lack of symmetry and a disparity of number (18 on one side 
and 13 on the other), some teeth displaying branching to some ex- 
tent (18 9). Traps of larger size (4 mm. along the midrib and 7 
mm. along the free margins) have well developed spines with pos- 
ture and rigidity comparable to traps on mature leaves. The number 
of glands in juvenile leaves is much smaller, while the size of the 
glands approaches that of maturity. They are rather widely scattered. 
I counted about 70 in the 2 mm. trap (18 9). There is a wide 
zone between the outer limit of this glandular region and the lobe 
margin; and in the outer zone of allure, a narrow zone just within 
the margin, the nectar (?) glands are only 2 to 12 in number, con- 
fined to the outer angles of the lobes in the 2 mm. traps examined; 
while as many as 50 were found in the 4 mm. trap. As would be 
expected, the structure of the lobes is of much greater delicacy as 
compared with that of mature leaves. In the 2 mm. trap the lobe 
was found 0.5 mm. thick at the level of an inner sensitive hair (18 
17, 18). The inner (upper) epidermis cells were somewhat larger than 
those of the outer in the ratio of 1.4 to i, and had somewhat thicker 
outer walls. The number of parenchyma cells between ranged from 
two to four courses with large interspaces, in this feature again re- 
sembling the mature leaves of Aldrovanda much more than do 
the thicker mature leaves of Dionaea. It is easier, thus, to see the 
parallelism of action in these two plants, to which reference is 
made beyond. The sensitive hairs are much smaller and simpler 
in construction (18 3). They are about 0.6 mm. long, the outer 
stiff "lever" being somewhat more than half that. The basal por- 
tion is deeply constricted, and the bending cells are relatively large 
and impinge on each other in the middle of the hair, there being 
no medullary cells. These latter seem, therefore, of no importance 
beyond that of a filler in the large, sensitive hairs of the mature leaf. 



Francis E. Lloyd 182 Carnivorous Plants 

In young plants derived from leaf cuttings (seen growing in Mu- 
nich) the lobes of the traps were usually quite oblique in form, and 
the cilia were very irregular and often very small. Both kinds of 
glands were present in small numbers. I counted six alluring glands 
clustered near each of the outer angles of the lobe in one, and three 
in another trap. The digestive glands were more numerous, but still 
few and scattered. The sensitive hairs were absent in one case, and 
from one to two occurred in several others. While small, they showed 
all the normal histological details. 

During development the blade and trap both display circination. 
In the latter the two lobes are rolled inwardly and gradually un- 
fold, the cilia being the last to unroll. The blade lobes are inrolled 
longitudinally at first, but as it develops the axis of the roll grad- 
ually comes to lie more transversely, the last portion of the blade 
to unroll being the apex. At first also the trap is bent sharply back 
on the blade, but lying asymmetrically on its right lobe, which presses 
against the blade surface. With further growth the trap swings 
forward on its stalk, and now comes to lie more or less on its left 
lobe, or otherwise expressed, the trap is twisted more or less to the 
left (as seen froqp. above) (18 7). This posture is more evident 
in small plants, with small traps, than in plants large enough to 
produce normal sized traps. It is, however, often quite evident in 
the latter, as I have myself observed in plants growing under my 
eye. In the account beyond of Aldrovanda, it will be seen that in 
this plant the trap always lies on its left side, a position which offers 
distinct advantages in the trapping of prey. Much less marked, how- 
ever, is the posture just mentioned for Dionaea, and it cannot be 
said to be of any significance. I have never seen the trap bending 
to the right (as seen from above). 

Structure of the mature leaf. The structure of the leaf has often 
been the subject of examination (OUDEMANS, 1859; DARWIN, 1875; 
KURTZ, 1876; DE CANDOLLE, 1876; FRAUSTADT, 1877; GOEBEL, 1891; 
HABERLANDT, 1901; GUTTENBERG, 1925). The winged form of the 
petiolar region traversed by a single vascular bundle, which presents 
nothing further of special interest, is regarded by GOEBEL as a physio- 
logical compensation in the interest of photosynthesis, such compen- 
sations being generally found among the carnivorous plants. In 
seedlings the petiole is relatively much larger. 

The outer part of the leaf, the blade, is the trap. This consists 
of two lobes, trapezoidal in form, united along the middle line by a 
thick midrib, which has often been considered a hinge, but which 
has no hinge function (18 i). At their bases the lobes have their 
greatest thickness, thinning off gradually as the margins are approached 
(18 46). Here, however, they are thickened locally by the enlarged 
bases of the marginal cilia. These are prominent, tapering, finger-like 
processes, evidently emergencies (SOLEREDER), which are so placed 
that when the lobes are approximated they interweave like the fingers 
of closed hands. The cilia have been thought to be homologous with 
the tentacles of Drosera, but, as GOEBEL pointed out, the comparison 
fails in that the cilia show no trace of glandular tissue, and have 
evidently a widely different function. The whole trap acts, to quote 



Chapter XII 183 Dionaea and Aldrovanda 

LINDLEY (1848), like the jaws of a steel trap. The simile may not 
be applied too rigorously since it is not the edges of the lobes which 
catch the prey. 

The two lobes, when the leaf is widely open, stand at an angle 
of 40-50 (DARWIN: "80") degrees to each other, published drawings 
being often in error on this point (iS 40). They are clothed with 
a distinctly firm epidermis of straight walled cells, elongated parallel 
with the veins, becoming somewhat wavy on approaching the margins, 
which lends a surprising stiffness to the trap. When once a lobe is 
cut, as in making sections, it becomes evident that the epidermis is 
the only mechanical tissue present. The outer surfaces bear scattered 
stellate trichomes (18 n) which are found also in the bays between 
the cilia of seedling traps, and even slightly invading their inner sur- 
faces. The inner surfaces are supplied with very numerous glands, 
all having the same structure. They consist of two basal epidermal 
cells, placed parallel with the midrib, and whose walls are thickened 
by cellulose ridges, producing an appearance which led MACFARLANE 
(1892) to take them to be " intercellular protoplasmic connections." 
What he saw, it seems, are only layers of cytoplasm lying between 
the cellulose ridges, but this is not to deny that such protoplasmic 
connections may not also be present. Surmounting the two basal 
cells is a second course of two small cells, with cutinized diametrical 
wall, constituting the stalk. This supports a large capital of about 
32 cells in two courses, the lower capped by the upper to form a bun- 
shaped mass (18 12, 13). There are two physiological kinds of 
these glands, as evidence adduced by FRANK MORTON JONES indicates 
(1923), namely digestive (and absorptive) and alluring. The former, 
thought by ELLIS " perhaps" to discharge a sweet liquor, occupy the 
major area of the surface and are so numerous that they often crowd 
on each other (18 i). The alluring glands occupy a narrow zone 
just within the ciliated margin. Between the two groups of glands 
there is a narrow zone quite free of glands QONES). Though identical 
in structure, the digestive and alluring glands display some differences. 
The digestive glands (18 12, 13) are rendered conspicuous by their 
deep red color, due to anthocyanin present in the sap of their cells, 
and are responsible for the deep red note of color of the inner surface 
of the trap. The alluring glands (in the traps I examined) contain 
no pigment. These are imbedded somewhat in the epidermis (18 
14), while the digestive glands stand out prominently. These also 
are larger (0.096-0.1 mm. in diam.) than the alluring glands, which 
measure 0.06-0.073 mm. in diameter. That the alluring glands se- 
crete a sugar (or something attractive to insects) is supported strongly 
by JONES' observations already alluded to: ". . . these little ants 
were observed to occupy a uniform position on the upper surface, 
their heads close to the bases of the marginal spikes. As they moved 
slowly across this belt of the leaf they made frequent and prolonged 
pauses, during which their mouth parts were observed under the lens 
to be in motion against the surface of the leaf. A larger and winged 
hymenopteron was observed to be engaged in the same performance. 
Obviously they were feeding upon some attractive exudation of the 
leaf. The behavior of visiting insects is entirely convincing to the 



Francis E. Lloyd 184 Carnivorous Plants 

observer that a baited area extends across the leaf surface just within 
the bases of the marginal spines. This baited marginal band is so 
situated upon the leaf surface that a visiting insect in length too small 
to reach from the bait to the trigger hairs, usually does not spring the 
trap. Whether or not these conditions are to be interpreted as ad- 
justments to that end, the effect of the arrangement, in conjunction 
with the peculiarities of the closing movement by which small insects 
are given an opportunity to escape, is to limit the captures of the 
leaves to insects approximating one quarter of an inch or more in 
length. " JONES examined the captures of fifty closed traps and found 
that, of all the prey "only one was less than 5 mm. in length and 
only seven less than 6 mm.; they were 10 mm. or more in length, 
with a maximum of 30 mm." QONES 1923). In this way was cor- 
roborated DARWIN'S suspicion that the posture first assumed by the 
trap on closure in which the marginal spines form a cage is one which 
permits small insects to escape. I have observed larger ones, small 
centipedes, doing their best to force their way between the spines, 
but without success. A wood louse was seen to free itself because 
its position was such that its carapace held the lobe margins open 
just enough to allow escape, which was evidently facilitated by the 
fact that the lateral projections of the carapace allowed leg movement. 
Many a wood louse is not so lucky. 

The closure of the trap, a seismonastic movement, normally follows 
when sensitive or trigger hairs are disturbed as CURTIS recorded in 
1834. "Each side of the leaf is a little concave on the inner side 
where are placed three delicate, hair-like organs, in such' an order, 
that an insect can hardly traverse it, without interfering with one 
of them, when the two sides suddenly collapse and enclose the prey 
with a force which surpasses the insect's efforts to escape." Though 
usually three in number on each lobe, there may on occasion be more 
or fewer. When three, they stand at the angles of a triangle 
placed in the middle of the lobe with its base nearer and parallel 
to the outer ciliated margin. If we examine one of these hairs we 
find that it is multicellular and displays two distinct regions. The 
outer of these is a slender cone (18 2) in form, about 1.5 mm. 
in length and 0.15 mm. thick at the base. It is composed of elon- 
gated, thick walled cells and constitutes a lever; any slight move- 
ment causes a bending in the basal region, to which OUDEMANS (1859) 
attributed a special sensitivity. This is only 0.15 mm. in height 
and is conspicuous on account of a deep constriction slightly below 
the base of the lever, first described by GOEBEL (1891). This con- 
striction, the hinge or bending place (GOEBEL), is made up of a single 
transverse ring of cells of which their outer walls are deeply indented 
(18 15, 1 6). Their lateral walls are thick and collenchymatous in 
character, their end walls thin. Because of the indentation, the outer 
wall is thinner at this point. Within the ring of indented cells there 
is a medullary group of elongated cells, tracheidal in character 
(GOEBEL), absent from the small trigger hairs of seedling leaves, which 
measure only 0.15 to 0.2 mm. in length, of which the lever occupies 
well over a half, the greatest width being 0.03 mm. (18 3). The 
indented cells are surmounted by three layers of flattish cells under- 



Chapter XII 186 Dionaea and Aldrovanda 

lying the base of the lever, and stand upon a base of about four or 
five courses of cells, meeting the general leaf surface. All the cells 
have rather thick walls, and there are no intercellular spaces. This 
whole basal region is the podium. Its histological character just 
mentioned is such as to permit bending. It is, however, the whole 
podium which bends, and not merely the cells under the constriction 
(37 5)- I noted while cutting hand sections that the podium readily 
stretches and compresses, bending being a combination of these. But 
although the whole podium bends notably when the lever is much 
displaced, it is quite clear on watching with the microscope that 
slight bending is evident first and at once in the constricted zone, 
as GOEBEL recorded. 

The hinge cells were thought by MACFARLANE (1892) to be de- 
void of a cuticle, or to have a very thin one. HABERLANDT, however, 
denied this. The cuticle is fairly thick and displays a certain amount 
of wrinkling, which would allow freer movement of the collenchy- 
matous cell walls beneath. It further appears finely punctate, inter- 
preted by MACFARLANE as due to the presence of pores. HABERLANDT 
regarded this to be due rather to dcnticulations of the inner surface 
of the cuticle which prevent loosening of the cuticle under repeated 
bendings by anchoring it to the cellulose wall. It is easier to agree 
with HABERLANDT that the points seen (of which there is no doubt) 
are not pores, than that they are extensions of the cuticle into the 
cellulose underneath. Nevertheless, it is possible to see minute ir- 
regularities on the inner face of the cuticle, so that the interface 
between the cuticle and cellulose is greater than it would be other- 
wise. 

The medullary cells show some peculiarities. In addition to a 
fine porosity (GOEBEL), HABERLANDT records the presence of mi- 
nute granular inclusions of high refringency in the middle layer 
between the walls and between these and the hinge cells. He de- 
scribes these as cutinized granules. Some cutinization certainly oc- 
curs. 

There is no vascular connection between the medullary cells of 
GOEBEL and the leaf, since there is no vein in the hair. 

The internal structure of the leaf blade or trap was described by 
MUNK in 1876, concerned as he was with the direction of movement 
of electrical currents, in much detail as to form and position of the 
component cells. We recall that the trap has a massive midrib trav- 
ersed longitudinally by a double vascular bundle which gives off 
branches, running parallel to each other, towards the margins, ap- 
proaching which they form a coarse zig-zag network. All the remain- 
ing space between the two epiderms is occupied by a thin-walled 
parenchyma, of large-sized cells inside and smaller against the epi- 
derm, those against the inner epidermis being larger than those against 
the outer, where they are much smaller and more numerous. There 
are more smaller cells opposite the vascular bundles and more cells 
of very large size between the vascular bundles (18 10). The 
walls beneath the inner epidermis and the cells of the first parenchyma 
course are thickened into a collenchyma (18 5) and to some ex- 
tent also, those between this and the next course. This mechanical 



Francis E. Lloyd 186 Carnivorous Plants 

element is absent from the outer epidermis region. There is a total 
absence of palisade tissue, a feature common to many carnivorous 
plants, as SCHMED showed. The parenchyma cells are elongated in 
different degrees according to position. Below the chief vascular 
strands in the midrib their long axes run lengthwise, above at right 
angles to it and here are shorter. Those of the lateral regions run 
up into the two lobes, and here they attain their greater longitu- 
dinal dimensions, the largest, in the middle, being the longest. Ap- 
proaching the margins, they become shorter and, as MUNK points 
out, are shortest, though not round, at the base of the cilia, length- 
ening again in the cilia themselves. The intercellular spaces are 
large and extensive, and while the protoplasm is very tenuous, chlor- 
oplasts are present and much starch may occur, as BROWN pointed 
out. 

Physiology. If the question is asked how the structure just de- 
scribed is related to the movement of the lobes, the answer is indicated 
by comparing it with that of the lobes of very small traps found 
in seedlings, and with those of Aldrovanda. They all show the same 
capacity for movement, whether the parenchyma consists of one 
course of cells only (Aldrovanda) or of a few, as in seedlings traps. 
The evidence indicates that the seat of movement resides in the 
epidermis first of all. Further complication of structure is connected 
with the mechanical strength of the lobes naturally greater in the 
massive leaves of adult Dionaea plants. That is, the machine as 
such is stronger (involving parenchyma cells) and can exert more 
energy in the last, without any difference in the seat or directions 
of movement. All movement occurs in the lobes and, as BROWN 
showed, none in the midrib, which is therefore not a hinge in any 
sense. This is indicated in the diagram, borrowed from ASIIIDA, shown 
in 18 40, though this does not indicate the extreme possibilities 
of closure, better shown in iS $. 

The stimulus leading to action. In nature the walking of an insect 
across a lobe of the trap almost inevitably results in the disturbance of 
the sensitive hairs, ensuring the prompt closure of the trap. This 
CURTIS (1834) clearly observed. ELLIS (1770) had thought the move- 
ment as following irritation of the glands by the feet of the prey, and 
BROUSSONET (1784) believed that it was due to the loss of turgidity 
caused by the pricking of the surface by insects. But from the time 
of CURTIS it was supposed that it was necessary only to touch a hair 
to bring about closure, until the work of BURDON-SANDERSON demon- 
strated the fact of summation of stimuli. MACFARLANE found inde- 
pendently that under usual circumstances (temperature is important) 
in order to effect closure of the trap, it requires two stimuli, either by 
touching the same trigger hair twice, or any two different ones with an 
interval of time neither too short (about 0.75 sec.) nor too long (over 
20 sec.). This was in 1892. Previous observers, with the exception 
above noted, had failed to notice this behavior, very obvious when 
once seen. For example, DARWIN says: "It is sufficient to touch any 
one of the six filaments to cause both lobes to close . . . ," but observed 
that an extremely delicate stimulus might be inadequate. DARWIN 
does remark, however, that " on another occasion two or three touches 



Chapter XII 187 Dionaea and Aldrovanda 

of the same kind were necessary before any movement ensued," but 
failed to indicate a general rule. 

Following in the trail left by BURDON-SANDERSON and MUNK, 
the method of electrical stimulation has been used by BROWN and 
SHARP (1910) to study time and intensity relations. They found 
first of all that at 15 deg. C. two stimuli were always required, and 
must be applied within an interval of from 1.5 to 20 seconds. But 
at the higher temperature of 35 deg. C. frequently only one stimulus 
was required, while at 40 deg. C. only one stimulus was required 
in 50% of the instances. In order to elucidate this behavior, BROWN 
and SHARP tried the effect of electrical shock in various intensities 
and found that the number of shocks required varied inversely with 
their intensity. The authors then proceeded to determine the number 
of stimuli (by bending the sensitive hairs) required when applied at 
various intervals, viz., 20 seconds, i, 2, and 3 minutes, and found 
that for these intervals, 2.0, 3.8, 6.2 and 8.7 stimuli (averages of 
several tests) were required. It thus appears that "the number of 
stimuli necessary for complete response varies almost directly with 
the length of the intervals. It would seem, therefore, that the re- 
sponse follows on a definite amount of accumulated effect, " possibly 
the accumulation of some chemical substance as the result of ex- 
citation/' It should be added that the physiological condition of 
individual leaves has a modifying effect at a given time and place 
all leaves are not equally sensitive. 

In 1873, stimulated by DARWIN'S studies, J. BURDON-SANDERSON 
published the first observations on the electric current in leaves as 
indicating physiological disturbance, using those of Dionaea. Having 
demonstrated that there is a normal current from base to apex of 
the trap while there is one in the reverse sense in the petiole, related 
quantitatively so that if the petiole were cut off at different lengths, 
the current in the trap was increased, he then studied the effect of 
stimulating the sensitive hairs on the current. Whenever a fly was 
allowed to walk into the trap it disturbed the hairs and at once there 
was observed a deflection of a galvanometer. If the stimulus were 
repeated, the galvanometer indicator came to rest in a different position 
(more to the left) each time. Disturbance of the hairs with a camel's 
hair brush had the same effect. Thus the fact that movements of 
the sensitive hairs constitute a stimulus was demonstrated by noting 
consequent electrical disturbance. 

Localization of perception. It had been generally accepted since 
OUDEMANS' time, in spite of MEYEN'S evidence to the contrary, that 
stimuli leading to closure could be received only by the sensitive 
hairs. OUDEMANS could not repeat MEYEN'S (1839) result, namely, 
causing closure by scraping the midnerve. DARWIN, however, found 
both the area within the triangle formed by the sensitive hairs and 
the surface along the midrib to be sensitive, so that when scratched 
or pricked with a needle, closure followed. MACFARLANE found that 
this occurred on pinching the blade of the trap with steel forceps, 
but that two stimuli were required. BROWN and SHARP confirmed 
MACFARLANE'S observation, only qualifying the numerical expression 
since they found that one only, or two or more pinches might be re- 



Francis E. Lloyd 188 Carnivorous Plants 

quired to procure reactions. They also found that the trap may be 
stimulated to close by the application of strong electrical stimuli to 
the petiole. That various kinds of stimulating agents (cutting, hot 
water at 65 deg. C., various chemicals, electrical stimuli) can effect 
response has been abundantly shown by DARWIN, BURDON-SANDERSON, 
MUNK, MACFARLANE, BROWN and SHARP. But it is easier to stim- 
ulate by cutting, etc. the upper face of the leaf than the lower. If 
the lower face is cut, it must be cut deeply so as to reach the upper 
face tissues (MUNK). Stimulation is not procurable by cutting the 
outer marginal zone of the cilia (MUNK). It appears therefore that 
the more ventral tissues (MUNK: the parenchyma) are sensitive, not 
the more dorsal. But it remains the central fact that normally the 
closure of the trap results from the stimulation of the sensitive hairs, 
even though very slow closure may take place in response to applied 
protein (chemonasty), after the power to react seismically has been lost. 
It was natural for earlier observers, from CURTIS on, to suppose the 
whole of the hair to be sensitive, as did DARWIN. " These filaments, 
from their tips to their bases, are exquisitely sensitive to a momentary 
touch " (1875). Sixteen years previously, however, OUDEMANS had 
succeeded in showing experimentally that the sensitivity resides in 
the basal region of the hair, to which MUNK (1876) and BATALIN 
(1877) agreed. DARWIN appears to have attached importance to the 
flexible base in allowing the hair to bend rather than be broken by 
the closing lobes. He saw that there is a constriction about the 
base, merely mentioning it. GOEBEL (1891), in view of v the config- 
uration of the cells of the constriction (as well as of the organ in 
general), believed that these receive, on movement of the "lever," 
a "much stronger stimulus than any other leaf cell." The stimulus 
is hindered from moving upward by suberized cells in the two courses 
above (in which I find very little if any suberization). 

The cells of the constricted zone were regarded by HABERLANDT 
(1901) as special sense organs. The cells respond to compression, 
but not to release from a constrained bent position (BROWN and 
SHARP), and if the hair is amputated, pressure on the remaining 
base will procure closure (BROWN and SHARP 1910). 

The mechanism of closure. The first effort to explain the mecha- 
nism of closure in the trap of Dionaea was made by MEYEN, in 1839. 
To him the spiral vessels of the nerves, because of their spiral-spring- 
like structure, seem to afford a suitable mechanism. If the idea is 
naive, it still indicates the early desire and effort to answer the ques- 
tion. 

ZIEGENSPECK much later (1925) (through VON GUTTENBERG) at- 
tributed importance to a hinge mechanism, saying that closure is 
due to the loss of turgor by the cells of the tissues above the mid- 
vein. VON GUTTENBERG (1925) showed this to be incorrect. 

DARWIN described the closure of the trap as passing through two 
phases. There is first a sudden response, bringing the edges of the 
lobes into some approximation, enough at least to bring the cilia in 
position so as to make a sort of cage preventing the escape of suf- 
ficiently large prey, and allowing small ones (ants especially) to escape 
(JONES) (77 6). This is followed by a slow movement during 



Chapter XII 189 Dionaea and Aldrovanda 

which the lobes are closely apposed, pressing together, their mar- 
ginal regions being curved outwards. ASHIDA in his studies of Al- 
drovanda has called these the " shutting " and the "narrowing" phases 
of closure. We are now to consider the first of these, to which more 
attention has been paid than to the latter. DARWIN investigated 
the mechanism of closure by making marks on the upper surface of 
a lobe in the transverse sense before stimulation, viewing the same 
through a window cut in the opposite lobe. When closure had been 
effected, the marks were found to be closer together and he concluded 
from this that closure is accompanied by a transverse contraction 
of the more superficial cells of the whole upper surface and sub-surface. 
He thought also that the tissues above the midvein took part with a 
hinge-like action. 

This contraction was attributed by MUNK (1876) to the loss of 
turgor by more sensitive superficial tissues ("parenchyma") lying 
beneath the upper epidermis, accompanied by the active expansion 
of the tissues of the lower layers of parenchyma near the under epi- 
dermis. DE CANDOLLE, from anatomical study, seems to have held 
essentially the same view. 

BURDON-SANDERSON, seeking for a "resistance" which has to be 
removed in responding to stimulation, could find it only in the turgor 
of the leaf. "In the case of cells which are excitable the immediate 
effect of excitation is suddenly to diminish the power (of turgescence) 
and thereby produce a diminution of the volume of the cells which 
is equal to that of the water (probably holding diffusible bodies in 
solution) which is discharged into the intercellular spaces." It was 
already known from the work of BRUECKE, cited by MUNK, that 
the only mechanism of the actual movements of the sensitive plant 
(Mimosa?) was such a diminution of turgor in the sensitive region of 
the pulvinus. 

BATALIN (1877) re-examined the matter and, confirming DARWIN'S 
observations, extended the account to include subsequent opening. 
Using the same method as DARWIN, namely, measurements of changes 
between ink marks during closure, BATALIN came to agree with him 
that there is a real contraction of the upper side of the lobes and a 
concomitant expansion of the lower, both longitudinal and transverse. 
He takes issue with DARWIN (and ZIEGENSPECK, 1925), however, 
holding that the midvein takes no part, or at least a very small and 
unobservable part. When the trap remains closed, as it does for a 
week or ten days (or even longer) if it has been fed a living insect, 
it enters at once into a second phase of movement. The lobes begin 
to compress together mutually, so that in a half-hour (as I have 
observed) much of their inner surfaces are in actual contact, leaving 
however a space above the midvein. The compression is such that 
the margins of the lobes are turned outwards and the cilia come to 
lie more nearly parallel to the general plane of the lobes (18 46). 
As BATALIN observes, the pressure exerted is enough to crush a soft- 
bodied insect. DARWIN thought that this compression is owing to 
the absorption of animal matter. BATALIN said that it is caused by 
the reduction of the expansion of the lower surface, for he determined 
that during the slow compression of the lobes together after the in- 



Francis E. Lloyd 190 Carnivorous Plants 

itial closure, there is actual and measurable shrinkage of that sur- 
face, except where the body of the insect propped it out. ASHIDA 
(1934), we remember, compares this movement with the slow movement 
which supervenes on " closure" in Aldrovanda, calling it the " narrow- 
ing" movement. 

But the main contention of BATALIN, in which he was in agree- 
ment with DARWIN, was that during closure there is an actual shrink- 
age of the upper or inner surface, accompanied by expansion of the 
lower. This amounts to saying that the tissues including the epidermis, 
contract in the upper region, and expand in the lower. This was 
made an issue by BROWN (1916). Using again the same method, 
he found extension in the lower surface and decreases in the upper. 
But the latter amounts were very small, amounting to only 1.5% 
of the original distances, while for the lower surface the differences 
of dimension range between 3.3 to 10, or an average of 6.7%. Fur- 
thermore, and this is of prime importance, BROWN found that there 
is an error of observation due to changed surface curvatures, so that 
the actual surface retains dimensions which it only seems to lose, 
since what one measures is not the curved surface, but the chord 
of its arc. BROWN'S opinion, based on the measurement of a model, 
was that "if there is any change in the area of the upper surface 
during closure it is probably in the direction of an increase rather 
than in that of a decrease," in this squarely contravening previous 
opinions. During subsequent opening, however, the reverse obtains. 
The upper surface now expands (to the amount of 9.4% of the orig- 
inal measurements) while the under surface maintains its enlargement 
merely. True there is a small apparent expansion which is attrib- 
uted by BROWN to the same sort of error as that detected in the 
measurements of shrinkage of the inner surface. It was shown also 
that as the result of stimulation the growth of the lobes of the trap 
was greater by a good deal than their growth during a long period 
when there was no stimulation, from which it appears that stimu- 
lation is a liberator of growth and that, accordingly, the responses 
to stimulation become less vigorous if the stimulus is repeated of- 
ten. This recalls BATALIN'S experiments which showed that when 
a trap was stimulated seven times on ten successive days, the abil- 
ity to respond was not lost, but was progressively very materially 
weakened. 

What then takes place during the response movement? MACFAR- 
LANE allowed that the contraction observed by DARWIN would be 
due to the escape of water through pores in the protoplasm, and 
sought for some visible evidence of such. He ventured to suggest 
that appearances in the parenchyma cells of the motile tissue, con- 
sisting of "rows of extremely minute globules or pores in the proto- 
plasm," suggested a parallel with animal voluntary muscle, and that 
on ultimate analysis the activity might be explained, as in the case of 
plant cells, by water movements. This is not the same as saying 
that "MACFARLANE believed that there are structures in the leaves . . . 
which resemble animal muscles." 

BATALIN, not being able to detect any change in translucence of 
the tissues, which would be expected if there were any effusion of 



Chapter XII 191 Dionaea and Aldrovanda 

sap into the intercellular spaces, such as is well known to take place 
in the pulvini of Mimosa during movement response, denied that 
there is any extrusion of water by the cells in the upper moiety of 
the trap lobe, and BROWN denying the contraction of the upper face 
sees no necessity for such extrusion, but falls back on the expansion 
of the cells of the lower face. This makes it necessary to find a move- 
ment of water from a source sufficient for this expansion. The only 
source considered is the parenchyma of the upper face, in which, since 
the intercellular spaces are not flooded, water must pass from cell 
to cell; the movement would then resemble that of geotropism. 
An acknowledged difficulty is seen in the rapidity of the response 
which, though often slow enough, is at times and normally so rapid 
that complete closure is reached in the space of even less than a 
half second (77 6). This difficulty must be faced as also that 
arising from the attempt to account for the loss of water by some 
cells (those of the upper face) by changes in the substances present 
in the cells to less osmotically active ones, thus permitting the water 
to be drawn off into other cells (those of the lower face) to facili- 
tate their expansion. How sufficient water can thus be moved to 
procure the recorded amount of expansion of the lower face, with- 
out causing a reduction (contraction) of the upper face in even greater 
amount (since the latter is shorter, if only slightly), is not clear. 

This rapidity of movement seems to demand that there be a con- 
dition of unstable equilibrium resulting from growth and residing in 
the trap lobes. BATALIN advanced this idea but he was, it is recalled, 
committed to explain a shortening of the upper face. That tissue 
tensions do exist may be taken for granted (DARWIN), just as they 
exist in the valves of the fruit of Impatiens. In this plant the ten- 
sions are held in check by mechanical conditions, namely, the mu- 
tual adherence of the valves. This disturbed, the valves spring away 
by immediately curving in the same sense as the lobes of the Dionaea 
trap. In the latter the lobes maintain their form, unless stimulated, 
by the opposition of the two epiderms to their contiguous tissues. 
When stimulated, the balance of forces is upset and curvature imme- 
diately follows. That is, when stimulation takes place something 
happens to release the tensions. What this something is we do not 
yet know. If we might postulate chemical changes in the cell 
contents from sugar to starch in the upper surface of the trap lobes, 
it would serve us with a mechanism for changing the tensions, but 
sufficiently rapid changes are not known. BROWN'S experiment in 
which he substituted xylene, in which sugars are insoluble, for water, 
are suggestive, but not convincing further than showing that ten- 
sions exist which might be released by such a mechanism. This is 
in essence the theory put forth by VON GUTTENBERG (1925) who be- 
lieves that the movement is caused, not by any reduction of turgor 
in any tissues whatever, but by the drag of the parenchyma on the 
two epiderms (upper and lower), the upper being thicker and less 
extensible than the lower (18 5, 6, 10), as MACFARLANE also main- 
tained. That this drag is positive, exerting a pull on the epiderms, 
is indicated by the fact that if the tissues of the upper epidermis 
and the contiguous parenchyma are partially robbed of water by 



Francis E. Lloyd 192 Carnivorous Plants 

the application of a plasmolyte to the upper surface, no closure can 
take place on stimulation (application of the plasmolyte to the base 
of the sensitive hairs was avoided). Indeed, any experiment in which 
the parenchyma is robbed of its turgor renders the valves incapable 
of closure. This positive drag therefore, present before closure, 
stretches the epiderms as much as it, previous to excitation, is ca- 
pable. On stimulation this capacity is increased, the epiderms re- 
sponding by expanding differentially, the upper scarcely at all, the 
lower 6-7%, in accordance also with measurements by BROWN and 
others. VON GUTTENBERG then faces the questions, whence the water 
necessary to increase the volume of the parenchyma cells, and what 
conditions allow the momentary increase of water uptake? To the 
former he suggests that the water comes from the vascular tissues; 
to the latter that it may be due to the sudden changes of substances 
in the sap from a large molecular to a small molecular condition. 
VON GUTTENBERG extends this theory to the case of Aldrovanda, 
making the pertinent observation that, in view of the fact that this 
trap has only a single course of parenchyma cells, it is unthinkable 
that there exists a differential action in the tissues between the epi- 
derms, of which more beyond. 

VON GUTTENBERG 's difficulties may, however, on theoretical grounds 
be avoided. If it be assumed that the response to irritability is con- 
fined to the epidermis, we might argue that this response consists 
only in the reduction of turgor. True, as VON GUTTENBERG says, 
this would be removing one factor in tissue stretching, but as turgor 
expands the cells in every direction, the relative amount' of exten- 
sion depending on the lengths of the walls, its removal would allow 
the application of the energy of the turgid parenchyma to the flaccid 
epidermal cells, the longitudinal walls of which then would respond 
readily to the stretching effort, the amount of stretching depending 
only on the physical properties of the walls. In a word, the system 
would work like a bimetallic strip of metals of different indices of 
expansion, VON GUTTENBERG'S idea, but demanding simply loss of tur- 
gor in the epidermis only, and this, as VON GUTTENBERG observes in 
regard to ZIEGENSPECK'S theory, is easier physiologically than a rise 
in turgor in a mass of tissue. It should be added that the loss of 
turgor by the epidermis need not advance beyond an initial stage 
of relaxation, just sufficient to allow, without evident effusion of water, 
the stretching of the longer walls, which would otherwise be pushed 
out laterally by conditions of turgor. Thus the theoretical neces- 
sities are reduced to a minimum, and the movement of Dionaea 
brought into line with movements in general in sensitive plants. 
As to the bursting of fruits such as Impatiens, Sicyos, etc. we have 
to do with change of shape of parenchyma cells without change in 
turgor. In Impatient the two epiderms are of unequal extensibility. 

This seems to be the view advanced by ASHIDA (1934) which, 
prompted by his study of Aldrovanda, he applies "by deduction to 
the case of Dionaea." He cites MACFARLANE'S observations that 
the lower epidermis has a thinner cuticle than the upper, and is there- 
fore more easily distensible, permitting curvature on the relaxation of 
the upper epidermis with the effect of closure. 



Chapter XII 193 Dionaea and Aldrovanda 

What is the nature of stimulation is certainly not known. HABER- 
LANDT regarded the constricted cells at the base of a sensitive hair 
as sense organs which are activated by compression. BROWN found 
that the sensitive hairs do not respond to decompression procured 
by two successive movements of a hair which had previously been 
kept in an extreme bent position. Propagation of the stimulus cannot 
be dependent upon the vascular tissues, since they are absent from 
the trigger hairs; and in Aldrovanda, which has no vascular tissues 
except the single strand along the midvein, it is even more obvious that 
the path of movement must be found in the parenchyma, but whether 
of the epidermis alone or of the internal tissues also, is not yet known. 

That response, an event following on stimulation, is accompanied 
by electrical disturbances BURDON-S ANDERSON showed, and the char- 
acter of these permitted him to liken them to those which occur 
during muscular contraction, though this is not the same as iden- 
tifying the contraction, asserted by DARWIN and BATALIN, of the 
upper surface with muscular contraction (F. DARWIN, 1875), espe- 
cially when now such contraction has been questioned (BROWN). 
The molecular transposition measured by BURDON -SANDERSON might 
indeed be the expression of sap movements, and such sap movements 
need not be great quantitatively to upset an equilibrium and might 
constitute a trigger action to start the mechanism a-going. 

Whatever the tensions in the open trap lobe may be, they must 
be duplicated in the similar trap of Aldrovanda, and when we look 
at this beyond, it is a help to comprehend what happens in Dionaea 
when such tensions are relieved. 

For Dionaea we may at present say: 

1) During the open condition there are tensions present which 
are so distributed that they maintain the trap in an open position, 
the lobes standing at an angle as great as 80 deg. (DARWIN). 

2) When stimulated the lobes close, the cilia becoming interlaced 
like the fingers of clasped hands. The lobes remain concavo-convex, 
inclosing a wide space between them. During this closure the outer 
face of the lobe expands, the inner remains unaltered, or at least 
it does not contract. If the stimulus is prolonged by chemical stim- 
ulation (as when an insect has been introduced), the lobes continue 
toward a greater mutual compression and thus obliterate to some 
measure the inclosed space (the " narrowing " of ASHIDA). BATALIN 
thought that this is due to a subsequent contraction of the lower 
face of this lobe. It might be due to a passive extension of the upper 
face resulting from rapid exudation of secretion, depleting the tissues 
of water. The edges of the lobes, which do not actively participate 
in the movements, become bent outwards and the cilia now extend 
less transversely, so that the two sets become more nearly parallel. 

3) With the cessation of secretion and absorption, the lobes re- 
open, this being the result of increased growth of the upper faces, 
the expansion of the lower faces being maintained. 

The mechanically stimulated trap closes, and reopens without nar- 
rowing in about 24 hours, when it will respond again. But repeated 
daily responses are followed by decreasing sensitivity, probably due to 
the completion of growth. 



Francis E. Lloyd 194 Carnivorous Plants 

If closure follows trapping of suitable prey, narrowing (in the 
sense of ASHIDA) takes place. Reopening follows at the end of a 
period of days (5-10 or more) when there is evident a diminution of 
sensitivity, which however is regained in the course of time (some 
days, OUDEMANS). 

Digestion. During all this digestion and absorption have been 
taking place. DARWIN did a variety of experiments with various 
substances. We have seen that the upper surface of the lobes is 
crowded with many glands capable of secretion and absorption, as 
DARWIN stated. These glands remain passive unless some suitable 
material (insect, meat, etc.) is inclosed between the lobes. Then 
there is a copious secretion of a fluid which has the power of diges- 
tion, and which causes the dissolution of the substances acted upon. 
"It is so copious that on one occasion, when a leaf was cut open, 
on which a small cube of albumen had been placed 48 hours before, 
drops rolled off the leaf" (DARWIN). The secretion is acid, the pres- 
ence of formic acid (BALFOUR) serving also for the inhibition of bac- 
teria, so that, unless too great "portions " have been supplied, there 
is no odor of decay. BALFOUR found that a strip of meat placed partly 
within the closed valves and partly out, showed no bacterial action 
within, but did so without. When the rotted portion was placed in 
a fresh leaf, the odor of decay disappeared. This contravened the 
opinion of REES and WILL, whose experiment seems to have been done 
with abnormal plants (GOEBEL). There seems therefore to be no 
doubt of the digestive power of the secretion, though no in vitro 
experiments have been done with Dionaea secretion. According to 
DARWIN some substances are not digested (fats, fibro-elastic cartilage). 

If not too great masses of material have been fed, when the trap 
begins to open the interior is found to be dry, and the fluid has been 
entirely absorbed. Experiments to show the usefulness of the ab- 
sorption of proteins, such as those carried out by various authors on 
Drosera, Utricularia, have not been done. Our opinion on that must 
therefore rest on evident analogy. 

FRAUSTADT thought that during the period when the trap is closed 
over an insect photosynthesis stops. But PFEFFER (1877) suggested 
that the lowering of the starch content observed by FRAUSTADT may 
be the accompaniment of a change in metabolism while at the same 
time photosynthesis may be proceeding. The work of KOSTYTSCHEW, 
if meagre, seems to deny FRAUSTADT'S belief (see under Drosera, 
p. 119). 

Aldrovanda vesiculosa L. : Aldrovanda is a small fresh water plant 
(17 5) growing in quiet waters, floating just below the surface. 
It is quite rootless, and consists of a slender stem, clothed with whorls 
of leaves not distantly separated. Each whorl has eight leaves mu- 
tually attached at their bases. It branches infrequently, so that usu- 
ally one finds only a single stem. The whole plant reaches a length 
of 10 to 15 cm. with a width of 2 cm. including the spread leaves 
which are reflexed in age. The tip of the shoot is especially con- 
spicuous by the numerous bristles which jut beyond the general leaf 
profile. The flowers are supported on short stalks, bringing them 



Chapter XII 195 Dionaea and Aldrovanda 

just beyond the extent of the bristles. They measure about 8 mm. 
when widely open. The seeds are ovate, clothed with a hard shell 
(KORZSCHINSKI 1886). 

This unique plant was first seen in India and was cited in 1696 
by PLUKENET as "Lenticula palustris Indica" in his Almagestum 
Botanicum or Phytographia (4: 211, pi. 41, fig. 6). In 1747 GAETANO 
MONTI had received a collection of it made by an Italian physician, Dr. 
CARLO AMADEI, in the Dulioli Swamp, east from Bologna. It was 
named Aldrovandia by MONTI in honor of the Italian naturalist, 
ULISSE ALDROVANDI, who died in 1605. T ^s plant was identified 
by J. J. DILLON with the PLUKENET one from India. In 1751 it was 
mentioned in a dissertation by L. J. CHENON (1751), a student of 
LINNAEUS, as Aldrovanda (probably a mistake in copying, thinks 
DUVAL-JOUVE, 1861) and finally published by LINNAEUS in the Species 
Plantarum 1753, p. 281, as Aldrovanda vesiculosa. 

CASPARY points out on high philological authority that the Lin- 
naean name is ungrammatical. The name Aldrovanda is now generally 
accepted in accordance with the International Rules of Botanical 
Nomenclature. Another plant from India was described as the species 
verticillata by ROXBURGH (Flora Indica 1832, 2: p. 113), but this 
was shown by T. THOMSON not to be distinct, but has been regarded 
as a variety. A plant from Queensland, Australia, once called the 
var. australis, is not distinguishable from the original species, though 
DARWIN found some difference in size, together with other minor ones, 
such as the number of serrations on the bristles. 

Aldrovanda vesiculosa ranges from S. France to Japan, south to 
Australia, and in Africa to the southern tropics where it was found 
by Miss E. L. STEPHENS in the Chobe Swamp, 100 miles west of 
Victoria Falls. This material, together with living plants, has been 
studied by me, the latter having been obtained in Silesia and grown 
during the summer of 1933 in the Garden of the Botanical Institute 
of Munich. Beautiful herbarium specimens in all stages of fruiting 
and flowering from Mizoro Pond, near Kyoto, were sent me by Dr. 
Joji ASHIDA. 

The morphology and anatomy of the vegetative parts of the 
plant were first described by COHN in 1850, and more completely 
by CASPARY in 1859 an d 1862. Further reference to details was 
made by GOEBEL (1891), FENNER (1904), and HABERLANDT (1901). 

Like the leaves of Dionaea, those of Aldrovanda consist of a flat- 
tened petiole armed at its apex. This appears somewhat truncated, 
with four to six, or seldom even eight parenchymatous lobe-like bris- 
tles, surmounted by a nearly circular leaf blade, 4 mm. wide. When 
mature the petiole is wedge-shaped, broader at the apex, 6 mm. long 
and 4 mm. wide. The bristles extend another 5 mm. The midrib 
of the petiole with its vascular tissue continues into the blade, which 
has the form of a steel trap, as in Dionaea. 

Seedling (ip 1-5). The elliptical seed has a snout at one end, 
plugged with a cap, under which lies the root end of the short hypo- 
cotyl. Surmounting this are the two broadly conical cotyledons 
pressing against the large endosperm, much as in Dionaea (SMITH). 
In early germination the hypocotyl protrudes, pushing off the cap 



Francis E. Lloyd 196 Carnivorous Plants 

and carrying it forward for some time, till indeed the hypocotyl reaches 
its fullness of development, with a length of 3 mm. (19 1-3). By 
this time the petioles of the cotyledons have emerged, and, just above 
the plumule, expand to form a sack-like expansion surrounding it. 
Above this they are suddenly constricted, the isthmus entering the 
seed and connecting with the expanded ends of the cotyledons which 
form a haustorium. The developing plumule breaks out of one 
side of the surrounding cotyledonary envelope and progresses toward 
forming the plant. The leaves of the first whorl are slender ligulate 
and taper to a fine point, or may be variously laciniate to some de- 
gree. There are usually five in the whorl. The next whorl, raised 
on an evident internode, shows still more laciniations, but does not 
yet produce traps (19 5). These, however, usually appear in the 
fourth whorl. Subsequently the mature condition is gradually estab- 
lished. The hypocotyl ends without forming a root cap, and initial 
cells appear never to be established after the primary condition has 
passed (19 4). This, KORZSCHINSKI, who described the course of 
germination, did not see, and this lack was indicated by GOEBEL. 
The structure of the seed and seedling in its primary condition is 
quite similar to that of Dionaea, as described by SMITH (1931), dif- 
fering however in a few details, notably in the greater expansion of 
the cotyledonary petioles to embrace the plumule, and in the failure 
of root growth. 

The leaf of maturity. This consists of a wedge-shaped petiole 
(regarded by NITSCHKE as the leaf base (fide TROLL, 1939) and the nar- 
row isthmus between it and the trap as the petiole, a view now re- 
garded as untenable), somewhat truncated at the apex, where it bears 
four to six, occasionally more (eight, CASPARY) serrate bristles, and at 
its middle point a leaf blade in the form of a trap. 

When four bristles only are present they appear to stand two 
on each side of the trap, but the inner two, as revealed during de- 
velopment, stand somewhat behind the insertion of the trap, and 
overlap it (19 6). If a fifth occurs, this quite evidently stands 
behind the trap, and therefore does not, as CASPARY noted, arise from 
the end of the petiole, but from its dorsal surface. The bristles cannot 
therefore be regarded as lobes of the leaf, as COHN thought, nor 
as stipular appendages (NITSCHKE, 1861), but rather as emergences. 

The structure of the petiole (19 9) in general is that of water 
plants; there are wide intercellular chambers of pentagonal, hexagonal 
(along the midrib), or elongated form (along the margins), separated 
by partitions one cell thick. FENNER, who has more than anyone 
else described the minutiae of the plant's structures and their de- 
velopment, errs in showing large hexagonal chambers over the midrib, 
and in fact the figure of his transverse section does not consist with 
that of the leaf en face, the former being correct. The epidermis is 
scantily clothed with two-armed trichomes (19 16), standing on 
two very short stalk cells with cutinized walls, these in turn on two 
epidermal basal cells. The arms of these hairs may be short or, es- 
pecially along the margins, twice as long. The bristles taper grad- 
ually from their broader bases and are serrated irregularly by 
projecting unicellular trichomes, ending in a similar spinous one. 



Chapter XII 197 Dionaea and Aldrovanda 

The trap stands at the apex of the petiole, the midrib, carrying 
a single annular vessel with an ample phloem, being continuous from 
one to the other. But it always stands asymmetrically, resulting 
from a twist in the stalk, in such a manner that the mutually appressed 
lobes in the young trap are turned with their free margins to the 
left (as viewed from above) through an angle of about 90 degrees. 
In addition to this torsion, the trap is bent backwards (i.e., to the 
right as seen from above) through an angle of 30 to 40 degrees (17 
5). MONTI evidently refers to this posture when he said, "In bar- 
bularum medio folliculus oblique appenditur." It is thus brought 
about that, when the traps are open, their openings face outwardly 
away from the stem, instead of tangentially. The course of devel- 
opment of the leaf is here worth a glance (19 6). In its earliest 
stage, the whole leaf consists of a mere conical protuberance from 
the stem apex. Soon it becomes apparent that the basal half is broad- 
ening to form the flat petiole, while the now more cylindrical end 
is to become the trap. Very soon this begins to show torsion which 
progresses until, when the leaf is approaching maturity, the trap 
conies to lie in its definitive position. In the meantime the bristles 
have developed, first the outer followed by the inner. At an early 
stage it can be clearly seen, as it was by CASPARY, that the trap and 
inner bristles do not lie in the same plane. In maturity, the bristles 
project much beyond the trap and so produce the bristly appearance 
of the plant. 

The position of the mature traps resulting from torsion and bend- 
ing may be regarded as a distinct adaptation, since their mouths, 
when open, are all placed so as to avoid obstruction from neighboring 
leaves, which in view of their numbers and crowding, is obviously 
advantageous for the easy approach of prey. 

In describing the action of the trap, whose peculiarities of posture, 
much less pronounced but present in Dionaea, have just been de- 
scribed, a special terminology is required, proposed by ASHIDA. It 
is clear that if the trap is twisted 90 degrees to the left (in the sense 
above indicated) the one side or lobe of the trap must come to lie 
against the bristles (19 5). This ASHIDA calls the bristle-side lobe. 
The other lobe is the free-side lobe. The importance of this distinc- 
tion lies in the fact that both lobes are concavo-convex and lie dished 
the one into the other (19 7). That is, the outer surface of the 
bristle-side lobe and the inner surface of the free-side lobe are convex, 
the other two concave. Since this has been brought about in the 
course of development, the two lobes acquire a different set, the 
effect of which will be clear when the action of the trap is described. 
The trap has a unique structure, which we shall now describe. 
Morphologically it is a leaf blade, each half being nearly semi-circular, 
the circle being subjected to some degree of skewing. Each, of course, is 
attached to the midrib, which is the thickest portion. FENNER, 
CZAJA and others have called the midrib the "hinge," but as the 
proximal parts of the lobes do not move at any time, this is a mis- 
nomer. It is true that textbook figures taken from earlier authors 
would indicate the contrary, but they are certainly wrong, as ASHIDA 
has clearly shown. 



Francis E. Lloyd 198 Carnivorous Plants 

Each lobe, when the trap is mature and is in the set posture 
(ready to catch prey), is concavo-convex from within out. But the 
curvatures are not simple spherical ones. It will be seen by the fig- 
ures herewith that two oval zonal regions, one on either side of the 
midrib, are flat (19 8, 21-23) and are subject only to slight cur- 
vatures under stress during the closure of the trap. From this flat 
middle region, the lobes spread with a maximum curvature along the 
transverse middle line. Here the curvature is much like that of the 
ribs of a vessel amidships. This is the principal region of motion 
during closure (2, 19 22-23). The next region is one of compara- 
tively little inward curvature (5, 19 23) as far as the margin, which 
is sharply bent back inwardly to form a valve edged with a row of 
sharp teeth. The whole looks like a widely opened clam or mussel 
(19 210). This is what one sees looking merely at the outer form. 
When the thickness of the lobes is examined, the following is found. 
The inner half, along the midrib, is thick and relatively rigid. This 
half (the thick region) includes the place of greatest curvature, to- 
gether with a measure beyond (again as seen in a transverse section 
normal to the midrib at its middle point) (1-3, 19 23). Anatom- 
ically it consists of three courses of cells, the two slender celled epi- 
derms which are thin, enclosing a single course of very large 
thin-walled cells, the long axes of which run transversely the leaf 
(19 10, n). This structure is continued around the sharp bend 
of the motile region, which is somewhat thinner than elsewhere, into 
the sides of the trap somewhat less than half-way to the .free mar- 
gin. At this point the lobe suddenly thins, the middle course of large 
cells ceasing. The lobe then consists of a very thin membrane con- 
sisting of only the two epiderms juxtaposed, and so it continues 
quite to the inturned margin which forms the valve. The valve 
itself is thicker again, due to the enlargement of the epidermal cells, 
giving it a useful firmness to make it effective. Since only the mid- 
dle transverse structure as seen in section has been examined, some 
details concerning the curvature of the lobe margins must be men- 
tioned. 

The stiff region of the trap wall along the midrib does not extend 
its full length, so that, beyond certain points, the proximal and distal 
parts of the walls are thin and, when the trap is closed, readily ap- 
proach each other so as to lie juxtaposed. As the marginal valve 
does not reach the midrib it becomes narrower as it approaches 
it and quite ceases 0.75 mm. away there are left two spaces, one 
at the apex and one at the base of the blade, which, when the trap 
is closed, can allow the escape of water, while elsewhere the valve 
acts to prevent the escape of prey during the whole course of closure 
of the trap. This escape of water is necessary to permit the two 
thin regions of the lobes to approach and to become mutually ap- 
pressed. This is possible because the thin region of the free-side 
lobe inclines to bend when pressed against the bristle-side lobe, 
due to its set acquired during development, so that when the 
trap is fully closed, the thin regions of the two lobes dish into one 
another as during development (19 21, 22), crowding the prey, if 
caught, into the digestion cavity. Before the act of closure is looked 



Chapter XII 199 Dionaea and Aldrovanda 

into more carefully, further details of anatomy will be examined. 
The thick region, as above said, is composed of three cell layers, the 
two thin epiderms sandwiching a middle course of large thin-walled 
cells of cylindrical form. In these three courses the cells are elon- 
gated at right angles to the midrib, and have straight walls, excepting 
that the outer epidermis beyond the motile zone, to be delimited 
later, has wavy-walled cells. In passing over into the thin region 
of the lobe, the middle course of cells ceases entirely, so that there 
remain only the two epiderms juxtaposed (19 19). In the inner 
zone of this region the cells are elongated and have straight walls, 
but there is a gradual transition to irregularity, when the walls be- 
come wavy. The thinnest part of the valve is toward the outer 
edge, where it is reduced to 0.5 mm. and is here only one cell in 
thickness. This is accounted for by the fact that, as COHN and 
CASPARY observed, the cells of the two epiderms become mutually in- 
tercalated, the cells of the inner course protruding between those of the 
outer course to occupy part of the general outer surface and vice versa 
(19 12, 13, 17). The margin of the thin region is reflexed to form 
the valve and has a greater thickness, namely about i mm. Along 
the edge of the valve stands a row of sharp, stiff, unicellular hairs 
which, when the trap is closed, intercross to prevent any escape 
of prey between the valves (COHN) (19 18), recalling the analogous 
arrangement in Dionaea, but in a reverse sense. This the trichomes 
accomplish more by numbers than by strength, which is indeed not 
great, as DARWIN observed. His doubt on the usefulness of the de- 
vice is, however, scarcely justified. 

The cells of the two epiderms of the thick regions differ in size. 
The outer epidermis per unit of measurement is composed of more 
and therefore more slender cells, than the inner, in the ratio of about 
7:5. The cells of the middle course are longest near but not next 
the midrib. The structure of this is seen in 19 10, n, 23. 

The inner and outer surfaces of the trap are supplied with a variety 
of trichomes with various functions. On the outer surface there are 
squat, two-armed hairs (19 16) similar to those found over the 
general plant surface. Their capital cells are devoid of cuticle, and 
they secrete mucilage. On the inner face of the lobes are to be found 
three kinds of hairs. On the surface of the distal zone of the thin 
portion there are four-armed hairs resembling superficially the "quad- 
rifid hairs" (so called by DARWIN) in the interior of the traps of many 
species of Utricularia (19 15). Aside from having four arms, which 
lie prostrate against the surface of the leaf, they are otherwise of 
the same structure as the two-armed hairs, and like them are devoid 
of cuticle, and secrete mucilage (GOEBEL). They are distributed in 
a broad zone lying adjacent to the valve (19 8). The innermore 
region is devoid of them. On the inner surface of the thicker region 
of the lobe occur bun-shaped glands which may be regarded as di- 
gestive and absorptive in function (19 14). They arise from two 
(FENNER) epidermal cells, on which stands a short stalk of four cells 
which expand into balloon shaped upper ends, clothed with a dozen 
or more cells to form the capital. They too lie in a zone of much 
density toward the outer margin of the thick region, and are few 



Francis E. Lloyd 200 Carnivorous Plants 

and more scattered nearer the midrib, on which, however, there is a 
dense row of them. DARWIN regarded the "quadrifid" or cruciform 
hairs within the trap as absorptive, but DUVAL-JOUVE (1876), because 
of their occurrence on the outer surfaces of the petiole, etc., considered 
them as of identical nature with the latter. 

In this region, to which, thought MORI (1876), irritability was con- 
fined, there are also about 40 (20 on each lobe) long, very slender hairs, 
described by GOEBEL, HABERLANDT and FENNER, analogous to the 
normally six sensitive bristles which occur on the lobes of the Dionaea 
trap. In Aldrovanda, however, they are of a much simpler though 
equally effective structure. They are about 1.3 to 1.5 mm. long and 
0.05 mm. thick except at the base, where they are a bit wider. They 
are very slender shafts, arising from a four-celled base lying in the 
epiderm, and projecting slightly therefrom. On these is surmounted a 
length of two courses, each of four long, slender cells. These bear the 
super-sensitive cells, four in number, though sometimes there appear to 
be only two. HABERLANDT does not state the number. They are 
short, thin-walled and form a sort of joint or hinge where the otherwise 
stiff hair can bend sharply, thereby compressing the cells on the con- 
cave side (GOEBEL, 1891). Above there are two courses of slender cells 
of two each, gradually tapering to a sharp, sometimes forked, end 
(ig 20). They are arranged and postured in such fashion that, 
contrary to the impression given by some authors, they are not bent on 
the closure of the trap. They stand upright on the flat region of the 
trap on either side of the midrib, where they have plenty of head-room 
when the trap is fully closed, but obliquely on the sides so that, though 
long enough to reach beyond the fully closed digestion chamber, they 
lie sandwiched between the thin regions when approximated without 
being bent. Disturbing these hairs results in the closure of the trap, 
one touch of a bristle of a young leaf sufficing, but as the leaf grows 
older two or even many more become necessary. Quite old leaves, 
appearing at first to be beyond response, showed action when a lot of 
the sensitive hairs were disturbed by a sweeping motion of a needle a 
considerable number of times. 

But though I did 300 experiments I found it difficult to make a 
very definite rule. There is a good deal of difficulty, of course, in 
getting a clear-cut result when one is dealing with so small an object 
as the Aldrovanda trap which has so many delicate bristles close to- 
gether. In cases where the results were quite clear-cut, the data 
were contradictory. Thus in one ca?e a young trap responded to 
one touch of a single hair while another one, of similar age and ap- 
parently ready for action, being widely open, required seven stimuli 
applied to a single bristle. Another required even more, caused by 
a sweeping of a number of hairs after six single stimuli. In some- 
what older leaves, two stimuli only were frequently required to effect 
closure, but this also was by no means constant. Older traps behaved 
often in a singularly refractive fashion, but yet were found to respond 
at last. One case only: a single inner (on the flat region) bristle 
was bent 10 times; a second was bent 10 times; several bristles 
were then bent by a sweeping motion 10 times; then several outer 
bristles were swept ten times, and finally a single inner bristle was 



Chapter XII 201 Dionaea and Aldrovanda 

bent twice, followed by the closure of the trap. On the other hand 
an old trap closed with one stimulus only, seen by Dr. E. MERL 
and myself, as we were working jointly at the time. Another dis- 
tinctly old trap responded to the eleventh stimulus, ten on one hair, 
the eleventh on another. Many did not respond at all. ASHIDA 
made quite similar observations. DE LASSUS (1861) had already 
observed that young traps are somewhat more sensitive than older 
ones. It became apparent that this lack of uniformity, while a fact, 
does not mean lack of dependability of the trap in nature, since 
the prey which ventures into an open trap must needs stimulate 
many hairs many times if it moves about. If the trap closes par- 
tially (see below) so that the prey cannot escape, the continued move- 
ments insure a further stimulation, and complete closure is assured. 

The mode and mechanics of closure may now claim our attention. 
We have seen that each lobe displays two concentric regions, an inner 
thicker, and an outer very thin and pliable, and edged with a valve. 
If a relatively weak stimulus is applied, the lobes close till their 
free edges meet. Unless additional stimulus is added, in the course 
of a short time (20 to 30 min.) the lobes begin to open, and shortly 
resume their original postures, at some 45 or 50 degrees from each 
other. If, however, a sufficiently strong stimulus, or repeated stimuli 
be used, the lobes continue to close still further. This is possible 
because the free-side lobe flexes under pressure against the bristle- 
side lobe, at first just inside the valvular edge, the flexure extending 
until most of the two regions are mutually appressed (19 21). 
The two marginal valves become bent under this mutual pressure, 
the tetth intercrossing so as to prevent prey from escaping when 
the lobes are first closed. Resulting from the whole movement, the 
thick regions have moved together and a space has been inclosed by 
the meeting of their outer limits, forming a smaller but more ines- 
capable prison (ig 22). Here the digestive glands begin their 
work of digestion, and in the course of time the prey is disintegrated 
and the products absorbed. If a plant is lifted out of the water, 
the water films stimulate the traps to closure, and in closing, air 
is entrapped. The idea that the traps were hollow, closed organs, 
held by MONTI, led him to use the descriptive name " vesiculosa." 
COHN (1850) and DE LASSUS (1861) found this to be a mistake. 

The mechanism of movement. The sensitivity of the trap was 
first observed by AUGE DE LASSUS, who was cognizant of the facts 
regarding Dionaea and Drosera in 1861. The fact was rediscovered 
by B. STEIN in 1873 (mentioned by COHN in 1875) who found that 
it is the slender hairs which are capable of receiving stimulus, and 
recognized the analogy in this detail with Dionaea. Additional con- 
firmation was offered by MORI (1876). GOEBEL showed more com- 
pletely this analogy by demonstrating the hinge of the sensitive 
hair. CZAJA (1924) studied the effect of various kinds of stimula- 
tion. He incorrectly regarded the midvein as a hinge about which 
the valves rotate to approach each other in closure. 

It has remained for Joji ASHIDA to make a studious attempt to 
elucidate the mechanism of response, following that of BROWN and 
SHARP for Dionaea. ASHIDA first made clear where the exact re- 



Francis E. Lloyd 202 Carnivorous Plants 

gion of active bending is. To determine this, he devised a method 
of imbedding the open trap in agar jelly, transferring it from warm 
water to still fluid agar at the same temperature, low enough to do 
no harm. On setting, the agar with its imbedded trap could be cut. 
It was noticed that on cutting the leaf it would react, and in doing 
so, it would withdraw from the agar on the outside, so indicating 
the zone of maximum bending. This was found, as already shown 
above, to be in the flanks of the thick region, between the flat part 
next the midrib and the outer rib-like region (2, ig 23). How 
is this movement accomplished? In a complete response the amount 
of movement is sufficient to bring the edges of the thick regions 
in mutual apposition, thus inclosing an ellipsoidal shut-off space. 
Meanwhile, as already said, the thin regions dish the one into the 
other as the result of mutual pressure brought about by the thick 
regions. 

Precisely what happens to procure the bending is more obscure. 
An observation made by ASHIDA is, if substantiated, of prime im- 
portance. It is that the outer epidermis of the motile zone, when 
in the state of open rest, is undulated, and in this condition not 
in a state of extension, whereas the inner epiderm is, if not fully ex- 
tended, at least more so than the outer, since very light, if any, un- 
dulation is to be seen. During closure the undulations disappear, 
due to stretching of the tissues. As I have already suggested (1933), 
the two epiderms act after the fashion of a bi-metallic spring. As- 
suming this to be the case, two questions arise. What .condition 
of the tissues operates to keep the outer epidermis lax? And what 
happens to procure the changes from the lax to the taut condition? 

In addition to this undulation of the outer epidermis, the motile 
region is thinner than the non-motile parts of the thick region. And 
if the opposing lobes are cut away so as to exclude their mutual 
pressure during closure, it is ascertained that the lobes can curve 
far more than they do otherwise, as is the case in Dionaea; and fur- 
ther, that the free-side lobe bends, during closure, more than the 
bristle-side lobe. ASHIDA has also demonstrated to his own satis- 
faction that the outer epidermal walls are the more easily extensible, 
the outer subepidermal walls less easily, while the two inner walls 
are least extensible. This conclusion is regarded as flowing from the 
observation that, if a trap is plunged in acetone or alcohol, under 
the internal pressures induced by the entrance of these fluids into 
the cells, vesicles arise, but only on the outer face of the motile zone. 
The vesiculation is caused by the rising of the cuticle and the breaking 
of the radial walls of the epidermis. Evidently the outer epidermal 
walls are readily extensible, but, since they do not retract when the 
vesicles are reduced, they are thrown into folds. ASHIDA argues that 
the walls are plastically, not elastically, extended. That the motile 
zone is weaker than the lobe is elsewhere was shown by a tearing test, 
the result being that the lobes always tear at the motile zone. Again, 
from observing the movements of the intercellular air on the en- 
trance of alcohol, the inference was drawn that the walls in the motile 
region are more readily penetrated than elsewhere. 

Before discussing the mode of operation of the motile mechanism 



Chapter XII 203 Dionaea and Aldrovanda 

in Aldrovanda, for the purposes of comparing it with that of Dionaea 
(there is a definite analogy between them), ASHIDA draws the following 
parallel between them. The motile zone of Aldrovanda is but three 
cells in thickness; that of Dionaea composed of several to many cells 
in thickness, according to age of plant. 

Aldrovanda Dionaea 

The outer epidermis 

The outer epidermis The mass of parenchyma beneath 

(either one or both) 

The middle course of parenchyma The parenchyma as a whole 

The inner epidermis 

The inner epidermis The parenchyma beneath 

(either one or both) 

The actual leaf movement embraces two phases of motion which 
ASHIDA calls (a) the shutting movement, to the "shut" stage, when 
the rims of the lobes just meet; (ig 2ib) and (b) the narrowing 
movement leading to the " narrowed stage " (19 2 id, 22). In re- 
covery the opening passes through the "rebulging movement" from 
the narrowed stage to the merely shut stage and the reopening move- 
ment, completing the opening. To avoid confusion these terms will 
be used. 

In the shutting movement the margins of the thick region ap- 
proach sufficiently to bring the margins of the thin regions together. 
This follows on the application of a weak stimulus, but proceeds no 
further. In time reopening occurs. If, however, the stimulus is suf- 
ficiently strong, this posture is passed through, the edges of the thick 
region approach mutually still further, the thin regions press on each 
other mutually, and the free-side lobe buckles, dishing itself in against 
the more rigid bristle-side lobe. ASHIDA maintains that these two 
movements are not simply a continuation the one of the other, as will 
be seen. 

The rapid shutting movement is caused by the loss of turgor by 
the inner epidermis. This allows the other two layers to expand and 
the curvature ensues mechanically. The membranes of the outer epi- 
dermis are stretched irreversibly. The undulations described by 
ASHIDA disappear, having previously been maintained by the outward 
pressure of the inner epidermis. The posture thus attained now 
changes to that of the narrowed posture by the narrowing movement. 
This is a slow movement, accomplished by the slow elongation of 
the outer epidermal cells, that is, by growth. Resulting is the mutual 
appression of the two thin regions, during which water must escape 
from the inclosed space. ASHIDA tried to determine by means of 
colored fluid where the water escapes but did not get any very convinc- 
ing evidence. It has been suggested above that the escape is between 
the non-valvular parts of the lips at the forward and rear ends of 
the margins. ASHIDA, by means of ingenious optical apparatus, was 
able to record photographically the advance of the whole movement. 
The shutting movement is very rapid, occupying about one fiftieth of 
a second, following on a latent period of 0.09 seconds. This rapid 
movement involves the expulsion from the trap of water, the pres- 



Francis E. Lloyd 204 Carnivorous Plants 

sure of which must be overcome. As in the case of Utricularia, the 
energy expended is sufficient to cause a trap lying free in the water 
to close with a sudden jerk, displacing it, just as a Pecten swims. 
There seems to be a slight difference in the behavior of the two lobes, 
the free-side lobe moving a bit more rapidly than the other. The 
difference is very little, however. 

Advance from the shut to the narrowed posture is slower, more 
irregular, complicated by conditions. The slowness depends in the 
first place on the slowness of the mechanism causing it, namely the 
absorption of water and extension by growth of the outer epidermis. 
It seems not unlikely, however, that closure is impeded by the pre- 
vention of the escape of water by the mutually appressed valves of 
the lobe margins and the probably tight appression of the non-valvular 
portions. This, of course, insures in nature the retention of prey. 
To test this point, ASHIDA made a hole in the bristle-side lobe to 
allow the free escape of water, when the record indicated that the 
inclosed water in an uninjured trap does indeed offer impedance to 
narrowing. The free-side lobe, however, due to its measurable rigidity 
offers resistance to buckling and by itself produces irregularities in 
the rate of narrowing, which commences in any event, if the stim- 
ulus is sufficient, in about 30 min. after the shut stage has 
been reached. The narrowed condition in the case of strong stimu- 
lation, but in the absence of prey, is maintained for a period of from 
6 to 12 hours. 

In the return to the widely open condition, the trap passes through 
the reverse of the two phases of movement seen during shutting and 
narrowing, that is, during a first period the rebulging of the free-side 
lobe takes place, followed by the reopening of both lobes when the 
trap is again ready to react if stimulation is applied. All this is 
ascribed to the growth of the inner epidermis. During its progress 
irregularities of rate of movement can be ascribed to the resistance 
to the inflow of water into the narrowed trap and the elastic action 
of the thin regions added to the action proper to the thick regions. 
It is not known just how the water enters, but it may again be sug- 
gested that the valve-free parts of the lips of the thin regions may be 
the place of entrance, as well as of exit. 

To recapitulate. The rapid shutting movement is caused by the 
response of the inner epidermis of the thick region in loss of turgidity. 
The slow narrowing movement is brought about by the growth of the 
outer epidermis, following its stretching in the curving of the lobe. 
The movements of recovery are due to the growth of the inner epi- 
dermis, following the restoration of turgidity. The shutting move- 
ment is facilitated by the circumstance that the walls of the outer 
epidermis are at open rest, not stretched to their full capacity, and 
that these walls can be stretched plastically. A feature peculiar to 
Aldrovanda is the fact that the loss of turgor by the inner epidermis 
causes curvature of the single large celled middle layer, the walls 
attached to the inner epidermis shrinking and those to the outer 
expanding. In a more anatomically complex organ, such as the trap 
of Dionaea, the same must be true of all the parenchyma, but the 
difference of extension between the outer and inner walls of any 



Chapter XII 205 Dionaea and Aldrovanda 

individual cell must be less, since the total difference as between the 
inner and outer epidermis is distributed throughout the tissue of, it 
may be, some dozen cells in thickness. It is quite possible, therefore, 
to extend the explanation given above for Aldrovanda to Dionaea, at 
the same time excluding the loss of turgidity from the parenchyma, and 
refer the whole movement to the action of the epidermis alone. This, 
of course, does not square with BROWN'S explanation, but it neverthe- 
less deserves consideration. 

Reference has already been made to the fact of sensitivity, its 
seat and the varying response of leaves of various ages. We inquire 
now more particularly into the responses to various types of agents, 
whether stimulatory or otherwise. Under conditions of nature, within 
the ordinary limits of temperature during the growing season, it has 
been found that stimulation through pushing against the sensitive 
hairs by animals, such as water fleas, spiders, etc. of small size, pro- 
cures closure (shutting and narrowing). The trap then usually has 
caught a small total amount of food material which is digested. In 
the course of a few days (5-6, CZAJA 1924) the traps reopen and are 
ready to act again. This may be repeated by the same trap several 
times, the number depending on the size of the prey caught and 
the amount of undigested remains. The possible activity in repeated 
response and reopening is certainly not so limited as thought by 
FENNER. 

If, however, the prey is large and fills the digestion cavity (CZAJA 
used for experiment pieces of flatworm), the trap may never open 
again. This may be due to the time involved, so that the trap passes 
through its growth period and loses its sensitivity, or the production 
and accumulation of substances having a poisonous effect. Too much 
feeding is known to have a deleterious effect in other carnivorous 
plants. This argues little or nothing in regard to the total value of 
the process, since one long feeding may be of as much use to the 
plant as several short ones. 

The observation of BuRDON-S ANDERSON on Dionaea, that response 
can be obtained by electrical stimulation, was the beginning of a num- 
ber of studies of interest in the field of general plant and animal 
physiology, leading to the examination of various agents on the ac- 
tivity of the trap. By means of the electric current it has been pos- 
sible to analyze the response into time phases. CZAJA determined 
the intensity of threshold stimuli to be 0.91 io~ 6 Coulomb for an 
opening shock, and o.24-io~ 5 for a closing shock. By repeated ap- 
plication of smaller shocks he found that there is a summation of 
stimuli. ASHIDA used this method for further analysis of the response, 
and found that for fully opened leaves the direction in which the 
current engages the trap has its effect, which is greater when applied 
transversely than longitudinally, from which it is inferred that the 
stimulus is more effective when running parallel to the long cells of 
the motile zone, than across, and that the latter is more sensitive to 
this stimulus than are the sensitive hairs themselves. This may be 
related to the various resistances offered by the tissues concerned and 
the direction of the current through the individual cells. The possi- 
bility of controlling the intensity of stimulation by means of the elec- 



Francis E. Lloyd 206 Carnivorous Plants 

trie shock has further permitted the examination of the behaviour of 
the trap under special conditions of temperature. 

Within the permissible temperature limits (extreme temperatures, 
it goes without saying, are finally damaging) CZAJA found that sensi- 
tivity increased with higher temperatures, as determined by observa- 
tion between 15 to 35 deg. C. Raising the temperature gradually to 
45 deg. was followed by spontaneous closure of nearly all the traps 
(that is, excepting some of the oldest). Opening again on reduction 
of temperature to 20 deg. they again closed on gradual lowering to 
10 deg., the older traps responding in this way on reducing the temper- 
ature further to 5 deg., all due to the reduction of sensitivity, as shown 
by appropriate trials (CZAJA 1924). 

ASHIDA went further, and found that sudden changes of tempera- 
ture (he used changes of 10 deg. C.) in either direction would cause 
closure. From his data the curious fact emerges that sudden reduc- 
tion of temperature beginning with any workable levels from 10 to 
40 deg. C., is more effective than sudden rise in temperature at these 
levels. Further, the higher the initial level of temperature the more 
sensitive is the trap to rises, and the less sensitive to drops. Exam- 
ples of stimulation to both rise and fall of temperature are not lacking, 
e.g. changes in the growth rate of coleoptiles (SILBERSCHMIDT), nastic 
movements of leaves (STERN and BUNNING), the curling of tendrils 
(MACDOUGAL), cited by ASHIDA, offer some analogy. Protoplasmic 
movement is retarded only by a fall in temperature, the Aldrovanda 
trap being stimulated by both rise and fall, but more by the latter. 
Aldrovanda appeared therefore to ASHIDA to be unique in the quantita- 
tive aspects of behavior in this regard. METZNER (1920) had, however, 
already shown that bipolar-flagellated Spirillum sp. show a reversal of 
movement due to thermotaxis both on increase and decrease of tem- 
perature. But such rises and falls of temperature as can be experi- 
mentally imposed can scarcely be expected in nature except as slow 
changes; they can hardly be regarded as affecting appreciably the 
general economy of the plant. 

In a third paper ASHIDA has given the results of studies of response 
of Aldrovanda traps of different ages to weak and strong stimulation 
applied in the form of constant currents of 30.6 and 70.1 volts. With 
the strong current all traps of various ages and at different temper- 
atures (10 to 40 deg.) close promptly in the same time interval. With 
the weak current, however, the responses were scattered, a frequency 
polygon expressing the results having its highest node at about the 
same position as in the case of the strong current stimulation, with 
secondary nodes scattered to the right of gradually lessening height. 
The explanation of the delayed responses lies, ASHIDA believes, in 
the distinct and different sensibility of the hairs and the motile zone, 
diverse excitability of different cells and other possible causes. 

Responses to chemical stimuli. Both CZAJA and ASHIDA have 
studied the behavior of Aldrovanda to a series of chemical agents: 
narcotics, electrolytes (acids, alkalis, salts), non-electrolytes (sugar, 
glycerine). 

Sugar, glycerine. It is difficult because of the impenetrable cu- 
ticle to plasmolyze the cells of the trap unless a cut is made to allow 



Chapter XII 207 Dionaea and Aldrovanda 

the approach of the plasmolyte, as CZAJA also found for Ulricularia. 
At the most, the cells display a systrophic contraction, but there is 
no quantitative relation to the concentration of the plasmolyte 
(ASHIDA). By watching the creeping in of the plasmolyte through 
the cut ends of cells, CZAJA estimated the osmotic equivalent to be 
about m/3 KN0 3 . 

A plasmolyte has the effect of immobilizing the trap by the with- 
drawal of water. For sugar (sucrose) immobilization occurs in from 
40 seconds to 7.5 minutes for solutions of the concentrations 0.50 M. 
to o.i i M. according to the age of the leaf, the younger being more 
easily affected. They react on stimulation till immobilization sets 
in. On immersion in the solution (0.2 M. sucrose), the trap opens 
a little beyond the normal, due perhaps to the withdrawal of water 
weakening the bending force of the outer epidermis and the middle 
layer. The springiness of the walls is, however, retained to some 
extent, and they will spring open if closed by force, unless too far. 
When left for some hours (six) in a 0.15 M. glycerine solution the 
power of movement is recovered, due perhaps to the penetration 
of the solute into the cells. Rapid changes of concentration in either 
direction can stimulate, causing partial closure, but it is evident 
that the immobilising effect and that of stimulation are antagonis- 
tic. Only traps which are not completely immobilized can react at 
all. 

Neutral salts. CZAJA found only a " narcotizing effect." ASHIDA, 
however, found also that salts in solution can stimulate, for, though 
strong solutions may quickly immobilize, their first effect is stim- 
ulation and the traps close. Even in a saturated solution of KC1 
the traps reacted within 1.6 to 2.6 seconds according to the age of 
the trap, the younger the quicker. Similar behavior was found for 
some other salts. 

Acids and alkalis. When ASHIDA exposed traps to low concen- 
trations of acetic acid and of HC1 (0.005 to 0.05 N.) they closed after 
various rather irregular periods from 29 to 2 minutes, respectively. 
Since osmotic pressure is regarded as not entering in, ASHIDA tried 
combining an acid with a non-electrolyte (acetic acid with sucrose) 
and found that the reaction time was reduced, and that the more 
sucrose is present, the shorter the reaction time. Two possible ex- 
planations present themselves. Sucrose, even much below the concen- 
tration which can stimulate osmotically, may help the stimulating 
effect of the acid, an additive effect; or the permeability of the proto- 
plast to acid may be increased during partial plasmolysis. ASHIDA 
favors the latter alternative, for the additive effect is not observed 
in young traps, in which osmotic and chemical stimulation alone 
procure quicker responses. The second alternative also receives support 
from the observations of SCARTH (1927) that acid dyes penetrate 
Spirogyra cells more readily when the protoplast is changing its vol- 
ume during plasmolysis. 

Where now is the stimulus perceived? From applying acid to the 
different leaf surfaces, ASHIDA found that when it was put on the 
upper surface the response was obtained more quickly, indicating 
that the joint cells of the sensitive hairs are the points of perception, 



Francis E. Lloyd 208 Carnivorous Plants 

though the difficulty of confining the acid to the hairs alone, which is 
obvious, throws some doubt on the conclusion. 

Other organic substances: When exposed to commercial for- 
malin, the trap becomes immobilized in 35-45 seconds. During 
this period, if stimulated mechanically the traps will close. In some 
cases the traps close on direct stimulation by the reagent about 15-30 
seconds after immersion. Because overtaken by immobilization, the 
closure is never complete. In dilute formalin, the closure may be 
complete, since immobilization does not overtake the traps quickly 
enough. This is explained by the toxic effect overtaking the epi- 
dermis cells before the reagent can enter by way of the sensitive 
hairs, ASHIDA also reports the recovery of sensibility in 20 minutes 
after immobilization by exposure to concentrated formalin for 45 sec- 
onds, indicating that the injury to the epidermal cells is to some 
extent reversible. Such traps may close and narrow, perhaps as an 
after effect of adherent formalin for i minute, hence completely im- 
mobilized traps close and narrow in water 5-10 minutes later in spite 
of complete immobilization. If entirely killed by longer exposure, no 
movement occurs. 

Such experiments are puzzling, but indicate at least that the 
toxic effects are realized somewhat slowly, and that the stages of 
turgor reduction realized in the meantime are such as to allow the 
working of the mechanism of closure, partially or completely. The 
slow penetration must be due to the resistance of the cuticle. ASHIDA 
recognizes two effects, stimulation' and immobilization, on the rate of 
the latter depending the ability to respond, through the action of the 
sensitive hairs, into the hinge cells of which the reagent can penetrate 
more quickly. 

In ethylalcohol 10-40 percent by volume, traps close spontane- 
ously in from about i to 90 minutes, according to age. Curiously 
enough, in solutions stronger than 40% closure occurs in two steps, 
both sudden, separated by a pause. 

In saturated chloroform-water, most traps close within i minute, 
some quickly, some slowly and some irregularly. Restoration to water 
procures no further activity, and they die. CZAJA had previously 
obtained similar results. He found also that, after treatment with 
ethyl ether at similar concentrations, return to water restored the 
normal activity. The effect of narcotics, he says, is at first stimulative, 
then destructive. He obtained similar results with methyl and ethyl 
alcohols. 

The addition of peptone or egg-albumin to the culture medium 
causes the traps to close and narrow, as also if a fragment of fish 
or meat is fed to the trap. Closure follows then from mechanical 
stimulation, and narrowing results from the chemical stimulation. 
Gelatin and coagulated egg-albumin do not stimulate beyond the 
shutting stage, since they do not stimulate chemically (ASHIDA). 

Digestion and absorption. There is not much doubt that Aldro- 
vanda digests prey and absorbs the products of digestion. All ob- 
servers have seen that the bodies of prey, except the hard parts, 
disappear, aad DARWIN did a few experiments which convinced him 
that absorption t^kes place. The evidence is, however, not complete, 



Chapter XII 209 Dionaea and Aldrovanda 

and we base our opinion with DARWIN on the obvious analogy with 
Dionaea. The closure of the trap into the narrowed posture reduces 
the volume of fluid containing the digestive ferment, if present, thus 
rendering it more effective (DARWIN). FERMI and BUSCAGLIONE 
(1899) offered some evidence that Aldrovanda is capable of digestion 
by placing traps on sterilized gelatin, and finding that it was rendered 
fluid. 

To the earliest observers the traps of Aldrovanda were thought 
to be vesicles. The lifting of the plant from the water released the 
traps so that air was inclosed, as in the case of Utricularia, but, as 
COHN pointed out, this air was purely accidental. That it enabled 
the plant to float in the water, or at least assist in this when the 
plant becomes loaded with prey (FENNER), in view of the fact that 
it floats whether air is present in the trap or not, was seen to be a 
gratuitous explanation. More recently FENNER advanced the idea 
that gas is present as the result of chemical activity (digestion of 
one kind or another). But this also has been questioned (CZAJA 
1924). That the presence of an air bubble assists in digestion 
by reducing the water content of the digestion cavity, thus procuring 
a more concentrated solution of ferments, that the water is absorbed 
by the epidermis cells, and that the air bubbles assist in opening by 
outward pressure (FENNER), are ideas which are superfluous in view 
of the fact that adequate observation shows that the inclusion of 
air is accidental. FENNER reports also that in vigorous leaves, after 
the capture of prey, not only do the digestive glands, but also the 
valve trichomes and the quadrifid hairs show signs of activity by 
exhibiting changes in their contents. This requires further exami- 
nation. It is true that DARWIN had made similar observations indicat- 
ing, it seemed to him, that the valve teeth and quadrifids do absorb, 
but this evidence was regarded^only as indicatory. 

When small prey are captured, the trap, stimulated by the vigorous 
movements in the attempt of the prey to escape, remains closed for 
some time according to the mass of the substance to be digested. 
If the trap is overfed, as when supplied with large pieces of a flat- 
worm (CZAJA) it remains permanently closed, possibly because poi- 
soned by the overplus of deleterious products, or perhaps because 
growth had ceased. Reopening may be repeated several times under 
favorable conditions of sufficiently meagre feeding. As already said 
heavy feeding may, however, advantage the plant as much as several 
smaller feedings. 

According to SCHENK (on the authority of CRAMER, 1877) Al- 
drovanda was grown by him for two years in an inorganic salt solu- 
tion without, apparently, any deleterious effect. PFEFFER cites this 
in support of the non-obligate character of carnivory in this plant. 
This experience of SCHENK'S is surprising in the light of the expe- 
riences of ASIIIDA, who found it very difficult to grow the plant ex- 
cept under rather special conditions. "No inorganic culture medium 
could be found which would keep the plant in the normal form even 
for a week". Aldrovanda grows in shallow water between the stems 
of Typha, Zizania, Phragmites, etc., which HAUSLEUTN^ regarded as 
merely protection against sun and wind. ASHIDA took a hint from 



Francis E. Lloyd 210 Carnivorous Plants 

these relations, and found that by introducing into the water re- 
mains of the associated plants mentioned above, Aldrovanda can be 
made to grow quite satisfactorily even to flowering and seeding. 

Literature Cited: 

ASHIDA, Joji, Studies on the leaf movement of Aldrovanda vesiculosa L,, I. Process and 
mechanism of the movement. Mem. Coll. Sci., Kyoto Imp. Univ. B. 9:141-244, 1934; 
II. Effects of mechanical, electrical, thermal, osmotic and chemical influences. Ibid. 
B. 11:55-113, 1935; III. Reaction time in relation to temperature. Bot. Mag. Tokyo 
51:505-513, 1937. 

BALFOUR, T. A. G., Account of some experiments on Dionaea muscipula (Venus's Fly- 
Trap). Trans. Proc. R. Soc. Edin. 12:334-369, 1875. 

BATALIN, A., Mechanik der Bewegung der insectenfressenden Pflanzen. Flora 35:54-58; 
105-111; 129-154, 1877. 

BROUSSONET, P. M. A., Hist. & Me"m. de 1'Acad. des Sci. 1784, p. 614. 

BROWN, WM. H. &L. W. SHARP, The closing response of Dionaea. Bot. Gaz. 49:290-302, 
1910. 

BROWN, WM. H., The mechanism of movement and the duration of the effect of stimula- 
tion on the leaves of Dionaea. Am. Journ. Bot. 3:68-90, 1916. 

BURDON-SANDERSON, J., Note on the electrical phenomena which accompany stimulation 
of the leaf of Dionaea muscipida. Proc. R. Soc. London 21:495-496, 1873. 

BURDON-SANDERSON, J., Venus's Fly-Trap (Dionaea muscipida). R. Inst. Lecture, 5 June, 
1874. Nature 10:105-107; 127-128, 1874. 

BURDON-SANDERSON, J., On the electromotive properties of the leaf of Dionaea in the ex- 
cited and unexcited states. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 173:1-53, 1882. Second 
paper, ibid. 179:417-449, 1888. 

BURDON-SANDERSON, J. & PAGE, Paper read before the R. Soc. London, 14 Dec. 1876 (n.v.). 
Results set forth in BURDON-SANDERSON, 1882. 

CANBY, W. M., Notes on Dionaea muscipula Ellis. MEEHAN'S Gard. Mo.: 229-231, 1868. 

DE CANDOLLE, C. P., Sur la structure et les mouvements des feuilles du Dionaea muscipula. 
Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat. 55:400-431, 1876. 

CASPARY, R., Aldrovandia vesiculosa Monti. Bot. Zeitung 17:117-124; 125-132; 133-139; 
141-150, 1859. 

CASPARY, R., Aldrovandia vesiculosa. Bot. Zeitung 20:185-188; 193-197; 201-206, 1862. 

COHN, F., Uber Aldrovandia vesiculosa Monti. Flora 43:673, 1850. (through COHN 1875). 

COHN, F., (Jber die Function der Blase von Aldrovandia und Utricularia. Cohn's Beitrage 
Biol. d. Pflanzen 1(3) 17 1-92, 1875. 

COKER, W. C., The distribution of Venus's Fly Trap (Dionaea muscipula). Journ. Elisha 
Mitchell Sci. Soc. 43:221-228, 1928. 

COKER, W. C., A new locality for the Venus' fly-trap (Dionaea muscipula). Science 88:188, 
1939. 

CRAMER, C., (fiber die insectenfressenden Pflanzen. Lecture, Zurich 1877. 

CURTIS'S Botanical Magazine, Vol. 20. Dionaea muscipula. Venus's fly-trap. Plate 
785 and description, 2 pp., London, 1804. 

CURTIS, M. A., Enumeration of plants around Wilmington, N. C. Boston Journ. Nat. 
Hist, i, 1834 (Dionaea muscipula, pp. 123-127). 

CZAJA, A. TH., Reizphysiologische Untersuchungen an Aldrovandia vesiculosa L. Arch. f. 
d. gesamte Physiologic d. Menschen u. Tiere 206:635-658, 1924. 

DARWIN, C., Insectivorous Plants. London 1875. 

DARWIN, E., The Botanic Garden. London 1791. 

DARWIN, F. in DARWIN, C., 1875, ed. of 1888, p. 257. 

DIDEROT, DENIS, Oeuvres de DIDEROT. Ed. by Asszat, 1875. (re Dionaea, 9:257) (through 
fi. MORREN, see under Drosera). 

DIELS, L., Droseraceae. Das Pflanzenreich, IV, 112:1-136, 1906. 

DILLWYN, LEWIS W., Hortus Collinsonianus. An account of the plants cultivated by the 
late PETER COLLINSON, Esq., F. R. S. arranged alphabetically according to their 
modern names, from the catalogue of his garden and other manuscripts. Swansea, 
W. C. Murray and D. Rees, 1843. 

DUVAL-JOUVE, J., Letter to DE SCHOENFELT. Bull. Soc. Bot. de France 8:518-519, 1861. 

DUVAL-JOUVE, J., Note sur quelques plantes dites insectivores. Bull. Soc. Bot. France 
23:130-134, 1876. 

ELLIS, JOHN, Directions for bringing over seeds and plants from the East Indies and other 
distant countries in a state of vegetation together with a catalogue of such foreign plants 
as are worthy of being encouraged in our American colonies, for the purpose of Me- 
dicine, Agriculture and Commerce. To which is added The Figure and Botanical 
Description of a New Sensitive Plant called Dionaea muscipula or Venus's Fly-trap. 
London, 1770. Sub-title: A botanical description of the Dionaea muscipula or Venus's 
flytrap; a newly discovered sensitive plant: in a letter to Sir CHARLES LINNAEUS 



Chapter XII 211 Dionaea and Aldrovanda 

Knight of the Polar Star, Physician to the King of Sweden, and Member of most of 
the learned societies of Europe, from JOHN ELLIS, Fellow of the Royal Societies of 
London and Upsala (with a colored plate of Dionaea muscipula). 
FENNER (see under Nepenthes). 
FERMI & BUSCAGLIONE (See under Utricularia). 
FRAUSTADT, A., Anatomic der vegetativen Organe von Dionaea muscipula Ellis. Cohn's 

Beitrage Biol. d. Pflanzen 2:27-64, 1877. 
GARDINER, W., On the changes in the gland cells of Dionaea muscipula during secretion. 

Proc. Roy. Soc. London 36:180-181, 1883. 

GOEBEL, K., Pflanzenbiologische Schilderungen. S. 57-72, Marburg 1891. 
GOEBEL, K., Organographie der Pflanzen. S. 741-742, 1898-1901. 
GUTTENBERG, H. VON, Die Bewegungsmechanik des Laubblattes von Dionaea muscipula 

Ell. Flora 18-19:165-183, 1925. 
GUTTENBERG, H. v., Zur Kenntnis lebender Bewegungsmechanismen. Planta 1:666-678, 

1926. 

HABERLANDT, G., Sinnesorgane im Pflanzenreich. S. 108-117, Leipzig 1901. 
HAUSLEUTNER, Cultur der Aldrovanda. Bot. Zeitung 1850, S. 831 (through ASHIDA). 
HEINRICHER, E., Zur Kenntnis von Drosera. Ferdinandeum Zeitschr. Innsbruck 46:1-25, 

1902; 47:300-307, 1903. 
HOLM, T., Contributions to the knowledge of the germination of some N. American Plants. 

Mem. Torr. Bot. Club 2:57-108, 1891. 
HOOKER, J. D., Address to the Dept. of Bot. and ZooL, B. A. A. S. Belfast meeting 1874. 

London 1875, pp. 102-116 (Dionaea, pp. 103-105). 

JONES, FRANK MORTON, The most wonderful plant in the world. Natural History 23 1589- 

596, 1923 (Contains a facsimile of part of a letter from CHARLES DARWIN to WM. M. 

CANBY, in which the phrase forming the title of JONES' paper is quoted. The letter 

was dated from Down, Kent, Feb. 19, 1873). 

KORZSCHINSKI, S., t)ber die Samen der Aldrovandia vesiculosa L. Bot. Centralb. 27:302- 

304; 334-335, 1886. 
KOSTYTSCHEW, S., Die Photosynthese der Insektivoren. Ber. d. D. Bot. Ges., 41:277-280, 

1923. 
KURTZ, F., Zur Anatomic des Blattes der Dionaea muscipula. Arch. Anat. und Physiol., 

Lpz. 1876:1-29. 

DE LASSUS, AUG, Analyse du mmoire de GAETAN MONTI sur V Aldrovandia suivie de 
quelques observations sur rirritabilit6 des follicules de cette plante. Bull. Soc. Bot. 
de France 8:519-523, 1861. 

LINDLEY, JOHN, An introduction to botany. 4th Ed., London 1848. 
LLOYD (See under Heliamphora). 

MACDOUGAL, D. T., The physiology of tendrils. Bot. Centralbl. 66:145, 1896. 
MACFARLANE, J. M., Contributions to the history of Dionaea muscipula Ellis. Contrib. 

Bot. Lab. Penna. 1:7-44, 1892. 
METZNER, P., Die Bewegung und Reizbeantwortung der bipolar begeisselten Spirillen. 

Jahrb. wiss. Bot. 59:325, 1920. 
MEYEN, F. J. F., Neues System der Pflanzenphysiologie 3:543-550, Berlin 1839 (through 

v. GUTTENBERG). 

MONTI, GAETANO, De Aldrovandia novo herbae palustris genere. Comment, de Bononiensi 
Sclent, et Art. Institute et Academia 2(3) 404-411, 1747. MONTI'S paper itself bears 
no date, but must have appeared between 1737 (it contains a quotation from LIN- 
NAEUS which appeared in that year) and 1747 (DE LASSUS, 1861). A translation into 
French appeared in the Collection Acad6mique 10:401-407 (foreign part), Paris 1773 
(through DE LASSUS). 
MORI, A., Nota sulPirritabilitd delle foglie dell' 'Aldrovandia vesiculosa. Nuov. Giorn. Bot. 

Ital. 8:62, 1876. 
MUNK, H., Die electrischen und Bewegungserscheinungen am Blatte der Dionaea muscipula. 

Arch. f. Anat., Physiol. u. wiss. Med. 1876:30-203. 
NITSCHKE, 1 86 1 (See under Drosera). 
OUDEMANS, C. A. J. A., Over de prikkelbaarheid der bladen van Dionaea muscipula. Versl. 

Mededeel. K. Akad. Wet. 9:320-336, 1859. 
PFEFFER, W. (see under Drosera). 
PLUKENET, L., Almagestum Botanicum seu phytographiae Plukenetianae onomasticon 

etc. London 1696. 2d. ed., London 1769:211-212. 
REES and WILL (See under Nepenthes). 
SANDERSON, J. BURDON, see BURDON-S ANDERSON. 

SCARTH, G. W., The influence of internal osmotic pressure and of disturbance of the cell- 
surface on the permeability of Spirogyra for acid dyes. Protoplasma 1:204, 1927. 
SCHENK, cited by CRAMER, 1877. 
SILBERSCHMIDT, K., Untersuchungen iiber die Thermowachstumsreaktion. Ber. d. D. 

Bot. Gesell. 43:475, 1925 (through ASHIDA). 
SIMS, JOHN, Dionaea Muscipula. See Curtis's Botanical Magazine. 
SMITH, CORNELIA MARSCHALL, Development of Dionaea muscipula, I. Flower and Seed. 



Francis E. Lloyd 212 Carnivorous Plants 

Bot. Gaz. 87:507-530, 1929; II. Germination of seed and development of seedling to 

maturity. Ibid. 9i : 377~394, I93 1 - 

SOLEREDER, H., Systematische Anatomic der Dicotyledonen. Stuttgart 1899. 
STEIN, B., 1873. Mentioned by COHN, 1875, p. 73. 
STERN, K. & E. BtJNNiNG, tJber die tagesperiodischen Bewegungen der Primarblatter von 

Phaseolus multijlorus, I. Der Einfluss der Tempera tur auf die Bewegung. Ber. d. d. 

Bot. Gesell. 47:565-584, 1929 (through ASHIDA). 
THOMSON, T. and J. D. HOOKER, Praecursores ad Floram Indicam. Journ. Proc. Linn. 

Soc. Bot. London. 2:83, 1858. 
TROLL, 1939. See under Nepenthes. 

YOUNG, WM., Catalogue des Arbres, etc., d'Ame*rique. 1783, p. 34 (n.v. through COKER). 
ZEEGENSPECK, H., tJber Zwischenproducte des Aufbaues von Kohlenhydrat-zellwanden 

und deren mechanische Eigenschaften. Bot. Arch. 9:297-376, 1925 (n.v., through v. 

GUTTENBERG, 1926). 



Chapter XIII 
UTRICULARTA, BIOVULARIA AND POLYPOMPHOLYX 

Form, habit and habitat. Distribution. Embryology. The various types ar- 
ranged according to the character of their traps. The vulgaris type (Freely floating 
forms. Semi-submersed, submersed but anchored forms. Terrestrial and epiphytic forms). 
Biovularia, a floating type. The purpurea type, a floating form. The dichotoma- 
monanthos type (Floating form. Terrestrial. Polypompholyx: annual, monaxial). The 
cornuta type. The caerulea type. The capensis type. The orbiculata type. The 
longiciliata type. The globulariaefolia type. The nana type. The Lloydii type. 
The Kirkii type. The simplex type. 

Of the Lentibulariaceae there are recognized by KAMIENSKI five 
genera, Pinguicula, Genlisea> Polypompholyx^ Utricularia and Bio- 
vularia. The first two, Pinguicula and Genlisea have already been 
considered. It now remains to treat Utricularia, Polypompholyx and 
Biovularia. These plants are freely floating or anchored aquatics, or 
are epiphytic, in wet moss, or are terrestrial in wet to moist sandy 
soils. The largest of these are among the aquatic and epiphytic 
forms. The former are well exemplified by U. vulgaris, among the 
best known, which is a lax floating plant of several feet in extent, 
but of little mass. The epiphytic U. reniformis is more massive 
and makes a brave showing as a greenhouse plant, frequently found 
in the good company of the orchids because of the similar habitat 
requirements and the showiness of their flowers. It is indigenous in 
Brazil. One species, U. nelumbifolia, finds its home habitually in the 
water-containing leaf rosettes of large Tillandsias, whence it sends 
out runners which reach into the urns of neighboring rosettes 
(GARDNER 1842, ULE 1898). Showy species are U. Humboldtii, U. 
longifolia (both S. America), U. Endresii (Costa Rica) and the related 
U. Dusenii which, though small, has a flower of the same type. Other 
of the larger species are the tropical American terrestrial U. globu- 
lariaefolia and amethystina (Trinidad), and a few others chiefly no- 
ticeable because of their tall inflorescences. But among the aquatics 
are found also the smallest species, as e.g. U. cymbantha (Africa) and 
a related unnamed species of still smaller size, the flower being only 
2 mm. long, and the stolons mere threads, collected by Miss E. L. 
STEPHENS in Portuguese East Africa. As small are the two species re- 
ferred by KAMIENSKI to Biovularia, B. minima and B. olivacea. With 
a few exceptions such as those above noted, the terrestrial species 
are small. When in flower and in numbers, they are conspicuous 
enough, but if not in flower they may be found only with very as- 
siduous hunting. How one would find U. simplex (S. W. Australia) 
unless in flower is past guessing, so minute are the leaves. 

But large or small, massive or delicate, perennial or evanescent 
annuals, they present a complex and puzzling morphology. They 
are entirely rootless, even in the embryonic condition. The distinc- 
tion between stem and leaf is vague. Only in the inflorescence and 
in certain shoots (air-shoots of U. vulgaris etc.) is the morphology 



Francis E. Lloyd 214 Carnivorous Plants 

easily recognizable. But most to be wondered at are the traps which 
present an astounding degree of mechanical delicacy depending on 
a fineness of structure scarcely equalled elsewhere in the plant king- 
dom. Moreover they occur in an unexpected variety of form. But 
withal they are small, the largest scarcely exceeding 5 mm. in great- 
est extent, the smallest 0.3 mm. The prey caught by these traps 
are small water fleas, minute larvae often of mosquitos, very young 
fish (DEAN) and small tadpoles, fish and tadpoles, however, being 
ensnared only by being caught by the tail or head in the mouth 
of the trap but not entirely engulfed as is smaller prey (DEAN, 
LLOYD). Larger prey may, however, be finally "entirely absorbed" 
according to MATHESON (1930), as e.g. in the case of the larva of 
Brachydeutera argentata. MATHESON sees the difficulty of explain- 
ing this, since the greater mass of the animal's body is outside of 
the trap. An explanation is, however, at hand and will be later of- 
fered. 

The observation that mosquito larvae are often caught in the 
traps has led some investigators to hope that the floating large trapped 
species of Utricularia would be useful in aiding to control those pests 
(MATHESON 1930). It is well enough known that multitudes of 
mosquito larvae are in fact captured, the number being limited only 
by the number of traps available (FRANCA). 

The flowers are of the personate type, two-lipped, the throat 
usually closed by a palate, and the lower lip provided with a spur 
of various shape, except in a few species, in which it is a saccate 
enlargement, as in Biovidaria, in U. cymbantha, U. Stephensae (Ms. 
name), and in U. minor y a fact which tends to invalidate KAMIENSKI'S 
genus. U. purpurea and its co-species have flowers with a peculiarly 
laterally saccate lower lip. Most extraordinary are the two species 
U. capillifiora F.v.M., and U. Dunstani Lloyd (LLOYD 1936^) (TEXT 
FIG. 5). The former has the upper lip drawn out into two very long 
attenuate lobes, the lower lip into five slender finger-like lobes. In 
U. Dunstani) the upper lobe is rounded and entire while the lower 
lip is five lobed, the middle adjoining two lobes small, and the two 
lateral lobes very long and attenuate and to the casual observer iden- 
tical with the long tips of the upper lip in U. capilliflora. The flowers 
are very small; had they been large they would have excited as much 
admiration as the flowers of some orchids or that of an Aristolochia 
with long appendages. The showy flowers of some S. American spe- 
cies have been mentioned. These are large and are rendered conspicu- 
ous by the wide lateral lobes of the lower lip particularly. Yellow 
is the most prevalent color, but white to purple flowers are also fre- 
quent with admixtures in the form of yellow or reddish markings 
on white or blue grounds; or red on yellow, especially on the palate, 
are often met with. Generally the pistil has a unilocular, globular 
ovary with a two lipped stigma, the lower being considerably larger 
than the upper. The seeds are usually numerous on a globular ba- 
sifixed placenta. In certain species, however, two to three seeds 
only are produced on a rounded placenta (U. cymbantha) or two only, 
back to back, in Biovidaria, the placenta reduced. The release of 
the seeds may be by circumcissile or irregular fracture, by a trian- 



Chapter XIII 



215 



Utricularia, Biovularia 



gular window (U. subulatd), or by a longitudinal slit (U. orbiculala). 
There are only two stamens bending upward along the curve of the 
ovary wall. 

The sepals are usually two in number, upper and lower. In Poly- 
pompholyx there are four, hence DE CANDOLLE'S justification of his 
name Tetralobus, of slightly later date than and therefore superceded 
by Polypompholyx Lehmann. Polypompholyx as a generic name 
should, according to BARNHART, be in turn superseded by Cosmiza 
Raf. 1838, since both Polypompholyx Lehmann (Feb. 1844) and Telra- 
lobus DC. (Mar. 1844) are later names. LEHMANN'S name is at the 
moment generally used. 

U. fimbriata superficially resembles Polypompholyx in having its 




FIG. 5. Utricularia capilliflora (277) and U. Dunstani (272); up, upper corolla lobe; 
us, upper sepal; aus, abnormal upper sepal. The two figures on the right are shadow 
prints from herbarium specimens, natural size. 

two fimbriate sepals backed up by two fimbriate bracts, and has been 
incorrectly referred to Polypompholyx. BARNHART calls it Aranella 
fimbriata (BARNHART 1916). 

The Utriculariae are of world wide distribution. Of the widest 
distribution are the submersed or semi-submersed plants of the type 
of U. vulgaris. They are found occupying a circumboreal zone char- 
acterized by certain species peculiar to it, throughout N. America 
including Greenland, Europe and Asia. Related species extend 
throughout the tropics and into S. America, S. Africa, Australia and 
New Zealand. The submersed floater U. purpurea and its co-species 
are purely American, extending from Maine, possibly Newfoundland, 
down the Atlantic Coast, west, to Indiana, and into E. South Amer- 
ica. Another submersed form, U. tubulata, which is related to quite 
another group peculiar to Australia (the U. monanthos type), is found 
in N. E. Australia (Queensland). 

The terrestrial forms are widely distributed in the tropics of the 



Francis E. Lloyd 216 Carnivorous Plants 

Old and New Worlds, with northward extensions along the Atlantic 
coast, through Central America, and along the Pacific Coast of Asia. 
These include a considerable number of distinct types, some of which 
are peculiar to America, others to the Old World, and still others 
common to both (U. subulata). They are to be found also in Aus- 
tralasia. 

So far as is known, Utricularia is not found on oceanic islands. 

Embryology. The embryological story of Utricularia has not yet 
been worked out in its fullness, but certain striking features have 
been observed and have been recorded by LANG, MERL (Genlisea), 
MERZ, and WYLIE and YOCOM. MERZ pointed out that the vascular 
tissues supplying the large placenta end there and do not enter the 
funicles of the ovules. As a compensation for this, it would appear, 
special masses of nutritive tissue arise in the chalaza and in the pla- 
centa (Utricularia vulgaris, etc.) or what amounts to the same thing, 
in a "funicular hump" (to quote WYLIE) (Poly pomp holy x Lehm.). 
These islands of food materials are made use of for the embryo by 
the penetration into them of peculiar haustorial extensions of the 
endosperm. Transitory starch appears in these haustoria. These nu- 
tritive masses are finally cut off from the ovule, as the embryo ap- 
proaches maturity, by the development of diaphragms of suberized 
cells. Since according to MERZ the end of the suspensor extends 
into the placental nutritive tissue, this is cut off at the same time. 
WYLIE and YOCOM do not support this. In the related Genlisea, 
nutritive islands occur entirely within the ovule (MERL). 

The ovule has but a single integument, which is common enough 
among the sympetalae, from the outer cell course of which a thin 
testa is derived. The tegmen, membranous and delicate, may repre- 
sent the remaining tissue of the integument, since the nucellus is 
absorbed (MERZ). The mature embryo has neither root nor punctum 
vegetationis (MERL, LLOYD). 

Seed, embryo and seedling. The seeds, in most cases, develop 
on a large globular, central placenta, and are crowded sufficiently 
in some species so that by mutual compression, they become angu- 
lar, approximately hexagonal, with flattish outer chalazal and inner 
micropylar surfaces, the latter the smaller (WARMING, WYLIE). The 
planes of the sides radiate as if from the center of the placenta (U. 
vulgaris, U. resupinata], or the ovules overlap and become winged 
with circular wings (U. oligosperma, U. exoleta) the whole dished 
into a concavo-convex lens shape. In other species, chiefly terres- 
trial, the seeds are minute (down to 0.2 mm. in diam.) and globular 
or oval, occasionally lobulate (U. reniformis, U. Dusenii, U. pur- 
pur ea) or have polar clusters of trichomes (U. brachiata) (COMPTON) 
or scattered glochidia covering one end (U. orbiculata). 

The testa is composed of an epidermis of darkened (reddish or 
brown), relatively large cells with their inner and radial walls thick- 
ened, the outer thin and collapsed in maturity. Their shape varies 
from round angular to elongate, many and relatively small or few 
and relatively large. In a few instances they become mucilaginous 
when wet, in species which grow with the vegetative parts submersed 
and attached to a stony substrate in running water (U. rigida, 



Chapter XIII 217 Utricularia, Biovularia 

and probably U. neottioides) . In a very few instances the seed has 
no hard testa, but simply a thin lax membrane easily torn, and the 
seed seems to be released by the rotting away of the capsule (Bio- 
vularia). 

Embryo. The embryo is a mass of scarcely differentiated cells 
containing much starch and oil, and is either bun shaped with a 
depression at the vegetative pole (U. vulgar is) (WARMING) (21 6) 
or flattened by lateral compression, with the growth pole on its edge 
(U. emarginata and exoleta) (21 7), this position and form being due, 
according to MERZ, to rotation of the embryo-sac and embryo through 
90 deg. following the abscission of the egg-pole endosperm; or again 
more or less oval or spindle shaped (a host of species, e.g. U. bifida) 
(22 i, 1 8). In a few there is a depression at the root pole (Poly- 
pompholyx) (22 26). Its structure is very simple: it is a mass 
of rounded parenchyma clothed with an epidermis, the cells of which 
covering the growth pole are small, columnar and highly protoplas- 
mic. The primary organs usually originate at this pole, but may 
occasionally appear elsewhere (U. bifida) (22 19-22). There is an 
entire absence of a root. Even at maturity the embryo has as yet 
no lateral organs. GOEBEL reported them in the embryo of U. or- 
biculata, but I have failed to find them. In U. reniformis and U. 
nelumbifolia primary leaves have been seen, and these species may 
display vivipary (MERL). 

While the growth pole produces lateral organs, two in many cases 
(cotyledonoids) or various numbers in others, a punctum vegetationis 
(the primary primordium of a shoot) is never present in the embryo, 
nor is ever developed. Shoots when present in the plant are always 
produced as lateral organs. 

Germination (22 1-28). The events of germination show that 
there are three types of seedling: (i) a simple, in which there are 
two cotyledonoids (since one of these is a stolon); and (2) a com- 
plex, in which there are 6 to 13 (WARMING, JANE) cotyledonoids, 
or indeed only two; and (3) a type in which there are no cotyledonoids 
at all, with three primary shoots only. The simple type is displayed 
by all the terrestrial species (so far as known), such as U. capensis, U. 
bifida, U. monanthos, Poly pompholyx, which have been studied. The 
complex type is seen in U. vulgaris (with many cotyledonoids) and in 
U. exoleta, U. emarginata etc. (with two cotyledonoids). U. capensis 
among others has been studied by myself (19376). The seed is minute 
and oval in shape. From the growth pole emerges at first a leaf 
followed shortly by a stolon. Between them in the expected position 
there is no punctum vegetationis. The leaf extends upwards, the stolon 
downwards. The first evidence of further growth is the appearance 
of a trap, on the base of the stolon, a little away from the middle 
line (22 14), or rarely, as in U. cleistogama, asymmetrically near the 
leaf base. At the base of the trap-stalk a bud arises which pro- 
duces an ascending stolon with more or less crowded leaves. This 
becomes thicker with upward growth, finally becoming an inverted 
cone, a protocorm bearing leaves, traps and stolons. Their vascular 
tissues form within the protocorm a loose stem-like structure, similar 
to that described by WARMING for Genlisea and by myself for Poly- 



Francis E. Lloyd 218 Carnivorous Plants 

pompholyx. At its top is formed at length a large radially sym- 
metrical bud, which becomes the inflorescence (22 n, 25). Of the 
stolons, some are anchoring in function (rhizoids) while others be- 
come runner stolons, bearing leaves along the upper surface, and 
facing toward the corm, in the adaxial axils of which other scapes 
may arise. Thus is produced a spreading plant. Scapes may also 
arise from buds adventive on the leaves, this among many irregu- 
larities of growth. Sometimes the primary leaf may produce a num- 
ber of traps in the adaxial axils of which buds are formed, as in the 
case of the axils of leaves produced on stolons. 

This course of events, thus briefly stated, is followed by all other 
species studied: U. bifida, U. monanthos, with evidence from a con- 
siderable number of others. U. bifida was also studied by GOEBEL 
who seems to have thought that the first bud was between the cot- 
yledonoids, and suffered later displacement, as his drawings indi- 
cate. But the statements of both GOEBEL and MERL (U. longifolia) 
admit an asymmetrical position. My own studies of U. bifida have 
revealed a strong tendency on the part of the embryo to produce 
at first a leaf only, raised more or less on an elongate extension of 
the upper part of the embryo body (a podium) and for the primary 
stolon to be produced at its base from a distinct bud there seen (22 
i-n). 

If the protocorm produces no runners, as in U. capilliflora, U. 
violacea, U. Hookeri, Poly pompholyx, an inflorescence can be produced 
only from the top of the protocorm (22 25, 26), or by secondary 
branching from the scape itself. This development is called abrupt. 
Such plants do not spread by runner stolons. The behavior of U. 
capensis etc., which spreads by runners, is diffuse. 

In all these forms, especially in the abrupt kind of germination, 
the primary bud arising from the first stolon can elongate very con- 
siderably to form a naked ascending stolon producing leaves only at 
length. The curious asymmetrical relations of embryo and its primary 
organs than becomes quite apparent. I have seen this in U. violacea, 
U. Hookeri and Poly pompholyx, in which the events of germination 
are preserved in the mature individual, for the embryo may persist 
throughout the life of the plant (22 26). 

The complex kind of germination is displayed by a lot of spe- 
cies represented by U. vulgaris, which has been the subject of much 
study by WARMING, PRINGSHEIM, KAMIENSKI, GOEBEL, JANE and 
LLOYD, and by U. oligosperma (GOEBEL). The condition found 
in U. exoleta (GOEBEL) and U. emarginata though simple in the sense 
indicated by the number of cotyledonoids, is merely a special case 
evidently related to the vulgaris condition. 

In U. vulgaris the embryo is a prolate spheroid. From a low dome 
arise several leaf buds in an outer circle, within which several other 
primordia stand, with no apparent order, though it has been stated 
otherwise (GOEBEL). The outer, and some of the inner primordia 
become awl-shaped leaves, but to pick out two of these as cotyledons 
is impossible (GOEBEL). Occasionally one of them ends in a trap 
(GOEBEL; JANE). Of the inner primordia, some become leaves, usually 
one a dorsiventral shoot, and one a primary trap. Sometimes leaves 



Chapter XIII 219 Utricularia, Biovularia 

are produced which are evidently partly shoot in structure, the dis- 
tinction between leaf and shoot being here vague. The apex of the 
dome never develops (21 1-5). 

In U. exoleta and U. emarginata the embryo is laterally compressed 
so that the growth pole is on the edge. Here two leaves are produced. 
These may occasionally become shoots (21 yD). Near their bases, 
but displaced to one side are usually two buds, sometimes a third. 
These become dorsiventral shoots. 

Aberrancies of development are not at all unusual. For example, 
one embryo of U. vulgaris produced only two leaves and two shoots 
which became at once dorsiventral " water shoots. " 

In U. nelumbifolia, otherwise similar to U. vulgaris, the primary 
leaves are widely forked (MERL) and those of U. reniformis are broadly 
spatulate (GOEBEL). According to GOEBEL, the embryo of U. mon- 
tana has no primordia before germination, and on it there are pro- 
duced two primordia (the cotyledonoids) of which one becomes a 
spatulate leaf, the other a trap, on the side of the " vegetation point " 
which grows directly into a radial structure from which stolons etc. 
grow. The interpretation here is to be questioned, as it is doubt- 
ful if GOEBEL'S identification of the vegetation point is correct. 

The third type of germination is seen in U. purpurea. The embryo 
is ovate, with a flattened broad end. From this there normally arise, 
in succession, three shoot buds standing in a triangle with respect to 
each other. The first is dominant in growth; the second to appear 
may form at first a close second, but at length lags behind in growth; 
while the third may not do more than put in an appearance, and then 
fail to develop (TEXT FIG. 6, 1-7). In one case a fourth shoot bud 
appeared early (TEXT FIG. 6, 4 and 5), but its subsequent development 
showed it to be a branch at the base of the first bud, and in other 
seedlings it appeared later, but constantly. The development of the 
first shoot has been followed until it produced five whorls of branches 
(leaves in the taxonomic texts). The earlier two whorls have but two 
members bearing traps, placed symmetrically attached to the upper 
moiety of the stem. On the upper surface of the stem as a member of 
the whorl may appear a bud of unlimited growth, destined in its turn 
to produce whorls of secondary members (TEXT^FIG. 6, 7). In the 
third to fifth whorls, two additional members, placed in the wide dorsal 
space, appear. These, however, do not bear traps. In the fourth 
whorl, in one case observed, one of the ventral pair produced a branch 
which, however, bore no trap. In one instance a seedling was found in 
which the first and second buds were fasciated (TEXT FIG. 6, 6). It is 
evident that in this type the seedling at once takes on the morphologi- 
cal character of the mature form, which, however, has whorls of four 
(U. elephas) or six (U. purpurea} branched members. 

It would be most interesting to know the course of germination of 
U. tubulata, but of this we are yet ignorant. 

Types of Utricularia. In the following account, the various spe- 
cies, so far as they are here included, are arranged according to the 
character of their traps. 

i. The Utricularia vulgaris type. All the plants of this type have 
traps which are closely similar in the mechanical details of structure 



Francis E. Lloyd 220 Carnivorous Plants 

to those of U. vulgaris, differing among themselves only as regards non- 
essential, small details. A description of the trap is deferred till later. 

Freely floating forms. U. vulgaris itself is the best known and 
most widely distributed, and will serve well as the type of numerous 
species, world wide in distribution. 

The plant consists of a cylindrical or laterally compressed axis 
which may reach a length of 300 cm., probably more, supporting 
two lateral rows of divided "leaves," and dying off behind as it grows 
from the tip. The leaves are very crowded toward the growing cir- 
cinate end. The whole plant is lax and lies in the still water in which 
it grows entangled, one plant with another, forming often dense mats. 
Toward the end of the growing season the more terminal internodes 
become very short and the leaves densely packed to form a resting 
bud (turion), which sinks or floats, according to circumstances, and 
may be frozen in the ice. In spring the tips of the leaves or the 
chief axis proliferate, giving rise directly to new plants with leaves of 
simpler structure at first. 

A leaf arises from a single lateral outgrowth from the prostrate 
stem, remaining single in U. oligosperma, or forking as it develops 
(PRINGSHEIM, GOEBEL) to form two lobes (21 8), at whose bases 
may arise secondary outgrowths, one on each of which can develop into 
additional lobes. The third and fourth lobes are not at all or only 
weakly developed in some species (U. vulgaris) but are strongly de- 
veloped in others, e.g. U. Thonningil. In others fifth and sixth small 
lobes are formed laterally to the third and fourth, and are known as 
auricles. In U. Thonningii (Angola) the auricle is a fan shaped pro- 
duction, with many rays from its edge, all armed with stiff bristles, 
occasionally bearing a trap. In U. stellaris (Asia, Africa) and flexuosa 
(Singapore) the auricles are deeply subdivided, the divisions more 
or less curved and crowded upon each other. Each leaf lobe is pin- 
natifid, the pinnae being, however, alternate, the internodes so 
placed as to produce a zigzag axis, appearing monopodial (20 i). 
The lateral divisions (pinnae) have the same disposition of parts. 
The ends of the divisions are usually armed with stiff bristles, either 
singly or in bundles, and these afford a taxonomic character. 

The traps are borne on the leaves in such position as to suggest 
that each represents a leaf division (GOEBEL, MEIERHOFER). The 
details of the structure of the trap will be given fully beyond. Here 
is only to point out that the trap is always placed with its sagittal 
section transverse to the plane of the leaf, the mouth facing the 
apex of the shoot (20 i). The interior surface of the trap is mor- 
phologically the upper surface of the leaf division which it repre- 
sents (hypopeltate, GOEBEL). In some species only one lobe of a 
leaf produces traps, the other (upper) half being wholly photosynthetic 
in function. 

In certain species leaves of a highly specialized kind occur on 
the basal part of the flower stalk. In these the midrib is much in- 
flated by the enlargement of intercellular spaces . while the lateral 
divisions are much reduced. These are disposed in a whorl ("false 
whorl") and act as floats to support the inflorescence above the 
water surface (U. radiata, U. inflata, U. stellaris) (20 12). The 



Chapter XIII 



221 



Utricularia, Biovularia 



size and shape of these floats are characteristic of different species 
possessing them. In U. stellaris they are short and of relatively 
wide diameter. In U. inflata they are long (4-5 cm.) and clavate. 




10 



FIG. 6. 1-7, Utricidaria purpurea. r, Early stages of germination of a seed (3.3 
mm long) from which only one growing point arose (to be followed by others later in all 
probability); 2, Three figures in a row, three views of an early stage of germination, a 
later stage of which is shown in 3, in which two young growing points show circulation; 
4 and 5, Two following stages in the germination of a seed which produced three growing 
points all of nearly the same age, with a fourth, secondary to the middle growing point; 
6, A case in which fasciation occurred, the two figures on the right show an early stage 
of germination, a much later stage is shown on the left, in which it is seen that one of the 
growing points had divided, an abnormality; 7, An advanced stage in germination (15 mm 
long), one of the three growing points still quiescent; five whorls of branches (the maximum 
seen) were produced, as shown on the longer stolon of this figure. At the first whorl of this, 
the bud of a branch stolon of indefinite growth is seen. No traps are produced on the two 
dorsal branches of the third and fourth whorls. 

8-10, Utricularia cleistogama. 8, Early stage of germination showing primary stolon 
and primary leaf, with the primary trap on the leaf near its base; 9, A later stage in detail 
showing the origin of the trap from the leaf base; 10, A more advanced stage of the seed- 
ling in which a second leaf arose in the place of a primary trap. 

Still another form of leaf occurs on short stolons at the base of 
the scape of the inflorescence (BUCHENAU 1865), the so-called rhi- 
zoids, several of which are usually present. Their leaves are much 
reduced in size and have very small pinnae which are curved and 
crowded into claw-like masses. More or less of each pinna is densely 
covered with mucilage glands quite like those scattered over the 
whole plant surface (U. vulgaris, etc.). 



Francis E. Lloyd 222 Carnivorous Plants 

In the species U. oligosperma there is a pronounced dimorphism 
of leaves, each kind occurring on separate branches. Those of one 
kind bear none, or very few poorly developed traps. They are finely 
divided with very long terminal divisions in the form of flat, ensi- 
form divisions, and are very crowded, so that the leafy branches 
appear as dense tufts strongly contrasted with those which bear the 
second kind of leaves which are trap bearing. The traps are very 
numerous and crowded, and the leaves which bear them have only 
a single lobe, whose divisions all lie in the plane of the axis which 
bears them. 

The leaves in this and similar species (e.g. U. mixta) are provided 
on one side only with a small foliose appendage consisting of about 
four radiating accuminate members each bearing a trap, the whole 
having a stipulate appearance (23 3). These may be similar to 
the minute axillary shoots mentioned by PRINGSHEIM in U. vulgaris 
(21 10), different only in position. 

A pair of similar appendages (we may call them tentatively dwarf 
shoots) occurs also at the sides of the base of the air shoot, but here 
they often have more divisions, each carrying a trap (23 2, 6). 
They are found also in U. mixta. To the unaided eye in such cases 
there appears at the base of the air shoot a tight grape-like cluster 
of as many as a dozen, or as few as two to four traps. Without 
careful examination it would seem as if the air shoot were supplied 
with stipules, but the organs in question arise directly from the axis. 
They, however, derive their vascular strands as branches from the 
main strand entering the air shoot, though exceptions have been 
noted. So far as I am aware these peculiar dwarf leaves are to be 
found only on those species which have strap-shaped stolons, the 
greater longitudinal plane being vertical, the upper edge somewhat 
narrower than the lower. They cannot readily be homologized with 
the auricles of some species because of the distinct origin from the 
stolon. 

A large number of species of the U. vulgaris type (U. exoleta, 
emarginata, gibba y cymbantha, etc.), plants with thread-like stolons, 
have leaves which may be no more than a single fork, two slender 
segments arising from the base, only the lower one bearing a single 
trap (21 17, 18); or they may be variously more complex, but 
always much simpler than in U. vulgaris. 

Branching; origin of the inflorescence. It was quite apparent to 
the earlier observers (IRMISCH 1858; BUCHENAU 1865) that branch- 
ing in Utricularia does not follow a pattern common to the flower- 
ing plants. The observations of these students, with those of 
PRINGSHEIM (1869) and GOEBEL (1891), afford the available basis for 
description to which my own studies have been added. From these 
there emerges in fairly clear form the pattern peculiar to these very 
aberrant organisms. We consider U. vulgaris which PRINGSHEIM 
studied developmentally, in contrast with IRMISCH and BUCHENAU 
who examined only the mature condition. 

U. vulgaris. The growing point (21 8) of the horizontal shoot 
shows upward circination (PRINGSHEIM, GOEBEL) and that (i) a row 
of peculiar branches arises in a line on the upper surface of the stolon 



Chapter XIII 223 Utricularia, Biovularia 

in no relation to the leaves except that they are usually nearer the 
nodes than to the middle of the internode, and either in front or 
behind them. They do not arise in a leaf axil. These, first seen 
by BUCHENAU and thought by him to be roots, are the "tendrils" of 
PRINGSHEIM and "air shoots " of GOEBEL (23 i). GLticK ques- 
tions their usefulness as air shoots. They are long and very slender 
with two lateral rows of " mussel-shaped " leaves with stomata, and 
are circinate forwards. They are absent from many species, including 
all of the U. exoleta type. They have the ability to transform them- 
selves by apical growth into ordinary shoots (GOEBEL, GLUCK). 
(2) Lateral branches (st2) arise near the upper edge of the oblique 
leaf insertion, but not in the leaf axil. They are of occasional oc- 
currence only (21 8, st 2 ). (3) The inflorescence (sc) arises in as- 
sociation with a third stolon branch (st 3 ) in the axil of st 2 , the latter 
being the larger at first, the scape arising from its base. As GOEBEL 
observed in U. flexuosa, "Never does one find the inflorescence iso- 
lated, but always combined with a leafy branch springing from its 
base." The question which of the two is primary cannot at the mo- 
ment be settled. (4) In some leaf axils ("older ones," PRINGSHEIM) 
buds may arise, which do not center on the middle of the leaf axil. 
Here again are two, one arising from the base of the other, and they 
are a leafy shoot and a scape (the smaller) just as when an st 2 branch 
is present, but now in a leaf axil, not in the branch axil (21 9). 
PRINGSHEIM calls them dwarf or aborted shoots. (5) In the axil of 
most leaves there is a cluster of about 4 traps arising at the middle 
point. GOEBEL interpreted PRINGSHEIM'S observation and drawing to 
mean that this group of traps arises from a short branch, while 
PRINGSHEIM thought that the branch arises from a trap stalk. GOEBEL 
is probably correct (21 10). 

U. stellaris, U. inflata and the like appear to conform to the above 
description. In U. oligosperma and U. mixta somewhat more special 
conditions prevail. Instead of one branch of st 2 rank, there are two, 
coordinate in development, one opposite the single leaf (undivided at 
the base) and one below the axil. The lower of these (17. oligosperma) 
bears leaves with very many traps, the upper is almost devoid of 
traps. Above the axil of the upper branch arise the twin branches, 
one a leafy branch, the other a scape, conjoined at the base (21 
n). Thus in maturity there is a cluster of stolons radiating from 
the base of an inflorescence, the forward and backward extensions 
of the chief stolon, and three leafy branches. In both species the 
air shoots are prominent and have laterally placed at their bases 
clusters of traps which have been referred to already as dwarf leaves. 
They occur also at the leaf bases, either axillary or at one side. There 
is evidence that these are dwarf shoots (GOEBEL) bearing traps with 
broadened stalks, not trap stalks bearing shoots, as PRINGSHEIM 
thought. 

U. minor (21 16, 17) was studied by IRMISCH and by BUCHENAU. 
It is a smaller and more slender plant, the leaves, in lateral rows, be- 
ing placed aslant, facing upward, the upper edge being therefore farther 
from the apex than the lower. The branching is essentially as in 
U. vulgaris, with the difference that the chief branch (st 2 ) arises at 



Francis E. Lloyd 224 Carnivorous Plants 

the lower edge of the leaf, and is circinate upwards. In the axil of 
the leaf there are two shoots, a leafy one (st 3 ) circinate towards st 2 
and a scape (sc) circinate towards sc 3 . sc 3 and sc may, however, occur 
without SC2 which is much less frequent in incidence. In the normal 
condition therefore when the scape is developed there are at its base 
two stolons, one from the chief axis and one from the base of the 
scape. An additional one, apparently seen by BUCHENAU, may arise 
from the scape base. My material came from Eire through Professor 
H. H. DIXON. 

In U. gibba (21 12, 20), on the other hand, the first branch 
arises at the upper edge of the leaf base. A pair of mutually facing 
and circinate branches then arise, as in U. minor, to produce a second 
branch and scape. Secondary scapes arise in close apposition to the 
primary as branches of the bearing stolon. A plant sent me by 
Dr. F. W. WENT from Pasadena behaves similarly as do also U. 
emarginata and U. exoleta (21 18, 19). In these species the scape 
produces near its base numerous branches, not in any leaf axil, 
which bear much reduced and very glandular leaves. These are rhi- 
zoids (23 8). Secondary scapes may also arise in the axils of these 
(21 20). 

It is apparent that in the vulgaris type of Utricularia the branch- 
ing has distinct peculiarities. One sort of branch, the air-shoot, never 
arises in any relation to a leaf. The chief stolon branch (st 2 ) arises 
near one edge of a leaf base, more or less overlapping the axil, but 
never centered on it. At its base, opposite the leaf axil, arise two 
buds, one a stolon and the other, on or near its base, an inflorescence. 
In some species a JjL^arf shoot bearing only traps arises in the leaf 
axil, behind the scap^md its companion shoot. 

The rhizoids are absent from some species. They are regarded as 
anchoring in function, but are only very ineffectively so in the floating 
species (GLUCK). They are much better developed and are much more 
numerous in the exoleta type. 

In the mature condition the original position of the primordia is 
usually completely obscured by the enlargement and mutual distor- 
tion of the adjacent parts. The embryonic condition was studied 
by PRINGSHEIM and by GOEBEL, both of whom recognized the ori- 
gin of the " tendrils 7 ' or " air-shoots " and of the chief stolon branch. 

The immediately above mentioned species (U. gibba, exoleta, etc.) 
are, in contrast to vulgaris, very slender plants with thread-like stolons 
and simple leaves, once or twice divided, or even thrice (U. emar- 
ginata) (20 2). The internodes are long. Obviously closely related 
to these are two African species, U. cymbantha Oliver and U. Ste- 
phensae (in Ms.) which deserve special mention. These are minute 
plants with single flowered scapes. The method of branching is 
simple. A stolon branch (st 2 ), always single, and without axillary 
buds, arises near the upper edge of a leaf, but more or less axillary, 
while the scape arises from or near to the upper surface of the stolon, 
and near or somewhat distant from a leaf and certainly in no definite 
relation to it (23 12, 13, 21, 22). 

Submersed, semi-submersed but anchored forms of the vulgaris type. 
These fall into two groups: those which grow (i) submersed but send 



Chapter XIII 225 Utricularia, Biovularia 

out shoots of two kinds, one chiefly trap-bearing; or (2) on 
the surface of the wet substrate, sending out branches which pene- 
trate the substrate, bearing traps and reduced leaves. These emerge 
eventually. To the former belong such species as U. ochroleuca, U. 
Bremii (Europe) and U. minor (in both hemispheres). To the latter 
belongs U. intermedia (20 4; 21 13, 14). According to GLUCK 
they exhibit a good deal of polymorphism in response to environmental 
differences. So far as they have been investigated the method of branch- 
ing shows no peculiarities. For full accounts the reader may be referred 
to GLUCK'S book. 

Here may be mentioned the peculiar U. clandestine!, Nutt. (23 i). 
This is a lax floater of the general appearance of an undernourished 
condition of U. vulgaris. It is provided with special branches with 
reduced foliage and traps, these occurring sparingly if at all on the 
leaves of the main stolons. The scape of the inflorescence arises in 
connection with a branch (the latter in or near the axil of a leaf) 
and, in addition to the normal inflorescence bearing normal flowers, 
bears at its base usually two flowers in the axils of scales. The ped- 
icels of these flowers nod downwardly and produce seed abundantly 
by close pollination (presumably). Sometimes these cleistogamous 
flowers (which never emerge from the water) are produced without an 
accompanying scape bearing proper flowers. The presence of scale 
leaves allows no doubt that the spur on which they are borne rep- 
resents an undeveloped inflorescence. Its position with relation to 
a leaf and branch are the same as above described for a normal in- 
florescence. 

In this species also air shoots are to be found, usually emerging 
from the upper surface of the chief axis rather hear to an inflores- 
cence. They are absent from others of this group above cited. 

A few forms are, with the exception of their inflorescences of course, 
not only completely submersed, but their chief stolons are buried in 
in the substrate of sand or mud, and their leafy branches or merely 
their leaves emerge into the supernatant water. Among these may be 
counted U. resupinata (N. America), U. biloba (Australia) and U. 
paradoxa (in Ms.) (Angola). 

U. resupinata (23 8, 9). The body of the plant consists of 
horizontal stolons bearing terete, tapering leaves on the upper surface, 
with branch stolons emerging laterally, a pair at each node. This 
is a wide departure from what we have seen above, and foreshadowing 
what we shall see in the terrestrial forms. The leaves are circinate 
backwards, that is, away from the apex of the bearing stolon, as 
first observed by GOEBEL in U. orbiculata. The inflorescence arises 
as a bud in the forward leaf axil, flanked usually by stolon buds. 
From the base of the scape a number of rhizoids spring out and 
penetrate the substrate. The method of branching is the same in 
U. biloba and U. paradoxa (21 22), the differences being in their 
leaves. In the latter they are much as in U. vulgaris but emerge 
from the substrate and appear as little trees in the water. The 
traps are borne chiefly on the stolons. In U. biloba the leaves are 
articulated, segment with segment (21 21). Sometimes a seg- 
ment becomes a stolon, illustrating the indeterminate morphological 



Francis E. Lloyd 226 Carnivorous Plants 

character of these parts often referred to in the literature (GOEBEL). 
The traps occur on secondary stolons, rarely on the leaves. 

Utricularia grows generally, when submersed, in still waters. 
There are two very striking exceptions to this in U. neottioides and 
U. rigida, the former South American, the latter from Africa, both 
tropical. They grow in running streams, attached to the rocky bot- 
tom, recalling the Podostemonaceae. Creeping on the rock surface and 
tightly clinging to it are numerous fleshy, coral-like stolons. From 
these arise branches which are leafy, bearing traps (LUETZELBURG 
1910) and finally flowers. The traps diverge from the vulgaris trap in 
being streamlined to yield to the vocabulary of the moment being 
spindle shaped, the stalk at one end and the mouth at the other. Ac- 
cording to O. STAFF (1906), U. rigida, which closely resembles U. 
neottioides, has no traps. None of the Kew specimens showed any, and 
though the herbarium specimens of U. neottioides did not show them, 
LUETZELBURG found them. The material I examined was collected by 
him, and preserved in GOEBEL'S collection. 

Terrestrial and epiphytic forms of the vulgaris type. Of the 
strictly terrestrial species are, e.g. U. subulata L. (W. Africa, Amer- 
ica) and U. Rendlei Lloyd (Victoria Falls). These grow in a wet sub- 
strate of sand or sandy soil, and consist of very delicate thread-like 
stolons sending up simple spatulate or ligulate leaves of very small size 
and often difficult to see when collecting, and having delicate scapes 
with yellow flowers. U. subulata shows a cleistogamous condition in 
Nova Scotia (FERNALD). The method of branching is the same as that 
in U. resupinata. The traps are numerous on the stolons, in lateral 
rows and one row along the upper surface and along the leaf margins. 
The leaves face away from the apex of the bearing stolon. 

The epiphytic species are usually large and bear showy flowers, 
and are often grown as greenhouse plants among the orchids with 
which some of them vie in beauty. Mentioned here may be U. reni- 
formis, U. nelumbifolia, U. montana, U. Humboldtii, U. longifolia, 
U. Endresii and the small but often large flowered species growing 
in the soil such as U. Dusenii and U. Campbelliana, all from Central 
or South America. Some species grow in the water held by the leaf 
rosettes of Tillandsias, e.g. U. nelumbifolia in the Organ Mts. of Brazil 
(GARDNER 1846), and U. Humboldtii, on the Kaieteur Savannah, 
British Guiana (!M THURN 1887), both of which grow in the axils 
of the leaves of bromeliads (Brocchinia spp.). These, and especially 
the forms which grow in wet moss (U. reniformis), are conspicuous 
for their thick, coral-like stolons, the anatomy of which has been de- 
scribed by HOVELACQUE. The method of branching differs with dif- 
ferent species. 

U. reniformis is on the evidence of its branching related to the 
terrestrial types, e.g. U. subulata. From the 6 mm. thick stolon 
the leaves arise in a row on the upper surface. These are circinate 
backward, and have a reniform blade 15 cm. in diameter. The bud 
of the scape arises in the leaf axil on the proximal side but not al- 
ways in the middle point indicating a degree of obliquity in the 
position of the leaf (GOEBEL). The branch stolons arise in single 
lateral rows (21 15). Though the plant is of stately proportions, 



Chapter XIII 227 Utricularia, Biovularia 

the traps are small. There are no rhizoids judging from HOEHNE'S 
figure. 

U. montana has leaves and branch stolons alternating irregularly 
in lateral rows, all lying in the horizontal plane of the bearing sto- 
lon. Their axillary buds, however, lie obliquely (GOEBEL). Branch 
stolons may also arise from the upper chief stolon surface. The 
condition here recalls that of U. cormtia, a small terrestrial species. 

In U. longifolia leaves may occur both laterally and on the up- 
per stolon surface (GOEBEL). U. Dusenii Sylv. is a small delicate 
plant resembling U. reniformis in habit and flower structure, and 
has the same disposition of lateral organs. Instead of a leaf with 
attendant stolons, the node may bear three leaves. Rhizoids are pres- 
ent. 

The traps of all the previously mentioned plants adhere strictly 
to the kind found in U. vulgaris. Some slight differences occur, but 
these will be better described in a following chapter devoted to the 
structure of the trap. 

2. The Biovularia type. In the only two known species of Biovula- 
ria, the general morphology aligns itself with that of the vulgaris type 
while that of the trap stands closer to the U. purpurea type. The 
species are B. olivacea (Wright) Kam. and B. minima (Warm.) Ram. 

Utricularia olivacea was described by C. WRIGHT in GRISEBACH'S 
Plantarum Cubensium . . . (1866) and was regarded by him as closely 
related to U. gibba, which it is not. KAMIENSKI, who also related 
it to U. gibba , made it the type of a new genus, Biovularia, based 
on the number of ovules present in the ovary, namely, two, arising 
from the bottom of the ovary and not from an enlarged central pla- 
centa, as in Utricularia. We call it therefore Biovularia olivacea. 

The plant consists of extremely delicate axes bearing traps on 
long stalks in the place of leaves (23 14-18). The latter are ab- 
sent, but WRIGHT described the plant as having them. To quote 
him: "utriculis obovoideis ad segmenta folii capillaceo-divisa spar- 
sis. " This error seems to have arisen either from admixture with 
other floating species or from the fact that the long stalks frequently 
shed the traps at the outer end, and thus appear as leaves. Still 
they are not divided. When branching occurs one or two branches 
may arise from a node. In herbarium material (Cotype, Herb. 
Smithsonian Institution) I could get no evidence bearing on the se- 
quence of development. 

The inflorescence arises as a branch near the axil of a trap. This 
branch assumes considerable thickness, and dominates, in the mat- 
ter of size (diameter), the mother stolon. From its base arise two 
branches, with a 120 degree angle of divergence, one somewhat higher 
up than the other. From the apex of this short thick spur springs 
a flower pedicel, which is surrounded at its base by an enveloping, 
involucral scale leaf. Just within this may arise a second pedicel 
in the axil of a second enveloping scale. In exceptional cases the 
second pedicel may arise from a point on the first formed pedicel 
a considerable distance above the base. A third pedicel may arise 
from the second. We are evidently dealing here with a compound in- 
florescence in which the chief axis is suppressed. 



Francis E. Lloyd 226 Carnivorous Plants 

character of these parts often referred to in the literature (GOEBEL). 
The traps occur on secondary stolons, rarely on the leaves. 

Utricularia grows generally, when submersed, in still waters. 
There are two very striking exceptions to this in U. neottioides and 
U. rigida, the former South American, the latter from Africa, both 
tropical. They grow in running streams, attached to the rocky bot- 
tom, recalling the Podostemonaceae. Creeping on the rock surface and 
tightly clinging to it are numerous fleshy, coral-like stolons. From 
these arise branches which are leafy, bearing traps (LUETZELBURG 
1910) and finally flowers. The traps diverge from the vulgaris trap in 
being streamlined to yield to the vocabulary of the moment being 
spindle shaped, the stalk at one end and the mouth at the other. Ac- 
cording to 0. STAFF (1906), U. rigida, which closely resembles U. 
neottioides, has no traps. None of the Kew specimens showed any, and 
though the herbarium specimens of U. neottioides did not show them, 
LUETZELBURG found them. The material I examined was collected by 
him, and preserved in GOEBEL'S collection. 

Terrestrial and epiphytic forms of the vulgaris type. Of the 
strictly terrestrial species are, e.g. U. subulata L. (W. Africa, Amer- 
ica) and U. Rendlei Lloyd (Victoria Falls). These grow in a wet sub- 
strate of sand or sandy soil, and consist of very delicate thread-like 
stolons sending up simple spatulate or ligulate leaves of very small size 
and often difficult to see when collecting, and having delicate scapes 
with yellow flowers. U. subulata shows a cleistogamous condition in 
Nova Scotia (FERNALD). The method of branching is the same as that 
in U. resupinata. The traps are numerous on the stolons, in lateral 
rows and one row along the upper surface and along the leaf margins. 
The leaves face away from the apex of the bearing stolon. 

The epiphytic species are usually large and bear showy flowers, 
and are often grown as greenhouse plants among the orchids with 
which some of them vie in beauty. Mentioned here may be U. reni- 
formis, U. nelumbifolia, U. montana, U. Humboldtii, U. longifolia, 
U. Endresii and the small but often large flowered species growing 
in the soil such as U. Dusenii and U. Campbelliana, all from Central 
or South America. Some species grow in the water held by the leaf 
rosettes of Tillandsias, e.g. U. nelumbifolia in the Organ Mts. of Brazil 
(GARDNER 1846), and U. Humboldtii, on the Kaieteur Savannah, 
British Guiana (!M THURN 1887), both of which grow in the axils 
of the leaves of bromeliads (Brocchinia spp.). These, and especially 
the forms which grow in wet moss (U. reniformis), are conspicuous 
for their thick, coral-like stolons, the anatomy of which has been de- 
scribed by HOVELACQUE. The method of branching differs with dif- 
ferent species. 

U. reniformis is on the evidence of its branching related to the 
terrestrial types, e.g. U. subulata. From the 6 mm. thick stolon 
the leaves arise in a row on the upper surface. These are circinate 
backward, and have a reniform blade 15 cm. in diameter. The bud 
of the scape arises in the leaf axil on the proximal side but not al- 
ways in the middle point indicating a degree of obliquity in the 
position of the leaf (GOEBEL). The branch stolons arise in single 
lateral rows (2115). Though the plant is of stately proportions, 



Chapter XIII 227 Utricularia, Biovularia 

the traps are small. There are no rhizoids judging from HOEHNE'S 
figure. 

U. montana has leaves and branch stolons alternating irregularly 
in lateral rows, all lying in the horizontal plane of the bearing sto- 
lon. Their axillary buds, however, lie obliquely (GOEBEL). Branch 
stolons may also arise from the upper chief stolon surface. The 
condition here recalls that of U. cornuta, a small terrestrial species. 

In U. longifolia leaves may occur both laterally and on the up- 
per stolon surface (GOEBEL). U. Dusenii Sylv. is a small delicate 
plant resembling U. reniformis in habit and flower structure, and 
has the same disposition of lateral organs. Instead of a leaf with 
attendant stolons, the node may bear three leaves. Rhizoids are pres- 
ent. 

The traps of all the previously mentioned plants adhere strictly 
to the kind found in U. vulgaris. Some slight differences occur, but 
these will be better described in a following chapter devoted to the 
structure of the trap. 

2. The Biovularia type. In the only two known species of Biovula- 
ria, the general morphology aligns itself with that of the vulgaris type 
while that of the trap stands closer to the U. purpurea type. The 
species are B. olivacea (Wright) Kam. and B. minima (Warm.) Kam. 

Utricularia olivacea was described by C. WRIGHT in GRISEBACH'S 
Plantarum Cubensium . . . (1866) and was regarded by him as closely 
related to U. gibba, which it is not. KAMIENSKI, who also related 
it to U. gibba, made it the type of a new genus, Biovularia, based 
on the number of ovules present in the ovary, namely, two, arising 
from the bottom of the ovary and not from an enlarged central pla- 
centa, as in Utricularia. We call it therefore Biovularia olivacea. 

The plant consists of extremely delicate axes bearing traps on 
long stalks in the place of leaves (23 14-18). The latter are ab- 
sent, but WRIGHT described the plant as having them. To quote 
him: "utriculis obovoideis ad segmenta folii capillaceo-divisa spar- 
sis." This error seems to have arisen either from admixture with 
other floating species or from the fact that the long stalks frequently 
shed the traps at the outer end, and thus appear as leaves. Still 
they are not divided. When branching occurs one or two branches 
may arise from a node. In herbarium material (Cotype, Herb. 
Smithsonian Institution) I could get no evidence bearing on the se- 
quence of development. 

The inflorescence arises as a branch near the axil of a trap. This 
branch assumes considerable thickness, and dominates, in the mat- 
ter of size (diameter), the mother stolon. From its base arise two 
branches, with a 120 degree angle of divergence, one somewhat higher 
up than the other. From the apex of this short thick spur springs 
a flower pedicel, which is surrounded at its base by an enveloping, 
involucral scale leaf. Just within this may arise a second pedicel 
in the axil of a second enveloping scale. In exceptional cases the 
second pedicel may arise from a point on the first formed pedicel 
a considerable distance above the base. A third pedicel may arise 
from the second. We are evidently dealing here with a compound in- 
florescence in which the chief axis is suppressed. 



Francis E. Lloyd 228 Carnivorous Plants 

The ovate sepals continue development during the growth of the 
capsule, becoming deeply denticulate along their margins, and form 
a graceful vase-like involucre about the ripened clavate capsule. 

Usually only one seed develops. The narrowly ovate embryo (0.28 
X 0.15 mm.) conforms to type, there being no organs differentiated. 
It is invested by a loose and papery covering which probably remains 
attached to the capsule. 

Biovularia minima growing in Lagoa Santa, Brazil was sus- 
pected by KAMIENSKI (E. und P. VI, Lentibulariaceae) to be spe- 
cifically identical with B. olivacea, both subsumed by him under 
Biowdaria. With the courtesy of the Botanical Museum, Copen- 
hagen, I have been able to examine the original WARMING type mate- 
rial, and am now in a position to say that the two plants are specifically 
distinct on evidence of flower structure. 

3. The pur pur ea type (20 3). To this type belongs a small 
group of highly distinctive plants found only in the New World. They 
are so far as known freely floating plants, and have no terrestrial 
analogs. 

The plant body consists of stolons which send out at the nodes 
6 or 7 cylindrical branches forming very regular whorls. The whole 
displays a minor degree only of dorsiventrality which, however, is 
more evident at and near the growing apex, where the stolon apex 
is upwardly strongly circinate, and the branches develop at une- 
qual rates, faster below, slower above. The cylindrical branches in 
turn can produce branches of the third order, more below near their 
bases (about 4), fewer above (two), also in whorls, but unevenly 
spaced. These branches are more definitely and evidently dorsiven- 
tral than the chief stolon, and are of limited growth, and each branch 
is constricted at the end into a slender stalk, bearing a trap. At 
the base of each branch there is an abscission zone, as there is also 
at the base of each branch of the third order and at the base of the 
trap. 

BARNHART correctly described this plant as having no leaves, 
these being represented by verticillate branches. LUETZELBURG, how- 
ever, regards them as leaves. He studied a species which he called 
U. elephas, which differs from U. purpurea in having only two to 
four branches instead of 6-7. He examined the growing tip and 
believed that he could see that the pair of lateral "leaves" were 
united in the early stage of development. GOEBEL accepted LUET- 
ZELBURG'S interpretation. Had LUETZELBURG examined U. purpurea 
in the same way, the evidence would probably have given him pause, 
since six or seven " leaves" would have to have been accounted for. 
I have studied both U. purpurea and U. elephas in the same way, 
and can find no evidence that any of the branches are fused at first. 
This is borne out by the distribution of the vascular strands, which 
radiate separately out from the central cylinder. Add to this the ver- 
ticillate arrangement of the branches of the third and fourth order, 
and it is clear that we have to do not with leaves (even in the re- 
stricted sense this term is used when speaking of Utricularia) but with 
branches. 

In U. elephas as in U. purpurea the scape occurs in the axil 



Chapter XIII 229 Utricularia, Biovularia 

of a more or less aborted branch arising on the upper surface of the 
chief stolon. This branch always remains delayed in development. 
The scape produces no rhizoids, nor any scale except in the inflores- 
cence. 

4. The dichotoma-monanthos type. To this type belongs a goodly 
number of species which are purely Australasian, and so far known 
only from Tasmania, Australia proper and New Zealand. This type 
is not present in the recent BRASS collections of New Guinea plants 
at the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. They are at once 
recognizable by their winged traps. 

The series includes one freely floating form, U. tubtdata, and while 
the terrestrial forms are readily divided into two groups, those with 
runner stolons (U. dichotoma, U. monanthos, etc.) and those which 
have only anchoring stolons (U. Menziesii, U. violacea, U. volttbilis, 
U. Hookeri), never runners, and which are confined to the extreme 
S. W. of Western Australia. These have been regarded by GOEBEL 
as primitive forms, but the only fact to which this view can be tied 
is the absence of runner stolons. Allied and included with these is 
the genus Polypompholyx, with 2 (or probably 4) species. 

Freely floating species. The only freely floating species of this 
group known, and that only from herbarium specimens in the Mel- 
bourne Herbarium (paratypes at Kew and at the British Museum of 
Natural History), to which I had access, is U. tubulata. It was col- 
lected in 1875 by W. E. ARMIT in " mountain swamps near Cash- 
mere, 40-50 mi. west of Rockingham Bay" in Queensland, but never 
since. In general appearance it resembles U. pur pur ea, but only 
superficially owing to the whorled position of the leaves (36 10, n). 
The "rather long" stolons bear leaves and traps in whorls, in each 
whorl four leaves alternating with four traps on long stalks, so ori- 
entated that usually two of the leaves lie on one side and two on 
the other side of the stolon, the traps being then one dorsal, one 
ventral, and one on each side. Occasional departures from the rule 
may be observed when two traps may stand side by side, or two 
leaves. In the mature condition the leaves and traps are joined 
at their bases to form a complete ring of tissue surrounding the node 
from which they arise. A dissection of several terminal buds showed 
clearly that the primordia of the lateral organs are all quite distinct 
at first, so that the ring supporting them is secondary. The primor- 
dia appear at first as low mounds of tissue in transverse series of 
eight, at first indistinguishable from each other. At about the sixth 
node the leaves elongate somewhat, overpassing the traps in growth. 
The apex of the axis is long, naked and slightly circinate. The pri- 
mordia are not at all crowded. In the axil of a leaf a bud which 
develops into a branch stolon may arise. Traps with their stalks and 
leaves attain a length of 2 cm. The leaves are flat, linear and apicu- 
late, the trap stalk foliose (LLOYD 1936*;). 

According to VON MUELLER, the scape is terminal on a chief 
shoot and such evidence as I was able to obtain bears out this view. 
I dissected one terminal bud to find that it was indeed an inflores- 
cence with a lateral vegetative bud. Slender at the base, it swells 
considerably at or above the middle to form a spar-buoy float. The 



Francis E. Lloyd 230 Carnivorous Plants 

scales are basifixed. MUELLER'S description of the flower does not 
help us much, but the few specimens I saw in Melbourne indicate 
clearly that the flower with a widely spreading lower lip conforms 
to that of U. dichotoma. Its color is bluish ("albida-caerulescente")- 

U. tubulata as a floating plant appears to stand alone in regard 
to the morphology of the leaves and traps. If the upper and lower 
traps of a whorl were absent, we would be tempted to homologize 
the two lateral leaves with the trap between them with the condition 
found in U. gibba, but that would be pressing the matter too far. 

U. dichotoma; U. monanthos (23 19, 20). These and other 
related species are characterized by the fact that the stolons dis- 
play well marked nodes and internodes, the latter usually quite naked, 
though in some cases (e.g. U. dichotoma) traps (facing backward) 
may arise from the upper surface of the internode. At the node a 
leaf, its upper surface facing backward, arises from the upper sur- 
face and from each side of the stolon near the leaf base a branch 
stolon and a trap. From the proximal leaf axil two traps and a bud, 
which becomes a second leaf, usually spring, and from this axil also 
a scape can arise. Thus these forms align themselves with the ter- 
restrial forms in general, but are striking for the more readily ob- 
servable emplacement of their parts. The traps are generally long 
stalked, and in U. dichotoma often emerge slightly from the surface 
of the wet but firm substrate, covered by a water film in normal 
times. Hundreds of traps could be seen dotting the ground at Nar- 
rabeen, N. S. W., using a lens of course. An additional feature of 
interest in this group is the widely lacunate structure of the stolons 
and petioles, which consist of scarcely more than the epidermis and 
the vascular strand with a few collapsed parenchyma cells clinging 
to it (much as in Genlisea). In U. monanthos, which grows in shallow 
water, both stolons and ipetioles are much puffed up. U. dichotoma 
has very small spatulate leaves and a tall scape; U. monanthos rela- 
tively large leaves and a short scape. The scapes produce anchoring 
stolons, leaves and traps on their bases. 

Another group of species of the dichotoma type is composed of 
plants devoid of runner stolons and consisting solely of a conn-like, 
vertically growing axis springing directly from the seedling (22 25, 
26). The corm is very slender at the bottom where it emerges from 
the seedling, widening toward the top, having below the structure 
of a stolon, becoming more and more stem-like as in Genlisea (WARM- 
ING). This puts out anchoring stolons, traps and leaves, and ter- 
minates in an inflorescence. They are either annuals of small, very 
delicate structure (e.g. U. capilliflora, U. Dunstani, U. albiflora) 
which grow in wet places during the rainy season, chiefly in N. W. 
Australia; or much more sturdy plants, but of the same plan of 
structure, all but one (Polypompholyx tenella) of S. W. Australia. 
These latter may be annuals found in wet sandy soil (P. latifolia, 
P. tenella) or in very shallow water (U. violacea, U. Hookeri}\ or peren- 
nials in wet clay-sandy soil (U. Menziesii) or in water (U. wlubilis). 
All these with the exception of U. wlubilis and U. Menziesii con- 
form in morphological features to Polypompholyx, and are sufficiently 
indicated in the figure of this genus (22 25, 26). General descrip- 



Chapter XIII 231 ^ Utricularia, Biovularia 

tions have tyeen given by GOEBEL in his Organographie. The perennial 
species U. Menziesii and U. volubilis require some further description. 

U. Menziesii (20 8, 9; 23 23, 24) was seen growing near 
Perth, W. A. The plant body consists of a minute corm which grows 
upwards, dying off below. From it spring hundreds of minute long 
stalked traps penetrating the soil in all directions, those growing up- 
ward coming close to the surface. The latter are covered by a ro- 
sette of long petioled spatulate leaves, from the middle of which 
emerges early in the wet season the scape (one or two) with unique, 
conspicuously brilliant red, large-spurred flowers. My material allows 
the inference that the plant begins its course by forming from the 
seedling primary stolon an oval tuber penetrating deeper into the 
substrate. From a lateral bud on this a small corm is formed, which 
again produces penetrating tubers. At length a substantial corm is 
formed which produces near the apex only laterally borne tubers, 
two to four in number, regarded by GOEBEL as water storage organs, 
tiding the plants over the dry season, which they undoubtedly do. 
They contain some starch. The scape is always borne laterally, 
and is not, as in the annual species, a finial of the corm. 

U. volubilis (23 25). I found this growing near Albany, W. A. 
among the fibrous matting of a wet swamp. The young stages are 
not known. The plant body is a stout upright corm, which grows 
at the top and dies behind. It bears numerous filiform leaves about 
3 cm. long and numerous long stalked traps, often with leaf-like 
stalks. The scape is terminal, but the corm is continued by a large 
lateral bud at the base of the scape. There are also produced long 
anchoring stolons of strong texture, bearing traps in groups of three. 
The scapes are very long, and twine about supporting reeds. 

In the foregoing pages an account of the general structure of 
the plant body has been presented, which' practically covers all the 
major varieties of habit. It is still insufficient for our present pur- 
pose in not embracing all the types of Utricularia as indicated by 
their kinds of traps. Those still to be mentioned include the spe- 
cies U. cornuta, caerulea, capensis, orbiculata, longiciliata, and sim- 
plex, taken as typifying large or small groups of species having traps 
of peculiar structure, to be mentioned beyond. While some of these 
grow in shallow water, most of them grow in wet sandy soil, and all 
have in common the general structure above indicated for U. sub- 
ulata, with some slight exceptions, most of which need not here be 
amplified upon. 

U. cornuta is an American plant and was described by SCHIMPER. 
Its leaves and branch stolons are borne laterally on the runner stolons, 
with no very regular alternation. 

C7. caerulea represents a large number of Asiatic and African 
species with leaves bearing numbers of traps and branch stolons. 
GOEBEL (1891) has studied this type. I refer to the plant studied 
by GOEBEL. There is doubt about its proper specific name 
(BARNHART), but as I had access to the same material as used by 
GOEBEL, I continue to use the name he used. 

U. capensis is a good representative of a number of African and 
Asiatic species, the latter including U. rosea and U. Warburgii, both 



Francis E. Lloyd 232 Carnivorous Plants 

studied by GOEBEL. This group is represented in the New World 
by U. peltata which, like some cognate species in Africa, has peltate 
leaves, their petioles bearing traps. 

U. orbiculata, U. striatula, U. brachiata, U. mullicaulis and pos- 
sibly some others are minute Asiatic and African species, most epi- 
phytic in wet moss on leaves, tree-trunks or on rocks. It was on U. 
orbiculata that GOEBEL first noted the peculiar back-facing position 
of the stolon leaves and the coordinate position of the axillary buds 
(GOEBEL, 1891). This species produces a number of minute spherical 
pearl-like tubers strung along its stolons, probably for water storage 
(GOEBEL). U. longiciliata (America) is unique so far as the structure 
of the trap is concerned. It is a typical small terrestrial species sim- 
ilar in habit to U. subulata. 

U. simplex (S. W. Australia) exhibits a rare peculiarity of pro- 
ducing its scape directly from the margin of a leaf, a habit which 
it may have in common with its relatives U. lateriflora (S. E. Aus- 
tralia) and U. calliphysa (Borneo) (STAFF 1914), another species 
still undescribed from India, and one from Ceylon. Of over a hun- 
dred complete plants of U. simplex (23 7) exhumed from a sandy 
substrate not far from Albany, W. A. not one showed a different 
origin of the scape, though specimens of U. lateriflora, from near 
Sydney, N. S. W., showed the primary origin to be from the seedling 
in the usual way, as in U. Barnesii mihi in ms. (22 27). Their 
traps are minute, of similar structure, but display specific differences. 

[/. globulariaefolia and a few similar species are American. They 
are terrestrial, rather large and become perennial by their stout, 
tough stolons. Aside from their considerable stature, growing as they 
do among the grasses and reeds of such habitats as the Aripo Savannah 
of Trinidad, they display no striking peculiarities beyond the pos- 
session of distinctive traps. 

U. Kirkii is an African species with apparently few associates, 
if any, and has a distinct form of trap. It is of the usual terrestrial 
habit. 

U. nana and U. Lloydii, small terrestrial species, are unique as 
regards the character of the traps. Both S. American, each appears 
to share its peculiarities with no other species yet known. 

It will be the purpose of a succeeding chapter to consider the 
mechanism of the trap and the various peculiarities of the various 
kinds of traps characteristic of the above mentioned types. 

(References on p. 267} 



Chapter XIV 
THE UTRICULARIA TRAP 

General description of the trap; terminology. Historical account. Anatomy and physi- 
ology of the trap. Two mechanical types of trap as regards the posture of the door (the 
vulgaris-biovularia-purpurea type. The capensis-caerulea-cornuta type. The monanthos- 
dichotoma-Polypompholyx type). The variety of traps. Digestion; the fate of prey. 

In the account of the character of the various sorts of Utricu- 
laria already given, their arrangement in groups or types was based 
on the character of the traps. In order to explain the workings of 
all of them we shall begin by a detailed examination of the longest 
studied and best known, that of Utricularia 'vulgaris and its close 
relatives. What we learn of this we may then use as a basis for com- 
parison with other types. 

The traps have been called urceoli, ampullae, vesiculae, utriculae, 
pitchers, bladders, or traps. The most widely accepted term, blad- 
der or vesicle, or the Latin, vesicula, is not so bad as it seems, since 
a bladder has an opening guarded by a valve in the form of a sphinc- 
ter muscle which keeps it closed except under certain physiologi- 
cal conditions when the muscle is temporarily relaxed. It was called 
a pitcher by analogy with other carnivorous plants (STAFF), but 
this suggests a passive trap, and it is anything but that. Utricle 
(utriculus), a small bottle with yielding sides (of skin or leather), 
presumes a stopper. "Trap", used in this work, precisely fits, be- 
cause the mechanism is that of an elaborate trap which is set automat- 
ically and, after capturing prey, resets itself repeatedly, by observation 
as many as fourteen times, and this is certainly not the limit. 

A description, in general terms, of the trap. Terminology. The 
vulgaris type of trap is a small flattened pear-shaped hollow body 
attached to the plant by means of a stalk placed laterally, and trun- 
cated obliquely across the narrow end, where occurs the mouth of 
entrance. The stalk side is ventral; the opposite dorsal. The edge 
of the mouth carries in most cases a pair of branched antennae, and 
the sides some slender elongated bristles (27 7). These form a sort 
of funnel leading to the entrance, acting as guides for prey. In some 
species these appendages are absent or much reduced in size (U. oli~ 
gosperma). Because of the flattened shape we may speak of the sides 
and the edge of the trap. The sides may be convex or concave, 
as first clearly recorded by BROCHER, according to physiological cir- 
cumstances. When the trap is set, they are concave; after action, they 
are less so, and the trap has now a more rounded form. Scattered 
over the outer surface there are numerous small spherical glands, de- 
void of cuticle, which give off mucilage. These glands are common to 
the whole plant surface. 

The entrance (26 i, 2) is guarded by two valves, a larger, 
the door, and a smaller membranous one, the velum (LLOYD 1929). 
The door is attached to the trap along a semicircular line on the 



Francis E. Lloyd 234 Carnivorous Plants 

dorsal part of the entrance, its free edge hanging and in contact with 
a firm, semicircular collar or threshold, against which the door edge 
rests. The convex outer surface of the door bears a lot of longer 
or shorter stalked mucilage glands, throwing off mucilage and sugar 
(LUETZELBURG), which have been said to be attractive to small animals 
(Cyprids, Daphneae, etc.) and so to act as a lure. In addition it 
bears four stiff, tapering bristles, based near the free, lower door 
edge. These are the tripping mechanism. The surface of the thres- 
hold, against which the door edge rests, is covered with a " pave- 
ment epithelium" of glandular sessile cells secreting mucilage. Along 
the outer edge of this pavement there is attached a thin but firm 
transparent membrane, the velum, which lies against the lower edge 
of the door, filling in the chink between this and the threshold. 

The internal surface of the trap carries many glandular hairs 
(26 9-13), with two or four projections, the former on the inside 
of the threshold, the latter everywhere else (26 2). DARWIN called 
them bifids and quadrifids. The capital cells are devoid of cuticle. 
The rest of the surfaces except at these points is cuticularized. 

In size the traps, at their largest, are usually not more than 5 
mm. long; in the majority of species, 3 mm. long and less. Their 
small size has militated against readily understanding them. 

An ample, partly incorrect description of the trap was furnished 
by BENJAMIN in 1848. He recalled the more important earlier ob- 
servations: MEYEN had thought the traps open in the mature plant, 
SCHLEIDEN thought the entrance was merely guarded by hairs. 
TREVIRANUS realized that the tightly closed door prevents the es- 
cape of air when inclosed within the trap. DE CLAIRVILLE said that 
the door opens outwardly, but, as BENJAMIN pointed out, he failed 
to see that, if this were the case, air could escape, but nothing could 
enter. BENJAMIN himself clearly demonstrated that the door opens 
inwardly he could push it in with a needle but not outwardly 
for if you push a needle against it in this direction it is torn. The 
function of the traps he called them bladders he thought to be 
connected with the supply of air to the plant. They were to him 
air reservoirs, getting it from the water through the four-armed hairs. 
DE CANDOLLE (1832) and VAN TIEGHEM (1868) believed that they 
had to do with the floating and sinking of the plant in spring and 
autumn. As pointed out by GOEBEL, the plants float just as surely 
after the bladders are removed. What had not then been observed 
is that normally the traps hold no air, but that this enters when 
the plant is raised out of the water. As COHN remarked, the 
failure to understand the traps arose out of a wrong point of view. 
He and DARWIN adopted another only in turn to prove wrong. COHN 
recorded finding various forms of Daphnia and Cyclops in the traps 
of a herbarium specimen. He then put a living sprig in an aquar- 
ium where it grew rather feebly for some time. There was no prey 
in the traps none in the water. He then added some Ostracods 
from a culture, and next morning many of them had been caught 
in the traps. But CORN'S observations did not stand alone; the 
brothers CROUAN (1858) had recorded the presence of small beasts 
in the traps. In America, in 1873 Mrs. MARY TREAT and a coworker 



Chapter XIV 



235 



The Utricularia Trap 



found entomostraca in the traps of U. cleistogama. Prompted by 
this she made a careful examination to see if she could observe the 
method of capture. She thought in 1875 that the animals "open the 
door and walk in", agreeing with DARWIN and with COHN that prey 
push in the door, which then closes and prevents escape. In her 1876 
account she revised her conclusions, for she then found, in U. purpurea, 
that prey is suddenly engulfed, as if drawn into a " partial vacuum". 
Not seeing that the trap walls change their posture, she was ignorant 
as to how the vacuum could be achieved; yet her idea foreshadowed 
the discovery to be made in 1911 by BROCHER. Mrs. TREAT learned 
through Dr. ASA GRAY, in correspondence with CHARLES DARWIN, 
that the latter was making similar studies; so that it is of interest to 
see that COHN, DARWIN and Mrs. TREAT, whom DARWIN later quoted, 
were arriving at similar conclusions at the same time independently. 
She further saw evidence that larvae were digested in the course of 
48 hours. "I was forced to the conclusion that these little bladders 
are in truth like so many stomachs, digesting^and assimilating animal 
food", shejremarked. 




FIG. 7. Copies of the original drawings of COHN (left) and of BROCHER, of the en- 
trance of the trap of Utricularia vulgaris. 

COHN'S and DARWIN'S conceptions of how the trap works were 
identical as is shown by their descriptions. COHN said that "the 
valve is held against the threshold by a pressure of water within the 
trap, but that it is easy to open by pushing it inwards. This ar- 
rangement makes it understandable that living water animals, en- 
tering the peristome, lift the valve and without difficulty enter into 
the hollow cavity of the bladder, whence they cannot escape since 
the valve opens only inwardly, not outwardly." And DARWIN spoke 
in the same manner, saying that "animals enter merely by forcing 
their way through the slit-like orifice; their heads serving as a wedge." 
GOEBEL accepted this explanation, as did MEIERHOFER and LUET- 
ZELBURG. An impressive drawing by GOEBEL as well as that by 
COHN (TEXT FIG. 7), though incorrect, are still used as illustrations. 
It is clear that up to this time the trap was regarded as a passive 
mechanism, the animal caught having to do the work of forcing en- 
trance. We must add however that it was thought that the door 
was either forced against the threshold by a "vis a tergo", the water 



Francis E. Lloyd 236 Carnivorous Plants 

pressure (COHN), or by its own property of elasticity, the latter im- 
plicit in all DARWIN'S statements. It remained thus till 1911 when 
a Swiss entomologist, BROCHER, became interested in Utricularia. 
Pointing out that the view just above expressed is but an hypothe- 
sis, since no one had actually observed what happened, BROCHER 
tried to do this. 

In a series of experiments (CZAJA does him the injustice of say- 
ing he did none) BROCHER established the following points, to his 
own satisfaction. When an animal is caught it always disappears 
very suddenly. DARWIN and BUSGEN (1888) had all seen this 
and recorded their observations, but had drawn no correct inference 
therefrom. Further that, at the moment of this disappearance, the 
trap gives a spasmodic jump, and widens a little, from which BROCHER 
concluded that the trap sucks in the prey (37 - 4, 6, 9). This observa- 
tion was of fundamental importance. He was able then to explain 
why, when a leaf is raised out of the water, the traps are often found 
to contain air bubbles, whereas before they were absent. On lifting 
a plant from the water he could hear a " crepidulation " (an observa- 
tion made independently by others) explained by the swallowing of 
air by reacting traps. He saw that in traps which had not reacted, 
the sides were concave, but after reaction were flattened or slightly 
convex. Finally he found that he could cause a trap to react by 
"titillating" the door bristles with a needle point, and that when 
this was accomplished there was each time a spasm of movement, 
and a change in profile. These observations by BROCHER, made with 
exactitude, furnished a point of view which finally led to the correct 
explanation of the workings of the trap. 

Passing on to hypothesis, he supposed that the collapsed form 
of the trap is explained by the principle that the rate of develop- 
ment of the tissues, being quasi superficial, is greater than the rate of 
expansion of the volume. To the extent that the walls are depressed, 
the tensions of their tissues are augmented and thus they try the 
more to take a normal position, that is, to obliterate their re-entrant 
curvatures. The walls are therefore in a position of unstable equilib- 
rium, during which the interior is in a state of " negative", that is, 
reduced pressure. The proof of this is the fact that, when punc- 
tured, the walls take up the normal position, dilating to a maximum. 
This could not be possible if the structure of the trap is as repre- 
sented in the textbooks, he remarked at this point, since a simple 
check valve could not preserve the reduced pressure. He further 
supposed that the door is strongly curved, especially transversely, 
and that, because of the curvatures of the wall, it is held firmly against 
the lip, and, with the addition of mucilage, is thus rendered a water- 
tight valve (TEXT FIG. 7). In order that the equilibrium thus pre- 
served may be upset, BROCHER assumed that the door is endowed with 
a certain "sensibility" and "contractility", so that, on touching the 
bristles, it can shrink a little, and thus allow the water pressure to exert 
its force. An animal doing this would be swallowed with the inrushing 
water. That minute fish are sometimes caught by the tail shows that 
it is not because they try to get in, but that merely by the flick of the 
tail, they have stimulated the trap. The action of the door or "oper- 



Chapter XIV 237 The Utricularia Trap 

culum" is so rapid, BROCHER observed, that it closes before the walls 
can more than partly expand, so that the trap may act again, but 
this remained questionable. It was admitted that the contents of 
the vesicle might be absorbed by the "rhizoids" (quadrifid hairs), 
in which case the walls would again be drawn in, and the trap re- 
sensitized. But BROCHER, not being a botanist, was too modest to 
undertake to solve this part of the problem. 

EKAMBARAM (1916, 1918, 1926) in India made observations on 
the traps of U. flexuosa (similar to U. vulgaris), which substantiated 
those of BROCHER above mentioned, though apparently in ignorance 
of this author's work. That is, EKAMBARAM recognized the two states 
of the trap, one with concave and one with convex sides, and that 
in the latter, when the " irritable " hairs are touched by a prowling 
animalcule, it is sucked into the trap with the inflowing water. It 
had been noticed by him also that when the whole plant is lifted 
from the water there can be heard "light crackling sounds like the 
ticking of a watch" and this was referred to the action of the traps 
when released, presumably by water films. When pushed in by the 
water, the door becomes inverted and boat shaped, with the " irrita- 
ble" hairs folded up into the groove (26 7). The movement of the 
door he considered to be due to the momentary loss of turgidity, as 
quickly regained leading to closure, but he does not offer any evidence 
for this. The irritable hairs he mistakenly thought to have the same 
structure as those of Aldrovanda. 

EKAMBARAM was able to reset the trap by carefully pressing out 
the water by compressing its sides, but it does not appear that he 
understood that the trap can automatically reset itself. The escape 
from the walls of intercellular air during this operation must have 
been accident, and can have no bearing on the matter. MERL found 
the contrary. 

At about the same time WITHYCOMBE, a British student, announced, 
in 1916, "that the bladders of Utricularia . . . are not passive traps, 
but that they capture prey by active movement in response to stim- 
ulation. A bladder becomes sensitive to contact after its walls be- 
come concave on each side. Then, on touching certain short hairs 
at the mouth of the bladder, the lateral walls spring outwards, be- 
coming somewhat convex, and so drawing a current of water into the 
bladder which swept with it, of course, any body sufficiently light to 
be sucked in." Again, this observation was made quite independently, 
as WITHYCOMBE learned of BROCHER'S work only ca. 1922 through 
MERL. Nor did he yet know of EKAMBARAM'S observations. In his 
paper of 1924 WITHYCOMBE, thinking BROCHER'S explanation of the 
working of the trap valve inadequate, agreeing, however, about the 
matter of "negative" pressure and its results, advanced the idea that 
the edge of the valve or door, instead of being merely pressed against 
the collar or threshold (BROCHER), is caught in a groove from which 
it can be released only by an upward movement. This groove stands 
in front of the zone of specialized cells (see beyond) and is as deep 
as these. "A certain amount of mucilage is secreted apparently by 
the middle layer, and this makes a complete watertight fitting of the 
valve." Here is a specific attempt to account for the hermetical seal- 



Francis E. Lloyd 238 Carnivorous Plants 

ing of the door mechanism, and though as it will appear a mistaken 
one, the idea was correct. The internal water is absorbed by the quad- 
rifid hairs, so that the trap can be reset by setting up anew the 
strains expressed in the convexity of the side walls. In his experience 
this required about 30 minutes. The action of the door is due, he 
says, to its irritability, and the slender four hairs inserted in the door 
are the only organs which can be stimulated. Irritability, however, was 
not proven to exist. 

MERL'S work, above mentioned, appeared two years before 
WITHYCOMBE'S second paper. He set out from BROCHER'S important 
observation that on stimulation the walls of the trap expand, drawing 
in water in the capture of prey, but further showed that the operation 
can be repeated again and again. During three days he observed the 
trap to act thirteen times. MERL correctly determined also that 
traps which contain some air can react, contrary to BROCHER'S view 
(but this could happen only if the bubble of air in the trap is not too 
large!). It is only if, owing to the shape of the trap, the bubble can 
be moved or distorted, that this can happen. The time required for 
resetting in U. flexuosa was found to be a minimum of 15 minutes, 
but full resetting requires about 30 minutes. In U. pur pur ea (37 i) 
it takes upwards of two hours (LLOYD 19330). It was shown by MERL 
that the full expansion of the trap sides takes place when the door is 
forced open or when the wall is punctured. The reverse of this, the 
sucking in of the side walls, is more pronounced the longer a period 
of non-stimulation, until of course the cohesion of the internal water 
sets a limit. Apropos of BROCHER'S note to the effect that on removal 
of a plant out of the water a clicking sound was noticed due to the 
swallowing of air by the traps, MERL was able to do this without 
setting off all the traps. Some of them did not react and remained 
unaffected under a bell glass. He was then able to procure the re- 
action by touching the bristles. Aside from furnishing him an argu- 
ment against BROCHER'S theory that the compression of the trap walls 
is due to " atmospheric and hydraulic" pressure (MERL'S statement 
concerning this view seems incorrect) the experiment shows that it is on 
general grounds not surprising that some species are not submersed, 
species the traps of which normally exist and act in moist air, sur- 
rounded by wet moss, detritus or sandy soil. The action of the traps 
on lifting from water is therefore due, it is suggested by MERL, to the 
action of water films on the bristles of the door and not to the mere re- 
lease from water pressure. 

MERL then tried to determine whether the reaction of the trap, 
or specifically of the door, is an irritable response. He could not 
procure reaction by wounding or by electrical stimulation. As to the 
temperature relations he found that the traps reacted as long as they 
remained alive, and that by chemical means no condition of rever- 
sible inactivity (rigor) could be induced. Incidentally he found that 
the trap is so completely sealed by the door that there is no entrance 
even for dyes, such as eosin and methylene blue, so long as the dyes 
do not induce death of the trap. Nevertheless MERL could not quite 
rid himself of the feeling that the mechanism is irritable, and would 
have adopted this view if so much evidence "had not spoken against 



Chapter XIV 239 The Utricularia Trap 

it." Among this evidence, he found that during action there was no 
disturbance of the air in the intercellular spaces, which would occur 
if there was an extrusion of water into them such as occurs in irri- 
table tissues. In spite of inimical evidence, however, MERL inclined 
to think that the bristles are irritable hairs analogous to those of 
Dionaea and Aldrovanda (as had EKAMBARAM and BROCHER). He 
proposed, however, the only alternative theory, a purely mechanical 
one. The four-armed hairs withdraw the water from the interior 
of the trap, thereby setting up a tension, the walls responding to 
the draft by cohesion of the water. The highly elastic door, the free 
edge of which rests firmly against the threshold, opposes this draft 
and comes into a position of labile equilibrium, which must be dis- 
turbed "by the slightest movement or by shrinkage " of the (door) 
cells, to allow the walls to retract into their relaxed position. Even 
now he could not quite exclude a certain irritability as a capstone 
of the bridge. This view was to be championed later by KRUCK. 

Working at the same time, independently of MERL, CZAJA exam- 
ined the problem of the Utricularia trap. His publication was but 
a trifle later than MERL'S. Proceeding from the same point of at- 
tack, CZAJA agreed with MERL that the trap could repeat its action, 
and could reset itself in a short period of 15 to 30 minutes and that 
the reaction (on suitable stimulation) takes place very suddenly. 
The concave sides then became much less so. The door in this re- 
action opens to a narrow slit, and closes as suddenly as it opens 
(neither of which, however, is quite true) allowing the entrance of a 
stream of water. The process is released by touching the bristles. 
By chemical means CZAJA could not decide definitely on the nature of 
the mechanism, and this left him for the moment at the same point 
as it did MERL. With respect to the anatomy of the trap, he exam- 
ined first the closure of the trap by the door, in order to settle the 
question of the path of the internal water when the trap is exhausted 
as it must be when the walls pass from the less to the more concave 
posture. He determined that the entrance is hermetically sealed. The 
proof consisted in inserting a fine hair beneath the door edge, when 
the trap could not again set itself. When the hair was withdrawn, 
again the trap became effective. Further proof was supplied by the 
fact that congo red and methylene blue never entered healthy, but only 
damaged, traps. All this he believed points to the membrane, or rather 
the wall of the trap, as important. 

As had been demonstrated by COHN in 1875, the walls of the trap, 
if set free to act by removing inhibiting structures (the threshold and 
contiguous walls), will expand. Because of their structure and the tur- 
gidity of their cells they always strive to take an outwardly convex 
form. Substances which can reduce their turgor (5% KNO 3 ) put the 
trap out of commission. On the other hand substances which cannot 
penetrate but which withdraw the water from the trap (glycerine, 
cane sugar) can up to a certain limit of concentration reset the trap 
but if in too great concentrations, cause its total collapse. The reset- 
ting of the trap is therefore the result of withdrawing water from its 
lumen, and not of direct participation of the walls which would in- 
volve turgor changes. 



Francis E. Lloyd 240 Carnivorous Plants 

This is made possible by the tight application of the door edge 
to the threshold (specifically, to the layer of epithelium on the top 
of the threshold) enhanced by the mucilage which has an added 
sealing effect. Since the cells of the wall are not plasmolysed by 
glycerin etc., water is not withdrawn from these cells but only from 
the lumen without changes in turgor. This is what happens in na- 
ture. The setting of the trap results from the withdrawal of water 
from the lumen. The only agent for this is the action of the four- 
armed hairs. It is allowed that some water may penetrate through 
the walls inwardly but at a slower rate than that at which it is thrown 
off, for otherwise it would lead to overtension, and this, he held, 
would bring the trap into a condition unfavorable for prompt action. 

CZAJA holds that the withdrawal of water results not only in the 
change in position of the walls, but that this results in turn in a 
cramping effect on the door, forcing it against the threshold more 
tightly and so effectively increasing its watertightness, an idea held 
by BROCHER, but which is untenable in the light of the structure of 
the walls, which are thin, acting as hinges near the threshold (26 
3). When the trap is in the set posture, the walls concave, and the 
door tightly in contact with the threshold, the bristles stick out at 
an angle in such position that on touching them the edge of the door 
is disturbed and a narrow opening is formed between the door edge 
and the threshold, through which water is drawn in by the expanding 
walls. The action is mechanical. In support of this CZAJA records 
that it is easier to fire the trap if the bristles are swept from above 
downwards than transversely to this direction. This can mean only 
that the leverage is more effective in disturbing the door edge when the 
levers are moved in one direction than another and rules out mere irri- 
tability. Firing the trap is due to the deformation of the door edge 
and the consequent lifting of it from the threshold allowing water 
pressure to act. For the rest, CZAJA did much experimentation show- 
ing that the trap is surrounded by a selectively permeable membrane 
but PRAT (1923) found that the entire plant is protected by this 
membrane. 

CZAJA was the first to take a definite stand that the trap action 
is mechanical, aside of course from the water-extruding power of the 
walls, and the general condition of turgidity. That is, the springing 
of the trap is purely mechanical. This was opposed to the views 
of BROCHER, EKAMBARAM and WITHYCOMBE, and to MERL insofar 
as he allowed the question to hang in the balance. HEGNER (1926) 
(not knowing of the work of BROCHER, MERL or CZAJA) made inde- 
pendently the observations as to the method of catching prey re- 
corded by BROCHER, noting its rapidity, but did not venture into 
the question of the method of function of the bristles. Thus CZAJA 
was left the sole champion of the view that the whole capturing 
action of the trap is mechanical, but he was not to go unchallenged; 
for Miss M. KRUCK in 1931 undertook to prove the contrary, but, 
to state it abruptly, she quite failed (LLOYD 1932^). In the first 
place her presentation of the structure of the trap was askew and 
it was patent from her figures that she did not grasp the anatomical 
facts. The drawings showed initial and final positions of the door, 



Chapter XIV 241 The Utricularia Trap 

after stimulation and reaction, which simply do not occur. The 
physiological evidence consisted in the observation of the extent and 
position of intercellular spaces in the tissue of the door before and 
after response. To meet this I reproduced photographic evidence 
which showed clearly that such changes do not occur, though it is 
evident that changes in the mere distribution of air might occur 
without vitiating my evidence. Again KRUCK stated that the cells 
of the door change their shape, but this was found equally illusory. 
In the course of response she stated that the bristles lose water, 
supplying a stimulus to the neighboring cells of the door which re- 
spond in like manner, with the result that the shape of the cells 
of the door changes through loss of turgor, but evidence for this 
was quite absent. She further allows 15 minutes for the restitution 
of irritability, in this agreeing with CZAJA and MERL, both of whom 
allowed this as the time necessary for the withdrawal of sufficient 
water to set the mechanism. If KRUCK was right, it is not clear 
why the restoration of irritability should not proceed when a trap 
is punctured, but this never occurs. Most impressive is the fact shown 
first by EKAMBARAM, repeated by myself, that by careful expulsion 
of the water from a trap, it may be reset repeatedly without allow- 
ing time for the restoration of irritability, unless, to be sure, an im- 
mediate restoration is predicated. The claim that the bristles are 
irritable was shown to be not true by first killing them with iodine, 
after which they could procure response on touching (LLOYD 1932^). 
It should here be recalled that WITHYCOMBE observed that this re- 
sponse could take place even in traps which had lain for a half-hour 
in Bouin's picro-formal solution. It seems clear that KRUCK failed 
in supporting her contention. The evidence points to the contrary, 
that the action of the door is purely mechanical, always granting 
the turgidity of the component cells, devoid of which they could not 
give to the door the necessary properties. 

The walls, because of their activity in excreting water from the 
trap lumen, are an important part of the mechanism. The total 
amount which a trap throws out amounts to 88% according to HEGNER 
(1926), much less according to NOLD. Such figures are in any event 
not important since the total amount excreted depends on the type 
of trap. In U. purpurea it must be much more than in U. vulgaris. 
That they do excrete water is all we need to know to explain the 
action of the trap, and this was first demonstrated by BROCHER, 
later independently by others, EKAMBARAM, WITHYCOMBE, HEGNER, 
and possibly HADA (but who had seen HEGNER'S paper). It may be 
emphasized, however, that this action can go on when, as a result 
of the introduction of much food material, including salts, in the 
form of the bodies of water animalcules, the osmotic pressure of the 
internal fluid reaches a considerable but never measured figure. This 
cannot be overdone, however, for if glycerine be introduced (MERL) 
water is then drawn into the lumen. Experiments show that the 
trap works within wide limits in nature. Nevertheless the phys- 
iological properties of the walls remained a subject of inquiry, and 
this has been pursued by CZAJA and by NOLD. CZAJA'S conclusion 
was that the trap is surrounded by a selectively-permeable mem- 



Francis E. Lloyd 242 Carnivorous Plants 

brane, the cuticle, which excludes solutes. The four-armed hairs of 
the internal surface absorb water more rapidly than it can find its 
way in. NOLD (1934) had advanced the theory that- the potential 
difference existing between the outer and inner surfaces of the traps 
accounts for the movement of water outwardly. He localized this 
difference in the only parts of the walls free of cuticle, namely the 
outer spherical and the inner four-armed glandular cells, the only 
ones through the walls of which the water can pass. That this shall 
pass outwardly, he believed, is assured by the difference in pH at 
these places. At the inner surface this is 6.2 and for the outer 6.6, 
determined by the Folin colorimeter; or 7.5 and 8.2 with the quin- 
hydrone electrode, differences which seem non-significant for water 
movement. NOLD seems to have shown, however, that the loss of 
water from the trap increases inversely with the pfl of the outer 
medium, the normal behavior taking place at pH. 5-7. The traps 
are damaged at lower and higher pH values. Yet it has been shown 
that Utricularia can prosper in water of pH 4 (EMIL WEHRLE, 
1927) and U. minor in " weakly alkaline water " (NOLD). In any 
event, since a difference of potential between inner and outer sur- 
faces is known to cause a water loss, but since also organs are known 
which show such differences without water movements, it is scarcely 
possible to regard NOLD'S hypothesis as proven. This judgment is not 
weakened by inspection of the evidence advanced. 

There is a further point in the mechanism of the trap about which 
opinions had been expressed previous to 1929, without the provision 
of proof. I refer to the method by whjfh the watertightness of the 
door is procured. That watertightness is a necessary condition for 
the successful action of the trap was first recognized by BROCHER, 
and by his successors in investigation, all of whom placed faith in 
the contention that it is due to the tight application of the door 
selvage to the threshold, aided by the mucilage present. WITHYCOMBE 
realized the inadequacy of this explanation, and supplemented it by 
arguing that the door edge rests against the outer edge of the " middle 
layer," the pavement, seeing in this a valvular seat. An examination 
of the action of the trap and certain details of the emplacement of 
the door led me to suspect that the explanation was a lame one. 
This led to the discovery that the entrance of the trap is guarded, 
not merely by one valve, the door, but by two, the door and a second 
valve, the velum, attached to the threshold and finding its seat against 
the door selvage, thus blocking the chink. This second valve has 
been seen in some 75 species, in slightly various form to be sure, 
but always present (24, 25). This discovery led to a minute examina- 
tion of the structure of the trap in all material available from various 
parts of the world. The results of this survey, made on many living 
species and on still more preserved ones, lie in the field of anatomy, 
which in the presentation thus far has received only minor mention. 
This is now to be taken up in the following, in which it will emerge 
that WITHYCOMBE was quite right in principle if wrong in his under- 
standing of the mechanism. I myself erred similarly in 1929. 

The physiological anatomy and histology of the trap of Utricu- 
laria vulgaris and closely related forms will now be considered. Within 



Chapter XIV 243 The Utricularia Trap 

the limits here imposed it will be practically impossible to show in 
detail the contributions of the several investigators to our knowl- 
edge in this field, and it must suffice to indicate critical observa- 
tions. It may as well be said that the study of the anatomy of the 
trap is by no means easy, if we desire to have exact knowledge of 
the emplacement of the various parts. This is because on cutting 
the trap, the tissue tensions are disturbed and the parts (especially 
the door) disarranged; and it is necessary to know the exact rela- 
tion between the valves (door and velum) and the threshold. This 
cannot be finally determined by the study of the traps which have 
been cut, though useful evidence can be got this way, but only by 
the examination of the entire, healthy organ. An accurate descrip- 
tion must be based on living turgid material, and errors have been 
made by placing faith on paraffin sections. Again, the presence of 
mucilage makes the trap slippery, and the knife, which must be very 
keen, readily slips, so that to make a true sagittal section is diffi- 
cult and this has led to mistakes. The much used figure first pub- 
lished by GOEBEL in his 1891 paper is wrong for this reason, and the 
figure used in a recent (German) edition of the Bonn textbook is 
equally wrong. 

Accounts dealing with our knowledge of the anatomy of the trap 
(/. vitlgaris and closely allied forms) are those of BENJAMIN (1848), 
COHN (1875), DARWIN (1875), HOVELACQUE (1888), DEAN (1890), 
GOEBEL (1891), MEIERHOFER (1902), LUETZELBURG (1910), EKAM- 
BARAM (1916), FRANCA (1922), MERL (1922), CZAJA (1922), WITHY- 
COMBE (1924), LLOYD (1929), KRUCK (1931) and NOLD (1934). Dur- 
ing the prevalence of the earlier view that the role of the trap was 
wholly passive, the results of investigation fell far short of adequacy 
in the presentation of details of structure later found to be im- 
portant. This period ended with LUETZELBURG in 1910. With 
BROCHER'S discovery in 1911 attention was concerned more and more 
with these details, though not always with sufficiently critical ob- 
servation, and sometimes with the entire lack of it. This applies 
particularly to the entrance structures, more so to the door, of which 
the special features began to be appreciated only with WITHYCOMBE 
and MERL. 

The general features of the trap have already been described. 
Broadly speaking two regions are to be considered alone and in re- 
lation with each other, the walls and the entrance mechanism. The 
appendages (antennae etc.) are of less importance and will be de- 
scribed in a comparative study of the various types of traps. 

The walls. In the species before us the walls are composed of 
two courses of cells, the outer and inner, both clothed with a thin 
cuticle on their exposed surfaces. In general the outer course cells 
are smaller in surface extent than the inner, in the ratio of about 
three to two, linear dimensions. The relative thickness of the two 
courses varies. Along the profile of the trap, the inner cells are the 
deeper, but this relation is reversed on the sides of the trap, where 
the outer cells are deeper. This is connected with the movement 
of the walls from convex to concave, the outer cells suffering increas- 
ing compression during the excretion of water. Nor is the total 



Francis E. Lloyd 244 Carnivorous Plants 

thickness of the wall the same everywhere. Under the entrance the 
threshold, a part of the wall, has a thickness at the top of four or 
five parenchyma cells plus the epidermis on either side. The threshold 
extends upward on both sides to form the " collar "-like thickening 
which stands out from the wall in shelf-like fashion. Beneath this 
shelf the side wall is attached to the threshold, and is here quite 
thin, so that the wall swings here as on a hinge, thus not bringing 
any torsion on the threshold and door. This structure excludes the 
theory advanced by BROCHER, that the walls help to cramp the door in 
position (26 3). 

Chlorophyll bodies occur in both courses, perhaps somewhat fewer 
in the inner, but not absent, as NOLD has said. Anthocyanin often 
occurs in the inner course cells, but is absent from young traps and 
increases with age after once appearing. Interspersed with the larger 
epidermal cells are smaller ones, more numerous in the inner epidermis, 
the basal cells. These bear each a short cutinized cell, the "middle" 
cell, bearing two to four glandular, non-cutinized cells to form a cap- 
ital. In the outer course, the gland is spherical, of two cells. On the 
inside each middle cell bears two or four elongated cells. DARWIN 
called these hairs the bifids and quadrifids. The former are to be 
found only on the inner face of the threshold; the quadrifids else- 
where all over the inner surface. In U. vidgaris two of the arms are 
reflexed, and the whole is tilted towards the entrance to induce inward 
movement of prey, it may be argued. In U. gibba and allies all four 
arms extend radially, but two are shorter (those toward the entrance), 
and with more spread. These quadrifids are also tilted toward the 
entrance. The bifid hairs, forming a chevaux de /rise on the inner face 
of the threshold, appear to be there to discourage prey from working its 
way toward the door. In these hairs each arm is a cell terminating 
proximally in a slender stalk. - The two or four stalks are united to 
form a single short round stalk basing on the middle cell (26 9-13). 
The arms are not cuticularized, and absorb dyes very readily. They 
are generally regarded as the organs of absorption which take up 
digested food materials, and at the same time secrete ferments and acid 
to accomplish digestion. The function of the spherical glands of the 
outer surface is np^e in question. These hairs may belong to the 
category of hydrdKftes (proposed by MAYR 1915), the function of 
which is to absorbMvater in submersed plants, the general epidermis 
being cuticularized. In the case of the Utricularia trap the function of 
water excretion seems likely a reversal of function which may be 
determined by the greater activity of the quadrifids in absorption, 
these presenting much more surface to the surrounding medium. 
That the function of hydropotes may be the excretion of water has had 
some support, cited by MEYER (1935). In one form or another both 
these kinds of hairs are common to all species pf Utricularia. In 1931 
KRUCK questioned CZAJA'S contention that the water, when being 
excreted by the trap, escapes through the cuticle and therefore the 
whole significance of his results from examining the permeability 
relations of this membrane. On her part she held that the internal 
water is absorbed by the quadrifids, and excreted by the spherical 
glands of the outer surface. In proof of this, which she contends is 



Chapter XIV 246 The Utricularia Trap 

convincing, she claims to have followed the path of dyes from the 
inside of the trap, which she saw to enter through the quadrifids and 
escape from the outer surface glands, and made the observation, in 
agreement with this view, that the quadrifids take up the dyes more 
readily than the outer glands. Her method of experimentation was 
(a) to lay the traps in the solution, and (6) to fill the traps with the 
solution. As however she does not tell us in detail how the latter was 
managed, one hesitates to accept her observation without reserve. 

That the quadrifids are active during digestion was observed by 
DARWIN and by GOEBEL. DARWIN'S experiments showed that sub- 
stances in solution (urea, ammonium carbonate, infusions of raw meat) 
are absorbed by the quadrifids, but not by these alone as he found the 
spherical hairs of the outside surface to do the same, as also the 
mucilage glands about the entrance. He realized and admitted that 
his experiments were not critical, but they indicated the importance of 
the problem. GOEBEL detected the presence of fat droplets after 
feeding, and SCHIMPER noted, in U. cornuta, appearances in the ab- 
sorbant hairs (here bifid) which had been absorbing food different from 
those in traps which had not been fed. The protoplast showed activity 
which he compared with DARWIN'S aggregation, saying that the proto- 
plasm swells and the vacuole is broken up more or less, as he observed 
also in Drosera and Sarracenia. Less constant in occurrence were 
yellow granules or droplets. 

Later KRUCK, in the paper already cited, presented her results of 
study of the cytological changes which are to be seen in the glands in 
various conditions of rest and feeding. Her observations lie in the 
field of cytology and are open to various interpretations. At any 
rate they need not concern us here. 

The trap wall is traversed by vascular bundles which branch from a 
single strand which enters by the stalk. On reaching the trap it 
divides into two branches, one of which gofefc forward around the 
longer edge to the entrance where it ends abruptly. The other branch 
moves toward the threshold, on reaching which it branches, each arm 
following beneath the threshold and ending at one extremity. Xylem 
is present but is very meagre. 

Far more complicated in structure is the trap about the entrance. 
The opening arises in the very young trap as a slit caused by the in- 
vagination of the rounded primordium. The lips of the slit turn 
inwards, the upper becoming the door and the lower the threshold 
(MEIERHOFER). Two conditions are found. In one (as in U. vulgaris) 
the wall of the trap bends abruptly in to continue as the door (26 6). 
In the other (e.g. U. gibba, minor) the wall extends forward to form an 
overhang, the door springing away from its inner under surface (26 
2). In any case, f^om the* edge of the fold arise the antennae, stout 
branching emergencies springing from the upper limb of the opening, 
right and left (27 8). The arrangement of these together with their 
curvature produces a pair of drift fences funnelling toward the en- 
trance, thus serving to guide prey to their doom. This condition is 
found in U. gibba and a good many other species, in all of which the 
antennae are curved forward and downward in front of the entrance 
and are strong prominent appendages. The branches of the main 



Francis E. Lloyd 246 Carnivorous Plants 

trunk of the appendage are long uniseriate hairs. In other species 
(U. vulgaris americana, U. oligosperma) the antennae are much smaller 
and curve upward, away from the entrance. There are often no 
antennae in these species, and there are others from which they are 
always absent (U. nana) (28 5). In still other species, as will be 
seen later, quite other arrangements are met with. In the water- 
dwelling species, while they can evidently be regarded as elaboration 
of the trapping mechanism, it must be said that their absence does not 
seem to make any practical difference in the number of prey cap- 
tured. In the mud dwelling species, they may serve to keep the 
entrance free from detritus, and so help in preserving the effectiveness 
of the trap. In the wet sandy soils and in wet moss, where the water- 
is not continuous, such arrangements may be important in keeping 
capillary water, in which prey may move, in contact with the entrance, 
so that when the trap acts it does not draw in air. The capillary 
action in such cases is helped by the mucilage secreted by glandular 
hairs in large numbers attached to the door itself, and to the sides of 
the entrance. 

After the two lips are laid down during the development of the 
trap, the sides of the entrance extend, moving the lips apart so as to 
produce a funnel-shaped approach. These sides, called by COHN the 
cheeks, are continuous with the overhang, when this is present, to 
form a sort of hood or " vestibule " around the opening (27 9). 

From each cheek, and from the edge of the overhang, springs an 
oblique row of long uniseriate hairs, about four on each cheek, and two 
or three from the overhang (27 7). 

It is only in the front of the opening that the lips are drawn apart. 
At their free edges they remain close, and in the final stages of develop- 
ment are in mutual contact. At their lateral extremities they are 
continuous, though their anatomical character changes. Another 
important feature is alteration in the form of the lower lip. Though 
transverse at first, it becomes finally semicircular in shape and thick- 
ened by the growth of additional layers of wall cells beneath it to form 
a massive thickening and strengthening of the wall in this zone. This 
structure so produced was called the collar by DARWIN, and the abut- 
ment by GOEBEL. In this account it is called the threshold. By its 
form and strength it preserves the shape of the opening, and resists any 
cramping effect (said to occur by BROCHER and CZAJA) of the dis- 
tortion of the walls when the maximum of internal water has been 
withdrawn. Measurements made by myself did not reveal any differ- 
ence in form in the set and the extremely relaxed condition of the trap 
after puncture. In fact, the walls where they articulate with the 
threshold are thinner than elsewhere, so that they can bend without 
exerting distortion on it (26 3), besides which is the fact that the 
inner part of the threshold is supported free of the wall, so that this 
cannot press upon it. 

The structure of the threshold in detail is best understood first by 
an examination of a transverse section through its middle point (25 
i, 2, 5; 29 4) and then by viewing it from a point of view which 
embraces the whole inner surface, flattened out for convenience of 
study (25 9). In the transverse section the threshold is roughly 



Chapter XIV 247 The Utricularia Trap 

triangular, the base forming the free surface, the apex continuous with 
the wall. The free surface is slightly convex, with broken curves 
indicating three regions, an outer, continuous with the cheeks, carrying 
scattered stalked glandular hairs; a middle, clothed with a layer of 
densely crowded glands, called the pavement epithelium by GOEBEL, 
and an inner of epidermal cells, forming a shelf projecting into the 
interior of the trap. 

The outer region is part of the vestibule, and we may think of it as 
a doorstep. The inner region is merely a part of the inner wall sur- 
face, but re-entrant. The middle region is of critical importance. We 
shall use GOEBEL'S name for it, recognizing however that the surface is 
not epithelial but consists of closely set glandular cells which arise from 
the epithelium below. It is a pavement of packed tiles, each tile being 
the capital of a glandular hair. We pause here to recall the structure 
of the glandular hairs in Utricularia. Arising from a basal epidermal 
cell, each consists of a middle cell (GOEBEL), strongly cuticularized, 
short and discoid in shape, supporting a glandular capital of one, but 
more usually two cells, sometimes four (quadrifids), uncuticularized 
(BUSGEN 1888). The middle cells may be supported on a shorter or 
longer tubular extension of the epidermis cell wall, as is the case of the 
hairs surrounding the entrance. Those of the pavement are similar 
to the glandular hairs of the general outer plant surface, but differ in 
having capitals elongated, at right angles to the axis of the entrance, 
so that, on looking down on the threshold, the pavement appears to be 
made of closely packed sausages. The capitals may be one or two 
celled. Each gland arises from a laterally compressed epidermal cell, 
so narrow that the middle cell lies tightly against the neighboring 
ones. The terminal cells are similarly tightly packed, forming the 
visible pavement (GISLEN 1917) (Cf. various figures on 25 to 29). 

Like the glandular hairs in general, the pavement glands loosen 
and shed their cuticles, but most curiously in a single piece, except in 
the inner zone (29 4). To describe this behavior we have to recog- 
nize three zones of the pavement epithelium, outer, middle and inner. 
In the outer zone, the cuticles of its glands enlarge into balloons, but 
remain attached mutually and to the glands which bear them. In the 
middle zone, broadest at the ends, the cuticles remain mutually at- 
tached, but are freed from the capitals which produced them, and 
from the inner zone glands, but remain attached to the ballooned 
cuticles of the outer zone. The glands of the inner zone behave 
individually, their cuticles enlarging and bursting. There is formed 
in this way a membrane, which I call the velum, consisting of two 
parts, a cushion of cuticular balloons running from one end of the 
pavement to the other on the outer zone, and attached to it a thin 
membrane, bearing the markings of the capitals which produced it, the 
two together forming a valve which, stretching from one side of the 
pavement to the other, overlies the door edge (25 4-8). The inner 
zone is lenticular, broadest at the middle, and scarcely reaching the 
outer ends of the pavement. Its glands are larger and not very 
tightly packed. The middle zone, entirely free of cuticles, presents a 
soft yielding surface into which the door edge can sink somewhat 
under pressure. 



Francis E. Lloyd 248 Carnivorous Plants 

We consider now the door or valve. This is a flap, two cell courses 
in thickness, forming the upper free edge of the entrance opening, and, 
in nature, bulges outwardly (25 2, 5). If it is removed by cutting 
along its line of attachment to the trap wall and is allowed to lie in 
water, it retains the shape it has in situ as BUSGEN observed (1888). 
It is, if we disregard minor curvatures, roughly semicircular, the 
shorter side being the free edge. For the sake of description we may 
flatten the door and then map out certain regions, shown in the dia- 
gram (29 13). A wide zone around the edge of attachment is the 
hinge region, where strong reverse flexures occur when the door is 
opened. The middle region of this zone is the upper hinge, the two 
lateral the lateral hinges. The upper hinge is characterised by marked 
flexures when the door is at rest. The hinge area surrounds a lentic- 
ular middle area, which may be called simply the middle area. At 
the lower part of this a small circular patch of the door is quite thin, 
and this is the central hinge. Out from just below this project four to 
six stout, curved, tapering bristles. That part of the door below the 
central hinge is thick and strong. This is the middle piece. Towards 
the flanks, the door selvage becomes thinner. With this terminology 
(26 i) we can more easily describe the histology. 

As above said, the door consists of two cell layers (25 2, 5; 29 
i, 2), an outer, and an inner. The two are very different in structure, 
the general relation between them being that existing in a bimetallic 
strip, one of the metals having a greater index of expansion than the 
other; the former under changes of temperature is active, the latter 
relatively passive. The cells of both layers are equally turgid, but the 
inner is capable of ready expansion and contraction of its inner surface, 
the outer not. This is ascribable to the differences of structure. The 
door has been described as highly flexible and elastic, as for example 
by DARWIN. Highly flexible it is, but if by elasticity we mean ex- 
tensibility, this adjective does not apply. The tissue has a sort of 
cartilaginous quality, bending without breaking in any direction. If 
the door is freed in part by cutting a median strip, releasing this from 
the pull of the sides, it will spring outwardly and only on plasmolysis 
can it be brought back. This shows that the door as a whole is always 
normally insistent in pushing outward, and is held in its proper position 
only by virtue of its semicircular attachment to the trap wall. As 
BENJAMIN showed, it can be pushed in- but not outwardly. When 
fully inwardly inflexed, it is folded along its middle line, becomes some- 
what concave, and the tripping bristles then lie in the groove of the 
fold (26 7), as EKAMBARAM described it. 

The inner reaches of this attachment, that is, the lateral hinges, 
coincide with the inner ends of the threshold, the extreme end of the 
free door edge coinciding with the inner angle of the threshold. The 
outer surface of the lateral hinge therefore lies against the outer reach 
of the threshold. But the free edge of the door, starting from the 
inner angle of the threshold, passes obliquely across it, the angle be- 
tween the face of the door gradually changing till, in the middle reach, 
it stands obliquely on edge (26 2). Only the middle reach of the 
door selvage is thickened and stiff; the outer reaches are thin. 

The rest of the attachment extends along the wall of the trap, curving 



Chapter XIV 249 The Utricularia Trap 

around from one end of the threshold to the other in a semicircular 
sweep. Here the door curves inwardly at first, to form the upper hinge, 
below this outwardly to form the bulging middle area. The curves of 
the upper hinge are most pronounced in front, and are reduced at the 
sides. The outward spring of the door depends on the physical prop- 
erties of the upper hinge chiefly. The lateral hinges resist this pull, 
but can bend passively. 

If now we examine the histology of the door we find (29 i, 2), 
on inspecting a section in any direction, that in general the outer 
course of cells is thin, the inner thick, in the ratio of about one to 
three, differing from place to place. In the central hinge they are of 
nearly equal thickness, as also in the middle piece. The cells of the 
outer course are all flat, their anticlinal walls zigzag (BUSGEN) and 
these walls are strongly supported by buttresses at their angles. These 
prevent their collapse under bending. This layer must put up with as 
much bending as the outer, but passively. Many of these cells bear 
glandular hairs (24 i; 26 2), some with pyriform, some with 
spherical capitals. Those with pyriform capitals are scattered over the 
upper part of the door surface, and are shorter stalked as one ap- 
proaches the middle point of the door. Near the door edge, arranged 
in a crescent parallel with it, is a row of glands with short stalks and 
globose capitals, a quite large one at the middle point. Just above the 
level at which this stands there are hairs of different structure. These 
are stiff, tapering, sharply pointed bristles, four in number, standing at 
the angles of a trapezoid, in an oblique posture, extending upward, 
then curving delicately (25 3, 5). Each is composed of three to 
five cells, the basal the shortest, the terminal the longest. EKAM- 
BARAM described short hinge cells, like those in the sensitive hairs of 
Aldrovanda, but this is a mistake. They anchor in the outer cell layer, 
by a broad base, as correctly shown by MEIERHOFER, without any 
bulbous insertion as MERL showed (26 4). These four (or in 
U. flexuosa six, EKAMBARAM) hairs constitute the tripping mecha- 
nism of the trap. A touch of these in any direction but, according 
to CZAJA, best from above down, causes some distortion of the middle 
piece of the door selvage. This distorts the door edge from its equal 
seat, upsetting the delicate equilibrium, and permitting the water 
pressing against the door to push it in, assuming the trap to be 
properly set. As we shall see, the tripping mechanism shows a wide 
variety of form in the genus. That just described is found only in the 
vulgaris type and in Biovularia, though in the latter the door has'^a 
different plan of structure. 

When facing the door, the outer course of cells presents a plan as 
follows. In the region of the upper hinge, the cells are isodiametric, 
very wavy walled, with strong buttresses (CoHN 1875). Their walls 
lie athwart those of the inner course cells. The same is true of the 
middle area. In the central hinge they are very small, corresponding 
in size to the cells of the inner course. The same is true of the middle 
piece, where the cells are very small and their walls are strongly 
fortified with broad and thick buttresses. These cells, however, while 
small when seen en face, are deep, and equally deep with those of the 
inner course. Along the selvage to the outer limits of the lateral 



Francis E. Lloyd 250 Carnivorous Plants 

hinge, the cells are elongate, and have numerous very small but- 
tresses, difficultly seen. That is to say, the cells in the regions of 
maximum bending have zigzag walls with many buttresses. Where 
the door is stiffest, i.e., in the middle piece, the buttresses are at a 
maximum in numbers and size. In these cells also the walls are thick, 
especially the outer. 

Looking at the inner face of the door, we note a different pattern. 
With the central hinge as a center, the inner course consists of elon- 
gated cells radiating from this center to this circumference (24 9). 
The closer to the center the shorter the cells become, so that at the 
center they are isodiametric and thickly studded with buttresses. 
Below the center, the cells of the inner course of the middle -piece 
are also isodiametric and match the outer course of cells in the degree 
of buttressing. From here, tending toward each side of the door, the 
cells become longer and run along the selvage parallel to it. This 
seems at first glance simple enough, and it seems surprising that the 
cells of the whole inner course should have been more than once 
described as isodiametric. The mistake is easily explained, for when 
the inner surface of the door is examined without flattening it out, 
to do which it must be fully plasmolysed, a series of concentric lines 
can be seen (24 9; 29 3). DARWIN saw them. They were cor* 
rectly understood first by MEIERHOFER. They are nothing more than 
an optical effect arising from the fact that the inner cells are constricted 
at regular intervals (29 1-3). Wherever the constrictions meet the 
side walls of the cells, these are here buttressed by props. In sections 
the spaces between the constrictions are usually taken for single cells, 
a mistake which I made myself at first. Within the central area 
these lines, indicating the constrictions, run with great regularity from 
cell to cell. In the region of the outer and lateral hinges they are 
equally present, but are less regular. In the central hinge and in the 
middle piece they are also present, but are here quite irregular and 
numerous and are only with difficulty observable. 

The effect of these constrictions is to render the outer wall of the 
inner course of cells readily compressible, like a bellows, without injury 
to the cells. Without them it is hard to see how so great flexibility of 
the door tissues combined with firmness and quick reaction could be 
attained. It is indeed, as MEIERHOFER exclaimed, a "most wonder- 
ful" arrangement. In the upper hinge the constrictions are not so 
deep as in the middle area but are more numerous, which may be a 
better arrangement for the maximum bending which this has to en- 
dure. 

It may be pointed out that these cells have been represented (by 
EKAMBARAM and MEIERHOFER) as having their anticlinal walls con- 
stricted like the periclinal. This is not the case. It is true that if a 
door is torn from its moorings and laid in water for examination the 
injured cells along the torn edge will collapse and their uninjured 
neighbors will swell and present the picture recorded by these authors 
(24 9). But this cannot occur when the door is in situ and un- 
injured. 

We now consider (a) the way in which the door edge lies in con- 
tact with the threshold, so that it can maintain its posture in spite of 



Chapter XIV 251 The Utricularia Trap 

the water pressure it must sustain when the trap is set, and (b) how the 
water is prevented from leaking under the door edge. Recalling the 
structure of the threshold and especially that of the pavement, it is 
necessary to point out that the latter along its middle reach is curved 
in such a manner that it slopes somewhat, so as to face the interior of 
the trap. At the bottom of the slope, where the inner zone begins, 
there is an abrupt change in the direction of the slope so that a slight 
depression is produced (29 4). Here the pavement is most closely 
packed. The middle reach of the door edge is, as we have seen, 
strengthened so as to make a firm edge, which rests against the pave- 
ment just in or beyond the depression, its outer selvage surface resting 
more or less against the pavement, according to the amount of strain 
produced by water pressure. When the water pressure is greatest, 
that is, when the trap is fully set, the position of the door edge is 
more nearly normal to the pavement than when the trap has just been 
released. This can be inferred from the measurements of photographs 
of traps before and just after "firing" (LLOYD 19326) (29 n). It is 
indicated also by the position of the bristles, which are more erect 
when the trap is in the set condition. It may be added here that the 
whole shape of the trap is altered a little by the change in postures of 
the side walls. Since the ends of the door edge coincide with the inner 
angles of the threshold, it follows that its lateral reaches cannot follow 
the pavement parallel to its midline. It is only its middle reach (the 
middle piece) which impinges edgewise on the pavement. The lateral 
reaches merely lie with the outer surface of the selvage flat against the 
pavement, thus forming a re-entrant slit through which the water must 
leak under pressure unless this contingency were provided against, 
which is the case. The cuticular membrane, the velum, attached to 
the outer zone of the pavement, is slung completely across from end 
to end of the threshold (25 5-8). When the door swings outwardly 
after springing the trap, it pushes against the velum which folds 
against the door (25 4), covering the re-entrant slits on the sides and 
blocking the door edge in the middle. When the door is in position, 
the velum reaches in front up to the short spherical hairs which stand 
in a curved row just below the level of the tripping hairs (24 i; 
25 3-5). Experimental proof that the velum thus blocks the 
entrance by its valvular action, consisted in cutting the side reach. 
This was accomplished with a very small knife several times and the 
parts carefully examined afterwards for assurance that no other damage 
had been done (LLOYD 19326). In no case after the velum was cut 
did the trap reset itself. In CZAJA'S experiment in which he thrust a 
hair beneath the door edge, this not only held up the door edge but 
depressed the velum also, but this escaped his attention. 

As CZAJA found, the distortion of the door edge (and that of the 
velum at the same time) when it rests on a hair, prevents the traps 
from working. This does not seem to be the case if the entrance is 
filled with the soft body of a large capture, sufficient to plug it (20 
n). MATHESON (1930) states that such prey may eventually be 
ingested, indicating that the trap, plugged by the animal's body, still 
evacuates its water. In the meantime the prey may be softened and 
respond to the sucking action when re-established, and thus eventually 



Francis E. Lloyd 252 Carnivorous Plants 

be drawn in. Mr. J. H. BUZACOTT writes me that this has been ob- 
served at Meringa, Queensland, (20 n) where tadpoles of Bufo ma- 
rinus, imported to control insect pests in sugar cane, have been 
destroyed in numbers. 

On the sucking-in of prey: The fact that large prey (young 
tadpoles and fish fry, worms etc.) can be caught by some part of the 
body, usually the tail, has long been known. After a tadpolette has 
been trapped but not completely engulfed, it has been stated that the 
body is later sucked in. This would obviously be limited by the 
volume of the trap. The question has been raised by me, does this 
sucking-in actually occur and if so what is the mechanical procedure? 
I have recently taken pains to get evidence on this point. I employed 
Utricularia aff. gibba, sent me from Pasadena, Calif., by Dr. F, WENT. 

In a series of experiments young mosquito larvae about 2 mm. long 
were used. By manipulation it was possible to get one caught by the 
tail, the head being too big to enter the trap. When this occurred, 
one half of the body was instantaneously engulfed, leaving four or five 
joints behind the thorax projecting beyond the mouth of the trap. 
The joints served as clear-cut measures. Several cases were observed, 
and all followed the same pattern. One example will suffice. The 
larva was caught by the tail, the door clamping down between the 
sixth and seventh joints, while six remained protruding (11:30 hrs.). 
At 18 hrs. only the thorax and head remained protruding. Next 
morning, the thorax had also been engulfed, the head only, too big to 
enter, being left outside. (TEXT FIG. 8, A, B). Since the body of the 
larva prevents the door from assuming its normal set posture, and 
though the trap walls did not become concave, as observed from time to 
time, it must be inferred that nevertheless the entrance was sufficiently 
occluded by the door and larva so that the exhaustion of the water 
from the inside of the trap could proceed, creating a suction on the 
prey from time to time, and drawing it gradually in. As I did not see 
this happening during a prolonged period of observation, I cast about for 
more suitable experimental material. This I found in fine shreds of 
albumin, made by stirring egg-white in boiling water. These were soft 
and of fairly even caliber. Of a goodly number of experiments I choose 
the following. Case i (TEXT FIG. 8 C, D). A shred about two milli- 
meters long was presented to the trap by touching the tripping bristles 
with its end. One half of the shred was swallowed; the rest remained 
protruding. On this some bits of rust, detached from the needle point, 
adhered, serving as marks. When examined 18 minutes later, the entire 
shred had been taken in. In the meantime the experiment was re- 
peated (Case 2) (TEXT FIG. 8 E-H) and kept under close and continuous 
observation. Immediately after the door had clamped down on the 
partially engulfed shred, the latter was seen to slide slowly in for two 
minutes, when it stopped (F). This movement was the result of 
residual wall action. Nothing further happened for about ten minutes 
(during which time a partial reduction of pressure within the trap took 
place) when the door opened and closed rather slowly (the movement 
was quite visible to the eye) and another portion of the shred entered 
(n 43 hrs.). By 16:00 hrs. the shred had been entiredly swallowed (H). 
The walls were now concave, and the trap, completely reset, reacted 



Chapter XIV 



253 



The TTtricularia Trap 



to touch on the tripping bristles. In still another case, a very slender 
bit of a swallowed shred remained protruding, and the walls of the 
trap had become concave. The delicacy of this protruding shred had 
permitted the door to take the set posture, allowing full exhaustion of 
the internal water. On stimulating the tripping hairs, this shred was 
swallowed. 

It is evident from these experiments that: i. When the prey is 
soft and yielding, but, caught part way in, is large enough to prevent 
the door from taking the set posture, this still may clamp down 
enough to enable the trap walls to bring about a sufficiently low 
pressure to exert suction and thus draw in the body of the prey and, by 
repetition, finally engulf it, if small enough. 




B 




E F G H 

FIG. 8. The sucking in of prey by the trap of Utriciiluria gibba or a related species; 
A, an injured mosquito larva was presented and suddenly but only partly swallowed, 
May 21, 1941; B, the same three days later; C, a shred of albumen presented and partly 
swallowed at 11-20; D, at 11:38, the shred entirely swallowed (the insert figure indicates 
the edge of the door looped over the soft and yielding prey, the surface of the threshold 
indicated by the broken line); E, a shred of albumen presented at 11:35, and the trap 
observed continually; F, at 11:37, part of the shred indicated by a double arrow had been 
slowly sucked in; G, at 11:43, the door quickly (but not very suddenly) opened and 
another portion of the shred (/) swallowed; later (H) the remainder was engulfed. 

2. If the prey is slender and yielding enough, the door may assume 
a sufficiently exact set posture to insure the full setting of the trap, 
when it will react normally but, of course, only in response to move- 
ment of the tripping bristles. When the prey, still not engulfed, 
dies, it may not be swallowed unless the tripping bristles are touched 
by some other agent. If a stiff, unyielding object such as a hair is 
used (as did CZAJA), this cannot happen because of inleakage of water 
at the side of the hair. 

Traps which have captured mosquito larvae (the head remaining 
protruding) do not survive, dying in 10 days or so, evidently from 
overfeeding. 

We now resume our discussion of the structure of the trap. In 
addition to the front view of the velum, which can be seen in the living 
trap, a side view can be had under favorable conditions, when it is 
seen that the velum forms a bolster in front of the door edge (25 3,4). 



Francis E. Lloyd 254 Carnivorous Plants 

It is of interest and mere justice to record that the velum had been 
seen previously by two observers, both in 1891. GIESENHAGEN, I be- 
lieve it was, made a drawing for GOEBEL'S paper of 1891 of a trans- 
verse section of the threshold of U. flexuosa. In this drawing the velum 
was shown in the clearest manner, but no mention of it was made in 
the text. And in 1891, at Cambridge (England) R. E. FRY, a student 
who was later to become an eminent art critic and Professor of Art 
in that university, and who is better and more widely known as 
" ROGER FRY," prepared a Ms. which was never published, but to 
which I fortunately had my attention drawn when attending the 
International Botanical Congress in 1930. It was lying on the shelves 
of a bookshop. ROGER FRY was evidently a close observer, for in one 
of his drawings, meticulously executed in fine pencil and color, he 
showed the velum, and in his description he described the pavement 
epithelium (he used GOEBEL'S 1891 term), saying that "the whole of 
this secretes mucilage, the cuticles of the hairs being raised in a mass;" 
but he did not examine further into the matter. One cannot help 
wondering why others, who saw other minute details, failed to see the 
velum. ROGER FRY'S Ms. has now been deposited by me in the 
Library of the School of Botany, Cambridge University. 

Two mechanical types of trap. Having described in some detail 
the structure of the trap of Utricularia vulgaris, it must now be pointed 
out that, though working according to the same mechanical principles 
and being of the same morphological type, there are two distinct kinds 
of traps (LLOYD 19360). They can be distinguished readily by the 
posture of the door in its relation to the threshold (TEXT FIG. 9). If we 
consider the entrance as tubular, in one kind the tube is short, in the 
other long. U. vulgaris has a trap with a short tube entrance. In it 
the door stands approximately at right angles to the axis of the tube, 
or at any rate forming a wide angle with it. In the other kind, of 
which U. capensis is a good example, the entrance is tubular (STE- 
PHENS 1923), and the door stands obliquely, forming a narrow angle 
with the axis. Considered as a valve, this is the less efficient, ceteris 
paribus, but its inferiority is compensated for in various ways, to be 
noted. Of the latter kind there are two variants represented by such 
species as U. monanthos, and U. dichotoma, on the one hand and Poly- 
pompholyx on the other, all purely Australasian types, with differences 
demanding separate description. 

The description of U. vulgaris above given will serve as a standard 
of comparison. Correlated with its position in the short tubular 
entrance, the shape of the door is such that its sagittal measurement 
is less than its transverse. The top of the threshold is narrow. In 
U. capensis, with a long tubular entrance, the door has reversed 
measurements: it is longer than broad, and the threshold is broad 
(29 12, 13). The door stands obliquely. A glance at the diagram 
(TEXT FIG. 9) will reveal these differences. It is seen that, considered 
as a check valve, the long door, presenting a re-entrant angle with the 
threshold, and with no opposing seat, is, with respect to the direction 
of the water pressure, at a disadvantage. In our blood vessels the 
valves, which are also obliquely set flaps, are in the reverse position. 
But from the point of view of the efficacy of the trap, the door would 



Chapter XIV 265 The Utricularia Trap 

be useless if it were set in this way. In the trap it must be able to 
resist the water pressure to which it is normally subjected, until a 
trigger action is applied, when it must then be weak enough to fold 
up, allowing the entrance of a water column. And it must of course 
not allow the leaking in of water when the trap is set. How these de- 
mands are met may be understood by examining the structures in- 
volved. For models of the U. vulgaris trap, see p. 266. 

The door is divided into a relatively thin anterior half, and a 
thick posterior half (ji 3 etc.). The former includes the areas 
of the upper hinge and the middle area. The two cell courses of 
the upper hinge have the structure seen before, with deeply constricted 
walls in the inner course (31 9). Those of the middle area, not a 
region of sharp bending, have about equal thickness, with no con- 
strictions. There is no central hinge and below the mid-point of the 




FIG. 9. Diagrams of the entrances of Utricularia vulgaris (i, 2) and U. capensis (3 right) 
or caendea (3 left ) embodying the different mechanical conditions in these two types of 
trap; pd, general direction of thrust of the door, and, />/, of the threshold; r, relaxed position 
of the door; a, point of impact of prey; Pu^o, pressure of water against the door; iz, slope 
of inner zone of the pavement epithelium; mz, slope of middle zone of same; d, thrust of 
the door; lh y thrust of the lateral hinge; c, composition of these thrusts. 

door lie the middle piece and the lateral hinges. Their total thickness 
is usually greater than elsewhere, and in the lateral hinges the outer 
course cells are thin and the inner thick and are constricted with many 
constrictions (30 6-8). As these merge into the middle piece the 
two cell courses become nearly equal in thickness and the walls are 
thick. The threshold is broad and semicylindrical in form (jo 5-8). 
The outer third as seen in sagittal section (the " doorstep ") bears 
glandular hairs, the middle third of pavement cells supplying a volu- 
minous velum of balloon cells, and the inner third being dense pave- 
ment (25 2). The whole is surrounded by the massive trap walls, 
giving firm support. The lower part of the door, when closed, rests 
cramped into the relatively narrow arc of the threshold, exerting a 
firm pressure by its middle piece (jo 8). In the set posture the 
upper part of the door assumes a convex form, thereby increasing the 
pressure of the door selvage on the pavement, widening the angle 
between the two (jo 3). Just after release, the door, now in the 
relaxed posture, has its upper part convex. It is watertight in this 
condition. As water is withdrawn the upper half of the door becomes 



Francis E. Lloyd 266 Carnivorous Plants 

more and more concave till the set posture is reached. This account 
has been substantiated by a photographic record of silhouette of living 
traps in the set and relaxed condition of two related species. Seeds of 
U. Welwitschii collected by YOUNG in Angola were grown for me at 
the Edinburgh Royal Botanical Garden in 1934 and the traps studied 
there. U. capensis was studied alive at Capetown later, and the results 
were published in 1936 (24 5) (LLOYD 19366). 

Another, an Australian species, U. lateriflora, typical of a small 
group of species distributed in S. E. Asia, and Australia, having very 
small traps less than i mm. long, yielded to experimental methods 
(1936*;) and the results are shown in jj 9, demonstrating that the 
behavior is quite like that in U. capensis and U. Welwitschii. The 
living material was available at Sydney, N. S. W. 

The same behavior is displayed by U. caerulea (Asia) (24 2) and 
by U. cornuta (N. Amer.) (30 - 3) in both of which the living trap 
was studied. 

In all these, when the trap is in the set condition the outer selvage 
of the door rests on the pavement, held there firmly by the thrust of 
the lateral hinges. The wide angle between door and threshold is 
filled by the massive velum, preventing inleakage of water. A thrust 
on the tripping mechanism, the kriss hair (p. 259) in U. capensis and U. 
Welwitschii, a group of sessile glands in U. caerulea and U. cornuta, 
disturbs a delicate balance of forces in unstable equilibrium, and the 
trap is "fired." 

Both U. monanthos (24 3) and Polypompholyx (24 8) act in 
the same way, and they also have been studied in the living condition. 
U. monanthos was grown for me in Edinburgh in 1934 (1936^) and 
Polypompholyx could be examined in 1936 at the University of Western 
Australia at Perth near which it grows. The structures involved are, 
however, to be considered separately. 

U. monanthos (34 1-5). In this and allied species, the thresh- 
old is very broad, front to back, and near its inner limit is bent, 
curving downwards. Beyond the bend lies the dense pavement 
which receives the middle piece, which is therefore applied on the 
inside of the bend. This looks like a pretty poor arrangement, yet 
it works. The major zone in front of the bend is occupied by an 
ample velum which arises also from the walls projecting in front of 
the door. Here is formed a complete massive ring resting against the 
bulge of the upper part of the door when in the relaxed posture. When 
in the set posture, the inner portion of the velum arising from the 
pavement alone continues to block the entrance of water. The door is 
still longer than in U. capensis etc., but the middle piece is relatively 
smaller, and the middle area is correspondingly large, occupying about 
four-fifths of the door length. When in the set posture, the whole of 
this large area is concave, so that the sagittal curve is now continuous 
with that of the middle piece, which by virtue of the thrust of the 
lateral hinges is impressed against the dense pavement just inside the 
bend of the threshold. The trigger consists of a group of sessile hairs 
just above the bend of the door. The action when the trap is fired is 
like that in U. capensis. It must be confessed at this point that my 
earlier account of door action (19320) based on preserved material of 



Chapter XIV 257 The Utricularia Trap 

U. Hookeri was wrong. This species conforms in every way to U. 
monanthos. Living material was examined in Sydney, N. S. W. 

In Polypompholyx the case is again quite special, for here the door 
is as broad as long, but works as in U. monanthos. The whole trap 
to be described (p. 262) is extremely curious. Because of the thickness 
of the walls and other parts and the masses of glandular hairs on the 
door and on the floor of the antechamber, it was difficult to study 
the trap in action, and especially to photograph it. Nevertheless the 
attempt succeeded (24 8). When the trap is set, the door shows a 
simple curve, along the sagittal line from the upper hinge, which is 
very thick and does little bending, to the edge which lies just within 
the ridge of the pavement. When relaxed, just after discharge, the 
lower two-thirds of the door is convex, the upper hinge showing little 
movement a slight bending in its distal zone only. It is evident 
that the very deep cells of the outer course of this tissue exert a 
strong tangential pressure on the lower parts of the door, ensuring a 
tight application of the selvage to the pavement when the door is 
relaxed and a still tighter application when the trap is set. 

The variety of traps. The following account, necessarily brief, 
will give some idea of the diversity of structure and form displayed by 
the traps of Utricularia, Biovularia and Polypompholyx. We may con- 
veniently follow the grouping into those having short and long tubular 
entrances. 

Traps with a short tubular entrance. These are found in the U. 
vulgaris type, in U. Lloydii Merl and U. nana St. Hil., in a group of 
few species represented by U. globulariaefolia, in Biovularia and in U. 
purpurea and associates. 

The trap of U. vulgaris has been sufficiently described already. 
Those of such species as U. gibba, and of the terrestrial U. subulata, 
U. biloba (27 i) and a number of others, all small plants, show 
only slight differences. In U. neottioides (27 9), growing in running 
water, the traps present a streamline contour and a deep overhang. 
In those species, such as U. reniformis, which live more or less epi- 
phytically in wet moss, etc., the antennae are broad at the base, un- 
branched, and appear to be adapted to holding water in the entrance 
by offering support for surface films. Sometimes the entrance is 
tilted forward (U. longifolia) involving the threshold (26 4), so that 
the pavement also faces forward. There are two apparently unique 
S. American species, both small and terrestrial, U. Lloydii Merl and 
U. nana St. Hil. The former, U. Lloydii, has two forms of trap, one on 
the leaves, the other on the stolons (28 1-4). They differ in the 
character of the hairs, and notably in the presence on the door of a 
single tripping hair, with a saddle shaped cell next its base apparently 
to facilitate hinge movement, on the leaf trap, which has also slender 
backwardly curved antennae, while the stolon trap has short forwardly 
directed antennae with long hairs, but no tripping bristle on the door. 
Such differences are difficult to explain. In U. nana the trap is quite 
devoid of appendages, but is otherwise much like that of U. Lloydii 
except that the tripping mechanism consists of two bristles set trans- 
versely G? 5, 6) (LLOYD 19320). 

U. globulariaefolia and U. amethystina represent a group of Central 



Francis E, Lloyd 268 Carnivorous Plants 

and South American species which are terrestrial. Their traps (28 
7-9) are superficially much different from the vulgaris type, yet con- 
form in having a short tube entrance, though this has a long funnel- 
shaped approach, lined with numerous long-stalked glandular hairs. 
The door, while lacking in well demarked mechanical 4 areas, is ex- 
tremely flexible because of very numerous constrictions in the inner 
course cells (LLOYD 1931). 

Biovularia has a door in which the middle piece is half its depth 
(27 5, 6). At the upper edge of this there are always six tripping 
bristles arranged transversely and radiating outwardly (LLOYD 19350). 
In U. purpurea and its allies (27 2-4) the tripping hairs arise in a 
radiating manner from a tubercle centrally placed on the door which 
is naked of other glands. Either the entrance is quite simple and 
unadorned (U. purpurea) or the lower lip may be extended into a long 
upturned rostrum carrying a few unicellular hairs, with a tuft of these 
on each side of, but somewhat above, the middle of the entrance 
(U. elephas Luetz.). The tripping hair consists of a long stalk (29 
7), an elongation of an epidermal cell which is part of the tubercle, 
expanded at the top, bearing a short basal cell, and a large mucilage 
cell with expanded cuticle. The edge of the door is thickened by a 
beading which rests in a slight depression of the narrow pavement 
(LLOYD 19330, I 935 a > LUETZELBURG). The outer surface hairs are 
sickle-shajDed mucilage cells and sessile, oil-bearing ones (29 6). 

The Kchanical response following a contact of pcey against the 
tripping hairs cannot of course be seen, but may be fairly guessed at. 
Movement of the hairs causes slight rotation of the knob to which they 
are attached. This results in slight displacement of the door middle 
piece, disturbing the even contact of its edge on the threshold, thus 
allowing the pressure of water to push it in. In a diagram (26 8) 
I have shown the action (much exaggerated) as in the up and down 
plane. The thinness of the door about the knob allows its rotation 
(LLOYD 19330). 

Traps with a long tubular entrance. The species belonging to this 
group present a by no means homogeneous picture, and in some cases 
are obviously less closely related to each other than those in the 
short-tube entrance group. With regard to the mechanism of the 
entrance they fall into two sub-groups: (/) That in which the door 
when in relaxed posture presents along the sagittal axis a single con- 
tinuous curve; and (2) that in which the door shows two curves, a 
strong one in the upper hinge region, and a lesser one in the middle 
piece. To the former belong U. cornuta (N. America) and caerulea 
(Old World), the latter representing a large number of allied species. 

U. cornuta will serve as an example (30 1-8). The trap is 
wholly devoid of appendages. Just below the entrance there is a 
rounded group of sessile glands (SCHIMPER) which may be regarded 
as a lure for prey. The tripping mechanism consists of a scattered 
group of sausage-shaped glands on the lower half of the upper hinge. 
They can be seen when one looks straight into the entrance. The pos- 
ture of the door in the living trap in set and relaxed condition was 
studied, and recorded photographically. In the set posture^ the outer 
selvage of the middle piece rests on the middle zone of the pavement. 



Chapter XIV 259 The Utricularia Trap 

From that point as seen along the sagittal line, the door is gently 
concave throughout its whole length. The whole extent of the middle 
piece is covered by the velum (24 6), leaving the upper region with 
the tripping hairs exposed. A touch on this surface discharges the 
mechanism, and the door immediately returns to the closed but now 
relaxed posture in which the whole door is convex outwardly. In the 
set posture, while concave along its middle axial line, it is slightly 
convex transversely, that is, it is saddle-shaped. It was possible to 
make transverse sections of the living trap, and these disclosed the 
door posture in the middle piece region, from which it was clearly seen 
that the close application of its selvage to the pavement is procured by 
the thrust of the thick lateral hinges. The release from this posi- 
tion results only from the longitudinal extension of the shallow fold 
already present in the set posture of the door. 

SCHIMPER (1882) was the only previous student of this plant. 
Since he accepted the COHN and DARWIN view, he was not aware of 
any special significance to be attached to the structures of the entrance 
mechanism. 

U. caerulea (ji i), U. ogmosperma, U. equiseticaulis, U. bifida 
(Asia), C7. cyanea (Australia) and a lot more species, with the general 
features of the trap very similar, conform to U. cornuta, except in 
relatively unimportant details. They are usually provided with two 
simple antennae and a small overhang, and the tripping mechanism 
consists of a group of short-stalked glandular hairs, the longfer nearer 
the top of the door, and the shorter as the middle piece is approached. 
GOEBEL'S very brief account of the trap of caerulea shows the general 
position of the door correctly though sketchily. U. bifida is evidently 
of this group (GOEBEL) as I have myself determined, confirming 
GOEBEL'S drawing as correct. Only bifid hairs are present in the 
interior of the trap, as DARWIN observed. In such species, however, the 
glands below and at the edge of the threshold have a single capital. 

As a type of the second sub-group, we choose U. capensis, and 
U. Welwitschii. A number of other species peculiar to S. America, 
Central and South Africa, all small plants, fully conform to this type. 
A description of the form of the door and of its manner of operating 
has already been given above (p. 255). The tripping mechanism (jz 
8, 9) consists of a curiously formed large trichome, the capital cell 
of which resembles in shape a Malay kriss, called therefore the kriss 
trichome (LLOYD 1931), supplemented by a group of curved glandular 
hairs on the upper part of the door. In some species the kriss trichome 
is not present, its place taken by large globular sessile glandular cells 
(U. peltata, U. Deightonii Ms.) (ji 6, 7). A conspicuous feature of 
this group of plants is the development of a funnel shaped approach 
to the entrance by spreading of the cheeks, and the lining of this 
funnel with about ten rows of stout glandular hairs radiating towards 
the entrance. In U. Welwitschii these are reduced to mere sessile 
glands but a rostrum bears a radiating row of longer glandular hairs 
(31 -4). The S. American U. peltata, so like U. capensis except for 
the globular tripping hairs, has in common with some African species 
(U. Deightonii in Ms.) minute peltate leaves very thickly covered with 
stiff mucilage (29 9, 10), a significant fact of geographical distri- 



Francis E. Lloyd 260 Carnivorous Plants 

bution. Some Asian species (U. rosea, U. Warburgii) (31 10, n) 
studied by GOEBEL have an extension of the funnel to form a long pro- 
jecting beak of the shape of a knife blade, armed with gland hairs. 
Apparently some degree of trap dimorphism occurs in U. rosea, affect- 
ing the size of the trap and the form of the beak (LLOYD 193 2 a). Species 
showing these peculiarities are found also in Australia and New Guinea. 
U. Kirkiij occurring in central Africa, is apparently unique (33 
i, 2). Of the same general form and appearance of U. capensis, the 
threshold retreats into the interior, and has no step leading to the 
pavement. The tripping mechanism consists of two long upwardly 
curved bristles based at the juncture of the hinge and the blunt edged 
middle piece. The latter is fortified by two large tubercles developed 
from inner course cells, each semi-pyriform, with a thin line of tissue 
between, along which the middle piece can fold during opening. 

U. orbiculata (32 1-4). This, representing a group of species in 
Asia and Africa, was examined by GOEBEL, who did not observe more 
than the stubby, branched, glandular antennae. The entrance mech- 
anism is very peculiar. The velum is supplemented by membranes 
arising from the stalked glands of the step. The tripping mechanism 
of the door consists of three glandular hairs set in a triangle on the 
upper half of the door. One is mallet-shaped, placed at the inwardly 
directed apex of the triangle. The other two are at first large, 
globular, nearly sessile glands (32 6). In maturity, the capital, con- 
taining a large mass of stiff mucilage, bursts in a regular fashion, re- 
leasing a long sausage-like mass of jelly which remains attached to the 
hair. Two of these hang down in front of the entrance, and with the 
mallet-shaped hair receive the impact of prey which trips the door 
(LLOYD 1932(1). A Thibetan species (Brit. Mus.: L.S. and T. 802), 
similar to U. multicaulis, has a broad fan-shaped rostrum armed with 
radiating glands, which extend forward and in front of the entrance. 
U. brachiata is also like this J^OMPTON) (32 5, 7-9). 

U. longiciliata (33 3, 4j.) is a unique terrestrial species of S. 
America, and has been described by MERL (1915). The traps are 
very small (0.3 mm.). The lower lip projects as a strong bifurcated 
rostrum, the arms extending laterally. The upper lip forms a short, 
slightly upturned beak. The middle piece of the door is exceptionally 
thick and bears a single tripping hair (MERL). This consists of a thin 
stalk and a disc shaped basal cell and a capital of spindle shape. It pro- 
jects straight forward (LLOYD 19320). The internal glands are few irf 
number but large. 

A small group of species from India, East Indies and Australia in- 
cludes U. lateriflora, U. simplex (Australian), U. cattiphysa (Borneo) 
and two probably unnamed species from India and Ceylon, all terres- 
trial and small in size (33 5-9). The minute (0.3-0.5 mm.) traps 
have a pronounced upper rostrum and a row of short glandular hairs 
on each side of the trap leading up to the lower angles of the entrance. 
Sometimes there is a frieze of low tubercles on each side above the 
mouth (STAFF). The tripping hairs (33 8) stand in a prominent 
group, marked by sessile, transversely long capitals on the upper part 
of the door. The internal glands are few but large. 

We shall now speak of that variety of traps represented in the fore- 



Chapter XIV 261 The Utricularia Trap 

going discussion by U. monanthos (p. 256) or alternatively by U. 
dichotoma (they are much alike). The structure of the entrance 
mechanism has been described. Beyond this is the form of the trap, 
with its appendages and glands. 

The appendages, when a full complement is present, consist of a 
rostrum, upper (dorsal) wings and lower (ventral) wings (34 i). The 
rostrum projects forward from the overhang; the upper wings arise 
one from each side of the trap above the door, and the lower wings 
extend each from a point near the insertion of the stalk up to the 
lower angles of the entrance. In the various species one pair or the 
other of the wings may be either suppressed or greatly enlarged or 
extended, with great differences in the character of their margins 
(34 j 35)- The rostrum is always present, but may be short or ex- 
tended, to a maximum in U. tubulata, and sometimes once branched 
(U. wlubilis) (34 6). It will suffice to refer the reader to the figures, 
made with a minimum of detail, for some grasp of the great variety 
within this restricted group of purely Australian plants. 

In U. volubilis, which grows anchored in rather deep water, there 
are three forms of traps (34 6). Its runner stolons bear traps in 
groups of three, and these have wings crenately margined, and the 
rostrum is short. The shoots bear numerous ligulate leaves and 
among these, exposed directly to the water, are two kinds of trap, 
large, reaching a length of five mm. (this species has the largest trap) 
with rather short cylindrical stalks, so that they stand near the surface 
of the substrate; and smaller ones (2 mm. or less) on very long leafy 
stalks, and these stand 4-5 cm. above the substrate. The distinction 
between the water traps is not a sharp one for there are gradations of 
size and form, but they are on the whole quite recognizable. The traps 
in the substrate are similar to those of U. monanthos in that the wings, 
of which there are two pairs, are not laciniate; the rostrum is short 
and unbranched. The large water traps have a long, sometimes 
branched rostrum, and the edge of the shallow overhang bears addi- 
tional fimbriae more or less branched, while the wings are deeply 
laciniate. The abundance of fimbriae seems to clutter up the front 
end of the trap. In the long stalked kinds, the ventral wings are 
much reduced in size and may or may not have a single thread-like 
lobe. The dorsal wings are single slender processes, as is also the 
rostrum, which may be once branched. This trap resembles much that 
of U. tubulata, which is a submersed floater. Similar behavior is seen 
in U. Hookeri, also an anchored submersed plant in which the traps 
are long stalked (ca. i cm.). It bears traps of various sizes, the largest 
4 mm. long, to smaller ones 1.5 mm. long. In the large traps the 
wings are slender and fimbriate, but prominent, and the rostrum single, 
rather long and straight or curved downwards. In the small traps the 
ventral wings are represented by low ridges, the slender dorsal wings, 
and the single rostrum, all very long (34 7). 

In the little known floating species U. tubulata, (35 8) the traps 
have a very long rostrum and filiform dorsal wings, without branches. 
The ventral wings are absent. In /. Menziesii, different in habit, 
being totally buried in wet quartz clay with only the leaf blades and 
flowers showing, there is complete uniformity of trap structure (35 



Francis E. Lloyd 262 Carnivorous Plants 

10, n), but physiologically the traps behave differently, there being 
three sets, one growing downward, one growing laterally and one up- 
ward (20 9). 

There are still other varieties of traps displaying various permu- 
tations of size and shape of the appendages. So far as known these are 
represented in plate 35. 

Lastly the genus Polypompholyx (36 1-9), the trap of which was 
described with respect to the entrance mechanism on p. 257. It has a 
very special form in this genus (there is little variety), in which the 
stalk plays a special part of the approach to the door. 

The form of the trap and a number of anatomical details were 
described by F. X. LANG in 1901 from material in the GOEBEL collec- 
tion, which I examined later. 

The traps are of various sizes, the largest measuring 4 mm. in 
length. For the most part they are smaller, about 1.5-2 mm. In one 
species (possibly P. latifolia, though BENTHAM did not admit this 
species) the traps are dimorphic both in size and structure (36 8, 9). 
In all the species (probably four) they present the following characters. 
Viewed from above, the body of the trap is seen to be roundly trian- 
gular with a forked rostrum in front and a broad wing on either side. 
The margins are entire but carry stiff hairs. The fork of the rostrum 
is seen to clasp the stalk, over which the whole forward part of the 
trap is inclined. The top of the trap body is almost flat this is the 
upper side of the three sided body. Seen from below the trap body evi- 
dently has two lateral faces, from the upper angles of which the 
wings extend. The stalk, which now hides the rostrum, gradually 
swells on its approach to the trap, and is molded into two low 
ridges, one on each side, just before the insertion is reached. These 
ridges are strongly ciliated, forming guiding fences directing prey to 
the entrance of the trap, which is approached only laterally because of 
the contact of the rostrum on the stalk. The wings complete two 
funnel effects, one on each side. Viewed now from the side the stalk 
is seen to be increasingly massive as it approaches the trap, and this is 
due to a large intercellular space which inflates the lower moiety 
below the rostrum. The upper half is expanded into a ridge which 
becomes deeper under the rostrum, then to be reduced. The loss of 
height is, however, compensated for by a comb of stiff hairs with long, 
tapering capitals, and their ends curiously distorted (LANG) as if bent 
during development by impinging against the rostrum. This ridge 
being tightly pressed against the rostrum divides the approach to the 
door into two lateral vestibules, so that the prey must advance under 
the wings from behind, to be diverted by the combs of bristles on the 
sides of the stalk toward a space beneath the rostrum. This space has 
the wall of the trap for its floor and the rostrum and door for its 
roof, and is an antechamber leading to the entrance proper. Its floor 
is clothed with mucilaginous hairs with long whip-lash capitals, lying 
pointed toward the entrance. The roof, which is chiefly the door, 
bears similar hairs, longer toward the door insertion, shorter toward 
its free edge. The entrance is a small semi-circular hole in the trap 
wall, which stands at a steep angle with the floor of the antechamber. 
The semicircular edge of the entrance is clothed with pavement epi- 



Chapter XIV 263 The Utricularia Trap 

thelium, the middle zone of which lies just within this edge. The 
outer zone, which carries the velum, faces outwardly (36 8, 9). The 
inner region bears glandular hairs of various forms, at first with 
conical capitals, then with bifids. Quadrifids of large size occupy the 
interior wall surface. The door lies almost at right angles to the plane 
of the threshold, result of the forward bending of the rostrum. The 
action of the door has been already described (p. 257). Histologically 
the door presents a unique feature in the very great depth of the inner 
course cells in the upper hinge region, the door gradually tapering in 
thickness toward the edge. Of this we may say that these thick cells 
can exert a strong tangential thrust so as to press the door selvage 
firmly against the pavement, the outer zone of which bears the velum, 
seen in living material at Perth, W. Australia. The door selvage is not 
thickened. Its cells are of equal thickness in both courses, and there is 
no obvious middle piece. This means that the door selvage must bend 
over the pavement, not impinge edgewise on it. The tripping mechan- 
ism consists of short, bent, glandular hairs, 30-40 in number, scattered 
on the surface of the door below the middle point (36 5). 

The dimorphism in the traps of P. latifolia has been indicated. 
There are two sizes of traps. In the larger, the threshold behind the 
pavement bristles with a dense fringe of conical glands of graduated 
sizes, described by LANG. Inside this pale stand some bifid glands. 
In the small sized trap there are no conical glands. In their place 
there are glands with single-celled capitals of the form of the bifids and 
quadrifids. Inside the traps are bifids (36 8, 9). 

The walls consist of four courses of cells, the two epiderms and 
two courses of parenchyma. The epiderms vary in thickness. The 
outer is thickest in the middle of the sides, and the inner thickest at 
the angles, here forming a hinge structure. 

The total thickness of the three walls, which have four courses of 
cells throughout, is always greatest at the middle of their faces, pro- 
ducing a hinge effect at the angles. Further, the outer epidermis is 
always thin at the angles and progressively thicker toward the middle 
of the faces, while the inner is thick at the angles and thin elsewhere, 
the more readily allowing compression on the inside of the angles and 
on the outside of the faces. It is evident from mere inspection that 
these massive walls must exert a big pull when the trap is exhausted 
of water (36 7). 

In closing this account one cannot but wonder at the astonishing 
variety of trap structure. It is not less astonishing that there is no 
evidence that one form of trap is superior to another in action. The 
fact of variety is one with the same phenomenon observed when we 
survey attentively some other unit of structure. It seems as though 
nature, or to deify her fruitfulness, Nature, is not nor ever has been 
content to make some one thing, however satisfactory, and to let it go at 
that. She must show that she is not bound to the details of a pattern 
that, in this case, she can make a whole shelf full of different kinds of 
traps, as if to puzzle you to pick the best. 

Digestion. GOEBEL remarked the great difficulty, because of their 
small size, of studying the traps ot Utricularia to determine the pres- 
ence or absence of digestive activity. It had of course been quite 



Francis E. Lloyd 264 Carnivorous Plants 

apparent to DARWIN, COHN, Mrs. TREAT and others that animals 
caught in the traps disintegrate, but the natural inference, that diges- 
tion was effected by the plant, was not sustained by evidence, for a 
few experiments done by DARWIN in which he introduced minute 
fragments of meat, albumen and cartilage into the traps, gave only 
negative results, and he concluded that Utricularia cannot digest its 
prey. BUSGEN fared no better he worked with an acid medium 
with which LUETZELBURG also got meagre results. 

GOEBEL regarded Utricularia as capable of digestion because of its 
close relationship to Pinguicula, but confessed that no evidence had 
been forthcoming. LUETZELBURG (1910), one of his students, obtained 
evidence with sap expressed from large numbers of traps removed 
individually, ground up with clean sand and glycerin, and perco- 
lated. The extract thus obtained showed a slight activity, visible 
after 3 days, in an acid medium. It was, however, much more active 
in an alkaline medium, and the conclusion that a trypsin was present 
was arrived at. 

During prolonged observation of the experiments it was noticed 
that there was never any odor of putrefaction, and culture tests 
showed that bacteria did not grow in the presence of the expressed 
juices, yet these could liquify gelatin in four days. The presence of an 
agent inhibiting the growth of bacteria was inferred and this inference 
was strengthened by experimental evidence that bacteria are only 
feebly produced in trap fluid put on a gelatin surface. This led to the 
discovery of benzoic acid in the trap fluid, this substance having been 
found also in the leaves and glands of Pinguicula by LOEW and Aso, 
and in the pitchers of Cephalotus by GOEBEL. 

ADOWA (1924) attacked the same problem. He first made saline 
and acid (HC1) extracts of the whole plant, and tested their efficacy 
in digesting gelatin, fibrin, milk casein and egg-albumin. The tissues 
of the whole plant contain, he found, two proteoclastic ferments, 
alpha- and beta-protease, the latter active in an acid medium. The 
former is rendered a little more active with the addition of CaCl 2 to 
it in a neutral medium. He then made extracts of three lots of ma- 
terial (a) stems, (b) green (young) traps and (c) red and blue traps, 
and tested these separately. In neutral gelatin, the effects of these 
three extracts were in the ratios of 18.5 for green traps, 6.5 for colored 
traps, and 3.5 for stems; in alkaline gelatin the ratios were 22, 23.5 
and 6. In acid gelatin the effects were rapid at first but stopped quickly, 
while in the alkaline and neutral media the action was continuous. The 
conclusions were drawn that (/) the extract of the traps contained more 
alpha-protease than that of the stems; (2) that of green traps affects 
alkaline gelatine over a long period (24 days) to the same extent as 
that of colored traps; (j) the extract of green traps acts more ener- 
getically on neutral gelatine than that of the colored traps; (4) the 
protease content of branches is very insignificant; (5) alkaline gela- 
tin is the best medium for digestion by undiluted extracts, neutral 
gelatin for diluted extracts (50% and less); (6) beta-protease both 
from the branches and from the traps shows a weaker activity than 
alpha-protease, and (7) extracts diluted 8-16 times act in neutral but 
not in alkaline medium. 



Chapter XIV 266 The Utricularia Trap 

It seemed evident from all the foregoing that digestive ferments 
are present, but principally in the traps. 

KIESEL (1924), however, took the opposite view. He found that 
fragments of fibrin were digested in the traps, but if acidified with 
0.2% HC1 were not. The trap fluid, obtained by means of a fine 
pipette directly from the traps and preserved under toluol showed 
no power to digest fibrin, gelatin or albumin. He concluded that the 
digestion in the traps of Utricularia is the work of microorganisms. 
What these might be was investigated by STUTZER (1926). Traps 
washed in sterile physiological solution were minced and the contents 
thus obtained were sown on agar plates. He found bacteria of the 
Bacterium coli group to be dominant and suggested that they play the 
important role of digestion. Other bacteria play a secondary r61e. 
Those of the kind found in the digestive tracts of insects etc., are also 
to be met with, but these he thought play the same role in the traps 
as there, namely, to conserve the nutrient mass during digestion and 
hinder the development of putrefactive bacteria. It is possible, in ad- 
dition, that Bacillus aquatilis communis, one of the soil bacteria, takes 
some part in digestion, since it can digest albumin. 

And there the matter stands at the moment. On the one hand, 
it is held that the presence of benzoic acid inhibits bacterial action, 
and that any digestive action is the work of the ferments secreted by 
the trap itself; on the other the digestion is referred to the activity of 
bacteria. HADA (1930) takes a middle ground, holding that "the 

animals captured are decomposed not only by the enzyme secreted 

by the plant, but also by the bacteria which increase rapidly after the 
death of the animals/' Since his paper is in Japanese, I do not know 
what evidence he puts forward. 

Prey and their fate. The presence of sugar as well as mucilage 
in the glandular hairs at the entrance of U. vulgaris, shown by LUETZEL- 
BURG, was thought by him to indicate that these hairs form a lure to 
attract animals. The presence of special groups of glands near the 
entrance in some species (e.g. U. cornuta) seems to support this view. 

While it is true enough that animal prey captured by the traps of 
Utricularia sooner or later succumb and are digested, there are ex- 
ceptions in organisms which are able to live and multiply in the re- 
stricted space of the interior of the trap, notably Euglena, Heteronema, 
Phacus (HEGNER) and probably others, including diatoms and desmids, 
often seen. There is at present no evidence of obligate relations; 
these forms seem to be caught probably accidentally, and can live 
inside the trap indefinitely, though HEGNER states that when plants 
are kept a long time in an aquarium, the Euglena runs out. Protozoa 
when captured generally succumb, but some remain alive for a long 
time, a fact noted long ago. The presence of decaying Paramaecia in 
the trap does not affect the Euglenae. 

That Paramaecium is sometimes quickly killed and at others re- 
mains alive for a long time (75 min. to 17 days) (HEGNER) seems to 
indicate that the physiological conditions in the traps are not always 
uniform. LUETZULBURG thought he detected a paralysing effect of 
the extract which he used for digestion experiments on small crusta- 
ceans, but that it must be weak. HADA advanced the idea that 



Francis E. Lloyd 



266 



Carnivorous Plants 



animals are killed by being compressed by the walls in becoming 
convex. This can hardly be the case as animals have been seen to live, 
meanwhile freely moving, for days. 

Appendix: 

Here in a position of obscurity I ask leave to present two models, 
in the form of mouse traps, designed ad hoc, to illustrate the way in 
which the trap of Ultricularia has been and at present is thought to 
work. 

Two models are offered. One, FIG. 10, represents the mechanism of 
the trap as conceived by COHN, DARWIN and others. In this the door 
is a passive check valve, easily pushed inwards, but not outwards. 
In the model a small hole in the bottom of the door allows the mouse 
to see the bait thus enhancing the effect of the lure by adding sight 
to smell. This model is an improvement on the Utricularia trap in 
having the bait on the inside. Its extreme simplicity is in contrast to 
that of the second model, FIG. n, which affords an analog in which the 




FIG. 10. A mouse trap designed to embody the idea held by COHN and by DARWIN 
and others for fifteen years after them. 

complexity of the Utricularia trap as now understood is suggested with- 
out exaggeration. 

A description of this model is presently given. A box is provided 
with a door having two hinges (hi, h 2 ). Below h 2 the part d 2 swings 
independently from that above, di. Pressure applied at the arrow pr 
cannot push in the door; but rotation of d 2 on h 2 , so that its edge 
clears the stop (sp), allowing inward swing. Outward swing is pre- 
vented by a backstay st4. A handle tr on d 2 , actuated by a mouse, 
accomplishes inward opening by pulling on the string st 3 , whereby the 
doodad (d) is pulled away from the top of the plunger pi, allowing play 
to the spring s 2 . This spring then pulls on the string st 2 actuating the 
double pulley p X 2, one element smaller than the other in the ratio M. 
The outer pulley pulls on sh, swiftly opening the door. To this is 
attached a device called a booster, JB, the purpose of which, like the 
sudden inward gush of water in nature, ensures the entrance of the 
mouse into the trap. This is now momentarily open, and of course 
would remain so unless power were available to close it again. This is 
supplied by an electric motor m which starts to rotate when an electri- 
cal circuit is closed by a contact point on the plunger coming into 
contact with e. The motor continues to rotate till the plunger, push- 
ing the spring 5 2 into its set posture, the door being pushed back into 
position by its spring Si. When this is completed, the contact point 



Chapter XIV 



-267 



The Utricularia Trap 



on the plunger comes into contact with the contact point 0, below, 
and the relay r then stops the motor. The power from the motor 
is applied to the plunger through the gear p* etc., ending in a cam c, 
the whole being adjusted so that the cam comes into a position which 
allows the lever I to swing downwards when the door is actuated 
again by, it is confidently hoped, a second mouse. In the meantime, 
the mouse first caught can employ his time admiring the interior 
effect, and possibly suggest improvements. A digestion chamber could 
of course be provided. 




FIG. n. A mouse trap intended as a model embodying present ideas of the 
trap as a mechanism (with apologies to HEATH ROBINSON). 



A captious reader may find difficulty in accepting the analogy as 
complete. I can say only that he would be right; but at least a pur- 
pose is served, to indicate that the Utricularia is a pretty complex bit 
of mechanism. 

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34)- 

PRAT, S., Plasmolysc und Permeabilitat. Ber. d. D. Bot. Gesellsch. 41:225-227, 1923. 
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Francis E. Lloyd 270 Carnivorous Plants 

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PLAT E"S 



Plate i. 

FIG. i. Heliamphora nutans (grown at the Edinburgh Botanical Gar- 
den). 

FIG. 2. H. Macdonaldae (Photograph by Dr. G. H. H. TATE taken on 
Mt. Duida, Venezuela). 

FIG. 3. Sarracenia pur puna (Photograph by CHARLES MACNAMARA, 
Ontario). 

FIG. 4. S. purpurea: a leaf cut lengthwise. 

FIG. 5. - S, purpurea: view facing the opening. 

FIG. 6. S. Drummondii. 

FIG. 7. 5. flaw. 

FIG. 8. 5. psittacina. 

FIG. 9. S. minor (Photograph by Professor J. C. TH. 



Plate 2. 

FIG. i. -~ II eli amphora nutans. Front view, spoon enlarged and longitu- 
dinal view of pitcher cut near the sagittal plane, in which the sections 
1-2, 3-4 and 5-6 are indicated by corresponding numbers. 

Fro. 2. --Juvenile leaf (after KRAFFT 1896). 

FIG. 3. --Assimilating leaf (after KRAFFT 1896) 

FIG. 4. Abnormal juvenile leaf (after GOEBKL 1891). 

FIG. 5. Hair from zone 2, FIG i, above. Below, detentive hair from zone 

4- 

FIG. 6. V-shaped twin hairs, from outer surface of pitcher. 

FIG. 7. Nectar gland from spoon, in longitudinal section. 

FIG. 8. Nectar gland from outer surface of pitcher. 

FIG. 9. Surface view of same. 

FIG. 10. Nectar gland from inner surface of pitcher. 

FIG. ii. Transverse section of spoon indicating size and distribution of 
nectar glands. 

FiG. 12. Sarracenia purpurea. Upper two-thirds of pitcher, seen whole; 
view of interior of an entire pitcher: the zones are indicated by num- 
bers; front view of bell, petiole in longitudinal section of a pitcher in 
which this was abnormally long 

FIG. 13 --Juvenile leaf, shown in the same way as the pitcher in FIG. 12. 

FIG. 14. Surface and longitudinal views of the tesselated cells of zone 2. 

FIG. 15 Surface view of a nectar gland from outer surface of pitcher. 

FIG. 1 6. Longitudinal section of same. 



-- Plate j.- 

FK;S. i and 2 Sarracenia pur pur ea. 

FIG.S. 3-6 S psittacina. 

FIGS. 7- 1 2. 5 wwor 

FIGS. 13-18 ,S\ Jonesii 

FIG i. Nectar gland from surface of the nectar roll 

FIG 2. Hair from outer surface of pitcher. 

FIG. 3. Nectar gland from interior surface of the pitcher. 

FIG 4 Pitcher, cut lengthwise to show interior surface, a-b, transverse 

section of nectar ridge, its position indicated in the larger figure. 
FIG. 5. Juvenile leaf (after GOKBKI, 1891). 
FIG. 6, View looking into the entrance of leaf, such as in FIG. 4 
FIG. 7. - Pitcher of S. minor 
FIG. 8 Front view of same. Nectar droplets are indicated, as also 

in next figure 
FIG 9. The lateral view of same, v\ith section of the nectar roll and of 

the \\ing where indicated. 
Fir.. 10 - Surface view of nectar gland with a few adjacent imbricated 

cells 

FIG. ii. Detentive hair, from zone 4. 
FIG. 12.'- Nectar gland surface of nectar roll, .V. minor. 
FIGS. 13-18 Developmental scries, pitcher of S Jonesii. 
FIG 13 - The mouth begins to be seen. 
FIG 14 - Lips of mouth are seen. The lateral and basal views of this 

stage arc seen in FIG. 15 
FIG 1 6 The lower edge of the mouth begins to extend, as the apex 

elongates 
FIGS 17 and 18 The lower edge of the mouth has been extended as a 

ridge, the ala ventrahs. 



Plate 4. 

FIG. i. Darlingtonia calif arnica, as seen growing 25 miles east of Cres- 
cent City, Calif. 

FIG. 2. The same, in flower in early spring (Photograph by Dr. FRANK 
MORTON JONES, taken in Plumas Co., Calif , 1920). 

FIG. 3 The same, flowers (near Florence, Oregon). 

FIG. 4. The same. View looking up into the dome of the leaf. 

FIG. 5. The same. A leaf split lengthwise. 

FIG. 6. Nepenthes Mastersiana. A pitcher split lengthwise, showing the 
waxy zone above and the glandular zone below. 

FIG. 7 A T . ventricosa. 

FIG. 8 N. Balfounana (A. mixta x Mastersiana). 

FIG. 9 A. ampuUarla. 

FIG. 10. A. bicalcarata. 

FIG. ii. A. ampullaria, looking into a pitcher. 



- Plate > - 

FIGS. i-io. Darlinghnia calif wnica. 

FIGS. 1-3. Various juvenile leaves. 

FIG. 4. A series of sections through a juvenile leaf at levels indicated in 
the drawings (in mm., the 7 mm section being proximal) 

FIG. 5. Sections through the wings of a nature pitcher at various levels 
(indicated in rrm.); at 10 n m. the edges of the basal \vings are evi- 
dent, at 65 n m. the edges of the mouth 

FIG. 6. Juvenile leaf which had failed to become ascidiatc, except 
slightly in the petiolar region. 

FIG. 7. Interior view of the lower half of a large mature pitcher dome; 
ii, *2, veins of the tube which fuse to enter the fishtail. 

FIG. 8. Lateral view of the interior of the dome. The hairs and fenes- 
trations are only partially indicated 

FIG. 9. Interior of dome looking forward (distally), showing the articu- 
lation of the nectar roll with the edges of the lishtail. 

FIG. 10. Interior view of dome looking backward, showing relation of 
the a/a vsntralis \\ith the nectar roll 

FIG. ii.--Sarracema psittacma.- A young leaf showing the early stage 
of the infold to form the entrance tube 




10 



Plate 6. 

FIGS. i-2$. Darlingtonia californica. 

FIGS, i -10. Various stages of the development of the leaf showing espe- 
cially the development of the ala ventralis as part of the lateral lips of 
the mouth and quite apart from the stipular wings. 

FIGS. 4-6 and 10 show the development of the fishtail. 

FIG. 9. Longitudinal interior view of a leaf of the dimensions of FIG. 8; 
nr, nectar roll; wr, marginal roll of the fishtail; /, upward fold of the 
wall of the dome. 

FIG. ii. Diagrams idealizing the development of the nectar roll and its 
continuation to form the marginal roll of the fishtail; a, a theoretical 
condition corresponding to the condition actually recorded in PLATE 
5-3; 6, a theoretical condition further advanced than a, in which the 
'fold' (see FIG. 9) has not fused and the edge of the nectar roll is still 
evidently confluent with the edge of the marginal roll of the fishtail. 

FIGS. 12 and 13. Supposed appearance of pitchers on the conditions in- 
dicated theoretically in FIGS, na and b. 

FIG. 14. A mature pitcher on a small plant (the figure is brger than 
natural size) showing the posture taken in relation to the soif surface, 
in which the fishtail serves as a ramp leading to the entrance of the 
dome. 

FIG. 15. Appearance of mature pitchers of upright posture, front and 
side view. 

FIG. 16. External view of the dome of a young pitcher somewhat ad- 
vanced beyond that of FIG. 10. (GOEBEL published a similar figure). 

FIG. 17. Seedling, with juvenile leaves only and, as it happens, with 
three cotyledons. 

FIG. 18. Surface view of nectar gland in a juvenile leaf. 

FIG. 19. Surface view of a nectar gland such as seen in FIG. 23. 

FIG. 20. Nectar gland from outer surface of pitcher. 

FIG. 21. Nectar gland from inner surface. 

FIG. 22. Surface view of same. 

FIG. 23. Lateral sectional view of nectar gland with at least two tiers of 
cells. 



Plate 7. 

FIGS. 1-25. Nepenthes. 

FIGS. 1-6. Developmental series of the pitcher leaf. 

FIG. i. Very young stage (after HOOKER 1859). 

FIG. 2. Somewhat later stage, the lid having appeared (after HOOKER). 

FIG. 3. Longitudinal section of a still later stage showing lid apprcssed 
to the rim (after HOOKER). 

FIG. 4. -- The origin of the lip as a two lobed structure (after BOWER). 

FIG. 5. Definitive form of the first seedling leaf (after STERN). The 
transverse stipular juncture is represented by emergencies. 

FIG. 6. A similar stage of development (after MACFARLANE), in which 
the transverse stipular membrane is evident. 

FIG. 7. Front and side view of a pitcher produced on a forced sprout 
showing venation as broken lines. The small number and the dis- 
tribution of digestive glands are indicated. 

FIGS. 8 and 9. Lateral and front view 7 of a pitcher on a forced shoot, 
showing the spur is a Hat structure, and the distribution of veins. 

FIGS. 10-13 Other pitchers produced on short shoots in which various 
relations of the petiolar 'blade' to the wings of the pitcher are noted. 

FIG. 14. --The digestive gland in N. Pervillei, covered by a deep pocket. 

FIGS. 15-20. Transverse section of the rim of several species. The arm 
of the inner ridge bears a nectar gland. 

FIG. 15 N. sp. aft. Balfouriana. 

FIG. 1 6 N. ventricosa. 

FIG. 17. N. gracilis. 

FIG. 1 8. N. Lnvii. 

FIG. 19. N. ampullaria. 

FIG. 20. N. inermis Danser, "peristome almost none". A, transverse 
section through peristome; B, looking into a nectar gland pit. 

FIG. 21 - Front and side view of the nectar gland in its pit, N. ampul- 
laria. 

FIG. 22. N. intermedia, showing the two strongly developed groups of 
peristome teeth at the base of the lid. 

FIG. 23. N. bicalcarata, divided lengthwise, showing therefore only one 
of the well developed, claw-like projections at the base of the lid. 

FIG. 24. Transverse section through the lid and mouth of a very young 
pitcher of N. ampullaria. The glandular inner limb of the peristome is 
seen to be an emergence from the inner surface of the pitcher wall. 

FIG. 25. N. They}. Under surface of the lid, bearing a prominent me- 
dian ridge with prominent processes. 



Plate 8. 

FIGS. 1-20. Nepenthes. 

FIGS. 1-3. Stellate hairs, sometimes emergent, sometimes in pits. 

FIG. 4. Tufted hair, producing the rusty pubescence of Nepenthes. 
There are several varieties of form. 

FIGS. 5 and 6. Front and lateral views of the peculiar stomata on the 
waxy zone of the interior of the pitcher. 

FIG. 7. Front and lateral views of the epidermis clothing the peristome; 
a~b and c~d correspond in position. N. ampullaria (cf. FIGS. 17 and 
iS). 

FIG. 8. Nectar gland from inner surface of the lid. 

FIGS. 9 and 10. Digestive glands from two species, in section; cut, 
suberized course of cells. 

FIG. ii. Front view of a digestive gland, standing in its pocket. 

FIG. 12. Epidermal cells of the peristome of N. Lowii. 

FIG. 13. Nectar gland of the peristome edge, N. ampullaria. The 
outermost course of cells is suberized. 

FIG. 14. Digestive gland in young, thin-walled condition of N. ampul- 
laria. 

FIG. 15. External alluring (nectar) gland from the midrib of the blade. 
S, suberized layer. 

FIG. 16. Nectar gland from the ridge beneath the lid, of N. Tiveyi. S, 
suberized course of cells. 

FIG. 17. Transverse section of epidermis of the peristome of N. am- 
pullaria. The cells appear ridged. 

FIG. 1 8. The ridges are seen to be due to the overlying of next cells 
(see also FIG. 7). 

FIG. 19. Quite young stage of development of a pitcher and lid in sec- 
tion, showing folding of the lid and origin of the inner peristome ridge 
as an outgrowth of the wall. 

FIG. 20. Transverse section of the petiole showing it to be bifacial. 




20 



Plate 9. 

FIGS. 1-6. Cephdotus fotticularis. 

FIG i. A clump of plants photographed at Albany, Western Australia. 

FIG. 2. A plant, grown at the Edinburgh Botanical Garden. 

FIG. 3. Pitcher split lengthwise. 

FIG. 4. A shadow picture of a glandular patch. 

FIG. 5. An entire plant in flower. Inset: flower enlarged. From a 
large clump of plants sent by me from Australia to the Botanical Insti- 
tute, Munich (Photograph by Dr. TH. P. HAAS). 

FIG. 6. View looking down on the same culture, to show the two kinds 
of leaves, pitcher and photosynthetic, the latter in full development; 
an aberrant one may be seen at the left of the picture (Photograph 
by Dr. HAAS). 

FIG. 7. Genlisea re pens (from Sao Paulo, Brazil). 

FIG. 8. The same. Tubular portion of the trap showing the lobster- 
pot structure. 

FIG. q. Byblis gigantea (Western Australia). Various aspects of the 
leaf to show the distribution of glands. The sessile glands are dis- 
cernible as white dots on the leaf surface. 



Plate 10. 

FIGS. 1-24 Cephalotus follicularis. 

FIGS, i and 2. Lateral and front views of a mature, full sized pitcher, 

4.5 cm. long. 
FIG. 3. View of interior of pitcher. Distribution of veins shown: v\ y j 

and tij, one of each of the median and following lateral veins of the ven- 
tral group, n ; d\j d>i, veins of the dorsal group (</), the former a single 

median vein. 
FIG. 4. Sections through the base (lowermost), middle and top of a 

pitcher stalk, showing distribution of veins: , ventral; i, 2 and 3, 

the three pairs of ventral veins. 
FIG. 5. Lateral view of a young pitcher 3 mm. long. For section 

through a-b, see FIG. 7. 
FIG. 6. Interior view of a similar pitcher, showing the distribution of 

veins at this age. These can be identified with those seen in FIG. 3. 
FIG. 7. Section through young pitcher through a-b of FIG. 5. 
FIG. 8. Section through base (lowermost), middle and through base of 

blade of a mature foliage leaf; v, ventral. 
FIG. 9. Section through rim of a juvenile pitcher (FIGS. 10-12)1 showing 

tooth and distal end of the median dorsal vein. 

FIGS. 10, ii. Frontal and lateral views of a juvenile pitcher 8 mm. long. 
FIG. 12. Interior view of same, showing deep collar and distribution of 

veins. Compare with FIG. 3. See also FIG. 24. 
FIGS. 13-18. Various intergradient forms of leaves between the foliage 

leaf and pitcher. For normal foliage leaf, see FIGS. 2 and 6, PLATE 9. 
FIG. 19. Diagram of section of a medium sized digestive gland from 

glandular patch. 

FIG. 20. Diagram of section of a small digestive gland (above) and sur- 
face view of same (below). 
FIG. 21. Diagram of section of a gland from external surface of pitcher 

and elsewhere. 

FIG. 22 Surface view of same. 

FIG. 23. Two stomata from surface of a glandular patch. 
FIG. 24. Longitudinal section of a trap 1.25 mm. long; v, ventral; d, 

dorsal. 



Plate n. 

FIGS, i-u. Genlisea. 

FIGS. 1-4, 7, 8 and 10. Series showing the development of the trap. 

FIG. 5. A single plant (from Brazil) X 2; inf., inflorescence stalk; /., 
trap. 

FIG. 6. Portion of an arm laid open of G. ornata. In this species the 
number of rows of detentive hairs is small. The position of the 
glands and the shape of the inner epidermal cells (on a larger scale) 
are indicated. 

FIG. 7. A trap in which the arms are beginning to develop; vent., ventral 
view; /a/., lateral view. 

FIG. 8. Distal end of a young trap showing the arms in a stage of 
growth later than that seen in FIG. 4. Dotted lines indicate veins, as 
in FIG. 7. 

FIG. 9. Mature trap, one arm having been laid open and shown in its 
posture thereafter. A portion of the laid-open arm at a is shown 
above and to the right; below this, the sections along a-b and c-d 
are shown. 

FIG. 10. A mature trap. The numbered lines indicate the positions of 
the sections shown in PLATE 12. 

FIG. n. A portion of the oral termination of the tube, with the ad- 
jacent portion of an arm, diagrammed in perspective. Note prey 
caught, seen through the window cut in the wall, on the right. 




11 



Plate 12. 

FIGS, i-i8,~Genli$ea. 

FIG. i. Transverse section through the mouth of a twisted arm, being 

an amplified figure of part of FIG. 4 (cf. // 10, at j). 
FIG. 2. Section through the mouth at the top of the neck (// 10 at 5) 

showing the rows of detentive hairs. 
FIG. 3. Section through the mouth at the top of the neck (n 10 at 

5) showing particularly the giant articulating hair ("distance piece"). 
FIG. 4. Section across arm (// 10 at 3), The obliquity of the rows 

of detentive hairs is to be noted. 
FIG. 5. Transverse section through neck (// 10 at i), at the level 

of the row of glands, indicated by i s , FIG. 9, which is a longitudinal 

section in the same region. 
FIG. 6. Transverse section through neck at 2 (17 10), through the 

basal cells of the detentive hairs. * 

FIG. 7. Transverse section through a ridge in the belly of the flask 

(// 10 at 4). 

FIG. 8. Longitudinal section with perspective at 2 (u ioj. Inter- 
cellular spaces are hatched. 
FIG. 9. Longitudinal section at i (// 10) and approximately in the 

plane in which one of the vascular strands lies. 
FIG. 10. Longitudinal dorsi-ventral section showing also the interior of 

the belly of the flask. 

FIG. ii. Mucilage gland from external surface lies. 
FIG. 12. Short detentive hair from edge of arm. 
FIG. 13. Detentive hair from interior of arm or neck. 
FIG. 14. Glandular hairs (presumably digestive) from belly of flask. 
FIG. 15. Articulating hair ("distance piece") from edge of arm. 
FIG. 16. Glandular hair from interior of upper part of neck and of the 

arms. 
FIG. 17. Digestive hairs with four celled capital. Otherwise as in FIG. 

H. 

FIG. 1 8. View of the depression into which the large giant cell of a dis- 
tance piece fits. 



Plate 13. 

FIG. i. Byblis gigantea (W. Australia). Inset commensal (true) bug, 
as yet undescribed. 

FIG. 2. Drosophyllum litsitanicum, in culture (Munich). Right, a piece 
of a leaf with captured prey. 

FIG. 3. The same (Photograph by Dr. A. QUINTANILHA). 

FIG. 4. Pinguicula vulgar is (Alberta, Canada). x l a. 

FIG. 5. At left of numeral, a piece of a leaf of Byblis; at right of nu- 
meral a part of a leaf of Drosera capensis 

FIG. 6. Pinguicula vulgaris. Two views of the same plant taken 24 
hours apart to show leaf movements. Collected 20 mi. east of 
Crescent City, Calif. 

FIG. 7. Drosera capensis. x '*. 

FIG. 8. Time-lapse motion pictures of D. capensis, showing leaf move- 
ments. Total period about one and one half hours. 

FIG. 9. D. rotundifolia, a leaf with captured prey. 

FIG. 10. Pinguicula vulgaris, a small area of leaf surface with the muci- 
lage glands in the focal plane of the camera lens 

FIG ii. The same, with the focal plane of the lens at the level of the 
digestive glands. A captured insect is seen 



Plate 14. 

FIGS. 1-6. Drosophyllum lusitanicum. 

FIG. i. A bit of a leaf showing the distribution of stalked and sessile 

glands on the under face. 
FIG. 2. A stalked gland in longitudinal section. 
FIG. 3. Surface view of epidermal cells of the capital of a stalked gland, 

to show the buttresses. 

FIG. 4. A bud showing three leaves in outward circination. 
FIG. 5. Transverse section of leaf showing the three vascular bundles 

and distribution of the glands. 
FIG. 6. Sessile gland in section. 
FIGS. 7-1$. Byblis. 

FIG. 7. Bud of Byblis linifolia showing leaves with outward circination. 
FIG. 8. Bud of Byblis gigantea showing absence of circination. 
FIG. 9. Section across a longitudinal depression of the leaf showing 

glandular hair, intermediate in form between a mucilage hair (FIG. 12) 

and a true digestive hair (FIG. 10). 
FIG. 10. Digestive hair, one of a row as seen in FIG. 13. 
FIG. ii. Transverse section through a leaf, showing distribution of ad- 
hesive glands, vascular bundles and the outer extensive palisade 

zone. 

FIG. 12. An adhesive gland, the right hand figure showing the pores. 
FIG. 13. Surface view of leaf showing row of digestive glands. 
FIG. 14. Adhesive gland showing the curled state of the stalk when dry. 
FIG. 15. Other adhesive glands from flower stalk. 



Plate ij. 

FIGS. 1-5 Pinguicula. 

FIG. i. Series showing a leaf on different days after capture of prey, 
Oct. 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7, 1939. The maximum amount of inrolling of the 
margin observed is indicated. P. vulgar is (of California). 

FIG. 2. Digestive glands from the upper leaf surface. 

FIG. 3. Adhesive gland. 

FIG. 4. Glands from scape. 

FIG. 5. Section through margin of leaf, showing the large terminal 
tracheid. 

FIGS. 6-24. Drosera. 

FIG. 6. Longitudinal section through the glandular capital of a tentacle. 

FIG. 7. Transverse section through a tentacle stalk at the narrow region. 

FIG. 8. Transverse section through the gland of tentacle. 

FIG. 9. Transverse section through the gland of a marginal tentacle of 
D. rotundifolia (see FIG. u). 

FIG. 10. Apex of a tentacle gland showing exfoliated scale-like par- 
ticles, seen lying in the mucilage secreted. 

FIG. ii. Longitudinal section through the gland of a marginal tentacle 
of D. rotundifolia. 

FIG. 12. Gland of tentacle after thorough treatment with sulfuric acid. 
Only cuticuiar membranes left. 

FIG. 13. Surface view of the outer epidermal cells of a tentacle gland 
to show the buttresses. 

FIG. 14. Living tentacle gland. The mucilage was entirely removed, 
the gland was then placed in mineral oil. Droplets of mucilage ap- 
peared. 

FIG. 15 Section of leaf: absence of palisade. 

FIG. 1 6. Glandular trichome from petiole (D. gigantea). 

FIG. 17. Apical view of gland shown in FIG. 22. 

FIG. 1 8. Small gland from tentacle stalk. 

FIG. 19. Longitudinal section of the apex of a leaf rhizoid of D. ery- 
throrhiza. 

FIG. 20. - A young leaf of D. pygmaea, showing the immense stipules. 

FIGS. 21 and 22. Sessile glands of D. Whittakeri. 

FIG. 23. Sessile gland of D. capensis. 

FIG. 24. Scarious trichomes from petiole of D. rotuniifolia. 



Plate 16. 

FIGS. 1-18. Drosera. 

FIGS, i, 2, 3. D. pygmaea. i, ventral, 2, lateral views of a marginal 
tentacle gland; 3, sectional view of leaf blade gland. 

FIGS. 4-6. Stages in the development of the gland in D. rotundi folia 
(after HOMES). 

FIG. 7, earlier, and FIG. 8, later stage in the development of a leaf bud at 
the base of a tentacle in D. rotund if alia (after BEHRE). 

FIGS. 9, 10. Still later stages of same in D. peltata. In FIG. 10 the ten- 
tacle is completely displaced (after VICKERY). The broken line in- 
dicates one face of the thick section. 

FIG. ii. End of a dropper while extending. 

FIG. 12. Same, on beginning to round up to form a bulb in D. peltata 
(after VICKERY). 

FIG. 13. Young and older seedling. A dropper is developing on the 
older seedling in D. peltata (after VICKERY). 

FIG. 14. Ventral, lateral and basal views of a gemma of D. pygmaea. 

FIG. 15. Same after GOEBEL. The right hand one is germinating. 

FIG. 16. D. pygmaea (or a related sp.), showing mature gemmae (after 
GOEBEL). 

FIG. 17. Diagram of mid-sectional view of the true D. pygmaea (col- 
lected by Dr. PAT BROUGH near Sydney, N. S. W.). 

FIG. 18. Young leaf from same, dorsal view. 



Plate 17. 

FIG. i. Aggregation in the stalk cells of Drosera rotitndifolia. These 
photographs were provided by Dr. A. AKERMAN. A and B, successive 
photographs of the same iield taken 2 minutes apart; B and C, taken 
15 minutes apart. 

FIG. 2. Dionaea muscipiila (Photograph by Dr. CORNELIA M. SMITH). 

FIG. 3. Dionaea leaf which has captured a Harvest-man or Harvest- 
spider (Phalangittm sp ). 

FIG. 4. Drosera gigantea. This species grows to a height of four feet 
(Western Australia). 

FIG. 5. Aldrovanda vesiculosa (Silesia). On the right of the numeral 5, 
half a whorl of eight leaves, axial view. 

FIG. 6. Dionaea. Moving pictures taken at one-sixteenth of a second 
intervals. The last one was taken half an hour later. 



Plate 1 8. 

FIGS. 1-18. Dionaea muscipula. 

FIG. i. Inner surface of a trap lobe, showing the distribution of veins, 
of the digestive glands and, along the scalloped margin, the alluring 
glands. The three trigger hairs are seen. 

FIG. 2. A trigger hair from a fully developed large leaf. 

FIG. 3. A trigger hair from a minute seedling leaf. 

FIG. 4. a, diagram to indicate postures of the trap lobes in (i) open, 
(2) closed and (j) " narrowed" states (after ASHIDA); b, trap nar- 
rowed to the extreme. 

FIG. 5. Section of the upper epidermis and adjacent parenchyma of a 
mature large trap. 

FIG. 6. Lower epidermis of same. 

FIG. 7. Young leaf: growth movement involved in the unfolding of the 
trap. 

FIG. 8. A trap about 2 mm. long showing the twisted stalk and the 
symmetry of the cilia. 

FIG. 9. Upper surface of the left lobe of a trap 2 mm. long, taken from 
a seedling. 

FIG. 10. Sections of a mature leaf, drawn to scale, to show the relative 
sizes of the epidermal and parenchyma cells. 

FIG. ii. A stellate hair from exterior surface of trap (and elsewhere). 

FIG. 12. A digestive gland. The section on the left is cut trans- 
versely to the leaf lobe. At right, apical view of gland. 

FIG. 13. Base of digestive gland, the section cut at right angles to 
that of FIG. 12. 

FIG. 14. Alluring gland in section. 

P'IG. 15. Longitudinal section through base of trigger hair to show the 
sensitive cells (arrow point) 

FIG. 1 6. Transverse section through the sensitive cells of trigger hair. 

FIG. 17. Transverse section of lobe of a minute (2 mm. long) trap. 

FIG. 1 8. Longitudinal section of same. 



Plate IQ. 

FIGS. 1-23. - - Aldrovanda vesiculosa. 

FIGS, i, 2 and 3. Stages of germination. 

FIG. 4. Apex of root cap showing its obsolescence. 

FIG. 5. A series of juvenile leaves such as at first formed on the plu- 
mule; the perfect, mature form on the right. 

FIG. 6. The development of the leaf showing the early occurrence of 
twisting which brings the trap into its definitive posture. E, F and H, 
dorsal views; G, ventral view. 

FIG. 7. ~ Immature trap, as in FIG. 5, showing the curvatures which, be- 
coming fixed, determine the behavior of the trap during narrowing. 

FIG. 8. Interior (upper) face ot a trap lobe. Distribution of cruciform 
and digestive glands shown, as also the sensitive hairs and reflexed 
lobe margin, with its teeth. 

FIG. 9. Transverse section through a footstalk (petiole), showing vast 
intercellular spaces. 

FIG. 10. Section through the midrib of a trap. 

FIG. n. Transverse section through the wall of a trap in the region 
marked 2, FIG. 23. 

FIG. 12. -Three sections through the reflexed margin of the trap. Note 
the irregularity of structure. 

FIG. 13. The reflexed margin of trap with tooth. 

FIG. 14. Digestive gland viewed from above and laterally; a and b are 
are normal to each other 

FIG. 15. A cruciform gland. 

FIG 16. A mucilage gland from the outer surface of the trap and else- 
where. 

FIG. 17. Surface view of the reflexed lobe margin, showing the cells of 
one surface intruding between those of the other The arrowpoints 
indicate inward or outward intrusion. 

FIG. 1 8. Crossing of marginal spines to close the trap against the escape 
of prey. The posture of the teeth in this figure is exaggerated in rela- 
tion to the borders, but represents what does occur during early 
approach of the edges. 

FIG. 19. Transverse section of the wall of the trap in the region be- 
tween 3 and 4, FIG. 23 of this plate. The component cells are cut 
longitudinally. 

FIG. 20. A trigger hair (above and to the right of the numeral). 

FIG. 21. Diagrams showing (a) open, (b) closed, (c) early narrowing 
and (d) completely narrowed stages of action. After As HID A, checked 
by my own observations. 

FIG. 22. Diagram to show zone of major movement during closing and 
narrowing. 

FIG. 23. Diagram of transverse section of a trap to show the thick and 
thin regions, the distribution of digestive and cruciform glands, and 
of the trigger hairs. 



Plate 20. 

FIG, i. Utricidaria vulgaris. Leaf with traps, 

FIG. 2. Utricularia aff. emarginata, showing water stolons, and those en- 
tering the muddy substrate. 

FIG. 3. U. purpurea. 

FIG. 4. U. intermedia. 

FIG. 5. U. lateriflora (x #). 

FIG. 6. U. capensis. The leaves (x 2). 

FIG. 7. U. volubilis. 

FIG. 8. U. Menziesii. 

FIG. 9. The same, a young plant, showing better the distribution in 
space of the traps. One tuber is seen. 

FIG. 10. Polypompholyx tenella, an entire plant, the scape in bud, En- 
larged about 6 times. Two forms of traps. 

FIG. ii. -Photograph (x 8) of a tadpole (Bufo marinus), 4 days old, 
captured by the head by a trap of if. flemosa at Gordonvale, Queens- 
land (transmitted by Mr. J, H. BUZACOTT, Feb. 10, 1936). 

FIG. 12. Floats at the base of a young inflorescence of U. stellaris (Sin- 
gapore). 



Plate 21. 

5/i, chief stolon; 5/2, secondary stolon; 5/j, stolon of the third order; /, leaf; rhi, rhizoid; 
as, air shoot; ic, scape; tr, trap. 

FIGS. i-6. Ltrichlaria vtlgaris. 

FIG. i. Early germination of seeds. 

FIG. 2. Emergence of primary leaves. 

FIG. 3. Aberrant seedling. 

FIGS. 4 and 5. Seedlings in advanced stages. 

FIG. 6. Longitudinal section of seed (after VAN TIEOIIEM). 

FIG. 7. Germination of U. emarginata. A, embryo, above, its apex en- 
larged; D, embryo with -one cotyledonoid a shoot; B, early germina- 
tion; C, one primary shoot; E, two primary shoots. 

FIG. 8. Growing point, U. mdgaris. 

FIGS. 9 and 10. Branching, U mdgaris. Note dwarf branch in leaf axil. 

FIG. ii. U. oligosperna. 

FIG. 12. U. gilt a. 

FIG. 13. U. intermedia. 

FIG. 14. The same, \\ith scape. 

FIG. 15. U. reniformis. 

FIGS. 16 and 17 U. minor. 

FIGS. 1 8 and 19. U. exoleta aft. 

FIG. 20. U. gibba. 

FIG. 21. U biloba, a leaf -branch. 

FIG. 22. U. paradoxa (Ms. name); s, level of mud, with water above. 

FIG. 23. The same. Stiff hair clothing the plant, bifid and quadrifid 
hairs and a trap (material: YOVNG 1421, in Brit. Mus.). 



rT^^- - 22 




Plate 22. 

i, /2, primary and secondary leaves; st, with sub-numerals, stolons; tr, trap; pod, podium; 
e, embryo. 

FIGS, i-i i and 28. U. monanthos. 

FIGS. 1-3. Early germination, during which the primary leaf develops 
precociously. 

FIG. 4. A primary trap develops in the place of a primary stolon. 

FIGS. 5 and 6. Normal germination. 

FIG. 7. The upper moiety of the embryo has developed into a very long 
podium. 

FIGS. 8 and 9. Two aspects of the same embryo. Partial concrescence 
of the primary trap with its axillary bud, and of the whole with the 
primary leaf. 

FIG. 10. Seedling with a well-developed podium. 

FIG. ii. The bud which produces the scape is far advanced. 

FIG. 12. U. orbiculata. 

FIGS. 13 and 14. U. capensis. FIG. 13, primary leaf bearing adventive 
traps each with an axillary bud in adaxial position. 

FIGS. 15 and 16. U. rosea. 

FIGS. 17-22. U. bifida. FIG. 18, precocious development of primary leaf; 
later emergence of primary stolon from podium (3d, 4th, 5th and 6th 
drawings of the series to left of numeral 18); FIG. 19, lateral origin, 
near base of embryo, of primary leaf; FIG. 20, concrescence of pri- 
mary leaf and stolon; FIG. 21, the primary vegetation point has pro- 
duced only a leaf, while an adventitious growing point has emerged 
laterally, bearing otherwise normal leaf and stolon; FIG. 22, primary 
stolon apparently from primary leaf. 

FIGS. 23-26. Polypompholyx tenella. 

FIG. 27. U. Barnesii (Ms. name). 

FIG. 28. U. monanthos. A stage of development following that shown 
in FIG. 3. 



Plate 2 j. 

Lettering as in plate 21. 
FIG. i. Utricidaria clandestina. 
FIGS. 2-6. U. oligosperma. 
FIG. j. U. simplex. 
FIGS. 8-1 1. U. resupinata. 

FIGS. 12 and 13. U. Stephensae (Ms. name) aff. U. cymbantha Oliver. 
FIGS. 14-18. Utrictdaria (Biovularia) olivacea. 
FIGS. 19 and 20. U. monanthos. 
FIGS, 21 and 22. U, cymbantha. 
FIGS. 23 and 24. U. Menziesii. 
FIG. 25. U. wlubilis. 



Plate 24. 

FIG. i. Utricidaria gibba. View looking into the entrance showing the 

velum. X 50. 
FIG. 2. U. caerulea. Trap before (left) and after actuation. Note the 

changed door profile. 

FIG. 3. U. monanthos, trap before (left) and after actuation. 
FIG. 4. View looking into the entrance of U. dichotomy showing the 

circular outer velum. Ca. 40 x. 

FIG. 5. U. capensis. Trap before (left) and after actuation. 
FIG. 6. Transverse section of the threshold of U. cornida, sho*wing the 

velum. 

FIG. 7. U. Welwitschii. The tripping hair. 
FIG. 8. Polypompholyx multijida. Trap entrance before (above) and 

after actuation. 
FIG. 9. Inner surface of the door of U. gibba, showing the concentric 

sulci. Note that in the upper part of this illustration trite anticlinal 

walls appear constricted, this being artifact. 



Plate 25. 

FIG. i. Utricidaria Deightonii (Ms. name) aff. peltata. Sagittal section 
of trap, 

FIG. 2. Sagittal section of entrance to trap of U. peltata. 

FIG. 3. The same, of trap of U. gibba showing very approximately the 
normal (but not set) posture of the door and velum. 

FIG. 4. -- Profile of the door and velum in the set posture, in an entirely 
whole trap of U. emarginata. The lens has, of necessity, to penetrate 
a considerable thickness of tissues, and hence a sharp picture is unob- 
tainable. The velum is seen as a bulbous mass just above the thresh- 
old and in front of the lower door edge. 

FIG. 5. Sagittal section of door and velum, U. gibba the same as in 
FIG. 3, but at higher magnification to show details of structure. 

FIG. 6. View as from the inside of the trap of the middle reach of the 
velum in U. vulgar is. 

FIG. 7. U. gibba. Transverse section of the threshold with the velum, 
from which its origin can be discerned. 

FIG. 8. The same. View of the velum as one looks into the entrance. 

FIG. 9. U. intermedia (or U. vulgaris). View looking down on the pave- 
ment, showing, however, only a narrow middle fore and aft strip. 
The velum is at the lower edge of the picture. The outer, middle and 
inner zones are discernible. 



Plate 26. 

FIG. i. Diagram of a sagittal section of entrance of the trap of Utricu- 
laria gibba, with terminology, 

FIG. 2. Entrance of U . gibba, exoleta etc. in sagittal section. The 
arrows (3, 4) indicate the general direction of the movements of prey 
in approach. The structure of the pavement is seen through the door 
as if transparent. 

FIG. 3. U. gibba. View of threshold and door edge, as seen from the 
viewpoint indicated by the arrow i in FIG. 2. Arrow i indicates the 
direction of thrust of the side of the door on the lateral reaches of 
the threshold; arrow 2, thrust of the door lateral hinges on the middle 
piece, and of this against the pavement in its middle reach. 

FIG. 4. Sagittal section of entrance of U. longifolia. 

FIG. 5. U. purpurea. The knob at the middle of the door. See FIG. 
2-4, PLATE 27. 

FIG. 6. U. vulgaris. 

FIG. 7. The same, the door swung widely open. 

FIG. 8. Diagram of the sagittal section of the door of U. purpurea to 
show that movement of the knob up or down lifts the door edge; c, 
center of rotation; d, b, displacements of point a when the trigger 
hairs are touched downwardly or upwardly, respectively. 

FIG. 9. Quadrifid hair of U. gibba, quite young. 

FIG. 10. Reflexed quadrifid hair of U. neottioides. 

FIG. ii. Quadrifid hair of Poly pom pholyx. 

FIG. 12. The same, side view. 

FIG. 13. The same, diagram of the shape of a single one of the four cells 
of the capital. 




13 



Plate 27. 

FIG. i. Trap of Utricularia biloba. Only a few of the bifid and quadri- 

fid hairs are shown. 
FIG. 2. Entrance of U. pur pur ea, sagittal section. The door is regarded 

as transparent. 

FIG. 3. The same, the door in open and closed postures. 
FIG. 4. Trap of U. elephas Luetz, 
FIG. 5. Trap of Utr Maria (Biovidaria) olivacea. 
FIG. 6. Front view of door of same to show the six tripping bristles. 
FIG. 7. Traps of U. resupinata displaying dimorphism. 
FIG. 8. Trap of U. ewleta (Queenlad). 
FIG. 9. Trap of U. neottioides. 



Plate 28. 

FIGS. 1-4. Utricularia Lloydii Merl, an example of dimorphism. 

FIG. i. The kind of trap found only on the leaves. 

FIG. 2. Trap found only on the stolons. 

FIG. 3. Door with single tripping bristle, from leaf trap. 

FIG. 4. Door of stolon trap, devoid of tripping bristle. 

FIG. 5. U. nana. 

FIG, 6, Entrance of same, showing the two tripping bristles, * 

FIGS. 7-9. U. globular iaefolia. 

FIG. 7. Entrance. 

FIGS. 8 and 9. Two forms of trap (dimorphism). 



Plate 2g. 

FIGS. 1-13. Utricularia. 

FIG. i. Diagrammatic representation of the histology of the door. 
Above, view en face of the door seen from the inside of the trap; 
below, section through a-b. 

FIG. 2. Sagittal section of the door: 7, upper hinge; 2, middle area; 
5, central hinge; 4, middle piece; cut, cuticle; eel, cellulose. 

FIG. 3. Cells of the inner course of a portion of the door, the central 
hinge approximately in the middle; the bases of the tripping bristles 
shown in dotted lines. Numerous props. 

FIG. 4. Transverse section of the threshold at the middle point, showing 
the velum. The posture of the door edge in broken lines. 

FIG. 5. Section through the lateral reach, near its outer end, of the 
threshold in U. pur pur ta. The posture of the door thrusting against 
the pavement indicated by the oblique arrows. The direction of 
water pressure against the door and velum shown by the arrows 
below. 

FIG. 6. Surface hairs of U. purpurea; a, sickle-shaped, glandular (muci- 
lage) hairs; b, c, young stage of oil-bearing hairs; d-g, mature stage 
of same, showing oil deposit held by the raised cuticle. 

FIG. 7. Glandular hairs of the central boss of the door of U. purpurea, 
shown in developmental stages, numbered serially. 

FIG. 8. Diagram of wall structure, showing the inner quadrifid (left) 
and the outer spherical glands. Vascular tissue between the two 
cell courses. 

FIG. 9. Peltate leaves of U. sp. aff. peltata (from Angola). They bear a 
deep coating of mucilage on their upper surfaces. 

FIG. 10. Mucilage glands of the same with their heavy loads of stiff mu- 
cilage (b)-, c, scheme of branching, a, leaf, with three branches 
(stolons of second order) emerging from the primary stolon seen 
axially. 

FIG. n. U. gibba, schematized to show relation of door and threshold 
in the wide-angle type of entrance (cf. jo 3). The angular rela- 
tion of the door posture (p-d) to the general level of the threshold (p- 
t) is ca. 90 ; r, relaxed posture of door; s, set posture; pr, various 
possible directions of impact of prey on the tripping bristles; uh, 
upper hinge; ch, central hinge; Ih, lateral hinge; a, middle piece. 

FIG. 12. Narrow angle door: its shape and areas (cf. jo 4) and, 
below, the areas of the threshold, of U. capensis, uh, upper, and Ih, 
lateral hinge; ma, middle area; mp, middle piece; oz, outer zone of 
pavement; nr, middle zone; and iz, inner zone, of same. 

FIG. 13. Wide angle door (if gibba or mdgaris etc.); ch, central hinge. 



Plate p. 

FIGS. 1-8. Utricidaria cornuta. 

FIG. i. The trap in lateral and frontal views. 

FIG. 2. Entrance, with alluring glands below, from in front. 

FIG. 3. Sagittal section of entrance. The door (d\) is shown in the set 
posture; fa its open posture; fa normal relaxed posture and d^ totally 
relaxed posture, as when the trap is punctured; dt, direction of 
thrust of lateral hinge; 0/, longitudinal thrust of door; c, compo- 
nent of the two thrusts; dh, inner angle of threshold, as also in FIG. 5. 

FIG. 4. The door seen from in front. Inner course cells in double out- 
line. Lettering as above. 

FIG. 5. View of pavement from above as from point </, FIG. 3^ 02, mz, 
iz, outer, middle and inner zones of pavement; de y position of door 
edge. 

FIG. 6. Section through door and threshold taken as between c and d, 
FIG. 3; i, set, and 2 relaxed posture of door, approximately. 

FIG. 7. Section of same through </, FIG. 3. Broken lines indicate opening 
flexures. 

FIG. 8. Section of same through c, FIG. 3; mp, middle piece; /, rear 
part of middle zone of pavement indicated in outline; </, dotted line 
indicating the thrust of the door edge into the soft pavement cells 
(arrows indicate the thrust of the lateral hinges). 



Plate 31. 

FIG. i. Entrance of Utricularia caendea. 

FIG. 2. Trap of U. Gibbseae. 

FIG. 3. Trap of ft, capensis. 

FIG. 4. Entrance of U. Welwitschii. 

FIG. 5. View from below of trap of U. rosea aff. (N. Queensland). 

FIG. 6. Entrance of U. Deightonii (Ms. name). 

FIG. 7. Front view of entrance of same. 

FIG. 8. Door of U. Wduntschii, showing the kriss tripping hair (see also 

24~7). 

FIG. 9. Entrance of U. capensis, 
FIG. 10. U. rosea, entrance, small trap. 
FIG. ii. The two forms of the trap of U. rosea. 



Plate 32. 

FIG. i. Utricularla orbiculata. Entrance. 

FIG. 2. Front view of the door, U. striattda. 

FIG. 3. U. striatida. Entrance. 

FIG, 4. Transverse section through the entrance, showing the front 

view of the tripping hairs with their mucilaginous masses. 
FIG. 5. U. multicaulis, trap 
FIG. 6. Development of the peculiar tripping glands of U. *orbkulata, 

numbered in series, 1-8. In 8 the mucilage mass has fallen away. 
FIG. 7. Utricidaria sp. (Thibet, LUDLOVV, SHERRKFF and TAYLOR, No. 

5264, Brit. Mus.) to display the form of the forked rostrum, 
FIG. 8. Utrkularia sp. (Thibet, L., S. and T. 5802), door and single 

rostrum with long radiating fingers. 
FIG. 9. Rostrum of U. multicaulis (FiG. 5) from below. 



-Plate 33-~ 

FIG. i. UtriculariaKirkii. Entrance. 

FIG. 2. Transverse sections of entrance of U. Kirkii through a, b } c, 
and </, FIG. i. 

FIG. 3. U. longiciliala, trap, side and front views 

FIG. 4. The same, entrance, showing single glandular tripping bristle. 

FIG. 5. U. later i flora. 

FIG. 6. Utricitlaria sp. (Ceylon, SIMPSON No. 9482) related, if not iden- 
tical, with U. calliphysa Stapf. 

FIG. 7. The same, in sagittal section, 

FIG. 8. U. Barnesii (Ms. name). Trap and views, from beneath, of 
the lower and upper lateral combes. 

FIG. 9. U. lateriflora: set and relaxed postures of the door, traced from 
photographs. 




v 9 



Plate 34. 

FIG. i. - Utricidaria monanlhos, trap, studded with glands. 

FIG. 2. Entrance of same, sagittal section. 

FIG. 3. Same, in diagram to show set (</i), relaxed (fa) and quite open 
(da) posture of the door. Arrows indicate water pressure on the door; 
mp, middle piece, the arrow 4 indicating the direction of the thrust of 
the lateral hinges on it; p m p, arrow indicates the direct thrust of 
middle piece itself; ov, iv, outer and inner velum; pe, pavement; uh, 
upper hinge; 2, inner angle of the threshold, th; j, line of attach- 
ment of door to wall. 

FIG. 4. Section of trap so made as to allow one to look down through 
the door (regarded as transparent) so as to see the opening guarded 
by the outer velum. The two groups of glands on the door's outer 
surface are shown. The abrupt bend in the threshold is indicated by 
the transverse, curved dotted line. The other two dotted lines indicate 
the limits of the lateral hinge. Lettering as in previous figure. 

FIG. 5. Section across the entrance showing the deeply curved concave 
threshold (th) and the door fitting into it, held by the thrust of the 
lateral hinges (long arrow) on the middle piece (mp, short arrow). 
The dotted lines indicate flexures of the door edge on opening. 

FIG. 6. The various kinds of traps of U. volubilis. A, short stalked, basal 
trap; B, long stalked trap, with foliaceous stalk; C, rostrum of A; 
D, E, dorsal and lateral views of stolon trap. 

FIG. 7. Variants of the trap of U. Hookeri. A, large trap with deeply 
laciniate wings; B, its rostrum and wings seen from above; C, 
medium sized trap with broader wings; D, small trap with ventral 
wings suppressed, the dorsal wings and rostrum very slender. 



Plate 35. 

Traps of Utrkidaria species (all of the U. monanthos type) : 
FIG, i. Utricularia Singeriana F, Muell, 
FIG. 2. - U. Wdlichiana Wight. 
FIG. 3. U. Hamiltonii F. E. Lloyd. 
FIG. 4. U. Dunstani F. E. Lloyd. 
FIG. 5. U. lasiocaulis F. Muell. 
FIG. 6. Looking into the entrance of any of these species, the outer, 

circular velum, through the opening of which are seen the glands on 

the door surface. 

FIG. 7. U. Moorei F. E. Lloyd. 
FIG. 8. U. tubulata F. Muell. 
FIG. 9, U Uolzii F. Muell. and U. dbiflora R. Br. 
FIG. 10. U. Menziesii R. Br., seen from beneath. 
FIG. n. U. Menziesii) lateral view. 




11 



Plate 36. 

FIGS. 1-9, Poly pom pholyx; FIGS. 10-11, U. tubulata. 

FIG. i. Trap (side view) of P. niultijida F. Muell 

FIG. 2. Same, sagittal section: c, antechamber; d, door; ic, large inter- 
cellular space in the stalk; /, ridge along ventral surface of the 
stalk; z, a zone of hairs seen in FIG. i. 

FIG. 3. Transverse section, embracing part indicated by the parallel 
broken lines in FIG. i, looking inwardly; s, space above door; rf, 
door; c, back wall of antechamber; r, r\, ridge along the stalk; ic, 
intercellular space in the stalk. 

FIG. 4. Trap, view from above. Arrows indicate directions of approach 
of prey, as also in FIG. i. 

FIG. 5. Entrance, showing the door in the relaxed posture. The broken 
lines indicate the set posture (cf. 24 8). 

FIG. 6. Trap of P. tenella, from below. 

FIG. 7. Transverse section through body of trap of P. multifida, show- 
ing the occurrence of deep compression cells. 

FIG. 8. Transverse section of the threshold of the large traps of P. 
latifolia. 

FIG. 9. Same, of the small traps. 

FIG. 10. Growing point of Utricularia tubulata. 

FIG. ii. A whorl of very young leaves and traps alternating at the same 
level. Lateral view with growth apex above the numeral, axial view 
below. 



Plate 37. ~ 

Moving pictures showing the action of the trap of Utricularia, and of the sensitive hairs 
of Dionaea (all frames are 1/16 sec. apart, except in FIG. 2, in which they are 1/160 sec. 
apart, and in FIG. lA, which is time lapse): 

FIG. i A. Utricularia purpurea. Trap showing the exhaustion of the 
contained water and the consequent collapse of the walls, indicated 
by the distortion of a contained bubble of air. Moving picture: 
time lapse spread over about 2 hours. 

FIG. iB. The same, viewed edgewise, before and after action. 

FIG. 2. U. vulgaris. View looking into the entrance showing the open- 
ing of the door (in 1/160 sec.) and the subsequent closing in 4/160 
sec. The open door is seen in the third frame from top. The round 
object in front of the door is the knob of a glass probe. 

FIG. 3. U. vulgaris. The capture of a copepod. The trap was set in a 
shallow glass tank with walls to guide the copepod to the mouth of 
the trap. 

FIG. 4. The same. The lateral profile of a trap before and after (below) 
actuation. 

FIG. 5. Dionaea muscipula. Bending and straightening of a sensitive 
hair. 

FIG. 6. The "Darwin experiment," referred to in the text: the sudden 
disappearance of colored particles (here particles of carbon) resting on 
the door, on its actuation by a needle point slowly moved across the 
entrance. 

FIG. 7. U. gibba, capturing a larva. 

FIG. 8. U. purpurea. A trap swallowing a bubble. 

FIG. 9. U. vulgaris. Trap swallowing a glass bead and, in doing so, 
jumping at the probe. The trap had been removed from the plant. 



Plate 38. 

Animation of the trap of U. gibba, by Mr. HAROLD PEBERDY, illustrating 
its action in the capture of prey (Courtesy of the Associated Screen 
News, Montreal). 









IBl 




















^. : v^*'i^ 





















INDEX of PLANT and ANIMAL NAMES 



ACACIA, 30, 56 

Acaulopage, 173 

Aegopodium podagraria, 119 

Aldrovanda, i, 2, 5, 6, 7, 177, 181, 
182, 186, 189, 190, 192, 193, 194, 
195, 200, 203, 204, 205, 206, 208, 
209, 210, 211, 237, 239, 249, 267 

verticillata, 195 

vesiculosa, 177, 194, 195, 210, 

pl. 17, 19 

var. austrahs, 195 

Aldrovandia, 195, 210, 211 

vesiculosa, 210, 211 

Amoeba, 170*, 173, 174, 175 

proteus, 17 k 

sphaeronucleus, 174 

terricola, 173 

verrucosa, 175 

Anabaena a/ollae, 3 
Andromeda polifolia, 115 
Anguillulidae, 169 
Anopheles, 267 

albimanus, 267 

Anuria, 172 
Aphanomyces astaci, 176 

Magnusi, 176 

ovidestruens, 176 

Apogonia spherica, 73 
Aquilegia, 3 
Aranella fimbriata, 215 
Aristolochia, 3, 214 
Arthrobotrys, 4, 170, 171 

pligospora, 169, 170* 

Ascaris, 36 

lumbricoides, 36 

Asclepias, 4 

Cornuti, 8 

Auricularia, 119 
Azolla, 3 

BACILLUS AQUATICUS COMMUNIS, 265 

Bacterium coli, 265 

fluorescens liquefaciens, 72, 75 

prodigiosum, 75 

Bdellospora helicoides, 174 
Begonia, 132, 134 

Biovularia, i, 2, 7, 213, 214, 217, 

227, 228, 249, 257, 258 

minima, 213, 227, 228 

olivacea, 90, 213, 227, 228, pl. 

n 23, 27 

Brachionus, 172 

Brachydeutera argentata, 214 

Broccninia, 226 

Bufo marinus, 252, pl. 20 

Bulbophyllum, 65 

Byblidaceae, i, 95, 98 

Byblis, i, 2, 5, 35, 95, 97, 98, 99, 

100, 268, pl. 13, 14 

gigantea, 95, 96, 98, 99, 118, 

Unifoiia, 95, 96, 99, 117, pl. 14 

CALTHA DIONEAEFOLIA, 5, 6 

Cecropia, 56 

Cephalotaceae, i 

Cephalotus, i, 2, 15, 16, 38, 49, 62, 

79, 82, 86, 89, 264 

follicularis, 40, 81, 89, pl Q, 10 

Chironomidae, 78 
Chlorion Harrisi, 38 
Chrysamphora (see Darlingtonia), i, 

40 

Ciadonia uncinalis, 115 
Cladophora, 171 
Cochlonema dolichosporum, 174 

verrucosum, 174 

Codiaeum, 59, 60 

Colura, 3 

Coiurus, 171, 172 

Coprinus, 4 

atramentarius, 92 



Cordyceps, 2, 169, 174 
Cosmiza, 215 
Cotyledon, 67 
Crinum, 65 
Culicidae, 78, 267 
Cyclops, 234 

DACTYLARIA, 170 

Candida, 171 

Dactylella, 2, 170, 175 

bembicoides, 170*, 175 

tylopaga, 170*, 173 

Daphneae, 234 

Daphnia, 234 

Darlingtonia = Chrysamphora, i, 
2, 10, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 33, 35. 
38, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 
49, 69, 83 . 

cahfornica, 36, 39, 40, 49, 50, 

pl- 4> 5, ^ 

Delphinium, 3 

Diaptomus, 176 

Dionaea, i, 2, 5, 6, 7, 105, 109, 135, 
165, 177, 178, 181, 182, 186, 187, 
188, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 
197, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 
205, 209, 210, 211, 239, pl. 17, 37 

muscipula, 1^8, 177, 178, 179, 

210, 211, bl. 17 1 i8 t 37 
Dipsacus sylvestns, 3, 8 
Dischidia, 3, 65 

pectinoides, 3 

Pistomum hepaticum, 113 

Distyla, 172 

Dorniphora venusta, 38, 39 

Drosera, i, 2, 4, 5, 7, 35, 39, 70, 89, 
98, 99, loo, 102, 104, 105, 108, 
109, no, 113, 115, 116, 117, n8, 
119, 120, 124, 129, 134, 135, 136, 

138, 139, Ui, 150, 151, 158, 159, 
160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 
167, 168, 178, 182, 194, 201, 210, 

211, 245, pl. is, 16 
anglica, 115, 157 

auriculata, 118, 130, 168 

binata, 116, 117, 118, 131, 132, 

135, i39, 143, 144, 145, 157, 167 

capensis, 116, 118, 119, 128, 

132, 134, 135, 139, 143, 145, 161, 
165, 168, pl. 13, is 

dichotoma, 70, 116, 117, 118, 

139, 159, 166 

erythrorhiza, 117, pl. is 

filiformis, 115, 117, 118, 134, 

135, 163, 165 

gigantea, 115, 116, 118, 120, 

126, 139, pl. is, 17 

intermedia, 115, 116, 131, 132, 

139, '43, 144, 146, 165, 166, 167 

longifolia, 131, 138, 166, 168 

lunata, 118 

paleacea, 120 

peltata, 118, 120, 130, 134, 168, 

pl. 1 6 

pygmaea, 117, 118, 120, 122, 

130, 131, 166, pl is, 16 

regia, 115, 116, 117, 118, 168 

rotundifolia, 115, 116, 117, n8, 

119, 120, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 
135, 138, 139, 142*, 143, 144, 157, 
160, 163, 165, 166, 167, 168, pl. 
13, IS, 16, 17 

spathulata, 133, 143 

subhirtella, 118 

Whittakeri, 115, 118, 120, 123, 

125, 165, 167, 168, pl. 15 

Droseraceae, i, 95, 166, 177, 210 

Drosophila, 112, 139 

Drosophyllum, i, 2, 5, 96, 99, 100, 
101, 102, 104, 105, 117, 118, 122, 
124, 137, 152, 155, 166, 168 

lusitanicum, 99, 105, pl. 13, 14 



EMPUSA, 2 

Endocochlus asteroides, 174 
Erica tetralix, 5, 109 
Eriophorum vaginatum, 115 
Eugfena, 172, 265 
Exyra, 36, 37 

Ridingsii, 36, 37 

Rolandiana, 36, 37, 38 

semicrocea, 36, 37 

FLAGELLARIA, 59 
Frullania cornigera, 3 

GALTUM VERUM, 112, 161 
Genlisea, i, 2, 4, 7, oo, 94, 106, 213, 
216. 217, 230, pl. n, 12 

filiformis, 90 

ornata, oo, 94, pl. n 

repens, 92, pl. 9 

Gloriosa, 59 
Gossypium, 60 

HELIAMPHORA, i, 2, 9, 10, n, 14, 
IS, 16, 25, 30, 39, 43, 69, 89, 98, 

211 

Macdonaldae, 9, 12. 13*, pl. i 

minor, 9, n, 12, 13*, 16 

nutans, 9, n, 12, 13*, 16, pl. 

I, 2 

Tatei, 9, 12, 13* 

Tyleri, 11, 12, 13, 16 

Heteronema, 265 
Hydrolea, 5 * 

IMPATIENS, 191, 192 

Iris, 22, 29, 30, 31, 32, 39, 61, 67 

pallida, 67 

LATHRAEA SQUAMARIA, 3 
Lejeunea, 3 
Lemna, 119 

Lentibulariaceae, i, 7, 94, 95, 213, 
228, 267, 268, 270 

MARCGRAVIA, 3 
Marchantia, 131 
Martynia, 5 

Megarhinus acaudatus, 77 
Metopidia, 171, 172 
Metriocnemus Edwardsii, 36 

Knabi, 36 

Mimosa, 142, 179, 189, 191 
Mirabilis longifolia, 5 
Misumenops nepenthicola, 77 

Thienemannii, 77 

Molinia coerulea, 6, 8 
Monacrosporium, 170 
Monostyla, 171, 172 

NELUMBO, 30 

Neosciara Macfarlanei, 38 

Nepenthaceae, i, 79, 80 

Nepenthes, i, 2, 10, 16, 30, 34, 35, 
38, 39, Si, 52, 59, 60, 63*, 64, 65, 
66, 67, 69, 70, 71, 73, 74, 75, 76, 
77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 86, 88, 89, 
98, 114, 160, 161, 163, 164, 166, 
168, 211, 212, pl. 7, 8 

ampullaria, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 

57, 58, 64, 65, 66, 77, 78, 79, Pl- 
4,7,8 

Balfouriana, pl. 4, 7 

bicalcarata, 52, 55, 56, 57, 58, 

59, 62, 63*. 66, pl. 4, 7 

borneensis, 59 

Boschiana, 55 

Burbidgei, 56 

clipeata, 55, 60, 61 

destillatoria, 51, 76, 79 

dubia, 55, 57 

Edwardsiana, 56 

formosa, 62 



Francis E. Lloyd 



349 



Carnivorous Plants 



gracilis, 51, 55, pi. 7 

gracillima, 65 , 67 

Hibberdii, 75 

inermis, 55, 57, 64, 66, pi. 7 

intermedia, 55, 56, 58, 59, 62, 

63 *t * 7 u .. 

Ladenburgu, 57 

Lowii, 55, 57, 58, 64, pi. 7, 8 

Mastersiana, 68, 73, pi. 4 

maxima. 55, 57 

melampnora, 80 

mixta, 75, pi. 4 

M organ iana, 75 

paradisiaca, 72 

Pervillei, 68, pi. 7 

phyllamphora, 55, 57, 80 

Rafflesiana, 52, 59 

var. nivea, 56 

Rajah, 51, 56, 57 

stenophylla, 65 

Tiveyi, 57, 64, pi. 7, 8 

Veitchii, 51, 52, 57, 80 

ventricosa, 55, 56, 57, 66, 68, 

78, pi. 4, 7 

Vieillardii, 55 

yillosa, 51, 64 

Nicotiana tabacum, 5 
Noteus, 172 
Nymphaea, 32 

PAPAIPEMA APPASSIONATA, 36 

Paramaecium, 172, 265 

Paranema, 172 

Pecten, 204 

Pedilospora dactylopaga, 173, 175 

Pelargonium zonale, 5 

Phacus, 265 

Phalangium, pi 17 

Phaseolus multiflorus, 212 

Philodina, 172 

Phoridae, 78 

Phragmites, 209 

Physiotum, 3 

majus, 3 

Pinguicula, i, 2, 5, 7, 95, 106, 107, 
108, 109, no, in, 112, 113, 114, 
119, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 
168, 213, 264, pi. 15 

alpina, 114 

cuneata, 106 

gypsicola, 105, 106 

hirtiflora, no 

vulgaris, 106, 109, 112, 114, 

119, pi. 13, 15 

Pittosporaceae, 95 

Pleurothallus, 65 

Podostemonaceae, 226 

Polypompholyx, i, 2, 7, 60, 95, 98, 
213, 215, 216, 217, 218, 229, 230, 
254, 256, 257, 262, 268, 269, pi. 
26, 36 

latifolia, 230, 262, 263, pi 36 

multifida, 95, pi. 24, 36 

tenella, 95, 230, pi. 20, 22, 36 

Pothos, 60 
Primula sinensis, 5 

RHYNCHOSPORA ALBA, 115 
Ricinus communis, 74 
Roridula, i, 5, 8, 78, 98 
Rotatoria, 171, 172, 175, 176 
Rotifer, 172 

SALICORNIA, 65, 79 

Salpina, 171, 172 

Sarcophaga, 38, 77 

Sarracena, 18 

Sarracenia, i, 2, 9, 10, n, 15, 16, 
17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 24, 30, 32, 33, 
34, 35, 38, 40, 43, 45, 46, 47, 49, 
59, 62, 69, 81, 82, 83, 86, 89, 146, 
163, 245 

adunca, 18, 49, 66, 80 

Courtii, 17, 26 

Drummondii, 17, 27, 29, 30, 

33, 35, 37, 43, pi- I 

flava, 17, 21, 29, 30, 31, 33, 35, 

37, 38, 39, 46, 77, Pi- I 

Jonesii, 17, 30, pi. 3 

minor, 17, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, 

33, 34, 37,43, Pi- 1,3 
oreophua, 17 

psittacina, 17, 19, 22, 23, 24, 

25, 26, 27, 33, 34, 37, 43, pi- ', 3, 5 



purpurea, 17, 18, 19, 22, 23, 24, 

25, 26, 27, 28, 31, 33, 34, 35, 36, 
37, 38, 39, 43, 45, 46, 50, 146, Pl. 

gibbosa. 17, 18 

var. stolonifera, 39 

venosa, 17, 18 

rubra, 17, 33, 34, 37 

Sledgei, 17, 33, 35, 37 

variolaris, 39, 49 

Sarraceniaceae, i, 39, 4, 45, 48 
Saxifraga rotundifolia, 5 

umbrosa, 5 

Scheuchzeria palustris, 115 

Schrankia, 178 

Scirpus caespitosus, 115 

Sequoia gigantea, 115 

Sicyos, 192 

Silene, 5 

Sommerstorffia spinosa, 173, 175 

Sparmannia, 5 

Sphagnum, 19, 115, 116, 133 

Spirillum, 206 

Spirogyra, 207, 211 

Squalella, 172 

Stentor, 172 

Stylonychia, 172 

Stylopage, 175 

Syngonium podophyllum, 60 

TARSIUS SPECTRUM, 58 
Telenchus scandens, 169 
Tetralobus, 215 
Thomisus callidus, 77 

nepenthephilus, 77 

Tillandsia, 213, 226 
Torenia, 132 
Tradescantia, 18 
Trichothecium. 170 
Tussilago farfara, 119 
Typha, 209 

UTRICULARIA, i, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 60, 89, 
90, 91, 92, 94, 95, 106, 127, 152, 
160, 162, 167, 168, 194, 199, 204, 
207, 209, 210, 211, 213, 214, 216, 

219, 222, 226, 227, 228, 231, 236, 

237, 239, 242, 244, 247, 257, 263, 

264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 

pl 20, p, 33, 35, 37 

albiflora, 230, pl. 35 

amethystina, an. 257 

Barnesii, 232, pl 22, 33 

Berendii, 7 

bifida, 217, 218, 259, pl 22 

biloba, 225, 257, pl. 21, 27 

brachiata, 216, 232, 260, 267 

Bremii, 225 

caerulea, 231, 255*, 256, 258, 

259, pl. 24, 31 
calliphysa, 232, 260, pl. 33 

Campbelliana, 226 

capensis, 217, 218, 231, 254, 

2 55*, 256, 259, 260, 269, pl. 20, 

22, 24, 20, 31 

- capilliflora, 214, 215*, 218, 230 



globulariaefolia, 213, 232, 257, 

pl. 28 

Hamiltonii, pl. 35 

Holzii, pl. 35 

Hooken, 95, 218, 229, 230, 257, 

Humboldtii, 213, 226 

inflata, 2^0, 221, 223 

intermedia, 225, pl. 20, 21, 25 

Kirkii, 232, 260, pl. 33 

lasiocaulis, pl. 35 

lateriflora, 232, 256, 260, pl. 20, 

Lloydii, 232, 257, pl. 28 

longiciliata, 231, 232, 260, pl. 

longifolia, 213, 218, 226, 227, 

257, pl. 26 
Menziesii, 60, 95, 229, 230, 231, 

261, pl. 20, 23, 35 
minor, 214, 223, 224, 225, 242, 

245, 268, pl. 21 

mixta, 222, 223 

monanthos, 215, 217, 218, 229, 

230, 254, 256, 257, 261, pl. 22, 23, 

24, 34, 35 

montana, 219, 226, 227 

Moorei, bl. 35 

multi amis, 232, 260, pl. 32 

nana, 232, 246, 257, pl. 28 

nelumbifolia, 213, 217, 



226 



217, 219, 



clandestma 225, pl. 23 

cleistogama, 217, 221*, 235 

cornuta, 146, 227, 231, 245, 

256, 258, 259, 265, pl. 24, 30 



cymbantha, 213, 214, 222, 224, 

pl- 23 

Deightoni', 259, pl. 25, 31 

dichotoma, 229, 230, 254, 261, 

270 pl. 24 

Dunstam, 214, 215*, 230, pl. 

35 

Dusenii, 213, 216, 226, 227 

elephas, 219, 228, 258, pl. 27 

emarginata, 217, 218, 219, 222, 

224, 267, pl. 20, 21, 25 

Endresii, 213, 226 

equiseticaulis, 259 

exoleta, 216, 217, 218, 219, 222, 

223, 224, pl. 21, 26, 27 
nmbriata, 215 

flexuosa, 220, 223, 237, 238 

249, 254, 268, pl. 20 

gibba, 222. 224, 227, 230, 244, 

245, 252, 253*, 257, Pl. 21, 24, 25, 
26, 20, 37, 38 

Gfbbseae, pl. 31 



neottioides, 217, 226, 257, pl. 

26, 27 

ochroleuca, 225 

ogmosperma, 259 

oligosperma, 216, 218, 220, 222, 

223, 233, 246, pl. 21, 23 

oliva ea, 227 

orbiculata, 215, 216, 217, 225, 

231, 232, 260, pl. 22, 32 

paradoxa, 225, pl. 21 

peltata, 232, 259, pl. 25, 20 

purpurea, 214, 215, 216, 219, 

221*, 227, 228, 229, 2^s, 238, 241, 
257, 258, 269, pl. 20,26,27, 2Q, 37 

radiata, 220 

Rendlei, 226 

reniformis, 213, 216, 217, 219, 

226, 227, 257, pl. 21 
resupinata, 216, 225, 226, 268, 

pl. aj 27 

ngida, 216, 226 

rosea, 231, 260, pl. 22, 31 

simplex, 213, 231, 232, 260, 

Pl. 23 ' 

Singeriana, pl. 35 

stellaris, 220 221, 223, pl. 20 

Stephensae, 214, 224, pl. 23 

striatula, 232, pl 32 

subulata, 215, 216, 226, 231, 

2 '5 2 ' 2 S7 . .. 

Thonmngu, 220 

tubulata, 215, 219, 229, 230, 

261, pl. 35, 36 

violacea, 218, 229, 230 

volubilis, 229, 230, 231, 261, 

pl. 20, 23, 34 

vulgaris, 94, 213, 215, 216, 217, 

2l8, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 
225, 226, 227, 233, 235*, 237, 241, 
242, 243, 244, 245, 249, 254, 255*, 
257, 265, 267, 268, 269, 270, PL 
2O, 21, 25, 26, 2Q, 37 

americana, 246 

Wallichiana, pl. 35 

Warburgii, 231, 260 

Welwitschii, 60, 256, 259, pl. 

24, 3i 

Utriculariaceae, 269 
Utriculariae, 215 

VACCINIUM OXYCOCCUS, 115 

WllHELMINA NEPENTHICOLA, 80 

Wyeomyia Smithii, 36 

ZIZANIA, 209 
Zoopagaceae, 175 
Zoopage phanera, 174 
Zoophagus, 4, 175 

insidians, 170*, 171, 173, *75, 

176 



AUTHOR INDEX 



ABDERHALDEN, 71, 79, 159 

Adowa, AN., 264, 267 

Akerman, A., 127, 129, 148, 149, 

150, 151, 153, 155, 161, 165, pi. 17 
Aldrovandi, U , 195 
Amadei, C., 105 
Ames, M E. P., 49 
Ames, O., 133, 165 
Anderson, L. E., 30 
Arber, A , 13, 16, 23, 38, 49, 60, 62, 

79, 82, 83, 85, 89 
Arisz, W. H , 129, 165 
Armit, W E. 229 
Arnaudow, N , 173, 175 
Arnold, W, 119 
Asenjo, C. F., 36, 38 
Ashida, Joji, 186, 189, 190, 192, 193, 

194, 195, 197, 201, 202, 203, 204, 

205, 206, 2O7, 2O8, 2O9, 210, 211, 
212, pi. 18, IQ 

Aso, R , in, 114, 264 
Austin, R. M. L , 36, 48, 49 

BAAS BECKING, L. G. M , 69, 75, 

78, 161 

Baillon, H., 30, 38, 59 
Balfour, T. A. G., 194, 210 
Barnhart, J. H, 49, 53, 215, 228, 

231, 267 
Barrett, C , 96 
Bartram, Ch , 18 
Bartram, J., 178 
Bartram, Wm., 18, 32, 38 
Batalin, A , 21, 32, 38, 46, 48, 49, 

106, 109, 114, 142, 159, 165, 188, 

189, 190, 191. 193, 210 
Bath, W , 267 
Beck, A. B , 165, 167 
Behre, K , 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 

138, 143, 145, 164, 165, pi. 16 
Beijerinck, M. W., 131, 165 
Benecke, W , 147, 165, 167 
Benjamin, L., 90, 94, 234, 243, 248, 

267 

Bennett, A W , 165 
Bentham, G., 9, 10, 14, 16, 95, 262 
Berger, J , 36 38 
Bischoff, G. W , 53, 79 
Bobisut, 0., 66, 67, 68, 79 
Bok, R , 69 
Bokorny, T, 129, 147, 148, 151, 

153, 166 
Bower, F. O , 53, 54, 57, 59, 60, 62, 

79. 80, pi. 7 

Brackenridge, J D , 40, 49 
Brass, L J , 229 

Braun, A., 49 

Brocher, F., 233, 235, 236, 237, 238, 

239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 246, 

267 

Brongniart, A. T., 64, 79 
Brough, P., 131, pi. 16 
Broussonet, P. M. A , 186, 210 
Brown, R., 81, 89 
Brown, W. H., 6, 186, 187, 188, 190, 

191, 192, 193, 201, 205, 210 

Bruce, A N , 97, 98 

Bruecke, 189 

Brug, S. L., 80 

Brumpt, E , 267 

Buchenau, F., 221, 222, 223, 224, 

267 

Budde, E.,175 
BUnning, E., 206, 212 
Biisgen, M., 89, 162, 163, 166, 236, 

247, 248, 240, 264, 267 
Buller, A. H. R., 68, 92, 94, 131 
Burbidge, F. W. T. 52, 58, 59, 79 
Burdon-Sanderson, J., 186, 187, 188, 

*89, 193, 205, 210, 2ii 
Burnett, G. T., 18, 38 
Buscaghone, 5, 8, 209, 211, 268 
Buzacott, J. H., 252, pi 20 

CANBY, W. M., 38, 45, 49, 177, 180, 
210, 211 



Candolle, A P. de, 59, 79, 138, 166, 

215, 234, 267 
Candolle, C. P. de, 60, 79, 182, 189, 

2IO 

Carry, T. H , 4, 8 

Caruel, T., 7 

Caspary, R., 195, 196, 197, 199, 

210 

Catalan, M., 179 
Catesby, M , 18, 39 
Chandler, B , 267 
Chenon, L. J , 195 
China, W R., 98 
Christy, M., 4, 8 
Clairville, J P. de, 234 
Clarke, W. G., 267 
Clausen, J , 112, 113 
Clautriau, G., 73, 75, 79 
Clusius, C., 18 
Coelingh, W. M., 127, 134, 149, 150, 

151, 156, 166 
Cohn, F., 195, 196, 199, 201, 209, 

210, 212, 234, 235, 236, 239, 243, 

246, 249, 259, 264, 266, 267 
Coker, W C., 210, 212 
Colla, S , 112, 114 
Collinson, P , 18, 32, 39, 178, 210 
Commelin, J , 51 
Compton, R H , 216, 260, 267 
Correns, C , 116, 166 
Couch, J N , 170, 175 
Couvreur, 71, 72, 79 
Cramer, C , 8, 209, 210, 211 
Crouan, 234, 267 
Curry, D P , 267 
Curtis, M A , 177, 178, 180, 184, 

186, 188, 210 
Cuitis W., 79, 180, 210 

Czaja, A. T., 116, 127, 166, 197, 

201, 2O5, 2O6, 2O7, 2O8, 2O9, 210, 
236, 239, 240, 241, 243, 244, 246, 

249, 251, 253, 267, 208 
Czapek, F , 79, 112, 114 

DAKIN, W. J . 84, 87, 88, 89 

Danser, B. H , 51, 55, 57, 58, 65, 
78, 79 

Darlington, W., 40 

Darwin, C., 5, 7, 8, 32, 39, 49, 69, 
70, 90, 92, 94, 97, OQ, too, 101, 
102, 103, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 
no, in, 112, 113, 114, 115, 118, 

120, 121, 122, 125, 126, 127, 128, 

129, 136, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 

145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 

153, 155. 156, 158, 159, 161, 162, 

166, 177, 180, 182, it<3, 184, 186, 

187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 193, 194, 

195, 199, 2OO, 2O8, 2O9, 2IO, 211, 
234, 235, 236, 243, 244, 245, 246, 

248, 250, 259, 264, 266, 268 
Darwin, E., 118, 135, 166, 168, 179, 

i8o ; 210 
Darwin, F., 4, 8, 89, 90, 112, 146, 

147, 162, 163, 166, 193, 210 
Dean, B., 214, 243, 268 
Delpino, F., 5, 6 
Dernby, K. G., in, 113, 114, 159, 

161, 162. 166 

Dewevre, A., 100, 101, 103, 105 
Dickson, A., 52, 53, 59, 61, 62, 64, 

66, 79, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 87, 88, 

89 

Diderot, D., 179, 210 
Diels, L., 96, 98, 117, 118, 120, 130, 

164, 166, 210 
Dillon, J. J., 195 
Dillwyn, L. W., 178, 210 
Dixon, H. H., 133, 166, 224 
Dobbs, A., 178 
Domin, K., 95, 98 
Dover, C., 77, 79 
Drechsler, C., 170, 171, 173, 174, 

J 75 

Drude, 0., 8, 166, 268 
Dubois, R., 71, 72, 79, 159, 166 



Duchartre, P E., 30, 39 
Dufre"noy, J , 152, 153, 155, 166 
Duval-Jouve, J., 65, 79, 195, 200, 



EBSTEIN, 70 

Edwards, H , 35, 40, 45, 48, 49 

Edwards, S , 180 

Eichler, A. W., 82, 89 

Ekambaram, T , 237, 238, 240, 241, 

243, 248, 249, 250, 268 
Ellis, J., 138 177. 178, 179, 183, 

186, 210, 2ii 
Emerson, 7 
Engel, E. , 80 
Engler, A., 7, 89 
d'Entrecasteau, 81 

FAIVRE, E., 59, 79 
Fenner, C A , 15, 16, 21, 22, 23, 
33, 39, 65, 73, 74, 79, 9, 97, 98, 

99, loi, 102, 104, 105, 107, 108, 

IO9, 114, 117, 120, 121, 122, 123, 

124, 125, 126, 127, 129, 166, 195, 

196, 197, 199, 2OO, 2O5, 209, 211 

Fermi. C., 5, 8, 209, 211, 268 

Fernald, M L , 226, 268 

Fernandes, A., 105 

Flacourt, E. de, 51 

Franca, C., 8, 99, too, 103, 104, 105, 

122, 155, 166, 214, 243, 268 
Franklancl, 166 
PVaustadt, A , 182, 194, 211 
Fresenius, 169, 175 
Fry, R. E., 254 % 

GARDINER, W., 122, 146, 147, 148, 
149, 151. 153, 157, 166. 2ii 

Gardner, C. A , 81, 89 

Gardner, G , 213, 226, 268 

Gardom, 135, 136 

Gates, F. C., 268 

Geddes, P., 113, 114, 136, 166, 268 

Geitler, L., 175 

Gerard, J , 4, 18 

Gibbs, R. D , 268 

Gicklhorn, J , 170, 172, 173, 175, 176 

Giesenhagen, 254 

Giessler, A , 119, 166 

Gilburt, W. H., 65, 79, 89 

Girard, F. de, 94 

Gislen, T , 247, 268 

Glauer, 147, 166 

Gleason, H. A , 9, 12, 13, 16 

Gluck, H., 223, 224, 225, 268 

Goebel, K , 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 
15, 16, 19, 22, 23, 26, 29, 30, 31, 
32, 33, 39, 40, 42, 43, 45, 4<>, 47, 
48, 49, 52, 53, 54, 55, 59, 60, 61, 
62, 66, 68, 71, 72, 73, 76, 79, 80, 
82, 83, 86, 87 , 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 94, 

100, 101, 102, 103, 105, 106 107, 



108, 109, 

117, 118, 122, 124, 127, 130 

134, 139, 147, 148, 151, 153 



162, 163, 164, 166, 177, 180 181, 



182, 184, 185, 188, 194, 

199, 2OO, 2O1, 211, 217, 21} 
22O, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226 

228, 231, 232, 234, 235, 243 

246, 247, 254, 259, 26o, 262 

264, 268, pi. 2, 3, 6, 16 



196, 
219, 
227, 

245, 
263, 

von, 69, 70, 79, 






154, 



Gorup-Besanez, 

no, 114 

Graves. J. A., 133, 166 
Gray, A., 30, 39, 48, 49, 136, 235 
Green, J. R., 71, 79, 107, 114, 161, 

166 

Gressner, H., 107, 114 
Grimm, H. N., 72, 79 
Grisebach, H. R. A., 94, 227 
Gronland, T., 120, 121, 122, 166 
Grout, A. J., 133, 166 
Gruetzner, 70 
Guenther, 79 
Gurney, R., 267, 268 



Francis E. Lloyd 



351 



Carnivorous Plants 



Gustafsson, O., 112 

Guttenberg, H. von, 182, 188, igi, 

192, 211, 212 

HAAS, TH. P., pi. 9 
Haberlandt, G., 66, 68, 73, 79, 104, 
122, 124, 163, 166, 182, 185, 188, 

193, 105. 200, 211 
Hada, Y , 241, 265, 268 
Haidenhain. 70, 71 

Hamilton, A. G., 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 

87, 89, 98 

Harshberger, J. W , 99, 105 
Hausteutner, 209, 211 
Hayne, F. G., 138, 166 
Hegner, R. W., 39, 240, 241, 265, 

268 

Heide, F., 58. 62, 64, 79 
Heinncher, E.. 79, 116, 166, 211 
Hepburn, J. S., 23, 33, 34, 35, 36, 

38, 39, 48, 49, 74, 76, 77, 79 
Hermann, P , 51 
Higley, 32, 39 
Hildebrand, 6 
Hoehne, F C , 90, 227, 268 
Holm, T., 181, 211 
Holter, H , 160, 167 
Homes, M. V. L., 105, 120, 122, 123, 

124, 125, 136, 151, 152, 153, 154, 

155, 157, 166, pi, 16 
Hooker, H. D , Jr., 121, 142, 143, 

144, 166 
Hooker, J. D., 5, 8, 13, 18, 19, 20, 

21, 23, 32, 39, 42, 49, 52, 53, 54, 

55, 57, 58, 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 66, 

68, 69, 79, 135, 136, 166, 179, 211, 

212, pi 7 

Hornemann, J. W., 113, 114 
Hovelacque, M., 107, 114, 226, 243, 

268 
Huie, L M., 120, 121, 122, 125, 127, 

151, 157, 166 
Hunt, J. G , 64, 80 

IM THURN, E. F , 9, 16, 226, 268 
Irmisch, T , 222, 223, 268 

JANE, F. W., 217, 218, 268 

Janse, 163, 167 

Janson, E., 119, 129, 148, 151, 167 

Janti, J. V de, 80 

Jensen, H , 76, 77, 80 

Johnson, Th , 18 

Jones, I*. M , 8, 33, 36, 37, 38, 39, 

45, 48, 49, 77, 79, 178, 183, 184, 

188, 211, pi. 4 
Jost, L , 147, 165, 167 

KAMIENSKI, F , 213, 214, 218, 227, 

228, 268 
Keck, K., 49 

Kellermann, C., 162, 163, 167 
Kiesel, A., 265, 268 
Killip, E. F., 16 
Kirschleger, M., 131, 167 
Klein, J., 114 

Knoll, F., 66, 67, 68, 69, 80 
Kny, L., 66, 80 
Kok, A. C. A., 127, 128, 167 
Konig, C., 180 
Konopka, K., 123, 124, 125, 126, 

127, 136, 157, 158, 167 
Konsuloff, S., 176 
Korthals, P. W., 51, 53, 64, 80 
Korzschinski, S., 195, 196, 211 
Kostytschew, S., 119, 167, 194, 211 
Krattt, S., 9, n, 14, 15, 16, 39, pi. 2 
Kramer. W. de, 75, 76 
Kruck, M., 127, 152, 167, 239, 240, 

241, 243, 244, 245, 268 
Kuhlmann. J. G., 268 
Kupper, W., 67 
Kurtz, F., 40, 42, 43, 49, 182, 211 

LABBE. E., 160, 167 

La Billardiere, J. J. Houton de, 81 

Lambert, G., 33, 39 

Lang, F. X., 95, 96, 98, 216, 262, 

263, 268 

Lass us, A. de. 201, 211 
Lcavitt, R. G., 130, 131, 132, 133, 

167 

Lehmann, 215 
Lemmon. T. G.. 4.2. 44. 4.0 



Linderstr0m-Lang, 160, 167 
Lindley, J., 30, 39, 183, 211 
Lindman, C. A. M., 112, 114 
Linnaeus, C., 17, 18, 32, 39, 112, 

138, 178, 179, 195, 210, 211 
Lipman, 180 
Lloyd, F. E., 5, 8, 9, 10, 13, 16, 78, 

80, 87, 89, 95, 98, 211, 214, 216, 

218, 229, 233, 238, 240, 241, 243, 
251, 254, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 
268, 269 

TObel, M. de, 17 
Loew, O., in, 114, 119, 148, 264 
Loureiro, J., 52 
Lubbock, T., 130, 167 
Ludlow, pi. 32 
Ludwig F., 6, 8 

Luetzelburg, P. von, 226, 228, 234, 
235, 243, 258, 264, 265, 269 

MACBETH, A. K , Jr., 131, 165, 167 

Macbride, J., 18, 19, 32, 39, 49, 66, 
80 

McClosky, 47 

MacDougal, D. T., 19, 21, 22, 39, 
163, 167, 206, 211 

Macfarlane, J. M., 9, 10, 16, 19, 20, 
24, 25, 28, 30, 39, 41, 42, 43, 45, 
49, 52, 53, 55, 56, 57, 59, 60, 61 
62, 64, 65, 66, 68, 74, 79, 80, 183, 
185, 186, 187, 188, 190, 191, 192, 
211, pi 7 

McGee, J M.. 168 

McLean, R C., 113, 114 

Macnamara, C., pi. i 

Mangin, L., 65, 80 

Marloth, R , 117, 167 

Marshall, W., 108 

Massart, J., 163, 167 

Matheson, R , 214, 251, 269 

Maury, P., 89 

Mayr, F. X , 244, 269 

Meehan, 210 

Meierhofer, H., 220, 235, 243, 245, 
249, 250, 269 

Mellichamp, J. H., 17, 19, 26, 32, 
39, 49 

Menzel, R , 80 

Menzies, A., 81 

Merl, E , 127, 201, 216, 217, 218, 

219, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 243, 
249, 260, 269 

Merz, M., 216, 217, 269 

Metzner, P ,206, 211 

Meyen, F. J F , 64, 80, 121, 138, 

167, 180, 187, 188, 211, 234, 269 
Meyer, A., 100, 101, 103, 105 
Meyer, F. J., 244, 269 
Milde, J., 138, 167 
Mirande, R., 172, 176 
Mirimanoff, A., in, 112, 114, 167 
Mohnike, 72, 80 
Monti, G., 195, 197, 201, 211 
Mori, A , 200, 201, 211 
Morison, R., 18 
Morren, Ch., 30, 39, 60, 80 
Morren, E., 5, no, 114, 159, 167, 

170, 210, 269 
Morrison, A., 130, 167 
Mosely, H. N., 269 
Moulaert, B., 133, 167 
von Mueller, 229, 230 
Munk, H., 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 



NAUDIN, M., 121, 131, 167 

Neubauer, M., 165, 107 

Nicolosi-Roncati, F., no, 114 

Niel, C. B. van, 120 

Nitschke, T., 115, 116, 118, 120, 122, 
125, 127, 130, 131, 136, 138, 139, 
140, 141, 142, 167, 196, 2ii 

Nold, R. H., 127, 241, 242, 243, 244, 
269 

DELS, W., 167 

Okahara, K., 159. 160, 161, 162, 

167, 168 

Oliver, D., 16, 268, 269 
Olivet, R., 112, 114 
Olsen-Sopp, 113 
Oosterhuis, J., 164, 165, 1 68 
Oppenheimer, C., 112, 114, 269 
Osborn. C. S.. 8 



Oudemans, C. A. J. A., 55, 64, 65, 
66, 80, 177, 180, 182, 184, 187, 

194, 211 

Oudman, J., 127, 128, 129, 165, 168 
Oye, P. van, 80 

PAGE, 210 

Peberdy, H , pi. 38 

Peirce, J. G., 7, 8 

Penzig, O., 100, 101, 105, 120 

Peyronel, B., 164, 168 

Pfeffer, W., 2, 8, 112, 127, 141, 146, 

163, 164, 168, 194, 209, 2ii 
Planchon, J.-E., 8, 95, 98 
Plukenet. L., 196, 211 
Porsild, M. P., 269 
Prantl, H., 7, 89 
Prdt, S , 240, 269 
Price, T. R., 131, 167 
Pringsheim, N., 218, 220, 222, 223, 

224, 269 

QUINTANILHA, A., 99, IO2, IO4, IO5, 

152, 153, 168, pi. 13 

RAUMER, E. VON, 162, 163, 167 
Rees, M , 70, 80, no, 114, 159, 168, 

194. 2it 

Regel, E., 163, 168 
Rennerfelt, E., 176 
Rennie, E. D , 130, 168 
Ridley, H N., 269 
Riley, C. V., 38, 39 
Robinson, Heath, 267 
Robinson, W J., 33, 34, 39, 76, 80, 

132, 133, 141, 159, 168 
Roeper, J., 166 
Rosenberg, O, 126, 127, 128, 157, 

158, 168 
Ross, H., 9=;. 98 
Rossbach, G. B., 269 
Roth, A. W , 135, 138, 168 
Roxburgh, 195 
Ruiter, C. de, 58, 80 
Rumphius, G. E , 77, 78 
Ruscnmann, G., 127, 164, 168 

SACHS, J , 55 

Saint-Hilaire, A. de, 30, 39, 90, 94, 

St John, E. Q., 33, 35, 39, 48, 49, 

79 

Salisbury, 133 
Sarrazin, M. S , 17, 18 
Scarth, G. W, 207, 211 
Schacht, 121 
Schenck, H., 269 
Schenk, A., 8, 166, 209, 211, 268 
Scherffel, A., 176 
Schikora, F , 176 
Schimper, A. F. W., 32, 33, 39, 146, 

148, 150, 151, 153, 168, 231, 245, 

258, 259, 269 
Schleiden, M. J., 234 
Schlicht, 163, x68 
Schmid, G , 117, n8, 119, 126, 130, 

141, 112, 162, 164, 168, 186 
Schmitz, P. H. S. J., 80 
de Schoenfelt, 210 
Schomburgk, R., 9, 16 
Schwartz, O , 269 
Sharp, L. W., 187, 188, 201, 210 
Sherreff, pi. 32 
Shocotyoffj 162 
Silberschmidt, K., 206, 211 
Simms, G. E., 269 
Sjmpson, pi. 33 
Sims, J., 52, 80, 178, 180, 2ii 
Skutch, A. F., 270 
Small, J., 1 20, 137, 140, 168 
Smith, 18, 39 
Smith, C. M., 177, 181, 195, 196, 

an, pi. 17 
Smith, W. W., 9 
Sdrensen, 74 
Solander, D., 178 
Solereder, H., 99, 105, 118, 168, 

182, 212 
Sommerstorff, H., 171, 172, 173, 

176 

Sparrow, F. K., 173, 176 
Spoehr, H. A., 119, 168 
StSrke, A., 80 
Stahl. E.. 163. 164, 167. 168 



Index of 



362 



Personal Names 



Stapf, 0., 226, 232, 233, 260, 270 

Steckbeck, D. W., 19, 39 

Stedman, H., 98 

Stein, B., 201, 212 

Stephens, E. L., 116, 168, 195, 213, 

254, 270 
Stern, 52, 53, 55, $6, 61, 62, 65, 68, 

7i, 74, 75, 80, 206, 212, pi. 7 
Storer, T. I., 6 
Stutzer, M. J., 160, 168, 265, 270 

TAIT, W. C., 99 

Tate, G. H. H., 9, 10, n, 12, 13, 

pi. i 

Tate, L., 70, 80, 88, 89, 159, 168 
Taylor, pi. 32 
Temminck, C. J., 80 
Teruuchi, 71, 79 
Thienemann, A , 77, 78, 80 
Thompson. G. M., 270 
Thomson, R. B., 132 
Thomson, T., 195. 212 
Tieghem, Th. van, 234, 270, pi 21 
Tischutkin, N., 71, 72, 80, no, in, 

112, 114, 159, 168 
Topp, C. A., 270 
Torrey, J., 40, 42, 43, So 
Tournefort, 17, 1 8 
Tradescant, J., 18 
Treat, M., 168, 234, 235, 264, 270 
Tre"cul, A., 65, 80, 120, 121, 122, 

136, 138, 168 
Treviranus, C. L, 64, 80, 138, 168, 

234, 270 



Troili-Petersson, 113 

Troll, W., u, 16, 19, 20, 30, 31, 32, 
38, 39, 41, 43, 46, 47, So, Si, 52, 
53, S^, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 79, 80, 
81, 83, 89, 168, 196, 212 

Turner, W., 4 

Tutin, T. G., 94 

ULE, E , 213, 270 
linger, F., 65 

Uphof, J. C. Th., 17, 23, 39, 270, 
pi ! 

VALKONOV, A , 176 

Vickery, J. W., 130, 132, 133, 134, 

168, pi 16 

Vines, . H , 70, 71, 72, 73, 80 
Voelker, A., 69, 80 
Vogl, A., 19, 39, 50 
Vouk, V., 80 
Vries, H. de, 146, 147, 148, 149, 151, 

153, 168 

WALCOTT, M. V., 38, 39 

Wallace, A. R , 72, 76 

Warming, E., 90, 94, 120, 122, 168, 

216, 217, 218, 228, 230, 270 
Weber, Fr., 137, 165, 168 
Wehrle, E., 242, 270 
Wells, B. R , 268 
Went, F. W., 224, 252 
Weyland, H., 164, 168 
Whately, 135, 136, 168 
Wherry, E. T, 17, 23, 35, 39 



White, J., 159, 168 

Wilkes, 40 

Will, H , 69, 70, 79, 80, no, 114, 



150, 168, 194, 2ii 
von Wilier, : 



, 114 

Wilson, W. P., 26, 39 

Wilstatter, 119 

Winkler, H., 132, 135, 168 

Winzor, F. L., 131, 165, 167, 168 

Withering, 136 

Withycombe, C. L., 237, 238, 240, 

241, 242, 243, 270 
Wolf, F. A., 30 
Wollny, E., 116, 168 
Woolls, W , 83, 89 
Woronin, 169 
Wright, C , 90, 9*, 227 
Wunschmann, E., 51, 59, 66, 79, 

80 
Wylie, R. B., 216, 270 

YOCOM, A. E., 216, 270 
Young, R. G. N , 256, pi. 21 
Young, W., 178, 179, 212 

ZACHARIAS, E., 80 

Zeeuw, J. de, 66, 68, 75, 76, 80, 161 

Ziegenspeck, H , 127, 157, 167, 188, 

189, 192, 212 
Zimmermann, A , 66, 80 
Zipperer, P., 9, 16, 19, 22, 28, 32, 

33, 34, 39 
Zopf, W., 169, 171, 175, 176