(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Carpenter"

JMiJippa||.|. iipnnqiF 




Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

Lyrasis IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/carpenter35unit 



If it's a FORD it's the Best 




Ford Bits and Augers are profitably handled by dealers from 
Maine to California; in Europe, South America and Australia. 
This wide distribution and successful selling is a significance 
of QUALITY — satisfaction from both dealer s and customer* s 
standpoint. Write for circulars. 

FORD AUGER BIT COMPANY, Holyoke, Massachusetts 




The more good tools you use 

the more good work you turn out, and every 
"YANKEE" Tool adds to your efficiency as a 
mechanic. There are now over a hundred 
"YANKEES" and more coming. Won't yoii get 
acquainted w^ith the w^hole bunch ? Our Tool 
Book w^ill do it. Start a postal after it ; we'll do 
the rest. 

Your dealer sells the "YANKEE." 

NORTH BROS. MFG. CO., Philadelphia, Pa. 



TAINTOR POSITIVE SAW SETS J^A^ 

the setting. Setting easily 
returned to. 

Numbers on anvil do NOT refer 
to number ef teeth on saw. 
The tooth is in every 
way protected vrhile beins 
•et, and is left in the best 
possible shape. 

Ask your hardware 
merchant for it, also to 
•how yon our Adjustablo 
Handle. Double Plunger 
Set. Send for our free 
booklet, "Susgestione on 
tho care of Saws." 

TAINTOR MFG. CO. 

95 Read* St.. NEW YORK 




This paper euaran- 
tees we will do as 
we adveitise. 




pARPENTERS can eet the SELF-SETTING PLANES on trial, 
^^ direct from our factory, if not kept by local dealers. 

in ^^ting for particulars if you mention this paper and send 10 
addresses of carpenters, no matter where they live, we will send you 
a 4 inch rule and our $1.00 Certificate, which we receive as $1.00 
if you send for a plane on trial as the $ 1 .00 Certificate says. A trial 
costs you nothing if you return the plane at our expense. 



GAGE TOOL CO. 



Vineland, N. J. 



TfiQ CarpQntQr 



SARGENT 



rAL R new Rafter Square, No.SOOR, 
A'^ is the most complete Square 
ever made for the carpenter. 

It contains accurate measurements 
■for ail kinds of rafters, common, hip, 
hValley, jack and cripple— in the most 
f^convenient form. 



These measurements are all given 
on the Square; they are complete, 
correct and final. They save the 
trouble of multiplying and dividing 
and then obtaining a result about 
which there is some doubt. 




Simple and easy to use. 
time saver. 



A c;Tcat 



For full description and directions 
for using send for the Sargent Square 
booklet, free on request. 




The Carpenter As Walt Mason 
Sees Him 

With shining weapons newly sharp- 
ened, the carpenter goes forth to car- 
pent. No work of his is e'er a fizzle, but 
every product of his chisel, and of his 
plane and saw and measure, increases hu- 
man peace and pleasure. Oh, where 
would be your vine-clad cottage, in which 
you hit the eggs and pottage; and where 
would be your stately palace, where 
would be the school or college, imparting 
forty kinds of knowledge, but for the 
man whose saw and hammer kick up all 
day so glad a clamor. The man who 
nails ' the boards and shingles deserves 
all praise in prose and jingles; he builds 



the homes in which we tarry, in which 
we dance and sing and marry. He builds 
the church wherein the pastor explains 
the doctrines of the Master, our world- 
worn spirits elevating, he builds the 
rinks where we go skating, he builds the 
bleachers where we gather, to see the 
game, the whole blamed slather; and 
when we're done with this world's mud- 
dle, he builds the box in which we cuddle. 
The Carpenter, in all the ages, has done 
far more than bards and sages to make 
the world a better planet than 'twas 
when Eve and Adam ran it. He builds 
the homes, while t'other fellows just sit 
around and work the bellows. — Omaha 
World-Herald. 



NEW EDITION JUST OFF THE PRESS 

Th=«v„thedilionofTHE LIGHTNING ESTirsflATORunowr^dy. En. 

larped and brought up to date. Teaches you to estimate house wrork in an easy, rapid, accurate 
and practical manner. Gives actual cost of each separate part of the labor and material. 
Guards against errors and omissions. Based on actual experience, not theoiy. Qyickest re- 
liable method in use today. Now is the time to post yourself on this vital part of the business. 



BRADT PUBL^S^'?^G CO. 



PRICE POSTPAID $1 

1265 Michigan Ave. 
1 



00 



JACKSON, MICHIGAN 



TfiQ Carpontor 



I When You Buy a Saw Buy a Good One 

B ^/^Oli work Kard for your mone]? and wKen 3?ou spend it, you are entitled 
B X to get value received. If you want a sav? fKat will Kold its edge longer — 
M ^at will run easier — 4iat will cut faster — 4iat will run true to tKe line 

B and give you all around better satisfaction — {hat's your business. Tour dealer 

m is obliged to give you wKat you want, and you should, therefore, demand 

I AtkinsSSaws 

g We make a Perfect Saw for 

M Everp Purpose — all of 4ie ^ s-s-^ 

J finest material and most sci- 

I entii^call^) constructed, as a Atkins No. 51 

M good mechanic wants {hem to be. Here are a few, but if you want to see ^e 

I entire line, {hen write to {he nearest address belo\^ and ask for our free Carpen- 

B ters' Catalog called "Saw 

M Sense," toge{her with cost 

I for all kinds of Saws. Tells 

H you all about them and gives 

M valuable hints for the filing 

H and care of saws. 





J^tkins No. 63 




Atkins No. 2, Compass Saw 



We manufacture ^e finest Hand, Rip, Panel, Compass, KeyKole, Back, Coping, Butcker, KitcKen 
ana all omer kinds of Saws for all purposes as well as Hack Saw Blades and Frames, Metal Cutting 
Hand Saws, Saw Fitting Tools, Floor and Cabinet Scrapers as well as a complete line of Ratchet 

and Bit Braces. Demand ATKINS SILVER STEEL. Made hs 

E. C. ATKINS & CO., Inc., The Silver Steel Saw People 

Home Oflice and Factory, Indianapolis, Ind. Canadian Factory, Hamilton, Ont. 
Machine Knife Factory, Lancaster, N. "If. 

Branches carrying complete stocks in the following cities: Address E. C ATKINS & CO., Atlanta, Chicago, 

Memphis, Minneapolis, New Orleans, New Tork City, Portland, Ore., San Francisco, 

Seattle, Vancouver, B. C, Sydney, N. S. W. 



A Monthly Journal for Carpenters, Stair Builders, Machine Wood Workers, 
Planing Mill Men, and Kindred Industries 



Entered February 13, 1903, at Indianapolis, Indiana, as second class mail matter, under the Act of Congress of March 3, 1879 



Volume XXXV-No. 1 
Established in 1881 



INDIANAPOI^IS, JANUARY, 1915 



One Dollar Per Year 
Ten Cents a Copy 



® 


Some Questions 

■ 


® 


1 


Do you come nearer day by day 




y 


To the port inhere your dreams all anchored lie ? 




/ 






Or do you sail farther and far away 










In an angry sea with a sullen sky ? 










Do you come nearer the Ought-to-be 










In the Wagon you hitched to a distant star ? 










Or do you drift on hopelessly, 






( 


El 


Content to bide with the Things-that-are ? 


1 




Are you a Drone or Do-it-now ? 






A Hurry-up or a Wait-a-while ? 






A Do-it-so or an Anyhow ? 






A Cheer-up-boys or a Never-smile ? 






It's none of my business, that I J^now, 






For you are the captain and mate and crew 






Of that ship of yours, but the Where-you-go 






Depends on the What-and-how-you-do . 






Are you a Yes or a Maybe-so ? 






Are you a Will or a Guess-you'll-be ? 






A Come-on-lads or a Let's-not-go ? 






A Yes-I-will or an Oh-I'll-see ? 






It isn't the least concern of mine. 






' I know that well, but as time endures, 






When they thresh the wheat and store the wine. 






You'll find it's a big concern of yours. 





Jfia CarpQntor 




MAINlvY ABOUT RBSOI^UTION 49 

(By Benjamin Fried.) 
OOKING backward to committee was carried with hardly any 



our last convention, 
with the eyes of a re- 
viewing critic, those 
of us who had the op- 
portunity to be in at- 
tendance will admit 
that as a whole "it 
was a good conven- 
tion;" in many re- 
spects better than 
some of its predeces- 
sors. Although there were no great is- 
sues in sight, such for instance as at 
Washington, where the whole delegation 
was divided in two camps to fight out 
the future destiny of our organization, 
the convention was in no way lacking in 
initiative and progressive spirit. 

Looking over some of the amendments 
and resolutions that went by undisputed, 
or with little if any opposition, one won- 
ders what great strides and changes of 
mind and thought our organization is 
undergoing from year to year, from con- 
vention to convention. While some six 
or eight years ago resolutions of a pro- 
gressive nature were as a rule buried 
hopelessly, either by committees or on 
the floor, two years ago a resolution call- 
ing for the propagation of the abolition 
of the wage system and the establish- 
ment of a co-operative commonwealth, 
although non-concurred in by the com- 
mittee, was carried amid applause by the 
majority of the delegates but defeated 
by a referendum vote of the member- 
ship. 

A similar resolution, advocating the 
public ownership of the means of pro- 
duction and distribution, was favorably 
commented upon at our last convention 
by the committee on resolutions with the 
following words: "Your committee rec- 
ommends that this convention go on rec- 
ord as favoring the ownership and con- 
trol of public utilities and machinery as- 
sociated with the presenting to the la- 
borers of our country the necessaries of 
life." And the recommendation of the 



opposition. 

If the assumption is correct that the 
delegates of the convention reflect and 
represent the spirit and the ideas of the 
"brothers at home," the adoption of this 
resolution indicates a revolution which 
has taken place in the minds of the 
American workingmen. But, no doubt, 
there is still a large proportion of our 
members that are not in accord with the 
character of this resolution; on the con- 
trary, they believe in the present order 
of society, which means, to speak more 
to the point, in the private ownership of 
the means of production and the neces- 
saries of life. And just as a truly dem- 
ocratic institution will not always rule 
by virtue of its power, but also will con- 
sider the views and needs of a minority, 
we are ready to hear the other side. It is 
the purpose of this article to invite a 
general discussion on this topic, as no 
doubt a friendly and objective .inter- 
change of ideas on this interesting and 
vital subject will call forth the attention 
of many readers of our journal, "The 
Carpenter." 

In order to open the discussion we 
shall briefly outline the purpose and in- 
tent of Resolution 49. In its first part 
the resolution reads that the modern way 
of production with labor-saving machin- 
ery not only creates a superfluous army 
of unemployed, but also to a large de- 
gree eliminates skilled labor, and while 
under normal conditions there are be- 
tween one and a half and two millions 
of unemployed in our country, these 
numbers increase in times of industrial 
depression to twice and more that num- 
ber. These are indisputable facts, which 
are based upon statistics compiled by our 
government and municipal authorities. 
We shall, therefore, assume that we all 
agree on the existence of this evil. This 
evil is termed by sociologists "a prob- 
lem" — one of the social problems. The 
question which confronts us is: How can 
this problem be solved ? Some claim 



that it cannot be solved at all. There 
are such, in the first place, who like to 
see a large reserve army of unemployed 
always at their disposition, as for in- 
stance large capitalists, who realize that 
they would be at a great disadvantage 
if it were solved; and, no doubt, from 
their standpoint, they are quite correct. 
We can easily stretch our imagination 
and begin to realize the predicament of 
the Rockefellers in Colorado, the Bel- 
monts in New York, the copper kings, 
the steel trust, the textile magnates and 
so on down the line, in case of strikes, 
if it was not for those who have been 
rendered derelicts by this system which 
produces the reserve men and women 
without any subsistence, the unemployed 
and the industrial slaves on one side, and 
a few magnates who control almost in- 
conceivable riches on the other side. We 
could go a step further and paint a pic- 
ture of the life of a carpenter in the 
city of Chicago or New York, when, 
instead of having to hunt from job 
to job and from shop to shop in the hot 
sun in July, or through snow and sleet 
in the dreary winter days, we would 
have our employers standing in a bread 
line in front of our headquarters trying 
to secure the services of some Mr. Car- 
penter. 

Then there is another type of men, who 
are neither large nor small capitalists, 
but who, through some lucky circum- 
stances, never know what "hunting for 
a job" is. They claim — as we have often 
heard and read about — that every man 
who wants to work can always get work. 
Such people we would advise to get in 
touch with our New York reform city 
government, which is just now grappling 
with the problem to provide work for 
the unemployed. Our city opened up a 
labor bureau. The next day over two 
thousand men and women struggled hard 
to get the first chance, but only about 
two dozen could be placed; the others 
had to be turned away. It goes with- 
out saying that this reform experiment, 
like so many charitable institutions, pays 
no heed whatever to the prevailing union 
conditions. Some of our readers may 



TfiQ CarpQntar 

say: "Now, what has all this to do with 
the private or collective ownership of 
the means of production and distribution 
of the necessaries of life?" We answer: 
"Everything." But we shall not go into 
details at this time, but just pave the 
way for a broad and general discussion 
of the subject. 

We shall further take the liberty to 
presume that all of the foregoing state- 
ments will be accepted as correct by the 
readers of The Carpenter, and that so 
far harmony of opinion prevails. Then 
v/e will venture on the question from a 
standpoint where no doubt differences 
will arise, and that is: "The solution of 
the question." 

The conservative trade unionist offers 
solution through organization: Namely, 
shortening of hours of labor and in some 
instances the restriction of immigration. 
But we — on the other side — which means 
the movers and supporters of Resolution 
49 (or to be concise, the majority of dele- 
gates to our last convention, and also to 
the Washington convention), signified by 
vote that (while the shortening of 
hours of labor must always be the fore- 
most demand of organized labor) this 
remedy alone is not adequate to solve the 
problem. 

Therefore, they voted to aim at 
the abolition of a system which, as we 
have demonstrated, creates a condi- 
tion which is a necessity for one class 
and an evil to the other class. 

With this introduction we shall con- 
clude our aiticle, hoping to arouse a gen- 
eral interest in this serious problem, 
v/hich at all times is a menace to the 
very existence and- welfare of the most 
useful part of the population — the work- 
ing people — of our fair land. 



Pleasant People 

To be pleasant is an achievement, and 
in some fortunate people it rises into the 
region of genius and becomes a moral 
quality of the highest value. Pleasant 
people make the common day as agree- 
able as the uncommon day, when all 
things work together for our happiness. 
— Hamilton W^right Mabie. 



T/\Q CarpQntQr 




THE QUAI^ITY AND CARE OF TOOIyS 

(By John Upton.) 
E know from general takes good workmen, good materials, 



experience that the 
quality and care of 
the tools one uses 
helps us to estimate 
the kind of mechanic 
their owner is, but 
how are the tools 
themselves to be 
judged ? For in- 
stance, in buying 
tools how is one to 
know the good ones ? Some look well 
and at first sight seem to be of the best 
grade, but often upon taking them home 
and using them they soon dull, and what 
seemed to be an excellent quality of steel 
is in reality a very inferior grade with 
a high polish. 

The real quality of any tools you buy 
depends on the factory that makes them, 
on the skill and ability of the workmen 
who are employed and the raw materials 
and machinery they have to work with. 
The question is simply whether the men 
who run the factory want to make good 
tools or poor ones. There are both kinds 
of factories. You may wonder that any- 
one would want to make poor tools; per- 
haps they do not really want to; maybe 
they would prefer to make good ones, 
but they can make poor ones and they 
can sell them at a profit, so poor ones it 
is, and some one buys them. 

Those who make good, reliable tools 
put their names or the name of the fac- 
tory on them; you can find out where a 
good tool was made, but the poor ones 
are something for which no one wants 
to be responsible. 

If you do not get tools that bear the 
maker's brand you cannot be sure of 
their quality- — you cannot tell who made 
them. Only the makers can be sure of 
the quality of the goods and the whole- 
saler and the retailer must depend on 
him. 

You probably know from experience 
that it is not an easy matter to turn out 
a high-quality product at all times. It 



good machinery, testing, inspection, and 
money. So how can you expect to get 
good tools if you buy those that are 
made to sell, not to be used? Quality in 
tools means not only the materials and 
workmanship put into them, but also 
that they are suitable for the mechanic's 
use, and will prove economical not only 
in cost, but in the labor required in their 
use. 

There are new tools being constantly 
put on the market by new firms. As 
some of these are of special use, it is 
well to remember that the cheap ones 
are apt to be too cheap to be good and 
that a good, honestly made article must 
be sold at a good price. 

It is not enough that one has good 
tools; he must use care to keep them in 
good order and ready for use. I think 
I would sooner chance the man who had 
a fair outfit of even cheap tools in good 
order, clean and free from rust, and 
ready for use, than the one with a chest 
full of what had once been good, high- 
grade tools, but which were spoiled by 
neglect and misuse. 

There is nothing like having a place 
for every tool and keeping it there when 
not in use. No man should use a dull 
tool. If there is time to use it there 
must be time to put it in order. 

We are of late learning something 
about grinding tools; for example, that 
many more are spoiled by improper 
grinding than are spoiled from defects 
in the metal or the original temper. 
When we go to grind tools we realize 
that it is what may be termed non-pro- 
ductive work, and while we believe the 
old saying that no time is lost in keep- 
ing tools in order, we are anxious to get 
through as soon as possible and get back 
to the work. This has a tendency to 
make almost every man use unnecessary 
force or pressure in applying the tools 
to the grindstone and without realizing 
it he injures the temper of the tool. 

The proper grinding of a tool consists 



of protecting the temper as well as 
grinding to proper shape. Really pro- 
tecting the temper is of the utmost im- 
portance, for, as to the shape, if at first 
you don't succeed you can try again, but 
if the temper is injured it is not so read- 
ily remedied. When you make sparks 
or turn blue spots on the edge of a tool 
you are injuring it. There are two ways 
that heat may injure metal: One is to 
draw the temper and make it soft, the 
other to burn the edge and make it crum- 
ble. When either happens the injury has 
been done and the tool is not worth as 
much as it was. 

Keep this in mind and when you go 
to grind tools again don't be in too big 
a hurry. Be patient, do the work thor- 
oughly, take time enough to do it right, 
and you will be rewarded by having tools 
that will hold their edge much better. 
Of course, the grinding won't put tem- 
per or metal into cheap tools that have 
not quality to begin with, but careless 
grinding will soon ruin good tools, as in 
fact will abuse of any sort. Be careful 
to get good tools in the first place, and 
then take pains and put in more time on 
the grinding so as to keep them in good 
shape. 



TAq Carpontar 

The wooden parts of tools, as handles 
of chisels, and planes are sometimes 
given a polish, but a much better plan is 
to let them soak in linseed oil for a few 
days, then rub them with a cloth at short 
intervals for a week or two. 

To keep tools from rusting take half 
an ounce of camphor, dissolve in one 
pound melted lard, remove the scum, 
then mix in graphite to give it an iron 
color, clean the tools and cover with the 
mixture. After twenty-four hours rub 
clean with a cloth. Cover the metal 
with sweet oil, well rubbed in, and allow 
to stand for forty-eight hours, rub with 
a cloth and smear with oil again. Then 
rub with unslacked lime reduced to a fine 
powder. 

Some people seem to think that the 
commandment not to steal does not ap- 
ply to tools, so it is well for us to have 
some sort of mark so that we can iden- 
tify our own. One plan is to mark tools 
with a distinctive punch mark that can 
only be seen on close examination, then 
the man who steals them may use them 
so openly as to get caught. Saws may 
be marked by removing the handle and 
putting a punch mark where the handle 
will cover it. 



AS OTHERS S:^^ US 



HE following account 
of .our Indianapolis 
General Convention 
appeared in "The Na- 
tional Builder" for 
December, written by 
F. Ford. We are 
sure it will be read 
with interest as the 
views expressed are 
those of an open- 
minded outsider and 
reveal how we measure up today as an 
organization in the eyes of a representa- 
tive of a standard publication of the 
building trades. The article reads: 
Solid Achievements. 
"Thirty-three years ago the attempt to 
organize the carpenters of America was 




taken for the most part as a monstrous 
joke. The leaders in the movement were 
looked upon by a great many people as 
criminals. But a Brotherhood of about 
two thousand members was organized 
under almost every conceivable difficulty. 
Today the United. Brotherhood of Car- 
penters and Joiners of America has a 
membership of over a quarter of a mil- 
lion. It has over two thousand local 
unions. It has an annual income of over 
three-quarters of a million dollars. It 
operates a wonderful beneficiary system., 
no insurance or fraternal society grant- 
ing as much for the money received as 
the United Brotherhood. It publishes 
over eighty thousand copies of its^ regu- 
lar periodical. The Carpenter, every 
month. It has over three hundred thou- 



TfiQ Carpontar 

sand dollars on deposit and it owns a 
model headquarters building worth some 
eighty thousand dollars in the city of 
Indianapolis. 

"The Eighteenth General Convention of 
this United Brotherhood has just been 
held, and the one thing more evident 
than any other was that the convention 
was a labor convention. There were no 
silly and insincere speeches of welcome 
by civic dignitaries; no flatteries by oily 
politicians. The speeches of welcome 
and opening were practically all made 
by representatives of trades unionism in 
its various branches. There were prac- 
tically no entertainments, no holiday 
features. It was a labor convention, 
pure and simple. It met for business 
and business only. The chief set speech 
was made by Samuel Gompers, president 
of the American Federation of Labor. 
The convention was marked by the 
wholesome atmosphere of self-reliance 
and self-respect, and was refreshingly 
free from any fawning, flattery, or bid 
for popular favor. The personnel of the 
convention was composed of men of brain 
and brawn. 

Old Age Pensions. 

"For some time the United Brotherhood 
has felt that its organization was incom- 
plete while it made no provision for the 
old carpenters. Two methods have been 
advocated: (1) the old home, and (2) 
the pension system. The general feeling 
of the convention seemed strongly in fa- 
vor of the pension system, because while 
helping the needy old carpenter who has 
got beyond working, it will not separate 
him from his good wife. The matter 
was turned over to the General Execu- 
tive Board to compile statistics whereby 
the Brotherhood could determine what 
would be the m.ost practical, economical 
and satisfactory plan. There is no doubt 
but that the pension system will be 
adopted. This will be the logical devel- 
opment of the present insurance system 
of the Brotherhood. Nothing could be 
more necessary and nothing more praise- 
worthy. It is woi'thy of note "that while 
American statesmanship leaves such a 
vital matter entirely untouched, at least 



three other countries have made national 
provision for the care of every aged 
needy person of whatever trade or status 
in life. 

Hours of Labor. 
"The carpenters were the first in the 
eight-hour movement. At this conven- 
tion the representatives from the United 
Brotherhood to the American Federation 
of Labor were instructed to introduce a 
resolution in the next convention of that 
body, recommending a six-hour working 
day. A little reflection will show that 
there is good cause for this. There are 
constantly hundreds of thousands of 
workmen out of work in this country. It 
is certain that under the present way of 
doing things there* is not enough steady 
work for all hands. What can be more 
obvious then than if the hours of labor 
are made fewer more men can be em- 
ployed? In fact the movement is not 
selfish at all, but is designed to give a 
fair share of employment to all. 
Apprenticeship. 
"Apparently one of the weakest points 
of modern trades unionism is the lack of 
a satisfactory apprenticeship system. 
The discussion on this subject brought 
out the opinion that a uniform appren- 
tice indenture was impracticable, owing 
to the differing conditions of different 
localities. The General Executive Board 
was instructed to devise some form of 
indenture or contract that can be applied 
generally; this to be voted on at the next 
referendum. It was considered impera- 
tive that when a contractor takes an ap- 
prentice, he agree to keep him for the 
full term of apprenticeship, as otherwise 
the labor market is glutted at times with 
half-learned carpenters. Where possi- 
ble the Chicago plan was recommended. 
Vocational schools were deemed a neces- 
sity and resolutions were passed urging 
boards of education to establish classes 
for vocational training, to give oppor- 
tunities for the younger members of the 
craft to learn at these classes what, un- 
fortunately, they cannot learn on the job 
during working hours. It is quite clear 
that the apprenticeship problem is very 
far from being solved yet. 



"The feeling was very evident that it is 
unfortunate that so many trades unions, 
and particularly the United Brotherhood, 
have their headquarters in Indianapolis. 
According to Edgar Wallace, editor of 
the official journal of the United Mine 
Workers of America, w^ho addressed the 
convention, 'In Indianapolis organized 
labor has the hardest fight of any city 
in the United States.' The problem of 
the disposal of the fine headquarters 
building of the Brotherhood and the 
many consequent adjustments that M^ould 
have to be made, will prevent any quick 
action being taken in this matter, though 
resolutions were passed concerning it. 
Still, some fine morning the Hoosier cap- 
ital will no doubt wake up and find that 
other and more up-to-date communities 
have been oiiosen as the headquarters 
of many of the trades unions that are 
now located in her borders. It will be 
a big loss to her from a financial stand- 
point, and much more so from every 
other point of view. 

Plans for the Future. 

"There were lots of other good things, 
but we cannot give them all. A move- 
ment was introduced to have the Broth- 
erhood own its own printing plant, and 
it seems very probable this will take 
place, with a saving of tens of thousands 
of dollars. Charters will be granted, in 
future, to ladies' auxiliaries of local 



Tfia CarpontQr 

unions, which will no doubt prove very 
helpful to the work of the Brotherhood 
and to trades unionism generally. A 
resolution advocating a universal union 
label in place of the forty diff'erent labels 
in present use by as many different 
trades was not adopted, but it is to be 
hoped it will be in the future, and that 
m.eans can be found of putting it into 
effect. 

"During the convention an incident oc- 
curred which revealed its spirit better 
than all the discussions, speeches and 
resolutions combined. A member of the 
Massachusetts delegation, just after ar- 
riving in Indianapolis, was taken very 
ill. The other members of the Massa- 
chusetts delegation sought the very best 
medical advice in the city and gave him 
every possible attention. After a con- 
sultation of physicians it was decided the 
brother must be operated on immediate- 
ly. The operation was performed, but 
death occurred in a few hours. The con- 
vention unanimously paid all the ex- 
penses of operation, physicians, nurses, 
hotels, etc., also the cost of transporting 
the deceased back to his home, amount- 
ing in all to perhaps five or six hundred 
dollars. But in addition to this, the con- 
vention, made up entirely of working- 
men, took up an offering of nearly four 
hundred dollars which they forwarded to 
the poor little wife." 



HARDWOOD FI^OORING AND ITS REQUIREMENTS 

(By Warfield Webb.) 
T is not an easy mat- town where any amount of this work has 




ter to lay a hardwood 

floor. That is a floor 

that will be a credit 

to the worker and a 

source of pleasure to 

the owner. The very 

large increase in the 

demand for hardwood 

flooring in the past 

few years, and the 

varying kinds of jobs 

that have been the result, give one a 

fair idea of the possibilities and of the 

errors that are found in every city or 



been done. The av^erage carpenter can 
lay a hardwood floor and make a fine job 
of it, provided he gives the details of the 
subject the attention they demand. 

Too many of us are inclined to feel 
that the character of the work depends 
upon the cost of the contract and its 
special requirements. If the work is in 
a high-grade building, some of us feel 
that there should be a more detailed 
accuracy given and a larger amount of 
care exercised; if the work is on a lower 
cost house, then there is not required of 
the carpenter as much concern as he 



Jfia Carpon^Qr 

might give. Now this is a serious error 
which has brought the evil effects of 
that kind of logic upon the heads of 
many men. The results of their inferior 
work and indifferent labor have been 
most unfavorable to them, for it is easily 
apparent that the man who is careless 
is he who loses much that would other- 
wise be gained had he taken a little 
more pains. 

The use of hardwood flooring has be- 
come general. The idea in its adoption 
has been two-fold. First it gives long 
wear, and this is a large consideration, 
and next it looks well, is easily cleaned 
and has the advantage of being sanitary 
and, in addition, is a factor that is of 
much significance today. Consequently 
this increased demand has made it possi- 
ble for a larger number of carpenters to 
engage therein. This opportunity has been 
grasped by some men with eagerness 
and they have in this way added a spe- 
cial line of work to their other attributes. 
On the other hand, there have been some 
who, while professing to have only a 
limited amount of knowledge as to the 
actual demands for doing this kind of 
work well, have been content to do it in 
a manner that has brought just censure 
upon themselves. • 

The laying of hardwood flooring is not 
a difficult undertaking. We mean that 
it can be done properly without any 
great amount of previous training. The 
most essential thing to know and to keep 
well in mind is the importance of doing 
this work as nearly perfect as possible. 
It should not matter to the carpenter 
whether the building is a costly one or 
not. Even the quality of the flooring 
itself should not be a guide as to the 
kind of work that he does. He should 
well understand that it rests with him 
to do the best possible and to make, even 
the inferior grades of flooring, appear to 
the best advantage. This can be done, 
and the careful workman will find it will 
pay him in the end. Criticism will be 
invariably directed toward himself and 
not the quality of the flooring, and if this 
work is above the commonplace, there 



will consequently be a far greater 
amount of satisfaction. 

But it should be understood in the 
very beginning that in order to do the 
work properly the carpenter should make 
at least a partial study of the hardwood 
flooring industry. Of course, he knows 
oak flooring and maple flooring and 
beech, but that is not sufficient. He 
should be able to tell at a glance the 
quality af these kinds of stock and to 
see wherein the weakness lies that is 
sometimes found in them. In other 
words, the grades, as there are several, 
should be studied with care. This will 
be a helpful factor, and it will be a 
knowledge that can be utilized to ad- 
vantage. 

There is plain hardwood flooring in 
oak, maple and beech. There is quarter- 
sawed in oak and parquetry flooring, em- 
bodying at least several kinds of hard- 
woods, such as mahogany, cherry, 
walnut, oak and beech. These different 
woods give the effect of variety and add 
to the designs that are the primary idea 
in the manufacture of this character of 
hardwood flooring. The use of parquetrj' 
is generally found in borders, though 
sometimes the same is used for center 
or field work. The beauty of these de- 
signs has made a favorite parquetry 
flooring with many lovers of artistic dec- 
oration in the home and office and in 
other apartments where a feature is 
made of this idea. 

The qiiarter-sawed oak is always in 
tongue and grooved stock and the size is 
generally 11 ins. in width and 5-16 in. 
in thickness. The length is always either 
6 or 12-foot boards or strips. Of course, 
there is what we call roll goods, which 
is found in 11 -in. strips glued to canvas 
and is shipped in bundles. These rolls 
or bundles are from 28 inches to 36 
inches in length. This stock is always 
used for field work and combined with 
a parquetry border makes a very at- 
tractive floor. Then, too, it is not quite 
so expensive as some other styles of 
hardwood flooring. 

Now, to make this work of the kind 
that will not only please, but that will 



10 



Tfia Carpontor 



be the source of other work along the 
yame line, the carpenter should under- 
stand that there is but one thing neces- 
sary. That is care. It is understood, of 
course, that he has a fairly adequate 
knowledge of the other requirements, 
as to stock and quality and good 
tools. But these \\dll not make a 
good floor unless he has the abil- 
ity and the determination to do good 
work. It is not a matter of labor so 
much as a matter of taking pains to be 
careful. Even the ordinary carpenter 
can do wonders when he enters into the 
woi'k with the idea that his future de- 
pends upon his care. 

It is not always that a hardwood floor 
is placed in a new building, as we all 
know. The most particular work of this 
kind is where the hardwood floor is 
placed over the old floor. To make a 
good piece of work here, one should see 
that the old floor is in the right condi- 



tion to receive it. That is, the sub-floor 
should be secure, smooth and well sup- 
ported. It may take a little more time 
to make this preparation, but the final 
results will more than justify the added 
labor. 

Finishing the floor with scrapers and 
sandpaper and adding the filler before 
varnishing and oiling are other essen- 
tials that contribute toward completing 
the ideal job. The carpenter who M^ill 
consider hardwood floor laying a part of 
the routine that he can do, and that does 
not always demand the services of an 
expert, will see in this field an opportu- 
nity for real achievement. If he under- 
takes to do this work at all, let him do 
it with the idea in mind that it will de- 
mand his best labor and particular pains. 
He can do it and make of it a successful 
job, but he cannot approach the task in 
a careless manner and then hope for 
satisfaction. 



<* ^ * » 



RIGHT TO STOP WORK UPHBI/D 



In an opinion written by Judge Brewer, 
the State Supreme Court Commission 
of Oklahoma took an advanced position 
on the right of organized labor to 
strike in protest against the employ- 
ment of a non-unionist, and the lat- 
ter, according to the decision, has 
no cause for action, as workingmen 
have the right, in the absence of 
contract, to quit whenever they choose. 
The decision is the result of a threat- 
ened strike of union miners against the 
Western Coal and Mining- Company, at 
Lehigh, Okla., unless a non-unionist was 
discharged. The mine foreman complied 
with the request, and the non-unionist 
then sued the union for $100,000 dam- 
ages. The lower court sustained the 
union, and on appeal the State Suprenje 
Court Commission affirmed the ruling. 
"Employes of a coal company," said 
Judge Brewer, "who are members of a 
labor union, have the right, when in- 
volved in a trade dispute between them- 
selves and their employer, and growing 
out of this relation, to protest to their 



employer against the employment, or re- 
tention in his employment, of a non- 
union employe, and to accompany such 
protest with" the statement that if such 
non-union man is employed, or retained, 
that the union employes will strike — 
that is, that such employes "v^dll simul- 
taneously cease to work for such em- 
ployer — and if such protest is not heeded, 
the union men have the lawful right to 
strike; and if it is heeded, the non-union 
man who is discharged has no cause of 
action against either the union as an 
organization nor the members thereof as 
individuals. 

"A petition based on the charge that 
the plaintiff", a non-member of a labor 
union, was discharged from his employ- 
m.ent because of the demands therefor 
made by the authorized agents and com- 
mittees of a labor organization, who in- 
formed the common employer that if 
such non-union man was not discharged 
that the union men would strike, does not 
state a cause of action for damages 
against either the labor organization or 



11 



TfiQ CarpontQr 



the individual members thereof, and a 
demurrer to such petition was properly 
sustained. 

"Any man, in the absence of a contract 
to work a definite time, has a right to 
quit whenever he chooses for any reason 
satisfactory to him or without any rea- 
son. If his wages are not satisfactory, 
his hours too long, his work too hard, his 
employer or his employment uncongenial, 
or his co-laborers objectionable, his right 
to quit is absolute. What an individual 
may do, a number of his co-laborers may 
join him in doing, provided the thing to 
be done is lawful. 

"With regard to the charge that the 
defendants conspired 'wilfully, knowing- 
ly, maliciously and unlawfully' to procure 
plaintiff's discharge, to destroy his 
reputation and credit, and to harass and 
annoy him, to prevent his securing em- 
ployment and to publish him as a non- 
union man,' etc., the court said: 

"It is not the duty of one man to work 
for another unless he has agreed to, and 
if he has so agreed, but for no fixed 
period, either may end the contract when- 
ever he chooses. The one may work, 
or refuse to work, at will, and the other 
may hire or discharge at will. The terms 
of employment are subject to mutual 
agreement without let or hindrance from 
any one. If the terms do not suit, or 
the employer does not please, the right 
to quit is absolute, and no one may de- 
mand a reason therefor. Whatever one 
may do alone he may do in combination 



with others, provided they have no un- 
lawful object in view. Mere numbers do 
not ordinarily affect the quality of the 
act. Workingmen have the right to or- 
ganize for the purpose of securing higher 
wages, shorter hours of labor or improv- 
ing their relations with their employ- 
ers. They have the right to strike; that 
is, to cease working in a body by pre- 
arrangement, until a grievance is re- 
dressed, provided the object is not to 
gratify malice or inflict injury upon 
others, but to secure better terms of em- 
ployment for themselves. A peaceable 
and orderly strike, not to harm others, 
but to improve their own condition, is 
not in violation of law." 

Finally Judge Brewer said that a pe- 
tition based on the charge that the plain- 
tiff, a non-member of a labor union, was 
discharged from his employment because 
of the demands therefor made by the 
authorized agents and committees of a 
labor organization, who informed the 
common employer that if such non-union 
man was not discharged that the union 
men would strike, does not state a cause 
of action for damages against either the 
labor organization or the individual mem- 
bers thereof, and that a demurrer to such 
petition was properly sustained. 

The foregoing decision of the Okla- 
homa Supreme bench treats the question 
of the right to stop work very concisely 
and fairly and will be read with interest 
by all who have the cause of labor at 
heart. 



INDUSTRIAI, EDUCATION FOR GIR]vS 



"If the difficulties are great confront- 
ing the (industrial) education of boys, 
they are many times greater when we 
consider the education of girls. First, 
there is a very general confusion in the 
minds of many people regarding the 
trade training of girls. This confusion 
is due to the belief that the girl is a po- 
tential wife and mother only. The fact 
that she is a breadwinner also is forgot- 
ten or ignored. Such confusion of 
thought is dangerous when it becomes 
the directing force in the training of 



many millions of young girls. Let me 
illustrate. One of the Eastern agricul- 
tural schools offers training in agricul- 
ture for boys and girls. In the begin- 
ning they both have the same studies, 
but suddenly we find the boys studying 
the chemistry of the soil and the girls 
cooking. Who is being cheated out of an 
important study in the course of agricul- 
ture — the boy or the girl ? If knowledge 
of cooking is important to a study of 
agriculture, then both boys and girls 
ought to study cooking. If the study of 



12 



TfiQ CarpontQr 



the chemistry of the soil is essential to 
the knowledge of agriculture, then both 
girls and boys ought to study the chem- 
istry of the soil. The very least we can 
do is to be on the square with a child. 

"Again in a curriculum of industrial 
education we find that under the heading 
of 'Science,' boys study elementary phy- 
sics, mechanics and electricity, and girls 
the action of alkalies and the removal of 
stains. While under 'Drawing' we read, 
'For boys the drawing will consist of the 
practical application of mechanical and 
free hand work to parts of machinery, 
house plans and so forth. Emphasis will 
be placed upon the reading of drawings, 
making sketches of machine parts quick- 
ly and accurately. For the girls the 
drawing will attempt to apply the sim- 
ple principles of design and color to the 
work. The girls will design and stencil 
curtains for the dining and sewing rooms 
and will make designs for doilies for the 
table. They will plan attractive spacing 
for tucks, ruffles and embroidery for un- 
derwear.' 

"Women have entered nearly 300 dif- 
ferent occupations and trades in Amer- 
ica within the past quarter of a century 
— 300 trades and occupations — and they 
are to qualify for these by learning to 
space tucks attractively. 

"Let me not be misunderstood. We, 
too, believe that every girl is a potential 
wife and mother, and some day the world 
— that great unknowing, unthinking 



world — may reverence that fact and ex- 
press its reverence by establishing con- 
ditions of life which will fit the race 
mother for her task. Home making 
means the partnership of husband and 
wife, or father and mother, and it is 
certainly as important to teach the 
boy the responsibility of his manhood 
as husband and father as it is important 
to teach the girl the responsibility of 
her womanhood as wife and mother. The 
whole history of the development of 
home economics with all its allied busi- 
ness opportunities in the field of domes- 
tic science show how eagerly the best 
trained minds among women are wishing 
to place home-making on an equality 
with other trades and professions. That 
this may be accomplished is the desire of 
all thoughtful and intelligent women, but 
it cannot be done by smuggling certain 
sub-divisions of domestic training into 
the other curricula as if such training 
had no dignity or professional basis of 
its own. Neither dare we forget that to 
qualify the girl for home-making she 
must be trained as a breadwinner, for 
upon her ability and capacity to play her 
part as breadwinner depends not only 
her welfare and that of her brothers, but 
the welfare of her future home. By un- 
derbidding she has been her own worst 
competitor — the competitor against her 
own home, and as vdfe and mother she 
has had to live on the wage she herself 
has cheapened." — Margaret Dreier Rob- 
ins, in Life and Labor. 



MODERN HOSPITAI, I^lKl^ CARPENTER SHOP 



Clang -clang -hammer - pound -pound! 
This - is the sound you may expect to 
hear issuing from the windows of any 
modern hospital you pass from this time 
henceforward. You may even think it 
. isn't a hospital at all, but a carpenter 
shop, as the clatter of gimlets and au- 
gers and nails and screws echoes out to 
you; nor will you be far wrong, for the 
time is about to arrive when all hospi- 
tals are to become merely human car- 
penter shops, where broken men and 
women are to be planed down, nailed to- 



gether, sandpapered and sent out into 
the world as brand new articles once 



— Breaks in Bones Nailed Up. — 

No, this is not a phantasy. It is an 
actuality. Men are being nailed to- 
gether, broken pieces taken out and new 
ones supplied, and the entire machine 
made just as good as ever. How? 

Following the lead of Lane, the pio- 
neer in bone carpentry, the greatest sur- 
geons in the land took up the art of 



13 



TjFia CarpontQr 

nailing up broken humanity, and today 
Dr. John B. Murphy, the great operator 
in Chicago, and Dr. George Stewart, one 
of the foremost surgeons of New York, 
are daily doing carpenter jobs on scores 
of persons who otherwise might have 
spent their lives unable to move in those , 
grim hospital refuges for the incurable 
that are a part of every big city. 

Given a set of Dr. Murphy's or Dr. 
Stewart's bone surgical implements, a 
first-rate carpenter could do a good job 
on any interior piece of carpentry work. 
First, the layout consists of a regular 
carpenter's brace and an assortment of 
bits for boring holes from the size of a 
pin to that of a good-sized screw. In 
addition to the bits are six reamers. 
These range in size from the diameter of 
a dentist's drill to an inch. The bits are 
used to bore holes in the bones for the 
reception of screws, nails, etc., while the 
reamers are to enlarge the entrances or, 
as in the case of the big reamer, to trim 
out medullary canals of the long bones 
for the insertion of transplanted pieces. 



— Common Wire Nails Used. — 
Next to the brace and bits and the 
reamers are the lead hammer and the 
supply of common wire nails. Of course, 
these nails are antiseptic, as are all the 
implements, for the slightest entrance of 
infection in such cases is fatal to results. 
Besides the hammer and nails there 
are used a retractor guide, an imple- 
ment used in removing a transplant of 
infected bone. The retractor would be 
used by the ordinary carpenter as a 
scraper or gouge. 

With these tools the best surgical car- 
penters today can straighten a leg that 
a few years ago was considered hope- 
lessly deformed. They can cut out a sec- 
tion of decayed bone that is slowly kill- 
ing a patient, hurry over to a morgue, 
cut a corresponding piece of bone from 
the body of a man who but recently has 
died, hasten back and graft the dead 
bone into the living. The dead bone 
grows firmly into place and in a few 
weeks the patient, instead of dying or 
lying helpless for years, is up and doing 
a man's share of the world's work. — 
Philadelphia Evening Times. 



BUGENICS--B:ei/Iv BOY D:^CI<ARBS Hl^'I^I, HAVB 

NONB OF IT 



"Whadda ya mean, eugenics?" asked 
the bell-hop in reply to, "Do you believe 
in eugenics?" 

"Where do ya get it, at th' bar or in 
the cafe?" 

It was explained to him that eugenics 
seeks to improve the race by a scientific 
system of matchmaking. He replied: 

"Nothin' used in this hotel but John- 
kopings & Vulcants safety matches 
made in Sweden." 

Eugenics was explained in detail. 

"Nothin' like that in our fambly. I 
don't getcha. I'll ast th' clerk." 

After a further explanation he ad- 
mitted that he understood the question 
in a general way and commented as fol- 
lows: 

"As I understan' this momentous 
question, accordin' to the way you've set 
it put, you wanta know whether I'd be 



willin' to let a sawbones man say 
whether I'm fit to marry; that is, if I 
was a-goin' to be married. Is that what 
yer drivin' at? 

— Will Seek No Advice — 

"Well, here's what I think. Are ye 
f oiler in' me? All right. 

"When I wanta get married, see? I 
ain't a-goin' t' ask no doctor for no in- 
formashun on the subject. 

"Me and me Jane will decide all them 
questions pertainin' to the fitness of 
marryin' each other on the front porch 
some moonlight night in June. Get me? 
And when I square it with her ole man, 
as to my qualificashuns to pervide for a 
fambly, y' understand, I don't want no 
doctor buttin' in. 

"S'that what cha wanta know? Well, 
now, lis'en some more. As 'tis, ain't 



14 



these State House guys and other folks 
who transact other people's business — 
mostly— ain't they already done enough 
regulatin' on the marriage question? 
Huh! Whadda ya say? Yes? 

"First thing, accordin' to law, you 
gotta be 21 years old, to get jnarried, 
ain't ya? And ya gotta get a license in 
the county where ya live, don't cha, like 
saloon keepers and peddlers? Ya do, 
sure. 

"An' when ya go to get a license don't 
ya have to swear to some plumb nutty 
questions? Whadda say, yes? 

—Have They Not Eyes?— 

"They ast a feller first if he's white or 
black when yer standing right there 
with yer Jane and the clerk can see 's 
well as you, can't he? 

"Then he asts yer bride if she's white 
or black, don't he, just like you might 
try to slip something over on yerself and 
marry an octaroon, maybe! 

"Then he asts if yer crazy, and ya 
gotta tell 'im, ain't ya? An' he asts yer 
girl th' same thing and she's gotta tell 
him. 

"Now ans'er me this — I'm a regular 
bony-fide bell-hop at a respectable hotel, 
what's got nice guests comin' from Chi 
'nd N'Yawk and them swell places, see? 
An' I'm associatin' daily with firs'-class 
people, carryin' th' grips, goin' to their 
rooms, mixin' right in with them, every 
day for six years — I been a bell-hop that 
long — an' when I wanta get married, the 
clerk-guy asts me if I'm nuts er like 
Harry Thaw. Can ya beat it? 

"And lis'en some more. Wen my pa 
an' ma was married — get me? — they 
was, just married. All the clerk-guy did 
was to write down th' names an' ages 
an' so forth. See? And they got seven 
sons. Are ya follerin' me? Well, they 
ain't no race-suicide er im-be-CILES in 
our family an' th' old folks didn't ast no 
doctor about whether it was fit an' re- 
spec'able fer 'em to marry, either, d'ya 
get me? 

—All Dooin' Well, Thanks— 

"An' le'mme tell ya who them seven 
sons are. First, there's Mike Dooin' 



TfiQ CarpQntar 

what was champeen white hope of lo- 
way in th' heavyweight class, till he 
went t' th' bad with booze. 

"Second, there was Jerry Dooin, who's 
the pres'dent uv th' Beer Wagon Driv- 
ers' Protective League, an', take it frum 
me, Jerry's some guy ! 

"Third, there's Terrence Dooin, who 
was a corp'ral in th' Boor war an' got 
medals fer bravery. 

"Fourth, there's Tom Dooin, who's 
sergeant on th' force. An' Tom's some 
cop! 

"Fifth, there's Paddy Dooin, who c'n 
vote either th' demmycrats er th' repub- 
licans uv the Third Ward, whichever 
way he says. 

"Sixth, there's Tim Dooin, who's got 
the best free lunch at his place that they 
put up in this town. An' Tim's wife 
v.'ears real white di'mon's. 

"Seventh, there's me. I ain't braggin' 
on myself, only I wanta say that they 
ain't no bell-hop in this man's town what 
gets more pocket change than me, and 
when I want a recommendashun I get 
it, just like that, see? 

"No, sir; just write it down in yer 
paper that I ain't fer this eugene stuff. 

"If I'm makin' ten bones a week and 
if I luve th' Jane an' her folks is willin', 
maybe I'll marry her, if I want to; an' 
th' doctors can go jump in the lake an' 
see if I care." — Indianapolis Star. 



Why Not? 

Why should not the best that art, and 
science, and literature, and music, and 
poetry, and the drama can do be placed 
at the disposal of the- humblest worker? 
Why should not the factory girl be an 
educated lady? Why should the Coal 
miner not be a cultured gentleman? 

The answer is "Capitalism!" The exi- 
gencies of capitalism grind these people 
dovwi, rob them of rest, of energy, of 
health, of food, of time — so that they 
have neither heart nor mind nor oppor- 
tunity to become aught but drudges. Talk 
about "splendid ambitions and aspira- 
tions!" Such things now are for the 
foitunate few; but we want them for the 
many. — Robert Blatchford. 



15 



Jfia CarpontQr 



:eDUCATB AND ORGANISE 



In the following call to the organized 
workers of America, President Gompers 
urges a universal organizing campaign 
to embrace the unskilled as well as the 
skilled workers of the country, both men 
and women: 

"At no time in the history of our coun- 
try has the duty devolved so keenly as 
now upon the men of labor to put forth 
their best efforts to help the more thor- 
ough organization of all of our fellow 
workers, men and women, skilled and 
unskilled, in every occupation in which 
they are employed; at no time have the 
forces of antagonism been more active 
to prevent organization or to crush out 
the spirit of organized associated effort 
among the toilers. It, therefore, all the 
more devolves upon all engaged in our 
great humane and uplift work to put 
forth every energy to bring the unor- 
ganized within the beneficent fold of 
the organized labor movement of 
America. 

"You will recall the fact that at the 
Seattle convention of the A. F. of L. 
special emphasis was placed upon the 
determined effort which should be put 
forth by all to accomplish this result. 
Our movement has been crowned with 
more success than can here be recorded, 
but they are simply achievements which 
whet our purposes to still greater ef- 
forts. 

"We must organize the unskilled 
workers as well as the skilled. 

"We must organize the worker per- 
manently domiciled in his locality as 
well as the itinerant worker who travels 
from place to place in search of em- 
ploym.ent. 

"We must organize the women work- 
ers in all branches of industry in which 
they are engaged. We must organize 
the office employes in the various 
branches of their occupations. 

"We must concentrate our effort to 
achieve greater benefits in wages, hours, 
and conditions of employment of the 
toiling masses of America. 

"We must secure for the toilers the 



rights to which they are justly entitled 
on the economic, on the political, on the 
legislative field. There is no effort 
which must be left untried to organize 
our fellow workers everywhere, to place 
them in a position where they will be 
best able to help themselves, to help 
their already organized fellow workers, 
and in turn to receive the assistance and 
co-operation of those already within the 
ranks. 

"The unions affiliated to the A. F. of 
L. have already passed the 2,000,000 
mark. It is our bounden duty to see 
that at the earlie&t possible date we have 
reached and passed the 3,000,000 mark. 
Let every man of labor, and particularly 
our organizers, do their share in the 
work and bring better conditions, com- 
fort, hope and encouragement to the 
toilers of America, for their own ad- 
vancement and for the betterment of the 
generations yet unborn. 

"Organizers will please report to me 
from time to time as to what has been 
accomplished upon this renewed field of 
activity." 

Every man and woman in the ranks of 
the labor movement can do good work in 
spreading the light of trades unionism. 
Opportunity presents itself at every turn. 



Unfinished Business 

One night, when her grandmother was 
patting her to bed, three-year-old Olive 
said, "Grandma, every night when I go 
to bed I ask God to make brother Fred 
a good boy." 

"That is right," said her grandmother. 

"But he ain't done it yet," replied 
Olive, soberly. — Harper's Magazine. 



Progress for the working people has 
come from organization. The unions 
have been the schools of the common peo- 
ple. They have taught them their rights, 
pointed out their possibilities, and shown 
them that they hold their future in their 
own hands. — Gompers. 



16 



Editorial 




The Carpenter 

Official Journal of 

The United Brotherhood 

of 

Carpenters and Joiners of America 

Published on the 15th of each month at the 

CARPENTERS' BUILDING 

Indianapolis, Ind. 

UNITED BROTHERHOOD OF 

CARPENTERS AND JOINERS OF AMERICA, 

PUBLISHERS 

FRANK DUFFY, Editor 

Subscription Price, 
One Dollar a Year in Advance, postpaid 

Address all Letters and Money to 

FRANK DUFFY, 

Carpenters' Building Indianapolis, Ind. 



13 



INDIANAPOI/IS, JAN., 1915 

Help the U. B. to Grow During 1915 

It would be a splendid thing for the 
United Brotherhood if every one of its 
261,049 members faced the New Year 
with a firm determination to do some- 
thing tangible for it within the next 
twelve months and assist in so far as 
they are able in bringing the organiza- 
tion up to the 500,000 mark in that space 
of time. 

We are perfectly aware, of course, that 
the suggestion of such a great increase 
in membership within one short year will 
seem utterly preposterous to some, but 
we will answer them by merely stating 
that nothing is quite impossible to a body 
of a quarter of a million men, bent upon 
accomplishing what they set out to do. 

The field for organization on the part 
of our membership is a vast one and the 



opportunities it presents are unlimited. 
On every side there are to be found car- 
penters, millmen, furniture workers who 
by a little persuasion and a little well- 
meaning pressure could be brought to see 
that their economic salvation as wage- 
earners depends upon the success of the 
labor movement and that by remaining 
outside its ranks they are injuring them- 
selves as well as their fellow workers. 
Each one of us can do as much work 
along this line as a duly credentialed or- 
ganizer could. All that we need is the 
zeal and enthusiasm; the faculty of 
arousing the interest of the other fellow 
will come with practice, if we do not al- 
ready possess it. 

What is wrong with the majority of 
us is that we are very prone to accept all 
the benefits which we receive from affilia- 
tion with our trade union without feel- 
ing impelled to render it any special 
service in return other than the perfunc- 
tory fulfillment of the obvious duties re- 
quired of us in accordance with the obli- 
gation we took on becoming members. 

In the early days of the movement 
every individual member constituted him- 
self a committee of one on organization 
and after an excessively long day's work 
devoted what remained of his nights to 
forwarding the interests of his union. He 
made it a point to meet non-union car- 
penters and did his best to interest them 
in the subject of trade unionism. If some 
2,000 members could do great work in 
this direction in 1881, when their or- 
ganization was in its infancy, surely a 
quarter of a million members, with much 
shorter hours and infinitely better work- 
ing conditions, can do much more in the 
year 1915. And a great deal is not re- 
quired of them other than the perform- 
ance of a little missionary work occa- 
sionally in the interest of their union and 
the taking of an intelligent, active part 
in its affairs. 



17 



Tfia CarpontQr 

Every union carpenter should take 
great pride in the notable achievements 
of his international union and the great 
things it has accomplished for the uplift 
of the craft in the thirty-four years of 
its existence. How many, for instance, 
consider that during its comparatively 
brief career the U. B. has expended al- 
most nine million dollars, or to be precise, 
$8,947,328, directly in the interest of the 
membership. Of this huge sum $3,697,- 
650.61 was expended in death and dis- 
ability claims; $2,500,000 in sick benefits; 
$1,272,697.91 in strike and lockout pay- 
ments; $1,120,372.56 in organizing work, 
and the sum of $356,607.26 in donations 
to other unions. Of course, these figures 
are taken from official statistics avail- 
able at the general office and cannot be 
regarded as anything like the total sum 
expended by the Brotherhood and its af- 
filiated unions down through the years. 
But the figures furnish a sufficient indi- 
cation of the great constructive work 
that has been done. 

It would be well ■ for us to allow 
ourselves \p meditate upon the benefits 
which this great expenditure has con- 
ferred upon the members of our craft and 
their families; the help it has been to 
them in time of strikes and lockouts and 
when misfortune fell upon them in the 
shape of disability or death. Such 
thoughts will enable us to gain a greater 
comprehension of the significance of the 
work of the United Brotherhood of Car- 
penters and Joiners in the world of labor 
and will fortify us with strong argu- 
ments which we may be able to use with 
effect in getting the non-union man to 
see the light of reason. 

It is not too much to hope that each 
member will do at least a little propa- 
ganda work during the present year in 
the interest of his organization. Let us 
all strive to increase the membership in 
a substantial manner. To show that in 
setting the 500,000 mark as the goal for 
the year's organizing work we are not 
hitching our wagon to an unattainable 
star, we may say that if each member in 
good standing made it a point to bring 
just two non-unionists into line during 



the year, our membership would not 
alone reach the 500,000 mark but would 
jump to more than 750,000 — just think of 
it, three quarters of a million members! 
*> <* *> 
The Non-Union Worker 

In the readjustment of social, political 
and economic relationships which has 
been taking place, imperceptibly 
but surely, during recent years, we 
are gaining new points of view with re- 
gard to the social order which, judged in 
the light of the past, seem almost revo- 
lutionary in scope. For instance we no 
longer regard the individual as the de- 
ciding factor in the scheme of things. 
Organization and co-operation have be- 
come the watchwords of our time and 
every day we see them constantly at work 
curbing unrestricted individual initiative 
in the interest of the humanitarian doc- 
trine of "the greatest good for the great- 
est number." This tendency manifests 
itself in various ways in our modern 
world and is reflected in a broadening of 
the powers of government, in intelligent 
supervision of business, in the growing 
favor of the co-operative principle and 
in the success attending all kinds of col- 
lective activity as distinct from individual 
effort. 

In the industrial world, especially in 
the relation between employer and em- 
ploye, organization has come to be an 
imperative need. Employers have grasped 
the value of it to the full and as a result 
you have trusts, combines, employers' as- 
sociations, trade alliances, and so forth. 
On the other hand, while the wage-earn- 
ers are realizing more and more clearly 
the benefits of collective effort, they have 
not yet made the most of their activities 
in this respect. As a consequence the 
large mass of non-union wage-earners 
form a serious stumbling block in the 
path of the trade unions and prevent 
them reaching the highest expression of 
development. 

How long it will take the non-union 
M'age-earners to realize the true value of 
organization is a problematical question. 
To arouse them to a sense of the duty 
they owe themselves is all we can do— 



18 



TfiQ Carpontor 



the final step of joining the local of their 
trade or calling will rest solely with 
them. They are free agents in the mat- 
ter, but their apathy often makes one 
think that we shall have them always 
with us, as a thorn in the side of the 
labor movement. 

The non-union worker in our day is, 
properly speaking, an anachronism; he is 
just a survival of the old order when men 
were chattel slaves. His position in the 
world- of industry is infinitely worse than 
was that of the serfs under the feudal 
system of bygone ages. The serfs at 
least had reasonable security of employ- 
ment and even if one incurred the wrath 
of his master he might be hanged, but 
there was no grave danger that he would 
starve. The modern industrial serf, how- 
ever, labors at the caprice of his em- 
ployer. Unable to save anything from 
his low wages, a spell of unemployment 
means starvation for him. And the em- 
ployer who lays him off is not conscious 
of any injustice as a result of his act; in 
his modern philosophy there is no such 
thing as, for instance, the moral bond 
which existed between the serf and his 
master. 

Organization, then, is the only hope of 
the wage-earner. As Judge Jeffries, of 
Detroit, said recently: 

The world has come to the point where we 
must belong to some kind of an organization 
in order to exist. Men in unions are get- 
ting high wages because they are in an or- 
ganization. They are getting wise, and they 
are learning that by combination they can 
get better conditions. The world is no longer 
beginning to rate men by physical strength. 
Wl;at we want is to let all have better houses, 
better food and better clothing. 

The words of this jurist embody a 
truth which all should accept today. The 
modern wage-earner who deliberately re- 
mains outside the union of his craft is 
deserving only of contemptuous pity. He 
must be of a very inferior order of in- 
tellect if he fails to grasp the significance 
of the labor movement and what it may 
mean to him in higher standards of liv- 
ing, in increased wages, in security and 
independence. 



Alien I<abor and Public "Work 

The efforts of the contractors engaged 
in building the great subways of the city 
of New York to have the alien clause in 
the labor law concerning public work de- 
clared unconstitutional presents a char- 
acteristic phase of the all-important im- 
migration problem, the exploitation of 
the unskilled or semi-skilled foreigner by 
large employers of labor to the detriment 
of American wage-earners and as a means 
of lowering those standards of labor and 
of living which have been built up and 
fostered by the American trade union 
movement. 

According to figures available there 
has already been expended on subway 
work in New York City over $200,000,000, 
and there has been some 20,000 men em- 
ployed since the work began. Of these 
latter the great proportion of from 80 to 
90 per cent, were aliens who were con- 
tent to work at a low rate of wages. The 
subway contractors have also endeavored 
to destroy recognized trades in the me- 
tropolis by using what are called "handy- 
men" to do the work of mechanics. These 
"handymen" are usually aliens who will 
do mechanical work for wages ranging 
anywhere from $2 to $3.50 per day in a 
city like New York where the standard 
of living is exceptionally high. 

Of late various unions of the building 
trades have taken a determined stand to 
put an end to the notorious violations of 
the alien clause in relation to public 
work. Strong representations were made 
to the Public Service Commission and 
notices were sent to the contractors de- 
manding compliance with the law. When 
the latter saw that the Public Service 
Commission meant business they re- 
tained two well-known lawyers to attack 
the validity of the law and have it de- 
clared unconstitutional as impairing the 
right of contract, and illegal, as contra- 
vening the terms of a treaty with Italy, 
and other treaties with other foreign 
countries. As a preliminary step an in- 
junction was secured tieing the hands of 
the Public Service Commission. 

Organized labor is preparing to 
strongly contest this attempt to have this 



19 



Tfia CarpQntQr 

law declared unconstitutional and John 
Gill, representing the Bricklayers, Ma- 
sons and Plasterers' Union, has been 
made a party to the suit by consent of 
all parties in order that organized labor 
may be represented. The New York 
trade unions intend to contest the case 
thoroughly and will carry it to the U. S. 
supreme court if necessary in order to 
obtain justice for the American work- 
ingman. 

In its narrower aspects it is of vital 
importance that the provisions of the 
labor law and the alien clause should be 
strictly enforced in the city of New York 
just now where there are over one hun- 
dred thousand wage-earners unemployed. 
In the building trades alone it is esti- 
mated that there are more than 35,000 
citizens at present unemployed, with fam- 
ilies dependent upon them, who are able, 
ready and willing to do this work. It 
is almost needless to say also that if the 
contractors succeed in having this law de- 
clared unconstitutional or illegal the 
trades unions will have a much, harder 
battle in the future against the inroads 
of alien labor. 

>♦* ♦ >t* 
The Stockton I/esson 

The bitterly contested industrial strug- 
gle which gave Stockton, Cal., an unen- 
viable reputation during the last six 
months is now a thing of the past. It 
ended on December 21, in a great victory 
for the principles of trade unionism — as 
we predicted it would. While less spec- 
tacular than many of the important in- 
dustrial struggles of the last few years, 
the fight was marked by something of 
the same violence and disorder; there was 
much the same gun play and rough work 
on the part of professional thugs work- 
ing in the interest of the employers va- 
ried with some planting of dynamite as 
was revealed by the sensational dis- 
closures of "operative" Emerson and sev- 
eral of his fellow labor crushers. But 
despite all that, however, the union men 
and women of Stockton presented a 
splendid front of solidarity and showed 
themselves fully capable of effectively 
defending their interests. 



This futile though costly struggle en- 
gineered by the Merchants, Manufactur- 
ers and Employers' Association of Stock- 
ton will no doubt prove a salutary lesson 
to other communities where the employ- 
ing interests may be contemplating a 
similar crusade for the perpetuation of 
so-called "open shop" conditions. The 
plans of the employers did not work out 
as smoothly in Stockton as had been ex- 
pected. Instead of accomplishing their 
purpose and crushing the labor organiza- 
tions they were finally forced to yield on 
every point they counted upon winning. 
In addition they have had to face the 
great monetary loss growing out of the 
great injury to business which- was 
wrought during the struggle, building- 
operations being completely abandoned 
and contracts for future work falling 
away to almost nothing. 

The agreement which was duly ratified 
and signed by representatives of the 
Merchants, Manufacturers and Em- 
ployers' Association and representa- 
tives of the trade unions of the city 
shows conclusively that the status of the 
Stockton labor unions is unimpaired by 
the recent struggle. In this connection 
it may be well to say that the agreement 
is in no sense an "open shop" one as 
some of the press dispatches character- 
ized it. That is not true in any particu- 
lar. The fact is that in the preliminary 
conferences leading up to the ratification 
of the agreement the employers strained 
every effort to obtain an "open shop" 
declaration but did not get it. 

The agreement contains the following 
clauses: 

"1. That the unions agree to stop all 
boycotting and all picketing and that no- 
tice to that effect be sent to the parties 
boycotted in the same manner as the 
original notice of boycott was sent. 

"2. That the association agrees to 
v/ithdraw the letter sent by them to the 
Building Trades Council and to the Cen- 
tral Labor Council under date of June 26, 
1914, and notice to that effect be sent to 
them in the same manner as the original 
letter was sent. 



20 



TfiQ CarpQntQF 



"3. That wages and hours are to re- 
main the same as in force on July 8, 
1914. 

"4. That a committee of three from 
each side be appointed to which shall be 
referred all questions affecting wages 
and hours, which may arise between the 
two parties, the decision of said commit- 
tee to be binding on both sides; it being 
definitely understood that no drastic ac- 
tion shall be taken by either side until 
after said committee has considered the 
matter and rendered a decision." 

We take pleasure in congratulating the 
trade unionists of Stockton on the victory 
they have won and the splendid fight 
they made in behalf of the principles of 
organized labor, and we also wish espe- 
cially to compliment the members of our 
organization in San Joaquin county who 
took a leading part in that important in- 
dustrial struggle. 

♦*♦ ♦*♦ ♦J* 

Industrial Reconstruction 

A rather novel remedy for the puzzling- 
forms of violence which accompanies 
strikes like those in Colorado, West Vir- 
ginia or Calumet was discussed in a re- 
cent issue of that excellent new weekly 
review, "The New Republic," the writer 
of the article believing that a remedy for 
the passion and ignorance and unreason 
of industrial warfare lies in applying, as 
he phrased it, "the long experience of 
politics to the newer issues of business." 

In elaborating upon this he raised the 
point that the difficulty of our thinking 
about industrial relations is that we have 
failed to grasp the idea that the man- 
agement of modern industry is a prob- 
lem of government and that the control 
of an indvistrial corporation is as political 
as the control of a city or state. All 
those issues, he points out, which we 
call political are to be found in the ad- 
ministration of every industry. Boards 
of directors are spoken of instead of a 
Senate and House, managers rather than 
of mayors, foremen and superintendents 
rather than of judges and bureau chiefs. 
Yet they do not obscure the fact that a 
great modern industry is a big human 



relationship and that its problems are the 
problems of politics. 

The problem of those who would elim- 
inate the friction of industrial warfare, 
acording to this view, must be to develop 
for business some constitutional repre- 
sentative government which will give the 
wage-earner some recognized standing in 
the management of the industry. He con- 
trasts the protocol trades of the garment 
manufactures (where the employes have 
been put upon a recognized footing) with 
the Colorado mines, where the autocracy 
of the operators is absolute, and shows 
that in the first, while the protocol is not 
an unmixed blessing it allows those in- 
terested to legislate for their industry 
and thus provide a safety valve for the 
aspirations of the wage-earners which 
when thwarted in other trades finds vent 
in violent industrial upheavals. 

The suggestion to our thinking is a 
very good one and it is very likely to be 
one which will figure more and more in 
the future in the calculation of students 
of the industrial problem. No mattei- 
what the believers in industrial abso- 
lutism may say, the Rockefellers, the 
Welborns, and so forth, we are slowly 
but surely trending toward the begin- 
nings of an industrial democracy where 
the great disorder and waste of our pres- 
ent system will be replaced by one in 
which sanity and reason will hold sway. 
In such a co-operative democracy the 
rights of the workers will be adequately 
safeguarded and they will be given ade- 
quate representation in the control of in- 
dustry. • 

We must not delude ourselves, 
however, into believing that we can 
evolve this stage of development with- 
out a hard and perhaps bitterly con- 
tested struggle. The forces of reaction 
are by no means weak enough to be de- 
spised. The only way in which the wage- 
earners can hasten the dawn of a new in- 
dustrial era in which they will have a 
definite stake is by building up their 
trade unions and by taking advantage of 
every opportunity to become more closely 
associated with the management of the 
(Continued oh Page 33.) 



21 



Official Information 




GENERAL OFFICERS 

OF 

The UNITED BROTHERHOOD 

OF 

CARPENTERS and JOINERS 

OF AMERICA 



General Office, 
Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General President, 
JAMES KIRBY, Carpenters' Building, Indi- 
anapolis. 



General Secretary, 
FRANK DUFFY, Carpenters' Building. Indi- 
anapolis. 



General Treasurer, 
THOMAS NEALE, Carpenters' Building, Indi- 
anapolis. 



First Vice-President, 

W. L. HUTCHESON, Carpenters' Building, 

Indianapolis. 



Second Vice-President, 

ARTHUR A. QUINN, 109 N. Marlset St., Perth 

Amboy, N. .T. 



General Executive Board, 

First District, T. M. GUERIN, 290 Second 

Ave., Troy, N. Y. 



Second District, D. A. POST, 416 S. Main St., 
Wllkes-Barre, Pa. 



Third District, JOHN H. POTTS, 6iG Mellish 
Ave., Cincinnati, O. 



Fourth District, JAMES P. OGLETREE. Car- 
penters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Fifth District, HARRY BLACKMORE, 4223 

N. Market St., St. Louis. Mo. 



Sixth District, W. A. COLE, 129 Henry St. 
San Francisco, Cal. 



Seventh 
St. 



District, ARTHUR MARTEL. 
Denis, Montreal, Que., Can. 



1399 



JAMES KIRBY, Chairman. 



FRANK DUFFY, Secretary. 



Ail correspondence for the General Executive 
Board must be sent to the General Secretary. 



-:- Our Principles -:- 



Resolved, That we, as a body, thoroughly 
approve of the objects of the American Fed- 
eration of Labor and pledge ourselves to give 
it our earnest and hearty support. 

Union-Made Goods 

Resolved, That members of this organiza- 
tion should make it a rule, when purchasing 
goods, to call for those which bear the trade- 
mark of organized labor, and when any indi- 
vidual, firm or corporation shall strike a blow 
at labor organizations they are earnestly re- 
quested to give that individual, firm or cor- 
poration their careful consideration. No good 
union man can kiss the rod that whips him. 

I^abor I^egislation 

Resolved, That it is of the greatest Impor- 
tance that members sliould vote intelligently ; 
hence the members of this Brotherhood sliall 
strive to secure legislation in tavor of those 
who produce the wealth of the country, and 
all discussions and resolutions In that direc- 
tion shall be in order at any regular meeting, 
but party politics must be excluded. 

Immigration 

Resolved, Tliat while we welcome to our 
shores all who come with the honest intention 
of becoming lawful citizens, we at the same 
time condemn the present system which al- 
lows the importation of destitute laborers, and 
we urge organized labor everywhere to en- 
deavor to secure the enactment of more strin- 
gent immigration laws. 

Faithful Work 

Resolved, That we hold it as a sacred prin- 
ciple that Trade Union men, above all others, 
should set a good example as good and faith- 
ful workmen, performing their duties to their 
employers with honor to themselves and their 
organization. 

Shorter Hours of I^abor 

We hold a reduction of hours for a day's 
work increases the intelligence and happiness 
of the laborer, and also increases the demand 
for labor and the price of a day's work. 

Miscellaneous 

We recognize that the interests of all classes 
of labor are identical, regardless of occupa- 
tion, nationality, religion, or color, for a 
wrong done to one is a wrong done to all. 

We object to prison contract labor, because 
it puts the criminal in competition with 
honorable labor for the purpose of cutting 
down wages, and also because it helps to over- 
stock the labor market. 

Resolved, That we most earnestly condemn 
the practice in vogue in many cities, but more 
especially in the West, of advertising ficti- 
tious building booms, as it has a tendency to 
demoralize the trade in such localitiea. 



22 



L 



Ti\a CarpQntar 



Notice to Recording Secretaries 

The quarterly circular for the months 
of January, February and March, con- 
taining the convention call and the quar- 
terly password, has been forwarded to all 
Local Unions of the U. B. Accompany- 
ing it are six blanks for the F. S., three 
of which are to be used for the reports 
to the General Office for the months of 
January, February and March and the 
extra ones to be filled out in duplicate 
and kept on file for future reference. 
Inclosed in the circular are also six 
blanks for the treasurer, to be used in 
transmitting money to the G. 0. 

Recording secretaries not in receipt of 
the circular and accompanying matter 
by the time this journal reaches them 
should immediately notify the G. S. 
Frank Duffy, Carpenters' Building, In- 
dianapolis, Ind. 



l/ocalities to Be Avoided 

Owing to the pending trade move- 
ments, building depression and other 
causes, carpenters are requested to stay 
away from the following places : 



Ann Arbor, Micb. 
Albany, N. Y. 
Arcadia, Fla. 
Asheville, N. C. 
Asbland, Ky. 
Athens, Tex. 
Atlanta, Ga. 
Atlantic City, N. J. 
Augusta, Ga. 
Aurora, 111. 
Austin, Tex. 
Baltimore, Md. 
Barre, Vt. 
Battle Creek, Micb. 
Bay City, Tex. 
Beacon, N. Y. 
Binghamton, N. Y. 
Birmingbam, Ala. 
Bisbee, Ariz. 
Blackwell, Okla. 
Bloomington, 111. 
Boise, Idaho. 
Boone, la. 
Boston, Mass. 
Brainerd, Minn. 
Brenbam, Tex. 
Brownwood, Tex. 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Calgary, Can. 
Canton, O. 
Cedar Rapids, la. 
Central City, Ky. 



Charleston, W. Va. 
Charlotte, N. C. 
Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Chicago, 111. 
Clarksville, Tenn. 
Cleveland, O. 
Clinton, la. 
Columbia, S. C. 
Columbus, O. 
Concordia, Kan. 
Conway, Ark. 
Corpus Cbristi, Tex. 
Corsicana, Tex. 
Cullman, Ala. 
Danville, 111. 
Dayton, O. 
Decatur, 111. 
Denison, Tex. 
Denver, Colo. 
Detroit, Mich. 
Dixon, 111. 
Dubuque, la. 
Dulutb, Minn. 
Edmonton, Can. 
El Centro, Cal. 
Electra, Tex. 
Elmira, N. Y. 
E. St. Louis, 111. 
El Paso, Tex. 
Escanaba, Micb. 
Evansville, Ind. 
Fargo, N. D. 



Fond du Lac, Wis. 
Fort Lauderdale, Fla. 
Fort Myers, Fla. 
Fort Wayne, Ind. 
Framingham, Mass. 
Fremont, Neb. 
French Lick, Ind. 
Fresno, Cal. 
Fulton, N. Y. 
Galveston, Tex. 
Gardner, Mass. 
Gary, Ind. 
Grand Forks, N. D. 
Granite City, 111. 
Great Palls, Mont. 
Greeley, Colo. 
Halifax, N. S. 
Hamilton, O. 
Hammond, Ind. 
Hazleton, Pa. 
Hillsboro, Tex. 
Holyoke, Mass. 
Hot Springs, Ark. 
Huntington, L. I., N. Y 
Hutchinson, Kan. 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Ithaca, N. Y. 
Jacksonville, Fla. 
Jacksonville, Tex. 
•Jamestown, N. Y. 
Jasonville, Ind. 
Joliet, 111. 
■ Joplin, Mo. 
Kankakee, 111. 
Kansas City, Mo. 
Kenosha, Wis. 
Kincaid, 111. 
Kissimmee, Fla. 
Klamath Falls, Ore. 
Lewiston, Mont. 
Lakeland, Fla. 
Leadville, Colo. 
Lexington, Ky. 
Little Rock, Ark. 
London, Ont., Can. 
Long Beach, Cal. 
Los Angeles, Cal. 
Louisville, Ky. 
Macon, Ga. 
Marietta, O. 
Marinette, Wis. 
Marshalltown', la. 
Maryville, Tenn. 
Mason City, la. 
Medicine Hat, Can. 
Medina, N. Y. 
Memphis, Tenn. 
Miami, Ariz. 
Milwaukee, Wis. 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
Minot, N. D. 
Mobile, Ala. 
Montreal, Can. 
Morris, 111. 
Mount Kisco, N. Y. 



Moose Jaw, Sask., Can. 
Mount Carmel, 111. 
Mowbridge, S. D. 
Mount Vernon, N. Y. 
Newark, N. J. 
New Bedford, Mass. 
Newburgh, N. Y. 
New Castle, Pa. 
New Canaan, Conn. 
New Orleans, La. 
Newport News, Va. 
Newport, R. I. 
New York City. 
Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
Norfolk, Va. 
Northampton, Mass. 
North Bend, Ore. 
North Yakima, Wash. 
Norwood, O. 
O'Fallon, 111. 
Oklahoma City, Okla. 
Omaha, Neb. 
Ossining, N. Y. 
Ottawa, Can. 
Palestine, Tex. 
Parsons, Kan. 
Passiac, N. J. 
Paterson, N. J. 
Peekskill, N. Y. 
Peoria, 111. 
Phoenix, Ariz. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Pittsfield, Mass. 
Palm Beach, Fla. 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 
Portland, Me. 
Portland, Ore. 
Pottsville, Pa. 
Pueblo, Colo. 
Racine, Wis. 
Reno, Nev. 
Red Banks, N. J. 
Regina, Can. 
Richmond, Cal. 
Richmond, Va. 
Robstown, Tex. 
Rochdale, Tex. 
Rochester, N. Y. 
Rockford, 111. 
Rock Springs, Wyo. 
San Antonio, Tex. 
San Diego, Cal. 
Salt Lake City, Utah. 
San Francisco, Cal. 
Schenectady, N. Y. 
Shreveport, La. 
Sioux City, la. 
St. Augustine, Fla. 
St. Catherines, Ont. 
St. Cloud, Minn. 
St. Joseph, Mo 
St. Paul, Minn. 
St. Petersburg, Fla. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Seattle, Wash. 



(Continued on Page 53.) 



23 



CorrospondQncQ 




An Urgent Appeal for Financial Aid 

Washington, D. C, Dec. 3, 1914. 
Editor The Carpenter: 

Dear Sir and Brother — The conven- 
tion of the American Federation of La- 
bor, held at Philadelphia, Pa., November 
9-21, 1914, considered appeals for finan- 
cial assistance from three international 
unions : 

The appeal of the International Glove 
Workers' Union of America for financial 
assistance for 1,500 glove cutters in 
Gloversville and Johnstown, New York, 
who have been on strike since August 
21, 1914. 

The appeal of the United Textile 
Workers of America for assistance for 
the employes of the Fulton Bag and Cot- 
ton Company of Atlanta, Ga., who have 
been on strike since May 13, 1914. 

The appeal of the Western Federation 
of Miners for financial assistance to de- 
fend 39 members of their organization, 
now under indictment in Calumet, Mich., 
which includes all of its officers and ex- 
ecutive board members. 

The action taken by the Philadelphia 
convention on these appeals was as fol- 
lows: 

Appeal of International Glove Workers' 
Union of America. 

Resolution No. 153, by Delegate Elisabeth 
Christman of the International Glove Work- 
ers' Union of America : 

Whereas, Fifteen hundred glove cutters 
have been on strike since August 21 in Glov- 
ersville and Johnstown, N. Y., . the great fine 
glove center of this country, to secure an in- 
crease in wages, as no increase in wages has 
been received for the past seventeen years, 
and the New York State Mediation Board re- 
ported after their recent investigation into 
the causes of the strike that the average wage 
of the cutters for fifty-two weeks was $13.30, 
and 

Whereas, The employers have rejected the 
recommendation of the above-named board 
for an increase of 15 cents per dozen, while 
the strikers voted to accept it. This refusal 
means a determination on the part of the 



employers to continue the fight, and our strik- 
ers are equally determined to hold out, as 
they must have an increase in wages to meet 
in some measure the increased cost of living 
of today, and 

Whereas, The glove trade being the only in- 
dustry in that locality, nearly all the workers 
are engaged in some branch of the trade, so 
that in all about 8,000 are involved In the 
strike, making the need for relief especially 
great; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the American Federation of 
Labor, in convention assembled, vote to as- 
sist the glove makers in this strike by direct- 
ing the oflicers to issue an appeal to all affili- 
ated organizations for funds, and that the 
delegates, upon their return home, urge upon 
their members the need of their generous as- 
sistance in this strike. 

Your committee recommends concurrence in 
the resolution and that the appeal for assist- 
ance be sent forward through the proper 
channels at the earliest possible moment to 
the end that these unorganized workers, who 
are making a desperate struggle to better their 
conditions and are standing firmly against the 
rapacity and greed of unscrupulous and dicta- 
torial employers, be given the material as- 
sistance they are so urgently in need of, to- 
gether with the assurance that the moral sup- 
port of the American Federation of Labor is 
always behind any body of workers, organized 
or unorganized who are seeking to improve 
their conditions and better their surroundings 
in life. 

The recommendation of the committee was 
adopted. 

Appeal of the United Textile Workers of 
America. 

The committee read the following portion of 
the proceedings of the eighth day when the 
appeal of the Western Federation of Miners, 
the glove workers and textile workers were 
discussed. 

"Secretary Morrison spoke at some length 
of the assistance that had been given the tex- 
tile workers, the glove workers and other or- 
ganizations that have been on strike, and 
moved : 'That the appeal be referred to the 
committee on report of the executive council, 
to be considered with the appeal of the glove 
workers and the appeal of the Western Fed- 
eration of Miners, to allow the committee to 
bring in a report of such character as would 
meet with the approval of the delegates, and 
in that way be able to give the assistance that 
is required to the Atlanta, Gloversville and 



24 



Calumet people who are in distress.' (Sec- 
onded.)" 

Your committee recommends that the entire 
subject matter contained in this motion be re- 
ferred to the executive council with instruc- 
tions that it take whatever action it may look- 
ing to the relief of the textile workers. 

The recommendation of the committee was 
adopted. 

Appeal of the Western Federation of 
Miners. 

Resolution No. 140, by Delegates J. C. Wil- 
liams, Jos. D. Cannon and James Shea of the 
Western Federation of Miners: 

Whereas, All the workers are familiar with 
the long-drawn-out struggle which was waged 
by the copper miners of the State of Michigan 
and the fact that the fight was declared at an 
end by them because of the inability of the in- 
ternational organization to further provide the 
necessaries of life for its striking members and 
those dependent upon them. In addition to 
the many hardships imposed upon the strik- 
ing miners, 631 arrests were made, the offenses 
ranging from making a noise in the streets to 
the crime of murder. Many of these cases 
found their way into the court, but out of the 
entire number only two convictions were 
recorded on minor offenses; but there are yet 
three men confined in the jail of Houghton, 
Mich., charged with a crime which we are con- 
vinced we will be able to prove to a fair and 
impartial jury was committed by gunmen in 
the employ of the Waddell-Mahon and Ascher 
strike-breaking agencies. These men have been 
incarcerated since the early part of March, 
and are now being transferred to Marquette 
county, Michigan, to be tried on a charge of 
murder. In addition to the direct charge of 
murder against these three men. thirty-six 
members of the miners' organization, includ- 
ing all of its oflicers and executive board 
members, have been indicted by a grand jury 
as accessories, and, in fact, are facing trial 
for the same offense should convictions be ob- 
tained in the cases of the three men now on 
trial. 

whereas, The Western Federation of Min- 
ers, because of the long and expensive conflict 
in Michigan, which caused that federation to 
incur considerable indebtedness for commis- 
sary supplies to the families of the strikers, 
followed by a suspension of operations in the 
metal mines throughout its jurisdiction, ow- 
ing to the depression brought about in the 
metal market through the European war, and 

Whereas, The aforesaid conditions, coupled 
with the efforts now being made by many of 
the larger employers to disrupt the miners' 
movement, leaves us in a position which 
renders it impossible for us to finance the 
defense of the men now on trial ; therefore, 
be it . 

Resolved, By the Thirty-fourth Annual Con- 
vention of the American Federation of Labor, 



Tfia CarpontQr 

'that all afiiliated bodies be called upon to 
render all possible financial assistance, by 
making such appropriations from their treas- 
uries and otherwise as all may be able to give. 
Your committee concurs in the foregoing 
and recommends that it be referred to the 
executive, council with instruction to take 
whatever action it may under the law to se- 
cure immediate assistance for the Western 
Federation of Miners. 
The report of the committee was adopted. 

The Executive Council, at its first 
meeting after the adjournment of the 
Philadelphia convention, considered the 
three appeals for financial assistance 
which were referred to it by the conven- 
tion, and in the light of the fact that a 
number of appeals have been issued dur- 
ing this year, decided that because of the 
great need of immediate finacial assist- 
ance of these three organizations, that it 
would be best to issue one appeal and 
that one-third of all funds received should 
be transferred to each organization 
named above. 

In issuing this appeal we are cognizant 
of the fact that organized labor has in 
the past contributed generously for the 
aid of members of affiliated organizations 
on strike and in distress, and our affili- 
ated unions are to be commended for the 
prompt financial contributions which they 
have cheerfully given to the requests 
made by affiliated organizations for 
financial assistance. Notwithstanding 
that fact, you can readily realize that a 
considerable sum is, and will be, neces- 
sary to give to the Textile Workers on 
strike in Atlanta, Ga., and the Glove 
Workers on strike in Gloversville, N. Y., 
the barest necessities of life, even in the 
line of food. We are, therefore, appeal- 
ing to our aifiliated organizations and 
members to render every financial aid 
possible to these men and women to help 
them stave off hunger so that they may 
maintain this unequal struggle to a vic- 
torious termination. This appeal for finan- 
cial contributions is to organized labor 
generally — to central bodies and local 
unions as well as to individual members. 
Unions that may be in a position to make 
large contributions should make them, 
but it should be no barrier to any union 
niaking a small contribution, even if it 



25 



_. 



TfiQ Carpontar 

be but a dollar. If unions have no funds 
or can not make appropriations from 
their funds for this appeal, they should 
appoint committees to secure individual 
contributions, and through their secre- 
taries forv^ard same to American Fed- 
eration of Labor headquarters. 

Send all contributions to Frank Mor- 
rison, Secretary American Federation of 
Labor, Ouray Building, Washington, D. 
C, who will receipt for same and prompt- 
ly forward one-third to each of the three 
organizations. 

Fraternally yours, 

Samuel Gompers, President; Frank 
Morrison, Secretary; James Duncan, 
First Vice-President; James O'Connell, 
Second Vice-President; D. A. Hayes, 
Third Vice-President; Joseph F. Valen- 
tine, Fourth Vice-President; John R. Al- 
pine, Fifth Vice-President; H. B. Per- 
ham. Sixth Vice-President; Frank Duffy, 
Seventh Vice-President; John B. Lennon, 
Treasurer. 



An Important Circular 

American Federation of 
Labor Headquarters, 
Washington, D. C, Dec. 18, 1914. 
Editor The Carpenter: 

At the Philadelphia convention of the 
American Federation of Labor, many 
matters affecting the interests of our or- 
ganizations, as well as the interests of 
the wage workers of the entire country, 
were considered; among them the follow- 
ing, to which your attention is especially 
directed : 

That affiliated national and interna- 
tional unions shall explain thoroughly to 
their membership the power of the union 
label, and to advocate and insist upon the 
proper union education of all trade union- 
ists as to their duties in deinanding union 
label goods. 

Upon the resolution dealing with the 
subject of American laundries and res- 
taurants conducted by aliens, the conven- 
tion recommended that all trade unionists 
and their friends should patronize union 
restaurants and laundries, and in connec- 
tion with the general subject-matter, the 



convention reaffirmed the declaration of 
the Seattle convention as contained in 
Resolution No. 28, of that convention, as 
follows: 

"Resolved, That we favor a literacy 
test, so that immigrants may be required 
to be able to read and write the language 
of the country from whence they come, 
or in some language or tongue." 

All organized labor was urged to in- 
sist upon and work for the publication of 
all school books under strictly fair condi- 
tions, particular attention being called to 
the fact that the text books and maps 
gotten out by the Rand & McNally Com- 
pany of Chicago are published under non- 
union conditions. 

Organizers and affiliated organizations 
were asked to inaugurate an active cam- 
paign for the organization of school 
teachers throughout the country. 

A special request was made for the 
active co-operation and support of all or- 
ganized labor for the Commercial Teleg- 
raphers' Union of America in its effort to 
organize the men of that calling. 

Assistance of the organized labor 
movement was pledged to the Cigarmak- 
ers' International Union in its effort to 
organize the employes of the American 
Tobacco Company. 

Directions were given for renewed ef- 
foi-ts to organize the stenographers, type- 
writers, bookkeepers and office assistants, 
recommending to all trade union officials 
who employ such workers that they give 
active support and assistance to the 
unions of the calling already organized 
by the following means: 

"(a) To assist in the organization of 
their own workers; (b) when employing 
new workers apply to the union for those 
already members, if any such are out of 
employment and competent for work re- 
quired; (c) to periodically look for the 
union cards of their workers, so that they 
will assist the struggling unions in keep- 
ing their members' dues paid without un- 
necessary effort; (d) to enter into union 
shop agreements with the union where 
the union is in the habit of making for- 
mal agreements; (e) to give extra work 



26 



done outside the office to union members 
where possible." 

Endorsing: the Casey Bill, H. R. 17,855, 
or legislation of similar import accepta- 
ble to the organized farmers for the es- 
tablishment of an industrial alcohol com- 
mission, and an appropriation by Con- 
gress to demonstrate conclusively the 
practicability of farm alcohol distilling. 

Requesting the active co-operation of 
all affiliated national and international 
unions, state federations of labor, city 
central bodies, in behalf of the United 
Brotherhood of Leather Workers on 
Horse Goods, in its campaign for organiz- 
ing the men of the trade. 

The convention condemned the use of 
official seals of the organizations of labor 
by privately owned papers, and called 
upon all state bodies and city centrg^l 
bodies to withdraw all seals now being 
printed in privately owned papers. The 
various departments of the A. F. of L. 
were asked to take similar measures with 
their respective local councils. 

In dealing with the effort to organize 
the employes of the various state institu- 
tions controlled by the State Board of 
Administration of the State of Illinois, 
to secure for them one day's rest in seven, 
reasonable compensation for labor per- 
formed, an annual vacation of at least 
two weeks, adequate housing facilities 
for employes, a practical tribunal for the 
redress of grievances, the convention de- 
clared in favor of similar agitation being 
conducted through the proper channels, 
such as the State Federations of Labor, 
the city central bodies, and the A. F. of 
L. organizations, in the other states 
throughout America. 

The convention unequivocally declared 
that bakery wagon drivers and laundry 
wagon drivers come under the jurisdic- 
tion of the International Brotherhood of 
Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Stablemen and 
Helpers of America; that all affiliated or- 
ganizations should govern themselves ac- 
cordingly, and that all state federations 
of labor and city central bodies shall be 
given notice that local- unions having 
within their membership teamsters com- 
ing under the jurisdiction of the Inter- 



Tfia CarpQntor 

national Brotherhood of Teamsters will 
not be seated until such members are 
transferred to their proper jurisdiction. 

It was recommended that every effort 
be made by the A. F. of L., and state 
federations and city central bodies for 
the passage of laws by the various state 
legislatures for the free text book system. 

It was ordered that the state federa- 
tions and city central bodies should be 
requested to use their best endeavors to 
have laws enacted by the different state 
legislatures requiring that in the work- 
shops in which are employed upholsterers 
and mattress makers who work on furni- 
ture, mattresses, railway cars, and auto- 
mobiles, the filling material shall be 
picked in separate rooms, and also that 
the use of materials for the filling of 
mattresses which are injurious to the 
health of the people shall be prohibited. 

The Congress of the United States 
having designated the second Sunday in 
May as Mother's Day, the convention 
recommended that the state federations 
and city central bodies should urge upon 
their respective legislatures the enact- 
ment or adoption of laws or resolutions 
for the various states, designating the 
second Sunday in May as Mother's Day. 

The state federations and city central 
bodies of the Pacific and Intermountain 
states were urged by the convention to 
be vigorous and energetic in their efforts 
to secure the enactment of such legisla- 
tion as will prohibit the employment of 
white women under any conditions by 
Asiatics. 

That every assistance possible be given 
to the National Association for the Study 
and Prevention of Tuberculosis in pro- 
mulgating its campaign of publicity and 
that all affiliated organizations are urged 
to bring before their respective state 
legislatures or other law-making bodies 
the necessity of better provisions for the 
prevention and cure of tuberculosis and 
more rigid inspection of housing condi- 
tions, more adequate provisions for sani- 
tary conditions in workshops and other 
places of employment, and more exten- 
sive and suitable provision for the proper 



27 



TfiQ CarpQntQr 



care and treatment of those suffering 
from tuberculosis. 

The various subjects to which reference 
is made above are some of the more im- 
portant matters to which it is deemed 
necessary at this time particularly to 
call your attention. From time to time, 
during the year, through the columns of 
The American Federationist, and The 
A. F. of L. "Weekly News Letter, as well 
as by official circular, your attention will 
be further called to other matters dealt 
with by the Philadelphia convention, or 
which may arise from time to time. 

Your earnest and active co-operation 
and assistance are urgently requested in 
carrying out the letter and spirit of the 
declarations of the Philadelphia conven- 
tion as regards the matters to which ref- 
erence is above made, for your help and 
co-operation will largely contribute to 
giving to our movement a very great im- 
petus and wider power and influence for 
good. 

Permit me to express felicitations to 
all upon the splendid work of the year 
just closed, and to express the hope for 
still greater success and happiness for 
1915. 

The necessity of the hour and humanity 
demand that every man shall do his duty. 
Fraternally yours, 
SAMUEL GOMPERS, 
President, A. F. of L. 
Attest: 

FRANK MORRISON, 

Secretary, A. F. of L. 



Encouraging "Words from I<. U. 367 

Editor The Carpenter: 

I don't know if anybody connected with 
the carpenters' union of Centralia, 111., 
ever wrote a line to our carpenter jour- 
nal before this. However, I wish to give 
you a brief history of our little locaL and 
first will say that our members have gone 
through every trial and trouble that any 
local of the U. B. could fall heir to 
barring a long strike. We have had our 
outs and ins with the contractors, the 
bricklayers, and our members had one 
scrap after another on the building 



with the miners, handy carpenters, and 
fought it to a finish, and we have the 
brickmasons now our best friends on the 
job and now the handy miner carpenters 
don't trouble us any more, but we are 
still troubled with the small neighboring 
towns and hamlet carpenters, especially 
since we got our wage scale up to 50 
cents per hour and an eight-hour work- 
day. 

We have had just enough work this 
summer so far to keep our members busy. 
All our troubles and victories since we 
organized have been fought and won 
without the assistance of the General 
Office, but when a representative of the 
G. P. drops in, which has been seldom, 
we give him the glad hand and try to en- 
courage him, as we are doing at present 
with our oldtime friend D. J. Farley, the 
only Organizer that ever did drop in and 
tell us something new about what is go-. 
ing on in the U. B. world. But, Mr. Ed- 
itor, I don't want you to think that this 
is the only local that has fought its 
battles alone. Downstate, among the 
coal fields and snake fence fields of south- 
ern Illinois, there are several locals east, 
west, north and south of Centralia that 
have the staying qualities of our mem- 
bers; if they didn't the grass would have 
been growing where comfortable homes 
stand now. 

But now the membership of the U. B. 
in the south part of this State has arrived 
at the conclusion that they are entitled 
to the assistance of an Organizer in this 
southern district, if only to organize the 
. small towns and hamlet carpenters, so as 
to prevent them coming into our old lo- 
cal's districts under the guise of con- 
tractors and bring their cheap, long-hour 
carpenters with them, and we are in- 
structing our delegate to assist the dele- 
gate from L. U. No. 55, Denver, in their 
amendment to Section 121; also our sis- 
ter Local No. 999 amendment to Section 
127, and any other good amendment that 
will help to organize the many thousands 
of unorganized carpenters in the smaller 
districts. Also we have instructed our 
delegate to work to the end that our Gen- 
eral Officers will secure a sufficient in- 



28 



crease of salaries, as we have read much 
about this and heard much comment on 
the bad example set by the rank and file 
of the U. B. in the role of employers. 
Fraternally yours, 

L. M. SNYDER, 
R. S. L. U. 367. 



From I,. U. 1544 

Editor The Carpenter: 

I have read the proceedings in book 
form of what transpired at the recent 
U. B. convention and if I judge by what 
I read much good work was done at In- 
dianapolis for the rank and file. But is 
it really true that the U. B. of C. and J. 
of A. delegates were so tranquil and so 
interested in , the work before them that 
it inspired a writer who signs himself 
R. B. B., in the last issue of the journal, 
to pen the following words: "But so 
tactfully and magnanimously were such 
incidents handled that they in no way 
threatened the perfect harmony which 
was a feature of the convention." Thanks 
to the writer, R. B. B. 

Again let us ask is it really a fact that 
the delegates were each individually gov- 
erned by the true spirit of their obliga- 
tion (charitable in judgment of their 
brother members). For instance, did they 
say: "Because you, the General Officers 
of our organization, have worked so 
■ faithfully for our grand organization we 
will employ you each to manage the 
business of - our rank and file (stock- 
holders) for another term." Yes, indeed, 
the representatives of our rank and file, 
through appreciation of the good work 
of our twelve General Officers and in 
justice to the rank and file (stockholders) 
saw fit to nominate ten of them without 
opposition, but unavoidably allowed two 
similarly faithful employes to have oppo- 
sition. Good for a near-four-hundred 
bunch of delegates whose slogan has been 
U. B. business first! But let me ask the 
delegates what about the pay of these 
men you have hired ? You didn't draw up 
an agreement with them and they may 
come out on strike and woe betide the 
members that' will scab on them if they 



Tfia CarpQntQr 

do walk off the job at the General Office. 
Mr. Editor, just a little more space, in 
the way of information to these brave 
delegates, to- wit: a few days ago a sec- 
retary of a small local of twelve members 
called the attention of the president of 
another small local to the question of a 
r^se in salaries for the General Officers 
and figured out that the increase of 
wages to the twelve General Officers 
would amount to 4 cents per member per 
year and the secretary of the small local 
said that if the rank and file turned down 
the question of raising the General Offi- 
cers' salaries he would appeal to his local 
to permit him to make a donation of 96 
cents or 8 cents for twelve members for 
two years as an appropriation toward a 
fund to raise the salaries of the General 
Officers. Forthwith the president of the 
other small local promised to do likewise. 
Fraternally yours, 
A MEMBER OF L. U. 1544. 



Conditions in Crawfordsville, Ind. 

Editor The Carpenter: 

At a recent meeting of this local a mo- 
tion was made and carried that the re- 
cording secretary should send a commu- 
nication to The Carpenter showing that 
this local is still on the map. For one 
thing, we have no wage movement on 
hand and are not asking transient broth- 
ers to stay away from Crawfordsville, 
which we have noticed is the burden of 
most of the articles in "News Notes." 
Work in the building line is fair and 
mostly all the members are busy most of 
the time. New members are being initi- 
ated at almost every meeting. 

The carpenters' union in regard to 
members and finances is the strongest 
and most progressive labor organization 
in this city. It is the only organization 
that has its own furnished hall, where it 
meets regularly for the transaction of 
business. Aside from our own organiza- 
tion, unionism is at a very low ebb here 
at present. The 9ther trades, with the 
exception of the printers and cigarmak- 
ers, have no place of meeting, simply 
paying per capita tax to hold their char- 



29 



If\a CarpQntQr 



ter. Such is the organization of the 
plumbers, bricklayers and plasterers. 

With such weak organizations of these 
trades it is rather doubtful as to the out- 
come of the agreement recently adopted 
by the International Executive Boards of 
the International unions of these latter 
two trades and the Brotherhood of Car- 
penters. Although this local had a meet- 
ing with representatives of the bricklay- 
ers and plasterers to carry out this 
agreement locally, an understanding was 
reached by these representatives to 
finish all non-union contracts that had 
been made before being notified of this 
agreement. After that it was under- 
stood that we follow the terms of the 
International agreement. But such is 
the feeling of the local plasterers toward 
one another, which is not very friendly 
or brotherly, that it is very doubtful 
about the outcome. If successfully car- 
ried out, this agreement should be the 
means of getting into line three or four 
non-union carpenter contractors that are 
very hard to handle. It seems to us an 
organizer of each of the bricklayers and 
plasterers should be sent here to reor- 
ganize and rejuvenate these locals. 
Fraternally yours, 
G. W. BEATTY, R. S., L. U. 1355. 

Crawfordsville, Ind. 



Keep the Girls at Home 
We note with a great deal of real 
pleasure that the various investigations 
going on in many sections of the country 
Oi the woman in industry have been in- 
strumental in bringing to light the real 
danger that exists in that condition. 

The woman in industry is not an eco- 
nomic question. It is far more vital. It 
simply is that the woman in industry 
means the uprooting of the home. 

We are not so narrow or so prejudiced 
that we would declare the woman out of 
civic or business life altogether. On the 
contrary, we believe some women are a 
distinct advantage to the general commu- 
nity when she injects her vigorous per- 
sonality into civic affairs. But we do not 



believe that for the sake of the dividends 
m.ade possible that she should be ground 
into the industrial mill at the cost of the 
home. 

Physicians now declare that much of 
the disease that now menaces our com- 
munities is an outgrowth of the insani- 
tary conditions in the home. These con^ 
ditions in turn are the outgrowth of the 
fact that the tidiness of the home and 
the care of the children are sacrificed be- 
cause the mothers are forced into the 
mill of industry. This means simply that 
the home is being uprooted through neg- 
lect and lack of attention, and these con- 
ditions are a direct result of the mothers 
being forced to devote all their time to 
making a living at the cost of losing the 
home. 

It is a sad commentary on our indus- 
try, on our commercialism, on our na- 
tional pride, that we must sacrifice its 
most precious condition that we may 
make money. 

The American labor movement has 
sought on all occasions to preserve the 
home. 

In all questions of dispute between em- 
ployers and employes the main consider- 
ation on the part of the unionists is that 
the conditions that have been most anx- 
iously watched and most carefully safe- 
guarded have been those which made for 
happiness of the persons involved rather 
than the money question. In every in- 
stance where a. dispute over working con- 
ditions has been adjusted it has been ad- 
justed with the working conditions first 
and then the wages have entered. 

It is with the greatest pride that we 
point back over the past two decades of 
progress of the American Federation of 
Labor as the greatest in point of happi- 
ness, for the progress has been toward 
a better manhood and a healthier human- 
ity. 

The ethics of the American labor move- 
ment have been more personal, more hu- 
mane, than commercial. 

And the home is based thereon — which 
makes the American labor movement 
essentially a preserver of the home. — 
Journal of Labor. 



30 



Casual Comment 



We have with us, Brother 1915 — old 
1914, we bid thee hail and farewell ! 

>♦ A A- 

>♦ V ♦♦♦ 

To many, life is just one New Year's 
resolution after another — smashed to 
bits. 

♦*♦ ♦♦♦ ♦■ 

Let each one of us resolve to start an 
individual Labor Forward Movement 
during 1915 for the U, B. 

*> <♦ ♦:* 

ThQ water wagon never exceeds the 
speed limit. It's always "a long, long 
way to Tipperary" or elsewhere for those 
who mount it. But they usually manage 
to get somewhere just the same. 

♦♦♦ A A 
V rjT V 

Let us hope that the policy of "watch- 
ful waiting" for better times which 
seems to have been the favorite winter 
sport of many of our members will be 
rewarded during the new year with a 
substantial share of solid, old-fashioned 
pt'osperity. 




the "Localities to be Avoided" list in this 
issue of The Carpenter we don't think 
the poetic line would be applicable to the 
village carpenter of 1914. He did pre- 
cious little rejoicing. 

A A A 

V V *♦* 

The action of the Philadelphia conven- 
tion in authorizing the erection or pur- 
chase of an A. F. of L. building at Wash- 
ington is a step in the right direction. It 
would be most appropriate to have in the 
nation's capital a building which could 
be pointed out to visitors as the head- 
quarters of the American labor move- 
ment. 

A A A 

V V *♦* 

The labor movement needs the active 
support of each and every individual 
wage-earner. Don't leave all the work 
of your organization upon the shoulders 
of a few dutiful members of your local 
union. Take an active interest in the 
world of laboi'. Don't be. a drone in the 
social hive. 



The old-fashioned states' rights doc- 
trine seems to be growing more sadly 
out of place every day. Here we have 
the Democratic Postmaster-General, Mr. 
Burleson, following the example of his 
Republican predecessor by bringing for- 
ward a plan to nationalize our telegraph 

and telephone systems. 

♦♦♦ ♦*♦ ♦+♦ 

Most of us are conscious of an exalted 
sense of virtue these days as we strut 
about in the glamour of our newly made 
resolutions. Let us remember, how- 
ever, that it is not the making of res- 
olutions, but the keeping of them, which 
renders pardonable the consciousness of 
virtue. 

<♦ *> ♦ 

"Toiling, rejoicing, sorrowing, onward 
through life he goes!". Thus Longfellow 
summed up the life of the village black- 
smith of his time. After a brief look at 



The severity of the unemployed prob- 
lem this winter and the untold amount 
of suffering that it has caused all over 
the country, particularly in the larger 
industrial centers, may at least serve to 
turn the spotlight of public opinion di- 
rectly upon this vital question. 
♦+♦ ♦**' ♦*♦ 

Already much good work has been 
done by public-spirited citizens and so- 
cial workers along constructive lines in 
laying plans for the establishment of a 
national system of labor exchanges, in 
the establishment of unemployment in- 
surance, in plans to take the "unem- 
ployable" out of the labor market and in 
proposals to regularize production, but 
as yet such schemes are merely in the 
embryonic stage. 

*$*■■*$•■ "^ 

They tell of a Buffalo employer who, a 



31 



TfiQ Carpontor 

few days before Christmas, interested 
himself mightily in behalf of the Belgian 
war sufferers, making heart-rending ap- 
peals for aid for them, inducing his 
friends to contribute, and so forth. But 
the very same day when his heart was 
almost melting with pity for the Bel- 
gians in distant Europe this man laid off 
some 200 employes at his own plant and 
never gave the matter a thought. And 
we don't suppose he felt that there was 
anything inconsistent about his conduct, 
either. 

The Industrial Relations Commission at 
its recent Denver hearings did a public 
service by establishing the authorship of 
the untruthful bulletins setting forth the 
mine operators' side of the Colorado 
strike controversy which have been 
deluging the editorial desks of the coun- 
try for the last six months. Their author 
bears the euphonious name of Ivy Led- 
better Lee. 

>+♦ ♦+* ♦+♦ 

No (old subscriber), Ivy is not a 
woman. He is the executive assistant to 
the president of the Pennsylvania rail- 
road and has charge of the company's 
publicity work. John D. Rockefeller, Jr., 
made a shrewd selection in choosing Lee 
to present the operators' side of the Colo- 
rado strike, for Lee also served "Divine 
Right" Baer in a similar capacity during 
the famous anthracite strike in the Penn- 
sylvania coal fields. 

♦♦<• *+<• ♦+♦ 

An unprecedented inrush of immi- 
grants is expected after the European 
war. Everyone admits it as a foregone 
conclusion, yet what preparations are be- 
ing made to meet the unusual situation 
when it does occur? Organized labor 
will indeed do well to give thought to 
the matter. If unemployment is so de- 
plorably bad this year, what will it be 
next year or the year after if thousands 
of destitute Europeans are dumped hap- 
hazardly upon our shores ? 
i^t >t« *t^ 

An instance of the arbitrary way in 
which large employers of labor ignore 
state labor laws may be seen in the situ- 



ation which has arisen over the employ- 
ment of aliens on the building of the 
New York subways. Notwithstanding 
the fact that the state law forbids the 
employment of aliens upon public work, 
between 80 and 90 per cent, of the sub- 
way workers are foreigners. Of course, 
now that the employers find that they 
shall have to obey the law they are di- 
recting every effort to have it declared 
unconstitutional. 

♦+<• ♦+♦ ♦+♦ 
Already there are signs of the begin- 
nings of an important co-operative move- 
ment in this country which may not un- 
likely have its roots deep in the soil of 
trade unionism as has been the case, in 
England where the two movements, while 
not exactly identical, have flourished side 
by side. The latest indication of it is 
found in the action of the bricklayers of 
El Paso, Tex., backed by their interna- 
tional union, in erecting a brick plant at 
a cost of $400,000. 

>+<. >+♦ >♦♦ 

The hope of the International Associa- 
tion of Machinists for the complete or- 
ganization of all the mechanical depart- 
ments of the U. S. government is being 
speedily realized today. What was con- 
sidered the last link in the chain was the 
organization of the machinists employed 
at the Sandy Hook proving grounds into 
a hundred per cent, organization. Thus 
all of Uncle Sam's mechanics from Pan- 
ama to Maine and from New York to 
San Francisco carry union cards. 

A. A ♦+♦ 

V V ♦♦♦ 

The Los Angeles Times, at one time 
one of the most influential newspapers in 
the western states, has fallen upon evil 
days. It no longer has the shadow of its 
former power and prestige and its un- 
doing may be traced to its bitter antip- 
athy to the labor movement. At the 
recent elections the three most prominent 
candidates supported by the Times and 
its publisher, General Otis, went down to 
defeat. They were: Fredericks for gov- 
ernor, Hammel for sheriff and Ford for 
district attorney. 

♦*♦ >♦♦ *♦♦ 

The alien labor problem is one that is 



32 



Tfia Caroontar 



becoming more and more serious as time 
passes, and the solving of it will tax our 
national capabilities to the uttermost. It 
is a question that is likely to cause end- 
less controversy according to the angle 
from which one views the matter and, 
while there is likely to be further differ- 
ences of opinion upon the subject, there 
is one point upon which all thinking peo- 
ple will agree. It is, of course, within 
our right to bar out the alien if we so 
desire, but if we are to allow him land 
we should at least do something to pre- 
vent him from becoming a menace to 
American labor standards. 
♦ <<■ <* 
The Mercliants' Association of New 
York has started a campaign for the es- 
tablishment of a state constabulary simi- 
lar to that. in force in the state of Penn- 
sylvania and urges the enactment of a 
state law establishing such a force. We 
leave it .to the representatives of or- 
ganized labor in New York to defeat this 
artificial agitation for something which 
the people do not want. State constabu- 
laries are an anachronism and exist at 
the present day solely as a weapon of the 
employing interests to overawe and crush 
wage-earners in time of strike. The 
brutalities perpetrated by the murderous 
Cossacks of Pennsylvania will not soon 
be forgotten. 

In a previous issue we paid our re- 
spects in no uncertain terms to Fra El- 
bert Hubbard, the Roycrofter of East 
Aurora, N. Y., for a senseless diatribe 
which he directed against trade unionism 
and which was circulated by an Indian- 
apolis employers' association. Now it 
develops that he recently offered Presi- 
dent Welborn and John D. Rockefeller, 
Jr., of the Colorado Fuel and Iron Com- 
pany, the whole Hubbardized "truth" 
about the Colorado strike in one of his 
Philistine booklets at $200 a thousand. 
This confirms us in the opinion that we 
sized Elbert up just about right. 
♦*♦ ♦♦♦ ♦♦♦ 

The Commission on National Aid to 
Vocational Education has drafted . a bill 
for submission to Congress which pro- 



poses an initial annual grant to the states 
of a million and a half dollars, rising to 
the sum of seven millions through a pe- 
riod of years. The idea of the commis- 
sion is that this aid shall be administered 
under supervision of a federal board to 
consist of the Postmaster-General, with 
the secretaries of the Interior, of Agri- 
culture, and of Commerce and Labor. No 
provision is made for a minister of edu- 
cation, but the commissioner of educa- 
tion will remain an executive officer, al- 
though with somewhat enlarged duties. 

♦♦■» A ♦♦♦ 
V V V 

Perhaps one of these days we will take 
a lesson from the Carpenters' Union of 
Brisbane, Australia, which recently 
formed a co-operative building associa- 
tion. The plan was born in the minds 
of a number of the members who were 
out of work and who were enterprising 
enough to create jobs for themselves and 
own them, too. The association starts 
with $5,000 (at $5 per share) with which 
to defray initial expenses. The men will 
be paid day's wages and when a contract 
is finished 20 per cent, of the profit will 
be divided among those who actually 
worked on the job. The 80 per cent, bal- 
ance will be banked as working capital 
on a pro rata basis of stock owned. 



"War is hell!" cried Mr. Casey, repeat- 
ing the famous saying. "It is not," de- 
clared Mr. Grogan. "Did annybuddy iv- 
ver hear av a sojer comin' back from 
hell an' drawin' a pinsion for sivinty 
years?" 



Industrial Reconstruction 

(Continued from Page 21.) 
industry to which they are allied. Much 
can be done by bringing trade union 
ideas to bear more strongly upon such 
questions as the apprenticeship system, 
vocational training, and those other prob- 
lems which are so vital to the industrial 
world. If we follow out the program of 
the American Federation of Labor in this 
connection we will be doing all that can 
be required of us. 



33 



TiiQ CarpQntQr 



:eNGROSS:ED R:^S0I.UTI0NS on D:RATH of D:EI.:eGATB FIT^G:eRAI,D 





i^ixtljS A rrtols rKcxuci'' hlcs i^a frg^tg'a.-uatTora oixr latr '^gV otlr^a- 



€DJ*N I ELS. F I T ZG E R A L D 



Xotd %t^m y(t4U0 k^^ostwsflllnssariiasdts 





'-' aniotJkona nsM. raljscon 115 a Vl^jaU tc rht ^labttjnrt iSoutit <r;nv£ntl--ft j-frur TJwSlKtlw- 

'^^^ kAshj *o oBlrt IE -^K.na VrtjMsi- lbs piith»ar= -'f «ii tollers, sttivma L- fluck tbi th;rn=, frM tb 

tr«r :f latc' .'lUt liUk ^-nS^. m -njVing r«:ti(ljrl? -sit! Jur Utc IrfUjr'j {•^•mlf;: tfcirlfci-e- t^ il 

ESr>L\ E D C^*«' rt« '<iiUt^.\ ^Jt«tb£tb»jl .-f iTutf cUtts un.N "Jclnits cf :3Werlca In 1 

MRTI iwn oamnbli* Kef t" !«F(^-ra tin less of 'Sictticf TlUjcraW. U the couaciU of lator aai 
S^eiUni aRi Goa^ej to ti* sn6ow ani cfA'.iren our prcfoun6. tieartfelt an^N ak^itua sympatliy. aR^wtjb 
l 'a «a!w tis«htt«rIV!irciiFcf s^rro^. be^ to .issurc ttiera that iV-.nno ks hlef illness tkit b. «a! 
>_«lri* for ^j tovlft^ baa^ ai^ tWl ^Ik" tbe Usl sa^ sumni;jis cuiue iKjt K; was amin^ Jn^ais , 
to-al lit life ani fjltbfu', aat; ieotb ap-^ tM 'X-o Irtc In beJrts «« kaT>e b<(»ini Is not 
'-'E' *«^ " « 'f *• ' fx'-'k- _ '- 




We present herewith a reduced fac- 
simile of the resolutions adopted by the 
Eighteenth General Convention on the 
death of Brother Daniel S. Fitzgerald, 
the delegate from Floor Layers' L. U. 
1410, Boston, Mass. The engrossing work 
was entrusted to a member of our or- 
ganization, Brother Dwight L. Stoddard, 
of L. U. 75, Indianapolis, Ind., and it is 
a pleasure to record that he acquitted 
himself in a manner most satisfactory. 
It is a matter of no little pride to be able 
to point to the engrossed copies as speci- 
mens of work done by one of our mem- 
bers. Brother Stoddard is one of the 



most versatile mechanics in the Mid- 
dle West and is just as handy with the 
engrossing pen as he is in writing craft 
problems for The Carpenter, or as he is 
with the time-honored tools of his trade 
— the hammer, saw and jack plane. 
The resolutions have been forwarded 
to the Boston District Council with in- 
structions that they be suitably framed 
for presentation to the family of the de- 
ceased and to L. U. 1410, the frames to 
bear the U. B. label. Thus they will be 
in every respect strictly the product of 
U. B. workmanship. 



34 



Nqws NotQS from Local Unions 




Barre, Vt., L. U. 481.— Owing to the 
fact that many carpenters who have 
come to Barre in recent months have 
been stranded L. U. 481 desires to warn 
all traveling brothers that there is little 
chance of their obtaining work in Barre 
or vicinity at present. Frank R. Jame- 
son, R. S. 

*> <* ^ 

Macon, Ga., L. U. 144. — All members of 
the organization are urged to stay away 
from Macon as trade conditions are bad. 
There is no work whatever in sight and 
L. U. 144 faces the winter with misgiv- 
ings. Some of our best members are 
leaving town and others are dropping 
out, as they cannot find employment at 
the trade. J. W. E. Culpepper, F. S. 
♦♦♦ ♦♦♦ ♦♦♦ 

Tacoma, Wash., L. U. 470. — Bad condi- 
tions exist in Tacoma and there are a 
large number of idle men in the city. 
More than half of the members of our 
local are out of work and many have 
been forced to accept any kind of labor. 
Brothers intending to come here are ad- 
vised not to do so. L. Richter, R. S. 
^ ♦♦♦ >♦♦ 

Pottsville, Pa., L. U. 228.— Traveling 
brothers are advised not to come to Potts- 
ville until the prevailing slackness in the 
trade disappears and also until the suc- 
cessful outcome of the trade movement, 
which is at present pending, will be an- 
nounced. A number of the members in- 
cluding some of the officers of the local 
have had to go elsewhere in search of 
work. E. G. Ossman, B. A. 
♦*♦ <* *X* 

St. Joseph, Mo., L. U. 110.— About 25 
per cent, of the members of this local 
are unemployed at present owing to the 
prevailing slackness in the trade. Trav- 
eling brothers are urged to stay away 
from St. Joseph. Charles Simpson, R. S. 
•♦• ♦ "^ 

Fremont, Neb., L. U. 1395.— All travel- 
ing brothers are warned to pay no at- 
tention to advertisements calling for men 



at Fremont, as there are more men out 
of work in this vicinity than at any time 
in the past ten years. L. B. Dunbar, 
R. S. 

♦♦♦ **♦ ♦;♦ 
Mason City, la., L. U. 1313.— All trav- 
eling brothers are notified that there are 
enough carpenters in Mason City to take 
care of all work in sight. There are a 
large number of out-of-town carpenters 
here and the arrival of others would seri- 
ously aifect existing conditions. J. C. 
Deeny, R. S. 

»♦♦ ♦♦♦ ♦;♦ 
Hillsboro, Tex., L. U. 397.— Only about 
one-third of the members of this local 
are employed owing to the general slack- 
ness in the trade which has hit Hillsboro 
hard. Prospects for the future do not 
look reassuring and all traveling broth- 
ers are warned to stay away. W. N. 
Hodge, F. S. 

.♦♦ <* ^* 
Memphis, Tenn., District Council. — In 
the face of the bad conditions prevailing 
in the trade in Memphis and vicinity all 
traveling brothers are asked to stay 
away from this southern city until fur- 
ther notice. At least 70 per cent, of our 
members are idle. _R. L. Smith, R. S. 

♦♦♦ <♦ ♦*♦ 
Baltimore, Md., District Council. — Un- 
employment is very prevalent at present 
in Baltimore, particularly in the car- 
pentry trade and a large proportion of 
the members of our organization in the 
city are unable to find work. Traveling 
brothers will find it to their advantage 
to keep away. 

■^ 4* 4^ 

lyook Out for Chubb 

A man named George W. Chubb, who 
holds a membership due book issued by 
Local Union 1295 of Hornell, N. Y., with 
his dues paid up to July 1, 1914, has been 
victimizing members of the U. B. through 
the east on the pretense of obtaining 
car fare to pay his way home to Bing- 



35 



Tfia CarpQntQr 



hamton, N. Y. On the strength of his 
representations he obtained sums of 
money from members in Medina, N. Y., 
Hornell, N. Y., Jamestown, N. Y., and 
Sayre, Pa. In Medina he claimed to be 
a member of Local Union 281 of Bing- 
hamton. We are requested by Local 
Union 1295 of Hornell to notify the mem- 
bership that it will not be responsible for 
any money paid to Chubb. 

■^ -^ 4^ 

Any member of the organization 
knowing the whereabouts and address of 
William H. Montress, at one time a mem- 
ber of Local Union 42 of New Rochelle, 
N. Y., will confer a favor by sending 
same to the secretary of Local Union 
1914 of Stratford, Conn. Address let- 
ters to George Howard, 177 Beardsley 
street, Bridgeport, Conn. 
^ ■*$*■ ■*$*■ 

The relatives of C. Glen Rehmel, a 
member of the U. B., who was last heard 
from in Memphis, Tenn., but who also 
worked at the trade in Hot Springs, 
Ark., would like to hear from him or 
learn of his present address. Send in- 
formation to Milton Frack, R. S. L. U. 
1069, 1107 Isett avenue, Muscatine, la. 
<* *> *> 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y., L. U. 203.— Work 
at the trade is exceedingly dull in Pough- 
keepsie and many of our men are unem- 
ployed. At present there is no prospect 
of a change in the situation. Traveling 
ijrothers are advised to stay away. F. 
Wentworth, R. S. 

<♦ ^* ♦ 

Titusville, Fla., L. U. 1428.— As this 
town is overrun with traveling brothers 
and "floaters," this local has found it 
necessary to advise the membership that 
there is little or no work being done in 
this section of Florida this season. All 
the work in sight can be easily handled 
by the brothers here. M. L. von Kop- 
pelon. 

■♦• ♦ ♦ 

Scranton, Pa., L. U. 261. — Owing to 
slackness of work in the building line, 
carpenters are requested to steer clear 
of this city. No attention should be paid 



to newspaper advertisements of building- 
booms, etc., in the vicinity of Scranton. 
Many of our members are idle. E. E. 
Knapp, R. S. ' 

♦♦♦ *X* ♦ 
Saginaw, Mich., L. U. 334.— Trade con- 
ditions are unusually slack in Saginaw 
at this time and the situation is being 
made more serious by the arrival of trav- 
eling brothers coming here in search of 
work. Members of the organization 
should stay away from Saginaw until 
further notice. C. F. Plambeck, secre- 
tary. 



Dykeman Kxpelled 

George L. Dykeman, late treasurer of 
Local Union 1848, Victoria, B. C, has 
been expelled from his local for misap- 
propriation of funds. Dykeman has al- 
ready been sentenced to two months' im- 
prisonment on two charges, and will be 
tried by a jury on further charges at the 
next assizes. Members of the U. B. in 
the Sound cities are urged to take notice 
of this as Dykeman is well-known in 
Seattle and Tacoma. 

♦*<■ if ij* 

Not Having Time 

The start of a New Year is always the 
open season for those who impotently 
bewail the flight of time. Life, in a re- 
cent issue, refers the following to per- 
sons who persistently insist that they 
"haven't time." 

In one minute you can: Propose to a 
girl; fall overboard; miss the boat to 
Europe; be hanged; lose a fortune in the 
market; kiss a girl from one to sixty 
times; be kissed as many; acquire a fatal 
disease; drop from a ten-story building; 
take a cold bath; run a hundred yards; 
lose your job; have your pocket picked; 
write a check for a million; see the point 
of a joke; be born; die; have a tooth 
pulled; meet your affinity; say the wrong 
thing; lose a two-some; say the Lord's 
Prayer; swear a blue streak; buy a gold 
brick; sell one; be run over at a grade 
crossing; read this. 



36 



Ti\a CarpQntQF 



Shreveport to Have Carpenters' 
Building 

Shreveport, La., is soon to have a 
spacious carpenters' building, according 
to plans which have been perfected by 
the members of L. U. 764 of that city. A 
picture of the proposed structure ap- 
peared in the recent Labor Day program 
of the Shreveport unions, together with 
photos of the present officers of L. U. 
764, John Morris, president; R. R. Roland, 
vice-president, and T. L. Blalock, finan- 
cial secretary. The building will be of 
brick, three stories high and will contain 
a large hall. The second floor will be 
used for a reading room and club rooms 
for the members. The Labor Day pro- 
gram also contained an interesting his- 
tory of the U. B. in Shreveport and of 
L. U. 764, which, according to a recent 
report, has 310 members. 



Information Wanted 

A. E. Schilling, a member of Parquet 
Floor Layers' Local Union 1242 of Cleve- 
land, 0., disappeared from his home on 
November 13, last. He was formerly a 




A. E. SCHILLING. 

member of the Iron Holders' Union No. 
218 of Cleveland, O., and also belonged 
to that organization in St. Paul, Minn*, 
which is his home town. Schilling is 5 
feet, 7 inches in height; has light hair 
and blue eyes, and is 31 years old. He 
leaves a wife and three small children 
without any means of support. It is 
thought he may have gone to Chicago. 
Any information concerning him should 



be sent to his wife, Mrs. Arnold E. Schill- 
ing, 7724 Franklin avenue, northwest, 
Cleveland, 0. 



Information is wanted as to the where- 
abouts of Luther Dixon, a U. B. member 
of San Antonio, Tex., who left that city 
on a clearance card last spring and has 
not been heard from. Efforts made to 
locate him in other Texas towns have 




LUTHER DIXON. 

proved fruitless. Dixon is 5 feet, 6 inches 
tall; has dark hair; gray eyes and a red- 
dish complexion. He has a little white 
scar on his right cheek. Send informa- 
tion to his wife, Mrs. Lucille Dixon, San 
Antonio, Tex. 



Mrs. Charles Landry, of: 64 Cabot 
street, Holyoke, Mass., again appeals to 
the membership for information concern- 
ing her husband, particulars of whose 




CHARLES LANDRY. 

disappearance from his home in Holyoke 
have already been published in The Car- 
penter. This is a good photo of Landry. 



37 



TfiQ CarpQntor 



This is a photo of Harry C. Miller who 
disappeared from Cincinnati, O., on Octo- 
ber 18, 1913. Miller boarded in Cincin- 
nati with a Mrs. Reid at No. 7 Le Roy 




HARRY C. MILLER. 

Court. He was a member of the U. B. 
at College Hill, 0., and was also a Mason. 
He has dark hair and blue eyes and is 
about 5 feet, 8 inches tall. He has a 
scar on the back of his neck on the left 
side. Any information regarding him 
will be thankfully received by his wife, 
Mrs. Hilda Miller, 2717A Dickson street, 
St. Louis, Mo. 



"White Slaves" of the Cotton Mills 
The attention of organized labor is di- 
rected to the splendid struggle being 
waged for the liberation of the "white 
slaves" in the cotton mills of the South. 
In the city of Atlanta, Ga., in the "Em- 
pire State of the South," where child la- 
bor laws are the worst in any State in 
the Union, or in any civilized country in 
the world, the cotton workers have or- 
ganized and revolted against the intoler- 
able conditions imposed upon them by 
the Fulton Bag and Cotton Company and 
are fighting for the elimination of child 
labor, recognition of the union and the 
establishment of a fifty-four-hour work 
week. 

The Fulton Bag and Cotton Company 
is supported by the Southern Cotton Man- 
ufacturers' Association and the National 
Manufacturers' Association and they are 
resorting to the cruelest tactics in their 
efforts to break the strike. It has been 
the rule of this company to hold back a 



week's wage, and when the workers 
struck they had from a week to nine 
days' pay due; this money the company 
declared forfeited on the grounds that 
the strikers left without notice. Credit 
was cut off at the store and starvation 
was immediately upon them. They are 
being evicted from the company's shacks 
by hired niggers and are blacklisted in 
the mills, intimidated in every possible 
way to force them back in subjection to 
the company. 

For weeks before the strike efforts 
were made by the employes' committee 
to get a conference with the mill officials, 
but they absolutely refused to meet any 
committee. Under these circumstances 
the United Textile Workers of America, 
the Georgia Federation of Labor and the 
Atlanta Federation of Trades have de- 
termined to come to the assistance of the 
cotton mill workers and make this strike 
a national issue, the success of which will 
eliminate for all time the disgraceful 
conditions of servitude imposed upon the 
textile w^orkers in the cotton mills of the 
South. 

Much has been written in an effort to 
describe the abject poverty of the textile 
workers in the southern cotton mills. 
Working in the company's mill, dwell- 
ing in the company's shacks, dealing at 
the company store, owned body and boots 
by the company, they are robbed and ex- 
ploited to the limit. Father, mother and 
little ones sacrificed to the cotton jugger- 
naut, crushed and broken in mind and 
body, they are fed to the flying wheels of 
the cotton mill and spun into profits for 
the company. 



The worst enemy to the human race is 
he who enjoys an education himself and 
for any reason whatsoever would deny 
the same blessing to another. The privi- 
lege of learning is for all humanity. One 
of the old rules of slavery was that no 
master should permit any slave to be 
taught to read and write. To disregard 
this law and teach a slave was considered 
a criminal offense.— Margaret Scott Hall. 



38 



State Council Activities 




United Brotherhood of Carpenters 

State Councils 



Connecticut — President, Wm. J. Sullivan, 147 
Clay St., New Haven, Conn., secretary, Geo. 
Chandler, 123 Greenwich ave., Greenwich. 

Florida — President, Robert M. Marshall, Lake- 
land, Fla. ; secretary-treasurer, Frank A. 
Mullan, Box 599, Tampa, Fla. 

Georgia — President, A. M. Copeland, 128 Plum 
St., Atlanta, Ga. ; secretary-treasurer, R. L. 
Singleton, 3 Gilmore St., Waycross, Ga. 

Indiana— President, W. F. Wilson, 401 E. 
Southern ave., Indianapolis, Ind. ; secretary, 
James L. Tate, 1009 Extension Main st., 
Evansville, Ind. 

Louisiana — President, G. W. Moore, New Or- 
leans, La.; secretary-treasurer, John C. 
Moore, Shreveport, La. 

Maryland and District of Columbia — Presi- 
dent, Jos. E. Wontisseth, 27 N. Mount St., 
Baltimore, Md. ; secretary, A. E. Foltz, 612 
N. Mulberry st., Hagerstown, Md. 

Massachusetts — President, W. H. Walsh, 
Brookline, Mass. ; secretary, P. Provost, Jr., 
75 Bond st., Holyoke, Mass. 

Michigan— President, F. C. Plambeck, 1101 N. 
8th St., Saginaw ; secretary-treasurer, J. E. 
Whittaker, 1317 W. High st., Jackson, Mich. 

New Jersey — President, Samuel Botterill. 118 
Main st., E. Orange, N. J. ; secretary, John 
R. Burgess, 452 Hoboken ave., Jersey City. 

New York — President, T. Gilmore, 21 Beaver 
Block, Albany, N. Y. ; secretary, Chas. Fies- 
ler, 405 E. 86th st.. New York City. 

Northwest State Council — President, R. O. 
Rector, 975 Gladstone ave., Portland, Ore. ; 
secretary-treasurer, J. F. Weatherby, 863 
E. Sherman st., Portland, Ore. 

Oklahoma— President, G. E. Warren, Route 7, 
Box 88, Oklahoma City; secretary-treasurer, 
D. N. Ferguson, 801 E. Broadway, Ardmore, 
Okla. 

Ontario Provincial Council — President, .James 
Marsh, 20 Jepsou St.. Niagara Falls. Ont. : 
secretary-treasurer. Tennison Jackson, 34 
Applegrove ave., Toronto, Out., Can. 

Pennsylvania — President, D. A. Post, 416 S. 
Main st., Wilkes-Barre; secretary-treasurer, 
J. A. Ryan, 1712 S. 18th st., Philadelphia. 

Quebec Provincial Council — President. Arthur 
Martel, 1399 St. Denis St., Montreal, Can., 
secretary-treasurer, Pierre Lefebvre, 301 St. 
Dominique St., Montreal, Can. 

Rhode Island — President, Clarence E. Briggs. 
172 Division St., Pawtucket, R. I. ; secretary, 
C. Clarkson, 1022 Main st., Pawtucket, R. I. 

Texas— President, D. B. White, 1103 N. Travis 
St., Sherman, Texas ; secretary, J. E. Proc- 
tor, 833 Cplurabia St., Houston. Texas. 



Indiana State Council 

A well-attended meeting in the inter- 
est of the Indiana State Council was held 
at Indianapolis on Saturday, December 
19. It was called for the purpose of 
stirring up interest in the affairs of the 
council among the unaffiliated locals in 
the state. Addresses were made at the 
meeting by General President James 
Kirby, First General Vice-President 
Hutcheson, and by W. F. Wilson, presi- 
dent of the State Council; Spurgeon P. 
Meadows and F. Ulsas. All the speak- 
ers dwelt upon the necessity of building 
up a strong state organization of car- 
penters which would centralize the power 
and influence of the U. B. members in 
the state and permit them to direct their 
collective strength into the proper chan- 
nels. The meeting had very beneficial 
results, a number of locals not previous- 
ly affiliated being added to the State 
Council roster. 



Ohio State Council 

Those members of the U. B. who were 
responsible for calling the preliminary 
meetings in connection with the forma- 
tion of an Ohio State Council of Carpen- 
ters are congratulating themselves on 
the success of the first convention of that 
body which was held in Columbus, 0., on 
December 6. A reassuring response was 
made to the call for the affiliation of lo- 
cal unions, twenty-five delegates, repre- 
senting twenty-two local unions, being 
present. A large amount of business was 
transacted during the short time at the 
disposal of the delegates, notably the 
framing of a constitution and by-laws 
v/hich are now being put to a referendum 
vote of the affiliated locals. 

The officers of the new State Council 
are: President, John H. Potts, Cincin- 
nati, member of the G. E. B. for the third 
(Continued on Page 53.) 



39 



Craft ProblQms 




Different Styles of Construction 

(By Dw-ight L. Stoddard.) 



I believe that real conditions as we 
come in contact with them and the 
manner in which we handle them are 
of the greatest value to the young 
builder who is anxious to learn the 
best M ay, and I believe it is only prop- 
er at this time to get out of the sys- 
tems, to a certain extent, of our young 
carpenters the idea that we do not 
do as good work today as we used to 
in times gone by. I contend that with 
all our modern haste and hurry that 
we do our work far safer than in 
years gone by. It is true that the 
ancients used to take their time and 
do their work as well as they knew 
how, but they did not know near as 
much then as we do today, for the 
world is growing wiser, and we have 
our official Journal and the other 
building papers to assist us. Fifty 
years ago about all a carpenter could 
learn was what he might gather from 
the four or five other carpenters that 
he was fortunate enough to be work- 
ing with. Today the boys mingle to- 
gether at their headquarters and in 
their halls by the hundreds and swap 
ideas for what they are worth and 
through our official paper we get val- 
uable hints and learn how the differ- 
ent boys are doing their daily work in 
different parts of the country. Today 
we have a hundred chances for educa- 
tion to one of fifty years ago, and the 
union has done much to stop the hasty, 
shoddy work so much in evidence in 
former years. The world is growing 
better. The union has done its full 
part in bringing about these condi- 
tions. We have only started and we 
will go on to such proportions that 
nothing can stop us. 



"Safety I'irst" is the slogan that is now 
prevailing all over the country. If we 
would put it into practical use all the 
time and everywhere, what a different 
world this would be. But in writing this 
article it was not my intention to dwell 
upon the particular value of* the expres- 
sion in every meaning of the phrase. I 
simply wish to call particular attention 
to its value from a building point of view. 
If the architect and the builder would 
always think first of safety; if the car- 
penter when he was doing the real con- 
struction would only think of "safety 
first," wouldn't buildings be safer and 
more permanent? 

We are told almost every day that the 
builders of today do not build as well as 
they did years ago. We are told it so 
often that sometimes we are almost 
ready to really believe it ourselves. There 
is, however, no doubt in my mind that 
the people years ago built with a desire 
to do good substantial work, and it is 
true that as the years rolled by people 
got in a hurry not only to do the work 
but to make money, too, and for a time 
there was a good deal of very shoddy 
work done in this country. In the past 
there were very few building inspectors 
to see that the work was done right, 
while today there is not a city worthy 
the name that does not only have its 
building inspector, but that official him- 
self has his assistant inspectors by the 
score, and no matter what you may 
think about it they have done a wonder- 
ful amount of good, not perhaps so much 
real good themselves, but the mere fact 
that they are on the job and likely to 
come around has made the work of this 
country much better. 

Suppose we were building a cheap 
house and the cellar under it was so large 
that the joist would have to have a sup- 
port in the center, we would arrange to- 
day to dig the cellar deep enough so that 



40 



we could walk under the girder, and we 
would very hastily construct a girder out 
of a few joists nailed together. For a 
better job we would bolt the girder to- 
gether. If the joist was long enough to 
reach clear across the house this would 
simply support the center of them and 
keep them from sagging, but if there 
were short joists and it took the length 
of two to reach across the building where 
it was particularly necessary to have 
them come exactly together we would 
have them meet in the center as illus- 
trated in Fig. 1, but the rest of them 



rro. 




yew 



fW\AAA/\ 
we would just let lap by each other as 
the dotted lines illustrate and then spike 
the lap together and then nail them 
down into the girder. 

That is about the way we would go 
about it to do a cheap job today. Fig. 2 
illustrates the way they used to build 
in years gone by. I have just recon- 
structed an old house which I suppose 




■Tig. 2. 



^/vwv\ 



OJD 



was built about 40 years ago. The girder 
was on a level with the joist, not under 
them, please remember that. 

A mortise was cut down into the girder 
about i of the way and a tenon cut on 
the joist to drop down into the girder. 
It is quite true that this had stood the 



T/\a CarpQniiQr 

test all these years, and yet I consider 
the girder cut into and all of one piece 
was not near as stout as a girder put 
together with different pieces with the 
grain of the wood running differently. 

I recently reconstructed another job, 
where the girder was hewed out, not 
sawed, which leads me to believe it was 
considerably older than the one just 
mentioned. It had a two-inch mortise in 
the girder for the joist to fit in, and it 
is true again in this case that it had 
done pretty well, for it had stood the test 
all these many years and yet having 
nothing to fasten them in place the 
building had spread until I could put the 
thickness of a 2x4 between the bottom 
end of the joist and the girder. Now, re- 
member, it was the same way all along 
on both sides of the girder. Had one 




side spread a bit more than the other 
there is nothing in the world that could 
have kept one side of the entire floor of 
the house from falling into the cellar and 
why it had not done so years ago I am 
sure I am at a loss to know. 

All over this building I put this li-inch 
thick piece all along the girder, spiked 
it well into the girder and let the upper 
edge of it go up until it hit the project- 
ing piece on the joist that went into the 
girder. Then I spiked the bottom edge 
of the joist into the piece that I spiked 
onto the girder. In that way, I contend, 
for the first time you got to a certain 
extent at least the full support of those 
joists. According to the old way as you 
will see they never got more than prob- 
ably 2-3 the real strength of their tim- 
bers, be it girders, joist or practically 
anything else. One could go on in this way 
in comparing work of years gone by with 
\York of the present day and it occurs 
to us that in the future, when we regard 
construction from the "safety first" 
standpoint, the work of the present will 



41 



TAq CarponiiQr 

be so far ahead of the work of years 
gone by that comparisons will be useless,. 
Very likely some of these days some 
one will come along and tell you that we 
do not do work nearly as well today as 
we did years ago. If he does please tell 
him that he simply does not know what 
he is talking about. And if 40 or 50 




years ago they had considered "safety 
first," and built as we do today, the build- 
ing I am referring to would not have 
spread and the house would not have 
gone to rack and ruin in all parts and 
have been so extremely dangerous in the 
center. To take safety precautions as 
much as possible at this late date on an 
old house, that was not worth a better 
job at first, I simply spiked a wide joist 
on the bottom of the girder as illustrated 
in Fig. 3, while in the other one of the 
hewed girders I nailed on a piece of 
2-inch as mentioned before and as illus- 
trated in Fig. 4. 



Colonial Carpentry 




The above illustration shows a piece of 
woodwork well worthy the attention of 
every carpenter. This church situated in 
Brockton, Mass., evinces the high skill 
which the New England mechanics pos- 



sessed and practiced. The most unique 
feature is the canopy over the pulpit 
which is evidently carried by heavy oak 
cantilever beams built into the masonry 
of the wall as no iron suspension rods 
are in evidence. The whole detail being, 
as it were, hanging by itself in the air. 
For quaint simplicity and excellent work- 
manship this example of the work of 
carpenters of Revolutionary days cannot 
be surpassed and is a high tribute to the 
past members whose handiwork was so 
well done and lasting. 



A Point in Roof Framing 
(By Rowland Hill.) 

We occasionally come across a piece of 
work in roof framing, which, like the 
illustration, requires some thought and 
experience to quickly solve. To illustrate 
we may take Section A with hips running 







regular, projection from wall line on one 
side is four feet, and other side three 
feet, and cornice to be level so that soifit- 
facia and moldings will member. The 
hip line must show straight when fin- 
ished, not crooked as shown by dotted 
lines. Yet some actually do it in that 
fashion and claim that it cannot be done 
any other way. Just examine the cut 
and you will note that hip line has been 
thrown over from corner of wall plates, 
making a straight line from corner of 
cornice to point on ridge shown on house 
plans. This is accomplished by a differ- 
ence in the height of walls as shown in 
elevation details. You will have no 
trouble in doing this class of framing if 



42 



this method is followed. (Sections A 
and B.) 

Sections C and D show an irregular 



s_ 


.t 


■ 


N5^ 


-V 




^v> 


•V 




\\ 


+ 




V 'M-P 


\ 






) 




X ^^^^ ^ 


> 




X~ 






f^ \ 






^- X 






< \v 






? ,.-i? X 


/ 




■; ^ y Nl. 


jT 




^ >« 


y^ 




< 






5 






/J' n" 




■— 






■e-3-o'-> 


// 


\ 

> 
> 


/ 


■* / W-P 


^ 


/ t 




// 


^ 




// 


■^ 











hip and consequently different pitches. 
The dotted line shows the wrong way to 




do this job, while the straight line drawn 
from point of cornice to proper joint on 
ridge gives us the right line, and eleva- 
tion No. 2 shows just how to find the 
difference in wall height. 



T/\Q CarpontQr 

Framing Roofs of Irregular Plan 

(By Owen B. Maginnis.) 

This roof is of another and rather un- 
common plan, and one which will be in- 
teresting to work out. It is a form of 
roof which sometimes occurs and will 
prove useful. 

A, B, C, D, is the plan, and it will be 
noticed that the side walls are not par- 
allel, or at equal distance apart from 
end to end, but spread or widen out 
from A to B, and from C to D, or B, D, is 
longer than A, C. Similarly A, B, is 
longer than C, D, and not parallel to 
C, D. For this reason, coupled with the 
necessity of keeping the ridge level on 
both sides a side, and parallel to each 
Vv^all plate; these are shown as E, F, and 

E, G. 

The seats of the hips as A, E, C, E, B, 

F, and D, G, are found by bisecting each 
of the separate angles on the plan, which 
can be done by taking any two points 




equidistant from the apex of the angle as 
A, and striking intersecting arcs. (As 
every carpenter knows how to do this, I 
will not illustrate it here.) This process 
will give the seats of the hips as shown 
and lettered, with the addition of a short 
piece of ridge F, G. 

To find the lengths and bevels of the 
rafters, proceed as follows: For the 
common rafters to range from U, E to 
V, F, on the one side, and from E, W to 
G, X, on the other side; raise up the 
pitch G. P. Square out from G to X, 
and join P X, which joining line will be 
the exact length of the common rafter 
from outer edge of plate to center line 
of ridge. To obtain length of hip rafters 



43 



Ti\a CarpQntar 

square up from each point at the peaks, 
as E, H, F, I, on one side. Make E, H 
and F, I, each equal to G, P; A, H and 
B, I will be the lengths of the hip rafters, 
which will rise over A, E and B, F. The 
hip rafters, which will be set up over the 
seats C, E and D, G, are determined in 
a similar manner. The top and bottom 
bevels delineated at the peaks and bot- 
toms are the top and bottom cuts of each, 
and it will be noticed that no two bevels 
are alike, so that each rafter must be 
carefully laid out and marked for each 
particular corner. There will be four 
hips of different lengths and with dif- 
ferent bevels, so they must be properly 
framed. In regard to the jack rafters, 
they are shown on the right side spaced 
out on the wall plate from X to D, against 
the hip, G, D. Their top down bevel or 
plumb cut will be the side bevel. Sim- 
ilarly with those from D to M, the plumb 
cut will be the same as P, but the bevel 
will be that at 0. 

In order to develop the planes of this 
roof, commence by drawing E, U, S, from 
E, through W, at right angles to E, F, or 

A, B; also draw F, V, T parallel to E, U, 
S. Make A, S, equal to A, H by taking 
A as centre with radius A, H, and strik- 
ing the arc H, S. Through S, draw S, T, 
parallel to A B. If a centre be taken at 

B, and an arc struck as I, T, N, it will be 
found that the arc will pass through T, 
or F, V, produced at T. The surface A, 
S, T, B, will cover the plan A, E, F, B, 
on the pitch E, H. 

Draw E, J, square to A, C, and pro- 
duce to K. Sweep H, S, to K, and join 

A, K, and K, C. A, K, C, will be the 
covering plane which will cover over A, 
E, C, on plan. For the plane of A, E, 
G, D, draw E, W, square to E, G, and 
produce to Q. With C as centre and C, 
K, as radius, strike the arc K, Q; draw 
Q, R, parallel to C, D. Join C, Q, which 
will be the centre of the hip rafter on 
this side. Draw G, X, square to C, D, 
and produce to R; join R, D, C, Q, R, D, 
will be the covering plane which will 
cover over C, E, G, D, on the pitch G, P. 

Now draw G, M, and F, L, square to 

B, D, and produce them to N and O. 



With D as centre and D, R, as radius, 
describe the arc R, 0, also the T, N. 
Join N, O, B, N, O, D, will be the cover- 
ing of the plan B, F, G, D, on the pitch 
G, P. Q, R, Y, Z, will be the covering or 
deck, being the same size or area as 
E, F, G. 

Above the plan and lay out of the roof 
will be seen the elevation, or as it will 
appear when framed, raised and covered. 

A model can be made of this roof by 
cutting out the entire outside outline of 
the covering and making a slit from A 
to B, from B to D, from D to C, from 
C to A, also from Q to R, which being 
folded up will show the completed roof 
with the rafters, cuts and bevels in posi- 
tion. 



Tv70 and Two Make Four 

Prominent Washington women in a box 
at the Columbia theater brought forth 
knitting material during the intermis- 
sions. The things they make are to be 
sent to Belgium for the relief of the suf- 
fering people. One pair of socks = 
twenty cents. One box at the Columbia 
theater = twenty dollars. The impulse is 
unimpeachable, but the arithmetic is bad. 
— The New Republic. 



Books on Carpentry 

The following standard books on the 
subject of carpentry may be found on the 
shelves of most public libraries: "Car- 
pentry Made Easy," Bell; "Carpentry and 
Joinery," Fletcher; "The American Stair- 
Builder," Gould; "Cassell's Carpentry 
and Joinery," Hasluck; "Modern Carpen- 
try, a Practical Manual," Hodgson; 
"Practical Carpentry," Hodgson; "The 
Beginner's Guide to Carpentry," Jarvis; 
"Building Construction and Superintend- 
ence," Kidder; "Manual Training," Kil- 
bon; "Forty Lessons in Carpentry Work- 
shop Practice," Mitchell; "A Treatise on 
Stairbuilding and Handrailing," Mowat; 
"Handwork in Wood," Noyes; "Practical 
Carpentry," Radford; "A Manual of Car- 
pentry and Joinery," Riley; "Modern 
Carpentry and Building," Sylvester; 
"Woodworking for Beginners," Wheeler. 



44 



Fiir UnsQr<2 DoutschQn LQSQr 




^og ^latfton (Mcfe^ ttntcrsett^net. 



Stitf 5]Sraftbent Si^ilfon, am ©onnerftag 
ben 15. iOftober ba§ ©latiton @efefe mit fei? 
ncr Unterfdirift berfal) imb bie bartn ent^al- 
tenen Slrbeiterclaufeln intaft lie^, fatten bie 
orcjantiirten ?Ir6eiter be§ gan3en Sanbcg 
cincn gro^en Sieg errungen. ®a§ grof^e 
^^ringtp, tDcld]e§ biejem ©efefee gugrunbe 
Itegt finbet, Itiie ^raftbent ®omper§ in [ei- 
ncr auf ber ©eneral^.^onbention in ^nbian* 
apolia gelialtenen Oiebe au§fii^rte, feinen 
9Xu»bruci in ber in Seftion 7 entf)altenen 
©rflctrung: „®ie SlrBeit etne§ S)^enfi^en an 
fief) ift tceber ein @e6roii4i§' nod} ein ^on^ 
bel§arti!el." ®iefe berjtanbltcf]e unb toi(^« 
tigc ©rllarung finbet fjcute liberaK Slnerfen^ 
niing al§ eine geitgemd^e (grgdngung un- 
ferer 93unbe§gefei3e unb tuitrbigen 5.1nr)ang 
fju ber (£mongipatton§s^roflamation be§ 
13ten SlmenbcmentS. S>ir ^aben e§ (Senator 
2r. 95. SumtninS bon ^otna gu berbanlen, 
ba'\^ biefe ©rftdrnng ber ©eltion einberleibt 
unb leistere nadi Hmenbirung feitenS be§ 
@enat§ in nadjfte^enbem SEortlaute ange* 
nommen njurbe: 

Srte STrtieit eine§ 3J?enfd]en an fid] ift 
Ineber ein ©ebraiK^S- nodi) ein ^an* 
bel§artifcl. ^eine, in ben SIntitruft* 
gefe^en entljaltene SSeftimmung, foU fo 
au§gelegt tvexben al§ berbiete fie ha^i 
Sefte^en ober bie Si^atigleit bon Slrbei? 
'terorgonifationen eine§ @etber!e§, be§ 
2rder* ober bes (Sarten6au§, bie fid) 
glnedS gegenfeitiger ^ilfe berbiinben 
^aben; bie !ein SSetriebsfai^ital befi^en 
unb nic^t beftetjen urn ^profite gu ergie^ 
Ten; ober ai§ berbiete ober berfiinbere 
fie ein SJJitglieb biefer Organifationen 
btren gefe^ltde Qirede in gefe^Iic^er 
SSeife gu berfolgen; no(^ foflen folt^e 
Crganifationen ober 93erbanbe ober 
beren Eleitgtieber berfolgt, ober erftere 
auf ®runb be§ 8Inti?3:;ruftgefe^e§ al§ 
ungefeferidje, confpirirenbe ober be? 
trieb§f)emrnenbe 5>erbinbungen betrac^^ 
tet iuerben. 

Zsn biefer ©eftion, unb befonber§ in beffen 
S(nfang§fai3e, ift bie Stettung bie bet Strbei* 
ter in ber mcufdilic^en ®efellfd]aft einnimmt, 
a'Kcm 3hieifet enf^oben, unb ber Unterfd)ieb 
■ginifden ber Slrbeit eine§ liDJenfdjen unb bef* 
fen ^XrbeityergeugniS fo- flar begei(^net unb 
alle gfueibeutigfeit, bie gu ber Stnnafime 
fiifiren fijnnte, ha% ?lrbeitcrorganifation ben 
3::ruftgefei3en gu unterfteHen feien, befeitigt. 
S^ir' finb ber SInfidit, ba'^ bie Strbetterclau= 
feln be§ ©Iat)ton @efe^e§ fiir bie 2lrbeiter 



bon groBeiu SBert unb geeignet finb, iXinen 
in ibren Sjegie^ungen gu bem Itnterne^mer 
nicfir ©erec^tigteit unb beffere 23e!^onbIung 
gu fidiern. @o fagte auc^ (Senator Sum? 
ininS in fciner ^efiirtnortung ber ©efe^eS- 
borlage : 

®ie bielen ^rrtiinter bie \id) unfere 
©efeisgebung unb bie fftiditer gufdiulben 
fommen lief^en unb fdiabigenb tnirften, 
finb barauf guriidgufiibten, baf5 inir bie 
Oetnobnbeit Ijatten STrbett al§ einen 
.§anbeluartifel gu betrac^ten. ®ie Sir* 
beit eineS iD^enfden, fei e§ ®eifte§; 
ober §anbarbeit, ift fein ^onbelSartifel. 
So lange ^Dir bie ©etuobn^eit l^atten 
gu fagen, bafj ein Slrbeiter nidjta gu 
berfaufen 'ijobe al§ nur feine SlrbeitS* 
fraft, fo unterlag biefer Sluffaffung ber 
-sadie eine 93egriff§berttiirrung. Sir- 
beit an fid] ift fein @ebraud]§gegen^ 
ftanb, fie ift fein £)anbel§arti!el; unb 
al§ bie SSer. (Staaten 5?onftitution bent 
©ongreffe bie S3(ad|t einraumte bie $an- 
balSbegie^ungcn unter ben berfi^iebenen 
(Staaten gu reguliren, ermcti^tigte fie 
ibn nidit]t bie Strbeit gu reguliren, bie 
(Snergicentfaltung be§ 2}?enfd^en. 

,'3n ben (Seftionen be§ ®efe^e§ irelt^e bie 
CSinbaltSbefe^Ie reguliren folten ift borgefe* 
ben, ba^ bie 93unbe§regierung in (Streitig- 
feiten gtnifdien Strbeiter unb Unteme^mer 
teinen (Jinfc^rdnlungSbefe^I eriaffen lann, 
a§ fei benn, baf^ bie§ notluenbig fei um un= 
erfel3lid)en ©c^aben on ©igentum ober an 
©igentum^redit gu ber^iiten inofiir auf gefe^= 
lidferrt 2Bege teine entfprec^enbe Siemebur 
gu eriangen fft, unb miiffen foId]e ©igen- 
tum»redite in bem ©efudie um einen ©e- 
rid]t§befebl „im 23efonberen" nac^getniefcn 
unb befd]lt)oren tuerben. 

^ein (2inr]aIt§befe^I faun eriaffen tnerbeu 
luenn e§ fid) barum ^anbelt: einer ^perfon 
ober ^erfonen gu berbieten, eingein ober 
gemetnfdiaftlic^, bie SCrbeit niebergulegen 
ober onbere aufguforbern baSfelbe gu tun; 
einer ^erfon ober ^^erfonen gu berbieten 
,.mit borber befagten 5]5erfonen an einem 
^-Blafee gufaiumengutreffen too biefe gefe^Iid] 
bcred]tigt finb fid] gu bem Qroede gu berfam* 
mefn ^uiformation gu erbalten ober gu ertei= 
fen; ober trgenb cine ^erfon in friebtic^er 
*jL>eifc gu iiberrebcn Strbeit aufgune^men, 
ober babon abgufteben;" irgenb einer ^erfon 
gu berbieten ben an einer Wrbeiter-sStreitig? 
feit S3eteirigten ibte 5lunbfd]aft gu berlueis 
gern, „ober onberen in frieblit^er SBeife gu 

- embfcblen, anguraten, ober fie gu iiberreben 
baSgleidie gu tun;" bie SSerauSgabung bon 
Streifimterftii|ung ober anberer ©elber ober 

45 



Tfig CarpQntQr 



SEertflec^enftdutie an bk an etnem ©treif:= 
betetliflten ^erfoucn gu berbteten, frteblic^e 
iinb gefe^Itd}e ,;]ufaminen!iinfte gu gefe^Iidjcn 
gttjeden gu berbieten; irgenb eine ^anblung 
gu ber6ieten bic ge|ci^It(f| toare toenn fetn 
©treif ftattfdnbe. (£g ift ferner in bem ©e- 
[e^e borgefelien, bafj feine ber o&en begetd}* 
ncten ipanbfungen al§ 53erle^ung irgenb 
eincS ©efe^ey ber il^er. ©taaten betradjtet 
Inerben foil. 

■^n liebereiiii'timmung mit ben 23eftim* 
iniingen befagter ©eftion ift e§ SluSjte^en^ 
ben geftattet ©trei!po[ten gu fte^en, anbere 
?frBeiter gu belregen fid) ifinen angufd^Iie^en 
fotnie ben an ber ©treitigfeit Beteiligten i^re 
.9iunbfcf)aft git uerrtjeigern unb ift e§ il^nen 
geftattet, fid^ in frieblidier SBeife gur 23es 
fpreJiitng i^rer 23efdjtoerben gu berfammeln. 
,^sm ?fafie ein 2lu»ftel^enber ber 9^icfitacf)tung 
cineS @eri(^t§6efe:^Ie§ aufeer^alfi be§ ©e* 
rtdit§fiofc§ angeflagt Irirb, fo finb Iiierfiir 
GeriditSberpre borgeJeI)en; biefe 58eftim* 
irtung finbet febodj feine ^fntnenoung tnenn 
e§ fid] um 93ergel]en, tuie unanftanbige§ ober 
geringfd^ct^igeS Shtffii^rcn in STntrefen^eit 
be§ @eridite"§ Ijanbelt. 

®a§ @efe^ finbet STnluenbung in aHen 
93unbe§geri(i^ten unb ift in ber 2l6ft(^t er:= 
laffen irorben ben (£in^alt§befel]len, tro= 
imiTter 2lrbeiter befd)ulbigt toerben ben SSer- 
fud) gemadjt gu ^aben S^idjtunionleute o^ne 
bie pjuftimmung ifirer Slrbeitgeber gu organic 
firen, ein @nbe gu bereiten. 

®ie 9fnnat)me be§ ©fatiton @efefee§ mit 
beffen ?trbe{tercraufeln, ift ba§ ^efultat 
fc^toerer Sfrbeit unb ^artnadiger Slnftren^ 
gungen — bid fc^merer oI§ e§ bei oberflacljer 
©c^n^ung erfdieinen mag, jeitenS ber ^eam* 
ten ber STmerican geberatton of Sabor unb 
ber @ru^):)e ber SIrbeiterbertreter im Kon* 
greffe tDctlirenb ber le^ten ^a^re. ^l^nen 
finb luir gu gro^em ®anfe berpfli(^tet fiir 
ben ^ampf ben fie gefiil^rt ^aben fiir bie 
'•Sefeitigung aHer gefe^Iidien gii^sifel unb 
Ungetbi^l^eiten lueld^e bt§!^_er ben ©tanb ber 
2irbeiter unb i^rer WrbeitSt'raft berbunlcit 
Tjaben. 3^a(^ biejen 9{efultate Ibnnen bie 
organifirten Slrbeiter mit SSertrauen in bic 
P,ufunft fel]en unb neue 53orft6^e gu Ireiteren 
Srrungenfdjaften mad)en. 



'Siic eurotJtttfdjen ^orgarfietter unb ber Srieg. 



SBir crfe^en au§ bem 23uIIetin ber ^nter* 
nationalen Union ber ^olgarbeiter, ba'^ ber 
europdifd]e ^rieg bie Scttigleit biefer Or* 
ganifatiou inmitten i^rer glangenben (£nt== 
loidelung ^u einem jci'^en ©tiUftanbe gebradjt 
tiot. ®ies inar in SInbetrad)t ber 3i:atfad)e, 
baf5 bk :^nternationaTe Union ber ^olgarbei* 
ter il^re Sserbinbungcn iiber bie 2dnber au§^ 
gebefint ^atte bie fid) je^t feinblid) gegeniiber* 
fte^en, nid)t anberg gu ertoarten. ^n @ng* 
fanb, granlreic^, ©eutfc^Ianb, Oeftreid)* 
Ungarn, ©erbien imb !iirgli(^ audj in S^ufg* 
lanb, !^aben bie Unions eintrdd^tig in ber 



^nternatioualen gufammen gearbeitet um 
bie gemeinfamen ^ntereffen gu toal^ren unb 
gu forbern. 

®er ^longrejg, ber im S)?onat ?luguft bic? 
fc§ ^al^reS in SBien ftattfinben follte unb 
bon bem crmartct murbe, baf5 cr bie gcgen* 
feitigen SSegieljungen noc^ inniger ge'ftalten 
irerbe, lourbc ebenfall§ burd) ben ^uSbrud) 
be§ .^tiegeS ber^inbert. 

®er ©efretdr ber ^nternattonalen Union, 
Xl). Seipart, erfldrt mit 9tad)brud, ba'^ bie 
^olgarbeiter ber berfd^iebenen Sdnber feinen 
?InteiI an ber SSeranttuortung fiir bie Ur* 
fadjen unb -bie golgen biefer fdiredTidien 
.Stataftrop^e ^aben bie iiber fie ^^ereinge- 
brod}en ift. S)ie organifirten SIrbeiter in 
Ceftreidi'llngarn foh^otir niie in ©erbien unb 
Jiu^Ianb, in Seutfdjlanb tvk in grantreid) 
unb (Sngfanb, fagt er, fiabcn alle ben auf- 
rid]tigen SBiflcn ge^abt imb fid) nad] beften 
Srdften &emii!)t ben ^rieg gu berJiinbern, 
ba^ abet beren ©influ^ leiber nid)t ftarf 
nenug n^ar um i^ren guten SEiEen gur 
©eltimg gu bringen. (Sr ^ebt glei(^fall§ 
f)erbor, baf^ tud^renb je^t bie Slrbeiter gur 
iBerteibigung iljreS 2anbe§ ifjre 5|SfIid)t tun 
miiffen, finb fie tro^bem entfd)Ioffen, bie in= 
ter*nationare ©olibaritdt ber 2lrbeiter!Iaffe 
[)odiguI)aIten. ®iefe @ntfd}foffen^eit, fiigt 
er bei,' iuirb ftdierlid] einen mirtltdien uftb 
bduernben 33ti!erfrieben in ber gulunft ^er* 
beifitf^ren. 

(£r fiifirt ferner au§: 

®agu ift bor oHen ®ingen erforber* 

lid), ba% bie Crganifationen ber Slrbei- 

ter fid) frei ^alten bon jeber c^obiniftis 

fdien ^i?erf)e^ung. ®ie fiiebe gum 58a= 

terlanb ift ein toftlii^eS ®ut, ba§ and) 

bie Strbeiter pflegen foUen, aber iuie in 

ber SSergangenl^eit hjollen tnir audq in 

3ufunft iiber bie fianbeSgrengen ^in* 

ttjeg un§ briiberlid^ bie §dnbe reid)en 

unb mit bcreinten ^rdften iueiter or- 

beiten an ben grofeen Slufgaben iueld^e 

bie Internationale ber SCrbeiter gu er^ 

fiitten 'i)at. 

Wxv entne^^men bem ^Bulletin ebenfaH^, 

ba'Q bie (Sj-efutibbeprben ber ^erbdnbe brin- 

genb erfud)t finb bie S3erbinbung unter ein* 

anber unb mit ber ^. U. nat^ 3??bgltc^!eit 

aufred}t gu erplten bamit bie nationalen, 

mic bie internationalen Organifationen ber 

^olgarbeiter mbglid)ft Wenig, <Bd]ab^n etleU 

ben unb nacfi bem Sirieg fic^ um fo fc^neUer 

unb trdftiger tvkbex enttoideln Ibnnen. 

2Bir finb pc^ft erfreut iiber bie fefte (Snt- 
fd}roffenr)eit ber internationalen ^olgarbei* 
ter, angefid)t§ unb tro^ ba§ ficEi in (Suropo 
abfpielenbcn SErauerfpieleS, il)re intematio* 
nale Organ if ation intaft gu fatten. 



vsnbuftricfief r^ewbnliSniuS in fieab. 



46 



?t((em lHnfd)eine nac^ befter)t feine SSer* 
binbung gtnifd)en bem ruffifdjen ^)ar unb ^. 



TAq CarpQntQr 



$!. ©rier, bem (Supeniitcubcu ber 9Jicf)ts 
Union ipomeftafe unb SIffociate 9}Kntng Som* 
l^anieg in Stab, ©. S. So itrteilen irir 
toenigftenS natf) ©infidit ber Wngeige^Spalte 
ciner ?Iu§ga6e be§ „Scab ©aitij ©aH" bic 
nn§ fiirglid) gugegancgen x\t. 23efelile, SSer- 
Bote unb (^miifer)Iungen Itiie fid^ bie ©in- 
Ino^nerfdjaft bon 2eab berfjalten foU, it)a§ 
fie tun unb laffen foil unb IrelcCjen §Infi(i)ten 
fie in ber 9Ir&etterfragc Ijulbigen foK, tt)im^ 
mein formrirfi in ber 9lu§gai6e biefeS ^latteg 
oom 25. Jiuguft b. :3. Unb biefe ©rgiiffe 
finb aHe ein einem Sone be§ inolilioollenben 
®e§potigmu§ gel^alten mit ber llnterfc^rift 
„% X. ®rier, ©upt." 

^n einer breitfpurigen Stngeige, unter* 

gei^net bon @rier unb einem S>u^enb an^ 

berer 58eamten beS 3JJinen6etriebe§, ir)irb ben 

©efc^ctfMeuten in Qzab nac^folgenber ein== 

reud)tenber 2Bin! erteilt bamit fie nic^t ber- 

geffen mocCjten ina§ bon it^nen berlangt Irirb: 

SIngeficf|t» ber S^atfadie, ha'\!) bie 

a)?ineninbuftrie be§ SSIacf §ill§ ©iftrtftg 

bie Cuelle ift au§ ber aHe anbere ©e- 

. fd^dftsintereffen befagten ®iftri!t§ ifjre 

llnterfialtung§mittel fdjopfen, unb ba^ 

befagte ^nbuftrie beabficfjtigt pennanent 

ein @i}ftem §u etobtiren, baf^ man ge? 

iro^nlid] alS ba§ 92ic§tunionft}ftem be* 

geidjnet, empfer)Ien h)ir aHen befagten 

@efcf)aft§intereffen, biefe Slbfic^t in 

afCen i^ren .s^anblungcn fraftigft gu 

unterftiifeen. 

,^n einer anbercn 33efanntmacf)ung ©rierS 

toarnt er bor SSerbefferungen auf Sdnbereien 

bie unter feine ©uperinbentenft^aft geI)oren 

unb fcfi[ief5t mit ber (Srflarung: „baf5 bie 

(Sigentiimer gu irgenb einer Qe^t "^^^f^ Sctn- 

berei?n beanfprucben fonnen unb ba'^ barm 

biejenigen bie bic S5>arnung nidjt beac^ten 

i^rer SSerbefferungcn berluftig ge^en iuiir* 

ben." ^^eun man in 93etracf}t gie^t, ba'^ 

fe(^§)iebentel be§ ®runb unb 58oben§ bon 

2eab ©igentum ber ipomeftafe So. ift, fei 

e§ in fcbulbigen ?[bgaben ober in JJfineral* 

^i^orrecf]ten, baf3 biefe ©efc^dftS* unb SBo^n- 

bctufer auf S?oben erbaut finb tuelcCien bie 

Sompanie gu jeber geit gur S3enu|(ung fiir 

SJJincngttieii xeffamiren faun unb ber ,^n^ 

l^aber ber fidnbereien auf eine 92otig bon 

neungig Sagen biefe o^ne (Sntfdidbigung gu 

er^alten gu rdumeu i}at, fo follte man f'aum 

anneljmen, baf3 etue $BefanntmaJiung Inie bie 

obige notlnenbig iodre. 

@ine anbere ^^efanntmat^ung begie^t fid} 
auf bie ftdbtifd)e SBaffergufu^^r. ®ie ©in? 
ttjoliner bon Qeab finb ndmlic^ in biefer ©e= 
giefiung bon ber ipomeftafe ©o. ab^dngig. 

' ^n berfelben ?Iu§gabe be» ®ailt} (EaU 
finben luir eine furge „23efd)reibung ber 
,'^omeftafe ^^etrieb§einftel(ung," fotnie einen 
Strtifel mit ber Ueberfdjrift: „2Ber l^at mit 
ber @inmifd)ung in bie 2BilIen§freiI)eit ber 
3Irbeiter 2eab'§i bem 5Infang gemadjt?" ^e* 
fanntmadjung unb ?XrtifeI fonnen ben pra^* 
lerifdiert unb einfeitigen ©taubpunft ®rier'§ 



unb ber SJJinenfompagnie nid)t berleugnen. 
A-erner entplt baS ^latt eine Stngeige be§ 
2eab £pernliaufeg in lueldier ben §omefta!e 
^3frbeitern funb unb gu luiffen getan tnirb, 
ba% fie bei gelniffen ©djOufteHungen in ber 
Stu§iuar}[ ber ©i^e ben 2>orgug fiaben tuer- 
ben. 

Sl^enn man inbuftriellen g^cubaliymuS, ent- 
luidelt in ber neunten ^oteng, im mobernen 
Hmerifa gu fel^en tritnfdit, fo foEte man nic^t 
berfdumen 2eab in ©out^ ©afota einen S3e* 
fud) abguftatten. 9cid|t nur ba^ bie eingige 
in 2eab erfd]einenbe Qeitung nur bie Sin* 
fiditen ber 3J?inencompagnie gum SluSbrud 
bringt, WaS ja nad) 2?orau§gegangenem 
felb fiber ft dnblid^i ift, aber aud] tueber bie 
93iirger nod) bie 5Irbeiter 2eab§ biirfen fidi 
erbreiften ifire 9Jteinung fiber befte^enbe 
fcbmadibolle 9?erbdltniffe auSgufpret^en; fie 
tniirben fidicrlid] bem ®rim unb ber 9ta(^e 
ber Minenbeamten berfallen iniirben fie e§ 
roagen. 

®ie ©ompagnie untertoirft ebenfaltS aUe 
politifdien unb gefellfdiaftlic^en SSorgdnge in 
Qeab einer ftrengen Senfur; bie gauge ®e== 
meinbe ift fd]einbar ber ®nabc unb llngnabe 
ber Kompagnie iiberliefert. 

„fVrei^eit ber SIrbeit" bon ber 2(rt ^ofin 
2). P^odefeHer'S, ^r., unb feinen Srabanten 
Iierrfc^t in 2eab feit ber Slugjperrung ber 
?JcitgIieber ber SSeftern geberation of Cabor. 
9cur 9Hc^t*UnionIeute luerben gur Slrbeit in 
ben 5J?inen gugelaffen; tner um Slrbeit nadj* 
fudit mu^ etne ."vlarte mit ber @r!Idrung 
unterfdireiben, baf3 er fid} be§ 9le(^te§ begibt, 
ciner SlrbeitersCrganifation ongugepren. 
llm eine berartige „??rei5eit ber Strbeit" gu 
crbalten unb um, trie gefagt luirb, ba§ tvexU 
bofle ©igentum ber dompagnie gu befd^ii^en, 
unter^dit man ein £)eteftib!orp§ in ber 
Stdrte bon neuuger)n Wann. STlIe biefe be* 
ga[)Iten ^JSerlgcuge ber SJJinenbarone finb mil 
ber 5?oI(ma(^t eine§ ©:^eriff§beputirten oug* 
geftattet unb e§ geprt gu i^ren Obliegen- 
tieitcn alte 5(gitatoren unb 33efiirtuorter ber 
©elncrfyorganifation unter ben ^efdjdftigten 
aufgufpdren unb fie an geeigneter ©telle 
angugeigen, toorauf beren fummarifdje (£nt* 
laffung erfolgt. 

®ieg ift „grei^eit ber Slrbeit" tuie fie 
9iocFefelfer unb SluSbeuter feine§ ©c^tageS 
meincn. S)ie ©ituaiion in 2eab ift eine 
flar unb beutlidic ^Iluftration ber ©rniebri* 
gung unb (£ntn.iiirbigung ber bie Strbeiter im 
allgemeinen auSgefe^t ludren inenn fie reaf* 
tiondre ^Japitaliften unbe^^inbert unb nac^ 
ifirem '^Pelieben getudl^ren lie^en. 



^n feincm fiingft erfdiienenen 33u(^e: 
„S)ie Sanbmirt^fc^aft unter ©influ^ bon 
SBergbau imb \3nbuftrie im r^einifi^en Olu^r* 
fol^Ienrebier" toeift S)r. SB. SIbered nad^, ba^ 
bort fd)on 1907 47,051 (£rtuerb§tptige, 
meiftenS ^nbuftrie* unb ^ergarbeiter, im 
SIcbenberuf Sanblrirtfie iraren. 



47 



T/\a Carpontar 



?yroitcn= uitb SJtnberorBett in unfrem Sonbe. 



?Xm 29. \sanuar 190/ fiicR bcr ^rcifibeiit 
ben folnenben 6^ongi"cf3&cfcf)Iut5 gut: 

That the Secretary of Commerce and 
Labor be, and is hereby, authorized and 
directed to investigate and report on the 
industrial, social, moral, educational and 
physical condition of woman and child 
workers in the United States wherever 
einployed, with special reference to their 
age, hours of labor, term of employment, 
health, illiteracy, sanitary and other con- 
ditions surrounding their occupation and 
the means employed for the protection 
of their health, person and morals. 

®a§ (SrgebntS ber auf biefe 5XnorbnunL; 
Ijtn itnternominenen ©nquete ijt niebergclegt 
trorben in etnem 19 'Sdube umfaffcnben S3e* 
rtdit, ber mtt ungcf)eucrem ^le\'p,e gu[ammen= 
gettagen ift itnb Irofif ctnfjig baftcfit in ber 
l'of,taIftati[tii'cf)en Sitteratur. S)em Sertd]te 
,3ufoIge Iraren in unfrem Sanbe im ^al^re 
1905 inSgefamt 1,065,884 graucn in gelDerb- 
lichen S3etrte£)en befc^dftigt; i)tcbon finb 128, ? 
163 in ber 93aunitnol(cntnbuftrte tfjctttg; 
aucE) bie SeffeibungSinbuftrie 6efd)afttgt etn 
gangeS Apeer bon JJJctnncrn unb grauen. ®ie 
titigienifSien 9Ser5aItniife in ben gabrtfen 
finb ungiinftig, in§6efonbere fe^It e3 an 
gccigneten (>:nfliiftung»anlagen. ;8ct-^Ii-"£i^'^ 
i'inb in biefer ^nbuftrie bie S^cimarbeiterin* 
nen; tna!)renb bie SEerfftattarbettertn in 
ciner S5?o:be minbeftenS 2 2^oIIar berbient 
unb e§ big ouf 5 SoUar bringen fann, fom* 
irten nur bie i^ctlfte ber ipeimarbeiterinnen 
auf rDi3(J)cntIi:b 3 SjoHar, bie anberen bici* 
ben unter biefem ©a^; nal^egu 45 ^ro^. 
berbienen im "^ai^v Ineniger al§ 100 ®oIIar. 
Sie 5>erridrtntife in ber ijeimarbeit finb rccCjt 
ungiinftig; bie ©tcrbdcbfeit ber ©duglinge 
folder ,<^eimarberterinnen ift fe^r ^oi^; fie 
belrug fixr bie untcr 5 'r^aijxt alien Slinber 
92.2 pro JJcilfe. 

©ie ®urdjfiil)rung ber ^tnberfc^ufegefefee 
ift in ber 3iege{ imgureidjenb ; fo toerben in 
ben ©laSfabrifen 5,705 ^inber (10.4 ^^ro= 
gent) unter 16 :^al)ren befcbdftigt, unb giuar 
aud} todbrenb ber Stadit. Slurf) bie gabrif- 
infpeftion Idf^t ,5U Iriinfdjcn iibrig, Iroburd) 
e§ ermdgltc^t trirb, i)a^ ^fraucn gu Strbeiten 
berttienbet inerben, bencn fie it)rer 9tatur uad] 
nidit geroacTjfen finb. 

^efonbcrS berbreitet ift bie grauen* unb 
.^inberarbeit in ben ©cibenfabrifen; in cin* 
gelnen gabrifgegenben finb nur 9 ^^rog. 
SJtdnner, bagegen 67.8 ^progent grauen unb 
28.2 'sprog. timber in Setbenfabrifen be- 
fcbdftigt; aucf] in biefen gabrifen finb bie 
©c^u^borric^tungen recfit minberinert^ig. 

(Sine befonberS beacfjienStoert^e Unter* 
fudjung bilbet bie (Sr^ebung iiber bie ^xauen, 
meldie in Sdben, gabrifen, gelnerblit^en 23e' 
trieben ober d^nlicfien Unterne^mungen 
ttjdtig finb, o^ne eigene§ §eim in ©ro^* 



ftdbten leben unb nur ouf t^ren S^erbienft 
angeiDxefen finb in ©egeniiberfteHung gur 
SrrDerb§tr)dtig!eit im eigenen §etm. Sine 
^^ufammenfteilung ber @innal]men unb §Iu§* 
goben geigt, baf^ bei einem Surdjfi^nittgber- 
bienft alter grauen (bie StuftDdrterinnen in 
Speifel)dufern auSgenommen) bon $7 nad) 
Srbgug bon 'tltal^rung unb 5lleibung ein Ueber* 
fcbu| bon $1.55 bteibt; fiir 3}ergniigen unb 
,5ur gerftrcuung bleibt meift ntd]t§ met)r 
iibrig. (£in tueitereS beaditenSirert^eS Sta\)i' 
tel ift bie Sorfteltung ber Sage ber Sluftndr- 
terincnn; bie mciften biefer Strbeiterinnen 
(62 ^rog.) befifet tein eigeneS ^eiirt, ga^I- 
reidje bon if)nen finb bert)eiratbet; ber burdi* 
frfjnittlidje SEodienberbienft fteKt fic^ auf un:= 
gefdbr $5.50; hie ^o^e ber Srinlgelber ift 
berfd)ieben. Segeic^enb ift, ba'^ bie ^el(* 
erinnen; bie meiften biefer Slrbettertnnen 
af» tDte anbere S)(db(^en; nid^t felten ftetgt 
biefer 23etrag auf $2 in ber SSoc^e an. 

^n ber 93?etaKinbuftrie geigt fic^ eine fort* 
fdireitenbe S^erfiirgung ber 2(rbeit»geit. S)ie 
bode „60 Stunben,"=2Soc^e beftefit nur nod) 
bei eiiva einem ©ecfjftel ber Setriebe unb faft 
bemfelben iBrucfit^eil ber Strbeiter. 2luf* 
faflenb ift bie grof^e Qa^I bon ^inbem, toelc^e 
todd^entlid^ eine 2lrbeit§geit bon 60 ©tunben 
f^aben gegeniiber ben eriuac^fenen SIrbeitern. 
9?ur 19.54 ^rog. ber mdnnltd)en SIrbeiter 
iiber 16 ^af^re, 11.48 ^rog. ber inetblidien 
Jfrbeiter iiber 16 ^a^re finb toiidjentlic^ 60 
Stunben befdjdftigt, bagegen 31.68 ^rog. 
ber llinber unter 16 ^at)ren. Wud^ biefe 
Sl^atfadje betoeift, ba'^ bie Sinberfdiu^gefefe- 
aebung not^ rec^t ber SSerbefferung bebiirftig 
ift. — ,8entraI*S3ratt. 



' It e b e r bie ftaatltd]c 2trbeit§Iofenber* 
fidieruug ®ro^britannien§ ma^ie bet SOZini* 
fter .^obu S3urn§ jiingft im ^arfament fot* 
gcnbe Slngaben: giir bie 2i JJ^iUionen Sir* 
better mit 2trbeit§Iofen*SSerfid)erung§!arten 
finb runb $12,000,000 eingegangen; nur 4 
Sltifliouen finb biS^er auf ©runb bon 1,100,= 
000 Stnfprudjen an 800,000 ^erfonen au§* 
gegabtt toorben. 70 b. ^. ber erfiitlten 2ln* 
fpriidie finb bon ben Slrbeitglofen felbft unb 
nur 30 b. i^'- burc^ ©efeUfdjaften angemel* 
bet morben. ®ie ©elblage ift alfo fe^r 
giinftig. 



i^ n b e m §ubber§ftelb ^onfularbiftrtlt in 
(Snglanb giebt e§ ungefd^r 60 genoffenfd^aft* 
lid) organifierte ^onfumbereinigungen, bon 
benen bie ijubberSfielb ©o*operatibe ^nbu* 
ftrial ©ocietn bie bebeutenbfte ift. Siefer 
SSercin gd^It 25 p.itjeige, mit 16,000 2)^* 
glieberTr; er lnie§ fiir 1913 einen SBarenum* 
fa^ im SSerte bon runb $800,000 auf. S)ie 
iibrtgen bortigen ©enoffenfd^aften gd^Ien gu* 
fammen 77,000 ^Ritglieber, unb felten tm 
berff. ^a^re SBaren im S5?erte bon runb 
$5,000,000 urn. 



48 



DopartQiTiOTt Francais 



lyC Peuple Du Travail 

Des capitalistes qui controlent des mil- 
liards de dollars en terres, machines et 
batisses, charbon, fer et cuivre en mines, 
avec de I'argent comptant et du credit en 
abondance, se sont organises et se re- 
tranchent solidement au moyen de cor- 
porations de toute sorte et dans des com- 
binasions des corporations nommees 
"Trusts." Do nouvelles corporations se 
forment chaque jour en se procurant des 
chartes delivrees par tous les Etats de 
I'Union. Les capitalistes ont profite im- 
mensement de cette organisation; ils ont 
hausse les prix des aliments et des arti- 
cles de menage du peuple. lis sont in- 
satiables et jamais satisfaits. De nou- 
veaux plans financiers, avec le soutien et 
sous les auspices du Gouvernement, sont 
lances en leur faveur et grace a eux, ils 
recueilleront de gros profits. Le Labeur, 
non organise et isole, comprendra-t-il la 
lecon? Se combinera-t-il pour obtenir un 
profit et une protection mutuels? 



Avec la croissance du mouvement des 
unions de metier jusqu'a atteindre un 
chiffre de trois et peut-etre quatre mil- 
lions dans la prochaine decade, les prob- 
lemes economiques et sociaux qui a 
present attirent a peine I'attention de la 
moyenne des lecteurs de journaux, 
deviendront alors des issues exigeant une 
solution immediate dans les salles legisla- 
tives du pays. 



Sans organisation sur la base union- 
iste, le travailleur manuel devient la proie 
des pirates industriels; la concurrence a 
couteaux tires devient la regie au lieu 
d'etre I'exception; toutes pe'rtes commer- 
ciales, de quelque source qu'elles provien- 
nent, seraient portees au debit du salarie, 
soit en abaissant le tarif des salaires, soit 
en exigeant une plus .forte production 
sous le pretexte d'une augmentation de 
leur "habilete productive." Avec la 



peur du renvoi toujours presente au non- 
unioniste, le dernier vestige de virilite 
disparait graduellement et un etat proche 
de I'esclavage lui succede. 



"Le Labeur triomphera, comme 11 n'a 
cesse de triompher, avec d'innombrables 
echecs, dans I'Historie entiere, parce qu'il 
comprend la plus nombreuse partie de la 
race humaine et parce qu'il a fondamen- 
talement raison et que ses adversaires ont 
fondamentalement tort. La seule maniere 
concevable dans laquelle il puisse y avoir 
une progression permanente de la civili- 
sation, est une amelioration dans les 
conditions du Labeur — de plus fortes 
remunerations, des journees de travail 
plus courtes, une meilleure education et, 
en general, une vie plus saine et plus 
heureuse pour les ouvriers. L'invention 
des machines ne comporte pas de profit 
pour le monde, ni la perfection de I'or- 
ganisation humaine, a moins que la 
partie la plus nombreuse de la popula- 
tion n'en puisse profiter elle aussi. Les 
soi-disant "classes superieures" ont tou- 
jours ete assez prosperes au point de 
vue materiel, autrement, elles n'auraient 
pas ete "superieures." La seule maniere 
dont nous puissions mesurer le progres, 
c'est par le progres des travailleurs 
manuels." 



Les statistiques gouvernementales 
prouvent que le labeur organise au 
Canada fait des progres constants et 
rapides. Le rapport annuel du Departe- 
ment du Labeur pour I'annee 1913 
montre qu'en 1912 et 1913, il y a eu une 
augmentation de quarante mille mem- 
bres dans les organisations ouvrieres de 
ce pays. II y avait a la fin de cette der- 
niere annee, 176,000 ouvriers unifies au 
Canada et sur ce chiffre, 149,577 etaient 
enroles dans les organisations Interna- 
tionales. 



La "National Women's Trades Union 



49 



TjFlq CarpQntar 

League" ou "Ligue Nationale Feminine 
des Unions de Metier," a entrepris un 
travail des plus utiles pour le mouve- 
ment des unions de metier, en etablissant 
une ecole nationale d'entrainement pour 
organisatrices, dont I'objet est de mettre 
des organisatrices experimentes en cam- 
pagne pour organiser les ouvrieres, de 
voir que leurs affaires soient bien con- 
duites et d'encourager ainsi I'organisa- 
tion et la permanence de I'organisation 
des salariees. 



Le labeur des enfants peut etre elimine 
par la legislation, qui comprend une in- 
struction obligatoire pendant au moins 
neuf mois de I'annee et pendant au moins 
huit annees consecutives. Un examen de 
capacite physique base sur une moyenne 
etablie par la loi, devrait accompagner le 
certificat d'etudes avant qu'un gargon 
ou une fille puisse obtenir un emploi 
dans une fabrique. Des lois strictes 
stipulant une amende d'au moins cin- 
quante dollars pour la premiere offense 
et I'emprisonnement pour la seconde 
violation, devraient etre promulguees. 
Pour faire observer la loi equitablement 
et honnetement, un nombre adequat 
d'inspecteurs de fabriques devrait etre 
organise. Sans cette precaution, la loi 
serait incomplete et de valeur douteuse. 



L 'attention du public doit etre attiree 
sans cesse sur les injustices du travail 
des enfante dans les "sweat-shops" des 
grandes villes. Quelques travailleurs 
sociaux et les soidisant philanthropes 
designent ces antres d'iniquite sous le 
nom de "travail a domicile," alors qu'ils 
ne sont purement et simplement que des 
fabriques sans heures de fermeture. Le 
travail commence tot le matin et finit 
tard le soir. — Cigarmakers' Journal. 



Victoires de la Paix 

Le numero de I'American Federationist 
public le Jour du Travail etait des plus 
remarquable. Sur la premiere page de 
la couverture paraissait cet expose com- 
. prehensif de son contenu: "Labor's 
Triumphant March Told in Messages of 
Hope and a Symposium of Achieve- 



ments." Des messages au mouvement 
ouvrier venaient du president Wilson, de 
I'ex-president Thedore Roosevelt et de 
I'ex-president William H. Taft. Celui du 
president Wilson etait un mot d'encour- 
agement; I'ex-president Roosevelt se rap- 
poi'tait a la responsabilite des unions 
ouvrieres et de la responsabilite du 
peuple pour le maintien de la loi et de 
I'ordre, etc., tandis que I'ex-president 
Taft se declarait en faveur des unions 
ouvrieres mais oppose aux manufactures 
unionistes. 

Precedant ces messages du president 
et des ex-presidents paraissait un expose 
du president Gompers, qui donne sujet 
a reflechir, et inspire de I'esperance pour 
I'avenir. 

"La liberte ne se gagne pas d'un seul 
effort. La liberte existe comme resultat 
d'effort continue pour la realisation des 
droits de I'homme. Chez un peuple libre 
cet effort doit emaner du peuple lui- 
meme. Le Jour du Travail represente 
r'effort d'hommes et de femmes pour as- 
surer pour eux et leurs enfants justice 
et opportunite de la vie. Farce que ce 
jour de fete du peuple travailleur ren- 
ferme I'esprit caracteristique de la na- 
tion, des citoyens qui ont contribue a 
faire adopter ces idees nationales et qui 
ont pense avec instinct et liberte, justice 
et humanite ont ete pries d'ecrire un 
message ou salutation aux compagnons 
de travail qui s'efforcent a faire de la 
liberte, de la justice, et de I'humanite des 
forces pratiques dans la vie et le travail 
de chaque jour." Dans le "Symposium 
of Achievements" se trouvaient des rap- 
ports des differentes unions Internation- 
ales concernant les progres faits durant 
les derniers douze mois. Nos membres 
seront sans doute interesses de savoir que 
votre secretaire-tresorier-general a col- 
labore a ce Symposium par un article qui 
fait connaitre les progres de I'Union des 
"Boot and Shoe Workers" durant I'annee 
ecoulee. 

"L'annee qui vient de finir a ete une 
annee de progres ferme pour I'Union des 
"Boot and Shoe Workers." Non settle- 
ment avons nous gagne dans le nombre de 
membres d'une maniere substantielle, 



50 



mais nous avons eu d'importantes 
ameliorations dans les gages et condi- 
tions laborieuses. Au lieu d'avoir ete 
sur la defensive durant les temps durs 
ou d'avoir peut-etre eu a resister des 
tentatives de reduction de gages, comme 
cela arrivait avant I'adoption du present 
systeme, 1 'amelioration des gages et con- 
ditions laborieuses ont ete continues. 

"II y a a-peu-pres seize ans notre union 
adopta le systeme d'accorder notre 
Cache a tout manufacturier de chaus- 
sures qui signerait un traite pour 
arbitrer tout differend qui ne pourrait 
etre mutuellement regie, tou jours a con- 
dition, toutefois, qu'a cette date il 
n'existerait pas de greve ou de lockout 
dans la manufacture. Pendant quelques 
annees ce systeme fut considerablement 
oppose dans nos rangs et la question fut 
longuement discutee a chaque convention. 
Mais tou jours, a chaque congres, le vote 
continua a venir de plus en plus fort. 
Aujourd'hui si quelqu'un presentait une 
motion dans une convention pour I'aboli- 
tion de ce systeme, une telle motion serait 
a peine consideree. 

"Seize annees d'experience ont prouve 
a nos membres, meme a ceux qui etaient 
portfe a I'opposition que ce systeme est 
excellent. Aujourd'hui meme, parmi ceux 
qui se sentent disposes a etre de I'opposi- 
tion dans les affaires internes de I'union, 
le sentiment general est que le systeme, 
tel qu'adopte par cette organisation il y 
a seize ans, est excellent pour I'interet 
de I'union et de ses membres." 

"Quand, dans aucune reunion ou confe- 
rence ou convention de cette union, un 
membre ou un delegue se permet de criti- 
quer notre conduite de faire des contrats 
d'arbitrage on le confronte avec des faits 
qui lui font perdre contenance, et I'on 
se' demande s'il est bien sain d'esprit. 
Voila reellement ce que pensent nos 
inembres concernant le systeme que nous 
suivi. Cela indique qu'on en a compris 
I'importance et que nos membres sont 
bien satisfaits des resultats obtenus." 

"Quelque soient les conditions de gages 
ou de travail existantes dans une manu- 
facture, avant que le Cachet de I'Union 



TfiQ CarpQntQr 

soit adopte, du moment qu'un contrat 
d'arbitrage est signe le procede d'ameli- 
oration commence, parce que les employes 
sont alors en position de faire un marche 
collectif. lis ont une organisation, et 
leur droit de negocier par la voie de 
leur Union leur est garanti d'avance. Ce 
n'est pas I'arbitrage qui est si precieux 
comme les traites mutuels nombreux qui 
existent a cause du fait que le patron 
d'un cote et I'Union de I'autre ont con- 
senti a arbitrer au cas ou il serait im- 
possible de s'entendre mutuellement. Les 
cas qui sont soumis a I'arbitrage ne sont 
probablement pas un sur cinquante de 
ceux qui sont mutuellement, regies 
favorablement pour les travailleurs. Les 
cas de reglement mutuel sont si nom- 
breux que nous n'en connaissons pas le 
nombre, et cela continue dans les sections 
oil I'on fait des chaussures dans les 
manufactures qui ont adopte les contrats 
d'arbitrage avec Cachet de I'Union. 

"Tout ne se gagne pas du coup. Nous 
avancons graduellement, un peu ici et un 
peu la, mais nous gagnons tout le temps. 
Un grand nombre de manufacturiers de 
chaussvires n'aiment pas a monter le cout 
de la fabrique des chaussures de dix 
centins par paire, ce qui est qu'une aug- 
mentation radicale pour tous les employes 
d'une manufacture voudrait dire si cela 
se faisait, mais il n'est pas rare qu'une 
grande portion des employes d'une seule 
manufacture de chaussures re§oive une 
augmentation se montant a cinquante 
centins par jour, ou trois dollars par 
semaine. Ces avances et autres assurees 
precedemment et subsequemment dans le 
meme ou autres departements de la 
manufacture continuent au benefice 
permanent des employes. 

"Nous ne pretendons pas dire que le 
systeme qui a eontribue au succes de cet- 
te Union serait applicable a un autre 
corps de metier dont les conditions 
environnantes seraient entierement dif- 
ferentes des notres; mais les resultats 
ont ete satisfaisants pour nous; nos 
membres en ont beneficie; ce systeme a 
force nos membres a se tenir en regie, a 
mis notre Union dans une condition finan- 



51 



Tfia CarpontQr 

ciere florissante; il commande le respect 
du meilleur element parmi les patrons de 
I'industrie de chaussures." 

Les rapports des autres organisations 
furent des plus encourageants, demon- 
trant que le mouvement de I'union des 
metiers d'Amerique marche de I'avant et 
est determine a atteindre le chiffre de 
trois millions de membres comme le de- 
mande le president Gompers, qui 
presenta ce symposium de ce qu'a ac- 
compli le Travail tel que rapporte par les 
differentes unions Internationales dans 
un langage convenable, avec lequel nous 
desirons terminer cet article avec la cita- 
tion suivante: "II est aussi difficile 
d'isoler le peuple travailleur du reste de 
notre nation qu'il le serait d'isoler la 
gravite de la masse de matiere qui con- 
stitue la terre. II forme I'etoffe qui con- 
stitue la nation. Son bien-etre est le 
bien-etre de la nation, de meme que son 
progres est le progres de la nation. 

"Chaque homme et chaque femme 
saluera avec joie les preuves d'ameliora- 
tion qui entrent dans la vie de ceux qui 
constituent la force motrice de I'indus- 
trie! Ces preuves renferment une organi- 
sation plus parfaite, des heures plus 
parfaite, des heures plus courtes de 
travail, des gages plus eleves, de meil- 
leures conditions laborieuses — benefices 
ordinaires; mais qui pourrait mesurer 
leur valeur sociale et morale dans la vie 
du peuple? 

"Les forces fertiles, creatrices, pro- 
gressives qui ont ete les premiers agents 
qui ont assure ces benefices sont les 
unions de travailleurs et leur extension, 
federation, et leur sodilarite. Ces unions 
traitent avec la vie; elles sont une partie 
de la vie meme; elles doivent constam- 
ment regler pour faire face a de nou- 
veaux besoins. 

"Les progres de 1913-14 doivront en- 
courager les travailleurs a faire encore 
plus pour I'avenir qui leur sourit. En 
avant done, et a I'oeuvre, sans peur et 



sans reproches." — Boot and Shoe Work- 
ers' Journal. 



Child I/abor Must be Abolished 

"Child labor means racial degeneracy, 
perpetuation of poverty, the enlargement 
of illiteracy, the increase of crime, the 
lowering of the wage scale and the swell- 
ing of the army of the unemployed." 

This is the emphatic assertion made by 
Mrs. H. H. Fleischer, representative of 
the national child labor committee on the 
Pacific coast. 

"I want to see an endowment for the 
mothers, in cases which because of sick- 
ness the burden of support would fall on 
a child. No; it will not be abused. Wher- 
ever such a measure has been adopted 
and scientific investigation made it has 
been found that only a very small per 
cent, of the parents applying for work 
permits for their children actually need- 
ed their help. 

"Take my notes in Los Angeles for the 
facts. Last year the juvenile court in- 
vestigated 250 applications for child per- 
mits. Of these 115 only were found 
worthy of examination. After the ex- 
amination only eighty permits were is- 
sued. Of this eighty only fifty-five were 
found worthy of help. So it appears that 
170 parents only thought they needed the 
work of the children and could get along 
without it if forced to do so. 

"In one of the Indiana glass factories 
we found twenty-two boys under four- 
teen. Investigation showed that the 
parents of all of them were able to keep 
them. That investigation resulted in a 
law raising the age limit and prohibit- 
ing all night work for children. 

"Society is paying at the wrong end of 
the line. Instead of paying for boys and 
girls in reform schools, after their vi- 
tality has been sapped, it should pay the 
mothers where that is necessary and 
make the parents do their duty when 
they are physically able. 



52 



Doath Roll 




Johnson, Charles, of L. U. 109, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. 



Thompson, W. J., of L. U. 1033, Mo- 
naca. Pa. 



Ohio State Council 

(Continued from Page 39.) 
district; Vice-President, Charles E. Davis, 
Hamilton; Secretary-Treasurer, J. W. 
Beam, Toledo. Members of the State Ex- 
ecutive Board: Roy Swederski, Fre- 
mont; Phil Hyle, Cleveland; Walter 
Cranston, Columbus; L. E. Nyswander, 
Dayton; J. B. Seevers, Marietta, and A. 
J. White, Youngstown. The contest be- 
tween Dayton and Toledo for the next 
convention which will be held in Febru- 
ary, 1916, resulted in a victory for 
Dayton. 

A most gratifying spirit of harmony 
and co-operation prevailed during the 
meeting, which augurs well for the fu- 
ture of the organization in the state of 
Ohio. Many members who were present 
expressed the opinion that the 1916 
meeting will see every local union in the 
state affiliated with the new State 
Council. 



l/ocalities to be Avoided 

(Continued from Page 23.) 
Saskatoon, Sask., Can. and Moline, 111. 



Savannah, Ga. 
Scranton, Pa. 
Sioux City, la. 
Smitbtown, L. I. 
South Omaha, NeV). 
Springfield, 111. 
Springfield, Mass. 
Springfield, O. 
Stamford, Conn. 
Syracuse, N. Y. 
Tacoma, Wash 
Tampa, Fla. 
Teague, Tex. 
Temple, Tex. 
Terre Haute, Ind. 
The Dalles, Ore. 
Titusville, Fla. 
Toronto, Can. 
Trenton, N. J. 



Troy, N. Y. 
Tulsa, Okla. 
Urbana-Champaign, 111. 
Vancouver, B. C. 
Victoria, Tex. 
Waco, Tex. 
Waterbury, Conn. 
Watertown, N. Y. 
Watertowp, S. D. 
Washington, D. C. 
Welland Canal Zone. 
West Frankfort, 111 
West Palm Beach, Fhi. 
White Plains, N. Y. 
Wichita Falls, Tex. 
Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 
Wilmington, N. C. 
Wilmington, Del. 
Winnipeg, Can. 



I/ist of l/ocals Chartered I^ast Month 

Farmingdale, N. Y. Logan, Utah. 

Beaufort, S. C. Newark, N. J. 

Carmel, Cal. Catans, P. I. 

Fort Worth, Tex. (millwrights). 
New York, N. Y. (reed workers.) 
New York, N. Y. (reed Morkers). 
Holyoke, Mass. (shop and millmen). 
Total. 9 Local Unions. 



Tri-Cities — Davenport, Worcester, Mass. 
la. ; Rock Island Yonkers, N. Y. 



The I^ast Muster 

Onward to battle is the cry of the nations; 
Muster them in, the high and the low; 
Spare not the youth in the flower of his man- 
hood — 
Hasten them forward, as food for the foe. 

Husbands and fathers, the call bids them 

gather ; 
Home is a pastime, the ranks need your 

brawn. 
Forget those loved ties which make life worth 

living — 
The monarch demands it, look not to your 

own. 

Every man's needed, the sire heeds the sum- 
mons — 
Silvery locks are no barrier here. 
War lords demand it ; you cannot escape it ; 
Age is a dream — haste away to your bier. 

Fill up the glass with scorn to ambition; 
Drink to the day while life lingers apace. 
Onward to battle, with courage undaunted, 
The war dogs in hunger await now the chase. 

On they come swiftly, from dale and from 

mountain- 
Peasant and cossack in deadly embrace. 
Brother meets brother in merciless slaughter, 
Shrouding the hopes of nations and race. 

Strike the blow quickly; spare not the maid- 
en — 
Innocent childhood thy wrath shall not stay. 
Widows and orphans await now thy vengeance 
On then to murder and ruthlessly slay. 

nay star of hope, let thy light be unclouded. 
Lift the dark veil on the earth overcast: 
Let peace, like a river, its lianks overflowing. 
Fill mountain and valley and infinite space. 
WILLIAM M BOYDEN, 
L. U. 342, Pawtucket, R. I. 



53 



jnnoiny 



^:§ 



80 O O Q O Q O © O O O Q O Q O O Q © Q O P Q O P O C O C Q O Q O O C O O C © O C O C C O 
P. o © O © © P © O. O © © © ©_ O p O © P © © O © © © ©_ © © © © © C © © © P © ©_ P P P C P 

g' p' p' © © d p' p P P p p p p ©' ©' p © p p p' P p' p p p p' p' p p' p p' p 10 P o' p' P p p' p p' © © © 
K5iSlOU'510plOlOir5©P©0©PL110P©lO©10©©mppiC©10 01QClLCK3©©©©P©pC© 

SO- ■ 



<= a 



ej aj o 03 



ja^ o o 



S 6* 
■^ 2 a 
59 = 



.2ejO 

.2sa 

|1(OCm 






01.3 o 



>r; 



o a e rt a; ti j; cu^ 
■-! ii-n "^'^ i. o — 'O oj 






a2p 









.2 ^ .2' 

.=J •- a & 0) "" — ■ 



3S2 
,2 8-. 



_ 3 

^ c =^ fi 

Oi r- <!> ^ 



■w 3 g S 5 



.2.2^2 oQ«^ 
iH ^^ fc, oj p 0^ 



, . &O.C! o o at. 



Stt.c-^I'?'? 



J-l rt M TO W >-- ^ 

aoa5.Qj3 2 
o) 0) ai.rt o 3 o) 



> » p -^ 

col 2.2-^ 

So ' "5.=i g 
p oj 3 fc..a7i 



IIOIUQ 



•ovs[ mico 



P iH •* 10 P 05 00 ■ CO t-1 00 05 ■* IM T-l ■* CO P . -P .lOOOWOit-piOIOiHt^Pi-lTtiTttcCPOOt-lOOOMr-li-l 



^oDl^^lH(^^aooI•*t-clP^-!oo .^cc^iMpTft-T-tocccr-i 



IM i-iO) 



.Uo 



-r>^ - 



S B O f^ 

3 oj K, S fl 



'5 3-os 



a .. 

■2oa 

i; a'3 

O oi-ci 

bees 

a) 'Sis 



.22; 

£'■=' 



oj 05 

. 03 03 



u.;-i 



acd 03 

^ Cj cd 



'^ B <p ^ 
ccOHZ 



^•03 a 
I-* be ' 

■^-3 3-3' 

■^a-Sa 



)"S e3§ 
5O& 



. a 3 3.2 

•s-iia 

3 aa tni; 



-2^ 

3 "^03 

ei.2 a)c3 

•^♦J fee— 

.g'OcS 






. 0) o 






>->-5''.U^-^Z 



a 
. a 



«£" o'35Sofl".- .M5d 

3« a a B 0)'-' (S.2'S S't: - «" B 
a£ ao Bcs 3.3 B fcii:; a, ,^_ 
< 



3-5 a a a o)" ed-S-r 5r S ij 03 

rl— .rt4JT;> On-i®03S-i03+JO 

= 2 ao B cs 5^ B s--^ I' ^.tS-o 



H<MPl-iM©lOP©t-P0000t-PT(<©mQ0©CiP©00©C:Q0©i-H^WTtiTHC0OO05rH0C3;t-C0MP-* 



"-S 



9.3, 



sa :.2 

1 Sh 3^ 



t-JC 03 S^- 



3o a 

I' m3 o 

aSo-r; 



"ou 



^S 



C3S «3 

!-i o a 
®Qj a 

CO a K 



->-5 2 

..is! c3 
03 03 o 



S.3 O 



, CO CO .2 

. tl tH © . 



>>W'3 

K 

. a; 

aa 



;3,0 c3 



coWS 

§^^-^^ 

"^ co' m ^ 



^t: 



02 



5»ssyiiti 



03 aj 



P3 



ai-c 
4) a) 



a 01 a) 



'<i>a 



o«s5 



■3N 



tl O y, f» 

a) Jj fcj 03 o 



."© . O! . . O . 

tBrritHCoaajaJiiai 
ti''^o3Po3fc<fc..^t< 



rijj ^ a ® 
a Sm|" 

«S^.2a^^ 



a) 



a; 



a!<) 



.« CD ^ 

a 2 o.- « 
!$£iBBO 



• C5ri CO CO 
CO CO ^ cS 03 

^ ^ . .a .3 



|Si?aS-- 

L? .-gtil 



Tt<iOPt^ooppT-idc>:iTt<L-3©t-'Xr5PT-ii'iro-*i,ooi--oociPT-iMrO'fiOPt-GCppi-iCJco-#iOPt-cC' 
coppp©«Dt-t-i-i^t-i-t^i>-i-i-(y3ooczjc/3CcoocoaDc«a)c:05C50C:oos05C: c:p©P©PPPP© 

.HiHrHi-lr-lTHi-HrHiHiHrHiHrHTHrtrtTHi-l7HiHi-lr-lrHi-lrHiM^rHi-lTHr-lTHTHiHTHrH(M(M(M(M(M<MIMC4CI 

coooeocofococorooococooooocofOcooocooooofOfOMcocOMeotooooococooococoeoeooococoooeocoeoM 

0\a WiM (M Mc^l M C-J CI CI CI CUM CI CJ iM CJ (M CI "M CI CI CI CI CI CI »l CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CJ CI 

54 



TfiQ CarpontQr 



gOOOOOOOOQOOOOOOOQOOOpOOOCOQOOQOOOOOOOS 0,0-0 Q O O O C 
.CSOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOpC'OOOOC;©': 

d d o Q o d o d o Q o d d o o o d o d d d d o o o p o d c o o Q o o d o o o o q" o d o Q Q d oo' o 



^ CD h S h U 



be 
t-l — 



'a s' 

g.s< 



0) 



1» 

^:3 






2 5£ s::; "a o mSij es o) 






tH acini's 



•goga :a 

. 2 fe W O .rH CO 

I X _o ^ a) C ^ 0.) 

p 0) 3 a IS ft OS 



' U 4) ■" .-HI 

ca -w -a 0) CO ^ 

■ P K IB O i 

■+-I s >- I) 1) I 

p S ?r M O) 

Oj OJ S- t- ID 

OOOWU 



o ";: 



tJD 



m O 

5 C ^ 

■" P u fc< 

P j- S 0) 






*^a =3 fl S ^ i 

•S ^ § ° 2fl 

I— O P^ (D fn 



to >i 



(s c.-y I 



p 



.«a^. 
^.ti a V 

- _ .i <u-P^cd 



o) no P •-• 



"-I ^ r- •'-' n-'^ 
i^ od csii .t: w 

o ^ ^ o ^ o ^ 

o ? a 



>i o o >-u 



®OON1000^iHOOC010CONl01005ir5C^C>3Tt<caprH»Pt-10TtHWOOrHr-(C10000r-liHiai-05pOi«<35P«<IPPt-l--C- -(MM^SC^ 



OOt-OOOCmOlNrHptOCOCip-* -i-IOCOOVt- 
t-l T-l iH 1-1 r-l i-l i-l • iH 



<lC^lffl00lOi-iM0000T 
1-1 CI IM 1-1 T-l r-1 I 



euocs 



• dd'^ cai-sfH rj:; 



=\-^ 



0>H 



*H p. »-._W _fl ^ J, _. ^ ;^ 






^^ 



-S-S ^ ^*" '^''' 



; i?i ii *ai ^ 



02 bfi bJDf^ fan ?^ 

S g f^"g5 si «i3 5 ^ a S 2-3 ^ 5^^ 

stj.So-rt-iPijSpi^l^'aaiSj^rl'S^ 
aj^tija^oSCaSajaJt-isSo^o^jj 

H^oE-taAl>iPH<^opq^<lCLii;oSS|iHM 



®9 

bcra 

g$ 



o . 

^a 

IU.S 

2;h 



>-i oi 
o <D a 

§a| 



3 if 



p 

m 



C3 Qj o 
P o 

C3 O ^ I 



13 « 

c^P^ 
P-l O OS 

3 



.isTbO^ 

o-S.S 



(D-P 

Co! p p 

oStS cS OS 



-■sO-J 
(li P 

.-JOS 

^4_J r-. 
P OS 
■^ P 

■^9 1^- 

P'O 01 

OS fl P 



9 :'3'3 

1^ pO W CO 

o o" P ?• f^ 

p f-c g; fl a 
,a)o5 3 3 



p p p 

^ cd ^ 



■C 'd d • 
oopo^'oScdos 



CO q; (D <D 
£ P P P 



ID a'-w+-' ^ 

O O OS OS +J O) 



" <D <D CD 

S ^ ^ ^ 

J^ P P P 

O O O O 



WMC»0©iHiM05I>COI:^u:iOiMT^t-'*Mffll©a5iHCD«OC^ll-®OOiHiMCCiHiH>COrHiHI:-t-C^iHOb-Oi-IC^IMlfflWO>c35l^-COt-Tl<.Tl<rH 



5000^>0l0t- TJH ■* lO ?C'0 C^ 



r-liMt-i35P »lM-*t-00 



a a) osw 
H ID tnS 



a^ 

o^ 

OD . I 
■th COV 

"C OS ^ 
T-jg ID 
<10J 



,3 ® 

S,P 

o„ - 

»s S „• 

CD OS 0! 
m - ' ■ 



CD 0) 1-1 



S>2 



OOS 



(H a tH 






g OJ « 



cS o 



I r-i j,„.P oSi^ 



©" -.9 * 

►^ CO P fcl 
,„ © Oj C! 



O) P 
« P 

!ca 

p 

.P 0) I 



H« 



<U CD b. 



CS W W 73 I 
jq fc< fcl fcl I 



Kg 

2 oS*-^ to 



n rt > 
3 s IS 

rt tf CD 

Al 



1 IS 

'a - 



■'1-5 to 



I co' 1 






p "s 

■?, ^ !- O 
ly 0) CD-W 

p P-cS 



; 1-5 1-5 



[>>ID , Ol 

p-oSa 

„ vj ^ a; P 0) OS 



Js) OS.- 

cofrt es 
pq p . 

esH-S 



ID 0) 



.^ ID 
ID h 

z OS a) 

©OS ^Jrf 
©o cSm o 

P £ £ M a> 

.'^ ,S "^ o '^ 



PQj, 



b CO J© 

a) 'H o „ ^ „ 



_2 

? a)5 

t: P » 
^ P a) 
^O 

CO* C» CO 

t4 tl b 



5 <» -5 S (D 

sS.-;&S3 

; ^.' CO -a S- ©^ 

" c5<sSa 

•a5p^.2«^ 

p s . . . a 

be § 05 CO OJ t-l 

a ^ h t-l fcH © 



35pl^(^^o5T^llffl»^.(»osOl^l^^ooT)^L-5 50l>•a)l3^0l-ll^loo^>050^~lXl05©lHl^^oo^K:)Ot-ooo50T^(^loo■*lo^Db-occl©I^l^Jco^ 
OrHr^l^T^r^t^r^lHT^l--ll^^^>lo^c^^(^^c^^c^^l^^(^^c^lcoo5coMoooJoooococo■^■*^■*-*-*^-t^THTt^lOlOu^ou5»olO»r^oo5D«ocD^D?0 
c^ iM oi iM iM IN w |^J (N IN IN c^ (^^ N iri T^ M (N IM w M l^l (N l^^ N l^l e-i IN iM l^l i-i iM IN c^ oi M IN w M l^l (N ^^^ oi IN oi IN M l^^ 

fOoccococoo3coooiMoooocooooooofooooocooooooococoeooooocoo<5cooooooococooocococooooocooocoooooeooooooooocofoeoooo3 

IN C^ IN IN IN IN IN IN CI IN W W I^ M O) l^l W IN ^^^ IN Ol l^l l^l '^^ IN IN CJ IN IN IN IN CJ C^ 11 IN O) IN IN l^l C I IN <^l IN IN l^^ IN W IN OI IN iTl C-J C^ IN 



55 



TAq CarpQntQr 



a> 

w 
« 

H 

Q 


H 
<J 

Ah 

to 

H 

i4 
O 






OOOOOOOOOOCQOOOCOQOOOQOOCCCOCCCCOOOOOOOOCOOOl.O 

o o o © o o.o ooooooooccpoooooooooc; — — :=:;oc>ooooooooool- 
> o o" d d o o o d o o o d o d d d d d d d d d Sd'^i -' d d d ^o^z^doddcs d d d d lo (m' 

■ ^ — .-^ lOlOOOOOClOLCCIOJ 




^S- 



4) S- 



• r-l T-l 1-1 1-1 1-1 iH T-l 



• oi c^i c» c: CO (M w Tj- CO cc th iC' c^i 'i' ci 

•i-lrH <M i-l r-ti-li-IC-li-IC-l 



H -^ 



-5"". -i^ "-^ 



rv 


2; 




Z 


^ 


C3 


^ 


S 


x' 


>H 




r^' 


a' 
p 


•g 


Z 


o. 


qT 


S 

c 


„- 


<^ 


o 


•-a 

'cs 


c 


i 


dl 


S 


1 


C 


<; 


f^ 


y.^ 


:5 


;-! 


s; 


H-; 


X 


^ 



3§ ..S^o 



_< -^ - " c 



i P_c_o 
■ r 73 a; 



3^ 



.-ro 



■5^ 



.-^5c 









.2^ 



1 <-. r: ri I— ( „ — 



•* °Z i^? ■'^ i^ .-.liS" 



42i es 

O Sao 

O « 



9 ®>^ 






•;.„ocja_^-a;^5 



K C3 



noinn 



-t< LO iH OS irj CV CO tH I— CO C5 O r-t O CO O GO l~ -f O I LO ^ C"U~ 00 Tl CO 'i* O 5C C CO X' iH C^l CO C: CO to t- 1-1 r-l -* rH Oi 



coioooiioiocoo»oiOr-ico-*c;TH-*— (occoi-i^ 
I-l T-l c^i CO CO CO ^ irs o :5 00 w 03 'Oi CO ^ ir; L~- 1^ r-l 

1-1 1-1 I-l 1-1 r-l iH 



L- 00 <M CO 00 t- I^l 05 03 M iH 0>] O O iH 
i-llMCOb-O 



•ON rajBio 






7: > 

2^1 



o o o 0-: 



5 C3 



^=^«« aid 






Q 0) £ S - 



»3Q? 






<:^=2 



M M - _ ^ 



!<5s; 



! n > =3 

; tn C3^ 



S o C3 . i^ . 
O Oj S y] !-i M 
^ a O ^ O !-i 



- cd ;h ^.- c; a ^' -m 
3&Jc5t:?-(!-<sSc3 

. !K _ to g 

: S k\S ^ Q 7: cc »i 



;3 dJ CO 

r'T^ o — ,z 
s-< ">- c - 

r , I— I sj . 






p ^ C3 . . 

as*!; 



SIJO 






!''- -~ " ^ i3 



X .? -5 «■ c ■ 



! a)^ « 



513.2 



^ij^gfi 



u ai jji w V. 

Qi l^ U -^ U- 



w o » 5 "o *i » 



— ^'"^ »^ ■?- ^K^ 



— C^.a S;; 



Lo ^ t- y: - c; ' 



:ict-fiO"— l-y:r.c^olcOTl^lo:Dl-(Z)a;Ol-^c^co- 



:^co•^ -^ ■-:: i-L-i-i- 1-1- 1- i-i 
oic^ioi 01 ri Ti ' 

cocococococt: — 

oioioi 0101 01 0101 01 01 Old 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 oi 01 oioioioiioioioioi 01 01 01 01 01 c^ 01 01 iM 01 iM 01 e^ 

56 



Tfia CarpQutor 



CJOOOOOOOCCOOOOOOOOOQOCOOOCOOOOOOOCJOOOOOCOO 
OOOOQOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOCCOOOOO 

o o" o © c? Q d d d d d d d d d d d o'd d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d 
LomooiooooioioinioiDioioiooiooioooinioooooooiooioiocoooidooo 









<! g oj P^ K 



as 






a-2 



a^ 



■35 



f1) :-, T-S "-^ C ^ 



a-poo^^c 



■;z;o 






as 



O Oj I 



a o 

■ PL| < h^ ill 111 ^ 



^G3a8asaa-S°sS2s--S = 

aaeJiaaasamacaosoaoaia 

<iPH(iK^eaiii(KSaa<iH<ioiii 



.a"S ■* 

C3 X n 

sa.^ 

2oa 

= 0^3 

. IS a 



K S 1^ 
iUO<l 



051O^ -in • -^OOIO -t-OO^N -t-CS • -O -OO ••*?C(M10-*®^C^I'»'*0500 04 0»Ot-OOri 



iM CO ^ iH :^ I- rt (M .ra :^ L~ cc. TiH 10 o •* o '» "0 o • o M 10 1- ■* o 00 1- 1- « 00 rH oC' tH iH 01 1- 00 CO -* 00 



O'-'w 






.^'^ 



^ - 03 
M ^ tH 

0) at; 
So 



a a 



J . a a cs 

)l-lOOO|; 



-fe 






M-: .■'-'■:2g .a-a;-;XiV- t-'.a 



S cj ci i^, 

2 3 3fe' 



'cp 



j~7: 3 o Si =5 P =^ "5 
' o i* .° £> ^* =3 i"' ;:; ;" 
} U ill tH !> r-l t» 



on J3 Ci 

a.M ^ 

„ o.a a 

lll2;2;M^l^oa 



o a a !- 
?^ CM-? 



3 O'aj 
cd C3 a; 



2; 



»aiia;>H 



.— ; a 05 



Q^ »?5 -^I^ "^ 



-J <2; IV-' a3 oj o oj aT i^"^ ■?, 



(73 o 



.20 



T, t: _j t» T-' ..•- s (^ m" 



o 



^ -„ SS"!^^ 0« ® a « ^ £^.S i>,S^-!: 
5.>-"S S oT: g 6X)b£l>^ § a o p2 >>a;.-^ c 

a) ?aao^gi='..:S'^-"-!«)a'S®f 
p;r:-daao.i^-2'E^!St^'cgxa£>o-n'^ 

oSQS2p;oQcc2;iiitf.y}p:;iii<iPHQi- 



IMOlOC000C>Tt<(MC0C0C^lC0r405O^ 

ccocx)t-ot-inco r-i-i-i ■* o ■ rt i-i 

iH C-l CC CI Tj< Til K3 :3 L- L- C-l 



I— iH O-J IM b- Cji L- O 05 L- I- C-l CC iM ^ CO I- CO ^ l~ CO o 00 10 Tt* iM 

OOOCOL-iXiiM^rHiH rHC0i»CI5t=iMTt<THOOlOlOO0aC0 

CO ^ Ci CO Kit- t- TjHlOCOOS C-lC-(M00lMS> 

i-(rt r-( l-ii-l i-li-t i-l 



" a 
a a 
a?il 
S o 






'3 ° 



a-o 
ci a 



a g I 

3 boo 
o a.a 



Qci 



0) a; 
- a ci^ 
a o 



■tJJajM g =X!^ 






V-. fc< CS 

"^M a 



Oi 



s^c2 



S^MS^: 



a M aj I. 






cj to 



Si a 
<1 



cd a . 
> a: 



O 



■< ^ fii rf; ^ <; F= 



as .>< . a iH a i^-iN ^ g e a 2 
3o3^-<^2s-:HSpq.S;S'S 

o-a^a^a S i^ cr-'3^So2"^- .- 



■< -^ '2^ 



■Affile 









ly; a y; ^ 



S<!jS<SS§H,>-lfe 



O r-1 0-1 CO -* O a I- X - C ^ M CO ■* 10 53 b- 00 OJ O r-l OJ CO -t< m O I- CO (35 O -^ *! "t - 

' i-H rH 01 ri M(Mc^i(MC-iM(MOJ cocococooocococococo^ -t- ^ -f - 



L" --^ t- 00 (3i O iH 

• -t< -* tH -* »o 10 



(M(r(!M(0)(M?<10l 01 ri Tl *! - I M(M(MO(| T\|<N(M(MC-|(M0I010I(M(M(MCMC>I(M 01 01 CI 01 - 1 Ol 01 OI O) 01 01 



57 



m o o o 
t- o o o 
oi d lo d 

rHOl-O 

t-rHCO'-* 
rH 



es O 

a'-D 

O oj 



«.2§§ 

Hit 

m a S—' 

tj (D 0--2 



T/iQ CarpQntQr 



jundray 



^ »H 



uouin 



'0}i niiBio 



OOQO© 

ooooo 

■4<iM WrHTfl 






ice:' 



5 "^ '^ fl 

a> a tn o 

O 50 



^ S O Qi 



.S to a .S Si oj .- .S 



50 ce 

a a 



02 



-"•a a a 
— +^ o a 






a« * c 

■3 p a a 



r/3 73 aj 

;^ h b< 

^ cj ^ 

0) 4j 0) a) 



f^ ^ '^ a S 

c3 cd CO j:3 'O 

a.a. 



a a 






a a 

-O o 

as; 



am mm 9a_. 
! '3 a a a a +j 

i O O O '^ ^- 

i-aaa.'"- 



03 a 



o aj 
S?' S" go 

>J tJ IH fc< g4J 



•00 • WrHC: 



•W«®00>OC2-* 



MMO •C5Tt<(Mr-lT-IC-]WWTt<C0CJr-liM 



dO 



a^ 



■ n . 
Aau o 
5 -S 



E?^ 



3 ^J 



.5 aO . - '-' 
•m « ca g-o" . 

i o 5 c3 s ^ o 3 



.3 

^d>;a 
- -2 ^ 

50 ^ S a 

3 <V ai r^ 

«S o c 



L'51Ot-a0OL-Jr-lt--*Tt<rH-*®C0MCSrH 
05 CO CO O :0 C-l ro CC::D r^ «D COtH t-KM tJH l- 
^ CO rH C-Il^ CO 00 <N 00 C". CI l~- C 1-4 C5 T-l 1-1 



'■CO 



^^ -a, ''£:■«■ 



£: a) r ej a- 

1 j:^ <-^ t^ i. 






03 cs mr^ 
-■a± o 



.2 0) OJ ° s 



t- ao OS 1-1 CI CO ^ -o I- 03 cj o T-( cj CO lo to 



CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CJ I 



The Same Old Story! 

The same old whistles, the same old noise; 
The same old racket, as when we were boys; 
The same old feeling we can't describe 
That rose up in our bosom when the old yeai' 
died. 

The same old dinners, the same old calls. 
The same old music, the same old balls ; 
The same old feelings, with the same old 

dread, 
And the same misgivings when we sign the 

pledge. 

The same temptations and a" broken pledge. 
The same old friends and the same old head ; 
The same old boast and the same old brag 
That our wives don't know it when we're on 
a jag. 

The same old promise 'bout the same old bills, 
The same old doctor and the same old Ills ; 
The same old grocer and his tale of woe, 
And the same old dodging of the bills we owe. 

Just another year with the same old frills, 
With the same old joys and the same old ills ; 
The same old icy winds so drear 
That blows through our clothing that we wore 
last year. 

E. P. LIVINGSTON. 
L. U. 561, Pittsburg, Kan. 



The Bungalow 

The Charlemagne McFaddens dwelt in an im- 
posing pile 

Of brick and mortar, fashioned in the early 
mission style 

And in the house were mission chairs by 
which they set -great store, 

Whose mission 'twas to keep them all from 
sitting on the floor. 

They also owned some mission hens that fur- 
nished them with eggs. 

And eke a little mission 'dog with quaintly 
Gothic legs. 

So in their early mission house they dwelt 
contented — very. 

Till Uncle John got jaundice and became a 
missionary. 

Then in despair they tore their hair and 

turned to higher things. 
And to their early mission house they added 

mission wings. 
Alas for wings and higher things! Alas! 

Alackaday ! 
Equipped with wings, their mission house, it 

promptly flew away ! 
Now Ma McFadden might have wept, and 

said a lot of things ; 
But all she said was, "Charlemagne, you 

should have clipped its wings." 
And Chariemagne replied, "My dear, I bun- 
gled as you know. 
By building high, so next time I will build 

a bungalow." — Cosmopolitan. 



58 




Is the Money 
Always There? 

Your special training — or lack of it — ^hits 
you right in the money pocket. With every- 
thing but the salaries of untrained men going 
up, with competition becoming keener all the 
time, with the many wants that each day brings, 
and a time when there may be nothing coming in— 
with all these conditions staring you in the face, 
you've got to decide mighty quick whether you're a 
success or not — and if not, how you can make friends 
with success and bid failure "good-bye." 
It's a serious proposition when you stop to think 
about it — this big spending and little earning. Yet, it 
needn't worry you one bit if you can increase your earning 
capacity far beyond your spending requirements. It's 
simply a matter of making your brain work more than 
your body. Head work earns more than body work- 
You've got some good ideas — and you know it. The 
International Correspondence Schools will help you 
turn those ideas into cash. 

Become a Building Contractor or Architect 

Select from the attached coupon the well-paid occupation you hke 
best, mark the coupon as directed, and mail it today. That's all you 
have to do to learn how the I. C. S. can train you at home and in 
your spare time to become a building foreman, building contractor, or 
architect. No matter where you live, what you do, what yoar age, if 
you can read and write, 



the way is open. Don't 

worry as to how the I. C. S. 

can help you. Thel.C. S. 

have already helped so many 

other ambitious carpenters 

that it surely can do the same for you. 

The I. C. S. removes all obstacles — 

makes everjrthing easy — smooths the road. 

You can't afford to overlook this 
opportunity to increase your earning 
power. 

Mark and Mail 
the Coupon NOW 



« International Correspondence Schools 
♦ Box 1069C. SCRANTON, PA. 

^ Ple'-j^ explain, without further obligcition on my part, how 1 

r^v qualify for a higher salary and advancement to the 

"^ position, trade, or profession iiefore which I have marked X. 



Architecture 
Architectural Draftsman 
Contracting: and Building 
Structural Engineer 
Structural Draftsman 
Concrete Construction 
Electrical Engineer 
Electric Lighting 
Plumbing & Steam Fitting 
Heating and Ventilation 
Plumbing Inspector 
Estimating Clerk 



Mechanical Engineer 
Patternmaking 
Civil Engineer 
Surveying and Mapping 
Commercial Illustrating 
Mining Enginter 
Gas Engineer 
Automobile Running 
Bookkeeper 
Stenographer 
Civil Service Exams. 
Advertising Man 



St. and No. 



City. 



..State^ 



♦ Present Occupation, 



Dirpcto^^of Business j^nts 




Aberdeen, Wash. — K. 15. Ellis, 512 Burleigli av. 

Akrpn. O.— R. F. Booth, 32 N. Main st. 

Albany, N. Y. — Thos. Gilmore, Room 21, Beaver 
Block. 

AUentowu, Pa. — Clarence Seaman, 21 N. Madi- 
son St. 

Alliance, Neb. — Roy AVells. 

Alton, 111.— Roland Adams, 202 Pioneer Bldg. 

Anadarko, Okla.— J. E. Wilson. 

Annapolis, Md. — Geoi-ge E. Woolej', 8 West st. 

Ardmore, Okla. — D. N. Ferguson, Box 522. 

Asbury Park, N. J. — David F. Gant, Bradley 
Beach, N. J. 

Asheville, N. C— A. L. Henry, R. F. D. 3. 

Atlanta, Ga.— E. L. Ficken, 220 Brown and 
Randolph Bldg. 

Atlantic City, N. J. — Frederick Scheideman, 
307 N. Massachusetts ave. 

Auburn, 111. — J. E. Higgins. 

Augusta, Ga. — ,1, W. Johnson, 1906 Greene st. 

Augusta, Me., Waterville and Vicinity — ^T. M. 
Rollins, 18 Cushman st., Augusta, Me. 

Aurora, 111. — Edward F. Reah, 77-79 Fox st. 

Ausable Forks, N. Y. — Hiram Jacques. 

Bakersfield, Cal. — J. C. Harter, Labor Temple. 

Baltimore, Md.— L. U. 329, Eugene Sullivan, 15 
E. Haywood ave., Pimllco, Md. ; L. U. 29, 
Frank G. Simmons, Border State Bank Bldg., 
Park ave. and Fayette st. 

Barre, Vt.— C. R. Hall. 

Bartlesville, Okla.— S. F. Wray. 

Batavia, N. Y. — Frank Roberts, 1 Holland ave. 

Battle Creek, Mich.— Wm. Cartridge, 316 Kale- 
zoo St. 

Bay City, Mich.— Wm. B. Gust. 303 Fillmore pi. 

Beardstown, 111.— Hy Thcfrnsbury, 801 E. 4th 

St. 

Belmar, N. J. — Harry Redmond, Box 245. 

Bergen County. N. J. — John "D. Carrlock, 388 
Ridgewood ave., Ridgewood, N. J. 

Binghamton, N. Y'. — Jerry Ryan, 77 State st. 

Birmingham, Ala. — Wm. T. Hutto, Room 805 
Farley Bldg.: N. T. Overall. 

Boston, Mass. D. C— A. J. Hewlett, 30 Han- 
over St.; L. U. 33, J. T. White, 30 Hanover 
St.; L. U. 1086. N. J. McDonald, 9 Clare- 
mont Park; L. U. 1393 (Wharf and Bridge), 
John Morgan, 30 Hanover st. ; L. U. 1410 
fShop and Mill), Simpson Booth, 30 Han- 
over St.; L. I^. 1824 (Cabinetmakers and 
Mill), E. Thuliu, 30 Hanover st.; L. U. 954 
(Hebrew), M. Goodman, 30 Hanover st. ; L. 
T'. 386, Dorchester, Mass. ; L. U. 272, Bowden 
St., Dorchester, Mass.. L. IJ. 67, Roxbury, 
John M. Devline, 16 Woodville Pk., Rox- 
bury, Mass. ; L. IT. 443, Chelsea, Cbas. Noel, 
86 Grove St., Chelsea, Mass.; L. I^. <i.37 (He- 
brew), Chelsea, Kalman Disler. ("6 Essex St., 
Chelsea, Mass.; L. U.'s 441 and 1653, Cam- 
bridge, and 629, Somerville, J. F. Twomey, 
234 Sycamore st., Waverley, Mass. : L. V. 438, 
Brookline, W. H. Walsh, 166 Washington st.. 
Brookline, Mass.; L. U. 218, East Boston, C. 
H. Morrison, 16 Pope st., East Boston, Mass. 

Brainerd, Minn.— P. W. Bidwell, 616 Oak st. 

Bradford, Conn. — John Knopwood. 

Bridgeport, Conn. — M. L. Kane, 1484 Park ave. 

Bristol, Conn.— J. W. Greno, 84 Grove st. 

Brockton, Mass.— Walter Pratt, 308 Marston 
Bldg., 28 Main st. 

Buffalo, N. Y.— Vincent Hoth, 12-14 Eagle st. : 
Frank J. Fischer, 12-14 Eagle st. 

Calgary, Alta., Can.^James Rae. Box 2331. 

Cambridge, Mass. — P. J. Slowe, 90 Norfolk st. 

Canton, Ohio — A. M. Young. 934 Marion ave., 
S. W. 

Cedar Rapids, la. — D. A. Leanard, 19 Jim Blk. 

Central City, Ky.— C. L. Craig. 



Charlotte. N. C— C. W. Brown, P. O. Box 28. 
Chicago, 111. — John A. Metz, president ; Daniel 

Galvin, sec.-treas. ; Wm. T. White, J. C. 

Johnson, F. C. Bromley^, business agents of 

the district ; No. 1, Albert F. Schultz ; No. 

10 W. S. Deuel; No. 13, Thos. F: Plynn ; 

No. 54, Peter Mraz; No. 58, Simon Charles 

Grassl; No. 62, P. J. Granberg; No. 80, W. 

Brims ; No. 141, A. Anderson ; No. 181, Thos. 

F. Church; No. 199, J. C. Grantham; No. 

242, George Proskaski; No. 272 (Chicago 

Heights), James Goodman; No. 416, F. C. 

Lemke ; No. 4:34, John H. De Young ; No. 521 

(stairs), W. J. Mahoney ; Nos. 448, 461, 250, 

1727, North Shore Local Unions, M. L. 

Baade; No. 504, Wm. Watson; No. 643 (ship 

carpenters), E. Leubke; No. 1128, H. Brok- 

hope; No. 1307, R. E. Huffman; No. 1698 

(millwrights), John Oliver, Millmen ; No. 

341, Adam Kurowski, 20.34 N. Wood st. ; No. 

1367, Jos. Dusek; No. 1784, Gustave Stange; 

No. 1922. Geo. Orris. Address of all officers 

and business agents : Carpenters' Hall, 73 

W. Randolph st. 
Cincinnati, O.— W. E. Brown, 1228-30 Walnut 

St.; Frank Imwalle, 1228 Walnut St.; T. F. 

McGrath, sec. D. C. 1228-30 Walnut st. 
Clarksville, Ark.— J. H. Cline. 
Cleveland, O. — Walter J. Mapes, secretary ; 

Thos. Payne, Harry Hamilton and Gustav 

Schroeder. Address of all, 337 Superior ave. 

N. W. 
Clinton, la.— Clause Rief, 331 14th ave. 
Columbia, Mo. — J. McKenzie, 1121 Miner Bldg. 
Columbus, Ind.— R. L. Wheate, 333 Kinman st. 

(Columbus, East). 
Columbus, O.— C. B. Rader, Room 126, 261 S. 

High St. 
Corsicana, Tex. — C. F. Barnes, Box 447. 
Coshocton, O. — Wm. Schumacher, 1145 E. Main 

street. 
Council Bluffs, la.— A. A. Whitlock, 201 S. 

First St. 
Covington, Ky.— C. C. Skirvin, 483 W. 2d st. 
Cullman. Ala. — Arch Maples. 
Dallas, Tex., D. C— R. M. Means, Box 372. 
Danbury, Conn. — Marton B. Mabie, 19 Smith 

street. 
Dayton. O. — L. E. Nysewander, Room 1, 25 N. 

Main st. 
Decatur, 111. — Geo. Doolen. 

Denison, Tex. — J. M. Davis, 420 W. Texas st. 
Denver, Colo. — No. 55, W. H. Marker, 1947 

Stout St.; No. 1874, W. L. Fowler, 4441 Utica 

street. 
Derby, Conn. — .Joseph Zentz, 449 Howe ave., 

Shelton, Conn. 
Des jNIoines, la. — .1. F. Grav, Trades Assembly 

Hall, 8th and Locust. 
Detroit, Mich.— G. R. Alexander, 162 Randolph 

street. 
Dodge City. Kan.— J. G. Sidlow. 
Dorchester, i\Iass. — Jas. E. Eaton, 116 Neponset 

avenue. 
Duluth. Minn.— N. Olson, 1905 W. 4th st. 
Dyersburg, Tenn.— J. W. Todd. 
East Palestine, O. — George H. Alcorn. 
East St. Louis, 111.— Geo. Tuthiil, 418 Collins- 

ville ave. 
Edmonton, Alta., Can. — .T. Francis, Mechanics' 

Hall. 
Elizabeth, N. J.— J. T. Cosgrove, 605 Elizabeth 

avenue. 
Elmira, N. Y. — Grant Nelson, 311 West ave. 
EI Centre, Cal.— W. S. Porter. 
El Paso, Texas— W. T. Davis, Box 631. 
Ensle.v, Ala.— W. B. Crumley, Box 769. 
Erie, Pa. — Martin Rouen, 7 Shaaf Lane. 



60 




No Job Too Big For These Books 

They cover everything in the construction field from cottage to skyscraper — from the 
architect's first sketch to the completed structure. Absolutely the clearest, most complete 

and practical work ever published on modern building construction. Includes estiniating and contracting-; wood, 
stone, steel and reinforced concrete construction; a study of the Greek and Roman orders; interior finishing and 
decorating; modern house lighting and ventilation, etc. No carpenter, contracting builder, structural engineer, 
architect'or draftsman should be without 

The Neivly Revised Cyclopedia of 

Architecture, Carpentry and Building 



Ten large volumes, handsomely bound in half red morocco, sold stamped, containing 
4,760 7x10 inch pages; 4000 illustrations, full page plates, building plans, diagrams, etc.; 
hundreds of valuable tables and formulas, carefully cross-indexed for quick, easy reference. 

Plan Book and Consulting Service FREE 

This is the most attractive offer ever made. We give free to every purchaser of our 
Cyclopedia of Architecture, Carpentry and Building, a copy of "Modern American 
Homes," a most complete and up-to-date plan book. Contains plans and specifications for 
168 structures, including excellent exterior and interior views, detailed estimates, etc. De- 
signed by leading architects, it includes city, suburban and country homes, bungalows, 
summer cottages, tent houses and camps, also apartment houses, garages and public build- 
ings. 224 pages, 9>2xl2Ji inches, and 426 illustrations. Printed on enameled paper and sub- 
stantially bound. With this plan book in your shop or office you are prepared to figure on 
any job, no matter how large. No need for the prospective builder to consult an architect — 
you can offer him his choice of practically every type of the modern American home. This 
saving of the usual architect's fee should get you the business. 

In addition we give free with each set a year's consulting membership in the American 
Technical Society. Through this service you have the assistance of a staff of experts. 
These men are no farther from you than the nearest mail box. They stand ready to solve 
your perplexing problems, to offer suggestions, to point 
out the things you should avoid. In fact they enable you 
to compete with the biggest and most experienced men 
in the construction field. 

Send for this great combmaflon today 

In order that you may judge for yourself the value of the big 
plan book and this wonderful reference work, we will send the 
complete eleven volumes to your home or oflSco for seven days' free 
examination, express charges fully prepaid. Look them over care- 
fully—make use of them at your work for a week — then if they 
fail to meet with your expectations they may be returned at our 
expense. If you keep them, send us $2.00 within seven days and 
$2.00 a month until the specially reduced price of $24.80 on the 
Cyclopedia has been paid. Remember — the consulting member- 
ship and plan book are included absolutely free. 

Can yon afford to let $2.00 a month stand between you and hun- 
dreds of dollars in increased profits'? The consulting membership 
alone is worth many times the & rst cost of the books. Decide today 
to equip your shop or office with this business getting combina- 
tion. Fill in and mail the coupon — now ! 

AMERICAN TECHNICAL SOCIETY, CHICAGO, U. S. A. 



Partial Table of 
Contents 

Mechanical, Freehand, Per- 
spective and Architectural 
Drawing, Lettering, Pen and 
Ink Rendering, The Orders, 
Superintendence, Stength of 
Materials, Masonry, Rein- 
forced Concrete, Carpentry, 
Steel Square, Stair-Buildmg, 
Hardware, Steel Construc- 
tion, Roof Trusses, Practical 
Problems, Estiniating, Con- 
tracts, Specifications, Build- 
ing Law, Sanitation, Sheet 
Metal Work, Electric Wiring 
and Lighting. 





-'—^4?^^^^ P^esise send 

^^OV^Free Plan 

^ yrj^ Book, also Cy- 

^ ^-OU.. ^ clopedia of Archi- 



i"\ .; I i 



tecture. Carpentry 
and Building: fur seven 
days' examination I will 
send $2 00 within seven days 
and $2 00 a month until I have 
l^X^ paid $24 80 for Cyclopedia (Plan 
^^*^ Book and yearns Consultine Member- 
ship included free), or notify you and 
hold books subject to your order. Title 
not to pass until fully paid. 



Address ' . . , 

As I have had no previous dealings with you, I i 



Tfia CarpQntQr 



Kvansville, lud. — Frert Ulsas, Oil E. Missouri 

street. 
Fall River. Mass.^ — Joseph Perron, 24 Reuey st. 
Fairfield, Coiiu. — George C. Johnson. 
l'\irmingtou, Me. — W. J. Dougherty. 
Fitchburg, Mass. — Al. Lafrennie, 59 Tredale 

St., Leominster, Mass. 
Flint, Mich.— A. L. Cheney, R. F. D. No. 9. 
- Fond du Lac, Wis.— Henry Klnkel, 438 3d st. 
Fort Dodge, la.— R. I. Harlow, P. O. Box 187. 
Fort Lauderdale, Fla. — R. G. Pearson. 
Fort Smith, Ark.— John Huff, 801 N. 19th st. 
Fort Wayne, Ind. — Charles Easley, 610 Calhoun 

street. 
Fort Worth, Texas— W. E. Hemsell, 1112 Car- 
son ave. 
Galveston, Texas— Chas. O. Wallace, 2216 Ave. 

E. 
Gary, Ind. — Walter Good, 2560 Washington st. 
Glen Cove, L. I., N. Y.— Hugh Duffy. 
Grand Rapids, Mich. — Garrit Verburg. 
Guanite City, Madison . and Venice — Adolph 

Boulanger, 2100 C St., Granite City, 111. 
Granville, 111. — George F. Scott. 
Grayville, 111.— J. W. Badisbaugh, Box 503. 
Great Falls, Mont.— J. D. Price, P. O. Box 1057. 
Great Neck, L. I., N. Y.— Joseph W. Grady. 
Greensburg and Mt. Pleasant, N. Y. — M. Tou- 

hoy. Box 78, Irvington-on-Hudson. 
Greenfield, Mass. — D. B. Campbell. 
Grove City, Pa. — F. M. Bohlander. 
Hamilton, O. — S. B. Corson, Station A. 
Hamilton, Out., Can. — John Briggs. Hamilton. 
Hammond, Ind. — Wm. Newton, 160 Plummer 

avenue. 
Hartford, Conn. — A. L. McAllister, 16 Stedman 

street. 
Hartford, Ark. — J. H. Moore, Gwyn Postoflice. 
Haverhill, Mass. — David Z. Reynolds, 2 Oilman 

Place. 
Hazleton, Pa.— Albert Walck, 708 N. Laurel. 
Hempstead, L. I., N. Y.— Wm. H. Guptill, 267 

B'ront st. 
Herkimer, N. Y. — Frank W. Scanlan, 215 

Henry st. 
Holyoke and Westfield, Mass. — John Cronnen, 

Carpenters' Hall, 437 High st. 
Houston, Texas — Campbell Overstreet, 206* 

Main st. 
Hudson, N. Y.— H. W. Macy, 446 Carrott st. 
Ilion, N. Y.— Hugh Smithson, 276 B. Clark st. 
Indianapolis, Ind. — S. P. Meadows, Geo. B. 

Kenney, Room 30, Cosmos Castle, 
tola, Kan.^ — Trot Williamson. 
Ithaca, N. Y.— F. C. Thompson, L. U. 603. 
Jackson, Mich.— C. W. Davis, 320 Bush st. 
Jacksonville, Fla. — Geo. C. Brown, 241 E. 4th 

street, 
.lamestown, N. Y. — John K. Gustafson, Box 14. 
.Tersey City, N. J. — Fred Herman, 452 Hoboken 

ave.. James G. Larkin, 452 Hoboken ave. 
Kankakee, 111.— Ed. Lafond, 26 S. 5th ave. 
Kansas City, Mo. — D. C. secretary and busi- 
ness agent, S. C. Pefley, 1216 Ridge ave. ; 

Frank Bingham, 1603 Montgall st. ; John R. 

Lee, 1229 Forest st. ; L. U. 61, F. B. Jones, 

2900 Mercer st. 
Kansas Citv, Kan.— L. E. Bass, 1339 S. 27th st., 

Kansas City, Kan.; L. U. 168, M. C. Mc- 
Allister, 715 Ann ave., Kansas City, Kan. 
Kensington, 111. — John H. Leyoung. 
Kenton and Campbell Counties, Ky. — C. C. 

Skirvin, 483 W. Second St., Covington, Ky. 
Kewanee, 111. — Arthur A. Spute, 126 S. Grace 

avenue. 
Keyport, N. J. — Samuel Stryker. 
Kingston, N. Y.— Harry F. Gerhardt, 161 E. 

Chester st. 
Knoxville, Tenn.— W. J. Roach. 
Krebs, Okla.— B. D. Miller. 
Lafayette, Colo. — C. C. Jones, Louisville, Colo. : 

Sara Hicks, Lafayette, Colo. 
Lake County, Ind. — J. I. Day, 4106 Baring ave.. 

Fast Chicago, Ind. 
Lansing, Mich. — Geo. Mattoon, 1117 Ballard st. 
LaSalle, 111.- J. W. Singer, 1155 W. Marquette 

street. 
Lawrence, Mass. — A. B. Grady, 10 Butler, st. 



Lawtou, Okla.— H. F. Rugh, 811 A ave. 

Lethbridge, Alta.-, Can. — Stanley L. Chappell, 
Box 172. 

Lewiston, Me.— J.^A. Reng, 249 Park st. 

Lincoln, Neb. — Fred Bissler, Labor Temple. 

Little Falls, N. Y.— M. B. Murphy, 58" Jackson 
street. - 

Little Rock, Ark.— R. A. Pettifer, 1223 Rock st. . 

Lockport, N. Y. — Albert Nott, 237 Prospect st. 

Louisville, Ky. — B. J. Borders, 300 Commercial 
Bldg., S. E. Cor. 4th and Main sts. 

Los Angeles, Cal.- — C. R. Gore and J. A. Mc- 
Aloon, J. G. McAfee, Address of business 
agents, 538 Maple ave. 

Lowell, Mass.— M. A. Lee, 48 4th st. 

Lynn, Mass. — A. W. Clark, 62 Monroe st. 

Madison, 111.— Adolph Boulanger, 2100 C .st.. 
Granite City, 111. 

Madison, Wis.— H. A. Derleth, 21 W. Main st. 

Mahanoy City, Pa.— R. C. Fowler, 222 W. Pine 
street 

Manchester, N. H.— Charles G, Metiyier, 209 
Spruce St. 

Mayaguez, Porto Rico— -Louis Perocler, Box 
101. 

INIarissa, 111.— Barney Elliott, St. Clair Court. 

McAlester, Okla.— R. A. Bradley, 508 S. 18th st. 

McKinney, Texas — D. P. Wilmeth. 

Memphis, Tenn.— C. M. Dayton, 95 S. Second 
street. . 

Meriden, Conn. — A. A. Lancennette, 332i Cods 
avenue. 

Middlesex, Mass. — John G. Cogill, 3 Glen 
Court, Maiden, Mass. 

Milwaukee. Wis. — Adolph Hinkforth, Emil 
Brodde, Room 305, Brisbane Hall, 528 Chest- 
nut St. 

INIinneapolis, Minn. — Andrew Leaf, 26 Wash- 
ington ave., S. ; Charles Fischer, 26 W^ash- 
ington ave., S. 

Moberly, Mo. — Jess Mathier, 123 Thompson st. 

Moline, Davenport and Rock Island, 111. — (Tri- 
Cities)— Harry Strom, Box 203, E. Moline. 111. 

Monmouth, 111.— John M. Hurst, 212 S. 11th st. 

Monongahela, Pa. — Chas. E. Walters, Box 66, 
W. Brownsville, Pa. 

Montclair, Bloomfield and Orange, N. J. — A. J. 
Bartruff, 98 Baton Place, E. Orange, N. J.; 
E. B. Hill, Pompton ave.. Cedar Grove, N. J. 

Montgomery County, Pa. — Fredrik G. Trunk. 
212 Kettenring ave., Ardmore, Pa. ; Harry 
Coder, 810 Forest st., Conshohocken, Pa.. 

Montreal, Can. — J. A. Laflamme, secretary Dis- 
trict Council, 301 St. Dominique st. ; J. E. 
Vigeant, 301 St. Dominique st. ; P. Miron, 301 
St. Dominique St.; H. Senecal, 301 St. Dom- 
inique St. ; L. Bouthillette, 301 St. Dominique 
.street. 

Mount Vernon, N. Y. — Henry C. Klenk, office, 
51 S. 4th ave. 

Muskegon, Mich. — Joseph Broker, 17 Myrtle st. 

Nashville, Tenn.— J. W. Carlew, 1625 12th ave., 
N. - 

Newark. N. J.— G. G. Adlon, 19 Willow st., 
Bloomfield, N. J.; S. J. StoU, 30 Union ave., 
Irvington, N. J. 

Newton, Mass. — L. H. Johnson, 251 Wash. st. 

New Bedford, Mass. — Wm. Nelson, Room 39, 
Masonic Bldg. 

New Britain, Conn.— J. F. MeGrath, 79 Dwight 
street. 

New Castle, Pa. — J. W. Patterson, Ti-ade As- 
sembly Hall. 

New Haven, Conn. — John L. Richards, Music 
Hall Bldg., 117* Court st. 

New London, Conn. — Geo. Arnold, 557 Bank st. 

New Milford, Conn. — Oscar F. Ross. 

New Philadelphia, O. — Jos. Born, 227 Grimes 

Newburyport, Mass. — F. S. Heath, 14 Dalton 
street. 

New Rochelle, N. Y.— J. H. Cowham, 18 Law- 
ton st. 

New York Citv— For Manhattan: C. H. Bau- 
sher. 142 E. 59th st.. Gen. Agt. ; Wm. McMil- 
lan, D. M. I'^rench, M. J. Kavanaugh and S. 
B. Wilson, address 720 Lexington ave. For 
Brooklvn : AVm. O'Grady, Dan'l Hancock. 



62 



Ernest Bradley, address cor. Boerum place 
and Atlantic ave. For the Bronx: Wallace 
Anderson, Frank Glew, Daniel O'Connell, ad- 
dress 4215 Third ave., Bronx. For Queens: 
John Quinn, 54 N. 7th ave., Whitestone, L. 
I., I. W. Stock, 312 8th ave., Long Island 
City, L. I., Henry Phillips, 399 Boulevard, 
Rockaway Beach, L. I. For Richmond : 
James F. Martin, 684 Van Duzer St., Staple- 
ton, S. I. 

Niagara Falls, Ont., Can.— John Laur, 807 Wil- 
low ave. 

Niagara Falls, N. Y. — John Laur, 807 Willow 
avenue. 

Norfolk County, Mass.— G. N. Brooks, 459 
Washington st., Norwood, Mass. 

Norfolk, Va.— C. F. Jones, 305 Greenwood Bldg. 

Northampton, Mass. — Michael Jarvey, 223 Pros- 
pect St. 

North Bristol, Mass., District— B. S. Bolles, 
Box 135, Sharon, Mass. 

North Shore D. C— Michael O'Brien, 71 Wash- 
ington St., Salem, Mass. 

Northwestern Ohio District — Wm. B. Austin, 
332 N. Union ave.. Alliance, O. 

North Yakima, Wash. — O. F. Leland. 

Norwich, Conn. — Robert McNeeley, Carpenters' 
Hall. 252 Main st. 

Nyack, N. Y.— James Murrin, 42 Summit st. 

Oakland, Cal. — Dave L. Wilson, 1500 Liese ave., 
Fruitvale, Cal. 

Ohio Valley D. C— E. Weekly, 3902 Jacob st., 
Wheeling, W. Va. 

Omaha, Neb. — E. A. Bowerman, 2816 Pinkney 
strGGt 

Oneida,' N. Y.— Albert Hyde, 46 Phelps st. 

Ottawa, Can.— Jas. Usher, Jr., 207 Turner st. 

Ottumwa, la. — Geo. W. Ferguson, 511 Jay st. 

Palm Beach (West) Florida— J. D. Argyle, 502 
Hybiscus ave. 

Paris, Tenn.— V. C. Sykes. 

Parkersburg, W. Va. — W. S. Deen, 415 Avery 
street. 

Pasadena, Cal. — T. J. Johnson, 42 E. Walnut. 

Passiac, N. J. — John Martin, 23 Crescent PI. 

Paterson, N. J. — Otto Temple, 10 Fennor ave., 
Albion Place. 

Pawtucket, R. I. — Theodore Malo, 21 N. Main 
street 

Peekskill, N. Y.— Geo. H. Wood, 950 Phoenix 
avenue. 

Pensacola, Fla. — N. Launsbery, Old Armory 
Bldg., Room 1. 

Peoria, 111.— Willis K. Brown, 100-111 S. Adams 
street. 

Perth Amboy, N. J. — Joseph L. Crowell, 92 
State St. 

Philadelphia, Pa. — Charles Thompson, chair- 
man ; W. T. Allen, secretary-treasurer. As- 
sistants: Ernest Kreis, southern district 
and Camden ; central district, Chas. Thomp- 
son; north central district, Geo. Cams; north 
district, A. Mellenger ; floor layers, Jas. Wet- 
ton; wharf and dock builders. Wm. Rossell, 
1207 Locust St., Camden, N. J. Address of 
all business agents. 142 N. 11th st. 

Pine Bluff, Ark.— F. J. Jones, 412 W. 17th ave. 

Pittsburgh, Pa. — W. K. Heck, sec.-treas. ; J. 
A. Ross, A. M. Swartz (L. U. 164, Wm. J. 
Kelly). Address of secretary and business 
agents : Union Labor Temple, Washington 
St. and Webster ave. 

Pittsfleld, Mass. — John B. Mickle. 

Pontiac, 111.— F. Sipe. 

Poplar Bluff, Mo.— W. C. Howell, 630 Charles 
strGGt 

Portche'ster, N. Y.— J. C. Schofield, 18 Adee st. 

Portsmouth, N. H.— Robert V. Noble, 456 Mar- 
ket St. 

Portland, Ore. — B. W. Sheman, Labor Temple, 
162* Second st. 

Port Washington, L. I., N. Y.— Chas. T. Wig- 
gins. 

Poteau, Okla.— J. J. Vance. 

Prescott, Ark. — E. R. Newth. 

Prince Albert, Sask., CaH.— J. Sleight, P. O. 
Box 544. 

Prince Rupert, Can. — Harry Bertaux. 




Ask this man how he came to make a failure of his life and 
he'll probably say, "I never had a chance." Hundreds of men 
who walk the streets make this complaint — men who started 
out in life with the same high hopes — the same ambition— 
the same natural ability that you have today. They say they 
"never had a chance." But as a matter of fact their failures 
are "self-made"— they overlooked the one thing every man 
must have if he wants success— TRAINING. 

Choose your own future today 

It will be exactly what you make it. You can drift along, 
barely holding a job and drawing mighty small pay, getting 
"let out" in hard times, headed for a "self-made" failure — 
or you can take your first step now towards a big success, a 
"self-made" success, a big job, big pay. 

For over seventeen years the American School of Correspondence 
has been training men for bigger jobs and bigger pay. It has 
trained thousand.; for entrance into the leading colleges— trained 
even more in all branches «f Engineering, Business and Laiv. No 
matter where you live, what your occupation, or education, tlie 
American School of Correspondence will give you — in your spare 
time, in your own homo— exactly the kind of training you need 
to achieve success. 

Your future is in your own hands— you yourself make or break it. 
Take the first steps toward real success by signing and mailing the 
free coupon— right NOW. 



A 



merican School 

of Correspondence. Chicago. USA. 



Yourlppportiinity Coil 



Check ihe course you want and' mall the.coupon now 



[ American School of Correspondence, Giicago, U. S. A. 

Without any obligation on my part please send me your Bulletin and 

I advise nie how I can qualify for the position marked **X." Carp. 1-15 B 

I....Electrienl Eiifriiiper ....Lawyer _ 

....Elec Light & Power Siipt. ... .liiisiness Law B 
I ....Hydroelectric Engineer ....Basiiiess Manager 

....Telephone Engineer ....Anditnr B 

• ...Architect ....Accountant B 

■ •...Architectural Draftsman ....Cerff^dFuhlic Ace'nt m 

....Itnilding Contractor ....Private Secretary | 
....Building Superintendent ....Stenographer 

i ....Strnctural Engineer ....Itoolikeeper R 

"J ....Strnctural Draftsman ....Fire Ins. Inspector ■■ 

Mechanical Engineer ....Fire Ins. Adjuster «| 

....Mechanical Draftsm.in ....Fire Ins. Expert L 

B.... Civil Engineer ... .Sanitary Engineer _ 
Steam Engineer PInniher i 
Shop Foreman Ileclan;ation Eng. " 

I ....Shop Superintendent 'J'extite iioss ■ 
Sheet Metal Draftsman Collog-e Preparatory E 

B We aI..o prepare for civil service examinations in all engineerinj? subjects ■ 

I ' i 

- Name _ 

■ ADDRESS •••• I 



Tfia Carpontor 



Providence, R. I. — Tliomas F. Kearney, 102 
We%'bosset St.; C. J. Mulcahv, 123 Eddv st. 

Pueblo, Colo.— T. F. Payton. 

Railway, N. J. — L. A. Springer. 

Reading, Pa.— W. W. Werner, 24 X. Gtb st. 

Red Bank and Long Brancb, N. J. — W. G. 
Piuson, 40i Park Place, Long Branch, Jv. J. 

Richmond, Va. — J. A. Holland, Labor Temple, 
5th and Marshall. 

Roanoke, Va.— L. G. Stultz, 709 Second ave., 
X. W. 

Rochdale, Texas — W. A. Castlel)ery. 

Rochester, Minn.— W. E. Thorn, 316 S. Broad- 
way. 

Rochester, N. Y. — G. H. Wright. .33 Penn st. ; 
A. Agreen. 100 Reynolds Arcade. 

Rockford, 111.— John E. Peters. 

Roxbnry, Alass. — J. ^L Devine. 184 Dudley st. 

Rockville, Conn. — Wm. J. Hetzler. 

Rutland, Vt.— Chas. E. Hoyt, 81 Crescent st. 

Sacramento, Ca!.— F. B. Stahl. 2211 L st. 

Saginaw, Mich. — E. W. Secord, 416 Cornelia st. 

Salt Lake City, Utah — D. O. Jacobs, Labor 
Temple, 151 E. Second Bast st. 

San Angelo, Texas — R. E. Vinson, 65 N. Ran- 
dolph St. 

San Antonio, Texas — Wayne Bohanan, 702 Den- 
ver Bldg. » ^ 

San Bernardino, Cal.— C. O. Whitlock, 524 
Franklin st. 

San Diego. Cal.— J. H. Markwith, Labor Tem- 
ple, 739 4th St. 

San Francisco — Fred Fewster, C. C. Campbell, 
J. J. Hughes, Francis McNamara ; addresses, 
200 Guerrero st. For Alameda County (Oak- 
land). J. N. Steiner, L. W. Newton. Joseph 
Orthum ; addresses, 761 12th st., Oakland, 
Cal 

San .Jose. Cal.— Bert P. Ward. 72-78 N. 2d st. 

Savannah, Ga.— A. J. Sours, 322 Bolton St., W. 

Savre, Pa.— T. Falcev. Waverly. 

Schenectady, N. Y.— Chas. Gould, Scotia, N. Y. 

Scranton, Pa.— E. E. Knapp, 208 Coal Ex- 
change. 

Seattle, Wash.— W. R. Bennett, 1620 4th st. 

Sesser, 111.— I. Hill. 

Sheridan, Wyo. — James Schrivner. 

Sioux City, la. — Chas. Huney, Labor Temple. 

Sloatsburg, N. Y.— O. J. Bretnall. 

South Framingham, Mass. — Edward L. Hand, 
Highland ave. 

South Shore, Mass.— L. W. Beedle, 208 Allen 
St., E. Braintree, Mass. 

Spadra, Ark. — J. A. Jones. 

Spokane, Wash.— W. C. CampViell, 9 Madison 
street. 

Springfield, 111.— John R. Holmes, Carp. Hall, 
7th and Adams st. 

Springfield, Mass.— Thomas McCarroll, 89 
Armory st. 

Springfield, Mo.— C. J. McKeegan, 2049 Wasoola 
street. 

Springfield and Milburn, N. J. — J. R. Howard, 
Box 37, Springfield, N. J. 

Springfield, Ohio— D. A. Hunter, 123 W. High 
street. 

Stamford, Conn. — Geo. B. Gregory, 45 Oak st. 

St. Cloud, Minn. — Charles Gardner. 

St. Louis, Mo. — L. H. Proske, secretary D. C 
business agents : Henry Lockman, Emil 
Ruble, P. E. DeLille, W. B. Ferrell and Wm. 
Kelleher. Address of all business agents, 
.2228 Olive st. 

St. John, N. B., Can. — James L. Sugrue. 

St. Joseph, Mo.— S. W. Glaze, 2105 Washington 
avenue. 

St. Paul, Minn.— John O. Olson, 714 Maryland 
street. 

St. Petersburg, Fla.— F. A. Fitch. 

Sullivan, Ind.— Jas. C. Ridge, 209 Chase st. 

Summit, X. J. — Harry Williamson, 47 Russell 
Place. 

Superior, Wis.— J. H. Hatch, 1701 28th st. 
Syracuse, N. Y.— J. T. O'Brien, 10 Clinton Blk. 



Tamarjua. Pa.— C. H. Stockley, 133 Cottage ave. 
Tampa, Fla.— C. A. Sutton, Box 599. 
Taylorville, 111. — Geo. King, B®x 252. 
Teague. Texas — J. H. Mayberry. 
Terre Haute, Ind. — C. C. Rarides, 524 Mulberry 

street. 
Texarkana, Texas— G. L. Hunter. 1109 E. 18th 

street. 
To!edo, Ohio — Louis .7. Bremer, 314 Cherry st. 
Toleston. Ind.— L. U. 1117, C. Banta. 
Thompsonville. Conn. — Arthur Rochette. 
Topeka. Kan. — M. E. Moore. 317 Orchard ave. 
Toronto. Out., Can. — M. C. Clark, Labor Tem- 
ple. 167 Church st. 
Trenton. X. J.— Geo. W. Adams, 653 S. Olden ' 

avenue. 
Three Rivers, Que.. Can. — J. I. Gelivas, 18 

Cooke St. 
Tri-City. 111. (Moline. Davenport and Rock 
■ Island)— P. J. Carlsons, 1320 38th st. 
Troy, N. Y.- J. G. Wilson, Box 65. 
Tuxedo. N. Y. — Frank Conklin, Sloatsburg. 

X. Y. 
Twin Falls. Idaho— F. Olsen, 273 Addison 

ave., E. 
Tnion City, Tenn.— G. B. Fields. 
Utiea, N. Y.— G. W. Griffiths. 240 Dudley ave. 
Vancouver. B. C. — Hugh J. McEwen, Room 209 

Labor Temple. 
Waco, Texas— Lewis Sellenberger, 1808 S. 121 h 

street. 
Walla Walla, Wash.— C. R. Nelson. 633 N. 7tb 

street. 
^Vallingford, Conn. — Wm. Stevens, Box 141. 
Walsenburg, Colo. — H. E. JJobart. 
Washington, D. C. — Geo. Myers, 425 G st., N. 

W. 
Waterloo, la. — H. J. Amos, 115 Randolph st. 
Waxahachie, Texa-s- J. W. Fox, 307 Lake Park 

avenue. 
West Chester, Pa. — Oscar Speakman. 
West Palm Beach, Fla.— J. T. Miller, 714 Sapo- 

dilla St. 
Wellsburg, W. Va.— J. H. Phillips, Box 542, 

Fallansbee, W. Va. 
Wheeling, W. Va. — E. J. Weekly, Majority 

Grove st. 
Wheaton, 111.— G. C. Ottens, 115 N. Main st. 
White Plains, N. Y. — Emil W. Burgess, 35 

Grove st. 
Wichita, Kan. — Oscar C. Schaar, 730 Antler st. 

Wilkes-Barre, Pa., Wyoming Valley D. C. — M. 
E. Sanders, Boom 69, Simon Long Bldg. 

Wilmington, N. C— C. W. Stewart, Box 1051. 

Wilmington, Del.— John H. Hickoy, 1225 W. 4th 
street. 

^^'inona, Minn. — N. Gratheu, 227 Market st. 

Winnipeg, Man., Can. — Wm. Hammond, Labor 
Temple, James st. 

Woonsocket, R. I. — E. J. Desmarais, 135 4th 
avenue. 

Worcester, Mass. — D. S. Curtis, 20 Madison st. 

Wyandotte, Mich.— Chas. H. Renner, 80 Plum 
street. 

Youkers, N. Y.— B. B. Hicks, 20 Portland PI. 

Youngstown, Ohio— O. J. Grubb, 2.j9 W. Fed- 
eral street. 



ROOF FRAMING 

Carpenters, get The Berkel Classified Factor 
System a quick method for 50 cents, postpaid. 
Union Instructor. Write 

A. HAAG 

427 EAST 161 ST ST. BRONX. N. Y. 



64 



Carpenters and Joiners 

THIS IS WHAT YOU HAVE 
BEEN LOOKING FOR 

THE IMPROVED 

Liem ocnber 




Patented 



Made complete — no changing. 
No chance to lose parts — ^time 
saved. The cut will convince you 

Manufacturers and Distributers 

F. BRAIS & CO. 

1349 E. 90th St. Cleveland, Ohio 

< PRICE 30e 



Making 

and Reading 

Drawings 

For Home Study 



75 cents for paper 
$1 .00 for cloth binding 

Gnaranteed to contaio more in* 
formation tban any $3.00 book 



Writ* to- 



A. EDWARD RHODES 

Suite 9 Masonic Temple 
WILMINGTON, DEL. 




"OHIO ' Edge Tools are the best -^Sfe^p, 
of their kind. We have been mak- 
ing edge tools for nearly a century 
and have made a careful study ^' 
through all these years of the proper 
treatme? t of tool steel. All tools 
covered by ihe same broad guarantee. 

Write for Catalog U 

OHIO TOOL CO. ^"^•'SV^ 




■ ^ y'^ J should have these three books for refer- 

LJ '\T£\-^'\T m O '#*"f^^i'<^ T^^'f* ence. They will be found most useful 

I 'V \ \^ J. Y \^ ^jLM. aJK^M-M. I^\^X ^^^ ^r® "*^®'' worth the small amount of 

%7 XT money they cost. 

HOW TO FRAME A HOUSE; OR, HOUSE AND ROOF FRAMING. By Owen B. Maginnis. 
Part I, balloon framing. Part II, roof framing. Part III, how to frame the timbers for a brick 
house, etc. The work is illustrated and explained by over 159 large engravings of houses, 
roofs, etc. Cloth, ity^x-VA. $1.50 

ROOF FRAMING MADE EASY. By Owen B. Maginnis. A practical and easily comprehend- 
ed system of laying out and framing roofs, adapted to modern building construction. The 
methods are made clear and intelligible by 76 engravings with extensive explanatory text. 
Cloth $1.00 

HOW TO MEASURE UP WOOD WORK FOR BUILDINGS. By Owen B. Maginnis. This 
book w^as written so as to place in handy and concise form reliable directions to enable builders 
and mechanics to measure up the quantities of ^voodwork for brick and frame houses, accurate- 
ly and without hesitation, figuring either from plans or on the work. Illustrated by 160 engrav- 
ings. One 12mo. volume. Cloth $0.50 

Mail cash in registered letter, postoffice or express order, or check to obtain any one, or all, to 

OWEN B. MAGINNIS 

191 Beach Street, City Island, New York City 




The "SPECIAL" Savr 
Set 



^Is as near perfect as a tool can be. 
^lt has just been improved and comes 
packed in a carton having full direc- 
tions, uses and warrant printed thereon 
and containing a very useful illustrated 
circular on "How to Joint, Set and File 
Saws." ^With it as good results can 
be obtained by an apprentice as by a master carpenter. ^TO USE: turn 
the number on the anvil corresponding to the number of saw points to 
the inch of the saw to the arro-wr-head, run up the gauge screw until the 
saw just passes through without binding, and set the saw in the usual way. 

A SAW SET FOR EVERY SAW 

"SPECIAL" for Hand Saws not over 16 gauge 

No. 3 for single tooth Cross-Cut and Circular saws 14 to 20 gauge 
No. 4 for double tooth Cross-Cut and Circular saws 14 to 20 gauge 
No. 5 for Timber and Board saws 6 to 14 gauge. 

Bench Stops, Punches, Nail Pullers, Box Openers, Liquid Soap Dispensers, etc. 

Send for a free copy of "Saw Points" showing '"How to Joint, Set and File Sa'ws." 

CHAS. MORRILL, 93 Walker Street, New York 



Price List of Supplies Furnished by General Office 



Constitutions, per hundred $4 00 

Members* Due Books, each 15 

Official Note Paper, per hundred 25 

Application Blanks, per hundred 25 

Withdrawal Cards, each__ 50 

Interchangeable Receipting Dater for 

F. S. Ink Pads, etc 1 00 

Rec. Sec. Order Book, each copy 25 



Tre2i8urer*s Receipt Book, each copy_$0 25 

Fin. Sec. Receipt Book, each copy 25 

One lOO-page Ledger ! 00 

One 200-page Ledger, cloth bound 1 50 

One 300-page Ledger, cloth bound 2 00 

One lOO-page Day Book 1 00 

One 200-page Day Book, cloth bound I 50 
One Treasurer's Cash Book . 50 



CARPENTERS! Protect Yourselves! 

BY BUYING 

The Genuine F. P. M. Coping Saw 

Maaufactured by a Union Carpenter 

CUTS METAL AS WELL AS WOOD. 

If not handled by your dealer tend to me direct* PM ••• 
that you are promptly supplied. 

PRICE 75c. Extra Blades 6 for 25o 

(Express Prepaid) 
INVENTED AND MANUFACTURED BY 

F. P. MAXSONrhSCa^o.'iS: 



F.RM. 



fcvv<Pfe»>^CfrBV*W*^^ t V*V^^»V*Vi 




Look for tbe Trade Mark F.P.M. 

Shun Counterfeits 

They are dear at any price 



If it's a FORD it's the Best 




Ford Bits and Augers are profitably handled by dealers from 
Maine to California; in Europe, South America and Australia. 
This wide distribution and successful selling is a significance 
of QUALITY — satisfaction from both dealer's and customer's 
standpoint. Write for circulars. 

FORD AUGER BIT COMPANY, Holyoke, Massachusetts 




The more good tools you use 

the more good work you turn out, and every 
"YANKEE" Tool adds to your efficiency as a 
mechanic. There are now over a hundred 
"YA.NKEES" and more coming. Won't you get 
acquainted w^ith the w^hole bunch ? Our Tool 
Book w^ill do it. Start a postal after it ; w^e'U do 
the rest. 

Your dealer sells the "YANKEE." 

NORTH BROS. MFG. CO., Philadelphia, Pa. 



TAINTOR POSITIVE SAW SETS 




Self-adjusting except 
tumingthe anvil to chanKe 
the (etting. Setting easily 
retomed to. 

Numbers on anvil do NOT rater 
to number of teeth on saw. 
The tooth is in every 
way protected while beinc 
•et, and is left in the best 
possible shape. 

Ask your hardware 
merchant for it, also to 
■how you our Adjustable 
Handle, Double Plunger 
Set. Send for our free 
booklet, "Suggestion* on 
the care of Saws." 

TAINTOR MFG. CO. 

95 Reade St.. NEW YORK 



NEW EDITION JUST OFF THE PRESS 

TheseventheditionofTHE LIGHTNING ESTI MATOR is now re.dy. En- 

larged and brought up to date. Teaches you to estimate house work in an easy, rapid, accurate 
and practical manner. Gives actual cost of each separate part of the labor and materiaL 
Guards against errors and omissions. Based on actual experience, not theory. Qyickest reli- 
able method in use today. Now is the lime to post yourself on this vital part of the business. 

PRICE POSTPAID $1.00 

BRADT PUBLISHING CO. 1265 Michigan Ave. JACKSON, MICHIGAN 






TjFia CarpQntor 




EMBLEM 




attractive/appropriate and acceptable 
WatcK CKarmSj Badges, Lapel 
Buttons, Emblem Pins and Rings 



PINS 

Emblem Pins, in rolled and solid gold, 
hard enamel, handsomely finished. 
Can Ije worn on the coat, vest, shirt 
or tie. Rolled gold, 25 cents each. 
Solid gold, $1.00 each 

BUTTONS 

Screw-hack Buttons, in rolled and in 
solid gold and hard enamel finish, with 
patent screw-bottom backs. For wear 
in the lapel of the coat; easily put on. 
Never come out. Rolled gold, 25 
cents each. Solid gold, $1.00 each. 

CHARMS 

Watch Charmn, in rolled and in solid 
gold, with hard enamel emblem on 
face; reverse side smooth for engrav- 
ing if necessary. Handsomely finished 
in every respect. Rolled gold, $1 25 
each. Solid gold, |7.50 euch. En- 
graving extra. 



RINGS 

Emblem Rings, beautiful design, gold 
filled and in solid gold. Very much 
in demand by our members. Solid 
gold, $5.00 each. 

BADGES 

Business Agents' Badges, of German 
silver and neat design, with U. B. 
emblem, enameled lettering and very 
substantial. $1.50 each. 

Official Badges. The official combi- 
nation parade and funeral multiple 
badge, containing lithographic re- 
production in colors of our Union 
Label as well as our emblem. Prices 
as follows; One badge, $1.50, net; two 
and over, $1.00 each, net; six and 
over, 75 cents each, net; twelve and 
over, 60 cents each, net. 



IN ORDERING THESE GOODS SEND ALL ORDERS 
AND MAKE ALL REMITTANCES PAYABLE TO 

Frank Duffy, General Secretary 

CARPENTERS' BUILDIKTG 

222 East MicKigan St. Indianapolis, Ind. 



<ii^ 



T(\a CarpQntQF 



When You Buy a Saw Buy a Good One 

Ton v7ork Kard for your monej? ana when 370U spend it, you are entided 
to get value received. If you want a sav? ^at will kold its edge longer — 
^at will run easier — 4iat will cut faster — fKat will run true to tke line 
and give you all around better satisfaction — 4iat's your business. Xour dealer 
is obliged to give you wKat you want, and you sKould, therefore, demand 

AtkinsSSaws 

We make a Perfect Saw for 
Ever? Purpose — all of me 
finest material and most sd- 
entii^callj) constructed, as a Mkins No. 51 

good mechanic wants fKem to be. Here are a few, but if you want to see {be 
entire line, 4ien write to 4\e nearest address belo^ and ask for our free Carpen- 
ters' Catalog called "Saw 
Sense," together witK cost 
for all kinds of Saws. Tells 
you all about tnem and gives 
valuable hints for the filing 

and care of saws. 

Atkins No. 63 







JItkins No. 53, Ship Point 





Atkins No. 1, Mitre Saw 



JItkins No. 3, Nest of Saws 




Atkins No. 2, Compass Saw 



We manufacture {he finest Hand, Rip, Panel, Compass, Keyhole, Back, Coping, Butcher, Kitchen 
and all oflier kinds of Saws for all purposes as well as Hack Saw Blades and Frames, Metal Cutting 
Hand Saws, Saw Fitting Tools, Floor and Cabinet Scrapers as well as a complete line of Ratchet 

and Bit Braces. Demand ATKINS SILVER STEEL. Made bj> 

E. C. ATKINS & CO., Inc., The Silver Steel Saw People 

Home Oflice and. Factory, Indianapolis, Ind. Canadian Factory, Han\ilton, Ont. 
Machine Knife Factory, Lancaster, NJ. Tf. 

Branches carrying complete stocks in tVie following cities: Address E. C ATKINS & CO., Atlanta, Chicago, 

Memphis, Minneapolis, New Orleans, New Tfork City, Portland, Ore., San Francisco, 

Seattle, Vancouver, B. C, Sydney, N. S. W. 




nc^^^TCR 



llllllllllllll lllllllllillll llllllllllllllllllllllllllHIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllilllllMITfffl 



A Monthly Journal for Carpenters, Stair Builders, Machine Wood Workers, 
Planing Mill Men, and Kindred Industries 

Entered February 13, 1903, at Indianapolis, Indiana, as second class mail matter, under the Act of Congress of March 3, 1879 



Volume XXXV-No. 2 
Established in 1881 



INDIANAPOlylS, Fl^BRUARY, 1915 



One Dollar Per Year 
Ten Cents a Copy 



For A' That and A' That 

giiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiijii]Miiii::!iiiniiiiiiiiinniiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii:iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiMiiiiiiMiiiiiiiraniiiiMiiiiniiiiiniiiiiiimiiiiiiuiiiiii^ 



Is there, for hone^ poverty, 

That hangs his head, and a' that ! 
The coward slave, we pass him by, 

We dare be poor for a' that ! 
For a' that, and a' that, 

Our toil's obscure, and a' that ! 
The rank is but the guinea's stamp. 

The man's the gowd for a' that. 

You see yon birkie, ca'd a lord, 

Wha ^ruts, and ^ares, and a' that ! 
Though hundreds worship at his word. 

He's but a coof for a' that. 
For a' that, and a' that. 

His riband, ^ar, and a' that. 
The man of independent mind, 

He looks and laughs at a' that 

A prince can make a belted knight, 

A marquis, duke and a' that; 
But an hone^ man aboon his might, 

Guid faith, he mauna fa' that; 
For a' that, and a' that. 

Their dignities, and a' that. 
The pith o' sense, and pride o' worth, 

Are higher ranks than a' that ! 

Then let us pray that come it may — 

As come it w ill for a' that — 
That sense and worth, o'er a' the earth, 

May bear the gree, and a' that. 
For a' that, and a' that. 

It's comin' yet, for a' that, 
That man to man, the warld o'er, 

Shall brothers be for a' that ! 

— Robert Bums 



"m 



i^ 



Tfia Carponter 



I^ABOR'S ORGANISED BI'^FOR'T 

(By E. H. Neal.) 




"There's power for ye," said Mr. Pearl, with 
a glance at the river sweeping by us. "Lord ! 
she's like a belt off the world's engine." — 
Irving Bacheller. 

T is what "he said" 
or what "she said" 
that has been the 
principal subject for 
conversation between 
man and man for 
ages past and will 
continue so for ages 
to come. The fact 
that man's opinion is 
molded by environ- 
ment is taken small 
heed of, and our usual expression, when 
meeting with views that do not coincide 
with ours is, "what a fool that fellow 
is." Yet "that fellow" has based his 
ideas upon a condition that his critic 
probably never came in contact with; 
and not having come in contact with it, 
it does not exist for him. Opinions are 
sometimes twisted and distorted by hate, 
by jealousy, by fear, by animosity and 
by many of the microbes that eat into 
a man's mind, cancer-like, destroying 
reasoning power and making one intol- 
erant of the views of another. Proof 
positive will not convince some men, and 
some men simply waste their time in 
trying to enlighten a man who has made 
up his mind not to be enlightened. Is 
it up to you or me to look on one or the 
other and say "thou fool?" 

We have heard that there is no class- 
consciousness in this land of ours; that 
we are all free and equal. Did this 
statement emanate from an individual 
who has made packing boxes all his life 
and whose low wage would not permit 
him to take a day off to look for some- 
thing better? Could any one convince 
this man who in his youth and prime 
made from $3.00 to $3.50 per day, that 
wages have increased 75 per cent, in the 
past few years when, now that his head 
is gray, he finds but $2.00 per day in his 
pay envelope ? One of our carpenters 



was told by a "student of economics" 
that $5.00 per day was a splendid wage. 

"Why, just think, man, $27.50 per 
week of five and one-half days; $1,430 
per year! Aren't you satisfied with 
that?" 

"I would be," said the carpenter, "if 
I got free rent, free grub, free shoes and 
clothes and a free doctor when any of 
my family was sick during the time I 
was out of a job." 

"Oh," said this student of economics, 
"I thought carpenters always had work." 

If this carpenter was free to do as he 
pleased he would be pleased to work 
fifty-two weeks in the year. We can 
imagine what his thoughts were as to 
the mental equipment of that student of 
economics. 

These inconsistencies obtain both in- 
side and outside the ranks of organized 
labor. We have in mind an instance 
where an able and conscientious repre- 
sentative of organized labor accepted an 
invitation to confer upon labor's needs 
with the then chief executive of this 
country. He had information that would 
have been of great value to the men he 
represented, but those he sought to serve 
looked askance at him and decided he 
was out of their class, as he "hobnobbed 
with the big bugs," and it was time he 
was "called down." He was defeated at 
the next election — the moth and rust of 
class prejudice had eaten the crown from 
the throne of reason. 

Some students of economics say there 
is always room for "compromise" or a 
chance for it in disputes between labor 
and capital. If so, the writer has never 
come in touch with it except in minor 
disputes. There has never been a mate- 
rial gain in either hours or wages that 
the carpenter did not have to fight for 
and yet these students of economics are 
in clover when they can compile statis- 
tics showing the amount lost in wages 
while the men are on strike. There is 
never a word of the meetings of labor 
representatives with employers night 



after night, arguing, wrangling, cajol- 
ing, for weeks and months before open 
warfare is declared. Then and not un- 
til then does the public learn of trouble 
between capital and labor. The public 
is not interested until it feels the pinch. 
Then it asks questions. 

"I engaged this loft for June 1 — why 
is it not ready?" 

"My lease has expired and I want the 
suite of rooms promised me by you, Mr. 
Owner, by you, sir, and here is your 
building unfinished. Why?" 

Mr. Owner consults Mr. Builder and 
Mr. Builder calmly shows Mr. Owner a 
strike clause in his contract, but he does 
not tell Mr. Owner that his (Mr. Build- 
er's) association had instructed him as 
a committeeman in conference with labor 
to "stand pat; we will make labor earn 
all it gets; let 'em sweat; our strike 
clauses protect us." Then Mr. Owner, 
Mr. Tenant and Mr. Prospective Tenant 
set up a hue and cry, their kind join in 
and labor's demands are granted (some- 
times) but at what a cost? 

It seems to me a little foresight, a lit- 
tle reason, a little humanity and a lot of 
horse sense would do away with all this 
strife. Experience does not teach in 
such matters. Just as long as the hog 
instinct survives in human beings, just 
so long will this sort of strife continue. 
The capitalist fights with all his strength 
to retain what wealth he has and to gain 
more. "The more I have," he thinks, "the 
more power I have in the financial and 
industrial world. If that 'more' I seek is 
sweated from the pores of humanity I 
care not as long as my wealth increases; 
and I am not obliged to smell the sweat 
that has increased my wealth — my 
power." 

On the other hand, I, as a workman, 
as one who toils for his daily bread, am 
going to fight for a wage that will sup- 
port me and mine. I know the time is 
coming when I'll be no longer able to 
work and the dread of that time prompts 
me to fight with the primitive savagery 
of the red Indian to maintain what I 
have and to gain more and more so that 
my loved ones will not become objects 



TAq CarpQniiQr 

of charity. With this condition confront- 
ing every workingman, every union man, 
what becomes of the vaporings of the 
student of economics that stepped be- 
tween labor and capital and told off his 
silly twaddle of the splendid wage re- 
ceived by the carpenter in the greater 
city of the western hemisphere? 

There is always someone to tell us 
what to do^ Recently the World pub- 
lished an article written by some poor 
student of economics, telling working 
girls how they could live and save money 
on $6.50 per week. We will not dis"- 
cuss that question here, as the working 
girls themselves have taken good care 
of that amateur "student." There can 
always be found someone to exploit his 
profound knowledge, obtained from pro- 
found books written by just such pro- 
found thinkers as he for the benefit of 
his pocket and all mankind. And 
even when we do come across a book 
written by a workman whose ideas are 
based upon actual experience we find 
that his environment differed so widely 
from that of another workman that his 
panacea for our ills falls far short of 
being a cure-all. Hence we find strife 
and contention within the ranks of or- 
ganized labor, one faction fighting an- 
other, and perhaps a third faction fight- 
ing the other two. 

A similar condition obtains among cap- 
italists, and it is conceded by many of 
us that the conflict of capital with capi- 
tal for controlling power is oftentimes 
more bitter and cruel than any conflict 
within the ranks of organized labor. One 
thing, however, has been emphasized 
many times. Capital always presents 
a united front to organized labor. While 
the term "united labor" is a misnomer, 
capital knows it and we know it. So 
why lie about it when we know that the 
other fellow knows that we know we 
are lying about it? This condition will 
obtain as long as men are for hire. Cap- 
ital can always hire labor or some Judas 
that will betray labor. We strive to 
present that united front that many of 
our misguided members boast we now 
have. We will continue so to strive, 



Jf\a GarpontQr 

and we have advanced, but as yet no 
man can see the goal we strive for. We 
have with us that element that "bores 
from within," men in our own ranks who 
seek to disrupt in order that they may 
apply their remedy for curing the can- 
cer of discontent. 

We have the I. W. W. battering 
away at us from without and inci- 
dentally awakening the public to the 
fact that the ranks of organized labor 
consists of a fairly respectable lot of 
citizens. We have the paid spy of or- 
ganized capital making his reports of 
our doings to his masters, selling our 
records and incidentally his soul to a 
labor-crushing crew of tricky lawyers 
in the employ of one of the most power- 
ful trusts on the continent. And yet 
we have the student of economics who 
steps between capital and labor, holds 
up his right hand and says, "Let us 
have peace," when there is no peace, nor 
can there be as long as. what is is. We 
have within our ranks the man who by 
careful, accurate work, good judgment, 
hard study and resourcefulness has 
worked his way to the position of super- 
intendent, a man who has "made good." 
Suddenly he finds himself supplanted by 
some cigarette-smoking son of the man 
higher up. Wonderful incentive to 
strive for higher things! There has 
been something sown in the mind of that 
man — one of many — that bodes ill. Does 
"pull" supplant faithful service? How 
could you reconcile that man to the con- 
scienceless capital that had thrown away 
his life's work as a thing of no value ? 

What would happen if, coincident with 
a visit of the little student of economics, 
this man should open a book and find a 
chapter headed, "Faithful Service Hath 
Its Just Reward"? Let the curtain ob- 
scure the harrowing sight. 

These are the conditions as they are 
and no one should deny that they are 
better than they were in years gone by. 
Every effort of men to organize, even 
though that effort has spelled failure, 
has had its lessons. Something good 
has come of it. Something better will 
come of each successive effort. Some 



of these efforts have had their baptism 
of blood. The whole wide field of labor 
is strewn with broken bodies and broken 
hearts. Some of our pessimists declare 
that the day is not far distant when this 
land of ours will witness a strife be- 
tween labor and capital that will shock 
the civilized world; that it will be physi- 
cal strife between organized labor and 
the hirelings of organized capital which 
vs'ill deluge this land with blood from 
coast to coast; that the strife in Colo- 
rado, in Virginia and in Michigan is but 
the forerunner of what is to come; that 
the senseless strife in Europe is but the 
beginning of the end. Let those of us 
who believe in God pray that the spirit 
of humanity be instilled in the hearts 
and minds of men before this prophecy 
comes true; that from the body we 
have been told was made after His image 
be purged of all that is selfish, venomous, 
vile, cunning and unscrupulous. Sup- 
plant all this with the love of fair play, 
common honesty, common sense, stead- 
fastness for the right and more brains, 
Lord, more brains. 

These things will never come to pass 
as long as men are men and just so long- 
will the lust for power and the lust for 
money rule the world. A workingman 
is entitled to his dream — he has little 
else — and no man is a man who has not 
dreamed of better things, of a better 
place to live and of wiping out forever 
that awful dread of sickness and old age. 
In organized labor he sees something 
tangible, he sees an opportunity to com- 
bine with his fellow workmen, he sees a 
chance to fight for what belongs to him. 
Hope within him is not dead; he realizes 
that by united effort he and his kind can, 
and will, better themselves. He sees 
organized labor upon its forward march 
toward better things and says, with Mr. 
Pearl : 

"There's power for ye, Lord! she's like 
a belt off the world's engine." 

Apple wood, used almost exclusively 
for saw handles, also furnishes the ma- 
terial for many so-called brierwood pipes 
and particularly for the large wooden 
type used in printing signs and posters. 



Tfia CarpontQr 



FAINT HEARTS AND STRONG ONES 

(By H. B. Moyer.) 




I"~RT is a rather remark- 
^ able coincidence that 
^ one of the most dar- 
ing of men, Sir Wal- 
? ter Raleigh, should 
2 have written on a 
J pane of glass in Queen 
-i Elizabeth's presence 
the following well- 
. known words: "Fain 
Avould I climb, but that 
I fear to fall." Her 
answer was — "If thy heart fail thee, why 
then climb at all?" 

As evidence that in fact he was most 
courageous it is only necessary to re- 
late that on the morning of his execution 
for an alleged political offense, Raleigh 
asked to see the ax, and touched the 
edge with the words, "This gives me no 
fear; it is a sharp and fair medicine to 
cure me of all my troubles. What mat- 
ter how the head lie so the heart be 
right?" 

It is a far cry from Raleigh's time to 
the present day — almost three centuries 
— but the words he scribbled on the win- 
dow pane still live within the hearts of 
many of us; too many of us, in fact. 
The family of humans who have never 
realized the truth of the expression, 
"Nothing venture, nothing win," is a 
large one. 

Fear of failure is the rock upon which 
many ambitious ships have foundered. 
Not that we decline to take chances of 
a certain kind, but that we are too fre- 
quently overcautious in matters concern- 
ing vital points of our welfare. "Fain 
would we climb, but that we fear to 
fall." 

You meet them everywhere in all 
walks of life, the men who are capable 
of .better things could they but become 
imbued with just a trifle more self-confi- 
dence. The skilful carpenter whose 
knowledge of his craft and of men fits 
him for a foremanship; the foreman 
whose skilful method of handling work 
and men fits him for becoming an em- 
ployer. 



Fear of failure is inborn with many 
people, and many a so-called successful 
man reaches the top not because of him- 
self, but despite himself, and in this en- 
vironment plays no small part. There 
seems to be unfortunately a tendency to 
over-emphasize the ignominy of failure. 
By many of our actions we show that 
we do not agree with Tennyson (with 
slight alterations) that 

" 'Tis better to have tried and lost 
Than never to have tried at all." 
It is chiefly on the score of fear of 
failure — this unwillingness to take a 
legitimate chance even for betterment — 
that we must account for the backward- 
ness displayed by many of our non-union 
brethren. "The employers expect too 
much of you when you are a union man," 
says your backward non-unionist; "meb- 
be I wouldn't make good among such a 
classy lot of mechanics." 

The answer is that it is again a ques- 
tion of environment. I know an extreme- 
ly clever billiard player who for the life 
of him cannot play anything like the 
brilliant game he is capable of when op- 
posed to inferior competition. He shines 
best when he is matched against real 
class, and he finds the game far more 
interesting not only because the play is 
better, but because he learns more. Per- 
haps some of our friends in the non- 
union rut would become real wideawake 
workmen were they put up alongside the 
real thing in the line of skilled workman- 
ship. Who knows ? At all events they'd 
learn a few things that are worth know- 
ing. 

While it is by no means, certain that 
someone else would not have eventually 
discovered America, it is obvious that 
Christopher Columbus would not have 
been the lucky fellow had he been im- 
bued with anything but the strongest of 
hearts and a goodly amount of self- 
confidence. We know that his fellow- 
countrymen tried their level best to dis- 
courage him from embarking on the sup- 
posedly perilous unknown seas, and it 
was only after seven years of rebuffs 



TfiQ CarpQntQF 

and discouragements that he found pa- 
trons for his enterprise. However, Co- 
lumbus found America, and to some ex- 
tent at least benefited by the discovery. 
He took a long chance and won, and the 
world-at-large today is benefiting by 
Columbus's discovery. 

And so it was and is with the organ- 
ized labor movement. 

In years gone by our ancestors took a 
big chance when they launched the labor 
movement. The authorities threw men 
into prison for even thinking along orig- 
inal lines in those days, and it was as 
much as a man's life was worth to ac- 
tually do anything out of the general 
run of things. 

Our ancestors took a chance. If fear 
of failure entered into their minds they 
evidently paid little heed to it. The con- 
sequences are that we — and all other 
workingmen who have any backbone and 
enough foresight to distinguish black 
from white — are benefiting by their 
courageous enterprise. 



What would conditions in the world 
of labor be like today if our ancestors 
had lacked backbone ? Would we be pay- 
ing our employers for the privilege of 
working — but what's the use of conjur- 
ing up unpleasant possibilities or impos- 
sibilities ? 

Is it because they are afraid they, 
might actually better themselves that 
our non-union fellows drift along in the 
old, old rut, or are they fearful lest re- 
ceiving fair wages and an eight-hour day 
might prove too much of a shock for 
them? Mayhap they have learned to 
like the feel of the shackles and are sus- 
picious lest real freedom prove irksome. 

Meanwhile let us hope that some day 
there will be a general stiffening of 
backbones, when we all shall sing in uni- 
son with Whittier: 
"On they come — the free battalions! 

East and West and North they come, 
And the heart beat of the millions 

Is the beat of Freedom's drum." 



'HARD TIMES" AND THE BUSINESS MAN 

(By 0. D. Reisinger.) 



I iM— Mi HE great volume of 
HI money in circulation 
everywhere by which 
j^ the daily currents of 
l^^ life and business ac- 
r>\ tivity are kept in mo- 
^^^^ tion comes from the 
^^^ wages paid to the 
men and women who 
labor. I do not be- 
lieve that any of our 
business men could 
point to a single instance of a purchaser 
offering a ten-thousand-dollar mortgage, 
or any other legal paper of like amount 
or character, in payment for a pair of 
shoes, a suit of clothes, or any other 
ordinary commodity, or even for a con- 
siderable number of such commodities. 
Such merchandise is paid for in cash at 
the time of making the purchase usually, 
and even if some of this kind of business 
is done on credit, the regular earnings 
of the purchaser are i-elied on for the 



payment of the bill when the proper 
time comes. Therefore, not only is the 
money in general circulation everywhere 
made up of the wages of labor almost 
wholly, but the credit extended to many 
customers in all kinds of business is also 
based on those wages. 

This fact being established, it follows 
as a matter of course that the higher the 
rates of wages go the greater will be the 
amount of money in circulation and the 
greater will be the volume of business 
transacted. Therefore, I would say to 
the average business man: if you wish 
to help in creating and maintaining a 
healthy and productive business condi- 
tion, fall in with the forces of organized 
labor and assist them in raising and 
keeping up the standards of wages, 
whereby you will aid in keeping a larger 
amount of money in circulation. Your 
business will not suffer on account of 
this, even though you will be obliged to 
bear your share of the increase. On the 



contrary, your business will improve and 
you will soon not only recover the trifling 
amount you may be obliged to contrib- 
ute, but will increase your sales and 
profits many times over. 

On the other hand, if you wish to help 
in bringing on what we call hard times 
you can easily do so by joining forces 
with the Merchants and Manufacturers' 
Association and helping it to reduce the 
standards of wages, thereby taking 
money out of circulation and having 
your business suffer in proportion to the 
amount that is withdrawn. 

There has never been such a thing as 
hard times when the working people had 
plenty of money or, at least, a regular 
and reliable supply. Hard times come 
when the working people have no money. 
And when this is the case, when poverty 
becomes oppressive, when want "makes 
misery everywhere, when starvation 
threatens large numbers of our people, 
who holds the money that previously 
maintained the activities of business and 
provided for the needs pf the masses? 
Not you, Mr. Business Man. For you 
cannot get it unless the persons who 
labor earn it and pay it to you. Oh, no! 
The fault lies not with you. You feel 
the pinch and stringency as well as the 
wage-earners from whom your supplies 
must com.e. The great captains of in- 
dustry are the men who are to blame. 
They have carefully taken charge of the 
money, and in many cases have brought 
on the conditions which have given them 
the opportunity to do so. What do they 
do then? They immediately close down 
all the large mills and factories to make 
their control of the situation more com- 
plete. Why they do this is well known, 
and it is therefore unnecessary for me 
to discuss it at this time, except to an- 
swer their main excuse for their course. 

What I should like to know is this: 
What is it that so blinds associated mer- 
chants and manufacturers that they pur- 
sue the course they do ? They are the 
principal contributors to the condition 
we call hard times. They are the chief 
and most effective enemies of organized 
labor. They are continually fighting to 



TAg CarpQnizQF 



establish low rates of wages and long 
hours of labor. They are ever contend- 
ing for the right to use child labor; to 
drive weak women beyond their strength 
through long hours of toil and by paying 
them less than they pay men for the 
same work; to cut off the cost of keep- 
ing their factories and workshops in a 
healthy and sanitary condition and sup- 
plied with the common conveniences of 
life and proper safeguards for their em- 
ployes; to use every means to restrict 
putting out money and thereby keeping 
it out of circulation, a course that in- 
evftably brings great loss to them as 
well as others in the long run. What is 
their reason for so doing? 

Members of the Merchants and Manu- 
facturers' Association and so forth may 
say that they have no such aim or pur- 
pose. But without regard to their aims 
and purposes, the conditions we complain 
of are certainly the results of their meth- 
ods, their course of procedure, their con- 
tentions, their influence and their efforts. 
As I have already said, there can be no 
such conditions when the working people 
have money regularly in reasonable 
amounts. Therefore, all who assist in 
reducing the rates of wages help to cre- 
ate panics. 

I wonder if many of our business men 
have ever considered this question along 
these lines. I believe there are some 
large business firms that do receive some 
benefit through the influence of associa- 
tions of merchants and manufacturers. 
But these are few in number. For the 
average business man, the every-day 
trader, these associations do nothing and 
he has no business interest which they 
promote or aid. About the only interest 
he has in such an organization is the 
privilege of paying the assessments it 
levies on him, and if he happens to have 
a few customers who are members, I 
venture to say that for every dollar he 
receives from them he gets a thousand 
fi'om the members of organized labor. 

Returning now to the reason why the 
great captains of industry close down 
the industrial plants of our country, I 
am convinced it is because these men, 



9 



TAq Carpontar 



who are great investors and money lend- 
ers, have come to the conclusion that 
their money is not earning interest 
enough, and they adopt this system, re- 
gardless of consequences, to raise the 
rates of interest. This is not my opin- 
ion merely, it is the common belief. 

But the men who close their plants do 
not explain their conduct in this way. 
When asked the reason for their action 
they say: "There is no demand for our 
products." The answer is a subterfuge. 
There never was a time in the history 
of the United States when there was no 
demand for the products of our indus- 
tries, although there may have been 
times when the persons most in need of 
those products could not get the money 
to buy them. At the very moment when 
the men at the head of the industries 
make this statement there are hundreds 
of thousands who do not own a second 
pair of shoes, and many, doubtless, who 
do not own even one pair fit to be worn. 
And I do not include in this declaration 
the worthless class that will not work, 
but only those who do work, starting as 
soon as they are strong enough, and 
many of them before they are, and who 
continue working under the conditions 
advocated by the Merchants and Manu- 
facturers' Association, hosts of them for 
wages that compel them to live miser- 
ably. We have also, at the very same 
time, hundreds of thousands of families 
in the United States who are a little 
more fortunate, but whose members 
never go to church. When asked why 
they do not attend church they answer: 
"Oh, we haven't any clothes fit to wear 
to church." These people are also work- 
ing under the conditions advocated by 
the Merchants and Manufacturers' As- 
sociation, and for wages so low that they 
cannot spare enough out of them to buy 
decent clothing. And were it not for 
the never-ceasing agitation of the mat- 
ter of wages by organized labor these 
people would be much poorer still. 

Now, give these people the money they 
should have, as justice, not as charity. 
Give them work and pay them decent 
wages for their labor and you will have 



established a far better condition for 
everybody and created a demand for 
every known commodity that goes to 
make a comfortable home. Then these 
people will no longer be content to live 
in garrets or in a room or two in some 
squalid tenement house. They will want 
and be able to get homes of their own, 
furnished with the simple comforts en- 
joyed by the average, well-paid working- 
man. 

When you get this accomplished you 
will have made the United States in fact 
what it is claimed to be — the greatest 
nation on the face of the earth. But 
you will never be able to accomplish this 
by supporting the conditions or princi- 
ples advocated by the great captains of 
industry. The nearer you come to suc- 
cess with their idea the poorer the peo- 
ple will become, and you will need more 
poor houses and have more deplorable 
conditions in our land as a final result. 
If you will assist, organized labor to se- 
cure the conditions advocated by that 
great body of working people you will 
find that the nearer you come to success 
with the principles , they champion the 
more independent the people will become 
and the total abolition of the poor house 
will be the final result. 



Invictus 

Out of the night that covers me, 
Black as the pit from pole to pole, 

I thank whatever Gods may be 
For my unconquerable soul. 

In the fell clutch of circumstance 
I have not winced or cried aloud ; 

Under the bludgeonings of chance 
My head is bloody but unbowed. 

Beyond this place of wrath and tears 
Looms but the terror of the shade. 

And yet the menace of the years 
Finds and shall find me unafraid. 

It matters not how straight the gate, 
How charged with punishment the 
scroll ; 
I am the Master of my Fate, 
I am the Captain of my Soul. 

— W. B. Henley. 



Help boost the label of our brother- 
hood. See that your local joins the pen- 
cil club. 



10 



T(\a CarpontQr 




UP AGBN" MIDDI,E-CI,ASS MORALITY! 

(By Richard Hazelton.) 
NE of the most amus- feel low. Well, they charge me just the 



ingly life-like charac- 
ters that George Ber- 
nard Shaw has cre- 
ated appears in his 
latest play, "Pyg- 
malion," in the per- 
son of Alfred Doo- 
little, an elderly but 
vigorous English 
street cleaner. One 
could fancy meeting 
a man like Doolittle in that new haven 
for the transient unemployed in New 
York which its founder, Jeff Davis, has 
characteristically christened "the Hotel 
de Gink." 

We can even imagine Davis him- 
self finding capital entertainment in 
Doolittle's original philosophy, in his 
frankness and freedom from conventional 
restraints and in his quaint views on 
modern social relations. 

Chatting with the expert in voice cul- 
ture who has picked his daughter Eliza 
off the streets with the intention of pass- 
ing, her off as a duchess after a brief 
course of training — and in which he suc- 
ceeds, for it is Shaw's idea in this play 
to show that class distinctions are mere- 
ly, artificial — Doolittle unbosoms himself 
to Professor Higgins in the follovdng 
manner: 

"What am I, Governor? I ask you, 
what am I? I'm one of the undeserving 
poor — that's what I am. Think of what 
that means to a man. It means that 
he's up agen middle-class morality all 
the time. If there's anything going and 
I put in for a bit of it, it's always the 
same story: 'You're undeserving; so 
you can't have it.* But my needs is as 
great as the most deserving widow that 
ever got money out of six different chari- 
ties in one week for the death of the 
same husband. I don't need less than a 
deserving man: I need more. I don't 
eat less hearty than him; and I drink a 
lot more. I want a bit of amusement, 
'cause I'm a thinking man. I want cheer- 
/iilness, and a song and a band when T 



same for everything as they charge the 
deserving. What is middle-class moral- 
ity? Just an excuse for never giving 
me anything. Therefore, I ask you not 
to play that game on me. I'm playing 
straight with you. I ain't pretending to 
be deserving. I'm undeserving; and I 
mean to go on being undeserving. I like 
it; and that's the truth." 

When Professor Higgins says he de- 
tects in Doolittle a certain natural gift 
of oratory and suggests that if he were 
to take him in hand for three months he 
could choose between a seat in the Brit- 
ish cabinet ajjd a popular pulpit in Wales, 
Doolittle isn't having any. He is con- 
tented as he is, and his reply is charac- 
tei'istic of the man. He says: 

"Not me, Governor, thank you kindly. 
I've heard all the preachers and all the 
prime ministers — for I'm a thinking man 
and game for politics or religion or so- 
cial reform same as all the other amuse- 
ments — and I tell you it's a dog's life 
any way you look at it. Undeserving 
poverty is my line. Taking one station 
in society with another, it's — it's — well, 
it's the only one that has any ginger in 
it, to my taste!" 

But destiny, however, plays a cruel 
trick on Doolittle which delivers him 
over, an unvdlling victim, to the tender 
mercies of "middle-class morality." It 
seems that a humorous remark made by 
the professor to the effect that "Alfred 
Doolittle, the dustman, was the most 
original moralist at present in England" 
was taken seriously by an American mil- 
lionaire who was devoting his millions 
to found moral reform societies all over 
the world. It resulted in Doolittle being 
given three thousand pounds a year on 
condition that he lecture for this moral 
reform league a few times yearly. Speak- 
ing from experience after he has tried 
the new life for a while, Doolittle sor- 
roMrfully complains: 

"It ain't the lecturing I mind. I'll lec- 
ture them blue in the face, I will, and 
not turn a hair. It's making a gentle- 



11 



Tfia CarpQntQr 



man of me that I object to*. Who asked 
him to make a gentleman of me? I was 
happy. I was free. I touched pretty 
nigh everybody for money when I wanted 
it, same as I touched you, Henry Hig- 
gins. Now I am worried; tied neck and 
heels; and everybody touches me for 
money. It's a fine thing for you, says 
rny solicitor. Is it? says I. You mean 
it's a good thing for you, I says. When 
I was a poor man and had a solicitor 
once when they found a pram in the dust- 
cart, he got me off, and got shut of me 
and got me shut of him as quick as he 
could. Same with the doctors: used to 
shove me out of the hospital before I 
could hardly stand on my legs, and noth- 
ing to pay. Now they finds out that I'm 
not a healthy man and can't live unless 
they looks after me twice a day. In the 
house I'm not let do a hand's turn for 
myself; somebody else must do it and 
touch me for it. A few years ago I 
hadn't a relative in the world except two 
or three that wouldn't speak to me. Now 
I've fifty, and not a decent week's wages 
among the lot of them. I have to live 
for others and not for myself; that's 
middle-class morality." 

When Doolittle is reminded that he is 
not forced to accept the bequest, but can 
repudiate it, he replies with this shrewd 
gem of wisdom: 

"That's the tragedy of it, ma'am. It's 
easy to say chuck it; but I haven't the 
nerve. Which of us has? We're all in- 



timidated. Intimidated, ma'am; that's 
what we are. What is there for me if I 
chuck it but the workhouse in my old 
age ? I have to dye my hair already to 
keep my job as a dustman. If I was one 
of the deserving poor, and had put by a 
bit, I could chuck it; but then why should 
I, acause the deserving poor might as 
well be millionaires for all the happiness 
they ever has. They don't know what 
happiness is. But I, as one of the un- 
deserving poor, have nothing between me 
and the pauper's uniform, but this here 
blasted three thousand a year that shoves 
me into the middle class. 
They've got you every way you turn; it's 
a choice between the Skilly of the work- 
house and the Char Bydis of the middle 
class; and I haven't the nerve for the 
workhouse. Intimidated, that's what I 
am. Broke. Bought up. Happier men 
than me will call for my dust, and touch 
me for their tip ; and I'll look on helpless, 
and envy them." 

There is a sort of rugged and out- 
spoken wisdom about Doolittle that is 
refreshing. He is of a type of charac- 
ter, numbers of whom are scattered about 
the world, living their own lives, just as 
arbitrarily, and expressing their convic- 
tions, just as freely; the despair of effi- 
ciency experts, "problems" in the eyes 
of sociological students, but, at least, a 
source of joy to those who regard life 
as too important a matter to be taken 
too seriously. 



THE CASE AGAINST TRADE UNIONS ANSWERED 



' HE first report of the 
Industrial Relations 
Commission is mere- 
ly termed a "record 
of progress" and does 
not pretend to be 
more than a sum- 
mary outline of the 
trend of the investi- 
gation taken by the 
commission. It con- 
tains, however, an 
unusual amount of information set forth 
in the form of an abstract of the views 




of representatives of both capital and la- 
bor. One of the most interesting por- 
tions of the report is presented herewith 
containing the basic criticisms of trade 
unions made by employers and also the 
replies furnished to their contentions by 
trade unionists: 

"Criticism 1. Lack of responsibility 
on the part of unions; not only is there 
no penalty for the breaking of agree- 
ments, but the employer has no redress 
even for material damage done by the 
union, except through legal action 
against individual members. 



12 



TfiQ CarpQntor 



"The reply of the union representa- 
tives is: That experience has shown the 
best guarantees of the observance of con- 
tracts to be moTal responsibility and re- 
gard for the reputation of the union. 
That the instances of contracts broken 
by unions are few in number, and incon- 
siderable in comparison with the number 
of contracts broken in the business world, 
where money damages are commonly im- 
posed. That putting up a forfeitable 
bond would lower the entire plane upon 
which the observance of contracts now 
stands, and would simply mean a finan- 
cial calculation on the part of the union 
to see whether a breach of contract 
would leave a balance in favor of its 
members after the bond was forfeited. 
That the assumption of financial respon- 
sibility by the unions would simply be 
taken advantage of by the employers to 
harass the unions. 

"Criticism 2. The 'closed shop' policy 
of the unions not only means a monop- 
oly of labor as far as the employer is 
concerned, but also prevents competent 
mechanics, who are unable or unwilling 
to accept the terms imposed by the union, 
from obtaining employment at their 
trade. 

"The reply from labor is that there is 
no 'closed shop,' but that the mainte- 
nance of the 'union shop' imposes no bur- 
den on the employer, who is free to em- 
ploy any workman he pleases provided 
the workman will become a member 
of the union and bear his share of the 
responsibility in return for the benefits 
which the union offers to all who work 
where union conditions have been estab- 
lished. That the conditions imposed 
upon applicants for membership are 
merely those which every competent me- 
chanic can meet and that they are rea- 
sonable from every standpoint and nec- 
essary for the protection of the trade. 

"Criticism 3. The unions stand for re- 
stricting the output to the level of me- 
diocrity and insist nevertheless on the 
payment of the standard wage for an 
output which is below the standard. 

"The reply is that the unions have 
never attempted to establish a restric- 



tion on output save as a protection for 
the health of their workers, and to pre- 
vent the overspeeding of all by the use 
of pacemakers. That the union is apply- 
ing merely the rule of ordinary business 
where the amount of a given commodity 
sold is regulated entirely by the price 
that is paid. 

"Criticism 4. The unions .establish a 
uniform rate for all members which re- 
sults in rewarding the incompetent with 
higher wages than they earn and de- 
stroys the ambition of the skilled worker. 

"The labor representatives reply that 
the standardization of the rate to a dead 
level is the work of the employer and 
not of the unions. That the union mere- 
ly establishes a minimum rate and leaves 
the employers free to pay the individual 
workmen as much more as they please. 
Some of the employers have admitted 
that this is true in theory, but insist that 
as soon as a skilled individual is paid 
higher than the minimum rate, the other 
members immediately demand the same 
rate of pay. 

"Criticism 5. The unions establish un- 
reasonable and arbitrary restrictions on 
apprentices, which not only prevent a 
sufficient supply of skilled workmen, but 
also prohibit the American boy from 
learning the trade in which he is inter- 
ested. 

"The trade unions reply that where re- 
strictions of apprentices exist they are 
not arbitrary, but are, on the contrary, 
fixed after careful consideration, with 
the idea of preventing an oversupply of 
labor in the trades and the consequent 
'cut-throat' competition for employment. 
That the employers usually do not make 
use of the full number of apprentices to 
which they are entitled under the union 
rules, and furthermore that the employ- 
ers do not sincerely wish to train appren- 
tices, but on the contrary, wish merely to 
make use of a cheap labor supply. 

"Criticism 6. The power of the unions 
is based, not on reason or on advantages 
offered employers, but on a policy of 
coercion. 

"This statement is denied by the union 
representatives, who assert that the 



13 



Tfia CarpontQr 

charge falls flat as soon as the history 
and organic structure of trade unions 
are intelligently studied. 

"Criticism 7. The unions use violent 
methods and do not hesitate to violate 
the law or to destroy property or life, if 
necessarj^ to gain their ends. 

"The unions reply that violence is 
never sanctioned by any legitimate labor 
organization and is never resorted to by 
individuals except under severe provoca- 
tion, and in self-defense. They recognize 
their duties to defend their lives, homes, 
and families, but even under attack ex- 
ercise much greater self-control than the 
civilized nations of the world. On the 
other hand, they insist that most of the 
violence which occurs in connection "with 
industrial disputes is deliberately pro- 
voked by the agents of the employers in 
order to discredit the unions or to secure 
employment or reward for themselves. 

"The testimony of a number of wit- 
nesses shows, however,' a widespread 
opinion that violence is the natural ac- 
companiment of disputes where large 
numbers of men are brought together. 
Witnesses have stated that th;^re is' a 
lack of frankness on the part of both 
employers and employes regarding vio- 
lence, and that both sides use violent 
methods whenever it serves theii ^nds. 

"Criticism 8. The business agent and 
other officials of the unions have . oo 
much power and abuse it by becoming 
blackmailers and grafters. 

"The reply of the union representa- 
t.ives is that the officials in trade unions 
possess only the power no essary to 
transact the business of the u ion, and 
in fact have very much less powir than 
the officials of coi-porations. That this 
power is seldom abased, and that when 
it is clear that the charge against a 
union official is -true' and 'not simply a 
trumped-up cha;rge to "v^'eakeTi the union, 
there is always rapid and decisive action 
by the union to punish such' an official. 
That any abuse of power by officials for 
blackmail or graft is necessarily detri- 
mental tc the interests of the union and 
consequently, can never be regarded wi<h 
favor by trade unionists themselves. 



"Criticism 9. The action and policies 
of trade unions are frequently not the 
result either of reason or of a purely 
economic interest, but on the contrary, 
are determined largely by union politics. 

"This charge is generally met by an 
admission on the part of the union offi- 
cials that unions are subject to the same 
defects as other democratic institutions, 
but it is pointed out that the unions have 
always adopted at the earliest possible 
moment all the measures which have 
proved of value in the political field to 
insure actual democracy. They point 
out that the initiative, referendum and 
recall were adopted by the unions before 
they found general support in the field 
of political government in this country. 

"Criticism 10. The unions create an- 
tagonism between the employer and his 
individual employes, and undermine the 
discipline of the shop. 

"This is denied by the unions. It is- 
insisted that the employer regards any 
instructions of the individual employe 
with regard to his rights as an attempt 
to create antagonism and to destroy dis- 
cipline. That the employer who makes 
this point is not interested in the orderly 
and harmonious conduct of his shop, but 
in having the individual employes subju- 
gated so they will be entirely subservient 
to his wishes. 

"Criticism li; The unions, as soon a? 
they iacquire strength of numbers and a 
compact organization, make unreason- 
able demands upon employers and im- 
peril the very life of the industry. 

"The union representatives insist that, 
while their organizations are subject to 
the frailties of human nature, a careful! 
examination of the facts will show that 
unreasonable demands seldom arise from 
strong organizations, but on the contrary 
are made by weak unions which have lit- 
tle to lose by reason of erratic action. 

"Criticism 12. Some unions are al- 
leged to be disloyal to the state, in that 
they prohibit their members from join- 
ing the militia and discriminate against 
men who have sei-ved in the regular 
army. 

"The unions in reply demand the pro- 



14 



TfiQ CarpantQr 



duction of specific cases where such ac- 
tion has been taken, but admit that a 
strong suspicion and aversion to the mi- 
litia has grown up in the minds of many 
individual unionists, not toward the mili- 
tia as a state institution, but as a tool 
which is used by the employers for their 
own advantage and for the destruction of 
the union. 

"Criticism 13. The unions are not sin- 
cere in their demands for collective bar- 
gaining, but as soon as they have ob- 
tained power in any trade or locality, 
proceed to make their demands in the 
form of ultimatums to the employers. 

"The union representatives state that 
while in many cases terms are defined 
by the union because of the lack of ade- 
quate organizations of employers with 
whom to take up such terms of employ- 
ment, nevertheless the unions are at all 
times ready to discuss their demands, 
either with individual employers or any 
association directly interested. That 
wherever the employers accept such con- 
ditions it is due to their own apathy in 
failing to form a proper organization 
with which the unions can deal. 

"Criticism 14. The union rules are de- 
signed for selfish purposes, and make for 
waste and social inefficiency. As in- 
stances witnesses have cited the rules in 
the printing industry which limit the 
amount and character of work which 
feeders for pressmen are allowed to per- 
form, and which specify that all plate 
must be reset by members of the union, 
even when it is furnished in usable form. 

"The unions reply that each of these 
rules, if carefully considered, will be 
found to be reasonable and to be neces- 
sary for the protection of the rights of 
the employes. That the rules which are 
most frequently cited as being of an un- 
reasonable character are those which 
v/ere originally suggested by the employ- 
ers for their own interest. 

"Criticism 15. The acceptance of union 
conditions yields the control of many ele- 
ments of a business to union officials 
who are not connected with the industry 
and who have no direct interest in its 
progress and life. 



"The union representatives state that, 
on the contrary, the control of these ele- 
ments of a business in which the union 
interests itself is in the hands of the em- 
ployer and of the organization as a whole 
which has the most direct interest in the 
welfare and prosperity of the industry. 

"Criticism 16. The unions, while as- 
serting their right to control certain ele- 
ments of the employers' business, are un- 
able to prevent jurisdictional disputes 
among themselves, and as a result cause 
enormous loss to the industry and to the 
public. 

"The reply of the labor representa- 
tives is that jurisdictional disputes arise 
inevitably from the rapidly-changing 
character of American industry; that 
they are more genuinely deplored by the 
unions than by any one else and that 
every effort is being made either to pre- 
vent their occui'rence or to settle them 
as soon as possible. 

"Criticism 17. The unions use the 
'sympathetic strike,' ruthlessly, illegally, 
and to the certain injury of innocent par- 
ties who have no interest in the dispute. 

"The unions reply that the sympa- 
thetic strike is used only after mature 
consideration for the protection of their 
fellow employes. That the sympathetic 
strike is entirely legal and the so-called 
innocent parties are subject to injury not 
by the will of the union, but because of 
the peculiar economic position which they 
happen to occupy. 

"Criticism 18. The unions, by using 
the so-called 'secondary boycott,' are 
guilty of an illegal act of conspiracy to 
injure innocent parties who are neither 
responsible for nor have any interest in 
the dispute at issue. 

"The unions reply that it is certainly 
legal for an individual or indeed a cor- 
poration to withhold its patronage for 
any reason whatsoever and that it must 
therefore be equally legal for an asso- 
ciation of workers acting as an entity to 
do the same thing." 



IS 



TAq CarpontQr 



WHAT IS BUII^DING ART? 




[F it be true that a 
man's home is his 
castle, then it should 
be built with that idea 
in view, be it a palace 
or an humble cot. It 
is not always, how- 
ever, that the stately 
mansion inspires feel- 
ings of admiration 
and effuses a frag- 
rance that betokens 
peace and contentment, and the man who 
builds should ever keep before him the 
idea that there is wisdom in making the 
most of the means at hand to bring 
about a realization at once artistic and 
effective. 

The same can be applied to the place 
of business, at least, in a measure, and 
the question of artistic treatment there 
should be accorded the same considera- 
tion. What is it that makes a city 
or a town attractive? Aside from 
the streets, which of themselves very 
rarely make possible any charm, the 
buildings that front thereon must bring 
about this desirable end. Even then 
it is not demanded that there be 
mansions flanking the broad way. A 
mansion can lack in beauty of design and 
in curves and angles, and in materials as 
well, to make possible anything that per- 
tains to this effect. 

We build for art, or at least we should 
do so; and we build for durability, or 
should do so; and we build for strength, 
or at least it would seem so, and this 
combination demands the earnest consid- 
eration of those who are supposed to 
achieve such a result. It is useless to 
erect a structure without due considera- 
tion being given these vital factors. They 
are intertv/ined to such a degree that 
there is small possibility of realizing our 
plans of permanent art without each be- 
ing given equal share in the planning of 
our buildings. 

What do we mean by art in this sense ? 
There is a wide variance as to the cor- 



(By Warfield Webb.) 

rect definition when applied to a large 
number of structures. There must be a 
distinctiveness, not alone embodying this 
feature, however, which will command 
the admiration of those who are enabled 
to say that there is merit in the design 
and in its execution. Design alone can- 
not make art. There must be the addi- 
tion of materials and a certain distinct- 
ive treatment of these if we are to real- 
ize the ideal. Symmetry, contour, en- 
vironment, all lend their aid in a realiza- 
tion of the end in view. Many of our 
buildings are lacking in these essentials 
and so cannot rightfully claim admission 
to this class. 

Again, there is the word durability. 
Many of our structures are durable sim- 
ply because they are not put to the su- 
preme test that will determine the ex- 
tent of this assertion. Fortunately such 
disastrous tests do not often happen. If 
they did the records* would show a much 
larger percentage of losses by fire and 
flood and quake. The reasons for this 
are plain to the thinking man: builders 
leave too much to chance and trust too 
much to good fortune for a providential 
escape from impending ruin. 

Why build structures possessing true 
art unless we build them to insure per- 
manency? What we build today we do 
not desire destroyed tomorrow, and still 
there is a certain element of gambling 
in the whole transaction that leaves the 
possibilities for loss far beyond the wild- 
est dream of damage should the occasion 
aiise to make possible the test. 

Real strength, artistic and otherwise, 
lies in two elements in every structure 
of every description. These lie in its 
beauty and its material. The first is of 
value as an aesthetic possibility to every 
section; the second in the continued real- 
ization of this factor. These can be made 
more than fancied dreams, and they 
should be treated in this manner. Why 
is it possible to build without these con- 
siderations being first brought up for an 
inspection and a careful analysis? Why 

16 



TfiQ CarpQiitor 



are we merely content to go ahead, eager 
to surpass? The efforts of others who 
are leading us in the race for an advan- 
tage in time? 

We in America are not content to give 
the matter due thought. There is in our 
every movement a nervousness that saps 
the best of our ideas for either art, dura- 
bility or strength. There is too great 
a tendency toward eagerness and a lack 
of the saner judgment that is demanded 
of the man who hopes to see a realiza- 
tion of his dreams for lasting work. We 
build vast structures and we give them 
only the thought and attention that we 
would to any other lesser labor that de- 
mands our time and a portion of our 
thought. 

Is not the labor worthy of the best 
that is'in us? But how is that possible 
when there is in every movement a hur- 
rying and scurrying to outdo the other 
man ? We have the materials, the brains, 
the mechanics. We have the fundamen- 
tals that make possible monuments that 
should stand as our noblest records in 
this field of labor. We must give more 
to the questions of saneness in the con- 



struction of our buildings. We have 
been too hurried to consider that out of 
this vast labor there will, or, at least, 
there should, arise the admiration of 
other worlds and of other genera- 
tions. 

Do our structures — we take them as a 
class — give us the return that the cost 
and labor and endeavor put into them 
have demanded of us? Will they stand 
the test demanded of the monuments that 
comprise the best that the world has 
produced ? There is but one way to real- 
ize the ideals that we should strive to 
attain. The best that is in us is not suffi- 
cient. To make our labor superior to 
the things that have been, we must strive 
to realize in every possible feature the 
essentials that will bring this about. Un- 
known possibilities here lie dormant. 
Slowly we are approaching toward ave- 
nues where the way to great possibili- 
ties are clear before us. They are not 
sought, however, in a maddening hurry, 
but are only reached after slow and care- 
ful effort and with a regard for the 
errors that have been stumbling blocks 
in the past generations. 



IvABOR'S FORWARD MARCH 




HE gradual evolution 
that is taking place 
in the world of labor 
through the pressure 
of those healthy in- 
fluences which have 
their source in the 
abounding vitality of 
trade unionism was 
ably outlined in the 
speech made by the 
Hon. William B. Wil- 
son, Secretary of the Department of La- 
bor, to the delegates to the Philadelphia 
convention of the A. F. of L. In his ad- 
dress he replied to the criticisms of some 
employers and newspapers who charged 
that he as a cabinet officer was unduly 
partial to the trade union movement by 
stating that after forty-three years' ex- 
perience as a trade unionist he never un- 
derstood that the trade union movement 



stood for anything else than justice to 
the wage workers. It had never desired 
to impose injustice upon anybody else; 
and if the securing of justice to those 
vfho earn their bread in the sweat of 
their face constituted partisanship, they 
might then count him as a partisan of 
labor. Continuing, he said: 

"The new Department of Labor, when 
instituted, was directed to utilize its en- 
ergy for the promotion of the welfare of 
wage workers and their opportunities for 
profitable employment. In carrying out 
the purposes of the department one of 
the first steps that we took was to com- 
municate with the other departments of 
the government, asking them to make 
arrangements by which the Department 
of Labor would be notified of every con- 
tract let by them, in order that we might 
have available for the use of the public, 
trade unionists and non-unionists in- 



17 



TfiQ CarpontQr 

eluded, the information concerning the 
contracts that were let, and whether or 
not the eight-hour workday was applied. 

"We have concluded those arrange- 
ments, and we are now receiving from 
the various departments of the govern- 
ment statements relative to the contracts 
that are being let, and the conditions and 
terms under which they are let, and the 
sub-contractors working under them. In 
carrying through the eight-hour law, 
while it was pending in Congress, both 
in its consideration before the committee 
and its consideration upon the floor, we 
met with some obstacles, some difficulties 
that had to be overcome befoi'e.an eight- 
hour bill could be enacted. 

"One of the first difficulties we met in 
dealing with the eight-hour workday 
from a general standpoint, as applying 
to all contracts for supplies for the gov- 
ernment, was the question as to whether 
it was intended by the eight-hour law to 
require the eight-hour workday to follow 
back all of the supplies purchased by the 
government to the original point of pro- 
ducing the raw material. For instance, 
in purchasing supplies of foodstuffs for 
the army and navy, the question was 
asked whether it was the intention of the 
bill to apply the eight-hour workday to 
the men on the farm, many of them own- 
ing their own places, who raised the food- 
stuffs that were to be purchased. It was 
thoroughly understood by those who were 
handling the bill on the floor of the 
House and in committees, that any bill 
which carried the eight-hour workday 
back to the farm and the farmer could 
not be enacted into law. And in that 
situation the proviso was inserted ex- 
cluding from the operations of the eight- 
hour law those things which could be 
usually bought in the open market. 

"In interpreting that clause of the 
amended bill the position by those in 
charge of it was that the question of 
whether or not an article could be usual- 
ly purchased in the open market was not 
a legal question; it was not a question of 
law; it was a question of fact, and the 
department letting the contract was the 
department authorized to pass upon the 



question of facts and not the Depart- 
ment of Justice. The Department of 
Justice passes upon questions of law; the 
other departments pass upon questions 
of fact. And I may say to you here that 
in the debate upon that question it was 
clearly stated that dressed stone was an 
article that, in the judgment of those in 
charge of the bill, could not be usually 
bought in the open market, and conse- 
quently came within the operations of 
the eight-hour law. 

A statemeivt has been made with refer- 
ence to the Lincoln Memorial. Unfor- 
tunately for us and unfortunately for the 
labor movement, the decision upon the 
Lincoln Memorial question was a decision 
involving a point of law and not a point 
of fact. And that decision grew out of 
this situation — that the bill authorizing 
the appropriation of two million dollars 
for the building of the Lincoln Memorial 
and the actual appropriation of fifty 
thousand dollars of that amount to begin 
the work, was made seventeen months 
before the new eight-hour bill went into 
effect, and consequently comes under the 
provisions of the old eight-hour bill. That 
is the situation so far as it applies to the 
Lincoln Memorial, and it is an unfortu- 
nate situation for us. 

"In further carrying out the work of 
the department we have inaugurated a 
system of mediation in trade disputes. 
Section 8 of the organic law of the de- 
partment provides that the secretary of 
the department may act as a mediator 
or he may appoint conciliators in trade 
disputes. During the year and a half, 
or a little more, that the department has 
been in existence, we have handled scores 
of trade disputes, and out of those scores 
there have been but three or four in 
which we have failed of success; there 
has been the Pere Marquette shopmen's 
strike, the Calumet miners' strike and the 
Colorado miners' strike. In those three 
we have not succeeded in bringing about 
a satisfactory adjustment of the diffi- 
culty. In all of the others, some of them 
involving many more than were involved 
in either of these three strikes, we have 
succeeded in bringing about an adjust- 



18 



ment that was satisfactory to all parties 
concerned, thereby promoting industrial 
peace, and at the same time promoting- 
the welfare of the wage workers. 

"We have taken the ground, and we 
think justly, that employers and em- 
ployes have a mutual interest in secur- 
ing the largest possible production with 
a given amount of labor; the larger the 
amount that is produced, the larger the 
amount that is available for distribution; 
that their interests only diverge when it 
comes to a determination of the share 
that should go to each and the methods 
under which the material should be pro- 
duced. As their interests only diverge at 
those points, it is the proper thing for 
employers and employes alike to sit down 
around the council table and work out 
the problems they have to deal with on 
as nearly a correct mathematical basis as 
possible. 

"Working from that theory of the mu- 
tual interest that each has in production, 
we have proceeded to the consideration 
of these problems. And again, Mr. Pres- 
ident, we have been criticised as being 
partisans, upon the theory that the De- 
partment of Labor in acting as a media- 
tor performs judicial functions. Now, 
the Department of Labor, in acting as a 
mediator, does not perform any judicial 
functions; what it performs are diplo- 
matic functions, and there is no more 
reason that the Department of Labor 
should be debarred from handling trade 
disputes upon a diplomatic basis, because 
it is intei»ested in the welfare of the 
workers, than that the Department of 
State should be debarred from handling 
international disputes because of the fact 
that it is a part of the federal govern- 
ment and interested in the welfare of the 
United States. 

"What we need, in handling trade dis- 
putes, and what we have attempted to 
select in handling trade disputes, is men 
who have had experience and who are 
level-headed and understand the techni- 
calities of the subject-matter they are to 
deal with. You cannot take a man who 
has had no experience, you cannot take 
a man who knows nothing about a trade, 



TjFiq CarpQntQr 

no matter how big he is, and inject him 
into the negotiations for the settlement 
of a trade dispute and expect to get bene- 
ficial results from his injection into it. 
You must take men who have had prac- 
tical experience. 

"And so, in carrying out the work of 
the department, we have invariably se- 
lected one man who had a technical 
knowledge of the affairs, as seen from 
the standpoint of the worker; and we 
selected one who had a technical experi- 
ence and a knowledge of the standpoint 
of the employers, and we have sent those 
two men into the trade dispute condi- 
tions with instructions to endeavor to 
bring about a settlement of the difficulty 
upon a basis that would be just to all 
parties concerned; because, after all, 
while we desire industrial peace, while 
we want industrial peace, and we want it 
permanently, we realize that there can 
be no permanent industrial peace that is 
not based upon industrial justice. 

"And so we have gone on with this line 
of work, and, as I have said, in nearly 
every instance we have been successful. 
And those instances where we have been 
unsuccessful have been principally due 
to that class of employers, extremists, a 
class becoming smaller and smaller as 
years go by, who look upon their em- 
ployes as simply a part of the machin- 
ery of their establishments, to be treated 
in exactly the same way as they would 
treat other machines, with this differ- 
ence: that the inanimate machine in their 
shop is so constructed and so standard- 
ized that they can calculate with almost 
mathematical accuracy what the working- 
strain and what the breaking strain of 
the machine is; and they know that if 
they crowd the machine up to the break- 
ing strain, and it does break, it will cost 
them something to replace the machine. 
Not so with the human being that is ern- 
ployed by them, and that they look upon 
as a machine. He is not standardized, he 
is not uniform in his physical and men- 
tal equipment; there has been no method 
determined by which you can calculate 
the breaking strain or the working strain 
of a human being. Even the worker 



19 



Tfia CarpQntar 



himself does not know what his own 
breaking strain is, and if you crowd that 
human machine up to the breaking 
strain, and it does break, then it costs 
the employer nothing to replace it. 

"We have held throughout that the 
human being is an entirely different thing 
from the machine, and should be treated 
entirely different from the manner in 
which you treat the machine. The hu- 
man being who is employed in the plant 
is a living, moving, sentient being like 
themselves, with all the hopes and all the 
aspirations that God has implanted in 
the human breast, and is entitled to the 
same consideration as you would give to 
any other human being who is not en- 
gaged as a wage worker. 

"During the year we have made at 
least one great step forward in the pas- 
sage of the Clayton anti-trust bill, which 
is also an anti-injunction bill. To my 
mind it is the greatest step that has been 
taken by labor and for labor within the 
past two generations. 

"We have all along recognized that the 
employers own the land, that they own 
the plants, that they own the machines; 
but we have positively denied, continu- 
ously denied, that they own the men, and 
for the first time in the history of this 
or any other country we have that idea 
embodied in legislation — that labor is no 
longer a commodity or article of com- 
merce, and cannot be any longer consid- 
ered as such. 



"So we are making progress, step by 
step, slowly, it is true, because large bod- 
ies move slowly. It has been a gradual 
evolution. The change from the feudal 
system to the present system, and the 
removal of those ideas, the removal of 
those lines of thought that grew out of 
the feudal system itself, has been a slow 
process that has only been brought about 
as a result of the militant organizations 
of labor. 

"It is said that the Department of La- 
bor has to deal with others than organ- 
ized labor; that it represents other work- 
ers than organized workers, and that is 
true. The Department of Labor repre- 
sents and looks after the interests of all 
the wage workers of our country whether 
organized or unorganized. The same 
may be said of every trade union in our 
country. There isn't a trade union in ex- 
istence in any trade or industry that has 
made progress that has not, in making 
that progress, also benefited every man 
working in the industry who is not a 
trade unionist. So far as the Depart- 
ment of Labor is concerned, it will utilize 
every force that it finds available to its 
hands for the purpose of promoting the 
welfare of those who toil. It will use 
most those agencies which are most ef- 
fective; and, in my experience, those 
agencies which have been most effective 
in improving the conditions of the wage 
workers have been the trade unions of 
this country." 



THi^ORY AND PRACTICE 

(By Owen B. Maginnis.) 



VOLUTION is a pro- 
gressive fact and 
works wondrous 
changes. Witness, for 
example, the educa- 
tion of the trades. 
But yesterday theory 
and the scientific 
methods and their 
necessity were the 
watchwords of acqui- 
sition. Today com- 
mon, ordinary manual training and the 
becoming skilled in the use of tools or 




the gaining of a smattering knowledge of 
a trade are deemed more essential than 
the former. Strange, is it not, that the 
so-called higher education should be 
obliged to give way or stoop to manual 
training in ord,pr to profitably exercise 
the mind? 

Artisans deal with very tangible 
things, cold sordid materials and tools, 
which return no sympathy except that 
which the ardor, enthusiasm and skilled 
labor of the mechanic puts into his work 
other than the return of the emoluments 
(which should, if one might dare say it 



2« 



in these prosaic days, never enter the 
mind of the true and sincere worker; at 
least when engaged in the exercise of his 
calling, the continuous practice and suc- 
cess of which should be his daily and 
chief concern). Surely -there are no 
other walks of life in which many are 
called but few are chosen, than in the 
trades where but few indeed attain to 
eminence. 

So it is that we find today the intro- 
duction and promotion of vocational and 
other schools to teach boys how to com- 
mence at the bottom and by a series of 
gradations, once inculcated by the , ap- 
prenticeship system, rise step by step 
to high skill and its intelligent prac- 
tice. 

The success of the newer methods is 
problematical, as they are comparatively 
in their infancy and in a sense experi- 
mental, yet good in their way sometimes, 
provided the individual pupil develops a 
taste for a trade and continues and per- 
severes in its manual exercise. 

It is to be regretted, however, that 
most of the youths of this epoch culti- 
vate the easy methods, hoping that life 
will give them soft jobs with little labor 
or bodily suffering, not knowing, nor 
perhaps being taught to remember, that 
success is only obtained by labor, close 
application and self-abnegation. 

It is alluring to read in the advertise- 
ments: "Rise to better things!" "Don't 
be a drudge or workingman all your life," 
"Be a foreman, superintendent or mas- 
ter," "Cultivate efficiency," etc., etc., and 
great is the glamor of this to the ambi- 
tious tyro who mentally sees himself in 
early manhood directing many men, do- 
ing great work and a prominent figure 
in the mechanical and engineering world. 

Sad is the disillusion which usually fol- 
lows, and a good lesson generally in 
actual life. Chuckful of theory and 
lacking in practice, this individual finds 
himself groping for the direct applica- 
tion of his theoretical knowledge and ul- 
timately realizes that he must perforce 
acquire practice as he goes along; ever 
in dread of accident, error,^ mistake or 



TfiQ CarpontQr 

miscalculation, he is devoid of that self- 
confidence which always accompanies the 
experience engendered .by patient prac- 
tice. 

To speak plainly, teaching the scien- 
tific or theoretical part of a trade or 
profession solely is simply "putting the 
cart before the horse." 

Yet we must, if we do not start right, 
start all over again; retreat, as it were, 
in order to advance once more, perhaps 
to victory, perhaps to defeat; and this 
applies to trade book and paper knowl- 
edge which is so widely being cultivated 
and disseminated all over the world, 
tending to the production of semi-edu- 
cated, discontented mechanics who, lack- 
ing high manual skill, lack steady em- 
ployment. 

The saying that "there is plenty of 
room at the top" is nowadays a fallacy. 
The fact truly is, that there are too 
many there, from an educative view- 
point, all looking for large wages, some- 
thing not yet generally obtainable. 

Let us not be captious in this criticism 
which is made by reason of the fact that 
there are so many schools of theory and 
so few schools of practice, except in the 
actual work at the trade; and this in 
modern building construction is of a 
specialized character; indeed, we might 
truly state that the workman of this 
age is a detail specialist in almost every 
occupation. 

That the conveying of knowledge, 
either by mail, writing or printing in 
any form is a fine thing no intelligent 
man will deny and it is not sufficiently 
appreciated, yet it can never take the 
place of nor inculcate manual training 
or technical skill, so that the establish- 
ing, endowment, promotion of some 
classes, schools or universities of and 
for trades is, in the dearth of appren- 
ticeships, an imperative and urgent 
necessity. That our locals are awaken- 
ing to this is a pleasant feature of the 
up-to-date progress of this brotherhood, 
and it should be the aim and object of 
every member to encourage its further- 
ance. 



21 



Tfia CarpQntor 



WAR VS. IvABOR 



(By Gabriel Edmonston.j 




HILE the bells are 
ringing in the new 
year I am thinking of 
the awful calamity 
that has overtaken 
the nations over the 
sea and wonder what 
new miseries they 
will have to face be- 
fore the present year 
has passed. Will Italy, 
Greece, Holland, Nor- 
way and Sweden be drawn into the 
war vortex and central Europe be laid 
waste by marching armies, trampling out 
even the vegetation that might succor the 
survivors? Will the many thousands of 
innocent sufferers who now overcrowd 
their temporary shelters be multiplied 
indefinitely? Clothing that now only 
partially warms the poor refugees will 
soon probably be reduced to rags, and 
even our best efforts to succor them will 
have to take chances in seas sown with 
deadly mines. Food for the innocent suf- 
ferers, if allowed to land, will have to 
run the gauntlet of a hungry soldiery, 
whose commissary may be disorganized 
by battle. 

Few appreciate the possible outcome of 
such a gigantic struggle if it should last 
as long as some have predicted. When 
human miseries have reached the limit, 
even non-combatants become desperate 
and court death as a happy release. A 
mob crying for bread or for blood is 
formidable in proportion to its numbers, 
but when it assumes such tremendous 
proportions as to successfully defy lav-.- 
and order it becomes irresistible and the 
right of property loses its meaning. 
"Grape and cannister" might subdue a 
certain number, but it has its limits. 
Greedy for death and oblivion in prefer- 
ence to the horrors of human slaughter 
and the slower process of cold and starva- 
tion even the righteous might be forgiven 
by the All-wise Judge for their untime- 
Iv end. 



It was within the power of six men to 
avoid this awful calamity. With hunger 
riots howling through the cities and 
towns of Europe, the power-mad ruling 
classes will realize their crime even if 
they escape immediate punishment. The 
accumulated wealth of the world, created 
by labor, belongs to civilization as 
opposed to anarchy. The mutualism of 
that fund is confined to no language, re- 
ligion or mode of living. It is, or should 
be, considered a trust fund to secure the 
health, happiness and comfort of those 
whose toil and self-sacrifice created it, 
and to their heirs forever. The rulers 
are merely the fiduciary agents holding 
power by consent of the people. If they 
use that fund in the march of progress, 
all honor and glory be theirs, living or 
dead, but if it be wasted in a backward 
step to barbarism, inevitable punishment 
awaits their memory. The greatest sol- 
diers of the world have never measured 
up to the intellectual standard of Doctor 
Edward Jenner, John Wolfgang Goethe, 
Baron de Montesquieu or our own 
Thomas A. Edison. 

Workmen of the world, unite! It is 
only by this means we can ever hope to 
lay aside our national prejudices and put 
the soldier out of business by establish- 
ing an international police to secure the 
peaceful enjoyment of our pursuits. 

A word or two more to my fellow- 
workmen: How will an indefinite con- 
tinuance of the European war affect 
American labor? That depends on the 
stupidity of the ruling classes, and how 
much of the world's wealth will have 
gone up in the smoke of battle. If their 
purchasing power be destroyed, what in- 
ducements will there be for us to trade 
with an impecunious people? Our fac- 
tories now busy with furnishing war ma- 
terials will have to reduce their output 
and curtail their force. Foreign immi- 
gration will tremendously increase our 
own army of unemployed and we will 
have to make room for them or lose what 



22 



TfiQ CarpontQr 



we have already gained. The decline of 
imports will probably necessitate some 
changes in our system of taxation for 
the support of our government. An in- 
crease of direct taxation to offset the de- 
cline in indirect taxation seems to be 
inevitable and will be harder to bear. 
One item alone will be sufficient to illus- 
trate. If each box of matches bear a 
one cent revenue stamp we will have to 
pay that additional cost and so on 



through many other items that may, by 
law, become taxable. 

This is a billion-dollar country, and 
it is worth all it costs, and more to those 
who must labor and rest in peace. Our 
rulers are our servants, and when they 
think otherwise we can put them out of 
their job. To my way of thinking the 
brightest prospect for the future toilers 
lies in agriculture. Back to the farm 
should be the slogan of the unemployed. 



WAG:^ :EARN:eRS and I^EGAI, R:eSTRICTIONS 



Referring to the federal industrial re- 
lations commission, appointed by Presi- 
dent Wilson, to investigate the causes of 
the prevailing bitter feeling between em- 
ployers and employes and to recommend 
measures for its abatement. Professor 
Henry R. Seager of Columbia University 
recently said: 

"A certain amount of antagonism be- 
tween employers and employes is, of 
course, no new thing. Their interests, 
when it comes to the division of the 
fruits of their common thought and toil, 
are necessarily opposed. So long as the 
share of the employes depends on their 
ability to make favorable bargains with 
their employers — that is, so long as the 
wage system itself endures — some an- 
tagonism must continue. 

"There is, however, a new element in 
the situation, and this, in my judgment, 
is a widespread sense of the injustice of 
the conditions under which the wage con- 
tract must now be made. By this I do 
not mean that any very large proportion 
of wage earners has come to accept the 
doctrine that the whole product of indus- 
try is due to labor and ought of right to 
go to the workers. The revolt, as I in- 
terpret it, is not against the wage sys- 
tem itself, but, rather, against the legal 
restrictions which in practice hamper 
wage earners at every turn in their ef- 
forts to improve their condition without 
putting any corresponding restraint on 
their employers. 

"A few illustrations will make my 
meaning clearer. The injunction process 



has been found a highly efficient means 
of breaking a strike. It can be used by 
employers against their employes be- 
cause they can nearly always persuade 
a court that damage suits against these 
employes after they have committed un- 
lawful acts which are destructive of 
property, wall prove ineffective. It can 
rarely, if ever, be turned against employ- 
ers, because it can usually be urged that 
they will be able to respond in damages 
and that, therefore, there is no need for 
this extraordinary means of compelling 
them to respect the property rights of 
others. A legal remedy which may be 
used by one side in an industrial dispute 
and not by the other naturally seems to 
the other unfair. 

"Again, wage earners know that to 
succeed in strikes for higher wages or 
shorter hours they must control a suffi- 
cient proportion of the available work- 
ers in the trade to bring it home to the 
employer that they are necessary part- 
ners in his business. From their point 
of view, therefore, efforts to strengthen 
their unions through strikes to prevent 
the employment of non-unionists are as 
necessary and proper as efforts to se- 
cure higher wages or shorter hours di- 
rectly. When the courts tell them that 
they may strike for better conditions, but 
if they strike to strengthen the union 
they are guilty of conspiracy, they feel 
that the law is illogical, arbitrary and 
designed, while seeming to concede to 
them the right to united action, really to 



23 



T/\Q CarpQntar 



prevent their united efforts from being 
effective. 

"Finally, the application of the federal 
anti-trust act to labor combinations 
strengthens wage earners in their belief 
that for whatever purpose a law may be 
framed the courts will be certain to turn 
it against them rather than against their 
employers. Under that statute the 
United Hatters are liable to pay dam- 
ages to the amount of $240,000 for acts 
which their consciences fully approve, 
while the Standard Oil Company, the 
trust most frequently referred to when 
the act was under consideration in Con- 
gress, has escaped with an order to dis- 
solve, obedience to which has served only, 
so the wage earner argues, to enhance 
greatly the value of its constituent prop- 
erties. 

"It is these anomalies in our law as 
it applies to wage earners which are, in 
my opinion, chiefly responsible for the 
bitterness which American workingmen 
feel toward their employers. Nothing is 
so fatal to a law-abiding disposition as 
a conviction that the law itself is unjust 
or that its administration is unfair. 

"Another distinction the law draws, 
which seems to them unfair, is that be- 
tween strikes and boycotts. One way in 
which the obdurate employer may be 
made to respect the right of his men to 
organize is by inducing his customers to 
withdraw their patronage unless he 
treats his employes in a manner that 
seems to these customers fair. Trade 
unionists see no reason why, feeling as 
they do in regard to the right of wage 
earners to organize, they should not re- 
fuse to patronize an employer who de- 
nies them this right. To make such re- 
fusal effective they think that they 
should be allowed to publish the names 
of 'unfair' or 'we don't patronize' em- 
ployers in their union journals. The 
view that this constitutes a conspiracy 
seems to them to involve a denial of 
their liberty to patronize whom they 
choose. When this view of the boycott 
crystallizes in an injunction, for the al- 
leged violation of which such a widely 
revered labor leader as John Mitchell is 



threatened with fine and imprisonment, 
it becomes, to their minds, an intoler- 
able instrument of tyranny." 



Putting It Straight to Welborn 

I wish that men like Mr. J. F. Welborn,* 
president of the Colorado Fuel and Iron 
Company, could be made to see how 
ridiculous and untrue is their statement 
that they are upholding "the right of 
every man to work where, for whom and 
upon such terms as he sees fit." 

See here, Mr. Welborn; if what you 
say is true and could be put into prac- 
tical effect, this is what might happen: 
John Doe might walk into your office 
some morning and say: "If you please, 
Mr. Welborn" — Oh, no; I forgot. He 
need not even say "if you please." He 
can walk into your office and say: "I 
will come here to work for you tomorrow 
morning. My terms will be five hours a 
day at a dollar an hour. Please be ready 
for me." 

Now, Mr. Welborn, I appeal to you as 
a logical and practical man. Is not that 
exactly what your words, taken in their 
ordinary sense, would mean? 

But perhaps you will say "That is ab- 
surd, impossible." It certainly is, and 
that is why I insist that you do not mean 
what you say when you declare for a 
man's "right to work where and for 
whom and upon such terms as he sees 
fit." 

And now, since you do not mean what 
you say and what you want to have peo- 
ple think you mean, will you please tell 
us what you really do mean? 

Awaiting your answer, I will hazard a 
guess: You mean that you want every 
man free to take any job you offer him, 
on such terms as you see fit, without any 
dictation from a labor union. Honestly, 
now, isn't that what you mean when you 
talk about a man's right to work, etc. ? 

And between you and me, Mr. Wel- 
born, I think you have the right of it 
just so long as the men composing the 
labor unions vote to let you and a few 
others own the earth. — Celia Baldwin 
Whitehead in The Public. 



24 



Editorial 




The Carpenter 

Official Journal of 

The United Brotherhood 

of 

Carpenters and Joiners of America 

Published on the 15th of each month at the 

CARPENTERS' BUILDING 

Indianapolis, Ind. 

UNITED BROTHERHOOD OF 

CARPENTERS AND JOINERS OF AMERICA, 

PUBLISHERS 

FRANK DUFFY, Editor 

Subscription Price, 
One Dollar a Year in Advance, postpaid 

Address all Letters and Money to 

FRANK DUFFY, 

Carpenters' Building Indianapolis, Ind. 



13 



INDIANAPOI/IS, F:eB., 1915 

Calling a Spade, a Spade 

The torrent of testimony which he has 
been obliged to listen to from men of 
widely varying views on industrial ques- 
tions does not seem to leave Chairman 
Frank P. Walsh, of the Industrial Re- 
lations Commission, any the less sure in 
the conviction which he has long held 
that autocratic control of industry must 
give way to more just and liberal indus- 
trial standards. 

At a mass-meeting recently in New 
York he spoke very strongly on the sub- 
ject. "We cannot," he said, "go on with 
autocracy in business. The fact that the 
majority of the employing power in 
America is lodged in Manhattan Island 
is a menace to the perpetuity of our in- 
stitutions, for it is but a step from the 



aiitocratic control of industry to auto- 
cratic control in government. 

"But even without changes in our laws 
we can do much toward solving the prob- 
lem of unemployment and kindred prob- 
lems. 

"We can, for instance, take back for 
the people the vast fortunes that have 
been embezzled from the people. I mean 
the fortunes taken from coal lands ille- 
gally filed upon in the West. A thief 
never gets a true title." 

Mr, Walsh in the last year has per- 
haps had a better opportunity than any 
other public man to realize the evil in- 
fluence exerted through the growing 
power of the very few in the industrial 
world at the expense of the many. He 
has also obtained first hand knowledge 
of the manner in which many of our 
modern colossal fortunes have been piled 
up and at what cost to the public. The 
history of" the exploitation of the 
western coal lands and public do- 
mains is very much bound up with the 
growth and rise of our modern industrial 
autocracy. Both are similar developments 
or phases of that greed and uncurbed de- 
sire for wealth and power at the expense 
of all moral considerations which have 
characterized many of the nation's 
wealthiest citizens. 

^ ♦♦♦ ij« 

Industrial Rule by Gunmen 

The cold-blooded murder of striking 
workmen by armed guards supplied by 
private "detective agencies" at Roose- 
velt, N. J., on January 19, adds another 
chapter to the rapidly swelling list of 
crimes perpetrated by hired mercenaries 
brought by employers into industrial 
communities for the purpose of "settling 
labor disturbances." These have been oc- 
curring with alarming frequency of late, 
but this latest instance for_ deliberate 
criminal callousness seems ^to be about 
the limit. 



25 



TfiQ CarpQntQr 



The occurrence resulted from a strike 
of the nine hundred employes of the 
Liebeg & Co. and the Williams & Clark 
Fertilizer plants along the New Jersey 
Central Railroad, between Elizabeth and 
Perth Amboy, which began January 2, 
both factories employing a guard of 
deputy sheriffs hired from a Newark de- 
tective agency. No viblence marked the 
activities of the strikers, who behaved 
throughout with great restraint, confin- 
ing their activities merely to watching 
for strikebreakers. On January 19 a 
number of them were watching the ar- 
rival of the New York train at a station 
a short distance from the Williams & 
Clark plant for the purpose of peaceably 
intervievdng any would-be strike-break- 
ers who might be on it and putting the 
local situation before them from the 
strikers' point of view. A vivid account 
of what transpired on the occasion is 
given by John Bowling, a member of the 
Roosevelt, N. J., police force, who was 
on duty at the station. Speaking to a 
New York World reporter, he said: 

"I saw the strikers gather at the sta- 
tion and I am positive that not a man 
carried a revolver or any other sort of 
weapon unless it was a pocket knife. The 
men seemed most peaceful and I knew 
they were not bent on making trouble. 
Several of them told me that they simply 
were going to do picket duty, as they ex- 
pected strikebreakers to come from New 
York and were going to try to persuade 
them to return to their homes or join 
the strikers, 

"The men assembled on public prop- 
erty and were peaceful. I had no author- 
ity to interfere vdth them. When the 
train drew in there certainly were no 
ties on the rails, nor did anyone wave a 
red sweater in front of the locomotive. 

"I saw several men board the train and 
they did it without the least disorder. 
Then I saw these men get oflf the rear 
platform of the last train and make a re- 
port to the other strikers. There still 
wasn't the slightest sign of disorder. 

"About this time the big gates of the 
Williams & Clark mill were thrown open, 
and out rushed the deputies. The shoot- 



ing began at once. If those deputies say 
they fired in the air and that the strikers 
fired at them first, they lie. The strikers 
did not fire. They had nothing with 
which to fire. They simply were butch- 
ered. It's impossible to describe how 
those unarmed, defenseless men were 
shot down. Some ran and escaped in- 
jury. Those who were unable to get to 
high ground made for the swamps, and 
it was those men who were shot, beaten, 
and then shot again. 

"I got into the thick of the trouble, 
but one man in that frantic mob and 
desperate crowd of gunmen was nothing. 
The deputies shot until their leader gave 
the signal. At that time men were all 
about, wounded and screaming for help. 
The deputies made not the slightest 
effort to aid the men they had shot. They 
simply marched back into the plant and 
locked themselves in." 

As a result of this unjustifiable and 
wanton crime two of the striking work- 
men were killed, and a large proportion 
of the twenty or thirty others hit by 
bullets badly injured. Thus was the pro- 
gressive State of New Jersey given a 
sample of the conditions which have dis- 
graced Colorado, Michigan and West 
Virginia, and its citizens given a first- 
hand exhibition of defenseless strikers — 
known to be unarmed — being shot down 
in cold blood by deputies hired from so- 
called "detective agencies." 

Feeling in favor of the strikers has run 
high and since the arrest of the twenty- 
two deputies, who have been held to the 
Middlesex Grand Jury on charges of 
manslaughter, the wholesome sentiment 
has been expressed that New Jersey 
must not allow itself to be classed with 
Colorado in its treatment of the hireling 
mercenaries of capitalists who rely upon 
detective agencies to stamp out indus- 
trial unrest. But the punishment, if any, 
to be meted out to the New Jersey "depu- 
ties" is a matter of small consequence 
compared with the question as to whether 
the American people are going to tolerate 
very much longer the private employ- 
ment of hired gunmen to interfere in 
labor troubles and overawe, terrorize and 
26 



Tfia CarpQntQr 



even slay defenseless workingmen. The 
toleration of such a state of things is 
merely to put a premium upon anarchy. 
As a result of it we are fostering a 
vicious, degenerate and criminal class, 
incapable of normal, steady employment, 
which has come to depend upon private 
detective agencies for a livelihood as 
gunmen and "deputies" in time of indus- 
trial unrest. 

The A. F. of L. at its recent Philadel- 
phia convention took a stand looking 
toward State and Federal legislation 
which will eliminate this evil. Any step 
in this direction cannot fail to have bene- 
ficial results. In the meantime we trust 
organized labor in New Jersey will take 
advantage of the feeling engendered by 
the recent tragedy and endeavor to have 
a law enacted by the Legislature which 
will put an end to the activities of so- 
called detective agencies and their pri- 
vate armies of gunmen in times of labor 
troubles in so far as that State is con- 
cerned. 

•** A. *♦* 

>* V ♦ 

Cincinnati Architects and Metal Trim 

The attitude of the Cincinnati archi- 
tects on the metal trim question was 
very clearly and definitely set forth re- 
cently at a meeting of the Cincinnati 
chapter of the American Institute of 
Architects held on January 19, when they 
refused to meet the wishes of the master 
sheet metal contractors of that city, who 
claimed that the architects could settle 
the local trouble in relation to metal trim 
by specifying that the work should be 
done by sheet metal workers. They re- 
fused the request on the ground that 
sheet metal workers were incompetent to 
do the work. 

Their action is all the more note- 
worthy as the question of metal trim has 
been a particularly acute one in Cincinnati 
and was one of the causes which brought 
about the big strike there last year. 
Practically all the architects present, we 
learn from the Cincinnati Enquirer, ex- 
pressed themselves as decidedly unfavor- 
able to the claims of the sheet metal 
workers. One speaker related that he 



had brought supposedly expert metal 
workers from Chicago for the purpose of 
hanging metal clad doors only to find that 
they were not competent to do the work. 
It was also pointed out that they are not 
accustomed to handling tools suitable 
only for a carpenter, thus bearing out in 
every respect the stand taken by the U. 
B. on this question. 

A A A 

V V Vr 

So Many Men, So Many Minds 

The recent sessions of the Industrial 
Relations Commission for the purpose of 
investigating the Rockefeller, Carnegie 
and Sage Foundations and other philan- 
thropic undertakings brought out the 
views of a number of prominent people 
on the subject of the industrial unrest 
which now affects this country. 

Roger Babson, the statistician and 
financial writer, placed the blame on 
Wall Street, including the great banking 
houses of Morgan and Kuhn-Loeb. Sam- 
uel Untermeyer, who was counsel for the 
Pujo investigation committee, agreed 
with him. 

Miss Ida M. Tarbell, who has been in- 
vestigating and writing about industrial 
conditions for many years, and an ac- 
knowledged authority on Standard Oil 
history, refused to give the labor 
organizations the whole credit for the 
betterment that had come to the work- 
ingmen and gave her endorsement to 
scientific management. Miss Tarbell, 
however, mildly praised the labor unions 
and said she believed them a great po- 
tential factor for improving industrial 
conditions. 

Jacob H. Schiff testified that he be- 
lieves that the only effective agency for 
dealing with the problem of the unem- 
ployed is a Federal agency, and that only 
by a national commission can the unem- 
ployed be brought to the place where 
there is work. 

August Belmont gave it as his opinion 
that the desirability of a union depends 
on what kind of a union it is. When 
strikes occur, he believes mediation by 
a common friend often is better than ar- 
bitration. 



27 



T/tq CarpQntor 



During the course of the testimony of 
Henry Ford he said that the experiment 
known as the "Ford plan" was based on 
plain justice to his employes. Since the 
plan had been in progress there had been 
a striking increase in efficiency and the 
moral results had also been very remark- 
able. Mr. Ford said that his idea was to 
help men to help themselves. Nearly all 
are willing to work for adequate reward. 
He also stated he would guarantee to 
take every prisoner out of Sing Sing and 
make a man of him. 

George W. Perkins, of the United 
States Steel Corporation, attacked the 
present tariff. 

President Samuel Gompers, of the A. 
F. of- L., ably defended trade unionism 
and disproved many of the statements 
made against it. He attacked the Rocke- 
feller Foundation as inimical to demo- 
cratic ideals in education and dwelt at 
length on immigration. 

Louis D. Brandeis gave it as his be- 
lief that the great present-day corpora- 
tions tend to degenerate the type of 
labor. 

John D. Rockefeller, Jr., declared he 
was in favor of labor unions with certain 
restrictions and answered questions re- 
garding the responsibilities of directors, 
the rights of labor organizations and his 
views on what he regarded as social serv- 
ice. He also spoke at length on his con- 
nection with the Colorado Fuel and Iron 
Company. 

John Mitchell's testimony sparkled 
with epigrams. Speaking of compensa- 
tion for workmen, he said it was effective 
in more ways than one. "When," said 
he, "it costs more to kill a man than it 
does to save him, the employers will save 
their workers." 

Mr. Mitchell said that where men are 
unorganized the death rate is higher and 
the wage rate lower. 

Rockefeller's plan for Battling labor 
troubles in Colorado he termed "simply 
absurd." The working people do not 
want benefactions of charity. They want 
independence and the right to bargain 
collectively, he added. 



Industrial Despotism in Texas 

The fact cannot be disguised that a 
feudalism as absolute, as despotic and as 
arbitrary as anything which existed in 
supposedly less enlightened ages of the 
world's history flourishes today in a sur- 
prisingly large number of industrial com- 
munities throughout the country. Only 
recently The Carpenter referred to the 
situation in Lead, S. D., but, with equal 
justice, it might have instanced the min- 
ing regions of Colorado, Michigan or 
West Virginia as industrial strongholds 
where the status of the workers closely 
resembles that of the serfs of feudal 
times. In such communities we get a 
glimpse of the strange spectacle of mod- 
ern industrialism which at one time was 
supposed to lead to greater individual 
liberty and opportunity turning around 
in a vicious circle and leading the masses 
back to a condition of abject servility and 
a state of feudal oppression almost un- 
believable. 

Up to this, we have associated such de- 
plorable conditions for the most part with 
the mining industry, but it remained for 
the investigators of the Industrial Rela- 
tions Commission to show that the saw- 
mill of today is as much of a baron's 
stronghold as a coal or copper mine and 
that the lumber communities of Texas 
are as far removed from freedom and 
democracy as though time had rolled 
back to the days of Ivanhoe. To bring 
this point before the public Harper's 
Weekly recently published an article by 
George Creel based upon the facts col- 
lected by the Commission's investigators 
and furnishing a glaring example of the 
length to which uncurbed and unre- 
stricted industrialism will go in its crush- 
ing oppression of the workers it is able 
to hold firmly within its grasp. 

To those accustomed to hearing of men 
herded in company towns, packed in com- 
pany houses, forced to trade at company 
stores, paid in company moaey and de- 
nied all lawful rights, the conditions ex- 
isting in Texas lumber communities will 
not seem altogether strange. In the town 
of Kirbjrvdlle, for instance, with its 2,000 
citizens, mostly lumber mill workers, the 



28 



American dollar plays a very infinitesimal 
part, for it seldom comes into the hands 
of the lumber workers. The controlling 
power there is the lumber company from 
which it gets its name and the source of 
its autocracy is an ingenious institution 
termed "the merchandise check." Disks, 
cut out of pasteboard and stamped with 
the name of the company, are made to 
serve in Kirbyville as a substitute for 
real money. Pay days are few and far 
between in the community, but in the 
meantime the men may secure these 
checks up to the amount of their wages. 
Over ninety per cent of wages are paid 
in this way and the company reaps the 
benefit through the company store. When, 
however, the checks get outside the pre- 
scribed channels, merchants and profes- 
sional men are compelled to demand a 
percentage of from ten to twenty per 
cent on them because they are only nego- 
tiable at the higher-priced company store 
for supplies or at the sawmill for lumber. 

The one other medium of payment is 
the "time certificate," which is only is- 
sued in cases of emergency. This certifi- 
cate merely shows that its bearer has 
worked so many days and has so much 
money coming to him which will be paid 
by the company on a certain future date. 
Time certificates, unlike the merchandise 
check, can be turned into money. The 
local banks will cash them, but for the 
favor the worker must pay a straight 
discount running from ten to twenty per 
cent. The effect of these various dis- 
counts upon wages is shown when it is 
seen that for a ten-hour day two-fifths 
of the employers of the lumber company 
get $1.50, about two-fifths, between $1.50 
and $2, and one-fifth, $2 or more. There 
are also deductions from wages besides 
merchandise checks and usurious dis- 
counts and board, room and rental rates 
are high. Heads of families pay hospital 
fees, for instance, although compensa- 
tion laws are presumed to do away with 
them. 

Similar conditions flourish in prac- 
tically all of the Texas lumber communi- 
ties, the workers being imposed upon 
through this system of merchandise 



TfiQ CarpontQr 



check payment which is in open defiance 
of a state law. Hand in hand with such 
practices on the part of the lumber in- 
terests goes a relentless policy of stamp- 
ing out any tendencies on the part of the 
employes to organize in an effort to im- 
prove their condition. At one time the 
workers did organize, and formed, a union 
which after a feeble effort to force the 
companies to redress existing grievances 
was unfortunately crushed and the lead- 
ers in the fight banished. 

For the purpose of preventing organi- 
zation, and as a means of keeping 
the lumber workers in subjection, the 
Southern Lumber Operators' Associa- 
tion has proved a very eflScient in- 
strument. This association uses the 
blacklist openly and without the 
slightest effort to disguise that fact. 
Association members which comprise the 
various lumber companies are required 
to .keep a list of their employes at the 
central office, supplementing it with peri- 
odical reports of men discharged and new 
men employed. A principal query on 
each report is, "Have you any reason to 
believe that he is in sympathy with or 
is a member of the order of 'Timber 
Workers of the World?' " Thus the lum- 
ber companies are enabled to weed out 
workers suspected of trade union affilia- 
tions or leaning. 

"In order to get employment," says 
Mr. Creel, "a timber worker must sign 
away his right to organize, his right to 
sue under the law for defamation of char- 
acter, and his right to sue under the law 
for injuries received in the course of his 
work. Not only is he asked to become 
a serf, but it is also demanded of him 
that he rivet the brass collar about his 
own neck." 

While . such a giarinp state of things 
exists and flouishes in industrial commu- 
nities throughout the country is it any 
wonder that we should have industrial 
unrest and plenty of it? 
•!• ♦ ♦ 
Rockefeller's Responsibility 

In his testimony before the Industrial 
Relations Commission John D. Rockefel- 
ler, Jr., referring to the charge that he 



29 



T/\q CarpQntar 



had enforced an industrial absolutism in 
Colorado, replied that "an attitude to- 
ward industry and toward labor such as 
is here implied is so abhorrent to me per- 
sonally and so contrary to the spirit of 
my whole purpose and training that I 
can not allow these allegations to pass 
unnoticed. . . While it has been said 
that I have exercised an absolute author- 
ity in dictating to the management of 
the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company, it 
has always been said that I have been 
too indifferent, and that as a director I 
should have exercised more authority. 
Clearly, both can not be true." 

It is easy for an immensely wealthy 
man like Mr. Rockefeller to defend him- 
self in this fashion, but he is not likely to 
convince thinking people. On the face 
of it, fhe facts that he has been accused 
as an industrial "dictator" and has, in 
the same breath, been blamed for being 
"too indifferent" as a director, appear 
conflicting, yet they are, nevertheless, 
true. Writing of his impressions of Mr. 
Rockefeller's testimony, Walter Lippman 
explains the matter in this way : 

"It seemed to me," he says, "as I 
listened to him that both could be true, 
and that in fact it was just such a dilem- 
ma which was the truth. For while the 
reality of the Rockefeller power could 
hardly be questioned, the use of that 
power appeared to have been second-hand 
and inadequate. For ten years Mr. 
Rockefeller had not seen his property; 
his relation to it was by letter and by 
conference with the officials. What he 
knew of it must have come to him from 
them, and, as he has confessed, he trusted 
their word. Now when we speak of the 
despotism of the Czar of Russia, we do 
not mean that he in person acts despoti- 
cally in every province of his empire. We 
mean that a despotic hierarchy exists 
owing allegiance to him as its titled 
head. We know that if the Czar wished 
to liberalize his government he would 
find himself hampered by his subordinate 
officials. But he has to bear the responsi- 
bility for the things that are done in his 
name, and because he has potential power 



he is blamed not only for what he does 
but for what he doesn't do. 

"This seemed to be the predicament of 
Mr. Rockefeller. I should not believe 
that he personally hired thugs or wanted 
them hired; I should not believe that the 
inhumanity of Colorado is something he 
had conceived. It seems far more true 
to say that his impersonal and half- 
understood power has delegated itself 
into unsocial forms, that it has assumed 
a life of its own which he is almost 
powerless to control. If first impressions 
count for anything, I should describe Mr. 
Rockefeller as a weak despot governed 
by a private bureaucracy which he is un- 
able to lead. He has been thrust by the 
accident of birth into a position where 
he reigns but does not rule; he has as- 
sumed a title to sovereignty over a do- 
minion which he rarely visits, about 
which his only source of information is 
the reports of men far; more sophisti- 
cated and far less sensitive than he him- 
self." 

It seems to us that this is an adequate 
presentation of Rockefeller's position in 
regard to his responsibility for the Colo- 
rado situation. 



The Ivives They I^ead! 
Here in America life is extraordina- 
rily cheap. There is almost no task so 
dull, so degrading or so useless but you 
can find plenty of human beings to do it. 
You can hire a man to walk up and down 
the avenue carrying a sign which adver- 
tises a quack dentist. You can hire rows 
of men for the back line of the chorus, 
just standing them there to fill up space. 
You can hire a man to sit next to the 
chauffeur; he is called a footman and his 
purpose is to make the owner of the car 
a bit more comfortable and a great deal 
more magnificent. There are women 
known as ladies' maids whose business it 
is to dress up other women. There are 
flunkeys whose mission it is to powder 
their hair, put on white stockings and 
gold-trimmed knee-breeches and flank 
the threshold of great houses. It is 
possible to hire any number of caretakers 
(Continued on Page 38.) 



ao 



Official Information 




GENERAL OFFICERS 
OF 

The UNITED BROTHERHOOD 

OF 

CARPENTERS and JOINERS 

OF AMERICA 



General Office, 
Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis. Ind. 



General President, 
.TAMES KIRBY, Carpenters' Building, Indi- 
anapolis. 



General Secretary, 
FRANK DUFFY, Carpenters' Building, Indi- 
anapolis. 



General Treasurer, 
THOMAS NEALE, Carpenters' Building, Indi- 
anapolis. 



First Vice-President, 

W. L. HUTCHESON, Carpenters' Building, 

Indianapolis. 



Second Vice-President, 

ARTHUR A. QUINN, 109 N. Market St., Pertb 

Amboy, N. J. 



General Executive Board, 

First District, T. M. GUERIN, 290 Second 

Ave., Troy, N. Y. 



Second District, D. A. POST, 41G S. Main St.. 
Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 



Third District, JOHN H. POTTS, G46 Mellisb 
Ave., Cincinnati, O. 

Fourth District, JAMES P. OGLETREE, Car- 
penters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Fifth District, HARRY BLACKMORE, 
N. Market St., St. Louis, Mo. 



4223 



Sixth District, W, A. COLE, 120 Henry St., 
San Francisco, Cal. 



Seventh 
St. 



District, AUTHUK MARTIOL 
Denis, Montreal, Que.. Can. 



i:r.)9 



JAMES KIRBY, Chainnaii. 



FRANK DUFFY, Secretary. 



All correspondence for the General Executive 
Board must be sent to the General Secretary. 



-:- Our Principles -:- 



Resolved, That we, as a body, thoroughly 
approve of the objects of the American Fed- 
eration of Labor and pledge ourselves to give 
it our earnest and hearty support. 

Union-Made Goods 

Resolved, That members of this organiza- 
tion should make it a rule, when purchasing 
soods, to call for those which bear the trade- 
mark of organized labor, and when any indi- 
vidual, firm or corporation shall strike a blow 
;it labor organizations they are earnestly re- 
quested to give that individual, firm or cor- 
poration their careTul consideration. No good 
union man can kiss the rod that whips him. 

I^abor IVegislation 

Resolved, That it is of the greatest impor- 
tance that members should vote intelligently; 
hence the members of this Brotherhood shall 
.strive to secure legislation in favor of those 
who produce the wealth of the country, and 
all discussions aifd resolutions in that diiec- 
tion shall be in order at any regular meeting, 
but party politics must be excluded. 

Immigration 

Resolved, That while we welcome to our 
shores all who come with the honest intention 
of becoming lawful citizens, we at the same 
time condemn the present system which al- 
lows the importation of destitute laborers, and 
we urge organized labor everywhere to en- 
deavor to secure the enactment of more strin- 
gent immigration laws. 

Faithful Work 

Resolved, That we hold it as a sacred prin- 
ciple that Trade Union men, above all others, 
should set a good example as good and faith- 
ful workmen, performing their duties to their 
employers with honor to themselves and their 
organization. 

Shorter Hours of I^abor 

We hold a reduction of hours for a day's 
work increases the intelligence and happiness 
of the laborer, and also increases the demand 
for labor and the price of a day's work. 

Miscellaneous 

We recognize that the interests of all classes 
of labor are identical, regardless of occupa- 
tion, nationality, religion, or color, for a 
wrong done to one is a wrong done to all. 

We object to prison contract labor, because 
it puts the criminal in competition with 
honorable labor for the purpose of cuttins 
down wages, and also because it helps to over- 
stock the labor market. 

Resolved, That we most earnestly condemn 
the practice in vogue in many cities, but more 
especially in the West, of advertising ficti- 
tious building booms, as it has a tendency to 
demoralize the trade in such localities. 



31 



TfiQ CarpQntQF 



Report of General President Kirby for 
Quarter 'Binding December 31, 1914 

To the Members of the General Execu- 
tive Board — Greeting: 
Reporting on the work of this oflBce 
since the last meeting of your body will 
say: As delegate to the A. F. of L., I 
attended the convention at Philadelphia. 
The session lasted two weeks and a full 
report of same was submitted to the 
membership in the report of the dele- 
gates printed in the December issue of 
The Carpenter. 

The matter of dispute between the 
Amalgamated Sheet Metal Workers and 
the Brotherhood of Carpenters relative 
to the erection of metal trim, and which 
was referred, as will be seen in the re- 
port of the delegates to the A. F. of L. 
convention (Page 26, December Carpen- 
ter) to President Gompers of the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor, President Wil- 
liams of the Building Trades Department, 
President Hynes of the Amalgamated 
Sheet Metal Workers and myself. To 
carry out the above recommendation 
President Gompers called a meeting of 
the committee, which was held in New 
York City on the 6th of January. This 
meeting was held for the purpose of 
arranging a plan to take up and investi- 
gate the disputed work and, if possible, 
to arrange an amicable adjustment. This 
committee will begin its work in Chicago 
on February 3 and continue sessions in 
several cities in an effort to adjust this 
matter. 

The last three months of 1914 were 
perhaps the dullest months that have 
been experienced in the building indus- 
try for several years. Just at the time 
when eveiy indication pointed to a re- 
sumption of business the affairs of the 
entire country were disarranged owing 
to the breaking out of the war in Europe. 
This affected the building trades, and a 
great many large projects which were 
contemplated, and some for which con- 
tracts had already been let, were can- 
celled with the result that members of 
our organization were thrown out of 
work. I have urged our Local Unions 
to use every legal means to retain their 



membership and to assist those who were 
in need. I expect our organization will 
lose a great many members owing to 
their inability to meet their obligations. 
At the same time it is pleasing to note 
that at the opening of the new year pros- 
pects are very good for the building 
trades men. Many contracts have been 
let since January 1 and business in gen- 
eral is assuming a much firmer tone. 

The long and bitter struggle that the 
members of our organization were in- 
volved in at Stockton, Cal., finally ter- 
minated in an agreement being signed 
between the M., M. & E. Association and 
the trade unions of that city. While the 
agreement in itself is of no great weight, 
it paves the way, however, for a more 
successful termination of the struggle, 
and I feel that it will be only a short 
time until the members of our organiza- 
tion, as well as the other building trades 
men will be enjoying the fruits of their 
hard-fought struggle. 

Our jurisdictional differences with 
other organizations has principally been 
with the Amalgamated Sheet Metal 
Workers. I feel that our organization 
has maintained its position in this strug- 
gle. In many localities the local mem- 
bership are to be congratulated upon the 
firm stand they have taken; yet, never- 
theless, I do not hesitate to express the 
hope that this trouble may soon be ad- 
justed. 

Owing to the depression of the trade 
I have discontinued the services of near- 
ly one-half of the organizers during the 
winter months. This is something I re- 
gretted very much to do. It is very easy 
to say yes to a man seeking employment, 
but discontinuing his services when there 
is absolutely no fault to be found with 
his work is altogether another proposi- 
tion. Every man laid off gave a good 
account of himself during his term of 
service for this organization, but I could 
not see my way clear to continue the 
large force when there was absolutely 
nothing that could be done in the way of 
organizing members of our trade. 

It will be recalled that sometime ago 
the Wood Carvers of America submitted 



32 



Jfia CarpQntQr 



to its membership a proposition to affi- 
liate with the United Brotherhood. I am 
sorry to say that this proposition was 
lost by a small vote. I express the be- 
lief now, however, that in a short time 
their action will be reversed and they 
\vill affiliate with the United Brotherhood. 

Sometime ago I reported to the Board 
regarding negotiations pending with the 
United Order of Box Makers and Saw- 
yers of America looking toward their 
affiliation with the United Brotherhood. 
Representatives of their organization 
were presented with a proposition and 
they agreed to submit the same to their 
membership. To this date, however, I 
have absolutely no word or communica- 
tion from them, and I do not know 
whether their promises were fulfilled or 
otherwise. 

For many years friction has existed 
between two of our District Councils, 
namely: Providence, R. I., District Coun- 
cil and Pawtucket District Council. The 
territories of these two councils were 
immediately adjacent, and members 
working back and forth frequently be- 
came involved in each others' trade rules. 
After carefully investigating the situa- 
tion, and looking over our past records 
relative to the relations between the two 
councils, I arrived at the conclusion that 
the only solution possible to bring about 
a permanent adjustment of these mat- 
ters was the consolidation of the two 
councils. Instructions were given to Or- 
ganizer Millette to arrange a meeting 
to carry out this consolidation; each lo- 
cal was notified, and I am pleased to say 
that the consolidation was effected. I 
am certain this will be the means of 
bringing the membership in that district 
into closer relations and do away with 
the unpleasant conditions that have ex- 
isted heretofore. 

I have in the past three months, as I 
have previously, endeavored to prevent 
our Local Unions striking indiscrim- 
inately and involving themselves contin- 
ually in trouble with their employers. I 
do not want it to be understood that it 
■ is my desire not to aid any other organi- 
zation, but I do feel that when another 



organization desires assistance from the 
carpenters that application for same 
should be made to the general office. By 
doing this we are in a position to pro- 
tect our membership as well as to take 
steps to bring to those asking support 
some practical m.ethod of adjusting the 
differences, and many times this has been 
done without the stoppage of work. I 
shall continue in the future, as in the 
past, to assist all organizations who in 
turn will reciprocate. 

This meeting of the G. E. B. will have 
before it many calls for financial aid, and 
I caution the Board at this time to use 
great discretion in making appropria- 
tions to the various districts. It is abso- 
lutely impossible to organize any district 
unless there is work in evidence, and 
during the present month and the month 
of February very little can be done in 
the way of organizing work. 

Trusting my work during the past 
quarter meets with your approval, I re- 
main. Fraternally, 

JAMES KIRBY, General President. 



Report of First General Vice-Presi- 
dent Hutclieson for the Quarter 
landing December 31, 1914 

Mr. James Kirby, General President 
U. B. of C. and J. of A. — Greeting: 
The following is my report for the 
period ending December 31, 1914: 

Since making my last report 188 local 
unions and district councils have sub- 
mitted by-laws, working rules, amend- 
ments, etc., for consideration and ap- 
proval. There has been 43 labels 
granted to new firms, and also several 
have been recalled, complete list of 
which will be found in the "Directory of 
Shops Using the Label of Our Brother- 
hood," which was issued from this office 
January 1, and has been distributed to 
all local unions and district councils. 

Aside from the work in the General 
Office I have made several trips in the 
interest of our Brotherhood. In October 
I went to Denver, Colo., where I was 
able to settle a long-standing lawsuit 
between our organization and a former 



33 



TfiQ CarpontQr 



branch of the Amalgamated Society of 
Carpenters in that city, a full and de- 
tailed report of which I have previously 
made to you. I also attended a meeting 
of the State Council of Michigan, held in 
Grand Rapids during the month of Oc- 
tober, wherein many matters pertaining 
to the welfare of our organization were 
considered and acted upon. 

During the month of November I at- 
tended a meeting at Alexandria, La., in 
which the formation of the State Coun- 
cil was completed. Much enthusiasm 
was shown at this meeting and dele- 
gates were present from nearly every 
local union in the State. 

In conformity with the action of the 
last General Convention of our Brother- 
hood I have endeavored to promote the use 
of our label by having lead pencils made 
with the label thereon. These I am en- 
deavoring to get all local unions to pur- 
chase for distribution among their mem- 
bers and in this manner give our label 
more publicity, not only amongst the 
members of our organization, but the 
general public as well, as I am of the 
opinion that if we can get our general 
membership interested in promoting the 
use of our label it will materially in- 
crease the demand for products bearing 
same. 

Extending to yourself and the mem- 
bership of the United Brotherhood my 
very best wishes, I remain. 
Fraternally yours, 

WM. L. HUTCHESON, 
First General Vice-President. 



Report of Second Vice - President 
Arthur A. Quinn for Quarter land- 
ing December 31, 1914 

Philadelphia, Pa., January, 1915. 
Mr. James Kirby, Gen. Pres. of the U. B. 

of C. and J. of A.: 

Dear Sir and Brother — I herewith sub- 
mit to you my report for the quarter end- 
ing December 30, 1914. 

At the beginning of the quarter (Oc- 
tober 1) I was in Indianapolis attending 



the convention of the United Brother- 
hood. At the close of the convention I 
visited Cincinnati to investigate the con- 
ditions in that city relative to the strike 
that had prevailed in the district for 
some time. The result of my investiga- 
tion I reported to you under date of Oc- 
tober 4. After leaving Cincinnati I re- 
turned to New Jersey, in which State I 
was engaged until November 16, when 
I proceeded to Philadelphia to audit the 
books of one of the locals in that city, 
and on which work I am now engaged. 
In addition to working on the audit I 
desire to report that I have, on different 
occasions, visited Newark and Hudson 
county. New Jersey, in the interest of. 
the U. B. in those districts. I made 
several visits to Newark to assist our- 
business agents in their efforts to con- 
trol work being done on the foundations 
of two large jobs in that city by mem- 
bers of an independent organization 
known as the New York Dock Builders. 
We were handicapped in our efforts in 
this direction principally on account of 
lack of support of other trades, notwith- 
standing the fact that the dock builders 
in question are an independent body and 
are not ai!iliated in any maner with the 
A. F. of L. It is of vital importance 
that our organization in Newark should 
control this work, for the reason that the 
city has started to develop several miles 
of water front along Newark Bay and 
to improve the meadow lands adjoining, 
which means the construction of numer- 
ous piers and buildings in that section 
within the next few years. 

I also made several, visits to Hudson 
county to advise with the D. C. relative 
to the enforcement of the eight-hour law 
on municipal, county and state work. 
The law was being violated on several 
jobs, both in the city and county, which 
have been forced through the activity of 
the D. C. to comply with the law. 

Both in Philadelphia and New Jersey 
I found work very scarce, but the pros- 
pects for a revival of business are now 
brighter than they have been for some 
time, and our members are hopefully 



84 



Tfia GarpQntQr 



awaiting a speedy return of the building 
industry to normal conditions. 

Wishing the U. B. a pro^erous new 
year, I am, 

Fraternally yours, 

ARTHUR A. QUINN, 
Second Gen. V.-P. U. B. C. and J. of A. 



Report on the Conferences Held With 
Brewery Workers and Railroad Car 
Workers Relative to Jurisdictional 
Differences. 

The convention of the American Fed- 
eration of Labor, held in Philadelphia, 
Pa., acting on resolutions introduced by 
the delegates from the Brotherhood of 
Carpenters relative to the differences 
existing between the Brewery Workers 
and the Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
the Carmen and the Brotherhood of Car- 
penters, instructed the two international 
organizations to hold a conference in 
accordance with the laws of the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor. 

This conference was held at the Ster- 
ling Hotel, Washington, D. C, January 
10 and 11. The committee appointed by 
G. P. Kirby to represent the United 
Brotherhood were: Vice-President Quinn, 
George R. Murray and L. H. Proske. 

After quite a lengthy conference in 
both instances no agreement was reached 
and the following is the reports of the 
committee on the two conferences : 

Washington, D. C, January 13, 1915. 
Mr. James Kirby, General President U. 
B. of C. and J. of A., Cai'penters' 
Building, Indianapolis, Ind.: 

Dear Sir and Brother — In compliance 
with your instructions we, the under- 
signed committee, beg leave to submit 
the following report in reference to con- 
ference held between your committee 
and the Brewery Workers on January 
11, at the Sterling Hotel, Washington, 
D. C. We met the following delegates 
in conference representing the Brewery 
Workers: Joseph Proebstle, National 
Secretary; Joseph Fessner, member of 
the Executive Board from St. Louis; 
John Sullivan, member of the General 
Executive Board, New York. 

From the beginning of the conference 
we realized that nothing could be done 
to come to an amicable adjustment of 
the question at issue on account of the 
uncompromising position assumed by 
Mr. Proebstle, who was the spokesman 
of the Brewery Workers' delegation. 

After discussing the question in its 



various phases we, your committee, sug- 
gested that if the amount of work in- 
volved in any brewery in the repair of 
beer boxes would keep one or more men 
steadily employed, this man or men 
should be members of the United Broth- 
erhood of Carpenters and J©iners of 
America. This proposition was re- 
jected by Mr. Proebstle, he claiming that 
the men who cleaned the boxes repaired 
them. We then suggested that if such 
were the case that a committee of one 
from each organization should go 
through the brewery and ascertain the 
conditions. This proposition he also re- 
fused to consider, claiming he would not 
consider making any changes in the ex- 
isting conditions, and if the Carpenters 
persisted in their demand to claim this 
work that he would advise the brewery 
owners to purchase metal boxes. 

We reported the result of the confer- 
ence to the Executive Council of the 
American Federation of Labor, in whose 
hands it now lies. 

ARTHUR A. QUINN, 
GEO. R. MURRAY, 
L. H. PROSKE, 

Committee. 



Washington, D. C, January 13, 1915. 
Mr. James Kirby, General President U. 

B. of C. and J. of A., Carpenters' 

Building, Indianapolis, Ind.: 

Dear Sir and Brother — In compliance 
with your instructions we, the under- 
signed committee, beg leave to submit 
the following report in reference to con- 
ference held between your committee 
and the Car Workers. We met with 
President M. F. Ryan of the Car Work- 
ers and A. 0. Wharton, President of the 
Railroad Employes' Department of the 
American Federation of Labor, at the 
office of the American Federation of La- 
bor, Washington, D. C. 

The contention of the Carpenters that 
the Car Workers were infringing upon 
our jurisdiction inasmuch as they laid 
claim to millwrights, cabinetmakers and 
joiners, bench and machine hands, was 
not denied by the Car Workers, but they 
claim that they have done this work and 
controlled it since the formation of their 
organization, over twenty-five years ago, 
and that the life of their organization 
depends upon their controlling all 
branches of the car repairing industry, 
and that the jurisdiction claimed by the 
Car Workers was understood by the Ex- 
ecutive Council of the American Federa- 
tion of Labor at the time of their admis- 
sion into the American Federation of 
Labor. 



35 



Tfia CarpQntQF 



They refused to recede from the posi- 
tion taken, and seeing that nothing could 
be done by the further discussion of the 
question, we adjourned the conference 
and reported to the Executive Council 
of the American Federation of Labor 
that we could not agree. 

ARTHUR A. QUINN, 
GEO. R. MURRAY, 
L. H. PROSKE, 

Committee. 



Report of Delegates to the Eighth 
Annual Convention of the Amer- 
ican Association for I/abor 
I/Cgislation 

Mr. James Kirby, General President 

United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 

Joiners of America: 

Dear Sir and Brother — In compliance 
with your instructions we, the under- 
signed, beg leave to report that we at- 
tended the Eighth Annual Convention of 
the American Association for Labor Leg- 
islation, held at the Hotel Walton, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., as the representatives of 
the United Brotherhood of Carpenters 
and Joiners of America, December 28 
to 30. 

The convention opened at noon Mon- 
day, preceded by a luncheon, presided 
over by Professor Henry R. Seager of 
Columbia University, who, after explain- 
ing the objects of the association, read 
a letter of regret from Dr. Martin Brum- 
baugh, governor-elect of Pennsylvania, 
in which he declared himself in hearty 
accord with the principles of workmen's 
compensation. 

Congressman Daniel J. McGillicuddy, 
author of the proposed new Federal Com- 
pensation Law, was the first speaker, 
who gave an interesting and instructive 
speech on what is sought to be attained 
by the enactment of the new law. He 
was followed by John Mitchell, ex-presi- 
dent of the United Mine Workers — a 
member of the New York Compensation 
Commission — who spoke upon the opera- 
tion of the New York law. During the 
course of his remarks he stated that the 
American Association for Labor Legisla- 
tion has adopted certain standard feat- 
ures for compensation for injured work- 
men caused by industrial accidents that 
they were desirous of having incorpo- 
rated into law in every State in the Union. 
He reminded the citizens of Pennsylva- 
nia that their State was surrounded by 
sister States whose workingmen and 
women were enjoying the benefits of 
compensation laws and urged them to 
use their best efforts to have an adequate 
law enacted by the 1915 legislature. 



Other speakers in favor of compensa- 
tion laws were Francis Feehan, member 
of the commission to frame a proposed 
compensation law for Pennsylvania, and 
Wallace D. Yaple, chairman of the in- 
dustrial commission of Ohio, who ex- 
plained in detail the operation of the law 
in his State and the advantages of the 
commission form of administering the 
law over that of the courts. James H. 
Maurer, president of the Pennsylvania 
State Federation of Labor, spoke upon 
the necessity of the enactment of a just 
and adequate law for the protection of 
the workers of Pennsylvania, and em- 
phasized the necessity of the law being 
so administered that the compensation . 
would be received in full by those whom 
the law sought to protect. Several other 
speakers followed, after which the con- 
vention adjourned until 8 o'clock in the 
evening, at which time they convened to 
discuss the problem of unemployment 
and -the means of preventing its period- 
ical recurrence. 

Very interesting talks were made on 
this question by Robert G. Valentine, in- 
dustrial counselor, chairman of the Mas- 
sachusetts Committee of Association of 
Unemployment, and by John F. Tobin, 
general president of the Boot and Shoe 
Workers' International Union, who had 
for his subject, "The Workers." He 
gave an interesting and instructive talk 
on the advance work being done by trade 
unions to relieve distress and to prevent 
unemployment. 

He was followed by Norris L. Cooke, 
director of public works of Philadelphia; 
John Price Jackson, commissioner of la- 
bor and industry of Pennsylvania, and 
Meyer London, congressman-elect of 
New York City. Each of these gentle- 
men spoke upon the city. State and na- 
tion in the order mentioned, giving their 
views as to the steps to be taken by 
the city. State and nation to solve the 
problem of unemployment and to make 
employment more reliable and perma- 
nent in the seasonal trades. 

Tuesday's session was taken up with 
discussing the problems of Unemploy- 
ment, Industrial Hygiene, Woman's 
Work, Enforcement of Labor Laws, One- 
Day-Rest in Seven and Social Insurance. 
These different questions were discussed 
by John B. Andrews, secretary of the 
association; Irene O. Andrews, assistant 
secretary; Juliet S. Poyntz and Frank 
O'Hara of the Catholic University. 

Many other speakers discussed these 
questions with the result that the asso- 
ciation decided to start a national educa- 
tional campaign, designed to procure 
legislative action providing compulsory 
sickness insurance, which will protect 



36 



TfiQ Carpontor 



wage-workers earning less than $100 a 
month when unable to follow their trade 
or calling on account of sickness. 

This new departure was strenuously 
opposed by the representatives of the 
insurance companies, who see in it the 
adoption by the different States of 
State insurance, which will eventually 
mean the elimination of the casualty in- 
surance companies. 

The following is the tentative plan of 
sickness insurance as submitted to the 
convention by Secretary Andrews. It 
was adopted without change: 

— Sickness Insurance Principles — 
The nine provisional principles for com- 
pulsory sickness insurance for wage workers, 
as adopted yesterday by the association, are 
as follows : 

1. To be effective, sickness insurance 
should be compulsory, on the basis of joint 
contributions of employer and employe and 
the public. 

2. The compulsory insurance should in- 
clude all wage workers earning less than a 
given annual sum, where employed with suffi- 
cient regularity to make it practicable to com- 
pute and collect assessments. Casual and 
home workers should, as far as practicable, 
be included within the plan and scope of the 
compulsory system. 

3. There should be a voluntary supple- 
mentary system for groups of persons (wage 
workers or others) who for practical reasons 
are kept out of the compulsory system. 

4. Sickness insurance should provide for a 
specified period only, provisionally set at 
twenty-six weeks (one-half a year), but a sys- 
tem of invalidity insurance should be com- 
bined with sickness insurance, so that all dis- 
ability due to disease will be taken care of 
in one law, although the funds should be 
separate. 

5. Sickness insurance on the compulsory 
plan should be carried by mutual local funds, 
jointly managed by employers and employes, 
under public supervision. In large cities such 
locals may be organized by trades, with a 
federated bureau for the medical relief. Estab- 
lishment funds and existing mutual sick 
funds may be permitted to carry the insur- 
ance, where their existence does not injure the 
local funds, but they naust be under strict 
government supervision. 

6. Invalidity insurance should be carried 
by funds covering a larger geographical area, 
comprising the districts of a number of local 
sickness insurance funds. The administration 
of the invalidity fund should be intimately as- 
sociated with that of the local sickness funds 
and on a representative basis. 

7. Both sickness and invalidity insurance 
should include medical service, supplies, 
necessary nursing and hospital care. Such 
provision should be thoroughly adequate, but 



its organization may be left to the local so- 
cieties, under strict governmental control. 

8. Cash benefits should be provided for 
both invalidity and sickness insurance for the 
insured or his dependents during such disa- 
bility. 

9. It is highly desirable that prevention 
may be emphasized, so that the introduction 
of a compulsory sickness and invalidity in- 
surance system shall lead to a campaign of 
health conservation similar to the safety 
movement resulting from workmen's com- 
pensation. 

Hoping that our report is satisfactory, 
we remain. 

Fraternally yours, 

ARTHUR A. QUINN, 
DANIEL A. POST. 



I<ocalities to Be Avoided 
Owing to the pending trade move- 
ments, building depression and other 
causes, carpenters are requested to stay 
away from the following places: 
Ann Arbor, Mich. Clinton, la. 
Akron, O. Columbia, S. C. 
Albany, N. Y. Columbus, O. 
Alton, 111. Concordia, Kan. 
Arcadia, Fla. Conway, Ark. 
Asheville, N. C. Commerce, Tex. 
Ashland, Ky. Corpus Christi, Tex 
Athens, Tex. Corsicana, Tex. 
Atlanta, Ga. Cullman, Ala. 
Atlantic City, N. J. Danville, 111. 
Augusta, Ga. Dayton, O. 
Aurora, 111. Decatur, 111. 
Austin, Tex. Denison, Tex. 
Baltimore, Md. Denver, Colo. 
Barre, Vt. Detroit, Mich. 
Battle Creek, Mich. Dixon, 111. 
Bay City, Tex. Dubuque, la. 
Beacon, N. T. Duluth, Minn. 
Binghamton, N. Y. Edmonton, Can. 
Birmingham, Ala. El Centro, Cal. 
Blsbee, Ariz. Electra, Tex. 
Blackwell, Okla. Blmira, N. Y. 
Bloomington, 111. E. St. Louis, 111. 
Boise, Idaho. El Paso, Tex. 
Boone, la. Escanaba, Mich. 
Boston, Mass. Bvansville, Ind. 
Brainerd, Minn. Fargo, N. D. 
Brenham, Tex. Fond da Lac, Wis. 
Brownwood, Tex. Fort Lauderdale, Fla. 
Buffalo, N. Y. Fort Myers, Fla. 
Calgary, Can. Fort Wayne, Ind. 
Canton, O. Framingham, Mass. 
Cedar Rapids, la. Fremont, Neb. 
Central City, Ky. French Lick, Ind. 
Charleston, W. Va. Fresno, Cal. 
Charlotte, N. C. Fulton, N. Y. 
Chattanooga, Tenn. Galveston, Tex. 
Chicago, 111. Gardner, Mass. 
Clarksville, Tenn. Gary, Ind. 
Cleveland, O. Grand Forks, N. D 



37 



Jfia CarpontQr 



Granite City, 111. 
Great Falls, Mont. 
Greeley, Colo. 
Halifax, N. S. 
Hamilton, O. 
Hammond, Ind. 
Hazleton, Pa. 
Hillsboro. Tex. 
Holyoke, Mass. 
Hot Springs, Ark. 
Houston, Tex. 
Huntington, L. I., N. Y. 
Hutchinson, Kan. 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Ithaca, N. Y. 
Jacksonville, Pla. 
Jacksonville, Tex. 
Jamestown, N. Y. 
Jasonville, Ind. 
Joliet, 111. 
Joplin, Mo. 
Kansas City, Mo. 
Kenosha, Wis. 
Kincaid, III. 
Kissimmee, Fla. 
Klamath Palls, Ore. 
Lewiston, Mont. 
Lakeland, Fla. 
Leadville, Colo. 
Lexington, Ky. 
Little Rock, Ark. 
London, Ont., Can. 
Long Beach, Cal. 
Los Angeles, Cal. 
Louisville, Ky. 
Macon, Ga. 
Marietta, O. 
Marinette, Wis. 
Marshalltown, la. 
Maryville, Tenn. 
Mason City, la 
Medicine Hat, Can. 
Medina, N. Y. 
Memphis, Tenn. 
Miami, Ariz. 
Milwaukee, Wis. 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
Minot, N. D. 
Mobile, Ala. 
Montreal, Can. 
Morris, 111. 
Mount Kisco, N. Y. 
Moose Jaw, Sask., Can. 
Mount Carmel, III. 
Mowbridge, S. D. 
Mount Vernon, N. Y. 
Newark, N. J. 
New Bedford, Mass. 
Newburgh, N. Y. 
New Castle, Pa. 
New Canaan, Conn. 
New Orleans, La. 
Newport News, Va. 
Newport, R. I. 
New York City. 
Niagara Falls, N. Y. 



Norfolk. Va. 
Northampton, Mass. 
North Bend, Ore. 
Norwood, O. 
Oakland, Cal. 
O'Fallon, 111. 
Oklahoma City, Okla. 
Omaha. Neb. 
Ossining, N. Y. 
Ottawa, Can. 
Palestine, Tex. 
Parsons, Kan. 
Passiac, N. J. 
Paterson, N. J. 
Peekskill, N. Y. 
Peoria, 111. 
Phoenix, Ariz. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Pittsfield, Mass. 
Palm Beach, Fla. 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 
Portland, Me. 
Portland, Ore. 
Pottsville, Pa. 
Pneblo, Colo. 
Racine, Wis. 
Reno, Nev. 
Red Banks, N. J. 
Regina, Can. 
Richmond, Cal. 
Richmond, Va. 
Robstown, Tex. 
Rochdale, Tex. 
Rochester, N. Y. 
Rockford, 111. 
Rock Springs, Wyo. 
San Antonio, Tex. 
San Diego, Cal. 
Salt Lake City, Utah. 
San Francisco, Cal. 
Schenectady, N. Y. 
Shreveport, La. 
Sioux City, la. 
St. Augustine, Fla. 
St. Catherines, Ont. 
St. Cloud, Minn. 
St. Joseph, Mo 
St. Paul, Minn. 
St. Petersburg, Fla. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Seattle, Wash. 
Saskatoon, Sask., Can. 
Savannah, Ga. 
Scranton, Pa. 
Sioux City, la. 
Smithtown, L. I. 
South Omaha, Neb 
Springfield, 111. 
Springfield, Mass. 
Springfield, O. 
Stamford, Conn 
Syracuse, N. Y. 
Tacoma, Wash 
Tampa, Fla. 
Teague, Tex. 
Temple, Tex. 



Terre Haute, Ind. 

TitusvlUe, Fla. 

Toronto, Can. 

Trenton, N. J. 

Tri - Cities— Davenport, 
Ta. : Rock Island 
and Moline, 111. 

Troy, N. Y. 

Tulsfl. Okla. 

Drbana-Champaign. Ill 

Vancouver, B. C. 

Victoria, Tex. 

Waco, Tex. 

Waterbury, Conn. 

Vookers, 



Watertown, N. Y. 
Watertown, S. D. 
Washington, D. C. 
Welland Canal Zone. 
West Frankfort, 111 
West Palm Beach, Fla 
White Plains, N. Y. 
Whitney, Tex. 
Wichita Falls, Tex. 
Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 
Wilmington, N. C. 
Wilmington, Del. 
Winnipeg, Can. 
Worcester, Mas* 
N. I 



I^ist of l/ocal Unions Chartered 



Panama, 111. 
liridgeville. Pa. 
Mt. Pleasant. Pa. 
Rock Island, Til. 
men). 



Hurst, 111. 
Drumright, Okla. 
Canyon, Tex. 
(cabinet makers and mill- 



Total, 7 local unions. 



The I^ives They I<ead! 
(Continued from Page 30.) 
for empty houses, bell-hops to fetch for 
you, even mourners to mourn for you. 

Every city is full of women whose lives 
are gray with emptiness, who sit for 
hours looking out of the window, who 
rock their chairs and gossip, and long for 
the excitement which never comes. Un- 
loved and unloving, and tragically un- 
used, the world seems to have passed 
them by. Our cities are full of those 
caricatured homes, the close, curtained 
boarding houses to which people come 
from the day's drudgery to the evening's 
depression, the thousands of hall bed- 
rooms in which hope dies and lives the 
ghost of itself in baseball scores and in 
movies, in the funny page and in Beatrice 
Fairfax, in purchased romance and in 
stunted reflections of the music-hall. — 
The New Republic. 



What Dooley Thinks of Secretary 
Daniels' Order 

"They must ate their hardtack an' salt 
horse with nawthin' to dilute it sthronger 
thin th' hateful ilimint that floats their 
ship. Be hivins' askin' a sailor man to 
dhrink wather is like askin' a railroad 
injineer to ate th' right iv way." 



38 



General Vote for Officers 



OF THE 



United Brotherhood of Carpenters 
and Joiners of America 



Jfia CarpQntQF 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON TABUI^ATING THE VOTE 
FOR GENERAI, OFFICERS 



Indianapolis, Ind., January 23, 1915. 
Mr. James Kirby, General President 

United Brotherhood of C. and J. of A., 

General Office: 

Dear Sir and Brother — The Tabulating 
Committee elected at the Eighteenth 
General Convention to compile the vote 
for the general officers met at the Na- 
tional Headquarters on the morning of 
December 15, 1914, and organized. Thos. 
Gilmore was elected president and E. H. 
Neal secretary. In compliance with Sec- 
tion 24 of the General Constitution we re- 
spectfully submit our finding. 

The official returns were given into our 
charge by General Secretary Duffy with 
the envelopes unopened. Some of these 
envelopes contained checks, bank drafts 
and financial reports which were turned 
over to General Secretary Dufi'y. In this 
connection we respectfully suggest that 
Lhe financial officers of the Local Unions 
conduct their official business through 
other channels than in the official elec- 
tion return envelopes, which the General 
Secretary is not permitted to open. 

The following named candidates were 
elected: 

James Kirby General President 

Wm. L. Hutcheson. . .1st Gen. Vice-Pres. 

Arthur Quinn 2d Gen. Vice-Pres. 

Frank Duffy General Secretary 

Thomas Neale General Treasurer 

T. M. Guerin G. E. B., District 1 

D. A. Post G. E. B., District 2 

John H. Potts G. E. B., District 3 

James P. Ogletree. . . .G. E. B., District 4 

Harry Blackmore G. E. B., District 5 

W. A. Cole G. E. B., District 6 

Arthur Martel G. E. B., District 7 

After due consideration the committee 
decided not to allow the vote of Local 
Union 231 to stand, as the returns gave 
a uniform vote of 55 to each general offi- 
cer, while the ballots gave 85, thereby 
defeating "the intent of the voter," whose 



interest is protected by Section 24 of the 
General Constitution. The recording sec- 
retary stated under date of January 5 
and over the seal of the Local Union, 
"that two members had crossed all the 
rest of the candidates that were not voted 
for." 

By mutual consent the ballots of Local 
Union 676 were disallowed for the same 
reason as stated above. An explanation 
was asked and the reply received stated 
that "the tellers had found four ballots 
that were left in the hat after it was 
over." 

The returns of Local Union 373 dis- 
played a cross mark after the names of 
the first five candidates, while the bal- 
lots showed eleven votes cast. As these 
returns did not voice "the intent of the 
voter," they were marked defective. 

The vote of Local Union 755 was set 
aside, as but one vote had been recorded 
for each candidate. "Fifty-seven mem- 
bers voted aye to this proposition and 
none against," according to a written 
statement upon the official return sheet. 

Local Union 1687 cast 28 votes jointly 
for the two candidates for the General 
Executive Board from the First District 
and 36 for the two candidates from the 
Seventh District. This Local Union had 
but twenty members in good standing in 
November. 

The following returns were blank: 

Local Union 845, Local Union 1477, Lo- 
cal Union 1711, Local Union 2547, Local 
Union 2549, Local Union 2634. 

By order of the committee note is made 
that Local Union 575 was notified of the 
error in their official returns, but request 
for a reply was ignored. 

A large number of locals did not 
specify the date of election. Blank affi- 
davits were sent in each case, many of 
which were returned without being prop- 
erly attested by a notary. All of these 
locals are specified below. 



40 



Tfia Carpontor 



—The Vote— 

For General President. Second District. 
James Kirby 38,759 D. A. Post 36,445 

For First General Vice-President. ' Third District. 
William L. Hutcheson 38,144 j^^^ ^ p^^^^ 3g gg2 

For Second General Vice-President. 
. ,, . ^ . ory QQ7 Fourth Dlstrlct. 

Arthur A. Qumn . 37,837 

James P. Ogletree 36,815 

For General Secretary. 
Frank Duffy 38,340 Fifth District. 

^ ^ , _ Harry Blackmore 36,553 

For General Treasurer. 

Thomas Neale 37,656 gj^^j^ District. 

-For Members of the G. E. B.- W.A.Cole 36,234 

First District. Seventh District. 

T. M. Guerin 28,981 Arthur Martel 31,675 

Walter S. McPherson 11,952 R. Lynch 8,672 

Respectfully submitted, 

THE TABULATING COMMITTEE, 

THOS. GILMORE, President; 
JULIUS SCHARNEK, 
W. E. HEMSELL, 
FRANK DAVISSON, 
E. H. NEAL, Secretary. 



41 



GQ 

(—1 

O 
» 

o 
o 

H 

o 
> 

o 

Eh 
t^ 
t) 
OQ 

03 



o 






qj9 












HONAl *H 



aaXHVK "HilHJL^IV 



aaoo 'v MvmiAv 



a>IOP\[3^v^a a^^vh 



eC05i-Ht>OOC0L0l0r-ll0l0l0CSiHC0Oe<DTH 
•^ (M 1-1 eC r-l tH 



OilOiHT-KMOON-"* 
t- CO -i-l -"i* 



OlliSiHiHCOOt-CqiO 
eCiHNCO'^IMtNKN'* 
C-05 i-H -^ 



• «Dioi-i(Nooeocoec 

•C0C0C0COC<liHiH?O 



aanxaioo "d sawvf 



SXXOJ H NHOf 



coT-KMec^iMi-ieo-* 

t- CO iH -* 









xsod v a 



NOS^iaHd^H s >iaxivM 



1ST 



Nraaao k u 



05 lO (M CO CO O O 00 «0 • • 05 lO O iH 05 T)< CO «© 
CO 1-1 ,H CO "* <M IM 00 -^ • • 00 CO CO CO (M iH 1-1 CD 
C- CO iH -* • • iH 



OOi-liriT}<IMi-loqcOU5kCJO«DT]<«DO«Cii-ICO 
lOOJiHiHOO «0 COCOCOIM i-l (M 

CO 1-1 



U3iaiOOt-Oit>Tj<lOi-tOO«Ot-t-05i-(OiCOOO 
00 05 iH CO 1-1 iH 00 Tf Tj< Tf ■<* t- O CO CO CO i-(ia 
CO 1-1 iH CO 1-1 1-1 






a^vaM svimohx 



05u:)oocc«Di-it-oo«o 

COi-ICOCO-^IMlOCO'* 
t- CO 1-1 -^ 



•05iOOSi-lt-<XiCO«0 

■oscocoeocoiHiHco 



XjB]9I08g 
(BJ9II8f) 



Aaaaa i^Nvaa 



CJlOiHTftOi-liHt-C- 
COi-ICOCO-^COt-COTjf 
t-CO iH -^ 



•«OIOOCOCO«DOOOS 

•oseoeocoeOT-iiH?C' 



lBJ9a3f)pn^ 



NNiaO v "aanx^v 



osioco-^c-ooous 
coiHcocc-^cocoeo-* 

t-CO iH ■<* 



■ coioo(Mot-eoeD 

■ i-icocoeoooiHT-i«o 



•S9JjJ-90r\ 
JBJ9U9£) ISJ 



NOSaHOXQH T MVmiM 



OjUitr-'^?DiHOoo«o 
ecHcocc^Cvit-co-* 



•iHlOOCOiHt-eOO» 

• 05eococoeoT-iiH«© 



jn9pTS9JjJ 
JEJ9U9£) 



Aa^Di sawvf 



O>lOC--^00i-l-^t-"* 
COiHCOCO-^COOOCO^ 

t-eo tH rf 



■ coioocoeoc-ooo 

•OCOCCCOCOrHiHt- 



HaawiiN NOiNn tvoot 



T-(Coco'*io«ot-ooo50i-ie-]eo-*ici«ot-ooo» 



42 



o 






^i9 









P-Ig 









jajnsBaJx 



yEJ9U3f) 



•S3JJ-eOT^ 



HONAl H 



aaiHVW >iaHXHV 



aioo "v PMvmiM 



a^oi\i:aovaa a^thvh 



aanxaioo d saKTvf 



SiXOd H NHOf 



JLSOJ v a 



N0S>iaHd3i\[ s ^axavAv 



Nraaao w i 



aivaN sviMOHx 



A^ana xMVHa 



NNIflO V HflHJL>IV 



i-icooo5t-o:>ooutiLn(M05THeococ<ic-<Mt-ooo 
(Moqc<ic<icDt-^T-ieo^(Nuti(Mi-i^T-i-<*T-iecoo 



T-l oa C«3 CO lO 5C eo T-( CO (N t- <N O (M (M CO rH 00 CXD 



CO?C>i-ieOOO«OCO«Dt-0<f0005eOCOlOO(Mt-(Mt- 

o<icg(Meo«Dt-iOiHeo-^eo'*(Mi-iTi<(N-^r-ieooo 



OOCOOC05£>OOU3000>(MOOOCOeOlCeOCvIt-C<IO 
(N(NiHC0?Dt-l^TH00'*C0lO(MiH'*(M-*i-HC0O5 



(M<:Dr-ieooooeot-ii5C<iTHOscoeo<Noo(Mt-THC5 

C<IOa(NeOiX>00U5r-ieO-<*CO'^(Ni-l-*'rHrl<'iH00C0 



•S9JJ-90T^ 



NOSaHOiQHl PMVmiAV 



jnapisaij 
|Ejaua£) 



Aanra saMvf 



■aaawnM NoiNn ivooi 



Oi-HCdeo-^vncDt-oii-iojeo-^iotoc-oooiTHco 
c<i(M<M(M<M(M(M(N(Mcococoeoeoeoeococo-^Tj< 



43 



o 






V9 












p°e 






HOMAl •>! 



aaxHVK "ariHXHV 



aaoD 'v MvmiM 



a>ioiM:sovaa a^thyh 



aaHJLaioo d saMvf 



ioLO«:iio^oocoi-i'X3(M'n<t-oc£)i-Hi-iTjf«Dcooo 

^ T-H ^D CO Oq t- lO C^ lO 00 1— I CO 1— I <» 00 UT) lO CO cc 



SXJ.OcI 'H NHOf 



iSOJ 'V a 



NOS>iaH J^H "s "aaxavM 



Nraano 'k "x 



^LOiOOO^t-COIMCO'^-^OOClCOT-IUStOCOOO 
'Tf 1-1 iX> CO M C~ LO (M lO 00 r-l CO 00 O lO lO <X> CO 



t-cocot--^(Moo«:>coot-oo«otDiooooTH05 

CO «P (M LO 05 1-1 lO ^ O 00 lit) ^ CO CO CO CO 



j9jnsBajjL 



aT[VaM SVMOHX 



iOLOLC)oqcoc5couot-in>-^(Moooooc<i«:it:~ co1> 

■r}< i-( CD ^ C<1 t- ira C^] lO 00 -^ CO t- t- lO lO CD CO 



XjBJ9J09g 
]BJ8U9£) 



Ajl>iaa 3MV^^ 



•S9JjJ-90T^ 
lBJ9n9r) pnj 



NNinO "V -HaHXHV 



'S9Jj;-90I^ 

IBJ9xi9^ ;st 



NOsaHOxriHi ivvmiM 



LOlOt-CD^THCOCDO-^^t-OOOOCOOii-lLOtD 
t3<t-iCD-*C^001OC<1 uOOOCN CO^i-l 00 as LO CD CD CO 



jn9piS9J(J 
IEi9U9£) 



Aa"ara s^Kvf 



•^-^CDCDCOOCOI^-'^LO'xt'OOOOascDOiO-^OO 
^ 1-1 CD -^ C<1 CO LO C<1 ^H LO 00 ^ CO 00 O LO tD CD CO 



HaaKAN NOINn IVOOl 



LOCDC^OOCiOC^lCOi^LOCDOOOiOi— lOJCO-rfLOCD 
-^■^Tjfi^-^IOLOIOLOLOIOIOLOCDCOCDCDCDCOCO 



44 



« 
o 
M 

> 

"5 
o 

01 
!«! 

2 

a> 

a 






HONAT H 


tHLOtHi— (Tj^Cl^ •CO^T'C-T— IOOt— I-^^IOlO^OtT 
tH ^ CO • tH (M ,H(M 


qaJL^VM ^QHXHV 


(MOiDeOlOi-IOrHCOrHlOOCClOStOt-NiHt-CO 
C- i-H CO -^ CO OS O tH -^JH T-l lO C- CD C<I T-l 1-1 05 Tf C<1 
tH ,h tH 


qi9 


'Rl.OD Y WVmiM 


05C0I>t-tX35t-(N-^tDC0r-l(MOC0Ot-C<ias00 
^7-l^(MC005^THUSTHlOt-0(N(Mi-lTH05u:)CO 

1—1 1-1 1-1 




a^OMSOvia A>i>ivH 


O'^C-CDt-i-l-rlfCgiOCOeOiH-rl^iHcOi-IC-t-C^lt- 

ioi-i-^(Meoot-rHioTHin)t-0(M(Mi-<i-iC5<r)(N 

T-l iH 1-1 1-1 




aa^xaioo d saiMVf 


i-icot-ix>«:>ooococD<x>coi-i'*THeoi-it--^oit- 

lOiH'*(MCrO-<*iHlOi-llOt-0(MC<li-li-(a3lOC^ 
1H iH iH iH 


p-ig 


SiiOJ H NHOf 


c<iLot-t-ccoio(Nmcocoi-i-^cocoiHC~^oo5 

l0iH-^(MC0O-r}<i-ll0i-imt-O<MCMi-li-ia5CD<M 
iH iH 1-1 1-1 




xsoj v a 


C0C0C-irSCDt-C0(NtDCDC0i-l?OO5COiHt:-in)i-l00 

iOi-i^(Meoo-^i-iicii-iLrat-oiH<MTHiHas?0(M 

iH iH 1-1 iH 


1ST 


NOSHaHd^K s ^axavAv 


lO 00 CO CO IC t- 00 -00 -1-1 • CO C- C- CO CO 1-1 CO 00 

lo ^ • • • eoi-i 1-1 CO -* 


Ninano "w 'x 


osc-oso-^iooocoosoocoi-imcgcoco^THuio 

CD CO ■* CO CD iH 1-1 ^ 1-1 CD t- CD 1-1 1-1 00 CO (M 
i-t iH iH 


J9jnSB9JJ^ 


aivaN svKOHx 


CO'^C-COOOlOC-Ot-t-lOiHOl^'^tNt-OilOoo 
lOiH^COCOO^i-OOrHint-OCNKMiHTHOCDCO 
1-1 1-1 1-1 iH 1-1 


XJB19J09S 
|BJ9U3f3 


Aa^na 3NV>ia 


t-mt-iHOOOiCOCOCDCD^iHOSCO'^IMt-OCOt- 
L^TH-*COCOOL01-^lOTH10I^-0!M(Ml-ll-ll-lt-c^ 
1-1 iH 1—1 1—1 1-1 


IEJ8U90pU2 


NNiaO "V >mHXHV 


uscot-oooa5CD(MCDCDiOi-ia500Tj<c<it-moit- 

U5iH-<*00e0O-^THl0i-ll0I:-O(MCgr-liHrHCD(M 

1—1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 


•S9JJ-90Iy\^ 


NOSaHOXQHT MVmiM 


00C0C-0500(MOC<JCDCDCD,HO00-^(Mt-iH0000 
lOi-irJ<(MCOiHlOi-lu:)iHlCt-i-lC<ICgi-li-li-<COC\] 
1-1 iH 1-1 tH r-i 


JU9piS9Jj; 
|EJ9U9£) 


Aa^ra sawvf 


iHe0t-OSt:-'*Oi(Mt-C-CD,-tlO00-*(Mt-THi-IC- 
CDi-<^(MCOiHt-i-llOiHin)t-<NIMC<]i-<i-l(MC-<M 

iH i-( 1-1 iH 1-1 


Haa 


wnN noinu qvooT 


































t^ 00 05 o 1-i c<i CO ^' iri c^ 00 OS o c<i ■^" i^ «d' c--' oo' oi 

CDCDCDt-t-C-t-t-t-C-t-t-OOOOOOOOOOOOOOoO 



45 






HOMAT H 



aaiHviM >inHx>iv 



-"^ooosa^i • 00 CO th Oi o ic 00 • <n • go «d <d l:) r)< 

iH . C<I(M CO • eo • 



qi9 



aaoo 'v KvmiM 



o 






a^ioioovia a^thvh 



m r-f^OSOO t-OO OiO OCO eO'^CXJOOiaOS 'lO-Tlf 

00 t- iH CO oi th Tt i-KM CO (M t- th 00 th (N eo ••^N 






aaHxaioo d sawvf 



P-Ig 



S1J.0J H MHOf 






vLsoj v a 



Nos>iaH<i3i\[ 's >iaiavM 



o>Ti<us • • CO 1-1 Ti< ?o w* lo -in • t- CO CO 1-1 -^ 






Nraaao 'n '± 



(M -^ eOUOlH-^rH -<* iH la l-H iH 


• oo t-«oo 

• iHOi eo(M 



jBjauaf) 



aivaN svwoHi 



IBjauar) 



Aaana sNvaa 



050Tj<05U:iOOOJO>COCOt-i-f^aiOS«DCOO«J«0 
eOt-T-ieOOT-(T}HrH(MtDeQOO'r-IOOi-IC<l'^TH-^<M 






NNinO 'V ^laHiHv 



OOt-Tt<05<MOOOi05eO'*«00'^U50S«OTj<0«OT)< 
eO«OT-ie0O>TH-^iH(M«OC^00iHCSiHW<*i-f>*(M 






NosaHOxaH t KvmiM 



OOOO-^OSOiOOOiOSlO-^lCiH-^WOOeDC-O^DtO 
COeDTHCOOtH'5)<r-l(N«D<NOO'rHOSTHC<l"*TH-^C<l 



juapissjj 
jBiauajt) 



Aa"ara sawvf 



ON-^OSIMOOOOSlO'^lOO'^OOOOLOt-OmCO 
COt-T-ieOOiH"*TH(M?OCOOOi-IOSi-IC<I-^T-(->*(N 



^aaiMaN NoiNn ^voo^ 



Or-f*lO«C>t-l3SOeO'^m®OOOSO'-tC<!COU3tD 
OSO><3>050SC5050000000t-ItH,-I'-ItHtH 



46 






HONAT "a 



laX^IVW ^HHX^IV 



i-tasc^ioooeoTHf-i-^i-iwco so «£> t- co oo ic th im 

CO (M CO Oi 1— I 00 kO (N (M t- to CO 05 CO (M »-l (M CO 



HJ9 



a^o^ v wvmiM 



THOOJCO-^-^LOtDOt-CJiCOCOtOOOlOCOCOOiDa 

cococo ooi— lojiococ^i osoo^Oico-^T-HCDco 



o 



HIS 



aHowiHovia A>iHVH 



iHO(Mioc-{NiOLoa5^a3cooiooo^coiococ<i 
cococo 00 1— I oi Lo CO c<i Ci 00 CD o CO -^ th t- CO 






aaniaqoo J sawvf 



•iHOCvICDt-^lOt-Ot-OSLOLOCOTH-^COLOt^C^I 

cococo 00 T-H as ic CO (M Oi oo co o co ^ i-n t- co 



V^2 



SiXOi H NHOf 



T-iooaict-coLocDcrjt-ait-oooot-'^T— icDcoco 
cococo 00 >— I C5 LO (M c<i oj 00 CO ai CO ^ 1-1 00 CO 






xsod Y a 



T-IO(MC0CD-:l<L0C0oO0iLt5OC0t-^C0CDiH'Tt< 

COCOCO 00 T-i as ut) CO <M Oi 05 co as co -* i-h t- co 



NOSnaHd^H S HaXlVAV 



1ST 



Nraano m a 



T-IOC-LOCOOi-HLOOai-^C-COtOCvI^t-t-lOCM 

cocotM oOrHaitrac<i-i— I t-coioascoi— irnoqeo 






aavaN svmohj. 



i-io(M5ooo-^LCi'^ocDCsb-aiOLO^u:)t--^(M 
cococo 00 T-H OS lo CO c<i as oo c^ o co "^ t-i oo co 



XjBjaioag 

^BJ9n8f) 



Xddaa HNV^a 



THO(Mu5as-*iriOTHt-05LCioooo^-^t~coco 
cococo 00 T-i as CD CO o] as os cd r-i co ■* i-n oo co 






iHOT-icooscoioasoc-ascrsasoot--^'n<t-r-iLi:2 
MWin^^ *V yrfTH T NV cococo oorHOsioooiM osoocdoco-^ihc^sco 



•S9J[J-90I^ 
IBJ9U9£) }SX 



NOSaHDXaH "T MVmiM 



1— locvicooeoii^coocDasosooost-LocDt-oio 

CO CO CO OS rH 05 IC CO OJ OS 00 CO O CO -^ 1-1 OS CO 



JU9piS9JJ 
IEJ9U9^ 



Aa^ra sawvf 



r-<O(MC0OTt<u:)t-iHt-0SC<I0SO(Mrtiu:i00i-lir5 

COCOCO OS 1-1 OS lo CO c<i o oo t- ih co ■* th o eo 



HasKfiN noinu avooi 



Cr-OOOSi-l!M^lOCDt-OSOi-l(MCO^lOCOt-OOOS 

tHiHi— i(M(MC<ioa(M(Mc<icocococococococococo 



47 






HONAT "8. 



lai^VIM >iaHl^V 



q»9 



aaoo v iMvmiAV 



o 



Ills 



a>ioiM:sovia ahhvh 






aaHj.3ioo d saMvf 






SiiOJ H NHOf 






isod v a 



CO CO CO T-l CO Ut> LC 1— I 1-H 1— I O] i-H m tH t> t- CO 



NOS^iaH J^IM 'S >iaxiVM 






Nraano "k 'x 



"t.OOtDO^t-'^lOO(MCO(MC<!eOi-IOOU5COt-a3 



|BI9n3£) 



aivaN svivoHX 



ooi-icoco<Moo^i-icoeo(Mc<iomTj<oio05ici> 
c- CO 00 1-1 CO -^ in i-H i-H T-i (N 1-1 lo -i-i T-H «E> CD eo 



AjBjsJoag 
IBjauajT) 



A>i,ana 3NV^>I 



oococo'^fMoo-^iocDcooJcqc-m-^eoiocoot- 
t> CO eo i-H CO -^ lo 1-1 th T-ico th lo i-it-t-co 



•s9jjj-eoT Y 



NXLiO 'v >iaHX"av 



OOOd-^eOOQOO-^COmcOIMCOt-LO-^OlONlCt- 

C-COCOtH CO"^ICi-ItHt-IC<Ii— llOl— ll— It-t-CO 






NOsaHOxriH 'i iMvmiAv 



t-coio-<*c<ioomco50co(M(Mt-moaom-«*<Moo 

c~coeoi— I eo'^ini— ii— ii— lOdi-iiOi-^i-iot-oo 






Aa^ira saKVf 



00L0C0-^C<lOCC>^C0C0Cvl(Mt-'*-^O^'*t0C- 

c~ CO CO 1-1 CO -^ LO 1-1 1-1 ^H (M 1-1 in 1-1 ^^ c- t- CO 



■aasKaN noinq avooi 



c5i-ic<ico"^m'X)t>coOii-i(Mco-^inicc~oooi-i 
-i<i*-^-5ji-^T^'*-^'^-'*LnmminLn>nmincoco 



48 



mi 



HON AT H 



TaX^IVM ^HHX^IV 



ocoioto 'C^iOt-i-^cocolocdco -o^ooooa 

1— i Cvl- CO t-H tHi— I -rf-i— ( C^ICO'— ' 



oot--^(M-*oo5ocoooa5ooi-iOi-ioo«ooo:)c» 

(M CO C~ 1— I LO -^ 1-1 ■<* (M lO ,-( rH O Oa •<* tH CO Tl< CO 



m9 



aTOD V MVmiAS. 



o 






a>ioM3Dvaa a^ivh 






aanjLaioo d sawvf 






SXiOi H NHOf 



IPPISTQ 

P«2 



xsoj v a 



r-(THC005T-ILOC-T-llO(NC-cO'HCO<MlO(M-^t-tO 



«0005<iDTi<,-ILOOt-T-l(McO^':Oi-IOOCvl(M'!tCO 

THTHC0OSlHLOt~r-tlOCOt-00i— ICO(>aLO(M-<3'C~LC 



«OOOiC<I-Tjf,-llOOt-OUOcO«OI>THOSi-(IM<lO-^ 

iHi— icocsi— (ict-THincot-coTHcocoLooa-^t-io 



U3O0i00-^T-IL0O00i-IC0C<|CC>C<lT-H00C<l0Q00t~ 

i-HiHcoooi-HLot-THLocot-cO'— l■^(^^m(^^■^t:~^o 



?ooo>c--^(rq-<i<a>oooco-<*«D«OTH«OTH(Moo>o 

iH iH 00 O^ i-H us t> IC CO O CO tH Tt< Od UJ cq -^ t- lO 



Nos>iaHd[3w s ^aiiVAv 






Nmaao k 'x 



in (M th th • CO 1-1 CO CO th t-h -rt< 00 lo th (m t- iH CO ix) 

1-1 1-1 CO -coco (M CO 1-1 CO 1-1 C- (M tH 



tOOOOOlOi*0500t-U50C-0500COOOCD(MOOC» 
iH IM ?C> 1-1 iH "* CO CO CO 1-1 CO (N lO iH O lO CO 



IBjauajT) 



aivaN svwoHX 



mTHoso'^(Mt-oa5THT-ieo«DooiH(MCvic<ii-i05 

THi-ICOi-lTHlit)OiHlOCOC-COi-ITt<(N?D(M-^OOLO 
i-l(M tH LO 



XjBjajoag 
IBjauaQ 



Aaaaa XNv^ia 



lOoas-^Tjt-^oooosi-it-c^iuDmi-KMcoodi-io 

T-l CO C5 1— I lO C- 1-1 lO CO t- CO 1-1 to C<1 CO (M -^ 00 ^ 



•S9JjJ-90Iy\^ 



NNiaO V ^IQHXHV 



mocitD-*cooooa:(Nt-coco-^i-i(Ncoc<iT-(oo 
iHi-(e0O5i— iir5t-i-(iccot-eoi-i»oc<i?o<NTii;om 

(M 1-1 IC 






NosaHOxaHT wvmiAs. 



lC05C3S00-^C0C-OOiHmc0C0C<IiHC<lC0(NOCi 

1-1 CO o iH in t- 1-1 CO 00 c~ CO iH in (M «o c<i -^ 00 in 



JU8piS9J<J 
IBJ9a9J[) 



AaHix sawvf 



C0iH05(M'^^C0Oaj<Mt-C0C0'<*iHiHin(Mi-(00 

THTHoOTHi-iint-i-iinGOt-coi-iin(Mco(M-<*ooin 
iH !N 1—1 in 



>iaaiMaisi koinq tvoot 



c<ico-<*int~ooa50'— ic<i-^inioc-ooaiOi-i(Mco 
cDco«ocDco;ocot-c-t-t>t>t-c-t-c-oooooooo 

l-(^Hl— ll— (1— ll— ll— (l— ll— ll— (l— ll-l,— IT-Ii— (■— ll— ll— lT-ll>M 



o 






HJ9 


















|EJ9Uaf) 



XjBiajoag 

JBJ9U9J[) 



•S9JJ-9DI^ 



•S9JJ-9DT^Y 
JBJ9U9£) }Sl 



jn9piS9JJ 
lBi9U9J[) 



IIDNAT •■» 



laxHvw >mHx>iv 



aaoD v KvmiM 



aHOwxovqa a>ihvh 



aanxaioo d sawvf 



SXXOJ H NHOf 






i^oeococ^iciirjcacoecoooo-^Tfi-ioseoojt- 



NOS^iaHd-'w s ^laxavAv 






LC CO CD lO C<1 Oi LO (M CC 00 OO O 00 -^ t- 00 Oi 00 Oi t> 

aTVa M S'VIAIOH T co-^coi-reiOT- ir^r-iT-iiXKMco^iratMioiMT-i c- 



Aaaaa :MNV>ia 



NNinO v "aoHx^iv 



NOSaHOXQH T MVmiM 



Aa"ai>[ saiMvf 



^ OOtO C~(M05l0(N000000aiC-^t-'<*O00CiC~ 

OO^COiOLOi-ll-lr-lT-HlXltMlO'^LOlNlinCO'-H c^ 



^laaiMnM noinq avooT 



■^COt^OOOiT- ((MCOLC^t-QOCSOT-icvlOO^C^OC 
XlOOOOOOOOCiOi0505C50505050000000 
_i^H_i,_i_(,_(,_(,_(T-l-H,— I— li— (CvlC\lcVlCMC<l(MCM 



5U 



K 



o 






qj9 









tPPlSIQ 



P«2 



ppjsia 



H3J9U8£) 



AjBj9ioag 

IEJ9U3Jr) 



•s9Jj-9orY 

]BJ9U9r) puj; 



•S9JJ-03T Y 



;n9pis9Jj; 

JBI9n9£) 



HONAT ■>! 



^ax>^VI^[ nriHi^iv 



aiOD "v iMvmiM 



a>iOH:Hovia a^>ivh 



aa"axa^oo d sanvf 



SXiOd "H NHOf 



xsod "v a 



KOSHaHj^M s >iaxavA\ 



Nraaao "w "x 



aavajsi svkohx 



Aaana ^iNvna 






(Noooooocot-oo(Mt-T-ic»oocoio<ri->ii<co«ooo 
t-i-HOs t-Loeooji-Hin^'— iiot-icd irii— ii-iim 



O 00 00 00 <M ^ 00 <M t- 5J0 00 O 03 CO lO '^ -^ CO ^ 00 

NNIQO "V "HflHX'HV c-i-HOi t-tococ<i»-i-^'»T-i-^T-H?D loi-ii-((m 



rH C- t- 00 (N r-l 00 (M C~ t- 00 O 00 CO CD ?£> -^ CO CO oc 



Aa^ira saMvf 



^aaMHN NOiNQ avoox 



050r-(C<ico^iocDt-oo05<M-^Lreooo(Mco;Dt- 

Oi-li-l-rHT-(-!-lT-(i-lT-l,-li-H!>aC<lCMOClCOCOCOCOCC 
OJ O-l (>] (M CO C^ C^l O-l CM (M !M OJ !M (M C-1 M (M Ol CM (M 



51 






qJ9 






PPJSia 



ppjsia 



p°e 



ippjsia 



HON AT H 



lai^vw >inHj.-av 



310D 'V KVmLW 



a>IOIM5IOVia AH>IVH 



a3"Hxaioo J sawvf 



SXiOd H NHOf 



oaa5'-<ccLn-g<-^(MC<ic<i-T 



— c<i o ^ CO uf: 



00(M«OCS500lO00-^«O(M(M?Ci-l'i-ieOM00CCIlO«O 
T-H 00 re T-l 1-1 U3 T-H i-l(M 1-1 j-i iH tH lO IM C<1 -^ O N 



isoj V a 



i-ieo-^ (Mi-i-xiiHi-icvii— i^-.,-it-no(MC<iiOT-iDa 



NOs^aaHd^iM s "aaxiVM 



Nraaao 'k u 



J3jnSB9JX 
JEJaU9Q 



aivaN svwoHi 






t- r-( t- O O 00 CO -^ «0 OS CO «£> e<5 T-l CO -"J" 00 OO -^ rH 

XiT>TnfT "VT'VrVM'T ' 1— 'cO'^t-hc<It-iot—ii-ic*3i— it-(i— ii— lu^c^Jd'^'— ICO 



•S9JJ-90I Y 



NNinO v ^riHi^iv 



•S9Jj-9or\ 



NosaHOxaHT wvmiM 



JU9pTS9JjJ 
IEi9U9^ 



Aa^ira saiATvf 



t-(Mi-t0005ii3r(<tCiOieOU5(Mi-lC--<a<00000505 

eg 1-1 



^laawiiN NOiNn ivooi 



00,-lOJCOlO?Ot-Oi— IIMCO-^LOCDOOOSO-r-KMin 
(MC<|OJC<lC<lC<IC<lC<l<M(MC<lC<lC<IOqC<]C<IC<l(MC<lC^ 



52 






m9 






PPJSTQ 






HONAT •>! 



o • CO CO CO c^ Oi lio Oi CO Lo 00 Tf 00 T-H CO 'XI (M to o 



lai^iviv >iaHX>iv 



aaoo v iMvmiAv 



a>ioiM:sovqa A>i>ivH 



t- o 00 Oi t- 00 o t> 05 Oi OS CO «:> T}< "* o i-H .-H o o 

aanxaioo d sawvf I "^^"^ ^t>co^co^.H^ ■^^coco(>j<>a^ 



SXXOJ H NHOf 



pae 



isod v a 



NOS>iaHd=>iM s >iaj>qvM 






Nraano w -x 



J9JnSB9IX 



aavaN svwohx 



XjB)9J09S 



Aaaaa >ixY"aa 



Oieoo5Ccit-eoeooooot-«ocoTfT-ii-iO(M'«i* 
t- tH in th th 00 CO (M -<* eg CO T-i ^ -* co co co co ^ 



•S9JJ-8DIyY 



NNinC) "V "HnHX^IV 



•s9Jj-9orY 

IBi9U90 JS^ 



NosaHDxaH 1 i^xmiAv 



ja9pTS9JJ 
IB19U9J[) 



Aa-Hix sawvf 



OieOOSC<IC-lCOOCOOOCOt>«CiCOCOOOrHi-lC<l^ 
t- iH US i-H tH 00 CO CO ^ CO CO i-H Tl< Tt< CO CO CO CO -^ 



coeoocot-oocoeooococ-co-^-^oocococot- 
00 T-i ?D iH T-i 00 CO CO -^ CO CO iH -^ Ti< CO eo CO CO -<* 



■jjaaiMnN noina avooa 



CDOOC5i-HCOCO'*LO«5c--00050— ICO-^iXiC-OOOi 
(Xi?DCOC~t-C~t-t-t-t-C-C-0000000000000000 
COCOCOtMCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOIMCOCOOlfNIMCOCO 



53 






HDMAT -a. 



aai^YiM HaHX-av 



a; in ■^-•ciC -imoo-^ -^rtocoaicvicMco -in 



q}9 



3a03 "V KVmLW 



0| pujsia' 



o 



a>^ow:s^v^a a^^ivh 



lOK3(MC<JCCi05LntCiOTHa5<M(MiDt-T-lt-0(MOCl 

o CO T-i T-i irt to 1-1 cq -^ c<i CO (M to c- 1-1 1-1 CO T-i CO 

(N to 






a3■HX3^O0 "d S3IVVf 



,-i-*c<icQLna5LoaioooTj<<M;ciOi-4ooo<Mco 

i-i(Mi-li-llO«DiHCCl-^CO^^CO(M«OCSi-Hi-ICOi-'CO 
(M «0 






SXXOJ H XHOf 









xsod Y a 


00 

o 

CO 


CO CO 00 • lO CD O CO O CO CO CO CO 1-1 t> 1-1 CO CO 

i-fi-iic -i-irH-^coi-icococooii-ii-ieoi-ico 

CO 


NOS>iaHJ3IV "S -HaxiVM 


iH 


CO -coco • 00 CO T-l t- lO -* CO O CO CO CO • "* 

CO • CO CO 


Nraano k 'x 


05T}<05C<ic<icoiooooos»j0005^c-aiiO(Ni-ioo 
O5C0 1-1 uti -Tf 1-1 oq CO eoi-i«OTH i-i co ih c<i 

CO 






aavaN svkohx 



/tlBJ9J09g 
IEJ3n9£) 



A^dna MXY^dL 



•S9JjJ-90I^Y 

]BJ9U9o puj; 



KNinO "Y "HflHX^IV 



•S9JJ-90r\ 



NOSaHOXaHT KYmiM. 



jn9piS9JJ 
lBi9U9£) 



Aa^i3 saKvf 



"aaawaN noinh aYOoa 



'-iiOC-OOOJOi-lCOCO'^lOCOt-OOOSC'-''^'^^ 
OiOiOiOlOSOOOOOOOOOOTHTHi-lTHi— I 
'MCOO^COCOCOCOCOOOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOOOCOCO 



54 






HJ9 



O 



tppjsia 






IPPISIQ 



HONAT •>! 



lajLHVM >mHx^v 



3100 'v wvmiM 



aHOiv^ovia ah^ivh 



aanxaioo i sawvf 



SXiOJ 'H NHOf 



• O «© -^ t- iO «D lys C^ • CO LO CO 05 Ol (M C- '^i • -f 

• tH(M tH us (N • (N • 

ot-05«OTi<ioiniooa>orHt-ooooTHmsoo«£>«o 
tH (M th lo -^ t- CO -^ (M (M <M CO th urs n ec 

OI>-*t-05OOM'C-OlCC0i-ll000t0Ok0C0O 
i-lT-im(NlOt-?C>T-i;OTt<C<lTH03C0e0r-liH?DC<l-* 

O'^00t-(Mi^C0"*t-OTl<ei3i-ll0Ot-Ot>«£iO 
■r-tTHlO(M«rit--^DiH<XiTt<(Mi-ie003Ttii-lTH«D<M^ 

O00C0t-0>l0(M-^t-OC0^i-IL0O «D"' O 00 ?o o 

oooc<ii>(Mt>o:i-^c-o-^iOiH-<j<oooiHi:oo 

T-lr-IU5(N<X>t-THTH?DT)<C<li-ICO0O-^T-(i-lt-(N-^ 

OOOTHI>005(MeOI>0'*-<*i-i-liOOlOO?D«00 
i-ti-lli:)C<I«Ot>«OiH5D-^(Ni-(CCiOO'^iHi— lt-(M-^ 

T-H 1-1 US T-l rH O O C» «0 • «0 O (N 00 (N CO IM lO ■«* tH 
T-( (M lO 03 (M • 1-1 1-H CO CO 

05?OTjicoiHt-eOt-m005C0050S05-<*00«C><N<3i 
IC (M T)< LO 1^ CO -^ 03 (M CO tH Tt* (M 

Ot-mt-O-^^U5t-O-rt<5£)iHe0O«£>O(M«DO 
THi-llOOqtDt-^OTHCO-^OaTHOOeO-^i-lrHt-N-^ 

Ot-05t>Or-IOO'*t-0'^«Ci-lTt<i-<CDOOO«00 
i-li-ILO(M«300?OiH'X>-^(MTHeOC0'^THi-lt-C<l'^ 

oooo5t-oioot-Lot-o»jniooc<iot-ooj«oo 
rHiHmofliot-cOi-iOxjfojTHeoeo-^r-ir-ic-cg-* 

OC000t-OO«0'*t-O-^C0r-im(NtDOi-l«DO 
i-lr-ILOOC|CO00'X>iH?O-<i<(Mi-)C0C0Tfii-li-l00(M'* 

OOOOSt-OiHtOLOt-O-^iOiHkOOt-OlOtOO 
^1— IIO(M^CiOCOtHCC'-^C<Ii-ICOCO'^i-Ii— lOOlM-^ 

O r-K CN OO lO ^D C--" CO a> O C^ CO -^ lO ID L--- O 1-1 OJ cc 

(>acQ(Moa<M(M(?cioj(>jcococococococo-rj<-^'*^ 

CO CO C'^ o? oo CO CO CO o•^ CO CO 00 CO CO C'7 Of IT? o? CO ci; 



P«2 



isod v a 



NOS^aHd^K s "aaxiVAv 



tppjsia 



Nraano "w u 






aivaM svwoHi 



AjEJ9J08g 



Adana 3[Nv>ij 






NNiaO "v >inHJL>iv 






NosaHOiaH'T wvmiAv 



jnapisajj 

JEJ9U9Jr) 



AS'ara saiMvf 



>iaaivnjsi noinq ivoot 



55 






o 



V9 









IPPISIQ 






PPISIQ 















HOXAl '"H 



aax-aviM "anHi"HV 



aioo "v KvmiAv 



aHOKXDvaa A^ravH 



aaHxaioo ■<! saKvf 



SiiOJ 'H NHOf 



xsod 'v a 



NOs>iaH J3H s >iaxavAv 



Nraano 'n u 



aqvaN svimohx 



A>iana SxMvaa 



NNiaO 'v -HiaHi-av 



iVOSaHDiaH "T KvmiM 



<M C^ i-H (M CO to <M eg ;C -^ • t- O i-H C- -rf Sfii -^ Tji • 

T-l ^ 1-1 T-( • N tH 

iH C0(Ni-H(NO5 1-1 t- 1-1 ec (M r^ T-l i-H (M CO T-H 
iH 

-^ 05 • (N CO -^ tH • LO 00 to 00 t- <iD CO 50(M <35 (M t- 
1-H -co (MOO • (M t- T-l -^ CO (M 1-1 (N IM CO 1-1 
iH 

^O • 1-1 00 -<* (M • lO 00 «D 00 to t>- CO t- CO 1-1 (N t- 
tH 1-1 -CO 05 00 -Oa t- iH Tt CO <M 1-1 (M CO CO 1-1 

T-i 

-^O • (M O ""J* (M -lO 00«CO5 t- t- CO OOCOOiH t- 
iH 1-1 • CO iH (M 00 • (M t- iH -^ CO N iH CvJ CO CO 1-1 
T-l 

•^1-1 •Tj(O5COC<I<MUt)00«Oi-l00«OCO00->*TH(Mt> 
iHiH -CO <M 00 Cd O IM -^ CO (N T-l C^ CO CO 1-1 

1-1 

TjH o • C£> CO -* O • LO 00 CO T-l 05 CO CO 00 CO O (M t- 
1-1 1-1 -co 03 00 • (N t- (M ^ CO <M 1-1 (M CO CO 1-1 

tH 

lO CD iH CO 00 CO (N lO 00 lO • U5 C- lO (N CO IM 00 CO LO 

iH 1-1 1-1 1-1 • iH CQ T-( tH iH 

OSIMINtH ••OOOeOt-COCOOOOOC-COlM(MIMOO(N 
CO (M • 1-1 CO t- COCO tH 1— l(M (M 1-1 

iH 1-1 

eO<M -CONtPO • COOO con OS t-CO t--^ O CO t- 
iH tH • CO tH (M (35 . (M C- IM -* CO (N T-l (M CO CO 1-1 
iH 

"* (M • ^ in -^ iH iH CO OO COLO CO C- CO t- (M Od '^ t- 
iHi-i • CO 1-1 (M 05 Od t><M ''S' CO Cq 1-1 IM CO CO 1-1 

iH 

TJ<C<I • -^ iHlOON CO OOeONOO t-CO00CO(M -^ t- 

t-I 1-1 • CO iH (M 05 (M t- (M ->«< CO (M 1-1 C<I CO CO 1-1 

T-l 

CO Od ■ lO (M lO Oi 1-1 CO 00 CO (M iH CO CO 00 CO 1-1 ■* t- 
iH tH • CO t-I(M 00 N t- Oq LO CO N 1-1 (M CO CO T-l 

T-l 

rjt Od • CD t- -^ iH iH CO 00 CO (N LO iO CO 00 Tjt 1— I 00 t- 
T-l 1-1 • CO 1-1 IM OS ^M E~ <N lO CO N 1-1 (N CO CO 1-1 
iH 

CO 00 OS O T-i (N LO CD t-^ OO' OJ O 1-5 C<i CO ■^' lO t- OS o 
-^-^fi'^LOlOlOlOLOLOlOlOCDCOCOCOCOCOCOCDt- 

cocccocococococccococoeococococococococo 



JU9pTS9JjJ 
JBJ9U9f) 



Aa"ai:i saiMvf 



■aaaivriNi noinq avooa 



06 



o 






qj9 





















HONAl •>! 



aax^iviv "HfiHx^iv 



aaoD v iMvmLw 



a^GIM:a^v^a a>ihvh 



aa>ixaioo 'j sawvf 



SXXOJ H NHOf 



xsoti v a 



Nos^aHd^PM s >iaxavAv 



Nraaao k x 



aavaN svpvohx 



c<ic-'>*ooju:)ooTt<oviooo5TH«ooect-iHC-T-i© 

N N kni eC N CO -^ 1-1 Tjf 05 « CvJ CC iH IC N tH N 



eocc-^oocNcoiLitiijqoooiNiMiHecic-ot-ooos 

(M (M in 00 CO 1-1 00 -^ tH -^ 05 00 <M CO 1-1 U5 (N t-f i-l 



AjBjajoas 

IBJ8U9£) 



Aaaaa :sNva>j 



eOinOi-lO(NOOOOC<l0005t-t-iHT}<C-Ot-OOOS 

<M (M «o eo 00 1-1 CO •'t 1-1 -^ 05 CO c<i CO iH in cq ih i-i 



•sajj-901^ 

IBJ9U8£) pu^ 



NNinO 'V -aUHXHY 



•S9JJ-30t^ 
IBJ9U9£) JSJ 



NosaHOxaH 'a wvmiAv 



juapisaj^j 

]BJ9U9Jr) 



Aa^ira saPTvf 



"HaawriN noinh avooT 



T-iTj<iot-ooojOT-4(Meo-^5£>t-ooo>i-ic<ieo-^io 

t-C-t-Ot-t-OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOSOSOSOSOl 

eococooococooococococoeococococceocococo 



57 



o 






HJ9 












pug 



PPISIQ 



HOXAl ■>! 



aaxHVK "aaHi^iv 



a^o^ 'v ivvmiAv 



a>iOK30vaa a^^vh 



aa"ai3ioo d saKvf 



SiXOd H NHOf 



"^ ■ iSi \z 



;cc-c<i-^l-~.-^Ol.': -c^ 



^ CO lO CO C<I <0 1-1 • 



T— It— !,—(,— li—IC0^Ht—l'^II5C0C<I'—ll—ICC> ffO'— I 



isoj "v 'a 



NOS'aaHd^K s 'aaxivAv 



Nraano iv u 



jajnsB9JjL 



aavaN svimohi 



|EJ9na£) 



Aaaaa :sxv"Ha 



]EJ9uao puj; 



KNinO 'v "anHi^v 



"S9IJ-90T \^ 



NOSaHDinH"T KVmiA\ 



JU9piS9J,J 
JEi9a9Q 



Aa'ara saiMvf 



■aaaiMnN noixq iydot 



■^c-ooci'-ioaco^t-oooi'-iojco^cc-cioojcc 
05C5a505Ooooooor^T-irH^T-ii-ic<i(Mi>a 



58 






o 



HJ9 












IPPISTQ 

P«Z 






J9jnSB9JJ^ 
|BJ9najr) 



IBJ9tI9Jr) 



•S9J(J-9DI^Y 
]BJ9U9X)pa2 



•S9JjJ-90I Y 



in9piS9JjJ 
IBi9U9r) 



HONAi -a 


iM Lo o CO -v • c- o «» CO (^a r^ c- eo c^ c<i • eo oo lO 

T-H l-H • T-t I— ( • .— 1 


aaiHYw "aniii^iv 


iHCOi-iiou^T-iiot-Tjtiiii-tt-ooac^^cqiMido 
CO 1-1 -^ oa ■^ iH ec oo «d eo co '-h t-i i-i im i-n c<i 


aioo "v KvmiAv 


l005I>t-eOOS<N<MOOOOO-<*0000-^CD(N-^eCIM 
-T(< iH -!j< CC|CO<M'^r-l tH U5 P3 -^ tH l-H i-H CO (M CO 


a^ioioovia a^ihyh 


0>OOOt-rtiOlMiCOCOOO'*t-05'*CDC<I^t-0 

iMi-iio (N-^iM-^iH iH m ec •<* 1-1 th i-< CO (M CO 


aaHxaioo d sawvf 


COOOOSt-eOOINt-OOOOOiXiOOt-TltCDCM^COO 

"■tfi-i-* (MTjH(M'<*i-i iHio eo-^T-i tH-i-i cow CO 


SiX0<3 "H NHOf 


■* 1-1 -^ N-^W^i-l iH U3 CO »0 tH l-H iH CO (M CO 


xsoj v a 


ioooo5t-eoc-(Necoooc»t-cx)o^'^50(Mioin)05 

-* ,H -* (MCO(M-'^l-l 1-4 in CO ^ 1-1 1-1 rH CO (M CO 


xosnaHd^iM 's "aaxavAv 


CO t- 00 t- to 00 lO lO (M lO 00 rji -* «0 -^ (M • O -* -^l^ 

iH C<I ■<-* 1-1 1-1 -^ 1-1 -l-H rH 



Nmano im u 



a^vaN svimohx 



tHT-IOOi-ICOC<It-i-IOOOO«OOOtr-00<NCOIM«C(NiXi 

00 th (M c<i CO 1-1 CO m eo 1-1 1-1 i-ic<i(Ni-i 



AJjna :MNV>ii 



Tj<cD05t-<x>t-(MLOot-eooot-coin)i^(Moot>co 

■<* 1-1 -^ (M CO (M -^ 1-1 (M m CO IC 1-1 1-1 tH CO (N CO 



NNiaO "V ^QHi^V 



NOSaHOXQH T MVmiAS. 



Afl^ra saiMvf 



■aaaHON noinq qvooi 



us^t-oooio-— i-^LO^c-oooi-i-^io^c-aoo 
- - - I -^ -* -* 1!? -t ir; 



CqfMC<If>J(MCOCOOOCOCOCOc6-*-*-^-*"*-i!j'-tlO 



59 



o 

> 
o 

0) 

ta 

Ui 

ti 






HDNAT •>! 


<N (M •O-'tCOOti) --^t-OSt-i-l • rH Ta< i-H OT CO 


lax^vH >inHXHV 


t> icoi 1-1 1- ix> in CO • «ocomi-i th th Oth ?D(M o 

U5 (M 1-1 <M i-H CO (M • (M 1-1 1-1 i-H tH l-H CO i-H N i-i 

1-1 • iH 


ippjsia 

qj9 


aiOD "v lAivmLw 


■^ CO 0:1 CO T-l CO ^ O • 005CO t-COiH 1-10 CD ?oo 
«0 CO 1-1 CO 1-1 1-1 1-1 CO • 1-1 <M CO 1-1 tH 1-1 tH t- 1— 1 (M 1-1 

rH tH • 1-1 




a-aoMXOvaa a^hvh 


ioc<i050ii-iooooeooot-c-coOi-ioot-cDeo 

tDC0iHC0T-li-l(MeOi-li-lcOC0i— li-(i-li-ICDi-l(Mi— 1 
1-1 iH 1-1 


ppjsia 


aa^xaioo d sawvf 


CO iM 05 OS 1-1 00 OS • 00 CO CO iH i-( t- in CO 

CO CO 1-1 CO 1-1 tH tH CO • 1— 1 00 CO 1-1 rH 1-* tH t- i-l(M 1-1 
iH iH • iH 


ippjsia 
p-ig 


SXXOd H NHOf 


-^ CO OS CD 00 00 • 00 CO CO iH iH t> CO CO 

CO CO iH CO iH iH iH CO • iH CO CO iH iH iH iH t- iH (M iH 

iH tH • iH 


ippjsia 

pne 


xsod v a 


-* CO OS c- 1-1 CO iH • 0005 co(N iH iH 00 c- ooeo 

CD CO -r-l -^ tH iH (M CO ■ iH CO CO iH iH iH iH CD iH OJ iH 
iH tH • tH 


ippjsia 


NOS^aHd^iv s >iaxavA\ 


00 CO tH 10 iH CD • CO t> Oi CO tH CO • iH 
(M CDiHrHCO • C<IiH iH,— l-C<liH 


Nraaao w 'x 


05 t- 00 CO (M 05 CO in • t- CO CD iH tH t- t- iH CO 

eoojiHo oc<i • (M^iHtHih ih ih 00 

iH iH • iH 


jajnsB3JX 
|BJ9na£) 


aqvaM svkohx 


OO^OiO(MCftin(NCOO(N(MOOTt<OTHOt>OOCO 

CDCOiHinrHi— lOaeOiHiHCO'^iHiHiHi— IOOtHCOi-I 

,— 1 rH r-l 


AjtBjaJ095 
]Bjau9g 


xdd[\a ^xv>ia 


cgcooiLocooitM-^coococqoo^iHi-iococD^ 

t-COTHiniHiH(M00rHrHCO'^rHrHiHiHC0iH^rH 
rH 1— 1 iH 


•S9J<J-90t^ 

|BJ9U9Q puj; 


NNiaO "V >inHXHV 


O-*CTJinrH0iC0(MC0iHiH0500C0rHiHOt-iHC0 

t-COr-liniHiH(MCOTHiHCOC0rHrHrHrH00iHCOTH 

iH iH tH 


•S9JJ-90TyY 


NosaHOxaH i. wvmiM 


0^a5C-<M05CO-^COiHTHiHOi-<*TH,HOt-t--^ 
C-COrHLOiHiHC^lCOiHi— ICO'^rHrHi— Ir-IOOrHCOiH 

,H rH- tH 


juaptsajj 

IBi9U9Q 


Aanra saiMvf 


rHCDa5COCOOJC<f^COr-IOClC<l05COrHTHOt~00-* 

t^COiHlOrHiHC^ICOr-li— ICO'^iHrHrHiHOOlHCCr-l 

,H iH iH 


1 


IMHN NOINQ qVDOl 


' 






































r-* CO '*' t-' ci CO ■^' in 06 oj -— 1 oi 00 -^ in CO t-' oc oi 
ininininincDc©cocDcot~t-c~c-t-t^t~t-i>L— 



60 



o 












PPJSIQ 



ippjsia 



ippjsia 
p°z 



HONAT •>! 



^ai>^vw ^lanx^v 



aioo "v iMvmiM 



a>IOIO^v^9 ah^vh 



aa^xaioo d sawvf 



SJ.XOJ H NHOf 



xsod v a 



CO O r-l C5 O • Oi (N CO 00 CD 1-1 CO C<l »J^ 00 C- 00 CX) 05 
1-1 t- CO CO 1—1 • 05 tH CO K3 1-1 1-1 -^ ■>* r-< 1-1 0<1 



i-ICOCOOC<3COCOOOT-IOOC0050COOiCiOOO'>* 
(M t- t- t- tH (M tH iH CO IC C<1 1-1 -^ CO 1-1 1-1 ,-( c<I i-( 



i-(COOOO(MCOi-li-li-(i-IOO-^Oi-ICOO^OOlM'«)' 

c<it>t-c-i-i(MC<ii-icomc<!iHLOcoi-ii-ii-iTHeoi-i 



ocDOoc<ieo05i-i-^iHooeoo'^«DOiooo-n' 

(M I> 00 C- (M 1-1 1-1 CO U3 (M 1-1 LO t- i-( rH 1-1 1-1 CO 1-1 



NOSHaHd^iM s "aanvAv 






Nraaao k u 






aivaN sviMOHX 






A>i^na xNVHd 



]BJ8Uar)pU[; 



NNiaO V >iaHXHV 






xosaHOxaH'T ivvmiAv 



jnapisajj 

]Bi8UaQ 



Aa^iM sawvf 



HaaKHM NoiNQ qvooi 



T-i(>]cocot-050i-i(Moo-^Lffcoc-oiOi-ieot~oo 

ooooooooooooo^ciojojosaioicsoiocpooo 



61 






^19 



HIS 






ippjsia 



ppjsia 



ippjsia 



jajnsB9JjL 



AjBjajoag 



■S9JJ-80Ij\^ 



•SaJjJ-931 \^ 
]EJ9U9£) }S| 



jaapis9jj 

|Ei9U9^ 



HDNAT H 



aaxHviv "HiiHi^iv 



3L100 'V KVmiAV 



3>I0I\:>I3Via A^I^VH 



33HX3100 "J saivvf 



SXiOd H NHOf 



xsod v a 



LCO0t--^?C) •(NC<l<MCO<0=CtC>C~ • CT) <£> -lO 



N0S"aaHJ3i\[ 's "aaxavAv 



NIH3.10 'M 'X 



aivaN svivoHX 



;o <iD cvi IT) 00 T-H r-i LO -^ OS CO ^ lo c- -^ CO -^ -nc- 
^ oa oj r-H ,-1 00 • oj 



AddLaa :mxv>ij 



NKiaO v ^inHXHv 



NGSaHOXnHT KVmiAV 



Aa^ra sawvf 



■aaawaM noinq ivooi 



'-l(MOO'^LOcr>C~000^'-IC<l03'^iOOT-(C<l-^t-0 
^tHt-Ii— li-(THi-H-rHrH(MC<IIMC<IC<!O00OO0O0eCTl' 



^2 






HONAT •>! 



aaxHVK HfiHx^iv 



oj ■ rM r-i CO ^-' OJ — ■ i.t ot 



cocoo5<3^<Mioo5c<ioo^ococ-^oooi-(c-a5t> 

T— I"— I 1—1 T— li-H tHCM I— li— It— ICOt-Hi— t eg 



qi9 



aaoo v wvmiM 



r-l 1-1 1-1 tH T-t 1— r tH 1-1 (M (M 1-1 t-I U5 tH t- t-I lO 



HIS 



a>iow:>iovia ahhvh 



00(MOOOMCS](M^a>-<*lO-^^00'^05i-l-^"*c<l 






aanxaioo j sawvf 



'*(NOO(MOO'^eOLOC^l0^ri<OOC005THT3iTj<o 

1— li— I 1— It-Ii-It-ii— I -lOd C<Ii-lrHTj<T-lt-i— ILO 






SXXOd H NHOf 



ppjsia 



PPlsici 



xsod "v a 


■^(N<35(MeOC<>C<ICOOiC<lU5-^-rtioO-i*Oi-l-^lOi-i 
1— li— 1 1— Ir- It— It— It— ( i— IC<1 (NtHt— ILOi— It-i— IIO 


NOSHSHj^iv s >iaxavM 


eo • iH 00 (M U5 in t- -sot- •t-toto^H • -rt* tji Tt< 
ec • 1-1 • T}< • CO 


Nraano -m 'x 


C<lC<IOO-*i-l-^-^t~o:iTHOOiOCOCOt-iOTHlOOTj< 

1— It— 1 1—1 1— 1 1—1 1— It- 1 i— li— IOt— l(>J 



j9jnsBaJx 



aavaN svkohx 



XjBj9ioas 



Aaana ::iNV'aa 



•sajjj-9ot^ 
lEJ9uax)pu^ 



NNinO V >inHX>IV 



]BJ9U9J[) JSJ 



NOSaHOXQH T IMVmiA\ 



jn9piS9J(J 
IBJ9U9^ 



Aa>ira saiMvf 



^aaMIlN NOINU ivooi 



iHC^OOOOOSOCOLO^Dt^OiOi— i(M00T}<iDt-00O5 
u3lOlOlC10LOir5lOLOlOiClOLOLOLOLOlOlOU5LO 



68 



o 



mi 



PPISIQ 



IPPTSIQ 



IPPJSTQ 



tppjsia 



p«e 



HDNAT •>! 



lax^iVH >inHX>iv 



aioo 'v PMvmiM 



a>ioiAi>[ovia AH^VH 



aa>ixaioo d sanvf 



SXXOd H NHOf 



xsoj 'v a 



r£> c<\ oi T-i it: ■ • 1-1 6] in t- ic T-H lo o 00 Ob e^ 



OOt-COOSrHOSLOiHtOOOOOeOOOSOt-tOOiOOt-OS 
r-t 1-1 (M T-H <M "* ec <M Ol 00 iH CO 



tOCO-^C-^MinitCii-llCOOOOimt-OKHDOvlOOS 

iH iH »H 1-1 eo 1-i OQ -^ ■<* 03 1-1 CO in c^ 00 



u:5-^-^00(MlCll0THeCONOTf<t>C<I00t-0SO(M 
tH 1-1 r-( tH m tH (M -^ -^ rH 1-1 00 »-l r-l OO -^ C<I CO 



rHCOOiH -N 'iHN • Ui W lO 'H iH N CJ CO "^ rH 



NOS^iaHJ^w 's "aaxavAv 



IPPJSici 



Nmano 'm "x 



t-o«D(Mcoecmo>o co-oo t-o^eoco-^-^tOi-i 
T-i iH 1-1 m T-i c<i CO CO CO 1-1 iH c<i •>* T-i -^ 



J3jnSB9JJL 



aivaN sviMOHx 



jBjan9£) 



Aaaaa 5[NV>M 



•S9I(J-90I^ 



NNinO 'V HaHX>IV 



•S9JJ-90T^ 
1BJ9U9^ JSJ 



NosaHOxam wvmiM. 



jn9piS9JjJ 

IBjanajT) 



As-am saMvf 



"aaaMaN noinq ^ivdot 



OT-i(NCO'^ioeot-ooosoeo«ot-OTHC^co'*»fi 

t-t-t>t-t-t-t-t-t-t>00000000OSO5O»OSOSO» 

loiciovniCinmioiniomtcioiomuomiouiiO 



64 









i^ 



o 









V^2 



HOXAT H 



iai>ivi^ ■aaHX'HV 



aioo 'v KvmiAv 



anoioovia AuavH 



asHxaioo d saKvf 



SXlOd H NHOf 



CC T-l t> -O • US iO «0 OS 00 00 00 CO <M ■* t- rr -co 

• T-l • 1— I ;0 T-H 

OiOvJt-C<IO-<*W^lCi»^Mt-(Mi-ieOeOir3«OOOC<I 
1-1 M iH oa T-l iH 05 CC N CO <C> 1-1 '-I ^ '-I i-l 

i-ieciiMCT!0-^cci«OTHLtieooooioot-o»'^oo->* 
N i-H ec CO i-H OJ C0 1-1 ;o ec CO -^ «D th th i-H th ih 

T-ICCCCOiCS-^C^Oii-IOS-i-IOOtCXMt-OeOOOlO 
(N tH CO C<1 iH (M CO 1-1 ID -^ CO -^ ^ 1-1 1-1 <M T-l tH 

i-ie0C00>OTl<C<I0ii-IOO00OC0iH050iC000l0 
Oa 1-1 CO CO 1-1 (N CO 1-1 t- -^ 00 -^ tD 1-1 rH 1-1 1-1 tH 

i-ICOCOa>i-l(N(MOOi-IOO(NOOOt-i-lOO:COOOlO 
C<Ji-ICO COi-IIMCOi-l'^TfCO-^^i-lrHi-ii-i 1-1 

1-ieOCOOOCOCOC-i-ICvINOOOi-liHOSOCOOOlO 
IM 1-1 CO CO 1-1 (M CO T-t t- -^ CO -^ «Ci 1-^ 1-1 N 1-1 1-1 

«DO>CO • • • CO C5 N -<* so tH t- OS • t- N O t- U5 
N • • • 1-1 • iH 1-1 

t>-^OC0CS'^(NC00S00C000C0iHlCC0OOi-(O 
1-1 1-1 •<4< 1-1 rH eg CO CO CO CO t- 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 

i-IC0e0(MO-«J<C<Ii-lT-(O0000O<M-^0Si-l-*00lO 
C<l 1-1 CO tH CO 1-1 OJ ■^ 1-1 C- CO CO -^ CO 1-1 T-l 05 tH i-i 

i-ICO'*(MOOCOCOOi-I(Ni-IOOOOt1<OOi-I'3<OOVC 

oq 1-1 CO 1-1 (M 1-1 (M -^ 1-1 1- ■^ CO ■^ t- 1-1 1-1 N 1-1 1-1 

1-1 CO -^ (M iH -<* CO (M • CO 05 05 O CO (M 05 iH I* 00 lO 
(M 1-1 CO iH CO iH oq Tf . C- CO CO -^ t- 1-1 1-1 (M 1-1 i-l 

rHCO-<*(MOS(MCOiHiH-<*00>OOC005i-l-<3<OOli3 
(N i-( 00 iH (M i-l(N "^ i-( C- -^ CO -^ t- tH 1-1 (M 1-1 1-1 

T-4eo-*c<ic<i-<i<cooi-icoiHooo-^(Mt-(M'^oom 

(M 1-1 CO 1-1 CO 1-1 (M •^ 1-1 CO -^ CO •"* t- 1-1 'H (M 1-1 1-1 

t-' OO' OS O 1-! im' Co' •** IC CO O 1-5 (>5 CO ■^' LO CO t-' OS* © 
05050SOOOOOOOi— (tHiHi— li— IrHi— liHi— ICO 

lomiococDcocococDcocococccccocococococo 






xsoj "v a 



NOSHaH J3IV s ^axavM 



1ST 



Nraaao n "x 



J9jnSB9JJ^ 

]Ba9ua£) 



aivaN sviMOHX 



^IBJ9J03g 

jBjauaf) 



Aaaaa iHNvna 



•S9J^-eoi Y 



NNinO v -aaHXHv 



•S9JJ-9DI Y 



NOSaHOXHHT IVVmiAV 



jn9pTS9JjJ 
lEJ9n9£) 



Aa>ira saiMvf 



^laaMflN KOINQ avooT 



65 



a 
O 

1 

3 
O 

-a 
O 


PPJSTQ 


HDMAT H 


O -5f OvI •eOlO --^CO-^ • Tf 00 t- lO (M CO O t- (M 
i-H • • • eO iH 1-1 tH 


laxHViAi >inHx>iv 


(M(M(MlM00THtOO>t-COCaiCHCOrH00O5-<a<(NO5 
C<1 m r-l CS CO CO iH tH tH CO i-< ^ (N '^ i— 1 C<5 i-l 


HJ9 


aioo v Kvr.iiAv 


0>iHlO(M^Tj<,-l(MlMC5000tDOOtD05COC5t-0 
CaiO eOCOCOTH(M(N CO tH OS (N CO 1-t CO (M iH i-H 


HIS 


a^OMXovia A>ravH 


Oin'<l<C<IlCiU3COi-l(MO^THOOC-t-OOt-eOt-(MiH 
C0>O COOOCOtHCJIM CO i-H 0>(M CO iH CO (N iH tH 


ppjsia 


asHxaaoo d sawvf 


O'^^ONUDiOCOINNOiiHOOt-OOiXiOOCOlOOO 
COW> COWciOrHCaCO C0t-1O>(MC0tHC0(MiHt-I 


IPPISIQ 

V^£ 


SXXOd H NHOf 


010t-(M»«lO-*rHeaOiTHC50000C-OCO<X>050 

eoio CO eo CO iH N N co th os (N co or co im th ih 




xsoj "v a 


O-^t-W^mCOOiHOSi-HOOOOt-OiHCOt-OiCvI 
00»O COCOCOiHNN e0THO5C<lTt<C<IC0(NTHTH 


ippisia 


Mos^aHJoK s >iaxivM 


»0 C- t- • ■<*< tH M ?0 T-i NO? •■<J<NCO«OOU3«OlO 


Nraano 'n 'x 


o»co tow iMW cot- oji-Hooi-^ 00 CO rococo •^t- 

i-f"* eCeO(M rH iH iH OS T-4 lO Oa CO NtHtH 




aivaN svKOHJ. 


eocooow^teco-^ojoicviocDooicooeot^oos 
coio coeoeoTHNr-i eo <m o (N co th co (M (n 


AjBJ9J0ag 
IBJ9Uajr) 


Aaaaa 3NV>ia 


Nt-t-N«Dt-«OTj<TiC^COOSCOOiOOSCOOOC<I 
COlO CO CO 00 1-1 d N tH CO iH O (N -^ iH CO CO (N T-H 

r-t 


IBJ3U8X) pu^ 


NNinO V >iaHXHV 


Tl'«0t-CvJ<0l0T(<Tl<,HC<l(MOli3O->*©C000OO 
COU5 CO CO CO iH IM (M tH CO (N O CO CO (N CO C<1 Oa tH 


•S8JJ-90t^\ 


NosaHDxriH a KvmiAv 


TifTjft-OliXilO-tTjti-IOCOOlOOt-OOOT-IOi-H 
COlO CO CO CO iH C<I (N >H CO C^l O CO CO N CO CO (M iH 

1-1 


jngpisajj 


Aa^ix sawvf 


eOt-OSC<I«OU3Kn-*C<I(MCOOilCO>iHT-ICOC<!00 
COK5 CO CO CO tH (M (M T-H CO iH O (N ■<* <M CO CO (N iH 
iH 




^aap 


\iriN NOINQ avooT 


cg-«j'tocot>odoscOLOi^t>o6o50r-5c<5eo-^'«ot-' 
oacgiMoaoqiMiMcocoeocoooco^'*'*-'*^'*-* 



66 





1 
-H 


« 

> 

3 
O 

V 

u 
01 

c 





HOMAT H 


« N iH r-l 00 ■* «0 CO 0> • 0> C- TO O 00 Tf i4< 0^ »0 0» 
r-l • TO tH 




laXHVK HaHiHV 


■^oo-^os^OiHooTHeonf-^toiriTOOs^o-^cMeoos 

iH r-l eq •>* W 1-1 1-1 1-1 «0 T-l T-H 1-1 NlMlM 




q}9 


310D 'V wvmiAv 


COOOOTOTO-^lMTO-^TOC-OOOiHOOi-lOt- 
lHTHTHrHC<lUIiHC<IC<ll-l(MOSi-IC<ITOTHTOC>]TOrH 




qJ5 


a^iOKxovia ahhvh 


000«OOtOTt<Tj<C<ITO-<1'TOTHt-r-IOOOOOit> 
rHi-lr-li-lOllOi-KNOJi-KMOi-KMTOrHTOlMNi-l 
iH 






aanxaioo a sawvf 


OOOWOlOWHiiHTOrPTOOSOOi-liHOONOt- 
i-lrHi-liH(MU5iHeqC^iH(MOSiHC^TOi-ITO(NTOi-l 




P-i£ 


SXXOd H NHOf 


OOOlOOSCt-TOiHOT-isJiTOesIOOi-lr-lOOii-li-lt- 
rHiHi-li-l(N10i-IC<lC<lrHC<IOi-IC<ITOr-lC<lN«i-l 
iH 




P«Z 


xso J 'v a 


OOOU5 0«)«D->!j<(NMTj<TOt-OSi-liHOOiHC^10> 
rHiHiHiHNkCr-IOlC^iHC^OJrHNTOr-lTOWTOrH 






NosnaH j=>H s "HaxavM 


i-l'*OlTOOJiH-*iHNr-ITOt-O5C<I00«O00OJ-*O» 
rH r-l tHiHtHiHTO r-li-1 N 




Nraano *w u 


t-»lOt-lOTOOTOMTOOOO(MTO'*C^T)<0><3S 
OJ "^ i-H T-1 rH rHt-rHrHrH (N rH 




IBJSuaf) 


aivaN svwoHX 


OOOlOOC-TfTONTOinoOCSt-^ONOJOOrHrHO 
rH rH rH rH (M Ui rH N N rH (M O rH rH 00 N (N TO rH 

iH 




itiBjajoag 


A^ana xNvaa 


OSOiOOOOO'^NTOWiTOrHOrHTOOSOCqTOOft 
rH rH rH rH TO U5 r-1 N N rH N rH C<J CO TO TO N TO rH 




•S3IJ-90IyY 


NNmO -v >iaHXHv 


00Ot-TOQ0TO'*(MTOmTO0JOC<lTO05a>TO(M0> 
rH rH r^ rH (M lO i-H (M IM rH (M O (M <N TO <M (M TO rH 
i-H 






NOSaHDXaH -T wvmiAv 


050«50t>t-Tf(NTj<lOTO050rH(M050<N(MO» 
rH rH rH rH CO lO rH (M (M i-H (M O (M C^ TO TO (M TO rH 




JU9piS9JJ 

jBiauar) 


Aa^ix sawvf 


050«OOOOt-TjiTOTO10TOrHOTOC>JO>OTOTOO> 
tH rH rH rH eg lO rH CO OJ rH CO rH CO CO TO TO CO TO r-l 

rH 




HSaJMQN NOINH IVOOT 


















odoSrHTOtOt^OsOrHTO'-^'t-^OOOJ-^USodoJOCO 

T)iTj<iniioiomto«c«o«£>?o;o?ocot-t-t>t-oooo 



67 






HONAT "S 



lax^vw >inHX-av 



T-t • CO iH ©» US iH t- iO » .^c^i-l • t- Ifl iH ec •<» . 



OJ(M03 00COC<l0500«OCCCOT-ICOlOO»«£>'«tiHCOini 
■«*< CO 1-1 tH C<l N tH 1-1 tHC^JtHN «C>C<l'-lrH 



q}9 



aioo v NvmiM 



r-((Mt-(3STfCC05WCO«CCOOOSTt<05«Ol>(MOt- 
e<5 CO iH i-l(N Ol N (N iH-^r-IW t- C^ iH C<I 






a>I0IM30Via A^HVH 



W W 1-1 r-l N (N C<>C^ rH ■* ,H N 1-1 t- C^ iH (N 






aanxaioo d sawvf 



TfC<>t-OiT)<t-05eO-^t-K)i-IOi005D«OIM'^C- 
COTOiHTHIMtM C<1 (N iH Tt (M c^ T-l t- »J tH (M 






SXXOJ H NHOf 



pae 



xsod v a 



i-l(MC-OSTj<,-IO>(M(M00e0(N(Nu:)THCDt-IMeOt> 
COCCiHrHWIM eg (N i-l Tf (M (M tH t- N r-l (N 



«OC<JC-0>lC«60iCO(MQONC<lt-U50CO«OC^U5t- 
COCOiHi-l(M(M (M (M iH tJ< i-H C<I i-l t- N iH C<l 



NOS"aaH<i=>i\i s >iaxqvA\. 



lO-^lOCO -OOSOOOt- • U5 «0 (N CO ■>* t> t- Tj< Tl" 






Nraano im 'x 






aiva>^ svHOHX 



■<*(MD-OSu:it-^IM«D0000rHC0lOO5;DO5C<|-^t- 
CC CO 1-1 tH (M IM i-l(M W iH -^ (M (M t- N iH <M 



^BJ0U9£) 



Aaaaa :>iNV>ia 






NNinO V ^IQHXHV 



•S9JJ-90T^ 



NOSaHDXQH T KVmiM 



lTI9ptS9JjJ 
|Bi9U90 



Aa^ira sawvf 



r-l(Mt>O5Tl<OjTHC0in)00C0e0-^«OiH«Cit-(NU3t> 
•<1< CO iH T-H oa (M T-H IM (M T-l Tji (M (M ,H t- (M T-I(M 



^aai^aN noinu ivooi 



coiaoooi-KMcotooooiOi-ieciosot-ooosOi-t 

0000000i05<3SC50i0505OOOOOOOOrHi-l 



68 



Ui 

o 

oa 

> 

O 

s 

o 




HONAl H 


■^ Tjt Tjt t- w>* o «o 1-1 •«) •ooiHoect-N-^w 

iH r-l -1-1 • (M ^ 


aaXHVW HflHvL^IV 


ir5 00t-Ti<OOt-lOO:CiHOi-lr-lrHOS«£iTl<«000 
rjfNSONOOeO iH C- (M r-1 (M O -^ «0 >H (M iH 


q^9 


aiOD 'v KvmiM 


(N OS • O 00 CO lO K5 t- r-l iH tH OS O lO 00 ■* N T)i 0» 

Tt<(N •coect-T-irH t- 03 T-((N o lo 50 1-1 eg c^ 

tH 




anoNsovia A>iHVH 


lOOS • W 00 t- lO «© t- 1-1 00 1-1 O O (M 00 -^ i-l(N o 
Tjt (M • CO CO t> 1-1 iH t> CO iH CO O lO <£) iH (N <M tH 

tH 




aanxaioo 3. sawvf 


«DOi 'N 00 00lO«O t-iH (M tH 05 tH «D0iTjtC0<NO 
-^IM -COCOt-iHiH t- CO iH (M O lO :0 tH <M (M 1-1 




SXXOJ 'H NHOf 


U5 05 • CO 00 t- K5 «0 t- 1-1 CO tH OS O 1-1 0» -^ M CO O 
->* (M •COCOt-iHiH t- CO 1-1 IM O US «D iH eg (M 1-1 
i-t 


p°z 


xsoj v a 


«oo5 • eg 00 00 lo «o t- 1-1 eg iH 00 CO CO 05 Ti< CO CO o 
-^.cg -cocot-i-iiH i>coi-iego5io«OTH©icgTH 




NOs^iaHd^K 's ^axiVM 


c- lo 00 00 eg 00 -"i* 00 1-1 • o o co i-i -^ o> '"j* eg lo co 

tH .tHt-IiH eg «0 iHi-I 


Ninaao 'n 'x 


«D t- 1- CO oj 1-1 iH 00 «D iH CO iH LO eg -^ 'OOt-t-t- 
Tj4 eg «D iH CO t- th c-cg iho^* • ih 


jajnsB9Jx 
IBJauaQ 


aivaM svwoHx 


ooi>«ocooooio«>t>iHeoiH05cgcoooiocgooo 
-^ eg t- CO ->* t> th 1-1 t- CO 1-1 eg o lo «6 1-1 eg iH iH 

1— 1 


AiBjaioag 
IBjauar) 


Aaaaa sNvna 


ooo«Degi-iegio«ot-i-HcoiH05oocgo5iOT-ioo 
ic eg t- CO -^ 00 iH th t- co th eg os «d «o ih eg eg ih 


•S9JJ-90IA 


nniqO v "aanx^iv 


0504«Deoi-iokc«Dt-iHeoiHoseoiHos-^cgiHO 
■^ eg t- CO -^ 00 T-i 1-4 t- co th eg o ^o «o i-i eg eg i-i 

iH 


•S9JJ-30IA 
IBi9U9r) js| 


NosaHoxriH t wvmiM 


ooo5?oeoTHOoiLO«ot-i-icgiHooocoosioegcoo 
■^ eg c- CO •«# t- iH iH t- CO iH eg o CO CO th eg eg th 

T-l 


JU9pTS9JjJ 
lBJ9U9f) 


Aanra saiMvf 


oso>50coTHO»m?ot-i-ieoiHoo>oooioosego 
rj< eg t- CO -^ c- iH T-i c- CO iH CO OS CO CO iH 1-1 eg 1-1 


^aai 


^QN NoiNQ ^v^o^ 






























eg co' rjl CO OS CO -^ CD OS Oi-I cg'-^'coodoTHcgco-^ 
THi-iiHr-ii-icgcgcgegcococooococo-^'^'^'^'^ 
t-t-t-t-t-t-c-t-t-t-t-t-t-c-t-t-c-t-t-c- 



69 






HONAT '^ 



lax^iviM >inHx>iv 



rH 0> eO -^ tH T-H »a -^Jt • N iH OS CO Oi t- O iH «0 T-H 



laeooot-irswcc-^NTiftDt-^otec-c-oosDoo' 

N N iH t- CO tH 1-1 iH tH CO iH 1-1 N CO iH 1-1 r-l iH 



H»9 



aioo "v iMvmiM 



•^(M-*COOO«OOJt--<1'OOlCi«OOCCi-lt-«DTtcOOO 

c<ieoi-it-eoi-ii-trHT-(NiHC<icocooac<i<Ni-ii-i 



o 






a^ioPODVia A>ravH 



ifiicgiocooot-iH«Dioasio«Dasc<iiH«D«oiniooo 

(MeOT-(t-COiHC<li-liHNiHC<l©lCCCv|(MNTHN 






aanxaioo "d sapvvf 



(NCOi-lt-COi-INi-dHNTHCQCflCONNNi-li-r 



ppjsia 



SXXOd H NHOf 



tON-^cooo^oNooioosiooojioot-eoteoooo 
oacoiHt-coTHNiHi-iNiHCviNcoojeqNi-ii-t 



p°e 



xsoi "v a 



-^(N-^COOJt-Nt-loasUitOOJlOOt-C-lOOOO 
(MCOTHt-eOi-IC<liHrH(NiH(M(MCOINM(NT-li-l 



NOs^iaHJ^K "s ^laxavAv 



iH iHO«0C0 05(M OS iHiniiHCOlOT)< TjtiOiO-^p 00 t- 
iH iH 1-1 COiH iH 



ppjsia 

1ST 



Nraano 'm u 



t-i-icot--^t>coocoO'^eouikoosiHcceo«OTH 

(N CO eOeO i-l iH iH N i-l C<l CO NiHtHt-I 



jajnsBaJX 



aavaM svwohx 



t>(MT)<(N«000(Mt-lO(Mu:i«>OOOOOCC>l>OSi-IOO 

(Neoi-(C-eoTH<MT-ii-ieoiHC<ic<ieoc<ic<ic<ji-i(N 



j^Bjsjoas 
jBJi9na£) 



Aaana xNv^a 



OOWKiCOOOtXNCSO-^lCt-OOOOi-IOSOSeOOO 
C<I CO 1-1 t- CO tH <M,i-I tHC0iH(MC0CO<MCv1(Mt-I(N 



•S8JJ-90t^ 
lBJ3U8X)pU2 



NNinO "v "ariHx^iv 



t-(MlOC0t-00e000lO(Mli5t-OSOSOSt-OlOSiH00 
(MeOiHt-eOi-ICNi-li-ICOTH<M(NCOi-l<N<MiHC<l 



•S8JJ-90T^ 
|BJ9U9X) ISl 



NOSaHDXnH'T MVmiM 



t-C<imeOOSt>'^t-UtiC0lOt-OS00THC-00OS<M00 
C<ieOTHC-COi-l(NiHiHeOi-tC<l<MCOIM(N(Mi-l<M 



}u3pisajj 

JBI9n9J5 



Aanra sawvf 



t-IMlO-^OSC-C^IOSUti-^lCOOOOSOt-OSOSt-OO 
(MCOiHt-COi-liMi-<iHeOT-IC<|00COC<I(M(Ni-l<M 



^aawriN noinq ivdot 



;Cit-OOOi-IC-C<|lOOOOST-t<MlCt-OOOiiH(NCO-^ 
■^■^•^lOlOmcDiDCO^OC^t-C-t-t-C-OOOOOOOO 
t-t-t-t-C-t-t-t-t-t-t-t-C-t-t^t-t-t-t-t- 



70 



o 






q;9 



HIS 









HONAT "a 



qaxHVH ^iriHX'av 



a^oo v KvmiM 



a"aoi\[>iovaa ah^ivh 



aa>iiaioo a. saKvf 



SiXOd H NHOf 



^O --^W -NtHMK) • ••JiHt»N -MM 






isoj v a 



CO U3 • N 00 • 0> «0 C- iTi Oi • ->* •»!< ©J t- ■ Tf -^J* iH 



NOsnaHJ^w s HaxavAv 






Nmano 'm 'x 



J9jnSB9IX 



aivaN svKOHX 



00 00 iH 0> Tj< 00 O «0 00 (M • -^ rj< CO IM lO 00 05 «0 00 
rH 1-1 tH «C) «D iH . t- tH rH tH la C<I iH ,-1 



]BjaU30 



Xdd[\a :SNV^«i 



•S8IjJ-90I^ 
IBJ3U9X) pu^ 



KNinO v >iaHX>iv 



00 «D tH 05 -^ 00 tH CD 00 iH • -rj< -^ CO (M CO 00 OS CD 00 



*S9JJ-90I^ 
|BJ9U9£) JSX 



NOSaHOXriHT KVmiM 



00 CD 1-1 05 Tj< 00 T-l 50 00 T-( • -^ -^ C<1(M U5 00 05 CO 00 
1-1 1-1 T-l iH CD CD iH • t" iH tH 1-1 LO (N tH 1-4 



lU9piS9JjJ 
|BJ9U9i) 



A9"ara sawvf 



t- Oa 1-1 05 -^ 00 (M CO 00 (M • T}< Tl< CO (M UD 00 Oi CO 00 
1-1 (M iH iH CD CD 1-1 • t- 1-1 T-l 1-1 U5 (M T-l tH 



HaaMHN NOINfl IVOOT 



lot-ooosoiHOJuncDooosiHcocDC-ooosocot- 

00000000050i0505<JS0505OOOOOOiHiHi-l 
C-t-t-C~C-C-t>t-t-C-t-000000000000000000 



71 



cs 
O 

> 

a 
u 
m 
X 

c 
q; 

O 


q»z 


H3xN:A1 ■>! 


r-HH ... 


lax^viv >iaHx>iv 


<©i-HOOiH(Mlo;OOSt-OOOOlOT-ITj<T-tC<jTHSS03" 


PPJSIQ 

H19 


3qoo v p\[vmiAv 


t-iHi-l'*03(M»aOSI>0>^0(MCOOOJCO«50'* 
Tjf 1-1 T-I(M (M 00 r-l iHiHtHiHtH rH (M tH t-I 




a^OI\[:s^v^a A>ravH 


t>C<lrH^(M(Mm05t-OT)<0(NTl<OTH(M«Oi-lin) 
Tjt tH jH Dl C<I CO rH tH iH t-I tH i-l t-I tH tH Csl i-l rH 


aa^x3ioo d sawvf 


Tf ,H T-l N C<l CO rH T-l rH iH iH tH i-H 1-1 tH (M iH rH 


P-i£ 


SXXOtI H NHOf 


■ .t-r-li-l-^(MrtH«005t-OrHO(MUii-l(NC<l<X>iHlC 
■'J' tH T-l Od IM CO tH tH t-I t-( t-I t-I tH t-I t-I (M t-I t-I 


IPPISIQ 

paZ 


xsoj v a 


t-T-lT-leOTt<eO«OOSt-05'*0(MtOT-lTH(MCO(M«0 

-^ tH tH (M Cvl CO T-l T-l T-l iH tH T-l T-l tH C<l tH T-l 


ppisia 


NOsnaH j^K s ^axavM 


N(N 'COCOfNOO -CO • «0 (M 00 CO t- tH tH Oi 00 • 
tH • tH tH • tH T-l T-l 


Nraano w 'x 


la • U3 t- Oi N t- C^ CO <3^ 00 so kitl N -^ (N tH 00 CS «D 
■>* • T-l tHCvJ tH tH 


]BJ9a3£) 


aivaN sviMOHX 


t-(MTHTlteO'^U7>aiC-OS->*0(M'*T-lTHC<llOTH«5 

-* T-l T-l (M (M CO T-l T-l T-l T-l T-l tH tH T-l IM tH T-l 


ALIBJ9J09S 


xddaa xNV^a 


t-OTH-«Jtin>COU505iX>OTt<OC<ICOTHeO(MlC«0«0 
-<* tH T-l 0<1 C<J CO T-4 tH tH tH tH tH T-l tH tH C<I tH 




NNinO V HQHX^IV 


t-OT-lTl<CO(Mli305I>0-^0(M'^THCO(MlC(M«D 

■^ T-l tH C<1 IM CO T-l tH T-l tH tH T-l tH T-l T-l C<l tH T-l 


•S9JJ-90I^\^ 


NOsaHOxaH t KvmiAv 


t-(MTH'*(M'*inOit-OTj<OIMmT-ICO(Nt-(M;0 

■>!}< tH tH (M C^ CO T-l T-l tH T-l tH tH T-l T-l tH (M tH tH 


jn9piS9JJ 
IEi9n90 


Aa-aiM sai\rvf 


l>T-lTH-^(M-5j<L0 0St-OTl<O(N00THC0(Ml0IMCD 
Tl< tH T-l (M (M CO T-l T-l tH tH tH tH tH tH tH (N tH T-H 


^aaiMnN noinq ivooi 




















ai-rAoi-^idcidco-^iatoaidoi -^' to oo' o> w co 

T-<(MC^q(M(M(NCOCOeocOeoCO-^-^'«!t"<i"^'^lOlO 
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 000000 00 00 00 OCOO 00 0000 00 



72 






HDNAl '^ 



^3XHVw >inHXHV 



1®(M • <N (M (N ■* • OS O eO (N IC 05 (N to -Tf ■>* (M i-H 
• (M T-H T-t r-i 

Tl<C-LO(Mi-tCOlCOT-l«Ot-Tl<Ot>li:)-iH«£)t-OJ-i-l 
tH IC T-H (M ^ 1-1 tH -* (XXMNNtH (M tH 

ICC-C^ti-HCOTHOOOOOOOOTHOOOtOOOt--"* 
THLOT-IC<lT-lT-l,Ht-r-lT-100IM-<*i(NTHTHTHNr-l 

COOO(NOOC|C<Jt-OOOOOOOiHOOOeDOrHt--<!f 
THU5TH(MTHi-lr-lt-lHTHC0(N'*<M-rH'i-lrHC0i-l 

C00i(M'H(MC<100OOC30Ot-i-lTH00«£>OT-<00'Tf 
■r-ILni-l(Mi-li-lT-lt-i-li-IOO(M'^<MTHTHiH(Mi-l 

eOOO(Mi-l(M(M00000005t-COOOOCDOrH05Tfi 
iHU3TH(MT-lT-lT-lt--i-l 00 (M "* (M tH tH iH (M T-H 

0000(Mi-I(M(MOOOOC3005COCOOOO'!DOtH(N'^ 
iH lO iH IM 1-1 iH T-l t- tH 00 (M -^ <M iH iH iH CO 1-4 

t- ■<* rH U3 t- lO -* (M ->a< (N lO ?£> t- • IX> to iH «D LO (M 
1-1 i-( CO (M • i-t tH 1-1 

(MTfCDCNlO • IC O0'^«D'* CO OSOIM 05 • U5 CD 00 
1-1 ITS 1-1 • iH CO 1-1 00 "* C<I • iH 

eoooco(>Jc<i<Mt-ooooa5«ooooo«OTHi-i<3i-^ 

tH lO i-l C<I 1-1 1-1 1-t t- T-l 00 OJ "* (M T-l 1-1 r-l (N iH 

C000C0"*C0C0CDOO000500C0O00t-rHi-l05-<* 
iH LO iH (M 1-1 1-1 1-1 C- tH 00 (M ■'t (M tH 1-1 1-1 (M 1-1 

C000C0iHC^'^00OO0005«0i-liH00«0i-lTHt-->* 
1-1 lO 1-1 CO 1-1 1-1 1-1 t- iH 00 (M -^ C<I 1-1 tH iH IM 1-1 

COOOCOCOiHiHOOOOOOOSiiOCOi-IOOi5C>T-iOOST}< 
iHlO 1— I (M 1-1 iH 1-1 t- 1-1 00 CJ -^ C<I 1— I tH tH C<I 1-1 

coooeocooo"*ooooooooooLOOiooc-THOOiHT)< 
1-1 lo 1-1 c<i 1-1 ^H 1— 1 1- 1— I 00 oj CO w 1-1 1-1 00 1-1 

LO CD oi o ■^' «D 00 i-I oa Ti< ?c t>^ 00* 05 CO "^ i-o t-' 00 o 

U5uOU5CO?D5r>?Dt>-I>C-t-t-t-t-0000000000O» 
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOQOOOOOQOOOQO 



HJ9 



aioD 'v MvmiAv 



o 






a>ioiv>iovia A>i"avH 






aanxaioo d sawvf 






SXXOJ 'H NHOf 






xsod v a 



NOSHaH<i=»w s "aaxavAv 






Nraaao m 'x 



jajnsE9Jx 

pJ9U90 



aiVSN SVWOHX 



|BJ9UaJ3 



Adana 5iNV"ad 



•s9i<j-eoi^ 

lBJ9U9r) pu^ 



NNinO V ^riHXHV 



•S9J(J-90Iy\^ 
]BJ9U9f) JSt 



NOSaHOXnHT HVmiM 



JU9piS9J(J 
lBi9n9£) 



Aa-ara saiMvf 



■aaaivaN noinq ivoot 



73 





1 
P 
o 

a 
O 


VI 


HONAl "H 


o -N -ia -eor-ico • -eoi-* • oo t- oO kO »-i »-i 


i3iHViAi HaHi-av 


r-HOi-HiHW CO i-t T-trH T|» i-H N iH 


qi9 


aioo "v KvmiAv 


l^) lO 00 00 1-1 0» • «0 OS CO 00 CO lO t- •* 00 OS CO 00 00 
C<1«Dt-I,HC0 • 1-1 iHrH •«*T-l(MrH 




a^OMXOVia AH^VH 


ITS in 00 CO 1-1 oj • IX) OS (N 00 00 in t- 00 c- o Tt< © 00 

(M to 1-1 tH CO iH tH iH •>* 1-1 CO tH T-t 


PPJSTQ 


aa^iiaioo d sawvf 


CO in 00 CO 1-1 OS • «o OS •<* 00 1- to c- CO OS OS eo OS 00 

NCOtHtHCO • 1-1 iHiH T(<i-4(Ni-t 


p-ig 


SXXOd H NHOf 


iniCOOCOT-IOS • «JOSC0 00 t-U5 t-TjtOSOiHOOO 
N ?0 1-1 1-1 CO • iH iHr-i Tjt iH CO iH T-< 


P°Z 


xsoj v a 


inmoocoTH • • «ooscooo t>io O'^oso-^oooo 

W <0 tH 1-1 CO • • iH iH iH -^ iH CO 1-1 




N0S>i3H<i3w s "aaxavM 


Ca •!-! • N CO t- t- Tl< Tji -iHOOt-OOW -NtHCO 

y-t • 'Ol iH . ^ _ .^ 


Nraano 'w u 


CO in 00 CO 00 eo iH iH in t- 00 th N • eo t- to m t- us 

i-HDi-ItH 00 tH -COtHCO 


J8jnSB9JX 
IEJ8U9J[) 


aivaM svwoHJL 


in in 00 CO 1-1 OS • ?d os ih oo t- in t- oo «o -t t- o oo 

C<l<Oi-liH00 1-1 i-li-l -^ 1-1 CO T-t 1-H 




Aaana xMvaa 


ininoocoosos .•«ooseooot-mt-t>os«ot-i-ioo 

N 1^ i-t 1-1 C<1 • 1-t iH iH -^ 1-1 CO rH r-t 


•S3IJ-9DIA 


NNinO 'v -anHx^v 


ininoo -thos • -cscooo t-mc-oo 04«d t>© t- 

(M«Oi-l -co • • 1-1 iHrH -^^cOiHiH 


•S3JJ-90IyY 


NosaHoxnH t wvmi av 


T^inooeoiHos •?oos->*oot>int-c-os«ot-iHoo 

Cg<£>iHi-ICO • 1-1 tH tH Tji 1-t CO 1-1 1-1 


jn9piS9JJ 
IBi9U9r) 


Aa"ara sawvf 


inmoocoiHos • «£> os ■* oo t- t(< t> oo oo m t> © oo 

C<I«DtHi-ICO • 1-1 i-H rH ij< 1-1 CO 1-1 1-1 


HaaMaN noinh avooT 
















1-5 -^ t^ 00 OS* o 1-! c<i CO in* 00 r-! cj in «D t> © th (n' in 
Osos050so>o©©©©©i-it-iiH,-ii-ic<i<ni<ni>j 
ooooooooooososososososososososososososos 



74 



o 






q}9 









IPPJSTQ 



p°e 



1ST 



HOMAl •>! 



laxHVw >iaHJ.^v 



aioo v MvmiAv 



a>iow:sovia a>i>ivh 



aa^xaioo d sai\'vf 



N • tH t- • CO kO --H ec CO 00 t- T-H -^ CO • eo »h t- 

• ,H • ""l* • CO 



OTHosw^ostocooocoouscoooocoiMeocoeq 

tH T-H i-ir-< 1—1 (N CO i-H tH LO r-l l-H CO 00 



eOTHOO->a*(M'r-HDOOO(MTi<C<jOeO«0(M«OC<l 
i-li-KMNiHT-lt-iiHrHCOeOT-lT-IOaO'l-liHCON 



(MT-IOO'<*(M'r-ICDOOOiC<I'*(M0003eO(M«DCO 
t-IiHC<1(Mt-|7-It-ItHi-IC0!MtHi-1C<1OSi-Ii-IC0C<I 



(MTHOO-^IMr-lutiOOT-KNCOC^IOSCOtOCOlOi-l 
THiHC<IC<|iHTHi-(i-li-IC000rHTH0qO4'-l'-HCOC<I 



SiiOd H NHOf 



C<IiHOO-^(Mi-lt-OOO(M«C>(M0JC0'Xi(Nt-&- 
lHTH(MC<Ii-(TH-r-li-lrHC<5COiHTH<MOii-lrHCOC^TH 



xsod v "a 



eo T-i o o •>* (M T-i t- o • o <N ?o Ci iH CO «o eo N CQ 

i-t i-((M Ol tH rH r-t tH T-l • CO T-l 1-1 Cv| O iH tH CO CO 



NOS^aHd=>i\[ s ^axavM 



Nraano m 'j. 



J9JnSB9JJ^ 



aivaM svKOHJ, 



XjBjajoas 

^BJ3U8f) 



Aa^na 5iNV^>i 



'SajJ-90T^ 
lBJ8U9f) pu^ 



NNinO V >iaHJ.HV 



•S9JJ-90I^ 
|BJ9U9f) JS^ 



NOsaHOxriHT wvmiAv 



JU9piS9IJ 
]Bi9U9^ 



A9>ira saiMvf 



•n<(MOO-^(Ni-IOOOOO(M«0(NiXiCO«OiX>eOrH 

i-lT-IC<IC<lT-lr-lrHT-trH03C0i-li— I(MOi-It-I00C0C<I 



"aaapVLfiN noinq qvooi 



«005T-l(MCO-^lOOOOi-ICOTl<?Dt>0005(NeO-<4<lC 
(MIMCOCOCOCOCOCOTfi-^-^-^-rf-^-^rJfiOlOurjuS 



75 






HONAT ■>! 



^aiHVI^[ ^iqhxhv 



iH (M ec • th N co(M -* cc • CO CO «D -T-io • -co 



eO(M'XiOOU3i-IOO'<*in)T-IOCv|OOOlCO^OTjH 
T-ICO (M '-I 1-1 OJ tH tH ec t-I iH W OS tH 



q»9 



aaoo "v KvmiM 



COeOOSOrHt-OOCOCOt-lOSDCO CO t- OO -Tf 05 o t- 
rH (M <M i-H tH (M r-l iH (M iH i-H t-1 O ■tH 



o 






a^IOMlSOVia AH^VH 






aa^iiaioo J saiMvf 



IPPJSTQ 



SXiOd H NHOf 






xsoj *v a 



Nos^iaHd^iM s "aanvM 



eacc«o • rH CO la N U5 CO 'cocoooc- -c- -oco 






Nmano 'n a 



jajnsBSJjL 



aiV3M SVIMOHX 



TltCX)OOiH(NOS(MCOt>lOt-COI>t-0500050t- 
1-1 Oq 1-1 OvI iH tH lH (M 1-1 iH (M iH iH 1-1 O iH 



IBJ9naj[) 



Aaaaa 3MV^a 



■^t-OOiHC^OSeOCOt-lOCNCOt-OOSOOOSOt- 
1-1 N iH CQ iH iH iH (N tH 1-1 00 iH i-KM O iH 



'S9JJ-90I^ 



NNiaO V HflHl^V 



•S9I<J-90T^ 



NOsaHOinH'T wvmiAv 



ja9piS9JJ 
]Ei9a9f) 



Aa^ra saiMvf 



"aaaiMaN noinq avooT 



■«*000iOiH(NI0JC0e0t-lO-^C0t-O0S00<55OI> 
i-l(N (MiHi-li-l(Mi-l i-ICOiHi-Ica O iH 



C-CX305i-l(MLOCOt-00(NeOlLOI>OSi-lC<lCOa5i-ITl< 

imj3toix>«o«ric-t>c-oooooooooooicy5a505 

C20>'3)00)OiOiOCiOOiO^OiO^OiO)C)0)00 



7« 






HONAT -^ 



laiHVIM HIIHX^V 






C00000'^00TH(Mt-Ut>0>C0C-(NO«0t-e0-<a<«0Tl' 
iH 05 CO (M iH (M (N 1-1 (M i-l(M tH iH tH tH iH ,-h 



q»9 



aioo v NvmiAv 



CO O 03 • T-l (M CO (M in> Oi rji t- OS O t- (M O 05 05 (M 
iH iH CO • (M Oa (M (M CO iH IM t-I rH i-l N iH y-i r^ 



o 






a>ioiAi:5iovia a^ihvh 



CO CO lO • (M C^ CO C<1 lO 05 00 OS 05 O t- C<I (M Oi OS 05 
tH T-l 00 • <N (N (M <M CO ■rH C<I tH tH iH (N i-H iH r-l 

CO 






asHxaioo d sawvf 



ooooic .TH(Neoc<i!r>os'^oso50'XicoTH05THco 

»-l iH CO • C<I Oa 03 (N CO tH C<) rH 1-1 1-1 Oa tH OQ rH 



IPUJSIQ 



SXiOi H NHOf 



CO th Lo • o (M CO c<i c- OS CO osos o t- c<i oq OS oco 

tH (M CO • C<J Oa C<1 C<I CO 1-t C<! 1-1 1-1 tH OJ T-H (M 1-1 

CO 






xsoj v a 



CO O 5r> ■ CO (M «0 (M 50 OS -^ OS OS O t- CO iH OS 00 IM 
iH tH CO • (N C<1(M Ol CO 1-1 (N iH iH i-l(M iH iH i-l 
CO 



NOS>iaH J^N S >iaXlVM 



' OS CO CO CO th <£i CO to OS • • oo t- th tc os i;o o 

' OS C<I iH 1-1 • • 1-1 



pp»sTa 



NiHano n "x 



CO CO U5 IM «D O O OS (M • C^ OS CO CO «0 00 C<I CO OS CO 
tH t- tH CO iH CI CvJ i-l CO • C<1 iH iH tH t-^ 



J8JnSE9JX 
|BJ9U8£) 



aivaN svwoHX 






Aaana :HNvai[ 



CO 00 ^ • 1-1 C<I «0 (N lO OS 1-1 00 OS O CO O (N OS O (M 

th iH CO • c<i c<i (M oa CO iH c<i i-t i-i t-km th c] i-i 



CO 00 IJ3 • Ol (M to C<1 00 OS -Tjt t- OS O lO CO (M OS (M Tj< 
1-1 03 CO • (N C<l CQ C<I CO iH O] i-l i-l i-l CJ i-l (M i-i 

CO 



•S3JJ-90IyY 

IBjaua^pu^ 



NNiaO V HQHX^IV 



•s9jj-aoi\ 



NOSaHOXaHT IMVmiAV 



CO 00 ■«* • 1-1 C<I CD C<I 00 OS -^ OS OS O CO (N C<I OS 1-1 -^ 
rH OJ CO • C<1 Oa (M (M CO tH OJ iH t-I i-l(M rH (M tH 



COCOIO • ca (M CO C<I 00 OS CO OS OS O CO CO (N OS iH ■<!)< 
tH Cd CO • C<1 CJ (M C<I CO 1-1 C<I 1-1 iH 1-1 (M 1-1 (M tH 



JU9piS9J(J 
|Bi9a9£) 



Aa>ii>i saiAivf 



CO 00 CO • O (M CO OJ OS OS CO OS OS O CO d (N OS iH -^ 
iH Ca CO • d (M (N 03 CO iH CI 1-1 1-1 i-l C] iH CJ 1-1 



"aaaNiiN noinq avooT 



LOOOOiHClCOrJ'mcOOOiHCacO'^t-OOOCl'^lO 
©Or-tTHi-lTHrHi-liHi-ICIOaC^ICJCJdCOCOCOCO 

oooooooooooooooooooo 



77 



o 






qi9 









HONAl H 



laxHVK >iaHj.^v 



aioD "v KvmiAv 



a-aoK:sovia a^hvh 



aa^iaioo d sawvf 



«© .0*S -W^T-liH -NT-HeeOO ••MHA • rH o 



C<IOOOt-C-CO"^t-lOOSOSOOt-0505a5COl005eO 



(NCOOOt-t-eO'^t-lOOiOOOt-'<*OSC5 00'*OS->-l 
iH 1-1 (Mt-HiH 1-1 '^ rH (Mt-ItH (M 



(MOOOOC-C-CvlTjft-UtiOli-IOOt-TjtOSOiCOTltOSW 
,-1 tH (M 1-1 tH tH -^ 1-i (M r-l iH (M 






SiXOJ H NHOf 



C<I00O5t-t-lNlOt-u3O>TH00t-iHO5O5C<|U5O5CO 
iH tH NtHiH tH -^(N C<lrHi-l (M 



P°2 



isod v a 






NOS^iaH J3W s >iaxqvA\ 



1ST 



Nraano "im u 



■ iH • • CO • • T-i 



ioot>u3c<iookao)cao»e4c&eoeoo)oo«citat-^ 

N T-i -^fO (M iH iH 



]EJ8U8f) 



aavaN svkohx 



rH N COrHi-l -^ i-l d r-l rH i-l (N 



jEjaaa^) 



Aaana SNV^a 



1-i N (NrHrH ■* N Ofl iH rH rH Od 



jEjauax) pug 



NNiaO 'v ^laHx^v 



C<I00rHI>t--<*03*-t-OSO>C0t-THOiOSC0lOrHlO 
rH C<l NrHrH -^ (M d rH rH rH (N 






NosaHoxaH t wvmiM 



C<IOOOt-l>'<*mC-t-<J>0500t>C<IOJ05CO-«l'(MrH 
rH C<l NrHrH -^ C<1 N rH rH rH N 



jnapisajjj 

IBJ8U8£) 



Aa"ara saiMVf 



T-t Oi OiT-lf-t -^ rH (M rH rH rH Cd 



^aaKHN NOiNa ivooi 



OOOSOrH(MeO-^iracOt-:0005rHCO-^ift«000<35C<I 

oooooooooooooooooooo 



78 



u 
§ 

1 

3 
O 

2 

a; 

(3 

o 




HDNAl 'H 


r-( iH rH 00 N »0 eO ■* »0 • • • lO O CO lO . ■<* ©» • 

■ • -eoiH .th 


aaxHVw ^HHi^iv 


O^TjtmeOO^OCOO-^iHrtfOOSi-ICqOSOOOtOOS 
i-H r-( i-H rS i-H i-HtH iH iH CD r-l i-H CO 


qi9 


aioo "v MvmiM 


Ot-t-i-t(MT-(t-eO<3*iHrl<OJOt-lOT)<t-Tt<0004 
(M i-H 1-1 N W iH iH tH i-I,-( oOiHtHt-I tJ< 


^^q 


a^iowxovqa A>i"avH 


Oit-00i-((MrHI>-«OOSrH->*O5i-lt-U5r)<tr-(N00O^ 
rH rH 1-1 C>^ (M tH tH rH r-l i-t 00 iH tH i-l -^ 




asHxaioo d saivvf 


iHt-00(MeOiHt-i:OO5iHTl<O5Oit-li:i-<tC-C000OS 
(M 1-1 1-1 <M (M i-H 1-1 iH iH tH C-iHt-Ii-I ■<* 


PPJSTQ 
P-Ig 


SXXOd H NHOf 


Ot-t>T-IOOi-lC-«005i-lTl<05i-IC'U5'st<I>COOOOJ 
(N 1-1 tH (M IM 1-1 iH 1-1 1-1 rH OOlHi-liH -<* 


p°z 


isoj 'v a 


iHt-C0i-IC0T-lt-«D0^i-l-^01(N«DO'*C-C0C0O 
M 1-1 iH Cvl (M 1-1 iH iH i-lrH C»T-IWi-l n< tH 




NOs-aaHJ^K s >iaxivAv 


CO tH '<1< CO 05 iO lO <M U5 • T)t • (N 05 N CO tH N tJ< • 

i-< iH • --^ r-H IM • 


Nraaao "w a 


05;D0005<M?Oi-l-<*-*i-(OOJlOC^«DT-lt-(M'*OS 
tH i-t iH 1-1 iH iH tH «0 l-t tH N 


|BJ9UaQ 


aivaN svMOHi 


1-1 I> 00 IM (M i-H t- eO 05 tH 1* 05 iH N O -^ t- (M 00 <3> 
(N r-l THOq (N iH 1-1 1-1 iH iH OOC<lCOi-^ ■<* 


AJBJ9JD9S 

IBjguajT) 


Adana SMV^a 


.iHt-t-COCOiHt-«)OiiHTj<05Tjf(Mt-'*Ort<000 
tN r-l tH (M (N i-( iH iH rH rH 00 W rH i-l rj* tH 


•S9JJ-90T^ 


NNinC) 'V HUHXHV 


OS t> t- CO CO iH E- CO OS iH -OS-^ OSO-^U3 coooo 
iH iH iH (M (M 1-1 iH iH 1-1 • O0iH(MiH 'Hi i-l 


•S9JJ-90tyY 


NosaHOiaH q KvmiM 


rHt-t-C0C0i-lt-<Xi0SrHTj<0Sl0(MO-<S<t-C0000S 
(M rH iH (M C^ rH t-l r-l rH rH 00 W Dl rH ■«* 


JU9piS9Jj; 
- IBi9U9£) 


Aanra saiMvf 


rHC-oo-*eorHt-;DosrH-*osii:ieoo-<^t-eoooo5 

C<I rH rH (M (M iH rH 1-H i-H rH 00 (M (N rH -^J* 


Haar 


^QN NOINIl aVOOT 






















LO t> 00 OS rH Cvj ->*' UJ CD 00 O rH N CO •^' CD t-^ OJ O rH 

XiCDCDCDt-t-t-t-t-t-0000000000000000O5O5 

oooooooooooooooooooo 



79 



§ 

j fQ 
i > 

3 
U 
01 
X 

2 

c 

o 


i?p»s!a 


HDNAT ■>! 


OJ OS ■* «> 1-1 00 eO •U5t-'i*05CQ • '* ©J t- ■* iH «c 


^[aiHVK -aaHx^iv 


t- tH Oi lO t> kO ffq lO CO Tf lO U5 lO 05 O lO • ® «0 O 
NN -^ CO i-l(N 03 eC r-l iH tJ iH • i-l tH 


qJ9 


3103 'V KVmiAV 


0005C0i-lt-C0'<J<?000iH00Tj<000JOt-N(NI>Tj< 
COC<li-H-<i< i-H CO tH W* -^ (M tH COi-I <M t-4 


PPISTQ 

HIS 


a^oiMisDvia A>ravH 


00C<Je0lOt-00-*«OC0C0Q0-<*00O»t-C-(M(N«O-* 
CO CO tH CO r-( CO rH C<I -^ -^ Ca 1-^ CO tH (N t-I 


33Hxaioo d sawvf 


OOTHCOt-C-'*eO«DOOCOOO»0 00 05«DI>(M(M?OTj< 
COCOiHCO t-ICOt-KMtPtJHC^t-I ,COtH (M i-i 


ippjsia 


SXXOd H NHOf 


0Ji-IC0^OC0':f«000C0t-u:)0005t>t-(M(M(X>Tf 
COCOt-H->* i-H CO i-( IM -^ -^ (M iH CO iH C<I t-I 


png 


xsoj v a 


' 00 O CO 00 t- Tjt '^ CO O^ (M 00 U5 00 OS t- t- N (M «0 '^ 
COCOiHCO T-I CO iH N T)< Tj< M r-l CO t-I C3 t-I 


1ST 


Nos^iaHd^iM s -aaxiVM 


OS O tH 1-1 -^ 00 'O T-I • OS CO 00 OS lO O (M t- C<I CO 00 
tHiHCO iH ■ CO CO tH 


NRiano -n -x 


"3 ■>* Cvl 00 CO to O '^ O O lO t- 00 -* CO »0 -OTfOO 
WN tH OJ iH CO CO tH tH tHtH • tH 


jBjeaa^ 


aivaN svwoHx 


0STHC000t>^(M;0O-«#OC0000S«0t-C0(MC0-<* 
COCOt-I-^ tH CO t-I CO 't IC C<1 iH COt-I IM r-l 


XJBJ9J09S 


Xid[\a SMV^i 


OST-ICOWt>-*(M?£iO(MOsmoOOSOOt-COC<Jt-Tt 
COCOtHLO THCOiHCO'^'^CaT-l COi-l N 1-1 




NNinO 'v >inHX"av 


t-T-ICOOt>->*'*?00'>*COlCOOOSOOt-COC<It>-^ 
COCOiHirS T-H CO tH CO Tl< T)i IM T-I COtH CO T-I 




NosaHOxriH t wvmiAv 


t-C<lC0'^C-'^'*4OOSC0OSlO00OS00t-COC<Jt-->* 
COCOlHin iH CO l-H (M Tjt Tl< C<l 1-1 COt-I (N t-I 


IBjauao 


A9HDI saj\[vr 


0STHC0(N00'*'^«0Oe0OU3000}Ot-C0rHt-'* 
COCOtHIO tH CO 1-1 CO -<* LO (M t-I Tf t-I t-I 


^aai 


«aN NOINH avoo'i 




















CO T)i ui «0 O Co' in ?0 t> 00 O r-I C<I CO -^ lO «0 OS O (N 
05050S05000000i-li-lT-li-lT-lrHiH,-IC<lC<I 
OOOOi-li-li-li-li-lTHrH^i-li-lT-lr-l,-lT-lTHi-l 



80 



o 






V9 












IPPJSIQ 

P«2 



HONAl H 



aax^ivw >inHJLHV 



aioo "v wvmiAv 



a"aoiM:sovia AH>iVH 



aanxaioo J saNvf 



SXXOd H ^4H0f 



isoj v a 



• 0> tH -NUS • i-H • eO • t- r-t CO eO CO N 



«CiHoost<'.oa;u5«5ooo:ic-05(Ncoeoc<iTHt-oOrH 

?£> COIN T-l 1-1 tH CO 1-1 t-I 1-1 tH tH •>* 



«0 OS 00 • • «C> in 00 IM 05 ?C> CJ iH CO 05 CO CO 00 1-1 r-C 
lO • • l-l 1-1 tH 1-1 CO 1-1 lH 1-1 iH 1-1 1-1 50 



<DO00 • • t- lO 00 (M 05 «0 OS 1-1 CO CD (to CO 00 O r-( 

w •• T-ii-(i-i .— ' eoi— <iHi-ii-itHthhd 



NOs^iaHd^w s >iaxavM 






Ninaao w u 






aivaN svwoHi 



AjBjajoag 



Aaaaa :sNv^a 



•S9JJ-90I^Y 

IBjauaf) pa 2 



NNiaO V ^RHX^IV 



•S9JJ-90I^\^ 



NosaHOiaHT ^cvmiM 



JU9ptS9J<J 
IBi9a9£) 



Aanra saiMvf 



^aaKIlN NOINQ IVDOI 



Tjlio?0t-00Oi-l(MC0lOOi-IC01i5e0t-05T-IC0t- 

c<ic<ic<ic<io;!eoeocococo-^-^'*'^'*'^'*L£5in)LO 



8J 



es 


pa 

3 

o 

X 

n 

u 

c 

01 




IPPJSIQ 


HONAl -^ 


th • th eci-4 c^ CO lo •* ■* eq oj ?o n 1-1 -eoiooioo 

T-l 


laxHvw ^inHiHv 


OOOOt-OOOSOOOir5051Ct-0>t-»HOeOOO ^^r-l 
C<1 tH tH d tH C<I t-H ,h t-I iH tH tH «0 


ippjsia 

V9 


3703 'V HVmiAi 


05005'Hos,Hi:occiiO(Mt>ooooo5'*ou:>t-eoT-H 

T-tiH 7-lrHTH(M(N eO<M tH tH tH t-I (M C- 




SHOIMSDVia A^IHVH 


©OO^THOSi-KMeOlOOqt-OSlOOS-^OtOOCOi-l 
Wt-I 1-1 i-< 1-1 (M (M OQIM iH tH 1-1 oq CO t- 


U>P)SIQ 


asHxaioo d saiAivf 


(MOOSi-IOir-KMCOtCHMt-OOOOl-^OCOOCOi-l 
N 1-1 1-1 1-1 1— KM (M SON iH 1-1 1-1 C<1 (N t- 


tPPlSiQ 

p-ie 


SXXOJ H NHOf 


000:.i-ICJi-((MC«3^lMt-Oii-IO^T}<OlCOCv3i-l 
C<I 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 <NI CO COCO 1-1 1-1 iH iH CO 05 t- 


ppjsia 

pa 2 


vLSOJ V a 


cooosi-iCii-icoeoiocot-oioosTtoutioeoi-i 
CQi-i iHrHi-icaoa ccco th ih i-< rn cj co t- 


PPISIQ 


NOSnaHjaiM S HaXlVM 


O • • C- iH CO -^ t- <;0 CO O CO CO C- lO 00 lO CO CO 1-1 

iH • • r-l iH T-l 1-1 -^ 


NiHano w 'x 


C0005-^0005iH«D'*T-lt-«DlOCOC-iHi-l-*T-li-l 
iHt-I tH T-t COCO i-li-IC0«O 


J9jnSB9JJL 

IBjanaQ 


aivaN svMOHx 


0500*i-IOii-IOOCOCOOOt-05SOO>^0?005'*i-( 
1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 CO CO coco 1-1 1-1 i-( 1-1 T-l CO t- 




Aaana sNvaa 


C0001i-IOii-IOOCOOS-*t-OS«005-<*0«00'^i-l 
COrH iH 1-1 1-1 CO CO .COCO i-l i-l iH i-l CO CO t- 


IBjana£)pa^ 


NNinO 'V -aaHXHY 


OOOSTHOSi-l«3COO>^t-05COOi-^0«£iOTj<T-l 
COiH tHi-Ii-ICOCO COCO 1-1 1-1 1-1 iH CO CO t> 




NOSaHOXQH T KVniLW 


i-IOOSi-l05r-IOOCOOi-^t-0>eOOO-^OCOOO-^i-l 
CO 1-t 1-1 1-1 1-1 CO CO coco r-l T-( 1-1 1-1 1-1 CO t- 


juapisgjj 

lBJ9U9f) 

1 


Aanra sawvf 


©oosi-iOii-it>eooO'*t-Oicooi'*oioo>-^TH 

CO iH 1-1 1-1 iH CO CO coco 1-1 1-1 1-1 iH 1-1 CO c- 


Hasp 


mn NoiNa qvooT 




















00 O CO* Co' 00 tH CO Co" ■*" ?0 00 0> O CO -*■ lO to t-' 00 i-J 
lOCOiXiiXi«Ot-t-t-t-t>t-t>00000000000000O5 



82 






m9 



o 












P°2 






jajnsBSJx 



AJBJ9J09S 
JBJ9Uaf) 



HONAl 'H 



^axHV^\[ ^inHi^v 



aioo "v wvmLAA. 



a"HOKT>iovia A"a"avH 



aanxaioo d sawvf 



SXXOd H NHOf 



±sod V a 



NOsnaHd^iM s "aaxavM 



Ninano w x 



aavsN svjvoHx 



Aaxna xNv^a 



c-coc-c»kac<i<M'<i<«oic«ooocot>i>oso»oojo» 

i-H 1-1 i-lrH iH CO Cvl lO ea tH t-IWOT 


osi-it-'^eoeo-<#ooT-iiot-THcooot-o>i-t 

(M rH i-(iH Tjt CO lO N N 1-t iH 


:g^ 


OSNt-t-i-nt^iiooTHutit-oeooOOOOJi-i 

(M tH tH ,H UD CO lO CI N 1-1 1-1 


•COOJ 
•COTJ" 


Oi(MI>TH(M<NkOOTHljOOOOeOOOOOOJi-l 
eg T-l rH iH T-( lO CO lO Ol (N 1-1 y-* 


• eo<3> 

• CO'tl' 



1-f • • iH . .,-1 . 

•cot 
1-1 

ll-lt 

(M 
l(M t 

OS ■<* t- CO N Cd 1* O 1-1 iO OS O CO CO CO 05 iH • CO 00 
0<I T-l T-H r-l lO CO lO N N 1-1 iH • CO -^ 

OS N t- C- Tj< CO CO O 1-1 lO OS O CO t- t- OS i-t -COOS 
N iH 1-1 iH U5 CO U5 N N iH i-l • CO "^ 

•ON OS -kCit-Or-l •OOCOt-i-INt-'^t-CO'* 
• iH '1-1 Nl-I 'iHtH iH 

OSNtaoOCO • OS iH O U3 OS aS;(C OS CO (M t<- to O U5 

iH iH • eoNio c<i-«i< 

OS CO t- «0 «C> N CO iH iH U5 CO CQ CO 00 00 OS O • CO 00 
C<J 1-1 iH iH 1-1 »0 CO W3 C<l N 1-1 tH • CO -^ 

OS 00 b- OS lO N kO iH 1-1 lO t- O CO 00 00 OS rH '00 05 
iH iH 1-1 1-1 iH U5 CO lO C<I OJ iH iH • CO -"S* 

OSCO •lO?Oi-HOiHiHLfllOSC<ICOOOOOSi-t 'PJOS 
N • iH 1-1 iH iH lO CO U5 C<1 C<1 iH iH r-( • CO -^ 

OS CO I> «0 «C> CO Tj< 1-1 tH lO OS N CO 00 00 OS 1-1 -COOS 
C<1 1-1 iH 1-1 iH kO CO W Cvl N 1-1 iH •CO'<i* 

OS CO t- OS «£> lO tP 1-1 iH LO t- N CO 00 00 OS 1-1 -cooo 
C<1 iH 1-1 tH iH to CO lO N N 1-1 1-1 •CO'* 

c<ico-^w5«Dt^odi>odiHoa-^«dt^odos'i>ojcoe© 
osososososososooiHi-ii-HiHi-ii-ii-ioaeoeoeo 

rH,-lTHtHTHr-li-lC^lC<lC^lC<IC<lC>]CgC<lC<IC<lC<IC<IC^ 



•S9IJ-90Iy\^ 
IBJ9U9r)pU2 



NNinO "v "anHXHV 



•S9IJ-90I^ 
IBJ9a9f) }SX 



NOSaHDXaHT wvmiM 



jn9piS9JJ 
|Bi9U9f) 



Aa^ra saiMVf 



•aaaKriN NoiNQ ivoot 



83 



1 
! 

i 

3 

o 

o 

V 

c 
<u 

O 




HONAl '^ 




•O -OOC-M • • i-l N CO CO CO (M 
• f-i • • • 


laiHVK -anHx^v 


OU3C-Tf<<3iON-<*OST-l-«a<OClC<lt-t-OOiCOO 

eo iHtHtHiHcc 1-1 ,-1 th i-H th oq th ih 


HJ9 


aiOD -v KvmiAv 


CO tH •tH tH 


••iHC500i-ICOCOOCO«DcOr-lT-ICO 
• ■^ CO t-l T-l iH CO 1-1 tH tH tH 


qJ5 


a>I0IM30Via AH^IVH 




•iHOiOSOCOCOi-ICOtOeOi-lTHCO 
•^ COtHi-(i-I CO,Hl-lTHT-i 




aa>ixaioo d saiMvf 


C<> i-H • r-l T-l 


•COOiOiiHCOCOrHCOOCCiHi-ICO 
• Tji cOr-liHr-l eOrH,Hl-lT-l 


P-Ig 


SiXOJ H NHOf 




•COOit-OCOCOrneOOOCOi-li-ICO 
• TJ< CO 1-t 1-1 tH CO i-( r-( iH tH 


p°e 


xsod 'v a 


C<I l-H • iH lH 


•COOiOSi-ICOiHiHCOOSCOTHiHCO 
•-<a< COtHt-IiH COiHrHi-li-i 


1ST 


Nos>iaH<i=>K s ^axavAv 


■COT-IOOOSOi 
(MiH 


•C0iHt-li5C0C0^C0tOC-l>-<*U5 

• 1-1 tH iH 


Nmano 'im 'x 


OOt-lOlO • 00 IM O 00<N U5 tH • ^ U5 -^ «0 tJ< t- t- 
OJ i-IC^ • iH CO T-l rH • C<l 


J8jnSB3JJ^ 


aqvaN svkohx 


N 1-1 tH •iHt-H 


•ooosiHi-KMcocgccoecii-ioco 

•CO iHCqiHrHi-l OOlHiHrHiH 


XjBjsjoag 
jBjaaajf) 


Addna 3NV"aa 


5&1-IIO • 0S«0 
Cq t-ItH • tHi-I 


•caoscoi-ieccoco'<i*coeoi-iTHCo 

• -^ 1-1 CO tH 1-1 1-1 COiHtHiHtH 




KNinO 'v ^aHX>iv 


U20CO -OJ?© 
CO r-li-l • tHiH 


•OC5OOC0C0C0(M0iC0i-li-IC0 
• "* iHCOiHiHiH COiHi-liHi-l 


•sajj-9orY 


NosaHoxnH-T IMVmiA\ 


t-oin .0S50 

CO T-l -tHiH 


•iHOOi-ieOCOCOCOOCOiHTHCO 
•■>* iHCOlHi-fiH ~3,Hi-llHl-l 


}U9pTsajj; 
IBjauaf) 


Aa-Hix saKvf 


IOtHKS •osco 

COtH T-t • i-Ht-I 


•eoojeciHcococoeooscoiHiHCO 

• -^ iHCOiHi-liH COlHiHiHlH 


^aaj 


MAN NOINa avooT 








































0>THeCiTi<t>00 05C0«0 00OiHTjiiOt-00iHC0Tl<«0 
eOCOO-lCOCvJCOCOIMCOCOCOCOMCOCOCOCOOOCOCO 



84 






HONAl H 



laXHVW ^QHi^IV 



eO • 01(M 1-1 (N (35 Tjt N O <M 



CO • C- in "<* Ol N 00 OS -<* lis OS C- so 05 eC lO T-H lO UJ 
tH • iH 0<I tH 1-1 Tf tH 00 Tfi r-l t1( rH (M 



q^9 



a^o^ "v wvmiM 



«0 • 00 t- ICiH 00 <M 1-1 CO 00 t- l>N (M 00 in iH Oi t- 
tH • rH i-l(M iH (M <M CO iH t- t- i-( ■<* (M (M 






a^OHXovaa a>i>ivh 



t-O00t-(M0>O<MO(M0000t-(M(N00l0(N05t- 
iH 1-1 T-l CO tH N C<l «0 r-l C- C- iH rff C<I (M 






aanxaiDO J saivvf 



CO • 00 CO O i-l(M (M iH CO 05 00 t- (M (M 00 lO W 05 t- 
tH ■ tH r-l CO i-l(M (N CO tH t- t- i-i Tf (N <N 






SXXOtI H NHOf 



CO • 05 C- Oi O CO IM iH CO 05 00 t- OJ (M OOm iH 05 t- 
1-1 • tH CO i-t N (M CO iH t- t- tH ■>* IM (N 






xsod "v 'a 



CO ■ OSCOOtH T-I(N iHCOO OOC-(M OOOinrH O t~ 
r-l • 1-1 tH CO iH N (M C- iH t- C- r-l -^ Oa CO 



Mos>iaH<i3w s naxivAv. 



CO • CO <M • CvJ 00 t- iH CO t> CO • iH 00 O • Tf 05 CO 
1-1 iH 1-1 • CO iH • 



ppjsia 



Nraano 'n '± 



05 • IC ICi CO 05 CD -^ O 05 CO CO t- IC CO Oin (M (M rf 
tH iH (M in 1-1 00 Tl< TjH iH <M 



I9jnSB9JX 
IEJ9U3£) 



aivaN svHOHi 



C0005t-COiHi-l(MiHC<IOCOt-(Mm05m(Mi-lt- 
iH iH 1-1 tH CO T-KN (M t- i-( t- t- T-l -"rl^ C<J CO 



jBjauaQ 



Aaana :>inv>i>i 



COOC5tr-CDiHCOIMiH->*Ot-t-(N(MOsmTHOt- 
iHi-( iHiHCOi-I(N(MI>tH t- t- 1-1 -^ Cvl CO 



•S9JJ-90l^ 



NNiaO V HIlHiHV 



•S9JJ-90T^\ 



NOsaHOxriH t wvmiM 



jnaptsiajj 
jBjauojf) 



Aa-aix sawvf 



^laaiMaN noinu avooT 



000SO(MC0C0t-05C<ie0l0t>(MlOt-00CV|C0'*l0 
C-t-000000000000050S0S05OOOOr-li-ii-lT-i 
C<l(N(M(M(NC<lCv|(NW0<IC<lC<lO0COCOC0COC0COCO 



85 



u 

cs 
O 
M 

i) 
> 

3 

u 

ID 

o 
O 




HDN.\T H 


t- OJ -co • i-( 1— 1 1-1 • t- • eO 1-1 rH lO 1-1 tH i-H T}< O 
r-t • . tH • • -<(< iH 


13iHVK >inHX>IV 


■^O5t-os05oooo«c>cct-moqo5eo«0'<a<ooo?oo5 


HJ9 


aaoo "v KvmiM 


T-IOl0?DaJt-05T-|-^"^liti'«tO'^00't-IO00C000 
COCC tM (N CO 1-1 r-l(M 1-i rH r-( t- (N 1-1 eO (N t-l 




anow^ovia ahhvh 


CC00;DC00i0005(M'^"*u:)<i>O'*00i-<O«0e000 

CON 1-1 (M CO iH iH ea 1-1 iH iH t- c<j 1-1 CO N i-i 




aanxaioo d saj\Tvf 


COOSCWeOOSt-OSlO-^-^kOtDO-^OONOOONOO 
CON 1-1 N CO iH i-l(M 1-1 tH iH C- N 1-1 CO N 1-1 




SXiOd H NHOf 


COOi?DeOOJ0005iaTji-tfU5«£>0'<*00(MOOOeOOO 
COOq 1-1 C<I CO 1-1 i-< <N rH tH 1-1 t- N iH CO N i-< 


pug 


xsod *v a 


■^Ciocooi • OS 10 ■* ■>i< ui «o TjH 00 N 1> "'1' CO 

eO(N iH CO iH 1-t CO iH rH iH t- CO 1-1 CO N 1-1 




NOS^aH J3W s >iaiivM 


CO t- 1-1 OS iH iH i-( <0 -co •CO»a'^ t-iHU5C0'^O 

T-i 1-1 iH • iH • \a T-t 


Nraaao -n x 


ONU5'*OOOOOOi-IOSi-HOCOU30CO'*lOCO«DOS 
COr-t tH CO Ca CO1H 1-IOOCO COiH 


J9JnSB9IX 


aivaN svwoHi 


e0i-l«0l00SC-05'^Tli-<Jti0«0O'^C0OOTHr)<00 
coco iH CO CO iH iH CO tH iH r-l C~ CO iH CO CO T-I 


XaBJ9J09S 
IBJ9U9^ 


Aaana :sxv^a 


■^iHt-TjtOSOSOSCO-^-^lOtDO-^OOCOOSOO^OO 
COCO 1-1 CQ CO iH iH CO tH tH 1-1 C- CO CO CO rH 


•S9JjJ-90r^ 


NNinC) v HfiHX-av 


•<J<i-Hi3Tji0S0500iaTl'T)<lOlOO'<i'00C0OtD-*C» 
coco 1-1 . (M CO 1-1 1-1 CO T-I iH 1-1 t- CO tH CO CO T-I 


•S9JjJ-90I^Y 


NOSaHOXQH T MVmiM 


•^i-lt>Tj<C5000SU3->*->#li3iX>0'^00 0]OC-eOOO 
coco T-I Cvj COi-lT-!COrHT-lT-lt-C0iHeOC0i-< 


jn9pTS9Jj; 

IEi9a9£) 


Aa^i3 saMvf 


C0T-l00U50S000SC0Ti<C0lO«0O'^00i^O00lJ300 
coco 1-1 CO CO 1-1 tH CO iH iH 1-1 t- CO T-I CO CO 1-1 




Haai 


MHN NOINfl IVOOT 


t> oi 10 «iJ t-' od OS LO 06 OS 1-1 ui t- th CO Tj! u3 
i-ii-iCOtMCOcococoeocococO'ii^-^iiusLOusiniin 
cococooococoeocococococoeocococoeocoeoco 



86 



« 



o 






HDNAl '^ 



laiHVM ■aaHJ.Hv 



ni9 









aiOD V MvmiAv 



aHOMXDVlil AHHVH 



aa^iaioo d saivvf 









SXiOJ H NHOf 



xso J 'v a 



THa5i<T}<ir5THT}<eoooo-*05?ocDc-c<ic-r-iiHN 

r-l(M ?C t- -* — ' -H :-lr-IC<l i-( CO i-H N »-( 00 


U3(MT)<eOOiT-lt-t-00«0<M 
tH CC CO ini r-l i-H rH C<I tH i-H rl 


• t- t- O 0>(N ■* «C> 

• 1-1 CO 1-1 coiHeo 



lOeO-rJtC^KMT-ILOt-OOt-i-llOtDt-^DCSfMTjicCi 
1-1 CO CO lO (M tH T-l C<I 1-1 i-t iH 1-1 tH 00 iH 03 rH CO 



l0C0-^(MC0T-ll0t-OOt-iHl0«Dt-eD0>Cv|T)<«£) 

1-1 CO CO lo c^j 1-1 1-f c<i 1-1 iH iH 1-1 T-i CO 1-1 eo 1-1 CO 



U3C<3lO«OeCTH?Dt-OOC-(NU3«£)t-?005(N'*eO 

T-i CO CO LO c<i iH 1-1 csi 1-1 T-i 1-1 th 1-1 CO th 00 iH eo 



th 00 eo ici c<) 1-1 1-1 ca iH .H 1-4 1-1 1-1 CO 1-1 eoi-ico 



N0s^3H<i=»w s ^axavM 






Nraano "k u 



OS -^ -^ 00 00 i-l(N • ?0 OS «0 O IC <N «0 '^ 1-1 O CO Irt 
eg 00 ^ ■* 1-1 1-1 • N 1-1 iH 1-1 C<5 iH (M 00 



|BJ9n90 



aivaN svKOHX 



ioc<j-*c-i-ii-ieo«ooom(NLf:>05t-«oocO'^«D 
THcooo^ocgiHTH c^ji-iiHthi— ii— icci— ii— leoi— ICO 



AiBjaioaS 



AJjna 3NVHJ 



lOOOTtiOOOiHlOt-OOC-CgLOOSt-tDCg-^CO?© 

rH eo eo «o N 1-1 th c<i ih ih i-i i-i th eo i-i i-i c<5 th eo 






NNinO 'v "ariHX'av 



lOC0'>i'«0(NTH«Dt-OOt--Hl000t>«0C<l'*'^«© 
iH eo CO O eg iH i-( N 1-1 1— I r-l -H iH CO 1-1 iH eo iH 03 






NOSaHOXQH 1. MVmiM 



lO'^Tt<t-03i-l?Cit-OOCO(Nli300I>«OC<I'^'^«S 

1— io3eo^cgi-ii-i c<ii— ii— iiHiHi-iooi— ii-icoi-ieo 



juapisajj^ 



Aa"ara saKvf 



l0TjiL0(MLraO«Ct-O0St-(ML000t-«DC<l'^-^«0 

iHoocot-oji— ii— I eg 1— ii— ii-ii— icoi-iiHCOi-ieo 



,XJ un - .«. . .J. .^^j^. .UJJ J^WJ^ 



HaaKnjsi NoiNa qvoci 



eciO«Ot-OSU3C-00050CJ'*OOi-ICO'5}<«0050i-l 
«00?D?DtDt-C-C-t>OOOOOOOOOS050SCSOSOO 

CO CO CO CO eo CO co co cocococococococococo-^'* 



87 



w 






HJ9 



HIS 









P°2 






jBJsnar) 



itiBjaioag 

|BJ8U8£) 



HONAT H 



aai"avK -anHXHV 



aioo v MvmiAv 



anoiAi^iovia A"a"avH 



tH eO -t lO CO -t <0 --^lO -IOC- • iH -owoot- 



rHl0O00OlOlO<MC-<X>t>-^«Ci0JT-l«C>U3«000(M 
Ofl N T-l 1-1 tH (N iH r-t tH iH r-l i-H r-l 1/5 1-1 ©a 



N 00 CO CO -^ Ifi 1-1 00 O 0> «D 05 1-1 • (M «D i-l N iH Oi 
N C<I iH tH tH rH T-l tH N T-i iH iH C<l • tH U3 (M tH CO 



aa^ixaioo d sawvf 



(M 00 CO CO -^ m iH a> th o CD 00 (M • (M eo iH N o OS 

ej C<l iH 1-1 iH 1-1 tH tH (M (M 1-1 iH CO • 1-1 lO (M 1-1 CO 



(M (DCO CO -^ U3 iH 0>.(N CO 5OOSC0 • CO CD tH CO i-l OS 
CO 00 tH iH iH 1-1 iH CO CO 1-1 1-1 CO ■ iH in CO r-l CO 



SXXOd H NHOf 



CO t- CO CO -^ O 1-1 OS CO 1-1 5D OS CO • COCO iH CO i-< OS 
CO CO 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 CO CO 1-1 iH CO • iH LO CO 1-1 CO 



xsod v a 



CO in CO CO T)< 'sji Cq O CO OS t- OS O • ©I CD 1-1 CO iH OS 
CO CO 1-1 1-1 1-1 iH tH 1-1 CO tH r-l iH CO • i-t iO CO '-^ CO 



NosnaHci^i^ s "aaxavM 



Nmano im u 



aivaN svwoHx 



iH 00 CD U5 CO 00 iH -iHOO • rH i-l 
• iH 


• . •lO-<J<CO t- 

• • • CO 


i-liOt-OOOOlOT-HOiHt-t-OS-^OSCOCOCOOSCOCO 
COCO 1-1 iH iH 1-1 1-1 iH 1-1 CO r-l iH lO tH iH 


COCDCOCO-^lCCOOOCOOCOOeO 
COCOrHi-lTHTHi-liHCOCqiHCOCO 


• cq CD 1-1 CO 1-1 OS 

• 1-1 in CO 1-1 CO 



Ajana SNvna 



CO 00 CO CO -^ ■«* CO CO CO OS CO O -^ • CO CD i-< CO Ca OS 
CO CO iH iH iH 1-1 1-1 CO CO iH r-( CO CO • iH LO CO iH CO 



IBJ9ua£) pu^ 



NNinO v "aaHXHV 






NOSaHOXQH T HVmi AS. 



IBJ8U9£) 



ASHi^i sawvf 



■aaaKQN noinq ^v^o^ 



coo-^iot-osOi-tcoiraooo-^oooscocoTtt-os 
OiHrHi-ii-ii-icJcocqcocooocococo'^'^-^'^-* 



88 



O 

_> 

s 
u 


0) 

O 




HONAT H 


OlAiHt- -(N ■ -<* C<I eO -^ t- Tj" -* C5 -(N • -00 
rH . . ... 


lax^ivM >mHx>iv 


«DTHOJ(M00THt>OSQOOSOJ^«Ot-00C0eO'5}t.^u:) 
T-l tH -i-H iH 1-1 1-1 1-1 OQ iH 


q}9 


3103 "V wvmiAv 


«ot-oo> • CO t- rH o Tj< la iH 05 1-1 in CO -^ -^ CO eo 

OJrHi-l .1-1 tHt-ItHiH(M tHiH t-I iH (M iH tH 




a>IOlA[30V19 AH^VH 


«0t-00> • CO t- CO O -^ IC OS OS iH t- CO -* -^ Tj< CO 
C<jT-)r-( . iH tHiHi-ItHtH iH tH iH rH (M tH t-i 


aa>ixaioo d sanvf 


iX>t-OOS • CO C- CO O -^ IC tH OS O t- CO -^ -<* (M CO 
OJ l-H 1-1 . iH T-l 1-1 1-1 l-( (M iH 1-1 tH iH (M rH T-H 


pj? 

P°2 


SXIOJ H NHOf 


«£>CDOOi • CO t- CO O Tf in iH OS iH C- CO -* "S^ -^ CO 
N 1-1 iH .1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 C<I iH 1-1 1-1 tH (M 1-1 rH 


xsod v a 


«oeooo> • CO t- CO o irno 1-1 OS iH t- CO -* ■<* ""t CO 

(M iH 1-1 .1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 C<1 iH 1-1 tH 1-1 N iH 1-1 




NOSHaHJ^K s "aaxiVM 


• C- 1-1 iH • C<l tH lO t- 1-1 rH O «0 CO lO M t- • m (M 
•iH (M 1-1 iH 1-H 


Nraano -n -x 


SOtHOSOO • 1-1 «0 00 CO (N CO 1-1 '^ 00 CO iH 00 -^ © iH 
NiH rH iH <M 1-1 




aavaN svnohx 


«00SO0S00C0t-C0O-<*mO05i-lt-C0-^'*T-IC0 
N 1-t iH iH iH 1-1 rH tH iH eg y-i r-i i-i y-t Oi i-^ -r-^ 


AJBJ9I09S 
IBJ9U90 


Aaana iiNV^ia 


«000O0500C0l>e0O0SinOOrHt-C0'*'«i<i-HC0 
COiHrH iHrH 1-1 rH rH rH (N rH rH rH rH rH (N rH i-l 


•S9JJ-90IA 
lEJ9U90pn2 


NNinO v ^laHXHV 


COOOOOSOOCO t-COOCO -OOiH t-eO'*'*OCO 
<N rH 1-1 rHrH rH rH i-l . C<1 lH rH rH rH rH (M rH rH 


•S9JJ-90I^ 


NOSaHOXaHT wvmiAN. 


COOOOSOOCOt-eOOSOlOrHOSrHt-CO-^TltNCO 
OKNrH l-lrH rH rH rH rH (M lH T-( rH rH C<1 rH rH 


jn9piS9JJ 
IBi9U9r) 


Aa^ira sawvf 


«D050 OS OOCO t-COOI>lCrHOS • C- CO -^ -^ rH CO 
(MrHrH T-l rH rH rH rH rH IM . rH tH tH (M rH rH 


"aaai 


MnN NOINH IVDOa 








OrHC<icoinco-^ift«oodc^coinco-^io^t>rHLd 
ijOiommm!oeDeo«o«>t>c~c-ooooooooooos05 
^^ ^^ ''^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^i* ^* ^^ ^^ ^* "'^ ^^ ^^ ^t* ^^ ^^ ^* 



8« 






HONAT -^ 



aaxHVM ^nHi"av 



r-i .%6 .u9 -i-KNt- • CO U» lO W T-H •eOi-li-tO 



H19 



WJOD V KVmiAS. 



THOOStOONOSCOOOr-tOO-^eOOJO^OOJiHOT-l 
CCiHCO r-liH 1-1 00 iH rH T-l C<J tH C<1 i-i iH N 



o 






a>^OIOov^a A"ffavH 






aanxaioo d sawvf 



pig 



SiiOJ H NHOf 






jLSOd v a 



NOSHSH J3IM S >iaXlVM 



IPPISIQ 



Nraano 'n u 






aivaN svKOHx 



CO O O CO O (N 05 CO CO 'H 00 -^ -«*< OS O «0 O tH Oi tH 
COt-H-^ tHtH 1-H CO tH tH tH OJ tH CO iH iH CO 


COOiH«C)OCOOjeOeOi-IOO'^'^050«D<3»iHOSr-( 
OOi-H-"* 1-1 iH iH CO tH i-t iH CO iH 00 iH iH CO 


iH00500COOSCOCOrHC»'>l'-*t-05«C'OS,HO>T-l 
COi-ITt* iH iH r-( CO tH tH iH CO i-t tH iH tH N 


CO -O-^ini •eOiHOOC-Ui<OTHC<JC»OOrH<00 
T-l -CO • iH T-i t-l iH 


COO t-COiaCOOrHlOiHOOCOOOUSrHiH • 
COi-liH iHrHiHCO r-i CO t-I iH lH • 


laco 


0>0^«OOCOOSOOCOi-IOJ-^OOOii-lt-0>i-4 05CO 
CO 1-1 CO i-li-l 1-1 CO rH tH tH 00 iH CO iH iH CO 



|BJ9Uaf) 



Ldd[ia aNVHd 



OOCOCOOCOOCOTjtiHOS'^'^OOC-Oli-IOSCO 
CO iH CO iH iH 1-t iH CO tH iH 1-1 CO iH CO iH l-l CO 






NNinO "v -anHXHv 



IBJ9U90 }si 



NosaHoxnH a KvmiM 



C0OlO«0OC0OiH'<#i-l0J'^C00SOt-05iH0irH 
CO T-l CO iH i-i iH T-t CO iH iH iH CO iH CO i-l i-( CO 



juapisajj; 

lBi9a9£) 



Aa^ix saHvf 



■aaawriN noinii ivoot 



«ooiu:icooo'^iotc>05CO'*cot-ooai'Hcocoiooo 

OiOSOOi-HiHT-lTHi-ICOOJCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCO 



90 






HONAT H 



laxHviAi >iaHXHv 



IPPISIQ 

qJ9 



aioo "v MvmiM. 



IPPJSici 



a^oioovqa a^ihvh 



IPPISIQ 



a^Hxaioo d sawvf 



tppjsia 



SiJLOd H NHOf 



P°2 



vLSOd v a 



NOS^iaHJ^K "S >I3ilVM 



■«D-^(N • iH lO T-H nt 00 l> ■* -tHO 






Nraano 'w u 



00«O(MC<J -in -^^ T-KM OOC-OiN • iH t- LO » 
J-irH • tH •«* r-l (N 1-1 rH CO T-H • CO 



J3jnSB9JJ^ 

]BJaua£) 



aivaN sviMOHx 



^jBiajoag 



A>!li[na OINV^il 






NNinO "V >mHiHV 



•S9JjJ-90Iy\^ 



NosaHOxnH t wvmiAv 



jn9piS9J<J 
]BI9U9f) 



Aa'ara saiMvf 



HaaKQN NoiNa avooT 



05iH-<*mcDt-ooco'*in)00coicooTHeoic«ooo^ 



91 






HDNAT "a 



aai^VK ^liiHi'av 



N •1-110 • -N -r-IW^liSC^ • •«© -OS • • 
r-l • • • iH • • ■ T-l • • 

iaCvlt-COlOOOOOOO>Nt-lOiHC<|lOC<3«OOOOCO 
CO r-l lO T-l T-l iH »-l T-l r-l 1-1 rH t> C^ 

•CC1000'^«Dr-IOOO«D0500CON>00^«00000 
•CO r-t rH -^ 05 r-l rH r-l r-l rH rH rH CO tXN 

•(NOOr-llOU3rHOOO«>Oi05<M(M100S«00000 
•CO r-l r-l ^ (N y-tr-iT-t r-l rH r-l iH CO t» N 

•(M00OlO00O00O«00500NINlO0J«£iOC0O 
•CO r-l r-l ••* C<1 r-l r-l tH rH r-l r-l rH CO C- C<] 

•C<lCOOLOC-rHQOOi©05tOC<lC<JlCO>^00000 
•CO rH rH -^ C<I -r-f t-( y-( t-\ r-t r-i rH CO t- C^ 

•C<ICOrHTl<(3500005C>OSt-(M(MtCl05?OOWrH 
•CO rH rH Tf C^ j-i r-l t-< J-i r-i r-t rH CO t- CQ 

«D • N 00 CO • 00 COOIC t- CO "^ • -^ rH • -"iii • •<* 
r-irH • rH r-l • • r-{ • 

rH <N !£> ?0 CO O CO lO • O -* O 00 IM rH 00 «£H£) 00 05 
CO lO rH • rH rH rH r-t r-l r-l r-l ^ r-l 

•C<100rHIOOOOOOO«0005C<I(MlC05«000005 
•CO rH rH -^ N rH rH rH rH rH rH rH CO C- rH 

•IMOOeOlCOOOOOCDOiONOfllOOl^OOOOO 
•CO rHrHlOOJ rHrHrH r-l r-l r-l rHCOt-DJ 

•(MOOOOm-^OOOOtDOOIMIMlOOStDOOOrH 
• CO rH rH -^ C<I rH rH (M rH rH rH rH rH CO C- N 

•(MOOCOiniCDrHOOOiDOOXMtMmOJSOOOOrH 
•CO rH rH -* (M -rH rH (M rHrHrH rH CO t- Cd 

•C<100COlOOrHOOO?D005rHOCIin)05UtiOOOO 
.•CO rH rH U3 IM rH rH (M rH t-H rH rH CO C- (M 

CO -^" LO to* 00 o^' T-H c<i CO t> 00 c<i ijO oi o rH CO LO «D 00 

OOOOOOOOOOOOOSOSCiOlOSOOOrHrHrHrHrHrH 

loicioiololoiokilolo>o:do?cicc>:£>co«oixi«o 



qi9 



aioo v KvmiAv 



o 






a"aoK30via A-a"avH 






aanxaioo d sawvf 






SXXOtI H NHOf 






xsoj v a 



NOS'aaHd^iM s >iaxiVAv 



v>pjs}a 



xraano "k 'x 



IBJ9TI99 



aqvaN svi^ohx 



AJBJ9J09S 
|EJ9II9f) 



Ajana ^xvaa 



■S9IJ-9DT \ 



•S9JJ-90I^\^ 



lU9pXS9JjJ 
JBJ9U9f) 



NNinO 'V "HnHXHV 



NOSaHOXnHT KVmiAV 



Aanra saMvf 



HaaKHN xoixa qvooT 



92 






HONAT ■>! 



lax^ivw >iaHX>iv 



Ld f -* to • e<3 tH C<I CO • • ■<* .r-l • iH CO •NWCC 



00 (M ?0 03 CO -^ t- ?0 00 • OS li:! Tfi O ?D T-H lO Tlf 00 tH 
tH r-t l-H • t> iH tH (M e<3 tH ■<* t-I 



qi9 



aioo v wvmiiW 



THr>i-iOOiH«0<!C>OOr-tOi050Tl<Ot--^lC«£>005 
T-H l-H iH iH iH tH tH C- T-H l-H 1-t W CO iH Ifl T-( 






a^iONXovia A^i^vH 






aanxaioo d sawvf 



l05i-l00(M'X>«0t>TH050>OC0THt>'*lOOt-0i 
I iHi-Hi-H THT-(T-lt~iHTHi— I COCOtH-^i-I 






SXiOJ H NHOf 






xsod v a 



OOST-IOOtO«0?OOOiH05050(NOt-Tj<lCH00005 
lH tH tH tH tH 1-4 l-H t- l-H tH t-H N CO t-1 '^ tH 



OOO^ • «0 W N 00 «0 Tjt • -lOt-OCOCO •lOTjtTt 



NOS^iaH J3W 's "aaxiVAv 



ppjsia 



Nmaao h *x 



•^ tH tH l-H lO Tt< -i-Hf -OSt-OO • ■<# iH lO r-l t- «0 






aivaN sviMOHX 



OiOOSOOOJ«0«0«005 05 0iTj<COOt-->*lO«DOS05 
tH tH i-H i-H T-t C- tH tH l-H (M CO T-1 -^ l-H 



XJBJ9J09S 

jBjaua^) 



Ajana :HNV"ad[ 



•S9JJ-90I^ 



NMinO v >inHx>iv 



•S9JJ-90I^\ 
IBJ9U9f) JSJ 



NosaHoxnHi MvmiA\. 



JU9pTS9JJ 
IBi9a9f) 



Aa^ra saKvf 



OOt-40St-I«0«DOOtHOS05-^-^OI>tJ<U3C£>?00 
iH ,H T-l iH T-l ■rH iH tH t> 1-1 T-l 1-1 (M CO i-l lO (M 



>iaai\iaN noinh ivoot 



05T-l(M-*?OOOOi-IC<JCOlOtOOiH(M<3^0(MCOO> 

i-icgc<i<N<M(Meocoeococoeo-^-Tj<^-^LOLaiOLO 



93 



mi 



HDNAT -^ 



laXHVIM ^QHiHV 



t-P5io-^«ixi-*oaT-< 



' 05 eOU3 tH 00 • w^ 



OSOcOOOOSCOCO-^t-OOIMOt-OSOLOrHOOSrH 

CO 1-1 th th t-i eo th 1— I m -ih co 



m9 



aaoo 'v MvmiM 



t- CO O OS -^ 05 t- ;© 00 00 • O IC (M lO US C- 05 iH IlD 
1-1 CO (M i-H C<I iH 03 1-1 • lO Ca irH tH CO 1-1 



o 









a^iojoovia A^ravH 



aanxaioo d sawvf 



eOCOTHCOC<l<5>00<00500i-IO«DeOUSUiOS05i-llO 
iH CO N Cd <N iH CO 1-1 m(Mi-li-ICO rH 






SXXOd H NHOf 



loeOiHcoojosoo^DooooNoeo-^ioiooosi-ieo 

tH CO N C<J (M 1-1 CO iH U5 N tH 1-1 PS i-l 






xsoj v a 



0> CO iH CO <N Oi 00 «£i iH 00 • O eO ■* in lO OJ 0> 1-1 rf 

eo c<i c<i N th CO 1-1 • m c<j 1-1 1-1 CO ih 



N0S"aaHci3K s ^axqvM 






x^maao k u 



CO t- «0 U3 N 1* t- O -00 •01004CO'* • lO OS CO 
iH (N C<l tH iH • .la CO • 






aivaN svwoHx 



lOe0OC0ia0St-«00>00C0O«0'>3<L0'<!)<000ST-(Tl< 
1-1 CO IM (N C<1 iH CO iH lO (N 1-1 1-1 CO tH 






A^ana :Hxv>ia 



•S9JJ^-90I^ 
IBjau9£)pu^ 



NNinO "v "anHXHV 



•S9JJ-90I^ 



NosaHOxaH t wvmiAs. 



jn9piS9JJ 
IBi9U9f) 



Aanra saKvf 



^aaKQN NOINIl IVOOl 



lHL!:>Ot~0005Oi-l'*ur5C<I^05(Mt-0i(MC5OC<l 

;oco^cD;ocot-c-t-L--ooooooai0505oOi-(i-( 



94 



l-H 

C3 
O 

w 

a; 

3 

o 

a; 

c 
<u 

O 


PPlsxci 


HONAl "d 


OS ^ t_ -^irt • 05 ■<* ?£i eg • • t- -eoiooo - r^ 
rH • • . . . t- • «c 
• . -1-1 


T[ax>ivM -aanx^v 


i-H 


HJ9 


aaoD v wvmiM 


(M COi-lrHrH tH tH CO tH CO •>* i-H O 




anoiMxovia a>i^vh 


t-ICOt-Ot-«005!MOOOOSiOini05COO«00'^i-( 
<N COtHiHi-I rHr-lrH r-l CO iH iH CO W rH O 


aanxaioo j sawvf 


i-(00'-IOt-5£>OSC<lC3500QO»itil005COOOOOTi<i-< 
(N -^ rH iH T-l T-H iH iH CO i-H iH CO id tH O 


P-i£ 


SXXOJ H NHOf 


iH0000Ot-«DCSIM0S0005l0l0OCDO«DOT)<-^ 
(M CO tH tH iH iH rH tH CO t-I 1-I t-( CO IJtl iH CO 

(M 


Pa^ 


xsod v a 


iHOO(MOt-«OOJ{M0500<J5lOU505eOOOOOO-«*i-l 
eg TjtrHr-lT-i T-l T-H i-ieO 1-1 iH CO ■<* r-l O 




NOS^iaHjaw "s >^ax^VAv 


Cg,-HD • «0 00 iH r-l U5 00 iH r-l • • • i-H C<1 «0 00 OJ 
T-l . iH . . . «o (O 
• • • iH 


Nraano m "x 


05t>iHOr-IOOOOU5T;(<OOOTi<U5 05«0<3500eOTl<(N 
iH USi-i iH »H iHCO T-l i-|U5tHC0 

tH 


lBJ9aa£) 


aiVSN SVMOHX 


eg TjtiHiHrH iHi-HiH »H CO lH tH ■>* rji r-l O 




xddno. :sNvai[ 


iHOOC-OC-e005COOOOOO-^^lO;D05'*OSlf5TH 
eg -^ T-l tH rH iH tH rH tH CO i-H i-l -^ Tf T-H O 


•S0JJ-90IA 


NNmO v >inHXHv 


T-l 00 lo o t> eo oi CO o 00 OS Tf lo •^ootMosmi-i 

eg '^THTHr-l 1-ItHt-I l-H CO • T-H 1-1 -^ -* iH O 

eg 


•S9JJ-90IA 


NOSaHOXAH T MVmiAV 


THOOt-Ot-tOOSCgOOOOS-^lOOSiXiOSTHOS^-tJt 

eg -"^t-htHth t-i th 1-h thco th ^ -* t-i eo 

eg 


jn9pTS9Jj; 

IBi9U9£) 


AHHIH saKvf 


TH00THOt-lC0SCgO00O'<*U5O?DOU5Ou:i'!l< 
eg lOT-HT-lrH T-l T-H T-H tH tH CO T-H i-H ,-H rj< lO T-H CO 

eg 


HHHI 


MHN NOiNa ivooa 


























ira CD t> CT> o eg CO to o T-l eg' CO CO eg' n5 «o t> 00 oi o 
rHrHTHTHcgcgegcgcococococo-^Tt-^^TiH-^ia 
t-t-c-t-t-t^t-t-t-c-t-t-t-t-t-c-t-t-t-t- 



y5 



T3 
§ 

3 
O 

0) 

a 



IPPJSId 

mi 


HONAT H 


T-H C<J • (35 iH O 1-1 eo ■* -^ <M ■ eO • • r-l ■«* tJ* OS oo 
• tH rH tH ■ ■ . 1-1 O 


lai^vw HaHi^iv 


iH tH T-l iH 1-1 • iH (M iH N 1-1 1-1 00 C<I 

, 1-1 


ppisia 

qJ9 


aaoo "v HvmiAN. 


NOT t-(MOO^0C-'*0iOC005 • • 00 <M t> CO ^ 
1-1 iH 1-1 00 iH T-l 1-1 C<l 1-1 iH tH • • Cfl 0> iH kC 

• • 1-1 


¥>P»STQ 


a>ioiM3Dvaa a^^vh 


CO(M t>N (M 0«0 001OO5 O OOO • (N 05 (M "^ -^ 05 
tH iH iH CO iH iH tH C<J 1-1 iH 1-1 i-t • C<I OS iH t- 

1-1 


aanxaioo d sawvf 


(MeOt-(M iHOlOOOUOOS O OOO • -CSiHIMNOS 
iH rH iH CO tH tH iH (M ,-( iH t-I i-l • • (N O iH itO 

1-1 T-1 


P-i€ 


SXvLOJ H NHOf 

■ 


CO (M t- (M Cq O «0 00 tn 05 O 00 05 • • OS <M tH Tf i-l 
1-1 iH tH CO tH tH 1-1 W TH 1-1 iH • • (M O tH 00 

• ■ iH 1-1 


i?p?sia 


isod "v a 


N tH t- (M Tj< O SO 00 "5 80 O 00 iH • CO OS (M N "^ iH 
iH iH iH CO iH rH 1-1 N iH i-l iH tH • CQ O iH C- 

iH iH 


^PISIQ 


NOs^aH JOK -s "aaxiVM 


CO-^ • 00 iH O t- Tf OS t- 00 • CO iH 1-1 00 CO 1-1 t> OS 
iH • tH • i-<CO 00 


Kraano 'n u 


Oi-lt>T}tC<J • iH -<:Ji m eg t- 00 t- «0 iH T-( OS 00 O t- 
1-1 1-1 iH N 1-1 -iH iHtH 1-1 C<J tOiHlO 

i-< 


IBJ9U8f) 


aivaN svwoHi 


CO(M t-CvI-^OOO t-U50S0S00O • O (N CO O (M OS 

tH 1-1 1-1 CO lH iH iH (M 1-1 rH iH • i-l i-l N OS iH 00 


XjBjsjoas 


Aajna :sMV^a 


CO CO t- (N IC O 00 00 lO OS O 00 tH •OCOeOOUiTjt 
1-1 1-1 iH 00 1-1 1-1 1-1 N 1-1 1-1 1-1 lH • 1-1 iH C<1 OS lH O 


•S9JjI-90IA 


NNinO "v "aiiHiHV 


CO CO C- 1-1 lO O 00 OS kO OS O 00 OS -OeOi-I^INt- 

iH iH 1-1 CO T-i 1-1 th (n 1-1 1-1 1—1 • 1-1 1-1 N 00 th OS ■ 

1-1 


•S9JJ-90r\^ 


NOSaHDiQH 1 KVmiAV 


CO (N t- IM coo OOOOLOOSOCOO • O CO CO tJ* -<* 00 
tH 1-1 iH CO rH 1-1 tH (N tH i-( i-l i-I • iH iH N 00 i-l OS 

1-1 


JU9pTS9J<J 
|Ei9U9£) 


AHHra saKvf 


00 (M IXM CO O 00 OS lO 00 O 00 rH • O CO CO 00 t> 00 
■r-{ T-{ r-l CO I-* r-t T^ (M rH i— 1 rH rH • rH rH 0<J 00 rH O 

(M 


^aai 


ft 
MIIN NOINa qvooT 












Co' -I* in t> N -^ «0 I> 00 OS ■^' lO 50 OS O i-J CO Tj? irj ^D 
iOlJ5LOlfi>«OCD!OCO«C>5Cit-t-t-t-000000000000 



96 






HONAl H 



lax^ivK >inHj.Hv 



CO c<i • so c<i t<t ^ 00 th ■ e^ • • 6] th oa -coiAN 



oo«£>cot-idi5co'^ecooc<ieocoooo«D(Mco<©co 

t- 1-1 iH tH C<1 W iH 1-1 lO N 1-1 (M 



m9 



aioo 'v PvvmiAv 



o 









IPPISIQ 

P-i£ 



ippjsia 
p°z 



PPISIQ 









anOIMlHOVia A^HVH 



aanxaioo d sawvf 



SXXOd H NHOf 



xsod v a 



CD t- «0 O iX> C- la O iH t- lO • CO O Oi OOCQ eO tH tH 
iH i-( 1-1 tH iH iH 00 (M tH • iH ?S Ca iH tH CO 



«D t> ?0 O to 00 CD (N tH 00 m • CO tH Oi 00 (M CO 1-1 N 
1-1 1-1 1-1 tH rH 1-1 00 (M 1-1 • 1-1 CD (M 1-1 1-1 CO 



t- t- CD Oi CO 00 CD eg O 00 LO • CO O 05 00 C<l CO tH (N 
1-1 1-1 iH 1-1 iH CO (N tH • 1-1 CO C<I r-l 1-t 00 



O 05 CO 05 CD 00 CO (N <M 00 lO • CO O 05 00 C<l CD i-( O 
(M iH tH iH tH CO C<1 1-1 • 1-1 CO C<l iH lH CO 



OS t- CO Oi CO 00 CO (M 1-1 00 Ifl ■ • rH 05 00 W CO iH rH 
1-1 iH iH iH 1-(C0(M iH . .CD (N tH iH eO 



NOS^iaHj^K 's HaxqvAV 



Nraano 'w "x 



aivaM sviMOHX 



Ad^na xNv^a 



CD O CD O Tj< 00 00 IM CO 00 -^ • CO N OS 00 IM CD iH iH 
iH iH 1-1 i-< 1-1 CO !M 1-1 • 1-1 CO N 1-1 iH CO 



CO iH CD O t- 00 00 <M Tfi 00 to • CO (M OS 00 Cvl CO iH 00 
d N 1-1 1-1 iH rH CO (M 1-1 • tH CO (N 1-1 1-1 CO 



•S9JJ-9DI^ 



NNinO V ^riHX^IV 



•S9JJ-90I^ 



NosaHOxaH "t KvmiAv 



jn9ptS9JJ 
IBJ9n9^ 



Aa-ara sanvf 



"aaawnM noinq avooa 



Oi— l-^t-0S-<*l0t-iHC0t-O— H-^OSOtH(MCOVC 

ososos050sooOTHiHi-io<i(MC<i(Moocoeoooeo 

t-t-t-t-t-000000000000000000000000000000 



97 



u 

O 

fQ 

> 

O 

01 
X 

W 

C3 
Ih 
0) 

a 
O 




HONAT H 


■— t I— 1 (>4 CO i-O '— 1 C^I CTw 


• -Nt< 1-1 C: • • *0 CO • • CO '-^ 


aax^ivw ^aHX>iv 


t-OT050t-coin)'*oot-c<iiooooO'st<t-'^ai>oc<i 

-!-li-ICOi-l COi-HIM (M CO 


H»9 


aioo v wvmiA\ 


OOOi-HCnOlOt-CO 
i-H T-l T-H -^ T-l tH 


•O-^-^OOCDOOS-^OOOC^l 
• U3 i-< CO N tH CO 




a>iow^ovaa a>i>ivh 


ooo^oioooeo 

rH rH tH -^ i-H i-l 


•C<lTl<COOOt-Ot--*OOOi-i 
• LO 1— 1 CO 1-1 Od tH CO 


aa>ij.aioo d sawvf 


ooo(MO>oin)C-co 

1-1 tH r-l -^ tH 1-1 


•tHC0C00000O?0-*O00t-( 
•iO T-l CO 1-1 (M 1-1 CO 




SXXOJ H NHOf 


OOOCgOlT-llOt-CO 
iH tH 1-1 -^ -i-l tH 


•T-^co'*oooooo'*ooo(^a 
• in 1-1 CO iH CO 1-1 CO 


xsoj 'v a 


OOOOvJOiOLOt-CO 

1-1 T-< T-l Tt r-l 1-1 


•Oe0Tt<0000OU5-^O00(N 
•lO iH CO iHCq iH CO 


1ST 


NOsnaHJ^K s >iaj.avAv 


u:)000-*05«DeCO«D(NlOOOOO • USt- • tj< Cvl us 
1-1 (M T-l (M ■ iH • 


Nraaao -n -x 


eO • ■* in CO 00 ■* CO (N r-l Oi t- • 00 lO CO •* in CD 00 
tH . rH CO (M • 1-1 (M 


J9 


jnSE9JJ^ 
lEJ9U9f) 


aavaN svmohx 


OOOlMOiO'*t-CO 
iH 1-1 1-1 -* 1-1 1-1 


•(MTt<C<]0000O00^O00(M 
• lO 1-1 CO tH (N r-l CO 


|BJ9Uajr) 


xddna ^NVHa 


00OC<105O^t-C0 
iH iH iH -^1-1 1-1 


•(N^i-IOOOOOO'*OOOCO 

• in 1-1 CO 1-100 th CO 


■sajj-ooiyV 

lEJ9U9£)pU2 


NNiaO V "ariHXHV 


ooas<M050ict-eo 

1-1 iH T)< 1-1 iH 


• cotj<cooooooo5-^oooco 

• CO 1—1 CO 1-1 (M 1-1 CO 


•S9JJ-90IyV 


NosaHoxaH a MvmiAv 


ooooaojoioc-co 

1-1 TH 1-1 Tt< 1-1 1-1 


•CO^COOOOOOO'^OOOCO 

• 00 1-1 CO 1-1 CO T-l 00 


jn9piS9J<J 
IBi9U9£) 


Aa>ira saMvf 


00O(M05C^]L0t-C0 

1-1 rH 1—1 -^1—1 i-( 


•i-i-^fcooooooo-^osoooo 

• LO 1— 1 CO ^ CO CO 


^aai 


MQN NOiNii avooa 








































ix>OiHoo?oooosLOt-ooco-*mt-ooosoco-*u3 
coeo-^-^iomiocDcDtDt-t-t-c-c-c-oooooooo 

0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 



98 



t3 

C3 


o 

0) 

c 





HONAT H 


■ T-H CO •■ • -co • t- • • CO C<1 lO 00 OC O CO • 

• ■ • • • • 1-H T-i 


^ax^VIM >inHJ.HV 


,-1 00 lo to 00 Oi o CO t- '-I in • ^ t- co eo t- t- oo •^ 

,-H ,H ^H i-H T-H Tt . ^ ,_( ,_| C<1 


q)9 


aaoo v HvmiAv 


O O 00 so CO 05 O to t- Cd iX) • t- C5 t- C5 CO 00 ?0 CO 
tH ,-1 ,-H-lT-(r-l CO tH(MC<ItH 


mq 


aHOMXovTia A^ravH 


00?OOOOiOCDt-l0 50 00C-OiOOOCOOS«0-5j< 
1-1 1-1 1-1 i-l 1-1 1-1 C<I iH 1-1 CO (M 1-1 




asRixaioo d sawvf 


O O 00 CD CO Oi O CD t- -<J< <£i • t- 05 00 05 CO 00 CO ^ 

i-li-l tHi-Hi-Ii-I (N • -iHO^IC^Ii-l 


P-I? 


. SXXOJ H NHOf 


oooocoeoosocot-cDcD •t-ost-oscoooco-r 

1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 tH 0<I • 1-1 (M C<I 1-1 


paj 


xsod v a 


o o cx)coeooso cot- coco • t- oo oo o co os cd -st 
1— ii— 1 T-ii— itHi— 1 c<i • 1— ieoc<ii-< 


u>pisia 




^OO^IM -00 • ■ -t-CO -CD-^OOt-t-CO^:! 
• 1-H • 1— 1 tH OJ 


t- (M '^ •* CO th o CO t- 1-1 N • th lo o -^a* o CO 1-1 ri 

i-l 1-1 1-1 1-1 CO • iH 1-1 1-1 1-1 


jajnsBaJx 


aavaN svmohx 


oooocoeooiocDc-oocooocoo5ooo5coc5co -- 

tH 1-1 .^ ,-1 1-1 1-1 (M tH 1-1 M (M 1-1 


jCjEjsjoag 
jBjaaaQ 


Aaana :sNV^a 


OOOOCDCOOTOCOt-CDCDOOt-OiOTOCOiCCO -- 

i-(i-( ,— IrHrHi— 1 (M i-l tHCOOJ^ 




NNinO v >inHX>iv 


OOOOOC0050COt-C<IC090t>050005C<IOTCD^ 

1— It-I r-< t-I -r-^ ,-< Oq 1—1 1— IC<1C<1t-H 

> 


•S9JJ-90t Y 

|BJ9naj[) jsj 


NosaHOxaHi MvmiAv 


O O CO CO CO Oi ■ CO t- in CD 00 t^- Oi 00 O CO O CO Tf 
1— (.— 1 I— ii— li-H- (M 1—1 1— ICOCdfM 


JU9piS9JJ 
IBi9a90 


Aa^ira saMvf 


TH0500C0C00iOtOt-i— ICDOOcoOiOiOs-^OCO-^ 
1-1 i-l-^^^ 00 —1 ^(MCOfM 


HSHI 


MQN NoiNa avooi 

































^ 








.-J (N lo CO o ^' U5 D- o eg "^a? lo o 1-i CO t-^ 00 o oj c? 

O^OS0505i-iiHiHi-l(MOqC<lCgcOCOCOCOCO-*-*0 
OOOOCiOOOOlCiOSOiOlOiClOJSiOiOSClOSi^SOJUS 
n^^■-(^l-^^^-lr-^•r^•^r-i^vH»dcdT»^lMr-^lHC^ 



99 



« 
o 

o 
> 

u 

m 

a 






HONAT H 


«D U5 • C<1 Oi C<1 rH 00 Tj< W CO !0 00 IC CD -OS • t- -^ 

i-H . . -^ 


laj^^VK ^inHXHV 


C0t-t-«0Ot-t-000St-t-O-^C0(MOl0OT)<O 
T-l T-H CO 00 <M (M CO iHrHr-KMi-l i-H 


H19 


aqoo 'v i\[vmiA\ 


t-co«Di-i o CO «o i^oa o 'i* -^ (M 00 ooo in<M 00 • 

I-H IM (M CO Od rH tH 7-H -* CO '-H '-I i-H 1-1 (M i-l(M • 




a^ioiMSOvaa a>i>ivh 


OCO«OCOtH'* t-00(MO-*^IMOOOOO'SOC<10 • 
(M (M N CO (M i-H T-l iH Tji CO 1-1 i-H r-l rH C<I I-H CO • 


aa^iiaioo d saivvf 


O I-H CO (M(M CO ^ 00 CO O Tj* lO Oa 00 00 O «0 (M Oi • 
C<l C<1 C<1 CO (M i-H 1—1 rH -^ CO rH rH T-l I-H CO 1-1 N • 


p-ie 


SXiOd H NHOf 


OC0CDC0(M050000(M OTfLCIM OOOOOCONO • 
(MN 05 CO C<1 1-1 iH T-l ->* 00 1-1 tH tH ,-l(M iH CO • 


P^^ 


isod v a 


O5C0 COCO CO CO t- 05(M O^IO (M 0000O<X>(M O • 
1-1 (M (M CO <N 1-1 iH tH -* CO 1-1 iH 1-1 1-1 (M T-l CO • 




NOS>iaH<I=>M s ^axivM 


t- Tj* t- t- 00 rf CO 00 00 • -OOCD-^OIOOO -OOO 
C<Ii-l 1-1 --i-l tH i-li— l-COi-l 


Nraano im 'x 


(M t- 1-1 (N 05 IM iH O «0 OS 00 t- CO -* 05 • tH O (M CO 
,-( 1-1 rH 1-1 C<I iH i-ieON -T-li-l 




a^vaN svwohx 


05 CO C- "^ IC CO in 00 IM 05 ^ in (M 00 00 O OS (M (M • 
i-l(M (M CO <N i-(i-l -<* 00 1-1 rH tH ,-( (M ,-1 CO • 


IBJ9U3Q 


Aaaaa ^NV>ia 


t> 00 CO CO (M 05 00 <N -* iH TJ< -* (M 00 00 O GO !M CO • 
1-1 1-1 (M CO (M (M 1-1 1-1 -Tl* CO — 1 1-1 tH 1-1 (M 1-1 CO • 


•S9J(J-90I \^ 

IBJauar) puj; 


NMiaC) v >iaHx>iv 


C-COCO CO CO CO t-(M '^ O ^ rjH (M 0000 O O (M 05 • 
1— 1 (M (M CO C<I (M 1-1 T-H '^ CO tH 1-1 1-1 1-1 CO tH C<I • 


|BJ9U9X) JSl 


xosaHOxriHT wvmiAv 


O CO C-IC vn CO 00 05 CO O '^ CO (M 00 00 O O (M IM • 
(M(M C<ICO (Ni-li-li-iT}<COi— ItHi— Ii-ICOt-ICO • 


}U9pTS9JJ 
lBi9U9f) 


Aa>ira saMvf 


o -* t-o in o^ 00 o Tj< 1-1 ^ CO (N 00 00 o o (M CO ■ 
coco CO CO coco^^^^-rj<coi-ii-<»-<i-ico-Hco • 










































■^' CO t-^ 00 ai o in 00 cc C-' o 00 o ^" CO 05 co' co' c-^ •^' 
oooooi-i^i-icococo-^inininincocoi-ico 
minLnLnmininininLnininininioininLncoco 

C0C^]COCOCOC^COCOC^COC0C0COCOCOCMCOC0CO(M 



100 



« 

O 

a> 
._> 

a 
o 

X 

m 

a 
O 




HONAl "S. 




laiHviM >inHX>iv 




HJ9 


a^o^ v iMvmiAv 


• • • • t- 




a>ioPV5iovia A>i-avH 


• • • • t- 


aa>ixaioo j saMvf 


. . . . t> 


P-i€ 


SXXOd H MHOf 


. . . .c- 


P°2 


xso<i v a 


• • • • t- 




NOsnaHJ^w s ^laxivAv 




Nraaao k "x 


CDOOCDCO 


J9jnSB9JJL 
lBJ9Uaf) 


aavaN svimohx 


• • • • t- 


|Bjau9x) 


Aaana ^NV>ia 


• • • -c- 


•S9JJ-80I^\ 

lBJ9ua£) pu^ 


NNiaC) 'v -anHXHV 


• • • • t- 


•S9IJ-90Ij^Y 
lBJ9U9f) is I 


NOsaHOxnH a wviaaiM 


. . . . t_ 


;U9piS9JJ 
IB19U9Q 


Aanra saiMvf 


. . . . t- 




■aaai 


■ 
AiaN NoiNQ avooa 


t-^ O T-I Tj< t>^ 

w -^ ic lo uf 

^ ^ CO ^ sO 

(>] oa oa <>] CM 



101 



o 

H 

a 
w 

CO 

M 
P 



Q 
O 

o 
I— I 

q" 

O 
O 

H 
O 

o 

< 

o 
o 

o 

CO 

O 
> 



O 

W 

0) 

_> 

CJ 

a; 
X 

0) 

fl 





HONAl -^ 


■*)< Tf lO (M i-H Tjt 05 (M CO -^ CO (M • 

1—1 


CO 


aax^VK >inHX>iv 


lCt-C000iX>O • -^ CO lO T-l CO CO 
1-1 tH • (M (M tH T-H T-l 


OG 

CO 
tH 


q;9 


aioo "v MvmiAv 


05 iM 00 o t- ^ cKi LO '^ o oa lo o co 

1-1 tH 1-1 T-l tH (M (M c<] 1— 1 '-I 1-1 Oi 

1—1 




a^ow:sovia a>i>ivh 


0^(M00 00C-T)<01C0e0O(MlOO 
1-1 1—1 1-1 iH IM (M (M 1-t 1-1 1-1 


CO 




aa>ij.aioo d sawvf 


05IM0005t--*aiOO'*0(MlOO 
1-1 T-l iH 1— 1 Oa (M IM 1-1 1-1 1-1 


1—1 


p°e 


SXiOd H NHOf 


C5eoooeot--^05(X)eoTH(NU50 

iH rH 1—1 iH iH CO (M C<I 1-1 rH 1-1 


eg 
o 
eg 


isod v a 


O0C<J0Oi— It^-^OiOOcOiHCO^O 

1-1 1-1 1-1 tH i-l(M C<I (M tH rH 1-1 


Ci 
iH 


ppjsia 


NOS^aHd^K 'S >I3J.aVM 


1-1 CD C<I <M (M (M -i-IUSCOOCO • 

1-1 • (M T-l 1— 1 tH . 


00 

o 

tH 


Nraano -m u 


1— 1 1— 1 1—1 




aivaN sviMOHi 


cjcooococ^-^ost-Loooo'J^o 

1— li— 1 1—1 1— li— lC<IC<IC<li— li— It— 1 


eg 


itjBJ9J09S 

IBjauajT) 


A^^aa XNV>i^ 


oicooocDt--^ci05LCi-ieo^o 

1— li— 1 1—1 1— It— l(M(>JC<Ii— li— It— 1 


o 
eg 


jBJSuaQpuj 


NNinO v ^inHXHv 


05 CO 00 iH C- -^ 05 t- -* 1-1 (M lO o o 

1— It— 1 1—1 1— li— IC<ICVlC<li— li— ItH O 

(M 


|BJ9U9£) js^ 


NosaHoxnH t iMvmiAv 


05C000>Ot-'*C50^lOiH^l0O 
i-liH i-l i-lT-IC^ICMtMi-li— Ir-I 


05 

o 
eg 


JU9pTS9JjJ 
IBi9a9^ 


x^m^ sawvf 


Oi CO 00 t- t- "* 05 05 '^ 1-1 '^ lO o o 

1— li— 1 1—1 1— li— ICOOJOJi— It— ll— 1 1—1 

(M 


HaawnN NoiNa avooi 















































































co' eg c4 CO iH CO c<i <x> eg -^ eg ■^' tm 

QOS>r-i'^i<cgt-icic«oeoocgTj< 

o^jco-^y5'x>t-c~ooT-Hcgcgoi 

-H 1— 1 rH ,— 1 





102 



H 

m 

Q 

o 



o 

Q 

< 

O 

I— ( 

O 

;2; 

;d 

H 
H 

^; 

o 
o 

H 

o 

to 

o 

I— I 

o 
o 
^ 

o 

02 

w 

'O 
> 



O 
W 
0) 

> 

3 
O 

cu 

i-i 

01 

O 




HONAT H 




aax^ivK >inHJ.>iv 


o 

T-l 

1-( 
tH 
tH 


V9 


a^o^ v KvmiAv 


^^q 


a"aow:sovT[a a-hhvh 




aaHxaioo d sawvf 


P-I? 


SXJ.OJ H NHOf 


P«2 


xsod v a 


1-1 




NOS-aaHd^M -s -aaxavM 


o 

rH 
tH 

1-1 

tH 
iH 


Nraano 'm u 




aivaM svKOHX 


jBjausf) 


Adolfia :iMV>I>i 


IBJ9U9X) pu^ 


NNinO "V ^laHXHV 


•S9JJ-a3T^\ 
JBJ9a9£) JSJ 


NOSaHOXIlH T MVmiM 


iH 


jn9ptS9JJ 
JBJ9U9f) 


Aa"ara sawvf 




"aaai 


^VaN NOINH IVOOl 


CO 
O 
(N 

T-l 



103 



O 

> 

3 
U 

0) 

c 



tPPlSlQ 


HONAl H 


Oi CO 


^1 


^ai>IVM >iaHi^v 


(M 


CO 


ippisia 

H»9 


a^o^ v KvmiAv 




00 
CO 


ippjsia 


a^0W30V19 A^^VH 


ocs 

r-4(M 


00 




aa^iaioo d saMvf 


(NOS 




ipp^sia 

P-i£ 


SXiOd H NHOf 


005 
THCq 


eo 


P°Z 


isod v a 


T-I(M 


o 
-<* 


PPISTQ 


NOS^aHjaiM s >^ax^v^v 


CO '^ 


«o 


Nmaao 'm 'x 


CO -n* 

1-1 (N 




J8jnSE9JX 


aivaN sviMOHi 


005 


OS 

eo 




Aaana 3NV¥>a 


OSOi 


oo 

CO 


•S8JJ-90I^\ 

IBJSuaQpu^ 


NNinO v "anHi^v 


005 
tH (M 


OS 
eo 


•S9Jj-a3iA 

IBJ8U9Q JSt 


NOSaHOXHH T KVmiAV 


05 0S 


00 

eo 


juapisajj 

]B18U9i) 


A9"ara sawvf 


OCS 
iH(M 


OS 

eo 




^aai 


MaN NOiNQ qvooi 




ir. 







104 



H 

O 
W 

O 

Q 

O 
O 
H 

fa 
O 

Pi 
H 

iz; 
o 



« 



pa 

> 

"5 

O 

0) 

c 





HONAT a 




lai^vM ^laHXHV 


CO 

J-i 


IIJ9 


aiOD v wvmiM 


CO 

1-1 


HIS 


a>^0IO^v^9 ahhvh 


CO 


H»^ 


aaHxa^oo d sawvf 


00 

T— 1 


p-ie 


SXXOJ H NHOf 


CO 

1— 1 




xsod v a 


CO 

T-l 




NOS^iaHd^K s >iaXlVAV 




Nraano n "x 


(M 




aavaN svmohx 


CO 

T-l 


AjE}9J09g 

jejauajT) 


Aaana 3NV>ia 


CO 

7-i 




NNiaO v ^aHXHV 


CO 

T-l 


•S9JJ-90IA 


NOSaHOXQH T IVVmiAV 


CO 
1— 1 


jaapis9Jjj 

IBi9a9^ 


Aanra saiMvf 


CO 

T— 1 




"aaai 


MQN NOINQ qVDOa 





105 



Si 
03 

o 

pa 

o 
_> 

U 

<u 

rt 
0) 

c 



ippisia 
mi 


HONAT -a 


ecr- 




u: 




05l 
CO 

1 


^aJ.HVI^[ ^nHJ>>iv 


C»tHCO0O 
CO r-li-l C<1 


O i 


pp^sia 

IPPiSTQ 


aaoo v wvmiM 


•tHtHCO 


US } 


a>I0IM30Yia A>IHVH 


• tH O iH* 

• tH tH CO 


<M i 


aanjLaioo a sawvf 


. r-l,-H CO 


CO 


ippjsia 


SXXOd H NHOf 


•iHOO 
•tH i-H CO 


tH 

in 


PPISTQ 


xsod v a 


■ i-IO(M 

• 1—1 tH CO 


CO 


ippisia 


NOS^aHJ^M s ^axavAv 


T-t ■!-( O 05 

CO tH i-H 


1-1 


Nraano "k 'x 


O r-l(M !M lO 


J3JnSB9JX 
|BJ9a3f) 


aqvaN svkohx 


•T-IO(N 

• i-ll-HCO 


CO 
in 


XJE}9J09§ 
lBJ9n9f3 


Aaana SNV>ia 


• i-H 05(M 

• y-t CO 


in 

1 


•S9Jj-9orY 


NNinO -v -HaHX-av 


• tH CO lo 
• 


•S9IJ-90TA 
IEJ9U9£) }S| 


NOSaHOXQH T KVmiAV 


• r-l 0(M CO 

• r-l tH CO lO 


jn9piS9J(J 
IBI9U9Q 


AaniM saKYf 


• tH O CO -* 

• -rH r-( CO lO 




HaHJ 


MQM NOINn qvooT 




,;r; 


oc 

oc 


oc 

c^ 







106 



o 

D 

o 
o 

O 



O 
H 

W 

Q 

l-H 

M 
< 

m 

H 
O 



q»z 



Tt 


qi9 


a 
C 

> 


HJ5 


3 
O 




c 



pje 







tppisia 

1ST 



J9jnSE9JJ^ 



HONAT ■>! 



aaxHVPv >iaHX"av 



3103 V IMVmiAi 



a^opoovia a>i>ivh 



aanxaioo d saivvf 



SiiOJ H NHOf 



«DOIO 
U3 -^ CO 


• O OJ-^ CD o c~ • o 
•1-1 ^ -^C^J • M 


• C- (N tH O O 1-1 

• 1-1 (N rH 1-1 1-1 1-1 


<0(MU3 
IC ^ «D 


•OOSt-Ot-t-lMTt' 


• C- (M 1-1 lO O tH 

• iH C<I 1-1 1-1 1-1 




«OOU5 
lO '^ CD 


•oo>cDot>t-(Neo 

•l-H i-H )^ C<1 1-1 00 


• C- N rH in O 1-1 
■ 1-1 C<1 1-1 i-( 1— 1 




COOlO 

in xt< CO 


•OO^lOOQOt-<Mt- 
• 1—1 ^H UT) C<l 1—1 


• t- Oq tH U3 O 1-1 

• 1-1 irq 1-1 1-1 ^ 



isod v a 


CO 1-1 CO • O 05 t- O t- t> C<J CO • t- N 1-1 CD O 1-1 

U3 -^ -1-1 1-1 lO OJ 1-1 CO • 1-1 (M tH 1-1 1-1 


NOS^iaHd^W S >I3XaVM 


1-1 CO CO • T-l in CD rl< Oi -^ LO ■ • lO CO t~ -o ■ 
1-1 • (M • • • tH • 


Nraaao m "x 


t- i-( 00 Oi Oi lO iH O t- '^ t- IC CO CO O Tl< CO -00 
IC -^ lO 1-1 00 1-1 CO r-l 1-1 C<l 



aivaN svKOHX 



AJB19J09S 

{Bjauar) 



Aaana :MxNiv^a 



"S9JJ-90I \ 



NNiaO v >inHXHV 



•S9JJ-9DT\ 
|BJ9n9£) JSl 



iMOsaHOxriHx iMvmiAv 



ja9piS9JJ 
|EJ9a9f) 



Aanix sawvf 



■aaawaN noinq ivoot 



Oi-iir5ioc5iot-iOi-ic:~-^i-iococ<i^ooc~co 

OllOt-OOOOOi-^-^OOt-OLOCD'^CCO-^LOl-C 

coioiOLOcocoooa2aiOC<]04ooLOir;cococo:o 



lO'; 



« 

o 
pa 

1 
"3 

u 

a> 

a 

0) 

c 

o 




HONAT H 






CO 


^aJ.>^VM -aaHJL-av 


LOOO^ 

eo w 


CO 


q»9 


a^o^ v wvmiM 




«o 

CO 

■<4< 


ippisia 


aHOi\i:sovaa ah>ivh 


OOIO • CO 


ppisia 


aaniaioo d saiMvf 




CO 


p-ie 

IPPISIQ 


' 001/5 • 

sxxoj H NHcf 1 ^ : 

1 


00 


00^ : 
xsod "v a ^ 


00 
Oi 
CO 


ippisia 


KOS^iaHd^M s >^aJ.^v^v 


CO 


CO 

1-H 


Nraano 'n 'x 


CD OOO 


00 
CO 


J8JnSB9JX 
lBJ8n9J[) 


aivaM svKOHX 


T-H CO • CO 

lO • c- i 


XjBiaJoag 


Aaana ^rNV^ia 


O «D • 
U5 


00 




XNiaO v ^riHX-av 


05 ;o • CO 


•sajj-90TjY 


NOSaHOXQH 1 IMVmiM 


05 ;c> . 


o 


jnapisajj 


Aa>ii5i saMvf 


ocD • eo 

• -* 

i 




■aaai 


MflN NOINH aVOOT 


cc 


oc 

1-H 









108 



O 

w 

3 
U 

Ui 

0) 

d 

0) 




IPPJSIQ 


HONAT H 


to 


^aJ.>^VK -ariHi-HV 


CO 


ippisia 

qJ9 


aiOD "v MvmiM 


o 
1-1 


tPPlStQ 


a^owiaDvia a^ihvh 


o 

iH 

«o 

o 

T-l 

tH 
CO 

o 


tppjsia 


aa^xaioo a sawvf 


ippjsia 
p-ie 


SXXOd H NHOf 


IPPJSTQ 


xsod v a 


PPISIQ 


NOs^iaHd^K "s >iaxavAv 


Nraaao "m *x 




aqvaN svkohx 


o 

T-l 


jCjE}3J09g 

IBjauag 


XdK[\a. :>iMW^d 


tH 


•S3JJ-93I^ 

]Bjau3£) puj; 


NNiaO 'V HQHXHV 


1-H 


•S9JJ-9DI^\ 
|BJ9U0f) JSJ 


NosaHDxaHT wvmiM 


t- 


JU9piS9JJ 
JBJ9U9Q 


Aa"ara sai\[vf 


OS 




■aaai 


VQN NOINQ aVDOl 





109 



Q 

M 

Oh 
< 



H 
P5 
O 

Oh 

H 

Ol, 
M 

w 
> 

I— I 
H 
O 

Q 

< 

P 
O 

0i 






HONAT ■>! 



•n 


qi9 


o 

0) 




3 




s 

a 

q; 











PPISIQ 






^JBjaJoag 

JBJ9UO0 



IBJ9U9£) puj; 



]BJ9UaQ JSJ 



JU9ptS9JjJ 
IEi9U9£) 



lai^IVM "ariHiHV 



3103 'v wvrniM 



CO ^ 00 T-i 00 



m T-H 5D tH 00 \ r-i \ 



lO i-H LO rH 00 



aHOixixovaa a>i>ivh 



aaHiaioo d saivvf 



SXiOd H NHOf 



us T-H LO i-H 00 



isod 'v a 



NOS"aaH<i3K s "aaxavM 



Nraano 'n u 



lO Tj< o 1— I 00 



lo • to 1— I 00 



aivaN svwoHX 



Aaana :>iNV>ia 



NNiaO v ^aHx^v 



NOsaHOXOH a iMvmiAv 



Aa^ira sawvf 



"aaaiMfiM noinh avooa 



lo • to T-H 00 I o 



um • to -i-H 00 I o 



ITi • -* T-H 00 I 00 



T-H CO to lo i> 
co Cr- t- lO 00 

O-l CO to o to 



110 



m 

O p 

> O 
fo o 

^ -I 

-*^ 

;z; CO 
O o 



SI 

m « 

H H 
O « 

Q K 

o 

CO 1-H 

H 

O 
I— I 

o 



1 

1 

)- 

i " 


> 

5 

(. 

a, 
u 
O 

c 

o 




PPJSIQ 


HONAT -H 


■ tDtMLOi-Has-^cctDco'-ccriLO-^i-i-^ • ■ 


i3i>iVK "anHX-av 


C<100lMCO(MLOC5C~(M'*rH00CO^t-COCO00 
1— li— li— 1 LQC<jC<li— 1 1—1 ^HCO 


ippjsia 

qi9 


aao3 "v KvmiM 


Cvlo-^?OiX)OOOOt-?Dt-i-IOOC-OOt-(MOO 

iH C<I 1-1 LO CO "^ ^H 1-1 ^^ 1-1 1-1 N 




a"aoK:sovia a^thvh 


Cgi-C^t-COOOlOCDCDt-i-IOOt-t-t-CMOO 
1— IO]i-l lOCO'^T-li— 1 1—1 1—1 1— ICO 


(M 1-1 -^ CD CO O CM O lO «D t- i-H 00 00 1-1 t- (M 00 


PTJISTQ 

p-ie 


SXXOd H NHOf 


(M(M^I>COOa>OlOI>C~t-OOOOt~C-(MOO 

1-1 C<J 1-1 LO CO "^ 1-1 rH 1-1 1-1 (M 


PPJSici 


xsod •¥ a 


C<](M'*t-COOaiOC~^t-i-IOOoOOOt-(NOO 

1-1 (M T-l lO CO -^ tH 1-1 1-1 rH 1— 1 C^ 




Nos-aaHJ^K -s "aaxxvM 


1— ico(Nt:-i-(Oooc<ico"t>iHO<^(Ni<i<ii-iooin 

Oq 1-1 1-1 ^^ ^-^ 


Nraaao 'w *x 


i-l(Min)<MlMLCO>0000(N1D^(NlOCD«DlOCO 
1-1 (M 1-1 LO 1— 1 (M 1-1 tH 


|BJ9U8£) 


aivaN svMOHX 


i-ico-^t>-co05ooait-t>(MOOt-oot-c<]oc 

1-1 <M tH lO (M lO 1-1 1-1 T-l 1-1 1-1 C<] 


XlEJ3ID9g 
|BJ9Xia£) 


Aaana SNvaa 


eg^iooicooiooi— it-c-i-i(X)c~oc~(Moc 


•sajj-9or\ 
IBJ9U9Q pn^ 


NNiaO 'v "anHXHV 


<Nic<i^t~coa5000c~i^-o]oooooot-<Moo 
T— ((^^■^^ loo]lot-icvi i— i ^-i ^hc<i 


•S9JJ-90I Y 


NosaHOxriH -a MvnaiAv 


(MoiLooocoasasoasc-t-ojoooot-t-c^ioo 

1-ICJrH LOCVl'^rHi-l -^ rH r-IN 


in9piS9JJ 
]Bi9n9Q 


Aanra saiwf 


OJ^^DOlCOOiOOT-IC- t-(M 00 00 t- t- <M 00 
1— ICv]i— 1 1003L0T— !(>] 1—1 1—1 1— ICO 


























■HaewaN noinh ivooi 




















o CO ai '^' ci — ' 1 ~ ■-::' ■-£ i " ic ^ o6 ot ■^' oz •- cv 
?■? -M o: '^ •* ?■: -i- c; — ' u; -^ 1 :^ cr> CO -^ ^-^ c 

C^t 'M 71 -M 77 7? ! ^ L.7 i.T V" CO CI O ^ Cvl Ol CC 



111 



1 

u 
C3 


> 

3 
O 

i) 
X 

rt 
u. 

a 






HDNAT 'H 


(M<Mi-(^ • ■* • • ■ Oi t- 00 
... eg 


CO 

iH 


lai^IVM HnHi-iiv 


t-LO->*00O5r-ILDCOeO<MC0C<l 
i-H 1-1 tH T-( tH T-l tH 


00 

co 


H»9 


aaoo "v KvmiAs. 


05 «0 lO O Oi (M lO 00 03 00 t- • 
(M iH T-l tH T-H 1-1 (M • 


iH 
CD 




3>iow:>iDvaa A>i"avH 


05 U5 Uti O Oi 1-1 lO CO CO 05 t- • 
(M 1-1 tH iH T-l 1-1 C<I • 


T-l 

CO 




asHiaioo d sawvf 


05 IC LO O Oi CO UT) CO CO 05 t- • OS 

(M 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 iH ca • '^ 


P-Ig 
p°z 


SXXOd 'H NHOf 


Oi tout) O Oi com CO coo I> • CO 
(M 1-H i-( 1-1 1-1 (M <M • -rt< 

1 


isod 'v a 


Oi lO iO O Oi CO lO CO CO Oi t- • 
(N iH 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 (M • 


00 
CD 




NOS-aaHd^M s >iaxavM 


lO 00 ^ t- '^ LO •OJC<lt--^Oi 
1-1 1-1 iH (N 




Nraano 'm "x 


->:}< ,. iHCOLOOStniHi-lt-NTH 

1-1 1-1 1—1 1-1 


o 
o 

CO 




aavaM svivoHX 


Oi t- u:> o Oi -* lo CO CO CO t- • 

(M 1-1 tH 1-1 1-1 1—1 (M • 


o 


AjEjajD9g 
JBJ9U3f) 


Aaana :>[NV^a 


Oi 00 t- tH Oi -^ U5 CO CO o t> • 

(>a 1-1 th 1-1 1-1 (M (M • 


00 


•S9J(J-90IyV 

]BJ9U90 pa^ 


NNiaO v HriHXHv 

• 


Oi 00 to o Oi iH lii CO CO Oi t- • 

OJ tH 1-1 iM iH 1-1 (M . 

< 


CO 


•S9JJ-90T^ 


NOSaHOlQHT wvmiM 


Oi t- t- O Oi "^ m CO CO o t- . 
Cvj 1-1 1-1 tH 1— 1 (M (M . 


t- 


JU9pTS9JJ 
|Bi9U9Q 


Aanra sawvf 


Oi 00 00 -^ Oi lO lO CO (N O t- • 
l^q rH tH iH tH (M (M . 


00 


■aaawriN noinq ^voo^ 

1) 














































































Looioioodoocooooiodid 

OsmtXNlrHC<10ilOt-'*lOtC 

eo-^iiOcot-c-ooooooiiOLO 

— Ii-I,-Ii-It-I,-I^t-ItHiH<N(N 





U2 



CorrospondoncQ 




Washington and I,incoln and the 

Bvils of Our Day 
Editor The Carpenter: 

It would be well for the American peo- 
ple, during the month of February, in 
which they celebrate the birthdays of 
the two greatest men of our country, 
Washington and Lincoln, to consider the 
great issues they represented and to 
what extent the evils against which 
Washington fought and Lincoln died to 
rid the nation of, still obtain in the land 
for which they did so much to dedicate 
to the self-evident truths, "All men are 
created equal and are endowed by the 
Creator with certain inalienable rights, 
among which are life, liberty and the 
pursuit of happiness." 

"No taxation without representation" 
was the slogan that united the thirteen 
colonies and enabled them to withstand 
the military and naval forces Great 
Britain sent against them. Generations 
have grown up in these United States un- 
der the delusion that they are living in a 
free country, who from the time they are 
born until they die have never drawn a 
breath without paying some pirate or 
parasite who has monopolized the land 
for the right to live upon the soil of their 
birth and breathe the air of their native 
land. Here in New York City the land- 
lords and speculators last year, over and 
above all taxes, assessments and other 
expenses, taxed the business and work- 
ing men for the right to live, to work 
and be of benefit to the community, and 
got away with over $310,000,000. An 
English landlord, born in this city, re- 
ceives millions every year from his ten- 
ants, and what he does in return ex- 
cept to graciously permit them to 
breathe no one has yet been able to find 
out. 

The land speculators, by holding mil- 
lions of acres of land out of use, are re- 
sponsible for the unemployment, poverty 



and degradation that now seems to be the 
lot of the American people. King George, 
in his wildest dreams, would never have 
dared to tax the people at the rate they 
are now being taxed and robbed by 
the land system and the beneficia- 
ries of the same. Lincoln owed his 
prominence to the fact that he was op- 
posed to chattel slavery. At an enor- 
mous cost of life and treasure he rid the 
nation of that great evil. Today we are 
confronted with the forces making for 
industrial slavery. In Lincoln's time 
they sought to destroy the Union of 
States, now they are endeavoring to de- 
stroy the union of labor in order to keep 
the masses in industrial slavery. The 
closing remarks of Lincoln's immortal 
Gettysburg address should receive the 
earnest attention of the American peo- 
ple who still believe in the principles the 
men of the revolution and the civil war 
fought, bled and died to maintain. 

"It is rather for us, the living, to be 
dedicated to the great task yet remaining 
before us. That from these honored 
dead we take increased devotion to the 
cause for which they gave the last full 
measure of devotion, and that we here 
highly resolve the dead shall not have 
died in vain." 

Should the American people become 
indifferent to the cause for which 
they died, the honored dead on all 
the battlefields from Bunker Hill to Ap- 
pomattox will have died in vain. When 
the slaveholders went the limit they 
said only a black man had no rights they 
were bound to respect. The beneficia- 
ries of the present land slave-owning sys- 
tem serve notice on all men, black and 
white: You have no rights to life, lib- 
erty or the soil of your birth that we are 
bound to respect. That a combination 
of the two great evils — taxation without 
representation and industrial slavery — 
now confront the American people, and 



113 



Tfia Carpontar 

in the memory of the immortal Wash- 
ington and the great representative of 
the common people, Lincoln, they should 
resolve, "The nation, under God, shall 
have a new birth of freedom, and that 
government of the people, by the people 
and for the people shall not perish from 
the earth." ALEXANDER LAW, 
L. U. 326, U. B. of C. and J. of A. 
New York, N. Y. 



BUY am:rrican - mad:^ goods 

Editor The Carpenter: 

It has often been quoted that necessity 
is the mother of invention, and the war 
in Europe has caused the foregoing to 
be exemplified more than once. "It is 
an ill wind that blows nobody good." 
While the writer does not desire to make^ 
capital out of the poor unfortunates in 
Europe who are being slaughtered like 
cattle, nevertheless I think the people in 
this country should learn to use Ameri- 
can-made goods. There is hardly a 
commodity that we use that does not 
bear the mark, "made in Germany." It 
is not sufficient to say that these are 
abnormal conditions, the result of a tem- 
porary industrial depression. The world 
does not owe a living to an able-bodied 
man, but society does owe its workmen 
an opportunity to earn a living under 
fair and reasonable conditions. The first 
duty of a community is to give its own 
members the opportunity of being em- 
ployed at decent wages; then, and not 
until then, its arms should be held wide 
open to receive commodities from every 
nation and every clime. The American 
wage-earner, be he native or immigrant, 
entertains no prejudice against his fel- 
low from other lands; but, as self-preser- 
vation is the first law of nature, our 
workmen believe and contend that their 
labor should be protected. 

This motto should be pasted on every 
American-made article: "Buy goodR 
made in America, keep American work- 
men busy, keep the money at home." At 
the present time public meetings are be- 
ing held and money collected to alleviate 
the suffering of those in the war zone, 
yet the unemployed American workman 



is not even considered at these public 
meetings, and if the writer is any 
prophet, there will be as much suffering 
for the necessaries of life this winter 
among the wage-earners of America as 
there will be in the war zone of Europe. 
Why not start a nation-wide agitation 
for American-made goods and discourage 
the imported articles? Everybody likes 
to boast of American achievement and 
American manufactures and inventors 
and American intellect. Stop this mad 
rush for imported goods. There are just 
as good dressmakers here as there are in 
Paris, also tailors and milliners. 

A few years ago our rich men's daugh- 
ters going to Paris to get their dresses 
made was a thing unknown. Home tal- 
ent was then considered good enough. 
Who was it but the wage-earner that 
made it possible for the rich men to 
send their daughters to Paris to buy 
their new frocks, at the same time home 
talent walking the streets with nothing 
to eat and no work? Yet we decry the 
foreign wage-earner who comes here and 
stays a few years, saves his money, then 
goes back to his native heath and lives 
the balance of his life in luxury. How 
much better are our rich men's daughters 
who are educated than the poor, ignorant 
foreign immigrant who earned the money 
he saved by the sweat of his brow and 
can look the world square in the face ? 

Let everybody discourage the purchase 
of foreign-made goods and spend Ameri- 
can money where it rightfully belongs. 
The result will be, jobs will be seeking 
the men instead of men looking for work 
where none is now to be had. 
Fraternally, 

R. A. HOOKER, 
L. U. 192, Syracuse, N. Y. 



A Pleasant Zephyr from the Golden 

West 
Editor The Carpenter: 

This is a letter of appreciation for the 
splendid January, 1915, edition of our 
trade journal. The Carpenter. In all the 
years I have read it I believe this is the 
best number of all. The first article, 
"About Resolution 49," had a similar 



114 



Tfia CarpQntQr 



effect as the "Reveille" in camp during 
the Spanish-American imbroglio. Then 
"As Others See Us," though similar to 
looking through borrowed spectacles, 
furnished a clean-cut and graphic de- 
scription of the general convention. 
Your editorials are inspiring and furnish 
much food for independent thinking. 
There are gems of thought in the "Cas- 
ual Comment." 

From cover to cover I peruse every- 
thing. But I am always much inter- 
ested in reports from conventions. To 
one so far away as I am, and who likes 
to keep in touch with the heart of our 
movement, these letters and articles to 
the Journal are a feast to the hungry 
soul. So many changes in the economic 
life and the revolution of thought 
caused thereby, during the last five years, 
are indications of a more wonderful fu- 
ture. Much of the individual thinking 
among the masses is still crude, but the 
light is breaking for them, and soon, I 
hope, "he who runs may read and see." 

With many good wishes to you and 
all the General Officers and with cordial 
support to the cause, I am. 

Fraternally yours, 

J. FRANK HAYES, 
Member L. U. No. 1062 and Delegate 

to Building Trades Council. 

Santa Barbara, Cal. 



The Immigration Question 

Editor The Carpenter: 

Can you give space in the next issue 
of The Carpenter to a subject which has 
concerned the American people for many 
years and which, we believe, will cause 
much trouble in the future if it is not 
remedied. It is the question of immi- 
gration. When this country first de- 
clared its independence from England it 
was thought that by having a practically 
unrestricted system of immigration the 
country would be quickly settled and a 
powerful nation built up. This has been 
partly true as we all know, but hardly 
any Americans today will dispute the 
fact that our present immigration sys- 
tem seriously threatens our future wel- 
fare. No class of people has had more 



opportunity to realize this fact than the 
mechanics who have to depend on their 
trades for a living. Lawyers, doctors 
and other professional men have not been 
brought face to face with this problem 
for the reason that most immigrants who 
come here do not compete with them. 

The carpenters, however, have certain- 
ly felt their share of the strain, for it is 
no secret that most contractors, as long 
as they can employ ignorant foreigners 
at small wages, will not hire white Amer- 
icans and pay mechanics' wages. This 
is not a political question, for every po- 
litical party that has ever been in power 
has treated it exactly alike, or rather 
they have not treated it at all, but have 
allowed it to continue in the same old 
way because they were afraid of incur- 
ring the displeasure of the steamship 
companies who profit by bringing the 
immigrants to this country and the trusts 
and corporations who profit by hiring 
them after they arrive, 

We do not believe that immigration 
should be abolished. People who come 
here intending to becortie law-abiding 
citizens of our country and assist in ad- 
vancing our great commonwealth should 
be welcomed at all times. But we be- 
lieve that our immigration laws should 
be revised so as to bring this class here 
and to restrict the undesirables and crim- 
inals. The great majority of those we 
get of late are of a class that the United 
States or any other country would be 
better off without. 

Three hundred years ago a few aris- 
tocrats conceived the idea of importing 
negroes to America and then proceeded 
to put their plan into effect. We all 
know what the result was. The negroes 
were the cause of one of the bloodiest 
wars the world has ever known and to- 
day are a problem becoming more com- 
plicated every year. 

Are we today, as free-born American 
citizens, going to sit idle and allow a few 
aristocratic corporation heads and steam- 
ship owners to flood this country with 
cheap, ignorant labor so that they may 
enrich themselves at our expense? Are 
we, who today are facing a problem of 



115 



Ti\a CarpQntar 

dealing with the negroes, going to hand 
down a legacy to our children such as our 
ancestors have handed down to us? 

The time has come for the American 
people to let their law makers understand 
that this condition of affairs will no 
longer be tolerated. 

A bill has recently been passed by both 
houses of Congress which was designed 
to restrict our immigration, and which 
will, we believe, meet with the approval 
of the American people to a certain ex- 
tent at least. But at this writing it looks 
as if our chief executive intended to veto 
this bill. If he does, powerful pressure 
should be brought to bear upon our con- 
gressmen and senators to secure its pas- 
sage over his veto. A law which will 
allow a limited number of immigrants 
to enter this country and keeps out the 
undesirable classes which we are now 
getting would answer the purpose. 

The carpenters should not hesitate to 
voice their sentiments, for they are af- 
fected more than any other class by the 
system which is now in force. 
Respectfully submitted by 

LOCAL UNION 253, 
Per RALPH KUHN, Rec. Sec. 

Atlanta, Ga. 



Ten Commandinents for U. B. 
Members 

Jan. 15. 
Editor The Carpenter: 

As trade conditions are coming our 
way pretty slowly just now, it has oc- 
curred to me that I might interest myself 
and possibly others by dropping a few re- 
marks to you and to our membership 
through the medium of our Journal, The 
Carpenter. 

As my district is a large one, covering 
something like 412 square miles, and not 
being possessed of an automobile, I am 
known as a "walking delegate" (business 
agent). In the district to which I am 
assigned there are a great many people 
(wise and otherwise), and quite natu- 
rally a great many union carpenters and 
a few who ought to be union carpenters, 
but have not yet seen the light. The 



labor market, glutted as it is, at the 
present time, and our trade almost at a 
standstill, we find time to say "Hello," 
when we meet around the various jobs. 
Yes, and sometimes we find time to kick 
once in a while. "What have we to kick 
about?" Oh, any number of things! 
Sometimes the weather. We can kick 
about anything when trade is dull, and, 
strange to say, when we are busy you 
cannot find a kick anywhere. Some of 
us blame this lull in our trade on the 
money question; some on the tariff; 
some on the war; some on the Kaiser; 
more on King George, etc., but the sad- 
dest specimen of union man that I come 
into contact with is the man who will 
blame everything on his union. 

Ever meet one of these fellows? He 
starts off in this manner: "Well, what 
are you fellows doing about so and so?" 
"Things are getting worse all the time 
in the union." "What did the union ever 
do for me?" "I have a good mind to 
tear up my card and throw it away," etc. 
"That clique up there won't do anything 
for anyone," etc. This class of men will 
never raise a finger to help remedy any- 
thing pertaining to unionism; you can 
not drag them to a meeting; if they do 
show up they will not get up and try 
to help out, but will sit in a corner and 
knock everybody's efforts. Meet them 
downstairs after the meeting, buy them 
a drink and you will hear it, "If I were 
in that chair," etc. 

As a matter of fact trade unionism has 
gone steadily ahead until it has become 
a great factor, even in the government 
of our country, as witness some of the 
recent laws passed. We sometimes for- 
get that organized labor was responsible 
for such laws as workmen's compensa- 
tion acts, child labor laws, factory and 
tenement house laws, eight-hour laws, 
the Clayton bill, laws regulating hours 
of labor for women, compulsory educa- 
tion laws, and many others too numerous 
to mention here. As to our own organi- 
zation laws, they are good laws if we 
only try to live up to them as union men 
should do, and I would go a step further 
in my humble way and do hereby sug- 
116 



gest the following as ten commandments 
for union carpenters: 

First. Thou shalt be a union carpen- 
ter, a member of the U. B., first, last 
and all the time, spreading its teachings, 
advancing its interests and preaching its 
doctrines, making converts at all times 
and places. 

Second. Thou shalt not belong to any 
other organization of carpenters, for the 
U. B. is the one and only one, keeping 
in mind our old friend Abe Lincoln, when 
he said, "A house divided against itself 
cannot stand." He having been a rail- 
splitter, I rate him as a carpenter who 
should get the floor and be heard. 

Third. Thou shalt keep whole the Sat- 
urday half-holiday and all holidays and 
not ease your conscience by telling thy- 
self, "Who'll be the wiser?" "The busi- 
ness agent?" "Why, he never comes 
around. He is only a bluff anyway," 
etc. 

Fourth. Honor and respect thy offi- 
cers. Remember they were made officers 
because they showed some qualifications, 
and that they are human beings and as 
such may make a mistake once in a 
while. 

Fifth. Thou shalt not become "boister- 
ous" in the meetings of thy local unions 
and want to lick anyone who may dis- 
agree with thy opinions; remember that 
thou agreed to abide by the will of the 
majority. 

Sixth. Thou shalt not commit offenses 
against the laws of the U. B. and ease 
thy conscience by saying, "The clique 
that made such a law don't know the 
first principles of unionism," etc. "If I 
were on that by-laws committee," etc. 

Seventh. Thou shalt not steal time 
from the boss, but keep in thy mind the 
principle of unionism, "A fair day's work 
for a fair day's wages." Show him it 
pays to employ U. B. members. 

Eighth. Thou shalt be charitable to- 
ward fellow members. Thou shalt not 
try to gain favor with the foreman by 
pointing out their shortcomings, nor 
shalt thou use their edged tools to cut 
old, gritty lumber with while thine own 
saw or chisel lies close by, and avoid all 



TfiQ CarpQntQr 

acts of a similar nature. Thou shalt 
not be a "boss's stool-pigeon," for in his 
heart he shall despise thee. 

Ninth. Thou shalt not be envious at 
thy fellow member if he should happen 
to be working while thou art on the 
sidewalk. He may need the money as 
much as thyself. Thou must not talk 
thuswise, "This boss don't pay the 
wages." "How is it I can't get a job 
from him?" Remember that all men are 
not dishonest. 

Tenth. Thou shalt not covet thy fel- 
low member's good fortune, and if he 
should happen to own his little home, 
thou must not go around and say to the 
boss, "Why, so and so don't have to work. 
Why, if I had his money I would not talk 
to you." He may have scraped all his 
life for the few dollars he has in that 
home, and will keep on scratching the 
remainder of his days paying the inter- 
est on the mortgage. 

Finally, let us remember that the U. 
B. is a "fraternal organization" where we 
should, as the famous poet Burns said, 
"Brothers be for a' that," in fact as well 
as in name. 

Further information, along these and 
similar lines, may be had by attending a 
meeting of Local Union 714, Flushing, 
N. Y., on Tuesday nights, and if these 
suggestions have the effect that the 
writer hopes they will, then I shall con- 
sider myself amply paid. 

With best wishes for a bright and pros- 
perous new year to every member of the 
U. B., including you, brother, I am. 
Fraternally, 

JOHN QUINN, 
B. A. Lpcal 714. 

Flushing, Queens, N. Y. 



A Word From Akron, O. 
Editor The Carpenter: 

When reading The Carpenter and look- 
ing over the list of places to be avoided 
I fail to see Akron mentioned. There are 
here in Akron some 1,500 carpenters, and 
I will say that they are not all union men. 
We have a hard proposition here. Akron 
is the home of the rubber industries, and 
the rubber shops advertise the United 



117 



Jfia CarpQntQF 



states over for help, from the Atlantic 
to the Pacific ocean. They advertise for 
help in all daily papers: "Wanted, men 
to work in the rubber shops; good pay 
and steady work." We have men coming 
here from every State in the Union and 
the gates of the rubber shops are lined 
with job hunters and no work here for 
them. 

Some of these pick up hammer and 
hatchet and start out as carpenters, and 
that, of course, is just what the bosses 
want to keep down the price of labor. 
Now, we have no way to tell the public 
the truth, except through The Carpenter. 
As it is read by thousands it might stop 
some brothers from a bitter experience. 

There are plenty of carpenters here to 
do any available work. We have two 
Locals, 84 and 2500, and we are trying to 
unionize the city. It would be a great 
advantage if we could keep the floaters 
out. Many union men come here and 
work without depositing their cards, as 
we are not strong enough to control the 
town. Union men should not do this. Why 
not ask your Local Union if there is a 
Local Union of Carpenters in Akron, 
Ohio, and they will inform you that 
there is. Help one another is a union 
motto. 

Fraternally yours, 
RICHARD HAASE, F. S. L. U. 84, 



Conditions in "Western Canada 

Editor The Carpenter: 

Just a line to show you what western 
Canada's baby local is doing. Banff, a 
small pleasure resort situated in the 
Rocky Mountains, has a population of 
approximately 1,000. The nearest neigh- 
boring local is Calgary, about eighty 
miles east, and we are out of its juris- 
diction. Prior to 1912 there were very 
few resident carpenters in Banff, and 
when any development work was under 
way by the Canadian Pacific Railway or 
the Dominion government, who own the 
townsite and are practically the only 
employers of labor, men were shipped 
from Vancouver and Calgary employ- 
ment agencies, and, as you are aware, 



most agencies make a specialty of sup- 
plying non-union men as far as possible. 

Notwithstanding this fact, however, 
several union carpenters came here to 
work, and made two unsuccessful at- 
tempts to organize. Since then the Cal- 
gary Locals have sent their business 
agents to try and secure members for 
their locals and succeeded in getting a 
few. This, however, did not seem to fill 
the bill, as Calgary was too far away to 
be of much assistance, and the impres- 
sion with the boys was that if any good 
was to come from organization that or- 
ganization must be in Banff and not 
eighty miles distant. Early in the year 
tenders were called for a new govern- 
ment bath house at the Hot Sulphur 
Spring, and immediately the union car- 
penters in town got together and noti- 
fied Ottawa that the standard rate of 
wages for carpenters was 50 cents 
per hour and the hours nine hours 
per day. This was embodied in the 
specifications. Last April the bath 
house contract was let to a Winni- 
peg firm for the sum of $110,000. Sev- 
eral local carpenters were started, among 
them four union men. On the first pay 
day they were all paid at the rate of 45 
cents- per hour. The union men formed 
themselves into a committee and wired 
the officials at Ottawa. They were in- 
formed that contractors must pay 50 
cents per hour and the union men were 
promised 50 cents by the contractors. 

On the next pay day they were again 
paid 45 cents, with the exception of two. 
We then got the men together, called a 
strike and demanded 50 cents per hour 
for all, with all back time compensation 
for one of the boys who had been injured 
and for all men to be taken back without 
discrimination. After a futile attempt 
to ship in strikebreakers, which was frus- 
trated with the assistance of Local 1779, 
Calgary, they were forced to accede to 
our demands and we went back to work, 
winning on all points. The outcome was 
that we decided to organize a Local in 
Banff and wired to Organizer J. A. Ken- 
ney for assistance. Brother Kenney 
promptly appeared on the scene, and on 



118 



TfiQ CarpQntQF 



August 20, through Brother Kenney's ac- 
tivity, Local 1920 was instituted with six- 
teen members with prospects of about 
twenty more. About that time the Eu- 
ropean war started and put a check on 
us, most of our members being thrown 
out of employment. At the present time 
only one is working, but we intend to 
hold things up. We have a good set of 
officers and our members are all paying 
their dues regularly. 

One of the customs of this town is 
an annual Christmas tree, with pres- 
ents for all the children in Banff 
on Christmas Eve, supported by vol- 
untary subscription. At our meeting 
on December 7 a motion was passed, ask- 
ing the union men to devote a portion of 
their spare time to making toys for the 
Christmas tree. The result was that 
thirty toys were made and handed to 
the Christmas tree committee for distri- 
bution. We hoped by this action to wear 
down some of the prejudice which exists 
in this community against trade union- 
ism, and apparently we have succeeded, 
as several carpenters have signified their 
intention of joining us as soon as they 
get work and we have been brought be- 
fore the public in a favorable light. Alto- 
gether we feel satisfied that we have 
benefited by being organized, even though 
we are not working, and we expect to do 
a great deal better during 1915, as there 
is some work in sight. 
Fraternally yours, 

W. PAGE, F. S. L. U. 1920. 

Banff, Canada. 



From l^. U. 2563 

The follo\\ang resolutions have been 
received from L. U. 2563, together with 
a request for their publication: 

Resolved, That we, the members of 
L. U. 2563, U. B. of C, and J. of A., in 
meeting assembled, this 5th day of Jan- 
uary, 1915, most earnestly protest 
against and view with disfavor the ac- 
tion of one of our Representatives in 
Congress in having attached a rider to 
ah appropriation bill (H. R. 19422), 
which rider abolishes the effect of the 
organic act of 1878. Be it further 



Resolved, That we consider any at- 
tempt to violate the compact of 1878 as 
an injustice to the taxpayers of the Dis- 
trict of Columbia and as contrary to the 
wishes of the thinking people of the en- 
tire United States. Be it further 

Resolved, That we request the co-op- 
eration of the international and national 
labor unions, chambers of commerce, 
boards of trade, and all civic organiza- 
tions, as well as of all public-spirited 
citizens, in voicing a protest against any 
effort to abrogate the half-and-half plan 
for the maintenance of the District of 
Columbia. Be it further 

Resolved, That copies of the above be 
spread upon our minutes, copies for- 
warded to the chairmen of House and 
Senate committees on the District of Co- 
lumbia and to the press of this city. 



Trafl&cking in Jobs 

We often speak sarcastically of a man 
for whom we hold contempt by saying 
"he would steal the pennies off a dead 
man''s eyes." 

This isn't so great an offense as it may 
seem, since the dead man would hardly 
be able to rise to the occasion and ob- 
ject. 

When men, however, under the name 
of "employment agents" deliberately 
send men to "jobs" where there are no 
jobs to be had, they have reached about 
the lowest point in life. 

Hardly a week goes by but some 
evidence is brought to light of the con- 
temptibleness of some of these institu- 
tions. A very slight improvement has 
been noticeable in Wisconsin, where ef- 
forts have been made to regulate em- 
ployment agencies. As in most other 
matters of "regulation," it is proving a 
farce. It is high time that private em- 
ployment agents were forced out of busi- 
ness and the state bureaus allowed to 
grow to a maximum of efficiency. — Du- 
luth Labor World. 



Don't be a back number. Get your 
local in line and be the first to help ad- 
vertise our label. 



119 



Tfia CarpQirtor 



Potency of the Union Isabel 

The union label upon your garments, 
says the Switchmen's Journal, is the 
best expression of devotedness to 
good union principles you can give to 
those who are engaged in making label 
goods. The same is true about anything 
else used that carries with it a union 
workman's label. We should all cultivate 
the union label habit, for it is the best 
expression of the safety first habit we 
know of. Not only should this subject 
receive earnest attention at every lodge 
meeting of every labor organization, but 
in all federated and open meetings con- 
ducted under the auspices of labor or- 
ganizations as well. In addition to this, 
it should be a prominent subject of dis- 
cussion at home; also when we meet our 
friends who are not affiliated with labor 
unions. There is less excuse all the while 
for not purchasing label articles of wear, 
since most of them can be found in equal- 
ly as good quality and style, and at as 
reasonable prices as those not bearing 
such badges of honor. The average 
union man, or woman, has but little con- 
ception of the potent effects the purchas- 
ing of union-made goods has toward ob- 
taining union work conditions. All work- 
ers are anxious to enjoy the good condi- 
tions obtained in union shops and fac- 
tories. The only means the workers have 
to insure the retention of such conditions 
where they now exist, or to extend their 
scope until they include every workshop 
and factory, is to always insist that the 
label appear on their purchases. It mat- 
ters not about the degree of enmity the 
maker of goods may cherish toward 
union labor, he will soon realize the ad- 
visability of conceding to the proposition 
of unionizing his plant, whenever he finds 
no market for his non-union goods. The 
union purchasers spend enough union- 
earned money each year to keep union 
factories and shops working full blast all 
the while, as they would be, if they all 
made proper use of that most efi^ective 
prerogative they possess — insistency to 
see the union label upon their goods. 



A Friend of Crime 

"Do you see that tall, philanthropical- 
looking individual over there, with the 
silk hat and the patriarchal side whisk- 
ers?" asked the guide. 

"I do," replied the man from Mars. 
"He looks very prosperous." 

"He is very prosperous, indeed, and 
he has reached his present highly honor- 
able position in the community entirely 
through being a friend of crime." 

"I must misunderstand," declared the 
m_an from Mars. "It seems impossible in 
such a civilization as yours that a man 
should be honored because he is a friend 
of crime. Possibly you mean a friend of 
criminals." 

"Oh, no. Nobody is a friend of crim- 
inals. I mean a friend of crime. He is 
a prison contractor." 

"A prison contractor?" 

"Yes. You see, the State authorities 
go to a great deal of trouble and expense 
to build penal institutions and incarcerate 
criminals therein. Then they turn over 
these prisoners to the prison contractors 
for as little as 6 to 10 cents a day, and 
the contractor employs them at hard 
labor in the manufacture of various ar- 
ticles of common consumption." ' 

"Aren't they worth more than that?" 
inquired the man from Mars. 

"Of course they are worth more. 
Otherwise the prison contractor would 
not be able to make so much more profit 
than his competitors. The more crime 
and the more criminals there are, there- 
fore, the more wealth the contractor ac- 
cumulates and the more the community 
respects him. If it weren't for crime, 
he would be penniless and unknown." 

"I guess you were right, and I hope 
you will pardon my incredulity. He is 
truly a friend of crime," admitted the 
man from Mars, with a sigh. 

■'"And it isn't easy to decide whose 
crime is the worst," added the guide, 
"whether that of the convicts, that of 
the State authorities in making such a 
bad bargain, or that of the contractor in 
accepting it,"- — E. 0. J., in Life, 



120 



Casual Comment 




Help make the year 1915 a banner or- 
ganizing year! 

*J* *^ ^ 

Every little trade movement has a 
meaning all its own — it means that pros- 
pects are looking good in that locality 
for a busy season. 

A A A. 

V *♦* V 

How about a little movement for a re- 
duction in the number of cities and towns 
listed among "localities to be avoided" 
in this issue? 

A A. A 

V V V 

Educate, that ye may be free, was an 
ancient maxim; organize, that you may 
be independent, is a modern one. 

*** ^ >*« 

The membership of the United Broth- 
erhood can be doubled, aye, trebled, by a 
united organizing effort on the part of 
all. Start it now! 

Lest we forget, Brothers T. M. Guerin 
and Arthur Martel are still with us as 
members of the G. E. B. Both were re- 
turned to office by substantial majorities. 

A A A 

'ST V V 

"Never put off till tomorrow what you 
can do today" is as applicable to the 
labor movement as to anything else. 
Spread the light of trade unionism here 
and now. You will never have a better 
chance. 

A. A A. 

" V >* 

A little capital is a wonderful thing if 
you can use it judiciously. Henry Ford 
says that on a capitalization of two mil- 
lion dollars his company made a profit 
of twenty-five millions last year in the 
automobile industry. 

♦♦♦ ♦*♦ ♦*« 

The amount paid to Ford employes 
under the much advertised "Ford plan" 



appears trifling when this large profit 
is taken into consideration. Also there 
are only eight members of the Ford Com- 
pany, but the employes number some 
18,000. 

♦ ^ *> 

Only twenty-two per cent of the em- 
ployes in mills and mines are required to 
work twelve hours a day, according to 
George W. Perkins. To our thinking 
twenty-two per cent is just that much 
too much. The twelve-hour day is a relic 
of barbarism. 

♦♦. ♦♦♦ 4* 

The proposal for an annual observance 
of "Child Labor Day" by the churches, 
schools, colleges and welfare associations 
is no doubt a well-meaning one, but we 
hope it does not imply that very many 
years will have to elapse before we root 
out once and for all the deadly industrial 
cancer of child labor. 

^ ♦■ 4* 

A number of important questions 
touching the present status of our organ- 
ization is dealt with by General President 
Kirby in his report of the last three 
months' work of his ofiice, which is pub- 
lished in this issue. The reports of the 
General Officers should be carefully 
perused by the membership and the in- 
formation they contain given proper at- 
tention. 

^ ♦> ^* 

The labor unions are doing more than 
any other agency in these United State? 
today to propagate and perpetuate the 
principles for which Washington and 
Lincoln labored during their illustriou-: 
lives. Let us remember that when we 
pay tribute to their memories this month. 

^ ^ ^ 

In his message vetoing the immigra- 
tion measure, on the grounds of his op- 
position to the literacy test, President 



121 



Jfia Carpontor 

Wilson made no reference to the prospect 
of increased immigration at the close of 
the European war. Is it not time, how- 
ever, that the administration gave some 
consideration to this important eventual- 
ity and outlined some definite plan to 
cope with it? 

♦ *> *> 

John D. Rockefeller, Jr., in the role of 
witness before the Industrial Relations 
Commission, revealed some traits of 
character which rather incline one to re- 
vise preconceived opinions of him. It 
was something new to hear of him hob- 
nobbing with "Mother" Jones and invit- 
ing the U. M. W. A. officials to confer 
with him at that well-known Standard 
Oil stronghold, No. 46 Broadway. If 
John D., Jr., had shown such an appar- 
ently reasonable attitude several months 
ago he might have spared himself a great 
deal of caustic criticism. 
^ ^ ^^* 

Of course, the mere fact of his being 
solicitous at this late day for an ex- 
change of views with the miners' lead- 
ers does, not necessarily mean that John 
D., Jr., is any the less "a chip of the old 
block." Like many other capitalists of 
our day, who desire to give an impres- 
sion of liberality of mind, he professes to 
believe in the value of trade unions for 
the workers "with certain restrictions." 
We will, however, await more genuine 
proofs of his sincerity and friendliness 
than merely a conciliatory attitude, be- 
fore we grow enthusiastic about his 
change of heart. 

♦:* ^ * 

The numerous trade movement notifi- 
cations in this issue tend to confirm the 
opinion that the coming season will be a 
very busy one. One must at least give 
"the boys" credit for being far-sighted. 
They have been in training, watching for 
signs of prosperity so long that some of 
the old hands can see its approach at a 
distance from which others could not de- 
tect it with a telescope. 

4> 4* 4» 
Attention was called by the Philadel- 
phia convention to the question of organ- 



izing that vast body of American work- 
ers who make their living as school 
teachers, bookkeepers, stenographers, 
clerks and office assistants. A success- 
ful organizing campaign along this line 
would be a great step forward. No class 
of workers need the benefits to be de- 
rived from trade unionism more than 
they do. 

4» <j» ^ 

Of social students, social investigators 
and students of economics, there would 
seem to be no end; and yet, despite their 
painstaking efforts, industrial evils such 
as "sweated" labor, unemployment, child 
labor and the occupational diseases that 
kill so many in our leading industries 
continue to flourish with great vigor. It 
is extremely hard to bring the public to 
realize the extent of these evils and the 
misery they cause^ 

^ ^ ^ 
We do not in the least intend to dep- 
recate or minimize the services which 
sociologists and welfare workers have 
rendered humanity. They have done a 
world of good as a result of their re- 
searches and trained observation. What 
they seem to lack is the ability to sting 
the public mind to action. Tables of 
statistics do not always bring home to 
the average unimaginative person the 
havoc wrought by industrial evils. To do 
so effectively requires something of a 
dramatic faculty which will fire the pub- 
lic imagination. 

^ 4» 4» 

To illustrate this point we may take, 
for instance, a play like "The Third De- 
gree," dealing with the abuse of police 
power in dragging confessions of guilt 
from prisoners. Such a play brings the 
evils it portrays much more vividly be- 
fore the public than any number of de- 
tailed speeches and learned discussions 
could. It might be a good thing if some 
of our sociologically minded friends 
would turn more to the theater as a 
medium for the expression of the convic- 
tions they hold on industrial evils. 

* ^ *J» 
The activities of private detective 



122 



TfiQ CarpQntQr 



agencies that assist employers to destroy 
union organizations and serve as mer- 
cenaries in industrial disputes badly need 
to be brought under public scrutiny. No 
doubt the Industrial Relations Commis- 
sion will soon take the matter up. The 
recent wanton murder of two strikers at 
Chrome, N. J., may perhaps prove an in- 
centive for the commission to start this 
line of investigation at once. 

4» ^ ^ 

Organizers are not supermen or mor- 
tals gifted with extraordinary capabili- 
ties, but merely brother members who 
have applied themselves consistently to 
the task of interesting non-unionists in 
the advantages of the labor movement. 
We should not leave all the work of build- 
ing up the organization upon their shoul- 
ders. Every one of us can find plenty of 
opportunities to do work of a similar 
character, but as a rule we do not avail 
ourselves of the opportunities presented. 
-^ -1^ ^ 

The proposal of the Philadelphia A. F. 
of L. convention looking toward the in- 
troduction in Congress, and State legis- 
latures generally, of bills to prohibit the 
granting of Federal and State licenses to 
detective agencies which furnish, men to 
aid in any effort to disrupt labor organ- 
izations or to serve as strikebreakers is 
a very good idea. So-called detective 
agencies of such a character are a stand- 
ing menace to the industrial welfare of 
the nation. They exert a very evil i.i- 
fluence and their insidious growing power 
should be broken. 

4* 4» ^ 

Things have quieted down considerably 
at Headquarters since the irrepressible 
Tom Gilmore returned to his native Al- 
bany two weeks ago. With Tom presid- 
ing over the deliberations of the tabula- 
tion committee on the vote for General 
Officers the proceedings sounded like a 
stormy session of the legislature in 
Tom's home town during the days of the 
Sulzer impeachment fight. 
■^ ♦ ♦ 

Every commission and board that has 
ever gone into the question of women's 



wages has proved conclusively that for 
the one woman or girl who works of her 
own choice, thirty, or probably forty, are 
impelled to work because of stern neces- 
sity. The great tragedy of the woman 
wage earner is that the great majority 
of them are forced to exist on wages 
computed on the basis of what might be 
acceptable to the very negligible number 
who have parents that can supplement 
their meager wages. 

■^ ^ *f* 

"Mother" Jones, the heroine of a hun- 
dred miners' battles, finds it easy to be 
facetious at times, and no wonder, for 
she hails from a spot within a stone's 
throw of the famous blarney stone. Nev- 
ertheless, we trust she was sincere when 
she t&ld the scion of the House of Rocke- 
feller that he had the makings of the 
greatest man in America in him. A man 
of his type, possessed of an unbiased, 
open mind on the labor question, might 
be able to do a world of good in paving 
the way for a clearer understanding be- 
tween capital and labor. 

<♦ ♦ ♦> 

"Meet the cry of incompetency, on the 
part of the manufacturer, by training 
the mechanic to do the work just a little 
better than it is done by the carpenter," 
says the Sheet Metal Workers' Journal, 
referring to the metal trim controversy. 
But it can't be done. Brother Bray! No 
amount of post-graduate training of 
sheet metal workers in the art of car- 
pentry will achieve such a result. Any- 
way, life is too short for the average 
worker to thoroughly master two differ- 
ent trades, except in very exceptional 
cases. 



Each and every member should pro- 
cure a copy of the revised directory of 
shops using the label of our Brotherhood 
which was issued by First General Vice- 
President Hutcheson on January 1. The 
work of popularizing the U. B. label is a 
most important one and is deserving of 
all the support we can give it. The value 
of the Brotherhood label as a factor in 



123 



IfiQ CarpontQr 



the growth and spread of our organiza- 
tion is becoming more evident each year. 

♦jf ♦J. »♦♦ 

You can oftentimes gauge the caliber 
of a man by the argument he puts up. 
Employers who oppose minimum wage 
laws on the ground that many girls work 
in order to obtain pin money and not 
from necessity merely admit that while 
they profit by the labor of working girls 
they expect the cost of that labor to be 
borne by the girls' families and not by 
them. Thus we have one phase of the 
exploitation of the wage earners. 
♦j> **$* ■*$* 

As a "record of progress" the initial 
report of the Industrial Relations Com- 
mission is of value, but it does not go 
further than to embody briefly a resume 
of the views of capital and labor on in- 
dustrial problems. It offers no solution 
or gives no hint as to how it proposes to 
simplify the complexities of industrial 
unrest. 

We are glad to note that at last the 
spotlight of publicity has been turned 
upon the richly endowed Rockefeller 
Foundation. Such a great institution de- 
serves the closest scrutiny, for there are 
in such an undertaking large possibilities 
for evil as well as good. It is likely to 
exercise a vast influence upon the educa- 
tional affairs of the nation and it lies 
with the public to see that that influence 
is of the right kind. 

<j» -^ -^ 

In our opinion even the very reason- 
able restrictive literary test embodied in 
the Burnett measure would not be half 
drastic enough to meet the unusual im- 
migration situation which will confront 
us when the war is over, when countless 
thousands will turn to the United States 
in preference to remaining in battle- 
scarred Europe. To leave the bars down 
in the face of a great inrush of that kind 
must surely affect labor conditions seri- 
ously for years to come. 
»j» 4* 4> 

The verdict in the Danburv Hatters' 



case falls heavily upon as plucky a band 
of trade unionists as there are in the 
country. After an historic and spirited 
struggle for their rights as trade union- 
ists it is lamentable to see them have to 
relinquish their modest earnings, the 
fruit of a lifetime's toil, to satisfy the 
crushing judgment awarded against 
them in the famous Loewe case. The one 
ray of consolation for organized labor 
with regard to the D anbury hatters is 
that a similar case is never again likely 
to come up for trial as a result of the 
labor provisions of the recently enacted 
Clavton anti-trust bill. 



Kindliness of Heart 

Kindliness of heart is not the greatest 
of human qualities — and its general ef- 
fect on the progress of the world is not 
entirely beneficent — but it is the greatest 
of human qualities in friendship. It is 
the least dispensable quality. We come 
back to it with relief from more brilliant 
qualities. And it has the great advan- 
tage of always going with a broad mind. 
— Arnold Bennett. 



Wliat Have I Done? 

Will every member read this: 

1. What have I done during the past 
six months that has been of any benefit 
to the local? 

2. What would become of the local if 
every member had done exactly as I have 
done? 

3. How many times have I been 
absent when I could have been present if 
I had made an effort to do so? 

4. If I have been negligent is it be- 
cause I am at fault, or because the rest 
of the brothers don't do their duty? 

5. Am I going to continue in the same 
old way, or am I going to start some- 
thing? 

6. Am I in partnership with the rest 
of the members in running the business 
of the local? 

7. Is it right for some one else to do 
all the work and me to expect an eqiial 
share of the benefits?— Mine Workers' 
.Journal. 



124 



Nqws NotQS from Local Unions 




Commerce, Tex., L. U. 298. — Traveling 
brothers are asked to avoid coming to 
Commerce as trade conditions are very 
dull in our town. A great many trades- 
men are idle and there is very little work 
in sight. — L. A. Wolfe. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

Whitney, Tex., L. U. 393.— There is 
very little doing at present in the build- 
ing trade at Whitney and all traveling 
brothers are advised to stay away. 
Prospects for the coming season do not 
look altogether favorable at this time. 
— J. H. Roberson, R. S. 

♦i* ♦ ♦ 

Alton, 111., L. U. 377.— For the iirst 
time in the history of this local we have 
been forced to advise traveling brothers 
to stay away. Work at the trade is ex- 
tremely scarce here and future prospects 
do not look encouraging. — R. Adams, 
R. S. 

^* <* *X* 

Pawhuska, Okla., L. U. 1178.— We are 
glad to report that this Local is now in 
good shape. Working conditions in all 
the building trades are fairly good and 
prospects for the coming season seem 
favorable. — Orten Taylor, R. S. 

*:* ♦ ♦ 

Bismarck, N. D., L. U. 663.— All 
traveling brothers should avoid the vicin- 
ity of Bismarck at the present time, as 
trade conditions here are at a very low 
ebb. Outsiders coming here stand a very 
small chance of securing work of any 
kind. C. A. Carlson. 

>:♦ ♦ ♦ 

Houston, Tex., L. U. 213.— Owing to 
dull trade conditions now existing in 
Houston and vicinity all traveling broth- 
ers are notified to stay away. Some 
two-thirds of our membership are unem- 
ployed at the present time. — E. Ritz, 
R. S-. 

♦t- <$* ♦ 

Marinette, Wis., L. U. 1246.— We are 



asking that Marinette be put on the 
"stay away" list for the reason that 
there is a scarcity of work here and 
nearly all the members of our Local 
Union are idle. We are also actuated 
by the fact that we may have some 
trouble with the contractors in the near 
future. — Adolph Ellingson, R. S. 

*> *> ♦ 

Niles, O., L. U. 1514.— Traveling 
brothers are asked to stay away from 
Niles, Ohio, as there are a large number 
of the members of this local unemployed. 
To come here now would mean loss of 
time and money. Advertisements offer- 
ing work at Niles are misleading and no 
attention should be paid them. — F. H. 
Reagle, R. S. 

*> *> ^ 

Oakland, Cal., L. U. 1667.— All travel- 
ing carpenters are requested to stay away 
from Oakland owing to bad trade con- 
ditions. There has been an unprece- 
dented influx of carpenters into this city 
mainly because of the unsettled condi- 
tions prevailing throughout the country, 
and also because of the fact that the San 
Francisco World's Fair buildings are now 
practically completed. A large number 
of our members are out of work and out- 
siders will only swell their ranks. Pay 
no attention to advertisements offering 
employment here. — K. C. Morrison, R. S. 

^ ^ ^ 

Akron, 0., District Council. — Traveling 
brothers are advised not to come to 
Akron. No credence should be placed in 
reports that the big Akron rubber fac- 
tories need men. As a matter of fact, be- 
tween 7,000 and 8,000 rubber workers ap- 
ply for work at the factories each day, a 
majority of whom are married men hav- 
ing homes in the city. As a result of 
the false reports regarding work at the 
rubber factories, Akron is swamped with 
applicants for jobs and the percentage 



125' 



Tfia CarpQntQr 



of those receiving employment is insig- 
nificant. This situation has a very bad 
effect upon all the crafts in the city, par- 
ticularly the carpenters. R. F. Booth, 
Business Agent. 

V T ▼ 

Absconds With Funds of D. C. 




WALLACE AUGUSTINE. 

Wallace Augustine, a member of L. 
U. 1168, of Pt. Colborne, Canada, has ab- 
sconded with funds belonging to the 



Frontier District Council. Augustine 
acted as district organizer in the juris- 
diction of the D. C. during the months 
of August, September, October and part 
of November last. He is about thirty 
years old, stands five feet ten inches and 
weighs about 175 pounds. He is of a 
dark complexion and is nearsighted in 
his left eye. There is a possibility that 
Augustine may be in Duluth, Minn., or 
vicinity at the present time. Particu- 
lars as to his whereabouts should be 
sent to Brother Ira Earnhardt, secretary 
of the Frontier D. C, P. 0. box 68, Hum- 
berstone, Ont., Can. 



Manners 

The great secret is not having good 
manners or bad manners or any other 
particular sort of manners, but having 
the same manner for all human souls; in 
short, behaving as if we were in heaven, 
where there are no third class carriages, 
and one soul is as good as another. — 
Shaw. 



A FI^OURISHING I^OCAI^ 




MEMBERS OF L. U. 269, Danville, 111. 
126 



TradQ NotQS 




Successful Trade Movements 
Lake Charles, La., L. U. 953.— After 
being on strike with the Dealers 
and Builders' Exchange in this city for 
a year, the trouble was recently declared 
off when the employers signed a three 
years' agreement. The agreement calls 
for 50 cents per hour for 1915, 55 cents 
per hour for 1916, and 60 cents per hour 
for 1917, the eight-hour day to be in op- 
eration during the entire period. The em- 
ployers also agree to employ none but 
union carpenters. The agreement was 
reached mainly through the good work 
of U. S. Berry, U. B. organizer for this 
district. J. P. Jones, R. S. L. U. 953. 

♦ ^ ♦ 
Miami, Ariz., L. U. 1538. — An agree- 
ment has been reached with the mining 
companies in this district and the gen- 
eral strike recently called has been de- 
clared off. The men won their point and 
all workers went back to their respective 
jobs on January 25, with the demands for 
improved conditions complied with in 
every particular. John J. Kruit, F. S. 



Movements for Better Conditions 

Jersey City, N. J. (Hudson County D. 
C.) — We are asking for an increase of 
wages from the present rate of $4.00 to 
$4.50 per day, to take effect May 1, 1915. 
Our working hours are eight per day and 
44 per week. Conditions in the trade 
are fairly good and the prospect of our 
obtaining this increase is favorable. 

fjt ^ ^ 

L. U. 899, Parkersburg, W. Va.— At a 
regular meeting it was decided to ask 
an advance in wages, same to take effect 
the first Monday in April. The demand 
calls for an increase of 5 cents over the 
present rate, which is 40 cents per hour, 
and an eight-hour day instead of nine 
hours as at present existing. Prospects 



of obtaining these demands are favor- 
able. Conditions in the trade in the dis- 
trict are good. 

♦ •!• + 

L. U. 665, Amarillo, Tex. — At a recent 
meeting it was decided to start a trade 
movement for an eight-hour day and an 
increase in wages from the present rate 
of 40 cents to 50 cents per hour, to take 
effect February 1. Our present working 
hours are 54 per week. Prospects of 
gaining our demands are good. 

♦ ^ 4* 

L. U. 1282, Salem, Ohio.— This local 
has decided to institute a movement for 
an eight-hour day and a minimum wage 
rate of 45 cents per hour, same to be- 
come effective April 1. Our present 
wages are 40 cents per hour for a nine- 
hour day. We anticipate no trouble in 
this matter. Trade conditions in the dis- 
trict are fair. 

^ ^ ^ 

L. U. 1076, Washington, Ind.— An in- 
crease in wages of 5 cents per hour, to 
take effect March 15, is the extent of our 
1915 trade movement. We are at pres- 
ent receiving 35 cents per hour and work 
nine hours per day. We believe we will 
obtain this moderate increase without 
difficulty and do not anticipate any 
trouble with the contractors. 

♦ ^ ^ 

L. U. 683, Burlington, Vt.— Our scale 
for the new year, to take effect April 1, 
calls for a minimum wage of 44 cents per 
hour and a forty-four-hour working 
week. Our present rate is 372 cents per 
hour for an eight-hour day. Prospects 
of obtaining our demand are fair and 
we do not anticipate trouble with the 
contractors. Our movement has the en- 
dorsement of the Burlington D. C. 
^ * * 

I. U. 912, Richmond, Ind.— We are 



127 



Tfia CarpontQr 



submitting to the contractors of Rich- 
mond an agreement to take effect April 
1 which calls for a minimum wage of 
40 cents, per hour; working hours to be 
nine per day and five on Saturdays. The 
existing rate is 35 cents per hour and a 
fifty-hour week. Trade prospects in 
this vicinity look encouraging and we 
are of the opinion that the contractors 
will admit the reasonableness of our de- 
mand and sign up. 



L. U. 1591, Plymouth, Mass.— An in- 
crease in wages from 471 cents per hour 
to 50 cents per hour is demanded by this 
Local Union, to become operative May 
1. Present working hours are eight per 
day with Saturday half -holiday. Con- 
ditions in the trade are fair and the pros- 
pects of a successful outcome of this 
trade movement are good. 



L. U. 790, Dixon, 111.— A demand for 
an increase in wages of 5 cents per hour 
has been made by this Local Union, 
which will bring the scale to 50 cents 
per hour, and for shop or millmen 45 
cents, new scale to take effect May 1. 
Working hours are nine per day and 53 
per week. The prospects of obtaining 
this demand are favorable. 



L. U. 59, Lancaster, Pa. — This local 
has voted to increase its minimum wage 
scale from 36 cents to 41 cents per hour 
and to reduce the working hours from 
50 to 48 per week, same to become op- 
erative April 1. Trade conditions are 
normal and so far as can be judged 
there vvdll be little difficulty in having 
our request complied with by the con- 
tractors. 

^* "h ^ 
L. U. 1676, Carey, Kas.- — A movement 
has been started by this Local Union to 
establish a foreman wage scale of 50 
cents per hour, same to take effect Janu- 
ary 1. The present scale is 40 cents per 
hour and a forty-eight-hour week. 
Trade conditions in the district are not 



very good, but we stand a fair chance of 
having our demand acceded to. 

♦ .♦♦ ^ 

L. U. 603, Ithaca, N. Y.— An increase 
in the wage scale which would change 
the present rate from 43 to 45 cents per 
hour is being demanded by this Local 
Union. Working hours are eight per 
day. Conditions in the trade are good 
considering the season and prospects of 
obtaining this moderate demand are very 
favorable. New scale to become effect- 
ive May 1. 

♦> <J» ♦> 

L. U. 1103, Paragould, Ark.— At a re- 
cent meeting it was decided by unani- 
mous vote to start a movement for an 
increase in wages from the present rate 
of 40 cents to 45 cents per hour (for 
journeymen carpenters), same to take 
effect April 1. We have a nine-hour 
v/orking/ day and fifty-four-hour week. 
Conditions in the trade here are good 
and we expect to gain our demand with- 
out difficulty. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

L. U. 1533, Higbee, Mo. — An increase 
in wages from $2.56 to $3.00 per day is 
being asked by the members of this 
Local Union, to take effect January 1. 
The current wages are 32 cents per hour 
and an eight-hour day. It looks as if 
we will have little difficulty in obtain- 
ing this increase. Conditions in the 
trade are fair considering the time of 
year. 

-> *> ^ 

L. U. 133, Terre Haute, Ind.— A trade 
movement for an increase in wages of 
5 cents per hour and a Saturday half- 
holiday has been started by L. U. 133, 
to take effect when the present agree- 
ment with the contractors expires on 
April 30. The present wage scale is 
45 cents per hour and an eight-hour day. 
Fair conditions exist in the trade and 
there is not much likelihood of any 
trouble in having our demands ac- 
ceded to. 

<■> ^* ^* 

L. U. 305, Millville, N. J.— A trade 
movement has been started here for an 
increase in the wage scale to 41 cents 



128 



Tfxa CarpQntQr 



per hour and a forty-four-hour week, 
same to take effect April 1. Present 
wages are STJ cents per hour and the 
working hours are 48 weekly. Every- 
thing seems to point to a successful out- 
come of this movement. Conditions in 
the trade in the district are good. 
ij» ^ 4» 

L. U. 472, Ashland, Ky. — An increase 
in wages from the current scale of 35 
cents to 40 cents per hour and a reduc- 
tion in working hours from nine to eight 
per day are the principal features of a 
trade movement which has been started 
by this local, same to take effect April 
1. The prospect of gaining these de- 
mands are favorable and there is hardly 
any likelihood of our having to strike 
to obtain them. 

<j* ♦!► ^ 

L. U. 518, Charleston, 111.— We have 
decided to start a trade movement for a 
minimum wage of 50 cents per hour and 
an eight-hour day, same to become op- 
erative April 1. We are at present re- 
ceiving 40 cents per hour and have a 
fifty-hour work week. Conditions in the 
trade in the vicinity of Charleston are 
fair and we do not anticipate very much 
difficulty in having our demands com- 
plied with. 

•^ 4* <$► 

L. U. 1562, North Wales, Pa.— The 
millmen employed by 0. M. Weber & Co. 
have submitted a new agreement for the 
coming season calling for a minimum 
wage scale of 35 cents per hour, an in- 
crease of 5 cents per hour over the pres- 
ent rate. The working hours are 54 
per week. We expect favorable action 
on the new agreement. Trade conditions 
are good. Our movement has the sanc- 
tion of the Montgomery County D. C. 
•f^ ^ ^ 

L. U. 492, Reading, Pa. — In submitting 
our new agreement to the contractors 
we are asking an increase in wages from 
the present scale of 40 cents to 45 cents 
per hour; 67i cents per hour overtime, 
and 90 cents per hour for Sundays and 
all legal holidays. We have an eight- 
hour working day and the Saturday half- 
holiday. Conditions in the trade are 



normal and the prospect of gaining our 
demand good. 

^ ^ * 
L. U. 384, Asheville, N. C— The mem- 
bers of this local intend to start a trade 
movement in the near future for an in- 
crease in wages of 5 cents per hour. 
The present rate of wages is 35 cents 
per hour and the working hours are eight 
per day. The new scale is scheduled to 
become effective May 1. Conditions in 
the trade are good at Asheville and the 
prospects of obtaining this demand with- 
out trouble are favorable. 



Carnegie's I/imitations 

There are a great many men in this 
world, says the celebrated Gilbert K. 
Chesterton, and their sins are like the 
hairs of their head; and, also, like the 
hairs of their head, often difficult to dis- 
entangle. But there are few capitalists 
in this world; and they grow fewer 
and fewer as they grow stronger and 
stronger. And surely there can be very 
few so rounded and perfect as Mr. Car- 
negie. When the fable of the intelligent 
capitalist has taken in so many of his 
own slaves and martyrs, it is perhaps 
bearing heavily on human weakness to 
expect that the hero of it will not be 
taken in, too. And men like Carnegie 
have been disastrously encouraged in 
their delusion, not only by friends who 
took the wrong side, but by foes who 
took the wrong line. A man of this kind 
was called vulgar because his dress was 
loud or his connections low; because he 
dropped an aitch or would not drop an 
aunt. There is nothing necessarily un- 
civilized in any of these things. Dress 
for man was very gaudy in the best ages 
of aristocracy. And all the most refined 
nations of Europe have dropped their 
aitches for centuries. 

No; what is wrong with the Carnegie 
sort of capitalist is none of these things 
vulgarly called vulgar. What is wrong 
with the capitalist is that he does not 
know that he is a capitalist. A curious 
cloud of vanity has settled on his brain, 
so that he thinks he is something quite 



129 



TfiQ CarpQntQF 



different; a leader, a counselor, a person 
of importance. It is just as if a money 
lender got drunk (an incident of too rare 
occurrence) and began really to fancy he 
was a generous friend. A man like Car- 
negie lives in a fairy tale of flattery, 
which makes him fancy, in some strange 
way, that he is more than a money lender. 
But the modern capitalist, at his best, is 
merely a money lender; for the excellent 
reason that he has nothing else to lend. 

The babyish and barbarian quality 
which men like Carnegie exhibit had a 
good name in Greek, of which the near- 
est translation is "impudence." Thus Mr. 
Carnegie would quite confidently give me 
his opinion about books; and would also 
(to do him justice) give me the books. 
He would accompany them with an en- 
cyclical explaining why I must not have 
Greek literature or English spelling. 
Now, suppose I collected all my old 
pocket knives and cork screws and broken 
nail scissors and old rusty bayonets and 
heads of assegais, and blunted table 
knives and broken bits of needles, and 
assured him they were very valuable 
pieces of steel. I should be wrong, be- 
cause I know nothing about steel, and 
know I know nothing. But I know more 
about steel than Carnegie does about 
books. I know where it comes from; for 
instance, it comes from the iron. Car- 
negie does not know where books come 
from, or he would know that they come 
from the Greek. I know that the main 
difference between iron and steel is that 
steel has a temper; that it can be made 
to turn this way and that and recover its 
direction like a living thing. Carnegie 
does not know the main difference be- 
tween old spelling and new spelling; 
which is that so long as words are full 
of tradition they are full of life, and can 
shed their errors; but if you begin a new 
pedantry, you have bent a bad bayonet 
you will never straighten again. 

If he had read books instead of be- 
stowing them; if he had read the best 
and plainest books on behalf of evolu- 
tion, Huxley's, for instance, he would 
have known that evolution is going on; 
but it is our main business to resist it. 



He would have realized that climate and 
condition can favor the lower animal, as 
they now favor the capitalist. Had he 
understood one good popular history, like 
Napier's "Peninsular War," he would 
have found that soldiers are gentlemen. 
If he had understood one popular novel 
like "The Newcomes," he would have 
known that gentlemen are soldiers. The 
trouble is that he knows nothing at all. 
He is only a capitalist. How are we to 
break it to him? 



Brother Myers' I<evel in Demand 

There Las been an increasing demand for 
the Myers Straight Edge Safety Level, in- 
vented by Brother W. F. Myers, a member of 
Local Union 257, St. Louis, Mo. The level 
was patented August 11, 1908, and was the 
result of long and careful effort on the part 
of Brother Myers to perfect an up-to-date ad- 
justable level which would withstand the 
rough usage that such have to undergo at the 
hands of carpenters and other building 
tradesmen. It is particularly adapted to the 
needs of carpenters in setting frames, jambs, 
partitions and leveling foundations. It may 
be obtained direct from the factory at 909 
North 66th street, University City, St. Louis, 
Mo. The leading hardware stores in St. Lduis 
handle it. 



An Old Man's Job 

When a young man sits on a bench in the 
park. 

You're sorry — a little — for him. 
But the future needn't be dreadfully dark 

For a youngster with vigor and vim. 
But the park-bench man who's the tragic 
man. 

Who brings to the throat a sob, 
Has a paper whose lines his dull eyes scan 

In search of an old man's job. 

Shoulders age-bent 'neath a shiny coat. 

Face that is wistful and lined, 
Weak, faded eyes, eager bent, to note 

The pitiful chance they may find 
In the paper held by the knotted hands 

That shake a bit as they hold; 
The chance is so little, he well understands 

For a job for. the man who is old. 

Gray, scant hair, and a leg that drags 

As he rises and limps away 
With a half-born hoping that never flags 

Till the close of a fruitless day. 
Employer men, you are rushed, I know — 

Your duties throng in a mob ; 
Hut give him, please, just a little show 

Who asks for an old man's job. 

— Miriam Teichner, In New York Globe. 



130 



State Council Activities 




United Brotherhood of Carpenters 

State Councils 



Connecticut — President, Wm. J. Sullivan, 147 
Clay St., New Haven, Conn., secretary, Geo. 
Chandler, 123 Greenwich ave., Greenwich. 

I'Morida — President, Robert M. Marshall, Lake- 
land, Fla. ; secretary-treasurer, Frank A. 
Mullan, Box 599, Tampa, Fla. 

Georgia — President, A. M. Copeland, 128 Plum 
St., Atlanta, Ga. ; secretary-treasurer, R. L. 
Singleton, 3 Gilmore St., Waycross, Ga. 

Indiana— President, W. F. Wilson, 401 E, 
Southern ave., Indianapolis, Ind. ; secretary, 
James L. Tate, 1009 Extension Main st., 
Evansville, Ind. 

Iowa— President, J. H. Strief, Box 362, Sioux 
City, la. : secretary-treasurer, W. B. James, 
609 North Fifth st.. Cedar Rapids, la. 

Louisiana — President, G. W. Moore, New Or- 
leans, La. ; secretary-treasurer, .Tohn C. 
Moore, Shreveport, La. 

Maryland and District of Columbia — Presi- 
dent, Jos. B. Wontisseth, 27 N. Mount St.. 
Baltimore, Md. ; secretary, A. E. Foltz, 612 
N. Mulberry st., Hagerstown, Md. 

Massachusetts — President, W. H. Walsh, 
Brookline, Mass. ; secretary, P. Provost, Jr., 
75 Bond St., Holyoke, Mass. 

Michigan— President, F. C. Plambeck, 1101 N. 
8th St.. Saginaw; secretary-treasurer, .T. B. 
Whittaker, 1317 W. High St., Jackson, Mich. 

New Jersey — President, Samuel Botterill. 118 
Main st., E. Orange, N. J. ; secretary, .John 
R. Burgess. 452 Hoboken ave., Jersey City. 

New York — President, T. Gilmore, 21 Beaver 
Block. Albany, N. Y. ; secretary, Chas. Fies- 
ler, 405 E. 86th st.. New York City. 

Northwest State Council — President, R. O. 
Rector, 975 Gladstone ave., Portland, Ore. : 
secretary-treasurer, J. F. Weatherby, 86.S 
E. Sherman st., Portland, Ore. 

Oklahoma — President. G. E. Warren, Route 7. 
Box 88. Oklahoma City ; secretary-treasurer. 
D. N. Ferguson. 801 E. Broadwav, Ardmore. 
Okla. 

Ontario Provincial Council — President. .Tames 
Marsh, 20 Jepson st., Niagara Falls, Ont. : 
secretary-treasurer, Tennison Jackson, 34 
Applegrove ave., Toronto, Ont.. Can. 

Pennsylvania — President, D. A. Post, 416 S. 
Main st.. Wilkes-Barre ; secretary-treasurer, 
J. A. Ryan, 1712 S. 18th st., Philadelphia. 

Quebec Provincial Council — President, Arthur 
Martel, 1399 St. Denis St., Montreal^ Can., 
secretary-treasurer, Pierre Lefebvre, 301 St. 
Dominique St., Montreal, Can. 

Khode Island — President, Clarence E. Brlggs. 
172 Division st., Pawtucket, R. I.; secretarv. 
C. Clarkson, 1022 Main st., Pawtucket, R. T 

Texas— President, D. B. White, 1103 N. Travis 
St., Sherman, Texas; secretary, J. E. Proc 
tor. 833 Columbia St., Houston, Texas 



Anti-Blacklist I^aw Reversed 

The law^ passed by the State of 
Kansas making it illegal for employers 
to coerce or influence employes from join- 
ing a trade union on pain of a refusal of 
employment has been reversed by the U. 
S. supreme court in a very reactionary 
decision. The dissenting justices were 
Day, Holmes and Hughes. 



Definition of a Trade Unionist 
Wage workers, members in good stand- 
ing of the union of the trade or calling 
at which they are employed, who realize 
as a fundamental principle the necessity 
of unity of all their fellows employed at 
the same trade or calling; who recognize 
the vital, logical extension, growth and 
development of all unions of all trades 
and callings, and who strive for the unity, 
federation, co-operation, fraternity, and 
solidarity of all organized wage earners 
who can and do subordinate self for the 
common good and always strive for the 
common uplift; who decline to limit the 
sphere of their activity by any dogma, 
doctrine or ism. Finally those organized 
wage workers who fearlessly and insist- 
ently maintain and contend that the trade 
unions, the trade union movement, are 
paramount to any other form of organi- 
zation or movement of labor in the world. 
— Samuel Gompers. 



They were talking about trees. 

"My favorite," she said, "is the oak. 
It is so noble, so magnificent. But what 
is your favorite?" 

"Yew," he replied. 



Get busy and help advertise the trade- 
mark of your company. See that your 
local gets in line and procures some of 
the lead pencils that are going the 
rounds. 



131 



Craft ProblQm s 




Framing Pyramidal Roofs 

(By Owen B Maginnis.) 

Roof framing is a study well worth 

the attention of every carpenter. The 

roof illustrated and described in this 

article is one which occurs on many 




bouses and cottages nowadays. It is one 
of a kind of tower roofs on a square plan, 
or as they are sometimes termed, "Pyra- 
midal Roofs.'' A, C, D, F, Fig. 6, is 
the projection of the roof completed. A, 
C, D, B, Fig. 1, the plan of the roof on 
the plates; AE, CE, DE and BE, being 
the hips which form the shape of the 
roof or seats over AF, CF, DF, on Fig; 6, 
stand. The fourth hip over BE cannot 
be seen on the projection, Fig. 2. 

In order to find the length of the hips 
produce the line E, B, indefinitely. Now 
set off measuring from E, the height of 
the peak to F, Fig. 2. Join AF, which 
will be the exact length of either of the 
four hips. In framing this roof it is 
best to let two opposite hips, as BE, and 
EC, on the same line abut against each 
other at the peak, and to cut off their 
thickness from the other two top or peak 
cuts, thus: If BE, and EC, be each two 
inches thick, then one inch will be cut 
off the peak cuts of AE and DE , which 
rest against them at E. This is done in 



the same manner as every top cut of a 
rafter resting against a ridge must have 
half the thickness of the ridge cut from 
each rafter. The bevel at F, Fig. 1, is 
the bevel of all four top cuts and that at 
A, the bevel for the cuts on the plate. 
Concerning the jack rafters, the best way 
to determine their length is to set them 
off the plate as from A, to C, Fig. 1, then 
to draw a line as H, E, G, through E, 
parallel to AC or BD. With A as cen- 
ter and AF as radius, describe the arc 
FG, cutting the II, E, G. at G. Join 
G, A, and G, B. The triangle, or more 
properly speaking, the triangular sur- 
face G, A, B, will be the exact covering 
surface of the roof plane A, E, B. 

From where the jack rafters come 
against the hip AE, draw lines parallel 
to E, G, and square to A, B, cutting A, 
G, as shown. The lines reaching from 
the plan line A, B, to A, G, will be the 
exact jack rafters and the bevel at K, 
will be the side cut against the hip, with 




the bevel at F, as the vertical cut, and 
that at K, the bottom, or plate cut. 

The development of the covering for 
the remaining three planes of the roof 
is found by drawing th§ Use I, J, through 



132 



Ina CarpontQr 



E, parallel to A, B, or C, D, then with B, 
as center and 3, G, as radius intersecting 
E, J, at J, and joining J, B, and J, D; a 
similar process can be gone through to 
determine the points H and I, thus ob- 
taining the four convexing planes. 

To prove the accuracy of this and the 
two previous roof problems before de- 
scribed, or in fact any roof problem, the 
plan should invariably be laid out to a 
scale, say one and a half inches to one 
foot. On a sheet of cardboard half an 
inch scale will do if the roof be very 
large, then to make a cardboard model. 
Here this can be done, and when the 
lines have been laid down as just de- 
scribed, the entire model may be made 
as follows: With a sharp pocketknife 
cut clean through the cardboard from A 
to G, from G to B, from B to J, from 
J to D, from D to H, from H to C, from 
C to I, and from I to A. Next make a 
slit half way through the cardboard from 
A to B, from B to D, from D to C, and 
from C to A. Proceed to fold the planes 
over the seats till they all join at the 
edges, thereby making a completed card- 
board roof resembling Fig. 2, with the 
jacks and bevels in position, and with 
all the cuts fitting as they ought to. 



Handy Step Block 
(By D. Andrew McComb.) 
Cut two pieces 1x4x8 inches, like No. 
1. Cut another from an inch thick board 




No. 1. 

4x7 inches and make six steps, as No. 2. 

Set the step piece, No. 2, between the 
other two pieces, No. 1, as indicated by 
the dotted lines, and nail them together^ 
like No. 3. , 

Turn No. 3 over and drive two small 
spikes into the bottom near the front 
end, leaving an inch out, and file off the 
heads. Gimlet two holes in the bench to 



let in the nails. Make a little wedge 10 
inches long with a thin point to wedge 
the board in the block. 

When going to a job where there is no 




No. 2. 
bench, carry the block and wedge in the 
tool box. On the job get a plank or 
board 6 or 8 feet long, bore the gimlet 
holes, bump up against a studding and 




No. 3. 

you have a good temporary bench to hold 
casing or any kind of board on edge for 
planing or shaving. For heavy work cut 
pieces No. 1, 2x4x8. 



A MuUion Window- Weight 
■ (By A. A. Stafford, L. U. 141.) 

Hanging two sashes on three weights 
is nothing new, but as long as cord and 
weights are used it is a good idea, and 
possibly some young carpenters would 
like to know how it is done. The object 
is to lessen the width of the mullion cas- 
ing and get the windows nearer together. 

To do this use one weight in the mullion 
lor two sashes (see drawing). It must 
weigh the same as one sash. Then use 
a li-inch awning pulley with eye; fasten 
the eye to weight with wire, then run 
the epr4 through the pulley from one 



18g 



TfiQ CarpontQr 



sash to the other. Be sure to have cord 
the right length, so when the inside two 
sashes are down the weight will be near 
the jamb pulleys. 




SECTION 

And the reverse for top sash. Two 
inches between jambs in ordinary win- 
dow frames is sufficient for weights 
hooked up in this manner. 



A Point in Roof Framing 

(By Rowland Hill, L. U. 1582.) 
We sometimes come across a job of 
rafter framing, on a building corner, 
that is out of square. The plan herewith 
shows a hip running from front corner 
across entire building and resting on the 
blank brick wall, roof pitching to front 




and side 
around, 
tion "A,' 
"B," you 



, showing a level cornice all 

If you rafter up the front sec- 

' as shown by the dotted line 

will have a very bad twist in 



the roof, as each jack will have a differ- 
ent pitch, consequently a quality of work 
not creditable to a union carpenter. But 
if you will follow the method shown here 
you will not be ashamed of your work. 
Run jacks square from the hip to wall 
plate as long as they hit the plate then 
onto brick wall, following up the rake; 
cut down ends of rafters so as not to 
show any wood below verge board. Nail 
2x4-inch blocks between rafter ends on 
brick wall to nail sheathing to and a 
straight piece of work will be the result. 
The writer would be pleased to help 
any brother having a need for assistance, 
in solving rafter problems, through The 
Carpenter. 



Framing Hexagonal Roofs 

(By Owen B. Maginnis.) 
Carpenters will see at Fig. 1 the top 
and side views of a hexagonal or six- 
sided tower roof, or one which has a 




Fig. 1 

wall plate running round on six walls as 
shown, the dotted lines representing the 
angle lines of the hexagonal figure. The 
completed roof with the tin or shingle 
on, will appear as shown on the lower 
sketch. 

In order to frame this roof the follow- 
ing system should be used: 

At Fig. 2 proceed to lay out on a 
board to a scale of II or 3 inches to the 
foot the plan of the wall plates (on the 



134 



outside line) A, B, C, D, E, F, and join 
the intersections of the sides as A, D, 
B, E, and C, F; passing through the cen- 
ter G. This gives the seats of the hip 
rafters A G, B G, C G, D G, E G and 
F G, six in all. To find their exact 
length square up from E, G, as G, J. 
Lay off also to the same scale the exact 
height in feet of the pitch or rise of the 
roof from G, to J, and join J, E, which 




line will be the exact length of the hip 
rafter as seen in the diagram with the 
top and bottom bevels necessary for the 
cuts, these being given at once without 
any uncertainty. 

To find the length of the common 
rafter to stand over H, G, set off the 
pitch G, I on G, C, equal to G, J, and 
join H, I, for the length. This rafter 
is rarely used on roofs of this class, ex- 
cept when they are of large area, as 
only the jacks are requisite, especially 
on modern frame houses where they sel- 
dom exceed eight feet in width, thus re- 
quiring short rafters. 

To develop this roof take a pair of 
compasses, and with E, as center, and 
radius E, J, describe the arc J, M, L, 
cutting H, C, produced in L. Join E, 
L, and D, L, which will give the triangle 
E, L, D, the covering over the plan E, 
G, D, on the pitch or rise G, J. Bisect 
or rather divide E, F, into two parts at 
Q. Square up from Q, cutting the arc 
J, M, L, at M. Join M, E, and M, F. 



TjPia Carpontar 

The triangle E, M, F, will lie over E, 
G, F. The remaining four triangular 
developments or coverings can be laid 
out from the foregoing by making J, O, 
H, K, R, N, and S, P, equal in length to 
Q, M, or a simpler method would be to 
take G, as center with G, M, as radius, 
and describe short arcs, cutting 0, K, 
N, and P, thus giving the exact lengths 
at one sweep and insuring their being 
alike so as to meet at the center G, 
when folded. 

The side bevel at K will make the top 
cuts on the jack rafters fitting against 
the hips, the bottom cuts fitting on the 
plates being the bevel at H. 

Almost every mechanic 'knows how a 
hexagon or six-sided figure is struck 
out, still in case there should be even 
one student who is at sea in regard to 
it, I repeat the method of doing so here. 
The diameter or length from angle to 
angle is usually given, or, if not, is easily 
found by joining the angles as before 
described. Now, to lay out any hexa- 
gon, draw any line as F, C, and divide 
•it into two equal parts at G. With G 
center and radius G, F, strike the circle 
A, B, C, D, E, F. Now take a pair of 
dividers (sharp points on both legs) and 
from C, with one point on C, space out 
the six distances C, B, B, H, A, F, F, E, 
E, D, and D, C. Draw the lines as shown 
for the outline of the hexagon. 

In regard to framing an octagonal or 
eight-sided roof, the same methods as 
have been described above can be safely 
followed with the exception of laying 
out the octagon itself, which can be done 
in any of the numerous ways now in use. 

When the plan of the plate has been 
laid down the angles are joined and the 
pitches raised up in the same manner as 
for a hexagonal roof. Likewise with 
the development of the planes. They 
can be similarly found. 

When cutting out the model of these 
roofs (after laying the lines out on a 
sheet of cardboard, should any reader 
care to do so) the model can be made in 
this way. 

With a sharp penknife or chisel cut 
entirely through the sheet from A, to K, 



135 



TAq CarpontQr 

K, to B, and so on around each outside 
line until the piece drops out in the form 
of a six-pointed star. Next make a 
slit through the plan lines as A, B, B, C, 
etc., and proceed to fold the sides up 
until the points O, K, N, P, L, and N, all 
meet over G, and each hip as E, L, etc., 
will be in their exact place, exactly over 
its seat, and the cuts will all fit as con- 
templated, thus proving the accuracy of 
the system. 



Old-Fashioned Tools and Modem 

Methods 

(By E. H. Clark.) 

I saw a gang of carpenters the other 
day doing inside finish, and there was no 
work bench on the job. Men were strug- 
gling with doors trying to dress the edges 
with not even a jack to hold them. How 
they could accomplish anything satisfac- 
torily was beyond me. There is necessarily 
a great deal of bench work always to be 
done, both inside and outside. For in- 
stance, did you ever try to plane an un- 
glazed sash and hold it with your hand?_ 
By all means take a good bench with you 
— it will pay. It is a fact, of course, 
that, as a rule, we want to get through 
a job as quickly as possible; and that is 
pretty certain to mean that some details 
of the work, which should go to make a 
first-class job, are neglected in the rush. 

There are a few modern inventions in 
the tool line that are intended for labor 
and time savers. A great many of them 
fill all the requirements. Then there are 
some that save time and labor at the ex- 
pense of good work. A simple little ap- 
pliance is the shingling gauge. But do 
you know that if I wanted a nice job of 
shingling done I would bar the gauges? 
If only two men are roofing, and under- 
stand their business, they will do very 
well; but, put four or five men on a long 
stretch and there is no uniformity to it. 
True, you can put on more, but can you 
do it as neatly as you can by the line 
method ? 

Now a word with regard to old-fash- 
ioned tools. The fore plane of long ago 
can do better work by far than its mod- 
ern brother, which is shorter and lighter. 



It has the length which is so vital to good 
work. Common sense teaches that the 
greater the bearing or reach of a plane 
the more efficient it is in straightening 
a piece of timber. There is a great de- 
mand among carpenters for the old-time 
fore plane. Craftsmen of long ago used 
them, and they did fine work. In wreck- 
ing some of the old poplar houses built 
by our fathers, pick up almost any part 
of the frame or casing and you have a 
perfect straight edge. A careful eye and 
the long fore plane did it! No matter 
how careful you are you cannot straight- 
en a piece of timber perfectly with a 
short, light plane. 

Another very useful, but now discard- 
ed, tool is the splitting gauge. How 
much truer and how much more easily 
and quickly can you split a weatherboard 
or other light material with this obsolete 
tool than with the saw or knife. 

I do not mean to be old-fashioned in 
my methods; not by any means. But I 
will use an antiquated tool or method 
when I know they will get better results 
and be more efficient. Of course there 
are legions of modern tools thi- : are won- 
ders, and I have some of the n, and buy 
more when I can afford them. But the 
point I am aiming at is this: A great 
many antiquities in the tool line will do 
better work than some of the later and 
prettier pattern tools that have crowded 
them out. 

The slogan should be, "good work at 
all times and on all occasions." Do not 
sacrifice good work for the sake of mod- 
ern methods, which generally means 
speed, and speed means neglect. 



The Boy and the Trade 

The Eagle Magazine, the official pub- 
lication of the Fraternal Order of Eagles, 
has recently been publishing a series of 
instructive articles setting forth the con- 
ditions under which boys may expect to 
succeed at the various trades. One of the 
most interesting of them was that set- 
ting forth the average boy's chances at 
the carpenter trade, from which we quote 
as follows: 

"If a boy came to you and asked you 



136 



TfiQ CarpontQr 



about carpentry as a trade for him to 
follow," I inquired of a successful con- 
tractor, "what would you tell him?" 

The contractor swung about in his 
chair and faced me squarely. 

"I'd ask him first if he was sure he 
wanted to be a carpenter," he said. "No 
one can make a good carpenter — or a 
good plumber, or a good lawyer, or a 
good preacher, for that matter — if he 
doesn't believe that carpentry — or 
plumbing, or the law, or the ministry — 
is the only thing in the world for him. 
Then, if I found that he had the desire 
for the trade strong in his heart, I'd say 
to him, 'Go ahead.' Of course, he'd have 
to be a strong boy — healthy, and sturdy 
of build; for carpentry means heavy 
work and exposure to the weather. And 
he'd have to be fearless — absolutely 
fearless. Nailing shingles on a roof isn't 
a dangerous job for a man who is level- 
headed and sure of himself; but the man 
who is nervous and afraid is likely to fall 
off and get killed. We put courage into 
'em, though," he added with a smile. "If 
a boy has any 'stuff' in him at all, he'll 
not be afraid of anything by the time 
he's through with his apprenticeship." 

"What u:nGut education," I asked. 
"Npp'I he ha\ J n.i;ch or little?" 

"lie can get aJ- r. ? with none," said the 
conti'actor. T ha^' ; one carpenter work- 
ing for ;i.e vvl.o is a splendid workman, 
but who can't so much as write his own 
name. However, that man will never be 
able to advance a peg furtLer than he is. 
And even he is an exception. Mc5t of 
the uneducated fellows we employ can do 
only what we call rough carpentry, that 
is, erecting scaffolding, making boxing 
for concrete, and the like. The really ef- 
ficient car'^enter ought to be able to fig- 
ure out things for himself and perhaps 
to do a little drafting. And the boy who 
wants to rise in the trade — who wants 
to become a contractor, perhaps — must 
have some education hack of him. 

"Of course, that doesn't mean that he 
must be a college graduate," he contin- 
ued. "I didn't have much regular school- 
ing, for instance. But T oi.udied by my- 
self. I started to work before I wr.s 



fourteen — they didn't have child labor 
laws in those days. I got a dollar and a 
quarter a week — and I earned it, too. 
Our days weren't always eight-hour days. 
Every spare minute I had a pencil in my 
hand, drafting and figuring. After a 
while I could do things that some of the 
other fellows couldn't. And after a while 
longer, I owned my own business." 

This contractor is not by any means an 
exception. A large number of the suc- 
cessful contractors and builders of today 
started out as carpenters* apprentices. 
As in many other trades, it is the man 
who knows the work from the ground up 
that most often proves the one best 
equipped for the position at the top. Of 
course, every boy cannot look forward to 
some day owning his own business; but 
the lad who takes up carpentry may be 
sure at least of equipping himself with 
a good trade — one that is useful and 
highly respected. He may be sure, too, 
of work that is, as a rule, healthful and, 
for the eificient workman, well paid and 
reasonably steady. 

Most of the objections one hears to 
the trade are based on its irregularity. 
As a matter of fact, a large number of 
days are lost to the carpenter each year 
as a result of bad weather. Sometimes 
a lull in building keeps men out of em- 
ployment for weeks at a time. However, 
contractors are unanimous in declaring 
that the really efficient workman is rare- 
ly without work. When a regular job is 
lacking him, the enterprising man finds 
bits of repairing to do. Many carpen- 
ters have small workshops where they 
make shelves or deal tables and repair 
furniture. So, although the irregularity 
of the work is a manifest disadvantage, 
it is one that can often be successfully 
combated. 

In reality, there are three branches of 
the carpentry trade, mill-work, general 
carpentry and cabinet-making. Only the 
first two come under the head of this 
article; for the third is really a trade in 
itself and should be treated as such. 

In a planing mill a boy learns how to 
CO Po tract the various manufactured 
pieces used in building, such as door and 



137 



TfiQ CarpontQr 



window frames, wainscotings and mold- 
ings, balustrades and cupboards. Sixteen 
is the usual age for apprenticeship, 
though in a few mills, particularly in the 
smaller towns and cities, where the 
unions are not strong, boys are engaged 
at fourteen to run errands or to carry 
lumber and tools to the Workmen. Since 
much of the work is machine work, the 
wages paid in a mill are lower, as a rule, 
than those paid for general carpentry. 
The work is, however, clean and not over- 
heavy; and it lacks, largely, the element 
of danger involved in building. More- 
over, according to one contractor, even 
if a boy does not intend to remain at the 
mill permanently, it does much to fit 
him for general carpentry. The knowl- 
edge he will gain there of the manufac- 
tured parts of a building will prove good 
preliminary training for the position of 
interior finisher — one of the highest-paid 
positions in the trade. 

However, some contractors contend 
that the boy who intends to become a 
general carpenter should start "on the 
job," working v/ith the men and picking 
up from them, every bit of knowledge he 
can. There is nothing, they say, like 
getting used to climbing about the un- 
finished building at the start. Ordinar- 
ily, no boy who is under sixteen will be 
engaged on construction work. Under 
the union rules prevalent in Chicago, he 
must not be over seventeen at the time 
of his apprenticeship, though many car- 
penters elsewhere prefer not to hire ap- 
prentices under eighteen or nineteen, be- 
lieving that an older boy is steadier and 
surer of his own mind than a sixteen- 
year-old lad. 

The apprentice on a construction job 
is first put to work at carrying tools and 
lumber to the carpenters. He is paid 
about six or seven dollars a week for 
this. Gradually, as he gets more used 
to climbing ladders and walking beams, 
he is sent to the higher portions of the 
building. He gets a chance to learn by 
observation practically every phase of 
the carpentry work that goes into a 
building; then he is allowed to try out 
what he has learned. His first tasks 



usually consist of sawing boards to the 
proper length and squaring joists. One 
by one he learns the more difficult 
branches of the work, until, at the end 
of three or four, or, in some cases, five 
years of apprenticeship, he is a full- 
fledged carpenter. During this time his 
wages have been gradually increasing 
until, as a journeyman, he earns from 
thirty to fifty cents an hour, according 
to his ability. 

Generally there is some special portion 
of the work that a man is best fitted to 
do, but there is very little real speciali- 
zation in the trade. Of course, there are 
some men who never get beyond the 
stage of rough carpentry; others — the 
best workmen — are employed almost ex- 
clusively in interior finishing; that is, the 
laying of floors, the putting in of wain- 
scoting, molding and cupboards, the 
hanging of doors, and the like. It is in 
this work that the knowledge gained in a 
planing mill proves most valuable. 

If a boy wishes to be successful he 
must learn the trade from A to Z. Then 
success will depend entirely upon his 
steadiness and persistency. The boy of 
the coming generation will have more to 
compete with than his father and grand- 
father, who rose from the position of 
carpenter to that of contractor; for many 
of the best places in building construc- 
tion are being filled by men with college 
training. However, the lad who has laid 
a firm foundation during the years he 
has been able ' to go to school may add 
greatly to his knowledge after he has 
started work. He may study some of 
the practical treatises on his trade that 
are to be found in all public libraries; 
he may take courses in mechanics and 
kindred subjects at night school, or from 
some reliable correspondence school. Per- 
haps he will have a chance to attend one 
of the carpenters' schools to which the 
union in some places — Chicago among 
them — requires each employer to send 
his apprentices during three months of 
the year. With his practical experience 
to back him, the young carpenter who 
has studied will be able to' rank fairly in 
construction work with graduates from 



138 



Ti\Q Carpontor 



technical and engineering colleges. 

"What of the things a boy learns in 
school will help him most in carpentry?" 
I asked one of the contractors with whom 
I talked. 

"Anything and everything he can 
learn will help him," was the reply. "He 
can't have too much schooling. Of 
course, mathematics and drawing will 
prove invaluable to him, and the manual 
training that so many of the schools offer 
is of great practical benefit. But all of 
his studies will be of some assistance to 
him. And if he is ambitious to succeed, 
he will have to make up his mind to keep 
on studying after he leaves school. If 
you want to get along nowadays you've 
got to keep abreast of the times, or youi- 
job will get ahead of you." 



Carpentry for Concrete 

(By 0. B. Maginnis.) 
In these days when concrete is playing 
so prominent a part in building construc- 
tion, it behooves carpenters to keep in 
touch with the trend of the times, so we 
will from time to time publish different 
designs and schemes of forms which may 
serve to assist readers in comprehending 
and working out these details. 

The attached sketch shows the fram- 
ing of a form for a heavy concrete arch 




in bridge work, which is an excellent 
scheme for carrying great weights. On 
account of the dead load of reinforced 
concrete to be sustained the timber struc- 
ture was trussed after the manner shown 
in the diagram — the tie piece at the spring- 



line; a 4xl0-inch timber being framed, 
mortised and tenoned to receive the 
thrust of four 4xl0-inch bearers placed in 
compressed cut to octagonal joints at the 
intersections. On top of these, curved 
templets were nailed which in turn re- 
ceived the lagging or battens, above, on 
which the concrete was poured. To 
counteract the center thrust at A and 
prevent subsidence of the tie beam, also 
to avoid the use of suspension bolts, the 
- framing under A was introduced by in- 
serting the unusual angular struts on 
right and left as seen. These abutted 
against the bolster at A, halving into 
the spreading brace B, which prevented 
the uprights or shores from buckling or 
springing. 

The whole job in which all the timbers 
are, with the exception of the horizontal 
tie beam, in the strain of compression is 
an excellent and somewhat unusual form 
of constructive carpentry and did the 
greatest credit to the union men who exe- 
cuted it. 

There were many of these frames as 
the arches were serial, and above them 
was a double track railroad, the vibration 
of which, demanded the greatest care in 
the workmanship and the very best ma- 
terial to insure the surest statics and 
safety. 



Slot Machine Unionists 

Some workers look on their trade 
union as a slot machine. They think that 
by putting in 50 cents a month, $6 a 
year, for instance, an eight-hour day and 
an increased wage scale will automati- 
cally result. 

A trade union is not a thing itself. 

Men talk about their union as if it 
were separate, distinctly apart from 
themselves. They growl about the union. 
They note its shortcomings and overlook 
entirely their obligations and its failures. 

They fail to see that they themselves 
are the union and only as they live and 
talk and act as union men will the union 
prospects be what it is intended for — 
simply an instrument to make possible a 
collective action of workers. — Baltimore 
Trade Unionist. 



139 



11 ■■■■■■—■■■—— »*^-^— I !■ ' """ T il " ' , ' ~~ mmm,^mmi^ m^^^^mi < < ^^^^^^^^j^j^^ m n^ 

Fiir UnsQr? DoutschQn Lqsqf 




iPcrtdjt tte§ 3ufttmmenfteIIttng§=^i)mtte§ ilBcr ©e!tion 24 ber ©eneral'S^onftttution bets 

btc ©eneralBcomtenttja^I. _ ftofet. Unter'irt 5. ^anuar berit^tete ber 

©elretar ber S. H. 231, ba^ atuei il^rer TliU 

^nbianapoIiS, ben 23. ^anuor 1915. glieber bie teamen ber ^anbiboten mtf 30 

Stn ben @eneral*^raftbenten ^ame§ ^trbQ: ©ttmmgettel au§ge|tric^en fj'dtten. 

SBerter §err unb ©ruber: — S)a§, Don ?ru§ bemfeffien dJrunbe lam ba§ 5lomtte 

ber ac^tge^nten ©enerals^onbention beliuf§ iibercin ha§ SSotunt ber S. U. 676 gu ber- 

Sitfammenftellung bc§ SRefuItateS ber ©ene* toerfen. Ueber btefe§ SSotum tcurbe cine 

rarbeamtentra^I erlnal^Ite Somite, orgcmi* ©rfldrung berlangt unb hDurbe btefc bo^tn 

firte ftc^ am 15. ©egember 1914, bormtt? beanttrortet, bo^ fid] nac^ ber SBafil noc^ 4 

tags inr ^auptquartier. S^o§. ©ilntore Stimmgettel in bem §ul borgefunben l^dtten. 
iDurbe al§ ^^rafibent itnb (£. §. ?JeaI al§ 2fuf bem SBal^IrefuItatSformuIar ber fi. U. 

Sefretar ertca^It unb unterbreiten tt)ir nun 373 befanb ficb ein ^reug :^inter ben 3^amen 

unferen SBefunb gema^ ©e!tion 24 ber ber erftett bier ^anbibaten toa^renb bie 

©eneral'^onftitution. ©timmgettel 11 obgegebene (Stimmen repre* 

S)ie offtaiellen SBa^Ibertc^te, mit uneroff- fentirten. Sluf biefe SBeife !ann ber SBille 

neten ©ouberten, tourben un§ burd) ©eneral^ ber Slbftimmenben ni(^t gum SluSbrud !om* 

©efretdr S)uffl) einge^anbigt. ^n einigen men unb biefeS SBa^^IrefuItat iourbe al§ fe^s 

biefer Souberten traren gugleic^ ^ed§>, Icr^aft eingetragen. 

San!anmeifungen unb ginangberic^te mit ein* S)a§ 93otum ber 2. VL. 755 tourbe ni(^t 

gefdjlofjen, toelc^ le^tere bem ©eneral'©e!re* anerfannt, ha auf bem g'ormular nur eine 

tar guriidgegeben niurben. ©timme fiir jeben ^anbibaten regiftrirt tear. 

^n biefer 5Berbinbung eriauben tpir un§ (£ine, bem gormular beigefiigte Semerfung, 

bie ginangbeamten ber Sofal-UnionS gu entpit bit Stngabe, ba"^ 57 3KitgIieber fiir 

crmal^nen in Qunf'unft i^re finangieUen ®e* bie§ - 93erf aljrcn ftimmten unb ?liemanb ba^ 

fdjciftc mit ber ©eneral-Dfftge nic^t unter gegen. 

©enu^ung biefer, einem fpegieHen Sttjed bie* 2. U. 1687 gab 28 ©timmen ah fiir jeben 

nenben, Kouberten abgutoideln, toelc^e gu ^^^ g^g^ ^anbibaten fur SRitglieber be§ 

offnen bem ®eneral.©e!retar berboten ift. @enerar.@re!utib.93oarb§ fiir ben erften 

tfolgenbe ^anbibaten tuurben erma^It: 2)iftri!t unb 36 ©timmen fiir bie gtoet ^an* 

Csame§ mxht) ©eneral^^^rafibent i^ibaten be§ fiebenten ®iftri!t§. ®iefe S. U. 

SB. fi. §ut(^efon. . . .1. ®en..SSige.5|prafibent ^^ite nur gtuangig gutfte^enbe ^JHtglieber im 

Slrtl^ur Cuinn 2. ®en.*S3ige.^rdfibent ?rjobember. 

?yran! Suffb ®enerals©e!retar r^ r J o ^ r n • o r j-- ^ .» 

komas 9JeaIe ®eneraI.©(Safemeifter ^"^^'"^' Sofar.UtuonS fd)tcften unau§. 

S. m. ©uerin. .V. V.V. ..©.(£. «. 1. ©ifttift ^'^^^^' ^^ormulare ein: S. U.'§ 845, 1477, 

®. St. W @. e. ©. 2. ©iftrtit ^^^^' 25^7, 2549 unb 2634. 

^oijxi §. 5pott§ ®. (£. $8. 3. ®tftri!t '^"^ Slnorbnung be§ ^omiteS tuurbe in ben 

^sameS ^. Dgletree ®. (£. $8. 4. Siftrift ^^^*^" bermcr!t, ba% S. U. 575 auf etnen 

s^avvt) ©ladmore ®. @. S. 5. Siftrilt A5rrtum in i^rem offigieU einberic^teten 93o* 

SB. 21. Sole @. S\ ©. 6. S)iftri!t t""^ aufmertfam gemad^t tuurbe aber ba§ 

Srrt^ur Smarter ®. ©. 33. 7. ®iftri!t ©efuc^ um 33erid^tigung unbead^tet geblieben 

9^adj reiflicfier ©rtoagung berluarf ba§ '^^^■ 
Somite ba§ S3otum ber S. II. 231 h^eil laut ®i"e grofee ?Inga:^t- ber SoIaI*Union§ 

beren S3ericf)t fiir ieben ber ©eneralbcamten mad^ten leine SIngaben iiber ba§ S)atum 

55 ©timmen abgegeben, aber 85 au§gefiiKte i^rer SBal^I. ^n febem biefer gdlle tcurben 

©timmgettel eingefanbt iburben, Wa§ gegen unauggefiilite SluSfogeformulor (WffibabitS) 

140 



etngefanbt unb biele btefer tvaxen nid^t bon 
einem SZotar 5egrau6tgt. 

©ttmmengal^I. 
f^iir ©eneral ^profibent. 

^ome§ mvht) 38,759 

^^iir 1. ®eneraI*a3iaes51Sraftbent. 
SBiHtam S. ^utc^efon 38,144 

giir 2. ®eneror*9St3es5|?raftbent. 
?rrt]^ur Sr. Quinn 37,887 

giir ©eneraI*(Sefretar. 
granf S)ufft) 38,340 

giir ®cneral*©(^a|metfter. 

S;]^oma§ dlzaU 37,656 

gur ®. @. «8. aRttgliebcr. 
©rjter StftriW. 

Z. Tl. ©uertn 28,981 

SBalter ©. aRac^:^ctfon 11,952 

Stoetter ®iftri!t. 
®. ST. 5|Soft 36,445 

©titter ©iftrilt. 
^o^n $. ^om 36,662 

SSierter S5tftrt!t. 
^orneS 5p. Ogletree 36,815 

giinfter ©iftrift. 
§arr^ 23rac!more 36,553 

©ec^jter ©iftrtft. 
SB. Sr. ©ole..... 36,234 

©ie&enter ®{ftri!t. 

Slrt^ur Waxid 31,675 

5t. Stjnc^ 8,672 

Slc^tunggboK unlerfireitet, 
®a§ 3ufaOTmenftelIung§=Jlomtte : 

S^o§. ©ilmore, 5]3rdfibent. 

^itl{u§ ©(^artie!, 

SB. (£. §emfell, 

gran! ©abiffon, 

(S. Q. ?JeoI, (Se!retdr. 



58crt(^t be§ @encrttl=^rafibentett ^ithtf fiir 

btt§ am 31. '2)C3cm6er 1914 

Beenbete SSterteljofjr. 



2ln bie Mitglteber be§ ©enerals^gefutib* 
93oarb — ©riifeel 
^n tneirter $8ertc^terftattung iiber tnetne 



Ifia C ar pQn.tQr 

3:dttg!ett feit ,^]^rer le^ten ©i^ung moc^tc td) 
foIgenbe§ bemerfen: ^n metuer (£tgenf(^oft 
al§ ©elegal gut 2t. g. of g. toar id§ in beren 
lefeten ^onbention in ^HlJ^ilabelp^ia antoefenb. 
®ie ©t^ungen biejer ^onbention na^mcn 
gtoei SBod^en in Stnfprud) unb ein bollftan:* 
biger Serit^t unfercr ©elegaten iiber beren 
SSer^^anblungen ift in ber ®e3em6er*2lu§gabe 
be§ „Sarpenter" erfrfiienen. 

2Bie in biefem $8erid^te (©eite 26 be§ 
'5)e3emBer*S^ar})enter) 3U erfe^en tft, ttiurbe 
bie ©treifrage gtoifc^en ben Slmalgamteb 
©^eet SJJetal SBorferS unb ben darpenlerS, 
in ber e§ jic^ um bie SfuSftellen bon MeiaU' 
Srim l^anbelt, on ein 51'omite bertriefen hz^ 
fter)enb cm§ ©am ©omperS, ^prajibcnt ber 
21. g. of 2.; SBilliamS, ^rajibent be§ S3au^ 
®epartement§ ; §t)ne§, ^rctfibent ber Slinol* 
gamateb ©l^eet Mttal SBor!er§, unb meiner 
SBenigt'eit. S)em D^ufe 5|5rdfibent (3omptt§ 
folgenb, trat haS Somite am 6ten ^anuar 
in S^ein ^orf in ©i^ung um erfialtene (£m? 
pfeiilungen momijglitfi auggufii^ren, namlii^: 
iiber bie umftrittene SIrbeit eine Unterfuc^ung 
borgune^men unb einen ^lan borgubereiten 
auf ©runb beffen eine ©djiidjtung ber ©trei* 
tigfeit ouf freunbfc^aftlic^em SBege ergielt 
merben !i3nnte. 

Um biefe Slufgabe momiiglic^ gu Ii3fen tnirb 
iia§ Somite am 3. gebruar in (J^^icago 
gufammenfommen unb feine ©i^ungen in 
berfdjiebenen anberen ©tabten fortfc^en. 

^n ben le^ten brei 3Jfonaten be§ ^a^rcS 
1914 mar mol)! bie grij^te ®efc^dft§ftodung 
ber le^ten ^a^re im ^^augetoer!e gu ber- 
geic^nen. ©erabe al§ bie SluSfid^ten fiir 
einen flotten ©efd^dftSgang am' giinftigften 
toaren, brac^ ber ^rieg in (Buxopa au§ imb 
brac^te un§ inbuftrieHen 3?iebergang unb 
unerprte 2Irbeit§Iofig!eit im gangen Sanbe. 
©elbftberftanblic^ blieben auc^ bie ^auge- 
mer!e bon ber SEirfung biefe§ 31iebergang§ 
nid}t berft^ont unb fo tnurben bebeutenbe be^ 
abfid^tigte Slrbeiten, fiir bie 5?ontra!te bereits 
bergeben maren, mieber auSgetilgt, iuoburd) 
bielen unferen 3?JitgIiebern bie SlrbeitSgele^ 
genr)eit entgogen unb fie ha§ 5|5flafter treten 
mu^ten. ^c^ ^abe unfere SoIaI=Union§ 
bringenb ermal^nt jebeS gefe^Iidje 2J?itteI in 
9Xnfpruc^ gu ne^men um i^ren arbeit§Iofen 
unb bebrdngten SRttgliebern beigufte^en 
bomit fie ber Drganifation er^alten bleiben. 
WHerbingS mirb tro^bem ein bebeutenber 



141 



Tfia CarpQntQr 

i^erluft an 'Dfttgliebern, benen es unmoglid) 
il't il^ren ^verpflidjtungen nac^aufommen, 
nicTjt gu Liermeibcn fein. 

Um fo erfreuftcf^er ift c§ fonftatiren gu 
fijnncn, bag fidi feit 58eginn be§ neuen ^a^- 
rc0 bte 2Iu§nc^ten fiir eine S[iBtebcr6eIe6ung 
be§ ©efdidftsgangeS im 93augetoerfe vazxliid) 
gebejjert ^afien; Diefc ^ontralte finb feit bem 
1. ^anuar bergeben morben. 

Set lange unb bittere Sampf in ben bie 
S}?itglieber unferer Crgonifatton in (Stodton, 
Eaf., Derroidelt tDaren ift enbli(^ burc^ ©in- 
gcfien eineS 35ertrage§ gtoifc^en ber Tl., W. 
Sz S. 2(iiociation unb ben ©etnerffdjaften bie* 
icr Stabt beenbet rrorben. SSa^renb befag- 
ter S3ertrag an fic^ bieHeid^t nid)t fc^tner in 
bie SBagfc^ofe faHl, ebnet er bodi ben 2Seg 
gur SEieber^erftenimg normaler guftonbe. 
2J?einer §Injid)t no(^ fnerben unjere SRitglie- 
ber, h-iie biejenigen anberer 93augetoerle 
Storfton'§, bie griic^te i^rer 2Iu§bauer in 
biefem .^ambfe in abfebbarer 3^^^ emten 
fbnnen. 

^n 5|^unfto, ©rengjrreitigfeiten, toaren bie* 
jenigen init ben Slmalgamateb ©^eet 2KetaI 
SEorlerS bie embfinblicbl'ten. ^n biefer 
Streitfrage ^at bi§ jefet unfete Crganifation 
bie Cberbanb be^alten. STn tiielen £rten 
baben unjere SKitglieber in ber ??rage eine 
energifd)e SteHung eingenommen fiir bie 
i^nen Sob gebii^rt. ^nbeffen gogere idi 
nicbt bie §offnung ouSgufprec^en, ba)^ biefe 
leibige Streitfrogc recbt balb gefdiliditct fein 
moge. 

2(ngefid)t5 ber gcgentudrtigcn @efc^dft§* 
frodung fab icb mii^ beranfaf^t bie Qa^l un- 
ferer Crganifatoren tndbrenb ben SEinter- 
monaten auf bie ^dlfte gu rebugiren, ein 
Sc^ritt ben mir bie SSerbdItniffe aufgtuangen 
unb ben i^ bebauere. (£§ ift fe^r leic^t einem 
5{rbeit5gefucb2 gu entfpred)en, aber einen 
'JngefteHten gu entlaffen, gegen beffen ®ienft* 
[eiftung man abfotut nid)t§ eingutnenben bat, 
ift gang unb gar eine anbere Sacbc. ^eber 
ber Sntfaifenen ^at fic^ tod^renb feiner 
Sienftgeit bi3IIig beiud^rt; boc^ fa^ id) feine 
iWoglic^feit bie boKe 'Qai^l ber Crganifatoren 
git befi^dftigen, ha fiir bie ^dlfte berfelben 
jefet abfolut feine ©elegenl^eit ift fid] im Cr* 
ganifirungStoerf gu betdtigen. 

SSie fic^ unfer SJcitgrieber crinneru loer* 
ben, baben bie .spolgbitbfiauer bon SImerifa 
bor einiger geit i^rcr ^Jtiitgliebfc^aft einen 



auf 2Infd)IuB an unfere Sriiberfd^aft ^ingie* 
fenben S?orfd)Iag unterbreitet. ^(^ bebauere, 
baf3 biefer SJorfcglag mit ffeiner S[)?ajoritdt 
niebergeftimmt tourbe; bin inbeffen ber 2In== 
fidjt, ba^ in furger Qeit, bei eitter toeiteren 
?('bfrimmung, ba^ 9tefultat ba§ umgefebrte 
fein mirb unb fic^ bie ^/olgbilbbauer bod] nodi 
unferer 5?riiberfd)aft anfi$Iief3en toerben. 

9fud} i)abt id) bor einigen ?Jconaten in mei- 
nem Serit^te an ben Soarb ertod^nt, ba'Q 
gmifdien ber ©enerat^Cffige unb bem Uniteb 
£rber ber 58orma!er§ unb SatDberS bon 
5[merifa, Unterbonblungen betreffS Stnfc^fu^ 
ber fefeteren an unfere 23riiberfd)aft im 
©ange feien. 2)eren 9}ertretern murbe ein 
bie§begiiglidier 3?orfd|Iag gemadjt ben fie 
auc^ berfpradien i^rer SRitgliebfc^aft gu 
unterbreiten. Seiber aber 'i^abt idi bi§ i)euU 
feine tneitere 3fac^ri(^t btcriiber er^alten unb 
nicbt erfa^ren fijnnen ob fie bem 5?erfpred)eii 
nodigefommen finb ober nid)t. 

Seit mebreren !^^abren b^rrfc^en Qmiftig* 
fcitcn unb ffteibereien gtoifc^en bem ^xoitu 
bence, 9t. ^., unb bem 5|5atDtudet Siftrift- 
Gouncif, iua§ barauf guriidgufiibren tear, 
ba% ba§ Serritorium be§ einen an ba^ bcS 
anberen anftij^t. ©o fam e§, ba\!, SRitglie? 
ber beiber, einmal i^ier, einmaf bort, arbei- 
Tctcn unb bdufig mit ben ©etncrfgregein be§ 
einen ober anberen in ^onflift gerieten. ?tadi 
rciffidicr (Srtodgung unb Unterfud)ung ber 
situation fam tc^ gu bem ©c^Iuffe, ba^ 
bauernber grieben nur burt^ eine 5]erfdime[= 
jung beiber (IounciI§ be^seffeHt merben fonne. 
^n biefem Sinne trurben Crganifator 
?.l?illete \5nftrufti0nen erteirt. ®ie Sofal- 
Unions beiber Siftrifte trurben angetniefen 
eine 9?erfammlung abgubalten unb bie S^er- 
fdjmelgung inurbe gur Satfadie. ^di bin 
iibergeugt, ba% biefe SBenbung gu barmoni- 
fd)em 3ufammenqrbciten unb gu engeren Se- 
gie^ungen gtnif($en ben aRitgtiebern biefem 
2^iftrift fiibren merben unb ba^ bie 9ieibe= 
reicn nun gdnglidi befeitigt finb. 

^^efonberS in ben le^tcn brei 9J?onaten, 
mie iibrigen§ immer, trar idj beftrebt, un* 
fere SofaI*lInion§ bon abtoenbbaren SIu§- 
itdnben abguf)altcn unb i^ahz fie erma^nt, 
ilonffiftc mit ben 3(rbeitgebern gu bermei- 
ben. SSdbrenb id) ftetS bie Unterftii^ung 
onberer ©etocrfe in S^dmpfen mit bem Un- 
ternebmerrum befiirroorte, balte ic^ e§ bodi 
fiir geboten, baf5 tocnn fie i!>iffe feiten§ ber 



142 



Giu-pciiter luiinfdjen, fie fid) befjcnfinlbcii an 
Mc (Sencral^Dffige tvenbcn. 

SBcnn bte§ gefdjie^t firtb tutr in ber 2ai]c 
unfcre ^Jcitglieber gu befcfjii^en iinb gugleicl) 
bic f)Tlfeiud}enben ©etrerfe gu Deranlaffen, 
9.Retr}obcn angulrenben bie gu einer ©cf)Iid)* 
tnng bcr ©ifferengen fU^ren. ®ie§ t[t un§ 
tatfdcrynd) in met^reren gcclfen gelungen unb 
iimrbc aitf biefe SSeife einc SIrbeitSeinftels 
titng t)erl)utet. SSie in ber SSergangenr)eit, 
merbc tdi and] in ber gufunft Beftrebt fetn 
arten Crganifationen fieigufte^ien bie fid) giir 
Oiegenleiitung tierpfUrf}ten. 

©iefer 2.^erfammliing be§ ©eneratsS^efu* 
tibs33oarb§ Irerben gafilreit^e ©efuc^e urn 
iinangielle llnteri'tii^ung 3uge:^en, ic^ toarne 
barker box ©elbfielriHigungen fiir ©iftrtfte, 
in benen unter gegefienen Umftdn^ 
ben feine ^luSficfjt fiir Srringung befferer 
?frbeit§6ebingungen Dorljanben ift. (S§ ift 
abfolut imnuiglicfi irgenb einen ©iftrift gn 
organifiren luct^renb einer ®ef(^aft»ftocfiing 
iDie bie je^tge unb befonberg nic^t tua^renb 
bem loufenben unb bem 33?onat gebruar. 

^n ber ^offnung, ba^ ber Soarb meine 
-Tatigfeit Iral^renb be§ berfloffenen S^iertel* 
jaFireS gutr}ei^en toirb, geic^net 
briiberlic^ft, 
5 n nt e § ^ i r b tj, ®eneral*^rafibent. 



CD § Ir) u r b e n auf britifc^en ©ruben tm 
^ar)re 1913 iiber unb unter ^ag 1,742 
iWaitner unb ^'naben getobtet. SMe Slrbei- 
ter mad}en bie mangelnbe 93ergiDerf§oufftc^t 

bnfiir bernntlrortlid). 



9t a d] etnem S^ortrag be§ ^fcrrerS 33aum* 
gartner in 23ern, ift bie ©c^toeig baSjenige 
Snnb, ba§ am meiften ^eimarbeit auftueift. 
72 5]Srogcn aller ^eimarbeiter finb graucn. 
etrna 25,000 S^inber unter U ^afiren ftnb 
cbcnfallS baran betl^eiligt. 



S a § 93erfid)erung§gefe| fiir bie ©eeleute 
in, Italian, ba^ fiir anbere SIrbeiter nodi 
feine ?IIter§? unb ^ntJalibitatS'^t^^^^S^f^^'* 
fidjerung befi^t, ift am 1. ^onuar biefeS 
^al)rc§ in ^raft getreten. S)a§ om 22. 
3uni erfaffene ©efe^ fc^afft einen ?rrter§; 
unb /;nliafibitatS5?fiirforgefdiuti. 



Tfia CarpQntQr 

2) i c flaatlidjc ^i^crfid)cvung»banf Don 
llrnguai) i)at nunmefir bn§ S3orredjt er^alten, 
afle ?rrbeitcr'9?erfid)crniig§?5poIicen fiitf bie 
Dkpublif llniguau nuSgufdireiben. S)iefe 
93an! Iiat cin au^fdjlicfjtidjeS iUJonopoI auf 
affc gormcn ber llnfaf(=5>erftdjerung. S)a§ 
ltnfall'5?erfid)crungsaicfcn ift in Uruguat) 
affo cin ftaat[i(^e§ ?.l(onopo[, mit ber ge? 
nannten San! alS S^rdgerin ber SSerfid}e* 
rung. 



A Pertinent Thought 

What! you perhaps think, "to waste 
the labor of men is not to kill them-" Is 
it not? I should like to know how you 
could kill them more utterly — kill them 
with second deaths? It is the slightest 
way of killing to stop a man's breath. 
Nay, the hunger, and the cold, and the 
little whistling bullets — our love-messen- 
gers between nation and nation — have 
brought pleasant messages from us to 
many a man before now; orders of sweet 
release, and leave at last to go where he 
will be most welcome and most happy. 
At the worst you do but shorten his life, 
you do not corrupt his life. But if you 
put him to base labor, if you bind his 
thought, if you blind his eyes, if you 
blunt his hopes, if you steal his joys, if 
you stunt his body, and blast his soul, 
and at last leave him not so much as to 
reap the poor fruit of his degradation, 
but gather that for yourself, and dismiss 
him to the grave, when you have done 
with him, having, so far as in you lay, 
made the walls of that grave everlasting 
(though, indeed, I fancy the goodly 
bricks of some of our family vaults will 
hold closer in the resurrection day than^ 
the sod over the laborer's head), this you 
think is no waste, and no sin! — Ruskin's 
"Crown of Wild Olive." 



An Irishman and a Scotchman were 
walking down the street together and 
the Irishman told a rather impossible 
story. 

"Hoot, mon, hoot," said the Scotch- 
man. 

"Hoot yersilf," responded the Irish- 
man. "Oi'm no owl." 



143 



DopartQinQnt Francais 



Rapport du Comite Charge de Comp- 
ter le Vote Pour I'lRlection des 
Officiers Generaux 

Monsieur James Kirby, President gen- 
eral: 

Cher Monsieur et frere — Le comite elu 
a la dixhuitieme convention generale pour 
compter le vote pour I'election des offi- 
ciers generaux, s'est reuni au siege social 
le 15 Decembre, 1914, et a elu comma 
president du comite Thomas Gilmore, et 
comme secretaire, E. H. Neale. 

Conforemment a la Section 24 de la 
constitution generale, nous avons I'hon- 
neur de vous presenter le rapport ci-des- 
sous: 

Les ballots contenus dans des envelop- 
pes cachetees nous ont ete remis par le 
Secretaire General Duffy. Quelque unes 
de ces enveloppes contenaient des 
cheques, rapports, financiers, etc; nous 
les avons donnes au Secretaire General 
Duffy et en consequence nous recom- 
mandons que les officiers des unions 
locales veuillent bien conduire leurs af- 
faires officielles et financieres de toute 
autre fa^on plutot que d'envoyer leurs 
rapports, cheques, etc., dans les envelop- 
pes contenant les ballots des elections que 
le secretaire general n'a pas le droit 
d'ouvrier. 

Ci-dessous les noms des candidate qui 
ont ete elus: 

James Kirby, president general. 

Wm. L. Hutcheson, ler. Vice-President 
general. 

Arthur Quinn, 2eme. vice-president 
general. 

Frank Duffy, secretaire general. 

Thomas Neale, tresorier general. 

T. M. Guerin, C. E. G., District No. 1. 

D. A. Post, C. E. G., District No. 2. 

John H. Potts, C. E. G., District No. 3. 

Jas. P. Ogletree, C. E. G., Dist. No. 4. 

Harry Blackmore, C. E. G., Dist. No. 5. 

W. A. Cole, C. E. G., District No. 6. 

Arthur Martel, C. E. G., District No. 7. 



Apres deliberation le comite a decider 
de rejeter le vote de I'union locale No. 
231 qui donne un vote uniforme de 55 
voix a chaque candidat tandis que les 
ballots en donnent 85. En consequence 
"I'intention des electeurs," dont les 
interets sont proteges par la Section 24, 
de la constitution generale, a subi une 
defaite. Le secretaire de I'union locale 
a declare le 5 Janvier et sous le sceau de 
I'union que "deux membres avaient raye 
tout le reste des candidats pour lesquels 
ils n'avaient pas vote." 

Le comite a rejeter aussi et pour la 
meme raison les ballots de I'union locale 
No. 676. Une explication ayant ete de- 
mandee, la reponse requ fut que "on a 
trouve que quatre ballots etaient restes 
dans le chapeau apres le compte de 
I'election. 

Le comite a rejete I'election de I'union 
locale No. 373. Une croix avait ete faite 
apres le norn des cinq premiers candidats 
— les ballots montraient onze voix. 

Le vote de I'union locale 755 a ete 
rejete un seul vote ayant ete compte pour 
chaque candidat, tandis qu un rapport 
ecrit stipulait que "cinquante sept mem- 
bres ont vote 'oui,' et aucun 'non.' " 

L'Union locale 1687 avait 28 votes pour 
les deux candidats dur ler. district du 
comite general executif et 36 votes pour 
les deux candidats du 7eme district, quoi- 
que cette union local n'eut que 20 mem- 
bres en regie au mois de Novembre. Les 
unions suivantes ont renvoye des bulle- 
tins blancs. Locale 845, 1477, 1711, 2547, 
2549, 2634. 

Par ordre du comite I'union locale No. 
575 a ete informee d'une erreur dans son 
vote et une demande pour une reponse a 
ete ignoree. 

Un grand nombre d'unions locales 
n'ont pas specific la 'date de I'election. 
Ces locales en ont ete informees, plusieurs 
ont repondu mais leur reponse n'etait pas 
legalisee par un notaire. 
144 



TfiQ CarpontQr 



Le Vote. 

Pour President general. 
James Kirby 38,759 

ler. Vice-president general. 
William L. Hutcheson 38,144 

2eme. Vice-president general. 
Arthur A. Quinn 37,837 

Secretaire general. 
Frank Duffy 38,340 

Tresorier general. 
Thomas Neale 37,656 

— Comite executif general — 

District No. 1. 

T. M. Guerin 28,981 

Walter S. MacPherson 11,952 

District No. 2. 
D. A. Post 36,445 

District No. 3. 
John H. Potts 36,662 

District No. 4. 
James P. Ogletree 36,815 

District No. 5. 
Harry Blackmore 36,553 

District No. 6. 
W. A. Cole 36,234 

District No. 7. 

Arthur Martel 31,675 

R. Lynch 8,672 

Respectueusement soumis, 
THOS. GILMORE, President, 
JULIUS SCHARNEK, 
W. E. HEMSELL, 
FRANK DAVISSON, 
E. H. NEAL, 

Secretaire le Comite. 



Rapport du President General Kirby 

pour le Trimestre Finissant le 

31 Decembre, 1914 

Aux Membres du Conseil General Execu- 
tif— SaJut : 

J'ai I'honneur de vous faire mon rap- 
port sur le travail accompli par ce 
bureau depuis la derniere reunion du 
conseil. Comme delegue a la Federation 
Americaine du Travail, j'ai assiste a 



convention a Philadelphie. La reunion 
a duree deux semaines et un resume 
complet de la seance a ete soumis a tous 
les membres dans le rapport des dele- 
gues, publie dans le mumero du mois de 
Decembre du Journal "Le charpentier." 

La dispute entre la Societe Amalga- 
mee des ouvriers en feuilles de metaux 
et rUnion fraternelle des charpen- 
tiers, a ete soumise au President 
Gompers de la Federation Americaine du 
Travail, President Williams du departe- 
ment des Metiers du batiment. President 
Hynes de la Societe Amalgamee des 
ouvriers en Metaux et a moi-meme. 
(Voir le rapport des delegues a la 
Federation Americaine du Travail page 
26 du numero de Decembre du Charpen- 
tie.) 

President Gompers a convoque le 
comite a une reunion qui a ete tenue 
dans la ville de New York, le 6 Janvier 
dernier. Cette reunion a ete tenue dans 
le but d'arranger un plan pour faire une 
enquete sur la dispute en question et 
voir s'il ne serait pas possible de faire un 
arrangement a I'amiable. Le Comite 
commencerar son travail le 3 Fevrier a 
Chicago et continuera ses reunions dans 
plusieurs villes pour ajuster cette af- 
faire. 

Le dernier trimestre de 1914 a prob- 
ablement ete le plus mauvais dans I'his- 
toire du batiment depuis plusieurs an- 
nees. 

La guerre europeenne a eu son effet 
sur les metiers du batiment. Plusieurs 
grands projects en contemplation et 
plusieurs autres pour lesquels les con- 
trats avaient deja ete signes ont ete 
revoques, et le resultat a ete depriver 
de travail un grand nombre de membres 
de notre organisation. J'ai prie nos 
unions locales d'employer tous les 
moyens legaux pour retenir leurs mem- 
bres et pour aider ceux qui seraient dans 
le besoin, J'ai peur que notre organisa- 
tion perdra un grand nombre de mem- 
bres qui seront dans I'impossibilite de 
remplir leurs obligations. 

En meme temps je suis heureux de 
constater qu'avec le commencement de 
la nouvelle annee les affaires du bati- 



145 



TAq Carpontar 



ment promettent de s'ameillorer. Beau- 
coup de contrats ont ete signes depuis le 
ler. Janvier et les affaires . en general 
pris une meilleure tournure. La longue 
et severe lutte dans laquelle les mem- 
bres de notre organisation etaient 
engages a Stockton, Cal., s'est terminee 
par la signature d'un agrement entre 
['association M. M. et E. et les unions 
de cette ville. Quoique cet agrement ne 
soit pas de grand importance il prepare 
le chemin pour la fin de cette lutte avec 
plus de succes et j'espere que dans un 
avenir prochain les membres de notre 
organisation profiterons par les sacri- 
fices qu'ils ont fait dans cette lutte. 

Nos differences avec d'autres organi- 
sations ont ete principalement avec la 
Societe amalgamee des ouvriers en me- 
taux. Je suis certain que notre organi- 
sation a maintenue sa position dans cette 
lutte. Dans plusieurs localites les unions 
doivent etre complimenter sur la ferme 
position qu'elles ont prise et j'espere que 
les difficultes seront bientot ajustees. 
En consequence du mauvais etat des af- 
faires je me suis prive quoiqu'a regret 
des services de presque la moitie des 
organisateurs pendant les mois d'hiver. 
Tous les hommes que j'ai renvoye ont 
rendu de bons services a notre organisa- 
tion mais il n'a ete impossible de les 
garder pendant qu'il n'y avait rien a 
fane au point de vue du recrutement de 
nouveaux membre. 

II y a quelque temps I'union des 
sculpteurs sur bois a soumis a ses mem- 
bres une proposition de se joindre a 
rUnion fraternelle, mais je regrette de 
dire que cette proposition a ete rejetee 
par seulement quelques voix. J'espere 
que dans un avenir prochain cette union 
reconsiderera cette question et joindra 
rUnion fraternelle. 

II y a quelque temps j'ai informe le 
conseil que des negotiations etaient en 
cours avec I'union des faiseurs de Boites 
en vue de leur affiliation avec I'union 
fraternelle. Les representant de leur 
organisation ont requ une proposition de 
notre part qu'ils ont promi de soumettre 
a leur membres. Jusqu'a ce jour je n'ai 
regu aucune reponse d'eux. 



Depuis plusieurs annees des difficultes 
ont existe entre deux de nos conseils de 
district, a savoir: Providence, R. I., et 
Pawtucket. Le territoire de ces deux 
conseils sont adjacent et tres souvent 
leurs membres se sont trouves enfreindre 
les differentes regies de leurs corps de 
metiers. 

Apres une serieuse enquete sur la 
situation et ayant consulte le passe des 
deux conseils, je suis arrive a la con- 
clusion que la seule solution possible de 
la question etait la fusion de ces deux 
conseils de district. Je suis heureux de 
vous informer que la fusion a eu lieu et 
je suis certain que ce sera le moyen 
d'amener les membres de ces district a 
de meilleurs rapports et aussi de sup- 
primer les relations peu plaisantes qui 
existaient avant la fusion. 

Dans les derniers 3 mois, comme au 
paravant j'ai fait tout mon possible 
pour empecher les membres de nos 
unions locales de se mettre in greve, sans 
raison, et aussi d'avoir des difficultes 
avec leurs patrons. Je ne veux pas don- 
ner I'impression que je refuse de venir 
en aide aux autres organisations, mais 
je pense que quand d'autres organisa- 
tions desirent etre aidees, leur demande 
devra etre soumise au bureau general; 
de cette fagon, nous pourrons etre en 
position de proteger I'interet de nos 
membres, en meme temps que nous pour- 
rons faire des demarches pour ajuster 
les difficultes de I'autre organisation. Je 
dois dire que ce plan a souvent reuisse, 
sans meme causer une suspension de 
travail. 

Je continuerai dans I'avenir, comme je 
I'ai fait dans le passe, a aider toutes las 
organisations qui a leur tour pourront 
nous aider. 

II est probable que le Conseil General 
Executif recevra beaucoup de demandes 
de secours et je prie le conseil d'user la 
plus grande discretion en donnant des 
subventions aux conseils de districts. II 
est absolument impossible d'organiser 
aucun district quand il n'y a pas de 
travaiix en vue, et pendant les mois de 
Janvier et Fevrier il y aura tres peu de 



146 



Tfyg Carpontar 



chance au point de vue du travail d'or- 
ganisation. 

Esperant que mon travail pendant le 
dernier trimestre sera approuve par 
vous, Je reste, fraternellement, 

J. KIRBY, President General. 



Solidarite l^flfective 

(La Typog-raphie Francaise.) 
Devant I'affreuse et sanglante catas- 
trophe qui seme la ruine dans cette ad- 
mirable Belgique et dans les departe- 
ments frangais encore envahis, nous de- 
vons rendre hommage au devouement, a 
la generosite de nombreux Frangais, et 
nous pouvons afRrmer que ce ne sont pas 
les families de situation modeste qui sont 
les moins genereuses. C'est une constata- 
tion que nous devons faire, car durant 
cette douloureuse calamite ce ne sont pas 
tou jours ceux qui sont les plus fortunes 
qui font les plus grands sacrifices, qui 
manifestent les plus sinceres sentiments 
de solidarite. Les travailleurs, en general, 
dans leur modeste milieu, font d'admira- 
bles efforts; ils font preuve d'une 
genereuse et constante initiative pour 
soulager tant de miseres silencieuses qui 
se rencontrent dans tous les quartiers 
populaires. 

C'est pourquoi nous ne cessons de faire 
appel a la generosite de tous ceux qui ont 
le privilege de travailler, de toucher I'in- 
tegralite de leur salaire ou de leurs ap- 
pointements. Ouvriers et fonctionnaires, 
sans distinction, favorises dans leur em- 
ploi, ont le devoir de faire des sacrifices 
pour contribuer au soulagement de tant 
d'infortunes dans les families, chez les 
malheureux refugies. 11 faut suppleer a 
I'insuffisance des secours officiels, deja 
tres onereux. 

L'ego'isme inqualifiable des satisfaits se 
manifeste aussi dans quelques-unes de 
nos sections, suivant les appreciations que 
nous relevons dans les correspondances 
qui parviennent au Comite central. II 
y a des confreres qui touchent des salaires 
complets, meme plus eleves que ceux 
touches avant la guerre; ils refusent de 
souscrire la moindre obole, de distraire 
la plus petite parcplle de leur gain pour 



secourir les families de leurs malheureux 
camarades qui sont a la guerre en train 
de defendre, au prix de leur vie ou de 
leur sante, le foyer de ces egoistes dont 
la quietude devrait etre troublee par une 
energique reprobation. 

Heureusement qu'il n'en est pas ainsi 
partout. Nous avons signale, dans le 
dernier numero de la Typographie, ce 
qu'a fait la section de Lyon. D'autres 
sections ont genereusement etabli un 
impot et beaucoup de camarades y sous- 
crivent sans la moindre recrimination, ce 
qui a permis de verser des secours com- 
plementaires a ceux accordes par la Fed- 
eration. A ce propos, il nous est agr^- 
able de reproduire I'extrait d'une lettre 
que nous a adressee le devoue secretaire 
de la section de Bordeaux : 

"L'impot de 5 0/0 nous permet a ce 
jour d'allouer les secours suivants: 

"12 francs par semaine aux chomeurs 
et malades; 

"12 francs aux families des mobilises 
au fur et a mesure de la rentree des 
fonds, (cela varie de date) ; 

"2 francs par mois aux jeunes soldats, 
(conformement a nos statuts) ; 

"5 francs par mois aux confreres 
prisonniers de guerre; 

"50 francs au deces; 

"En outre, de nombreux secours aux 
confreres refugies (beiges ou frangais), 
suivant leur situation mais tous trouvent 
aupres de nous I'accueil le plus confra- 
ternel ; 

"Nous subventionnons egalement les 
soupes (Je guerre de la Bourse du Travail 
qui fonctionnent d'une fagon tres satis- 
faisante. Nos syndiques bordelais et 
leur famille ainsi que les refugies trou- 
vent la un repas copieux et sain entiere- 
ment gratuii. 

"Les femmes de la parasolerie, sans 
travail, assurent le service de la cuisine 
a tour de role avec un devouement ad- 
mirable. 

"Pendant trois mois, ces soupes ont 
fonctionne avec les seuls moyens des 
syndicats; les camarades travaillant 
versaient et versent encore fr. 25 par 
jour. Depuis, le Conseil general a allou^ 
nne si]bvpri^"iori de 2,000 francs, le Conseil 



147 



Tfia CarpQntQF 



municipal 500 francs, et, actuellement 
une souscription se fait qui promet de 
jolis resultats, mais arriverons-nous a 
faire face jusqu'au bout? Surtout I'hiver. 

"L'Union des Syndicats se preoccupe 
actuellement des vetements chauds pour 
les enfants. 

"Chacun dans sa sphere fait son 
devoir; toute question irritante est mise 
de cote; esperons fermement que la crise 
terrible que nous traversons aura ete un 
enseignement pour tous et que desormais 
fraternite ne sera pas un vain mot. 

"Recevez, mon cher Keufer, une bien 
cordiale poignee de mains. 

"GEORGES ANSELME." 

Nous avons fait cette citation parce 
qu'elle revele I'heureuse initiative de nos 
camarades bordelais, initiative qui merite 
d'etre imitee partout, car dans toutes les 
villes-de France les besoins sont grands, 
et ils deviendront plus pressants encore 
selon que durera la guerre et que I'hiver 
se montrera plus rigoureux. 

Un certain nombre de sections s'in- 
genient a trouver des ressources pour 
venir en aide a leurs membres; nous ne 
pouvons que les feliciter et les encourager 
a perseverer dans cette voie, tout en 
n'oubliant pas que les secours deviendront 
plus necessaires encore dans quelques 
semaines, lorsque les ressources person- 
nelles, les petites economies — la ou il y 
en avait — seront epuisees. Le concours 
genereux de tous ceux qui le pourront 
deviendra necessaire, la solidarite con- 
fraternelle devra se produire, non pas en 
paroles, mais par des actes. Cest une 
maniere d'etre utile pour ceux qui restent 
dans leur foyer a I'abri du danger, et qui 
n'ont aucune privation a supporter. 
Elevons nos coeurs a la hauteur des 
cruels evenements que nous traversons! 
A. KEUFER. 



The Unregenerate Old! 

Amid the many-toned cacklings of the 
hygienist and the food faddist, says the 
Argonaut, we may detect one note of 
sterling common sense. It comes from 
Sir George Birdwood, who is all kinds of 
a scientific guy, including a laureate of 
the French Academy and professor of 
anatomy and physiology at Bombay. And 



Sir George tells us to eat, drink and be 
merry, because we shall die tomorrow 
anyway, and the only way we can post- 
pone the inevitable tomorrow is by tak- 
ing no dietetic thought of it. And, come 
to think of it, did you ever study over 
the opinions given by octogenarians of 
their length of days? We always as- 
sume that these doddering old people 
know the precise reasons for their 
longevity, just as we assume that beau- 
tiful women can always give us a recipe 
for loveliness. But whether these ven- 
erable old ruins know anything or not, 
they always pretend to, and they always 
explain their length of days by their un- 
deviating habit of breaking all the laws 
of health. They sleep with their win- 
dows shut — and, by the way, an eminent 
London doctor has just said that we 
ought to sleep with our windows shut, 
because we become animals when we are 
asleep, and animals hate fresh air — they 
know nothing about starch, or proteids, 
or germs; they smoke, they drink whisky, 
they break the Sabbath, believe in free 
silver and mince pie before going to bed, 
and do all the other things that the med- 
ical sharps get themselves into the Sun- 
day supplements by telling us not to do. 
And yet nothing but an ax can persuade 
these old fossils that heaven is their 
home. And perhaps they really do know 
something about health. Is there any 
one who studies food charts and strives 
to procure due proportions of starch, car- 
bons, sugars, and proteids? That man 
shall not live beyond fifty. Is there any 
one who seeks to escape the agile germ, 
who sterilizes things and wonders how 
he shall avoid the sprightly bacteria? 
The angel of death shall gather him in 
before he is sixty. Is there any one who 
seeks to regulate his life according to 
the rules laid down by the "eminent phy- 
sician ? " He shall be cut off in the flower 
of his youth. Is there any one who dreads 
contagion or who is apprehensive of his 
heredity? His days shall be few in the 
land. And if we had intelligence enough 
to recognize the plain facts that are be- 
fore our eyes we should know that these 
judgments are good ones. 



148 



DQdth . Ro 1 1 




TOBIN, EDWARD, of L. U. 109, Brook- SMITH, ALBERT, of L. U. 23, Worces- 
lyn, N. Y. ter, Mass. 

LE COMPTE, MICHAEL, of L. U. 1330, 
Grand Rapids, Mich. 



Curbing- the Injunction l^vil 

Speaking of the value of the labor pro- 
visions of the Clayton anti-trust bill as 
a means of curbing the injunction evil, 
Secretary of Labor Wilson, recently, 
said : 

"Since 1878 our courts have been issu- 
ing injunctions in trade disputes. These 
injunctions are based upon the theory 
that some one has a property right in 
the labor of an employe. Any lawyer 
will tell you that the writ of injunction 
is a writ that issues from an equity court 
only, and they will also tell you that an 
equity court deals with property and 
property rights; and when an injunction 
is issued restraining Jim from interfer- 
ence with John, because the interfer- 
ence with John will affect John's em- 
ployer, it can only be upon the theory 
that the employer has a property right 
in the labor of John. Now, the employer 
cannot have a property right in the la- 
bor of John without having a property 
right in John himself, because labor, as 
you have so often declared, is a part of 
man, it is inseparable from him. The 
moment labor is applied and something 
results from the application of that la- 
bor, the material that results from the 
application of it is property, it is a com- 
modity, it can be treated as such; but the, 
labor that produces it is a part of the 
man himself. You cannot have a prop- 
erty right in the labor of the man with- 
out having a property right in the man, 
and a property right in man is contrary 
to the spirit of our institutions. And so 
the Clayton anti-trust anti-injunction bill 
declares that the labor of a human being 
is not a commodity or an article of com- 



merce. If that statement alone were all 
that was in the bill it would still be a 
big step forward; but that statement is 
only an interpretation, it is only a means 
of backing up and making valid the other 
items in the bill relative to the issuance 
of injunctions." 



It Does Not Pay 

The guy who put tank In cantankerous 

And grouches and grieves and grumbles. 
Never makes rough roads any smoother, 

Nor helps a brother who stumbles ; 
And what matters appreciation, 

Its lack need not hurt us one bit, 
For self-righteousness inside whispers. 

Ah, good boy, well done, you are it ! 

Don't hang down your mouth at the corners- 

And fuss at the weather all day; 
Tomorrow God's glorious sunshine 

Will show you that knocking don't pay ; 
111 nature will grow into wrinkles, 

And soul ugliness will abide — 
Besides in this cold world of troubles 

A bad disposition can't hide. 

Just go on life's highway rejoicing 

And do all the good that you can; 
'Tis likely enough you'll be hated 

And maligned by your fellow man ; 
But still we will like ourselves better 

To live in a brotherly way — 
Thus a heaven of our own we're building 

And that's why meanness doesn't pav. 

MARGARET SCOTT HALL. 



The True Imperialism 

Here, where the tide of conquest rolls 
Against the distant golden shore, 

The starved and stunted human souls 
Are with us more and more. 

Tain is your science, vain your art. 

Your triumphs and your glories vain, 
To feed the hunger of their heart 

And famine of their brain. 

Your savage deserts howling near, 
Your wastes of ignorance, vice and 
shame — 

Is there no room for victories here, 
No field for deeds of fame? 

Arise and conquer while ye can 
The foe that in your midst resides 

And build within the mind of man 
The empire that abides. 

— William Watson. 



149 



TfiQ CarpQntQF 



janoray 



OOOOOOOCOQOOOOOOOOOOOOOSOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO o,« 



O o o o o o o o o o o o © o o o o o o o © o o o c o o o p o o o o o © © o o © o o o'o © c 
© ©" ©' o' ©' © o" o" © ©' © © © o o' © o' ©' ©' ©' © ©' ©' o d o p ©' © © o' © ©' Q © o' © o © © © © ©' © < 

inioioio»oio©mioio©o©oio©©©io©io©ioio©©©©»o©©ioioiSii:;io©o©o©ioi5ioc 



IM C^ C^l IM (M TjH (M CI 



W <M iH C^ (N (N 



(N CJ W W (N 



tH 

Pi 

< 
p 

Hi 

o 

H 

p 



H 

o 






® >^ '-' S o ^ 

SO) a> Qi; d 

3 » •- o o " 

01 o a) a t; 
S C- =: p>, nj ^ 
CL| <i1 ti M O Ph 



Xj W 



; In O. 



w'S'S o. 

.^* S 2 S 

'i^ d S O 






Qfe 






■-3 :: o.;; 



I* 



3 w oiJ to 

a OS 

: 03 o =i rt 

cd c3 o) C3 



W P rH .^ 



3 • t-i 

S" a 0.2 5 
: .-S o ^ a fl 

0)s o; 0) tH c) s 



OS 
.2 2 






aot 



• cs OJ oj o CS™ 

«< S O "J SB'' 

»— -(^ cd .-. rri 4_; <rj I 

O) o o 0) a).i2 c^ ] 



® Oi/jajaicj 7!ja!B 



S'Ot-j 



v3 fq tc I— < ^ 

.rH .F.H -P-s '^ .w cd ^ 

. 0) <D o 3 liS s- c^ 
£!.£J|gO)X!t;o3Clo 

s a cs o D cj aj a c 



• ■* 1-1 00 ■* •»OiTHt-©5D05i»OS •OS©eOlO00t-lOl-«iM.-l00©IMO5O5lOrHlO • •<* r1 00 00 © tH rH rH' 



t- IS 



o a 

r - * 

aJ oJ]a 



■s^^o'O'^S^; 



a ,_'— - 



fcr 



£^ j" r1 OeO! 

+j -i_i a c3 t^ 
, a a a .^ 5 
' o o OS'S 




— m O •■ 

:2 ■r' .a a ; 



a a ? E 
o' S "^ i2 S 

ed '^ a > •r 

l-H fl tH P P O 

I a 83 0) OJ ej (U 

lOosPHZQeLi 



noiQQ 



r-(T-llMC-)M.*-*rH 



t- i-lr-l» 



^(^^c^ccT^<•+lt-t-oo©©<^^cOlO?Dt:-oo 



01 



^^ 



I* 2-0 a 
apwitj 

M 1302 
Ol" 

t; p (H a 

^ o s a 

m in M 03 

t4 t4 h h 



fl^ W)oj a 






©ftj 



Oj'^N « * 

o t- sa S £ 

o)-; as 

Z ap5ffiai 

^ Oi (-] tH *^ 



ed . 0) oi 



gW 



01-5^0 






~ • " IBM 

i-5a2l5h4 



01 a- 03 

ti Ol fl 



OJ o -M ^ q; 

cd 

-; «■ O O S 
ga^a^os 



o'-fr, 

I • Ol "1^ 

'a 03 edw^ 
S '"Oh , 

tH ■ ^ ^ ^ 

«M 9-a M 
1 2".a « 0) 



5 ^ =»'S 
* o o?^ 

'"' » tH "K 

.goS 

^ 03 a: 03 

tH tH tH (H 



a Oin-H 
O tH +J 

V 

a a^ 
© m o 



fc. a 0) 

1^ 0) a 
• f^ a 



aecQ 
a tH 
M ^ in 



3 a tn ED 03 O 
ed>r ti ^ t- ja 



Neorj(m5fft-.coo5<: 



* » ' ' ^-' I /•^^ fift f^ rt-\ (-.^ ("^ /-^ c^ 



, ,.,fOcocccocccococoo3eococococoo305COMCococoeoeccocoeccccccocoeceocoeoeoeoeocoec 

coeOMcooisocoweoNcowo3McccocococccocccococoMcoeoo5eoeowcoeoeoooe»5eococoeocoe«o4coos 

CI C^HM 01(>J c3 C» Tl <M C^l CICl CUM C-J CI Ca Csl C--1 C I fl M C» C^ e^l C-l CI Cl C-1 Cl CI CI CI CI CI CJ CI CI CI CJ CI CI CI CI c* 



150 



TfiQ CarpQntar 



©oooooooooooooooo; 



- — S;CSC:C:C020CCC:COOC 

! s :; :^, » ^ o — c o o o c= oo o o o 
^ . __ — - — ---^__J.J^^J^J_.^, J_J^Q^^^J^J_,^ 



01 3 0) 5 3 < 



tX) 'iS.^ 



^ o . j_ s 0,^ 



;=ai 






3«« 






C3.5 



a = 



, a) M 
1 art 



■S o 



i'MrtO- 



^.S- rt >-.^ 0/ i 






r .^ T c ^ "s X -^ — -5 ^ ^ = -'" ® C "" .=^ 2 '' 'E "S 



t- O rt ;j ., i 

- ^ = = Si 



- = — :: 5^ 



5liiKM-<0- 






2^ 






^ScihC 






5 rt rt — ^ a— o C;j- 



- c^X 
; o cj c3 



1CC0500OCC^OC;00t-r^t-»C0t--C0C-l^:CTHOiril-r-li-X'li; -iHIMrHOiC; • OJ Cl iM -InrH W t- to l- C^ -IMiMClfO 



a3®OOC500-*C01000TMMCDrHaiM-*-*e-lCOCOCaCli-HTl-T-i-iTHCCTfT-IOOl 



< CO OS C~. 1-'- (M lO 00 eo >0 'i- C: Tt> IN CClC CJ W 1 IM -r M 1-1 



■ S 3 rt, 



z C§S 






a c 
o o 



- > > 



s -Z 



a >>, 



So"^^ • = 



T,-^' 



■7' -(^ i^ cst>; oS c« • ""t^;-^ 






^s ?=■ 



c 



^'£-^-^^S.. 



Ill o 

ISO 

« - 



o 

C W 



© 




£ -rt — 

2 3 Mc O 
g O C3.3|J 



o■ccOTJ^Ttl©^.loc:T^lC;o^OQOI^-rt^(Nc^^r^ot~Mc:cOl^^IHl»o©ot-|^^©ocCl^^l^^-*l^^■*^cc^-r^r-^Tl^eocCT(^r-lOICOl--lC^® 

-#-*MlOWCQ^IMOir5t-C-CO-* t- CI C^ ■* 00 C5 ® 00 r-l M ■* lO 0> 05 ■* C C^ Tt< CO lO ?D iH 00 -* t- CC 00 iH CO 00 © CO -* >C lO eo CO •* 00 



-*5OC-O>00 



^T-lr^I-leoco 



i-IC-)CO-*i>a®0Oi-lt-»iar-ltMWCOCOiaOS©iHIM00 



cq 



a rt 

* CO 
31 O 



'C'ts 



30 0) 

OJ^ i^ 



;B :- 



o 
CQ3^ 

^ OS 



o • . > 

*j m 50 f- 



> § C 
a Oj o 

O t^ K 



M 



=3^,a^ 

o j: -J CD „ u 

:o3jgS5s 

^ u J2 ,5- 72 i; 

'C rt rA O 

^J3 C 



32 

ffi-s 



S bo 

o a 



■"C rt 

'5> 









Et^i^ 



© 3 
i> 01 



« =3 J 
■5,3 

^©« 



3:s 

3b«« 



■£B 



og 



^ . tJ t-l 

t^ w © a 



;■ 3 rt Hj K 

' '^J rt tH t- 

I tB>^ > " 



& 05 



«S 

CO S 

03 ■< 

a . 

© CO 



bo 

h^ © (D 
■fe 



3? 



.a*; 



o'^ © 






•o a 



= H 






)M, 



3 OJ 
©CO 

CO" 

*ai£ 

. a 
n © a 

. m © 



5« 
wo 

3 © 

H a 

OS qj 

4) 'CM 

(>H-I 

rt OD 
to CO s 
3 "-I O 



d M ^ 
3 t-,-^"© O 

og-a^M 

"''2 3 '-' 



a 


0) 


ei^ 


a 






^B 


01 




m 


KH 


U 



w Q X 



5-3-J 



t-000>©THMC0^10!Ot^COO©i-((MCOTt<u:30t-GCir:0'-IIMCO-*105Ct-00©©iHlMCOTHm50t-OOC 
05C50©00©0000©OiHT-(THT-(>Hrti-l,-lTHr-IC^)C']C^M(MWINIMC<lWCOCOC'ICOCOCOCOCOCOC 



C0C0CO^^'*^Tt<-*. 






cocococococococococococococofOcococococoMcococococococococococococococococococococococccocococococococococococo 
c^ c^ c^ c\» iTj oi c^ c-i c-i c-i C'j c^ c-i cj c^i c\i (N C4 oi w (>i c^ oi c^i c-i M ci c^) |^^ ci c-i c<i c-i ^1 OJ c-i CI oi c-i c^i c^ e^ oi iri O) c^i oi C'l c<i ci CI c-i cj c^ c^ c^ 



151 



TfiQ CarpQntQr 



< 

O 

% 
H 

PI 

P 

P 

Q 

H 

<{ 

CO 
H 

u 












>sss 



ra (M •* (M CI c) 



• Cl IM IM Cl OI C-4 CI 



5g 



!» K O 0, 



. S'it i:^' 



a; OT 
gabS 







OD 


rt 




t/) 








7-; 


'M 









U 




















<a 





^ 




^ 


5 


^< 


H 



X "::: 



S '^ O ^ -^ '^ cl M C 'X «: • ^ " • O 



c - 



^ c a. 






<!>*— O 



13 05-^ 









i':2£^oi3SS<&.3sE^ 



£;<KS5<xH;^£5K&i> 



Ca<-»: 



"35 = 



K 0: 

c — 



>i1;?; =-" > 



1^ = o t. 



t- c: L- ro b- ao • t-: i- o r; "C -^ t- ~. i- ; 



M © b- ■ cc L-: t- ;£ t- rt © cc c". K i-i - 



M t- CO oc r. t- ffl ?c c 



T}-b- — -f ■-::■' 



'?i'M:3<M-fL'jCiT-iT-^L-iccc)0(Mc-iiaTHCcjt-c>Odt--*c;iociC2L-TT-iit;c<iioeoci«L-; 



■noinii 




THi-ICOOOS;OC:C5NCOOOCClMK3THC;T*<-*r-lWOJlC»10aXl010C5Cl^-iiU:'C500C;OOt-CCCO-*iCOb-« 
t-XCsrvCJOMOCl-^LILOOOT-IWt-XCOOt -*rHO-*Tii t-,1-- Oi-ItHOCCOOMCIiHOOIMCOCOOCOIMC) 
. „ Tt< -J. ,H M 0^0 00 T-li-li-lr-liHINCOTl<'*-*0C00C5C> 



T-l 1-1 r-1 r-1 T-l CI CI : 



; — t- 1- CI CO •* « o I- o) 































■ 0) 




































































































































• 








• — 






























a a 


















•r- • 




'^<rt 


-1- 


^- 








.<(J 


/^ • 


^OQ 0)2 35 


^aS-Ss- 




w ; 




it: 


a 


-^ 


> 


.- 


y; - 


i 


'iE 


> 


c 


c 
1-^ 




i 




c 


c 



P s 



35H^l^--gfe^Er5^S = iiQ5 



.sCh: 









e: Ch 






s:sc 



C cc cj «• 

■" ~ --^ 






Sr- X .^^ a a> o 



•ON mvBio 



pt •# L3 w I- X :r. c^ -^ Ti re -f L-; ;; t- X c; — i-i CI rt -t L- ;; t- X ~. c; ^ *! " — Lt — t- x ~ o i-rci n •*■ irt ® t- 
o o o I--; 1- tr. LT. ~ ~ \: -^ -^ -^ -^ -^ -^ -^ i-~ 1-- 1~ i~ t-- 1~ i~ t~ i~ i^ x. -j: j: y: v: -j: y: -Ji -j: j: c: C-. c: C-. c: C-. Ci Ci 

-t^Ti^-*•-t^-t-r'-r-7'-^■•T-t'-*•-rTt■-^•-^^-^■-*-+-*-*^-t'-l'Tt<-^•+-^■Tr-r'+-r-r-t-r-r-T■*T^-*Tt•-)'T»■T^^■.s< 
cocoeocoeoccMc-MomeccoeccocococowcocococccoeoececececcoeocCfOcccocccccoMeccococoeoeocc 

Cl CJ W CJ C-I Cl Cl CI Cl CI C^ CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI d CI CI CI CI CJ CI CI d CJ M CJ CI 

152 



Tfia Caroontor 



SOPOOOQPOOOQOOOOOOOCOQQOOOOQCOOOOOOOOQOOOCOOOQQOOOOOOOPQ 
©oooooooooooooooopooopoooopoooo o'p ppopoooppc'ooooooooooo© 



§2.S2 



■= S o- 



bDcS 



rt '^ 



I O) M S m ,, 



« t; o g o 5 



=4-1 • 



D.S =s S 3 
- a 2 o 
' a a 



; ca 









OJ ;h 



•- a a cs 



a.s 
§lf Be 

o) cj a ® 
- " --a 






^ s 

a cj 



3 o a-a 1^ ■; 



S.ii'Saa'a'cjaSnaio 



o s- 

6K 



^ a 

a a 

a oj 

a 03 

o a 



O T. 



a g C3.3 
^ ^ a' 






« 



g^ft^^ip 



o tl 3 &, 
a c3 a o) 



Ij l< tj 03 

^^ ft? 



"^ CO 

2 ^ '^ S ."t! 
fl -^ a S n 
a -i 035 
a- --5 -3 ft 
a .a oj a 0) 



oj a a oj 01 J 






C0-*®C0O5 •rt<©«5inC6lM^ • t- N ,-( 05 C^ t- -*iOO • r-( O X C-l CO rt r-l -*<0 O i-i w i-t -UOOO -iHOSOi -ODOOrHO-^ClfCO -IOtH 



OS Tt< GO I- IM C>I L- CO CC O CJ CO ^ O 00 O l^ iH 00 (M O ca © lO T 












a=r.. 



; - a; ^ " c3 - 



• C3-: p^ 
33" a; 
ft H 



1^ 5«o o 

„• ..So-s 

"''^Pa^.-t; 



^ <; — . . ^5 <* _r rj 



-fo 



?; 



U 
■J. 



a j; K^'^ a<5'= a • 






; rs a ^ o. 






-£ ? 
a" a 5; 
o c aj 

111 



CO l^ LI I- I'- tH Oi l^ O CO C^J CO CO O 00 00 CJ 3:> 00 IM GO CO I- 10 iH I- CO 00 50 •* O LO W I- I- tH I- CD (M I- CI 01 Tt" GO' t- LO CO C-I O CO O ^ I- CO ID C: 



r-f-*ll050COl-C007HC)(M10-*(Ma5C5l-t- OCC^OCirHrHCOlMCOOCOOlCl-T 



H t^ lo GO oj lo c: I- c; oi oi 



a a 






— ^ ''J *^ 

3^a^K 
3.7- a ^, <D<i5i-5 ^^ 



'CsOSo-'a .'i'^is 



2.Q«^. 






- «^ 0; ^ .^ ;r 
•=j:n32=\2e=-^"*^anoS-S 



2^° 
a . ^, 
■^&^ a 
; o-^H cj ©■ 



r^K^^ a 
Q 



•n £ a ^ ?= ?= a JO c5 55 

-M rl ►^ 



® Sri CJ^^''^ 



t^su;s 







ct cccc cc ot 



Ti\a CarpontQr 



< 

H 
P 

» 
H 

P4 
CO 

M 
<l 

u 









oo oc 


r- 




oc 




c- 


OOOOC 


^ 


^ 


^ 




^ 


occ 




ccc 


c 




PTBd 


OOOCOOCOOOOO'^OOOOC cooooccococ 




OOSLOSOOOOOOCOCOOCCCOCCOOCCCCC 

o o o CI o c LI in Lf: lo o S o o Lo o o L- c: o c o CMS L- L': lo IS ir: 

THr-< (T^Ci Ca-tC-lC-I CllM C) C^ CI CI 


^5 


junoinv 


^ 












' ce 






^- 


E»i 








ii 


::::::::::::::: I'c ;:::::::;: : 






= 








o: 
a: 


:::::::::::::::: g :::::::::: : 














■S 


x • ■ m « a> u 






c 


^- vi ■ • m m m 

; ;: ; ; :s :^s^ • \%%%%%.\ ■■.■.■■/■/■.'■.■: 






J3 






C8 






0) 


• -c/ ■ — .-i; -Or-ci- -oooj- -Ba -X • -c- • -a^ 




■o 


• : - • = i K : V3 t; - - • ^ - ^ J. - • c •- -5 • • «j • ■ > 


O 
0) 

to 


ijl|!iiifgs^i££,;ii!:;.i:ii:i 




-w = = -7:-rc--='^.'- = = ='c-t:-- = -;-~r, =^- 






"-- '-- = U-- C-Z C----Z C-r-?.-^ - = :^o-ti-. 
















'2.'-:^:i^:^C'^.:^-Z^<:^z.;^:u<'Z:zz^^-^-S:^:=^'^:^^Zi 


d 


oit-TtH^ixooost-oo -oiHci-^wooci-t'inrH • ■ c: -eitc t- ■* 




!3 '^ 


CS tH rH ■ O ■ • » 














d 00 


■ -in • C; lO r^ -f. O " I- « CI LO ^ iH C4 r-i O CI T-, CCIC (T. Tji rt CI l- T- 








S >^ 




























> 






















































Z 
































05 
CS 


















" 






























isi 




CS 




6 


a 




iJ 




03 










H 


















r, ■• 






,- >-. 


. 


.. • C3 




















a 


T- . a; "^ 


cZ'- 


^X^^Z^ 

S it 1 a; f 


ft V C r 


c i 


z .~ = 


V 

r/ 

c- 


Zi= 

c c 

C i 


> 

p 






5saiz^a£2c3^l^o^z^l6c«(l^iS£sS.3 








uoiafi 


crrJ.l.-C:l-10L-:rCL--*-*OOTi<®0-*OOOM-*C-. ccocir-ieo»o-*c 




CI t^ C-. o T-( ^ i; [■- -f CO ^ 00 QO C5 CI CO th « cc fc X L-: cj cc i- ci is 










- 


r-lrH^Hr-im rHr-lT-t rH tH t-^ 




"C 


















































* 




































































































j3 








u 


















































t> 








































tc 








































. ^ 






















































■c 






o 








^ 






















: tc 








;- 




























• 3 








O 






e> a 
























£ 

o 
S 


c 


c: 


tea; 

11^ 


■"a 

C 


rS S 
= C 
- r 

~ c 
UZ 


e, .5^ 'So .2 




sl 
- s 

Si-! 


r; 




:o 

. o 

:^§- 

rs cr 


w 

2 
c 
I-: 

c 
c; c 

> 
3S 




08 

z 


iiillsliill^lil^illiiiiilii 










^LSwi-xc;c:r-cicc-rLS;ri-xr;c:'-^cjr:-ri.-crt-x<r. Or-'C4 




■ONT mjBio 


r: re re c^ ^t c^ r: c: ;-: re :- « r: c- ;; rt ": ft :^ ft r: rt CO cc c: r^ re M cc 






CI 






■M 




e 


e 


e 






c 


e 


ei ri 


ei ei e 


CI 


e 


e 


e 


e 










c 


c 


CI 







oooo 
CO o us d 

LS O CI o 

0_c:_X're_ 

CI 



S3 



n CS 03 0! 




•30 go 


a 


'S2iS>-. 


c 




L' 


— ~ a!-2 






111 

mi 
ife 
sal 





fcr^^Q 



154 



T/\a CarpQntQr 



perajBio 
tanomy 






,aj tH 



UUUIil 



■ON niTBio 



>0<=>OOOOOOOOOOOQOOOO 



>lO»OlOli:5C.HOOC400100010010lN 



C^ CO IM Tfi 05 (M 



•a ■ ^ =1 



03 C3 
1) <D 



cd C3 OJ c3 cu =d 






c c Q a 



a' 



3 ca-^-^ 



aa^g|sggai 



^H 


^^x? 


+j 


Oj 


tS 0) 








T-l 




n-^ 


0) 




.M ej 


_5 


OJ 


co-l 




a^-^ 


p 




-M 




a a!>-- 




o 


c--; 


+-i 


a 


S * 





0) a; I 0)^ tH 



^wE^ 



Hw- 



;Zr 



0) O)^ - 



■ 05 O 

c3 ^ c3 'i-i 
^ ft - fl 

IB =» m-g 

2 iSa 
c^ n , 
oti o „• 

a g a s 



t-^THQo • CO t- ■* t- -HiMio c; in -t^ -ciio^ 



rHt-r-(t-C~JiH -QOCO •C0rHMlO0Ti-IC^)l-(C0 



Or 






3« 









^2, ■ 






J !2' S b P-i &H M 



i^5-a 



Cog 2^5'-' gfce 

W M 1-5 M <5 (In Z a *fi 



MO^TH0010C5iMCBlfflCDO:-CD-*05-*OOCOT-l 

S5COGiOO-*^COI^lrHCOOOrHMeOlOO^TtHfO 

Ci iHO51MCOt-(00 t^OSOOOJiMiM 7-100 



0) — 

a OJ 



goo 



5S&«SM1 



o— 



.aji-;^0<= 



Q^' 






-;-r-.2 



a oj- 
5 rt , 



03 c3 p a 



CO . 

m 03 55 



-5 

aj a a^i^ 

M =s -r; ffi 2 

^ ■■5 w ■ 

0) ^ ft 03 K 



I— OOCJO'-IIMOOI— Oi^TIM'^OCDt-0005 



< tHtHC-I 7-1-71 OICI M : 



r CO oo :o 00 CO CO oo 



XI CS O CC :3 :S O 'C — C •-; — sue O to CO o o 



•Moi ^i/M ri ->i rioi ri cici 



M -M -M Cl -M 71 



Rent 

You may tinker with the tariff and may make 

• some simple gains, 
You may put on tolls or take 'em off, inducing 

party pains; 
You may monkey with the money, but the lack 

of it remains, 
For the Mother of Monopoly is laughing as 

she reigns. 

Rent! rent! who is it pays the rent? 

A dozen days in every month the worker's 

back is bent ; 
Figure it in dollar bills or work it by per cent. 
But with his dozen days he pays just rent, 

rent, rent. 

You may "minimum" the wages, you may let 

the women- vote. 
You may regulate the railroads with a legal 

antidote, 
Y^ou may jail some Rockefeller, or may get a 

Morgan's goat, 
But the Mother of Monopoly is laughing in 

her throat. 

Rent! rent! who is It pays the rent? 

A hundred days in every year a business 

profit's spent ; 
Figure it in "overhead," or state it by per 

cent. 
But all your hundred days are gone for rent, 

rent, rent. 

You may institute Foundations, you may edu- 
cate the dubs, 

Y"ou may librarize the Bread Line and establish 
Slummy Clubs; 

Y'ou may ostracize the Demon Rum and 
eugenize the cubs. 

But the Mother of Monopoly is smiling at your 
snubs. 

Rent! rent! who is it pays the rent? 

A score of years In life you spend to get one 

document; 
From your cradle to your coffin you must bow 

to its assent, 
And that's your little, old receipt for rent, 

rent, rent. 

I look across the rented world and idle land 
I see. 

Whose owner doesn't work it, for he's work- 
ing you and me. 

And on the first of every month all tenants 
bow the knee. 

And pay the rent of vacant land, in great or 
small degree. 

Rent ! rent ! who is it pays the rent ? 

The worker's hands are busy and the business 

back is bent ; 
The idle lands advance in price and every 

single cent 
Of that advance is paid by us in rent, rent, 

rent. 
— Edmund Vance Cooke, in The Public. 



155 



■ ..■■■-Tiiir I r-,i" - --I —I - r.- i-..-r-i.,, .. , ... iii». 

Diipcto^^of Business j^nts 




Aberdeen, Wash.— K. B. Ellis, 512 Burleigb av. 

Akron, O.— It. F. Booth, 32 N. Main st. 

Albanv, X. Y. — Tlios. Gilmore, Room 21. Beaver 
Block. 

Alleutown. Pa. — Clarence Seaman, 21 N. Madi- 
son St. 

Alliance, Neb. — Boy "VA'ells. 

Alton, 111.— Roland Adams, 202 Pioneer Bldg. 

Anadarko, Okla. — .1. E. Wilson. 

Annapolis, Md. — George E. Wooley, 8 West st. 

Ardmore, Okia. — D. N. Ferguson, Box 522. 

Asbury Park. N. J.— David F. Gant, Bradley 
Beach, N. J. 

Asheville, N. C— A. L. Henry, R. F. D. 3. 

Atlanta, Ga.— E. L. Ficken, 220 Brown and 
Randolph Bldg. 

Atlantic City, N. J. — Frederick Scheideman, 
307 N. Massachusetts ave. 

Auburn, 111. — J. E. Higgins. 

Augusta, Ga. — .1^ W. Johnson, 1000 Greene st. 

Augusta, Me., Waterville and Vicinity — T. M. 
Rollins. 18 Cushman St., Augusta, Me. 

Aurora, 111. — Edward F. Ream, 77-79 Fox st. 

Ausable Forks, N. 1. — Hiram Jacques. 

Bakersfield, Cal. — J. C. Harter, Labor Temple. 

Baltimore, Md.— L. U. 328, Eugene Sullivan, 15 
E. Haywood ave., Pimlico, Md. ; L. U. 29, 
Frank G. Simmons, Border State Bank Bldg., 
Park ave. and Fayette st. 

Barre, Vt.— C. R. Hall. 

Bartlesville, Okla.— S. F. W^ray. 

Batavia, N. Y. — Frank Roberts, 1 Holland ave. 

Battle Creek, Mich.— Wm. Cartridge, 316 Kale- 
zoo St. 

Bay City, Mich.— Wm. B. Gust, 303 Fillmore pi. 

Beardstown, 111.— Hy Thornsbury, 801 E. 4th 

St. 

Belmar, N. J. — Harry Redmond, Box 245. 

Bergen County. N. J.— .John D. Carrlock, 388 
Ridgewood ave., Ridgewood, N. J. 

Binghamton, N. Y. — Jerry liyan, 77 State st. 

Birmingham, Ala. — Wm. T. Hutto, Room 805 
Farley Bldg.: N. T. Overall. 

Boston, Mass. I). C— A. J. Howlett, 30 Han- 
over St.; L. r. 33. J. T. White, 30 Hanover 
St.: L. r. 1090. John McNeil. 1 Hopkins PI.. 
Alattapan. Mass.: L. U. 1393 (Wharf and 
Bridge), John Morgan, 30 Hanover St.; L. U. 
1410 (Shop and Mill), Simpson Booth, 30 
Hanover st. ; L. U. 1824 (Cabinetmakers and 
Mill). E. Timlin, 30 Hanover St.; L. U. 954 
(Hebrew), M. Goodman, 30 Hanover st. ; L. 
I'. 38G, Dorchester. iNIass. ; L. U. 272. Bowden 
St., Dorchester. Mass.. L. U. 67. Roxbury, 
John M. Devi in e. 16 Woodville Pk.. Rox- 
bury, Mass.: L. V. 443. Chelsea. Chas. Noel, 
86 Grove st.. Chelsea, Mass.; L. U. 937 (He- 
brew), Chelsea, Kalman Disler. 66 Essex st., 
Chelsea, Mass.: L. U.'s 441 and 1653, Cam- 
bridge and 629, Somerville. P. J. Slowe, 90 
Norfolk St., Cambridge, Mass.; L. U. 438, 
Brookline, W. H. Walsh, 166 "Washington st.. 
Brookline, Mass.; L. U. 218, East Boston. C. 
H. Morrison. 16 Pope st.. East Boston, Mass. 

Brainerd, Minn.— P. W. Bidwell, 616 Oak st. 

Bradford, Conn. — John Knopwood. • 

Bridgeport, Conn. — M. L. Kane, 1484 Park ave. 

Bristol, Conn. — J. W. Greno, 84 Grove st. 

Brockton. Mass.— Walter Pratt, 308 Mars! on 
Bldg., 28 Main st. 

Buffalo, N. Y— Vincent Both. 12-14 Eagle St.: 
Frank J. Fischer, 12-14 Eagle st. 

Calgary, Alta.. Can.— James Rae, Box 2331. 

Cambridge, Mass.— P. J. Slowe, 90 Norfolk st. 

Canton, 111. — E. P. Sherman, 45 E. Vine st. 

Canton, Ohio — A. M. Young. 934 Marion ave., 
S. W. 

Cedar Rapids, la. — D. A. Leanard. 19 Jim Blk. 



Central City, Ky. — C. L. Craig. 

Charlotte, N. C— C. W. Brown, P. O. Box 28. 

Chicago. 111. — John A. Metz, president ; Daniel 

Galvin, sec.-treas. ; Wm. T. White, J. C. 

Johnson, F. C. Bromley, business agents of 

the district; No. 1, Albert F. Schultz ; No. 

10 W. S. Deuel; No. 13, Thos. F. Flynn ; 

No. 54, Peter Mraz; No. 58, Simon Charles 

Grassl; No. 62, P. J. Granberg; No. 80, W. 

Brims; No. 141, A. Anderson; No. 181, Thos. 

F. Church; No. 199, J. C. Grantham; No. 

242, George Proskaski; No. 272 (Chicago 

Heights), James Goodman; No. 416, F. C. 

Lemke; No. 4.34, .John H. De Young; No. 521 

(stairs), W. J. Mahoney ; Nos. 448, 461, 250, 

1727, North Shore Local Unions, M. L. 

Baade; No. 504, Wm. Watson; No. 643 (ship 

carpenters), E. Leubke; No. 1128, H. Brok- 

hope; No. 1307, R. E. Huffman; No. 1698 

(millwrights), John Oliver, Millmen ; No. 

341, Adam Kurowski, 2034 N. Wood st.; No. 

1367, Jos. Dusek; No. 1784, Gustave Stange; 

No. 1922, Geo. Orris. Address of all oflBcers 

and business agents : Carpenters' Hall, 73 

W. Randolph st. 
Cincinnati, O.— W. E. Brown. 1228-30 Walnut 

St.: Frank Imwalle, 1228 Walnut st. ; T. F. 

McGrath, sec. D. C. 1228-30 Walnut st. 
Clarksville, Ark.— J. H. Cline. 
Cleveland, O. — Walter J. Mapes, secretary ; 

Thos. Payne, Harry Hamilton and Gustav 

Schroeder. Address of all, 337 Superior ave. 

N. W. 
Clinton, la.— Clause Rief, 331 14th ave. 
Columbia, Mo. — J. McKenzie, 1121 Miner Bldg. 
Columbus, Ind.— R. L. Wheate, 333 Kinman st. 

(Columbus, East). 
Columbus, O.— C. B. Rader, Room 126, 261 S. 

High St. 
Corsicana, Tex. — C. F. Barnes, Box 447. 
Coshocton, O. — Wm. Schumacher, 1145 E. Main 

street 
•Council' Bluffs. la.— A. A. Whitlock, 201 S. 

First St. 
Covington, Ky.— C. C. Skirvin, 483 W. 2d st. 
Cullman, Ala. — Arch Maples. 
Dallas, Tex.. D. C— R. M. Means, Box 372. 
Danbury, Conn. — Marton B. Mabie, 19 Smith 

street. 
Dayton, O. — L. E. Nysewander, Room 1. 25 N. 

Main st. 
Decatur, 111. — Geo. Doolen. 

Denison, Tex.— J. M. Davis, 420 W. Texas st. 
Denver, Colo. — No. 55, W. H. Marker, 1947 

Stout St.; No. 1874, W. L. Fowler, 4441 L'tica 

street. 
Derby. Conn. — Joseph Zentz, 449 Howe ave., 

Shelton. Conn. 
Des Moines, la. — J. F. Gray, Trades Assembly 

Hall, 8th and Locust. 
Detroit. Mich.— G. R. Alexander, 102 Randolph 

street. 
Dodge City. Kan.— J. G. Sidlow. 
Dorchester, Mass. — Jas. E. Eaton, 274 Beach 

St., Wollaston, Mass. 
Duluth, Minn.— N. Olson, 1905 W. 4th st. 
Dyersburg, Tenn. — J. W. Todd. 
East Palestine, O. — George H. Alcorn. 
East St. Louis, 111.— Geo. Tuthill, 418 Collins- 

ville ave. 
Edmonton, Alta.. Can. — J. Francis, Mechanics' 

Hall. 
Elizabeth, N. J.— J. T. Cosgrove, 605 Elizabeth 

avenue. 
Elmira, N. Y.— Grant Nelson, 311 West ave. 
El Centro, Cal.— W. S. Porter. 
El Paso, Texas— W. T. Davis, Box 631. 
Ensley, Ala.— W. B. Crumley, Box 769. 

156 



Tfia Carpontar 




What d'ye KNOW? 

That's the point — "What d'ye EJiow?" Today it's a battle of wits — and 
brains win. Muscle and brawn don't count so much as they used to. 

Steady jobs go to the carpenter who can think and plan for himself. 
Good-pa5dng foremanships go to the man who knows how to lay out and 
direct the work of the crew. And big contracts go to the builder who knows 
how to figure close but correctly. 

What do YOU know? Are you the first or the last man to be laid off? Do you lose 
contracts because you estimate some work too high? Or do you get the jobs and lose 
money on them because you figured too low? 



No matter what you are doing — ^if you 
a better foreman or a better builder — a 
draftsman or an architect — the practical 
courses of the International Correspond- 
ence Schools will help you. And you can 
get this help right in your own home dur- 
ing your spare time. 

For over twenty years they have been 
helping just such men as you. And every 
month more than 400 of these men volun- 
tarily write of advancement or increased 
earnings that have come as a direct result 
of the help of these practical I.C.S. 
Courses. 

Just mark on the attached coupon the 
subject about which you would like to 
learn more. The I.C.S. will then send 
you a complete description of this course 
and their interesting booklet "Success in 
the Building Trades." 

Mark the Coupon NOW 



want to become a foreman or a builder or 



International Correspondence Schools 

Box 1069, SCRANTON, PA. 

Please explain, without further obligation on my part, howl 
can qualify for the position before which I have marked X^ 



Architecture 


Heating and Ventilation 


Architectural Draftsman 


Plumbing Inspector 


Building Contractor 


Mechanical Engineer 


Building Foreman 


Patternmaking 


Estimating 


Civil Engineer 


Structural Engineer 


Surveying and Mapping 


Structural Draftsman 


Mining Engineer 


Concrete Construction 


Gas Engineer 


Electrical Engineer 


Automobile Running 


Electric Lighting 


Bookkeeper 


Plumbing & Steam Fitting 


Stenographer 


Law for Contractors 


Civil Service Exams. 



Name. 



St. and No. 
City 



.State. 



Present Occupation 



T/iQ Carpontar 



Krie. Pa. — Martin Rouen, 7 Shaaf'Lane 
BTansville, Ind.— Fred Ulsas, 911 B. Missouri 

street. 
Fall Riyer, Mass. — Joseph Perron, 24 Reney st. 
Fairfield, Conn. — George C. Johnson. 
Farmington, Me. — W. J. Dougherty. 
Fitchburg, Mass. — Al. Lafrennie, 59 Tredale 

St., Leominster. Mass. 
Flint, Mich.— A. L. Chenev, R. F. D. No. 9. 
Fond du Lac, Wis.— Henry Kinkel, 438 3d st. 
Fort Dodge. la.— R. I. Harlow, P. O. Box 187. 
Fort Lauderdale, Fla. — R. G. Pearson. 
Fort Smith, Ark.— John Hufif, SOI N. 19th st. 
Fort Wayne, Ind. — Charles Easley, 610 Calhoun 

street. 
Fort Worth, Texas— W. E. Hemsell, 1112 Car- 
son ave. 
Galveston, Texas— Chas. O. Wallace, 2216 Ave. 

F 
Garv. Ind.— Walter Good, 2560 Washington st. 
Glen Cove, L. I., N. Y.— Hugh Duffy. 
Grand Rapids, ;\Iich. — Garrit Verburg. 
Granite Citv, Madison and Venice — Adolph 

Boulanger, 2100 C St.. Granite City, 111. 
Granville, 111.— George F. Scott. 
Grayville, 111.— J. W. Badisbaugh, Box 503. 
Great Falls, Mont. — James Scrivner, P. O. Box 

372. 
Great Neck, L. I., N. Y.— Joseph W. Grady. 
Greensburg and Mt. Pleasant. N. Y. — M. Tou- 

hoy. Box 78, Irvington-on-Hudson. 
Greenfield, Mass. — D. E. Campbell. 
Grove City, Pa. — F. M. Bohlander. 
Hamilton, O. — S. B. Corson, Station A. 
Hamilton. Ont.. Can. — John Briggs, Hamilton. 
Hammond, Ind. — Wm. Newton, 160 Plummer 

avenue. 
Hartford, Conn. — A. L. McAllister, 16 Stedman 

street. 
Hartford, Ark. — J. H. Moore, Gwyn Postofflce. 
Haverhill, Mass. — David Z. Reynolds, 2 Oilman 

Place. 
Hazleton, Pa.— Albert Walck, 703 N. Laurel. 
Hempstead, L. I., N. Y.— Wm. H. Guptill, 267 

Front St. 
Herkimer, N. Y.— Frank W. Seanlan, 215 

Henry st. 
Holyoke and Westfleld, Mass. — John Cronnen, 

Carpenters' Hall, 437 High st. 
Houston, Texas — Campbell Overstreet, 515 W. 

14th St. 
Hudson, N. Y.— H. W. Macv, 446 Carrott st. 
Ilion, N. Y.— Hugh Smithson. 276 E. Clark st. 
Indianapolis. Ind. — S. P. Meadows, Geo. B 

Kenney. Room 30, Cosmos Castle. 
Tola. Kan. — Trot Williamson. 
Ithaca. N. Y.— F. C. Thompson, L. U. 603. 
Jackson, Mich.— C. W. Davis. 320 Bush st. 
Jacksonville, Fla.— Geo. C. Brown, 241 E. 4th 

street, 
.lamestown, N. Y. — John K. Gustafson, Box 14. 
Jersey City, N. J. — Fred Herman. 452 Hoboken 

ave.. James G. Larkin. 452 Hoboken ave. 
Kansas City, Mo., and Vicinity, D. C. — J. C. 

Jackson, secretary D. C. Labor Temple ; 

Frank Bingham, 1603 Montgall st. ; F. B. 

.Jones. 2924 Mercer st. 
Kensington. 111. — John H. Leyoung. 
Kenton and Campbell Counties. Ky. — C. C. 

Skirvin. 4<S3 W. Second st., Covington, Ky. 
Kewanee. 111.— Arthur A. Spute, 126 S. Grace 

avenue. 
Keyport, N. J. — Samuel Stryker. 
Kingston. N. Y.— Harry F. Gerhardt. 161 E 

Chester st. 
Knoxville. Tenn. — W. J. Roach. 
Krebs, Okla.— E. D. Miller. 
Lafayette, Colo. — C. C. Jones, Louisville, Colo. ; 

Sam Hicks, Lafayette, Colo. 
Lake County, Ind. — J. I. Day, 4106 Baring ave., 

East Chicago, Ind. 
Lansing, Mich. — Geo. Mattoon, 1117 Ballard st. 
LaSalle, 111.— J. W. Singer, 1155 W. Marquette 

street. 
Lawrence, Mass. — A B. Grady. 10 Butler »t 
Lawton, Okla— H. F. Rugh. 811 A ave 



Leth bridge, Alta., Can. — Stanley L. Chappell, 
Box 172. 

Lewlston, Me. — J. A. Reng, 249 Park st. 

Lincoln, Neb. — Fred Eissler, Labor Temple. 

Little Falls, N. Y.— M. E. Murphy, 58 Jackson 
street. 

Little Rock, Ark.— R. A. Pettifer, 1223 Rock st. 

Lockport, N. Y. — Albert Nott, 237 Prospect st. 

Louisville, Ky. — E. J. Borders, 300 Commercial 
Bldg.. S. E. Cor. 4th and Main sts. 

Los Angeles, Cal. — C. R. Gore and J. A. Mc- 
Aloon, J. G. McAfee. Address of business 
agents, 538 Maple ave. 

Lowell. Mass.— M. A. Lee, 48 4th st. 

Lynn, Mass. — A. W. Clark, 62 Monroe st. 

Madison, 111.— Adolph Boulanger, 2100 C St., 
Granite City, 111. 

Madison, Wis.— H. A. Derleth, 21 W. Main st. 

Mahanoy City, Pa.— R. C. Fowler, 222 W. Pine 
street. 

Manchester, N. H. — Charles G. Metivler, 209 
Spruce St. 

Mayaguez, Porto Rico — Louis Perocler, Box 
101. 

Marissa, 111.— Barney Elliott, St. Clair Court 

McAlester, Okla.— R. A. Bradley, 508 S. 18th st. 

McKinney, Texas — D. P. Wilmeth. 

Memphis, Tenn. — C. M. Dayton, 95 S. Second 
street. 

Meriden, Conn. — A. A. LaiTcennette, 332^ Cods 
avenue. 

Middlesex. Mass. — John G. Cogill, 3 Glen 
Court. Maiden, Mass. 

Milwaukee, Wis. — Adolph Hinkforth, Emil 
Brodde, Room 305, Brisbane Hall, 528 Chest- 
nut St. 

Minneapolis, Minn. — Andrew Leaf, 26 Wash- 
ington ave., S. ; Charles Fischer, 26 Wash- 
ington ave., S. 

Moberly. Mo. — Jess Mathier, 123 Thompson st. 

Moline, Davenport and Rock Island, 111.— (Tri- 
Cities)— Harrv Strom. Box 203. E. Moline, 111. 

Monmouth, 111.— .John M. Hurst. 212 S. 11th st. 

Monongahela. Pa.— Chas. E. Walters, Box 66. 
W. Brownsville, Pa. 

Montclair. Bloomfleld and Orange, N. J. — ^A. J. 
Bartruff. 98 Eaton Place. E. Orange, N. J.; 
E. E. Hill. Pompton ave.. Cedar Grove, N. J. 

Montgomery County, Pa. — Fredrik G. Trunk. 
212 Kettenring ave., Ardmore, Pa. : Harry 
Coder, 810 Forest st., Conshohocken. Pa. 

Montreal. Can. — J. A. Laflamme. secretary Dis- 
trict Council, 301 St. Dominique St.; J. E. 
Vigeant. 301 St. Dominique St.; P. iMiron, 301 
St. Dominique St.; H. Senecal, 301 St. Dom- 
inique St. ; L. Bouthillette, 301 St. Dominique 
street. 

Mount Vernon, N. Y. — Henry C. Klenk, office. 
.51 S. 4th ave. 

Muskegon. Mich. — Joseph Broker, 17 Myrtle st. 

Nashville, Tenn.— J. W. Carlew, 1625 12th ave.. 
N. 

Newark, N. J.— G. G. Adlon, 19 Willow St., 
Bloomfleld, N. J.; S. J. Stoll, 30 Union ave.. 
Irvington. N. J. 

Newton. Mass. — L. H. Johnson, 251 Wash. st. 

New Bedford, Mass. — Wm. Nelson, 384 Acush- 
net ave. 

New Britain, Conn.— J. F. McGrath, 79 Dwight 
street. 

New Castle. Pa.— J. W. Patterson, Trade As- 
sembly Hall. 

New Haven, Conn. — John L. Richards, Music 
Hall Bldg., 117* Court St. 

New London, Conn. — Geo. Arnold, 557 Bank st. 

New Milford, Conn; — Oscar F. Ross. 

New Philadelphia, O. — Jos. Born, 227 Grimes 
street. 

Newburyport, Mass. — F. S. Heath, 14 Dalton 
street. 

New Rochelle, N. Y.— J. H. Cowham, 18 Law- 
ton st. 

New York City— For Manhattan; C. H. Bau- 
sher, 142 E. 59th St.. Gen. Agt. : Wm. McMil- 
lan, D. M. French, M. J. Kavanaugh and S. 
B. Wilson, address 720 Lexington ave. For 
Brooklyn : Wtn O'Grady, Dan'l Hancock. 



158 



TfiQ CarpQntQr 



Ernest Bradley, address cor. JtJoerum plact 
and Atlantic ave. For the Bronx : Wallace 
Anderson, Frank Glew, Daniel O'Connell, ad- 
dress 4215 Tliird ave., Bronx. For Queens: 
John Quinn, 54 N. 7th ave., Whitestone, L. 
I., I. W. Stock, 312 8th ave.. Long Island 
City, L. I., Henry Phillips, 399 Boulevard, 
Rockaway Beach, L. I. For Richmond: 
James F. Martin, 684 Van Duzer st., Staple- 
ton, S. I. 

Niagara Falls, Ont, Can.— John Laur, 807 Wil- 
low ave. 

Niagara Falls. N. Y. — .lnhn Laur, 807 Willow 
avenue. 

Norfolk County, Mass.— G. N. Brooks, 4.59 
Washington st., Norwood, Mass. 

Norfolk, Va. — C. F. Jones, 305 Greenwood Bldg. 

Northampton, Mass. — Michael Jarvey, 223 Pros- 
pect St. 

North Bristol, Mass., District — B. S. Bolles, 
Box 135, Sharon, Mass. 

North Shore D. C— Michael O'Briou, 71 Wash- 
ington St., Salem, jNIass. 

Northwestern Ohio District — Wm. B. Austin, 
332 N. Union ave , Alliance, O. 

North Yakima, Wash. — O. F. Leland. 

Norwich, Conn. — Robert McNeeley, Carpenters' 
Hall, 252 Main st. 

Nyack, N. Y. — James Murrin, 42 Summit st. 

Oakland, Cal.— Dave L. Wilson, 1500 Liese ave., 
Fruitvale, Cal. 

Ohio Valley D. C— E. Weekly, 3902 Jacob st.. 
Wheeling, W. Va. 

Omaha, Neb. — E. A. Bowerman, 2816 Pinkney 
street. 

Oneida, N. Y. — Albert Hyde, 46 Phelps st. 

Ottawa, Can. — Jas. Usher, Jr., 207 Turner st. 

Ottumwa, la. — Geo. W. Ferguson, 511 Jav st. 

Palm Beach (West) Florida— J. D. Argyle', 502 
Hybiscus ave. 

Paris, Tenn.— V. C. Sykes. 

Parkersburg, W. Va. — W. S. Deen, 415 Avery 
street. 

Pasadena, Cal.— T. J. Johnson, 42 B. Walnut 

Passiac, N. J.— John Martin, 23 Crescent PI. 

Paterson, N. J. — Otto Temple, 10 Fennor ave., 
Albion Place. 

Pawtucket, R. I. — Theodore Malo, 21 N. Main 
street 

Peekskill, N. Y.— Geo. H. Wood, 950 Phoenix 
avenue. 

Pensacola, Fla. — N. Launsbery, Old' Armory 
Bldg., Room 1. 

Peoria, 111.— Willis K. Brown, 100-111 S. Adams 
street. 

Perth Amboy, N. J. — Joseph L. Crowell, 92 
State St. 

Philadelphia, Pa. — Charles Thompson, chair- 
man; W. T. Allen, secretary-treasurer. As- 
sistants : Ernest Kreis, southern district 
and Camden; central district, Chas. Thomp- 
son: north central district, Geo. Cams; north 
district, A. Mellenger; floor layers, Jas. Wet- 
ton ; wharf and dock builders, Wm. Rossell. 
1207 Locust St., Camden, N. J. Address of 
all business agents. 142 N. 11th st. 

Pine Bluff, Ark.— F. J. Jones, 412 W. 17th ave. 

Pittsburgh, Pa. — W. K. Heck, sec.-treas. ; J. 
A. Ross, A. M. Swartz (L. U. 164, Wm. J. 
Kelly). Address of secretary and business 
agents: Union Labor Temple, Washington 
St. and Webster ave. 

Pittsfleld, Mass.— John B. Mickle. 

Pontiac, 111.— F. Sipe. 

Poplar Bluff, Mo.— W. C. Howell, 630 Charles 
strGGt 

Portche'ster, N. Y.— J. C. Schofleld, 18 Adee st. 

Portsmouth, N. H.— Robert V. Noble, 456 Mar- 
ket St. 

Portland, Ore. — B. W. Sheman, Labor Temple, 
162* Second st. 

Port Washington, L. I., N. Y.— Cbag. T. Wig- 
gins. 

Poteau, Okla. — J. J. Vance. 

Prince Albert, Sask., Can.— J. Slelghi. p. u. 
Box 544. 

Prince Rupert, Can. — Harry Bertaux 



Princeton, N. J. — John Dilworth, 361 Nassau 
street. 

Providence, R. I. — Thomas F. Kearney, 162 
Weybosset st. ; C. J. Mulcahy, 123 Eddy st. 

Pueblo, Colo.— T. F. Payton. 

Rahway, N. J. — L. A. Springer. 

Reading, Pa.— W. W. Werner, 24 N. 6th st. 

Red Bank and Long Branch, N. J.— W. G. 
Pinson, 404 Park Place, Long Branch, N. J. 

Richmond, Va. — J. A. Holland, Labor Temple. 
5th and Marshall. 

Roanoke, Va.— L. G. Stultz, 709 Second ave.. 
N. W. 

Rochdale, Texas — W. A. Castlebery. 

Rochester, Minn.— W. E. Thorn, 316 S. Broad- 
way. 

Rochester, N. Y.— G. H. Wright, 33 Penn St.: 
A. Agreen, 100 Reynolds Arcade. 

Rockford, 111.— John E. Peters. 

Roxbury, Mass. — J. M. Devine. 184 Dudley st 

Rockville, Conn. — Wm. J. Hetzler. 

Rutland, Vt.— Chas. E. Hoyt. 81 Crescent st. 

Sacramento, Cal.— F. E. Stahl, 2211 L st. 

Saginaw, Mich. — E. W. Secord, 416 Cornelia st. 

Salt Lake City, Utah— D. O. Jacobs, Labor 
Temple, 151 E. Second East st. 

San Angelo, Texas — R. E. Vinson, 65 N. Ran- 
dolph St. 

San Antonio, Texas — Wayne Bohanan, 702 Den- 
ver Bldg. 

San Bernardino, Cal.— C. O. Whitlock, 524 
Franklin st. 

San Diego, Cal.— J. H. Markwith, Labor Tem- 
ple, 739 4th St. 

San Francisco — Fred Fewster, C. C. Campbell, 
J. J. Hughes, Francis McNamara; addresses, 
200 Guerrero st. For Alameda County (Oak- 
land), J. N. Steiner, L. W. Newton, Joseph 
Orthum ; addresses, 761 12th st., Oakland, 
Cal 

San Jose, Cal.— Bert P. Ward, 72-78 N. 2d st. 

Savannah, Ga.— A. J. Sours, 322 Bolton st., W. 

Sayre, Pa. — T. Falcey, Waverly. 

Schenectady, N. Y.— Chas. Gould, Scotia, N. Y. 

Scranton, Pa.— E. E. Knapp, 208 Coal Ex- 
change. 

Seattle, Wash.— W. R. Bennett, 1620 4th st. 

Sesser, 111.— I. Hill. 

Sioux City, la.— Chas. Huney, Labor Temple. 

Sloatsburg, N. Y.— O. J. Bretnall. 

South Framingham, Mass. — Edward L. Hand, 
Highland ave. 

South Shore, Mass.— L. W. Beedle, 208 Allen 
St., E. Braintree, Mass. 

Spadra, Ark.^J. A. Jones. 

Spokane, Wash. — W. C. Campbell, 9 Madison 
street. 

Springfield, 111.— John R. Holmes, Carp. Hall. 
7th and Adams st. 

Springfield, Mass.— Thomas McCarroll, 89 
Armory st. 

Springfield, Mo.— C. J. McKeegan, 2049 Wasoola 
street. 

Springfield and Milburn, N. J.— J. R. Howard, 
Box 37, Springfield, N. J. 

Springfield, Ohio— D. A. Hunter, 123 W. High 
street. 

Stamford, Conn. — Geo. B. Gregory, 45 Oak st. 

St. Cloud, Minn. — Charles Gardner. 

St. Louis, Mo. — L. H. Proske, secretary D. C. 
business agents: Henry Lockman, Emil 
Ruble, P. E. DeLille, W. B. Ferrell and Wm. 
Kelleher. Address of all business agents, 
2228 Olive St. 

St. John, N. B., Can. — James L. Sugrue. 

St. Joseph, Mo.— S. W. Glaze, 2105 Washington 
avenue. 

St, Paul, Minn.— John O. Olson, 714 Maryland 
street. 

St. Petersburg, Fla.— F. A. Fitch. 

Sullivan, Ind.— Jas. C. Ridge, 209 Chase st. 

Summit, N. J. — Harry Williamson. 47 Russel) 
Place. 

Superior, Wis —J H. Hatch, 1701 28th st. 



159 



TfiQ CarpQntQF 



Syracuse. N. Y— ,T. T O'Bripn, 10 Clinton Bib 
lama(iua, Pa. — C. H. Stockley, 133 Cottagf ave 
Tampa, Fla.— C. A. Sutton, Box 599. 
Taylorville, 111.— Geo. King, Box 252. 
Teague, Texas — J. H. Mayberry. 
Terre Haute, Ind.— C. C. Rariden, 524 Mulberry 

street. 
Texarkana, Texas— G. L. Hunter, 1109 E. 18th 

street. 
Toledo, Ohio — Louis J. Bremer, 314 Cherry st. 
Toleston, Ind.— L. U. 1117, C. Banta. 
Thompsonville, Conn. — Arthur Rochette. 
Toronto, Ont., Can.— M. C. Clark, Labor Tem- 
ple, 167 Church st. 
Trenton, N. J.— Geo. W. Adams, 653 S. Olden 

avenue. 
Three Rivers, Que., Can. — J. I. Gelivas, 18 

Cooke St. 
Tri-City, 111. (Moline, Davenport and Rock 

Island)— P. J. Carlsons, 1320 38th st. 
Troy, N. Y.— J. G. Wilson, Box 65. 
Tuxedo, N. Y. — Frank. Conklin, Sloatsburg. 

N. Y. 
Twin Falls, Idaho — F. Olsen, 273 Addison 

ave., E. 
Union City, Tenn.— G. E. Fields. 
Utica, N. Y.— G. W. Griffiths, 240 Dudley ave. 
Vancouver, B. C. — Hugh J. McEwen, Room 209 

Labor Temple. 
Waco, Texas— Lewis Sellenberger, 1808 S. 12ni 

street. 
Walla Walla, Wash.— C. R. Nelson, 633 N. 71 li 

street. 
Wallingford, Conn. — Wm. Stevens, Box 141. 



Walsenburg, Colo. — H. E. Robart. 
Washington, D. C. — Geo. Myers, 425 G St., N. 

W. 
Waterloo, la. — H. J. Amos, 115 Randolph st. 
Waxahachie, Texas— J. W. Fox, 307 Lake Park 

avenue. 
West Chester, Pa. — Oscar Speakman. 
Westfleld, Mass. — Edw. J. Taggart, Coatize st. 
West Palm Beach, Fla.— J. T. Miller, 714 Sapo- 

dilla St. 
Wellsburg, W. Va.— J. H. Phillips, Box 542. 

Fallansbee, VV. Va. 
Wheeling, W. Va.— E. J. Weekly, Majority 

Grove st. 
Wheaton, 111.— G. C. Ottens, 115 N. Main st. 
White Plains, N. Y.— Emil W. Burgess, 35 

Grove st. 
Wichita, Kan. — Oscar C. Schaar, 730 Antler st. 
Wilkes-Barre, Pa., Wyoming Valley D. C. — M. 

E. Sanders, Room 69, Simon Long Bldg. 
Wilmington, N. C— C. W. Stewart, Box 1051. 
Wilmington, Del.— John H. Hickey, 1225 W. 4tli 

.street. 
Winona, Minn. — N. Gratheu, 227 Market St. 
Winnipeg, Man., Can. — Wm. Hammond, Labor 

Temple, James st. 
Woonsocket, R. I. — E. J. Desmarais, 135 4th 

avenue. 

Worcester, Mass. — D. S. Curtis, 20 Madison st. 
Wyandotte, Mich. — Chas. H. Renner, 80 Plum 

street. 
Yonkers, N. Y.— B. B. Hicks, 20 Portland PI. 

Youngstown, Ohio — O. J. Grubb, 259 W. Fed- 
eral street. 




160 



Carpenters and Joiners 

THIS IS WHAT YOU HAVE 
BEEN LOOKING FOR 

THE IMPROVED 

"GemScriber" 




Patented 

Made complete — no changing. 
No chance to lose parts — time 
saved. The cut will convince you 

Manufacturers and Distributers 

F. BRAIS & CO. 

1349 E. 90th St. Cleveland, Ohio 

PRICE 30c 



Making 

and Reading 

Drawings 

For Home Study 



75 cents for paper 
$ 1 .00 for cloth binding 

Gnaranteed to contain more in* 
formation than any $3.00 book 



Write to- 



A. EDWARD RHODES 

Suite 9 Masonic Temple 
WILMINGTON, DEL. 




"OHIO ' Edge Tools Eire the best fSSk^p. 
of their kind. We have been mak- 
ing edge tools for nearly a century 
and have made a careful study 
through all these years of the proper 
treatment of tool steel. All tools 
covered by the same broad guarantee. 

Write for Catalog U 
OHIO TOOL CO. CHARI||TON.^W.VA. 




■ ^ ^^ A should have these three books for refer- 

\a 'WJ'^^-^'\T' m ^^ ■<*<'V /^ '#*\ •¥* /^ '#* ence. They will be found most useful 

I 'V y 1~^ I Y Vi^J. L/CXX L^^X and are well worth the small amount of 

•7 JD^ money they cost. 

HOW TO FRAME A HOUSE; OR, HOUSE AND ROOF FRAMING. By Owen B. Maginnis. 
Part I, balloon framing. Fart II, roof framing. Part III, how to frame the timbers for a brick 
house, etc. The work is illustrated and explained by over 159 large engravings of houses, 
roofs, etc. Cloth, 6>2x9>i $1.50 

ROOF FRAMING MADE EASY. By Owen B. Maginnis. A practical and easily comprehend- 
ed system of laying out and framing roofs, adapted to modern building construction. The 
methods are made clear and intelligible by 76 engravings with extensive explanatory text. 
Cloth $1.00 

HOW TO MEASURE UP WOOD WORK FOR BUILDINGS. By Owen B. Maginnis. This 
book ^vas ■written so as to place in handy and concise form reliable directions to enable builders 
and mechanics to measure up the quantities of ^voodwork for brick and frame houses, accurate- 
ly and ^vithout hesitation, figuring either from plans or on the work. Illustrated by 160 engrav- 
ings. One 12mo. volume. Cloth $0.50 

Mail cash in registered letter, postoffice or express order, or check to obtain any one, or all, to 

OWEN B. MAGINNIS 

191 Beach Street, City Island, New York City 




The "SPECIAL" Saw 
Set 



^Is as near perfect as a tool can be. 
tflt has just been improved and comes 
packed in a carton having full direc- 
tions, uses and warrant printed thereon 
and containing a very useful illustrated 
circular on "How to Joint, Set and File 
Saws." ^With it as good results can 
be obtained by an apprentice as by a master carpenter. ^TO USE: turn 
the number on the anvil corresponding to the number of saw points to 
the inch of the saw to the arrow^-head, run up the gauge screw until the 
saw just passes through without binding, and set the saw^ in the usual way. 

A SAW SET FOR EVERY SAW 

"SPECIAL" for Hand Saws not over 16 gauge 

No. 3 for single tooth Cross-Cut and Circular savrs 14 to 20 gauge 
No. 4 for double tooth Cross-Cut and Circular saws 14 to 20 gauge 
No. 3 for Timber and Boeird saws 6 to 14 gauge. 

Bench Stops, Punches, Nail Pullers, Box Openers, Liquid Soap Dispensers, etc. 
Send for a free copy of "Saw Points" showing "How to Joint, Set and File Saws." 

CMAS. MORRILL, 93 Walker Street, New York 



Price List of Supplies Furnished by General Office 



Constitutions, per hundred $4 GO 

Members* Due Books, each 13 

Official Note Paper, per hundred 25 

Application Blanks, per hundred 25 

Withdrawal Cards, each 50 

Interchangeable Receipting Dater for 

F. S. Ink Pads, etc 1 00 

Rec. Sec. Order Book, each copy 25 



Treasurer's Receipt Book, each copy.$0 25 

Fin. Sec. Receipt Book, each copy 25 

One lOO-page Ledger ._ I 00 

One 200-page Ledger, cloth bound I 50 

One 300-page Ledger, cloth bound 2 00 

One 1 00-page Day Book I 00 

One 200-page Day Book, cloth bound 1 50 
. One Treasurer's Cash Book . 50 



CARPENTERS! Protect Yourselves! 

BY BUYING 

The Genuine F. P. M. Coping Saw 

Maaufactured by • Union Carpenter 

OUTS METAL AS WELL AS WOOD. 

If not handled by your dealer send to me direct. PB ••• 
that you are promptly supplied. 

PRICE 75c. Extra Blades 6 for 25o 

(Expres* Prepaid) 
INVENTED AND MANUFACTURED BY 

■^'^•lirS^"- F. P. MAXSON,"'i,SS!sate 





The Art of Carpentry 



written by Terry Smyth, 26 years a member of L. U. No. 1, 
Chicago, 111. It has been the aim to furnish as brief and 
SIMPLIFIED simple an explanation as possible. Arranged in a manner 

easily understood by the man tyho has not the advantage of a technical education. Each problem is worked 
out both in theory and practice. The mechanic who understands but little arithmetic can work out the prob- 
lems. The contents include decimal tables for roof framing, how to find the length of common, hip, valley 
and jack rafters by multiplication, the use of the steel sguare, etc. The decimal tables are fully explained, also 
how decimals are found. There are also geometrical problems of interest. tTTP B V CMVTH CUir.ann 
Book contains 44 pages and 23 engravings, size 3 % x 5 ?i in. bound in cloth. * '^'^'^ » am I 1 11, VjOICagO 
Price fifty cents. When ordering send name, address and remittance to Reporter Press, SlO.Throop St. 




The more good tools you use 

the more good work you turn out, and every 
"YANKEE" Tool adds to your efficiency as a 
mechanic. There are now over a hundred 
"YANKEES" and more coming. Won't you get 
acquainted w^ith the w^hole bunch ? Our Tool 
Book w^ill do it. Start a postal cifter it ; we'll do 
the rest. 

Your dealer sells the "YANKEE." 

NORTH BROS. MFG. CO., Philadelphia, Pa. 



TAINTOR POSITIVE SAW SETS 




Self-adjusting except 
turningthe anvil to change 
the setting. Setting easily 
returned to. 

Numbers on anvil do NGT refer 
to number of teeth on saw. 
The tooth is in every 
way protected while being 
sat, and is left in the best 
possible shape. 

Ask your hardware 
merchant for it, also to 
•how you our Adjustable 
Handle, Double Plunger 
Set. Send for our free 
booklet, "Suggestions on 
the care of Saws." 

TAINTOR MFG. CO. 

95 Reade St.. NEW YORK 



NEW EDITION JUST OFF THE PRESS 

The seventh edition of THE LIGHTNING ESTI M ATOR is now ready. En- 

larged and brought up to date. Teaches you to estimate house work in an easy, rapid, accurate 
and practical manner. Gives actual cost of each separate part of the labor and material. 
Guards against errors and omissions. Based on actual experience, not theory. Quickest reli- 
able method in use today. Now is the time to post yourself on this vital part of the business. 

PRICE POSTPAID $1-00 

BRADT PUBLISHING CO. 1265 Michigan Ave. JACKSON, MICHIGAN 



T/\q Carpontar 




■■— ^ ^~>l J should have these three books for refer- 

Lj -%,T £^'t*'\.T m 0"t*"f^^^"fTlT^^"f* ence. They will be found most useful 

I 'v V CJL Y V><<XA LfCXX LCA ^^^ ^^^ ^^^l worth the small amount of 

•• XT money they cost. 

HOW TO FRAME A HOUSE; OR, HOUSE AND ROOF FRAMING. By Owen B. Maginnis. 
Part I, balloon framing. Pan II, roof framing. Part III, ho-\v to frame the timbers for a brick 
house, etc. The ^vork is illustrated and explained by over 159 large engravings of houses, 
roofs, etc. Cloth 6y2x9J^ $1.50 

ROOF FRAMING MADE EASY. By Owen B. Maginnis. A practical and easily comprehend- 
ed system of laying out and framing roofs, adapted to modern building construction. The 
methods are made clear and intelligible by 76 engravings with extensive explanatory text. 
Cloth $1.00 

HOW TO MEASURE UP WOOD WORK FOR BUILDINGS. By Owen B. Maginnis. This 
book -svas written so as to place in handyand concise form reliable directions to enable builders 
and mechanics to measure up the quantities of woodwork for brick and frame houses, accurate- 
ly and without hesitation, figuring either from plans or on the work. Illustrated by 160 engrav- 
ings. One 12mo. volum.e. Cloth $0.50 

Mail cash in registered letter, postoffice or express order, or check to obtain any one, or all, to 

OWEN B. MAGINNIS 

191 Beach Street, City Island, New York City 




"OHIO * Edge Tools are the best <sfe5.o, 
of their kind. We have been mcik- 
ing edge tools for nearly a century 
and have made a careful study 

through all these years of the proper ^ 

treatment of tool steel. All tools ___ 

covered by the same broad guarantee, trade "mark 

Write for Catalog U ^^^^^^^ 
OHIO TOOL CO. CHARI|STON.^W.VA. 




T/\q CarpQntQr 



You Are Entitled 
to the Be^ Saw ^ 

Sou make your living with 
a Saw. It is the mo^ im- 
portant tool that you use. You 
cannot do good work with a poor 
one any more than you can do 
the best work unless you have 
the best Saw. 

ATKINS S SAWS 

Are made for mechanics w^ho appreciate fine 
tools. They are made either w^ith ^raight 
or skew back — or the old-^tyle handle or 
Atkins Perfection Pattern. 





ATKINS No. 51 





ATKINS No. 65 

Write to the nearest address below and ask for our Carpenters* Catalog, called 
" SAW SENSE." It tells you all about them and gives valuable hints for the filing 
and care of Saws. 

We manufacture the fine^ Hand, Rip, Panel, Compass, Keyhole, Back, Coping, 
Butcher and all other Saws for all purposes as well as Hack Saw Blades and 
Frames, Metal-Cutting Hand Saws, Saw Fitting Tools, Floor and Cabinet Scrapers, 
as well as a complete lined Ratchet and Bi Braces. Demand 
ATKINS SILVER STEEL. Made by 

E. C. ATKINS & CO., Inc. 

THE SILVER STEEL SAW PEOPLE 
Home Office and Fadory, Indianapolis, Ind. Canadian Fadlory, Hamilton, Ont. 

Branches carrying complete stocks in the following cities. Ad- 
dress E. C. ATKINS & CO.: Atlanta, Minneapolis, Portland, Ore., 
Vancouver, B. C, Chicago, New Orleans, San Francisco, Sydney, 
N. S. W., Memphis, New York City, Seattle. 





THE^^^TCR 



A Monthly Journal for Carpenters, Stair Builders, Machine Wood Workers, 
Planing Mill Men, and Kindred Industries 

Entered February 13, 1903. at Indianapolis, Indiana, as second class mail matter, under the Act of Congress of March 3, 1879 



Volume XXXV-No. 3 
Established in 1881 



INDIANAPOI^IS, MARCH, 1915 



One Dollar Per Year 
Ten Cents a Copy 



iWan'ga^igilttoOTorfe 




Out on me roads they have ga^iered, a hundred thousand men, 
To ask for a hold on life as sure as ^e -wolf's hold in his den. 
Tneir need lies close to 4ie quick of life as 4ie ear4\ lies close to 

me stone; 
It is as meat to me slender rib, as marro^ to {he bone. 

'Thej) ask but 4ie leave to labor, to toil in 4\e endless night. 

For a little salt to savor meir bread, for houses water-tight. 

niiej) ask but fhe right to labor and to live b}) 4ie strength of 
meir hands — 

Mfhej) who have bodies like knotted oaks, and patience like sea- 
sands. 

And 4ie right of a man to labor and his right to labor in J03? — 
Mot all your laws can strangle 4iat right, nor 4ie gates of Hell 

destroj). 
For it came wim me making of man and was kneaded into his 

bones. 
And it will stand at {he last of 4iings on {he dust of crumbled 

{hrones. 

— ^y Edwin ^M,arizham 



Tfia CarpontQr 



UNBMPlyOYMKNT B:eNBFlTS 

(By Richard Hazelton.) 




|HEN we have been 
through a period of 
trade depression such 
as we have recently 
experienced the ques- 
tion of unemployment 
benefits is sure to be 
one well calculated to 
exercise the mind of 
the average trade 
unionist. As our mem- 
bers know, the matter 
of such benefits, in so far as our organi- 
zation is concerned, has been talked of 
several times in the past, but no definite 
action taken. 

Unemployment benefits do not seem to 
be favored as much by American trade 
unionists as by those of Europe, es- 
pecially in Great Britain, parts of Ger- 
many and continental Europe. In Great 
Britain unemployment benefits were the 
forerunner of an extensive scheme of 
state unemployment insurance which was 
in full swing at the outbreak of the war. 
Not until comparatively recent years 
have conditions in this country been such 
as would bring the question of unem- 
ployment benefits imperatively before 
trade unionists but, since 1907, recurring 
periods- of unemployment have brought 
the practicability of *it to the attention 
of various trade unions. The idea does 
not appeal to all union men, of course, and 
there are those who believe that a system 
of small unemployment benefits does not 
go reasonably far enough toward lessen- 
ing the menace of unemployment and 
urge a direction of energy toward a more 
equal distribution of work as witness our 
own organization, which has declared in 
favor of a six-hour work-day as a means 
of reducing unemployment to a minimum. 
However, unemployment benefits, small 
though they be, are very acceptable to the 
wage earner who finds himself out of 
employment with perhaps a young family 
dependent upon him. 

One of the most elaborate schemes of 
unemployment benefits which has come to 



my attention is that which has been per- 
fected by the German Typographical 
Union, No. 7, of New York City. Its 
three hundred members pay high dues, 90 
cents a week for members working and 
one-half that amount for members not 
employed. An assessment of one per 
cent, of wages is also levied for the up- 
keep of the national organization. I 
wonder what would be the feelings of our 
members if they were obliged to pay 
such stiff dues? These typos make five 
dollars a day for a five-day week when 
employed, and as their business agent, A. 
Bommerschein, recently remarked: "With 
these high dues we can lay aside some- 
thing for the rainy day. The trouble with 
most union treasuries is that the men 
don't tax themselves enough when 
they're at work." 

During unemployment the members of 
this union are well cared for. Men who 
have belonged to the union for 104 weeks 
are entitled to sixteen weeks' benefits, 
those belonging for 200 weeks or over 
are entitled to an indefinite benefit. A 
strict supervision of the unemployed is 
kept and a man is fined four weeks' bene- 
fit allowance for refusing a steady job; 
the penalty for further offenses is more 
drastic and the chances of deceit being at- 
tempted are very slight. The benefits are 
drawn from two sources in order to pro- 
tect the local's treasury; first, a man gets 
an allowance up to a certain amount from 
the national treasury, next he receives his 
benefits from the local for a period of 
three weeks, then he again draws upon 
the national fund. 

By an ingenious plan no member of the 
union is, however, wholly out of employ- 
ment, for a system of rotation exists 
whereby a man after three weeks' em- 
ployment gives way to one of his un- 
employed brother unionists. A list of un- 
employed members is kept from which 
the man at the top is sent to a temporary 
position for three weeks after which he 
drops automatically to the bottom of the 
list and another takes his place. Several 



temporai-y positions are often being filled 
at the same time further reducing unem- 
ployment. During .the month of January 
there were twenty-six men on the unem- 
ployed list and as a result of this system 
each had about eleven days' work. Of 
course, if a job looks like a permanent 
one a man is sent to fill it indefinitely. 

"Big six," the famous typographical 
union of New York, has also an elabo- 
rate system of out-of-work benefits, rang- 
ing from $5 to $15 according to individual 
need, through a benefit board. The fund 



Tfia CarpQntQr 

is raised by special assessment of one- 
half of one per cent, of the wages of those 
at work. Last fall, because of exception- 
ally severe conditions in the printing- 
trade, a heavy assessment of five per cent, 
on all wages over $10 raised a revenue 
of $20,000 for unemployed members. 

The foregoing are interesting instances 
of what is being done along well-thought- 
out lines by associations of union wage 
earners to mitigate the hardships of un- 
employment. 



A PI,^A FOR THK EUROPEAN WAR SUFFERERS 




HE following com- 
munication from 
Brother Gabriel Ed- 
monston of Washing- 
ton, D. C, who was 
the first General 
President of our or- 
ganization, was read 
at the first 1915 ses- 
sion of the General 
_ Executive Board. The 
board members, in 
taking action on the communication, ex- 
pressed themselves in accord with the 
spirit of Brother Edmonston's suggestion 
and decided to commend same to the 
membership for consideration through 
the columns of The Carpenter. The com- 
munication reads: 

— Relief for the War Sufferers — 
Brothers — An opportunity is present- 
ed by the European war to demonstrate 
the value of trade unions on a new line. 
The widespread calamity that now covers 
Europe is of such immense proportion 
that neutral nations are waking but 
slowly to the task imposed by the cry 
for help and the humane impulses of 
our nature. 

The innocent victims of a war of such 
colossal size are in parallel proportions 
and are numbered by the millions. The 
organized charities of our land have all 
they can manage to provide the neces- 
saries of life for our own people at this 
time. Hunger does not stand still on 



prospects of a food supply and the time 
consumed in planning is slowly pinching 
the cheeks of the innocent sufferers. 

We have ari organization that is 
trained to move promptly in a good 
cause. I am fully persuaded that the 
260,000 union carpenters would be glad 
of an opportunity to help in such an en- 
nobling work. If we give a uniform 
amount per capita such as the poorest 
carpenter would be glad to give it would 
wipe out any distinction as to the amount 
of individual contribution. We may, with 
the consent of our Executive Board, vol- 
untarily tax ourselves in any good cause 
that commands our support that is in 
harmony with our objects. 

"Corporations have no souls," but 
trade unions have a heart that responds 
to the teachings of that Great Car- 
penter, who said: "Inasmuch as ye have 
done it unto one of the least of these 
.my brethren, ye have done it unto me." 

A writer in a recent number of the 
Literary Digest, in describing the flight 
of the refugees from Antwerp, said: 
"The clack, clack, clack of the tiny 
wooden shoes of the children on the road 
in their weary effort to keep up with the 
mother was the most pitiful sound I ever 
heard." That sound came to my imagina- 
tion and still lingers and lingers. I have 
never been interested in the question of 
woman suffrage one way or the other, 
but I now wonder if this thing could 
have happened if women of the world 



T/\a CarpQntQr 



had had the right to vote. I think not. 
One such war would put the soldier out 
of business and make a world's federa- 
tion in the interests of peace an estab- 
lished fact. I am now too old to lend 
my feeble energies to that cause, but I 
hope to accomplish something toward re- 
lieving the distress that is now so preva- 
lent in Europe by appealing to my fellow 
craftsmen who have so highly honored 
me in the past. 

We have in round numbers 260,000 
members. I am confident that each mem- 
ber would be glad to give the price of 
of a loaf of bread to the unfortunate 
victims of the war, especially so when 
it is shown that the result would be of 
such respectable proportions. Five cents 
per capita would amount to $13,000. 
This sum would load a ship with 2,600 
barrels of flour, or the equivalent of 
nearly one-half million loaves of bread. 
To accomplish this purpose in the short- 
est possible time it will be necessary at 
the next meeting of all locals to adopt a 
motion to tax each card five cents and 
anticipate its payment by an appropria- 
tion from the local's treasury and send 
the full amount without delay to the 
General Office in Indianapolis. To take 
the amount out of the locals' funds 
without this provision to replace it would 
rob the individual of the satisfaction of 
giving out of his own pocket and lose 
the voluntary act of the giver. 

All of us would be proud of our Na- 
tional Union if v/e should send a shipload 
of breadstuffs to our cousins over the 
seas designated as the contribution of 
the U. B. of C. and J. of America to the 
war sufferers. 

GABRIEL EDMONSTON, 
First General President of the U. B. 

of C. and J. of America. 



Use of Wood in Modem Warfare 

The extent to which wood enters as a 
factor into warfare is very likely to be 
forgotten in these modern days, when 
submarines furtively seek their prey be- 
neath the waves and aeroplanes and Zep- 
pelin dirigibles meet in deathly combat 
in the skies. Nevertheless the old ele- 



mental material has stood the test of 
time and the skill of the woodworker is 
as frequently requisitioned in per- 
fecting modern armaments as it was 
at any period of the past, very probably 
even more so. 

From the first wooden club used by 
primeval men to the scientifically correct 
weapons of the present day is a long 
stride, says Wood Craft. Frontier log 
houses were pioneer protection. Dugout 
canoes preceded the era when, as we are 
told by tradition, the warriors of Greece 
went foi'th on the wooden Argo in search 
of the golden fieece. Troy was captured 
by the aid of that mammoth wooden 
horse that held a daring group of Gre- 
cian invaders. Chariots, battering rams, 
scaling ladders, catapults, slings, gate- 
ways, portcullis, drawbridges and other 
ingenious contrivances of the ancients 
tell on antique parchmeRt and on many 
monuments of stone the part contributed 
by the woodworker to the art of war. 
McCurdy says that of operations in the 
field the famous example of Caesar's 
bridge over the Rhine — completed in 
nine days — will stand as one of the 
greatest of feats. 

In modern times we have pontoon 
bridges, timbering for trenches and the 
making of temporary and other bridges 
to replace those destroyed by assault of 
arms. Repairs and renewals of wheels 
and wagons are continuously demanded 
in wood. Huts and sheds, as well as 
their fittings for camps and hospitals, 
the making of wagons and cases for the 
transportation of supplies, all these and 
similar wants call upon the woodworking 
craftsman. Aeroplanes are largely of 
wood, walnut and other choice materials 
being used freely in their construction. 
Even battleships are not free of this 
very convenient means of construction, 
the armor being bolted on to a stout 
backing of heavy timber, frequently 
teak. 



Show your interest in the affairs of the 
U. B. in a practical manner by regularly 
attending the meetings of your local. 



Editorial 




The Carpenter 

Official Jvurnal of 

The United Brotherhood 

of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America 

Published on the 15th of each month at the 

CARPENTERS' BUILDING 

Indianapolis, Ind. 

UNITED BROTHERHOOD OF 

CARPENTERS AND JOINERS OF AMERICA. 

PUBLISHERS 

FRANK DUFFY, Editor 

Subscription Price, 
One Dollar a Year in Advance, postpaid 

Address all Letters and Money to 

FRANK DUFFY, 

Carpenters' Building Indianapolis, Ind. 



INDIANAPOI/IS, MARCH, 1915 



Building Trade Prospects 

While we will not pretend to deny that 
there was a good deal of pessimism at the 
beginning of the year regarding the build- 
ing outlook, we are glad to report a very 
welcome change from such an attitude in 
many different parts of the country. This, 
no doubt, will be good news to the many 
building tradesmen who have been the 
chief sufferers as a result of the great 
trade depression last year. 

Of course, it sounds like the veriest 
platitude to say that prosperity in the 
building line depends on the state of the 
money market to a greater extent than in 
any other industry. Yet it is well to em- 
phasize that fact. Building operations 
are almost universally floated on a loan 
basis today. The fluctuations of the 
money market either make or mar build- 



ing trade prospects and a general finan- 
cial stringency or any tightening of the 
nation's purse strings seriously hamper 
the industry. 

Throughout the country, especially in 
the Middle West, money seems to be 
loosening up considerably and the banks 
are lending money much more freely than 
in the past. Whether the recent cur- 
rency legislation has been directly re- 
sponsible for this we are unable to tell: 
but, at any rate, it has helped to tone up 
building trade prospects and augurs well 
for the coming season. 

The revival of building operations 
which were suspended last year should 
also enter as a factor in making 1915 
a record year, as there is a great deal of 
work of this nature hanging fire. Last 
month we remarked that the large num- 
ber of trade movements entered into, and 
the very successful outcome of a number 
of them, furnished a good indication of a 
busy season. This month many more lo- 
cals have reported satisfactory progress 
along this line. 

It is hardly likely that these favorable 
indications could be purely artificial, for 
in addition we have the views of repre- 
sentative bankers, contractors, real es- 
tate men and architects, all of which 
seem to be in accord in believing that a 
return of prosperity is at hand in the 
building trade. Our members should, 
therefore, take heart, especially those who 
have been discouraged by long periods of 
enforced idleness. A good busy season's 
work should put them solidly on their feet 
again. 

New York Day of Rest I, aw Upheld 

We are glad to see that the New York 
law requiring that employes in mercan- 
tile and manufacturing establishments 
shall have one day of rest in seven has 
been upheld by the Court of Appeals. 
The bill, it will be remembered, was 



Tfia CarpontQr 



framed by the American Association for 
Labor Legislation to meet the necessities 
of modem industry and requires that 
workers be given a twenty-four hour rest- 
in each week. The statute differs mate- 
rially from the Sunday laws in force in 
the different states and is largely in- 
tended to supplement them, for such 
laws, especially in the older states, are 
today practically unable to meet the 
newer conditions existing in our modern 
industries. The New York law is based 
upon the theory that all workers, because 
of the complexity of our modern civiliza- 
tion, cannot avail of the Sunday day of 
rest but that they are entitled, neverthe- 
less, to a full day of rest in each week 
in the interest of health and general wel- 
fare. 

In upholding the constitutionality of 
the law, the Court of Appeals took an 
advanced position on that usually taken 
en the subject of laws regulating the 
Sabbath, and said: 

Can we say that the provision for a full day 
of rest in seven for such employes is so extrav- 
agant and unreasonable, so disconnected with 
the probable promotion of health and welfare 
that its enactment is beyond the jurisdiction of 
the legislature? * * * We have no power 
of decision of the question whether it is the 
wisest and best way to offset these conditions 
and to give to employes the protection which 
they need, even if we had any doubt on that 
subject. Our only inquiry must be whether 
the provision on its face seems reasonable, fair 
and appropriate, and whether it can fairly be 
believed that its natural consequences will be 
in the direction of the betterment of public 
health and welfare, and therefore that it is 
one which the state for its protection and ad- 
vantage may enact and enforce. 

The court also stated, as a matter of 
common observation, that the labor of the 
classes of employes designated in the bill 
was generally indoors and imposed that 
greater burden on health which comes 
from confinement, many times accom- 
panied by crowded conditions and im- 
pure air, and that consequently special 
conditions were presented which became 
a reasonable basis for special consid- 
eration. 

There is in this decision of the New 
York court an implied willingness to 
meet existing industrial conditions which 



is very refreshing and we only wish that 
other courts would adopt something of 
the same frame of mind when passing 
upon the constitutionality of labor legis- 
lation in general. If so, we would find 
less reliance placed upon moth-eaten 
legal precedents and obsolete statutes 
which were never intended for the com- 
plex conditions of our modern world, and 
instead a more frank recognition of the 
needs of humanity. 

The Sixty-third Congress 

Among the legislative measures which 
we should like to have seen passed before 
the close of the Sixty-third Congress 
were the Palmer-Owens child labor bill 
and the Booher-Hughes bill regulating 
the interstate shipment of goods wholly 
or in part manufactured, mined or pro 
duced by convict labor. As things stood, 
however, on account of the legislative 
jam in the Senate during the closing 
days of the session nothing short of a 
miracle could have brought them up for 
final action. This is much to be re- 
gretted, as both bills scored notable 
triumphs in the House of Representatives 
and their enactment into law would add 
needed strength to the record of the Six- 
ty-third Congress in the matter of social 
reform legislation. 

The Booher-Hughes convict labor bill 
passed the House four times, the vote 
the last time being 302 to 3, and on be- 
ing sent to the Upper House, the Senate 
committee reported favorably upon it. 

As regards child labor legislation: the 
Palmer-Owen bill was passed by the 
House on February 15 by a vote of 237 
to 45 despite strong opposition, especial- 
ly from the southern cotton manufactur- 
ers. The small vote against the bill was 
made up almost wholly of Congressmen 
from southern States backward in child 
labor legislation; nine were from 
Georgia, seven from North Carolina, six 
from Mississippi, five from Texas, five 
from South Carolina and three from Ala- 
bama. The bill in all probability now 
goes over to the next Congress, but its 
triumphant passage by the recent House 
(Continued on Page 22.) 



Official Information 




GENERAL OFFICERS 
OF 

The UNITED BROTHERHOOD 

OF 

CARPENTERS and JOINERS 

OF AMERICA 



General OflBce, 
Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General President, 
JAMES KTRBY, Carpenters' Building, Indi- 
anapolis. 



General Secretary, 
FRANK DUFFY, Carpenters' Building, Indi- 
anapolis. 



General Treasurer, 
THOMAS NEALE, Carpenters' Building, Indi- 
anapolis. 



First Vice-President, 

W. L. HUTCHBSON, Carpenters' Building, 

Indianapolis. 



Second Vice-President, 

ARTHUR A. QUINN, 109 N. Market St., Perth 

Amboy, N. J. 



General Executive Board, 

First District, T. M. GUERIN, 290 Second 

Ave., Troy, N. Y. 



Second District, D. A. POST, 416 S. Main St.. 
Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 



Third District, JOHN H. POTTS, G46 Mellish 
Ave., Cincinnati, O. 



Fourth District, JAMES P. OGLETREE, 278 
Keel St., Memphis, Tenn. 



Fifth District, HARRY BLACKMORE, 4223 
N. Market St., St. Louis, Mo. 



Sixth District, W. A. COLE, 129 Henry St., 
San Francisco, Cal. 



Seventh District, ARTHUR MARTEL, 1399 
St. Denis, Montreal, Que., Can. 



JAMES KIRBY, Chairman. 



FRANK DUFFY, Secretary. 



-:- Our Principles -:- 



All correspondence for the General Executive 
I'.oard must be sent to the General Secretary. 



Resolved, That we, as a body, thoroughly 
approve of the objects of the American Fed- 
eration of Labor and pledge ourselves to give 
it our earnest and hearty support. 

Union-Made Goods 

Resolved, That members of this organiza- 
tion should make it a rule, when purchasing 
goods, to call for those which bear the trade- 
mark of organized labor, and when any indi- 
vidual, firm or corporation shall strike a blow 
at labor organizations they are earnestly re- 
quested to give that individual, firm or cor- 
poration their careTul consideration. No good 
union man can kiss the rod that whips him. 

I^abor I^eg^slation 

Resolved, That it is of the greatest impor- 
tance that members should vote intelligently; 
hence the members of this Brotherhood shall 
strive to secure legislation in favor of those 
who produce the wealth of the country, and 
all discussions and resolutions in that diiec- 
tion shall be in order at any regular meeting, 
but party politics must be excluded. 

Immigration 

Resolved, That while we welcome to our 
shores all who come with the honest intention 
of becoming lawful citizens, we at the same 
time condemn the present system which al- 
lows the importation of destitute laborers, and 
we urge organized labor everywhere to en- 
deavor to secure the enactment of more strin- 
gent immigration laws. 

Faithful Work 

Resolved, That we hold it as a sacred prin- 
ciple that Trade Union men, above all others, 
should set a good example as good and faith- 
ful workmen, performing their duties to their 
employers with honor to themselves and their 
organization. 

Shorter Hours of I^abor 

We hold a reduction of hours for a day's 
work increases the intelligence and happiness 
of the laborer, and also increases the demand 
for labor and the price of a day's work. 

Miscellaneous 

We recognize that the interests of all classes 
of labor are identical, regardless of occupa- 
tion, nationality, religion, or color, for a 
wrong done to one is a wrong done to all. 

We object to prison contract labor, because 
it puts the criminal in competition with 
honorable labor for the purpose of cutting 
down wages, and also because it helps to over- 
stock the labor market. 

Resolved, That we most earnestly condemn 
the practice in vogue in many cities, but more 
especially in the West, of advertising ficti- 
tious building booms, as it has a tendency to 
demoralize the trade in such localities. 



Ifia CarpQntQF 



Proceedings of the First Quarterly 
Session, 1915, of the G. :e. B. 

During the interim between the fourth 
quarterly session of 1914 and the first quar- 
terly session of 1915 the Board acted upon the 
following matters by correspondence: 

October 27, 1914. 

Arecibo, Porto Rico. — Request of L. U. 1589 
for financial aid for members involved in 
trade dispute. The Board votes to pay strike 
relief as reports are received at the G. O. 

October 29, 1914. 

The Board approves of the action of the G. 
P. in notifying the District Council of In- 
dianapolis, Ind., that members locked out on 
account of supporting the bricklayers will re- 
ceive financial aid from the General Office. 

October 29, 1914. 

The G. P. submitted to the members of the 
Board a detailed report relative to investiga- 
tion made by himself and Board Member 
Potts concerning lawsuits in Chicago, in ac- 
cordance with previous instructions of the 
Board. 

November 25, 1914. 

On recommendation made by the G. P., the 
Board approves of a bill for one hundred 
dollars covering extra expenses incurred by 
D. F. Featherstou in connection with the 
metal trim exhibit at the convention of the 
American Federation of Labor. 

The G. P. submitted to the Board a report 
by Organizer Lakey on conditions in Free- 
port, 111., where a strike had been in progress 
for several months past. The Board decides 
to discontinue strike pay after December 5. 
November 25, 1914. 

The G. P. submitted to the Board a report 
of the investigation made by him in the case 
of Mrs. P. J. McGuire, as authorized by the 
Indianapolis convention, and the Board ap- 
proves of the action of the G. P. in having 
certain repairs made at the McGuire home and 
in rendering a small weekly allowance to Mrs. 
McGuire. 

The report and recommendations of Organ- 
izer Lakey, relative to the mill men's strike in 
Cincinnati, Ohio, was submitted to the Board 
by the G. P., and the Board decided to dis- 
continue further strike pay after the week 
ending December 5. 

November 30, 1914. 

The G. P. submitted to the Board a com- 
munication from Lawyer Beattie, of New 
York City, regarding the Bossert vs. Dhuy 
and the Newton vs. Erickson cases. The 
Board approves of the action of the G. P. in 
authorizing Lawyer Beattie to appeal the 
cases to a higher court. 

December 1, 1914. 

Grand Rapids, Mich. — Request of the D. C. 
for continued financial aid for men involved 



in a movement for the eight-hour day. The 
Board decides to discontinue further financial 
relief. 

December 4,, 1914. 
Cincinnati, Ohio. — Request of Millmen's 
Unions Nos. 327 and 1251 to circulate an ap- 
peal for financial aid for the mill men on 
strike. The Board denies the request. 

December 22, 1914. 
The G. P. submitted to the Board a copy of 
a communication received from the Cincinnati 
mill men, urging the necessity of continued 
financial assistance for the men involved in 
the strike, in order that their Local Unions 
might be maintained. The Board appropri- 
ates .$1,000.00. 

Indianapolis, Ind., January 18, 1915. 

The first quarterly meeting of the General 
Executive Board for the year 1915 was called 
to order on the above date by General Presi- 
dent Kirby, all members present except 
Brother Guerin, who was detained in the East 
on other business. 

Cincinnati, Ohio. — Brother Rose, of L. U. 
327, and Brother Imwalle, of L. U. 1251, prop- 
erly credentialed, appeared before the G. E. B. 
in behalf of the striking mill men, requesting 
a further appropriation for the men still out. 
The Board appropriates the sum of one thou- 
sand (1,000) dollars. 

Louisville, Ky. — Brother Weyler, of L. U. 
C4, and Organizer Huber, who has been in 
that city for some time past, appeared before 
the G. E. B. in support of a request for an 
appropriation for organizing purposes. After 
a hearing on the request the Board laid the 
matter over until all the papers in the case 
are before the Board. 

The examination and audit of the books and 
accounts was taken up at this time. 

January 19, 1915. 
All members present except Guerin. 
The examination and audit of the books and 
accounts continued. 

January 20, 1915. 
All members present except Guerin. 
The entire day was taken up in the audit 
and examination of the books and accounts. 

January 21, 1915. 

All members present except Guerin. 

St. Louis, Mo. — Request received from the 
D. C. by telegram that Brother Simpson be 
allowed to appear before the G. E. B. in re- 
gard to the mill question. Request granted. 

East Orange, N. J.— Communication received 
from the District Council of Montclalr, Bloom- 
field and the Oranges relative to a lockout in 
East Orange by Curtis Brothers, involving 
sixteen men. When additional report is made 
by the D. C. as to the progress of the lockout 
the G. E. B. will take further action. 

Chicago, 111. — Communication from Farrell 



10 



TjFiq CarpQntQF 



& Thompson, lawyers, in regard to the con- 
tempt case against oflBcers anrl members and 
the Carpenters' District Council of Chicago 
and other cases read, and balance of bill 
amounting to $3,600.00 ordered paid. 

The examination and audit of the books and 
accounts continued. 

January 22, 1915. 

All members present except Guerin. 

Stockton, Cal. — Telegram received from L. 
U. 266 relative to progress of lockout. The G. 
E. B. appropriates $810.00 for the relief of the 
men answering roll call. 

The examination and audit of the books and 
accounts continued. 

January 23, 1915. 

All members present except Guerin. 

The entire day taken up with the audit of 
books and accounts. 

January 25, 1915. 

Audit and examination of books and ac- 
counts continued. 

January 26, 1915. 

The examination and audit of the books and 
accounts continued and completed. The re- 
port of the expert accountant was compared 
with the books of the General Office and the 
books and accounts found to be correct. 

Kenosha, Wis. — Request of L. TJ. 161 for a 
rehearing of the case of said L. U. vs. certain 
members of the D. C. of Milwaukee, Wis., on 
the grounds that said union was not in posi- 
tion to send a delegate to the last convention 
to present their case, further that they had 
new evidence for presentation that was not 
submitted previously. It was decided to set 
Tuesday morning, February 2, at 10 o'clock, 
for a hearing of the case, the Milwaukee D. C. 
to be notified of said hearing. 

January 27, 1915. 

All members present. 

Columbus, lud. — ^A communication was re- 
ceived from L. U. 1155, inviting some one of 
the General Officers to attend a meeting on the 
evening of January 27, at which the wage 
scale for the coming year was to be discussed. 
Received and. tiled, as the notice of the meet- 
ing was too short. 

Cincinnati, Ohio. — A communication was re- 
ceived from L. U.'s -327 and 12-51, the striking 
mill men's unions, asking whether or not fur- 
ther donations would be made for the benefit 
of the men on strike. The G. S. is instructed 
to notify said Local Unions that the last do- 
nation, made by the Board on January IS, 
1915, was final. 

Coffeyviile, Kan. — Communications from L. 
L. 1212, relative to lockout in progress since 
early in J:nmary, were read and laid over 
awaiting further information. 

Communication from the Brunswick-Balke- 
Collender Company, of Chicago, 111., complain- 
ing against the action of certain members of 
our organization in that city in requesting 
prospective custouieis to -deal with and pat- 



ronize home firms instead of those who do 
their work elsewhere, was placed before the 
Board by the G. P. After a full discussion of 
the matter the Board finds that our members 
in Chicago are not discriminating against our 
label in any manner, but, on the contrary, are 
only boosting home industry, the same as 
Chambers of Commerce and Boards of Trade 
are doing elsewhere. 

Charges preferred against W. L. Hutcheson, 
First General Vice-President; James P. Ogle- 
tree, member of the G. E. B. from the Fourth 
District, and Organizers Berry and Kiern, by 
L. U. No. 76 of New Orleans, La., were read. 
The G. E. B. cannot consider same, as the 
General Constitution has not been complied 
with by L. L'. 76, and for the further reason 
that the charter involved did not belong to L. 
U. 76, but was the property of the U. B. and 
should have been sent to the General Office 
when that L. U. lapsed. 

White Plains, N. Y.— Appeal of L. U. No. 53 
of White Plains from the decision of the G. P. 
in the matter of the initiation by L. U. 2522 
of an ex-member of L. U. No. 53. The decision 
of the G. P. is sustained on the grounds set 
forth therein and the appeal dismissed. 

San Francisco, Cal. — Appeal of the Bay 
Counties D. C. from the decision of the Gen- 
eral President concerning the right of L. U. 
22 to elect its own business agent without the 
sanction of the D. C. The decision of the G. 
P. is sustained on the grounds set forth there- 
in and the appeal is dismissed. 

Tacoma, Wash. — Appeal of L. U. 470 of Ta- 
coma from the decision of the G. P. in the 
case of L. U. 470 vs. L. U. 1320, concerning the 
initiation fee of J. C. Kelly. The decision of 
the G. P. is sustained on the grounds set forth 
therein and the appeal dismissed. 

Hartford, Conn. — Appeal of L. U. No. 43 
from the decision of the G. P. in the case of 
Kenneth Finlaysou, of Hartford, vs. the 
Springfield (Mass.) D. C. The decision of the 
G. P. is sustained on the grounds set forth 
tlierein and the appeal dismissed. 

KIdgefleld. Conn. — Appeal of L. U. 1110 from 
the ruling of the G. P. in the controversy be- 
tween L. U. 1119 of Ridgefield and L. U. No. 
53 of Wliite Plains. N. Y., over the initiation 
of one Ileur.v Cote. The decision of the G. P. 
is sustained on the grounds set forth therein, 
as specified in Section 58 of the General Con- 
stitution, ;niil tlie appeal is therefore dis- 
missed. 

Pawtuckel. R. [. — Appeal of the District 
Council of I'awtucket from the ruling of the 
General President in ordering the consolida- 
tion of the Pnwtucket and Providence District 
Councils. lu the organizing of one District 
Council to cover the territory now covered by 
the District Councils of Providence and Paw- 
tucket, B. I., the G. E. B. sustains the action 
of the G. P. and dismisses the appeal from the 
I'awtucket D. C. 

Charges being preferred by L. U.'s Nos. 1312 



11 



TfiQ CarpQntQr 



aud 1846 of New Orleans, La., against L. U. 
Xo. 76 of the same city for violation of Sec- 
tion 131 of the General Constitution in its 
entirety, the G. B. B. deferred action pending 
an investigation by a special committee of the 
G. E. B. appointed by the General President. 
The G. P. appoints Brother Potts, of the 
Third District; Brother Martel, of the Sev- 
enth District, and the General Seci"etary. 

January 28, 1913. 

All members present. 

St. Louis, Mo. — ^Appeal of L. U. No. 257 from 
the decision of the G. P. in the case of W. B. 
Ferrell and W. P. Lytle vs. L. U. No. 257. The 
decision of the G. P. is sustained on the 
grounds set forth therein and the appeal dis- 
missed. 

Cleveland, Ohio. — Appeal of Frank Kader- 
vek from the decision of the G. P. in the case 
of Frank Kadervek vs. the Cleveland D. C. 
The decision is sustained on the grounds set 
forth therein and the appeal dismissed. 

New York, N. Y. — ^Appeal of C. Nier from 
the decision of the General President in the 
case of C. Nier vs. the New York District 
Council. The decision of the G. P. is sus- 
tained on the grounds set forth therein and 
the appeal dismissed. 

Herrin, 111. — Appeal of T. J. Burnett from 
the decision of the General President in the 
case of T. J. Burnett vs. L. U. 581 of Herrin. 
The decision of the G. P. is sustained on the 
grounds set forth therein and the appeal dis- 
missed. 

Herrin, 111. — Appeal of R. W. Davis from 
the decision of the General President in the 
case of R. W. Davis vs. L. U. 581 of Herrin. 
The decision of the G. P. is sustained on the 
grounds set forth therein and the appeal dis- 
missed. 

Herrin, 111. — Appeal of A. L. Gothard from 
the decision of the General President in the 
case of A. L. Gothard vs. L. U. No. 581. The 
<Iecision of the G. P. is sustained on the 
grounds set forth therein and the appeal dis- 
missed. 

New York, N. Y. — ^Appeal of Edw. Werner 
from the decision of the General President in 
the case of Edw. Werner vs. L. U. No. 126 of 
Brooklyn. The decision of the G. P. is sus- 
tained on the grounds set forth therein and 
the appeal dismissed. 

Herrin, Ill.^Appeal of J. M. Craven from 
the decision of the G. P. in the case of J. M. 
Craven vs. L. V. No. 581 of Herrin. The de- 
cision of the G. P. is sustained on the grounds 
set forth therein and the appeal dismissed. 

Fort Worth, Tex.— Appeal of E. E. Smith 
from the decision of the General President in 
the case of B. E. Smith vs. L. U. No. 208 of 
Fort Worth. The decision of the G. P. is sus- 
tained on the grounds set forth therein and 
the appeal dismissed. 

St. Louis, Mo. — Appeal of L. U. No. 257 from 
the decision of the G. P. in the case of L. U. 
No. 2.57 vs. the St. Louis D. C. The decision 



of the G. P. is sustained on the groimds set 
forth therein and the appeal dismissed. 

Seattle, Wash. — Appeal of John N. Holbach 
from the decision of the General President in 
the case of John Holbach vs. the Seattle D. C. 
The decision of the G. P. is sustained on the 
grounds set forth therein and the appeal dis- 
missed 

New York, N. Y. — Appeal of George Wetzel 
from the decision of the General President in 
the case of George Wetzel vs. the New York 
D. C. The decision of the G. P. is sustained 
on the grounds set forth therein and the ap- 
peal is dismissed. 

Boston, Mass. — Appeal of George Gale from 
the decision of the General President In the 
case of George Gale vs. the Boston D. C. The 
decision of the G. P. is sustained on the 
grounds set forth therein and the appeal dis- 
missed. 

The reports of General President Kirby, 
First General Vice-President Hutcheson and 
Second General Vice-President Quinn for the 
quarter ended December 31, 1914, were read 
and ordered published in The Carpenter. 

St. Louis, Mo. — Organizer Simpson appeared 
before the Board in behalf of the St. Louis 
District Council for the purpose of explaining 
the mill conditions in that city as they exist 
at the present time, also requesting financial 
aid in case the outside men should become in- 
volved. The G. S. is instructed to notify the 
St. Louis D. C. that the matter is laid over 
until the laws of the U. B. governing trade 
movements are complied with. 

New Y'ork, N. Y. — Appeal of L. U. No. 707 
from the decision of the General Treasurer in 
disallowing the claim for funeral donation on 
the death of Blzear Marcotte. The decision 
of the G. T. is sustained on the grounds set 
forth therein, namely, that the Ijrother was 
not in benefit standing at the time his death 
occurred, and the appeal is therefore dis- 
missed. 

Pekin, 111.— Appeal of L. U. No. 644 of Pekin 
from the decision of the General Treasurer in 
disapproving the claim for funeral donation 
on the death of Harry Selby. The decision of 
the G. T. is sustained on the grounds set forth 
therein, namely, that the claim was not filed 
with the General Treasurer within six months 
from date of death, as required by Section 09 
of the General Constitution, and the appeal i.s 
therefore dismissed. 

Chattanooga, Tenn. — Appeal of L. U. No. 90S 
of Chattanooga from the decision of the Gen- 
eral Treasurer in disapproving the claim for 
disability donation in behalf of Brother M. L. 
Clark. The appeal is dismissed and the deci- 
sion of the G. T. sustained on the grounds spt 
forth therein, namely, that the claim was, not 
filed within two years, as provided for in Sec- 
tion 95 of the General Constitution. 

January 29, 1915. 
All members present. 
On request of the General Treasurer for a 



12 



TfiQ Carpontor 



ruling by the G. E. B. on decisions rendered 
by tlie Board on April 16, 1907; on January 28, 
1908, and on July 20, 1908, tbe Board reaffirms 
tbe decisions of the dates herein specified, 
same to apply to all cases that are fac-simile. 

The G. E. B. rules that, under the plan of 
solidification, beneficial members of the A. S. 
Section may become full beneficial or semi- 
beneficial members also in the U. B. by pay- 
ing the full dues of beneficial or semi-bene- 
ficial members of the U. B., and their member- 
ship will date from the time they became full 
dues-paying members of the IT. B. 

Stockton, Cal. — On receipt of a telegram 
from L. U. No. 266, the Board appropriates 
ifSlO.OO' for the relief of the members of that 
union involved In lockout. 

Woodside, Long Island, N. Y. — Appeal of 
L. U. No. 324 from the decision of the General 
Treasurer in disapproving the claim for dis- 
abilit.v donation in behalf of Owen McLaugh- 
lin. The decision of the G. T. is sustained on 
the grounds set forth therein, namely, that 
the disability was not the result of an acci- 
dent, and the appeal is dismissed. 

The New York suits now pending were con- 
sidered in all their phases and the G. E. B. 
authorized the member of the Board from the 
First District and the General President to 
continue supervision of same. 

Philadelphia, Pa. — Appeal of L. U. No. 1051 
from the decision of the General- Treasurer in 
disallowing the claim for funeral donation on 
the death of Adam Burg, late a member of L. 
U. 1051. The decision of the G. T. is sustained 
and the appeal dismissed, as the claim was 
not filed within six months from date of 
death, as per Section 99 of the General Con- 
stitution. 

Philadelphia, Pa. — The G. B. B. makes an 
appropriation of ,$107.80 for organizing pur- 
poses, same to be expended under the super- 
vision of the G. P. 

Hartford, Conn. — Appeal of Louis Fierberg, 
member of L. U. No. 43 of Hartford, from the 
decision of the General Treasurer in disap- 
proving the claim for disability donation in 
behalf of Louis Fierberg. The appeal is- dis- 
missed and the decision of the G. T. sustained 
on the grounds set forth therein, namely, that 
the brother is not totally and permanently 
disabled within the meaning of Section 93 of 
the General Constitution. 

New York, N. Y. — ^Appeal of Antonio Borello, 
member of L. U. 56 of New York, from the 
decision of the G. T. in disallowing claim for 
funeral donation on the death of the- wife of 
Brother Borello. The appeal is dismissed, the 
decision of the G. T.- being sustained., on the 
grounds set forth therein, namely, that, the 
brother was not iii benefit standings at the 
"time of his wife's death.. 

Philadelphia, Pa.— Appeal of L. U. No. 8 
from the decision of the General Treasurer in 
disapproving the claim for funeral donation 
on the .death of the wife' of John Wisul, a 



member of L. U. No. 8. The appeal is dis- 
missed, the decision of the G. T. being sus- 
tained on the grounds set forth therein, 
namely, that the claim was not filed within 
six months from date of death, as provided 
for in Section 99 of the General Constitution. 

San Francisco, Cal. — Appeal of Alex. Howie, 
through his attorney, from the decision of the 
General Treasurer in disapproving claim for 
funeral donation on the death of son, James 
Howie, late a member of L. U. No. 1082. The 
decision of the G. T. is sustained on the 
grounds set forth therein, namely, that the 
claim was not filed within six months from 
date of death, as per Section 99 of the General 
Constitution, and the appeal is therefore dis- 
missed. 

The Board decides that where the evidence 
presented with any claim for death or disabil- 
ity donation shows that the claim is not filed 
in accordance with Sections 99 and 95 of the 
General Constitution, through the carelessness 
or negligence of a Local Union or its officers, 
as per Section 120, said L. U. is financially 
responsible for same. 

January 30, 1915. 

All members present. 

The G. P. submitted to the Board the report 
of the Tabulating Committee elected at the 
Indianapolis convention to count the vote on 
the election of General Officers. The report 
shows the following General Officers elected 
to serve for the ensuing term : 

James Kirby, General President. 

Wm. L. Hutcheson, First General Vice-Pres- 
ident. 

Arthur A. Quinn, Second General Vice-Pres- 
ident. 

Frank Duffy, General Secretary^ 

Thos. Neale, General Treasurerv 

T. M. Guerin, Member G. B. B., First Dis- 
trict. - 

D. A. Post, Member G. E. B., Second Dis- 
trict. :. ., 

John H. Potts, Member G. E. B., Third Dis- 
trict. • 

James P. Ogletree, Member G. E. B., Fourth 
District. 

Harry Blackmore, -Member G. E. B., Fifth 
District. 

W. A. Cole, Member G. B. B., Sixth District. 

Arthur Martel, Member O: B. B., Seventh 
District. . 

The-report in detail to be published in the 
February issue of our official journal. The 
Carpenter. 

Chicago, 111. — Appeal of L. U. No. 1786 from 
the decision of the General Treasurer in dis- 
approving claim for disability donation in ber 
half of .Joseph Cerny. The evidence.. shows 
that the disability is th«' result of some phys- 
ical ailment and not the result of accidental 
injuries, therefore the decision of the General 
Treasurer is sustained, as per Section 93 of 
the General Constitution, and the appeal dis- 
missed. ... 



13 



Tfia CarpQntQr 



Youngstown, Ohio. — Appeal of George T. 
Bert, a member of L. U. 171 of Youngstown, 
from the decision of the General Treasurer in 
disapproving claim for disability donation in 
behalf of Brother Bert. The appeal is dis- 
missed and the decision of the G. T. sustained 
on the grounds set forth therein, namely, that 
the brother's disablement was not the result 
of accidental injuries, as provided In Section 
93 of the General Constitution. 

An oflacial Schedule of Inquiries, to be used 
when appropriations for organizing purposes 
are asked for, was adopted by the G. E. B. 
and the G. S. was instructed to have same 
printed and sent to all Local Unions or Dis- 
trict Councils requesting such appropriations 
in the future, said schedule to be filled out 
completely and in detail before the G. E. B. 
will act on same. 

Buffalo, N. Y.— Request of the D. C. for 
financial assistance for men involved in lock- 
out. The Board appropriates tjie sum of 
$500.00, same to be expended under the super- 
vision of the G. P. 

Delaware Co., Pa.— Request from the D. C. 
for an appropriation for organizing purposes. 
The matter is laid over for further investiga- 
tion. 

Savannah, Ga. — Request from the D. C. for 
an appropriation for organizing purposes and 
the appointment of a local organizer. The 
Board appropriates $250.00, same to be spent 
under the supervision of the G. P. 

Akron, Ohio. — Request from the Summit 
County D. C. for an appropriatien for organ- 
izing purposes. The sum of $150.00 is appro- 
priated, same to be spent under the super- 
vision of the G. P. 

Tampa, Fla. — Request from the D. C. for an 
appropriation for organizing purposes. Ac- 
tion is deferred until the April meeting of the 
Board. 

Nashville, Tenn.— Request from L. U. No. 41 
for an appropriation for organizing purposes. 
Action deferred until the April meeting of the 
Board. 

Louisville, Ky. — Request of L. U. No. 64 for 
an appropriation for organizing purposes. 
Action deferred until the April meeting of the 
G. E. B. 

Bay City, Mich. — Request of L. U. No. 116 
for an appropriation for organizing purposes. 
Action is deferred until the April session of 
the Board. 

Kansas City, Kan. — Request of L. U. No. 
168, endorsed by the D. C. of Kansas City, for 
ah appropriation of $500.00 for organizing pur- 
poses. Action is deferred until the April 
meeting of the Board. 

Knoxville, Tenn.— Request of L. U. No. 225 
for an appropriation for organizing purposes 
was received and laid over until the April 
Board meeting. 

Marietta, Ohio.— Request of L. U. No. 356 
for an appropriation for organizing purposes. 



The request is denied and the question of 
organizing referred to the G. P. 

Harrisburg, 111.— Request of L. U. No. 669 
for an appropriation for organizing purposes. 
Action is deferred until the April meeting. 

The official working term of the General 
Executive Board having expired, the Board 
adjourned sine die on Saturday, January 30, 
1915. Respectfully submitted, 

FRANK DUFFY, Secretary. 
Indianapolis, Ind., February 1, 1915. 

At ten o'clock Monday morning, February 1, 
1915. former General President William D. 
Huber officially installed into office, for the 
ensuing two years, the following General 
Officers : 

James Kirby General President 

Wm. L. Hutcheson. .1st Gen. Vice-President 

Arthur A. Quinn 2d Gen. Vice-President 

Frank Duffy General Secretary 

Thomas Neale General Treasurer 

T. M. Guerin Member G. E. B., 1st Dist. 

D. A. Post Member G. E. B., 2d Dist. 

John H. Potts Member G. E. B., 3d Dist. 

James P. Ogletree. .Member G. E. B., 4th Dist. 
Harry Blackmore. . .Member G. E. B., 5th Dist. 

Wm. A. Cole Member G. E. B., 6th Dist. 

Arthur Martel Member G. B. B., 7th Dist. 

Immediately following the installation. Gen- 
eral President Kirby called to order the first 
quarterly meeting of the General Executive 
Board in the new term. 

All members present. 

Pasadena, Cal.— Request of L. U.'s No. 675, 
No. 1351 and No. 769, all in the Pasadena dis- 
trict, for an appropriation of $500.00 for or- 
ganizing purposes. The Board appropriates 
$250.00, same to be spent under the supervi- 
sion of the G. P. 

Fond du Lac, Wis. — Request of L. U. No. 
782 for an appropriation for organizing pur- 
poses considered and laid over until the April 
meeting of the Board. 

Lincoln, Neb. — Request of L. U. No. 1055 for 
an appropriation to assist in organizing the 
carpenters of the State of Nebraska. The re- 
quest is denied and that part of the communi- 
cation referring to organizing the State is 
referred to the G. P. 

President Thomas Williams, 6f the Building 
Trades Department of the American Federa- 
tion of Labor, appeared before the Board and 
discussed the proposition of the reafflliation 
of the U. B. with the Building Trades Depart- 
ment. He offered his services in being helpful 
to accomplish that result. 

Lincoln, Neb.— Request of L. U. No. 1055 for 
remitting of per capita tax for the first quar- 
ter of 1915. The request is denied, as the G. 
B. B. has not the authority to remit per cap- 
ita tax to the General Office. 

Kansas City, Kan. — Request of Millwrights' 
IJnion No. 1529 for an appropriation for or- 
ganizing purposes. The request is denied and 

14 



TfiQ CarpQntQF 



the matter of organiziug is lefeiied to the 
(J. P. 

Ne^v Castle, Pa. — Request of L. r. No. 206 
for au appropriation to assist in tlie fight 
against non-union shop conditions. The re- 
iiuest is denied and the matter of organizing 
is referred to the G. P. 

Beaumont, Tex.— Request of L. IJ. No. 392 
for an appropriation to assist in supporting 
a business agent. The request is denied, as 
the Board has no authority to make appro- 
priations to pay salaries of business agents. 

Fargo, N. D. — A communication was re- 
ceived from L. U. No. 1176, requesting lockout 
benefits for men out of employment. The 
Board denies the request. 

Brie, Pa. — Request of the D. C. for official 
sanction and financial aid in support of a 
movement to establish union shop conditions, 
effective May 1, 1915. The Board grants the 
oflScial sanction desired, the question of finan- 
cial aid to be considered as reports are made 
to the G. O. 

Hudson Co., N. J.— Request of the D. C. for 
official sanction and financial aid In support 
of a movement for an increase in wages of 50 
cents per day, effective May 1, 1915. The 
Board grants the official sanction desired, the 
question of financial aid to be considered as 
reports are made to the General Office. 

Lancaster, Pa. — Request of L. U. No. 59 for 
official sanction and financial aid In support 
of a movement for an increase in wages of 5 
cents per hour and a reduction in working 
hours from nine to eight per day, the move- 
ment to take effect April 1, 1915. The official 
sanction desired is granted, the question of 
financial aid to be considered later as reports 
are made to the General Office. 

Terre Haute, Ind. — Request of L. U. No. 133 
for official sanction and financial aid in sup- 
port of a movement for an increase in wages 
of 5 cents per hour and the Saturday half 
holiday, to take effect May 1, 1915. The Board 
grants the official sanction desired, the ques- 
tion of financial aid to be consideretl as re- 
ports are made to the G. O. 

Millville, N. J.— Request of L. U. No. 305 for 
official sanction in support of a movement for 
an increase in wages of 3^ cents per hour and 
the Saturday half holiday, effective April 1, 
1915. The official sanction desired Is granted. 

Asheville, N. C— Request of L. U. No. 384 
for official sanction and financial aid in sup- 
port of a trade movement for an increase in 
wages of 5 cents per hour, same to take effect 
May 1, 1915. The official sanction desired is 
granted, the request for financial aid to be 
considered as reports are received at the Gen- 
eral Office. 

Philadelphia, Pa.— Request of L. U. No. 454, 
Wharf and Dock Builders, endorsed by the 
Philadelphia D. C, for official sanction and 
financial aid in support of a movement for an 
increase in wages of 2i cents per hour, effec- 
tive May 1, 1915. Official sanction granted ; 



financial aid to be considered as reports are 
made to the G. O. 

February 2, 1915. 

All members present. 

Ashland, Ky. — Request of L. U. No. 472 for 
official sanction in support of a movement for 
au increase in wages of 5 cents per hour and 
the eight-hour day, effective April 1, 1915. 
Official sanction granted. 

Reading, Pa.— Request of L. U. No. 492 for 
official sanction and financial aid in support of 
a movement for an increase in wages of 5 
cents per hour, effective May 1, 1915. The 
Board grants the official sanction desired and 
will consider the question of financial aid as 
reports are made to this office. 

Charleston, 111.— Request of L. U. No. 518 
for official sanction and financial aid in sup- 
port of a movement for an increase in wages 
of 10 cents per hour and a reduction in work- 
ing hours from nine to eight per day, effective 
April 1, 1915. Official sanction granted ; finan- 
cial aid to be considered as reports are made 
to the General Office. 

Ithaca, N. Y.— Request of L. IT. 603 for offi- 
cial sanction and financial aid in support of a 
movement for an increase in wages of 2 cents 
per hour, to take effect May 1, 1915. The 
Board grants the official sanction desired, the 
(luestion of financial aid to be considered as 
reports are made to the G. O. 

Spring Valley, 111.— Request of L. U. No. 631 
for official sanction and financial aid In sup- 
port of a movement for an increase in wages 
of 5 cents per hour, effective April 1, 1915. The 
Board grants the official sanction desired, the 
question of financial aid to be considered as 
reports are received at the G. O. 

Comuninications from L. U. No. 161 of Ke- 
nosha. Wis., and the D. C. of Milwaukee, Wis., 
relative to the dispute between said L. U. and 
certain members of the Milwaukee D. C, 
which was before the G. P. and G. E. B. in 
l'.tl2 and 1913 and finally carried to the last 
convention of the U. B. held in Indianapolis 
in September, 1914, came before the Board as 
:i special order of business, as previously ar- 
ranged. No new evidence having been sub- 
mit led to wMvrnut a review of the case, the 
Hoard decides that no further action can be 
taken and therefore instructs L. TJ. No. 161 to 
comply with the orders of the convention on 
or before .July 1, 1915. 

Hamilton, Ohio. — Request of L. U. No. 637 
tor official sanction and financial aid in sup- 
port of a movement for an increase in wages 
of .'> cents per hour and a two-year agree- 
ment, same to take effect May 1, 1915. The 
official sanction desired is granted, the ques- 
tion of financial aid to be considered later as 
reports are made -to the G. O. "~ 

Ottawa, 111.— Request of L. U. No. 661 for 
official sanction and financial aid in support 
of a movement for an increase in wages of 5 
cents per hour, same to take effecjt April 1, 



15 



Tfia CarpontQr 



I'Jl.j. OlHeial sanction granted; financial aid 
to be considered as reports are made to the 
G. O. 

Amarillo, Tex. — Request of L. U. No. 065 for 
official sanction in support of a movement for 
a minimum wage of 50 cents per hour and tlie 
eigbt-hour day, effective February 1, 1915. 
Sanction denied, the L. U. not having com- 
plied with Section 144 of the General Consti- 
tution in the matter of filing the Schedule of 
Inciuiries with the G. S. sixty days prior to 
the date of the movement. 

Franklin, Pa.— Request of L. U. No. 682 of 
Franklin, Pa., for official sanction and finan- 
cial aid in support of a movement for an in- 
crease in wages, effective April 1, 1915. Re- 
ferred back to the General Secretary to ob- 
tain further information. 

Burlington, Vt.— Request of L. TJ. No. 683, 
endorsed by the D. C, for official sanction and 
financial aid in support of a movement for a 
minimum wage of 44 cents per hour and the 
Saturday half holiday, effective April 1, 1915. 
The Board grants the official sanction desired, 
the question of financial aid to be considered 
as reports are made to the G. O. 

Dixon, 111.— Request of L. U. No. 790 for 
official sanction and financial aid in support 
of a movement for an increase in wages of 5 
cents per hour, effective May 1, 1915. The offi- 
cial sanction desired is granted, the request 
for aid to be considered as reports are made 
to the G. O. The Board recommends that the 
next trade movement entered into be for the 
eight-hour day. 

Parkersburg, W. Va. — Request of L. U. No. 
899 for official sanction and financial aid in 
support of a movement for an increase in 
wages of 5 cents per hour and the eight-hour 
day, same to take effect April 5, 1915. Official 
sanction granted; financial aid to be consid- 
ered as reports are received at the G. O. 

Richmond, Ind. — Request of L. U. No. 912 
for official sanction and financial aid in sup- 
port of a movement for an increase in wages 
of 5 cents per hour and a new working agree- 
ment, effective April 1, 1915. Official sanction 
granted; financial aid to be considered as re- 
ports are received at the G. O. The Board 
recommends that the next trade movement 
entered into be for the eight-hour day. 

Springfield, Mo. — Request of L. U. No. 978 
for official sanction and financial aid in sup- 
port of a movement for an increase in wages 
of 5 cents per hour, effective June 1, 1915. The 
Board grants the official sanction desired, 
financial aid to be considered as reports are 
received at the G. O. 

Washington, Ind. — Request of L. U. No. 1076 
for official sanction and financial aid in sup- 
port of a movement for an increase In wages 
of 5 cents per hour, to take effect March 15, 
1915. Official sanction granted ; financial aid 
to be considered as reports are made to the 
General Office, provided this movement is put 
into effect April 1, 1915. The Board further 



recommends that the next movement be for an 
eight-hour day. 

Paragould, Ark.— Request of L. U. No. 1103 
for official sanction and financial aid in sup- 
port of a movement for an increase in wages 
of 5 cents per hour, effective April 1, 1915. 
Official sanction granted ; financial aid to be 
considered as reports are made to the G. O. 
The Board suggests that the next trade move- 
ment entered into be for the eight-hour day. 

Kittaning, Pa.— Request of L. U. No. 1129 
for official sanction and ^financial aid in sup- 
port of a movement for an increase in wages 
of 50 cents per day, effective May 1, 1915. The 
Board grants the official sanction desired, the 
question of financial aid to be considered as 
reports are made to the G. O. 

Salem, Ohio.— Request of L. IT. No. 1282 for 
official sanction and financial aid in support 
of a movement for an increase in wages of 5 
cents per hour and the eight-hour day, to take 
effect April 1, 1915. Official sanction granted; 
financial aid to be considered as reports are 
made to the G. O. 

International President Daly, of the Metal 
Polishers' Union, appeared before the Board 
and' requested the co-operation and assistance 
of the carpenters in organizing the metal pol- 
ishers of New Britain and New Haven, Conn., 
on building hardware. The Board referred 
the matter to the General President, he to 
render whatever assistance he can when nec- 
essary. 

February 3, 1915. 

All members present. 

Boston, Mass. — A communication from L. U. 
No. 1824 relative to the organizing of the 
Library Bureau Company in cities other than 
Chicago was considered, but as the General 
President has the matter under consideration 
at the present time no action on the part of 
the Board is necessary. 

Allentown, Pa.— Request of L. U. No. 1285, 
endorsed by the Lehigh Valley and Slate Belt 
District Council, for official sanction and 
financial aid in support of a movement for an 
increase in wages of 2 cents per hour and the 
nine-hour day, effective May 1, 1915. Official 
sanction granted ; financial aid to be consid- 
ered as reports are made to the G. O. 

Higbee, Mo. — Request of L. U. No. 1533 for 
an increase in wages from $2.56 to $3.00 per 
day, effective January 1, 1915. Referred back 
to the G. S. to procure further information. 

North Wales, Pa.— Request of L. U. No. 1562, 
endorsed by the Montgomery County District 
Council, for official sanction and financial aid 
in support of a movement to increase the 
wages of the millmen on May 1, 1915. The 
Board grants the official sanction desired and 
will consider the question of financial aid as 
reports are made to the G. O. 

Plymouth, Mass. — Request of L. U. Nq. 1591 
for official sanction in support of a movement 
for a minimum wage of 50 cents per hour, 



16 



TfiQ CarpontQr 



same to take effect May 1, lOlu. Oflicial naiic- 
tion granted. 

Caney, Kan. — Request of Tj. U. jS'o. 1C7G for 
official sanction in support of a movement for 
better working conditions, effective January 1, 
1915. The matter is referred to the General 
Secretary to procure further information. 

Fairbury, 111. — Request of L. U. No. 1780 for 
official sanction in support of a movement for 
a minimum wage of 40 cents per hour and the 
nine-hour day, same to take effect April. 1, 

1915. Official sanction granted. 

Cedar Falls, Iowa. — Request of L. U. No. 
1862 for' official sanction in support of a move- 
ment for an increase in wages of 5 cents per 
hour, effective April 1, 1915. The Board grants 
the official sanction asked for and suggests to 
the L. U. that the next trade movement en- 
tered into be for the eight-hour day. 

Kansas City, Mo. — Request of L. U. No. 1864 
(Box Makers), endorsed by the D. C, for offi- 
cial sanction and financial aid in support of a 
movement for a new working agreement, 
effective May 1, 1915. Official sanction granted ; 
financial aid to be considered as reports are 
made to the G. O. 

The General President submitted to the G. 
E. B. the information that certain firms in 
Michigan cut and frame lumber for house con- 
struction before shipping it to where the 
house is to be erected. Before further consid- 
eration is given to this matter, the G. P. is 
requested to gather all the information he can 
on the subject, so that it can be dealt with at 
tjie next meeting of the Board. 

A communication and bid was received from 
Nau, Rusk & Swearingen, certified public ac- 
countants of Cleveland, Ohio, offering to make 
the quarterly audit of our accounts and rec- 
ords for the two years ending December 31, 

1916, for a fee of five hundred (500) dollars per 
annum. The G. S. is instructed to enter into 
a contract with this firm as per bid submitted. 

The General Secretary submitted to the 
Board bids for printing as follows : 

German Constitutions 

Iron City Trades Journal Publishing Co., 
P)ttsl)urgh, Pa., 10,003 German constitutions, 
.$175.00 ; extra four pages, $5.00 per page. 

Bookwalter-Ball Printing Co., Indianapolis, 
Ind., 10,000 copies, $202.-50. 

Harrington & Folger, Indianapolis, Ind., 
10,000 -copies,' $188.00. extra pages, $2.02 per 
page. . 

The Cornelius Printing Co., Indianapolis, 
Ind., 10,000 copies, $195.00. 

The Bramwood Press, Indianapolis, Ind., 
10,000 copies, $185.00; 10,000 extra four-page 
forms, $13.00. 

The Bramwood Press of Indianapolis being 
the lowest bidders on printing ten thousand 
(10,000) German constitutions according to 
specifications, the contract for furnishing 
same was awarded said firm. 



freiifli Constitutions 

Iron City Trades Journal Publisliiug Co.. 
Pittsburgh, Pa., 10,000 copies, $181.00; extra 
four pages, .$5.75 per page. 

Bookwalter-Ball Printing Co., Indianapolis, 
Ind., 10,000 copies, $202.50. 

Harrington & Folger, Indianapolis, Ind., 10,- 
000 copies, $170.00; additional pages, $2.65 per 
page. 

The Cornelius Printing Co., Indianapolis, 
Ind., 10,000 copies, $219.00. 

The Bramwood Press, Indianapolis, Ind., 
10,000 copies, $185.00; 10,000 extra four-page 
forms, $13.00. 

Harrington & Folger, of Indianapolis, being 
the lowest bidders on printing ten thousand 
(10,000) French constitutions according to 
specifications, the contract for furnishing same 
was awarded that firm. 

Rituals 

Iron City Trades Journal Publishing Co., 
Pittsburgh, Pa., three thousand (3,000) Eng- 
lish rituals, $298.00; one hundred (100) Ger- 
man, .$35.00; one hundred (100) French, $.36.50. 

Bookwalter-Ball Printing Co., Indianapolis, 
three thousand (3,000) English, lojc each ; 
one hundred (100) German, 41c each; one hun- 
dred (100) French, 41c each. 

Harrington & Folger, Indianapolis, three 
thousand (3,000) English, 151 cents each ; one 
hundred (100) German, 38 cents each ; one 
hundred (100) French, 38 cents each. 

The Cornelius Printing Co., Indianapolis, 
three thousand (3,000) English, $498.00; one 
hundred (100) German', $38.00; one hundred 
(100) French, $43.50. 

The Bramwood Press, Indianapolis, three 
thousand (3,000) English, $465.00; one hundred 
(ICO) German, .$40.00; one hundred (100) 
French, .$40.00. 

The Iron City Trades Journal Publishing 
Co., of Pittsburgh, Pa., being the lowest bid- 
der on printing three thousand (3,000) English 
rituals, one hundred (100) German rituals and 
one hundred (100) French rituals according to 
specifications, the contract for furnishing same 
was awarded said company. 

Due Books 

Iron City Traaes Journal Publishing Co., 
Pittsburgh, Pa., one hundred thousand (100,- 
€00) copies, $8,050.00; Bookwalter-Ball Print- 
ing Co., Indianapolis, one hundred thousand 
copies, $8,000.00; Harrington & Folger, In- 
dianapolis, 100,000 copies, 9 cents per book ; 
Cornelius Printing Co., Indianapolis. 100,000 
copies, 8A cents per book ; Bramwood Press, 
Indianapolis, 100,000 copies. $8,000.00. 

The Bookwalter-Ball Printing Company of 
Indianapolis being the lowest bidder on print- 
ing one hundred thousand (100,000) due books 
according to specifications, the contract for 
furnishing same was awarded said company. 

(Continued next month.) 



17 



TfiQ CarpontQr 



I<ocalities to Be Avoided 

Owing to the pending trade move- 
ments, building depression and other 
causes, carpenters are requested to stay 
away from the following places: 



Akron, O. 
Albany, N. Y. 
Alton, 111. 

Amherst, N. S., Can. 
Arcadia, Fla. 
Asbeville, N. C. 
Ashland, Ky. 
Athens, Tex. 
Atlanta, Ga. 
Atlantic City, N. J. 
Augusta, Ga. 
Aurora, 111. 
Austin, Tex. 
Baltimore, Md. 
Liarre, Yt. 
Battle Creek, Mich. 
Bay City, Tex. 
Beacon, N. Y. 
Beaver Valley, Pa. 
Berlin, Ont., Can. 
Binghamton, N. Y. 
Birmingham, Ala. 
Bisbee, Ariz. 
Bismark, N. D. 
Blackwell, Okla. 
Bloomington, 111. 
Boise, Idaho. 
Boone, la. 
Boston, Mass. 
Brainerd, Minn. 
Brenham, Tex. 
Brownwood, Tex. 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Calgary, Can. 
Canton, O. 
Carneys Point, N. J. 
Cedar Rapids, la. 
Central City, Ky. 
Charleston, W. Va 
Charlotte, N. C. 
Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Chicago, 111. 
Clarksville, Tenn. 
Cleveland, O. 
Clinton, la. 
Columbia, S. C. 
Columbus, O. 
Concord, N. H. 
Concordia, Kan. 
Conway, Ark. 
Commerce, Tex. 
Corpus Christi, Tex. 
Corsicana, Tex. 
Cullman, Ala. 
Danville, 111. 
Dayton, O. 
Decatur, IlL 
Denison, Tex. 
Denton, Tex. 
Denver, Colo. 



Detroit, Mich. 
Dixon, 111. 
Dubuque, la. 
Duluth, Minn. 
Edmonton, Can. 
El Centro, Cal. 
Electra, Tex. 
Elmira, N. Y. 
E. St. Louis, 111. 
El Paso, Tex. 
Escanaba, Mich. 
Evansville, Ind. 
Fargo, N. D. 
Fond du Lac, Wis. 
Fort Lauderdale, Fla. 
Fort Myers, Fla. 
Fort Wayne, Ind. 
Framingham, Mass. 
Fremont, Neb. 
French Lick, Ind. 
Fresno, Cal. 
Fulton, N. Y. 
Galveston, Tex. 
Gardner, Mass. 
Gary, Ind. 
Grand Forks, N. D. 
Granite City, 111. 
Great Falls, Mont. 
Greeley, Colo. 
Halifax, N. S. 
Hamilton, O. 
Hammond, Ind. 
Hazleton, Pa. 
Hillsboro, Tex. 
Holyoke, Mass. 
Hot Springs, Ark. 
Houston, Tex. 
Huntington, L. I., N. Y. 
Hutchinson, Kan. 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Ithaca, N. Y'. 
.Jacksonville, Fla. 
.Jacksonville, Tex. 
.Jamestown, N. Y. 
.Jasonville, Ind. 
Joliet, 111. 
.Joplin, Mo. 
Kansas City, Mo. 
Kenosha, Wis. 
Kincaid, 111. 
Kissimmee, Fla. 
Klamath Falls, Ore. 
Lewiston, Mont. 
Lakeland, Fla. 
Leadville, Colo. 
Lexington, Ky. 
Little Rock, Ark. 
London, Ont., Can. 
Long Beach, Cal. 
Los Angeles, Cal. 



Louisville, Ky. 
Macon, Ga. 
.Marietta, O. 
Marinette. Wis. 
Marquette, Mich. 
Marshalltown, la. • 
Maryville, Tenn. 
Mason City, la. 
Medicine Hat, Can. 
Medina, N. Y'. 
Memphis, Tenn. 
Miami, Ariz. 
Milwaukee, Wis. 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
.Minot, N. D. 
Mobile, Ala. 
.Montreal, Can. 
Morris, 111. 
Mount Kisco, N. Y. 
Moose .Jaw, Sask., Can. 
Mount Carmel, 111. 
Mowbridge, S. D. 
.Mount Vernon, N. Y. 
Newark, N. J. 
New Bedford, Mass. 
Nedburgh, N. Y. 
New Castle, Pa. 
New Canaan, Conn. 
New Orleans, La. 
Newport News, Va. 
Newport, R. I. 
New York City. 
Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
Norfolk, Va. 
Northampton, Mass. 
North Bend. Dre. 
Norwood, O. 
Oakland, Cal. 
O'Fallon, 111. 
Oklahoma City, Okla. 
Omaha, Neb. 
Orilla, Ont., Can. 
Ossining, N. Y. 
Ottawa, Can. 
Palestine, Tex. 
Parsons, Kan. 
Passiac, N. J. 
Paterson, N. J. 
Peekskill, N. Y. 
Peoria, 111. 
Phoenix, Ariz. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Pittsfield, Mass. 
Palm Beach, Fla. 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 
Portland, Me. 
Portland, Ore. 
Pottsville, Pa. 
Pueblo, Colo. 
Itacine, Wis. 
Reno, Nev. 
Red Banks. N. J. 
Regina, Can. 
Richmond, Cal. 
Richmond, Va. 
Robstown, Tex. 



Rockdale, Tex. 

Rochester, N. Y. 

Rockford, 111. 

Rock Springs, Wyo. 

San Antonio, Tex. 

San Diego, Cal. 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Schenectady, N. Y. 

Shreveport, La. 

Sioux City, la. 

St. Augustine, Fla. 

St. Catherines, Ont. 

St. Cloud, Minn. 

St. Joseph, Mo. 

St. Paul, Minn. 

St. Petersburg, Fla. 

St. Louis, Mo. 

Seattle, Wash. 

Sellersville, Pa. 

Saskatoon, Sask., Can. 

Savannah, Ga. 

Scranton, Pa. 

Sioux City, la. 

Smithtown, L. I. 

South Omaha, Neb. 

Souderton, Pa. 

Springfield, 111. 

Springfield, Mass. 

Springfield, O. 

Stamford, Conn. 

Syracuse, N. Y. 

Tacoma, Wash. 

Tampa, Fla. 

Teague, Tex. 

Temple, Tex. 

Terre Haute, Ind. 

Titu,sville, Fla. 

Toronto, Can. 

Trenton, N. J. 

Tri-Cities— Davenport, 
la. : Rock Island 
and Moline, 111. 

Troy, N. Y. 

Tulsa. Okla. 

Urbana-Champaign, 111. 

Vancouver, B. C. 

Victoria, Tex. 

Waco, Tex. 

Waterbury, Conn. 

Watertown, N. Y. 

Watertown, S. D. 

Wauchula, Fla. 

Washington, D. C. 

Welland Canal Zone. 

West Frankfort, 111. 

West Palm Beach, Fla. 

White Plains, N. Y. 

Whitney, Tex. 

Wichita Falls, Tex. 

Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 

Wilmington, N. C. 

Wilmington, Del. 

Winnipeg, Can. 

Worcester, Mass. 

Yonkers, N. Y. 



18 



Casual Comment 



The only independent wage earners are 
those who hold union, cards. 

^J^ >♦♦ ♦+♦ 

Safety first! Keep your monthly dues 
paid up. Don't fall in arrears. 
*> ^ ^ 

So far, the majority of the spring trade 
movements entered upon have had very 
satisfactory results. 

*> i* <* ' • 

The United Brotherhood needs the as- 
sistance and co-operation of every mem- 
ber — good, bad and indifferent. Let's 
get the lazy ones into line! 

<♦ ♦ *:<• 

Now that the European belligerents 
have recently been setting dates for en- 
larging the war zones, we wish somebody 
would set a date for increasing the zone 
of industrial prosperity here at home. 

jtt A. ^Xh 

V V *jr 

Good wages, decent working hours, 
adequate leisure, a comfortable home life 
and a few staunch friends — these are the 
things that count! 

»♦<- >j» ♦!► 

If, as old Will Shakespeare used to say: 
"All the world's a stage, and all the men 
and women merely players," isn't it about 
time that all the hard working stage 
hands were organized? 

4- . *:* <* 

It takes efficiency experts quite a long 
time to learn that genuine industrial effi- 
ciency is best obtained and guaranteed 
by freeing the wage earner from the 
pinch of economic necessity. 

A- A A 

V V V 

When you pay a man good wages he 
ceases to worry over the vital problem of 
"making ends meet" and consequently 
puts much more of himself into his work. 

A. A A 

V V V 

If in the course of human events the 
distinctively Hibernian significance of St. 
Patrick's day should ever be forgotten we 




might continue to observe it as a sort of 
industrial holiday in commemoration of 
the part played by "the fighting race" in 
the struggle for industrial freedom. 

<* <- ^ 
The fellow who is lax in attending the 
meetings of his local should not fool him- 
self with the thought that "they also 
serve who only stand and wait." 

A A. A 

V Tf *if 

Much more is expected of him. The 
bona fide union man is he who is active 
in the affairs of his local, reasonably reg- 
ular in attending the meetings and 
prompt in paying his dues. 
<* ♦ ♦ 

Talk about State Council Conventions! 
The Pennsylvania gathering which opened 
in Pittsburgh on February 15, was the 
greatest ever. After a look in at the 
office of the "Iron Trades Review" and a 
shake-hands from W. J. Kelly, a number 
of delegates were for changing the name 
of the city from Pittsburgh to Kellyville. 
Pittsburgh sounds so smoky anyway. 
*** >^ 4" 

Another rousing State Council gather- 
ing was held at Stamford, Conn., in the 
closing days of last moftth when the Con- 
necticut boys, in convention assembled, 
discussed plans looking toward a bigger 
and better state organization. It seemed 
to be the conviction of most of the dele- 
gates that there is a prosperous season 
ahead for the jnembers of our organiza- 
tion. The U. B. is in good condition in 
Connecticut and came through the recent 
period of trade depression in good shape. 



l/ocal Unions Chartered I^ast Month 

Rio Piedras, P. R. Fulton, Mo. 

Anna, 111. Susanville, Cal. 

State College, Pa. Fajards, P. R. 

Brevard, N. C. Rio Grande, P. R. 

New York, N. Y. (Bridge & Dock Carpenters). 
Total, 9 Local Unions. 



19 



Nqws Notes from Local Unions 




Concord, N. H., L. U. 538.— Very dull 
trade conditions are being experienced in 
Concord and vicinity at the present time 
and future prospects are not encourag- 
ing. Traveling brothers will serve their 
own interests best by staying away. — 
James Burbeck, R. S. 

jti. j*i. **<• 

Beaver Valley and ' Vicinity D. C. — 
Traveling brothers are notified that work 
is very scarce in Beaver Valley and vicin- 
ity at the present time. Prospects are 
anything but favorable. The majority 
of our members are out of employment. 
Outsiders are urged to stay away. — J. L. 
Worstell, Secretary of D. C. 
♦• ♦> ♦> 

Orilla, Ont., Can. L. U. 1607.— It has 
been decided to have Orilla placed upon 
the list of localities to be avoided as there 
is a great scarcity of work here at present 
and the outlook for the coming months is 
not very promising. — Patrick Heslin, R. S. 
<* <* *> ^ 

Marquette, Mich., L. U. 958.— Work at 
the trade is very slack here at present, 
the only jobs of importance being the Or- 
phans' Home and the main building of the 
Northern State Normal School, both of 
which are non-union. This local also in- 
tends to start a movement for an eight- 
hour day in the near future. Traveling 
brothers are asked to stay away. — Wil- 
liam Henry, R. S. 

♦♦♦ ♦♦♦ ♦»♦ 

Amherst, N. S., Can.," L. U. 1879.— 
Traveling" brothers are requested to avoid 
Amherst. Things are very dull at pres- 
ent in the building line in Amherst and 
throughout the province of Nova Scotia 
to a large extent. R. Rafues, R. S. 
♦■ ♦»♦ ♦ 

Berlin, Ont., Can., L. U. 553.— Bad 
conditions in the trade here compel us 
to ask all traveling brothers to stay away 
from the vicinity of Berlin. Only a few 



of our members are employed. During 
the months of December and January a 
year ago building permits amounting to 
over $17,000 were issued, while for the 
same period this year they only amounted 
to $1,200 for alterations. The war and 
the tight money market have contributed 
to keep building operations at a stand- 
still. J. Reid, Sec. 



Quakertown, Pa., L. U. 1204. — Owing 
to bad trade conditions, traveling broth- 
ers should avoid the towns of Sellersville 
and Souderton, Pa. There is very little 
doing there in the building trade and 
prospects for the future are not good. 
O. R. Miller, R. S. 

Bismark, N. D., L. U. 663.— There is 
very little doing in the building line in 
Bismark at present and L. U. 663 re- 
quests traveling brothers to stay away 
until a change for the better ensues. C. 
A. Carlson, F. S. 

*> ♦ *> 

Denton, Texas, L. U. 1526.— Traveling 
brothers have been coming into Denton 
of late as a result of misleading news- 
paper advertisments, and we are there- 
fore prompted to advise all brothers to 
stay away, as there is little work to be 
had here. This is the first time we have 
been obliged to insert a stay-away notice 
in The Carpenter. R. C. McCormick, 
R. S. 

♦ *:* ^- 

Wauchula, Fla., L. U. 1086.— Not more 
than one-fourth of the members of. L. U. 
1086 are employed at the present time 
and the outlook for work is extremely 
poor in this section of Florida. Travel- 
ing brothers will serve their own inter- 
ests best by keeping away from the 
neighborhood of Wauchula. C. E. Ben- 
ham. 



20 



T/iQ CarpQntQF 



Another I/adies' Auxiliary Formed 

A ladies' auxiliary, under the auspices 
of L. U. 420, of Memphis, Tenn., was 
formed on January 6, when the Memphis 
Carpenters' hall was filled to overflow 
with members of the allied building 
trades and their wives, daughters and 
sweethearts. The meeting was a most 
enthusiastic one and augurs well for the 
future of unionism in Memphis. Among 
those who spoke and outlined the pur- 
poses of the meeting were, the Rev. Mr. 
Cox of the Central Baptist Church; Miss 
Lothe Burke, principal of the Riverside 
School; J. P. Kranz, of the Associated 
Charities; C. M. Dayton, of L. U. 420; 
A. A. Waddell, of the Engineers; William 
Stephens, of the Bricklayers, and H. G. 
Terlisner, chairman of the allied crafts 
of Memphis. In addition to the interest- 
ing speeches, which contained sound trade 
union philosophy, there was plenty of 
good coffee and cake, enjoyable music and 
dancing. The affair was a pronounced 
success in every particular and L. U. 420 
came in for a great deal of praise for 
starting the good work among the 
women. The Memphis Ladies' Auxiliary 
starts out with a membership of fifty. 



Canton Union Carpenters 

L. U. 143, of Canton, O., held a big 
open meeting on the evening of February 
22, as part of the effort which is being 
put forward to organize the non-union 
carpenters of the city. The principal 
speaker was Allen Cook, a well-known 
figure in the labor movement in Canton 
and vicinity, who delivered a rousing ad- 
dress which was very well received. 
Brother T. J. Dolan, of Cleveland, was an- 
other speaker and he very interestingly 
discussed the status of the U. B. mem- 
bers in Canton and Cleveland. He ap- 
pealed to non-union carpenters to get into 
line and take their rightful place in the 
ranks of the organized wage earners. A 
very pleasing lunch was served on the 
occasion by the entertainment committee 
which consisted of Brothers Bearinger, 



Bock, Herr, Nauman and Keyes. There 
was also a very enjoyable program of 
several musical numbers. The organizing 
propaganda in Canton is meeting with a 
great measure of success and is expected 
to have a favorable influence on the 
spring trade movement which was re- 
cently launched. 



I/. U. 912 Active 

The Richmond, Ind., Labor Herald re- 
cently contained a sketch of the growth 
of the U. B. and a short history of L. U. 
912, of Richmond, written by C. A. 
Griffy, the recording secretary of the lo- 
cal. The local was chartered in Septem- 
ber, 1901, and today has an 80 per cent, 
organization of the best carpenters in 
Richmond. 



A Big U. B. Night in Cleveland 

The thirty-second anniversary celebra- 
tion and ball of the Cleveland (Cuyahoga 
county) D. C. was held in the Moose hall, 
Walnut street, Cleveland, on the night of 
February 4, and proved a most enjoy- 
able affair in every particular. The an- 
nual celebration of the carpenters has 
come to be regarded as the biggest social 
event of the year in Cleveland labor cir- 
cles and this time broke all former 
records. The floor arrangements were 
perfect, the music delightful, the girls 
dreams of lingerie and loveliness; in 
short, all who attended were out for a 
good time — and they got it. 

In connection with the event the D. C. 
issued an attractive souvenir program 
with the U. B. label well in evidence in 
the cover design. Among the interesting- 
features of its contents were a brief his- 
tory of the U. B. in Cleveland by Thomas 
J. Dolan, several other interesting arti- 
cles and a number of exceptionally good 
photographs of Clevelanders who are 
prominent in the affairs of the U. B. 
Both the celebration itself and the 
souvenir program reflect credit on the 
Cuyahoga county D. C. 



21 



TfiQ CarpQntor 



The Women's Trade Union I^eague 

The fifth biennial convention of the 
National Women's Trade Union League 
of America will be held in New York 
city during the week beginning Monday, 
June 7. The call for the meeting, issued 
by the president of the league, Mrs. Mar- 
garet D. Robins, emphasises the presence 
of women as a strong factor in our in- 
dustrial life and urges the necessity of 
organizing the great mass of women 
wage earners. The problem of unem- 
ployment, says Mrs. Robins, is flinging 
us a sterner challenge, and this condition 
of idle workers brings into bold outline 
the effects of unorganized women in in- 
dustry. The danger of women being 
used as underbidders in an increasing 
number of trades must be squarely faced. 
There is only one woman among the hun- 
dreds of thousands, forced to earn a liv- 
ing by grim economic pressure, who will 
refuse to take the place of a man for 
lower wages. This is the organized 
woman, who recognizes the fundamental 
necessity of standing with men in the de- 
mand for equal pay for equal work. 

A. A. A. 

V V V^ 

Information Wanted 

This is a photo of Edmund Heyne, a 
member of L. U. 238, of Philadelphia, 
Pa., who h^s been missing from his home 




in that city since January 2. Heyne is 
54 years of age and stands 5 feet 9 inches 
in height. He is of dark complexion; his 
hair and mustache are tinged with gray, 
and he weighs 175 pounds. At the time 
of his disappearance he wore gray 



trousers, black sweater, blue overcoat 
and a gray soft hat. He leaves a wife 
and six children. Any information con- 
cerning him should be addressed to them 
at 950 North Lawrence street, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

♦ti- A -tfV 

Information is wanted concerning 
Emil Schmelter, a member of L. U. 1134 
of Mount Kisco, N. Y., who left his wife 
and children in September, 1914, and has 
not been heard from. Any U. B. member 
who knows his whereabouts will confer 
a great favor on L. U. 1134 by com- 
municating with Financial Secretary 
Fred Christensen, Mt. Kisco, N. Y. 



The Sixty-third Congress 

(Continued from Page 8.) 
is a good indication of final victory for 
it is altogether likely that the next Sen- 
ate will be favorably disposed toward 
this much needed legislation. 

The attention devoted to the Mexican 
trouble and the war in Europe are 
blamed for the inability of Congress to 
devote more consideration than it actual- 
ly did to remedial labor legislation. The 
passing of such an important measure as 
the Clayton bill, with its epoch-making 
labor provisions, was in itself a feat that 
eclipsed the labor record of more than 
one session in the past, but it should not 
indirectly cause a slackening of interest 
in other legislation of much benefit to the 
wage earners of the country. It is to be 
regretted, therefore, that the two bills we 
have referred to were not disposed of at 
the session recently closed. Both would 
have brought about remedial social legis- 
lation which is sorely needed; and even 
if they are sure of being enacted by the 
next Congress, it is irksome to have to 
wait so long to remedy the evils arising 
from child labor and the misdirection of 
convict labor. 



Sooner or later an adequate scheme 
of colonization as a means of bringing the 
surplus population of our cities back to 
the land will have to be adopted. 



22 



T/\q CarpQntor 



On 

p 
Pi 

w 



M 

CO 
H 

O 






noturj. 



OOOOQOOCOOOOOOOOCOCC 



"_"."." JJo'odoodocJo't 

SOIOOIOIOIOIOOIOOOOOIOOOIOI 



(OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 
iOOOOOC/OOOOOOCPOOOpO 

Joo'ooodooooooooo'o 



soooopoc 



tH (M (M TjH (M 



o©oo©p< 
o®o'q'qq©©< 



io©oioioio©io<: 












a g 1 

. O Q) 



• d 



to G »- 



- 'W 



' OJ 



— '..- T-o '^^a^~'r---^'^^ 



"So- 



3-^2 2 = 



2^' 

ID'S 



O^p^.n r1 rt QJ c^ C S'^.'S^'^. 



O o 



as 



O !^ C 3 1^ ■" 






■»-* a ^ [^ I 



-. o 



i^ i^.^.S 



^Pt- W w—^-^- 






;- a 






5;<i-:r-:rS'< 



.2 s I 
o ai I 



^■E.2 Jli^i 

"^ Srr-t; «^ 2 ^ o 



&a 



O rO C5 1-1 OD 'XI r-i -*l CO O iH 'M :r2 LQ O l^ • t- CO l-i ® iH ■* i-^ CO 03 O "f^lTO 'V"!-! INlOT-IC0COrH(Mt-Tt<l-Q0-*t-r-(5O 



©l--l^©OiHNC^eOCO©©lO-p^OrHiO'HlOOOrHTHG:C5^C5-*iT-(-*QOCOOOT-l©00-*lOlO©COlM<M'*©b- 



< T-l T-t iH 1-1 rH (M 



WM iHrt 






^" .s ^ — ; g cs ' 



^hO o 



.i^".S 7: = SM;2 






^ a 'iJ-a 



4 -. J^ 



o 



i^«a, 



43 • .2; >,©' • 



.^ci-^aUf 



~ '■'■'a'S^^ ^ 



o -^ cj« o 

a a '-' ^' 



o 5 =3 o '-' ;a >s>^ 






; a ojZ 






> o 



apHa:P4^KQSI^.7;2;(iiSMOaa2il|PH 



CO 



0) .^ !» 

■t-j oija 

;■« o 



©lOlOWQOOC5C5©lOl010®©COiHC010i-(©©WCOm05t-lOi-ICO-*iCOiiMI:--*ieCCOOiOt-eOl-tOCOTt<05C:. 

rHM^«lOi»50©00-*lOb-iHr-llOOOOiHC^iHC005TtH5D05l>lOCO©t-c33TtlOO-t(lolO<£>r-lCO-*0©THCOCOt- 

iHi-li-li-lrHCOCOCO-*-*itl-tl-*L'5100l-t-iHrHi-l01'S>iHCOlOIM COtCOiHCO tHi-IiHi-Ii-I 



'o3 0) 



i oa 

'^ a 3 ^^ a ^ • 

a >■. a = .-=; 



HhJ' 



3' ^ 



ai no 
0SM5 '^^ 



•aS.2 



CO m c3 wS 

SSoS<;S 



03-M -c 
a m 2D !? 

0) tj tH • rj 



0)0 0) 






« O) 

3 ;^03 >■. 
a; a 

a S <» '-^' 

«-■« — 



S aj 



i'OSS 



* 3 a 

a* oj 9 



>^x . 



o 



^■5 Hi 



ill •-. 
oSu 



^ja 6 03 a 

3 • o a^ 

.2 •-= . « 
a IK fe 



a ajM 03 

a 0) «fl 
2^^1^ 

lE^ a U3 

u a ti 



= 502 cj 



f^ r^ -fH fr^ 

3 f- 03^ 



■J) oS 



^M 0) 






k'-^^s sK 



sphs; 



. a a: . . . 

1 '-i c3 ^ tc w 

. ^^ U( t-i F-i 



^^5 



ICO-*lO!Dt-G005©i-(lMeOTH0 01:-OOCi©THC-leOTt<lOOt-aDC5©iHlMCO-rOCOt-OOC&©r-liMCOTfHO»b-00 
C0Q0000000000003CiC105OC2O050305©©©©©©©©©©r-(^r^iHT-liHi-tTHl-(^C4IM(MtM(NIM<MCJ(M 
.if^ououtioioOK;inLQLOoiOLOLOio>r3':D';30irioo':oocDocco'^?DcocDc05CracD50cc«5::;«DO?c'S>© 
oocococococococoec'cocccocococooococococoeococococofofocococococccoeocococooocofococooooococo 

(M IM IM iM (M C-I !N <M CI C-l IM !M C^4 (M IM C-l (M C>1(M IM <M M IM C^ IM IM CM (M (M (M IM i>) <M C-) O) C-I IM CJ C^l f I "M <M IM f I IM CI 



23 



Ti\a Carpontar 



3 o c; o o o o o o o o t^. o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o c o O o o 00,0 ■ 

O O O o" O O O O O O O 0000 O O" O O O O O O O O O O Q O O O O O O 0000 O O O O O O Q 'si O O CO o 2 o" o o o c 

oSoBoOoioooiooK5iooKiowoooioioraoiooOuToraioir3oowoioooioiooKOOooraoioiooioio>oicio 
o5 ?i?5 (M th (mciim im (M tjh im c^ (Miri ci cmih l^^r^ (m 



« '^ -S .s 

O ctf fl o 



, a.-a 






c/2 cc 



S 3 P g 05 
•M DO 






^ oj ci a 









> ;3 S o a; r2 iT o J ^ o "C a; -r^ ^ -g c s — ,x 



:^ i ^ ^ "3 



•J-; oj S. 



i-S fl 



a-" fl 



PuPh<!k^O- 



s cs <i> 



S cs a 
"^ o 
^ o -.-< 



0) a) 
be P 
C3 o 

S a 

OJ o 

•C 2= CD 

a aj aa 



o a ft ft^ i 
c3 o c> i> a < 



CD O 

a^- 



«D l- t- 10 05 C^l -l^iCJ CO CO iH 00 CO O rH IM 00 05 iH CO 00 iH C5 C» rH 10 05 L- CO 00 ■» -OOiH-^iWOO^i-t •■^OSOt'CCnp' -OCOinCinO •■*01O5 



^t>(^^coeo5(JO^cOI^l-co^oo 



•rP d 



O ^ 



^ . : 03 . 

.2; .t^izi. 



5£ o j^, a to 



•1-5 M £0 



-c-S?; 



cH . 



S °k'^ • ■ ■ "a V iP -^ • ■ 



a.^ .^.-5H,^":ap:„.-„S^^-a^-§-^ 



a^-o 
.SOS 



d-^a 



a>-.^ 
S '-I s 



O o rH CO i~ 10 :d 05 LO b- rH ^ c^j 00 rt ,H CO C2 © 00 1^ o iH 00 » c 1 K3 c-a cc CO 00 ci cj TtH c-i ic c^i o M 00 c: c-i Tt< (^^ c »o 00 1^ o:- .^ tr :** t:; "^^ 

OiHCOCOIO(MMrHiM10b-i»0:'CO-t<THCOl— C0O00<MLQO05 C»)Ti<^lOW5Cii»L--t-05lMCCCO«OCOTH^O^L-C2C010^L;rSCOS92 

C^|iMiMC4C-ICOCO-*^^-*l010iZ:i03C>Oi-ICOCOP2i»OrHO r^I-lI-ll-^r^<^^C-^C0C01C'»<0«:'5^«0C0^/jC0O 

i-lr-trHr-1 rHrHr-( "-I 



go be 
M ;::) '^ •'^ 

2W a 

03 fl a ■■!] 

t- O) ci J 



o o^ (D d H a 



ai-isaW 






i S o 



a 



2 * ■ r., 

a a oS 

i^ o S a 5 

03 lj a o 
S -O • 

• „• a o) > 






« a 2 « 
a a -I 4) 

Of»fe ;>-. 
^ 03 

a o 2M 

O c3^ ; 
t-jl-sOec? 



.rf "il .S O ^5 

*:; g ojffi t»' 
4s) g o . d 

CM 

»" « g m 



h; 



.S2o 
-o a a 
-a £ 

aco.S 
SO 

03 -w o' 
a <U»r< t 
a t^F^^ 

03 c3 

3 . . 
bcoi m 
a fci t< 

<1^S 






bjjo a o S 
bcm a OS ^ 

o 03 c3i> a 

o a ^ _j a 



§p:s 



Q . ^ QJ ^ . 



SO 



a n' "£ «* - £ 
S^^S at; 

tc O ce > o' » 
^ti^^ c3 aj£ 5 



5^ 



.Si^r 
5 = -^ 

- 03 

^ ^ a 

rl CO (H 

o±: I-' 



^fea« 

OJ 03 

Who j^o 
a CO aj a «j 

" U !^ <U^ 






I, I I.TJ (.Tj t,7j (.(J (.Tj t' J 5^-^ t^J i'J trj -n^ TT 'T' TP TT "^ "^ TP -T' -^ ira liJ ItJ 113 L^ 10 in L^ L^ f L— l— •-" "-T L-' L^ ■-- ^^ v^ "-^ v^-- iT^ 

COOOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCCCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCCiMCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOOTiCOW 

CI (M (M -M CJ [M iM ;?t C^ C-I (M <M Cr (M CI (M (M (M (M fM (M CM fM C-i OX C\ (M CI CI CJ C^ O CI Ci CI CI C^l CI C^l CI CI CJ CM CI <M C^l iM CJ CUM C^l C^ C4 C^ CI CI 

24 



TfiQ CarpontQr 



o 
a 



< 
P 

H 
P 

Q 



CO 

H 
< 

U 



■pXBd 

jnnoinv 



OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOIOOOOOOOOOO 
OOOOOC>QP<:POOOOO<=>»OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOQ700C5C5Ct-OOC>000000 

o o d o o o o o o c> o o o d d d o o^o d d o o Lo o" o d o o^d o d o o © o lo o o o d o d d J ' 



IMWC-I (MC1-*(M 



IM CI (MlMrHC-l C1(M iH CI CI CI IM 






■■ '"""CO 



0) 0) 

bl! bsi 
"^ "^ ca 



S o , 



cj 



rt 



'^ "t; -^ "< oj a; >j 

a ? 03 



m O) p 



u !> K u <i ;^ CM fe t 



J a .2 oj J « 

H — ._ O '^ — I -^ I— ' '^.' > ;- — ;_i '* t.>u erf " , CC ^ -J 

> g iH o o rt^; 0.2 -•- o - a I. o-ii-r:.2 S 
sa<i>aaS^-o.rt<i'S't;oStio3j'^"c:.aP 



4-1 O 



si I 



' '12 — a '12 






tH o ^ a 



^-^>=;^^ 



a 7! «. _, 

^'^SSa 
«^ = a 3 



CB lO T)H C:- lO -iM-p-CO (XCI!OOt-H ■OOOOOrOOOa)':Ct-tC>C5C5'12 ■ ^-PiOO C' I- t- fO CI "P'CC -lilt- CI I- O tH l^ iH -* CO 



X'OCICI t--*<«^ClL-C.IOCILTTt<ClrHC0 • « X X CC • CI -t* •+ -^ -f • C I X t- rH b- l~ t- C) CI C: t- • t- iH C rH 
rH I-trH T-t T-HrHrH ri r-l • i-l -CI ^CICI • iH rH rH • i-l r-t 



■noTiiri 






•^i^^^a 



t-H ^_, O 



3o'H 



r-5 "O 0) 



o 









g cj 0) a; rt 



oTci 



^'«^'^ sss-* 



^i OJ 5 p ™, 



/a >iJ 



^^ aja -M/a^i ' 



fl -t^ "t; r£ - - 
ai > a ^!: --; ~ 

g5 3.1=^:a=, 



- s^ 



a! O f 

> 4-> ■; o O ©'■ 

i s s a ^~-::>^>^ ' 

o o o o 3 a ! 
-"-»^-"i<a-rt>>- 

O O OfT 04J "I' <l>k 



! .")§'o ■'^" .a i; ij '^ M ^ fe -J;; ( 
o^ ra^'fega;o^_goOg 



be - 



l-l--^l-l--CC©rH»rjC0l-|l»lCiTHrHTHC5C:.Hl— ■*^^;OC>C-IXX^t>XfOXr-(-t<01':Clr-05l-0^l010^0 

c;cTi;roOi-ico^iot-«ociTHOt-LOTHrHc:-^cicicjci(a>Mi^i-T-ioiC'i:-fOT-(Cicj«oi-ooooiOb-io«3-* 
cicicccoo:! cicoo^-t^ococccci^xxx ci -* tji -+ ic co 10 lo o ci ci oi 01 co cc 10 in lo x o 

r-l 1-1 1-1 rH T-l T-H rH rH rH ,-h ^ i-H iH iH rH rH rH i-H i-i rH 



S a- 
, c3 o.; 



a^ 
^ o 

M . 



-E>S a*^' 






24^C3^ 



-2 ri n , H i; -H 






a <D a ',-• •■ 
aj It T" " t 



^t/jS a„ 

: -a a iJ o o !h i 



o 

a ^ »>i 

" ©■?, 



a^— ijP5. 



03' 



01 



^- J'-I 



^H ^ i2 'X X ^ 






. a ■ 



■ ^ y, - 

-•b 



K^^-^<i^^, kS^-c;>-^ 









SgS 

c3 >= '"^ t» ° O 

a I'r-. iJ o a . '^d 
fct^ j;'i-S£:S:a'^ 

■; >,§^|>. 

'^, ^ O . Sh ' ■ 

: a »j cc c; 
I o o r 



a^go; 



h;^^^ 



> a; 



!Ki-:i 



^ >- <K OJ C " 03 H nJ 
. hH r^ T- , , J^ r 15 ^ 






Sh-^Kk 



O^H 



:Ki^. 



o <rnx> ':D «D «£) CO o <sr> CD CO O 5C 50 CC l^ l^ I- t> I- l^ t- I- I- I- I- l~ I- l~ l~ l^ l- t- t- L~ t- t- L- l^ t- b- t- I- I- t- l- 

co 00 CO CO CO CO cc CO 00 CO CO o^ CO CO 00 CO 00 00 00 00 CO CO 00 CO CO CO CO CO 00 00 00 CO 00 CO CO' CO CO 00 00 CO CO CO fO CO CO 00 

CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI C^l CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI C-1 CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI 

25 



TAq CarpQntQr 



5000 00000C 



) o o © c o o o o o < 
d o o © o o <? o 5 o o 5 






? -, r- -o- 



a Qj 0) 



^■^^~-*^ &| 






.S 'y "^ S- ^"^ 



offic" 






LC :t i^ 5D i-i -n-itioo cs o t- CO 



r4T*<C0^CCOOrHiH'l<-*00 



.^o-st^ 



^ ^ ?'il}0 o c '^- '"' ^- o' s 






(M c» -+i CO © iH ao 00 c-n- 1- rt< 



O es 



Nicholas Aranr 
Kicliard Bowe 
Mrs. Ehnire L( 
Clarence Wynu 
Dennis J. Keii 
Mrs. Mary Van 
Mrs. Fedora L 
Geo. K. Harris 
Theodore Grzy 
Thomas M. Ke 
M. Peterson . . 
Fi'ed Founcher 


rt ?1 CO -f LO -^ I- CC ~ © r-( C-l 

cocococococccccoco-*-*-* 
I- 1- 1- 1- 1- 1- 1- 1-- 1- 1~ t- 1- 

cocococococccococococofo 

IT) CI C-1 Tl 01 01 C^4 CI Ol 01 01 CM 



L-t © O © 
I- © © © 

-*' © id © 



R I 






o\ 

< 
P 

Pi 

n 

o 

t^ 

to 

H 
< 

n 
o 

P!$ 

Ph 

< 
en 









noiuQ 



ON iniBio 



©©©©©©©c 



©iocni;©©LO©©©©(Oi 



ISSl 



i cj g;: i 



4) 1) 

.5 3.S 



c;-= cj c3 



;-!-. 0) _ r- 



r "^ S J3l3 o "^ 
•x a: JK Jh C Z 71 



o o 

.a o.a 



= - ® ® S 

sgaa-2 

.o o 

c I O) a)j3 



d a ^ 

Oi a) OS „ 



"5 = Jg 



SE^ie 



• iH l~ lO -*'(:- CO © • tH C; I- © iH © • CO 05 l- 



HG0-*'*THG0©THiHO)lOt-C0 



^ O CSC 






HH 



/WCPxi—'^i-t-ifc 



M*^ . O m ti S5' 
. -K ® S 2 Sf55 

a tKt"'+^ =3 'otior:'' 
..2o-;c3_-t-ao2at 
:^— 2.aj:fe"cs«' 

; Z S K a: 1> K Oi J 



COCi001Ct-COCOQOC0050510CC©01C^JiaoOO 
©C0©CIQ0C0i-l05O:lOO5-*©iHClC0Ol©C^l 
tHt-^tHi-H CI I-l iH 00 © Ol 05 Th r-l-*O0CO 



5, cs aj' 



'd a 03 1»'^ 



s a s-i 

a" r fc. 
MPs 



!2 ^-Sp^K Se 



a . .£:'Sa 

?* S 2 c '■" 2 



i^^a-L, 

I- o i^ 






. aj 

a) -a .iS 
ti ?: aj > 
«.5i^ a) 
Q ot^ a 
" a oj a) 



ai^-'aa)^ 

»*; ojM — H 
a) j-i 

a " d to » 
.r . a) a a 



©THOlCO-*»C©00Oi©r-IC0^lO©t-00CS© 

©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©© 



s 



(N (M (M (M C^I C'l !M (M (M CM Ol iM Ol C^l C^l C^ C) CI CI 



26 



General Vote on the 



Amendments to the Constitution 

As Agreed to and Adopted by the 

Eighteenth General Convention 

of the 

United Brotherhood of Carpenters 
and Joiners of America 



Held at ladianapolis, Indiana. Saptembpr 
Twenty-first to October Second, Nineteen 
:: :: :: Hundred and Fourteen :: :: :: 



TfiQ CarpQntar 



Local Union No. 
Local Union No. 
Local Union No. 
Local Union No. 
Local Union No. 
Local Union No. 
Local Union No. 
Local Union No. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON TABUI^ATION OF VOTE ON 
AMENDMENTS TO CONSTITUTION 

Indianapolis,. Ind., Feb. 17, 1915. 
To Mr. James Kirby, General President, U. B. of C. and J. of A.: 

Dear Sir and Brother — We, your commitee, appointed to tabulate the vote 
on amendments to the Constitution adopted by the Eighteenth General Conven- 
tion, held at Indianapolis, Ind., Sept. 21 to Oct. 2, inclusive, beg" to submit the 
following report: 

We find that 1,040 Local Unions submitted returns on the amendments, 
eighty-five of which were rejected on account of votes not being returned accord- 
ing to instructions submitted by the General Secretary as provided for in the 
General Constitution. 

— Local Unions which made no numerical registration of votes — 
Local Union No. 39, Cleveland, Ohio. 

393, Whitney, Texas. 

399, Philipsburg, N. J. 

410, Selma, Ala. 

412, Sayville, Long Island, N. Y. 

616, San Francisco, Cal. 

846, Pleasantville, N. J. 

925, Salinas, Cal. 

940, Sandusky, Ohio. 
Local Union No. 1246, Marinette, Wis. 
Local Union No. 1307, Evanston, 111. 
Local Union No. 1484, Visalia, Cal. 
Local Union No. 1728, La Playa, Ponce, Porto Rico. 
Local Union No. 1754, Canton, Mass. 
Local Union No. 1769, Benld, 111. 
Local Union No. 1780, Fairbury, 111. 
Local Union No. 1784, Chicago, 111. 
Local Union No. 1914, Stratford, Conn. 
Local Union No. 1836, Russellville, Ark. 
Local Union No. 1871, Sheffield, Pa. 
Local Union No. 2507, Evanston, 111. 

Local Unions whose returns were not properly filled out or did not bear 

the seal: 

63, Bloomington, 111. 
116, Bay City, Mich. 
147, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
164, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
200, Columbus, Ohio. 
289, Lockport, N. Y. 
357, Islip, Long Island, N. Y. 
422, Athens, Texas. 
500, Butler, Pa. 
597, Centerville, Iowa. 
660, Springfield, Ohio. 
689, La Crosse, Wis. 
693, Needham, Mass. 
745, Honolulu, H. I. 

28 



Local Union No. 

Local Union No. 

Local Union No. 

Local Union No. 

Local Union No. 

Local Union No. 

Local Union No. 

Local Union No. 

Local Union No. 

Local Union No. 

Local Union No. 

Local Union No. 

Local Union No. 

Local Union No. 



Tfia CarpontQr 



Local Union No. 946, Oshkosh, Wis. 
Local Union No. 977, Wichita Falls, Texas. 
Local Union No. 1011, St. Louis, Mo. 
Local Union No. 1013, Briclgeport, Conn. 
Local Union No. 1082, San Francisco, Cal. 
Local Union No. 1180, Cleveland, Ohio. 



— Local Unions whose votes were returned too late for tabulation- 



Local 


Union 


No. 


21, 


Chicago, 111. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


31, 


Trenton, N. J. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


97, 


New Britain, Conn. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


111, 


Lawrence, Mass. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


156, 


Staunton, 111. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


158, 


Los Angeles, Cal. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


237, 


Pittsburgh, Pa. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


273, 


Yonkers, N. Y. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


277, 


Philadelphia, Pa. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


303, 


Detroit, Mich. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


307, 


V/inona, Minn. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


341, 


Chicago. 111. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


362, 


Pueblo, Colo. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


378, 


Edwardsville, 111. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


559, 


Paducah, Ky. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


591, 


Little Falls, N. Y. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


643, 


Chicago, 111. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


661, 


Ottawa, 111. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


692, 


Cincinnati, Ohio. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


752, 


Hackensack, N. J. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


755, 


Superior, Wis. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


798, 


Salem, 111. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


815, 


Haywards, Cal. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


878, 


Beverly, Mass. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


844, 


Los Gatos, Cal. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


1008, 


Brooklyn, N. Y. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


1034,' 


Oskaloosa, Iowa. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


1106, 


Portland, Ore. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


1107, 


Gloversville, N. Y. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


1119, 


Ridgefield, Conn. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


1144, 


Los Angeles, Cal. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


1214, 


Walla Walla, Wash. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


1248, 


Batavia, 111. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


1268, 


Johnstown, N. Y. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


1335, 


Seattle, Wash. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


1546, 


Baltimore, Md. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


1573, 


Boston, Mass. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


1588, 


Sydney, N. S., Canada 


Local 


Union 


No. 


1661, 


Minneapolis, Minn. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


1701, 


Centralia, Wash. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


1702, 


Watertown, S. D. 


liOcal 


Union 


No. 


1719, 


Orangeburg, S. C. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


1730, 


Neodesha, Kan. 


Local 


Union 


No. 


1877, 


Pawtucket, R. I. 
29 



TfiQ CarpQntar 



— Total Vote for and Against Amendments — 

For. Against. 

Question No. 1 37,137 2,499 

Question No. 2 34,992 5,446 

Question No. 3 13,654 _ 21,956 

Question No. 4 10,202 26,724 

Question No. 5 25,269 11,082 

Question No. 6 — 

Section 1 29,268 6,013 

Section 2 30,559 4,795 

Section 3 29,426 5,234 

Section 4 28,648 5,246 

Section 5 29,986 4,741 

Section 6 29,825 4,386 

Section 7 30,373 4,305 

Question No. 7 33,832 3,712 

Question No. 8, Article No. 1— 

Section 1 27,817 8,292 

Section 2 23,507 4,901 

Section 3 27,609 7,903 

Section 4 27,866 8,042 

Section 5 27,624 7,773 

Section 6 27,893 7,934 

Question No. 8, Article No. 2 — 

Section 1 29,721 5,604 

Section 2 30,205 4,790 

Section 3 28,841 5,403 

Section 4 31,841 3,249 

Question No. 9 36,956 2,337 

Question No. 10 33,960 3,636 

Question No. 11 32,285 4,954 

Question No. 12 36,060 1,743 

Question No. 13 28,886 8,373 

Question No. 14. 32,791 5,266 

Question No. 15 — ■ 

Proposition No. 1 30,920 12,023 

Proposition No. 2 29,773 12,382 

Proposition No. 3 28,656 13,134 

Proposition No. 4. 29,810 11,850 

Proposition No. 5 28,842 12,596 

Proposition No. 6 27,955 13,284 

Proposition No. 7 28,120 12,108 

Question No. 16 30,062 2,696 

Question No. 17 33,035 1,465 

80 



T/\Q CaroQntQr 



Question No. 18 33,980 1,191 

Question No. 19 29,598 3,218 

Question No. 20 29,789 1,465 

Question No. 21 ... • 30,449 1,095 

Question No. 22 27,781 3,001 

Question No. 23 30,856 1,105 

Question No. 24 — ■ 

Section 1 28,730 2,735 

Section 2 26,827 2,983 

Section 3 '. 26,381 3,676 

Section 4 21,419 8,045 

Section 5 25,904 3,187 

Section 6 26,371 3,105 

Section 7 22,490 8,045 

Question No. 25 27,085 2,821 

Question No. 26 — 

Section 1 29,125 1,099 

Section 2 25,472 4,568 

Section 3 27,930 2,076 

Question No. 27 28,209 1,495 

Question No. 28 28,407 886 

Question No. 29 — 

Section 1 26,194 2,619 

Section 2 26,690 1,865 

Section 3 24,896 3,950 

Section 4 25,941 2,843 

Section 5 26,202 2,450 

Question No. 30 26,548 1,707 

Question No. 31 27,394 1,751 

Question No. 32 27,851 1,644 

Question No. 33 21,892 8,120 

Question No. 34 23,803 5,309 

Question No. 35 28,177 987 

Question No. 36 27,497 1,943 

Question No. 37 22,148 7,977 

Question No. 38 24,923 3,718 

Question No. 39 29,219 1,531 

Question No. 40. 28,133 781 

Question No. 41 27,045 2,515 

Question No. 42 28,346 754 

Question No. 43 26,500 2,398 

Question No. 44 22,447 5,840 

Question No. 45 26,838 845 

Question No. 46 24,473 2,799 

Question No. 47 26,158 1,412 

Question No. 48 25,089 1,950 

Question No. 49 23,500 2,942 

Question No. 50 23,852 3,011 

Question No. 51 22,712 3,909 

31 



T/\a Carpontar 



Question No. 52 22,475 4,049 

Question No. 53 19,620 6,452 

Question No. 54 23,976 2,574 

Question No. 55 22,936 - 3,261 

Question No. 56 24,036 2,274 

Question No. 57 25,664 1,791 

Question No. 58 24,337 2,798 

Question No. 59 25,316 1,225 

Question No. 60 23,736 2,741 

Question No. 61 25,427 1,926 

Question No. 62 23,940 2,665 

Question No. 63 — 

Section 1 23,864 1,948 

Section 2 25,094 1,993 

Question No. 64 24,555 1,303 

Question No. 65 24,315 1,884 

Question No. 66 — 

Section 1. 24,228 1,085 

Section 2 23,757 1,219 

Section 3 24,059 1,001 

Question No. 67 25,107 1,274 

Question No. 68 24,856 816 

Question No. 69 24,358 1,347 

Question No. 70 25,691 612 

All the above amendments were carried except Questions Nos. 3 and 4. 

Respectfully submitted, 

W. W. McGARY, President. 

EDWARD S. FEENEY, 

REUBEN PRICE, 

O. G. SMOCK, 

J. E. SPANGLER, Secretary. 

Committee. 



*Note — In the following vote (*) indicates local unions which divided ques- 
tions, hence votes on those questions were not counted. 



32 



O/Z 



jsnjBSy 



JOJ 



jsniESY 



4;^ 



cZ 



JO^ 



jsniBSy 



JOJ 



. . .eg . . . . 




.\a • ■ • • 


•CO • oo • • 


.\a . . . . 




Nt-THIC^COOOOO 
Cvl tH tH T-l 


* CO ■^ "^ "^ 
r-i 


• t-iH oswec 


• imo . -"It T-i 
1-1 


•OOllO • . 
•T-(t-lG) . . 


. . .(M . . . . 




• 1-1 • • • 


•(M -O • • 

• iH .1X1 . • 


• lO • . . . 

• eg • • • • 



t-CO(MC-(M^t-CO 

(M i-H tH tH 



(Mt-THUSiHCOOOQO 

t-eocgtxN-^t-co 

(M l-H T-i T-{ 



oZ 






jsniESy 



JO^ 



cgt-i-nmcoeooooo 

t-C0(Mt-i-l^t-03 
eg tH tH tH 



jsniESy 



JOJ 



eg t- iH lo o CO 00 00 • i-i «o oo lo o o to ^o «o «d th eg tH .t-rn •OOSIO 
t- CO eg t- iH ^ t- CO • eg '^ ^ -* CO t- iH CO eg CO eg lo t- .■<i<th -lot-io 
eg th i-i ■!-< th iH t-( ih 



jsniESy 



sz 



JOJ 



cgt-iHici-Hcooooo 

t-COCgt-rH-^C-CO 

eg th th th 



• otoco-^egoioooiiocDi-ioocg 

• O'^LOrtegt-T-iosegcoi-ieot- 



jsniBSy 



4!Z 



JOJ 



egt-i-iio -coooto ■ o ;o ■<* «o oo o lo t- «o co i-i eg th eg c- ih «d oo • 
t-cocgt-: •■^c-cg • oi -^ co -^ eg t- i-i oo eg co eg -^ t- -*iHiocg • 

eg rH rH tH tH iH t-I 



:)suiESy 



JOj 



Ot-iH05^-^000 

c-egcg?Di-toot-co 



•oc- cocoo 
• t-cg ^ th t- 



• tH CD LO tH OS 05 

. in eg CO CO »ci in 



• coT-iocg 

• eg «o-«* 



}sn|E3y 



§Z 

o 



JOJ 



■OOiHO-^ 

• CO t-eo 
eg 



}sniE3y 



JOJ 



)suiE3y 



JOJ 



"•iHO iH «OeO T-I 

iH ooegcg eg 05 



■ eg eg CO «o -^ t- 

• tH CO t-IiH«0 



• in Tit eg 

■CO iH 



• 00 «D eg -^ •<* ,H eo 

• in CO iH 00 CD eg CO 



■ CO 



• o eg eg 

• t- (M CO 



• o iH 1-1 CD th eg CO 05 eg -^ -m 
■ t- cgcg THiot- iH -i-i 



eg 00 • CD o o • -co • • -ot-coco • • • -10 • • o t-i 10 t-i ih • ih cd 

t- th .iotHth • • t- • • •T-iegi-iTH iH T-i CO eg -i-ico 

eg 

■ o^ocD t-ooooooeg Tf oeg -^cDcg eg i-H CD t-moc-Tit C5 • -^o o t- -o 
• oegio eg t- CO t- rH t- Tf CO t- c- eg co eg cd os ^ co •■^cocd-5}< -o 

eg tH-i-H tHiHt-Ii-( iH i-i 

~->* eg CO th 1-1 '• '• Tin ; • c-cg eg ' '• '• '• '• His '• ^eo • 00 00 t-h eg '• ~ 
05 • • • -^ • • iH T-H i-( eg • • 

"00 CgTH05t-COOOOOt-->*OCOCDOOCOt-mCDC5UiOOOOOt-0-^COOt-i-H-^ 

cDt-cgt-iHt-t-cocgo5t^coegegt-i-iTt<egcoegcDt-u5^rHrHTi<cD'^THco 

rH rH rH rH rH t-i t-i rH 

rHcgcoiocDt-oooioegco-^LOcDc-oooiocgco-^mcoosocgcoiccDc-oo 
rHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHcgcgcgcgegcgegcooococooococo 

33 



jsniESy 



JOj[ 



0.2 o 
9 cz 



d 
O 


jsuiESy 








•(M 




JOJ 


t- t- r-l CD rH lO t> CO C<3 1-1 ^ '^ -^ -^ t- 7-1 Tt oq CO 


• t- 00-tH 00O(N«D00moO 

• eom«Dcoi-iocot-mi-i-<3< 

iH (M r-t 


— 




1" 
1^ 


jsniBSy 




•lO • • • 05 • . 


CO • • • iH • • lO • • (M 


• t- 


• • 


00 

6 
Z 

o 

H 

D 
O 


u 

< 




JOJ 


•lCl'*t-iHCD0000'*t-COeOt-00CDiHCOCD-* 

• t- 1-1 CO (N '^ t- CO (N ■<* ^ -^ CO C- in>(M CO 

iH iH 1-1 iH 


• osiOi-iooimniTfooic 

• -^locDco (Ncot-in 

iH (M 


• o 

• -«t 
1-1 




jsuiESy 




•lO • • -o^ • • 


• • • -csic^i -in t- -(M 

• • • . • tH 


•00 • • • -^ • COOO 00 

• (M • • • • t-oq 




JOJ 




• IC* C- tH CD 00 OO 
t- iH CD (M ^ t- CO 
i-t 1-1 


•mCOOOCDCOr-UCCO-^ 

• CO -^ -^ •<* tH I> <N(MCO 

iH 1-1 


•C<I(Mi-IOOOqiMK3 -t- 

• com coco oOiH . (M 

lH T^ 


• o 

• -^ 
1-t 


Section 
No. 2 


jsniBSy 




U3 • • -Oi • • 


• . . • COtH . to O . (M 
. . . . • iH 1-1 . 


. t- • • .-^ . ^oOi-l 




JOJ 




U2 '^ t- iH CO 00 00 
l> iH CO (M '^ t> CO 
iH iH 


•C-COC0tHIC«DiHO5CO'* 

. iH -* -^ rlf 1-1 C- iH(MCO 

iH 1-1 


•00 O 1-1 00 iH O CO •■<* 

• ^m coco 0(N .(M 

1-1 (M 


• o 

1—1 


C3 
— 


jsniBSy 




in • • 'OS • • 


. • • • (M • -W^ -IM 


• CO • • •CD • -OOO 

• CO t-(M 










JOJ 




lO -^ t- r-l CD 00 00 
t- iH CD (M ^ t- CO 
tH r-l 


•cocoooco-^coi-it-co^ 

• iH -^ CO -^ <M t- tH (N CO 

1-1 1-1 


• (M ^ iH t- -OO-nfiHin 

• ^incoco -eoc^i CO 

1-1 1-1 


• o 
1-1 


< 


d 


jsniBSy 




in O500i-I0 • • 


• • • -coco -lO t> -I-t 


.(M . . . Tj< . . CO(M 
•IM • • • • ■ OJ 










JOJ 




lO '(M t-0000 00 
C- • '^i-l O5C-C0 
iH iH 


•THCOiHOOCOi-lt-CD(M 
• (M -* '^ ^ iH t- (N(MCO 

i-( 


•COt-T-tCO •OOOSi-ICO 
• TjilOCO'* •iH(MCOCO 

1-1 1-1 


• o 
1-1 




jsuiBSy 




mOSOOrHO • • 
tH (M • . 


• iH • • (M • 'la-r-i .1-1 
• • • . 1-1 iH ■ lO 


•CO • iH .CO • • • o 

•oa (M 




JOJ 




lO -N t-00 0000 
t- • -<3< rH O^ t- CO 
1-1 iH 


•T-ICDK5010COiH<MCO(M 
• (M Tjt CO -^ <N t- (M IM CO 
tH 


•(MtHOCO -(M • -UO 
. '^ IC CO -^ • c- • -co 

tH 1-1 


• o 

• "<* 

iH 




}sniE3y 




in osoOiH o • • 

iH C<l • • 


■ • • .(M • .U5i-I -iH 
1-1 lH .lO 


• lO • • •CO • • -^ 
•iH (M 




JOJ 




lO -IM t- 00 0000 
C- • -^iH Oi C~ CO 
iH iH 


•(MCOOOiHOSCDiHOOCDIN 
• CO '^ CO ■* iH t- i-l(M CO 
1-1 


•OOOi-ICO -OOiHtHiH 
•lOTjicO-^ .COrHCDeO 
r-i 1-1 


• o 

• "* 




jsntBSy 




li5 05 OOi-IO • • 


la-r-t -T-i 


•(M • • •lO O t>THCO 
•(M • • • 1-H (M 










JOJ 




U5 .(M t-000000 
t- • T}< T-( OS t- CO 

T-t iH 


•CO^OONtPSOiHt-ICOIM 
• OS -* ^ rl< (M t- iHWCO 


•eONiHCD '-^OtXN 

• Tj< iQ CO -<* •coiHooeo 

1-1 


• o 

1-1 


a 

QtSS 


)suiE3y 




lOOSOOiHN • • 


• • -iH OS • •lao) • i-( 


.(>]•• •(M t>U5 -co 
■<N • • • (Ni-I -(N 










JOJ 


-lO '(M t- CO 00 • 

1-1 T-t 


•C<lC0Ot-i-IC0iHC0«0(M 
• iH -rji -^ i-l(M t> (M CO 
1-1 


• CO t- iH CO Tjt -^ M • (N 
.-^IjOCD -^ i-( •CO 

1-1 


•o 

•Tt 

1-1 


d_, 
.2 

«^Z 


)sniE3y 


(NIC OioO • «0 • • 
t- ^ . ^ . . 


• iH • • • 'iH -la 
1-1 


• o • • •Tj'co'^eocg 

•1-1 •• • OOIM t-iH 




JOJ 


iHiri •(Mt-'*00 00 
t- • -^ tHO t>00 
1-1 i-H T-H 


• • CO U5 (M OS CO iH lis CD oq 


■lO-^iHCO(MlOi-IC<JCO 
•Ifi CDCO'<3* CO 1-1 -* 
1-1 


• © 

• -<* 

lH 




aZ 
O 


jsnjBSy 




. . . . -r-i • • 


\a • • • • 


. O • • •cot- •iHU3 












JOj[ 


(N t- 1-1 CD Tf CO 00 00 O 00 CO -^ 00 <M O lO O CO CD lO lO Tf iH CO • O t> 00 • 
t- ^ (M t- iH CD t- CO O CO -^ -<* -<* '^ t- iH O IM CO 05 U5 lO CO ■* • iH (M t- • 
N iH iH iH (M iH iH tH iH (M 


•o 
•-* 

1—1 




0.2 
9 t=^ 




iH 


©C|COUSCOt-00050(MCO'*u:)CDt-OOOiO(MCO^LOCDa50(MCOlCCOt-00 
1-liH iHtH 1-1 1-1 rHiHi-l(M eg (N(M(NC<I<N CO COCO coco coco 



84 



d 




jsniESy 


• ■ •Tl'Cvl • • -^ • • • • rH ?0 OSOO • 

• ■ • N t- • 




JOJ 


t- t- tH CR> i-H lO t- CC «0 tT ^ '^ (N t- T-KM (M O 00 CO ^ «0 CO O • C5 


tH 


6 

w 
o 


d 


jsuiBSy 


00 i;0 05 O CO (M -tH • . . C- -t- •IC(N«C> • -(NtHO •000'<* -wco • 

■«;l<t-iHOO rH ^ . . tHiH • r-t Cvl .10 

CqtN CO 


JOJ 


■^ • •t-OOOSlCt- • O CO CD 00 t- «0 tH 05 05 CO 1-1 CO tH CO t- "^ • CD 00 • 
N • -OOTHTtt-OO • O -Tf CO ''t (M C- tH tH tH CO O CD CC lO CO • t> • 


«>3 

lH 


d 
2 


;sn;B3Y 


OOCOOOOOtH t-I -O -t- -C-THincO • • -iHCSOO -t-OCO -(NOO • 
■^t-T-lOO -^ • -co • • ... r-i\a -tHtHtH • \a 
CQCvl CO 


JOJ 


T)<(M -t-OSNlflt- • 00 CO CD 00 iH U5 T-( iH a> CO 1-1 TJH -^ U5 t- . .0500 • 
N 'OOiHCOt-CO • N -^ CO -^ tH t- tH CO W CO 05 CO 1-1 CO • • t- • 


■* 

iH 


d 


jsniBSy 


00 CD 05 O 1-H iH -co 'OS -t- -(M -ICKM • • • '^ CO t- • 00 O LO • (M Oi • 
Tttt-rHOOlO- -co- • • ... .i-l(N.m 
(N(N CO 


JOil 


rt<(N .t-OO^imiti • t- CD CO 00 U3 CO tH 00 05 CO iH iH 05 CO c- • .t-oo • 
N .00r-l(Mt-eO • (M ■* CO '^ tH t- iH (M (M CO 05 CO CO ■^ CO • • iH C- . 

1-1 tH 


tH-«* 
tH 


d 


jsniBSy 


00(M050COOO • Tf -00 • t> • '^ .mN • • -COCOCO .eOO(M "(MOO • 
•<*I>iHOO Tf • -co ... ... . ^ -H .xn 

(N(M CO 


JO^ 


-5J< ■<* .t-OSCOW* -CDCDCOOO OOCOiH iHCiCOiH O 0000 t> t- .NOOrHCOCO 
(M "OOiHNt-CO . CO -^ CO ^ 1-1 t- iH CO N CO 05 CO CO IC CO • CO t- ->* 

1-1 iH tH 


CO 

d 


;suiE3y 


OONOSOCOU5 • '<1' • t- • t- • . 'lAW • • .CDOJ-^ -i-IOOS • i-l 
-<S<t-iHOO CO . .(N • ... ... .^^s<] .^ 

<N(N CO 


0J05 


JOJ 


TjtCO •t-Oi-llO''* . OOCDCOOOiHCDiH t-OiCDiHOOO t- . • i-l 00 iH i-l ■<!l< 
Cq . 00 Od rj< t- CO • CO ■^ CO ■<i< iH t- tH CO (N CO 05 CD ■* CD CO . • iH t- CO 

1-1 iH tH 


d 


jsniBSy 


OOOOSOCOi-l • -^ -O . t- .t- .lOiH • . .-^t-C- -OOO .(Nt-(N 

■^t-iHoo in • . t- • • . ... . ^ ^ 03 .xa 
cg(M 00 


■■Oil 


T)< ■<* .t-OseOW^ . iH C£> CO 00 1-1 CD iH Oi 05 CD i-< tH (M OS t- . .000 • 
CO -OOi-ieOt-CO • (M Tt< CO -^ 1-1 t- iH CO <N CO 05 CO -^ IC CO • . t- • 

rH 1-1 


iHOO 

iH 
iH 


d 


jsniBSy 


000050'sht- . IC .IC •\a .00 .USiH • . .t-OSCD .100^ .(NOXN 
•«*t-iHOO t- . • t- .(N • . ... . iHCO -lO 
.(MN CO 


JO£ 


TJ( TjH .t-OOiU5CO . O CD CO 00 05 CO i-< 05 OS CO 1-1 00 CO t- t- '^ .cooo . 
N -OOCa-^t-CO . (M ^ 1-1 ^ iH t- iH CO (N eO 05 CO 'ij' 00 CO -iHt- . 

iH T-l 


iHO 

-* 

iH 


d 
1 6 


jsniESy 


00 'OSOSCOO • -CD • . . .CO -tHtH . • • (M • iH • . (M . OS (M • • 
. tH I> • • t- • • • .(M • iH • . .(M .CD • • • lO • . 

iH 


JOJ 


COCO • • Oi O to 00 CO CO CD CO 00 CO CD to Cd Ci CD O CO tH • t- 00 O t- 05 . 

cot- . • t- t- CO CO •* -^ ^ t- th CO CO CO th ^ ic -co ocot- • 

CO CO iH TH tH CO 


• CO 

■ TI< 

tH 


d 
».2S 
Id 


jsniESy 


^ooooeoco . • .CO . .ko -1-1 -ioih . • -co .co -coeoiHt-co . • 

l-Ht-iHt-lH . . .05 . • .CO .tH . • .CO • . iHin . . 
CO iH 


JOJ 


. . • • O iH 00 00 CO C- CO t- 00 05 CO 1-1 t- 05 CO .O5O5tH00 -cotot-co • . 

.... ^t_5^ tH -^ CO -^ lH t- COCOCO .OOIOCDCO • 00 CO • . 

1-1 tH tH iH 1-1 


d 

So 
=^ 


^suiESy 








JO^ 


C0lOO5O5'*C00000C-iraCOC0T-(iHCOCDiHO5CO .coco cooo OOO -^00 lO 
t- t> iH CO iH lO t- CO 00 CO '^ "* ^ CO t- iH CO CO CO . Tl< U5 CD CO iH CO I> tO 
coco iH iH T-( TH iH CO 


• o 

iH 


d 
•2S 


jsuiBSy 


CO O iH . . .CO . • . •000t-05 . . 

CO iH . . . .O t-CO • • 

iH CO 


JOJ 


t-C0O5O5C0t- • OOCO iH COOCOOOin CDC005C0 . 05 05 iH 00 00 • t- t- CO 
COC-iHCOCOt- -co CO ^ -^ -^ iH t- iH CO CO CO .'^lOCOeO • iH CO 
CO(M tH iH iH iH 


.o 

tH 


d 

.23 ' 

id 
dZ 


jsuiBSy 


t-....O..iH T_(.rH....iH....iH.OO-'- 

. . . .rH . .tH CO t- • . • 


JOJ 


CO CO iH 05 tH CO 00 00 to in CD O iH 05 CO iC 00 05 CO . ^ 00 iH 00 05 O 05 . tO 
COt-COCOCOt-t-COiHiHTjtTltTtiHt-iHCOCOeO .Tl<lOCDCO O5C0 .to 
coco tH iH iH iH iH 


. o 

iH 






1.§d 
dg 




iHCoeoiocot-ooo50coeoTt<tocotr-oo050cqco^tocD050cocotocDt-oo 
iHtHihihih^iHtHthcocococococococococococococo 



35 



d 


}sntE3y 


-^ 


t- • . tH . • 


• O ■ • • .00 . 
•(M • . • .OS . 


. rH 




JOj 


COOOSINtHOOIOtJ* 
00t-i-IO5(M(Mt-N 


•0«OOS . tH <© lO 00 C£> lO <M lO tr CO t- kjCi .00 
.QO-^N .i-tt-rHiHCMOOlO r^fi,-"* CO CO 


•00 


•-* 


d 


jsaiESy 


tH . 05 tH • iH -00 

00 • th • -eg 


•(M • . 'OOiHLO tH . • 
.iH . . .(M tH 


•CO • • 'ONIO 
.(M • . .iH 


•rH 


•^ 


aoj 


(MO • t-THioin • 

C- '00(MCOt- • 


• .•«Dos -coKi .cocom 


. Oa <N CO t- • t-(N 
■ ^lO CDCO . t-i-H 


. 00 
.(M 




CO 

d 


)snTE3y 


O .05(M .... 


....... T* ^ . . 


.OS . tH -O -00 

•T-t • •1-1 • 


•rH 










JOJ 


coo ' ^ -r-i CO \a CO 
t- -OOlMeOIXN 
<M 


•CgtCiCS . 'i* CO rH '^ CD lO 
.CO-*(M -cot- tHC<100 


. CD O OJ t- rH O OS 
. ^ t-CDCO O 


•lO 
•(M 




d 

2: 


jsniESy 


• • •Oi •y-t • • 


lo 


• rH 


• la 














JOJ 


COOOO«DiHC5lOOO 
00t-TH00(MCOl>(M 
(M 


.l-IC£>05T-l-*COLOTHCOlOOn<OrHt-0505'* 
• 00 Tl* (M iH tH C- iH (NN 00 lO -^ -^ CD 00 00 rH 


■ c- 




d 


jsuiBSy 


— " ~ '"'" ^/-, 


. . 


.. 


























JOJ 


cooosos'^ajmoiOTHCoosi-i-^coioascoKj 

00C-T-HCO(MCOC-CO-<*t>-^(MTHTHt-THT-((M00 


. tH 1-1 00 t- 00 00 in 
• TJHUJ CDCO Oi-r-i 


• CO 
•(M 





1) o 
O 



jsHjBSy 



aoj 



"COOOSUSrHOOmOSOLOCDt-OOSCDUOOOCOlO 
OOt-rHOqCO^t-CO^CO-^CslrHrHt-rHrHtMOO 
(N y-1 



jsniESy 



0) O 

O 



JOJ 



jsuiESy 






aoj 



COOOSt-OOrHlOOSO(MCDOSOlOCDlOrHCDrH 
00C-rHrHrH-Tt<t-eOM*t-'*C0rHrHt-rH<M(NO5 
(M rH 



jsuiESy 



0) O 



JOJ 



C0005eOOSOOU50SOOOCO(NrHCDCOU5-<*«OrH 
00 t- rH 00 rH Tjt t- CO 00 "^ 00 rH rH t- rH (N (M OS 
(N rH 



• t-uoeot-00 •(M 

• -^ CO COCO ' r-i 



>sn;B3y 



V O 



JOJ 



COOOOCNt-COlOOSOt-CDCOrHOSCOCDCacDlO 
OOt-rHCO -^ t- CO ^ OS -^ (M rH t- rH (M(M OS 

(M T-< 



a 

000 


jsuicSy 


JOJ 


Is 

Sd 


jsniESy 


■•oj 



rHOOSINOSCOmCSOSOSCOt-COlCCDCDlOCSrH 
C-t-THCOrHljOt-00-^00'*CO'*<Mt-rHI>J(NO 
(MN rH rH 



S.2d 
9 e^; 

-"3 



C<lOt-0S00C0Ln0St-C0«000L0<MC0«0lC0SrHOrHrHC0t-OOm 
t-t-rHC<lrH(Mt-e0rH00^(M'^r-(t-rH(N<NOOin)00C0e0rH05rH 
<N (N iH i-i 7-i T-l r-i 



rH(MCOlOCDt-OOOSO(Me0^lCCDt-OOC50(MCO'*mCD050(MeOLOCDt-00 
rHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrH(>qC<I(NC<IC<lC^(NCOCOCOCO0OeOCO 

36 



)Suie3y 



JOJ 



coo 



jsniBSy 






JOJ 



JSUJE^Y 



coo -00 • CO lO 00 c- -^ «o o 
00'<* '00 • N IXN CO '^ Tf CO 



JOJ 



COOiC t- 

oo-«a<i-i o> 



• t- U5 CO t- 1-1 «D O 

• IM t- (M CO iC '^ CO 



jsujESy 



JOJ 



CO O U3 t- 
00-^ rH 05 
IM 



o 



JSUTESy 



JOJ 



00 Old O O500 1O 00 t- tH «D 0(N Tt «DlO t- coco coco O CO «0 05 00 -^ • t- 
00 -^ tH ,-1 rH CO t- N CO «0 "^ CO tH ,-1 1> T-I(M (M 00 (N ■* to CD CO O iH • rH 
(M 1-1 tH 



So 
O 



jsniBSy 



JOJ 



O O -^ 00 CO 00 IJti 00 O CO CO -^ T-H CO CD .COCOCO • 00 05 CO t- 05 t- ■* 
i-HTjiT-IOl (M t- (M ■<* -^ -^ IM r-l t- •(NtNOO • CO -* CO CO O tH 



jsmeSy 



JOJ 



CO to 
00 CO 



■ 05 • tH lO 00 O lO CO Oi T-H 
•00 • CO C- (N -^ 0> -^ (N i-H 



•COlOt-COlOlO00t-(Nt-0000(N 
• t- tH rH (M 00 Tjf -^ Ttl CO CO OS tH 



^smESy 



JOJ 



jsniESy 



OOOt-OO "^lO OOOOCDOS 
OOCOrHrH • CO t- <N -* 00 ■<* C<1 



C) O 

O 



}saiB3y 



aoj 



CO 00 t- T-H • 05 U5 00 O 05 CD (M OS CO CD IC CO CO lO 00 <M 00 CO C- 00 ■<* (M 
OOini-lCD • CO t- (M '^ (N Tj( CO i-H O tH rH (M 00 <M US -•^ CD CO 00 '-I 
IM tH 



Z d 

O 



IsniESy 



JOJ 



jsniESy 



JO^ 



coo • 00 iH CO lO 00 O (M CO OS • -^ O K5 (M CD IC(M ^ (M CO t- • (M CO 

OOt- • iH (M CO t- <M -^ -^ (M • (M t- 1-1 IM (M 00 lO •<* lO CO CO • O t-H 

(M rH iH 



CO O 00 Oa 1-1 CO LO 00 •t-COOS • OO COlO o coiooq O r-ICO t-icoo 
00 t- iH OS (M CO C- cq • (M ^ (M • t> i-H CM (M 00 lO -^ IC CD CO 00 i-i 



o.2o 
-13 



37 



a 


JSUiESy 


t- 1—1 lO (N U5 . • • iH .... 


• • 


-' 




JOg 


coic^Oi-i-^coiOiHc<i«Or-iTHcoomo3«oco'*ocoeoeoiHoc»comiH'<* 

00 CO tH tH (M ^ C- (M CC t> -^ (N tH N tH (M (M U3 ■<* U3 lO CO CO rH 00 tH i-H '^ tH -^ 


Question 
No. 40 


jsniBSy 


iH . '(M • • -t- • • • -OS 




JOJ 


CO 1/3 -^ (M 05 CO CO lO T-H 00 «0 CO t- CO O lO -^ CO rH CO 00 «0 CO CO (M CO t- • t-I N -^ 
00 CO tH tH tH CO t- (M CO CD tP W r-l(N iH (M (N lO -<* -^ lO CO CO t-I CO (N • -<1< tH tJH 


Question 
No. 39 


}SUTE3y 














JOJ 


CO u:) to t- »H tH CO O tH 00 CD t- O eg lO lO (M CO tH -^ CD 1-1 00 (M CO CD (M (N tH -^ 
00 CO iH O C<1 '^ l>(M CO t- ^ (M iH (M t- iH CO (N lO CO * US CO CO tH CD 00 tH ^ ,H -* 

OJ T-l iH 


Question 
No. 38 


)sn{B3Y 


• • -iH-^ lO •i-tlOiH • -O • • 'la -T-l •!-! • • 

• . ■ i-|. tH ••tH* ... . . .. 


JO^ 


COlO LO COOCOCOOtH t-CO t- •1-105 •<MCDiHt-I -IM-^t-OOO • O 00 "^ 
00 CO iH 05 tH CO I><N CO t> T|H CO -(MC- • (M (M lO iH * -COCO CO tH • -* ^ 


d 

.£5 
1 6 

6^ 


jsuieSv 


tH 


JOJ 


coo '(M • tH CO O 1-1 CO CD CO CO 00 05 -CO • 05 U3 t- 00 CO CO t- -i-i 'COOC^I 
00(N -00 • -^ C-IM CO CO ^ (M iH t- • i-l . ^ CO 00 in CD i-l • <M • tH Tjt 


to 


}snjE3Y 


' ' — . — ■ ■ j^ ^__ 




/^-i »^ ^1 




rH 




JOJ 


ooiom t-cooseooTH cocooOiH t-coio -^ cooo o>iH 0000 '^(N • 05 •osco-"* 

00 00 1-1 05 eg CO t- Cq CO CO ^ (N tH tH rH (M (M ^ CO CO u:) CO CO tH .(N • ^ 

eg 


1" 
S 6 


jsujESy 


• ■ • • t- tH . •tHOIiHCO r-i • • 


JOJ 


CO to m t- 05 LO CO 1-t t- CO CD tp 00 -^ CD U5 ■* CD '* eg CO 00 •^■^ogco --^ 
00CO1-105 CO t- <M CO LO -^ eg ih t- ih eg eg co co co 10 -co coeg -co 
eg _ iH 


•-* 


So 


jsuiBSy 


• • • • CO 1-1 cDiHiHCD -05 -eg-^oit- • •[> -eg • • 

• •••eg r-i -i-t ■ 0^01 


35 • 


JOJ 


eotoioc- • oco iH t--st< CD 050 -^ 010 cococg CO iocgco ^ iH Tj< • '^ 
oocoiHOs • '^ t- eg CO CO ■<* iH th iH t- th th eg CO eg CO to CD CO coth -co 

Ol 1-1 




a 

OS 

•n CO 

|o 


jsuiBSy 


50 . • .o • -o • • • th • • -to • •cgos-^rHco -t-eo-^cg • 

CD • • -iH • -iH y-i • •rHCOCgCgCO • 




JOj 


0010 t-o t-ooi-i t-io cDio 00^ CO -oscoio -1-100 -^locgcococo • • 
T-H ^ iH 05 1-1 "* t>- 1-1 CO 10 ^ eg 1-1 1> -oocgeg --^oo -co egrHr-iio • ■ 
eg 1-1 


a 

So 
=Z 


jsniESy 








JOJ 


COOlOC-OOOCOrHC-OC0 05COOCOlO-*C000000500CO^egOOOOOi-l 

00 -^ iH o5 1-1 •>* t- eg CO CO '^ eg ih t- ih eg eg 00 -^ co 10 co co rn eg ih 1-1 '^ 
eg iH 




d 
.2^3 

S6 
=Z 


>sniE3y 


1-1 


JO^ 


CO to CO iH t- 10 iH t- 10 CD '^ eg T-t CD 10 eg CD 00 •coooco^t>- • ■<* •© 
oc^iHo^cgcot-egcoco^egiHiHt-iHcocgoo • ^.10 co eo • ih • eg 
eg 




d 

.£§ 

lo 


jsniBSy 








JOi[ 


CO 10 CO 00 eg 10 iH t- CO CD iH rH eq CO 10 05 CO CO • -oos^cooocg • t- 
00 '^ rH 05 iH CO t- eg CO to -^ eg rHt>rHcgegoo • -totoco rncg -eg 
eg iH 




Question 

No. 29 
Con 
(inued 


in 

d 


jsniESy 








JOJ 


000 -00 • -=1< to CO t> 00 CO rH -* CD to rH CO • • CD 05 CO -^ CO tO t- -CO 






•Slo 




rHcgcotocDt>ooc5oegco-^tocot-ooo5oegco^tocD050c<ieotocDt-oo 
rHrHiHrHrHrHrHrHi-iegcgcgcqcgcgcgcocooococococo 



38 



X 



Question 

No. 52 


jstnESy 


• • • «0 • i-< -ia ■ • -CAia • • • •«£> •-^■'t • ■ • -OrH 
. . .Cq • .'M • • • (M • • • -(M • (M • • . -OS 






JOJ 


00 CC tH Oi tH CO t- •eO«>-*Cg -iHC^ItHi-I • -tji r-l -^ tP «£> CO tH .1-1 


• •<* 

• eg 


-o 

•CO 


a 

.23 
1 d 


JSniESy 


CO • lO eg i-H -^ OJ • . -^ iH CO • 00 (M •1-1 • • 'to . • . . 

00 -T-i T-trH • .T-i eg • \a -co 


JOJ 


•\a ■ T-I t- OS <M U3 iH t- «0 U5 U5 LO T-I iH (M • OS eg CO C- eg OS (M ■5j< 05 

• CO 'CO cgt^cgcoio-^ t-h eg th .Tt<TH'*Tj< cotho 
eg iH eg 


• eg 

• eg 


• o 

•CO 


a 
og 


jsniBSy 


■ • 'Tj* .tH • -00 • • • ••<* -THlTi • • .COOSt-( • • . -CO 

. .,-( . . .rH • ■ • -eg • th • • -cgiH .... 


• ■ 




aoj 


COW5 • t-mcg eg t-iH cocDos -(©o •eo«oos«D!Dioeooscgoeo 

ooeo .egiHcoc- cocon^eg •■Mcg •thoci'* ■* lo so eo th o i-i 

eg th eg 


.rH 


•o 

•CO 


a 

'^ 


^saiBSy 


. . '* . • • -10 • • • -co • • • iH • ■ CO tH . . .CO 

• -T-i ' ■ • -eg • • • -eg eg co 


JOJ 


eOVO -USr-ICOCg -rHTHCOlO • 00 tH lO O CO OS eO -^ CO CO OS «0 m CO 

ooco •i-Hi-iegt- -coco-^eg • ih eg th th eg '^ eowcooo osth 
eg th rH 


-OS 
-iH 


• o 

-co 


d 

1^ 


)suib3y 


. • . -t-l T-l • iH • • • 1-i -CO 

eg • • • -eg 






JOJ 


CO ko ic m T-i th eg lo -rH OS CO 00 CO th -us t-coooo oscd coosoinieo 

00 CO rH eg eg CO t- eg CO K5 -^ eg iH eg • ih i-i eg -^ -^ eo lO co eo t-i os th 

cq 1-1 iH 


•"^ 

•CO 






jsniESy 













-co 

•CO 




JOJ 


— CO u:> K5 CO t> 00 eg in th eg CO t- o iH iH lo OS -ost-i-i cocooso oeq 
00 CO th eg iH CO t- eg CO CO -^ eg iH eg eg th iH . rp co -^ lo co eo i-i os i-i 
eg 1-1 iH 


• •<* 


a 

OS 


;sn;BSy 


... . -^ r-i o CO • • -ego •( 

•••• th eg-.- 00-1 

tH 


X)OS 


• '• 


JOJ 


— CO ic ic ■<* eg CO eg u5 rH t- CO "* eg OS o CO o CO OS -^ OS CD CO OS 00 --* 
00 CO rH eg th CO t- eg CO CD -^ eg rn eg i-i eg eg '^ eo co to co eo .rH 

(M rH 


•^ 

• ■* 


.2!S 

1^ 


jsniBSy 


— r ■yi.-i : " 


- 


•■-■ 










JOJ 


coiomT}<oscocgu:)rHrHCDCDOTi<ocoogcDosiO'*cococoegcD'^ 


- cc 

•CO 




Question 
No. 44 


jsniBSy 


. . . -cot- -^ • • -eg • -rHOg • rn - eci rH • 

•••-eg ._|...th-- eg- 


- CO 


• • 


JOj 


— 00U31OCO • OS eg la iH CO «o lo •cooic* coosrn t-co eg coocoeo 
oocoiHO -eg t-(Mcoco^og -eqearH egri<co incooorHoorH 

eg rH rH 


•iH 


• -* 


5^ 


jsniESy 


— eg CO -th • . • •rHio . • •-<* • • 

eg 


' ■ 




JOJ 


— coioiooorHiHe;imrHcocot-ooooin)co«Dososococoegco?Deg 

eg rH r-i 


•■5)1 T-l ^ 

•CO ■* 


a 


jsniBSy 


— eg • - • •rH -eg •co 

eg 






JOJ 


— coic^-^cgocou5rHiccD'<*TH050in>oscDrHeoegcocoiccgegoo 
oocorHegegcot-egcot>Tt<egrHrHegrHTHcgir3'^"^kococorHOOrH 

eg rH rH 


•OS 
•CO 


• -* 

• -* 




o-S 























iHegcouscDt-ooosoegeo'^inicDt-ooosocgco^iocDosocgcoiocDC-oo 
i-iiHrHrHrHTHTHrHrHcgcgcgcgcgcgegcococosocococo 



39 



jsniESy 



V 



i) 

O 



O 



01 



^►2 
o 



V O 

o 



C; 



o 



JOJ 



jsnreSy 



JOJ 



JSUTESy 



JOJ 



jsniBSy 



JOJ 



jsuiESy 



JOJ 



IsniESy 



JOJ 



jsniBSy 



JOJ 



jsniBSy 



JOj 



jsniE3y 



eou350M3 -oimo rH oo o>-^ <M • <m lo co oo -^ t- oo -ooc-o 

OOCOrH^H • CO CO C<1 CO t- CO (M t-I • t-( ,-1 (M -^ oq -^ -^ . ,^ ^ lo r-l 


•00 


• CO 
•(N 


• -c^ioi-it- t-eo ?o 

• • iH 00 (M T-l • • . • . • 


0»i-l 




eOO(MO(MiO(Mu:)TH,H:C>lO(>]OTH(M'*iX>OOt>05COC0050IM050SO 
OOCO la (M t- (M CO 50 -^ (M T-l DJ (N 1-1 ^ (M ^ (M -* -^ CO CO rH U3 CO 


•«o 

•(M 


• • • -T-l T-lr-l -OS .,H • • -t- • • • -Ot-I 

-i-l- ...(M....O 

(M 


•c- 




C0Ol0'Htr-0iOlOi-IC0«0lOTHC<lC<I(MLC':D00lO00C0C0OO(M05 
00 CO iH (N iH i-H t- N CO tX) "* IM (M Oa i-H i-l (N -^ (M CO '^ CD -^ i-l lO 
(M T-l 


•1-1 

•(M 


•«o 

•<M 





e0Ot005(Mt-(MlCT-lTHC0C0(M00O(MC0e0t-t-i-IC0C0OlM(MC<l 
OOCOi-ICO Cq t- (M CO eO -^ (N tH rH (N T-l 1-1 (M -^ tH -^ T)< ?0 -^ iH la 1-1 



CO O UD 00 -"Jit t>(M K3 tH T-l CO CO CO 00 1-1 (M t> to 00 «D lO 00 (M O O -^ 05 • CO i-l CD 
OOCOt-IC- (M t- CO CO -^ '^ (M (M T-l 1-1 1-1 IM -<* (M Tl< CO -^ i-l lO • (N N N 
(M tH 



COO 
COCO 



•00 
(M 



CO O lO CO LO CO (N m iH -^ CD -^ 00 (M tH (M -^ CD 00 1-1 CO O CO O (M tH ■>* 'CO 
00 CO tH rj< T-l CO t> CO CO CO Tjt CO i-l CO i-l i-l CO -* CO '^ IC CO -^ i-l t-1 •r-^ 
CO 1-1 



C0OlOC0C0C0C0in)i-IC0C0C0"^C0iHC0CDC0000500C0C0OOt-C0 
00 CO tH '^ T-l CO t- CO CO -* CO CO r-l iH CO -* 1-1 CO -^ CD '^ tH CO rH 
CO r-i 



■ O CO T-l 05 



^2 



JOJ 



oomeoTjtx^c^mT-iococo 

COiHCOiHCOt-COCOCO'^CO 
IM tH 



}SBIE3y 



^3. 
o 



JOJ 



• oic CO 

■ CO iH CO 
CO tH 



• CO CO ic T-l o CO th 

• iH t- CO CO CO Tf 1-1 



■ C- iH CO 00 



•OSCOOCOCOOSOOi-"* 
• -^ -^ ••* CD CO tH lO ,-1 



■J 13 



40 





a 

•2° 

Sd 

O 


jsnicSy 


• • • -M iH • •i-i«o • -ec 


^ . . . 




JOJ 


CO ima t- lO «D lis kO rH lO O OS T-I(M T-l (M C- • 00 CO (M CO CO 00 00 O • 

00 (M tH -^ iH CO eO (N CO SO CO (N (N C^ <N r-li-l • ^ (M lO '^ <X> CO OS • 

(M tH (M 


■<* CO(NCD 
iHCOi-l(M 


2d 
O 


)sniESv 


i-t • '-^Oi • • • • t- • 

rH . • • 'la ' 

(M 


•iH • • 


JOJ 


CO lO lO 1-1 OS 00 IC lO tH t- O CD CO rH O (M ■<* «0 00 (N «0 CO CO 00 00 IC • 
(N y-t 


•tH(MCO 
•(NiHOq 


d 
Id 


JSDTBay 


i-H • • 'lO • • • -O 




JOJ 


cotmoooosrHiou^iH ;doosoooO(n (N 5O00 tooeocoooooo • 

00 (M iH CO T-l CO !0 (M CO CO CO <N (N iH (N iH iH (N tP (N Tt* ->* <X) CO 00 • 
(M 7-1 (M 


• OS -co 

• 1-1 •(>] 




£ d 


jsniESy 


OS • .(M • • -O 


00 • • • 




JOJ 


CO lO U5 CO O OS U3 ITS ,-1 O O OS -n* OS t-l <M IM CO 00 in IC CO CO 00 00 o • 
00 <M rH •<* 1-1 eg ?0 (M CO t- CO (N (M (M rH i-l(M •<* Cg Tj< -* CO CO O • 


•OS -co 
•1-1 -IN 


d 

O 
h 

O 




CO 

d 


jsniESy 


••••■<* lO 




JOJ 


CO lO IlO -^ CO t- in> • iH CO O •<* T-l 00 tH (M -^ CO 00 00 O 'COOOOOCO . 

00(MrH-<Ji (NCO . CO CO CO (M (M T-l (M T-l rH (M Tjt C<I ■>* -COCO 00 • 

(N 1-1 IN 


• OS .CO 
.(N 


d 


jsniBSy 


^^ ■■ " — j^ 






JOj[ 


COlO •■^COt-lO • iH CO O -^ 1-1 00 tH C<1 U5 CO 00 • tH CO CO 00 00 CO • 


• 1-1 -CD 
•iH .<N 


d 


jsniESy 


• -la '-^ 1-1 • • -OS • • • -iH 

• 'iH -1-1 iH 


JOJ 


com • Th CO OS ITS iO 1-1 CO O -^ 1-1 00 i-l(N 00 CO 00 • CD CO CO 00 00 iH . 

00(M 'Tjt (M CO (M 00 CD CO (M (M iH <N iH iH (N ^ • ■* '^ CO CO 00 . 

(N T-l (N 


• c- •CO 

.1-1 -(M 




d 
1 d 


jsnjBSy 








JOJ 


C0U51OC0 .OOKilOi-ICOOO-^ CDiH(M T-ICOOOOSCOCOCOOOO t- t- 


.T-4 10C0 
• CO <M 


Sd 


jsniBSy 


• • • -OS CD 




JOJ 


'comioo •lOimoi-icooosTHcoiHoqNcooo 'Oscocoooooih 

00(MiHlO . (N CO (M CO t- CO N (N iH oa iH (N (N Tjt • ■<* -^ CO CO iH t- iH 
(M tH (N 


• t- .CO 
•iH .(M 


d 

O 

i 

O 


eg 

d 


jsn;B3y 


• .COO (MtPi-i -coo -tHOO • • . 






JOjJ 


COlO •eOCDCOU5mi-<COOt-COOi-iC<I(MCDOOOSrH(MOOU5 'COO 


•r-i .CD 

•la .(M 


d 


jsntBSy 


• -CO -OS T^^ t- • • 'O -N 

• . tH • iH iH . • • iH • 


• Tjl . . 


JOJ 


CO la -OSiHCOlO •iHiHOt-t-CO 'C^KMCOOO 'OOCOCOIO -COOS 

00(N 'CO COCO • CO t- CO (N tH (M • r-l iH (N Tl* • ■>* Tt CO 00 -CD 

(N iH oq 


•COT-tCD 
.<Mi-IC<l 






— d 

U.5 

ocz 













- 










i-((MOOUSCOt-OOOSO(NCOT)<mCDt>OOOSO(MCOTlitOCOOSO(MCOincDt-00 
THi-liHTHiHiHi-liHr-t(M(M05(M(M<NC<ICOeOCOCOOOCOCO 



41 



to 

d 

1 

i 

o 






g- 

■■5 J 


jsoreSy 


a> -O • • -O • t- ■ ■>* CO • T-H rH O •!:- • • tH • .• • • 

la -ici • • • Ttt .iH • .(N i-H -co 


JOJ 


"■ lO«Ci .T-tr-llC -OOt-UiO -O '(MOOt-ICDOSOCNCO •t-00C-»-HO(N«O 
iH«0 .TCOat- .rltONTHOS -CO • OS I> -^ CO CO -^ • -^ rH C<I U5 rH t- (M 

tH -r-i rH rH rH C- 


gco 


JSBIB3V 


OiCOOO • . 'O • t- • '(N -tOrHOO • • • • W • • -^ 

US Oa • . 'Ttf .rH • • • rH 


iOJ 


lO(D .t-rHlO .eC(MlO«00 -O -(M • •>;1< ?£)«£> lO -^ CO t> t- r-l CO rH «> Od O^ 
1-i^ .CC(Mt- .Tt(M(M 05 '00 -OS • U5 CO CO CO CO CO ■* CO (M rf rH t- 
rH rH rH rH rH t- 




jsniBSy 


(NOS -IC • . "O • t- • 'T-t •lCrH(M .CO • •■>* . . . . 

la '(M • • -Tt* -rH • • "CO rH -CO 


JOJ 


iOt- .LOrHCO •TtlOOSlOO -O '(N -OtO 'rH • (N • CO rH td rH 50 Cd lO 
1-iia .Tf(MC- • ■* (N (M rH 05 -00 • Oi • »i3 CO 'CO -CO • '^ rH (M ^ rH C- CO 
rH rH rH rH rH t- 


g^ 


jsniESy 


• • .00 -rHOi .CO • . .O • C- ■ • C^ • t- -O -CD . • CO rH • • • 
... ■ \a -OS . . •-<* • rH • • -co -r-i .CO . • . . . 
rH (N 


JOJ 


lOCd . •rH-<3< .iHt-OilCO .O -N . t> CD • r- -la . OS rH m rH to C<1 t- 


g" 


jsoiBSy 


. ..^00 .rH05 .'^ . . -O .t- . . • .U5 -CO . ■ . -CO . • .rH 
. -eg • in .-^ •• .^ .rH ... .CO -rH 


JOJ 


la-r-t 'OiT-t-^ .t-COrHinO .O .(M .(MCO . "^ rH 00 • t- rH 00 rH CO (M O 
rHUS .i-l(Mt- • -^ COrHOS -00 -OS • C- CO • ^^ CO • "^ 00 C<I -^ rH t- CO 
rH ^ ^ rt C- 


go. 

i-Z 


jsujESy 


. . -!l( . . . C5S . rH . . . O . t- . • . • O . CO . CO • . iH . . . . 

. .N . • .la "<* . • .-^ .rH • . • .CO '1-t "CO 

T-i (M 


JOJ 


l«0 .rHrHlCrH 0505 CDOOO .O • C<I . t- CO . (M rH OS > 00 rH OS rH CO (M ■<* 
T-ICO .lONt- -"^ONrHOS .00 -OS . 00 CO '^ CO • "^ CO <M -* iH t- Ti< 
rH rH iH rH C<I t- 


.2 

«jZ 


jsniBSy 


• .TtfOd .0000 . t- . . .O .CO . -^ • .O -O .OS . .CD . . . . 
. .©a . ■* .00 ...■<* .tH . . .(N -rH .CO 


JOJ 


la-r-i .OrHrH .OSCOOOOSO -O .C<!00rHCO-<*CO .CD -OOrH^rHCOOdO 
rH CO .-^C^It- .-^COCOrHOS .00 . OS t- CO CO rH US .CO • "'t 00 N -^ rH t- -^j* 
rH rH rH rH t- 


a 

1° - 
sZ 
O 


JSTIIBSy 


U3 rH CO (M 'S* in in '^ CO 00 rH . . • tJ< lO rH . 'O . OS 00 t- 00 CO t- • . CO rH 
i-i rHCO rHlO OS CO . . ■ t^ Wi . .CO • CO CO "^ • . •>* rH 
rH rH 


JOJ 


.•^OOOeO OrHCO-^ .U5000 • IC rH OS (M liS -^ CO CO <M • rH O rH CD "^ O 

.CO(N CNt- TtHin.rHOSrHOO.KSCOmcO m .lOC^KMrHCvICO 

y-^ N i-< y-t rH t- 


'U 


jsniBSy 


in OOrHCOCO lOrHCOOCOO • O O CO . O t- '^ rH IC t> CO OS OS '^ rH rH rH CO "^ 
rHCO CO (N rH T]^ CO lO (N (N • CD 00 rH .lO CO ^ "3 rH -* 00 '^ (M CO (M "* t- 
(N (M rH rH rH rH t- 


aoj 


• "OrHrHOCO . . W tH • . . • (M (N t- . . rH U3 O . 

••■^NrHC- .. rH. ...OSCO""* i-HO- 

rH 


a 

Oco 

11 
O 


}sniB3y 


lOCOCDlO . IC 00 rH rH Od CO . -^ . (M (M -^ CO O rH CO rH in . CD CO W rH C- .O 
rHOd CO -rHCO CO N CO ' t^ . rH OS rH t- CO CO IC rH CO . ■* rH CO • "^ 
Oq N rH rH rH rH CO 


JOJ 


.OS-"* .OSO -OOOSrH . O rH O . -CO . • . rH • rH "^ . rH 00 t- OS CO rH 
.rHrH .(Nt- . -^ rH 'OS 00 CO . N OS 


a 

.0(N 

sZ 
O 


jsniBSy 


Ui • -r^ 0^ -xa • .OS . • O Tf .CO • ■^ rH . . LO lO . . • t- CO .CO . rH 
tH • 7-i -rH . .00 • .rH • -r-t • ' . -^ iH ... . • r-t 


JOJ 


.OOOrHrHOlOIMrH-^OSOrHO .(MOOrHCOOSrHC^KMOSrHrHOSrHCOCOCO 

. CO OQ -^ CO t- CO -^ CO CQ CO 00 CO 00 . OS CD OS CO CO rH .^ CO IC t- N OS rH OS lO 

rH rH rH rH rH rH CO 


a 

sZ 
O 


;smE3y 


• .-^ (MrH . . . .^ . 00 • .rH . . t- 'i* 

(N . . . .rH -oq • . • .(N (N 

rH 


JOJ 


U5 -Tf OS OS 0> lO O .^ 00 OS OS .t-O . (N t- 00 CO ■>* (M 00 05 OS CO rH CD rH -^ CO CO 








old 




OrHC<IC0mCDt-0S(M00l0CD000SOrHC^T}<mC0t-00OrH(MC0Tt<l0t-0005 

'*'*-<4'r)<T)<Tj<TtTiHmmimmitiiocococococococDcot-t-i>t>t-t-t-t-i>- 



42 





d 

o 


jsniBSy 


CO • -O • • • • •» 00 

iO iH 








JOJ 


tH «0 (N (N IM l> lO tH O CO (M 05 «0 00 • U3 CO «£> T)< Tl< CO t-I in (N t-i O CO »0 tH t- U5 
1-1 tH <N tH iH ^ rH T-HOq t- 




00 

d 
Z 

o 

i 

o 


< 


g- 
ll 

M*^ 


)sniESY 


lO O -UQ iH 

t- 05 TlH 

1-1 




JOJ 








jsniESy 


— . .u5 • -lo . 'la -i-i -o 'in -lai-i • • -oj .(n 

1 • • . .t- . .<M • -OS -iH .(N 

1-1 1-1 




JOJ 


' W<4<^t-TH .^C-inOSt-O -O •mc<IO5Tj'C0C-C0(MmmOSt-T-i;D(MO5 

i iH ;D <N (M -mi-KM tH 05 .00 • IC tH '^ CO CO IM lO N ^ rH (N lO tH t- 
tH tH t-I tH tH t- 




II 


jsnieSy 


— . -io • •la .i-ith . • .o 'la -t- • . • 'N '(M 

• • • 't- • iO • • -OS -T-l '(M • • • -1-1 




JOJ 


TH«Oi-l(MCq .U3^05t-I(M05 .00 . CO tH Tl< Tl< CO (M ION '^ t- (N in tH t- 00 
iH tH 1-1 1-1 iH t- 




a 
— 


)SniBSY 


. • iH • • lO • 1-1 O • tH -O • lO • lO • • • • -^ • t- -^ 

• . • • t- . O • .05 • iH • cq . . . . tH . 

<M T-l 




aoj 


— la-^OiiOr-t •■^oooiNoo .o .THuomoqcoo •oac<i»^T-imT-(«oiM>o 
t-icoth(N(M • lo -^ in T-t c<i 05 -00 • so t-i ?o -^ co co • lo t-i -^ «d o? m t-i t- 

T-l T-l T-l T-l t- 




< 


a 


jsniB^v 


— • .ca . -iot-i .oiH ■ .th .00 -00 • . N -OS 

. . . •» -O • -00 -T-l .1-1 • .00 • 

rH N 




JO^ 


\a ■^T-I05i-I -OiOOOCOOO -O .OOCOOOCvKMoOfNCOlM-^iHC^lT-ltCXNCO 

iH?0(NIM<N .-^THiniHCqO -00 .(^COC^I-Ttt (M lO CO ■* 00 CO LO tH C- -^ 

T-l T-l T-l T-l tH C- 






jsuieSy 


• -COIM -IOtH -lO • • -T-I'-OO -OifN • '^ .05 iH 

• • . t- • t- • • -00 • tH . N -T-l . 




JO^ 


iotj<ioc-th . 05 th lo CO c<i o -o -ooco oso t-(M eo<M (M -^o th th i;d(m 00 

iH ;£) T-l (M C<I • ■* -^ 00 tH oa 05 -00 • ?0 (M ■<* ■* iH CO lO CO "* (N CO lO tH t- CO 

T-l tH 1-1 1-1 1-1 t- 




"■5 J 
c/3 


jsniBSy 


• .(M • .10t-I .O '(M 't-I -00 -i-li-l -N • t- • ■<* • •T-i • ■ . . 

' • . • t- -O • IM -00 -i-l •"* -CO 

tH (M 




aoj 


lOpqOOOOT-l .OliHO'* -O -O • 00 C- ?D 00 (M 05 ri* (M CO CO tH 't:)* tH «£) (M 00 
iHCOiHiHIM •^Tt<lOi-l -OS -00 • «D -<*eO CO lO (M -* 00 IM to T-< t- CO 

T— f TH tH T— 1 T— 1 tr- 




* 


jsniBSy 


• . -^ . . to T-l -T-l -00 -T-l .00 -OS • • IM • OJ • • • • (M • • • t- 

• • • • t- -lO -T-l -00 -T-l -co • -co 

T-l oq 




JOJ 


USCO-^OStH .OSSDOSIMOOO 'O . 00 O CO Ca IM «0 lO C<I IM T-l 1-1 «0 iH «0 (M 00 
iH«Dt-ItH(N .t)<tHOStH OS .00 • ?0 (M -* t-I (N lO CO "* tH <M lO t-I C- CO 
tH tH tH (M t- 




a 
0<^' 


jsniBSy 


• .th • •\a •i-ioc<i • • • -so • • • -co 'T-l -1-1 

• -IN • -t- -00 ... . r-l . • . .00 -iH 




JOJ 


lOOiH^DiH • 'COOOOOSO 'O • 00 OS lO -^ (M OS • (N CO C- iH «C> • «D (M «0 
i-4«0 iHOa • •Tjtt- OS -00 .SCa^lOTH N • U5 (M CO i-l Cvl • i-l t- CO 
T-l tH iH 1-1 Od 




2 


jsajBSy 


• .t- • .lOiH -COC^KM -iH •t--*OS • -(M -US • t- • • -O • • ■ 

. .,-1 . .y-{ .m N -00 -T-iiotM • -00 ■* • • • 




JOJ 


•lOlOlOlOT-IOOST-lt-lO "O -O • .OOOOCJOO^DCgCOOTHCOiHCDDJi-l 
rH so irH Tfi N I> lO T-l OS <M -OS -00 • • <M "^ rH -rlt lO (N "^ tH CO lO t-i t- 00 
tH tH t-I t-I (M CO 




c 

aZ 
O 


JSHIBSy 


OS -O • • -O • t- -tHtH -lOCOC- -00 • -OS .... 

to -O • • -00 -T-l -T-l -T-ICO -CO 

tH iH T-l 




40j 


to CO -OtHIO .iOOCDOSOtHO • (M O lO Tjt 00 t- ■* (N ■ (M tH 00 t-I CO S^ Tf 
T-(?0 •■^(MC- .^JtuJC^lT-IOSTHOO -OSCOOCOiH lO .-"Jii-lT-llOTHt-lO 

T-l T-l T-l (M C- 






— c 
U.2 d 

cZ 






OTH(M00lO^t-0SC<JC0lO?0000SOTH(N'*t0C0t-00OTHIMC0'^l0t-000S 

•>*-^Ti<T)<->#-.!a<-^-T}itoiotoiotoioto«5«C'^«D«rii:o?ot-t-t^t-t-t-t-t~tr- 



43 



h 
o 


jsntBSy 




ao^ 




6 

o 

D 
O 


d 


jsnjBSv 


1 


joa 




to 

d 


jsuicSy 


1 


JOJ 




d 
5^- 


^sntBSy 


> 


JOJ 


( 


d 


jsnicSy 


i 


JOj 




eo 

d 


^sDicSy 


1 


JOJ 




d 
Z. 


jsniBSy 


I 


aoj 




6 


jsnieSy 




JOJ 




i Question 
No. 14 


jsniBSy 




JOJ 




a 


jsnicSy 




JO J 




a 
.22 

"i d 


jsuiBSy 




aoj 


' 


Question 
No. 11 


}sniB3y 




JOJ 




d 

•2S 
So 


}su;B3y 




JOJ 








1.2 
d^ 





05 • •ITS'* -OlH t- -CO 

r-i • • 'la eo 

■ ( 

(M 

^( 
r-f 

C^ 

o1 

W 

co' 

CO' 

col 
CO ■ 

CO' 

co" 

CO' 

co" 

CO ' 

CO' 
00 

r-l 

Id'- 

tH ■ 

T-H ' 

OTHC<ieom'5C't-Oi(MCOlC«000010^HC<|-^lO«Dt-OOOi-l(MCO'5l<tOt>OOa5 

44 



"^C^J t-OqrH OOO-^O er^OOOO tr-CO 05(M O-^ (M<M(M . 00 iH <X) iH CD CQ «D 
tHCO <M(MtH(N O (M 05 '^ 00 iH ^ CO iH (M (M (M IC • CO iO (M U3 tH t- CO 


U3 -OS • • IC t> US ■rt< O t- • • • 
•tH • • CO COtH ... 


lOOSt>-tr- -(M -CO -tH • -00 'CO • 
tH C-tH • tH -tH -N • -tH . 


t> 

LO 


OC<i;DCDT-IO(MCOCOa>THOI>0 
r-tiO (M O t- (M -^ 00 rH 05 O^ t- 00 

1-1 ,H T-l <M 


•t-C-OOCOLOlOCO(MTH<MTHOOTHO(M 
• tH tHO0C<I(M »Oir-lTHt- lO iH IT- 
tH tH tH tH t- 




la -OS • • m t- ■>* o CO (M • • • 
•iH . . eo (M(M • • • 


kO0000LO(M(N -CD -CO • 'CO -CO • 
iH COIMtHtH -tH • • -tH . 


00 
»jO 


o<M coco tho<n coo -tHOOO 

tHCO (MOt-(MTjiin .00O5t^-00 
tH T-l -i-l tH <M 


• co05eot-LoeoTH(Moc<iTHoqTHO(M 

•N tH 00 (M (N tH liTi CO tH CO tH UO tH t- 
tH tH tHtH t- 




la 'OS • •iot-^t:-o(N • • • 

• tH • • CO tH (M ... 


LOOlOiH '(M '(M -CO • -O -CO • 
tH tH 00 ^ • tH • tH • • -CO • 




0(MCDlOT-IO(Mt-0(MTHOOO 

tH CO (M O IXM ^ 00 iH lO 05 Oi 00 

tH tH tH tH tH 


•CDOSCOkALOTfTHIMOCOiHTHTHOtM 
•tH iH 00 <M (M tH 10 CO tH t> LOTHt> 
tH tH tHtH t- 




la • Oi • •irac-«oo^(N • • • 

• tH • • CO (M T-l ... 


10 'Oth • (n • w -coim -co -co • 

tH-CO-^'tH-tH-. -(M- 


00 

10 


0(MCO^iHOC<llOlO<M^OC-0 

tH CO (M O t- (M -^ 'sf tH LO OS 05 00 

r-H tH t-I iH t-I 


.-^■^t-OOlOOO(M(MOCOTHCOTHO(M 
• (M tH 00 (M C<I tH 10 CO tH 00 lOTHt> 
tH iH tH tH l> 




U5 -OJ • . lii t> U5 OS (M iH • • • 
•tH • • CO tH tH ... 


10 -t-IM -(M -tH -CO ■ -OS -CD • 
^.t-^.TH-TH 


00 
LO 


0(NCD'<*THO(M>OOT-lT-IOt>0 

iH CO (M O tXM -^ eo iH 00 O^ 05 00 

tH tH tH t-I t-I 


• n< • t^- CD 10 t- tH (M tH tH I:- tH (M 

•(M • tH 00 C<1(N tH LO CO tH t- tH 10 tH t> 
tH tH tH tH C- 




to -OS • . l£5 C- W C- 00 tH • • • 
•tH • • CO tH T-l ... 


lOTHt-co -oa '(M -co . .OS .CO • 

tHtHCO-^ -tH • tH • • -tH • 


CO 
LO) 


oc^co«OT-HO(Mooin>THT-iot-o 

tHCD (N O t-IM ^ tr- tH 00 05 tH 00 
tH T-l T-l tH IM 


•lO(Mt>OOlOCDTH(MOTHTHO^THO(M 
• iH tH t- (M (M tH 10 CO tH LO tH LO iH I> 
tH tH tH tH t- 




->* •05 • . U5 t> tH lO (N T-l • • • 
• tH • • CO tH tH ... 


lOLOOOO -(M -SO -CO • .0 -CO • 
tH CO»OI'tH. . ..,H- 


eo 
10 


THtMCOHtiTHOIMOiOOOiHOOO 

tH CO (M O tXM Tji Oi rH 05 05 CO 00 

tH tH tH tH (M 


•CO-^OOLOLOCOLOCMOtHtHOStHOIMCO 
• <N tH 00 !M CO tH 10 CO tH t- (M 10 tH t:- 
tH tH tH tH t- 


• -(N -O -t- • • -COIlO • • 
•• 'tH.-CO'-- ^.. 


CD -cot- • • -CD .-<* • • .(N • • 
tH . . . .tH 


00 
tH 


ICKNOOtHtHIONOOOCDICOO 
tHCO (MOt-(M lO tH tH -^ CD 00 

th th (M cq 


•(MI>t-(>JOO • <M t- CO tH tH tH CO (N 00 
• 10 (M ^ '^ (M CO • 10 -* t- CO CO tH t> 
tH tH tH tH t- 


tH • •05COtHU3 • . 

t> . -OJ (M 

tH 


CO -LO • • C- •«© -CON -tHtHCO • 
tH -tH • • Tj» .tH •COTf • rt • 


00 


lO rjt tH -^ tH 00 '^ OJ tH O -lOOO 

tHCOtHINIM IC-'^IOtH •OOCDOO 

tH tH tH (M 


• (M 00 LO C- (N OS '03 'tHtHOOtH • (M 
•LOtHLO^ (M -LO •tHIO(N'* -t- 
tH tH tHtH t- 




..tH.-'-^.O 

lO . t> 


CO'-CO'--t--<D 

tH • • ... . 




lo n* CO t- th ui -oooiMeoooo 

TH«DTHN(Mt- • tH 00 (M (M OS CO 00 
tH tH ^ ^ CO 


•(Mt>C<]00THC>qCS(MC-C0THOSTHCD(N00 

• 10 CO CO CO (M CO 10 tH tH t- <M LO tH t- CO 

tH tH tHtH t> 


. . .0:1 -^-^ -CD • • -O • 
• . . • 10 . CD • • • 00 • 


«D(M • t- -O -OS -COtH 

tHIO'IO- • • 


; 


»0 Tft CO «0 tH W • CD -^ <X) tH Tl< 
tH CO tH (N (N t- •tH00(N(NO1 00 
tH tH ,h tH 


• • t- tH CO (M tH (N 00 ■<* tH tH CO (M rt< 

• -CO -^ CO 10 tH tH CD CO LO tH t> CO 

, tH tH tHtH t> 


••th-.cotp.io 

»0 .(M 

tH 


CO'-'-CO-OS-O 

r-|.--'Tj<- -tH 




LO '^i* 00 th (N -ioiocdthooo 

i-H «0 tH (N N t- • tH (M (N W 05 00 00 
tH tH ,-i j-i (^ 


• (M tXM -^ . (M • ca LO OS tH tH tH CO (M Ci 

•lOCOCO-^ -co • LO tH tH t- CO LO tH t- CO 
tH tH tHtH t- 



d 

1 

a 
o 






in 



jsntESy 


• • 


. • • iH • 


•O CO OQ 

•iH CO 

1-1 


JOJ 


•CO 


• coi-iiooo 

(M CO 


•OiH ■>* Oi-I O OlO t- 05C0O CO • CO UT) CO »0 iH ,-H CO O Tf 
• ^ 1-1 CO 05 05 00 1-1 CO CO i-( CO CO iH .lO CO iH CO lO iH t- iH 
iH CO T-l rH t- 


d 


jsutcSy 




• -iH • LO • 
•IM •iH • 


• •cot- • •OCOt-00 •CO • • • -CO • • -Oii-lCO • 

th • •oo 'vt^ •CO • • • -co • • • co- 
rn 


JOJ 


— -eg 

•«5 


• ^T^^ -CO 

• . (M -CO 


•OOiHOiH -OCOCOi-l •OOO -co • CO "5 tH 1-1 LO 00 CO 
•\a-rH 05 05 • iH T* •COlH • LO • CO l-l CO CO 1-1 CO 
CO CO iH CO 


CO 

d 
2 


jsniESy 


051-I • • ••(N -(MCO • • • '(MCq -r-i • -CO • • 




JO^ 


•CO 


•rHNiHOO 


•i-ICO'* OiH OOU2 Oi OOIO OCO • • . lO IC rH iH ^ O Tl< 
• iH tH CO 05 OS 00 iH 00 COCOCOi-H • • • CO iH CO lO tH t- ■>* 
CO CO iH iH I> 




d 
2 


jsniESy 




• • -OS • 


•O CO • -lO CO • • • •CO • • 

•lO CO 

iH 


JOJ 


• CO 


•05rH COCO 
•iHiM CO 


• OlO ^ OiH oo lO coco COO'* -co • IC ICi-l iH CO O O 

• O 1-1 CO OS I^- 00 1-1 CO '^ CO CO CO iH -US • CO iH CO lO iH t- Tf 

1-1 CO T-( 1-1 t> 


d 
- Z 


jsniESy 


05 tH (M • • • t- • (M 




JOJ 


tHCO 


• Ci T-l LO 00 
•T-I(M r-ico 


•iHCO-^ •1-ioooiriiococoocococo •'!> tj< i-i ,h co o t- 

•liOiHCO • t- 00 CO lO CO CO CO 1-1 IC • CO tH CO lO iH t- N 
rH CO iH iH 1-1 t- 




.253 
Id 




jsniESy 


O -Tj< • •r-i • • • t- 




JOJ 


1-1 CO 
1-1 

■ 


• C35 iH IC CO 05 O kO tP •ICO • 1-1 05 Oa -^ t- O ^ (M ^ t- t- 1-1 iH CO O tK 
•i-((NiHeO O0i-I(M • CO 00 •'*IO^OOCOIM u:> CO CO i-l(M lO iH t- CO 
iH <N iH iH ,_( t> 




a 
Id 




jsniEJSy 


^ CDiH'^OO • • •OOOO 

(M ^r-l^ • • •i-(tH(M 

1-1 


JOJ 


1-1 CO 

iH 


05 iH Utl CO O CO -^ -^ -I^O-^ • lO • CO I:- 05 iH CO t- t- lO tH tH CO O CO 
rH (M rH CO iH (M rH (M • iH 00 -CO • CO CO i-l CO CO i-l IM lO i-l t- CO 
1-1 (N iH iH tH t- 


d 


jsaiBSy 


• • 




•05 CO • • -lO -t- CO 




JOJ 


r-tcp 


CS 1-1 IC CO 
iHOJ 1-1 CO 


•iHCO'* • t- O O iH IC tH OCOOOSCO ■<* COUSiH iH coo-^ 
•OOr-ICO • iH 00 1-t ^ -^ CO CO CO CO lO CO iH CO tO tH t-W 

T-t CO T-l 1-1 1-1 t- 




}suiB3y 






•00 CO^^-CO^^-iH 




JOJ 


T-ICO 

1-1 


1-1 iH LO OS O (M 00 IC • t-O OtH COC<l t-OOCOCO(NOt-t-iH i-HCO(MeO 
(N Cq 1-1 00 iH ©a iH (N • iH 00 T-l -«* lO (M CO (M T-l »0 CO CO rH C<1 Ki iH t> lO 
(M (M iH iH tH t- 


Question 
No. 19 


jsniBSy 


^^ CO 05 • • •OS • C5 




JOJ 


'^ o 

iHCO 
iH 


1-1 i-H in> <M lO Tl< CO (M • 05 O O (N 1-1 CO 00 t- CO CO <M C<J t- to 00 i-H CO (M (M 
(M CO iH CO lHiH(M • CO 00 rH ^ t- CO CO (N Ut) CO rH C<I lO iH t> CO 
(M CO iH 1-1 iH t- 




a 
1 d 




IsniBSy 


• • 




•O CO •' 




, -"Od 


Tl<l-I 

i-ICO 

1-1 


.00iHlCC0C-Ot-l0OOOOCCI05e0t-OT-(C-C0C0I>C0-*THC0C0 00 

th CO 1-1 CO CO 1-t CO 05 ^ 00 i-i Tjf CO CO CO CO i-< rH lo CO CO th eg ic 1-1 c- CO 

CO CO i-< CO iH t- 


S d 
=Z 


)suiB3y 


• •oo • • • • T-4 o • t- • • -co • • IC • • • ■<* 

'^ -,-1 


JOJ 


i-(co 


i-liHlOCOC~OTl<,-IOOOt-COCOOOOOOOOSCOi-IOOTHCOTMCOCO"* 
COCOi-ICO 1-1 1-1 CO OS ■* 00 -<:j< t- iH CO CO iH lO CO CO CO CO lO iH t- 1-1 
CO CO iH 1-1 tH t- 








S.2d 


— . _ . , _. 




OrHc<icomcot>oi(Meou:icooocsoi-i(M-^iocot-cooiH(Meo-^Kit-oo05 
■^'*^-^-^-^-^'^LOU5Lrau:)iciococDcococococDcot-t-t-t-t-t-c-c-t> 

• 



45 



^►2 



;snjB3v 



JOJ 



}smB3>/ 



JOJ 



:)snjB3y 



JOJ 





• eo • • • 


•IC 1X> • -^ "* • • 






iH T-ieo 


•Ot-eOO(MO -co -Ot-C^O •(NCO^Ot-IOSt-KMOOO 

• 00 i-H (M 05 Oi 00 -co •■"S'lHcgeo • to co od oih ic th t-(N 

tH N tH (M t- 


tH • 




iHO • iH • • • 4D -00 • • • • C- • -^ -CO • '\a -tH 

\a • ...th CO- . .y-\ . 

tH 


•IM 


• • eO -(M I>0 t-lC OlM O • CO lO O t- (M lO SON • «D (M 00 tH tH o -^ 

• -T-i -co OiHrHO^ClOO • CO tH -^ tH Cg CO Ui • IM (N i-l U5 t- i-l 

T-l (M iH i-H C- 










• t-«OlO(M 

• CO iH iH CO 


• OC-^OOi-HO •COOS^t-C<!(N(MC<3^<XiOOa^iHiX>0'* 
•LOr-lC^iajOOOO •COCO(MrHC<l'H lOC0C<I(MTHlOr-lt-i-l 
(N (M i-H rH C- 



jsniBSy 



JO^ 



•OtDlCO •Ot-«OOi-IO -COOJIC t-(M ^ iH (N -^ !OtH 05tH tOOO 
• -^ 1-1 T-( CO • lO iH 05 OS 00 00 • CO t-H ^ rH (M iH lO CO (M CO iH lO tH t- rH 



jsniBSy 



JO^ 



•T-ICOlOOOO(NOOCOOi-IOTHLOC500<^t-C-COC<lO«OT}<OSi-ICDOO 
'TCtHtHCO (M (MO5O500 COCOCOrH(N(M ICCOWOCIiHLCt-IIXN 



0) O 



jsniB^Y 



JOJ 



•rHC0L000mO0550O-^O 
•■Tt<iHiH(N U3 (M 05 00 00 



• IC-^OiOOCOlOOOIMOOt-OOOSiHSDOO 

• CO -^ CO 1-1 (M tH lO C<I (M (M tH ■>* iH t- (M 



jsniESy 



JOj[ 



• 1-1 lyri lO 00 Ci O O iXi O iH O • LO (M (M '^ t- ■ 

• UD tH iH (M UT) tH (M Oi t- 00 • CO CO CO tH (N ■ 



jsniBSy 



JOJ 



jsniBSy 



JOJ 



•(N 


• tH COlC 00 

• Tl< iH 1-1 (M 


•OOC0005 • • lO 00 -^ (N t- lA • (M tH COU5 Oi iH iH O • 
•mi-l(MO500 • -co (M (M IM iH • U5 (M (N iH IC i-l t- • 
IM (M tH iH t- 










tH CD 


•OOOUiOO 
•COtHiH(M 


•OOCOOOOO -lO t-OOOOC- t-OOlM -^ tHCOOi-I CDOOO 
• ■<* 1-4 (M 05 00 00 • CO Tt< CO tH (M 1-1 lO CO CO IM N »i5 tH t- N 
<M IM 1-1 1-1 t- 



}SUTE3y 



a 
O 



i -IM • N iH lO '^ (M 00 «0 CD O 00 O •<* in t- (M CO to CO CO (M • 05 (M iH iH «D O CD 

JOJt "^ -TflMiHIM 0> IMO50000 COi-l (M<Mi-li-llO -(Mi-KMlOiHC-IM 

■i I iH tH IM tH 1-1 C- 






jsnjBSy 



JOJ 



t-OOi-li-ICDO-"* 
00 iH (M lO 1-1 t- ■<* 
iH C- 



jsnjBSy 



JO^ 



• ic T-l in CO 

■ rH (M tH CO 



■0000-<*OlOOOm(MOO-^000 
•OS N 05 00 00 tH CO LO IM (M CO rH 



•(MCDtH(MiHiHCDOtJ< 
■lO COi-IIMntii-IC-IM 

1-1 t- 



S.2d 



Oi-l(MCOlOCDt-05C<JCOiraSD00050iHC<l^U5CDC-OOOi-IIMOOTj<mt-000; 



46 



i> 



a 

O 



^ o 



jsniBSy 



aoj 



jsotBSy 



JOJ 



^sniB^Y 



JOj 



•O in CC>(M t-O O-^ 0«DOiH ec -^OOOOtH 
■ Ut) iH tH CO CO T-I(M 05 t- 00 CO • CO i-l C<1 00 tH 



■ (M to O OS iH «0 O 1 
CO CO 1-1 in 1-1 C- 1 
tH t- 



•<:J< (N • t- lO UO O lO O 1-1 -^ O t- O N CO t- O 00 (N r-l 1-1 (M ITS O ■>* 05 1-1 «0 O O 
r-l«> •COiHrHCO lO T-i N 05 00 00 CO N CO iH C<I lO iH U3 CO (N iH lO rH t- iH 
(N (M rH 1-1 t- 



rJtW -LO IH) in -^ 00 OS t- '^ O 1> O O5C0 iH iH OOm tH iH 
iH«D •-^iHiHSO 00 iH C<I C5 05 00 iH CO tH Tj< tH N to iH 
iH C<J 1-1 



(Mt)<050S0StHC0O 
lO (M (M tH in iH t- 
iH t- 



V o 

o 



jsniESy 



JO^ 



I eo 05 th I 
I Ovi iH in 1 

tH t- 



. a; O 

O 



^ o 
O 



0) o 



0) o 



c> o 
O 



It O 

o 



0) O 



ii o 



jsniBSy 



JOJ 



• co>nin'*c<ic<iineooc<io 

• Tjl iH i-( tH tH 03 00 00 

iH (M 



jsniB^v 



JOJ 



jsuiBSy 



JOJ 



jsuiBSy 



JOJ 



jsujESy 







to Ri — (>5 


• • 


. .iH . . .(M . . 

iH 


• • • rH (M 




• c- -ino t- cDoo-^ OiHo • CO -^ -^ 00 CO rH t- (M CO 00 1-1 oi iH i;o O 00 

• -^ • iH 00 (N C<I 05 OS 00 • CO CO 00 rH CO (M in CO Ol in rH in rH C- iH 
iH Oq rH iH t- 


■ ' IZ^ . _^ —T -J- 






y-K CO 


• t-ininoin 0(M -^o t-o • • c- ■>* in o oo <^ (M • in o os ih ?o o t1< 

•COrHrHCO^ in rH (M OS OS 00 • • ^ (M rH rH (N in • (M CO rH "^ rH t- W 
(M (M rH rH t- 










OS OS -rH .(M . .(M -in «0 






•(N 

• «o 


• oininoiinrHO'* 

•«OiHrHCO 00rH(M 
iH 


•coo 'eoinoooo • !M co • co «ooosrH to-^ oo 

00 -co CO 00 rH • (M • COCO CO iH in rH 
rH rH t- 




iH • 


• o 00 • • t-ooin • 

• CD . • OS 


• in -co • • -CO-^OSN -OOOlrH • • .(MOO 

• T->. • rH • • • rH N OJ rH • (M • • • tO in 
(M rH 



JOJ 



jsuiESy 



JOj 



)su;B3y 



JOJ 



}sniB3y 



JOJ 



• iH«oin'>*cOrHTt-<*o->*o •cooso-^inosi-i(Mco>ninosiH«50-<* 

rH rH CO O iH rH OS OS 00 • CO CO "^ rH (M (M in CO (M (M rH m rH t- 00 
rH (M rH rH t- 



. rH • • rHOS • ?0 



•<* W • «OlOin T)H in rH in rH OtH O 
rH«D -WrHl-ICO O rH OS t- 00 



• in 1-1 OS rH «o © r)t 

• CO CO rH m rH t- Ovl 

CO c- 



• rH O 

• OS 00 
CO 



'Tt* ^ t-lH 



• tH CO CO m rjl OS rH -o 

in 00 CO CO rHin • t- 

rH t- 






}sniE3y 



JOJ 



• 00 t- too 00 o 

• CO rH CO OS CO 00 
rH CO 



• cocoin'^osiHtoo 

• in CO CO th in th c- 



u.So 
o az 



'O rHC0C0in«0t-0SC0C0in«00005OrHC0-^in«0t-00OrHC0C0'*inC--000S 

'*-^'*'^-<s<'^'^Tfininininininto?o«o«oeoto«o«ot-t-t-t>t-t-t-t~t- 
47 





a 

.5iO 

£ 6 


jsnjBSy 




■i-(u3tCi • -Oi ■•* -tH -lOOiCO • --^ -i-l -T-l 

1-1 1-1 • • -^ • 1-1 • t- • 1-1 C<1 • • • 1-1 • 

C<1 




JOJ 




•t- • • O «© tH CO (M O -O • • 1-1 t- CD U3 CO 1-t CO IX> -^ O^ OT iH CO O O 
•(M • 'CO OiH Oi -OO • •iHC<|i-l oq LO 1-1 CO tH 1-i I> r-l t> 1-1 
(M iH 1-1 <M 




a 
.23 


jsniBSy 


~ • • 


• tH -co • -OOr-l • -OS •lOCSlO • . • -O^ '(NCMiH 

• 'tH • . -iHfM CO 




aoj 




•■^U3COO-^<M iH U30 (M O • -lOCOCOCOOS • (M O tH O OT iH CO O i-l 
•(Mt-ItHCO OOiHfMOSOOOO • • (MlHiHlH ■ IC iH (M iH l> iH I> i-l 
(M tH 1-1 (M 




d 

.Sio 


jsniBSy 

JOj 




•iH • • • -OtH • • t?- -lO -LO • -T-l -t- -CO 

oa 1-1 • -t- -iH 

iH (M 






• COlO coo I>-iH00lO O -O • CO 1-1 ra< ic O 05 CO (M 00 U5 (M OS iH CO o -^ 
•(Mi-ItHCO (N N 05 -00 • CO i-l(M iH iH tH IC CO (M iH t- tH t- i-l 
1-1 iH iH (M 




d 


jsniESy 




• • -00 • '(M • • -i-l -lO -CO • • • -O "^ iH 

• • • . • lO . • -00 • 1— 1 • iH .... . ,H 




JOJ 


— -^ (N 


•iHlO OOO I>00051CO -O • CO iH CO CO CO 05 1-1 C<1(M CO <M 05 iH CO O 05 
• CO 1-1 CO OS (M 05 -00 -CO (M iH iH i-l \a CO (N tH C- iH I>- 
iH iH i-H N 




d 


}sniB3y 


— oscq • • • -lo ^o -sci 




i-i 




JO£ 




•00 WCOOlOiH 0K50t-H0 -COOOOSCO COIO<N <M CO t-(M OliH COOU3 
•(MiHiHCO 1-1 rH <M 05 00 00 -CO (N i-l (MtM lO iH CO (M tH C- iH I> iH 
iH (M iH tH (N 




d 


jsntEay 














JOJ 




•O»0C0(NC0iH COIOO'^O •COiH t-COOOOinXNi-tCSCOOSrHCOO"^ 
••<*THrHCO (MtH(MOJ0000 • CO t-( CO iH (N <N IC t-4 CO (M tH t- i-l t- 
(M (M. iH tH (N 




d 

.2^ 

Id 


jsnjBSy 


~ • • 


• -tH • •0'^(M • • . -IC • ••• -C^J -OS -CO • • • -CO • • 

• • • • COiH • • . . iH CO • • • -iH . • 




JOJ 




•OO-^COfM COCO-"* ^ O t-O • CO iH COCOO O <M (N •OSCNOStH -OO 
• (M iH iH CO 00 oa OS C5 00 • CO iH iH T-l T-t CO to • CO (M iH C- • t- iH 
1-1 (M iH 1-1 (M 




a 

u 


}suiE3y 


!<-» "" ■ \/-V ■ 












JOJ 


tH50 


•(M-^ -O t>0'* Tt< 0(M O • 00 K3 t- -^ U3 CO (M (N CO 00 t> OS iH CO O xf 
•COiH -CO lO iH <N OS OS 00 -CO (M i-l iH (M lO CO CO iH iH lO iH C- iH 
(N <M 1-1 iH t- 




Question 
No. 44 

1 


jsniESy 


• • •COtH.' . -tH-.-tH--.. •»-I CO.-.lOi-H- 




JOJ 




• 00 •coocoo'*eoooso • co os oo oo co ini(M o i-i '^ co os • -oos 

•iHCO US iH OSO500 -co C<I 1-1 iH \a CO(MiH • •!> 
(M (M iH iH 




d 
1 


}suiB3y 


~ : : 


•(MiHiH -iHO lO -(M . .(M -CvItH • • (M • • (M • • 

lO iH •(>! • • • • • • -tH • • 




aoj[ 


1-1 iX> 


•iH ■<* kOO (MO C0-*0 t-O • CO CO CO CO (M -T)* U3 CO '^ "^ 1-1 OS 1-1 •^ o m 
.TtiHi-lOO Oi-I(MOSOOOO •CO CO i-l iH (N CO CO <M ■>* iH lO t- i-l 
<M (M 1-1 1-1 t- 




d 
.29 

o 6 


jsuiESy 




OS T-l OS • t- tH 

CO 1-1 




JOJ 


iH«0 


•OOiniOOCOTH'*'5)<0(NOOa(M05lOt-OOTt<^IM'*LOcOOSiHCOOCO 
•TjtTHiHOO tHtH(MOS0000t-IC0C0COi-Ii-IC0 U3 COC<liHlOrHt-i-l 
(M (M tH iH t- 






y.s 0, 


— 








































Oi-IC<lCOK3C£>t>OiC<ICO>OiX>OOOiOiHC<l-^U5COl:-OOOi-lOacO-^l01>OOC5 



48 



Question 

No. 62 


}sniB3v 




• lit) ■!— 1 • .tH .IC -COt-IO^ • -to . • 


tH 


JOJ 




.THLnC£>00-n<O(35^O(NO ■ tH iH 00 U3 (M t- 00 !N C<! 05 • 05 iH .0 50 
.eOiHiH(M lO (MC5CO00 -co iHi-KMt-I U3(M . tH t- .b-rH 
(M <M iH (M 


o 


jsniESy 


05.. .•.lOrH....-^iX>--TH 

eg r-ICO .... . .,H 


JOJ 




. t- lo CO 00 «o th -^ -<* o ;d o • • lo as ?o (M eo -^ <n co m o o ih «o o -^^ 

.COi-fT-H(M <Mi-l(MO50000 . . C<1 i-l iH (M lO CO ,-1 CO i-l t- iH C- iH 
iH eg 1-1 r-l (M 


a 
S 6 


jsniESy 


CO • -la m . .-<* . .(MOO -oo 




JOg 


-*(M 

1-1 ?o 


•00 iO C000(MU3C0t1<O(MO .050>t-«0(M . i-l Cg (M O IC 05 iH ?0 O LO 

.eoiHiHcg ooiHcgoiOsoo .(NiHiHi-icg . lo ih co eg ih t> i-i t- i-i 
1-1 eg rH T-t eg 




jsniBJSy 


• ■ 


00 U5 • • . .rH -eg -t- .tH 

CO tH 


JOJ 


tHCD 


.COL05000 10 egoo'^ocg o .osth oo«oeg co«ocg coOrHOSrH «oo rH 

.COrHrHeg i-* Cg 05 05 00 • eg eg rH rH rH rH lO COCgiHt-rHt- 

eg eg rH rn eg 


a 

•2S 

|o 


jsniBSy 




■ - _ _ . — , J , ■ 






JOJ 




.imncooowooo'^ot-o •moi'* too t-og egrHrnicosrHsooo 
• corHiHeg K5rHrH05c-oo . cg eg cg rH rH lo CO CO th t- rH c- eg 
eg eg y-* th eg 


d 

.25 
1 6 


jsniBSy 








jojI 


•<*(M 


• t-lO«O00 t-OOStOO.* O • 0:1 -rli C- lO CO OS rH eg ■<* rH Tjt C5 rH CO O O 

• COrHrHeg »^ rH eg OS 05 00 .egeorHrH rH (N CO eg rH t- iH t- eg 

eg eg i-i rH oj 


So 


)smB3y 


' " ^K^T X^ T^v ~ ' — ' k/-^ 7^ ' 






JOJ 




.cgmcooo coooeg LOO ego -os co^cocgos-^cg eg os t-osrHcooco 

• COrHrHeg Cg rH eg OS t- 00 .egrnegiHrH irS rH eg rH rH C- tH t> rH 

eg eg rH rH eg 


a 
So 


}sniE3y 




. . .TP 10 . -rH . . -00 -co 

. • • • rH CO 


JOJ 


•*(M 


• oiocg 00 koo cgicoio • os co co co os -^ .eg .osoosih coo oo 

• COrHrHeg LOrHegOSOOOO .egcg rH rH rH .kO • eg eg rH t- rH t- rH 

eg eg r-^ rH eg 


a 
.Id 

3Z 


}sniE3y 


...TH.CO-.Oi m..(M.....(N05i-t 

-^ tH CO(M 


JOJ 


1-1 «o 


•CgU5000lOrHU3irSOOSO . OS CD ■* CO t- CO CO 'Sjt rH • rH OS rH CO O 00 

• ogiHrHeg OrHcgososoo • eg ti; eg rH rH eg co • eg rH t- rH t- rH 
eg eg i-i rH eg 


d 

Id 


)smE3y 


■ '■ 


• CO ... .^ .. .CO .10 .coTtt . . •oo -caooo • • . 'oo 

• rH . . . .10 . . "OS •rH • N • • • • CO Cg • • . • rH 

rH eg 




. OS 10 CO 00 CO CO io 10 .0 -osco .cocoioegeg . -cgosrHcoo • 

rHrHeg OS rH eg OS -00 .eq .i-lrHOg va . .i-lrHt-rHt- . 

j-H rH eg 




•S d 
S.2c5 


— . 








































Oi-l(MO:)lO«Dt-OSIMCOIOiX!00050TH(MTHlceCit-OOOi-l(MCO'*un)t:-0005 



49 





a 
Id 


}sn;E3v 


lO t- • • -tH 




JO£ 


-"teg 


• tH JO «0 Tf •>* O -^ -^ O 00 O •T-l-*t--<3<THeCCC<M<NeOt-OSO«DOOO 
•eOTHT-((N OtH(N050000 • CO CO t-l tH (N (M lO CO (M (M tH t- tH O tH 


a 


^suiBSy 


t- • '-^ lo • -CO 




JOJ 




■ eoioos'=i* cotooa ^ o ^ o • t-h th -^ eo eo t- ih (m (n -^ to os i-i ?o o oo 

•COtH (M 00 T-H (M 05 00 00 . CO rH T-l iH (N r-l iH lO CO (M (M rH t- tH I> 1-1 
tH (M iH 1-1 (M 


a 

1 d 
=2 
O 


jsniBSy 




• • -kO • -(M lO iH 




aoj 




•OlOiH-^-^ 00 COrPOlOO • iH Tt 00 CO tH Tl< iH (M (M "* 00 O^ iH «D O Oi 
•00iHtH(M ■^iHfNOOOOO • 00 1-1 iH iH IM 1-1 IC CO (N (M i-l C- i-l t^ 
(M IM tH 1-t C<1 


c 

(5^ 


JSBlBSy 




• t- • • • -o IC 




JO^ 


i-liD 


• • IfS 50 ■<* IC O CO -^ O 05 O .iH t-OOin 0050(M->*Tl<m05i-l cooo 

• .T-Hi-KN OiHfMOJOSOO • CO iH iH i-l (M tH irH lO (M (M 03 iH t- rH C- i-l 

CN (M tH i-i (N 


6 

1 

1 
g 


CO 
d 


JSBJEgy 




oj la • -iH ■ • •■«* • • "i-i • • • "(M 




aoj 




.(MUSeO-^ •THt-^0?DO • 1-1 O to -^ U5 (N lO (M lO CO t- OS 1-1 to O O 
.COtHi-((M • (M iH (M 05 t- 00 • CO 1-1 1-1 tH iH iH lO N (M (M i-l C- tH t- iH 
(N (N iH iH (M 


IN 

d 


jsniESy 


' • 


•••■<*• -O lO • .CO . • •-* 'iH -iH 

• • • • • eo iH • • ... • . 


JOjJ 




.WkON-^ .OC-'^OiXiO .tH O t-TjfiOOOUSCC! C-COOOiH tooo 
•eOiHiH(M . 05 iH (M OS t- 00 . CO iH 1-1 iH tH T-4 lO l-l N (M iH t- iH t- iH 
1-1 <M iH tH (M 


d 


jsniBSy 


— ' • ' • — ' "-T- r;; ; '~' ^j _ 






JOJ 




.NiO tOOOCOO C--^ OtOO .iHO«0'*l0I>U5CMC0'^i-ta5TH«DO'^ 
.COiHtH<M Oi r-l <N 05 t- 00 . CO 1-i tH iH iH 1-1 lO (M C<l iH C- iH t- 
1-1 (M iH iH (M 


e 


jstJiESy 


' * 


. . .«o . .CO . . .(£> .la . . . .lo .(N .00 

CO . • "OS .iH . . • .iH . .iH 

iH (M 


JOJ 


iHiX> 


• 1-1 lO O 00 to ■<* «0 '=d< O .O . 1-H O 00 lO T}< to lO (M OS ■>* iH 05 1-1 «0 O IM 
•COiHiH(M iHiH(M05 .00 .CO(NiHi-l i-( U3 (N !M i-H t- i-l t- iH 
iH i-H 1-1 (M 


S d 


;sniB3Y 


■ * 


CO lo «o • iri • iH 

CO T-l • <M . 

1-1 


JOJ 




•U5U5«DOOlOC-0>'<*Ot-0 • tH (N O "* Tj< CO i-l (M '^ US 00 OJ r-l «0 © lO 
•CCiHi-l(M 1-1 (NOJt-OO -CO tHtHi-IiH lO N iH iH t- i-l t- 
1-1 (M iH iH (M 


d 

"z 

o 

i 

D 
O 


d 


jsnjESy 


" • • 


OS .-* .(N .US .Tl*'. -iH . . .(M .00 . .(N .00 

-^ . . .1-1 ^. . . .^ 


JO^ 


1-1 «o 


•t-lO«O00 • iH C<l 1-1 O 1-1 O . iH OS OS lO iH -* . (N O t- to OS 1-1 -«* O lO 
.COtHi-<(M .OiHtHOSOOOO • CO (M iH 1-1 C<I(M .lOOKM iH t- iH C- 
<M (N iH (M 


d 

2 


;sn{E3Y 


~- • 


lo iH .eg .«o 


JOJ 




•«0 .«000^0 .-^OCNO -tH -OCOIM • t-(MOOSOOOSi-l«DO-* 
•CO .i-l(M lO .(MOSOOOO -CO • (M iH N • IfS (M (M iH t- i-l t- tH 
(M CO iH CO 






— d 
* /J 






















OTH(MCOlO«£>t-05<MCOira<C00050i-l(N-rt<UD«Ot-OOOi-l<MeO"*u:)t-OOOJ 



50 



0)2 












dZ 



jsniESy 



JOJ 



jsnjBSy 



JOJ 



jsniESy 



JOJ 






jsniESy 



JOJ 



jsniBSy 



JOJ 



jsniESy 



iZ 



JOj 



jsuiESy 



"^5 



JOJ 



' O • i-H iH ( 



_ __ -_- __ ^ — - — 




■;^ ' ' *"^ 'I )rJ^ 




T-1 


T-H 




rH 1-1 rH tH 


• looocqos • tr- c<j «o iH CO iH •«© 

T-l 1-1 


ts_ 




•r-l(M TP05'-- 

iH iH • • • 






rH 




- . (M t^COrHcO ^ t- t-O • C5 00 Cq IH) lit) 
• tH tH Oa iH ^ CO C<l CO IC • r-1 CO '^ lO CO 
1-1 iH r-4 tH 


•CO(Nt-Tt<0«>(M05t-OOOJ«OTH 
•lO00(NOS(N t- oq CO 1-1 CO rH r-l «£> 

1H lH 



' tH «£> . tH O • (M 



jsniBSy 



JOJ 



}sntE3y 



OOeO • -rHSOC^l --rHiH • (M O O ^ lO CO lO (N (N '(M-* • 

• • tH CO r-4 ■ CO • l-H 00 in CO rH C<1 (M • 


05 t- tH O O 'CO 
(M COtHtH tH . 


~~I>K5«DU3 •rHOlOCOOqOrHOO -^ • t- «5 (M • -^ 00 t- (N 
1-1 iH iH T-H T-l 


• -OOi • -o 

• • tHW • •«£) 


t- Tj< • '^f rH 00 00 t>050 O^ ^ (M t- lO ^ ^ -iH-^OOfNI • 
00 T-H • iH i-H (M t£> iH (M U5 LO (M ^ 00 i-H CO (M "^ • CO 05 (N iH • 
T-l tH TH T-l tH 


O t- (M IC Oi in ^ 

(N eoT-ica T-l 






.(M 05 -O -^ • O5C0 



JOJ 



■ «0 tH T-l CO OS OS 00 C- tH N m tH to ■* m (M eo 'OS 
T-l tXM tH -* «0 «0 CO(MCO (M • <M 



JSTIJBSy 



• t-«OTH •KS 00 

• CO T-l tH • tH CO 



• CO to T-l 



JOJ 



■ CON CO 00 T-l 
TT T-l O 



. ^ CO OS • t> t> 

• CO OOC<I • (M 



CO 



IsniBSy 



JOJ 



jsniESy 



JO^ 






oiMco'^":)t-ooaioiHco^^cDoooso"*u:)CDooosot-ooosT-i(Moo"<*io 

OQOQOOD000000000050S0105050503CSOOOOOOt-It-It-Ii-I(MC<1(MNC<I 



51 



O 


jsniBSy 


■ • .0 . . tH • .00 • • • •y-l 

• • .T-I . . iH «ri . .1-1 . . . . C5 

1-1 


rH . . 1-1 . . . . 
• • 1— 1 . . • . 






JOJ 


COT-<iH(MT-l(Mt-(MeOiX>lCC<l«0 .i-IC0C<ILC5C0<MCS • W'^COiHCOtHiH'* 
rHiHiHi-liHiH i-ItH 


00 

6 

o 

t/3 


< 




jsujBSy 


00 <MlO • • .(N • . 

OOiH CO 


(N • .(M . • • • 

00 • .rH . • . . 


jOjI 


— • CO ?D 10 tH 05 -^ «£> «0 t- ?0 ira . CO (M t- ■^ LO c 
• 1-1 iH C<1 1-1 C^J C- (M CO «0 UD (M «0 ?0 (M • (M lO CO tH Oi 00 


• 00 t- rH CS Oi t- OS 

• <N CO rH 00 rH rH -^ 


.9 

'■5 
1^ 


jsniBSy 


— • • ■ -oca -la • . •oco'^icoi • -ia • • 

tX . . . -OiH . (M . . . i-llC CO iH . . • . 
r-i tH tH 


(M • -rHO • • • 
00 • -t-It-I • • • 


JOj^ 


— t- CO ?0 1-1 05 CS t- 1-1 05 (M C- -iH •COOaO'*'^ • 
Tt rH 1-1 oa iH 05 '^ (N IClCiHCO . (M • (N IC CO iH 05 • 
1-1 lH 1-1 iH 


• 00 t- 05 05 OS t- rH 

• (MCO CO rHrHLO 




jsuiBSy 


— ?0 T-I • • 'iHOOIMUSO • -CO • • 

■n* iXi .(M . . .iHlO CO(M • . • • 

r-l 1-1 


(N . .rHO • • • 
00 • -rHrH .. • 


JOJ 




• 00 t- 00 OS OS t- rH 
•(N CO COrH tHIO 


d 
— 


jsuiBSy 


— • . . -OiH -00 • • •0'=*tDlCO • .(M • • 
.1^ . . . . t-t- .(M . . . 1-1 to cO(M . • • • 
r-l 1-1 


(M . -rH • • • 
00 • . tH rH . . . 


"t-COitO-^THOSOOS •OSOCSt- • t- .COCdOCO-^CD 

-^ lH r-l 1-H tH (M T-I (M .lOlOrHCO • (N • (N lO CO rH 05 C- 

r-i T-i iHr-l iH 


• 00 t- 10 05 OS t- 

•(M CO CO rHrHlO 


a 

CO 

■■so' 


jsaiBSy 


— • • • -oeo • 10 • • .OiHo -aiy-i • oo • -^ 

Ti< . . • -O^ -OJ . • .rHt-r-l • rH • • lO 
T-i r-i T-I r-l 


Cv] . .050 •Ofl-* 
00 • -T-li-l . 


JOJ 


~ t-CO «DlO rH 00 5D0510 050 00 t- • rH • U3 CO IC CO "<* • 
->* rH rH (N rH (N CO (M lO lO rH «5 • IM • (N lij 00 rH 05 • 
r-l iH rHiH 


• OS t- (M OS 05 CO 

•NCO COrHrH'sP 


oZ 
in 


jsuiBSy 


— • • • '050 •?£> • • --"^rHlO • t- rH -00 -CO 
Tjt . . . .OON • (N • • -rHC-rH • rH • • lO 
r-i T-i rH 


<M • -OOO -t- • 

00 • -T-iT-i -T-I • 


JOJ 


~ t-CO«O00rH00O5a>rH OOIM eO .CD 'COCOUSO-^ • 
rt< W rH rH rH (M CO (M CO K5 (N CO • rH • (M lO 00 rH OS • 
T-t iH rH rH 


. OS t- OS OS OS • t- 
.(MCO COrH • -<* 


ojZ 


jsniBSy 


— • -O -OtN •^'. . .rHrH(M • CO rH • i-l -CO 
•<* . .rH -OSIM -(M . • .rHt-<N . rH -O • LO 
i-i r-i rH rH 


(M • .100 • • • 
00 • -r-lT-l • • • 


JOJ 


t-eOCO COrHOOOO -OOIMOO •r-l .COCOlOt-Tf • 
■^rHrH rH CO C- (M • CO lO N CO • rH • (MIO 00 05 • 
rH 7-i ^ rH 


• OS t- 00 OS OS CO LO 
•(M CO CO rH rHLO 




jsuiBSy 


• .Tj< .00 -t- . • .t-rH<N -00 -eoio .(N 

Tj< . . .OT(M .(M . . . rH t- . rH . rH • lO 

i-H 1-1 rH rH 


eg • -COO • • • 
00 • -rHrH . . • 


t- 00 «D 10 rH 00 (M 00 rH O* rH (M -^ • CO IC (M CO "* • 
"* rH rH rH r-< W t- (M lO lO CQ CO ■ -rH . (N lO 00 05 • 
rH rH rH 


• OS C- OS OS CO CO 

• <M CO rH CO iH tH 10 


ca 

ON 

'"J 

<"Z 


jsniBSy 


• • -CO • -t- • t- • • •IOtHCO -rHCO -CO .(M 
Od • • • rH t- .(N -rH . lO 

y-l rH rH 


00 


JOJ 


•COCOC35 "^OSC^IrH -OOCO .00 • CO 00 kO CO • •!- 
•rHrHi-H -(MiOfM .LOIMCD . rH . C<I lO 00 • • 
T-i T-i tH r-i 


• OS t- CD • OSCOCD 
.(MCOrH • rHrHlO 


d_ 
.2 


1suiB3y 


CO • . • -OCO -O -CO -OrHOlOOrH -^ • 00 1- 
00 • . . -rH-* .CO • .(Mt-COCOCO -(N -^ 
rH rH rH rH 


(M . .'^O • • • 
00 • -rHrH • ■ • 


aoj 


rH CO CO (M rH 10 CO CO rH 05 t- 03 rH ■ Oi • CO 00 lO N "<* • "^ 
rH rH C<1 rH OJ rH N rH LO Tj< CCI t- • . (M LO 00 OS • 
rH rH rH T-i 


• OS t- 00 OS CO CO 
•W CO CO rH rHLO 


d 
dZ 


jsniBSy 


• . • -OCO • (M •t-rHO.<#rH • O i-H .... 


CO • -rH ••. • 


rH rH 


JOJ 


t-Ot-lOrHTj<.^OOCOOCOlOC<JO>THlOCOO>CDiH-<*lOCC 
rHrH(MrH(MLO(MCOCOC0(Mt>TH-n<C0(NCO00COO5(N 
T-I rH rH T-iT-i T-I 


-^0St-<M0S05C0T-H 
t-(MC0rHC0rHrHCO 




•3 d 

5.2 6 




0(NCO'*LOt-00050rHCO^LOC000050-^10COOOC5C 
OOOOOOQ00000000005010SO:>C505C550000000i- 

r-l r-i r-l r-i r-i r-i 1- 


t-00OSrH<MC0-^LO 
rHrHT-((M(M(M(M(N 



52 



a 
•2S 

O 




jsnieay 


CO eg 


• • O -r-i ■ -OS • 






aoj 


00 T-l T-l iH tH iH CO OQN «0 in CD T-l rH CO rH -^ 00 T-l OS OS 
tH tH tH rH 1-H • r-l tH 


•coomc-rHoscoco 

•CO coco OOrH CO 


us 

6 
Z 

O 
H 

C/5 

o 


6 
Z 


jsniEBy 


lOt- • -i-l -OOO -00 -CO -t- •lO'*i-l • • -O 
<M •• -CO •LO^ .tH.,iOiH •••05 

i-t 


•CO •i>-co • •ooco 

• CO 1-H • • T-l 


JOJ 


D3 iH i-H IM »H N OS iH N lO i-H CO i-H • id OS (M OS • 


'^ rH OS •rHOOSOOCO 
rH m rH • rH 00 rH r-l 

mco 


to 

d 
Z 


jsniBSy 


OSC-r-l • T-l T-l OS CO 1-1 00 •'*UtlOS • kO CO • • • • <Z> 
(M • t- m •T-liHr-l • CO T-H • • • -OS 


•CO • t-co coos ^ •* 

■ CO rH rH rH rH 


JOj 


couDeocoocooT-it> •ooaoooaeo •cooocg'*^ • 

CO i-H tH (N 1-H CO OS (M (M •in ^ i-H •T-llOOS(MOS • 
iH iH tH tH tH iH 


COCO OS •OO •CO CO 
r-lia r-l • rH 00 • r-l 

m CO 


d 
Z 


jsniBSy 


(N t- • OS tH rH 00 ^ iH 00 t-l -^ <M 'i* (M • CO 00 CO • •© 
rH •tH t- in T-HiniH -r-liH • • 00 

1-1 


•CO • t- OS CO OS OS CO 
•CO -co rH W 


JOj 


oin co"^ oco oco OS •oscoo oscom i-i oo t- os -^o-«# o os •(Mm •^^o 

CO 1-H 1-1 tH iH Oa OS (M (N • n< i-l iH CO CO iH OO i-l OS iH iH tH i-l -iHOO • (N 
iH 1-t lH iH tH iH ion 


d 
Z 


jsniBSy 


N t- CO CO 1-1 tH -Tf -Tt< rH 00 -OS • CO (N • 00 mic • • 00 
rH T-l t- in> •I-l • • iH iH • • t- 

1-1 


• • • tJ- OS CO OS CO CO 

• • •CO rH rH 


JOJ 


om-^ o o cDocoos ^o -coo mm loosoo os-^ co-^ co os -(NOvi -^00 

CO tH tH CO 1-1 (M OS <N (M -m • CO (M iH CO 1-1 (M 00 1-1 OS iHCOiH • 1-1 00 -i-KM 
tH iH tH tH rH iH m CO 


CO 

d 
Z 


)SDlBSy 


m i> •mr-imm-^co oorHoo t- t-iH •c-ooco • •© 

m • T-i t- m iH tH CO • iH iH • •OS 

iH 


• 00 'Oosmos •'^ 

•CO rH -co 


JOJ 


com -^oo t>ococo • os • co • -^ m 1-1 co co '^ -<* • 

iH iH CO 1-1 iH OS CO CO • 'S' • rji • iHCOmCO ^ 1-1 OS • 
tH iH 1-1 tH rH r-i 


■^rHOSt-COCO •■^O 
rHCO rH rH 00 • rH CO 

mco 


d 
Z 


)sniB3y 


rH t-C^OSrHmcOCOCOOOrHOCOOOCO • CO O OS • •© 

m rH t- m CO CO rH -iHT-i • • 00 

T-i 


. t_ .c-o-^osmm 

•iH •COi-l 1-1 CO 


JOJ 


omcooot-o^rH •OS •osiHcom rH OS-* oo'* t-mt-os 'i-it- -rnos 

CO rH rH CO rH rH OS CO CO -^ • CO CO rH CO "<* rH "^ r-l OS rH rH rH • rH 00 • rH rH 
i-{ r-l T-t r-t r^ i— 1 m CO 


d 
Z 


)sniE3y 


• t- CO rH rH rH ■<* ^ CO 00 C<1 CJS •00"^ • CO 00 CO • • t- 

CO t> CO rH •rH . rH rH rH • • t- 

- rH 


• Tf • t- OOOOSrHCO 

• rH . CO rHrHrH CO 


JOJ 


i>mco oo ^ o oirH rH oorH ^ oscom rHco '^ os'^co m -^ OS •coco -coca 

00 rH iH CO rH CO OS CO CO ^ CO CO rH CO m CO m rH C:S rH rH rH rH • rH 00 • rH CO 
T-i T-i r-l r-l T-i r-l r-l m CO 










d 

Id 
sZ 


jsniBSy 


-^ '. — z „m ~^ r^^ 7^ : "^^~ 




^ 




JOJ 


t>ooco t- rH o CO CO osm o ooco • os m tr- co cci ^ -* co 

00 rH rH 1-1 rH CO CO CO rH CO m rH CD ■ rH CO m O CO Cft OS 
r-l r-l r-l rH rH r-l r^ r-t 


•OOSC-OSrHOSt>C- 
• C- rH CO OOrH rH ■<* 
CO 


d 
on 




jsnjBSy 


•iH -O -COO • • •rHCOOtr- • -CO • • • 'OS 

•rH • CO • • • com • 'rH • • • • 00 

rH 


•o • -o • • ^o 

•m • -rH . • -rH 


JOJ 




t- OS CO ^ rH CO o t- 00 OS OS rH ■>* • o m CO m o rH -<a< • 

00 rH rH CO iH CO rH CO CO m -^ CO CO •COCO CO CO rH OS • 
r-l 1-1 T-i rH rH r-l r-l 


• CO 00 t^(N O OS CO t- 
T-l trt rH 00 rH rH CO 
CO 


Question 

No 12 


, 


jsniBSy 






' 




JOJ 


COOCOrHrHOOOSI>OrHOCOmt-OmcO'^OT)<-<a<t> 
OOrHrHCQi-tcqt-COCOCOmCOCO-^COCOCOmcOCOOSCO 
rH rH rH r-l r-l r^ rH tH r-l 


• oosc-osooscot- 

• OOrHCO OOrHrH-"* 

CO 


Question 
No. 11 


jsuiBSy 


OS • •© • rH OS com • • 00 rH -CO • t- 

O • -r-l ■ CO m • -r-l • -00 

r^ iH 


. . . . J-i . . . . 
.... ^ ... . 


JOJ 


COCO CO ^rH CO t- 1- t-rH o -^ o • o m CO t- o 00 "^ • 

rH rH rH rH rH CO CO CO CO CO m CO CO • CO CO CO "^ CO rH OS • 
r-i rH r-l rH r-l rH rH 


•OOSC-OQOOSCOt- 
•OO^eOrHCOrHrH-* 


d 

.22 
Io 




jsniBSy 


^^ ?^T 7^ u ^T — ' — '~-z — ~, r 


~- — — — ■ 


...,-{. .j-i . ... --rH •••OS 
rH 


. . . . r-l • ■ • ■ 


JOJ 


C-tH COCO rHCO'^C-'* rHOm O-"* C-mcO COOOO'* • 
COrHrHCd rH CO coco rH com rH coco rHCOCOmCOrH OS • 
rH rH rH rH rH rH rH rH 


• oost-oooscot- 

•CC^COrHOOrHrH-^ 






Local 

Union 

No. 




ocqco^mt-ooosorHco'^mcooooso'^mcoooosot-ooosrHCOco'^m 

OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOSOSOSOSOSO?OSpsOOOOOOrHrHrHrHCOCa<MCOCO 



53 





d 

z 
o 

H 
O 


d 


^shieSy 


• • • lO • . .OS 


. . . . tH . . • • 




JOJ 


00 iH T-H 1-1 T-H (M . (M 1-1 LO lO iH Tl< (M iH • N l£S t- i-H 0» 
i-H r-H 1-1 iH 


•ooiooot-os -co 

.C-COCO COiH -1-1 




d 


)sniBSY 


OW -OS -COO "00 -USrH • 00 «D IC tH • • OS Ti< CO 

00 • tH • lO -i-l • 'iHiHCO • -i-IOiO 
tH ,-1 T-l 


•OO "i-lOO . . • 

•i>eo • 00 • • . 




JOJ 


— •iae«3 • iH 1-1 -incN oioin :£> '^(M 'i-icoiM • • • 


. . .100 .OS .«D 




iH 1-1 






CO 

d 


jsntESy 


... . . . . CO • ... 


• . . .COiH • . • 




JOJ 


— -O lO Oq iH rH iH ITi CO CO 00 O -^ lO lO 1-t . CO 05 eg O^ -* iH 

00 iH 1— 1 Oq iH (M CO CO (M ITS UT> tH -^ tH iH • C<1 Tj< t- 1-1 05 00 

iH iH iH tH 1-1 


•OOlOCOOSOSlOi^ 
• t-COCO CO iH iH 1-1 




d 


jsuiBSy 


-COi-l • .1-IOOOJ CO -to 

• • CO 00 


. ... X) ... • 




JOJ 


O K5T-^-^lHr^OU3COOO■<*COC^^t^-U3eOeOCOt-■<!l^CO 

OOi-li-liHiHCOCOCOCasOliSiHlOCOiHCOCOliSt-iHOS 


.OOIOO^OOSCDCO 
• t>COeO COiHiHrH 




d 


jstriE^Y 


— ■ -CO . . . • iH iH . .iH 


. . . .T-IO . . • 










JOJ 


. lO CO OS 1-1 iH ■<* ?0 00 O O 1-1 -<* CO lO to CO 05 «0 00 •'i' t- 

.iHi-iTHiH<NT)<C0i-ICDlOiHlOCai-IC0C0r}it-iHO>00 
tH tH 1-1 iH 1-1 


•ooiooososc^co 

•C-COCOtHCOtHtHi-i 




d 

.5<M 


^suiESy 


— . . . .^ .^ CO 


• . . -rHO . . . 

. . . . ^ . . . 




JOJ 


^O00C0OOC0t-t-T-IOO'*Tt<-*00l-0C0i-l«000'*t> 

00iHiHC0rHC0lOC0C0«OlOi-imC0iHC0i-Hi5t-THOJ00 

1-1 irH 1-1 iH iH 


•OOlOCOOSOSt-CO 
•t-C003i-IC0iHi-li-l 




.5!M 


jsniBSy 


• . .CO . -iH .^ . . -o 

<£> 


. • . .tHO • ■ . 
. . . . ^ . . . 




JOJ 


O t-OUiiH '^ OOIO OOOOCO t-COlOlO CO t-oto-^ • 

OOiHiH 1-1 CO ^ CO TH CO in 1-1 lO CO iH CO CO Tf 00 1-1 OS . 

iH 1-1 1-1 T-i 


•ooioososost-co 

• CO CO 00 CO rH 1-1 1-) 




a 

O'-t 

1^ 


jsniESy 


■ rH 


• . . -iHO . • • 








JOJ 


— o t-coOi-( eococoooo-^co-^T)<iocoeoooO'*o 

OOiHi-ICOiHOCI'*CqCOCDU5iHlOCOiHCOCOlOOOiHOSOS 
1-1 iH iH iH 1-1 


•OOtHO0S05C-?0 
•t-COCOTHCOlHlHi-l 




e 

no 


}SuiB3y 


00----1-I.-.- 


• -o .-^o • • - 










log 


oeo-^NiHcoTftiHcooocoot-cotnit-ooooo'^o; 

OOr-tiHCOiHCO-^COiHCOlOi-liniCOiHeOr-C^OOr-tOSuO 

lH iH i-( 1-1 iH 


.0010 t-osos .t- 

• t-COCO COiH .1-t 






}sniE3y 


. .iH • iH -COO-^ -co •, • • • • "^ -co • • • 


. .O .T-IO . . - 
. .CO . iH . . . 




JOJ 


Ot--*iMO(MCOlClOOOOO'^OOOSCDin)?OCOI>00'*0 

00iHl-IC<liHi-ICOl-l,-HOT}<lHmi-li-(COiHlOt-iHO5a5 

1-1 T-l 1-1 iH rH 


• OOkOOSOSOSCOOO 
t- CO CO CO tH rH rH 




a 

000 

Id 


JSDIBSy 1 


o 


.o .CO ... - 










JOJ 


Ot>CO-^iHCOtD50iHOOCOOCOTHlOeOlOOOO-^0 

ooTHiHCOTHiHcocococoKST-icococoeocoiooOi-iasos 

1-H T-l 1-1 1-1 iH iH iH 


OOlOC0rH05t-00 
OCOCOrHOOi-liHr-t 




a 
£ d 


jsniESy 


OS ....-• iH 1-1 

—1 


OO -co • • • • 
coco . iH . • • . 




JOj 


OC0Tt<C0iHtDt-t>OOOC0i-HC0e0l0C0OO0S-^O 
1—1 T-l 1—1 1-1 rH 1— 1 tH 


t-OlOOiHOSt-O 
CO CO tH 00 rH iH CO 






5.2 


• •• » 




OCOCO•^mI>OOOSOl-IC>'^■^t^U6^000050•<*l/5?OC<)ClOt-0005l-^COCO■^lO 
OOOOOOCOOOOOOOCOOS05 06<75<?bO><5?C350000 0T-lT-lT-li-ICOCOCOCOCO 



54 



jsnieSy 



•(MtH 
' CO 



JOJ 



O 



jsnxESy 



JOJ 



jsuiBSy 



JOJ 



jsniBSy 



JOj 



lH 


(M «0 

-^iH 


•CO 'tHCD • • • -CO -co -tH 
tH (M -OS 


; ; ; ;co • 1 


• • 


00 
OS 


•O«0r-IO(M . 
•t-ItH tH 00 


c<i t-ooooto(Micoeo-* "* • 

Di lO lO rH (M C<J tH 00 C^l lO «0 -OS • 


•OtOiHCO'* • 
•00(MCO (N • 


•«o 

•rH 


l-< 




A-a ..^ 








(N • • 






00 

05 


•os-<*iHioooioeoooooco(Micioi-Hco'*TH'*i-H 

• T-l 1-1 tH CO '^ iH (N lO m iH ^ (N iH CO (M in> iD 0505 
tH tH 1-1 tH 


•O tDl-H05^ . 

• oocgco (N • 

T-l 




i-H 


,— N 


■ — ^ 7 "^"^ 


. 




1-1 . 


•«0 (N • • 






00 
OS 


•0^iHCSCO-*C<I •OO'*K5L0lCOC0'*7-l^r-l 
T-l iH iH iH 


•OtOi-HOSrJH . 
•00(MCO (N • 
iH 


•CD 
• tH 



jsniBSy 



JOj[ 



i<^oo'*eoooc<i^t-coioeoeo<Meo"^'-i 

l(NU3r-l(MCOu:)iH'*(MTHCOC<lU3t-(MOSOS 



0) O 

o 



}sn;E3y 



JOJ 



I^(NOOCOOOOO-^«0?OU1CO-^(MIO-^0 
KMCOfMOaiOLOiH-^C^liHCOC^IlCtXMOSOS 



jsuiBSy 



JOj[ 



«oosoeOi 



•iH00OU5I>C-(NU3C0-^C0->*-<1<«0 
(NTflO -^ (M rH CO (M Ui t- ©J OS OS 



•lO 0000 -ic «o 



jsniBSy 



jOjI 



IOOOOOSOOOG^I^OOStHIOOONNCO-^CvI 
I (N tH Cvl (N ?D lO -<*CNI CO (N lO C- (M OS OS 



jsniBSy 



<l 



JO^ 



«DOSOtJ(,-I( 



i) 



jsniBSy 



JOJ 



(O<M00C0OOC0«DC<Il0lCC0e0IM'H'^(M 
t NCg W C<1 ?0 lO T-l '^ 1-1 CO (N U3 tXN OS OS 



IsniBSy 



z3 



JOJ 



*i-IOS(MOOOOCOt-t-i-ILOlOCOOi-ITj<TH 
* N ^ iH iH iX> in -^(Nt-ICO UO t- OS 



)smESy 



JOJ 



•tH(N (M tH(M 



SSo 



66 



a 


IsniBSy 


Tj< (M -t- • • • 


. . . .eg . . 


' • 




JOJ 


n< t- th «D th t- t- to o oa o CO iH 05 -^ in T-H (M OS iH ^ !£> t- .ot>«oeoo5 

OS iH t> tH T-H CO CO iH (M lOlOiH Tl< (M tH CO N in (M OS CO • (M N <M r-l 
rH ,-H r-l iH 


• CD 

• 1—1 


d 

no 


jsnreSy 


00 


• • • • i-H • • 


1-1 • 








JO£ 


•* t- T-l (M 1-1 -"i* «0 ;£> t- CO O CO iH OS lO LO O (M (N eg -<* <X> I> • O t:- r-t CO OS IC «0 

1-1 T-l 1-1 1-1 


d 
.2§ 

i| 


jsniESy 


• ■ 1 ■ 1 ■ '" 


, 


r-l • 










aoj 


'*t-i-liHiH«D0SlOC0(NO<M(M0Sl0mC0(MTHC0'*<M00(MOT-|-<*C00S 
OS iH t- iH 1-1 CO CO tH (M «£> in tH Tjt cq ,-( CO (M in lO (M OS OS iH (N CO iH (M i-l 

iH iH iH l-t Tjl 


•CD 


d 

00 

1 d 


jsniESy 


•<* • • -C^l •iHiHOOIN • -(M -CO • • • •!-! -OS 

iH... . T-l (M'OO 

T-l 1-1 iH 


• • • • tH • • 




jOjI 


OS t- rH Oq OS -^ t:- -^ Tj< 00 O O O W OS in O O] C<I(N '^ • •* -OiHCO-^OS 

Ni-it-1-i cgcoiH ^inTHTt<co co(Ninin os • -imcoihimth 


•CD 
• 1-1 


Question 
No. 37 


jsniESy 


iH • 1-1 iH iH in 1-1 • -00 • • 

1-1 1-1 


JOJ 


00 O r-l 00 iH O -Tf CO CO O O (N tH Tf 00 m CO (M 1-1 <X) '^ • 

oOiHin coco CD in iH -^ w iH CO iM m iH (M OS • 

tH tH 


• in o 1-1 iH '^ 00 

• iH eg CO 1-1 eg 1-1 


•CD 
• 1-1 


d 

.2§ 

Id 


JSDTBSy 


o CO ineo 

CO CO 


• -OS -iH -OS 

• . iH • • tH 




JOJ 


o t-iHiniH oso5incoooo<M (M t-(M . OS CO eg ^ -^ t> 
CO T-l t- 1-1 iH (M CO 1-1 eg in in iH ■* (M iH . i-i in co eg os oo 

iH 1-1 ■ i-H 1-1 


•'* -coi-Hcg • 

iH 


•CO 

• 1-1 


d 

.SCO 

Id 

3Z 


jsuiESy 


__ — 






JOJ 


•t-iHcgiHcoeocoiHooococgegcoincgcocgi-i-^iH 
• i-it-iHT-icocoi-iegininiH^eoiHcocgincooQOsoo 

T-l 1-1 iH iH 


oci oth o-^a* OS 
iH eg CO iH eg T-l 

iH 


• CO 

• tH 


.Sco 

Id 
=Z 


;sniE3y 




















aoj 


OS t- th t- iH iH -coi-ioorHeg osinin coco -^-^-^og 
osiHt-i-ii-i -i-iT-icoin -^ eg iH CO eg in CO eg OS 00 

tH 1-1 tH 


oOi-iiH-rt< OS 
rnegco CgrH 
1-1 


•CO 
•iH 


d 

am 
.SCO 

ll 


}suiE3y 


t- -mi-io • • 1-1 T-l •ooocgi-H -in -t-i-ioo -o 
th • • -in -^ -co -eg ih -co 

iH iH 1-1 


o 

CO 

iH 


•CO 

• T-l 


JOj 


o ij- eg t- 1-1 eg 00 -^ CO o -coo 'i-i • co co co co -^ ih 
osi-ii-ii-H co-<*i-iegco • -^ . i-i • eg eg ^ os 

1-1 1—1 


•CD 1-1 0-* OS 

• eg eoiHcg th 




d 

.„co 
£ 
3Z 


jsniBSy 


""^ ' ' ' ' ' — ■ ~" — — r 


in • -eg • • 

00 • • 

iH 








1-1 




JO^ 


00 • t> t-THcgo-<* cooocgcg iHinincococoi-i -^o 
OS • th iH iH CO in iH eg CO in iH rf -^ iH CO eg m CO eg OS iH 

tH iH tH 1-1 


•CDtHO-^OS 

• eg CO 1-1 eg iH 


•CO 
•iH 


d 

.23 

Id 


jsniESy 


~~ _ — _ 


— — — --- — 






^^ 






JOJ 


OS eg t- CO 1-1 OS -^ -^ 00 00 o eg CO CO m in • ih •«* os rf t- 
os CQ T-l iH iH eg "^ T-l rH in m T-l Tf eg rH CO .incoiHosoo 

1-1 iH i-H iH iH 


O5<MC0 CdiH 

r-l 




d 

.2 m 
1 d 


}sniE3y 






' ' 






JOJ 


osoooo-^iHcoiH-^ooooegt-cDCDincgco-^osTtto 
osiHi-iTHi-ico'^i-icoininTHcocgi-ieocgincoiHOsos 

iH tH T-l tH tH 


OCOiHT^TjfOS 

t-egco cgiH 

1-1 


•CO 

• I-I 


Question 
No. 29 
Con- 
tinued 


d 


^sniBSy 


iH iH . • • .t-HtP t:- • • 

!-!.••• 1-1 • . 

1-1 


• • • iH • • 


•CO 
•iH 


JOJ 


osiHiH<.-iiHeocgiHeqcoini-i-<*ogTHeocginco osos 


ocoiH osTjt . 
ooegco eg • 
1-1 














ocgco-*mi>ooosoiHco-*incDooosoTfincoooosot-ooosi-icgco'>*in 
ooooooooooooooooososososososososooooooiHTHi-iiHegcgcgegcg 



56 



d 

.23 

6^ 


jsniBSy 


JOJ 


a 
.23 

1^ 


jsuiESy 


j 


Question 

No. EO 


jsniESy 

JOJ 


e 
.2? 

¥ 


jsaicSy 


JOJ 


a 

.2^ 
1 6 
O 


jsoiBSy 


JOJ 


d 

.25 
So • 


jsntBSy 


JOJ 


e 
^ 

Id 


jsujBSy 


JOJ 


e 
O 


jsniBJgy 


JOJ 


Question 
No. 41 

1 


jsuiBSy 1 


JOJ 


d 

.29 


}SUtE3y 


JOJ 


Si! 
S d 


1 
jsniESy ; 


JOJ 




"§d 
y.- 



-^ -^ . . . 

CO 


•00 -(M • 

• tH .<£! • 

tH T-l 


• • • T-4 • • 


• • 


• 00 iH 1-1 iH iH • CO 05 00 O rj< ?£> t- t- lO 05 00 

.T-ic-iHrHeo • iH 1-1 in lo 1-1 CO (M eoiHiC 

1-H 1-1 


• ••<^ • C£> 


•O t-lO <N OS 
• (N IM (M iH 


•«o 

• T-l 


~ "^^^ — ~ 7^ — -^ . 


CO • • 


•T-l . • . 

tH 






• 00 i-l(N OS 05 (M lO 1-1 O O ^ 00 t- (M • O CO 

• 1-1 C- iH (M CO 1-1 iH iX> U3 1-1 CO (M T-l '(MIC 

1—1 1-1 


• •'^ OOIC 

1-1 


• o c-iniMos 

•(NC<1 (Mi-I 


•«o 

• tH 




!■>- rf\ ~ 


■ ' — ■ 


— '^-— 


iH 


•T-l .1X1 • 

1-1 iH 







•OOi-li-li-IOOIMlOCOOO'^CDC-IMlCi-ICO 
• tH t> 1-1 1-1 C<I CO 1-1 <D U5 iH CO (N 1-1 CO (M lO 
1-1 


• W ■<* • lO 

OS • 


•O t-00(M OS 
•(M eg (MtH 


•«D 
•iH 


o \a • -oi -ci • • • • 

N iH 

1-1 


•00 -OOiH 
• tH . ?0 

T-l 1-1 


• • -1-1 • . 




OOSiHOi-tCO-^CMiH^OOOOOC-tMlCi-li-l 
U3 tH t- iH T-l 00 CO iH lO lO 1-1 CO (M iH CO (N KS 

iH 


•1-1^ •!> 

OS • 


• o t- OS eg OS 

• cgcg (Mth 


•CO 

• T-l 


- , - - — ; ■ 






•iHiHOT-ICO-^CO^DtOOiHOlOSOimOSN 

• cat-i-iT-icoooi-iiHiniirjT-ieocMiHeoiHio 

iH 1-1 


• co^ -^ to 

•(MOS t- 

iH iH 


■ o t-iocgos 
• eg (M eg 1-1 


•<X) 
• tH 


«-■ . .n — ■"■ 


tH . .,H 

tH 








(MiHiHOSO-^^OliOr-loOOiHi-lt-tMlOOlM 
CSIMC- iH CO CO T-l tH m K3 1-1 Tt< (M iH CO (N 'a 

T-l iH 


•(M-^ T)< 00 

• egos t- 

tH tH 


•o t-c-egos 
• eg eg eg th 


•eo 

• iH 


— .. — - ^ - -rr — 




•OSt-«D • • 

• iHcg 
















oooTH-^Oi-ioaooinooooaiHOiooiitKMOJ 

<J5 iH t- 1-1 ^-1 CO CO i-HlOLOiH^(M CO (M lO 
tH iH 


• os^-^ tn 

• •M OS t- 

1-1 iH 


• 1-1 •i-iegos 
eg 1-1 


•CD 
• 1— 1 










T 1 






O 00 1-1 1-1 • t- CO in -^ CO to 1-1 O 05 (M US lO CO O -^ TJH 00 t- 
1—1 1-1 1-1 tH 


• O C-CO COOS 

• eg eg eg T-l 


•CO 

• 1-1 


O • • • 1-1 1-1 00 • • lO lO CO 

i-i'-'i-i • ••CO 


J,^ 


.^ 




~^ 












OOtHtHCO • -rJH CO ?0 t- O to T-l (M t- 1- •oooiM-^oom 
OONt-T-l . (M CO iH iH <X> LO tH CO Oa 1-1 • 1-1 IC U5 T-l 05 t- 

T-l tH T-l 


•o • •ooos 
• eg • 'egi-i 


•CO 

• 1—1 


1^ ^ " --T7- 7^ ^— 


L T^ ^ 










00Oi-ll0'*0500m00C<H0(MOt--^in)00(M(NO'^00rti 

T-l 1-1 T-l T-l 


• O t- tH CO OS IC ^ 

•eg eg eg i-n-i i-i 


— ^^ -V , 






' 






•C-iHmTHiCt-^C0C<l?0C0CCOC0l0C0C0(MTH"^CD?C> 

• THt>T-ii-icoooT-i<Miouoi-icocoiHCO(Nimn)ocio500 

tH iH T-l T-l 


• o t-oooos 

• eg eg iH cgiH 


•CD 

• 1-1 

























57 



V 

O 



IsniESy 



JOJ 






o 



•CO • (M T-H 



jsniESy 



JOJ 



o 



0) O 



0) o 






4J 

o 



(u O 

O 



a; 



^ o 



jsniBSy 



JOj[ 



jsniESy 



JOJ 



jsniBSy 



JOJ 



jsniBSy 



JOJ 



jsnrBSy 



JOJ 



jsniESy 



JOJ 



jsu{B3y 



_ ;; -^^ ; ; 


r; ; ; — rr;; 




. «C> . . . (M tH • • . . 

tH 


•Oi-itciT-iT-i !:-■<* THOOTi<mt-oicoo<M 

•(Mt-rHi-lTHCqiHr-tCOlOT-IOOC^rHCOTHUS 
T-l rH 


•00'«# •COUSO -rHNOi •«© 
•iHOJ • 00(M • NtH .tH 

rH 




. — 




• • 'to 

rH 


•OOl-l'X'i-HLCi— llOiHOO'^Ot-CMlCTHOO 
•TH<X'THrHlM(MTHr-t'X'U:)T-(C0(MTHCQ(MlO 


•(NOS • OS <M (M tH (M i-H T-H rH 

rH 


. . . . .. 


to 


• • •«© 

rH 


• 00 rH CO rH as t> CO (M • O Tj< «0 05 O UT) O CO 

. rH t- iH i-H rH (N T-H tH • U3 rH CO CvI rH CO (M IC 

rH tH 


•(NOS • '(MC^l (N rH • rH 

rH 



■OOC^i o^ -to 



JOJ 



jsniESy 






ooaco-^tot-ooosOrHco^iocooocsO'^Loixioocsot-ooosrHCMo'D^io 

00CX)000000000000050S0^0S0>0S0S0SOOOOOOrHrHrHrH0a(NC<I(M(M 

T-K'r-KTH-r-ifr-\7-l,-!-\7->LT-KT\r-{r^r-\T^r^. 

58 





d 

1 d 
5^- 


jsniBSy 


VJ 




JO^ 


OT-ii-iiHi-icooo^oooo'*THaiowoeci 

OONC-iHi-lTHCNi-lrHCDlOi-IOOIMTHCOCqiO 


•(>JOS • 
rH 


•0 t-iowos 

•CO(M (MrH 


CO 


go, 

|o 

o 


jsuiESy 









JOJ 


•Oi-l-^T-lt-^Oi-IOOlOTHOSCOlOOCO 

• eg C- tH T-l tH C<1 tH T-l ?D lO CO Oa T-H CO Oa U3 

1-1 rH 


•ca OS CO 

rH rH 


•0 t-oc<ios 

. Cvioq i-l(M rH 


CO 
1-i 


d 


jsniBSy 








JO^ 


• iHiHOiTHCOt-lCi-IOOOilMOJIMmOeO 
•(NI> iH rH rH 1-1 1-H ?0 lO CO (N iH CO (N U5 


.os-^ooo 

•rHOSCO 


•0 t-0(MOS 
•(M (MrH (MrH 


CO 


Id 


jsniESy 


— ■;; ^ - ; 




*- 


' ' 






JOj 


.iHrHCOr-ICD'^lO-^OOOfNOS'^lOOW 

•(Nt-iHT-<r-IC<lrHT-l<lOmrHeO(MT-IOO(MlO 

rH T-t 


• in-^ 000 

•rHOSCO 
rH rH 


•0 t-t-(MOS 
•(M(M (MrH 


CD 
■r-i 


to 

d 

o 

w 
o 


CO 

d 


jsniBSy 






JOJ 


•t-THOii-(CO(MlClOOOn<CO<35(MmOi-l 

• •r-lt- rH tH Od r-l rH «0 U5 T-l CO (M tH CO (M lO 

■r-i rH 


•Ki'^OOCO 
•rH OS us 


•0 t-ini(M OS 
•(M(M (MrH 


CD 


d 


;sniB3v 








JOJ 


• t-rHrHrH!X>(MlO-^OOC<lCOOirHmOrH 

•THt-rHrHrHrHrHrHtCkOrHCOCMrHCONlO 

rH rH 


•lO^OOt- 
•rHOikn 
rH rH 


•0 t-K5(M(3S 
•<M(M (MrH 


CO 


d 


;sniB3v 








jOjI 


• • r-l 0:1 rH ■>* t-r CO -^ O O O CO OS iniO O rH 

• • t- rH rH C<I rH r-t CO IC rH CO Cq rH CO (M 10 

rH y-t 


•lO"* 00 t- 
• rH OS 10 
rH rH 


•0 t-C0(M05 
•(M(M IMrH 


CD 
rH 


e 


jsniBSy 


-■ ■■■ ■ — •_ — — 


r-l T~i 




JO^ 


•t-rH-^rHOOOCOCDOOt-COOKJdlOOTCJ 

• rH «D rH rH rH (M rH rH to 10 CO CO T-l CO rH lO 

rH rH 


•lO^OOOO 
• rH OSIO 
tH rH 


•Ot-C0(M05 
.(M IM (M rH 


CO 

rH 


a 

.SCO 

Id 


jsniBSy 








JOJ 


•t-rHrHrHO> • lO <M O O CO CO OS (M Ki t- (M 
• rHt-rHrH • rH rH CO IC rH CO (M rH CO lO 


•LO-'^CO-^ 
•rHOSCO 
tH rH 


•O •rH(MOS 
•(M . (MrH 


CO 


2 
d 

O 

D 
O 


(M 


jsuiESy 


• 'i-tT-i .(M-"* -rHOO ••<-> • "(M -tH • 
••t- .rHrH.rH- •• 




• • .rHrH -IT. 


• 
• 




d 


JOJ 


•>* rH •'^rH OOSCOIOOOCOLOOSOKJ OJCO 
OS(M •rHrHrH rH rH CO lO rH CO (N rH CO rH IC 


•rH -^ OSIO 
•(M OSCO 
rH rH 


•0 t-COrH OS 
.C<1(M (MrH 


CD 

rH 


jsuiBSy 


• •rH'<* .(MrH • • • • r-i ICl • l-i -US • 

• -t- .rHCO .... 




• ■ • rH • • 




JOJ 


• • -rHrHO • lO O O O CO O t- (M U3 CO >-; 

. . -rHrHrH • rH rH CO lO rH CO (M rH CO rH lO 

y-{ rH 


•rH'*(MOO 

• oost- 

rH rH 


•oi>-co(Mas 

•(M(M (MrH 


CD 
rH 






1%6 






















ococo-^iot-ooosorHco^inicoooosoTfiiocoooosot-ooosrHOcieo-^io 

00000000000000000SaS0i0i0S050S0SOOOOOOrHrHrHrH(M(MN(M(M 



59 



6 

o 

H 

W 
D 
O 




¥ 


jsniBSy 


lA • ■ rjt . rH -O -OS U5 ■ • 

tH • -CO ■ •'-1 -IM 


JOJ 


Tt< • 05 (M t- 05 (M t> --^t- . U5 OS lO iC 05 O <X>(M 05 (M in O 05 -<* • • -rH O CO 

00 • yDi-^i-IOCO -C-CO • DJ CO 00 T-I ■ C5 »n 1-1 rH (M iH «0 (M 00 • -rHCOCi 

(M IM ■ tH 


a 


jsnieSy 


t- r^ • -^ • • -O 'OS • -T-i (M • • 

.CO • • -T-I .(N tH • • 


JOJ 


"* • OS OS t- Oi (M lO i-H Tjf t- .(^O^lCOSOCDCq t-NlOOOSCO • '^OOO 
00 • iO^T-t<Z>CO t-CO -(M-^OOiH O^ U3 tH tH (M rH CD eg 00 • • COOS 




jsnieSy 


-^ • • . T-i -OS CD • • 

CO • • -iH .(M 


JOjJ 


rj< -OS OS t>OS(M t-Cd O t- • OS O CD ^ OS O «D (M OS C<l lO O OS CD • • O O 00 
00 • lO'st'iHOCvJ t-CO -(N^OOt-I OS U5 tH iH (N iH CO (M 00 • 'iHCOOS 




jsniB^Y 


(^cl -(M-^ OS lo • • 

tH • 00 N 


JOJ 


(N • OS t- OS OS (M 00 tH (M lO • O O t- CD OS O (N <M OS (M in O OS CO • • rH O t- 
00 • lO rH O CO t-CO • in -^ 00 CO OS in rH rH eg rH CD eg 00 • • rH CO OS 




jsnicSy 


rH • CO • • • • -eg 


JOJ 


eg • OS in OS OS eg t- rH eg in • o om cooso o rHOscginoosco • 'Cgoco 

00 • in rH o eg t-co -inTifooco os m rH rn eg rn co eg oo • -imcoos 

eg eg rH 


ON 


)sniB3y 








JOJ 


eg • OS rH ■<* OS eg c- CO rH in • cooco co oscoeg rH oocgino osoo • • • o t- 

00 • in rH rH O rH rH OS CO • CO '^ 00 CO CO m rH rH Cg rH CO Cg OS • • .00 05 




}snjE3y 


• . • "iH • • . C- . .^ • .O ^ -co . • • .coco . • 

. . . . . • . rH . .CO • • ■<-* . .... . . 


JOJ 


eg • OS 00 in OS eg OS .coc- .cooo co os cocg eg os eg coo os t- .rnoom 

00 . -^rHrHOrH . C- CO . t- "«* OS 00 CO m iH tH eg rH CO OQ OS .COrHCOOS 

eg eg rn rn 




a 



a 
O 


d 


IsnjBSy 


• oosooTfrH • eg CO rH .OS .rHrH . .CO .00 • • rH OS OS CO eg O t- .00 
.eg eg • rH .co . r-i • -co • . .rnmrH Tjtos 


JO^ 


eg • .om . coorH t- t-ooco osos co osoco-^ oscg in rH eg t- -coosoos 

00 • .t-rH -OCO t- 00 t-COCgiH t-m rHrH rH OS • -^ Cg 00 




c 

6 


d 


jsuiBSy 


t- in OS OS in rH OS in t- CO OS o CD • rH co os o .cgegegco • oseg in t-'^cg o 

t-CO oscvKMt-corHrHeg'^t- "^oT) t- -rHrHcgrH -c^jt-cgt- egos 

rH eg r-< 


JO^ 


uir-i .coco .-^ .rHcooorH . .o • .COCO • . . .o . . . in og . t- 
• eg • t- . .00 • .com . • . -co ... rn . 




.0 
3 

o 


to 

d 
2 


}suiB3y 


CO CO OS 00 in o CO rH in . • oo(M oo^cg ooom rncg . oo o rH oo t- •<* t- eg . 
CO t-rHcqosco . • -^00-^ c-^ rn . i^oegegca rHcg . 


JOJ 


c5srH .cocgrHrH . in Tt< t- cg CO cg "* rp rH CO -r-t .cgcg • .in -oo • -t- 
t- • t- . t-CO t-oo eg •r-i .cgrH • .in .eg • -os 




d 



V 

3 

o 


d 


IsniESy 


• .Tj<rHrHrHt- 'in • -^ . • cg rH • . . CO "^ • cg • • 00 in o cg o . • 

. • eg . -co . • rH . • . tP .rH • . US Cg rH . • 

eg 


JOJ 


ocgin onfrHcoorH cDcomin t-os coos CD .ooos • coc-osoeg cocooot- 
oo<N oog oscoegc- cot-coosco co • r-i -rninegeg co egos 

rH eg rH rH 




e 

3 

O 


d 
2 


jsniBSy 


• . • 'rH eg • . -OS • . .rHrH eg rH tH t- . . 

eg 


JOJ 


rHCOOSOSrHrHCOCDQOOOinCDCDC-rHCOOSCOOrHOSOCDt-OSO-^egOSrHt- 

t-eg os^eg o ooeg t- CO CO ooco osco oo eg rn rH eg rn in eg t- co os coos 








old 
■J 13^ 




cDt-OrHcgco-Tfincot-ooosrHegco'*incoooosocg^inosOrHegcomt- 
cgegcooocooocooococococoTi<^^TjiTtH-Tt<'^-<*ininininincocDcocDcoco 



60 



sz 



.?z 



sz 






oZ 






OiZ 






.iZ 



,5(2 



IsurcSy 



JOJ 



jsniBSy 



JOJ 



jsuiBSy 



JOJ 



jsuiBSy 



JOJ 



jsnicSy 



JOJ 



^sniBSy 



JOJ 



jsniESy 



JOJ 



jsuiBSy 



JOJ 



}sniB3y 



JOJ 



jsnrBSy 



JOJ 



IsaiBSy 



JOJ 



}SniB3y 



JOJ 



0.9 6 
^3 



OS 


•03lCt-00(Mei3<:D'*t-Ot--<*,HW>OSOS«ONCa<NlO:£> 
to ^ iH O CO r-l (M CO ■«* (M tH 00 iH (N U3 rH iH iH «D 


•XCiHiH • tOOS 

•c-cooo -eaoo 
1-1 




O • -00 • '(N 'OS . • 




• -co 


. . . . 












05 


•OSlOOOOOCvI t-^^C-iH .^COLOOS • 00 (N 
CO -^ T-l O CO 1-1 (N CO -^ -T-IC-i-l .U3T-I 


• cgiH«o 


: : .: 


• to tOU3 

• THCgos 

iH 


.-^S. ~" l-f\ /— s MA .-^S 'Z^ 








z^ 
















• OS lO 00 00 (M t> 1-1 «0 t- rH • -* 00 U5 OS • O (M 
<£i-^tHOC0 t-CO-^ -THt-rH • U5 tH 
(M (M 


• cgio«D 

• cgiHto 


.(M . 


• to to to 

• 1-icgos 

iH 






• • • • 


• -CO 

• -CO 


. to • • 














• OS ko 00 00 eg t- i-i(M t- 1-1 •'^eoioos -(NKM 

tO-^i-IOCO (MCO-^ •rHOOiH -KSiH 
(N eg 


• cgu3 50 

• egr-f to 


• iH • 


• Otoe- 

•tH<MOS 

rH 


■ ~ 1^ ^^^ f^^^ — .- . ^ ^^^^ ^ . 






. . . . 


• -co 










OS 


• osiooooocgoiH'* t-iH -^coioos -ocg 
tO'*iHOeo (NcoTjt • iH 00 1-1 •kOi-i 

(M (N 


• eg in to 

• eg th to 


-■■eg • 


• toto t- 

• i-negos 

rH 


• 


• -(N • • • -CO • -OOO-^t-O 'OS • • 

iH • -cot- c- iH -eg • • 


• • ■ • 


• -00 

• -co 


• eg • -* 


CO 

OS 


• OS t- 00 OS eg iH eg eg t- . -oocoioos -cgeg 

5DTt<i-(OC0 C-CO • • <M rH • U5 iH 

eg eg 


• cgio to 

• cgiH to 


• eg • 


•■^00 00 

• 1-1 eg OS 

1-1 




• 


. -eg • • • -o • -ooocgt-c- -os • ■ 
• • • • • • 1— i • • 00 c- 1-1 1- -eg • • 




• -co 

• -co 


iH • ■>* 


o 

OS 


■ OS t- 00 OS cg'os i-icot- . -^toioos -egeg 
?o ■^ rH o CO t> 00 • • eg iH ■ lo ih 
eg eg 


• egu3 to 

• egi-i to 


• o • 


io ooeo 
iHegos 

iH 


• 


• oseg • • • -in • -ooococ-oo -os -i-i 
• •-• -1-1 • .ooc-rHt- -eg • 




• -00 

• -co 


to • . 


o 

OS 


• • c- 00 OS eg lo iH -^ t- • -rj^coiisos • eg ih 

• • to -^ 1-1 o CO t- CO • • eg th • lo ih 

eg eg 


• eguD to 

• egrH to 


•00 • 

• c- • 


oooc- 

iHegos 

1-1 





• ooooscg'*iHcgt- 

• lO -^ i-IO CO t-oo 

eg eg 



• toio OS •eg' 

• eq iH • in ' 



• -OS too • '00 • •i-l •OS 

iHtO • •!> • •iH 'Cg 


00 
00 


• •looooscgiH •■* • • •CO -loos •cgeg •cgmto -eg • • •oooc 

• •tO'^iHoeo •eg • • •oo -i-i •loi-i -cgTHto • t- • • • eg 0= 

eg 1-1 


• 'OSrH • • . •o •t-ooo •ego • os • •'^ • • -th •co •to -m 

• • • . . .eg • cot- -i-ir-i -eg • •r-< • • •eg •co • 


00 
00 


• •mc-oscg-* -oo • -ooosmos •cgeg •egmto •eg •ihoooco 

• •■^TjfiHooo •t-co • •eoE-iH •lOiH .egiHto -t- -coiHegos 

eg eg ih 



• OS OS t- oseg -^eg to c-o 00 ooioin OS OS tocg coeg in Oi-< to •cooom 
Tfi iH o CO th t- CO CO eg CO 00 iH eg ic ih rH eg ih to eg 00 •corncoos 



tot>OrHcgco'*LOtot-ooosrHcgcoT)<iotoooo50cg-^mo50rHcgcomi> 
egcgcococococooocoeoeoco-^'^'^-«i''*'^'^'<i*mmiOLC)iototototototo 

iHrHrHrHi-lT-lrHrHiHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHiHrHi— li— li-(l— liHiHrHiHrHrHi— IrHrH 

61 





d 
.2S 

3 6 


jsuieSy 


• -OS • iH • • -i-Hoot- • • • -lo o oe© "th 

... . rH T-H eOr-l • 


aoj 


OJia • 00U5 OOO t- t-(M OO C--*00li:i00«DO5<M • (M lO t- OS N t> T-H 'OOCO 
rHCO • 00 •<* rH 00 IM C- CO C<3 (M iH t- tH oq «0 tH • t-I tH <© Cvl t- 00 • rH OS 
1-1 tH C<l iH tH 


Id 

n 




6 

2 


jsniESy 


• ,H • lO 00 00 OS -rP (N .N -CO -(NIO • • tH t-I (N • • CO tH • rH US «D tO • 
•CO • -^ rH T-H «Ci CO • • -CO • -CO rH • • lO • 03 rH C<1 • 


JOjI 


t- -OSOIO 'T-i •T-iT-iia • in ■<* rH O 00 -^ -^ CO 00 <M U3 T)< -^ t- r-l rH • OS t- 
rH • LOrH • rH • (M 00 CO • r-l •<* C- CO CvJ (N rH (N rH r-t CO OS CO CO • OS 
rH (M (M y-< 


to 

6 
2 


jsuieSv 


'i-t -00 -OOOSCSSN . .iO • -(NIOOS • rH rH • • (MCO rH • r-t -^1:0 1:- 
•CO'-^"r-l«CiN ..■<*. .CO -CO ■• «£> • •rHOl 


JOJ 


t- -OSt-?© •rHrHNOt- • CO ■* tH O • rH ^ «D O (N CO rH ■<* C- rH O • OS O 
rH • '^'^ -T-t (MrHCO • CO "Tf t- CO • CD (M rH C<J (M rH CO OS CO O • OS 
»H (M rH(N (M lH rH 





jsniESy 


•rH -OarHOO • -^ N • t- CD rH • (M Tl< OS • t- rH • ■ \a • rH • rH • CO CD • 
•CO "(N T-t -CO -rHTji .CO -CD rH (N . 


JOj 


CD -OSCOIC -OOSCOOO .(M-^rHrH • r-t • CO O 03 O t- Tt C- rH O • OS t- 
r-i • t>Tl< -00 (MrH(M • 00 T)< t- CO -CO • rH (N (N rH CO CO OS CO O • OS 
rH W rH(M (M ^ ^ 


s 


6 
Z 


jsniESy 


iHrH 'CO -00 'OOCvl • • CO C<l • (N -^ t- • D- rH ■ . ICl rH rH • r^ • CO CO • 
CO -rH .rH • rH • • ^ ■ CO . CO • • • • rH (M • 


1:3 
O 


JOJ 


O -OSNCO 'O-^OOCDt- • -:* rf rH rH (N rH • CO O W O CO Tf t- rH O • OS t- 
rH • 00-^ •OOrHCNt-eO • CO -* t- CO CO • rH (M N rH CO CO OS CO O • OS 
rH C<J N (N r^ r-* 


m 

6 
2 


;sniE3v 


•rH -t- -00 -OOW .fCO^^ -Oq^OO -t-rH • -tJ* -rH -rH -COCO • 
•CO -CO -T-i .oq -rH-* -CO -CO rHN • 


JO£ 


O .OSOOCO -OOSOOqO • OO '^ rn tH rn rH • COO(M rH t--* t-rH O • OS t> 
1-i . XO'^ -00 (MC-(M -eO-^t-CO CD . rHIM (M rH CDCO OSOOO • OS 
lH (M (N (M rH rH 


N 

d 
2 


jsniESy 


TjirH .00 .CO -IXMC^ICOCO • ■ (M '^J' OS • C- rH • • Tj( t- ^ . ,H -COCO • 
CO '(M •tH -00 -^ • -CO -CD • • CO • • rH <N • 


JOJ 


OS 'OSt-CO -OOSCMrHt- -CO-^rHrH r-i •CDO(MrHOS'*t-rHO -OSt- 

OS • CO-^ -00 (MrHCO • ^ -^ t- CO .CO . rH (M (M rH CO CO OS CO O • OS 
(M rH(N IM rH rH 


i-i 

d 
2 


JSUTESy 


rHrH -OS .00 • O CO 00 'COIN • DQ "^ OS • C- rH • . 00 CD rH ■ r-i -COCO • 
CO • rH .rH -CO -^ -CO -CD • • t-\ ■ • rH Cg • 


JOJ 


Oq -OSCOCD -OOSCgOC- -^-^rHrH -rH • CO O (M t- OS "vt* t> rH O • OS C- 
O • t--^ -00 (MrHCO -CDTft-CO -OS .rHC^IOa IC CO OS CO O • <3S 
rH (M rH(M (M rH rH 




d 
•23 


5SDIE3y 


• .OS OS • • -OrH .O • •!-< ■ • -O • • • -T^ ■ 

T}< rH • t- rH 


JOJ 


T-J, . . COCOOO O rH OrH 00 CO t> -^ OOIC OS C- CD(M t-(M in t-rH t- rH CS COOS ^ 
O • • ^ '^ rH 00 CO rH rH (M CO (M -<* <M rH (M lO rH rH rH CD (M OS CO 00 t-H O] OS 
rH (M (M rH i-H 


c 
£ 6 


}sniE3y 


• 'Oit-ii-\ • • •COOO •N • •OtP -OS TtOCOrH . 

• • • .^ . .-*rH '(M rHrH 


JOi[ 


00 • • t-U5(»OlOTf O • • t- -^ OS rH OS rH CD (M • (M lO CO . rH rH CO O OS lO 
OS • ••<#■<* rH 00 CO t- • • (M rH (M rH OS IC rH • j-t r^ tO • t- rH (M rH C<l OS 


a 

ON 


)siire3y 


•••• O rH.O'-'O CD. OS 

CO 7-1 •■<* • • '1-t rH .-r-i 


iOd 


00 • OS rH t- 00 (M 00 O (M t- rH OS -^ CO LO OS OS CO W • (M IC CD • (M t- CO • O CD 

(3S • IC -^ rH O 00 rH rH CO Tj< (M rH t- rH (M IC rH • rH rH CD • C- N t- • CO t- 

(M (M ^ 


.2S 

1^ 


}sn;E3y 


rHO o "O • • -O 06 • • 

rHCO • . • . .rH .CO • • • tH 


aoj 


00 • OS CO t- 00 (M 00 ."^t-rH • -^ N K5 OS OS CD C<1 • (M Hi CO • O 00 OS 00 O CD 

OS ■ CO •^ rH O (M . rH CO -^ . rH (M rH (M lO rH . rH rH CO • t- rH C<1 COOS 

(M (M rH rH 


Is 

So 


}sn;E3y 


OO 'tH • . -OS -O • . "O 00 • • 

rHCO CO • • -rH 


JOJ 


la • (3S (M t- 00 D3 -^ CO lO t- rH 00 -^ CD in OS OS CD (M • (M lO CD ■ (M -* 00 00 O 00 

(3S • lO'<*rHOCO (M CO -* (M rH 00 rH (M U3 rH • rH r-f CD • t- CO 00 COOS 

(M (M rH 






sId 




COt-OrHDJCO-^lOCOt-OOOSrH(MeO'*lOCOOOOSO(M^K5<3SOrH(MCOlOt- 

(M(Mcocoooeocococococoeo-^-^-^-^'5j<'^-*-*iomiCKimcococDCDCDco 



62 





d 

O 

h 

o 




d 


jsniBSy 




i-H • tH • • i-i C<I tH 

<N 


N(N • • . 

COIN • • • 






•OS(M^t-OCO -OC-O 00 -^ OOIO OS -lOi-l 
«OC0iH00CO • Ca CO CO OO! T-l 7-1 rH .^1-1 






JOJ 


•rHiHCOIMt- rHrHOO 




d 


jsniBSy 




•(MOO • -O .... » lO CO 1-1 • rH CO • 1-1 LO W • • tH • C<1(M • -OS 
• -00 (M iH • (M . iH . .(N -CO • -00 




JOj[ 




•t--Tl<-^t> -CO -rH t-OrH rH OOIC 00 • t- rH 
ICCOrH -CO •NCOOO rH rH ■ <X) rH 
(M 


• -icio -c^iinicqcocg • 

• • rH CO • t- f^T-Kr^ ■ 




d 


jsuiBSy 


• 


tH • • '(NOOi-l • • • •i-linxM • • • • (M CO • • • 












JOJ 


— (M 

->* 


•Oico'^oooeoooot-ot--*ooioo^iot-rH 

COCOi-IOOCO (M CO CO rH rH rH rH (N CO rH 


• -LC lOrHO ICO CO(N CD 

• • rH CD Oa 00 y-<T-^r-<CO 




d 


jsuibSy 




lO • y-^ • (M • !-{ • . • • T^ 


(M -rH • • 

CO • rH • • 




, JOJ 


T-l 


•05eO'^OOOCOOO«DtDO'*-<3<OOiaOS«Cit-TH 
SOCOtHOOCO 1-1 CO CO (M rH rH rH W «£> iH 
IM 


•(NlOlOrHOlOT-(iri(MCO 
•iHrHCO(Mt- <N rHOO 




d 


jsuiESy 


• 


rH 7-\ 


(M • . • • 








JOj[ 


i-l 


•05L3 -^ OOOO !>■<*£> O •-<:)< lO U3 05 rH t- tH 
;OCOrH00(M t-COeO -rnt-iH CO ;0 rH 
(M i-H 


•IMlOlCrHiMlOCOCOIMt- 

• rH rH CD N t- N rH rH 00 

1-1 




a 


jsniBSy 


" • 


• Oi CO 


to • • 








JOj 


— 00 
CO 


• • ^-^OOOO 00 «C>C-OrH-^ 1:010 05«Dt-(N 
■ -^JCOtHOOCO t- CO CO (M rH t> tH (M <S> rH 
(M tH 


• (N 10 Un rH (N t- -Tt< -COO 

• rH rH CD (M t- CO CO • rH OS 




Ouestion 
No. 22 


jsniBSy 


• 


• iH 


«o • . 




' 




JOJ 


CO 


• oot-TPooo t-u5(M tr-o • -nf -^ 10 OS «o t- oa 

<DCOrH00C0 t>eOeO -rHC-rH C^tOrH 
(M T^ ■ 


• (N 10 10 rH IC t>(M •100 

• rHrH CON CD(MCO • rH OS 




a 
.2 a 


jsniESv 


' • 


• iH . • • • • rH 










JOJ 


— CO 
CO 


•0000^00O(N "(M OOIC* 0010 OS to t- rH 
?DCOl-H00CO • t- CO CO (M rH t- rH (M tO rH 


•(MtniOrHOOCDCDCOOS 

■rHiHCDlMt-lHOJrHrHOO 

iH 




d 

Id 
O 


jsniBSy 


• 


• t- 








^, 






JOJ 


r-l 
CO 


•OSO-^OOOCO •(MO00«0^THir50S«Dt-(M WCqiniUSrHOCOtDCOeOt- 

t-COl-IOOlH . iH CO tH C<l tH (M iH (M ?0 rH i-H iH ?0 (N t- -^ iH rH iH 00 

(M rH 




d 

.22 

Id 


jsniBSy 




•OS CO «0'rH 

rH (M • 


rHrH • • ■ 




•■oj ; 


(M 


• •OOlOOOOOSiH • t- 10 CD -^ (N 10 OS • l> iH m (M U3 t> rH (M lO Cq 50 CO rH 

• -C-COrHOON • CO (M (M rH t- rH •COlH rH rH CO Cq t>(M CO tH rH OS 

(N rH 




d 

QOO 

1 d 


jsnreSy 


~ • 


O'CO \a ■ • • • 


• • • • 00 




1—1 




JOjJ 




•05iO(MOOOCOOC^t-Ot>'<*OOlOOSrHI>(MK5(Mli3t-OSC<10(MCOt-CD 
00 ■<* rH 00 CO rH CO CO CO <N rH t- iH CO CO rH rH iH iH CO CO C- -^ CO rH rH 
eg (M 




d 
.25 

£ d 


^suiBSy 


• 


• • • ^o -CO i-\\a -co • • 

••••OS ^ -0^ • ' 

rH 


•0 • • • -COCg • •(>! 
.j-l . . . . . . 




JOJ 


CO 
(M 


OS CO (M 00 rH Tt (N t- C~ '^ 00 IC OS • t-(M 
CO -^ rH 00 CO rH t- CO <N C<J rH t- rH • CO rH 
(M 


(Mt-C-OSOJOSOCDCOCO 
rHrHCO(MC-(M(NrHrHOS 

rH 








S.2d 


■ 
















«it>OTH(MCO-^kOiXH>0005T-l(MCO-^lCiX>OOC10C^T)<m050T-IC<100U^t- 

c<ic<ieocoeococoeoeocococo^'*^^-^-*'=^^LOioiOL:)ioco«£'co?£>ixi«o 



63 



IN 



O 

td 

o 






d 
Z 


jsniBSy 




• -(N -(N • • 


• • t- 

• -co 

(M 


CO • • • 


JOJ 




•05 0001000S 


•00 • CD 00 Tl< (M lO CS rH t- (M 
•tH .,H(Mi-I(MiH (M«DiH 


• c<ikO->*i-i(NOiH<©oo; 

•iHT-ICDIMt--*iHi-l(Mt- 
iH 




d 
Z 


JSOIE3V 


• 


•O^ • .(M • • 


• • lH 


• • • -^ 1-1 • • 00 «o • • 




JOJ 




• -ooicoec 

• • lO CO 1-1 00 CM 


.-^OiXiOO'^OqiOOJTHt-N 

• T-l CO iH (M iH (N iH NCOtH 


• (M in • • lO O iH -0 05 
•iH 1-1 • • t- T}< (M .(M C- 

iH 


6 


jsaiBSy 


• 


. . . .(N • • 


• -CO 


o • • • 




JOJ 




•OSOOICOCO 

ineoi-ioo(N 


• ooeD«Doo'*cgino5THt>(N 

• tH CO i-l(M iH (M iH (M«OiH 

(M 


•(N»0Tl<r-l(MO00«0OO 

• iH iH CO (N t~ -* iH(MOO 

iH 


d 


)sniB3Y 




.(55 • .(rq . • 


• '(N 


. . . .iH . -OJCO . . 




JOJ 


1-1 


• -OOIOOCO 
. .lOC0iH00(M 


• ooeoix>ooTi<(MiocDTHt-eq 

. iH CO ,H (N tH (N rH (M IX> iH 
(M 


• (Min-rii -oous -ooj 

•iHi-ICD -t--* -NOO 

T-l 


Question 

No. 28 


jsniESy 






JOJ 


iH 


•osooc-oeo 

IflOOrH OOCO 


•0500O(M^THL005i-lt><N 
• 1-1 CO CO CO iH (M tH (MCOt-I 
<M 


.(MkC*i-l(MCOiHCOt>{M 
•THiH«O(Mt-C0(MrHT-l00 

tH 




jsniBSy 


• 


•Oi 


.T^eo '(N 


o • • • 






JOJ 


to 


• •USOO iH 00(M 


• • lO U5 lO-^ CO lO OS i-l(M (M 

• • CO iH (M tH iH T-l (Nt-iH 

<M 


•(MU5t*tH(N-<*OCO-^(N 

•THiH;O(Nt-COtHiHC<J00 

tH 


d 
Z 

Z 
O 

h 

W 
D 
O 


CO 

d 


jsniesy 






tH 


tH • • • • 




JO^ 




• 05 tH O t- O lO 

ifleoiHoooo 


•-*00lO00-*t-iniOJTH(M<M 
• <M CO CO (N lH rH iH (Mt>r-I 


•NUS'^tHIMO'TtHCDO-^ 
•THTHCO(Mt-'*DJtH(M00 

iH 


d 


jsniBSy 








. . . Tj( . . iH CD • • • 
. . .«D • • (N • • • 










JO^ 


O 
lO 


•0S«D00t-OC<l 

'^(NT-iooeo 


• US CO 1-t CO ^ t- lO 05 lO '(N 
.(M(N COtHt-HtH tH -r-l 


• (MmTHTHOOlMT)<COOxt< 

•tHiH Wt-CO iHtNOO 

tH 


d 


jsniBSy 







r ?sn i 














JO^ 


o 


• OSCO'^C-OOO 
lO COiH00(N 


• «ot-iooo-^t>mooo(M(?ci 

• iH CO CO (M iH tH »-l (MC-tH 


. (M lO iO iH (M (M O^ CO U5 '5)< 

•tHiHCO(MI>CO(MTHiH00 

iH 


d 

.5lM 

1 6 


;suiB3y 


1 «-H 




•- 




^ 




JO^ 




•05C0'*C0O0S 

loeo oo(M 


•Ot-N0S'<1<Om05i-lt-(MC0(MimdH00l0'<*«DL:!T)< 

• (M CO CO CO tH (M tH (M «0 tH tH iH rH CO (M t- CO iH rH tH 00 

(M iH 


H 

o 


d 


5sntB3y 


• 


" '".^/'TL, ~ ' , 




^^l^^ • • thon • • • • 

rHTH . .(MCOCO • • • • 








(M 


JOJ 


T-l 


• . ^00 tHOOCO 


•\Ci • • cq Tf 00 LO t- iH ?C> rH 
• T-l •• »H rH tH 1-1 (M iH 


. -laia • o lo <M CD (M CD 

• • iH CO • iH CO iH iH 00 
iH 


to 
d 


jsniBSy 




• t- 


•tH • •'* -1-1 • • •CDiH 
(M 


. • • • iH . (M CO • • • 
. . . .(M -COIM • • • 


JOJ 


t> 

tH 


•(NO'^C-OCO 
«DCOrH00CO 


•C0t-O(M-^00lC0*iHOT-l 
• 1-1 CO CO (M iH tH rH (N "^ iH 
<M 


•(MimO -OlONCDCNUJ 

•iHlHCO • I:- tH tHOO 

tH 








S.9d 






?£>t>OiH(MCO'*lCCOC-OOOiiHCvJCO^lOC000050(M'^lOCSOTH(MCOlOt- 



64 






t 3 

5^ 



£ o 
O 



O 



^^ 






jsniESy 




.<M -(N • •r-lrj' 


•CO-00 (N---00 

•in> T-I 


JOJ 


CO 
rH 


-*(MiHOO(M C<l CO ^ T-l(Mt-l (MOOrHi-H • iH CCXM (M '^ CO iH tH t- 
(M i-H 








>-l(M • • • 


jsniESy 




JOJ 


00 


• 05 US C5 C- O iXi • 


■<*t-lC(MTHt--^CiTHC5(MO(Mm'*T-l,-l(M-^«5CSCO 

(M CO tH T-I T-H ca 1-1 (M 00 1-1 tH rH iH «0 (M t- CM (M iH tH t- 

<N 1-1 iH 



jsaiESy 



JOJ 



jsniBSy 



JOJ 



jsaiBSy 



JOJ 



)suic3y 



JOJ 



(M • OS 00 C35 t- O iH -(MOO • i-l iH O lO C5 • O (M • (N lO ^ iH 00 CO t> O t- (M 
lO • ^^ (N 1-1 00 CO • (N CO • iH (M 1-1 • ?D iH • tH iH iffl IM <:0 iH tH iH iH t- 

1-1 (N - 1-1 



•(MO •00'=* 
• iH CO • CO '=* 
(M 



(M • Oi C- OS t- O 00 -CD 
LO • ^ IM tH 00 ■ <M 



(M • 05 OS 00 C~ O OS • CO O Id OS iH LO ^ OS rH 00 (M 
m • -sfl 05 rH 00 CO • Od O Oa lO 1-1 (M rH C<l t- rH 



oj O 

o 



oj 



JsnjBSy 



JOJ 



]3nic3v 



•OS • «OOS OS 



JOJ 



oj 

6^ 



jsniESy 



to -to -to 



JOJ 



jsuicSy 



CJ O 



JOJ 



jsnrBSy 



Z 



JOJ 



• 


(M 

r-l 


• OS OOO t-0(M 
^COrH OOCq 


• CO <£)m COCO <M lO OS rH OS (N CO (MUS'^rHCM (MO COO rH 

• (M CO CO (M rH (M rH (M CO rH rH rH CO (M t- CO rH rH (M 00 

(M rH 


— -— • — — 





jsnicSy 



1 S 6 
1 o^ 




JOJ 


IM 

1— 1 


OSOOC-OOS • 00 CO lO US CO C- LO 00 rH t- (M 
LO CO 1-H 00 rH • rH CO CO Ca rH rH rH CO CO rH 
CO 


cqiO'^rHuisoo^cocoo 

rHrHCOCOt-COCOi-ICOOO 


a 


d 

2 


»snrc3y 




^i^; : 


















JOJ 


C^ • 

1-{ 


osooLOOos -^t-coooeocoioosrHt-co 

lOCOrHOOCO • rH CO rH CO rH CO rH CO CO iH 
CO 


COUtl^rHrHOCOCOOOS 

rHrHCOCOC-^COrHCOt- 

rH 






lid 
ciz; 




"COt-OrHCOCO-^LOCDOOOOSrHIMCO'^IOCDOOOSOCg^lOOSOrHC^COlOt- 
(MOJCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCO'^^^^^-^^^U^USlOinilOCDCDCOCOCDCO 



65 



Question 
No. 52 


jsuiBSy 


• 


00 • • • ' • 


» ' ' -lOt-t- • 'Oi • 


T-llO • '<0 

(M • -co 

1-4 








JOJ 


CO 

T-l 


•00«OK50in) 
•cow t-IOOtH 


C-OOOOCO •U5t>05iH -(M 
iH CO COIM • (M -iH 
(M 


. <M IfS ■>* 1-1 (M t- CD t- • 
•iHiH NOq t- tHtH ■ 




So 
o 


jsuiBSy 




ooth • • -co 




1^ ,-■ 






•(N 




JOJ 


CO 
tH 


•OOiXiinOCO 
•CO(MtH00tH 


CO • • C- • CO tH Oi iH OS C<1 
iH • • T-l • iH (M OOi-l 


•(MlO-^iHCOUSIMCOOOCO 

•iHTH^OOat- tH iH CO 

iH 


Question 

No. 50 


jsnieSy 


• 


(M . . . .(M 


• tJ- -1-1 '(M 

•tH -CO 


eg 10 . • • 

..... .tH . . . 


JOJ 


00 
1-1 


-^IMiHOO 


COO • • (M 00 -^ OS iH OS (M 
i-l(M • .iHrHiH (NOOtH 

eg 


•(Min-^iHCO(M'«*CDt-CD 

•rHTHCDCgO iHi-ICO 

iH 


Question 

No. 49 


(suiESy 


• 


tH 


• 'oeo -iH 


• • . • iH . Ui ■ . • . 

• • • -oq 








■>oj 


CO 


OSt-I «Dli«0 t- 
■^(MiHOO 


u:)00 • • c<i ->* OS th OS (M 

tH CO • -iHCvIi-l (MOOiH 


•(NIC-"* • CO CO t- CD 00 CO 

•1-llH CO • t- iH 1-1 CD 

tH 


a 
Id 


jsniBSy 










-^ .^ 


• 






*rj ^^ • 








JOJ 


CO 
1-1 


05T-I CD10005 
■>#<MiHOO 


OOOOOi-KNOS-^OSi-IOSIM 
iH CO IC CO iH iH iH (MOOiH 


•(MlC* •CO •cocoosc- 

•tHi-ICD 't- '(Ml-lirHCO 

iH 


S 6 


}sniB3y 


— — . -— 






fi-y /^ 






JOJ 


CO 

T-i 


OS i-H CO UtI O T-H 
'Tf (M tH OOtH 


0000 • (N '^ '^ OS iH OS (N 
i-tOlO T-HOqi-l (NOOiH 


.(MlCTjiiHCOCOCOCDOSt- 

•tH,-ICO(MIXMC0t-IiHCO 

tH 


a 


jsujBSy 




t- 


~.^ ^^ TT~ — r* — ; 


— r 






<M 




JOJ 


CO 
■iH 


(N rH ilDCO OO 
'^ (N 1-1 C30 tH 


csi -005 th coooth as(M 

T-l • LO CO T-l CO iH (N 00 iH 


•(MLC^i-icgrHcocooo 

• iH iH CO C<! t> CO tH (N tr- 

1-1 


a 

1^ 


jsniBSy 








JOJ 


CO 
T-H 


Oi 1— 1 I© CO o m 
-*<M l-^ OOi-l 


osoooosiHoscoasi-iosiMOtMLn'sfTHi-KMoocot-o 

1-1 CO -^ CO iH (M 1-1 oq 00 T-( 1-1 tH iH CO (M C- C<1 r-l tH T-l t- 
O] tH 


Question 
No. 44 


jsniBSy 




L- • • rH ■ ?0 T^ 


•00 04 • (M iH • -OS • 
• CO '^ • (M • -00 • 


• • ic CO • eg th 00 • • 1-1 

• -tH CO • t- • • 


JOJ 


CO 


(M iH to cr> o "* (M 50 • • 1* iH CO i-< o^ 1-1 -(Mooa -i-iih -oaoeoooT-i 

■^(MtHOOtH (N • -COi-l T-H (M -iHi-liH • <M • CO W i-l tH t- 

iH 


d 
•2" 

S 6 


jsnjBSy 


^^^~ "3—^ 7^ i^^^ ■ -^ 




1— i 


•CO 00 • 


• • . 


JO^ 


CO(M 

lOCC 
iH 


• <M 0:1 t- O O^ 1-1 «> • t- T-l CO 'Tit Oi T-H • (M (M 10 ^ tH tH t- (M CO t>(N 
• -^ (M iH 00 tH C<1 • -^ CO 1-1 C<1 iH (N • rH rH 1—1 iH CO C<1 t^- CO (M 1-1 iH t- 

1-1 


d 
og 


)sniB3y 


_ . 


'"^ 




JOJ 


CO 


osco as t>o iH 

>* (M 1-1 00 (M 


C<1tHOOi-IC0^05i-I0S(M 
(M CO ^ CO tH (>] 1-1 (N 00 1-H 


• cgutc^iHiHiooscoooiM 

• T-liHCDCgt-COIMrHiHt- 

iH 




— a 
S.2d 
























«Ot>OrH(MCO-^lOCDt-0005T-t(MCO-^mc£)(X)050C<lTiHmOSOiH(MeOU5t> 
C<l(NCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOOO-^'^-^-^^-<*-^-^lOlOtOlOLOCC^OiX'tDtD<X> 



66 



a 
.23 

1 


)Suib3y 


CO 


. . . 05 . . . 


•CO coco • • (M 






JOjJ 




00 T-HOOr-l 


• lO 00 O 00 (M T-l -^ 0> T-l CO (M • (M lO 00 tH -^ CO O CO CO CO 

• T-l CO -^ (M (M (M iH (M 00 tH • t-I t-I (M (M C- (M t-I tH t-I lO 

(N T-l 


a 


^snrBSY 


— — J 1- . A ..^ . . ^ — 




i-H 


JOj 


CO 
1-H 


• 00 tH i-H lO O t- 
CO(NtH00t-I 


• lO t- O T-l (M lO Tj< OS -^ 05 (M t- (M lO • tH T-l CO -<4< CD O • 
. T-l CO ^ CO (M (M T-H tH 00 T-l tH T-l '(N IMINtHIM • 


$6 

3Z 

O 


jsutESy 




. . .T-l T-H • • 


•(Ml> • tH .tH • • • C<1 • .(M . • • .lOt- • • • 
.rH...CO''TH.^.^ r-i • • • 


JOJ 


CO 

T-l 


• 00 CO O 'vt* o t~ 
00<M T-l QO T-l 


• Tl< tH O CO ^ tH -^ 05 T-l C- (M • • lO lO tH ■<0< 00 -COOtH 

•T-ieO'^(M(M tH (MINtH • -THCNKNt-T-l • t-I IM CD 

(M tH 


d 
.22 

Id 

3Z 


)SniB3Y 


• 


•(N 


. . . — — 


I T— T ^ 




JOJ 


CO 

T-l 


• ;C CO I-H lO O C<! 
CO<M r-l OOi-l 


• -^ C- CO t- -:)< CO ^ OS T-l OS (M • (M lO Uti tH -sti 00 ^ CD CO <N 
. tH 00 CO (M <M r-l T-l (MOOtH • t-I tH IM (M t- r-l T-l (M CO 

(M T-l 


d 
.2S 


JSUIB3V 




•T-l • iH rH • • 






(M 


JOJ 


00 

l-H 


• t-CO^^O?© 
CO(N tH 00 T-H 


•lO • CO OS -^ O ■* OS tH OS (M lO (M lO • rH -^ -^ t- CO <M 0> 
•rH ■ CO T-l (M 00 T-l (N 00 tH T-l tH T-l • (M t- T-l rH (M U5 

tH 


So 


jsuieSv 




. CO -N . • • 


• .10 -OSrHIMTH • -OS • • -rH . • • (N (M • • • 

• • CO • • • 00 ... 


log 


us 
1-1 


• lO CO OT lO O 00 
CO T-l iHOO tH 


•OS 005 OS -^ t-COOS rH . (M ■ (M Tl< U5 rH 00 t>(M CD CO 00 

• rH O CO T-I(M C<1 rH (M • t-I • rH rH (M (M CO (M (N rH CM CO 

(M rH 


d 

.2S 

lo 


^suiESy 


" 


. (M . . . . . 


• • • 00 rH (N • • • "^rH • • • 

• • • CO rH • • . • ... 


'?d 


CO 

T-l 


• ?D U5 U3 lO O t- 
OOlMrHOOiH 


•Tl<00 •t-iraiM'^OSrHOSIM • •iniOrH -OOCDCOtHIM 

•rHCO -CgiMfMrH (N 00 tH . • rH (M (M • rH (M CD 

(N tH 


d 

.22 


jsniBSy 












JOJ 


CO 


00 t> ira Lo o t> 

CO (M T-l 00 r-l 


moo • -^ U5 00 ''t OS rH • <M • •into • -COrHCDt-O 
rH CO . Oq (M rH rH C^ ■ i-t ■ • T-t C<\ ■ ■ tH tH CO 




)sniE3Y 





. — — 






tQ C^ 






JOJ 


CO 


t-OOCD -OfM 
COC^ -00 T-l 


•tH • OO CO lit) OS -^ t- tH • (N C- (M lO lO rH ■«* t> CO CO (N CO 
•rH •C0CO(M(MrH (N • rH tH C^ (M C- IM (M rH (M CO 

T-l 


a 

1^ 


}SurB3Y 




t- • .lO -tH 

• . T-l . 


•000OCOt-<M • -rH rHTfmiM ' ' • 

. -COCOIN (M . -(M (N t- <M • • • 

(M 


JOJ 


CO 
tH 


iHOOCC -050 
00 (N -00 T-l 


CD • -rHOOCO-^OS -OSIM -NIO-^ •■>*rH • CD U3 00 
rH •• rH T-l • 00 rH . ,H rH 00 • . rH rH CD 

T-l 




S.2o 


■ • — — — ~^ 










































iic>t-Oi-i(Mco-^LOcc't-ooo5^c<ico-^io?ocx)OiOc<i'*LoajOi-Hc<icoiot- 

(Mc<icococococopococosoco'*-^-Tf'*Tt<-Tt<'^-^ioiou:>mio«DtDcc>o^^ 



67 



V 



c O 



a; O 



Oi O 



jsniBSy 



jOjI 



jsniBgy 



JOJ 



jsniESy 



JO^ 



jsuiBSy 



JOJ 



jsniBSy 



JOJ 



jsaiBSy 



JOJ 



jsniBSy 



JOJ 



'0000(M<MOO"*COi-IOO(M 



■ 1-1 O "^ CO (M (M 1-1 (M 00 iH 



•tDOO(M(MO'*!C'i-IO(M 
• 1-1 CO ^ 00 (M (M -i-H (M 00 1-1 



jsnrBSy 



0) 

O 



0) O 

O 



JOJ 



jsniB3y 



JOJ 



jsuiB3y 



JOjJ 



jsaiESy 



JOJ 



■t-00OCM(Mai'*<X>i-l(M(M 
' 1-1 CO -^ CO (M (M 1— I (>] 00 tH 
CM 



C00005(MiH^i;DT-iaj(M 
. 1-i CO -^ (M <M tH iH (M 00 tH 
<M 



■Tt<00O0S(M<X)-^0S,H05C<l 

• 1-1 CO -^ oa (N iH (MOO'-' 



■ 05 00 O t> 00 
CO ^ <M iH 
(M 



• ■^ Oi 1— I 05 (M 
•"H IM 00 1-1 



•lOOOi-l • 1-1 00 CD IC 00 
•iH(M(M • (M iH iH iH UO 



o.Sd 
o a;^ 
►J3 



iX)t-Oi-i(McoTfLo^t>ooo5i— i(Mco-^LOcoooaio(M-^LraciOi-ic^]coici- 
(M(Meooococooocococococo^-^-^'^'*-^^^ioir:)Loi-OLO«?co'X>cDtD'^ 

iHi— ItHtHiHi— ItHi— li— li— li— li— ItHi— It— li— IrHiHr-li— (i— li— ItHt-It-Ii— liHi— li— IrHn 



d 
Z 

o 

O 






g- 

o^Z 

W3 


jsniE^v 


.•••,-i..eo ^... 


• -OtM • • • -CO • 






aoj 


— t- •05-Ti<0500'*o<Moc<iot-oo'*T-40t-c-iy:) 

IM • T-l tH (M (N T-l CO ^ lO iH 00 (M -^ lO (M "^ lO i-H iH 


00 m 00 m •mcoi-H(Nm 

<M ^ ^ '^ 'rHCOrHrHIM 

7-{ 


d 
"J 


jsniESy 


"""••• -i-l • • Tf • . • • iH -00 


• -O CD • rH • • . • 




JOJ 


1-1 r-i eg 


oomoom<Mc<icDcocDm 

(M'*'*(M(MrHCOrHT-l(M 
rH 


go 


)sniB3v 


^ . . . . rH • • lO • • ■ • r-l • 1-1 


. .0(M . . . .(M . 
. . c<I .... 


JOJ 


— -eg -OTOt-OOCOOOfNOCOOt-OOlOOCMt-USCD 
CO • tH (N (M (M tH (M ^ IC 1-H 00 (M ^ in CO CO in 1-1 r-l 
tH T-l (N 


oomoscotMcoiMcoom 
cq^Tj<m(MiHeorHTH(N 




g^ 


jsnieSy 


■ • - • rH • • in • • • • (M • (M 


• -CO o • • • • n< . 




JOJ 


OS • cooiH oo(M ooco o CO o^ ncio lo -^ c-in CO 

r-l tH (N 


00 •mooo-i-'tmrHmm 

(N • -"Tt* (M (M rH CO rH N 
r-t 


g- 


jsniESy 


• • • •1-1 • • lo T-i 1-1 CO -co • 

. . . . T-t • . 


• -^^ • • • -Oi ■ 

• -(M 


JOJ 


iH • lO 05 rH OOiHOOCg OCOO O000i-I(N COC-O CO 
90 • <M iH CO S<1 T-l N -^ in tH 00 iH '^ in (M T-l lO rH 1-1 
r-l 1-1 (M 


00 • CO t- Oa m (M CO rH m 
(M •'^miMrHCOrH <M 


I- 

i^Z 


jsniBSy 


(M ^.(M... 


• -rH T^ . 




JO^ 


i-t -in -^ th ooooiM oco Oth 00 t-coco t-«o<£i 

r-l i-< (M 


00 ■ t-cDosmcoo t-m 

(M -^mrHlHCOrH (M 
T-H 




JSBlESy 


• • • •■<-{ • -rH • • . • (N ■ (M -O • • • 
. . . . . . . . . . . . r-{ . . . 


• 'OrH • • • -(M • 
. . t3< ..... 


JOJ 


Oi • C<I t- rH 00 (M r-l (N O CO O (M 00 O in <N t- t- «ri 
(N '(M <M 05<M tH CO ^inrH 00 -^ in r-l(M in T-l 
r-i (M 


00 • 00 t-osm oO(M osin 

<M •CQ^rHrHtMrH C<J 
r-i 


d 

aZ 
O 


jsniE3y 


• in O r-l Tl< CO • rH • 00 r-l • (M • O 00 • t- iH • 

• r-i(Mc<i T-i • Tj* • . in> -in 


O • C- 00 CO rH rH Tf CO • 
rH • rHO<l CO r-i ■ 
r-i 


JOJ 


mm • •rHmocM(N -moooo -coco • ^ ccsi* oomom --^coc^i -co 

rH rH (M 


d 

aZ 
O- 


)sniE3y 


rH 00 rH mrH OOCOCO (M OOO ■ Ol CO O 05 t- t- CD CO "^ 00 m ^ CD -^ -cococo • 
L« (N (M <M rH CO 'Nt' ^ (N • rH (M m rH com rH ,-H rHCJ "^ com CO ■ ^ rH rH • 

rH rH i-H 


JOJ 


OOirH '00 rHO -OS • • -* • • • 

C<J '(M CDOO-rH 

l-H 


• • • CO iH rH -5j< rH • -CO 
. . . rH • .(N 




d 

sZ 
O 




jsujESy 


mCQ "^iHOOt-CO -COt-COCDt-O • rH t- IM CO CO OO -C-t-COrH 'rHO • 
(M • • CDIMrHCO • '=3' CO t- mm .COmrHrHrHC^ • CD CO rH rH • Cg • 
rH iH T-H 


JOjJ 


•t-'^OOCO • • -IM • '^ -^ • • • rH • • • 


•m -COrHCvl rHrH -CO 
• ^ '(M COt-I '(M 


d 

sZ 
O 


jsnjESy 


0(M • -(MrH .CO • • -OrH • O CO m O t- • 
rH . • • . • -t- . •rHrH'^m 


• • rH -OSO • rH • • 

• -(M -rHrH . 


JOJ 


(M CD m -^ T? t- OS 05 (M CO rH ^ (M C- t- CO (M t- • CO CO 00 m O CO (M OS m O CO CO 
iH t- CM (M CO (N rH (M '^ -* CO CO m CO • rH rH (N -* Tf t- '^ Tt< rH rH (M 
i-H rH (M T-l 


Question 

No. 1 


jsniESy 


• (M • rH (N OS rH rH • • -00 • • (M rH rH rH • • 
tH(M rH • • • CD • • • • 


00 • t- • ^ O • rH • • 
(N • -COrH . 


JOJ 


(MoocomcoosmoaiMcorHoooorH^TPeocDCDco^ 

rH rH C<J 


• m'<#t-coost-coocg 

•■<*CDCD' Tli-^T^(M(M 
rH 








old 
dZ 


■ ■- ■■ — ■ — 




00O5i-HC<|^mCDt-00OSrH(MC0^COt>00O5rHlMCO^mt-00O5rHC<IC0CDt- 
CDCDt-C~t-t-t-t-t-C~OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOSOSOSOSOSOSOSOSOOOOO 
rHrHrHrHrHrHrHiHrHrHrHrHrHrHrH,HrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrH(M(N(M(M<M 



69 





a 
O 


jsniESy 


?0 • •!-* • • -T-t "Tf iH 








JOJ 


T-i C-t-C-O00iO0i<M^'*05(M00e0<MC0t-iXiini-^00lC0i«£)T)<(N'-IC0O(?:) 

C050rH(MeO<Ni-IC£)'*lOU5t-(M'*'*eOCO^rHiHi-((M^U5-^C<I«£>COTH^C<I 
tH iH iH 1-H 




00 

d 

o 

ID 
O 


4J 

< 




jsniB^v 


1 • • • -tH • 'CO N • -T-l "^iHt- • iH • . • 








JOJ 


OOC-iH .(MOq tH C0-*10m t- . -^ Tj C<I T;t< lij rH TH 1-H (M ^^ 10 Tjf . «£> N tH iH (M 
T-H r-l rH 




.2 
'■5 


jsuiBSy 


•1-1 CO'(M- 


• •inin •!> 'CO • • • 

• •^iH •cq . ... 




aoj 


iH 05 05 • i-H C- CO O] ^ t- 00 10 00 • • 't-THlO 
COICtH . CO (M 1-1 t- -* 10 10 t- (M ^ • • • LO iH 1-1 

1 r-t tH iH 


• 00 •coos •inoocviinin 

• CO • in th -^coiHthn 




u 


jsnieSy 


•1-1 •(N^iH W •CO •iH •(M • 

• iH \a -0^ • 


• • • • t> •-* lH • • 

• • •in •CO • 




JOJ 


tHO • • 1-1 C- '^ rf CO ''J -* 00 iH 00 iH 10 <N C- iH 10 
COCO • • iH <M 1-1 t- -^ 10 K3 t- eg '^ U3rHi-l 
1-1 lH iH 


• ooinoot- .in-^t-inin 

•CO-tiHiH •-^CO tHCO 




d 
0-" 

u 


jsntESy 


•CO • -COiH -O • • • '1-1 -1-1 -la • (M • 
•1-1 lO-i-l. 


• • •OSlH iHOCO • • • 

• • •CO CO iH ... 




JOJ 


1-1 Oi • iH t- CO i-l(M ^ CO 00 OJ 00 iH OS • t- iHlC 

CO «o 1-1 • 00 c<i 1-1 1- ■<* 10 Lo c- iH -^ . in iH iH 

iH iH tH 


•oomoos •incooscom 

•CO^COiH •Tl<CO iHCO 




< 




jsnjBSy 


• 1-1 .(MiHiH -OS t- -00 •CO • 

• i-< •(M la •th • 

1-1 


00 • CO CO iH OS Tj< CO • • 
CO • CO • t- 




aoj 


iHOsos •oc-^ wcgcoooscooo -eococ-coin 

COLOlH • (M (M iH in -^ lO 10 t- iH ■<* .1-t in iH 
iH 1-1 


• inoooooint-oot-in 

• ^eoiHCO^co iHCO 




§0 


)sniE3y 


• iH • c<i iH iH -in • • • • iH -in • m ■ ih • 
• tH th -co • • . . .in • th • 

1—1 


00 • -rcco CO • «o -co • 

CO •CO CO • 




JOJ 


.,— lOi . .int-oincgcocsosc-oo •O'^t-com 
com • • (N <N iH ^ ^ in ^ t-(M ^ -T-i in 1-1 iH 

T-l 


• in coos •in t>co CO • 

•'^CO iH • COlH iHiH • 






jsniBSy 


•CO •IMOai-l • "* CD •CD • iH . 

• T-i -^ m-i-i- •• 

iH 


00 in iH CO iH OS CO CO 00 • 

COTjfCO 




JOJ 


iH 05 • oq t- CO 00 (M CO 0^ 05 rH 00 1-1 -cot-Nin • 
CO c- iH •(M od 1-1 ^ ^ in ^ t-(N ^ • in th 1-1 . 

tH r-l 


• • ooooiHin oco coin 

• • -* CO Cvl ^ 00 iH CO 






)sniB3y 


• tH • CO tH iH -CO -^ -co • iH • • 

• 1-1 in-co- 


ooin coin •in • os • 

CO -^ 00 CO • CO • 




JOJ 


tho'os •i-ii>'*C5Cococ3iOiiHoocoooint-ooin • 
coc-T-i • C5 CO 1-1 1- ■<* m -^ t> CO Tj< m ih • 

iH rH 1-1 


• •^cocoinrjto -la 

• •coco CO iH •CO 




g« 


)suiB3y 


•1-1 • • CO tH -co t- iH • • • • 00 -OSCOOO-^ • 05 • 

Tf CO • • • -co -co COrHCO • 




iOj 


i-(O05 -iHt-inosco • 00 05 in 00 1- 1-H 1- t- in • •inoos .iniHi-i • • 
cot-i-i •oocoi-it--^ --^t-co^ THin 1-1 • •■^'^co • ^^ i-n • • 

1-1 iH iH 




d_ 
.2 


jsniEBy 


• iH • CO iH in •CO CO •OS 'th -OS • •ot-iH . t> 1-1 • ■ 

• iH -i-t.-.-^^in^co^ • ••th co^eo •• 




JOJ 


T-ioos • CO CO rH CO CO CD OS OS 00 CO 00 •t-oincooo •ooih •incoiHCOin 
cot-iH • CO oa th CO ^ in '^j* t- CO -^ •iniHrH co •inco • co iHihco 

iH iH iH 




a 



V 

o 


d 


^sutBSy 














JOJ 


iH«Dos-<*iHcoiHcocoTH'*050soocooost>t>cocoooincoiniHco-<*eocoin 
cot>THCoc-coiHeo-^in-^t-co-^incoeoiniHiHTHco^^'*co-^eorHiHoq 

tH iH tH 








Local 

Union 

No. 


.^ ; • ' 








ooosiHco^mcot-ooosiHCOco-^cot-ooosiHcoco 
cocot-c-t-ot-t-t-t-ooooooooooooooooososcs 


■^inc-ooosTHCoeocot- 

OSCSOSOsOSOOOOO 
iHiHiHiHiHCOCOCOCOCO 



70 





Question 
No. 16 


jsnjBSv 


••••T-i (SI -la • 

<N • 


• • • -* -CO 

• • • iH • 


JOj 


O 00 OOi-l 00 C5 t-C<!<M (M 00 -^ O CO t> • t- rH IIO 
CO lO (M Csl in CO tr- -* CO CO «D (M (M ^ • IC t-I 

T-l tH 


• oomcDOTHocoocoeo 

•C0-*'*-*CO-*iHiHiHC0 
tH 


13 

6 

S 

o 


6 


jsniESy 


• •!> • • •00'^ ••r-li-lT-<(Mimn-t:--*(M • 
T-l -to ^ tH (M -CO 1-1 • 


• t- • -* -iH iH • • . ■ 
.(M . .CO .... 


JOJ 


T-l 00 O T-H in 00 O 05 (M (M 1-1 00 (M U^ C5 CO -cocoin 

00 in 1-1 CO 1-1 CO T-l 00 -Tt* cDcoco i-ico • -^ ih 


• iH m CO m • o oi o iH CO 
-*-*-* -coeoiHiHco 

iH 


to 

6 


jsniESy 


• 1-ieo •iHooooi • 1-1 th iH en CO 00 CO t- -^ 00 «o 

COiH • TfiHiHCOCOCO 1-1 1-1 


•t- •-* 'iHiH -iH • . 

•CO • -co 


JOJ 


iHt-OiOiH • oco CO CO iH ooin ^^ m • -co • • 
oom CO-* • 1-1 oi ^ CO CD CO ih • • -* • • 

iH 1-1 


CO iH m CO m -ooooscoco 

iH '*-*'* •COCOtHiHCO 
tH 


lO 

d 
6 


^sniBSy 


• iHin -cooocoiH • . iH 1-1 CO oo in 00 1- Tft CO CO 

CO iH T-H • . -* 1-1 iH CO 1-1 CO T-l iH 


. t- • -* • iH iH • iH CO • 
•CO • •CO 


JOJ 


thooocoih • o O5C0 CO 1-1 oc* CO o CO -co • • 
oom CO'* • iH 05 -* CO CO CO i-i • ■* • • 

1-1 iH 


coiHmcom • o t> oi c- co 
iH -* -* ^ • CD eo iH iH CO 

iH 


jsniBSy 


■ -1-1 ■ -iHC^-ooco • • • 1-1 1- CO CO i:- t>- ■* iH 00 

• • CO • • • ■* iH CO 1-1 CO 1-1 


• t- • ■* • iH iH ■ iH • • 
•CO • •CO 


aoj 


iHOt--*T-ii-ixi<cDcocoi-iooco-*i-ico •coiHoocoT-iincoin -ocooioco 
00 in 1-4 CO -* 1-4 o '^ CO CO CO 1-1 ih •-* i-i '^ r}"st< • co eo i-i r-i co 

1-1 iH 1-1 1-1 


CO 

d 


jsnreSy 


• 1-1 CO -i-iooosco • eo 1-1 1-1 in 00 o 00 i^- -<:)< o CO 

CO CO • CO CD '^ tH tH CO CO 1-1 iH 
iH 


• t- • ^ • iH iH • iH CO • 

•CO • -co 


JOj 


i-iOiOicoi-t -o-^co • 'oooocoooos • CO 1-1 '^ CO iH in CO in •O'^csooco 

00-* CO-* T^Ci^ • -co iH • -* 1-1 ^ '^ '^ .CDCOtHi-ICO 
1-1 iH - iH 


d 


}sniB3y 


• cdos -coooosin -co -ih ^^ ooi> os t- -* o ^ 

CO • iH ■ '^ iH i-( CO CO CO iH iH 


• t> • "* • iH iH • iHCO • 

•CO • -co 


JOJ 


iHOit-coi-H • Oi-i CO in o 00 CD CO oO'M • co t-i co co i-i m co m •ocooioieo 

00"* coco • iH O^ -* "* CD CO -^ 1-1 ^ "* •* .COCOtHt-ICO 
rH T-l tH T-l 


d 


jsniESy 


• cooo •inooosos • • • ih "* o oo os t- ^ co-* 

CO t- • • • "* 1-1 iH CO CO CO iH rH 


• t- • ■* C- iH iH • iH • • 

• CO • eo • • • 


JOJ 


th eo OS oi th • iH CO CO t- o 00 in CO -* iH • co ih co eo ih in co in -oooosoco 
oom iH CO •iH05'*mcoeo th -^ ih "*-*tj< .«ocotHthco 

iH iH tH iH . 




.§3 


jsniESy 


•COOSCOCO • -iH • ■ • -co • • -^ • tH • 
iH • • CO 


• 00 • mco iH • • t^- • • 

•CO -co CO • • 


JOJ 


iHCD • •iHooococomoo5cooomo:!mt-coco 
coco • • 00 CO iH m Tr m CO t- CO -* -* iH CO m ih 

iH iH iH 


• • in CD o . CD th -nT iH CO 
■ • ■* CO -* • '^ CO iH iH cj 

iH 


d 


jsnjESy 


•cooocooo • -co • • • -co -oocoooo • 
iH . -co iHcocom 

iH 


• • •mrH 

• • •CO 


JOJ 


iH CO c- "* iH 00 o • CO m ooirH ooco • • -mco 
cocDiH CO iH • -* m CD t:- CO -* eo • • • ih 

tH 


• oom^ooiHCDOsoscoco 

• co'*'*'*eo-*coTHTHCO 

iH 


c 
.23 

S 

o 


;suiE3y 


y^v "^^ "~ .— , 






"" 


JOJ 


iHt:-osocooocococomoos-*oocooosi:-cocD 
CO CO iH CO iH oq iH CO -* m CO t> CO "* -* CO miHiH 

tH iH 


• oomiHOiHcoooosooco 

•C0"*-*'*CO-*C0iHiHC0 
iH 


e 

.2S 

Id 


jsniB3y 


•coiH 'OS ..•* -mo • • -iH -o • • • 
th- ••iH'.mco'-- -CO''' 

iH 


• cs • i>eoc- -co • • • 

• iH • iH CO • iH • • • 


JOJ 


iH m coo ooo o csco • • os eo oococo m t-co m 
coco iHcocorHmTf . •t-co"*"*co miHiH 


• 05m'*eo -ococomeo 

-*m^ •'^iHiHiHCO 
tH 


d 

.23 

1 6 


;sn]B3y 


•CO • -CO • "* iH • o • o • 

iH • iH ■ 


• iH -iH iH 

•CO 


JOJ 


iHc-oiCOiHoo-*t-comcoo5-*oocooomt--*m 
cocoiH coco iH CO "* m m t- CO ■* "* inm ih 

iH iH iH 


• t-moo'*t-oi0iocoeo 

•C0-*CO-*C0-*C0tHiHCO 
iH 






1.2 d 


■ — ■ 




ooo5iHCO"*mcot-ooosiHcoco-*cot-ooo5iHcoco"*mt-cociiHcoeocoi;- 

COCDIr-E-t-I>t-t-t-I>OOOOOOOOOOaOOOOOOiC5a505C7JCiCiOiOOOOO 
iHiHiHiHiHiHtHtHtHiHtHiHiHiHiHtHiHiHtHiHiHiH,HiH,HiHCOCOCOC0C0 



71 



}suib3y 



JOJ 



jsniBSy 



JOJ 



jsuiBSy 



JOJ 



-1-1 05lO05C^000iC<I<NC0l^t>00Or-l^l0t-a5 
eO (M tH tH i-H (M C- '^ CO t- 50 rH CO -^ iH lO 



• 00 LO 00 r-. 

•IM '^ ^ (N 



■ 00 1-1 o oco 

iH »-( tH (N 



"i-H CO t- U3 Oi 1-t 
CO iH 1-1 (M (M 



't-iMcoooLra-^ocot-iot-osN 

■^ CO iH «D iH CO iH lO C<1 



• OOO O O CO 
iH 1-1 1-: <N 



'00 • (M tH iH tH iH 



"iHCOt-lOOIXMONCOCOKS-^OTHOSlCt-OSkO 
CO-^iHC<|iHC<Ir-tT-l-^CCilOCDT-ICOTl*iH lO i-l 
1-1 (M 



■ LO 00 lO 



• 00 (M O O CO 
1-1 T-l r-l (M 



jsuiBSy 



-^ to IC (N 00 C<) CD (M CO t> 05 lO O CO lO LQ r~- 05 U5 • 00 lO LO ^ • 00 1-1 O O 00 
■^ iH iH 1-1 (M iH t- ^ CO ^ CO T-l CO ^ 1-1 LO 1-1 • (M ^ Tt* CO • IM tH .-< (M 



jsttiBSy 



JOJ 



"i-l Tt<COLOlOOOrHCO(M(MiHCOOO 
00'^iH(Mi-l(MiHI>'vt*i-ILOCOi-l 



■ (M lO LO t- LO LO (N 00 LO Oi 00 • 00 LO O CO CO 

■ Tji 1-1 LO 1-1 1-1 (M -Tfi CO CO • IM iH 1-1 (M 



0) 



JSHIBSy 



JOJ 



"i-i ioeocooooo05eo(Ncoi-icDc<iococococ-LOLoc<iooLocO'=a<THi-ieoo5-^co 

eO-^iH(N (M O "!)< CO LO CO C^ CO ^ iH (M LO T-l tH C<1 -^ '^ CO CD iH N T-I(M 
1-1 iH 



jsniBSy 



^►3 



«^3 
o 



JOJ 



jsniBSy 



JOJ 



00 • Oi • ^ "(M '(M 



• 0(M 00 COCO 



"r-H O Oi CO '^ 00 
CO '^ (N tH(N 



■co(mc005coc50coco 
• o^cdlocot-ico^ih 



•OOLOCOC<I(Mi-IC0050000 
• (N -^ CO ^ CO 1-1 (M (N 



jsniBJSy 



TH CO • iH 



SI 

o 



a; O 

o 



JOJ 



}sn;B3y 



JOJ 



iHCD(M-^t>OOC5CO<MCOO^COOOO^t- 
CO <MC<I <N 1-1 ^ CD LO CO iH (M ^ 1-1 



000 
V 

o 



)sn;B3y 



JOJ 



t- t- CD • 00 lO iH C<1 tH CO tM O CO CO 
LO T-l • (N "^ lO Tt< CO -* <N iH iH (N 



ij o 

o 



jsu;B3y 



JOJ 






ooairHM-^LocDt-oooii-i(Mco'^cDt-ooo:ii-ic<ico^Lot~oociiHoacocot- 

cDCDt-t^c-t-t-t-t-c^oooooooooooooooooiOiajaioiaicsoiooooo 

i-lT-lrHi— li-li— li— ItHi— It— li-li— li— It— liHi— li— IiHtHt-Ii— li— li-(i— ItHi— IC^<MC<iCQC<l 



72 



1 

6 

g 

a 
D 
O 


d 


jsuiBSy 


• eo • • t-i • (M eo • • iH t- • • • 

•T-l (N • • • 


. . .>*<N • -C-CO • • 

• . • . , y-^ . . 


JOJ 


thio^N'^oo • th (m ■>* c- ->* th o (M eo •c-'TjHco 

1- CO"*rHiHiH(M • 00 tH «0 C- «C> iH CO -^ tH • lO i-i 


•OOUS-^OO •rHt-C^CO'* 
•N -^-^ -^ .1-1 ^c^ 


6 

2 


jsnjESy 


• •(n'-th -THcg • -eo • • • -cot-c- •■>* 

.. . -rH^ <N<M- 


• • -insg • -^co • • 

• . . • .(MrH . • 


JOJ 


r-KMOt-lOOO -O (M "^lO uttOOfN t- • O -Tl* iXi 
eOlCrH i-l(M . ^ '^ CO t- ?0(M eo ^ tH -co 
(M 


•00kO(NO5 • 1-1 '(MINCO 
• eg Tj< '^a* ^ • 1-1 • T-I(M 

rH 


d 


jsnieSy 


•1-1 • • iH .OiH iH D- • • • 


• • •OOCQ • •'^CO • • 






JOJ 


iH t- (M (M «0 00 tH !r>(M -* 00 t- 05 O (M -* • t- ^ CO 
CO -^ iH tH tH Cq t- -^ CO t^- to T-H CO ^ • W r-< 


•OOlOOOOO -rHOIMCgcO 
•CO^CO^ • rH rH iH IM 
rH 


d 


jsnieSy 


T-l <M • 


• ■ • LO • • • CO CO • • 
<MrH - . 


JOJ 


thooocooooo • t-(N ^ooc-ooo(moo -t-^eo 

CO'^T-H tH (M ■ t- Tl< CO t- !0 tH CO ^ '\a i-H 
(M 


•O0U3rHlCt-r-ll-H(M(MCO 
. (M -^ -^ (M 00 iH rHIM 
tH 


0-, 
ftOO 

Id 


jsniBSy 


^;^ ■■ ; — - 


l™l 1— f 


*• •' ' ' 




JOJ 


T-IOt-O-*00Ot-(N^0000OO(NT-ia5t-C0C0 
CO Ut) 1-1 i-H r-l (M iH t- Tl< CO t- CO (M CO ^ T-l tH lO i-l 


•OOlCt>OIMrHCO'*OCO 
.(M^^'*O0iH(MrH,H(M 
rH 


So 


jsuiESy 


w~^ .--I (*>1 .^ * ■ 


T— 1 1—1 C^ 1—1 


Till 




JOJ 


T-l(MC--OCOOO(Mi-l(M^a300050<MC-^t-OOeO(MOOlOt>OOCOT-4THACOJCO 
CO lO tH iH iH (M-rH m-*COC-miHCOCOT-l(MlO THiH(MTjt'*cOlCi-<(MTH (M 
(M r-l 






jsniESy 


i ~ ^, .^. .. . — ■ — 


. . . . 


to 

N 

d 
Z 

o 

w 
o 


eo 
d 








JOJ 


1-1 05 CO <M -^ 00 •^Cd^lOOOeOOOOOit-'*-^ 
CO -^ r-l 1-1 tH (M • CO ■^ CO CO to 1-1 CO -^ iH 1-1 lO tH 


.ooiot-rHTi<TH(Mtoioeo 

•(M^^'*COrH(MrHrH(M 

tH 


d 


^sniESy 


• (M -CiTH •Cslr-ICO'* • •"* 'tH • • '00-<* 
• T-l • rH iH CD • • • ... tH 


• 00 -rHtM • • (M • • • 
•(N • 


JOJ 


eo l^ (M • rH IM -O • t- CO 1-1 CO ^ (N rH lO 


•<* • LO tr- rH -^ T-l CO UtI lO CO 
i-H -^ ^CO CO rH(M rH rH(M 


r-l 

d 


;suiE3y 


— , ■ ; 




\^A T—\ T—i 1—1 






JOJ 


rHoocoiMOoOTHt-(M'*050C-oocscTjt-o"5uoeoa')iOT-4'*Tt,-HOOLOii:3co 

CO^rHiHrHIMrHOO'T'CDt-OrHCO'^rHrHlO T-lt-'Cl'^J'-^^COl-HrHi-liHW 
(M —1 




3 

o 


6 


jstjjEBy 


• • -i-lrH-'CO 


• CO • -^ • • -N • • • 
. M . ... ... 


JOJ 


tH O US> lO rH 00 • CO(M COCO CDOO OOt-< 00 t- '^ lO 
CO ^ rH (M rH (M . 00 "* CO ^ CO rHCO "^ (M rH lO f-t 


• • ic t- eo T-l thioo® CO 

• . rJH r^ -^ t- tH iH rH rH (M 

rH 


QUESTION No. 21 
Continued 


d 


jsniBSy 


•l-H • -rH • -iM • • • -Oi -rH -00 • •lO'* -lOOJ •iHiHUS • • • 
"* -rH • • tH tH • "* • t- (M • • • 


JOJ 


rH O U3 CO Cvl 00 (M O (>a CO CO CO t- O -^ t- Ln t- OJ • 
CO -^ rH rH rH (M rH O -^ CO t- CO rH CO T-l Lf5 
rH (N 


• 00 •ooco -00 'Odco 

•IM --"Si^ • •rHTH(M 
rH 


d 


jsniESy 


• CO • • rH -oofM • • • -T-l • th •oo • -a 

.^ . . . ^ . . 


• • -CO • rHrHl-l • • • 
. . . . t> • • • 


JOJ 


iHCO-^CMiHOOrHOIMeO^t-rHOIMOOlOt-OSCD 
CO rHC<|r-((N t- -rf CO t- CO (M CO ■* rH US 
(M 


•OOICCSO •oooooco 
•(M'*-^'* • (MrHr-l(M 

T-l 


1 


0.2 









0001rH(N^lOCDt-OOa5rH(MCO'*COt-0005rH(MCO-*lOt-OOOSiH(MCOCOt- 

cocot-t-c-t-t-t-t-t-ooocooooooooooooo^asajoiova^oioiooooo 

rHrHrHrHrHrHr-lrHrHrHT-lrHrHr-lrHrHrHrHrHT-l^rHrHrHrHrH(M(M(M(N<N 



73 






^ O 

o 



jsnjB^Y 



aoj 



jsniBSy 



JO£ 



" T-l CO 00 CO 1-1 00 t> iH N • t- in (M O CO 00 CO t- -^ CO • OO lO t- oo t- i-n oo m os oo 
CO ■<:)< T-l 1-1 C^ C<I -<* • CO t- r-l CO -^ T-H CO lO tH • (M tJh tJi -^ CO tH t-I i-l (M 



o 



jsxjiESy 



JOJ 



iH CO 00 -^ CO 00 CO t- (M TJH t- O 'sf O ^ * t- t- -^ CO -^ 00 LO iH 00 t> rH O in CO CO 
CO Tt< 1-1 rH r-l(M (N '^ CD CO 00 i-l CO ^ CO m iH iH (N ■* -* -^ (N i-l (N i-l i-l Ca 
, CO - iH 



^ o 
O 



jsnjESy 



JOJ 



■ CO 1-1 00 (N •* (M '^OiCsooocoiMcoNt-co-^ooinieooo 

I iH iH (M i-t tH Tji CO CO C- iH CO Tt< iH CO "^ tH tH <M ■* (N -^ 



■Tf tH -^ Ut) 1-1 CO 

1-1 T-l 1-i 1-1 1-1 OJ 






;sti;e3v 



JOJ 






1) 

O 



jsniBSy 



JOJ 



■ as t- 05--Tt< oomu:)oa^iH(Mcoo(M(Mcocococo'*t-m'*oooii-ioo^oeo 

•COiH (M i-l'^tCOt-t-i-ICO'^WCOCO i-li-l(M'* "^(Mi-lrHi-li-lCO 



^sniESy 



JOJ 



iHU0iHTHC000rHC0(N-^00(ML0Oi-lt-C0L0l0C00000mLn0005OCDL0OC0 
CO 1-1 iH (N t- -^ CO C- t- tH CO -"S* iH CO 00 i-l tH (N -^ -* ^ ■* T-l 1-1 1-1 1-1 (M 
(M 1-1 



flj o 

o 



0) O 



;suiE3y 



aoj 



}sniE3y 



• in LO 1-1 o^ ■ rH -^ ini (M 



JOJ 



i-l(M00OiH00 ■ <X) •■rt*C0THt-O(NC0C0in-^C0i-IC0 ■■^OOCJOinOOOCO' 

co-^iHi-i,— (Oi -co ■coc-coi-ico'^i-icoin i-irnoa ■^'^coi-i i-i c<i' 



V 



U O 



jsniESy 



JOJ 



}sniB3y 



JOJ 



i-i05^oo«ooocoeoeci'*«0(Mooo(N05cot>t>coeoooincooo-<cri-iinincoco' 

CO^iH iHN I>rHCOt-COi-IC0-^C<lC0in T-(i-l(N'*-^"^t-T-li-lTH <M 
(M 1-1 


•(MOO 

1-1 


■ CO • 
• tH • 


<M 


• • • tH 


-_^ ^_ 


. ■ . 


^ ^s 


T— 1 r-1 T-1 







»Ht- -oocooo • co(N -^ in o o o oocoo t- -^co -^ oom in 00 t- , 
CO-* • (N • t- iH CO t- CO 1-1 CO CO th CO in th ih c<i ^ ^ -=t co , 



^►5 



OS .13 



jsniB3y 



jo^i 



T-i (M in o CO 

iH r-f (M 



}smB3y 



' (>a iM • iH 



JOJ 



■ (M CO • • 

ri^o5 (N CO 

I 1-1 1-10.) 



o.5io 
o ez 



ooosi-i<M'^incoooooiTH(Mco'^coi>oociT-ic<icoTfinc~ooo;T-ic<icocct> 
cocot~c-t>t-t:-t-t-t-ooooooooooooooooaia505a30iC5a5050c:ooo 

THiHTHTHTHiHrHi-fTHi-(THTHl=KlMT^r^rHT-lT-''^i-'r-''-''— 'i-*'^Cvl<N'MC<IOa 

74 



Id 


jsniBSy 


•••OrH.eO 


• • •IM -OOi-l -^ • • • 




JO^ 


CO • iH (M • (M -^ CO TO ?C T-l CO T^ iH CO us tH 


•OOlCi-IOO(NOCOlOlOCO 
• (M'^CO-^ tHi-It-H C^ 
tH 


a 
.23 

O 


jsniBSy 


■ , ^^ — .^ , -.- ^, rr^ — — 




v.^ ^^ *»^ UJ 






JO^ 


O 'OinHOOOOO • <M ■<* tH CO (M O CO •->*Cr-'<*(N 
CO -tH iH (N • -^ CO Oa CO tH CO -^ -€010 


• 00 u3 o 00 OS T-l in •coco 

• (N "^ CO ■<* tH 1-1 T-l . (M 

tH 


c 

.2S 
Id 
aZ 


jsuiEJgy 


-fc »■■ — .. "1.*. " ^.- _- — T "^1^ 7. 




. 3:i ' 






JOJ 


o -i-i •coooiH • oj •* 00 CO lo o CO lo ■<* t- Ti' CO 
CO -th .t-iim • ^ CO lo CO 1-1 CO '^ th CO m t-< 


• ooioi-iooi-ii-icoioioio 

• C<1 '^ CO rf ,-H^^ 05 

1—1 


Question 

No. 49 


jsniBSy 


' —-. . ..^ .-. .^ . z. * 




W S-^ Wrf IJ..J 






JOj 


y-i .iH (N COOO O 05 (M -^ (M COOOO • O -^ tr- '^ CO 

CO 'T-H t-kmiHthtjcdcoco CO •(No:)io ih 


• 00 lO CO 00 • 1-1 00 m t> CO 

• c^i'^co^ •iHiHt-i (M 


Question 

No. 48 


tsnjESy 


•••OrH-O 


• • • t-C<I 1-1 • tH . • • 




JOJ 


iH •T-H .-^00 ■00(M'*C^CO'*OT-IO-'*I:-in)CO 
CO -tH 't-IC^I • (M '^ CD CO CO iH CO -^ (M CO UO r-< 


•00mt>Q0t-T-l0>lO05O 
• (>J -* CO -^ tH rH tH iH <M 


Question 

No. 47 


lsuiE3y 


?vi Z^ ' ?vi " ^ 7>i'"7vi ^j 


C^J '"' ^^ 


^ \*N| V,VJ ^ 


' 




JOJ 


T-l • 05'*'* OOiH l>ca '^ OS'^ OOO OSOIO t^'* CO 

CO • iH T-l oq i-H T-l tt CO irj CO 1-1 CO CO c^ CO LO th 

(M 


• ooioinooooT-ieoiomco 

•Oq^^'^iHi-l tH IM 

T-l 


d 

.2^ 

^z 


jsntESy 


i '^^ "^ nr\ ~r^-\ ' 




•^ v.^ 




JO£ 


T-l • <N O Tf 00 tH 05 (M '^ t> O LO t- 1-1 • m (M 1-1 CO ^ 00 lO 05 00 t> 1-H 05 lO CO CO 
CO • tH tH iH (M 1-1 C<I ^ CO CO CO 1-1 (N '^ •CO'* tH i-l(M Tf C<1 -* IM iH T-l 1-1 (N 
(M 1-1 


d 
.2^ 

1 d 

3Z 


)sniE3y 


— ' ; 1 ' — r f.^ iz^ 






JOJ 


iHOi-iiHoqooooooc<i'*t>i-i'*oc<ioococ-coco 

CO CO iH tH tH Cv! <M Tl< CO CO CO tH CO ^ rH CO to iH 
C<1 


• ooicc^iooosT-it^Lcmco 

• <M Tt< CO -* T-l tH tH iH (M 

T-l 


Question 
No. 44 


jsniBSy 


r-ICO • •05 T-l • •, • -OiH • 

COrJt lO 


■* CO •iH(M 

I-I • 


JOJ 


•COOCOiH OOOOOCN-^ CO Oa-* OCOCJ5CO -COO^ 
tHt-H (M iH Oa -^ CO CO CO rH CO ■* tH CO " • 1-1 
(M 


•ICLOOOO'*T-ICOIO->*CO 
• (N -^ ^ '^ tH T-l tH 1-1 (N 

1-1 


d 

•2™ 
Id 


JSBIBSy 


. 










JOJ 


THOOCS'^(MOOOiHC^-<#t:-ocOO'*LOCOtr-(MCO 
coco 1-4 tH OJ tH (N ^ CO CO CO tH CO •>* T-l CO Uti i-t 


•ooiCiHooi-ii-iosiooaco 

. CJ Tt -^ •<* T-l tH 1—1 CO 


Question 
No. 42 


jsuiBSy 


' J^n ~ ' " 


,.>/> " 






JOJ 


TH0S05-<*^00O'*C<J'*t>-OC0OC0OC0t>C0C0 
CO-^ t-ItHC<ItH(M-<*cOCOP-tHCO-^(MCOIO T-l 


•oomoooT-iT-(o>L005co 

• CO Tt* -^ -^ -^ 1-1 1-1 1-1 (M 
iH 




— a 
S.2d 






















ooo>THC<^'*kocot:-oooil-lc<^co-^cot^-ooa5l-lc<^co■^u:)t-•ooo5T-l(^^cocot- 

;C,<X>t>t-t-t^-I^-t>t^-l^-000000000000000005050>0^05a50^a5OOOOO 
rHi-ll-li-lT-liHT-lT-iiHT-lT-lrHi-lT-lT-Hi-lT-i. T-HiHT-li-lrHiHi-lTHi-IC<lC<lCvl(MC^ 



75 



h 

I 6 
=2 


JSBIB3V 




• -cCii (M • • -y^Tii .t- lOiMCs .,-1 . . • 

. • • • . • i-H iH rj< . ... 


log 




•i-H -C-OOOOi-IC^^i-IOO-^OC^KMOOOOCg • 00 lO O 00 CO t-I CO lO «D 00 

• iH • c^ (M Tf CO 00 t- rH eo eo i-i(M -* iH T-i -(Mrjfeo-* i-It-it-h ^ 

CO -rH 


e 
't 6 


jsniBSy 


. . .lO(N . -C^ . . . .tH --^p (M(M . . . .,-1 . 


JO J 




•t-t-eOOOOOi-IC<l-*'<*05050CDOOOt>OC<l'^OOUO-<*0005iHOOlOCOOO 
tH C<I C<I -* CO t- t- 1-1 eo CO (M (M LO T-( iH ,H C<1 -* ^ -* TT T-4 T-( ,H T-( 

eo i-H 


c 
to 

6^ ■ 


jsniESy 


• . . •i-li-l -^ C-(M 00 -OOIM^ 

.... (M -i-H 


JOJ 


00 


. t- -^ -^ C- OS C- C<I ^ T-l t- 00 O iH us 00 t- O C<I • • lO 00 00 05 tH 00 IC IC tH 
i-l(N rfCOCOt-T-HCOCOT-KMlOi-HTH . . Tjt CM rj< T^ ,H tH tH 

eo iH 


e 
.23 


jsniESy 




" — : ' ":^ ;k-. .^ . .i.-. . " — : — 










JOJ 


00 


•OOOeOOOOlOOQ-^CiOjlOOt-OOOOt-OlM •OOlOOOOOt-T-HUtilOOOO 

T-i c^q T-i th -<* CO Lc t- 1-1 CO eo (miot-ii-i • c^a tp ec -* -^ th ,-i t-i i-i 
eo i-< 


a 

.2S 
1 d 
5^ 


jsniB^Y' 






JOJ 


00 


• iH CO U3 00 C<1 O; Od -^ CO 05 lO O ■<* O •OOOJ • 00 lO CO 00 eo iH 03 kC Oi 00 
l-l(N lH tH -* CO lO C- r-l CO ^ iH .T^T-lrH • OJ ^ CO ^ rO t-H ,H i-l 
CO 1-1 


e 

.25 
S 6 


jsniBSv 


• • •eOl-l • -(M • • r-l • • • IC 1-1 • -t-CgTH 


JOJ 


00 


• THoo-^ooi-ii-ic<i^eoc-t>ocooo5C-o(Mi-ioomt-ooooi-HTjHuoosoo 

• th 1-1 03 1-h (M Tft CO 00 t- iH eo eo (N oj u3 iH 1-1 th (n Tjf Tjt t}< tJ( rt ^ ^ ^ 

Cq iH 


So 


jsuiBSy 








JOJ 


o 

00 


• t- 1> o 00 05 <35 eg Tj< r-l CO eo o th 00 o t- o CO • oo lo o oo o% i-i eo lo Oi oo 
1-1 (N iH '^ CO 00 uti 1-1 eo i-icomi-ii-i • OJ '^ cvi TT< CO 1-1 1-1 r-l i-i 

(M 1-1 


.1^ 
1^ 


jsniBSy 


• -i-H "iH ooeo • • • eo • • • (n Oi -co • • oo 

eo • • • th ... th .,-1 . .T-< 


JOJ 


o 
eo 


05 -^ t- 00 OS CO (M rj< U5 00 CO O 1-H eg -t-OCg -OOlO-^OO -i-li-lioC- • 
(M eg -^ CO t- U3 iH eo -^ .IOtHiH •(M^C0-<* • iH T-i 
iH 1-1 


d 

S 6 


jsnjEay 


• 


-— — — ■- — — — - 










JOJ 


o 

CO 


OJCOOOOO •irscg-^ COOO OiO CDOtJ* t-0(N • • lO -^ 00 eg T-l 00 U3 05 • 

1-1 eg • eg ^ CO coiorH eo cgeoiOiHTH . ■■"sjtTf^ ^tHt-i 

iH iH 


a 

.22 

So 


jsniBSy 


• 




eg iH -co 1-1 -eg • • • 


JOJ 


o 

CO 


t- -oooo oscg-^a* ooo-^ oco •-^ooocg • oo lo lo oo oo i-t -locooo 
• 1-1 eg 1-1 1-1 Tf CO -^ CD iH eo .cotHiHth •cg-^co'^ i-t 'th i-i 
1-1 1-1 




Mo 
2^^^ 1 




— ■■■■ — ^ „ . ■ 
























































oooii-i(MTj'LOcot~ooa:'-i(Meo-^?ot-ooc;iHc<ieo-^LOt>oooi'-i<Nco50t- 

COtDt~t-C-t>t>I:-t--L-(Xi000000000000000505050iCSC5010iOOOOO 

lHT-(,-l,-(r-HrH,-lr-lT-(T-l.-l^,-l^i-(,-lT-HrHrHT-ll-Hl-H,-lTHT-l— < IMC^CMOJIM 



76 



Question 
No. 70 


jsniESy 




tH 


. . .CO 






JOJ 




•C^Tl<Tf00O05(M-^-5fOOO00lOOC-O(N 
.■i-H rH (M rH T-l -* CO (M ?0 (M CO 03 tH (M ii5 tH ,H 


.(M TfCO 


• CO iH t> lO O 00 

• rr r-l T-l rH r-< tH 


Question 
No. 69 


JSHIE^Y 















JOJ 




•COlOeOOO -O^C^ -^ ClOOOO 7-1 ?DOt-0(M 
•rH ,H<M • iH ^ CO OJ CO (M CO '^ tH (M U3 1-1 iH 




• T-l r-l 00 lO O 00 

• Tf rH tH I-H T-H tH 


1 

Question 

No. 68 


jsnicSy 




CO -o ■ • • 


• • -co 












JOJ 


(N! 


■ coicthoo t-TH (N '^ coosth o^o -oocg 

• rH T-i<M (N -^ CO (M CO (M CO CO W ■ ICi i-l iH 


• oomo 

• IM Tt< CO 


• i-H T-t 05 LO 00 00 

• Tf T-t T-H tH i-H 


c 
.25 


jsaiESy 






— T7~- 






^ 










So 


JO,I 




C^JC0-<*CX)(MTf(0q^t-O00O(>]C000l>O(M 
T-H iH (M -^ CD T-l CO T-l CO ri< tH T-( LO iH tH 


(M •>* CO 


• tH tH Ol CO 05 CO 

• -^ tH iH iH rH 



jsuiESy 



JOJ 



(M •i-IOOOOOOOOCI'^ OO <J50i-l -* 00 t>o<M 
IM . tH iH (M (M Tl< CO tH CO iH CO -^ tH 1-(IC iH tH 



' 1-1 00 lO 00 CO 



jsniBSy 



JOj 



(M -COOO C00000O(M-^00C005Oi-H CDOO t-OC<l • 00 lO C<1 
(M -tH (M C<I -^ CD O CO rH CO tJ* tH iH LO tH tH • (N -^ CO 



}sniB3y 



JOJ 



)snjB3y 



a O 

5^; 



JOJ 



)SuiE3y 



V 



JOJ 



jsniESy 



JOJ 



JSDIE^y 



JOJ 



y.iio 
J3 



-(M -(MCD^OO •rHOJOCDOeOOOa -l^-t-OfMCOOOlOCMOOOlrHCOLOOOO 
(M • rH rH (M • 03 '^ (N OS 00 rH CO • lO rH rH rH (M '^ CO T}< tJ ^ ^ ^ rH iH 



■C0C<l-^rH00-5}<O05C<I00l:-OC<l(M00U3-^00 

' (M '^ CO t- l:- rH CO (M LO rH rH rH Oq Tf rt TJI 

CO i-< 



• rH I>lO t-00 



ooo5rHC<l^LocDl^-ooo>rHC<Ieo'*cot-ooo5r^c<|co'*lO^>oooirH(^^cocot- 
co•-oooc^-l^-t>t>t^-t^-oooooooooooooooooi050sciOia^o5050000o 

rHrHi— IrHrHi— li— IrHrHrHi-HrHrHrHr-lrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHC^llMOJOaCM 



77 



to 

d 
O 

O 






g- 

ll 


jsniBSy 


•e* 


• •.•^••(^•e> iM' 






JOJ 


■^ xj< 05 -eoos 00 
CO t-eo '(M CO 
1— 1 


od ^ 00 (M -* CO th en CO . 00 CD -^ CO rH • oi 00 -icmoo-^ 

■^ 10 -^ rH U5 Tf CO T-i . LC rH -^ t- 1— 1 • tH CO • rH rH 
r-\ rH 


d 


jsniESy 


•CO 


• • .ON . ■ • ^O CO • • • 




JOJ 


~ 03 -^ C5 -iH O500 
CO t-CO '(MrHCO 


(M -^ • th CO CO rH u:: CO -oococ^f^rH -oioo • -u^os-^ 

"*lO • 10 10 :^ CO <M tH . 10 rH ■>* t- t-I . rH CO • • rH rH 

T-l 




jsnjBSy 


•CO 


••••rH. •••O''(N00 






■■oj 


" <rq ^ t- • CO t- 00 
CO t- CO -O^ CO 


-^ -^ • CO CO CO rH LO CO • 00 CO CD • rH • OS CO • CO IC t-I Tj< 
-^10 .(MlO-^CDC^lrH .IOtHCO -rH • rH CO • rH rH rH 
7-^ 1-^ 


g. 


jsntBSy 


~ 'CO 




^ . -C^lrH . -O -lO • -rHOO CO • • • 

T-i • • • • T-i -xa • • CO ... 


JOJ 


^ oorf t- .eoiaoo 
oac-co -(M CO 

r-l 


•-Tt< • rH rH CO tH CO (M • 00 CO (N • rH -05 00 • • LO (>] -^ 
•\a • rH IC -^ CO rH rH • lO rH -"i* • rH • rH CO • • t-i t-i rA 
rH T-l 


goo 


jsniESy 


iHCO 


I* . . rH rH • -00 • iTi ■ • -00 • • • ■ (N CO • • • 
■<!}i . .r-( • • .10 • • -CD . • • -CO • • • 

rH 


JO-I 


-* c- • T-iu:) 00 

CO t- CO -05 CO 

T-l 


•-* . CO 10 CO rH (M (N -OOCDIM • rH • Oi CO CO • lO (M '^ 
• 10 • -^ 'Tjl to r-i r^ . LO rH -rt< • tH • t-I CO CO • rH i-l rH 

rH 


gc. 

11 


jsniBSy 


1-1 • «£> • -i-i • 

• CO • • 


. • • • rH • -(MC^IlO • • -CO • • 00 .oco • • • 
^-•••CO-^ •CO ... 


JOJ 


QOCg • tH C<l 00 
CO t- • Oi tH CO 

T-l 


^ -^ • Oq CO CO rH rH rH • 00 CD LO • rH . <N 00 U3 • U3 05 rf 
■^10 . rH -^ -^ CO (M rH . m T-l Tt . tH . tH CO CO .T-l tH 
tH rH 


g- 


jsuiBSy 


• • • 00<M CO • 


CO • • 00 rH • .C0t>0 • • •^T-i .(M •OCO . • • 
rH-' •• 00^^-CO -rH-CO ... 


JOJ 


03 t- • C-(M ^ 00 • 
CO C- • (M 00 T-l CO 


iH ^ • tH -t^ CO rH -Tl' CO -OOCOrHTHO • 00 t- LC • IC CO CO 
ia •05^'^COtH .l/5rH(N iH • COCO • rH rH rH 

T-l 


ll 
O 


jsnreSy 


tH • to Oi 00 • • • 
• rH tH • • • 


^10 • cj CO ooo^coiniM COO CO • oi • • • oo '<i< rH • 

■^ IC • 10 -^ 10 rH 10 in rH rH 00 • iH ... 


JOj 


co«o(^^li::)Oeooo^H 

'^OOC^ICOrHTHCOT-l 


• • (M CO • • CO rH • • ^ rH 00 • rH • 05 CO lO rH LO O CO 

• • rH . • rH • . rH • rH • T-l CO CD T-l rH 

r-i rH 


a 

'to 
sZ 
O 


}SBiE3y 


U5 • 000 rH OJ 00 

■^ -coco (M CO • 


■00 00 • Oi CO rH 00 CO 10 00 -<* • Oi rH Oi O -lOt- •CSCO 
. Tjt -^ •-* -^ CD (M rH in CO rH • CO t-I iH (N .CO • rH 


JOJ 


•05 • rH t- . 


•CO 'la (MCOCOrH • . -CO • •rH'^ . 

.(M rH rH tH . . -CO • • rH 

rH rH 


e 

u 


jsuiBSy 


iniiX>t>iX>in)(MOOiHTH^OO^C- • •OiCOUSOC-'* •tH050U51C«C>tH(M .• 
O50OeO<M'*00 •<4'm^T-l'* . . T-l r-l IjO Ui tH • t-I tH (N O <N tH • 
tH tH r-t 


JOJ 


(M -iHC- -OS 'T-ICOIM .(MTHCOTHt- • • • -Ot- • • -IflO • • -CO 
CO • T-l • • • ■<* «0 . • • -COOO • . • Tj( . . .tH 


e . 

|o 
sZ 
O 


isaie3y 


. •TH'^m • • CC CO ^ • '03 • -IOiHi-ItHC- • • •T-l iH • 

• • CO(M • • • • • • 1-100 • • •r-l ..... 


JOJ 


00 «0 t- "^ 00 CO 00 CO 1-1 CO 00 Oq (M CO 1-1 1-1 • • rH (M t- OSOtHCDIO 5DIO tHCO 
^ 05 CO (N (M '^ CO ^ 1-1 ''t ^ IM ^ ^ iX>(M • •U3i-l'*00rH (N(M «0 '^ i-l rH 
•tH tH iH T-l 




sZ 
O 




jsniBSy 


tH '05 • tH (^ .10 
• -* • ■rH ■ 


• 10 t- • C<I • • • rH •CO rH • Cg • . 


JOj 


CO ■* -O 1-1 00 00 
■^05 .lO LO CO CO CO 
rH rH 


•C-T-KMincOrHinOrHCOt-OOCOrHOOOCO^t-INeOCO 
• ^ tHOJ CO ^ CDCq rH CO ^ rH CO 00 rH T-l rH CJ CD CD rH rH 
rH rH 








11 6 






oooiOrHco'^un^c-oooico^i-ooooiOiHoj'X'rHiMcoiocot-asorHco-^ 

OOrHrHrHi-<rHrHr-lrHrHC^(MC^5(M<MCOCOOtlCO^-^'*TfT}<-<*'^UilClOm 

cqc<lc<Ic<l(^]c^^(^5c^l(^^c<IC<!(^ac^(^^(^ac<l(^^c<lc<^c<lC<Icg(^3(NC^IC<^(^JC^^c<^c<I(N 



78 



1 

c 


6 
2 


)shib3v 




T-H tH • • 


• • • -(N 1-1 


• • • 










c 

(5 


jojI 


(N t- 1-1 iH 00 00 

CO !r> CO IM tH 00 CO 


• -00 • ot>co th coth '^jtcoo -^ OOSOOU5 

• • -^ • Oa -^ ■«* «0 T-l tH 00 10 T-l CO I> iH tH c<i -^ «o 

iH ,-1 


10 co^ 

TJH tH tH 


00 

6 

o 

h 

o 


< 


0"* 


jsuiBSy 


... 


• T-l • • 


• • • -1^ iH 


• tH • 




JOJ 


000 c- 


•05000 
• r-l«OC0 


• -US -00 00 00 iH tHtHio oeocg '^ osooko coio OS ^ 

• • Tjt • tH -Tj* 1— 1 to rH T-l U3 10 rH CO t- r-l rH (M -Tj* CO CO iH 

1-1 T-t 


2 
"■5° 


)suibSy 




. r-t • • 


• • . . t>- iH • • • tH • CO -^ -00 


• tH • 






JOJ 


(M tr- 
ee iX> CO 


• COO 00 

. iH iH CO 


• .10 • CO i>eoi-ico 010 ooi>-o i>-o osooia 

. . T^ , tH '^ iH CO iH iH 10 iH CO iHtHCN^CO 


LOOS-"* 
CO tH 




jsuiBSy 




• T-l • • 


. . . .tr-iH O-^ • • -r-l • • • 


• • • 






JOJ 


— cao tr- 
ee «D CO 


•(MCOOO 
.iH tHCO 
r-l 


• • LO • 00 OS CO iH CO OS lOlO 00 I> -^ iH 00 U2 
. . Tt .iH-^tHCOt-I U:i(N <M C- iH iH (M ^ CO 
r-l iH 


10 OS'* 

Tt< tH 


"a 

BO 


jsntESy 


— ... 


. T-H • • 


• • • • t>(M COOSi-l • • -1-1 • • 


.(M . 






JOJ 


CX)0 l>- 
(M toco 


• -*ooo 

• 1-1 tH CO 
tH 


• -in • CO Lo CO 1-1 Lo T-l Lo CO -^ (M CO T-l 02 03 ic 

• • ■>* • T-l Tf iH CO 1-1 tH lO iH CO t> tH T-l 1-H ^ CO 

T-l tH 


10 in '^ 

CO rH 




■■50 


jsuiESy 


.0 • 
.to . 


•iH • • 


• • tp (M -inxMO . • -th -eg 

■•T-l (M--- -IM 




JOJ 


OS . t> 

CO -co 


•(M CO 00 
• i-)(M0O 


• • CD t> CO 1-1 CO iH -!t OS imo -Ti< 10 00 th OS OS OS CO 

• • CO lit! 1—1 IC 1-1 CO 1-1 U3 CO iH t- 1-t tH iH CO CO 

1-1 1-1 


IOtH^ 
CD tHtH 




jsuiESy 


•0 • 

. to • 


•(M • • 


. .Tjt . .^ - . .00 • (M CD 00 • • 1-1 OS -US 


. . . 








JOJ 


.t^ 

CO -co 


•(NOOOO 
• iH(N CO 


• • CO t> ■<* tr- CO th OS 00 U5 '^ • iH 00 tH CO iH OS 

• • CO 10 T-l oq 1-1 CD tH 10 • tr- tH 1-1 coco 

1-1 tH 


10 00 -"* 

TT 1-1 




jsaiBSy 


•^0 • 


. (M • . 


• .-^ • rH • • • iH . .10 • • -OSOS • • 








JOJ 


• • t- 

• -co 


•rH 00 00 
• 10 tH CO 


• • CO t- tH t-CO tHO • 10 00 tH tH 00 tH -tHOSIO 

• • CO 10 iH T* 1-1 CO oq • 10 CO cot>-TH • coco 

tH tH 


in 03^ 

'^ tH 




jsuiESy 


00 • • 


. -^ . . 


• • -^ • • C<J • • • t>- • OS ^ • • -OSOS • • 








JO^ 


•co«> 

•«DCO 


•00000 
•tHINCO 


• • CO I>- "* CO tH •>* to 00 Ca 00 00 tH •WGSU5 
. . CO IC tH U3 T-l CO (M U3<N COt-TH • COCO 

tH 


inTHTji 

^ tHtH 


d 


jsuiESy 


• • 


• o> • • 


• • -* • -co • • 'tH . ^ CO • -COOStH • • 












JOJ 


^ . . 


•^ -00 

• T-< -co 


• 'CO t- th cocoth -laT-t •incaoo -ososio 

• • CO ic 00 10 th CO (M -laeo •coco • th co co 

tH 


ICtH •"* 
•Tt* rH rH 


«3^ 


)SuiB3y 


■>*eo • 
co«o • 


OS . • • 


• OJ -^ 00<M -COlNlTHrH -OSt-I • • 

•■<*tH tH- -tH .. 


.Tjt . 


JO^ 


CO '''00 t>-aH iH 00 
•CONtH iHCO 


• • CD t- CO CO tH Tj( . tH <M •<* (M CO • OS OS LO 

• • CO 10 tH U3 tH CO (N • 00 CO T-l -<* 10 tH -tHCOCO 

tH tH 


^ tH 


c 

I 
C 


d 
2 


jsniBSy 


_ ._ ..^^ . ^ ._ ^^ _. . . — 












JOJ 


■^ 05 t> tH ^ 00 tXM iH . 10 «0 CO tH CO (M • 00 CO CO (M tH 0> 05 05 • 
COt-COlCTH COCO^US • 1-1 10 r-l to (N iH • lO tH tJh 00 t-I t-H tH CO • 
(M 1-1 iH 


• t^rH'-"* 
^ iH tH 






Local 

Union 

No. 






ooosoiHco-5)<u:icoc:-ooa>co'^ii::)ooa!OTHiM«OTH(Mcou:)«Dt>05C 

OOTHTHTHiH,-lTHrHrHTH(M(M(M(M(MCOOOCOOO^'^Ti<->*-^'<*-!tir 

(N(N<^](^^(^^(^l(^l(^I(^^(^5(^^(^^5<lC<!5<^wc^|^I(^^(^^(^^cNll^^<^^(^Il^^(^J(^ 


) tHCO ^ 

) 10 10 in 



79 



d 
©so 

1 6 




jsujBSy 


. ■ • • iH -00 
CO 


-CO(M 


. .th . - th rH • oa - - • ■ o^ • -co . . . . 

. . • . . . . . . ,H - - .... 


JOJ 


CO lO 00 CO 00 -^ • 

co^eoi^ i-i(M • 


. ai 05 '^ t- 1- CO th 05 o lo (N th im 'Tf T-M -ooos -i-ioo^ 

rH UO t- ^ -^ CO rH lO (M iH 05 lO rH • (N CO IC • iH tH 


6 

i 

O 


6 


jsniESy 


• • • '(MCOOO 
.... CO 


. .CO 

- • T-4 


-COOi --^OlOl . ■<* IC 00 • -0500 • - -00 • 
■^ - tH -co CO - - tH 05 CO • . . 
iH 


JOJ 


COOOOO • t>TH • 
(N '^ CO • rH -^ • 


•(MiH 

- CO 


-comcot-oi -in -co - lo th - -comco'^oqin 
■ t- -"^lo -in - th - oa ih - • c- CO ih 


to 


jsniESy 


• • • -(N O500 
.... t-CO 


- -00 


-cooi --^cooainoiTHooco -o:io • -oj -ociih 
•ri< . THTHinco CO -iHoa - - -ih 


aoj 


000000 • t-«D • 
(M ^CO -rH 
1-1 


ONUS 

'^co 


-cooocot- • • • - th -ooco - - oj in oa 'st* • '^ 

• t- ^=3* m - • • - tH -tHiH - -cot- CO - iH 

iH 


U3 

d 


;sntESY 


CO • • • CO O^i 00 
• • • OCO 


• - 1— 1 
- - 1-1 


-CDiH -Tl<00O] -OiHOO-^ -OiOOa - - -OrH 
in • r-i -co CO -iHoaco - - - tH 
tH 


JOJ 


0000 00 • ooco • 
(M ^ CO 'tH 


OONCO 
CO CO tH 


-co'si'cot-^ -in -iH -oo • - •in-^'* - -rji 
• t> -^in -in -th • 03 ih • - • t- CO - iH 




d 


jsujESy 


04 • • -D;! C<I 00 
• • . (MCO 


- • tH 


-cooj •'*'*oci --^thoo - -oiooi • oq -o - 

'i* - iH -co CO • - iH 03 CO • -iH - 
iH 


JOJ 


OOOOO • OOIO • 
CO^ CO •tH 


O5oa 00 
'^coN 


-COCOOOt-rH -inrHyH -OJOJ - -iHin'sl'^C-^in 

- 1- -^ in th -in iH - oa th ■ - t- co th 


CO 

6 


jsujBSy 


tH • • -CO 0000 
• • • COCO 
tH 


. .CO 
. • iH 


-COtH -^C-Od -OOiHOOOa -050 • -iH - tH - 

in • iH -coiHcooa -ihoi - - - th - 


O 00 00 • iH C>J • 
CO^CO -(N 


05(M t- 

'^fiCOCN 


• cooaeot-m -in - - • -ih th - -oomco^THin 
- 1- -^m -in - • -ojth - -cot- co th 

tH 


IN 

6 


jsuiESy 


<Xi • • -COOOOO 

• • • cceo 

rH 


. .CO 

• • iH 


•COiH -'^OiOa - CO iH 00 tH -O^O • -lH -O] - 

in - th -co CO • iH oa • - -th - 


JOj 


OJ 00 00 -1-103 - 
CO ^ CO • 00 
lH 


OC<I t- 

tO COOJI 


-cooQcotr-co -in - iH -coco • • -inco^ -in 
- 1- -^ in -in - iH -t-iH • - . t- CO - iH 






2 


)SU{E3y 


CO - -t-CO -00 
- - t- .00 


- - CO •^ CO iH - ■<* O (M • (M tH 00 - - C5 O <M • iH • tH iH 

- - iH lO lO - tH r-l -CO CO - • tH (M • - rH 


JOJ 


05 00 00 •<* rH - • 
CO ^ CO rH • - 


in CO 05 


-COO5C0C-C0 -incoiH - ^ co • • co in in in ih r3< 
• t- '^in -in th -t-iH - -cot- CO ih 

tH 


Question 
No. 14 


jsniESy 


- - -COiHCg • 


- CO o 


-ooiH . . -oj -th • . -oaoi - -oi • -(M • 
• -■iH-oq--- th 


JOi[ 


lO C5 t- ^ tH 1-1 00 

CO ^ CO ^ tH 1— 1 CO 


■ CD - 


-coojcothoj • -oQiHinooi -ococo -Ttoom 
• t- ^ ^ CO iH • - th oq t- • o5 ^ in • -^ th 


o 


}sniB3y 


- - • - tHCO - 


- • T-\ 

• - la 


•00 • • - -OJ005COO rHr-l 

• • - - tH 00 CO iH CO 


JOJ 


ICO t-OrHiH 00 
CO ICi CO IC T-l rH CO 


■ ■ iH 


•t-rHCOiH-^ • • 03 tH t-O] iH Oi OCOin • -* Oi Tl< 
•t-in-^COrH • • t- iH iH Oq ■<* CD • -^ T-t 

iH 


a 

ON 




}sniB3y 


, _^ ^^ -^^ —• -^^ 7^ 






r^ /T^ ii^ 








JOJ 


lO <N t-CO tH ,-1 00 
CO IC CO ■<* (M iH 00 


- -00 

. . -^ 


• o oi CO iH OS o] • 00 -^ o oa iH OS •coo •in-iHin 

- lH -^ Tt< CO tH • OJ iH CO C- tH tH • -^ ^ • ^ tH rH 
r-t rH 


S 6 


}sniE3y 


■ ', ^.^ ^^ ^^' — — j 


'"^ 




, ^ VJ .•<« <•■.< ^ . . 




JO^ 


-^ o c- in o lo 00 

CO «0 CO (M C<1 r-< CO 


- - 00 


• rH t- CO tH rH (M - -^ Tf rH (M 00 05 - O m • lO 03 m 
-rH^-vl<COrHrH - tHCOC- rH • -"^CO - '^ rH rH 
rH rH 


a 

3Z 




jsuiBSy 


; z;z ■ ■ ; .. _ 






JOJ 


O O t- -Tj* iH ■>* 00 
CO COCO <N tH CO 


- -00 


• t- t-CO rH oa o o oooQ oa Tf oin -om •mosin 

rH Tjl Tjl CO rH rH 00 CO rH CO t- rH rH • -^ CO - "^ rH 
rH • rH 






sId 

e^ 


■ 


oooiOrHco'sPiocot-oooico'^icoociOiHCcicDT-ioqcotocot-OiOi-Hoo^ 

OOrHi-lTHrHiHi-lTHT-lT-HC^IOJOJOatNCOCOCOCO^'-^^'-^'^'^-^LCinLOLO 

c^^oq(^qc<IC^c<IC^]c^^cgc<Ic<^c<Ic<lc<Ic^^c^(^qc<Ic^i^Ic<i(^^oJ(^I(^:(^l(^^(^acvl(^l(^l 



80 



( 

d 
2 


jsuiBSy 


tH kOOOir-l • • .T-HCO 




JOJ 


T-H O 00 


t-lO 00 
T-H CO 


• T-H lO ^ 1-H 00 (M CO to • • t-O «5 '^tH OOCOOOIO 
CO lO OS -^ T-l CO • • rH iH Tjl tH tH rH tH iXi 


• -OOIO 


d 


jsuiESy 


T— 1 • • 


t- • • 


• 1-1 lO .(M?0 • • -co • • 


• -co • 










JOJ 


• O 00 


• O 00 

•T-fCO 


• iH lO •<* tH 00 (M CO CO Oi • tH OS CO m T-< 05 CO 00 U5 

CO lO OS ^ i-i CO 'CO 1-1 ^ T-( iH th 1-1 CO 

1-t 


• -OOIC 


No. 3 


^suiESy 






• 7-\ irxNi-fN • • -co -o 


• -co • 










JOj 


• ooo 

■ -*00 


CO 0)00 
tH CO 


• T-l lO -Tf tH 00 (M CO 1-1 OS • IM OS U3 lO i-< OS CO 00 lO 
CO ID OS ■'^ tH CD 1-1 • Oq r-l -^ T-< tH iH 1-1 CO 

lH 


• 1-1 OOIC 

• T-K T-l 


No. 2 


JsuiBJgy 






• ID 1-1 •• CO • • iH CO -CD 












aoj 


ooooo 

T-H ^ CO 


t--^oo 

1-1 CO 


• (N lo '^ 1-1 00 <N CO OS iH • CO 1-1 CO in iH 00 CO 00 OS 

• rHCOin en ^ iH CO TH -(NiH ^ l-l i-l rH iH lO 


• • tH i-H 


d 
4, 


jsniESv 


• • • tH 




• • • • Ut) \Ci 


• "■ iH • 










JOJ 


OOOOCO t- O 00 
CJ ^ CO CO iH iH CO 


•(MU5 ^ O 00(M CO ^ O • O tH i-( lO 1-1 OS O t- lO 
• iH CO lO t- ^ 1-1 CO lH iH . CO iH (M '^ iH 1-1 (M iH CO 


• -iH iH 



S 



u o 



d) 

o 



^2 
O 



I d 
O 



C; 

o 



o 

O 



)su-c3y 



JOJ 





th o • • • -oco 


jsujBSy 




iH 




xo^ 


ooo -(M t- t-OO 

1-1 -^ . ^ tH CO 


• (M U5 TJH •<* 00 (N CO OS O • (M 1-1 <M 00 tH OS • • lO • 
•iHCOmC-^iHCD 1-1 -(M (M'vt'i-liH • -CO • 


•QJID 

• iH iH 




1— j f*^.^ — 




1—1 t^ 






aoj 


C- O 00 U3 lO m 00 
iH Tji CO CO iH ■ CO 


• (N LO -^ CO t- (M CO CO OS ID 00 iH CO 00 iH OS 00 CO U5 - 
•iHCOlDC-^iHCO IDNi-KM-^tHtHiHCMCO • 


• out) 

• 1-1 iH 











jsniESy 1 














JOJ 


OS O 00 LO ID iH 00 
iH Tt< CO CO 1-1 tH CO 


• (M ID -Tt* -* O CO CO t- O ID t- rH CO 00 iH OS 00 OS ID • 

• 1-1 CO >D C- ID 1-1 CO iH ID iH i-l(N -^ iH iH i-l(M CO • 


• OlD 

• rH I-H 



:B3y 



• OS (N -ID 



iOJ 






— — 


— — — 




'"^ 




)sn;E3y 






JOJ 


C- ID 00 "* OS Tjt 00 • 
<N -^ CO ^ iH CO CO • 


•ID-^-^OCOCOOSi-llDIMOOSi-li-IOOOOqcOt-rHOlD 
•COLDt-lD^CO 1-1 ID CO i-l(M ID iH 1-1 (N (M CO i-l iH tH 

iH 



)sniE3y 



JOJ 



C-lD00-*i±)OQ0 -C^lD^iDOCOi-lt-OSlDOOOOOIMi-IOOOO.rtiOt-iHOlD 
Oa ^ 00 CO iH iH CO • ^ CO ID t- ID -^ CD LD (N iH (M ID iH iH tH (M -^ i-l i-l iH 

(M lH 



1^ 



OOOSOT-ICO-^iDCOt-OOCSCO^lDOOOSOi— ICOCDi-I^MCOlDCOC-OSOi— ico-^ 
OOi-liHi-liHiHi— IiHt-Ii— IC<lC<lC^Oa<MC0C0CCC0-^^^'*^'^'^lDlDlDlD 



81 



}sniB3v 



•CO 



JOJ 



■ ooooo 

■ CO tH CO 



•N • t- tH 00 Cvl CO CO O IC 05 CO (N 00 tH • OS "<* lit' 
' tH -la Oi"^ r-i (D iH li3 1-1 T-H CO i-H •i-tT-tiD 



jsniESy 



JOJ 



jsuiBSy 



JOJ 



COOOO -OOIOOO 
N ■«* CO -co CO 



o 



«v2 
O 



jsniBSy 



JOJ 



jsniBSy 



JOJ 



jsniBSy 



JOJ 



1-1 O 00 iH t- O 00 

c<irj<eo coi-ieo 


•(N • t- tH QOOa CO COOlOlOOOCOOrH 00O5 Tl< o • 
. tH • ICi Oi -^ tH iX> 1-t lO (M 1-1 Tjt tH tH -iH 1— I to • 

1—1 


•r-*lO 
• iHi-d 




IX 


— ^ 








CO O 00 lO 00 -^ 00 

CvJ T^ 00 CO CO tH CO 


• CO iH C- •Tl< 00 (M CO CO 1-1 -O OOeOOi-l 005 -* kO • 

• T-l CO IC C- -* iH CO iH -co iH -^ 1-1 iH 1-t iH 50 • 

1-1 


• cqio 

•tHi-« 




.— K 






i-H 



■IMOt-000(NCO-^ 

■ 1-1 CO U5 C- -^ iH «0 



jsmESy 



JOJ 



;sniE3y 



JO£ 



jsniBSy 



JOJ 



jsuiBSy 






JOj 



jsniBSy 



PI 

O 



JOJ 



' IM coo -lO OOiH 



jshieSV 



•»O(M00 • iHiH -CO 



JOJ 



■ 3.2 o 
O cZ 



82 



a 
t, 6 


jsniBSy 


t> lA ■>!)< 

la 1-1 


JOj 


^ O 00 CO 00 00 00 
(M Tf CO CO CO (M 00 


• (M CO t> «£> 00 (M CO <0 C<1 • I:- 00 t- ^ iH OS 00 • lO t- O CO IC 

• tH COtO t-^ tH CD T-H .(N rHCOlHlHiH • «D tH rW i-l 


c 


jsniESy 


1-1 • 




• • • 1-1 




JOJ 


■^ O 00 «0 00 1-1 00 
(M -^ CO N CO iH CO 


•IMCOI><NOO(M(MC005li:>tOOOCDU5i-IC500'^U3t-OCO-^ 
• tH CO to t- Tl< 1-1 «0 U7i(M tH CO iH T-l 1-1 r-l CO i-l i-l iH 


go, 
.£co 


jsuiESy 












aoj 


U^ O 00 CO 00 00 00 
(M ■* CO -^ CO CO 


•(MCOt^NOOCNKM-^OUSinoOOOlOiHOOOS-^mi^-OCOUt) 
• iH CO lO t- -53< rH CD rH LO (N tH 00 iH i-H iH iH CD rH iH i-l 

iH 


e 
OSS 

S 


jsniBSy 




-— ^^/^T '~'T^?^ 


;rz 


'"' 








JOJ 


'^ O I> U3 r)< '^ 00 
i-in< (N(M CO 


•(MC0t-00 00C<I(M(NCDl0-*00l0CDrH0S05T)<O 
• iHCO^ t- -^ iH CD UtKM tH CO iH iH 1-1 i-( CD 

1-1 


• • o to 

• • tH tH 


a 

f- 
.Sco 

|o 
O 


jsniESy 


iH -OOCO • -00 
• CO • • CO 


■ - ■ 77- ^ ^ 1" mf, ifT^ .. J.r^' .-r^ 


. 




'H 






JOJ 


■* O -lO ooc- • 
(M Tt .COCO 1-1 • 


•(ME-t-O • N iH (M C<I U3 IC CO •<1< CD 00 • 05 -^ US 
•i-IC<ltOI>- • tH CD lO Ol 1-1 CO -r-lT-ICD 


■ • CO -^ 

• • iH iH 


CO 

.Sec 

1 6 


jsniB3y 


~ 7^ iTs " 






JOJ 


-n* O 00 05 00 (M 00 
(M ^ CO CO CO iH CO 


•0JICC-05 • (M (M CD OS kn 00 00 CD CD CD <35 05 -^ lO 
•iH(MlCCD ■ iH CD in (M iHCO iHiHtHCD 

iH 


• oco to 

• 1-1 iH 1-1 


a 

0)3 

— CO 


jsniE3y 








JO^ 


moooooooooo 

<M "* CO tH CO IM CO 


•(MlOC-iHOOlMNkCOlOOOOOCOCDiH OS OS '^ lO 
• iH (M to C- -^ tH CO iHinC^ iH CO iH i-i iH 1-1 CD 

1-1 


• • CO to 

• -iH iH 


Question 
No. 34 


}sniE3y 


CO 


— ^^ r r;: "z^ ' ^^ " 












JOJ 


'^ O OOCO CO^ 00 
(M Tf CO CO CO tH CO 


• (Nl U5 tr- T-l 00 IM C<I uri • lO CO 00 U5 CD iH OS • ■<* m 

(M tni> -5iH th CD • iniM ^coi-ii-i • ih co 

1—1 


• -CO to 

• • iH 1-1 




OSS 

■ .M CO 


}sniE3y 


• 1-1 00 • • • • 
CO • • • • 


•(MOO -CO in(M -co • • •i>'xt< • 

• iH • la • •••r-li-l- 

1-1 


• 'I'CO • 

• iH T-l • 


JOj 


^ Cft • 00 00 0000 
(N CO • CO 00 iH CO 


• • CD t> T-l 00 N (M tr- t- • CD I^- U5 CD i-( OS (M -in 

• • (N to t- -^ iH CD • OJ tH CO iH 1-1 -CD 


. . -to 
• • • 1—1 


d 

.2S. 
o 


jsniBSy 






y^^ II i> •! 






JOJ 


'^o .(M oocaoo 

(M-* -COCOtH CO 


•(MOOt>'*OOIM(NC<IOlOOOOOCOCOi-IOSOS-^lC 
• iH iH IC tr- ^ 1-1 CO iHlOi-l 1-1 CO iH tH tH iH CD 

tH 


• -OtO 

• • 1-1 r-l 


d 

0;:; 

• M CO 


;sniE3y 


__ . 




• ' 






JOd[ 


•^ O (M lO 00 lH 00 
(M -* t-l (N CO iH CO 


• (N t- ir- 00 00 (M (M -<* • to iH t><N 00 iH OS Ol ''t iO 

• i-l(M lO t> ^ iH CO -iON 1-1 CO 1-1 iH 1-1 1-1 CD 

iH 


• • 1-1 to 

• • iH 1-1 


c 

OO 
.SCO 

Id 
O 


}sniE3y 


— ^ 






' 




JOJ 


•^ O 00 CO 00 CO 00 
(NtCCO CO 1-1 CO 


• (M t- t> OS 00 (M CO O 00 to 1-1 00 (M • tH OS OS Tf< lO 

• iH C<l to t- -^ 1-1 CD CO to (M iH • iH tH 1-1 iH CO 

iH 


. .010 
. .iHlH 


Question 
No. 29 
Con- 
tinued 


d 
;z; 


jsniESy 


::^ :^^ : i:;:^ ' 




— : ^ 










JOJ 


COO • • 00 t> 00 
Cvl -^ • -co CO 


•(M • t^- iH 00 (M CO CO O to to 00 CO 00 r-l • OS ^ lO 
. iH • to OS •<;? T-l CD iH to (N tH CO iH • i-l iH CO 

iH 


. -o to 

. . tH 1-1 




l-ld 




OOOSOiHCO^lOCDt-OOCrscO-^iaoOCSOi-KMiXii-fOaCOlOtOI^OSOiHCO'* 
OOtHi— lT-liHi-li-li-li-li-ICJC^(MC<!C<ieOCOCOCO'^-^-^-^-^'^'^Ut>lOU5lO 

(^^cgc<lcc^(N(^^c<^(^qc<^c<^(^5cqc<l(^^(^^c<ll^JC<^c<^(^ac<^(^^c<^c<l(^^c<IC<^c<IC<^(^^<^l 



83 



a 
1 d 


jsniESy 




•60 lA (Si • • • • 


• rft . 




JOJ 


t- O 00 '^ 00 OQ 00 
(N Tf CO »H 00 C<1 CO 


• • (M t- 1-1 i-l(M CO 00 t- -OOO-^i-HiH .Tjt-^io • 

• • (M lO CD lO tH CD • tH tH CO tH • tH iH CD • 


1-1 




.23 
1 d 

6^ 


jsuiESy 


• . .'* -00 • 


•oa • -00 • • • •i-iio • 'CO • -T-i • . . . 

. T-{ • • .... lO-'T-l.. .... 


• 1—1 • 


aoj 


t-OOO -00 tH 00 

oi'Tt* CO -co CO 


• • (M ^ O i-l(M 00 CO 05 •'*00 • iH tH 00 '^ 'sH lO • 
-•-. '(MlOt^LOiHCD •iH •OOtHtHt-It-ICD • 


iH 


a 
.2S 

ID 


jsuiBSy 








JOJ 


t> O CX) O 00 00 00 
(M ^ CO tH CO (M CO 


• • (M ^ 1-1 ,H (^3 CO to 05 • 00 00 C- 1-1 7-1 O^ -^ ^ t> • 

• • (M lO t- lO T-I CD ■ tH tH CO tH t— I 1-1 1-1 -rh • 

iH 


T-I 


CJ 

O 


jsnjBSy 


— ~ ^__ 


-— — 












aoj 


CD O 00 (M 00 00 00 

oq -^ 00 T-i CO (M CO 


• • Lo t~ t- th c^ CO CO o> u7> CO • t- irg iH 05 lo '^ (M • 

• '(MlOt-lOi-ICD ICiH •tHCOi-ItHiHiHCD • 

1-1 


• eg lo 

• iH T-( 




.25 


jsniBSy 









^JI ' ' 




JOJ 


C- O 00 t> 00 00 00 
(M -^ CO rH CO (M CO 


• • lO O 00 iH (M CO -* iH lO eg 00 t- IM tH OS LO '^ LO • 

• • eg u:) ^ lO 1-1 CD i-llO(M T-I CO tH iH tH 1-1 CD • 

iH 


iH 






d 
Id 


jsniBSy 


^ — . __ 






JOJ 


CD O 00 05 00 00 00 
C^ -* CO T-( CO (M CO 


• • CD t- CD OS (M CO CD O U5 <N 00 CD eg iH 05 U3 ■<* lO • 

• • <M Ut) C- "* 1-1 CD iHlOCg iH CO 1-1 T-I iH iH CD • 

iH 


•coio 

T— 1 


Question 
No. 46 

1 


}suiB3y 


_ — . J — __ — 




T 1 . . w« ".- 


"^ 




JOJ 


lO O 00^ 00 00 00 
(M ^ 00 CO CO (M CO 


• eg CD t- CD iH (M CO ^ 1-1 u:> lo 00 CD eg iH •cd'<*o • 

• T-I eg m t> LO T-I CD iH IC iH iH CO tH . iH 1-1 lO • 

iH 


•COLO 

1—1 


1 d 

1 


jsniBSy 












JOJ 


CO • 00 COOO 00 00 
<M • CO Oi C<l CO CO 


• • -^ t- 1-1 00 eg 00 CD 1-1 IC O 00 CD '^ r-l 05 CD rt< U3 • 

• • eg lO t- -^ iH CD 1-1 UO iH iH CO 1-1 iH iH tH CO • 

iH 


• coio 

• 1-1 T-I 



t 

6^ 



III O 



.2;^ 

£ d 
O 



}suiB3y 



jo,i 



)sniB3y 



aoj 



CO o 00 o 00 00 00 • eg CO -^ CO 00 eg 00 
c<i ^ 00 CO 00 eg CO • i-i eg lo t- -^ ih co 



• O lO 00 00 CO ■<* 1-1 ^ 



( in ■ 



( 00' 



jsuiBSy 



JOJ 



lO O 00 -^ 00 -00 

eg ^ 00 eg c<i • oo 



■ '^ 00 CD T)< th 05 1- '^ o t- -egio 



oooiOi-ico^LocDt-oooioO'Tj'LcoociOiHcgcoiHcgooiocDt-asoi-ioc^ 
oot-it-it— ii-ii-iT-ii-fi-ii-icgegcgcgegcocoooco-^-^-^'^^-^Thirr'iOLOLO 
cgcgcgegcgcgcgcgegcge^icgcgcgcgcgegcgcgc^jcgcgcgegcgegegcgegcgeg 

84 



Oi 

o 



4- 

O 



tu 



ci 

o 



o 



0) 

o 



jsuiBSy 



(suiBSy 



40J 



jsniESy 



•■o.I 



IsniBSy 



. O '50 • • • 
• -"^Jl • I— 1 . . • 


• • • -co lo • -^ -c-os • -10 . 

• • • • LO • . . rH • • tH . 


• • iH 


t> • 000000 CO 00 

(M -co COC<J CO 


• oa o t- CO 1-1 c<i CO ic o •t-oooooo'* • ^ -^ o • 

• T-H CO LO C- LO T-l ;C! iH • iH (M • T-l 1-1 lO . 

1-1 


rH 










1-1 



40j 



)sniB2y 



• ot-loi-<<Mco-^i-iioooc-LnooT-iai'^'^to 

• CO lO t- lO 1— I no iH LO iH i-i C<I 1-1 1-1 iH 1— I (X) 



JOJ 



O 






jsniBSy 



JOJ 



jsajE3y 



JOJ 



. jsuiESy 





— ^ — — — — 







^^ LUJ ^J 






t> O 00 00 t:' CO 00 

Ol rt CO CO CM Cv5 


• (M CO t- O 1-1 (M CO -^ O •OC-IOOtH -^-^lO • 
. 1-1 (M us t> lO 1-1 ?0 tH .(M 1-ICOtH -i-liHCO • 

iH 




Trf^ 


__ .^^^ — . — 


~,' 


. .CO • • • ■ 


1-1 ... . 




t-O -05000000 
(M Tj< -iH CO C<I CO 


• CQ o t> 1-1 iH (M CO ;o t- lo t- t- CO o 1-1 •■<*-^Lra • 

. 1-1 CO iO t- in iH iXi U3 1-1 1-HCOtH •i-(i-I«£) • 


T-l 





C~ O 00 t- 00 00 00 
C<1 ■^ CO 1-1 CO (M CO 



JOJ 



}sniE3y 



^ 



JOJ 



o 



)[SiiiB3y 



JOJ 



0.2 o 



ooosoi-ico'^io^t-oooico^LooooiOi-icotCi-iiMcoice^ooiOT-icoT}* 
o<=>tHi-ii-ii— it-ii— ii-ii-ii-ic<ic<ic^c<ic<icocccoco-^-^^-Tt<'*T)<-^ioioioii:) 
oq(^J(^l(^i<^lc<lc<lC<lc^)c^<NC<^(^a(N(N(^0!N(NC<lc<^(^qc<!(^](^^(^clc<^l^l(N<^J(^l(^^ 



85 





1^ 

o 

6^ 




jsniBSy 


• • • • iH >A • • -tH . 




JOJ 


•O 00 '^ 00 00 00 

• •<* CO th CO N CO 


• • C- t- 05 00 C<J eo to LO lO (N 00 TM ^ i-l CO '^ -^ IC • 

• • (M in t- -* tH CD IOt-H tH (M iH iH tH tH CO • 

1-1 


-c-in 


c 

.So 

u 


jsuiESy 




fr\ 1 








JOd[ 


00 O t- ^O C- 00 00 
(M'^CO CO(M00 


- • • t- 00 00 (M CO Tt< T-l U3 (M 00 -<* «0 i-H 00 -^ -^ lO • 

- - -mt--^lHCD T-HlOrH lH (M tH 1-i iH T-l CO • 


• c-in 

rH 


c 


jsniBSy 
















JOJ 


00 O (M (M 00 00 00 
IM ^ CO (M 00 (M CO 


• • 1-1 t- U5 00 <M CO CO t- lO CO 00 CO CO i-H 00 -^ -^ in • 

• - LO C~- -^ 1-1 CO lO 1-1 tH (M r-l tH iH rH CO • 

iH 


• t-in 

rH 


a 

.25 
O 


jsniBSy 








aoj 


00 O 00 i-H 00 00 00 
C5 -^ CO (M CO (M CO 


• • ** C- O 00 (M CO t- 1-1 lO OS 00 (M CO CO 00 -rH n* O - 
- • lCt-T)<THCO rH m iH (N iHiHlH-^ - 

1— i 


-com 


to 
to 

6 
Z 

Z 

o 

h 

o 


d 


jsniESy 




- -O -1-1 - - • iH - LO • • • -CO - • -CO • 

• -!M-th--- -m 


: : : 


JOjJ 


OOOCX) -000000 
C^I-^ CO • CO(N CO 


- • OQ t> tH 00 (M CO lO O • 00 00 0> CO in 00 -^ ■<* OS ■ 

. . 1-1 in CO -'J' iH CO th - (M iHiHiHin - 

1-1 


-t-in 

rH 


6 


jsniBSy 





:_ — ; — ■ ■ -^^ — —L 
















JOj 


OOO 00 -000000 
(M^CO -COfMCO 


• -N • iH 00 od CO in OS - iM 00 OS CO in CO -"a* -^ o - 

. -r-l -CD-^i-ICO • (M iHi-Hi-lTjt . 

iH 


-c-in 


d 


}sniB3y 








JOJ 


00 O 00 IH) 00 00 00 
CM ^ CO iH CO C<! CO 


- • c<i t- CO 00 (N CO in iH in 00 00 OS CD in 00 -^ "* o - 

. - iH in t- ■>* iH CO iHin (M i-(tHtHCO - 

iH 


■ t-m 

rH 


e 

1 6 
O 


jsniESy 


— — ■■' ^cv' — ■ — i ; 1^; ' — f,,- 'tm^ ■ 


r^ 


W -1 f 1 It >i ^.^ W.J 










JOJ 


00 O 00 1-H 00 00 00 
(M TJH 00 iH CO (M CO 


- ■ rH t- o OS c<i CO '^ 1-1 in -ooiMcoin -■^■<c|Hin - 

- -como^i-icD i-iin • i-i<m .^^cd • 

iH 


• coin 


a 

.5 CO 


jsuiBSy 


_ 














JOjJ 


CO O 00 IC 00 lis 00 

(M '^ CO th CO (M eo 


• - o c- i-H in c^ -Tf -<* OS m -^ 00 iH CD ?D OS -<i< -^ o - 

• - eo in CO eo 1-1 CO iniH th cn i-i th i-i co • 


• in in 

iH 


CO 

to 

6 
o 

H 


6 


jsnjBSy 


• -t- - • • - 


1 i ,~f- (.^^ 


— _. 




'"^ 






JOjJ 


cooto -000000 
<Mtj< eo -coc^i eo 


- •oO'* (M 1-1 (M CO cooin-* OOO coth •-!}<-ri<in • 
• - (M in c- in 1-1 ;o 1-1 in 1-1 i-i oj th .iHihco • 


• - 1-^ 


d 


}sniB3y 


Trz — ; ^— 




\i.t> I. -1 r 1 1.,^^ 


^^ 








JOJ 


OOOOO -00 0000 

(Mrjtco -eoiM eo 


• (N in t- -* OS CO CO -^ o in -^ 00 CO 00 • ••<af«a<in • 

- tH OJ in t- Tt* rH CD iH in iH rH CQ • - rH iH CD • 

rH 


•coco 

tH 








" ,; 

o.- 
























C00SOT-IC0'^mt0t-0005C0'^lC0005O'H<N«DTH(MC0U5:0t-0iOTH00T)< 

ooi-HtHT-ir-i,Hi-iTHT-iTHCsi(Mc^c<i(Mcoeococo-*-^-^-<*^'>*'*ioioicm 
cqc^lc<iC^c^IC<^(^a(^Jc^3C<l(^J(^5(^ac<^(^qc^c<lc<I(^^c^(^a(^^(^J(^^(^q<^^(^^c<l(N(^^l^^ 



86 



to 

d 

o 

H 
O 






jsniESy 


• •« iH(N iQ . .o . . 

• -t- tH • • 


JOJ 


OTTT • (M K3 CO CO 00 CO CO C^ O C- Oi 00 Oi C^ CO C- -^ IX) tH a> -^ C<I lO <M 05 • ■<a< 1-H 
rH C- • CO (N CO <M 'vf CO ^ "nP CO CO (M i-H CO i-i i-l CO Tf t> t-I ?£ii-l r-l t- . rH iH 
i-H 1— 1 tH i-H iH 


d 

■■5 J 


)sn;BSy 


• -Oi ,H . . • .(N • .IX) • -O • • 

• • t- i-H . • 

t 


JOJ 


""05-^ • «OLCeOOOOO Om t- • C- OO lO Oi (M t- t- ^ X) i-l i-H tH t- l> N O •r)<rH 
T-l C- • "^(M CO <M '^CO^ • CO CO (M 1-1 CO i-H T-l CO 't t- IM 5D T-l t- i-l • t^ t-K 
tH T-H 1-1 tH i-H 


II 


)sniBSy 


• -kn DO o • iH o • • 

• • t- tH • ,-1 ■ . 


JOJ 


05^ -COIOCOOOOOO '^ t- ■ t- 00 00 t> IM iH t- '^ iX> 1-1 1-1 00 00 (M <M CO • -^ iH 
iH C- -COlM CO <M ^eO "* • CO CO iH 1-1 CO iH iH CO '^ t- Oq lit! 1-1 t-i-l .iHiH 
iH iH 1-1 T-l iH 




jsnjBgy 


• -OO CO • '(M «£> -COO • • 

• -OON iH . T^ • . 


JOJ 


o-rp •i-iiocooooooooi>iot-oo-*^i-ii-io-^«C'THioa5TH .oaso •■<*r-i 

rH t> • (M CO <M 'sf CO ^ C<1 CO CO tH i-l CO i-l tH CO ^ O (M lO • t- • i-l i-l 


gco 


jsnjEJSy 


• • Oi (M -tHOCO • 




jOjI 


OSTjf . T-l IC CO lO 00 O (M (35 CO t- 05 00 «0 1-1 Oi CO ^ CD rH 00 as '^ .(Mt- .(MtH 
tH t- • CQ (M CO <M Tj< CO lO ^ CO CO rH tH CO 1-H 1-1 CO ^ 1-1 CO ini 1-1 • C- . rH i-l 
1-1 1-1 1-1 (M iH 




jsniESy 


• 'CO ^ • -Oi-I • 

••» TH--1-I 


JOJ 


O CO CO -^ in CO 00 00 O CO C- lO C- Oi 00 t> 1-1 00 C- ^ CO iH 00 C- rH tH «? ^ .OtH 
C<I t- -^ DJ CO rH -^ CO ^ ■r)< CO CO rH rH CO rH rH CO -^ T-I(M CO rH (M i-l • 05 iH 


2- 


jsuTESy 


• -OOrH \a (M • •i-llOO(N • 

••00 .......-* ^ 


JOJ 


<M CO • Tf US 00 00 t- t- t- t- • ^ Ci CO t- rH C- t-^ COrH ^ rH (M 0(M • • CO rH 
(M t- • <M0OrH'^(M^ • CO CO (N rH 00 rH rH CO Tl* rH <M U5 rH rH t- • . rH rH 
rH tH rH (M rH 




d 



S 

3 

O 


d 
2 


jstriESy 


. .COrHCDCO -00 '(M-^ • • • -CDOtMrH • CO rH 00 • UtI • 

• • t- CO • t> • ... . rH CO -^ rH ■ 


JOJ 


CO CO CO t- Oi . 05 00 (M "^ CO (M CO O rH rH rH t- CO -Tt* • tH CO IC lO CO CO 00 O • -r-^ 
<M t> (>\t-i. .(MCOCO-^ t>COC0(M rHT-ICO . O (M lO rH tH CO f-^ . iH 




d 


3 
O 


d 
Z 


}SiiiE3y 


•CD'*(MlOCOCjt-OarHU5e0005lOt-OlCOO-^COrHOOOrHlC(M00005rH. 
• t> t-CO(M CO(M -^00^ 00 rH (M (M rH CO rH CO ^ rH Dd CO rH rH rH rH rH 
T^ -r-K rH CO rH 


JOj 


CO ooco THt- . • • .©a •■^oiooco • • • 

eg rH t- ... 




d 



% 

3 

O 


CO 

d 


jsniESy 


. . ■<* 00 .CO .t>C<!t> .CO .CD-^05t-C<l • • «0 . t- IfS CO t> -* Cvl t- rt< t- 

. .eorH -co .'^eo ■ cj . oa rH th . .-'J' -eg rHT-ic- 

■r-< 7-\ 


JOJ 


COlOCq • . .00 . .t-05 -Ca .00 • imitl C<1 '^ -r-l • 10 rH rH C<1 eO CO rH OCJ 




d 


£ 

3 

O 


d 
Z 


jsaiBSy 


CO . .10 -co . -00 -t- ojo . .CO . . • .ooco .c>qos • 

rH . • .CO . • C<! Oa rH . • -^ .... 


aoj 


COlOOJOOrJt -OOt-THrH • CO t- C5 rH 00 OS tH CD -^ . rH O^ rH »i5 CO 10 10 00 N T-l 
t-COCO(M .C^l-^ CO . '=a< CO CO CCI rH CQ rH CO • rH OJ CO rH tH lO rH tH tH 
tH rH rH Cq rH 




d 


3 


T-t 

d 
Z 


jsuicSy 


• -C^l . .CO • .rH T-lrHOJ "OS • • 

• -CO 


JOJ 


OQKiCdOSin -COC-t-OSC^ICO -^'O COrHrHrHob-^CDi-IOrH-^inCOlOrHOO^ 
rHt-COCOC<l ■ Oa '^ C<1 -* rH ^ CO -sf Oq CQ CO rH rH CO ^ rH CO U5 T-l rH CD tH tHtH 








S.2d 






ICCOt-OOOiOrHOllOCOOOOSi-IC^lTjtlOCDOOrHCgcO-^CDC-OOrHC^I-^mt- 
LOlOldOlCCDCOCDCDCOCOCOt-t-t-t-t-t-OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOSCSOSOOS 

cg!Mc^:!C<icocMC<ic<ic<ic<io]oqcocac<ic^]C<ic<!C<ioac<ic<ic<i^coc<i(M(MG<iG^<?a 



87 



a 

M 

o 


jsniESy 


' -T-i CO '-' • • 


JOJ 


05 "* 00 Ci lO '^ CO CD C- 00 t- :0 «5 O C- (M C<1 00 CD ^ CO 1-1 to • O 1-1 05 CO 05 00 1-1 
i-lOCOrJilMCOtNCOCO'* ^COT}<(M(MCOT-liHSOTj<Ci(M -i-ICvJOOtH iHiH 

1-1 iH T-l 1-1 T-l 


! 

! 

00 
C 

1 C 

i h 
1^ 

O 


< 




jsniBSy 


T-i 1-1 • • • •'* • • • • iH -CO 


JOJ 


T-l t- t- CO <M CO C<) CO eg ^ ^ CO CO <M IM CO 1-1 iH CO -<* • 1-1 CO 1-1 O tH • • 1-1 


.2 


jsniESy 


1-1 . .CO • • -co • • • -i-i • • -coco • • • • iH -co • •■* -i-i • 

• • LO ... 


JO£ 


O -^ t- 1-1 lO CO 00 '^ t- 00 CO CO CO O CO 1-1 CO ^ CO '^ CO T-l CO 00 T-l 00 '* CO -OtH 
1-IC-t- <N CO (M CO CO -^ -* CO CO C<I (M CO i-l CO T}< C5 tH ^ i-l O • iH t-I 
1-1 tH 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 


.2" 

^2 


JSUIB3Y 


iH 1-1 • • • -1-1 • • • i-( -^ • • • -I-i •CO • • • • 1-i • 


aoj 


O'^t-OiL.OCOOOCOt-OOCOCDCOOCOi-IOO'^CO^COi-ICO-^i-IOO'^CO •Oli-I 


c 
0- 

ll 


jsniBSy 


th . -in • • -co • . • -1-1 • • .co^ • • • -i-i -co • • CO ^ 1-1 • 

. . LO ... .... . . . 1-H . . . . . . . T-( 


JOJ 


o^o • irj CO 00 CO t- oc CO CO CO o CO 1-1 Oi (M CO -* CO 1-1 CO CO 1-1 00 T}< • co c: i-i 

1-1 t- CO • CO CO (M CO (M -^ ■* CO CO CO CO CO 1-1 CO -^ 05 1-1 •<* 1-1 O • 1-i 1-1 
1-1 iH 1-1 1-1 iH 1-1 


< 




jsniBSy 


• . -co • • • iH . •1-1 -1-1 • • • -00 • • -coo -lO • •CO'* • • 
. . . lO . . . ■* . . . ... .r-l ... CO • iH • .1-1 • • 

iH 1-1 


JO J 


cot-t- -cococo CO CO lococo -coco •i-ico'ft- la i-io • i-ii-i 


5- 


jsniBSy 


. . .05 • • •^ -lo . .1-1 • • • . 00 • • • -o -ici • -co-* ■ • 

• ••LO^'-CO tH....CO^i-I'^i-I •• 

1-1 1-1 


JOJ 


O'^W •u:!COOOiat-CO'^OCCl-Ot-i-ICO •CO'*COi-Hi-iiOi-I00'* -CCt-iH 
cot-CD •COCOCOi-IC']'* liTJCOCOCOCOCO •iHCO'*C5 ICi i-IO • i-li-i 
tH 1-1 1-1 1-1 


5- 
to 


}sniE3v 


- . . -O • • -co -co •C-i-l ■ • • • C- . • • -O -lO • •Oi'* • • 
. . . LS • • •^ • • 'tf • • • .tH . . . -co -T-l • • • • 

1-1 iH 


JOJ 


CO t- 1> -cococo CO'* -cococooqco -i-ico-^a: la ih o th i-i 




;sn;B3y 


• • -co • • -i-H • '^ -oOt-* • • • -co • • • -O -^ • • '^ -* • • 

. . . -TJ* . . .1-1 . . -^ - • . .1-1 . • . .CO •I-I • • • • 

1—1 


JOJ 


o-^co •locooo •cr-cDL': -coi-ot-i-ico 'Cd-^cdi-it-i ■TH00'*cocot-T-i 

C0t-U3 •cococo •CO'* • CO CO CO CO C« -T-ICO-^CS • i-lO 1-1 1-1 
tH 1-1 I-H tH 




jsniBSy 


■* • • ■ -iH • • •!-! -co la ' •CO'* • • 

■* 1-1 • • • • 


JOJ 


o •* CO 1-1 Lc CO 00 ir; • o Lo D- CO 1^:5 t> 1-1 1-1 •cO'*<£>ih • co i-i oo n* t> co • t-i 
CO c- -^ CO CO CO CO • lo eocococococo • co -^ o -co i-io • r-i 




jsnreSy 


• • -to • • -1-1 -co tH 05 • • • -O • lO • • • ■* 1-1 • 

. . .CO • • -co • ...... rH . • • -co • 1-1 • . • 


JOJ 


o^co •iocoooi-ic-T-icot> c-'eo Oi-hih •cO'*cDi-ii-iu:5i-ioO'*eoco^i-i 

cot-'* • CO CO CO CO CO '* COCOCOCOCOCO • iH CO ^ OS tH IC i-IOi-l i-li-l 
1—1 iH 1—1 1—1 1—1 


J 

3 

o 


t- 

d 


jsniBSy 


• -co CO • -co 


JOJ 


Oi -* lil O O CO 00 Ci CO CO • 1-1 C- O 00 1-1 CO O C- TP CD 1-1 00 0» rp D- O CO O ^ 1-1 
1-1 1-1 iH 1-1 iH 












locot-oooiOi-icoLOcooco-. ^■^1'*lCCDOi0^coco'*cDI^-oOl-lCO'*uoL- 
^C!l^)^i:)liOlOco;ocococococot:~t-t-t-t-I^-opooooooooococQCQio;l3;aiO^ 
cococococococoo]co^qcosoo^lc^]■^l'^^coc<^cococococococ^3wcocococ<lco 



o 




jsnjBSy 



jo,i 



■ 05 CO • SO Uti 



tH '^ tH -^DOOOt-I . t- • C<I (M O (M <N iH O O ^ CD tH t- Oi O (M T-l CO tH «0 i-H 
t- • iH CO IM CJ -CO • -^ CO CO l-H i-H rH CO -^ Oi -r-l iH iH rH rH iH 



jsuiBSy 



JOJ 



■I>t-i-IO0-rHO5«D00 



' Tl< -i-l • 1-1 O 00 T-i eg C- • C<I (M O (M ■ Oa ■ O r}< • i-l O -^ O i-l • 00 tH OS rH 
' t- • T-l CO IM 05 CO • -^ CO CO tH • • rH CO • 05 l-l i-l i-H rH • rH rH 



(sniBSy 



JOJ 



jsniBSy 



JOJ 



■ Ci O 00 rH rH C- ■ (M (M lO CM • (M t- O '^ • rH 00 • O C5 • 00 t-H 05 rH 
CO(MCi(MO0 '^COC^IrH . rHrHCO -OSrH "rHtM -rH rHrH 

rH rH rH rH rH 



JSBIBSy 



05 -lOCgu::)^ -00 -mooeo -^OOrH^rHSO •«© -(MOt-t-t-. rnoXMOO 
rH • CO to (M • • • rH (M (M rH -^ • -<* rH -^ 



JOj[ 



jsaiBSy ^'"S^ 



05 rH m -^ lO -^ • 00 rH lO 00 



' !£> O rH t- O <X> • ?£> • (M lO t- C<1 t- rH Cs lO 00 
rH C<1 C<1 rH • -^ • •'1' lO 



JO,I 



)sniB3y 



JOJ 



.2rt 
Id 
O 



.£2 
O 



o 



}sniB3y 



JOj 



)sniE3y 



JO.] 



' 00 rH lO 00 CO • CD O CO O -CD -co 



rH . 






CO 


• r-t • rH t- 


• -(N • . rH 


• CO 


rH L-O rH • 


OlO 00 


rHT# 
rH t- 




^ 00 




00 c- c- 00 • 

(M as (M CO • 


lOOQlOC-C^IrHi-ICO^COrHasOlOOCllOCO 
TJ< 00 CO rH (M CO rH CO ^ Oi rH -* O rH 
rH rH rH -r-i 


• (M rH 

• rH r-i 



■ CO rH rH (N CO rH 



)su!B3y 



JOJ 



O '^ LO 05 IC -Tf 00 OTt- Ot-lO«DCSCO(M(MrHCD^CDrH(M •OOCOOOOIO" 
<M t- CO lO (M CO (M 05 C<1 '^tt ^ CO CO (M (N CO rH CO ^ 05 (M • rH rH O i-i r-l ■ 



.Sin 



0) 6 



)sniB3y 



JOJ 



o ^ 



•lO-^OOOit-rHlOlOHOOSCOrHOCgCO-^COrH' 
• (M CO Oa C5 (M ^ -rf CO CO <N r-\ r-l T-l CO '^ Ci 



• O rH rH t- 00 I* rH 



.22 

O O 

o 



JSniBSy 



JOj 



0.2 o 



rH'*001i:!10'*00C0t-C0C0t-C0OC0C<l(Mt>C0^CDrHC0 
C~ CO CO (M CO (M CO 03 ^ T}* CO -^ (N (M CO rH rH CO ^ as (M 



li0C0t-0005OrH(MU:)C000ClrHC<I-<*L0C0aiOrH(MC0'=q<«0t-00rHC<l^l0t- 

iOiOLOUtUlCOCOCOCDCOCOCDI>t:~t-t-t-t>GC00000000000000050ia;C:Ci 



89 



CM 
6 

z 

1 O 
W 

o 
o 


in 
6 

2 


jsniBSy 


tH . T-( • • • 


• rM THTfiHl-l M • < 






JOJ 


00 O to OliCCO 
iH t- to iH (M CO 


• 00 t- CO CO 00 (N O O lO -* ->* 1^ -^ CO 1-1 00 • CO -* 00 O* 00 «0 iH 
•OiC<l(M iH CO CO CO 1-1 <M CO-*00iH • iH i-t 00 i-< iH 
iH rH iH tH 


^ 
^ 


jsuiBSy 


r-( -ooo • • 
• T-wa • ■ 


. tH .(M • • .lOiHiHCD in -OS • • -N • • 

•OO'OO'-' T-l 

iH iH 


JOJ 


"ooo(N -loeo 


•OC- • CO C- C<1 05 O 05 O^ us CO Tl< CD iH • • CO 00 00 O* 00 CO iH 
•i-H(M • iH CO C<I CO iH iH 00-^00 • • 1-1 00 tH i-l 
iH iH 


CO 

C 
2 


)Stijb3v 


r-l • 05 la • • 
1X> . • 


• 1-1 in iH in 1-1 • • N • • 




JOJ 


00 O CO 1-1 IC 00 
iHC-t- CqcO 


•CO t- 05in t-<M 050(Min COCC* COtH CO • '^ OO OO O^ OO CO i-l 
• OS (N (M tH CO Oa CO CO C<I CO -^ 00 (M • tH 00 tH iH 
iH 1-1 tH rH 


d 
Z 


jsaiBSy 


iH 


• iH iH inc<i • • 




JOJ 


00 O O l> li3 CO 
tH t>TH^(MeO 


• CO t- in th t- (M CO o CO in t> CO -^ CO r-f CO • in -^ oo -^ oo co ih 

•05(N(M iHCOCOCO(N(M CO '^ 00 <N • iH iH 00 iH tH 
r-( tH i-i iH 




jsuicSy 


1-1 • t-TH • • 


iH:rH Oa-' 


iH 


JtOJ 


OOO'* 00 lO CO 
iHC- ^(MCO 


• -^ t- 1- in CO • CO o CO -^ 00 CO -^ CO r-l CD in in -^ 00 <35 00 CO th 

•OSC<l<N tH -COCOOJCsI CO ^ 00 C<1 CO tH 1-1 00 iHiH 
rH tH iH rH 


.|?3 


jsaiESy 


iH 


rH • . . • 




JOJ 


OOO t- t-USCO 
tHC-?OCO(NCO 


• coc-05coco(NOineoinooco-^corHoot>incoo50ooOTH 

•OKMOa rH CO -^ CO (M C<I CO -^ CO rH CO iH rH 00 rH 1-1 tH rH 
t-i rH rH rH 


d 
.2S 

3Z 


}SDIBSy 


. -0001 . • 


(M (M • -(Min • • • • 






JOJ 


OOi-IC<llOCO 


• ^=1* t- <M in CO Oq 05 Oq • in t- CO -^ CD rH t- OS in rH 05 O O 00 rH 

• OS (M CO rHCOOOCO • <M CO ^ 00 rH 00 rH rH rH rH rH 


d 

.2c3 
l| 


jsuiBSy 


1-1 -* iH • 




JOil 


iH (M oa lo ic -Tt* 
iH t- c- coca 00 


• Tf t- -^ iH CO Ol 05 O CO COOOCO^COrHC<l'^inrHOOOCOC~rH 

• 05 IM CO rH(MCOOOC<l(M CO -^ 00 —^ CO rH rH O rH rH 

rH -r-i T-i T-{ r-i 


go 

.SCO 


jsniBSy 





• • • • CO C<1 V • • CO iH • 




* 


JOJ 


O N CO «o in •<* 

OC| t- t- to (N CO 


•COC-CO • t- (M CO 05 00 -^ t- CO -^ CO OS CO CO in rH rH t- t- rH 
•OS(MC0 • rH CO CO rH IM C<1 CO "^ iH rH N rH iH 00 * rH rH 
T-i iH iH 


Question 

No. 19 


}sniE3y 


— " ■■ ■ 7^: 








iH 


JOJ 


05<M oseom-* 

C-LO-^tN CO 


•cot-co •cocoososoarHt-m •cothoo •^coooinoocorH 

•OS<MCO • rH CO CO rH C<I(M • -^ OS rH • rH rH O iH rH 
rH T-<-r-i T-* 


U 


lsniE3y 


1 ' . .\a • • • 


in • 






JOJ 


0(N oq askc ^ 

eg t- -^ (M CO 


•OSt-OOCOt-C<10t-<MC-<NCO-^COrHt-in>inoOC<lrHOC<liH 
• OS C<I CO -^ CO -^ rH (M (M rH rH CO "^ OS rH CO rH rH rH iH rH rH rH 
T-{ ■r-\ i-\ T-i T-i 


£ 6 

5'^ 


jsniBSy 


tH CM • • • -(MIO • 




JOJ 


0(N t- t-lO -^ 

cq t-cD-^co 00 


•C-t>rHC<100C<10t-rHCOOCO^COrHOOCO<MOOOOOOO(MrH 
•0(M^ ^ CO ^ rH (M (M iH rH CO ^ OS T-l CO rH rH OS rH rH rH 
7-{ T^ T-i T-*r-{ 




o.id 






U5«CI>00010THC<lLOtD0005i-IC<J'^tOtDOiOi-IC<ICO'*«Dt-OOi-lcq-<*mt- 

ir5Loimou:3iX)«DtoiX)'X>«:i^t-t-t-t-t-t-ooooooooooooooooa5C5050505 

(NW(N<>lC<lC<)CV]CvlC<lC<IC^C<l(NC<IC<lC<IC<lC<ICgC<IC<lC*qC<!C<IC<IC<lC^(NC<](NC<I 



90 



OS 

d 

O 
td 

o 


d 


jsniESy 


rH • • • -co 
.... CO 


. . . . Tt . . o iH 50 CO • 

(M '^l' . 


JOJ 


00 o t~ t- lo ■ 

th t-io coca • 


•r-iaso •ixmothoo^C5<xi-^ .i-kmoc^i • ^ b~ <c> (o th 

•OiiHCg . tH CO CO (M tH (M CO -t-CvKMi-l ■ t£> iH tH tH 
r-l iH T-I 1-1 


CO 

d 


jsnreSy 


y-i • • "* .00 


• 1-1 . -la ■ -OiHCO t- 00 • 






JOJ 


CO O t- O iO • 
tH t-50(N(N • 


•OOiO • t- (M O 1-1 00 -^ 05 1X> ^ CO tH »0 •NtHCD -Ot-It-I 
•05rH(M . 1-1 CO CO (M rH (M CO -<S< 00 (M • iH i-l CO • iH iH 
1-1 iH iH 1— 1 


d 


jsniESy 


tH • • • ■ CO 


-^tH 00 




1-1 


JOJ 


00 C5 ini 05 lO • 


• 1-1 Oi O lO 00 (M IC 1-4 O Tt C- CD Tl< CO iH iH .(M . CD 00 O O i-l 
•05i-l<M iHCO'^IMIMIN 00^*10 • iH .CO i-l(M i-l 
iH iH iH 


T-i 

d 


}sniE3Y 


,H • • • -CO 
... .CO 


1-1 • • '^ • • • ■ t- (M - 

iH 


lOJ 


OOOlOlCUti • 


• th 05 o -^ 05 oa lo iH th -^ CO CO ^ CO iH Lo -im -cot-oooi-i 

•05t-I(N t-ICO^(M<M(M CO-^IO • iH .CD iH tH t-I 

1-t T-H T-I 


1 

c 
C 


00 
IM 

d 

2 


jsniBSy 


tH 


1—1 




JOg 


OOOOO C5USCO 
rHC-t-^(NeO 


•iH0500C0050CI005i-l-<*05'CO?*COrHiO .(NCOOt-OOiTH 
•OSlHiH iHCOH0(NC^C<l CO-^lOd .iHrHt- tHtHtH 
T-I tH iH tH 


a 


3 

O 


d 

2 


jsnjBSy 


iH 


tH • • tH T-I T-I • • 




JOJ 


OOO t-OOlO CO 
rH I>?OCO(N CO 


.T-IOOTHlCOC<IOC-Oi-*C-COTtCOT-l(M^OOT-ILOlCOit-i-l 
•Oi-r-iOi <M CO us 1-1 1-1 (M CO -^ C- (M CO iH iH CO tH tH 

T-I T-I T-I T-I 


o 

i 


CO 

d 


jsniBSy 


r-l • lO • • • 


T-I(N '(MtH -CO • ■ 




JOJ 


00 O O ICiC CO 

iH t-iceo <M 00 


•C000i-lt-O(MCDC5t-rj<0iC0'*C0i-IC00:iC0-^T-l0it>t-T-l 
•05t-I(M <MeO^COT-<(M CO 'vC C- <M <M tH tH (N tH T-I 
tH tH tH tH tH 


(M 

d 


jsujESy 


iH • • • • CO 


00 -T-IO • • -co -1-1 • -(Mt-I -cooo • 






JOJ 


00 O 00 ICIO • 
^ t- t-U3(M • 


•CO t-C- t-OlM OOSOCq 05 CO-r)< • T-I CO O^ CO ^ 1-1 Oi t> 1-1 tH 
•05C<!i-l (NCOCOCOIM CO . t- (N (M tH tH C<l t-I 
tH tH t-I t-I t-I 


d 


jsniESy 


— — 


A-. .fci TX jk-. 








JO^ 


00000^*10 00 
T-I t- t- CO (M 00 


.COt^-CvJlCCOCgt-CiO-^COtO-^COT-IOOCDeO-^rHOSt-t-i-l 
•OilNIM tH CO '^ CO T-I (M CO -* C- tH (M T-I tH (M t-I tH 
T-I T-I tH tH tH 


e 
_o 

3 

o 


U5 

d 
Z 


;stnB3y 


tH • • ©5 • • 


• • • • (M • • . . -^ O tH . -CO • -CO • • 






JOJ 


ooo-^ -lo CO 

T-I t- t- '(M CO 


•(Nt-CO . 0OC<I t-OOO OiOS CD ^ CO t- t- .COTHt-OSt- -T-I 
• Oi OJ (M . T-I CO (N CO 1-1 CO ^ tH tH . tH tH C5 • tH 
tH t-I t-I 


eg 

h 
O 


c- 

d 
Z 


lsniE3y 


th -oco -co 
• lo 1-1 -co 


(M • .t-hOStHCO • .CDtH(M (M . • 

i-l(M .•Tt<00 

T-I 


JO^ 


000(NOilO • 
rH t- 7-l(M • 


• 00 C- I> Tt< 00 (M •OtH-^IMCD'^ •T-iCi • CO 00 00 05 00 CD iH 

• 05 (M (M iH CO -CO CO • tH • iH tH 00 tH t-I 

tH tH tH 


d 
Z 


jsnjESy 


,K^ M^ — — — r " . — '.' — ' A-. 








JOJ 


oooco(M u3eo 

rH t- CO (N CO 


•OOC-CDCO OOfM OOOOi^ 05 CO^ COtH 05 • CO U5 00 05 00 CO tH 
• 05 IM (M T-l CO (M CO tH IM CO Tt< t> tH • t-H t-I 00 tH tH 

T-i tH T-l tH 






"S.Sd 






lOC0t-000iOi-l(MlO?D00CiiH(MTl<U0«C0>OT-IC<IC0^CDt-00i-l(N-^U5t- 
lOU5lOlCU5<X>«C!iXiCO?O1D«DI>t-t-t-t-t-0000000000000000OiO505aJO5 

c<I<^^<^^c<JC<l(^3(^](^^c^c<I(^^c<IC<Ioqcgc<l(^a<^l(^5c<Ic^lc<l(^l(^](^qc^(^3C<I(^J(^^N 



91 



Ouestion 
No. 41 


JSUTESy 


tH 


• • iH iH CO iH • 




aoj 


00<M (M O LO (M 
1-1 tr- lO CO <M CO 


• ioa5?oioo(MiLOLOoO'*05«o^<r'i-icot6(Mooeot-t>OTH 

•OOi-ICO (MCO^eOi-HOq CO ^ CD 1-1 CO iH iH O (MrH 
rH iH r-t iH tH 


d 

Id 


jsnjESy 






*•* ' • ' ' - 




JO^ 


05<M '^ O lO(M 
iH t-?DC<! (MCO 


•lO C5OC000(MO-rhC<ICMC0?0^ CDiHCO(M<M OOt-COO • r-l 
• 00 1— 1 "^ iH CO lO C<l C<1 (M CO -^ ^ iH CO iH tH 00 tH • iH 
tH iH t-I iH 


Ouestion 

No. 39 


jsniESy 


— . . ■ . . . .,,■"'"■ 




''■''• ' ' <• i ■ 




JOJ 


' Oi (N LO Ol lO <M 

th c-eo (M CO 

tH 


• LO 05 iH 00 O (M O UO O CO t- «0 "vf ?£> iH CO (M (N 00 «0 * Oi iH rH 
•OOrHTjH (NCOLOCO(M(M CO -^ K5 (M CO iH rH tO (M rH 
rH rH rH rH rH 


d 

.SCO 

So 


4SUIB3Y 

JOJ 


. . -. 




~H 






OC(N ^ • lO (M 
iHt-iX> -(MCO 


•^O^LOlOaiC<]ai<XOCO«n«O^COrHCOLOOC-mt-t-(MrH 
• 00 rH CO rH CO "* (M (M C<1 CO ^ LO rH (M rH rH 05 <N rH 




jsniBSy 


• • '^ 'CO 


• -CO -co -COOOrH -i-K ■ • -CD -LO • (M • 00 «0 CO (M • 
••rH- -rH .C<1...-.^. . .rH 


JOJ 


OOO] COiHlO • 
tH t- t- <M • 


•IC • CO «£) tr- ^ (M t>- '^ CO t> «0 ^ • rH CO • 00 t> t- tH t- CO rH 
•00 -CO rH rH (N C<J rH CO • "^ rH • rH lO rH rH 


d 
£ d 


}SOic3\.' 


. .^ --. 




t^ /C^ 








JOJ 


OOOl • CO lOtM 
tH t- . (N CO 


• • 05 rH lO 00 -Tt* O CO rH CO 05 CO -Tf CD rH O • (M 00 "^ t- 00 rH rH 

• • rH tH rHrHlCCO(M<M CO ^ CO (N • rH rH LO (M rH 

T-K T-\ •r-\-r-\ 


Ouestion 
No. 35 


}sniB3\- 




— _ 




tf^ r—\ 




JOJ 


00!M(N t-lOCd 

rH C- (M <N CO 


•lOCJCOTl*00'*OCO(M-^ OSCO^CDrHOO • (M 00 '^ Ifl O 00 tH 
•00rH(M rHrHlOCOC<l(M 00 "^ CD rH . ^H rH O iH rH rH 
rH rH rH iH rH 


.is 


jsniB3y 


— i _- ~ tt; ~i:, ■ T^^; . _ _ 




" •* *"■ • ^ "t; • i ^.^ vj 


"* 


JOJ 


1-1 t- :C> • (M CO 


• LO 05 ^lO CD'vl<0 COrH OlO CD ^ • rH 00 • (M t- t- CO CD 00 rH 

• 00 rH (M rH rH lO) rH (M (M CO • CO rH • rH rH (M rH rH 

rH T^ 7-^ T-\ T-< 


Ouestion 
No. 33 


}sniE3y 


T-H 00 -l-l • • 

CO • CO • • 


•(N-00 • • • ■ -rH ^rH •-* • -t- • • (Ji • -O ■ \a 
•(M^rH CO T^ • 


JOJ 


00(M OOCOIO (M 
tH CO (N CO 


• ^ 05 C- CD 05C<I O CO O ^ 00 CD • CO TH t- t- O] CD ^ C- • O LO> 

• CO rH rHCOlOCO(M(M • ^ -^ rH CO rH (M • (N LO 

rH iH _ T-K 


d 
1 d 


jsniESy 


; " 


. J . ^ ^ , 








JOJ 


OOO O tHIO (M 
1-1 t- 1-1 CO (M CO 
iH 


•l00iC005C-(MOrHO^a5CD'*CDrH'<*t-(Mt-L0 C- 05 O rH 
•OOrHCM rHCOLOeO(M(M CO ^ t- rH 00 rH rH rH (M rH 
T-K rH rH rH rH 


d 
.23 

S d 


JSUTBCy 


; -^- — _-. —\ 






JOJ 


ooo • asu3(M 

1-1 t> • (NOO 


•LOC5-^COOO(MOCOrH'^LrScD"^CDrHOOO(NCD05t-CiOOrH 
• 00 rH (M rH CO ^ CO (M (N 00 ^ C~ iH CO tH i-l -^ t-K t-K 
rH rH rHrH 


Ouestion 

No. 30 


)SUtB2V 




. __ 






* 


JOJ 


00 O U3 • to (N 
iH t-CO • (N CO 


• rH as 00 CD 00 (M O CO rH ^ 05 CD ■* CO rH CO LOl(M • 00 t- O 05 rH 
•a^T-\-r-{ rHCO^COlM(N CO '^ t- rH CO tH • UO rH tH rH 
•r-K rH rH rH 


O'"^s(ion 
No. 29 
Con- 
tinued 


d 


jsuiBSy 


; "Z^ — 


i^vi ^ ~ T?^ 




1—1 jp 


^ 


JOJ 


ooo CO OIC • 
iH t-t--*(M • 


•rHCSO • tr- (M C5 rH O -^ OS CD '^ • rH CO 00 (M rH CD t- O 05 rH 
•OlrHOa • tH CO CO (M Ski IM CO -IXMCMrHTHCD rH rH rH 
rH rH iH rH 




lid 


— , _ 


Loi:ot~oociOiHC<iio:ooooiiHC<i^io^C50i-((Mco-^cot-oOiH(M^LOt~ 

LOiniOLOio?o«:>coco':ox'coc-t>t-t-t>c~oooocx)oooooooooooiaiOiOiOi 



92 



a- 

o 



t, o 
O 






QJ 



o 



(U o 

o 



0) o 

o 



aj 



jsnjESy 



JOJ 



jsuiBSy 



JOJ 



jsniE^Y 



lo^ 



■\STiveSY- 



JOJ 



jsniBSy 



JOJ 



jsniBJSy 



JOj[ 



}sniE3y 



JOJ 



}SuiE3y 



— — 


— \ ■ ■ ;^:; ;— 
















00 c<i o -lo • 


•OOO-^OOOCOCOO-'^lOCD^tC'T-C^^OitOOSt-OOO,-! 
•C~(M(N IM(MCO(MCO<N CC^t-i-HCg 00 T-HrH,-! 
T-\ i-H T-l rH 














. .^ -CO 




. . 



T-l t- CC '(N 



T-i • (M 1— I 



• CO O 1-1 05 iO C<1 O OS 1-1 -^ 00 ?D -^ • 1-1 OJ LO 05 t- '^ t-O oil 
•OOtMCO OtIiHi— ICaiM CO •COt-ICO iHt- tHtHi 



JOJ 



■oqoooi— lt^-(^^a5ascc>■^Oi?D-^cc>l-(u:lCja5Lot>l^-a3ai• 
• 00 (M <M ^^ CO CO (M (N (Nl CO '^ iX> 1-1 CO 1-1 LO i-i ■ 



0) O 



O 



oi 

O 



;sn{B3y 



JOJ 



liHCO00«D-^ • iH t- '* O lO (M t- OS O 1-1 
CO • CD T-l CO T-l iH tH (M 1-1 



}snjB3y 



JOJ 



}su{B3y 



JOJ 



■ C<l 1— I -5ji 



•(M -CO '(M 



OS oa t- o lo iH 

iH C- 1^ CO (M CO 



■ cooco«?05C<ic^iOLo-^osno^«:ii-iooi-i(Miot-t't-osos 

■ 00 (M CO ,-1 CO <M CO c<l CO -^ 50 T-l ■^ iH T-l 1-1 i-l 



• 1-1 lO • (M 



00 oa lo c<i Lo 1-1 
iH t- lij CO (N CO 



•t-05t-«C)0sC<l>-rat-t--^<jj5C)^tC>TH0SC0(M0000C-00Oi-l 
• 00 i-< C<J T-l CO -^ CO (M (M CO -^ CD 1-1 CO 1-1 iH t- (M iH 



u.S o 
o e^; 

,J3 



LOCDt>00ClOi— IC<lLC'CD0&0Si-l?-]^L0'-D03OT-IC<lC0^CDt-00rHC<l'*lCt- 
LOLr31OLOLOCDCC>CDCD^CDCDC--t-l>-t-t-t-000000Q000000000OSOSO5O5OS 

c^c<i(>;ic<ic^c<ifMOJo.i c<i"oa (m c] cm oj o] (>j cm cvi oj cm (m cn <M cj i:>i (M (M !^3 (N c^J 



93 



•Seo 

O 


jsuiBSy 


tH 


CO tH • .o«o -t-co • 






JOJ 


00 i-H -rlt lO lO o 
T-( t- -^ (M (M CO 


• 00 1-1 ^ t- 00 LO ^ "* 10 CD '^ ^ T-i cr> 10 Oi iH CD t- T-H 00 • 

• CO CO (M i-H C<1 oa (N CO CO CO -^ 1^ tH CO CD iH • 

tH tH 1— I t-I 


d 

1 6 
dZ 


jsnjESy 


,-1 -(M?© • • 


tH tH iH . . . . 




aoj 


00 iH OS (M lO T-l 
rH t- CO (M (M CO 


• 00 00 Tjt 00 OS CO iH CO CD CD -^ «C> iH rH CO OS t> C- t- t- • 

• cdcoth cococococooj co'^cDoaco os co • 

tH tH t-I iH 


d 

no 

S d 


jsuiBSy 


tH 


• . • -tHth • -eg th • • -m -oco • 




JOJ 


OOi-H -^ C0U5O 
^ t^ CO (MCO 


•OOOt- • CO 00 OS t- CD -^ 00 CD ■* CD iH CO CO OS CD OS t- -oo ■ 
•CDCOiH • 1-1 Ol CO 1-1 03 CO CO'^CDiHCO US . iH • 
iH tH rH iH 


OuesHoa 

No. 59 


jsniBSy 


— _ 


~" ■ .» , . — _^ 








JOJ 


00 T-t 05 com o 

1-1 C> CO tH (M CO 


• 00 t- CO OS 00 OS 10 t- 00 OS CD -^ CD rH -^ -^ OS -^ 1-1 t> t- OS • 
•CDCOi-l rH CO 03 CO CO 1-1 CO ^ CD iH CO 00 iH • 
iH 1-1 iHiH 


d 

.So 

So 


jsutESy 


; _,^ . _ . _. r~ 




W^ I 1 "../ V* -J V. .1 


■^•^ ;h 


JOJ 


00iH(M(MlCO 
T-H t-(M (MCO 


•000 tH C000003 OOtH COOSCD'* CDiH eocoosco-^ t>0000 • 
•CDCOCO COCOCOCOeOCO COTjtCD CO OS T-I . 
iH iH iH 


d 
o t- 

.SiO 

S 6 

3Z 


jsuiBSy 


T T^ ! 










JOJ 


. ooiH CO eoio o 

rH t-^ -^ (M CO 


•00O05'*0S000Si-lt-lO0SCD'*CDiHCDC0000500t-00iX>tr- 
•CDCOiH fH CO iH 00 CO CO CO -^ CD i-l CO 00 
1-1 1-1 iH iH 


Question 

No. 56 


}sniE3y 


, ■ -7^ --■ ^^^ ; 




U 1 1 




JO^ 


00 r-( CD • iO 
tH t-r}( .(M CO 


• 000 iH COLO OOiH OS iH Ti<t-CD^ CDiHlCO OS t>CO -OSOOrH 
•CDCOOd iHCqcOOQCOCO COrt^CDiHCO C- • iHtH 
iH tH iHiH 


d 

.2S 
o 


jsniBSy 


— ~-^ ■ — "^ — 


_ __ — _. _ — . 




jN ^ 1—1 l-M 






■toj 


00 th CO •\a<z> 

iH C- -IM CO 


•00OO^0500C0i-ICD'*CDCD'^CDi-l'*t-0SOC0t-0S0ST-l 
•CDCOCO 1-1 Cd CO CO CO CO CO'^CDi-ICO iH I> 1-1 tH 
iH iH 1-1 1-1 


d 

.23 
Id 


jsujBSy 


■ — ' — " — ~^Z ! i T^^i TT^ ] ■ — 


^~* 




iH 


JOj 


00 (M 00 IC 
iH C--^ eO(M CO 


•OOOCDCOiHOOCOCOOC^OSCD^CDiHOSCOOSCDOt-OOi-H 
•coco COCOCOCOCOCO CO-^CDt-I 00 tH CO iH 
iH rH iH 


d 

.22 
1 d 


jsniBSy 


i-H . C-(M -co 

.lOlC .CO 


.-:* .CD • ■ -cocD • • c- co«£> -coo • 

• CD-CO--- .,H. 

tH 


aoj 


00(M • -lO • 


• Tt< 1-1 CO tr- 00 CD 00 C- ^ - CD -^ CD 1-1 in CO OS CD 1-1 t> 00 OS rH 

CO iH CO CO 1-1 CO CO • co'^cdthco os t-i 

1-1 iH iH 




1i d 
S.2d 
9 =Z 










































lOiX't-OOOiOTHC<llO«OOOOS'-IC<l^l0^050T-IO.JCO'*^t-OOr-H(M^lOC- 

LOiraimoirsQD^co^ixico^t-c-c^E^t-t-oooooooooooooooocsoiOiOiOj 



94 



So 


jsniBSy 


T-i 


... J J ^ i . -r-i • i ■■• .•r4 ...•-..■ i i 




JOJ 


00 T-i eo «ci lO o 

iH t- Tjt iH (M CO 


• 00 O 05 00 O 00 Ui r-l 05 Tji OS iXi ■<* eo r-H (M CO OS O CO tr- O O • 
•«0(Mt-I (M(M(MeO(M<M COTt<iniC<jeO iHt-I tH(M . 
i-l iH T-lrH T-l 


£ d 


jsniESy 


; _ - .. _ ^^ . .. —.- 








JOJ 


00 iH (M C^ ^ O 
tH t^-^Cq (M CO 


•00O0i«D0i00l000C0Tl<00«2-^ eOi-l t-00(MO c-oo • 
•«D(Mi-H tH oa <M (M 1-H (N eO-^USi-HCO 05 r-lC<l • 


a 
.28 

|o 


jsujESy 


~ ■ ■ ■ — *» 1 "^^ 1 - -■ - 








JO^ 


OOtHG^ CDICO 
1-1 I> Tji (M (N CO 


• 00 O OS CO t- 00 U5 IC OS -^ OS «D -^ to 1-1 i-H CO 1-1 t> CO t- o o ■ 
•eCXMiH iH(N(MCO(M(N CO -* >0 (N CO O iH G<J • 
iH iH iH tH 1-1 


Ouestion 
No. 67 


JSHTESy 


' — : ^-- — 




T~1 C1^ 




, 


JOJ 


(X)tHO<£iICO 
tH t- ■<* <N (M CO 


•OOOOSOOOOOUJOO-^OOCOrJt eOi-l 1-1 COOSO -^ I>-OSO • 
•eDIMiH (M(MC^C0CO<M CO -^ lO (M CO iH iH (M • 
iH 1-1 tH 1-1 i-( 


d 
Z 

Z 
O 

o 


d 
Z 


jsniBSy 

JO^ 


iH 


-<:}<• -CO • • 




OOiHOOOlO O 
T-H t- -* C<1(M CO 


•ooooscoosooio • OS '^ 00 eo •* to 1-1 rH o oi CO iH t- ic 00 • 

•eOlMiH r-l(N(M -(MIM CO -^ lO C<1 CO OS iH • 

1-1 iH 1-1 tH 


d 


}sniE3y 


i 


rr ■ -t; T-r 






JOJ 


OOiHOOOlOO 
r-< I> -^ (M <M CO 


•00005 -OSOOIO . 1-1 ^ 00 eo ^ eo iH 1-1 eo 05 CO 1-1 t> IC 00 • 
•eD(MiH .tHC^KN '(MW CO^IO(M(M OS i-l • 
iH 1-1 iH iH 


d 
Z 


jsniBSy 


p— — — — ■ 








jojI 


OOtH OOO ICO 
tH t-^(M(MCO 


• 00 o OS CM OS 00 un <M iH -^ 00 eo -^ eo 1-1 T-( 00 OS CO 1-1 1> lo 00 • 

•eO(MiH tH (N (M CO CO (M CO^'=tC<l<M OS iH • 
1-1 iH 1-1 iH 


d 

.2S 
Id 


jsuiBSy 


; ■ ^^ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ TZ"^ 




* ** ■ ■ v.". 




JOj[ 


OOtH -^ oioo 


• th oo ^oooio^ 1-1 -^foo eO'* eoi-i-^ t-osooos t- t-os • 

• tXM (M <M (M IM CO (M CO'^-^CMIM OS i-l • 

iH iH iH iH 


Question 
No. 64 


jsniESy 


» ** — . -^ 




"■■' ' '"^ 




JOj[ 


00 i-H CD OS lO o 
i-H C- TJH ,H (M CO 


•osoo '^ t-ooo(MO'* oseo-^ eoi-i iH eooseo t^- 1- -o • 

•eOfMtN 1-1 Oa (M (M CO (M CO'^'^CMCO 00 -(M • 
iH iH iH 1-1 


CO 

d 

^; 

z 
o 

H 

D 
O 


d 
Z 


}smB3y 


T-i 


• • • iH . iH • OS iH . C<l iH O • • 

(M • iH • • 


jojI 


ooi-i(N^m • 

1-1 t^'^COW • 


• OS O OS '^ eo 00 O (N CO (M c- eo ■>* eo tH CO 1-1 OS iH OS t- -iH • 
•eOC^i-l 1-1 (M (M iH CO (M CO'^'^CMCO tHOS -(M ■ 
iH 1-1 tH 1-1 


6 
Z 


jsniBSy 


~;" 1 1^ , . .k-. ^^ ^t 


'^ 






JOJ 


oOth (N •ia<=> 

rH t--* .(MCO 


• 00005 • OS 00 OS c<i 00 -^ • eo '^ eo 1-1 lo <M OS • os t- • os • 

• eo(Mi-i . 1-1 c<i(N 1-1 cacM • co-^ior-ico -os -ih • 

1-1 iH iH iH 




— a 

« o ^ 
y.S 
























lO<UDt-000iOTH<MLO'X>000ir-l(M'*lO?D05OTH.(MC0^C0t-00rHC<l^im> 
lOi-OvmoiO«£>CDiX>iDCO^COt>t-t-t-t~C-OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOTC5C^0505 



95 






|saiE3y 



JOj 







}sniE3y 



lOJ 



" (N i-H 1-1 00 CO ^ • o t- • c; 1-1 ■ 

T-l <X> 05 -^ "* i-H • T-l CO "^tM' 



■lOJ 



II 



jsniB^Y 



aoj 



■ LO LO 1— I (35 ^ 

■ <M -r-l CO CO '^ 




l-*(M-<*t-COIN05i-(COeOLO 
\T-i IM CO N I© CQ (N -^ CO (Nl 






jsniESy 


• •05 • • -OS • •.•05«0 • • 
^ . . .^ 


. . , CO • • • iH • . 'sf • t- . • • CD 

. . . . . . . .CO • i-l • • -T-l 


JOJ 


(M-iHoqc-coco -ooo • -^jti-icqc-cot-inKMOsi-icocoiOT-iio -i-ioitD • 
iH ?D <M -^ 'si' CO • 1-1 CO • -i-iiHt-i (n CO oa <x> oq (M ^ CO im cq • co co Tf • 

T-H tH tH tH 


}sn!E3y 


•O-<*00 --^i-HCOCV] • • • tH • 
• 00 1-1 • 1-1 . . . ,-1 . 


t-iHi-IC£> -CO • T-l lO irj U3 <M O O 00 00 «o 
T-ICOrH -O • i-l(M Oi T-i C<\ T-l T-l 
r-i 


JOJ 


(N Tf 00 IC CO to O lO 1-1 1-1 00 t> -00 

th (n th "^ 1-1 1-1 1-1 CO oa ^ 1-1 •1—1 

T-i O 

1-1 


• 00 ^ 00 <M CO 1-1 1-1 00 -T-ieo -coeot- • 

•1-1 ?D C- C<1 -^ .(MCM • —1 (M • 
1— I 



JSUIE3V 



JOJ 



't-COOOO(MO -(NKN 
•^ ^ CO T-l . 1-1 c^ 

1-1 o 



f 

O 



jsniESy 



JOJ 



t- '(MOO -OlOOO^ • to ■ 
•CO'* •CCI (M 5^ • 



• CO o 1-1 

• (M -^ CO 



JsniB^Y 



JO^ 



•lO 00 •-* t- • 1-1 1-1 •(M 



• t-OOOi-li-l 



iz 
o 



jsniESy 



JOJ 



• CJ (M CO T-l O -1-1 



0.2 o 



OOCSOi-ICO-^LOICiOOCSOT-ILCOOi-ICOCOUStDt-OOaiOi-lCOCO'TfliriCDt^- 

Oicrsooooooooi-ii-ii-ir-ioacococ^jcocococoojcoeococococococo 

cic^icccccccocccocccocococococococ^cococccocococococococccoccco 



96 



d 
_Oot 

1° 

O 


jsniBSy 


CO • • 1-1 - 05 




jOjI 


,H O T-l T-H t-l 
T-l 






00 

6 

;?; 
o 

h 

td 

O 


< 


.2" 

y 6 


jsniBSy 


CO C- • (M C^J (M • m 

r-t CO -iH 

i-H 




JOJ 


O 1-1 i-H 

1-1 










.1- 
o 

1^ 


jsuiESy 


1— ii— i-oo---!— ii— 1 • ..-ri<. 1—1 cO'i— 1 

1-1 tH 


JOJ 


1-1 CDiHOOCOOOfN •iX)00i-l -CO •C^OOOIM •^O'iDKJOOlCOl-^ -O • 

1-1 CO -^ '^ 1-1 iH 1-1 .i-(L3(M • -OJCOCvItO • (M -^ (MCO(MrH(M • lO • 
O 1-1 
tH 




IsniBSy 


1-1 • • • -IXM • -1-1 • • • -C- -(M • • • -(MCM (M -iCi 

• • • • 1— 1 • . ^' • ■ • ■ .... T-i CO • 1—1 

1-1 


JOJ 


T-l C~i-IOOCOCOi-IC<IC-lOOOi— li-IOS •C-COOOCMOJ-^i-ICDlOOOlOOS-^ -o • 

1-1 CO'^^tH 1-1 (M 1-1 lO (M 1-1 • OJ (M oq ^ -^(M ^ (M CO (M tH (M • lO • 


d 


jsniBSy 


• la ■ • ••^00 -O • • • 1-1 00 t- Og CO • • (N • 00 (M (M • IC 

■ 1-1 ... ,—1 .CO • • • iH • -^ • 1-1 CO -1-1 

T-l 1-1 


JO^ 


(M coi-i^cooooc<1thloC5i-i --^ -i-icooooq •cou:i<x>LCoo»jO<3i-^ -o • 

i-H CO ^ ^ 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 lO oq • . (M (M 03 no '(Mi-I (MCOC<li-IC<l • liO • 
1-1 O 1-1 
tH 


< 




}sniB3v 


• t- -^ • 'iji iXiT-l CO tH • 1-1 1-1 Od CO • t- • . 1-1 CO -^ 1-1 Oi -co 

• tH • 1-1 1-1 • 1-1 1-1 • 1-1 • -co -^ CO (M • iH 

1-1 l-( 1-1 


JOJ 


!M '^i-iLococoi-ic-KMooico -coi-it-Lraoooa -c- • • \a co xa co ^ -o • 
iH TH CO -^ th ih i-( in 1— I • o] 1-1 (M CD • 1-1 • • oa CO <M 1-1 (M -lo • 

1—1 


go 


jsniESy 


iH t- • • •^oasoii— 1 • -i-HCMCD -00 • -1-1 •c<ii— 1 • • • •Locrsi-ico 

• • • 1-1 (M ••!— Ir-I -i-l-.CO-^CO---- (M T-l 

1-1 1-1 


JOJ 


T-l ^^ 1-1 CO CO ^ 1-1 -oiooi-i • CO 1-1 1- T-l 00 <M -co • -looou^ood • Oi • 

1-1 1-1 CO ^ -^ 1-1 -tHtHCOiM • C<Ii-l(MCO • (M • • oa CO (Nl (M 1-1 • -^ • 
1-1 O 1-1 

1—1 




JSBIBSy 


• t- -co • -i-IOSCOt-I • • tH (M CD • -^ • -1-1 .-^1-1 Ol -CD 

.^ . . iH iH • • tH 1-1 • (M • -co • ^ CO <M • tH 

1-1 1-1 


aoj 


(M ^ 1-1 (M CO oa CD -^Looi-i • CO 1-1 CO T-l 00 oa -(M • • m OO UO O i-l -o • 

1— 1 tH CO ^1-1 • 1-1 1-1 CD (M • Od 1-1 (M CD • (M • • (M CO (M (M CO • lO • 
iH O tH 

iH 




jsniESy 


• C- -1-1 -t-^OSi-liH • -i-ICClCO -O • .1-ICOCOiH • . ■ • 1-1 05 -CD 

• i-i • 1-1 cd • • T-l 1-1 . c<i • -co ^ CO .... oa -T-l 

1—1 1—1 


JOJ 


Dd -^ th oq CO 00 od • 1— 1 lo as 1-1 • oo ih t- co oo c<i • as ■ -ioooioimo -o • 
1-1^ 00 1-1^ •eoiHuood • c<irHcgcD -i-h • -cmooojimco -m • 

O 1-1 
1—1 




}sniB3y 


Od t- • 00 1-1 t- 00 tH • • • • 1-1 Od -i-ICN • • . tH CO l-^ • • <M -00 • -CD 
•"^ -rH ••••1-ItH. i-|... -*C0'- • .'i-l 


JOJ 


o -^ 1-1 -odcioiocg • C5 th -co -i-imooiM • i-i ■ -loocococo • oi • 
tHihco -^ 1-1 c<i -usod • •concgcD -od • • iM ^ cq Od C<I • ■<* • 

1— 1 1—1 


V5^ 


jsniBSy 


• o • th • o 00 1-1 -1-1 • • 1-1 c<i CO 1-1 CO • • 05 c<i CO th -od-^ • i-i Oi -co 

•CO • . T-l ,-( . • • T-l T-l CO • -T-l '^co- -coc^d -1-1 

T-l 1-1 


JOJ 


(MCOTHincOOdOi-lomOi-l -COi-liOCOOOC^OdO • -USOSi-ICl • -CD • 

1-1 CO ^ ^ 1-1 1-1 1-1 c<i th CO od • od (MCDi-fcq • • <>d cd cd i-i • -^ • 

1-1 O 1-1 

1-1 


c 
Ot- ■ 

u 


jsniBSy 


• ■ • C<1 • • 05 • -CD • • • • ^ CO (>d • • • -co 

• • • • • 1— 1 • . .... ....,_{ 


-■Oil 


(N iH 1-4 t- CO O O 1-1 LQ lO O T-l 1— 1 Oi CO m 05 00 Od 1-1 Od lO 1-1 LO • CO 1-1 T-l 05 CO • 
iH CD CO ^ ^ CO 1-1 T-l CO T-l CD !>d 1-1 1-1 Dd CO (M CO CO C<l ^ CO C<1 ■ Od C<l CO CO '^ • 

1-1 O tH 1-1 T-i 

tH 








» 


— d 

0.2 6 






OOCftOi-IC<I^uOCD00050i-IICCDOTHCgc010CDt-00050T-4CdCO-^lOCDt- 
CiOiOOOOOOOOi-li-lT-li-l(MC<IOdDdC<l(>d(MOd(>dCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCO 

ododcocococococococococococococoeococococococococococococococo 



97 





a 

.22 
S 


jsnjESv 


i-H-T-('--<*i-l ••Ii5-i-l Tjt Tl< 

•QO • • • • -W tH 


aoj 


tH O • OCOOOCOCOO 00 O tH iH 0(M '^ t-OOC^J O ^ '^ • lO 00 LO IC «£> (M (M • 

T-t CO •'*'Tt<(M T-t CO oi in (M 1-1 th iH (m (m tcio CO ^ '(MeofN coeoio • 


6 
Z 

O 
H 

1 Cc 


6 

Z 


^suiBSy 


i-hot-i -^cococo • <x> -to • • 00 1:0 1- lo o o eo • lo th 00 co «d co '^ »-i in 

(NCO • • T-H • • • i-l(M rl< LO '(N tHCOiHIOtH 

■I— 1 


JOJ 


1-1 • •'^OiOO^O -OItHiH^O • .TfcOCO -00-* •-^r-lOa • • T-H • • 
1-1 ■ • 1-1 CO (M CO iH • ^ iH 1-1 1-1 • . (M T-l •lHr;J< • (M CO (M • -OS • • 
CO iH 


to 

d 
Z 


jsniBSy 


OOiHOS-TfLOtOiH •«© -T-l • •00"<*O5 -OSOfyDi-ILOi-loOlOtCiLO-TfiOLO 
tHCvJCO tH .1-1 • 1-1 • • tH(M '-^LOOO (N iHCOiHlOrH 

1-1 

1— 1 


JOJ 


(M • -0005000000 •OlOTHtO -i-KMOOCO • 00 (N • ^ tH O • i-t iH tH • 
• • CO 1-t CO O • -^ iH 1-1 iH • (M 1-1 • eo -^ • (M CO 1-1 • 05 
CO 


d 
Z 


jsniBBy 


t- O 1-1 t- -!# t- CD iH • iX> • tH • -OOeOiH -O^Oi-^ • LO iH 00 -<* «0 LO "^ 00 lO 
(NCO iH • iH • iH • • eo • -^ LO 00 • (M tH iH CO TH -^ 
O iH 


JOJ 


LO • • 00 05 CS O OS O r!Li-l OiHCD -OrHOOCO -COW •ri<THTH -T-li-ICOOi 
• ■ tH CO tH CO O • LO iH 1-1 -1-1 <M iH • -^ -rfi • (N CO 1-1 • 05 tH 
CO • 


6 
Z 


^suiBSy 


CO o iH • 'vfi o to 05 • <iD • • • -00 -o ■ ci o 05 • LO 1-1 «r> 1-1 CD LO -^ eo LO 

IMCO- iH .1-H CO-'^LOt-.OJ. tHCOtHCO 

O 1-1 

1—1 


JOj 


OS • • CD OS eo o iH o . o CD 1-1 LO • lo oa oo eo -loco •Tt<i-iio • • i-i os o 

• • 00 CO 1-^ eo 1-1 O -LOiHi-dH • tH (M iH • tJ< '^ .(MCOiH • • OS 1-1 1-1 
CO 


eo 

6 
Z 


jsniBSy 


• O 1-1 OS -^ O CO (N • 1-1 • iH • -00 • C- • OS O 00 iH LO iH t- OS CO (N -^ CD LO 
•(MCO 1-1 1-1 .O • ■ • '(M •-n^LOt- (M iHCOtHCOi-I 
tH 1-1 


jojI 


1-1 . -OOSCOOOO • LO CO T-l CD -OOtHOOCO -COt-i • ^ 1-1 CD -COi-ICO • 
1-1 • • -^ CO 1-1 eo iH O • LO tH 1-1 1-1 -T-l (M iH • ^ ■n(< -(MCOlH • OSi-l • 

eo 


d 
Z 


)sniB3y 


CO O tH OS •>* O CD <M -1-1 • • -CvIOO-^i-l • OSO CDCOLO tH t- OCD Tf ^ CDLO 

eg 00 1-1' 1-1 -o • • • CO "^LOCD (M iHih<Mth ih 

1-1 1— 1 


JO^ 


OS ■ -oocoooo -oosi-iio ■ OS 1-1 ^ eo -co-r-i. •'vt'i-iLo •oothoo • 

T-l . • -^ ^ iH eo tH O • CD tH 1— 1 tH .1-1 CO 1-1 • LO -^ • (M CO (N • OS iH • 

eo 


d 
Z 


jsaiESy 


->* o iH LO '^ O CO 1-1 • iH • • • -OOCDO -OSOOJ • lO T-l CD t- CD 00 O t- tH 
(M eo T-l 1-1 .O ■ . ■ • CO •-Tl<lOt- -(N tHCOi-I tH 

1-1 iH 


JOJ 


00 • -(NO^OOO -OOSt-ICD -OOOJ-^CO -(NCO • ^ i-l 00 • • iH -vt< -<* 

iH • • ^ -* 1-1 CO 1-1 o -cOiHt-it-i .1-1 CO th -lO-Tt* •(Neo(M • • os t-i 
eo 


a 
1| 


jsniBSy 


T-l • • -co • tH CO • iH • • • -t-Ol • • -O coco • • -LO 

. • • Tl< -1-1 -O .... . . . lO 1-1 • • • 1-1 

1-1 1-1 


JO^ 


iHOiHOO -co -OOO -OOi-ItHCD •'^OOOIM • "* ^^ 00 LO 00 (N --^t-o • 
iHCDCO'* • (M • iH CD • LO IM 1-1 i-l -i-ieOOJCO • (M ^ (M (M CO (M • (M CO LO • 
(M iH 1-1 


c 
'£, 6 

6^ 


jsnjBSy 


• • • •COCOOdCOi-ICD • • • -coco • • -OS iHT}< • -LO 

• • • • -^ <N iH 1-1 ... . . . . ,H (N • -1-1 

o 


JOjJ 


(N O iH 00 -co • O (N r±LO THTHt-0000O00<MrH'*L0 00L000L0TH -OOC^I • 

thcocotp • -c^ieo -LOiMi-ii-i th eo oa CD eo (M -* (N cvj CO (M iH -colo • 

iH • 1-1 1-1 ■ 1-1 


e 
.22 


IsuiBSy 


■ T T " ~"^ ' ' ■ — :r 






JOj 


<MOTHOOCOeOCOCDOCOlOi-li-ICDOOC<ICOOOCMOTtilOOOLOOOLOLO-^C<IOTH 
iHCOC0'*^!M 1-1 00 tH LO eg 1-1 1-1 (N eo eg CD LO <M ^ (M <M CO (M iH (M CO LO 

1-1 O T-l 1—1 1-1 

tH 


e 
•2S 

So 

O 




)suiE3y 


eg 00 -^ th • • -^ LO 

T-l 1-1 • • -^ iH 


JOJ 


eg o th 00 CO o 1-1 LO OS CD LO 1-1 rH CD LO eg iH 00 eg o '=:t< LO 00 LO 00 LO •'*t-cg • 
iHcoco-^^eg ih eo i-i lo eg i-h th eo eg co lo eg ^ eg eg eo eg • eg eo 

iH O tH iH 1-1 

, 1—1 


d 
.|S 

sZ 


jsoiBSy 


^ CD ^ -co LO 

• iH 


lO^ 


eg o rH 00 CO eg 1-1 CO LO CO o 1-1 iH LO • t- o ooe^i o -^ lo oolo oolo -^ ^ t-o • 
1-1 CD CO -^ ^ eg 1-1 1-1 CO 1-1 LO eg T-l 1-1 • cq eocg coio eg ^ eg eg eocg rncg colo • 

iH O iH rH tH 
1-1 






a^ 




ooo50i-icg'!j<iocDooosOiHiocDOr-iegcoLOCDC--ooosOTHegco'^Locot- 
oscsoo<=>oooooiHiHT-iT-iegegcgegcgeg<Megcgeococoeocoeococo 
cgegcocoeocoeoeocoeooocoeoeococococoeocococoeoeoeoeoeococococo 



6 
Z 

O 
w 

o 




in 

d 


^suicSy 


1-1 • 1-1 • • CO 00 ■<* -^ • • • th • • . N 

•W • • N • • -tH . . . 1-1 


JOJ 


i-IO • (M CO O i-H 05 -^ CO CO 00 iH 1-1 IC t> 05 CO (M -<* '* -^ • lO • la .«05D«0 • 
iHCO ■•^^(M tH N 1-1 -<* iH 1-1 iH tH 1-1 (M «0 CO <M iH • (M • (M • CO N "^ • 

O tH 

iH 


d 
Z 


jsniESy 


T-IOOiH • •UDOItHO • • -i-IOS -i-IC^IOO •-<* .-^-^UJ • -1-1 -O -N 
lOCC • • <M iH . • . iH • iH(M -00 -tHNC^! • • iH -CO • l-H 


JOJ 


iH(N • (M CO 00 -<* iH lO CO 00 00 • U3 U5 C£) CO • (M • -* • • • lO IC) • ?D • (O ■ 
iH .-^^1-1 i-li-l->*i-l' iHi-|.CD.oq...eOiM-eO"*- 

O iH 

1-1 


d 


jsoiESy 


• -iH • -tr-C^KM • • • -iH • • • t- • -CO • '-^ • -i-li-l . • .(M 

• .CO • • ... .tH • . • (M . .00 . .(M • ■ iH . . .1-1 


JOJ 


(MO • (N COO-^IO t-CO OOOS • ?£> lO t- CO 00 (M 1-1 -^ -^ • lO CO ^ • CD CD t- • 
iHCO .-^^IM iH tH 1-1 TJH 1-1 -iH iH (MCO (MiH • (M CO <M • CO CM -* • 

O iH 

iH 


d 


JsniESy 


iHOrH • .-"^t-l-l '^ • • -T-i ■ • -(M 

COCO • • (N • • • T-i ■ • -1-1 


JOJ 


iH . .(MCOCOi-H CDOCOCOOi-l t-^ t-O00(M '^ '^ ^ • LO CD lO • CD t- CD • 
iH • .-^^(M iH (M 1-1 ^ (N iH iH i-( CO C^ CD CO (M iH • tM CO OJ • CO (M ^ • 

O 1-1 

1-1 


r-l 

d 


jsniBSy 


• -tH • -T-IO (M • .CO tH . . .(M 

• .CO • • iH • .00 1-1 . • • 1-1 


JO^ 


(MO -(MCOCQ "* O CO 00 O 1-1 t- lO t- CD 00 (M iH ^ Tf Ta< m CD lO • CD i-l i-( • 

T-c CO • ^ ^ iH . cq CO 1-1 '^ oa iH 1-1 iH(Mc^cD cg(M(M(Neo(M • co co '^ • 

(MO iH 
iH 


d 


jsniESy 


. .1-1 . -iO ■ • iH (30(M 

. -00 (MiH 


JOJ 


(MO • (M COCO 050 0(M COO i-< t- 00 t-i-l CO(M -^ 't ^^ lO CDIO ^ CO-:!' CO • 
,-( CO • ^ ^ (M (M O iH ^ (M 1-1 iH 1-1 CO <M CD 00 (M -^ (M (M CO (M 1-1 CO 00 1-1 • 
(MO 1-1 
1-1 


d 

.StN 

So 


jsniBSy 


. .iH . .IfSCD t-O iH(M 




JOJ 


(>] o . o] CO CO iH <35 1- IN 00 o 1-1 1- • CO oj (X) (^^ -^ -^ -^ "* Lo CD lo ^ CD 1— 1 CO • 

iH CD . '^ ^ (M 1-1 1-1 tH ^ (M 1-1 T-l • Od (M CO 00 (M -* <M (M CO (M iH CO CO 1-1 • 
1-1 O tH 
iH 


d 


jsniESy 


i^ ..-. i^ -.-. 






JOJ 


(MO . Od CO O -^ 00 CO 00 00 O T-l CO . t>(M 00 (M -^ -^ "^ -^ us CO to ^ CD -^ CD • 
iH CO • ^ -rlf (M 1-1 (M 05 rf (M 1-1 iH • iH CO (M CO 00 IM -* (M (M CO IM 1-1 CO CO ^ • 
iH Oi 1-1 


d 

no 

1 d 


jsniESy 


. .1-1 • -CO 1-1 (M 

. • CO 1-1 


JOJ 


(MO .eOCOCOCOO iH OOOOOiH -* 00 t- O00(M -^-Tf -^ ^lO OOlO Ci COCO 00 • 
^^CO .'*^(M (M (M 05 ^ (M iH 1-1 tH CO (M CD 00 (M ^ (M (M CO C<1 1-1 00 CO -^ • 
(M05 1-1 


Ones (ion 

No. 19 


jsuiESy 


-* rH t- iH . . -O i-liHCO • .IM 

• . -la 1-1 CO • -1-1 

iH 


JOJ 


(M O 1-1 O CO <35 lO 00 1-1 00 00 tH iH -* iH CO O CO (M . ^ -* -* Ut) 00 '=S< ■ -OOi • 
1-1 CO CO ^ ■<* (M 1-1 i-l(3i ^ (M iH 1-1 iHCO(MCO . (M ^ (M (M CO 03 ■ • CO ^ • 
CO 05 1-1 


Question 

No. 18 


jsniESy 


\0 .1-1 1-1 

• 1-1 


JO£ 


(M O 1-1 CO CO 00 0> OS O OO O O iH -vf 00 lO 1-1 00 03 O ^ -^ "=# in> 00 LC CO CD 00 (3i • 
i-ICOC0^^(M tH lO <35 Ut) (M 1-1 iH (M CO (M CO LO (M ^ (M IM CO (M 1-1 CO IM -^ • 

CO O^ l-H 1-1 tH 


d 
.25 

S d 


jsuiESy 


iH • ■ . -CO 1-1 • th CO • • -co 

• • . • . ■ • • 1-1 


JOJ 


1-1 O 1-1 CO CO CO CD ^ O 00 O 1-1 iH CO • LO iH 00(M O ^ ^ -^ 00 OOLO O CO Oi C5 • 
(M Oi iH iH iH 






0.2 0. 






oooiOiHoi-*Lf:icDooaiOTHLOcDOiH(Mcoiococ-ooajOr-!c^co^>-OCDt- 

a5<3iOOOOOOOOiHiHiHiH(M(MC<IC<10dC^(MC^(MCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCO 

<M(Mcococooocococococococococococococococococococococococococo 



99 



C5 

d 

o 
a 

D 

o 




•* 

'd 
Z 


jsnieSy 


CO CO • -IN 00 -^ CD • • -oq 

(M -00 i-H • • "rH 


JOJ 


lO O tH (M CO ^ ^ O to CO 00 O^ i-H 1-1 C5 t- C5 -C^l • "^ (M '^ lO (M lO • O 00 CO • 
CO CO -^ -^ <M OJ Oa 00 ^ tH 1-1 T-l 1-1 1-1 -co • CO iH (M (N CO (M • CO N -^ • 
Ci 1-1 


CO 

6 

Z 


jsniESy 


CO • rH ■ • -O • -(M lO -00 • • -1-1 • • -i-IIM ■ • -(M 

•CO • • -r-l CO -rH . . .,-1 


JOJ 


CO '^^OJ •i-IC<!00'*i-li-l T-li-l •COOOCOt-ICOCOCOCO •COCO'* • 
Oi 1-1 


(M 

d 
Z 


jsdtbSy 


(M .1-1 • . .,-1 • -co iH • • • •CO 

•CO T-( 


JOj 


OO •OQCOlO t- 00 C-CO t- t-i-l C5C5000000CO-53* -* ^ ^lOCO ^ OO CO CO • 
,H CO --^^CO 1-1 CO 00 ^ 1-1 T-l T-l T-l CO CO 00 CO 1-1 CO CO CO CO 1-1 CO CO ^ • 
C^ 1-1 


d 
Z 


jsuiBSy 


CO • 1-1 • • 1-1 T-l • •CO 1-1 • • lO CO 

•CO • • 1-1 


JOJ 


OO •cocot>^t>-ijncDt-t-iHi-iC5t-t-oococ5-^co-^>-racoiooooocc • 
OS —1 


c 


; 

3 
O 


00 

d 
Z 




jsujESy 


CO • • • •CO-* ^ • •CO CO 

• • • • • • tH 


lOJ 




O O i-H CO CO VO CO CO C- 00 t- CD 1-H ^ 05 OO CO 00 CO -^ -* CO -^ lO CO lO CO O CO CO • 
1-1 CD 00 -* T? CO CO CO 00 -^ 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 CO CO 00 CO 1-1 CO CO CO CO T-l CO CO '^ • 

05 tH 


1 

Oueslion 


d 
Z 




jsuieSv 


CO • 1-1 • • CO 1-1 -^ • • • 1-1 • • • -co 

•CO • • 1-1 


JOJ 


CO • ^ T5< CO CO 1-1 00 -^ iH iH T-l 1-1 1-1 CO CO 00 CO tH CO CO CO CO 1-1 CO CO ^ • 

Oi tH 


to 

6 
Z 

O 

1 
g 


d 

Z 


}smE3Y 


CO 'T-l • •C-CO 1-100 • • -^ • --^ t-<M 

•eo^- ••00^-co T-l 


JOJ 


OO -co CO CJ coco O 00 t- OOtH LO 05 t- OOOCCO ■ -* -* • lO -* IC CO CO t- 05 • 
1-ICO •Tj<-^CO CO CO 00 ^ 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 coco -COi-l • CO CO CO 1-1 CO CO CO • 

OS 1-1 


(M 

d 
Z 


jsojeSv 


CO -1-1 ■ •COOO • • 'C-T-f • • • 00 • •-* •i-l^ CO 

•CO • • 1-ICO • • -iH • • •tH • -00 • (M T-l 


JOJ 




OO •COCOLO • -OOOC-COt-IIOCSOOIOOOCO '^00 •lO'^IOCOCDOOCD • 
iH CO • ^ ^ CO • • CO 00 ^ T-li-l T-l coco -COt-i • CO CO CO i-l co co ^ • 

Oi 1-1 


T-l 

d 
Z 


jsareSy 


lO • j-i • ■ ir:) th • • • -co 

• to 1-1 




JOJ 




I 


t-O •COCO'*Ut>COOQOt-Cii-lLC0500000CO-*'*^'*uO^^COCCC5CO • 
CO -Tji-^CO CO CO 00 ^ ^ 1-1 tH 1-1 CO CO CD 00 CO 1-1 CO CO CO CO 1-1 CO CO ^ • 

Ci 1-1 


J 


d 
Z 




:jsniE3Y 


• -O -0001-1 u^ • • • •-* •i-l • • • -i-l • • .(M 

• -co ■ -* 00 1-1 • • •tH 


1 c 


JOJ 


COOiHCO ■ CO 00 1-1 CO CD t- Gl tH CO CO CO CO 00 CO •^CO^LO^irs •COOOCD • 
tH CO -* -co CO CO 1-1 Ti< 1-1 tH 1-1 r-l CO CO CD • CO 1-1 CO CO CO CO •COCO'* • 
O 1-1 

. T-l 


a 
D 
O 


d 
Z 


jsuiBSy 


lO •!-! • •COCOCO (M -00 00-*T-l •i-li-l • • •CO 

•CO • • tH CO • ,H . • .1-1 


jOjI 




t-O • CO CO CO 1-1 O CO CO t- C5 1-1 05 lO •CDOOCO^'*CD •^'*^ •COOOCD • 
CO • -* -* CO CO CO 1-1 "^ 1-1 1-1 •COCOCOOOCO -COCOCO •coco^ • 
O 1-1 
— 1—1 


CO 

d 
Z 


jsuiESy 




lO -T-l • •■^OOt-I CO • •CO • • -^ • • -1-1 • • •CO 

•CO • • CO • • 1-1 • • • 1-1 


JO£ 




t-O • oa CO t- 1-1 00 CO CO 00 00 1-1 00 lo 00 lo 00 CO CO -* -* •lo-^io • cd oc co • 

CO •-^-<*i-l 1-ICO 1-1 -* 1-1 tH 1-1. 1-1 CO CO CD 00 CO 1-1 •COOCCO • 00 CO ^ • 
O 1-1 

T-l 








5.2 d 
cZ 








oocio-HCO-NrLrriixciOi-iiriciOT-icoccLC. :DoocciOT-icooo'*LncDt- 

C50500COOOOOi-Ii-ItH,-iCOCO'MCOCOCOCOCOCOOOCOCOCOCOCOCOCO 

CQ CO 00 CO CO CT CO cc ^c CO CO CO CO CO CO CO 00 CO CO CO CO CO CO 00 CO CO CO CO CO CO cc 



100 



■ .1^ 


jsniBSy 


••«0(M OS ^..^.jO 

• -(Mt-I 00 r^ 


JOJ 


CD • -^ (M (M <M ■ (M 1-4 tH 1-H C<1 CO -^ (M 1-1 CO (M (M C<1 T-l CO (M "sf • 

T— 1 


Ouostion 

No. 40 


jsniBSy 


• •'-1 ^ oa 

• • CO T-\ 


JOJ 


CO -i-l-sl^tM MOJO -(MtHi-H t-I,-I<MC£)^(Mi-I(M(MC<I(MtHCO(M^ • 

O T-l 

tH 


d 
.Sco 

Id 


jsniESy 


• .* • .CO - • -O • • • tH ^(MtH • ,H "^ • 

• • • • • • . 1-1 . . . . T-l • 


JOJ 


OOO* (M CO-^ 05 O OiOi OOO T-l O 05 00 coco (M ^ ^ COOIO ^ COOC- t-CO(M 
CO 1-1 ^ (M (M (M Oi ^ C<] rH T-l T-l 1-H (M CO ^ (M 1-1 (M (M T-l (M T-l CO <M <M tH 
05 tH 


d 

noo 
.5 CO 

1 d 


;sniB3Y 


• • T-l CO • tr- T-l ^ 1-1 CD ■ • T-l LO • -1-1 ITD • • • c<l 

• -co • tH tH • -T-l • .1—1 tH . . . tH 


JOj 


OOO -tr-cococo -0505000 •■^o'doOtHooc<ic>:)'*cooiooio -c-ioos • 


d 

.2S 
Id 


JSUIE^Y 


CO O T-l LO O OS • • -T-l • • • • 05 T-l (M tr- • 00 T-l -O • • T-l 00 (M • (M (M 
coco ^ 1-1 -co • <M • • T-l T-( • T-l 


JOJ 


IM • -^COtMOi-li/SOiOOOT-IC^l -C^ -i-lfMCOCOCO -lOO^ -LOCOt- • 
• • T-l tH (M <M O '^ (M T-l T-l -T-l • eg <X> '^ (M tH .(MCOCq • (M (M CO • 

O T-l 
T— 1 


1^ 

So 


jsniBSy 


CO (M tH -T-l - • • -^ -T-l CO (M 

• • • • • tH 


JtOJ 


T-l 


d 

CO 

.SCO 

1 d 


)sniB3Y 


T-l -T-l . -T-l tH OJ T-l • • T-l 1-i • • • (M 

•CO T-l ...^ 


JOJ 


t-O • (M COC~ 050 05 O300 COt-I • • ■ OOCO OOCvJ ^-* ^ OlOOrti O COCDCO • 

CO -th^im (m(Mo^t-it-i • -THT-KNcoooojTHoaiMcofMT-icoMco • 

O tH 


1" 


:(sniB3Y 


• -T-l •- • -Ot- ^ •'^O ■'5JI .^00 • -T-l • ■ -CON 

• -co • • • T-l tH • T-l (M -00 • T-l tH • • ■ . • CO T-l 


JOj 


OOO -ojcoc- -cocooi • o 1-1 00 -oomooim -^ -i-imo^^coc- • • 
CO .th-^c^i • ca o • (M T-l .T-l CO -(m • im co im t-i co oa • . 

O T-l 
T— 1 


d 
1 oco 
.SCO 

Id 


jsuibSy 


.tH 00 • • • -tH-^U^C^It-I .(MO • . . .T-l .00 • .t>(M 

C<i • • • -1-1 . • T-l 00 T-l • .(Mt-i 


JOJ 


00 OJ T-i (M CO CO 02 • 1-1 T-l t- O . CD CO CO -* CO O -^ '^ ^ "* LO -^ LO • -vt< CO 00 • 
lCeO^^(M .CO00-^(M • 1-1 T-l (M Uti oq T-l C<1 CM T-l (M • CO (M 
Oi tH 


d 

ON 

.SCO 

Id 


;sniB3Y 


CO r-l (M 

T-l 


JOJ 


00 o T-l oq CO CO lo T-l CO CO t- o T-l oi th CO lo 00 oci CO ^ CO -^ lo N in CO CO 00 CD ■ 

CDCO^^CO CO CO T-l -^ CO T-l T-l T-l CO CD 00 CO T-l CO CO CO CO tH CO CO 'vP • 
O . 1-1 

T-l 


d 

.2S 
£ d 


jsuiBSy 


• -T-ICO • .T-l -^ T-l ^ • . .CO 

.-CO^ T-l 


JO^ 


OOO • . CO lo t> T-l lo cq t- o th tH . ^ t- oo co -* -=* co ^ lo co lo od co c~ co . 

CO • . -=J< CO CO CO T-l ^ CO T-l T-l . tH tH CO CD 00 CO T-l CO CO CO CO T-l CO CO ^ • 
O 1-1 


.is 


}sniB3Y 


__- ^_^ 






JOJ 


• O T-l CO CO »0 C^ r-l lA CO t> Oi T-l 05 Oi CO 00 00 (M • -vh CO ^ lO CO to CO O t- CD . 

.cDco^^co cocOi-H'^T-iT-i t-ithcoco • CO th CO CO CO CO 1-1 CO CO ^ . 

O T-l 
T-l 


No. 29 
Con- 
tinued 


. d 
2 


jshieSy 


•CO . ■ • . • T-l .00 • T-l 


JO^ 


CO o T-l CO CO ^ CO o ^ CO 00 oi T-l oi 05 00 o o oq . ^ oo^ loco lo m o oo co • 
CO tP'^co cocooc^t-ith t-i(Mthcd .co cocococot-icoco^ . 

05 ^ , 




"§d 

U.- 




OOOlOT-ICO^l-tiCOOOOjOi-liOCDOT-ICO CO-UO CDC^OOOSOt-ICOCO^iOCDI:- 
050500000000t-ItHt-(t-ICOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCO 

oicococococooocococococococorococococococococooocococococococo 



101 



a 

6^ 


jsniBSy 


. . .<x> . .-^-^ .CO • • • •Ti< •\a • -i^-^i— 1 (M '(M 

• • . i-H • • T-l • .... .,—1 . . -^ C<1 1-1 . T-H 

1-H 


JOJ 


00 O T-H • CO Tt (M • CO lO CXD t- i-H -^ • (M 1-1 00 C<1 . • (M O^ IC O lO (N t- O LO • 
coco '^(M • 1-1 00 ^ tH 1-1 1-1 .1-1 eg ^ . • 1-1 1-1 (M (M <M 1-1 CO 1-1 -* • 
C5 


a 
.23 


jsajEJgy 


. • .^o '(Mcot- -CO • • • -^ -lo • -cdosth • • -(Ml;- • • • cm 

. . . tH • • .... .,-1 . . T^ CO ... . .' . -r-i 


JOj 


00 O 1-1 -COCO • Tl< CO LO 00 t- 1— 1 CO i-l(M • 00 (M • lO C<l C5 LO O CO LO t> lO LO • 
coco • "^ <M • i-( 00 -^ 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 • (M CO • LC) 1-i (M (M C<1 C<l CO (M -^ • 

05 


Question 

No. 60 


}sbie3y 


. -i-ii-i -cot-io -co • -wco • -CO 1-1 -oq 

. . 1-1. • •• .•!-( .1-1 


JOJ 


OOOO'^COIO •0i0iiO00t-*00C<IC<li-l00(MC0^C<!OlOO'*^t-C0U3 • 
coco -^ ^H • tH 00 ^ T-( 1-1 Oa CO ■<* Oa 1-1 (M (M (N (M i-< CO (M -^ • 

C5 1-1 


Question 
No. 49 


jsuiBSy 


. . -co -locooo -co • •* -co -00 • • ■ -1-1 oj 

. . . • ■ • ■ • ■ .... 1-1 


JOJ 


jOOi-iCOCOOC -inir-lOOOt-^OO •(MlOOO(MiO'*C<IO'lOOiOi-lt-COCO • 
COCO»H-^i— 1 . i-IOO-^i-l .1-1 (MCD-^Oai—ltMOatMDjT-ICOW-^ • 
Oi 1-1 


a 

.25 
1 d 


^sniESy 


. -i-ii-i •(N)oo -Tt" th • • -coco 

• -co -1-1 1-1 • • •■^1-1 


log 


JO O • U3 CO 1-1 CO CO 00 OJ 00 CO T-l -^ -^ O IjQ 00 (M 05 -^ CO O lO (M -^ lO t- in • • 
CO -i-I-^tH 1-1 00 ^ 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 T-H (M CO (M (N i-l(M (N (M (M 1-1 CO (M ■ • 
Oi 1-1 


a 

.25 
|o 
O 


jsniESy 


...... .T^t^. CO 00-...CO---(M 

• • • ■ • • • • 1-1 


JOJ 


00 O 1-1 t^ CO 00 CO lO (N CO 00 CO tH Tf Oi t- lO 00 (M CO '^ m O LO O in 1-1 t- C- CO • 
CO CO 1-1 '=* (M 1-1 <M 00 -^ 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 (M CO -^ (M C^ (M (M (M tH CO (N '^ • 

03 1-1 


Question 
No. 46 


;sufB3y 


. .O • ■ •'^ • -co • • • -00 (M 

• -co • -1-1 


JOJ 


OOOi-l t-CO ^ — 1 O (M CO • CO 1-1 ^ 1-1 00 'Cf 00 <M t- -^ CO O in (M lO '^ t- CO CO • 
CO 1-1 ^ (M (M (M 00 . rH 1-1 1-1 1-1 tH eg CO ^ Oa tH C^5 (M (M (M 1-1 CO (M '^ • 
05 1-1 


a 

1 d 
6^ 


jsniBSy 








JOJ 


cooi-it-co^ -c-oco •ini-i-^aioo'*ooc<it--=*cooin(Minint-'*co ■• 
cocoi-i-^oa -i-icgoo -i-ith,— 1 i-ii-i(Mco^cgi-ic<i(M(N(Mi-i cocg ■^ • 

05 1-i 


1 d 


jsniESy 


• -co • -WOOCi -co • • -CgOi • -OOOIM i-lO -i-ICOtM 

. • • • 1— 1 ^ • ... . . C^ CO 1-1 . 1-1 


JOJ 


ooooococoo • -coco -Oi-icg -ooin -oj^ -^ coo meg '^ -t-t-co • 

CO(Mi-l^i-l • -(MOO -(Mi-li-l -T-iT-i • ^ (N tH (M <M (M (M • CO (M ^ • 
Oi 1-1 


a 

COT 

1 d 

6^ 


jsuiESy 


(Minos -co o • • • -1-1 • • •!-<•• • • '(M 

i-l-' ,—1.... ... ....,_! 


aoj[ 


oooocococo • -coco • o th -* os oo 'si' oo eg co ■* eg o in cj ^t ^ t- co oo • 
CO CO 1-1 -^ eg • • eg oo • eg th i-i i-i eg co -^ eg i-i eg eg eg eg i-i co eg tji . 

05 TH 


a 

.2^ 
1 d 


;stiiBSy