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Full text of "Carpenter"

WORRY! 

(By James Edward Hungerford) 

"I'VE done a heap of WORRYING", 

Said Silas Siggsby Brown, 

"And 'bout my work gone flurrying, 

My brow creased in a frown! 

I've laid awake nights muttering 

O'er frets befallen me, 

And dire predictions uttering 

Of WORSE things yet to be, 

Until my heart was fluttering; 

My nerves a-twitch, b'gee! 

My pigs, they were not fattening 

The way they'd ought to fat; 

My bank-roll, it was Battening — 

And prices gone to SKAT! 

My baby-chicks were sickening; 

My cows looked sad and glum; 

The trouble-clouds were thickening — 

And WORSE was yet to come! 

"And so I kept on WORRYING 

'Bout things a-getting worse; 

A-plunging headlong — hurrying 

Myself into a hearse! 

My days were spent in frittering 

The hours away in GRIEF; 

For me no birds were twittering — 

There was no 'farm-relief; 

No 'silver-lining' glittering — 

No grain in any sheaf! 

And then one day, while puttering 

Around — I saw a hen 

Hop off her nest a-fluttering, 

And then hop ON again! 

While other hens were scurrying 

For WORMS, as up they'd bob, 

That fool hen, she was burying 

Herself — and raising hob; 

A- fussing, fretting, flurrying — 

To hatch a dern DOOR-KNOB! 

And right there I quit WORRYING— 
And got back ON THE JOB!" 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



a 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, INC., as second class mail matter, under Act of Congress, Aug. 24, 1912 

Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, act of 
October 3, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918 

A Monthly Journal for Carpenters. Stair Builders, Machine Wood Workers. Planing Mill Men, and 

Kindred Industries. Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters 

and Joinprs of America, at 

Carpenters' Building, 222 E- Michigan Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 

Advertising Department, 25 Third Avenue, New York, N. Y. <^^^>51 



Established in 1881 
Vol. LIV. — Xo. 1. 



INDIANAPOLIS, JANUARY, 1934 



One Dollar Per Tear 
Ten Cents a Copy 



NOTICE 

The publishers of "The Carpenter" reserve the right to reject all advertising matter 
which may be, in their judgment, unfair or objectionable to the membership of the United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America. 

All contracts for advertising space in "The Carpenter,'' including those stipulated as 
non-cancellable, are only accepted subject to the above reserved rights of the publishers. 



TODAY 

Each day is a fresh adventure, 
Each day you begin anew, 
Yesterday is gone forever, 
But TODAY belongs to you. 

Tomorrow holds no promise 

That you its tasks may do; 

Fill each moment with worth-while 

labor, 
For today belongs to you. 

Yesterday is gone forever, 
"With whate'er it brought to you 
Of either success or failure, 
But today belongs to you. 

So plan not for the morrow, 
Its sun you may not see, 
But do the task that's nearest, 
Today belongs to thee. 

— Ex. 



T II I '- CARP i: N TER 



THE RIGHT TO STRIKE 

(By Wm. Green, President, A. F. of L. ) 




HE right of workers to 
strike is not questioned 
by the National Recovery 
Act. Even though we may 
exercise great control in 
the situation that now ex- 
ists, the strike weapon is still available 
— the right to strike against imposition 
of injustice is inherent. Recognizing 
that serious difficulties may arise which 
will result in strike, the administration 
has set up a national labor board so that 
there may be a tribunal to which such 
difficulties may be referred for speedy 
adjustment. 

Much depends upon the success of 
the re-employment program. Whatever 
retards the program endangers the in- 
terests of all. This is a time to hold 
our lines steady and united for a for- 
ward movement. Those who know con- 
ditions realize that wage-earners are 
often forced into situations where they 
cannot avoid strikes. When forced into 
such situations, wage-earners can ap- 
peal at once to the government, placing 
responsibility for continuation of the 
difficulties upon public officials. 

The spirit of the recovery agencies as 
provided by law is that of collective bar- 
gaining; presentation of the facts and 
mutual agreement upon conclusions in 
the light of discussion and factual 
evidence. When a decision has been 
reached, it should be put into effect. If 
workers or employers wish to file pro- 
test, they should have that right but 
work should be resumed pending fur- 
ther action. 

We are facing a crisis in our effort 
to save our national institutions and 
it is wise to avoid interferences with 
work if possible. On the other hand 
we have repeated evidence that many 
employers are trying to evade the pro- 
visions of the recovery act and that 
others are deliberately trying to pre- 
vent the intent of the codes to which 
they are committed. Under such con- 
ditions there must be recourse for those 
workers who voluntarily forego the 
right to strike in order to co-operate for 
a larger purpose. 

If the proposal for industrial partner- 
ship is to succeed, employers must do 
their part. Industrial executives with 
autocratic power had full responsibility 



and what was the result of their leader- 
ship? 

The terms of the recovery act are 
unmistakable. Workers have the right 
to organize in unions and bargain col- 
lectively. When employers recognize 
this right and provide true collective 
bargaining procedure for every stage 
of relationship, workers will not need 
to strike. The only safe way to abolish 
strikes is to eliminate their causes. 

However, unless employers do their 
part, no amount of self-control or tol- 
erance on the part of wage-earners 
will be effective. Employers, who, as 
a matter of policy, refuse to meet a 
union official, are in effect denying em- 
ployes the right of collective bargain- 
ing. When an employer deliberately 
refuses to discuss issues with the rep- 
resentatives of employes, employes have 
no alternative but force. It is not 
enough to create collective bargaining 
and arbitration agencies — employers 
and employes must use these agencies 
to effectuate their purposes. 

Working people cannot surrender the 
right to strike. The strike, in the last 
analysis, is the only power which they 
can effectively use in protecting them- 
selves against the perpetuation of wrong 
and in defense of the exercise of social 
and economic rights. Working people 
have suffered because they have been 
forced to go through strikes and lock- 
outs after they have exhausted all 
peaceful avenues for the settlement of 
controversies. Under no circumstances 
can the American Federation of Labor 
and its affiliated membership surrender 
the right to strike for the purpose of se- 
curing higher wages, improved condi- 
tions of work, and the right to organize 
and bargain collectively. The right to 
strike is an inalienable right of free 
people to protect themselves against 
exploitation and suppression. 



A certain amount of opposition is a 
great help to a man. Kites rise against 
and not with the wind. Even a head 
wind is better than none. No navigator 
ever worked his passage anywhere in a 
dead calm. — John Neal. 



Keep Your Dues Paid Up 



THE CARPENTER 



INCREASED PRODUCTION OF LABOR DEMANDS 
SHORTER WORK WEEK 

(By Executive Council, A. F. of L. ) 




HE increased production 
of American workers by 
the use of machinery and 
other technological im- 
provements makes neces- 
sary drastic decrease in 
the length of the work day and work 
week in order to provide jobs for the 
millions whom employers ordinarily 
toss into the unemployed army when the 
prospect of increased profits leads them 
to substitute iron men and women for 
human beings in the production and dis- 
tribution of wealth, said the Executive 
Council of the American Federation of 
Labor in their report to the Federa- 
tion's 1933 convention. 

The maximum work week, the Coun- 
cil said, should not exceed 30 hours. 

While admitting that some of the 
present army of over 11,000,000 jobless 
are in their unfortunate condition be- 
cause of the business depression, the 
Council claimed that a "large propor- 
tion" of them are unemployed as the 
•'result of technological improvements 
in industry, both before the depression 
and in the years since 19 29. 

"A report of the National Bureau of 
Economic Research shows a 12 per cent 
increase in production per worker per 
hour from 1929 to 1932 in manufactur- 
ing industries. For the period since 
19 3 2, judging from the statistical data 
available, production per man hour has 
increased even more rapidly with the 
rising industrial activity this spring 
than it did in the full three years of de- 
pression." 

These figures, the Council said, are 
confirmed by the statistics on produc- 
tion and employment compiled by the 
United States Department of Labor and 
the Federal Reserve Board, which 
"show from 1929 to 1932 a 5 per cent 
greater decline in man-hours worked 
than in production, while from the 1932 
level to July, 1933, the increase in the 
production index was greater by 24 per 
cent than the increase in man-hours. 
The figures are as follows: From 1929 
to 19 32 (three years) production 
dropped 47 per cent, man-hours 52 per 
cent; from 1932 to July, 193 3 (less than 
one year), production rose 49 per cent, 
man-hours only 25 per cent. Thus in 
both these periods the indexes show a 



shrinking amount of work time in com- 
parison to production." 

It has been the permanent policy of 
the owners of industry under the pres- 
ent system to grab for profits all the 
"savings" resulting from the practice 
of substituting machinery for working 
men and women in the production and 
distribution of wealth, throwing the dis- 
placed workers into the army of the un- 
employed and leaving them dependent 
on public and private charity for a liv- 
ing for themselves and their families. 

The Executive Council emphatically 
demands the discard of this jungle pol- 
icy for the ethically just and decidedly 
humane one of reducing the length of 
the work day and work week in propor- 
tion to the increase of the workers' out- 
put with the use of machinery. 

"These figures, together with the fig- 
ures of the National Bureau of Eco- 
nomic Research," the Council said, "in- 
dicate that we must expect steadily in- 
creasing production in future and must 
adjust work-hours accordingly unless 
we are to have a continuing and increas- 
ing problem of unemployment through 
the years. 

"At present, with industry still far 
below normal levels, a very consider- 
able shortening of the work week is 
necessary if those out of work are to 
find jobs. Figures from the Labor De- 
partment, showing employment and 
man-hours worked in industry, indicate 
that, with industry at the July level, a 
work week reduced to 28.4 hrs. would 
be necessary to give jobs to all those em- 
ployed in 1929. 

"Therefore, we are convinced that the 
work week should be well below 40 
hours at present and a considerable pe- 
riod of time in the future. 

"Our immediate problem is the army 
of over 11,000,000 still unemployed, an 
army which will grow with the winter 
months. How are we to feed them? 
Where can we find the funds to clothe 
and house them? How can their idle 
time be turned to produce wealth which 
will keep body and soul together until 
they may again find their rightful places 
in productive work? 

"For the coming winter there is no 
question that work-hours should not be 
over 30 a week." 



T II E (' V R P E N T E It 



STRAN-STEEL— CARPENTERS' WORK 

(By Dexter W. Johnson) 




HIS past summer one of 
the big features at the 
Century of Progress at 
Chicago was the Stran- 
Steel House. Its popular- 
ity was shown by the 
long lines of people always in wait out- 
side the door. From opening until clos- 
ing time people from all over the coun- 
try flocked through the house in large 
numbers. 

Many of the best modern features 
marked this remarkable house. The 
ladies liked the design and the interior 
furnishings. The men, and especially 
those in the building game, keenly ap- 
preciated the construction. Steel con- 
struction has been used in building for 
a long time. But the Stran-Steel fram- 
ing with which this house was built im- 
pressed builders with its practicability 
and ease of assembly. 

Stran-Steel is a light steel lumber 
which is designed to replace wood in the 
framework of houses, light commercial 
structures, garages, partitions and all 
other places where a strong, fire-safe 
material is required. The Stran-Steel 
studs and joists are formed by riveting 
together two channel irons placed back 
to back. 

Other steel materials have been made 
in this way, but the feature of Stran- 
Steel is its nailing groove. The backs 
of the channels are corrugated, and 
when they are fitted together, the corru- 
gations of one channel fit nicely into 
the corrugations in the other. Nails 
driven between the two channels natur- 
ally follow the curves of the steel and 
lock themselves in place. It has been 
estimated conservatively that a nail 
driven into Stran-Steel holds more than 
two and one-half times stronger than in 
ordinary yellow pine. 

The Stran-Steel House at A Century 
of Progress was built to demonstrate 
Stran-Steel. At first glance many liked 
the design of the house. Others liked 
the unique porcelain exterior finish. 
But, all the visitors came to appreciate 
the merits of the Stran-Steel construc- 
tion before they left the house. 

When one entered the house, a short 
talk was given by a company engineer, 
outlining the main idea of Stran-Steel. 
Samples of the steel stud were shown 



in which nails were fixed just as they 
had been driven in. Emphasis was made 
of the fact that all wall materials are 
nailed to the steel frame in exactly the 
same way that they might have been 
nailed to wood studding. 

After the visitor had seen the interior 
of the house he went out into the gar- 
age. Ordinarily, no one cares much 
about this part of the house. But here 
was the important part of the whole 
show. The interior walls of the garage 
were left exposed, and the visitor had 
a chance to examine just how Stran- 
Steel goes together. An opportunity 
was given for carpenters to test out 
their skill at nailing to steel. Hundreds 
of them did just that. 

There were two demonstrations of 
the holding powers of nails driven into 
Stran-Steel. In one corner of the garage 
a large limestone boulder, removed from 
the breakwater along the lakefront, 
was hung from a board which was held 
to the ceiling joists by four eight-penny 
box nails. The second proof of the 
holding power of nails in this type of 
steel frame was shown by letting people 
drive nails into the steel studs, and 
then having them pull them out. 

Stran-Steel made a great hit at the 
Pair, and as this issue of The Carpen- 
ter's Journal goes to press there are five 
houses actually being built in which 
Stran-Steel was used in place of the 
old type of wood framing. Also, it is 
being used in gas stations, office parti- 
tions and even fences. 

Carpenters are employed to erect 
Stran-Steel. They lay it out in the same 
way that they have used with wood. 
The pieces are bolted together in the 
same places that wood framing would 
be placed. Due to its strength, Stran- 
Steel studs and joists are placed ordi- 
narily twenty-four inches apart instead 
of the customary sixteen. 

Once the frame is erected, the sheet- 
ing is nailed to the steel frame just as 
if the frame were wood. Anything can 
be fastened to Stran-Steel that can be 
nailed on, clipped on, stuck on, or any 
other fastening method that you might 
think of. 

By an examination of the illustra- 
tions, our reader can easily see that 
erection of Stran-Steel is carpenter's 



THE CARPENTER 



work. It is carpentry in steel instead of 
wood. Aside from the change in mate- 
rial, everything is exactly the same. 
Even the working plans are the same. 
A blueprint for a house with Stran- 
Steel framing looks just like a plan for 
a wood-framed house. 

Let us follow the building of a house 
with a Stran-Steel frame. The concrete 
foundation is poured in the usual way. 
Care is taken in preparing the founda- 
tion, but no more care than is necessary 
and right in ordinary construction. 

After the framing has been laid out, 
the carpenters can get right to work on 
erecting the studs and joists. First floor 
joists are laid on the foundation. Each 
partition wall is assembled on saw 
horses and then pushed up into place. 
Window and door headers are placed in 
the frame as they are in wood. A plate 
is placed across the tops of the studs. 

Second floor joists are put in place 
and bolted to the plate. Then another 
plate is bolted on, and second floor 
studs are erected. Rafters are framed 
as if the workman were handling wood 
instead of a material many times 
stronger. Dormers, hips and valleys, 
are handled like typical wood construc- 
tion. 

Still thinking of Stran-Steel as re- 
placing wood framing, we can under- 
stand the ease with which sheeting is 
nailed on. Any type of insulation board 
may be applied, and if the specifications 
call for it, the space between the studs 
can be packed with insulating material. 

In the case of a brick veneer wall, 
the wall ties are fastened to the stud 
and then built into the brick veneer. 
Either masonry spikes or corrugated 
wall ties are used. Stucco is applied 
over lath nailed onto the Stran-Steel 
studs. Even wood siding may be used, 
nailing it onto the steel frame. 

There are many different types of 
steel framing. We are all familiar with 
the sky scraper. For years builders have 
been playing with the idea of applying 
skyscraper principles to home construc- 
tion. Today there are standing houses 
built as a result of such experimenting. 
They are the best constructed houses 
in their neighborhoods — but they cost 
so much to build that no one will buy 
them. Hence, many of them are stand- 
ing vacant today. 

Steel has a certain amount of expan- 
sion. This is due to heat and cold. How- 



ever, the expansion along the length of a 
ten-foot steel stud such as is used in 
house construction is less than the 
thickness of a very thin dime! Here is 
your insurance against "settling" — not 
a movement of the foundation, but as 
we carpenters know, the warping and 
shrinking of the wood as it dries out. 

Because of the greater strength of 
steel, it is possible to pour concrete 
subfloors throughout the house, and the 
finish floor is fastened to this, either by 
mastic or by sleepers. Here is a floor 
construction that is rigid and squeak- 
less. The noise from one floor does not 
pass through this type of construction 
very easily. Also, the presence of the 
concrete slab between floors aids great- 
ly to the fire-safety of the entire build- 
ing. 

While we are speaking of fire-safety 
in connection with construction possible 
because of steel construction, we must 
not forget that one of the great fire haz- 
ards is removed when a house is framed 
with steel instead of wood. Flames do 
not spread in a steel framed wall. 

It would be possible to continue for 
sometime, outlining the merits of steel 
construction. We could touch on the 
fact that vermin and termites cannot in- 
fest a steel-framed house. We could 
show how the steel frame of a house 
really serves as a protection against 
lightning. But, what are some of the 
disadvantages? 

The one which comes to mind right 
away is that the erection of steel in the 
ordinary run of building is not carpen- 
ters' work. If they take away our big- 
gest field, that of house framing, what 
are we to do? With this thought in 
mind, a carpenter contractor living 
in south-eastern Michigan developed 
Stran-Steel. He worked it out so that 
it is put together just like wood con- 
struction. His aim was to make Stran- 
Steel replace wood in house framing. 
He has accomplished this. You can even 
drive nails into it. 

Some years ago there was a material 
on the market that had this nailing 
feature. Many of the readers of this 
article have worked with it. It was made 
of channels riveted back to back. These 
backs were flat, and one nail driven in 
would hold fine. However, if you drove 
in a bigger nail next to the one already 
there, the first nail fell out. Here was 
a problem. 



T 111'. ( A k r i: XTER 



The corrugated nailing groove in 
every Stran-Steel member solved (his 
difficulty. Nails are held in by (he ac- 
tual bending and clinching of the nail 
within (he stud or joist. 

This nailing groove has solved one 
of the big troubles - which went along" 
with every steel constructed job. You 
can nail on all your sheeting. It is not 
uecessary to monkey around with fancy 
clips, or to bend a nail around the steel 
member. 

As everybody in the building business 
knows, the cheapest, the quickest and 
best way to fasten on wall coverings is 
with nails. You Nail to Stran-Steel. 
Carpenters erect Stran-Steel just as 
they put up a wood house frame. In 
ordinary cases the erection time is ap- 
proximately the same. It has been 
shown by actual tests that the total 
cost of a Stran-Steel framed house is 



only about ten per cent more than the 
same house built with wood. 

Stran-Steel was invented by a car- 
penter-contractor who, a short time 
alter the invention, started to work with 
a lumber and building material dealer. 
These two men, experts in construction 
work, brought Stran-Steel to its pres- 
ent development. Stran-Steel houses 
have been and are being built. All of 
the Stran-Steel framed houses ever con- 
structed have been lived in ever since 
the job was finished. Carpenters erect- 
ed these houses. 

The aim of the carpenter-contractor- 
inventor of Stran-Steel has been to pro- 
vide a steel material which has all the 
advantages of steel together with the 
workability and adaptability of wood. 
Actual construction with Stran-Steel 
proves that this aim has been accom- 
plished. 



A VICTORY FOR THE UNION CONTRACTOR WHO 
EMPLOYS UNION MEN ON GOVERNMENT 

WORK 




ECENTLY there came to 
hand from the Depart- 
ment of Justice, Wash- 
ington, D. C, an opinion 
of the Honorable Homer 
Cummings, Attorney Gen- 
eral of the United States, addressed 
to Honorable Harold L. Ickes, Federal 
Emergency Administrator of Public 
Works, Washington, D. C, with refer- 
ence to that class of labor. We here- 
with take pleasure in publishing that 
opinion in detail because we feel it 
should be in the hands of all our local 
representatives if the question arises in 
their district. 

COPY 

Department of Justice, 
Washington. 
Sir: 

I have the honor to respond to your 
request of September 27, 1933, for my 
opinion, "whether a union contractor 
who employs only union men if avail- 
able and qualified and who give prefer- 
ence to ex-service men with dependents 
who are members of the union, is 
obliged to offer employment to non- 
union ex-service men with dependents 
before employing union men who are 



not ex-service men." This question has 
arisen in connection with the construc- 
tion of a sewage disposal plant in Mil- 
waukee, financed by the Public Works 
Administration. 

The statute particularly involved is 
Section 2 06 of the National Industrial 
Recovery Act of June 16, 19 33, the rele- 
vant part of which is as follows: 

All contracts let for construction 
projects and all loans and grants 
pursuant to this title shall con- 
tain such provisions as are nec- 
essary to insure ... (4) that 
the employment of labor in 
connection with any such pro- 
ject, preference shall be given, 
where they are qualified, to ex-ser- 
vice men with dependents, and then 
in the following order: (A) To 
citizens of the United States and 
aliens who have declared their in- 
tention of becoming citizens, who 
are bona fide residents of the poli- 
tical subdivision and/or county in 
which the work is to be performed, 
and (B) to citizens of the United 
States and aliens who have de- 
clared their intention of becoming 
citizens, who are bona fide resi- 
dents of the State, Territory, or 
district in which the work is to be 



THE CARPENTER 



performed: Provided, that these 
preferences shall apply only when 
such labor is available and quali- 
fied to perform the work to which 
the employment relates. . . . 

Bulletin No. 2, Public Works Admin- 
istration, Article C (a) page 3, quotes 
the above provision and proceeds: 

"(b) Employment services. — 
To the fullest extent possible, labor 
required for the project and appro- 
priate to be secured through em- 
ployment services, shall be chosen 
from the lists of qualified workers 
submitted by local employment 
agencies designated by the United 
States Employment Service: Pro- 
vided, however, That organized la- 
bor, skilled and unskilled, shall not 
be required to register at such local 
employment agencies but shall be 
secured in the customary ways 
through recognized union locals. In 
the event, however, that qualified 
workers are not furnished by the 
union locals within 48 hours (Sun- 
days and holidays excluded) after 
request is filed by the employer, 
such labor may be chosen from lists 
of qualified workers submitted by 
local agencies designated by the 
United States Employment Service. 
In the selection of workers from 
lists prepared by such employment 
agencies and local union, the labor 
preferences provided in section (a) 
of this article shall be observed." 
The question relates, to the duty of a 
union contractor. I understand the un- 
ion contractor in question has made 
agreements with the classes of work- 
men performing the kind of work which 
he contracts to perform. These agree- 
ments provide that he shall employ 
members of the unions to perform such 
work. 

The Act does not give an absolute 
preference to ex-service men with de- 
pendents, but that "preference shall be 
given, where they are qualified, to ex- 
service men with dependents," with the 
proviso that the preference shall apply 
only when such labor is available and 
qualified to perform the work to which 
the employment relates. 

The question to be decided is what is 
meant by these expressions. Is the word 
"qualified" to be construed as meaning 
only technical qualifications, or does it 
include these and any other qualifica- 



tions that may be necessary or custom- 
ary under the particular circumstances 
of the employment, for the furtherance 
of the enterprise. 

I am informed that many collective 
agreements between contractors and 
labor organizations were in effect prior 
to and at the time of the enactment of 
the Recovery Act under which the con- 
tractor was obligated to employ only 
members of the said organizations in 
connection with his work; that in the 
great cities of the country, practically 
all construction of buildings is now and 
has been for a long time performed by 
contractors under said obligations, and 
that a number of contractors who are 
engaged in construction of sewers, tun- 
nels, bridges and other public works 
have entered into such collective agree- 
ments. 

In the case of the union contractor in 
question who has agreements to employ 
only union men, an ex-service man with 
dependents who is not a member of the 
union, might be the cause of delays and 
labor disputes if the contractor under- 
took to employ him. His presence 
might retard the work rather than 
further it. No matter what his techni- 
cal qualifications might be, he is not 
"qualified" in the sense that his pres- 
ence would be of advantage to the 
prosecution of the work and thus to 
the furnishing of employment for other 
men. 

It is the purpose of the National In- 
dustrial Recovery Act to provide em- 
ployment and further industry, so that 
as one enterprise advances, it may call 
to life other dependent and contributing 
enterprises, and nation-wide industry 
proceed with ever increasing momen- 
tum. One labor dispute may have con- 
sequences much more far-reaching than 
delaying the particular job. This is 
abundantly shown in the Declaration of 
Policy set forth in Section 1 of the Act. 
It refers to the "national emergency" 
existing and proceeds — 

It is hereby declared to be the 
policy of Congress to remove ob- 
structions to the free flow of . . . 
commerce ... to induce and main- 
tain united action of labor and 
management under adequate gov- 
ernmental sanction and supervi- 
sion ... to promote the fullest 
possible utilization of the present 
capacity of industry .... 



t ii i: (A it i» k \ t i: it 



Congress did not intend that the 
non-union ex-service men with depen- 
dents should have an absolute prefer- 
ence in the case where there is a union 
contractor who employs union men and 
deals with them through the principle 
of collective bargaining. Such a man is 
not "qualified" in a broad sense for that 
particular word. 

Congress, as appears by legislative 
history, was aware of the existence of 
collective bargaining agreements. Sec- 
tion V of the Act in question provides 
that every code of fair competition shall 
contain the following provision: 

"That employes shall have the 
right to organize and bargain col- 
lectively through representatives of 
their own choosing" .... 

Other enactments of Congress have 
distinctly recognized the system of la- 
bor unions and collective bargaining. 
The Act of June 29, 1886, distinctly 
gives trade unions the right of incor- 
porate. The so-called Railway Labor 
Act of 19 2 6 recognizes railroad labor 
organizations and collective bargaining. 
The Act approved March 23, 1932, 47 
Stat. 7 0, provides that it is a matter of 
public policy of the United States that 
the worker have full freedom of organ- 
ization and collective bargaining. 

Thus it appears that Congress was 
w r ell aware of the existence of collective 
agreements and of customs and usages 
in effect in the construction industry 
which have had the effect of restricting 
selection of employes. 

The purpose of the Act was among 
other things, to provide employment 
quickly. At the time of the enactment 
of the Recovery Act Congress had be- 
fore it reports of the Department of 
Labor and of other agencies, showing 
the degree of unemployment in the con- 
struction industry which was shown to 
be approximately 86%. It was also 
well known that a large proportion of 
this unemployment was of men belong- 
ir.j to labor organizations having col- 
lective agreements with employers re- 
stricting selection of their members. In- 
asmuch as Congress was aware of theso 
agreements and usages and bearing in 
mind the purpose of the Act to provide 
employment in the field of public works, 
the 'construction of phrases of doubtful 
import should be in accord with the ex- 
isting situation. 



It is obvious in the light of the situa- 
tion that the word "preference" should 
not be construed as an absolute prefer- 
ence. Indeed the preference to ex-ser- 
vice men with dependents is to extend 
only to those qualified. A person quali- 
fied to engage on public works is one 
whose services will expedite the per- 
formance of the work. If his conduct is 
obstructive or had an abstractive effect, 
or even if his participation has such ef- 
fect, he is really not qualified although 
he may have strictly technical qualifica- 
tions. Thus a non-union ex-service man 
with dependents would not be qualified 
for employment by a union contractor 
having a collective agreement which ex- 
culdes non-union men from employ- 
ment. 

It follows that Section 206 (4) of the 
Recovery Act which provides for prefer- 
ence to ex-service men with dependents 
where they are qualified should be con- 
strued in such manner as to promote 
the provision of employment and also 
to obtain such employes on public works 
as will not obstruct the completion of 
the work. A construction which will 
promote the interruption to work by 
strikes should be avoided in order also 
to save time and expense. 

For these reasons the Public Works 
Administration has adopted the con- 
struction as appears from the recital 
above that organized labor is not re- 
quired to register at the United States 
employment agencies but is to be ob- 
tained from union locals. 

The provision referred to was adopted 
and made a part of the Public Works 
Administration's instructions in this 
field after conference and agreement 
with the Department of Labor and was 
urged by that Department on the ground 
that serious labor disturbances on pro- 
jects of the Public Works Administra- 
tion will occur if it is decided that union 
workers cannot be taken on a job under 
collective agreement until all available 
veterans have been employed. This ap- 
pears by a letter to me from the Sec- 
retary of Labor. 

I am of the opinion that it was the 
intention of Congress that the word 
"qualified" should not be limited to 
technical qualifications but to effectuate 
what would be a reasonable preference, 
that is to say, to prefer union ex-service 
meii to non-union and to prefer ex-ser- 
vice men in fields not covered by collec- 



THE CARPENTER 



tive agreement and otherwise to leave 
such collective agreements unaffected. 

For these reasons it is my opinion 
that your question should be answered 
in the negative. A union contractor 
must, of course, give the preference 
among union men to those union men 
who are ex-service men with depen- 
dents. He is not required, however, to 
employ an ex-service man with depen- 
dents who is not a member of the union, 
in preference to union men who are not 



ex-service men with dependents. This 
interpretation, in my opinion, is in 
harmony with the intention of the law. 

Respectfully, 
(Signed) Homer Cummings 

Attorney General. 

Honorable Harold L. Ickes 
Federal Emergency Administration of 
Public Works, 

Washington, D. C. 



PUT IDLE LAND TO WORK 

(By Charles Lathrop Pack, President, American Tree Association) 




HERE is a great distance 
between the whirring 
sawmills amid the crash- 
ing trees in the lumber 
camps of the Northwest 
and the quiet offices of 
the Census Bureau in Washington, 
where figures are compiled, but the two 
are closely related in indicating the 
future ratio of people to trees in the 
United States and the imperative need 
for replenishing the nation's wood sup- 
ply. Let us look for a moment to the 
year 2000. Time goes rapidly and 
there are children in our schools today 
who will write that date. Census Bu- 
reau statisticians tells us the population 
of this country is increasing at the rate 
of 1,000,000 a year. 

It is high time then we all awake 
up on this important economic subject. 
Such an increase in population means 
a continually increasing call for wood. 
It means a population of about 150,000,- 
000 in 1953 and approximately 200,- 
000,000 in the year 2003. 

There will certainly be no more land 
than there is right now. The thing to 
do is to continue the reforestation work 
now started and put the millions of 
acres of idle land we have to work 
growing trees. Any such increase in 
population will bring a demand upon 
our wood resources that could not be 
supplied if all our forests were under 
the best management. 

Productive forests are rapidly de- 
creasing. In 19 50 we may have an 
area of idle land larger than New York, 
Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, 
Maryland, Virginia and all the New 
England states. 

In the United States the center of 
the lumber industry is in the Rocky 



Mountain region far removed from the 
great manufacturing centers, the points 
of great consumption of forest products. 
States like New York, Pennsylvania, 
Michigan and New England, once the 
center of the industry, now import lum- 
ber over long hauls to keep their fac- 
tories going. 

What will it mean when these fac- 
tories try to meet the 'demands of a 
population of 200,000,000? In our eco- 
nomic scheme the cost of wood enters 
into everything in one way or another. 
There are millions of feet of pulpwood 
going into newspapers. 

About two-thirds of the population 
of America uses wood exclusively for 
fuel. A greater amount of it is used 
for fuel than for any other single pur- 
pose. Americans consume one-third of 
the fuel wood used in the world. 

The reforestation camps recently in- 
augurated are the beginning of a move- 
ment that will no doubt become perma- 
nent, as the demand for wood from 
an increasing population continues to 
grow. 

We must grow trees for a growing 
people. 



State of California Now Leads in the 
Use of Wood 

California used more softwoods (pine, 
fir, redwood, cedar, etc.) than any other 
state in the union, the estimate by the 
bureau of census, based on the 19 30 
lumber cut, being 2,372,828,000 feet. 
New York is second with nearly two bil- 
lion feet, followed by Washington, Illi- 
nois and Pennsylvania with more than 
a billion feet each. 



Demand the L T nion Label 



10 



THE CARPENTER 



ADDRESS OF MR. JAMES ROWAN, FRATERNAL 

DELEGATE OF THE BRITISH TRADE 

UNION CONGRESS TO THE A. F. OF L. 

CONVENTION 




FEEL much honored in 
being appointed by the 
British Trades Union 
Congress to convey to 
this great convention the 
fraternal greetings of 
the British Trade Union movement, by 
tradition the greatest in the world, and 
although like other countries severely 
crippled by the adversity of recent 
years, not yet so lame that it cannot 
make its power felt and with sufficient 
reserve of power as will insure its fur- 
ther progress as and when trade revives. 
True, Britain has, like your own coun- 
try, been through a much too lengthy 
testing time and the trade unions have 
had to shoulder financial burdens that 
should never have been placed upon 
them. Such burdens should be the re- 
sponsibility of the state. So far as Bri- 
tain is concerned the government, by 
its misguided policy of false economy, 
has been the dominating influence in 
accentuating the "slump". The mis- 
called national government has done all 
they possibly could to worsen matters 
by practicing no more spending, longer 
hours of labor, and a lower standard of 
living — about the maddest policy any 
one outside a lunatic asylum ever tried 
to impose upon a sane people. Unfortu- 
nately it was successful in bringing 
about the biggest slump Britain has ex- 
perienced since the hungry forties of 
the last century. Every other country 
appears also at some time or other dur- 
ing the last few years to have been prop- 
agating the same false economic policy 
that you can only improve your own 
position by worsening the position of 
others, and they never seem to have 
seriously considered the more sensible 
proposition that they , might do much 
better for themselves by assisting each 
other towards recovery. In my opinion, 
this mad policy was imposed on weak 
governments by the bankers and inter- 
national financiers. The world slump is 
directly due to the international eco- 
nomic war that for some time past, and 
still, is being waged by these sharks to 
the detriment of the industrialists and 
the workers of the world who are being 
bled white in the process. What is the 



remedy? It is difficult to say with any 
degree of certainty, but the same gen- 
eral economic crisis which has provided 
you with tremendous opportunities for 
developing the influence of American 
Trade Unionism has confronted us with 
enormous perils. 

Events in Germany, and later in Aus- 
tria, with similar menacing develop- 
ments in other European countries, have 
brought us as trade unionists face to 
face with the fact that a definite and de- 
termined attempt to destroy the organ- 
ization of democracy and the institu- 
tions of free citizenship has been set on 
foot. 

I do not exaggerate when I say that 
my fellow trade unionists at home and 
in Europe at large feel that our organ- 
ized movement is involved in a struggle 
which will decide for generations to 
come whether they shall remain free or 
become enslaved under an economic 
and political tyranny more oppressive 
than history has yet known. 

The destruction of German Trade Un- 
ionism marks the beginning of this 
struggle. I don't suppose American 
Trade Unionists have underestimated 
the significance of that event. Here was 
the most powerful and highly organized 
Trade Union movement in the world, 
with a membership of nearly 8,000,000, 
strongly centralized and efficiently ad- 
ministered, disciplined and loyal. It has 
been wiped out. German Trade Union- 
ism disappeared between two sunsets, 
as if it had been a feeble struggling 
thing. Practically within 24 hours the 
working class organization was smash- 
ed, its leaders imprisoned or driven into 
exile, its funds seized, its journals sup- 
pressed, its offices occupied, and its en- 
tire machinery taken over by Hitler's 
emissaries. 

It happened so suddenly that most 
trade unionists found it impossible to 
believe that such a thing could take 
place. As a member of the General 
Council of the British Trades Union 
Congress I was" made aware along with 
my colleagues that the German Trade 
Unions were confronting a very real 
peril; but even our General Council was 



THE CARPENTER 



11 



taken by surprise in the swift march of 
events after Hitler seized power in the 
spring of the present year. 

We all know now that Hitlerism is a 
political dictatorship, ruling by methods 
of terrorism and persecution in the in- 
terests of the employing and landown- 
ing class, the militarists and monarch- 
ists, whose power was broken but not 
destroyed by the defeat of Germany in 
the great war. This is the first fact I 
want to emphasize. There may be 
American Trade Unionists, who have 
been deceived by the propaganda of the 
Nazis. Admittedly there are those who 
have been confused and puzzled by the 
fact that the Hitler movement calls it- 
self "National-Socialist." It claims to 
be a popular movement, supported by 
the overwhelming mass of public opin- 
ion. It alleges that its only opponents 
are communists, internationalists, pa- 
cifists, socialists and Jews. You have to 
know something of the origins of this 
Hitler movement in order to under- 
stand it for what it really is — a sinister, 
well-planned conspiracy on the part of 
the former ruling classes of Germany to 
regain the power they lost when they 
lost the war. 

Hitler, in my opinion, an opinion 
which is shared by a great many of my 
colleagues, is only the instrument, the 
figure-head, the willing agent of these 
reactionary interests. He is the man 
who organized, in association with 
Field Marshall Ludendorff, financed by 
big industrialists, the abortive insur- 
rectionary movement in Bavaria in the 
closing months of 19 23. In the trial 
that followed in the spring of the fol- 
lowing year it was proved that Hitler's 
organization had been liberally supplied 
with money by representatives of the 
South German employers' association. 

You will find these statements re- 
corded in the famous "Brown Book" 
compiled by an international committee 
of which the famous scientist, Einstein, 
is the president — the book which caused 
the Nazis to place a price on Einstein's 
head and drove him to seek sanctuary 
in my own country. In that book it is 
further stated that an agent of Hit- 
ler's in Switzerland from French capi- 
talist groups and it is alleged, too, that 
your own Henry Ford contributed to 
Hitler's financial resources. 

This latter allegation, I am aware, 
has been denied. It is not, however, 
denied that evidence of the financial 



support given to Hitler by the big in- 
dustrialists was produced at the Hitler- 
Ludendorff trial in 1924 which resulted 
in Hitler's conviction and sentence to 
five years' imprisonment. Nor is it pos- 
sible to ignore the close connection of 
the big industrialists, the landowners, 
the militarists and monarchist elements 
with the Hitler movement. These groups 
and classes, avowed and bitter enemies 
of the German democratic and parlia- 
mentary regime, established under the 
constitution of Weimar, framed in 1919, 
joined Hitler in the assault upon the 
parliamentary system. They made their 
own attempt early last year (in May, 
193 2) to establish a dictatorship with- 
out Hitler, when von Papen and Gen- 
eral Sleicher assumed the powers of 
Government and tried to rule by de- 
cree. That was a Government of big 
industrialists, landowners and generals. 
It failed to retain power because it had 
no popular following. 

It was when these people realized 
that they must have the reinforcement 
of a powerful mass organization that 
they joined forces with Hitler who had 
control of a great armed force, a disci- 
plined private army that called itself a 
political party. In fact, the Hitler re- 
gime of dictatorship and terrorism be- 
gan in January, 1933, as an open coa- 
lition with these capitalists, landown- 
ing and military classes and groups. 

I hope no delegate at this convention, 
or any American trade unionists, imag- 
ines that because Hitler now holds su- 
preme power and his capitalist col- 
leagues have retired into the back- 
ground they have ceased to control the 
situation in Germany. Make no mis- 
take about it — the Hitler Government 
is the instrument of the- reaction these 
people have engineered. It is to serve 
their interests that the German Trade 
Union movement has been destroyed." 

And not only German Trade Unionism 
— the whole political system founded 
upon the principles and the practice of 
democracy has been shattered in Ger- 
many. It is no longer a country ruled 
by a freely elected Parliament, control- 
ling a Government, representative of a 
majority of the people, and governing 
with the consent of the governed. It is 
a country under the heel of an iron dic- 
tatorship which rules by methods of ter- 
rorism and lawless violence for which 
no parallel can be found until you get 
back to the Dark Ages. 



12 



THE CARPENTER 



I don't know how much you American 
people have learned from your news- 
papers of the awful, the degrading, the 
abominable atrocities perpetrated by 
the Nazis. Tortures of the vilest de- 
scription are known to have taken 
place. The cases are on record. Mur- 
ders, floggings, mutilation of the bodies 
of hapless victims of Nazi terrorism, 
arson, and worse crimes too filthy to de- 
scribe, are fully authenticated. 

In our own country we published, 
under the auspices of our National Joint 
Council, a pamphlet giving the details 
of numerous cases. Other publications 
have since appeared, including the 
"Brown Book" to which I have referred, 
which repeat and amplify the evidence 
of the appalling outbreak of terror- 
ism and persecution, incendiarism and 
crime. No fewer than 25 murder cases 
are listed by the Einstein international 
committee, who state that they have 
definite information of over 500 mur- 
ders carried out by the Nazis since 
March last. 

The recorded cases of torture are in 
some instances more revolting than any- 
thing you can read about in medieval 
history. Worse things have happened 
to Jews, men, women and even chil- 
dren, in Germany during the last few 
months than they suffered in the Tsarist 
pogroms or in the persecutions of the 
Middle Ages. I have myself seen pho- 
tographs of women who have been 
shamefully beaten with steel whips and 
rubber truncheons. The horror of the 
thing passes belief. 

And it goes on as part of a deliber- 
ate policy. You must not imagine that 
these atrocities are merely isolated in- 
cidents, a mere matter of individual ex- 
cesses perpetrated by a few criminally 
minded creatures; they are systematic, 
deliberate, organized crimes instigated 
and connived at by Hitler and his im- 
mediate colleagues who have the power 
* of Government in their hands; some of 
them are known criminals, murderers, 
incendiaries, drug addicts, sex perverts, 
and sadists. 

I speak of these things with a full 
sense of my responsibility as a member 
of the general council of the British 
Trades Union Congress, and as an ac- 
credited representative of the British 
Trade Union movement. I am not ex- 
aggerating the facts in any single par- 
ticular, and I do not dwell upon these 
horrors for any other purpose than to 



let the American trade unionist know 
what has taken place. 

The truth is coming out. As I left 
the shores of my own land an interna- 
tional committee of eminent lawyers 
were meeting in London to prepare for 
an independent examination of the facts 
concerning the burning of the Reich- 
stag, which gave the signal for Hitler's 
seizure of power. Your newspapers have 
been carrying accounts I suppose whilst 
I was on my way to this country of the 
trial of those accused of this incendia- 
rism. You have seen it stated that the 
real incendiaries were not the men ac- 
cused, but Hitler's own associates, and 
that Hitler himself had guilty knowl- 
edge of the plan to burn down the 
Reichstag. The truth should be pub- 
lished far and wide. The conscience of 
civilized mankind has been outraged by 
these events. All the truth is not even 
yet fully known. They are mysterious 
aspects of rise and progress of Facism 
in Germany particularly and in Europe 
generally, about which we are not fully 
informed. 

We shall learn more presently, I 
hope, of the connection of international 
capital with these events. We shall un- 
derstand better than we do now, when 
all the facts are known, what it is that 
Communism and Facism have in com- 
mon. Questions are being asked that 
frankly I cannot answer about the con- 
nection of the Russian Communists with 
these events in Germany. The Com- 
munist Parties in the various European 
countries avow themselves in active op- 
position to Facism, but I have seen no 
evidence that the Russian Communist 
Government or the Third (Communist) 
International has done anything to try 
to stop the abominable atrocities of 
Hitlerism or has made any representa- 
tions to the Hitler Government such as 
other Governments have made, includ- 
ing even the Mussolini Government, 
along with the French and British Gov- 
ernments. 

For political reasons, arising out of 
the position of Austria under the peace 
treaties, the three governments I have 
named have protested against some as- 
pects of Hitler's policy. But so far as 
I know, so far as the public generally 
knows, the awful outrages which have 
taken place in Germany have evoked no 
governmental protest. There has been 
no suggestion, as far as I am aware, of 



THE CARPENTER 



any country breaking off diplomatic re- 
lations with the criminal gang that 
holds power in Germany today. 

I confess that this makes me suspi- 
cious and uneasy. Having in view the 
policy these governments have pursued 
in relation to Soviet Russia, one would 
have expected some protest against the 
excesses of the Hitler dictatorship in 
Germany, some threat that unless these 



atrocities ceased Germany would be ex- 
celled from the comity of nations as 
Russia was expelled. No such steps 
have been taken; even Soviet Russia it- 
self, for reasons that I personally can- 
not fathom, remains in diplomatic and 
trading relations with Germany not- 
withstanding these terrible — these re- 
volting brutalities and outrages. 

(Continued in next issue) 



THE BOOTLEGGERS OF FREE LABOR 

(By H. H. Siegele) 




H HEN the Reconstruction 
Finance Corporation, 
was established," the 
philosopher began, "to 
give the big financier 
that over — $2,000,000,- 
000 lift, there was much talk of how 
the money was going to filter through 
into the pockets of the working man. 
Despite all that talk, I have yet to find 
the first working man who has had even 
the faintest hope of such a realization. 
But when the appropriation for un- 
employment relief was at hand, what 
did we find? Well, figuratively speak- 
ing, by a highly refined, as-it-were pain- 
less, pickpocket method, the unemploy- 
ment relief money was lifted from the 
working man's pockets, and was slipped, 
with a great deal of satisfaction, into 
the pockets of the heavy taxpayer; who, 
by the way was the same financial wiz- 
ard that got the oVer-$2,000,000,000 
lift in the first place. And how was this 
done? It was done by bootlegging free 
labor projects into the relief column, 
which saved the taxpayer just that 
much money, but didn't give the work- 
ing man any more work. Moreover, the 
working man was required to furnish 
good reliable distress qualifications in 
order to be eligible to work on these 
jobs; jobs which according to the com- 
mon laws of custom and tradition 
should have been open to free labor. 
Never before in the history of America 
were working men prohibited from 
working on free labor projects, because 
they weren't poor enough; never before 
were they locked out, because they paid 
taxes. The whole system of relieving 
unemployment was a degraded type of 
class communism — an injustice and a 
disgrace, that no self-respecting work- 
ing man could tolerate with approval." 



The philosopher was aware of the 
fact, that in many instances good people 
with the very best intentions were 
handling the federal unemployment re- 
lief money; and equally conscientious 
people were in charge of registering the 
unemployed, and making the allot- 
ments; but nevertheless, the system was 
communistic, which gave __ the working 
man the luxury of remaining hopelessly 
poor, while the heavy taxpayer was 
burdened with the benefits. 

"Under communism, everybody is 
poor and everybody has to work, but 
under class communism, such as was 
employed during the recent hard times, 
only those who are in distress are al- 
lowed to work, and those who still have 
a little property, have to wait till they 
are penniless before they are eligible. 
This unwritten rule applied only to the 
working class — it did not apply — oh, 
no, it wouldn't apply to bankers, — they 
were sacrificing themselves handling the 
money, and therefore it couldn't apply 
to them. Nor did it apply to railroad 
presidents or big oil men — these were 
privileged characters in this new order 
of things — they were the masters who 
reaped the benefits; for by bootlegging 
free labor projects into the relief col- 
umn, the working men who were locked 
out carried the burden; their jobs were 
used to relieve distress. There were 
many who did not understand this, but 
the working men who had saved up a 
little for a rainy day, soon discovered 
it; they were barred from working and 
had to live on their savings, while the 
men who were crushed by our social 
order into distress, were the only men 
who were allowed to work. Under free 
labor, these distress laborers and their 
families would have become public 
charges, and the heavy taxpayer would 



14 



THE CARPENTER 



have paid his share of the expense, but 
under the bootlegging system this ex- 
pense was shifted onto the shoulders of 
the thrifty working men, and the heavy 
taxpayer went scott free." 

The philosopher , knew well whereof 
he spoke, for did he not own his home, 
and was he not barred from working on 
that account? Did he not know of other 
men who owned unedible property, who 
were locked out — and if they starved 
they starved? Did he not also know 
that the unemployed were advised to 
utilize their back yards for gardens, and 
if possible find some other plots of 
ground and plant potatoes, turnips and 
other garden stuff for winter use; and 
was he not shocked, when those who 
followed this advice, found that their 
very efforts to help themselves in this 
way, kept them from getting a job? 
Did the philosopher not hear a member 
of a relief committee explain that per- 
sons who had potatoes, turnips and 
other garden stuff in the cellar, could 
not expect to get the consideration that 
those got who did not have them? It 
was plain to him, that the shiftless man, 
and the man who was lazy got first 
consideration — in other words, the 
prize. All of these things the philoso- 
pher knew, and he knew them right 
well. 

"What did the upper strata of our 
social order say to us in those days?" 
the philosopher asked with a frown, 
"Those bankers and those public spirit- 
ed philanthropists and those public offi- 
cials who bootlegged free labor projects 
into the relief column? Well, this is 
what they virtually told the working 
men. 

'Be good citizens, and all that that im- 
plies, pay your taxes, pay your bills, be 
public spirited, do your part in Sunday 
School and support the church; in short 
be good Christians, but we'll be damned 
if we'll let you work unless you are 
broke!' " 

We have no apology to offer for the 
philosopher's use of a perfectly legiti- 
mate English word, which in its over- 
worked usage is profanity. It is with 
words as it is with tools, sometimes you 
must select a very sharp and highly 
dangerous tool in order to get the 
proper results; but to use such tools in- 
discriminately whether you work or 
whether you play, or whether you eat 
or whether you drink; or to use them 



all the time and everywhere you go, 
would be as foolish as the over-worked 
use of profanity in our day. 

"Bootlegging free labor projects into 
the relief column," the philosopher con- 
cluded, "was responsible for the prohi- 
bition of the opportunity to work, which 
was forced upon the thrifty working 
man. Such a state of affairs is indeed 
deplorable in a country where there is 
enough and to spare of everything that 
is good to make life livable, and keep 
alive a wholoesome happiness among 
the people. The working people must 
register their demands for a more equit- 
able distribution of the good things of 
life, and until that equitable distribu- 
tion is made perfect, let us boldly de- 
mand unemployment insurance, old age 
pension and disability benefits for all 
who have to work for a livelihood." 



Don't Give A Rap About Your Enemies 
But Be Tolerant 

You can't make a real success with- 
out making some enemies. 

You can't hold a strong position with- 
out strong opposition. 

You won't seem right to any if you 
don't seem wrong to many. 

A useful life can't be entirely peace- 
ful and care-free. 

You must do your duty as you see it. 

Every earnest man in every genera- 
tion has paid the price of individuality. 

You can't dodge. 

The greater you are, the greater the 
penalty of your progress. The farther 
you go, the wider you range, the more 
you increase the point of contact with 
which you must reckon, and, therefore, 
you multiply your battles against mis- 
conception and slander and malice. 

You can't avoid or evade your allot- 
ted destiny — you can only hold down 
your share of trouble by holding back. 

In every sphere men gibe and sneer. 

So long as you aspire, others will con- 
spire — so long as you try, others will 
vie. 

You'll have hostility to face in every 
place and at every pace. 

Go straight on to your goal. 

So long as your conscience isn't 
ashamed to acknowledge you as a 
friend, don't give a rap for any enemies. 
— Exchange. 



THE CARPENTER 



15 



U. S. BACKS BIG HOUSING PROJECTS 




iJ> a ILLIONS of dollars for the 
construction of housing 
projects in cities and 
towns throughout the 
United States will be 
loaned by the Federal 
Administration of Public Works in the 
near future, and early starting of work 
on many such projects is indicated. 

Immediate stimulus to the building 
industry will be the result, putting thou- 
sands of building men to work and cre- 
ating a demand for building materials 
and equipment. Announcement of the 
first loan allotments to housing projects 
was made August 24 by Harold L. Ickes, 
Administrator, subject to a satisfactory 
contract with the Federal Emergency 
Administration of Public Works. 

Action on the projects was taken with 
a view to speeding up the program of 
making public works funds available in 
as short time as possible to move men 
from relief rolls to pay rolls. 

Thirty-five housing projects are now 
being considered by the housing division 
of the Public Works Administration 
under Robert D. Kohn, Director. Tenta- 
tive action on the first projects does not 
in any way indicate that they are better 
than many others still under examina- 
tion, according to Mr. Kohn, but they 
have been inspected to a point that per- 
mitted tentative approval. Within a 
short time it is expected that many more 
projects of equal or greater importance 
will be ready for a similar recommenda- 
tion. 

Tentative approval of a loan of $40,- 
000 to the Hutchinson, (Kansas), Sub- 
urban Housing Association was one of 
the first announced. The project will 
provide 2 individual four-room and 
five-room houses, each situated on two 
acres of land. 

The action is interesting as being the 
first housing loan to a compartively 
small city and providing for a project 
under the Kansas State Housing Laws, 
which will have some of the character- 
istics of subsistence homesteads. The 
project will give employment to 35 men 
for six months and twice as much indi- 
rect employment. 

Tentative approval of an $845,000 
loan for a model housing project in 
Philadelphia was given. The project is 
to be built by a limited dividend cor- 



poration formed by officers and members 
of the American Federation of Full- 
Fashioned Hosiery workers which al- 
ready has control of the land required 
and is prepared to make a large invest- 
ment in addition to the government 
loan. 

The site covers an area of 4 V z acres 
in the Kensington district of Philadel- 
phia. The housing will consist of three- 
story semi-fireproof buildings, contain- 
ing 292 apartments, totaling 1,074 
rooms. 

Union officials reported they had 
plenty of applications for space and 
they were assured of filling the build- 
ings without any difficulty. 

A loan of $3,210,000 was given ten- 
tative approval for a project to be built 
by a limited dividend company, under 
the New York State Housing Law on a 
site in Woodside, Queens Borough, with- 
in 20 minutes of central Manhattan Is- 
land. 

The proposed housing consists of 10 
six-story semi-fireproof elevator apart- 
ments, providing, in all, 1,632 residen- 
tial units totaling 5,644 rooms. The 
land coverage is only 27 per cent of the 
ground area. 

The project will give direct employ- 
ment to 800 men on the job for 18 
months and twice as much indirect 
work. 

Tentative approval of a $2,025,000 
loan to the Spence Estate Housing Cor- 
poration for a model housing project in 
Brooklyn was the first real slum clear- 
ance project to be acted upon by the 
Public Works Administration. The site 
covers a certain block in Brooklyn ad- 
jacent to important transit line and 
shopping center. Options have been ob- 
tained on the land but titles and de- 
tails have not yet been confirmed. The 
site is now occupied by 2 8 four-and 
seven-story cold water flats and many 
shacks. 

The proposed housing will consist of 
a six-story elevator building with 508 
apartments, totaling 2,150 rooms, of 
semi-fireproof construction. 

The Spence Estate Housing Corpora- 
tion, which is under the New York State 
Model Housing Law, is making a large 
direct investment in the project in ad- 
dition to the government loan. 



16 



T II E CARPENTER 



A $3,500,000 loan to Neptune Gar- 
dens, Inc., for a model housing project 
in Boston was tentatively approved. 
This will enable construction of over 
3,000 rooms. 

The project is to be built on 4 4 acres 
of land in East Boston adjoining Marine 
Memorial Park within a few minutes of 
the Park Street station. The site is close 
to a public park and is designed to pro- 
vide playgrounds for children, a small 
local library and even a group of small 
farm garden plots for the use of ten- 
ants. 

There will be approximately 700 resi- 
dential units, totaling 3,170 rooms in 
brick two-story row houses, two-family 
houses, and three-story apartment build- 
ings covering approximately 17 per cent 
of the land. 

Work can be started on this project 
in about thirty days, giving approxi- 
mately 1,000 men direct employment on 
the job for a year while twice as many 
men will receive indirect employment 
because of the construction. 



Nation Aided By Shipbuilding 

Accounts of the Navy's shipbuilding 
plans to aid in national recovery give 
but little inkling of the far flung effect 
that such a project has on the nation 
as a whole. A little investigation re- 
veals that a ship is not a local but a 
national project, the building of which 
is felt by the entire country. 

Carpenters, machinists, riveters, 
welders, miners, steel workers, factory 
workers, lumberjacks and even farmers 
produce the tiny pieces of a great jig- 
saw puzzle that eventually fit together 
to make a new battleship. Here's why 
it is such a tremendous job. In the case 
of naval vessels the wheels start turning 
with the action of Congress that au- 
thorizes the construction and appropri- 
ates the money necessary. Then the 
General Board of the Navy decides upon 
just what type it is to be and what char- 
acteristics shall go into the building. 
Then it is up to the expert draftsmen 
of the Navy Department to turn out 
small detailed sketches of the ship. 

These sketches are returned to the 
General Board and after any necessary 
changes to insure a well balanced and 
up-to-date ship, plans and specifications 
are drawn up. This part of the work 
alone is no mean task as often more 



than 700 or 8 00 pages are required for 
a single cruiser and enough copies must 
be made to insure one for each pros- 
pective bidder. 

If private shipyards are to do the 
work, the Board of Supplies and Ac- 
counts advertises in the papers for 
competitive bias. All firms interested 
reply and then plans and specifications 
are mailed to each firm. These firms 
study the plans, compute the cost and 
submit a sealed bid which remains un- 
opened until a set date when they are 
opened and sent to the Bureau of En- 
gineering, Construction and Repair. 
Conferences are held and all differences 
between the contractors and the board 
are smoothed out and the bids sent to 
the Judge Advocate General who awards 
the contracts. 

It is estimated by the Navy Depart- 
ment that 85 per cent of the cost of a 
ship goes into labor, from the men who 
produce the material to the men who 
put it together. Thus, of the. $238,000,- 
000 made available for naval shipbuild- 
ing more than $200,000,000 will be 
spent for labor. It is estimated that 
over the three year period more than 
50,000 men will be employed directly. 
According to the Census Bureau, the 
average man has three dependents and 
this would bring the total of persons 
directly aided to more than 200,000 not 
to mention those who have been aided 
indirectly. 



Liberal Is Named To Federal Bench 

William H. Holly, Chicago attorney, 
was appointed as federal judge in the 
northern district of Illinois. 

He is 6 4, a former law partner of 
Clarence Darrow, and has been in the 
forefront of battles on behalf of the 
public interests. 

Holly had the indorsement of Pro- 
gressive Republicans, but his selection 
is said to be a bitter disappointment to 
the local bosses of both old parties. The 
Chicago "Tribune" is especially un- 
happy. 

Old-timers say Holly is the first lib- 
eral to be put on the Federal bench in 
the northern district of Ilinois for more 
than a generation. 



Every competent craftsman is entitled 
to a fair return for services rendered; 
let him try to get it without an organi- 
zation to back his demands! 



Editorial 




THE CARPENTER 

Official Journal of 

THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD OF 

CARPENTERS AND JOINERS 

OF AMERICA 

Published on the 15th of each month at the 

CABPENTEBS' BUILDING 

Indianapolis, Ind. 

UNITED BBOTHEBHOOD OF 
CABPENTEBS AND JOINEBS OF AMEBICA, 

Publishers 
FRANK DUFFY, Editor 

Subscription Pbich 
One Dollar a Year In Advance, Postpaid 

The publishers and the advertising 
agent use every possible precaution avails- 
able to them against accepting advertise* 
ments from other than reliable firms, but 
do not accept any responsibility for the 
contents of any advertisement which ap- 
pears in "The Carpenter." Should any 
deception be practiced by advertisers at 
any time, upon members, their duty is to 
immediately notify the Post Office au- 
thorities. Therefore, address any com- 
plaints to your local Post Office. 

INDIANAPOLIS, JANUARY, 1934 



Final Victory Certain 

ATTACKS on the Child Labor 
Amendment by newspaper pub- 
lishers and their attempt to line 
up the public against ratification indi- 
cate that labor and other forces favor- 
ing the amendment are in for a hard 
fight. 

Next year and 19 3 5 will be crucial 
years in the fight for the amendment. 
In 1934 eight States which have not 
acted favorably will meet in regular leg- 
islative sessions and others will very 
likely call special sessions. In 193 4 
most State legislatures will be in ses- 
sion. 

Pointing out the necessity for every 
friend of the amendment to bestir him- 



self or herself and work as never before 
for final victory, the American Child, 
organ of the National Child Labor Com- 
mittee, says: 

"If the goal of 3 6 ratifications is 
reached in 1935 it will make pos- 
sible Federal legislation in time to 
replace the child labor restrictions 
in industrial codes which will ex- 
pire that year, according to the 
terms of the Recovery Act. If it 
be not ratified — then we must ex- 
pect a return to old conditions of 
child exploitation. For previous ex- 
perience indicates that when a pe- 
riod of unemployment begins to 
abate, the number of children en- 
tering industry tends to increase." 
There is no doubt that the child La- 
bor Amendment will be ratified and 
made part of the Federal Constitution, 
however hard a fight is made to defeat 
it. That is settled. Labor has made up 
its mind child labor must be perma- 
nently abolished and will see that this 
is done by ratification of the amend- 
ment. 



Return of Prosperity Depends Largely 
on Revival of Building Industry 

WORK for millions of people would 
be made possible through a re- 
vival of building construction. 
It has been estimated that some six 
million workers are affected by pros- 
perity or lack of prosperity in the 
building industry. Eighty-five cents 
out of every building dollar is eventu- 
ally paid to labor. 

Building construction employs thou- 
sands of skilled mechanics and laborers. 
Hundreds of mills and factories employ- 
ing more thousands of workers must be 
operated to meet the demand for ma- 
terial required in the erection of build- 
ings. Transportation by rail, air, ship 
and automobile must be employed to 
move raw and fabricated materials. To 
convert raw material into use for build- 
ings requires tools, machinery and 
power. 

Every building erected means work 
for architects, engineers, draftsmen and 



IS 



T il E CAR 1* E X TER 



workers in the fields of finance and real 
estate. When the amount of direct and 
indirect employment affected by build- 
ing is fully realized, the importance of 
the building industry as an agency for 
providing jobs for workers is apparent. 

Putting men to work is a national 
and fundamental problem. To quickly 
accomplish this desirable end it is es- 
sential that we concentrate on stimulat- 
ing those industries which affect the 
greatest number of workers. 

Building is responsible for the em- 
ployment of more persons than any 
other single industry, the textile indus- 
try excepted. Building construction con- 
sumes a greater variety of materials 
produced throughout the United States 
than any other single industry. The 
building industry is a barometer that 
shows the upward and downward move- 
ment of all business. Private building 
construction is the major product of the 
industry, and therefore is of vast im- 
portance in our national economic wel- 
fare. 

In addition to its Public Works Pro- 
gram the federal government should 
stimulate Private building construction. 
The government should take such steps 
as may be necessary to remove the ob- 
stacles to building, unite forces, and 
stimulate construction. 

To do so will permit employers of 
labor throughout the United States to 
put millions of workers back to work. 



Cost-of-Living Wages 

A deserved denunciation of the reac- 
tionary policy of limiting wages to the 
amount which merchants charge the 
workers for the necessities of life was 
made by the Executive Council of the 
American Federation of Labor in their 
report to the convention of the Federa- 
tion in Washington. 

In assailing the so-called "economy" 
law enacted by the special session of 
Congress last March the Council said: 

"The law provides for determining 
wages on the basis of cost of living. This 
plan of determining wages is prob- 
ably the most indefensible action ever 
taken by Congress. It was imported from 
Denmark where the wages of govern- 
ment employes are based on the cost of 
four prime necessities — clothes, light, 
fuel and rent. Food there is not con- 
sidered in the cost of living. Besides, 



persons are paid there according to 
whether they are married or single, 
separated from husbands or wives, and 
according to the number of children. 

"This was explained in a report made 
to the 7 2d Congress. The plan was pro- 
posed in that Congress by Senator Gore 
but it was given little recognition be- 
cause of its un-American character." 

To the Council's statement it should 
be added that the cost-of-living wages 
theory bars the workers from all parti- 
cipation in economic and social prog- 
ress, which makes up what we call civ- 
ilization. 

In the application of this theory em- 
ployers, public and private, paternalis- 
tically and autocratically determine on 
a fixed date the amount of money re- 
quired to buy the products and services 
which they believe wage-earners should 
be paid for doing the necessary work 
in producing, transporting and selling 
the commodities, which constitute the 
wealth of society under the present eco- 
nomic order, and performing various 
other essential functions. 

If manufacturers, merchants and pro- 
fessional men boost the price of these 
necessaries and services, then the cost- 
of-living wages employers declare that 
wages should be boosted to meet that 
added cost. On the other hand, if deal- 
ers reduce prices, then the workers' pay 
should be cut accordingly. 

It is apparent that under the applica- 
tion of this theory working men and 
women can never raise the standards of 
living for themselves and their families. 
They are tied hand and foot to static 
standards and compelled to see all of 
the blessings of more efficient produc- 
tion go to those who own and control 
modern industry. 

The Executive Council is right. Chain- 
ing hundreds of thousands of govern- 
ment employes to a fixed and unalter- 
able living standard for themselves and 
their dependents is ■ undoubtedly "the 
most indefensible action ever taken by 
Congress." 



We denounce the non-unionists be- 
cause they will not join their respective 
organizations and feel we are justified 
in doing so; but are we consistent our- 
selves, at all times refusing to purchase 
non-union commodities or patronize 
non-union places? 



Official Information 




GENERAL OFFICERS 
Of 

THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD 

Of 

CARPENTERS AND JOINERS 

OF AMERICA 

General Office 
Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General President 

WM. L. HUTCHBSON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



First General Vice-President 

GEORGE H. LAKEY 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Second General Vice-President 

JAMES M. GAULD 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Secretary 

FRANK DUFFY 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Treasurer 

THOMAS NEALE 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Executive Board 
First District, T. M. GUERIN 
290 Second Ave., Troy, N. Y. 



Second District, W. T. ALLEN 
3832 N. Gratz St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



Third District, HARRY SCHWARZER 
10522 Parkhurst Drive, Cleveland, O. 



Fourth District, JAS. L. BRADFORD 
1900 15th Ave., N., Nashville, Tenn. 



Fifth District, J. W. WILLIAMS 
3948 S. Grand Blvd., St. Louis, Mo. 



Sixth District, A. W. MUIR 
200 Guerrero St., San Francisco, Cal. 



Seventh District, ARTHUR MARTEL 
6375 Chambor' St., Montreal, Que., Can. 



WM. L. HUTCHESON, Chairman 
FRANK DUFFY, Secretary 



All correspondence for the General Executive 
Board must be sent to the General Secretary. 



NOTICE TO RECORDING 
SECRETARIES 

The quarterly circular for January, 
February and March, containing the 
quarterly password has been forwarded 
to all Local Unions of the United Broth- 
erhood. Six blanks have been forward- 
ed for the Financial Secretary, three of 
which are to be used for the reports to 
the General Office for the months of 
January, February and March; the ex- 
tra ones are to be filled out in duplicate 
and kept on file for future reference. 
Enclosed also were six blanks, for the 
Treasurer to be used in transmitting 
money to the General Office. Recording 
Secretaries not in receipt of this circu- 
lar should immediately notify General 
Secretary Frank Duffy, Carpenters' 
Building, Indianapolis, Indiana. 



Brewing Company of Parkersburg Em- 
ploys Non-Union Carpenters 

The American Brewing Company of 
Parkersburg, West Virginia, is doing ex- 
tensive remodeling work on one of its 
buildings, and the efforts of Local Union 
899 to have this firm employ union car- 
penters, have been unsuccessful. At the 
present time the company is not manu- 
facturing its products but intends to do 
so when the remodeling work is com- 
pleted, and Local Union 89 9 of Parkers- 
burg desires the membership of our or- 
ganization to be informed of the atti- 
tude of the Brewing Company towards 
members of our organization in that 
city on their construction work. 



Picketing Legalized 

An interesting article has been sent 
us by Local 256 of Savannah, Georgia, 
from the Electrical Workers Journal 
with regards to a controversy they had 
with the Moving Picture Operators at 
Savannah. On starting the picketing of 
what they deemed unfair houses each 
picket was arrested, charged with dis- 
ordely conduct, and fined $5.00. Bond 
was given in all the cases and the union 
insisted that they would not accept a 



20 



THE CARPENTER 



suspension of sentence and remittance 
of fines but they intended to carry the 
cases to the Supreme Court. 

On trial before the Recorder the 
fines and sentences were vacated and 
set aside, which disposed of the neces- 
sity of a certiorari to the Superior 
Court. The men were represented by 
Honorable Minor Dempsey, who has 
done Herculean work for the labor 
movement in Georgia. 



steps, and all will be Union Label 
Boosters from the youngest to the old- 
est in the family. 
SPEED THE DAY! 



Speed The Day 

(By John J. Manning, Secretary-Treas- 
urer, Union Label Trades Department) 

Trades Unionists who are Union La- 
bel Boosters are those who are endowed 
with intelligence. Intelligence that fore- 
sees that Labor's greatest weapon is the 
Union Label. 

Those opposed to us realize the power 
of the Union Label to a greater extent 
than most of the members of Organized 
Labor realize this power. 

To test this just say "Union Label" 
to the proprietor of any non-union shop 
and watch his face. He may try to 
cover his fear and hatred with clever 
talk but — WATCH HIS FACE. 

"Watch the face of the unfriendly 
merchant, who despises Organized La- 
bor, the next time you ask for union- 
labeled merchandise. WATCH HIS 
FACE WHEN YOU INQUIRE IF HIS 
EMPLOYES BELONG TO A LABOR 
UNION. 

His glib tongue will give you argu- 
ments galore but his face will reveal to 
you what his tongue is trying so hard 
to conceal. 

After this test any trade unionist 
with an ounce of spunk or intelligence 
will join the Union Label Boosters. 

Union Label Boosters are forever on 
the job for your label and for mine. It 
is their self-imposed mission to increase 
the union shops and to decrease the 
non-union shops. 

When this mission, and its bearing 
on the welfare of the wage earners of 
the family, is explained to the women 
who do the most of the purchasing for 
the family, they will not buy anything 
without the Union Label. No shop will 
be patronized that does not display a 
Union Card, and the Working Button 
will be demanded. 

These loyal women will teach the 
little children to walk in their foot- 



Charters Issued in December, 1933 

Columbus, Ohio 
Port Huron, Mich. 
El Centro, Calif. 
Dallas, Tex. 
St. Helena, Calif. 
San Saba, Tex. 
Keystone, W. Va. 
Belle Glade, Fla. 
Wheelwright, & Vic, Ky. 
Seminole, Okla. 
North Platte, Nebr. 
Wilmington, N. C. 
Rome, Ga. 
Quakertown, Pa. 
Algoma, Wise. 
Grand Island, Nebr. 
Bogalusa, La. 



Arne T. Rebey Dies in Denver, Colorado 

Arne T. Rebey, a member of our or- 
ganization for almost thirty-four years 
and for the past nine years a member of 
Local Union No. 55 of Denver, Colo., 
passed away October 17, 1933, in the 
Denver General Hospital where he was 
a patient for one month. 

Brother Rebey was born in Norway 
on January 21, 1865, and came to this 
country when he was seventeen years of 
age. For a number of years he followed 
the water, five years of which were 
spent in the Merchant Marine. He was 
admitted to membership in Local Union 
767 of Ottumwa, Iowa, March 12, 1900, 
and was active in the interest of that 
Local Union and other Local Unions in 
the states of Iowa, Oklahoma and Penn- 
sylvania where he held membership at 
various times. 

For many years he was associated 
with the Volunteers of America and was 
also active in the affairs of that organi- 
zation. 

A large number of the members of 
Local Union 55 attended the funeral 
and accompanied the remains to Crown 
Hill Cemetery where interment took 
place and the Ritual service of our or- 
ganization was held. 



CorrospondoncQ 




This Journal Is Not Responsible For Views Expressed By Correspondents. 



Local Union No. 18 Favors Creation of 

Fund to Keep Members in Good 

Standing 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

The meeting of Local No. 18, Hamil- 
ton, Ontario, held on Tuesday, Decem- 
ber 5, 1933, lasted thirty-five minutes, 
which is our record for brevity. 

I was instructed to write to you, 
drawing attention to the fact that our 
Business Agent, Brother Walter Archer, 
had been successful in getting the A. 
and P. stores in Hamilton, to hire union 
carpenters to install their fixtures. 

Back of that accomplishment lies 
hours of effort. Local No. 18 has suf- 
fered severely in the present depression 
and its meetings are sometimes fiery, 
but underlying it all is a spirit of loyal- 
ty, although the members look at things 
from different angles. 

The Carpenters rented the basement 
of the Labor Temple for the use of their 
members to meet, play pool, cards or 
read. A radio was donated to them. 

This movement has grown so that 
now the Recreation Club is handled by a 
committee from all the building trades. 

From a small committee elected by 
the Local to deal with relief questions, 
a powerful organization has risen. It is 
The Allied Trades Distress and Welfare 
Committee. 

The Building Trades Council has in- 
vited the officers of all the affiliated lo- 
cals to attend the next meeting of the 
Council. This is a movement to secure 
closer co-operation between the differ- 
ent units. 

A building program has been 
launched and the Municipal, Provincial, 
and Federal authorities requested to 
give financial aid. 

As soon as work begins to open up, 
we should, in every Local, start a "De- 
pression Fund," to take care of our 
members' dues when hard times come 
again. We are beginning to climb out 
of this one. 



The General Fund will not stand the 
drain of paying members' dues. If a 
special fund is established it should be 
used for no other purpose than taking 
care of members' dues. 

Not only would the individual be 
benefited, but the Local would be helped 
and also the General Office. Although 
we are all broke — the few that are not, 
are badly bent — we know that an or- 
ganization cannot run on air — someone 
in the back seat says, "on hot air, yes," 
but he is out of order. 

To all our readers I wish a prosperous 
New Year that will remove them from 
an "Hay and Oats" basis, and give to 
them and their families a fairer share of 
the good things of life than has been 
their fortune for the last few years. 

Albert E. Edgington, R. S., 
L. U. No. 18. Hamilton, Ont. 



Local Union 246, Displays Honor Roll 
in Open Meeting 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

For a number of years past the cus- 
tom has been for Local No. 246 to dis- 
play our Honor Roll in open meeting 
and read off the names of those in- 
scribed thereon. 

This year was no exception. Our 
meeting of November 20, 19 3 3, being 
the first to follow Armistice Day, this 
year, President Jas. Cunningham called 
upon Fin. Sec. Gus Darmstadt, as the 
Father of this ceremony, to call the 
Roll. 

The sole purpose is to show the re- 
maining active members who served the 
Colors during the World War that Lo- 
cal No. 246 is proud of their records 
and membership which not only helped 
to bring glory to our country but a 
credit and an inspiration to our United 
Brotherhood. 

And "WE DO NOT FORGET." 

Of the thirty-five original names en- 
rolled, all of whom returned after the 
Armistice, five have died since from 



22 



THE CARPENTER 



effects of gas poisoning received during 
active service. 

A rising vote of remembrance and 
silent prayer were offered for our de- 
parted Heroes, namely: 

John Agresta 

William Bell 

Henry Lang 

William Matthews 

Albert Schick 

At the end of the proceedings a mo- 
tion was unanimously passed to present 
from our contingent fund three months' 
dues to each of the remaining members 
on the Honor Roll. 

A. Darmstadt, Fin. Sec, 
L. U. No. 246. New York, N. Y. 



Asks Assistance in Recovering Stolen 
Due Book 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

I wish to report the loss of the due 
book of Brother Sander Benson, a mem- 
ber of Local Union 141, Chicago, Illi- 
nois, (ledger page 626) which was 
stolen along with his coat while working 
at Metropolis, Illinois, on December 8, 
1933. Any member in posession of in- 
formation that would lead up to its re- 
covery will kindly communicate with 
the undersigned. 

Geo. C. Yarnell, Fin. Sec, 
8106 Cornell Avenue, 
Chicago, Illinois. 



Ladies Auxiliary Union No. 156 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

The members of Ladies Auxiliary Un- 
ion 156 of Denver, Colo., feel that a 
word of greeting to our sister auxiliar- 
ies may not be amiss at this time, and 
may encourage them to carry on. 

Since our last letter, the depression 
has forced us to curtail many of our 
usual activities, especially those con- 
cerned with raising money. We have 
instead tried to do those things which 
we felt would best help to sustain the 
morale of those within our circle. A 
series of dances were given during the 
winter to promote sociability, and of 
course the holiday season was observed 
with the usual Christmas treat for the 
children. 

Our president and a committee of 
volunteer helpers cooked and served 



hot dinners at Carpenters Hall on Mon- 
days, Wednesdays and Fridays of each 
week, during the past winter for unem- 
ployed carpenters, especially those who 
had no other homes than rooming 
houses; on alternate days the men 
served themselves. Many of the men, 
who were able to pay, took their noon- 
day meals with us and their contribu- 
tions, together with donations of vege- 
tables and fruits, kept the expense of 
this service at a minimum. A special 
fund was set aside to meet the needs of 
married men and their families. 

Our sixth anniversary dinner for 
members and their husbands was so 
successful that the same plan was fol- 
lowed for the seventh anniversary. With 
practically every member and her hus- 
band present and the daughters of mem- 
bers serving the delicious food prepared 
by a committee of members, the affair 
resembled a large family re-union and 
will long be remembered by all those 
present. 

The outstanding event of the year for 
the auxiliaries of Denver was the second 
biennial convention of the National Fed- 
eration of Trade Union Auxiliaries held 
in our city, June 30 to July 1, 1933. 

Its sessions were an inspiration to 
all who had the privilege of attending 
and its purpose — to help, aid and pre- 
serve the organized labor movement; 
to mobilize the vast purchasing power 
of union auxiliary women behind the 
union label and to impress upon them 
the importance of intelligent co-opera- 
tion in their efforts to further the cause 
of union labor — is a challenge to every 
union man to encourage and support the 
auxiliary movement. 

At the convention of the A. F. of L. 
in 19 31 the Committee on Organization 
recommended that "when these auxili- 
aries get together and form a national 
women's auxiliary then they shall be 
represented by a fraternal delegate." 
This was in answer to a request from 
the St. Louis Joint Council of Women's 
Auxiliaries for fraternal recognition, 
and to meet this requirement this na- 
tional federation was formed. The goal 
now is to interest enough auxiliaries in 
the movement to make it truly national 
in scope so that official recognition by 
the A. F. of L. will be accorded as 
speedily as possible. 

This group of progressive auxiliary 
women are looking forward to the time 



THE CARPENTER 



23 



when every labor union will have an 
auxiliary and these auxiliaries will be 
united under the banner of their na- 
tional federation, forming as it were a 
vast auxiliary to the American Federa- 
tion of Labor. 

In these times of economic stress or- 
ganized labor is fighting for its very life 
and we, the women of the auxiliary 
movement, must avail ourselves of every 
opportunity to promote its welfare. May 
we therefore urge all who read this to 
put forth every effort to strengthen 
their own auxiliary and to persuade 
other unions to organize auxiliaries. 

We shall be glad to assist in this work 
and shall be glad to answer any ques- 
tions about our activities. 

Mrs. A. W. North, Rec Sec, 
L. A. No. 156. Denver, Colo. 



Organizing Work of the A. F. of L. 

The militant and contructive work 
performed by the American Federation 
of Labor in enrolling thousands of 
workers in the ranks of trade unionism 
was told with clearness and precision 
by the Executive Council of the Federa- 
tion in their report to the annual con- 
vention. 

"Conscious of the fact that lack of 
organization among wage-earners had 
been a major factor in the unbalance 
in distribution of national income which 
was one of the causes of our economic 
breakdown, labor regarded the passage 
of the National Recovery Act as impos- 
ing an obligation upon wage-earners to 
organize in trade unions," the Council 
said. 

"Wage-earners have been quick to 
r;eize the opportunity for organization 
which the legislation affords them. Af- 
ter four years of uncertainties of unem- 
ployment and loss of savings, wage- 
earners turn eagerly to an agency that 
provides opportunity for effectively bet- 
tering their conditions and giving them 
a greater degree of security. Accord- 
ingly, both spontaneous and directed or- 
ganizing campaigns have been vigorous- 
ly under way. More charters per day 
since July 1 have been granted to fed- 
eral labor unions than at any previous 
time for which we have records. 

"We have concentrated our efforts 
more especially upon organizing the 
workers in the basic industries; that is, 
steel, automobiles, textiles, oil and rub- 



ber. To the fullest extent of the 
Federation's financial ability organi7ing 
campaigns in these centers have been 
aggressively carried on. 

"Progress has been made, not as great 
as our hopes would realize, but amply 
sufficient to encourage us to still greater 
efforts. 

"National and international unions 
nave been conducting organizing cam- 
paigns which have notably increased 
membership and brought a new spirit 
of hope to wage-earners. After four 
years of depression they are eager for 
a voice in determining work condi- 
tions and are eagerly responding to the 
opportunity. These energetic, well-or- 
ganized campaigns are steadily increas- 
ing union members. 

"We urge upon all organizations of 
labor and their individual members to 
support and co-operate in every effort 
which may be made in their localities 
to organize the unorganized and to 
build up and strengthen the existing 
organizations. 

"We recommend that the organizing 
campaign which is now being carried 
on be continued in a broad, vigorous 
and progressive way so that all workers 
may be accorded the widest opportunity 
to organize and become affiliated with 
the American Federation of Labor." 



America Has 

Six per cent of the world's population; 

Seven per cent of the world's land. 

Twenty-five per cent of the world's pro- 
duction. 

Twenty per cent of the world's gold. ■ 

Thirty-three per cent of the world's 
silver. 

Forty per cent of the world's iron and 
steel, 

Forty per cent of the world's railroads. 

Sixty per cent of the world's cotton pro- 
duction; 

Sixty-six per of the world's oil produc- 
tion. 

Seventy per cent of the world's copper 
production. 

Seventy-five per cent of the world's corn 
production. 

Eighty-five per cent of the world's auto- 
mobiles. 

Eighty-five per cent of the world's lum- 
ber production. 



Demand the Union Label 



24 



THE CARPENTER 



Spend and Save Now 

A recent Dun & Bradstreet report ac- 
centuated a fact of the utmost impor- 
tance: 

For a number of months business re- 
covery has continued without recession, 
and present signs do not indicate any 
recession will occur in the near future. 

In other words, we are not having a 
"rise in the depression" now. We are 
actually throwing off depression. The 
wise property owner will do well to 
think that over. It means that the coun- 
try is through with bargain prices for 
commodities and service, that the ter- 
rific oversupply of goods and labor isn't 
going to last much longer. It means 
higher prices. It means that if we put 
off fixing our houses and business prop- 
erty or rebuilding the tottering garage 
for another few months we are going to 
pay a lot more for what we get. 

Yes, it's time to build, to improve, to 
repair. It will put money in your poc- 
ket, save valuable property from going 
to pieces — and demonstrate your faith 
in the maxim that investment and em- 
ployment are cheaper and better than 
charity. 



Senator Wagner Calls on Employers to 
Confer with Their Workers 

Reiterating his previous declaration 
that "we do not object to workers using 
the strike if there is no other way left 
open to them," Senator Robert P. Wag- 
ner, issued another appeal for industrial 
peace. 

He urged employers and workers, 
however, to "try to negotiate their dif- 
ferences before striking or locking out." 

Experience has proved that differ- 
ences between employers and employes 
can be ironed out around the conference 
table. The chances for it are better if 
open warfare has not embittered every- 
body. Even after a strike the confer- 
ence table is the place to settle. 

"T.ake the Berkeley Woolen Mills' de- 
cision — a clear-cut ruling, under the 
textile code and the Recovery Law, that 
the employes had the right to represen- 
tatives, even if the men they chose were 
not employes of the company. Confer- 
ring on the basis of that decision, I am 
informed, both parties (the mill man- 
agement and representatives of the 
United Textile Workers) came to an 
agreement within half an hour." 



Wagner's statement that "things can 
be ironed out around the table" backs 
up a contention which organized labor 
has made for years. The bulk of the 
nation's strikes have been caused by 
employers adopting a there-is-nothing- 
to-discuss attitude. 

Records of the American Federation 
of Labor show that most of the strikes 
which are sweeping the country today 
have been caused by the bosses refusing 
to deal with bona fide union represen- 
tatives chosen as spokesman by their 
employes. 



Martin's Brainstorm on Child Labor 

Lawyers everywhere, from Chief 
Justice Hughes of the United States Su- 
preme Court down to the humblest tyro 
lately graduated from law school, are 
bowed in shame or angered beyond ex- 
pression by the tirade in support of 
child labor launched in his opening ad- 
dress to the American Bar Association 
convention by its president, Clarence E. 
Martin. At the Federal Child Labor 
Amendment, according to press reports, 
he shrieked: 

'It is a communistic effort to na- 
tionalize children, making them primar- 
ily responsible to the Government in- 
stead of to their parents. It strikes at 
the home. It appears to be a definite, 
positive plan to destroy the Republic 
and substitute a social democracy." 

The Child Labor Amendment, which 
is supported wholeheartedly by hun- 
dreds of great publications, by practi- 
cally all women's organizations and by 
welfare organizations everywhere, by 
the entire organized labor movement, 
by President Roosevelt and a long list 
of his predecessors, simply confers upon 
Congress the right to regulate, limit 
and prohibit the employment of per- 
sons under 18 years of age for the pur- 
pose of preventing un-American em- 
loyers from turning the tender bodies 
and minds of our future citizens into 
interest coupons and dividend checks. 

And this really noble policy, accord- 
ing to the President of the American 
Bar Association, is "a communistic ef- 
fort to nationalize children," "strikes 
at the home," and aims to destroy the 
Republic." 

All thinking people will ask whether 
a mind can make so foul a declaration 
as this and be sane. 



THE CARPENTER 



2 5 



Attack On Building Trades 

An attack on the building unions, 
their wages and conditions has been 
going on since 19 3 0. It is wide-spread, 
determined, well-financed, and well- 
manned. Emanating from hostile bank- 
ers, it has moved deliberately from point 
to point until it has developed and cen- 
tered on NRA. The attack, through 
codes, upon the wage structure of build- 
ing crafts, which has been going for- 
ward during the depression, speaks 
through an economic "principle," and 
"research" terminology. 

Building employer associates declare 
that the principle of business pick-up 
does not apply to capital goods indus- 
tries. Capital goods industries — those 
which need capital to initiate produc- 
tion — must offer speculative opportun- 
ity :n order to attract capital — they say. 
There facile reasoners then glibly de- 
clare that wages must be cut heavily, 
for wages are the only place where cuts 
can be made. 

What cuts — oh, about 60 per cent. 

Will building materials first be cut 
6 per cent? No, they will probably go 
up. 

Will profits be cut 6 per cent? No, 
profits must be larger to attract capital. 

Will interest rates be cut 6 per cent? 
No, interest rates apparently never fall. 

The upshot is that labor, the workers, 
men and their families are to be forced 
to carry the speculative banker and a 
top-heavy and impossible set-up, in 
order that bankers may take their ac- 
customed profit. This point of view is 
being determinedly urged upon Hugh 
Johnson and deputy administrtators by 
powerfully financed propaganda groups. 

The answer: Labor will not take 
these cuts. If building construction can 
not get started without further penal- 
izing labor, let it go the way of other 
industries, the way of oil, railroads and 
coal, into the hands of the President. 

It is plain that the President has 
seen this impasse. The President has 
seen the paradox. The demand for capi- 
tal goods is boundless. The supply of 
long-term credit is nil. The President 
hasn't said "cut wages." He has ord- 
ered the banking facilities of the gov- 
ernment to supply the credit lacking 
from private banking. This is the way 
out for construction — not through wage 
cuts. 



Hires Union Men Because They're Best 

■<■ If you want to know how union work- 
ers compare with those who are un- 
organized, inquire of George E. Wyme, 
a contractor, who has erected many 
schoolhouses and other large buildings 
in Washington. 

Testifying in a wage case, Wyme was 
asked by an attorney whether he em- 
ployed union men, and replied: 

"Certainly I do. The prevailing rates 
are union scales. You certainly wouldn't 
hire a non-union man if you had to pay 
a union price. Union men are far super- 
ior in their workmanship." 



Filene Points Way to Prosperity 

There is but one road to prosperity — 
and that leads to a steady increase in 
the buying power of the masses by pay- 
ing ever higher wages for shorter hours, 
while striving to eliminate waste and 
reduce costs. 

That is the program of "enlightened 
selfishness" which is offered American 
business by an outstanding capitalist 
and merchant prince, Edward A. Filene, 
head of a big Boston department store 
which bears his name. It is not a new 
idea with Filene, for he has been preach- 
ing it for years to ears that were closed 
against its logic. 

The depression resulted because the 
managers of industry short-sightedly 
took a larger share of created wealth 
than was warranted, thereby depriving 
workers of purchasing power which 
alone can keep the machinery moving, 
Filene declared in a recent article. 

He pointed out that five-sixths of all 
the goods and services produced in the 
United States are sold those having 
wages and salaries under $2,000, while 
the rich buy and use only one-sixth. 

"In their own interest," Filene as- 
serted, "the directors must manage in- 
dustry and business to provide the larg- 
est possible income for the five-sixths 
who are the great mass market. Gains 
in effieciency should be passed on to 
workers in increased wages and shorter 
hours. It is absurd to talk of over-pro- 
duction while in America a third of the 
people cannot obtain the goods neces- 
sary to a minimum standard of living." 



Start the New Year right, get new 
members. 



Craft ProblQms 




CARPENTRY 

(By H. H. Siegele) 

LESSON LXIV 

Knowing how to sharpen tools prop- 
erly, is half the carpenter trade; the 
other half is being able to skillfully 
handle them. The work is merely done 
to make a living — and that brings me 
to what I wanted to say. 

There is a distinction between sharp- 
ening tools and grinding tools. Even 
filing tools is not always sharpening. It 
depends on what kind of edge you are 
after, as to when to use the word 
"sharpening," and when to use "grind- 
ing." If grinding is all that is necessary 
to give you the edge you want, then 
grinding is sharpening. But if you grind 
a tool and then put it on the oil stone 
to give it a keen edge, then grinding is 
simply grinding, and the oil-stone work 
is sharpening. If filing a tool gives you 
the edge you want, then filing is sharp- 
ening, but if you have to finish it with 
the oil stone, then filing is filing, and 
the oil-stone work is sharpening. This 
reasoning can be applied to all tools 
that from time to time need sharpen- 
ing, and having said this, I will proceed 
to take up the subject of this lesson, 
rough openings in floors. 

There is no better recommendation a 
carpenter can expect to have, than that 




Fig. 361 



of making smooth and well-fitting 
joints. This is true, not only in finish- 
ing, but it is also true in all rough work, 
and very important. A well-fitting joint 
doesn't only look better, but it is a 



better joint, and stronger, than the ill- 
fitting and ugly one, such as one so 
frequently sees. That is the reason I 
mentioned tool sharpening. It is utter- 
ly impossible to make good joints with 
poorly sharpened tools. But I do not 
want to be misunderstood in this. Good 
judgment and common sense are assets 




Fig. 3 62 

that no carpenter can easily afford to 
dispense with. There are times and con- 
ditions under which it would be stupid 
to work over a joint, in order to make 
it well-fitting; just as there are 'times 
and conditions that enter into the tool 
sharpening. To know when to do these 
things and when to forego doing them, 
is a fine shade of distinction that every 
mechanic must make many times dur- 
ing his whole career, and happy the 
man who has cultivated the sense of 
good judgment and of common sense to 
the point where these mental attributes 
become permanent habits with him. 

Taking up the illustrations: Fig. 361 
shows, in part, an opening for a stair- 
way, or as it is called, a wellhole or 
well. Here we have, a a, trimmers; b b, 
carrying joists; c c c, tail joists, and d, 
header. It will be noticed that the 
carrying joist to the left, answers also 
for the left trimmer of the well. This 
construction is not an unusual one, 
however, there are many stairways on 
which it can not be used, and a trimmer, 
such as is shown to the lower right, is 
required on either side of the well. The 
joints as we are showing them, are 
held together with nails, and for most 
residence work that is sufficient; but in 
cases where the header, or even the 



THE CARPENTER 



27 



trimmers and the tail joists, are sub- 
jected to a great deal of strain, joist 
hangers or stirrups should be used for 
reinforcing. Joist hangers can be ob- 
tained on the market, or they can be 
ordered made of wrought iron at any 
blacksmith shop. 

Fig. 362 shows a wellhole in which 
the carrying joists, a a, rest on a brick 
wall. The dotted line represents the 
inside face of the wall. The header, b, 
in this case is on the side and runs par- 




Fig. 363 

allel with the run of the stair, whereas 
in the previous figure the header was 
on the end of the well. Three of the 
tail joists in this figure are marked with 
c, while the absence of the mark on the 
others, means ditto. What we said about 
stirrups in the explanation of the pre- 
vious figure, will apply throughout this 
lesson. 

Fig. 363 shows a plain perspective 
view of the construction of a fireplace 
opening in a floor. The dotted lines rep- 
resent the face of the wall, and the 
reader is presumed to be intelligent 




Fig. 36 4 

enough to locate the carrying joists, the 
header and the tail joists, from what 
was said concerning the two previous 
illustrations. 



How to carry joists where there are 
flues built into the joist-supporting wall, 
somewhat on the order shown by dotted 
lines, is illustrated by Fig. 36 4. Some- 




Fig. 365 



times a chimney brest is built where 
such flues occur, in which case the cen- 
struction is the same, excepting that 
the carrying joists extend on enough to 
give them a full bearing on the wall. 

Fig. 3 65 represents a method of con- 
struction that should be used cautious- 
ly. It shows how, in case of a shortage 
of full-length floor joists, pieces can be 
utilized by framing a header in between 
two carrying joists, as shown. Onto this 
header the tail joists, for that is what 
they are, are nailed. I repeat, this con- 
struction should not be used, where the 
floor is subjected to much strain, unless 
there are joist-supporting partitions un- 




Fig. 366 



derneath located in such a manner as 
to make the floor above perfectly safe. 

Fig. 366 shows the construction of an 
opening for a chimney. The trimmers 
are shown at a a, the headers at b b, 
the tail joists at c c, and the carrying 
joists at d d. The upper left trimmer is 
also the carrying joist. This construc- 
tion is all right when the chimney 
comes right for it, but in many cases 
this is not the case, and then two trim- 
mers, one on either side, like the one to 
the right must be put in. 



2S 



T II E <' \ K I* EN TER 



As I mentioned in a previous explana- 
tion, for ordinary residence work, nail- 
ing the joints is sufficient to hold them 
together, and that is even more true of 
constructing openings for chimneys. 
The old system of mortise-and-tenoning 
headers into the carrying joists, and 
then mortise-and tenoning the tail joists 
and trimmers into the headers, is a poor 
construction: although it might have 
had its merits in the olden days. Mor- 
tising a carrying joist, as I have seen 
many in old buildings, weakens them so 
much that they would hardly carry the 
load that ordinary nailing would hold. 
The intention was good, but the good 
intentions did not make up for the loss 
of strength. If a joint needs reinforc- 
ing, use stirrups — saw-tooth notching is 
not so bad, but whenever you cut into 
the carrying joists, you weaken them. 



THE FRAMING SQUARE 

(By L. Perth) 

PART TWENTY 

ROOF PITCHES CONCLUDED 

The subject of roof pitches would 
not have been considered completely 
covered if the third method of deter- 
mining the pitch of a roof should have 
been omitted. This method is known 
as '"the angle of inclination in degrees". 
It means that the pitch is expressed by 
the number of degrees of an angle that 
the rafter makes with the plate. Fig. 
1. Thus, Ave may have a 2 degree 
roof, a 30 degree or a 4 5 degree. While 
this method is not at present commonly 
used it is very convenient in computa- 







tions especially when the angle is one 
of the commonly used values, such as 
30, 45 or 60 degrees. This is the only 
method used by architects and engin- 
eers, and there is no doubt that it will 
be to a great extent used in the future. 



To sum up, we have the following 
three methods used in determining the 
pitch of a roof. 

1. The pitch may be described in 
terms of the ratio of the total rise of 
the roof to the total width of the build- 
ing. Thus, we may have a V z pitch 





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0£G/?££S. 




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1 

4 


6 


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/ 
3 


& 


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9 


tt'se' 


& 


/# 


39°46' 


24 


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42° 3/' 


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2 


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43 W 




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3 


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33°M 


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4 


- 


&°/9' 



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roof, *,£ pitch or a % pitch. At this 
point it is well to mention the common 
error made by many, that of expressing 
the pitch as a ratio of the rise to the 
half span of the building. It should 
be firmly implanted in your mind that it 
is the ratio of the rise of the roof to 
the span which is the width of the 
building. 

2. The pitch may be expressed as 
the relation of the rise to the run. This 
is more conveniently stated as the rise 
per foot run, which means so many 
inches of vertical rise to each foot of 
horizontal run. Thus, we may say a 
roof has a slope of 6 inches in 12 or 8 
inches in 12 inches and so on. 

3. The pitch of a roof may be re- 
garded as an angle of inclination which 
the rafters make with the horizontal 
plane of the plates. For instance, a 
roof may be of 35, 40 or 65 degrees. In 
order to easily compare the above three 
methods the Table in Fig. 2 has been 
prepared. The careful study of the^e 
figures will materially assist you in com- 
mitting the matter to your mind. 



THE CARPENTER 



29 



Another, very useful diagram is 
shown in Fig. 3. It represents the 
principal roof pitches in the terminology 
used in the first method. They are 
called one-half pitch, one-third pitch 
etc., because the height from the level 
of the wall plates to the ridge of 
the roof is one-half, one-third or one- 
quarter of the total width of the build- 
ing. 

This rather perplexing subject of 
roof pitches has been completely cov- 
ered. No effort has been spared as to 
the illumination of this matter from 
every possible angle which may be 
viewed in the practical work of the 
builder. The subject matter has been 




J /?/S£P£/?f00rj?£/A' 



FIG. 3 
PR INC/PAL POOF PITCHES 



profoundly illustrated with drawings 
and diagrams to further facilitate the 
mastery of the topic by the average 
reader. 

It is suggested now that before you 
make any further attempt to proceed 
with any other studies on roof framing 
— get the subject of roof pitches estab- 
lished clearly in your mind, because it 
is one of the most important funda- 
mentals. Get the right understanding; 
this is the principal keynote of wisdom. 
Do not neglect essentials: if you do 
your efforts may be in vain. After you 
are convinced that you have mastered 
the subject — you may proceed with the 
solution of the problems given below. 
Drawing rough sketches on paper in 
connection with these problems will 
prove of great value. 



PROBLEMS IN ROOF FRAMING. 

1. A roof has a span of 24 feet and 
a rise of 12 feet. What is the pitch? 

2. A roof is 16 feet wide. If the rise 
per foot run is 10 inches, what is the 
total rise of the roof? 

3. Refer to Fig. 1. The roof angle 
"B" equals to % of angle "C". Angle 
"C" is 45 degrees. What is the angle of 
inclination of "B"? 

4. What is the pitch of a roof, hav- 
ing an 18 inch rise per foot run? 

Place your answer in the blank cir- 
cles in diagram, Fig. 3. 

5. What is the rise per foot run in 
a roof having a % pitch? 

ANSWERS TO PROBLEMS. 

1. The pitch of a roof is "the rise di- 
vided by the span." If the rise is 12 
feet and the span is 24 feet, then the 
pitch is 12 divided by 24, equals V 2 . 

2. A roof 16 feet wide has a run of 
8 feet. If the rise per foot run is 10 
inches the total rise is 8 x 10 equals 80 
inches or 6 ft. 8 in. 

3. Since angle "C" is a 45 degree 
angle, one-third of 45 equals 15 degrees. 
And % equal 15x2 which is 30. There- 
fore the angle of inclination of "B" is 
30 degrees. 

4. The roof has a % pitch. 

5. If a roof has a % pitch it rises 15 
inches to every foot. Place your answer 
in circle in diagram. 



Marking A Compound Joint 
(By H. H. Siegele) 

We have seen many methods of 
marking the cut on a head casing for a 
compound joint; that is a joint which 
is mitered enough to take care of a 
rounded corner, and the rest cut on a 
horizontal line. The method, though, 
we are showing by the illustrations, is 
one we have used successfully. No 
doubt, it is not the best method, but it 
is the one we like to use. 

After the side casings have been cut 
and nailed into place, as shown in part 
by Fig. 1, place the head casing onto 
them, and set the scribers to the per- 
pendicular depth of the miter-part of 
the joint, in the manner shown by the 
scribers represented at A. Then hold 
the scribers in the manner shown at B, 
and, starting at point a, mark the hori- 



30 



THE CARPENTER 



zontal cut from a, through b and on to 
the end of the casing. This done, the 
miter cut, marked c, is marked, and 
the casing is ready to be cut. Both right 
and left cuts of the head casing should 
be marked at the same time. The round- 




ed corner, shown shaded, gives enough 
room to rest one leg of the scribers on 
the end of the side casing, while the 
marking is done. A joint marked in 
this way, if the head casing is straight, 
and the cutting is done accurately will 




Fig 



invariably fit as snuggly as the one 
shown by Fig. 2. 

The compound joint is used a great 
deal in these days, because much of the 
casing has rounded corners. Another 



thing a full miter joint is, as a 
rule, unsatisfactory, since shrinking and 
swelling always affects it more than a 
compound joint. 



Lengths and Bevels for Bridging 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

In looking over the November "Car- 
penter" I noticed H. H. Siegele' Lesson 
LXII relating to getting the length and 
bevels of Bridging — Figure 351. While 
his method will give the length and 




I'l'ITI'I'ITryriTITIMTI'I'I'I'I'li 


' N OX E ■ >T^^^^\. 


- 


THE FIGURES FO R~~"'---^>-- 


- 


DISTANCE BETWEEN 




AND DEPTH OF JOIST 


- 


ARE ON OPPOSITE! 


- 


SIDES OFTHE PIECE 


- 


TO BE COT 


J^ 



T 



bevel, allowance must be made for the 
thickness of the materials used. 

I am submitting a sketch showing the 
way that I get the length and bevel of 
Bridging with the Steel Square and ac- 
cording to this method it makes no dif- 
ference what is the thickness of the ma- 
terial used, it will give the exact length. 

John J. O'Toole, 
L. U. No. 608. New York, N. Y. 



Miter Box for Bridge Cutting 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

This illustration shows how I make 
a miter box for cutting bridging. A 2x4 
is used for the bottom and a 2x6 for 
the back. The bottom should be about 
four feet long to allow room for the 
bridging to drop between saw-horses. 
Make notch C in 2x4 about two inches 
deep and two inches longer than the 
length of the bridging to be cut. Nail 
the 2x6 on the back edge of the 2x4 
with the notch next to the 2x6. Nail 
block S to 2x4 as shown, extending it 
past notch A one-half inch. Now get 



THE CARPENTER 



31 



your bridging length and also miter cut 
and make your miter cut in 2x6 at IT. 
Nail a short piece of 1x2 edgewise onto 
2x4 and flush with notch C as shown by 
dotted lines E. This forms a guide for 
your bridging to drop through slot C. 

I have found this box works to good 
advantage on either the small or big 
jobs as it takes just a short time to 
build and it saves removing the bridg- 
ing each time a cut is made. Two saw- 



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I '.■!■■ I . '"'" ' = I ' ■ = 1 1 : . ' I I I > 1 1 J I ■ T 1 1 1 1 1 ulll'liu mM 





horses as shown in illustration are used 
to rest the miter box on. This box is 
intended for cutting either one or two 
bridgings at once. If two bridgings are 
to be cut at once, hold two bridging 
boards flat against 2x6 instead of one 
when making your cuts. The cuts in 
your notch should be at about the same 
angle as your miter cuts on box. 



L. U. No. 678. 



Lon W. Skinner, 

Dubuque, la. 



Assistance Needed 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

I am submitting a problem that I can 
not solve. A little help from some of 
the mathematically inclined fans will be 




appreciated. 

I have a room twelve feet wide, by 
fourteen feet and three inches long, 



(square at the corners) also a carpet 
three feet nine inches wide to be cut 
off square at the ends. The carpet is to 
be laid diagonally in the room so that 
the corners of the carpet will just touch 
the sides of the room. How long is the 
carpet? 

A little drawing may be helpful; it 
is self-explanatory. Now what I want to 
see is a solution or formula for working 
this problem and not just an answer. 

I enjoy all the problems in "The Car- 
penter" and think they are very in- 
structive provided the solutions are 
shown in detail. 

Here's for more problems. 



L. U. No. 417. 



G. L. Conrad, 
St. Louis, Mo. 



End of Typhoid Is Health Goal 

Members of the American Public 
Health Association, at their recent con- 
vention held in Indianapolis, were told 
that complete eradication of typhoid 
fever is an actual possibility and is the 
goal toward which future health ef- 
forts should be directed. 

Pointing out that the mortality rate 
of the disease decreased more than 80 
per cent from 1913 to 1932, Dr. George 
H. Ramsey, Albany, N. Y., said typhoid 
fever prevention should no longer be 
discussed in terms of control. 

Dr. Ramsey, director of the division 
of communicable diseases of the New 
York state health department, spoke be- 
fore a joint meeting of the health offi- 
cers, laboratory and epidemiology sec- 
tions. 

A study of the geographical distribu- 
tion of the disease, he said, reveals that 
the greatest problem is in the rural 
areas of the south where the least de- 
crease has occurred and where the mor- 
tality rate is now seven times higher 
than in northern states. 

Further studies, he said, show that 
typhoid has become "a disease of small 
towns rather than of large or medium- 
sized cities." 

Although vaccination is of proved ef- 
ficacy he expressed doubt as to the wis- 
dom of using it on a community basis 
for any purpose except emergency con- 
trol. 



Do not acquire the reputation of be- 
ing an obstructionist. Do something for 
the good of the organization. 



THE CARPEXT E R 



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A J\etv 

SLITS, GROOVES AND BEVELS 
FIBRE BOARDS LIKE UPSON 
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Fibre Board Cutter 
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You will want this new tool for your next 
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Through cuts can be made much easier and faster with it than is possible with 
a saw and it leaves smooth edges. Furthermore it cuts beveled edges, makes 
beveled edge battens, cuts grooves, makes decorative designs such as squares, 
parallel lines and bricks as shown below. 

It's a Stanley Quality Tool — smooth strong castings;; Stanley "Bailey" rose- 
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are replaceable. 

See it at your Hardware Dealers 
Write for descriptive Folder P47 



STANLEY TOOLS 

New Britain. Connecticut 




Convict Labor Goods Crimped in Seven- 
teen States 

The unremitting efforts of the Execu- 
tive Council of the American Federation 
of Labor in favor of State use of convict 
labor goods and forbidding interstate 
trade in them have resulted in the enact- 
ment of the A. F. of L. convict labor bill 
by 17 States, according to the Council's 
report to the 1933 convention of the 
Federation in "Washington. Twelve of 
the 17 States enacted the law in 1933. 

The States now having laws in con- 
formity with the Hawes-Cooper Act are: 

Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, 
Illinois, Massachusetts, Montana, New 
Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, 
North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, 
South Dakota, Utah, Washington, Wy- 
oming. 

"The fact that no convict-made goods 
can be shipped into 17 States after 
January 19, 1934, for sale on the open 
market, will serve as a warning to 
States that have not enacted this law 
. that they must adopt the State-use 
system," the Council said. 

"The main attack on the Hawes- 
Cooper Act was begun by the attorney- 
general of Alabama, who asked for an 
injunction restraining 16 States from 
enforcing their convict labor laws. The 
States asked to be enjoined will fight 
the suit. The attorneys-general of those 
States met in Chicago and appointed a 
committee to draw up briefs in support 
of the constitutionality of the Hawes- 
Cooper Act. 

"Many protests have been made by 
the citizens of Alabama, and the Execu- 
tive Council believes that the attorney- 
general of that State will not succeed in 
his efforts to uphold convict labor com- 
petition with free labor. 

"Contracts for shirts in Kentucky and 
Wyoming prisons were cancelled be- 
cause the Hawes-Cooper Act would be- 
come effective after January 19, 1934." 



American Plan Sent Country on the 
Rocks 

(Rev. R. A. McGowan) 

Company unions had a great vogue 
right after the War and during the de- 
pression that began with 1920. They 
were set up by the employers and con- 
trolled by them. The propaganda was 
sent out that the company union was 
the real old genuine American Plan and 
that the labor union was an invasion of 



the free-born rights of an American 
citizen. 

It was this "American Plan" that sent 
the country on the rocks. The free-born 
right of an American citizen not to have 
his wages, hours and working conditions 
influenced by a labor union that covered 
his whole trade and industry meant the 
free-born right of the American em- 
ployers to control wages, hours and 
working conditions. 

The employers controlled to their 
own short-time advantage. They often 
paid less than a bare existence wage 
and never enough to let employes buy 
their share of the goods that were being 
produced in ever-growing quantities. 
Unable to sell their goods and haphaz- 
ardly developing their plants and their 
production without regard to their own 
competitors and hoping always to sell 
more and more goods, the very employ- 
ers brought upon themselves the Great 
Depression. 

And the bitter joke of it was that 
the employers were only partly wrong 
when they said that their idea was the 
true American idea. For there is no 
doubt that one strong strain in Ameri- 
can life has always been in favor of 
everyone standing on his own feet with- 
out regard for any man. But at last we 
have discovered the old human law that 
the man who makes up his mind to 
stand always on his own feet alone is 
soon either standing on other people's 
feet or is not standing at all. 

The point of it is that the American 
Plan was a method and the method con- 
flicted with the American ideal. The 
ideal was to have general prosperity and 
a high standard of living for all. The 
method of Individualism was mistaken- 
ly thought to be the only way to attain 
the ideal. Now we know that Individu- 
alism is one sure way not to attain the 
ideal. The American Plan undermined 
the ideal. 

Defeat for the company union and de- 
feat for that even worse thing — utter 
isolation of the individual workers — is 
one of the great victories that these 
months are gaining. To make the vic- 
tory sure, employes should themselves 
join the labor unions in great armies. 
Then they will be in a position not only 
to fix, as free men and brothers, the 
right wage rates and the right hours, 
but to rise to full brotherhood and full 
dignity in their industry as organized 
sharers in the management, profits and 
ownership of the things with which 
and on which they work. 



PRICE LIST 



OF 



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One Charter and Outfit $15.00 

Application Blanks, per pad 50 

Application Blanks, Ladies' Aux- 
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Constitutions, each 05 

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each 03 

Due Books, each 15 

Treas. Cash Books, each 50 

F. S. Receipt Books, each 35 

Treas. Receipt Books, each 35 

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Rituals, each 50 

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Minute Books, 100 pages 1.50 

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Day Book, 200 pages 2.50 

Day Book, 300 pages 3.50 

Ledgers, 100 pages 2.00 

Ledgers, 200 pages 3.00 

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PRICES ON SPECIAL LEATHER 
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THE 



BROTHERHOOD 

is now manufacturing 

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INDIANAPOLIS - - IND. 



LINCOLN, THE UNCONQUERABLE! 

(By James Edward Hungerford) 

For years he knew naught but defeat 

At ev'ry thing he tried; 

What e'er he strove to do, he'd meet 

Rebuffs from ev'ry side; 

Grim failure loomed on ev'ry hand 

To shatter dreams he dreamed; 

No matter WHAT, or HOW, he planned, 

'Twas futile, so it seemed. 

Born in an humble woodman's cot; 
Sore handicapped from birth, 
He fought for ev'rything he got — 
Against the odds of earth ! 
"Depression" was his daily fare, 
Through years of ceaseless strife, 
Bowed down by ev'ry worldly care, 
Throughout his martyred life. 

Through endless trials, his great heart bled; 

His was the thorny-crown, 

But on he fought, when hope seemed dead — 

No odds could keep him down ! 

He drank deep of the hemlock-cup, 

And downed the dregs of gall, 

And now the world to HIM looks up — 

Who TRIUMPHED over all! 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of Congress, Aug. 24, 1912 

Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, act of 
October 3, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918 

A Monthly Journal for Carpenters, Stair Builders, Machine Wood Workers, Planing Mill Men, and 

Kindred Industries. Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters 

and Joiners of America, at 

Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 

Advertising Department, 25 Third Avenue, New York, N. Y. 



Established in 1881 
Vol. LIV. — No. 2. 



INDIANAPOLIS, FEBRUARY, 1934 



One Dollar Per Tear 
Ten Cents a Copy 



NOTICE 

The publishers of "The Carpenter" reserve the right to reject all advertising matter 
which may be, in their judgment, unfair or objectionable to the membership of the United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America. 

All contracts for advertising space in "The Carpenter," including those stipulated as 
non-cancellable, are only accepted subject to the above reserved rights of the publishers. 



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SUCCESS 




♦ 

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It's doing your job the best you can 




♦ 


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And being just to your fellow man; 




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♦♦♦ 




It's making money, but holding friends, 




♦ 


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And staying true to your aims and ends; 




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It's figuring how and learning why 




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And looking forward and thinking high, 




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And dreaming a little and doing much; 




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It's keeping always in closest touch 




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With what is finest in word and deed, 




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It's being thorough, yet making speed, 




♦ 






It's daring blithely the field of chance 




♦♦♦ 


♦ 




While making labor a brave romance; 




♦ 


♦ 




It's going onward despite defeat 




♦ 






And fighting stanchly, but keeping sweet; 




♦»* 


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It's being clean and it's playing fair, 




♦ 






It's laughing lightly at Dame Despair; 




* 




It's looking up at the stars above 






♦ 




And drinking deeply of life and love; 




*•> 


* 




It's struggling on with the will to win, 




♦ 


* 




But taking loss with a cheeful grin; 




*> 


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It's sharing sorrow and work and mirth 




*> 


♦ 




And making better this good old earth; 




♦ 






It's service, striving thru strain and stress, 




*!♦ 


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It's doing your noblest — that's success. 




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THE CARPENTER 

SHORTER HOURS 

(By William Green, President, A. F. of L.) 




HE United States Govern- 
ment has decreed that the 
Federal employes must 
contribute another cut 
to balancing the budget. 
Federal employes, like all 
other loyal groups, are willing to make 
proportionate sacrifices to national best 
interests. But it should be remembered 
that because of the supposed greater se- 
curity of government employment, sal- 
aries of Federal employes are lower 
than those for similar work in private 
employment. These employes have al- 
ready had one pay cut that seriously 
curtailed income. This second cut means 
serious problems for these workers and 
their dependents. This group of efficient 
workers, upon whom we depend to 
carry on government services, is faced 
with the unpleasant necessity of organ- 
izing their lives on lower standards of 
living. Recovery for them will be slower 
than for other groups. 

There is a way to express our appre- 
ciation of both the services and the sac- 
rifices of the government workers, and 
to compensate in a measure for their 
losses — establish the five day week for 
all government employes. The Federal 
government should in all its work rela- 
tionships lead in establishing the best 



practices. 

The five-day week would automatic- 
ally raise the rate of pay for all. It 
would give them time for recreation and 
those avocations which mean self-prog- 
ress for the individual worker. 

When the Federal government estab- 
lishes the five-day week as accompany- 
ing compensation for cutting income, it 
will set a precedent for private industry 
and work of all kinds to follow. Wage- 
earners are identified with industries in 
producing the goods or services which 
provide income, but they have little 
or inadequate voice in deciding policies 
or distribution of income. They should 
be the last asked to take cuts. When 
mismanagement or other misfortunes 
make wage cuts unavoidable, the basic 
work week should be cut in proportion. 
The gain in hours reduction would in a 
measure compensate for loss of income. 
By maintaining the hours standard and 
seeking increases in incomes, when bet- 
ter conditions develop, a temporary loss 
can be turned into permanent advan- ■ 
tage. 

Let no one lose sight of the fact that 
a shorter work week and higher incomes 
are indexes to national progress as well 
as to progress for the individuals con- 
cerned. 



CONSTRUCTION GIVES TENTH OF ALL 
EMPLOYMENT 







VERY tenth person gain- 
fully employed in the 
United States in 1929 de- 
pended for his livelihood 
on construction; of the 
total of $11,000,000,000 
of construction in that year, the greater 
part went eventually to wages. Further, 
just as much employment was furnished 
indirectly in dependent industries as 
was created by actual construction 
work. 

This information was presented by 
Robert D. Kohn, past president of the 
American Institute of Architects, and 
General Chairman of the Construction 
League of the United States. 

"That the railroads, mines and other 
contributing industries lean heavily on 



construction is clear from the facts that 
one out of every five carloads of freight 
moved in 1929 carried construction ma- 
terials in raw or finished form," Mr. 
Kohn said. "Five per cent of all coal 
mined was burned to make these mate- 
rials, and eight per cent of the whole- 
salers of the country were busy with 
their distribution. This multiple divi- 
sion of the construction dollar proves it 
to be a tremendous factor in the compli- 
cated and interlocking economic life of 
today. 

"The fact that the jobs of a tenth of 
America's workers depend on construc- 
tion brings home the importance of the 
public works program. Construction 
paid $7,000,000,000 to 4,500,000 per- 
sons in 1929 out of the total of 48,800,- 



THE CARPEXTER 



000 gainfully employed. Over half of 
these workers were engaged in direct 
construction. 

It would be an immense step forward 
if we muster a major part of this great 
force during the recovery period and 
apply it intelligently to useful and far- 
sighted public projects, not for selfish 
and gainful purposes, but rather direct- 
ed to the common good and for the bet- 
terment of America's living conditions." 

The Construction League nas made 
the first really exhaustive survey of con- 
struction, obtaining the figures in Wash- 
ington in the various government de- 
partments. 

Though the bulk of construction work 
is done in large cities and industrial 
areas, the indirect employment afforded 
in the manufacture of materials, in 
transportation and in distribution, is as 
great as the employment on the con- 
struction site. The production of raw 
and finished materials is carried on in 
every section of the country, in towns 
far from structure or project. For ex- 
ample, a study of the materials sources 
for Boulder Dam reveals lumber from 
the northwest, steel work from Ohio, 
Illinois, California, Pennsylvania and 
Alabama, turbines from Wisconsin and 
Virginia, electrical equipment from New 
York, valves from Tennessee, and the 
cableway from New Jersey. 

In 1929 the raw materials produc- 
tion for construction engaged over 60,- 
000 persons, mostly in the mines and 
quarries. The value of their products 
was a half-billion dollars. These un- 
finished stone, ore and mineral products 
went to the manufacturing industries, 
which converted them, together with 
forest products, to finished materials, 
valued at three and three-quarter bil- 
lions of dollars. In this manufacturing 
process 1,100,000 people were engaged, 
or one out of every ten occupied in all 
manufacturing industries; the materials 
were being made in one-fourth of the 
mills and factories of the country. 

Pennsylvania, by virtue of her steel 
and cement, took the lead in the produc- 
tion of these materials, with a total em- 
ployment of 133,000, a margin of 50,- 
000 over her nearest competitor. New 
York, number one when all industry is 
considered, dropped to third place as a 
construction supplier; Ohio was the sec- 
ond state. 

As a complement to the manufactur- 
ing division of the survey, a study of 



a coal consumption by the materials pro- 
ducing industries was made, revealing 
that 5 per cent of all coal mined in 
1929 was used for these materials and 
that 25,000 people were employed in its 
production. 

Transportation of construction ma- 
terials is the next logical step in the 
construction process, and employed 180,- 
000 men on the railroads, moving 6,- 
800,000 carloads of raw and finished 
construction freight, or roughly, one 
out of every five carloads for 1929. This 
transportation was responsible for 14 
per cent of all freight revenue. 

Engaged in wholesale distribution of 
the construction materials were 125,000 
persons, reporting net sales to the Cen- 
sus Bureau of $3,129,000,000, part of 
which was redistributed by 310,000 
workers in retail establishments. This 
distribution group furnishes 10 per cent 
of all construction employment and is 
one of the most widely dispersed divi- 
sions. The design of buildings, struc- 
tures and projects of all kinds occupied 
145,000 architects, draftsmen, engin- 
eers, and designers in 1929, represent- 
ing 3 per cent of the construction em- 
ployes. 

Of the $11,000,000,000 of construc- 
tion, contractors built a little more 
than half, the remainder being done 
by railroads, public utilities companies, 
municipal governments and the like. Di- 
rect employment was 2,500,000 men. 
New York, Pennsylvania and Illinois led 
in number of employes on contract con- 
struction work. 



It is hard- 



To forget 
To forgive 
To apologize 
To take advice 
To admit error 
To be unselfish 
To save money 
To be charitable 
To be considerate 
To avoid mistakes 
To keep out of the rut 
To make the best of little thing-s 
To shoulder blame 
To keep your temper at all times 
To begin all over again 
To maintain a high standard 
To keep on, keeping on 
To think first and act after- 
wards — 
But it pays. 



THE CARPENTER 



DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE OLDER WORKER 

(By Executive Council, A. F. of L.) 




HE policy of establishing 
an age limit for hiring 
workers is a grave men- 
ace to the older worker. 
Developments of the last 
few years have brought 
no relief. In fact, this policy is, if any- 
thing, becoming more widespread. It 
had at the start a definite connection 
with the spread of employe benefit plans 
financed by the employer, such as group 
insurance or old-age pensions; but age 
limits have now extended far beyond the 
field of such benefit plans. The practice 
is so general that workers over 45 in 
many localities find it practically im- 
possible to get a job, and workers of 
40 and even 35 are also finding age 
limits applied against them. 

The far-reaching effect of this injus- 
tice to the worker is not fully realized. 
Men who have spent their lives in hon- 
est, conscientious work for an employer, 
who have developed skill and experience 
with the years, may be laid off and lit- 
erally thrown on the scrap heap at 40 
or 45. By the time a man has reached 
this age, his children are at the age 



when education and preparation for the 
future will determine the course of their 
lives. If he loses his job and income, 
the children are forced to leave school 
and go to work. Many a young man of 
ability has thus been forced to abandon 
the trade or career for which he was 
training and has never again been able 
to rise out of drudgery. 

The age limit also means a loss to 
industry, in that it eliminates workers 
who have reached an age of responsibil- 
ity and who have twenty or thirty years' 
training in industrial work. Experience 
and responsibility are essential in any 
work where the quality of the product 
is concerned. 

The American Federation of Labor is 
opposed to discriminating against work- 
ers in industry on a basis of age as well 
as in other unfair discriminations. We 
also oppose the Government's setting 
any maximum age for applicants for em- 
ployment. The employment or retention 
of workers should be based upon com- 
petence to perform work, and not on 
arbitrary age limit. 



ADDRESS OF MR. JAMES ROWAN, FRATERNAL 

DELEGATE OF THE BRITISH TRADE UNION 

CONGRESS TO THE A. F. OF L. CONVENTION 

(Continued from January issue) 




AN it be possible that Hit- 
lerism is condoned by in- 
ternational capital, and 
by capitalist government; 
even by the Communist 
Government of Russia, 
because Hitler is destroying democracy 
and liberty? He has already destroyed 
Trade Unionism and wiped out the 
workers' political organization in Ger- 
many. 

My question must for the moment go 
unanswered. That there are sinister 
forces at work in all countries in un- 
dermining the institutions of free citi- 
zenship and weakening the workers' 
organizations seems to me a proven 
fact. 

In my deliberate judgment, the small 
group of international financiers who 
control the great aggregations of 



capital, with the governments they cre- 
ate and maintain in power, are fighting 
desperately and unscrupulously against 
the advance of democracy. Within the 
last generation we have seen working 
class organization gain great influence 
and power, industrially and politically. 
In one country after another, the or- 
ganized working class movement was 
able to challenge the domination of 
capital. Trade Unionism had developed 
the method of collective bargaining and 
had compelled employers to meet them 
on something like equal terms. Indus- 
trial autocracy was coming to an end. 
The organized wage earners were be- 
ginning to assert their claim for a 
voice in the control and direction of 
industry. 

Further, in countries where organ- 
ized Labor had formed political par- 



THE CARPENTER 



ties, it was beginning to reach out to 
grasp the reins of Government. 

It would be stupid to think that these 
developments of Labor's power, indus- 
trial and political, have been regarded 
complacently by organized capital. One 
cannot imagine that capital has seen 
these things taking place without won- 
dering what was going to happen. 

That being so, it seems to me to be 
probable, prima facie, that big indus- 
trialists, financiers and international 
capital generally will not have frowned 
upon the leaders of the Fascist move- 
ment, or have tried to dissuade Hit- 
ler from destroying the foundations 
of democracy, Trade Unionism and free 
citizenship in Germany. It seems to 
me more probable, on the face of it, 
that they will have helped him to do 
these things and will stand ready to 
help anybody who will play the part 
of Hitler in other countries where 
Trade Unionism is strong and militant. 
That is why, I have spoken at some 
length of the state of affairs in Germany 
and Europe at large rather than of the 
British Trade Union movement general- 
ly. I now desire to refer to what, in my 
opinion, is one of the most important 
organizations in Europe — The Interna- 
tional Labor Office, brought into exist- 
ence by and through the Versailles 
Treaty. However many complaints there 
may be in respect to certain clauses of 
this treaty there is nothing to be said 
against the principle contained in Part 
8, of the Treaty of Versailles of June, 
1919. 

The opening of the International La- 
bor Office at Geneva is but a continua- 
tion of the history of this centuries-old 
center of religious, political and civil 
freedom. In this city a most wonderful 
monument stands, over eighty yards in 
length and some fourteen yards high, 
on which is engraved in marble the dec- 
larations, over three hundred years old, 
of the various European countries relat- 
ing to their liberty. Amongst others are 
two in the English language; First, the 
Bill of Rights, wrung from the royalists 
in Britain by the forces of Cromwell; 
and, Second, the Mayflower Compact of 
the Pilgrim Fathers, in themselves two 
of the most historical documents in the 
world's history. In this hallowed spot 
the International Labor Office is cen- 
tered and since its inception has done 
wonderful work. It ought to be remem- 



bered that at the end of the war most 
of Europe was in a most deplorable con- 
dition socially. True, one or two of the 
countries, such as Britain, thought the 
era of artificial prosperity that immedi- 
ately followed the war would continue, 
but very soon they were disillusioned 
and nearly down to the low level of 
other European countries. Neutral coun- 
tries, such as Scandinavia and Holland, 
certainly had a good harvest during the 
war out of both sides. None the less 
they were later brought into the mael- 
strom of the industrial depression. The 
Treaty of Versailles so far as organiza- 
tion of labor on an international basis 
was concerned was an honest and sin- 
cere endeavor to allay the terrible de- 
gradation of labor that might, and-did, 
take place. Millions of workers have 
been on the poverty, even the starva- 
tion line, without any signs of political 
easement. What little easement has 
taken place in Europe was owing to the 
machinery of the International Labor 
Office through the pressure of trade un- 
ion representatives at the International 
Labor Conferences. The good work ac- 
complished would have been consider- 
ably increased had it not been ham- 
pered at every turn by reactionary gov- 
ernments and hostile employers' organ- 
izations. In spite, however, of this for- 
midable opposition the International 
Labor Office is making steady and cer- 
tain progress. Conventions have been 
presented dealing with such important 
questions as unemployment; employ- 
ment of women; minimum age of ad- 
mission of children to industrial em- 
ployment; restrictions of employment 
of young persons on night work; ex- 
tension of the workmen's compensa- 
tion to agricultural workers; weekly 
rest day in industrial undertakings- 
conventions affecting those who go 
down to the sea in ships, such as in- 
demnities in the case of foundering or 
loss of the ship — minimum age of em- 
ployment at sea — facilities for finding 
work for seamen and many others. In 
respect to the social services many con- 
ventions have been brought into exist- 
ence dealing among other subjects with 
sickness, invalidity, widows' and or- 
phans' and old age pensions. These are 
only a few examples of the work accom- 
plished. 

It might be said. — Yes, but how does 
that affect us? We already had most 
of these laws operating to a greater 



THE CARPENTER 



or less extent? True, but the Inter- 
national Labor Office is in existence 
for the express purpose, of co-ordinat- 
ing the social and industrial legislation 
of the world, and endeavors to bring 
backward countries into line. 

Samuel Gompers said in the American 
Federation of Labor Convention, 1919: 
''But I see in this draft convention 
for labor, not that it will bring very 
much of light into the lives of Ameri- 
can workers, but I do believe that its 
adoption and operation will have the 
effect of bringing light into the lives 
of the workers in the more backward 
countries. What concerned me most 
was that there should not be in the 
draft convention anything by which 
1 lie standards of American labor 
could be reduced, and that the Sea- 
raen's Act should be protected by that 
protocol to Article 19 of the draft 
convention. 

"I hold that the resolution must be 
5 iterpreted upon the basis of the pre- 
: mbles to the resolution, and the pre- 
: mble to the declaration in regard to 
1 lie labor provisions declares that 'it 
i 5 of the utmost importance that the 
conditions of labor the world over 
must be improved, and that therefore 
labor cannot be regarded "merely" as 
a commodity or an article of com- 
merce.' It has got to be read in the 
light of the declarations contained in 
the preamble." 

Could we, for example, bring Japan 
into line on hours, conditions of work, 
social service, and protection of child 
labor, along with other conditions 
brought into being by the International 
Labor Conventions we would not at 
present be faced with the unfair and 
indefensible competition we in Britain, 
like yourself, are suffering from. There 
is an economic side to this question that 
alone, in my opinion, will bring America 
into line to assist in her own best inter- 
ests in removing the many international 
anomalies at present existing. Your own 
government has already to some extent 
realized this by sending a deputation 
this year to Geneva with a watching 
brief. I had the pleasure of meeting 
there this year one of your representa- 
tives our good friend Mr. Frayne, and 
on one or two occasions, compared notes 
with him. I am bold enough to believe 
that as a result of his visit he will have 
convinced himself of the necessity of 



the continuance and strengthening of 
this body. I, myself, as a result of at- 
tending the last three conferences have 
become a very strong advocate of the 
continuance and extension of this in- 
stitution, believing it is one of the most 
necessary in the world, and if it is my 
good fortune to attend further confer- 
ences at Geneva I shall be a most happy 
man to meet your delegation there as 
fully accredited representatives of the 
great United States of America. 

About our movement at home I am 
not going to speak at any length but I 
feel I must briefly refer to the increas- 
ing menace to the working class of un- 
controlled rationalization, or as you 
more aptly put it — technocracy. In my 
own section of industry — electrical en- 
gineering — we have as remarkable ex- 
amples as yourself of changing condi- 
tions which have bitten us as much as 
they have bitten you. For instance, 
while bald statistics may show for Brit- 
ain the production of electrical machin- 
ery to be not more last year than in 
previous years no allowance is made for 
the fact that during the last decade the 
cost of production and the weight per 
electrical unit of the product has con- 
siderably decreased. Therefore we have 
the spectacle of more productive ma- 
chinery being actually manufactured 
and put on the market while the statis- 
ticians say there is less. Statisticians. 
of course, say that statistics never lie. 

I will here quote only one example of 
the displacement of labor caused by new 
methods. In the manufacturing of elec- 
trical machinery Stator Carcass were 
made of cast steel, necessitating the em- 
ployment of engineers, pattern makers, 
and moulders. A decision was arrived 
at to fabricate these stators by welding 
steel plates together to form the car- 
cass. The result was, no pattern mak- 
ers or moulders were required, and a 
class of labor introduced to do the weld- 
ing at semi-skilled rates of wages. This 
halved the cost and halved the weight 
and halved the labor or the out-put, 
giving another opportunity to the stat- 
istician of showing he knows nothing 
of the practical application of his 
theories. What has happened with elec- 
trical engineering has happened in 
nearly every other industry. The irony 
of it all is that when this machinery is 
finished it is used for the purpose of 
putting further people out of employ- 
ment and so the vicious circle is ever 



THE CARPENTER 



growing larger. Another factor that 
widens the differences between producer 
and consumer is that every machine 
made increases production and reduces 
consumption; machines don't eat. 

This all tends to emphasize the neces- 
sity of the program put forth in your 
President, Mr. Green's splendid address 
on Monday, that the only immediate 
solution in the present state of society 
is a substantial reduction in hours and 
a large increase in the spending capac- 
ity of the workers in order to do some- 
thing to more nearly balance the pres- 
ent uneconomic position. I might add 
we in Britain are struggling with an 
economic crisis that has lasted longer 
than yours, with an unemployment 
problem which has been with us now 
for a dozen years, and with a reaction- 
ary Government that is not even capable 
of learning the lessons your Government 
has been teaching. 

Let me say to you that British trade 
unionists have been profoundly im- 
pressed by the most characteristic fea- 
tures of your Government's recovery 
program. We regard those features as 
an attempt to put into practice the prin- 
ciples of trade union policy. I am 
charged to convey to you our warm ap- 
preciation of the fight your Federation 
has made for full recognition of Trade 
Unionism in the working out of the re- 
covery program. We hope and believe 
that the ultimate result will be such 
an improvement in trade, revival of in- 
dustry and permanent elevation of the 
people's standard of life as will vindi- 
cate your Federation in its insistence 
upon the policy of reducing hours of 
employment and raising wages as the 
first steps toward recovery. 

I believe that you have initiated here 
in the United States a departure in the 
economic life of nations and that other 
countries will be compelled to follow 
your lead, in matters of fundamental 
policy. And out of our common tribula- 
tions and our common interest in the 
maintenance of the principles of free- 
dom and democracy, I hope that a closer 
organic relationship will grow between 
you and ourselves. There is no denying 
the fact that European Trade Unionism 
has suffered a grievous blow; our inter- 
national organization has been weak- 
ened; we have to strengthen, rebuild, 
consolidate and expand our organiza- 
tion. You can help us. No other coun- 
try can help us so much. We need your 



help. Never have we needed it so much 
as now. 

Take my fraternal message from 
British Trade Unionism as an appeal for 
international trade union co-operation 
against common dangers, and for unity 
and active work together in support of 
the ideals we hold in common with you 
in the brotherhood of labor and the 
cause of human freedom. 



Home Building Loans Would Employ 
Millions, Says American Builder 

Recommends Federal Loans for Build- 
ing, Repairing and Modernizing 

That sentiment toward federal loans 
to property owners to permit the build- 
ing of new homes and the repairs and 
modernization of old ones is crystaliz- 
ing is the opinion of a writer whose edi- 
torial appears in the recent issue of the 
American Builder Magazine. 

Declaring itself flatly in favor of the 
measure as a means for increasing em- 
ployment, the publication says through 
its editorial writer: "Surveys show that 
there is today a demand for new mod- 
ern homes, totaling a million and a half 
units, which is waiting only for reason- 
able first mortgage money to be trans- 
lated into immediate construction. 

"In the four years since normal home 
financing was available this great po- 
tential demand has piled up; and is now 
available to President Roosevelt's ad- 
ministration as a sound outlet for funds 
to give re-employment and to stimulate 
business. This is in line with the prin- 
ciple stated in these columns in Octo- 
ber, that a million small or average 
construction jobs (widely scattered) 
would do more for employment and 
prosperity for the whole people than the 
most stupendous of public works pro- 
grams. 

"Such loans," continues the editorial, 
"would release employment in every 
county of the United States and among 
the workers hardest hit by the depres- 
sion, namely, the building trades. Four 
million men directly employed in build- 
ing, and ten million others back in the 
factories and plants serving this indus- 
try indirectly, would feel the immedi- 
ate stimulation of this needed home 
building." 

The editors of the American Builder 
declare that these loans would represent 
real value if they amounted to 75 per 
cent of the value of the buildings. 



T hi: carpenter 



REPRESENTATIVES OF NAVY YARD EMPLOYES 
APPEAL TO PRESIDENT AND SECRETARY 
SWANSON RESCINDS HIS ORDER 
FOR PAY CUT 




HE vigorous protest of the 
A. F. of L. to President 
Roosevelt against the six- 
teen and two-thirds per 
cent pay cut recently im- 
posed by Secretary Swan- 
son of the Navy on the civilian employes 
of the navy yards throughout the Unit- 
ed States in connection with the forty- 
hour work week, resulted in the Presi- 
dent issuing an executive order releas- 
ing $5,000,000 additional funds for 
navy expenditures by the Bureau of 
Budget, and Secretary Swanson rescind- 
ing his order. 

Under the new order the employes of 
the Washington navy yard will work five 
and one-half days, namely forty-four 
hours with forty-eight hours' pay, get- 
ting off Saturday afternoon. The next 
week they will work four and one-half 
days, namely thirty-six hours with forty 
hours' pay and so on alternately. This 
will average forty hours of work and 
forty-four hours of pay. 

The same rule for per diem employes 
on full time applies to all other navy 
yards. Under this plan they will work 
five and one-half days, namely forty- 
four hours work with forty-eight hours' 
pay one week, and four and one-half 
days, namely thirty-six hours work with 
forty hours' pay the alternate week. 
Employes ordered to work on Monday 
of the short week shall be required to 
take equivalent time off without pay 
before the following Saturday. 

Previous to the reduction in pay cut, 
the navy yard workers were employed 
forty-four hours a week. They asked 
for a forty-hour week without reduction 
in pay. Secretary Swanson gave them 
the forty-hours, but cut their wages 
proportionately, which amounted to a 
sixteen and two-thirds per cent reduc- 
tion in addition to the fifteen per cent 
imposed by the Economy Act, making a 
total wage slash of nearly one-third of 
the wages, or a reduction in the weekly 
earnings twice as much as the reduction 
in the weekly hours of labor. In mak- 
ing the cut, Secretary Swanson said it 
was necessitated by the Director of the 
Bureau of the Budget holding up as an 



economy measure $55,000,000 of the 
Navy's regular appropriation for the 
current fiscal year. 

This is but one of the almost number- 
less cases of the extraordinary value of 
trade unionism, and shows that organi- 
zation is indispensable for taking care 
of the interest of wage-earners. Un- 
doubtedly if it had not been for the 
two able representatives going before 
the President of the United States and 
presenting their case, the navy yard em- 
ployes would have had to accept the im- 
positions forced upon them, as an indi- 
vidual is practically helpless to bargain 
successfully in connection with wages. 
Few individual wage-earners have eith- 
er the time or the facilities for studying 
the industry as a whole or presenting 
their case, as in this case, the Presi- 
dent asked numerous questions and the 
representatives had to be prepared to 
give him the information and data; that 
is why the workers need an agency that 
will attend to such matters for them. 
They need representatives who have had 
experience in handling industrial nego- 
tiations and know how to present data 
effectively. 

That is why we hav« an imperative 
need to extend trade union membership, 
not only to benefit the unorganized, but 
to enable the limit to develop to its full 
capacity. The union, to realize its full 
capacity for service, should represent 
all the workers in its jurisdiction and 
should possess the facts on the work re- 
lations of those in that occupation. Then 
the union is in a position to speak with 
authority and certainty and its service 
becomes indispensable to a progressive 
industry. High percentage of organiza- 
tion gives economic power. Experience 
and the facts of work on the job give 
the union authority and opportunity. 
The union possesses information neces- 
sary to protect workers against unfair 
proposals, to raise standards progres- 
sively and to stabilize working condi- 
tions. 

These are functions that only a trade 
union can perform, and it is necessary 
for industrial peace and progress that 
the trade-union movement increase its 
effectiveness. 



THE CARPENTER 



TRAINING FOR THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRIES 

(By Nelson L. Burbank, Instructor in Carpentry, Building Industries Vocational 
High Schools, Cincinnati, Ohio) 



HERE are 30 major trades 
in the building construc- 
tion industries. Training 
activities, in organized 
school classes, are offered 
to journeymen, appren- 
tices in hundreds of cities throughout 
the nation. 

The following list gives the major 
trades, number of cities offering train- 
ing in each trade and number of states 




in which these cities are ! 


located. 




A. 
B. 
C. 


Major trades 


Cities 


States 


Asbestos workers 


37 


12 


D. 


Bricklaying 


76 


23 


E. 


Carpentry 


238 


48 




Cement finishing 


4 


3 


F. 


Electrical work 


363 


47 


G. 


Electrical fixture hanging 


363 


47 




Elevator construction 


18 


11 




Furnace setting 


37 


12 




Glazing 


37 


12 


H. 


Hoisting engineering 


37 


12 




Iron working (ornamental) 2 


1 


I. 


Iron working (structural) 


2 


2 


J. 


Lathing 


37 


12 


Marble setting 


4 


2 




Painting 


62 


25 


K. 


Plastering 


19 


9 


Plumbing 


162 


31 


L. 


Rodmen 


2 


2 


Sheetmetal work 


142 


31 




Steam fitting 


27 


17 




Stone cutting 


4 


4 




Stone masonry 


4 


4 




Stone setting 


4 


4 




Terrazzo work 


2 


1 


sk 


Tile setting 


2 


1 


he 



A study of this list reveals the ex- 
tensive program of instruction. A close 
analysis of certain trades will bring out 
many points of similarity one with an- 



other. Since the instruction program is 
extensive, certain trades alike in per- 
formances and the demand for trained 
specialists less than ever before, could 
not the training for many trades be 
combined? 

The following list classifies the 30 
major trades in 12 groups, for instruc- 
tion purposes. Laboring, hod carrying 
not included. 

Asbestos trades: Abestos work. 
Carpentry trades: Carpentry. 
Glazing trades: Glazing. 
Heating trades: Furnace setting. 
Hoisting engineering: Hoisting 
trades. 

Lathing trades: Lathing. 
Mechanical trades: Electrical work, 
Electrical fixture hanging, Plumb- 
ing, Steam fitting, Elevator con- 
struction. 

Metal trades: Rodmen, Structural 
iron work, Ornamental iron work. 
Painting trades: Painting. 
Roofing trades: Roofing (Composi- 
tion), Roofing (Slate), Roofing 
(Tile). 

Sheet metal trades: Sheet metal 
work. 

Trowel trades: Bricklaying, Ce- 
ment finishing, Marble setting, 
Plastering, Stone masonry, Tile 
setting, Terrazzo work, Stone cut- 
ting, Stone setting. 

Re-grouping and combining of allied 
skills and technical information would 
be possible by careful study on the part 
of the present teaching corps. 

The entire construction field would 
benefit by greater co-ordination and co- 
operation. 



'BETTER LIGHT— BETTER SIGHT' 

(By George E. Whitwell) 



URING the last two or 
three years it has become 
customary on the part of 
the general public to 
save money by "cutting 
down" the supply of light. 
Sometimes this has been done by sub- 




stituting bulbs of lower wattage, some- 
times by cutting out alternate lights of 
a circuit; whatever the method, it is 
dangerous to lower personal efficiency 
through inadequate lighting. 

Every good craftsman knows the im- 
portance of good light; in fact, for 



10 



THE C A K P E X T E K 



careful joinery, good finishing, ordinary 
safety in working with machinery and 
tools, good light is an absolute essential. 
It is therefore surprising that thrift in 
lighting has gripped many good build- 
ing professionals; ha3 endangered their 
eyesight — even their lives through acci- 
dent hazards. 

In homes, shops, factories and all 
other buildings the incandescent lamp 
furnishes adequate light at very low 
cost. When the entire nation is fighting 
to regain its prosperous business condi- 
tions, it is particularly important for 
each individual, in whatever line, to 
function with as few handicaps as pos- 
sible. Poor lighting conditions are ad- 
mittedly a great handicap. 

In the past twenty-five years we have 
learned many things about the proper 
application of light, which have not 
been broadcast as fully as possible. For 
instance, lighting engineers have de- 
signed new installations, remarkable 
for both beauty and efficiency; but the 
general public, even many builders and 
architects, have not taken advantage of 
these newer ideas. However, the build- 
ing contractor is usually one consulted 
on lighting plans. He should be famil- 
iar with what is correct, what is effi- 
cient, what is decorative illumination. 
He should be a leader in the parade of 
lighting progress. 

In the new buildings, and in struc- 
tures being modernized, it will be well 
to make sure that adequate lighting is 



provided. Usually this does not consti- 
tute any important structural change or 
expense; but the building professional 
who looks after the eyesight of his cli- 
ents and appreciates the direct relation- 
ship of correct illumination to more 
business in stores, greater efficiency of 
the factory workers, or greater comfort 
in the home, will certainly enjoy a con- 
stantly increasing prestige. 

The Electrical Industry believes that 
now is the opportune time to urge the 
attention of the building industry, and 
all other electrical consumers, to the 
value of correct illumination and its di- 
rect relationship to better sight. The 
Edison Electric Institute is sponsoring 
a nation-wide program with these ob- 
jectives. 

The major executives of practically 
every utility company in the country 
have been advised and their response 
has been tremendous. Manufacturers of 
lighting equipment are co-operating, 
through their local agencies, with the 
local utility companies. In this way a 
comprehensive program is under way, 
based entirely on local condition. The 
slogan which has been adopted to pro- 
mote this activity is: "BETTER LIGHT 
— BETTER SIGHT." The opportunity 
for constructive public service is unlim- 
ited — from the most humble residence 
to the greatest skyscrapers; and the in- 
telligent application of light will do 
much to relieve the strain on eyes that 
are already overworked. 



'HE LABORS LEAST AND PRODUCES MOST WHO 
BEST CO-OPERATES" 

("Bill" Boggs, Carpenter, Dreams A Strange Dream) 

(By James Edward Hungerford) 




^jw^ps? ** illiam Templeton Boggs, 
3ffy'R^]y carpenter and builder, 
was a howling advocate 
of "co-operation." He 
thought about it, talked 
about it, dreamed about 
it; orated, exhorted, expounded upon 
the subject whenever and wherever his 
fellow carpenters would give him ear. 
His enthusiasm was such you would 
have thought he INVENTED the word. 
He tossed it about like a basketball, 
slammed it like a baseball, and kicked 
it around like a football. 



But never was HE the audience. 

No, sir! If anyone had anything to 
say on the subject, the speaker was 
Boggs. What he knew about co-opera- 
tion would have filled a library. What 
he didn't know wouldn't have filled an 
eye-tooth. When holding forth on his 
favorite topic before his fellow carpen- 
ters, he was Washington at Concord. 
Patrick Henry at Philadelphia, and 
Lincoln at Gettysburg. He was as stren- 
uous as "Teddy" Roosevelt, as aggres- 
sive as Senator Huey Long, as masterful 



THE CARPENTER 



11 



as Mussolini, and as dominating as Si- 
mon Legree. 

When he pounded a speakers'-table 
at meeting of carpenters, the water- 
glasses shattered, water sloshed out of 
the pitcher, and the audience shook. 
When he pointed a finger at his listen- 
ers, it had the effect of a six-shooter in 
a stage-coach hold-up, or a machine- 
gun in a gangster war. When he shout- 
ed the word "co-operation," furniture 
creaked, window-panes rattled, and 
plaster fell. He was thunder-an'-light- 
ning, a typhoon, cyclone, earthquake, 
and simoon rolled into one. 

In brief, this was his platform: 

"Whatever my political affiliations 
are, the same must be yours, or nobody 
worth-while will be elected to anything. 
Whatever religious dogma or creed I 
adhere to must be yours, or nobody will 
inherit the Kingdom — but ME. What- 
ever my business-ethics are must be 
yours, or business will go to the bow- 
wows. I am the truth and the way in 
carpenter-and-builder industry — follow 
ME.!" 

This was his platform, and he stood 
upon it solidly and stolidly, stampeding 
all opposition, including any other car- 
penters who might have suggestions or 
amendments to offer. 

Yet somehow he always forgot his 
Brotherhood dues when due, and had 
to be dunned; never . attended "get-to- 
gethers" of his brothers, unless HE was 
the chief-speaker; ignored all meetings, 
unless he was invited to expound "co- 
operation"; neglected to pay his bills 
promptly, and in a personal-deal it was 
ALL Boggs — to heck with his fellow- 
carpenters! 

One afternoon, when soothing sum- 
mer breezes wafted into his shop 
through open windows, he fell asleep, 
and dreamed a strange dream. 

He dremt he had been transported to 
the Pearly Gates! 

Without hesitation, Boggs approached 
the Celestial Gateman, and whacked 
him familiarly on the back. 

"Open the gate, Pete!" he ordered 
bruskly. "Where is Gabriel and the 
rest of the band? I supposed they'd be 
waiting to greet me when I arrived! 
Not even a trumpet-solo to welcome me! 
You folks don't seem to co-operate very 



efficiently up here! Whenever a great 
man on earth returns to his home-town, 
a band is at the depot to meet him, 
and — " 

"I'm sorry," interjected Saint Peter 
gently. "What part of the Universe do 
ye hail from, my son?" 

Boggs stared in amazement. 

"Why, from the earth of course!" 
he retorted. "The United States of 
America!" 

Saint Peter seemed puzzled, then 
suddenly brightened. "Ah, yes, I re- 
member now. That's the little world 
where George Washington, Abraham 
Lincoln, and — " 

"I came from!" interrupted Boggs. 
"Surely the Recording Angel has told 
you about William Templeton Boggs of 
Hohokus, Ohio? Why, I'm the man 
who — " 

Saint Peter lifted a hand, silencing 
him. Swiftly he ran his benevolent gaze 
over the Heavenly Scroll, then sadly 
shook his head. 

"Thy name is not here, my son," he 
announced gravely. 

"Impossible!" shouted Boggs. "Why, 
I'm the man who talked at dozens of 
carpenters-and-b u i 1 d er s' get-togethers 
on the subject of CO-OPERATION! My 
name was as well-known on earth, as 
any man who ever talked three hours 
at a meeting without pause, or a drink 
of water! The name Boggs should ap- 
pear near the head of the list, under the 
B's! If my name is not on that Scroll, 
the Recording Angel is playing a joke 
on me! Throw open the gates!" 

He seized the jasper-studded gold- 
bars, and shook them violently. 

"Stop!" commanded Saint Peter. "No 
one enters here whose name is not on 
this Scroll. This is my authority for 
admitting those who sincerely co-oper- 
ated on earth, and are worthy to tread 
upon the Streets of Gold. I fear, my 
son, that enroute from the earth-regions 
you inadvertently took the wrong road, 
and — " 

"Just a minute!" blurted Boggs. 
"This — this is Heaven, isn't it?" 



"It is,' 
gravely. 



confirmed Saint Peter 



12 



T II I : C A R P E VTER 



"Then — then if my name is not 
on that Scroll," stammered Boggs," 
"WHERE do I go from here?" 

"Use your own judgment," said Saint 
Peter solemnly. "As far as I am aware 
there is only one other place." 

"Yon — yon mean — " exclaimed Boggs 
in horror. "You — you mean — " 

"GO TO THE DEVIL!" shouted a 
voice . . . and Boggs woke up with a 
gasp, to find himself in his carpenter- 
shop! 

The voice that had awakened him had 
come from the street— a truck-driver in 
altercation with a taxi-driver. 

Boggs stared about dazedly, and his 



helper entering the shop a minute later 
found him in a state of collapse. 

Now Bo*ggs is CO-OPERATING in 
earnest, while here on earth. 

No more tiresome talk, and windy 
speeches. He is meeting his obligations 
promptly, including his Brotherhood 
dues, and at meetings and get-togethers 
of his fellow-carpenters he gives atten- 
tive ear to what the other fellow may 
have to say on the subject of co-opera- 
tion. 

Co-operation, in fact, has ceased to 
be just a WORD with him. He has en- 
tered into the SPIRIT of it, and his 
name is being graven on the immortaJ 
"Scroll of SERVICE." 



THE SLOGAN PSYCHOLOGY 

(By H. H. Siegele) 




SLOGAN is merely a 
catch-phrase that will ap- 
peal to a popular senti- 
ment through the emo- 
tions. It seldom points to 
the goal, and rarely ex- 
presses the purpose for which it is used. 
In other words, a slogan represents 
something that ought to be true under 
ideal conditions, but in the realm of 
realities, is not. The purpose of a slo- 
gan is the psychological effects it pro- 
duces on individuals and masses, in 
order to bring about definite results, 
without a clear understanding of the 
facts involved. All of which is more or 
less true with all slogans, but particu- 
larly with war slogans. 

"When we were engaged in the 
world war," the philosopher said, stern- 
ly, "orators everywhere, and individu- 
als, punctuated their eloquence and 
their conversation with appealing slo- 
gans, such as 'a war to end war,' and, 
'a war to make the world safe for de- 
mocracy.' But what happened, after 
our young men had gone through that 
maelstrom of Hell, and the war lords 
sat at the peace table at Versailles? 
Was that treaty made and signed with 
that ideal purpose of making the world 
safe for democracy uppermost in the 
minds of those who signed the paper? 
Not so far as anyone can discover. But 
bargaining and dickering and trading 
for world power and for world trade, 



were so interwoven into that instru- 
ment that it constituted a nest of en- 
tangled germs for a new war or wars. 
That is why millions and billions of dol- 
lars have since been spent on arma- 
ments, while not one cent was spent to 
bring about a democracy that would sta- 
bilize employment or that would abol- 
ish unemployment." 

The philosopher, of course knew, that 
while the working people, through their 
sons and sacrifices, have to win or lose 
wars, wars are not made, in these days 
of holding companies and corporations, 
to benefit the working people — at least 
not so that it will be noticeable. The 
working people can suffer through un- 
employment by the millions, and their 
children starve by the inch, and what 
do we do about it? Nothing permanent. 
But if one of those powerful companies 
or corporations makes investments in 
some foreign country, and something 
happens to those investments, we, at the 
risk of plunging into war are willing to 
spend large sums of money to protect 
the interests of American concerns — we 
will do that, and if expedient, hide the 
truth under a well-sounding slogan. 

"If we are so tremendously con- 
cerned," the philosopher went on, 
"about American interests, and even 
Americans themselves in foreign coun- 
tries, why can't we be, at least, some- 
what concerned about the American citi- 
zens who stay on the homeland. If we 



THE CARPENTER 



13 



can spend billions of dollars to protect 
the interests of corporations at home 
and abroad, why should not the incomes 
and fortunes that come from such inter- 
ests, be taxed, in order to establish and 
maintain a security fund to benefit the 
unemployed in the form of insurance 
and pensions. Too much can not be 
said for the protection that our country 
throws around its citizens, who for any 
reason might be on foreign soil, but it 
is not fair to treat the citizens on our 
own soil, who are suffering because of 
unemployment, with shameful neglect. 
The wartime slogan, 'Keep the home 
fires burning,' should be paraphrased so 
as to read, 'Keep the home fires burn- 
ing and the people fed,' and in this form 
applied literally to our unemployment 
situations. That would mean that every 
man or woman would be protected by 
our government against want, either 
through stabilized employment or un- 
employment insurance. Such a protec- 
tion would be in keeping with the con- 
stitutional guarantee of 'life, liberty and 
the pursuit of happiness.' This is no 
more than fair, for if private property 
is protected by law, and individuals or 
firms, by reason of such laws, accumu- 
late so much property that thousands 
and millions of honest citizens are de- 
prived of a livelihood, then such large 
accumulations of property or of wealth 
should be compelled by law to provide 
the means of insuring those who are so 
deprived against suffering and want. 
The whole question is one of property 
against humanity — should the one be 
protected and the other not; or, should 
they both be protected equally?" 

The philosopher was well aware that 
theoretically the protection of the law 
applies to rich and poor alike; but he 
also knew that in practice it is alto- 
gether a different matter. The protec- 
tion that is given to the rich, is meas- 
ured by the amount of property they 
own; and from the very rich on down, 
the protection is graduated according to 
the riches, until the man with no prop- 
erty is reached, and he, as a rule, is 
virtually without protection. Putting it 
in another way, lifeless, feelingless and 
soulless property is protected by law to 
the utmost, while humanity, especially 
if it is hungry humanity here on the 
homeland, is left without protection — 
that is, unless you want to call Charity, 
protection. The home fires should be 
kept burning, and the people should be 



fed, in this land of plenty, before char- 
ity destroys their self-respect. 

"In 1932," the philosopher continued, 
"it took less red tape and less time for 
a Chicago banker to get 80 million dol- 
lars from the Reconstruction Finance 
Corporation, than was required of a 
workingman who applied, not for a job, 
but to be investigated for part-time 
work on a project that was financed by 
the same corporation. The first qualifi- 
cation necessary for eligibility to work 
on such a job, was: The man had to be 
a pauper — of course, it increased his 
chances to work many folds, if he was 
not only a pauper, but a pauper with a 
pauper wife and pauper children. In 
his case the amount that he was allowed 
to earn per week was limited, and the 
wages were fixed. In other words, the 
government stepped in and limited each 
man to barely enough to support him- 
self and his dependents. But what a 
contrast, when you compare this with 
the rich banker? He, according to what 
one of his friends told me, simply put in 
a telephone call, saying that he expect- 
ed to be in need of financial aid, within 
a few days, but that he was not asking 
for help, and what happened? The 
friend of the banker told me, that the 
authorities wired back to the rich 
banker, 'For God's sake, let us send you 
80 million dollars,' to which offer, the 
informant said, the banker reluctantly 
consented. That was all there was ne- 
cessary for a rich man to get help in 
case of anticipated financial distress; 
while the workingman, who needed help 
for his family, had to be in actual dis- 
tress and had to prove that he was pen- 
niless, before he was eligible for, not 
money, but work; the which, if he got 
it, was limited to bare necessities." 

The reference the philosopher made 
to the Chicago banker is true, and the 
part that the workingman played in the 
story is only too often true; however, 
occasionally a man with a pull did not 
have to be penniless in order to get a 
job as a distress laborer. 



Few workers stop to consider what 
the union does for them. They only re- 
member the few cents dues paid. They 
forget the benefits financial and social; 
and that they may be the next recipi- 
ent. With thorough understanding there 
would be less carping and fewer ar- 
rearages. 



14 THE CARPENTER 



LINCOLN ON LABOR 

From his Message to Congress, 186 1 



"I see in the near future a crisis approaching that unnerves me, and 
causes me to tremble for the safety of my country. As a result of war, 
corporations have been enthroned, and an era of corruption in high places 
will follow, and the money power of the country will endeavor to prolong 
its reign by working upon the prejudices of the people until all the wealth 
is aggregate in a few hands, and the republic is destroyed. I feel at this 
moment more anxiety for the safety of our country than ever before, even 
in the midst of war. God grant that my foreboding may be groundless. 

"Monarchy itself is sometimes hinted as a refuge from the power of 
thepeople. In my present position I could scarcely be justified were I to 
omit to raise a warning voice against the approach of returning despo- 
tism. It is not needed nor fitting here that a general argument should be 
made in favor of popular institutions ; but there is one point with its con- 
nections, not so hackneyed as most others, to which I ask brief attention. 
It is assumed that labor is available only in connection with capital ; that 
nobody labors unless somebody else owning capital, somehow by the use 
of it, induces him to labor. Labor is prior to and independent of capital. 
Capital is only the fruit of labor and could not have existed if labor had 
not first existed. Labor is the superior of capital and deserves much the 
higher consideration. I BID THE LABORING PEOPLE BEWARE 
OF SURRENDERING THE POWER WHICH THEY POSSESS, and 
which if surrendered will surely be used to shut the door of advancement 
for such as they, and fix new disabilities and burdens upon them until all 
of liberty shall be lost. 

"In the early days of our race the Almighty said to the first of man- 
kind, 'In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread,' and since then, if we 
expect the light and air of heaven, no good thing has been or can be en- 
joyed by us without first having cost labor. And inasmuch as most good 
things have been produced by labor, it follows that all such things belong 
of right to those whose labor has produced them. But it has so happened, in 
all ages of the world, that some have labored and others have without 
labor, enjoyed a large portion of the fruits. This is wrong and should not 
continue. To secure to each laborer the whole product of his labor, as 
nearly as possible, is a worthy object by any government. 

"It seems strange that any man should dare to ask a just God's assist- 
ance in wringing bread from the sweat of other men's faces. THIS COUN- 
TRY WITH ITS INSTITUTIONS BELONGS TO THE PEOPLE 
WHO INHABIT IT." 



Editorial 




THE CARPENTER 

Official Journal of 

THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD OF 

CARPENTERS AND JOINERS 

OF AMERICA 

Published on the 15th of each month at the 

CARPENTBBS' BUILDING 

Indianapolis, Ind. 

UNITED BROTHERHOOD OF 

CARPENTERS AND JOINERS OF AMERICA, 

Publishers 

FRANK DUFFY, Editor 

Subscription Price 
One Dollar a Year in Advance, Postpaid 

The publishers and the advertising 
agent use every possible precaution avail" 
able to them against accepting advertise- 
ments from other than reliable firms, but 
do not accept any responsibility for the 
contents of any advertisement which ap- 
pears in "The Carpenter." Should any 
deception be practiced by advertisers at 
any time, upon members, their duty is to 
immediately notify the Post Office au- 
thorities. Therefore, address any com- 
plaints to your local Post Office. 



INDIANAPOLIS, FEBRUARY, 1934 



Clean Hands 

PRINCIPLES of equity proceedings 
require that persons asking relief 
shall come with clean hands. As 
long as injunctions have been issued 
against wage-earners the question of 
whether the employer's hand were clean 
was never fully considered until Judge 
Harry M. Fisher in the Circuit Court of 
Cook County handed down a decision 
denying the La Mode Garment Company 
an injunction against the Local Union 
of the International Ladies Garment 
Workers. 

The company charged that the gar- 
ment workers were picketing their shop 
and threatening their employes and 
thus preventing them from working. 



The company made the usual charges of 
violence and intimidation and asked 
that the workers be restrained. 

The union did not deny picketing the 
shop. They explained the strike was 
against sweatshop conditions where wo- 
men workers were required to punch 
cards at 5 o'clock but remain working 
until 10 or 11, receiving from $3 to $5 
for a week of 55 or 60 hours. The work- 
ers denied violence on their part hut 
charged the employers had hired detec- 
tives and thugs. The workers further 
stated that when a large number had 
joined the union the employer promised 
not to interfere with the union or dis- 
charge those who joined and that de- 
spite this promise, the most active mem- 
bers of the union had been discharged. 

The court held that the issuance of 
the injunction rested upon whether the 
complainant came into court with clean 
hands. The judge held that while in- 
equitable conduct of an employer did 
not justify violence, that the correction 
for such violence was the province of 
criminal law. The opinion advanced the 
following reasons as indicating that the 
employers' hands were not clean. 

1. The prevailing conditions in com- 
plainant's industry violate the spirit of 
the National Recovery Act. 

2. They violate the letter and spirit 
of the minimum fair-wage law of the 
State of Illinois. 

3. The issuance of the injunction 
prayed for would directly aid the con- 
tinuance of an indefensible condition in 
the industry in question. 

This is one of the few decisions that 
undertake to consider the economic and 
labor facts involved and their implica- 
tions. It is only by seeking justice for a 
particular situation that we shall be 
able to make such adjustments as will 
lead to real equity, and a sense of fair 
treatment. The question of clean hands 
is the key to justice in the use of the 
injunction in labor disputes. This is 
an economic and human question — not 
legal. 



16 



T J I E CARPENTER 



Less Fires Proportionately in Lumber- 
Built Than in Masonry Structures 

AS USUAL, says a statement by 
American Forest Products Indus- 
tries, Fire Prevention Week has 
been taken advantage of by competing 
materials to depreciate the value of 80 
per cent of the detached residences of 
America — those built of wood. Propa- 
ganda has been issued in large vol- 
ume and extensively published, which 
preaches that all residences should be 
built of incombustible material. In 
blanket answer to this propaganda 
American Forest Products Industries 
publishes the surprising statement, 
based on data collected by the National 
Board of Fire Underwriters, that there 
are more fires in a given number of 
brick or stone buildings than in the 
same number of lumber built buildings. 
The point is also made that only 1.3 
per cent of fires extend beyond the 
building in which they start. It is point- 
ed out, too, that so long as houses 
are necessarily filled with incombustible 
equipment there will be no such thing 
as a fireproof home. 

Safety in all types of buildings de- 
pends upon the care taken to prevent 
the inception of fires and in devices that 
will automatically extinguish fires at an 
early stage. 

Washing or sponging of clothing, 
drapes, gloves, etc., in gasoline or other 
inflammable cleaning fluids, has caused 
many fires, deaths and severe burns. 
The vapors given off by the fluids are 
readily ignited by a static spark or open 
flame. Starting fires with kerosene or 
other oils has caused many deaths and 
severe burns. 

Stoves, furnaces and ranges and their 
smoke pipes, permitted to become over- 
heated, or having clothing or other 
combustibles placed too near them, have 
caused many disastrous fires. Smoke 
pipes and chimneys containing deposits 
of soot or creosote, burn out at frequent 
intervals and set fire to any combusti- 
bles near them. Smoke pipes having 
loose joints or rust holes that permit 
emission of sparks are a hazard. 

Gas plates and other gas burners too 
near window curtains, papered walls or 
woodwork, is a common fire cause. 
Searching for articles in closets, base- 
ments, trunks, etc., with lighted 
matches or candles, cause many fires. 



To advocate the abandonment of the 
popular American type of house — the 
one best suited to our climate — is at 
once to impose a heavy burden of capi- 
tal investment upon the house owners 
of America and to strike at the roots of 
one of the major sources of well-being 
and prosperity of the American people 
— and all because of unsupported prop- 
aganda which obviously serves lumber's 
competitors. 

Why not study the causes of fire, as 
shown, and eliminate any that may ex- 
ist or are permitted in your home or 
place of business. 



November, 1933, Home Building Shows 
Increase 

A most encouraging upturn in resi- 
dential construction is seen in the con- 
tract figure for the first half of Novem- 
ber ($12,553,600 for the 37 states east 
of the Rockies). This gives an estimat- 
ed total for November of $25,107,200, 
an increase over October of $3,581,500, 
or 17 per cent, and over last November 
of $5,861,900 or 30 per cent. Evidently 
the pressure of accumulating housing 
needs is finally breaking through the 
obstacles which lack of mortgage mon- 
ey has set up between those who want 
to build and the realization of their 
plans. 

The estimated November total shows 
a fall bulge comparable to that of last 
May when 1933 residential builrlirig 
volume first crossed the line of 19?! 2. 
With the exception of October, which 
fell slightly below last year, every 
month since April has exceeded the cor- 
responding month of 19 32. There has 
been a definite upturn. 

Commenting on this record, Standard 
Statistics Co. in its Summary and Fore- 
cast of Nov. 2 9 states, "In line with 
general business trends, private build- 
ing, as reflected in residential contracts, 
will probably show a material year-to- 
year betterment in the spring of 1934, 
despite financing difficulties and rising 
construction costs." 



The women are the greatest potential 
force existing in the labor movement for 
advancement of the Union. With their 
tremendous combined expenditures they 
could convert this nation to unionism 
in short time if they demand union 
goods for Union Money. 



Official Information 




GENERAL OFFICERS 
Of 

THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD 
Of 

CARPENTERS AND JOINERS 
OF AMERICA 

General Office 
Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General President 

WM. L. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 

First General Vice-President 

GEORGE H. LAKET 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Second General Vice-President 

JAMES M. GAULD 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Secretary 

FRANK DUFFY 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Treasurer 

THOMAS NEALE 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Executive Board 
First District, T. M. GUERIN 
290 Second Ave., Troy, N. Y. 



Second District, W. T. ALLEN 
3832 N. Gratz St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



Third District, HARRY SCHWARZER 
10522 Parkhurst Drive, Cleveland, O. 

Fourth District, JAS. L. BRADFORD 
1900 15th Ave., N., Nashville, Tenn. 



Fifth District, J. W. WILLIAMS 
3948 S. Grand Blvd., St. Louis, Mo. 

Sixth District, A. W. MUIR 
200 Guerrero St., San Francisco, Cal. 



Seventh District, ARTHUR MARTEL 
6375 Chambord St., Montreal, Que., Can. 



WM. L. HUTCHESON, Chairman 
FRANK DUFFY, Secretary 



All correspondence for the General Executive 
Board must be sent to the General Secretary. 



A. F. L. Mobilizes Labor for Boycott Of 
German-Made Goods and Service 

William Green, president of the 
American Federation of Labor, in a vig- 
orous statement, called upon organized 
labor and its friends to mobilize for a 
militant prosecution of the boycott of 
German goods and service, decreed by 
the 1933 convention of the Federation, 
"until the German government recog- 
nizes the right of the working people of 
Germany to organize into bona fide, in- 
dependent trade unions of their own 
choosing, and until Germany ceases its 
repressive policy of persecution of the 
Jewish people." 

The mobilization call was sent to all 
affiliated National and International Un- 
ions, State Federations of Labor, City 
Central Bodies, and Local Trade Unions, 
with the recommendation that commit- 
tees be appointed to systematize the na- 
tion-wide drive against the Nazi atroc- 
ities, which have received the merited 
condemnation of every civilized country. 

"In declaring for a boycott of Ger- 
man-made goods and German service," 
Mr. Green said, "the American Federa- 
tion of Labor recognizes the right of 
the German people to govern themselves 
and to formulate and adopt their own 
political policies and to do so without 
interference from any other nation. 

"Labor is therefore not fighting 
against any political order set up in 
Germany or against the German people. 
We are asking only that the annihila- 
tion of German trade unions shall cease 
and that the persecution of German 
working people, and of Jewish people 
merely because they are Jews, shall be 
terminated." 

Asserting that "it is readily conceded 
that only a most unusual, extraordi- 
nary condition could call for such dras- 
tic action" as the boycott, Mr. Green 
gave a trenchant account of Hitler's 
shameless destruction of the German 
labor movement and his barbarous per- 
secution, including imprisonment in 
Nazi jails and torture, of German labor 
officials and their families. 



18 THE CARPENTER 

REPORT OF THE DELEGATES TO THE FIFTY- 
THIRD ANNUAL CONVENTION OF THE 
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR 

To the General Executive Board: 

Brothers — The Fifty-third Annual Convention of the American Federation of 
Labor was held in the Willard Hotel, Washington, D. C, beginning on Monday, 
October 2, 1933, and lasted two weeks. 

Addresses of welcome were made by the President of the Central Labor Union, 
President of the Board of Commissioners of the District of Columbia, President 
Washington Chamber of Commerce and Senator King of Utah, Chairman of the 
District of Columbia Committee of the United States Senate. 

The make-up of the Convention herewith follows: 



Number 

of Name 
Unions j 


Number 

of 
Delegates 


Number 

of 
Votes 


97 National and International 
4 Departments 


250 

4 

34 

253 

49 

4 


21,001 
4 


34 State Bodies 


34 


253 Central Labor Unions 


253 


49 Trade and Federal Labor Unions 
3 Fraternal Organizations 


65 
3 






440 


594 


21,360 



MEMBERSHIP 

According to the report of Secretary Morrison the American Federation of 
Labor consists of: 108 National and International Unions, 4 Departments, 49 
State Bodies, 804 City Central Bodies, 673 Local Trade and Federal Labor Unions, 
710 Local Department Councils, 29,988 Local Unions with an average membership 
of 2,126,796. 

He says: 

"Since July 3rd this year, we have been in the throes of the most intensive wave 
of organization which is sweeping over every city and town in North America. 
This is the third time that the workers have evidenced an unusual determination 
to organize and affiliate with the national and international unions, and into local 
unions of the American Federation of Labor. The first in 1901-1904 when 800,000 
were added to the membership of affiliated unions — the second in 1916-1920 which 
added 2,000,000 members. The present great movement is more intense and con- 
ditions and circumstances so favorable it will surpass the other two in numbers, 
intensity and duration." 

FINANCE 

Balance on hand August 31, 1932 $368,444 97 

Receipts for the year 457,923 90 

Total . $826,368 87 

Expenses for the year 424,236 07 

Balance on hand August 31, 1933 $402,132 80 

Divided as follows: 

In General Fund $ 68,621 44 

In Defense Fund for local trade and federal labor unions 333,511 36 

Balance on hand, August 31, 1933 $402,132 80 



THE CARPENTER 19 

A. F. of L. BUILDING 

Balance on hand August 31, 1932 $ 55,593 89 

Recepits for the year 32,507 99 



Total 88,10188 

Expenses for the year 37,649 34 



Balance on hand August 31, 1933 $ 50,452 54 

GOMPERS MEMORIAL FUND 

Total Receipts $132,827 68 

Total Expenses 63,008 62 






Balance on hand August 31, 1933 $ 69,819 06 

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL'S REPORT 

The Executive Council in its report says: 

It is especially fitting that our convention for this year should be held in Wash- 
ington, for it has become the economic as well as the political capital of the nation, 
and labor representatives from all parts of the country can have personal knowl- 
edge of Labor's new problems and opportunities arising out of our national en- 
deavor. The reason for our choice of Washington for our convention city this 
year, constitutes an historic link in the continuity of union development — the dedi- 
cation of a memorial to one of the founders of the American Federation of Labor 
— Samuel Gompers. The memory and the record of the man who served as the 
chief executive of the Federation for more than 40 years are an inspiration to us 
in this period of re-birth. In the founding of the American trade union movement, 
devotion, sacrifice and passion for human welfare made possible the Union insti- 
tutions of which we are the present trustees. The life of Samuel Gompers was 
devoted unreservedly to the labor movement and the quality of his leadership 
brought respect and standing to our movement. As in this convention we plan 
the future of our labor movement in the new era we have entered, it is most fit- 
ting we should be mindful of the record of the past and the principles evolved 
under the leadership of our first president. 

As we turn our thoughts from the present to the leader who in a very real 
sense typifies a definite epoch in development of labor institutions, we are helped 
to distinguish the things of permanent value. Though many of the men and the 
women who were the pioneers in our movement are gone, the spirit of Labor goes 
on — love of fellow men, concern for their problems and services, the will to get 
them justice in daily living, to help them steadily and surely move upward and 
onward- — these are the things that have given the labor movement continuity and 
purpose and endurance. These are the qualities we must carry from the past into 
the present and the future. 

The Report then deals with such subjects as: 

The National Recovery Act, 

Public Works, 

The Right to Organize, 

The Right of Representation, 

Unemployment, 

Relief, 

Discrimination against old workers, 

Trade Union Benefits, 

National Legislation, 

Immigration, 

Convict Labor, 

Child Labor, 



20 THE CARPENTER 

Old Age Security, 

Jurisdictional Disputes, 

The Shorter Work Day and Work Week, 

German Labor Movement, etc. 

RESOLUTIONS 
Resolutions in which we were especially interested herewith follow: 

Building Trades vs. Hansen Packing Co., Butte, Mont. 

Resolution No. 76 — By Delegate M. J. McDonough, President, Building Trades 
Department. 

Whereas, For the past three years a controversy has existed between the Butte, 
Montana, Building Trades Council and the Hansen Packing Company; 

Whereas, The Hansen Packing Company has compelled building trades me- 
chanics in their employ to join Local 333, Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher 
Workmen of America; 

Whereas, The activities of the Hansen Packing Company has aroused turmoil 
and confusion among the organized workmen of Butte; 

Whereas, The American Federation of Labor had Organizer Paul Smith make 
an investigation of this dispute, report of which is available for this convention; 

Whereas, The Central Labor Union has been notified by the Executive Officials 
of the American Federation of Labor that the Central Labor Union of Butte lacks 
authority to place the Hansen Packing Company on the unfair list merely because 
of a jurisdictional dispute arising out of the performance of work for the packing 
company by union men; 

Whereas, We contend that no jurisdictional dispute exists, as the laws of the 
American Federation of Labor and the Building Trades Department cede work 
such as painting, plumbing, electrical work and carpentry to the members of these 
respective organizations; 

Whereas, If action to dispose of this dispute is not taken by this convention, 
the breach between the members of organized labor in Butte will be widened; 
therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the American Federation of Labor assign a representative to 
Butte to try to adjust the differences existing between the Butte Building Trades 
Council and the Hansen Packing Company. For failure on the part of the Hansen 
Packing Company to employ members of the building trades organizations in affili- 
ation with the Butte Building Trades Council on their maintenance and construc- 
tion work, that the American Federation of Labor declare the Hansen Packing 
Company unfair. 

Referred to Committee on Industrial Relations. 

Building Trades — Meat Cutters' Dispute, Butte, Montana 

Resolution No. 80 — By Delegate Chas. Malloy, Silver Bow Trades and Labor 
Council, Butte, Montana. 

Whereas, A jurisdiction dispute has existed for three years past in Butte, 
Montana, between Local No. 3 33 Amalgamated Butcher Workmen and Meat Cut- 
ters of America and the several local organizations affiliated with the International 
Unions of the Building Trades Department; and 

Whereas, This dispute through its long duration has caused considerable fric- 
tion in a locality that is 100% organized, the said friction causing disregard for 
laws of the A. F. of L., also for the unfair declaration; and 

Whereas, If this condition is allowed to continue longer it will be the cause of 
breaking down a harmonious condition that has stood for many years; and 

Whereas, The local central council has used every means possible to bring 
about an adjustment of these disputes with no apparent success; and 

Whereas, The International Officers of the Unions have been hesitant in lend- 



THE CARPENTER 21 

ing the assistance requested to adjust this trouble, notwithstanding numerous ap- 
peals to do so; be it 

RESOLVED, That the President of the A. F. of L. be instructed by this 53d 
Annual Convention to call a conference of the International Presidents of the or- 
ganizations involved as soon as is possible, to the end that a settlement can be 
reached. 

Referred to Committee on Industrial Relations. 

Both Resolutions were reported on as follows: 

These two resolutions refer to a situation that has developed at Butte, Mon- 
tana, between the Local No. 333 of the Amalgamated Butcher Workmen and Meat 
Cutters of America; Building Trades Council of Butte, Mont., and the Hansen 
Packing Company of Butte, Mont. 

Your committee on Industrial Relations held a very extended session on these 
two resolutions and as they refer to the same situation recommends that they be 
considered and acted upon jointly. 

This controversy involves the extension of the rates of pay adopted by the 
Building Trades Council of Butte, Mont., for construction and maintenance work, 
largely seasonable to the plant of the Hansen Packing Co., covering steady em- 
ployment. This company otherwise employs union labor exclusively. Rates of pay 
in the City of Butte vary as between what is known as the Hill Rates and the down 
town rates for various organizations and varying according to the price of copper 
for employes on the Hill. 

Due to the refusal of the Hansen Packing Co. to pay the rates adopted by the 
Building Trades Council of Butte for construction and maintenance work in their 
plant based on their claim that they furnish steady employment and at rates higher 
than paid on the Hill, whereas the general employment available to Building 
Trades employes of Butte is of seasonable character. The maintenance work in the 
Hansen Packing Co. plant has been done either by members of the Local 3 33 of 
the Amalgamated Butcher Workmen and Meat Cutters of America or by new em- 
ployes hired and non members of the organizations affiliated with the Building 
Trades Council of Butte. 

Your committee recommends that the subject matter of the two Resolutions 
be referred to the Executive Council of the American Federation of Labor and that 
the Executive Council exert its best efforts to bring about an adjustment of the 
differences between the Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of 
America and the Building Trades Department of America and if successful to then 
endeavor to bring about the application of agreement reached between these two 
organizations with the Hansen Packing Co. 

The report of the Committee was unanimously adopted. 

DEDICATION OF THE GOMPERS MONUMENT 

On Saturday forenoon at 10:30 o'clock (October 7, 1933) the Monument erect- 
ed to the memory of the late Samuel Gompers at Triangular Park, Massachusetts 
Ave. and 10th St., Washington, D. C, was officially dedicated and presented to the 
United States Government. From press reports 8,000 persons were present. 

The present set of officers were re-elected without opposition and San Fran- 
cisco, Calif., was selected as the city in which to hold the Convention in 1934. 



Respectfully submitted, 



WM. L. HUTCHESON, 
FRANK DUFFY, 
GEO. H. LAKEY, 
THOS. F. FLYNN, 
CHAS. HANSON, 

Delegates 



22 



THE CARPENTER 



Traveling Members Attention 

The General Office has been advised 
by H. F. Cheesman, business agent of 
Local Union 377, Alton, Illinois, that 
the Local is being flooded with requests 
from our members in Illinois and other 
states for information in regard to work 
on the Dam and Locks to be built at 
Alton, Illinois. He desires the member- 
ship to be informed that the specifica- 
tions for this project provide that pref- 
erence shall be given to carpenters who 
have resided for at least one year in 
Madison County, Illinois, or Charles 
County, Missouri. And as there are more 
of our members available in these coun- 
ties than is necessary, there is little or 
no opportunity for traveling members to 
secure employment on this project. 



our own allegiance in its appeal that we 
employ only Union Labor with the mon- 
ey we spend by buying only those com- 
modities which display this symbol — 
the Union Label. 



The Union Label 

Every army fights under some flag, 
a banner borne in the front rank of 
battle as a symbol of country and 
cause. Wrapped up in its folds are the 
mainsprings of patriotism, loyalty which 
spells home and country. The army of 
Organized Labor has a flag and it, like 
military organizations, must carry its 
banner in the forefront now and in the 
tomorrows, so long as the battle may 
last. That flag is the Union Label. It 
stands for everything that Organized 
Labor has been, is and ever expects to 
be. 

It is a symbol of good goods efficiently 
made. It is the sign of expert work- 
manship, of honest endeavor to make 
the best possible product. It is the guar- 
antee that workman is being paid an 
honest wage. 

The Union Label must not be aban- 
doned at any time by loyal trades un- 
ionists. It must be demanded at all 
times. To do so is to demonstrate both 
loyalty, common sense and good judg- 
ment. Support the movement which has 
given you a wage on which you can 
live. 

And the obligation of the trades un- 
ionist for the Label goes beyond his 
personal expenditures. It goes to every 
member of his family and implies the 
further responsibility of preaching the 
dogma of Union-made goods wherever 
he goes and whenever possible. 

The Union Label is the symbol of all 
that Organized Labor has fought for 
and won. It is a badge of fair dealing 
and progress. Most surely it bids for 



Local Unions Chartered 

Youngsville, Pa. 
Mansfield, La. 
Glasgow, Mont. 
Mesa, Ariz. 
Nashville, 111. 
Seaside, Ore. 
Junction City, Kans. 
Norfolk, Va. 
Hattiesburg, Miss. 
Fayetteville, Ark. 
St. Paul, Minn. 
Breckenridge, Tex. 
Eugene, Oregon. 

• 

Local Union No. 18 Mourns the Passing 
of an Old Time Member 

Herman Reinholt, one of the oldest 
members of Local Union No. 18, Hamil- 
ton, Ontario, Canada, ended his earthly 
labors on December 16, 1933, after 
reaching the ripe old age of 76 years. 
Brother Reinholt was born in Hamilton 
on November 2, 185 7, and joined the lo- 
cal branch of the Amalgamated Society 
of Carpenters on July 21, 1884, and 
held every office within the gift of that 
organization. Under the Plan of Solidi- 
fication, in 1914, he became a member 
of Local Union 2612, and of Local Un- 
ion 18 in April, 1924, on which date 
Local Union 2612 consolidated with 
Local Union 18. 

Brother Reinholt was a man of ab- 
solute integrity and his genial disposi- 
tion made for him a host of friends in 
the organized labor movement in Hamil- 
ton who mourn his passing. 

His funeral took place on December 
19 and was attended by the officers and 
a large number of the members of Local 
Union 18, six carpenters acting as pall 
bearers. Interment was in Hamilton 
Cemetery. 



Death Takes Faithful Officer of Local 
498 

The members of Local Union 49 8, 
Brantford, Ontario, Canada, were deep- 
ly grieved to learn of the death of Bro- 
ther Charles F. Lovell, which occurred 
January 6, at the age of 64. 

Brother Lovell was born in England 
and joined the union of his trade when 
a young man. Shortly after coming to 



THE CARPENTER 



23 



Canada he joined Local 498 and served 
that Local Union as Recording Secre- 
tary for 11 years, which office he held 
at the time of his death. 

He was also Vice-President of the 
Trades and Labor Council and a mem- 
ber of the Fellowship for Social Justice. 
He represented the Local at many pro- 
vincial conventions. 

Brother Lovell was always happy 
when working for the interests of his 
fellow men and his passing is a severe 
loss to the Local Union that he served 
so faithfully as an officer. 



Recording Secretary of Local Union 751, 
Taken By Death 

In the death of Brother George 
Wolfe, Recording Secretary of Local 
Union 751, Santa Rosa, Calif., on De- 
cember 27, 1933, a life of high achieve- 
ment and devotion to the common good 
came to an end. 

Among the monuments of that active 
and useful career, George Wolfe's life- 
time of service to the interests of or- 
ganized labor will no doubt stand as one 
of his most permanent memorials. 

Brother Wolfe had held every office 
in the gift of Carpenters' Local 751 and 
filled them with credit to all. He made 
the Local the medium whereby he con- 
secrated himself to the cause of the 
Carpenters' Union. For nearly thirty- 
three years — one third of a century — he 
was always found at every meeting 
working for the advancement of the 
Local and improved conditions for the 
carpenters. 

He joined the local as a charter mem- 
ber March 23, 1901, and had worked 
diligently and faithfully all those years. 
While the Local struggled along in its 
infancy he gave encouragement to those 
who faltered or thought lightly of the 
union. It is no idle statement but a 
tribute, to state that the Union today 
owes its position in the ranks of organ- 
ized labor as much to the influence of 
George Wolfe as to any other single 
factor. 

He was an esteemed citizen having 
filled the position of City Councilman for 
one term, serving in that capacity with 
fair and impartial service to all. He 
was a man who was liked and respected 
by everyone, yet to those who were with 
him constantly in the last thirty-three 
years in the work of organized labor, 
was know his true worth as a helper to 
the oppressed working man. 



Vito Lucaviello Recording Secretary of 
Local 1613, Dies 

Members of Local Union No. 1613, 
Newark, N. J., were severely shocked at 
the sudden passing away of Brother Vito 
Lucaviello on the evening of Nov. 16, 
1933. His death was due to a hem- 
orrhage of the brain. Brother Luca- 
viello was born in Italy, March 31, 
1881, and joined Local Union No. 1613 
December 1, 1909. His 24 years of 
membership was a period of immense 
activity in the furtherance of the Union 
ideals. Since 1918 he had ser~ed the 
Local as Financial Secretary, Trustee, 
and at the time of his death was Re- 
cording Secretary. 

Funeral services were held at the 
home of the deceased and were attend- 
ed by innumerable civic and labor 
leaders. 



DEATH ROLL 



J. W. TRUMBLE — Local Union No. 132, 
Washington, D. C. 



Never Give Up 

The only man who is ever really 
beaten in the game of life is the man 
who gives up. He beats himself. 

A man may be overwhelmed, crashed, 
baffled, and apparently beaten beyond 
redemption, but if he has the right stuff 
in him there will be something in him 
that will still hold out and raise the 
flag of defiance. 

There is not one of us who is not at 
some time tried to the limits of our 
capacity. There are many of us whose 
whole life is one continuous trial, and 
yet it happens often that those who are 
most sorely tried, who have the great- 
est misfortunes and bear the heaviest 
burdens, are the most cheerful and op- 
timistic and inspiring of all. 

Never give up! That is the only way 
you can be beaten, and when you are 
beaten in that way it is by yourself. 

The enemy you been fighting- could 
not have crushed you; you did it your- 
self. 

No man .of character who is fighting 
for a principle and is resolved never to 
surrender is ever beaten in the battle 
of life. 



Keep Your Dues Paid Up 



CorrQspondQncQ 




This Journal Is Not Responsible For Views Expressed By Correspondents. 



Free Courses Offered in Practical Sub- 
jects in Carpentry 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

The New York State Department of 
Education is conducting, in New York 
City, some Free Day Adult Classes 
which, I think, would benefit a great 
many of our Brothers, if they would 
avail themselves of the opportunity 
which is offered to them. 

The courses, which I have in mind, 
include Plan Reading and Estimating 
for Builders, Carpentry, and a Build- 
ing Construction and Superintendent 
Course. These courses are taught by 
men who are fully qualified, because of 
their long experience and educational 
background. 

Any of our Brothers, who desire to 
take advantage of this opportunity, to 
improve themselves, and to prepare for 
better jobs, should register at the West 
Side Continuation School, 20 8 West 
13th Street, at any time, between nine 
and five o'clock. 

Never before, have such practical 
courses, taught by competent instruc- 
tors, been offered free of charge, to the 
public. 

I might add that a wide range of 
courses in trade and technical and cul- 
tural subject are presented in addition 
to those which I have mentioned above. 
Information concerning these courses 
can be procured at the address men- 
tioned above. 

W. D. Hopkins, Super- 
visor, Trade and Tech- 
nical Work. 
Member L. U. No. 412, Sayville, N. Y. 



Craftsmen In Ancient Times 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

Recently I was delving into ancient 
history, having, like many of our mem- 
bers, a good deal of leisure. 

According to "Dittenberger" a tem- 
ple of Zeus was built at Lebadea, in the 
years 175-171 B. C. Some of the con- 
tracts of this job are preserved and are 
interesting to us. 



A contractor was not then a capital- 
ist, but was a master-workman who un- 
dertook the work and accepted respon- 
sibility for its performance.. He was ap- 
parently a working foreman for we read: 

"He shall work continuously 

working with a sufficient number of 
craftsmen according as the nature of 
the craft admits, not less than five, and 
if he disobey any provision written down 
in the agreement or be discovered ex- 
ecuting bad work he shall be punished 
by the overseers, as he shall seem to 
them to deserve, for not doing accord- 
ing to the written agreement; and if 
any of the workmen employed under 
him be discovered executing bad work, 
let him be driven out from the work, 
and no longer take part in it; and if he 
disobey this sentence he shall be pun- 
ished, together with the contractor. . . . 
and if the contractor injure any sound 
stone in the course of his work, he 
shall replace it at his own expense with- 
out interruption to the work, and shall 
remove the spoilt stone out of the tem- 
ple enclosure within five days, or the 
stone shall become sacred property .... 
and if the contractors have any dispute 
amongst themselves upon anything writ- 
ten in the agreement the overseers shall 
decide it." 

The part that interested me the most 
was "Neither in Athens nor elsewhere 
do we find any traces of unemployed 
skilled labourers." 

Apparently they could use women and 
slaves for rough labor, but it takes time 
to acquire skill. 

Surely the skill of our members is an 
asset, yet buildings are falling to pieces 
and our carpenters and joiners are idle. 

The dear public complain that — "the 
old gray mare ain't what she used to 
be," and that some of us are "has 
beens." They suggest that we should 
take more interest in our jobs. The 
trouble is that the jobs are not ours for 
long enough now. 

Less than twenty years ago it was the 
custom to pick our season's job and 



THE CARPENTER 



25 



often we were on the same payroll for 
several years. 

Now the contractor has a few regular 
hands and does the bulk of his work 
with a "storm gang." 

The new apprentices are learning to 
operate skill-saws. 

Albert E. Edgington, Rec. Sec, 
L. U. No. 18. Hamilton, Ont. 



Appreciates Prompt Payment of Death 
Claim 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

I am enclosing a letter received by 
me concerning the recent death claim 
paid by the General Office to Mrs. Mary 
Bowman on the death of her son, Wm. 
H. Bowman. It is the request of L. U. 
No. 228 that this letter be forwarded to 
you and published in "The Carpenter." 

H. E. Michael, P. S., 
L. U. No. 228. Pottsville, Pa. 

Mr. Harvey E. Michael, 
Fin. Sec, L. U. No. 228. 
602 North Third Street, 
Hazelton, Penna. 
Dear Mr. Michael: 

Your letter with enclosed check 
reached Mrs. Mary Bowman a day or 
two before Christmas and she requested 
me to thank you and the Union for your 
very prompt and satisfactory settlement, 
with so little trouble and no red tape. 

Personally I want to add my thanks 
for your very efficient manner in hand- 
ling this claim and to wish your organ- 
ization continued success. 



Very truly yours, 

Ellsworth W. 



Miller. 



B. C. Forbes Says: 

I have faith enough — perhaps you 
would say I am foolish enough — to be- 
lieve that these things will yet be wit- 
nessed in America: 

Greater and better prosperity than 
ever before enjoyed. 

More jobs than workers. 

Unprecedented wages for unprece- 
dented short hours. 

Agricultural prosperity unmatched in 
our history. 

Advances in many securities surpass- 
ing even the boom figures of 1929. 

Our railroads swamped with freight. 

Factories unable to cope with orders. 

Construction on an unparalleled scale. 

Foreign trade dwarfing anything ex- 
perienced in the past. 



Savings deposits double and treble 
those of today. 

America occupying a place in the 
world infinitely greater than heretofore. 

The birth and expansion of new in- 
dustries eclipsing even the automobile's 
record. 

Profit-sharing plans which will make 
millions well-to-do, even rich. 

Real estate values, especially in busy 
centers, transcending all past peaks. 

Flying as common as motoring is 
now. 

Trains as fast as the airplane of 
to-day. 

The average American working in an 
air-conditioned office or factory and liv- 
ing in an air-conditioned home. 

Television in more homes than the 
radio has yet reached. 

The elimination of racketeering and 
drastic reduction of crime. 

The lightening of human toil, through 
science and invention, on a scale beyond 
all present conception. 

Higher education available for almost 
all. 

A standard of living higher than any 
now imagined. 

God speed the day! 



Figure This Out 

How can 20 men make 20 cents each 
on a dollar that did not exist? 

A gentleman in Philadelphia sends it 
along so that the rest of us in trying to 
solve the depression, can crack our 
skulls on it. 

It seems that a man who wanted a 
necktie went and bought it at a store. 
He gave the merchant a check for a 
dollar. The merchant passed the check 
on for cigars, and it went from hand to 
hand, until it had 20 endorsements. 
When there was room for no more, it 
was paid into the bank, where it was 
found there was no account. 

The 20 endorsers then met and it 
transpired that each of them had made 
a profit of approximately 25 per cent. 

Wherefore, they contributed 5 cents 
each and redeemed the check. 

They are now wondering who lost the 
original dollar that did not exist. 

This is a very neat reflection of mod- 
ern finance. If the check had been paid 
in at once, one man would have lost a 
dollar. As it is, 20 men have each made 
20 cents. 

Where's the catch? 



Craft ProblQms 




CARPENTRY 

(By H. H. Siegele) 

LESSON LXV 

The advent of the radio has demon- 
strated to the world, that, not only the 
air, but the whole universe is full of 
sounds, sounds not audible to the ear 
without the aid of instruments. It has 
been suggested by some adventurous 
minds, that the time would come when 
there would be perfected an instrument 
which would pick up voices of men that 
were uttered centuries and even ages 
ago. They have ventured so far as to 
say that some time we could sit in our 
homes and listen to the orations of De- 
mosthenes, or to the wisdom of Socra- 
tes, or to hear Moses when he was de- 
livering the children of Israel from in- 
dustrial and political slavery. While we 
regard these things more nearly as in- 




Fig. 367 

tellectual gymnastics, they are neverthe- 
less full of food for thought. 

The radio, it is claimed, will pene- 
trate the thickest wall; deep down in 
the earth, in caves, the radio responds 
to the sound wave. It is further claimed 
that no room, as yet, has been so per- 
fectly insulated, that the sound wave 
can not in some way pass through. Be 
those things as they may, the carpenter 
is interested in sound, so far as his 
trade is concerned, only insofar as it 
affects his daily work, or to bring it one 
step closer home, his daily bread. 

Much as folks are anxious to hear, 
there are times when they want to be 
where it is quiet. And to accomplish 
this in these days of noise and clamor 
and congested population, it is neces- 
sary to use insulation. Bed rooms, of- 
fices, churches, hospitals, schools, jails, 
theaters and other buildings or parts of 



buildings, often must be insulated in 
order to make them give the highest 
degree of satisfaction and service. 

Recently we were working on a jail, 
which was built in connection with a 
city building, and in addition to mak- 
ing it sound-proof and mouse-proof, as 
it seemed, the architect informed us, 
that the tin under the floor, which ex- 




Fig. 368 

tended for some distance up the side of 
the walls, was not so much to make the 
jail mouse-proof, as it was to make it 
louse-proof. Evidently, the city officials, 
who occupied rooms close to the jail, 
did not exactly enjoy the particular vari- 
ety of noises coming from those quar- 
ters, nor did they want to be inter- 
viewed by parasitic delegations from the 
jail's occupants. 

There are a number of sound- 
deadening materials on the market, felt 
paper, sound-deadening felt, asbestos 
sheathing, Cabot's Quilt; in fact, almost 
any building paper has some sort of 
sound-deadening qualities. The most 
satisfactory, however, are those which 
are at the same time fire-proof and ver- 
min-proof. Fig. 367 shows a method of 
sound-proofing a floor, by means of some 
kind of sound-deadening felt or quilt. 
Onto the rough flooring is laid (not 



Fig. 369 

nailed) a layer of deadening material, 
and onto it 2x2 strips (also not nailed), 
and then the flooring is nailed onto the 
2x2's in such a manner that no nail will 
enter or pass through the deadening ma- 
terial. This is a good method, and if 
fire-proof deadening material is used, it 
can hardly be improved upon. The 2x2 
strips, and the sound-proofing are inex- 



THE CARPENTER 



27 



pensive, and the extra space necessary 
under ordinary circumstances would 
hardly be noticeable. 

Fig. 368 shows an air-space method 
of sound-proofing a floor. Here two sets 
of joists are employed; one set to sup- 
port the floor, and another to carry the 
ceiling. In addition to sound-proofing 
the floor, this method prevents the vi- 




Fig. 370 



bration of the floor from being trans- 
mitted to the ceiling. This is desirable 
where the floor is to be used for danc- 
ing or for similar purposes, and the 
ceiling is plastered. The dotted line 
shows how a sound-deadening material 
can be added to this construction, not 
only making it more sound-proof, but 
more nearly fire-proof, provided a fire- 
proof material is used and carefully 
placed. Without the fire-proof sound- 
deadening material between the two sets 
of joists, the arrangement is a danger- 
ous fire-trap. The fire, in case of fire, 
could spread in every direction with 
fuel enough to keep it going, while ac- 
cess for extinguishing the fire would be 
difficult. These things should be kept 
in mind when this method of sound- 
proofing is considered. 

A similar method of sound-deadening 
for partitions, is shown by Fig. 369. The 
irregular line between the two sets of 
studding, represents sound-deadening 




Fig. 371 

material of some kind. What we said 
about fire, in the explanation of the 
previous figure, can be applied to this 
also. 

Fig. 370 shows how to strip joists, 
that for some reason are not spaced 
right to receive, either the lath or other 



ceiling material, whatever that might 
be. The stripping, of course, must be 
governed by the requirements of the 
material used. How to drop the ceiling 
some distance below the joists, is shown 
by Fig. 371. Fig. 372 shows how to 
drop the ceiling when the joists are 
spaced right for the ceiling material. 
Here, it will be noticed, the nailing 
strips run parallel with the joists, 
whereas, in the previous figure they ran 
crosswise. 

A stripped or a dropped ceiling, helps 
somewhat to deaden sound, the fire- 
danger, though, is greatly increased. 
The access for extinguishing fires in 
dropped ceilings is difficult, and fire can 
spread in a few moments throughout 
the space between the ceiling and the 
floor, eating up hangers and joists for 
fuel. 

Mineral wool or rock-wool are often 
used between joists and between stud- 
ding in partitions for sound-deadeners, 




Fig. 372 

packed somewhat in the order shown by 
Fig. 373 A, for floor joists, and B, for 
partitions. The principal value of these 
materials lie in their insulation and fire- 
resisting qualities. They protect the in- 
terior of a building in the summer from 
the heat, and in the winter from the 
cold. They are comparatively inexpen- 
sive, and can be obtained on the market. 
The appearance of both mineral wool 
and rock-wool is much like sheep wool, 
but it is brittle and easily crushed, 
which destroys much of its value. 

In order to make doorways more or 
less sound-proof, two doors should be 
used, leaving an air-space between the 
doors when they are closed. When the 
doorway is used for heavy traffic, one 
door can be left open, but when traffic 
is light, and sound-proofing is desired, 
then both doors should be kept closed 
when the doorway is not in use. In cases 
of outside doorways, a storm door will 
answer at the same time for a sound- 



2S 



THE CARPENTER 



deadener. The same can be said of 
windows. Interior windows with two 
sets of sash, leaving an air-space be- 
tween, will prevent to a great extent 




Fig. 373 

the transmission of sound. For outside 
windows, a storm sash added to the 
regular window, will answer both for 
sound-deadening and against cold. 



THE FRAMING SQUARE 

(By L. Perth) 

PART TWENTY-ONE 

The Elements of the Roof Frame 

The various types of roofs were dis- 
cussed in the previous chapters. Thus, 
we know that there are shed or lean-to 
roofs, gable roofs, hip and valley and 
plain hip roofs. These are the shapes 
in general use and, in addition there 
are such modifications as gambrel, pyra- 
mid, mansard and conical roofs. All 




these will be treated in order of their 
importance in the subsequent chapters. 
The frame of any roof is composed of 
numerous members. These are inclined 
upwards, usually, in pairs, their lower 
ends resting on the plates and their 
upper ends fastened together or spiked 
to a ridge board all depending on the 
method of construction. 

The shape of the roof, its height and 
the width of the building are the prin- 
cipal governing factors which determine 
the length of the members, their rela- 
tive position towards each other and, 



the very essential feature to be ob- 
served, the shaping of the lower and 
upper ends where they are connected to 
the superstructure or fastened and 
framed into each other. 

Unless the above features are strictly 
observed and the members properly and 
correctly shaped the roof will lack 
strength and rigidity and consequently, 
will impair the stability of the entire 
structure. 

Although, at a glance, it may appear 
rather elementary to the veteran car- 
penter and, perhaps, even to the ad- 
vanced apprentice to be approached 
with a request of giving a correct defi- 
nition of the various members of the 
roof frame and their respective func- 
tions, we, however, take the initiative 
of devoting this chapter to this particu- 
lar feature. You may discover that the 
subject is not quite as simple as it may 



£ ' 0/^jft?<7/? 




appear on the surface and, we assure 
you — you will have a lot of fun. 

The terms common rafter, hip rafter, 
jacks and others have been so commonly 
used at the trade that with many it 
has become a mere mechanical, and 
quite frequently, a meaningless reitera- 
tion. When we say meaningless we mean 
just that. To say something does not al- 
ways mean that the utterance is based 
on perfect understanding. You all know 
that. Some people are laboring under 
the impression that common ideas do 
not require or do not deserve any par- 
ticular exertion of thought. They think 
they know it; however, when it comes 
to a test, they discover that, in reality, 
they had a distorted idea of what they 
thought they knew all about. They re- 
mind you of the man, in the story, who 
was walking in the rain with a stick in 
his hand and, who discovered upon ar- 
riving home all drenched, that the stick 
was his umbrella. There is a reason for 
everything we do or say and, we 



THE CARPENTER 



29 



certainly as intelligent human beings, 
ought to be in a position to account 
why we are doing things in certain ways 
or to produce a substantial backing or 
explanation to our statements. 

The elements of the roof frame, their 
definition and purpose were exhaustive- 
ly treated before. No more could be 
said on the subject without clogging 
your mental machinery with useless in- 
formation. Now, let us see how much 
of it you have assimilated; how much 
of that theoretical material may be con- 
verted into practical knowledge and ap- 
plied directly to your job? 

The accompanying diagrams were 
prepared with the express purpose of 
making the work more interesting and 
productive. Write your answers direct- 
ly on the drawing, if possible. If space 
does not permit — use a separate sheet. 

PROBLEMS IN ROOF FRAMING 

1. What is a ridge board and what 
is its purpose? How is this member in- 
dicated in diagram No. 1? 

2. What is the exact definition of a 
Common Rafter? What kind of a geo- 
metrical figure does it form in connec- 
tion with the plate and the center line 
of the roof frame? What is the notation 
used in the diagram? Fig. 2. 

3. What is a valley rafter and why 
is it called so? Its indication on the 
drawing? 

4. Indicate the hip rafters on the 
diagram. What is meant by a "hip raf- 
ter"? What is the difference between 
the hip and valley rafter? Do they usu- 
ally differ in length? 

5. What are jack rafters and how 
many types are there? How would you 
call the jack indiciated by "D" in Fig. 
1? What kind of a jack is indicated by 
"E," Fig. 1? 

ANSWERS TO PROBLEMS 

1. The ridge board is the horizontal 
member used for connecting the upper 
ends of rafters one one side to the raf- 
ters on the opposite side. Its function is 
to supply rigidity to the roof frame; it 
prevents longitudinal motion and thus, 
stiffens the structure. It is indicated by 
the letter "A." 

2. A common rafter is a roof mem- 
ber extending at right angles from the 
plate to the ridge. With the plate and 
the center line of the building it forms a 



right angled triangle. Fig. 2. On Fig. 
1 it is indicated by "B." 

3. A valley rafter is one extending 
diagonally from plate to ridge at the 
point of intersection of two roof sur- 
faces. "C" on Fig. 1. 

4. A hip rafter extends diagonally 
from the corner of the building to the 
ridge. 

5. Any rafter that does not extend 
from plate to ridge is called a jack raf- 
ter. According to the position they oc- 
cupy they may be classified as: hip 
jacks, valley jacks and cripple jacks. 

A jack rafter with the upper end 
resting against a hip and lower end 
against the plate is called a hip jack.. 
"D" on diagram. 

A valley jack is one whose upper end 
rests against the ridge board and lower 
end against the valley. "F" in diagram. 

A jack that is cut in between a hip 
and valley rafter is called a cripple jack. 
The chief characteristic of the cripple 
jack is that it touches neither the ridge 
nor the plate. It is indicated by "F" 
in Fig. 1. 



Another Marking Method 

(By H. H. Siegele) 

The best joint for casing with round- 
ed corners, is the compound joint. We 
are explaining in this article another 




Fig 



method of marking such a joint. Fig. 1 
shows how to mark the side casing after 
the miter-part has been marked. With a 
joiner's gauge, set to the depth of the 



so 



T II E CARPENTER 



miter cut, And the intersection of the off a lot of work, especially if it is done 



horizontal cut with the miter cut, as 
shown hy the dolled line on the draw- 
ing. The intersection established, mark 
the horizontal .rut with a square. In 
somewhat the same way, mark the right 




Fig. 2 



and left cuts of the head casing, as 
shown by Fig. 2. Here the horizontal 
cut is marked with the gauge entirely. 
If the marking for both the side casings 
and for the head casing, has been done 
with care, and the cutting is carefully 
done, then the joints will fit tightly; 
much on the order of the joint shown by 
Fig. 3. 

The joiner's gauge is not being used 
as extensively by the present-day car- 



Fig. 

penter, as it was in the days of our 
fathers. However, there are many in- 
stances where the carpenter would do 
well to employ this useful tool. After 
all, accuracy and a job well done, is by 
far of greater importance than turning 



at the expense of good workmanship. . . 
Machine efficiency, in our day, is de- 
stroying much of what was good in the 
days of our fathers. So much is being 
done with the machine in these days, 
that the mechanic can learn how to do 
but a few things, by doing them. ... A 
movement should be started with this 
slogan: "Back to your tools, men, back 
to your tools." 



A Problem 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

I would greatly appreciate it if you 
would submit the following problem to 
some of my Brother Chips who are ex- 
perts in solving problems of this kind, 
as it has stumped me. 

Referring to accompanying sketch, — 
A represents a building 15 yds wide and 





Q 


B- 


15 -YDS. 


o 


A 


-i. 270 SQ.YOS. 

00 


-< 




o 




en 




• 





o 



BXC- 540 SQ. YDS* 

18 yds. long which covers an area of 
2 70 sq. yds., and sets in Exact-Center of 
a field containing 540 sq. yds. 

The building is surrounded by a 
plank-walk (D) of Equal-Parallel- 
Width, which also has an area of 270 
sq. yds. 

Exact-Width of the 



What 
walk D? 

What 
and C? 



is the 



are the Exact-Lengths of B 



L. U. No. 180. 



Frank Miller, 
Vallejo, Calif. 



THE CARPENTER 



31 



Member Invents Inverted Claw Hammer 

R. J. Hill, a member of Local Union 
1738, Hartford City, Indiana, has per- 
fected an invention which he calls an 
"Inverted Clawhammer," and according 
to the inventor it is a great improve- 
ment over the old style hammer inas- 
much as a nail can be pulled with it 
without marring the finest finish. A 
spike nail can be pulled with it with no 
danger of breaking or getting handle 
out of line. 

In the sketch, 1 designates the ham- 
mer head mounted on the handle; 2 and 




3 designate the improved nail-pulling 
claws. By slipping the nail head in the 
slot 4, between and beneath the claws 
3, the nail may be readily pulled with a 
constant evenly distributed and efficient 
leverage and without marring surface 
of work. 

The model has been shown to a num- 
ber of contractors who pronounced it 
the greatest improvement on a carpen- 
ter tool that has been made in a long 
time. The address of Brother Hill is: 
Hartford City, Indiana. 



Why AVage Earners Must Continue 
Fighting 

The employer is in business primar- 
ily to make money. If he is of the far- 
sighted type, he will give his employes 
short working time per week, high 
wages per hour, and comfortable sur- 
roundings in which to work. He knows 
that his men can produce more per hour 
if they work less hours per week. He 
knows also that his employes work with 
greater enthusiasm when they receive 
a higher wage per hour. And further- 
more, he knows that his men stay 



healthier and more efficient if their sur- 
roundings are as comfortable as modern 
science can make it. This type of em- 
ployer goes along with the labor union 
one hundred per cent and there will be 
no trouble between him and the Local 
Union. Although this type of employer 
is in business primarily to make money, 
he is not losing sight of the fact that if 
he treats his employes along the prin- 
ciples recommended by the labor union 
leaders, he can make more money than 
he could otherwise. He bears in mind 
also that if he runs a one-hundred-per- 
cent union shop, the unionized wage- 
earners will gladly help to boost the 
sale of his product. 

But the type of employer that is not 
far-sighted, expects to make money by 
disregarding the principles recommend- 
ed by the labor union. This employer 
fails to see that a union shop is not 
only of benefit to others but also to 
himself. It is this type of employer 
that the Local Union must try to con- 
vert to the union shop idea. If tact and 
diplomacy and strategy will not effect 
the purpose, the strike must be called 
upon,' to convince the stubborn employ- 
er that he should operate a union shop 
and to make him effect a union shop at 
once. It is this type of employer that 
brings about labor troubles. 



Tragedy If Labor Misses Its Chance, 
Says Senator Nye 

Only through organization may the 
producers — the farmers and the indus- 
trial workers — secure an effective voice 
in their government. 

Not so many years ago the United 
States Senate was "the American house 
of lords" — one of the most reactionary 
legislative bodies in the world. It has 
undergone a tremendous change in re- 
cent years. Instead of being the most 
reactionary, it is now probably the most 
progressive legislative body in the 
world. 

That change has been brought about 
because organized labor and organized 
farmers have placed principles above 
men, and have supported Progressives 
without regard to party affiliations. 

The Standard Railroad Labor Organ- 
izations have been particularly active. 
It would be difficult to over-estimate the 
influence they have wielded in congres- 
sional elections. 



32 



TIIK CARPENTER 




It's Easy 

— to be a — 

Contractor 



Learn how to estimate, how 
to plan buildings so as to 
make money on them, learn all 
about remodeling problems and how to bid on any job. 
All these farts and thousands more arc set forth clearly 
in a remarkably Interesting way in these five brand new 
books covering all phases of Architecture, Carpentry and 
Building These hooks are complete and the new JIFFS 
INDEX makes It possible to find anything you want to 
know In a second 

Boss" Carpenters in Demand 

New public works jobs — immense projects all over the 
country arc requiring men who can "Boss ,he Job'"— 
Men who know how. These books give you QUICK 
trainiiiK. Willi them you don't have to be afraid to 
tackle a> 

If vou send now we will Include absolutely free a big 120 
page book "Blue Print Reading," IN ADDITION TO 
TIIK FIVE BIG BOOKS. 

Coupon Brings Books FREE for examination 



«< 



American Technical Society. Dept. G-236, 
Drexel at 58th St., Chicago, III. 

You may ship the five big books on Architecture, Carpen- 
try and Building, include book on blue print reading free. 
If I am fully satisfied after 10 days I will send you $2. 
after that only (3.00 a month until the total special cut 
price of only $19.80 (former price $24.80) is paid. I am 
not obligated in any way unless I keep the books. 
Name 



Address 

Employer's Name 

Employer's Address 



I have been in the Senate now for 
eight years. In all that time every 
piece of legislation designed to better 
the condition of the workers has been 
sponsored by organized labor. The un- 
ion leaders have impressed me by their 
fairness, their grasp of the facts and 
their frank recognition of the mutual 
interests of all classes of producers. The 
farmers of this country have never had 
better friends in Washington than the 
chiefs of the labor organizations. 

The papers are full of debates over 
the labor provisions of the Emergency 
Railroad Act and the National Recovery 
Act. Every member of Congress knows 
that those provisions were written into 
the law because organized labor was on 
the job in Washington. 

It would be an appalling tragedy if 
the workers of America failed to take 
advantage of the opportunity now af- 
forded them to still further strengthen 
their position. 



Yesterday is gone. Today is here and 
today you should Organize — not tomor- 
row, for tomorrow never comes. 



Demand the Union Label 




A New Stanley Tool 

SLITS, GROOVES AND BEVELS 
FIBRE BOARDS LIKE UPSON 
BOARD, CELOTEX AND OTHERS 

Fibre Board Cutter 
No. 193 

You will want this new tool for your next 
fibre board job. It grooves, bevels and slits any 
of the fibre wall boards now on the market. 
Through cuts can be made much easier and faster with it than is possible with 
a saw and it leaves smooth edges. Furthermore it cuts beveled edges, makes 
beveled edge battens, cuts grooves, makes decorative designs such as squares, 
parallel lines and bricks as shown below. 

It's a Stanley Quality Tool — smooth strong castings; Stanley "Bailey" rose- 
wood Handle and knob; tool steel cutters that can be resharpened like a regular 
plane iron; carefully machined parts all of which 
are replaceable. 

See it at your Hardware Dealers 
Write for descriptive Folder P47 

STANLEY TOOLS 

New Britain, Connecticut 




WE DOOUHPAM 




WOOD IN TUBES 
SAVES CARPENTERS 
TIME A ND LUMBER, 

WOOP 



This marvelous new dis- 
covery — will save you hours 
of time — replacing rotted 
wood, repairing cracked or 
splintered wood, broken 
molding, hiding nicks, seal- 
ing cracks. Genuine Plastic 
Wood handles easy as putty — hardens quickly 
into solid wood that can be treated and 
handled just like real wood. It is actually 
stronger than real wood. Comes in tubes and 
M-lb., 1-lb., 5-lb. cans. 

Be sure to get Genuine 

PLASTIC WOOD 



The Man of Toil 

It is time to build a monument for 
the man whom monument-makers have 
overlooked. I speak of the man of toil. 
I speak of him who carries on in the 
storm and wind and hurricane, in the 
gloom of night and under the stifling 
heat of day. I speak for the man in 
overalls — the living symbol of the real 
America. 

Let us build him a monument and 
let us raise it high for all of our chil- 
dren to see, lest they forget the virtues 
and the rugged courage on which the 
comforts they have are reared. 

Let us build it high and on its base 
let us write clear and luminous, so that 
all may read: 

To the man of Toil. To him who 
braves the peril of the mine or the 
angry roar of the furnace. To him who 
ploughs and bends and builds the han- 
dicraft of man. To the man of sweat 
and grime. For him whose brain and 
brawn have conquered the mountains 
and bridged the rivers — for him whose 
hands have known the wounds of work. 
For he is the breadgiver, he is the 
builder, his is the loyalty and his, the 
steadfast heart. He is America. 



NO SIR- NO 

CHEAP OIL 

FOR ME/ 




You seldom find an ex- 
perienced carpenter using 
"cheap" oil. Why should he — when 
3-in-One does so much more good 
and costs so little more ! Due to its 
scientific blending, 3-in-One not 
only oils your tools, but keeps the 
working parts cleaner and prevents 
rust. Wherever you're working, 
you can get 3-in-One 
nearby. 




3-IN-ONE OIL 



PRICE LIST 



OF 



SUPPLIES 



One Charter and < mi lit $15.00 

Application Blanks, per pad 50 

Application Blanks, Ladies' Aux- 
iliary, per 100 1.00 

Constitutions, each 05 

Constitutions, Ladies' Auxiliary, 

each 03 

Due Books, each 15 

Treas. Cash Books, each 50 

l'. s. Receipt Books, each 35 

Treas. Receipt Books, each 35 

R. S. Order Books, each 35 

Official Note Paper, per 100 50 

Rituals, each 50 

Rituals, Ladies' Auxiliary, each.. .05 

Minute Books, 100 pages 1.50 

Minute Books, 200 pages 2.25 

Day Books, 100 pages 1.75 

Day Book, 200 pages 2.50 

Day Book, 300 pages 3.50 

Ledgers, 100 pages . '. 2.00 

Ledgers, 200 pages 3.00 

Ledgers, 300 pages 3.75 

Ledgers, 400 pages 4.50 

Ledgers, 500 pages 5.00 

Gavels 1.25 

Receipting Dater for F. S 1.75 

Srv.-jll Round Pencils 03 

Rubber Tipped Pencils 05 

Card Cases 10 

Withdrawal Cards, issued by Gen- 
eral Office only, each (always 

send name) 50 

Rubber Seal 1.75 

Belt Loop Chain 75 

Watch Fobs 50 

Key Tags 15 

Rubber Label Stamps 1.00 

Match Box Holders 15 

Cuff Links 1.50 

B. A. Badges 3.00 

Blanks for F. S. Reports for Treas- 
urer's Remittances and for Do- 
nation Claims Free 

Emblem Buttons 50 

Emblem Pins 50 

Ladies Auxiliary Pins 1.25 

Rolled Gold Watch Charms 1.50 

Solid Gold Watch Charms 7.50 

Solid Gold Rings 5.00 

PRICES ON SPECIAL LEATHER 
BOUND LEDGERS, WORKING CARDS, 
POSTCARD NOTICES, ARREARS NO- 
TICES, OFFICER'S CARDS, STATION- 
ERY, ETC., WILL BE SUBMITTED BY 
GENERAL SECRETARY UPON RE- 
QUEST. 

Note — the above articles will be supplied only 
when the requisite amount of cash accompanies 
the order. Otherwise the order will not be recog- 
nized. All supplies sent by us have the Postage 
prepaid or Express charges paid in advance. 



THE 



BROTHERHOOD 

is now manufacturing 

PLAYING 
CARDS 




( Regular Decks only — No Pinochle ) 

25c 
per pack 

Send money with order to — 

FRANK DUFFY 

General Secretary 

222 E. Michigan St. 
INDIANAPOLIS - - IND. 



Who's "Hoarding"? 

(By James Edward Hungerford) 

"You're HOARDING money, my friend," I said 

To my neighbor out of work, 

And he looked at me, and shook Ms head — 

My friend who was forced to shirk. 

"I haven't any to hoard," said he — 

"The last of my savings are spent, 

And MILLIONS more in the world, like ME, 

Are down to their last, red cent." 

"You're HOARDING money, my friend," I said 

To my neighbor, a lowly clerk, 

With wife and children who must be fed, 

On the paltry pay from his work. 

"They cut my salary to the core"—— 

He answered dejectedly; 

"My savings are gone . . . I have no more . . . 

There are MILLIONS of men like me." 

"You're HOARDING your money, my friend," I said 

To the man who PREACHED "Don't hoard!" 

And he looked at me, with a smile, well-fed, 

And visioned his casks well-stored .... 

"DON'T HOARD!" said he, "and prosperity 

Will gush from a million founts, 

And thousands of 'well-heeled' men like ME — 

Will ADD to their bank-accounts!" 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



iLLLLLLLLIliU I _LLU LI MUJJ f 1 1 !J II I M LUJLLLLLLUJLLLLLLLUJX 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of Congress, Aug. 24, 1912 

Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, act of 
October 3, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918 

A Monthly Journal for Carpenters. Stair Builders, Machine Wood Workers. Planing Mill Men, and 

Kindred Industries. Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters 

and Joiners of America, at 

Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 

Advertising Department, 25 Third Avenue, New York, N. Y. 



Established in 1881 
Vol. LIV.— No. 3. 



INDIANAPOLIS, MARCH, 1934 



One Dollar Per Tear 
Ten Cents a Copy 



NOTICE 

The publishers of "The Carpenter" reserve the right to reject all advertising matter 
which may be, in their judgment, unfair or objectionable to the membership of the United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America. 

All contracts for advertising space in "The Carpenter," including those stipulated as 
non-cancellable, are only accepted subject to the above reserved rights of the publishers. 





Builders All 




Isn't it strange that Princes and Kings 




And clowns that caper in saw-dust rings, 




And common folks like you and me, 




Are Builders for Eternity? 




To each is given a bag of tools, 




A shapeless mass and a book of rules; 




And each must make, ere life is flown, 




A stumbling block or a stepping stone. 




—Ex. 



T III: (A R I* E N T E I J 



THE INTERNATIONAL LABOR ORGANIZATION 
AND UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE 

(By Tom Moore, President, Trades and Labor Congress of Canada) 




ITH more than forty- 
two million (42,000,000) 
workers covered by vari- 
ous forms of unemploy- 
ment insurance it cannot 
be said that there is lack- 
ing the necessary experience to judge of 
the social value of legislation of this 
character. 

At the time the International Labor 
Organization came into existence in 
1919, Great Britain was the only coun- 
try having a compulsory insurance sys- 
tem, whereas today nine countries have 
adopted similar measures covering over 
Thirty-eight million (38,000,000) per- 
sons and eight other voluntary insur- 
ance schemes covering a little less than 
Four Million (4,000,000). This com- 
pares with a total number insured at 
the beginning of 1919 of Four and a 
half (4,500,000) to Five million (5,- 
000,000). 

The rapid development of unemploy- 
ment insurance has been assisted mater- 
ially by the International Labor Organ- 
ization, both through discussion at its 
annual conferences and by the compil- 
ation and circulation of statistical data 
and other information which has en- 
abled countries to proceed much more 
rapidly in devising national legislation 
than otherwise would have been pos- 
sible. 

The question of unemployment insur- 
ance was discussed at the first confer- 
ence of the International Labor Organ- 
ization at Washington in 1919, at which 
time a Recommendation was adopted 
''that each member of the International 
Labor Organization establish an effec- 
tive scheme of unemployment insurance 
either through a government system or 
through a system of government sub- 
ventions to associations whose rules pro- 
vide for the payment of benefits to their 
unemployed members." 

At the eighth session of the confer- 
ence in 1926, a resolution was adopted 
which requested the International Labor 
Office to increase to the utmost its ef- 
forts to secure a wide adoption of the 
measures proposed in the recommenda- 
tions and draft conventions on unem- 
ployment of previous sessions of the 



conference, including specifically those 
calling for the creation and extension of 
systems of unemployment insurance. 

Subsequent annual conferences have 
reiterated these proposals when discus- 
sing numerous other phases of the un- 
employment question and as a result 
the subject of "unemployment insurance 
and various forms of relief for the un- 
employed" was placed on the agenda of 
the Seventeenth Session, held in May, 
1933. 

According to the rules of procedure 
each subject dealt with by the Interna- 
tional Labor Organization is considered 
in two stages, the first discussion being 
to decide upon what questions govern- 
ments should be consulted and the sec- 
ond stage being to formulate a draft 
Convention or Recommendation. Fol- 
lowing this practice and arising out of 
the discussion at the 1933 session a 
questionnaire is now before the govern- 
ments of the fifty-seven member states 
of the International Labor Organiza- 
tion. Upon receipt of replies to this the 
Office will proceed to formulate a draft 
convention upon which final decision 
will be reached at the 1934 session. 

In view of the hesitation on the part 
of the Canadian Government to enact 
unemployment insurance legislation, it 
is of special interest to know that in no 
country where such legislation has been 
adopted does there appear to be the 
slightest indication of any intention to 
return to the former haphazard systems 
but on the contrary there has been a 
distinct tendency to enlarge the scope 
of various national schemes and bring 
greater numbers within their jurisdic- 
tion. In preparation for both the first 
and second discussions of this question 
at the conferences of the International 
Labor Organization, the Office has pub- 
lished a mass of statistical data both as 
to the law and practice in the various 
countries where unemployment insur- 
ance is in effect. While in principle the 
same, namely to provide payments to 
unemployment workers free from the 
taint of charity, the legislation has tak- 
en many different forms, each country 
devising its measures to suit its own 
requirements. The International Labor 
Organization has never attempted to in- 



THE CARPENTER 



fluence governments to adopt any par- 
ticular one of these but has been satis- 
fied to perform the duty of gathering 
the facts and making information avail- 
able upon which national legislation 
could be formulated. The draft conven- 
tion, when adopted by the 19 3 4 session, 
will therefore only embody basic prin- 
ciples of unemployment insurance and 
should serve to further impress upon 
governments that have not already dealt 



with the matter the world-wide import- 
ance of this subject. 

In view of this it is not necessary 
that Canada should await final action 
by the International Labor Organiza- 
tion before enacting legislation on this 
subject but the mass of information 
made available by it cannot help but be 
of valuable assistance in drafting an 
Unemployment Insurance Act suitable 
to the requirements of this Dominion. 



PRISON MADE PRODUCTS SHOW MANY MILLIONS 




decrease in the prison 
products sold on the open 
market in competition 
with free labor and free 
industry is shown by the 
survey of prison labor 
completed by the bureau of labor statis- 
tics of the United States Department of 
Labor. Congress was convinced in 19 2 9 
that too many prison goods were sold 
on the open market, and therefore 
passed the Hawes-Cooper act, which 
goes into effect in 1934, and will tend 
further to restrict the sale of prison 
goods in competition with free industry. 
The report of the Department of Labor 
shows that the states are beginning to 
respond to this legislative stimulus to 
establish a sound system of manufac- 
ture and distribution of prison products. 
The state-use system of prison labor, 
which is supported by the American 
Federation of Labor, in 1932 had in- 
creased in favor with the states to 65 
per cent of all production, whereas in 
1923, 55 per cent of all productive la- 
bor in the state and federal prisons 
were working under the state-use sys- 
tem. 

According to the survey, there were 
158,947 prisoners confined in state 
and federal prisons in 19 3 2. This com- 
pares with 84,761 in 1923, the year of 
the bureau's last previous survey on 
this subject. The figures present an in- 
crease of 8 7 per cent in the nine-year 
period. 

Of the number incarcerated in 1932 
— 82,276 were engaged in productive 
labor, 52,986 were engaged in various 
prison duties (such as cooking, wash- 
ing, keeping cells clean, scrubbing pri- 
son walls, etc.); 6,558 were sick and 
17,027 were idle. 

The 82,276 prisoners engaged in pro- 
ductive labor produced goods having a 
value of over $75,000,000. Among the 
most important classes of goods pro- 



duced were 22,000,000 shirts having a 
value of over $8,000,000; 63,000,000 
pounds of binder twine having a value 
of $4,000,000; and more than 36,000,- 
000 automobile license tags. Twelve 
hundred miles of new roads, having a 
valuation of over $15,000,000, were 
built by prison labor in 19 32. Approxi- 
mately $5,000,000 worth of this road 
work was built in Georgia. 

Of the 116 state prisons, 66 paid a 
money wage to all or a part of the in- 
mates; 48 paid no compensation of any 
kind for work done; and two allowed 
credit of time of sentences for prisoners 
doing certain classes of work. Of the 
twelve federal prisons, seven paid wages 
to prisoners for work done and five did 
not. In most of the institutions the pay 
was nominal, generally ranging from 2 
cents to not more than 15 cents per 
day, although in a few prisons the 
scales were considerably higher. 

Of the prisoners employed at produc- 
tive labor in 1932, 1.3 per cent had 
nominal working hours of less than 24 
per week; 55.2 per cent worked 44 
hours or less per week; while 21.8 per 
cent worked 6 hours or over per week. 

The productive work of prisoners in 
federal and state prisons were carried 
on under several systems, namely, state- 
use, state-account, contract, piece price, 
and public-works and highways. Of par- 
ticular interest is the distinction be- 
tween state-use system and the state- 
account system. In the former system, 
all products are used in state institu- 
tions and none is sold in the open mar- 
ket. Under the state-account system, 
prison products are offered for sale and 
thus come into competition with prod- 
ucts of free-labor and industry. 

The lease system, i. e., the system 
of leasing out inmates to employers at 
so much per prisoner, has entirely dis- 
appeared from practice, the survey re- 
vealed. 



I I! 



( A K l» i: X T Kit 



ADDRESS OF EDWARD A. HAYES, NATIONAL COM- 
MANDER, THE AMERICAN LEGION, TO THE 
FIFTY-THIRD ANNUAL CONVENTION 
OF A. F. OF L. 




RATITUDE dwells within 
me for the expressions 
given by your President. 
Certainly there are many 
subjects regarding which 
our organizations have a 
singleness of purpose that mere mention 
of some of them will suffice. It is pleas- 
ant to say that the humanitarian bases 
upon which the American Federation of 
Labor is founded are similar to those of 
the American Legion. We see eye to eye 
on the subject of immigration. The fut- 
ure of our beloved country and the wel- 
fare of its people find mutual expression 
in the ranks of both labor and the Le- 
gion. Steadfast adherence to our form 
of government, vigorous opposition to 
those with communistic tendencies, and 
insistence upon the maintenance and 
transmission to coming generations of 
the ideals upon which this country was 
founded and developed, all find the or- 
ganizations which we represent in com- 
plete harmony. 

In fact, as I scan this audience I see 
the faces of many who probably served 
and who serve side by side with those 
of us who make up the Legion. Just 
the other day, at our Chicago conven- 
tion, we were honored by the presence 
and inspired by the sound, patriotic ut- 
terances of our representative, our dis- 
tinguished comrade, George Berry, of 
Pressmen's Home, Tennessee. 

Ever since my official participation 
several years ago in the installation 
ceremonies at Chicago Union Labor 
Post of the American Legion I have felt, 
as certainly our organization feels, the 
need for continued and even closer co- 
operation with the ranks of labor. 

With knowledge, therefore, of the 
mutuality of interest in the objectives 
of labor and the Legion, may I recount 
here some of the most recent expres- 
sions of our representative body, the 
Chicago convention. 

First of all I want to say that just 
as the American Legion stands for the 
highest ideals which we know as Ameri- 
can, we also stand for a sound and 
stable currency — we want to know just 
what our dollar is worth. At the great 
convention at Chicago just closed the 



delegates representing the more than 
ten thousand Posts that make up our 
organization asked by formal resolution 
that our government give the most 
careful study to the dangers of inflation 
and reaffirmed its faith in a sound 
American dollar. 

The average American soldier has 
never been called an ultra-conserva- 
tist. The average former soldier may 
not be an economist, but there is one 
thing he does want to know — he wants 
to know just how much the dollar is 
worth to him and his family. The 
man earning a small wage or salary; 
the disabled man or his dependent is 
chilled with dread when he contem- 
plates a fluctuating currency that may 
be worth one hundred cents to the dol- 
lar one day and but sixty-five a day or 
so later. There may be some advantage 
to be derived from this inflation and 
fluctuation, but certainly these advan- 
tages will not accrue to the great body 
of men who make up the membership 
of the American Federation of Labor 
and the American Legion, I reaffirm my 
faith in the soundness of the American 
Government and the soundness of the 
American dollar. 

I would like to reiterate, if I could do 
so with the same eloquence, of which I 
am not capable, statements made by 
your representative to use relative to 
participation in the National Recovery 
Act. We of the Legion want to go 
along, hand in hand, in the things you 
will know, and we will learn, many of 
them from you, are the very best for 
this beloved country of ours. 

We know the leader in the N. R. A., 
who is a comrade of ours General John- 
son, is desirous in his heart, of doing 
the very thing you men who represent 
labor and we men who represent the 
Legion desire should be done for this 
beloved country of ours. We know it is 
your objective, as it is our objective, to 
see to it that there is, as near as is 
humanly possible, a combined effort to 
bring about the things you men want 
to do in the building up of this country. 

For several years confusion has ex- 
isted relative to the Legion's insistence 
that proper provision be made for men 



THE CARPENTER 



disabled by reason of their war service. 
After months of study the unanimous 
expression of the Legion can be stated 
with no possibility of confusion or mis- 
understanding. 

Men disabled in the line of duty at no 
time received more than that to which 
they were justly entitled. Recent cuts 
in veteran expenditures took away pay- 
ments from men who were actually dis- 
abled in line of duty, although the or- 
ganization which insisted upon these 
cuts professed sincerity when they 
stated that nothing should be taken 
from men actually disabled in service, 
or by reason of injuries suffered on 
the field of battle. The Legion speaks 
as one man in demanding that these 
men so disabled— thousands and thou- 
sands of whom are actual battlefield cas- 
ualties — be restored to the status exist- 
ing prior to the passage of the so-called 
Economy Act. 

We reiterate our stand that it is the 
responsibility of the Federal Govern- 
ment to provide adequate hospitaliza- 
tion for any veteran actually disabled 
who is not reasonably able to care for 
himself. 

There is no opposition on the part of 
the Legion to any of the constituted 
authorities of this government, this be- 
loved United States of ours. There will 
be co-operation, but when right must 
be stated, if the Legion believes that 
such and such a principle is right, we 
will state that principle as God gives 
us to see the light, and hope that the 
constituted authorities will see with us. 

Certainly we cannot agree with the 
contention that one who has served his 
country in time of need should be 
abandoned by the country when he 
finds himself disabled and in need of 
hospitalization. 

Thousands of our comrades whose 
lungs are gone and whose disabilities 
were recognized as due to their service 
are now being cut off because they can- 
not produce required technical proof. 
Men and women with shattered minds — 
memory gone — and with no means of 
adducing evidence which for ten years 
was not required, are now being advised 
that the beloved government which they 
served no longer recognizes that piti- 
able condition as being due to their ser- 
vice. It is our studied belief that every 
American citizen who will take the time 
to learn and understand the problem of 
these so-called presumptive cases will 



insist with the Legion that those who 
were properly on the rolls should have 
their compensation restored. 

We have always insisted that the 
widows and orphans of the veterans 
who have died should receive the pro- 
tection of their government. There are 
but few indeed who will disagree with 
this point and fewer still who would 
like to see these dependents of men 
who have laid down their lives for the 
perpetuation of the American govern- 
ment forced to ask alms or become the 
objects of private charity. 

While we contemplate with pity and 
compasion our comrades whose health 
and whose lives were wrecked in the 
last war, the most destructive and the 
most devastating that ever scourged 
the earth, our thoughts naturally turn 
to ways and means to protect our chil- 
dren and our children's children from 
the horrors and suffering inflicted upon 
our generation. We seek to prepare 
for peace and to build for peace. We 
have seen war and its aftermath; the 
silent suffering more terrible than the 
wreckage of battle. 

We believe that America will never 
seek a war and that war will never seek 
a prepared America. We believe in an 
America, peace-loving and intent on 
peace but strong enough to insure and 
enforce the peace. We know that the 
pitiably small army in existence at the 
start of every war has never kept us 
out of war. We are opposed to the 
disarmament of the United States for 
the purpose of economy or as an ac- 
claimed means to bring about world 
peace or as an example which some 
persons hope other nations will follow. 

Among the armies of the world the 
American ranks seventeenth in strength 
and among the navies the American 
ranks third, although this nation ranks 
fourth in population and first in wealth. 

The Legion holds that national de- 
fense interests every man, woman and 
child in constant equal and vital de- 
grees and should, therefore, be a con- 
stant quantity. It should be the last 
element of a nation's organization to be 
influenced by economic conditions. Na- 
tional defense must be absolutely and 
always divorced from politics. 

The Legion has confidence in the 
soundness of the National Defense Act 
and having equal confidence in the war 
and navy departments, the agencies 



THE CARPENTER 



definitely charged with the application 
of this act — the Legion repeats in 1933 
its demand made in the two previous 
national conventions for the appro- 
priations calculated by the war and 
navy departments as the minima nec- 
essary for a reasonably effective appli- 
cation of the National Defense Act. 

Mr. President and members of this 
conference: It is an extreme pleasure 
for me to convey to you the sincere 
greetings of the organization which T 
have the honor to represent. We will 
go along with you, hand in hand, study- 
ing the various problems of this be- 
loved Government of ours, realizing, as 



we do, that from your ranks came in 
the World War nearly 800,000 of those 
who served. In the labor organizations 
we find our own comrades, marching 
side by side with you in the applica- 
tion of the principles of your organi- 
zation. It is a personal pleasure, one 
of the privileges of the high office to 
which they have elevated me, to bring 
this message to you. I got rid of an- 
other engagement to come here and ex- 
press the appreciation for the oppor- 
tunity to come and speak and commune 
with you and continue the spirit of 
co-operation which has so long and so 
beautifully existed. 



DELAWARE THE FIRST STATE TO ABOLISH ITS 

POORHOUSES 




EADING the country, Del- 
aware has abolished its 
poorhouse system through 
the establishment of old 
age pensions and the op- 
ening of a modern Wel- 
fare Home for aged who need institu- 
tional care, it was announced in the No- 
vember, 1933, issue of Social Security. 

The State has closed its three county 
poorhouses, opening an up-to-date Wel- 
fare Home. It has thus removed the ne- 
cessity of dumping indigent aged into 
debasing almhouses. 

October 11, the date of the opening of 
the Home, was the occasion of special 
celebration in the State. "This is a not- 
able day in the history of Delaware," 
declared Governor C. Douglas Buck, in 
his address at the dedication ceremon- 
ies, "a day which the citizens of our 
State can always recall with pride. To- 
day marks not only the consummation 
of that splendid piece of legislation 
passed by the State Legislature two 
years ago, but it marks also the tangi- 
ble expression in bricks and mortar of 
the ideals and hopes and aspirations and 
prayers of high-minded men and wo- 
men for countless years." 

State officials declared that the cost 
for inmates in the new Home is $251.05 
below the average cost per inmate in 
similar institutions in Maryland, Penn- 
sylvania, New Jersey and for the three 
former county almhouses of Delaware. 
With any additional units the average 
cost will be reduced because much of 
the necessary equipment will not have 
to be duplicated. 



A bill for unemployment insurance, 
proposed for introduction in the state 
legislatures, has been prepared by a 
nationwide committee of leading au- 
thorities co-operating with the Ameri- 
can Association for" Social Security and 
is published in full in Social Security. 

State-wide funds contributed by em- 
ployers, employes and the state are rec- 
ommended. Federal aid to the states 
enacting such laws is also urged. The 
insurance scheme covers all manual 
workers and the non-manual workers 
earning less than $3,000 per year. The 
benefits outlined are for a period of 26 
weeks of total unemployment. It is sug- 
gested, however, that under the plan 
benefits can actually be extended up to 
52 weeks. 

Proof that unemployment insurance 
does not lead to demoralization and idle- 
ness but on the contrary strengthens 
the will to work and help industry is 
contained in the experience of Great 
Britain, according to an analysis of the 
British system of Abraham Epstein. 

"During the seven and one-quarter 
years from October, 1923, to the end of 
1930, 44.2 per cent of the insured never 
drew any benefits at all," Mr. Epstein 
declared. Over 60 per cent of the in- 
sured under the British system had 
good employment records for all seven 
years from 1925 to 1932, 30 per cent 
paying over 50. contributions every year 
and nearly 20 per cent more paying be- 
tween 43 and 46 contributions to the 
fund every year. At the same time near- 
ly half of the insured men and nearly 
60 per cent of the insured women drew 



THE CARPENTER 



no benefits at all or drew them for three 
months or less during the entire seven 
years' period. 

Mr. Epstein cited a recent study 
which showed that unemployment in- 
surance has helped to keep up the pro- 
ductivity of industries manufacturing 
for home consumption. "It has actually 
saved Great Britain, despite its greater 



and . more difficult problems," Mr. Ep- 
stein declared, "from descending to the 
depths of depression experienced by the 
United States and other countries. . . . 
The United States, with no insurance 
scheme, showed a greater decline in vol- 
ume of production than either England, 
France or Germany, all of which have 
unemployment insurance provisions." 



LABOR'S ONLY GUARANTEE IS A STRONG UNION 




N A recent editorial head- 
ed "A Challenge to Amer- 
ican Labor," the St. Louis 
"Post-Dispatch" had this 
to say about the oppor- 
tunity offered American 
workers by the National Recovery Pro- 
gram: 

"There can be no quarrel with Gen- 
eral Johnson's pronouncement that 'It 
is not the duty of the administration to 
act as an agent to unionize labor.' This 
is a job which labor must do itself. 

"The Recovery Act does, however, 
obligate the administration to support 
any unionization movement which labor 
itself may initiate. 

"It provides specifically that workers 
'shall have the right to organize and 
bargain collectively through representa- 
tives of their own choosing, and shall 
be free from interference, restraint or 
coercion of employers of labor or their 
agents in the designation of such repre- 
sentatives, or in self-organization, or in 
other concerted activities for the pur- 
pose of collective bargaining or other 
mutual aid or protection.' 

"In these words the act definitely out- 
laws the usual tactics of anti-union em- 
ployers — forcible ejection of labor or- 
ganizers, denial of freedom of assem- 
blage, the 'yellow dog' contract, the 
blacklist, discharge for union member- 
ship. 

"Under these provisions the employer 
who attempts to 'fire' a union member 
or to run a union organizer out of town 
may have his license revoked; be denied 
the right to sell his products in inter- 
state commerce. 

"It is this guarantee of public protec- 
tion in organizing activities that the 
President has called 'a new charter of 
rights long sought and hitherto denied.' 

"Here we have the first statute in his- 
tory to assure to labor legal support and 
the right of organization. It remains to 
be seen whether labor possesses the 
wisdom and the strength to make the 



most of this opportunity. 

"It is scarcely to be expected that em- 
ployers will readily relinquish their past 
and present freedom from labor partici- 
pation in the determination of wages, 
hours and working conditions. Closed 
company towns will not suddenly be 
thrown open. Independent organizers 
will not be welcomed with open arms. 

"Already we hear reports that numer- 
ous attorneys are carefully studying the 
law to see whether it may be interpret- 
ed to permit the exclusion of outside or- 
ganizers; that coal and steel operators 
are rushing the formation of company 
unions in an attempt to forestall auton- 
omous Jabor organizations; that a no- 
torious strike-breaking detective agency 
has organized a corporation to advise 
employers concerning their rights with- 
in the Act. 

"No man can truly represent the in- 
terests of labor before an employer if 
he himself is dependent on that employ- 
er for his livelihood. No union can 
exert the economic pressure which is 
prerequisite to the attainment of a real 
collective bargain when its organization 
is confined to a single plant. Employe 
representation schemes cannot be ac- 
cepted as a substitute for independent 
labor action. Nor do we believe that 
the Secretary of Labor or the other 
members of NIRA'S labor advisory com- 
mittee can be persuaded to accept them 
as such. 

" 'It would, however, be fatal for la- 
bor to rely solely upon the character of 
the advisory committee for its protec- 
tion. The Recovery Act has been adopt- 
ed for but two years. At best, its future 
is uncertain. A new administration, 
when it comes, may be far less friendly 
to the aims of labor than is the present 
one. 

"Labor's only real guarantee of hours, 
wages, living standards, in the long run, 
is a strong, aggressive union movement. 
This guarantee the law now places with- 
in labor's grasp." 



T II B (' A R I* E N T E R 



FEDERAL HOME LOANS AND RECOVERY 

(Editorial in "American Builder") 




HERE are many reasons 
why every active man 
in .the building industry 
should be vitally interest- 
ed in the drive now under 
way to persuade Congress 
to provide a billion dollars for long- 
term financing of home building on 
reasonable terms. But there is one rea- 
son that overshadows all others and 
carries the most weight with people in- 
side and outside of the building industry 
as well as with congressmen, taxpayers 
and the unemployed. That reason is the 
economic benefits that would result 
from a resumption of home building. It 
would do more than any other indus- 
try or any other activity to put men 
back to work and end the depression. 

From the secretary-manager of a 
great trade association, who says "The 
stagnation of home building is now the 
largest obstacle in the path of relief 
from the depression," to the contractor 
in Muskegon, Mich., who says, "If mon- 
ey were available, I could start work to- 
morrow; I have three customers now 
who are waiting for just that," the 
hundreds of messages received by the 
"American Builder" confirm the fact 
that (1) lack of long-term financing is 
holding back millions of dollars of home 
construction work and (2) the almost 
complete disappearance of home con- 
struction is the greatest cause of un- 
employment and depression. 

In the years 19 23 through 19 2 6, 
home construction was a four-billion 
dollar industry. It gave employment 
not only in the large cities and indus- 
trial centers but also in the towns and 
villages and rural sections of the na- 
tion. Its beneficial effects were wide- 
spread, penetrating to every class and 
condition of the American public. It 
went forward on a thousand small 
fronts, in mountain valley and on 
desert plains. No statistical service or 
government survey was ever able to 
catalog or classify it, but its effects were 
there. They were prosperity at its best. 

Let us see what has happened to this 
gigantic industry since then. The best 
index of current construction in the 
United States is the record of building 
permits kept by the United States Bu- 
reau of Labor Statistics. The following 
table gives the history of home building 



in 257 cities with a population today of 
46,600,000. 

Here is what has happened: in the 
four years 19 23-26, the annual average 
number of families provided for in new 
homes was 462,500, or 116 residential 
units per 10,000 population. The na- 
tion was prosperous. 

In the four years 1930-33, the annual 
average number of families provided for 
was 68,700, or 15 units per 10,000 pop- 
ulation. This is a drop of 85 per cent 
(for the four-year average) in number 
of families provided for, and of 87 per 
cent in the ratio to population. The 
drop in dollar value of residential con- 
struction was from a yearly average of 
$2,200,000,000 for the 1923-1926 era 
to $300,000,000 per year for the 1930- 
33 period. This is an 85 per cent de- 
cline. 

Residential construction in these 257 
cities in 193 2 totaled only 11 per cent 
of the 1921 volume, and only 4.2 per 
cent of the 1929 volume. In 1933 it 
dropped still lower. For the country as 
a whole, the decline has been almost, 
but not quite, as drastic. 

The serious shock to the economic 
system of the nation caused by this dis- 
appearance of a four to five billion dol- 
lar industry employing several millions 
of men directly on the job and an equal 
number in mines, forests and factories, 
is hard to overstate. 

The American Builder proposes that 
a billion dollars be allocated by Con- 
gress for the financing of home building 
and repairs on a long-term basis at a 
reasonable rate of interest. Loans up to 
75 per cent of the cost of the project 
direct to the home owner with a mini- 
mum of red tape are urged. While de- 
termination of the details of the plan 
will be in the hands of Congress, it is 
suggested that loans be made and serv- 
iced through the Home Owners' Loan 
Corporation, with facilities expanded to 
handle such a job. Proper safeguards 
should be set up of a non-political na- 
ture to insure a safe loan on a well- 
located, well-built home suited to the 
requirements of the owner and his abil- 
ity to pay. Loans for repairs or remod- 
eling on reasonable terms should also 
be made available direct from Uncle 
Sam to the home owner stimulating this 
huge potential market. 



THE CARPENTER 



The economic effects of such a plan 
are exactly suited to the present needs 
of the nation, namely: it will give em- 
ployment over widely-scattered areas in 
the towns, villages and rural sections, 
as well as in the big cities. The bene- 
fits would be more widespread than 
from money spent on great public works 
or slum clearance projects. Every home 
built would be a private project, the 
money loaned for which would be paid 
back in full with interest at a reason- 
able rate. Thus the government would 
be achieving its worthy end of putting 
men to work, but would not increase 
already high taxes. 

Over a period of years, residential 
construction normally accounts for 50 
to 60 per cent of the total volume of 
building construction. In the 257 cities 
reported by the Bureau of Labor Sta- 
tistics above, taking the ten year period 
1921-30, residential construction com- 
prised 5 7 per cent of the total building 
construction volume. It is difficult to 
obtain precise figures as to the part 
played by home building alone in the 
economic life of the nation. Some very 
excellent studies have just been made 
by the Construction League of the Unit- 
ed States, however, which give a pic- 
ture of the entire industry. Bearing in 
mind that residential construction is the 
largest single item of the construction 
industry as a whole, consider some of 
the following figures for 1929: 

More than 4,500,000 men were direct- 
ly or indirectly employed by the con- 
struction industry, which was one-tenth 
of all gainfully employed workers. Some 
2,400,000 were directly employed on 
construction sites and 2,100,000 in the 
mining and manufacture of materials 
and their transportation and sale. 

One out of every five carloads of 
freight in 1929 consisted of construc- 
tion materials, contributing 22 per cent 
of the total freight tonnage and 15 per 
cent of all freight revenue. 

Included in those engaged in con- 
struction were, according to 1930 Cen- 
sus figures: 167,500 builders and build- 
ing contractors, 9 29,400 carpenters, 
170,900 brick and stone masons and 
tile setters, 22,000 architects, 33,700 
designers and draftsmen, 34,070 lumber 
and building material dealers, 23,636 
roofers and slaters, 237,800 plumbers, 
gas and steam fitters, 430,105 painters, 
glaziers and varnishers, 85,480 plaster- 
ers and cement finishers. 



It would be possible to go on for 
many pages with statistics showing the 
way in which construction and that 
most important part of construction, 
residential building, affects every part 
of the economic life of the nation. There 
is much evidence to indicate that most 
economic depressions are caused by a 
decline in construction. Private home 
building is especially important. 

In his thorough-going volume, "In- 
dustrial Depressions," George H. Hull 
argues with conviction that not only 
has each depression in American history 
been caused by the stopping of con- 
struction but the decline in construc- 
tion in each instance was caused by high 
labor and material costs. This is a 
point that both labor leaders and mate- 1 
rial manufacturers may well bear in 
mind at the present time, for if building 
costs continue to rise, resumption of 
home building will be arrested before 
it ever has a chance to make headway. 

In the past four lean years of home 
building, and especially in 193 2 and 
193 3 when home building dropped to 
4.2 per cent of 1929, a housing need of 
large extent has grown up. It is not 
readily apparent to the man on the 
street because he sees only the conspicu- 
ous, expensive type houses which are in 
distress. In practically every city and 
in large areas of the rural section of 
the nation, there is an actual shortage 
of single-family dwelings in a price 
class that is within reach of the greater 
part of our population. 

A survey by the Philadelphia Hous- 
ing Association last year showed single- 
family dwelling vacancies of only 3.6 
per cent. In Akron, the survey conduct- 
ed by the real estate board with the 
aid of the United States Post Office 
carriers late in 1933 showed a vacancy 
in single-family dwellings to be exactly 
the same, 3.6 per cent, with a total va- 
cancy in all types of housing units of 
only 6.6 per cent. This survey showed 
1,109 instances where two families were 
occupying units intended for a single 
family. 

Doubling up of families, delayed mar- 
riages, temporary reduction in births 
and shortage of funds which makes 
people put up, for the time being, with 
quarters with which they are not satis- 
fied, are all factors that make the actual 
shortage of single-family dwellings not 
readily apparent. 



10 



THE CARPENTER 



The most conclusive recent statement 
of residential need is that of the NRA 
Division of Economic Research and 
Planning under the direction of Alex- 
ander Sachs which says there is an im- 
mediate need for for construction of 
800,000 residential units per year. A 
home building program at the rate of 
$200,000,000 a month or a $4,532,000,- 
000 total for two years is recommended. 

Long-term Federal mortgage money 
made available immediately on a large 
national scale to hundreds of thousands 



of persons who need and can afford to 
build a home will get the results the 
President and his advisors are working 
for. The American Builder urges its 
readers to write to their senators and 
congressmen and in other ways to take 
part in this drive to obtain the neces- 
sary legislation by Congress early in its 
session. In no other way can unemploy- 
ment be permanently remedied in a 
manner that is so economically and so- 
cially sound. United support by the 
building industry is needed. 



THE NATIONAL RECOVERY ACT 

(By H. H. Siegele) 




Y husband," said a work- 
ingman's wife to the 
philosopher, in the pre- 
NRA days," doesn't have 
enough time to spend at 
home, to cultivate fam- 
ily life. He comes home for most of his 
meals, and after supper he goes back to 
the store — he has to in order to 
hold his job — and on Sundays — 
well!" She sighed, and a far-off 
look came into her eyes, while a 
mixture of fear and grief marked the 
expression of her face. She had more to 
say, but the fear that she had said too 
much already, caused her to keep what 
is so hard to do for her kind, the secret. 
She knew that speaking, especially if 
she was telling the truth, might cost 
her husband his job. 

Another woman, speaking to the phi- 
losopher in those days, said: "My hus- 
band seldom sees his children awake — 
sometimes he goes into their bed room 
when he comes home, or before he goes 
to work, and looks at them a few min- 
utes while they sleep." And then she 
went on to say that her husband had 
to be at his place of employment long 
before the children got up, and that he 
did not return home until long after 
they were in bed. "Besides," she said, 
"he has to work on Sunday. Of course, 
he can have a day off occasionally, but 
it takes all he can make as it is to 
keep our bills paid up. Whenever he 
loses time, whether it is Sunday or 
weekday, he is docked, and that means 
additional sacrifices for the family, and 
we already have an overproduction of 
sacrifies." 

These things, it should be remem- 
bered, took place when many millions of 



men were begging for work, while their 
families were starving by the inch. 

"There are two explanations," the 
philosopher said, speaking sarcastically, 
"for these things. The first is that 
employers, in those days were unable to 
get competent help, especially to do ex- 
tra Sunday work. There were enough 
unemployed men and women, but all 
they cared for was the pay-check — 
clock watchers, that's what they were. 
They would all have had work, if it 
hadn't been for that — if they hadn't 
been just too lazy and altogether de- 
prived of efficiency." The philosopher's 
eyes twinkled as he went on, "That's 
one side of the story, and many believed 
it. The other side, however, is that this 
condition was due largely to a hog- 
complex, which was caused by an over- 
development of, what is know in the 
medical world, as the multiporco greed- 
angular gland, located somewhere in 
the chest, of men who had lost all feel- 
ing for humanity, and had left only this 
triune purpose in life, more profits, and 
most profits, and many people believed 
that side of the story too. 

What the philosopher thought of the 
NRA he did not say, but we are sure he 
felt as we do, that is to say, that it is 
still too early (September 1933) to say 
whether the NRA under the "New 
Deal," will in the long run bring about 
a complete realization of the things our 
philosopher has advocated for these 
many years. If it does, it must be prac- 
tical, and it must apply relatively alike 
to all who toil. This we can say here, 
that after the employer of the man who 
had no time for cultivating family life, 
was operating under the NRA, his wife 
told the philosopher, that her husband 



THE CARPENTER 



11 



now not only had time to spend at 
home, but that he had time for reading 
and for pleasure as well. Time alone, 
though, can tell whether this man's ex- 
perience will continue in his own case, 
and whether the benefits of the NRA 
will be extended to all workers in a more 
or less similar manner. "We are sincerely 
hoping that it will, and that it will be 
the means of bringing into a real and 
lasting realization the things the phil- 
osopher has for so many years idealized 
for men and women who toil, and their 
children. 

. Whether or not the NRA ultimately 
will triumph, doesn't matter so much to 
us. The fact that it is here is a recogni- 
tion of the necessity that our social 
system must undergo drastic funda- 
mental changes; that industry must be 
controlled, and for the direct benefit of 
the working men and women; that 
working hours must be shortened, in 
keeping with improved machinery and 
the forward march of science and inven- 
tions; that the eight-hour day and the 
six-day week must give way to a shorter 
day and a shorter week, say a six-hour 
day and a five-day week; and in time as 
civilization advances, to a four-hour day 
and a three-day week. These advance- 
ments must sooner or later surely come. 
They will not come by the twinkling of 
an eye, far be it from that, but they will 
come surely and gradually, through the 
intelligent suffering of the honest toil- 
ers. 

The NRA is not a perfect scheme. No 
schemes are perfect. It should not be 
expected that it will bring about per- 
fect results — results seldom are perfect. 
Profiteering and skin-flint manipulations 
will no doubt, be carried to extremes 
in many instances, but there still re- 
mains on the face of it that admis- 
sion that national prosperity depends 
largely on the welfare of the masses. 
There also remains the national ad- 
mission that working hours must be 
shortened throughout the land, and 
that the work-week must also be 
shortened, for the purpose of giving 
employment to every able-bodied man 
or woman who wants to work. Besides 
that, there is the admission that chil- 
dren in their tender years should not 
be made the bread-winners, while men, 
who should be bread-winners, are forced 
into involuntary unemployment. 

Notwithstanding these acknowledg- 
ments and the good things the NRA has 



brought to, we hope, millions of work- 
ers, in one thing it is weak, and that 
one thing happens to be two things. 
First, the NRA has made no provision 
for unemployment insurance, guaran- 
teeing every working man and woman 
who is willing and anxious to work, 
the means of a livelihood, when in the 
course of human events it is impossible 
for them to get work, and therefore are 
deprived of the necessities of life. Un- 
til this fundamental principle is ack- 
nowledged, and wheels set in motion to 
bring it to pass, the NRA cannot be 
said to have the highest interests of 
humanity at heart: Things, dead, in- 
animate things, without unemployment 
insurance, will be regarded of more 
worth than human life and human well* 
being. Second, the NRA has not recog- 
nized the fact that there are men and 
women who by reason of old age or 
some other disability are not able to 
earn a livelihood, even though employ- 
ment were to be had. Until provision is 
made for an adequate old age pension 
and disability benefit, the NRA will 
have failed to bring into practical reali- 
zation the age of perpetual plenty for 
all. 



Child Labor Amendment Approved by 
Legislatures of 20 States 

The legislatures of the states of 
Maine, Minnesota, Pennsylvania and 
West Virginia are the latest states to 
ratify the Child Labor Amendment to 
the Federal Constitution. Organized la- 
bor in these four States conducted vig- 
orous campaigns for approval of the 
amendment and were largely respon- 
sible for the favorable action of the 
legislatures. 

When the 1933 convention of the 
American Federation of Labor met in 
October of last year, only 15 states had 
ratified the amendment. Iowa adopted 
it a few weeks ago, and Maine, Minne- 
sota, Pennsylvania and West Virginia 
bring the number up to 20. 

Reports received at the headquarters 
of the American Federation of Labor 
that the legislatures of these four states 
had ratified the child labor amendment 
to the Federal Constitution were inter- 
preted as indicating a positive trend to- 
ward protecting the children of the Na- 
tion by conferring upon Congress the 
power "to limit, regulate, and prohibit 
the labor of persons under 18 years of 
age," which the amendment proposes. 



Editorial 




THE CARPENTER 

Official Journal of 

THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD OF 

CARPENTERS AND JOINERS 

OF AMERICA 

Published on the 15th of each month at the 

CARPENTERS' BUILDING 

Indianapolis, Ind. 

UNITED BROTHERHOOD OF 

CARPENTERS AND JOINERS OF AMERICA. 

Publishers 

FRANK DUFFY, Editor 

Subscription Price 
One Dollar a Year In Advance, Postpaid 

The publishers and the advertising 
agent use every possible precaution avail- 
able to them against accepting advertise- 
ments from other than reliable firms, but 
do not accept any responsibility for the 
contents of any advertisement which ap- 
pears in "The Carpenter." Should any 
deception be practiced by advertisers at 
any time, upon members, their duty is to 
immediately notify the Post Office au- 
thorities. Therefore, address any com- 
plaints to your local Post Office. 

INDIANAPOLIS, MARCH, 1934 

Social Justice Legislation 

THE twelve-point program of social 
justice legislation which William 
Green, president of the American 
Federation of Labor urges all subordi- 
nate organizations, representing more 
than five million workers, to support, is 
both an expression of high idealism and 
an example of pragmatism as applied to 
labor legislation. 

The twelve points follow: 
Workmen's compensation laws. 
Unemployment insurance. 
Anti-injunction legislation. 
Child labor laws. 

Ratification of the Child Labor 
Amendment to the Federal Constitution. 



Minimum wage laws for women and 
minors. 

Improved standards for teachers in 
public schools. 

Shorter work day and work week for 
workers in public and private employ- 
ment. 

Safety legislation. 

Inspection and sanitary legislation. 

Convict labor laws. 

In the language of Mr. Green, in his 
letter urging all affiliated bodies to use 
every effort to secure this enactment of 
the program into law: "The measures 
are all important, as they relate to the 
social and economic life of the work- 
ing people in the different States and 
throughout the Nation." 

The necessity of this legislation to 
protect the economic interests of the 
workers of America is so apparent that 
the entire program, which has been 
drafted and endorsed by conventions 
of the American Federation of Labor, 
should be accepted by all progressive 
persons as an immediate goal without 
close scrutiny and consideration. 



Controlling Child Labor 

DEPRESSION always brings an in- 
crease in child labor. When the 
adult wage-earner loses his job 
even a small addition to the family in- 
come is a safeguard against actual 
hunger. Consequently the boy or girl 
may leave school and find a job to get 
food for mother and the babies. Em- 
ployers are willing to take a chance on 
less experienced workers just so outgo 
is less. 

During the depression, boys and girls 
have gone into street trades, industrial 
home work, domestic and personal serv- 
ice and industrialized agriculture in 
large numbers. In such occupations 
there was little control over hours. In 
some of the larger cities the number of 
boys and girls employed as waiters and 
servants increased. While there has 
been a steady decline of child labor in 
the better jobs, the standards for child 



THE CARPENTER 



13 



labor have declined steadily and their 
employment has shifted to the sweated 
industries. 

Rates of 5 and 10 cents per hour are 
not infrequent, and the contract system 
undermined all standards and nullified 
efforts at control. While these trends 
were endangering the future of our 
boys and girls, codes unexpectedly pre- 
sented a new opportunity for regulat- 
ing child labor. Practically every code 
that has been submitted, has included 
provisions prohibiting employment of 
persons under 16 years, and in some 
cases under 18 years. The conspicuous 
exception is the Newspaper Publishers 
Code which would permit boys and girls 
under 16 to sell and deliver newspapers 
without restrictions upon hours, out- 
side the school period. We should be on 
guard for such undermining of existing 
standards while we watch progress in 
other directions. 

Constructive provisions, however, 
coupled with a minimum wage that took 
the profit out of child labor, have been 
effective in materially reducing child 
labor in the major industries. This reg- 
ulation of child labor is an essential 
factor in our recovery plans to reduce 
the number of unemployed. By elimi- 
nating minors from the labor supply 
adults have a better chance at employ- 
ment opportunities. The use of the 
code to secure social control suggests 
other interesting fields of control. On 
the other hand industrial legislation 
through code making escapes the con- 
stitution conflict between state and Fed- 
eral jurisdictions. 

While we wait for the ratification of 
the Child Labor Amendment, we are 
making material progress in controlling 
child labor. 



Wages Were Never "Excessive." 

The evolution of workers over the 
long span of years since early colonial 
days reads like a romance. Perusal of 
a booklet issued by the United States 
Bureau of Labor Statistics in 1929, 
when Ethelbert Stewart headed that 
branch of governmental activity, con- 
tains much greater informative interest 
than its title would imply. The "History 
of Wages in the United States From 
Colonial Days Times to 1928" will con- 
vince the most skeptical of modern 
workers that he has much for which to 
be thankful. 



In the little booklet is found a state- 
ment that officials of the American col- 
onies in 1625 were deeply grieved be- 
cause laborers were paid the "excessive" 
wage of 30 cents a day, while "skilled" 
labor, such as carpenters and bricklay- 
ers, was drawing the "intolerable" wage 
of 42 cents a day in some cases. It 
should be remembered, however, that 
little of the coin of realm passed be- 
tween employer and employe. "Corn" 
was the staple medium of exchange, and 
by "corn" was meant almost all grains 
which could be handily sacked. "Corn" 
in 1631 was rated at the equivalent of 
$2.43 a bushel, a price that will drive 
any present-day farmer to copious tears. 
Apprentices were indentured at the 
early age of 10 to 15 and worked until 
they reached 21 for their "keep" alone. 
If the indentured one died before "fin- 
ishing his time" another member of the 
family was compelled to finish out the 
unexpired term of apprenticeship. The 
hours of labor for all, journeymen and 
apprentices, began at daylight and end- 
ed when the sun sank to rest. To com- 
pensate the industrious apprentice who 
remained on the job until he completed 
his indentured term he was given "fifty 
acres of land," something everybody had 
the most of at that time. Land was 
cheap; only wages were "excessive." 
What few laws were passed with rela- 
tion to labor were invariably for the 
protection of the employer. 

Gradually, painfully slow, slight 
changes for betterment of workers came 
about, though not until labor became 
organized was any decided improvement 
in conditions noticeable, either in wages 
or working hours. Not until organized 
labor fought its way to a place in the 
sun was semi-slavery abolished, equit- 
able wages secured and decent liv- 
ing conditions established. Despite the 
changed conditions from colonial days 
to the present age labor has never been 
paid "excessive" wages and never will 
be so paid. There is no possibility of 
such a thing coming to pass. The high- 
er the wage paid workers the better the 
conditions of business will be, and with 
increasing business even higher wages 
will be justified. 



I must do my own work and live my 
own way because I'm responsible for 
both. — Kipling. 

Demand the Union Label 



Official Information 




GENERAL OFFICERS 

Of 

THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD 
Of 

CARPENTERS AND JOINERS 
OF AMERICA 

General Office 
Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General President 

WM. L. HUTCHBSON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



First General Vice-President 

GEORGE H. LAKEY 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Second General Vice-President 

JAMES M. GAULD 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Secretary 

FRANK DUFFY 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Treasurer 

THOMAS NEALE 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Executive Board 
First District, T. M. GUERIN 
290 Second Ave., Troy, N. Y. 



Second District, W. T. ALLEN 
3832 N. Gratz St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



Third District, HARRY SCHWARZER 
10522 Parkhurst Drive, Cleveland, O. 



Fourth District, JAS. L. BRADFORD 
1900 15th Ave., N., Nashville, Tenn. 



Fifth District, J. W. WILLIAMS 
3948 S. Grand Blvd., St. Louis, Mo. 

Sixth District, A. W. MUIR 
200 Guerrero St., San Francisco, Cal. 



Seventh District, ARTHUR MARTEL 
6375 Chambord St., Montreal, Que., Can. 



WM. L. HUTCHESON, Chairman 
FRANK DUFFY, Secretary 



All correspondence for the General Executive 
Board must be sent to the General Secretary. 



Trade Union Officials Call for Intensive 
Organization Drive 

Warning that under the provisions of 
the National Recovery Act, employers 
are exerting every effort to form com- 
pany unions and that the situation im- 
peratively demands the utmost in organ- 
ization effort by the labor movement, 
representatives of national and interna- 
tional unions in conference in Wash- 
ington, issued a stirring call to labor to 
intensify organization work throughout 
American industry. 

Speakers from President William 
Green of the American Federation of 
Labor, down the line of national and 
international union heads, declared that 
American labor faced a critical situa- 
tion and that no time must be lost in 
organizing the wage earners. 

The meeting was held in pursuance 
to action taken by the last convention 
of the A. F. of L. when that body con- 
sidered Resolutions 21, 83 and 111, 
and the report of the Resolutions Com- 
mittee, containing the recommendation 
that the declarations and policies of the 
American Federation of Labor be ad- 
hered to in issuing charters to Federal 
Labor Unions, so that the autonomy and 
jurisdiction of affiliated national and 
international unions shall be fully rec- 
ognized. 

The conference's declaration on or- 
ganization was made in approving the 
following report: 

Your committee in considering the 
subject assigned to it is conscious of 
the limitations under which this con- 
ference was called and can function; 
that it is without power and authority 
to alter or change the fundamental 
principles of trades autonomy upon 
which the American Federation of La- 
bor was founded, or to alter the consti- 
tutional requirements and provisions of 
the American Federation of Labor. It is 
the sense of this committee that this 
conference can only adopt such policies 
and procedure as are in accord with the 
constitutional requirements and provi- 
sions, and it is with that understanding 
we report as follows: 



THE CARPENTER 



15 



Organization among wage earners is 
imperative. Industries are being organ- 
ized and cartelized throughout the land. 
Unless the wage earners are united 
through organization, free and indepen- 
dent of employer control or influence, 
Labor will have suffered a distinctive 
loss. 

The paramount issue is not what par- 
ticular form of organization shall be 
followed in this emergency and this un- 
usual situation. The demand of the 
moment is to promote organization in 
whatever form or method is best de- 
signed to rally the wage earners to the 
cause of Organized Labor, bearing in 
mind that in the pursuit of organization 
the present structure, rights and inter- 
ests of affiliated National and Interna- 
tional Unions must be followed, ob- 
served and safeguarded. 

The American Federation of Labor, 
contrary to a common belief, does not 
desire to dictate the form of organiza- 
tion that shall prevail among wage earn- 
ers. Its policy has been that of encour- 
aging whatever form of organization in 
any trade, calling or industry seems 
best to meet the situation and the re- 
quirements of the workers. The Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor has provided 
methods and means of encouraging or- 
ganization through federal and local 
trade unions among workers not em- 
braced in the work of National and 
International Unions. In that way and 
by that process quite a number of exist- 
ing National and International Unions 
have been formed. 

Today we are confronted with an en- 
tirely new and novel situation, wherein 
provisions of the National Industrial Re- 
covery Act express sympathy to the or- 
ganization of wage earners but leave 
the subject of the form and method of 
organization entirely to the discretion 
of the wage earners without guide or 
direction, giving recognition to what- 
ever form may be adopted for the mo- 
ment, and without thought of ultimate 
consequences or reckoning. Employers 
have taken full advantage of this situa- 
tion in the organizing and maintaining 
of company unions. Employers are 
granted every encouragement and aid 
under the law in perfecting their organ- 
ization while at the same time they are 
denying the exercise of the same rights 
on the part of the workers and in keep- 
ing with the intent and spirit of the Na- 
tional Recovery Act. 



It is in this sort of situation that the 
American Federation of Labor must as- 
sume leadership and take command in 
the organizing of wage earners in what- 
ever form the temporary situation may 
demand or require and with the objec- 
tive in mind of not only protecting and 
promoting existing National and Inter- 
national Unions in their structure and 
functioning and in the setting up and 
maintaining of their standards of em- 
ployment, but in encouraging the forma- 
tion of new National and International 
Unions where no such organizations now 
prevail. 

It must be apparent that in this en- 
deavor of organization, conflicts of ju- 
risdiction and claims of invasion of or- 
ganization are likely to occur. If we are 
to meet the requirements of the moment 
we must accept such conflicts in the 
spirit of tolerance and through proper 
procedure correct such errors as have or 
hereafter may occur. After all, we must 
look to the Executive Council of the 
American Federation of Labor to serve 
in this capacity as never heretofore. In 
that spirit and in that thought we rec- 
ommend: 

First: That the work of organizing 
by and through National and Interna- 
tional Unions, supplemented by that 
of the American Federation of Labor 
through federal and local trade unions, 
proceed with increased vigor and de- 
termination; that the fullest possible 
latitude be exercised by the Executive 
Council in the granting of federal char- 
ters and that where or whenever a tem- 
porary infraction of the rights of Na- 
tional and International Unions may be 
involved, that the Executive Council ad- 
just such difficulties in the spirit of tak- 
ing full advantage of the immediate sit- 
uation and with the ultimate recogni- 
tion of the rights of all concerned. 

Second: That the Executive Council 
through the officers of the American 
Federation of Labor arrange confer- 
ences between organizers and represen- 
tatives of National and International 
Unions, of affiliated local units and of 
the American Federation of Labor Gen- 
eral, Special and Volunteer organizers 
in the respective centers, for the pur- 
pose of creating complete understanding 
and harmony among those charged with 
organization work, to be followed in 
methods of promoting organization, so 
as to avoid or lessen unnecessary fric- 
tion, conflict or limitations due to vary- 



16 



THE CARPENTER 



ing financial requirements of different 
National and International organiza- 
tions, and forms and character of or- 
ganizations being promoted. 

Third: That the officers of the 
American Federation of Labor call into 
special conferences periodically the ex- 
ecutive officers or representatives, or 
representative committees of the several 
departments and divisions of organized 
labor within the American Federation 
of Labor to review the progress of or- 
ganization made and to plan for future 
methods to be followed and means to be 
employed in furthering organization in 
their respective fields of endeavor. 

Fourth: That the officers of the 
American Federation of Labor arrange 
for mass meetings of wage earners 
throughout the land and that all local 
unions be called upon to co-operate in 
calling and arranging for these mass 
meetings; that the officers of the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor likewise un- 
dertake to train and arrange for speakers 
at these and other meetings; that both 
the press and radio be used to the full- 
est possible extent, and that every other 
means available be used to further the 
spirit of organization and promote the 
formation of trade unions among wage 
earners throughout the land. 

The conditions with which the work- 
ers are at present confronted make or- 
ganization more imperative than ever. 
The need of the workers everywhere is 
to get together, to organize, to exercise 
the principles of mutual aid, to form 
trade unions, the one method whereby 
they can effectually protect themselves 
in industry and meet the enormous 
problems of the day. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Matthew Woll, Chairman, 

Victor A. Olander, Secretary, 

Arthur O. Wharton, 

Daniel J. Tobin, 

Charles P. Howard, 

Andrew Myrup, 

George Lakey, 

David Dubinsky, 

Michael Colleran. 



Quarterly Proceedings of the General 
Executive Board, 1934 

Since the previous session of the General Ex- 
ecutive Board the following trade movements 
were acted upon. 

September 25, 1933 

W. Frankfort, 111., L. U. 1193. — Movement 
for an increase in wages from 75c to $1.00 per 



hour, effective October 1, 1933. Official sanction 
granted. 

Knk n, Ind., L. TJ. 734. — Movement for 40- 

1111111- week, effective November l, 1933. Official 
sanction granted. 

October 17, 1933. 

Tulsa, Oklahoma. L. 17. 943. — Movement for 
an increase in wages from 75c to $1.00 per 
hour, effective January 1, 1934. Official sanc- 
tion granted. 

Topeka, Kan., I,. TJ. 1445. — Movement for the 
7-hour day and five day week, effective January 
1, 1934. Official sanction granted, without fi- 
nancial aid. 

November 10, 1933. 

Olympia, Wash., L. TJ. 1148. — Movement for 
an increase in wages from 68:'Jc to 90c per hour, 
effective January 1, 1934. Official sanction 
granted. 

November 17, 1933. 

Galveston, Texas, L. TJ. 520. — Movement for 
an increase in wages from 87|c to $1.00 per 
hour and the 30-hour week, effective January 
1, 1934. Official sanction granted. 

December 21, 1933. 

Rochester, N. Y. District Council. — Movement 
for an increase in wages from 90c to $1.20 per 
hour and 30-hour week, effective January 1, 
1934. Official sanction granted without finan- 
cial aid. 

* * * 

Carpenters' Home 
Lakeland, Florida. 
January 8, 1934. 

The General Executive Board met in regular 
session on the above date at Carpenters' Home, 
Lakeland, Florida. All members present. 

Columbus, Ohio, L. TJ. 200. — Movement f<5r 
an increase in wages from 80c to $1.20 per 
hour. Conditions in Columbus, Ohio, at the 
present time do not warrant the General Execu- 
tive Board sanctioning this movement for the 
increase asked, owing to the unorganized con- 
dition of the trade in that district. 

Hannibal, Mo., L. TJ. 607. — Movement for an 
increase in wages from 75c to $1.00 per hour, 
effective March 1, 1934. Official sanction 
granted. 

Wichita, Kansas, L. TJ. 201. — Movement for 
an increase in wages from 75c to $1.10 per hour 
and 40-hour week, effective April 1, 1934. Offi- 
cial sanction granted without financial aid. 

San Bernardino, Cal., L. TJ. 944. — Increase in 
wages, effective March 1, 1934. Official sanction 
granted. 

St. Louis, Mo., L. TJ. 795 (Boxmakers and 
Sawyers). — Movment for an increase of 15c 
per hour in wages, effective February 1, 1934. 
Official sanction granted. 

St. Louis, Mo. District Council. — Movement 
for 6-hour day, five day week, effective April 1, 
1934. Official sanction granted. 

Great Falls, Montana, L. TJ. 286. — Movement 
for increase in wages, 6-hour day and 30-hour 
week, effective February 15, 1934. Official sanc- 
tion granted, without financial aid. 

Greencastle, Indiana, L. TJ. 1953. — Movement 
for increase in wages from 50c to 75c per hour, 
effective April 1, 1934. Official sanction grant- 
ed, without financial aid. 

Parkersburg, W. Va., L. TJ. 899. — Movement 
for increase in wages and 5 day week, effective 
March 7, 1934. Official sanction granted, with- 
out financial aid. 

The General Secretary submitted his annual 
report for the year ending June 30, 1933, and 



THE CARPENTER 



17 



after careful consideration of same it was ap- 
proved and filed for future reference. 

The General Secretary further reported that 
during the last six months of the year 1933 
one-hundred-eleven charters were issued by the 
General Office to new Local Unions. 

Report of the Delegates to the Fifty-third 
Annual Convention of the American Federation 
of Labor was received and referred to the Gen- 
eral Secretary for publication in "The Carpen- 
ter." 

Report of Delegate to the Forty-Ninth An- 
nual Convention of the Canadian Trades and 
Labor Congress was received and referred to 
the General Secretary for publication in "The 
Carpenter." 

Certificate dated November 27, 1933, from 
the Director of the Gross Income Tax Division, 
Department of Treasury of the State of Indi- 
ana, exempting the United Brotherhood of Car- 
penters and Joiners of America, with head- 
quarters in Indianapolis, Indiana, from the pay- 
ment of State Income Tax to the State of In- 
diana was received and ordered filed for future 
reference. 

Manufacturers' Public Liability Policy No. P. 
M. 19605, expiring October 12, 1934, with the 
United States Fidelity and Guaranty Co., was 
received and referred to the General Secretary 
for safe keeping. 

Workmen's Compensation and Employers' Li- 
ability Policy No. Z677857, expiring October 
12, 1934, with the United States Fidelity and 
Guaranty Co., referred to the General Secretary 
for safe keeping. 

Fire Insurance on contents of Printing Plant 
to the amount of $20,000.00 Policy No. 35105, 
expiring October 7, 1934, on Merchants Fife 
Assurance Corporation of New York. Referred 
to the General Secretary for safe keeping. 

January 9, 1934. 

The General President submitted the report 
of the Committee appointed by him to investi- 
gate the actions of the officers and members of 
Local Union 1051, Philadelphia, Pa., for viola- 
tion of our obligation and General Laws by (1) 
issuing a circular letter under date of July 19, 
19.'!3, addressed "To all Local Unions of the 
United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners 
of America'' in which incorrect and untrue 
statements are made relative to our member- 
ship in May 1926, May 1932 and May 1933. 

(2) For sending a copy of said letter to 
the "Daily Worker," the official organ of the 
Communist Party of the United States of 
America, contents of which were published in 
issue of that paper under date of Friday, Au- 
gust 11, 1933, to the detriment of our organiza- 
tion. 

The report shows that the officers of Local 
Union 1051 admitted that the circular in ques- 
tion was approved, adopted and issued by that 
Local Union at a special meeeting held July 19, 
1933 ; that a committee of the Local Union 
drafted it ; that Recording Secretary Kreis was 
a member of that Committee, but they refused 
to tell how they compiled the membership. 

Local Union 1051 gives the membership of 
the Brotherhood in May 1926, as 415.000 
whereas the report of the General Office shows 
the membership to be 345,728, a difference of 
69,272. So the statement of membership given 
by Local Union 1051 is incorrect and untrue. 
The statement of Local Union 1051 of the 
membership in 1932 and 1933 is also erroneous 
and incorrect. 

The Officers of Local Union 1051 had no ex- 
planation to make as to why they sent out 



these incorrect and untrue statements of our 
membership. 

The "Daily Worker" central organ o' the 
Communist Party of the United States of 
America published in New York City under 
date of Friday August 11, 1933, on page three 
carries the following statement : 

"The Daily Worker has received a communi- 
cation from the Recording Secretary of Local 
Union No. 1051 of the United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America, which is a 
Philadelphia Local, stating that the members of 
that union have voted to endorse a campaign 
for a referendum of all Local Unions of the 
Brotherhood on certain concrete measures to 
be taken by the Brotherhood in regard to the 
unemployment situation facing the Carpenters." 

Then follows the contents of this circular 
letter issued by Local 1051 under date of July 
19, 1933, containing these untrue and incorrect 
statements of our membership in May 1926 and 
May 1933. 

The officers of disbanded Local Union 1051 
have done nothing since to refute this state- 
ment of the Daily Worker. 

By these actions L. U. 1051 violated our 
obligation and laws. 

Appeals of a number of members of dis- 
banded Local Union 1051, Philadelphia, Pa., 
from the action of the General President in 
disbanding said Local Union on December 1, 
1933, and ordering its members to transfer by 
clearance cards to other Local Unions in Phila- 
delphia, Pa. were placed before the General 
Executive Board but before the Board can act 
thereon the members appealing must first com- 
ply with the orders of the General President, 
in accordance with the provision of Paragraph 
A, Section 57, of our General Laws which speci- 
fies that : "In no case shall an appeal act as 
a stay of proceedings." 

Audit of books and accounts of the Home 
commenced and continued throughout the bal- 
ance of the day. 

January 10, 1934. 

Appeal of Local Union 67, Boston, Mass., 
from the decision of the General President in 
the case of D. A. McDonald vs. Local Union 
67, relative to the election of a delegate to the 
Boston District Council. The decision of the 
General President was sustained on grounds 
set forth therein and the appeal was dismissed. 

Appeal of William L. Ciarletta, a member of 
Local Union No. 385, New York, N. Y., from 
the decision of the General President in the 
case of William L. Ciarletta vs. Local Union No. 
385, New York City, N. Y., relative to the elec- 
tion of Financial Secretary. The decision of 
the General President was sustained on grounds 
set forth therein and the appeal was dismissed. 

Protest of Local Union No. 264, Milwaukee, 
Wis., against the reduction of the amount of 
the pension paid quarterly to members entitled 
to same was carefully considered by the Board. 
After which the reply of the General President 
thereto was concurred in and protest dismissed. 

The General Executive Board calls attention 
to the fact that the Board has the right to 
set the amount of Pension to be paid. 

Appeal of E. T. Hobberstad, a member of 
Local Union No. 58, Chicago, 111., from the 
decision of the General President in the case 
of E. T. Hobberstad vs. Chicago District Coun- 
cil relative to having been fined for violating 
the laws, rules and regulations of the Brother- 
hood. The decision of the General President 
was sustained on grounds set forth therein and 
the appeal was dismissed. 



T II E CARPENTER 



Appeal of Eugene H. Lamparter, L. D. 122, 
Philadelphia, Pa., from the decision of the < : . 
r. in the case of Eugene H. Lamparter vs. L. D. 
122. The decision of the <;. P. was sustained 
on grounds set forth therein and appeal dls- 
mlssed. 

Audit of books and accounts continued. 

January 11, 1934. 

Application of Brother Frank L. Conrad, 
member of Local Union 1947, Hollywood. Flor- 
ida. Tor admission to the Some at Lakeland, 
Florida, referred l>y the General President to 
the General Executive Board was approved. 

In the case Of appeals of Brother Meyer 
Gardner and Brother George Peake, of Local 
Union 1636, Whiting, Ind., from replies of the 
General Presldenl thereto, as the General 
President did not render a decision on these 
so-called appeals no action can be taken by the 
General Executive Board. 

Audit of books and accounts continued. 

January 12, 1934. 

Audit of books and accounts continued. 

January 15, 1934. 

Missoula, Mont., L. U. 28. — Movement for 
six hour day. thirty hour week, and increase in 
wages, effective March 1, 1934. Official sanc- 
tion granted. 

Colorado Springs, Colo.. L. U. 515. — Move- 
ment for six hour day and thirty hour week, 
effective March 1, 1934. As the vote on this 
movement was not taken in accordance with 
our laws and did not show the required 55 per 
cent vote the matter was referred back to L. 
U. 515 for compliance with our laws before 
the Board can act thereon. 

New York District Council vs. L. U. 2725, 
New York. N. Y.. Secretary-Treasurer Kelso of 
the New York District Council, by orders of 
the Executive Committee of the New York Dis- 
trict Council, preferred charges to the General 
Executive Board against L. U. 2725 New York, 
N. Y. for violating Section 55, Paragraphs B. 
C. & L., Section 58, Paragraph F, of the Gen- 
eral Laws of the United Brotherhood, and Sec- 
tion 1-A, IB. 11. 12. 27, 28 and 43 of the 
District Council by-laws, and after careful con- 
sideration of the charges and specifications 
made, the Board authorized the General Presi- 
dent to appoint a committee of the Board to 
investigate and try said Local Union 2725 and 
report its findings to the General President. 
The General President appointed G. H. Lakey, 
First General Vice President, Frank Duffy, 
General Secretary, TV. T. Allen, Second District, 
Harry Schwarzer, Third District J. W. Wil- 
liams, Fifth District. 

Appeal of Brother Bjorn Thorvardson, mem- 
ber of Local Union 452, Vancouver, B. C, Can- 
ada, from the decision of the General Treas- 
urer in disapproving his claim for disability. 
After careful consideration of same, the Board 
sustained the decision of the General Treasurer 
on grounds set forth therein and the appeal 
was dismissed. 

Appeal of L. U. 119, Newark, N. J., from the 
action of the General Treasurer in not paying 
the disability claim of Z. F. Bakley, a member 
of said Local Union was carefully considered 
and the action of the General Treasurer was ap- 
proved and appeal dismissed. 

Appeal of L. U. 1347, Port Arthur, Texas, 
from the decision of the General Treasurer in 
disapproving the death claim of P. H. Camp, 
late a member of said Local Union, on the 
grounds that the claim was not filed within 
the time specified by our laws. The decision 



of the General Treasurer was sustained and the 
appeal was dismissed. 

Appeal of L. U. 1190, Pawling and Dover, N. 
Y., from the decision of the General President 
in the case of Paul i>. Fogle et. al., members 
of L. U. 203, Poughkeepsle, N. Y. versus L. U. 
1190, Pawling & Dover, N. Y. The decision of 
the General President was sustained on grounds 
set forth therein and the appeal was dismissed. 

January 16, 1934. 
Audit of books and accounts continued. 

January 17, 1934. 
Audit of books and accounts concluded. 
There being no further business to come be- 
fore the Board the minutes were read and ap- 
proved and the Board adjourned to meet at 
the General Office in Indianapolis, in May, 
1934. 

Respectfully submitted, 

FRANK DUFFY, Secretary. 



Labor Wins Large Representation On 
Construction Code Authority 

The code of fair competition for the 
construction industry, bitterly fought 
for over six months by the American 
Federation of Labor, was signed by 
President Roosevelt. 

Covering 3,000,000 workers in the 
building and open construction divi- 
sions, this code is said to be the first 
providing for the equal representation 
of labor and management on the plan- 
ning board of the industry. Labor has 
been contending for this provision since 
the enactment of the Recovery Act. 

Under the code there is created the 
National Construction Planning and Ad- 
justment Board of twenty-one members, 
ten selected by labor, ten by the employ- 
ing groups and one by the President. 
The twenty-one employment groups 
which sponsor the code and which com- 
pose the Code Authority will select the 
ten industry members on the planning 
board. 

In line with this policy, the code pro- 
vides for area agreements to be made 
by representative groups of employers 
and employes. Such agreements, made 
by unions and employing associations, 
if approved by the President, will be- 
come binding as to wages, hours and 
conditions on all employers and em- 
ployes in the specific area. 

The code includes a provision for 40 
cents per hour minimum wage for com- 
mon labor in those areas lacking co- 
operative agreements. It had been pre- 
viously urged by some of the employing 
groups that 30 cents be fixed for com- 
mon labor in the South, but the geo- 



THE CARPENTER 



19 



graphical differential which exists in 
many codes was swept aside. 

The forty-hour, five-day week and 
eight-hour day are provided in the code. 

Eighteen years is set as the minimum 
age for workers. 



Local Unions Chartered 

Decatur, Ala. 

Williamson, W. Va. 

San Fernando, Calif. 

Nampa, Idaho. 

Carthage, Mo. 

Iron River, Mich. 

New Bern, N. C. 

Fleming, Ky. 

Blytherville, Ark. 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Independence, Mo. 

Jenkins, Ky. 

Cleveland, Ohio and Vicinity. 

Gadsden, Ala. 

Chester, 111. 

Spartanburg, S. C. 

• 

Information Wanted 

Information is wanted concerning the 
whereabouts of Burton H. Ward, who 
held membership in our organization in 
Philadelphia in 1921, and who has not 
been heard from by his relatives since 
that time. 

His location is desired as his Brother 
Thomas S. Ward is seriously ill at his 
home 708 Berkley Avenue, Virginia 
Heights, Roanoke, Virginia. 



Former Member of General Executive 
Board Dies 

Brother Alfred C. Cattermull, mem- 
ber of Local Union 5 8 of Chicago, for- 
mer member of the General Executive 
Board and chairman of that body for 
several years, passed away on February 
8, and was buried from his residence 
6465 N. Nordica avenue, Chicago, 111., 
on Saturday, February 10. 

He became a member of Local Union 
162, Hyde Park, 111., early in 1886, and 
the following year transferred to Union 
28 of Chicago. He resided in that city 
for the past forty-six years. 

He was born in London, England, 
April 4, 1857, and served his apprentice- 



ship there. He came to America after- 
wards 

' Brother Cattermull took an active 
part in the Carpenters' strike of Chi- 
cago in May, 1886, for the eight-hour 
day. He was president of the District 
Council in the troublesome times of 
189 4, as well as its chief business agent. 
He was a delegate to several conven- 
tions of the United Brotherhood. 

He was elected a member of the Gen- 
eral Executive Board at the eighth gen- 
eral convention held in Indianapolis in 
189 4 and served in that capacity until 
1902. 



Local Union 72 Loses Last Charter 
Member 

The Labor Movement of Rochester', 
N. Y., suffered a severe loss by the 
passing of brother Michael J. O'Brien 
member of L. U. 72, which occurred De- 
cember 12, 1933. 

Brother O'Brien joined the Knights 
of Labor in 1881. In July, 1884, he 




MICHAEL J. O'BRIEN 

with eight others organized Local Union 
72, United Brotherhood of Carpenters 
and Joiners, maintaining a continuous 
membership until his death, a period of 
forty-nine years and six months. 

Active during the greater part of this 
time, he held many offices in the Local 



20 



P II E CARI'KXTER 



Union. He served for years as Business 
Agenl of the District Council, and at 
the 15th genera] convention held in 
Salt Lake City. Utah, in 1008, he was 
elected a delegate to the convention of 
the A. F. of L., held a1 Denver in thai 
year, and was also a delegate to the 
Toronto, Canada, convention of the A. 
F. of L. the following year. He repre- 
sented the Local Union at a number of 
general conventions. 

As district representative of the 
American Federation of Labor he or- 
ganized unions of a number of trades. 
He served as Secretary and President of 
the Building Trades Council, and Presi- 
dent of the Central Trades and Labor 
Council, as a truly enlightened leader. 

In addition to his Labor activities he 
was greatly interested in Public Health 
work. In connection with the New York 
State Department of Health he lectured 
extensively on Tuberculosis. 

Brother O'Brien, as a member of the 
Board of Directors of the Rochester 
Public Health Association from its in- 
ception, was untiring in his efforts for 
the establishment of a County Hospital 
for the treatment of Tuberculosis. 

Iola Sanatorium stands today a testi- 
monial to the integrity and altruism of 
Brother O'Brien. The completed Insti- 
tution was the realization of his hopes. 
He became a member of the Board of 
Managers, where he again gave un- 
stintingly of his time and energy for 
the relief of his suffering fellows. 



Death Takes Oldest Member of Local 
515 

Magnus M. Klemmedson, oldest mem- 
ber of Local Union 515, Colorado 
Springs, Colorado, died January 6, 
1934, at the age of 88 years. Brother 
Klemmedson was born in Kristianstads 
Lan. Sweden, October 14, 1845, and 
came to this country 65 years ago tak- 
ing up his residence in Chicago where 
he lived for a number of years. In 18 89 
he moved to Colorado Springs and 
joined Local Union 515 in that year, 
where he held continuous membership 
until the time of his death. 

In recent interview's Brother Klem- 
medson recalled that he once repaired 
a table for Robert Lincoln that was 
presented to Abraham Lincoln when he 
was President. He once made a set of 
bookcases for Robert Lincoln and set 
them up in the room where he was 



married. Another work of which he 
was proud was the repairing of a lot of 
furniture for Mrs. Hays that had be- 
longed to her father, Jefferson Davis, 
President of the confederacy. He also 
once repaired a lot of furniture that had 
belonged to Robert Louis Stevenson, the 
author, that had been smashed by rebels 
in one of the South Sea islands where 
Stevenson was living at the time. 

He completed a few years ago a 
small chest that contains many square 
inches of inlay work, one section of 
which measures one and five-eighths 
inches and contains more than 250 
pieces. This delicate work of shaping 
and fitting these small pieces of wood 
together could not be done by Brother 
Klemmedson if he had not retained his 
keen eyesight and steady hand. 

Hundreds of pieces of different vari- 
eties of wood entered into the making 
of this chest. Among these varieties are: 
mahogany from the Philippines and 
West Indies; lignum-vitae from Turkey; 
teak from India; ebony from China, 
and pine, sycamore, black walnut, oak, 
and other woods from different parts of 
the United States. As he pointed out 
these pieces of wood he told about the 
uses they were put to in their native 
countries, how they responded to wood- 
working tools and other interesting 
facts. 

Brother Klemmedson was a member 
of the English Lutheran church of Colo- 
rado Springs, which church honored 
him recently by having him break the 
ground at the time the church was en- 
larged. 

There survive besides the wife, three 
sons. Funeral services were held Jan- 
uary 8, and attended by a large number 
of the members of Local Union 515 
and prominent residents of Colorado 
Springs. 



Veteran Officer of Local 2164 Dies 

William Ramsay, Treasurer of Local 
Union 2164, San Francisco, Calif., died 
in that city on January 3, 1934. Brother 
Ramsay was born in Scotland on July 
15, 1871, and joined the Amalgamated 
Society of Woodworkers in that country 
on March 5, 1901, when he was a young 
man. He came to this country in 1905 
when he transferred his membership to 
the local branch of the Amalgamated 
Society of Woodworkers in San Fran- 
cisco where he held membership until 



THE CARPENTER 



21 



1924, in which year the union came 
over to our organization. 

For over 30 years Brother Ramsay 
held continuous office, first in the Amal- 
gamated Society of Woodworkers in 
which he at some time held every office 
(without remuneration), and since com- 
ing over to the Brotherhood he served 
as President, Recording Secretary, and 
for the past several years as Treasurer 
of Local Union 2164. 

For many years he was a delegate to 
the Bay Counties District Council of 
Carpenters. 

Brother Ramsay's activities in behalf 
of the trade union movement were 
many. He devoted his life to the better- 
ment of working conditions of his fellow 
men. His life is an inspiration to every 
trade unionist who admires character 
and conviction. In his passing the labor 
movement has lost a tried and true 
trade unionist. 



in and out of the city of Chicago prom- 
inent in the labor movement and other 
walks of life. 



Head of Union Label Trades Department 
Dies 

George W. Perkins, president of the 
Union Label Trades Department of the 
American Federation of Labor, died at 
his home in Oak Park, Illinois, Febru- 
ary 5, 1934, at the age of 78 years. Mr. 
Perkins was born in Williamsburg, N. 
Y., in 1856, and was a noted character 
in the ranks of labor for more than 
50 years. 

He served as president of the Cigar 
Makers' International Union for 35 
years and while holding that position 
and also president of the Union Label 
Trades Department he attended every 
convention of the American Federation 
of Labor. 

He was regarded as a very careful, 
cautious student of all proposals for the 
betterment of the wage earners. He was 
an active member of committees of the 
American Federation of Labor conven- 
tions and for the past 19 years was 
chairman of the Committee on Inter- 
national Relations. His knowledge of 
world problems affecting the wage earn- 
ers was notable. 

He was active in the last convention 
of the American Federation of Labor in 
October 19 3 3. He was a valuable offi- 
cial of the labor movement and his loss 
will be deeply felt. 

The funeral which was held February 
8 drew a notable gathering of men both 



DEATH ROLL 

JAMES CAULMAN — Local Union No. 

715, Elizabeth, N. J. 
MERRELL McLERNON — Local Union 

No. 250, Lake Forest, Illinois. 



Judges Are Barred From Issuing Labor 
Injunctions In Nine States 

Tangible progress has been made in 
the campaign of the American Federa- 
tion of Labor to have the various states 
enact anti-injunction laws similar to the 
Norris-LaGuardia Federal law, declared 
the Executive Council of the American 
Federation of Labor in their report to 
the Federation's last annual convention. 

The Norris-LaGuardia Federal anti- 
injunction law declares injunctions in 
labor disputes to be against the public 
policy of the United State and prohibits 
Federal judges from issuing them. 

The need of state anti-injunction 
laws patterned after the Federal stat- 
ute was recently illustrated by the ac- 
tion of judges in New York City 
and Flint, Mich., in issuing injunctions 
against picketing. Had they been Fed- 
eral judges they would have been liable 
to impeachment for violating the Norris- 
LaGuardia law. 

"Nine states now have anti-injunction 
laws as approved by the American Fed- 
eration of Labor," the Council said, 
"They are: California, Colorado, Idaho, 
Indiana, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Utah, 
Wisconsin, Wyoming. 

"Six legislatures enacted the laws last 
year. They all follow the provisions of 
the Norris-LaGuardia Act. The New 
Hampshire Supreme Court declared the 
'anti-yellow dog' bill unconstitutional in 
an advisory opinion and, therefore, it 
did not pass the legislature. 

"California enacted an 'anti-yellow 
dog' contract law as an amendment to 
the anti-injunction law. Pensylvania 
also enacted an 'anti-yellow dog' law. 



We cannot render benefits to those 
from whom we receive them, or only 
seldom. But the benefit we receive must 
be rendered again, line for line, deed for 
deed, to somebody. Beware of too much 
good staying in your hand. — Emerson. 



CorrQspondQncQ 




This Journal Is Not Responsible For Views Expressed By Correspondents 



"Depression Not An Act of Providence" 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

I am trying to fulfill the promise I 
made to you, when we stood near 
Brock's Monument on the bank of the 
old historic Niagara nearly twenty-eight 
years ago, by continuing the thoughts 
expressed by me in the April, 193 3, Car- 
penter. I admonished the brothers to 
give their earnest consideration and to 
consult with each other relative to de- 
vising ways and means to extricate us 
out of this deep depression and give 
every union man or willing worker a 
job with sufficient pay to enable him to 
support his dependents, and maintain 
an American standard of living. 

Under the NRA which recognizes the 
A. F. of L. and has abolished the sweat- 
shops and child labor, the administra- 
tion is following up with public welfare, 
CAVA and PWA and finally a stabilized 
dollar based on 724 products of Labor 
which is the real wealth of our Repub- 
lic founded by our forefathers on the 
principles of equal opportunity to all in 
the pursuit of life, liberty and happi- 
ness, which we, their descendents are to 
maintain. 

I am inspired to write while sitting 
here after recovering from a two weeks' 
illness, on the natal day of our patri- 
otic and courageous President being 
celebrated in thousands of cities and 
villages from coast to coast, within 
six miles of the home my grandfather 
hewed from the forest after his return 
120 years ago from the Niagara Fron- 
tier and whose Sire fought at Saratoga. 
So I hope the brothers will pardon the 
spirit of 76 expressed by a pensioned 
brother who has fought for 46 years for 
the principles of the U. B. of C. and J. 
of A. and the A. F. of L. 

I am frank to admit that I could not 
have paid my dues if it had not been for 
the pension. However, I read in "The 
Carpenter" that new Unions are being 
organized and old ones are receiving- 
new life blood. I believe I mentioned in 



my letter of last April of the progress 
of Union Labor in Salt Lake in 1890-91- 
92, and how prosperity was had by or- 
ganized labor; but I did not tell of the 
blast which struck the Western cities in 
18 93, when myself with thousands of 
young men lost their invested savings 
caused by Eastern creditors and Wall 
Street financiers closing down on West- 
ern loans on industry and real estate; 
when 2,000 unemployed men started for 
Washington bearing a petition to Con- 
gress signed by over 100,000 voters 
praying for the coinage of 60,000,000 
ounces of silver into currency to give 
the people a larger circulating medium 
of exchange. We were told that the pan- 
ic was caused by Lombard street's Lon- 
don, Eng., failure to realize on 60,000,- 
000 Argentine securities which I never 
believed. 

To prove that my doubts were well 
founded I would recommend to the 
brothers that they read Robt. H. Hemp- 
hill's article on High Finance which 
was published in Hearst's Sunday Amer- 
ican of January 28, 1934. 

On April 15, 1793 Congress ratified 
the treaty of Peace with Great Britain. 
On June 18, 1812, Congress declared 
war to maintain the freedom of the 
seas for American seaman and ships of 
commerce. In 1869, shortly after the 
golden spike was driven connecting the 
U. P. R. R. with the C. P. R. R. near 
Ogden, Utah, a United States Senator 
visited Barron Rothschild and the Gov- 
ernor of the Bank of England to talk 
about the resumption of specie money 
by the United States and for him to 
educate the American people to become 
reconciled to a single gold standard for 
the payment of all public debt. United 
States then being a debtor nation it 
would work against the interest of the 
American people, for which said Senator 
would receive $20,000.00 a year during 
his natural life which terminated after 
a stormy career in 1903. Well I must 
come down to brass tacks and ask that 
you have the Secretary of your Local 



THE CARPENTER 



23 



Union request your Congressman to 
send a transcript of the proceedings of 
the Third session of the 42nd Congress 
recorded in the Record on January 17, 
1873, page 668 to 674 inclusive, Janu- 
ary 17, January 27, February 6, and 
President Grant signed a substitute be- 
tween that date without reading before 
it was enrolled on February 12, 1873, 
and became a law. 

Hence President Grant's declaration 
that if he had known that he was strik- 
ing silver from the coinage list as a 
unit for the payment of public debts he 
would rather have lost the hand that 
afterward penned his memoirs. 1873 is 
indelibly stamped in my memory for I 
was compelled to quit high school to 
earn money to fit myself for a public 
school teacher which I abandoned in 
18 79 to go to Colorado to prospect for 
the precious metals. I make no mention 
of the names revealed to me in '9 3 by 
a man now dead who was very active 
in the campaign of 189 6, of the men 
who engineered the great conspiracy, 
because the legislators of 23 states have 
made it a misdemeanor or felony to 
speak derogatorily of dead statesmen. 

I believe that conspiracy has been a 
major factor in every money panic in 
the past sixty years especially this the 
greatest depression in our history which 
our President and Congress is striving 
to extricate us from; which is proved 
by Robert Hemphill's analysis of High 
Finance which I hope every brother will 
study and never again be lulled into a 
E?;nse of security by college deans who 
seek endowments from millionaires who 
seek to evade their income and inheri- 
tance taxes, nor wiley politicians who 
think more of their political ambitions 
than they do of the welfare of the work- 
ers. But follow the advice of the late 
Samuel Gompers, who died in the line 
of duty on the border line. 

In 18 9 9 I headed another charter list 
of L. U. 322 the first 60 men who dared 
to declare that they would no longer 
submit to a 10-hour straight time day, 
who were followed by all the building 
trades and 21 other trades. In 19 06 our 
International held its convention in Ni- 
agara Falls, N. Y., while the first 
Roosevelt swung his big stick and com- 
pelled Wall Street to call a halt in the 
panic which the big financiers were try- 
ing to create by calling in loans and 
contract the circulating money. 



Then came the disolving of the Stand- 
ard Oil Trust and the regulating of the 
Big five meat trust and an honest in- 
spection of food products and last, but 
not least, the building of the Panama 
canal by General Goethals. 

Now brothers I have been trying to 
convince you that money panics and 
the depression are not the acts of God, 
nor do the planets have anything to do 
with our affairs except to influence the 
cycles of weather. But panics are caused 
by a selfish body of men educated in 
Finance who have seized the control of 
money and credit of the nation and 
have expanded credit to enable honest 
labor to extract wealth from the mines, 
water which flows in our rivers, which 
cause rain to fall and irrigate the prod- 
ucts of the soil for our food, the quar- 
ried rock and sand to form the base of 
structures erected of steel, cut stone, 
brick and last but not least wood from 
the forests which shaped by Labor is 
the foundation of the trade of the car- 
penter. 

After you have accumulated by your 
thrift and acquired a home through a 
loan and you are led to believe that 
you can educate your children and sup- 
port your wife and family up to the 
American standard of living, then this 
group of investment and international 
bankers think the people are prosperous 
enough and they proceed to call in their 
credit loans and contract the currency 
again. Did not they send their oily- 
tongued agents throughout the country 
and try to pursuade the working people 
that the credit of the U. S. A. was not 
sound and the bonds which a patriotic 
people had bought until it hurt were 
not worth more than 80c or 85c on the 
dollar? I exchanged mine a few months 
later for a home at par. 

When writing or speaking on the wel- 
fare of the producing classes it is diffi- 
cult to stop so I must proceed to bring 
this to a close. Permit me to say that 
the world war created 14,000 million- 
aires who were refunded $3,000,000,- 
000, after the slogan "Less government 
in business and more business in gov- 
ernment," was adopted during which 
time 12,000 more millionaires were cre- 
ated, some of whom must have become 
billionaires, when the Morgan group 
offer to subscribe for $6,000,000,000 of 
Government bonds. If our courageous 
President will stabilize the Dollar at 60 
cents where could this group, call them 



24 



T II E C A R V KNTER 



Wha1 you will obtain this vast sum of 
money unless they have absorbed some 

of the wealth of I he minor millionaires? 
Your guess is as good as any college 
professors. 

Cive your whole-hearted support to 
the Administrator of the laws enacted 
by your chosen representatives in Con- 
gress, on this his lilt y-seeond birthday 
responded to by thousands of cities, 
villages and communities throughout 
the country for his Warm Springs sani- 
tarium for people afflicted by infantile 
paralysis. Finally after forty-six years 
experience of a brother who has grown 
gray in the service, has been black-listed 
by secretaries of manufacturing associ- 
ations, and lost his job but got a better 
one, whose flesh is weak but his spirit 
is as strong as it ever was, admonishes 
you younger brothers to build up and 
strengthen your Unions, attend your 
meetings see that your delegates attend 
your Central Councils and watch the 
acts of your state and national legisla- 
tors and be ready when prosperity re- 
turns that you will be prepared to exact 
your just share. Read your Carpenter 
and never for one moment think that 
your union can whole-heartedly fight 
your battles without your help. 

Keep the thought of one of the found- 
ers of this Republic ever in mind, 
"That eternal vigilance is the price of 
liberty." 

F. M. Perry, 
L. U. No. 322. Brockport, N. Y. 



Ladies Auxiliary No. 180 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

We have been reading letters in "The 
Carpenter" from the different Ladies' 
Auxiliaries and find them inspiring. 

Our Auxiliary No. 18 0, Amarillo, 
Texas, has a membership of fifteen and 
one honorary member. Of the fifteen, 
four are charter members. Throughout 
the whole of these trying times our 
members have been most faithful. 

Those who have left (in most in- 
stances because of their husbands hav- 
ing severed connections with the Local) 
have been replaced by new members. 
Therefore our average, over a period of 
five years, remains about fifteen. Dur- 
ing the past year we took in two new 
members. 

On the first Thursday night of the 
month we have our business meeting at 



the Carpenters' Hall. The social meet- 
ing is on the 3rd Thursday, either as an 
all day quilting and covered luncheon 
or an afternoon entertainment in some 
member's home. 

When there are five Thursdays in a 
month the Local Union of Carpenters 
and Ladies Auxiliary combine efforts 
and have a joint entertainment to which 
all carpenters, their families and friends 
are invited. The President of the Ladies 
Auxiliary says a few words of welcome 
and again invites membership in our 
organization, while an officer of the Car- 
penters Union gives a talk on unionism. 

The annual Thanksgiving dinner giv- 
en by the Auxiliary is for members (of 
Auxiliary) only and their families. These 
dinners and our social meetings serve 
to bring us closer together and to really 
know one another. A spirit of camara- 
derie prevails. 

At the next social meeting the host- 
ess is' planning a label contest probably 
giving prizes to those recognizing most 
labels. 

Goods with the label that can be had 
here are: men's suits, shoes, hats, work 
shirts, etc., and women's shoes. 

In the future we intend to gather 
more information on the label, where 
the goods can be had, and make an ef- 
fort to place it in our stores. 

We also intend to help create more 
interest among the Carpenters, our 
friends and ourselves to promote the 
further use of the union label. 

Some stores are quite friendly and 
advertise the merchandise they carry as 
bearing the union label. 

We feel that this effort on our part 
will be worthwhile in stimulating the 
demand for goods with the label and 
will in turn create a demand for union 
mechanics. 

We welcome any suggestions and cor- 
respondence from other Auxiliaries and 
extend fraternal greetings to them all. 

Mrs. P. O. Shelvik, Rec. Sec, 
L. A. No. 180. Amarillo, Tex. 



No Solomon 

There is a man in our town, and he 

was wondrous wise, 
He swore by all the gods above he 

would not advertise! 
But one day he did break this rule; and 

thereby hangs a tale; 
The ad was set in real small type, and 

headed Sheriff's Sale. — Ex. 



Craf 



CARPENTRY 

LESSON LXVI 
(By H. H. Siegele) 

Every carpenter has, or should have 
a method of doing things, and so long 
as he understands it and gets results, 
that method is the best method for him. 
He should stick to it until he finds a 
better method, one that will give him 
better results. Slavishly clinging to his 
own method, however, when a better 
method is available, is evidence that he 
is either prejudiced or ignorant or both. 
On the other hand, picking up a new 
method, before it has proved itself su- 
perior to the tried method, is like the 
action of fools, who rush in where 
angels fear to tread. 

A foreman has no right to force a 
new method on a journeyman, if the 
journeyman can get the same results 





Fig. 374 



with the method that he has tried and 
knows how to use. Neither has a jour- 
neyman a right to insist on using his 
own method, when it is obvious that it 
will not produce the required results. 
What should be avoided, though, above 
everything else, is that methodless ac- 
tion that one frequently finds, not only 
among journeymen, but often among 
foremen and superintendents. Any 
method is better than no method. A 
little incident that came into our ex- 
perience will illustrate what we mean 
by "no method." 

We were in charge of the carpenter 
work on a certain job, and while the 
excavating was done we framed the 



roof, so as to keep the carpenters work- 
ing when not otherwise busy. In order, 
though, to make the thing fool-proof, 
we made separate piles of the various 
kinds of rafters that were required in 



ii |i ii " ii " ii " 'I 'r-ir 



Pig. 375 

the roof. There were common rafters, 
hip rafters, valley rafters, jack rafters, 
cripples and sets of rafters for gables 
and other secondary roofs. Whenever a 
set of rafters had been framed and 
piled, we had cleats nailed around them 
in such a manner that it would require 
a wrecking bar to get to the rafters. 
Two sets of cleats were nailed on each 
pile. What we were guarding against, 
in particular, was the laborers coming 
along and picking up a rafter and carry- 
ing it away or using it for something, 
so that when we were ready for the 
roof, we would find such rafters miss- 
ing. But the laborers have more sense, in 
this case, than the superintendent, un- 
der whom we worked. It was a three 



Fig. 376 

story building, and we were getting 
7eady for the roof; laying off the plates 
and doing the necessary scaffolding, 
when, lo and behold, what did we find? 
Without warning the superintendent, 



26 



THE CAR P E N T 1 : It 



wlin was handling the laborers, took the 
gang and started them in a hit or miss 
manner, to carry rafters up to where 
we were working. Some brought com- 
mon ratters, some hip rafters, some 
jacks, some cripples and some rafters 
for secondary roofs — all came, and 
"plunk plunk, plunk" the rafters were 
thrown on one pile regardless of order 
or anything else. It was a large and 
complicated roof, and when we discov- 
ered what was happening, the damage 
had been done. There was a mixture of 
rafters thrown into one pile, the visible 
results of a rattle-brain mind in action. 
At such times, a foreman feels like tell- 




Pig. 377 

ing the contractor that if he would in- 
crease the superintendents wages, and 
send him away on a fishing trip, it 
would be a material saving to the job. 
But that is poor policy. Some of those 
superintendents, especially the white- 
collared type, are the contractors' an- 
gels, and they, like kings, can not 
blunder, or take brainless action. On 
the other hand, some of the finest men 
we ever met in our experience, were 
superintendents; men who co-operated 
with the foreman, rather than hinder 
him, by helping, not knowing what they 
were doing. 

Our illustrations for this lesson deal 
with outside walls of one-story build- 
ings. Fig. 374 shows, a, an edge view 



=E 



Fig. 378 

of a studding pattern lying on a stud- 
ding to be marked; b, shows a top view 
of the same lay-out; and c, shows an 
enlarged detail of the gauge block fast- 
ened to one end of the pattern studding. 



Fig. 375 shows at B, a very common 
method of laying off plates, which are 
shown lying side by side, with the stud- 
ding marks on them. At A is shown the 
bottom plate nailed in place and the 




Fig. 379 

top plate nailed onto the studding, the 
wall ready to be raised. When the wall 
is up, the studding are toe-nailed to the 
bottom plate. Fig. 376 shows another 
method of accomplishing the same 
thing. At B the plates are side by side, 
and laid off. At A the wall is shown 
lying on the floor, with both the top and 
bottom plates nailed onto the studding, 
ready to be raised. When the wall is 
up, instead of toe-nailing the studding 
to the plate, as in the other instance, 
the plate is nailed onto the floor Fig. 
3 77 shows the same wall after it has 
been raised and nailed into place. To 
the left can be seen the sway brace 
which holds the wall in a plumb posi- 
tion, one way. The dotted lines indi- 





Fig. 380 

cate where possible openings might be 
framed in. Fig. 378 shows still another 
method of putting together a skeleton 
wall. At B is shown the top and bottom 
plates, marked for the studding and the 
trimmers of the openings. The latter 
are indicated by the use of an X-mark. 
At A is shown the wall lying on the 
floor with both plates nailed onto the 
studding, and the openings framed. Fig. 
379 shows this wall raised and braced. 
Fig. 380 shows another necessary brace 
in order to keep the wall perfectly 
plumb, both ways. 

It will be noticed, that in the method 
of framing openings we are showing 



THE CARPENTER 



27 



here, one side of the opening is framed 
in such a manner that by doubling the 
studding it answers for a trimmer. This 
method is extensively used for light 
framing, and on cheap buildings. We 
are planning to treat the subject of 
framing rough openings in a later les- 
son of this series, at which time we 
will take up various methods more in 
detail, and point out merits and de- 
merits. 

We have purposely, in this lesson, re- 
frained from detailed explanations of 
the illustrations, because the subject 
matter is rather a matter of common 
knowledge among carpenters. But it be- 
longs to carpentry, and therefore we 
are presenting it. 



THE FRAMING SQUARE 

(By L. Perth) 

PART TWENTY-TWO 

"Johnny," said the school teacher, 
"what is three-quarters of five eighths?" 
— "I don't know, teacher," replied the 
boy, "But it certainly cannot be a hell 
of a lot." While the boy's answer was 
rather clever it, however, did not solve 
the problem. 

There are many building mechanics 
who take on Johnny's attitude by think- 
ing a fraction of an inch does not matter 



It is very true that the carpenter un- 
like the structural steel man is not re- 
quired to work to sixty-fourths or even 
thirty-seconds of an inch, but he should 
ever bear in mind that in many in- 
stances values larger than sixteenths of 
an inch should not be neglected. If one 
of your studs is only three-sixteenths of 
an inch longer than the others your 
plate certainly will have a hump and 
will not permit to be securely nailed to 
the rest of the upright members. And 
if you overlook one eighth of an inch in 
the size of your window frame opening 
you certainly will have to waste a lot 
of time in fitting your sash. 

In roof framing the feature of being 
accurate with small dimensions is even 
more imperative. This means that the 
length of the rafters must be established 
with absolute accuracy, it means that 
the angles on both ends of the roof 
members should be correct, for if there 
should be a discrepancy of a small 
fraction of an inch they will not bear 
against the other members of the roof 
and there is no way of correcting the 
mistake except by cutting a new timber. 

Let us examine the case shown in 
Pig. 1. The angle at the bottom cut 
has been wrongly established. There is 
a gap between the surface "A" of the 
seat cut and the top of the plate 
amounting to % an inch. Consequent- 
ly, there is no way of fastening the 




Pi#r£ 



/?&£■ 0£/T/?/.Y0 /7<?/7/sYSr £/?C/S 0r//&#. 7P/£/?£ S/Y0t/Z0 0f 



very much in a piece of timber 15 or 20 
feet long and, therefore, there is noth- 
ing to worry about. This kind of reas- 
oning should be completely eradicated 
from the mind of the worker as early 
as possible for if you do persist in this 
practice — you may find yourself looking 
for a job more frequently than you 
would like to. 



rafter to the plate. This, naturally 
weakens the roof frame and a few 
more seemingly minor errors like this 
render the whole roof worthless as far 
as strength and stability are concerned. 
It is evident, therefore, that the cuts 
of rafters are very important and frac- 
tional dimensions should be strictly ad- 
hered to. The standard Steel Square 



28 



THE CAKI'E XTKR 



usually has fractional scales as small as 
thirty-seconds of an inch and some 
Squares also have decimal scales. The 
tables on the Square also give values in- 
cluding quite small fractions and there 
is no reason why one should be tempted 
to neglect these features. 

The subject of cuts and the methods 



side cuts or cheek cuts. "D" on Figs. 
4 and 5. 

4. The side cut angle of the jack 
framing into the hip rafter is larger 
than it should be. This produces a gap 
of five-sixteenths of an inch and the 
jack has only one line of contact with 
the hip along "E P." 



tfw-O 




FIG. 4 



F/G.5 



whereby these are to be found were 
treated at length in the previous papers 
and now we will conclude this chapter 
with a series of problems which are in- 
teresting as well as useful. 

PROBLEMS IN ROOF FRAMING 

1. What is the definition of "top 
cut" and how is it indicated on the 
diagrams? 

2. What is the bottom cut and where 
is it shown in the diagram? 

3. What are side cuts. Identify them 
on the drawings? 

4. What is wrong in Fig. 4? 

5. What are the errors at "G" and 
"H" Fig. 6? 

Answers To Problems 

1. The cut of the rafter end which 
rests against the ridge board or against 
the opposite rafter is called the top cut. 
Sometimes it is also called the plumb 
cut. In Figs. 2 and 5 it is indicated 
by 'B." 

2. The cut of the rafter end which 
rests against the plate is called the bot- 
tom or heel cut. It is shown by "C" in 
Figs. 3 and 5. 

3. Hip and valley rafters as well as 
all jacks besides having top and bottom 
cuts must also have their sides at the 
end cut to a proper angle so that they 
will fit into the other members to which 
they are to be framed. These are called 



5. At "G" the top cut of the common 
rafter has been shaped so as to permit 
only one line of contact with the oppo- 
site rafter at "L." The seat cut along 
the horizontal line "P-Q" is one-quarter 
of an inch longer than it should be. 
This involves the possibility of breaking 
off the tail of the rafter. 



Plugging Again 

(By H. H. Siegele) 

Fastening cases to walls that are 
built of fireproof material, makes nec- 
essary plugging. In the first place, if 
the case does not rest directly on the 
floor, it must be supported by fastening 
it to the wall with plugs. The usual way 
of doing this is shown by Fig. 1, A. 
Here an apron is fastened to the wall 
by means of plugs, which supports the 
case. But holding the top of the case 
to the wall is the problem we are deal- 
ing with, in particular, in this article. 
Instead of plugging the wall, and cut- 
ting off the plugs, as at A, we make a 
plug, with a lug that will extend out 
over the top of the case, as shown at B. 
This lug, as indicated, is nailed to the 
top of the case, and holds it firmly to 
the wall. 

In Fig. 2, A represents the hole in 
the wall; B, a cross section of the plug 
that is to be driven into the hole, and 
C, a top view of the plug, with the lug 
shown only in part. If we compare A 
with B, we will find that, apparently, a 



THE CARPENTER 



29 



square plug is to fit into a round hole, 
and that is exactly what it is — a square 




S^S^^^^^ 



^^^^^^^ 




Fig 



plug for a round hole. By leaving the 
plug square, and driving it into the 




Fig. 2 

round hole, it will hold, as the saying 
goes, "Till the cows come home." 



Rug Problem Solved 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

I am submitting two practical solu- 
tions to Brother Conrad's rug problem 
which appeared in the January, 1934, 
issue of "The Carpenter." 

In figure 1, it will have to be laid 
out on a paper or board using the 




Square. First, lay out the room in any 
size needed. Draw lines A, B, C. D, to 
determine exact center of room, using 
inches for feet and 12th inches for 
inches. 

Next draw a circle, the diameter be- 
ing the same as width of rug, using the 
intersection of lines A, B, C, D, as the 




fit. X 



pivot of compass. Then take the Square 
and lay on plan with inside of Square's 
blade on the outside edge of circle and 
swing around circle until inside corner 
of Square touches one end of room and 
figures representing width of rug on the 



30 



T H K CARPEN T E R 



tongue of Square touch side of room. 
Care should be taken to use fine lines 
and sec that Square and figures touch 
all points mentioned. Then read the 
length of rug on the blade. Or draw a 
line along inside of Square and meas- 
ure: iliis will give exact length of rug 
of any size room. 

In figure 2, find center of room by 
striking lines A, B, C, D. Drive nail at 
intersection of lines; hang steel Square 
on nail and swing across corners as il- 
lustrated by wide dotted lines until you 
touch each wall at 1, 2, 3, and 4, using 
any length on tape to get approximately 
the width of rug. Strike a line half 
way between points 1 and 4, also 2 and 
3, which will give center of rug. Meas- 
ure each way one-half of width of rug, 
then strike lines to intersect with wall. 
This will give length of rug by measur- 
ing between points where lines touch 
the walls. 

Ben L. Steele, 
L. U. No. 185. St. Louis, Mo. 

* * * 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

May I offer my solution to Brother 
Conrad's problem? 

Suppose we were to frame a hip or 
valley rafter, whose total thickness was 
3' 9", would not the operation in this 
case be the same as if we were to use 
2" material with regards to getting 
lengths and cheek cut? (Surely.) 

Would not the back edge of valley or 
hip after you have deducted half the 






il i — . y 



I 



I i , \A.Yx i rrrn 



c e»- x^2 



AV 



14'^'*-"% 



/2" 



\ 






'4 

thickness of valley or hip and have 
made your cheek cut, be the length of 
carpet? 

Reduce your feet and inches in this 
way. 

First, 14' 3" to 14%" 

Second, 12' to 12" 



Third, 3' 9" to 3 % " 
Fourth, half of carpet 1%" 
Length of carpet shown by Square 
15 1/16" or 15 feet %" 

Paul Edging, 
Cleveland, O. 
* * * , 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

I am submitting my solution and for- 
mula for getting the Carpet length laid 
diagonally in a room as asked for in the 
January issue of "The Carpenter" by 
Brother G. L. Conrad. . 

By using the old square rule, (as 
shown in Fig. 1), I find the relation in 
figures, that the Hypotenuse of a right 
triangle has to both the base and al- 
titude. The reason for doing this is, 
that since the hypotenuses of Right tri- 
angles R B S and K C W are given, a 
formula must be given whereby the base 
and altitude can be found of large right 
tirangles S D W and R A K in order to 
obtain the length of Carpet to be cut, 




FioM 



which in this case is the Hypotenuse 
of the larger Right triangles, and also 
form a right angle where the hypot- 
enuses of the two right triangles R B S 
and R A K intersect. 

In Fig. I of Right Triangle M O H, 
3 squared plus 4 squared equals 5 
squared. 

(1.) Solving, 9 plus 16 equals 25. 

(2.) Then altitude M O squared 
equals 9/25 of Hypotenuse M H squared. 

(3.) In like manner, Base O H 
squared equals 16/25 of Hypotenuse M 
H squared. 

(4.) By using these two formulas in 
Fig. 2, Base B S and altitude B R can 



THE CARPENTER 



31 



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9! K 3' 




Fi<j.2 



SCALE &'=/' 



(5.) 3.75 feet squared equals 14.- 
0625 

(6.) 9/25 of 14.0625 equals 5.0625 
(in (.2) ) and since 5.0625 is squared, 
then B R equals 2.25 feet. 



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THE CARPENTER 



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It's a Stanley Quality Tool — smooth strong castings; Stanley "Bailey" rose- 
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(7.) And solving for Base B S, (in 
(3.) ) we have, B S equals 3 feet. 

(8.) Since length of room is 14.25 
feet then A R equals 14.25 — 2.25 equals 
12 feet. In like manner, since width of 
room is 12 feet, A K equal 9 feet. 

(9.) Solving as in (I), we have, 81 
plus 144 equals R K squared. Solving, 
R K equals 15 feet, or length of Carpet 
to be cut so when laid diagonally in the 
room the corners of the Carpet will just 
touch the sides of the room and both 
ends of the Carpet will be square. 

I hope this is the formula that Mr. 
Conrad wants and that others who have 
answered problems in the past issues of 
"The Carpenter" will take Mr. Conrad's 
suggestion and send both solution or 
formula with problem instead of just 
the answer. Because we readers of "The 



Carpenter" want to benefit by the prob- 
lems instead of just reading a batch 
of figures that mean nothing at all to 
the average carpenter unless he was 
fortunate enough to have studied and 
mastered higher mathematics. For my 
opinion is, the person who can explain 
himself in terms simple enough for the 
average person to grasp shows his edu- 
cation far more than the one who tries 
to have his work look like "A Chinese 
Puzzle." 

Lon W. Skinner, 
L. U. No. 678. Dubuque, la. 



The happiness of your life depends 
upon the quality of your thoughts. — 
Marcus Aurelius. 



Keep Your Dues Paid Up 




MASTER CRAFTSMEN 

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dum" Brand Combination Sharpening Stone. 

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Send for booklet "How to Sharpen Wood- 
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One Charter and Outfit $15.00 

Application Blanks, per pad 50 

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each 03 

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Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, act of 
October 3, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918 

k Monthly Journal for Carpenters. Stair Builders, Machine Wood Workers, Planing Mill Men, and 

Kindred Industries. Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters 

and Joiners of America, at 

Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 

Advertising Department, 25 Third Avenue, New York, N. Y. 



Established in 1881 
rol. LIV. — No. 4. 



INDIANAPOLIS, APRIL,, 1934 



One Dollar Per Tear 
Ten Cents a Copy 



NOTICE 

The publishers of "The Carpenter" reserve the right to reject all advertising matter 
which may be, in their judgment, unfair or objectionable to the membership of the United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America. 

All contracts for advertising space in "The Carpenter," including those stipulated as 
non-cancellable, are only accepted subject to the above reserved rights of the publishers. 



OLD FRIENDS 

"It's the friends who are hehind you, 

You depend on all the time; 
Not the friends you'll meet to-morrow, 

Or the friends of pomp and style. 
When you're up against the battle, 

For they always back you up. 
It's the old friends who are with you 

For a goal or silver cup. 

"You need not turn to see them, 

You must know that they are there; 
They follow where you're going 

And they're with you everywhere. 
You can center your attention 

On the work you have to do, 
For you know, should danger threaten, 

That your friends are back of you. 

"Afraid? Go forward bravely, 

You don't have to fight alone; 
There are good friends glad to follow, 

And they'll make their presence known. 
Tho' the throng grows thick about you, 

And your faith is sorely tried, 
Friends are coming up behind you, 

And they'll battle at your side." 

— Ex. 



THE CARPENTER 



MILLMEN MEET TO PLAN STRONGER 
ORGANIZATION 




^(Td^ URSUANT to invitations 
issued by the Millmens 
Locals of Chicago, with 
sanction of the Chicago 
District Council and Gen- 
eral President Hutcheson, 
a millmen's conference was held at Car- 
penters Council Hall, Chicago, Illinois, 
Februai-y 24th and 25th. There were in 
attendance, forty delegates representing 
one State Council; five District Councils 
and nineteen Local Unions, from the 
following seven states: Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa and 
Missouri. 

This conference marks the beginning 
of co-operative efforts on a broader plan 
than heretofore to improve working con- 
ditions for those of our members who 
follow mill work for a livelihood. It 
marks a departure from the time worn 
policy of concerning ourselves only with 
the local conditions in the community 
where we live and work. The ultimate 
results of this beginning of extended co- 
operation will depend upon the extent 
to which this new policy is applied. It 
was started with the sole thought and 
purpose of strengthening the millmen 
section of our organization in Chicago 
and neighboring districts, taking in a 
five hundred mile radius. The work of 
the conference was confined to discus- 
sion of constructive means of strength- 
ening the organization with a view to 
securing improved working conditions 
and a shorter work week. 

All new undertakings and departures 
from customary procedure can be traced 
to some definite cause, and so also was 
the case in this instance. When the pres- 
ent millmens agreement in the Chicago 
district was negotiated, the employers 
association insisted on basing the Chi- 
cago millmens wage scale on the aver- 
age wage paid in all shops, union and 
non-union, within a radius of five hun- 
dred miles from Cook County in which 
Chicago is located. This proposal, our 
Millmens Arbitration Board promptly 
refused to consider. This refusal finally 
resulted in an agreement that the scale 
be based on the average wage paid in 
union shops within five hundred miles 
of Chicago, with the provision that the 
Chicago scale should be fifteen per cent 
over and above the average wage paid 
in union shops within the prescribed five 



hundred miles radius. This method of 
determining the scale did not augur 
well for the Chicago millmen, for it re- 
sulted in the scale being reduced to 
seventy-five cents per hour. This gave 
rise to the thought that since the em- 
ployers have embarked the policy of 
basing the wage scale on the average 
wage paid within the prescribed radius, 
it is logical to assume that they will 
seek to prevail on the employers in other 
cities within that radius to do likewise. 
Whether that will be the order of pro- 
cedure remains to be seen. 

If, however, that policy should not be 
applied beyond the Chicago district, 
there are other reasons that should 
prompt every effort to be made to estab- 
lish closer contact and co-operation be- 
tween the Local Unions and District 
Councils within neighboring localities; 
for let it be remembered that when the 
wage scale is reduced in one locality it 
tends invariably to reduce the wage 
scale in neighboring localities, and 
when an unduly low wage scale is set 
for one district, it adversely affects the 
neighboring districts and tends to force 
reduction in wages. Especially is this 
true if the mills in the low wage dis- 
tricts have the capacity for large vol- 
ume production, which means that they 
become potent competitors in the neigh- 
boring districts — able to sell their prod- 
ucts at low prices. 

And speaking of neighboring locali- 
ties, we do not mean only the city near- 
est to ours, for the modern freight 
transportation compels us to consider a 
locality several hundred miles distant 
as our neighbor, due to the fact that a 
mammoth motor truck may be loaded at 
the factory, and overnight, or within 
twenty-four hours, delivery is made at 
much lower cost than was possible only 
a few years ago. 

Since the employers have embarked 
on the policy of basing the wage scale on 
the average wage paid within five hun- 
dred miles of the Chicago district we 
must regard all wood working establish- 
ments within that radius as immediate 
neighboring establishments, and the 
men employed therein as our neighbors, 
and as neighbors we must pull together 
if we hope to improve our working con- 
ditions. 



THE CARPENTER 



- A checkup on the percentage of mill- 
men organized, and the wages paid with- 
in the five hundred miles radius pre- 
sents a picture that needs a good deal 
of touching up. Too poorly organized, 
and in consequence thereof, entirely too 
low wages (including Chicago) is the 
inescapable conclusion. 

A strong organization tightly knitted 
together, taking into account not only 
local conditions, but conditions in neigh- 
boring localities as well, is the para- 
mount requisite for obtaining a living 
wage and for adjusting working hours 
to assure employment, and to expel 
that ghastly nightmare — unemployment 
and fear of unemployment when em- 
ployed. 

The representatives attending the 
conference deserve commendation. It 
was not a weeping party shedding tears 
over things that are associated with by- 
gone days. They set to work promptly 
to chart a course for the future of the 
Millmens Organization. First on their 
program, and fittingly so, was the ques- 
tion of how to build up the numerical 
strength of the organization, realizing 
that to secure favorable Avorking condi- 
tions it is of utmost importance to build 
a strong organization. Wisely, the con- 
ference resolved to place a greater value 
on men and membership than on dol- 
lars. They decided to urge all local un- 
ions within the five hundred miles dis- 
trict to remove the barrier of high ini- 
tiation fee to enable every millman out- 
side the organization to become a mem- 
ber, and to leave no other excuse but 
downright stupidity for anyone to re- 
fuse to join. The resolution adopted 
urged that all Local Unions adopt the 
dispensation granted by the General 
President October 5th, 1933, which per- 
mits Local Unions to admit to member- 
ship any qualified applicant upon ad- 
vance payment of three months' dues, 
which in reality means that no initiation 
fee is charged, and that the only finan- 
cial requirement is that three months 
dues accompany the application. The 
Chicago millmens Locals have taken ad- 
vantage of this dispensation with fair 
success, considering the unfavorable 
times and widespread unemployment, 
which gives promise of much better re- 
sults if work opportunities increase. 
Secondly, the resolution urged that Lo- 
cal Unions of outside carpenters, where 
there is no local of millmen, should do 
all in their power to organize those em- 



ployed in the mills and shops, and as 
soon as there is a large enough group of 
millmen in a mixed local of outside and 
inside men, a local of inside men should 
be formed. This decision it will be read- 
ily understood, is based on the belief 
that if the millmen are organized in 
separate locals they will take greater 
interest in their organization. 

On the question of hours and wages 
the conference adopted the following 
declaration: The working hours in any 
locality should not exceed eight hours 
per day and forty hours per week, and 
every effort should be made to reduce 
the hours worked to thirty hours per 
week. Where the hours may be reduced 
from eight hours a day, the wage scale 
per hour should be proportionately in- 
creased so that the weekly wage for a 
shorter work week would not be less 
than the weekly full time pay for the 
forty hour week. On C. W. A. work, 
where millmen may be employed at out- 
side work, they should receive the out- 
side men's scale, and where no agree- 
ments are in effect the scale set by the 
government for building trades mechan- 
ics should be demanded. The govern- 
ment's building trades scale per hour is: 

For the Southern Zone $1.00 

For the Central Zone $1.10 

For the Nortern Zone $1.20 

The resolution further declares: "We 
must co-operate as closely as possible 
and assist each other as a unit in case 
of strikes or lockouts, with the final aim 
of establishing working agreements 
with uniform hours and a uniform basis 
for wage scales. That is to say, in cities 
where the living cost is equal the wage 
scales should be equal, and the wage 
scale should vary in amount only in 
proportion as the cost of living may 
vary in the different localities." 

The conference further decided to re- 
quest the general officers to do all in 
their power to organize several shops in 
Grand R.apids, Michigan, where some of 
the manufacturers are paying extremely 
low wages, basing the wage for skilled 
labor on the lumber code. The resolu- 
tion urged the members to be on their 
guard in cities where the products of 
these shops are to be installed. The 
wages paid skilled mechanics in these 
shops range from thirty to thirty-six 
cents per hour. 

No code having as yet been adopted 
for the mill-woodworking industry, the 



t ii 1: carpen i i i: 



conference decided to request that the 
General President or any person he may 
assign to represent the United Brother- 
hood al code hearings endeavor to have 
included in the code, wage provisions at 
the rate of Seventy-five cents (75c) for 
the Southern Zone; Eighty-five cents 
i 85c) for the Central Zone, and Ninety- 
live cents (95c) for the Northern Zone, 
and while the wage scales stipulated in 
existing agreements are lower, the point 
was stressed that during the time, since 
the agreements were made, the cost of 
living has advanced considerably as a 
direct result of the application of the 
National Industrial Recovery Act, while 
wages have, so far as the woodworking 
industry is concerned, remained un- 
changed. And inasmuch as the National 
Industrial Recovery Act was designed to 
raise both wages and prices, and em- 
phasizes the imperative need of raising 
wages in order to place greater purchas- 
ing power in the hands of the workers, 
thus aiming to effect a more equitable 
distribution of the wealth, the sole aim 
of the act being to so apportion the pro- 
ceeds from productive labor as to pre- 
vent periodically recurring depressions. 
Therefore the wage rates proposed were 
considered to be conservative and in 
harmony with the Recovery Act. In fur- 
ther support of the proposed wage rates, 
attention is called to the fact that the 
wages being paid in the woodworking- 
mill industry are unreasonably low and 
do not bear a fair comparison to the 
wages paid in the building industry. 

To effectuate the announced purposes 
of the conference to establish closer con- 
tact and co-operation between the Local 
Unions and District Councils, the con- 
ference selected the Chicago District 
Council to act as a fact finding body to 
receive reports on wages paid and hours 
worked in the various localities within 
five hundred miles of Chicago. It is of 
course understood, that this fact find- 
ing function does not relieve the Local 
Unions and District Councils of the duty 
of rendering reports to the General 
Office as per constitutional provisions, 
and that it is primarily and solely de- 
signed to create a more intimate rela- 
tionship between the Local bodies with- 
in the five hundred mile radius. 

Admittedly, all of these things con- 
stitute a big order, but if the decisions 
made by the conference are enthusias- 
tically received and supported by all the 
local bodies, we shall have sown the 



seed that will bear fruit in the form of a 
stronger organization and improved 
working conditions. But let it be re- 
membered that merely passing resolu- 
tions and making declarations becomes 
an idle gesture unless we follow up with 
well planned action and a determina- 
tion to do the things we have resolved 
to do. Judging from the interest shown 
by the representatives attending the 
conference we have reason to believe 
that they will follow up with vigorous 
support of the measures decided upon, 
but let us remind that this is not a one 
man job, and that to accomplish these 
things requires whole-hearted and en- 
thusiastic support from the Local Un- 
ions and District Councils. Determina- 
tion and enthusiasm is the motive pow- 
er, — the driving force of every worth- 
while movement. Put that power to 
work at constructive teamwork. 

By: Chas. H. Sand, Secretary, 
CHICAGO DISTRICT COUNCIL 
OF CARPENTERS 



Musings of a Brother 

I joined this Local Union in nineteen twenty- 
four ; 1 
The members then were many, they numbered 

by the score. 
The meetings were called to order by Ed Hall 

in the chair, 
And the minutes were kept by Chariot, who 

always kept them square. 
George Wilis was then Conductor and passed 

around the floor ; 
While Houghton filled the Vice's chair, and 

Sehagel kept the door. 
Fred Luke was Business Agent, and it kept him 

on the run 
With everybody busy and building on tlie hum. 
The hall was filled with members, most every 

Tuesday night ; 
We had money in the treasury and everything 

looked bright. 
We sailed along quite smoothly and paid our 

bills on time, 
And helped unlucky brothers when we had an 

extra dime. 
But when depression came along and work 

went on the bum, 
We began to lose our members, as they went 

broke one by one, 
The membership has dwindled, until now, 

there's just a few 
Who give their time and money to pull this 

Local through. 
George Wills now is Business Agent, and Ed 

Hall keeps the dough ; I 

While Chariot reads the minutes, "Just as he 

did before." 
Sehagel is Conductor, and Arthurs fills the 

chair. 
While Bakke is the substitute when Arthurs 

isn't there. 
They all come out to meet every Tuesday night ; 
They try to keep things going and work with 

all their might. 

The rest are Loyal Brothers, 
And stand right at their backs ; 
So this Union will be ready 
When this old depression cracks. 

J. O. Dix, 

L. U. No. 756. Bellingham, Wash. 



THE CARPENTER 



THE RIGHT TO ORGANIZE 

(By William Green, President, A. F. of L. ) 




HE right to organize in 
unions of their own 
choosing has been legally 
assured Labor by a num- 
ber of separate legislative 
enactments. If Labor has 
this right, then it has the right to ex- 
ercise it freely and without intimida- 
tion. Any infringement of such right is 
illegal and unwarranted. These seem 
like very obvious axioms and the neces- 
sity for their restatement reflects the 
lack of respect in the way employers 
are observing the latest enactment of 
Labor's right to organize — Section 7 of 
the National Industrial Recovery Act, 
which is the one mandatory provision 
in all codes. 

First, industrial representatives tried 
to nullify the law by writing restric- 
tions and modifications into the codes. 
A few of such codes were approved. 
Later the President ruled that Section 
7 could not be modified. Still modifi- 
cations of this section were included in 
codes submitted to the National Recov- 
ery Administration — some were prompt- 
ly eliminated while in other cases the 
deputy took the position that only the 
President should eliminate such illegal 
provisions. Consequently codes are pub- 
lished as approved which contain re- 
strictions on the workers' right to or- 
ganize carrying inconspicuous footnotes 
that the President deleted the provi- 
sions. All of these things reflect an un- 
willingness to obey the law and the will 
to evade it. It is expressly an organiza- 
tion of industry based on a denial of 
rights to a very large group. This situ- 
ation must be changed as a basis for 
justice to Labor. Finally on December 
18 the President approved the extension 
of a code containing the interpretation 
which he himself had declared should 
not be included in any code. 

At the very heart of justice for Labor 
lies the right to organize — to plan and 
direct decisions to promote the welfare 
of wage earners. Organization of labor 
in unions is primarily the concern of la- 
bor, to be guided and promoted by the 
workers themselves. Recognition of this 
right to organize and select their own 
representatives is specifically stated in 
the National Recovery Act. Any em- 
ployer who interferes with this right by 



attempting to control or dictate forms 
or policies is clearly violating the law. 
Any employer who prescribes a form of 
organization, pays the workers who 
serve in the organization, who issues 
propaganda for his own organization 
and against the union, is clearly trying 
to coerce or control his employes' choice 
of representation. 

The Railroad Administrator after a 
careful inquiry into the facts has or- 
dered railway executives to keep their 
hands off of employe representation 
plans. 

Neither can an employer insist upon 
"dealing with" his employes as individ- 
uals. Such a one-sided "bargain" is so 
obviously flagrantly unfair that no im- 
partial person could support it. Section 
7 (b) of the Recovery Act is mandatory 
— the President must encourage^ collec- 
tive agreements in those industries cov- 
ered by codes. 

Clearly in the coming era in indus- 
trial relationships, collective bargaining 
is one of the necessary agencies for bal- 
ance in industrial progress. The sooner 
employers recognize the constructive 
value of this development and turn to de- 
veloping the spirit and technique of co- 
operation, the sooner they will remove 
causes of strife and discontent, the ex- 
travagance of the spy system, lawyer 
fees, injunction costs, the expense of 
anti-labor lobbies, of constant conniving 
to frustrate the efforts of employes to 
form unions. 

The success of the National Recovery 
Administration will not rest upon its 
recognition or acceptance of the right 
of workers to organize and select their 
own representatives with all the impli- 
cations of these rights. Upon this cor- 
nerstone we can build honest and just 
industrial relations and assure workers 
sound and lasting progress. Any com- 
promise or faltering in this issue will 
move us more quickly toward revolution 
and overthrow of existing institutions. 



The Panama canal can accommodate 
any ship afloat, being 110 wide in the 
lock chamber. The largest vessel in 
operation is the S. S. Majestic, 100 feet 
1 inch wide. The S. S. Leviathan is 
the widest American vessel and has a 
breadth of 100 feet 3 inches. 



TITE CARPENTER 



PLEADS FOR RECOVERY THROUGH REVIVED 
CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITY 




<g@ PLEA for revival of busi- 
ness generally through 
stimulation of the con- 
struction industry be- 
yond present efforts has 
been made by A. Pearson 
Hoover, president of the Investing and 
Contracting Builders' Association, in 
Niw York. 

Mr: Hoover expresses views vigorous- 
ly, some of them in line with the views 
of labor, some conflicting with the views 
of labor, but all of them interesting and 
worthy of consideration. That private 
capital will ever return to the position 
of strength which he appears to hope 
for, seems unlikely, but his desire that 
the Government should give construc- 
tion a larger place in its recovery pro- 
gram is surely one that needs to be 
emphasized. 

"A great step forward could be 
made," Mr. Hoover says, "If in the allo- 
cation of Government funds, the key 
industry to recovery, which is the con- 
struction industry, were kept constantly 
in mind, and encouragement given to 
private initiative in the development 
of projects, self-supporting and self- 
liquidating, where employment could be 
readily secured in the most important of 
all groups — the durable goods group. 

"We have today, so far as govern- 
mental and low-cost housing is con- 
cerned, superseded the question of re- 
covery to that of social welfare reform. 
We gain nothing by keeping constantly 
in mind certain well-developed ideas 
for the far-distant future, for what we 
are after is to start the nation immedi- 
ately on the road to recovery. That is 
our problem. At present we are after 
business recovery, not reform. 

"In the end, private funds, not gov- 
ernmental funds, will eventually pull 
us out of the depression. We spend in 
one year, under normal conditions, 
about twelve times, in the durable goods 
group, the amount allocated to be spent 
over a three-year period by the Public 
Works Administration. 

"We are receiving suggestions rela- 
tive to low-cost housing through a gov- 
ernmental agency having all the powers 
necessary to own, construct, and oper- 
ate. That in itself will tend to discour- 
age and compete with private endeavors, 



the very thing that is not to be desired 
from a standpoint of business recovery. 

"The program of the Civil Works 
Administration, spending about $400,- 
000,000 for the purpose of employment, 
to take up the slack between the time 
of actual operation of the construction 
program under the Public Works Ad- 
ministration was laudable from a relief 
standpoint, but gave practically nothing 
from the angle of contribution toward 
sustained business recovery. It did not 
affect employment in the durable goods 
group. 

"If the $400,000,000 had been quick- 
ly and effectively put to work under a 
housing program, through private initi- 
ative, which could and should have been 
done, the relief program would still 
have been accomplished and a decided 
step toward solving the problem of un- 
employment in the durable goods indus- 
tries would have occurred. 

"While there has been a great deal 
of talk concerning the over-production in 
all lines of building endeavors, the fact 
remains that today we have a shortage 
in buildings of practically all lines of 
industry. This feeling of construction 
overproduction has been seriously stat- 
ed in every depression and invariably 
events have proved that such theory was 
erroneous. 

"That a building shortage exists will 
be amply sustained when, through the 
return of normal business activities, 
doubling up in apartments and houses 
will cease and the natural expansion of 
business activities will require more 
space. When this occurs a construction 
boom will be on in full force. The prac- 
tical cessation of the construction in- 
dustry over a period of four years could 
not but produce a shortage. 

"It would seem therefore that, if we 
are to make a contribution toward the 
return of normal business activity, a 
more appreciative attitude should be 
manifested both by lending institutions 
and the Government toward the employ- 
ment of idle workers in the construction 
industry of the durable goods group. 

"Business recovery depends upon 
profits, not higher prices. Debts are 
paid by profits and by higher real 
wages, not by prices. Reasonable profits 



THE CARPENTER 



upon a construction operation under 
governmental regulation and control are 
quite in keeping with the objective of 
the National Recovery Act. 

"Certain fundamental economic laws 
have a habit of working quietly but 
surely, irrespective of legislative acts or 



social sentimental reasons to the con- 
trary. Profits are essential to recovery. 
What is needed is the revival of the con- 
struction indu&try as the key depart- 
ment in the durable goods group as an 
essential requirement toward business 
recovery." 



TRADE UNIONISM FLIES ITS FLAG UNDAUNTED 

(By John P. Frey) 




OR years an easily recog- 
nized type of intellectual 
has found certain periodi- 
cals eager to publish ac- 
counts of the short-com- 
^ ^'^ la ings and incompetency of 
the American trade union movement 
and its leaders. 

In recent months there has been a re- 
vival of these criticisms. 

Our movement is accused of lack of 
understanding and vision; of incompe- 
tency in carrying out the program it 
adopts, and of failure to change its form 
of organization so that wage earners can 
more successfully deal with the prob- 
lems created by existing industrial de- 
velopments. 

Any sincere, fair-minded student of 
the American trade union movement 
will have no difficulty in discovering 
that the leaders are not wholly satisfied 
with the structure or the accomplish- 
ments of American trade unionism. 

The official and local trade union pub- 
lications; the conventions of the inter- 
national unions and those of the de- 
partments of the A. F. of L., and of 
the American Federation of Labor it- 
self, are filled with evidence that the 
American trade union movement is care- 
fully examining the weaknesses which 
may exist in its structure, its policy and 
its program, and endeavoring to re- 
shape all of these so that wage earners 
will be in better position to deal with 
their problems. 

No trade unionist has intimated that 
the American trade union movement is 
perfect. There has always been an agree- 
ment among the trade unionists that 
their movement falls far short of per- 
fection. It does not move with the co- 
hesion of snappy, uniformed, thoroughly 
drilled troops. It does not maneuver 
with the perfection of a highly disci- 
plined army. It could not, because of 
the character of the struggle which has 



been forced upon it. 

The American trade union movement 
has been in the trenches from the begin- 
ning; at times little more than a thin 
line of determined men, engaged against 
tremendous odds in an effort to protect 
the wage earners' right to organize, and 
protect their interests through collec- 
tive bargaining. 

For a generation or more American 
trade unionists have been faced by pow- 
erful, aggressive, determined organiza- 
tions, of big business, whose methods and 
program have been guided by many of 
the nation's ablest legal minds. For years 
these attorneys and their clients were 
supported by State and Federal courts 
in the issuing of injunctions, some of 
which restrained trade unionists from 
even making an effort to organize the 
unorganized. 

Men whose active life keeps them in 
the trenches, where they are continually 
called upon to prevent a powerful enemy 
from breaking through, cannot present 
the ideal structure which the critic seat- 
ed comfortably at his desk can picture. 

It is to the everlasting credit of the 
American trade union movement that, 
regardless of all obstacles, it held the 
trade union line; it prevented the com- 
plete destruction of the American wage 
earners' right to have a collective voice 
in determining the terms of employment 
and the conditions of labor, and that 
through the courage, the self-sacrifice 
and devotion of the highest of prin- 
ciples, it not only held the line, protect- 
ing those behind who were taking no 
part in the contest, until it had secured 
the passage of an anti-injunction bill, 
seen the day when the "yellow dog" 
contract was declared null and void by 
Congress, and carried on an educational 
campaign until so-called company un- 
ions have been stripped of their mask 
of hypocrisy and exhibited in their true 
light for what they were; organizations 



T II E ( A II V E \ T E It 



forced upon the employes by the em- 
ployers; organizations whose constitu- 
tion and by-laws wore drafted by the 
employers; organizations which bad no 
practical means to proted their mem- 
bers from discrimination and discharge; 
organizations which could be evaporat- 
ed into thin air by the mere posting of 
a notice thai the company no longer de- 
sired to continue its company union. 

Our intellectual critics, some of whom 
may be sincere, some of whom are hired 
because of their skill to belittle and de- 
fame our movement, can see in our ac- 
tivities many points to criticise. It is 
equally true that within the trade union 
movement itself, self-criticism, even 
more searching, is continually being car- 
ried on. 

Like all groups fighting for a great 
purpose against tremendous odds, the 
trade union army has had its camp fol- 
lowers; its traitors and its spies here 
and there because employers were cul- 
pable; they were the ones who offered 
the Judas silver in the beginning. 

We frankly admit that as an army 
which has been forced by circumstances 
to spend most of its time in the trenches, 
fighting desperately to retain its ground, 
the trade union movement does not, at 
first glance, present the same picture as 
snappily uniformed, thoroughly drilled 
troops present when they are maneuver- 
ing on parade. 

But trade unionists are not ashamed 
of their movement; they are proud of 
it, they believe in it. They have made 
great personal sacrifices without whim- 
pering, so that it would not be over- 
whelmed. 

It is this army of organized American 
wage earners holding the trenches who 
have kept the flag of trade . unionism 
and industrial democracy afloat; who 
have never, in the fiercest of engage- 
ments, hauled it down. Its backbone is 
composed of men who have never raised 
the white flag, but instead have been 
willing to make countless and continual 
efforts so that the mass of wage earn- 
ers could enjoy the right to industrial 
equality and collective bargaining. 

The trade union movement of this 
generation has fought the most import- 
ant battle of all, in the world-wide cam- 
paign to establish liberty, equality of 
rights and justice. 

Our ancestors fought to secure polit- 
ical and religious liberty. Years ago 
they won the major contest. 



Our trade union movement has been 
Qghting the battle to establish indus- 
trial liberty, equality and justice. In 
this effort it has been beaten to its 
knees at times. It has staggered under 
the blows rained upon it, but it has 
never yielded; it has never surrendered. 
It has been faithful to its purpose, con- 
vinced that it would win out in the 
end. 

The American trade union movement 
has done more than hold the line. It 
has won much advanced ground, and it 
knows today that in the end it will be 
victorious, and that the end is not far 
off, for the main purpose of our trade 
union movement is to overcome indus- 
trial injustice, and this end cannot be 
defeated. 



Union Labor Should Not Patronize Its 
Enemies 

Union labor should never patronize 
its enemies. Neither should it frater- 
nize with them. If a union man ever 
expects to get anywhere, he should ex- 
tend his every co-operation and assist- 
ance towards those that are friendly to- 
wards him and his cause and by so do- 
ing, exhibit the spirit of a human being. 
A union man should always keep in 
mind that he is battling for an existence 
for himself and his family. The families 
of union men depend upon him and his 
every efforts towards a decent liveli- 
hood. If a union man ever expects to get 
better conditions and wages he will 
have to display that spirit of sincerity 
and co-operation at every opportunity 
that presents itself with a grim deter- 
mination of standing four-square to- 
wards himself and those that he daily 
toils with. It matters not whether that 
fellow working man is one of his craft 
or not. 

Union men and women at every op- 
portunity should insist when they at- 
tempt to make a purchase, that those 
who are selling are members of the 
craft of their profession and they should 
be asked to show their union cards so 
that they would see that they were co- 
operating with a brother organization 
and by so doing would be displaying the 
true spirit of a real union and what it 
stands for. Union people at all times 
should make it a point to ask to see if 
the employers have the blue eagle on 
display, also ask the employe if the em- 
ployer permits them to join an organi- 
zation of their own choosing or craft. 



THE CARPENTER 



A SPLENDID ADDRESS 




N December 6, 1933, Bro- 
ther Newton Van Dalsem, 
a member of Millmen's 
Local Union 884, Los 
Angeles, Calif., delivered 
a splendid address to the 
members of that Local Union, under the 
caption, "Where Do We Go From 
Here?", in the course of which he said 
in part: 

"As we turn the pages of history or 
observe the common events in every- 
day life we are constantly reminded 
that one of the primitive and abiding in- 
stincts of human nature is selfishness, 
and that there is a universal tendency 
of the strong to take advantage of the 
weak, and a consequent striving on the 
part of the masses for equality with the 
favored few. Hence the age-old strug- 
gle between the master and the slave, 
the lord and the vassal, the king and 
the subject, and the capitalist and the 
laborer. 

"This struggle is incessant, and ad- 
vantage shifts frequently from one side 
to the other and back again, but in the 
long run it remains with the larger 
group provided that group is intelli- 
gent and especially so when a clearly 
defined issue of right and w,rong exists. 
As a result of this incessant struggle 
nations have changed from time to time 
from one form of government to an- 
other. Gradually the republican and 
democratic form of government has de- 
veloped, and this form of government 
when successfully established and main- 
tained curbs the predatory instincts of 
the strong and gives increased security 
and well being to the masses. It could 
probably be proved that every great and 
progressive national government of to- 
day came into being thru the overthrow 
or change of an earlier one in which 
some abuse existed which had gradually 
assumed such proportions that the peo- 
ple eventually rose in their might and 
destroyed or changed it. 

"Likewise, it is also true that when 
a government is not securely estab- 
lished it falls an easy prey to abuses of 
.one kind or another, and goes down. 
One of the commonest abuses to which 
a government may fall victim is the 
concentration of wealth in a few hands 
and the spread of poverty among the 
masses. The poet Goldsmith has ex- 



pressed this in his lines: 

'111 fares the land to hastening 
ills a prey, 

Where wealth accumulates and 
men decay.' 

"All history has been full of class 
struggles, and the present struggles be- 
tween capital and labor has now reached 
its critical point in this country. This 
crisis has not arrived suddenly. Its ap- 
proach has been clearly seen by our 
leading statesmen for more than a cen- 
tury. Its arrival has been postponed 
many times, but each time the struggle 
for existence has become more desper- 
ate, and now that the course of empire 
has reached the western coast and the 
machine has so displaced the worker 
that millions are unemployed, the great 
mass of the people have awakened to 
the fact that a fundamental change 
must be made in the management of our 
economic forces. 

"During the past half or three quar- 
ters of a century discerning men have 
pointed the way to a solution of this 
problem, but as long as capital could 
find fresh fields to exploit the words of 
these men fell for the most part on 
deaf ears. The average man was still 
able to muddle thru and make a living 
in spite of the handicap against which 
he worked, and those who found them- 
selves actually crushed were too few in 
number or too weak in influence to 
force a change. The great middle class 
have been too comfortably secure to 
think seriously about the situation, to 
say nothing of really understanding it. 
Even the deeds of violence which char- 
acterized it were not sufficient in their 
extent and magnitude to make their 
meaning clear, and were soon forgotten, 
and more often than not were complete- 
ly misunderstood. 

"Any great change in our national 
policy requires the united action of the 
great middle class, and until this middle 
class could be aroused the submerged 
and exploited laboring class have strug- 
gled for the most part in vain. 

"Another fact of profound significance 
is that no privileged class voluntarily 
relinquishes any advantage which it has 
over the masses. In precisely the same 
spirit that monarchs of old clung to the 



10 



THE CARPENTER 



idea of the divine right of kings, the 
rich man of today will defend to the lasl 
ditch liis legally established property 
rights in the utter disregard of the hu- 
man rights of his empolyes. Condemn- 
ing as criminal the violence of the man 
who fights for the right to live and to 
feed his children, he stops at nothing in 
defending his property rights. Not satis- 
fied with the inhuman practice of turn- 
ing the worker and his family out of 
doors, he will on occasion resort to 
other methods to serve his ends. 

* * * 

"Our opening statement calls atten- 
tion to certain groups of individuals 
who at different times have held sway 
over the affairs of men. Each of these 
groups before rising to power had made 
some contribution to the advancement 
of civilization, and by virtue of that 
contribution rose to power. Each group 
after rising to power merely proved it- 
self human and proceeded to abuse that 
power. And the selfish abuse of power 
on the part of a dominant group is one 
of the first signs of its eventual undoing. 
The time may be very long indeed from 
the first manifestation of decay to the 
final downfall of the dominant group, 
but history clearly shows that it is an 
unfailing sign. 

Sporadic revolts by the oppressed 
such as we have witnessed during the 
past century have little lasting effect as 
long as the great mass of the people re- 
main unmoved. Eventually however the 
movement grows to such proportions 
that the middle class are thoroughly 
awakened, and from that point on the 
downfall of the dominant is swift and 
sure. In fact it is so swift and sure that 
instead of being moved to hatred we 
are moved to contempt and pity, for as 
the old adage puts it, "none are so blind 
as those who will not see." The old die 
hard regime is now on its last legs, and 
is tottering to its final fall. Those of 
its representatives who insist upon ar- 
guing for its restoration are held up to 
public ridicule in the very press which 
but a short time ago was vigorously 
supporting it. 

* % % 

"Capitalism has been an essential 
part of the world's economic structure 
for five thousand years. Even if it were 
wholly bad it could not be wiped out in 
the twinkling of an eye when nothing 
else has as yet been firmly established to 



take its place. Let us nationalize our 
economic forces by as rapid degrees as 
will be consistent with sound develop- 
ment. Capitalism has reached its zenith 
and is on the verge of a decline. Pluto- 
cracy must go. It has had its day and 
abused its power. Now let that power 
pass by steady but rapid degrees from 
the hands of private capital to the 
hands of a stable government of, for, 
and by the people; a government whose 
framework has successfully withstood 
all storms for the past century and a 
half, and prosperity withstood all storms 
for the past century and a half, and 
prosperity will soon return in larger 
measure than the world has ever seen 
before. 

"The United States is the first large 
country that ever rose to the position of 
a first class world power as a republic. 
Our life as a republic dates back a scant 
century and a half. During the first 
"four score years" of our republic the 
prediction still continued to be made 
that it would never become permanent, 
the inference being that it would event- 
ually go the way of the ancient republics 
of Greece and Rome. And even among 
our own people there were intelligent 
men who entertained this view. But this 
bugaboo has been laid to rest. 

"There are those who believe that 
during the* next four years we shall be 
plunged into a condition of chaos and 
bloodshed resembling that of the early 
years of the French Revolution, but the 
more reasonable view is that the change 
will be brought about without blood- 
shed and in a very short time. It seems 
a change is coming, and coming rapidly. 
In the meantime it is our duty to merely 
carry on. Hold fast to the victories 
which have been won, and refraining 
from violence in every form work un- 
remittingly toward the ultimate goal 
of nationalized industry and economic 
equality." 



A receipt for trade union progress is 
to purchase none but union-labeled 
goods and service. 



Isn't it strange how big finance chor- 
tels whenever laws are passed curbing 
Labor's power to protect the worker, 
and what a difference it makes when a 
law is in the balance to curb the fel- 
onies of the money gang? 



Keep Your Dues Paid Up 



THE CARPENTER 



11 



FREEDOM THROUGH UNIONIZATION 

(By Rev. Francis J. Haas, Ph. D. ) 




N ORDER to look forward 
and see where we are 
going, it is necessary to 
look backward and see 
what lies behind. The 
best way to survey the 
past and plan for the future is to ask: 
what of human liberty during the last 
four or five decades and what of it 
during the era just before us? 

Under the N. R. A., our Government 
has embarked upon a plan of public 
regulation in the public interest. That 
plan is being criticized and more or 
less openly denounced by powerful em- 
ployers and, in some cases, by workers 
themselves. 

What is this criticism worth? Will 
it stand careful analysis? In my opin- 
ion the new control will result in less 
control. The new curtailment of liberty 
in reality will be an enlargement of 
liberty. Actually, the Government has 
declared that it will not interfere more 
but less with personal freedom. It does 
not intend to do for men what they 
should do for themselves. It does in- 
tend to let all be free to exercise their 
rights as free men. 

Throughout the last century certain 
trends stand out more prominently than 
others. Roughly, every eight years with 
cruel regularity the nation was plunged 
into deep depression. Business stopped, 
banks failed, shops closed, and millions 
were thrown out of work. The system 
zigzagged like an automobile from one 
side of the road to the other. Regu- 
larly, the car went into the ditch and 
then after a year or several years of 
frantic relief it was put back on the 
road again to be started as it went 
before. This has been going on for over 
one hundred years. 

The tragic story of homes lost, star- 
vation, sickness, discouragement, stunt- 
ed childhood, and all this repeated with 
only brief intervals in between is well 
known. 

During the past decades, by a curious 
fiction, the law regarded the corpora- 
tion with millions of assets as an indi- 
vidual. Stranger still, it assumed that 
the worker employed by that corpora- 
tion was an individual equal in strength 
to it. This was not all. More and more 
organization was put into production 



and huge sums spent successfully to 
keep organization out of the ranks 
of workers. Bankers, manufacturers, 
wholesalers, and brokers, all organized, 
internally and externally, vertically and 
horizontally, while wage-earners and 
farmers were compelled to see their 
feeble organizations practically disap- 
pear before their eyes. 

The record of that period does not 
make pleasant reading, but the facts 
should be looked at squarely and hon- 
estly. The black list, the "yellow dog" 
contract, the injunction or the threat 
of it, the spy, the company union, the 
welfare plan — these were the instru- 
ments used to keep workers struggling 
with one another for wages and hours. 
Besides, bankers and industrialists se- 
cured the support of the law and the 
courts to maintain the unreal and fraud- 
ulent fiction that every worker could 
as an individual deal equitably with an 
individual corporation possessing, per- 
haps, a thousand times his strength. 
Briefly, the national economy was open 
shop, backed up by government sanc- 
tion. In a word, the whole system was 
an employer-run system. 

One thing is certain. Wage earners 
did not bring the country in 19 29 or 
193 3 to the verge of disaster. They 
were excluded from power and cannot 
be charged with responsibility for the 
evils now upon us. The suffering and 
misery and degradation of the last four 
and one-half years must be laid at the 
door of those who have exercised power, 
the so-called best brains of business and 
industry. 

Open shop principles could yield no 
other fruits than those they yielded. 
Disorganization means low wages. Low 
wages means low purchasing power. 
Low purchasing power means under- 
consumption, unemployment, and hu- 
man slavery. 

In direct opposition, organization 
means high wages. High wages means 
high purchasing power. High purchas- 
ing power means at least adequate con- 
sumption and, in a plenty economy such 
as ours, ample livelihood for all. 

Because of disorganization during the 
open shop period preceding 1933 wages 
were withheld from workers, chiefly the 
unskilled and semi-skilled, and huge 



THE CARPENTER 



profits piled up. The money that should 
have been paid out to workers was 
turned back into industry. Factories, 
shops and mills were expanded on every 
side. But for over four years they stood 
like empty sepulchers, mute testimony 
of the folly of leaders who would pro- 
duce goods but prevent customers from 
buying them. This is the economic ef- 
IVH of a narrow and selfish open shop 
individualism. The human effect is 
written in the heavy hearts of the eleven 
million unemployed and on the wan 
faces of their wives and children. 

It is a sad story but it must be told 
that in the past our government has 
supported all too effectively the false 
and fraudulent theories of open shop 
individualism. Especially through the 
use of the injunction, it prevented work- 
ers from bettering their lot. Almost 
without exception, barring an enlight- 
ened judge here and there, courts up- 
held the unspeakable "yellow dog" con- 
tract and enjoined organizers from in- 
terfering with it. 

True, a respectable body of court 
opinion can be cited showing that union- 
ism was permitted. For example, in 
the Buck Stove and Range Case the 
Supreme Court declared: "The law, 
therefore, recognizes the right of work- 
ing men to unite and to invite others to 
join their ranks, thereby making avail- 
able the strength, influence, and power 
that come from such association." But 
generally, the practice of courts, both 
federal and state, was far different from 
their profession. In 1917, in the Hitch- 
man Coal and Coke Case, with which 
President Green, and many others of 
you here were so intimately connected, 
the Court, while admitting the general 
principle of organization, enjoined or- 
ganizers from trying to nullify one-sided 
contracts and thereby it erected a high 
wall against future unionization. Since 
that time the actual or threatened use 
of the injunction was perhaps the chief 
barrier to the spread of the labor move- 
ment, the emancipation of American 
wage-earners. 

But let us turn to the present. By 
the enactment of the National Industrial 
Recovery Act the government inter- 
venes in industry. That is the fact. But 
by a strange anomaly, more interven- 
tion means less intervention. Put more 
correctly, the new intervention calls a 
halt to that of the past. Still more cor- 



rectly, the new legislation permits 
workers to do what the government 
itself assisted in preventing them from 
doing before. In this very important 
way it has extended freedom to all 
wage-earners. It allows them to or- 
ganize; it allows them to help them- 
selves; it allows them to be free men. 

Section 7a of the NIRA is well 
known. It is permissive and at the 
same time it is mandatory. It is per- 
missive in the sense that it leaves work- 
ers free to organize and to choose what 
kind of organization and what represen- 
tatives they want. It is mandatory in 
the sense that it must be incorporated 
in every Code and, what is still more 
important, it prohibits an employer from 
preventing workers to form whatever 
kind of unions they wish to form. 

Section 7a of the National Industrial 
Recovery Act is in all truth, the new 
charter for labor. But we should not 
forget that a legal charter does not 
create human rights. A man has hu- 
man rights because he is a man. A 
charter merely permits him to exercise 
those rights. Collective bargaining is 
a human right, rooted in man himself. 
In a machine society it is as much his 
right to exercise it as to use his hands 
or his feet or his eyes. Can any right 
rest on firmer ground? The collective 
wage contract has the same basis in 
human beings as government itself has. 
Both are founded on human necessity. 

The labor movement must accept the 
spiritual side of man. Otherwise — and 
I speak advisedly — it is lost and has 
no solid basis for its claim. The com- 
modity theory of labor is definitely 
anti-labor doctrine. It regards a work- 
er merely as oil or coal for the energy 
that can be gotten out of him. 

I denounce this iniquitous principle, 
which is the basic cause of national 
chaos, and when I do so speak with the 
voice of the highest authority in my 
Church. 

And incidentally, I might support 
what I am saying with the fine state- 
ments that have been issued by the 
various Protestant and Jewish bodies 
here in our country. Let me quote the 
head of the Church of which I have the 
honor to be a member and a priest, 
Pope Pius XI. 

In his Encyclical, Forty Years After, 
Pope Pius XI insists that the worker 
has the right not only to an individual 



THE CARPENTER 



13 



but to a family wage. These are his 
words. "In the first place, the wage 
paid to the workingman must be suf- 
ficient for the support of himself and 
of his family. . . . If in the present, 
state of society this is not always feas- 
ible, social justice demands that re- 
forms be introduced without delay 
which will guarantee every adult 
workingman just such a wage." The 
basis for this conclusion is that mar- 
riage is not a mere animal mating but 
a sacred institution established by God 
Himself. The Pontiff does not leave 
the matter rest there. He is not satis- 
fied with merely declaring general 
principles. To make family life sweet 
and normal and wholesome, every 
family must have an adequate family 
income, and to get an adequate family 
income there must be collective bar- 
gaining. These are the words of Pope 
Pius XI: "We are content, therefore, 
to emphasize this one point: not only 
is man free to institute these unions 
which are of a private character, but 
he has the right to adopt such organ- 
ization and such rules as may best 
conduce to the attainment of their re- 
spective objects. The same liberty 
must be claimed for the founding of 
associations which extend beyond the 
limits of a single trade." 

The need of complete and unrestrict- 
ed unionization in the United States was 
never more urgent than it is at this 
moment. The NIRA has made two very 
important concessions to the powerful 
corporations of the country. The law 
permits them to organize in a way that 
makes for, first, maintenance of price 
and secondly, restriction of output. I 
need not tell you that in the past many 
industries have, in defiance of the anti- 
trust laws, organized in order to fix 
prices. The vital point here and now 
is that workers must make use of con- 
cessions parallel to those that govern- 
ment has made to employers. Need I 
add that the government cannot and 
does not intend to force workers to or- 
ganize? This workers must do for 
themselves. 

Organization means far more than the 
company union. Organization must be 
intercompany. It must be national. It 
must be independent and supported by 
the workers themselves. Collective bar- 
gaining under the New Deal must be as 
free as the law itself. There may be no 
restriction on the workers' choice of 



representatives. Telling workers that 
they are free only within limits, that is, 
that they must confine their choice of 
spokesmen to their fellow workers who 
are paid by the employer, is a most au- 
tocratic and arrogant and presumptious 
claim. No one would think of saying to 
employers that they had the right to 
form trade associations but that they 
had to choose their representatives from 
those actually engaged in an industry. 
Surely by every standard of justice and 
equity the same freedom must be ac- 
corded the workers. 

Moreover, organization must set its 
face against the so-called "merit clause" 
and against every other subterfuge in- 
vented to break down real collective 
bargaining. The "merit" clause pro- 
posed by some employers' associations 
under the NRA leaves the decision on 
merit solely with the employer. Because 
it can be used as a hideout to break up 
union organization, it must be known 
for the fraud that it is and fought to the 
last ditch. Organized workers are not 
opposed to payment for performance. 
They do not seek to put a premium on 
inefficiency. They do want and they 
must have guarantee that "merit" will 
not be used to destroy their only pro- 
tection. That guarantee is organization. 

The argument is sometimes made that 
only the strong unions should be al- 
lowed to function. It is said that the 
strong unions enjoy the praise and con- 
fidence of employers because they are 
so co-operative. This is only part of the 
truth and a very small part of it. The 
strong unions are respected because 
they are strong. This is only a mani- 
festation of a universal human instinct. 
Are not all of us disposed to respect the 
rights of those who are intelligently 
determined to defend them? In any 
event, the lesson for workers is clear. 
They should take employers at their 
word and organize into strong and ef- 
fective unions. 

Today every worker should be a mem- 
ber of his organization, the union in his 
craft or calling and do his part to make 
his union strong and effective. When 
organization embraces all American in- 
dustry, the mass production wage- 
earners, women wage-earners, negro 
wage-earners, we shall have banished 
from our national vocabulary certain 
expressions that we should never have 
used. Then employers will stop talking 



14 



THE CARPENTER 



about "my loyal workers." A worker is 
not a feudal serf, he is a free man. He 
does not belong to the employer. Then 
employers will stop using the expres- 
sion "pools of unemployment." A man 
is not a part of. a pool. Every unem- 
ployed man is a person. Then employers 
will stop using the expression "I work 



my labor 40 or 50 hours a week." A 
laborer is not a horse or a machine to 
be worked. Then employers will stop 
using the expression "I run my busi- 
ness." A worker is not a machine to be 
run. Under a socially sound system he 
will be a co-worker and a partner with 
the employer. 



SLUM CLEARANCE— A NEW DAY IN BUILDING 




government. 



HE tremendous need for 
better housing facilities 
in the United States by 
people of low income is 
on the way to becoming 
a matter for the federal 
This is one of the most 
social and interesting aspects of the 
publics works organization and goes a 
long way toward making good the con- 
tention that there is a new deal at 
Washington. That 65 per cent of the 
housing of the United States is of sub- 
standard character is well-known and 
not only to experts. It has often been 
remarked that the United States has the 
worst slums in the world. This in a na- 
tion which has often boasted of its 
wealth, natural resources and efficiency. 

Communities growing interested in 
slum clearance and low cost housing 
have done so largely out of necessity. 
They have found that the commercial, 
industrial and better-priced residential 
plants and equipment have been ade- 
quately built and that there is no room 
in this field for further development. 
So in an effort to provide work for out- 
of-work building tradesmen and to 
stimulate business activities in these 
communities, low cost housing corpora- 
tions have been organized and have 
sought funds from the Public Works 
Administration. The PWA has met this 
demand by organizing the Housing Di- 
vision of the Federal Emergency Ad- 
ministration of Public Works. Robert 
D. Kohn, former president of the 
American Institute of Architects, is di- 
rector and head of this division. He has 
associated with him N. Max Dunning, 
and Eugene Henry Klaber as chief of 
the technical staff. He has gathered 
around him consultants who are known 
to have deep interest in the social side 
of housing. One of these is Mrs. Edith 
Elmer Wood, author of "Recent Trends 
in American Housing"; another, F. L. 
Ackerman, a New York ar-chitect; an- 



other, Mrs. Mary K. Simkhovitch, chair- 
man of the Public Housing Conference. 

Like all social experiments the low 
cost housing movement within the gov- 
ernment is meeting with opposition. 
This opposition is of two kinds. The 
first and most serious is due to the iner- 
tia of property and land values. In 
many cities such as New York, Chicago, 
and Philadelphia, land is too expensive 
to procure to make it possible to build 
houses low enough in price to sell and 
rent to people of small incomes. 

The other type of opposition comes 
from real estate owners who fear that 
the erection of non-profit housing under 
the auspices of the government will fur- 
nish a kind of competition with private 
housing that will be so formidable that 
they cannot meet it. 

To date the following slum clearance 
and housing projects have been tenta- 
tively and actually allowed by the Hous- 
ing Division of the Public Works Ad- 
ministration: 

In some states, namely New York, 
New Jersey and Ohio, state laws have 
been enacted permitting the establish- 
ment of low cost housing corporations. 

That there is a marked need for slum 
clearance is growing definitely clear to 
a great many social groups. The Infor- 
mation Service of the Federal Council 
of the Churches of Christ in America 
has this to say in a recent number: 

"In view of the fact that speculative 
builders have done practically nothing 
in the United States to provide better 
housing for the very low income groups 
the plight of the real estate speculators 
arouses little sympathy and their oppo- 
sition is regarded as utterly unsocial by 
students of housing problems. Charles 
S. Ascher, assistant director of the Pub- 
lic Administration Clearing House, Chi- 
cago, declares that the talk about over- 
building during the last boom is an 



THE CARPENTER 



15 



exaggeration and that 'almost no new 
residences were built then, or have ever 
been built, for any but the upper third 
of our people, measured by their family 
incomes.' Furthermore, the 'blighted 
areas' are 'a liability to the city; they 
must be furnished with city services, 
yet they do not yield enough taxes to 
pay their way. They are the areas in 
which juvenile delinquency is most 
prevalent and which call for the great- 
est expenditure by social agencies and 
welfare departments." 

"City officials who help in the move- 
ment to eradicate these sore spots and 
rebuild them with desirable residences 
will be doing their cities a double ser- 
vice in avoiding the capital expense of 
extending streets and utilities to new 
outlying sections and avoiding the main- 
tenance wastes of the present areas." 

A survey by James S. Taylor, chief 
of the Division of Building and Housing, 
U. S. Bureau of Standards, reveals that 
the chief demand for housing comes 
from those who need low cost facilities. 
Although complete figures on the num- 
ber of dwelling units built each year are 
not available, the data collected by the 
U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics from 
257 cities show a decrease from an 
average of 3 8 8,000 dwelling units, built 
during the years 1921 to 1929, to 125,- 
000 in 1930, 98,000 in 1931, and 27,000 
in 1932. A half million homes, Mr. 
Taylor declares, is a conservative esti- 
mate of the present housing shortage. 
"With new home building down to less 
than 20 per cent of any low assumed 
normal, the shortage is mounting every 
day." Data collected by the F. W. 
Dodge Corporation on residential con- 
struction in 37 states showed an aver- 
age of about $2,600,000,000 from 1925 
to 1928. Assuming that because of 
lower costs 50 per cent of that figure, 
or $1,300,000,000, may be taken as an 
estimated present normal, "we have 
fallen behind by some $1,800,000,000 
during the three years 1930 to 1932 and 
by the end of this year will have fallen 
behind by about a billion dollars more 
unless there is some marked upturn." 

(Electrical Workers). 



To know what to do is Wisdom. 
To know how to do it is Skill. 
To do the thing as it should be done 
is Service. 



Demand the Union Label 



British Union Official Wins $.36,000 

Damages In Libel Suit Against 

Communist Publisher 

After a trial lasting five days before 
Mr. Justice Horridge, London, England, 
a special jury awarded a verdict of 7,- 
000 pounds damages (about $36,000 at 
the current rate of exchange) to Ernest 
Bevin, general secretary of the Trans- 
port and General Workers' Union, in his 
suit for libel against the Utopia Press, 
publisher of the Daily Socialist, a Com- 
munist paper. 

The suit was based on an article 
which the Daily Worker published dur- 
ing the London busmen's strike of 1931 
which charged that Mr. Bevin had in 
reality sold out the workers" and acted 
in favor of the bus company, "manoeu- 
vering here, retreating a little there, 
but all the time consciously working to 
secure the acceptance of worsened con- 
ditions by the men," adding: 

"More clearly than ever Bevin stands 
revealed as the wage-cutting ally of 
Lord Ashfield," chairman of the London 
General Omnibus Company, the wages 
of whose empolyes were in controversy. 

In commenting upon the verdict, the 
Record, the official organ of the Trans- 
port and General Workers' Union, paid 
a glowing tribute to the policy by means 
of which Mr. Bevin has strengthened 
the union and developed an industrial 
and political outlook among the mem- 
bers, which is an essential condition to 
real progress, adding: 

"This policy is in line with the facts 
of history, which teach us that our 
movement has been built up and de- 
veloped to its present strength by the 
workers who, thanks to organized ef- 
fort, have been able to enjoy better 
wages and conditions than the unor- 
ganized. 

"This policy clashes violently with 
that of the Communist party, who hold 
that an essential condition for a revo- 
lutionary situation is the intensification 
of the misery and poverty of the work- 
ers. 

"All reforms are anathema to the 
Communist, and trade union leaders are 
'reformists' whose influence must at all 
costs be destroyed. In our view the pol- 
icy of the Communist party is funda- 
mentally unsound, and the workers of 
this country would be acting very fool- 
ishly if ever they substituted it for the 
general policy of the trade union and 
labor movement." 



Editorial 




THE CARPENTER 

Official Journal of 

THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD OF 

CARPENTERS AND JOINERS 

OF AMERICA 

Published on the 15th of each month at the 

CARPENTERS' BUILDING 

Indianapolis, Ind. 

UNITED BROTHERHOOD OF 
CARPENTERS AND JOINERS OP AMERICA, 

POBLISHEBS 

FRANK DUFFx, Editor 

Subscription Pbich 
One Dollar & Year In Advance, Postpaid 

The publishers and the advertising 
agent use every possible precaution avaiU 
able to them against accepting advertise= 
ments from other than reliable firms, but 
do not accept any responsibility for the 
contents of any advertisement which ap- 
pears in "The Carpenter." Should any 
deception be practiced by advertisers at 
any time, upon members, their duty is to 
immediately notify the Post Office au= 
fchorities. Therefore, address any com- 
plaints to your local Post Office. 

INDIANAPOLIS, APRIL, 1934 

Organization — The Permanent Value 

,HERE is nothing mysterious about 
Trade Unions. They have been 
erected upon foundations of faith 
and sincerity. Members of Organized 
Labor demand opportunity to live the 
life of law-abiding citizens of a free 
land, with comforts and conveniences 
of the times, and insist upon the right 
to exercise their own judgment in af- 
fairs of state and all other matters con- 
cerning their welfare. Without these 
rights they would cease to be free citi- 
zens. To obtain what was tbeir right- 
ful heritage, workers were compelled to 
band together for common good. Wel- 
fare and advancement demanded organ- 
ization. Joint action of Organized Labor 
has secured betterment of working sur- 
roundings, protection in hazardous oc- 
cupations, compensation for injuries 



sustained in employment and countless 
other features unthought of a half-cen- 
tury ago. Indeed, all betterment which 
is the portion of workers is due primar- 
ily to the efforts of Organized Labor. 
He who is beyond the protective care of 
Organized Labor is subject, however un- 
willing, to the whims of fate and ca- 
prices of those who tolerate his presence 
and exploit his capability. Without or- 
ganization hope is submerged in the 
humdrum necessity of eking out a bare 
subsistence under maximum difficulty. 



What About Infections? 

NE of the questions every Con- 
tractor ought to ask con°err.- 
ing his own accident experience 
is: "What about infections?" A recent 
analysis in New York State brings out 
some interesting facts. In the Construc- 
tion Industry, for the year of 19 3 2, in 
New York State, 14 men died from in- 
fected injuries, in a total number of 
1906 cases of infection out of a grand 
total of 16,706 cases reported. The 
figure of 11.4% of all reported injuries 
being infected is inexcusably high, as 
some organizations with an ordinary 
worker sensibly trained in first aid pro- 
cedure have been able to hold the per- 
centage down to about 1%, and many 
without such good attention have a fig- 
ure of about 4 %. 

There were more than 34,0 00 weeks 
of lost time awarded, with compensation 
awards amounting to $534,000, repre- 
senting 6.6% of the total compensation 
awarded. One third of this sum was in 
connection with handling objects. 

Contractors, how many of your men 
are trained in first aid? What first aid 
supplies do you use? Are they properly 
administered? We'll venture the guess 
that eight out of ten executives would be 
or should be pretty thoroughly shocked 
if they had the correct answers to those 
questions in front of them along with 
the cost of infected injuries on their 
work, and understood how easily infec- 
tions can be prevented through a few 
minutes intelligent care. It pays to pay 
attention to such details. 



Offici 



GENERAL OFFICERS 
Of 

THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD 

Of 

CARPENTERS AND JOINERS 
OF AMERICA 

General Office 
Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 




General President 

WM. L. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 

First General Vice-President 

GEORGE H. LAKEY 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Second General Vice-President 

JAMES M. GAULD 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 

General Secretary 

FRANK DUFFY 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Treasurer 

THOMAS NEALE 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Executive Board 
First District, T. M. GUERIN 
290 Second Ave., Troy, N. Y. 



Second District, W. T. ALLEN 
3832 N. Gratz St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



Third District, HARRY SCHWARZER 
10522 Parkhurst Drive, Cleveland, O. 



Fourth District, JAS. L. BRADFORD 
1900 15th Ave., N., Nashville, Tenn. 



Fifth District, J. W. WILLIAMS 
3948 S. Grand Blvd., St. Louis, Mo. 



Sixth District, A. W. MUIR 
200 Guerrero St., San Francisco, Cal. 



Seventh District, ARTHUR MARTEL 
6375 Chambord St., Montreal, Que., Can. 



WM. L. HUTCHESON, Chairman 
FRANK DUFFY, Secretary 



NOTICE TO RECORDING 
SECRETARIES 

The quarterly circular for the months 
of April, May and June, containing the 
quarterly password, has heen forwarded 
to all Local Unions of the United Broth- 
erhood. Six blanks have heen forwarded 
for the Financial Secretary, three of 
which are to be used for the reports to 
the General Office for the months of 
April, May and June. The extra ones 
are to he filled out in duplicate and kept 
on file for future reference. Enclosed 
also were six blanks for the Treasurer 
to be used in transmitting money to the 
General Office. Recording Secretaries 
not in receipt of this circular should im- 
mediately notify the General Secretary, 
Frank Duffy, Carpenters' Building, In- 
dianapolis, Indiana. 



Carpenters Stay Away From Chicago 

The Chicago newspapers, presumably 
in an effort to advertise the World's 
Fair, are again resorting to gross mis- 
representation, leading their readers to 
believe that many thousands of men are 
to be put to work. 

The truth is that thousands of men 
stand daily waiting at the gate shiver- 
ing in the cold breeze, looking for work, 
only to go home after hours of waiting 
without a chance of getting a job. Des- 
perately in need of work many of them 
wait in vain all day. 

This is cruel business, but newspapers 
have no conscience, and advertising, 
whether it appears in the form of a news 
story or otherwise, is profitable busi- 
ness. 

DO NOT BE DECEIVED — STAY 
AWAY FROM CHICAGO. 

Chas. H. Sand, Secretary, 
CHICAGO DISTRICT COUNCIL 
OF CARPENTERS 



All correspondence for the General Executive 
Board must be sent to the General Secretary. 



California State Council of Carpenters 
Holds Barge Convention at Merced 

With some one hundred delegates on 
hand from all parts of California, the 
seventh annual convention of the State 



T II E CARl'E N TE II 



Council of Carpenters was opened on 

Sal unlay. Krebrnary 24, 1934, in the 
Hotel Tioga in Merced. 

A. C. Alien of Local Union 1202 of 
thai city welcomed the delegates and 
then presented the Rev. David Mc- 
Martin, who delivered the invocation. 
Mayor J. Cornett and Assemblyman Ray 
Robinson then were introduced and both 
responded with more words of welcome 
and expressed (he hope that the stay of 
the delegates and visitors in the city of 
Merced would be a pleasant one and 
thai much constructive work would re- 
sult from the deliberations of the con- 
vention. 

Brother Allen then outlined the en- 
tertainment portion of the program af- 
ter which the convention was turned 
over to Brother J. F. Cambiano of San 
Ma.teo, president of the State Council, 
who thanked the speakers for their kind 
words of welcome and announced that 
the convention was ready to proceed 
with the business before it. President 
Cambiano then appointed the conven- 
tion committees, as provided in the 
Constitution of the State Council. 

Among the other speakers were Gen- 
eral Representative Don Cameron who 
explained the existing conditions at 
Boulder Dam from where he had just 
returned; and A. W. Muir, member of 
the General Eexcutive Board from the 
sixth district, who conveyed the fra- 
ternal greetings of the General Officers 
and in an interesting talk outlined con- 
ditions as he found them throughout 
the country and painted a picture of the 
future work that lay ahead which must 
have the undivided support of all the 
members. 

Many Local Unions reported an in- 
crease in membership and many new 
locals were reported as organized dur- 
ing the time since the last convention 
with organization work still being car- 
ried on under full steam. 

The report of Secretary-Treasurer 
Bert P. Ward embodied the accomplish- 
ments of the State officers and the nu- 
merical strength and financial standing 
of the State Council. 

The resolutions before the convention 
covered a wide and varied field dealing 
principally with organization and Tin- 
employment. The most important of 
those favorably considered by the con- 
vention were: 



Directing the officers of the State 
Council in promote organization among 
air era II workers throughout the state 
of California as men employed on this 
class of work require the skill, knowl- 
edge and training of carpenters. 

Favoring the 6-hour day and 30-hour 
week. 

Calling on the officials of the state of 
California to destroy all labor camps 
where insanitary conditions prevail. 

Directing the officers of the State 
Council to arrange with General Presi- 
dent Hutcheson for the unionizing of 
the carpenters employed on the con- 
struction work on the Metropolitan 
Water Way from the Boulder Dam to 
Los Angeles City, where a large number 
of carpenters are employed. 

Expressing confidence in the Presi- 
dent of the United States in his program 
to bring about unemployment relief. 

Amending the constitution of the 
State Council to increase the number of 
districts, subject to referendum vote of 
the affiliated locals. 

In conformity with the provisions of 
the constitution of the State Council, 
nomination of officers was made at the 
convention, to be submitted to the affil- 
iated locals for referendum vote. 

Long Beach was selected as the city 
for holding the convention in 19 3 5. 



Veteran Officer of Local Union 243 
Still Active 

The photo here shown is that of An- 
drew Weigel, veteran member of Local 
Union 243, Tiffin, Ohio, who at the age 
of 8 2 years is still a front line fighter 
for the Union cause in Tiffin. 

Brother Weigel was born in Adams 
County, Pennsylvania, about eight miles 
north of Gettysburg, in 18 52. At the 
age of five years he moved with his par- 
ents to a little farm in the Cumberland 
Valley. The county seat was at the near- 
by town of Carlyle, where the regular 
army barracks were situated during the 
great Civil War. Many of Brother 
Weigel's boyhood experiences center 
about events and stories of the Civil 
War. 

He started to learn the trade> at 
Chambersburg when a boy of 15 years. 
In his youth he seemed to have had a 
liking for travel and adventure for he 
soon left Chambersburg and crossing 



THE CARPENTER 



19 



the Alleghenies, stopped at Altoona, 
where he worked several years. After- 
wards he drifted through several cities 
looking for a better field of work. It 
was while he was in Cleveland in 18 72 
that he heard of a great fire in Tiffin, 
Ohio. Packing up immediately he made 
his way to Tiffin, in which city he joined 
Local Union 243 on March 3, 1890, 
where he has held continuous member- 
ship since. For 2 2 years he has been 
Financial Secretary, and today at the 




ANDREW WEIGEL 

age of 82 years he is still keeping the 
books. For the past 2 5 years he has 
been a representative to the Central La- 
bor Union, and for 20 years Treasurer 
of that body. 

Brother Weigel has also been active 
in civic affairs. For two terms of two 
years each he was a Councilman for the 
city of Tiffin. He has been employed 
continuously for 20 years by the Tiffin 
Manufacturing Company. 

Regularity has characterized Brother 
Weigel's entire life. Local Union 243 
and the Labor Movement of Tiffin wish 
him many more years of sound health 
and profitable activity. 



Local Unions Chartered 

Gadsden, Ala. 
Chester, 111. 
Spartenburg, S. C. 
Greenville, Miss. 
Las Cruces, N. Mex. 
Gadsden, Ala. 
Rochester, Minn. 
Columbus, Nebr. 
Manchester, N. H. 
Gallup, N. Mex. 
Fort Worth, Tex. 
Casmas, Wash. 
Portland, Ore. 
Provo, Utah. 
Fishers Island, N. Y. 
Newnan, Ga. 

Labor Board Given Power To Curb 
Company Unions 

President Roosevelt's executive order 
conferring on the National Labor Board 
complete power to hold elections for 
collective bargaining representatives in 
every plant where a substantial number 
of employes desire such an election is 
regarded in labor circles as giving an 
effective blow to the resistance to the 
board by various anti-union corpora- 
tions throughout the United States. 

The order is also interpreted as put- 
ting teeth in the labor section of the 
National Recovery Act which outlaws 
company unions. Despite the plain man- 
date of the Act, corporation officials 
have mobilized their efforts to establish 
company unions, believing that they 
could thus strangle trade union collec- 
tive bargaining regardless of the law. 

A strong protest against this wide- 
spread violation of the Recovery Act 
was recently made to the Administra- 
tion by William Green, president of the 
American Federation of Labor, who 
urged that the Labor Board, backed by 
the law enforcing agencies of the Gov- 
ernment, should crack cfbwn on the com- 
pany union employers. 

The recent conference, in Washing- 
ton, of representatives of the 109 na- 
tional and international unions affiliated 
with the American Federation of Labor 
also declared in favor of supplementing 
the power of the National Labor Board so 
that there would be no question relative 
to its authority for the complete adjust- 
ment of industrial disputes, including 
the holding of elections to choose col- 
lective bargaining representatives. 






THE CARl'KXTER 



Hawes-Cooper Act Becomes Law 

The Hawes-Cooper Act, which gives 
every State the power io forbid the 
sale, within its borders, of convict-made 
goods from other States, went into ef- 
fecl January L9, 1934. In celebration 
ie event, William Green, president 
of the American Federation of Labor, 
issued a statement describing the major 
provisions of this important labor meas- 
ure and briefly reviewing the work of 
the A. F. of L. in securing the enact- 
ment of the law. 

"The Hawes-Cooper measure is an 
enabling act," he said. "It provides that 
all convict-made goods shipped into a 
State for sale or exchange come under 
the laws of that State the same as if 
manufactured therein. 

"Seventeen States have taken advan- 
tage of this law and from now on no 
convict-made products can be shipped 
into them lawfully. These States are: 
Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, 
Illinois. Massachusetts, Montana, New 
Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, 
North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, 
South Dakota, Utah, Washington, Wy- 
oming. 

"The American Federation of Labor 
has been working faithfully since its 
first convention in 18 SI to eliminate 
convict labor in competition with free 
labor. In the platform adopted that 
year was the demand that all laws per- 
mitting prison contract labor be re- 
pealed. State Legislatures were urged 
to pass laws providing that the convicts 
should produce exclusively for the in- 
stitutions of the state and its subdivi- 
sions. 

"Nearly every year certain gains were 
made in various states. Twenty-eight 
years ago Congress was asked to pass a 
bill similar to the Hawes-Cooper Act 
but it was not until December, 1928, 
that Congress by a very large vote 
passed the Haw-es-Cooper bill, which 
was signed by the President. 



Accident Results in Death of Officer of 
Local Union 150 

William Dietz, for many years Finan- 
cial Secretary of Local Union 150, Ply- 
mouth, Pa., passed away at the Wilkes- 
Barre. Pa., General Hospital, February 
12, 1934, death resulting from an ac- 
cident while he was at work on Febru- 
ary 1st. 



Brother Dietz joined Local Union 150 
on March 5, 1901, and continued his 
membership in the Local Union until 
the time of his death. 

He was a true and valued member of 
the Brotherhood for thirty-three years 
and will be sadly missed by the officers 
and members of Local Union 150. 



Death Takes Officer of Local Union 957 

The members of Local Union No. 95 7 
of Stillwater, Minn., were deeply grieved 
to learn of the death of Brother Ole 
Berg which occurred February 3, 1934, 
at his home in that city. 

He joined the Local Union on Sep- 
tember 6, 1910, and served as Treasurer 
from the year 1922 until his death. 

Brother Berg was a true unionist and 
always happy when working for the in- 
terest of his fellow men and the Local 
Union has sustained a severe loss in the 
passing of one of their most faithful 
officers. 



DEATH ROLL 

GUY V. deCASTRO — Local Union No. 

46 9, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 
H. S. HOLLOHAN — Local Union No. 

13 2, Washington, D. C. 
C. M. LARSON — Local Union No. 1176, 

Fargo, N. D. 
LOUIS RITTER — Local Union No. 1243, 

Oneida, N. Y. 



Intellect is the edge of the ax, but 
moral power is the back which gives 
force to the blow. — Horace Mann. 

Statistics inform us that the span of 
life was increased by 25 years in the 
past century. The trade agreement and 
the union label were great factors in 
this notable achievement. 

There are many conceptions as to 
what success really is. To some people 
it means getting to the top, winning dis- 
tinction and fame; to most people suc- 
cess means the accumulation of wealth 
and with it a life of ease and luxury. 
But for one to gain riches at the cost of 
true friends, and to find himself with- 
out the companionship and affection of 
loved ones, he will eventually realize 
that his success is but a miserable fail- 
ure. 



CorrQspondQncQ 




This Journal Is Not Responsible For Views Expressed By Correspondents. 



Training For The Construction 
Industries 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

"In an article on Training For The 
Construction Industries" in the Febru- 
ary issue of "The Carpenter," my col- 
league, Nelson L. Burbank, Architec- 
tural Drafting Instructor and teacher of 
Related Mathematics, English and Sci- 
ence in our Carpentry classes, makes 
some statements which are not accept- 
able to many Vocational Teachers. I 
intend to challenge some of these state- 
ments and endeavor to clear up some 
misunderstandings which have been 
brought to my attention. 

We will grant the truth of his state- 
ment "That a close analysis of certain 
trades will bring out many points of 
similarity one with another." For in- 
stance, in comparing the Carpentry and 
Cabinet Making trades there are points 
of similarity, both work with wood, use 
many of the same tools, but one turns 
out furniture and cabinet work while 
the other turns out homes, garages, etc. 
But how any one can group such trades 
as Electrical work, Plumbing, Steam 
Fitting, and Elevator Construction is 
beyond my comprehension. Where is 
the similarity in any two of these 
trades? The only thing I can see is that 
the Plumber, Steam fitter and Electri- 
cian all use pipe of some kind in their 
work, therefore, they all need to cut and 
thread pipe. Here the similarity ends. 

Where does Mr. Burbank get his au- 
thority for the statement that " — and 
the demand for trained specialists is 
less than ever before."? We all know 
that industry is becoming more the 
work of the specialist every day. A few 
years ago a Carpenter was hired because 
he was a good all-round mechanic, cap- 
able of working anywhere on the house. 
He built the forms, framed the struc- 
ture and then after the plaster had set 
came back and installed the trim. Now 
certain men work at nothing but form 
work, especially on large construction 



work, others have specialized on inter- 
ior trim on these same large jobs. There 
are the men who have turned to stair- 
building, and what is more specialized 
than hardwood floor work. Some men 
make a life study of Roof Framing and 
are always in demand in every city. I 
again ask where does he get his author- 
ity? 

Why group such trades as; Rodmen 
(I suppose he means Reinforcing rods), 
Structural iron work, Ornamental iron 
work together? I admit they all use 
iron, but how? What is the reason for 
classifications of the following trades 
under the heading "Trowel Trades."? 
The Stone cutter is not interested in 
using a trowel to set the stone, he leaves 
that to the stone setter. The Plasterer 
and Bricklayer use mortar, but of a 
different mix and for a different pur- 
pose. The Tile setter, Stone Mason, 
Terrazzo worker and Cement Finisher 
complete his list. Why are they all to- 
gether? 

In the article as printed in "The 
Building Age" the author makes this 
statement; "Trained journeymen versed 
in several trades would at once have dis- 
tinct advantages over others: some of 
which are: 

A. Days of employment per year 
would be greater. 

B. More master mechanics would be 
needed. 

C. Unfit or unsuited workers would 
be eliminated. 

In answer to these three statements 
may I quote from some of the Trades- 
men, Educators, Contractors, and Pro- 
fessional men who have read Mr. Bur- 
bank's article. These men are all rated 
as experts in their fields. 

"You can't make work by having 
workmen able to do several things. If 
the work is there, every workman will 
have work in his own line. The total 
days of employment for workers would 
not be greater as stated unless the work 



22 



THE CARPENTER 



was slowed up by having 'Jack of all 
Trades' on the job. 

"It is doubtful if a combination of 
trades could be offered by the workmen 
without having a general lowering of 
standards. Your most efficient worker 
is a specialist." 

"I am positively opposed to the school 
messing up the skilled crafts. We only 
have to join the band wagon of the so- 
called industrial arts to be lost in this 
maze of confusion. Don't misunder- 
stand me, I am a strong advocate for 
the type of industrial arts which offers 
say six weeks TRYOUTS in a great var- 
iety of industrial pursuits." 

"Your colleague has evidently not had 
much experience in the trades. An over 
emphasis of the philosophy of some of 
our leaders in industrial arts is gener- 
ally responsible for such a point of view. 
Vocational educators must combat this 
school of thought or retire from the 
field." 

"I think the writer failed to take into 
consideration the time spent in becom- 
ing proficient in one trade, let alone 
several." 

We of the teaching profession are 
often criticised for statements made by 
certain of our members. The teachers 
on the staff of the Vocational Schools of 
Cincinnati are taken from the ranks of 
industry. We are required to meet cer- 
tain requirements set up by the City of 
Cincinnati, the State of Ohio, and the 
National Government, under the Smith- 
Hughes Act. When some teacher has 
come direct from the University into the 
teaching profession and has never had 
contact with industry as an active work- 
er for a living we can not expect him to 
have the view point of industry or the 
industrial trained worker, but rather 
that of industrial arts in which he was 
trained. The person attempting to write 
such an article should seek the advice 
and counsel of those more familiar with 
the subject. 

The following is the set up of two of 
our representative Vocational Schools 
here in Cincinnati, Ohio. I have chosen 
two schools connected with the building 
trades. 

Building Voc. High 

Building Industries Shops, 15 hours 
per week. 

Related English, 2 hours per week. 



Related Mathematics, 5 hours pev 
week. 

Civics and accident prevention, 2 
hours per week. 

Related Drawing (Blue print read 
ing), 4 hours per week. 

Related Science, 2 hours per week. 

Electrical Voc. High 

Electrical shops and laboratories, 15 
hours per week. 

Related English, 2 hours per week. 

Related Mathematics, 5 hours per 
week. 

Civics and accident prevention, 2 
hours per week. 

Related Drawing (Blue print read- 
ing), 4 hours per week. 

Related Science, 2 hours per week. 

Our Trade History is concerned with 
the history of the various tools and of 
the trade of Carpentry or Electrical 
worker as the case may be. By Related 
English, Related Drawing, etc., we 
mean that English, drawing, etc., DI- 
RECTLY related to the trade being 
taught. 

We are not trying to turn out jour- 
neymen; rather we are trying to give 
the boy an advanced start in his ap- 
prenticeship, by teaching the funda- 
mentals of tool care, usage and the fun- 
damentals of the trade. Our boys must 
be fourteen years of age and have satis- 
factorily completed the eighth grade. 
They enroll in our school on the next 
school day after the closing of school in 
June, continue in school through June, 
July, and August. They then receive 
two weeks vacation, returning on the 
regular opening date of the public 
schools in September for the start of 
the second term. They complete their 
year of 48 weeks, 3 hours per week, 
6 hours per day, 5 days per week the 
following June. The course lasts for a 
period of two years or, longer if the 
student cares to stay for more advanced 
work. 

The following is an excerpt from an 
article in the April 1920 issue of "The 
Carpenter." It was written by my father, 
Baxter E. Hart, who was then Senior 
Instructor of Carpentry in the Govern- 
ment Schools for returned soldiers. Up 
to the time of his death he was a mem- 
ber of the Brotherhood. It was he who 



THE CARPENTER 



23 



taught me my trade and many a happy 
day did we have working at the trade, 
in Cincinnati, California, New Jersey, 
and Florida. 

"To be a successful carpenter of today 
one must have the ability to read a 
blue print, and also be able to intelli- 
gently express himself by the aid of his 
pencil.' 'To be brief, he must under- 
stand architectural drawing, at least, in 
so far as it pertains to his own trade.' 
'The carpenter should have some idea 
of the strength of materials that he 
uses in his work.' 'All carpenter fore- 
men should understand the building 
code of the city in which they work, at 
least, in so far as it applies to their 
own trade.' 'A knowledge of the various 
woods used in the building in his local- 
ity is very essential to the progressive 
carpenter. A wood that will make a 
beautiful interior finish may be practi- 
cally useless as an exterior finish ex- 
posed to the weather.' 'He must in fact, 
have a good knowledge of mensuration 
and some geometry.' 'A knowledge of 
contracts and building laws in relation 
to owner and contractors would be very 
valuable right here." 

It is evident from the above that out- 
side of becoming more specialized the 
trade of carpentry has remained the 
same. The same things that were essen- 
tial then are essential now, and where 
is a more logical place to learn these 
essentials and fundamentals than in a 
school under competent instructors. 

Eugene E. Hart, Instructor in Car- 
pentry and Roof Framing, Build- 
ing Vocational High School. 
Principal of Building Vocational 
Evening School, Cincinnati, O. 



Unemployment and Malnutrition 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

Malnutrition is a "windmill" that I 
have longed to tilt at, but I lacked data, 
although I was particularly interested 
in the subject. Through the courtesy 
of Doctor Ella Oppenheim, of Washing- 
ton, I am the fortunate possessor of a 
mimeographed copy of the proceedings 
of the Child Health Recovery Confer- 
ence, held in Washington on October 6, 
19 33; also programs, examination cards 
and diet lists. 

We really live our lives moment by 
moment, so with our great "Social Prob- 
lems," the magnitude of our task ap- 



palls if we try to be too comprehensive 
at once. If we try to solve a fragment 
at a time perhaps we can solve that 
portion. I am not concerned about 
changing the "System"; if we change 
our own thought and try to solve the 
vital questions, I think that the system 
will adjust itself. 

Secretary of Labor, Perkins, from 
time to time received reports of under- 
nourishment of children, which made 
her uneasy. Checking and re-checking 
reports, it appeared to be a fact that 
25 per cent of the children of school and 
pre-school age were undernourished; 
hence the calling of the conference on 
October 6th. 

Briefly, I wish to impress on you the 
fact that Malnutrition is a vital and 
urgent problem; to arouse a sense of 
responsibility in your minds; to give 
you some slight understanding of the 
continuous sense of insecurity of the 
worker, and to recognize one of the 
chief by-products of the depression. 

Federal Relief Commissioner Hopkins 
said: "There are 6,000,000 children in 
the United States getting public relief. 
They are, in the main, children of work- 
ers, children of parents that are taking 
the licking in this depression, on a 
pauper level of 5 to 6 cents per day." 

Mr. Hopkins then announced that it 
had been decided to allow "Relief 
Funds" to be used for school lunches 
for children of the unemployed. 

New York City showed considerable 
increase of malnutrition, after examin- 
ing approximately 400,000 children. 

For Example: Manhattan increased 
from 16 per cent in 19 29 to 2 9 per 
cent in 1932. Bronx, from 13 per cent 
to 23 per cent. 

Pennsylvania, excluding Philadelphia, 
— showed an average of 25 per cent 
from malnutrition; based on 667,000 to 
1,000,000 examinations; some increase 
45 per cent and some 100 per cent. 

West Virginia in 19 31 in a survey 
covering 34 counties and 42,219 school 
children, showed 23.1 underweight; Vir- 
ginia sounds the warning that we shall 
in later years reap the harvest, in tuber- 
culosis and other ills. Kentucky re- 
ports: — Examined 38,000 children and 
find 25 per cent undernourished. 

Need I say more in proof that the 
problem exists? 



24 



THE CARPENTER 



Oddly enough North Carolina reports 
decrease of malnutrition among the 
children, except in a few poor spots, but 
reports malnutrition among the moth- 
ers. Mrs. Franklin Roosevelt also spoke 
about the mothers. She said, "Many 
children are being born today whose 
mothers are physically below par." 

"The figures that we have now ap- 
palled me at the very poor progress that 
we are making in the care of our moth- 
ers, and that has a very distinct bearing 
on th" possibilities for the children of 
the future." 

Mrs. Roosevelt also spoke of Puerto 
Rico, tracing the inefficiency and re- 
luctance of taking responsibility in the 
people, back to the period when there 
was a food shortage there. 

"Suggested Remedies." 
Child Health Recovery Conference: — 
The Chairman (Miss Grace Abbott) 
said: 

"I wish it could be done by the father 
bringing home a pay envelope that is 
full . . . anything else is a poor, wretched 
substitute for what ought to be done." 

Dr. Beatty (Utah) was blunt and 
plain: 

"They need food and education." He 
implied that a great need for food was 
there and would have to be met. 

Dr. Emerson: 

"We should avoid .... increasing in 
anyway the people's fear." 

Emergency Relief Administration: 

Remarks by Dr. Haven Emerson — 
"They have asked if we would be will- 
ing to have the nurses recommend to 
them, families that they think should 
receive additional amounts for food. 
They would be willing to grant from $1 
to $3 additional, merely on the recom- 
mendation of the nurse or the doctor." 

Dr. Bailey B. Burrit: 

"There is not much use in examina- 
tions . . unless recommendations are ac- 
tually followed up in the home." 

The Red Cross provided for lunches 
in 3,6 00 schools with 184,000 children. 

Dr. Beatty (Utah) — Reports that they 
are trying to improve malnutrition by 
serving soup for school lunches. 

Dr. Earle G. Brown — Secretary Kan- 
sas Board of Health, made what to my 
mind, is one of the most important sug- 
gestions for rural districts. He said: 



"In some agricultural counties, we 
find that 70 per cent of the children, 
for whom we thought the information 
was correct, were not using milk. 

"On the other hand, we found the 
largest proportion of milk drinkers, and 
the lowest proportion of malnourished 
children, in the counties having full- 
time health departments." 

I have not mentioned the fathers. 
Cast your minds back to old times; the 
horse feeding on grass all winter looked 
fine; as soon as you started him to 
work he went to pieces unless you first 
fed him oats. 

Nuff Said 

Albert E. Edginton, R. S., 
L. U. No. IS. Hamilton, Ont. 



Appreciates Our Journal 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

Looking over our journal from cover 
to cover (the March issue) I was inter- 
ested in the editorial from the AMERI- 
CAN BUILDER. When that paper start- 
ed it was "The Carpenter and Builder." 
Your editorials and official information 
are both valuable and interesting, so are 
all the rest of the pages. Correspond- 
ence was unusually interesting. I only 
hope every brother in the organization 
will read Brother Perry's letter. 

I was saddened to note the death of 
Brother Cattermull who was with us so 
much in years gone by. I doubt very much 
if there is another carpenter "in Indian- 
apolis who knew him as well as I did. 

I received many appreciative letters 
from carpenters who secured my little 
booklet "On The Square." 

Any brothers wanting my latest leaf- 
lets "On The Square," or who want 
my book "Carpenters Square and Com- 
passes" can receive further information 
by corresponding with me. 

D. L. Stoddard, 
R. R. 4, Box 141, Indianapolis, Ind. 

* * * 

Another Appreciative Reader 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

I, personally, wish to take this oppor- 
tunity to compliment you on the splen- 
did issue of "The Carpenter" for the 
month of March. It contains much val- 
uable and informative material which I 
am sure our members will find very in- 
teresting 

LeRoy Westervelt, F. S., 
L. U. No. 265. Hackensack, N. J. 



THE CARPENTER 



25 



Four States Have No Workmen's Com- 
pensation Laws 

At its first convention, in 1881, the 
American Federation of Labor demand- 
ed stricter laws making employers liable 
for all accidents to employes resulting 
from employer negligence or incompe- 
tency. Later the A. F. of L. demanded 
radical modification of the unjust bar to 
recovery of damages based on the legal- 
istic and judicial fellow servant doc- 
trine, and its accompanying waiver of 
rights, assumption of risk, and contribu- 
tory negligence, all of which were clever 
schemes devised to relieve employers 
from financial obligation toward injured 
employes. 

As a result of organized labor's ef- 
forts, the State of Washington, in 1911, 
enacted the first adequate compensation 
law. Other States have followed the 
example set by Washington until now 
forty-four States and the District of 
Columbia have compensation legisla- 
tion. 

The justice of workmen's compensa- 
tion is generally admitted. It is there- 
fore regrettable that the legislatures of 
four States still refuse this meager 
equity to the workers who are the vic- 
tims of accidents, often fatal, while en- 
gaged in the production of commodities 
and the performance of services solely 
for the private profit of their employers. 
Nevertheless, this basic right is still de- 
nied working men and women and their 
dependents in Arkansas, Florida, Missis- 
sippi and South Carolina. 

Organized labor in these States has 
persistently fought for the enactment 
of appropriate workmen's compensation 
laws. But the industrial and legislative 
bourbons who dominate the legislatures 
have succeeded in blocking the pro- 
posal. Usually the outstanding persons 
opposing this legislation are those who 
have persistently fought adequate child 
labor laws and refused to recognize the 
right of their employes to organize in 
effective trade unions for the purpose 
of collective bargaining in the adjust- 
ment of wages and hours and other 
working conditions. 

The political and industrial leaders in 
these four backward States should cease 
their opposition to adequate protection 
for injured workers and their families 
and promptly enact up-to-date work- 
men's compensation laws. By so doing 



they will get more in touch with the 
general spirit underlying the President's 
Recovery Program. 



New York Courts Refuse To Enjoin 
Union Workers 

Organized workers in New York have 
won two big victories by decisions of 
New York courts. 

In one case, the judge said he did not 
believe in government by injunction; in 
the other case the judge declared the 
National Recovery Act had deprived 
employers of the company union and the 
"open shop." 

Following a hearing on petitions for 
injunctions and damages filed against 
each other by the Radio Factory Work- 
ers' Union and the Cornell-Dubilier 
Condenser Corporation, in the Bronx, 
Justice Charles B. McLaughlin of the 
Bronx Supreme Court said: 

"I don't see much need for an in- 
junction. I will not restrain organized 
labor. We don't want government by 
injunction if we can help it." 

In Brooklyn Supreme Court, Justice 
Paul Bonynge denied an application for 
a temporary injunction to restrain a 
union from picketing. 

The Kings County Haberdashers' As- 
sociation, which controls 12 stores in 
Flatbush, sought an injunction against 
the Retail Hat and Furnishing Sales- 
men's Union, asking that the union's 
officers and members be restrained from 
interfering with its customers by picket- 
ing, approaching its employes or "doing 
any other illegal acts." 

"Motion for temporary injunction de- 
nied with $10 costs," Justice Bonynge 
wrote. "The defendants have neither 
committed nor threatened any illegal 
acts. The law recognizes their right to 
spread the gospel of unionism and to 
picket places of business of recalcitrant 
employers. The plaintiff's assumption 
that the provisions of the National Re- 
covery Act fortify their position is a 
mistaken one. Nothing in the act cur- 
tails the rights previously enjoyed by 
labor. Quite to the contrary, Congress 
has greatly strengthened the arm of la- 
bor by stripping its traditional enemy 
of two highly effective weapons, viz. : 
the company union and the open shop." 



Ego in moderation is good for man, 
it aids the development of character. 



Craft Probloms 




CARPENTRY 

(By H. H. Siegele) 

LESSON LXVII 

Marking for studding, joists or for 
openings, is not a difficult job, however, 
it must be done with care, if the proper 
degree of accuracy is to be attained. 
One of the first requirement, is a good 
pencil, well sharpened, with lead not 
too hard and not too soft. A pencil that 
is too hard, will not leave enough mark 
to be readily seen, and one that is too 
soft will wear away too fast. Another 
essential, is a good steel square, with 
the figures and graduation marks clear- 
ly visible, so that it will not be neces- 
sary to search for them. A good way to 
bring out the figures and marks on ah 
otherwise good square, is to clean out 
the groves thoroughly, and then apply 
a coat of white enamel, allow this to 
dry until it will cut without smearing, 
and then with a sharp chisel shave off 
the enamel, which will leave the figures 
and graduation marks full of enamel, 
thus bringing them out so they can eas- 
ily be read. 

Top and bottom plates should be 
marked together, that is to say, the two 
plates should be laid side by side, and 



•*■! 



^ 



^ 



- 



■5 6 7 9 9 



u 



II IZ '3 1-4- IS 16 

— I r if i T i i -ti - 



ll ir ii \t ii i i 



1 •'•}.' 



Fig. 381 

marked for the studding, with one oper- 
ation. The body of the square should 
be kept tight against the edge of one of 
the plates, while the marking is done 
along the two edges of the tongue. The 
practice of making just one mark, and 



then placing a cross mark where the 
studding is to be placed is not only un- 
satisfactory, but it requires more time 
than the two-line marking. For in- 
stance, two operations are all that are 
necessary for the two-line marking, 
while for the one-line-and-crosss mark- 
ing, three operations are required, one 
for the line, and two for the cross. 

For two-story buildings, where a rib- 
bon or ledger board is used, the spacing 
from the plates should be transferred to 




the ribbon board. The same thing is 
true for the end-joists, onto which the 
studding are nailed; they should be 
marked to correspond with the bottom 
and top plates, which will prevent any 
variation in the width of the building 
from the bottom plate to the top plate. 
To mark these various pieces separate- 
ly with the square, often results in dif- 
ferenes in their length as well as in 
the spacing, owing to the fact that the 
square can not be held exactly alike 
for the various operations. Another 
thing about marking, the line should 
be made as close to the edge of the 
square as possible, and only one line to 



THE CARPENTER 



27 



the edge — practice of making two or 
more strokes along the edge of the 
square when marking, presumably to 
insure a definite mark, cannot be too 
severely condemned. Quite frequently 



^:- 



^ 



\ 



I 



Fig. 3 83 

it happens, that each stroke makes a 
separate line, which makes it confusing 
when you try to tell which line is sup- 
posed to be used. Men with unsteady 
hands more frequently indulge in this 
practice than those who are sure of 
their action; however, making superflu- 
ous strokes when marking, no matter 
who does it, is usually due to habit. 
"Watch yourself the next time you do 
some marking, and see whether you 
yourself are entirely rid of this habit; 
if not, start at once to eliminate it. 

Marking tools used in carpentry are: 
Pencil, scratch awl, knife, scribers, com- 
pass, gauge, chalk, chalk-line, and for 
emergencies, nails, which sometimes in- 
clude finger nails. There are probably 




Fig. 384 

other marking tools, but these are all 
that come to my mind at this writing. 
The reader, no doubt, can think of some 
marking tools, which have played a part 
in his individual experience, or which 



might have more nearly a local signifi- 
cance, or which are used in particular 
branches of our trade and not in others. 
Marking means so much in carpentry, 
that it can either make or mar the use- 
fulness of any mechanic. 

In the previous lesson we dealt with 
framing and erecting one-story skele- 
tons. In this lesson we take up skele- 
tons for two-story buildings. Here, as 
in the previous lesson, we are not going 
into details, for the reason that most of 
this work becomes common knowledge 
to every carpenter very early in his ex- 
perience; but, as we stated in the other 
lesson, it belongs to carpentry, and so 
we are treating it. Marking the top and 
bottom plates for the studding was ex- 
plained in the previous lesson as well as 
in the preliminary remarks of this les- 
son, where we also explained marking 




Fig. 3 85 

the ribbon boards and the end joists for 
the studding. With these things in 
mind, we will turn to Fig. 381, where 
the corner posts, which should be erect- 
ed first and braced, are marked c c. At 
d, we are showing a brace in place. 
Before any of the studding can be erect- 
ed, the ribbon boards should be put up. 
The one marked a, should be fastened 
to the corner post and to the center 
studding, marked number 10, then the 
board marked b, should be nailed into 
place in the same manner. Now com- 
mencing with studding number 1, the 
studding are nailed into places in the 
order shown by numbers, one carpenter 
nailing the ribbon board, and another 
toe-nailing the studding to the bottom 



2S 



THE CARPENTER 



plate while another man lifts the stud- 
ding into place. Fig. 382 shows how 
the studding are notched to receive the 
ribbon board, and Pig. 3 83 shows the 
skeleton wall completed, including the 
doubled top plate. 

Fig. 384 shows how to proceed on 
the sides where the studding are fas- 
tened to the end joists. Here, as in the 
other case, the corners marked c c, 
are erected first, then the joists marked 
a and b are nailed into place, as shown. 
Now, with a man nailing the joist to 
the studding and another man nailing 
the studding to the bottom plate, pro- 
ceed to erect the studding in the order 
shown by numbers, 1, 2, 3 and so on. 
It will be noticed by referring to Figs. 
3S2 and 3 8 3, that the braces shown are 
nailed on the inside, in order to keep 



1 












n ^ 






c 


^ ir— -^: — = 




. \- ■ " : '.-- * 


\ v : ' ; ^r-.-' : \ 



Fig. 386 

them out of the way when the studding 
are erected. Fig. 385 shows how the 
joists are nailed to the center studding, 
which in Fig. 3 84 is marked number 
10. Fig. 386 shows the skeleton wall 
completed. 

In order that the reader will not be 
misled, we want to say that the braces 
shown on the illustrations, are given 
merely to show how braces should be 
nailed — no attempt has been made to 
show what constitutes proper bracing. 
The corners should be braced two ways 
on every story, and the walls should be 
braced enough to hold them in proper 
alignment. As a rule, proper bracing 
is governed by conditions or circum- 
stances. No hard-and-fast rule can be 
laid down, other than the rule of sub- 
stantiality. 

In the next lesson we will take 
up framing rough openings in outside 
walls. 



THE FRAMING SQUARE 

(By L. Perth) 
PART TWENTY-THREE 

There is a story about a man who was 
asked whether he knew how to play the 
fiddle. "I do not know, he said, I never 
tried." 

I venture to say there are scores of 
building operatives who at some time or 
other find themselves in the position of 
the man who did not know whether he 
could play the fiddle or not. They never 
have tried their hand at many of the 
important phases of their trade, either 
for lack of interest, fear of responsibil- 
ity, mental indolence or trusting good 
luck — that they may always get by — by 
doing some unimportant, routine work 
they were doing all their life. 

Times have changed considerably a 
long time before this economic debacle 
has struck our globe. Rapid develop- 
ment in every province of engineering 
and particularly in building construc- 
tion has compelled man to compete with 
machinery which costs less to operate, 
produces more work and is more reli- 
able than man is, which is very unfortu- 
nate for the man. 

There is, however, one thing that the 
machine will never replace and that is 
mind-power. It is therefore evident that 
in order to win the battle in this cruel 
war of competition one must direct all 
his efforts into the development of his 
mental powers no matter what the na- 
ture of his activities may be. 

Did it ever occur to you that carpen- 
try is the branch of building construc- 
tion which requires more skill, more 
initiative, more inventive ability and 
technical knowledge than any other 
trade employed on an equal basis in the 
erection of buildings. It should be the 
highest ambition of each carpenter to 
measure up to the highest possible 
standard of his trade. 

The above is particularly true of roof 
framing. As long as buildings are to be 
built, there always will be roofs to be 
framed. 

There are machines on the market to- 
day which can accurately cut and shape 
rafters. They can produce roof mem- 
bers for a certain type of a roof, width 
and pitch. But no machine will ever be 
able to construct a roof of any shape, 
width, pitch, and above all satisfy the 



THE CARPENTER 



29 



whim and vagaries of the architect. It 
takes a real carpenter to do that. And 
as long as a man can boast he can meet 
the situation, not necessarily in roof 
framing only, you understand, he need 
not worry to be out of a job. 

It is an easy matter to test just how 
much mind does participate in the work 
you do. We propose to try it in a gen- 
eral way in this particular paper, using 
the diagrams accompanying this text. 

Produce a pencil and a sheet of pa- 
per. Your carpenters' pencil will do 
and any kind of paper, even such as 



In Pig. 4 a corner of a hip roof is 
shown. The building is 28 feet long and 
is 17 feet wide. There is a ridge board 
used on this roof. How many hip rafters 
will this roof require and how many 
common rafters will there be at each 
end? Make a rough sketch showing how 
the ridge board and the hip rafters 
come together. 

Do you think the common rafters at 
the ends will be longer or shorter than 
the common rafters on the sides of the 
roof. 

This writer will be only too glad to 




AtoT&e 





Pisrre 



Pioafi- 



■jP/ffSS 





C^S 



5/Ef/ saomes 







used for wrapping will answer the pur- 
pose. 

Refer to diagram No. 2. Here the 
end view of a roof is represented. It is 
a plain gable roof, the rafters are 14 
feet long and are spaced at 24 inches on 
centers. The building is 3 6 feet long. 
Draw a plan of this roof on your paper 
and determine how many lineal feet of 
lumber will be required. When we say 
"draw" we do not expect you to make a 
"drawing." This is the part of the 
draftsman and the architect. But any 
one certainly is able to make a line or a 
number of lines as nearly straight as 
possible and arrange these lines in the 
manner he thinks they should be. This 
is where the activity of your mind 
comes in. 



verify your sketches and replies if you 
will send a self-addressed envelope to 
L. Perth, 745 West Garfield Blvd., Chi- 
cago, 111. 

PROBLEMS IN ROOF FRAMING 

1. In diagram No. 1 what is indicat- 
ed by letter "A"? 

2. Referring to Fig. 2 define "B" 
"C" and "D." Formulate the rule 
for finding the pitch of the roof? 

3. What does "E" indicate in dia- 
gram No. 3. 

4. What is the name of the roof 
member indicated by "J" in dia- 
gram No. 4. What do letters "G" 
"H" and "I" indicate? 



30 



T .' I E CAR P E \ T E R 



5. Explain diagram shown in Fig. 5 
and 6. Formulate the rule which 
should be followed in shaping the 
respective cut . 

ANSWERS 

1. The rise of the rafter per foot 
run. 

2. "B" is the pitch of the roof. "C" 
is the total rise and "D" is the 
span. To find the pitch of the roof 
divide the rise by the span. 

3. When ridge board is used in roof 
construction half of the thickness 
of same should be deducted from 
the length of the rafters obtained 
from the tables on the Steel 



Square. Thus in diagram 3 "F" 
is the theoretical length of the. 
rafter. The actual length will be 
"F" minus "E". 

4. The letter "J" indicates the 
"jack-rafter." "G" is the top cut 
against the hip. "H" is the side 
cut and "I" the bottom cut. 

5. The diagrams in Fig. 5 and G rep- 
resent the method of obtaining 
top and bottom cuts for hip and 
valley rafters. The following rule 
should be followed — "Use 17 
inches on the body of the Square 
and the 'rise per foot run" on the 
tongue. 17 on the body will give 
the seat cut and the figures on 
the tongue the vertical or top cut. 



Roof Framing Made Easier 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

As Roof framing seems to be a regular feature of the "The Carpenter," I am 
submitting a drawing which I think will be interesting and may help some brother 
to work out another way to check his framing. 

Peter A. Reilly, 

Local Union No. 40, 
Boston, Mass. 



J8"_RISE pfb.^7_/z_^ — ~z ~ p/tch 

15 RISE_P.FD. S6 '/+ 



& Pitch 




{t-£r<JGTH 
war ro sca 



SCALE : I" equals l'-O" 



Plan and elevation of hip roofs, showing relation of common rafter to hip and the respective 
lengths of each with the jacks flat to show cuts and lengths. All being obtained by descriptive 
geometry and square root for a check with the steel square to find the rise per foot run. Hi)> 
rafter lengths are obtained by measuring down at right angle from the 45 degree angle line a 
distance equalling the total rise for each pitch, and measuring to points (G) and (H), from 
points: (I) (J) (K) (L) (M) (N) and (O). 



THE CARPENTER 



o J. 



A Beading-Plane Gauge 

(By H. H. Siegele) 

A very simple way of making a bead- 
ing plane, and at the same time a gauge, 
is illustrated by the accompanying 
drawings. 

Fig. 1, shows a perspective view of 
the device, indicating the position it is 
in when used as a beading plane. Fig. 



Bead 




Fig 



2, shows an end view of the device and 
the timber onto which a bead is formed. 
Fig. 3, shows the results, when the de- 
vice is used as a gauge. 

A block of wood, and a flat-head 




Fig. 2 

screw is all that is necessary. The size 
of the bead, or the width of the gauge 
line, can be controlled by simply turn- 
ing the screw in or out, whichever the 



Gau 




Fig. 3 

case requires. Again, a very large bead 
would require a larger screw than a 
very small one. The groove in the head 
of the screw answers as the cutter and 



clean-out, which can be enlarged or 
deepened by means of a knife-blade file. 
After the groove for the bead is cut, 
as shown in Fig. 1, the corner of the 
material onto which the bead is cut is 
rounded with a plane and finished with 
sandpaper. 



Answers and Explanations to Questions 

and Problems Appearing at Various 

Times in These Columns 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

In the February issue of "The Car- 
penter" Brother Frank Miller presents 
a problem to be solved. This same prob- 
lem has already been ably solved and 
explained in two past issues of the "The 
Carpenter under the title of the "Pic- 
ture Frame Problem."* In the July issue 
both Frank De Guerre, L. U. No. 22, and 
C. L. Pelham, L. U. No. 13 3 5, ably 
solved the problem and in the Septem- 
ber issue, Paul I. James, Norwalk, 
Conn., gave the best solution for Mr. 
Miller to use as he gives data for both 
the square and the rectangle. Hope this 
will solve Mr. Miller's troubles and that 
we may see> more of these difficult prob- 
lems in the future. 

Lon W. Skinner, 
L. U. No. 678. Dubuque, la. 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

Assume the width of the walk to be 
X yard. The total area of this walk is 
obtained by multiplying the added sides 
of the building with the width of the 
walk plus its 4 corners and wants to 
equal 270 square yards. 

Or in algebraic terms: 

6 8 times X plus 4 times X squared 
equals 270. 

This arranged to the basic form of a 
quadratic equation: 

X squared plus 16.5 X minus 67.5 
equals zero. 

(The solution of this type of an equa- 
tion is given in any book teaching al- 
gebra.) 

X equals the square root of 135.5625 
minus 8.25 or 3.393131 yard. 

Then B equals 21.786262 yards and 
C equals 24.786262 yards (wanted ex- 
act). 

3.39 3 yards are changed into feet and 
inches like this: Multiply by 3 for feet 
and get 10.179 feet. For inches multi- 



32 



THE CARPENTER 



ply decimal fraction by 12 and get 2.148 
inches. For 32nds multiply decimal 
fraction by 32 and get 4.7 or 5/32nd. 
3.393 yards equal 10 feet, 2 and 5/32nd 
inches. 

Conrad Herre, 
L. U. No. 419. Chicago, 111. 

* * * 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

I am submitting an answer to Brother 
Frank Miller's problem published in 
February issue of "The Carpenter." 

Question No. 1. Exact width of walk 
10 ft. 2 13/100" 

Question No. 2. Length of C or long- 
side 74 ft. 4 27/100 inches and Length 
of B Short Side 65' 4 27/100 inches. 

S92 27/100 x 784 27/100 inches 
equals 699771. plus 7928 divided by 
144 inches equals 4859 76/144 square 
feet divided by 9 equals 539 yards and 
8 76/100 square feet or 64 square inches 
short of 540 square yards. 

So he can keep on his own land. 

Herman W. Scott, 

Gardiner, Me. 

Editor, "The Carpenter": . 

Following is a solution of problem 
appearing in the February Carpenter 
submitted by Brother Frank Miller, L. 
U. No. 180, Vallejo, Calif. 

The square root of 270 yds. "Area of 
inner Rectangle" equals 16.4317 yds. 

The square root of 540 yds. "Area of 
inner and outer Rectangles equals 23.- 
2379 yds. 

Difference in sides of Rectangles 
23.2379 minus 16.4317 equals 6.8062 
yds. 

15 yds. plus 6.802 yds. equals 21.8062 
yds. Width of outer Rectangle B 

18 yds. plus 6.8062 yds. equals 
24.8062 yds. length of Outer Rectangle 
C 

24.802 x 21.8062 equals 539.92895844 
yds. 

6.S062 divided by 2 equals 3.4031 yds. 
on the width of Walk D. 

This is as close to the correct solu- 
tion as possible by using yards as the 
unit and extending fractions to four 
points. 

E. J. Weekley, F. S., 
L. U. No. 3. Wheeling, W. V a . 



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THE CARPENTER 



Just A Woodworker 

You're "just a woodworker," is that what you said, 

Who ''makes things of wood just to earn daily bread?" 

— Is that all you see in this great craft of ours 

That dates back to history's earliest hours, 

To when some ancestor carved out a crude shelf, 

Or a stool to sit down on to relax himself, 

To when earliest man, in the best way he could, 

Began, e'en though crudely, to "make things of wood"? 

All down through the ages our craft played its part 

With every developing science and art, 

And as each new advancement was made by the race 

This great craft of ours kept ever apace; 

And with civilization, in its long forward sweep, 

This good craft of ours has been able to keep 

In a place most essential; where would man have been 

If the woodworker ne'er had appeared on the scene? 

The savage in making his arrow and bow, 

Or his spear, or his club, found it needful to know 

How to work them from wood, and from this humble start 

Has come all the skill of the woodworker's art. 

The throne in the palace, the stool in the hut, 

The bed the king sleeps on, the fisherman's cot, 

The nobleman's carriage, from wheel unto shaft, 

All, tribute must pay to the woodworker's craft. 

How could modem humanity ever exist 

Without tables and chairs, and the whole lengthy list 

Of things made of wood, which we use all the time, 

In every country, in every clime? 

There are setters and consols, and great office chairs, 

Plow-beams, beds, and washboards, in use everywheres, 

And radios, and cabinets of many a stamp, 

(And likewise the workman's own workbench and clamp.) 

There are toothpicks, and bridges, and wagons and sleds, 
And board walks, pianos, and fences and sheds, 
Bookcases, wheelbarrows, picture frames, bats 
For our baseballs, leadpencils, and racks for our hats; 
Broom handles, peg-legs, — and all these have stood 
For the good of mankind, and they're all made of wood. 
And clothes pins, and street cars, — and we hope you'll excuse 
Our neglecting to mention the houses we use. 

There is no one man that stands out from the crowd, 

No Edison or Fulton; fate has not allowed 

That one man might claim to be greatest of all 

'Mongst those who have answered the woodworker's call. 

So when you've done your best to perform your own task, 

(And really there's no more this old world can ask), 

Though only a woodworker, lift up your head 

And be proud of the way you earn your daily bread. 

Frank Shiflersmith, 
L. U. 1367. Chicago, 111. 




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Products ojf IWeyerhaeuser 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of Congress, Aug. 24, 1912 

Acceptance for mailing: at special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, act of 
October 3, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918 



A Monthly Journal for Carpenters, Stair Builders, Machine Wood Workers, Planing Mill Men, and 

Kindred Industries. Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters 

and Joiners of America, at 

Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 

Advertising Department, 25 Third Avenue, New York, N. Y. «^g^»5i 



Established in 1881 
Vol. LIV. — No. 5. 



INDIANAPOLIS, MAY, 1934 



One Dollar Per Year 
Ten Cents a Copy 



NOTICE 



The publishers of "The Carpenter" reserve the right to reject all advertising matter 
which may be, in their judgment, unfair or objectionable to the membership of the United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America. 

All contracts for advertising space in "The Carpenter," including those stipulated as 
non-cancellable, are only accepted subject to the above reserved rights of the publishers. 





A Nation's Strength 

What makes a nation's pillars high 

And its foundations strong? 
What makes it mighty to defy 

The foes that round it throng? 
Not gold but only men can make 

A people great and strong; 
Men who for truth and honor's sake 

Stand fast and suffer long. 
Brave men who work while others sleep, 

Who dare while others fly — 
They build a nation's pillars deep 

And lift them to the sky. 

— Ralph Waldo Emerson 



.11. f. l:Ji pll 




THE CARPENTER 



GREEN FLAYS COMPANY UNION; CLAIMS IT 
DESTROYS WORKERS' RIGHTS 




FFICIALS of the American 
Federation of Labor were 
greatly pleased with the 
announcement by Joseph 
B. Eastman, Federal Co- 
ordinator of Transporta- 
tion, that the United States Government 
would prosecute railroad officials who 
persist in their violation of the labor 
section of the Emergency Transporta- 
tion Act which outlaws the railroad 
company unions by prohibiting the rail- 
roads from maintaining them and influ- 
encing or coercing employes to join 
them. 

It was pointed out that William 
Green, president of the A. F. of L., in 
his recent speech at Detroit, tore the 
company union into shreds before the 
large audience made up largely of auto- 
mobile workers, specifically citing the 
Missouri Pacific Railroad's plan as a 
fair sample of these employer-organized 
and employer-controlled schemes con- 
ceived to attack the economic interests 
of working men and women. 

Declaring that the company union is 
one of the methods used by employers 
to "deny the workers the free exercise 
of their right to join a union of their 
choice," Mr. Green said: 

"The National Industrial Recovery 
Act practically outlawed company un- 
ions. It declared that no employe and 
no one seeking employment shall be re- 
quired as a condition of employment to 
join any company union or to refrain 
from joining, organizing, or assisting a 
labor organization of his own choosing. 

"I believe that was the intent and 
purpose of Congress, to outlaw company 
unions, when it said that no worker 
would be compelled to join a company 
union as a condition of employment. I 
believe Congress meant what it said. 

"The management of a company can- 
not set up a company union for the 
workers without in some way, by sug- 
gestion or by innuendo, requiring the 
employes, the timid employes at least, 
working for that company to become 
members of the company union set-up. 
There is coercion in it from the begin- 
ning to the end. When the worker 
knows that the management wants him 
to join a union he is afraid to say no 



and they have devious ways of letting 
men and women know that they want 
them to join a union which they have 
set up. 

"A company union is fundamentally 
wrong. It is contrary to the provisions 
of the Recovery Act. It is a shadow 
without a substance. It is no union at 
all. It is merely an extension of the 
corporations' power over the economic 
strength of the workers. 

"Did anybody ever see a group of 
workers going into a hall forming a 
company union? Did you ever see a 
group of them writing a constitution for 
their company union? 

"Read the constitutions of company 
unions and you will find they were all 
written by the most highy paid, skillful 
lawyers in the country. They were hand- 
ed to those who belong to a company 
union and who join a company union. 

"Is it not enough for a corporation 
to manage its own affairs, direct its in- 
dustry? Is that not enough? No, they 
want not only to control the industry 
but also the economic life of the work- 
ers. It is against this that we protest. 

"The company union is fostered by 
the company. It is financed by the com- 
pany. It is protected by the company. 
It is the child of the corporation and not 
a very legitimate child at that. It is the 
product of the best thought and mind 
of skilled attorneys and, of course, no 
workers are required to pay dues to it 
because the corporation pays the dues 
for them. 

"No company union ever served the 
workers. Do automobile workers in De- 
troit ever expect to receive a redress 
of their wrongs through their company 
union? 

"One great automobile manufacturer 
said that twenty thousand of his work- 
ers voted to accept his company union. 
That is a joke. I challenge that company 
to permit their workers to go away from 
their plant, off the company's premises, 
into their own hall and hold a secret 
election allowing each man and woman 
to vote in accordance with his con- 
science for the adoption of a union they 
want. 

"The company union is a creature of 
the company's mind. The earnings of 



Til IS CARPENTER 



the company, made possible through the 
service of the workers, are used to pay 
the expenses of the company union. I 
will prove that. 

"The Missouri Pacific Railroad had a 
company union. It was opposed to the 
bona fide trade unions. It went into the 
hands of a receiver. The company union 
did not serve it very well. When it went 
into the hands of the receiver, the Fed- 
eral Co-ordinator of Transportation, Mr. 
Eastman, discovered from an examina- 
tion of the books that during a certain 
period of a large number of years the 
Missouri Pacific had used $500,000 of 
the earnings of that road to foster, fi- 
nance and maintain that company union. 

"So he properly ruled that that was 
an illegal expenditure of the railroad's 
income and that the receiver must stop 
using any funds of the railroad to per- 



petuate, finance and maintain a com- 
pany union. 

"We got an idea there, because we 
think we can prevail upon Congress to 
write into the law that it is an illegal 
use of funds for any corporation, rail- 
road or otherwise, to finance, maintain 
and foster a company union. 

"I think if there is one way that is 
more reprehensible than another in op- 
posing the exercise of the right of work- 
ers to join a Union it is to threaten 
them, to coerce, to silently scare them, 
to let them know through their manage- 
ment that the company union is there 
and the management wants them to 
join it. 

"I think it is reprehensible for the 
management to prevent the workers 
from exercising their right under Sec- 
tion 7-a of the National Recovery Act." 



NATIONAL STUDY SHOWS GENERAL INCREASE IN 

WAGES 




RGUMENTS for higher 
wages and shorter work 
periods are seen in fig- 
ures on national income 
from 1929 to 1932, just 
made public by the Unit- 
ed States Bureau of Foreign and Do- 
mestic Commerce. 

Labor, as always during "hard 
times," suffered most, wages having fall- 
en off 6 per cent and salaries 40 per 
cent. In comparison, property income 
dropped only 30 per cent. 

The study of American incomes, 
showed that the national income 
dropped from $81,000,000,000 in 1929 
to $49,000,000,000 in 1932, a decline 
of 40 per cent. 

The income decline was worst in the 
construction industry, where the income 
distributed in 1932 was only 28 per 
cent of the 19 29 total. Income in min- 
ing fell 60 per cent and manufacturing 
about 55 per cent in the four-year pe- 
riod covered by the study. 

Incomes in the fields of Government, 
communications, food and food products 
manufacturers, electric light, power and 
gas were least affected. 

Revealing the lack of balance between 
purchasing power and profits, the study 
shows that in the boom year 19 2 9 the 



national income distributed to individ- 
uals was $2,000,000,000 less than that 
produced. 

This surplus was retained by corpor- 
ate individual enterprise, instead of be- 
ing paid out in the form of higher 
wages and was used to pay interest and 
dividends in the "lean" years. Accumu- 
lated surpluses and assets were tapped 
in excess of income produced to the ex- 
tent of $10,600,000,000 in the year 
1932, the last included in the survey. 

The study shows that of the total in- 
come distributed in 1929 labor received 
$53,000,000,000 or 65 per cent. 

The maintenance of property income 
at only 30 per cent below 1929 levels 
was explained as due to" maintenance of 
interest payments rather uniformly up 
to 19 32 with only a small drop then. 

That dividends are still well main- 
tained and in fact are on the increase, 
while miserably low wages are being 
paid in industry, is shown by dividend 
reports of recent months. One account 
says dividend reports "make an opti- 
mistic showing." 

Moody's compilation of dividend 
changes for the first half of January, 
for instance, lists the following: 33 ini- 
tial, extra and special dividends; 31 



THE CARPENTER 



resumed dividends, 10 increased, 17 
paid on arrears of the depression, three 
reduced and two passed. 

For the month of December, the same 
authority lists 53 initial, extra and spe- 
cial; 32 resumed, eight increased, 30 on 
arrears, five reduced and nine passed. 

The New York Times' monthly com- 
pilation of dividend payments, as re- 
ported to the Commerce Department, 
listed totals of $123,000,000 in October, 
$259,000,000 in November and $192, 



000,000 in December. This was more 
than one-half of the peak figures of 
1929 and 19 30 for the same quarter, 
and only slightly less than the total for 
the final quarter of 1932. 

Moody's service calculated that an- 
nual dividend payments on the aver- 
age of December payment rates would 
amount to $1,023,400,000, compared to 
$987,000,000 on the basis of October 
dividend rates, and $2,601,000,000 in 
1930. 



ENGINEERS SURVEY BACKS SHORT WEEK 




ESULTS of a seven-year 
fact-finding study of pro- 
ductive work, based on 
data of twelve billion 
man-hours in every ma- 
jor industry all over the 
country, the greatest amount of man- 
hour data so far compiled, were present- 
ed at a meeting of the New York Chap- 
ter of the Society of Industrial Engin- 
eers on December 14, 19 3 3, by Dr. L. 
P. Alford, consulting engineer, and 
Joshua E. Hannum, editor of "The En- 
gineering Index Service." 

Reporting on their survey of pro- 
ductivity, wages and salaries, working 
hours, plant and organization capaci- 
ties and agricultural versus industrial 
prices, the investigators presented the 
following as their findings of fact: 

1. The amount of production in the 
past, as exemplified by the high level 
in the years 1927 to 1929, is not an all- 
time high but simply a high level to 
be not only equaled but even exceeded 
by an increase in the American stand- 
ard of living. This is an absolute con- 
tradiction to the doctrine that we must 
stabilize at a lower standard of living. 

Productivity is independent of busi- 
ness conditions, and in well-managed 
plants the rate of production continu- 
ally increases and is independent of the 
expansion and recession of the business 
cycle. In such plants, it was found, the 
annual rate of increase, due to the in- 
crease in the skill and dexterity of the 
workers and managers, is from 6 to 8 
per cent. 

2. As to wages and salaries, the 
studies positively support the doctrine 
of high wages. Low wages and salary 
rates have been found to go hand in 
hand with low productivity, and vice 
versa. 



3. "Our study of working hours ab- 
solutely supports the doctrine of the 
short work period. In 1931 thirty-five 
hours per week produced as much prod- 
uct as fifty-one hours produced in 
1923." 

Another study determined the optim- 
um, or most favorable length of work 
week, for four basic industries — ma- 
chine tools, pig iron, lumber and petro- 
leum products. It was found that "the 
upper limit of optimum range in every 
case was substantially lower than the 
work week which prevailed down to 
midyear of 1933. In other words, it was 
found that the work week in these four 
basic industries was too long for maxi- 
mum effectiveness. 

"The lower limit of the optimum 
range for maximum effectiveness," Dr. 
Alford and Mr. Hannum said, "has 
been found from our data to be between 
thirty and thirty-five hours per week. 
The advocates of the thirty-hour week 
are thus supported in their position by 
our findings." 

4. As for plant and organization ca- 
pacities, it was found that in general 
small plants have the highest effective- 
ness of operating performance. 

"Mass production methods," the en- 
gineers said, "can be applied success- 
fully in small and medium-sized plants. 
The emphasis should be laid not on 
size but on the production method. We 
have worked out optimum size plants 
for these same four basic industries. In 
every case the range of capacity has 
been found to be a small plant. Thus, 
the findings show that decentralization 
is managerially economically sound. The 
basis of all our measurements was the 
number of man-hours worked per year, 
not the total quantity of output as is 
generally done." 



T 1 1 E CAItl'ENTER 



AGGRESSIVE CAMPAIGN FOR OLD-AGE PENSIONS 
URGED BY A. F. OF L. COUNCIL 




HE necessity of aggressive 
action to secure nation- 
wide security for the aged 
by the enactment of ade- 
quate old-age pension leg- 
islation in every State 
was stressed by the Executive Council 
of the American Federation of Labor in 
their report to the Federation's annual 
convention. 

Twenty-five States now have old-age 
security laws, 19 mandatory and six vol- 
untary, leaving 23 States whose old peo- 
ple are still cared for in almhouses and 
by public and private charity. 

"William Green, president of the Fed- 
eration, sent copies of the A. F. of L. 
model old age security measure to all 
State federations of labor with the re- 
quest that the officers have them in- 
troduced in State legislative bodies. This 
procedure was followed in the 34 legis- 
latures which met in January. But per- 
sistent work is necessary to persuade 
the legislators of the 2 3 backward 
States to recognize and perform their 
duty to the dependent aged. 

In describing the work in the interest 
of old age security performed by the 
American Federation of Labor during 
the year and the general need for pen- 
sion legislation, the Council said: 

"Wage-earners want most of all se- 
curity of income during their producing 
years and assured income for old age. 

"During the past year through State 
federations of labor and city central 
bodies the American Federation of La- 
bor has carried on an aggressive cam- 
paign in behalf of old age pension legis- 
lation. Some progress has been made, 
but not as much as the urgency of the 
situation requires or as the workers 
hope could be recorded. 

"Social justice legislation providing 
for the payment of pensions to super- 
annuated workers was introduced in a 
number of States. 

"In some instances where legislators 
could not be persuaded to vote favor- 
ably for this character of legislation, 
they did vote for the creation of com- 
missions to study the subject and re- 
port at some future sessions of the 
State legislatures. 



"In every instance where votes were 
taken, even though the measures were 
defeated, the workers have reason for 
encouragement because the number of 
votes cast could only be interpreted as 
an indication of the development of fa- 
vorable public opinion in support of 
this legislation. 

"It is the purpose and intention of 
the Executive Council to utilize every 
means at the command of the American 
Federation of Labor and to continue its 
efforts to secure the enactment of old 
age pension laws in the different States. 

"We urge as a social obligation that 
adequate provisions be adopted so that 
every producing worker may be as- 
sured, after his productive years, of an 
adequate income, at least equal to the 
income earned at the time of retire- 
ment. By providing honorably for our 
citizens who have served us in their 
prime, we shall make social and eco- 
nomic adjustments necessary to the 
maintenance of business prosperity. We 
recommend that plans be developed to 
carry out these suggestions. 

The Council listed the following 25 
States as having old-age security laws: 

Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colo- 
rado, Delaware, Idaho, Indiana, Ken- 
tucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts 
Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, 
New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, 
North Dakota, Oregon, Utah, Washing- 
ton, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyo- 
ming. 



Voluntary Agreements Sound 

Senator Robert F. Wagner, chairman 
of the NRA National Labor Board, stat- 
ed a profound truth when he said that 
voluntary agreements between employ- 
ers and workers are always preferable 
to "agreements" forced by an outside 
agency, such as the labor board. 

There is food for thought in his state- 
ment for those who have vociferously 
shouted for more forcible action by the 
board. By waiting until sober second 
thought has had a chance to function, 
the board has obtained more lasting 
agreements in many cases than it would 
have by compulsion. 



Keep Your Dues Paid Up 



THE CARPENTER 



BIG JOB IN REHABILITATION MUST FOLLOW UP 

RECOVERY 




!§^^ARGE-SCALE plans for 
^Vb* human rehabitation "far 
beyond anything that has 
been done in the past" 
should follov up the 
country's program of in- 
dustrial recovery, declared Lewis H. 
Carris, of New York City, managing di- 
rector of the National Society for the 
Prevention of Blindness, in an address 
before the National Conference on Re- 
habilitation of Disabled Persons at Chi- 
cago. 

"The new deal in government," said 
Mr. Carris, "is giving us also a new deal 
in man's attitude to man, in the em- 
ployer's outlook on his responsibility to 
the employe and to the community, in 
the whole country's .attitude toward con- 
servation of human resources as well as 
material resources. There is need now, 
and the time is ripe, for the forces of re- 
habilitation to prepare for the biggest 
job in their history, to co-operate with 
and to seek the co-operation of the many 
other professional groups which can 
help to prevent much of what is other- 
wise impending disaster for 'thousands 
of men and women. 

"Now is the time to reconsider what 
constitutes a handicap for work. Now is 
the time to seek through governmental 
sources the same public interest in and 
perhaps comparable financial support 
for human rehabilitation that we are 
observing in the rehabilitation of manu- 
facturing and distributing machinery 
and practices, in employer-employe re- 
lationships, and in the conservation of 
natural resources. 

"Much has been said of the extent of 
unemployment, of the destitution of 
those who have remained without em- 
ployment for two or three or four years, 
and of the need for material relief. Not 
so much has been said or written of 
those results of the depression which 
are daily adding to the need for rehabil- 
itating men and women — a job which 
will have to be done in the years imme- 
diately ahead. 

"First among these results are mal- 
nutrition and all its consequences. Long 
continued unemployment has affected 
more than 10,000,000 families, number- 
ing probably 40,000,000 individuals, in 
this country in the last three years. 
When one reads the reports of welfare 



workers in immediate touch with these 
families or, better still, talks to these 
workers and hears the observations that 
do not often get into the records, one 
cannot escape the conviction that a 
large proportion of these 40,000,000 — 
those who are on relief rolls as well as 
those who are not — have been hungry 
and underfed, for weeks, months, and 
years. 

"In the years immediately ahead, 
these underfed men and women and 
their grown children will return to our 
factories, mines, railroads, elevators, 
motor trucks, street cars, and other 
work places. It will be years — and pos- 
sibly several generations — before the 
purely physical effects of their long- 
continued privations have been wiped 
out; for many this will never happen. 
Meanwhile, marked increases in public 
and industrial accidents, marked in- 
creases in illness of all sorts are inevit- 
able. 

"These undernourished workers will, 
for years, become more easily fatigued; 
they will, in many cases, be less alert to 
the health and accident hazards of their 
occupations; their co-ordination of sense 
organs — sight, smell and touch — with 
brain impulses will be less rapid. Only 
a miracle will save us from a marked 
increase in the frequency and severity 
of serious industrial injuries and di- 
seases during the next five or ten years. 

"We must seek not only to reduce 
unemployment by redistribution of work 
opportunities; not only to raise the 
standard of living by reducing hours 
and increasing pay rates; but also to con- 
serve to a greater degree than has been 
true in the past, the life, limb, and gen- 
eral health of the American worker. 
Our great difficulty has been that pro- 
duction has been organized not to meet 
the needs of the individuals composing 
society, but to yield the greatest possi- 
ble profit, in order that this profit might 
be reinvested in additional machinery 
and raw material which in turn could 
produce more profit. This philosophy of 
life has resulted in a steadily increasing 
multitude of individuals needing reha- 
bilitation for the loss of sight or limb 
or for disability caused by disease; it 
has produced a much greater multitude 
who need rehabilitation in the sense of 
finding a job and adjustment to life." 



THE CARPENTER 



ACCIDENT RECORD OF WOODWORKING INDUSTRY 

IN OHIO 

(By Thos. P. Kearns, Superintendent, The Industrial Commission of Ohio) 




>&j$t HEN ONE studies the ac- 
cident statistics of the 
woodworking industry in 
Ohio, it is made clearly 
apparent that the hazards 
of operating woodwork- 
ing machinery and the handling of 
woodworking tools are not to be dis- 
missed lightly. 

While 19 3 2 was not a normal year, 
either as regards the numerical strength 
of employees of the industry or the man- 
hours worked, due to the unprecedented 
falling off in industrial activity, the ac- 
cident rolls of the industrial group 
classified as lumber and wood products 
read like the casualty list of a major 
battle. 

Occupational injuries in this group in 
1932 numbered 3,528, of which 22 were 
fatal, 78 caused permanent partial disa- 
bility, 731 over seven days lost time, 
324 seven days or less and 2,3 73 caus- 
ing no time loss but requiring medical 
attention. These figures represent ac- 
tual claims filed with the Industrial 
Commission. 

A review of this record by nature of 
injuries presents a strong indictment of 
the failure of woodworking employers 
to provide proper safeguards and safe 
working conditions and of the empolye 
for the failure to heed ordinary safe 
practices and inclination to thought- 
lessness and carelessness. Woodwork- 
ers suffered 41 direct amputations, of 
which 39 were fingers, 3 asphyxiations, 
108 burns and scalds, 625 crushes and 
bruises, 1,444 cuts and lacerations, 181 
fractures, 445 puncture wounds, 372 
sprains and strains, 16 dislocations and 
293 injuries from causes not classified. 

A further breaking down of the sta- 
tistics discloses that 418 of the injuries 
were to the trunk, 189 to the head and 
face, 5 89 to the eyes, 3 02 to the arms, 
322 to the hands, 1,258 to the fingers, 
247 to the legs, 112 to the feet and 91 
to the toes. 

It is difficult to estimate the cost to 
the injury of these numerous mishaps 
but it is certain that it has been thou- 
sands of dollars and it is equally cer- 
tain that much of this loss could have 
been prevented by a closer adherence to 



safety methods and safe practices. The 
loss to workers is shown in the fact that 
the 3.528 accidental injuries last year 
occasioned a loss of productive capacity 
totalling 209,413 days. Reduced to dol- 
lars and cents this woud represent a 
tremendous drain upon the economic re- 
sources of Ohio wood workers, even in 
a year when employment was at a low 
level. 

This record should have a dramatic 
appeal to all affiliated with the wood- 
working industry in Ohio, not only 
from an economic standpoint, but by 
reason of the humanitarian aspects of 
the situation. These accidents have 
caused a tremendous amount of suffer- 
ing and sorrow and our interest in hu- 
man welfare demands that we take ac- 
count of the great measure of needless 
infliction of physical pain and mental 
anguish that have accompanied them. 

It should be patent to every wood- 
working employer and employe that 
their particular group has contributed 
its full quota to the 131,519 injury and 
occupational disease claims filed with 
the Industrial Commission in 193 2 and 
that a greater stimulation of accident 
prevention effort is needed to bring the 
record nearer to a parity with the man- 
hour exposure of the group. 

The lumber and wood products in- 
dustry of Ohio has not accomplished 
any notable results in organized effort 
for safety, despite the fact that a con- 
siderable number of its representatives 
have worked diligently and persistently 
to that end, firm in the conviction 
brought about by the results in their 
own plants that safety really pays. It 
is to be hoped the efforts of these zeal- 
ous advocates of safety will be reflected 
in a reawakening of interest in 1934. 



When a man possesses a deep sense 
of obligation to humanity he will take 
advantage of every opportunity to ren- 
der service to his fellow men. Selfish- 
ness can have no part in his life. He is 
mindful only of the well-being and hap- 
piness of others. His sojourn, however 
fleeting, is filled with achievement and 
the value of his goodly deeds can not 
be measured by the mere space of time. 
Co-operate! Organize. 



THE CARPENTER 



ORGANIZATION AND THE INDIVIDUAL WORKER 




N spite of the fact that 
organization, unity of ac- 
tion, has benefitted the 
workers immensely, mate- 
rially and intellectually, 
there are still workers, to 
whom membership in a union appears as 
something like a burdensome duty. They 
will eventually become members — es- 
pecially if they "have to" — but in a way 
as though one has to submit to a some- 
what disagreeable condition. 

An attitude like that can only arise 
from thoughtlessness or from a regret- 
table misunderstanding in regard to the 
essential meaning of the principles of 
organization. To become a member of a 
labor organization should be considered 
not a sad duty but as the deliberate, 
voluntary act of a worker who knows 
what is what and who rejoices because 
he is able and permitted to co-oper- 
ate with the forces, ideas, inclinations 
which are foreshadowing a better world 
for labor, for its sons and daughters. 

The most desirable kind of organiza- 
tion exists where its members keep a 
close mental relationship with the or- 
ganized body. Entirely wrong it would 
be to see in it almost nothing but com- 
pulsion to which one submits unwilling- 
ly. Such a wrong conception would soon 
lead to fatal weakness, disintegration, 
and would extinguish all progress to- 
wards greater accomplishments. A stifl- 
ing uniformity may be necessary for in- 
stitutions based on forced discipline but 
the further an organization is from such 
an ideal of servile minds the better will 
it develop. 

It is harmony of organic growth 
which produces variety of color and 
form, the complete whole of which we 
admire in a flower. Analogously will the 
organized activity of human beings, im- 
bued with a spirit of solidarity, result in 
a perfection of social harmony between 
them. 

Every individual worker needs the 
trade union organization. Through it 
only can he become an individual, con- 
scious of his own dignity and of his own 
rights. Without it he is of no signifi- 
cance whatsoever in this hard world of 
industry. On the other hand again, the 
trade union also needs the individual 
worker, not merely as a dues paying 
member but more so as an active intelli- 



gently co-operating individual. As such 
he assists together with the others to 
increase the power of the trade union, 
helps to increase the spiritual and moral 
capacity of the organization. It surely 
makes a big difference whether the or- 
ganization is composed of such active 
members, or whether its composing ele- 
ments are unthinking and indifferent. 

In organization it is not alone quan- 
tity that counts, quality also is neces- 
sary to meet the requirements of the 
great struggle. 

All the workers, every one of them, 
should be organized, but they also 
should be conscious of the fact that it 
is their spirit, their insight, their cour- 
age which will give character, endur- 
ance and strength to the organization. 
As many brooks, rivulets, and rivers 
make a big imposing stream so in the 
end do the abilities and capabilities of 
the individual members give the organ- 
ization significance and stamina. 

There is no antagonism between the 
right union and individual. Both need, 
inspire and strengthen each other. 

There is bitter strife enough in this 
topsy-turvey world of hostile interests, 
but in a labor organization it should not 
find a fertile soil. Its grand purpose 
should bind the members together in 
friendly understanding and brother- 
hood. A strong unity in regard to the 
involved principle and to the final aim 
make all petty considerations, personal 
quarrels, etc., appear unimportant, un- 
worthy of a noble cause. 

For all these reasons members of a 
labor union should not be stingy with 
their help, participation and co-opera- 
tion towards the union. What they give 
they will get back ten fold. The dues 
they pay will multiply finally in higher 
wages, in a more human existence. The 
time they spend in meetings, committees 
and agitation will gain for them shorter 
work hours, more time for recreation 
and leisure. 

But that is not all. With the develop- 
ment of the organization the individual 
member not only gains materially but 
also intellectually. The experience gath- 
ered by him in fighting the battles with 
and for his brothers provides him with 
a deeper understanding and better judg- 
ment which makes him more able and 



10 



I II i: ( \ It l» K \ T I 1 , K 



determined to stand np for his organiza- 
tion and his rights. He walks erect and 
despises crawlers and toadies. He can 
neither be cowed by brutalities nor 
taken in like a Henry Dubb by a con- 
descending smile. In short he gets rid 
by and by of all traces of the slave com- 
plex and the slave morality which make 
things easy for the professional slave 
drivers. He ceases to be a mere "hand" 
and becomes a real person. The greater 
the number of such persons in an or- 
ganization the greater the power the 
latter will have and the less stagnation 



is to be feared. The total of all possi- 
bilities and activities of an organiza- 
tion is represented in the expression of 
individual energy and determination in 
the total of its adherents. 

The hopes for the future and the 
guarantee for the satisfactory ending of 
present struggles are based on such 
close connection between organizations 
and their memberships. The outcome of 
strikes, lockouts and other conflcits de- 
pends on this connection. Where it ex- 
ists the organization will prove strong 
and unconquerable. 



THE NEW DEAL 

(By H. H. Siegele) 




of need, 
During 



HE age of perpetual 
plenty for all," the 
philosopher said, "will 
come when the good 
things of life will be 
distributed on a basis 
and not on a basis of greed, 
the depression, when millions 
of people were in need of the three chief 
necessities of life, food, clothing and 
shelter, a great deal was said about 
overproduction. The farmer, they said, 
was raising too much wheat, too many 
vegetables, too much beef and too many 
pigs. The manufacturers, we were told, 
made too many shoes, too much cloth- 
ing and altogether too much of every- 
thing. The building trades were held 
responsible for having built too many 
houses and too many places of business. 
Overproduction was playing havoc with 
everything, everywhere. That was the 
cry that went out, but it was a false 
alarm. Maldistribution by reason of 
curtailed purchasing power was causing 
the trouble. Underconsumption was the 
fact — overproduction was merely an ali- 
bi. There isn't too much food, so long 
as there is a hungry soul suffering for 
want of it. There aren't too many shoes 
in existence when people of necessity go 
without them; and there isn't too much 
clothing, when honest men and women 
with their children go in rags. There is 
no overproduction of houses, when fam- 
ilies, unwillingly, double up because they 
are unable financially to pay rent, or to 
own a home. If all of these human 
wants were satisfied, there would not be 
a vacant business house in this whole 
United States, while the ranks of the 
unemployed would be changed, as by 



a miracle, into prosperous and self- 
respecting working men and women. 
Happiness would reign supreme and we 
would find ourselves living in the era 
of perpetual plenty for all." 

The philosopher had in mind the New 
Deal, and was wondering whether in 
the long run, it would bring to pass 
the things he had more and more advo- 
cated and hoped for as he grew older. 
The New Deal, until it was put into ac- 
tion under the NR.A, seemed to be just 
another one of those high-sounding 
phrases, which meant only that. But 
when something was being done, that 
was different. Working hours and the 
work-week were to be shortened, and 
men were to be re-employed. Wages 
were to be raised, and the minimum 
wage was to be a substantial living 
wage. It all sounded almost too good to 
be true, but when the blue eagle came 
out, and soon appeared everywhere, with 
but a few exceptions, the philosopher 
was almost ready to accept the New 
Deal as the harbinger of his hoped-for 
age of perpetual plenty. In the light of 
these things, why should he not? Did 
we not have most of the principal good 
things of life in abundance? And were 
we not able, with our improved machin- 
ery, to work out a system of distribution 
so that everybody would be clothed, fed 
and sheltered? "Surely," the philoso- 
pher thought, "we have everything, and 
if the New Deal can supply a system of 
just distribution, this world will be bet- 
ter, and I might yet live to see the day 
when the products of labor will satisfy 
the needs of humanity, rather than be- 
ing the chief object of greed." But 
deep down in the philosopher's sub-con- 



THE CARPENTER 



11 



scious thinking there was something 
that kept him waiting, and waiting, 
wondering. Weeks passed, and many- 
things transpired. There was talk of a 
processing tax, presumably to raise the 
price of wheat; and the price of cotton 
was to be raised in the same way; and 
the price of pork; in fact, commodity 
prices were to go up. 

"I do not understand," the philoso- 
pher said one day, shaking his head, 
"how a processing tax on wheat will 
help the working man; he will have to 
pay just that much more for his bread. 
I can not see how it will help the farmer, 
excepting the wheat farmer, for his flour 
will cost him more. But there it is, a 
processing tax on wheat, which the con- 
sumer must pay, and the proceeds are 
to be used to reduce the wheat acreage 
for the sole purpose of raising the price 
of wheat, while the consumer will have 
to pay still more for his bread. Here is 
the way it works: When the tax goes on, 
we pay the tax, by paying more for our 
bread. Then the tax is used for the pur- 
pose of putting the price of wheat up 
higher, and we pay that too, by paying 
still more for our bread. This isn't so 
bad for those who are working, or those 
who have had their wages raised, but it 
is an injustice to those men and women 
who are still out of work, with little, if 
any, prospects for a job." 

The processing tax, at first, did not 
arouse the philosopher so much, but 
when it came to using this tax money to 
pay for destroying millions of acres of 
cotton, he knew that such a thing could 
not, be tolerated in his hoped-for age 
of perpetual plenty for all. 

"It is a shame," the philosopher went 
on, "that the government should feel 
called upon to spend money to destroy 
fundamental necessities of life, when 
the same money could have been used 
to clothe the millions who are going in 
rags; or to feed the hungry, who seem 
to be with us always." 

What the philosopher could not un- 
derstand, was the inconsistencies of the 
government, which on the one hand, 
was trying to reduce production by re- 
ducing the acreage, while on the other 
hand it was spending millions of dollars 
to reclaim land and to teach farmers 
how to, as the saying goes, raise two 
stalks of farm products where previ- 
ously he raised but one. He could not 
understand why the government loaned 



money to farmers to buy seed for plant- 
ing, for instance cotton, and when the 
cotton was raised, it paid the same 
farmers for destroying it; all of which, 
if it would bring about the desired re- 
sults, would raise the prices of every- 
thing the working man needs for the 
support of his family. 

"It is strange," the philosopher con- 
tinued, "that statesmen, if they can be 
called statesmen, can not see the lack 
of consistency in almost at the same 
time, appropriating money for the pro- 
duction and the destruction of funda- 
mental necessities of life. Moreover, 
while this paradox of production and 
destruction is still before them, these 
statesmen call upon everybody every- 
where to relieve suffering by means of 
another paradox, Charity, which brings 
in the same basket, as it were, bread 
and disgrace to the suffering victim. 

"The needs of humanity," the phil- 
osopher concluded, with a sigh, "can not 
be supplied through a policy of de- 
struction and charity, but rather, we 
need a system of distribution that will, 
at the minimum, supply first the living 
needs of all; and then, if there is any- 
thing left, store the left-over away for 
future distribution. Destroying necessi- 
ties of life under any conditions, is 
fundamentally wrong, and it becomes a 
crime against humanity, when it is done 
in the face of even one soul, who is suf- 
fering for want of it." 



Words of Wisdom 

Those who reprove us are more valu- 
able friends than those who flatter us. 

Be patient with everyone, but above 
all, with yourself. 

Peace is the evening star of the soul, 
and virtue is its sun. The two are never 
far apart from each other. 

Man was given a tongue that he 
might say something pleasant to his fel- 
low men. 

An automobile is the only thing that 
can run around with the muffler wide 
open. 

It requires less philosophy to take 
things as they come, than to part with 
things as they go. 

Do not acquire the reputation of be- 
ing an obstructionist. Do something for 
the good of the organization. 



Editorial 




THE CARPENTER 

Official Journal of 

THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD OF 

CARPENTERS AND JOINERS 

OF AMERICA 

Published on the 15th of each month at the 

CARPENTERS' BUILDING 

Indianapolis, Ind. 

UNITED BROTHERHOOD OF 
CARPENTERS AND JOINERS OF AMERICA, 

Publishers 

FRANK DUFFY, Editor 

Subscription Price 
One Dollar a Year In Advance, Postpaid 

The publishers and the advertising 
agent use every possible precaution avail- 
able to them against accepting advertise- 
ments from other than reliable firms, but 
do not accept any responsibility for the 
contents of any advertisement which ap- 
pears in "The Carpenter." Should any 
deception be practiced by advertisers at 
any time, upon members, their duty is to 
immediately notify the Post Office au- 
thorities. Therefore, address any com- 
plaints to your local Post Office. 

INDIANAPOLIS, MAY, 1934 

Unemployment Insurance 

NOW that our economic structure 
seems safe from the disintegra- 
tion that has been threatening, it 
is high time to plan against conditions 
that upset economic balance. While we 
do not know all the forces, there are 
some that stand out conspicuously. One 
of them is unemployment. 

Our whole basis of living requires 
each person to have an income or to be 
cared for by some one with an income. 
Employment is the source of income. 
When the job goes, the whole basis of 
living is gone. Not only are the individ- 
uals' lives demoralized but also their 
contractual relations with individuals 
and business undertakings. These sim- 
ple facts explain why unemployment is 
so demoralizing to society. In addition 



unemployment is demoralizing to the 
individual, for work is an essential 
means of personal development and ex- 
pression. Unemployment is a social as 
well as an economic evil. We cannot in 
the immediate future at least abolish un- 
employment for it is an accompaniment 
of change. We can however avert some 
of the worst consequences of unemploy- 
ment while we bridge the way to new 
jobs. The method which has been most 
widely sanctioned in modern industrial 
countries is unemployment insurance. 

The various plans for unemployment 
insurance that have been tried give op- 
portunity to study experience as a basis 
for developing plans adapted to condi- 
tions in United States. Briefly the vari- 
ous plans may be summarized thus: 

The way was led by the Ghent Plan 
which supplemented trade union unem- 
ployment benefits. The English plan pro- 
vided a central fund to which the State, 
certain employers and employes contrib- 
uted and from which limited benefits 
were paid in accord with specified stand- 
ards. The German plan established a. 
corporation (to avoid difficulties due to 
a federal government). Employers and 
employes paid into a central fund con- 
tributions in proportion to classified 
wages. Similar benefits were paid, limit- 
ed in time and amounts. Social up- 
heavals of the past twenty years 
changed elements in these basic plans 
materially, but the essential principles 
remain. To these methods, discussion in 
United States has added an additional 
proposal — reserves varying from plans 
for individual accounts and funds for an 
industry. This proposal tries to make 
regulation of unemployment profitable 
to the industry and depends upon anal- 
ogy between reserves for wages and re- 
serves for these industrial purposes. 

In recent months consideration has 
been given to development of reserves 
for an industry under the machinery 
set up by its code. 

While opinion is crystallizing as be- 
tween reserves and general fund pool- 
ing risks; as between state-wide sys- 
tems or plans covering competitive 



THE CARPENTER 



13 



areas, separate industries or groups of 
industries or the whole country; as be- 
tween governmental agencies or corpor- 
ations for public service, two proposals 
important, for whatever decision is fin- 
ally rendered in these various methods, 
are before Congress for action. Of fun- 
damental importance is adequate appro- 
priation for our Federal Employment 
Service to provide the machinery 
through which any unemployment in- 
surance measure must operate. An ade- 
quate, well-functioning service is a pre- 
requisite to additional social legislation. 

The second measure is the Wagner 
proposal for a 5 per cent excise tax on 
payrolls against which local contribu- 
tions to unemployment insurance should 
be credited. Favorable action on these 
two measures will facilitate decisions in 
unemployment problems. 



America Lags in Rehousing 

RECCURRENCE of slum fires in 
American cities is a ghastly re- 
minder of the tragedies of the 
"warrens of the poor." In New York's 
most disgraceful district five children 
and three adults were recently trapped 
and perished. How many victims this 
form of man's inhumanity to man 
claims each year would make an appal- 
ling total. 

Fire prevention is possible in all cit- 
ies. Only the greed of landlords and the 
indifference of the public makes it dif- 
ficult to bring about better conditions. 
According to New York's Tenement 
House Commissioner, Langdon Post, 
there has not been a fatal fire in any 
of Manhattan's new-law tenements. 

What is needed to bring home to 
American cities is their failure in meet- 
ing housing needs of workingmen's 
families. Cities and States alone can 
undertake the task of razing slums and 
rehousing the six million or more fam- 
ilies in need of decent homes. But the 
Federal Government stands ready to 
help with loans and grants. 

So far only five States have passed 
proper laws authorizing co-operation in 
housing projects with the Public Works 
Administration at Washington. Only 
Milwaukee and Los Angeles among the 
larger cities have charters permitting 
them to go ahead without special State 
legislation. The States are holding up 
the Government's rehousing program. 



Since the war, England has rehoused 
one-eighth of her population in 2,000,- 
000 houses, many of the cottage type 
with garden space. Germany, France 
and Belgium have made marked prog- 
ress in rehousing their people. 

The United States, richest nation in 
the world and urgently in need of a 
great rehousing movement, has hardly 
begun. 



Judge Prohibits Antiunion Employer 
from Using the Union Label 

JUDGE Calvert of Denver, Colorado, 
issued a permanent injunction pro- 
hibiting Boris Robbins, operator of 
the Monarch Press and Universal Press, 
from using the union label of the Allied 
Printing Trades Council on printing pro- 
duced in his two shops, which are non- 
union plants. 

The injunction was a culmination of 
an investigation which the Allied Print- 
ing Trades Council began a number of 
months ago. Robbins claimed that he 
acquired the label through the purchase 
of second hand type. 

Union officials point out that while 
this is not the first time that a convic- 
tion has been secured on the illegal use 
of the union label in Denver, the grant- 
ing of this permanent injunction in this 
particular case will have an important 
bearing and influence on such printing 
firms who are suspected of the illegal 
use of the allied label. 



"In The School of Adversity" 

Those who learn in the school of ad- 
versity are apt pupils. Many valuable 
lessons are impressed upon the mind 
and when properly applied help to build 
a firm, substantial prosperity. 

Adversity is the true test of friend- 
ship — it is the acid test. It weeds out 
the flatterers and throws the spotlight 
on friendship. 

In adversity a man may lose his 
friendship, his money and his business 
but if he keeps his self-confidence he is 
up before he is down. 

Business depression is not a good 
thing for any country. It is the test of 
fire and only the courageous survive. 
Business depressions help business to 
build upon a firmer foundation — they 
separate the chaff from the wheat and 
point the way to success. 



Official Information 



GENERAL OFFICERS 
Of 

THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD 

Of 

CARPENTERS AND JOINERS 

OF AMERICA 

General Office 
Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 




General President 

WM. L. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



First General Vice-President 

GEORGE H. LAKET 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Second General Vice-President 

JAMES M. GAULD 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Secretary 

FRANK DUFFY 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Treasurer 

THOMAS NEALE 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Executive Board 
First District, T. M. GUERIN 
290 Second Ave., Troy, N. Y.. 



Second District, W. T. ALLEN 
3832 N. Gratz St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



Third District, HARRY SCHWARZER 
10522 Parkhurst Drive, Cleveland, O. 



Fourth District, JAS. L. BRADFORD 
1900 15th Ave., N., Nashville, Tenn. 



Fifth District, J. W. WILLIAMS 
3948 S. Grand Blvd., St. Louis, Mo. 



Sixth District, A. W. MUIR 
200 Guerrero St., San Francisco, Cal. 



Seventh District, ARTHUR MARTEL 
6375 Chambord St., Montreal, Que., Can. 



WM. L. HUTCHESON, Chairman 
FRANK DUFFY, Secretary 



All correspondence for the General Executive 
Board must be sent to the General Secretary. 



Montgomery, Ward & Company Give 
Contract to Open Shop Contractor 

Montgomery, Ward and Company, 
operators of a large number of depart- 
ment stores, have awarded a contract 
for the erection of a new building at 
Duluth to P. J. MacLeod, open shop 
contractor, according to recording Sec- 
retary Emil Strandin of Local Union 
3 61, Duluth, Minn. 

For years MacLeod has been an ad- 
vocate of the open shop and in his at- 
tempt to spread his plan of employment 
he has brought to Duluth non-union men 
from other cities, and in this action he 
has the assistance of the Citizen's Alli- 
ance and other anti-union organizations. 

Local Union No. 3 61 desires the mem- 
bers of our Brotherhood to be informed 
of the unfriendly attitude of Montgom- 
ery, Ward and Company and to adhere 
to the policy of our organization to sup- 
port and give assistance to our friends 
and those who co-operate with us. 
Therefore our members should refrain 
from patronizing or making purchases 
of any kind from this company. 



Carpenters Stay Away From Chicago 

Due to the fact that many thousands 
of our members are unemployed, we 
must again warn against coming to Chi- 
cago to seek work. Members in other 
jurisdictions will do well to heed this 
warning. 

At no time since the depression set in 
have building trades jobs been so scarce 
as they are just now. 

The tight-fisted attitude of the bank- 
ers; their persistent refusal to make 
building loans; the tax muddle and the 
excessive real estate tax burden; the ex- 
cessive building loans made during the 
boom years and a number of other irra- 
tional practices during the boom years 
have resulted in many thousand of dis- 
tress cases, foreclosures and loss of real 
estate equity, as a result of which there 
is no market for real estate mortgages, 
and no market means no loans, for 
bankers will make loans only when they 



THE CARPENTER 



15 



can find investors who will buy mort- 
gages. 

The World's Fair work so prominent- 
ly and misleadingly played up by the 
press amounts to but "a drop in the 
bucket." Only a very small percentage 
of our many thousand of unemployed 
members can find work. 

For your own good stay away from 
Chicago unless you have enough money 
to pay your way without seeking em- 
ployment. And by all means bear in 
mind that we are not in a position to 
give aid to any member who may come 
here and find himself in distress. 

CHAS. H. SAND, Sec, 
Chicago District Council of Carpenters. 



Stay Away From Miami, Florida 

Contrary to the reports that you may 
see in the papers from this section, 
there is no boom in Miami and we are 
able to handle all building activities 
that may be planned in the future as 
well as at present. We have about 456 
members in this Local Union and there 
are only about 100 men on an average 
that are working. Kindly take notice 
and give Miami a wide berth in your 
travels when looking for work. 

Clarence E. Miller, Rec. Sec, 
L. U. No. 9 9 3. Miami, Fla. 



Traveling Members Attention 

Traveling carpenters are requested to 
stay away from Ottumwa, Iowa, as there 
is but little building going on there at 
the present time. Only a few jobs are 
now in course of erection in that city 
according to information received from 
B. B. Hall, recording secretary of Local 
Union 76 7, who advises they have more 
than enough members to handle the 
work. 



Increased Building Construction- Prom- 
ised for Westfield, Mass. 

Building construction shows some im- 
provement in Westfield, Mass., according 
to information received from Anthony 
Masaitis, Financial Secretary of Local 
Union No. 222 of that city. 

Among proposed work is the erection 
of the State Armory. In order that all 
carpenters might assist in stabilizing the 
building industry and enjoy improved 
working conditions, the Local Union re- 
duced the initiation fee for the month 
of April. 



Organized Labor Urged to Mobilize Its 

Influence in Favor of Wagner-Lewis 

Unemployment Insurance Bill 

A ringing appeal to officers and mem- 
bers of organized labor throughout the 
United States to mobilize the influence 
of the labor movement in the interest of 
the prompt enactment by Congress of 
the Wagner-Lewis unemployment insur- 
ance bill has been issued by William 
Green, president of the American Fed- 
eration of Labor. 

Although the measure has the em- 
phatic approval of the administration, 
the anti-labor bourbons who oppose any 
protection for the army of jobless and 
their families are mobilizing subversive 
interests in all parts of the country in 
opposition to the measure. This oppo- 
sition, it is pointed out, makes it imper- 
atively necessary for the millions of or- 
ganized workers to inform their mem- 
bers of Congress at once that it is their 
sincere desire to have the bill promptly 
enacted into law. 

"The Wagner-Lewis bill, designed to 
advance the enactment of unemploy- 
ment insurance legislation in the differ- 
ent States, is of great importance to the 
working people of the nation," Mr. 
Green said. "The bill provides for the 
imposition of a five per centum excise 
tax by the Federal Government, upon 
employers' pay rolls; said tax to be re- 
funded to employers where under the 
operation and administration of a State 
Unemployment Insurance Law the em- 
ployer has made contributions toward 
the creation of unemployment reserves 
or to a state unemployment insurance 
fund. 

"The American Federation of Labor 
has endorsed this measure and is giving 
it whole-hearted and enthusiastic sup- 
port. This proposed legislation marks a 
very direct and definite step forward in 
the enactment of unemployment insur- 
ance legislation. It is hoped and be- 
lieved that following the enactment of 
this law, unemployment insurance legis- 
lation will be introduced and passed by 
a large number of state legislatures 
within a reasonably short period of 
time. 

The working people of the country 
stand in great need of the enactment 
of unemployment insurance laws. The 
benefits of such legislation will be re- 
flected in the establishment and main- 
tenance of purchasing power during 



16 



THE CARPENTER 



periods of idleness and in the relief 
from human distress and human suffer- 
ing which the payment of unemployment 
insurance benefits will provide. 

Not only will the unemployed worker 
and his family be aided, but in addition, 
the whole community will share indi- 
rectly in the economic and social bene- 
fits which will flow from the applica- 
tion of just, equitable and fair unem- 
ployment insurance legislation. 

The opponents of this legislation are 
active, doing all they can to prevent the 
Wagner-Lewis Bill from becoming a law 
at this session of Congress. That means 
that the friends of this Bill must give it 
their immediate support and call upon 
others, to join with them in appealing 
to the Members of Congress to vote for 
the Wagner-Lewis Unemployment In- 
surance Bill. 



March Building Shows Large Gain 

According to the F. W. Dodge Cor- 
poration, March contracts for construc- 
tion of all descriptions amounted to 
$179,161,500. This was almost twice 
the total reported for February and 
about three times the volume of March, 
1933. Increases over both the previous 
month and March of last year were 
scored in each of the four principal 
classes of construction. 

For the first quarter of 1934 con- 
tracts totaled $462,341,500 as contrast- 
ed with only $196,026,800 in the cor- 
responding quarter of 19 33. For resi- 
dential building the gain over 1933 to 
date amounted to about 46 per cent; for 
nonresidential building the increase was 
almost 85 per cent; for public works 
the 1934 volume was more than three 
and one-half times the size of the 1933 
total; while for public utilities the first 
quarter's total was about two and one- 
half times as great as in the correspond- 
ing period of 1933. 

Contracts awarded in March showed 
gains over February in each of the thir- 
teen Dodge districts except southern 
Michigan, where a relatively unimport- 
ant decline was reported. Gains over 
March, 1933, were universal throughout 
the thirteen districts. Likewise, for the 
initial quarter of 1934 contracts showed 
gains over the corresponding quarter of 
1933" in each of the districts without ex- 
ception. 

The Dodge bulletin states: 



"During the second quarter of 1933 
contracts for all classes of construction 
in the thirty-seven states as a whole 
totaled $236,086,600. For the second 
quarter of 193 4, contracts in the same 
territory should exceed $375,000,000 by 
a fair margin. 

"Of the contract volume for the sec- 
ond quarter of the current year it is 
probable that at least 70 per cent of the 
total will represent publicly-financed un- 
dertakings. During the initial quarter 
of the year this class of work, totaling 
almost $350,000,000, represented 75 
per cent of the contract total." 



Massachusetts State Council of Carpen- 
ters' Convention 

The Thirty Seventh Convention of 
the Massachusetts State Council, United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners 
of America, was called to order at 10 
o'clock A. M. on Saturday, March 24, 
1934, at the Labor Temple, Worcester, 
Mass., by Brother Daniel S. Curtis of 
L. U. 877, who, after welcoming the 
delegates, introduced the Honorable Mr. 
Mahoney, Mayor of the City of Worces- 
ter. The Mayor delivered an interesting 
address and conveyed a warm welcome 
to the delegates. The Reverend Father 
Fitzgerald then invoked Divine Blessing 
on our deliberations. 

In view of the fact that we had gone 
through almost four years of a vei'y 
trying period, a convention of meager 
attendance was anticipated. In accord- 
ance with this thought, the convention 
time was reduced to a two-day period 
and held on Saturday and Sunday in 
order to lighten the expense as much as 
possible. Contrary to expectations, our 
roll call showed eighty-five delegates 
present from all parts of the state, and 
far from being depressed, the delegates 
brought with them an atmosphere of co- 
operation and that "put your shoulder 
to the wheel" spirit, such as has not 
been seen in many conventions of the 
past. 

We were surprised and pleased to 
find in our midst our Second General 
Vice President, James M. Gauld, and in 
short order he was on the speaker's 
platform and in his congenial way con- 
veyed the respects and well wishes of 
our General Officers, and expressed his 
regrets that they were all confined to 
the General Office with pressure of busi- 
ness and could not be present. Brother 



THE CARPENTER 



17 



Gauld delivered a very interesting talk 
on the Building Industry Code, pointing 
out the danger spots and advising the 
delegates to contact the various districts 
pertaining to the setting up of regional 
areas and the creation of wage rates. 
He also enlightened the delegates on 
the existing conditions throughout the 
country, pointing out the difficulties 
confronting organizers in extremely low 
wage rate areas. 

Brother Charles N. Kimball, our New 
England Organizer, and, I believe, one 
of the oldest organizers in point of serv- 
ice, spoke in detail on many of the 
problems confronting our members, and 
urged the full co-operation of all units 
in the state if we expect to make any 
forward progress. 

Two resolutions were adopted by the 
Convention One submitted by the Cali- 
fornia State Council pertaining to the 
organizing of the air craft workers, and 
the other from the Boston District Coun- 
cil asking that the Government expedite 
their P. W. A. Program. 

In the election of officers, Edward 
Thompson of Salem, was chosen as 
President; H. Caron of Fall River was 
elected Vice President, and William 
Francis of Boston was elected Secretary. 

Brother Gauld was called upon to in- 
stall the officers. 

The Executive Board will decide in 
which city the next convention will be 
held. 

William Francis, Secretary. 



Local Unions Chartered 

Piedmont, Ala. 
Mullens, W. Va. 
Rusk, Tex. 
Brigham, Utah. 
La Grange, Ga. 
Gilbert, W. Va. 
Raymond, Wash. 
Welch, W. Va. 
Paducah, Ky. 
Port Washington, Wise. 
Lawrenceburg, Ind. 
Gastonia, N. C. 
Memphis, Tenn. 



Unusual Coincidence 

Thaddeus S. Gurley, John Koch, and 
Clinton Witman, all members of Local 
Union No. 60, Indianapolis, Indiana, 
each born on the same date — April 7, 
1869, and admitted to the Brotherhood 
April 22, 1890, August 8, 1900, and 
March 8, 1901, respectively, all made 
application for the Pension on the same 
day and each application was approved 
on the same day, April 16, 1934. 



Local 482, Jersey City, Loses Pioneer 
Member 

Michael J. Walsh, one of the most 
widely known members of our organi- 
zation in Hudson County, New Jersey, 
and a member of Local Union 482 of 
Jersey City for 45 years, died February 
16, 1934, at the age of 81 years. 

Brother Walsh joined Local Union 
No. 8 of the former United Order of 
Carpenters in 1882 and with that Union 
came over to our organization on No- 
vember 1, 1888. 

For many years he was business 
agent of the Hudson County District 
Council of Carpenters and in that ca- 
pacity played an important part in in- 
stituting the 44-hour week and other 
improved working conditions. 

In 1910 he was elected business agent 
of the Hudson County Building Trades 
Council and continued in that office un- 
til failing health caused his voluntary 
retirement in 1932. 

He also attended many general con- 
ventions of our organization including 
the 22nd general convention held at 
Lakeland, Florida, in 1928. Brother 
Walsh's passing is a severe loss to the 
membership of our organization in Hud- 
son County. 



Financial Secretary of Local Union 633 
Called by Death 

The members of Local Union 633 of 
Madison, Illinois, were grieved to learn 
of the death of Emile F. DaMotte, 
its financial secretary, which occurred 
March 9, 19 3 4, after a brief illness. 
Pneumonia was the direct cause of 
death. 

Brother DaMotte was born in France 
April 26, 1875, and joined Local Union 
No. 633 in May, 1905. He was a good 
and true union man and served that Lo- 



T II K CARPENTER 



cal Union as financial secretary from 
1920 until the time of his death. 

Funeral services were held March 
11th and attended by many members of 
Local Union 633 and other Local Un- 
ions of the Tri-County district. 



DEATH ROLL 



Former President of Local Union 787 
Dies 

William MacDonald, a member of our 
organization for the past 45 years, the 
greater part of which time he was a 
member of Local Union 787, passed 
away at his home in Brooklyn, N. Y., on 
January 25, 1934, at the age of 70. 

Brother MacDonald was born in El- 
gin, Scotland, February 12, 1863, and 
joined Local Union No. 8 of Philadel- 
phia, Pa., in October, 1888. 

He was president of Local Union 787, 
Brooklyn, N. Y., from 1917 to 1919 and 
again from 1921 to 1922. He also 
served as a delegate to the New York 
District Council at various times and 
was active in the labor movement until 
prevented by failing health a few years 
previous to his death. 

His presence and his constructive ad- 
vice will be missed at the meetings of 
the Local Union that he formerly served 
as president. 



Accident Results in Death of Officer of 
Local 1904 

The membership of our organization 
in the Kansas City district has suffered 
a deep and irreparable loss in the death 
of their beloved Brother and youthful 
aggressive leader J. M. (Mat) Stubble- 
field who on January 16, 1934, while 
attending a meeting of the District 
Council of Kansas City was called from 
the meeting and shot to death through 
an open window. 

"We deplore the loss of one so young 
and courageous in his untiring efforts 
for the betterment of the working peo- 
ple, and trust that our membership in 
Kansas City may carry on with the 
ideals of his life to guide them and 
others. He was a true and valued mem- 
ber of the Brotherhood for many years 
and will be sadly missed particularly by 
the officers and members of Local Un- 
ion 1904. 



GROVER PISTOL — Local Union No. 
1671, Kilgore, Texas. 

BEN TUSHER — Local Union No. 1808, 
Wood River, Illinois. 

MORRIS L. ZEBLEY — Local Union No. 
626, Wilmington, Delaware. 



Condemns Company Unions 

In an article discussing at length the 
company union, the Christian Science 
Monitor in its issue of January 19 makes 
the following points against that favor- 
ite subterfuge of employers: 

Company unions are schemes for em- 
ploye representation instituted by em- 
ployers during the last twenty years, 
and especially during the last twelve 
months, principally as an alternative to 
ordinary unions. 

* * * No workers ever of their 
own initiative have organized a com- 
pany union — it is a boss-inspired union. 
The power that creates company unions 
can destroy them. Worker representa- 
tives not only must not antagonize the 
management — for that means discharge 
— but are ignorant of labor conditions 
in other plants and other sections even 
in the same industry, and moreover are 
untrained in the tactics of bargaining; 
thus the representatives are usually 
timid, ignorant and unskilled negotia- 
tors. No truly equal-sided collective 
bargaining is possible in company un- 
ions. A company union can not strike 
because it has either no treasury or one 
limited to its own members; it can not 
get the help of other workers in the 
same industry. Consequently a company 
union has no power of compulsion over 
an employer. 

If the New Deal aspires to balance a 
strong united employer group against an 
equally strong organized labor group, 
this ideal can not be obtained through 
company unions. 

* * * The attitude of the ordinary 
citizen toward company unions must be 
related to that citizen's attitude toward 
the control of industry. Shall it be au- 
tocratic if sometimes benign individual- 
ism, or collectivism balanced between 
employer, employe and the government 
or the public? 



CorrQspondQncQ 




This Journal Is Not Responsible For Views Expressed By Correspondents. 



Ladies Auxiliary No. 230 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

We have been reading letters in "The 
Carpenter" from the different Ladies' 
Auxiliaries and find them very interest- 
ing. 

Our Auxiliary No. 230 of Springfield, 
Illinois, has twenty-four members. We 
meet the first and third Wednesday of 
each month, serving refreshments at the 
first meeting of the month. 

Our Auxiliary and Carpenters' Local 
Union No. 16 jointly gave a Thanks- 
giving Eve Dinner, at which we served 
over 200 carpenters and their families. 
Following the dinner the remainder of 
the evening was given over to games, 
music and dancing. 

We have an annual Chicken Dinner 
in December for all auxiliary members 
and their families, which is always an 
enjoyable affair. 

Last fall, in an endeavor to increase 
our treasury, we appointed three com- 
mittees of four members each, the com- 
mittee securing the largest amount of 
funds to be entertained by the two los- 
ing committees. New Years was desig- 
nated as the close of the contest, at 
which time we had cleared Fifty-four 
Dollars. The winners were entertained 
with an Oyster Supper. During the con- 
test we obligated seven new members. 

When the weather is warm we enjoy 
many good times in the form of pot 
luck dinners, picnics, and all kinds of 
out-door get-togethers. 

We all like to use union-made goods 
and do our purchasing where they may 
be procured. 

We hope to get new members from 
time to time, also the return of those 
who were obliged to drop out during the 
depression. 

Our Auxiliary would be pleased to 
have any sister auxiliary members 
visiting in Springfield to call on us. 
We welcome suggestions and correspon- 



dence from other auxiliaries and extend 
best wishes to all. 

Mrs. N. Newlin, Rec. Sec. 
Mrs. Frank Dickinson, Pres. 



It's Wise to Advertise 

"Who said the Carpenters were dead, and their 

journal never read, 
And therefore 'twould not be wise, with them 

now to advertise? 
Whoever 'twas he's a chump, and should go 

straight to ... . and jump 
Into the river, I say, and wash that all away. 
Thirty years, with all its crooks, I have tried 

to sell my books ; 
Advertised in all the kinds, of publications in 

the times 
Of greatest prosperity known ; barely got back 

dollars sown. 
Hundreds of dollars have I spent, could not 

get ahead a cent ; 
Even prosperous times — I was lucky to get 

dimes. 
A Notice — would they look at? Wanted to 

place mv booklet 
"ON THE SQUARE" just to see, if I'd help 

them they"d help me. 
Orders came — my booklets gone, then the press 

ran on and on ; 
Orders kept coming my way, I was worked both 

night and day ; 
Such a great rush — I declare, I never had "ON 

THE SQUARE" 
Before ia all my life, of toil and struggle and 

strife. 
Is a NOTICE with them READ? Yes, it near- 
ly knocked me dead — 
Sixty-ninth Birthday — two hundred and ten I 

had already to send. 
Hundreds more I could not reach. Our journal 

surely is a peach 
For NOTICE to catch the eye of carpenters 

passing by. 
Forty-five years in Union stand, never knew it 

was so grand. 
My life has been to HELP YOU — all I possibly 

could do. 
With or without dollars or dimes, I will help 

you every time. 
All my life I tried to write ; success finally 

came in sight. . 
I will now just say good-night ; from your hum- 
ble Brother Dwight. 
Well you know, though you may stare, I am 

truly "ON THE SQUARE." 

D. L. Stoddard, 
R. R. 4, Box 141, 
Indianapolis, Ind. 



There is a righteous use for anger — 
reserve it for what is unjust and cruel. 



Demand the Union Label 



20 



THE CARPENTER 



Benefits of Depression 

The New York World Telegram re- 
cently published a series of articles by 
a member of the order of the unem- 
ployed. He had traveled from coast to 
coast seeking employment and finding 
none. In his wanderings he met all 
sorts and conditions of men and wo- 
men. Some were confirmed tramps, un- 
willing and sometimes incapable of 
steady work. Others had taken to the 
road like himself in an effort to 
find work. Among them were laborers, 
skilled mechanics, professional men and 
women and clerical workers. What 
seemed to him most striking was the 
patience which they displayed. 

Most of these wanderers seemed to 
be satisfied if they kept soul and body 
together. They appeared to realize that 
the prevailing condition of unemploy- 
ment and distress was temporary and 
there was not lacking a confidence in 
the future. The same state of mind can 
be observed everywhere among the 
unemployed. When the country finally 
emerges from the depression as it will, 
the most agreeable feature characteriz- 
ing it will be the patience of the people. 
We may say that their patience was 
truly a virtue. The temptation to vio- 
lence and disorder has been great but 
the people have resisted the temptation. 
Little if any part of the crime wave 
may be attributed to unemployment. 
The criminals could not be numbered 
among the unemployed. Communism 
has made no inroads among the mass 
of people in spite of persistent efforts in 
some quarters. Attempts to rouse the 
unemployed to rebellion have failed. Al- 
though not content with their condition 
they realize that a program of violence 
could only end in worse conditions. 
There have been a few hunger marches 
but these have served to throw into 
clear relief the remarkable self-control 
of the majority. 

While there has been no violence or 
rebellion among the poor and the un- 
employed there has been a great stir- 
ring of charity in behalf of those in 
need. There also has been brought home 
to us an understanding of the social and 
economic injustices that in a large 
measure are responsible for the hard 
times from which we have been suffer- 
ing. Determined efforts which promise 
to be successful are being made to elimi- 
nate these injustices. It may be that 



when it is all over and we have learned 
the lessons it has taught we may find 
reason to thank God for the depression. 



If A Union Card Could Talk 

I AM A UNION CARD. Among men 
I am the symbol of Unity, the diploma 
of Skill. All the workers of the world — 
whether within or without the ranks of 
the organized — have received the bene- 
fits I have bestowed upon Mankind. I 
have made free men of serfs and con- 
verts of doubters. 

Being of a retiring nature, I keep 
most of my business to myself. I hear. 
I see. I feel. But sometimes I wish I 
could talk! For in the past I have lain 
in the pockets of suits fashioned by 
fingers that have signed "yellow-dog" 
contracts; next to cigarets produced by 
labor that sells itself for 10 cents per 
hour; adjacent to haberdashery bought 
in stores whose proprietors rebuke or- 
ganized labor and its press; close to 
combs intimately acquainted with bar- 
ber-college haircuts. * * * Yet I HAVE 
HEARD THE VERY SAME MEN IN 
WHOSE POCKETS I AM CARRIED 
CONDEMN LOW WAGES AND BLAME 
THE DEPRESSION ON POLITICS. 

Frankly, I become quite irritated 
when I find myself next to a receipt 
signed by a merchant who has been in- 
different to every invitation to co-oper- 
ate with organized labor. 

Were it the lack of allegiance that 
caused men to forget my mission there 
is little I could do. But I know that the 
cause is NEGLECT! 

I wish my owners would carry me 
into stores whose proprietors subscribe 
to my principles. I feel more at home 
among friends. There are merchants who 
ask to see me before my possessor is 
permitted to work in their buildings. I 
wonder why my owners don't give all of 
their business to such merchants, there- 
by assuring themselves of employment, 
future income and co-operation? 

Without the unlimited support of 
those men who carry me, I am but a 
scrap of paper. But, properly utilized, I 
AM THE PASSWORD TO PROSPER- 
ITY! 

OH, HOW I WISH I COULD TALK! 

■ — Cleveland Citizen. 



THE CARPENTER 



21 



Ohio Old-Age Pension Law Goes Into 
Effect 

Old-age pensions for the eligible 
needy citizens of Ohio went into effect 
when Governor White signed the ap- 
propriation bill enacted by the recent 
special session of the State Legislature 
appropriating $3,000,000 to pay the 
pensions during the last half of 1934. 
The measure also provides funds to ad- 
minister the law through a new division 
set up in the Department of Welfare. 

The amount paid to any person is 
limited to $25 per month, with a burial 
fund not in excess of $100. 

To be entitled to a pension persons 
must be 65 years of age or over, citi- 
zens of the United States and Ohio for 
5 years, and residents of the county in 
which they make application for at least 
one year. If single, they must not have 
property in excess of $3,000, nor more 
than $4,000 if husband and wife. They 
must be unable to support themselves, 
have no one who legally could and 
should support them, and have no in- 
come in excess of $300 annually. In- 
mates of penal institutions are barred 
from pensions, but residents in charit- 
able, fraternal or benevolent institu- 
tions, hospitals and homes, public or 
private, are eligible if they meet the 
reuirements of the law. 



Lessons From Animals 

A four-horse team hitched to a heavy 
load cannot start or go anywhere unless 
the horses co-operate by all pulling to- 
gether. A school of fish would soon be 
inextricably wedged into a solid mass 
unless they co-operated and all headed 
in one direction. Fish must swim like 
a row of soldiers in one direction, other- 
wise they would become hopelessly pow- 
erless and unable to move and would 
soon perish for lack of collaboration. 
This is true of practically all animal 
life. 

Men, or some of them, in their con- 
ceit, think they can make the grade by 
going it alone. This is impossible for 
working men in industrial occupations. 
They are, in production, incapable of 
getting or maintaining fair wages if 
acting in their individual capacity. Such 
people are far behind, and have not so 
far learned to adapt and follow the 
animals' methods of co-operation, for 
self-preservation and fair wages and 



less hours. Even employers who have 
formed associations have not been able 
to prevent competition, bankruptcy, fail- 
ures and periodic wasteful depressions. 

It has been so and always will be 
unless the wage-earners organize. Noth- 
ing of a permanent worthwhile char- 
acter will flow from Federal and State 
plans unless the workers organize and 
force reluctant employers to pay fair 
wages. 

Low wages caused this depression 
with its world of misery and will cause 
other depressions unless labor organi- 
zations through collective bargaining 
raise wages to a point where consump- 
tion can balance production. 

Organization of the workers is the 
one sure means of preventing cut-throat 
competition, which must be stopped be- 
fore fair employers willing to do the 
right thing will be safe from unfair low- 
wage paying employers. The only way 
to accomplish something helpful and 
lasting to all concerned, including the 
general public, is for the workers to 
organize. 



We Get What We Work For 

The trouble with a lot of us is that 
we want to accomplish many things, 
but aren't willing to pay the price. If 
life were a game in which the rewards 
were handed out on a silver platter to 
anyone who happened to ask for them, 
lots of folks would sleep in rosebeds. 
But unfortunately, you've got to reckon 
with the thorns. 

"He who would climb a tree," said 
Thackeray, "must grasp its branches — 
not the blossoms." 

Which means that you've got to pull 
yourself up over the rough places and 
not expect simply to coast down hill all 
the time. 

We get pretty much what we go after 
— if we go after it hard enough and 
persistently enough. 

About the only thing that has ever 
come into our life without being worked 
for or sought after is trouble. And a lot 
of that could be traced back to a de- 
sire to take hold of the blossoms instead 
of grasping the branches. 

Thorns serve a purpose. They teach 
us the lesson that, even in plucking 
roses, one must go about it with care 
and skill and practical knowledge — or 
get stuck. — Selected. 



22 



THE CARPENTER 



Trade Unions of First Importance 

It cannot be repeated too often nor 
emphasized too strongly that organiza- 
tions of wage workers — trade unions — 
are of first importance in our industrial 
scheme. Without their organization the 
worker is a cipher; he is but a pawn 
in the hands of those who control indus- 
try. Men have spent their lives in hopes 
and struggles for betterment of condi- 
tions and their time has been wasted 
until they joined hands with their fel- 
lows and acted collectively and concert- 
edly. 

No ideal can be realized, no wrong 
can be righted, without the compelling 
power of united action. No man can be 
a free agent unless he acts with and has 
the support of his contemporaries. Yet 
such is the composition of our human 
mind and so insidious is the propaganda 
of the controllers of industry that men 
must be shown again and again that 
there is no royal road to better condi- 
tions; constant vigilance and unceasing 
conflict are necessary, to gain every ad- 
vance. The welfare and the very lives 
of the wage worker and his family are 
under the control of those few individ- 
uals who constitute the financial or em- 
ploying element of our society. They 
have their organizations which function 
with all means of aid at their command. 

It is futile to imagine that they will 
surrender that control with a severe 
struggle. They will only yield when 
compelled to do so and by an intelli- 
gently directed power. Company unions, 
bonuses, employe-ownership are but 
camouflage to cover the iron fist that 
lies concealed. Power, profit, dividends. 
Those are the motives driving the in- 
dustrial autocrat to a disregard of the 
human element involved in employment. 

And there is but one salvation for 
the worker, organization. Once organ- 
ized, once agreed to lay aside petty per- 
sonal grievances and strive forward with 
their co-workers for the greater good of 
all, with intelligence, forbearance and 
firmness — and keeping organized — that 
is the only means by which labor can 
gain and keep those privileges to which 
it is rightfully entitled. 



Navy Yards to Share Equally in Build- 
ing of Big New Navy 

Not in years have the Navy Depart- 
ment bureaucrats suffered such a rolling, 
rocking blow as that delivered to them 
by standing vote in the House when 
Chairman Vinson of the Naval Affairs 
Committee was bowled over in his at- 
tempt to have the big new navy built 
"one-half in the navy yards and one- 
half in private shipyards." 

The defeat was equally devastating 
for the so-called shipbuilding trust. 

Because every ship built in a navy 
yard is a victory for labor the vote was 
a tremendous labor victory. 

Thompson of Illinois had offered an 
amendment to the effect that "the first 
and each succeeding alternate vessel" 
be built in a navy yard. In the lan- 
guage of navy yard backers, that 
"breaks the back of the shipbuilding 
trust." Vinson immediately threw his 
amendment into the ring. 

The Vinson provision for "one-half" 
of the ships to navy yards could mean 
half in numbers of ships, with a given 
number of capital ships going to private 
yards and an equal number of small 
ships going to the navy yards — dollars 
to the private yards, dimes to the navy 
yards. 

The navy bureaucrats and the private 
yards went down to defeat 140 to 93. 
Arsenals and government gun factories 
benefit equally with the navy yards. — 
I. L. N. S. 



For over fifty years the Brotherhood 
has been protecting, assisting and en- 
couraging the competent men in all 
the branches of woodworking. Surely, 
this is a record of which, every member 
may well be proud. 



Sectional Wage Differentials 

Since the codification of industry be- 
gan under the terms of the N. I. R. A., 
it has been noticeable that in all Codes 
submitted, sectional wage differentials 
are proposed by the industrialists. Dif- 
ferentials of the minimum rate of wage 
between the North and South range 
from five to ten cents an hour. A care- 
ful analysis of conditions affecting work- 
ers in North and South, and their em- 
ployers, proves that such differentials 
are not justified. 

Arguments in favor of the differen- 
tials advanced . by the employers are 
generally based upon transportation 
charges from their industrial site in 
the South to the markets in the North 
and East, cheaper living conditions in 
the South, etc. 



THE CARPENTER 



23 



The South affords many advantages 
to the employer over the North from an 
industrial angle. For instance, shipping 
and transportation facilities are practi- 
cally unlimited. The even climatic condi- 
tion with no emphatic seasonal changes 
permits a year-round operation of any 
industry. 

All the arguments advanced support- 
ing wage differentials for the South 
lower than that of the North are thin- 
ly veiled subterfuges which are intend- 
ed to cover up the real question which 
is negro labor. The negro worker is 
being exploited in the South to the 
detriment of all. 



Foundation of Success 

Notwithstanding the variety of hu- 
man wants and the fact that we all want 
different things, there is one thing we 
all desire- — and that is success. Yet it is 
surprising to note how few people really 
attempt to achieve success in a business- 
like way. Most people hope and dream 
for their ship to come in instead of 
planning and working for it. Hoping 
and dreaming alone will not bring suc- 
cess. Planning and working for it in 
the right way surely will bring it. 

What is "success?" Webster defines 
success as the "prosperous termination 
of any enterprise." 

Abraham Lincoln said: "It begins 
with saving money." 

Andrew Carnegie said: "The failure 
of tbe man who does not save his money 
is due only to the fact that he has no 
money with which to take advantage of 
opportunities that come in the way of 
every man, but also and particularly to 
the fact that such a man is not able or 
fit to avail himself of these opportuni- 
ties. The man who cannot and does not 
save money cannot and will not do any- 
thing else worthwhile." 

James J. Hill: "If you want to know 
whether you are destined to be a suc- 
cess or a failure in life you can easily 

find out. Are you able to save money? 

If you are not, drop out. You will lose. 

The seed of success is not in you." 

George Washington said: "Economy 

makes happy homes and sound nations. 

Instill it deep." 

John Wanamaker: "The difference 

between the clerk who spends all his 

salary and the clerk who saves part of 

it is the difference in 10 years between 



the owner of a business and the man 
without a job. 

William E. Gladstone: "Economy is 
near to the keystone of character and 
success. A boy who is taught to save his 
money will rarely be a bad man or a 
failure. The man who saves will rise 
in his trade or profession steadily. This 
is inevitable." 



Better Building Eases Financing 

To speed recovery, governmental and 
private agencies can perform no greater 
service to the country at large than to 
stimulate private construction — both by 
creating a wider demand for it, and by 
making financing easier and less ex- 
pensive. 

Government has made a start, 
through the Home Loan banks which 
are endeavoring to loosen credit for 
residential building. Building and loan 
associations should, so far as is possible, 
follow — the heads of some of the largest 
of them have said that themselves, and 
are known to be considering ways and 
means to expedite financing and elimi- 
nate the various barriers that have 
stood in the way during the past few 
years. And the home builder can do a 
great deal to help — simply by demand- 
ing higher quality in housing, both be- 
cause of economy and comfort, and be- 
cause the finished structure is so much 
more worthy of a loan. 

Generally speaking, real estate has 
stood up better than most other types of 
security during depression. The value 
is there. It is tangible. It will remain. 
And where real estate values have col- 
lapsed is in the case of jerry-built, boom 
homes, which were the best friends of 
obsolescence and decay. 

Nowadays, especially, there is no ex- 
cuse for building poorly. Methods apd 
materials have been constantly im- 
proved — and depression has actually 
forwarded progress in these fields, due 
largely to the need to make sales ap- 
peal stronger than ever. 

Is the home fire resistive? Is it rigid 
in construction? Is it permanent? Will 
maintenance cost be low? Has it the 
modern conveniences that buyers de- 
mand? These and similar questions, an- 
swered in the affirmative, point the way 
to better homes for America — and have 
an obvious influence on solving the 
problem of financing. 



Craft ProblQms 




CARPENTRY 

(By H. H. Siegele) 

LESSON LXVIII 

"I fired the boss carpenter when I had 
this house built," a man said a few 
months ago, while he was showing us 
through his home, and telling us with 
pride, that he had planned the house 
himself. And when we asked him why 
he fired the boss, he told us that in 
framing the rough openings for win- 
dows, he had some of them too small 
for the window frames and some of 
them too large. "Any carpenter," he 
contended, "ought to know how to 
frame rough openings so that when the 
window frames are to be set, the rough 
openings will not have to be worked 
over." The man was right, — and yet, 
we can recall an instance when two ex- 
perienced journeymen carpenters made 
window frames for a two story house, 
and when they were brought to the job, 
the frames were, not only too large for 
the rough openings, but they were too 
large for the sash that were to go into 
them later. Both men knew how to make 




Fig. 387 



window frames, but in this case they 
made a mistake, such as anyone, even 
the boss carpenter, is likely to make. A 
mistake in figures can be forgiven, but 
to make a second mistake in failing to 
check over the figures before going 
ahead, is inexcusable. There are prob- 
ably few journeymen carpenters, if any, 
who can not remember instances where 



rough openings either had to be en- 
larged or had to be made smaller when 
the window frames were set, all of 
which causes, not only a lot of extra 
work, but a great deal of genuine grief 
for somebody, if not the loss of some- 
body's job. When mistakes are discov- 
ered, before discharging without mercy, 
the old proverb should be remembered, 




T 



Fig. 3 88 

"He who is without sin, let him cast the 
first stone." 

Here are formulas for obtaining the 
width and height of rough openings for 
windows: The width of the glass, plus 
the width of two sash stiles, plus the 
thickness of two pully stiles, sometimes 
called jambs, plus the width of two 
weight boxes, will give the width in the 
clear, for rough window openings. In 
other words, the width of the rough 
opening for a window must be, (assum- 
ing the width of the glass to be 30 
inches) 30 inches for the glass, 4 inches 
for two sash stiles, 1 % inches for two 
% inch pulley stiles and 4% inches for 
two weight boxes, in all 40% inches. 
Ordinarily, adding 10% inches to the 
width of the glass, gives the width of 
the rough opening, but if there are 
variations in any of the additional parts 
that we have enumerated, such varia- 
tions must be taken into consideration, 
therefore remember to check your fig- 
ures before you go ahead. For the 
height of a rough opening (assuming, 
for convenience, the height of the glass 
to be 30 inches, and the window a 
double-hung window) we must take 
twice 30 inches, or 60 inches for the 
glass, to which we must add, 2 inches 



THE CARPENTER 



25 



for the top rail, 1 inch for the meeting 
rail, 3 inches for the bottom rail, % 
inch for the yoke, % inch for the sub- 
sill, 1 % inches for the sill and 1 inch 
for clearance, making in all, 10V 2 
inches. For ordinary purposes, adding 
lO 1 /^ inches to the height of the glass 




Fig. 389 



will give the height of rough openings 
for double-hung windows. As in ascer- 
taining the width, any variations in the 
enumerated parts must be taken into 
consideration. For single-hung windows, 
only one glass and no meeting rail is 
required. We repeat, check over your 
figures thoroughly before going ahead. 

Taking up the illustrations, we refer 
the reader to Fig. 387, which shows at 
a, the simplest kind of rough opening, 
consisting of a top and bottom header 
nailed between two studding. At b, we 
show the same size opening which is 




Fig. 390 

framed so as to be located at a specific 
place, hence a studding had to be cut 
out, and in addition to top and bottom 
headers, two trimmers are necessary. 
Fig. 388 shows at A, a commonly used 
method of framing rough opening for 
windows, in very cheap work. This 
method is all right where it is not nec- 
essary to locate the window at a given 



point. At B we are showing a some- 
what better construction, which is mere- 
ly a modification of what is shown at 
A. 

The methods of framing rough open- 
ings for windows shown in Fig. 389 are 
good, and are commonly used on resi- 
dence work. Attention should be called 
to the construction of the top headers. 
At a, we show a plain double header, 
which is all right, but will not support 
as much weight as the header shown at 
b, where the 2x4 's are set on edge, with 
a lath between to bring them to the 
width of the studding. The former of 
these constructions costs a little less in 
labor and in material than the latter, 




Fig. 391 

but for ordinary purposes, especially 
where boxing is applied to the studding, 
one construction is as good as the other. 
One reason, but not the only reason, 
for doubling headers and trimmers in 
rough openings, is to provide nailing 
for the trim, or finish, as it is sometimes 
called. 

Where a wall must support a great 
deal of weight, as is often the case, the 
construction shown in Fig. 390 is very 
good. The top header, shown in detail 
to the right, is built up of 2x8's set on 
edge, the trimmers are doubled 2x4's, 
while the bottom header is sloped out- 
ward, as is shown by the detail to the 
right. Fig. 391 shows a rough opening 
for a twin win'dow. The top header is 
built up of two 2x8's stripped with a 
lath on the inside to bring it out in 
alignment with the edges of the stud- 
dings, as shown by the detail to the 
right. The bottom header is doubled, as 
shown. This makes a very substantial 
construction, and provides amply for 
nailing. 

As we explained in a previous lesson, 
some builders frame the rough openings 



26 



THE CARPENTER 



before raising the skeleton walls, others 
raise the walls and cut and frame the 
openings afterward. We have used both 
methods, and like them. The former is 
a labor saver, while the latter, perhaps, 
makes possible a larger degree of ac- 
curacy, but we are saying this without 
guaranteeing it; for accuracy is a prod- 



r-^-^S^ 



^ 



i 



523 



Fig. 3 92 

uct of careful workmanship, and when 
this element is absent, accuracy, if it is 
attained, is merely a matter of luck, no 
matter what method might be used. But 
that is another story, — we are showing 
by Fig. 392 a templet for marking stud- 
ding to be cut out for window and door 
openings. The templet is made of a reg- 
ular studding, in the manner shown to 
the left. To the right, we are showing 
the templet set against a studding ready 
for marking the top and bottom cuts. 



The upper crosspiece is so located on 
the templet that when the cutting is 
done and the header is in, the height of 
the opening will be right. The same can 
be said of the bottom crosspiece, it 
must be placed in such a manner that 
allowance will be given for the header. 
For doors, only the top crosspiece is nec- 
essary. The dotted lines, shown on the 
templet to the left, indicate how addi- 
tional crosspieces can be placed, for 
smaller openings. The reason the cross- 
pieces extend both ways, is to make it 
possible to mark either side of the stud- 
ding, for it is not always convenient to 
do the cutting from the same side. 



THE FRAMING SQUARE 

(By L. Perth) 

PART TWENTY-FOUR 

Those Who Do Not Understand 

This is the story of a man who bit 
off more than he could chew which 
makes this a combination lesson on roof 
framing and how to read drawings. 

We have before us a letter addressed 
to the Editor of the Journal and signed 
by a man affiliated with a Carpenters' 
Union in one of the larger cities of 
Southern California. 

In his communication he informs us 
that a mistake has been discovered in 
the December 1933 issue of "The Car- 
penter" and refers to Fig. 3 on page 30. 
Naturally he is very indignant and even 
goes so far as to recommend prophy- 
lactic measures against such irregulari- 
ties. 

We do not expect the man to be a 
Wendell Phillips but somehow after 
reading and re-reading his message we 
still could not exactly understand just 
what it is he is driving at. Neither does 
he suggest a way to correct the "mis- 
take" which it is quite customary to do 
for one who was instrumental enough 
to discover an error where it did not 
exist. As close as we could guess the 
man is trying to tell us "what might 
happen if one should attempt to do the 
wrong thing." 

It is not our custom to take up issues 
of this sort for we can ill afford to waste 
our time. 

Now let us get back to the man who 
unearthed the mistake. In attempting 
to interpret his statements all we could 
gather was that the man is trying to 



THE CARPENTER 



27 



learn something about "laying out raf- 
ters and their cuts from the diagram 
shown on Fig. 3." He, naturally, dis- 
covers that this diagram does not quite 
answer the purpose and of course his 
deduction is that "Fig. 3 is wrong." 

There isn't anything wrong with Fig. 
3 only it appears wrong to the man who 
does not seem to know much about how 
to read drawings. 

Anyone who has the elementary abil- 
ity to interpret drawings understands 
how these are being classified. Thus 



him to produce a complete structural 
member. The detail drawing usually 
contains all the specific data, sizes, com- 
plete dimensions in all directions, mate- 
rial, appearance from various points and 
even method of procedure. 

Sometimes a certain "part" of a mem- 
ber of a structure or equipment is so 
complicated that the architect finds it 
necessary to make a special detail just 
of that part only. 

In that case the unit as a whole is be- 
ing neglected and may be taken care of 



»h 




F/&3. 0/AG&AA/ 



F/e.4- 



Zv/s /S 



there are — general drawings, erection 
drawings, working drawings, construc- 
tion details, fabrication details, dia- 
grams and sketches. Time and space do 
not allow us to go further into the eluci- 
dations of the respective functions of 
the above classifications. But insofar as 
this discussion is concerned we will 
have to explain the distinction which 
separates "details" from "diagrams." 

A "detail" Is a drawing which has for 
its purpose giving the builder all the 
minutest information which will enable 
him to successfully erect a certain part 
of a structure, or make it possible for 



in another drawing. Such a case is 
shown in Fig. 1. This detail is intended 
to show the complete layout of the seat 
cut of a rafter and it gives all the infor- 
mation necessary to successfully proceed 
with the job. Note that all the work is 
concentrated on this particular part of 
the rafter. The rest of the features are 
being entirely disregarded. 

A "diagram" on the contrary is a 
drawing of the simplest possible form. 
It is made for the purpose of demon- 
strating a principle as in Fig. 3 and 4 
or it shows the relative position of 
structural members. Diagrams also are 



THE CARPENTER 



frequently used to indicate the sequence 
and the prepress of building operations. 
Diagrams usually have a few indispens- 
able dimensions but they are never used 
for the purpose of fabricating, manu- 
facturing or making a finished product. 

There are "one-line diagrams" as in 
Fig. 4 and "two-line diagrams" as in 
Fig. 3. They both serve the same pur- 
pose. 

The sub-title of the article In the De- 
cember 1933 issue reads "Roof Pitches." 
It is evident therefore that the entire 
paper is devoted to that particular sub- 
ject. No other phase of roof framing is 
touched upon throughout the entire ar- 
ticle. "The Roof Pitch" is an idea, it is 
a principle, a factor which determines 
the slope of the roof. Therefore the pur- 
pose of that lesson was to plant in the 
mind of the reader a concrete idea of 
what a "roof pitch" really is and to 
make the idea clear "diagrams" were 
shown on page 30. All these diagrams 
demonstrate the principle of the "Roof 
pitch." No attempt was made through- 
out the entire paper to touch on any- 
thing else but "roof pitches." 

Now comes our friend and tells us 
that Fig. 3 "may be used by some of 
our members for laying out rafters and 
if they do they are liable to be "off." 
And in conclusion he pathetically ex- 
claims: "Result — all the material and 
labor wasted and man fired." 

To our way of thinking — anyone who 
attempts to cut a rafter from a diagram 
similar to the one shown in Fig. 3 knows 
very little about carpentry and still less 
about plan reading. He has no room in 
the ranks of such an organization of 
skilled mechanics as the United Broth- 
erhood of Carpenters. 

But the most entertaining part is con- 
tained in the body of the letter. It is 
legislative in its character and recom- 
mends a measure whereby the occur- 
rence of such mistakes may be prevent- 
ed in the future. Here is in substance 
what it says: 

"All such, details and articles should 
be submitted to a Carpenter for ap- 
proval before being used in our jour- 
nal." 

We subscribe to above dictum, at 
least to the last part of it, and for the 
good of the fraternity are willing to sub- 
mit ourselves to any regulations and re- 
strictions no matter how drastic they 



may be. We realize, of course, that our 
friend in recommending his "approving 
measure" is laboring under the impres- 
sion that the author of these articles on 
building construction which have been 
running in the Journal since 1925 must 
be a hodcarrier. 

As to the "approving" we sincerely 
trust our friend is not looking for that 
job. For if he is he may be sadly dis- 
appointed to find out that the job has 
been already filled successfully many 
years ago. 

Undoubtedly our friend knows what 
an Editor is and what an Editor's func- 
tions are. A little light however on the 
subject will do him good. 

Mr. Frank Duffy who is General Sec- 
retary of the United Brotherhood is also 
the Editor of the Carpenter. We are 
happy indeed to have the opportunity to 
say something about the personality of 
the Editor of the Journal. 

If the duties of Mr. Duffy were limit- 
ed only to those of a General Secretary 
he would have had his hands full. But 
Mr. Duffy in addition to having to dis- 
charge the direct duties of his organiza- 
tion is also constantly called upon to 
serve in an executive capacity at numer- 
ous conventions, conferences, commis- 
sions and committees of the various la- 
bor bodies which are in session during 
the year. 

And on top of all that Mr. Duffy is 
the Editor of the Carpenter and a very 
able Editor at that. Under his able man- 
agement the Journal, a small four page 
paper in 1881, has grown to be a respect- 
able size magazine which reflects all the 
vital phases of the life of the organiza- 
tion, has a technical educational section 
and in normal times is successful in sell- 
ing as much advertising space as any 
magazine of that class can boast. It will 
be well to add that in connection with 
this magazine Mr. Duffy attends to the 
wants of a modern good sized printing 
plant which has proved to be a profit- 
able establishment for the organization. 

Now if there is any "approving" to 
be done Mr. Duffy is going to do it as 
he has successfully done for many years 
in the past. 

Mistakes are bound to happen, and 
will happen, and we are glad to correct 
same when called to our attention. But 
we certainly have neither time or pa- 
tience for any unnecessary criticism. 



THE CARPENTER 



29 



We would advise our friend to dig 
up his old copies of the Journal and 
look up some very useful articles on 
"Elementary Drawing," "Blue Print 
Reading" and Sketching by this author. 
He may learn something about how to 
read drawings. This also is a good 
source from which to learn something 
about laying out roof members and gen- 
eral roof framing. 



Width of Walk — 3.393131025 yds. or 
10 ft. 2.5271690 in. 



Approximate Width and Length of Walk 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

In a previous issue of "The Carpen- 
ter" Brother Frank Miller presents the 
accompanying sketch, which shows the 
plan of a building 15 yds. wide and 18 
yds. long, that has an area of 2 70 square 
yds. and sets in exact-center of field cov- 
ering 540 sq. yds. and wants to know 
the "EXACT WIDTH" of a surrounding- 
parallel walk containing 270 sq. yds.? 
Also the "EXACT WIDTH & LENGTH" 
of field? 

Conditions of this problem do not ad- 
mit of "EXACT ANSWERS," so I sub- 
mit the following close approximations, 
which are within One Ten-Millionth of 
an inch of EXACTNESS — 



B- 


15 -YDS. 


o 


A 


i 270 
qo 


SQ.YOS. 


-< 




o 




</» 




• 





BXC- 540 SQ. YDS. 

Width of Field — 21.786262050 yds. 
or 65 ft. 4.3054338 in. 

Length of Field — 24.78 62 62050 yds, 
or 74 ft. 4.3054338 in. 



Verification 

D — Width of Walk 3393131025 

E — Length of Walk 795725241 



3393131025 
13572524100 
6786262050 
16965655125 
6786262050 
23751917175 
16965655125 
30538179225 
23751917175 

Area of Walk — 2700000002612702025 Sq. Yds. 



2 x D plus 15 equals B- 
2 x D plus 18 equals C- 



-2178626205 
-2478626205 



10893131025 
43572524100 
13071757230 
4357252410 
13071757230 
17429009640 
15250383435 
8714504820 
4357252410 

Area of Field — 5400000002612702025 Sq. Yds. 



Frank DeGuerre, 



L. U. No. 22, Villa Grande, Calif. 



30 



THE CARPENTER 



Polygons and Six Foot Rule 



Much is written about Polygons and 
the Steel Square. Little has been said 
about the Zig-zag Six Foot Rule and 
Polygons. The diagram below shows 
how one can lay out any polygon by 
using an ordinary protractor with a 
rule. The inside and outside angles are 
found as shown in drawing. No figur- 



shows the protractor applied on rule. It 
being of ISO degrees, locates itself from 
points L and M on the edge of any fold- 
ing rule of the type shown here and 
used by most carpenters in their work. 
The angles E-F-G-H-I and J are found 
by dividing by 2 any of the inside angles 
of the shown polygons, which is a line 




ing is necessary except to divide the 
number of degrees in a circle (360) by 
the number of sides in the desred poly- 
gon; i. e., 360 divided by 8 equals 45 
which is the outside angle of an octagon 
as shown in sketch. 45 subtracted from 
ISO (half of 3 60) gives the number of 
degrees in the inside angle of the poly- 
gon as shown in diagram. The partly 
graduated circle at right of sketch, 



r£T£R # RFILLy 



from any vertex to the radii-K. The 
lines N-O-P and Q of the different poly- 
gons multiplied by their perimeters di- 
vided by 2 equals the areas of any poly- 
gon. Pi-R-square equals area of circle, 
which means the square of the radius 
multiplied by 3.1416 which is the rela- 
tion of a diameter to its circumference. 



L. U. No. 40. 



Peter A. Reilly, 
Boston, Mass. 



Splicing Round Poles 

(By H. H. Siegele) 

"Zweimal ab gesagt und doch zukurz," 
is an old German saying that is often 
heard among carpenters; which, being 
interpreted, means: "Sawed off twice, 
and still too short." Few carpenters 
there are, indeed, who do not find 
among their experiences, incidents to 
which this old saying would fittingly 
apply. Recently one of our patrons or- 
dered some curtain poles, and when we 
came to put them up, they were too 
short. She almost quoted the old say- 
ing, when she explained that she "meas- 
ured them twice," but still they were too 
short. And then she wondered whether 



they could be spliced, and we told her 
they could — which brings us to our 
problem of splicing round poles. The 
whole problem lies in the joint, and the 
joint depends on the cutting. How will 



Fig. 1 

we cut the joint so the pole will be sub- 
stantial and at the same time straight? 
Well, this is the way we did it: We 
nailed the two pieces side by side, on 
an even surface, in the manner shown 
by Fig. 1. It was necessary to add 12 



THE CARPENTER 



inches to the pole, so the shortest part 
of the addition could not be less than 
12 inches long, as we are showing by 
the figure. Then we took the saw and 
cut both pieces at the same time, in the 



Fig. 2 

direction shown by the line between a 
and b. This done, we applied the glue, 
and with brads, we fastened the joint 
together in the manner shown by Fig. 
2. A little sandpapering finished the 
joint so it could hardly be detected. 



Here's A Poser 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

I am submitting a problem which 
would very much appreciate having pub- 
lished in your valuable journal. 

A, B, and C, live at the vertices 
an equilateral triangle, 320 rods 
length on each side. 

A can run two miles per hour. 

B can run three miles per hour. 

C can run four miles per hour. 





A New Stanley Tool 

SLITS, GROOVES AND BEVELS 
FIBRE BOARDS LIKE UPSON 
BOARD, GELOTEX AND OTHERS 

Fibre Board Cotter 
No. 193 

You will want this new tool for your next 
fibre board job. It grooves, bevels and slits any 
of the fibre wall boards now on the market. 
Through cuts can be made much easier and faster with it than is possible with 
a saw and it leaves smooth edges. Furthermore it cuts beveled edges, makes 
beveled edge battens, cuts grooves, makes decorative designs such as squares, 
parallel lines and bricks as shown below. 

It's a Stanley Quality Tool — smooth strong castings;; Stanley "Bailey" rose- 
wood Handle and knob; tool steel cutters that can be resharpened like a regular 
plane iron; carefully machined parts all of which 
are replaceable. 

See it at your Hardware Dealers 
Write for descriptive Folder P47 

STANLEY TOOLS 

New Britain, Connecticut 




32 



THE CARPENTER 

















%Je 










. 




w^ llSl 






Jr" 

























House in Portland, Ore. Builder, Angel & Son. 
Insulated with Cabot's Quilt. 

Homeowners Wrote 
this Advertisement 



"Your building quilt I used on my cottage is 
a wonder. Paid for itself in reduced coal bills 
last winter." — M. L. Bangham, Cincinnati, 
Ohio. 

"We have your Quilt around the second 
story and also all around our bathroom for a 
sound deadener. Ifs going to be great. Our 
contractor ... is delighted with it." — Mrs. L. 
Bixby, Ludlow., Vermont. 

"We have very much appreciated the Cabot's 
Quilt that was used to insulate the writer's 
house. The last few weeks have been unbear- 
ably hot, but with no trees at all to shade the 
house as yet, if we kept it closed during the 
hot days, there is as much as 15 degrees differ- 
ence in inside and outside temperature. "We are 
very pleased that this material was brought to 
our attention as it is most satisfactory." — 
Warren S. Weiant & Son, Newark, Ohio. 

Satisfied customers will advertise you, 
too, and bring you more business. Mail 
the coupon below for our "Quilt" Book. 



— >» t»,s Coupon Tod* 
\Name. 

C-5-34 



PLASTIC WOOD 

Helped Me Become a 

CRAFTSMAN' 




Wood in Cans Hides Dents, 
Blemishes, Splinters, Tool- 
Marks, Streaks, Knotholes, 
Mistakes! 

Thousands of carpenters 
carry this greatest of all 
scientific discoveries in their 
tool box — all the time. They 
know it can be used to save 
time and labor on 9 out of 10 jobs. It is won- 
derful for repairing damaged wood, filling 
holes, sealing cracks, and 1001 other uses. 
Genuine Plastic Wood handles easy as putty — 
it can be shaped, molded or stuffed into holes 
with the bare hands. But when it dries it be- 
comes hard, permanent wood — stronger than 
actual wood — wood that takes nails and screws 
without splitting or crumbling — wood that can 
be sanded, carved, planed, sawed, painted, 
shellacked or lacquered. And — best of all — 
Plastic Wood sticks forever to wood, stone, 
tile, glass or plaster. 



They wish to locate a ball-ground 
somewhere within the triangle, at such 
point that each may leave his home at 
the same time and arrive at the ball- 
ground at the same time. 

Locate the ball-ground. 



L. U. No. 169. 



S. Gregory, 
Des Moines, la. 



Another Nut to Crack 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

I wish to submit the following prob- 
lem to the brothers for a solution: 

There is a certain tract of land in- 
closed with a board fence. There are 
as many acres in the field as there are 
boards inclosing it. The fence is four 
boards high and the boards are 12 ft. 
long: How many acres in the field? 

Warren E. Smith, 
L. U. No. 281. Binghamton, N. Y. 



Don't let the mistakes you have made 
prey on your mind. There's a margin of 
error in most jobs that are undertaken 
which cannot be eliminated. 



THE CARPENTER 



Program to Protect Workers Mapped by 
A. F. of L. Parley 

A double-barrelled program for the 
protection of wage-earners' rights was 
announced by the A. F. of L. following 
the conference in Washington of the 
chiefs of the 109 affiliated national and 
international unions. 

On the legislative side, five amend- 
ments will be offered to strengthen the 
labor provisions of the National Recov- 
ery Act. 

On the industrial side, union machin- 
ery was made more flexible and plans 
laid for a new campaign for unioniza- 
tion of unorganized industries. 

Senator Robert F. Wagner of New 
York will introduce the amendments to 
the Recovery Act. 

1. Corporations are to be prohibited 
by law from forming, fostering and fi- 
nancing "company unions," preparing 
their constitutions and guiding or di- 
recting their activities. 

2. The National Labor Board is to 
be given power to subpoena witnesses, 
swear them under oath, and examine 
the books and financial records of com- 
panies whose cases are under considera- 
tion. 

3. The National Labor Board is to 
have mandatory power to hold elections 
where these are requested by employes 
or where the board feels that such elec- 
tions are necessary to determine who 
shall represent the employes for collec- 
tive bargaining. 

4. Labor shall have representation 
on all NRA boards and code authorities. 

5. Adequate protection is to be af- 
forded to all workers who organize into 
unions so that they shall be free from 
discharge, lockout and intimidation. 



Bills to Modify Immigration Act 
Threaten U. S. Workers' Jobs 

The jobs of American workers, and 
the prospects of new jobs for those now 
unemployed, are in danger. Despite the 
large amount of unempoyment, amend- 
ments to our immigration laws are be- 
ing offered in Congress that would ad- 
mit large numbers of aliens who would 
be seeking jobs in competition with 
those already here. 

In fairness to those now in the coun- 
try, whether native or foreign born, the 
laws limiting immigration should be 
strengthened, rather than weakened, if 
we are to save the available jobs for 
those now here. 



Contrary to general belief, the immi- 
gration act passed in 1924 did not settle 
the question of limitation of immigra- 
tion for all time. As a matter of fact, 
for the last three years all that has 
prevented the admission of at least half 
a million aliens has been a temporary 
executive order, enforced by the State 
Department, refusing immigration visas 
to anyone without a definite means of 
support, and so likely to become a pub- 
lic charge. 

Even this executive order is tempor- 
ary. As soon as jobs in any number be- 
come available it may be lifted, again 
permitting foreigners to come in and 
seek jobs in competition with workers 
now here. 

The 1924 immigration act establishes 
a quota for Europe of 150,000 immi- 
grants a year, apportioned among the 
various European countries. But out- 
side of this quota it permits the entry 
of an indefinite number of Europeans, 
such as wives and children of immi- 
grants, ministers and professors, stu- 
dents, etc. The law excludes Asiatics, 
but places no limit on the nubmer of 
immigrants from Mexico, the West In- 
dies, and the other countries of North, 
Central and South America, and the 
Philippines. With the removal of the 
"Likely to become a public charge" pro- 
vision, those desiring cheap labor would 
again receive a total of some 300,000 
persons a year, as they did in the six 
years from 1924 to 1930. 

As a result of the openings left in the 
immigration dikes in 19 24, the United 
States received over 1,762,000 immi- 
grants, as against the 900,000 that 
would have come in if the European al- 
lowance of 150,000 within the quota 
had been the total allowance from all 
sources. 

The effort being made to break down 
the laws limiting immigration is clever 
and insidious. Some 50 bills have been 
introduced in the present Congress to 
modify the law and make it easier for 
foreigners to enter. Taken singularly 
many of these bills are insignificant but 
collectively they would undermine and 
break down the law. 

It is time that Congress cease giving 
favorable consideration to bills favor- 
ing special class of foreigners, and do 
something in the way of further limita- 
tion of immigration in the interest of 
our own unemployed. 



PRICE LIST 



OF 



SUPPLIES 



One Charter and Outfit $15.00 

Application Blanks, per pad 50 

Application Blanks, Ladies' Aux- 
iliary, per 100 1.00 

Constitutions, each 05 

Constitutions, Ladies' Auxiliary, 

each 03 

Due Books, each 15 

Treas. Cash Books, each 50 

F. S. Receipt Books, each 35 

Treas. Receipt Books, each 35 

R. S. Order Books, each 35 

Official Note Paper, per 100 50 

Rituals, each 50 

Rituals, Ladies' Auxiliary, each . . .05 

Minute Books, 100 pages 1.50 

Minute Books, 200 pages 2.25 

Day Books, 100 pages 1.75 

Day Book, 200 pages 2.50 

Day Book, 300 pages 3.50 

Ledgers, 100 pages 2.00 

Ledgers, 200 pages 3.00 

Ledgers, 300 pages 3.75 

Ledgers, 400 pages 4.50 

Ledgers, 500 pages 5.00 

Gavels 1.25 

Receipting Dater for F. S 1.75 

Scmll Round Pencils 03 

Rubber Tipped Pencils 05 

Card Cases 10 

Withdrawal Cards, issued by Gen- 
eral Office only, each (always 

send name) 50 

Rubber Seal 1.75 

Belt Loop Chain 75 

Watch Fobs 50 

Key Tags 15 

Rubber Label Stamps 1.00 

Match Box Holders 15 

Cuff Links 1.50 

B. A. Badges 3.00 

Blanks for F. S. Reports for Treas- 
urer's Remittances and for Do- 
nation Claims Free 

Emblem Buttons 50 

Emblem Pins 50 

Ladies Auxiliary Pins 1.25 

Rolled Gold Watch Charms 1.50 

Solid Gold Watch Charms 7.50 

Solid Gold Rings 5.00 

PRICES ON SPECIAL LEATHER 
BOUND LEDGERS, WORKING CARDS, 
POSTCARD NOTICES, ARREARS NO- 
TICES, OFFICER'S CARDS, STATION- 
ERY, ETC., WILL BE SUBMITTED BY 
GENERAL SECRETARY UPON RE- 
QUEST. 

Note— the above articles will be supplied only 
when the requisite amount of cash accompanies 
the order. Otherwise the order will not be recog- 
nized. All supplies sent by us have the Postage 
prepaid or Express charges paid in advance. 



THE 



BROTHERHOOD 

is now manufacturing 

PLAYING 
CARDS 




( Regular Decks only — No Pinochle ) 

25c 
per pack 

Send money with order to — 

FRANK DUFFY 

General Secretary 

222 E. Michigan St. 
INDIANAPOLIS - - IND. 



PRICE LIST 



OF 



SUPPLIES 



One Charter and Outfit $15.00 

Application Blanks, per pad 50 

Application Blanks, Ladies' Aux- 
iliary, per 100 1.00 

Constitutions, each 05 

Constitutions, Ladies' Auxiliary, 

each 03 

Due Books, each 15 

Treas. Cash Books, each 50 

F. S. Receipt Books, each 35 

Treas. Receipt Books, each 35 

R. S. Order Books, each 35 

Official Note Paper, per 100 50 

Rituals, each 50 

Rituals, Ladies' Auxiliary, each.. .05 

Minute Books, 100 pages 1.50 

Minute Books, 200 pages 2.25 

Day Books, 100 pages 1.75 

Day Book, 200 pages 2.50 

Day Book, 300 pages 3.50 

Ledgers, 100 pages 2.00 

Ledgers, 200 pages 3.00 

Ledgers, 300 pages 3.75 

Ledgers, 400 pages 4.50 

Ledgers, 500 pages 5.00 

Gavels 1.25 

Receipting Dater for F. S 1.75 

Small Round Pencils 03 

Rubber Tipped Pencils 05 

Card Cases 10 

■Withdrawal Cards, issued by Gen- 
eral Office only, each (always 

send name) 50 

Rubber Seal 1.75 

Belt Loop Chain 75 

Watch Fobs 50 

Key Tags 15 

Rubber Label Stamps 1.00 

Match Box Holders 15 

Cuff Links 1.50 

B. A. Badges 3.00 

Blanks for F. S. Reports for Treas- 
urer's Remittances and for Do- 
nation Claims Free 

Emblem Buttons 50 

Emblem Pins 50 

Ladies Auxiliary Pins 1.25 

Rolled Gold Watch Charms 1.50 

Solid Gold Watch Charms 7.50 

Solid Gold Rings 5.00 

PRICES ON SPECIAL LEATHER 
BOUND LEDGERS, WORKING CARDS, 
POSTCARD NOTICES, ARREARS NO- 
TICES, OFFICER'S CARDS, STATION- 
ERY, ETC., WILL BE SUBMITTED BY 
GENERAL SECRETARY UPON RE- 
QUEST. 

Note — the above articles will be supplied only 
when the requisite amount of cash accompanies 
the order. Otherwise the order will not be recog- 
nized. All supplies sent by us have the Postage 
prepaid or Express charges paid in advance. 



THE 



BROTHERHOOD 

is now manufacturing 

PLAYING 
CARDS 



r AND JOINERS OF AMERICA. 



k\\\\\\\\\ \\ \\\n uiih 




VDIM3HV JO SHNIOr QNV 



( Regular Decks only — No Pinochle ) 

25c 
per pack 

Send money with order to — 

FRANK DUFFY 

General Secretary 

222 E. Michigan St. 
INDIANAPOLIS - - IND. 





How will these New 
Products Help You 
Build a Business 
of Your Own? 

With your experience— and right in your own com- 
munity — you can build up a profitable business of 
your own ! A NEW line of interior finish materials 
opens up the way. 

The line includes NU-WOOD Plank and Tile— wonderful multiple-purpose 
wall and ceiling coverings, adaptable either to new or to old construction — and 
selling at amazingly low prices. NU-WOOD is pre-decorated, comes in inter- 
esting pattern and color combinations, and enables you to get into the interior 
decorating business — with a hammer! Because it insulates, hushes noise, and 
corrects acoustics, NU-WOOD opens up still broader fields of use in schools 
. . . churches . . . hotels . . . offices . . . hospitals . . . stores . . . shops . . . 
restaurants . . . apartments . . . and homes. 

Then there is BALSAM- WOOL Blanket Insulation — now furnished with 
sealed and flanged edges for easy and quick application. It, too, is applied by 
carpenters. It pays for itself in fuel saving and keeps out stifling summer heat. 
Every job sold is a permanent advertisement for the carpenter who applied it. 

All NU-WOOD and BALSAM- WOOL products are handled by your lumber 
dealer. You find the prospects — he will help you sell them. Ambitious car- 
penters are invited to write us NOW for full information about the Wood 
Conversion Company line of interior finish materials which combine insula- 
tion, permanent decoration, acoustical correction and noise hushing. 

Wood Conversion company 

Room 118, First National Bank Bldg., St. Paul, Minnesota 



WOOD CONVERSION COMPANY, Room 118 First National Bank Bldg., St. Paul, Minnesota 

Gentlemen: I want to know more about the opportunities which the Wood Conversion line offers. Please 
send me the facts, without obligation on my part. 

Name ...._ Address 

City. _ State. „ 



WOOD CONVERSION COMPANY 

ST. PAUL • • • MINNESOTA 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of Congress, Aug. 24, 1912 

Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, act of 
October 3, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918 

A Monthly Journal for Carpenters. Stair Builders, Machine Wood Workers, Planing Mill Men, an 3 

Kindred Industries. Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters 

and Joiners of America, at 

Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 

Advertising Department, 25 Third Avenue, New York, N. Y. «^^*>5l 



Established in 1881 
Vol. LIV. — No. 6. 



INDIANAPOLIS, JUNE, 1934 



One Dollar Per Tear 
Ten Cents a Copy 



NOTICE 

The publishers of "The Carpenter" reserve the right to reject all advertising matter 
which may be, in their judgment, unfair or objectionable to the membership of the United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America. 

All contracts for advertising space in "The Carpenter," including those stipulated as 
non-cancellable, are only accepted subject to the above reserved rights of the publishers. 



* 


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Because he gave — himself! 




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THE CARPENTER 



HOW TWO GREAT NATIONS KEEP THE PEACE 

(By J. A. P. Haydon) 




LL Europe is rife with 
talk of another war. The 
nations are armed camps; 
troops are massed on na- 
tional boundary lines, with 
chips on their shoulders 
and their fingers on triggers. Deadly war 
materials capable of terrifying destruc- 
tion are being accumulated in vast quan- 
tities. Statesmen are sitting on powder 
barrels, fearful that some incident of 
no importance in itself may be a match 
that will start a conflagration that 
will destroy European civilization. How 
strangely and significantly this disturb- 
ing situation contrasts with the amica- 
ble relations between Canada and the 
United States, the two democratic na- 
tions which occupy the major portion 
of the North American continent! 

There are just as many potential 
reasons for conflict between these neigh- 
bors as exist between nations of Europe 
which are making faces at each other. 
The boundary line separating them is 
some 5,500 miles in length, of which 
3,100 is land and 2,400 water, This 
is the largest international boundary 
separating any two nations in the world 
— and yet no armed troops or forts are 
to be found anywhere between the two 
oceans. 

In part this is due to the Rush-Bagot 
treaty, negotiated after the close of the 
American Revolutionary war, and which 
defines the boundaries between the na- 
tions and stipulates that they shall 
never be armed. Naval vessels of any 
sort are prohibited on the Great Lakes. 

To see that this agreement and others 
since adopted are carried out with a 
minimum of controversy, an Interna- 
tional Boundary Commission was creat- 
ed in 1793 to survey, map and mark 
the dividing line. The commission has 
prepared 255 maps and all but three are 
now printed and available for distribu- 
tion. 

In 1925 an agreement was reached 
between Canada and the United States 
providing that the boundary lines as de- 
termined by the Commission should be 
permanently maintained. 

An International Joint Commission 
was formed in 1910 to assume jurisdic- 
tion over the use, obstruction and diver- 



sion of boundary waters, and when re- 
quested by either government it exam- 
ines and reports on such differences as 
may arise in the vicinity of the bound- 
ary which involve the rights of citi- 
zens of either country. 

The Joint Commission was the out- 
come Of extended discussions between 
Great Britain, Canada and the United 
States, in which Lord Bryce, Hon. Elihu 
Root and Sir Wilfred Laurier played 
prominent parts. Three of its six mem- 
bers are appointed by each country. Mr. 
Charles A. Magrath heads the Canadian 
delegation, having been appointed by 
Sir Robert Borden in 1912. The other 
members are Sir William Hearst and 
Mr. George W. Kyte, for Canada, and 
former Senator A. O. Stanley of Ken- 
tucky, former Assistant Postmaster Gen- 
eral John H. Bartlett of New Hampshire 
and Eugene Lorton of Oklahoma, repre- 
senting Uncle Sam. The latter was 
named by President Roosevelt to suc- 
ceed the former Senator Peter J. Mc- 
Cumber of North Dakota, deceased. 

In the United States the commission 
is regarded as a haven for "lame ducks." 
The members are appointed for life and 
their work is pretty much of a sinecure. 
Sessions are held only at rare intervals 
— less a criticism of the commission 
than a tribute to the peaceful proclivi- 
ties of the countries they represent. 

Nevertheless since its formation 3 4 
years ago, the commission has dealt 
with many problems, and all its deci- 
sions have been reached unanimously. 
Some of the questions were just as im- 
portant as those which are causing Eu- 
ropean governments a chance to flirt 
with Mars and would have given war- 
minded statesmen excuses for a half 
dozen conflicts. 

But they were rather casually turned 
over to the six amiable old men, with 
the people of the two nations scarcely 
aware there was a difference of opinion. 

With no heated clashes to report, no 
threat of strife between neighbors, no 
deadlocks nor charges of one country 
being robbed of victory or suffering in- 
jury to its pride — in short, with no ef- 
fort by one nation to "put something 
over" on the other — the commission has 
been taken for granted by the public at 
large. When it handed down one of its 



THE CARPENTER 



occasional findings it was lucky if it 
made the inside pages of the press. 

Giving to the. commissions all the 
credit they deserve for ironing out diffi- 
culties and removing sources of friction, 
the fact still remains that peace has 
persisted continuously because the two 
peoples wish to live as good neighbors 
and were willing to make such accom- 
modations as are necessary to maintain 
friendly relations. 

Mr. Noel J. Ogilvie, Canadian repre- 
sentative of the Boundary Commission, 
has said: 

"Experience on many occasions has 
shown that for the proper exercise of 
police authority and for the proper and 
efficient enforcement of customs, immi- 
gration, fishery and other laws, it is 
necessary that everywhere along the en- 
tire border officers responsible for en- 
forcing the regulations shall be able eas- 
ily to locate the dividing line. 

"It is equally important to the gen- 
eral public that the boundary be every- 



where so plainly marked that no one 
need be in danger of unknowingly cross- 
ing it and failing to report to the proper 
authorities, and in so doing uninten- 
tionally commit an offense which would 
render him liable to punishment." 

Mr. Ogilvie might have gone farther 
and have said that, in turning these 
functions over to a friendly tribunal 
rather than entrusting them to militar- 
ists, Canada and the United States have 
given a practical demonstration to the 
world of how to settle disputes that in- 
evitably crop up between nations as they 
do among men. 

Conciliation and investigation have 
been employed with such signal success 
that the commissioners now have little 
to do. The rights of each nation having 
been defined, and the people of each 
country being disposed to respect the 
rights of the other, it is inconceivable 
that any controversy can now arise that 
would be treated by either government 
as a cause of conflict. 



TERMS TO GOVERN PROJECTS FOR LOW-COST 

HOUSING 




^rg ORACE W. PEASLEE, as- 
""|^ sistant to Director of 
Housing, Federal Emer- 
gency Public Works Ad- 
ministration, in an ad- 
dress delivered before the 
National Conference on City Govern- 
ment at Atlantic City, N. J., said: 

Under procedure in vogue before the 
Public Works Administration set up 
the Housing Division, a project came 
for approval well advanced and with 
the approval of State Housing Boards. 
To expedite the preparation and submis- 
sion of projects and to eliminate red 
tape, the Division set up a form of pre- 
liminary general submission by which 
not only was time saved, but cost of 
preparation as well for the organizers 
with minimum loss in cases where appli- 
cations had to be rejected. 

The detailed requirements for a pre- 
liminary submission as outlined in a de- 
partmental circular are very searching 
as to the general set-up of a project but 
very limited in so far as any drawings 
are concerned. Certain things must be 
established beyond doubt: 

First, that there is need for the pro- 
ject proposed and that this particular 
project will meet that particular need. 



Second, that the objective is really to 
serve that lower income group for which 
modern sanitary housing is not now 
available and is not masquerading as 
such with an underlying speculative 
house-sales-land-unloading motive. 

Third, that the design will not only 
produce sound construction but at a cost 
which will meet on a rental basis the 
incomes of the group it aims to serve. 

Fourth, that the land is free from en- 
cumbrances and neither assessed at the 
fanciful figures of 1928 nor at today's 
sacrifice sale value, that it represents a 
fair and reasonable valuation and that 
the equity of which this land must be an 
unencumbered part is substantial and 
sufficient to include some working capi- 
tal. 

Fifth, who the backers are, their 
standing in the community and the na- 
ture of their individual contributions, 
whether money, land or services. 

Sixth, a clearly established relation- 
ship between the particular project ad- 
vanced and the city as a whole showing 
the relationship of the site to the utili- 
ties, schools and other facilities of the 
city as at present established and in re- 
lationship to planned growth or growth 
trends together with tax rates, descrip- 



THE CARPENTER 



tion of present improvements, assessed 
valuation, etc. 

Incidental to these and other pre- 
requisites such as financing, operating 
expenses, etc., are the plans — a diagram 
block plan of the entire development 
with sufficient elaboration of a typical 
unit to define exactly what is proposed. 

Of more than 200 applications for 
loans that have been filed, considerably 
more than half had been rejected or 
were scheduled for rejection as failing 
to meet some prerequisites of law or 
policy. An equity was inadequate, the 
assessed valuation was found to be ex- 
cessive, the site itself was entirely out 
of relationship to any possible low cost 
housing or the proposed plan in need of 
radical changes to accomplish the de- 
sired results. Such short-comings had 
to be ironed out if the project could 
proceed. 

The rejections have been based upon 
the fact that low cost housing cannot be 
produced through the erection, on high 
priced land, of high buildings of high 
unit cost, involving high costs of main- 
tenance and operation. While the erec- 
tion of such structures would serve to 
clear slums and provide employment 
they would add to the supply of houses 
within a rental bracket where it is 
known that a considerable percentage 
of vacancies exist. 

The Administration therefore has to 
weigh with great care the gains to be 
derived from increasing employment 
and clearing slums against the financial 
effects which would follow the produc- 
tion of additional houses in direct com- 
petition with existing properties which 
cannot be described as bad housing. 

There are two ways in which help can 
be given. First, if the gentlemen of the 
press will refrain in their headlines, 
sub-heads and text from raising in the 
minds of their readers the hope that 
stimulates hundreds of applications for 
assistance in building individual homes, 
in re-modeling small stores or apart- 
ment buildings; in promoting the con- 
struction and sale of small house devel- 
opments of the usual type. 

It should be obvious that the state- 
ment of policy which definitely calls for 
"low cost rental housing on low cost 
land for those lower income groups for 
which modern sanitary housing is not 
now available," must mean mass hous- 
ing for rent and not individual houses 
for sale. When it is clearly stated that 



the applicant must be limited by law or 
charter as to dividends and interest on 
securities, and that no loans will be 
made to speculative building projects, 
it must be obvious that the individual 
as such cannot be recognized. 

The second thing that can be done to 
assist in the general housing movement 
is local organization of local problems. 
It may not be feasible in every commun- 
ity; but in more than one community at 
least such a set-up has been definitely 
established. 

There is, first, the responsible central 
group from which applications will be 
received and to which a loan will be in 
order if conditions justify. Second, there 
is a large advisory committee composed 
of officials and representatives of civic 
organizations to make recommendations 
to the primary group on questions relat- 
ing to comparative sites. Third, there is 
a technical agency comprised of local 
architects to collaborate with the ad- 
visory committee in the study of sites 
and with the primary group in the de- 
velopment of sites selected. 

This seems a reasonable and efficient 
working set-up wherein the maximum 
consideration is given locally by compe- 
tent local people to the meeting of local 
needs. 

What is low cost housing? That de- 
pends on type, materials used, method 
of construction and, above all, on the 
location. In the one case it may be 20 
cents per cubic foot, or even lower; in 
another it may be more than twice as 
much. 

And what is low cost land? Is it $1, 
$1.50 or $2, $3 or $4, or is it 25 cents 
a square foot? One city has offered good 
land at 7 cents. 

It all depends on various factors such 
as the improvements that may be neces- 
sary to make it available; upon the loss 
in existing improvements; upon protec- 
tion from inundation; upon depressed 
value due to unpleasant surrounding 
conditions; upon the cost of bringing 
utilities to it, cost also depends upon 
what the local conception of the neces- 
sities of life may be. 

These are all questions which should 
receive the best and most impartial lo- 
cal judgment before the housing project 
for your community is submitted to the 
Housing Division. Every project sub- 
mitted to the Housing Division has to be 
considered in relation to the country at 
large in determining all these factors. 



6 



THE C A It I» E X T E It 




ADDRESS OF ANTON JOHANNSEN, MEMBER OF 

THE ILLINOIS INDUSTRIAL COMMISSION 

AND OF L. U. 1367, TO THE INSURANCE 

FEDERATION OF ILLINOIS, AT 

BLOOMINGTON, MAY 10, 1934 

HE present personnel of with the aim to have the medical fees 

r_— -^ the Industrial Commis- not only reasonable, but also with some 

sion have been in office a degree of uniformity, 
little over fifteen months. With the present showing of economy, 

During that time a num- made by the present Industrial Commis- 

ber of important changes sion, it should be a saving to the State 

have been made, both in the* arrange- of Illinois in overhead of approximately 

ment of the headquarters and in the $300,000.00, in the four years that this 

various departments, so that the hand- administration is to serve, 
ling of the business of the Commission To give you an indication of the 

has become more systematized. It is now business of the Commission, I may say 

possible to have hearings on arbitration that the mail received for the month of 

within twenty-one days after the peti- March totaled 30,3 87 pieces; for April, 

tion is filed. 31,108. 

The Oommision has worked out a set The following is a brief history of 

of rules, in conformity with an amend- the cases that came before the Commis- 

ment that was passed at a recent session sion in Illinois: 
of the Legislature. 

All employees of the. Industrial Com- Applica- Applica- 

mission have been instructed diligently tions tions 

regarding the value of courtesy, the im- 1933 Filed: Awards Dismissed 

portance of efficiency and the honest dis- February __ 493 155 159 

charge of their duties. March 644 260 145 

The advent of prohibition in America, April 442 250 207 

fourteen years ago, resulted in the de- May .__ 493 181 191 

velopment of a great deal of racketeer- June 586 241 200 

ing that we did not witness prior to the July 536 170 103 

passage of this law, and since the aboli- August 533 84 105 

tion of prohibition, some of those folks September _ 575 130 220 

that were educated in profiteering and October 587 192 490 

racketeering in liquor are attempting to November _ 578 390 325 

edge into legitimate industry, including December _ 516 180 175 

workman's compensation claims. The 1934 

Commission is thoroughly on guard January ___ 580 260 155 

against those racketeers, and is con- 
ducting its affairs in a function calcu- Lump 

lated to give every case the attention it Sums & Settle- Disposed 
deserves, and to- make its awards based Lump Settlem't ment of by 
upon the law and the evidence, with the Sum contracts Contracts Corn- 
least delay and the least expense to the 1933 Filed Filed Filed miss'ners 
litigants. Feb _ lg2 lg8 lg3 692 

We are also giving our attention to Marchl63 146 232 725 

amendments, that may be suggested 246 ?76 

from time to time in the law, with the ,, , .., .,.„ nAO „.,„ 

. , . . . ... . ', „,. , May _ 191 146 243 712 

hope and aim of simplifying the Work- T J 01 . . .. „„_ „„ c 

, „ .. T ? , . . June. 216 148 267 765 

mens Compensation Law, in a fashion _ 1 „„ „ 1R fi0C . 

calculated to make more difficult the .",„., * or ino coi 

„ ., . „ , .. ,. Aug. _ 161 185 178 581 

use of the law for exploitation purposes. _ . „.,., .,„„ „.„ „ 00 

„, „ . . . ., . .. Sept.- 211 166 249 732 

The Commission is considering the *; . 1R . _... „g 8 

publication of a medical fee list, such as XT nn „_„ n . eoo 

f . . .. .. .. . - Nov. _ 29 373 94 638 

is being used in other states, — not for .„„ lftl _ g . 

the purpose of making such fees manda- ' ~ 

tory, but rather to be used as a guide 193 4 

for working men and employers, and Jan. _32 398 90 731 



THE CARPENTER 



Accident reports filed since July 1, 
1933, 38,569. 

Fatal accidents in 1933, 456. 

Fatal accidents in 1934, to date, 206. 

627 cases where death payments and 
pensions are being paid since 1929. 

In 1929 there were reported to the 
Commission 60,033 cases, of which 958 
are open and in process of settlement. 

In 1930, 46,316 cases reported, of 
which 507 are open, where death or 
pensions are being paid. 

In 1931, 35,736 cases reported, of 
which 49 are still open. 

In 1932, 27,611 cases reported, of 



which 2,768 are still open. This large 
number for 19 32 is probably due, in a 
measure, to the failure of a large num- 
ber of insurance companies. 

In 1933, 28,767 cases reported, of 
which 2,5 8 8 are still open. 

In 1934, 5,005 cases were reported, 
of which 2,9 67 are in the process of 
adjudication. 1,848 cases on which 
compensation is being paid. 

The average cases reported per month 
are approximately 3,000. 

These figures are not based on 
guesses. They are taken from the 
records of the Industrial Commission. 



FLAGS 




HE flags of the early 
American colonies repre- 
sented many nations, and 
were also emblematic of 
many dramatic and stir- 
ring events in early Unit- 
ed States history. There were not only 
many national flags, but each colony 
each group of settlers had its flag. Many 
tales are on record associated with flags 
of Colonial and Revolutionary days. A 
story is told of a flag carried by a South 
Carolina regiment under Colonel Moul- 
ton. It was a blue flag, with a white 
crescent in the corner and the word 
LIBERTY across the bottom. In the 
course of a battle, the flag fell behind 
the enemy lines, but was recaptured by 
Sergeant Jasper. The Colonel recom- 
mended promotion and a commission for 
Jasper, but this advancement was re- 
fused by Jasper on the unique plea that 
he was not fit to associate with officers 
because he could neither read nor write. 
Another interesting flag of this period 
has been called the rattle-snake flag, 
and was carried by the early American 
navy. It was a white flag, with a three- 
coiled black rattler having 13 rattles. 
Underneath the serpent are the words, 
"Don't tread on me." The three coils 
stood for the three leading colonies — 
New England, Pennsylvania, and Vir- 
ginia. The rattlesnake is not looked 
upon with favor by the majority of peo- 
ple, but as a symbol of the American 
navy its more commendable character- 
istics were intended to be brought out. 
For example, this reptile has no eye- 
lids, hence its vision is keen, alert, 
watchful. As a fighter it is a courageous 
foe, for it gives warning of its approach. 
Furthermore,' it fights to the end — it 



never gives up. 

The oldest flag in the United States 
so far as is known is now treasured in 
the Public Library of the little town of 
Bedford, Mass. It was made in England 
about 1665, and was for the Middlesex 
Three County Troop, a military organ- 
ization of Massachusetts. Later it be- 
came the standard of the Bedford Min- 
ute Men. This flag was carried by them 
during their difficulties with the Indians 
under King Phillip, and also at Concord 
on the historic morning of April 19, 
1775. It is about two feet square, of 
red damask, decorated in oil, the de- 
sign being a mailed arm with saber, and 
a scroll containing an appropriate mot- 
to. Originally it had a silver fringe. 

One of the first American flags was 
the "Grand Union" which was raised 
by General Washington at Cambridge, 
Mass., on January 2, 1776. It had al- 
ternate red and white stripes with the 
English crosses of St. Andrew and St. 
George in the corner. This was used 
nearly a year after the Declaration of 
Independence. 

It was on June 14, 1777, that the 
Continental Congress created the stars 
and stripes as the national emblem by 
passing the resolution: "That the flag 
of the thirteen United States be thirteen 
stripes, alternate red and white; that 
the Union be thirteen stars, white in a 
blue field, representing a new constella- 
tion." With the admission of Kentucky 
and Vermont into the Union, the stripes 
were increased to fifteen, but in 1888 
Congress ruled that the stripes would 
be limited to thirteen, and that with the 
admission of every new state a star 
should be added to the Union of the 
flag. i 



T II JO CARPENTER 



THE CONFLICT BETWEEN LABOR AND CAPITAL 

(By Will Rutgers) 




ETWBEN capital and la- 
bor there has always been 
a conflict of opinion, as 
finely drawn as the con- 
flict between the political 
philosophy of Alexander 
Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson. And 
this controversy has been inspired, more 
or less, on both sides, by selfishness. 
The issue has been, "the Autocracy of 
Capital vs. the Democracy of Labor." 

The most important problem before 
the country today, is the settlement of 
this dispute of long standing. I consider 
it just as much the duty of labor to try 
to reach a proper understanding and 
appreciation of capital's problems, as it 
is a moral obligation on the part of 
capital to study and understand the 
struggles of the wage earners. 

Labor recognizes the necessity of cap- 
ital and its rights. Labor cannot, and 
does not, expect capital to invest vast 
sums of money without an adequate re- 
turn. Neither must capital expect labor 
to invest "service" without receiving 
more than a low standard, "living 
wage." Labor is just as much entitled 
to a profit on service as is industry to a 
profit on product. This principle applies, 
in common justice, to any form of capi- 
tal investment, or individual investment 
of time, as against wages paid. 

The conflict between capital and la- 
bor, the cause of much of the trouble, 
is due to the fact that capital has "fore- 
flushed" during prosperous periods and 
paid extra stock dividends, and endeav- 
ored to continue this policy, when busi- 
ness was on the skids, by the reduction 
of wages. This was particularly true 
during the crisis of 1929, when some 
900 corporations paid out greater divi- 
dends than ever before in the history of 
the country, in the face of a substantial- 
ly reduced wage scale. In the mean- 
time the salaries of the heads of indus- 
trial groups were not reduced; in many 
cases they were increased. 

And when Labor is shown by senate 
investigation that a retired bank official 
is permitted to draw a salary of $100,- 
000 per annum, merely in an advisory 
capacity, when the stockholders of his 
bank drew no dividends, it is made 
pretty plain to labor that capital is 
playing a very underhand game and 



cannot be trusted. Under such circum- 
stances government must act in defense 
of the common weal. 

Let capital lay all its cards upon the 
table; look upon labor as a co-operative 
unit of their enterprise; treat its work- 
ers in confidence and fairness, and much 
trouble will be averted. Then when wage 
reduction is found imperative, let that 
pay cut hit every employe, from the 
president of the corporation down the 
line, and labor will take its medicine as 
gamely as the best of them. But labor 
has no confidence in a capitalistic sys- 
tem that takes away the profit of its in- 
vested time to pay unearned dividends 
to stock holders. 

If the practical unit of industry, the 
producing class, must suffer from de- 
pression, let every other unit of industry 
suffer with it. Otherwise labor justifies 
the strike as a weapon of self preserva- 
tion and justice. 

If I understand the spirit of the Na- 
tional Industrial Recovery Act it is that 
these warring elements in the social 
complex may be brought together in a 
more mutual interest and understand- 
ing of each other's problems, in an ef- 
fort to end this conflict. There is com- 
mon interest, between capital and labor. 
Both are investors; one invests his time 
for wages, the other invests his money 
for profits. The wages should enable the 
worker to maintain a decently high 
standard of living, and give labor buy- 
ing power beyond the mere necessities 
of life. But this common interest must 
be established definitely between the em- 
ployer and the employe, and that should 
not be such a difficult problem in a de- 
mocracy. But both capital and labor 
must drop some of their "isms" and get 
down to honest effort before any great 
progress can be made. 

Real obstinacy never settled a dis- 
pute. Let justice be the controlling fac- 
tor and capital and labor will end this 
age-long conflict. 



Glenn Martin predicts that the time is 
near when passenger airplanes will cross 
the Atlantic in a one-night trip. Quite 
probably he is right. But if man has 
wit enough to fly the seas in that way, 
what excuse is there for wallowing in 
the muck of depression? 



THE CARPENTER 



COLORADO COAL COMPANY MINERS AND MANAGE- 
MENT SHOW COOPERATION PAYS 




OW a single coal mining 
company in Colorado — 
largely owned and man- 
aged by a woman — with 
the co-operation of the 
miners met a vital issue 
now before American industry by choos- 
ing the trade union instead of a com- 
pany union; how in that issue the com- 
pany and the miners "challenged the 
original sponsors of the company union 
idea and all their allied interests in 
what is fundamentally a struggle for 
power between labor and capital"; how 
this comparatively small company not 
only won wide public support in the 
fight, but at the same time actually en- 
larged its share of the Colorado coal 
market, even during the period of de- 
clining business; how the collective 
agreement signed by the company and 
the union gave the men a greater share 
in management than coal miners have 
ever enjoyed anywhere in this country; 
and how these miners brought about ex- 
traordinary savings, loaned half their 
wages to the company in an emergency, 
and even helped sell the coal they had 
mined. 

These are some of the dramatic bits 
revealed in a report entitled "Miners 
and Management — A Study of the Col- 
lective Agreement between the United 
Mine Workers of America and the 
Rocky Mountain Fuel Company," by 
Mary van Kleeck, director of the De- 
partment of Industrial Studies of the 
Russell Sage Foundation. The report is 
the sixth in a series of studies extending 
over 15 years, in which employes' repre- 
sentation, or company unions, and col- 
lective agreements with trade unions 
have been analyzed and contrasted. 

"The experience of the Rocky Moun- 
tain Fuel Company, in contrast with 
that of coal producers having company 
unions," Miss van Kleeck points out, "is 
particularly significant now because of 
the widespread revival of the company 
union idea in an effort to circumvent 
the NRA's guarantee to workers of the 
right of collective bargaining." This re- 
port, she says, is a partial answer to 
one of the most important questions 
confronting the coal industry and the 
country, namely: 

What shall be the status of the 



organizations of workers, and how 
are they to be given a voice in 
all matters affecting their employ- 
ment, including the stabilization of 
industry and the wider policies af- 
fecting it? 

After extended personal study in Col- 
orado of the way in which the collective 
agreement between the miners and the 
Rocky Mountain Fuel Company is work- 
ing out, Miss van Kleeck says: "This 
company, in the midst of an industry 
which is probably the most disorganized 
in the United States, undertook single- 
handed — but with the co-operation of 
labor — to eliminate practices producing 
instability, to apply sound ethical prin- 
ciples of relationships with workers, 
with other industries and with the pub- 
lic. Its experience is significant for in- 
dustry as a whole in the United States 
and particularly for the coal industry." 

Of Josephine Roche, principal stock- 
holder and general manager of the com- 
pany, Miss van Kleeck's report says: 
"She has separated herself from the 
policies of the owner class in Colorado 
and has squarely opposed them by in- 
viting the miners' union, the United 
Mine Workers of America, to join with 
the company in the collective agreement 
in which she has voluntarily accepted 
limitations upon the traditional powers 
of an owner of capital and has declared 
that the organized miners, through their 
own officers who are not even employes 
of the company, have the right to share 
with the management in all decisions 
regarding conditions of employment." 

This agreement, Miss van Kleeck re- 
veals, is the result of the impression the 
bloody scenes of the Colorado coal 
strikes of 1913, 1914 and 1927 made on 
the mind of Josephine Roche, who in 
the latter year inherited her father's 
minority ownership of stock in the 
Rocky Mountain Fuel Company. 

When, in 1927, Miss Roche became a 
responsible owner of the company, she 
found in its offices "the paraphernalia 
of war and in the books the records of 
expenditures for detectives and mine 
guards," according to this report. "This 
equipment was in itself a temptation to 
use it in times of controversy in place 
of reasonable procedures based on prin- 



10 



T II E CARPENTKK 



eiples which might have prevented 
bloodshed and bitterness." 

"The farthest any operator of Colo- 
rado has been willing to go thereto- 
fore," Miss van Kleeck says, "had been 
to let employes elect their representa- 
tives from their fellow employes. This 
was done under the influence of John D. 
Rockefeller, Jr., in the 'Industrial Rep- 
resentation Plan' of the Colorado Fuel 
and Iron Company. But in the history 
of that plan, as brought out in an earlier 
study made for the Russell Sage Foun- 
dation, the steady refusal of the com- 
pany and of Mr. Rockefeller to recog- 
nize the miners' union turned employes 
representation into an instrument of op- 
position to unionism. Naturally, then, 
recognition of the union by an operator 
in the same State became a rival of em- 
ployes representation. Thus Josephine 
Roche challenged the Rockefellers, orig- 
inal sponsors of the company union idea, 
and all their allied interests in what is 
fundamentally a struggle for power be- 
tween labor and capital." 

Contrary to public impression, Miss 
van Kleeck's report says, the Rocke- 
fellers have not abandoned the company 
union. A recent vote of Colorado Fuel 
and Iron Company employes, taken by- 
joint agreement between the company 
and the United Mine Workers, showed 
that the miners of this company repudi- 
ated by a large majority the company 
union and voted for the United Mine 
Workers. The company, while there- 
after signing a trade union agreement 
set up under the NRA code for the bitu- 
minous coal industry, has announced 
that it still retains "employes represen- 
tation" or the company union. 

The agreement between the Rocky 
Mountain Fuel Company and the Unit- 
ed Mine Workers — a lengthy document 
dealing with the many complications in- 
herent in the mining of coal and in re- 
lations between managers, workers and 
supervisors — is epitomized in a pream- 
ble which says that the purpose is: 

"to establish industrial justice; to 
substitute reason for violence, con- 
fidence for misunderstanding, in- 
tegrity and good faith for dishon- 
est practices, and a union of effort 
for the chaos of the present eco- 
nomic warfare; to stabilize em- 
ployment, production and markets 
through co-operative efforts and the 
aid of science; and to assure to con- 



sumers a dependable supply of coal 
at reasonable and uniform prices." 

This, Miss van Kleeck says, is the 
first time any trade union affiliated with 
the American Federation of Labor has 
gone so far as to include these broad 
economic policies in its scope. 

Summarizing the results of five years 
of successful operation under this agree- 
ment, the report says: 

that in sales the company "was able 
to keep in advance of competitors — 
evidence that purchasers approved 
a price policy which avoided, as 
far as possible, cuts below cost, 
while maintaining a higher wage 
scale"; 

that though 19 32 is generally re- 
garded as the worst year of the de- 
pression, the company made greater 
mine operating profits in that year 
than in any year since the signing 
of the agreement in 1928; 

that the average number of days' 
work given to miners by this com- 
pany exceeded the average of the 
State — in 1932 the average days 
worked per man in the mines of 
this company were 191 as against 
an average of 127 for the state; 
that labor's productivity was great- 
er, the production during 1932 
being 10.5 ton per miner per 
day as against 7.5 tons per miner 
per day for the industry in Colo- 
rado as a whole; 

that there was a great stability of 
employment — this in 1928, when 
the contract was signed, there were 
1,701 men taken on the payroll to 
maintain an average working force 
of 748, whereas in 1931 there were 
8 67 men to maintain an average 
force of 728; 

that the proportion of miners in 
this company receiving less than 
$500 a year was cut down from 
nearly 6 per cent in 1928 to less 
than 16 per cent in 1931, and the 
proportion receiving less than $1,- 
5 00 a year Was cut from 89 per 
cent in 1928 to 69 per cent in 1931; 
that the proportion of the working 
force kept on the payroll all 12 
months of the year was increased 
from 16 per cent to 63 per cent; 
that although the wage scale re- 
mained the same from 1929 
through 1931, mine operating prof- 



THE CARPENTER 



11 



its increased steadily, from $244,- 
000 in the first year to $282,000 in 
the latter year and to $345,000 in 
1932. 

The report describes in detail how 
these various records were made. Con- 
cerning the support given by trade un- 
ions, the report says that the recogni- 
tion of the miners' union by this com- 



pany "has served as a rallying point for 
all the labor groups in Colorado, includ- 
ing railroad men and farmers. It is be- 
cause this company's co-operation stands 
alone in a long history of opposition by 
other operators to the miners' union in 
Colorado, that it has come to symbolize 
there a significant success for the work- 
ers in a series of defeats." 



PUTS BAN ON SMUGGLING ALIENS INTO THE 
UNITED STATES AS "SEAMEN" 




HE House of Representa- 
tives passed the long-con- 
tested Dies-King bill to 
prohibit the smuggling of 
immigrants as seamen in- 
to the United States. 

Under the Seamen's Act a seaman 
can leave the ship as soon as it reaches 
safe harbor. Surplus "seamen," not be- 
ing subject to the provisions of the im- 
migration exclusion acts, immediately 
land and are absorbed in the popula- 
tion. The practice has been for ship 
owners to bring from 25 to 100 extra 
"seamen," who desert at once and be- 
come low-wage workers in many Amer- 
ican industries. 

In its report favoring the enactment 
of the bill the House Immigration Com- 
mittee declared that during the last 25 
years at least 500,000 of these alien 
"seamen" deserted at American sea- 
ports. 

The Dies-King bill stops this nefa- 
rious practice by the provision that 
every vessel must take out of the Unit- 
ed States as many seamen as it brings 
in. 

The bill has already passed the Sen- 
ate several times. It is believed that 
it will gain receive favorable action by 
that body as soon as it is reported by 
the Senate Immigration Committee. 

Considerable credit for the favorable 
action in the House on the measure is 
due to Representative Dies of Texas, 
author of the bill and a member of the 
House Immigration Committee; Repre- 
sentative Sabbath of Illinois, a former 
member of the committee, and Repre- 
sentative Connery of Massachusetts, a 
member of the House Labor Committee. 
It had the strong support of the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor. 

Andrew Furuseth, president and leg- 
islative agent of the International Sea- 



men's Union of America, who has 
worked for the bill for many years, de- 
clared that the substance of the meas- 
ure was first raised in the passage of 
the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1902, so 
that the struggle to close the side door 
against immigration smuggling has con- 
tinued for thirty years. 

The specific definite struggle for the 
present bill, he said, began in 1921, but 
the united opposition of the Interna- 
tional Shipping Federation, Limited, an 
organization of world ship owners with 
headquarters in London, and the ship 
owners in the United States had suc- 
ceeded in preventing the enactment of 
the measure from then until now. The 
influence of these antilabor interests is 
evidently less influential in the present 
Congress, and it is confidently expected 
that the alien seaman's deportation bill 
will shortly become the law of the land. 



Veterans Association Adopts Union 
Label 

The national executive committee of 
the National War Veterans Association, 
with headquarters in New York City, 
made the use of the union label manda- 
tory on all printed matter of the organ- 
ization, declared Harry E. Dewdney, 
Adjutant of the Association. The last 
national convention of the Association 
adopted the following article as a part 
of its constitution: "Neither the organ- 
ization nor any of its subordinates shall 
at any time participate in a strike or 
lockout against labor." 

The Association is a non-partisan vet- 
erans' political organization with thirty- 
one posts in New York and membership 
extending into other States. All mem- 
bers must be honorably discharged vet- 
erans and voting citizens of the United 
States. 



12 



THE CARPENTER 



AMERICAN LABOR LEADS THE WORLD 

(By W. E. Walling) 




HE American labor move- 
ment differs from the la- 
bor movements of Europe. 
Since the time of Andrew 
Jackson (around 1830) 
we have had political de- 
mocracy in America's industrial regions, 
and soon after that we established uni- 
versal education. If political democracy 
up to the present has brought labor only 
a part of what labor demands and ex- 
pects, it has at least given us a century 
of democratic experience, training and 
practice, a century of thinking in demo- 
cratic terms and a century of striving 
toward democratic goals. It is due to 
this good fortune of our history and not 
to an inborn superiority of American 
workers that the American labor move- 
ment is the only labor movement in the 
world today that is built consistently on 
a democratic foundation, has an ex- 
clusively democratic policy and goal, 
and never departed from democratic 
policies. 

Contrast the long democratic experi- 
ence of America with that of Europe. 
It was between 1867 and 18 85 that Brit- 
ish labor was even half enfranchised 
and universal education established. The 
Germans have been educated as long as 
we have, but they got democracy only 
in 1918. French democracy dates from 
1876, and the only previous democratic 
experiences of that country were brief 
revolutionary periods — a fact which has 
confused many French workers as to the 
relative values of democracy and of rev- 
olutionary violence. 

The superiority of American labor lies 
in the friendship it has made. For more 
than a quarter of a century it has 
worked, wherever possible, with Ameri- 
can rural labor, the farmers. 

By its clean-cut political policy, grad- 
ually developed and still in the process 
of evolution, American labor has avoid- 
ed all the confusion of a so-called labor 
party which is a labor party in name 
only — since every democratic country 
must admit and largely depend upon 
non-labor elements. Such a party is in 
reality a party of advanced democracy. 
To call it labor rather than democratic 
brings two evils. Not only is the la- 
bor movement likely to be invaded and 
swamped by outsiders, but certain ele- 



ments of labor are given by this name 
an opportunity to put forth the theory, 
as has commonly occurred in Europe, 
that labor can advance politically 
through a non-democratic or even an 
anti-democratic program independently 
of other groups of producers. Never for 
one moment has American labor favored 
or tolerated this drawing of class lines 
between one group of producers and an- 
other. If it has waged economic and 
political war against any part of society 
it has been a war directed exclusively 
against parasites and exploiters. It has 
never preached nor tolerated the theory 
that Organized Labor or industrial la- 
bor has a right to rule over any other 
group of producers, but has sought to 
unite all producers against the common 
enemy. 

American labor is today more united 
than labor of any country of the world 
with the possible exception of Great 
Britain. And this unity has been won 
and held against stronger influences 
making for division than exist in any 
other nation, since America has been the 
battleground of all the theories as well 
as all the prejudices of the workers of 
all Europe. Yet we are better united. 
The reason? Labor tends to unite on all 
labor questions; labor tends to divide 
on all the non-labor questions that take 
up so much of the time and energy of 
the political parties of Europe. The 
word "solidarity" is more widely used 
in Europe; actual solidarity is more ad- 
vanced in the United States. 

American labor is for international 
unity. Every superiority it has achieved 
makes it that much more valuable to 
the labor world. It does not claim lead- 
ership, but it offers to the world of la- 
bor the invaluable experience of the 
oldest political democracy and the lead- 
ing industrial nation. It hopes and be- 
lieves that by following the American 
method of attending to labor affairs to 
the exclusion of the outside matters that 
divide labor the national labor move- 
ments of Europe and the entire world 
movement will achieve a new and more 
solid unity. It welcomes the new ten- 
dency of European labor to do as Amer- 
ica has done in putting democracy above 
all social dogmas. It believes that a 
more substantial, more permanent and 
more effective labor internationalism 



THE CARPENTER 



13 



can be erected on this basis — an inter- 
nationalism in which the working peo- 
ple of every great nation will be able to 
make a distinct and indispensable con- 
tribution to the whole. And it believes 
that such a movement will be able every- 
where to achieve its entire industrial, 
social and political program — so far as 
that program rests upon democratic 
principles. 

But great as have been its achieve- 
ments in the past, American labor looks 
to the future — and it is for the purposes 
of future development that the superior- 
ity of its methods are most marked. It 
has not offered to solve in advance all 
the major problems of government and 
industry that the rising generation of 



workers will have to face. But it has 
done something better. Economically 
and politically, American labor has 
builded a solid foundation and has be- 
gun the erection of a structure no im- 
portant part of which will have to be 
torn down. It has left American labor 
free, freer than the labor of any nation 
of the world, to determine its own des- 
tinies — without an incumbering herit- 
age of outworn theories or of colossal 
blunders due to the effort to put these 
theories into effect. That American la- 
bor will utilize to the full the superior 
opportunities offered by the superior 
freedom of the American movement no 
American and few who know anything 
about America will question. 



THE HARVEST HAND 

(By H. H. Siegele) 




EN who are now in their 
middle age, and on up 
to those who have at- 
tained the Scriptural 
threescore years and 
ten, can still remember 
the yearly exodus of workingmen from 
the cities to the harvest fields," the phil- 
osopher said, in a reminiscent mood. "In 
those days," he went on, "a working- 
man could often earn enough money in 
the harvest field to tide him through the 
winter, if not through to the next har- 
vest time. And those who by reason of 
strength, have reached the fourscore 
years, can in many instances, remember 
such exoduses, from the 'cradle' to the 
latest improved combine; which is prov- 
ing to be the 'grave' of the harvest 
hand, as he was known a generation or 
more ago." 

The philosopher could remember when 
he himself as a carpenter, had many 
times gone to the harvest field, because 
carpenter work was slack, and much 
that he has to say here is a product of 
those experiences. 

"In the days of the cradle," the phil- 
osopher continued, "harvesting meant 
something. There was the cutting of 
the grain; and then it had to be bound 
and shocked. After that it was stacked, 
and in due time, thrashed; which in the 
cradle days, often it was done with a 
flail. In those days overproduction was 
unknown, that is, overproduction that 
goes hand in hand with mass starvation, 



such as we have seen in these modern 
days. Men worked long hours, it is true, 
and wages, judging from the standpoint 
of dollars and cents, were not high; but 
they had a much greater and more per- 
manent home-purchasing power than 
wages had during the late pre-depres- 
sion period of prosperity. Unemploy- 
ment was confined, almost altogether, to 
those who were too lazy to work, rather 
than to men, in masses of millions, who 
are willing and anxious to work. Invol- 
untary mass unemployment is a product 
of machine civilization, and was never 
known to reach so deep into our social 
structure, as it has during the recent 
world-wide depression." 

The philosopher was aware that the 
farmer suffered as much, and in some 
instances more than the workingman, 
by the depression; but, at the same 
time, he knew that the farmer by elim- 
inating the hired man and using me- 
chanical devices instead, was helping to 
bankrupt his best customer, the work- 
ingman. He knew too, that competition 
made it impossible for the farmer to do 
otherwise, even though, in the end, he 
was the loser. For he paid high prices 
for his machinery, and had to sell his 
products at extremely low prices; often 
below cost of production. But we are 
ahead of our story. 

"The cradle," the philosopher went 
on, "had to give way to that interesting 
machine, the reaper. This machine, with 
its platform back of the sickle-bar, and 



14 



T II E CARPENTER 



a set of rakes that laid the grain on 
the platform, which at regular intervals 
was raked off by a master rake, did 
away with the hard work that always 
accompanied harvesting with a cradle. 
And while, on the one hand, it eliminat- 
ed the demand for men who could swing 
a cradle, it, on the other hand, increased 
the demand for binders, insofar as the 
reaper made possible an increase in the 
acreage of the harvest field. Five men 
were necessary to bind after a reaper, 
and it took two more men to shock. 
When the reaper started out, say, on a 
square field, one binder was started at 
the first corner; another one at the 
second corner; another at the third cor- 
ner; one at the fourth corner, and the 
fifth man started at the first corner as 
the reaper started on the second round. 
In this way the men worked around and 
around, until the field of grain was cut 
and bound." The philosopher paused, 
thoughtfully, for a moment, and then 
went on, "In the reaper days, it was as 
hard to find a man who could not make 
a double band, out of a handful of 
straw, as it is today to find a man who 
does not know how to run an automo- 
bile. Those men worked hard, but har- 
vest time brought opportunities to work 
for all who wanted it. . . . In the full 
sense of the work, harvesting includ- 
ed stacking the grain and afterward 
thrashing it." 

"In due time, though, the reaper was 
superseded by the self-binder. The self- 
binder, with its mechanical binding de- 
vice, bound the grain before it left the 
machine, and thereby eliminated the 
five men who formerly did the binding. 
Two men could easily shock the grain 
that one self-binder cut and bound. But 
still, farmers were looking for some- 
thing that would eliminate more hired 
men." And dropping into a philosoph- 
ical mood, for a moment, the philoso- 
pher went on, "It is claimed, that if a 
man wishes long enough for a thing, it 
will eventually come to pass; and that 
is exactly what happened in this case — 
the farmer got his wish in the form of a 
machine known as a header. The head- 
er eliminated the shockers, for this ma- 
chine merely cut off the heads of the 
grain, which were immediately put into 
stacks, and later on thrashed. But the 
header did not completely supplant the 
self-binder; however, it itself was soon 
superseded by that revolutionary ma- 
chine, the combine. The combine has 



eliminated the harvest hand, almost al- 
together, for with it, the farmer can 
harvest his grain, thrash it, and take it 
to market, with his regular help; and 
thus, the one-time harvest hand, who 
was slowly being crushed out of the 
picture for a generation or more, has 
been buried by the combine forever." 

The philosopher, while he was enum- 
erating the evolutionary processes of 
harvesting machinery, knew that in 
other branches of farming, similar revo- 
lutionary processes were going on more 
or less in the same way. 

"The tractor," he continued, "is tak- 
ing the place of the horse, just as the 
combine and other farm machinery, are 
eliminating the hired man. And where- 
as the farmer used to feed to his horses 
a great deal of his products, he is now 
giving to the market an increased sup- 
ply, and instead, he is consuming gaso- 
line. The market, with its decreased de- 
mand for farm products, because of the 
increased consumption of gasoline, finds 
itself oversupplied. At the same time, 
figuratively speaking, the unemployed 
human man, is financially unable to buy, 
what the farmer with his mechanical 
man, is producing and marketing. The 
upshot of it all is, that the farmer has 
met a boomerang in the form of high 
priced machinery and low prices for his 
products. In other words, the mechan- 
ical man, that eliminated the hired man 
for the farmer, now has his hands on 
the farmer himself, and unless some- 
thing will happen, miraculously or oth- 
erwise, that will bring the hired man 
back to life, and to the rescue of the 
farmer, there is bound to be a calam- 
ity." 

What the philosopher had just said 
about the farmer, is to a greater or to a 
lesser extent true of other industries, 
including the building industries. 

"Whenever a workingman," the phil- 
osopher concluded, "is displaced by ma- 
chinery, whether it be a laborer, me- 
chanic or a clerk, it will add just that 
much weight to the economic boome- 
rang, which when it returns to hit in- 
dustry, will hit it with all the force 
that industry gave it in the first place 
by displacing men with machines." 



Attend the Local meetings, support 
your elected officers and pull for great- 
er solidarity of our Brotherhood. 



THE CARPENTER 



15 



SOLID LAMINATED LUMBER FLOORS 




A L£ A N Y months of sub- 
normal business have re- 
sulted in a vast amount 
of constructive thinking 
and planning throughout 
American industry. The 
new times have demanded new meas- 
ures. Nothing that has hitherto pre- 
vailed upon the accumulated momen- 
tum of prosperous years is now above 
suspicion. New appraisals of old cus- 
toms and practices are everywhere in 
process. The new idea was never so 
welcome as now. Nothing is condemned 
at first blush as impractical. 

A swarm of new construction ideas is 
being incubated in the lumber industry. 
The lumber researchers are becoming 
vigorously initiative. They are not will- 
ing to concede anything to other mate- 
rials in the construction field, not even 
skyscrapers. Hardly had the steel and 
concrete people conceived the idea of 
taking the ground floor of dwellings 
away from lumber when F. P. Cart- 
wright, chief engineer of the Nation- 
al Lumber Manufacturers Association 
came forward with a new type of wood 
floor, or rather a modern adaption of 
an old practice, which was followed a 
century ago in heavy construction. 

Instead of laying floor boards on 
their sides, narrow planks laid on 
edge and fastened together in panels 
take the place both of sub-flooring and 
joists. This sort of floor is stronger, 
more solid and enduring and stubborn- 
ly fire-resistant. The panels, or slabs, 
are built up from pieces not smaller 
than 2x4's, firmly bolted or spiked to- 
gether, consequently the floor is at least 
four inches thick of solid wood. There 
are no projecting edges for flames to 
feed on and tests have demonstrated 
that it takes an exceptionally long, hot 
fire to eat half way through the laminat- 
ed slabs. 

An additional advantage of this lami- 
nated type of construction which may be 
used in either brick or frame buildings, 
is run-over ribbons or joist end supports 
into brick piering so as to come flush 
with the building wall. Thus there re- 
sults a natural fire-stopping, preventing 
flames from creeping up through stud 
spaces and passing above the floor line. 

"The new type floor, can be used foi 
either first or second story house floors, 



in place of the familiar row of thin, 
deep joists with sub and finish floor and 
lath plaster beneath. For dwellings, it 
is built usually of two-by-fours, laid on 
edge, spiked together and supported at 
intervals of seven to ten feet by cross 
beams which are allowed to show in 
the room below. 

"The slab thus formed is sanded 
smooth and a finish floor of hardwood is 
nailed down . The under side is finished 
with plywood, and the main beams can 
be hand-hewn, stained or painted, or 
finished with clear lumber and mould- 
ings to afford architectural relief. 

"The floor thus secured takes up less 
room than the joisted type, being only 
five inches deep where the latter is near- 
ly twelve. Over a foot is saved in the 
necessary height of a two-story building, 
or if preferred the room height can be 
increased. The plywood or board under- 
finish is not subject to cracks or breaks, 
but maintains its position permanently. 

The possibilities in this new floor for 
ingenious conduit arrangements are not 
to be overlooked. By "cheating" one of 
the laminations so as to build it of two 
shallow lower sections or of one shallow 
section space can readily be made for 
electric wiring conduit, small water 
pipes and other service units. Where 
deep space is required for plumbing that 
runs laterally, deep sections are includ- 
ed in the slab and the pipe is boxed in, 
the boxing being finished to give the 
appearance of a beam on the ceiling of 
the floor below. For partitions, two or 
three similarly deepened laminations are 
included in the slab to furnish support 
necessary. Unusually long first floor 
spans are stiffened by making every 
fourth or fifth lamination of sufficient 
depth to insure adequate carriage of 
the load imposed. The lumber footage 
required is slightly greater than ordi- 
nary floor construction, though it need 
not be of proportionate cost. 

For a good, resilient, substantial floor 
that will meet the competitive advances 
of alternate materials, the laminated 
floor offers an opportunity. 



With the renewed energies and zeal 
of the membership of the U. B. it will 
not be long before the membership is 
back around the 300,000 mark. 



Editorial 




THE CARPENTER 

Official Journal of 
THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD OF 

CARPENTERS AND JOINERS 
OF AMERICA 

Published on the 15th of each month at the 

CARPENTERS' BUILDING 

Indianapolis, Ind. 

UNITED BROTHERHOOD OF 

CARPENTERS AND JOINERS OF AMERICA, 

Publishers 

FRANK DUFFY, Editor 

Subscription Pbicb 
One Dollar a Year in Advance, Postpaid 

The publishers and the advertising 
agent use every possible precaution avail- 
able to them against accepting advertise* 
ments from other than reliable firms, but 
do not accept any responsibility for the 
contents of any advertisement which ap- 
pears in "The Carpenter." Should any 
deception be practiced by advertisers at 
any time, upon members, their duty is to 
immediately notify the Post Office au=> 
thorities. Therefore, address any com- 
plaints to your local Post Office. 

INDIANAPOLIS, JUNE, 1934 

A New Era In Shipbuilding 

THE passing of the Vinson-Tram- 
mell Naval Bill, provides for the 
construction of all naval vessels 
allowed under the London Treaty. A 
long era of prosperity has not only 
opened up for thousands of unemployed 
workers in the navy yards and private 
shipyards, but also in other industries, 
as it will stimulate the steel mills, the 
lumber plants, the electrical equipment 
manufacturers and will give a great 
boost to the railroads, in fact, it is a 
boon to industry. 

The estimated cost of the five-year 
program, not including replacement of 
any capital ships and cruisers, is about 
$475,000,000. This does not include the 
allotment of some $275,000,000 from 



the Public Works Administration now 
being used by the Navy Department, nor 
the amount provided in the naval ap- 
propriation bill recently passed by the 
Senate. Figures show that about 85 per 
cent of all the money expended through 
the Navy Department for construction 
purposes goes for the pay of labor, di- 
rectly or indirectly. 

The Government contemplates initial 
work on twenty destroyers and four 
submarines, ninety days after the sign- 
ing of the Bill, the first to be built in 
the government navy yard, as the Bill 
provides that the first and each succeed- 
ing alternate vessel be built in the gov- 
ernment navy yards. 



Power for Labor 

IT has always been the philosophy of 
capitalists that self-interest was a 
force necessary to prevent social 
stagnation and promote human prog- 
ress. Lately capitalism has embraced 
the doctrine that high wages and short 
hours are necessary to produce the pur- 
chasing power essential to prosperity. 
"Workers have the greatest and most 
immediate selfish interest in high wages 
and short hours. Therefore, if capital- 
ists follow their own logic, labor unions 
should be encouraged, for labor unions 
represent the active self-interest of 
workers. 

Voluntary interest of enlightened em- 
ployers in raising wages and reducing 
hours by joint action is fine, but it is 
not enough. The driving self-interest of 
labor is needed, as well as the regula- 
tion and arbitration of government. Or- 
ganized industries, organized labor, and 
government are a trinity each of whom 
is indispensable. 



Victory for U. S. Workers 

PASSING of the independent offices 
appropriation bill by Congress over 
the President's veto gives a large 
measure of victory to organized labor in 
its fight for restoration of Government 
workers' pay. 



THE CARPENTER 



17 



The Federal workers get 5 per cent 
return from February 1, and another 5 
per cent on July 1. The President is 
authorized to restore the remaining 5 
per cent within six months after July 1 
if living costs equal or exceed the 1928 
level. This means there is an excellent 
chance the 15 per cent wage cut, made 
in the name of "economy," will be abol- 
ished early next year. 

The cut was ill-advised in the first 
place and contributed nothing to indus- 
trial recovery. In fact, by reducing the 
purchasing power of hundreds of thou- 
sands of Government employes, it tend- 
ed to retard business gain. With restor- 
ation of former pay there will be no 
basis for charging that the Government 
preaches one thing and practices an- 
other, by striving to raise wages in pri- 
vate employment while at the same time 
slashing the pay of its own employes. 



$20,000,000 Available For Home 
Building 

Announcement has been made by 
Raymond P. Harold, president of 
the Massachusetts Co-operative Bank 
League, that the co-operative banks of 
Massachusetts have $20,000,000 avail- 
able at once for loans on new home 
building and for repairs. This is one of 
the first signs that the banks are now 
ready to co-operate with the prospective 
home builder. Mr. Harold makes the 
following statement in part: 

To the building industry and to thou- 
sands of prospective home owners who 
have been restrained from buying or 
building by inability to get mortgage 
loans, I feel confident that this comes 
as news of the greatest importance. 

It means that the primary financing 
of more than 5,000 new homes can be 
supplied at once and that the residential 
building industry no longer need be de- 
layed by lack of first mortgage money. 

Residential building in Massachusetts 
in a normal season furnishes employ- 
ment, directly and indirectly, for more 
than 15,000 people. New home construc- 
tion, ordinarily one of the biggest indus- 
tries, dropped during the depression to 
about 20 per cent of its normal volume, 
largely because of the lack of adequate 
facilities for placing mortgages. The co- 
operative banks are now in a position to 
break this famine and open the way for 
a broad movement of recovery. 

With the flow of capital again turned 



definitely to the co-operative banks, 
upon which the residential building in- 
dustry depends to a large extent for its 
financing, and with at least $20,000,000 
available immediately, to help finance 
home building, it seems certain that a 
substantial number of new dwellings 
will be started and that the extreme de- 
pression in residential construction soon 
will be ended. 



Why Not The 30-Hour Week? 

William Taylor, executive vice-presi- 
dent of the Valley Camp Coal Company 
and a group of related companies, re- 
cently gave the coal industry something 
to think about. 

Appearing before the National Bitu- 
minous Coal Industrial Board, Mr. Tay- 
lor caused a stir by advocating reduc- 
tion in working hours in soft coal mines 
from 40 to 30, with a compensating in- 
crease in wages. He pointed out that a 
reduction in hours would not necessar- 
ily mean a reduction in production. His 
company's experience, when the "clean 
up" system prevailed, under which the 
men worked 10 to 14 hours a day, indi- 
cated that as much coal could be pro- 
duced in the 8-hour day as in the longer 
day. He said his company was produc- 
ing a greater tonnage under the shorter 
week than when the longer week was in 
operation. 

A few days after Mr. Taylor made his 
suggestion, bituminous coal operators of 
the Appalachian region agreed to re- 
duce the work week to 35 hours. That 
marks distinct progress, but the week 
must be cut even more, to cope success- 
fully with the appalling unemployment 
in the coal industry. Mr. Taylor pointed 
the way to the solution. Sooner or later 
the coal industry must adopt the 30- 
hour week. Why not now? 



Why Does the Word Penny Apply to the 
Size of Nails? 

Nails were sold in England by the 
hundred until the 15th century and the 
price was set by the size of the nails. 
Those selling for 10 pence a hundred 
were 10-penny nails; those for six pence 
a hundred were six-penny, etc. When 
prices changed the old designations sur- 
vived as the indication of size and are 
written lOd, 8d, 6d, etc. The letter "d" 
stands for denarius, the Latin word for 
the English penny. 



Official Information 




^gr 



GENERAL OFFICERS 
Of 

THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD 

Of 

CARPENTERS AND JOINERS 

OF AMERICA 

General Office 
Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 

General President 

WM. L. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



First General Vice-President 

GEORGE H. LAKEY 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Second General Vice-President 

JAMES M. GAULD 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Secretary 

FRANK DUFFY 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Treasurer 

THOMAS NEALE 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Executive Board 
First District, T. M. GUERIN 
290 Second Ave., Troy, N. Y. 



Second District, W. T. ALLEN 
3832 N. Gratz St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



Third District, HARRY SCHWARZER 
10522 Parkhurst Drive, Cleveland, O. 



Fourth District, JAS. L. BRADFORD 
1900 15th Ave., N., Nashville, Tenn. 



Fifth District, J. W. WILLIAMS 
3948 S. Grand Blvd., St. Louis, Mo. 



Sixth District, A. W. MUIR 
200 Guerrero St., San Francisco, Cal. 



Seventh District, ARTHUR MARTEL 
6375 Chambord St., Montreal, Que., Can. 



WM. L. HUTCHESON, Chairman 
FRANK DUFFY, Secretary 



Robin Hood Mills Employ Non-Union 
Carpenters 

The Robin Hood Mills, a subsidiary 
of the International Milling Co., of Min- 
neapolis, Minn., is erecting a building 
and grain storage tank in Calgary, Can- 
ada, on which it refuses to insist that 
the contractor pay the rate of wages of 
75 cents per hour, as established by 
agreement between the Calgary Con- 
tractors Association and Local Union 
1779, but is employing non-members 
and paying from 5 cents to 60 cents 
per hour, according to information re- 
ceived from Andrew Craig, president of 
L. U. 1779. 

Members of our organization should 
remember that the policy of all organ- 
izations is to support and give assistance 
to those who deal and co-operate with 
us, and those who will not co-operate or 
recognize our conditions should receive 
no consideration from our members. 
Therefore members of all affiliated lo- 
cals should bear in mind the foregoing 
facts when purchasing any products of 
the Robin Hood Mills or the Inter- 
national Milling Co. 



All correspondence for the General Executive 
Board must be sent to the General Secretary. 



Building Gains in April 

Contracts awarded publicly financed 
construction in April were four times as 
great as those for April of last year, 
according to a report of the F. W. Dodge 
Company. 

The contracts dropped 40 per cent 
from the March figure. However, pri- 
vately financed contracts were the high- 
est since August 193 3, and increased 
over March. 

The survey, made every month and 
covering thirty-seven states, showed a 
total of $75,158,900 in publicly financed 
contracts, awarded in April as compared 
with $17,659,900 for April, 1933, and 
$125,950,700 for March of this year. 

A sfrong stimulus to the construction 
industry is expected in the next few 
days with announcement by the admin- 
istration of an intensive renovation cam- 



THE CARPENTER 



19 



paign to be coupled with a program of 
slum clearing and low cost housing, the 
whole to be backed by federal funds. 



"Union-labeled Gavels 

The General Office is in position to 
supply union-labeled gavels made of 
American walnut and Mexican mahog- 
any by members of our organization. 
They are beautifully turned and highly 
finished and come in two sizes. The 
price is $1.25 each. 

Local Unions desiring a gavel should 
write to Frank Duffy, General Secretary, 
Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, In- 
diana. 

Purchasing union-labeled gavels will 
give employment to union carpenters. 



Carpenters! Stay Away From Chicago 

Again we must warn against coming 
to Chicago to seek work. The Spring 
season has brought no new construction 
work. The work on the World's Fair 
will be completed before this notice goes 
to print, and those who were fortunate 
enough to get in a little time there will 
again be forced to join the ranks of 
the many thousands unemployed. 

If the World's Fair should tempt you 
to come to Chicago, be sure and bring 
enough money to pay. your way for 
finding work here is certainly uphill 
business. The only work of any conse- 
quence is P. W. A work, and the law 
provides that resident labor is to be em- 
ployed on that work. 

Chas. H. Sand, Secretary. 
Chicago District Council of 
Carpenters. 



Locals Organized 

Cushing, Okla. 
Gladewater, Tex. 
La Salle, 111. 
Quincy, Fla. 
Borger, Tex. 
Jasper, Ala. 
Lawrence, Kans. 
Granville, N. Y. 
Marshfield, Ore. 
Naperville, 111. 
Elkins, W. Va. 
Montevallo, Ala. 
Gideon, Mo. 



Regular Meeting of the General Execu- 
tive Board, April, 1934 

Since the previous session of the General 
Executive Board the following trade movements 
were acted upon. 

February 8, 1934. 

Athens, Ohio, L. U. 1720. — Movement for an 
increase in wages from 62|c to 75c per hour, 
effective April 16, 1934. Official sanction 
granted. 

February 9, 1934. 

Decatur, 111., L. U. 742. — Movement for an 
increase in wages from 75c to $1.20 per hour, 
5 day week, double time for all overtime, effec- 
tive April 1, 1934. Official sanction granted. 
February 26, 1934. 

Columbus, Ohio, L. U. 200. — Movement for 
an increase in wages from 80c to $1.00 per 
hour, effective April 16, 1934. Official sanction 
granted. 

Newburyport, Mass., L. U. 989. — Movement 
for an increase in wages from 70c to 80c per 
hour, effective March 12, 1934. Official sanction 
granted. 

Oil City, Pa., L. U. 830. — Movement for an 
increase in wages from 80c to $1.00 per hour, 
effective May 1, 1934. Official sanction granted. 

Evansville, Ind., L. U. 90. — Movement for an 
increase in wages from 85c to $1.20 per hour, 
effective May 1, 1934. Official sanction granted. 
February 28, 1934. 

Ottumwa, Iowa, L. U. 767. — Movement for 
an increase in wages from 75c to $1.00 per 
hour, effective March 2, 1934. Official sanction 
granted. 

March 1, 1934. 

Flora, 111., L. U. 1404. — Movement for an in- 
crease in wages from 65c to 80c per hour, 35 
hour week, effective May 1, 1934. Official sanc- 
tion granted. 

Meridian, Miss., L. U. 2313. — Movement for 
an increase in wages from 80c to $1.00 per 
hour, effective April 1, 1934. Official sanction 
granted. 

March 5, 1934. 

St. Joseph, Mich., L. U. 898. — Movement for 
an increase in wages from 75c to $1.00 per 
hour and 40 hour week, effective April 1, 1934. 
Official sanction granted. 

March 9, 1934. 

Peoria, 111., L. U. 183. — Movement for an in- 
crease in wages from $1.00 to $1.25 per hour, 
effective May 1, 1934. Official sanction granted. 
March 16, 1934. 

Lexington, Ky., L. IT. 1650. — Movement for 
an increase in wages from 75c to 90c per hour 
and the 5 day week, effective April 1, 1934. 
Official sanction granted. 

March 19, 1934. 

Bloomington, Ind., L. U. 1664. — Movement 
for reduction in working hours from 45 to 40 
per week, effective May 15, 1934. Official sanc- 
tion granted. 

March 22. 1934. 

New Philadelphia, Ohio, L. U. 1802. — Move- 
ment for an increase in wages from 80c to 
$1.00 per hour and 40 hour week, effective May 
1, 1934. Official sanction granted. 

March 30, 1934. 

Sheboygan, Wise, L. U. 657. — Movement for 
an increase in wages from 85c to $1.00 per 
hour, 6 hour day and 5 day week, effective May 
1, 1934. Official sanction only granted. 

April 5, 1934. 

Pensacola, Fla., L. U. 1194. — Movement for 
an increase in wages from 75c to $1.00 per 



20 



THE CARPENTER 



hoar, effective April 15, 1934. Official Sanction 
granted. 

April 9, 1934. 
Columbia, Mo., L. U. 192". — Movement for 
mi increase in wages from 85c to $1.00 per 
hour, effective May 1, 1!)34. Official sanction 
granted. 

April 13, 1934. 
Muskogee, Okla., L. U. 1072. — Movement for 
the 5 day week, effective March 13, 1934. Offi- 
cial sanction granted. 

* * * 

Indianapolis, Ind., 
April 23, 1934. 

The General Executive Board met in regular 
session on the above date. All members present. 

Falls Cities D. C, Louisville, Ky. — Movement 
for the G hour day, 30 hour week and $1.25 
per hour, effective June 1, 1934. Official sanc- 
tion granted. 

Twin City D. C., Minneapolis, Minn. — Move- 
ment for an increase in wages from 85c to $1.20 
per hour and the 6 hour day, effective June 1, 
1934. Official sanction granted without finan- 
cial aid. 

Mobile, Ala., L. U. 89. — Movement for an in- 
crease in wages from 80c to $1.00 per hour, 
effective June 1, 1934. Official sanction granted. 

Sheffield, Ala., L. U. 109. — Movement for an 
increase in wages from 90c to $1.00 and the 
40 hour week, effective June 1, 1934. Official 
sanction granted. 

E. Liverpool, Ohio., L. U. 328. — Movement 
for a scale of wages of $1.20 per hour, effective 
May 1, 1934. Official sanction granted. 

Rochester, Pa., L. U. 422. — Movement for an 
increase in wages from 75c to $1.25 per hour, 
effective June 1, 1934. Official sanction granted. 

Little Rock, Ark., L. U. 690. — Movement for 
an increase in wages from 80c to $1.00 per 
hour, effective July SO, 1934. Official sanction 
granted. 

Pressmen's Home, Tenn., L. U. 1555. — Move- 
ment for an increase in wages from 50c to 65c 
per hour, effective June 10, 1934. Official sanc- 
tion granted. 

Kilgore, Tex., L. U. 1671. — Movement for an 
increase in wages from 75c to 87|c per hour, 
effective May 10, 1934. Official sanction granted. 

Continuation of bond on General Treasurer, 
Thomas Alfred Neale, No. 16-04-509-27 for 
Fifty-Thousand Dollars was received and re- 
ferred to the General Secretary for safe keep- 
ing. 

Continuation of bond on Clifton A. Meloy, 
Bookkeeper, No. 27661-04-526-31 for Two- 
Thousand Dollars was received and referred to 
the General Secretary for safe keeping. 

Eldorado, Ark., L. U. 1101. — Request for 
cancellation of back tax due the General Office 
was denied as the G. E. B. has no such au- 
thority. 

April 24, 1934. 

Philadelphia, Pa., L. U. 277. — Questions the 
right of the G. E. B. to bond local financial 
officers. The answer of the General Secretary 
thereto was concurred in, approved and adopt- 
ed as the action of the G. E. B. as our laws 
provide that the G. E. B. shall bond all subor- 
dinate officers through the General Office. 

Charges of Brother Charles Wardelich, mem- 
ber of L. U. 2725, New York City against Chas. 
Hanson, President of the New York District 
Council, were read and referred to the General 
President. 

The report of the Committe appointed by the 
G. P. by direction of the G. E. B. at its last 



meeting held January 15, 1934, to investigate; 
the charges of the Executive Committee of the 
New York District Council against L. U. 2725, 
New York City, was carefully considered by the 
(I. E. 1'.. after which it was referred to the 
General President for such action as he deems 
necessary. 

A communication from President Green of 
the A. F. of L., asking for support of the 
Wajnier-Connery Disputes Act was placed before 
the G. E. B. This act provides that employes 
shall have the right to organize and join labor 
organizations and engage in concerted activities 
for the purpose of collective bargaining. 

The act opposes the establishment of Com- 
pany Unions and penalizes employers who sup- 
port Company Unions or finances them. 

The act further provides for the settlement 
of industrial disputes through the National 
Labor Board. 

The G. E. B. carefully considered and dis- 
cussed President Greens' letter as well as the 
Wagner-Connery Disputes Act, after which the 
Board endorsed the principle of the right of 
workers to organize, but strenuously opposes 
compulsory arbitration in any form. 

Mattoon, 111., L. U. 347. — Movement for an 
increase in wages from 62£ to 80c per hour and 
the 40-hour week, effective April 15, 1934. Offi- 
cial sanction granted. 

Correspondence from the Building Trades 
Department of the A. F. of L. relative to the 
reaffiliation of the United Brotherhood of Car- 
penters and Joiners of America with the Build- 
ing Trades Department was carefully considered 
and discussed after which it was decided that 
the matter be held in abeyance for further in- 
vestigation. 

The regular quarterly audit of the books and 
accounts was taken up at this time and con- 
tinued throughout the day. 

April 25, 1934. 
Audit of books and accounts continued. 

April 26, 1934. 
Audit of books and accounts continued. 

April 27, 1934. 

Danville, 111., L. U. 269. — Movement for an 
increase in wages from 87| to $1.00 per hour 
effective July 1, 1934. Official sanction only 
granted. 

Elkhart, Ind., L. U. 565. — Movement for a 
scale of $1.00 per hour effective April 1, 1934. 
Official sanction granted. 

Jacksonville, 111., L. U.-904. — Movement for 
an increase in wages from 75c to $1.00 per 
hour, effective June 10, 1934. Official sanction 
only, granted. 

Protest of L. U. 482, Jersey City, N. J. 
against the action of the G. T. on account of 
the death of Felix McKiernan. The decision of 
the G. T. was sustained on grounds set forth 
therein and protest dismissed. 

Appeal of Edward Penman, L. U. 453, Au- 
burn, N. Y. from the decision of the G. T. on 
account of the claim for disability donation. 
Laid over until next meeting of the G. E. B. 

Appeal of Nis. Pedersen, L. U. 181, Chicago, 
111., from the action of the G. P. in the ease 
of Nis Pedersen vs. the Chicago District Coun- 
cil. The decision rendered by the G. P. was 
sustained on grounds set forth therein and the 
appeal was dismissed. 

Appeal of Alex Johnson, L. U. 58, Chicago, 
111., from the action of the G. P. in the case of 
Alex Johnson vs. the Chicago District Council. 
The decision rendered by the G. P. was sus- 



THE CARPENTER 



21 



tained on grounds set forth therein and the 
appeal was dismissed. 

Appeal of J. C. Nielsen, L. U. 80, Chicago, 
111., from the action of the G. P. in the case of 
J. C. Nielsen vs. the Chicago District Council. 
The decision rendered by the G. P. was sus- 
tained on grounds set forth therein and the 
appeal was dismissed. 

Appeal of Jens C. Nielsen, L. U. 58, Chicago, 
111., from the action of the G. P. in the case 
of Jens C. Nielsen vs. the Chicago District 
Council. The decision rendered by the G. P. 
was sustained on grounds set forth therein and 
the appeal was dismissed.' 

Appeal of Christ Williams, L. U. 105, Cleve- 
land, Ohio, from the action of the G. P. in the 
case of Christ Williams vs. the Cuyahoga Coun- 
ty D. C. The decision rendered by the G. P. 
was sustained on grounds set forth therein and 
the appeal was dismissed. 

Appeal of L. U. 122, Philadelphia, Pa., from 
the action of the G. P. in the case of S. H. 
Blizzard, L. U. 122 vs. Local Union 122. The 
decision rendered by the G. P. was sustained 
on grounds set forth therein and the appeal 
was dismissed. 

Audit of books and accounts continued. 

April 30, 1934. 

Washington, D. C. District Council. — Move- 
ment for an increase in wages from $1.00 to 
$1.37j Per hour, 6 hour day, 5 day week, effec- 
tive May 1, 1934. Official sanction granted. 

Grand Forks, N. D., L. U. 2028. — Movement 
for an increase in wages from 80c to $1.00 per 
hour and 40 hour week, effective July 1, 1934. 
Official sanction granted. 

Logan, W. Va., L. U. 1969. — Movement for 
an increase in wages from 75c to 85c per hour, 
effective April 13, 1934. Official sanction 
granted. 

Appeal of L. U. 2163, New York City, from 
the findings of Board Member Guerin appointed 
by the General President to take up the com- 
plaint of said Local asainst the New York Dis- 
trict Council. The findings were sustained and 
the appc"al was dismissed. 

Appeal of Eugene H. Lamparter, L. IT. 122, 
Philadelphia, Pa., from the decision of the G. 
P. in the case of Eugene Lamparter vs. L. U. 
122. The decision of the G. P. was sustained 
on grounds set forth therein and the appeal 
was dismissed. 

Appeal of L. U. 312, New Meliford, N. J., 
from the action of the G. T. in disapproving 
the claim on account of the death of Nicholas 
H. Prell. The action of the G. T. was sustained 
on grounds set forth therein and the appeal 
was dismissed. 

May 1, 1934. 

Falls Cities District Council, Ky., (Millmen) 
— Movement for an increase in wages from 50c 
to 85c per hour and the 6 hour day, 30 hour 
week, effective July 2, 1934. Official sanction 
granted. 

Salem, Oregon, L. U. 1065.— Movement for 
an increase in wages from 75c to $1.00 per 
hour and the 6 hour day, effective June 4, 
1934. Official sanction granted. 

Audit of the books and accounts continued. 
May 2, 1934. 

Audit of the books and accounts continued. 
May 3, 1934. 

Audit of the books and accounts completed. 

The following report was received from the 
special sub-committee of the G. E. B. 

"We the undersigned sub-committee of the 
General Executive Board, have made an audit 



of the United States Liberty Bonds and Cana- 
dian Bonds held by General Treasurer Neale, 
in vaults of the Indiana National Bank as fol- 
lows : 

Denomination 

7 Bonds 4th Liberty .$10,000 00 $ 70,000 00 

7 Bonds 4th Liberty 

coupon 10,000 00 70,000 00 

1 Certificate of de- 
posit 60,000 00 

Canadian Bonds. . . 100,000 00 

Signed : 

J. W. Williams, 
T. M. Guerin, 
J. L. Bradford. 
There being no further business to come, be- 
fore the meeting, the minutes were approved 
as read and meeting adjourned. 

Respectfully submitted, 

FRANK DUFFY, Secretary. 



DEATH ROLL 



WILLIAM CHARLETON — -Local Union 
No. 1325, Edmonton, Canada. 

P. R. REDINGTON — Local Union No. 
490, Passaic, N. J. 



Courtesy 

A man armed with courtesy is a con- 
queror. 

Courtesy costs nothing; but it is 
the greatest selling proposition in the 
world. 

Courtesy recalls the customer and in- 
vites a new one; discourtesy drives away 
those you have and keeps away others. 

Wisdom is always courteous; dis- 
courtesy is the earmark of stupidity. 

Discourtesy is no mark of superiority. 
The real aristocrat is the most courteous 
to those whom fate has placed in lesser 
walks of life than those he treads; thus 
we have a paradox which is a great 
truth — a real democrat is the only real 
aristocrat. 

We all like money, but there is not 
one of us that does not know there are 
things more precious than money. 

One's self respect is one of them. The 
discourteous man insults the self-respect 
of others and makes enemies of them 
while he is making a fool of himself. 



I rejoice at every effort workingmen 
make to organize. I hail the labor 
movement; it is my only hope for de- 
mocracy. Organize and stand together. 
Let the nation hear a. united demand 
from the laboring voice. — Wendell Phil- 
lips. 



CorrQspondQncQ 




This Journal Is Not Responsible For Views Expressed By Correspondents. 



Profits and War Making 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

Today every thinking person knows 
that if this country had stayed out of 
the war this depression would not have 
been of such severe proportion. 

In recent years it has been established 
especially by publishing of secret rec- 
ords from the old Russian archives by 
the Bolsheviks that the actual cause of 
war was the secret diplomatic agree- 
ments of which the people at large were 
not informed. 

If an embargo on arms had been de- 
clared and if American money had been 
withheld, the European war fire would 
have burned itself out in less than two 
years with most European countries flat 
on their backs. It would have ended in 
a draw and each side would have paid 
its own bill, and best of all, militarists 
who were responsible for the war would 
have broken their own necks. Unfortu- 
nately in most countries they are firmer 
in saddle now than ever before, thanks 
to the American money, munition and 
man-power! 

The American munition-makers were 
paid by the Allies for only part of their 
armaments in 20 months, $2,351,000,- 
000. A sure sign that the World War 
was not the last war, is the fact that 
Vickers Ltd., in England, which was 
capitalized in 1914 at $27,700,000, 
grew up to 8 Million Dollars in 1932. 
Also the Austrian concern (Skoda) pro- 
ducers of the Big Berthas, which re- 
duced the Belgian forts so quickly with 
heavy long distance artillery. That same 
firm is now located in Czecho Slovakia 
and apparently doing fine business as 
they paid five per cent interest in 19 2 
and raised the interest rate every year 
so that in 1928 they paid 28% per cent 
on stocks. 

I believe the only permanent way of 
outlawing war is by making all arms 
and poison gas production Government 
Monopoly. I believe in national defense 
and also in preparedness because the 



human animal is not yet ready for a 
world in which peace is universal. One 
good step forward toward national de- 
fense would be to have civilians serve 
for one dollar a day like soldiers, and 
commandeer all needed factories, for 
Government use. 

National defense should be financed 
without interest bearing bonds but by 
issuing legal tender currency which 
should be retired by and by; tax- ex- 
empt Government bonds should not be 
floated at all. 

We, in Wisconsin should be satisfied 
with the fact that our late good Bob 
La Follette, Senior, did his best to 
keep us out of the war as long as pos- 
sible and that he was one of the six in 
United States Senate and the fifty in 
Congress who stood up for their convic- 
tion and let themselves be designated 
as traitors by the Mob-spirit. 

During World War there were many 
people who gained materially at the ex- 
pense of the rest of the people, as com- 
piled figures show that for every man 
killed in the war the sum of $2,500 v/as 
spent but at the same time for every 
American soldier killed in the war there 
was one millionaire made at home. 

The concentration of wealth in the 
U. S. A. was never so great as it has 
become since the World War. As is 
shown by taking the total wealth as 
$100 in the United States and the total 
population as 100 persons it follows that 
one person owns $59.00 — one person 
owns $9.00, 22 persons each $1.22 and 
76 persons each $0.07. 

The time, has come for every man 
in the building industry to become a 
booster, I think that the least a building 
tradesman can do for his family is to 
provide a decent home, it is foolish to 
say that America is over built as long 
as some people live in basement quarters 
and other unfit conditions. 

There are two causes for the build- 
ing slump — first, the high rate of inter- 
est for loans and the unfair taxation of 



THE CARPENTER 



23 



the real estate which disregards actual 
ownership. The fair taxation would be 
on the basis of the rental from such 
real estate and by discounting the in- 
debtedness, this would bring the prop- 
erty owner to the same basis as other 
citizens who invest their money in any 
other form and pay taxes according to 
the actual return and then only after 
a certain exemption for wife and chil- 
dren. 

The only way out is: tax revisions 
and lower rate and long term financing 
of building operations. 

Ludwig Raidl, 
L. U. No. 1053. Milwaukee, Wis. 



Ladies Auxiliary Union No. 170 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

May I present Ladies' Auxiliary No. 
170, San Diego, Calif., with a member- 
ship at present of thirty. We lost several 
members the past year, and now have a 
movement under way to start a member- 
ship drive. We know if we can get the 
members of the Carpenters' Unions in- 
terested in our Auxiliary, it will be the 
first step towards increasing our mem- 
bership. 

Our business meetings are held at 
the home of members the fourth Thurs- 
day of each month. We serve pot-luck 
luncheon at noon, and have a business 
meeting at 2:00 P. M. 

The second Wednesday of the month 
we hold a social gathering for all Un- 
ion Carpenters and families, at the 
Golden Hill Club House, (in beautiful 
Balboa Park); dinner at 6:00 P. M. 
and cards afterwards for those who de- 
sire to play. 

An annual picnic in June, and Christ- 
mas dinner and entertainment for Union 
Carpenters and families are our yearly 
activities. 

Letters from other Auxiliaries are 
read with interest. 

Mayme N. Barnes, Sec'y, 
L. A. No. 170. East San Diego, Calif. 



Ladies Auxiliary Union No. 256 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

In reading "The Carpenter" which is 
always of interest to me, I have come 
across letters from a few Ladies' Auxili- 
ary unions, and it occurred to me that it 
might be of some interest to hear about 



our Auxiliary. Carpenters Local 72 of 
Rochester, N. Y. now has the assistance 
of some of their wives. We are known 
as Ladies Auxiliary 2 5 6, and a most 
interested organization of ladies we are. 

On March 6, 1934, our officers were 
elected, and installed by General Repre- 
sentative John Ryan, with a Charter 
membership of 24; our Charter having 
been presented to us by our Brothers of 
Local 72. We have since gained three 
new members. We meet every 1st and 
3rd Tuesday evenings in Carpenters 
Hall, 113 N. Fitzhugh St., Rochester, 
and to date our meetings have been 
gratifyingly attended. 

On Tuesday evening, April 17th, in 
Carpenters Hall, we held our first social 
event. Although it was late in the sea- 
son we were most pleased and satisfied, 
both from a social and financial view- 
point. We held a short business session, 
following it with a card party — very in- 
formal — the idea being to bring out the 
wives of other carpenters, that we might 
become better acquainted. All sorts of 
card games were played and many prizes 
won. Refreshments were served and 
everyone had a most enjoyable evening. 

We hope to make our next event a 
joint evening with our Brothers in Car- 
penters Local 72. Apart from the social 
side of our Auxiliary it is our intention 
to try to promote the use of the Union 
Label and to do our utmost to place it 
in stores that do not already carry it. 
We are anxious to create more interest 
in the minds of the wives of our broth- 
ers, as to the "value" of the Label. 

Any communication from other Aux- 
iliaries will be most cordially received 
by us. We extend to all other Auxili- 
aries our best wishes for their continued 
success. 

Helen Sismey, Rec. Sec. 
L. A. No. 2 5 6. Rochester, N. Y. 



"If you must hammer, build some- 
thing." That is homely advice, but it 
fits most knockers admirably. The man 
who does little or nothing worth while 
himself is usually found to be the se- 
verest critic of every one who tries to 
accomplish things. "The critic is the 
man who has not tried or has failed." — 
Tony's Scrap Book. 



Keep Your Dues Paid Up 



24 



THE CARPENTER 



Organized Labor A Benefit To Business 

Speaking at a mass meeting in Beaver 
Dam, Wisconsin, under the auspices of 
the American Federation of Hosiery 
Workers, Rev. J. W. R. Maguire, presi- 
dent of St. Viator College, Bourbonnais, 
Illinois, and a member of the Ghicago 
Regional Labor Board, said: 

"Instead of the business man being 
opposed to the advancement of labor 
through organization, he should be in 
favor of it because it means more money 
for the laborer to spend. 

"Industry has but one rightful end, 
that of providing the right means of 
livelihood. For 150 years we have been 
lulled into an economic theory that cer- 
tain important factors are fixed and can- 
not be changed. Now economists agree 
on an order based on human arrange- 
ments and that old theories can be 
changed. Like Rip Van Winkle many 
employers under laissez-faire have fall- 
en asleep and haven't awakened to the 
changed world. 

"We must put more clothes on peo- 
ple's backs, give them more food, more 
decent homes in which to live, more 
bath tubs and automobiles. There are 
12,000,000 people in this country who 
want automobiles and haven't got 
them." - 



Strike-Breakers an Unnecessary Evil 

The last A. F. of L. convention resolu- 
tion requesting congressional investiga- 
tion of the activities of strike-breaking 
agencies deserves the attention of all de- 
cent elements of industry and society. 
The gathering and transportation of a 
horde of undesirables to the scene of 
probable labor differences is a reprehen- 
sible practice with many objectionable 
features aside from the angle of fair- 
ness in trade disputes. By the dumping 
of a crowd of irresponsibles into a com- 
munity the citizens thereof are thereby 
Tendered subject to all the indignities 
the prescence of thugs may inflict upon 
them. Strike-breakers are never brought 
into a city with any thought of perma- 
nency; when their services as a threat 
to replace decent workers has served 
the purpose of their master they are 
turned adrift until need again is appar- 
ent. Their main utility is to awe into 
submission by their immediate presence 
those citizen-workers with whom em- 
ployers differ. If it becomes impossible 
to overawo legitimate workers and the 



imported thugs supplant their betters, 
home-owners, taxpayers and loyal citi- 
zens are deprived of their livelihood, 
temporarily at least, and the imported 
ones lessen the possibilities of local busi- 
ness by sending elsewhere what wages 
are granted them or save it for the in- 
evitable move to come. 

Character is not a requisite of the 
strike-breaker; if he has a criminal rec- 
ord he is preferable to others upon 
whom the heavy hand of the law has not 
yet fallen. The question of personal 
habits is never raised; will he work for 
less than the man he supplants is most 
important. Adeptness in the shady arts 
of the underworld renders him all the 
more fitted for his avocation. Moral 
courage among strike-breakers is an un- 
known attribute; the lowest form of 
animal life finds its counterpart among 
the malcontents who compose the mob 
at the beck and call of leaders of even 
less moral stamina. 

The government in endeavoring to 
curb crime is antagonizing the activi- 
ties of the gangster, which is well. It is 
not impossible that many of the class 
considered obnoxious to society could be 
found among the ranks of strike-break- 
ers. Crime curbed at its source ceases 
to be a menace. And investigation of 
strike-breaking activities will no doubt 
disclose many who thus hide their indi- 
vidual misdemeanors under the blanket 
of mob psychology. There are, perhaps, 
exceptions, but these prove the rule. 

A government investigation might 
well begin with those representatives of 
trade associations who are charged with 
the duty of assembling and herding the 
nondescripts until their alleged services 
are in demand by those employers who 
turn deaf ears to the rights of legiti- 
mate workers and would wreck rather 
than conciliate. Modern methods in la- 
bor differences have long since rendered 
obsolete the necessity of mobsters to 
support argument, and there should be 
little difficulty in securing the support 
of all decent citizens to a movement de- 
signed to suppress the activities of the 
strike-breaker and the "higher-ups" re- 
sponsible for his existence. There is no 
place in the modern scheme of econom- 
ics for the gang and gag rules of the 
old days. 



It takes money to operate everything 
-even a union. 



THE CARPENTER 



25 



Prosperity Rests on Higher Wages, De- 
clares Boston Merchant 

Lack of vigorous enforcement of the 
Recovery Act's labor provisions and the 
failure of employers to realize that high- 
er wages and shorter hours would cre- 
ate better business are the two biggest 
obstacles confronting the movement to 
restore prosperity, Edward A. Filene, 
Boston's multi-millionaire department 
store owner declared recently in Wash- 
ington. 

Filene has just concluded a personal 
investigation of recovery possibilities 
and sentiment in 14 large American 
cities in all sections of the nation. He 
presented his findings to the NRA gen- 
eral conference of code authorities and 
later directly to President Roosevelt. 

"If business men would understand 
that we would make our own market by 
increasing wages, they would work as 
hard for shortening hours and raising 
pay as they did in the opposite direction 
in the past," said Filene. 

"Business men are missing their big 
chance. If they succeed in keeping 
hours up and wages down they are kill- 
ing their own market. The masses of 
workers with small incomes supply more 
than two-thirds of the whole market." 

Filene said the only important criti- 
cism of the Roosevelt administration 
that he had met with all over the coun- 
try concerned its lack of enforcement 
of labor policies. 



Recovery and Construction 

"Conviction grows," says the Chris- 
tian Science Monitor, "that there can be 
no thorough-going recovery in the Unit- 
ed States unless and until a healthy vol- 
ume of ordinary construction shall have 
been started." 

There are definite signs on the hori- 
zon that the start is not far away. Pub- 
lic works activities have provided great 
impetus. Various proposals now being 
considered to make small home build- 
ing easier, have created justified hopes 
for achievements in the near future. 
And, most important of all is the fact 
that the wage earner finds himself with 
steadier work at better pay — and is in 
need of more and better housing. 

During depression there was a mini- 
mum of new residential building. Doub- 
ling up of families in small homes was 
common. Thousands of homes were al- 



lowed to fall in disrepair, because of 
lack of funds, and depreciation has been 
abnormally high. In addition, population 
changes, fires, tornadoes, floods and 
other elements have destroyed multi- 
tudes of homes or rendered them use- 
less. 

Any national movement starts slowly 
but accelerates with amazing speed. 
That will be true of new construction. 
The builders and material makers will 
be called upon to meet increased de- 
mand. Labor and technical supervision 
may be at a premium. Price rises are 
unavoidable. The moral is do your build- 
ing and repairing now. 



"Capital Wages" for 1932 Exceed Fig- 
ure for 1928 

"Wages of capital" in the form of 
dividend payments and interest paid on 
bonds during 1932 surpassed the 1928 
level and approached the $7,000,000,- 
000 mark was disclosed. 

Wages and salaries paid out for work, 
however, dropped in 1932 to a little 
more than one-half of the 1928 peak 
figure. 

The large banks of New York appear 
to be the most prosperous enterprises as 
a group. Their aggregate dividends for 
19 3 2 have been calculated as 16 per 
cent on their capitalization — one of 
them, the First National, paying 100 
per cent on its stock. 

These highlights of the departed year 
were discovered in a survey of the cur- 
rent economic reports. 

Dividend and interest payments of 
$6,472,000,000 for the first eleven 
months of the year, as compiled by the 
New York Journal of Commerce, were 
reported in the United States Commerce 
Department's monthly business survey. 
This compares with more than $8,000,- 
000,000 for each of the two previous 
years, about $7,500,000,000 for 1929, 
and $6,028,000,000 for 1928. The fig- 
ures are fairly close to the government's 
own official totals for the years up to 
1932. 

The American Federation of Labor's 
estimate of wages and salaries for 193 2 
is $28,232,000,000, as compared with 
$50,058,000,000 for 1928, $53,252,000,- 
000 for the peak year of 1929, $45,- 
770,000,000 for 1925, $36,000,000,000 
for 1922, $25,000,000,0000 for 1917, 
and $18,520,000,000 for 1913. 



26 



THE CARPENTER 



Bills To Modify Immigration Act 
Threaten U. S. Workers' Jobs 

The jobs of American workers, and 
the prospects of new jobs for those now 
unemployed, are in danger. Despite the 
large amount of unemployment, amend- 
ments to our immigration laws are be- 
ing offered in Congress that would ad- 
mit large numbers of aliens who would 
be seeking jobs in competition with 
those already here. 

In fairness to those now in the coun- 
try, whether native or foreign born, the 
laws limiting immigration should be 
strengthened, rather than weakened, if 
we are to save the available jobs for 
those now here. 

Contrary to general belief, the immi- 
gration act passed in 192 4 did not settle 
the question of limitation of immigra- 
tion for all time. As a matter of fact, 
for the last three years all that has 
prevented the admission of at least half 
a million aliens has been a temporary 
executive order, enforced by the State 
Department, refusing immigration visas 
to anyone without a definite means of 
support, and so likely to become a public 
charge. 

Even this executive order is tempor- 
ary, i As soon as jobs in any number 
bceome available it may be lifted, again 
permitting foreigners to come in and 
seek jobs in competition with workers 
how here. 

The 19 24 immigration act establishes 
a quota for Europe of 150,000 immi- 
grants a year, apportioned among the 
various European countries. But out- 
side of this quota it permits the entry 
of an indefinite number of Europeans, 
such as wives and children of immi- 
grants, ministers and professors, stu- 
dents, etc. The law excludes Asiatics, 
but places no limit on the number of im- 
migrants from Mexico, the West Indies, 
and the other countries of North, Cen- 
tral and South America, and the Philip- 
pines. With the removal of the "Likely 
to become a public charge" provision, 
those desiring cheap labor would again 
receive a total of some 300,000 persons 
a year, as they did in the six years from 
1924 to 1930. 

As a result of the openings left in 
the immigration dikes in 1924, the Unit- 
ed States received over 1,7 62,000 im- 
migrants, as against the 900,000 that 
would have come in if the European al- 
lowance of 150,000 within the quota 



had been the total allowance from all 
sources. 

The effort being made to break down 
the laws limiting immigration is clever 
and insidious. Some 50 bills have been 
introduced in the present Congress to 
modify the law and make it easier for 
foreigners to enter. Taken singularly 
many of these bills are insignificant but 
collectively they would undermine and 
break down the law. 

It is time that Congress cease giving 
favorable consideration to bills favoring 
special classes of foreigners, and do 
something in the way of further limita- 
tion of immigration in the interest of 
our own unemployed. 



What We Could Do With War Costs 

Taking the accepted cost of the World 
War at 30,000,000 lives and $400,000,- 
000,000, Dr. Butler finds that with this 
money: 

Every family in the United States, 
Canada, Australia, British Isles, Prance, 
Belgium, Germany and Russia could 
have been provided with a $2,500 house, 
with $1,000 of furniture, on a five-acre 
plot of land. 

Every city of more than 20,000 in- 
habitants in all these countries could 
have been provided with a $5,000,000 
library and a $10,000,000 university, j. 

"Out of the balance," he says, "we 
could have still sufficient money which 
at 5 per cent interest would pay for all 
time a salary of $1,000 yearly, each to 
125,000 teachers and another 125,000 
nurses." 

And he adds that there would still be 
enough money left to buy up all the 
property of Prance and Belgium as they 
stood before the war. 

It is stunning, incredible — but true. 
Yet Dr. Butler did not point out the 
most hopeful and most important lesson 
of his figures. 

The modern world, and any nation in 
it, is rich enough, strong enough, and 
has resources enough of men and mate- 
rials, to do almost anything that it 
wants to do — if it will organize itself 
for that purpose. If the world could 
raise, spend and destroy four hundred 
billion dollars to kill men, it could do 
as much to save men and make their 
lives happy. 

When will we have wit enough to 
brush aside, not only soldiers, but finan- 
ciers, and work for our own welfare? 



Craft ProblQms 




CARPENTRY 

(By H. H. Siegele) 
LESSON LXIX 

Cracks appearing in the plastering 
near the corners of windows and doors, 
or above them, are common. Settling 
foundations are responsible for many of 
these defects, but not always. Poorly 
placed boxing is often the cause, which 
is to say, when the boxing does not 
brace the building firmly against wind 
pressure; or in cases when the wall must 
support a load, and the boxing is not 
securely nailed, especially, above open- 
ings, and is depended on to support the 
load. Too many joints or poorly broken 
joints in the boxing near the top of the 
opening might easily be the cause of 
plastering cracking. But there is still 
another reason for cracks appearing 




Fig. 393 

above openings in a building, and that 
is a poorly constructed rough opening. 
In this lesson we are dealing with doors 
in particular, and while the journeyman 
carpenter often does not have much to 
say about the construction or the loca- 
tion of door openings, he nevertheless, 
often has everything to say about them. 
The architect is supposed to locate the 
door openings, and usually governs him- 
self by the needs of the room, which is 
the way it should be. Once in a while, 
though, even architects go wrong, and 
in such cases it frequently devolves 
upon the carpenter to solve the prob- 
lem. Moreover, there are times when 
the carpenter must act the part of archi- 
tect as well as builder, and in those in- 
stances it is well for him to be informed 



as to methods of constructing openings, 
as well as of locating them. In locating 
doors, these things should be kept in 
mind: The owner's wishes, the intend- 
ed arrangement of the furniture, the 
convenience for traffic and the relative 
effects on other rooms. The location of 
openings often make or mar the gen- 




Fig. 394 

eral appearance of a room. This is 
equally true of the exterior appearance 
of a building, which brings us to the 
illustrations. 

A very simple, but commonly used 
construction in cheap work, is shown to 
the left in Fig. 393. The construction 
shown to the right is a modification of 
the one at the left, and is somewhat 
better; it is more substantial by reason 




Fig. 395 

of the doubled header and doubled 
trimmers; besides, it provides sufficient 
nailing both for the outside and inside 
woodwork. Fig. 394 shows to the left a 
commonly used construction in the bet- 
ter class of work. Here the header is 



28 



THE CARPENTER 



constructed of two 2x4 's set on edge, 
and the trimmers are doubled. This con- 
struction will carry a considerable load. 
To the right we are showing a construc- 
tion that will carry a heavy load. The 
header and the trimmers are doubled, 
but the header is reinforced by a blind 
header placed directly under the plate. 
This blind header can be either single 




Fig. 396 

or double, whichever the case may re- 
quire. More than that, it can be made 
of 2x4's, 2x6's or 2x8's, depending on 
how much weight must be supported, 
and on the span of the opening. That 
fundamental requisite of good judg- 
ment, is as important in framing rough 
openings as it is in constructing any 
other part of a building. 

In Fig. 39 5 we are showing two meth- 
ods of trussing over openings. The 
methods shown to the left is weak, inas- 
much as it depends entirely on nails to 
keep the braces from spreading where 
they join the header. Again, it is weak 
where the braces join the studding, for 




Fig. 397 

here there is nothing to keep them from 
slipping but the nails. In supporting a 
heavy load, nails should never be de- 
pended on entirely. For light loads, this 
construction will give fairly good re- 
sults, but it is a faulty construction. The 



method shown to the right, is good. 
Here the braces are notched into the 
header to keep them from spreading, 
and they extend up to the plate. The 
studding are framed afterward and 
nailed to the braces as shown. Trussing 
over openings, gives satisfactory results 
where there is enough space between 
the header and the plate, to give the 
braces plenty of pitch. The construc- 
tions shown in Fig. 396 are both bad, 
excepting where the load is rather light. 
The trouble with both of them is that 
the braces are likely to spread when the 
load is applied. A blind header, as 
shown to the right in Fig. 394, would 
give much better results. 

A good method of trussing over a 
wide opening is shown by Fig. 397. 
Here we have a header set on edge, 
with the braces of the truss notched 
into it. The detail to the right, shows 
the construction of both the header and 




Fig. 398 

the top member of the truss. We are 
showing the truss constructed of a single 
piece, but if necessary, the truss can be 
doubled throughout. A modification of 
this truss is shown in Fig. 398, which 
is a better construction than the one 
just considered. Here the braces are 
notched into the header and also into 
the top member of the truss. This con- 
struction will support a heavy load, pro- 
vided the trimmers of the opening 
are substantially supported. The bottom 
support of door openings is even more 
important than the top, for if the bot- 
tom gives way, the top will have to 
come down, no matter how well the 
construction is made. 

In Fig. 399 we are showing with fig- 
ures, the size of a rough opening for a 



THE CARPENTER 



29 



door measuring 3 feet by 7 feet. It will 
be seen that the rough opening must be 
3 inches wider than the door, and 3 
inches higher, assuming that the door 
jamb is made of 1 % inches material. 
If % inch material is used for the jamb, 
2V 2 inches added to the width of the 
door will be enough. The height, how- 
ever, should- be 3 inches higher than the 
height of the door in either case, meas- 
uring from the rough floor to the bottom 




Fig. 399 

of the header. This rule holds good for 
all sizes of doors. 

Rough openings should be construct- 
ed of straight material without defects. 
The measuring, marking and cutting of 
the material should be done painstak- 
ingly, which, of course will mean that 
the joints will be tight, the headers will 
be level, and the trimmers plumb. It 
does not take any more time to frame 
a rough opening in this way than it 
will take to do it in a slip-shod manner. 
In fact it will take less time, if the ex- 
tra time that will be required later to 
put poorly constructed openings into 
proper shape, is taken into considera- 
tion. 



THE FRAMING SQUARE 

(By L. Perth) 

PART TWENTY-FIVE 

Right and Wrong 

Not so very long ago this writer was 
supervising a large construction job on 
the Pacific Coast. It was a school audi- 



torium, a structure of brick and con- 
crete, resembling the Greek Parthenon. 
The design naturally called for a shal- 
low gable roof. 

The lumber for the roof structure was 
stacked up on both sides of the building 
so that roof members might be fabricat- 
ed and hoisted up the side of the struc- 
ture where they belonged, thus saving 
considerable time in dragging them 
across the roof to their proper place. 

As the masonry work was nearing 
completion instructions were issued to 
the carpenter foreman to make prepara- 
tions for the framing of the roof. Since 
the roof lumber was located in two 
places quite distant from each other, 
the foreman assigned one man to each 
lumber pile and had them instructed to 
cut the roof members. Both men were 
given a blue print containing the neces- 
sary information pertaining to the roof 
and they promptly proceeded with the 
work. 

A few hours later when the foreman 
stopped to see how the roof framers 
were getting along he noticed that the 
rafters cut by the man on the north 
side of the building seemed to be some- 
what longer than those made on tha 
south side. In order to verify his sus- 
picions he ordered one rafter carried 
over to the opposite side so that a com- 
parison could be made. 

When the two rafters were laid on 
top of each other it was found that 
while the top and bottom cuts were 
identical the overall length differed by 
several inches. Fig. 1. This meant that 
when set up in their respective places 
the section of the roof would have ap- 
peared somewhat similar to what is 
shown in Fig. 2. 

Now both men were in nowise bung- 
lers in their trade, they always produced 
good work and knew quite well how to 
handle the steel square. The figures 
they were using in cutting the rafter 
were according to the architect's draw- 
ing. How then could the mistake be ac- 
counted for. 

It was a trifle and yet it resulted in 
the waste of time and material. 

When the men described the sequence 
of their operations it was discovered 
that the man on the north side of the 
building had a faint idea of what was 
meant by the term "length of rafter." 
Instead of making the "measuring line 



30 



T ir E C A R P K N T E R 



(he basis of his layout he assumed "A" 
on the edge of the rafter as a starting 
point and since this point lies at the 
intersection of the top of plates with the 



also the establishing of the starting 
point along this line is very essential. 
The various methods of locating the 
measuring line and working points will 



outside edge of. the rafter, this member be discussed in the subsequent chapter. 



area/?/?*?// ^A^r^je^ 



car ry^e*?^ 




F/G-4-/?/&#r way 



naturally will be longer than it should 
be as shown in Fig. 3. 

What then is meant by the "length of 
the rafter?" 

The length of a common rafter is the 
shortest distance between the outer 
edge of the plate and a point on the 
center line of the ridge. This length is 
taken along the "measuring line." 

This is an auxiliary line which runs 
parallel to the edge of the rafter and is 
the "hypotenuse" or the longest side of 
a right triangle, the other two sides be- 
ing the run and the rise. Fig. 4. 

Unless otherwise specified the meas- 
uring line is usually established on the 
center line of the timber whatever it 
may be, a2x4ora2x6. The measur- 
ing line is snapped along the center line 
and along this line all measurements 
are taken. 

It must not be construed that the 
"measuring line" is "always" taken on 
the center line of the rafter. There are 
cases where the measuring line is taken 
along the edge of the timber. But it 
must be firmly borne in your mind that 
before you proceed to lay out a roof 
member you must establish a basic line 
from which your work is started and 



Fig. 3 and 4 illustrate the right and 
wrong way used by the two men on the 
job. 



Two Problems Answered 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

The answer to the problem submitted 
by Brother Warren E. Smith, on page 
32 of the May issue of "The Carpenter" 
is: An area of 11 miles square and has 
77 acres. 

The fence around the land is 44 miles. 
Each mile has 1760 yards. 44 x 1760 
equals 77440 yards. 

The way the fence is built there is 
one board for each yard. 

* * * 

The other problem, on page 31 of the 
May issue, submitted by Brother S. 
Gregory, can be more easily worked by 
the graphical method — drawing a tri- 
angle to a scale and then measuring dis- 
tances with measuring tapes laid off in 
spaces, as each man will travel in equal 
time. 

Joseph Kaimeyer, 
L. U. No. 787. Brooklyn, N. Y. 



Demand the Union Isabel 



THE CARPENTER 



31 




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Center Supports 

(By H. H. Siegele) 

The ends of shelves are usually sup- 
ported, either by cleats, or by gaining 
the shelves into the end pieces; which, 



senting here, is a simple, but substan- 
tial, center support for shelves. 

Fig. 1 shows the first operation, 
where the wall support, a, is fastened 




Fig. 1 

as a rule, do not present problems. Cen- 
ter supports, judging from the various 
methods that one finds employed, are 
more problematical. What we are pre- 



Fig. 2 

to the wall. Onto the wall support, one 
end of the ledger, b, is nailed. Then the 
shelf, which is shown by dotted lines, 



32 



THE CARPENTER 



NO SIR- NO 

CHEAP OIL 

FOR ME/ 




You seldom find an ex- 
perienced carpenter using 
"cheap" oil. Why should he — when 
3-in-One does so much more good 
and costs so little more! Due to its 
scientific blending, 3-in-One not 
only oils your tools, but keeps the 
working parts cleaner and prevents 
rust. Wherever you're working, 
you can get 3-in-One 
nearby. 




3-IN-ONE OIL 



is put in place. Fig. 2, shows how the 
ledger has been cut off flush with the 
edge of the shelf. Now the wall sup- 
port of the second shelf is fastened to 
the wall, which is shown at c; onto this 
the ledger, d, is nailed. The second 
shelf is then placed, and the ledger 
cut flush with the edge. In the same 
manner the third shelf is supported, 
and then the fourth, and so on up to 
the last shelf. When all the shelves 
are in, the casing, pointed out at A, Fig. 




Fig. 3 

3, is nailed onto the ends of the ledgers, 
in such a manner that it will cover the 
ends completely. This done, the front 
supports are put into place, in the order 
that we are pointing them out at 1, 2, 
3, 4. 

It will be noticed, by studying Fig. 
3, that this method of supporting 
shelves, gives all of the supports a di- 
rect bearing, and nails are not depended 
upon to carry weight; consequently it is 
quite suitable for shelves that must 
carry a heavy load. 




A New Stanley Tool 

SLITS, GROOVES AND BEVELS 
FIBRE BOARDS LIKE UPSON 
BOARD, CELOTEX AND OTHERS 

Fibre Board Cutter 
No. 193 

You will want this new tool for your next 
fibre board job. It grooves, bevels and slits any 
of the fibre wall boards now on the market. 
Through cuts can be made much easier and faster with it than is possible with 
a saw and it leaves smooth edges. Furthermore it cuts beveled edges, makes 
beveled edge battens, cuts grooves, makes decorative designs such as squares, 
parallel lines and bricks as shown below. 

It's a Stanley Quality Tool — smooth strong castings; Stanley "Bailey" rose- 
wood Handle and knob; tool steel cutters that can be resharpened like a regular 
plane iron ; carefully machined parts all of which 
are replaceable. 



See it at your Hardware Dealers 
Write for descriptive Folder P47 

STANLEY TOOLS 

New Britain. Connecticut 




W£ OOOUBPA/l! 






mm m^^mmm. 

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NEW GLAND LIFE 

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AND SHARP TOOLS 

Craftsmen who do the finest wood-carving 
like the Carborundum Brand Combination 
Sharpening Stone. It is ideal for anyone 
who uses edged tools. It has two faces — one, 
a coarse grit to take out nicks. The other is 
a fine grit that brings the tool to a razor edge 
in a jiffy. One should be in your tool box. 

Sizes from 4 inches long by 1 % inches wide, 
to 8 inches long by 2 inches wide. Prices 
from 85c to $1.75 according to size. At your 
hardware dealer's. 

Send for Booklet "How to Sharpen 
Wood- Working Tools." It is Free. 

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The Carborundum Company, Niagara Falls, N. Y. Cana- 
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Strangers! 

(By James Edward Hungerford) 

IF Brown knew me, and I knew him, 

We'd call each other "Joe' and "Jim," 

But Brown is worth a million more 

Than I . . . and passes by my door. 

If Brown knew Smith, and Smith knew Brown, 
They'd be the best friends in our town, 

But Smith looks down on Brown, I guess, 
Because Brown has a million less. 

We all wear clothes and shoes and hats, 
And shirts and collars and cravats ; 

We each have arms, hands, legs and feet, 

And shave and bathe, and sleep and eat. 

We each have eyes, nose, mouth and ears, 

And laugh at times; at times shed tears; 

We have our aches and pains and joys ; 

We've all been freckled, barefoot boys. 

What wondrous FRIENDS we all might be, 
If I knew YOU, and you knew ME, 

And each could know the other one 

As "BROTHER," ere our days are done. 

We all were fashioned from the sod, 

And molded by the selfsame God 

Whom we call "Father" yet, alas, 

As STRANGERS through the world we 
pass! 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



nmnm 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of Congress, Aug. 24,1912 

Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, act of 
October 3, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918 

A Monthly Journal for Carpenters. Stair Builders. Machine Wood Workers, Planing Mill Men, aci 

Kindred Industries. Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters 

and Joiners of America, at 

Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 

Advertising Department, 25 Third Avenue, New York, N. Y. 



Established in 1881 
Vol. LIV. — No. 7. 



INDIANAPOLIS, JULY, 1934 



One Dollar Per Year 
Ten Cents a Copy 



NOTICE 



The publishers of "The Carpenter" reserve the right to reject all advertising matter 
which may be, in their judgment, unfair or objectionable to the membership of the United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America. 

All contracts for advertising space in "The Carpenter," including those stipulated as 
non-cancellable, are only accepted subject to the above reserved rights of the publishers. 



REST 

Rest is not quitting 

The busy career; 
Rest is the fitting 

Of self to one's sphere. 

'Tis the brook's motion, 
Clear without strife; 

Fleeting to ocean, 
After its life. 

'Tis loving and serving 
The highest and best; 

'Tis onward, unswerving, 
And this is true rest. 

— Goethe. 



Till: CARPENTER 



WORK TIME MUST BE SHARPLY CUT 

(By William Green, President, A. F. of L.) 




T IS the opinion of labor 
and labor representatives 
that a further reduction 
in the hours of labor must 
be brought about imme- 
diately. 

We cannot permit the national recov- 
ery program to stand still. Ten million 
idle workers who have suffered for al- 
most four years, with those dependent 
upon them, present a most grave social 
and economic problem. If we stop now, 
the whole national recovery program 
will fail. 

The national recovery program has 
accomplished a great deal, but there re- 
mains much to do before it will achieve 
its avowed purpose to overcome unem- 
ployment and restore purchasing power. 

Somewhere between three and four 
million unemployed have been absorbed 
into industry through the development 
and application of industrial codes of 
fair practice applicable to the major in- 
dustries. 

There are still more than ten million 
unemployed. The completion of the in- 
dustrial codes of fair practice for re- 
maining miscellaneous industries will 
not create work opportunities for this 
vast army of idle workers. Something 
more must be done if the administration 
is to succeed in its efforts to bring about 
complete national recovery. 

The drive against unemployment has 
proceeded upon the theory that it could 
only be overcome through a reduction 
in the hours of labor and through in- 
creases in wages. Both the President 
and General Johnson realized this eco- 
nomic fact when they recently recom- 
mended that the representatives of in- 
dustry agree to a substantial reduction 
in the hours of labor and a further in- 
crease in wages. The employers of labor 
definitely refused to comply with this 
request. 

Labor believes that notwithstanding 
this refusal, a concentrated drive should 
now be made to compel, through the use 
of forceful methods if necessary, an im- 
mediate reduction in the hours of labor. 
There is no other remedy available. 
There is none at hand. 

Industrial leaders, while assuming a 
negative position opposing a further re- 



duction in the hours of labor in order 
to overcome unemployment, offer no 
plan or suggest no practical measure 
through which the remaining ten mill- 
ion idle workers can be given employ- 
ment. 

It must be clearly evident that the 
durable goods industries cannot increase 
their output or their volume of sales 
until unemployment has been more 
largely overcome. There must be a mar- 
ket for durable goods before they can 
be sold. Such a market can be created 
by returning the millions who are now 
idle back to work. 

Labor wishes to see the national re- 
covery program made a complete suc- 
cess. In order to achieve this purpose 
labor will continue to drive forward 
with all the power it possesses in the 
fight for a reduction in the hours of 
labor and an increase in wages in order 
to create work opportunities for the 
millions of idle workers who have not 
yet been given an opportunity to earn 
a decent living. 



Volunteers a Six-Hour Day 

In direct opposition to the attitude as- 
sumed by many employers regarding the 
shorter workday, Johnson & Johnson, 
manufacturers of surgical dessings and 
kindred supplies, operating under the 
textile code, of their own volition offer 
to maintain the same wage for a. six- 
hour day as the code specifies for an 
eight-hour schedule if permitted to op- 
erate four shifts of thirty-six hours in- 
stead of two at forty, the code limit. 
Accompanying the tender was the fol- 
lowing statement by Russell E. Watson, 
vice-president of the company: 

"We favor a six-hour day because we 
believe that a day of more than six 
hours will fail to employ the millions of 
people who are now out of work; be- 
cause it is the most efficient, because it 
has immense possibilities for social ad- 
vance, and because it should add to the 
health and happiness of the people. We 
are willing to proVe it by practical tests 
and experiment in the textile industry 
if the NRA will give us the chance." 



The enthusiast tries while the pessi- 
mist sighs! 



THE CARPENTER 



SLAVERY IS STILL AMONG MANKIND'S MAJOR 

EVILS 

(By P. W. Wilson) 




REAT Britain is celebrat- 
ing the centenary of the 
great occasion in 183 3 
when her Parliament de- 
cided that never again 
must there be a slave 
held in bondage under the Union Jack. 
Honor has been paid to the memory of 
William Wilberforce, whose name will 
ever be associated with the great eman- 
cipation. 

People gaze in wonder at the cruel 
shackles and the whips with which he 
impressed a slow-moving House of Com- 
mons. Especially interesting is his mod- 
el of a ship, showing how the slaves 
were packed in the hold on their voyage 
across the Atlantic. 

Before the trade was stopped, as 
many as 300,000 made that terrible pil- 
grimage in a single year, and it is com- 
puted that during the whole period of 
the traffic, 9,000,000 Africans were thus 
transported, many of them to perish in 
transit. 

The tendency of the strong to exploit 
the weak is perennial. And after all 
these years of abolition, the world is 
awakening to the fact that slavery is 
still among the major evils affecting 
mankind. The League of Nations stands 
pledged against the system, and every 
year a report is issued. 

A hundred years ago, Britain liberat- 
ed 700,000 slaves, paying £20,000,000 
or $100,000,000 to the West Indian 
owners — that is $140.00 per head of the 
"property." In 1862, Lincoln's procla- 
mation transformed 4,000,000 slaves 
into citizens. And in Latin America, the 
Dutch and French Empires, and else- 
where, there have been other emancipa- 
tions. 

Yet the number of slaves still ex- 
ceeds 5,000,000. It is greater than the 
combined numbers set free by Lincoln 
and Wilberforce. In this twentieth cen- 
tury, the slaves held as chattels are as 
many as the soldiers enrolled as con- 
scripts. 

The white man has his faults. But, 
generally speaking, it is not he who to- 
day perpetuates this age-long custom. 
The main trouble is that Africans and 



Asiatics will not cease from enslaving 
one another. The well-advertised prog- 
ress of women is by no means universal. 
There are still multitudes of women 
who, despite all missionary and educa- 
tional effort, may be lent for money or 
handed over in satisfaction of a debt. 

Abyssinia, though a member of the 
League, clings to the custom of slavery. 
Two million of her people are subjected 
to this status. 

Nor is the custom merely domestic. 
The ravages of the trade in flesh and 
blood spread far beyond the Abyssinian 
frontiers. Villages, even in British ter- 
ritory, are raided. Captives are secured 
by chains or forks on the neck, and are 
driven with merciless whip to market 
where the survivors are sold. 

In the endeavor to stop the shipment 
of slaves, Britain has spent £50,000,- 
000 on patrolling the seas. Despite this 
blockade, slaves are smuggled into 
Arabia and are distributed somehow 
along the north coast of Africa. 

Liberia is a republic in which the 
United States has taken a special inter- 
est. It was founded by American Ne- 
groes, and slavery was to be forever un- 
thinkable. 

In Liberia there have been two wide- 
ly condemned abuses. First, the tribes 
have been permitted to hold slaves to 
the number — it is estimated — of 5 00,- 
000. Secondly, the authorities have 
maltreated the tribes. 

The Liberian Government has not 
been content to commandeer forced la- 
bor for work in the country. Natives 
have been transported to the distant 
plantations of the Spanish island, Fer- 
nando Po, and to Gahun in the French 
Kongo. They may be called indentured 
workers. In fact, they are slaves. 

Among European nations, the Portu- 
guese, as upholders of contract labor, 
which is indistinguishable from slavery, 
have won for themselves an unenviable 
preeminence. Under intolerable condi- 
tions, natives have been shipped to the 
coco plantations of Principe and San 
Thome, where the mortality among 
them has been so appalling as to sug- 



THE CART ENTER 



gest that they were not expected to re- 
turn alive. 

In China there is political chaos. It 
has been favorable, at once to a flour- 
ishing traffic in opium and to a tradi- 
tional commerce in children. Millions of 
girls have been sold by their parents at 
a price, and in manufacturing plants, 
juvenile workers are hired at two dol- 
lars a month. In Shanghai, a black- 
smith's shop was discovered in which 
thirty-one boys were confined. They 
were ill-fed and denied sleeping accom- 
modation. If they refused their tasks, 
they were suspended by handcuffs from 
the wall or burned with iron rods. 

In Hongkong the system is known as 
Mui Tsai. No fewer than 10,000 girls 
have been sold there into domestic serv- 
ice or prostitution. The "adoption" of 
children in Ceylon is similar. Without 
remuneration they have to work indoors 
and out of doors. For failing to give 
satisfaction they are flogged, burned, or 
punished by pins driven under their 
finger-nails. One little victim bore the 
marks of thirty-five wounds. 

In Japan, the geisha, acquired by 
some form of purchase from her par- 
ents, is now entitled to claim her lib- 
erty. But it is not easy. 

In Great Britain there is great inter- 
est in the subject of slavery. 

Since the war, about half a million 
slaves within the British sphere of in- 
fluence have gained their rights as free 
men. 

The Maharaja of Nepal has liberated 
53,000 of his people, and in his speech, 
he confessed to precisely the emotions 
which deeply stirred Lincoln: 

"Picture to yourselves a happy slave 
family comprising the husband, the 
wife, a six-year-old daughter and a baby 
boy at the mother's breast. But their 
happiness is not to last; the master has 
sold them. His avarice has blunted all 
the feelings of sympathy in him. The 
mother with the child at her breast goes 
one way, and the father with the daugh- 
ter thrown in as a make-weight goes the 
other, the two perhaps never to meet 
again. Think of the parting scene, di- 
gest it well in your mind, and draw what 
moral you can." 

In Burma, certain British and Indian 
officials gave their lives in order to set 
free 8,000 slaves. 



When Britain took over the mandat- 
ed territory of Tanganyika, there were 
found to be 185,000 slaves. They were 
granted their liberty. 

In Sierra Leone, Britain has been con- 
fronted by the same problem that faced 
the United States before the Civil War. 
A slave ran away. Was he or was he 
not to be returned to his master? 

The court ordered that he be returned 
and, in England, there arose an outcry 
which no Government could resist. It 
was decided that tribal slavery could be 
no longer condoned, and 215,000 slaves 
were set free. 

Despite all talk to the contrary, there 
is a good deal more of slavery in Egypt, 
Tripoli and other North African com- 
munities than appears on the surface. 
Still, the hideous slave-warfare which 
swept over the Sudan is at an end, and 
the system, even in its domestic aspects, 
is less evident. 

A fair conclusion on the matter is 
that wherever the conscience of man- 
kind ceases to be alert, or civilization is 
disorganized by war and revolution, 
slavery in some form or another revives, 
especially in those regions where, ac- 
cording to Rudyard Kipling, "there ain't 
no ten commandments." To quote once 
more the well-worn dictum of John 
Philpot Curran, "eternal vigilance is 
the price of liberty." — (Literary Digest) 



Life of a Union 

The glibness with which certain per- 
sons speak of changing union forms and 
structures indicates that they miss the 
essential character of a union. It is not 
a piece of inanimate steel, like a rail- 
road system which can be pieced out at 
will, routed to different terminals, or 
scrapped at any moment of discourage- 
ment. A union is not merely an organ- 
ization. It is an organism, composed of 
human beinss, subject to their fancies, 
wills, desires and directions — a product 
of years of growth — and not an out- 
right product like a subscribers' list to 
a newspaper. A union is the creation 
of many men, and much deep sacrifice. 
It is founded upon profound convictions, 
seasoned personalities, the moves of a 
nation, and to speak of changing its 
manifestations over night is supercili- 
ous nonsense. Unions can change them- 
selves — as persons can — but slowly, 
gradually, and only after the known 
lines of their own make-up. 



THE CARPENTER 



65 PER CENT NEED REPAIRS! 




ACCORDING to the first 
three city reports of the 
Real Property Inventory 
released respectively on 
April 10, 17 and 25 by 
Washington officials, con- 
siderable activity in home building and 
home repairs will be required at Casper, 
Wyo., Columbia, S. C, and Butte, Mont., 
before these widely separated cities will 
present a normal housing condition. 

A door-to-door canvass of all residen- 
tial structures in these three cities by 
CWA investigators showed 65 per cent 
of the houses in need of repairs — a total 
of 14,041 out of 21,628 — and 790 list- 
ed as "unfit for human habitation," 
amounting to over 3 per cent of the 
total. 

These three cities are the first to be 
reported of more than 6 cities, repre- 
senting every state, which have been 
canvassed in this study by door-to-door 
enumerators working under the direc- 
tion of the Bureau of Foreign and Do- 
mestic Commerce and the Bureau of 
the Census. Detailed statistics have 
been collected concerning the physical 
condition of approximately 2,500,000 
homes which, when classified and re- 
leased, will be of great value to the 
building industry as well as to Congress 
and Administration officials concerned 
with home financing, home building and 
home repairs. 

This is the first time that authentic, 
comprehensive figures have been avail- 
able on existing residences giving their 
state of repair, occupancy, type of con- 
struction and extent of plumbing, heat- 
ing and other home equipment. Indicat- 
ing the Administration's growing deter- 
mination to do something for home 
building, the following - paragraph in 
the Department of Commerce release of 
April 25 concerning Butte, Mont., is 
perhaps significant. "The primary pur- 
pose of the Real Property Inventory is 
the revival and progressive stimula- 
tion of the nation's building industry 
through the collection and dissemina- 
tion of hitherto unavailable data on 
housing conditions, with particular ref- 
erence to obsolescence, disrepair, vacan- 
cies and rentals. The facts are expected 
to prove of great value in gauging sales 
campaigns for repairing, renovizing, re- 
building, modernizing and new build- 
ing." 



Casper, Wyo. 

Out of about 4.270 structures sur- 
veyed in Casper, 2,783, or 65 per cent, 
were found to be in need of repairs of 
some kind, while 262, or 6 per cent, 
were listed as "unfit for human habita- 
tion." Of the 5,600 residential units 
contained in the structures surveyed, 
675 were unoccupied, giving Casper a 
vacancy of 12 per cent. But after mak- 
ing allowances for those unfit for use it 
was estimated that there were about 
400 unoccupied units which were habit- 
able, thus reducing the vacancy ratio to 
7 per cent. 

Over 75 per cent of the residential 
buildings in the city were contructed 
between 1915 and 1925. The extent 
to which the depression has curtailed 
building was demonstrated by the fact 
that only 4 8 houses have been erected 
since the end of 1929. Wood was shown 
to be the predominant material of con- 
struction, with over 82 per cent of the 
residential buildings being of frame con- 
struction. An interesting sidelight on 
the type of building was revealed by the 
fact that almost half of the homes were 
without basements. 

About one-third of Casper's dwelling 
units were owned by their occupants, 
and 60 per cent of these had no mort- 
gages or other liens on them. Less than 
2 per cent of Casper's living quarters 
were classified as over-crowded or great- 
ly over-crowded, while about 8 per 
cent were considered to be adequate or 
more than adequate. Sixty-one families 
were found to have "doubled up." 

The Inventory disclosed that 12 per 
cent of the residential units were with- 
out running water — hot or cold — while 
1,410 units had no private indoor water 
closets and 1,721 had no tubs or show- 
ers, over 25 and 30 per cent, respective- 
ly. Over half of the residences were 
heated by gas, and only 31 dwellings 
were discovered to have no heating ap- 
paratus. 

Columbia., S. C. 

Of approximately 10,000 structures 
surveyed in Columbia, 6,490, or 65 per 
cent, were found to be in need of re- 
pairs of some kind, while 170, or 1.7 
per cent, were listed as "unfit for human 
habitation." In rating the condition of 
structures, the standards of the particu- 
lar locality are considered. 



THE CARPENTER 



Of the 12,188 residential units con- 
tained in the 10,000 structures sur- 
veyed, 631 were found to be vacant, 
giving Columbia a vacancy ratio of 5.2 
per cent. Making allowance for the "un- 
fit," this ratio is reduced to 3.7 per 
cent. The survey shows that 8 23 fam- 
ilies have "doubled up" during the de- 
pression, enough to fill 7 per cent of 
the existing family units or double the 
number found vacant. 

A rating of "crowded" was given 2,- 
948 dwellings in Columbia, 493 over- 
crowded and 128 as greatly over-crowd- 
ed, while 69 per cent of the dwellings 
had adequate or more than adequate 
space for the occupants. 

Residences without heating facilities 
were 25 in number. The use of open 
fireplaces with wood or coal for fuel is 
indicated in the figures of 5,45 8 resi- 



dential units using heating apparatus 
other than furnace or stove. 
Butte, Mont. 

Of approximately 7,358 structures 
surveyed in Butte, 4,768, or 64 per cent, 
were found to be in need of repairs of 
some degree, while 358, or 5 per cent, 
were listed as "unfit for human habita- 
tion." Of the 10,727 residential units 
contained in the 7,358 structures, 1,- 
680 were vacant, giving Butte a vacancy 
ratio of 15 per cent. Making allowance 
for the "unfit" this ratio is reduced to 
12 per cent. As the survey disclosed 
that 498 families have doubled up dur- 
ing the depression, and 1,555 units are 
reported as "crowded" it may be con- 
cluded that with such a ratio of vacancy 
upon a return to normal economy the 
city would find itself in need of new 
building. 



HOUSING INVENTORY UNDER WAY IN NEW JERSEY 




HE aroused national inter- 
est in improved housing 
conditions has taken def- 
inite form in New Jersey 
with the creation of the 
State Housing Authority. 
This body, first of its kind in the state, 
has begun a real-property inventory in 
the congested areas of the larger indus- 
trial cities. 

The Authority is authorized to under- 
take slum clearance, to order low-cost 
housing projects and to receive Federal 
funds for those purposes. Between these 
powers, and the actual razing of old 
dwellings and construction of new ones, 
there is a void which it is the task of 
the Authority to fill, by ingenuity and 
hard work. 

The field personnel for the real-prop- 
erty inventory is being supplied by the 
State Emergency Relief Administration 
from its relief rolls. Administrative ex- 
penses of the inventory are being met 
by the Authority, which has an appro- 
priation of $25,000 from the Legisla- 
ture. Areas to be surveyed are in New- 
ark and Jersey City particularly, and in 
Camden, Atlantic City, Paterson, Pas- 
saic and Elizabeth. A Federal survey 
has already been made in Trenton. 

Whatever the Authority's total ef- 
forts may prove to be, it is certain that 
the inventory will give to New Jersey 
.its first definite picture of substandard 



housing conditions in the factory cen- 
ters of the state. Furthermore, the Au- 
thority fully expects that facts deduced 
from the inventory will constitute a 
powerful weapon in its negotiations to 
obtain financial aid in a campaign for 
public support. 

Even now the Authority represents 
one successful forward step in the bet- 
ter-housing movement. About a year 
ago the New Jersey Housing League was 
formed by some of the state's leading 
professional and business men and wo- 
men and philanthropists. The league is 
largely responsible for the creation of 
the Authority. Stanley S. Holmes, of 
Maplewood, chairman of the Authority, 
is a former president of the league. 

There are two main sources of oppo- 
sition to the better-housing movement. 
One of these exists among the popula- 
tions of affected areas. The reason for it 
is that modern multiple dwellings erect- 
ed by the Authority on a self-supporting, 
self-liquidating basis would rent, it is 
estimated, at rates higher than those 
now paid by families in substandard 
areas. The other opposition comes from 
owners of real property in non-blighted 
areas. They receive rentals somewhat 
higher than those the new propects 
would receive and consequently fear a 
loss of tenants. 

Several years ago the Prudential In- 
surance Co. undertook the erection of 
model apartments in the Ironbound sec- 



THE CARPENTER 



tion of Newark as a housing improve- 
ment venture. The result was that the 
apartments were occupied not by resi- 
dents of the Ironbound section, but by 
families resident in parts of the city 
having higher housing standards. 

Members of the Authority contend 
that improved housing for residents of 



substandard areas will increase their 
earning capacities and that eradication 
of blighted areas in any municipality 
will raise its real estate values as a 
whole. 

The Authority has a non-salaried 
membership of five appointed by the 
Governor. — (New York Times.) 



AUSTRIAN TRADE UNIONISM FORCED TO FIGHT 

FOR LIFE 

(By W. M. Citrine, President, International Federation of Trade Unions) 




HE political reaction which 
has been sweeping over 
Europe during the last 
ten years has achieved its 
climax of horror and 
bloodshed in Austria. It 
has accomplished its destructive pur- 
pose. The great structure of working- 
class organization has been shattered. 

Trade unionists have been shot down 
as if they were wild beasts. Women and 
children have been killed in their homes 
and in the streets by the armed forces 
of the Austrian Government and its 
Heimwher allies. The magnificent build- 
ings in which the workers' families were 
housed, blocks of flats and tenements 
which were literally palaces in compar- 
ison with the housing conditions in most 
other countries, have been bombarded 
by heavy artillery and machine guns. 

Many trade unionists have been sen- 
tenced to long terms of imprisonment, 
some have been flogged, their leaders 
have been executed by hanging. Savage 
punishments, causeless massacres, blud- 
geonings, imprisonment, exile and judi- 
cial murder — the workers, in all coun- 
tries, have suffered these things many 
times in the course of centuries of 
struggle. 

But seldom if ever has there been a 
deliberate, cold-blooded, carefully-engi- 
neered plan of driving the workers to 
active resistance, in order to manufac- 
ture a pretext for destroying their or- 
ganization. Civil war in Austria was the 
inevitable consequence of the policy pur- 
sued by the Government and its Fascist 
allies. It was foreseen, sought and pre- 
pared for, as the calculated sequel of 
that policy. 

Austrian Socialists and trade union- 
ists were maneuvered into the position 



where they had to fight for the rights 
and liberties of the Austrian people or 
see them ignominiously trampled under 
foot. 

The workers were driven to use the 
arms they had for the defense of the 
republic. Their armed resistance, as Otto 
Bauer has said, was provoked from start 
to finish by the Fascists. The bloody cli- 
max of this policy of provocation and 
repression has sent a thrill of horror 
through the world. Multitudes of rea- 
sonable people have realized for the first 
time the gravity of the menace .which 
threatens our civilization by this un- 
leashing of savage political passions. 
The Austrian workers who laid down 
their lives in defense of freedom have 
not died in vain. They have helped to 
bring about a rebirth of freedom. By 
their sacrifices they have given to our 
internally organized movement a renew- 
al of the courage and determination 
which will ensure that government of 
the people by the people shall not per- 
ish from the earth. 



Union Membership in Canada 

The report of the Department of La- 
bor of Canada gives figures for the 
membership of labor organizations in 
the Dominion. These show a member- 
ship of 107,489 in purely Canadian or- 
ganizations and 283,576 in international 
organizations. Only 32,713 belonged to 
organizations not affiliated either with 
the Trades and Labor Congress of Can- 
ada or the American Federation of 
Labor. 



Nothing can take the place of the 
union label. It has borne the test of 
years. It is the only emblem that ab- 
solutely safeguards the workers. 



THE CARPENTER 



RUGGED INDIVIDUALISM vs. 
BARGAINING 

(By A. W. Lehman) 



COLLECTIVE 




UGGED individualism is 
under fire. "It will no 
longer be a factor in 
American life," according 

. to Secretary of the In- 
terior, Harold L. Ickes. 

He tells us that it is the exploitation 
of the weak by the strong; that it is a 
"dog eat dog" policy. And he is right. 

When those early pioneers, now being 
played up to us by the great executives 
of our million dollar corporations, mi- 
grated west they did not go one family 
at a time, or by themselves; they went 
in wagons, or trainloads, composed of 
25, yes, 30 or more families. They did 
not act as individuals, but acted collec- 
tively. They, as history tells us, built 
forts to protect their homes, which were 
located inside of stockades. 

How many remember our rural settle- 
ments where when it came to the build- 
ing of a house it was done collectively. 
Our forefathers plowed and harvested 
their crops together as one great big 
family, so history tells us. Was that 
"rugged individualism"? 

All of our great corporations are not 
owned by one individual; they are 
owned collectively by all the stockhol- 
ders. All of our great corporations have 
combined and, as great financial institu- 
tions, they act collectively. 

Why the hue and cry about the work- 
ing men losing their individuality by 
being given the right to act, or have 
some one act for them collectively? 
What is wrong with "collective bargain- 
ing"? Human nature has inculcated in 
us the desire to have families; to eat 
and clothe ourselves; to live in houses. 
To satisfy these desires we must work 
for ourselves or for others. But work 
we must. Very few of our workingmen 
are so situated financially to bargain 
about the wages, or salary, offered them. 

In 18 80, before the men on the rail- 
roads were organized, it was assumed 
that one mechanic was better than an- 
other. In theory this was correct. That 
one man — professional, business, me- 
chanic or workingman — is better than 
another, is a fine spun theory, but 
mighty poor philosophy. 



The public press in the past few 
months has shown that women and 
girls are forced to work for as little as 
15 cents a week in the sweat shop fac- 
tories of the East, operated by the "fly- 
by-night" kind that fatten on the misery 
of the working people. Just imagine 
women making dresses and children's 
clothing, working long hours, for a pit- 
tance of 15 to 50 cents a week and in 
some instances, being gypped out of 
that, yes, even owing the concern for 
whom they were supposed to be work- 
ing. 

Such conditions should cause the 
world to blush with shame. Conditions 
in our coal fields and our big industrial 
centers are rotten to the core in the 
exploitation of our American women 
and children, as well as men. Condi- 
tions that just cannot be made public, 
because they are so terrible. Yet Amer- 
ica boasts of its great opportunities and 
of its vast resources. 

If the enslavement of human beings 
to a machine is to continue; if we must 
bow before the god of gold instead of 
Christ, then the system we have will 
prevail. 

If "rugged individualism" of the 
type just described is what the great ex- 
ecutives of our rotten American high fi- 
nance, our Chambers of Commerce and 
other so-called leaders of America's in- 
dustrial life would like to bring back, 
epitomized by the great American plan, 
responsible in a large measure for the 
conditions of the past several years, 
should be banished forever, then collec- 
tive bargaining should be substituted in 
its place for the best interests of all 
concerned. 

The past three years have been a 
nightmare — a bad dream that we hoped 
would pass. People have starved to 
death and there is no way of telling how 
many unfortunates have been crucified 
upon the cross of greed. Many have 
committed suicide. Numberless and 
nameless are those who stalk down the 
corridor of time, victims of a system 
that is created for the few money 
barons, exponents of so-called "rugged 
individualism." The coming years will 
reveal the toll exacted of the boys and 



THE CARPENTER 



9 



girls who have been stunted in mind and 
body during these heart-breaking times 
and days of disillusionment. 

This is what our great executives 
want back. Disband your Chambers of 
Commerce, the rotten cesspools of com- 
mercialism, if you please, throw away 
the charters of many of your civic clubs. 
Let's have every man for himself. Let's 



have "rugged individualism"; let's re- 
vert back to the "eye for an eye and a 
tooth for a tooth" age. Let's be individ- 
uals in earnest. Then what would be- 
come of the giant billion dollar corpora- 
tion? What of the Rockefellers, the 
Mellons, the Morgans? Would they con- 
tinue to rule or would chaos ensue? 
These are questions to think about. 



BAN ON COMPANY UNIONS DECREED BY NEW 

YORK CITY 




ERNARD S. DEUTSCH, 
president of the Board of 
Aldermen, anounced that 
company unions will be 
outlawed and collective 
bargaining made manda- 
tory in all franchises issued by the city 
of New York in the future. 

As chairman of the franchise commit- 
tee of the Board of Estimate, he made 
public a new "labor rights" clause 
which is a part of the bus franchise of 
the Avenue B and East Broadway Bus 
Company. 

After its incorporation in the Avenue 
B franchise the city, it was stated, will 
insist on writing it into franchises for 
forty other bus routes which will come 
up for action. 

The new clause not only establishes 
the principle of collective bargaining, 
but gives the Mayor and the Board of 
Estimate the right to intervene if it con- 
siders the questions of hours, wages and 
working conditions unsatisfactory. 

Edward Levinson, labor editor of the 
New York Evening Post, says "the city's 
new labor rights clause is unique among 
franchises issued by municipalities in 
the past." He adds: "It follows the 
principles laid down in Section 7- A of 
the National Recovery Act. 

The text of the clause as obtained 
from the division of franchises of the 
Board of Estimates declares: 



"The company agrees to recognize 
the right of its employes to organize for 
the furtherance of their interests and 
the purposes of collective bargaining, 
and tc recognize and deal with their 
duly chosen representatives at all times 
and for any purposes, whether or not 
such representatives are employes of the 
company. 

"The company agrees further not to 
discriminate against any of its employes 
by reason of their participation in the 
formation of or membership in or ac- 
tivity on behalf of any labor organiza- 
tion or association of employes; not to 
require any employe or any person seek- 
ing employment to join any company- 
controlled union or to refrain from 
joining, organizing or assisting the la- 
bor organization of his own choosing; 
and not to permit the existence of or 
deal with any company-controlled union 
or association, and to that end it agrees 
that it will not participate in, encourage 
or give financial support to the forma- 
tion of any union or association of its 
employes, or participate in the manage- 
ment or control of any such union or 
association after its formation." 

Should this paragraph be violated or 
the city's intervention on questions of 
hours and wages ignored, the clause 
provides that the entire franchise may, 
after due notice and hearings, be re- 
voked. 



STRIKES, AS A LAST RESORT 



HREATENED strikes and 
isolated instances of 
strikes taking place have 
precipitated an abund- 
ance of comment on the 
inadvisability of resorting 
to strikes as a means of securing settle- 
ments of industrial grievances. 




Many hoped the National Industrial 
Recovery Act would put an end to 
strikes and openly criticized this law 
because it did not specifically prohibit 
all strikes during the emergency for 
which it was instituted. 

A large amount of the discussion on 
this subject of prohibiting all strikes is 



10 



TUT] CARPEffTER 



based on the supposition that other 
means are available for settling indus- 
trial disputes, whereas the fact of the 
matter is that in no part of the world, 
have any of these means proved satis- 
factory in all cases. 

There are cases where no alter- 
native remains open to the workers. 
When all other means fail to bring 
about acceptable adjustments of well- 
founded grievances then the strike be- 
comes the last resort, and that is the 
position generally taken by the most 
advanced students of this question, both 
in and out of organized labor circles. 

Fundamentally, the right to strike is 
the difference between freeman and 
slaves. It is nothing more nor less than 
the right to quit work when employment 
relations become so intolerable that idle- 
ness for a time is preferable to continu- 
ing working on such unacceptable con- 
ditions. Any other fundamental law, 
which would prohibit any worker from 
quitting employment would be tanta- 
mount to involuntary servitude or out- 
right slavery over which issue a Civil 



War was fought in the United States, 
which ended in the abolition of slavery. 

Guaranteeing anything by law does 
not necessarily secure observance of 
what is guaranteed, as was so painfully 
demonstrated during the fourteen years 
the United^ States was under prohibition 
with the 18th amendment to guarantee 
its observance. 

It is this identical element, which en- 
ters in connection with the enforcement 
of both our state and national recovery 
acts. To ask labor to observe it to the 
last detail in industries where the em- 
ployers point blank ignore its labor pro- 
visions is not only unfair but the very 
essence of injustice. 

The right to strike should not be 
taken from labor under any circum- 
stances, because the moment this is 
done those employers who are always 
looking for an opening to increase the 
percentage they wring from labor are 
ready, like a pack of wolves, to move 
in on labor to take advantage of their 
inability to quit working. 



WHO ARE CHISELERS— AND WHY? 




MPLOYERS of labor who 
have signified approval of 
the code for their partic- 
ular industry have reason 
to anticipate sharing in 
the benefits and safe- 
guards that code places about the busi- 
ness in which they are engaged. 

Affixing signature to the code signi- 
fies acceptance of all its provisions and 
agreement to live up to all its rules and 
provisions. 

If this formality was performed in 
good faith, all signatories are entitled 
to protection from competitors who ap- 
proved the document with "tongue in 
cheek." 

One of the provisions of all codes is 
designed to curb the activities of price- 
cutters — employers who shave legiti- 
mate costs of production by devious 
means to enable them to underbid com- 
petitors. 

Concerns employing underpaid, com- 
pany-controlled labor are responsible 
for the existence of price-cutters. Bona 
fide labor union members remove the 
greatest field of price-cutting from the 
realm of sharp business practices and 
industrial suicide. 



An agreement between an employer 
and union workers automatically creates 
policing machinery that compels the 
conduct of an efficient business system 
and abolishes the most of the chiseling. 

Union workers will never be parties 
to evasions of existing agreements or 
contracts. Thus is halted any urge to 
take unfair advantage of competitors 
which may develop. 

The day when all who toil are mem- 
bers of legitimate labor unions will 
mark the extinction of chiselers in in- 
dustry. The opportunity no longer will 
exist. 

Does it not appear strange that 
chambers of commerce and manufac- 
turers' associations which clamor loud- 
est and longest against the insidious 
practice of price-cutting should be so 
strongly in opposition to the organiza- 
tion of their employes into bona fide 
labor unions? 

Would it not show greater intelli- 
gence and prove more effective if such 
associations and their paid lobbyists di- 
rected their energies toward the forma- 
tion of bona fide labor unions for em- 
ployes? 

"Open-shop" establishments are un- 



THE CARPENTER 



11 



doubtedly addicted to the practice of 
price-cutting. Union men and women do 
not work overtime on straight pay and 
can not be intimidated in doing that 
which they know is contrary to union 
principles. Chiseling has no part in the 
operation of a union concern, either in 
the front office or the workroom. 

It is apparent that chambers of com- 
merce and manufacturers' associations 
oppose organization of bona fide labor 



unions to evade, under pretense, the ne- 
cessity of conducting their business on a 
plane of economic fairness rather than 
because of the boasted "industrial inde- 
pendence" they have set up as a shrine 
at which to worship. They seek unfair 
advantage under a cloak of deception. 

It is a two-faced employer who de- 
nounces chiseling while at the same 
time loudly upholds his own privilege or 
license to engage in chiseling. 



THE MAL-DISTRIBUTION 

(By H. H. Siegele) 




HE needs of humanity," 
the philosopher re- 
marked, "can not be 
supplied through a pol- 
icy of destruction and 
charity, but rather, we 
need a system of distribution that will, 
at the minimum, supply first the living 
needs of all; and then, if there is any- 
thing left, store the left-over away for 
future distribution. Destroying necessi- 
ties of life under any conditions, is fun- 
damentally wrong, and it becomes a 
crime against humanity, when it is done 
in the face of even one soul, who is suf- 
fering for want of it." 

The philosopher had little sympathy 
with the cry of over-production, when 
the whole thing was purely a matter of 
mal-distribution. 

"If every American man, woman and 
child were fed, clothed and sheltered," 
the philosopher continued, "according 
to the American standard of living, 
there would be no overproduction, there 
would be no depression, there would be 
no crippled systems of transportation. 
We would be in the midst of a perma- 
nent prosperity. But while we have 
plenty of everything, people are starv- 
ing, going in rags and many are practic- 
ally without decent shelter. It doesn't 
matter whether we are on the gold 
standard, the silver standard or on a 
fluctuating currency, if a man doesn't 
have that something called money or its 
equivalent, if he obeys the laws of the 
land, he will have to starve to death or 
depend on charity to supply his needs. 
The different monetary standards make 
little difference when it comes to actu- 
ally supplying the needs of humanity. 
Each standard represents a group of 
individuals, who will be favored, if their 
choice of standard is put into operation. 



Under the gold standard, the man who 
has the gold is the lucky fellow. The 
supply of gold being limited, makes it 
possible for the possessor of gold to 
control to a greater or to a lesser ex- 
tent distribution of wealth. It is com- 
paratively an easy matter for the gold 
horder to lock his gold in a vault, thus 
throwing the proverbial monkeywrench 
into our economic system, causing un- 
told suffering and privation. Men, wo- 
men and children can starve, while he 
goes about well-fed with an air of great 
superiority, carrying the key to the 
gold supply safely in his pocket. To him 
there is only one safe system, not only 
of distribution, but of government as 
well, and that is the system which meas- 
ures everything from material things 
up to the most abstract spiritual ele- 
ments by that never-failing standard of 
gold. Suffering, even though it is direct- 
ly caused by the gold horder, is never- 
theless an inevitable visitation from 
Providence. The sufferer, it will be 
pointed out by implication or otherwise, 
was the author of his own doom, by 
somewhere along the line disobeying the 

laws of G , I beg your pardon — gold. 

It is an easy matter to blame the deity 
for bringing on suffering, when we are 
trying to protect and defend a system 
which paraphrases the practice of the 
golden rule so that it will read, 'Do the 
other fellow, and do him every time.' 
The Carpenter of Nazareth did not ex- 
press it that way. He put it so it meant 
positive helpfulness. 'Do unto others as 
you would have them do unto you,' is 
not a gold standard rule, neither is it a 
silver standard expression, nor a cur- 
rency standard, inflated or otherwise. 
The golden rule is expressive of a broth- 
erhood standard; in other words, it im- 
plies all the principles of the labor 



12 



THE CARPENTER 



standard, which is the only just stand- 
ard of values. The labor standard, if 
put into operation, will put distribution 
of wealth on a basis of need, rather than 
on a basis of greed. It will mean that 
wealth will be measured by labor units 
that have in reality been performed by 
the possessor. The wealthiest man then 
will be the man who has performed the 
greatest amount of labor. When that 
times comes our system of distribution 
will be a labor system of distribution. 
The man who works, his needs will be 
supplied, but the man who does not 
work, if he is able-bodied, will be treat- 
ed as a criminal, and rightly so." 

Here the philosopher paused. By a 
leap of the imagination, he had been 
carried several generations into the fut- 
ure. For the immediate present, the la- 
bor standard was out of the question; 
of that he was well aware, consequently 
the monetary system of distribution 
would still have to be depended upon 
to supply the needs of men and women 
and children. Something, though, could 
be done to bring about a more nearly 
equal distribution of the good things of 
life. Laws, inadequate as laws are, could 
be made to help out the situation, and 
means could be provided for the en- 
forcement of such laws. Enormous pro- 
fits could be checked by the government, 
by heavy fhcome and inheritance taxes, 
the proceeds of which to be used for 
supplying the needs of those who by 
reason of unemployment are suffering 
with their dependents. In short, unem- 
ployment insurance, old age pension and 
disability benefits could easily bridge 
over the gap between our present mone- 
tary system of distribution, and the 
coming system of distribution under a 
labor standard of values. 

"There were times when the mone- 
tary system of distribution worked at 
best, 'fairly well,' " the philosopher be- 
gan again, "In those times, when a man 
found that he needed something, he 
could find a job somewhere and earn 
enough money to buy the things he 
needed. The man who owned the wealth 
paid him wages, and he in turn bought 
supplies to satisfy his needs; thus the 
money circulated, passing from one to 
the other, over and over. That is the 
theory the monetary system of distribu- 
tion is based upon; and when there was 
enough work to make it possible for a 
man to get a job when he needed money, 
the theory worked fairly well. But the 



panic of plenty, that had its advent in 
the fall of 1929, by reason of machine 
efficiency, changed the working of that 
theory from 'fairly well,' to 'worse and 
worse.' During that panic, so far as 
the jobless were concerned, the system 
worked something like this: The man 
who owned the wealth bought improved 
machinery to do his work, in order to 
save for himself the wages he formerly 
paid to the man in need, so the money 
kept going around and around in a cir- 
cle, but the man of wealth seldom lost 
control of it. And what about the man 
in need? Well, he simply found himself 
more and more in need, ate himself out 
of house and home, and then, if he 
didn't want to take charity, he could 
starve or steal. For him it merely was 
a problem of choosing one of three evils. 
"Anybody with just normal intelli- 
gence, if he analyzes the present situa- 
tion, must come to the conclusion that 
our present monetary system of distri- 
bution, whether on the gold standard or 
not, is functioning only in spots, and is 
a worn-out system; that we are fast 
coming to the place where a new and 
better system must be set up; one that 
will distribute to all a living minimum, 
and will render impossible the accumu- 
lation of fortunes beyond the point of 
adequately supplying life-time needs." 



Skill 

Skill is probably the most precious 
asset industrial America has. It makes 
little difference whether this paramount 
possession be fully appreciated or not, 
it is a fact that our industrial pre- 
eminence rests upon the varied, re- 
sourceful skill of American workmen. 

Anyone who has followed Russia's re- 
cent development knows that that na- 
tion suffers not from a lack of engineer- 
ing brains, but from a lack of crafts- 
manship and technical skill among peas- 
ants turned factory workers. You can't 
make a craftsman over night, and you 
can't produce that mysterious but potent 
force known as craft-consciousness in a 
decade. American mechanical genius is 
the product of generations of develop- 
ment. 

This being true, skill should be rec- 
ognized and rewarded like any other 
exceptional attainment. It should not 
be treated as a publicized pretense with- 
out value to the nation as a whole, and 
skill should not be glided over as an 
ordinary value easily acquired. 



Editorial 




THE CARPENTER 

Official Journal of 

THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD OF 

CARPENTERS AND JOINERS 

OF AMERICA 

Published on the 15th of each month at the 

CARPENTERS' BUILDING 

Indianapolis, Ind. 

UNITED BROTHERHOOD OF 

CARPENTERS AND JOINERS OF AMERICA, 

Publishers 

FRANK DUFFY, Editor 

Subscription Phicb 
One Dollar a Year In Advance, Postpaid 

The publishers and the advertising 
agent use every possible precaution avails 
able to them against accepting advertise* 
ments from other than reliable firms, but 
do not accept any responsibility for the 
contents of any advertisement which ap- 
pears in "The Carpenter." Should any 
deception be practiced by advertisers at 
any time, upon members, their duty is to 
immediately notify the Post Office au= 
fhorities. Therefore, address any com- 
plaints to your local Post Office. 

INDIANAPOLIS, JULY, 1934 

A Graceful Celebration of Peace 

ONE of the few "international inci- 
dents" which please everybody — 
except munitions makers — will be 
formally concluded on July 4, at Tor- 
onto, Canada. It began at the same place 
123 years ago. 

At the time of the War of 1812, the 
Canadian part of the St. Lawrence Val- 
ley was divided into provinces; Lower 
Canada, corresponding roughly to Que- 
bec, and Upper Canada, the predecessor 
to Ontario. Where Toronto stands now 
was the settlement of York, and near it 
was Fort York. 

An American force crossed the border 
in 1813 and captured Fort York. The 
Yankee general, Zebulon Pike, after 
whom Pike's Peak was named, was 



killed in the attack; but the victors, 
when they turned homeward, carried 
away a royal British standard and the 
official mace of Upper Canada. The mace 
was sent to the Naval Academy at An- 
napolis. 

With money raised by American wo- 
men now living in Canada, a monument 
has been erected to General Pike at the 
site of the old fort, now turned to a 
park, and will be unveiled July 4. A 
few Canadians grumbled a little at the 
proposal to build on Canadian soil a 
monument to a Yankee invader; but the 
majority agreed with good grace. Then 
President Roosevelt suggested to Con- 
gress that the mace be sent back to 
Canada as a courteous return for Can- 
ada's favor in sanctioning the monu- 
ment. This will be done. 

When two nations make up their 
minds in good faith to keep peace with 
each other, they can do it. There were 
plenty of grudges between Canada and 
the United States when peace came in 
1814, but they were not allowed to 
shape national policy. The two coun- 
tries determined to have peace, and 
they have had it. On 4,0 miles of 
international boundary, there is not a 
fort or a soldier, and not a warship on 
the Great Lakes. What an example for 
a war-plagued world! 



Power of "Pitiless Publicity" 

GOVENOR H. H. Lehman has won 
a sweeping victory for the people 
of New York. The legislature has 
enacted all the utility laws which he 
proposed. These laws break the shackles 
which have hampered municipalities in 
seeking public ownership, permit cities 
to sell current outside their own limits, 
put utility holding companies under con- 
trol of the Public Service Commission, 
and do other things which the Power 
Trust hates and the people welcome. 

It would be difficult to praise Gover- 
nor Lehman too highly for the vision 
and courage which he displayed in this 
matter. But one does not get its full 
meaning until he realizes that it was 
won by the power of "pitiless publicity," 



14 



THE CARPENTER 



and that the charge which broke the 
ranks of the Power Trust lobby was 
made possible by a man now dead. Sena- 
tor Thomas J. Walsh of Montana. 

Lehman was fighting with his back to 
the wall, and two of his bills had been 
rejected by one house of the legislature, 
when a bookkeeper took the stand be- 
fore the Federal Trade Commission in 
Washington, and told how W. T. Thayer, 
state senator of New York, had made a 
regular business of killing in committee 
bills which the trust did not like. He 
had names and dates; and above all, he 
had Thayer's letters. With that evidence 
the lobby was routed, and Lehman 
pushed his bills through. 

Seven years ago, Senator "Tom" 
Walsh of Montana introduced his reso- 
lution for a Senate investigation of the 
propaganda and financial setup of elec- 
tric utilities. The Power Trust massed 
the most expensive lobby ever seen 
in Washington up to that time, and 
thought, for a moment, it had won. The 
investigation was handed over to the 
Federal Trade Commission, in the full 
expectation that it would end in a 
"whitewash," but it didn't. 

That investigation broke the Power 
Trust lobby in Albany; and Walsh cre- 
ated the investigation, though he did 
not conduct it. In the Spanish legend, 
the Cid won battles after he was dead; 
and sometimes, legend comes true. 



Unionism Is Strength 

THE necessity of the workers organ- 
izing in strong bona fide unions 
to secure without question the 
right of collective bargaining guaran- 
teed to them by the labor section of the 
National Industrial Recovery Act is well 
illustrated by two recent decisions of 
the Petroleum Labor Policy Board. 

Seventy employes of the Col-Tex Re- 
fining Company, Colorado, Texas, filed 
a petition with the Board requesting 
that an election be held to choose by 
secret ballot representatives for collec- 
tive bargaining. 

An investigation by Joseph S. Myers 
of the U. S. Department of Labor indi- 
cated that a large number of the em- 
ployes belonged to the local union of 
the International Association of Oil 
Field, Gas Well and Refinery Workers 
of America. To put the facts on an in- 
controvertible basis, Mr. Myers, with the 



consent of both the company and the un- 
ion, suggested that in lieu of an election 
the union's membership list be checked 
against the company's payroll. The 
check showed that 85 out of the 106 
employes were union members and de- 
sired to have the union as their collec- 
tive bargaining agency. 

On receiving Mr. Myers' report the 
Labor Policy Board declared: 

"On the basis of this report and 
in accordance with the decisions 
approved by the Petroleum Admin- 
istrator, the Petroleum Labor Pol- 
icy Board certifies that a majority 
in excess of 94 per cent of the em- 
ployes of the Col-Tex Refining Com- 
pany at Colorado, Texas, have duly* 
chosen as their accredited represen- 
tative for collective bargaining Lo- 
cal Union No. 26 of the Interna- 
tional Association of Oil Field, 
Gas Well and Refinery Workers of 
America as authorized by Section 
7a of the National Industrial Re- 
covery Act and Article II, Section 
7 of the Code of Fair Competition 
for the Petroleum Industry." 

In the case of the Empire Oil and Re- 
fining Company, East Chicago, Ind., a, 
check of the list of union members 
against the company payroll showed 
that 316 employes out of 327 were on 
the union list. Without the formality of 
an election the Labor Policy Board 
thereupon declared that "a majority in 
excess of 9 6 per cent" of the employes 
of the company had chosen the Local 
Union of the International Association 
of Oil Field, Gas Well and Refinery 
Workers of America as "their accredit- 
ed representative for collective bargain- 
ing." 

These two instances are striking 
proofs of the American Federation of 
Labor's persistent slogan that only 
through strong unions can working men 
and women safeguard their rights. 

In both cases it was the large percen- 
tage of the employes enrolled in the 
union which presented indisputable evi- 
dence that the formality of an election 
was not necessary to determine whom 
the workers desired to represent them in 
negotiating agreements with the em- 
ployers. 



"Our greatest glory consists not in 
never falling but in rising every time 
we fall." — Goldsmith. 



THE CARPENTER 



15 



Mean Racket Under Fire 

THE senate labor committee struck 
a blow at one of the meanest 
rackets in existence, by voting 
for a nation-wide investigation of wage 
conditions under federal contracts. 

The proposed investigation is aimed 
primarily at the "kick-back racket," by 
which workers are forced to give up 
part of their wages to grafting contrac- 
tors as a condition of getting and hold- 
ing a job. 

Confronted with indisputable testi- 
mony regarding the prevalence of this 
abuse, the Senate Committee on Labor 
and Education requested authority to 
conduct an investigation of wages and 
wage-payment practices on all Federal 
projects. The probe will undoubtedly 
reveal that Government contractors all 
over the country have unlawfully taken 
hundreds of thousands of dollars from 
the workers as the price of the jobs 
which they had to have in order to pro- 
vide a living for themselves and their 
families. 

The investigation should be promptly 
made, and the necessary agencies* of the 
Government mobilized to compel these 
grafters on the workers wages to re- 
store to the persons whose rights have 
been outraged every dollar taken by the 
"kick back," and impose penalties suit- 
able to so vicious a practice. 



Firetrap Tenement Indicted Again 

TWO million people in New York 
City are housed in firetraps. 
Forty-four persons have been 
burned to death in these tenements dur- 
ing the present year, and since 1901, 
there have been 1,422 of these sacrifices 
to the fire demon in New York City. 

The Emergency Committee for Tene- 
ment Safety gives these facts, and 
others as sickening. It declares that 9 
per cent of the 67,000 tenements in New 
York are, truly and literally, firetraps; 
and denounces the argument that noth- 
ing can be done because the landlords 
cannot afford to install better protec- 
tion. 

The committee is right a thousand 
times; but the economic and constitu- 
tional barrier is there, none the less. 
Labor repeats what it has said before, 
that exorbitant land values are the key 
to the slum question; that the slum, 
with its disease and crime and burnt 
offerings of human flesh, cannot be 



wiped out until some way is found to 
get city land for housing projects at a 
reasonable price. 

Denunciation of greed is good; but a 
way to circumvent greed would be bet- 
ter. The Emergency Committee may re- 
lieve the situation, and that is well 
worth while; but with the courts pro- 
tecting the "constitutional right" of the 
landlord to make money out of human 
danger and misery, a cure has yet to be 
found. 



Billion Dollars — Million Jobs 

IT IS estimated that there is in this 
country $1,000,000,000 of idle 
capital which would normally -be 
used in the mortgage market for resi- 
dential building. 

If present efforts loosen these funds 
and bring building back near normal, 
close to a million men will find jobs. 
They will have regular incomes. They 
will have money to spend for necessities 
and luxuries — and that money will go 
through a thousand and one industries, 
buying materials and supplies and serv- 
ices, paying taxes and interest, creating 
more jobs and building up payrolls for 
all types of workers. 

That is what construction revival 
means for the country generally. Build- 
ing costs have been rising slowly, but 
steadily, since the low reached last sum- 
mer. They are still far below normal— 
as a matter of fact, costs of most mate- 
rials used in building have lagged be- 
hind the general commodity price ad- 
vance. That means that the millions of 
citizens who have money with which to 
build and repair now — can still get a 
whole lot more than a dollar's worth 
for every dollar spent. And that condi- 
tion isn't going to last much longer, un- 
less the present signs point the wrong 
way. 

Build now, renovize now, repair now. 



Educated and Learned 

Tu be educated is only to have 
been led out of the darkness of ignor- 
ance into the light of understanding. 
To be learned means that one has 
searched among the world's treasures 
and possessed one's self of many. To 
be educated is the result of a more or 
less perfunctory act. To be learned is 
a state of mind and spirit purpose- 
fully attained. 



Official Information 




GENERAL OFFICERS 
Of 

THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD 
Of 

CARPENTERS AND JOINERS 
OF AMERICA 

General Office 
Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General President 

WM. L. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



First General Vice-President 

GEORGE H. LAKEY 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Second General Vice-President 

JAMES M. GAULD 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Secretary 

FRANK DUFFY 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Treasurer 

THOMAS NEALE 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Executive Board 
First District, T. M. GUERIN 
290 Second Ave., Troy, N. Y. 



Second District, W. T. ALLEN 
3832 N. Gratz St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



Third District, HARRY SCHWARZER 
10522 Parkhurst Drive, Cleveland, O. 



Fourth District, JAS. L. BRADFORD 
1900 15th Ave., N., Nashville, Tenn. 



Fifth District, J. W. WILLIAMS 
3948 S. Grand Blvd., St. Louis, Mo. 



Sixth District, A. W. MUIR 
200 Guerrero St., San Francisco, Cal. 



Seventh District, ARTHUR MARTEL 
6375 Chambord St., Montreal, Que., Can. 



WM. L. HUTCHESON, Chairman 
FRANK DUFFY, Secretary 



NOTICE TO RECORDING 
SECRETARIES 

The quarterly circular for the months 
of July, August and September, contain- 
ing the quarterly password, has been 
forwarded to all Local Unions of the 
United Brotherhood. Six blanks have 
been forwarded for the Financial Secre- 
tary, three of which are to be used for 
the reports to the General Office for the 
months of July, August and September; 
the extra ones are to be filled out in 
duplicate and kept on file for future ref- 
erence. Enclosed also were six blanks 
for the Treasurer to be used in transmit- 
ting money to the General Office. 

Recording Secretaries not in receipt 
of this circular should immediately no- 
tify Frank Duffy, Carpenters' Building, 
Indianapolis, Indiana. 



All correspondence for the General Executive 
Board must be sent to the General Secretary. 



Contractors Must File Names of Sub- 
Contractors on PWA Projects 

The following order has been sent by 
the Federal Administration of Public 
Works to all Federal Departments and 
Construction Agencies, including the 
State Engineers (PWA): 

"In order to minimize a rather com- 
mon practice of sub-contract shopping 
on the part of contractors after the 
opening of bids, the following provision 
shall be inserted in all calls for bids and 
bid proposals on Federal Public Works 
projects: 

" 'Every contractor who bids upon a 
project financed in whole or in part by 
funds from the Public Works Adminis- 
tration shall submit in a sealed envel- 
ope with his bid to the contracting offi- 
cer the names of all sub-contractors and 
their bids upon which his bid is based. 
The sealed envelope so submitted shall 
have on it the name of the contractor 
with the words "Bids of Sub-Contrac- 
tors." Such submission shall be deemed 
to constitute an acceptance by the con- 
tractor, if awarded the contract, of the 
bid of each sub-contractor. Any altera- 
tion therein, after the award of the con- 
tract, shall be subject to the approval 
of contracting officer of the Federal De- 
partment or Agency concerned.' " 



THE CARPENTER 



17 



Secretary Morrison Cites Growth of A. 
P. of L. 

Since July 3, 1933, the American Fed- 
eration of Labor has chartered 1,368 
Federal Labor Unions, Secretary Frank 
Morrison reported to the Spring meet- 
ing of the A. F. of L. Executive Council 
in Washington. 

These unions, which are directly af- 
filiated with the Federation, have a po- 
tential membership of 500,000. 

Mr. Morrison explained that this 
growth in A. F. of L. membership was 
not limited to the Federal Unions, but 
that there had been large increases 
among the 108 national and interna- 
tional unions comprising the Federa- 
tion. The report will not be ready be- 
fore August 31. 

Mr. Morrison declared that "the spirit 
of organization was never better." 

"The organization campaign of 1901 
to 1904 added 800,000 members to the 
Federation," he continued. "Between 
1916 and 1920 the Federation added 2,- 
000,000 to its rolls. There is every in- 
dication that the campaign now under 
way will exceed the increase of 1916 to 
1920." 

Mr. Morrison recalled that the 1901- 
1904 organization campaign had added 
many Federal Unions to the Federation 
and that out of these, 10 international 
unions were formed. He predicted that 
another crop of international unions 
would arise out of the new local unions. 



Local Unions Chartered 

Carlsbad, N. Mex. 
Atlanta, Ga. 
Fort Peck Dam, Mont. 
Spokane, Wash. 
Nevada, Mo. 
Griffin, Ga. 
Gulfport, Miss. 
Augusta, Ga. 

Deer Park, Wash. 

• 

Reward Offered 

Brother Herman Stoltz, of Jane, Mis- 
souri, a member of Local Union 1898, 
Girard, Kansas, lost his suit case on 
May 18 between Springdale and Fayette- 
ville, Arkansas, which contained cloth- 
ing, carpenters' tools, letters and his due 
book. A reward is offered by Brother 
Stoltz for their return. 



Public Service Decree Conferred Upon 
President Green 

In the presence of a notable assem- 
blage in the City Auditorium of Atlanta, 
Georgia, Dr. Thornwell Jacobs, presi- 
dent of Oglethorpe University, con- 
ferred the degree of Doctor of Public 
Service upon William Green, president 
of the American Federation of Labor, 
in acknowledgment of his meritorious 
work in this field. 

On receiving the degree from Presi- 
dent Jacobs, Mr. Green said: 

"You have conferred a very great 
honor upon me and I accept it with feel- 
ings of sincere appreciation. Only one 
whose lot in life was cast as mine has 
been can truly comprehend its complete 
meaning and deep significance to me. I 
assure you that I shall always treasure 
within my memory fondest recollections 
of the happy experiences of yesterday 
and today." 



Shipyard Employes Win Strike For 
Higher Pay 

By a unanimous vote 3,300 employes 
of the New York Shipbuilding Company, 
Camden, N. J., on strike since March 27, 
decided to return to work according to 
an agreement with the company which 
gives them hourly wage increases aggre- 
gating 14.6 per cent. The strikers orig- 
inally demanded a 37% per cent hourly 
wage increase and the. company's first 
offer was a 10 per cent rise. 

Under other terms of the settlement, 
a basis is established for adjusting fut- 
ure complaints, no discrimination is to 
be shown for any cause, former em- 
ployes are to receive preference in re- 
hiring and the work week will be raised 
from thirty-two to thirty-six hours. 

The wage increases agreed upon were 
10 per cent flat, but re-classifications 
will bring a total increase of 14.6 per 
cent. Skilled mechanics will get the 
highest rate of increases, amounting to 
16.5 per cent, bringing the hourly scale 
for 1,300 to 70 to 83 cents from the old 
rate of 61 to 75 cents. 



Union Labels 

The capitalist never overlooks any- 
thing or means to protect, advance, and 
build up his capital. Labor sometimes 
forgets, or carelessly neglects, one force- 
ful means of building up and strength- 
ening the Union. 



THE CARPENTER 



About fifty-eight National Unions 
have Union Labels. If one-half of the 
membership would stop forgetting long 
enough to remember that there is such 
a thing as the Union Label and demand 
it on everything bought, the membership 
of the Unions would quickly double. 

The Label is a great organization 
help. Ask for it. Do your part. 



Organize Spending In Addition To 
Working 

A union dollar should be a union dol- 
lar as long as it remains in the hands of 
a union member. That is, union wages 
should be used to buy only products and 
services created under union conditions. 
Union wages are the product of organ- 
ization, planning, and struggle. They 
represent an ideal which a group of per- 
sons believed in enough to commit them- 
selves to the cause. The men and wo- 
men who belong to a union for the pur- 
pose of getting better terms and condi- 
tions for themselves will easily appreci- 
ate that they can help workers in other 
industries by making sure that the 
things they buy are also union made. 
Spending of one worker has direct 
bearing on the earnings of another 
worker. It is in appreciation of this in- 
terrelation between earning and spend- 
ing that many union organizations have 
the union label to designate their 
products for the convenience of fellow 
trade-unionists and their friends. 

Wage-earners constitute so large a 
percentage of buyers in the retail stores 
that if they mobilized for patronage of 
union-made products retail merchants 
would be forced to carry large stocks 
of union products. Mobilization of wage- 
earners in the consumer field would 
make unnecessary many struggles in the 
production end. Organization of spend- 
ing of union wages as well as work re- 
lations and the earning of union wages 
would place an enormous economic pow- 
er behind higher economic standards 
for all. 

Every wage-earner is urged to do his 
utmost to put consumer buying behind 
union work standards. Wives and fam- 
ilies of wage-earners should join with 
the labor movement in support of the 
cause of wage-earner betterment. 



Nearly everything in the modern 
household is controlled by switches ex- 
cept the children. 



W. B. Wilson, Former Secretary of 
Labor Dies 

William B. Wilson, first Secretary of 
Labor and former secretary-treasurer of 
the United Mine Workers, passed away 
aboard a train en route from Miami, 
Florida, to Washington, D. O, on Fri- 
day, May 25, 1934. At the time of his 
death his daughter was with him. Al- 
though his friends knew he had been 
ill for a number of months, his passing 
at the time was unexpected. 

On the arrival of the train in Wash- 
ington the remains were taken to the. 
W. W. Chambers Funeral Home, where 
the kindly features of the veteran labor 
leader rested in state during Sunday, 
and were viewed by persons prominent 
in public and private life, including 
many trade union officers and members. 
Sunday evening the body was taken to 
Mr. Wilson's home in Blossburg, Pa., 
for the funeral service. 

Mr. Wilson was elected to the Federal 
House of Representatives from the Fif- 
teenth Pennsylvania district in 1906, 
and served continuously in that body 
until March 3, 1913, when he was ap- 
pointed first Secretary of the Depart- 
ment of Labor by President Wilson and 
administered that office until March 5, 
1921. 

As chairman of the Labor Committee 
of the House of Representatives during 
the sixty-second Congress he was large- 
ly responsible for the establishment of 
the Department of Labor, the Children's 
Bureau and the Bureau of Mines. 

Mr. Wilson and former Senator Page 
of Vermont were the joint authors of 
the bill providing for Federal assistance 
to vocational education. He served as 
a member of the Federal Board for Vo- 
cational Education from 1914 to 1921, 
being chairman of the board in 192 
and 1921. 

During the World War Mr. Wilson 
was in charge of matters affecting labor 
and was appointed a member of the 
Council of National Defense in 1916. 

After his retirement from public office 
in 19 21 he continued to take deep inter- 
est in the mine workers, acting as arbi- 
trator in the Illinois mine fields for sev- 
eral years. 

Mr. Wilson was born in Blantyre, 
Scotland, in 18 6 2, and emigrated to the 
United States with his parents, who 
settled in Arnot, Tioga County, Pennsyl- 
vania, in 1870. 



THE CARPENTER 



19 



He received his education in the pub- 
lic schools of Pennsylvania and com- 
menced working in the mines at Arnot 
in 1871. Two years later he joined the 
Miners' and Laborers' Benevolent Asso- 
ciation. In 1877, when but sixteen years 
of age, he was elected Secretary of the 
Miners Union at Arnot. He joined the 
Knights of Labor in 1879, the early 
unions of coal miners being assemblies 
of that organization. He was i. delegate 
to the joint convention held in Colum- 
bus, Ohio, in 1890, which merged 
the National Trades Assembly of the 
Knights of Labor and the National Pro- 
gressive Union into the United Mine 
Workers of America. 

In 1900, Mr. Wilson was chosen by 
John Mitchell, President of the United 
Mine Workers, as secretary-treasurer to 
fill a vacancy which occurred in that 
office and was elected to succeed him- 
self by every convention from 19 00 to 
1908. 



publication of the United Garment 
Workers. 

Mr. Wines is survived by his widow 
and a son, Wilbur Wines. 



Garment Workers' Official Dies 

Jacob L. Wines, general secretary- 
treasurer of the United Garment Work- 
ers of America, died at his home, Elm- 
hurst Park, L. I., 'on June 3, 1934, at 
the age of 49. He succumbed to an at- 
tack of pneumonia which he contracted 
a few days before the end came. 

Mr. Wines was appointed general or- 
ganizer of the United Garment Workers 
of America in 1915, and during the next 
seven years he traveled extensively in 
all parts of the United States in the 
interests of that organization. 

He was born in St. Joseph, Mo. In 
1901 he became a garment cutter and 
joined the organization of his trade in 
that city. His first official position was 
that of secretary of the Missouri State 
Federation of Labor. He held that post 
until 1915, when he was appointed gen- 
eral organizer of the United Garment 
Workers. 

Mr. Wines was elected to the general 
executive board of that organization in 
1922, and since 1928 he had been gen- 
eral secretary-treasurer. For many years 
he was a delegate to the annual conven- 
tions of the American Federation of 
Labor, where he performed valuable 
committee work. 

He was an associate editor of The 
Garment Worker, the weekly official 



President of Local Union 62, and Wife, 
Meet Tragic Death 

P. L. Anderson, president of Local 
Union 62 of Chicago, Illinois, and his 
wife died early Friday morning May 11, 
1934, while asleep in their home, having 
been suffocated by smoke coming from 
fire in a vacant bungalow adjoining the 
apartment where they lived. 

Brother Anderson attended the Coun- 
cil meeting Thursday evening, May 10, 
and was in his usual happy mood when 
he left for home, and only a few hours 
later he and his wife were overcome by 
smoke while asleep. 

Brother Anderson was born in the 
city of Stockholm, Sweden, July 20, 
1865, and joined Local Union No. 62, 
March 5, 1901. He, was for many years 
a delegate to the Chicago District Coun- 
cil, was president of Local Union 6 2, 
and was instrumental to a great degree 
in keeping up the high standard of 
trade unionism this Local Union is 
known to possess. 

Interment took place at Oak Hill 
Cemetery on May 14, and was attended 
by a large number of the members of 
the Local Union and friends. 



Prominent Member of Local 132, Dies 

Ludwig Luebkert, one of the most 
widely known members of our organiza- 
tion in the District of Columbia, for a 
number of years president of the Wash- 
ington, D. C. District Council, and treas- 
urer of Local Union 132 for over 20 
years, died at the age of 73, at his home 
in Washington on May 28, 19 34. 

Brother Luebkert was a keen student 
of the labor movement and throughout 
his life his heart and mind were devoted 
to the best interests of those who toil. 
He did much good and his death is a 
loss to the District Council and to Local 
Union 132 which he served as treasurer 

for such a long period of years. 

» 

Old Time Member of Local Union 350 
Taken By Death 

John Doyle, a member of our organ- 
ization for the past 45 years, passed 



20 



T II E CARPE N T JE K 



away at his home in New Rochelle, N. 
Y., April 22, 1934, at the age of 77. 

Brother Doyle was a charter member 
of Local Union 42, organized May 9, 
1889, and remained in same until the 
consolidation of that Local with No. 718 
in April, 1913, forming Local Union 
350. 

Brother Doyle was active in the labor 
movement until a few years previous to 
his death. The members of Local Union 
350 morn his loss. 



INFORMATION TO MEMBERS OF 
OUR BROTHERHOOD 

To All Local Unions and District Coun- 
cils. 

For several years our Brotherhood 
has not been affiliated with the Building 
Trades Department of the American 
Federation of Labor. 

Recently, upon the solicitation of 
Wm. Green, President of the American 
Federation of Labor, the Electrical 
Workers' organization, the Bricklayers 
International Union and our Brother- 
hood decided to again affiliate with the 
Building Trades Department of the 
American Federation of Labor, and on 
June 14th were admitted to the Depart- 
ment. 

In doing so, however, it was agreed 
by the three organizations that the Tri 
Party Agreement existing between the 
Electricians, Bricklayers and our Broth- 
erhood would continue in existence. 

While we are now again affiliated 
with the Department, our membership, 
if desiring to affiliate with local Building 
Trades Councils, should keep in mind 
that they should affiliate through their 
District Council, where a District Coun- 
cil exists. 

They should also bear in mind that 
the laws of the Building Trades Depart- 
ment provides that no strike of a Build- 
ing Trades Council shall be called be- 
cause of a jurisdictional dispute. In 
other words if a jurisdictional dispute 
arises between two trades the Building 
Trades Council is to remain neutral and 
not enter into the controversy by taking 
sides with either one or the other of the 
organizations. 

Our members should also keep in 
mind that if they affiliate with a Build- 
ing Trades Council it does not in any 



way change our jurisdictional claims, 
nor do we, nor can we, permit a local 
Building Trades Council to determine 
what our jurisdiction shall be. 
Fraternally yours 

WM. L. HUTCHESON, 
June 25, 1934. General President. 



Spirit For Organization Everywhere 

Organization among workers is 
spreading with tremendous rapidity. 
Since a year ago the American Federa- 
tion of Labor has gained a million mem- 
bers and that is no small achievement. 
There has been no war time stimulation. 
There has been no hope of at once gain- 
ing higher wages. There has been none 
of that great enthusiasm that marked 
the days of war-time elation. 

Every labor man has heard many 
repetitions of the slander that men join 
unions because they have to join to get. 
a job. And now we have the proof, piled 
mountain high, that men want to join 
unions for the sake of associating with 
their fellows in a common effort in be- 
half of wage earners. They want to 
join and they will join, just as soon as 
the law protects them in their right to 
join. A million have joined just because 
at last the law protects them in their 
right to join. 

Upon the enactment of a very simple 
section of law, which says that no em- 
ployer shall have the right to inter- 
fere with the right of an employe to join 
a union and to engage, through that 
union, in collective bargaining, men 
rush by the thousands to join unions. 
And they do this in times when money 
for even small initiation fees is scarce 
indeed. Never has the world seen a more 
magnificent example of the true solidar- 
ity of labor than in America in the last 
year. 



Life Is Too Short 

To spend time hunting for the disa- 
greeable. 

To waste one's strength fighting un- 
necessary battles. 

To worry over troubles that never 
happen. 

To lose sleep over things that cannot 
be helped. 

To spoil even one day by envying 
some one else's prosperity. 

To try to shut the mouths of all the 
gossips. 



CorrQspondQncQ 




This Journal Is Not Responsible For Views Expressed By Correspondents. 



Fallacy of Company Unions 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

I am submitting an address delivered 
by me before a mass meeting of organ- 
ized and unorganized workers in the 
Trades and Labor Hall, Savannah, 
Georgia, with the request that it be pub- 
lished in our monthly journal. 

There are a few facts that should be 
of grave interest to the masses in every 
walk of life — the employer, the mer- 
chant and the employe. 

If you want to, and are behind the 
President in his recovery program, why 
not face the issue fairly and honestly? 
If you want recovery to make a home 
run, raise wages and increase the work- 
ers buying power. Every honest manu- 
facturer knows that the workers are in- 
dustry's best customers. Over eighty- 
three per cent of all buyers at retail 
stores and renters of homes come from 
the wages of the small salaried workers. 
Give them work at fair wages and in- 
dustry will prosper. 

The Union increases the workers buy- 
ing power. The Union workers can buy 
twice as much as the average industrial 
worker. Union wages average one dol- 
lar and six cents per hour compared to 
the forty-two cents for industrial work- 
ers in general. 

In 1929 the combined income of all 
wage and small salaried workers in in- 
dustry was four and one-half billion 
dollars a month. Business was good 
then but in the four years following 
from March 1929 to 1933, industry laid 
off workers and cut wages; workers lost 
two-third of their buying power; their 
income shrank from more than two and 
one-half billion dollars to only one bil- 
lion seven hundred eighty-four million a 
month. Business collapsed and no won- 
der. Under the N. R. A. the workers 
monthly buying power has risen seven 
hundred million dollars. Unions by 
raising wages helped to increase it. By 
January, 19 34, it was back to two and 
one-half billion dollars; that's why busi- 



ness is better. Business activity in Jan- 
uary was twenty-five per cent better 
than March 1933. If we want to win we 
must work as a unit. 

To the workers in all industry let me 
appeal to you that you do not be misled 
by any company union propagandist who 
tries to make you believe that you are 
protected under such an organization. 
Such organizations are the boss's idea 
— all his own — They tell you it costs 
you nothing but I tell you that the only 
union that protects the worker is the 
American Federation of Labor, and 
when any man whether he be employer 
or employe tells you the company union 
is best for you, you may be sure that he 
is looking out for his own interests in- 
stead of yours. 

The American Federation of Labor 
and its trade union principles are Amer- 
ican principles. It means Government 
of the people by the people and for the 
people, and Americanism means carry- 
ing this principle into industrial as well 
as political government. To be a trade 
unionist is to be a self-respecting Ameri- 
can citizen who carries over into indus- 
try the principle of representation as the 
basis for fair and just dealings. 

That is why the greatest figures in 
American history- — Presidents, Judges, 
Ministers, Priests and Rabbis, great Ed- 
ucators — believe so strongly in the trade 
union movement. 

For the information of those who are 
being urged to form company unions or 
to affiliate with those already formed, 
I will quote the following: The first 
company union was formed by a Colo- 
rado company in 1915 in the month of 
October following a ten months' strike 
of coal miners to enforce union condi- 
tions and the mining law of that state. 
In its survey of this employes' represen- 
tation, the Russell Sage Foundation 
says: Under the industrial representa- 
tion plan the workers have neither an 
organization nor a treasury, their repre- 
sentatives serve only on joint commit- 
tees with an equal number of company 



22 



T H E O A R P E N T E R 



officials. They are thus deprived of their 
most potent means of defending their 
own interests. 

The management offered the miners 
the industrial representation plan. The 
employes had no voice in drafting it. 
This was done entirely by an expert, 
with the assistance of the executive offi- 
cials of the company. The company un- 
ion is a front office affair. It contains 
no element of democracy. In every in- 
stance the company union is an employ- 
er's proposal. Its source is the employer 
who dictates its form and its operation. 
If the employer permitted employes to 
manage their own affairs they would 
join the trade union movement. 

As an organizer, representing the 
principles and policy of the American 
Federation of Labor and its affiliat- 
ed bodies under the direction of the 
Georgia State Federation of Labor, I ap- 
peal to every worker in every industry 
to organize into a legitimate American 
Federation of Labor union of the craft 
or trade that he follows and be a part 
of the recovery program. 

John P. Spires. 



Government Housing Projects Must Not 

Be At the Expense of Skilled 

Building Trades 

With a Government housing program 
practically assured, the battle to compel 
reduction of the wages of the skilled 
workers in the building trades con- 
tinues. 

There must be revival in the building 
industry, but if it is brought about at 
the expense of the building trades work- 
ers, then there had better be no housing 
program. 

For weeks investigations and surveys 
have been under way, leading toward 
findings as to the best methods to be 
pursued by the Government. Apparent- 
ly the hour for final conclusions is about 
at hand. There are indications that 
if and when a housing program is 
launched it will be for the building of 
homes and not for the building of 
apartment houses, which generally do 
not result in improved living conditions, 
but result, on the other hand, in the 
creation of what amounts to new tene- 
ments. 

The battle- cry for lower wages for 
the skilled trades is merely a continu- 
ance of the fight reactionary employers 
have made year after year, far back into 



history. It is based upon the altogether 
false assumption that wages determine 
final costs of buildings, an assumption 
so foolish that intelligent and progres- 
sive persons have long since ceased to 
give it attention seriously. 

Too many, however, still forget that 
wages form a far lower portion of build- 
ing costs than employers are usually 
willing to admit and they forget like- 
wise that the wages paid on building 
jobs must be spread over the life of the 
building, just as the first mortgage is 
generally spread over that span. Prop- 
erly spread and properly computed in 
the first place, wages become a minor 
item, in no way affecting either the final 
cost of building, or the rental or sale 
price. 

Whatever final plans may be agreed 
upon for the launching of a national 
building program will first pass muster 
under the eye of Frank C. Walker, di- 
rector of the National Emergency Coun- 
cil. 

Under financing plans as they now 
stand second mortgages will be elimi- 
nated entirely, removing one of the 
worst evils of the home building busi- 
ness and cutting the final costs of 
home occupation materially. The Gov- 
ernment's purpose should be the elimi- 
nation of exploitation from home build- 
ing, not the reduction of wages which 
go at once into purchasing power and 
thus stimulate the whole industrial 
structure. 



The House of the People 

The American common school is the 
expression of a mighty faith. It has 
grown up out of need and aspiration. 
It is the bulwark of those democratic 
ideals and rights for which mankind has 
sacrificed and suffered throughout the 
ages. It is the home of light and of 
reason. It is the hope of a better to- 
morrow. The common school is the 
house of the people. Let all the people 
gather as of old in the neighborhood 
school. Let them renew their faith in 
themselves and in their children. Let 
them discuss their problems and deter- 
mine how their schools may be made 
better. Let them return to the house of 
the people and know that through this, 
their own house, they may again bring 
order and promise and hope to the Re- 
public. — Jessie Gray, President, Nation- 
al Education Association. 



Foreign Labor News 



ARGENTINA — The six Hour Day. 

A Bill for the introduction of a six 
hour day and a thirty-six hour week was 
recently introduced into the Chamber of 
Deputies of the Argentine, Province of 
Cordoba. The Bill provides for a work- 
ing day of six hours and a thirty-six 
hour week for all workers and empolyes 
irrespective of their occupation, includ- 
ing persons in the employment of the Pro- 
vince. For women and children, and for 
workers and employes engaged on night 
work or on unhealthy or dangerous 
work, the hours of work would be 
five in the day and thirty in the week. 
Special arrangements are provided for 
payment of overtime rates. Wages and 
values would be maintained at their 
present level. 

* * * 

AUSTRALIA. — The 44-Hour Week 
for Government Employes. 

The Government of Western Australia 
decided to introduce the 44-hour week 
in Government employment at the end 
of October, 19 33, wages remaining the 
same as they had been for the 48-hour 
week. 

This measure had already been ap- 
plied in Western Australia in 1924, but 
as a result of political changes the 48- 
hour week was subsequently restored in 
a number of departments. The present 
decision therefore applies in practice 
only to those workers who were granted 
a 44-hour week in 1924 but had since 
then been deprived of it. The majority 
of these workers are engaged in the 
Public Works Department, as those em- 
ployed in a number of other depart- 
ments have been able, by decision of the 
State Arbitration Court, or by agree- 
ment, to retain the 44-hour week. This 
was the case in particular in the Rail- 
way Department, the railway construc- 
tion branch and the Water Supply De- 
partment. 

* * * 

CZECHOSLOVAKIA. — Further De- 
cline In Communism. 

The Communist trade union move- 
ment of Czechoslovakia, one of the last 




remnants of the Red International of 
Labor Unions, is steadily declining in 
numbers. Although Communists are not 
very accurate in statistics as a rule, 
they are yet obliged to admit, in face of 
official figures, that in the month of 
April 1933 alone they lost 17,000 mem- 
bers. 

GREAT BRITAIN. — Unemployment 
Insurance Fund Accumulates Surplus. 

A report submitted to the British 
House of Commons on November 8th 
stated that the unemployment insurance 
fund had accumulated a surplus of £5,- 
250,000, about $26,000,000. Continu- 
ing, the report said as this sum was 
more than sufficient to provide against 
contingencies it had decided to apply a 
part of it towards re-payment of the 
debt of the fund. According to the re- 
port the total number of insured per- 
sons between the ages of 16 and 64 in 
Great Britain and Northern Ireland at 
the beginning of July, 1933, was esti- 
mated to be 12,883,000, an increase in 
the ten year period of approximately fif- 
teen per cent. 

* * * 

HOLLAND. — Striving to Secure 
Shorter Hours. 

The Dutch National Trade Union Cen- 
tre (N.V.V. ) is composed of the free 
trade unions and by means of unremit- 
ting propaganda it has managed to in- 
crease it's membership even in the years 
of crisis. The N. V. V. has recently held 
two national meetings in furtherance of 
their efforts to secure more effective 
action on unemployment. The first of 
these pronounced for voluntary unem- 
ployment insurance in general, but held 
that industries suited for it should be 
brought under a system of compulsory 
insurance, funds for this to be provided 
by workers, employers and the state 
The second meeting devoted its discus- 
sions to the question of hours of work. 
Exceedingly long hours were stated to 
be the practice, especially in inland nav- 
igation and on the railways. A resolu- 
tion adopted affirmed, with indignation, 



24 



THE CARPENTER 



that long hours are still to be found in 
Holland as a result of which heavy un- 
employment exists and the Government 
and Parliament were urged "to take im- 
mediate steps to stop any excess of 
hours of work beyond 48 per week, and 
to establish as soon as possible the 40- 
hour week for all categories of workers 
whose working hours are either not 
limited at all by law or are permitted 
by law to exceed 48 per week." 

This resolution shows that the Inter- 
national Convention on the 8-hour Day 
is unfortunately by no means out of 
date! 

The Congress also explicitly confirmed 
the demand of the International Feder- 
ation of Trade Unions for the immediate 
introduction of the 40-hour week. 



INDIA. — Bank Employes Organize. 

The Imperial Bank of India Staff As- 
sociation some time ago registered un- 
der the Indian Trade Union Act. It's 
membership has previously been con- 
fined to Calcutta, Northern India and 
Burma, but recently a number of em- 
ployes in the Madras Circle who have 
no union of their own have joined the 
Association. 

It is the aim of the Association to 
work as far as possible in co-operation 
with other trade unions of the country 
and help any movement that has for its 
object the general advancement of the 
working classes in the country not in- 
consistent with the spirit of the Indiau 
Trade Union Act, 1926. 

It is confidently expected that the ac- 
tivities of the Association will later lead 
towards the establishment of a national 
union of bank clerks. 

NORWAY — The Extension of Collec- 
tive Agreements. 

All of the agreements concluded after 
the protracted strike of 1931 contained 
a clause providing for the automatic 
regulation of wages on the basis of the 
index figure of the cost of living at the 
end of 19 3 2. This index figure was such 
that in virtue of the costs, wages should 
have been cut by approximately three 
per cent. During the month of January, 
negotiations were entered into between 
the national organizations of the work- 
ers and the employers, by which it was 
agreed not to put into effect this reduc- 
tion, all of the agreements being extend- 



ed for a year longer than the date of 
their expiry. As all the unions and em- 
ployers' organizations affected have con- 
sented to this arrangement, industrial 
peace and the wage standard will be 
guaranteed for a year longer. 
* # * 

SWITZERLAND. — Trade Union Fed- 
eration Meets. 

The Congress of the Swiss Federation 
of Trade Unions was held at Bienne, 
November last, at which 330 delegates 
were in attendance. According to the 
report presented to the Congress the af- 
filiated membership at the end of 1932 
was 224,164, compared with 206,874 at 
the end of 19 31. The report of the Ex- 
ecutive Committee also pointed out that 
the forty-hour week was one of the 
principal demands of the Federation. 
They contended that overtime facilities 
were accorded too readily by public 
authorities and that the Federation had 
been active in efforts to prevent such 
excessive overtime. 



Making Oil From Coal in Britain 

Word comes from London that a plant 
making 100,000 tons of oil from bitu- 
minous coal will be operating in Britain 
before the year ends. The process used 
is a development of the hydrogenation 
plan that originated in Germany. The 
founders of the plant expect a stable, 
growing and prosperous industry. 

One hopes their expectations are real- 
ized. Britain has no oil, though she still 
has a great deal of coal; and this may 
lead to a new industrial development in 
that country and, in all probability, on 
this side of the "big pond." 

Oil is more costly there than here; 
but even here, oil magnates thought it 
wise to spend a sizable sum on the Ger- 
man patents and are spending more in 
experimenting. And we have besides 
hundreds of thousands of square miles 
underlaid with oil shales. These shales 
are being turned to oil already in Scot- 
land, and need only a better technique, 
or a higher price for oil, to be used here. 

And a few years ago, the American 
people were being told that they would 
have to annex Mexico, or run out of oil! 
What fools these jingoes be! 



A recipe for trade union progress 
is to purchase none but union-labeled 
goods and service. 



Craft ProblQms 




CARPENTRY 

(By H. H. Siegele) 

LESSON LXX. 

The right angle and the circle are 
perhaps the most useful figures in car- 
pentry, if not in the mechanical world, 
excepting, of course, the straight line. 
The circle is the most easily obtained, 
much easier than a straight line. All 
that is necessary is a radius pole or a 
string or a compass, and a true circle 
can be described. A circle is a circle, 
whether it is large or small, and the 
length of the radius does not have to be 
fixed, excepting when specific circles 
are required. If you have a true circle, 
it is a very simple matter to obtain a 
true right angle, by striking from dif- 
ferent points two straight lines from cir- 
cumference to circumference, crossing 
the center, and then joining these lines 
where they intersect with the circum- 
ference, in such a manner that it will 
produce an oblong figure, or by chance 




Fig. 400 

a square. This done, you will have four 
right angles, which, if painstakingly 
done, will be accurate. 

While the right angle or the square, 
is much more conspicuous in carpentry 
than the circle, nevertheless, the circle 
has an invisible presence in almost 
every part of a building. Every polygon 



is merely a product of the circle, and 
any polygon that will not stand the test 
of a circle, is not a true polygon. The 
principles of roof framing are based on 
the circle, and when these fundamental 
principles are once understood, the rest 
of the roof-framing problems are com- 
paratively easy. 

The straight line, enters into every- 
thing in carpentry. Even the circle, if 




Fig. 401 

put into black and white, will have to 
show the straight line by reason of its 
radius. A perfectly straight line, al- 
though it might seem very simple, is 
much harder to obtain than a true cir- 
cle. In your every-day life with your 
tools handy, you find it a very simple 
operation to produce a straight line, 
even more simple than a circle. But let 
us give the comparison a test: Suppose 
that you were lost on an island, stripped 
of artificial equipment, which would be 
easier to obtain, a circle or a straight 
line? A circle, of course. A fork made 
out of a branch of a tree, would give 
you a natural compass, with which you 
could strike true circles on the sand. 
Again, you could use stems of grass or 
saplings and use them as radii for de- 
scribing circles, and, having plenty of 
time, you could do it accurately. But 
what would you use to make a straight 
line? Well, you would probably use the 



26 



THE CARPENTER 



bark of a tree, or a blade of grass, 
stretch it over the sand, and with a 
stick mark a line. Try that, and see how 
straight your line will be. 

A perfectly straight line is one of 
the most difficult things to obtain in 
the mechanical world. We carpenters 




Fig. 402 

spend much time in making straight- 
edges, but how many of them can be 
said to be perfectly straight when they 
are done? The lines we make with our 
straight-edges, as a rule, if viewed fro«m 
end to end are rather wormy. Sometime, 
after making a line with a pencil and 
straight-edge, put your eye close to the 




Fig. 403 

mark at one end and look along the 
line, to see whether it is perfectly 
straight. A good chalk line produces 
the most nearly straight line, of any 
tools used by carpenters for line mak- 
ing. It will readily be seen, as we take 



up the illustrations one by one, how the 
right angle, the circle and the straight 
line enter into almost everything in 
carpentry. 

Fig. 400 shows a square-top rough 
opening for a door. The same opening 
is shown in Fig. 401, where we show 
how to proceed to turn a square-top 
opening into an octagon-top opening. 
First bisect the two corners, by striking 
two lines on a 45-degree angle, as shown 
by dotted lines, a little farther than 
half-way across the opening, or beyond 
the point marked A. Having this point, 
set the compass, first at one corner and 
then at the other and strike the two 
part-circles from point A to points B 
and B. Now, from points B and B, 




Fig. 40 



strike the lines cutting off the two cor- 
ners on a 45-degree angle, as indicated 
by dotted lines. These points obtained, 
we can proceed to complete the octagon- 
top opening by framing the angle pieces 
and nailing them into place. The open- 
ing is shown completed in Fig. 402. 

But suppose we want to ; frame a 
circle-top opening; well, in that case, 
we will have to place the compass at 
the point where the two bisecting lines 
cross, or at point A, Fig. 403, and strike 
the half-circle shown by dotted line. The 
half-circle shows how much must be 
filled in at each angle, in order to 
change the octagon-top opening to a 
circle-top opening, such as we are show- 
ing by Fig. 404. The fillers should be 
ripped out of rather soft material, either 
% inch stuff or thicker, whatever will 
give the best results. The fillers cut, nail 
them into place, and the circle-top open- 
ing is complete. 



THE CARPENTER 



27 



In Fig. 405 we are showing how to 
change a square-top opening to a seg- 
ment-top opening, in other words, how 
to frame a segment-top opening. Here 
we continue one of the bisecting lines, 
the left in this case, from point A, on 
to point B, and turning a right angle 




Fig. 405 

we carry it on beyond point C. Then we 
drop a perpendicular line from point A 
to the floor, establishing point C. Now 
we set the compass at point C, and 
strike the segment in such a manner 
that the highest point will make a con- 
tact with the bottom of the header, as 




Fig. 406 

indicated by the dotted part-circle. The 
space between the part-circle and the 
header must be filled in, which will make 
the completed opening appear similar to 
what is shown in Fig. 406. The fillers 
should be cut out of soft material, and 
nailed into place, keeping them flush 



with the edges of the studding and 
header. 

It is said that the radius for a true 
segment, must be one and one-half 
times the width of the opening. On this 
principle our diagram is based. But just 
why a segment with a radius one and 
one-half times the width of the opening 
makes the segment true, we do not 
quite understand. We can not see why 
a segment with a longer or a shorter 
radius would not make an equally true 
segment. Webster defines a segment 
with these words: "A part cut off from 
a figure by a line or plane; especially, 
that part of a circle contained between 
a chord and an arc of that circle, or so 
much of the circle as is cut off by the 
chord." Evidently, in Webster's time, 
segments did not have true or false 
standards, but segments were segments 
if they had chords and arcs of circles, 
regardless of the length of the radius. 



THE FRAMING SQUARE 

(By L. Perth) 

PART TWENTY-SIX 
The Carpenter and Euclid 

The other day this writer came across 
an interesting article in one of our na- 
tional publications on building construc- 
tion. The man, a carpenter by trade, is 
showing how the lengths of rafters may 
be established by what is known as 
the "Square root method." He further 
claims that the carpenter who aspires to 
be a success must study mathematics 
and if he wishes to become proficient in 
roof framing he should cultivate the 
habit of using the square root method. 

If anyone, this writer certainly is in 
a position to judge the great importance 
and indispensability of mathematics in 
engineering and architecture. Every con- 
ceivable branch of technical knowl- 
edge literally bristles with mathematical 
data, figures and formulae; and no en- 
gineer, unless he is a proficient mathe- 
matician is qualified to design a bridge, 
a building, a battleship or a locomotive. 
But as far as a carpenter or any build- 
ing mechanic is concerned, he no more 
needs the knowledge of trigonometry 
than a cat needs two tails. 

Not that the task of the operative is 
less important than that of the architect 
or engineer. They both are indispensa- 
ble for the successful progress of the 



28 



THE CARPENTER 



building operations — one cannot get 
along without the other. But it is an 
inexcusable waste of time and energy 
to pursue something which is not es- 
sential and which has no immediate 
practical application to your work. 

If mathematics is your hobby, it is 
commendable, indeed. By all means 
cultivate that hobby; for the harvest 
reaped in thus spending your leisure 
moments will certainly be more fruitful 



and is it not recommended for use by 
the carpenter on the job? 

The first problem the carpenter has to 
face in framing a roof is to determine 
the lengths of the rafters. We know that 
a roof truss may be resolved into right 
triangles. The right angles of these tri- 
angles are at the intersection of the 
center line of the building with the 
plane of the roof plates. This is illus- 
trated in Fig. 1. 







F/S. / 



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F/&3. 






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than time devoted to, for instance, play- 
ing pinnocle. 

But do not nurse the idea that this 
particular branch of science may be 
used as a yardstick to measure your 
success. That study is essential no one 
dares to deny. But if you are fortunate 
enough as to be able to find time for 
study — why not utilize this opportunity 
for the acquiring of useful applied 
knowledge? 

Now let us get back to our subject: 
"the square root method." What is it, 



Now, trigonometrically speaking, to 
find the length of the rafter means to 
establish the hypotenuse of a right tri- 
angle whose base and altitude are 
known. Thus, in Fig. 1 the roof truss 
ABD is composed of two right triangles 
— ABC and DBC. The run and the 
height being 16' and 12' respectively 
are the two known quantities — the base 
and altitude. It is required to find the 
length of the hypotenuse AB which is 
the length of the rafter. In other words 
the problem before us is that of a solu- 
tion of a right triangle. 



THE CARPENTER 



29 



The solution of triangles is treated in 
that branch of mathematics known as 
"Trigonometry" which deals essential- 
ly in determining the values of unknown 
quantities of a triangle when the values 
of other parts are given. 

About 500 years B. C. there lived in 
Greece a great mathematician; his name 
was Pythagoras. It was Pythagoras 
who discovered the famous and useful 
principle: 

"In a right triangle, the square of 
the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of 
the squares of the other two sides." 
This principles is known as "the Pytha- 
gorean Theorem." It also is frequently 
referred to as "The 47th proposition of 
Euclid." Euclid being the father of the 
science of geometry, this principle, nat- 
urally, was incorporated in his books. 
When applied to roof framing it is 
known as the "square root method." 

A graphic representation of this 
principle is shown in Pig. 2. For the 
sake of simplicity we took a triangle 
EFG whose base and altitude equal 4 
and 3 inches respectively. Thus our 
problem may be formulated like this: 
"In a right triangle EFG, the base 
equals 4 inches and the altitude 3 
inches. What is the length of the hypot- 
enuse? 

Applying the above principle to our 
problem, we have: EF squared equals 
EG squared plus FG squared; which 
means, that the square of the distance 
EF or the Hypotenuse equals the sum 
of the squares of the two sides. Substi- 
tuting the real values we obtain 4- 
squared plus 3-squared equals EF- 
squared. Consequently, the square root 
of 9 plus 16 will equal EF. Since the 
sum of 9 and 16 equals 25, the square 
root of 25 equals 5. Therefore 5" is 
the length of the hypotenuse or the 
length of the rafter. Fig. 2 and 3. 

By constructing squares on the sides 
of the triangle EFG we can see by count- 
ing the small squares that the sum of 
the squares on EG and FG is equal to 
the number of small squares on EF. 

The principle, to make it simpler may 
be formulated like this: "In a right tri- 
angle, the hypotenuse equals to the 
square root of the sum of the squares of 
the other two sides." This principle 
holds good for the solution of any right 
triangle and consequently, when used 
in finding the length of rafters the rule 
may be expressed thus: "The length of 



a rafter equals to the square root of the 
run squared plus the height squared. 

This is the method used by the archi- 
tect and engineer in the design of struc- 
tures. It requires a sound knowledge of 
mathematics and the use of precision 
and calculating instruments as well as 
complicated mathematical tables. Why 
this method is not recommended for the 
carpenter on the job will be discussed in 
the next paper. 



A Trick Dovetail 

(By H. H. Siegele) 
There are so many useful and practi- 
cal things in the field of carpentry, that 




Fig. 1 



;o 



TIIK CARl'ENTER 



we do not see very much justification in 
taking up time and space in dealing 
with things that have no value excepting 
as entertainment in trying to solve 
them. Much time has been spent in 
trying to figure out how to cut a certain 
square piece of board in such a manner 
that it will increase one square inch in 
its surface, and we have met carpenters 
who actually believed it could be done. 
The fact of the matter, however, is 
that it can't be done, even if it didn't 
require any surface for making the cut. 
The whole thing is merely a trick, or 
a conundrum in carpentry. The trick, 
though, that we are explaining in this 
article is more than a trick, it is useful; 
not only from the standpoint of an orna- 



formed, which does not need 
explanation; Fig. 3 shows the 
the male member. When th 



further 
form of 
ese two 




Fig. 2 

ment, but from the standpoint of serv- 
ice also. 

Fig. 1 shows how two pieces of wood 
have been dovetailed together in such a 
way that the dovetail effect is shown on 
all four sides. The question is, how is 
it done? The answer is simple. Fig. 2 
shows how the female member is 




Fig. 3 



members are joined together, you will 
have the results shown in Fig. 1. 



Miter and Bevel Cuts 

The question has come up several 
times, "What is the difference between 
a miter and a bevel cut?" These two 
terms are used in different ways and 
very often apply to the same thing. If 
a distinct difference is made, then we 
should use them as follows: a bevel is 
an inclination which one surface makes 
with another when not at right angles. 
You may have a bevel cut or a bevel 
plane surface. 

A miter cut refers to a cut made for 
the purpose of joining two pieces to- 
gether. Thus, we may have a bevel cut 



THE CARPENTER 



31 




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oii a piece of lumber, even though it is 
not cut for the purpose of fitting with 
another piece. A miter cut, however, 
refers to a cut on a piece of lumber that 
is made to fit with another piece cut 
at the same angle. A miter cut is usu- 
ally a 45-degree cut and the pieces 
joined run at right angles to each other. 
However, if the pieces are joined at a 



different angle' than a right angle, then 
the miter cut will be other than 45- 
degrees. The cuts on the two pieces, 
however, must have the same angle to 
make a miter cut. If two pieces are 
joined at the angle of 60 degrees then 
each piece is cut at an angle of 30- 
degrees so the two, when coming to- 
gether, form a perfect miter joint. 




A New Stanley Tool 

SLITS, GROOVES AND BEVELS 
FIBRE BOARDS LIKE UPSON 
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You will want this new tool for your next 
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of the fibre wall boards now on the market. 
Through cuts can be made much easier and faster with it than is possible with 
a saw and it leaves smooth edges. Furthermore it cuts beveled edges, makes 
beveled edge battens, cuts grooves, makes decorative designs such as squares, 
parallel lines and bricks as shown below. 

It's a Stanley Quality Tool — smooth strong castings; Stanley "Bailey" rose- 
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See it at your Hardware Dealers 
Write for descriptive Folder P47 

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32 



THE CARI'KNT E K 




House in Kansas City, Mo. Architect 
Edward Buehler Delk, Insulated with 
Cabot' x Quilt. Painted with Cabot's 
DOUBLE WHITE. Roof Stained with 
Cabot's Creosote Shingle and Wood Stains. 

What Home Owners 
Say About "Quilt" 

"Has Given Very Satisfactory Results" 

■'Sir. Seacord," writes the architect, E. Dean 
Parmelee, of New York, "has been agreeably 
surprised by the small consumption of fuel in 
bis house. * In winter snow remains on his 
roof long after it has been melted off the roofs 
of adjoining houses. In summer, the attic is 
quite cool. Cabot's three-ply Quilt was used in 
all exterior walls and roofs, and also to in- 
sulate against noise. It has given very satis- 
factory results." 

''Greatest Insulator We Know Of" 

"I have used your 8-ply Quilt with wonder- 
ful success. It is the greatest insulator against 
cold we know of." — George C. Coe, Lovell, 
Maine. 

"Satisfactory In Keeping Out the Wind" 

"... Will you please send me another roll 
of the eel-grass Quilt, the other that you sent 
me proves so satisfactory in keeping out the 
wind, which is so strong here on this island." 
—Mary E. Waller., Nantucket Island, Mass. 

Satisfied customers will advertise you, 
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the coupon below for our "Quilt" Boole. 

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"Quilt" 

Heat-Insulating, Sound-Deadening 




Solution to problem of Warren Smith in 
May issue of "The Carpenter" 



oJui_ 



7 7 M0 ,ac*M 



I /UAL =>?3560 a fut 



VW/* &nw& = /?360 • 48M* c wfo 



19360 
11360 
/9360 
19 360 
7 7110 



jtach. ¥ ikmA^ <fa^*v 7b £tOutd 



§ VSVO XV &&U>- /?360 



1810 V 6 =■ 
7T/90/UAU 



L. U. No. 79. 



Fritz Zukunft, 
New Haven, Conn. 



Solves Problem 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

Here is my solution to Brother War- 
ren E. Smith's problem in May issue: 

5280 x 4/12 equals 1760 boards in 
one mile of fence. 
1760 x 11 x 4 equals 77,440 boards. 

11 squared x 640 equals 77,440 acres. 

Simple Eh: It took me three days to 
do it! ! 

O. W. Smith, 
L. U. No. 946. Hollywood, Calif. 



When The Slip Gets By 

The typrographical error is a slippery 

thing and sly, 
You can hunt till you are dizzy, but it 

somehow will get by; 
Till the forms are off the presses it is 

strange how still it keeps, 
It shrinks down into a corner and it 

never stirs or peeps. 
That typographical error, too small for 

human eyes, 
Till the ink is on the paper, when it 

grows to mountain size. 
The boss he stares with horror, then he 

grabs his hair and groans, 
The copy reader drops his head upon his 

hands and moans — 
The remainder of the issue may be clean 

as clean can be, 
But the typographical error is the orily 

thing you see. 

— Ex. 



THE CARPENTER 



Poverty and Distress Can Be Abolished 
in the United States 

Can poverty be abolished? Is there 
"enough to go 'round"? Can the pro- 
ductive plant of America, without re- 
building and managed only as well as 
plenty of men now living know how to 
manage it, turn out enough goods to 
supply all people in this country with a 
decent, comfortable living? 

In an issue of the Survey Graphic 
magazine, Stuart Chase, a sane, critical 
and practical economist, answers these 
queries with an emphatic "Yes!" and 
gives reasons. 

This country now is producing more 
food than producers can sell, and a re- 
cent survey indicates that it is probably 
producing more than the people can eat. 

For clothing, we have a huge surplus 
of cotton, and enough wool and leather, 
though not much of these last to spare. 

Cotton textile manufacturers told the 
NRA that existing mills running three 
shifts, would turn out more than twice 
the normal demand of cotton goods. 

The Wool Institute, back in 1927, 
said American woolen mills could turn 
out three times their actual output. 

In the same year, Ethelbert Stewart 
showed that less than 300,000,000 pairs 
of shoes are used in this country each 
year, while the factories then were 
geared to turn out 730,000,000 pairs. 
Their capacity is greater now. 

Power plants now in existence can 
provide power to run all our mills. Com- 
petent engineers declare that the rail- 
roads of this country can handle nearly 
2,000,000 carloads a week — more than 
three times present traffic and more than 
twice the average of 1929. An industrial 
General Staff, running the industries of 
the land to make things for use rather 
than for sale, could give everyone in 
the land a living rather better than that 
of a family with $10,000 a year in 
1929 — on a maximum working time of 
30 hours per week. 

Mr. Chase gives figures and statistics 
— too long to quote — which back up his 
statement. He thinks it would take 10 
years to bring our housing up to a 
proper level. 

Poverty and want can be abolished, 
education improved, child labor made an 
evil memory, comfort, leisure, health 
and culture bettered almost beyond 
reckoning — with the materials and the 



knowledge we have on hand today; and 
Mr. Chase proves these things. 

America must not content itself with 
any lesser goal. — (Labor) 



The Golden Gate Bridge 

When completed, the Golden Gate 
bridge, to span the entrance to San 
Francisco Bay, will have the longest 
single clear span in the world, 4,200 
feet long, four-fifths of a mile, three 
times the length of the Brooklyn Bridge 
in New York, and 700 feet longer than 
the greatest span, ever built, the George 
Washington Bridge at New York. 

The two side spans are 1,125 feet 
each, as against 550 and 610 feet, re- 
spectively, for the George Washington 
Bridge. 

Thus the bridge proper has a total 
length of 6,450 feet or one and one- 
fifth miles, as against 4,6 6 feet for the 
George Washington Bridge. 

The towers are 121 feet wide at the 
bottom and 746 feet above mean high 
water, the highest and largest bridge 
towers in the world, extending more 
than 150 feet above those of the George 
Washington Bridge. (Measured from the 
base of the San Francisco pier the total 
height is 846 feet.) 

The minimum vertical clearance at 
center is 220 feet above mean high 
water, 100 feet greater than the clear- 
ance of the Brooklyn Bridge, and 20 
feet more than the clearance of the 
George Washington Bridge. 

The total bridge width is 90 feet, di- 
vided into a 60-foot roadway, with 6 
lanes of vehicular traffic, and two 10%- 
foot clear width sidewalks. 

The grand total length, including the 
two approach roads, or from Waldo 
Point in Marin County to the Marina 
Gate of the Presidio in San Francisco, 
all embraced within the project, is" 7 
miles. 

The two main cables are 36% inches 
in diameter each and 7,660 feet long be- 
tween anchorages, as against 36-inch 
cables 5,270 feet long for the George 
Washington Bridge. 

The total possible live load supported 
by the two main cables is 25,400,000 
pounds, corresponding to the bridge 
roadway packed, curbed to curb, with 
vehicles and both sidewalks fully loaded, 
for the full length of the span. The 
load supporting capacity of the two 
cables is 430,000,000 pounds, 2.6 times 
the maximum load. 



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THE 



BROTHERHOOD 

is now manufacturing 

PLAYING 
CARDS 



rAND JOINERS OF AMERICA. 




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( Regular Decks only — No Pinochle ) 

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Send money with order to — 

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General Secretary 

222 E. Michigan St. 
INDIANAPOLIS - - IND. 





Telling Your Troubles! 

By James Edward Hungerford 






NO matter what your woes may be, 

The one to tell them to — 

And "get them off your chest" — is ME, 

And I will hark to you. 

When e'er with you I talk or sup 

Just shake your head and sigh, 

And pass me out your bitter cup 

Of WOES, with weepy eye! 

□ □ □ □ 

Of course, I have MY share of "riles", 
And worries quite a few, 






And have to bear MY share of trials 

On earth, the same as YOU, 

But don't consider THAT, my friend . . . 

What e'er your troubles be, 

Just start relating, without end, 

Those tragic tales to ME! 

□ □ □ □ 
Confide in me your "riles" and "frets"; 






Your ev'ry ache and pain; 

Relate to ME your "vain regrets", 

In sad, dirge-like refrain! 

Just turn on me a dreary eye, 

And greet me with a moan, 

And never stop to think that I . . . 

Have TROUBLES of my OWN! 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 





IK 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of Congress, Aug. 24, 1912 

Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, act of 
October 3, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918 

A Monthly Journal for Carpenters, Stair Builders, Machine Wood Workers, Planing Mill Men, and 

Kindred Industries. Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters 

and Joiners of America, at 

Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 

Advertising Department, 25 Third Avenue, New York, N. Y. 



Established in 18S1 
Vol. LIV.— No. 8. 



INDIANAPOLIS, AUGUST, 1934 



One Dollar Per Tear 
Ten Cents a Copy 



NOTICE 



The publishers of "The Carpenter" reserve the right to reject all advertising matter 
which may be, in their judgment, unfair or objectionable to the membership of the United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America. 

All contracts for advertising space in "The Carpenter," including those stipulated as 
non-cancellable, are only accepted subject to the above reserved rights of the publishers. 



Friends 



So many people come and go, 
And there the pleasure ends, 

For just a few respond in kind^ 
These few we call our friends. 

They are the blessing of our lives, 
These chosen few we know; 

Through them our hopes take 
nobler form, 
And by their faith we grow. 

And often when the solitude 
Brings out our human needs, 

We take our friendship rosary 
And count its precious beads. 

One at a time they walk with us, 
And lend a friendly hand, 

These ones apart from all the rest, 
The few who understand. 

— Fairmont Snyder 



THE CARPENTER 



EXTENSION OF ADULT EDUCATION TO ALL 

WORKERS URGED BY PRESIDENT OF 

A. F. OF L. 




g W »« ILLLAM GREEN, president 

^Ki^K-^)/^ of tl)e American Federa- 
tion of Labor, in an ad- 
dress at Washington be- 
fore the ninth annual 
meeting of the American 
Association for Adult Education, stress- 
ed the importance of mobilizing the en- 
tire public education system to equip 
working men and women with the 
knowledge necessary for them "to take 
part understanding^ in community and 
national issues." 

Pointing out that the enlargement of 
educational opportunities for grown-ups 
is a definite part of social planning, he 
asserted that the "adult education move- 
ment has a responsibility for direct serv- 
ice to wage earners, who constitute a 
majority group of our citizenry." It is 
apparent, he added, that consideration 
of the problems growing out of the na- 
tional emergency caused by the pro- 
longed depression is the imperative duty 
of all those sponsoring the broader edu- 
cation of adults, and suggested the 
value of the trade union movement as 
a medium for extending the scope of 
workers' education. 

Taking up the specific problems in 
whose solution he believed adult educa- 
tion could render material assistance, he 
said: 

"Whatever of permanent value lies in 
the National Recovery Administration 
depends upon our ability to organize 
participating groups, to educate them in 
their duties and responsibilities and to 
plan a balanced program for national 
progress. 

"The American Federation of Labor 
for more than fifty years has advocated 
constructive policies which have result- 
ed in economic advancement for work- 
ers and social service to the nation. Our 
problem now is to put the fundamentals 
of our experience at the service of new 
members and all workers. 

'"The Workers' education institutes 
show the response of labor to the oppor- 
tunity offered by the university and the 
readiness of the university to extend its 
area of influence and service. The work- 
ers' education committees growing out 



of the^e institutes offer organization to 
provide continuing co-operation of or- 
ganized labor and the university in 
workers' education. 

"The problem is how to extend these 
services to touch the rank and file of 
union membership. The magnitude of 
the task is indicated by the fact that in 
one large industrial area alone the new 
trade union membership numbers 900,- 
000. To reach them with the ideals and 
policies of unionism and the knowledge 
of the industry and of their local gov- 
ernment that will make them useful 
participants and to do this without over- 
simplification of materials or too great 
loss of content, requires adaptability and 
skill in methods of educational ap- 
proach. 

"The first step seems to be to carry 
some information on union experience 
and policies to the new members in their 
union meetings. A difficulty lies in al- 
most total lack of materials for such 
use. Existing books and articles on 
trade union history and policy and on 
problems of an industry or of local gov- 
ernment need to be reconsidered with a 
view to adaptation not only to intelli- 
gent adults with more limited formal 
educational background but to the de- 
mands for brief yet rounded presenta- 
tion. The need is disclosed for appropri- 
ate source materials and reference 
books. 

"While some of the subject matter for 
their purpose is already available, de- 
manding only rewriting to adapt it to 
special use, there is much trade union 
and work experience that has not been 
collected or organized. This experience 
is peculiarly useful in getting wage 
earners to understand a constructive, 
conservative, idealistic and also practi- 
cal program and policy. To preserve and 
present this experience, labor case stud- 
ies should be made. Here economists 
and their graduate students in econom- 
ics can give a real service. 

"Necessity for Labor's understanding 
goes further than this — it carries into 
all work problems. Specifically hours 
and conditions of work, security and 
continuity of the job, remuneration par- 
ticularly with reference to duration and 



THE CARPENTER 



security of work and to living standards 
and living costs, voice in control of these 
matters, because only through share in 
decisions can Labor's needs and desires 
be determined, recognition of Labor's 
price of workmanship and realization 
that his experience can make a definite 
contribution to production, are work 
problems upon which Labor's feelings 
are intense if at times inarticulate. 

"Tax supported institutions," Mr. 
Green concluded, "have a democratic 
service to perform and trade unions 
offer them established groups where co- 
operation can be secured. Such relation- 



ships are well worth while, however, for 
education opportunities would be car- 
ried to a stable group with promise of 
continuous and therefore increasingly 
effective and advanced study. The con- 
tinuity of the group offers also contacts 
for educational influence, leadership and 
expansion. 

"We turn to the educator to help with 
employer and labor to a better under- 
standing of the facts of industry and 
other work relationships and to lead the 
way to a better basis for human rela- 
tionships. The opportunity is open to 
you for high service." 



COMPANY UNION NONSENSE 




£M*§ OMEBODY ought to take 
to the White House this 
message: In all the code 
hearings not a single 
company union has ap- 
peared to fight for a 
single solitary right for any worker. 
That ought to help some in understand- 
ing company unions. 

Carry it further. They talk about the 
rights of the unorganized and about the 
views of the unorganized. Nobody has 
ever appeared at any code hearing to 
talk for the unorganized. A lot of folks 
never think how funny it is to talk 
about speaking for the unorganized. 

The unorganized cannot express any 
views, because they are unorganized. 

The company union cannot speak for 
workers because it is dominated by the 
employers. 

Otherwise learned men go on prat- 
tling about company unions and the un- 
organized, just as if these somehow had a 
right to be counted in the labor picture. 

Of course big business is spending a 
ton of money to keep the company union 
in the picture and to make it look like 
something respectable, instead of the 
rat outfit that it is. It wants a company 
union that will have the look of free- 
dom but that will answer to the same 
old wire-pulling, that will take orders 
as always. That's a hard job. 

What employers fail to see, or else 
do see and are preparing for, is the 
fact that their tactics may force the 
biggest labor dispute the nation ever 
saw. 

* * * 

It's far from idle talk that the nation 
may be compelled to go through a tre- 



mendous conflict before the company 
union issue is settled. 

The Alabama coal owner who threat- 
ened secession wasn't the only one of 
his kind. There are plenty of employers 
who are willing at this hour to stake 
everything on a gigantic conflict, hop- 
ing, as they hoped in 1920, to win and 
destroy unions for a decade or more. 

In those days strikebreakers were 
paid handsomely — sometimes $2 a day 
over the rate demanded by strikers — - 
plus expenses. Bosses have always been 
willing to pay high to keep men in 
bondage. Bosses have done mighty little 
for freedom. 

% % * 

Today organized labor is sweeping 
ahead like a prairie fire. Many unions 
are growing faster than discipline can 
be built. Unions have to have discipline. 
Plenty of folks don't think so, but a 
union has a lot in common with an 
army. It has to stand under fire and it 
has to hold its lines. 

It is no novelty to see 20,000 men 
sweep into the union movement almost 
overnight. Usually they expect miracles 
and they want action quick. 

They don't see the long road back; 
they don't know the tactics of an in- 
dustrial struggle; they don't know the 
tricks and the resources of the boss. 

But America is going to have union- 
ism just the same. That or employer- 
made anarchy, and no half-way busi- 
ness. 

Unionism is the only agency through 
which there can be industrial democ- 
racy, or democratic practice in industry. 
Company union bunk is just that much 
dirt in clear water. — (I. L. N. S.) 



THE CARPENTER 



THE WAR MAKERS 




N AN address before the 
Senate on March 5, 19 34, 
Senator Wm. A. Borah of 
Idaho pointed out that 
"no treaty, no law made 
by man or God controls 
munition manufacturers." 

The following is quoted from the Sen- 
ator's address: 

So long as the munition manufactur- 
ers exercise the influence which they 
now wield with governments we shall 
make little progress in reducing arma- 
ments. . . . 

I have reached the conclusion that it 
would be about as absurd to turn the 
War Department or the Navy Depart- 
ment over to private interests as it is 
to leave the manufacture and sale of 
the instrumentalities of warfare in the 
hands of private interests. The influence 
of these interests is so very great that 
they can directly shape and dominate 
the policy of a nation toward war and 
away from peace. 

Let us survey some of the facts with 
reference to the armament manufactur- 
ers and the influence they exert upon 
the expenditures which the people are 
called upon to make for navies and arm- 
ies, and the influence which they exert 
in breaking down disarmament confer- 
ences, in blocking all efforts to bring 
about peace and a better understanding 
among the nations of the world. . . . 

During the period of depression, while 
millions of men and women walk the 
streets ill-clad and half-starved, while 
governments have been unable to pay 
their debts, while educational institu- 
tions have been starved of funds, it is a 
fact that the munition manufacurers 
have been realizing profits of 12 and 
20 and 30 per cent during the entire 
period of the depression. While the 
world was struggling to get from under 
the catastrophe of the great World War 
and to relieve itself of the untold and 
immeasurable burdens which it imposed, 
these manufacturers have been engaged 
in disseminating the news which brings 
another world war. I know of no way 
to restrain or control them except for 
the government to take from them the 
power to manufacture, to take it over 
by the government, or to take it under 
license so that they can put out only the 
amount which the government itself de- 



termines they shall put out. 

In an article which appears in the 
March Fortune, I read: 

According to the best accountancy fig- 
ures, it cost about $25,000 to kill a sol- 
dier during the World War. There is 
one class of big business men in Europe 
that never rose up to denounce the ex- 
travagance of the government in this 
regard, to point out that when death is 
left unhampered as an enterprise for 
the individual initiative of gangsters, 
the cost of a single killing seldom ex- 
ceeds $100. The reason for the silence 
of these big business men is quite 
simple: The killing is their business; 
armaments are their stock and trade; 
governments are their customers; the 
ultimate consumers of their products 
are, historically, almost as often their 
compatriots as their enemies. That does 
not matter. The important point is that 
every time a burst-shell fragment finds 
its way into the brain, the heart, or the 
intestines of a man in the front line, a 
great part of the $25,000, much of it 
profits, finds its way into the pocket of 
the armament makers. . . . 

The munition makers break down 
laws; they break down governments; 
they kill human beings; they trample 
upon everything which gets in their 
way, human or divine; and they do it 
for gain — nothing but sordid gain. . . . 

Capone, Dillinger on the highway, are 
not more heartless and bloodthirsty 
than the man who builds up armaments 
in another nation for the purpose of 
sending his own people to the front that 
they may furnish the means by which 
to murder them. 

This magazine (Fortune) . . . gives 
a list of the different munitions manu- 
facturers — the Krupp people in Ger- 
many, the Bethlehem Steel Company in 
this country — and on that subject says: 

We have . . . our Colt's Patent Fire- 
arms Manufacturing Company, which 
supplies machine guns as well as squir- 
rel rifles, which declared an extra divi- 
dend in 1933; our Remington Arms Co. 
. . . whose output of firearms and am- 
munition together is one third of Unit- 
ed States production. And we have our 
Bethlehem Steel Co. ... In the official 
listing of Bethlehem's products .... 
you will find armor plate, projectiles, 
gun and shell forgings, battleships, bat- 



THE CARPENTER 



tie cruisers, scout cruisers, destroyers, 
submarines, and airplane carriers. 

Great opportunity to disarm! No 
wonder the disarmament conference and 
disarmament have come to be a kind of 
an organized piece of hypocrisy. There 
is lying back of it, constantly in opera- 
tion, the influences which work against 



anything in the nature of disarmament. 
It is not to their interest to see disarma- 
ment. . . . There is the influence which 
in some way or other men must control 
before we will secure any success in dis- 
armament; and secondly, before we will 
have any real assurance of amity among 
the nations of the world. 



WILL THE LUMBER INDUSTRY TAKE ITS SHARE? 




££ ILLIONS of dollars are ex- 
pected to be released for 
modernization, repairs 
and new construction by 
the latest moves of the 
President and Congress to 
put government backing behind the fi- 
nancing of building projects. 

With this stimulation for construction 
looming on the horizon, the question 
that many are raising today is, will the 
lumber industry be in a position to get 
its rightful portion of the business that 
will develop when the administration 
plans go through? Or will products that 
compete with wood crowd lumber out 
on many fronts? 

In many parts of the country there 
is an actual lack of dwellings. On every 
hand any one can see the need of mod- 
ernization and repairs. The building of 
low-cost homes presents an opportunity 
that awaits only available money re- 
sources to be realized. 

A recent survey by the National Asso- 
ciation of Real Estate Boards gives fig- 
ures showing the shortage of single 
family dwellings in several cities. In 
Washington, D. C, for instance, 1,000 
such homes are needed; in Fort Wayne, 
Ind., 5 00; in Canton, Ohio, 400 — ac- 
cording to this report. Lumber retailers 
could unearth similar needs in many of 
their communities. 

Answers to a questionnaire sent out 
by the National Lumber Manufacturers' 
Association to retail building supply 
dealers in all states, revealed that over 
300,000 people, owning a lot or some 
cash or both, would go ahead with build- 
ing homes for themselves if they were- fi- 
nanced. Awaiting a conservative financ- 
ing plan there were also reported to be 
256,000 farm buildings and 35,000 
small business structures, without con- 
sidering innumerable remodeling and 
repair jobs. 

The legislation passed by Congress 
following President Roosevelt's special 



message on May 14, seeks to fill the gap 
that exists in the financing of such pro- 
jects under present conditions. It aims 
to do this, not by supplying actual 
funds, but by placing government credit 
back of present agencies, and establish- 
ing such supplementary agencies as are 
deemed necessary, to put larger streams 
of private capital into construction chan- 
nels. 

The importance to the country at 
large of a workable plan to finance 
building is that it will provide a much- 
needed impetus to further recovery. 
With total construction less than a 
third of what it formerly was, millions 
of men are kept out of work, and bil- 
lions of dollars are unutilized. This ac- 
counts for an industrial and unemploy- 
ment problem that cannot be solved un- 
til there is a revival of building. 

"The loan insurance measure will re- 
sult in a flood of orders for construction 
materials," says Arthur T. Upson, of the 
National Lumber Manufacturers Asso- 
ciation. "The question which interests 
lumbermen is: How much of this busi- 
ness are they going to get? 

"Markets can be developed for ap- 
proximately 7 billion feet of lumber 
among the urban and farm home build- 
ers, who will take advantage of the fi- 
nancing facilities soon to be made avail- 
able, provided lumbermen do not sit idly 
by while manufacturers of competitive 
materials usurp this rich market." — 
(Wood Construction.) 



Considerate 

"It was nice of Nick to buy his wife 
a new washing machine." 

"Yes, the old one made so much 
noise he couldn't sleep." 



Demand the Union Label and show 
that you belong to an organization that 
helps the workers. 



THE CARPENTER 



EARLY DETECTION OF INDUSTRIAL DISEASES 




N order to arrive at a true 
prevention of industrial 
diseases, says Dr. May R. 
Mayers, they must be de- 
tected in their early 
stages, before actual tis- 
sue damage has been done. 

"Workers in modern industry are be- 
ing constantly exposed to all manner of 
chemical substances and mechanical de- 
vices. Some of these are quite harmless; 
others poisonous and, if not detected 
early and treated properly, may be fatal. 
These substances may gain access to the 
body by various means — the breathing 
apparatus, the stomach and, in some in- 
stances, through the skin. 

Each worker's body is a chemical lab- 
oratory far more intricate than the fac- 
tory in which he works, says Dr. Mayers, 
who is on the staff of the Division of 
Industrial Hygiene of the New York 
State Department of Labor. 

r 'His health and well-being result 
from an almost infinite number of reac- 
tions which are constantly taking place 
within his body. Many of the chemical 
substances in his body are so complex 
in their structure as to defy analysis or 
detection. They are capable of reaction 
with the chemical substances of the 
workroom." 

The slightest deviation or change may 
so disturb the delicate normal balance 
of the body, unless dectected by very 
fine bio-chemical analysis and treated, 
as to produce diseases of sufficient se- 
verity to threaten life itself. In industry 
an unsually good example is to be found 
in the extensive changes which may re- 
sult from exposure to quantities of car- 
bon monoxide gas in concentrations as 
low as three or four parts per 10,000 
of air. 

The various protective measures 
stressed by the Division of Industrial 
Hygiene are of assistance in prevention 
of disease. Their limitations, however, 
lie in the fact that only in rare instances 
can they entirely eliminate exposure. 

But the chronic and sub-acute forms 
still remain because exposure to lesser 
concentrations continues. 

"The effects of prolonged exposure 
tend to be cumulative, and may not 
cause symptoms until considerable dam- 
age has been done," says Dr. Mayers. 



"Par less is known about early manifes- 
tations of disease than is known about 
acute conditions. Medical science, if it 
is to be truly helpful, must be prepared 
to throw light upon early detection and 
early diagnosis. We must envisage a 
time in the future when it will be pos- 
sible to detect and appraise these very 
important early manifestations." 

When a worker contracts an acute 
industrial disease he becomes obviously 
ill. An early diagnosis is the rule, 
and effective early treatment is usually 
given. Delay often proves fatal. 

But a lead worker, for example, may 
work with the metal in one form or an- 
other for many years without feeling 
any ill effects. Then suddenly he may 
become acutely ill, but it is often too 
late to do anything about it. 

"Industrial diseases are usually slow 
and insidious in their onset. They gen- 
erally run a steadily progressive course, 
which, if unchecked, may result in disa- 
bility or death. Before this occurs, how- 
ever, the worker is quite naturally una- 
ware that there is anything amiss. An 
intensive scientific investigation of the 
interaction of that chemical laboratory 
which is the worker's body with the 
chemical laboratory in which he works 
opens a wide and useful field of research 
to the industrial physician. This in- 
volves the application of bio-chemical 
methods. The acquisition of such scien- 
tific data is essential. It provides data 
without which a truly effective preven- 
tive health program in industry cannot 
be developed. It also furnishes data by 
means of which greater accuracy in the 
diagnosis of compensation cases can be 
attained." 



College Presidents Tell Students Not 
To Break Strikes 

Public opinion toward strikers has 
undergone a remarkable change along 
the Pacific coast. Business men who 
formerly opposed organization of work- 
ers are now actively with them. Presi- 
dents of colleges have warned students 
against strikebreaking, notably at the 
University of Washington, whereas for- 
merly the university officials were in the 
forefront urging students to act as 
strikebreakers. 



Keep Your Dues Paid Up 



THE CARPENTER 



AS A WORKER SEES IT 

(By Herbert G. Walter) 




HE average human being 
is such an easy-going in- 
dividual that until it is 
very evident that an evil 
has to be remedied, and 
that evil is affecting a 
very large number of people and threat- 
ens to affect the great majority, nothing 
is ever done about it. 

It took plagues to teach sanitation 
and cleanliness. 

Let us hope that this great economic 
depression will teach the need of making 
some changes in our economic system, 
and eliminating the great evils of pov- 
erty and unemployment. 

We have an economic system that 
was not planned like some modern cities 
have been planned. It merely grew like 
some old cities grew, without any plan- 
ning at all. 

We all know how unsatisfactory these 
old cities were, how narrow and crooked 
the streets; how the lack of sanitary 
arrangement caused disease, and the 
lack of building regulations was taken 
advantage of by selfish, short-sighted 
persons who built buildings that were 
unfit to live in, and without necessary 
fire protection. 

It is well known how difficult it has 
been to improve cities. Even the slum 
dwellers themselves have often resented 
having to move out of tenements into 
more comfortable quarters. 

It will be very difficult to improve the 
economic system, or rather economic 
chaos — for our present economic situa- 
tion can not be called a system, as it 
works so badly — as some of the reforms 
needed will be objected to by short- 
sighted persons in all classes. For all 
classes are to blame. They have been 
content to lean upon a collective system 
without trying to improve that system 
so that it will work satisfactorily. 

Most people have believed and some 
still believe that economic depressions 
are inevitable and perfectly natural; 
that they follow periods of prosperity 
as winter follows summer. Even the 
economic textbooks written by men who 
should know better — and probably do 
— teach along these lines. 

Those who realize that something is 
very wrong blame the political party 



in power, our banking system, prohibi- 
tion, taxation, etc., for our economic 
troubles. 

The radical ones want to tear down 
the system and build a new one. This 
would be as foolish as tearing down 
your house because the roof leaks or 
the foundation is bad. You would not 
tear down your house because of these 
defects, especially, if like these radicals 
you had no definite floor plan for your 
new house, and you had to live on the 
building site among the debris of the 
old house and the building under con- 
struction. 

The present economic system, though 
unsatisfactory, is better than the feudal 
system under which the workers built 
castles and mansions for the lords and 
lived in hovels themselves, and made 
beautiful clothes for the rich and had 
to be content with rags. Then, the 
common people supplied their over-lords 
with both the necessities and the lux- 
uries of life, and had to be content with 
a bare existence. They had no pur- 
chasing power, and they worked directly 
for their masters instead of for a con- 
tractor as most of us do today. 

It is better than the old slave system 
when the masters had the power of life 
and death over the slaves. 

The common people have two great 
powers they never had in bygone days. 
One is the power to elect to political 
office anybody they want. The other 
great power is the purchasing power. 
This great power, because of the de- 
pression, has been greatly curtailed and 
we are told that before prosperity comes 
again that it will have to be built up. 
This is true, but the wise men who tell 
us this do not say how it is to be done. 
These two great powers, if wisely used, 
will cure all economic evils and improve 
social conditions. 

Up to the present, however, these two 
powers have not been wisely used. The 
people, instead of electing real states- 
men to office, have listened to and been 
unduly influenced by the speeches of 
self-seeking politicians in most cases. 
Their purchasing power has been mis- 
used as they have not cared how the 
goods they purchased were produced or 
demanded a guarantee of quality. 



THE CARPENTER 



The American Federation of Labor 
has tried to teach its members their 
power as consumers by pledging them 
to promote unionism and to be true to 
their principles by demanding the union 
label on their purchases. I am sorry to 
say that only a small proportion of or- 
ganized labor lives up to this obligation, 
and then only partly. A man will de- 
mand the label on his overalls, but omit 
to demand it on his underwear. 

By this time a large number of people 
realize that depressions are caused be- 
cause we can not collectively buy back 
what we have collectively produced. If 
this could be done large surpluses of 
goods would never pile up and workers 
would not be thrown out of employment. 

How are we going to remedy this 
evil? First of all the people must be 
taught that as they are the consumers 
of the goods produced, they are the real 
employers of labor and being so have 
the power and the right to dictate the 
conditions under which the goods they 
consume are produced, the quality of 
the goods, and that the prices they pay 
for them shall not be more than the 
cost for production plus the cost of dis- 
tribution. 

The manufacturers must learn that 
they are not the real employers, except 
when they do their own private pur- 
chasing, but that they are merely the 
collecting and distributing agents and 
that they should not exact a bigger toll 
for their services than they can con- 
sume themselves. 

So this economic question is not one 
for revolution or change of system, but 
one of common sense and arithmetic. 
Production and consumption must be 
balanced. 

We know that if we eat more than 
our bodies can consume we get fat or 
get stomach trouble. 

The farmer knows that if he does not 
fertilize his land it will not produce 
good crops. He does not regard the 
time and money spent on fertilization as 
a loss but a wise investment. 

Yet the agencies of our industrial 
system have always regarded wages as 
a loss, losing sight of the fact that they 
are in reality a wise investment which 
brings returns in purchasing power. 
They regard the workers in the same 
light as the feudal lord and the slave- 
owner did. They are trying to run a 
modern mass-production system with 
medieval and ancient methods. 



Now if production and consumption 
were balanced we would all create our 
own jobs. If each person could buy 
back out of the collective store of goods 
the same value, less the cost of distri- 
bution, the depreciation of machinery 
and factories, etc., that he has produced 
by his labor, it would not matter how 
many hours a person worked, so long 
as he spent his wages again. A woman 
or girl who wanted extra clothes, or a 
car of her own, could work without dis- 
placing a man who is supporting a fam- 
ily. A student could also work during 
his vacation to earn money for his col- 
lege course without displacing a man. 
A man could work until he was so old 
that he wanted to quit or he was unable 
to work any more. Immigrants could 
come into the country without taking 
away the jobs of those already here. 

How can such a state of affairs be 
brought about? How can the capitalist 
and employers of labor be persuaded to 
regard wages not as a loss, but as a 
profitable investment? When will they 
learn that their employes are their cus- 
tomers? How can the great majority 
of people, the workers, be taught to de- 
mand that the wages paid them shall be 
large enough to buy back what they 
have produced? I do not know. I do 
know, though, that when the necessity 
for this sensible and desirable change 
is realized by the great majority of the 
people that it will come. 

This depression may teach large num- 
bers of people these evident facts. It 
may also teach them how foolish it is 
to lean upon a system without studying 
the workings of the system and trying 
to remedy its defects. It is already teach- 
ing them that the system is collective. 
Teachers, policemen, firemen and others 
steadily employed, who a few years ago, 
when their positions were secure, never 
worried about the economic system, and 
regarded the unemployed as the ineffi- 
cient and in most cases the unemploy- 
able, now realize that their positions 
depend upon the prosperity of the com- 
mon people. 

Business people such as storekeepers, 
now realize the truth of organized labor 
principles. They realize that they de- 
pend upon the adequate purchasing 
power of the common people, as well as 
the purchasing power of the rich. The 
workers themselves are realizing that 
fundamental changes must be made in 
order to insure continued prosperity. 



THE CARPENTER 



The people will in time demand that 
either the manufacturers hase the price 
of the commodities that are produced in 
their factories on the cost of production 
plus distribution costs or they will re- 
fuse to do business with them. Then a 
new group of manufacturers will come 
into existence who will run their factor- 
ies on this practical basis. 

A change such as I have outlined is 
much more desirable than complicated 
systems of unemployment insurance, 
which do not work satisfactorily when 
economic depressions come. It is much 
more desirable than state socialism, or 
communism. 

It would practically reduce the need 
for old-age pensions, as a person could 
work as long as he was able, and not be 
thrown on the scrap heap in middle age 
because he has lost the speed of youth 
and become a burden to himself and his 



relatives because of enforced idleness 
and straitened circumstances. A person 
could easily save what little would be 
needed for those few years he would be 
unable to work. 

People would then be able to grow 
old gracefully instead of looking for- 
ward to it with fear, and with visions 
of the poorhouse or county farm. Indi- 
gent aid would be reduced to a mini- 
mum as there are very few people who 
are unable to work. Crime would also 
be reduced, and consequently the cost 
of courts. Sickness would be reduced, 
as much sickness is caused by financial 
worries and occupational diseases. 

So let us work for this desirable 
change. Let us work to make the em- 
ployer see that he is not a master but a 
servant, and the worker that he is in 
reality the employer and as such should 
use his power as an employer. 



EPISCOPALIANS ASK END OF CHILD LABOR 




HE Protestant Episcopal 
Diocese of New York at 
its 151st convention in 
Synod House of the Ca- 
thedral of St. John the 
Divine, demanded the 
permanent and nation-wide elimination 
of child labor and the protection of 
workers by some form of unemployment 
insurance. 

Bishop Manning said it was not the 
function of the church to prescribe eco- 
nomic systems or forms of government. 

"But," he added, "it is the function 
of the church to bring in the reign of 
Christ in this world, and Christ's reign 
is not reconcilable with war, or sweat- 
shops, or slums, or racial prejudice and 
persecution, or with a blind and selfish 
nationalism." 

A resolution was presented "that it is 
the conviction of the Diocese of New 
York in convention assembled that the 
manufacture of munitions should be a 
government enterprise and so regulated 
and controlled that private profit may 
be eliminated"; also "that it is the duty 
of every individual to inform himself 
and take action to the end that the 
activities of munitions manufacturers 
may be fully exposed and that profits, 
which are the price of blood, may be 
forever eliminated." 

A resolution was presented "that the 
members of this convention solemnly 



express our conviction that hereafter the 
Christian Church ought not to sanction 
or support war," and "that the church 
asserts and will seek to defend the right 
of any of its individuals who by consci- 
entious conviction refuse to have part 
in any war." 

Bishop William T. Manning, who 
presided, called for these Federal re- 
forms in his annual address. When he 
had finished, a resolution was adopt- 
ed unanimously expressing agreement 
"with that part of the Bishop's address 
dealing with social questions." 

"Two of these needs I wish especially 
to commend to your attention at this 
time; first, the permanent and nation- 
wide elimination of child labor and, 
second, the protection of our workers 
by some form of unemployment insur- 
ance," Bishop Manning said in his ad- 
dress, in commending the work of the 
diocesan social service commission. "I 
am not discussing here the measures by 
which this is to be accomplished, but 
the way can be found and must be found 
to end the wrong and the shame of 
child labor and to relieve the workers 
of our land from the uncertainty and 
insecurity which now hang over them 
and their families through fear of un- 
employment." 



No shop should be patronized that 
does not display a Union Card. 



10 



THE CARPENTER 



A NEW DEAL IN HOUSING 

(By Violet K. Libby) 



s^^^e^ M NE of the most difficult 
P^rT^^m P r °blems for a man with 
JMJz^zj^m a small income is to find 
H£*^^\~~W\ a decent home for his 
family at a price that fits 
his pocket book — a home 
that is cheerful and convenient, in a 
neighborhood that is the right kind for 
his children to grow up in. All over the 
country, particularly in the cities, for 
years there has been a great shortage of 
low-priced houses and apartments, and 
although there has been much inves- 
tigation and discussion of the prob- 
lem, real estate interests have usually 
blocked any action. 

The average real estate operator can 
see no profit in building inexpensive 
homes, and capital therefore all goes 
into speculative housing for the com- 
paratively well-to-do. In some cases, 
public spirited individuals or corpora- 
tions, satisfied with a nominal return 
for their investment, have tried to 
meet the demand for decent, inexpensive 
homes by building model, low-priced 
apartments, but the best efforts of these 
"limited dividend corporations" have 
hardly been able to make a dent in the 
situation, which is a serious one every- 
where. 

All over Europe, Governments faced 
with the same problem have found it 
necessary to step in and provide the 
money, either in the form of outright 
grants or by State subsidies of various 
kinds. The United States took the first 
step in the same direction some time 
ago, when the Public Works Adminis- 
tration approved grants to "limited divi- 
dend corporations" in several cities for 
model low-priced housing developments. 
Although it is a very modest beginning, 
it is hoped that it may eventually open 
up a whole new outlook for the small 
salaried worker who wants to house his 
family well. 

Great Britain, since the end of the 
war, has put up over 1,000,000 new low- 
priced homes. The Government looks 
on good housing as a wise and lasting 
investment in the health and morale of 
the people, and in spite of the tremen- 
dous burden of high taxes, war debts 
and unemployment, is considering spend- 
ing altogether a billion dollars on its 
housing plans. To Great Britain this 



seems one of the wisest and best ways 
to fight crime and communism, and to 
bring employment, health and prosper- 
ity to her people. 

Other countries feel very much the 
same way, and under different systems 
of Government aid have put large num- 
bers of unemployed men to work on 
model housing schemes. 

In almost every case these new Gov- 
ernment aided developments have done 
far more than just build new dwellings. 
Nurseries and playgrounds have been 
arranged for the children, recreation 
parks and swimming pools for the 
grown-ups, and in addition all sorts of 
modern conveniences have been put into 
the houses, which rent for surprisingly 
little. 

As a result the foreign worker is com- 
ing through the years of depression with 
a better home than he ever expected to 
have, and is living under conditions 
which keep him happy and healthy and 
give him greater efficiency for his daily 
work. 

England, as we said before, has gone 
into the building of low-priced homes 
on an immense scale. Part of her pro- 
gram has been to clear out the slum 
areas of her big cities, taking care at 
the same time that every family forced 
to move should be provided with suit- 
able living quarters either in new model 
apartments, put up on the site of the 
old tenements, or in modern homes else- 
where. 

More than twenty of these unhealthy, 
vice-breeding areas have been cleaned 
up in London alone, and have been re- 
placed by fine modern apartment houses, 
with plenty of light, air and open space 
around, not to mention electricity and 
modern plumbing, in which the rents 
run on an average of $3 to $7 a room a 
month, depending on the location. 

These are for the man who has to 
live in the city, but the great aim in 
England has been to get people out into 
the more healthy surroundings of the 
country districts. All over the country- 
side are dotted hundreds of garden 
cities — picturesque and cheerful red- 
roofed cottages of brick and stucco in a 
setting of shady oak trees, each with its 
own flower and vegetable garden. Most 
of the cottages have four or five rooms 
and bath, and rent for $10 to $14 a 



THE CARPENTER 



11 



month, depending on the size and loca- 
tion. 

There are several of these communi- 
ties within easy commuting distance of 
all the hig cities, with their own schools, 
shops, and recreation centers. On the 
outskirts there are frequently clean, 



modern factories, which find that it 
pays to move out of the city into a dis- 
trict where there is a plentiful supply 
of well-housed labor. 

There is no question that the stand- 
ard of health is much improved under 
the new housing. 



CARPENTERS WAGING BATTLE TO OUST 

CHISELERS 

(By Frank P. Keenan) 




RGANIZED carpenters 
throughout Greater New 
York are determined to 
wage a bitter battle to 
eradicate the lumper and 
chiseler from all Federal, 
State and Municipal work throughout 
the five boroughs. 

The evil and curse of the lumper and 
chiseler, or, to quote a nicer name, the 
so-called "sub-contractor," must go. 
And a clause must be inserted in all 
Federal, State and Municipal contracts 
insisting that all work pertaining to the 
erection of woodwork must be done by 
the general contractor. 

In all State work at the present time 
there is a clause to the effect that all 
brick work must be done by the general 
contractor and a similar clause in the 
specifications states also that no stone 
work shall be sub-contracted by the gen- 
eral contractor. 

The carpenter takes pride in his 
work, and knowing that the workman- 
ship and skill required in the proper 
erection of woodwork on public build- 
ings feels that skill should not be des- 
ecrated by the short cut and half way 
methods used by the chiseler. 

On all private work given out to a 
general contractor the carpenter shall 
insist that all labor required for the 
erection of all woodwork shall be done 
by carpenters employed by the general 
contractor to the end that the owner 
having the work done will get what he 
is paying for. 

The lumper, of course, gains by many 
short-cut methods when he comes on 
the job with absolutely nothing, some- 
times even without the right time. His 
methods of driving the men, employing 
unfair tactics in the erection of his work 
and in the ever-present menace of his 
like bargaining with the men as well as 
cheating them, brings to the lumper his 



profit on the job. 

The result is the general contractor 
has paid to the chiseler approximately as 
much as the work would cost him if 
he employed the carpenters direct, and 
what has he received for his money? 
Nothing but a chiseling, cheap banged- 
up job, and possibly a headache in the 
bargain, if the owner is at all acquaint- 
ed with any knowledge of carpentry. 

The carpenter is used to the evils and 
methods of the lumper or those so- 
called sub-contractors and will not tol- 
erate them any longer. 

Now, there is another type of builder: 
the speculator, the apartment house 
builder, who may be a retired business 
man or a group of business men with no 
direct knowledge of the building indus- 
try, who invests his money in building 
projects for speculation. To this type 
of operator the carpenter says for his 
own good and the good of the industry 
he should leave the erection of his proj- 
ects in the hands of competent and re- 
liable contractors who are familiar with 
the industry and who know their busi- 
ness. 

To the speculative builder who in- 
sists on doing his own building con- 
struction, the carpenter will also insist 
that he must employ his carpenters di- 
rect. The carpenters have many compe- 
tent men in their organization that can 
be employed by the builder direct to 
see that his carpenter work is done in 
a satisfactory manner. 

The carpenter does not want these 
conditions caused by the lumper to con- 
tinue in his trade — one of the oldest in 
history. 

The carpenter knows he has a job on 
his hands to eliminate the lumper, a 
job that will require some time, but he 
has started on this work and will not 
stop until he has lumped the lumper 
out of the picture. 



12 



THE CARPENTER 



THE STANDARD OF VALUE 

(By H. H. Siegele) 



W-^!: f mm^.W 0R the P ur P° se of co] 
<> "^B^n^^T parison, let us suppo 




)m- 
>ose 
an exaggerated stand- 
ard of values; say, a 
pig standard," the phil- 
osopher began, "and if 
we would run out of pigs and had to 
pay our bills with sheep, we would be 
off the pig standard, and on the sheep 
standard — nothing complicated or hard 
to understand about that at all. But let 
us go on with our pig standard. What 
would the millionaires and billionaires 
do with their pigs? Wall Street would 
have to lease or buy most of the New 
England states to hold all their pigs; 
and just think of the number of men it 
would require to take care of them. 
That might help to solve the unemploy- 
ment situation; and then, think of the 
amount of corn those pigs would eat; 
which would help the farmer, and agri- 
culture .... Everything would have to 
be measured in terms of pigs, from mar- 
celles to million-dollar mansions. Mer- 
chants, instead of cash registers, would 
have to install pig sties in order to tran- 
sact business and make change for cus- 
tomers. It can readily be seen that a 
pig standard of values would be out of 
the question for the rich man, cumber- 
some for the business man, and not so 
bad for the forgotten working man, 
who, though he had little, could at least 
eat the pigs, after earning them; some- 
thing that can not be done with gold or 
silver. 

"While this pig standard comparison 
may seem strange, it, nevertheless, 
amounts to what is called a barter sys- 
tem with pigs as the basic commodity. 
Many communities, during the great de- 
pression resorted to bartering, because 
the fellow with the key to the gold sup- 
ply, had crippled our monetary system 
of distribution, by keeping the key in 
his pocket; thus bringing on an epidem- 
ic of hunger, such as this country, or 
the world for that matter, has never 
seen before. Had we been on a pig 
standard, that would have been impos- 
sible, for pigs can not be cornered, or 
hoarded as conveniently as gold or even 
silver. Gold yields itself to hoarding, 
however, more readily than silver, be- 
cause the supply is limited, and the in- 
crease of the supply is comparatively 
slow. With silver it is not so; the rich 



silver mines in the west make possible 
an increase of the supply as prolific as 
the possibility of increasing the supply 
of pigs. Silver would keep our system 
of distribution functioning more nearly 
as it should; it would revive the min- 
ing industry and put men back to work; 
it would put money into circulation and 
thus help industry in general. A greater 
and a freer circulation of the medium of 
exchange, is what the working people 
need, in order to obtain their just share 
of the good things of life." 

The philosopher was not advocating 
silver as the best and most equitable 
medium of exchange, but he knew that 
silver would in many ways benefit the 
common people, and supply their needs, 
better than gold. Vault-hoarding is the 
curse that accompanies gold, which 
would be materially lessened with sil- 
ver. Vault-hoarding brings on depres- 
sions, panics and hard times for all who 
have to work for a living, and the soon- 
er this sort of thing can be banished 
from our social system, the better it 
will be for everybody. 

"But no monetary standard can be 
entirely satisfactory," the philosopher 
continued. "The only just standard of 
values is the labor standard. Labor pro- 
duces all wealth, and in reality deter- 
mines the value of all commodities, 
which is the actual cost in labor. The 
market value of gold or of silver, in the 
final analysis must be based on what 
these commodities cost in labor to mine 
and refine them, which would, of course, 
include prospecting. For example, take 
air; it, as a rule, does not cost any- 
thing in labor and therefore has no mar- 
ket value, but its usefulness to human- 
ity is far greater than that of gold or 
of silver. Again, water may or may not 
have a market value, and why? Simply 
because water frequently costs some- 
thing in labor, and when it does it has a 
market value. It should be clear from 
this, that labor is the only logical stand- 
ard of values, even though it is not rec- 
ognized as such." 

The philosopher was not advocating 
the labor standard of values, because he 
hoped ever to live to see it in operation, 
for he knew that changes in a monetary 
system of a social order come slowly, 
and only after the old systems have 



THE CARPENTER 



13 



broken down and are completely worn 
out. Being forced off a standard, is a 
good symptom that the system has brok- 
en down, but it is not proof that it is 
worn out. Before a monetary system is 
completely worn out, it must go through 
a period of "off again, on again" 
changes, until the thing is dead, buried 
and forgotten. 

"All we can hope for," the philoso- 
pher said, pushing his fingers comb-like 
through his hair, "is to move gradually 
toward the labor standard. The working 
man must forever be on the look-out, 
not only for his own immediate good, 



but for the good of his children, and 
his children's children. He must guard 
himself against becoming a tool for 
vault-hoarders, who with honey-saturat- 
ed propaganda try to use him to rake 
chestnuts for themselves. He must set 
himself like flint against any system 
that makes it possible for one man, or 
a small group of men to corner the 
medium of exchange, and by so doing 
cripple the system of distribution to 
such an extent that men, women and 
children will have to starve, while nec- 
essary things of life are rotting in store- 
houses and in fields." 




MENACE OF LOW WAGES 

U£ ANCHESTER BODDY.pub- ing power makes industry possible. 



lisher, recently editorial- 
ized in the Los Angeles 
Daily News as follows: 

"The system of low 
wages now prevailing in 
the United States breeds a form of de- 
featism that will destroy American in- 
stitutions and the American standard of 
living. Our public prints are filled with 
preachments against alleged foreign 
'isms' that threaten to destroy Ameri- 
canisnn yet the cancerous growth of de- 
featism, that alone can destroy Ameri- 
canism, is everywhere encouraged and 
propagated. 

"Industrialists compete with one an- 
other in terms of wage cuts, rewards 
going to industries that make the most 
progress in this direction. Business or- 
ganizations, by reducing the wage of 
white collar workers, have developed a 
vast class of social liabilities rather 
than economic assets. One-third of all 
the babies born in Los Angeles County, 
for instance, where the white collar or 
'service' class predominates, see light of 
day in institutions of 'charity.' 

"White collar workers would like to 
buy more and better clothes, modern 
furniture, new automobiles — more of 
everything, in fact, that forms the basis 
of modern business and caters to culti- 
vated taste. Yet the prevailing low rate 
of pay to these workers renders such 
purchasing impossible. 

"Strangely enough, the very people 
whose fortunes depend upon the con- 
tinued functioning of industry are the 
same people who demand lower and 
lower wages for the people whose buy- 



"The drive for lower wages in indus- 
try, business and office has its counter- 
part in a current drive for lower wages 
in the public service. Thus is the germ 
of defeatism spread throughout the 
country. It must be stopped. The strug- 
gle for widespread employment must be 
coupled with a program of wage in- 
creases for all who perform essential 
service, until purchasing power has been 
restored to the masses. 

"If I were a member of a 'Red' organ- 
ization, bent on wrecking the United 
States beyond repair, I would organize 
owners of real estate and start a cam- 
paign to reduce the purchasing power 
of all public employes. 

"I would join every chamber of com- 
merce, every luncheon club, every '100 
per cent American' organization, and 
preach the gospel of low wages until I 
succeeded in reducing the purchasing 
power of all workers to the point where 
the industries, banks and businesses 
supported by the purchasing power of 
these workers withered and died like a 
forest of trees whose roots have been de- 
stroyed." 



"The man who deals in sunshine, 
Is the one who gets the crowds; 

He does a lot more business, 

Than the one who peddles clouds." 

* * * 

The most valuable result of educa- 
tion is ability to make yourself do the 
thing you ought to do, when it ought to 
be done, whether you like to do it or 
not. — Huxley. 



Editorial 




THE CARPENTER 

Official Journal of 

THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD OF 

CARPENTERS AND JOINERS 

OF AMERICA 

Published on the 15th of each month at the 

CARPENTBKS' BUILDING 

Indianapolis, Ind. 

UNITED BROTHERHOOD OP 

CARPENTERS AND JOINERS OF AMERICA, 

Publishers 

FRANK DUFFY, Editor 

Scbscbiption Price 
One Dollar a Year In Advance, Postpaid 

The publishers and the advertising 
agent use every possible precaution avail- 
able to them against accepting advertise- 
ments from other than reliable firms, but 
do not accept any responsibility for the 
contents of any advertisement which ap- 
pears in "The Carpenter." Should any 
deception be practiced by advertisers at 
any time, upon members, their duty is to 
immediately notify the Post Office au- 
thorities. Therefore, address any com- 
plaints to your local Post Office. 

INDIANAPOLIS, AUGUST, 1934 

The Toledo Incident 

MUCH publicity was given by the 
newspapers to an incident which 
occurred at Toledo, Ohio, during 
the time the Auto-Lite Workers were on 
strike to bring about an increase in 
wages and recognition of their union. 

While the strike was in progress the 
strikers and other labor unions of To- 
ledo held a monstrous parade and it is 
alleged a strike breaker was forced to 
march at the head of the procession 
stripped, bruised and bleeding. 

Much was made of the fact that a 
•photograph was taken of the unfortu- 
nate man and of the further fact that 
men, women and children stood along 
the sidewalks laughing as he passed by. 
Commentators, columnists, and others, 



used the incident to insinuate that un- 
ion labor was bringing about and al- 
legedly encouraging mob violence. 

That the whole affair was wrong no 
one can deny, but that the violence was 
incited, encouraged or approved by real 
union labor, is not true. Union labor 
no more incited, encouraged, or ap- 
proved this thing than decent citizens 
of California incited, encouraged or ap- 
proved the stripping, beating and hang- 
ing by the mob of the abductors of a 
certain rich Californian some months 
ago. 

Organized labor has not authorized 
any violence on the part of its members, 
but on the contrary has urged lawful 
methods in every respect and under all 
circumstances. It takes none of the 
blame for unlawful acts on the part of 
some of its sympathizers, if any such 
are guilty of any violations. We firmly 
believe that most of the violence is the 
result of unlawful methods on the part 
of industry and on the part of some of 
its hired guards who are committing 
these acts or winking at them. 

Workers of today, however, do not 
forget incidents of the past on the part 
of employers who forced them to work 
under conditions that were intolerable. 
Lives of employes were shortened by 
being obliged to work in an environ- 
ment shockingly insanitary and unsafe. 
The selfishness and greed of the em- 
ployers would not allow them to spend 
more money to improve conditions and 
to install safety appliances. 

The workers remember that it isn't 
so long ago that the steels mills held 
men at hard work with no great wage for 
twelve hours a day, seven days a week, 
and contractors in the building industry 
required carpenters to work ten and 
twelve hours a day. 

Resort to violence however cannot be 
encouraged by law-abiding citizens. The 
great pity of it is that certain operators 
of industry refuse to abide by the laws 
enacted by the Federal government for 
their benefit and for the benefit of those 
who work for them. 



THE CARPENTER 



15 



The industries of the country — allow- 
ing due exception for those who have 
shown a disposition to be fair — have set 
the most glaring examples of violence 
we can imagine. They have kept those 
sections of the law of the NRA that 
have been for their own benefit and 
have deliberately spurned those sections 
that have been enacted for the benefit 
of the workers and consumers. 

The proper and just view of the To- 
ledo affair and any similar incidents 
elsewhere demands the condemnation of 
wrong no matter on which side it ap- 
pears, and an inquiry that is sane, judi- 
cious and fair, into the cause of these 
disputes. Give and take, compromise 
and conciliation is in order. If this is 
not done the result will be not a peace- 
ful, economic and political evolution, 
but the fierce and destructive revolution 
that threatens society the world over. 

In the Toledo incident we are pleased 
to announce that the unhappy affair has 
come to a close with a victory for the 
workers in securing an increased wage 
scale and recognition of the union, and 
we express the hope that the harmoni- 
ous relations now existing between the 
Electric Auto-Lite Company of Toledo 
and its employes will continue indefi- 
nitely. 



National Housing 

THE President has asked speedy ac- 
tion to facilitate home construc- 
tion and to provide employment 
in the heavy industries. Unemployment 
still remains high among the building 
trades workers. One of the reasons is 
stand-still in home construction. Be- 
tween 1921 and 1930, expenditures for 
residential construction were 5 per 
cent more than those for other types of 
construction — 17 as against 11 billion 
dollars. About one-third of the "other 
type of construction" were public work 
into which PWA funds would go. Home 
construction dropped from $3,000,000,- 
000 annually to $300,000,000. 

So far practically none of the relief 
funds has been spent for residential 
construction and private construction is 
at low ebb. There are a number of rea- 
sons for this: The terriffic loss through 
defaulting mortgage bonds; banks and 
mortgage agencies have foreclosed on a 
huge number of properties which they 
wish to dispose of at a tidy profit be- 
fore they make loans for new construc- 



tion. Because these credit agencies wish 
a scarcity to develop so they can sell the 
houses on which they foreclosed, they 
are unwilling to finance building at 
present low cost anticipating the hous- 
ing shortage that will be evident just 
as soon as wage earners' incomes permit 
a return to former standards of living. 

The President gives as the purpose of 
his four-point program to provide em- 
ployment and create wealth for which 
there is social and economic need. The 
four points are: modernization, repairs 
and new construction; mortgage insur- 
ance; mortgage associations; building 
and loan insurance. The government will 
insure loans to individuals by private 
agencies up to 80 per cent of the ap- 
praised value of the property — such 
loans to be made in accord with govern- 
ment specifications; mortgage associa- 
tions will be incorporated under strict 
federal supervision; and lastly insur- 
ance for share and certificate holders in 
building and loan associations similar to 
insurance for bank deposits on the the- 
ory that these institutions are custo- 
dians for the funds of small savers. 

Such a measure put into effect 
promptly and administered with sure- 
ness and quick decision would bring em- 
ployment to groups that have been long- 
est and most heavily unemployed. Un- 
employment among building trades still 
is high — 76 per cent in Cincinnati, 74 
per cent in New York City, 70 per cent 
in Jersey City, and 64 per cent in Phil- 
adelphia. 



The Seven Mistakes 

There are seven mistakes of life that 
many of us make, said a famous writer, 
and then he gave the following list: 

The delusion that individual advance- 
ment is made by crushing others down. 

The tendency to worry about things 
that cannot be changed or corrected. 

Insisting that a thing is impossible 
because we ourselves cannot accomplish 
it. 

Refusing to set aside trivial prefer- 
ences, in order that important things 
may be accomplished. 

Neglecting development and refine- 
ment of the mind and not acquiring the 
habit of reading and study. 

Attempting to compel other persons 
to believe and live as we do. 

The failure to establish the habit of 
saving money. 



Official Information 




GENERAL OFFICERS 
Of 

THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD 

Of 

CARPENTERS AND JOINERS 

OF AMERICA 

General Office 
Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General President 

WM. L. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



First General Vice-President 

GEORGE H. LAKEY 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Second General Vice-President 

JAMES M. GAULD 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Secretary 

FRANK DUFFY 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Treasurer 

THOMAS NEALE 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Executive Board 
First District, T. M. GUERIN 
290 Second Ave., Troy, N. Y. 



Second District, W. T. ALLEN 
3832 N. Gratz St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



Third District. HARRY SCHWARZER 
10522 Parkhurst Drive, Cleveland, O. 



Fourth District, JAS. L. BRADFORD 
1900 15th Ave., N., Nashville, Tenn. 



Fifth District, J. W. WILLIAMS 
3948 S. Grand Blvd., St. Louis, Mo. 



Sixth District, A. W. MTTIR 
200 Guerrero St., San Francisco, Cal. 



Seventh District, ARTHUR MARTEL 
6375 Chambord St., Montreal, Que., Can. 



WM. L. HUTCHESON, Chairman 
FRANK DUFFY, Secretary 



All correspondence for the General Executive 
Board must be sent to the General Secretary. 



CONVENTION CALL 

Trades and Labor Congress of Canada 

The call for the fiftieth annual con- 
vention of the Trades and Labor Con- 
gress of Canada has been issued. The 
convention this year will be held in the 
Convention Hall of the Royal York Ho- 
tel, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, begin- 
ning Monday, September 10, 1934, and 
continuing from day to day until the 
business of the convention has been 
completed. 



OFFICIAL NOTICE 

We are herewith printing, for the in- 
formation of our members, the contents 
of circulars distributed by the Building 
Trades Council of Philadelphia, Pa., set- 
ting forth the attitude of the Kinsey Dis- 
tilling Company, as well as the Conti- 
nental and Publicker Distilling Co. 

To Members of Organized Labor and 
their Friends 

CONTINENTAL & PUBLICKER DIS- 
TILLING CO. 
Manufacturers of Dixie Belle 
and Cavalier Gins, Sweep- 
stakes, Rittenhouse Square, 
Diplomat, and Snug Harbor 
Whiskies 
is unfair to the Building Trades Council, 
the Metal Trades Council and the Coop- 
er's Union, as they DO NOT EMPLOY 
UNION LABOR affiliated with the A. P. 
of L. in their distilleries. 



THE KINSEY DISTILLING COMPANY 
Erecting and remodeling their 
buildings at 

LINFIELD, PENNA. 

IS UNFAIR TO ORGANIZED LABOR. 



THE GULP REPINING CO. 
Manufacturers of "Good Gulf 
Gasoline" and "Gulf Supreme 
Oil" 
is unfair to the Building Trades Coun- 
cil, as they DO NOT EMPLOY UNION 
LABOR affiliated with the A. P. of L. 



THE CARPENTER 



17 



Pension Checks Should Be Promptly 
Cashed 

"Denver, Colorado 
July 6. 1934 
Mr. Frank Duffy, 
General Secretary, 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Dear Sir and Brother: 

This week when the pension checks 
arrived there was also a letter enclosed 
from the General President stating that 
after 9 days these checks would be 
void. 

To the average member this may 
sound strange, but it is really surprising 
how dilatory the average man on pen- 
sion is. We have 60 members receiving 
the pension and you would be surprised 
at the number of checks that stay in 
my possession for four or five weeks be- 
fore being called for, and then I gener- 
ally have to write the members a letter 
to come and get them. Then there are 
others who take them away and hold 
them for a month or six weeks and then 
come back and pay dues with them. It 
is strange how these members feel about 
these checks, which is something they 
are getting for nothing. Strange as it 
may seem, there is a great percentage of 
these men who at the time of receiving 
their check are two months behind in 
their dues. 

I should like to hear from other sec- 
retaries what kind of experience they 
have with the pensions. 

Fraternally yours, 
Robert Currie, Fin. Sec., 

Local Union No. 55." 
* * * 

Note — The letter referred to by 
Brother Currie was issued under date 
of July 2, 19 34, by the General Presi- 
dent to those Local Unions whose mem- 
bers are receiving pension checks, in 
which he says: 

"You will note on the enclosed checks 
it states: 'Void 9 days after date.' The 
reason for that statement being on the 
checks, is due to the fact that many 
checks are held and not cashed for some 
time, which means extra work in the 
bookkeeping department at the General 
Office in order to keep the records cor- 
rect." 

If pension members need money they 
will cash these checks promptly. If they 
don't need money, we should be so no- 
tified and the pensions will be stopped. 



However, if they are not cashed within 
90 days, they will not be honored by our 
Indianapolis bank. 

F. D. 



Harmonious Relations Restored 

In the January issue of "The Carpen- 
ter" at the request of Local Union 899, 
we published an article stating that the 
American Brewing Company of Parkers- 
burg, West Virginia, was making re- 
pairs on one of its buildings with non- 
union carpenters. We are now in re- 
ceipt of information from R. C. White, 
recording secretary of that Local Union, 
to the effect that the American Brewing 
Company has been organized in all its 
departments and harmonious relations 
have been restored between the company 
and Local Union 89 9, and we are 
pleased to pass this information on to 
the members of our organization. 



Jacksonville, HI., Receives Wage In- 
crease 

Following several conferences be- 
tween the Carpenter Contractors of 
Jacksonville, Illinois, and representa- 
tives of Local Union 904 of that city for 
an increase in wages from 75 cents to 
$1.00 per hour, information comes to 
us through Dean Sargent, recording sec- 
retary of the Local Union that an agree- 
ment has been arrived at satisfactory to 
all parties at interest, and the increased 
wage scale will become effective August 
■first. 



Traveling Members Attention 

While there is some work going on in 
Palm Beach County, Florida, there are 
more than enough idle carpenters to 
supply the demand, according to infor- 
mation received from Lorance Turner, 
secretary-treasurer of the Palm Beach 
County District Council. The Council 
desires that traveling members be noti- 
fied that the opportunity for securing 
work in that county is not bright for 
the present. 



Local Unions Chartered 

High Point, N. C. 

Somerset, Pa. 

Oak Bluffs, Mass., Martha's Vineyard 

Owen Sound, Ont., Canada 

Overton, Texas 

Grand Coulee, Wash. 

Tri Cities, Tex. 

Wilmington, Calif. 



18 



THT5 CARPENTER 



Marching Onward 

During the past year we published in 
this journal each month the location of 
newly chartered Local Unions, and are 
now pleased to announce that during the 
period from July 1, 1933, to June 30, 
1934, charters were issued by General 
President Hutcheson to 192 local un- 
ions. These unions are spread through- 
out the entire country and include men 
working at all branches of our trade. 

This large number of newly organized 
unions shows the spirit of organization 
among men who were formerly outside 
the pale of our organization and are 
now realizing that the only course to 
bring about improved working condi- 
tions through the system of collective 
bargaining is through the international 
organization of their trade, and we are 
looking forward to the chartering of a 
still larger number of Local Unions dur- 
ing the next twelve months. 

However, men working exclusively at 
that branch of the trade known as Box 
Makers have failed to show the same 
spirit of organization as those working 
at other branches of the industry. Since 
the Volstead Act went out of existence 
and beer has been legalized, many brew- 
eries that were forced to shut down are 
again in process of manufacturing beer, 
most of them operating under union 
conditions and are agreeable to pur- 
chase boxes bearing the label of our 
Brotherhood. It now behooves men 
working at this branch of the trade to 
organize into Local Unions and thereby 
bring about for themselves improved 
working conditions. Members of our or- 
ganization and other trade unionists can 
also be helpful in increasing the mem- 
bership of our Box Makers Local Unions 
when purchasing goods packed in wood- 
en boxes to insist that the Brotherhood 
label appear thereon. 



U. S. Court Upholds Anti-Injunction 
Law 

The United States Circuit Court of 
Appeals, in a notable decision in New 
York, upheld the constitutionality of 
the Norris-LaGuardia anti-injunction 
act. The act forbids the granting of in- 
junctions by the Federal courts in labor 
disputes except in cases where fraud 
and violence are proved to exist. 

The court ruled that it could not in- 
terfere with any attempt by organized 



labor to bring about the closed shop, 
engaging in strikes or sympathetic 
strikes or in any other legitimate and 
peaceful efforts to bring pressure to 
bear upon employers to achieve the pur- 
poses of a union. 

The decision, written by Judge Mar- 
tin T. Manton and concurred in by 
Judge Augustus N. Hand and Judge 
Harris B. Chase, was upon the injunc- 
tion application of a group of employ- 
ers in the construction industry against 
officers of the International Association 
of Bridge, Structural and Ornamental 
Iron Workers. 

The injunction suit had been in the 
courts simce 1924. It was decided orig- 
inally in favor of the employers by the 
Federal courts, but was recently ordered 
retried by the United States Supreme 
Court on technical grounds. 



Prison-Made Goods Sale Banned In 
Rhode Island 

The Legislature of Rhode Island 
passed a law which was approved by 
the Governor preventing the sale of 
products of penal institutions on the 
open market and implementing the Fed- 
eral Hawes-Cooper law by providing 
that goods made in penal institutions of 
other States, when transported into the 
State, are subject to the same laws as 
the products of the State's own penal 
institutions. 

The section of the Act of interest to 
labor follows: 

"Section 3. The sale on the open 
market in this State of all goods, wares 
or merchandise manufactured or mined, 
wholly or in part, by convicts or pris- 
oners (except prinsoners on parole or 
probation) or in any penal and (or) 
reformatory institution is hereby pro- 
hibited. 

"The provisions of this Act and all 
other regulations and laws of this State 
in effect at that time and not incon- 
sistent with this Act, shall apply to all 
goods, wares and merchandise manu- 
factured or mined, wholly or in part, by 
convicts or prisoners (except prisoners 
on parole or probation) or in any penal 
and (or) reformatory institution and 
transported into the State for use or 
distribution, to the same extent and in 
the same manner as if such goods and 
merchandise were so manufactured, pro- 
duced or mined in this State." 



THE CARPENTER 



19 



Company Union Polls Ridiculed by 
President Green 

William Green, President of the 
American Federation of Labor, has is- 
sued the following statement: 

"If the returns of workers' elections 
as announced by the corporations re- 
cently, are correct, a perfect state of 
satisfaction prevails among the work- 
ers employed in the steel industry. It 
was announced that more than ninety 
per cent of the workers voted for the 
adoption of the company union plan. 

"But the existence of this alleged 
state of satisfaction as well as the anal- 
ysis made of these elections by the steel 
corporations management, are contra- 
dicted by the facts. The elections held 
were company union elections; they 
were company controlled and company 
dominated. The election machinery was 
set up by the steel corporations. The 
actual voting took place inside the steel 
manufacturing plants, where conveni- 
ent places had been provided for the 
workers to vote. The management and 
the bosses were everywhere in evidence 
and the elections were held in a com- 
pany union atmosphere. There could be 
no other result than the result an- 
nounced. The workers were given to 
understand, through suggestion and 
otherwise, that the corporations wished 
the company union plan approved and 
the workers clearly understood how the 
company wished them to vote. 

"The vote therefore represents a vote 
of fear, of coercion, and of intimidation. 
It was a 'yes' vote cast by men who 
because of fear were compelled to vote 
'yes.' The fact that the steel corpora- 
tions management refuses to permit an 
election to be held under the direction, 
control and supervision of the National 
Labor Board, an independent, impartial 
government agency, shows that the cor- 
porations would not dare to run the risk 
of permitting their workers to vote free 
and independent, separate and apart 
from company union domination and 
control, where the workers could by se- 
cret ballot vote in accordance with their 
judgment and the dictates of their con- 
science. 

"A petition signed by fifty per cent 
of the steel workers employed in the 
Carnegie plant at Duquesne, Pennsyl- 
vania, was presented to the National La- 
bor Board a short time ago, requesting 
that an election be held as provided for 



in the President's Executive Order of 
February 1st. Because of the hostile 
opposition of the United States Steel 
Corporation, this petition was never 
granted and the election asked for was 
never held. 

"But in the announcement of the 
company union election, it is alleged 
that the workers of the Carnegie Steel 
Company voted almost unanimously for 
the company union plan and in conform- 
ity with company union requirements. 
Such a vote does not square with the 
facts. If the steel corporation manage- 
ment is convinced that the steel work- 
ers want the company union plan as 
formulated by the company and as pre- 
pared for the workers by the steel cor- 
porations management why are they 
afraid to risk an election held under 
governmental supervision and control? 

"The steel corporations management 
can not justify the announced result of 
the elections held until they offer sound 
and convincing reasons as to why they 
oppose free, independent elections where 
the workers, separate from company 
union domination and company control, 
outside of the steel corporations plants, 
may by secret ballot vote for the organ- 
ization of their own choice for the elec- 
tion of such representatives as they may 
wish to represent them in collective bar- 
gaining." 



New Jersey State Council Convention 

The New Jersey State Council of Car- 
penters held its twenty-ninth annual 
convention at Asbury Park, June 15- 
16, 1934, with over one hundred dele- 
gates and visitors in attendance. The 
sessions of the convention were held in 
the City Solarium and presided over by 
Stephen J. Stoll, president of the Coun- 
cil. 

Following the opening of the conven- 
tion Brother Stoll announced the ap- 
pointment of the various committees 
provided for in the constitution, and then 
introduced Mr. Vincent Murphy, secre- 
tary of the New Jersey State Federation 
of Labor, who outlined the activities of 
the state branch of the A. F. of L. to 
procure the enactment of state legisla- 
tion favorable in behalf of the organized 
wage earners, and invited the co-opera- 
tion of the State Council. 

Honorable A. Harry Moore, Governor 
of the State of New Jersey, was then in- 



20 



THE CARPENTER 



troduced and delivered an interesting 
and instructive address and requested 
the organized carpenters of the state 
through their representatives at the con- 
vention to give their assistance to bring 
about a revival of business conditions. 

The next speaker was Commissioner 
of Motor Vehicles, Harold G. Hoffman, 
who delivered one of his interesting and 
humorous addresses and impressed upon 
the delegates their only hope of secur- 
ing favorable working conditions was 
through the labor organization of their 
trade. 

The reports of the officers outlined 
their activities and accomplishments 
during the period that intervened since 
the last convention as well as showing 
the finances of the organization to be 
in a healthy condition. 

The convention considered a number 
of resolutions; the most important that 
received favorable action were: 

A resolution in reference to wages, 
rules, specifications and classifications of 
carpenters on state highway work. 

A resolution condemning the practice 
of employment agencies furnishing lists 
of workers to contractors engaged in 
federal and non-federal projects. 

A resolution recommending the en- 
actment of legislation prohibiting the 
granting of injunctions in labor dis- 
putes. 

A resolution favoring a shorter work 
day. 

A resolution recommending that un- 
ion wages be paid on all relief projects. 

Stephen J. Stoll of Local Union 119, 
Newark, was re-elected state president, 
and M. J. Cantwell of Local Union 715, 
Eilzabeth, was elected state secretary. 
Jersey City was chosen as the city in 
which to hold the next convention. 



Recording Secretary of Local Union 322 
Answers Last Call 

William H. Woodall, for many years 
Recording Secretary of Local Union 322, 
Niagara Falls, N. Y., passed away June 
17 in Memorial Hospital, death result- 
ing from cardiac illness. 

Brother "Woodall was born in Romi- 
ley, England, in 1876, where he received 
his early education. He joined Local 
Union 322 on March 14, 1904, coming 
over from the Amalgamated Society of 
Carpenters. 



In his early manhood he was promi- 
nent as a soccer foot-ball player, having 
played with the old Wanderers team 
which was in its prime before the World 
War. During recent years he was un- 
able to take an active part in this sport, 
but his interest remained as keen as 
ever. 

He was an ardent worker on behalf 
of his Local Union and as such was well 
known and highly respected throughout 
the community where he resided. 

Brother Woodall is survived by his 
wife, one son and one daughter, five 
brothers and three sisters. 

Funeral services were held from the 
family residence June 20, and burial 
was in Riverdale Cemetery. 



Officer of Local Union 993 Dies 

Robert G. Holloman, age 65, a mem- 
ber of our organization for twenty years, 
and financial secretary of Local No. 99 3, 
Miami, Florida, died June 27, at the 
Jackson Memorial Hospital following an 
operation. 

Shortly before entering the hospital 
he wrote an optimistic letter to the Gen- 
eral Secretary in which he stated: 

"If we live long enough the old ma- 
chine will wear out. My machine I 
think is not worn beyond repair, but I 
am going to the hospital tomorrow for 
an operation. I had hoped to visit my 
old home in Lebanon, Indiana, this sum- 
mer and of course the General Office at 
Indianapolis and see my old friend 
Frank Duffy, but at present my plans 
are all up in the air. I will write you 
again as soon as I am able." 

Brother Holloman came from Leba- 
non, Indiana, to Fort Lauderdale, Flor- 
ida, in 1914 where he joined Local Un- 
ion 1934 of that city. In 1923 he took 
up his residence in Miami. He was 
highly esteemed in the labor movement 
of that city and at the last election of 
local officers was re-elected as financial 
secretary of the union. 

Funeral services were held June 28 
and were attended by a large number 
of the members of Local Union 993, 
fraternal organizations of which Broth- 
er Holloman was a member, and a num- 
ber of friends. 

The immediate survivors are his wife, 
two sons and one daughter. Burial was 
in City Cemetery. 



THE CARPENTER 



21 



DEATH ROLL 



JOHN J. BUTLER— Local Union 715, 

Elizabeth, N. J. 
E. U. KILTZ — Local Union 363, Elgin, 

Illinois. 
L. W. MATTER — Local Union No. 132, 

Washington, D. C. 



Railroad Company Unions Smashed 

The Emergency Railroad Transporta- 
tion Act, passed by the -Special Session 
of the Seventy-third Congress, in 19 33, 
contained a provision which made it un- 
lawful for railroad companies to use 
railroad funds to maintain "so-called 
company unions." 

Despite this positive mandate, rail- 
road officials in many instances contin- 
ued to support these economic mon- 
strosities. But this policy, so openly 
against the rights of railroad employes, 
appears to be definitely smashed by the 
Crosser Bill amending the Railway La- 
bor Act, passed by the 1934 session of 
Congress just before it adjourned. 

In their zeal to nullify the intent of 
the Special Session of Congress to ban 
the company union, railroad officials 
and their high-salaried attorneys re- 
sorted to sophistical nomenclature to 
disguise the real purpose of these fake 
labor organizations. They were labeled 
"employe representation" plans, "em- 
ployes' mutual benefit" societies, and 
given numerous other smoke-screen 
names in the attempt to evade the mean- 
ing of the statute. 

The Crosser Act puts an end to this 
chicanery by clearly defining just what 
is meant by the term company union, 
and then prescribing it. Here is the 
definition: 

"The term 'company union' 
means any group or association of 
employes formed for the purpose of 
collective bargaining, whether or 
not same shall be formally organ- 
ized, which was so formed at the 
suggestion, with the aid, or under 
the influence of any carrier, or its 
or their officers or agents, and/ or 
whose constitution, by-laws or ac- 
tions are under any control or in- 
fluence of any carrier or carriers, 
or its or their officers or agents." 
This definition of a company union 
appears to be so explicit that the legal 



sophists employed by the railroad ex- 
ecutives, even though they be endowed 
with the combined skill of their ancient 
counterparts, Protagoras of Abdera and 
Hippias of Elias, will be unable to 
weaken it with their adroit and specious 
reasoning. 

After giving this clear definition, the 
Crosser Act declares that it shall be un- 
lawful for railroad companies to use 
railroad funds "in maintaining company 
unions, " prohibits them from requiring 
persons seeking employment "to sign 
any contract or agreement promising to 
join or not to join a company union," 
and imposes a fine of not less than $1,- 
000 nor more than $20,000, or impris- 
onment for not more than six months 
or both fine and imprisonment for any 
"carrier, its officers or agents," found 
guilty of violating the provision. 

Evidently the Crosser Railroad Labor 
Act of 1934 sentences and executes be- 
yond resuscitation the company union 
in the railroad industry. It is regret- 
table that Congress did not enact the 
original Wagner Labor Disputes Bill, 
and thus smash the company union mon- 
strosity in all industries. 



If You Cannot Sleep 

Insomnia is one of the commonest 
complaints of mankind. It is usually 
caused by poor personal hygiene, such 
as irregular hours for meals and sleep, 
heavy meals just before retiring, too 
much tobacco or worry, lack of proper 
exercise in the open air, lack of proper 
ventilation during working hours and 
sometimes overwork in mental en- 
deavors. 

A few suggestions for overcoming 
sleeplessness are listed in the bulletin 
of the Oklahoma department of health. 

1. Regulate your diet and eat only 
well-balanced meals, making the eve- 
ning meal especially light. 

2. Direct your mind from the work 
of the day by reading light literature 
or playing some interesting game that 
requires* little concentration. 

3. Take a brisk walk in the open 
air an hour or so before retiring and 
just before going to bed take a cup of 
hot cocoa or milk with a couple of 
crackers. 

4. Be sure your sleeping room is 
well ventilated. Have sufficient bed cov- 
ering to keep warm, but not too heavy 
or too much. — Hygea. 



CorrQspondQncQ 




This Journal Is Not Responsible For Views Expressed By Correspondents. 



District Council Endorses Resolution 

San Jose, Cal. 
Mr. Frank Duffy, 
Editor, "The Carpenter": 

I have been instructed by the Santa 
Clara Valley District Council of Carpen- 
ters to request you to publish the en- 
closed resolution in the next issue of 
our official journal "The Carpenter": 
Fraternally yours, 

Bert P. "Ward, Secretary. 
Santa Clara Valley District Council. 

RESOLUTION 

RESOLVED, that the Santa Clara 
Valley District Council of Carpenters 
endorse the old age revolving pension 
plan as outlined by Dr. Townsend of 
Long Beach. 

This plan provides for the petition to 
Congress of the United States to enact 
a law pensioning every worthy citizen 
of the United States sixty years of age 
or over who makes application for the 
same in the sum of $200 per month. 

All applicants must be free of any 
criminal record and must retire from 
all productive or gainful occupations, 
and further they must agree under oath 
to spend the entire $200 within the cur- 
rent month in which it is received. 

This pension is planned to be sup- 
ported by a law enacted by Congress 
creating a National Federal sales tax 
sufficient to pay the pensions each 
month; thus creating a revolving fund, 
and the money will be in continuous 
circulation. 

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that, 
this resolution be spread upon the min- 
utes, and copy sent to the General Office 
with the request that it be printed in 
our official monthly journal "The Car- 
penter." 



Open Meetings Successful 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

I am writing you briefly about a 
series of open meetings which have been 
held by our Local No. 595 in Lynn, 



Mass. In February, 1933, the Local vot- 
ed to hold an open meeting on the last 
meeting night of every month. This has 
been done and fifteen meetings have 
been held to date. We have had good 
speakers such as Congressman Connery; 
C. F. Nelson Pratt, our State represen- 
tative; State Senator Clancy; Mr. Rob- 
ert Watt, Secretary of the Mass. State 
Branch, A. F. of L.; High Sheriff Ray- 
mond of Essex County; Mr. "William L. 
Nichols of Local No. 595, and General 
Representative, Chas. N. Kimball, 

A representative of the N. R. A. and 
a representative of the Home Loan Bank 
and a Presbyterian clergyman have also 
addressed us. The attendance has been 
from seventy-five to one hundred and fifty 
members at each meeting. Some pointed 
questions were put to these speakers by 
many of the men present. We serve a 
eolation at every meeting. One unex- 
pected feature of these meetings, and a 
very agreeable one, was the amount of 
dues which has been collected on each 
night. 

Brother Delano, our financial secre- 
tary since 18 89, and also secretary of 
old 108, gave the following facts at the 
last meeting June 14: Collection on 
March 30, 193 3, the first meeting, 
$264.25; Aug. 31, 1933, $195.00; March 
1934, $247.00; April 1934, $227.65, 
etc., averaging for the fourteen meet- 
ings $169.13 each, making the receipts 
of the open meetings $64.44 more each 
night than was collected on the average 
for the remaining regular meetings. 

You are probably aware of the great 
ability of our Brother Delano and of his 
fidelity to his trust. More than 80 years 
of age, he is in his place at every meet- 
ing discharging his duty with the en- 
thusiasm of man fifty years younger. He 
is descended from the same stem as is 
President Roosevelt and what is more 
he was born in Duxbury, Mass., on Pil- 
grim soil. We all greatly admire our 
veteran Secretary. 

Benj. B. Norris, 
L. U. No. 595. Saugus, Mass. 



THE CARPENTER 



23 



Confidence Brings Success 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

The statistical information published 
by the General Secretary in the October 
issue of "The Carpenter" of last year is 
important to all members interested in 
the conflicting problems now confront- 
ing organized labor. Making allowance 
for data withheld by non-returns, and 
which can be considered unknown quan- 
tity, the figures presented by the Dis- 
trict Councils are practical, good and 
sufficient enough to base an opinion 
that the U. B. has still a latent power 
strong enough to meet the situation 
of today. Political enactment and a 
changed public opinion are reinforce- 
ments which cannot be lightly denied. 
Collective bargaining the stone rejected 
by Big Business has not only become 
the head of the corner but the keystone 
that holds out security for the bridge 
which spans the Divide between Capital 
and Labor. 

The N. R. A. and the Federal Emer- 
gency agreement although specified as 
temporary relief measures, are in fact 
precedents worth fighting for. The in- 
creasing number of new local unions 
chartered by the General Office and the 
number of trade movements sanctioned 
by the G. E. B. at their last meeting is 
an indication of a conscious and aggres- 
sive confidence that all uplift must come 
from the bottom and the future of the 
U. B. for weal or woe is in the keeping 
of the Local Unions. 

Joseph Peck, 
L. U. No. 80. Chicago, 111. 



Enjoyable Picnic Held by Local Union 
1585 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

The members of Local No. 1585 of 
Lawton, Oklahoma, their families and 
friends held a very successful picnic and 
outing at Craterville Park in the heart 
of the Wichita Mountains on Sunday, 
June 17. 

The weather was ideal and a very 
large crowd gathered to enjoy the sports 
and of course the eats. The barbecue, 
beef and pork, with a dish of savory 
stew was masterfully handled by a com- 
mittee composed of Geo. Andres, Bill 
Mead, Geo. Skinner and M. E. McCon- 
nell, with others turning in to help when 
the serving began. As the wives of mem- 
bers took along well filled baskets, two 



long tables were filled with good things 
to eat. About 1 P. M. everybody lined 
up at the tables. After filling their 
plates with everything good to eat one 
can imagine, coffee and lemonade were 
served at the far end of the tables and 
twenty gallons of ice cream disappeared 
like magic. The dinner, which began 
the event, was a complete success in 
every way. 

The afternoon started with races for 
both young and old. The winners re- 
ceived nice prizes. The main event of 
the afternoon was the indoor ball game 
between the teams representing men on 
the McHugh-Henke job at Fort Sill, and 
the men on the Coath & Goss job also 
at Fort Sill. The MsHragh-Henke team 
won with a score of 33 — 22. 

J. W. Williams member of the Gen- 
eral Executive Board, was present and 
seemed to enjoy himself immensely. 
During the ball game he gave a sterling 
display of base umpiring, using the 
same stern attitude in giving a close de- 
cision that he uses when engaged in an 
argument for the Brotherhood. "Bill" 
helped to make the afternoon and eve- 
ning a success. The remainder of the 
day was spent in swimming and roller 
skating. Every one appeared to be 
happy, but tired when the picnic ended. 

Since the first of the year, Local No. 
1585 has held two successful dances and 
the picnic of last Sunday. 

The Entertainment Committee. 



Ladies' Auxiliary Union No. 211 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

We have been reading letters in "The 
Carpenter" from the different Ladies' 
Auxiliaries and find them very inspir- 
ing. 

Our Auxiliary, No. 211, Oklahoma 
City, Oklahoma, has twenty members 
and one honorary member. We meet 
the third Monday night of each month 
at the Carpenters' Hall. 

Once each month, we meet for a so- 
cial time. These meetings are well at- 
tended and enjoyed by all. As occasion 
demands, additional meetings, either 
business or purely social, are held. 

During the depression we suffered a 
great loss in membership, but are now 
pressing onward and upward, with a 
gain of six new members. These were 
obtained through a recent membership 
drive. 



24 



THE CARPENTER 



In May, we celebrated our sixth an- 
niversary. Every one reported a good 
time. 

We encourage the purchase of mer- 
chandise bearing the Union Label at all 
times. 

We welcome and appreciate sugges- 
tions from our sister Auxiliaries and ex- 
tend fraternal greetings to all. 
Fraternally, 

Mrs. P. C. Walcher, Rec. Sec, 
L. A. No. 211. Oklahoma City, Okla. 



Fake Compensation Insurance 

The necessity for State owned and 
operated workmen's compensation in- 
surance funds for the adequate protec- 
tion of men and women killed and in- 
jured in industry by the neglect of em- 
ployers is once again brought into the 
spotlight in connection with the case of 
a laborer to whom the New York Bu- 
reau of Workmen's Compensation had 
given an award of $2,000 for injuries, 
in accordance with the workmen's com- 
pensation law. When he claimed the 
award from the insurance company he 
was informed that the contractor had 
paid no premium on the policy and that 
it had been canceled. 

The investigation by District Attorney 
Geoghan of Brooklyn revealed the ex- 
istence of an insurance ring which had 
issued fake insurance policies to small 
contractors and victimized numbers of 
injured workers. The scheme was 
worked by an architect in co-operation 
with contractors who desired to avoid 
the expense of carrying compulsory 
compensation insurance to indem- 
nify employes for injuries on their 
construction projects. The plot uncov- 
ered by the District Attorney's office in- 
dicates the extent to which degenerate 
employers and their assistants in the 
professional classes will sink in the de- 
velopment and promotion of suppositi- 
tious devices to defraud working men 
and women of their rights under the 
law. 

The architect rented for a small 
amount a workmen's compensation in- 
surance policy purporting to be made 
out to a general contractor. Confronted 
with inspectors who asked for the policy 
required under the State law, the con- 
tractors exhibited the "policy" provided 
by the architect, explaining that they 
had sublet the construction job from 



the general contractor named in the 
policy. In reality the policy was worth- 
less and the names of the contractors 
were fictitious. 

So far six injured workers have been 
discovered who were victimized by the 
fake insurance ring, with additional vic- 
tims piling up as the investigation pro- 
ceeds. The architect who provided the 
fake policies pleaded guilty to petty lar- 
ceny. The authorities say it will not be 
so easy to penalize the contractors who 
evidently co-operated with him in put- 
ting over the fraud. 

In the meantime it appears that it 
will be very difficult for the injured 
workers to secure the compensation to 
which they are entitled under the State 
law. Of course the architect can be 
jailed for larceny and the contractors 
can be penalized if convicted. But the 
penalization of both groups will not pay 
the awards of which the employes have 
been defrauded. 

The whole unsavory mess would have 
been avoided by giving the New York 
State Workmen's Compensation Insur- 
ance Fund a monopoly of writing com- 
pensation insurance. This would bar ac- 
tivities of insurance rackets designed to 
defraud the workers of the modest sums 
which society declares they are entitled 
to receive for having their bodies muti- 
lated because of the neglect and refusal 
of employers to install up-to-date pro- 
tective devices and methods to safe- 
guard their employes against fatal and 
non-fatal accidents. 



New York Governor Advocates 
Rebuilding 

"In each city where substandard and 
insanitary areas exist, buildings in such 
areas must be demolished and whole 
neighborhoods replanned and rebuilt," 
said Governor Lehman, of New York, in 
a recent radio talk. "New homes must 
be substituted for old, and at rentals 
within the means of those at present im- 
properly housed. The social needs are 
great. They must be met. 

"The Federal Government has taken 
the lead in this movement by providing 
the funds necessary for a great recon- 
struction program. The legislature in 
Albany has opened the way for cities to 
enjoy the fullest opportunities offered. 
It is now up to the cities to do their 
part." 



Craft ProblQms 




CARPENTRY 

(By H. H. Siegele) 

LESSON LXXI 

The first purpose of boxing a building 
is to protect the interior against cold, 
and also, during hot weather, against 
heat. But there are other purposes, 




Pig. 407 

which are almost equally important. 
Boxing brings the studding into align- 
ment, and holds the exterior walls in a 
more rigid position by preventing vibra- 
tion of the studding. Boxing is depend- 
ed upon almost entirely in modern resi- 
dence work, for bracing the superstruc- 
ture of the building. "Well nailed box- 
ing, whether it is placed horizontally or 
diagonally, will, in most cases provide 
all the bracing necessary in ordinary 
work. It should be remembered how- 
ever, that a wall cut up in various ways 
by large openings, or perhaps by too 
many openings, will lose a great deal of 




Pig. 408 

the bracing value of the boxing, no mat- 
ter how well it might be nailed. In such 
cases special bracing should be provid- 
ed. Moreover, local conditions must be 
taken into consideration in determining 
the amount of bracing necessary for any 



building. In localities visited by earth- 
quakes, the bracing of buildings should 
meet the demands of those localities. 
Where the buildings are subjected to a 
great deal of wind pressure, the bracing 
should be done in keeping with the 
needs of such conditions Where the 
earth is treacherous, so that it is almost 
impossible to put in foundations that 
will stay put, there the bracing should 
be made to meet the local requirements. 
But where good foundations are possi- 
ble, and there is no danger of earth- 
quakes or highwind pressure, much of 
the otherwise-necessary bracing can be 
dispensed with. 

Buildings that house factories or 
mills, where the machinery causes a 
great deal of vibration, or buildings, 




Fig. 409 

which for various reasons are subjected 
to strains, should be provided with spe- 
cial bracing, which will meet the re- 
quirements of the various conditions. 
The purpose for placing boxing diagon- 
ally, if often misunderstood, both by 
carpenters and by laymen. While we 
are aware that placing boxing diagonal- 
ly gives a building additional bracing 
value, that is not the principal reason 
for doing it. A building that is finished 
on the outside with lap siding should be 
boxed diagonally throughout, not mere- 
ly on the corners, as we see it done so 
frequently. The boxing as it seasons, 
will shrink and thus cause the siding to 
crack where the edge joints of the box- 
ing occur. Sometimes these cracks run 
from one corner of a building to the 
other. In cases where the siding is 
somewhat cross-grained, the cracks will 
appear at the nails, and run in toward 



26 



THE CARPENTER 



the center of the siding board. When 
boxing is thoroughly seasoned it is not 
likely to cause cracks in the siding, but 
if the boxing is green or water-soaked 
when the siding is put over it cracks are 
almost inevitable. Shrinkage cracks in 
siding can be prevented by stripping the 
boxing with lath, which is not a bad 
construction; that is, if the building 
paper is applied perpendicularly, and 




Fig. 410 

held to the boxing with the lath strip- 
ping in such a way that there will be 
no loose joints in the paper between 
the strips. This construction will pro- 
vide an additional air space, and thus 
lessen the transmission of cold and heat. 

Diagonal boxing, excepting for addi- 
tional bracing value, is not necessary 
where the outside of the building is fin- 
ished with shingles or with stucco. 

Fig. 407 of our illustrations shows 
one side of a one-story building, with a 
twin-window opening and a door open- 
ing, boxed horizontally. This boxing, if 




onally, and the rest horizontally. This 
increases the bracing value, but does not 
prevent the siding from cracking when 
the boxing shrinks. The dotted lines: 
both to the right and to the left, show 
how some builders box the sides diagon- 
ally up to the corners of the openings, 
and then fill in between with horizontal 
boxing. Other builders continue the 
diagonal boxing from both ends until 
they meet somewhat in the order shown 
at the top center by dotted lines. This 
keeps the siding from splitting, but the 
joints coming on the studding next to 
the window opening, makes a bad con- 
struction, and will probably cause the 
plastering to crack. A much better way 
to apply the boxing diagonally, is shown 
by Fig. 409. This construction, not only 




nailed as indicated by the dots, will 
provide ample bracing for the building. 
Fig. 408 shows the same arrangement, 
with the two lower corners boxed diag- 



Fig. 412 

gives full bracing value, but it prevents 
shrinkage cracks from occcuring in the 
siding. In case of a gable roof, the diag- 
onal boxing should be extended so as to 
cover the gable simultaneously with the 
side. 

Fig. 410 shows how end joints are 
sometimes made in horizontal boxing, 
and where the studding are spaced 16 
inches on center, it does not make a bad 
construction; however, it is seldom used 
in the better classes of buildings. Fig. 
411 shows the approved method of mak- 
ing end joints. Here every joint is made 
on a bearing, and both ends are nailed. 
This method requires a little more labor 
and material than the former, but it can 
not be improved upon. In the former 
method, some builders who use it place 
nailing blocks on the inside of the joints 



THE CARPENTER 



27 



in order to hold them. When that is 
done, we feel that it would be cheaper 
to use the approved method; for what 
is saved in labor and material on apply- 
ing the boxing, is lost again when the 
nailing blocks are put into place. 

Fig. 412 shows the approved joint for 
diagonal boxing. This joint is made on 
a bearing and well nailed. Fig. 413 
shows joints often used on cheap work. 
We are showing the joints incomplete, 
in order to bring out the point. The 
joint to the right is made on a bearing, 
but the board is cut on a square, while 
the joint to the lower left, comes be- 
tween studdings and has no bearing. So 




far as merit is concerned, one of these 
joints is as good as the other. In our 
judgment, though, the one to the lower 
left is the better, if there is any differ- 
ence, but the one to the right is prob- 
ably employed the most. The unnailed 
corner of the board shown in the joint 
to the right, in case the board splits, 
will be too springy for good nailing, 
while the end of the board shown in 
the joint to the lower left, has less lev- 
erage, and will provide better nailing. 
For siding, if the nailing is done as it 
should be, over the studding, the nail- 
ing would be good in either case. 

Breaking joints in boxing is import- 
ant. Two or more joints on one stud- 
ding, unbroken, should never be permit- 
ted, excepting on cheap work, and many 
one-space breaks in close proximity, al- 
ways makes a weak spot in the wall; 
permitting vibrations, and eventually 
causing cracks in the plastering. 



THE FRAMING SQUARE 

(By L, Perth) 

PART TWENTY-SEVEN 
Construction Job — No Place for Mathe- 
maticians 

In a pervious chapter we have related 
a story of a brother carpenter who ad- 
vocates the study and application of 
mathematics to roof framing. We have 
illustrated what the "square root meth- 
od" is and we also mentioned that while 
the study of mathematics is very com- 
mendable its application on the job is 
not recommended. 

Let us imagine a carpenter-mathema- 
tician who chooses to ignore labor sav- 
ing practices and insists upon the appli- 
cation of Trigonometry to his roof fram- 
ing problems. 

He is about to frame a roof and he 
wishes to find the length of the com- 
mon rafters; the building being 2 4 feet 
wide and is of an one-sixth pitch. He 
produces a pad of paper and a pencil 
and draws a diagram similar to the one 
shown in Fig. 1. 

His method of reasoning runs some- 
thing like this: The roof is 24 feet 
wide, has an one-sixth pitch and repre- 
sents a triangle DEF. Now, if we draw 
a line through the center line of the 
building at right angles to DF this line 
will be a perpendicular and will divide 
the roof section into two equal triangles 
DEG and FEG. These triangles will be 
right angle triangles the 9 degree angle 
being at G. 

The problem now resolves into one 
of solution of right triangles. Both tri- 
angles have a base of 12 feet; that 
makes one side known. It is wanted to 
establish the length of side "a" which 
is the hypotenuse of the triangle. 

Now, the solution of a right triangle 
is possible only when at least two sides 
and one angle are known. We know the 
base "c" to be 12 feet; we also know 
the angle at G equals ninety degrees. 
We, therefore, must know the value of 
side "b" also if we are to attempt to 
solve the triangle. 

Side "b" happens to be the total 
height of the roof; and we know the 
roof has an one-sixth pitch. Therefore, 
to find the height we divide the span by 
the pitch. 24 divided by 6 equals 4, i. e. 
the height of the roof equals 4 feet. 
Thus side "b" is established. 



28 



THE CARPENTER 



The problem, now, has been reduced 
to the following terms: In a right angled 
triangle DEG base "c" equals 12 feet 
and altitude "b" equals 4 ft. What is 
the length of the hypotenuse? 

We will assume that our friend does 
not attempt to do all the calculations 
himself and, therefore, will avail him- 
self of the use of some sort of an engin- 
eering reference book. There are num- 
erous cases in the solution of triangles 
and each specific case is being governed 
by an established formula. 

To determine his case our friend pro- 
duces his book of "Mathematical Ta- 



hypotenuse "a" equals to the square 
root of 160, which means if we find the 
number which after having been squared 
has become equal to 160 — that number 
will represent the length of the hypot- 
enuse. 

There are ways of finding the square 
root of any number by means of calcu- 
lations, but the process is too long and 
weary. Therefore we turn to our book 
again and find a table entitled: "Powers, 
Roots and Reciprocals." In this table 
under the heading: "No." we locate our. 
number which is 160. and in the column 
"Square Root" we find 12.6491, which 




/"/#/ 



/r/?7y/£M¥Trc&x. 


T/7BLSS 




Powers, /tears, /?£c/p#0c/7ts 


<Yo 


Soma 


Ci/ee 




/Poor 


&■//!(«. 


i£4 


M,B6 


},7SS,4/e 


/%<£>& 


S.383?/ 


awef/oj 


67 


&,&9 


1&&,893 


&J3W 


&394£9 


0.00*369 


























rsa 


zsisao 


4/&S00O 


&.&!?/ 


£V2a3V 


a ems* 















r/<?.3. 







S0LV/70M0F7ff//7//0JLfS 



Stoes a#o 



S/Des a >i 



S/oss Stir 






7~& Of? /* 



S'»0=£ 



C'S0-& 



&*£•£ 



C'90'g 



&= /=7/yP//Yf A&/GT// /?/? ^Tr^TEes: 



bles" and finds the section under the 
heading: "Solution of Triangles." Fig. 
2 represents a partial facsimile of such 
a page. Here, in the column under the 
heading: "Sides and angles known" he 
locates what corresponds to his problem, 
"sides b and c." Under the caption: 
"Formulas for sides and angles to be 
found" he discovers the following ex- 
pression: "a" equals to the square root 
of "b" square plus "c" square." 

The square of "b" equals 4x4; the 
square of "c" equals 12 x 12 or 144. 
The sum of 144 and 16 equals 160. The 
problem by now has been rather simpli- 
fied and may be expressed thus: "The 



is the square root of 16 0. Since the 
values known were expressed in feet 
the figure 12.6491 also means feet. 

In order to replace the decimal by a 
workable number we must look up an- 
other section in the book entitled "Deci- 
mal Equivalents of Fractions," and find 
that the length of the hypotenuse equals 
12 feet and 7 and 25/32 inches. 

As we already have mentioned else- 
where, this is the most reliable and ac- 
curate method of calculation and is used 
by the Architect and Engineer who are 
properly trained for this kind of work 
and who are equipped with all the nec- 
essary facilities, instruments and infor- 



THE CARPENTER 



29 



mation to make the work dependable 
and productive. They also work in an 
environment much different from that 
of a construction job. 

The example of this method as shown 
in this paper is very elementary and 
simple, and yet it could not be worked 
out successfully without the use of 
mathematical data. The sides of the 
triangle were represented by such sim- 
ple numbers as 4 and 12 which is not 
difficult to square. Let us suppose that 
one or both sides known were expressed 
by numbers like "13'-3 5/16". Try and 
get the square of that number or num- 
bers and keep your mind on your calcu- 



lations while on top of the building and 
you certainly will appreciate if some- 
one should have offered you a substi- 
tute much simpler and just as reliable. 

It was the architect and engineer who 
thought of the plight the carpenter 
may have to encounter in his solution 
of such problems and it was they who 
took all the complicated formulae, cal- 
culations and tables and embodied them 
in a "piece of steel" in the shape of the 
Steel Square, which is a veritable "Com- 
pendium of mathematics" for carpenters 
and other building mechanics. The par- 
allel between the two methods will be 
further elucidated in the next paper. 



Roofing Plan 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

I am submitting crude roofing plan of 
a unique Circus-Tent-Building designed 



called for some calculating and figuring 
of an unusual kind that I think would 
interest readers of "The Carpenter." 
Building was 100 ft. in diameter, 




and built by my Dad in 1875, on a Roof of % pitch, Rafters were 2x8 
prominent street corner in San Fran- supported by 6 x 22 Girders placed in 
Cisco: The framing of this structure extrinsic octagon of a 25 ft. radius: 



30 



THE CARPENTER 



These Girders were bevelled on the up- 
per edge, so that rafters could bear and 
pass full width without notching. 

As all Main-Rafters (as shown in 
sketch) radiate from center, it was nec- 
essary to put in a line of Short-Headers 
when spaces were too large, and put in 
Tail-Rafters. This construction evolved 
a beautiful line of trapezoid-panels that 
was very pleasing to the eye, especially 
after all had been painted pure white 
with bright blue trimming. 

Note — All rafters were S4S. — Close 1 
x 6 Pine Sheathing SIS. covered with 
Redwood Shingles. 

When making out lumber-order, Dad 
gave me the following task — What is 
the length of Octagon-Girder on upper- 
side? What are the distances from Cen- 
ter-Rafter A to points where Rafters 
B-C-D and E meet upper-side of Girder? 
Width of Girder at A is 22". What is 
Width at B-C-D-E? What are the 
Widths of A-B-C-D-E on lower-side of 
Girder? 

My solution of this problem was cor- 
rect, but as there may be better ways 
of solving, I would greatly appreciate 
any solutions readers of "The Carpen- 
ter" may submit. 

Frank De Guerre, 
Villa Grande, Calif. 



"She surely is," I said, as I took off 
my hat to the little dutchman, with 
whom this whole idea originated. 



L. U. No. 22. 



Hats Off 

(By H. H. Siegele) 

I worked under a superintendent 
once, a little dutchman, if I remember 
correctly, who was an expert bench man. 
One day as I passed where he was work- 
ing, he called me to him, and pointing 
to a board that was marked somewhat 
on the order of Fig. 1, he said, "How do 
you mark them?" I answered by saying 
that I usually do it free-hand, and start- 
ed to explain that it could be done with 
a compass, when he slapped me on the 
side with the back of his hand, saying 
as he did so, "Ach ge weg," and then he 
took off his cap and proceeded to show 
me how he did it. He laid the cap down 
on the board, first as shown by dotted 
lines in Fig. 2, and pretended to mark 
around the shield, and then he placed 
it as shown by the shaded outline, indi- 
cating how the ogee curve was complet- 
ed. "Wat do dink of her?" he said, look- 
ing at me wistfully. "Pracktakel, isn't 
she?" 




Fig 



Fig. 3 shows the finished product. 

I am presenting this practical idea 
here, because it is practical, and be- 
cause, until it was shown to me by that 



THE CARPENTER 




Fig. 2 

little foreigner, it was unknown to me, 
and is probably unknown to many of my 




Fig. 3 



readers. Try it and see what you can 
do with it. 



The Framing Square 

Editor, "The Carpenter": 

I would like to say a few words about 
the Framing Square and what can be 
done with it, as I consider it the most 
important tool the carpenter uses. While 
it is simply a right angle, the uses to 
which it can be put are beyond the 
knowledge of a great many carpenters. 

There are several kinds of steel 
squares but I think the No. 100 Framing 
Square is the best and used by many 
good mechanics. Now the wide arm of 
the square is called the body or the 
blade, and on the face of this square, 
reading from left to right, or from end 
of blade to heel, is given the lengths of 
main rafters, hips and valley rafters, 
per foot of run, also the length of the 
first jack rafter, and the difference in 
the length of others spaced 16 inches 
and two feet on centers, therefore seven 
parallel lines drawn along the body or 
blade forming six spaces, and in these 
spaces are given the length and cut for 
17 different pitches, from a 2 inch rise 
per foot to 18 inch rise. The first space 
gives the main rafter per foot run; the 
second space gives the length of hip and 
valley per foot run, and the third space 
gives the length of the first jack rafter 
and their difference spaced 16 inches on 
center. The fourth space gives the 
lengths of the first jack rafter and their 
difference spaced 2 feet on centers. The 
fifth space gives the figures to be used 
with 12 for the cheek or side cut of 
jack rafters against hips and valleys. 
The sixth space gives the figures to be 
used with 12 for the cheek cut as the 
side cut for hips and valley comes on 12 
or long angle. The figures taken from 
these lengths and cut must always be 
gotten from under the number corre- 
sponding to the number of inches rise 
you are giving your roof to each foot of 
run of common or main rafters. The 
figures in the first and second space 
giving the length of rafters are read 
inches, "inches and hundredths of an 
inch", or "feet and hundredths of a 
foot", and these figures must be multi- 
plied by half the width of the building 
in feet unless the building be 24 feet 
wide, then the length would be just 
what is shown on the square in feet and 
hundredths. 

I was reading in "The Carpenter" 
about Brother Perth and what he had 
to say about the framing of a roof. I 



32 



THE CARPENTER 




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think every carpenter should know how 
to read blue prints and plans and should 
know them for it is good time spent to 
learn the blue print and plan drawing 
as well as to learn how to use a fram- 
ing square. 

I notice in Brother Perth's plan or 
details of figure 1 of a roof with an 8 
inch rise per foot and a run of 12 feet. 
Now this roof shows an 8 inch rise per 
foot and shows a % pitch, which I am 
sure must be a mistype as a *4 pitch 
would be a 6 inch rise per foot. 



L. U. No. 103 



E. M. Thompson, 

Birmingham, Ala. 



This Advice Is Free 

"What kind of a husband would you 
advise me to get?" 

"You get a single man and let the 
husbands alone." 



Be consistent and not faint-hearted — ■ 
Demand the Union Label and get it. 
Nothing can take its place. 



Workers Must Get Larger Share of 
National Income 

Former Governor Sweet of Colorado, 
in a recent address at Memphis, Tenn., 
charged that those who own and con- 
trol industry have hogged for them- 
selves most of the benefits resulting 
from the wholesale introduction of la- 
bor-displacing machinery. 

In discussing machine production and 
the conscription of most of the increased 
wealth resulting therefrom by the capi- 
talists and their associates, Governor 
Sweet cited figures to show that only 33 
per cent of labor is now necessary to 
produce the necessities of life. Former- 
ly it required 80 per cent of all labor to 
do the same work. 

"People in all walks of life are vitally 
affected by the- machine," he said. "We 
must give a larger share of what we 
have been pouring into the owner's lap 
to the worker in the form of higher 
wages. 

"Manufacturers cannot escape the 
law of supply and demand. Unless the 
purchasing power of the workers is 
raised, the products of the manufactur- 
ers will not be bought." 



Good Grammar 

The teacher had sent a note home 
with a pupil asking her parents to buy 
her a grammar. She received the fol- 
lowing answer: 

"Missus Teacher: — I do not' desire 
that Jennie may engage in grammar as 
I prefer her to ingage in mpre useful 
studies, and I can learn her to speak 
grammar myself. I went through two 
grammars, and can't say as they done 
me no good, anyhow." 




A New Stanley Tool 

SLITS, GROOVES AND BEVELS 
FIBRE BOARDS LIKE UPSON 
BOARD, CELOTEX AND OTHERS 

Fibre Board Cutter 
No. 193 

You will want this new tool for your next 
fibre board job. It grooves, bevels and slits any 
of the fibre wall boards now on the market. 
Through cuts can be made much easier and faster with it than is possible with 
a saw and it leaves smooth edges. Furthermore it cuts beveled edges, makes 
beveled edge battens, cuts grooves, makes decorative designs such as squares, 
parallel lines and bricks as shown below. 

It's a Stanley Quality Tool — smooth strong castings; Stanley "Bailey" rose- 
wood Handle and knob; tool steel cutters that can be resharpened like a regular 
plane iron; carefully machined parts all of which 
are replaceable. 

See it at your Hardware Dealers 
Write for descriptive Folder P47 

STANLEY TOOLS 

New Britain. Connecticut 




— PRICE LIST — 




Label and Emblem Novelties 


Playing Cards (Label) 
(No Pinochle) 

Fobs (Label and Emblem) . 

Rubber Tip Pencils (Label) 

Rolled Gold Charms (Em- 
blem) 


5 .10 
.25 

.15 
.50 
1.25 
.03 
.05 
.50 
.50 

1.50 

7.50 
5.00 
3.00 
1.50 
.15 
.75 

1.25 
1.25 


Solid Gold Charms (Em- 
blem) 


Rings (Emblem) 


B. A. Badges (Emblem) . . . 

Cuff Links (Emblem) 

Match Box Holders (Label) 
Belt Loop and Chain (Label) 
Pins, Ladies Auxiliary (Em- 
blem) 


Auto Radiator Emblems. . . 


In Ordering These Goods Send All 

Orders and Make AH Remit= 

tances Payable to 


FRANK DUFFY, Gen. Sec, 


Carpenters' Bldg., 222 E. Michigan St. 
Indianapolis, Ind. 



I USE PLASTIC WOOD 
ON EVERY JOB 




For Making Quick, 
Permanent Repairs 

Thousands of car- 
penters carry this 
greatest of all scien- 
tific discoveries in 
their tool box — all 
the time. They 
know it can be used to 
save time and labor on 9 
out of 10 jobs. It is won- 
derful for repairing dam- 
aged wood, filling holes, sealing cracks, and 
1001 other uses. Genuine Plastic Wood handles 
easy as putty — it can be shaped, molded or 
stuffed into holes with the bare hands. But 
when it dries it becomes hard, permanent 
wood — stronger than actual wood — wood that 
takes nails and screws without splitting or 
crumbling — wood that can be sanded, carved, 
planed, sawed, painted, shellacked or lac- 
quered. Plastic Wood saves time. 



PLASTIC WOOD 





FINEST CRAFTSMAN 



r 



THE craftsman with the greatest 
skill in wood-working usually is 
the most enthusiastic about his 
Carborundum Brand Combination 
Sharpening Stone. He knows that 
this stone does a better job in the 
least time and with the least effort. 

One side is coarse grit to take out 
nicks. The other is fine grit to 
finish off blades to a keen, free- 
cutting edge. Like magic, dull tools 
leap back to perfect working con- 
dition under its quick touch. 

Sizes from 4 inches long by 1% 
inches wide, to 8 inches long by 2 
inches wide. Prices from 85c to 
$1.75 according to size. At your 
hardware dealer's. 

Send for Booklet "How to Sharpen 
Wood-Working Tools." It is free. 

CARBORUNDUM 

REG. U. S.PAT. OFF. 

SHARPENING STONES 



The Carborundum Company, Niagara Falls, N. Y. Cana- 
dian Carborundum Co., Ltd., Niagara Falls, Ont. (Carbo- 
rundum is a registered trade mark of The Carborundum 
Company.) 




Down The OP School Lane! 

(By James Edward Hungerford) 



Dear "long-ago" schoolmates o' mine, are you there 
In the Land o' Sweet Dreams, that's beyond all compare? 
In your HEARTS are you wandering down that oY lane 
To the little Red Schoolhouse o' CHILDHOOD again? 

Can you hear the sweet vespering voice o' the bell, 

Down that green winding lane, through the How'r-scented dell, 

Where the orioles sang in the boughs overhead 

O' the elms by the SCHOOLHOUSE, in years that have fled? 

Through the mist o' the past, winds that path that we trod 

In the days that were gifts from the treasure o' God, 

And the past fades away — but a few years it seems, 

Since we carried our BOOKS down that Lane o' Sweet Dreams! 

Ay, the little RED SCHOOLHOUSE still stands, as of yore, 
And the path o' the past still unwinds to the door, 
And the song-birds still sing in the branches o'erhead 
Just as sweet as they sang, in the years that have Bed. 

In my DREAMS, I have followed that little oY lane, 

And am back in that little RED SCHOOLHOUSE again, 

And the years fade away, with their sorrows and care — 

In my HEART, little schoolmates, I'm WITH you back there! 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of Congress, Aug. 24, 1912 

Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, act of 
October 3, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918 

A Monthly Journal for Carpenters, Stair Builders, Machine Wood Workers. Planing Mill Men, and 

Kindred Industries. Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters 

and Joiners of America, at 

Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 

Advertising Department, 25 Third Avenue, New York, N. Y. <^^^>5i 



Established in 1881 
Vol. LIV. — No. 9. 



INDIANAPOLIS, SEPTEMBER, 1934 



One Dollar Per Year 
Ten Cents a Copy 



NOTICE 



The publishers of "The Carpenter" reserve the right to reject all advertising matter 
which may be, in their judgment, unfair or objectionable to the membership of the United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America. 

All contracts for advertising space in "The Carpenter," including those stipulated as 
non-cancellable, are only accepted subject to the above reserved rights of the publishers. 





^* <$iii Wn*ten 






A costly gift 






Is but a lifeless thing, 






An empty shell, 






And yet with beauty full: 






For in itself 






A gift is meaningless 






Until it shines 






With attributes of life; 






With living hopes, 






With heart-felt confidence; 






With sympathy, 






That dew-like quality 






That calms the mind 






And fills the soul with peace; 






With steadfast faith, 






With life-long loyalty; 






With love that is 






As infinite as God. 






And having these 






A gift is beautiful, 






And lasting as 






Immortal life itself. 






— H. H. Siegele, in Kansas City Star. 





THE CARPENTER 



WHY PAY DUES? 

(By William Green, President of American Federation of Labor) 



join 
low 
calli 



HIS is the question em- 
ployers have been putting 
to their employes. It 
brings home a fundamen- 
tal question to every one 
who works for hire. Why 
the organization to which your fel- 
workers and others following your 
ng belong? 




You spend the most important hours 
of your day at work. Your work gives 
you a chance to use your ingenuity and 
your ability. You put your hands on 
the tools or machines and make your 
materials into shapes and substances 
needed in your production job. There 
are difficulties and problems growing 
out of the work; there are difficulties 
and problems growing out of the need 
for individuals to work together to com- 
plete the product; there are problems 
and difficulties growing out of work 
orders which management issues and 
there are fundamental problems and dif- 
ficulties growing out of the terms and 
conditions upon which men and women 
do production work. 

Many of these problems would be 
settled easily by having agencies and 
methods for getting at the facts that 
could indicate the way out. Wage earn- 
ers must be organized for this purpose 
to meet with organized management. 
Not only must there be agencies but 
there must be experience and discipline. 
Only a permanent organization can 
make these qualities steadily available 
so that there may be co-operation with 
management in solving work problems. 

In dealing with those provisions fixed 
in the work contract, wage-earners must 
be on an equal footing with manage- 
ment in order to negotiate an agree- 
ment as fair for the workers as for the 
employers. There must be independence 
of fact gathering and speech on both 
sides. The agency that represents the 
workers must have funds to procure 
facts and service and to maintain 
spokesmen and technical advisers. In- 
dependence of action has as its basis 
financial independence. Any person 
whose income is controlled by the em- 
ployer, will hesitate to argue forcefully 
and effectively against his employer's 
statements. Few wage earners can draw 
upon sufficiently wide industrial experi- 



ence to know what changes in standards 
are practical and desirable. The experi- 
enced union representative knows as 
much about the industry as any repre- 
sentative of management. He can ren- 
der that service which results in the 
difference between the wages and work- 
ing conditions of organized and unor- 
ganized workers. 

The individual wage-earner has no 
way to discuss problems, grievances or 
wages with his employer. But if wage- 
earners belong to a union with paid ex- 
ecutives, these executives can take up 
all these matters with management and 
serve as the union's counsel. 

When wage-earners believe that they 
have a right to a voice in deciding terms 
and conditions under which they work, 
they will build up their economic power 
so as to force recognition of their rights. 

When wage-earners believe that they 
owe it to themselves and their families 
to better their economic condition, they 
organize a union and pay for the serv- 
ices of a business representative. 

When wage-earners believe that those 
who carry on the production process of 
an industry perform just as indispens- 
able a service as those who invest mon- 
ey, they will organize to put themselves 
on an equitable status in the industry 
and to set up those safeguards which 
will protect their labor investment. 

When wage-earners believe they have 
a right to earn a living, they will organ- 
ize to establish that right. 

These are the things for which wage- 
earners pay dues. 

Suppose wage-earners who want to 
accomplish these ends should listen to 
the employer who says "Why pay dues 
to a union, the employe association 
which your company planned knows in- 
timately the situation within the plant, 
and will enable your associates to take 
care of your problems without cost to 
you." The suggestion calls for little 
effort on your part but remember- — 
"Whoever pays the fiddler calls the 
tune." The company which plans and 
pays the expenses of an organization 
will certainly control its operations. 

If you believe in industrial self- 
government, if you believe you have 



The carpenter 



3 



rights which should be established and 
respected, if you want to make industry 
a safer and more honest place in which 
to work, you must organize to make 
these things possible. 



The agencies which wage-earners 
have evolved to carry out their ideas 
and purposes is the union to which they 
pay their dues in order that their busi- 
ness may be carried on. 



SUBSTITUTE LABOR DISPUTES BILL 




N June 16, 1934, the Unit- 
States Congress passed a 
joint Resolution, giving 
President Roosevelt au- 
thority to appoint a 
Board or Boards to inves- 
tigate disputes arising under the Labor 
Section of the National Industrial Re- 
covery Act. The measure was promptly 
signed by the President. 

The Board or Boards authorized by 
the Law are accorded power to hold 
elections to determine the free choice 
of employes for agencies for collective 
bargaining. 

The Resolution herewith follows: 

"Resolved by the Senate and House 
of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled. That 
in order to further effectuate the policy 
of title I of the National Industrial Re- 
covery Act, and in the exercise of the 
powers therein and herein conferred, 
the President is authorized to establish 
a board or boards authorized and di- 
rected to investigate issues, facts, prac- 
tices, or activities of employers or em- 
ployes in any controversies arising un- 
der section 7a of said Act or which are 
burdening or obstructing, or threaten- 
ing to burden or obstruct the free flow 
of interstate commerce, the salaries, 
compensations, and expenses of the 
board or boards and necessary employes 
being paid as provided in section 2 of 
the National Industrial Recovery Act. 

"Sec. 2. Any board so established is 
hereby empowered, when it shall appear 
in the public interest, to order and con- 
duct an election by a secret ballot of 
any of the employes of any employer, 
to determine by what person or persons 
or organization they desire to be repre- 
sented in order to insure the right of 
employes to organize and to select their 
representatives for the purposes of col- 
lective bargaining as defined in section 
7a of said Act and now incorporated 
herein. 

"For the purposes of such election 
such a board shall have the authority 



to order the production of such perti- 
nent documents or the appearance of 
such witnesses to give testimony under 
oath, as it may deem necessary to carry 
out the provisions of this resolution. 
Any order issued by such a board under 
the authority of this section may, upon 
application of such board or upon peti- 
tion of the person or persons to whom 
such order is directed, be enforced or 
reviewed, as the case may be, in the 
same manner, so far as applicable, as is 
provided in the case of an order of the 
Federal Trade Commission under the 
Federal Trade Commission Act. 

"Sec. 3. Any such board, with the 
approval of the President, may prescribe 
such rules and regulations as it deems 
necessary to carry out the provisions of 
this resolution with reference to the in- 
vestigations authorized in Section 1 and 
to assure freedom from coercion in re- 
spect to all elections. 

"Sec. 4. Any person who shall know- 
ingly violate any rule or regulation au- 
thorized under section 3 of this resolu- 
tion or impede or interfere with any 
member or agent of any board estab- 
lished under this resolution in the per- 
formance of his duties, shall be punish- 
able by a fine of not more than $1,000 
or by imprisonment for not more than 
one year, or both. 

"Sec. 5. This resolution shall cease 
to be in effect, and any board or boards 
established hereunder shall cease to ex- 
ist, on June 16, 1935, or sooner, if the 
President shall by proclamation, or the 
Congress shall by joint resolution, de- 
clare that the emergency recognized by 
section 1 of the National Industrial Re- 
covery Act has ended. 

"Nothing in this resolution shall pre- 
vent or impede or diminish in any way 
the right of employes to strike or en- 
gage in other concerted activities." 



The Union Label on any product is a 
guarantee that it was made in America 
by American workers. 



THE CARPENTER 



THE PROVISIONS OF THE DAVIS-BACON WAGE 

ACT RESTORED 




NE of the last official acts 
of the President before 
sailing on a summer va- 
cation was to sign an ex- 
ecutive order restoring to 
operation the provisions 
of the Davis-Bacon act, requiring that 
employes and workers on government 
building and construction projects shall 
be paid "not less than the prevailing 
rate of wages for work of a similar na- 
ture" in the same locality. Provisions 
of this law had been previously suspend- 
ed by the President in a proclamation 
on June 5. 

Effects of the President's action upon 
wages in the building and construction 
industry are far reaching, and bring 
back under the terms of this law gov- 
erning wage conditions the huge public 
works and other emergency construction 
programs of the Federal Government at 
this time as a measure for re-employ- 
ment and restoration of normal condi- 
tions. 

The President said in his proclama- 
tion, which was signed on June, 30, 
that his action was taken because "it 
appears that revocation of the said pro- 
clamation would be in the public inter- 
est." It was learned, however, that his 
action was primarily a result of the vig- 
orous protests lodged with the Chief Ex- 
ecutive by officials of building and con- 
struction trade unions, who held that 
deprivation from protection by the pro- 
visions of this law was a serious blow 
to wage scales and wage levels, and an 
open invitation to building and con- 
struction interests to disregard union 
scales and to otherwise promote chaos 
and confusion in wages in the building 
and construction field. 

In the proclamation on June 5, which 
suspended operation of the law and like- 
wise the initial proclamation of former 
President Hoover, issued on January 19, 
1932, giving effect to the law, the Presi- 
dent gave as the reason for his action 
that "the Secretary of Labor and the 
Administrator of Public Works in- 
formed him that the concurrent opera- 
tion of the aforesaid provisions of the 
Bacon-Davis Act and the National In- 
dustrial Recovery Act cause administra- 
tive confusion and delay which could be 



avoided by suspension of the provisions 
of the Davis-Bacon Act." 

The act authorizes the President to 
suspend its provisions in the event of a 
national emergency, which the Presi- 
dent in his proclamation of June 5 
found to exist. 

Conflicting provisions in the two 
laws to which the President referred 
are Section 1 of the Davis-Bacon Act 
which specifies that "every contract in 
excess of $5,000" in which the Federal 
Government or District of Columbia is 
a party, and requiring the employment 
of laborers or mechanics, shall contain 
provision that such workers be paid not 
less than the prevailing rate of wages 
for work of a similar nature in the same 
locality. 

On the other hand, Section 206 of 
the Recovery Act provides that all con- 
tracts let for construction projects, or 
loans or grants under its terms, shall 
specify that work be for not more than 
30 hours a week and that "all employes 
shall be paid just and reasonable wages 
which shall be compensation sufficient 
to provide, for the hours of labor so 
limited, a standard of living in decency 
and comfort." 

Protests against the revocation of the 
Davis-Bacon Act began to flow into the 
President as soon as his order of June 
5 became known and came from prac- 
tically every center of the country. Lead- 
ers in labor unions construed the effects 
of the order as a direct attack upon pre- 
vailing wage rates everywhere, and as 
affording an opportunity for a general 
movement to reduce wage levels in all 
of the trades connected with the build- 
ing and construction industry. 

The President's latest proclamation is 
manifestly in answer to these protests, 
and taken when a full realization of the 
effects of his earlier proclamation be- 
came clear to him. 



Compressed air is used in South Afri- 
can fields to blow diamonds out of crev- 
ices. 

* * * 

Every man feels instinctively that all 
the beautiful sentiment in the world 
weighs less than a single lovely action. 
— J. R. Lowell. 



THE CARPENTER 



HOME BUILDING MEASURE AS STEP TOWARD 

RECOVERY 

(By G. W. Starr, Director of the Bureau of Business Research, Indiana University) 




HE new home building 
measure represents more 
than an attempt to aid 
the small actual or poten- 
tial home owner; it repre- 
sents a belated recogni- 
tion of the necessity of stimulating the 
so-called heavy industries in the drive 
for increasing the purchasing power of 
the country. It might even be suggested 
that the bill goes even further than this; 
that it may be, in the future, private 
building by private capital, rather than 
our much overworked public works, will 
be encouraged as a means of bolstering 
business recovery. 

But whatever may be our future na- 
tional policy with respect to construc- 
tion, it appears that the present bill at 
least recognizes the fact that recovery 
has been a bit tardy among the heavy 
industries, particularly in the private 
construction industry. 

A Harvard University report of last 
year indicated there had been but little 
diminution in either the production or 
consumption of consumer goods during 
the depression. 

The production of durable goods, on 
the other hand, in 1929 was 130 per 
cent of the average of the first decade 
of the present century, while in 1933 it 
was less than 50 per cent of this period. 

Employment figures computed by Col. 
Ayres tell practically the same story. 
On the basis of census reports Col. Ayres 
estimated that in 19 29 about sixteen 
million workers were employed in pro- 
ducing consumption goods and roughly 
ten million were employed in the dur- 
able goods industries. 

Employment late last year was about 
10 per cent under the 1929 level in the 
consumption goods industries and about 
45 per cent under in the durable goods 
industries. If we have some ten million 
unemployed as has been estimated by 
economists, then it is probable that fully 
half of these unemployed are in normal 
times engaged in the production of dur- 
able goods. 

Among the heavy industries, the 
building industry, due to its size and 
the large amount of hand labor re- 
quired, is the most important industry 



from the point of view of employment. 
It is difficult to obtain accurate figures 
on employment in the industry, but the 
United States Department of Commerce 
has estimated that somewhere between 
five and six million people draw their 
livelihood from the various branches of 
the building industry during normal 
times. 

If the decline in the volume of 
building may be taken as an indication 
of the decline in employment in the 
building industry, then a substantial 
number of the unemployed in the dur- 
able goods industries must be workers 
in the building trades. 

For five years prior to 19 29 the value 
of private construction — residential, 
commercial and industrial buildings, 
was close to $4,000,000,000 a year. In 
193 3 the value of these three types of 
building was less than $500,000,000, 
with residential building not exceeding 
$300,000,000. 

Nor has private building thus far in 
1934 shown much improvement over 
1933. Residential building in April of 
this year was only 12 per cent greater 
than in April of last year. 

It is with the thought of reviving this 
section of our capital goods industry 
that the present home building bill is 
being considered. 

The ten thousand word bill providing 
the financial machinery to revive the 
private building industry is much too 
detailed to interest the layman, but the 
economic implications of its operation, 
once the bill becomes a law, and the 
probable efficacy of a measure of this 
kind as a means of restoring normal ac- 
tivity in the building trades needs to be 
considered with some care. 

Although the bill is assumed to be a 
recovery measure, in so far as it will 
furnish employment among the trades 
where the need for unemployment re- 
lief seems to be the greatest, unemploy- 
ment relief must be regarded as only 
one of the incidental benefits which are 
to come from the operation of the law. 

Through the use of governmental 
credit the bill attempts to do three 
things: Lower the cost of building, 
reduce the cost of financing home build- 



THE CARPENTER 



ing, and finally provide low cost homes 
for those who by reason of the discrep- 
ancy between their normal incomes and 
the cost of home ownership have either 
been unable to own homes or to rent 
homes with necessary conveniences. 

Despite the assertions of real estate 
boards, subdividers, speculative build- 
ers, etc., throughout the country as a 
whole there is probably no shortage of 
homes, or rather places to live, but there 
is undoubtedly a shortage of desirable 
homes, particularly for those in the low- 
er income classes. 

Homes for these classes can be im- 
proved either by Federal construction 
and operation of low cost homes, or 
through private construction. 

The present bill would seem to pro- 
vide the means for slum clearance and 
the construction of low cost apartment 
homes through the use of Federal credit 
by private builders. 

Perhaps greater than the need for 
more new homes is the necessity of 
taking care of the depreciation which 
has accumulated during the present de- 
pression, and the need for the modern- 
ization of existing structures. Provisions 
are made in the present bill to provide 
credit for both repairs and moderniza- 
tion of residential properties. 

Unless the present home building 
bill is materially altered, the principal 
weapon to be used to bring about a re- 
covery in the building industry will be 
the credit of the Federal government. 

Whether or not the use of the credit 
of the Federal government in the build- 
ing industry will be more effective in 
stimulating activity than it has been in 
other industries in the past only experi- 
ence will show. The government plans 
to make loans up to $2,000 available to 
home owners for repairs and moderiza- 
tion. 

Institutions granting these loans 
would be insured by the Federal govern- 
ment up to 20 per cent of the loan. 

Mortgages on existing owner-occupied 
homes may be insured up to 60 per cent 
of the appraised value for existing 
homes and 80 per cent for new con- 
struction. Repair and modernization 
loans are to be for five years and con- 
struction loans for twenty years. De- 
posits in mortgage associations and 
building and loan associations approved 
by the Federal government are to be 



placed on the same insurance basis as 
deposits in national banks. 

By supplying credit on easy terms, 
perhaps 5 per cent, and extending the 
loans over a considerable period, twenty 
years for example, it is believed the cost 
of home financing will be materially 
reduced. 

The high cost of frequent renewals, 
the higher costs of second and third 
mortgages, and the loading charges in- 
cident to junior issues or land contracts, 
are to be materially reduced by replac- 
ing these types of financing by one 
twenty-year mortgage at a 5 per cent 
rate. 

The insurance of loans up to a certain 
maximum value and the guarantee of 
building and loan shares or deposits up 
to $2,500 is expected to attract private 
capital again to the building industry. 

One of the deterrents to a revival in 
the building industry is said to be the 
condition of the twenty-one billion in- 
dividual home mortgage debt, and the 
national housing bill is designed to 
strengthen the weak spots in the urban 
mortgage structure. 

Any activity on the part of the 
Federal government which will provide 
better homes or reduce the cost of home 
ownership is to be welcomed if such ac- 
tivity aids rather than retards private 
initiative and enterprise in this field, 
and at the same time does not involve 
further extensive debt commitments 
which must be met by the taxpayer; for 
even though the credit resources of the 
Federal government are extensive, they 
are not, as has been too often alleged, 
unlimited. 



Some Queer Facts 

Fly's wings are mixed with rag fibers 
in making a high-quality correspond- 
ence paper. 

We might live for 1,900 years if we 
could keep our blood temperature at 
forty-five degrees Fahrenheit, labora- 
tory tests show. 

So much static electricity accumulates 
in one New York skyscraper that a neon 
lamp can be lit by applying wires to a 
doorknob. 

Red doesn't madden a bull because a 
bull can't see red. Tests have shown the 
animals are color-blind, so red looks 
like black. 



THE CARPENTER 



CANADA AND UNITED STATES ARE ONE PEOPLE 

(By Frank Hall, Canadian Vice-Grand President, International Brotherhood of 

Railway Clerks) 




ACIALLY, historically, 
geographically and even 
economically, Canada 
and the United States 
are one people — ," says 
a financial journal pub- 
lished in Montreal, in a recent editorial. 
Organized labor on this continent has 
always realized the truth of this, and 
that, correlatively, labor must be inter- 
nationally organized, hence the fact that 
Canadian workers, including railway 
employes, are, with a few inconsequen- 
tial exceptions, identified with interna- 
tional organizations whose headquart- 
ers, almost invariably, are in the United 
States. 

There are some, who, thrusting aside 
all relevant consideration seek to se- 
duce the workers of this country by su- 
perficial preachments and advocacy of 
a narrow nationalism, by patriotism, 
that last refuge of the scoundrel, and by 
allegations of submission to foreign 
yoke and dictatorship implied in this in- 
ternational relationship. Quite rightly, 
a vast majority of Canadian organized 
workers have refused to be influenced 
by these extraneous pretensions, and the 
proponents of isolation have little or 
nothing to show for their endeavors. 

While it is true that many of the 
world's present ills may be traced to 
the application of some nationalistic 
doctrines, as exemplified, for instance, 
by the erection of tariff barriers, aimed 
to stimulate domestic industry but 
with the reverse effect because of the 
throttling of international trade and in- 
tercourse, it is not the purpose of this 
article to deal with this cause and ef- 
fect, but rather to offer some practical 
illustrations of the mutual advantages 
gained by the existing partnership be- 
tween railway workers in the United 
States and Canada. 

The third annual conference on or- 
ganization of our Brotherhood, held at 
Chicago recently, offered many of these 
illustrations. First, we are impressed 
with the knowledge that the problems 
and conditions confronting the member- 
ship in the United States have their 
exact counterpart in our Canadian prob- 
lems and conditions. Secondly, we find 
that ameliorate activity is almost identi- 
cal in the two countries. Third, we real- 



ize with an ever-increasing conviction 
that the workers of neither country can, 
alone, make any fundamental or consid- 
erable progress. 

It is incontrovertibly true, therefore, 
that the co-operation and co-ordinated 
activity of the Canadian worker is as 
essential to the worker in the United 
States, as is the co-operation of United 
States workers necessary to the welfare 
and advancement of Canadians. Com- 
mon interests demand common activity, 
and this can be assured only by perpetu- 
ation of the present form of interna- 
tional understanding. 

The Chicago conference dealt with 
such universal problems as unemploy- 
ment, unemployment insurance, consoli- 
dations, development of competitive and 
auxiliary facilities (motor truck, bus, 
freight, forwarding companies, etc.), ef- 
fect of industrial depression upon rail- 
roads, retirement insurance, workmen's 
compensation, and a number of subjects 
related to these matters. 

Is it not true that these subjects are 
of concern to Canadian railway work- 
ers as well as to those south of the 
boundary line? Is it not true that the 
workers of both countries must take 
almost identical measures to deal with 
them? Is it not a fact that "the powers 
that be" before any remedial or progres- 
sive action can be secured or forced 
from them, are influenced greatly by the 
measure of progress made elsewhere in 
the matter being contended for? 

Acknowledging as we do the sound- 
ness of the views of the editor who said 
that "racially, historically, geographic- 
ally and even economically, Canada and 
the United States are one people"- — we 
must acknowledge, too, that no part of 
the workers' international movement 
can advance ahead of the whole, and 
that the whole can reach achievement 
only to the extent of the co-operation 
given by the component parts. 

Common problems, a common objec- 
tive and common measures. We march 
together to our ultimate and manifest 
destiny. Not for us the flummery and 
flag waving of the chauvinist and the 
bigot. Nor is our internationalism con- 
fined to the workers' movement, it is 
one that may be, and is, contributed to 
by many in different walks of life, and 



THE CARPENTER 



one that will inevitably be the salvation 
of a hate torn world. 

In the passing of the last two decades 
many a milestone stands to mark the 
value of international solidarity of rail- 
way workers on this continent — wage 
level, the eight-hour day, a hundred and 
one other achievements. For a Canadian 
railway worker to say that he owes none 
of these things to the activities of the 
workers to the south, is to brand him a 
fool. For a railway worker in the Unit- 
ed States to say that conditions and de- 
velopments on Canadian railways have 
no influence on his own situation and 
circumstances, is to label him ignorant 
of much that has been going on. Who 
knows, for example, the extent to which 
the wage movement and settlement in 
the United States, was influenced by the 



reduction in wages to which some Cana- 
dian railway workers were subjected 
pursuant to the findings of a Canadian 
Board of Conciliation and Investiga- 
tion? Does anyone doubt that the rail- 
ways have a perfect co-operative under- 
standing, arising out of their apprecia- 
tion of the international aspects of the 
industry. Can we think that any con- 
sideration of such narrow viewpoint as 
is preached to us by the so-called "all 
Canadian" unionist, will influence Cana- 
dian railways in their future labor 
policy? 

Capital knows no country. Shall the 
vision of the workers be obscured by 
empty pretensions and exploded falla- 
cies, or shall organized labor meet or- 
ganized capital on its own ground — in- 
ternationally? 



STRIKE RIGHT AFFIRMED 




HE undercover propagan- 
da seeking to curb by 
statute law the right of 
working men and women 
to refuse to sell the use 
of their labor power to 
profit-grabbing employers whenever the 
workers regard such action as necessary 
to promote their general economic war- 
fare received two setbacks in labor laws 
enacted at the close of the 1934 session 
of the Seventy-Third Congress. 

Limiting this inherent right is fre- 
quently sought by employers who peti- 
tion judges to issue injunctions restrain- 
ing workers from striking and vigorous- 
ly conducting strikes. 

The first blow at the anti-strike 
scheme is found in the Crosser Amend- 
ment to the Railway Labor Law. After 
setting up machinery to guarantee the 
right of railroad employes to organize 
in bona fide unions without interference 
from employers and outlining enforce- 
ment procedure, the amendment says: 

"Provided, That nothing in this Act 
shall be construed to require an indi- 
vidual employe to render labor or serv- 
ice without his consent, nor shall any- 
thing in this Act be construed to make 
the quitting of his labor by an individ- 
ual employe of an illegal act; nor shall 
any court issue any process to compel the 
performance by an individual employe 
of such labor or service without his 
consent." 

By this amendment, and without 
mincing, words, the Congress of the 



United States plainly and positively in- 
forms judges of high and low degree 
that they are debarred by Federal law 
from issuing injunctions or other court 
orders which either directly or indirect- 
ly limit the right of railroad employes 
to strike. 

The second curb on those employer 
dictators, who would like to see Amer- 
ican workers chained by law to their 
tasks without the right to withhold 
their labor power whenever they see 
fit to do so, is contained in the La Fol- 
lette Amendment to the new Labor Dis- 
putes Act, which reads: 

"Nothing in this resolution shall pre- 
vent or impede or diminish in any way 
the right of employes to strike or en- 
gage in other concerted activities." 

The right to strike is the right of 
working men and women to refuse to 
sell the use of their labor power — their 
power to create wealth and perform 
service — to those who own and control 
industry, who buy it for the sole pur- 
pose of employing it to produce profits 
for the exclusive benefit of coupon clip- 
pers, dividend receivers and rent grab- 
bers. To limit this right in any way 
is to deprive the workers of their major 
final weapon of defense and offense in 
preserving their economic liberties. 

Congress did well in reaffirming the 
right of labor to refuse to work, to 
strike, whenever in labor's belief the 
exercise of that right is absolutely nec- 
essary to protect and enlarge the work- 
ers economic liberties. 



THE CARPENTER 



ORGANIZED LABOR'S TRIBUTE TO THE TOL- 

PUDDLE MARTYRS 

(By Walter M. Citrine) 




XTENSIVE exercises to 
commemorate the mem- 
ory of the six farm labor- 
ers of Tolpuddle, Eng- 
land, who were deported 
by the British Govern- 
ment in 1834 for organizing a trade 
movement, will feature the 1934 Brit- 
ish Trades Union Congress which will 
be held at Weymouth a few miles from 
Tolpuddle. 

It was the sacrifices of these men 
which laid the basis for the modern 
trade union movement in Great Britain. 
The following account of the martyr- 
dom of the Tolpuddle laborers is written 
by Walter M. Citrine, general secretary 
of the Trades Union Congress General 
Council: 

A hundred years ago on February 24, 
183 4, six agricultural l