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Full text of "Carpenter"


JANUARY, 1944 



J 




Which Are You? 

I saw them tearing a building down, 

A gang of men in a busy town, 

With a ho-heave-ho and a lusty yell, 

They swung a beam and the side wall fell. 

I asked the foreman, "Are these men 
skilled. 

As the men you would hire if you had to 
build?" 

He laughed and said, "No, indeed ! 

Common labor is all I need. 

I can easily wreck in a day or two, 

What builders have taken a year to do." 

I asked myself as I went my way. 

Which of these roles have I tried to play? 

"Am I a builder who works with care, 

Measuring life by the rule and square. 

Or am I a wrecker who walks the town. 

Content with the labor of tearing down?" 

— ^Anonymous. 



NOTICE 



Th« publishers of "The Carpenter" reserve the 
right to reject all advcrtisins matter which may 
be, In their judgment, unfair or objectionable to 
tlie membership of the United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America. 
All contracts for advertising space in "The Car- 
penter," including tliose stipulated as non-can- 
cellable, are only accepted subject to tho above 
reserved rights of tlie publislicrs. 



Index of Advertisers 



Carpentars' Tools and Accessories 

Page 

Henry Disston & Sons, Inc., 

Philadelphia, Pa 64 

Foley Mfg. Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 64 

Heller Bros. Co., Newark, N. J._ 63 

Mali Tool Co., Chicago, III 64 

Mayhetc-Maydole Tools, Norwich, 

N. Y. 62 

Millers Falls Co., Greenfield, 

Mass. 3rd Cover 

North Bros. Mfg. Co., Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 64 

Paine Company, Chicago, 111. 63 

Stanley Tools, New Britain, 

Conn. 3rd Cover 

Insurance 

Federal Life & Casualty Co., El- 
gin, 111. 4th Cover 

Technical Courses and Books 

American Technical Society, Chi- 
cago, lU. 63 

Theo. Audel, New York, N. Y.__3rd Cover 

Chicago Technical College, Chi- 
cago, III. 1 

Mason & Parrish, Engineers, 

Kalamazoo, Mich. 62 



KEEP THE MONEY 
IN THE PAMII.Y! 

PATRONIZE 
ADVERTISERS 

WHO SPEND MONEY 
WITH YOUR UNION. 



CARPENTERS 
BUILDERS and 
APPRENTICES 

Send for Those: 

Mi n| wm ■■ Blue Print Plans and Book 

r H 1 1 ""^^ ^^ ^^'^^ ^'-"^ PRINTS" 
" ■■ ■■ " See Offer Below 




Find out now, — by this Free Trial Les- 
son, — how easy it is to learn the tech- 
nical side of Building, right in your own 
home, in your spare time. No charge for 
this Lesson either now or later ! 

FOR PRACTICAL MEN 

If you have had practical experience as 
a carpenter or builder, — so much the 
better. The most competent builders, — 
foremen, estimators, superintendents, 
master builders and contractors, — must 
understand blue prints and specifications. 
Here is your chance to become a trained 
builder. Send the coupon or a post card 
for details. 

HO^ TO LAY OUT JOBS 

Learn how to lay out and run a build- 
ing job. How to read blue prints. How 
to understand specifications. How to 
estimate costs. No books — no classes ! 
Just use the blue prints, specifications 
and easy lessons we furnish. Same as 
the contractor uses. Fits in with your 
daily experience. This practical plan is 
the result of our liO yenns of experience 
in training ijractical builders. 

FOR PROOF SEND COUPON 
—or a Post Card 

To prove to you how easy it is for a 
practical mnn to learn this "headwork" 
side of Building we will send you, — (if 
you are a carpenter, builder or appren- 
tice), — our Free Trial Lesson or Booklet : 
"Hon- To Read Blue Prinls." and a set 
of blue print plans, — all Free of cost. 
They are valuable and instructive. 

Send Coupon or Post Card 

C lire AGOliCHlirC Af COirEGE 

The School far Builders 

A-105 Tech BIdg., 2000 So. Michigan Ave., 
Chicago, 16, Illinois 

Please send at once, — no obllEration, — Tour 
FREE Book "How to Read Bine Prints" and a 
complete set of Blue Print Plans. 

Name 

Address 

P. 0. State 

Occupation 





TIIC^^^IER 



A Monthly Journal, Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners 

of America, for all its Members of all its Branches. 

FRANK DUFFY, Editor 

Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, 4, Indiana 



Established in 1881 
Vol. LXIV — No. 1 



INDIANAPOLIS, JANUARY, 1944 



One Dollar Per Tear 
Ten Cents a Copy 



— Contents — 



Maintain Wages, Shorten Hours - - - 

AFL leaders point out to nation that decreased hours -without 
any reduction in take-home pay offers only formula for full em- 
ployment in post-war era. 

Navy to Avenge Pearl Harbor - - - - 

Smashing blows dealt Japs up to now are only interest payments 
on Pearl Harbor treachery. Principal to be paid off when Nip 
navy rests in the bottom of the Pacific. 

Glass Carpentry Next? - - - - - 

Science develops a new type of glass that can be handled like 
w^ood, a fact that may make it a No. 1 post-war building 
material. 

Alaska, Our New Frontier - _ - _ 

Gigantic development of Alaskan empire foreseen at conclusion 
of hostilities. 

Post-War Minimum Standards - - - 

A famous economist assays the chances of establishing a guaran- 
teed minimum standard of living for every citizen. 

The Threat to Jobless Insurance - - - 

State administrations and state legislatures are threatening to 
emasculate many of the most desirable provisions of the act. 



8 

20 
23 
43 



DEPARTMENTS 

Plane Gossip ---------- 18 

Editorial ---..---.-- 32 

Official --- 49 

Obituary ---..-.--.. 53 

In My Opinion ..--.---. 54 

Correspondence --------- 55 

Womens Activities -------. 55 

Craft Problems --------- 59 

Index of Advertisers --------- 1 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of 

Congress, Aug. 24, 1912. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for 

in Section 1103, act of October 3, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918. 



To Achieve Post-War Plenty, We Must 

MAINTAIN WACES, SHORTEN HOURS 

AFL Omcials Point Out to Nation 

• • • 

IN TWO official pronouncements, the American Federation of Labor 
recently served notice to the nation that it will not stand for wage cuts 
when the war ends. 
President AVilliam Green, appearing before the Truman Committee of 
the U. S. Senate, declared that the economic safet}^ of America requires 
shortening- of working hours in the post-war period without reduction of 
total earnings. 

Secretary-Treasurer George Meany, speaking on the American Forum 
of the Air, warned that lowering of wage income and consequent curtail- 
ment of purchasing power would bring about a post-war depression. 

Thus, a new and major post-war 
issue was projected into the fore- 
front of post-war discussion — an is- 
sue on which the American Federa- 
tion of Labor is determined to carry 
on an aggressive campaign in behalf 
of the nation's workers. 

In his testimony before the Tru- 
man Committee, Mr. Green pointed 
out that by voluntarily offering 
their no-strike pledge to the Gov- 
ernment for the duration of the war 
and by acceding to the economic sta- 
bilization program, American work- 
ers have sacrificed their opportuni- 
ties for economic advancement dur- 
ing war-time. He added : 

"Workers have relied upon work- 
ing long hours to get income to meet 
increased living costs. While work- 
ers are denied the right to increase 
wage rates to accord with increased 
productivity and employers' capac- 
ity to pay, we shall endeavor to re- 
store equity by insisting that peace- 
time hours standards shall be estab- 
lished without reductions in earn- 
ings. 



"High wage rates do not neces- 
sarily mean high labor costs. /Ac- 
cording to the Census of Manufac- 
turers for 1939, labor costs in the 
various industries ranged from 5 per 
cent to 28 per cent. The average re- 
lationship in all manufacturing was 
that labor costs made up only 16 per 
cent of the total value of the prod- 
ucts manufactured. If wages had 
been raised 5 per cent, the increased 
value of the product would have 
been only eight-tenths of one per 
cent, a sum which in many cases 
would have been readily absorbed in 
profit margin without increase in 
price of goods. But the number of 
dollars going to the workers and 
offering a market for goods pro- 
duced would have been about half 
a billion. Assuming adecjuate con- 
trols against inflation, it is the ax- 
iom that the greater the national 
income, the greater the market." 

Mr. Green sternly rejected a the- 
ory advanced by members of the 
Truman Committee that it would be 



THE CARPEXTER 



economically advisable for labor to 
reduce wage rates and thereby facil- 
itate increased production at lower 
costs to consumers. If industry at- 
tempts to adopt such a plan, he said, 
"it will be cutting- off its own nose." 
He explained: 

"In manufacturing, when the 
work week is reduced from 48 to 40 
hours, and when the number of war 
workers is reduced by what will un- 
doubtedly be approximately about 
one-third from the war peak, these 
factors would reduce the annual 
take-home pay to about one-half of 
the workers' income at the time of 
the war peak if no counter-action is 
taken. Thus, if the annual payroll, 
which is really the market for con- 
sumer goods, is around $40,000,000,- 
000 at war peak, that market wil-1 be 
reduced to around $20,000,000,000 
per annum after the war. Would not 
industry prefer to have a market of 
$40,000,000,000 to compete for rather 
than one-half that size?" 

Mr. Meany expressed a similar 
point of view over the radio forum. 
He said: 

"After the war ends, labor wants 
good wages paid for the work that 
labor performs; and labor also 
wants the work-week to be reduced 



sufficiently so as to give work to 
everyone who seeks a job. In pro- 
posing the payment of high wages 
by industry after the war, labor is 
not thinking of itself alone but of 
the employer and the nation as a 
whole. In order to keep our factor- 
ies running steadily, the American 
people must have the purchasing 
power to buy the products of these 
factories. By this time we should 
all realize that low wages do not 
make for prosperity in America. 
Wages were low during the depres- 
sion and because wages were low 
purchasing power was low and the 
depression dragged on — year after 
year. 

"As to the second point: Labor 
feels that it is far better to have 
everyone working a 35-hour or a 
30-hour week when peace returns 
than to have some people working 
40 hours and millions of others not 
working at all. In the latter cir- 
cumstances even those who are em- 
ployed are apprehensive and tend 
to hold on to their money instead 
of spending it for the products that 
American industry wants to manu- 
facture and sell, and which must be 
kept moving into the hands of the 
consumers if the post-war era is to 
be an era of prosperity." 



Six Million Get Vocational Training 

Washington — Approximately 6 million men and women have been 
given training since July i, 1940, under the program of Vocational Train- 
ing for War Production Workers, according to a report to U. S. Commis- 
sioner of Education John W. Studebaker. The program is conducted 
through state boards of vocational education and public schools and in 
cooperation with the U. S. Office of Education, Federal Security Agency. 

The number of war workers trained represents more than one-quarter 
of all workers employed in war production industries at the peak of pro- 
duction. The program has materially aided in production of aircraft, 
ships, tanks, and ordnance, and has included civilians and enlisted per- 
sonnel of the armed services. 



NAVY TO AVENGE 
PEARL HARBOR IN 



1944 



UNITED STATES fighting ships and fighting men will avenge Pearl 
Harbor in 1944. In the two years since the fateful December 7th 
which will long live as a monument to Japanese infamy, the United 
States Navy has dealt the Japanese juggernaut many hard and telling 
blows : however, everything so far has been mereh* interest payment. The 
principal on the Pearl Harbor debt will be paid in full in 1944; and it 
will be paid in full only when the Japanese nav}- lies in the bottom of the 
Pacific and the road to Tok3-o lies open. 

AVith the capture of the Gilbert Islands in the first offensive action in 
the Central Pacific, the Navy has at long last put Tokyo squarely in its 
gun sights. 



Starting the war as a badly plastered 
victim of treacherous attack, the navy 
fought first against hopeless odds in far 
waters, against overwhelming force in 
its own defense areas, and later in limit- 
ed offensive action. 

"Beginning of End" 

All this time it had added to its 
strength, so that now more powerful 
than ever in history, it is able to launch 
so tremendous an offensiive that no less 
an authority than Admiral Chester 
Nimitz speaks of it as "the beginning of 
the end for the Japs." 

In a single stroke, it has advanced 
American air bases by 700 miles, placed 
a menacing flanking force just south of 
the Jap-held Marshalls and shortened 
and safeguarded America's dangerous 
supply lanes to the South Pacific — all 
with the loss of a single ship. 

It is significant and satisfying that 
in the armada which accomplished the 
taking of the Gilberts — an armada 
which constitutes the greatest striking 
force ever assembled in the Pacific — 
are several of the huge battle wagons 
caught at Pearl Harbor and crossed off 
by the Japs. 

There to Stay 

Even more satisfying are the indica- 
tions that this mighty force is in the 
Pacific to stay. 

The fact that the Jap Navy has not 
dared to accept its challenge is due to 



the steady, relentless punishment dealt 
it through the months since Pearl Har- 
bor by American cruisers, aircraft car- 
riers, destroyers, and submarines. 

It is a far cry from this aggressive 
hunt for the Jap navy to Pearl Harbor 
when six capital ships were sunk or 
disabled, the naval air station knocked 
out and more than 2,0 00 officers and 
men of the navy and marine corps 
killed. It was the most crushing and 
humiliating defeat in the navy's his- 
tory. 

In the face of such a catastrophe, re- 
covery was slow and no offensive action 
to stem the Jap tide of conquest was 
possible. 

During the first months of the war 
the na^T had to content itself with a few 
raids on the Gilbert and Marshall Is- 
land. 

Yet, despite its crippled condition, it 
was able, with the aid of land-based 
bombers from MacArthur's South Pa- 
cific force, to turn the threat of Jap 
invasion from Australia in the battle 
of the Coral Sea — in May, 1942, the 
first major engagement fought entirely 
by planes from carriers with the sur- 
face ships never getting in range of 
each other. 

Then came Midway, less than a month 
later, termed by most experts as the 
turning point of the war in the Pacific, 
when the gallantry of a badly outnum- 



THE CARPEXTER 



bered force of American carriers and 
cruisers met and turned back an 80- 
ship Jap force aimed at Midway and the 
probable invasion of Hawaii. 

10 Ships Sunk 

The Japs suffered terrific losses — 
four first-line carriers, six other sizeable 
escorting ships sunk and 10 others dam- 
aged. The United States lost the car- 
rier Yorktown and a destroyer. 

Midway ended the Jap expansion. 
Since then the enemy not only has been 
halted, but, little by little, has been 
forced to retreat. Buna, Gona, Guadal- 
canal, Rendova, Munda. Salamaua and 
Lae have been torn from their grasp. 



One of these, the battle of Savo Is- 
land, fought on Aug. 8, all but spelled 
disaster for the Americans. A Jap naval 
force caught the allied fleet off guard 
and sank one Australian and three 
American cruisers. 

In October at the Battle of Cape 
Esperance the Americans were further 
avenged when they sank six Jap ships 
with the loss of only one destroyer. 
Later that month the Battle of Santa 
Cruz was fought over hundreds of miles 
of water. The United States lost an 
aircraft carrier and a destroyer, but 
drove off the enemy. 

Three weeks later the Jap naval 
threat to Guadalcanal was disposed of in 




Knocked out and sent to the bottom of Pearl Harbor by the treacherous Japanese 
sneak attack of December 7th, 1941, the battleship Oklahoma was crossed off by the 
Nip war lords. However, they miscalculated the ingenuity and resourcefulness of the 
American people. The Oklahoma is living to fight another day, and the Japs will soon 
be tasting the fury of her thunder. 

Pictured above is the Oklahoma being salvaged with the aid of giant timber frames. 
Wires run over them slowly lifted the ship when drawn by winches on shore. 



Naturally in such an island-hopping 
campaign as we have been carrying on 
— at first slowly, but now with ever 
greater force and momentum — the navy 
has played a major part. 

Planned by Xavy 

The marine landing on Guadalcanal — 
the first time that American troops 
set foot on Jap-held soil — was planned, 
accomplished and protected by naval 
units, and numerous sea battles were 
necessary to prevent Jap reinforcements 
from reaching the island. 



a great naval battle in which the Japs 
lost 2 8 ships and probably 30,0 men. 
Our losses were two cruisers and seven 
destroyers. 

Since then our growing power in the 
Pacific has mauled and sunk Japs ships 
wherever they have been dicovered. 

First decisive action came when 
planes from Gen. MacArthur's South- 
western Pacific command discovered and 
destroyed all 22 ships of a Jap convoy 
steaming toward New Guinea. 

This was the battle of the Bismarck 
Sea, which probably did much to make 



THE CARPENTER 



possible later landings in the central 
Solomons. 

Blast 11 More 

Jap naval opposition to these land- 
ings, carried out in July of this year, 
was the signal for the navy to blast 11 
Jap warships at the first battle of Kula 
Gulf. 

It was during this engagement that 
the cruiser Helena, first damaged at 
Pearl Harbor, was sunk, but not until 
she had assisted in the destruction of 
11 and in damaging five other Jap war- 
ships. 

Nearly 1,000 men of the Helena's 
crew were rescued. Two hundred and 
twenty-seven of these were marooned 
for days on Jap held Vella Lavella Is- 
land until rescued by navy destroyers 
from under the nose of Jap planes and 
scouting parties — another brilliant nav- 
al exploit. 

In releasing the full story of this 
ship's grand career, the Navy Depart- 
ment declared that the marksmanship 
of the Helena's gun crews was so ex- 
pert at the bombardment of Kolomban- 
gara that the Tokyo radio announced 
the "United States forces employed a 
new secret weapon — a 6-inch machine 
gun." 

Win in Vela Gulf 

In the second battle of the Kula Gulf 
about a week later one Jap cruiser and 
three destroyers were sunk. 

Early in August American naval 
forces in a battle lasting one hour sank 
another cruiser and two destroyers with 
a third listed as probable in the Vela 
Gulf. 

Proof of America's growing naval 
strength was demonstrated in another 
theater during these two months. Amer- 
ican forces landed on Jap-held Attu in 
the Aleutian Islands on May 11 and 
July was marked by several heavy naval 
raids on Kiska. 

On Aug. 8 a Jap destroyer and three 
cargo vessels were severely damaged and 
another sunk in a raid on this outer- 
most bead in the Aleutian chain. 

Find Japs Gone 

Actual invasion of Kiska in the mid- 
dle of August came as an anti-climax 



for American and Canadian fighters, who 
found the Japs had gone, presumably 
because they had been unable to take 
the terrific naval and air bombardments 
preceding the landings. 

Sept. 1 saw a heavy raid by planes 
and ships on Marcus Island, Jap base 1,- 
100 miles southeast of Tokyo and early 
in October the navy gave Wake Island, 
captured from a gallant band of U. S. 
Marines at the beginning of the war, 
the most destructive pounding it ever 
received. 

Later in the same month warships, 
planes and troops stormed the Treasure 
Islands and a few days later marines 
landed at dawn on Bougainville, captur- 
ing Empress Augusta Bay. 

In the ensuing naval battle 12 Japs 
ships were routed and three sunk with- 
out loss to our own forces. 

Learn Lesson of Unity 

Divided command and bad-feeling be- 
tween army and navy commanders has 
been shown to have been in part re- 
sponsible for Pearl Harbor. 

Operations since that time — particu- 
larly those in the central Solomons 
under the supreme command of Gen. 
MacArthur — show that United States 
military leaders have learned the lesson 
of that disaster — that the battle against 
the Japs can be won only by closest co- 
operation of naval, air and ground 
forces. 

This is the secret of our victories at 
Guadalcanal, in the Aleutians, in New 
Guinea and in these victories the navy 
both through its surface ships, its un- 
dersea craft and its flyers has played a 
vital part. 

Its growing list of exploits — of which 
the taking of the strategically impor- 
tant coral atolls which comprise the 
Gilberts is the most recent — gives con- 
stant evidence of new power. 

After announcing that the Gilberts 
were securely in American hands, Adm. 
Nimitz was asked, "Where do we go 
from here?" He answered: 

"Wherever the Japs are;" thus indi- 
cating that the United States navj' is 
ready to meet the Jap fleet anywhere 
and any time it can be induced to come 
out and fight. After that, it's full 
speed ahead for Tokyo.! 



Buy War Bonds and Stamps! 



GLASS CARPEXTRY NEXT? 

Research Produces Type That Can Be Sawed, Nailed and Drilled 

INTENSIVE, war-inspired research indicates that the carpenters of the 
future may be handling glass as extensively as they now handle 
wood, for glass is threatening to become one of the commonest build- 
ing materials. New processes, already put through exhaustive tests, are 
producing a new kind of glass— a kind of glass that can be sawed, nailed, 
and drilled. Military secrecy still shrouds some of the details surround- 
ing recent developments in glass but enough is already known to make 

possible predictions of wide-spread use 

of new type glass as a building material 
of tbe future. 

No industrj' has made as much prog- 
ress in research during the war as glass. 
In addition to entering the building ma- 
terial field, the post-war era will find 
glass competing with steel and textiles. 

Glass that will withstand tempera- 
tures over 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit, 
glass that will defy searing chemicals 
that eat away stainless steel, is ready to 
speed the making of super-octane gaso- 
line. One war plant already is using 2 7 
miles of glass piping. Other types of 
heat-resistant glass are going into the 
tubes that are the heart of electronics. 

Glass, under a new forming process, 
treated like a plastic in high-pressure 
molding machinery, can be forced into 
exact shapes that never before could be 
made quickly and cheaply from glass. 
This means that glass, one of the best 
insulators known, will be able to com- 
pete with plastics in new developments 
in electricity and electronics, where deli- 
cate and accurately made parts are re- 
quired. 

Glass, blown into foam by a chemical 
"yeast," has become lighter than cork. 
It is now being used in floats for life 
rafts and life preservers and as building 
insulation. If hit by a bullet it does not 
shatter. 

Glass coil springs are being made on 
an experimental basis. 

Of chief interest to our members, 
however, is the development of glass as 
a potential building material of the first 
order. By a new process, glass is made 
into a light durable material that can 
be worked almost as easily as wood. It 



does not shatter and it can be bent and 
handled as readily as lumber. It can be 
sawed, drilled or nailed as readily as 
wood. 

To most people glass is the trans- 
parent, brittle substance which for hun- 
dreds of years has been used in windows 
and mirrors. How inadequate this con- 
ception is can be gleaned from the fact 
that one glass company alone has over 
twenty-seven thousand different kinds 
of glass already developed in its re- 
search laboratories. A new type of glass 
can be filled with molten iron while sit- 
ting on a cake of ice without any evil 
results. 

And the end of glass development is 
not yet in sight. Scientists are only now 
beginning to understand what makes 
glass behave as it does; what makes it 
transparent although made of non- 
transparent materials; what makes it 
brittle although it can stand pressures 
that would make steel soft as putty; 
what makes it unable to resist violent 
temperature changes in its ordinary 
form. As they grow to understand these 
things better, their horizons widen 
accordingly. 

What goes into the furnaces essen- 
tially controls the kind of glass that 
comes out. In making some of the 
special new kinds of glass, formulas are 
so exacting that even one grain of the 
wrong kind of sand in a ton of mate- 
rial would spoil an entire batch. 

So the glass industry moves forward 
and as a result the building trades 
workers can visualize the day when 
glass will be handled by them as ex- 
tensively as wood and brick are today.. 



KEEP 'EM 
SMOKING 



Brotherhood solicits cooperation 
of Locals and District Councils 
to keep our Bghting boys happy. 



Donations to the Brotherhood rigar- 
ette fund for our fighting forces showed 
a disappointing drop for December. Only 
two dozen locals and district councils 
made contributions during that period, 
despite the fact the Christmas holiday- 
was just around the corner. 

If donations were scarce, however, 
cards of appreciation for the cigarettes 
from soldiers and sailors were not. 
Scores of notes of thanks have continued 
to pour into the Brotherhood office de- 
spite the fact that government regula- 
tions have for the past two months for- 
bidden the inclusion of cards with cig- 
arettes going to the armed forces. From 
the South Pacific, from North Africa, 
from sailors at sea have come warm 
notes of recognition and thanks for the 
American smokes provided through the 
Brotherhood fund. Some of the notes 
came from our own members now pack- 
ing guns and grenades instead of the 
tools of the trade. 

During the month another five thou- 
sand dollars worth of free cigarettes was 



dispatched to the fighting fronts through 
the fund. One hundred and ten thou- 
sand soldiers and sailors will each get a 
free package of American smokes as a 
result; smokes that will help to mini- 
mize the rigors and discomforts of war 
and make life just a little bit more en- 
joyable when there is already little 
enough that can be enjoyed. 

More soldiers, sailors, and marines 
are now serving on the fighting fronts 
than at any time since the war started; 
consequently it is necessary that cigar- 
ettes in even greater numbers be kept 
headed toward the varied far-flung 
fronts. Free cigarettes are only one of 
the small ways in which we can show 
our appreciation for the magnificent 
contribution our boys are making for all 
of us at great personal sacrifice. 

All checks or money orders toward 
the Brotherhood cigarette fund should 
be made payable to General Treasurer 
S. P. Meadows. A strict accounting of 
the fund will be furnished all contribu- 
tors. 

* * 



L.U. 

62 

66 

165 

359 

367 

424 

691 

947 

1012 

1046 

1255 

1470 

1865 

2024 



Cigarette Fund 

Contributions received November 2 3 to Dec. 2 3 

City and State Amt. L.U. City and State 

Chicago, 111. 10 00 

Jamestown, N. Y 10 00 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 20 00 

Philadelphia, Pa. 50 00 

Centralia, 111. 10 00 

Hingham, Mass. 10 00 

Williamsport, Pa. 25 00 

Baltimore, Md. 10 00 

Greenwood, Miss. 10 00 

Palm Springs, Cal 18 00 

Chilicothe, Ohio 15 00 

Conway, Ark. 5 00 

Minneapolis, Minn. 15 00 

Coconut Grove, Fla 25 00 



2161 Catskill, N. Y 

2511 Klamath Falls, Ore. 
25 5 5 Port Angeles, Wash. 

2563 Greenville, N. C 

2 58 Everett, Wash. 

2609 Tillamook, Ore. 

2611 Eugene, Oi'e. 

2805 Klickitat, Wash. 

2934 Union, Ore. 



DISTRICT COUNCIL 
Redwood D. C 



Amt. 
10 00 

5 00 
20 00 
25 00 
25 00 
25 00 

5 00 
25 00 
10 00 



10 00 



Total $393 00 



Available Funds Nov. 22, 1943 $14,373 91 

Receipts 393 00 



Total $14,776 91 

Expenditures: 

Brown & Williamson Tobacco $2,500 00 

Axton-Fisher Tobacco 2,500 00 5,000 00 



Available Funds Dec. 23, 1943 $ 9,776 91 



10 T H E C A R P E X T E K 




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ciation for the free smokes xjrovided tKrongh our Brotherhood's Cigarette rtmd. 

• • • 



THE OARPENTBR 



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12 



Creosoting industry running at capacity to 
fill demand for rot-proof, termite-proof wood 



WAR BOOMS WOOD PRESERYmG 

FROM A SMALL relatively unimportant venture devoted almost ex- 
clusively to the treating- of railroad ties, the v^ood-preserving (creo- 
soting) industry has, in a single generation, grown into a mighty 
industry treating billions of feet of lumber annually and employing many 
thousand men. By 1939 the industry had already grown to the point where 
it was consuming some 160 million gallons of creosote per year. With 
the coming of war, however, the demand for lumber practically doubled, 
and the demand for creosoted structural timbers of all kinds kept pace. 
The 1942 output of creosote climbed to 220 million gallons and estimated 
1943 output runs considerably closer to 300 million gallons. 

Enormous quantities of creosoted 



timber have gone into the construc- 
tion of foundations and sills of 
cantonments, arsenals, warehouses, 
■etc. Millions of feet have gone into 
dock piling and dock planking, and 
the war-created demand is still 
growing. Wood has replaced critic- 
ally needed steel in a thousand and 
one uses; and in many places it is 
creosote-treated lumber that is fill- 
ing the bill, for it is creosote that 
makes wood unappetizing to land 
termites and marine borers alike. It 
retards decay, prevents dry rot and 
generally multiplies the durability 
of wood manyfold. 

Makes Wood Last Indefinitely 

The word "creosote," derived as 
it is from Greek words meaning 
"preserved wood," pretty much tells 
the whole story. Wood correctly 
treated with creosote lasts indefi- 
nitely. Temperature changes, im- 
mersion in water, heat or cold have 
little effect on creosote-impregnated 
lumber or timbers. Treated rail- 
road ties stand up six times as long 
as untreated ties. Even more favor- 
able results are obtained from treat- 
ed piling and dock planking in com- 
parison to untreated wood. 



Until comparatively recently, the 
bulk of the creosote used in this 
country was imported from Eng- 
land and Western Europe. About 
fifteen years ago, however, domestic 
production got under way on a large 
scale basis. Since that time virtu- 
ally none has been imported. A by- 
product of the conversion of coal 
into coke, creosote can be supplied 
in unlimited quantities by America's 
mighty steel industry which util- 
izes millions of tons of coke annual- 
ly. In fact creosote is one of the 
few critical materials so plentiful 
that the War Production Board has 
deemed it unnecessary to set up any 
restrictions on its utilization. Creo- 
sote has offered no bottleneck to 
the war effort, and, despite the tre- 
mendous increase in its use since 
Pearl Harbor, it is not likely to do 
so, whatever demands the war effort 
might make on it in the future. 
Steel may be scarce, copper may be 
critical, aluminum supplies may be 
ominous, but there is and will al- 
ways be a sufficient amount of creo- 
sote to treat any and all lumber 
products needed by the war effort. 

Although a relatively simple pro- 
cess, creosoting is nevertheless a 
highly skilled trade. Of the 250 odd 



THE CARPENTER 



13 



creosote treating plants in the na- 
tion, many are organized under our 
Brotherhood. A large percentage 
of the plants are located on the west 
coast and the bulk of them are work- 
ing under agreement with various 
locals of our Brotherhood. 

Deep Treating Processes 

Merely painting the outside of the 
wood does not obtain the desired 
results of rot and decay resistance. 
The preferred process calls for deep 
penetration of the wood by creosote. 
Consequently very efficient meth- 
ods of deep-treating lumber and 
timbers with creosote oils have been 
developed. The wood products are 
placed in large air-tight cylinders 
where the air is pumped out, creat- 
ing a vacuum. Creosote oils are 
then induced into the cylinders at 
temperatures ranging as high as 212 
degrees Farenheit. 

As creosote oils are applied, pres- 
sure is applied inside the cylinders. 
The heat vaporizes the sap in the 
wood and the pressure drives in the 
creosote oils to take its place as it 
leaves the wood. For the deepest 
and most efficient penetration (call- 
ed the full-cell process) the air as 
well as the water in the wood is 
drawn ofif, with the result that more 
creosote is driven into the wood to 
replace them. This, of course, in- 
creases the creosote content of the 
Avood and adds to its efficiency in 
use. Most of the wood products go- 
ing into the construction of docks, 
breakwaters, buoys and other types 
of marine construction that must 
withstand terrific amounts of pun- 
ishment are treated by this full-cell 
process. From ten to sixteen pounds 
of creosote per cubic foot of wood 
are used by this process. Wood go- 
ing into construction facing less 
trying conditions is usually treated 
by the empty-cell process which re- 



quires only six to eight pounds of 
creosote per cubic foot. 

The cost of the process varies ac- 
cording to the species of wood, the 
type of treatment required, and the 
type and quantity of creosote used. 
Sometimes petroleum is added to the 
creosote oils for the sake of econ- 
omy. Generally speaking, however, 
creosote treatment by the empty- 
cell process — which uses less creo- 
sote — adds about fifteen per cent to 
the cost of lumber. The price of 
poles and piling is increased from 
forty-five to ninety cents by treat- 
ment. From thirty to ninety per 
cent is added to the cost of railroad 
ties. 

War Increases Supplies 

The war-induced expansion of the 
steel industry has greatly increased 
the supply of creosoting oils. Steel- 
making uses vast quantities of coke. 
Coke in turn is made from bitumin- 
ous coal, and it is from this process 
that creosote is derived. In making 
coke, coal is heated in ovens from 
two hundred to three hundred de- 
grees centigrade. Many gases are 
formed by this process and in the 
end creosote is gained as a by- 
product. It is a mixture containing 
carbolic acid, cresol, napthalene, and 
many other hydrocarbons ; and it is 
the presence of the tar acids, known 
as phenols, which makes the treated 
wood unappetizing to marine borers 
and land-living termites alike. Rot 
in wood is really the presence of 
fungi and other low forms of plant 
life that feed on the wood cells 
much as do insect parasites. 

The stepped up capacity of the 
steel industry has added close to fifty 
million gallons to the creosote pro- 
ducing capacity of the nation. Many 
of the steel companies are prime 
producers of creosote. 

The use of creosote treated lum- 



14 



THE CARPENTER 



ber is not confined to industrial con- 
struction although the bulk of it is 
channeled into that use. Just as the 
modest home builder may use creo- 
sote timbers for the foundations 
and sills of his home, so too may 
the farmer use treated lumber for 
the construction of his silos, barns, 
outhouses, etc. The chances are he 
may use treated fence-posts too. 

Bridge and trestle builders have 
long relied on creosoted timbers to 
keep costs at a minimum without 
impairing durability of their struc- 
tures or requiring frequent and ex- 
pensive repairs. Logging railroads 
have long ago proved the economy 
of trestles and bridges constructed 
of creosote-treated materials. The 
creosoting industry points to a re- 
cent example of overall economy 
reportedly achieved on an eastern 
bridge building job. The cost of 
building a good creosoted timber 
bridge requiring no repairs for 
many years was fixed at $70,000 on 
this particular job. Built with the 
cheapest competitive material of 
little if any greater permanence the 
cost was around $212,000. 

Demand Keeps Growing 

Few people realize how prevalent 
creosote treated wood really is. The 
fans watching a baseball or football 
game probably never realize that 
the stadium they are sitting in has 
creosote-treated mud sills. The oil 
industry uses this type of timber 
for its derricks, run-ways, piles, etc. 
Railroads use it for coal-bins, water 
tanks, roundhouses, etc. in addition 
to the creosote treated ties that have 



been standard equipment on Amer- 
ican railroads for over twenty-five 
years. Guard rails on most high- 
ways have had their creosote baths 
as have most warehouse floors, dock 
run-ways, etc. Creosote is even used 
by sheep men as a anti-tick dip and 
by engineers as Deisel engine fuel 
in emergencies. 

Treatment of wood to enhance its 
lasting qualities and resist decay is 
as old as history. Records prove 
that Egyptians in Biblical times 
treated woods with olive oil, oil of 
cedar, etc. to make them more im- 
pervious to the elements. The under- 
pinning of the Temple of Diana at 
Ephesus was made with wood that 
was supposedly charred to forestall 
decay. Since those times man has 
constantly struggled to improve 
wood preservation. The modern pro- 
cesses of distilling coal tars is ap- 
proximately a hundred years old, 
although the use of such products 
as wood preservatives is not nearly 
so old. 

That creosoting will continue to 
flourish after the war seems to be 
a foregone conclusion. Thousands 
of uses to which wood has been put 
under the stress of war-inspired 
scarcities of steel and aluminum 
will continue after the war. In most 
instances, wood is doing the job 
better and cheaper than it was done 
before the war. Inasmuch as creo- 
soting enhances the desirable prop- 
erties of wood by adding durability, 
it follows that creosoting will share 
in the expected post-war prosperity 
for wood. 



Women's job is going to be a tremendous one. Three million women must 
go into industry, to replace men, right away. Many of them must go through 
training before they can tackle their jobs. That means a lot of house-keeping to 
be done on part-time. And it means that a lot of young women who normally 
would go into stores, beauty shops and offices, will be going into factories. 



15 



Less Furniture In '44 

As A FURTHER means of conserving- dwindling lumber supplies, 
the War Production Board is anticipating- a further reduction in 
furniture manufacture during the coming- year. Plans laid down 
by the WPB anticipate 1944 lumber consumption by the furniture industry 
not to exceed eighty-four per cent of the amount cut in 1943, when drastic 
curtailments were already in effect, according to advices from Wash- 
ington. 

The new restrictions placed on the industry by WPB resulted from 
failure of the lumber industry to increase production enough to keep 
pace with ever-increasing demands. The restrictions are particularly 
aimed at some seven species of wood which are expected to be particularly 
scarce during the coming twelve months. 

WPB officials said no major type 



of furniture now in use would be 
banned, but production of furniture 
that is less essential or in little de- 
mand no longer will be permitted. 
Included on the permissible list are 
such items as cedar chests, dressing 
tables, extension tables, dinette sets, 
step stools, porch chairs and settees, 
and most of the other usual types of 
home, office, and public institutional 
furnitures. Bird cages, magazine 
racks, tea wagons, curio cabinets and 
whatnots, chaise lounges and cab- 
inets are omitted. 

In the juvenile category, bassi- 
nets, baby baths, cribs, high chairs, 
nursery toilet seats, play yards, dou- 
ble deck beds and nursery chairs 
may be made while the ban applies 
to such items as juvenile bookcases, 
chiffoniers, wardrobes, costumers 
and toy chests. 

A curb in the use of certain criti- 
cal species of wood was necessary, 
WPB explains, in order to assure 
ample supply for requirements of 
the armed forces and other impor- 
tant programs. Those restricted are 
ash, beech, yellow birch, hickory. 



hard maple, oak and rock elm in No. 
I common and higher grades. 

Restrictions on these species ap- 
ply immediately. During the current 
month, each manufacturer may use 
30 per cent as many board feet for 
furniture as he used in the third 
quarter of the year. 

Inventory limitations have been 
set at a six-month supply for rough 
lumber and a three-month supply 
for plywood veneer in other forms. 
The WPB said this would effect 
equitable distribution of lumber, yet 
allow furniture manufacturers to 
keep their supplies large enough to 
permit them to operate efficiently. 

Meanwhile the criticalness of the 
manpower situation for the nation 
as a whole has been relaxing some- 
what although no real results are as 
yet discernible in the lumber indus- 
try, which, at the last report, ur- 
gently needed at least sixty thou- 
sand men. Until such time as lum- 
ber production shows a rosier as- 
pect, there appears to be little hope 
of an upward revision of furniture 
manufacture. 



16 



Safeway Goes All The Way 



In a letter to Richard J. Gray, acting- president of the Building Trades 
Department of the American Federation of Labor, the management of 
Safeway stores recently announced an extension to its labor policy to re- 
quire all remodeling, painting, and repairing of building space tenanted by 
the company's stores to be done by union labor wherever same can be had. 
Heretofore Safeway's policy has been to require union labor on original 
construction of buildings to be occupied by their stores. The policy has now 
been broadened to require union labor on subsequent repairing and remod- 
eling work as well. 

The following communications from the company to the Building 
Trades Department explain the new labor policy : 

tf * a * # 
SAFEWAY STORES 

Iricoi-porated 
Fourth and Jackson Streets P. O. Box 660 

OAItLAND, CALIFORNIA 

November 3, 1943 
Mr. Richard J. Gray, Acting President 
Building Trades Council 
American Federation of Labor Building 
Washington, D. C. 
Dear Mr. Gray: 

As indicated in the attached bulletin which we have furnished 
the operating heads of our various divisions and departments, we 
have extended our policy with respect to the use of union labor in 
the building trades field. 

Our previous stated policy covered only the original construction 
of buildings to be occupied by one of our operations. 

We are furnishing you this bulletin with the thought that you 
would be interested to know that we have adopted this change, 
which definitely requires such alterations and painting to be done 
by union labor. 

Very truly yours, 
/s/ R. W. FINLAY 

Director Labor Relations 
RWF:MF 
End. 

• • * « * 

Oakland, California 
November 1, 1943 

POLICY BULLETIN No. 131 
DISTRIBUTION DIVISION MANAGERS: 
(Copy to President's Staff and 
Supplier Division Managers) 

REQUIRING LANDLORDS TO USE UNION 

LABOR FOR REMODELING AND REPAIRS 

As stated in the first paragraph of Operating Bulletin No. 191, 

it has been Company policy v/hen negotiating a new lease, and the 

landlord is to be responsible for all or part of the remodeling, re- 



THE CARPENTER 17 

pairs, and painting to specify In the lease that such alterations and 
painting shall be done by union labor where the crafts are organized. 

Replies to Operating Bulletin No. 191 indicate the majority of 
divisions are in favor of extending this policy so that subsequent re- 
pairs and painting, for which the landlord is responsible, shall be 
done by union labor, where the crafts are organized and where 
union labor is available. 

The contents of this bulletin will be incorporated in the manuals 
and guides in the near future and will be embodied in all future lease 
agreements. In the meantime, please bulletin everyone concerned. 

Sincerely yours, 
LAW:CA L. A. WARREN 



RIGHT TO SUE FOR WAGES UPHELD 

A sweeping decision protecting the- worker's right to sue for back 
wages under the Fair Labor Standards act and keep his job, even if he 
might be mistaken as to coverage, has been given in the U. S. district 
court for New York 

The action was brought by the wage-hour division of the U. S. Depart- 
ment of labor, to enjoin John J. O'Grady, Sr., as executor and trustee, and 
Edward F. Cunningham, owners and operators of a Alanhattan loft build- 
ing, from continuing to refuse to re-employ a worker who had earlier 
brought suit in a state court for back wages alleged due under the wage 
and hour act. 

It was testified that after the state action was begun the defendants told 
the worker. "You have a hell of a nerve to sue. You're fired !" 

Reinstatement Ordered 

Judge Vincent L. Leibell ordered reinstatement and stated his opinion 
that the worker could maintain his own action for back wages from the 
date of the illegal discharge. 

In a sweeping and significant decision he held that it was immaterial 
whether the employe's state court action was or was not successful and 
that the government did not have to show, in order to maintain a suit in 
federal court, that the employe was engaged in commerce. 

This was one case. Judge Leibell said, where the federal court had 
jurisdiction to issue an injunction, despite the fact that the employe might 
not have been engaged in commerce or producing goods for commerce. 

Otherwise, he added, employes would be afraid to begin their own 
actions for back wages and would be afraid to testify in such actions or 
in any proceedings under or related to the act. 

Official Hails Ruling 

The decision was hailed by L. Metcalfe Walling, administrator of the 
wage-hour act, as preserving the "teeth" that Congress wrote into the law, 
which is partially self-enforceable because of its provision for private 
suits by workers. In the five years that the act has been in force, wage 
restitution, of $55,000,000 has been agreed to by employers or ordered 
paid by the wage-hour division. 

It is estimated that several times this amount has been collected in ad- 
dition through private action to recover illegally withheld wages. 




SIP 



A LITTLE INVOLVED 

Egyptian ideas of justice have chang- 
ed since the ancient land came under 
the protection of the English. 

Once, in the days before the protec- 
torate, a robber fell from the second 
story of a house he was attempting to 
enter and broke his leg. He went to the 
local Cadi and complained that the 
window through which he had sought 
access was badly made, and he wanted 
justice. 

Agreeable to this claim, the Cadi 
sent for the owner of the house. The 
owner confessed that the window was 
badly built, but blamed the carpenter. 
Summoned to court, the carpenter ad- 
mitted the charge, but laid the cause 
upon the mason, whom he charged had 
done his work so poorly that he, the 
carpenter, could not fit a good window. 

The mason said, when called, that a 
pretty girl in a blue gown had been 
passing, and his attention had been di- 
verted from his work. 

With exemplary patience the Cadi 
summonded the girl. 

"It is true the mason looked at me," 
admitted the girl "but if my gown at- 
tracted him, the dyer should be pun- 
ished." 

The dyer pleaded guilty of imparting 
the attractive color to the gown; where- 
upon the Cadi sentenced the unfortu- 
nate man to be hung from his own door. 

The next day the executioner came to 
the Cadi and said "The dyer is too tall 
to hang from his door." 

The Cadi, his patience exhausted by 
the complexity of the case, cried out, 
"Then find a shorter dyer and hang him, 
and let us have an end of this business!" 

Doesn't that sound like Congress on 
the tax question? 

• • • 

NOT ON TARAWA THOUGH 

To hear some people talk, one would 
think that life in America had degen- 
erated to beefing about gas and gassing 
about beef. 



JUST ADD DYNA]>nTE 

An item in a government bulletin de- 
scribing the success of the current scrap 
collecting campaign reports that slot 
machines confiscated by the Los Angeles 
police department are being converted 
into booby traps by the Army. 

To which our only comment is, "What 
do you mean they are 'being convert- 
ed?' Were slot machines ever anything 
else?" 




Tr7io wotiM have thought that time 
I whittled — it icould end this way? 



NO DANGER 

A fashion magazine for women states 
in a current issue that low-necked dress- 
es ward off pneumonia because they 
keep the chest bare and thereby build 
up the resistance of the lungs. 

If this theory is true, then a girl we 
saw eating dinner in a local restaurant 
last Saturday night is never going to 
suffer with lumbago. 

• • • 
SLIGHT anSC.lLCULATION 

As this is being written. Hitler is still 
moving his troops backwards towards 
the German border and Berlin. And he 
is still claiming that it is all a strategic 
shortening of lines and strengthening of 
positions. 

Yeh! Like the guy who quit college 
"on account of poor eyesight" — He mis- 
took the Dean of Women for a co-ed. 



THE CARPENTER 



19 



TWAIN WAS RIGHT 

With elections now only eight to ten 
months away, many sections are begin- 
ning to groom native sons for this office 
or that. "Groom" is the wrong word 
because some of the dark horse hopefuls 
probably would feel more at home being 
curry-combed. 

However, we are always reminded of 
Mark Twain whenever we hear of some 
two-by-four wardheeler being boomed 
for a major political office. Twain once 
attended a rally being held for just such 
a candidate. He listened patiently while 
the candidate droned on and on. Toward 
the end of the speech, the candidate's 
campaign manager eased up to Twain 
and asked, "Mister Twain, do you think 
the candidate puts enough fire into his 
speeches?" 

"Well," replied Mark thoughtfully, 
"if you want my honest opinion, I thinlc 
he doesn't put enough of his speeches 
into the fire." 

• • • 
ALMOST THAT FAST 

A few weeks ago the War Production 
Board released production figures for 
October. Ships, planes, and armament 
production of all kinds set new highs for 
a single month. Particularly gratifying 
was the tonnage of ships completed dur- 
ing the month, as ships hold the key to 
invasion, and, therefore, to victory. 
Ships have been sliding off the ways so 
fast that they are now telling about the 
girl who ran into difficulties at a recent 
launching in one of the Kaiser yards. 

Being selected to christen the ship, 
she climbed up on the platform with a 
number of dignitaries. She was consid- 
erably mystified by the fact that the 
only sign she could see of a ship was 
the keel far below. Turning to her host 
she was about to ask where the ship 
was, when Kaiser began to shout: 
"Hurry up, young lady, get swinging." 

• * • 
PREFERRED CREDITOR 

As fateful November draws closer, 
government promises of a fairer deal for 
labor increase. In the meantime, how- 
ever, prices continue to rise while wages 
remain stabilized. Every objection by 
labor is met with a new glowing prom- 
ise. The whole thing sort of reminds us 
of the shoestring theatrical producer 
who owed almost everybody. One night 
he was dining out with his wife when a 
famous artist came in and seated him- 



self nearby. The producer excused him- 
self and walked over to the artist's table. 
A moment later he was back with his 
wife. 

"That's Bramwell Whitehead, the fa- 
mous illustrator," he explained. 

"And," commented the wife, "I sup- 
pose you owe him money, too." 

"That's right," confirmed the produ- 
cer, "but I think so much of this chap 
that I've made him a preferred cred- 
itor." 

"Preferred creditor!" echoed his wife. 
"What does that mean?" 

The producer smiled. 

"It's simple," he explained. "This 
guy knows he isn't going to be paid. 
The others don't!" 

• • • 




/ just came from the income tax office, 
wise guy ! ! 

ROOM FOR IMPROVEMENT 

Americans on the home front can be 
proud of many of the things they are 
doing. They can be proud of the quan- 
tity and quality of war goods they are 
turning out; they can be proud of the 
bond purchases they are making; they 
can be proud of the essential materials 
they are salvaging. About the one thing 
they can't be too proud of is the blood 
donating record. Because enough Amer- 
icans did not give to their local blood 
banks, doctors and nurses in Sicily had 
to stop in the midst of many hours of 
ministering to the injured to tap their 
own veins for life-giving plasma. 

The need for blood is still great as it 
ever was. Its up to all of us to do our 
bit. Milton Berle puts it better than 
anyone. He says: 

"If you can't be a private, be a cor- 
puscle." 



20 



Alaska— Our Afew Frontier 

Rich, untouched natural resources promise 
post-war lure to adventurous individuals 

AMERICA has ahva3^s been a land of expanding- frontiers. Genera- 
tion after generation, by ox-cart, by canoe, and b}^ foot, restless, 
indominitable Americans have pushed their way westward through 
Pennsylvania, through the middlewest and on to the Pacific Coast itself, 
always building, alwa3^s creating new empires and adding to the mighty 
strength of America. It was thus that America was built, and today un- 
developed territory still offers the same lure and challenge to Americans 
that it did a hundred years ago or two hundred 3'ears ago. 

That is wh}^- many people foresee a vast expansion and development of 
Alaska, the last American frontier, after the war is over. AA^ar has stirred 
a new interest in Alaska, that vast, sprawling empire that stretches virtu- 
ally across the northern Pacific' The completion of the Alcan Highway 

importation of thousands of — 

Most of wealth taken from the sea is 
salmon. Alaska canned salmon is ship- 
ped to all parts of the ^vorld although 
the bulk of it is consumed right in the 
United States. Those who have eaten it 
know that there is no finer flavored fish 
than Alaska canned salmon, caught in 
the icy waters and processed and packed 
within twenty-four of the time it ceases 
swimming. 

Most spectacular of Alaska's pursuits 
is gold mining, now sharply curtailed by 
Government order, to convert manpower 
and machinery to other uses. Since 
"Seward's Folly," back in 1867, when 
the United States paid Russia $7.2 mil- 
lion for Alaska, an estimated $838 mil- 
lion of minerals have come from this 
country; most of it was gold, which 
was being mined at the rate of $15 mil- 
lion to $20 million a year before the 
war. 

There are other minerals in Alaska, 
too, including silver, tin, lead, quick- 
silver, coal and copper. Their combined 
annual output is some $5 million, but 
there has been no real development of 
them. There have been some discover- 
ies of platinum and other members of 
this family — iridium, osmium, ruthen- 
ium, and palladium. 

Oil men believe there may be substan- 
tial deposits of petroleum in Alaska, as 
yet untouched. 



and the importation of thousands of 
skilled workers to make advanced Army 
and Navy bases has opened the eyes of 
the nation to the possibilities existing 
in Alaska. People now realize that 
Alaska is no land of perpetual snow 
and ice. They realize that the sleet and 
fog of Kiska and Attu are not general. 
They realize that the coastal sections 
have a climate as temperate and as 
amiable as many portions of the Unit- 
ed States itself. 

People realize also that there is 
an untold reservoir of undeveloped re- 
sources in Alaska awaiting only indus- 
trious courageous people to turn them 
into wealth for themselves and America. 

Before the war, the average American 
visualized Alaska as a land of fogs, mud, 
and snow. Some sections of it do fit 
this description, but the vast bulk of it 
is little different from many of our 
northern states as to climate. Generally, 
the climate of Alaska is comparable to 
that of Sweden, Norway and Finland. 
In area it is larger than these three 
countries combined although it has a 
population of only some 75,000 as com- 
pared to better than thirteen million for 
the three north Europe nations. 

Primarily Alaska has been noted for 
its fisheries. Forty to fifty milion dol- 
lars worth of fish has been caught and 
canned annually in Alaskan waters. 



THE CARPENTER 



21 



Subsidiary to minerals and fishing is 
the fur trade which, since the Alaskan 
purchase has totaled more than a hun- 
dred and fifty million dollars. Fur farm- 
ing is a more recent development and if 
it continues to expand after war as 
it did in the decade preceding it, 
eventually it will become a substantial 
industry. 

One of the most promising industrial 
prospects of Alaska is its virgin timber- 
land covering thousands of acres in the 
southeastern part. 

Surveys some years ago indicated that 
these resources, if converted into news- 
print, could supply the United States 
with one-fourth its annual printing pa- 
per requirements. "When fully devel- 
oped," the Alaskan office of the Nation- 
al Resources Planning Board has esti- 
mated, "the southeast Alaskan pulpwood 
forests could support an industry em- 
ploying at least 6,000 workers full time 
in the mills and the woods. Directly and 
indirectly, the industry could be ex- 
pected to provide year-round economic 
support for about 25,000 persons." 

There is enough potential water pow- 
er in Alaska to take care of any indus- 
trial needs. The entire territory has 
not even been surveyed completely but 
known hydro-electric sites, if developed, 
could supply enough power to take care 
of the needs of a substantial portion of 
the Pacific Coast. 

However, Alaska's fertile soil prom- 
ises to be one of the biggest lures to 
settlers in the post-war era. The De- 
partment of Commerce estimates that 
there are better than 65,000 square 
miles of good farm land in Alaska in 
regions where the weather seldom hits 



zero in winter and seldom tops 80 de- 
grees in the summer. While the grow- 
ing season is short, ranging from as 
little as 90 days to as much as 160 days, 
the length of the days more than com- 
pensates for the shortness of the season. 
In areas where there is 18 to 20 hours 
of sunlight per day, vegetables grow al- 
most twice as fast as they do in most 
parts of the United States. 

Transportation heretofore has been 
the chief obstacle to the development of 
Alaska. The opening of the Alcan high- 
way has broken this unhappy bottle- 
neck. Furthermore, the U. S. Army has 
in its files plans for a coastal railroad 
from Alaska to Seattle. Right after 
Pearl Harbor it was deemed necessary 
to start construction on this railroad, 
but the inauguration of the Alcan High- 
way made the construction of the rail- 
road inadvisable in face of the critical 
shortage of many materials. As a re- 
sult the idea of building the railroad 
was scrapped and all effort was con- 
centrated on the completion of the Al- 
can Highway in the shortest possible 
time. This highway is now carrying 
tremendous amounts of goods, all war 
material. It is not open to tourist 
travel. However, as soon as the war is 
over, the road will undoubtedly be open 
to the general public. 

So all in all, those who predict a rapid 
expansion in Alaska after the war ap- 
parently have logical arguments to back 
up their predictions. The northern ter- 
ritory is pretty much of a storehouse of 
undeveloped natural resources; and no 
peoples in the history of the world have 
been more quick or more adept at devel- 
oping resources than Americans. 



AFL Urges Vote for Soldiers 



AFL President William Green called upon the House of Representatives to 
enact "simplified legislation" permitting members of the armed forces, including 
those overseas, to vote in the coming elections. 

In a letter to Chairman Eugene Worley of the House Committee on Election 
of President, Vice President and Representatives in Congress, Mr. Green assailed 
the soldier vote measure adopted by the Senate as "indefensibly restrictive, limited 
in its application and highly objectionable from either a patriotic or political point 
of view." 

He said: 

"In behalf and in the name of the six million members of the American Fed- 
eration of Labor I respectfully recommend and urge that Congress enact simplified 
legislation which will provide for the exercise of the right of all who are serving 
in the armed forces of our nation on foreign battlefields and elsewhere to cast their 
votes in the coming election." 



22 



THE CARPEXTER 



OWI LOOKS AT ABSENTEEISM 



EVER SINCE the beginning of the national emergency, high labor 
turnover has been a serious worry to labor, management, and Uncle 
Sam himself. Much has been written on the question, but until re- 
cently no realistic investigation has been made of the problem. Now OWI 
has completed a study of factors contributing to labor turnover. Largely 
the findings of OAVI uphold the contentions of organized labor, which 
has long maintained that unsatisfactory wages, working conditions, and 
living conditions constitute the most serious factors contributing to labor 
turnover. 

Approximately twenty-six causes, singly or in combination, underlie 
the heavy labor turnover in Amer- 



ican war plants, the Office of War 
Information reported. 

The OWI survey showed that 
many of the causes are familiar ones 
in industrial circles, while others 
are new and often can be prevented. 

Desire to secure a job at better 
wages continues to be a major moti- 
vating factor in workers quitting. 
Another reason is a feeling of the 
worker that he is not doing enough 
for the war effort — even though he 
may be working in a war plant. A 
worker may quit his job because 
there seems to be no chance for ad- 
vancement ; another may feel that 
the job gives him no chance to ex- 
press his ideas and that, therefore, 
his ability is going unrecognized. 
Poor health causes some quits. A 
worker often quits because he can- 
not find adequate housing or because 
he gets tired of battling his way 
long distances on crowded cars and 
buses. He may not like his hours, 
his working conditions or his fore- 
man. He may consider his work 
too hazardous. These are the long- 
familiar reasons for workers quit- 
ting. 

Then there are newer, lesser- 
known, but just as potent reasons. 
If a worker is a stranger in town, 
he may become restless and unhappy 



because of a lack of social contacts 
or recreation after work. He often 
becames discouraged because of en- 
forced delays, layoffs or work in- 
terruptions that he does not under- 
stand even though they may be jus- 
tified. There may not be proper fa- 
cilities for providing meals near the 
plant. The worker may think the 
war is nearly over and want to find 
a more permanent peacetime job. 
And then some men are naturally 
restless and periodically get the 
urge to look elsewhere for a job. 

Women have a whole set of rea- 
sons of their own for leaving, such 
as the desire to join a husband who 
is in service or inability to cope 
with the double job of housekeep- 
ing and working. Women often take 
jobs to get money for a specific 
purpose and quit when they have 
earned enough. Women quit to get 
married or to give birth to a baby. 
Some decide their children need 
more than part-time care. 

An analysis of the OWI report 
indicates that many of the causes 
for quitting for both men and wo- 
men are beyond the power of any- 
one to remedy without changing hu- 
man nature. However, it does show 
also that some of the causes can be 
remedied by improved managerial 
techniques. 



23 



Minimum Welfare Standards 
as a Post- War Objective 

By E. RONALD WALKER 
Professor of Economics, University of Tasmania 

The plans which a nninhcr of countries are making for some form of social 
secyritij after the ivar are an indication of the widespread interest that this 
question is aronsing. But vhile the desirability of establishing a decent mini- 
mum standard of living is now given such general recognition, the possibility 
of achieving this objective is still felt in various quarters to be doubtful. The 
following analysis suggests that the prospects of success, given the adoption 
of a certain type of policy, is Gom,paratively favorable. 

THE ATLANTIC Charter established the improvement of labor 
standards and freedom from want among the war aims of the 
United Nations, and there is general endorsement of the view 
that our economic policy after the war must give prominent place to 
these objectives. There are wide divergencies of opinion, however, as 
to the methods to be adopted. Such conflicts arise in part from the fact 
that some of the measures proposed threaten the interests of particular 
groups within the community. After the war, as before and even during 
the war, every Government must face the problem of controlling the forces 
that tend to dissolve public policy into a struggle between contending 
interests ; and every reform will have to run the gauntlet of those who 
place their own privilege or advancement before the general interest. This 
may well be regarded as the fundamental problem in reconstruction — as 

much a problem of morals and politics 

as of economics. But it is complicated ^i^ich most social services entail. This 
by conflict of opinion on purely eco- type of criticism, however, has done 
nomic questions, and by intellectual dif- little to check the spread of the ideal 
ferences even among disinterested stu- of a national minimum. Its appeal to 
dents who have no axe to grind. ^^^ imagination is such that relatively 

A Long-Sought Goal few public men dare reveal complete 

One of the economic issues that is opposition to the proposal. On the con- 
sure to stand out in the post-war period ^rary, it has received the blessing, ad- 
is the possibility and desirability of set- mittedly in vague and guarded terms, 
ting up minimum standards of welfare, ^f the most conservative organs of 
below which no member of the com- opinion. 

munity will be allowed to fall. Interest However, the endorsement of such an 

in this problem was stimulated before objective, in very general terms, still 
the war by the studies of nutrition and leaves room for considerable discussion 
living standards initiated by the League of the best methods of achieving it, and 
of Nations and the International Labor of the speed with which it can be ap- 
Organization; while positive steps taken proached. Clearly the national mini- 
during the war to protect nutritional mum could be set at various levels, and 
and other standards have prepared fer- it is possible to combine acceptance of 
tile soil for the suggestion that mini- the ideal with an insistence that only 
mum standards should be provided a very low minimum is practicable un- 
through Government action after the der present conditions. It is not im- 
war. Criticism has naturally come from probable that in many countries enthu- 
those who fear the taxation burden siasm for the ideal will flag, while con- 



24 



THE C A R P E X T E R 



troversies over practical measures will 
absorb the energies of those who owe it 
verbal allegiance. 

The Economist's A'iew of Minimum 
Standards 

This problem, of ways and means and 
of the practicability of particular ver- 
sions of the national minimum, is one 
which economists might be expected to 
assist in solving. So far, however, their 
contributions to the discussion have 
been meagre, and on the whole, some- 
what negative in tone. This is due, at 
least in part, to the fact that economists 
generally are still under the spell of 
the traditional "objectives" of economic 
policy in the past — particularly that of 
increasing the national income or the 
general productivity of industry. It is 
true that the business man's views on 
economics today reflect the economist's 
teachings of fifty years ago. There is also 
some ground for the suggestion that 
the economist's views as to desirable 
objectives of policy reflect the past prac- 
tice of business men. "If there is any 
serious question as to the adequacy 
of economic science in dealing with 
present perplexities," writes Professor 
Lynd, "this would seem to be due not 
so much to any inadequacy in the de- 
tail of its work as to the constriction 
of its focus." It is true that modern 
economists are inclined to disclaim any 
Interest in objectives as such, on the 
ground that science deals with what is, 
but not what ought to be. The sharp 
separation between the appraisal of 
ends and the explanation of causes has 
been hailed as a step towards scientific 
objectivity, and it has, no doubt, facili- 
tated the development of economic anal- 
ysis as an explanation of actual events. 
But it has also fostered an insensitive- 
ness towards current changes in social 
values and a somewhat uncritical atti- 
tude towards the traditional objectives 
of economic policy. The natural con- 
servatism of any group of specialists 
provides a further inhibition in the 
economist's approach to the problem 
of establishing minimum welfare 
standards. 

The conventional economic analysis 
of such a proposal takes as its starting 
point the concept of the national in- 
come, consisting of all the goods and 
services produced by a nation or ob- 
tained in exchange for its own products. 
The national minimum must come out 



of this national dividend, and the size 
of the dividend limits the practicable 
national minimum. If the national mini- 
mum is to exceed the present standards 
of the poorer classes ("runs the argu- 
ment), it can be provided only through 
an increase in the total dividend, or 
by a transfer of income from some 
other section of the community. There 
are limits to what can be achieved by 
the latter method, because an unduly 
large transfer will discourage enter- 
prise, and so reduce general produc- 
tivity and the national income. On the 
whole the greatest hope of achieving a 
national minimum which would repre- 
sent a permanent rise in the standards 
of the poorer classes would appear to 
lie in increasing the general productiv- 
ity of industry, and in appropriate 
measures to diminish the inequality of 
incomes. Thus the formal dissection of 
the proposal for a national minimum 
into the conventional categories of eco- 
nomic theory brings the discussion back 
on to familiar ground, and diminishes 
the importance of minimum welfare 
standards in the eyes of many econo- 
mists. It also obscures the differences 
between the traditional objective of se- 
curing a general increase in the national 
income, and the idea of securing at least 
the minimum standard for every mem- 
ber of the community. 

Implies Restrictions 

Another inhibition under which the 
economist labors when approaching this 
problem arises from the fact that con- 
ventional economic theory is concerned 
chiefly with the implications of free 
choice, by the business man and the 
consumer alike. The proposal for a 
minimum standard of welfare implies a 
certain restriction on the individual's 
freedom to determine the content of his 
own consumption, and although, as a 
scientist, the economist may not be con- 
cerned with the rights and wrongs of 
the matter, he finds it difficult to aban- 
don the premises on which so much 
economic analysis has been based. 

There is some danger, therefore, that 
the further elaboration of the objective 
of minimum welfare standards, and the 
formulation of ways and means, may 
be carried on with little reference to 
the economist. Already there is a tend- 
ency to insist that he must occupy a 
subordinate role in post-war planning. 
Yet the problems that have to be settled 



THE CARPENTER 



25 



are the modern counterpart of the prob- 
lems that have absorbed the attention 
of economists in the past, and it is 
clearly desirable that full advantage 
should be taken of any contribution 
they can make at the present time. In 
relation to the proposal for minimum 
welfare standards, the first steps in this 
direction are to formulate more clearly 
the type of policy that is envisaged, 
and to examine the objections which are 
advanced from a conventional economic 
viewpoint. In fact it will be found that 
recent advances in economic thought 
have already removed most of the 
grounds on which these objections are 
based; and that the mental climate in 
which economists live is no longer so 
unfavorable for work on minimum wel- 
fare standards. While this is partly 
due to the influence, upon economic 
thought, of work in other fields, such as 
nutritional science, it is also the re- 
sult of the continuous re-examination 
of existing theories by which economics, 
like other sciences, progresses. 

Studies Already Made 

The formulation of objective stand- 
ards of nutrition and other factors in 
health had already made some Impact 
on economic studies even before the 
war of 1914-1918. Professor Pigou was 
impressed, in 1908, by the "general 
agreement among practical philanthro- 
pists that some minimum standard of 
conditions ought to be set up at a level 
high enough to make impossible the 
occurrence to anybody of extreme 
want"; and wrote his famous chapter 
on "A National Minimum Standard of 
Real Income." Despite its brevity and 
cursoriness. Professor Pigou's note has 
continued to be regarded as the class- 
ical discussion of the problem from the 
economic viewpoint. Until the League 
of Nations and the International Labor 
Organization took up the question of 
nutrition policy and the raising of liv- 
ing standards, the only other consider- 
able response of economic theory to the 
advances in nutritional and other sci- 
ences working in this field was Dr. B. 
F. Penrose's Population Theories and 
Their Application, which contained a 
criticism of the concept of an optimum 
population as developed by Cannan and 
other writers relying on national income 
as the sole test of the optimum. In 
substitution for the "income optimum," 
Dr. Penrose proposed the concept of a 



"welfare optimum," defined as the num- 
ber of people which could obtain, in a 
particular country, by production and 
trade, the maximur- level of welfare; 
measured not in unspecialized income, 
but in units of a composite standard of 
goods and services — the standard to be 
determined by a consensus of experts in 
nutrition and other appropriate special- 
ties. 

The studies of nutrition and living 
standards which were published by the 
League of Nations and the Interna- 
tional Labor Oflice over the period 19 36 
to 193 8, however, aroused widespread 
interest and have exerted considerable 
influence on the social policy of bellig- 
erent countries. Economists had been 
drawn on to assist in the preparation of 
these studies, and the advantages of col- 
laboration between economists, nutri- 
tion experts, agriculturists and others 
were abundantly demonstrated. Eco- 
nomic thought could not be untouched 
by these developments. Already in 193 8 
we flnd Mrs. Wootton advocating the 
use of objective standards "to form 
rough ideas as to the limits within 
which the market may be trusted in the 
interpretation of social ends." It is a 
short step from this to the recognition 
of such standards as an objective of eco- 
nomic policy which might rival the 
traditional one of increasing the na- 
tional income. While war conditions 
have tended to drive whole populations 
down towards a dangerously low stand- 
ard, writers on reconstruction have 
been attracted by the possibility of 
establishing rather more generous 
standards as the minimum that will be 
permitted after the war. Particularly 
influential, in this direction, are such 
books as Professor E. H. Carr's Condi- 
tions of Peace, Stuart Chase's Goals for 
America, and Sir John Orr's Fighting 
For AVhat? 

Detennining the Composition of the 
Standard 

The method of exposition and anal- 
ysis adopted by Mr. Chase is likely to be 
copied in many countries. The stand- 
ards worked out by experts on nutri- 
tion, housing, clothing, health services, 
and education, are multiplied by popu- 
lation, giving estimates of minimum 
needs. These totals are then compared 
with statistics of actual supplies at pres- 
ent available. In the United States this 
method yields surpluses of certain sta- 



26 



THE C A K P E X T E R 



pie foodstuffs, but deficiencies of sev- 
eral of the recognized protective foods; 
large deficiencies of housing, health 
services, and education; and deficiencies 
in production of clothing, but not in 
productive capacity. The next step is to 
consider ways and means of remedying 
the deficiencies. 

In applying this method the first 
problem is the selection of the stand- 
ards. Unanimity among experts may be 
lacking with regard to the quantities of 
certain items; and the recognition of 
the expert's authority varies from item 
to item. In the case of food, the mini- 
mum can be determined by the require- 
ments of healthy living; but in the case 
of other items this criterion will be sup- 
plemented by a consensus of judgments 
as to what is a permissible minimum 
from the social point of view — judg- 
ments of the sort necessary to give 
material content to Mr. Justice Higgins' 
famous definition of the living wage, as 
covering "the normal needs of a human 
being, living in a civilized community." 
Clearly the height at which the mini- 
mum can be set will depend upon pro- 
ductive capacity, including available la- 
bor resources. The economist may be 
inclined to estimate the practicability 
of a given standard by costing it at pre- 
sent prices and comparing the total 
money value with the national Income 
available for consumption. As will be 
seen below, however, this method may 
be Invalid; on the one hand, because 
the composition and methods of produc- 
tion may be so greatly altered in the 
course of producing the required quan- 
tities that present prices have little rele- 
vance to the result; and on the other 
hand, because it is possible to vary the 
"welfare content" of a fixed national 
income. To determine the practicability 
of a given standard, it is safer to cost 
it in terms of labor and other real re- 
sources, taking into account the meth- 
ods of production to be employed. 

Producing the Standard 

Having selected the composite stand- 
ard, and having estimated the quanti- 
ties of various goods and services re- 
quired to supply at least this standard 
to all members of the population, the 
next task is to see that the necessary 
production is undertaken and to devise 
suitable methods of distribution. The 
simplest method might appear to be to 
provide allowances in money to those 



whose income fell short of the sum re- 
quired to buy the standard at present 
prices, and to permit production to ad- 
just itself to the recipients' demands, 
through the ordinary market process. 
However, if considerable increases in 
production were called for, such a pro- 
cedure might lead to a rise in many 
prices, with the result that the money 
allowances might not suffice to purchase 
the approved standard. Moreover, even 
without any changes in prices, some re- 
cipients of the allowances might prefer 
to forego certain items of the standard 
in order to purchase other goods and 
services. This might still leave consid- 
erable numbers below the approved 
minimum level, in respect to certain 
goods and services. 

The problems encountered in provid- 
ing a minimum standard of health and 
educational services will vary from 
country to country. 

Distribnting the Standard 

The extent of direct public control 
over production will also depend, in 
some degree, upon the- methods chosen 
for distributing the minimum standard. 
If, as is sometimes suggested, the Gov- 
ernment were to set out to deliver the 
composite standard Cirect to each indi- 
vidual or family, there would need to 
be a comprehensive production plan 
for all the items in the standard, simi- 
lar to a munitions program, the goods 
and services being produced either in 
Government undertakings or under Gov- 
ernment contracts. This may be regard- 
ed, however, as an extreme case. In 
many countries the policy of providing 
a national minimum standard will be 
acceptable to the influential section of 
the community only if it can be imple- 
mented without so great a degree of 
nationalization. Particularly in coun- 
tries where a reasonable standard is al- 
ready enjoyed by the great majority of 
people, and where many reach, through 
free enterprise, a much higher standard 
than the proposed minimum, a huge 
plan to produce the minimum composite 
standard for everybody under Govern- 
ment control might be considered su- 
perfluous as well as dangerous for "the 
established order of society." Instead, 
the objective is more likely to be for the 
Government merely to see that the nec- 
essary additional production is under- 
taken, and that the extra goods find 
their way to those people who would 



THE CARPEXTER 



27 



otherwise fall short of the composite 
standard. Such a plan could be com- 
bined with any desired degree of free 
State services such as education or hos- 
pitalization. Apart from these free serv- 
ices, it would be sufficient to concen- 
trate the distribution of the planned 
production on the lower income groups, 
including those whose earnings are in- 
terrupted through unemployment and 
similar causes. 

So far as those who are in regular 
employment are concerned, the prob- 
lem may be chiefly one of bringing the 
total price at which the composite 
standard (apart from free State serv- 
ices) can be purchased, to below the 
unskilled worker's wage. This might 
be achieved either by fixing appropriate 
prices for each item in the standard, 
or by granting price reductions to all 
registered purchasers of the full stand- 
ard. The latter method, which would 
restrict the freedom of the individual 
to sacrifice part of the standard for 
something else, would involve some ma- 
chinery for checking actual purchases. 
In the case of certain items, the dis- 
tribution of which is unduly costly 
under normal commercial conditions, 
the Government might prefer to organ- 
ize its own distribution outlets. 

With such a system in operation for 
those whose incomes, though regular, 
fall short of the standard at present 
prices, the special needs of those whose 
earnings are interrupted, or whose fam- 
ilies are abnormally large (the two chief 
causes of want, according to social sur- 
veys in Great Britain), can most read- 
ily be met by extra money payments cal- 
culated to bring their incomes up to 
the minimum standard at the fixed 
price. Free Government distribution of 
all or part of the composite standard 
in kind is, of course, a possible method 
of dealing with such cases, and might 
be preferred in some circumstances. 

The item in which Government con- 
trol over distribution as well as pro- 
duction appears most likely is housing. 
In the first few years after the war the 
shortage will be so pronounced that if 
new houses are made available at low 
rents, it will be necessary to select from 
among many applicants, and Govern- 
ments will desire at least to determine 
the principles, if not to control the ma- 
chinery, of selection. Similarly, a con- 
tinuation of rationing of certain com- 



modities will probably be necessary for 
a period in some countries, and arrange- 
ments for the wartime distribution of 
these goods will, no doubt, merge into 
the post-war arrangements for distribu- 
tion of the minimum. 

Having reviewed briefly the type of 
policy envisaged in the planned produc- 
tion and distribution of a composite 
standard, we now have to consider ob- 
jections sometimes raised by economists. 
In particular, we shall deal with the 
argument that a fixed composite stand- 
ard will give less satisfaction than the 
goods and services which an individual 
would select for himself; and with the 
argument that the standard must de- 
pend on the possibility of increasing 
general productivity, or of modifying 
the distribution of the national income 
without causing it to decline. Both 
arguments, it is suggested, have lost 
much of their force. 

The first argument is based on the 
assumption "that human welfare can 
best be promoted by leaving each indi- 
vidual free to secure his own better- 
ment in any way he can, and to leave to 
his instinct of self-preservation to de- 
cide how he should spend the money 
available to him." In other words: "If 
an individual prefers a commodity or 
service X to Y, it is economically better 
that he should have it." This is akin to 
the view that each of us is the best 
judge of his own wants; or at least that 
economics recognizes no other judge. 
Professor Pigou, in discussing the pros- 
pects for an absolute standard, writes: 
"There is, indeed, some danger in this 
policy. It is a very delicate matter for 
the State to determine authoritatively 
in what way poor people shall distribute 
scanty resources among various compet- 
ing needs. The temperaments and cir- 
cumstances of different individuals dif- 
fer so greatly that rigid rules are bound 
to be unsatisfactory." He quotes Dr. 
Bowley to the effect that "the opinion 
is quite tenable that the poor are forced 
(by the effect of the law to enforce a 
minimum quality and quantity of hous- 
ing accommodation) to pay for a stand- 
ard of housing higher than they obtain 
in food, and that they would make more 
of their income if they were worse 
housed and better fed." 

As against this view, there can be 
no doubt that many poor people fail to 
get the best out of their inadequate 



28 



THE CARPENTER 



incomes through ignorance of the 
relative nutritional values of different 
foods; through inability to distinguish 
good material from poor material when 
purchasing clothing; and through un- 
der-estimation of the importance of reg- 
ular medical and dental attention. In- 
deed, the resources of advertising agen- 
cies combine in a huge attempt to dis- 
tort the consumer's judgment and to 
fill his mind with false beliefs about the 
properties of different commodities. 
Thus Professor Schumpeter considers it 
a necessary assumption for economic 
analysis "that consumers' initiative in 
changing their tastes ... is negligible 
and that all change in consumers' tastes 
is incident to, and brought about by, 
producers' action." Viewed in this light 
the danger that a composite standard, 
determined by experts would give less 
satisfaction to the persons who fall 
to this minimum than an equiva- 
lent sum of unspecialized purchasing 
power would do, is less impressive. 

Moreover, as we shall see, it seems 
certain that the minimum standards 
which could be provided through the 
planned production and distribution of 
a composite unit of necessary goods and 
services would be higher than those 
which could be provided by the mere 
transfer of a sum of money which the 
recipient could spend as he chose, leav- 
ing it to the free play of market forces 
to supply such goods as the recipient 
demanded. It would seem that the 
choice is not between a strictly defined 
regimen and the free expenditure of the 
sum which would buy such a regimen 
at laissez-faire prices, but between a 
higher minimum of fixed content and a 
lower minimum of variable content. 

Finally, if the element of consumer's 
choice is very highly valued, the com- 
posite unit might include, in addition to 
the fixed standards, a moderate sum of 
unspecialized purchasing power which 
the recipient could use as he pleased. 
Few consumers consciously plan the 
expenditure of every unit of their in- 
come; a large portion is spent on habit- 
ual and socially formed wants, and a 
relatively small portion is the vehicle 
of deliberate, ad hoc choice. If we can 
provide as a minimum, below which no- 
body is allowed to fall, a composite 
standard covering the food, clothing, 
shelter, and services which are consid- 
ered essential by the appropriate ex- 



perts, and in addition a small sum of 
free "spending money," the charge that 
we are imposing on people what others 
consider is good for them, rather than 
what people want, loses most, if not all, 
of its force. 

IMinimuni Standards and the National 
Incoine 

"We now turn to the question of the 
relationship between the national mini- 
mum and the national income, out of 
which the minimum standard must be 
provided. The national income is the 
total of individual and group incomes, 
or alternatively, the total stream of 
goods and services produced by the na- 
tion or gained in exchange for its prod- 
ucts through international trade. If the 
cost of a reasonable standard for the 
whole population is worked out at pres- 
ent prices, it is surprising how large a 
fraction of the estimated national in- 
come the standard would absorb, even 
in relatively prosperous countries. On 
the face of it, to provide such a national 
minimum by transfers of income within 
the given national income would appear 
to involve so great a disturbance to the 
whole social structure, that economists 
fear unfavorable reactions upon enter- 
prise and production, with a consequent 
decline in the national income itself. 
Thus an appeal to economic science pro- 
vides intellectual support for the busi- 
ness man's argument that "we cannot 
afford" to provide a liberal national 
minimum. 

The Beveridge Report, concerned as it 
is with the redistribution of income 
through money payments, stresses the 
scope for transfers within the wage- 
earning class. Sir William Beveridge re- 
fers to recent social surveys in Great 
Britain, which show that "while, in 
every town surveyed, substantial per- 
centages of the families examined had 
less than the bare minimum for sub- 
sistence, the great bulk of them had 
substantially more than the minimum. 
. . . Want could have been abolished 
before the present war by a redistribu- 
tion of income within the wage earning 
classes, without touching any of the 
wealthier classes." Although not sug- 
gesting that the latter should be left out 
of any schemes for redistribution, Sir 
William finds in these facts "the most 
convincing demonstration that abolition 
of want just before this war was easily 
within the economic resources of the 



THE CARPENTER 



29 



community; want was a needless scan- 
dal due to not taking the trouble to pre- 
vent it." This argument accepts, in ef- 
fect, the conventional appeal to the na- 
tional income. Although it shows how 
much could be done through contribu- 
tor}' social insurance, it does not offer 
much encouragement to those who 
desire to establish a reasonably high 
minimum standard without producing a 
downward movement for the bulk of the 
working classes towards that standard. 
Indeed, redistribution through money 
payments is impotent in the face of 
certain deficiencies of current produc- 
tion, such as housing. Sir William finds 
"the extreme variation of rents, between 
regions and in the same region, for 
similar accommodation" a source of 
great difiiculty in deciding upon a rea- 
sonable scale of allowances, and ob- 
serves that this situation "is evidence of 
failure to distribute industry and popu- 
lation and of failure to provide housing 
according to needs. No scale of social 
insurance benefits free from objection 
can be framed while the failure con- 
tinues. In this, as in other respects, the 
framing of a completely satisfactory 
plan of social security depends on a 
solution of other social problems." But 
does the national income indicate the 
limits of possible action in the direction 
of solving the housing problem and 
other social problems? 

Safer to Wait 

Most economists, in the past, would 
have given an affirmative reply. The 
prospects of raising housing conditions 
and the other components of the stand- 
ard of the poorer classes would largely 
depend, according to the conventional 
argument, on the prospects of increas- 
ing the real national income, either by 
raising the general productivity of In- 
dustry, or by an improvement of the 
terms on which we can exchange our 
exports for the produce of other coun- 
tries. Any attempt to anticipate a fut- 
ure increase in the national income by 
raising the v\-orkers' standards, it may 
be argued, may actually check the 
growth of production, by reducing the 
profit incentive and weakening the 
country's competitive position in inter- 
national trade. Prudence suggests that 
it is safer to wait for the secular pro- 
gress of industry to raise the national 
income to the level at which we shall 
be able to afford a higher standard. 



Quite apart from the social reformer's 
impatience with this insistence on the 
inevitability of gradualness, however, 
there are good reasons for doubting the 
soundness of this type of economic ad- 
vice. The experience of the last few 
decades, and the results of deeper 
analysis of the working of the eco- 
nomic system, both disclose a tendency 
for part of the secular progress of in- 
dustry to be dissipated through chronic, 
and sometimes acute, under-employ- 
ment, and through an increasing con- 
traction of such resources as are con- 
tinually employed into purely competi- 
tive activities, such as advertising and 
product differentiation. In so far as the 
provision of minimum welfare standards 
involves the absorption of resources 
that would otherwise be idle, this will 
actually promote the necessary increase 
in national income. If resources are di- 
verted from purely competitive activi- 
ties to the production of goods and serv- 
ices for which a need already exists, 
this represents an increase in the wel- 
fare content of the national income, if 
not in its statistical magnitude. 

The first of these two points re- 
ceives special emphasis from the con- 
cern which business men already ex- 
press over the growth in the productive 
capacity of industry in wartime. The 
huge extensions of plant and equipment 
that have taken place to meet war 
needs, seem, in the eyes of many, to 
place a formidable obstacle in the way 
of future business activity. Markets, 
rather than productive capacity, are 
likely to constitute the chief post-war 
problem in other than devastated areas. 
This observation does not square very 
well with the view that we shall not be 
able to afford higher standards than 
we have enjoyed in the past. 

Jobs the Big Problem 

An analysis of the problem of reab- 
sorbing demobilized soldiers and war 
workers also indicates the possibility of 
a rise in standards above the level 
which might be predicted if the past 
trend of national income were to be our 
only guide. Mr. Stuart Chase estimates 
the additional labor required in the 
United States to provide a national 
minimum well in excess of the standards 
now enjoyed by many families at three 
or four million. Yet in 19 40, there were 
over eight million unemployed. When 
demobilization is taken into account it 



30 



THE CARPENTER 



would appear that the problem will not 
be to find enough resources to produce 
the national minimum, in addition to 
the previous peacetime national income, 
but to find occupation for the labor left 
over. Such estimates will be the sub- 
ject of controversy among statisticians, 
and it may be that the visible reserves 
of resources in other countries, and even 
in the United States, are smaller than 
would appear from the figures quoted. 
But there will be reserves to draw on, 
and in so far as they can be drawn into 
the production of a national minimum, 
along the lines envisaged in this article, 
the plan for minimum welfare standards 
will constitute a plan to increase, and 
not merely to redistribute, the national 
income. 



When all these considerations are 
taken into account, the prospects of 
establishing a reasonable national mini- 
mum in many countries appear to be 
much more favorable than might be 
gathered from the conventional eco- 
nomic analysis that has been put for- 
ward in the past. Admittedly the pro- 
cedure envisaged in this article involves 
rather more Government supervision of 
actual production than the older pro- 
posal for a national minimum in the 
form of a money allowance, which the 
recipient might spend as he wished. 
But it is clear that the latter method 
alone, would not yield so high a mini- 
mum standard of welfare as the type of 
policy considered above. — International 
Labor Review. 



Have You $150 in Your Pocket? You Should Have 

Washington — Money in circulation in the United States reached a new 
national high of $19,250,000,000 in October, it was reported in the third of 
a series of monthly economic summaries released by the OWI on the 
basis of information from four Federal agencies. The new peak represents 
an increase of $410,000,000 over September, 1943, the previous high. 

On a pro-rata basis, every man, woman, and child in the nation should 
have around $150 in his or her pocket. Have you got yours? 



When death struck down P.M. ("Paddy") Draper November 
23rd at his home in Ottawa, Ontario, the Canadian Labor Move- 
ment lost one of its most respected and cherished members. A 
pioneer in the movement. Brother Draper earned an enviable 
reputation as an unselfish, honest, and fearless champion of the 
working man. He was almost as well known and as well loved 
in the United States as he was in his native Canada. He was 76 
years old at the time of his passing. 

"Paddy" was born near Ottawa. He became a printer's devil 
at 19 and eventually gained the highest post in the government's 
printing office. But it was as champion of the workers that he 
attained international fame. 

From 1900 to 1935 he was secretary-treasurer of the Trades 
and Labor Congress of Canada. When the then president, 
"Tom" Moore, retired temporarily, "Paddy" succeeded him and 
served as president from 1935 to 1939. Ill health compelled him 
to retire, and, in recognition of his services, the Congress made 
him honorary president for life. 



TlIK CARPENTER 



31 



Six Million Post- War Jobs Seen 



STILL ANOTHER reputable and respected organization has recently 
come forth with the prediction that construction in the post-war era 
will reach unparalleled heights. A volume of post-war building at- 
taining the unprecedented average level of $16,000,000,000 of new con- 
struction annually for the five-year period beginning about 12 months 
after the end of the war, is forecast in Washington by the market analysis 
committee of the Producers' Council, national organization of manufac- 
turers of building materials and equipment. 

Estimates are based on the committee's belief that the demand for 
goods resulting in part from the huge accumulation of savings by individ- 
uals and corporations during the war will provide employment during the 
five-year period for the entire peacetime labor force of the nation, with 
the exception of about 3,000,000 work- - 



ers who may be cut out of work on 
the average because of business fluctua- 
tions and readjustments, including a 
normal labor "float" of 2,000,000 work- 
ers. 

The $16,000,000,000 estimate also is 
predicated on the assumption that there 
will be no chaotic price inflation, but 
allows for an anticipated increase of 
35 per cent in the general price level 
as compared with 1940. The commit- 
tee pointed out that the cost of living 
had risen 23 per cent by August of this 
year. 

One-Third Public AVorks 

Needed public improvements, such as 
schools, highways, hospitals and sewage 
and water systems, account for |5,000,- 
000,000 or nearly one-third of the total 
construction volume forecast, with the 
Federal government financing about $1,- 
000,000 of construction annually, prin- 
cipally in the form of Federal aid roads, 
and states, counties and municipalities 
being responsible for the remainder of 
the total. 

"When discussing the number of new 
homes to be built the committee pointed 
to an estimate by Dr. Robinson New- 
comb of the War Production Board 
that 560,000 to 640,000 new dwelling 
units would be required annually after 
the war to accommodate new families 
alone. 

Construction of commercial and com- 
munity facilities, not including public 
works, should attain a volume of slight- 
ly less than $2,000,000,000 a year, ac- 
cording to the forecast. Industrial con- 



struction is expected to reach $850,000,- 
000, provided investments are not un- 
duly discouraged by excessive corporate 
taxes. 

liarge Share on Fanns 

Because a combined shortage of labor 
and materials has discouraged construc- 
tion of farm buildings during recent 
years the committee estimates that the 
average volume of farm construction, 
during the five years following the first 
year after the war, will be $585,000,- 
000, about two and a half times the 
1938-40 average. 

Public utility construction, in the 
committee's opinion, will provide about 
$1,300,000,000 of volume annually. Ex- 
penditures for public improvements dur- 
ing the first year after the war are 
estimated at $3,500,000,000. 

On the basis of the forecast of con- 
struction volume, the committee esti- 
mated that the industry will provide an 
annual average of 6,250,000 jobs for on- 
site and off-site workers during the five- 
year period, which is about 2,000,000 
more than were provided by the con- 
struction industry in 1938. 

Members of the market analysis com- 
mittee in addition to Chairman Wilson 
Wright, economist of the Armstrong 
Cork Company, are H. H. Biggert, 
Crane Company; C. T. Bridgman, Struc- 
tural Clay Products Institute; W. C. 
Beber, Johns-Manville Corporation; S. 
B. Taylor, Great Lakes Steel Corpora- 
tion, and Charles E. Young, Westing- 
house Electric and Manufacturing Com- 
pany. 



Editorial 



lUlllllliaiillllliaillmiifiiBniiniigiinnHiiniiiiiili!!!!!; 




Let the Labor Movement Show the Way 

Not the least important post-war problem will be the rehabilitation of 
the millions of men and women now serving in our armed forces. It is 
estimated that by the time the Axis gang^sters are knocked out for good, 
some fifteen million Americans "unll have worn one or another of the 
service uniforms in the present war. Even under our greatly expanded 
wartime econom}-, our total working- force does not exceed sixt}^ million 
b}' verA' much; w'hich means that approximateh'^ one worker out of five 
will be a World War 2 veteran in the post-war era. 

The task of fitting- these veterans back into the civilian econom}- will 
be a tremendous one. Unless the job is well planned and efficienth- run, 
the very men who carried the g;reatest load in this war will be undulj^ 
penalized: something- none of us want to see. Therefore it is rather grati- 
fying to see that the problem is being approached intelligently. 

Though it may come as a surprise to many people, over 800,000 men 
have already been honorably discharged from the Army, Navy, and Marine 
Corps. What is being done for them is an indication of what will be done 
for the masses that are to be demobilized at the conclusion of the war. 

Under the existing program for discharged service men, they are given 
the following considerations: 

1. They are guaranteed their old jobs back if they apph- within fort}' 
daj's, and special members of their draft boards are assigned to the task 
of seeing that the}^ get their old jobs back. 

2. Preferential consideration should they desire to go to work for the 
government. 

3. \'ocational training if they want to prepare themselves for better 
jobs. 

4. Assistance in obtaining new jobs. 

5. Free hospitalization and medical treatment for any disabilties con- 
tracted through service in the armed forces. 

6. Lifetime pensions or as long as service-connected disabilities exist. 

In addition legislation is now in the making providing for mustering 
out pay, educational opportunities, etc. 

All these things would seem to indicate that the physical and economic 
needs of the veterans are going to be taken care of adequately. But what 
is to be done about their spiritual and moral needs ? 

It is no secret that war develops the more brutal instincts in soldiers 
and sailors. War is a grim primitive business. The squeamish, senti- 
mental soldier is next to worthless; consequently squeamishness and sen- 



THE CARPENTER 33 

timentality are bred out of him before he goes into battle. He is made 
into a hard, ruthless, efficient fighting machine which enhances his chances 
of survival in the bloody kill-or-be-killed business. 

Millions of our soldiers and sailors are in their 'teens or early twenties. 
That the grim realities of war will have a tremendous impact on these 
youngsters goes without saying. The danger of their becoming bitter, 
disillusioned, burned-out, anti-social old men at the age of 25 is a real 
one. They will need to be educated back into the gentle ways of peace 
just as they were educated into the harsh realities of war. A rehabilita- 
tion program that does not take these factors into consideration is headed 
for failure. 

And the thought just occurs that unions can play an important part in 
the re-education of fighters into civilians. Unionism offers the common 
man his closest contact with democracy at work. Casting a ballot in a 
national or state election is part of democracy, but it is far from all. De- 
mocracy means helping to make decisions for the common good, it means 
a sharing of resources and pooling of abilities to get a job done. Where 
else but in his union does the average man come in contact with that kind 
of democracy? The answer is, nowhere. 

So let the labor movement be the first to recognize that there will be a 
need for re-educating many veterans to democracy. Let it be the first to 

meet the challenge with an adequate program. 

« 

As Soon As Possible 

In the newspapers and over the air, considerable attention is being 
given these days to the question of government control over business 
in the post-war era. On the one hand, there are those who believe that all 
government control over business should be dropped as soon as the last 
shot has been fired. On the other hand, there are those who are firmly 
convinced that government must keep in effect such policies as price con- 
trol, priorities, wage control, etc. until such time as industry has completed 
its change-over from wartime to peacetime production. The former insist 
that employment will be affected adversely if controls are carried over 
into the post-war era. The latter predict chaos and inflation if control 
measures are not kept in eft'ect during the transition period. 

As we see it, the argument on the question is somewhat premature. No 
one can accurately forsee how or when the war will end (except that it 
will end in victory for the United Nations). If German}^ collapses long- 
before Japan, the switch from a war economy to a peace economy may be 
accomplished by a gradual and orderly process ; a process that might make 
unnecessary any governmental direction. On the other hand, if the war 
should end suddenly and unexpectedly, overnight transition from war to 
peace might conceivably require a continuation of direction from Wash- 
ington as insurance against economic collapse. 

However, we believe that there is little argument with the theory that 
government should release its iron-fisted control of our economic life AS 
SOON AS POSSIBLE. 



34 THE CARPENTER 

Free Labor Will Win 

According to news releases from Washington, the acute manpower 
program is on its way to being licked. Some industries — notably lumber 
and mining — still are suffering from acute shortages of adequate help, 
but, by and large, the war industries, because of cancellation of govern- 
ment orders made possible by greatly increased efficiency on the part of 
labor, are finding manpower resources sufficient to maintain schedules. 
Most of them could use more manpower, but the critical situation they 
faced a few months ago is licked ; and indications are that still further 
improvement is in store for the immediate future. 

The foregoing facts amply vindicate the stand labor has taken from 
the very beginning of the emergency. Shortly after Pearl Harbor special 
interest groups and foes of labor began setting up a great hue and cry for 
a compulsory labor act. As the war production plants hit their stride 
and the Army drained off manpower, they intensified their efforts to put 
into effect forced labor. Late this summer they brought their campaign 
to a climax in a blaze of super-patriotic fervor that fooled a lot of people 
into believing a national service act was inevitable. 

From the beginning labor has maintained that compulsory service was 
neither necessary nor desirable, for the top Eight labor leaders of the 
nation knew that the chief trouble was not so much a shortage of workers 
as it was inefficient utilization of manpower by management. The labor 
leaders also knew that inadequate wages, poor working conditions, in- 
adequate housing and transportation, and inefficient supervisory crews 
were greater bottlenecks to sustained production than was scarcity of 
employes. Time and circumstances have now proved them to be right 
in their contentions. Orders are now being cancelled in many types of 
munition plants. And it is being done because labor is producing faster 
than anyone believed possible a year ago. The workers have been given 
a chance to produce and they are now coming through magnificently. The 
War Department admits that there is now enough ammunition on hand 
*'for any crisis, no matter how unexpected." And army chieftains say it is 
all due to the fact "production records have been far in excess of expecta- 
tions." 

Yet all during the past six months we have been perilously close to 
having a compulsory labor act forced upon us because of the frenzied agi- 
tations of anti-labor forces, some of whom undoubtedly are more inter- 
ested in cracking down on labor than in seeing that necessary guns, tanks, 
and planes are turned out to crack down on Hitler and Hirohito. One can- 
not help but wonder what would have happened if they had succeeded. 
Certainly the present astounding production records would not have been 
possible, for American people have never been very receptive to compul- 
sion. Even Hitler has long since learned that forced labor is not efficient 
labor. 

The war is still far from won. The very best effort of every citizen is 
going to be needed before it is won, and experience is pointing out to us 
every day free labor produces best, and American labor is and must remain 
the freest in the world. 



THE CARPENTER "SS 

Private "Joe" Martinez 

Arthur and the Knig-hts of the Round Table never performed more 
glamorous feats of heroism than those presented to us almost every day 
in the press. Among- the stories we like best is that of Priva.te "Joe" 
Martinez, w^ho, at 22, was working as a common laborer in the Colorado 
sugar beet fields. 

No one ever thought of "Joe" as a hero. He was just "another Mexi- 
can." He's dead now, killed while fighting the Japs on Attu Island in the 
Aleutians, but he has been posthumously awarded the Congressional 
Medal of Honor, the most coveted of all decorations. Here is what he 
did: 

After the Americans landed, the Japs put up a mighty stiff fight. 
"Joe" led his battalion against the withering fire. (Where the officers were 
at that moment is not stated.) The Yanks made some progress, cleaned out 
some foxholes. Then the advance bogged down. 

Once more "Joe," the sugar beet laborer, led the way. Up the steep 
slope he went, emptied his rifle at the Japs and fell mortally wounded. 
Inspired by his gallantry, his comrades pushed the attack to a successful 
conclusion. 

Somehow stories of that kind strengthen our faith in democracy. Amer- 
ica is not dependent on some "upper class" to defend it. A "Joe" Martinez 

will pop up when he's needed. — Labor 

« 

Some Changes Needed 

Elsewhere in this issue is an article dealing with the dangerous new 
trends that are developing in the unemployment insurance program as it 
is administered by the various states. No less an authority than Arthur J. 
Altmeyer, chairman of the Federal Social Security Board, voices a warn- 
ing that disaster lies ahead if state administrative bodies continue to set 
up arbitrary rules and interpretations to deprive more and more workers 
of their just benefits under the act. 

Mr. Altmeyer points out that some of these arbitrary state regulations 
can even deprive returned soldiers of their unemployment benefits for no 
other reason than that war-incurred disabilities may prevent them from 
taking back .their old jobs. To penalize a man for sacrificing his health 
for his country is obviously inhuman and un-American. Yet, because too 
many state boards have fallen under the influence of employers who want 
to save money, such procedure may become common. 

"At the present time," said Mr. Altmeyer, "when jobs are 
so very plentiful, this matter does not cause much public con- 
cern, but in a post-war period, when millions of men may be 
out of work and when men may again be faced with the 
danger of starvation for themselves and their families, some 
of these precedents will return to haunt us" 
Obviously, the time has come for labor to raise its voice demanding that 
the welfare of the workers rather than the money-pinching proclivities of 
certain employers become the prime concern of the unemployment insur- 
ance program. 



36 



U. S. PLANES RULE THE SKIES 

4 to 1 Margin of Superiority Maintained Since Dec. 7, 1941 

• • • 

IX THE MOST detailed report of its kind yet issued, the government 
late last month revealed that American airplanes are outperforming 
enemy planes b}- wide margins in all theaters of operations. Class by 
class. American planes have chalked up box scores ranging all the way 
from nine to one down to two to one against all kinds of competition. 
Since Pearl Harbor, virtually four enemy planes have been knocked out 
of the sky for every American plane lost, despite the fact that the early 
months of the war found American air forces greath* outnumbered and 
poorly equipped. 

Through the Office of AA'ar Information, the government late last month 
summarized the progress of the air war up to September ist of last year. 
We quote, in part, the OV\"I report which gave such startling proof of 
the superiority of American planes and American airmen: 

BOX SCORES j^^g ^ggj^ ^j.^g g.jjgg January, 1942, when 

Tlie test of battle — the only valid test our planes "vrere outnumbered on prac- 
of the performance of combat aircraft tically all fronts. 



— has by now resulted in 
a number of box scores 
which reveal the pat- 
tern of accomplishment of 
American combat planes. 

Box scores in our favor 
are not a new develop- 
ment, resulting from su- 
periority in numbers of 
planes in combat theaters. 
Although superiority in 
numbers has by now 
been established on many 
fronts, it is in China, where we still have 
many fewer planes than the enemy, that 
one of the highest box scores has been 
made. 

"In every theater of operations, 
American airmen and American planes 
have met the challenge of our enemies 
and out-fought them by scores never 
worse than two to one in our favor," 
said General Henry H. Arnold, Com- 
manding General of the Army Air 
Forces. "All types of American fighter 
planes have shot out of the skies the 
best interceptors both Germany and 
Japan have put against them." This 




"■^^"^-^^Q^ 



The latest box scores 
follow. They are not se- 
lected. •They are the box 
scores, up to September 1, 
made up of combat re- 
ports coming in from 
every corner of the world. 
From December 7, 
1941, (Pearl Harbor) to 
September 1, 19 43, Amer- 
ican Army combat planes 
flew a total of 223,758 
sorties in which they 
dropped a total of 105,649 tons of 
bombs. On those missions our Army 
planes destroyed 7,312 enemy planes, 
probably destroyed an additional 2,196 
and damaged an additional 2,535. Their 
own loss in aerial combat was 1,S67 
American planes. 

For the six months ending Septem- 
ber 1, 1943, our planes destroyed 5,389 
enemy planes, probably destroyed an 
additional 1,502, damaged an additional 
1.S60, against a loss of 1,239 American 
planes in aerial combat. 

The box score by plane types shows 
that among Army planes the heavy 



THE CARPENTER 



37 



bombers have the best record. From 
January 1 to June 30 of last year 
Army heavy bombers destroyed 1,333 
enemy planes against a loss of their own 
of 316 ships, a little better than four 
to one. Army medium bombers during 
that same period destroyed 113 enemy 
planes against a loss of 69, almost two 
to one in our favor. During that same 
period Army fighters destroyed 76 3 en- 
emy planes against a loss of 375 of their 
own planes, slightly better than two to 
one. 

Over Sicily, Sardinia and Southern 
Italy, during the four weeks of action 
ending July 28th, the Eighth and Ninth 
Air Forces dropped 12,460 tons of 
bombs and destroyed 3 42 enemy planes, 
plus 54 "probables," at the cost of 190 
American planes. 

OTHER SCORIXGS 

But box scores do not, of course, tell 
the full story. A plane which destroys 
a strategic bridge, or a group of tanks, 
or a ship, or an enemy industrial plant, 
adds testimony to the excellence of our 
aircraft performance which no box score 
can include. This additional destruc- 
tion wrought by our planes, although 
less precisely measurable, especially on 
a comparative basis, than results of 
fighting between plane and plane, is of 
fundamental importance. 

The accuracy of American daylight 
precision bombing has become a by- 
word. The outstanding demonstration 
of this excellence of our bombing equip- 
ment, strategy and combat crews in this 
type of operation was the first raid on 
the Rome railway yards on July 19, 
v,'hen 272 heavy and 249 medium bom- 
bers dropped 1,101 tons of bombs. Also 
remarkable were the destruction of the 
harbors of Tunis, Ferryville and ad- 
joining cities, where, although devasta- 
tion fell on shipping and installations 
day after day, all -portions of the cities 
apart from the harbor quarters were 
unscathed. Airfields in Sicily, too, were 
accurately blasted, leaving adjoining 
buildings untouched. 

Enemy bombers apparently are far 
less numerous than ours, and no enemy 
bombing remotely rivals ours either in 
intensity or accuracy. The effectiveness 
of precision-bombing in destroying im- 
portant industrial targets and installa- 
tions is estimated by the Army Air 
Forces to be several times that of night 



area bombing. Area bombing is satura- 
tion bombing of an entire area as 
against bombing specific targets within 
an area (precision bombing). 

Photographic reconnaissance, by 
American combat planes and fliers, is 
proceeding on a large scale. The com- 
plete photographing of Sicily before the 
invasion unquestionably saved many 
lives that might have been expended 
had our landings been blind. Develop- 
ment of negatives is remarkably swift, 
prints being available within an hour 
after the reconnaissance plane has re- 
turned to base. 

U. S. PLANES VS. ENEMY PLANES 

In the opinion of Army and Na\T 
aviation experts, American-built planes 
now in combat surpass enemy planes in 
every major class. 

Since our Navy planes have been en- 
gaged chiefly with the Japanese, they 
are compared in the following only with 
Jap planes. Our Army planes are com- 
pared both with the Germans and the 
Japs. 

The names Zeke, Hap, Nelly, Sally, 
etc. given to Jap planes are their popu- 
lar names given to them by American 
fliers. 

Army Bombers 

(a) In the heavy bomber class, our 
Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress and Con- 
solidated B-2 4 Liberator are superior 
to Germany's Focke-Wulf 200-K Kur- 
ier and Heinkel 177. The Japanese do 
not have any land-based 4-engine hea\T 
bombers. 

(b) In the medium bomber class, 
our North American B-2 5 jNIitchell and 
Martin B-26 Marauder continue to be 
the world's best medium bombers. Their 
closest competitors are Germany's Der- 
nier 217-E and Japan's Nakajima 97 
(Kate) and Mitsubishi 01 (Betty). 

(c) In the light bomber class, the 
Douglas A-20 Havoc is in a class by 
itself. The Germans have nothing to 
compare with it; the Japs' Mitsubishi 
99 (Lily) is not so fast, rugged or heav- 
ily armed as the Havoc. 

Army Fighters 
After a somewhat unpromising start. 
Army fighters are now among the 
world's best. The Lockheed P-3S Light- 
ning has met and defeated the latest 
versions of Germany's two best fighters, 
the Focke-Wulf 190 and the Me-109, as 



38 



THE CAKPEXTER 



well as the Jap Zero (Mitsubishi 00) 
and the so-called "super Zeros," the 
Mitsubishi types 00MK2, type 01, and 
the very latest type 03. 

The new Merlin-powered North Amer- 
ican P-51 Mustang^ is expected to be 
the equal of the Lightning, while the 
Republic P-47 Thunderbolt has proved 
itself superior to the best German 
fighters, especially at high altitude. 

Xavy Fighters 

The Xa"VT's Corsair and its brand new 
Hellcat are far superior to anything 
the Japs have to offer so far. They are 
both in the 40 m.p.h. class and have 
high performance. The latest and best 
of the Jap fighters is a Mitsubishi 3 
(Tony), which is the latest version of 
the Jap Zero. Unlike the original Zero 
(Mitsubishi 00) and its later version, 
the Hap (Mitsubishi MK-2), the Tony 
has some armor protection for the pilot 
and more fire power. But it is definite- 
ly inferior to the Corsair and the Hell- 
cat both in safety and performance 
characteristics. None of the Jap fighters 
are in the 400 m.p.h. class. 

Xavy Patrol Bombers 

(a) Land-based. The Xavy's Consol- 
idated PB4T-1 (similar to the Army 
Liberator) and the Yega PV-1 have 
greater range and load capacity than 
the best Japs have in this group, the 



Mitsubishi 01 (Betty), the Mitsubishi 
9 7 (Sally) and the Mitsubishi (Nell). 

(b) Flying Boats. The Navy's Mar- 
tin ;Mariner PBM-3 and Consolidated 
Catalina PBY-5 have a range of 3,000 
miles compared with the Jap Kawan- 
ishi 97 (Mavis) with a range of 2,100 
miles and an even greater superiority 
over the Jap plane in bomb load capac- 
ity. Range and bomb load capacity are 
the two most important characteristics 
in a patrol bomber and the American 
planes have a wide edge in both. 
Navy Torpedo V Bombers 

The Navy's Grumman Avenger TBF- 
1 is outstanding. However, the Japs 
are coming out with a new torpedo 
bomber. It is a twin-engine, carrier- 
based plane. The Japs have been using 
the Mitsubishi 01, a land-based plane, 
as a torpedo bomber. It is inferior to 
the Avenger. 

Xavy Scout Bombers 

The Navy's Douglas Dauntless SBD-3 
can get into a steeper dive, is more 
rugged, and has better armor than the 
Japanese dive bombers, the Mitsubishi 
01 and Mitsubishi 9 7. The range and 
bomb capacity of the planes are about 
the same. The Navy's new Curtiss Hell- 
Diver has longer range, more speed, 
and greater bomb capacity than the 
Dauntless, but has not yet see combat 
experience. 



Older Workers Proving Worth 

More than a third of the total number of persons employed in Nov. 
were 45 years of age or older, the War ManpoAver Commission, reports. 
The steady rise in employment among older workers indicates that em- 
ployers are losing their prejudice against this group and are learning to 
value their experience. 

Of the 51.2 million persons employed in April of this year, about 
37 per cent, or 18.8 millions, were of the older group. Workers laid oft or 
retired as beyond the age limit have been reemployed. The skill, experi- 
ence and judgment of these older men and Avomen have proven invaluable 
in plants flooded by green workers. 

However, the Commission warns, the older Avorker must be utilized 
even more effectively if the 1944 labor requirements of essential indus- 
tries are to be met. 

Older women are not being employed as rapidly as older men. Al- 
though the employment of older Avomen has increased, the figures still 
represent less than one-fifth of all older Avomen in the country. 



Nearly all smoking and chewing tobacco used in the United States is sprayed 
with a solution of New England rum. 





Lumber Industry 

ITS HISTORY and PROBLEMS 




PONDEROSA PINE 

OVER IN THE short-log country, the forest has reached what for- 
esters call the climax type. As a forest, it has developed into what 
it will always be, unless conditions change. Tree ring studies that 
go back 1,200 years show that things are much as usual. Forest fires, bug 
attacks, wet seasons and droughts came and went. We seem to have just 
come through the longest and most severe of all the dry spells — or have 

we? And that accounts for a bark beetle epidemic more severe than any 
other that left its record. Otherwise 



business is about average. 

The ponderosa pine forests occupy 
large sections of eastern Oregon and 
Washington where rainfall rarely ex- 
ceeds 17 inches yearly. Competition 
for water, or root competition, large- 
ly determines the kind of forest that 
pine makes. After the sapling stage 
it will not grow in the shade. It 
is mighty touchy on this point. That 
also helps make east side forests look 
the way they do. We expect a thin 
stand on the ridges, heavier timber on 
the slopes and benches; fir and tama- 
rack along the watercourses and on the 
north slopes; lodgepole pine on badly 
drained sites, and sometimes where fires 
kill the old ponderosa pine stand. Lodge- 
pole has some seeding habits that give it 
the edge after a fire. 

Trees Outgi'ew Land 

In some stands most of the trees are 
about the same size but usually the 
stand is all aged. We can see where 
trees or small groups of trees rather 
outgrew the land they had to grow on. 
For a while they had things their own 
way. No newcomer could over-top them. 

They were safe from competition; but 
finally their big crowns demanded more 
water than the site could furnish. 
Growth was slowed down; the crowns 
thinned out. During three or four cen- 



turies, lightning, wind, sleet, insects or 
fire took something off the veterans, and 
finally they quit. 

The site that they had vacated seeded 
up. Fast growth and tough competition 
took the place of senility and stagna- 
tion. A new tree, or a group of trees, 
got ahead and occupied the place, and 
so on. That is the kind of forest we 
have to work with east of the moun- 
tains. 

Grows Slowly 

Ponderosa pine grows slowly in Ore- 
gon and Washington. A seedling one 
foot high may be six years old; to 
reach four feet takes twenty years or so 
for advance reproduction under partial 
shade. With full sunlight it does much 
better. If moisture and light are satis- 
factory, as in a partially cut stand, they 
begin to do better — 6 2 feet at 100 years, 
90 feet at 150 years, 104 feet at 200 
years. 

They reach merchantable size — 13" 
in diameter — at about 100 years, 19 
inches at 150 years, 23 inches at 200 
years. Trees 30 inches in diameter at 
breast height are likely to be 300 years 
old or older. 

The average volume for an Oregon 
ponderosa pine tree is 140 board feet 
at 100 years, around 400 feet at 150, 
maybe 700 feet at 200, and 1,000 feet 



40 



THE CARPENTER 



at 25 years. The big boys with two 
M feet probably average well over 400 
years old in most places. With competi- 
tion for light and water what it is, an 
acre will accommodate only 42 trees 16 
inches in diameter. 

Volume Growth Continues 

At the age of about 150 years, height 
growth slows down, possibly to one or 
two inches per year. Diameter and vol- 
ume growth keep up well for a while 
longer. On big crowded trees that have 
not been injured, good volume growth 
may continue to the age of 300 or so, 
but the chances against the tree are 
piling up. The death rate from one 
cause or another is increasingly high in 
the upper age brackets. 

In the first regulated cutting in this 
region the idea was to leave the land 
well stocked with seedlings and sap- 
lings, and plenty of seed trees but to 
make a heavy cut — say 80 per cent. of 
the volume. Horse and railroad logging 
made this imperative. Horses could not 
yard logs more than one-quarter mile 
and make It pay. That called for a rail- 
road spur every half mile — probably 
closer together than that. This much 
steel called for heavy cutting to carry 
construction costs. To log only half the 
volume would have raised transporta- 
tion costs per M feet much too high. 

Railroad liOgging 

When 80 per cent of a 10 M per acre 
stand was cut, the prospect of having 
another logging show within a reason- 
able time was rather slim. In another 
60 years the stand would cruise 5,600 
feet, and the logger could then cut 
4,500 feet per acre of very coarse logs, 
not an attractive chance with a railroad 
to pay for. Probably the operation would 
have to wait 100 years, when the logger 
could take off 6,500 feet of rather 
better logs. Either way the area was 
out of circulation for a long time, but 
no better way of logging was known. 

Trucks, tractors, and a serious bark 
beetle epidemic hit the pine country at 
the same time, about 20 years ago. The 
long drought had the pines running on 
halftime for lack of water to make wood 
and sap. This was just what the beetles 
were waiting for. When a beetle digs 
into the bark a strong flow of pitch will 
often drown him out. With the trees' 
pitch producing capacity cut, the num- 



ber that could be attacked was multi- 
plied. So were the beetles. 

Bug Vanadalism 

On some holdings 25 per cent of the 
stand was killed — mostly the old yellow- 
barks that grade 35 per cent No. 2 shop 
and better. Anyone with a lot of pine 
land had a right to get nervous. A lot 
of money was spent in protection and 
the worst of the attack was kept out of 
some of the holdings. Protection con- 
sisted in falling trees after they had 
been killed and the wood degraded by 
bluestain, peeling off the bark that con- 
tained the new crop of bugs, and burn- 
ing it. That disposed of the bugs, but 
the tree was a loss, and it was almost 
always the highest priced tree in the 
stand. 

At this point the Bureau of Entymol- 
ogy came in. Aside from the highest 
priced tree in the stand, which ones are 
the bugs most likely to get? Why, the 
trees that are in poor health. And how 
do you tell the tough ones from the 
sick ones? By the size and shape of the 
crown, the color and density of the 
foliage, and a few other items. So what? 
Well, why not log them before the bee- 
tles do? Trucks and tractors make it 
practicable. 

New Selective Logging 

The device of identifying and logging 
the weak members of the stand has a 
great deal in its favor beside salvaging 
the most valuable half of the stand be- 
fore it is injured. Taking off half the 
stand makes more water available for 
the remaining trees, increases their 
vigor, and steps up their rate of growth. 

By removing all the pushovers, the 
going is made difficult for the beetles. 
The severitj' and frequency of attacks 
should be decreased unless they learn 
to swim up stream in a strong pitch 
fiow. 

Most of the brisk young bull pines are 
left standing. They are the ones that 
are putting on the most wood and mak- 
ing money for the owner and material 
for future jobs. 

With half the stand left, and that the 
fastest growing, the operator can call 
again in 30 years and log 4,500 feet of 
rather smooth logs with a fair per- 
centage of uppers in them. 

Good forest practice is going to make 
a lot of difference in the number of jobs 
available. It is something to consider. 



41 



DEBUNKING LOOSE TALK 



by Phil. Pearl 



I 



"^HERE HAS BEEN a lot of loose talk to the effect that Army 
publications distributed among troops serving overseas carry a 
considerable amount of anti-labor material calculated to inflame 
the minds of the men in the armed services against organized labor. 

We decided that these complaints were worth looking into. Instead of 
accepting hearsay evidence, w^e thought it would be wise to go to the direct 
source — in other words, to read and study the publications involved. 

On making inquiries, we learned that the Army keeps a complete file 
of the "Stars and Stripes" at the Pentagon Building, the vast War De- 
partment beehive on the Virginia side of the Potomac. We were informed 
by Major Raskin that we would be 



permitted to examine these files. Major 
Raskin, who used to be a labor news 
reporter for the New York Times, is as- 
signed to the task of promoting better 
relations between the Army and labor 
and we found his assistance exceedingly 
helpful. 

First of all, we learned that "Stars 
and Stripes," the soldiers' newspaper, 
is published in various editions, includ- 
ing one in London, another in Algiers, 
one in East Africa and a new one in 
Sicily. There may be others we .don't 
know of. The only ones we saw were 
the London and the Algiers editions. 

How Labor News Is Handled 

Most of the news published in these 
papers is about military matters and 
War Department policies directly affect- 
ing the troops. News from home, ex- 
cept when it is of outstanding impor- 
tance, is confined to small items of two 
or three paragraphs. It consists chiefly 
of Associated Press dispatches, written 
concisely and objectively. 

In looking over the October issues of 
the Algiers and London editions of 
"Stars and Stripes" we found daily ac- 
counts of the proceedings of the AFL 
convention in Boston, emphasizing the 
constructive policies voiced there and 
convention action relating to further- 
ing of the war effort by American 
workers. These stories, although brief, 
were certainly not of the kind to en- 
rage soldiers against labor. On the 
contrary, the only possible conclusion a 
reader could get was that labor is do- 
ing a good job on the home front and 
is anxious to do a better job. 



The Algiers edition was free from 
items on picayune, inconsequential 
strikes. It handled news of important 
strikes, such as the coal mine shut-down, 
objectively and impersonally. In fact, 
we found these stories much preferable 
in their approach and content than those 
to be found in the daily press here at 
home. 

However, the London edition of "Stars 
and Stripes" does apparently make a 
practice of publishing every other day 
or so brief stories on unimportant 
strikes — such as a walkout of 26 milk 
wagon drivers in Brooklyn. 

"We couldn't understand why the men 
in the armed services should be inter- 
ested in reading of such petty affairs 
which have no real effect on the war 
effort, and the representatives of the 
Army to whom we talked couldn't un- 
derstand it either. 

The Good With the Bad 

They pointed out to us that the edi- 
tors of these Army publications are sup- 
posed to be guided by a code prepared 
by the War Department which contains 
the following paragraph with regard to 
labor news: 

"It is a reasonable presumption that 
troops are interested in news of labor, 
including reports of strikes, labor dis- 
putes, etc., where, such events are of a 
magnitude as to have national interest 
or of such character as to influence the 
lot of the fighting man. But the good 
must be reported with the bad. It 
would be false to presume that the 
armed forces are interested in unfavor- 
able information, but derive no benefit 



42 THE CARPENTER 

from that which is positive and favor- the Army and Lieut. Col. Franklin S. 

able." Forsberg, in particular, should be com- 

.^ , ,, ^., J, s, -r ^ mended for their efforts to transmit 

Perhaps the editors of the London straight and unbiased news material to 

edition of the 'Stars and Stripes these Army publications, 
interpret this to mean that they 

should sandwich items on inconsequen- We do think Improvement of this 

tial strikes between constructive labor service is possible and necessary. In 

news stories. If so, they are not carry- order to help bring this about, we in- 

ing out the intentions and policies of tend to call to the special attention of 

the War Department, we were assured. those assigned to transmit such news, 

constructive labor stories which we be- 
To sum up, our study convinced us lieve will interest American soldiers. In 
that the reports regarding anti-labor this effort, every AFL union can help. 
material in Army publications are un- The soldiers are concerned especially 
founded or grossly exaggerated. We be- about the prospects for post-war jobs, 
lieve that these publications, on the We call upon unions which are making 
whole, are trying to do a good job and plans to facilitate the employment of 
a fair job, under trying conditions, of ex-soldiers when they are demobilized 
keeping the men overseas fully informed to let us know about such activities so 
on war news and domestic news. We we can pass on the word to the boys 
feel that the Special Service Division of who are fighting for us across the seas. 



U. S. Survey Discovers Rich Timber Resources 
In Central, South America 

Ten members of the United States Forest Service have recently returned 
from a four months' survey of Central and South American forests to 
study how these can help meet war and post-war timber demands and fur- 
ther inter-American commerce and amity.- They are now preparing their 
detailed reports about a lush, almost untouched forest empire larger than 
the entire land area of the United States. 

Traveling thousands of miles by airplane, jeep, tractor, horse, mule 
and afoot, the survey party discovered a "lost forest" of the largest oaks 
in the world near San Jose, capital of Costa Rica, and in the same country 
found a previously unknown species of the cantanea tree particularly 
suited for bridges, highway structures and other heavy construction. 

The new species, which has been named Vantanea Barbourli, in honor 
of William R. Barbour, one of the members of the survey party, is ex- 
pected to be used extensively henceforth in the construction of the new 
Inter-American Highway, the cause of its discovery. 

Oaks are not rare in Central and South America, but usually are scat- 
tered among other trees, tropical forests often having as many as lOO 
species of trees to an acre. These oaks, however, are a solid, pure stand, 
one of the very few such stands of any single species found in any tropical 
forest. 

According to William A. Dayton, chief dendrologist of the Forest 

Service, who was a member of the survey party, these are the largest 
oaks found anywhere in the world. In some sections, it was estimated, 
they would yield 60,000 board feet to the acre — and over wide areas 
average 25,000 board feet an acre. 



43 



State Boards are emasculating desirability of Act 
through too rigid interpretation of qualifications 



The Threat to Jobless Insurance 

DURING THE YEARS since the national emerg-ency first arose, 
unemployment insurance has undergone some unhappy revisions 
in a considerable number of states. State officials and state legisla- 
tures have set up rules and regulations tending to emasculate many of the 
most beneficial provisions of the program. Arbitrary rules for disqualifi- 
cation of applicants for insurance benefits have been put into efifect in 
many instances, and in some states new laws have been passed altering 
the desirability of the act from the workman's point of view. 

AVith jobs as plentiful as they are today, unemployment insurance is 

not being- given very much attention; and it is this very lack of interest 

tliat is contributing to ttie gradual emas- 

ing benefits rather than working. A 
disqualification which postpones benefit 
rights recognizes that when unemploy- 
ment continues beyond a certain period, 
the cause of the unemployment is the 
general state of the labor market and 
not the act of the claimant which was 
the initial cause. Cancellation of a 
worker's benefit rights makes disquali- 
fication a penalty as though he had 
committed some sort of offense. 



culation of the act. Even Arthur J. Alt- 
nieyer, chairman of the Federal Secur- 
ity Board is alarmed over what is hap- 
pening to unemployment insurance un- 
der the direction of the various state 
boards. Herewith are reprinted some 
excerpts from an address he recently 
made to officials of the 51 state and ter- 
ritorial compensation systems: 

"I myself have been deeply disturbed 
by the rapid and persistent trend of 
state legislation and of state administra- 
tion toward disqualifying workers for 
an increasing number of causes and to- 
ward the imposition of more and more 
severe disqualifications. The board's 
view regarding disqualifications has 
been quite clear and has been announced 
to state agencies year after year. In 
brief, it is as follows: First, that dis- 
qualifications for voluntary quits, dis- 
charge for misconduct, or refusal of 
suitable work should take the form of 
a postponement of benefits rather than 
the form of a cancellation of benefit 
rights; and second, that the "good 
cause' which justifies a voluntary leav- 
ing should include good personal cause 
as well as "good cause attributable to 
the employer." 

"These two principles seem to me to 
be absolutely sound for unemployment 
compensation. "With respect to the first 
of them, I would emphasize that the pur- 
pose of disqualifications is not to pun- 
ish woi'kers personally but suiiply to in- 
sure that workers shall not obtain bene- 
fits by their voluntai-y action in choos- 



]Vlany Valid Causes for Quitting 

"With respect to the second principle, 
it surely should be recognized that a 
worker can have any one of a number 
of valid causes for quitting his job, let 
us say, none of which would be at all 
attributable to the employer. Such a 
worker would not necessarily be eligible 
for benefits in the weeks following the 
separation, but eligibility would be de- 
termined for each week. For example, 
a woman who left to take care of a sick 
child would not draw benefits as long as 
that condition persisted because she 
would not be available for work. But if 
she could not find a job when the child 
was well again, and she was again avail- 
able for work, she should not be penal- 
ized by a disqualification which would 
run for a specified time regardless of 
the change in the cause of unemploy- 
ment, and which in some states would 
Involve cancellation of all benefit rights 
for a year or more. 

"I believe that the theory that the 
cost of benefits should be allocated 



44 



THE CARPENTER 



among employers in accordance witli 
their experience with unemployment and 
the twin theory that the employer can 
control and is responsible for unemploy- 
ment, have been the chief reasons for 
this basically unsound trend in disquali- 
fications. 

"It is important to recognize that 
under the pressures of experience rat- 
ing, there has been a shift from the 
oft-expressed purpose of unemployment 
compensatiion to pay benefits to work- 
ers who are unemployed through no 
fault of their own to paying benefits 
only when the employer is at fault. Ac- 
tually, with all the various provisions 
for charging base period employers rath- 
er than the spearating employer in 35 
state laws, there are many cases where 
employers are charged for benefits when 
they are not "at fault," and others 
where they are not charged, by one 
chance or another, when they are re- 
sponsible for the unemployment. .The 
increasing number of state laws which 
have modified the good cause provisions 
in relation to voluntary quit to mean 
"good cause attributable to the employ- 
er" are definitely traceable to the theory 
of employer responsibility. 

"I have been reading over some of 
the cases that have arisen in various 
states. I think this is a helpful thing to 
do because it makes us realize that in 
this field we are not so much dealing 
with problems of mechanics as with 
problems of human motives and human 
relationships. Let me cite you a few 
cases. 

Some Typical Cases 

"The effect of the voluntary leaving 
disqualification, when limited by "good 
cause attributable to the employer" or 
by "attributable to the employment" is 
illustrated by the following cases: 

"A laborer in outdoor employment 
was laid off because of the advent of 
cold weather. A year later, anticipating 
a similar lay-off, he left to take a better 
job. After seven weeks on the second 
job, he was laid off for lack of work 
and filed a claim for benefits. The case 
was carried to the supreme court of the 
state, which held that since he had left 
his preceding employer without good 
cause attributable to the employer, he 
was not entitled to any benefits based on 
any wages credited to his account at the 
time he left his work. This employe 



seems to have been disqualified and pe- 
nalized because he preferred to work 
rather than to wait for the usual sea- 
sonal lay-off, 

"Under the law of another state (re- 
cently repealed) a claimant who leaves 
his work voluntarily without good cause 
attributable to the employer in the 
"benefit year" for which he has not 
earned sufiicient wage credits to entitle 
him to any benefits, will be disqualified 
in the succeeding "benefit year" and 
have benefit rights deducted from the 
separation in the previous "benefit 
year." This provision was applied in the 
case of a claimant who left a 5-and-lO 
cent-store job to enter a defense train- 
ing course. 

"Sometimes it happens that a claim- 
ant who has already been disqualified 
for voluntarily leaving without good 
cause attributable to the employer is 
offered the same job. When he refuses 
it, for the same reasons which prompt- 
ed him to leave, he is disqualified a sec- 
ond time — this time for refusing suit- 
able work without good cause. This 
situation is illustrated by a decision 
concerning three claimants in a family 
who lived 17 miles from the textile mill 
to which they had driven in their car. 
When their tires wore out, the man 
was unable to obtain authorization from 
his local rationing board for additional 
tires or recaps. The family then ap- 
proached the employer, suggesting a 
transfer from the third to the second 
shift, because they could arrange trans- 
portation with a neighbor for work on 
this shift. This request was refused. 
The family failed also in efforts to se- 
cure living accommodations in the mill 
town. After they left their jobs and 
filed claims for benefits, they were re- 
ferred to work with the same employer 
— again for work on the third shift. 
This work they refused for the same 
reasons for which they had left. These 
three claimants were held unavailable 
for work from the date of filing their 
claims and were disqualified for four 
weeks for having left voluntarily with- 
out good cause attribvitable to the em- 
ployer and four weeks for refusal to 
apply for suitable work, with two weeks 
of disqualification overlapping the vol- 
untary leaving disqualification. Appar- 
ently the work was considered suitable 
because they might have bought bicycles 
or a horse and buggy for the daily trip 



TIIK CARPENTER 



45 



of 34 miles. In this same state, when 
under similar conditions, a family mov- 
ed to another mill village so that the 
husband could reach his work, the wife 
claimed benefits while trying to find 
employment near her new home. She 
was reoffered her former job which she 
left because of the lack of transporta- 
tion and housing facilities, and was dis- 
qualified both for voluntary leaving and 
for refusing suitable work under a state 
supreme court decision, which held that 
no worker voluntarily placing distance 
between himself and available work may 
thereafter complain that the same work, 
if reoffered, is unsuitable. 

"In some laws, new and harsher pro- 
visions are adopted which deny benefits 
to persons normally entitled to them. 
Thus one law provides that a claimant 
who has been found to have left his em- 
ployment voluntarily without good cause 
shall be disqualified for not more than 
the five weeks which immediately follow 
the week in which he left, "provided, 
that such individual shall be disqualified 
from benefits for any week of unem- 
ployment when he does not report in 
person" to an employment service office 
in this state. It would appear that this 
law creates a statutory rule that the 
claimant who left work voluntarily must 
be available in the state in order to 
receive benefits. In a number of deci- 
sions this provision has been interpreted 
to prevent payment of interstate claims 
through the Interstate Benefit Payment 
procedure. 

"Another law provides that a claim- 
ant is eligible only if "he is able to per- 
form full time work of a character 
which he is qualified to perform by past 
experience or training and of a character 
generaly similar to work for which he 
has previously received wages . . ." Un- 
der this provision a claimant who was 
unable to engage in his former work as 
a laborer as a result of a brain concus- 
sion sustained during service in the 
Navy but was certified by his doctor as 
able to do light work, was held unavail- 
able for work inasmuch as he was not 
able to perform work of a character for 
which he received wages. The referee 
in this case said: "It is to me absurd 
that the new law does not take recogni- 
tion of the fact that life is subject to 
change. It fails to make alowance for 
growth and decay. Many workers upon 
attaining middle age cannot follow the 



crafts at which they made a livelihood 
in their early youth. Under the new 
law they are excluded from the benefit 
program." 

"Any provision such as this Trhioh 
may result in the denial of rights to 
disabled servicemen merely because of 
their disabilities is of special concem to 

all of us. Another state law disqualifies 
an individual who "cannot accept his 
former employment" . . . because he is 
"unable to perform such work." Appar- 
ently under this provisiion, which has 
not yet been interpreted in benefit de- 
cisions, a claimant who is physically un- 
able to accept an offer of his previous 
employment, even though this is because 
of war-sustained injuries, will have all 
his wage credits earned in his previous 
employment cancelled. 

"I presented these cases not only to 
call your attention to a technical aspect 
of our program but also to emphasize 
the seriousness of this development. You 
yourself know the extent to which peo- 
ple respond to the personal appeal and 
to the tragedy of the individual case. 
At the present time, when jobs are so 
very plentiful, this matter does not 
cause much public concern; but in a 
postwar period when millions of men 
may be out of work and Avhen men may 
again be faced with the danger of star- 
vation for themselves and their families, 
some of these precedents that are now 
being built up will return to haunt us. 
A man deprived of benefits for what 
seems to him an unjust and inequitable 
reason will carry his case far and will 
throw the light of publicity on some of 
these dark corners. The cases will then 
become known from one end of the 
country to the other. 

"It seems to me that this is a field in 
which we have a joint interest and in 
which we can work together. I invite 
your consideration of this problem and 
will welcome any advice from state men 
as to how it can be met. We in turn 
stand ready to render assistance in your 
next legislative sessions. 

"In some states, we have tried to as- 
sist by calling attention to the need for 
disqualifications, not contained in the 
law. Thus one state law which disquali- 
fied for the duration of unemployment 
all claimants who left voluntarily, ex- 
cept for a few specified reasons, imposed 
no disqualifications whatsoever upon 



46 



THE CARPENTER 



those discharged for misconduct. In the 
benefit decisions of that state, many 
claimants who were in fact discharged 
for misconduct were disqualified as a 
voluntary quit on the theory that an act 
of misconduct is a constructive volun- 
tary leaving, but it is probable that 
many claimants, discharged for miscon- 
duct, were not disqualified in any way. 
In addition we have generally recom- 
mended that state laws contain in addi- 
tion to the disqualifications because of 
discharge for misconduct, a disqualifica- 
tion because of suspension for miscon- 
duct. 

"The trend toward more restrictive 
disqualifications is also reduced in the 
appeals on benefit decisions. While the 
activity of your referees and appeals 
boards has been reducing the backlog 
of appeals before the lower appeals 
authorities since the fourth quarter of 
1940 and that of appeals before the 
higher authorities since the third quar- 
ter of 1941, appeals received are not 
falling in proportion to the decline in 
claims. In fact, for the last quarter of 
1942 when 13,000 appeals were re- 
ceived by lower appeals authorities and 
2,000 by higher, the figures are several 
times higher than the declining claims 
load would lead one to expect. Of course, 
this appeals activity may be a thorough- 
ly healthy situation. If unduly severe 
disqualifications are being imposed, it is 
important that claimants should know 
and exercise their rights to have 
claims determinations reviewed. How- 
ever, there is some indication that as 



experience rating goes into operation in 
state after state, the number of appeals 
by employers is increasing. 

These facts are related to a point I 
made earlier — namely, that there is evi- 
dence that too commonly the rights 
which unemployed workers have to bene- 
fits are considered to be claims against 
an employer rather than against the 
state. The result of this concept is that 
contests regarding the payment of bene- 
fits are considered to be between the 
worker and his employer, with the state 
administrator only a bystander. Is it 
not important to emphasize the social 
purposes for which the state law is de- 
signed and to recognize that an individ- 
ual's rights to benefits rest against the 
state, rather than some individual em- 
ployer? It is worth noting that the 
British in their long and successful ex- 
perience have never forgotten this prin- 
ciple. 

"In the administration of appeals, as 
in the substantive phases of disqualifi- 
cation, we should be alert to the possi- 
bility of unfavorable public reactions to 
the program. In these days of manpower 
shortage and the resultant tightening 
of interpretation of eligbility to bene- 
fits and in the days of postwar read- 
justments, we must be sure that claim- 
ants whose claims are denied have ac- 
cess to fair hearing— a chance to tell 
their stories before a sympathetic tribu- 
nal, a simple non-legalistic hearing, and 
prompt payment of benefits if their 
rights are established. 



Engineers Build Air Field In 24 Hours 

Aviation engineers of the Northwest African Air Service Command 
did one of the outstanding jobs of the war in constructing air fields under 
fire on the Salerno beach-head, the War Department disclosed. 

The engineers, many of whom worked in construction trades in civil- 
ian life, landed just behind the infantry and artillery of the Fifth Army, 
and within 24 hours had laid out and constructed an air field in a culti- 
vated field of wheat and cotton. 

By the end of a week, the engineers had completed three air fields, with 
runways for fighter aircraft, taxi strips around them, and parking stands 
on each field. 

Practically all their work was accomplished under fire. Enemy artil- 
lery turned a furious hail of shells on the beaches, while German fighter 
planes made sneak raids. 



47 



SHOVELING SAWMILLERS WIN WAGE WRANGLE 



SOFT, SWIRLING snowflakes in the green pine forest of the Great 
Northwest have often caught the fancy of the poet or the painter, 
but until last month they have never been the subject of a National 
War Labor Board decision on a dispute between management and labor. 

Early last month the WLB finally got around to ruling on an appealed 
decision of its West Coast Lumber Commission, which had been asked to 
decide how much employes of the J. Neils Lumber Company, Klickitat, 
Washington, should be paid under their contract for shoveling their way 
to work, so to speak. 

Specifically, the employes involved worked in the planing department 
of the company. A snowfall of un- 



usual depth last winter prevented 
them from reaching their depart- 
ment, so the men shoveled the snow 
out of the way of their machines. 
The company paid these men at the 
common labor rate for the time they 
spent shoveling snow. This was not 
satisfactory with the men who felt 
they were entitled to their regular 
rates of pay for the time they spent 
shoveling. Through their local un- 
ion, Local 2805 of our Brotherhood, 
the matter was taken up with the 
management. When no satisfactory 
settlement was reached through ne- 
gotiations, the dispute was turned 
over to the West Coast Lumber 
Commission. 

The union contended that under 
the contract existing at the time of 
the dispute the men were entitled 
to their regular rates of pay for 
their snow removal labors. Wayne 
L. Morse, in an opinion on the Na- 
tional Board's unanimous decision, 
explained that conflicting interpre- 
tations of a clause in the contract 
caused the dispute. The clause read : 

"If an employe is temporarily 
shifted to any position paying a 
smaller wasre than he has been re- 



ceiving, no reduction in wage shall 
be made, but in case the employe's 
services are no longer required in 
his class of employment, the em- 
ployer may, with the employe's con- 
sent, instead of laying him off, 
transfer him to any position vacant 
and fix the wages according to that 
position. If the former position is 
renewed, the employe shall be re- 
turned to his former position." 

Dean Morse said the Board held 
that snowfalls and other such ca- 
prices of nature were emergency sit- 
uations not covered by the contract 
clause. However, the Board ruled 
that the Company must pay the men 
for the shoveling and other emer- 
gency work incident to the shut- 
down during a part of the regular 
work day at their regular rate, 
Morse said. For work performed 
when the planing mill was shut 
down for an entire day, the Board 
ruled that the Company must also 
pay the regular rates because the 
Company did not notify the men 
that they would be paid at the com- 
mon labor rates for such work as 
thc}^ were supposed to do under the 
contract. 



48 T II E C A R P K X T E K 

Dean Morse said that for the fu- employes. The employes will be at 

ture the employe's regular job rates liberty to accept or lay-off during- 

shall be paid if the emergency is ,i _^ ^ ^, , 

^ , , , . ^-rr • • the emergency. The employer may 

less than a day s duration, if it is . . , , 

more than one day, the employer °^^^ ^o maintain the regular rates 

may offer the emergency jobs in- of pay during the emergency, but 

volving common labor rates to the is under no obligation to do so. 



Selective Logging Cheapest 

SELECTIVE TIMBER cutting offers a way to increase output per 
unit of labor, and this can help to overcome the current slump in 
lumber production, stop-watch studies conducted by the Forest Serv- 
ice of the Department of Agriculture reveal. 

Tests made in several forest regions show that it takes more labor to 
produce a given quantity of lumber from small immature trees than from 
more mature and larger trees, the Service reported. 

In second-growth southern pine, a saving in labor of ii per cent per 
thousand board feet produced can be made as a general rule by not cutting 
trees less than 15 inches in diameter. Clear cutting in 25-year-old timber, 
requires from 25 to 40 per cent more labor per thousand board feet than in 
stands 40 to 75 years of age. 

In northern hardwood stands, labor savings up to 10 per cent can be 
made by selective cutting, the studies show. In the Northern Lake States, 
where 90 per cent of the saw timber output is clear cut, it is estimated 
that a saving of over 700,000 man hours could have been made by selective 
cutting in one year of the war period. 

In eastern white pine, twice as much labor is required to make lumber 
from 6-inch as from 13-inch trees. 

Twenty-inch growth trees in the west coast redwood forests take 
three to four times as much labor for a given output of lumber as mature 
trees 40 inches in diameter. 

In ponderosa pine, direct logging costs, largely in labor, are twice as 
great for 16-inch trees as for 48-inch trees. 

Douglas iir trees 24 inches in diameter cost two or three times as 
much to log as 48-inch trees. Labor represents a major share of the 
costs. 

"By selective cutting and avoiding operations in distinctly immature 

timber, the stop-watch studies show the output of lumber per man 

employed would certainly be stepped up," Lyle F. Watts, Chief of the 

Forest Service, said. "Continuity of production in hundreds of forest 

counties would also be assured. It is our hope that nation-wide interest 

in efficient production and in safeguarding future timber supplies will 

bring about a program of action to assure good cutting practices in the 

forests of America." 

® 

This is your publication. Patronize its advertisers. 



Official Information 




General Officers of 
THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS 

of AMERICA 

Gbnbbal OrFicE : Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Genebal President 

WM. L. HUTCHBSON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



FiBST Ghneeal Vice-Phesidbnt 

M. A. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Genebal Secbhtabt 

FRANK DUFFY 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Second General Vice-Peesident 

JOHN R. STEVENSON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Genebal Tbeasureb 

S. P. MEADOWS 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Eibcutivh Boabd 



First District, T. M. GUERIN 
290 Second Ave., Troy, N. Y. 



Fifth District. R. E. ROBERTS 
1231 N. Winnetka St., Dallas, Texas 



Second District, WM. J. KELLY 
Carpenters' Bid., 243 4th Ave., Pittsburgli, Pa. 

Third District. HARRY SCHWARZBR 
3684 W. 136th St., Cleveland, O. 



Sixth District. A. W. MUTR 
10348i WUshire Blvd., Los Angeles, Calif. 



Seventh District, ARTHUR MARTEL 
1182 St. Lawrence, Rm. 10, Montreal, Que., Can. 



Fourth District, ROLAND ADAMS 
Mayflower Hotel, Jacksonville, Fla. 



WM. L. HUTCHESON, Chairman 
FRANK DUFFY, Secretary 



All corresDondence for the General Executive Board must be sent to the General Secretary. 

Notice to Recording Secretaries 

The quarterly circular for the months of January, February and March 
1944, containing the quarterly password, has been forwarded to all Local 
Unions of the United Brotherhood. Recording Secretaries not in receipt 
of this circular should notify Frank Duffy, Carpenters' Building, Indian- 
apolis 4, Indiana. 



REPORT OF THE DELEGATES TO THE THIRTY- 
SIXTH ANNUAL CONVENTION OF THE UNION 
LABEL TRADES DEPARTMENT OF THE 
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR 

To the General Executive Board: 

The Thirty-sixth Annual Convention of the Union Label Trades Department of 
the American Federation of Labor was held in the Statler Hotel, Boston on October 
1, 1943. Credentials for 89 Delegates were received from thirty-four International 
Unions. 

The Executive Board in its Report said: 

The Union Label Trades Department is the clearing house for all of the 
unions affiliated with the American Federation of Labor that have adopted a 



50 THE CARPENTER 

Union Label, Shop Card or Service Button to designate their particular product 
or service. The chief aims of our .Department are to publicize Union Labels, Shop 
Cards and Service Buttons and to promote Union Label goods and Union services. 
In connection with these two activities we are called upon to assist our affiliated 
unions in many problems which concern the general welfare of the American 
labor movement. Our constant goal, however, is the publicizing of the official 
emblems of national and international unions which make up the Union Label 
Trades Department. We urge the members of all labor unions to buy only goods 
that are manufactured under union conditions and to patronize only those estab- 
lishments that employ members of service unions. The high labor standards ob- 
tained by organized labor through collective bargaining can be maintained only 
by intelligent buying by members of labor unions and their families, as con- 
sumers. 

In addition to our official representation on boards, we have cooperated with 
the United States Treasury in the sale of "War Bonds and Stamps and with the 
Red Cross in distributing Information to local officers of labor unions and wo- 
men's auxiliaries. 

Outstanding among our new activities is the Union Label cigarette campaign 
for free smokes to be sent to our armed forces overseas. In addtion to the tre- 
mendous job labor unions are doing on the home front generally, they are supplying 
millions of American Union Label cigarettes for free distribution to members of 
our armed forces which will aid in building good will for the American labor 
movement. 

Union Label Iieagaes and Union Label Comniittees 

Union Label Leagues are continually increasing in number. Union Label. 
Leagues in conjunction with central labor unions and Union Label committees in 
various cities throughout America have issued many local Union Label directories; 
held Union Label exhibits, and Union Label weeks. In order to obtain definite 
action, we encourage all state federations of labor, central labor unions, and local 
unions to immediately organize a Union Label League in every city in America. 
We cannot compliment too highly the splendid volunteer work that is carried on 
in these Union Label campaigns by the 1-oyal members of these leagues. Union 
Label Leagues are chartered directly by the Union Label Trades Department of the 
A. F. of L. 

Nutrition 

The Union Label Trades Department is continuing the issuance of a popular 
series of articles on "Nutrition and Labor." Twenty-four articles prepared by 
Dr. Mark Graubard, in charge of Labor Education in the Nutrition and Food 
Conservation Branch, Food Distribution Administration, U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture, have been printed in pamphlet form. There is a popular demand for this 
pamphlet for nutrition lectures in the armed services of our nation as well as the 
educational institutions. Thousands of copies have been sent to the leading uni- 
versities and to public libraries throughout the United States and Canada. The 
pamphlet is being reprinted and used as a textbook in several schools. It is also 
used as a basis for a lecture course in over a thousand industrial plants. 

The Foreword in this document was written by your Secretary-Treasurer. 
While there is no direct reference to the Union Label, Shop Card or Service But- 
ton in the text of this booklet, the back cover contains a message which will have 
a large distribution among lecturers and educators. 

Meetings and Conventions 

We have continued our policy of making a personal appearance before national 
and international union conventions, state federations, and meetings of central 
bodies and women's auxiliaries. 

Where your Secretary has been unable to accept invitations to address meet- 
ings, a competent representative has been assigned to represent the Union Label 
Trades Department. 

Outstanding among meetings attended by your Secretary was a southern con- 
ference held in Atlanta, Georgia, January 16-17, 19 43. 

During the past twelve months we have been privileged to address and to 



THB3 OARPKNTKR 51 

furnish speakers for many group meetings that have no direct contact with organ- 
ized labor In this connection we can give credit to the women's auxiliariies who in 
many instances were responsible for making it possible for an address on the 
Union Label. 

Due to our war effort, it has not been possible for us to furnish exhibits for 
public meetings as has been our practice for a number of years. A great many 
manufacturers using the Union Label in the consumer goods industries have had 
to change their production facilities to war work. We do, however, furnish the 
organizations with descriptive literature, such as posters and other material for 
distribution and display. 

Future Progi'ani 

The Union Label Trades Department of the American Federation of Labor will 
continue its policy of issuing news releases, editorials, cartoons, pictorial features, 
and all forms of publicity available. It will try to extend its use of the radio and 
electrical transcriptions to promote the sale of Union Label goods and the use of 
union services. It will pursue the chief aim of the Department, which Is to pub- 
licize the emblems of our affiliated unions, by publishing the Union Label Cata- 
logue-Directory, posters displaying all Union Labels, Shop Cards and Service But- 
tons; and all forms of Union Label Literature for general distribution. It will 
exhaust every channel we now employ and endeavor to find new methods to aid in 
the war effort so that America can achieve an early victory. 

As we have so often stated, one of the best way to maintain American labor 
union standards is to demand the Union Label on all goods and to use Union 
services which are designated by the Shop Card and Service Button. In no other 
way than by patronizing those firms that display these emblems can organized 
labor sustain wages, hours and working conditions established by collective bar- 
gaining over the past sixty years by the American Federation of Labor. As con- 
sumers, trade unionists must realize that they have a sovereign economic power 
in their pay envelope that is as important as the sovereign political power of the 
ballot. Both weapons must be used effectively in order to maintain our present 
position. 

The Report was adopted. 

The following Resolutions were unanimously approved: 

Whereas, The Union Label Trades Department of the American Federation of 
Labor has received the intelligent support and wholehearted cooperation of the 
publishers and editors of the labor press which includes the official monthly labor 
journals of the national and international unions, the weekly newspapers and 
other periodical labor publications; and 

Whereas, The labor press has given liberal space to news releases, editorials, 
cartoons, and other features publicizing Union Labels, Shop Cards and Service 
Buttons; and 

Whereas, The editors of the labor press have contributed their personal effort 
to exclusive articles In support of every campaign for the promotion of Union 
Label goods and Union services; and 

Whereas, The labor press has generously aided in the Union Label Trades De- 
partment's campaign to urge national and international unions, state federations of 
labor, central labor unions and local unions to send Union Label cigarettes free to 
our fighting men in battle areas overseas; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the Union Label Trades Department of the American Federa- 
tion of Labor, in convention assembled, does hereby express its deep gratitude for 
the liberal space so generously contributed by the weekly labor newspapers, the 
official monthly labor journals and other labor publications. 

Whereas, The activities of the officials and members of the American Federa- 
tion of Women's Auxiliaries of Labor have greatly stimulated the work of the 
Department, resulting in the increased demand for Union Label products and 
Union services; and 

Whereas, Women's auxiliaries have been cooperating to the fullest extent in all 
the promotional campaigns conducted by the Union Label Trades Department in 
behalf of the Union Labels, Shop Cards and Service Buttons; therefore, be it 



52 



THE CARPENTER 



Resolved, That the Union Label Trades Department of the American Federa- 
tion of Labor, in convention assembled, does hereby express its full appreciation 
for the volunteer support and untiring efforts of the officials and members of 
women's auxiliaries; and, be it further 

Resolved, That every local union of the American Federation of Labor be 
urged to form a women's auxiliary. 

Officers 

The First Vice-President of the Union Label Trades Department of the Amer- 
ican Federation of Labor, Brother Andy A. Myrup, President and Secretary-Treas- 
urer of the Bakery and Confectionery Workers International Union of America 
died on the morning of the opening of the Convention and out of respect to his 
memory it was decided that in the election of officers his place as First Vice- 
President be left vacant and that the Executive Board select his successor at its 
next meeting. 

The following officers were elected: 

President, Matthew Woll, Photo Engravers; First Vice-President, left vacant; 
Second Vice-President, John J. Mara, Boot and Shoe Workers; Third Vice-Presi- 
dent, Jos. P. McCurdy, Garment Workers; Fourth Vice-President, Jas. M. Duffy, 
Potters; Fifth Vice-President, John M. Gillispie, Teamsters; Secretary-Treasurer, 
I. M. Ornburn, Cigar Makers. 

Respectfully submitted, 

M. A. HUTCHESON, 
TED KENNEY, 
WILLIAM FRANCIS, 

Delegates. 



NEW CHARTERS ISSXJED 



1018 Shawano, Wis. 

1025 Medford, Wis. 

1999 Monticello, 111. 

2754 Bridgeville, Calif. 

1041 Oconto, Wis. 



2762 
2765 
1171 
1174 
2658 



North Fork, Calif. 
Port Elgin, Ont., Can. 
Shakopee, Minn. 
Paducah, Ky. 
Malvern, Ark. 



Emphasizes Plant Protection Against Air Raids and Accidents 

The formation, of labor-management committees on plant protection to 
safeguard war and essential civilian production against enemy air raids, 
accidents and fires is urged in a new seven-page Fact Sheet. being dis- 
tributed by the Office of Civilian Defense. The Plant Protection Fact 
Sheet states : 

"Although the primary responsibility for plant protection rests with 
management, a labor-management committee on plant protection com- 
posed of representatives of both management and workers should be 
formed in each plant. In those plants or departments where the workers 
belong to a labor organization, the union representatives should consti- 
tute the labor half of the joint committee." 

Pointing out that plant protection covers more than preparation against 
air raids, the Fact Sheet closes with these words : 

"Not only do air raids threaten American industry, but fire, sabotage, 
and industrial accidents do as well. Every week industrial accidents kill 
an average of 425 American workers, cripple or blind 2,200 others, incapac- 
itate more than 45,000 and lose for industry and the Nation 6,000,000 man- 
days of essential war and civilian production. Comprehensive safety pro- 
grams will reduce these losses." 



Jin 0.jetntfvxscxn 

Not lost to those that love them, They still live in our memory » 

Not dead, just gone before; And will forever more. 



%tsi in l^tntt 

Th» Editor hat been requested to publish the names 
of the following Brothers who have passed away. 

Brother Joseph Allard, Local No. 801, Woonsocket, R. I. 
Brother John Ashton, Local No. 657, Sheboygan, Wis. 
Brother Michael Barth, Local No. 1922, Chicago, 111. 
Brother Lynn E. Bartholomew, Local No. 1629, Ashtabula, O. 
Brother A. A. Beckman, Local No. 642, Richmond, Calif. 
Brother Edward Belisle, Local No. 801, Woonsocket, R. I. 
Brother C. A. Benoit, Local No. 93, Ottawa, Ont., Can. 
Brother George Benedek, Local No. 242, Chicago, 111. 
Brother Joseph Bowen, Local No. 626, Wilmington, Del. 
Brother Fred Christianson, Local No. 183, Peoria, 111. 
Brother John Clayton, Local No. 634, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Brother William Allen Cloud, Local No. 634, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Brother Ralph A. Cobb, Local No. 310, Norwich, N. Y. 
Brother Henry J. Cook, Local No. 183, Peoria, 111. 
Brother Wm. Deal, Local No. 183, Peoria, 111. 
Brother Theodore Dubois, Local No. 801, Woonsocket, B. I. 
Brother John Duscher, Local No. 440, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Brother Allen Fenno, Local No. 642, Richmond, Calif. 
Brother Aime Genereux, Local No. 801, Woonsocket, R. L 
Brother Paul Goetsch, Local No. 337, Detroit, Mich. 
Brother Leopold Gofford, Local No. 801, Woonsocket, R. I. 
Brother James H. Hayes, Local No. 626, Wilmington, Del. 
Brother Knute Hendrickson, Local No. 141, Chicago, HI. 
Brother Albert Juedes, Local No. 788, Rock Island, 111. 
Brother Edw. Kloman, Local No. 183, Peoria, HI. 
Brother Charles E. Lefevre, Local No. 801, Woonsocket, R. I. 
Brother Henry Marr, Local No. 626, Wilmington, Del. 
Brother Edward Mickley, Local No. 191, York, Pa. 
Brother E. H. Muellen, Local No. 634, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Brother Guay Rancourt, Local No. 801, Woonsocket, R. I. 
Brother Lawrence Rauen, Local No. 1602, Cincinnati, O. 
Brother Russel Rogers, Local No. 115, Bridgeport, Conn. 
Brother Edward Schoman, Local No. 141, Chicago, HI. 
Brother Lawrence Severson, Local No. 626, Wilmington, Del. 
Brother E. W. Sinsel, Local No. 141, Cliicago, HI. 
Brother EmU Taskinen, Local No. 1629, Ashtabula, O. 
Brother John Tenhundfeld, Local No. 1602, Cincinnati, O. 
Brother Frank J. Tolson, Local No. 634, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Brother Howard Trembley, Local No. 2100, Amityville, N. Y. 
Brother Chas. J. Turgeon, Local No. 634, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Brother Matthew Wach, Local No. 642, Richmond, Calif. 
Brother John Zeitz, Local No. 183, Peoria, 111. 



^<i^^ 




m 4fy OP/A^/O/if. . , 



What Our Readers Have to Say 

. . . On Topics of ths Dayi 



.^ 



(This Jotn-ncd is not responsible for the views expressed by the ufriters.) 



The way things have been going. I 
don't think anyone can say that the 
workers of this country have been get- 
ting a fair deal. TTages are frozen so 
tight that nothing can jar them loose, 
but prices of everything which were sup- 
posed to be frozen also are climbing all 
the time. Ail kinds of statistics are pub- 
lished to show us that the cost of living 
has gone up only 24 or 25% but we all. 
know that they are not true figures. 
There is no way of gauging how much 
the cost of living has gone up because 
the quality of everything has been cut 
so much that most things would still be 
far too expensive if they didn't cost a 
penny more than they did in 1939. 

Yet in spite of all these things, labor 
is making out much better in this war 
than it did last time. I remember how 
butter sold for 90c and a dollar a pound 
in 1918. I remember how eggs were a 
dollar a dozen or better. Overalls we 
pay around S2 for now were $4 and S5 
in the last war. At the same time our 
wages were much lower than they are 
now. The jobs that are getting $1.20 to 
SI. 7 5 now were only paying from 75c 
to 95c in the last war. So we have made 
some progress. 

I guess it just isn't possible to stop 
some of the big boys from making mil- 
lions out of a war. The workers have a 
right to be sore at the kind of a deal 
they are getting. The only restrictions 
that are being enforced are those on la- 
bor while the big boys find ways and 
means of getting theirs despite price 
ceilings, priorities, etc. 

The whole thought in this is that the 
millions of workers like myself are tak- 
ing a beating, but it is still lots better 
than the beating we would take if the 
big guys who are trying to kill OPA 
got their way. We want to be sure we 
don't cut oS our noses to spite our faces. 

BLLL J. AAEES, Portland. Ore. 



In reply to your question concerning 
a Gallup Poll in the November number 
of The Carpenter I should like to say 
that I am one of the readers of this 
magazine who was questioned for a 
Gallup Poll about two months ago. I 
should also like to add that when I told 
a teacher in the local school about it 
she was surprised and said, "At last I 
have met someone who has been inter- 
viewed for a Gallup Poll." 

Sincerely yours, 
AXXA DOWD, Hamden. Conn. 

* • * 

During the last war I saw interest in 
unionism sink lower and lower and 
after the war was over the labor move- 
ment found itself behind the eight ball. 
Is the same thing happening again? 
Every day I seem to see active union 
men giving up some of their activity. I 
don't like it. 

After the war is over we are going to 
need our unions more than ever. We 
owe it to our boys in the armed forces 
to keep our unions strong and healthy. 
Just because wages are now frozen and 
things are pretty good, let's not forget 
there is a dinerent time coming when 
our only hope will be our unions. Keep 
active and keep pitching for your union. 
It will pay big dividends later on. 
WATXE W-ARREX, Albany, X. T. 

• • ■*■ 

The thing that raakes me madder 
than anything else these days is 
to listen to all the grumbling going 
on everywhere. What if we aren't get- 
ting the wages we should; what if 
prices are higher than they should be; 
what if we do have many goods ra- 
tioned. Compared to the sacrifices our 
boys on the battlefronts are making, 
we are living a life of luxury. Let's 
forget the grumbling, because we aren't 
making any of the real sacrifices. 
HOLiAXD BECIv, St. Louis, Mo. 



CorrospondoncQ 




This Journal Is Not Responsible For Views Expressed By Correspondents. 

Local Union 144 Celebrates 56th Birthday 

Officers and members of Local Union No. 144, Macon, Georgia, parti- 
cipated in a double-barrelled celebration Friday, November 26th. The oc- 
casion commemorated the fifty-sixth birthday of the Local Union and at 
the same time dedicated the union's fine new headquarters. A very inspir- 
ing and entertaining program made the celebration a complete success. 

Recently Local Union 144 took over the building at 515 Second Street 
which formerly housed the Odd Fellows lodge, and the of^cial opening 
of the building became another important milestone in the Local Union's 
fifty-six year record of progress. 

J. W. E. Culpepper, the only living charter member of the Local Union, 
attended the celebration and fittingly tied together an honorable past 
with a promising future for the organization. 

The Rev. E. T. Small delivered the invocation and Hallie B. Bell, 
Macon attorney, was the main speaker. The response was by W. B. Webb, 
business manager. 

A barbecue dinner and dancing followed the program. 

• 

Danville Member Has Six Fighting Sons 

Few individuals in or out of the labor movement can match the con- 
tribution Brother George W. Davis, secretary of Local Union No. 269, 
Danville, Illinois, is making to the war effort. Brother Davis has six 
sons serving in the armed forces of the United States ; four in the Navy 
and two in the Army. 

Richard, 32, recently entered the naval service. Joseph has been in the 
Navy for over a year and is serving somewhere in the South Pacific. Earl 
and James also are in the Navy while Lloyd and Robert are in the Army. 

The Carpenter joins the rest of the nation in saluting Brother Davis 
and his patriotic sons. Their contribution is an inspiration to all who love 
democracy, and it is the sincerest wish of our Brotherhood that all six 
stalwart Davis brothers return home safely and speedily. 

• 

Union Label buying pays the highest interest on your Union-earned 
money. 

• * • 

Buy War Bonds and Stamps! 

• • • 




Rockford, 111., Ladies Complete Sixth Busy Year 

Greetings to All Sister Auxiliaries: 

We are now approaching our seventh year, and we find this past year 
has been one of the busiest we've had. In addition to our legislative, label, 
and sick committee activities we have added a social secretary who takes 
care of correspondence and gifts to our men and women in the armed 
forces. The work of this social secretary. Sister Betty Nyman, herself the 
mother of two sons in service, has been most splendidly rewarded through 
letters from our boys and girls in all parts of the world. 

To raise money for our activities our Ways and Means Committee has 
carried out several successful ventures,' including rummage sales, raffles, 
and a bingo game. We have contributed to the Community Fund, the 
Red Cross, the USO and the Society for Crippled Children. 

During this 3'-ear we served supper to approximately three hundred 
soldiers at the USO club on Valentine's Day and again on October 24th. 
We sent out requests for cakes, and they rained down upon us, each 
more beautiful than the last. 

We keep a delegate at the Rockford Federation of Labor meetings, 
who keeps us in touch with all the activities carried on by that organiza- 
tion. We co-operated with the carpenters in their annual picnic, where 
Brother George Ottens was the guest of honor. His charming daughter 
was also present. 

This summer we have taken in several new members. One of these nevv 
members is Sister Jeanette Frang, three star rriother, whose daughter Anna, 
in service as a Red Cross nurse, writes that she is now stationed in the 
hottest place in the world. Sister Rubin, another of our three star moth- 
ers, has a daughter, Agnes, in the Marines. Many other members have 
sons, in all branches of the service. Sister Fagefstrom's husband, David, 
is enlisted in the SeaBees. 

Our present officers are: Sister Mary E. Fairclough, President; Sister 
Mary Liebich, Vice-President; Sister Clara Magnuson, Treasurer; Sister 
Doris J. Piechowski, Recording Secretary; Mrs. Alex Rubin, Conduc- 
tress; Mrs. Arthur Fall, Warden; our Trustees are: Mrs. Melvin Swanson, 
Mrs. Reynold Johnson, and Mrs. Wm. Anderson. 

We feel that our participation in the organization has been so valu- 
able both from an economic and a social standpoint that we urge other 
women to form auxiliaries and will be glad to help them in any way 
possible. 

Fraternally yours, 

Doris J. Piechowski, Rec. Sec. 



THE CARPENTER 



57 



•»♦*♦♦ •J>*J**J«»J*^*^^**J»»J**J*'J*^«<?**J»^*»J*<J*^^*<{*^^**J**J*'J'^«J*'J*^*'i*^»^*J*^*^ 



• • 

• 



AMERICAN HOUSEWIVES WASTE 

enough food to feed 

AN ARMY OF 10 MILLION 



-by buying too many perishables 
at one time 




-by overcooking 
or burning 




by not using 
eft-overs 



^■by not using all edible parts oF food' 
tops of greens, heels of bread, etc. 




■by forgetting food stored in 
the back of the refrigerator 



These are some of the ways 15 ^ of ail food 
bought by the average family is wasted 

wimU HOW tneoM' wa*ii tcde^ 

WAH rOOD ADUIHISTBATION 



♦ 









♦^^♦♦♦♦^^♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦^♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦«»*«»j«»*«,*«»+» 



58 THECARPEXTER 



IMPORTANT 

The Federal Postoffice Department now requires 
extra postal charges when they notify International 
Headquarters of any change in address of members 

on The Carpenter mailing list. 

These changes are literally coming in by the hun- 
dreds and the expense is a considerable item. This 
expense can be avoided if all members use the form 
below, to notify us of change of address. Just fill out 
the form and drop it in the mail addressed to Editor, 
The Carpenter, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, 
4, Ind. 

This is an important matter and it is requested 
that all members notify International Headquarters 
of change of address IMMEDIATELY. 



(Date) 19___ 

Editor, The Carpenter, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, 4, Ind. 

Please change my address on Journal file. 

From Street 

City State 

To Street 

City State 

Name in full '. 

L. U. Xo 3 City State 



Fill out this blank if you have changed your address, paste it on 
a one cent postcard and send to the General Office. 

Honorary members are required to pay one dollar yearly snb- 
scription rate. 



Craft ProblQms 




Carpentry 

By H. H. Siegele 
LESSON 184 

Ordinarily in light timber framing, 
backing of hip rafters or valley rafters 
is hardly necessary; however, it must be 
understood in order to frame the seats 
of those rafters. It must also be taken 
into consideration when the jack raf- 
ters are put in place. An unbacked hip 
rafter causes no problem when the hip 
jacks are placed, for if they are kept 
flush with the top of the hip they are 
in the right position. But this is not 
true when the backing is omitted on 




Fig. 1 



valley rafters. If the vallej- jacks are 
fastened flush with the top of the val- 
ley it will cause trouble. This can be 
prevented by holding the jacks up above 
the edge of the valley rafter enough to 
make the center of the valley come in 
perfect alignment with the tops of the 
jack and common rafters. At A, Fig. 1, 
we are showing how the jack is held 
up, and at B, by dotted lines we show 
how the tops of the jacks line with the 
center of the valley rafter. 



There are a number of practical ways 
to determine how much the valley jacks 
are to be kept above the edge of the 
valley rafter in order to line with both 




Fig. 2 

the common rafter and the center of the 
valley. The experienced roof framer 
can, in most cases, make the adjustment 
by eye, but the apprentice should use 




Fig. 3 

some means of measuring, either a 
gauge block or a rule to get the adjust- 
ment uniformly the same. Holding a 
rule on edge on top of the valley jack 



60 



THE CARPEXTER 



and letting it project beyond the cut 
enough to contact the center of the 
valley is often used. "When the edge 
of the rule strikes the center of the 
valley and at the same time is tight 
against the jack, the adjustment is cor- 
rect and the joint can be nailed. 

Fig. 2 shows an isometric perspective 
vie'sv of, A. a backed hip rafter in part, 
and B, a backed valley rafter, also in 
part. The arrows at C point out where 
the backing of the hip and the backing 
of the valley are most in contrast, so 
far as the drawings are concerned. 

Fig. 3 shows a practical way of ob- 
taining the depth of the backing for 
both hips and valleys. Take a block 
of the rafter material, cut it on the 




Fig 



horizontal line of the seat cut and place 
it on the corner of the plate on a 45- 
degree angle, as shown, and mark the 
bottom where it intersects with the 
plate, which is shown by dotted lines at 
H and at V on the foot cut. These lines 
will give the exact amount of backing 
required. The dotted lines running from 
the foot cut to the plumb cut should be 
studied. The H's point out the backing 
for the hip, while the V's point out the 
channel backing for the valley. Fig. 4 
shows the block backed for both the hip 
and for the valley. 



Another method of obtaining the 
backing for hip rafters and for valley 
rafters is shown by Fig. 5. Here the 
horizontal cut of the seat is marked 
near the upper edge of a piece of rafter 
material, as shown at a-b. Then set the 
points of the compass at half the thick- 




Fis. 



ness of the rafter material — with a as 
the center, strike the circle shown by 
dotted line, marked X. This will cut the 
line a-b at c. Having this point, mark 
the depth of the backing as shown be- 
tween d and e by dotted line. At H is 
shown an end view of the rafter mate- 
rial backed for the hip, while at V is 
shown, the channel backing for the val- 
ley. 

A method of obtaining the depth of 
the backing for hip and valley rafters 
with the steel square is shown by Fig. 6; 
in fact, two methods are shown. Take 
the rise per foot run of the common 
rafter on the tongue of the square. 




Fig. 6 



which in this case is S, and the length 
of the hip rafter per foot run of the 
common rafter on the body of the 
square, or IS '4 inches, and apply the 
square as we are shovring by the upper 
shaded part, vrhich represents a piece 
of the rafter material. Both the tongue 
and the body of the square give the 
bevel of the backing for both the hip 



THE CARPENTER 



61 



and the valley rafters. The shaded parts 
marked H, represent end views of back- 
ed hips, while those marked V show 
backed valleys. It will be noticed that 
one corner of the end views of the val- 
leys is unshaded. Without this unshad- 
ed part we have the backing of a blind 
valley, which also represents the back- 
ing of valley rafters when the valley 
rafter is doubled, in which case the 
joint at the low point becomes the center 
of the valley. This is frequently done, 




because the valley rafter must carry the 
load of the valley jacks. With the hip 
rafter this is not true, for the hip raf- 
ter really carries nothing, because the 
hip jacks carry the hip and the load 
of the hip. So there is no necessity at 
all for increasing the strength of the 
hip rafter, in fact, it can be made of 
common rafter material, or even lighter 
stuff. Study this illustration carefully. 

Still another method of finding the 
bevel and depth of hip and valley rafter 
backing is illustrated by the diagram 
shown in Fig. 7, where we are showing 
a corner of a building. The triangle, A- 
B-C represents, respectively, hip rafter, 
the run of the hip rafter, and the rise. 
It will help to clarify the diagram, if 
the student will imagine this triangle 
of the hip rafter as lying on its side. 
With this in mind, at any convenient 
point strike, at right-angle to A-B, a-b. 
Then, at right-angle to B-C, strike e-d. 
Set the compass to a-b and strike the 
circle shown by dotted line, establish- 
ing point c. Having point c, strike both 



c-e and c-d, which gives you the bevels 
of both the hip and the valley backing. 
Now lay off an end view of both the 
hip rafter shown at H, and the valley 
rafter shown at V. The bevels and the 
depth of the backing is shown at c for 
both hip and valley rafters. 



Fasten Forms to Sills 

The craft problem we are treating in 
this article was sent to us by a brother 
who is in the United States Military 
service. While it isn't new to us, and 
probably not to many of our readers, 
the younger fellows can profit by study- 
ing it. 

At A we show a section of a pier, or 
short column, which has been been 
poured and is anchored to the sill by 
means of a strap iron. At B we have a 
face view of the same column form, 
showing how it is fastened to the sill. 
The dotted lines at the bottom of both 
A and B, indicate that the pier might 
extend into the ground and onto a foot- 
ing below frost line. 

The point that the brother empha- 
sized was that the column forms were 
fastened to the sill in such a manner 




that they supported the whole sill of 
the building. Enough joists were placed 
to carry the run boards for the concrete 
wheelers, who, after the plumbing and 
leveling was done, poured the column 
forms full of concrete. The strap-iron 
anchors, of course, were fastened to the 
sill somewhat as shown before the pour- 
ing was begun. 

When the concrete was set enough so 
the forms could be removed, they were 
taken off and used again on another 
building and the placing of the remain- 
ing unset joists was finished. 

The illustration shows a simple sill 
design, but the plan will work equally 
well with a number of other sill designs. 



62 



THE CARPENTER 



Truss Information Wanted 

Editor, The Carpenter: 

As a member of the Carpenter Local 
No. 26 4 of Milwaukee, I receive and 
read the monthly issue of the Carpenter. 

The Craft Problems are very inter- 
esting for me, some more interesting 
than others. I have a question that I'd 
like to ask concerning a craft problem. 

My question is a simple one, but, its 
difficult to ansvv^er. 




Here is an idea of the truss I want 
designed. Should this truss be laminat- 
ed or how should it be constructed? 
Kindly design one for me. 

I want to build an all wood truss, 40 
ft. span. The length at the ridge is not 
essential, but keep it at a minimum. 

I'd like to see a detail drawing of 
this wooden truss with markings iden- 
tifying their sizes, 2x4, 2x8 2x12 or 
whatever they may be. 

Bro. LEO PHILLIPS, 
5 60 7 W. Michigan St., 

Milwaukee 13, Wis. 



Extending Garages 

Private garages when they need 
lengthening out are usually extended at 
the rear. This makes it necessary to 
loosen the rear and carry it back in 
one piece to the new rear-end location. 
How to do this without hard lifting is 
the problem we are going to solve here. 

The first operation is to loosen the 
two corners by taking off the corner 
boards and pulling the nails that fasten 
the sides to the rear end. When this has 



MAYDOLE 


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g 27"x36" blue print chart 
on the steel square, Starting Key, also 
new Radial Saw Chart. Blue print shows 
how to find length of any rafter and 
make its cuts, find any angle in degrees, 
frame any polygon 3 to 16 sides and cut 
its mitres, read board foot and brace 
BVi tables, octagon scale, rafter tables and 
E'i% much other valuable information. Can be 
^-^ scaled down for model work as well as full 
scale framing. Radial Saw Chart changes pitch- 
es and cuts into degrees and minutes. Every 
carpenter should have these charts. Complete 
set for 50c coin or M.O.— no stamps or checks. 

MASON AND PARRISH, ENGINEERS 
2105-CM, Burdick St. Kalamazoo, Mieh. 



been done, a timber — a 2x6 is probably 
the most suitable — is nailed across the 
rear end as pointed out at 1, In both 




Fig. 1 and 2. Directly under this timber 
nail a 2x6 ledger on either side, which 
is numbered 2 in both figures. Then the 
uprights, numbered 3, are nailed in 
place. These should have a block placed 
under them to prevent sinking into the 
ground. If, however, the ground is solid 



THE CARPENTER 



63 



Carboloy^ 
Tippod 

To Cut Drilling Time 
in Masonry & Concrete 

P Al N E 

''SUDDEN DEPTH" 

DRILL BITS 



365 



Available in 17 sizes from 3-16" through VA" diam. (gradu- 
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THE PAINE CO. 
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AMERICAN TECHNICAL SOCIETY Vocational Publishers since 1898 
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Address 

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Please attach a letter stating your age, occupation, employer"! 
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NUCUT 



SAW 
FILES 



Cuts, cross-sections and shapes to . 
meet all your saw and other iilingr 
needs. NUCUTS cut more, better, 
faster, with less effort. 

HELLER BROTHERS CO. 
Newark, N.J. Newcomerstown, Ohio 



i\, MADE BY AMERICA'S OLDEST FILE MANUFACTURERS—GOOD TOOLS SINCE 1836 



enougli to carry the load, the blocks 
can be omitted. The uprights should 




Fig. 2 

■be X-braced as shown by dotted lines 
in Fig. 2. After this framework is in 



place, remove a strip of shingles as 
pointed out at 4, and cut or loosen the 
sheeting of the roof from the rear end. 
When the end is completely cut loose 
from the building, move it to the rear 
as indicated by the arrows, from A, A 
to B, B. When the end is located, 
plumbed and levelled, the rest of the 
carpenter work can be done. At C we 
are suggesting by dotted lines how the 
extended foundation can be supported 
by concrete piles, which are made by 
boring holes into the ground and filling 
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minimum. 



"The Saw Most Carpenters Use" 




Medium weight Skew-back pattern. 
Made in 20-inch 10 points cross-cut; 22-inch 
8 and 10 points cross-cut; 24-inch 8 and 
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points cross-cut, 53^ points rip. 

See your Hardware Dealer about this fine 
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essential war work. 

The Disston Saw, Tool and File Manual is 
FREE from your Hardware Dealer — or write 
for a copy to 

^;sTC' HENRY DISSTON & SONS, INC. 
104Tacany, Phiiadelphia 35. Pa., U.S.A. 




v^Many days I $ 
earn as much as 



"I bought a Foley Saw Filer, 
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Kellogg. W. L. Tar- 
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118-4 Foley BIdg., Minneapolis 13, Minn. 
Please send FREE PLAN on saw 
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Name 

Address 





IS A SPIRAL, TOO! -^01 



Standard the world over for more than half a 
century, "Yankee" Spiral Ratchet Screw Driv- 
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time, trouble, and money in the Battle of 
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want to buy them . . . and they'll have new 
war-tested skill behind them. Meanwhile, 
treat them right. Tools are weapons of war. 

"YANKEE" SPIRAL SCREW DRIVER NO. 130A 
A Size for Every Purpose 



YANKEE TOOLS 

make good mechanics better 

Norfh Bros. Mfg. Co., Phila. 33, U.S.A. 
Es?dblished 1880 



Makers, also, of "Yankee-Handyman" Tools 




MODEL 80 
CAMCITY 21/2" 



IT'S FASTER 'SAm 
EASIER' CHEAPER 
wUhAJ%MSAW 



Cross cutting or ripping rough or dressed 
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Available for VICTORY Construction with 8" and 12" blades. 
Cutting capacities 2V2" and 4%". 

MALL TOOL COMPANY 

7751 South Chicago Av., Chicago 19, ni. 



Two ''OLD TIMERS" still on the job. 




This aged worker and his Stanley 
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so because he knows his work is contrib- 
uting to winning the war. 

Hand tools are playing a very vital part 
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building planes, tanks, and ships but also 
in maintaining them. The demand for 

Stanley Tools for war work is tremendous. 
That is why they are difl&cult to get and 
why it will pay you to take good care of 
those you have. Stanley Tools, 
New Britain, Connecticut. 



[STANLEY] 



STANLEY TOOLS 

The Toof Box of the World' 



»^»»r 







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REENFIELD, MASSACHUSEHS 






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AMERICAN WORKER 

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A Monthly Journal, Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners 

of America; for all its Members of all its Branches. 

FRANK DUFFY, Editor 

Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Rlichigan Street, Indianapolis, 4, Indiana 



Established in 1881 
Vol. LXIV — No. 2 



ESTDIAXAPOIilS, FEBRUARY, 1944 



One Dollar Per Tear 
Ten Cents a Copy 



Con tents — 



It Will Be a Sad Day (an editorial) 

Talk of a national service act is unwarranted and unnecessary in 
view of the ever-increasing productivity of American labor. 

The Ad Menace - 



"Push-button" houses being dreamed up by ad writers are work- 
ing against the best interests of the building industry. 

Clear Thinking — Need of the Day - - - 

Unionists must steer clear of the philosophy of hate which is 
being nurtured by special interest groups bent on wrecking 
everything that stands in their way. 

The Wage Incentive Enigma - - - - 

A noted economist looks at incentive pay plans and finds that 
there is no substitute for mutual trust between men and manage- 
ment. 

Collective Bargaining Still Has Foes - 

Senate Committee uncovers viciousness of anti-union activities in 
California just before the war. 

Food in Post-War Reconstruction - - - 

United Nations must undertake a comprehensive food plan now if 
starvation is to be staved off in Europe when peace comes. 



4 
7 
9 

14 

20 
22 



OTHER DEPART3IEXTS; 
Plane Gossip - 
Editorial - - - . 
Official . . . . 
Obituary - - » - 
In My Opinion 
Cori'espondence 
Women's Activities 
Craft Problems 

Index to Advertisers - 



18 
33 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
59 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of 

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NOTICE 



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All contraets for advertising space in "The Car- 
penter," including tlioso stipulated as non-can- 
cellable, are only accepted subject to the above 
reserved rights of tlie publishers. 



Index of Advertisers 



Carpenters' Tools and Accessories 

Page 
E. C. Atkins & Co., Indianapolis, 

Ind. 64 

Foley Mfg-. Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 64 

Heller Bros. Co., Newark, N. J._ 62 

Mall Tool Co., Chicago, III 64 

Mayhew-Maydole Tools, Norwich, 

N. Y. 63 

Ohien - Bishop Co., Columbus, 

Ohio 63 

Paine Company, Chicago, 111 63 

Stanley Tools, New Britain, 

Conn. 3rd Cover 

Doors 

Overhead Door Corp., Hartford 

City, Ind. 4th Cover 

Mail Order Merchandise 

Spiegel, Inc., Chicago, III 1 

Overalls 

The H. D. Lee & Co., Inc., Kan- 
sas City, Mo. 3rd Cover 

Technical Courses and Books 

American Technical Society, Chi- 
cago, 111. 63 

Theo. Audel, New York, N. Y 3rd Cover 

Chicago Technical College, Chi- 
cago, 111. 3 

Mason & Parrish, Engineers, 

Kalamazoo, Mich. 62 

H. H. Siegele, Emporia, Kans. 61 



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IT WILL BE A SAD DAY 



(AN EDITORIAL) 



Out of a clear sky, the President, in his annual message to Con- 
gress last month, urged the immediate passage of a National Serv- 
ice Act empowering the government to say who shall work where 
and for how long. That such a demand is unwarranted and arbi- 
trary in view of the existing circumstances is well known to all 
labor leaders. 

In the first place, the production problem is well on its way to 
being licked. Manpower is no longer the acute problem it was six 
months or a year ago. From the very beginning of the war organ- 
ized labor has contended that most of the difficulties arose not so 
much from a shortage of manpower as from a lack of intelligent 
use of the nation's manpower resources. Developments have 
proven that contention to be correct. The saturation point has 
now been reached in some lines of munitions. The astounding pro- 
ductivity of today's labor has made possible cutbacks in many 
other types of munitions. In fact the day when unemployment, 
not manpower shortage, will become the number one problem is 
just around the corner. 

Recently the Wall Street Journal — which by no stretch of the 
imagination can be construed as having a pro-labor bias — foresaw 
unemployment for war workers as a result of the astounding gains 
being made in productivity. In an article entitled "Manpower 
Miracle" the Journal cited many instances wherein productivity 
was increased from fifty to a hundred per cent with little, if any 
addition to the working force. Among the most dramatic ex- 
amples of what labor is doing the Journal pointed out the follow- 
ing: 

"In Camden, N. J., Victor Division of R. C. A. since April 
has increased its plant production one hundred per cent while 
adding only two per cent more employes to its payroll." 

"Two years ago plane manufacturers needed the equiv- 
alent of seventy men working an entire year to complete a 
four-engine bomber. Now seventeen do the job. For aircraft 
as a whole, productivity is nearly double what it was when 
Japan struck on December, 1941." 

"The Cleveland Graphic Bronze Company finds workers' 
performance has increased fifty per cent." 



THE CARPENTER 

In the Detroit area, once the chief manpower bottleneck 
of the nation, the Journal found that automotive manufactur- 
ers were worrying more about getting enough contracts to 
keep going than "about labor to turn out the goods already 
ordered." "Automotive leaders are talking about unemploy- 
ment being in sight during the next few months unless they 
get more government work," the paper declared. 

The Journal ascertained these results after a survey ; and as we 
said before, no one can accuse the Journal of being particularly 
pro-labor. 

Nor are the instances cited by the Journal isolated cases. In 
virtually all lines of war production, one man is now producing 
almost as much as two did in 1941 ; at least in those industries 
which have made intelligent use of existing manpower facilties. 

In view of these facts, why is a National Service Act proposed 
at this time? Forced labor is contrary to all concepts of democ- 
racy and Americanism. To force one man to work for another 
man's profit is skidding dangerously close to something worse 
than totalitarianism. Even in the Nazi nations forced labor is 
clothed with the dignity of being vital to the "welfare of the 
State." As labor has often pointed out, there is a vast difference 
between doing one's duty toward one's country and being com- 
pelled to do something from which some other citizen will make 
profit. Thousands upon thousands of labor leaders who fought 
tooth and toe-nail to get wage increases for their brother union 
members, even though their wages might be well in excess of 
fifty dollars per month, went into the arm}^ when their time came 
and never once raised their voices against the fifty dollar Army 
pay. In civilian life they fought for wage justice for their brothers • 
because they knew their employers v/ere reaping excess profits — 
profits which the workers made possible. Jn the Army they were 
content to abide by the status quo : first because they knew they 
were doing their duty as citizens, second, because they knew they 
were not sacrificing their time, effort, and perhaps even their 
lives to make profits for somebody else. 

A couple of months ago. The Carpenter pointed out the fallacy 
of the Smith-Connally Bill. Congress became aroused over the 
strike situation despite the fact there was nothing to get excited 
about. Strikes were costing the nation less than one hour out of 
each year's work. Bit by bit labor was reducing strikes to the irre- 
ducible minimum. However, the politicians weren't satisfied. 
They passed the Smith-Connally Bill and the result was that 
they threw into unnecessary turmoil a situation that was rapidly 
approaching perfection — or at least that degree of near perfection 
which seems to be the ultimate human limit in this imperfect 
world. 



6 THE CARPEjVTER 

Let the politicians beware lest they pull a similar boner now 
with manpower and production. Free labor is setting a produc- 
tion pace no one dreamed possible a year or two ago. A National 
Service Act is neither necessary nor advisable. Furthermore, such 
an act would defeat its own ends as surely as did the Smith-Con- 
nally Bill (which even proponents of the Bill now admit increased 
rather than decreased the number of strikes). 

With election day just around the corner, it not beyond 
the pale of possibility that politics, not production needs may 
be the motivating influence behind talk of a National Service 
Act. In any event, developments since December j, 1941 have 
proved such an act unwarranted and unnecessary. 

Since the first day of the war, the motto of- American workers 
has been "Free Labor Will Win." Week by week and month by 
month they have been proving that motto a sound one. It will be a 
sad day for America when, if, and as politicians knock the "free" 
out of the motto and substitute "forced" in its place. Therefore 
the United Brotherhood of Carpenters is opposing and will oppose 
to the bitter end any efforts to saddle on the workers of America 
a compulsory labor act so long as such drastic action remains as 
unwarranted and unnecessary as it is at the present time. 

© 

Home Front Has Casualties Too 

Casualties among workers on the home front are still running far 
larger than arnong American troops overseas. 

That startling fact, seldom if ever mentioned by anti-labor newspaper 
and radio propagandists, was cited recently by President William Green 
of the A. F. of L. Official government figures, he said, show the toll of 
accidents in industry considerably outnumbers the casualties from enemy 
guns and bombs to Yanks on the fighting fronts. 

"Since Pearl Harbor, more than 80,000 American workers 
have lost their lives and seven million more have been injured 
on the production front," Green said. 

The deaths and injuries have been so high in large part because the 
nation's workers are toiling "long hours and at top speed" to turn out 
war materials in record time and thus "save countless thousands of Amer- 
ican lives abroad," the A. F. of L. chieftain declared. 

© 

Rio Vista, California, — Tax Payers' Heaven 

Rio Vista, Calif., is what property owners call a taxpayers' heaven. 
The city council, in adopting the annual budget, fixed the tax rate at zero. 
The city has leased withdrawal rights to gas-bearing sands to oil com- 
panies on a royalty basis. In addition to being absolved of taxation for 
city governmental expenses, individual property owners will receive 
royalties. 



THE AD MENACE 



Fantastic Conceptions of "Push-Button" Homes 
May Retard Building of Practical Dwellings 

* * • 

POSTPONEMENT of building plans is an imminent danger if pros- 
pective home owners are not put straight about the impossibility of 
a "push-button" house. Too many are deferring plans that would 
otherwise go into operation immediately after the war. The average home 
owner can't have such a house. Probably no one can for many years, short 
of the few willing to pay $500,000 for five rooms. 

Recognizing the danger in the situation, Practical Builder, national 
contractor-builder magazine, undertook a campaign to get the true facts 
before the public. It took the mag- 



azine years to make a comprehen- 
sive survey. Editors covered six- 
teen thousand miles, interviewed 
builders from coast to coast, includ- 
ing the largest and most prominent 
in the home building field. They 
studied manufacturers plans for 
home equipment. They consulted 
specialists in universities and gov- 
ernment agencies. In short, they 
canvassed not only the whole build- 
ing field but most of the allied in- 
dustries as well; consequently the 
facts they dug out are valid and 
authentic. 

Real homes coming 

What they found was that Amer- 
icans are going to get "miracle" 
homes after the war. These new 
homes are going to combine the ut- 
most practical livability with com- 
fort and economy undreamed of a 
few years ago. However, the "push- 
button" houses which exist only in 
the minds of artists and ad writers 
aren't coming in the lifetime of any 
individuals planning to build homes 
after the war. So much has been 
written and said about these "push- 



button" homes that will wash the 
baby, wind the clock, and put out 
the cat, that many prospective 
builders may hesitate to build after 
the war when they find out the vi- 
sions conjured up in the minds of 
ad writers can't be obtained. 

Practical Builder is pointing out 
that the post-war homes now being 
blue-printed by practical builders 
and equipment firms are truly "mir- 
acle" homes. Comfort, beauty, econ- 
omy, and efificiency are being stress- 
ed and the people who are fortunate 
enough to be able to build one of 
these houses will find that they ac- 
quired all the most practical com- 
forts science can provide. 

Simplicity to be stressed 

As a result of its survey. Practi- 
cal Builder has drawn up a com- 
posite blue-print of what the new 
"miracle" post-war home will be 
like. Here are the highlights: 

Good prewar exterior design will 
prevail. Lines will be simple, dec- 
oration conservative; charm will lie 
in traditional American architec- 



THE CARPENTER 



ture. One story houses will grow in 
popularity. 

More attention will be directed 
to orientation, to take every ad- 
vantage of setting. In many cases, 
desire for the rambling type of 
house will cause home owners to 
buy larger lots. There is likewise 
more interest in neighborhood land- 
scaping. 

Windows will be larger, in some 
rooms reaching possibly to the floor 
to gain the benefit of outside view. 
Many will have double pane, air- 
sealed fixed windows with louvers 
for ventilation. These large win- 
dows, plus increased use of glass 
blocks for doorways, stairwells, 
and closets will do much to light 
the interior. 

Better lighting 

Fluorescent lighting to eliminate 
glare and heat radiation, indirect 
lighting, more thought to placing 
lights where needed, flush ceiling 
panels — are all possibilities. Wir- 
ing will be carefully planned to be 
heavy enough and have sufficient 
outlets to carry the many electrical 
appliances the home owner will add 
to his home as his budget permits. 

Complete protection against 
weather will be furnished — weath- 
er-stripping, storm sash, insulation, 
moisture barriers, caulking. 

Heating will be more automatic 
and efficient; a new system with 
continuous flow, regulated for dif- 



ferent temperatures in different 
rooms. Year-round air-conditioning 
for the average home is yet to come. 

Kitchens will be larger with defi- 
nite space, where cost allows. They 
will be designed for more comfort- 
able working conditions rather than 
mere elimination of steps, perhaps 
so the housewife can work seated. 

Bathrooms will contain more cab- 
inets and built-in dressing table 
and storage space. Showers will be 
either attached to the bathtub or in 
separate stalls. Some will have ad- 
ditional showers in the basement or 
utility room. The tendency is to- 
ward two bathrooms per house, or" 
at least a bathroom and a half. 

Dining rooms will shrink or be 
incorporated in the living room. 

Increased livability 

Living rooms will be given spec- 
ial attention to increase livability 
features — built-in furniture, nooks, 
niches, etc.; more natural light 
through larger windows ; window 
arrangement to draw into the living 
room the best outdoor setting. 

Bedrooms will have window 
seats, cabinets at foot and head of 
beds, closets larger and fitted, ceil- 
ing-high wardrobes — often as part 
of the partition and with sliding 
doors. 

In colder climates, basements will 
be retained. Garages will be at- 
tached to the house. 



Glamor Gets Official O. K. 

Woman's right to be beautiful has been upheld in a novel ruling by 
a Regional War Labor Board. It declared that 7,000 women war work- 
ers in the Packard motor plant could take five minutes off before lunch 
and at the end of the shift to "prett}^ up" without suffering loss of pay. 

The company had sought to discontinue the practice, contending the 
women were paid for 55 minutes of work each week they did not do. 
Men, the company said, were not granted the privilege. 



CLEAR THINKING ~"'"'' 



the Day 



•k -k 



THE CONDITION brought about by the war has everyone with 
responsibilties of any kind, keyed up to a pretty high pitch. Re- 
marks are made such as, "Watch you step." "B» careful of your 
blood pressure." "Don't say anything, or do anything which will make 
people look upon you with suspicion." In other words, all of us have been 
subject to a certain amount of restraining advice, and we have tried in 
our own humble way to adjust ourselves. However, it seems to be almost 
a ph3'-sical impossibility to adjust oneself when conditions are changing 
as rapidl}^ as they are at the present time. 

Friends and members of the same famil}^ differ on some basic questions, 
and the over-all picture, as we see it, is that it is hard to adjust ourselves 
to the spirit of the times when we 



maintain certain thoughts and prej- 
udices in our minds. Stories are 
continually whispered in our ears 
about this person double-crossing 
that one, or that person double- 
crossing this one. In fact, the time 
has arrived when we feel that we 
cannot trust anyone, and the phil- 
osophy of hate seems to be rampant 
all over the world. Therefore, we 
appeal to labor to do its own think- 
ing during this crisis. 

Criticism is cheap 

Men and women who should know 
better are saying, "Well, I have al- 
ways been tolerant and have tried 
to look calmly at the situation, BUT 

", and then they will launch 

into a tirade of abuse, and labor 
unions and the leaders of the labor 
movement appear to be the main ob- 
ject of a great deal of their criti- 
cism. 

Political hate is being preached^ 
and promoted. There are groups dis- 
seminating racial and religious ha- 
treds — something which our fore- 
fathers, and the founders of this 



country would not be able to under- 
stand if they were alive today. 

Whether hate and intolerance are 
short-cuts or alibis we don't know. 
However, we believe it is very im- 
portant to all of us who love our 
country to be alarmed at the trend 
toward bigotry, intolerance and ha- 
tred which, no matter how it is cov- 
ered up, seems to be all too preva- 
lent for the future welfare of our 
country and of our movement. 

It is important that all of us do 
some very serious checking before 
it is too late, lest we too become sub- 
ject to this dangerous trend. 

The confusion of the world may 
be deliberate, it may be manufac- 
tured, we don't know. However, it 
is facing us and when we review 
the conditions prior to the break- 
ing out of this second world war, 
we are very much alarmed and 
amazed to see how intemperate 
many so-called clear thinking and 
clear speaking people have become. 

War breeds bate 
Before this war the average labor 
man was not involved in anv kind of 



10 



THE CARPENTER 



organized intolerance or hatred. He 
may have had his opinions and they 
may have been narrow, but they 
were not propagandized intolerance, 
as it appears to us toda}*. 

For instance, looking into a re- 
cent issue of the Congressional Rec- 
ord we found a discussion taking 
place on the floor of the House 
of Representatives which consumed 
much valuable j:ime. It involved a 
controversy over something a repre- 
sentative of one of the federal agen- 
cies of the government was sup- 
posed to have written in a govern- 
ment farm journal. Apparently this 
representative was of the opinion 
that it would be a good idea to bring 
the Japanese from their concentra- 
tion camps into some of the m.id- 
western states, and he pointed out 
that it might be educational to some 
of the midwestern farmers to have 
the Japanese because of their good 
habits, mainly that of taking fre- 
quent baths. 

This particular article created 
quite a rumpus, and the representa- 
tives from many of the midwestern 
states were up in arms to think that 
an agency of the government would 
send out that particular type of 
propaganda to get Japanese labor to 
go to the farming districts. 

We could quote instance after in- 
stance of intolerant sayings, and if 
they continue, eventual!}- they will 
be harmful to labor and will be re- 
sponsible for giving impetus to the 
philosophy of hate which apparent- 
ly is going on in this country today. 

Labor bears brunt 

Some pressure groups are camou- 
flaging their actitivties while hurl- 
ing the darts of hatred at many in- 
dividuals in high positions of trust 
today. The same kind of darts are 
being hurled at the leaders of 
the trade union labor movement. 



Whether this is organized intoler- 
ance or a move to create confusion 
and dissension within the ranks of 
labor, is something which we can- 
not say. Hovrever, we suggest that 
^all of those vv-ho are responsible and 
accredited leaders of labor be very 
careful and watchful that their ac- 
tions are not responsible for inten- 
sifying this spirit of hatred. 

We all know that by preaching 
hatred vre beget hatred. By lying 
and double-crossing, \\-& leave our- 
selves subject to the same kind of 
treatment. Labor's position, and the 
position of labor leaders should 
be open and above-board, and we 
should be knovrn for our justice, 
square dealing and tolerant posi- 
tions on all questions, as they per- 
tain to public affairs. 

The leaders of labor have a very 
serious situation confronting them, 
especially as it deals with post-war 
problems, and v\-e cannot afford to 
have injected into the ranks of labor 
a spirit oi hatred and intolerance, 
by any nt: 5 guided group of politi- 
cians. 

Labor must lead 

The labor movement, as exempli- 
fied by the i\.merican Federation of 
Labor, should be, and we believe is, 
the proper type of organization to 
combat theories and propagandized 
intolerance. It takes very little to 
start a \vave of bigotry- and intoler- 
ance, and we cannot afford, at this 
late date, to have anyone wdthin the 
ranks of labor preaching doctrines' 
of hate. We must be ver}* careful 
that the American Federation of La- 
bor is not used in any smear cam- 
paigns. 

However, as we said before, such 
doctrines are being preached in this 
country by man}- groups, and the 
only vra}- to combat them is by be- 
ing- tolerant and usin? all asrencies 



THE CARPENTER 



11 



within our labor movement for edu- 
cation and guidance. Pick up any 
publication printed today and you 
will see articles which breed dis- 
content and discord, if taken liter- 
ally. 

Not long ago we attended a meet- 
ing where the question was asked, 
"What is the position of the Amer- 
ican Federation of Labor on the 
c[uestion of discrimination?" 

The answer was, that the Amer- 
ican Federation of Labor does not 
discriminate against any race, color 
or creed, and the proceedings of the 
conventions of the A. F. of L. are 
open to the public. 

We are all human 

"Discrimination" is a word which 
is being tossed around today by 
many. It has been used for propa- 
gandizing purposes to create dissen- 
sion and confusion within labor's 
ranks. We are all human — not ma- 
chines — -and we are all subject to 
feelings and expressions which at 
times are called discrimination by 
some people. However, many times 
the expressions of individuals are 
not discriminatory. They are the 
honest declaration of what the indi- 
vidual may think and feel. The only 
Avay to combat that is through 
education, cooperation and associa- 
tion, and not to makes charges 
or counter-charges unless they are 
well-grounded. Unfounded charges 
breed contempt, and are responsible 
for much of the so-called discrim- 
ination which labor is being attack- 
ed for at the present time in the 
public press. 

The attacks on the trade union la- 
bor movement, whether fair or 
otherwise, are nothing new in the 
history of the American Federation 
of Labor. In fact, upon referring to 
an editorial written by the late Sam- 



uel Gompers in Alarch, 1905, we 
find that he calls attention to the 
convention which had just been call- 
ed by the socialist party to smash 
the American Trade Union Move- 
ment. He said, "This is the sixth 
'concentrated' effort in this direc- 
tion in the past decade. In 1894, 
after the American Railway Union 
furore and fiasco, a congress was 
called at Chicago to change the 
name of that organization to the 
American Labor Union and to ex- 
tend its 'sphere of influence' to all 
labor, with a patent scheme of land 
colonization." 

Labor smear not new 

In another editorial written in 
April, 1905, President Gompers 
went on to say, "We might cite in- 
stances, not only of inconsistencies, 
but of perfidy to labor, which have 
marked the history and practice of 
the American Labor Union, the or- 
ganization instituted, officered, and 
managed by socialists ; the organiza- 
tion that now with other socialists 
has called a congress to attempt to 
destroy the American Federation of 
Labor and the trade union move- 
ment of our country. 

"Of course, some may disclaim 
the intention to disrupt the labor 
movement, but as the days pass the 
promoters of the 'new movement' 
give vent to what they really have 
in mind. One of them, 'Comrade' 
W^hite of Denver, at a recent meet- 
ing in that city, in explanation gave 
this illustration of their purpose. 
He says : 

'We shall organize, for "in- 
stance, all men employed in any 
way in iron works, such as 
molders, car workers, structural 
iron workers, and the like.' 

"No doubt 'the like' will cover 
such trades as the machinists and 



12 



THE CARPEXTER 



the iron and steel workers. We pre- 
sume that the Iron Holders' Union 
of North America, the Bridge and 
Structural Iron Workers of Amer- 
ica, the Brotherhood of Car AA'ork- 
ers, the International Association of 
Machinists, and other trade unions 
which have increased wages, short- 
ened hours of labor, and made con- 
ditions such that life was Avorth 
living, are to be swept aside or 
crushed, and the men expected to 
take kindly to the will-o'-the-wisp 
that would surel}- lead them into the 
swamp of misery and degradation." 

History repeats 

We are calling attention to these 
statements of President Gompers, 
made many years ago. to show that 
there is nothing new in the cam- 
paigns which are now being promot- 
ed. Their objective has been and 
v.-ill continue to be, the destruction 
of the free, voluntary trade union 
labor movement, as typified by the 
American Federation of Labor. By 
quoting these words of Samuel 
Gompers we are trying to bring for- 
cibly to the attention of the Amer- 
ican trade unionist some of the hap- 
penings of past years and point out 
that the same element for destruc- 
tion is prevalent today. Therefore. 
•we should be forewarned and Avell 
prepared to combat this vilifying. 
scandalizing campaign of hate, 
smear and distrust. 

While preparing this article there 
has come to our attention the seri- 
ous situation which has developed 
in the ranks of both major political 
parties. Accusations, recriminations, 
and the old whispering campaign, 
are going on. Only a short time 
ago in the public press we read of 
the accusation made on the floor of 
the United States Senate, that col- 
laboration has been entered into to 
prevent the soldiers from voting. 



AVe are not going into the merits of 
these stories or the publicity which 
has been given' to them. We are 
only trA-ing to draw to the attention 
of labor throughout the country the 
fact that whispering campaigns and 
the like engender intolerance and 
eventually become campaigns of 
hate. 

The situation confronting labor in 
the United States today is serious. 
As everyone knows, the organized 
labor movement was split some 
years ago. and we believe, deliber- 
ately split. AA'e now have two labor 
movements. AVe have also the finest 
collection of screwballs and phony 
political propagandists, using the 
labor movement for their own per- 
sonal gains, which has ever been as- 
sembled under the flag of any one 
country. AA'e have great numbers of 
discontented, long-haired agitators 
whose philosophy helped to wreck 
the organized labor movements of 
Europe, and we must be very care- 
ful that we are not used as instru- 
ments to develop the spirit of strife 
and hatred which will eventually be 
responsible for wrecking the labor 
movement in this country. 

Avoid hate spreaders 

Labor leaders must have their 
feet on the ground, and must be 
above being used for the dissemina- 
tion of the serum of hate. Avhich 
is like the germ of influenza — you 
never know it has got you until it is 
pretty well entrenched. 

As a warning, be careful to aA'oid 
the men and women who come to 
3-0U with a story of hate. Use your 
own God-given powers of fair play 
and common sense and don't be a 
tool. 

It is all-important that we all be 
careful that we are not used by 
political promoters in the interests 
of some pet scheme which will 



T II E C A R r 111 N T E K 13 

eventually take away the power and many movements afoot today 
liberties of all free-born American throughout this country by big- in- 
citizens. We must be watchful and terests and by special interests an*d 
vigilant and look with question on all representatives of organized la- 
all movements which are being fi- bor should be warned to be very 
nanced or which will be financed cautious and watch their step. — B. 

by any political group. There are T. Bulletin 

« 

Let Labor Lead Labor, Woll Asks 

American and British labor must have a voice in helping- to formulate 
the Allied Military Government's labor policy if the liberated peoples of 
Europe are to have confidence in AMG decisions, Matthew Woll, Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor vice president, said at a meeting of the Italian- 
American Labor Council. 

Woll told the meeting that labor has proposed to ''proper authorities" 
that trained trade unionists now serving with the armed forces in Italy 
he permitted to aid in the formation of a free trade union movement in 
that country and in others as they are freed. He said the suggestion thus 
far has not been "frowned upon." 

Right of Association Seen Vital 

He said that "the American Federation of Labor is keenly interested 
in having a sound and constructive Italian labor policy for the workers 
of Italy, aimed not simply at destroying the Fascist labor unions and 
thus creating a dangerous vacuum, but in transforming the fascist unions 
into free unions, democratically self-governed and constructively admin- 
istered." 

The council's drive to raise $250,000 to help rebuild the free trade 
union movement in Italy, Woll said, was regarded as more than a cam- 
paign to raise funds or even give relief, since labor believes that the res- 
toration of full freedom of association is "the very touchstone of democ- 
racy not only in Italy but throughout Europe and all the world." 

Full Status for Italy Asked 

The labor movement will serve as the best guarantee for the Italy of 
tomorrow being a free democratic country, he added. 

The meeting marked the council's second anniversar3^ In its annual 
report the executive committee of the council expressed the hope that 
"the present status of Italy as a co-belligerent is a stepping stone to a full 
membership in the council of the United Nations," and pointed out that it 
is now recognized that the overthrow of fascism in Italy was the result of 
the Italian people's refusal to "fight at the side of the Nazi." 

• 

More than 1,200 rosebuds bloomed on one stem in the city garden of J. 
Pirie, at "Vancouver, British Columbia. The bush is a seven-year-old standard 
weeping rose of the Leontine-Gervaise variety, brought from England. 



Buy War Bonds and Stamps! 



14 



Good labor relations are a requisite for 
any successful wage incentive program 



The Wage Incentive Enigma 

By Prof. DONALD MACKEJfZIE 

University of Washington 

DURING THE LAST YEAR wage incentive plans have been wide- 
ly publicized as a means of increasing the productivity of our 
war industries. Speakers have toured the country advocating the 
adoption of such plans. Manufacturers' associations have been proclaim- 
ing their merits, and both the WPB and NWLB have been ecouraging 
their use. Newspapers have told about specific companies which have in- 
creased production through wage incentives and of the cooperation of 
some unions in the development of such plans. With all this favorable 
publicity it is not surprising to find tliat 



liundreds of wage incentive plans have 
been submitted to the NWLB for its ap- 
proval. However, the use of such plans 
has been opposed by powerful groups 
within organized labor. Wm. F. Green 
of the A. F. of L. has come out strongly 
against them, claiming that greater pro- 
duction can be obtained through the 
day rate method of wage payment. The 
attitude of labor is pretty well summar- 
ized by the following quotation from 
Business Week: 

Very few management policies 
have aroused as much opposition 
from the workers as have incentive 
wage systems, damned by unions 
as "speeding" plans. Unions have 
been organized because of them, 
strikes have been called, men have 
laid down their tools and refused 
to work with "pace setters,'" and 
practically every known strategem 
has been utilized to thwart or con- 
trol incentive systems. 

If wage incentive plans are all that 
they are claimed to be, one may ask 
why labor is so opposed to them. This 
opposition is deep-rooted and goes back 
many years. In order to understand how 
such plans can be successfully devel- 
oped it is necessary to consider the rea- 
sons for the opposition of labor, which 
are pretty well summarized in the fol- 
lowing quotations from current period- 
icals: 

Labor's traditional opposition to 
incentive plans sprang from a mul- 
tiplicity of causes, chief of which 



were the fear of "working yourself 
out of a job,*' plus managerial 
practices (since discarded) of cut- 
ting rates every time the workers 
started making too much money. 

Much of the disrepute of incen- 
tive systems among workers is due 
to past experience with rate-cut- 
ting and the speed-up which often 
accompany incentive plans. . . . 

The fear of unemployment, and the 
fear of rate-cutting, plus claims by in- 
dustrial engineers that "unquestionable 
production quotas" can be determined 
have accounted for most of the opposi-' 
tion on the part of labor to wage incen- 
tives. 

The fear of "working themselves out 
of a job" still prevails. Although the 
NWLB can guarantee certain protec- 
tion, and jobs are now plentiful, the 
worker cannot blot the past and 
thoughts of the future from his mind; 
he cannot get away from the spectre of 
unemployment. He has seen or heard 
of workers losing their jobs after wage 
incentives were used, and cannot help 
but feel that he or the man next to 
him may be such victims, if not now, 
after the -war. Whether his opinions 
are correct or not is of no importance, 
the fact remains that this is the belief 
of the worker, a belief that only experi- 
ence will remove. In this respect work- 
ers are no different from any other 
group in society. They are not going to 
do things now that they think will jeop- 
ardize their future. Other groups take 
the same stand. To cite one of many 



THE CARPENTER 



15 



instances that could be given we need 
only refer to the fact that the auto- 
mobile industry insisted that it be given 
assurance of the protection of its profits 
before it would agree to change over to 
war production. Even if wage incen- 
tives would increase production (and 
this is not always so) we cannot expect 
labor to overcome lifetime prejudices 
and adopt, overnight, practices which 
it feels are to its disadvantage. It sim- 
ply isn't human nature to do so. 

As to rate-cutting, the worker has 
either personally experienced rate-cut- 
ting or has heard of it from other 
workers. And although competent man- 
agement has long discontinued this 
practice it has not been entirely elimi- 
nated. Rate-cutting, throughout the 
past years, prevailed at such an extent 
that very few workers believe that it 
has been discontinued. It is true that 
many companies include a clause in 
their labor agreements which guaran- 
tees that rates will not be cut until new 
and better equipment has been installed 
for doing the job. In the twenties this 
was thought to be the answer and does 
go a long way toward meeting the 
problem, but it does not afford com- 
plete protection, for when new equip- 
ment is installed rates may be cut to 
such an extent that the worker finds it 
difficult to equal his previous earnings. 
Thus an unfair management may cut 
rates and still live up to the letter al- 
though not to the spirit of the contract. 

Add to the fears of unemployment 
and rate-cutting the claims made by 
some industrial engineering firms that 
they can scientifically determine what 
a fair day's work is, and we have most 
of the reasons for labor opposition to 
wage incentives. No time study man 
can determine, with anywhere near the 
degree of accuracy that some claim, 
what a fair day's work is, and organized 
labor knows this. Workers have seen 
different experienced time study men 
set for the same job standards which 
are widely apart, sometimes as much 
as 100 per cent. When the Clothing 
Workers made an agreement under 
which they would employ experts and 
management would employ experts to 
determine standards, the different ex- 
perts could rarely agree. No human be- 
ing lives who can accurately evaluate 
all the factors that enter into the de- 
termination of a fair day's work. One 



factor alone, fatigue allowances, causes 
plenty of trouble. We still know com- 
paratively little about fatigue, although 
the research of such institutions as the 
British Industrial Health Board, Johns 
Hopkins University, the Harvard Grad- 
iiate School of Business, and many oth- 
ers are gradually adding to our knowl- 
edge. 

The opposition of labor to wage in- 
centives is not restricted to organized 
labor. Although organized labor may 
be better informed about wage incen- 
tives, unorganized workers often take 
a similar stand. In fact Mathewson 
found in his study of the restriction of 
output among unorganized workers that 
restriction was the rule rather than 
the exception, and among the chief rea- 
sons for restriction were the present 
use of wage incentives and the fear of 
their use in the future. 

It may appear that the obstacles to 
the successful use of wage incentives 
are almost insurmountable, but, this is 
not the case; there are many successful 
wage incentive plans in existence. And 
by the term "successful wage incentive 
plans" the writer means plans that pro- 
vide the worker with an incentive to 
produce as much as he can without 
overworking. (There are hundreds of 
wage incentive plans in existence under 
which the workers definitely limit pro- 
duction, producing only what they con- 
sider to be a safe amount, an amount 
that will not result in rate-cutting.) 
The basis upon which all successful 
wage incentive plans are built is sound 
labor relations. If the management and 
labor have confidence in the fairness of 
one another in dealing with the various 
problems that arise, wage incentives 
can be used to their mutual advantage 
by reducing costs and increasing earn- 
ings. But management and labor must 
work together, realizing that the plan to 
be successful must benefit both groups; 
neither must attempt to take advantage 
of the other. Hundreds of problems 
will arise in the development and oper- 
ation of a wage incentive plan, prob- 
lems that cannot be met by rule but 
which can be handled only by fair- 
minded individuals. An example of such 
a problem, one that always arises, is 
that of "fat and lean" jobs. A fat job 
is one on which the worker has no dif- 
ficulty making high earnings, whereas 
a lean job is just the opposite. What is 



16 THE CARPENTER 

a fat job to some workers may be a stalled in cooperation with the workers 
lean job to others of different ability. or their representatives." 
It is only by cooperation and by think- ^n ... 
ing more of human relations than about , ^° summarize again, it may be stated 
being scientific that such problems can *^^^* ^^^^P* ^o'^ seasonal industries a 
be worked out. All this may be sum- company with poor labor relations 
marized by stating that the workers would ordinarily do better to concen- 
must have something to say about the trate on the improvement of labor re- 
wage plan, particularly about the stand- lations rather than on wage incentives, 
ards that are set; this is a fundamental And such companies will find that nei- 
that is now generally accepted by stu- ther the WPB nor the NWLB will give 
dents of wage incentives. As stated in them any encouragement to install a 
Newsweek, "Today as labor opposition wage incentive plan under such condi- 
diminishes nearly all such plans are in- tions. 



Starvation Haunts 40 Million European Children 

A recent study by the International Labor Office, "The Health of the 
Children in Occupied Europe," describes the desperate conditions of life 
for children in Nazi-dominated countries. 

Insufficient food and deterioration of living conditions in general have 
caused the spread of diseases, a rise in the death rate and, in addition, 
numerous other harmful psychological and social effects. Malnutrition 
and other ills are sapping the vitality of Europe's young people. 

If the age of fifteen is taken as a limit, forty million children and 
young persons are affected by these evil conditions, and this figure leaves 
out of account children and young persons in the .occupied parts of the 
U. S. S. R., whose numbers it is impossible to estimate. Their plight is 
described as probably even worse than that of children in other occupied 
countries. 



Occupation Halves Norwegian Wages 

Real wages in Norway have declined from 40 to 50 per cent since that 
unfortunate country was occupied hy the Germans, according to a study of 
labor conditions in occupied Norway. 

According to the official computation, the decline in the real income 
of the workers was only 27.5 per cent. But the official cost-of-living index 
does not accurately express the actual rise in the cost of living, the study 
says, as several of the commodities included in the index are practically 
unobtainable, and the workers must therefore buy other, much more ex- 
pensive, commodities. 

Wage reductions have been particularly heav}^ in the German works, 
according to the article. At first the Nazis emplo3^ed the tactics of order- 
ing wage reductions in the construction and building industries, with the 
aim of driving the workers into essential war industries. Later, when 
voluntary labor had disappeared, and compulsory requisitioning of work- 
ers had been introduced, wages no longer had any influence on the supply 
of labor, and the Nazis could therefore reduce them without fear of the 
workers' leaving the factories. Since that time wages in the German war 
works have been systematically reduced. 



THE CARPENTER 



17 



U. S. GETS ILO POST-WAR CONFERENCE 

THE American Federation of Labor won a significant victory in the 
field of international labor when, at its request, the International 
Labor Organization decided to hold its next international labor 
conference in America. 

The place will be Philadelphia and the opening- date April 20, Robert 
J. Watt, the AFL's international labor representative announced after a 
session of the ILO's governing body. 

Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden put the British government on 
record as supporting the International Labor Organization as the body 
best suited to handle that field in the postwar reconstruction plans of the 
United Nations. 

The approval of the United States was clearly implied by the presence 
of John G. AVinant, United States 

Ambassador, at the final session of ^^O membership (governments, 
the ILO governing body and the employers and workers) c o u 1 d 



fact that Dr. Goodrich, American 
government delegate, was chairman. 

Mr. Eden put into words what 
many observers had suspected, 
namely, that the British authorities 
wished to do all in their power to 
recognize the ILO as an important 
factor in international relations. 

Thus efforts of left-wing groups 
to switch determination of postwar 
labor programs to a so-called 
"v.-orld" conference of labor to be 
convened in June were checkmated. 

"I hope," Mr. Eden said, "to see 
the ILO become the main instru- 
ment for giving effect to Article V 
of the Atlantic Charter. Improved 
labor standards, economic adjust- 
ment and social security — in those 
eight words is epitomized the so- 
cial objective of the United Na- 



work out "a comprehensive pro- 
gram of labor and industrial recon- 
struction. 

"Our united objective is a world 
so organized that there will be em- 
ployment for all. That the world 
will be developed in interests of 
the many* not of the few, and that 
on this basis the nations will join 
together to pursue peace and reduce 
the danger of war breaking out 
again." 

The governing bod}^ announced a 
seven-point agenda for the prepara- 
tion of its "social mandate" to the 
United Nations, to be drawn up at 
the Philadelphia conference. The 
agenda follows : 

1. A future policy program and 
delineation of ILO's status. 

2. Recommendations to the Unit- 



tions. It is good to set an objective, ed Nations for present and postwar 
but we must work together if it is social policy. 



to be effective." 

He mentioned the "grave prob- 
lems and dangers as well as oppor- 
tunities which will face the world 
during the transition from the dis- 
ruption of war — far more complete 



3. Organization of employment 
in the transition period from- war 
to peace. 

4. Social security: Its principles 
and problems arising out of war. 

5. Minimum standards of social 



than ever before in recorded his- policy in dependent territories. 

tory ^- to settled conditions of 6. Reports to the convention in 

peace," and said that between them accordance with the constitution, 

the three groups making up the 7. Directors' report. 




5 P 



POOR SUGGESTIOX 

Of late, there has crept into the post- 
"^"ar discussions and plans of certain 
economists and business leaders a some- 
what disturbing note. Instead of talk- 
ing about full employment after the 
"war, they are now talking about "rea- 
onably" full employment; the theory 
being that America cannot hope to pro- 
vide a job for everyone. They seem to 
visualize from three to five million 
workers always being one jump behind 
a job. 

In view of the fact that America has 
been able to put every one to vrork to 
win the war, it seems only logical that 
she should be able to put every one to 
work to win the peace. At least it seems 
we might well start from that premise 
anyway. Any post-war planning that 
fails to do so, in our opinion,, admits de- 
feat from the start. In fact it sort of 
reminds us of the employer who spent 
a good deal of time and money to in- 
sure that his employes should work 
under the best conditions. 

"Xow whenever I enter the shop," he 
said. "I want to see eveiT man cheer- 
fully performing his task. Therefore I 
invite you to place in this box any fni-- 
ther suggestions as to how that can be 
brought about." 

A week later the bos was opened; it 
contained one slip of paper on which 
was written: "DOX'T WEAH RrSBER 
HEELS." 

• Tfer * 
BRAVERY PERSOXIFIED 

Although it is definitely settled that 
pre-Pearl Harbor fathers are going to 
be drafted, the average man in that 
status still doesn't know where he 
stands. One day the papers say he will 
be called up immediately and the nest 
day a story comes out saying that he 
won't face induction until late summer. 
It's a case of o^. again, on again, gone 
again Finnegan. 

What brought this mater to mind 
was a squib in a Denver, Colorado, 
paper telling about a man out there 



who married a widow with seven chil- 
dren to avoid the draft only to find out 
that his draft board thought anybody 
that brave ought to make excellent ma- 
terial for the armv. 




We ?:?:•:■ " - ' -a??if?i3 icJier. I sru? a toxi. 
AU ice et .. ..i ■:',:;j2s — and I'm nhiety-iJiree .' 



MUCH ADO ABOET XOTHEVG 

TThen Postmaster General Walker 
recently cancelled the second class 
mailing permit of Esquire Magazine, 
the four-bit, slick paper publication 
with plenty of pin-up gals on its pages, 
he stirred up a veritable hornet's nest. 
The old "freedom of the press" cry is 
still ringing through the length and 
breadth of the land. 

Whether a scantily-draped gal is art 
or obscenity is beyond the ability of 
this department to determine; suffice it 
to say. however, that pin-up gals are 
more than a passing fancy with the boys 
in the services. They are practically 
musts. 

And .mst in case you haven't heard it 
before, a pin-up gal is a gal with a 
beautiful profile — all the way down. 

* • • 

JEST TRY AXD FIXD IT 

According to a news release in the 
daily papers, the Women's Christian 



THE CARPENTER 



19 



Temperance Union is contemplating un- 
dertaking another militant crusade 
against liquor. 

All of which prompts us to ask; Wliat 
Liquor? 

• • • 

ASK ANY MARRIED MAX 
A man in Dallas, Texas, recently took 
his wife to see a psychiatrist because 
night after night she dreamed that siie 
was married to a millionaire. 

As far as we can figure out, the guy 
was lucky and didn't know it. Most 
wives have dreams like that in the day 
time — and there's nothing much psy- 
chiatrists can do ahout it either. 

• • • 
THE BIG SQUEEZE 

Workers on a Pacific Coast scrap pile 
once found a girdle with a note attach- 
ed to it reading as follows: "If this 
could make Hitler as uncomfortable as 
it made me, we could win in a week." 

Maybe that particular girdle isn't 
making Hitler too uncomfortable, but 
the squeeze he is getting from the Rus- 
sian Bear certainly isn't making his 
night's sleep any too comfortable. 

• • • 

THE OTHER FELLOW'S OX 

Victories on the battlefronts continue 
to improve the war outlook every week. 
Everywhere the enemy is being pushed 
back by the United Nations because, for 
the first time in the war, they are really 
f united. 

I On the home front, however, unity 
seems as far removed as ever. Too many 
special interest groups are still trying 
to place all the sacrificing on "the other 
guy." Take for example all the groups 
that are trying to hamstring labor 
which already is suffering under the 
severest restrictions of all, what with 
job freezing. Little Steel, etc. The way 
■,hese groups applaud any move destined 
to add to labor's burden, but berate any 
move that might affect them reminds 
us of the colored lady at church. 

Aunt Becky was drinking in every 
word of the Negro preacher's thrilling 
sermon. After each telling point against 
vice and sin she would bellow in a loud 
voice: 

"Amen! Praise de Lawd! 

Amen!" 

Then the parson moved on against 
snuff-dipping and Aunt Becky leaned 
over to her neighbor and indignantly 
exclaimed: 



"Dar now! He's done stopped preach- 
ing and gone to meddling." 

• • • 
NO FOOLING 

Elections are still many months away 
but both parties are full of cliques de- 
termined to put over some special dark 
horse or native son, men who obviously 
don't have a ghost of a chance. The way 
these hopefuls keep pushing their hope- 
less proteges brings to mind the mother 
with the marriageable daughter. It 
seems the daughter was about to get 
married to a 4-F ribbon clerk. 

Said her father: "There's plenty of 
time for Tillie to think about getting 
married. Let her wait until the right 
man comes along." 

To which the mother retorted: "Why, 
father, I don't see why she should. I 
didn't." 

• • • 




Quick, General! Those hooks I sent to the 
boys in camp — my diary got mixed up with 
them! 

i( -k ic 

BUSY LITTLE BEES 

OPA may not have the price situa- 
tion under control, it may not have the 
ration system perfected, but it isn't 
standing still. Far from it in fact. Only 
last month it made a colossal decision. 
We quote it from Part 1364, as printed 
in the January 21 Federal Register: 

"Wild rabbit" means a rabbit other 
than one which has been domestically 
produced." 

So you can see OPA is vigorously at- 
tacking some of our most pressing prob- 
lems. Incidentally, one of the reasons 
for the existing paper shortage is that 
OPA has to send out thousands of cop- 
ies of impoi-tant de^-ision like this one. 



20 



Collective Bargaining Still Has Foes 

Is THE ATTITUDE of Los Angeles and San Francisco employers 
toward unionism typical of the nation? If it is, then the time has 
come for a national re-valuation of the whole question of unionism. 

The Senate Civil Liberties Committee recently charged that organ- 
ized employers have deliberately attempted to sabotage collective bar- 
gaining in Los Angeles and have un- 



duly interfered with it in San Francisco. 

The charges were contained in the 
sixth and seventh sections of a report 
by the committee to the United States 
Senate on extensive investigations into 
West Coast conditions over the last 
decade. The committee is composed of 
Senators Robert IM. LaFollette and El- 
bert D. Thomas. 

In Los Angeles the committee found 
that "the most influential business and 
financial interests have deliberately at- 
tempted to sabotage the national labor 
policy of collective bargaining as ex- 
pressed in the National Labor Relations 
Act." The report added: 

"Despite the enactment of that law 
and its declared constitutionality by the 
United States Supreme Court these busi- 
ness and industrial leaders determined 
to nullify it not only by negative but 
also by positive action. Pursuant to 
this determination, they engaged in a 
series of organized conspiracies to de- 
stroy labor's civil liberties. They sought 
to prevent bona fide collective bargain- 
ing from obtaining a strong foothold 
in the urban community of Los Angeles 
and its tributary business and agricul- 
tural areas. 

Deep-dyed plots 

"To carry out their conspiracy, they 
set up various employers' associations 
and auxiliary groups of women, con- 
sumers, agriculturists, and even em- 
ployes. They lavishly financed these 
organizations and for the most part 
supplied them with a type of profes- 
sional personnel that by reason of their 
background was wholly out of sympathy 
with trade-unionism. They concluded 
alliances with the local press, local po- 
lice, local law-enforcement officials, and 
local business organizations. Behind 



their illegal and anti-social policy they 
concentrated economic and political 
power that defied any local application 
of the law and custom of the nation." 

Another significant aspect of the con- 
clusions of the committee report was 
the determination, based upon the rec- 
ord, that the anti-labor activities of the 
organized employers were backed and 
sponsored by other groups in the city 
such as the banking and financial 
groups, certain leaders of the local 
press, and, until recently, many of the 
public officials. In this connection the 
committee observed: 

"This made the situation peculiarly 
difficult for trade-unions and for those 
public officials whose duty it was to 
protect the rights of labor. The very 
spectacle of a local chamber of com- 
merce, comprising the sum total of 
the business influence in the commun- 
ity, actually dictating and stimulating 
the development of tactic after tactic 
to defeat the national labor policy, 
made anything but the strongest meas- 
ures protective of labor's civil rights 
seem futile. The creation and mainte- 
nance of this policy of antiunionism 
in Los Angeles for magnitude and ver- 
satility of the effort far surpasses any- 
thing the committee has previously en- 
countered in its four-year inquiry." 

Labor hostility widespread 

The committee noted that the city 
of Los Angeles, famed during the 19 30's 
as a stronghold of antiunion industry, 
presented in its most intense form the 
problems which are prevalent in other 
urban and industrial areas, where in- 
fluential forces dominating the entire 
community refused to accept the na- 
tional labor policy. In its final state- 
ment on the importance of this issue, 
the committee report stated: 



THE CARPENTER 



21 



"Los Angeles is but a symbol of 
many other areas in various parts of 
the nation where the exercise of labor's 
rights and practice of collective bar- 
gaining are met with hostility of an 
organized 'community' character, en- 
gendered by strong industrial or agri- 
cultural groups." 

The report on San Francisco dis- 
closed a transition from an organized 
employer policy of outright and open 
antagonism to collective bargaining to 
one in which organized industry avow- 
edly accepted the procedures of collec- 
tive bargaining but sought to nullify 
them. Despite the fact that collective 
bargaining substantially became the ac- 
cepted basis for employer-employe re- 
lationships in San Francisco in the lat- 
ter half of the last decade, the com- 
mittee noted: 

"The collective-bargaining rights of 
large and important elements of labor 
in San Francisco, although recognized 
in collective agreements even before the 
passage of the National Labor Rela- 
tions Act, have been persistently sub- 
jected to a variety of undue interfer- 



ences stemming from organized employ- 
er influence. The practice of industrial 
democracy in San Francisco, seemingly 
accepted in the years from 19 35 to 
19 40, was a dangerous one, full of 
peril to labor's rights. Harsh and evil 
devices, properly and obviously cata- 
logued as oppressive labor practices and 
violative of human rights and decency, 
were blended with more subtle tech- 
niques to create one vast repertoire of 
anti-unionism. 

Employers unify action 

"Unified action by employers, seem- 
ing to accept collective bargaining, be- 
came allied to forces that sought to 
destroy or nullify the rights of labor. 
Unfair 'pressure tactics' in the bargain- 
ing process occasionally rendered those 
rights of dubious value. 'Undue inter- 
ferences' appeared which are more dif- 
ficult to hold up for public condemna- 
tion than the use of labor espionage or 
professional strike breakers. Even the 
acceptance of the forms of collective 
bargaining concealed efforts to thwart 
and weaken its desired economic and 
social purposes." 



Why I Am a Trade Unionist 

The author won a prize for the following letter: 

My card guarantees me a living- wage, decent working conditions. My 
card guarantees me a respectful hearing at all times from my employer. 
It entitles me to the benefits of knowledge and experience acquired by my 
fellow craftsmen. It gives me social contacts I enjoy. It creates within 
me confidence, good fellowship and a strong sense of security and well- 
being. 

It promotes the brotherhood of man through honest work, fair bargain- 
ing, "live and let live" and a just reward. 

It advances patriotism, elevates my standards of thought and living. 

It stands for self-support and mutual advancement, which mean un- 
ending progress. 

It puts the shoulder of experience and mutual assistance behind the 
weaker links in the chain of life and keeps the pace a steady one for 
all. 

It makes understandable and unforgetable the brotherhood of man. 
There can be no forgotten men in such a universal brotherhood. 

I carry a card because I believe that if the Carpenter of Nazareth 
were here today, He, too, would carry one, thus helping to make practical, 
through trade unionism, the precepts He laid down for all mankind 2,000 
years ago. — Fred L. Carver, L. U. 20798, Stenographers, Bookkeepers, 
Typists, Hollywood, Calif. 



22 



The Role of Food In Post-War 
Reconstruction 

By SIB JOHN BOYD ORR 

Director of the Rowett Research Institute 

No war in the history of the world has wrought the devastation that 
the present one is visiting on the peoi^le of Europe, Asia, India, etc. That 
the post-war reconstmction job will tax the talents, imagination and skill 
of world leaders goes without saying. First and foremost Avill be the task 
of keeping millions of people from stai-ving to death while order is being 
brought out of chaos. 

In the following article, condensed from a recent report in International 
Labour Review, a world-famous authority on nutrition questions analyzes 
the problem and suggests a solution through cooperation and immediate 
planning. 

WHEN the fighting forces of the Axis Powers have been com- 
pletely defeated, the United Nations will be in control of the 
whole world. It will be a shattered world. In some countries the 
political, economic, and social structures will be almost completely de- 
stroyed. Even in the countries least affected by the war, they will be badly 
damaged. It is obvious that the world will need to be rebuilt. 

The opportunity will be there, but the immensity of the opportunity is 
equalled by the immensity of the task. The task cannot be accomplished 
unless the free nations which have united in the face of the common danger 
of Nazi world domination remain united to co-operate in building "the 
new and better world." 



It may not be easy to keep the nations 
united for peace aims after the last 
battle is won. In the flush of victory 
there will be a tendency for the great 
nations to think more of their own na- 
tionalist and imperial interests than of 
the contribution tliey can make to the 
common world cause. The fact that they 
have subscribed to the Atlantic Charter 
will not necessarily bind them together 
in a common policy. The abstract terms 
— even "freedom from want" may be 
differently interpreted by different Gov- 
ernments. The only way to ensure post- 
war united action is to get agreement 
now on a plan expressed in concrete 
terms, about which there can be no am- 
biguity — not even any pretense of mis- 
understanding. The plan must deal with 
something of equal interest to all na- 
tions. It must deal with something so 
essential for the welfare of all people 
that every Government, whatever its po- 
litical philosophy may be, will agree to 



co-operate on a world-wide basis. It 
must be so simple in its broad outlines 
that it will be understood by the com- 
mon people. It must be a practicable 
plan which we have the physical means 
to carry to completion. It must be one 
which can be applied in its initial stages 
in the free countries during the war, 
and in the occupied countries as soon 
as they are liberated, so that there will 
be no need to wait for a peace confer- 
ence for a decision. The development of 
the plan must arise from a war plan and 
proceed automatically, unless some na- 
tion, or group of nations, decides to 
withdraw from co-operation. 

A Food Plan as the Starting Point 

A food plan based on human needs 
fulfills all these conditions. In the first 
place, food requirements for health are 
known. Standards have been drawn up 
by authoritative bodies and, in some 
cases, approved by Governments. Dif- 



THE CARPENTER 



ferent standards are in sufficiently close 
agreement for them to be taken to- 
gether for practical purposes and re- 
garded as the standard for health. The 
validity of the standard does not rest 
merely on the statements of scientists or 
on official approval. The results of many 
investigations show that people living 
on diets which come up to the standard 
enjoy the higher known levels of health 
and physical fitness, and that, converse- 
ly, the further the diet of any group of 
people falls below the standard, the 
worse health and physical fitness be- 
come. 

The standard for health is the same 
for all the people of the world. A child 
in the poorest family needs the same 
amount of protein to form muscle, of 
calcium and phosphorus to form bone, 
and of all the vitamins and other food 
constituents, as the child of the million- 
aire. A child born in China or Africa 
has the same food requirements as a 
child born in Europe or America. The 
same is true of adults. This does not 
mean, of course, that they must eat the 
same kind of food. The requisite 
amounts of essential nutrients can be 
supplied by a wide variety of foods. 

Since nutritional requirements are 
the same for the people of all races, a 
food plan based on human needs would 
be equally applicable to all nations. 

Evidence will be adduced later to 
show that even in the wealthiest coun- 
tries a large proportion of the popula- 
tion do not enjoy a diet on the health 
standard. Malnutrition is an acknow- 
ledged major social problem in both 
Britain and the United States. 

Practicability of a Food Plan 

There would be no difficulty in get- 
ting people to understand what was 
meant by a food plan based on human 
needs. It could be stated in terms of 
the amounts of milk, butter, fruit, eggs, 
meat, and other common foods needed 
for families of different sizes, as indeed 
has been done by the Canadian Medical 
Association for Canadian families. They 
would understand that it meant bring- 
ing their standard of living, so far as 
food is concerned, up to the level of 
the adequately fed middle classes. The 
difficulty would be to persuade them 
that their Governments really meant to 
carry out such a revolutionary plan. 



The plan is practicable. The advance 
of science has enormously increased our 
power to produce food. In Britain, 
even under war conditions, food pro- 
duction has been increased from about 
34 to nearly 60 per cent of the total 
national consumption. The increase in 
production for Canada since the begin- 
ning of the war is even greater than in 
Britain in the case of some of the more 
important foods. The food the people 
need can be produced if Governments 
show anything like the same resolution 
and energy in providing for the primary 
needs of the people in peace as they 
have shown in providing food and 
armameMs in war. 

War has forced Governments to ap- 
ply a plan now to the extent that food 
is available. In war, the fighting men 
must be given a diet which will main- 
tain them in the highest possible state 
of health and physical fitness. Munition- 
workers must be given food which will 
maintain health and working efficiency. 
Governments must therefore take meas- 
ures to ensure that sufficient food is 
provided and that it is distributed ac- 
cording to needs. 

Under the stress of war, therefore, 
we have gone a long way towards a pol- 
icy of adjusting the production and dis- 
tribution of food to meet the nutri- 
tional needs of the people. And, indeed, 
the United States and Britain are pre- 
paring to extend this policy to post- 
war relief in Europe. This will include 
assistance to agriculture, and will thus 
afford an opportunity of directing Eu- 
ropean agriculture along lines which 
will benefit the health of the people of 
Europe and, at the same time, make 
that agriculture fit in better with a 
world food production scheme. 

Let us consider what effect a food nu- 
trition policy would have on the promo- 
tion of human welfare, which should 
be the end and aim of all planning, and 
also what effect it would have upon 
agriculture, industry, and trade. 

Effects ou Health 

Health is the foundation of well- 
being, and an adequate diet is the foun- 
dation of health. Investigations in vari- 
ous countries have shown that below a 
certain income level, as income per 
head of the family falls, the diet be- 
comes more and more deficient in vita- 
mins, minerals, and proteins because 



24 



THE C A R P E X T E R 



the foods rich in these are relatively 
expensive. As the diet becomes "w-orse, 
health and physique become ■worse. 
Poor diet is accompanied by bad hous- 
ing and psychological factors vrhich af- 
fect health. But the results of experi- 
ments indicate that food is the most 
important health factor. 

One of the most striking demonstra- 
tions of the effect of improvement of 
diet was that which took place in Bri- 
tain between the war of 1914-1918 
and the present war. Owing to various 
causes, not the least of which were the 
excellent social and public health meas- 
ures designed to improve the diet of the 
poorest, the consumption of the protec- 
tive foods rose by roughly 5 per cent. 
Accompanying this improvement in the 
national diet, there was a correspond- 
ing improvement in national health. 
The average infant mortality rate of all 
•classes in England and Wales fell from 
over 100 to 52 per 1.0 0. Tuberculosis 
decreased by about ' ' "•-': Crr.L. ilie 
grosser forms of deficiei: y dlsra.;-^; suoii 
as rickets and scurvy which thirty years 
ago affected more than 5 per cent of 
the children in i :/: ::;'!:-- in indus- 

trial- towns. Wr--- ni:n-';L oo!npie:ely 
eliminated, and children leaving school 
in 1938 were between two and three 
inches taller than n\d vairn:^ a; :>e 
same age. Other n : :- d:n::ie-^ con- 
tributed to this : :? fac- 
tor was the ii::i;: ; vnnrn: in "he na- 
tional diet. 

Alleviation of Poverty 

The chief cause of malnutrition is 
poverty. Poverty causes malnutrition. 
It would be equally true to say that the 
high cost of a diet adequate for health 
is one of the causes of poverty. The 
lower the family income per head, the 
higher is the proportion of the total in- 
come spent on food. Among the very 
wealthy, the amount spent on the com^ 
mon foods needed for health is not 
more than 1 or 2 per cent of the total 
Income. Among the working class in 
Britain, it runs to between 40 and 5 
per cent. Among the very poor it may 
rise to as high as 70 per cent. If a diet 
adequate for health were made avail- 
able within the purchasing power of the 
poorest, there would be a rise in the 
standard of living, so far as food is 
concerned, i. e., a rise to the extent of 
over 50 per cent of their total expendi- 



ture. The food sector of the home 
front would rise to the level of the 
lower middle class. Malnutrition, the 
worst physical evil of poverty, would be 
abolished, and poverty, itself would be 
greatly diminished. 

There is no measure which would 
do more for the promotion of human 
welfare than bringing a diet adequate 
for health within the reach of every 
family. If to this we could add a home 
in which families could live in health 
and in decency, we should have a foun- 
dation on which we could build a better 
civilization — a civilization which would 
have a chance of being stable. We talk 
about building a new and better world. 
If we are in earnest, we will build from 
the bottom upwards. We will begin by 
supplying the primary necessities of life 
to those who have never enjoyed them. 

Effects on Agricultxire 

If food needs on a health standard 
are to be met. there will be a great ex- 
pansion of agriculture. It will be con- 
venient to use the United States as an 
illustration. It is estimated that in the 
United States 40 million more acres of 
food and feeding stuff crops would need 
to be grown. 

In Britain a somewhat similar in- 
crease in the protective foods would be 
needed. The increase in milk produc- 
tion would be greater. To bring liquid 
milk consumption up to the level rec- 
ommended by the AdvisoiT Committee 
on Xutrition and approved by the Gov- 
ernment in 19 35, production would 
need to be nearly doubled. This would 
necessitate a reorientation of agricul- 
ture towards the production of foods 
which can be produced at home as eco- 
nomically as they can be imported. Bri- 
tain is well adapted for the production 
of milk, vegetables, and some fruit, and 
there is no reason why eggs and bacon 
could not be produced as economically 
in Britain as in Denmark, the Nether- 
lands or the Baltic countries. Fortu- 
nately, these products give a big output 
in money value and require a large 
amount of labor per acre, a point of 
social importance in a small, densely 
populated country. 

The workers who produce the food 
deserve as high a standard of living 
as the workers in industry who con- 
sume it, and capital invested in agricul- 
ture deserves the same return as capital 



Tlltl CARPENTER 



25 



inA'ested in urban industries. The pov- 
erty of the peasant and land worker 
has for long been a social injustice, and 
the low purchasing power of the pri- 
mary producer a weakness of the eco- 
nomic system. An agricultural nutri- 
tion policy must provide not only a 
guaranteed market, it must also pro- 
vide a guaranteed price at a level 
which will provide reasonable remun- 
eration to the land worker. Indeed, 
that is the loAvest price which will call 
forth the great volume of additional 
food needed. 

A world food policy undertaken on 
humanitarian grounds would thus in- 
evitably bring about an expanded and 
prosperous agriculture. 

Effects on Industry 

The great majority of farms would 
need to be reconditioned to enable them 
to produce at the higher level. A vast 
quantity of new equipment would be 
called for. Dairy farms need better 
water supplies. Electrification schemes 
for power and domestic use must be 
provided. The majority of farmsteads 
in most countries are in disrepair and 
obsolete in design. Then, if the land 
workers are to have a standard of liv- 
ing on the same level as workers of 
equal skill in towns, they must have 
new houses with sanitary conveniences 
and adequate furniture. 

In the more backward countries, in- 
dustries will be needed to enable agri- 
culture to function efficiently. In India 
and China some of the people must be 
taken off the land for new industries to 
provide for the needs of agriculture. 
This will enable the size of the farm- 
ing units to be larger and, therefore, 
more efficient. In the Jewish settle- 
ment in Palestine, agriculture has been 
raised to such a high level of efficiency 
that although the settlement only occu- 
pies 7 per cent of the total land, it is 
claimed that it produces about 50 per 
cent of the total agricultural output. 
To enable it to reach this high, level of 
efficiency, however, there are three 
workers in other industries for one in 
agriculture. 

In some countries, such as China, one 
of the first things necessary to enable 
the people to be assured of a regular 
supply of food is improved methods of 
transport. Starvation has occurred be- 



cause, though there was food in the 
country to relieve the famine, it could 
not be transported to the famine area. 
The development of these countries 
calls for a huge output of industrial 
products not only for land cultivation, 
but also for railways, roads, and elec- 
trification systems. 

If the United Nations set out to pro- 
duce the food the people of the world 
need, there will be a new era of indus- 
trial prosperity. At the end of the war 
we may not literally beat our swords 
into ploughshares, but we shall convert 
tanks and guns into tractors, cultiva- 
tors, milking machines, and all the 
other equipment needed for a world- 
wide, efficient agriculture. Instead of 
the stagnation of the 19 30's, with town 
workers who could make the imple- 
ments farmers need deteriorating phys- 
ically and spiritually in unemployment, 
and, at the same time, the land which 
could produce the food lying idle, both 
town and country workers would be 
fully employed, creating the nev/ wealth 
that would lift them both out of pov- 
erty, with a resulting expansion of 
world trade. 

A World Food Policy 

Each nation would have to set up an 
organization for its own national needs, 
and, in addition, an international or- 
ganization would have to be set up to 
enable the nations to co-operate with 
each other in regulating food produc- 
tion and to develop their industries and 
trade on a world basis for their mutual 
advantage. 

If the United Nations are going to 
adopt a world food policy based on 
human needs, they should begin to 
make definite plans now. All of the 
available information, and there is a 
great mass of data waiting to be corre- 
lated, should be brought together: 

(a) To give a broad picture of 
nutrition and agriculture in each 
country before the war; 

(b) To show the change that 
has taken place in each country 
during the war so far as informa- 
tion can be obtained. This picture 
should be kept up to date so that 
at the end of the war we may 
know the starting-point for the 
long-range policy; 

(c) To make estimates of the 
extent to which food production 



THE CARPEXTER 



and imports "^s-ould need to be in- 
creased to fill the national larders 
on a health standard. 

Having got the information together, 
there remains the very difficult task of 
planning how the larders are to be fill- 
ed and what changes these will bring 
in agriculture and international trade 
in foods, and what effect the policy 
would have on industry and finance. 
We have then to consider the kind of 
organizations needed to cariT the pol- 
icy to completion. 

This involves months of work. Fur- 
ther, the policy will succeed only if we 
have a well-informed public opinion. 
There would be need to make the gen- 
eral idea of the food policy current 
among all classes of society in all na- 
tions. 

Work along these lines is being done 
by groups in different countries. All of 
the information should be considered 
by an international group, including 
representatives not only of Britain and 
America, but also of Russia and China, 
and all of the United Nations should 
be kept informed of the progress be- 
ing made. 

Conclusion 

The difficulties of post-war recon- 
struction are appalling. The problem 
is not only of repairing the physical 
damage. That can be done quickly. 
The fundamental difficulty lies in the 
fact that we dare not reconstruct on 
the old model. The old model broke 
down in a world war, twice in one gen- 
eration. The second world war has de- 
stroyed the political and economic sys- 
tem on the continent of Europe and 
threatens the complete destruction of 
democracy and the extinction of liberty 
throughout the whole world. Recon- 
struction of the old model would in- 
evitably bring about another break- 



down. We must adjust our political and 
economic structures to suit the new age 
which the rapid advance of science is 
thrusting us into before we are ready 
to deal with it. Economic theories de- 
rived from our experience of the past 
cannot be applied in their entirety to 
this new age. because we are faced with 
new physical powers which science is 
creating;, new economic forces we can- 
not measure: and new spiritual forces 
which even the wisest can only dimly 
perceive. 

Faced with a problem which no one 
can read, the only wise course is to go 
forward one step at a time, doing first 
the thing we are sure is right. The first 
step is obviously to maintain the unity 
of the nations as a supreme world au- 
thority to prevent another war. If there 
is another war, it will probably be a 
war to preserve the union. 

The next task of the United Nations 
is to provide food and shelter, the 
prime necessities, on a health standard. 
Housing, and all the other things which 
the word "shelter" denotes, varies so 
much from country to countiT that it 
is mainly a national problem. Food, on 
the other hand, is an international 
problem which can only be solved by 
the co-operation of the nations. 

I have tried to show that if we put 
first things, first, and begin with this 
first essential duty, other benefits will 
follow. A food policy can be the spear- 
head of a government for agriculture 
and economic prosperity. It can be used 
as a self-starter to set the whole sys- 
tem moving, and moving this time in 
the right direction along a road that 
will lead to a great expansion of agri- 
culture, industiT> and trade which will 
be stable and permanent because it 
will be based on the sure foundation 
of human welfare. 



135,000 FHA Homes Built In 1943 

FHA-insured war housing- represented approximate!}^ 85 per cent 
of all privately financed famihr dwellings completed in 1943 under the 
National Housing Agency's program. 

AVhile constructed to meet urgent w^artime needs, the war housing 
developments insured by the FHA are built for long-term use and meet 
FHA standards for structural soundness, design and land-planning. Under 
FHA T\^ar housing policies, privateh^ financed construction is scheduled 
wherever a post-war demand for the housing appears reasonably likely. 



THE CARPENTER 



27 



KEEP 'EM 
SMOKING 



Brotherhood solicits cooperation 
of Locals and District Councils 
to keep our hghting boys happy. 



During- the past month, cards and 
letters of thanks have poured into 
the General Office by the thousands 
from soldiers and sailors in all 
parts of the world where American 
boys are fighting- to preserve civil- 
ization and decency. All expressed 
their apperciation for the free cig-- 
arettes being furnished through our 
Brotherhood's cigarette fund. 

All the pathos, loneliness, and 
heart-break of war are discernible 
in the cards and letters. A lonely 
North Carolina lad in a New Guinea 
foxhole pauses on Christmas day to 
scrawl a hasty note of thanks for his 
cigarettes. A tired Texas corporal, 
during a lull in the fighting in Italy, 
takes time out to thank our Broth- 
erhood for his smokes — the only 
Christmas present he received on 
that day of days. A sailor in his 
tenth straight week of North At- 
lantic patrol duty writes a lengthy 
letter of thanks that bravely tries 
to cover up his homesickness and 
loneliness. 

It is letters like these that bring 
home the tremendous comfort and 
satisfaction our boys on the fight- 
ing front receive from our gifts of 
free cigarettes. The fact that they 
are being remembered by the folks 
back home for whom they are fight- 
ing seems to give them fully as 
much of a lift as the cigarettes 
themselves do. 

In some areas, cigarettes are actu- 
all}^ the medium of exchange; cig- 
arettes can buy things from the 
natives that not even American 
money can secure. In this connec- 
tion, an interesting news story from 



Italy was recently released. Some 
of the soldiers who were in the vi- 
cinity at the time felt that a marker 
should be erected on the spot where 
the armistice between Italy and the 
Allies was signed. After some hag- 
gling, the services of an Italian 
marble cutter were secured. For a 
carton of American cigarettes and 
the equivalent of a few dollars in 
American money, he carved a suit- 
able tablet and erected it on the 
historic spot. So future historians 
will be able to thank the free cigar- 
ettes sent to our fighting forces by 
American labor unions and civic 
bodies for the preservation in mar- 
ble of an important event in history. 

At the present time, the cigarette 
fund is being depleted too rapidly. 
Donations are not beginning to 
keep pace with cigarette purchases 
being made for our fighting boys. 
So far our Brotherhood has been 
able to send almost two million cig- 
arettes a month on the average to 
the fighting forces. However, un- 
less contributions to the fund pick 
up, the pace cannot be maintained 
inasmuch as the fund is running 
low. 

Free cigarettes represent only 
one small way in which we can all 
show our soldiers and sailors that 
we appreciate what they are doing 
for us. In view of the great com- 
fort and satisfaction the boys in the 
various overseas services receive 
from American cigarettes, we have 
an obligation to see that they are 
not denied this simple pleasure for 
duration. It is the hope of the Gen- 
eral Office that locals and councils 



28 



THE C A R P E X T E R 



able to do so will underwrite a defi- 
nite monthly contribution to the 
fund until the boys come marching- 
home. In this way an adequate sup- 
ph" of smokes can be kept headed 
for the various fio-htino- fronts. 



I\Iake all checks and money or- 
ders payable to General Treasurer 
S. P. IVIeadows. A strict account- 
ing of the fund will be furnished 
all local unions and district coun- 
cils participating in the fund. 



WE GAXXOT LET OUR BOYS DOWXI LET'S .ILL DO OLTl 
PART! THE LEAST WE CAX DO LS TO PLT E^^RY XICKEL 
WE CAX IXTO BOXDS AXD SHARE OFR SMOKES. 



CIGARETTE FLXD 
Contributions received December 24, 1943 to Januaiy 24, 1944 



L.U. Citv and State 



1024 
1771 

432 
62 

1749 

748 

1464 

879 
261 1 

1 139 

695 

1083 



Cumberland, Md 2000 

Eldorado, 111. 2500 

Atlantic City, N. J._ 

Chicago, 111. 1000 

Anniston, Ala. 6700 

Taylorville, 111. 2500 

Mankato, Minn. 1000 

Elmira, N. Y 500 

Eugene, Ore. - 500 

Gilmer, Tex. 25 00 

Sterling, 111. 5000 

St. Charles, 111 1000 



Amt. L.U. City and State Amt. 

976 ]\Iarion, O. 3600 

1845 Snoqualmie, AA'ash. 1000 

1500 604 Alurphysboro, 111. 2500 

1933 Claremore, Okla. 25 00 

District Council 
Cuyahoga D. C, Cleveland, 

Ohio 100 GO 

State Council 
AA'isconsin State Council 75 00 



Available Funds Dec. 2 3, 19 43. 
Receipts 



Total 

Expenditures: 

Axton-Fislier Tobacco Co $1,250 00 

Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corp 1,250 00 



Available Funds, January 24, 1944. 



Total S53800 



$9,776 91 
538 00 

$10,314 91 

2,500 00 
$ 7,814 91 



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• • • 

TTPIC-IL OF THOrSAXDS OF LETTEPtS OF APPRECLITIOX RECEIVED 
FROM OLTv BOYS OX AEL FIGHTEsG FRONTS ARE TEDE FEW REPRO- 
DUCED HERE. THEY ARE KEEPEN'G THE EXE3rY REELEVG — ^IT IS FP 

TO rS TO KEEP THEM SMOKIXG. 



J 



THE CARPENTER 




-from the R.A.F. 



No. 1368939, Rank L. A. C, 
Name, Matt. Armstrong, 
Address R. A. F. (Station 145, 
A. P. O. 634, England). 



United Brotherhood of Carpenters 

and Joiners of America, 
222 E. Michigan St., 
Indianapolis, Indiana. 
Dear Sirs: 

Many thanks for your kindness in sending us cigarettes for 
Christmas. Please convey to the members of your association 
our heartiest greetings for a Merry Christmas and a very happy 
New Year and here's hoping that now that we have our belts 
tightened and our sleeves rolled up, it won't be long before we 
smash up the Nazi regime, (not forgetting the Japs!) ,and get 
the world back to a state of decent living for all mankind. "We the 
boys of the R. A. F. are working hand in hand over here with 
your boys from America, and here and now I must state that we 
in England certainly appreciate all the American nation has and 
is at present doing to give us the armament and men to carry on 
the good work. Let the people over there know that we must take 
advantage of every minute, every hour, and every day to press 
home to the German and Japanese nations that they can't push 
America, Britain, and Russia around. As you will see from the 
press we are giving Jerry a taste of the medicine he gave Britain 
not so long ago, and they don't appear to be able to take it with- 
out squealing. Well, they certainly caused a lot of needless suf- 
fering to the British women and children, a fact which made us 
realize that it was high time that the British Lion started to get 
up on its hind legs and get cracking to give them hell. 

We have now got through the worst of it, and with your gal- 
lant lads fighting, shoulder to shoulder with us, we are deter- 
mined to see this job through to a finish. We have already made 
many fine friendships with the American boys over here, and I 
certainly must say they are a grand bunch of lads, full of fun but, 
when duty calls, they are on the ball every time! Tell the folks to 
spare no effort over there, give us the tools and we'll finish the 
job! Thanks again, and best wishes to all. 

L. A. C. Matt. Armstrong, (R. A. F.). 




Editorial 




Public Opinion Is the Foundation Stone 

To those who have been in : r-5:ir.: ::r.:i : :: . the Washington 
scene since the start of the national emergency, noihing has been more 
alarming than the ever-increasing effort in some circles to by-pass or 
even throttle public opinion. There are those in the national capital i;^-ho, 
for reasons of their own, seem intent on entirely divorcing the will of the 
people from the prosecution of the war. Probably their motives are of 
the best, but those of us who love and cherish democracy look askance 
at any and all efforts to abridge or circumvent the liberties of the people, 
even under the pressure of war. 

An informed public opinion has always been the sobering balance- 
wheel in the American idea of government. It forms the very core of 
democracy as we know it. Through it we maintain a government OF the 
people, not OVER the people. 

While it is true that effective prosecution of the war makes it impera- 
tive that great powers be delegated to a few individuals, nevertheless, 
the tempering influence of informed public opinion should not and must 
not be placed on the shelf for the duration. Rather, the very fact that 
greater powers are concentrated in a few hands makes it more important 
than ever that public opinion exercise a vigilant censorship over events 
to safeguard the rights of the people and prevent an abuse : f ; . :r.ority. 

In America, the right to ask questions and demand ans ,vtr£ h^s ali^ays 
been elementary and fundamental. And history proves that seldom have 
the people themselves been ^-rong. Mistakes have been made, but thej' 
were made because leaders lost touch vrith the ^11 of the people. We have 
but to look at the current scene to realize this fact. In the early thirties 
the American Federation of Labor \\ as urging^ economic sanctions against 
Hitler. A few 3-ears later the Federation was demanding action against 
Franco and his fascist puppets. The invasions of China and Ethiopia bj' 
Japan and Itah^ ^ere vigorously protested in Federation conventions. 
And during the 3'ears x\merica was building up Japanese supplies of steel 
and oil (^vhich are now being used against us) the Federation was insist- 
ent in its demands that Japanese aggfression be nipped in the bud. 

To stifle public opinion at this time — ^regardless of the sanctity of 
the underlying motives — is unthinkable. America is facing the greatest 
crisis in its history. Upon the actions taken during the next few^ years 
will rest our future for many generations to come. The people should 
and must have a say in helping to shape their own destiny. 

In one of the best speeches ever heard in the Senate, Ser.atir K, Styles 
Bridges last month touched on this subject. In part, he sail; 

"We believe that criticism and honest discussion by an alert citizenry 
in full possession of all the facts are not the indulgence of v/ilful minori- 



THE CARPENTER 33 

ties, but an integral part of the democratic process. Remove them or 
hamper their free operation and our government would be desiccated, 
frozen into an oligarchic pattern, divorced from the people. . . ." 

"Lip service to democracy is not only futile but insulting if simultane- 
ously we make its exercise a proof of 'disloyalty^ of 'disunity.' Public 
opinion is an essential ingredient in the American way of life, and it can- 
not function in a vacuum. It must have access to the facts. It must retain 
its traditional privilege of asking questions, pertinent and impertinent, 
wise or foolish, about its own government and allied governments. It must 
be encouraged to regard criticism not merely as a right but as a duty." 

The pattern of victory is now being forged on the battle fronts of the 
world. Some bright day in the near future the last shot will be fired and 
the task of building a just, equitable and lasting peace will start. May that 
day find American people strong, resolute, free and determined to remain 
free. May it also find them well-informed, vigilant, ready to play their 

vital part in the building of a new and better world. 

• 

Brotherhood Week in Wartime 

Brotherhood Week will be celebrated during the week of AVashing- 
ton's Birthday. 
\^ Brotherhood is not a luxury but a necessity. Especially in wartime. It 
is not the deliberate assumption, on the ground of duty or of expediency, 
of an attitude of kindliness toward those not of our own circle, whom 
naturally we might distrust or dislike. It is rather the recognition of the 
true relationship of man to his fellowman, obedience to the law of man's 
being. The brotherhood of man is a corollary and consequence of the 
Fatherhood of God. All men are brothers one of another because all are 
children of God. For men of different races, nations or* religions to treat 
one another as brothers is to live in accord with the nature of man as God 
has created him. To live otherwise is contrary to nature and carries with 
it the penalties that are attached to such dereliction. To deny brotherhood 
is to deny God. 

The essence of brotherhood is a willingness to give to other men every 
right and dignity we want to keep for ourselves. This elevates it from 
the level of sentiment into that of purpose and action. Brotherhood, so 
conceived, is essential to the fulfillment of our democratic ideals in 
America. 

It is essential, also, in the world, if we are to have a just and lasting 
peace. To perpetuate unnatural attitudes of intolerance, animosity, con- 
tempt and hatred is to keep men divided and hostile. Peace cannot be 
built on it. The dearth of brotherhood brought on this war. Only the prac- 
tice of brotherhood between nations and within can make war cease. 

This is the teaching of religion, and statesmen are coming to see it and 
to teach it, too. A triumph of armed might, a rearrangement of national 
boundaries, even the organization of an association of nations will not, 
singly or together, guarantee a durable peace. But brotherhood will do it. 
Nothing else will do it. How much more havoc must man work before 
he learns it? 



34 THE CARPENTER 

Free Enterprise Means Free Labor Too 

The battle-cry of American industry has become "Preserve Free Enter- 
prise." As never before in histor}^ it is marshalling its forces and 
girding- its loins to do battle with the theorists and dreamers and expo- 
nents of foreign ideologies. Gone is the apologetic attitude that prevailed 
in the earh^ thirties. Instead industry' is pointing with pride to the 
achievements of the past few years — achievements that transformed this 
nation from an unarmed, relatively helpless countr}^ to the mightiest 
fighting force ever known, all in an incredibly short space of time. And 
industry is also preparing to prove in the post-war era that free enterprise 
is capable of producing for the American people a standard of living 
undreamed of even a few 3'ears ago. 

Certainly as far as the American Federation of Labor is concerned, 
there is no quarrel with Free Enterprise. The Federation believes that 
the American people have fared better under the Free Enterprise system 
than any other people under any other system. President Green epito- 
mized the Federation's attitude in a recent speech when he said: "We 
believe sincerely in Free Enterprise. We recognize the right to own and 
manage private property. We concede that the owners and managers of 
private industry and farms are entitled to a fair profit. We, of the Amer- 
ican Federation of Labor, have no intention or desire to abridge, appro- 
priate, or interfere -with the functions or prerogatives of management." 

■ B}' that one statement President Green made it very clear that the six 
and a half million workers under the AFL banner stand squarely behind 
the Free Enterprise S3'stem. The}^ want it and will fight for it so long as 
it remains what the name implies — Free. 

However, the' "Free" part of the phrase is not the sole prerogative of 
the managers and owners of industry. Labor, too, must be free under the 
system if it is to function and survive. Some employers have evidently 
overlooked that important fact. One has but to read the report of the 
Senate Civil Liberties Committee to find ample proof. 

In the sixth and seventh sections of the Committee's report on condi- 
tions on the Pacific Coast is a sad story of emplo3'er conspirac}^ to crush 
unionism b}" fair means or foul. The Senate investigators found that Los 
Angeles and San Francisco employers had poured millions of dollars into 
a fight against organized labor during the last decade. Nor were the em- 
plo\^ers much concerned how the fight was carried on. Espionage, strike- 
breaking, and vigilantism all became weapons of the professional union 
breaking organizations set up and maintained b}^ mone}^ furnished by 
these anti-union employers. The Committee's report describes the tactics 
used as follows : 

"To carry out their conspiracy, they set up various employers' asso- 
ciations and auxiliar}^ groups of women, consumers, agriculturists, and 
even employes. They lavishly financed these organizations and for the 
most part supplied them with a type of professional personnel that b}^ 
reason of their background was wholly out of sympathy with trade- 
unionism. They concluded alliances with the local press, local law- 



THE CARPENTER 35 

enforcement officials, and local business organizations. Behind their 
illegal and anti-social policy they con^centrated economic and political 
power that defied any local application of the law and custom of the 
nation." 

Since the report dealt only with the Pacific Coast, it is impossible 
to hazard an opinion as to whether the conditions found in California 
were generally prevalent throughout the nation or whether Los Angeles 
and San Francisco represented two sore spots in the whole national pic- 
ture. However, the point is that there are employers who despite the 
Wagner Act and a well-estalished national policy of collective bargain- 
ing still indulge in the rottenest and most underhanded union-breaking 
tactics. 

Let employers of this kind take heed. Free enterprise will survive 
only if it is free for labor as well as for management.. All labor asks is 
that industry recognize labor's equal right to free enterprise. It asks 
that management acknowledge the right of workers to organize into 
unions of their own choosing as provided for by law; that management 
bargain collectively and in good faith with such unions; that manage- 
ment disavow any intent to dominate, influence, coerce, or illegally under- 
mine such unions; and, last but not least, that the workers maintain the 
right to secure for themselves wages and working conditions commen- 
surate with the American standard of living. 

In the days to come, Free Enterprise will be under attack as never 
before, not onl}^ from those who follow foreign ideologies, but also from 
those who believe that government influence should be extended and 
strengthened in all phases of human activity. It will survive only if it 
provides for the greatest good to the greatest number. To meet this cpiali- 
fication, it must really be free for labor as well as industry. Let all who be- 
lieve in Free Enterprise recognize this fact. Then the battle will be won, 
come what may. 

• 

There's Only One Moral 

During the past few months there has been a great deal of newspaper 
and radio publicity relative to the sad plight of the white collar workers. 
The columnists and commentators who have long' devoted most of their 
efforts to smearing organized labor are now shedding- huge crocodile tears 
for the office workers, government employes, and professional men whose 
salaries have failed to keep pace with living costs more miserably than 
even the earnings of production workers. The gist of their wailings is that 
organized labor has secured Avage increases for its members, thereby 
driving up the price of commodities and raising the cost of living to the 
white collar workers who have not enjwed the wage increases gained by 
union men through their organizations. 

Ostensibl}^ the purpose of the publicity is to alienate white collar 
workers from their brothers and sisters in the crafts, who, because of their 



36 THE CARPENTER 

membership in militant trade unions, come closer to getting- wages com- 
mensurate with today's sky-high living costs. 

Now it seems odd to us that these professional anti-labor writers and 
spielers should now be wringing their hands over the plight of the unor- 
ganized workers. They spent many years telling these same unorganized 
workers that unions were rackets, that the}^ did nothing for their mem- 
bers, that the few dollars annual dues were nothing but a tribute to keep 
labor leaders lolling in the lap of luxury. It was only a few months ago 
they were "scandalized" at the initiation fees some unions were charging. 
How they wept and wailed and gnashed their teeth at the "injustice" 
of a worker pajdng an initiation fee to join a union, a union, the}^ insisted 
that did nothing for the worker but extract monthly dues. 

Undaunted by these former burpings, they are now condemning the 
unions because they got some semblance of wage justice for their mem- 
bers. This very fact they now construe to be detrimental to the unorgan- 
ized workers. Obviously, by following this new line, they hope. to build 
animosity against organized labor among the unorganized. 

The truth of the matter is that the situation must point out a powerful 
moral to white collar workers and all unorganized groups. Certainly re- 
cents events must demonstrate vividly to all non-union workers that their 
salvation and security rests in organization. Getting antagonistic toward 
organized labor— as the professional anti-unionists want them to — offers 
them no solution to their sad plight ; organizing into strong healthy unions 
does. 

No one can quarrel with the fact that the unorganized white collar 
workers are the hardest hit men and women of industr3^ With more or 
less fixed incomes, they have been the hardest hit because in only few 
instances they have been able to elevate their earnings b}^ even the pittance 
permitted under the Little Steel Formula. They prove the ineffective- 
ness of individual bargaining as compared to collective bargaining. And 
the professional anti-unionists who only a few months ago were telling 
them that unions were simply rackets aren't going to help them now. 

Just to keep the record straight, it also is incumbent to point out that 
wage increases are not the cause of present sky-high prices. The AFL 
Monthly Survey recently pointed out that labor costs only average i6% 
of all costs in American industry. Recent figures also show that wage 
increases have accounted for less than io% of the increases in the cost of 
living. 

So the obvious course for the unorganized workers to pursue is not to 
condemn the organized workers who have more nearly managed to hold 
their own, but rather to climb on the bandwagon and help carry on the 
struggle for a decent living standard for all who work for a living. 



If 3^ou are looking for a promising business to go into after the war, 
we would suggest the wholesale apple business. Some industry-sponsored 
post-war planning agencies are already providing for post-war unemploy- 
ment in the neighborhood of five million: in which event there will be a 
lot of veterans selling apples again, thus presaging a bonanza for apple 
wholesalers. 



37 



Science finds years are no bar to offlciency 
provided older woi'kers know their limitations 



The Older Worker 

NOWADAYS all workers remain 3-oung and efficient considerably 
longer than in the past. 
During" the past century the average length of life has increased 
greatly. The average man of today lives ly 3'ears longer than the average 
man of 191 1 — and nearly 30 years longer than the man of 1879! Longevity 
has almost doubled in six decades. Improved health and better working 
conditions grant a longer life. People must be convinced that they can 
enjoy these additional years most through retaining their health and vigor 
to the end. 



Pointing up its assertion that 
there is a place for old men and 
women in wartime work, the U. S. 
Employment Service has revealed 
that it had got a job for a 102-year- 
old toolmaker in a war plant. This, 
of course, is an exception. What 
matters is the average man, — and 
he is better off in matters of health 
than at an}^ time in the past. 

Efficiency of Older and Younger 
Workers 

Professor Ross Armstrong Mc- 
Farland of the Harvard Medical 
School published a report on his 
own and other studies which tried 
to compare the efficiency of indus- 
trial work of older and younger 
workers. In factories, according to 
his conclusion, oldsters have at least 
as good a production record as 
youngsters; e. g.. in a sample 
group of 1,444 skilled workers, 
those rated "excellent" averaged 
over 47 in age, "inferior" workers, 
41- 

Older workers are more stable 
than 3-oung workers, they change 
their jobs less often and, contrary 
to a common opinion, have far few- 
er accidents. One study showed 
that mill hands over 60 suffered 
onh^ half as manv accidents as 



those in their twenties ; also as 
automobile drivers, oldsters (up to 
60) are safer than youngsters. The 
notion that older workers are slow 
and inflexible, is dismissed by Mc- 
Farland as largely prejudice. What 
they lose in strength and quickness 
of reflexes, they more than make up 
in greater endurance and skill. 
Many older workers ma}" have some 
slight defects in hearing or eye- 
sight, but one study showed that in 
a group in their fifties, a quarter 
had keener vision than the average 
man in his twenties. 

On most mental tests, older work- 
ers do as well as younger ones. 
Their memory for recent events is 
not quite so sharp, but they rate 
just as high in reasoning, critical 
judgment and learning ability. Pro- 
fessor McFarland stresses the fact 
that "we are becoming a nation of 
elders." He concludes that the Unit- 
ed States should make plans to put 
its oldsters to work. He is con- 
vinced that in this way the social 
economy will be improved and the 
older person will be happier than if 
he is pensioned. 

Heart and Blood Pressure 

AVith increasing age. heart and 
blood vessels are in no condition to 



38 



THE CARPENTER 



be subjected to the well nigh un- 
limited strain of younger years. 
Gradually they lose some of their 
former natural elasticity. This fact 
alone is in no way abnormal. Over- 
exertion of heart and blood vessels 
makes itself felt in heart palpi- 
tations, shortness of breathing, a 
slight kind of asthma, occasional 
dizziness. 

An older worker who starts suf- 
fering from sudden dizzy spells 
should try to find out the actual 
cause of these symptoms. Other- 
wise he may risk more of such un- 
pleasant attacks, and sometimes 
they are not without harm. 

We see an obvious increase of di- 
seases of the coronary arteries in 
these days. Coronary arteries are 
the important blood vessels that 
feed the heartmuscle itself; their 
unrestricted working is the source 
of all power of the circulation sys- 
tem. For some time there was a 
popular belief that mostly intellec- 
tual professions such as doctors, 
lawyers, clergymen, etc. were sub- 
jected to coronary diseases, it was 
even called the "disease of the 
intelligentsia." Actually, however, 
there seems to be no difference be- 
tween mental workers and those 
who do manual work. This disease 
loses much of its hazards if people 
do not worrv too much, and if thev 
are able to lessen their usual hurry 
of working and living. 

Only one factor 

Blood pressure is much talked 
about even in laymen circles. A 
slight increase of the blood pres- 
sure does not meari any trouble. A 
certain degree of increase with ad- 
vancing years is only natural and 
normal. An exaggeratedly high 
blood pressure may mean the pos- 
sible sign of trouble. However, the 



blood pressure is after all only one 
of the manifold factors which are 
important for the state of health. 

A. M. Master and S. Dack have 
recently presented an unusual sta- 
tistical study of blood pressure 
readings in more than 5,000 em- 
ployed adults of both sexes in the 
age groups of 40 to 79 years. Work- 
ers observed were all types includ- 
ing also executives, employed in 
several industries. The authors be- 
lieve that their readings are charac- 
teristic of workers all over the 
country. The incidence of high 
blood pressure for each of the dec- 
ades was as follows : age group 40 
to 49 males 25.2%, females 38.3%; 
age group 50-59 males 37%, females 
52.5%; age group 60-69 males 53%, 
females 72.4% ; age group 70-79 
males 61.1% (no females were ex- 
amined in this group). These read- 
ings show a higher incidence of 
high blood pressure in females in 
the fifth to seventh decades of life. 
The conclusion of these findings is 
that high blood pressure within cer- 
tain limits is accompanying the ag- 
ing process and should not be a 
sole cause of rejection for employ- 
ment of workers over forty years 
of age. 

Diseases of the Joints 

AMth advancing years, diseases 
of the joints are more frequent, on 
every limb and in every part of the 
body. They may take the form of 
real gout or of arthritis. Crooked 
or stiff fingers render work difficult 
for the worker, especially on ma- 
chines although even numerous ma- 
chine workers and mechanics are 
well able to do their work efficient- 
ly under these conditions. Proper 
treatment with heat, massage or an- 
other effective method are often 
able to restore the full working 
capacity. 



THE CARPENTER 



39 



It is quite normal that, owing to 
a progressive alteration of the eye- 
lenses, the eye in advanced years 
should gradually become old-sight- 
ed, presbyopic. This may be com- 
pensated at least in part by the use 
of glasses. The change in the lenses, 
due to advanced age, may even im- 
prove the vision of usually near- 
sighted eyes. Consequently such 
people are able to see better in ad- 
vance years, even without glasses, 
than they could during their young- 
er days. 

Watch Yourself 

AA'atch yourself — that is an im- 
portant rule and slogan for the ac- 
tive worker in industry who is get- 
ting along in years. When he keeps 
himself under strict observation, he 
will notice what is good and suited 



for him, what he may accomplish 
without undue effort, and what, on 
.the other hand, exceeds his strength. 
He better does not try to accom- 
plish — due to a false pride, — what 
he could easily do some twenty or 
thirty years ago. Self-adjustment is 
the chief factor in both mental and 
physical health. The whole secret 
of getting middle-aged gracefully 
is adjustment. 

A worker, who has been working 
all his life, would make a real mis- 
take if suddenly he stopped work- 
ing for the only reason that he con- 
siders himself "too old" in years. 
Mental depression and physical col- 
lapse could result. The only thing 
an older person should avoid is 
overwork — though such excess ac- 
tivity might have been of no harm 
to him in his younger years. 



First Text Book On Labor 

Probably the first of its kind, a textbook on labor problems called "The 
American Stor}^ of Industrial and Labor Relations" has been published 
by the State of New York for use in the public high schools. Compiled by 
the N. Y. State Joint Legislative Committee for Industrial and Labor 
Conditions as a basis for high school study of industrial and labor rela- 
tions, it is accompanied by the recommendation that N. Y. schools oft"er 
special courses in this subject. 

Incorporated in the text are sections dealing with the history of the 
American labor movement in a developing industrial economy, explana- 
tion of necessary regulations for employers and employees, meditation 
and arbitration, unions, industrial accidents and diseases, social security, 
and wages and hours. It concludes with a discussion of industrial and 
labor relations in crisis — war and post-war problems. 

Geared to apply specificall}^ to New York legislative and administra- 
tive procedures, the book is nevertheless national in scope, including perti- 
nent data concerning all 48 states and the national government. In an 
explanatory preface, the committee chairman, Irving M. Ives, points out 
that by substituting relevant materials on state law and its administration 
in industrial and labor relations, the book could be fitted to the high school 
curricula of any other state. 



The American flag floats daily over British soil at Washington's ancestral 
home in Northamptonshire, England. 



40 





"he Lumber Industry 

ITS HISTORY and PROBLEMS 



Ponderosa Pine 

EASTERX WASHINGTON and Eastern Oregon together have an 
area of about sixty-seven million acres. Unlike the country west 
of the Cascades, where the climate encourages tree growth every- 
■w'here except above timberline, onh* 35 per cent of the area, or 24.1 million 
acres, is forest land. The short rainfall accounts for this. Without some- 
thing like seventeen inches of precipitation yearly, forest growth gives 
T,vay to scattered growth, then to hard non-timber species, like mountain 
mahogany and juniper, then to sage 



brush. 

Grovrth in this drj- region is slow 
compared to that in the Douglas- 
fir country. The climate makes com- 
petition for water keen. In the 
scramble for water, dr3--countr3^ 
trees must be more particular in 
other respects. The}- demand full 
sunlight, for one thing, and refuse 
to gro-«^ in crowded stands. That is 
typical of the forests east of the 
cascades. Exceptions are stream 
bottoms, the margins of su-amps 
and lakes, the higher wetter eleva- 
tions, and the north slopes, ^^hich is 
on the shad}' and therefore the cool, 
moist side of the hill. Here Doug- 
las-fir, larch, and the true firs come 
in. In all, eighteen conifers and 
three hardwoods have sawtimber 
value. 

132 Billion Board Feet 
Eastern Oregon and Eastern 



might be expected, ponderosa pine 
makes more than half the stand 
on 1 1.6 million acres. The volume 
of ponderosa pine sawtimber is 
eight3--three billion board feet, log 
scale. That is 36 per cent of the 
national supply of this species. 
From 1925 to 1936, four-fifths of the 
lumber cut east of the mountains 
was ponderosa pine. 

About twenty billion feet of the 
East Side stand is Douglas-fir. It 
is a different strain from that which 
grows on the West Side. It is 
frost hardy, has a shorter trunk, 
the grain is apt to be coarse and 
the percentage of upper grades is 
low, but it is the same strong, use- 
ful wood that is familiar on the 
West Side. 

Western larch is also durable, 
tough construction timber. Fortun- 
atel}^, there are y./ billion feet of 
it. One of these davs when we are 



Washington have a combined vol- not so fussy about our lumber, more 
ume of 132 billion board feet. As of it v^nll be cut. 



THE CARPENTER 



41 



Have Been Too Fussy 

There are nearly six billion feet 
of true firs, and rumors come in 
that in places they are cut into di- 
mension and common and used just 
as though they were real lumber. 
Here again we will find that we 
have been too fussy, because we 
had so much of the super-superla- 
tive ponderosa, sugar and white 
pine and Douglas-fir. An authentic 



spruce, and Lyall's larch. It is apt 
to stay there, because we will prob- 
ably find that we can raise timber 
down close to the mill cheaper than 
we can drag it in from the heads of 
the canyons. 

The production of ponderosa 
pine is steadily increasing. Even 
in 1932 quite a lot of it was put 
out. In 1940 the cut was 1,978,000,- 
000 feet, log scale. 




Loading operation in the short log country. 



report has it that a Wisconsin pulp 
mill finds that it can ship white fir 
logs to the plant from AA^yoming 
and still make it pay. "SAHiite fir will 
not always be left in the woods. 

Of course, a good deal of this 
white fir is on the high ridges, 
along with a few billion feet of 
mountain hemlock, Engelmann 



Pine ClassitivHCiuiis 

Growth is slow. Six site quality 
classes are used for pine. Class 
one is the best, and on this site 
class the soil, water and climate are 
about right. We haven't a great 
deal of this class. The best of the 
pine land is further south. About 
d^.y million acres are in site class 



42 



THE CARPENTER 



four. Something- less than loo board 
feet per acre per year is the usual 
growth in this part of the pine 
country. In the Douglas-fir belt it 
is six or eight times as much. 

The average cutting rate during 
five years of the depression was i,- 
209 million board feet. The sus- 
tained yield capacity is estimated 
at 1,146. Since then cutting has 
speeded up about 60 per cent. At 
the slower rate, private timber 
would be cut out in about twenty 
years. Of course, it does not work 
that way — a few districts are cut 
out, then the industry moves on to 
some others. Klamath Falls and 
Bend seem to be in for a rather 
sharp falling off in business with- 
in ten years or so. 

As it happens, East Side forests 
did not move from public into pri- 
vate ownership very fast. Only 
about thirty per cent was trans- 
ferred. The remainder is in na- 
tional forests, Indian reservations, 
and other federal ownership or 
management and is on a sustained 
yield basis, with a capacity to pro- 
duce somewhere around 750 million 
board fee per year with present 
market standards. That is a sub- 
stantial basis for permanent jobs. 

From Seedlings To Veterans 

In the East Side forests trees of 
all ages are found growing to- 
gether. This is another way in 
which they differ from the Doug- 
las-fir forest where all the trees 
usually seem to have started at the 
same time. The typical pine woods 
have all age classes from seedlings 
to veterans. The growth is taking 
place in the thick-crowned, black- 
barked bull pines. The quality lum- 
ber is in the old spike-topped yel- 



low barks, and in these growth is 
probably balanced by decay and 
mortality. 

The percentage is against these 
old timers. They are the marks for 
lightning, wind throw and insect 
attacks. More or less in the same 
class are a number of underpriv- 
ileged younger trees that got a poor 
start in the struggle for light and 
water or that were set back by a 
fire scar or some other injury. They 
are putting on little wood and are a 
mark for any accident that may be 
looking for a place to settle. They 
take up room, and unless they are 
brought to the mill soon, they are 
likely to pass out and be a total 
loss. 

Selective Logging 

The old combination of horse and 
railroad logging required close cut- 
ting to pay for laying the tracks. 
Cutting fast growing bull pine was 
almost a necessity. Truck and trac- 
tor logging fits into selective pine, 
operations -rather neatly. They cani 
range around and pick the trees that] 
should come out. On publicly own- 
ed forests and on some private op- 
erations this method is being used. 
The trees that are enjoying poor] 
health are logged. Not more than] 
half the volume of the stand isj 
taken. This speeds up the opera- 
tion so that the forest area is cov- 
ered twice as fast, and a large vol- 
ume of high grade timber that] 
would die before it would be 
logged in heavy selection opera- 1 
tions is salvaged. 

The timber that is left is youngj 
and healthy. 

The invention of trucks and trac- 
tors is one of the good breaks that] 
we sometimes get. 



This is your publication. Patronize its advertisers. 



THE CARPEXTER 



43 



DOWN BUT NOT OUT— 

SRU's FIX HER UP FAST 




OFFICIAL U. S. NAVY PHOTOGRAPH 



The Japs crippled this American destroyer, sank a drydock from underneath 
it. A direct hit knocked out gun turrets, smashed the bow, set fires raging and 
apparently left the ship a total loss. But — 




OFFICIAL U. S. NAVY PHOTOGRAPH 



Here's the same destroyer, steaming out with the Fleet to lake its revenge. 
Fast temporary repairs — the kind of fixing Ship Repair Units are trained to 
do — enabled the ship to reach a mainland Navy Yard. There she was fitted 
with a new bow, rebuilt and returned to action. The SRU's need skilled me- 
chanics from civilian life — carpenters, electricians, riggers, machinists, metal- 
smiths, etc. — to do jobs like this. A new booklet, giving complete information 
about the SRU's, is available at the Navy Recruiting Station. 



44 



SHIPBUILmNG '^u^rE 

rr^HAT SHIPBUILDIXG will not come to a total standstill after 
I the war seems certain. Indications are that a sizeable shipbuild- 
■^~ ing industry will continue for a number of years after the war, 
despite the fact that America will have at least three thousand bottoms 
in its merchant m.arine b}' that time. As a m.atter of fact, some shipping- 
firms are already seeking permission to start construction of newer, better, 

and faster ships capable of com.pet- ~~ ~~ ; ' ; ; 

all told approximate!)^ ten million 

tons of bottoms. All of these ships 
are now under charter or sold to the 
government which is using them in 
the prosecution of the war. When 
the war is over, most of them prob- 
ably will again be available to the 
shipping lines. However, there are 
few shipping men who evidence 
much enthusiasrri for the ships they 
will get back from the government. 
They figure that the ships will be 
pretty well knocked to pieces b}'^ 
the time Uncle Sam gets through 
with them and the task of putting 
them back into decent shape to com- 
pete with other merchant marines 
for world trade will entail more 
trouble and expense than the value 
of the thoroughly slapped-around 
ships will warrant. As one shipper 
puts it, "It's no cinch to reconvert 
a ship that has had the guts slapped 
out of it, and it will be something 
more than a miracle if the govern- 
ment turns back our ships to us in 
any other condition than with the 
guts slapped out of them." 

Pre-war ships out 

A few of the pre-war ships will 
probably go into service immediate- 
ly following the war, but for the 

long haul the shipping companies 
are looking: toward sleek nev,- ships^ 



ing with the best in the world in the 
post-war era. By next summer a 
few of them will already be under 
construction. 

New ships needed 

No man conversant with the ship- 
ping situation will forecast enough 
post-war shipping to keep in opera- 
tion air the three thousand ships 
that will be available after the war. 
However, few shipping men evi- 
dence much enthusiasm for pre-war 
ships or ships built during the 
emergency as money makers. They 
are all convinced that the lines 
with new efficient ships especially 
built for the jobs assigned to them 
will be the lines that will reap the 
quickest and largest profits after 
the war. Consequently virtually all 
progressive companies are prepar- 
ing to get under way as soon as 
possible the construction of the 
kind of ships they will need to 
make money in the post-war era. 
It is conservatively estimated that 
more than three hundred million 
dollars has alread}^ been set aside 
by various shipping lines for the 
construction of hisfhlv-efficient new 
ships. 

x\t the start of the war, the vari- 
ous American shipping firms had 



THE CARPENTER 



45 



of the latest and most efficient de- 
sign to keep them in a competitive 
position for world trade. 

To date, about seventy per cent of 
the merchant ships that have been 
built during- this war are Liberties. 
These Liberty ships are slow and 
comparatively cumbersome. Their 
eleven knots an hour adds little to 
their desirability as permanent fix- 
tures to the post-war merchant mar- 
ine. Opinion concerning their ulti- 
mate disposal is divided. There are 
some who believe that they can be 
converted into suitable vessels by 
the addition of improved steam 
turbines capable of practically dou- 
bling their speed. On the other 
hand there are those who feel that 
the Liberties are too unwieldly and 
cumbersome to be ever reconverted 
into first class vessels capable of 
holding their own in the scramble 
for world trade that will develop 
after the war. Followers of this 
theory believe that the Liberties 
should be broken up as soon as 
possible after the war to prevent 
their being sold cheaply to foreign 
nations, which, because of their 
lower wage scales for personnel, 
might be able to compete with the 
American merchant marine. How- 
ever, the number who believe that 
some use may be made of the war- 
built Liberty ships is very small 
compared to the number who be- 
lieve that they ought to be junked 
as soon as possible so that America 
can undertake the construction of a 
modern, efficient merchant marine 



capable of holding its own in all 
markets and in all seas. 

New ships planned 

Several firms have already re- 
portedly received permission to 
start construction of specialized 
new ships this summer. More ap- 
plications are pending. 

So much for post-war merchant 
ship construction. In the combat 
vessel field, considerable post-war 
activity is also expected. The pres- 
ent Navy shipbuilding program ex- 
tends through 1947. However, there 
is a logical expectation that comple- 
tion of the current program will not 
end construction of combat vessels. 
Since the start of the war, the navy 
has seen much action and out of 
that battle-experience there has un- 
doubtedly developed a new concep- 
tion of naval warfare. With the ad- 
vent of the airplane, naval tactics 
and naval requirements have al- 
tered drastically. Much of the pre- 
war fleet and probably a good deal 
of the fleet completed in the early 
stages of the war will undoubtedly 
be considered obsolete by the time 
victory is achieved. Some quarters 
foresee the building of an entirely 
new fleet in the post-war era. 

In view of all these facts, it seems 
likely that shipbuilding will con- 
tinue to play a major job-providing 
role in the post-war era despite 
the fact that the merchant marine 
by then will be approximately four 
times its pre-war size and the Navy 
will be expanded from a two-ocean 
navy to a seven-ocean navy. 



Rail Ticket Scalping Grows 



The black market in railroad travel reservations is spreading, according to 
Joseph B. Eastman, director of defense transportation. Travelers are being 
liarassed by gouging, he declared, adding that in some instances reservations are 
being resold for sums ranging up to $50 in excess of their face value. 

Eastman urged cities which do not have anti-scalping laws covering ticket re- 
sales to enact them at once, in interest of the war effort. 



46 



The Construction Outlook for '44 

ACCORDING to estimates b}- the Department of Labor, construction 
in 1944 will fall far below figures for 1943. In the field of public 
construction, volume is expected to be do^Ti about 50% this year, 
while private construction is expected to drop considerabh" also, although 
not quite as drastically. x\s the Department of Labor views it, the con- 
struction picture for this j^ear will be about as follows: 
"Construction for private account 



will decline from an estimated Si. 6 
billion in 1943 to $1.3 billion in 
1944. Public construction expendi- 
tures for 1944 are forecast at $2.9 
billion as compared with a prelim- 
inary estimate of $5. 7 billion in 

1943- 

"Private construction expendi- 
tures were lov.-er in 1943 than in 
an}"- year since 1934 and if the war 
continues through 1944 "«"ill prob- 
ably approach the level of the bot- 
tom depression year. Nonfarm resi- 
dential construction expenditures in 
1944 will amount to approximately 
$600 million as compared with S756 
million in 1943. Practically all of 
this type of construction will be 
found in critical housing areas in 
war industrial centers. 

Few new plants 

"As in 1943, privately financed 
non-residential construction is ex- 
pected to consist largely of war 
plants and should not total more 
than Sioo million- as against S148 
million in 1943. The outlook for 
farm construction at this time indi- 
cates that the total for 1944 will be 
about the same as in 1943. 

"Public utility construction ex- 
penditures amounted to approxi- 
mately $400 million in 1943 and the 
prospects are that they Avill not ex- 
ceed S310 million in 1944. 

"The size of the 1944 public con- 
struction program will be largely 



determined by the need for new in- 
dustrial facilities and military and 
naval construction. 

Less Public housing 
"At this time the outlook is that 
not more than $200 million will be 
spent for public war housing in 
1 94^ as compared with expenditures 
of $628 million in 1943. Non-resi- 
dential construction expenditures, 
including those for industrial facil- 
ities financed from public funds are 
expected to total approximately 
S650 million in 1944. The prelim- 
inary estimate of these expendi- 
tures in 1943 is $1,737 million. 

"Direct military and naval con- 
struction expenditures will prob- 
ably amount to no more than $1,350 
million in 1944, slightl}'- more than 
half of the S2474 million expended 
in 1943. There is still work to be 
done on the strategic network of 
highways on access roads and flight 
strips. This -v^'ork will maintain 
highway expenditures at a level not 
far below that of 1943 when ex- 
penditures totaled approximately 
S407 million. 

■'The total of all other Fed- 
eral construction expenditures will 
probably not exceed S250 million in 
1944 as compared with $391 million 
in 1943. State and local expendi- 
tures are expected to decline from 
about Si 10 million in 1943 to not 
more than S80 million in I944.'"' 



47 



Who's Going To Quit? 



SPEEDY RETIREMENT from the labor market of youngsters, and 
of women and aged persons who no longer wish to remain in gain- 
ful employment, would greatly ease the transition from war to 
eace economy, the recent publication of the International Labor Office, 
'Manpower Mobilization for Peace," points out. 

Indeed, public authorities in the United States count on the withdrawal 
'rom the labor market of some six million persons after the war. But it is 
)y no means certain that this will i^:^^:^^^:^^^^^:::^^::::^::^:^:^^^ 
)ccur. 

First of all, are workers who are 
villing to leave the market likely to 
)e able to do so? The I.L.O. warns 
hat if older workers are not as- 
sured of at least a minimum of se- 
;urity, if husbands of married wo- 
nen workers cannot find jobs with- 
)Ut much trouble and cannot earn 
lecent wages, if widows' war pen- 
ions are inadequate, or if young 
)eople cannot pay for continued 
education, they will try to keep on 
vorking, even if they would prefer 
lot to do so. 



Many Will Remain 

Second, the I.L.O. insists, many 
vorkers will not wish to withdraw 
rom the labor market, whether 
hey need to earn money or not. 
lany young workers will feel that 
hey are too old for further school- 
ng. Many women will be eager to 
eep their foothold in industries 
nd occupations from which they 
lad been more or less excluded in 
>rewar days, Avishing to derive 
asting benefit from the variety 
nd skill of the work they have 
lone during the war emergency. 

This desire must be respected, 
he I.L.O. affirms. Women and 
'ouP-Sfsters who want to go on 



IMillions of housevrives, youngsters, 
and others who never held jobs before 
have gone to "work during the war 
eraergency. Will they quit after the 
war — as tlie government expects — or 
will they continue in the labor market, 
thereby swelling the total labor pool? 

working when peace comes must 
not be driven out of employment, 
no matter what impels their desire 
to continue working. We must ac- 
cept them as full partners in the 
employment market after the war. 

There are, however, important 
prerequisites to keep them in jobs. 

If the demand for labor can be 
kept high enough for every worker 
to be needed somewhere in indus- 
try, the problem would be easily 
solved. 

Unions' Viewpoint 

The unions' point of view must 
also be considered. But unions, the 
I.L.O. firmly believes, will not op- 
pose women's employment wher- 
ever women have been able to es- 
tablish bonds of solidarity with 
their fellow workers, and have taken 
an active part in supporting unions, 
as long as they are not regarded as 
unfair competitors who will lower 
wasres. 



48 



THE CARPEXTER 



111 any case, measures must be 
taken that will serve to adjust the 
labor of women and youngsters to 
peace conditions. New methods 
must be applied for training ap- 
prentices. Some kind of industrial 
internship or consistent in-plant 
training and upgrading must be es- 
tablished. Working conditions in 
those industries and occupations 
Avhich have traditionally been the 
field of Avomen need to be made 
more attractive. These and other 
measures are examined in detail in 
the I.L.O. publication. 

AA^hatever the success of these ad- 
justments may be, the I.L.O. study 
makes it cleajr that we should not 
count on the retirement b}^ millions 
of workers from the labor market. 
The probable difficulties of the 
labor market after the war are 
brought into sharp relief. 

The main problem examined in 
''Manpower Mobilization for 
Peace" is that of means that will 
enable- youngsters, women and old 
or disabled workers to retire from 
the labor market if they wish to do 
so, or to remain in employment if 
they desire. 

Program needed 

Appropriate measures are also 
needed for improving the situation 
of workers in the postwar labor 
market. Dismissal wages, public 
works and the regularization of em- 
ployment are discussed under this 
aspect in the I.L.O. study. 

a). Special allowances must be 
given to discharged service men 
and women for whom no work is 
available at the moment they are 
ready to take up jobs. Apart from 
service men, however, dismissal 
payments should also be paid to 
workers who lose their employment 
on the termination of w^ar contracts 
and have no good prospect of im- 



mediate re-emplo3'ment. The prob- 
lem is particularly urgent in coun- 
tries where unemployment insur- 
ance and relief are unsatisfactorily 
developed. The I.L.O. refers to 
plans which are being elaborated in 
New Zealand and in Australia for 
protecting war workers who will 
be displaced either permanently or 
temporarily. Several unions in the 
United States have also advocated 
the granting of some form of com- 
pensation to dismissed war work- 
ers. Plans being drawn up to com- 
pensate employers for war con- 
tract cancellations or terminations 
should include dismissal wages as 
well. A spokesman for the War Pro- 
duction Board in this country has 
also suggested the compensation of 
dismissed war workers, both in 
fairness to the workers and in order 
to avoid pressure for continued 
production of goods no longer 
needed after the war. 

Various Projects Needed 

b). Work programs, planned in 
detail in advance, will be of the 
greatest importance in bridging the 
transition after the war, the I.L.O. 
is convinced. But it points out that 
construction projects alone would 
not suffice. A\"hile many a planner 
in the United States, Beardsley 
Ruml, for instance, w^ould restrict 
public works to maintaining the 
construction industry at a high lev- 
el, the I.L.O. points to the need 
of other projects for the purpose 
of providing employment for white- 
collar workers, for older workers 
and for other groups who would 
not be suitable for construction 
works. 

Employment Control 

c). Another preoccupation of the 
I.L.O. is that of regularizing em- 
ployment and income in a number 
of important industries. The aim 



THE CARPENTER 



49 



is to prevent short layoffs and to 
keep the workers employed full- 
time without interruption of work 
or earnings in those industries. 
AA^aste of labor power .and skill 
could be eliminated by means of 
such schemes. The I.L.O. tells of 
methods already applied in Great 
Britain, where building- workers are 
guaranteed a minimum weekly in- 
come and dock workers a guaran- 
teed wage and year-round work. 
War controls of employment in 
New Zealand and Great Britain 
have been directly linked with reg- 
ular work and earnings. The I.L.O. 
also refers to the suggestion of the 
National Union of Boot and Shoe 
Operatives in Great Britain for 
full and regular employment for 
all Avorkers in the industry for 
forty-eight weeks of every year af- 
ter the war. 



Fair Employment Code 

A kind of code of fair employ- 
ment practice should be observed, 
the basic principle of which should 
be: No discrimination! 

AVorkers ought not to be exclud- 
ed from jobs because of sex, age, 
physical handicap, race, creed, 
color, or national origin. The I.L.O. 
suggests different safeguards for en- 
forcing the non-discrimination rule. 
It reminds us, however, of the root 
cause of discrimination before the 
war — the fear that there would not 
be enough jobs to go round. If af- 
ter the war there are jobs enough 
for all, and if there is good machin- 
ery for bringing men and jobs to- 
gether, "half of the battle against 
unreasonable discriminations in em- 
ployment will already be won," the 
I.L.O. is convinced. 



U. S. Plane Plants Outstrip World In ^43 

INTERESTING statistics on American airplane production were sup- 
plied ver}^ recently by the Army Air Corps. 
During last year, it said, total output of fighting planes was 85,000; 
since the Pearl Harbor raid, 133,000 were turned out, and since the start 
of the defense effort the output was 155,000. 

■Already we are outproducing the Axis nations two to one 
and more than matching the output of enemies and allies 
combined. 
Schedules for this 3^ear call for well over 100,000 planes, with a monthly 
peak of 10,000, expected to be reached in April or May. With Japan in 

mind, the emphasis will be on heavier, longer-range planes. 

• 

Look Out Inflation — U. S. Workers Get 1-Cent Raise 

One cent — that's all average hourly pay rates of factory workers went 
up during the first year of the wage stabilization law, from October. 194J, 
to October, 1943, the National War Labor Board boasted last month. 

The board "pointed with pride" that the increase was so small even 
though the WLB and its regional branches disposed of 3,700 cases where 
wages were in dispute and 109,000 Avhere raises were "voluntary" — in- 
volving, all told, 9,500.000 employes. 

What the board didn't mention, however, is that in the same period 
prices of the necessities of life advanced nearl}'" four times as fast as 
wages, and profits of corporations 14 times. 



50 



THE CARPENTER 



RECONVERSION STILL FAR OFF 

With a 17% increase in war production asked for '44 
manufacture of civilian goods still remote this year 



WITH PRODUCTION schedules met or passed in many basic in- 
dustries turning out such critical materials as aluminum, steel 
and copper, conflicting rumors regarding a prompt return to 
the production of civilian goods by many war plants are spreading con- 
fusion among the people. Various supposedly authoritative sources are, 
from time to time, predicting an immediate reconversion of a large part of 
the manufacturing industries from war production to civilian production. 
Coupled with these supposedly accurate predictions are announcements 

by the Army and Navy that "cutbacks" are in store for certain kinds of 
armaments. The natural result is that 



people are confused. 

Recently, however, OWI issued an 
up-to-date statement on the subject 
based on Army and Navy information. 
The statement scotched any rumors that 
a sizeable reconversion to civilian pro- 
duction is in the offing. Instead, the 
statement pointed out, overall produc- 
tion of war goods will have to be in- 
creased by at least 17% this year to 
meet with Army and Navy require- 
ments. Cutbacks are being ordered in 
some lines of production but tremen- 
dous increases are also planned for 
other lines. Says the OWI statement: 

Cutbacks temporary 

None of the curtailments, or "cut- 
backs," to date has been based upon 
plans for resuming manufacture of civ- 
ilian goods. No considerable curtail- 
ments for that purpose can be sche- 
duled during 19 44 unless the war in 
Europe should take an early decisive 
turn in our favor, ending hostilities not 
later than June or July. Until then, 
whatever resumption of civilian produc- 
tion WPB permits must be considered 
purely as temporary, and subject at all 
times to a return to military production 
when required. 

The present series of adjustments in 
war production and those projected for 
coming months are dictated by: 

(1) Changing military requirements 
resulting from combat experience. 

(2) Overproduction of some raw 
materials and military equipment. This 
has come about largely because at the 



war's outset our production goals had 
to be scaled high enough to provide for 
any contingency — the seeming possibil- 
ity of the fall of Russia, an invasion of 
this continent, or almost total destruc- 
tion from the air of Britain's and Rus- 
sia's war industries. 

The consensus of officials of the 
Army, and civilian war agencies is that 
any return to civilian manufacture dur- 
ing the year, beyond the 2,000,000 elec- 
tric irons and 50,000 bathtubs recently 
authorized by the War Production 
Board, will probably be in goods neces- 
sary to maintain the civilian economy. 
Ys/'PB states, "Our severely burdened 
railway ^nd motor transport systems 
and our heavy war industries must have 
first call on replacements and mainte- 
nance equipment as they become avail- 
able." Indications also are that some 
electric refrigerators and stoves for war 
housing may be scheduled for 1944, 
provided the situation in metals con- 
tinues to ease and further cutbacks in 
war items provide facilities for manu- 
facture. 

Program kept fluid 

OWI pointed out, however, that if the 
United Nations should be checked dur- 
ing the year, if large scale landings in 
Europe are repulsed, the current trend 
would be reversed abruptly. Production 
of war materials, now curtailed or even 
terminated, would have to be resumed 
and radically increased. In most cases 
of cutbacks, standby facilities are re- 
tained against this possibility. 



THE CARPENTER 



51 



Tentative schedules for 19 44 call for 
further cuts in some types of equip- 
ment, while production of other war 
items will be advanced. Thus, despite 
cutbacks, the over-all program will be 
an estimated 17 per cent greater than 
in 1943. 

Chief cutbacks during the coming 
months, according to miltary and civil- 
ian war agencies, will come in small 
arms and ammunition, tanks, certain 
types of anti-tank equipment, non-com- 
bat aircraft, and artillery fire-control 
equipment. More than offsetting this 
will be an almost doubled production 
of combat aircraft, with greatly in- 
creased emphasis on bombers, a tripled 
requirement for high-octane gasoline, 
and other expansions in merchant ship- 
ping (an estimated 1,000,000 dead- 
weight tons), trucks (about 50 per 
cent), electronic equipment, heavy guns, 
heavy artillery shells, ground ordnance, 
and signal items. 

OWI said the fact that the shipyards 
under the direction of the Maritime 
Commission have abandoned the seven- 
day week for a six-day week has given 
rise to reports that cutbacks in mer- 
chant shipping were in progress. On 
the contrary, the U. S. Maritime Com- 
mission says that the tentative 19 44 
shipbuilding program calls for approxi- 
mately 20,000,000 deadweight tons of 
new shipping, as compared to 19,000,- 
000 deadweight tons completed during 
1943. A total of 1,779 vessels is 
planned, of which 339 will be Victory 
ships, 820 Liberty ships, 300 C-type 
cargo vessels, and 340 tankers. 

Seven day week out 

The Maritime Commission states: 
'There was large and consistent absen- 
teeism on Sundays. Also, seven full 
days ^ made repair and maintenance of 
equipment difiicult. Closing the ways 
on Sundays eliminated both troubles. 
The six-day work week uses the same 
lumber of man-hours as the seven-day 
.vork week. Workers formerly on Sun- 
Jay shifts now get in their time on 
fteekdays." 

In a recent detailed statement on 
irmy cutbacks, the War Department, 
oreseeing no immediate relaxation in 
production, said that its broad program 
:or 19 44 would be larger than in the 
last year. 



Shifting of production needs, minor 
though they may be in relation to the 
entire program, will undoubtedly cause 
inconvenience to communities in areas 
of surplus labor. However, war agen- 
cies point out, dislocations are not like- 
ly to become serious as long as plants 
can readily shift from the manufacture 
of materiel no longer in demand to that 
currently needed. Such shifts are con- 
stantly occurring, although in most 
cases nothing can be said about it. It 
can be revealed that during 19 43 a 
firm manufacturing tanks changed over 
to locomotives and another, designed 
for production of plywood aircraft, 
turned to Commando transport planes. 
A factory making certain artillery com- 
ponents switched to aircraft parts. Ship- 
yards once turning out escort vessels 
now build landing craft. 

Future uncertain 

In case the European campaign 
should go better than even the more 
optimistic conjectures, this process of 
substitution would no longer be neces- 
sary or possible. The present manpower 
shortage would quickly develop into a 
problem of widespread unemployment. 
Although this eventuality is extremely 
unlikely, the Army, the Navy, the War 
Manpower Commission, the War Pro- 
duction Board, and the Office of War 
Mobilization are studying plans to cope 
with it. 

WPB cautions against the conclusion 
that an end to metal famine in war pro- 
duction will mean ability to swing at 
once into civilian production. Men laid 
off at one plant because of curtailments 
are badly needed at another plant that 
is going full blast, WPB says. 

Officials of WPB emphasize that, 
"The acute shortages now are in man- 
power and in critical components essen- 
tial to manufacturers. If, for example, 
you want to make washing machines in 
quantity, plenty of aluminum and steel 
maj'' be available, but you cannot obtain 
the workers to make the machines or 
the electric motors to operate them. 
These motors are needed by the armed 
services for a variety of purposes." 

Other bottlenecks standing in the 
way of renewed manufacture of civilian 
goods were listed as: forgings and cast- 
ings, certain Diesel engine parts, bear- 
ings, gears, and valves. 



52 



THE CARPENTER 



MEMBER OF THE GENERAL EXECUTIVE BOARD 
First District 



w 




E ARE SORRY to announce 

the death of Theo. M. Guerin, 

!\ member of the G. E. B. from the 

First District, on January 2, 1944 at 

/ his home in Troy, New York. 

k ^ His record in the Labor Movement 

fW-M:MW& ' *^ **^® *** ^® proud of. He joined 

^:"";''"^"' *■*'"': ' Carpenters Union No. 78, Troy, New 

1 York on November 7, 1898 and be- 

J came active right away. He held 

I every office within the gift of that 

Local Union. He was a Delegate to 

I; the Central Body of Troy, N. Y. for 

¥ several terms. He was also a Dele- 

\ gate to the Building Trades Council 

of Troy and was elected President of 
that body term after term. 

He was elected a Delegate to the 
Eleventh General Convention of the 
Brotherhood in Scranton, Pa., in 
September, 1900, and served on the Finance Committee of that Conven- 
tion, and was there elected First General Vice-President, a position he 
held for eight years. 

In 1912 he was nominated and elected a member of the General Ex- 
ecutive Board for the First District and has held that position until his 
death — altogether he served as a General Officer for thirty-nine years-^ — 
8 years First General Vice-President and thirty-one years a Board Member. 
For several years he was a Delegate from the Brotherhood to the 
Conventions of the American Federation of Labor and sei-ved with dis- 
tinction on many important committees. 

He was active in the New York State Federation of Labor at all times 
and attended its annual conventions regularly. He was elected Honorary 
Vice-President of that Body for life at its 79th amiual convention in 1942 
and officially notified under date of November 6, 1942. 

Mr. Theo. Guerin, 
290 Second Ave., Troy, New York. 
Dear Sir and Brother: 

Pursuant to the action of the 79th Annual Convention upon recommendation of 
the Executive Council of the New York State Federation of Labor, you w^ere * 

elected a life honorary Vice-President. 

In accordance therewith and the further action of the Executive Council there 
is being sent to you on this date a certificate of such honorary Vice-Presi- 
dency. I will appreciate it if you will advise the undersigned of the receipt of 
this certificate. 

Sincerely and fraternally yours, 

E. W. Edwards, Sec.-Treas. 

At his funeral on January 5th the General Office was represented by 
Maurice A. Hutch eson. First General Vice-President; Wm. J. Kelly, Mem- 
ber G. E. B., 2nd District; Hari-y Schwarzer, Member G. E. B. 3rd District. 

And yet, though great the loss to us appears. 

The consolation sweetens all our pain 

Though hushed the voice, through all the coming years 

Its echoes will remain. 



Official Information 




General Officers of 
THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS 

of AMERICA 

General Office : Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General President 

WM. L. HUTCHESOX 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



First General Vice-President General Secretary 

M. A. HUTCHESON FRANK DUFFY 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Second General Vice-President General Treasurer 

JOHN R. STEVENSON S. P. MEADOWS 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Executive Board 
First District Fifth District, R. E. ROBERTS 

t^a^mmam^ 631 W. Page, Dallas, Texas 



Second District, WM. J. KELLY Sixth District. A. W. MUIR 

Carpenters' Bid.," 243 4th Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 10348J Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, Calif. 



Third District. HARRY SCHWARZER Seventh District, ARTHUR MARTEL 

3t;84 W. 136th St., Cleveland, O. 1182 St. Lawrence, Rm. 10, Montreal, Que., Can, 



Fourth District, ROLAND ADAMS WM. L. HUTCHESON, Chairman 

Kfuka Hotel, Jacksonville, Fla. FRANK DUFFY, Secretary 



All correspondence for the General Executive Board must be sent to the General Secretary. 

' Member Killed in Action— How to File Claim 

We are receiving many inquiries as to what papers 
are required in filing claim for funeral donation on 
the death of a member killed in action with the armed 
forces of our country. In such cases, instead of the 
usual death certificates, we require a PHOTO- 
STATIC COPY of the OFFICIAL NOTICE of 
death received from the War Department by relatives 
of the decedent. 



NEW CHARTERS ISSUED 



276 8 Johnson City, Tenn. 1181 Milwaukee, Wis. 

10 63 Coleman, Wis. 2782 Casper Woods Camp, Cal. 

2776 Racine, Wis, 2783 Potter Valley, Cal. 



Xot lost to those that love them. They still live in otu" memory, 

Xot dead, just gone before; And will forever more. 



"^tst in "^tatt 

The Editor has been requested to publish the names 
of the following Brothers who have passed aieay. 



Brother Charles AJn«Trorth. Local Xo. 229. Glens Falls, X. T. 
Brother William BaU. Local Xo. 993, Miami, Fla. 
Brother Chas. H. Bausher, Local Xo. 488, X'ew York, X. T. 
Brother George Brewster, Local X'o. 791, Brooklyn, X. T. 
Brother J. TV. Cross, Local X'o. 993, Miami. Fla, 
Brother Wni. Dnpslafif, Local Xo, 512, Ann Ai'bor, 31ich. 
Brother F. Fildew, Local X^o. 25, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Bi-other Henrj- Heidt. Local Xo. 90. ETansxille, Ind. 
Brother Phil. Holzer. Local X'o. 419. Chicago, HI. 
Bi'Other I. .Johnson. Local Xo. 25, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Brother X". Latkovich. Local Xo. 25, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Bi-other J. McCarthv, Local Xo. 25, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Brother Roy McConnell. Local X'o. 993. Miami. Fla. 
Brother .John Mulligan. Local X'o. 25, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Bi'Other Guy PeiTy. Local Xo. 177, Spring-field, JIass. 
Brother Gleim Pray. Local X'o. 1128, La Grange, 111. 
Brother F. 31. Pace. Local X'o. 627, Jacksonville. Fla. 
Brother Hartley Roberts. Local Xo. 655. Key West, Fla. 
Brother Alfred S. Shultz. Local X'o. 8. Philadelphia, Pa. 
Brother Otto Schulz. Local X'o. 419. Chicago, lU. 
Brother Wm. Twiest. Local X'o. 1330. Grand Rapids. Mich. 
Brother R. E. Vogelnian. Local X'o. 993. Miami, Fla. 
Brother John Zohko, Local X'o. 229. Glens Falls, X. T. 

• • • 

( SeaBees > 

Brother Hariy Webb. IxKal X'o. 2119. >t. Lotils, Mo. 




/sfOfyopf/^/osf... 




What Ovr Readers Have to Say 

• • • On Topics of the Day! 

(This Journal is not responsible for the views expressed by the writers.) 



The principle of organized labor is 
just, and fair, and aboveboard. There 
is nothing underhanded or deceitful in 
their dealings. Also if labor was not 
organized, the "big shots" would have 
us working for wages that would not 
enable us to raise our families in a 
decent way. We have always in our 
dealings with the "big shots" been fair 
and square. When the cost of living 
etc. would go up and we could not man- 
age to live like human beings, we 
would, in a just and aboveboard way, 
decide on an increase in wages. We 
would notify our contractors giving 
them plenty of notice that our wages 
should be raised. The decent ones 
would agree. Others would not until 
they were taught some sense. I joined 
organized labor in 1899. We had to 
work for 25c per hour, 9 hours a day. 
We could buy 2 quarts of buttermilk 
for 5c (real buttermilk); pure milk, 7c 
a quart; beer 7c a quart; bacon 15c a 
pound. Prices began going up so we 

aised the scale to 37c per hour, and 8 
hours a day. We found that a human 
could do better work in 8 hours in the 
long run. Organized Labor is demo- 
cratic in every way and behind our 
boys in every respect, doing everything 
for the good of our sons that are fight- 

ng for everything that organized labor 
stands for. God protect us from the 

big shots" like the ones that have been 
shipping oil to Spain. Also the "big 

hots" that shipped everything to the 

ats of Japan. 

The "big shots" are taking advantage 
3f our boys while they are going 
hrough Hell, to save their dirty pelts. 
Throwing the blame of strikes on or- 
ganized labor — fooling our boys. Why 
sn't the truth published and the guilty 
)nes be punished and made to suffer. 
Organized labor is 100% democratic, 
tands behind our government 100% 



and all brothers are behind our fighting 
heroes 100%, and I want our boys that 
are going through Hell for us to know 
the real truth of strikes in the U. S. 
God help us now if we were not organ- 
ized. We had the same thing at Camp 
Logan in 1918. The "big shot" there 
threatened to put organized labor under 
guard. Our business agent took it up 
with Washington, and the "big shot" 
crawled in his hole like the rat he was. 
So God bless organized labor. Let the 
truth be known, let our boys know the 
truth, and let the guilty ones that are 
causing the trouble be punished. 

There always, in time of war, has 
to be a goat like in World War one, 
when the prohibition bunch took dirty 
advantage of our boys while they were 
fighting for the principle of democracy, 
and freedom of the human race. They 
caused the biggest run of crime, caused 
people who never tasted liquor, to 
drink. They were the cause of children 
learning to distill whiskey, also to brew 
beer. They are the cause of our women 
smoking in public. They closed up the 
saloons, and made saloons of drug 
stores, dry good stores, etc. They are 
the cause of women smoking in worse 
than the old Bar room with their feet 
on the foot rail, drinking beer, or wine. 

There are talks of making it a trea- 
sonable offense to strike during war- 
time. Why not punish the "big shots" 
that are so low to give our organized 
men a just cause to strike to retain 
their rights as men, not dominated 
slaves. Punish the inside groups of 
profiteers that stab Uncle Sam in the 
back. They are the ones that are caus- 
ing all the trouble. Not our (Salvation) 
organized labor. Thank God I am one 
of them, and like all of us, 100% for 
the good of Uncle Sam. 

O. A. 3IONSTEY, Houston, Texas. 



Corrospondonce 




This Journal Is Not Responsible For Views Expressed By Correspondents. 

Local Union No. 5 Honors Brother Joern 

The Editor : 

A surprise part}^ was tendered Brother Herman Joern on the night of 

December i6, 1943 hj his brother members of L. U. No. 5, St. Louis, Mo. 
Brother Joern has faithfully served this Local Union 
for thirty-six years, and in appreciation of this honor- 
able service, he was presented with an oak covered book 
bearing the signatures of almost all members of the Lo- 
cal Union. The oak covers were made from oak that 
was approximately the same age as Brother Joern who is 
seventy 3^ears of age. The paper was hand-made and 
embossed in gold. On one of the pages was inscribed 
the following: 

Chronology of Herman Joern (Born July i, 1864) 
Entered the United Brotherhood 1884 (to '91). Re- 
joined in 1906. AVas elected Financial Secretary of 
Local 5 in 1907-1943. Delegate to Carpenters D. C. 1915 to the present. 
Elected Business Agent in the years 1915-1917 and 1923-1930. Delegate to 
the Building Trades Council of St. Louis 1915-1930. Was elected delegate 
to the Carpenters National Convention of 1910 at Des ]\Ioines, Iowa; 1912, 
Washington, D. C. ; 1924, Indianapolis, Ind. 




Cars, Homes Top Post- War Wants 

Automobiles are the No. i item on America's post-war shopping list, 
Fortune magazine's latest consumer survey reveals. Of persons queried, 
21 per cent named a car as the thing they hope to buy first after the war 
ends. This survey, conducted among all social, economic and geographic 
groups in the U.S. also discloses that: 

1. A house, or house repairs (preferred by 18.6 per cent), ranks next 
to cars. 

2. Counting onh^ 12 of the most popular specific articles, the dammed- 
up demand indicated by the surve}' already totals more than $28 billion. 

3. Nearly 50 per cent of the people saj^ it is harder to make ends meet 
today than it was a year ago — a ''feeling of hardship" greater than any 
previously recorded b}- the survey since it started in 1935. 

Other specific items ranked as follows : mechanical refrigerators, wash- 
ing machines, stoves, clothes, farm machiner3-, rugs and radios. Nearly 30 
per cent said they didn't know. Slightly more than 3 per cent said they 
didn't want anything. 



National Auxiliary Leader Honored 

Mrs. Lillian Turner, president of the Joint Council of Women's Aux- 
iliaries (AFL) of Denver, Colo., has been awarded the OPA distinguished 
service pin for 3,000 hours of volunteer w^ork as price panel member ol 
the Denver War Price and Rationing Board. The award was made when 
Mrs. Turner went to Washington to appear on a radio broadcast with 
Price Administrator Chester Bowles and to consult with the OPx\ Labor 
Policy Committee. 

Mrs. Turner, who is also president of the Bakery Workers' Auxiliary 
in Denver, visits 69 grocery stores in north Denver and checks with gro- 
cerymen on compliance with OPA price regulations as part of her volun- 
teer work. 

She is the mother of six children, three of them in the armed forces. 
One son, Fred, now in active service in Italy, is a member of the Bakery 
Workers' Local No. 26 in Denver. Two of her daughters are WAVES. 

Reporting that many women in auxiliary groups in her area are tak- 
ing an active part in consumer cooperation with the OPA programs, Mrs. 
Turner said, "I believe that this kind of work is a most important part of 
the war effort for women. We have to feed our families, war or no war," 
she declared, "and it is our duty to see that we keep intelligently abreast 
of the price and rationing picture." 

» 

Sacramento Ladies Report 

The Editor: 

Auxiliary No. 240, Sacramento, Cal., extends sincere wishes to all 
Sister Auxiliaries for the New Year. 

We have been negligent in writing The Carpenter of our activities. 
For the duration we have one meeting a month, first Friday evening — 
the members are busy doing war work. 

During the past two years we have donated two hundred forty-four dol- 
lars and twenty-eight cents ($244.28) to the following: Red Cross, USO, 
United War Relief, Navy Relief Society, President's Ball and T. B. 
Association. 

We are a charter member of Ladies Auxiliary State Council and last 
year sent our delegate Sister Bertha Rugg, to Oakland, Calif. 

To keep our finances, in the groove, we hold card parties, make wool 
:omforters and different articles to sell. We have sent smokes and gifts 
to our many boys in the Service. 



58 THE CARPENTER 

Each Christmas we invite our husbands to a Turkey dinner, tree and 
entertainment. Santa, Bert Rugg, President of Carpenters Local 586, gave 
each one a gift. 

The ofiicers of the Auxiliary- are: President, Sister Ida Betty: A'ice- 
President, Sister Lillian Montieth; Financial Secretary. Sister Bessie 
Rose; Recording Secretary, Sister Virginia Echdahl ; Conductress, Sister 
Rose Zimmerman; Warden, Sister Isobell Faun; Trustees, Sisters Lena 
AIcFarlane, Helen Bossonnet and Etta M. Yoho. 

Fraternally 3"Ours, 

Mrs. Etta ]NL Yoho, Social Secretary 

3522 D St., Zone 16. Sacramento, Calif. 

• 

Placerville, Cal., Ladies Active 
The Editor: 

Greetings to all our sister Locals. The following is a brief account of 
our activities here in Placerville. 

Carpenters' Local Union 1992 celebrated their sixth anniversary with 
a dinner last December. To be sure, we have had our ups and downs. 
There was but a handful of charter members left as mam^ of them have 
gone into the armed forces and man}- more have left the region to go into 
defense work in the Baj' Region. One of our members has alread}'' made 
the supreme sacrifice in the fighting in Sicily. 

However, we had approximateh' seventy-five at the dinner; many of 
them being new faces. Our Auxiliary (Local 358) cooked and sen. ed the 
dinner, and from the comments of the guests it was thoroughly enjoyed 
by all. We were only nine members at the time, but that night three new 
women were signed up for initiation at our next meeting. 

Our few stick together and we try to do all we possibly can. We can 
only hold one meeting a month, but those of us who can go to the Red 
Cross rooms and sew each Thursday-. Among other things that we accom- 
plished over the holidays was to send a donation to the Carpenters Home. 
Owing to the toy shortage, we gave each child a Christmas gift of Defense 
Stamps when we had our Christmas Tree and program. AVe especially 
enjoy letters from sister locals published in our magazine. The Carpenter. 
Fraternally and sincerely yours, 

(Mrs.) Florence Eskew. 

• 

You can hare a birthday cake that plays "Happy Birthday to You" -vrhen cut. 
A little music box, baked inside the cake, is equipped vrixh levers "which release 
the music when they come in contact with the knife. 

***** 

Do you clean your jevrelry reeularly to make it glisten and sparkle? You can 
buy jewelers cleaning kits or make your own. Lay pieces to be cleaned in am- 
monia for a few minutes. E.inse in clear water and dry by rolling in fine sawdust. 

***** 

The most remarkable discovery of modern dermatology which removes with- 
out pain unwanted hair from face, limbs or body, is now being demonstrated in 
some of our foremost beauty salons. Because the root is removed with the 
hair, relief may be had for several months. 



Graft ProblQms 




Carpentry 

By H. H. Siegele 
LESSON 185 

There is only one fundamental differ- 
nce in the framing of hip and valley 
afters and the framing of common raf- 
ers, and that is the figures used on the 
)ody of the square. In stepping off a 
lip or a valley you take exactly as many 
teps as you take in stepping off the 
ommon rafter, but instead of using 12 
)n the body of the square, you use the 



ingness to use those muscles "vvill not 
produce accuracy in roof framing. The 
whole mental process must be utilized 
in order to frame a roof understand- 
ingly. 

Fig. 1 shows how to step off a hip or 
valley rafter after the seat cut has been 
made, which was explained in Lesson 
183. The figures used on the square 
are 17 and 8, which indicates a one- 
third pitch roof. The shaded square 
shown at number 1, is in position for 
the first step, number 2, the second 
step and so on until we reach the 5th, 




Fig. 1 



liagonal distance of 12 and 12, or 17. 
The figure to be used on the tongue is 
he same as for the common rafter, 
,vhich is to say, that if you have a rise 
)f 8 inches per foot run of the com- 
iion rafter, you also have a rise of 8 
nches per the run of the hip or valley 
after, which is 17. To make this clear 



■ /> ■ ' ■ ■ /i ■ 




Fii 



n the mind of the student he need only 
magine the relationship of the run of 
he common rafter to the run of the hip 
)r valley rafters. 

Roof framing is primarily a product 
)f the mind — mere muscles and a wili- 



er the last step, which is represented 
by the shaded square to the extreme 
right. The tongue of the square gives 
the plumb cut. To the left we are show- 
ing how to step off the tail of the hip 
rafter. If the cornice projects over the 
building only 12 inches, the tongue of 
the square in the position shown will 
give the plumb cut. But if, for in- 




Fig. 3 

stance, the cornice projects IS inches, 
then the square must be slipped forward 
8 % inches, as shown by the dotted 
lines, in order to gain the extra 6 inches 
in the width of the cornice. If the run 
of the common rafter were 5 feet 6 inch- 
es, instead of only 5 feet, the extra 6 
inches of the run would be obtained on 



60 



THE CARPENTER 



the hip rafter by slipping the square 
forward 8 V2 inches, just as we have 
done in gaining the extra 6 inches for 
the cornice. 

Why we used 8 y^ inches to gain the 
extra 6 inches in tlie run of the com- 
mon rafter is illustrated by Fig. 2. Here 
it will be seen that the diagonal distance 




Fig. 4 

of 6 and 6, on the square, is S^/^ inches. 
A still simpler way to arrive at this is 
by dividing 17 by two, because 6 is one- 
half of 12, and the results will be the 
same, 81^. We are using 6 inches for 
convenience. Any other number of inch- 
es or fractions of inches are treated in 
the same way. It should be remem- 
bered here, that dividing 17 by the de- 
nominator of the fraction of a step, is 
simple only so long as the fraction is 
simple. 

A detail showing how to take a frac- 
tion of a step in stepping off hip or val- 




Fig. 5 

ley rafters is' shown by Fig. 3. The 
square marked A is in the position of 
the last step, and to gain the fraction 
of a step, which in this case is 81^ 
inches, we slip the square forward 8% 
inches to the position shown by dotted 



lines and marked B. The same results 
can be obtained by taking an extr«, step 
and moving the square back 8 V2 inches 
to the position shown at C, which is 8 Vz 
inches to the right of 17, position A. 
In both of these methods the tongue 
gives the plumb cut. In simple terms, 
take the diagonal distance of the frac- 
tion of a step of the common rafter 
and add it to the last full step of the 
hip or valley rafter as explained in Fig. 
3, in order to get the full length of the 
hip and valley rafters. 

To obtain the edge-bevel for a hip or 
a valley rafter to fit against a deck or 
into a right-angle, take 17 on the body 
of the square and the length of the hip 
rafter per foot run of the common raf- 
ter on the tongue. The latter gives the 
bevel. We show how to obtain the 
length of a hip or a valley rafter for a 
one-third pitch roof in Fig. 4, by meas- 
uring the diagonal distance ' of 17 and 
8, which gives us 18% inches, there- 




Fig. 6 

fore, 17 and 18%, the latter gives the 
bevel, will give the edge-bevel for hips 
and valley of a one-third pitch roof. 

The reader has no doubt discovered 
that 18% can not be taken on the 
tongue of the square, in which case the 
figures should be reduced. Fig. 5 shows 
one method of reducing the figures. Ap- 
ply the square as shown at A and mark 
along the blade of the square. This 
done, pull the square back until figure 
12 intersects with the edge of the tim- 
ber, or to the position shown by dotted 
lines at B, which will give you the pro- 
portional figures, or 12 and 13%. These 
figures will give the edge-bevel of the 
hip or the valley rafter for a one-third 
pitch roof, the larger figure giving the 
cut. 

The same results can be obtained by 
dividing 17 and 18% by 2, which will 
give us 8 1/2 and 9 % . Using these fig- 



T II E C A R P E N T E R 



61 



ures, apply the square as shown by Fig. 
6 — the tongue gives the bevel. Now, if 
the square is pushed forward until the 
figure 12 intersects with the edge of the 
timber, as shown by dotted lines, we will 
again have 12 on the body of the square 
and 13% on the tongue — the latter 
gives the bevel. 

We are showing why the run of the 
hip and the length of the hip rafter per 
foot run of JLhe common rafter will give 
the edge-bevel of the hip or valley raf- 
ters by Fig. 7. The drawing represents 
a plan of one end of a hip roof having a 
12-foot run. The square marked A, 
shoAvs how 17 and 17 would give the 
bevel if the roof had no pitch at all — 
the square would have to be placed in 
the position shown by dotted lines at 
B in order to mark the bevel. But our 




Fi£ 



roof has an S-inch rise per foot run, 
which would increase the figures on the 
blade of the square marked A to point 
a, or to 18%. The triangle showp repre- 
sents: b-c, a hip rafter; c-17, the run; 
and 17-b, the rise. This triangle is 
shown as if it were lying on the side. 
The dotted part-circle from b to a shows 
how the length of the rafter has been 
transferred to the blade of the square. 
Now, if the student will imagine the 
blade of the square, pivoted at the heel, 
being lifted at the end until point a is 
directly above point 17, he will see why 
17 and the length of the rafter will give 
the edge-bevel for the hip and the val- 
ley rafters. To mark the cut, the square 
would have to be placed in the position 
shown at B. To make it convenient, the 
figures would have to be reduced as we 
have shown elsewhere. 



'^CARPENTRY" 

(Craft Problems) 

by H. H. Siegele 

The book has over .^>00 pages, more than 
750 practical illustrations, covering car- 
pentr.v from staking out to fitting anil 
hanging doors. It_ teaches how to do 
t hings that carpenters have to do, not 
theories. Price .$2 — autographed — UNION 
LABEL. 

C.O.D. orders, postage and C.O.D. fees, extra. 

H. H. SIEGELE 



222 So. Const. St. 



Emporia, Kansas 



New Anchorage 

We were called in to fix a door that 
was dragging, because the top hinge 
was loose. The lady said that she had 
tightened the screws, but that they 
would not hold. The trouble was that 




Fig. 1 

the threads of the screws had no an- 
chorage in the wood. We examined the 
door and decided to fix it in the manner 
shown by the illustrations. 

Fig. 1 is a section in part of a door 
jamb at the point where the upper 



62 



THE CAKPEXTER 



HELIiER HAIMMERS 



Carpenter's Nail Hammers; supplied in patterns, styles and weights for every job. 



Perfect balance 

HELLER BROTHERS COJIPANY 



Newark. N.J. 



Newcomerstown, Ohio 



MXoe BY AM:ERrCA;:S; OtOeSt- FaE.-.MANU?ACTaRERS — good TOOLSSINCE 1836 



hinge is fastened, showing the screws 
and their relationship to the hinge. The 
heavy dots pointed out with indicators 
at A, represent nails that were driven 
into the jamb, as we are showing by 




. Fig. 2 

Fig. 2 and pointed out at B. The pivot 
of the hinge is shown partly cut out 
so as to show the nails where they start. 
The dotted lines to the left of the nails, 
represent the center line of the path 
the nails take when they are driven. It 
will be noticed that these nails will 
strike the screws just a little to one side 
so that they will glance by. Two nails 
for each screw are driven in such a way 
that they will hit the screws somewhat 
in the manner shown by Fig. 1. When 
the nails are in, the screws are tight- 
ened until they hold the hinge firmly 
to the jamb. 




m 

THEY HAVE' 
ii^OUR CHART Bj„ 27"x36" blue priat chart 
Vi on the steel square, Starting Key, also 
i"i new Radial Saw Chart. Blue print shows 
jT how to find length of any rafter and 
^H make its cuts, find any angle in degrees, 
.'■1 frame any polygon 3 to 16 sides and cut 
.^■i its mitres, read board foot and brace 
^T tables, octagon scale, rafter tables and 
i,"^ much other valuable information. Can be 
■^ scalsd down for model work as well as full 
scale framing. Radial Saw Chart changes pitch- 
es and cuts into degrees and minutes. Every 
carpanter should have these charts. Complete 
set for 50c coin or M.O. — ^no stamps or checks. 

MASON AND PARRISH, ENGINEERS 
2105-CM, Burdick St. Kalamazoo, Mich. 




\i U > i^ig 



EASY TO READ — easy to clean, uncondi- 
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proof u-hite surface is bonded to the steel 
—protects it from rust. 25, 50, 75, 100 ft. 
lengths. Sold by hardware, building material, 
mill supply dealers everywhere. Write for 
folder. KEUFIEL & ESSER CO., Hoboken, N. J. 




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Examination 



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Coupon Brings Nine Books FREE For 



AMERICAN TECHNICAL SOCIETY Vocational Publishers since 1898 
Dept. G236 Drexel at 58th Street, Chicago 37, III. 

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Please attach a letter stating your age, occupation, employer's 
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W.f.VVW^i'tfi 



Designed by Master Craftsmen 




We've combined everything in this saw that 
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shape that follows the curve easily. Try it, 
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OHLEN-BiSHOP MFG. CO. 
906 Ingleside, Columbus, Ohio 



No. 20 GREYHOUND COMPASS 



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—PRICE LIST— 

Label and Emblem Novelties 

Card Cases (Label) .10 

Key Chains (Label) .15 

I'obs (Label and Emblem) .50 

C.avels (Labels) 1.25 

Pins (Emblem) 1.00 

Buttons (Emblem) 1.00 

Solid Gold Charms (Emblem) 7.50 

Cuff Links (Emblem) 1.50 

itatch P.ox Holders (Label) . .15 

Belt Loop and Chain (Label) .75 

I'ins, Ladies' Auxiliary (Emblem) 1.50 

Auto Radiator Emblems 1.25 

In Ordering These Goods Send all Orders and 
Make all Remittances Payable to 

FRANK DUFFY, Gen. Sec, Carpenters' Building, 
222 East Michigan St., Indianapolis, Ind. 



MAYDOLE 




Balanced 
Right 

When you swing 
a Maydole Hammer 
day after day you'll 
appreciate its perfect 
balance and tireless action. 



For over 100 Years 
the choice of 
slcilled Cai-penters 



No. in 

16 oz. 



rVSAYHEW-MAYDOLE TOOLS 

Sold Through Hardware Dealers 




SAY ATKINS FOR THESE, TOO 

Atkins Silver Steel Handsaws 

Atkins Silver Steel Back Saws 

Atkins Silver Steel Coping Saws 

Atkins Silver Stee! Compass, Keyhole Saws 

Many Other Special Types of Saws 



E. C. ATKI 



IS AND COMPAN 
Agents OF Dealers in 



• It pays in many ways to buy an Atkins when you 
need a circular saw. If pays in time savings — less 
time spent in filing and setting — less time spent in 
turning out good work— less time allowed for sand- 
ing. Carpenters for generations have known this, 
and today it's ingrained habit of thousands, born 
of experience, to insist on Atkins when a new saw 
is needed — whether it's a circular or any other of 
the many fine saws in the "Silver Steel" line. 

Y • 401 So. Illinois Street, Indianapolis 9, Indiana 
All Principal Cities the Worid Over 



n 




FREE PLAN.' 



Shows how to Start a Good War-Time 
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There are hundreds of saws 
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need sharpening repeatedly, 
used by home owners, car- 
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factories, mills, etc. Our 
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call. 

FOLEY MFG. CO,^W.;j:\f!%n.. 

Please send FREE PLAN on saw filing business. 

NAME 

ADDRESS — 




and Salvage 
Waste Lumber 
For Bracers • Spreaders « Stoppers 

This powerful, fast-cutting MALLSAW reduces form construction 
to a few simple operations. It assures perfectly square board 
ends, eliminating fins and projections. It permits a carpenter to 
gang and cut boards for entire section at one time. 8t does away 
with awkward hand sawi.ng below grade as boards cut to size can 
be passed to the man in She trench faster than he can nail them 
in place, ftnd, in addition, it enables contractors to use small 
ends and pieces ordinarily discarded. MALLSAWS are balanced 
for safe, one-hand use, easily and quicUly adjusted for depth and 
bevel cuts to 45 degrees, simple and easy to use. A big time and 
labor saver for Victory Construction. 

Write AT ONCE for literature and prices 
MALL Gasoline Engine and Pneumatic powered 
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timbers. 

IVIALL TOOL COrVSPAI^Y 

7751 South Chicago Av., Chicago 19, Dl. 



YOU CAN SAVE TIME 

and a lot of extra work if you know how to 
read a Stanley Steel Square, how to use its 
tables and scales. For example, you can get 
the exact length of common, hip, valley, or 
jack rafters for any pitch of roof right off the 
face of the square. Also tables for brace and 
board measure. 

Learn how to use the 

STEEL SQUARE 
from this FREE booklet 

Easy to understand . . . just a few simple 
rules, briefly but thoroughly explained. 
Every carpenter should have a copy. Write 
today . . . ask for Stanley St eel Square Book- 
let Na 51. It's free. C STAN LEY 3 



STANLEY TOOLS 



DIVISION OF THE STANLEY VVC 

New Britain, Connecticut 







UNION MADE 



Lee 



LEE 

TAILORED SIZES 

LEE STURDY 
FABRIC 

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cfofhes. 

beH.D.LEECO. 



Kansas City. Mo. 
Trenton, N. J. 
South Bend. Ind. 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
San Frantisco, Calif. 
Salina, Kans. 



Carpenter's 
Overalls 




/IIJDELS Caiiienters 
and Builders Guides 

4vois.$6 




Inside Trade Information On: 



hisld* Trad* tofornuliea 

(or Carpraien JBuilden. Join- 
er*. BuQdins MachAiiie. aod 
•11 Woodworkers. Theaa 
OoidM firt jroa th< ihort-out 
tnstruetwDS tli*t yon want — 
including nev mothods. id«a«, 
•olutionA. pUxis, ■yrtenu and 
money sann^ aocsestiona. Aa 
ea«7 proimarra ooorae (or the 
apprenttoa and atodent. A 
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worker. Carpentara arerr- 
Where are nains tbeM Guidea 
aa a Helping Hand to Eaaiar 
Work. Better Work and Bet- 
ter Pay. To set thia aaaiat. 
nnea for youraeU, aimply fill 
in and man (b« FBES COU> 
PON betow. - 



How to use the steel aaoare — How to file and sat 
eaw»— How to build furniture — How to uae a 
mitre box— How to use the chalk line — How to uaa 
rule* and acalee — How to make iointe — Carpentera 
arithmetic — Solving menauxation problems — E*. 
timatins stren^h of timbers — How to set eirdera 
and sill* — How to frame houses and roofs — How to 
estimate costs — How to build houses, bams, sa- 
raees, bunealowa, etc.— How to read and draw 
plans — Drawing up si>eci£cations — How to ex- 
oavate — How to use settings 12, 13 and 17 on th* 
steel SQuare — How to build hoists and scaffolda— 
skylishts — How to build stairs — How to put on 
interior trim — How to hane doors — How to lath^ 
lay floors — How to paint. 



THEO. AUDEL & CO., OS W. 23rd St., Naw York City 

Mac Audets Carpeotera and Buildera Guide.. 4 Tola., on 7 dayi' free trial. If 0.K?, 
I will remit $1 in 7 days, and SI moathly until $6 ia paid. Otherwia* 1 will zatoni them? 
No obligation unloM 1 am satiafied. 




Naaw., 



Oooopatioo. 
Baference... 



CAS 










. OVCRHEAQ QOOR CORPO&4TlQa 



DESIGNED FOR THE WORK- 

RVILT FOR THE YEARS 

The "OVERHEAD DOOR" with the Miracle Wedge 
is easily and quickly opened or closed. It is a weather- 
tight, tamperproof closure, made as a complete 
unit to fit any size opening. It is designed, above 
all, to do the work. Only quality materials and expert 
craftsmanship go into The "OVERHEAD DOOR." 
The tracks and hardware are of Salt Spray Steel. 
Here is a door that is built for smooth, uninterrupted 
service through the years. 

Any "OVERHEAD DOOR" may he manually 
or electrically operated. Sold and installed by 
Nation - wide Sales — Installation — Service. 




MIRACLE, WEDGE 
OVERHEAD DOOR CORPORATION -' HARTFORD CITY, IIVDIANA, V.S.A 







RPENTER 



FOUNDED 1881 



Offic/ol Pubiicaf'ion of the 
United Brofherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America 



MARCH 

19 4 4 



gU^i' -«8 ^^ 



-^he f o uncial ion -i^one op c^ -■ 

-w/Ae kof700^i0l;f world 





I am the 
AMERICAN WORKER 

/ forged the 
guns and weld- 
ed the ships 
and built the 
planes that 
started the vic- 
tory parade 
moving. You 
can depend on 
me to keep it 
rolling with 



WAR BONDS 



NOTICE 



The publishers of "The Carpenter" reserve the 
rlglit to reject all advertising matter which may 
be, In their judgment, unfair or ohjectlonable to 
llie membership of the United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America. 

.\1I contracts for advertising space In "The Car- 
penter," including those stipulated as non-can- 
cellable, are only accepted subject to the above 
reserved rights of tlie publisliers. 



Index of Advertisers 



Carpenters' Tools and Accessories 

Page 
E. C. Atkins & Co., Indianapolis, 

Ind. 32 

Henry Disston & Sons, Inc., 

Philadelphia, Pa. 3rd Cover 

Foley Mfg. Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 32 

Heller Bros. Co., Newark, N. J— 30 

Keuffel & Esser Co., Hoboken, 

N. J. 30 

Mall Tool Co., Chicago, 111 32 

Mayhew-Maydole Tools, Norwich, 

N. Y. 28 

Millers Falls Co., Greenfield, 

Mass. 31 

North Bros. Mfg. Co., Philadel- 
phia, Pa 31 

Paine Company, Chicago, 111. 31 

Stanley Tools, New Britain, 

Conn. 3rd Cover 

Insurance 

Federal Life & Casualty Co., 

Elgin, 111 4th Cover 

Technical Courses and Books 

American Technical Society, Chi- 
cago, III. 31 

Theo. Audel, New York, N. Y 3rd Cover 

Builders Topics, Seattle, Wash— 27 

Chicago Technical College, Chi- 
cago, 111. 1 

Mason & Parrish, Engineers, 

Kalamazoo, Mich. 30 



KEEP THE MONEY 
IN THE FAMILY! 

PATRONIZE 
ADVERTISERS 

WHO SPEND MONEY 
WITH YOUR UNION. 



CARPENTERS 
BUILDERS and 
APPRENTICES 

Send for These: 



FREE 



Blue Print Plans and Book 

"HOW TO READ BLUE PRINTS" 

See Offer Below^ 




Find out now, — by this Free Trial Les- 
son, — how easy it is to learn the tech- 
nical side of Building, right in your own 
home, in your spare time. No charge for 
this Lesson either now or later ! 

FOR PRACTICAL MEN 

If you hare had practical experience as 
a carpenter or builder, — so much the 
better. The most competent builders, — 
foremen, estimators, superintendents, 
master builders and contractors, — must 
understand blue prints and specifications. 
Here is your chance to become a trained 
builder. Send the coupon or a post card 
for details. 

HOW TO LAY OUT JOBS 

Learn how to lay out and run a build- 
ing job. How to read blue prints. How 
to understand specifications. How to 
estimate costs. No books — no classes ! 
Just use the blue prints, specifications 
and easy lessons we furnish. Same as 
the contractor uses. Fits in with your 
daily experience. This practical plan is 
the result of our ^0 years of experience 
in training practical builders. 

FOR PROOF SEND COUPON 
— or a Post Card 

To prove to you how easy it is for a 
practical man to learn this "headwork" 
side of Building we will send you, — (if 
you are a carpenter, builder or appren- 
tice), — our Free Trial Lesson or Booklet : 
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of blue print plans, — all Free of cost. 
They are valuable and instructive. 

Send Coupon or Post Card 

CHrCAGb~TlciiNrCArCO~LrEGE 

The School for Builders 

C-105 Tech BIdg., 2000 So. Michigan Ave., 
Chicago, 16, Illinois 

Please send at once, — no obligation, — Tour 
FREE Book "How to Read Blue Prints" and a 
complete set of Blue Print Plans, 

Address 

P. O. State 

Occupation 




A Monthly Journal, Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners 

of America, for all its Members of all its Branches. 

FRANK DUFFY, Editor 

Cai-penters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, 4, Indiana 



Established in 1881 
Vol. LXIV — No. 3 



INDIANAPOLIS, MARCH, 1944 



One Dollar Per Tear 
Ten Cents a Copy 



Contents — 



The Year of Decision ------ 3 

Considerations of vital interest to every American worker will be 
at stake in the forthcoming November presidential election— a 
fact that makes it imperative for every union man to carefully 
weigh the issues. 

Rain Check -------- 9 

A pulse-stirring vignette of life in America— an America fighting 
for its life as never before in history. 

Keep 'Em Smoking ------ 10 

A million free cigarettes per month to the boys and girls in our 
armed forces is the goal of our Brotherhood's Cigarette Fund for 
the duration of hostilities. 

Super Dams Coming ------ 12 

Uncle Sam is preparing for the greatest dam building program in 
history to provide post-war jobs, to control disastrous floods, and 
to rehabilitate millions of acres of mined-out land. 

Plane Gossip -------- 14 

War, taxes, government, and even matrimony have their lighter 
sides. 

OTHER DEPARTMENTS: 

In My Opinion .--__--.- 8 

Editorial -- 16-17 

Official 18 

Obituary 23 

Correspondence -.._-..-. 24 

Womens' Activities ..___... 25 

Craft Problems 26 

Index to Advertisers --------- 1 



In line with the government's paper conservation directive, this issue of The Carpenter 
is confined to 32 pages as the Brotherhood's contribution to Victory. 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of 

Congress, Aug. 24, 1912. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for 

in Section 1103, act of October S, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918. 



e 



THE YEAE OF DECISIOI 

Issues for consideration in the 
1944 presidential election 



The folloAving statement was unanimously api>roved by the General Execu- 
tive Board at its regular meeting in Lakeland, Florida February 7th to 17th. 



By WILLIAM L. HUTCHESON 

EVERY SO OFTEN, a single year flares out historicalh' as a turn- 
ing point in human progress. 1944 seems destined to be such a year. 
Vast social and economic issues are coming to a focus. Long 
evaded realities must be faced. Just as this is the "year of decision" of 
our great and uncompleted war task, so the choice which the American 
people will make in the 1944 Presidential election will determine the 
shape and direction of our national economy for at least a generation. 

As producer, as consumer, as citizen, the American wage earner feels 

the impact of every throb of our national viewpoint. His viewpoint is 

that of the whole American econ- '■ , ,1 , '■ \ 

T , , , . lan concept that a single group can 

om^^ Labor speaks as the voice, 1 c^. u-i ^.u 1 

■^ . . . ^ , - , . ,' benefit while the general economy 

not of a faction, but of the national cuffers 

interest as a whole. jt. • ' • x- it ^ ^u at 

it IS my conviction that the New 

To American Labor the issues of Deal Administration has shown it- 

1944 are crucial. Labor wants a self incapable; that its methods and 

change. policies have, themselves, created 

In voicing such insistence labor new threats to our national economy 

makes it clear that the time is past more disquieting than those which 

when our economy can permit the we have been attempting to escape; 

extravagance of water-tight com- that wage-earners have been vic- 

partments of mutually exclusive tims of a cruel political deception 

group interests. American well-be- in that our economy has been en- 

ing is indivisible. Any national trusted to visionaries. When war 

program however packaged to win ends, the twelve million men and 

labor's approval, which injures the women in the armed forces want to 

national economy, inevitably in- return to honest-to-God jobs. While 

jures the wage-earner. The Amer- they are awa}' it is the duty of all 

ican labor movement, while contin- men and women of good will to op- 

uously striving for the betterment pose unsparingly the national poli- 

of labor's status, rejects the Marx- cies and leaders who have revealed 



THE CARPENTER 



an incapacity, or an unwilling-ness 
to make our American free enter- 
prise system work. They must make 
their opposition effective in the ap- 
proaching Presidential contest. 

Labor demands of both national 
political parties that the candidates 
shall have the ability and their plat- 
forms the assurance of a progres- 
sive leadership to the end that the 
nation shall have 

1. The preservation of free enter- 
prise. 

2. The abatement of bureaucracy. 

3. The halt of paternalism. 

4. The creation of post-war jobs 
through private industry. 

5. The maintenance of labor's so- 
cial gains. 

6. The protection of our national 

interest. 

* * * 

(i) The preservation of free en- 
terprise. In many respects, our ac- 
cepted free enterprise system has 
been in sad and constant retreat 
throughout the eleven years of New 
Deal rule. Under the guise, first of 
combatting the Depression, and la- 
ter of waging World War II, many 
of those in high places in this Ad- 
ministration have waged a continu- 
ous war of attrition against the psy- 
chological and economic supports 
of our free enterprise economy. 
They have pursued Government 
policies which have dangerously 
weakened the incentives which 
make a free economy workable. 
They have confused the public mind 
with their jargon of an inevitable 
after-war "mixed economy." 

Labor recognizes that a free econ- 
omy is the only soil in which a free 
State and a free labor movement 
can exist. The American Federa- 
tion of Labor has repeatedly de- 
clared itself unqualifiedly for the 



preservation of free enterprise. Its 
post-war policy is postulated upon 
the continuance of such an economy 
in this nation. . It looks with deep 
distrust upon those who propose 
the two-headed nonesuch of a "mix- 
ed economy" for America's future. 

We insist that the two major par- 
ties offer us candidates in 1944 with 
a proven record of practical under- 
standing and faith in our free enter- 
prise economy. 

(2) The abatement of bureau- 
cracy. A corollary is the necessity 
of an immediate program to halt 
the weed-like growth of bureau- 
cracy which is choking our demo- 
cratic institutions. Our. national 
economy is enmeshed in an intricate 
network of government controls 
and regulations. 

While admittedly there are areas 
in our economy where government 
rule-making and enforcement are 
dictated by the national interest, 
what we are now witnessing is bu- 
reaucracy for the sake of bureau- 
cracy. For the man with a practical 
job to do, AVashington today has 
become a labyrinth of duplicating 
agencies, of conflicting authorities, 
of time-wasting futilities, of buck- 
passing, of form-filling and of ex- 
ecutive face-saving. Naturally, in 
such an atmosphere of confusion, 
abuses multiply and injustices be- 
come rank. 

For labor, bureaucracy creates a 
truly poisonous political atmos- 
phere. In the war between conflict- 
ing boards' and authorities, labor's 
problems and interests become the 
football of political careerists. The 
protective labor laws which the 
people have succeeded in placing 
upon the Federal statute books 
through long and patient effort, are 
only too frequently vitiated or 



THE CARPENTER 



weakened by the incompetent mal- 
administration of the bureaucratic 
agencies to which they have been 
entrusted for enforcement. Labor 
has looked with increasing appre- 
hension upon the unconscionable 
blunders which bureaucracy has 
committed in recent months in such 
nationally urgent situations as the 
N. L. R. B. handling of the Kaiser 
case, the coal mine negotiations of 
1943, and the railway wage case. It 
can not safely intrust its future to 
the architects of such a govern- 
mental system. 

In the 1944 election, it asks for 
nominees who will have the cour- 
age and the vision to draw the 
true line of demarcation between 
functions which properly belong to 
government, and those which should 
be left in the keeping of a free 
people. 

(s) The halt of paternalism. No- 
thing is more disquieting to labor 
than the steady march of the nation, 
under the New Deal, toward an 
overall paternalism. The substitu- 
tion of government by men for gov- 
ernment of laws, against which Jef- 
ferson warned the nation, has pro- 
ceeded apace. Vast discretionary 
authority has been conferred upon 
appointive boards and commissions 
whose decisions affect the life of 
every citizen. 

Such paternalism is a stealthy 
threat to the continued freedom of 
organized labor. It lulls labor mis- 
givings by offering temporary aid 
in specific situations. It deceives 
the trade unionist into the belief 
that only through government, has 
he won long overdue social gains 
which would have been achieved 
inevitably through his own trade 
union action. In the end, it enfee- 
bles the labor movement by habitu- 
ating union officers to an uncertain 



dependence upon the favor of op- 
portunist politicians. 

Samuel Gompers taught the 
American labor movement to look 
upon all progress as insecure which 
was not achieved through the rigor 
of union self-reliance. The favors 
which the politicians confer are too 
often the bait for the hidden and 
barbed hook of government con- 
trol. Under such a system trade 
union leadership becomes the rub- 
ber stamp of a political regime. 

The present Administration, in 
its conduct of such agencies as the 
National Labor Relations Board 
and the War Labor Board has re- 
vealed many of the worst vices of a 
paternalistic State. It has stripped 
to virtual impotence the Depart- 
ment of Labor through which labor 
should have a cabinet voice in the 
conduct of the national government. 
It has played a mischievous game of 
politics in the internal organiza- 
tional life of the unions. It has 
pursued policies which have pro- 
longed division between national 
labor bodies. It has had its labor 
union palace favorites, who have 
enjoyed advantageous "breaks" 
from New Deal agencies. On the 
other hand, it has attempted to visit 
veiled reprisals upon other trade 
union executives who have refused 
to toe the Administration "line." 

•Inevitably, such attitudes have 
led to a capriciousness and vacilla- 
tion in government labor policies 
which have frequently operated to 
hurt the trade union movement. The 
advantages of New Deal friendship 
have too often been overweighted 
by its long-term threat to union 
self-reliance. It raises the serious 
question in Labor's mind whether, 
on balance, labor has not been the 
tinal loser. Labor asks of the politi- 
cal parties that they nominate can- 



THE CARPENTER 



didates in 1944, who. while sympa- 
thetic with trade union needs and 
objectives, will recognize and re- 
spect the necessary line between 
government compulsion and our 
voluntary structure of free trade 
unionism. 

(4) The creation of post-war jobs 
through private industry. No ques- 
tion is more hauntingly existent in 
labor's mind than how unemploy- 
Tuent can be avoided in the post- 
war period. Recent Department of 
Labor studies have indicated the 
possibility of an unemployment of 
12,000.000 within six months after 
the close of hostilities. Faulty and 
ill-planned government policies 
could easily snowball this figure up 
to the largest unemployment total 
in American history. America will 
not and cannot accept the conse- 
quences of such a social breakdown. 

The jobs for post-war labor must 
be created by private industry. 
Government can and should assist 
during the reconversion period by 
an extensive public works program 
of nationally-useful, self-liquidat- 
ing projects. But Government's 
greatest contribution should be the 
maintenance of an economic atmos- 
phere favorable to the kind of capi- 
tal investing and risk-taking which 
will encourage the^ development of 
ncAv industrial and resultant new 
jobs. The channel of enterprise 
must not be choked by government 
controls or punitive tax policies on 
one hand, or by self-defeating mo- 
nopolistic or cartel policies by in- 
dustry on the other hand. Business 
within recognized socially desirable 
limits must enjoy the incentive of 
adequate profit-making opportuni- 
ties. Unless the hazardous problems 
of the post-war period are ap- 
proached in this spirit, we run the 
risk of seeing the expansive im- 



pulse in our economy inhibited, or 
dwarfed. 

In the light of the dismal failure 
of the Xew Deal to solve the un- 
employment problem during the 
eight and one-half years before 
Pearl Harbor, labor cannot intrust 
to the Xew Deal the unprecedented- 
ly difficult employment task which 
will follow the war. The call is for 
practical, and not visionary national 
leadership. The administration 
which is to be selected in 19-14 must 
have the capacity to win the broad- 
est measure of confidence and co- 
operation from capital, labor and 
agriculture. The New Deal has con- 
spicuously failed to win such con- 
fidence through three administra- 
tions of opportunity. 

(s) The maintenance of labor's 
social gains. It is imperatively im- 
portant that the next administration 
be guided by an intelligent and 
sympathetic understanding of the 
increasingly constructive role of 
organized labor in our present econ- 
omy. The last twelve years have 
seen the American Labor movement 
coming of age. Collective bargain- 
ing is no longer a debated cause : 
it is an accepted national policy. 
The duty of industrial statesman-* 
ship today is to direct the vast 
social energy of organized labor, 
once dissipated in the struggle 
for union survival, into collabora- 
tive productive functions. Labor is 
ready and eager for such a creative 
future. 

Obviously, the rich contribution 
which organized labor can bring to 
our economy will not be achieved 
in an atmosphere of distrust or gov- 
ernment hostility. It can not de- 
velop under an administration 
which blows hot and cold on labor 
policies. 



THE CARPENTER 



It is urgent that the political par- 
ties present candidates whose past 
records give assurance that labor's 
social gains, of the last generation, 
will be confirmed and extended dur- 
ing the coming years. Only thus 
can we be certain that the team- 
work which has lifted American 
production to such superlative 
heights during the war crisis will 
be a permanent part of the Amer- 
ican future. 

(6) The protection of our na- 
tional interest. The close of the 
World War will confront America 
anew with the problem of our fut- 
ure relations with the world. We 
recognize the pitfalls which con- 
front statesmanship in grappling 
with this intricate problem. Already 
important voices are being raised 
in our midst urging the nation to 
make commitments which would 
bind us to post-war responsibilities 
of such incalculable costliness as to 
bankrupt our home economy. Such 
commitments would also danger- 
ously increase the possibility of 
American involvement in future 
foreign conflicts. 

Certainly, America must do its 
after-war part in alleviating human 
suffering. As in all previous emer- 
gencies, we will give generously 
to the relief of the destitute in the 



war-ravaged lands. But we must 
make certain that such benefactions 
shall be in the form of terminable 
gifts, rather than continuing obliga- 
tions. We can not embark upon 
any ruinous policy of raising the 
standard of life of other peoples 
at the cost of lowering the living 
standards of our own population. 
The American interest must be par- 
amount in our minds at all times. 
Labor insists that the candidates in 
1944 clarify their positions unmis- 
takably upon this issue. 



The maintenance and elevation of 
the American standard of living is 
inextricably woven in the forego- 
ing fundamentals. Our American 
economy is geared to the sustained 
purchasing power of our wage and 
salary earners. Only by this pres- 
ervation of our traditional policies 
can we avoid a short-sighted post- 
war assault upon the American 
wage structure, as was experienced 
following World War I. As the 
American people face the unprece- 
dentedly difficult task of after war 
reconstruction, the call is for close- 
ranked unity of all for the general 
good. We offer this statement of 
principles as an integrating point 
for all who will work together for 
a fearlessly constructive American 
decision in the 1944 elections. 



ANHEUSER-BUSCH HEIR INDICTED OVER DRAFT 

"Gert Hans von Gotard, 37, heir-grandson of Adolphus Busch, founder of 
Anheuser-Busch Breweries, has been indicted for evasion of the Selective Sei-vice 
Act." That sentence appeared in the nation's newspapers late last January. 

To all but the very newest members of our Brotherhood, the attitude of the 
Anheuser-Busch Breweries toward our union is well-known. No members of our 
Brotherhood are as yet working for the Anheuser-Busch people. The company 
has fought our union in the courts and out of them for years. 

Today more than eighty thousand of our members are in the armed forces. 
To our knowledge, not one of them shirked his duty. Each quietly laid down the 
tools of peace and took up the tools of war when his call came. Apparently not so 
with the scion of the Anheuser-Busch dynasty, however. 

Somewhere in all this there is probably a powerful moral that could be 
drawn. Suffice it to say, however, that some of those today casting stones at 
labor have apparently forgotten what Jesus said about being without sin. 




iAf^yop//^/o/if... 



What Our Readers Have to Say 

• • • On Topics of the Day! 



(This Journal is not responsible for the views expressed by the writers.) 



I am a carpenter and belong to Local 
1802. I am not the type that goes 
around throwing bouquets. I have been 
reading your journal for many years. 
Recent issues have had an added inter- 
est for me. I just want to let you know 
that one of your readers in our Local 
appreciates your efforts to improve 
"The Carpenter" and in that way help 
the Labor Movement. 
OTTO P. LIND, Dover, Ohio 
• • • 

It's an old American custom to beef 
or grouch, which ever one cares to call 
it. Now might be a good time to point 
out to brother members that any 
squawk, even one against beefs, is it- 
self a beef. Also, that one can only get 
through a day's work without beefing 
by saying nothing at all. Here where I 
work we are beefing about everything 
we don't "like, even when we really do 
like- it. That is a bit topsy-turvy. How- 
ever, it's the only way to convey the 
fact that we build ships, beefs or not. 
The truth is that when we stop beefing 
hell will pop. 

I spent two years in the Army, four- 
teen months overseas, in the last war. 
May I assure the brothers that we 
beefed about everything while in the 
Army as well as while at home. 

Let us then fight for our America on 
any front we can and in any way we 
can. By all means let us remember that 
it is their — the men and women over- 
seas — Ainerica as much as it is ours, 
and that they will want it to be the 
America they left. Not some weird mess 
of rules, regulations and restrictions, 
but the America where a person can as 
someone once said: live each day so 
that one can look any person in the 
face and tell him to go to hell. That is 
my America, and I am sure it is the 
one the Troops prefer. 
B. T. STEVENS, Sr., Aiitioch, Calif. 



The way some people spend their 
money these days is enough to make 
anyone disgusted. They seem to think 
the present boom days will never end. 
They are actually fighting their way into 
the movie liouses, saloons, race tracks 
and any place else they can spend their 
money. Then when the war is over and 
things tighten up they will have a lot 
of fine furniture on which they owe a 
dozen installments and a lot of clothes 
on which plenty of money is still due 
and then they will start cussing the 
government and democracy and every- 
body else but themselves. 

Why don't they put some of their 
money in bonds? The government needs 
every cent it can scrape up now to keep 
the war going full tilt. When the war is 
over the workers are going to need 
every cent they can save to tide them 
over any emergencies that might de- 
velop. So every cent that goes into 
bonds now will be doing double duty. 
Why can't the people see that. Like I 
say, those that are throwing their money 
away now will be the first to start crab- 
bing at the government when the boom 
is over. 

Every worker owes it to himself and 
his family and his country to invest 
every dollar he can lay his hands on 
now in bonds. 

ART. FLETCHER, CLEVELAND, O. 
• • • 

There is lots of talk these days about 
the kind of world we will have after the 
war where there will be no unemploy- 
ment or breadlines. As far as I can 
figure, most of it is just fine talk. The 
only constructive suggestions I have 
seen yet are incorporated in the social 
security program worked out by the 
AFL. That's the kind of program we 
must have so let's all get behind it 
right away. 
CLINT FROST, Atlanta, Ga. 




AIN came slowly at first, 
just a few spattering drops 
now and then. It seemed 
that the sky might clear as eight swing- 
shift carpenters of Richmond Shipyard No. 
2 (Richmond, California) went to their as- 
signed task of building trusses for a machine 
shop extension — work vital to National Defense. But it 
didn't. 

By five o'clock (the swing shift started at four) the occa- 
sional drops had given way to more frequent ones. Carpen- 
ters sawed and hammered and voiced their "love" for such 
weather. By seven o'clock it was raining everything except 
the often mentioned pitchforks. Tools were wet and carpen- 
ters were soaked. 

Getting in a huddle seven of the men expressed them- 
selves in no uncertain terms about the rain. They were for 
quitting right then, machine shop or no machine shop. 
Shouldering his tools, one man turned to the silent carpenter 
of the eight and said, ''Say, George, you haven't said a word 
about the rain all evening. What do you think about it?" 

"Haven't noticed it," replied George, a man in his late 
fifties. "You see I had a letter from my son yesterday- 
written in Bataan. I've been busy thinking about the horrors 
of that fight . . . and the heroism. Mule meat for food. Water 
and blood knee-deep in trenches. Dead stacked on dead. 
Wounded . . . young men without arms, without legs crying 
for ammunition, more ammunition." 

There was a pause. Raindrops splashed against newly 
sawed timbers on which the men were standing. Then George 
was talking again, slowly, thoughtfully. "And today I had a 
"letter from the War Department saying my son is dead." 

Seven men moved away ... to saws, to planes, to hammers. 
Rain was discussed no more that night. I know for I was 
there. 

—DON KIRKWOOD. 



THE CARPEXTER 



KEEP 'EM 
SMOKING 



Brotherhood solicits cooperation 
of Locals and District Councils 
to keep our Bghting boys happy. 



As a result of the circular letter 
recently sent out by our General 
President, donations to our Broth- 
erhood's cigarette fund showed a 
gratifying increase during recent 
weeks. Since the accounting in last 
month's issue of The Carpenter, al- 
most two hundred local unions and 
district councils have made contri- 
butions to the fund. ]\Iost of these 
local unions and district councils 
already had one or more contribu- 
tions to their credit. On the other 
hand there are a very large number 
of local unions and district coun- 
cils that have not as yet participated 
in the fund. Although no accurate 
figures are available, indications 
are that more than half of the local 
unions and district councils afitili- 
ated with our Brotherhood have yet 
to make their first contribution to 
the fund. 

Another one million, one hun- 
dred thousand cigarettes were dur- 
ing February provided our boys on 
the various fighting fronts through 
the^ cigarette fund. The hundred 
thousand cigarettes represent the 
tobacco companies' bonus donations 
for quantit}' purchases — one of the 
big advantages of channeling all 
cigarette contributions to our armed 
forces through the Brotherhood 
fund. It is the hope of the General 
Office that a like number ri.ioo.- 
ooo) free cigarettes can be provid- 
ed our fighting forces each month 
for the duration of the war. A mil- 
lion cigarettes cost approximately 
twenty-fi-ve hundred dollars. Con- 
sequentl}^ donations must be kept 
rolling in steadily if this program 
is to be fulfilled. 



Many local unions have voted a 
specific amount to the fund each 
month for the duration. Contribu- 
tions of this kind are especially 
welcome as the}- provide a solid 
backbone for the cigarette fund and 
allow planning ahead to make sure 
that at least a million cigarettes a 
month will go to the fighting fronts 
where they are needed most. If all 
locals and district councils would 
adopt this plan, basing the size of 
their monthl}' contribution on the 
size of their membership, the suc- 
cess of the cigarette fund would be 
assured and the load would be 
equitably divided among the entire 
membership of our Brotherhood. 

In the meantime, letters and cards 
of thanks continue to pour into the 
General Office from all parts of 
the world where American men and 
women are fighting to keep democ- 
racy and freedom alive in the world. 
The free cigarettes being provided 
our soldiers and sailors b}' organ- 
ized labor are doing much to coun- 
teract the labor-smearing propa- 
ganda being disseminated b)^ cer- 
tain anti-union forces. Onh^ let- 
ters from home are appreciated as 
much as American cigarettes. 

By now all of us know that this 
war is a grim, bloody business and 
the way of our boys is extremely 
hard. Providing them with plenty 
of smokes is only one of the ways 
in which we can show our appre- 
ciation for the sacrifices being made 
for us in the Solomons, the ]\Iar- 
shalls. and Italy. 

]\Iake all checks to the cigarette 
fund payable to General Treasurer 
S. P. ]\Ieadows. 



THE CARPENTER 



11 



CIGARETTE FUND 

Conti'ibutions received by the General Treasurer's office from January 25th to 
February 33, 1944. 



L. TT. City and State 



Amt. L. U. City nrul State 



Amt. 



8 Philadelpliia, Pa.. 25 00 

11 Cleveland, 25 00 

16 SprlnRflold, 111. . .100 00 
22 San Francisco Cal.125 00 

36 Oakland, Cal 25 00 

89 Cleveland, O. ... 1000 

54 Chicacro, 111 10 00 

62 Chicago, 111 10 00 

66 Jamestown. N. Y. 10 00 

79 New Haven. Conn 25 00 

80 Chicago, 111 25 00 

81 Erie. Pa 25 00 

87 St. Panl. Minn 25 00 

106 Des Moines, la. . . 25 00 

116 Bay City, Mich.. 25 00 

136 Newark, 25 00 

153 Helena, Mont. ... 20 00 
169 East St. Louis, 

111 25 00 

171 Yonnngstown. O.. 25 00 

189 Quincv, 111 3 00 

211 Pittsburgh. Pa.... 75 00 

218 Boston, Mass 25 00 

241 Moline, 111 10 00 

244 Grand Junction, 

Colo 10 00 

245 Cambridge, O. ... 25 00 
261 Scranton, Pa. ... 10 00 
265 Hackensack, N. J. 25 00 

269 Danville, 111 5 00 

275 Newton, Mass. . . 10 00 

302 Huntington. W Va 10 00 

328 East Liverpool, O 10 00 

340 Hagerstown, Md. . 25 00 

347 Mattoon, 111 10 00 

372 Lima, 10 00 

393 Camden, N. J 100 00 

412 Sayville, N. Y 5 00 

445 Kingman, Ariz. ... 25 00 

416 Chicago, 111 5 00 

418 Oreeley, Colo. ... 25 00 

428 Fairmont, W. Va. 25 00 

444 Pittsfield, Mass. . . 10 00 
461 Highland Park, 

111 50 00 

465 Ardmore. Pa. ... 25 00 

480 Freeburg. Ill 5 00 

487 Linton. Ind 25 00 

488 New York, N. Y. . 25 00 

492 Reading, Pa 25 00 

517 Portland, Me. ... 25 00 

523 Keokuk, la 5 GO 

541 Washington, Pa... 15 00 

565 Elkhart, Ind 25 00 

582 Beaumont, Tex... 20 00 

590 Hammond, Ind. . 25 00 

620 Vincland, N. J. . . 5 00 

630 Neenah. Wis. ... 10 00 
632 Hawthorne, Nev. . 100 00 

63!) Akron, 25 00 

648 Pana, 111 25 00 

653 Chickasha, Okla. . . 25 00 

660 Springfield, O. . . 10 00 

661 Ottawa. Ill 25 00 

699 Sewickley, Pa. ... 5 00 

756 Bellingham, Wash 10 00 

764 Shreveport, La. . . 25 00 

787 New York, N. Y.. 25 00 



794 


Leominster, Mass. 


25 00 


808 


New York, N. Y. . 


25 00 


811 


New Bethlehem, 






Pa 


5 00 


81.'! 


Carl)ondale, Pa. . . 


5 00 


816 


Tulsa, Okla 


5 00 


820 


Wisconsin Rapids, 






Wis 


10 00 


839 


Des Plaines, 111. . . 


25 00 


S44 


Arcadia, Fla. '. . . . 


25 00 


863 


Conneaut, O 


5 00 


88X 


Salem, Mass 


5 00 


921 


Portsmouth, N. H. 


25 00 


927 


Danburv, Conn. . . 


10 00 


944 


San Bernardino, 






Cal 


25 00 


946 


Los Angeles. Calif. 


50 00 


951 


Brainerd. Minn.. . 


10 00 


957 


Stillwater, Minn.. 


25 00 


!>58 


Marquette, Mich. . 


10 00 


971 


Reno. Nev 


25 00 


972 


Philadelphia, Pa. . 


2 00 


981 


Petaluma. Cal. . . 


7 00 


985 


Gary, Ind 


15 00 


1002 


Knoxville, Tenn. . . 


50 00 


1010 


Uniontown, Pa. . . 


10 00 


1014 


Warren, Pa 


5 00 


1015 


Saratoga Springs, 






N. Y 


10 00 


1024 


Cumberland, Md. . . 


10 00 


1032 


Minot, N. D 


15 00 


1042 


Plattsburg. N. Y. 


25 00 


1049 


Poplar Bluff, Mo.. 


10 00 


1108 


Cleveland. O 


5 00 


1132 


Alpena, Mich. . . . 


10 00 


1142 


Lawrenceburg, 






Ind 


10 00 


1143 


La Crosse, Wis. . . 


25 00 


1161 


Morris, 111 


15 00 


1162 


College Point, NY 


25 00 


1158 


Berkelev, Calif.... 


10 00 


1187 


Grand Is., Neb.. . 


100 00 


1188 


Mt. Carmel, 111. . . 


10 00 


1201 


Borger, Tex 


20 00 


1 204 


Brooklyn, N. Y.. 


25 00 


1220 


Granville, N. Y. . . 


10 00 


1289 


Seattle, Wash. . . . 


50 00 


1295 


Hornell. N. Y. . . . 


5 00 


1307 


Evanston, 111. . . . 


25 00 


1328 


DeLand, Fla. . . . 


25 00 


1339 


Morgantown, W. 






Va 


25 00 


1353 


Santa Fe, N. Mex 


25 00 


1367 


Chicago, 111 


25 00 


1380 


Bedford, Ind. . . . 


10 00 


1416 


New Bedford Mass 


25 00 


1419 


Johnstown, Pa. . . 


10 00 


1420 


Hasting-on-Hudson, 






N. Y 


10 00 


1430 


Kearney, Neb. . . . 


10 0(1 


1431 


El Reno, Okla. . . 


11 00 


1452 


Detroit, Mich. . . . 


25 00 


1465 


Frankfort, Ind. . . 


25 00 


1466 


Camas, Wash. 


10 00 


1486 


Auburn, Calif. . . 


25 00 


1531 


Rockland. Mass. . . 


10 00 


1577 


Buffalo. N. Y 


5 00 


1590 


Washington, D. C. 


25 00 



L. U. City and State Amt. 

1615 Grand Rapids, 

Mich 25 00 

1603 Chicago, 111 100 00 

1709 Ashland, Wis. ... 5 00 

1713 Huron. S. D 5 00 

1723 Columbus, Ga. .. 25 00 

1743 Wildwood, N. J... 10 00 

1782 Newark, N. J 10 00 

1784 Chicago. Ill 10 00 

1819 Elko, Nev 5 00 

1829 Ravenna, 25 00 

1835 Waterloo, la. ... 10 00 
1846 New Orleans. La.. 10 00 

1860 Warsaw, Ind. ... 5 00 

1865 Philadelphia. Pa.. 10 00 

1922 Chicago, 111 10 00 

1961 Roseburg. Ore. .. 20 00 

1979 Granite Citv, 111.. 25 00 

1980 Atchison. Kans.... 25 00 

1991 Bedford, 10 00 

2019 La Grande, Ore... 5 00 

2033 Front Royal, Va.. 25 00 

2096 Douglas, Ariz. ... 25 00 

2157 Pioche, Nev 5 00 

2163 New York, N. Y. . 25 00 

2174 Chicago, 111 10 00 

2178 Jersey Citv, N. J. 8 75 

2180 Defiance. 5 00 

2202 Price, Utah 25 00 

2261 Ft. Myers, Fla. . . 25 00 

2275 Newburg, Ore. . . 10 00 

2342 Hobbs, N. Mex. . . 25 00 

2376 Sanford, Fla. . . 10 00 

2523 Memphis, Tenn.... 25 00 

2544 Tionesta, Calif. . . 25 00 

2592 Eureka, Calif. ... 10 00 

2611 Eugene, Ore 5 00 

2655 Everett, Wash 10 00 

2689 La Grande, Ore.. 25 00 

2816 Emmett, Ida 25 00 

2859 Rainier, Ore 10 00 

2868 Eureka, Cal 25 00 

2919 Blaine, Wash. ... 25 00 

3016 Modoc, Calif 25 00 

3084 Urania. La 15 00 

3112 Wilmington, Vt. . . 25 00 

3183 Chattanooga, Tenn. 25 00 

3187 Watertowu, Wis.. 5 00 

3190 Marquette, Mich.. 5 00 

DISTRICT COUNCILS 
Cuyahoga County D. C. 

Cleveland, O. . . 50 00 
Washington, D. C. Dist. 

Council 50 00 

Mobile & Vic. D. C. Ala 25 00 

Chicago, 111., D. C 150 00 

Miami Valley D. C O.. 50 00 
Cloverland D. C, Mar- 
quette, Mich. ... 10 00 
Redwood D. C, Eureka 

Cal 10 00 

Twin City D. C, St. 

Paul, Minn 25 00 

Lake County D. C, Mich- 
igan City, Ind. . . 25 00 
Metropolitan D.C.. Phil- 
adelphia, Pa 25 00 



Available Funds January 24, 1944 

Receipts 

Total 

Expenditures: 

Axton-Fisher $1,250 

Brown & Williamson 1,250 

Available Funds February 24, 1944 



$ 7,814 91 

3,976 75 

^fIl77"9T1S6" 



$ 2,500 00 
$ 9,291 66 



12 



T II T. C A R P E X T E H 



Super Dams Coming 

Gigantic Dam Building Programs Brightest Post- War Hope 

• • • 

TITHOUT fanfare or publicit}* the Bureau of Reclamation and 
/ the Arm}- Corps of Engineers are putting the finishing touches 
on the most extensive dam building plans ever devised b}" the 
mind of man. As soon as the last shot of the Avar is fired these plans Avill 
be put into execution. 

Some conception of the immensit}- of the jobs being planned by these 
government agencies can be gleaned from the fact that the Bureau of Rec- 
lamation program alone calls for the expenditure of approximately three 
billion dollars. By comparison. Grand Coulee, Boulder, and some i6o 
other dams built during the de- 




pression represent an outlajT- of less 
than nine hundred million dollars. 
Hundreds of engineers and techni- 
cal experts are right now working 
out of the Bureau's Denver office 
putting the finishing touches on 
various individual projects. 

The Arm}- Engineering Corps is 
drafting a dam-building program 
of approximate!}^ equal proportions. 
In other words, the combined pro- 
grams will provide for seven times 
as much dam building in the first 
five to ten post-war years as w^as 
undertaken during the w'hole de- 
pression era. The Bureau of Rec- 
lamation alone estimates that its pro- 
gram ^vill provide from 200,000 to 
250,000 steady jobs to construction 
men for several years after the war. 
How many more jobs will be indi- 
rectly provided in the transporta- 
tion and building material fields 
cannot even be estimated. With the 
Army Engineers contem.plating an 
equally ambitious program, it is 
easy to see that dam building gives 
promise of being the outstanding 
source of post-war jobs for the na- 
tion's construction workers. 

When the first treacherous Japa- 
nese bombs dropped on Pearl Har- 



bor, the Bureau of Reclamation had 
under way some twenty-five indi- 
vidual projects. Work on all these 
projects was immediately curtailed 
or stopped entirely. All the Bu- 
reau's efiforts were concentrated on 
getting maximum power output 
flowing into war industries instan- 
taneously. Projects which could be 
finished in a short time were con- 
tinued, but those that required great 
amounts of work before they could 
be put to the service of the war 
effort were discontinued for the du- 
ration. Speed ! Speed ! and More 
Speed ! became the motto of the 
Bureau. 

One example alone shows what 
the Bureau accomplished in the way 
of speeding up power output for 
the war effort. An eastern firm had 
about completed a giant dynamo 
destined for installation at huge 
Shasta Dam in California. How- 
ever, the dam was many months 
away from being ready to install 
the dynamo. Instead of waiting for 
Shasta dam to progress to the point 
where the dynamo could be in- 
stalled, the dynamo was set up at 
Coulee Dam instead. In a compara- 
tively short time it began pumping 



THE CARPENTER 



13 



vital power into the war plants of 
the Pacific Northwest. 

Once the victory is achieved, the 
Bureau is prepared to immediately 
resume work on the jobs that were 
halted by the war. Thousands of 
skilled construction workers will 
thereby find civilian emplo5''ment 
almost before the echo of the fight- 
ing dies down. New projects will 
be gotten under way as soon as pos- 
sible so that dam building alone 
will absorb a sizeable percentage of 
the labor force now engaged in 
turning out planes, tanks, and guns. 

The Army Engineering Corps, 
too, is prepared to get under way 
its gigantic dam building program 
in the shortest possible time. When 
the programs of both the Bureau of 
Reclamation and the Army Engin- 
eers are completed, power output 
in America will probably equal 
hydro-electric output of the rest of 
the world. 

HoAvever, the creation of con- 
struction jobs alone will not be the 
sole benefit derived from the huge 
contem.plated dam building pro- 
grams. The Bureau's program re- 
volves around irrigation as much 
as it does power. Millions of arid 
acres will be brought into full fer- 
tility by the projects. Thousands 
of American families will be given 
an opportunity to take up a piece 
of land in a valley made prosperous 
by irrigation. It is estimated that 
the Coulee irrigation project alone 
will make room for twenty to thirty 
thousand farm families on the ex- 
tremely fertile land now turned to 
desert because of insufficient w^ater. 

The dam building program of the 
Army Engineers includes a great 
deal of flood control work. Vallevs 



that now face periodic disaster in 
the form of floods will be made se- 
cure through the Engineers' pro- 
gram. Flood losses running into 
millions of dollars annually will be 
greatly curtailed or eliminated com- 
pletely. Farms that become un- 
profitable because of recurring 
floods will be restored to their full 
productive capacity and intrinsic 
value. Under the Engineers' pro- 
gram, plans and specifications have 
been laid down in great detail for 
varied projects so that work can be 
gotten under way in every section 
of the country without delay. 

So dam building becomes one of 
the brightest hopes for the post-war 
era. Dam building will provide jobs 
for hundreds of thousands of con- 
struction workers as soon as peace 
is achieved. Millions of jobs will 
be created in the fields of transpor- 
tation and building materials. In 
addition, thousands of families will 
be enabled to go back to the land; 
—not sub-marginal land incapable 
of providing anything other than 
the merest subsistence but rather 
land made fertile by irrigation and 
made secure from expensive floods 
by scientifically built dams. 

There is no sadder chapter in 
American history than the current 
hundred year old C3'cle of land ne- 
glect. America's fertile acres have 
been mined instead of farmed, and 
the results of this short-sighted 
policy can toda}^ be seen in erroded, 
wind-swept countrysides and de- 
serted, ramshackle farm homes. 

But the neglected acres are not 
through. Life-restoring dams and 
scientific farming methods can re- 
habilitate them and place them once 
more on the asset side of the ledger. 



Buy War Bonds and Stamps! 




SIP 



IT MAY BE THE ANSAVER 

One of the most disappointing aspects 
of the whole American war effort has 
been the failure of the WACS, WAVES, 
and other female branches of the armed 
services to attract recruits in sufficient 
numbers. The girls already in the serv- 
ices have been doing such a swell job 
that thousands more of them could be 
used immediately. Despite active re- 
cruiting campaigns, however, enlist- 
ments are not beginning to keep pace 
with the demand. 

Officials iind the situation a little bit 
puzzling. The services offer American 
girls better pay than they usually can 
make as civilians, it offers them a 
chance to travel, and, most important 
of all, it offers them a chance to really 
serve their country. Still recruiting lags 
disappointingly. 

Maybe the WAC at Fort Benjamin 
Hari-ison has the answer. When asked 
how she liked the service, she replied: 
"I think it's wonderful, I like the train- 
ing- they give nie, the food, and the 
work I do, but sometimes I get just a 
little bit tired of saying 'Yes, Ma'am' 
half the day and 'No, Sir' half the 
night." 

• • • 

CLEAR AS MUD 

"My good woman," said the judge, 
"you must give an answer in the few- 
est possible words of which you are 
capable to the plain and simple ques- 
tion whether, when you were crossing 
the street with the baby on your arm, 
and the bus was coming down on the 
right side and the taxi on the left, and 
the motorcycle was trying to pass the 
bus, you saw the plaintiff between the 
motorcycle and the taxi, or whether you 
saw him at all near the motorcycle, 
taxi, and bus, or either, or any two, 
and which of them, respectively, or how 
it was." 

So aftei-wards the Judge was elected 
to Congress and he helped write the 
income tax laws and di'aw up the forms 
you are filing before the 15th of this 
month. 




And, what is It this time, "business 
tad," "business good," or just no busi- 
ness?" 

• • • 

OLD FASHIONED, BUT GOOD 

There seem to be indications that a 
national meeting of church, law en- 
forcement, and social welfare groups is 
in the offing to formulate plans for 
curbing the alarming increase in ju-, 
venile delinquency. Certainly conditions 
warrant such a meeting. Not only are 
more youngsters getting into trouble, 
but also they are getting into much 
worse trouble and at a much younger 
age. In fact, the ten to fifteen year age 
group now produces as many delin- 
quents as the sixteen to twenty year 
age group used to a few years ago. 

"Wars always play hobbs with moral 
standards. However, the current war 
has seen the greatest let-down in moral 
standards since the French revolution; 
brought about undoubtedly by the fact 
that more mothers are now working 
than ever before. Add to this the fact 
that there has been a tremendous in- 
crease in the "psychology" factor in 
child rearing, coupled with a corre- 
sponding decrease in "wood-shed" psy- 
chology, and you get some understand- 
ing why juvenile delinquency is as bad 
as it is. After all, there is no substi- 
tute for the razor strop in bringing up 
children right. In this connection we 
always think of the mother who took 
her son to the photographers to get his 



THJE CARPENTER 



15 



picture taken. Try as she would, she 
couldn't get the child to sit still long 
enough for the photographer to get 
his picture. The mother tried pleading, 
reasoning, and cajoling, but all to no 
avail. Finally the photographer said, 
'Perhaps if you left the room, Mrs. 
Jones, we could do better." As a last 
esort, Mrs. Jones consented. She left 
the room, and in a few moments the 
proprietor came out to announce that 
the picture was taken. 

Going home in the car, the son was 
awfully quiet and docile. Finally curi- 
osity got the better of her, and Mrs. 
Jones asked: "What did the photog- 
rapher say to you, Willie, to get you to 
sit quiet?" 

"AVcll, Mummy," replied Willie, "he 
said 'sit still, you little nuisance, or I 
will blister the seat of your breeches 
good.' So what could I do but sit still?" 

• • • 

ESPECIALLY IF IT HAS LINCOLN'S 

PICTURE 

To help yourself and your govern- 
ment, save your Avaste paper. Paper is 
a vital war materiel. Besides, it pays to 
save paper. Remember the story about 
the four men who died on the same 
day? 

One was an author. He left $5.00. 

One was a book seller. He left 
$50.00 

The third was a publisher. He left 
$500.00. 

Fourth was a waste-paper merchant. 
He left $50,000.00. 

Remember, it is patriotic as well as 
profitable to save paper. 




Oh, sure, I trust you — very far, but 
not too near. 



NO HARM IN TRYING 

The current issue of a national maga- 
zine carries a story predicting a short- 
age of five million husbands after the 
war. We don't know how accurate the 
magazine is in its predictions, but it 
becomes more evident every day that 
there are more men than there are 
women. 

Only last month a young couple in 
Chicago approached the pastor of a 
South Side church with the request that 
they be married immediately after the 
services. The pastor agreed, but when 
he announced at the end of the services, 
"Those who wish to enter into the 
bonds of Holy Matrimony, please step 
forward," thirteen women and one man 
walked up to the altar. 

• • • 

YOU CAN'T STOP A YANKEE 

American ingenuity is what is win- 
ning this war. Given a few monkey 
wrenches, a few nails, and a couple of 
spools of baling wire, there isn't any 
problem in mechanical warfare our 
boys can't lick. Apparently this same 
Yankee ingenuity is going to make it- 
self felt throughout the world when 
peace comes, too. Witness the letter a 
G-I Joe in Australia wrote to his dad 
in Detroit. 

"Dear Dad," he said, "I am figuring 
on settling hei-e after the war. I want 
to cross kangaroos with raccoons and 
raise fur coats with pockets." 

• • • 
REMEMBER \YRO THE ENEiOT IS 

As total defeat looms ever closer for 
Germany, the paid propagandists of the 
Reich seem to be busy trying to create 
mistrust between Allied nations, the 
only hope Hitler has of saving his hide. 
We have some of them in this country 
and they are doing a swell job of try- 
ing to convince us that our Allies are 
untrustworthy. 

Don't pay any attention to them. 
Don't forget that after all, a propagan- 
dist is only a guy with a good sense of 
rumor. 

• • • 

POLITICIANS TAKE NOTE 

The ability to speak many languages 
is a real asset, but the ability to hold 
your tongue in any one . of them is 
priceless. 



Editorial 




Why Not Keep Practical? 

While there are man^- schools of thou^^ht as to what must be done to 
avoid a post-war depression, ever^'one seems to be prett}- much agreed 
that home building offers the greatest hope for peacetime jobs. In fact, 
just about all post-war planning agencies — both private and governmental 
— are pinning their hopes on a huge home building program after the 
last shot is fired. They visualize a pent-up demand for a least ten million 
new homes in the first decade following the Avar. 

"Whether their predictions turn out optimistic or pessimistic remains 
to be seen. However, there is no gainsaying the fact that home building 
will form the backbone of post-war construction; therefore, nothing must 
be allowed to stand in the wa^' of millions of people fulfilling their de- 
sires for new, modern, efiicient homes. 

Last month's issue of The Carpenter contained an article pointing 
out an unhapp}- new development in post-war home planning. It is the 
ad menace. For reasons best known to themselves, some firms are spend- 
ing millions ol dollars advertising fantastic new houses-to-come. These 
new '"super-houses" are being cooked up in the imaginations of the ad 
writers. Maybe the}' will come sometime, but it certainly will not be in 
the lifetime of anyone who will be in the market for a new home after the 
war. The end result is that post-war homebuilding is being adversely 
aft'ected. People read the ads and say to themselves, "That's the kind of 
home I want." They then consult their architects or builders and soon 
find out the things promised in the ads are only idle dreams unlikely to be 
available before the year 2,000. Naturally they feel keen disappointment. 

They overlook the fact that the houses architects, builders, and prac- 
tical construction men are planning for the post-war era are realh' mir- 
acles of comfort, efficiency, and beauty. The ad writers promise them a 
house without a fuel-burning heating 53- stem, a house that is germ-free, 
a kitchen that does ever^^hing but w^^sh the dog W'ith electricity'. When 
they find these things belong to the Buck Rogers era. some of them at 
least will decide that it might be wiser to postpone building for awhile. 

That those who arrive at this decision are making a mistake goes 
without saying. The homes that will be built in the post-war era will 
actually be '"miracle" houses. EntireU' new conceptions of utilit}-, beauty, 
and comfort are going to be emphasized in them. Only a bare minimum 
of housekeeping will be necessary. There will be much better lighting 
and much cheaper and uniform heating. In efficiency and value, the post- 
war home will compare with yesterday's houses about as the latest model 
Lincoln compares with the 1912 Ford. 

The post-w^ar home as now planned has nothing to be ashamed of. 
Instead of filling prospective home builders with Utopian Buck Rogers 



TIFF CARP FXTER 17 

dreams, why don't the ad writers tell them about the truly marvelous 
homes that they will get? Why don't they tell them of the thousands of 
contemplated improvements in design, in efficiency, and in beauty? Dol- 
lar for dollar, the post-war home builder will receive twice as much as 
he would have a few years ago. In addition he will get many dividends 
in the form of comfort and liveabilit}'. The ad writers who deal in fan- 
tastic notions only create confusion and uncertainty in the minds of pros- 
pective home builders, when, in truth, there is no need for either. Tomor- 
row's home will be a practical miracle. There is no reason for the ad 
writers to dream up fantastic ideas. Such foolishness only jeopardizes the 

post-war home building program and post-war employment. 

« 

Closed Season on War Prophets 

The Office of War Information announced that representatives of the 
Army, Navy. War Production Board, Selective Service and other agencies 
of the Federal Government have agreed to institute a closed season on 
official prognosticators who offer conflicting opinions on war develop- 
ments such as the probable time the war will end, what it will cost in lives, 
economic development before and after the war ends, war production, et 
cetera. Both militar}" and civilian officials of the Government will be re- 
quired to refrain from making public such opinions in the future, espec- 
ially a discussion of activities for which they are not responsible and 
with which they have no direct connection. 

This policy is a constructive one long overdue. The American people 
do not have to be fed bed-time stories or unfounded sales talks to keep up 
their morale. All they need is to know what is expected of them and to be 
given the facts and told the bold truth about war developments. They 
will adjust themsehes and do whatever is necessary' to help win this war. 

Tragicalh'. a false national optimism has been created by these casual 
and unmeasured snap statements made by persons in authority, and many 
thousands of wives, mothers, and other relatives of bo^'S in the Armed 
Forces have been built-up to a heart breaking let-down from such remarks. 

However, the worst and most persistent offenders are not these mili- 
tary and civilian government officials, but the unofficial crystal gazers, the 
see-all, know-all, tell-all prophets of the press and radio, sensation-loving 
rabble rousers like Hans V. Kaltenborn. Thes.e psychic seers surround 
their predictions with so many nebulous qualifications that their oracular 
chatter reminded one of the fabled horse of Baron Munchausen which 
went in two opposite directions at the same time. 

Last summer, it may be recalled that some of the wiseacres of Press 
and Radio hinted that the war might be over by Christmas — only they 
didn't specify what Christmas. Both W^all Street and Lloyds of London 
were quoted as laying odds on the war being over by that date. As a re- 
sult, the bupyant hopes of simple, trusting, anxious relatives whose loved 
ones are in uniform collapsed entirely when the dreary Holiday Season 
arrived with the war's end as remote and unpredictable as the previous 
Christmas. Let us hope that these psychological sleeping tablets, so in- 
jurious to the national nervous system, will no longer be administered to 
lull our people into a false securitv. — St. Louis Labor Tribune. 



Official Information 



m 




ir:iii!!iu;ii;iiiiiiii!iiii!!ii.ii;L:iii.iiiii!iiiii!i::.iiiH!iiiiiU 



General Officers of 
THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPEXTERS and JOIXERS 

of AMERICA 

GE2-7E:SAr OFFICE : Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Gekeeal Peesidext 
WM. L. HTTCHESON 

Carpenters' BuUdicg. Indianapolis, Ind. 



iiESx Gevzral Vice-Peesidest 

M. A. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis. Ind. 



GZKEEAI- SeCEETAET 

FRAVK DUFFY 
Carpenters' Building. Indianapolis, Ind. 



Seconb Gexeeal Tice-Pezsidexx 

JOHN E. STEVES&OS 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Gexeeal Teeasueeb 

S. P. MEADOWS 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis," Ind. 



First District 



Ge:-'EBAi. Exzcuxite Boaed 

Fifth District, E. E. ROBERTS 
631 W. Page, Dallas, Texas 



Second District WM. J. KFiLLY 
Carpenters' Bid., 243 -Itli Ave., Pittsburgli, Pa. 



Sixth District A. W. MTJIR 
103481 WUsMre Blvd., Los Angeles, Calif. 



Third District, HARRY SCHWAEZER 
3684 W. 136tli St., Clereland, O. 



Seventh District, ARTHUR Af ARTEL 

1182 St. La-CT-rence, Em. 10, Montreal, Que., Can. 



Fourth District, ROLAND ADAMS 
Keufca. Fla. 



WM. L. HUTCHESO^^ Chairman 
FRAXK DUFFY, Secretary 



AH eorresDondence for the General Executire Board must be sent to the General Secretary. 



REGULAR MEETING OF THE GENERAL EXECUTIVE 
- BOARD, FEBRUARY 1944 

Carpenters' Home, Lakeland, Florida 
February 7, 1944 

The General Executive Board met in regular session at Carpenters' Home, 
Lakeland, Florida on February 7, 1944. 

The General President reported the death of Board Member, T. M. Guerin of 
the First District on JanuaiT 2, 1944, after which the following Resolution was 
unanimously adopted. 

To the memory of fonner 
Board Member T. M. Guerin 

WHEREAS On Sunday January 2, 1944, the Divine Ruler of the 
Universe removed from our midst Brother T. M. 
Guerin, member of the General Executive Board for 
the First District, and 

WBLEREAS He served in that capacity for almost thirty-one years 
and held continuous membership in good standing in 
Local Union 78, Troy, New York for over forty-five 
years, and 



T Ti n € A R p K X r I-: r 19 

WHEREAS His efforts, energies, artivities and abilities have al- 
ways been willingly and generously given in favor of 
the growth, advancement, progress, and development 
of the organization he loved so well — the Brotherhood 
of Carpenters — and 

WHEREAS We will miss his advice, personality and companion- 
ship in the future, therefore be it 

RESOLVED That in acknowledgement of the good work he has 
done in the Labor Movement in his time and that his 
memory may be perpetuated in the future this resolu- 
tion be made part and parcel of the proceedings of 
this session of the General Executive Board, and be 
published in our official monthly journal, "The Car- 
penter," and be it further 

RESOLVED That a copy be sent to the members of his family with 
the sympathies of the Board for the great loss they 
have sustained in the death of their beloved father. 

Signed — General Executive Board 

WM. L. HUTCHESOX, Chairman 
FRANK DUFFY, Secretary. 

:Ji :*: ^ 4^ ^ 

The General President further reported that the New York District Council 
proposes that the 1944 General Convention be postponed, and that after hostilities 
cease the General Executive Board be authorized to call it as soon thereafter as 
possible, but in any event within one year. 

As 111 Local Unions and two District Councils from 37 States and Provinces 
endorsed this proposition it was ordered submitted to referendum vote in accord- 
ance with the provisions of Paragraph A, Section 6 3 of our General Laws. 

The First General Vice-President reported that the War Department is issuing 
films to acquaint the public with the hardships our boys on the fighting fronts 
have to contend with. The War Department requests that these films get the 
widest possible circulation. Local Unions wanting information on how to secure 
these films should communicate with the General Office at the earliest possible 
date, and the information desired will be forwarded to them. 

The General President and General Treasurer submitted the following report 
to the General Executive Board in compliance with action of the Board at its last 
meeting. 

***** 

December 14, 1943. 
TO THE OFFICERS AND MEMBERS OF THE GENERAL EXECUTIVE BOARD 
OF THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD OF CARPENTERS AND JOINERS 
OF AMERICA 
Gentlemen: 

Pursuant to your action of October 26, 1943 in delegating authority to Gen- 
eral President Wm. L. Hutcheson and General Treasurer S. P. Meadows to ex- 
change $100,000.00 Canadian Bonds for $107,000.00 Canadian Bonds, will say 
that this transaction has been completed, and that $50,000.00 Dominion of Canada 
3Tc Bonds due January 14, 1967, and $50,000.00 Dominion of Canada 3% Bonds 
due March 1, 1954, have been exchanged for $107,000.00 Canadian Bonds and 
placed in the Safety Deposit Box at the Indiana National Bank on or about No- 
vember 2 2, 1943. 

Respectfully submitted, 

WM. L. HUTCHESON, General President 

S. P. MEADOWS, General Treasurer 



The General President appointed the following committees: 
Inspection of Rooms, Frank Duffy, Arthur Martel, S. P. Meadows. 



20 T H Z C A R P E X T E R 

Stocks and Supplies. M. A. Hutclieson. Harry Sch-warzer, R. E. Roberts. 

Report of the Delegates to the Thirty-sixth Annual Convention of the Union 
Label Trades Department of the American Federation of Labor, held in Boston, 
Massachusetts on October 1, 19 4.3. was submitted, and as this report "was pub- 
lished in the January 1944 issue of "The Carpenter" for the information of our 
members it was filed for future reference. 

Renewal of Bond of General Treasurer Meadows in the sum of S50,000.00, 
from February 1, 1944 to February 1, 1945, through the United States Fidelity 
and Guarantee Company of Baltimore, Maryland was referred to our Legal De- 
partment. 

Ontario ProTlncial Council or Carpenters requests re-arrangemeht of clearance 
cards in membership due book, but as no changes in clearance cards are proposed 
the Board could not see its way clear to comply with the request. 

Tancouver. B. C. — The British Columbia Provincial Council of Carpenters in 
convention. November 29th and 30th, proposed that at the Labor Congress to be 
held in London. England on June 5, 1944 the 'so-called' Trade Unions of Russia 
be invited to attend, and deplores the action of .the American Federation of 
Labor in refusing to attend this Congress on the grounds that the Soviet Trade 
Unions are not free bodies, was carefully considered, along with a similar request 
from Local Union 173.5, Prince Rupert, B. C, after which the Board re-amrmed 
its declaration of June 15, 1942, which herewith follows: 

H if * * * 

DECLARATION OF GENERAL EXECUTIVE BOARD 

The press recently carried the stoiT of the pact entered into between the United 
States and Russia for the continuation of cooperation for the purposes of winning 
the war. 

We approve, and compliment the action of our Government for the agreement 
made with Russia, and as good loyal patriotic American citizens pledge our Gov- 
ernment full support and cooperation, to the end that Liberty and Freedom may 
be established in all lands, and that our own democratic way of life, which we 
love and cherish so dearly, may be continued and perpetuated for all time to come. 

We reaffirm our position of the past that preservation of Liberty in our own 
country must be maintained and continued at all costs, and to that end we will 
give our lives if necessary. 

We have already declared our approval of the action of our Government in 
assisting Great Britain in every way possible to win the war; in fact, we are 
willing to assist all nations to maintain a democratic form of government, of the 
people, by the people, and for the people, as against Communism, Nazism, Fascism 
or other forms of objectionable governments. 

The press recently published statements that a movement was under way to 
establish some sort of understanding, cooperation or collaboration between the 
Trade Unions of Great Britain, America and Russia, but as the 'so called' Trade 
Union Movement of Russia is dominated, controlled and directed by the Soviet 
Communist Government, and is, therefore, not a Free Trade Union Movement, we 
cannot endorse or jjarticipate in any such procedure. The Communists' philosophy 
is such that it is recognized as being revolutionary and advocates the overthrow 
of our Government by revolution. The members of our Brotherhood being patri- 
otic American citizens are opposed to any such procedure on the part of the labor 
movement. Therefore the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of 
America can in no way cooperate or collaborate with the Communist Trade Union 
Movement of Russia. 

The British Trade Union Movement being recognized as a free voluntary move- 
ment, like our movement in America, we are willing at all times to cooperate with 
it in order to render every assistance to the end that the war may be won as 
quickly and speedily as possible and thereby create a condition throughout the 

world making the world safe for democracy. 



THE CARPEXTER 21 

February 8, 1944. 
Canton, Ohio, Local Union 143 

The petition issued by Local Union 143 relative to a Post War Program for the 
disabled of World War II for endorsement by all Local Unions was referred to the 
General President. 

Appeal of Wm. Piechocki, a member of Local Union 11.51, Batavia, New York, 
from the decision of the General Treasurer in disapproving his claim for disability 
benefits on the grounds that the claim was not filed with the General Office within 
two years from date of accident, as the laws provide. The decision of the General 
Treasurer was sustained and the appeal was dismissed. 

Appeal of Local Union 40 4, Painesville, Ohio (Lake County and Vicinity) 
from the orders of the General President that said Local Union affiliate with the 
Cleveland District Council was carefully considered, after which the orders of the 
General President were approved and the appeal dismissed. 

Appeal of Local Union 1332, Grand Coulee, Washington from the decision of 
the General President in the case of Chester R. Lawler versus Local Union 13 32, 
Grand Coulee, Washington. The decision of the General President was sustained 
and appeal was dismissed. 

Appeal of Local Union 65 5, Key West, Florida from the decision of the Gen- 
eral President in the case of Thomas B. McConnell, a member of Local Union 9 9 3, 
Miami, Florida, versus Local Union 6 5 5, Key W^est, Florida. The decision of the 
General President was sustained on grounds set forth therein and the appeal was 
dismissed. 

Appeal of Local Union 43, Hartford, Connecticut, from the decision of the 
General President in the case of Elias A. Maata, a member of Local Union 2236, 
New York City, versus Local Union 43, Hartford, Connecticut was placed before 
the Board, but was not considered as Local Union 43 did not appeal to the Board 
within the time specified by our General Laws. 

Appeal of Local Union 43, Hartford, Connecticut, from the decision of the Gen- 
eral President in the case of Yermund Gjersvik, a member of Local Union 2117, 
Flushing, New York, versus Local Union 43, Hartford, Connecticut was not con- 
sidered as Local Union 43 did not appeal to the Board within the time specified 
by our General Laws. 

Appeal of Local Union 43, Hartford, Connecticut, from the decision of the Gen- 
eral President in the case of Thure Rehnberg, a member of Local Union 4S8, New 
York City, New York, versus Local Union 43, Hartford, Connecticut was not con- 
sidered for the reason that Local Union 43 did not appeal to the Board within the 
time specified by our General Laws. 

Appeal of Local Union 43, Hartford, Connecticut, from the decision of the Gen- 
eral President in the case of Egil Myhre, a member of Local 48 8, New York City, 
New York, versus Local Union 43, Hartford, Connecticut, was not considered for 
the reason that Local Union 4 3 did not appeal to the Board within the time speci- 
fied by our General Laws. 

Audit of books and accounts of the Home commenced. 

Audit of books and accounts of the Home continued. 

Audit of books and accounts of the Home continued. 

Audit of books and accounts of the Home continued. 

Audit of books and accounts of the Home continued. 

Request of the Los Angeles County District Council for an appropriation for 
.organizing purposes was referred to the General President. 

Appeal of Local Union 19 0, Klamath Falls, Oregon, from the decision of the 
General Treasurer In disapproving the claim for disability benefits of Perl M. 
Hogle, a member of said Local Union, on the grounds that he was not totally and 



February 


9, 


1944. 


February 


10, 


1944. 


February 


11, 


1944. 


February 


14, 


1944. 


February 


15, 


1944. 



22 THE CARPENTER 

permanently disabled from ever following the trade, was carefully considered, 
after whicli the decision of the General Treasurer was sustained and the appeal 
dismissed. 

Appeal of Local Union 1911, Beckley. West Virginia, from the decision of the 

General Treasurer in disapproving the death claim of E. W. Wilburn, of said Local 
Union, on the grounds that he was not in benefit standing at time of death, was 
carefully considered, after which the decision of the General Treasurer was sus- 
tained and the appeal was dismissed. 

Appeal of Local Union 1148, Olympia. Washington, from the decision of the 
General Treasurer in disapproving the disability claim of A. C. Harder, a member 
of said Local L'nion, on the grounds that he was not totally and permanently dis- 
abled, was carefully considered, after which the decision of the General Treasurer 
was sustained and the appeal dismissed. 

Appeal of Local L'nion 43 S, Mobile. Alabama, from the decision of the General 
Treasurer in disapproving the death claim of Daniel S. Boone, a former member of 
that Local L'nion. for the reason that on December 31, 1942 he owed six months' 
dues and automatically suspended himself from membership. The decision of the 
General Treasurer was sustained and the appeal was dismissed. 

Appeal of Local Union 438, Mobile, Alabama, from the decision of the General 
Treasurer in disapproving the death claim of Gordon K. Bell, of said Local Union, 
for the reason that he was not in benefit standing at time of death. The decision 
of the General Treasurer was sustained and the appeal was dismissed. 

Appeal of Local Union 176 5, Orlando, Florida, from the decision of the General 
Treasurer in disapproving the death claim of C. J. Holliday, of said Local Union, 
for the reason that he was not in benefit standing at time of death. The decision 
of the General Treasurer was sustained and the appeal was dismissed. 

Resolutions submitted by Local Unions 622 and 19 71 were referred to the 
General President for reply. 

The General Executive Board in considering the matter of paying pensions to 
members of the Brotherhood in States and Provinces where they, the authorities, 
deduct from pensions paid by the State or Province any income that one might be 
receiving from the amount the State or Province pays them: the Board recom- 
mends that the General President issue a dispensation granting to Local Unions, 
in such instances, permission to keep such members in good standing without pay- 
ment of dues to the Local Union, or payment of per capita tax by the Local Union 
to the General Oflace. 

February 16, 1944. 

Audit of books and accounts of the Home concluded. 

February 17, 1944. 

Request of President Brown of the International Association of Machinists' for 
a conference with the Carpenters was placed before the General Executive Board 
by the General President, and was carefully considered. 

In the past we have always been willing to confer, and have conferred with rep- 
resentatives of other organizations in working out agreements of understanding 
and cooperation without participation of a representative of the American Federa- 
tion of Labor, and are willing to do so now, but before a conference is held the 
Board would like to know what matters are to be considered. 

If it is on the basis of present existing conditions the Board is willing that 
the General President appoint a committee to meet a like committee from the 
Machinists', but if it is on the basis of what transpired years ago then the Board 
cannot see what good could be accomplished by such a conference. 

There being no further business to be acted upon, the minutes were read and 
approved and the Board_ adjourned to meet at the call of the chair. 

Signed, 

FRANK DUFFY, Secretary. 



Not lost to those that love them, They still live in our memory. 

Not dead, just gone before; And will forever more. 



%t&i X 



xn lit^itt^ 

The Editor has been requested to publish the names 
of the following Brothers who have passed away. 



Brother Chas. Allen, Local No. 337, Detroit, Mich. 
Brother Bruno Ammon, Local No. 1941, Hartford, Conn. 
Brother Gust O. Bergquist, Local No. 141, Chicago, 111. 
Brother E. J. Brennan, Local No. 642, Richmond, Cal. 
Brother Thomas Cobb, Local No. 512, Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Brother John H. Coster, Local No. 747, OsAvego, N. Y. 
Brother James R. Douglas, Local No. 627, Jacksonville, Fla. 
Brother Leroy M. Duvall, Local No. 200, Columbus, O. 
Brother Joseph Fewaro, Local No. 1941, Hartford, Conn. 
Brother John A. Freeberg, Local No. 634, Los Angeles, Cal. 
Brother AVni. P. Hannum, Local No. 1331, Brattleboro, A^t. 
Brother J. C. Hollerman, Local No. 184, Salt Lake City, Utah. 
Brother Fred Jaeger, Local No. 558, Elmhurst, 111. 
Brother Heni-y M. Lyons, Local 634, Los Angeles, Cal. 
Brother Anton ]\Iiller, Local No. 184, Salt Lake City, Utah. 
Brother George Mitten, Local No. 184, Salt Lake City, Utah. 
Brother Peter Neilson, Local No. 488, New York, N. Y. 
Brother D. S. Randall, Local No. 3142, Chattanooga, Temi. 
Brother Gust Ranyak, Local No. 337, Detroit, Mich. 
Brother R. A. Robb, Local No. 634, Los Angeles, Cal. 
Brother George Schniidt, Local No. 608, New York, N. Y. 
Brother Paul Ski-Iec, Local No. 337, Detroit, Mich. 
Brother T. N. Stuart, Local No. 198, Dallas, Tex. 
Brother Jolin B. Sugia, Local No. 337, Detroit, Mich. 
Brother Axel Suneson, Local No. 141, Cliicago, 111. 
Brother Carl A. Swanson, Sr., Local No. 141, Cliicago, 111. 
Brother Frank Thoni, Local No. 337, Detroit, Mich. 
Brother Leroy Van Camp, Local No. 634, Los Angeles, Cal. 
Brother Joseph AVeir, Local No. 608, New York, N. Y. 
Brother N. T. AVilliams, Local No. 198, Dallas, Tex. 

* • • 
Bi-other Anthony Cafiero, Local No. 1590, AVashington D. C, 



Corrospondonce 




This Journal Is Not Responsible For Views Expressed By Correspondents. 

Escanaba, Mich., Local Gives Red Cross Big Boost 

On January 28, Local Union No. 1832, Escanaba, Michigan sponsored 
a charity ball for the benefit of the Red Cross. Proceeds from the ball 
amounted to approximately $1,060.00, every cent of which was turned 
over to the local Red Cross Chapter. On January 29, Local Union 1832 
received the following- letter from the chairman of the local Red Cross 
chapter expressing the deep-felt thanks of his organization for the 
splendid job done by the union for a very worthy cause: 

Mr. Alfred Brandt, President, 

Carpenters and Joiners Union-Local No. 1832, 

Dear Mr. Brandt: 

Pn behalf of the Delta County Chapter of the American Red Cross I 
want to express our appreciation to you and to each and every member 
of the Carpenters and Joiners Union-Local No. 1832, for the splendid 
contribution that you gave to the American Red Cross. This donation was 
not only 100% of the gross receipts but also the expenses and services of 
all the members of Local No. 1832 in making the Second Annual Charity 
Ball a complete success. 

Last year your organization donated the entire receipts of the First 
Annual Charity Ball to that worthy charity — The Crippled Children's 
Aid — and this year the entire receipts were donated to that humanitarian 
organization — The American Red Cross — and I understand that it is the 
intention of Local No. 1832 to continue promoting these Annual Charity 
Balls, the proceeds of which will be donated to worthy charitable organ- 
izations. 

The Carpenters and Joiners Union-Local No. 1832 deserves the high- 
est commendation of every man and woman living in Delta County, and I 
sincerely hope that each succeeding Annual Charity Ball will be bigger 
and better as the years roll by. 

Chairman, Delta County Chapter 

American Red Cross. 

• 

OLD-TIMER STARTS NEW VENTURE 

Many members of our Brotherhood will be interested in an advertisement 
appearing in this issue of THE CARPENTER by Builders' Topics of Seattle, Wash- 
ington. The firm is headed by Brother Harry W. Bleam. He has spent practically 
all his life in the building trades. Many of the brothers on the Atlantic Seaboard 
as well as the Pacific Coast will remember Mr. Bleam in connection with the 
building of many large hotels, as he was considered an expert on such buildings. 
His many friends will wish him well in his new undertaking. They have been 
operating only three months and have many students scattered from the Bering 
Sea to Old Mexico. 




Union City, N. J., Ladies Extend Greetings 

Editor, The Carpenter: 

For a long time we have intended writing to your magazine but like 
so many other things we just passed it up. So here goes: greetings and 
Ijest wishes to all Auxiliaries everywhere. We meet ever}^ 2nd and 4th 
Thursday of each month, at the Sons of Veterans Hall, 39th St., Union 
City. We have a large membership and are very active. We have Card 
Parties and Bingo Parties to raise money. We have bought a hundred 
dollar bond for the Auxiliary and all our members buy bonds from time 
to time. 

We remembered the old folks at Lakeland, Florida this year again, 
also donated to the Red Cross, Tuberculosis Fund and March of Dimes. 

We also have a Sunshine Fund for flowers, fruit, cards for our sick 
members. We have cjuite a few of our members with sons in the Armed 
Forces. AVe sent them all gift packages. Received letters of thanks from 
all. Our members' daughters write letters to a great many of the boys in 
the service — boys we all know. And boys who like to receive mail and 
don't get remembered by any folks. If any of the other Auxiliary ladies 
know of any boy in service who would like to exchange letters kindly 
forward us his address. 

We are also interested in the USO. A few of our members belong to 
the Red Cross and do their bit of work. Also some of our members donate 
their blood for the blood bank. We had a grand Christmas party last year. 
Everyone exchanged gifts, music, dancing, singing and games being- 
played. A supper followed. We had all the members and their husbands 
out. We thanked the men for the generosity they have shown us in the 
past. Our Auxiliary is looking for new members. Anyone reading the 
magazine from around our parts we would welcome you to join us. Hop- 
ing this letter will be welcome and we will Avrite again. 

Season's Greetings to all and we all wish and pra}^ for peace soon. 

Fraternally yours, 

Mrs. Mabel Hering, Publicity Agent, 

634 36th St., Union City, N. J. 



Five generations of Pennsylvanians have eaten the pancakes that came 
oft a griddle which has just been turned over to the Bethlehem Steel 
Compau}' plant for conversion into two 75 mm. shells. The griddle was 
forged in 1793. 



Craft Problems 




Carpentry 

By H. Siegele 
LESSON 186 
Almost all of the problems we have 
been dealing wittL in these lessons on 
roof framing have been based on the 
one-third pitch. This pitch is no more 
conducive to clarify roof framing prob- 
lems than any of the other pitches. 
We are holding to this pitch so as to 
simplify the illustrations. After one 
understands the principles of roof fram- 
ing as applied to one pitch, he under- 
stands principles that Tvill apply to all 
pitches. The only difference that will 
be found is in the rise, for, where the 
one-third pitch has 8 inches rise to the 
foot run of the common rafter, the 
other pitches can have rises per foot 
run that go higher or lower than 8 
inches, and even into fractions of inch- 
es: In fact, there is no limit to the 
number of pitches that can be used in 
roof framing — whenever a roof has a 
change in the slope, there is a change 
in the pitch of that roof. As we explain- 
ed in another part of this work, there 
are a number of basic pitches, as one- 
third, one-fourth, one-half and so forth, 
and while these have established a sort 




Fig. 1 

of standard, they do not carry with 
them any special qualities. They are 
used more frequently than other pitches 
for convenience rather than because of 
special merit. 

Jack rafters in reality are common 
rafters cut to fit against hip or valley 



rafters. The horizontal and the plumb 
cuts are the same as for the common 
rafter. The edge-bevel of the side cut 
and the fact that there is a difference 
in the lengths of jack rafters, makes 
them different from the common raf- 
ters. 

Fig. 1 shows how to determine the 
difference in the lengths of jack rafters. 
The square in the position shown at A, 




LJ 



Fig. 2 



represents the square applied to a com- 
mon rafter for one-foot run, "and if the 
rafters were spaced 12 inches on cen- 
ter, the diagonal distance between 12 
and 8 would be the difference in the 
lengths of the jack rafters. But rafters 
are seldom spaced less than 16 inches 
on center; therefore, to obtain the dif- 
ference in the lengths of jack rafters 
for a 16-inch space, we would move the 
square forward 4 inches, or to position 
B. Now, as can be seen by the drawing, 
the difference in the lengths is 19 3/16 
inches. 

How to obtain the difference in the 
lengths of the jack rafters when the 
rafters are spaced 2 feet on center is 
shown by Fig. 2. Here we show two 
methods. First, the square can be 
moved forward to position B, shown by 
dotted lines, which will give us the 
difference in the lengths of the jack 
rafters, or 28% inches. Second, we can 
take another step as shown by the 
square represented by the dashed lines, 
and the two steps will give us the dif- 
ference in the lengths of jack rafters 



THE CARPENTER 



27 



spaced 2 feet on center, or, as in the 
other instance, 28% inches. The same 
results can be obtained without the 
square by taking tAvice tlie diagonal 
distance of 12 and S, which is the same 
as 14% inches multiplied by 2, or 28% 
inches. 

Fig. 3 shows how to measure the di- 
agonal distance of 12 and 8 with a rule 




in order to obtain the length of the 
common rafter for one foot run, or 14% 
inches. It is necessary to have this dis- 
tance when we apply the square to ob- 
tain the edge-bevel for the side cut of a 
hip-jack or a valley-jack. For instance, 
12 and the length of the common rafter 
per foot run (the latter gives the bevel) 
will give the edge-bevel for the side 
cut of the jack rafters for any pitch. 
Fig. 4 shows the square applied to the 
timber for obtaining the edge-bevel of 
jack rafters for a one-third pitch roof. 




Fig. 4 

In other words, the edge-bevel for the 
side cut of jack rafters for a one-third 
pitch is obtained by taking 12 on the 
body of the square and 14% on the 
tongue, the tongue gives the bevel. 

After the edge-bevel has been deter- 
mined with the square, take a bevel 
square and set it to the proper angle 
and use it for marking the side cuts for 



fiARPFNTFR^ — ^^'^ t'^^'h t'"* ^tncl snnare In five 
WHiir kn I knu eusy lessons hy mail: You can now 
throw away tlic old foRy Ideas, hooks, talks, etc., which 
have not hcen chaiiKcd in principal for last 1110 years. We 
teach yon the siiuare In a way you will never forKet. The 
word tangent, hypotenuse, A as to 1! and C as to .V etc., 
are never mentioned in our teaching of the snuare. Ours Is 
a Modern Method fully copyrlKhlcd and ready to be passed 
out to the carpenter that wants to know all ahoul the 
.s(|uare in several weeks of oorrespondence with us. You 
receive one lesson at a lime. .Send in your examination 
blank properly filled out, it will be checked and relumed 
Hitli proper comments. We use a H size practice framinK 
square which, we furnish. With this square you actually 
will enjoy doinB your study work riirht at home in the 
livinR room. This course is cuarantccd to tcacli any per- 
son who can read. BUILDERS' TOPICS, Simplified book 
on the steel square is said to be the easiest to understand. 
Write today. 

BUILDERS' TOPICS 

Medical Arts Building 

Dept. 10 Seattle, 1, AVa.shington 

V. ,s. If you want to send 2.'ic coin we will send you a 
practice s(|uare and partial lesson. 

the jack rafters. Fig. 5 shows a bevel 
square applied to the timber, giving the 
edge-bevel for a side cut of a jack 
rafter. 

Fig. 6 shows a plan of one end of a 
hip roof with a 12-foot run. If the roof 
had no pitch at all, 12 and 12 on the 
square would give the bevel for the 




Fig. 5 

jacks, as we are showing with the 
square in position A. Of course, the 
square would have to be brought to 
position B before the marking could be 
done. The triangle; a-b, rafter; b-12, 
run, and 12-a, the rise, represents a raf- 
ter lying on its side. The dotted part- 
circle, a-c, shows how the length of 
the rafter has been transferred to the 
square, giving us 14% inches. Now if 
the student Avill imagine the square 
marked A pivoted at the heel and the 
end of the blade lifted until point c 



28 



THE CARPENTER 



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will be directly over point 12, lie will 
see why 12 and 14% will give the edge- 
bevel for the side cut of jack rafters for 
a one-third pitch roof. This principle 
holds good no matter what the pitch of 
the roof might be. Of course the 
square must be changed to position E 
in order to do the marking. 

The term, "side cut," or as it is 
sometimes called, "cheek cut," is often 
erroneously applied to the edge-bevel 
for making the side cut. The side cut 
has two bevels, the edge-bevel and the 
side-bevel (the plumb cut) but the cut 
itself is that part, speaking of jack raf- 
ters, that fits against a hip or a valley 
rafter. Sometimes the edge-bevel is re- 
ferred to as "top cut," which again is 







Fig. 



erroneous, for the edge-bevel of side 
cuts for hips, valleys and jacks, do not 
always come on the upper edge of 
the timber. For instance, in making 
a bird's mouth seat cut on a hip or 
valley rafter so it will fit against the 
plate of a purlin, the edge bevel is on 
the bottom of the timber. 



Sheeting for Narrow Cornice 

There is a right way and a wrong way 
of starting sheeting for a wood-shingle 
roof. If the workman is right-handed 
the sheeting should be started at the 
bottom left-hand corner, as shown by 
the illustration — if he is left-handed 
he operates in reverse order. 

Let us assume that the rafters are 
set 2 feet on center, and that the cor- 
nice projects not more than 12 inches 
— in order to prevent a 12-inch waste 
of sheeting material the starting boards 
should be cut as indicated on the three 
unshaded boards, numbered 1, 2 and 
3; namely, board number 1 is cut so it 




will make a 5-foot piece and a 11-foot 
piece of sheeting; number 2 is cut so 
it will make a 9-foot piece and a 7-foot 
piece; number 3 will make a 13-foot 
piece and a 3-foot piece. We have 
shaded the starting boards to show how 
the different lengths of boards are used, 
which project enough so as to make a 
12-inch cornice, as shown to the left. 

Much time can be saved by breaking 
more than one joint on a bearing — say, 
for 1x6 material three joints can be 
made on the same rafter in succession. 
If, however, 1x4 stuff is used for sheet- 
ing, then four joints can be made in 
succession, without, in the least, weak- 
ening the construction of the roof. In- 
stead of placing only one board and 
cutting it, place three boards, butt the 
left ends against the joint rafter and 
cut the right ends flush with the right 
side of the other joint rafter. Then 
place, and nail them just enough to in- 
sure safety for working over them, and 
proceed to cut and place the next set 
in the same way. Repeat this process 
systematically. 

The nailer should follow and com- 
plete the nailing as he goes to all bear- 
ings. — H. H. Siegele. 



T II K C A K V F. X T K II 



29 



How to Build a Truss 

Editor: 

In answer to the request of brother Leo Phillips in the January issue of "The 
Carpenter," I am enclosing a drawing of a wood truss which I designed for a, 
building I built in 1934. 

Hoping that this is the information he desires, I remain, 

%"eoo with/z'thick clate ano nut 




Drawn for Leo Phillips 

5607 W. Michigan St., Milwaukee 13, Wis. 

By Roy E. White 

21 Spring St. 

Jan. 20, 1944 Norwood, N. Y. 



Yours truly, 



21 Spring Street 



Roy E. White, 

Norwood, N. Y. 



Having never submitted a plan before I hesitate to send this in. However, 
here is my answer to the request for Information on truss building by Leo Phillips, 
Local 26 4, Milwaukee, Wis. 




The enclosed drawing gives a rough sketch of a truss that I find very satis- 
factory, as I installed it on two large buildings in 1943. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Perry A. Cook, 

Local 1911, Beckley, W. Va. 



30 



THE CARPENTER 



WYTEFACE 

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TAPES 



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FOUNDED 1881 

OtReicd Publication of the 
UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS of AMERICA 




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REMEMBER... 




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A Monthly Journal, Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners 

of America, for all its Members of all its Branches. 

FRANK DUFFY, Editor 

Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, 4, Indiana 



Established in 1881 
Vol. LXIV— No. 4 



INDIANAPOLIS, APRIL, 1944 



One Dollar Per Year 
Ten Cents a Copy 



Contents — 



The Percentage Battle 



AFL starts many-sided campaign to force revision of the exist- 
ing stabilization program which stabilizes wages rigidly through 
the Little Steel Formula but fails to do likewise with living costs. 

Truman Finds Out - - - - 

Senate Investigating Committee makes an examination of the pro- 
duction picture and finds that labor is doing a miraculous job; 
making unnecessary any further talk of a National Service Act. 



L-41 Is Amended 



With many formerly critical materials now available in adequate 
quantities, and unemployment becoming an important factor in 
the building industry, the government heeds the plea of the in- 
dustry for a relaxation of building restrictions. 

Credit Where Credit Is Due 

Oniaha paper pays well-deserved tribute to building trades unions 
of that area which contributed seventeen million man hours to 
the war effort without a single labor dispute of any kind. 

Farmer and Worker ------ 

Ihe president of the National Farmers Union decries the ani- 
mosity being built up between farmer and industrial worker by 
individuals with selfish personal motives. 

OTHER DEPARTMENTS: 

Plane Gossip -..---.-.- 
Keep 'Em Smoking .-....-- 
Editorials .-....-... 

In My Opinion ..--..-.. 

Official 

Obituar^"^ -....._.-.- 

Correspondence --..---.- 
Of Interest to the Ladies ------- 

Craft Problems --------- 

Index of Advertisers --------- 



12 



21 



39 



10 
18 
32 
38 
52 
53 
54 
55 
59 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of 

Congress, Aug. 24, 1912. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for 

in Section 1103, act of October 3, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918. 




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X O T I C E 

The publtshers of "The Carpenter" reserve the 
right to reject all advertising matter which may 
be. in their judgment, imfair or objectionable to 
tlie membership of the I"nited Brotherliood of 
Carpenters and JoiBers of America. 

All contracts for advertising space in "The Car- 
penter," including those stipulated as non-can- 
cellable, are only accepted subject to the above 
reserved rights of the publishers. 



Index of Advertisers 



Carpenters' Tools and Accessories 

Page 
E. C. Atkins & Co., Indianapolis, 

Ind. 64 

Foley Mfg. Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 64 

Heller Bros. Co., Newark, N. J._ 62 

Keuffel & Esser Co., Hoboken, 

N. J. 63 

Mall Tool Co., Chicago, 111 64 

Mayhew Steel Products, Inc., 

Shelburne Falls, Mass 61 

Ohlen-Bishop Co., Columbus, O. 63 

Paine Company, Chicago, 111 3rd Cover 

Stanley Tools, New Britain, 

Conn. 3rd Cover 

Carpentry Materials 

The Franklin Glue Co., Colum- 
bus, Ohio 2 

Doors 

Overhead Door Corp., Hartford 

City, Ind. 4th Cover 

Overalls 

The H. D. Lee & Co., Inc., Kan- 
sas City, Mo 63 

Technical Courses and Books 

American Technical Society, Chi- 
cago, III. 63 

Theo. Audel, New York, N. Y.__3rd Cover 
Builders Topics, Seattle, Wash— 62 
Chicago Technical College, Chi- 
cago, 111. 61 

Fred'k J. Drake & Co., Chicago, 

111. 51 

Mason & Parrish, Engineers, 

KalamaJioo, Mich, 60 



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THE PERCENTAGE BATTLE 

AFL attacks stabilization program which squeezes 
labor through frozen wages and uncontrolled prices. 

* * * 

FROM MANY SIDES the American Federation of Labor and affil- 
iated organizations last month attacked the government's existing 
stabilization program which rigidly freezes wages but fails to 
adequately control commodity prices. In a voluminous report, the labor 
members of the president's Committee to Study Living Costs bitterly 
attacked the Bureau of Labor Statistics' index which has the cost of living 
up less than 25% as compared to the era immediately preceding the war. 
This figure, the labor members reported, does not coincide with facts. In 
exhaustive research of their own, these labor members found that living 
costs were up by at least 43% rather than by the 24% claimed by the 
Bureau of Labor Statistics. 

In a nation-wide radio talk, 
George Meany, AFL secretary and 
member of the president's Commit- 
tee To Study Living Costs, charged 
the government's stabilization pro- 
gram with being impractical and 
unjust. Meany pointed out that the 
only thing being effectively stabil- 
ized is wages. This, he insisted, is 
throwing an unequal share of the 
burden on labor. 

"Profits, even after taxes, are 
now higher than ever before. Many 
corporations made net profits in the 
year 1942 alone which were three 
to six times greater than their en- 
tire original investment. Most farm- 
ers, storekeepers and industries are 
enjoying unprecedented prosperity. 
Application of the nation's eco- 
nomic stabilization program has not 
halted profiteering. But it has 
caught the nation's workers in an 
ever tightening vise," he said. 

Meany urged an immediate up- 
ward revision of the 15% wage in- 
crease ceiling contained in the Lit- 
tle Steel Formula, and at the same 
time he urged a concerted program 



to drive down and effectively con- 
trol the cost of living. "Labor is 
confident," he said, "that the Amer- 
ican people will support this fair 
and just program which is vitally 
necessary to restore morale and to 
assure topmost efficiency in war 
production." 

No sooner was the report of 
Meany and his colleagues out, how- 
ever, than the Bureau of Labor Sta- 
tistics began tearing it apart. Page 
by page. Bureau statisticians went 
through the Meany report pointing 
out alleged errors, discrepancies 
and shortcomings. Proceeding from 
this basis, they challenged every 
point raised by Meany and his co- 
workers. AVith tables and charts 
they offered to prove that the Bu- 
reau of Labor Statistics index 
(which computes living costs to be 
up about 24% since the start of the 
war) does represent a fair yardstick 
for measuring changes in the cost 
of living. They pooh pooh the claim 
of Meany's report that living costs 
are up 43% rather than 24%. 



THE CARPENTER 



AA'hether the 43^ fig^ure claimed 
by Meany's committee or the 24% 
figure claimed by the Bureau of 
Labor Statistics is right is not par- 
ticularly important to labor. There 
is no argument with the fact that 
wages are frozen at the 15% figure 
by the Little Steel Formula, and 
both the 43% figure and the 24% 
figure are considerably higher. The 
argument revolves around the ques- 
tion. How much higher? If the Bu- 
reau of Labor Statistics is correct, 
wages are lagging by about io9r 
and if ]\Ieany's figure is correct they 
are lagging by better than 25%. In 
anv event, it is evident that wages 
ARE LAGGING behind prices; and 
it is the intention of the American 
Federation of Labor to carry on a 
ceaseless battle until this injustice 
is wiped out. 

From still another source the ex- 
isting stabilization program was at- 
tacked by AFL leaders. AFL mem- 
bers and alternates on the National 
War Labor Board early in February 
served notice that the Little Steel 
Formula is unjust and obsolete. In 
a clear and concise statement they 
said : 

''Workers of America cannot rely 
upon price control as it now func- 
tions to preserve their standards of 
living. The only recourse left to 
them, is to obtain wage rate in- 
creases which will adequately com- 
pensate them for the ever-widening 
disparity between wages and prices." 

With that incontrovertible state- 
ment as their chief argument, they 
urged the full membership of the 
National War Labor Board to join 
them in petitioning the president to 
immediately revamp the executive 
order under which the hard and fast 
1S% millstone of the Little Steel 
Formula was fastened around the 
necks of wage earners. Unless some- 



thing is done to take the terrible 
squeeze off labor, they said, morale 
and production are bound to suffer 
in the critical days ahead. The ex- 
isting stabilization program — which 
controls wages but not prices- 
makes for totally unequal sacrifices ; 
with labor carrying by far the big- 
gest load. 

For a long time workers submit- 
ted to the "Little Steel" yardstick, 
the laborites said, in the vain hope 
that the administration would live 
up to its promises to hold and roll 
back the cost of living. All such 
hope has now been abandoned. The 
injustice of the "Little SteeT' ceil- 
ing is now so glaring that it must 
be junked, or workers' morale and 
war production will seriously suf- 
fer, they declared. 

They demanded (i) that the Pres- 
ident "realistically modify" the 
formula so that workers may be 
fully compensated for the skyroc- 
keting of living costs, and (2) that 
employers be permitted to apply 
such increases without getting prior 
approval of the "War Labor Board. 

Signers of the petition were 
George ]\Ieany, ^Matthew Woll, Rob- 
ert J. A\'att and James Brownlow. 

]\Ionth after month the research 
department of the AFL has also 
attacked the existing stabilization 
program which stabilizes nothing 
but the incomes of workers. The re- 
searchers have shown not only that 
labor is being severely penalized 
because wages are rigidly frozen 
while prices are not. but also that 
productivity ha> increased remark- 
ably in the months since Pearl Har- 
bor. 

However, the rigidity of the Lit- 
tle Steel Formula makes it impos- 
sible for the workers to share in 
the advantages of this increased 
productivity, thereby working the 



THE CARPENTER 



greatest injustice of all on labor. 
Beg-g-ing- for a realistic wag-e policy 
both now and after the war, the 
AFL in the March issue of Labor's 
Monthly Survey says : 

"One essential is that workers, 
through their unions, shall see to 
it that periodic wage increases are 
given to all workers as production 
rises, efficiency improves, and sav- 
ings on costs make wage increases 
possible." 

In another section of the Month- 
ly Survey the AFL points out that 
millions of American workers are 
still receiving less than a bare sub- 
sistence wage, despite the erroneous 
reports published in some news- 
papers depicting the workers of 
America rolling in wealth, tinder 
the existing stabilization program 
being followed by the government, 
only those who are in the very low- 
est wage brackets have any chance 
of bringing their standards up to a 
bare subsistence level. Virtually 
none in the lower brackets have any 
chance of bringing their earnings 
up to a level that will provide for 
an American standard of living 
based on health and decency. The 
AFL publication sumarizes the situ- 
ation as follows : 

"Today, more than 2,000,000 fac- 
tory workers have straight time 
wages of $1.20 per hour or more, a 
wage adequate to support a full em- 
ployment economy; 1,720,000 are in 
war factories, and 370,000 in non- 
war factories. Fast progress has 
been made since January 1941 when 
only 330,000 had as much as $1.20 
per hour. Another 2,200,000 have 
wages of $1.00 to $1.20 an hour, — 
compared to only 740,000 in Jan- 
uary 1941. Industry could have af- 
forded to raise millions more above 
$1.20 had it not been for wage sta- 
bilization. Much greater progress 



will be possible after the war, if we 
have full production. 

"But millions of workers still have 
wages below 70c an hour. There are 
4,500,000 in factories (add war and 
non-war on charts), and we estimate 
about 6,500,000 in non-war indus- 
tries: Total, 11,000,000. A 70c wage 
on a 40-hour week will not support 
a family on even a bare subsistence 
living. It would give only $1,456 a 
year if a man works full time. And 
a bare subsistence living costs $1,- 
.663 for a family of four at January 
1944 prices. 

"Wages are even lower in small 
cities. The Labor Department has 
figures for 12 typical cities of less 
than 20,000 population, which are 
doing very little war work. These 
cities are scattered throughout the 
country. Wages of most workers in 
typical jobs in stores, hotels, laun- 
dries, hopisals, and wholesale gro- 
ceries average from 24c to 43c an 
hour. 

"Those who fill the newspapers 
with outcries against the "high 
wages" workers are receiving have 
ignored these wage figures. One of 
the first post-war tasks is to raise 
these low wages." 

Thus it becomes increasingly 
clear that the American Federation 
of Labor and its affiliated unions 
are determined to remove labor from 
the vise whose upper jaw is stabil- 
ized wages and whose lower jaw is 
constantly increasing living costs. 
Ever since the start of the war 
labor has found itself gripped in 
this slowly tightening vise. During 
the past year the squeeze has be- 
come terrific and as a result labor 
finds itself in a spot today where a 
revamping of the stabilization pro- 
gram is needed to maintain morale, 
insure the kind of production need- 
ed, and more evenly distribute the 
inevitable sacrifices of war. 



Truman Finds Out 



At long- last, the battle of produc- 
tion has been brought into true fo- 
cus. Over a period of years, com- 
mentators, columnists, and self-ap- 
pointed arm-chair production wiz- 
ards have, through intimations, in- 
nuendo, and garbled statistics, hint- 
ed at dire shortcomings in American 
mills, mines, and factories — short- 
comings that only a compulsory na- 
tional service law could remedy. Be- 
cause there were no honest and im- 
partial facts available, these trump- 
eters of doom had a perpetual field 
day. 

All that is now changed, however. 
True facts are available. The Tru- 
man Senate Investigating Commit- 
tee recently turned in the first au- 
thoritative report on the war pro- 
duction program — a report based on 
actual studies of conditions as they 
exist. The report spikes the guns 
of those who have continued to cry, 
"Wolf, Wolf." It shows that 
American workers and American 
industry have worked production 
miracles. It further shows that talk 
of a national service act is unwar- 
ranted, unnecessary, and dangerous 
to a continuance of the phenomenal 
production pace long since achieved. 

To fulfill the government's huge 
production needs, the report says, 
"our workers engaged in manufac- 
turing, mining, and agriculture con- 
tributed nearly 45 per cent more 
man-days of work in 1943 than in 
1939, despite the fact that more than 
10,000,000 men were withdrawn 
from the labor pool for the armed 
forces. In manufacturing alone, our 



Senate Investigating Committee 
delves into the facts on pi-odiietion and 
finds that labor has come through mag- 
nificently, making unncessary any t'liilh- 
er consideration of a national compul- 
sory service act. 



workmen contributed 89.6 per cent 
more man-days in 1943 than in 

1939- 

"This astounding performance ex- 
ceeds anything of its kind ever 
achieved in the history of the 
world. The results obtained are the 
best answer to the critics of the 
home front. They do not indicate 
perfection, but they do evidence ac- 
complishment of a high order. 

"All Americans who have partici- 
pated can be justly proud, because 
the success is due to the accumulat- 
ed efforts of the millions of people 
who have each done their share 
rather than to any miraculous plan- 
ning of a few experts at the top. 

"Women in particular deserve 
credit for filling the huge gap cre- 
ated by manpower requirements of 
the armed services. Older men who 
had retired from active work have 
returned to their jobs and because 
of their experience are among the 
most valuable of workers. 

"The job that has been done not 
only assures that victory will be 
won, but it assures that it will be 
won more quickly and with fewer 
casualties. Our armed forces have 
more and better equipment than our 
foes." 



THE CARPENTER 



Outstanding finding-s of the com- 
mittee report were : 

T — The major battles of war pro- 
duction have been won, largely 
through "astounding performance" 
of American labor. 

2 — Proposals for a National Serv- 
ice Act are far too drastic, unwieldy 
of operation, and ineffective as an 
anti-strike measure. 

3 — Government and management 
must take their share of responsi- 
bility for strikes which have oc- 
curred. The committee did not con- 
done strikes but declared America's 
strike record compares favorably 
with that of Great Britain where 
compulsory National Service legis- 
lation has been in effect. 

4 — The Government should adopt 
a clear and understandable labor re- 
lations policy for the duration, writ- 
ten into law and administered by a 
single central agency, instead of the 
multiple bureaus now handling la- 
bor matters. 

These conclusions, fully endors- 
ing the official policy of the Amer- 
ican Federation of Labor, were but- 
tressed by an indisputable array of 
facts and figures obtained by the 
Truman Committee from Govern- 
ment sources. 

In support of its finding that the 
major battles of war production 
have been won, the committee cited 
these production totals from Jan- 
uary, 1941, to this year: 

Delivery of 153,061 airplanes of 
all types; 746 combat naval vessels; 
1,899 Liberty ships, 702 commercial 
ships; 28,286 subsidiary naval ves- 
sels, mostly landing craft; 1,567,940 
military trucks — all this besides 
equipping ten million men with 
guns, tanks, clothing, ammunition, 
etc. 



While need for landing craft, 
heavier and longer ^range aircraft, 
radio and radar, ships, and other 
special items will continue for many 
months, the committee expressed 
confidence that the nation's war pro- 
duction facilities will be able to 
meet all requirements. 

Manpower shortages are still a 
great problem, the committee con- 
ceded, but it laid the blame largely 
on hoarding of labor reserves •by 
industry. It urged that efficient use 
of manpower should figure in costs 
when the Government determines 
profits through renegotiation of 
contracts. 

Immediate production of more 
consumer goods from surplus war 
materials, where possible, was rec- 
ommended by the committee as a 
measure to shorten the lag between 
conversion from war to peace pro- 
duction. 

Terming America's war produc- 
tion "awe-inspiring," the committee 
pointed out that "this astounding 
performance exceeds anything of its 
kind ever achieved in the history of 
the world." 

To figures on production cited 
above, the committee added the 
housing and training facilities for 
10 million men and the construction 
of airfields and bases all over the 
world. 

The record was increased by the 
construction of nearly 20 billion 
dollars worth of the "best and 
most modern plant facilities in the 
world." 

These plants should not be pre- 
sented as a gift to their operators, 
the committee held, but neither 
should "pre-war industry be protect- 
ed against competition of Govern- 
ment built plants acquired at a fair 
price." 



Post-War Highways 

Uncle Sam contemplates 34,000 miles of modern roads 
when peace comes — foreshadowing 500,000 steady jobs 



A HALF DOZEN men are right now spending all their time touring 
the United States. For the next five or six months they will drive 
their cars east, west, north, and south until they have covered all 
sections of the country. And they are doing this with the blessing of 
OPA, ODT, WPB, and Washington in general, for they are the presi- 
dent's official committee to study highway conditions in the nation. Their 
job is to make recommendations and suggestions in regard to the gigantic 
super-highway building program which the government expects to put 
into effect as soon as the war is over and the need for jobs develops. 

At the present time Uncle Sam 



is planning to build about 34,000 
miles of super-highways in the first 
few years following the war. The 
findings of the six-man "touring" 
committee may expand or contract 
this program according to what it 
finds in its extensive highway sur- 
vey. However, it seems to be pretty 
well agreed that at least 34,000 miles 
of super-highways will be needed 
to give this nation a really efficient 
highway system capable of carrying 
the contemplated post-war load of 
tourist and trucking traffic. The cost 
is estimated at something like fif- 
teen billion dollars. Estimated con- 
struction time runs from ten to 
twenty years. 

AA^hat will these super-highways 
(the government prefers calling 
them inter-regional highways) be 
like? For the most part they will 
be about like the present Pennsyl- 
vania Turnpike which stretches 
from Harrisburg to Pittsburgh. 
This road runs straight for a hun- 
dred miles. There are almost two 



hundred curves in a fifty-mile 
stretch of the road but they are so 
wide and so gradual that they make 
no difference. In fact, the curves 
are of such wide radius that the 
driver is seldom conscious of the 
fact that there is a curve. No reduc- 
tion in speed is needed to negotiate 
them. Hills, too, are almost non- 
existent. Tops of hills have been 
shaved down and the dirt pushed 
into valleys to give the highway no 
more climb than the average rail- 
road. 

The most important feature of 
the Pennsylvania Turnpike, how- 
ever, is the absence of traffic haz- 
ards and conditions that tend to 
slow down speeds. There are no 
grade crossings or left turns on the 
highway and consequently there are 
no traffic lights because there is no 
need for them. Gear-shifting and 
slow downs are eliminated, with the 
result that gas consumption and tire 
wear remain low despite the tend- 
ency toward high speeds on the 



THE CARPENTER 



hig-hway (when speeds above 35 
miles per hour were permissible.) 

However, several improvements 
on the Pennsylvania Turnpike are 
proposed in the post-war super- 
highways. For one thing, opposing 
lanes of the highways will always 
be on different levels except where 
terrain makes such construction im- 
possible. This will eliminate glare 
from oncoming cars at night. It will 
also eliminate the inherent nervous- 
ness that the average driver feels 
when oncoming traffic rushes at him 
at terrific speeds even though he 
knows that such traffic is on another 
lane of the highway. Most impor- 
tant of all, the two level highways 
will reduce traffic deaths by dras- 
tically reducing head-on collisions 
that occasionally occur on our wid- 
est and safest modern highways. 

If the government's 34,000 mile 
super-highway program is stretched 
over a period of twenty years, a 
half million men will have steady 
jobs for that length of time. If the 
program is speeded up by 50%, the 
number of steady jobs the high- 
way program will provide will, of 
course, be increased by a like 
amount. Under present plans. Un- 
cle Sam will provide half the 
money, and the states will provide 
the other half. All forty-eight 
states will participate to some ex- 
tent at least in the super-highway 
program because present plans in- 
clude some super-highway building 
in every one of the states. 

Efficiency is to be the keynote 
of the post-war super-highways. 
The roads will by-pass even the 
most important cities. Networks of 
secondary highways will connect 
these cities with the highways but 
the traffic going straight through 
will be spared the necessity of 
bucking city traffic in making long 



hops. Advantages of the super-high- 
ways will be : 

1. Great speed in travelling cross 
country. 

2. Greater safety brought about 
by the elimination of cross-roads, 
grade crossings and left hand turns 

3. Reduction in wear and tear on 
automobiles by the elimination of 
frequent starts and stops that re- 
sult from traffic congestion. 

4. Appreciable speed-up in the 
movement of farm produce to the 
city markets. 

Special attention is to be paid to 
landscaping along tomorrow's super 
highways. Increased pleasure and 
elimination of driving strains will 
be the chief objective of the land- 
scape engineers. As many trees and 
shrubs and as much topsoil as pos- 
sible will be spared during the con- 
struction of the highways to pre- 
serve natural beauty. Additional 
trees will be planted to screen un- 
sightly spots from the vision of the 
driver on the completed highway. 

All in all, the super-highway 
program appears to be one of the 
bright spots in post-war planning. 
It offers a highly promising source 
of construction jobs when they will 
be needed most, and in addition it 
promises untold dividends in the 
form of faster, safer, and more 
pleasant travel for the tourists and 
truckers of the future. 



LET'S BACK THE 
ATTACK! 

Buy More 

BONDS FOR 
VICTORY 



SIP 



GUESS ^\TH[0 GETS A RAISE? 

It all depends on who wants the 
raise. Congressman Glen Beall (Rep. 
Md.) revealed recently that while Eco- 
nomic Stabilization Director Fred Vin- 
son fought against a modest raise for 
the nation's railmen and workers In gen- 
eral, he has himself received a $2,500 
salary increase, plus a $628 war-time 
cost of living bonus — a hike of approxi- 
mately 25%. 

According to figures from the comp- 
troller general's office, Vinson's salary 
was raised from $12,500 to $15,000, 
and he is also getting $62 8 more a year 
under the terms of a congressional reso- 
lution giving federal employes a bonus 
during the war. 



NOTHING NEW 

A national magazine devoted to edu- 
cation is running in the current issue an 
article captioned, "There Should Always 
Be A Strong Tie Between Father And 
Son." 

Our experience leads us to believe 
that there always is — and the son is 
usually wearing it until It is old and 
wrinkled. Ask any father whose boy is 
not yet in the service. 

• • • 




WOW! What have I done? I'm a 
member of the draft board ! 



EVEN THE BLIND CAN SEE IT 

The benefits of trade unionism are 
beconiiiig so obvious that even the blind 
are be{?innins to see them. No foolinj'! 
Recently the Alameda (California) Club 
of Adult Blind unanimously adopted a 
resolution recommending^ that all blind 
persons employed in industry join and 
actively participate in labor unions. 

•k ic -k 

NOT SO DUMB 

When, if, and as the new tax bill (you 
know, the one that created more furore 
in Washington than a mouse at a Ladies' 
Aid meeting) becomes effective, amuse- 
ment taxes will go up drastically. Cost 
of the average movie ticket will increase 
around five cents. Some theaters, hoAv- 
ever, are already contemplating price in- 
creases of at least ten cents to take care 
of the tax. 

This sort of thing is nothing new. 
Many wage increases won by a union 
that added fifty cents to the manufac- 
turing cost of an item has been taken 
care of by a dollar price increase in the 
selling price of the article, OPA or no 
OPA. In fact, a sizeable percentage of 
big increase in living costs is probably 
attributable to this sort of thing. 

It seems to be prevalent evei'ywhere, 
too. Just the other day we read about 
an Indian who has for many years lived 
in the Olympic mountains in Washing- 
ton. Each fall he would appear in one 
of the foothill villages to sell huckle- 
berries. Always his price was 50c a 
bucket until last Fall, when the price 
suddenly jumped to a dollar. When one 
of his previous customers asked why, 
the Indian replied: 

"Hell of a war going on someplace." 
• • • 
ONCE HE DIDN'T LIE 

Even Hitler tells the truth once in 
awhile. During the 19 36 Olympic Games 
in Berlin, Der Fuehrer proclaimed the 
young men of Germany the fastest run- 
ners in the world. 

They are now proving themselves to 
be just that — on the Russian front. 



THE CARPENTER 



11 



ASK ANY MARRIED MAN 
"Love," says the husband of an Indi- 
anapolis war worker, "starts wlien she 
sinks in your arms, and eventually you 
wind up with your arms in the sink." 

• • • 
STRETCHING A POINT 

Treat your old tires kindly, because 
it looks as if new ones aren't going to 
be available for a long time to come, 
despite the glowing promises being 
made in some newspaper advertise- 
ments. Synthetic rubber tires are being 
turned out in huge quantities, but they 
are barely meeting the demands of the 
Army and Navy. Official sources indi- 
cate that the public will be lucky if 
there is enough rubber released by Fall 
to take care of the girdle situation, let 
alone the tire situation. 

And, incidentally, if you haven't 
heard it, the latest definition of a 
girdle is: 

"A contraption to keep the WAVES 
out of the WAGS." 

• • • 
THE LOGICAL MAN 

There seems to be some concern over 
the fact that the Japs are really trying 
to make friends with the peoples they 
conquered in the South Pacific. In some 
spots at least, their "let's all unite 
against the whites" philosophy seems to 
be getting results of a sort. By and 
large, all natives have been extremely 
friendly to the Americans and British- 
ers, and their friendship has helped to 
swing many a battle. It is essential we 
keep them on our side. 

In view of the fact that rubbing noses 
seems to be the best way of gaining 
friends in the South Pacific, how about 
making Jimmy Durante our ambassador 
to that part of the counti'y? 

• • • 
REAL OPTIMISM 

Dancing attendance upon Franco hav- 
ing failed to produce any material re- 
sults in the way of stopping Spain's un- 
derground assistance to Hitler, our gov- 
ernment recently invoked sterner meas- 
ures in the form of embargoes on cer- 
tain materials. 

We hope this will bring about the 
desired results, but somehow or other 
we can't help but think the fellow who 
hopes that a slap on the wrist will stop 
Franco's collusion with Hitler is about 



as optimistic as the fellow without funds 
who went into a restaurant and ordered 
a big oyster dinner in the hope that one 
of the bivalves would contain a pearl 
big enough to take care of the check. 

• • • 
AND IT'S FREE, TOO 

Nearly two and a half years of war 
are beginning to have their effect. Ever 
notice how touchy and irritable people 
have been getting? You can see it in 
the crowded stores, the jammed buses, 
and overloaded restaurants. Politeness 
and courtesy are getting less and less 
noticeable. 

The situation is nothing to get 
alarmed about. People have been work- 
ing longer than ever before. Nearly 
everyone has somebody in the services. 
Just living has become a real task what 
with rationing, standing in line, and do- 
ing without. No wonder nerves are get- 
ting frayed around the edges. 

However, the next time you start to 
lose your temper because you have to 
stand in a bus or train or wait in line 
in a restaurant or grocery store, remem- 
ber what our boys overseas are going 
through. America, even under wartime 
conditions — would be paradise to them. 
Perhaps the man behind you who keeps 
annoying you by pushing had a son on 
Bataan. Maybe the lady in front of 
you recently got a telegram containing 
the fateful words "missing in action." 
Try to be a little bit charitable and pa- 
tient. Remember: Politeness is like an 
air cushion; there may not be anything 
in it, but it helps to ease the jolts. 

• • • 




You don't have to be that efficient in 
iflpiitifying: our employees, Jackson ! 



12 



L-41 IS AMENDED 

Building restrictions eased slightly 



THE efforts of the Building 
Trades Department, em- 
ployers associations and our 
Brotherhood to have restrictions on 
building revised, now that the bulk 
of the government's building pro- 
gram is over, have born fruit. On 
March 7th, the War Production 
Board issued an amended version 
of Conservation Order L-41. The 
amended order still limits construc- 
tion drastically. However, it does 
open the way for certain types of 
repair work and special types of 
construction which hitherto were 
prohibited entirely or were permis- 
sible only under special author- 
ization from the War Production 
Board. This should revive private 
building and repairing enough to 
take up some of the slack in em- 
ployment for building tradesmen 
brought on by the constant decline 
in government construction. 

Some time ago the building trades 
unions became concerned over the 
plight of the construction industry. 
The factories, cantonments, etc., 
needed to take care of an eleven 
million man army were practically 
finished by last Fall. At the same 
time, supplies of many critical 
building materials reached the 
point where shortages were no long- 
er prevalent. Private construction 
was at a virtual stand still due to 
rigid government restrictions. All 
this meant that building trades jobs 
slumped materially. 

In view of the fact that many 



building materials were no longer 
scarce and many skilled building 
tradesmen who could not switch 
over to production jobs were out of 
work, the Building Trades Depart- 
ment and our Brotherhood as 
well as others concerned petition- 
ed the government for a relaxation 
of restrictions on private building. 
The statistical department of our 
Brotherhood made a survey which 
showed that unemployment was be- 
coming an increasingly important 
factor in the building industry un- 
der the government's inflexible re- 
strictions on building. As much as 
any other one thing, this survey 
probably influenced the War Pro- 
duction Board in its decision to re- 
vise building restrictions. 

As stated above, the amended 
version of Conservation Order L-41 
still limits construction drastically. 
However, it does remove some of 
the restrictions which heretofore 
made impossible certain types of 
repair work and certain types of 
special construction. 

For example, the following 
amounts of various types of con- 
struction can now be undertaken 
without first obtaining permission 
from the War Production Board. 
(Construction, as defined by WPB, 
means the putting up or altering of 
any sort of a structure). 

1. $200 for a house, including the 
entire residential property. 

2. $1,000 for a farm, including 
the farm house ; a farm means a 



THE CARPENTER 



13 



place used for raising- crops, live- 
stock, dairy products, poultry, etc. 
primarily for the market. 

3. $1,000 for a hotel, apartment 
building, or other residence for six 
or more families. Any residence for 
five or less families is considered a 
house. 

4. $200 for an office, bank, store, 
laundry, restaurant or other retail 
establishment, except that the limit 
is $1,000 for a unit containing more 
than five establishments of one kind. 

5. $1,000 for a church, hospital, 
school, college, public playground 
for children, or for a publicly own- 
ed building or group of buildings 
used for public purposes. 

6. $1,000 for a bridge, overpass, 
underpass, tunnel, dock, pier, air- 
port, bus terminal, or railroad or 
street railroad building or group of 
buildings. 

7. $1,000 for an irrigation or 
drainage system serving more than 
one farm. 

8. $1,000 for a building or group 
of buildings which will be used for 
warehouse or off-farm storage pur- 
poses. 

9. $1,000 for all monuments and 
structures on the same cemetery lot. 
or for all cemetery buildings or 
structures in the same cemetery. 

Certain kinds of special construc- 
tion are also released from the ne- 
cessity of first obtaining permission 



from the War Production Board. 
These special kinds of construction 
which generally are exempt from 
cost limits, include such things as 
maintenance and repair work when 
such work is absolutely necessary 
to keep a building or structure in 
sound working- condition, or fix it 
when it has become unsafe or unfit 
for service because of wear and 
tear; the rebuilding- or restoring of 
a house (including a farm home) or 
other residential building- damaged 
or destroyed after July i, 1943, by 
fire, flood, tornado, etc.; and 
construction necessary to prevent 
threatened loss of farm products. 

Just how much effect the new 
amended order will have on private 
construction remains problematical. 
However, it should have an all 
round salutary effect; first because 
it should enable civilians to get at 
least a minimum of vitally-needed 
construction done without waiting 
for the end of the war, and second, 
because it should provide jobs for 
some building tradesmen who can- 
not transfer their talents and skills 
to the production field. On the other 
hand — like all government regula- 
tions — amended order L-41 doesn't 
mean very much until an interpreta- 
tion is placed on it by the heads of 
the various agencies. All in all, 
however, it seems to be a step in 
the right direction. 



Marine Praises Record of Labor 

"One reason we are running well ahead of our Pacific timetable is that 
production of fighting ships for the Navy, and all the accessories that go 
with them, is far ahead of schedule." This tribute to labor's part in the 
war effort comes from Lieutenant General Alexander A. A'andegrift, 
USMC, Commandant of America's fighting Marines. 

Continuing his comments on labor's production record, General Vande- 
grift said: "Generally speaking we have great praise and few complaints 
on those scores," but added that much work remains to be done in the 
Pacific war theater. 



14 



After WICTORY-iyftaf? 



By DR. JOIEN' L. CHILDS 

For the Workers Education Bureau of America 
• • • 



^^ 



7 AR IS NOW the supreme 
/ factor in the economv of 
the United States. Over 
eleven million of our picked young 
people soon will be enrolled in the 
armed services. Back of these forces 
on the hg-hting- fronts is a much larg- 
er arm}- engaged in the struggle of 
war production and transportation. 
By the end of 1943 our annual rate 
of production was over 190 billion 
dollars in ^oods and services. Of 



about great changes in agriculture. 
^Marginal lands are cropped once 
again, and farmers are working long 
hours to make up for the younger 
workers now in the armed forces. 
It has further mechanized agricul- 
ture. 

The stimulus of war has not only 
doubled our output of goods and 
services, it has vastly extended our 
industrial plant. It has been re- 
cently estimated that prior to 1939 



The key to a lasting peace and an adequate post-war i>rosperity de- 
l)ends on niaintaiiiiug peacetime production at the present waitime high. 
Such an ob.jective can be reached through industi-j-, labor, and goveninient 
working together closely for the common good. 



this total amount, one-half — 95 bil- 
lion dollars* worth of products^ — 
went to one consumer, the American 
war program. 

Total, global war has indeed 
brought many transformations in 
our economy. It has greatly in- 
creased the number now employed. 
It has extended the hours of work 
for many. It has brought about great 
shifts in the number engaged in the 
different occupations. It has taken 
many thousands of families from 
their homes and concentrated them 
in the great war-production areas. 
It has greatly increased the number 
of women workers. It has drawn 
older boA'S and girls out of the 
schools and put them into the army 
of producers. It has also brought 



America had accumulated about 40 
billion dollars" (depreciated book- 
. value) worth of manufacturing 
plant and equipment, while during 
the short space of three war 3-ears 
— ^mid-1939 to mid-1942 — we added 
the remarkable total of another 20 
billion dollars' worth of plant. 

Total war has brought man}- new 
governmental controls in to the 
economy. One of these is the in- 
strumentality of "lend-lease" which 
one economic writer has recently 
said might prove as significant in 
foreign affairs as the Atlantic 
Charter. This was a weapon Hitler 
did not suppose the democracies 
could devise. As everybody also 
knows we now have "priorities."' 
"price-controls," "subsidies," and 



THE CARPENTER 



15 



"rationing-." Through these and 
similar controls, we have been able 
to achieve planned production and 
distribution for both military and 
civilian needs. In spite of the huge 
amount which has gone into the 
national war effort, the goods and 
services available for civilians have 
not radically declined. Certain 
groups have experienced reductions, 
but these are due to more equitable 
distribution of goods among the 
whole population, not primarily to a 
decrease in the total amount allocat- 
ed to our civilian consumers. 

This record in production has its 
implications for American organ- 
ized labor. We now perceive the 
remarkable production potential of 
our economy. This national achieve- 
ment calls for drastic revisions of 
traditional estimates of what is pos- 
sible and what is reasonable. An 
economy of relative abundance is 
not a myth, it is a demonstrated 
fact. Labor should not let the 
American public forget the new 
levels of living, both materially and 
culturally, which we can enjoy, once 
the war is over, if we can success- 
fully organize for national security, 
sustained production, and full em- 
ployment. Science applied in agri- 
culture and industry has wrought a 
revolution. It has made it possible 
for all to have comfortable, well 
equipped homes, good food, ade- 
quate medical care, and opportunity 
for leisure. So far as costs are con- 
cerned, we can also afford a public 
educational program in which each 
child will have a chance to develop 
his distinctive interests and abili- 
ties. The conception which should 
be the premise of all our postwar 
thinking-, is that "we can afford 
whatever we can produce." 

No strategy of labor which is 
merely concerned with winning 



equal distribution of a low national 
income is adequate. The day by 
day struggle for job-security now 
needs to be associated with an in- 
sistent demand for the organization 
of a national economy, which will 
make high production and full em- 
ployment possible. The statesman- 
ship of organized labor will be test- 
ed by its response to this both criti- 
cal and promising domestic situa- 
tion. The time calls for bold leader- 
ship. 

We of labor also need to remem- 
ber, that this record in production 
was achieved by agriculture, labor, 
and management working in coop- 
eration with governmental agencies, 
which provided essential coordina- 
tion, direction, and regulation. In 
other words, governmental regula- 
tion is not the enemy of human 
freedom, but in our interdependent 
economy, is rather a necessary con- 
dition for the actual realization of 
economic freedom for the many. 
The remedy for poor administration 
and "bureaucracy" in government, 
is not a return to the anarchy of 
laissez-faire or private monopoly. 
The cure is rather to be found in 
more adequate and continuous rep- 
resentation of the .great functional 
groups in the processes and agen- 
cies, both private and public, by 
which our economy is directed and 
the arrangements devised, which 
condition the welfare of all. 

Before long we shall begin to 
demobilize this war economy. The 
shift to a peace-time basis presents 
our country with staggering prob- 
lems. Eleven million will have to 
be transferred from the armed 
forces to peace-time jobs. In three 
domestic industries — aircraft, ship- 
ping, and munitions — we now em- 
ploy six million people, the most 
optimistic estimates for the post- 



16 T H JE C A R P E N T Z R 

war period put the number needed and direction, only if private enter- 
in these lines at not much over prise and government can cooperate. 
one-half million. Both occupational That cooperation is over-due. Xow 
and geographical re-distribution of that the Xational Resources Plan- 
workers is involved in this shift ning Board has been abolished, a 
to the peace-economy. Local, re- National Reconversion Administra- 
gional. and single industry plan- tion should be created at once. An 
ning by labor and management to Advisors- Commission composed of 
meet this crisis is absolutely essen- representatives of agriculture, man- 
tial, but we deceive ourselves, if agement, labor, and the profession 
we think the job can be done by should be associated with it. 
these means alone. The national 

task of reconversion must have ^^^^^ =^°"1^ mobilize its lull re- 
over-all federal planning and di- sources to see that the legislative 
rection, if we are not to experience and the executive branches of our 
great suffering and chaos, out of Federal Government cooperate to 
which, sinister, undemocratic move- organize this National Reconver- 
ments might be born. sion Authoritj^ It is urgently need- 

We can have , over-all planning ed, if democracy is to win the peace. 

-♦ 

Plane Production Sets New High 

American aircraft workers have done it again. During February they 
produced planes at an all-time record rate of 350 a day, for a total of 8.760. 
Chairaian Charles E. Wilson of the Aircraft Production Board reported. 

Wilson said that in terms of weight the total output was 4 per cent 
ahead of January, the previous high mark. Recalling that February- was a 
"short" month, he implied that if it had been of normal length, the total 

num.ber of planes w ould have passed the 9,000 mark. 

^ 

Congratulations, Brother Acker 

On Saturday, March 18, 1944, Adolph J. Fritz. ?t :retary-Treaurer of 
the Indiana State Federation of Labor for twenty-se er. years tendered his 
resignation to the Executive Board of that Bod^', then in session at Indian- 
apolis, on account of the condition of his health. Needless to say his resig- 
nation was regretfully accepted for he had filled that office capabh' and 
satisfactoril}' at all times and was quite popular with the members of the 
Federation in Indiana. The Executive Board then proceeded to elect his 
successor and we are pleased to say that Brother John Acker, a member 
of Carpenters' Local L^nion 215 of Lafayette. Indiana, was unanimously 
elected. Brother Acker is well grounded in the Labor Movement having 
thirty years membership to his credit. During that time he has held many 
offices in his Local Union and in the State Federation of Labor all of which 
he filled with honor to himself and satisfaction to those who chose him. 
A\e consider him a capable man in the right place and wish him un- 
bounded success in his new Dosition. 



This is your publication. Hatronize its advertisers. 



THE CARPENTER 



17 



Wage-Hour Act Periled 



DIRECT EFFORTS by six States to nullify the Fair Labor Stand- 
ards Act, and the lowering of child labor standards by one-half of 
the States were charged by L. Metcalfe Walling, director of the 
wage and hour and public contracts divisions of the United States De- 
partment of Labor, in his report for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1943. 
Seeino- a dangfer of deterioration 



of wage and work standards with 
the end of hostilities, Mr. Walling 
suggested that preparations be made 
now to strengthen existing legisla- 
tion, including the lifting of the 
present minimum of 40 cents an 
hour to 50 cents. 

Mr. Walling's report disclosed 
that nearly $17,000,000 in restitution 
of illegally withheld wages was 
paid to 390,000 employes in 20,- 
000 industrial and business estab- 
lishments last year, with more than 
one-third of the cases involving 
failure to pay the minimum of 30 to 
40 cents an hour. 

"This slackening of Federal en- 
forcement (through a 20 per cent 
appropriation cut) is particularly 
serious now," Mr. Walling declared. 
"At the very time that the Congress 
was reducing the apropriation in the 
spring of 1943, six States were pass- 
ing laws that discriminated against 
wage claims, reducing to periods of 
as little as six months the time in 
which a worker may sue to collect 
wages legally due him, while not 
similarly reducing the period in 
which the butcher or baker or land- 
lord may sue the worker. 

"Some of this legislation refers 
specifically to the Fair Labor Stand- 
ards Act. Some may be unconstitu- 
tional. All is aimed at its defeat in 
practice. 

"In addition, one State has had a 
one-year statute of limitations ap- 
plying to claims under the act since 



the early days in which it was in 
force and another State has had a 
one-year nondiscriminatory statute 
for a much longer period." 

Mr. W'alling stressed the impor- 
tance of the Fair Labor Standards 
Act and its effective enforcement as 
essential to the protection of stand- 
ards after the war, when "it is prob- 
able that wage earners in all brac- 
kets will have their total earnings 
reduced because of reductions in 
hours of work." 

He expressed the opinion that it 
would take a 50-cent minimum wage 
today to equal the minimum stand- 
ards of decency set by Congress 
in 1938 with the 40-cent minimum 
wage and suggested that studies be 
begun immediately on the basis of 
which he could make appropriate 
recommendations a 3'ear hence. He 
also urged consideration of extend- 
ing the minimum wage provisions 
of the act to employes of industrial- 
ized farms and to those industries 
in which substantial coverage now 
exists, to end unfair competition be- 
tween intrastate and interstate en- 
terprises in cases where the former 
substantially affects the latter. 

On the question of child labor, 
Mr. Walling said it had become an 
increasingly difficult problem with 
the necessary increase in the war 
labor force. His report disclosed 
that about 1,000,000 more boys and 
girls 14 to 17 years old were at work 
in April, 1943, than would have been 
employed except for the war. 



T ir E C^ A R 1> E X T E R 



KEEP 'EM 
SMOKING 



Brotherhood solicits cooperation 
of Locals and District Councils 
to keep our fighting boys happy. 



Approximately one hundred and 
fifty local unions and district and 
state councils made contributions to 
our Brotherhood's Cigarette Fund 
during the past month. During the 
same period another one million, 
one hundred thousand free union 
label cigarettes were provided our 
boys on the fighting fronts through 
the fund. Contributions came from 
as far away as Puerto Rico. Many 
locals and councils are putting their 
contributions to the fund on a defi- 
nite monthly basis ; — a procedure 
that helps materially inasmuch as 
it assures the fund of a specific 
amount each month and thereby en- 
ables planning ahead. 

The aim of our Brotherhood is to 
provide at least a million free cig- 
arettes a month to our soldiers and 
sailors for the duration. This means 
that at least $2,500 per month must 
come into the fund while the war 
lasts. Any residue in the fund at 
the cessation of hostilities will be 
used to provide smokes for wound- 
ed veterans convalescing in vafious 
government hospitals. 

One of the outstanding contribu- 
tions of the month was that of Lo- 
cal Union 1795 of Farmington, Mo. 
The members of this union voted 
to assess themselves ten cents per 
month per member for the duration 
to keep the Cigarette Fund func- 
tioning. The following letter re- 
ceived by the General Office from 
the local explains the action taken 
by the union : 

"I am pleased to advise you that 
Local Union 1795 took to heart the 
appeal for funds to carry on the 



contribution of free cigarettes to 
members of our Armed Forces, and 
in the approved manner voted an 
assessment of ten cents per month 
per member for the duration. Al- 
though the amount raised will not 
be great, it will help and it will be 
continuous, whereas voluntary con- 
tributions taken at meetings were 
very uncertain and tended to dis- 
courage attendance. 

"If our entire organization fol- 
lowed this course, I am confident we" 
would all feel mighty proud of the 
result. Hoping to read in The Car- 
penter that most of our local unions 
have done this." 

Letters of appreciation for the 
free cigarettes provided through 
the fund continue to pour into the 
General Office from Army and Navy 
officials. Red Cross workers and 
from the soldiers and sailors them- 
selves. The thanks expressed in the 
letters is so heartfelt and universal 
that one cannot read them without 
realizing that nothing can take the 
place of cigarettes from home as a 
morale builder. Our boys on the 
various battlefronts are performing 
the difficult task assigned to them 
with cheerfulness and courage. 
Often American cigarettes are ra- 
tioned strictly or are not obtainable 
at all. Under conditions like these, 
free cigarettes provided by the 
folks at home become manna from 
heaven. 

Many local unions and councils 
have responded generously to the 
fund since it started. Other locals 
and councils have yet to make their 
first contribution. A small monthly 



THE CARPENTER 



19 



donation from each local union and 
district council — based on the size 
of the membership — would distri- 
bute the load evenly and enable our 
Brotherhood to reach its objective 
of providing at least a million free 
cierarettes a month for the duration 



to our boys in the Armed Forces. 

Make all checks to the fund pay- 
able to General Treasurer S. P. 
Meadows. An accounting- of the 
fund for the month since the last 
issue of The Carpenter went to 
press follows : 



CIGARETTE FUND 
Contributions received by the General Treasurer's ofTice from February 24th to 
March 24th, 1944. 



L. U. City and State Amt. 

10 Chicaso, 111 20 00 

25 Los Angeles, Cal. . 25 00 

36 Oakland, Cal. ... 25 00 
46 Sault Ste Marie, 

Mich 10 00 

62 Chicago, 111 10 00 

90 Bvansville, Ind.... 25 00 
98 Spokane, Wash. ..100 00 

104 Dayton, 50 00 

155 Plainfield, N. J... 10 00 

182 Cleveland, 5 00 

213 Houston, Tex. ... 25 00 

231 Rochester, N. Y.. 15 00 

232 Fort Wayne. Ind.. 20 00 
240 Bast Rochester, 

N. Y 5 00 

253 Omaha, Neb 50 00 

266 Stockton, Cal. . . 25 00 

284 New York. N. Y.. 10 00 

286 Great Falls, Mont 25 00 

310 Norwich, N. Y 10 00 

338 Seattle, Wash. ... 50 00 

357 Islip, N. Y 5 00 

363 P:igin, 111 50 00 

369 No. Tonawanda, 

N. Y 10 00 

373 Fort Madison, la. 5 00 
396 Newport News, Va.lOO 00 

440 Bulfalo, N. Y 10 00 

454 Philadelphia, Pa... 10 00 

460 Wausan, Wis. ... 10 00 

462 Greensburg, Pa 10 00 

484 Akron, 25 00 

539 Los Banos, Cal. . . 10 00 

573 Baker, Ore 15 00 

574 Middletown, N. Y. 2 25 
605 Golconda, 111. ... 25 00 
641 Fort Dodge, la... 25 00 

645 Norfolk, Va 15 00 

660 Springfield, O. . . 10 00 

726 Davenport, la. ... 10 00 

734 Kokomo, Ind 25 00 

746 Norwalk, Conn 2500 

750 Junction City, Kan. 25 00 

767 Ottumwa, la 25 00 

778 Fitchburg, Mass. . 25 00 

814 Grants Pass, Ore. 25 00 

835 Seneca Falls, N. Y. 5 00 

849 Manitowoc, Wis.... 10 00 

860 Franiingham, Mass 10 00 

889 Hopkins, Minn 15 00 

908 Ramsey, N. J 5 00 

932 Peru, Ind 25 00 



L. U. City and State Amt. 

947 Ridgway, Pa 5 00 

965 DeKalb, 111 25 00 

972 Philadelphia, Pa.. 2 00 

980 Chicago, 111 25 00 

983 Detroit, Mich 25 00 

993 Miami, Fla 25 00 

996 Pen Yan, N. Y. . . 25 00 

1040 Palm Springs, Cal. 25 00 

1050 Philadelphia, Pa.. 10 00 

1068 Vallejo, Cal 5 00 

1075 Hudson, N. Y 5 00 

1108 Cleveland, O. . . . 5 00 

1122 Jamestown, N. Y. 10 00 

1125 Los Angeles, CaL . 25 00 

1154 Algonac, Mich. . . 25 00 

1155 Columbus, Ind 10 00 

1176 Fargo, N. D 5 00 

1198 Independence, Kan 25 00 

1205 Stillwater, Minn... 56 00 

1212 Coffeyville, Kan... 10 00 

1235 Modesto, Cal 25 00 

1280 Mountain View, 

Cal 10 00 

1315 High Point, N. C. 25 00 

1316 Brownsville, Tex.. 10 00 

1345 Buffalo, N. Y 25 00 

1518 Gulfport, Miss 25 00 

1521 Algoma, Wis 25 00 

1524 Miles City, Mont.. 5 00 

1532 Anacortes, Wash.. 50 00 

1538 Miami, Ariz 10 00 

1580 Milford, Conn 5 00 

1586 Aurora, Mo 20 00 

1594 Wausau, Wis 25 00 

1595 Conshohocken, Pa. 50 00 

1606 Omaha, Neb 25 00 

1625 Prineville, Ore. ... 5 00 

1738 Hartford Citv, Ind. 8 94 

1748 Appleton, Wis. . . 5 00 

1756 Kendallville, Ind.. 25 00 

1793 Milford, 111 5 00 

1795 Farmington, Mo... 12 80 

1808 Wood River, IlL. 25 00 

1816 Plymouth, Ind 10 00 

1837 Babylon, N. Y 10 00 

1840 Faribault, Minn... 25 00 

1863 Philadelphia, Pa.. 25 00 

1883 Macomb. Ill 10 00 

1902 Cleveland, Ohio... 5 00 

1908 Holland, Mich 15 00 

1941 Hartford, Conn.... 10 00 

1960 Savannah, Ga 25 00 

1067 Santurce, P. R.... 5 00 



L. U. City and State Amt. 

1981 Ravenna, 10 00 

1992 Placerville, Cal... 5 00 

2061 Austin, Minn. ... 25 00 

2059 Bismarck, N. D.. 5 00 

2083 Red Wing, Minn.. 5 00 

2100 Amityville, N. Y. 5 0') 

2125 Whitefish, Mont... 5 0r> 

2137 Fulton, Mo 10 00 

2178 Jersey Citv, N. J.. 3 00 

2207 Enumclaw, Wash.. 10 00 

2239 Port Clinton, O. . 18 00 
2246 Mt. Pleasant, Mich. 10 00 

2317 Bremerton, Wash. 25 00 

2349 Rockland, Me. ... 25 00 

2389 Leavenworth, Kan. 5 00 

2425 Glendive, Mont 10 00 

2511 Klamath Falls, 

Ore 5 00 

2514 St. Bernard, O 10 00 

2523 Memphis, Tenn 25 00 

2611 Eugene, Ore 5 00 

2671 Roseburg, Ore. . . 15 00 

2681 Tacoma, Wash 10 00 

2686 Elma, Wash 5 00 

2698 Bandon, Ore. ... 10 00 

2717 Jasper, Ore 25 00 

2739 Yakima, Wash 25 00 

2749 Camino, Cal 25 00 

2760 Diamond Spgs. Cal 25 00 

2778 Aberdeen, Wash.... 25 00 

2781 Everett, Wash. . . 25 00 

2809 Chico, Cal 25 00 

2829 Forest Grove, Ore. 10 00 

3056 Eureka, Cal 10 00 

3071 Cleveland, O. ... 25 00 

3076 Cairo, 111 25 00 

3084 Urania, La 15 00 

3100 Munising, Mich 20 00 

3184 Fresno, Cal 25 00 

3191 Chelsea, Mass. ... 10 00 

DISTRICT COUNCILS 
King County D. C, Seat- 
tle, Wash 50 00 

Miami D. C, Miami, Fla. 25 00 
Redwood D. C, Eureka, 

Cal 10 00 

Wayne, Oakland & Vic, 

D. C, Detroit. . .250 00 

STATE COUNCIL 
Massachusetts State Council, 
Springfield, Mass.125 00 



RECAPITULATION 

Available Funds February 24, 1944 

Receipts 

Total 

Expenditures: 

Axton-Fisher $1,250 00 

Brown & Williamson 1,250 00 

Available Funds March 24, 1944 " 



5 9,291 66 

3,027 99 

;12,319 65 



2,500 00 
"97819 65 



Some 





IS A VERT important letter in 
this war. 

It's the name of the T^'ar 
Bonds you buy — "War Sav- 
ings Bond Series E." 

As you know, a Series E Bond will work for you 
for ten full j'ears, piling up interest all that time, 
till finally you'll get four dollars back for every 

JS 6 7 3 9^10 z' 



three you put up. Prettj' nice. 

The first job of the money you put into "E" 
is, of course, to help finance the war. But it also 
gives you a wonderful way to save money. 

And uhen the war is over, that money you noic 
put away can do another job, can help America 
swing over from, war to peace. 

There'll come a day when you'll bless these 
Bonds — when they may help you over a tough 
spot. 



That's why you should hang on to every Bond you 
buy. You can, of course, cash in your Bonds any 
time after you've held them for 60 days. You get 
all your money back, and, after one year, all your 
money plus interest. 

But when you cash in a Bond, you end its life 
before its full job is done. You don't give it its 
chance to help you and the country in the years 
that He ahead. You kill off its 84-for-every-$3 
earning power. 

All of v.-hich it's good to remember when you 



might be tempted to cash in some of your War 
Bonds. They are yours, to do what you want with. 

But . . . it's ABC sense that . . . 

They'll do the best job for you and for America if 
you let them reach the full flower of maturity! 



WAR BONDS to Have and to Hold 

The Treasury Department acknowledges with appreciation the publication of this message by 

The United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America 



In Their Journal 



THE CARPENTER 



21 



CREDIT WHERE CREDIT DUE 



Omaha Labor recognized for its enviable record 



With most of the nation's daily papers using every opportunity to belittle la- 
bor's contribution to the war effort, it is refreshing to find a paper that has the 
fairness and courage to give credit where credit is due. A recent issue of the 
Omaha World-Herald caii'ied a lengthy story of the enviable record aclueve<l by 
organized labor in that vicinity. The story pointed out that Omaha union men 
have put in better than seventeen million man hours on the war effort during the 
past two years without a single hour being lost due to labor trouble. Certainly 
that is a record of which the Omaha workers can be proud, — a record that merits 
fair publicity. If papers in other sections would take the trouble to similarly eval- 
uate the contribution being made by organized labor in theii* communities, they 
would find that the hysterical labor-smearing stuff being peddled by certain col- 
umnist and commentators is notliing but propaganda — propaganda ^vith an ulterior 
motive- 
Herewith we reprint the Omaha World-Herald's tribute to the patriotic efforts 
of the building tradesmen of that vicinity: 



DURING TWO YEARS of feverishly-speedy military construction 
in the Omaha area, Omaha's union labor battalion worked over 17 
million man-hours without one single lost man-hour due to labor 
friction or disagreement. 

No strike, or even a threat of one, marred this record, described by 
Brig-. Gen. R. C. Crawford, division engineer of the army's Missouri river 
division, as "a record of almost su 



perhuman efifort to meet completion 
schedules." 

He added: "This record stands 
free and clear of any labor stop- 
pages whatsoever. The importance 
to the war effort of that splendid 
cooperation cannot be exaggerated. 
This record is its own commentary 
on the patriotism and devotion to 
duty of the workers, and the excel- 
lent relations existing between la- 
bor, its leaders, and management.' 

Total man-hours of union labor, 
he estimated, were 17,366,250. 

S,ooo Omaha Men on Job 

Approximately five thousand 
Omaha union men (over six hun- 
dred of them are now in the armed 
services) established that record. 



They are members of some 26 
crafts and unions organized under 
the Omaha Building and Construc- 
tion Trades council, affiliated with 
the national department of the same 
name, American Federation of La- 
bor. 

, These are the men whom Col. 
Lewis A. Pick, former army Mis- 
souri river division chief, called 
"soldiers of the construction army." 

Before he left for foreign serv- 
ice. Col. Pick paid tribute to union 
labor and the remarkable record. 

"/ want to thank all of them — 
the carpenters, bricklayers, cat skin- 
ners, steel workers, electricians, 
plumbers, roofers, track-layers, la- 
borers and all the rest of the men 
in overalls. 



22 



THE CARPENTER 



"In the heat and dust of summer, 
the snow and cold of winter; in 
spring and fall rain, and in deep 
mud that challenged the mightiest 
of our machines, these men carried 
on to establish new construction rec- 
ords." 

Col. Pick also mentioned a certain 
month when military construction 
in the nine states of which he was 
in charge rose to a peak of 89 
million dollars of work accomplish- 
ed, involving- over 86 thousand 
workers. 

"My records show that for the en- 
tire area, labor friction and dis- 
agreement were negligible. With a 
total of nearly two hundred million 
man-hours of labor in one year 
(ig42), the lost man-hours due to la- 
bor stoppages amounted to less than 
one-fifteenth of i per cent." 

Production, Military Installations 

Omaha's labor unions built the 
Martin bomber plant, with several 
recent additions, and three huge 
modification centers ; a motor base, 
barracks, schools, mess halls and a 
hospital at Fort Crook; mess halls 
and a hospital addition at Fort 
Omaha; machine shops and storage 
buildings at the engineers' boat ba- 
sin; Omaha's alcohol plant. They 
worked for Omaha Steel ; bomb 
loading plants at Mead and Grand 
Island. Omaha men worked at the 
navy ammunition depot at Hast- 
ings; at an air base at Scribner; 
other military projects in Nebraska. 

Every job was completed on time, 
or ahead of schedule. 

This, said Maj. Gen. F. E. Uhl, 
"was a performance that would have 
been considered impossible in nor- 
mal times, under normal condi- 
tions." 

In his Labor day address last 
year, Gen. Uhl said: "You men of 



Omaha's labor unions have accom- 
plishei things that border on the 
miraculous. Your leaders produced 
manpower from apparently no- 
where, to build some of the larger 
installations. It was done smoothly 
and without trouble of any kind. A 
crisis was met and overcome, and I 
would be remiss if I failed to com- 
mend your organizations for the ef- 
ficient cooperation shown." 

One project of tremendous pro- 
portions was completed in 140 days 
— two months ahead of schedule, 
Gen. Uhl said. On another project, 
very important to the war effort, 
union workers decided to work on 
Labor day. Within 24 hours, they 
had completed 60 concrete struc- 
tures, nearly doubling the best prev- 
ious record for identical construc- 
tion. 

As the need for major construc- 
tion enterprises shifted from the 
home front to the war fronts over- 
seas, Omaha union men with con- 
structive training responded. 

Gen. R. C. Crawford said of this 
response: "The Omaha Building 
and Construction Trades' council 
cooperated fully in assisting the re- 
cruiting of men from their ranks 
for engineer construction regiments. 
I am pleased to state that these 
recruits, now hardened fighting en- 
gineers, are performing the same 
miracles of construction speed over 
there, that they did over here." 

No Strikes, 100 Per Cent 

Omaha's union workers are or- 
ganized in their own local unions or 
crafts. According to membership, 
each one has one or more delegates 
who form the Building and Con- 
struction Trades' council. James L. 
Weasmer is president; Albert Gus- 
tafson, vice-president; David W. 
Chadwell, secretary-treasurer. The 



THE CARPENTER 



23 



council meets twice each month, on 
the second and fourth Fridays. 

To assist in the government of the 
unions, there is also the Board of 
Business Agents, composed of full- 
time representatives of the various 
crafts. This board meets twice a 
week, for the purpose of handling 
problems that cannot wait for coun- 
cil action. This board's actions and 
recommendations are reviewed by 
the council. 

All Omaha unions, under leader- 
ship of the council, early pledged 
themselves to a "no-strike" policy. 
There can be no strike of any group 
without consent of the council. 

"Omaha's unions have lived up to 
the AFL pledge of no strikes — just 
100 per cent," stated David W. 
Chadwell, acting as spokesman for 
the council. Naturally, we are proud 
of that record. We have over six 
hundred men in the armed services. 
Our unions have purchased over 150 
thousand dollars in war bonds, 
which does not include individual 
purchases by members." 

All unions are keeping their mem- 
bers who are in the armed forces 
in good standing in the local unions, 
by paying their dues and keeping 
their names on the permanent rolls, 
Chadwell said. 

2^ Locals Represented 

Following are the Omaha unions 
who established the great work rec- 
ord. Approximate membership is 
shown in parentheses. 

United Brotherhood of Carpen- 
ters and Joiners of America (1,200). 
The Omaha District Council of Car- 
penters is the controlling unit, with 
these affiliations : Carpenters' Local 
1606, Carpenters' Local 253 and 
Millmen Local 2359. 

International Association of 
Building and Common Laborers 



and Hodcarriers (1,000) Local 1140. 

Liternational Union of Painters, 
Paperhangers and Decorators (510). 
Painters' district council No. 7 is 
the controlling unit, with these af- 
filiates: Painters' Local 109, Paint- 
ers' Local 442, Sign Writers' Local 
762, Linoelum Layers Local 1128 
and Glaziers' Local 573. 

United Association of Plumbers 
and Steamfitters (275). Plumbers 
Local 16 and Steamfitters' Local 464. 

International Brotherhood of 
Electrical Workers (175), Local 22. 

Sheet Metal Workers' Interna- 
tional Association (125), Local 3. 

International Association of 
Bridge, Structural and Ornamental 
Iron Workers. Local 21 (226) and 
Shopmen's Local 553 (400). 

International Association of Port- 
able and Hoisting Engineers (200), 
Local 571. 

Bricklayers, Masons and Plasters 
International union (150), Local i. 
This union is 6^ years old. 

International Union of Plasterers 
and Cement Finishers. Plasterers' 
Local 4 (60) and Cement Finishers 
Local 638 (80). 

International Association of Boil- 
ermakers and Helpers, Local 83 

(125). 

International Association of Ele- 
vator Constructors and Helpers 
(45), Local 28. 

International Association of 
Wood, Wire and Metal Lathers 
(30), Local 136. 

International Association of As- 
bestos Workers and Pipe Coverers 
(30), Local 39. 

International Union of Damp 
Proofers and Roofers (75), Local 

85- 

International Brotherhood of 
Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehouse- 
men and Helpers (200 in building 
trades). Local 554. 



24 



Democracy * * 

Still prevails in Britain 

EARLY FIVE YEARS of devastating, heart-breaking war have 
weighed heavily on the British people. Long hours of toil, mo- 
notonous diet, perpetual black-out, and unending sacrifice have 
brought on a physical and spiritual exhaustion that would have long since 
broken down a people less hardy or less resilient than the British. Under 
the strain the British have staggered, but the}'- have never once weakened. 
Half a decade of driving themselves to the utmost limit still finds them 

strong, resolute and determined to 

carry on to complete and final vic- 
tory. And even more important, it 
still finds them enjoying virtually 
all the democratic processes of 
peacetime — something that not even 
America with only half the time in 
the war can boast. 

Recently Robert Watt, long-time 
leading figure in the American Fed- 
eration of Labor and at present 
member of the War Labor Board, 
returned from a flying visit to 
England. His comments on the dif- 
ference between prevailing condi- 
tions there and at home are of spe- 
cial significance inasmuch as \^'att 
is rated as one of the ablest men in 
the labor movement. Upon his re- 
turn to this country, Watt compared 
the lot of the British worker with 
the lot of the American worker. He 
found us very definitely wanting. 

"The difference between the way they 
and we deal with labor matters is 
amazing," he said. 

"In Britain, despite four years of 
war, there has been no interference 
with democratic processes in the dis- 
position of wage disputes. Collective 
bargaining prevails as before the war. 

No One "Messes In" 
"When union and employers agree 
over the bargaining table on wage rates, 



such rates go into effect. No other 
agency messes in. No top official has the 
power to veto a wage agreement. 

"If the parties do not agree, then 
the dispute goes to an arbitration court. 
That court bases its decision on con- 
sideration of all factors — in short, on 
the merits of the case. And it doesn't 
take 12 or 18 months to issue its rul- 
ing. 

"Furthermore, there is no 'Little 
Steel' formula and no other arbitrary 
yardstick to deny justice to the work- 
ers. The whole machinery for dispos- 
ing of wage matters is simple and con- 
cise, understood easily by employers and 
workers. 

An Amazing Contrast 

"The bugaboo of inflation is not used 
to beat down the wages of workers. 
That problem is handled by taxation. 
Both excess earnings and excess profits 
are alike siphoned off by taxes based on 
ability to pay. In other words, the free 
economy has full play. 

"In this country the situation is ex- 
actly the opposite. Free collective bar- 
gaining is subject to rigid restraints. 
Formulas and ceilings are used to 
freeze workers' wages. 

"There is nothing straightforward 
about our wage machinery. Neither the 
workers nor the employers know when 
a decision is likely to be reached — and 
once it is reached by a board that has 
jurisdiction, one of a half dozen agen- 
cies or individuals can interject them- 
selves and upset the applecart. 



THE CARPEXTER 



25 



"Also, no one knows when the Presi- 
dent himself might step in and undo 
what the established agencies have 
done. It's just utter confusion. 

"Of course, one of the main reasons 
Britain has handled this problem better 
is that labor is really represented in the 
war effort and plaj^s a responsible role 
in the shaping of the nation's policies. 
There is none of the superficial, jitter- 
bu2j approach that exists in this coun- 
tiT." 

The animosity, disunity and distrust 
which are hampering the war effort in 
this country are practically non-exist- 
ent in Britain. Writing in the March 
issue of The Federationist, Spencer Mil- 
ler, Jr., says: 

"British labor is not merely behind 
the government — it is in a very real 
sense a part of the goveniinent. Ern- 
est Bevin and Herbert Morrison, two 
staunch members of the Labor Party, 
occupy the responsible posts of Minister 
of Labor and Home Secretary, respec- 
tively. Upon their shoulders devolves 
the responsibility of organizing and 
maintaining the domestic front as truly 
as upon Winston Churchill's shoulders 
devolves the responsibility for directing 
the military front. 

"In addition to these two men, there 
are a score of members of the Labor 
Party who have responsible posts in the 
present coalition government and bring 
to their respective tasks a sense of re- 
sponsible participation for labor In the 
total war effort itself. Management no 
less has been given a responsible part 
in the gigantic war effort. 

"There is still another factor it is 
important to bear in mind. British 
trade unions are an accepted part of the 
institutional life of the country. Twen- 
ty-five years ago British employers gave 
up "the luxury of fighting unions." It 
is a welcome factor in their wartime 
unity." 

Two factors, very much in evidence 
here but unknown in England, probably 
contribute most to the striking differ- 
ence between conditions as they exist in 
wartime Britiain and wartime America. 
They are: 1) greed, and 2) anti-union 
daily papers. 

Britain decided at the beginning of 
the war that no one would get rich 
out of the blood, sweat, and tears of 



others. The government has never lost 
sight of that objective. The financial 
burden of the war has been distributed 
as equitably as possible, with ability to 
pay being the governing factor in all 
taxation. The government's inflexible 
policy makes it impossible for employ- 
ers to amass war fortunes; consequently 
they have no incentive for chiselling or 
exploiting the public or their employes. 
Demands for wage increases are met 
fairly and squarely and decided on their 
merits. There are no powerful lobbies 
working in London for legislation to 
ease the taxes of the wealthy and add 
them to the burdens of the poor. Em- 
ployers are not endeavoring to break the 
unions, drive down wages, or remove 
limitations from wartime profits. The 
end result is that everyone — employer 
and employee alike — feels he is getting 
as fair a shake as possible under the 
circumstances and exigencies of war. 

The second favorable factor in Bri- 
tain is the lack of anti-union daily 
papers. Unlike the American dailies 
which reflect the views of Big Advertis- 
ers, British papers endeavor to cover all 
happenings impartially. There are no la- 
bor smear campaigns and there are no 
columnists or commentators trying to 
turn the people against the unions. Feel- 
ing between the men in uniform and the 
men on the production lines is one of 
mutual respect because there are no 
journals trying to create a rift between 
them. The current Issue of The Federa- 
tionist also touches on this matter. In 
it an American soldier stationed in Eng- 
land writes: 

I tliiiik that my greatest astonish- 
ment has risen from the political and 
economic viewpoint of the English. They 
seem to be far to the left of us. And 
Avhen I say "they" I'm thinking of the 
gi-eat majority of the population. 

Even the most consei-vative news- 
papers here editorialize in a fasliion that 
makes PM look reactionaiT. I was par- 
ticularly interested, for example, to read 
in several London papers that a poll of 
Tommies at the front shows that 80 per 
cent of them plan to vote Labor Party 
after the war! 

One of the most right of i-ightish i)a- 
pers sent a con-espondent to Italy to 
study British soldiers in action. He re- 
ported in a long article that they "feel 
no resentment at all" against British 



26 



THE CARPENTER 



strikes (of which there seem to be 
many, partieiilai'ly in roal ) and that in- 
stead they synii)athi/e with the efforts 
of English trade unionists to improve 
conditions — improvements fi-om which, 
the soldiers say, they will benefit after 
the war. Now, niind you, that was pi-int- 
ed in a highly consenative newspaper. 

This open-minded attitude on the part 
of the British press has undoubtedly 
contributed as much to British unity as 
the vicious labor-baiting attitude of the 
American press has contributed to cur- 
rent Ill-feeling and mistrust at home. 
Strikes there still are in England, yet 
the press does not try to crucify labor 
thereby. The papers know that British 
Workers have been laboring under a 
terrific strain. They know that many in- 
justices do exist and that these injus- 
tices sometimes become more than flesh 
and blood can bear. If the workers' 
cause is just, the papers back them; if 



the cause is unjust, they point that fact 
out just as impartially. 

Absenteeism is also a factor in British 
industry — sometimes running as high 
as twenty per cent in some industries. 
However, the papers make no effort to 
stigmatize labor thereby. They know 
that the human body can stand only so 
much and that after five years of war 
people are bound to be near the break- 
ing point. Absenteeism is decried but it 
isn't used as an excuse to try to shackle 
organized labor ("which is no more 
responsible for absenteeism than the 
king). 

So it seems that America could well 
afford to take a page out of the British 
book. If greed and anti-union news- 
papers could be eliminated in this coun- 
try tomorrow, the biggest step would 
undoubtedly be made toward the kind 
of unity that can win this war in the 
shortest possible time. 



JOBS FOR ALL— Key To Peace 

Full employment and full production are twin keys to world peace in 
the post-war period. 

A program of international economic collaboration aimed at using the 
keys was laid before the Senate in a joint resolution introduced by Sena- 
tors Elbert D. Thomas (D., Ut.), Harley ^I. Kilgore (D., W. Va.), and 
Harry S. Truman (D.. Mo.). 

The resolution would set up a foreign economic commission to serve 
as a clearing house for the man}- diverse thoughts and opinions on eco- 
nomic policies. On it would be representatives of government, business, 
labor, agriculture and the public, all working through a single medium and 
building in an atmosphere of hope to open up new horizons for the eco- 
nomic progress of our own and other nations. 

In a joint statement, the three Senators said, "The future peace depends 
upon an economically healthy U. S., and we cannot have economic health 
without a volume of foreign trade above and beyond anything we have 
ever had before." 

The Senators warned that 'the future peace depends on the abandon- 
ment of political nationalism and economic imperialism and autarch}' (self- 
sufficiency) ; they called for extension of the Good Neighbor policy and 
said that by doing so quickly "we can forestall the growth of areas of 
economic disaffection which eventuallv enlarge into world wars.'" 



Applause is the spur of noble minds : the end and aim of small ones. — 
Colton. 



Keep Your Dues Paid-Up 



THE CARPENTER 27 



AMERICAN CARPENTERS TOPS, 

SAYS SERGEANT MEMBER 

* * * 

Dear Sir and Brother: 

This letter is to notify you of a change in my address and rank. 
Also at this time I would like to take advantage of the opportunity 
to tell you a bit about myself. I am also hoping that this letter 
may rate a small section of a column in The Carpenter, which 
journal I am always anxious to receive each month. 

To start from the beginning (at the same time I will try to keep 
this letter short), I was inducted in October, 1941, several months 
after I had joined the Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners. 
Against by better wishes, I was placed in the Quartermaster Corps. 
I had asked to be put in the Corps of Engineers. However, I didn't 
let this discourage me. But I- still wanted to stay with my trade 
(carpentry). 

To make a long story short, I managed to get into the Utilities 
Section of the Q.M. Depot Co. AVe went overseas in the second 
convoy of the A.E.F. to Ireland early in 1942. Since then we have 
been in England, Africa, and now are in Sardinia. I have been in 
the same utilities section for over two 3xars of overseas service. 
Our job as utilities consisted of the building and maintenance of 
bivouacs, camps, kitchens, latrines, offices, showers, recreation 
halls, roads, and even furniture. I could go on to mention hundreds 
of things such as depots and warehouses we also built. I entered 
the section as a private, first class, and came up through the ranks, 
touching every step, until now I am a Staff Sergeant in charge of it. 

I contribute most of my success to the fact that I took up car- 
pentry as a trade. And I am glad I made every effort to stick to 
that trade, for I am still in trim to come back to it some day "soon 
I hope." Had I not stuck to it, I might have forgotten some of 
the finer tricks of the trade. As it is, I will return with plent}^ of 
good hard experience behind me. 

And in conclusion I would like to add that the American car- 
penter and his ideas in construction are far superior, in my opinion, 
to those in any of the countries I have been in thus far — and I have 
had Irish, English, Scotch, Spanish, Italian, and even Arabian car- 
penters working under me at various times since I have been over 
here. I will end this letter by saying that I can hardly wait for 
the day when I can get back to work among a great gang of good 
old American carpenters. 

Fraternally yours, 

S/Sgt. ^I. Debla Ventura, 
APO 528, c-o Postmaster, 
New York City. 
(Local 853, Bound Brook, N. J.) 



28 



Ideas developed by men and Avoinen on the pi-oduction 
line are saving millions of precious man-hours daily 



WORKERS' INGENUITY AIDING VICTORY 



AMERICAN WORKERS have actually made the United States the 
arsenal of the Allied Nations. Recentl_v released figures gave the 
first overall estimate of the staggering quantities of armaments 
sent to Britain, Russia, and China since the war began. AVhat was sent 
abroad, however, is merely a drop in the bucket compared to the almost 
unbelievable quantities of planes, guns, tanks and ships that have gone 
to our own armed forces. In two years America has not only caught up 
with but actually forged far ahead of Axis' production despite the Nazi's 
ten-vear head start. 



Credit for the miraculous job 
done goes not only to the perse- 
verance and brawn of American 
workers but to their ingenuity and 
mechanical skill as well. Time-sav- 
ing ideas, originated and developed 
by American workers, have increas- 
ed productivity in virtually every 
line of armament manufacturing. 
Overall productivity of American 
labor has gone up almost a third 
since Pearl Harbor, and most of the 
credit for this phenomenal rise goes 
to the shortcuts developed on the 
job b}' men and women of the pro- 
duction line. 

Recently the Office of AVar In- 
formation revealed that the volume 
of usuable, time-saving ideas de- 
veloped by American workers has 
doubled during the last six months. 
More and more ordinary workers 
are thinking up ways of short-cut- 
ting an operation and thereby sav- 
ing time and increasing production. 
Through their labor-management 
committees they are developing 
these ideas and getting them into 
the widest possible use. 

One of the prime objectives of 
labor-management committees is the 
encouragement of idea develop- 



ment. A suggestion box is usually 
placed in the plant within easy reach 
of all workers. Any time-saving 
suggestion placed in the box is scru- 
tinized carefully by the committee 
and followed through to its logical 
conclusion. If it is practical, it is 
given a thorough test; if it is im- 
practical, it is returned to its in- 
ventor with an explanation of its 
weakness and a word of encourage- 
ment to the inventor to keep work- 
ing on it. By this method, thou- 
sands of workers have been inspired 
to develop practical time-saving 
ideas. 

Committees are usually divided 
equally between labor and manage- 
ment. If necessary, sub-committees 
are formed to help maintain closer 
contact with workers. The job of 
these committees is to examine 
every suggestion for plant or ma- 
chine improvement dropped into a 
suggestion box by a worker, and to 
grant an award to all workers whose 
ideas are adopted. 

A great deal of the value of em- 
ploye suggestion comes from the 
fact that war has diverted to factory 
employment thousands of workers 
without previous experience in 



THE CARPENTER 



29 



thing's mechanical, electrical or 
cliemical. Intelligent workers of this 
type, according- to WPB, are not 
held back in their ideas for im- 
provement by any fixed notions 
about "impossibility." 

A case in point is that of Max 
Kholos, inventor of a device to 
splice cottonweb belting. Kholos, 
who had served in the Russo-Japa- 
nese War, fled to this country as a 
refugee from Czarist Russia. Prior 
to his job with the Westinghouse 
Electric and Manufacturing Com- 
pany plant at East Pittsburgh, Pa., 
most of his experience had been in 
the cigar business at Tampa, Fla. 
His suggestion for splicing cotton- 
web belting- brought the following- 
results : increased use of non-criti- 
cal materials ; less machine down- 
time due to broken belts; increased 
production through less slippage; 
less expense. 

Another case from the records of 
the same Westinghouse plant is 
that of Joe Watson, a young shop 
clerk who became annoyed at the 
bottleneck in the flow of parts 
through his supply room, caused by 
the necessity of brushing- and pol- 
ishing parts for circuit breaker con- 
tacts before silver plating. These 
parts had been brushed and polished 
for years, but Watson was new 
enough in the electrical industry 
not to take a long--established cus- 
tom for granted. He investigated 
the possibility of applying the sil- 
ver plating to the contacts without 
the hitherto "necessary" brushing- 
and polishing-. The suggestion 
worked successfully, and has been 
in operation since November i, 1942. 
Result: An estimated saving of 17,- 
816 man-hours per year. 

Typical of some of the shipyard 
workers who have won honors is 
31-year-old Mrs. Ella F. Baikie, a 



Certificate winner at the Vancouver 
(Wash.) yard of the Kaiser Com- 
pany, Inc. Mrs. Baikie had a varied 
work history before joining- the 
Kaiser org-anization. After model- 
ing for a Portland department store, 
she became a trained nurse, prac- 
ticed in Boise, Idaho, until she was 
married. Under the impetus of war 
she donned overalls and became an 
electrician. 

Her suggestion was an idea to 
facilitate the repairing and rebuild- 
ing of welding electrode holders 
(Jackson stringers). Prior to the 
use of molds suggested by Mrs. 
Baikie, large quantities of parts for 
the stringers were classified as ir- 
reparable. An average of 15 string- 
ers can now be remade in a day, and 
they serve the same purpose as new 
ones costing $5.50 each. Saving: 
$82.50 per 24-hour day. 

In the Goodyear aircraft corpora- 
tion at Akron, Ohio, Rosemary 
Olenick and her friend, Alice Col- 
etta, solved a fabric-stretching prob- 
lem by using an industrial adapta- 
tion of an ordinary hair curler. In- 
stead of laboriously stretching wing 
fabric by hand, two steel rods are 
now used to twist the cover on tight 
and act as a clamp through the dop- 
ing process. This eliminates the use 
of T pins, gives constant tension to 
the fabric, eliminates wrinkles 
along the edge. Result : approxi- 
mately 15,000 man-hours saved. 

At the Rochester, (N. Y.) plant 
of the Todd Company, Paul Thut 
has developed a new method for 
machining magnesium. Result: 
about 400 per cent increase in the 
machining of magnesium. Equally 
important, the serious fire hazard 
that was present under the old 
method has been eliminated. 

How much production time has 



30 T H E C A R P E X T E R 

already been saved by these worker boxes and virtual!}- every sug^g^es- 

developed ideas is impossible to tion box gets at least a few ideas 

estimate. At present there is some- each week. This factor, coupled with 

where in the neighborhood of 4000 the incomparable skill and loyalty 

labor-management committees func- of American workers, is forging the 

tioning in American industry. Vir- tools of war that our -boys are trans- 

tuallv all of them have suo:ge5tion lating into victorv on all fronts. 



Post- War Prosperity Depends On Wages 

Workers' incomes of $2,500 a year or more will be needed to maintain 
a postwar annual production le^el of $165,000,000,000 worth of goods and 
services, the March issue of Labor's Monthly Survey said. 

"Reduction of Tvork time to a 40-hour week after the war will mean a 
23 per <:ent cut in earnings for ever^'one now working 48 hours, if the 
hourly rate of pa}- is the same,'" it said, pointing out that this alone means 
a loss of a Si2,ooo,ooo.ooo market for industry's products. Maintenance of 
present bm'ing power ^ould open up "enormous markets which did not 
exist before the war." enabling industry to reach the $165,000,000,000 of 
production necessary for full employment, it continued, quoting a Com- 
merce Department study. 

Asserting that thousands of workers have been denied increases during 
the war, the.sune}- said: "After the w^ar, our economic future will depend 
on folloT\'ing a realistic polic}'^ making up this deficit to workers, main- 
taining present weekly pay levels, paj^ing wages as high as American in- 
dustry is able to pay. AVorkers' income can be maintained if both manage- 
ment and workers are determined to see that this is done." 



Italian Unions Restored By Allies 

Trade unions in Sicily and the part of Italy occupied b}- the Allies 
are rapidly being reorganized along democratic lines after twenty years 
of Fascism, Assistant Secretarj- of War John J. McCloy disclosed. 

One of the first steps taken by the Allied Militar}^ Government, he 
said, was to abolish the whole fascist labor setup and clear the v\-ay for the 
re-establishment ef democratic unions. 

"An atmosphere favorable to the development of collective bargaining 
had to be created but at the same time the Arm}- had to avoid an}^ affirma- 
tive policy of actuall}' dominating or controlling the new^ unions to speed 
their development," he declared. 

"Accordingl}-. the polic}- has been to permit the unions to develop their 
OA^Ti leadership and set their ov^-n policies, not to have unions with leaders 
handpicked by AMG. Under our encouragement, collective bargaining, 
involving elections in which the workers selected their own representa- 
tives, were held in Sicil}- and Italy for the ifirst time in more than twenty 
A^ears. Labor disputes w^ere settled by agreement between the parties with 
the officials of the labor offices acting^ as mediators." 



THE C A R P E \ T E It 



31 



GREEN RAPS BARUCH PLAN 



A j->|- PREwSIDENT William Green assailed the Raruch Post Re- 
>/~\x^ i J port because of its failure to provide for labor, industry and 
farmer representation in the formulation of basic policies.. 

Speaking- at a luncheon of the Economic Club of Detroit, Mr. Green 
called for the establishment by Congress of a Reconstruction Commission 
on which all elements of the population would be represented, to lay down 
the g-uiding rules for the nation's post-war program. He said: 



"This Reconstruction Commission 
would not, of course, attempt to ad- 
minister the post-war program. That 
task can well be entrusted to the hands 
of a single, competent Administrator, 
as the Baruch report suggests. But the 
Commission would be charged with the 
responsibility of formulating the gen- 
eral policies to be followed by the Ad- 
ministrator. In that way we could 
achieve advance agreement and secure 
prior commitment to fundamental poli- 
cies. 

"I have heard only two objections to 
this plan. The first is an evasion. It sug- 
gests that industry and labor can safe- 
guard their interests through advisory 
committees already established under 
the War Production Board and which 
operate in a consultative capacity. My 
impression, however, is that industry 
and labor have had enough of such 
consultation which usually comes after 
the fact and which constitutes merely 
an empty gesture toward real and demo- 
cratic representation. 

"Secondly, some of our more subtle 
bureaucrats are heard to object to pol- 
icy-making by 'pressure groups.' That 
phrase, 'pressure groups,' is part of the 
new terminology of some government 
officials whose ideas on America are 
bounded by the ten square miles of 
Washington. I resent the term. It is an 
insult to the workers, the businessmen 
and the farmers of America who, to- 
gether make up the vast majority of the 
American people. Organized labor, in- 
dustry and agriculture are asking for 
representation in the formulation of 
post-war policies because they represent 
the American people. They demand a 
voice in decisions, not to promote their 
particular selfish interests, but to safe- 



guard the American way of life for 
which millions of American boys are 
now fighting." 

To assure success of the nation's post- 
war program, Mr. Green recommended 
prompt liquidation of Government con- 
trols over labor and industry and the 
inauguration of a large scale production 
drive. 

One project which he specifically 
urged was the launching of a huge hous- 
ing program to supply the needs of the 
American people and to provide em- 
ployment. 

In addition, Mr. Green said America 
must "meet the transition period cour- 
ageously by providing a more adequate 
form of Social Security for the work- 
ers." 

He asked that the National Employ- 
ment Service be reorganized to serve 
displaced war workers and demobilized 
soldiers who will be in urgent need of 
jobs. He added: 

"I urge that preparations be made 
now to move boldly and swiftly when 
the call comes for overnight conversion 
from wartime to peacetime production. 

"American private industry faces the 
opportunity of a century in the post- 
war period — the opportunity to produce 
for peace on a scale even greater than 
it has shown it can do for war; the 
opportunity to establish an economy of 
plenty in America, instead of scarcity; 
the opportunity to supply jobs and pro- 
vide increasingly better living condi- 
tions and educational advantages for 
the American people; the opportunity 
for people to save and invest — in short 
the opportunity to justify the advan- 
tages of our free enterprise system." 



Editorial 




It's Time They Knew the Truth 

A few weeks ago the daily papers made front page headlines out of a 
smelly situation. Two returned service. men invaded the headquarters of 
the Miners Union and allegedly perpetrated a verbal and physical attack 
on UMW president John L. Lewis as a remonstration against strikes dur- 
ing wartime. Of course the affair was turned into a Roman Holiday by 
the daily press. The sob sisters were put on the story and the result was 
about as inane a mess of drivel as the press has turned out in many a da}^ 

The space devoted to the story was all out of proportion to its im- 
portance. Its underlying signiticance — if any — is, however, that the bar- 
rage of anti-union propaganda being fed to our armed forces in devious 
and subtle ways is beginnihg to take effect. The minds of our boys in 
the services are slowly but surely being poisoned against workers on the 
home front; mainly because misstatements and half-truths rather than 
facts have been given them. 

You and I know that labor has been doing a magnificent job. You and 
I know that the ships, planes, tanks, and guns that are now blasting the 
Axis on all fronts were produced by the hands and hearts of American 
labor. You and I know that millions of American workers helped pro- 
duce these things while working under heart-breaking handicaps; abom- 
inable housing, inadequate wages, poor transportation, and unhealthy con- 
ditions. 

But the important thing is that the boys and girls in the armed forces 
don't know it. Many of them visualize workers on the home front lolling 
in luxury, drawing down big pay, living the Life of Reilly, and still strik- 
ing for more. Certain elements on the home front have seen to it that they 
got that impression ; and these same elements are bent on keeping that 
picture before them at all costs. 

Whether we like it or not, the plain facts of the case are that organized 
labor today stands indicted before the bar of public opinion — especially 
as far as the armed forces are concerned. That the indictment is ground- 
less and unwarranted makes no difference. The indictment is there and 
we might just as well face it. 

Of course there have been strikes during wartime. But as a part of 
the overall picture they have been insignificant. Infinitely more damage 
has been done to production by accidents — accidents that could have been 
prevented by employer action — than has been done by strikes. More pro- 
duction has been lost because of inefiicient inanagement than because of 
strikes. More man-hours were lost to production through cost-plus and 
labor hoarding than ever were lost through strikes. However, all the 
men and women in the armed services ever hear of is strikes. 



THE C Ali P JilN TEK 33 

But let's look at the strike situation, because tiiat is the only part for 
which we iirthe labor movement can be accounted responsible. When the 
japs struck at Pearl Harbor, labor voluntaril}'^ gave the nation its No- 
vStrike pledge. That pledge has been lived up to better than 99%. Less 
than 1% time-loss because of strikes is a record labor can well point to 
proudly. 

But let's look even deeper: who is responsible for what strikes there 
have been? 

To anyone familiar with the situation, the answer to this question is 
])rctty clear: the ineffective labor program of the government is respon- 
sible. True, there have been a few genuine strikes pulled by labor unions, 
but for the most part they have been wildcat strikes neither supported 
nor sanctioned by international unions involved. But, by and large, the 
\-ast bulk of work stoppages have been brought about by the dunderhead- 
edness of the government's labor policy — or rather lack of policy. 

Unions of skilled craftsmen that have been in existence for fifty years 
or more without a single strike have -walked out during the present emer- 
gency. Why? Because government red tape, procrastination, and delay 
have goaded the men beyond endurance. In many instances these men 
waited eighteen months or more for settlement of wage contracts. All 
they got month after month Avas evasion, double-talk, and delay until their 
patience gave out completely. In final desperation they walked off the 
job to focus attention on their plight and bring things to a head. Can a 
stoppage of that kind be blamed on the men — men who month after month 
stuck to their jobs despite the fact they were not getting justice? Or 
does the responsibility rest with the government which has usurped the 
functions of collective bargaining without substituting in its stead some 
sort of a workable polic}^ based on speed, efficiency, and justice? 

Furthermore, it is a fact that a large percentage of the cases w^hich go 
before the War Labor Board are not in reality disputes. Management 
and labor have both agreed to a wage contract in a case of this kind. How- 
ever, the case must have the O. K. of the government. It starts making 
the rounds of the innumerable government agencies and it soon gets lost 
in the maze. Month after month goes by and no concrete results are forth- 
coming. After a year or more, the men naturally begin to get curious. 
Sooner or later their patience becomes exhausted and then anything can 
happen. 

As a result of labor's No Strike pledge, some short-sighted employers 
are also-trying to take advantage of labor's loyalty. These employers are 
chiselling on the unions and cutting corners as much as possible. They 
are trying to undercut wages and conditions in every way imaginable. 

Again, however, the responsibility rests wnth the government. Why 
shouldn't the unscrupulous employers try to take advantage of the situa- 
tion when the}^ know the men can't get relief from the government for a 
year to a year and a half? All that time they can be chiselling on the men 
and lining their own pockets. Is it any wonder, then, that honest, loyal, 
patriotic men kick over the traces once in a while? 

Even as it stands, labor has nothing to be ashamed of in its production 
record. Man-hours lost throuQ-h strikes account for onlv one hour out 



34 THE CARPENTER 

of several hundred. But when one realizes that the responsibility for 
what work stoppages there have been rests squarely on the existing in- 
effective government procedure, labor can be even prouder. It's about 
time the armed forces found it out, too. 

• 

Clear-cut Policy Needed Immediately 

Ignoring the vigorous protests of organized labor, certain government 
agencies seem bent on putting large numbers of prisoners of war into 
industry to Avork beside and compete with free American labor. Already 
prisoners of war have been used extensively in agriculture, and it is now 
proposed to extend their field of operations to include certain manufac- 
turing industries. For many months affiliates of our Brotherhood in the 
Northwest lumber industry have been fighting a WPB plan to utilize sub- 
stantial numbers of prisoners of w^ar in the woods and camps. 

That the indiscriminate use of prisoners of war in industry is hazard- 
ous, impractical and potentially dangerous to the morale of our own free 
American workers has alread}' been pointed out to all government agencies 
concerned by organized labor. How^ever, certain of these agencies still 
seem willing to sanction such a program. Possibly some pressure in favor 
of the plan is being exerted by some emplo^^ers. In one case at least, it is 
known that a Southern employer asked for prisoners of war to run his 
plant because his employes were asking a minimum w^age of fifty cents 
per hour. Other employers may visualize prisoners of Avar as a Aveapon 
for beating doAA'n union Avages and conditions (despite the fact preA'ailing 
AA^ages must by laAA^ be paid all AA-ar prisoners; eighty cents per day going 
to the prisoner and the residue going into the coffers of the goA-ernment). 

Common sense and the common safety dictate that prisoners of AA'ar 
be kept out of industry. For one thing, the danger of sabotage is too great. 
During the summer months, an American citizen cannot AA^alk through the 
forests of the NortliAA'est Avithout getting passes, identifications, etc., be- 
cause of the great fire danger involved. Yet now it is proposed to fill the 
woods with enemy prisoners. The thing just doesn't add up. For another 
thing, there is a problem of morale. An American logger Avho lost a son 
or brother in Africa or Italy isn't going to relish Avorking somcAvhere in 
the AdcinitA^ of a bunch of enemy prisoners. Still another consideration is 
safety. No American AA^orker could feel A-ery safe AA^orking around a group 
of enemy prisoners regardless of what kind of precautions the goA'ernment 
might have set up to keep prisoners under control. 

At its recent couA^ention in Miami, the Executive Board of the Amer- 
ican Federation of Labor voiced its opposition to the indiscriminate use 
of prisoners of Avar in industry. The AFL body urged the government to 
immediately set up a clear-cut policy on the use of prisoners of Avar — a 
policy that aa411 neither endanger nor antagonize American AA'orkers nor in- 
vite retaliation against our boys AA'ho may be held prisoners in enemy 
lands. Unless the government heeds this suggestion irreparable harm may 
be done and American Ha'cs, morale, and property may pay the price of 
negligence. 



T FIE CARPENTER 35 

Danger! Children At Work 

Recent finding-s both by g'overnment ag^encics and the research depart- 
ment of the American Federation of Labor indicate an alarmin.s: increase 
in the number of boys and girls in the 14-17 age group now working full 
or part time. The figure for October, 1943, shows roughly two million of 
tliese children at work as delivery and messenger boys, as soda jerkers, 
and in a variet}^ of jobs in factories, stores, restaurants and offices. Another 
million are on the farm. The pre-war figure on child labor, for April, 1940, 
showed only 872,000 at work, and of this total more than half were classed 
as agricultural laborers. 

And these figures are still increasing. There was no drop, as might 
have been expected, when the last harvesting season ended and school re- 
opened in September. There was no drop when the manpower shortage 
became less acute, and employment of children at odd jobs in industry 
ceased to be an emergency, wartime development. These children are not 
going- back to school. They have become. a permanent part of the unskilled 
lal)or market. And a large proportion of their potentialities for the future 
— the potentialities that should have been developed by further education, 
that should have been fostered by the protection and counsel of adults, 
nnist now be included among the casualties of w^ar. 

This dangerous situation is obviously a government responsibility, 
obviously a community responsibility. It is a situation that cannot be 
overlooked by organized labor. It is no longer the feeling" among trade 
unionists that their sphere of influence is limited to questions of wages 
and working conditions. The AFL's post-war planning- committee is con- 
cerned with post-war problems ranging from the extension of social secur- 
ity to revision of the tariflf laws. A large proportion of central trades 
bodies have active and influential housing committees. The Labor League 
for Human Rights, official relief arm of the Federation, has recenth' joined 
forces with the A\'PB in a program designed to improve living conditions 
in defense centers. 

Certainly the problem of child labor is as legitimately a part of labor's 
concern as these other cjuestions. Labor can, and should, play an active 
role in bringing this grave situation to the attention of the proper authori- 
ties. Labor can, and should, take the lead in what AVilliam Green has so 
aptly called the new "children's crusade." 



Some Simplifying Really Needed 

As this is being written. Congress is tackling the job of simplifying* 
income tax forms. That simplification is needed desperately is no secret 
to anyone who last month struggled with 1040 or even 1040-A. Not only 
are these forms cumbersome and ambiguous but also they make it impos- 
sible for the average man to turn in a correct report. Even the "experts" 
can't handle them correctly. A Cleveland paper had a reporter submit the 
same figures to a score of "experts." No two got the same answer. 

It's about time Congress reallv did something about the matter. 



36 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 
* and FAIR WAGES * 



By JOHN J. CHURCH 




E HEAR a lot today about the child problem, about juvenile 
delinquency. Such a problem its seems to me would naturally 
become more aggravated in war times because conditions are so 
different and abnormal; the parents are both working, young boys and 
girls, too, are working and children of grade school age are earning wages 
which their parents would have been glad to earn during the depression. 

Now working class people have 



more children as a rule than do 
other classes of society, for which 
this nation can indeed be thankful. 
Most of the men who are doing the 
fighting come from what might be 
called working class families. 

Parental Responsibility 

Child delinquency, to my way of 
thinking, largely is a confession 
that either the parents or society, 
or both, have failed such young- 
sters. Economics plays a large part 
in creating such child problems. 
Especially before the war and its 
wage boom, too many fathers did 
■not earn enough to give their chil- 
dren a decent home environment. 
Often both parents were forced to 
work in order to get a combined 
needed larger income, but by doing 
so, were compelled to neglect their 
youngsters and the proper up-bring- 
ing. 

The war and the subsequent man- 
power shortage resulted in the em- 
ployment of thousands of mothers, 
many of them with young children, 
in war factories, on different shifts; 
and although the economic status of 
such families may have improved, 
the children invariably suffered 



from the lack of parental supervi- 
sion. 

Children ReGect Parents 

The child is a reflection of his 
parents. Just why parents should 
expect their children to be better 
than they are is an unreasonable 
part of human nature which has al- 
ways surprised me. But even more 
surprising is the fact that the chil- 
dren so often actually do turn out 
to become better men and women 
than their parents were. 

While the schools can help to 
educate children, and while the 
churches and fine organizations like 
the Boy and Girl Scouts also con- 
structively influence children, the 
most important mold which forms 
their characters is right in their 
homes. 

We in the labor movement know 
this. A happy home is the real 
place to start the prevention of ju- 
venile delinquency. That is why the 
labor movement always stresses the 
importance of fair wages and work- 
ing conditions which will enable its 
members to buy a home and live 
like normal human beings. Many 
homes are broken up because of this 



THE C A R P E X r E II 



37 



lack of earning- power on the part 
of the father. The mother goes to 
\vork to get the things she longs for 
which her husband's small earnings 
cannot give her. But she loses some- 
thing else by gaining that economic 
independence. I'he home becomes 
just a house, a place to eat and sleep 
in. Trying to successfully hold 
down two l)ig, important jobs like 
being a ^vife and mother and at the 
same time a working woman, re- 
quires a very unusual person. Most 
women can't do both w^ell and nat- 
urally fall down on the job as a 
h( mie-maker. 

This too often is the opening- 
wedge to marital unhappiness. And 
the innocent b3'standers are the little 
ones. Often, too, such home life 
leads to separation, divorce, intidel- 
ity and all those "miseries" which 
follow when love flies out the win- 
dow. You can't expect any child to 
grow up normally in that atmos- 
phere. Court records show that' most 



juvenile dclinrjuencies come from 
such homes. 

Decent Wages First Condition 
Decent wages, to my mind, seem 
the first condition for the develop- 
ment of decent children. Of course, 
other things are vital, right living 
and right thinking ]:)arents who ful- 
ly accept and realize their responsi- 
bility to society to rear their chil- 
dren to become good citizens — good 
men and women ; right education 
which inculcates in children sound 
moral principles as well as culti- 
vating their minds, and the protec- 
tion of children from evil surround- 
ings which is a responsibility of the 
law enforcing authorities. 

The important task which faces 
this generation is not deploring 
child delinquency and planning to 
rehabilitate such lost children, but 
more important, removing the con- 
ditions that make delinquency an 
alarming national problem. — St. 
Louis Tribune. 



Kaiser Urges Post-War Housing Plan 

Henry J. Kaiser, shipbuilder and contractor, urged all sections 
of the housing industry to get together on plans for a countrywide 
building program after the war with profits secondary to mass employ- 
ment. 

Speaking at a dinner-meeting of the National Conference on Post-War 
Housing, ]\Ir. Kaiser said: 

"Housing is one of the major prospects for employment. Present re- 
cjuirements, accumulations and expressed desires could keep millions em- 
ployed for years." 

Asserting that everything is propitious for an unparalleled revival of 
building activity after the war, Mr. Kaiser, said the task would be accom- 
plished in some part by individual initiative, "but the undertaking is so 
vast that there must be a joint effort in which the Federal Government, 
the States, municipalities, banks, labor unions^ insurance companies and 
industry take an active part." 

"Out of the shambles of war in England. Russia and Europe,"" he con- 
tinued, "there are certain to arise new cities — modern, safe, elhcient and 
beautiful. Can we afford to be laggards in such a march of ])rogress?" 

"Many of us," he went on, "are aware that the extent to which we fail 
this challenge will be a direct invitation to the Federal Government to take 
over the job, which is fundamentally our own." 









What Our Readers Have to Say 

• • • On Topics of the Day! 

(This Journal is not responsible for the views expressed by the writers.) 



My boy is now overseas. He has been 
in the Marines for more than a year 
and his magazine is still coming here. 
I enjoy reading it very much but I 
think you should change his address so 
he can get it every month. I know our 
boys overseas aren't getting anything 
about the truth of what organized labor 
is doing on the home front. So I want 
my boy to get his "Carpenter" regular 
so he can know the truth. He has been 
a member of the Carpenters for four 
years and I know that when he comes 
back he will want to go back to work 
at his trade with wages and conditions 
at least as good as he left them. 

You are doing a good job in the mag- 
azine. I hope you can keep it up and 
be sure to send it to my boy until he 
gets back with Hitler's and Hirohito's 
hide. 

WWS, Des Moines, Iowa. 



Public opinion is the key to the pow- 
er of democracy only when it is not 
muzzled and shot through with propa- 
ganda to mold public opinion against 
democracy as is carried on now by our 
News Services. 

Z. LeBOEUF, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Quite awhile ago I read somewhere 
that there are about half a million 
young men in this country deferred 
from military service by the fact that 
they have criminal records. I hope this 
isn't true because if it is a great injus- 
tice is now being done a half million 
honest citizens. I mean the fathers who 
are now being drafted. Fathers with 
families to feed and support are being 
torn from their homes to protect our 
country while the gangsters and chisel- 
lers are running around free. As I un- 
derstand it this war is being fought to 



protect all of us and I can't see your 
boy and mine fighting to protect some 
guy that was too damn lazy to work for 
a living so he turned to crime. It's fine 
for the fathers to go and do their duty. 
I am sure most of them want to do it. 
But they sure don't want to do it for 
some no good bum who never did any- 
thing but cost his country money in 
jail and out of it. 

Maybe it would be bad for morale to 
put these jailbirds in with the regular 
army, but why not organize them into a 
labor battalion and put them to work 
in the Aleutians or South Pacific? 

MARRIED SOLDIER'S FATHER, Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 

« * * 

I just finished paying my income 
taxes. I don't even know what year it 
was for. We are supposed to have a 
pay-as-you-go tax. I guess it is pay-as- 
you-go all right. The little man pays 
and the big guy goes to his golf club to 
relax from his worries. I was just think- 
ing of the things that hit my pay check. 
They take out the withholding tax and 
the victory tax and the social security 
tax. Then a part comes out for the War 
Chest and some more for the Red Cross. 
Bonds take a part every month too. 
Then a couple of more bucks come out 
to pay for medical care. The old pay 
check looks like the woodpeckers been 
nibbling on it. 

But that isn't the worst. The big 
shots in Washington are still trying to 
figure out new ways of taking another 
slice out of it. I think us workers better 
wake up in November or our paychecks 
will look about the size of ration cou- 
pons soon if the Big Business stooges 
continue to rule the roost in Wash- 
ington. 

F. W. FRANKS, Tacoma, Wash. 



39 



PAEMER AND WOEKEE 

By JAMES G. PATTON, 

President, National Farmers Union 
• • • 

THE LABORING man, his wife and children are the working- farm- 
er's best customers and his most reliable friends and allies. 
The American farmer, his wife and children are the lal^orint;- 
man's best customers and — but here, unfortunately, I cannot add, his best 
friends and allies. 

The trag-ic fact is that many American farmers have been set against 
labor. National spokesmen for some farm organizations ha\-e lent them- 
selves to labor-baiting and labor- 



hating campaigns which have spread 
distrust, dislike and downright ha- 
tred of labor far and wude in rural 
America. Some individual wage- 
earners probably have somewhat the 
same dislike and distrust of farm- 
ers, but, to date, labor org-aniza- 
tions have not lent themselves to 
farmer-baiting-, farmer-hating cam- 
paigns. In fighting efforts to pry 
the lid off w^artime prices by ban- 
ning subsidies, labor has not charg- 
ed farmers with profiteering and 
with racketeering. 

Unless both labor and farmers 
act — and act quickly — to stop the 
"Let's you and him fight" campaign 
that has been promoted by those 
wdio exploit both labor and farmers, 
neither labor nor working farmers 
will be safe in the reconversion and 
postwar periods. Both will be put 
through the economic wringer of 
unemployment, low^er wages, lower 
prices, lower purchasing power, 
smaller markets for both farm and 
factory products and — perhaps af- 
ter a short boom period — we wall 
be well on our way toward another 
depression deeper and wider than 



At the present time, plans and 
actions for reconversion to civilian 
production and for normal peace- 
time production are in the hands of 
industrialists and bankers and their 
friends inside and outside the Ad- 
ministration and the Congress. Or- 
ganized labor has demanded recog- 
nition and participation in the for- 
mulation and operation of reconver- 
sion and postwar plans. So has the 
National Farmers Union. Last No- 
vember, when the President ap- 
pointed Bernard M. Baruch to for- 
mulate such plans, I suggested to 
Mr. Baruch that he consult with 
responsible representatives of agri- 
culture, labor and management. 
The suggestion was brushed aside, 
as similar proposals by labor have 
been brushed aside. 

As the Baruch, Senate and House 
plans develop, it becomes obvious 
that all three will have one point in 
common : 

The government is to turn over, 
as quickly as possible, all responsi- 
bility for insuring full employment 
to the so-called, "system of free en- 
terprise." The government is not, 
in any instance, to "compete with 



40 



THE CARPEXTER 



private enterprise." Administration 
of the transfer is to be in the hands 
of businessmen and bankers. 

Although the Baruch plan admits 
that the government must help "free 
enterprise" over the last hump of 
reconversion to a peacetime econ- 
omy, the objective is to let the "sys- 
tem of free enterprise" finally do 
the whole job of attaining and main- 
taining full employment. 

Stripped of all their platinum- 
plated double talk, such programs 
are, in essence, proposals to return 
to the Twenties and repeat the mis- 
takes that culminated in the 1929 
crash. 

I know that the working farm 
families who are members of the 
National Farmers Union, thousands 
of whom faced the loss of their 
farms and all security fifteen years 
ago, Avill not agree to such a post- 
war program, and I believe that 
wage-earners, as they come to real- 
ize what such a program means, will 
likewise refuse it. 

No one believes more sincerely in 
genuine free enterprise than mem- 
bers of the National Farmers Un- 
ion. Our basic principle is "the se- 
curity of the working farm family 
on the land in an economy of abun- 
dance brought about by a free ex- 
change of goods and services." 

Our experience and observation 
convince us that those who are now 
waving the banner of a "system of 
free enterprise" are not to be en- 
trusted with exclusive control over 
all our futures. In the past they 
have not promoted genuine free en- 
terprise. 

Many of the strongest supporters 
of the "free enterprise" campaign 
have stifled free enterprise in the 
past by monopolistic agreements 
reaching across whole industries, 
tying industries together and link- 
ing up with international cartels 



which have sacrificed our nation's 
interest and safety at the command 
of cartels in turn under the domina- 
tion of Nazi Germany. 

They have stifled genuine free 
enterprise among wage-earners by 
fighting union organization and col- 
lective bargaining. 

They have stifled free enterprise 
among working farmers by combin- 
ing to hold down the prices of farm 
products and to keep high the prices 
and the profits of farm machinery, 
fertilizer and other farm supplies. 
As the ^present time, acting in har- 
mony with the banks, they are sup- 
porting a drive against farmers' 
supply and marketing cooperatives 
and against agencies established to 
assure farmers adequate credit at 
reasonable terms. Up to now they 
have maintained artificial scarcities 
of goods, foods, jobs and mass buy- 
ing power, seeking to skim off 
greater profits from a limited mar- 
ket. 

The truth of the matter is that 
the so-called "system of free enter- 
prise" is, from the viewpoint of the 
working farmer and the city wage- 
earner, neither a system, nor free, 
nor very enterprising. We who 
work for a living are the real be- 
lievers in economic freedom and 
enterprise and some public regula- 
tion, not tight regimentation, that 
will give all of us both opportunity 
and security. Democracy can 
achieve full employment as surely 
as fascism and communism have 
achieved it. We have achieved it 
in producing abundance for war — 
and by voluntary means, with the 
cooperation of labor, management 
and farmers. Our production of 
abundance for war can be surpassed 
by production of abundance for 
peace. 

We of the National Farmers Un- 
ion do not propose to surrender 



THE CARPENTER 



41 



our g-overnment to the economically 
powerful few for them to control 
and regulate in their own short- 
sighted selfish interest. A\'e are 
convinced that the welfare of indus- 
try, labor, farmers and the public 
requires continuing governmental 
regulations such as the SEC, FDIC, 
Soil Conservation Act, Agricultural 
Adjustment Act, the Wage a nd 
Hour Act, the Wagner Labor Rela- 
tions Act, the Social Security Act, 
enlarged and extended to cover agri- 
culture, as provided in the Wagner- 
Murray-Dingell bill, and immediate 
planning and practical provision for 
sustaining full emplo3n'nent — when 
necessary by public works — in the 
reconversion and postwar periods. 

\\'e farmers and you wage-earn- 
ers may object and say we reject 
the unilateral plans and actions that 
are being made daily for reconver- 
sion and our postwar economy. But 
what are we going to do about it in 
an effective way? 

As I see it, we are not going to 
be cut into participation in those 
plans and actions unless we, w^ork- 
ing farmers and labor, cooperate 
more etTectively than we have to 
date. Neither the Administration 
nor the Congress will provide par- 
ticipation for us unless w^e (a) for- 
mulate an agreed-upon reconversion 
and postwar program so obviously 
in the public interest that it cannot 
be ignored, and (b) mobilize a clear 
majority of the American people 
behind such a program, which must 
provide for full use of all our hu- 
man and material resources, full em- 
ployment, full production and full 
consumption. 

Traveling around the country, 
meeting with men and women of 
goodwill, farmers, wage-earners, 
representatives of church, welfare 
and civic groups, I am impressed 
with the great anxietv, the great 



fear, the great hunger for such a 
program. Church groups, particu- 
larly, are concerned and have al- 
ready rallied support for full em- 
plo}'ment and full production pro- 
grams that have been developed by 
labor, the National I^armers Union 
and other people's organizations. 
What is needed now is a coming 
together of all these groups, an 
agreement upon a joint program and 
then a nationwide mobilization of 
their memberships and of the mil- 
lions of individual citizens who may 
not be affiliated with any group. 

A coming together of working 
farmers, labor, church and other 
gTOups, including sincerely progres- 
sive employers, is an immediate 
need, but it is not the Avhole task. 
Back of that we need more informa- 
tion, better understanding between 
working farmers and labor. All 
along the line we must substitute 
for a present atmosphere of mutual 
distrust and resentment a feeling of 
confidence in each other, of trust, 
cooperation, a sense of common des- 
tiny. 

Better understanding must be 
based upon a better exchange of 
facts. Farmers need more facts 
about labor. Labor needs more 
facts about farmers. There is no 
use wasting- time talking about the 
difficulties of communication. This, 
too, is a fact. AA^e must get around 
it, find ways to get the facts across, 
through or around the barriers and 
the barrage of propaganda that di- 
vide us. 

How shall we get farmers to pay 
attention to facts about labor when 
they are presented? How* shall we 
get labor to pay attention to facts 
about farmers when they are pre- 
sented? 

AA^e need, first of all. a sharper 
realization by every farmer, by 
every wasre-earner of the fundamen- 



42 



THE CARPEXTER 



tal fact that, if they fight each other, 
both lose, that democracy itself may 
be lost as it was lost in Italy, in 
Germany and in Austria. 

In Austria the A'ienna workers, 
unable to enlist rural Austria in a 
common cause, finally saw farm 
boys in the ranks of the Heimwehr 
shooting- into the city's \vorld- 
famous model apartments. 

A few months later all Austria — 
farmers, wage-earners and business- 
men alike — were trapped together 
in one vast concentration camp of 
Nazi slavery. 

We need also a common sense of 
hope that we can win a people's 
peace after we have won a people's 
war. Every farmer, every wage- 
earner needs to knovv-, to have it 
proved, that abundance (full pro- 
duction, full employmtnt) is pos- 
sible and practical ; that, in fact, it is 
our onlj' salvation, our only escape 
from a repetition of the Twenties 
and another war. V\'& must over- 
come our ingrained fear of "sur- 
pluses," of abundance. Before we 
can prove it to others, to the Ad- 
ministration and to the Congress, 
we must prove to ourselves that we 
are prepared and determined to 
learn to live vrith abundance and 
like it. 

As we sense the danger and come 
to believe we can avert it, we will 
have a keener sense of urgency, of 
the speed with which our futures 
are being determined, of the impor- 
tance of extending and strengthen- 
ing cooperation between farmers 
and labor. "We will realize that we 
must cooperate for our very lives 
as free men. 

With whom shall labor cooperate 
in the field of agriculture? I would 
say, first, with those people, groups 
and organizations who have proved 
by their past deeds that they are 
friendlv to labor and will stand bv 



labor when the storm signals are 
up and the anti-union mouthpieces 
howl the loudest. 

I would name the National Farm- 
ers Union, including its State Farm- 
ers Unions, and also state units of 
the American Farm Bureau and the 
Grange, i.e.. the Ohio Farm Bu- 
reau, the Washington and Oregon 
Granges, and such county units else- 
Avhere as are known, by their record 
of performance, to have cooperated 
with labor. 

Actions Speak Louder Than Words 
As for others, sinners come late 
to repentance, let their deeds — not 
in the sweet bye and bye of post- 
war, but in the current debates over 
legislation in the federal and state 
legislatures — prove the sincerity of 
their assertions that the}^, too, wish 
to cooperate Avith labor. 

I would suggest that labor men 
and women seek out farmers, indi- 
vidually and through organizations, 
to become acquainted with them. 
Don't try to '■'seir'' labor to us: lis- 
ten as vrell as talk; find out the 
other fellow's problems, too. Too 
often — and here I plead guilty my- 
self — each of us is so anxious to en- 
list the other's sympathy and help 
that he doesn't give the labor broth- 
er or the farmer brother a chance to 
tell his story. 

Organizationally, State Federa- 
tions, by arrangement vrith State 
Farmers Unions, might arrange for 
regular interchange of news, speak- 
ers and special programs between 
your local organizations and ours. 
In many states where w^e have a 
strong functioning organization, we 
have for j^ears cooperated with or- 
ganized labor in non-partisan politi- 
cal activit}', supporting good legis- 
lation and opposing bad legislation, 
seeing to it that candidates' records, 
good or bad, are firmly tied around 



THE CARPENTER 



43 



their necks on Election Day. Now, 
with the spread of the hate cam- 
paig"n, this cooperati\-e activity 
should be strengthened b}' more 
thorough communication, closer ac- 
quaintanceship of as much of our 
memberships as possible. Farm 
pa]')ers should carry more labor 
news and your labor papers should 
carry more news al^out farmers, 
written in a way that will interest 
labor readers. 

For our part, we put so high a 
value on cooperation among farm, 
labor and other people's groups that 
for two years we have maintained 
a Labor and Public Relations De- 
partment headed by Paul Sifton, 
former New York State Deputy In- 
dustrial Commissioner, former Dep- 
ut_\- Administrator of the Wage and 
Hour xA-ct, who, a^ my alternate on 
the National A\'MC ^lanagement- 
Labor Policy Committee, has co- 
operated with labor, farm and man- 
agement representatives in promot- 
ing better utilization of the nation's 
manpower. Ours is the only farm 
organization maintaining such a de- 
partment. 

Through the years since its 
founding in 1902, the National 
Farmers Union has held to a clear 
realization that, like the wage-earn- 
er, the farmer's principal value, that 
which he had to sell, was his labor. 
his skill, his know-how, and that 
farmers could prosper only as labor 
prospers and can buy the foods and 
fibers we produce. We have solicit- 
ed and received the help of labor in 
fighting our battles for economic 
and political justice in the federal 
and state legislatures. By consid- 
ered formal resolutions at our con- 
ventions we have acknowledged and 
given thanks for that help. 

Organized labor, along with the 
three major church groups, civic 
and welfare groups, representing in 



sum the majority of the people of 
the nation, helped to save the Farm 
Securit}' Administration in 1942 and 
again in 1943 from assassination at 
the hands of commercialized agri- 
culture, the banks and big industrial 
employers. If it is saved again this 
year, it will be because the same 
forces rally to its defense. 

The cooperation has not been one 
way. We have given hel]) to the 
utmost of our strength and our abil- 
ity in labor's fights for justice in 
Washington and at state capitals. 

We, alone among the national 
farm organizations, supported the 
President's "indivisible" seven- 
point anti-inflation program of 1942, 
the Economic Stabilization Act, the 
use of selective subsidies to assure 
adequate prices to farmers while 
keeping wartime consumer prices 
stable and thereby preventing spi- 
raling inflation. We knew from bit- 
ter experience that in the postwar 
period inflation — and deflation — 
would drive two million working 
farm families from their land to the 
highways and thence to cities where 
they would compete, at lower and 
lower wages, with city wage-earn- 
ers for a dwindling number of jobs 
as deflation, depression and collapse 
took hold. 

In recent months and weeks we 
have fought the inflationist coalition 
in the Congress and out in the farm 
states. It is easy to be for subsidies 
in the cities. It is not so easy to be 
for subsidies to hold down prices 
among farmers where, for the first 
time since AA'orld War I, most, but 
not all, are getting almost a decent 
income. 

We in the National Farmers 
Union have had to contend with a 
multi-million dollar propaganda 
campaign against stabilization, 
against price control, against subsi- 
dies, against many things that came 



44 



THE CARPENTER 



pretty close to adding up to opposi- 
tion to the effective prosecution of 
the war on the farm front or any 
other front. This propaganda had a 
dangerous demagogic approach. The 
appeal was the easy-money ap- 
proach : Get yours while the getting 
is good. 

We have held the line. The mem- 
bership of the National Farmers 
Union, expressing themselves 
through democratically elected 
delegates at state convention after 
state convention, have renewed their 
commitment to the anti-inflation 
policies of the Economic Stabiliza- 
tion Act, including subsidies. Our 
enemies, those who seek to divide 
the members of our own organiza- 
tion, have been defeated. Meantime, 
within the ranks of other farm or- 
ganizations, there is a growing feel- 
ing that their national leaders have 
not served the interest of working 
farmers. ^lany county groups and 
at least one state body of the big- 
gest farm organization opposing 
subsidies have repudiated the poli- 
cies advocated by their national 
spokesmen. Partly because we car- 
ried to farm people throughout the 
nation the facts about the impera- 
tive need for subsidies as a war 
measure, the anti-subsidy drive has 
passed its peak and is subsiding. 

We have expressed opposition to 
a National Service Act as unneces- 
sary and a definite handicap. 

We urged a veto of the anti-sub- 
sidy bill and the brutally discrimi- 
natory tax bill. 

We were first to urge, and will 
continue to urge, practical provi- 
sion for voting in 1944 by the eleven 
million members of the armed serv- 
ices, using some easy form of fed- 
eral ballot distribution, collection 
and transmittal to the states so that 
the war will not have to be called 



off for ninety days while officers 
and men figure out how to comply 
with forty-eight different sets of 
laws and regulations regarding reg- 
istration and voting. 

That is our recent record in the 
legislative field, in matters of close 
interest to labor. To it I would add 
one fact, which can be confirmed by 
state and local union officers and 
members : In the past, when there 
have been strikes and industrial 
war, the Farmers Union has stayed 
with labor, aiding by refusing to 
take part in strike-breaking vigi- 
lante tactics, by organizing public 
opinion in support of the union, 
mobilizing relief, insisting upon a 
fair settlement and — yes — bringing 
in loads of food to feed the men on 
the picket lines and the women and 
children in the homes. 

I do not propose exclusive co- 
operation with the National Farm- 
ers Union. While preserving the 
autonomy and independence of our 
respective organizations, let's multi- 
ply and reinforce the ties of co- 
operation by closer acquaintance 
among officers and among members 
of all people's organizations with 
whom we can find areas of agree- 
ment — locallv. bv states and nation- 
ally. 

Only by so doing can we finally 
establish a people's peace of full 
use of all our human and material 
resources — full production, full em- 
ployment, fair distribution (oi prof- 
its as well as goods and services) 
and full consumption. 

Our future is in our own hands. 
No one else will or can save us. 
We must work out our OAvn way of 

salvation. 

Divided, we will fail. United in 
cooperation, we can win. — The Fed- 
erationist. 



45 



They Are Robbing Us 



IT COMES AS no particular surin-ise to anyone that l)lack market 
operations are gouging the consumer. Every housewife who has had 
to provide balanced meals for her family in the face of rationing, 
scarcities, etc. knows uiil\- loo well that the black market is often the only 
alternative to hunger. Every fellow who drives a car sooner or later 
bumps into the black market in gasoline. Last month, however, (')PA 
Administrator Chester Bowles released some figures on black market 
operations that really opened the eyes of the nation. 

Bowles said that for every dol- ^ — — 

lar's worth of groceries bought by 300,000 and 400,000 tilling stations 
the average housewife, another 4 are working hand in glove with the 
cents is gouged from her through racketeers, Bowles said. 



overcharges above ceiling prices. 

That's equivalent, he said, to $35 
or $40 in the course of a year, as 
much as a low-income family spends 
for food in an entire month. He 
confessed the O. P. A. is helpless 
to wipe out all this chiseling, and 
called on consumers to do the job 
themselves. 

At the same time BoAvles conced- 
ed the very existence of gasoline ra- 
tioning is threatened by black mar- 
keteers, many of them vicious gang- 
sters, who have moved in for a 
"kill."' 

He said that racketeers are siph- 
oning off 2,500,000 gallons of gas 
daily from legal channels and that 
a large percentage of ration cou- 
pons now in circulation are coun- 
terfeit. 

The entire Eastern seaboard, as 
well as California, the Gulf and 
])arts of the Middle AVest were de- 
clared to be blanketed with spuri- 
ous and stolen coupons. Between 



He even admitted the O. P. A. 
knows that New Jersey is the cen- 
ter of the counterfeit printing ring, 
but suggested no way of dealing 
with the situation. His only action 
was to slash by a third the value of 
"A" coupons in the Midwest and 
Far West. 

Just how cutting the value of le- 
gitimate gas coupons is going to 
help fight the black market in gas is 
not exactly clear. What the move 
Avill probably mean is that black 
market operators will have just that 
much more gas available. In fact 
there are many who think that the 
black market in gas ^vould never 
have sprung up if the government 
had allocated all available supplies 
to legitimate civilian uses. The fact 
that large quantities of gas were 
available while the government was 
denying car owners enough coupons 
to use it up set the stage for the 
black market, these observers be- 
lieve. 



We forgive the rose the thorns, because of its fragrance. 






:vV£ '4» 5?l 




TS HISTORY and PROBLEMS 



Tree Farm Revenue 

ONE OF THE BIG advantages of sustained yield timber production 
is the sustained income. As fast as expenses come up they are paid 
off, and the interest charges that get to be so bulky if they accu- 
mulate do not get a start. The important thing is to have something to sell 
every year. That is possible if the owner has merchantable timber, second 
growth and young reproduction all in one unit. If the tree farm includes 
only cutover land, with no merchantable trees, it won't be easy to figure 
out an income each year. 



We might set up a case on a tree 
farm that has second growth timber 
and reproduction. To keep it sim- 
ple, we will call the whole tree farm 
of 130,000 acres site quality II, in 
Douglas-fir and half in the pulp spe- 
cies — hemlock, spruce, and balsam 
fir. The stand on, say, 30,000 acres 
is 60 years old or older. On 30,000 
acres, the stand is 40 to 60 years old ; 
on 30,000 acres, 20 to 40 years old ; 
half the other 40,000 acres is 10 to 
20 years old, and the rest is recently 
logged or not restocked. Something 
should go in here, about one-third 
the stand being fully stocked, one- 
third fairly well stocked, and one- 
third poorly stocked, but that makes 
too much work — let it go. Call it all 
well stocked, and save wear on the 
pencil arm. 

Average Growth 

Taking another short cut, we will 
raise all the Douglas-fir to sawlog 
size on a hundred year rotation and 
the hemlock and spruce will go for 



pulp on a 60-year rotation. We get 
a break here. Hemlock and spruce 
grow a little faster than Douglas- 
fir, but not much. The same growth 
figures will do for all species. 

Making all due allowances for 
losses by fire, bugs, and windfall, 
there should be an average of 40 
cords or so per acre of pulp wood 
at the end of the 60-year rotation. 
That is two-thirds of a cord growth 
per year per acre — say 45,000 cords 
on the 65,000 acres of pulp forest. 

On the 65,000 acres in Douglas- 
fir, at the end of the hundred years, 
fire, bugs, windfall and whatnot 
should leave an average of 60 M by 
the International Rule, 45 M by the 
Scribner Rule. That is 600 feet 
growth per acre per year, or 39 
million feet. 

Pulp Wood Stumpage 

If pulp wood stumpage is 50 
cents per cord and second growth 
fir brings $2 per M, that is an in- 



THE € A R P F. X T E R 



47 



come of about $100,000 for the farm 
or 'jy cents ])er acre. The severance 
tax takes \2\ per cent of tliat — 
about 10 cents — leavino; 67 cents per 
acre to cover the 14 cents for protec- 
tion. 4 cents for forest fee, 3 cents 
rental, and in time to write off the 
75 cents that the roads and lookouts 
and other improvements cost at the 
beginning. 

It was agreed that nothing would 
be said about most of the farm 
being onl}' partly stocked, but that 
should get a little attention. If 
the land is only half or two-thirds 
productive, the income figures are 
correspondingly screwy. Carrying- 
charges go right along whether or 
not the land is producing saw logs 
and pulp. If the income is 45 cents 
an acre instead of 67 cents and the 
fixed costs take 21 cents, the margin 
for getting rid of that first cost so 
that it will not draw interest is 
rather thin. 

Poorly Stocked Land 

That brings in another item. In 
our set-up, 20,000 acres were un- 
stocked, 30,000 acres were poorly 
stocked. The investment on this 
land is 837,500 for improvements; 
with $10,500 annual protection costs 
to pay out, and nothing much com- 
ing in. 

A\ hat's more, this unstocked land 
is where the hazard is high. Un- 
stocked land is coxered with fern 
and other flashy fuel. It is open to 
the sun and wind, and dries fast. 
It is a matter of history and statis- 
tics that it is thirty to forty times 
as likel}' to burn as virgin forest or 
land covered with young timber. 
More protection mone}^ will be paid 
out on this non-producing part of 
the farm tlian on the well stocked 
jjart that is bringing in the mone\'. 

Good tree farming practice prob- 



al)l_\- calls for some planting on this 
land. [Mauling costs Sro per acre — 
$3 <>y $4 f^'i" the tree«.. the rest for 
labor. Some of this deforested land 
will reforest naturall}-; some of it 
so ])oor that ])lanting will not i)ay 
out; but on some of it planting is 
the thing to do. .Man\' a ])erspiring 
forester will scratch his bald spot 
far into the night lr_\ing to get the 
right answer for thi-^ or that par- 
ticular piece of land. 

Adds To Budget 

If the foresters on the tree farm 
decide that i)lanting tooo acres per 
year is the thing to do, that adds 
$10,000 per year or 8 cents per acre 

to the budget. 

This covers in a sketchy kind of 
way the more important items of 
raising timber. On a typical tree 
ranch on highly productive land, 
it boils down to an income of 45 
cents or so per acre, running ex- 
penses of 30-35 cents an acre, and 
a debt of /^^ cents an acre to pa\- 
oft" as quickly as may be. Losses 
and expenses are almost always 
more than expected, but pro])aIjl3- 
stumpage will go higher. The im- 
portant thing is to provide an in- 
come as cjuickly as possible, to keep 
the compound interest charges out 
of the picture; and to pick out good 
land. 

On site III land, now, the annual 
charges would be the same as on 
site II, but the income would be 
about $70,000 or 54 cents per acre. 
Take oft" one-third for non-stocked 
land and one-eighth for the re\-enue 
tax and you get about t,2 cents per 
acre income which does not leave 
much. Granting at once that stump- 
age prices will probal)ly increase 
substantially, that the crop will get 
larger as the non-producing land is 
stocked with trees, tliat protection 



48 



THE CARPENTER 



costs may decrease as the area of 
high hazard old burn is reclaimed, 
still it does not promise anything 
shown,- in the way of net income. 
Site class lY is worse. 

Will Pay Out 

In the Douglas-iir belt in Wash- 
ington and Oregon about 77 million 
acres are in site qualit}'^ classes I 
and II. the other 18I million acres 
are in site qualities III to Y. 

These figures, such as they are. 
seem to show that timber farming 
on well selected sites will pa}^ out. 
No one need be surprised if most 
of the cut-over land in sites I and 
II is held in private sustained 3-ield 



holdings. On the less productive 
lands the future for private enter- 
prise is not so bright. Some of it 
that is mixed with better land, or is 
close to the m.ill. or has other ad- 
vantage of that sort, may stay in 
private holdings, but much of it 
may be expected to go into public 
ownership where public advantages 
will offset the narrow profit margin. 
It looks as though the private 
ownership pattern of cut-over land 
in the future would be determined 
by the site quality, or in other 
words the abilit}' of the land to pro- 
duce new forests in sufficient quan- 
tity and fast enough to return a 
profit to the private owner. 



Unionism Is Foundation for Democratic Post-War World 

Of the things jieeded to build up a democratic postwar world, strong 
labor unions are condition number one, according to Professor Eduard 
C. Lindeman of the New York School of Social Work, Columbia Uni- 
versit}-, speaking at the recent convention of the American Labor Con- 
ference on International Affairs in New York. 

To be strong, a labor union needs an active and alert membership, 
leaders who can stand in the public forum and defend the rights of labor 
without apolog\r, and a truly democratic relationship between leaders 
and membership. Professor Lindeman said. "With such unions," he 
asserted, '"we may face the future with the assurance that the Avill of the 
people will be heard in the councils of nations." 

Professor Lindeman urged that labor formulate plans for a postwar 
world immediateh", and suggested that the workers' postwar aims should 
be definite and concrete. If the workers fail to meet these conditions, if 
the}' cannot make up their minds about the kind of world the}' Avant to be 
established after the war. the "opportunistic politicians and tired diplo- 
mats'"' will do it for them, but a bit dift"erently from the common man's 
dreams. Professor Lindeman said. 

"If the people's war is not followed by a people's peace, he Avarned, 
"vengeance will be let loose upon the land.'' 



Buy BONDS" Bye Bye Axis 



THE CARPEXTER 49 



THEY'LL GIVE YOU THEIR SHIRT— 

If You Are Willing to Pay Twice What It's Worth 



By AURIAM KOLKIX 



HERE'S THE STORY of one strike that probably hasn't even hit 
the back pages of your daily newspaper — because this time it's 
employers who are doing- the striking and w^orkers who are the 
victims. 

It begins with an old gag line, "He'd take the shirt off your back." 
But to workers scanning empty store shelves for the formerly plentiful 
work shirts and work clothes made of sturdy denims and chambra^'s. it's 
not funny. And housewives looking in vain for cheap house dresses — the 
kind you used to bu}' for about $2 — don't think it's funny either. 

Behind the suddenly dwindling stocks of low-cost clothing is the sim- 
ple decision of clothing and textile manufacturers that expensive lines of 
merchandise are more profitable. The issue manufacturers have bluntly 
placed before WPB and OPA officials is higher prices or no more produc- 
tion of cheap lines of clothing. 

One member of OPA'S labor policy committee summed up the situa- 
tion in bitter tones : "War Production Board is walking a picket line for 
the industry." 

At one point the manufacturers and AA^PB people hit on what they 
considered a very neat compromise. Only the Navy, which buys 50 per 
cent of all w'orkshirts, would be forced to pay higher prices the}^ decided. 
But this industry version of a government subsidy had to be dropped 
when it was discovered that sailors, pay for the shirts out of their S50-a- 
month salaries. 

OPA labor representatives, who are battling WPB and OPA clothing 
officials on this issue, point to the case of the chambray work shirt as an 
example of manufacturers' disregard for an^'thing but more profits. The 
shirts are manufactured by only four companies — Avondale. Pepperell, 
Riverside and Aristo. Avondale has alread}- stopped production of cham- 
bray w^ork shirts, while the other companies are threatening to do the 
same, unless OPA comes through with a price boost. 

\ et Avondale's profits have increased almost 500 per cent since the 
start of the war. In the 1936-9 period, the company made a 2c profit on- 
every dollar of sales. In the fiscal year ending June 30, 1943, the profit on 
every dollar had jumped to 9.8 per cent. Riverside has tripled its profits 
during the same period, while the other companies have also shown tidy 
increases. 

Those are the figures labor's spokesmen have in mind when they de- 
mand that clothing manufacturers end their strike and turn out enough 
work clothes to supply the needs of the people without forcing them to 
pay exorbitant prices. — Chicago Federation News. 



50 THE CARPENTER 

New Siegele Book Just Off the Press 

BUILDING 
FORMS - STAIRS - ROOFS 

Brother H. H. Siegele, a member of Local* Union 1224, Emporia, 
Kansas, has compiled a new book under the above caption. It is a prac- 
tical Book of Instructions for men of the Trade covering such subjects 
as Form Building, Scaffolding, Finishing, House Plans, Framing, Roofing, 
Stair Building, etc. It is written in simple language, easily understood 
and should be of great value to the apprentice, the journeyman, the fore- 
man and the superintendent of construction. 

In 1942 Brother Siegele issued a book under the caption "Carpentry" 
• — craft problems — for which he has been congratulated time and time 
again. 

These two books "Carpentry" and "Building" should be patronized 
by every man working at the trade and especially so by our apprentices 
as they contain a vast amount of good, practical information continually 
asked for. 

Brother Siegele needs no introduction to the readers of The Carpenter 
as he has been a contributor to our Journal for over twenty years in the 
Craft Problem section. His intimate knowledge of the trade and his 
practical way of doing work is universally known. His new Book "Build- 
ing" is published by Frederick J. Drake Company, 600 West Van Buren 
Street, Chicago, Illinois. The price is $2.00, with worthwhile discounts for 

quantity purchases. 

• 

Application Made for First Wood Sugar Plant 

Application has been made to the AVar Production Board for approval 
to build a government-owned wood-sugar and ethyl alcohol plant, cost- 
ing nearly $2,500,000 at Springfield, Oregon, near Eugene, by a group of 
lumbermen, banded together as the Willamette Valley Wood Chemical 
Company. 

The plant, designed to process 200 tons of sawmill wastes daily (dry 
weight), is expected to produce 4,300,000 gallons of alcohol a year and 
would be the first in the United States utilizing a method long in opera- 
tion in Germany, patents for which are now held by the Alien Property 
Custodian. Its success would point the way to large-scale utilization of 
sawmill wastes, long the bane of operators. 

These plans follow thorough pilot plant tests, conducted last year at 
Marquette, Michigan, by the U. S. Forest Products Laboratory at the re- 
quest of the Office of Production Research and Development. 

While a national potential of more than a billion gallons of alcohol a 
year from 20 to 30 million tons of mill wastes may not be within economic 
reach at present, preliminary surveys indicate 150 million gallons could 
be in production within less than a year, assuming approval of plants. 
The ideal situation is a plant site adjacent to half its required raw mate-, 
rial, with the rest available within a radius of about 30 miles. Softwoods, 
in the West and the South, ofifer best possibilities. 





NOW... 

A NEW BUILDING BOOK 
FOR CARPENTERS 

written by YOUR master craftsman H. H. Siegele 

Complete, concise, authoritative ... based 
on Mr. Siegele's practical experience 
that has sky-rocketed him to cai-pentry 
fame. 



SrubY ATHOME 



fiUILDING-^iForms-^stmrs— roofs 



I book that amateur and professional carpenters should never 
le without. It's written by a union carpenter who worked him- 
elf up the hard way . . . from apprentice to be known and recog- 
lized nationally as THE authority on carpentry problems. His 
rell-rounded knowledge plus his knack of explaining things, 
iiakes This the most practical and outstanding book in its field. 



1>RlPAitESTO^ FOR TdP-PAYINt5 JOBS 



Xow and after the war. 

'lenty of good carpenters are needed right iioir in top wage level defense work. This book may help 
iiu land one of these high paying jobs. There's a big future in store for you after the war too . . . 
ou'll be capable of stepping right in and directing postwar housing projects. 

his book answers all your questions . . . gives 
lie information you need . . . shows how to meet 

Special quantity rates for local unions. 

1 doz. lots $1.50 

2 doz. lots $1.40 

3 doz. lots $1.30 

be 




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iiy problem that arises. Every efEort has been 
lade to give you complete and understandable 
nformation by supplementing the text with 
ood practical illustrations. 



iibject matter includes, among many other 
tcnis. articles on building, scaffolding, finishing, 
Inns for small houses, stair building and roof 
raming. 

95 Illustrations- 210 pages - only $2.00 



GARf>ENTRY CRAFT PROBLEMS 



may 



UATpr. Both books ''Building" and "C?rpentry' 
••"'"" combined In making up total quantities. 
Send your order — we'll ship C. O. T>. Tnu pay postman cost of 
books plus few cents for postage. If you send cash in advance 

we'll take care of the postage. 

All Drake books are sold on ... 

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE 

If after 3 days' examination you do not want to keep this 

book, return ii and we'll refund .Tour money at once. 

ORDER NOW — DON'T DELAY 



another helpful book 
by H. H. Siegele 

iVrittf-n in tlie same concise and easy to under- 
tand manner as the rest of Mr. 8iegele"s car- 
lentry books. Contains over 30iJ i)ages and 700 
llustrations. Tools, fireiiroof construction, box- 
ng. window and door frames, and estimating 
ire a few of the subjects covered by this 
luthoritative, helpful book. 

$2.00— sold on money back guarantee. 

FRED'K. J. DRAKE & CO. 



I Fred'k. J. Drake & Co. 
I 616 W. Van Buren St. 
I Chicago 7, Illinois. 

I Please send me copies of Building and 

I copies of Carpentery Craft Problems at 

' the above rates. 

I Xame 

I Address 

I City Staff '. . . . 



SENErMOMOJ^EY 



61 6 W. Van Buren St., Chicago 7, III. 



BOTH BOOKS ARE UNION MADE 



Official Information 




General Oflficers of 
THE rXITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOIXERS 

of AMERICA 

General Office : Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General President 

WM. L. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



First General Vice-President 

M. A. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Secretary 

FRANK DFFFY 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Second General Vice-President 

JOHN R. STEVEXSOX 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Treasurer 

S. P. MEADOWS 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



First District 



General Executive Board 

Fifth District, R. E. ROBERTS 
631 W. Page, Dallas, Texas 



Second District. WM. J. KELLY 
Carpenters' Bid., 243 4th Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Sixth District, A. W. MUIR 
10348 J Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, Calif. 



Third District. HARRY SCHWARZER 
3684 W. 136th St., Cleveland, O. 



Seventh District, ARTHUR MARTEL 
1182 St. La-nrence, Rm. 10, Montreal, Que., Can. 



Fourth District, ROLAXD ADAMS 
Keuka, Fla. 



WM. L. HUTCHESON, Chairman 
FRANK DUFFY, Secretary 



All correspondence for the General Executive Board must be sent to the General Secretary. 

Notice to Recording Secretaries 

The quarterly circular for the months of April, May and June 1944, con- 
taining the quarterly password, has been forwarded to all Local Unions 
of the United Brotherhood. Recording Secretaries not in receipt of this 
circular should notify Frank Duffy, Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis 
4, Indiana. 



NEW CHARTERS ISSUED 



2788 
1190 
2792 
2794 
2795 
2779 



Cadillac, Mich. 
Frankfort, Mich. 
Lake Linden, Mich. 
Mattoon, Wis. 
Ashland, Ore. • 
Areata, Cal. 



2818 
2820 
2827 
2838 
2645 



Vicksburg, Miss. 
New Rochelle, N. Y. 
Baton Rouge, La. 
Chico, Cal. 
Warren, Ark. 



BUY another BOND for VICTORY 



Jin 0. 



txn tfrxntn 



Not lost to those that love them, 
Not dead, just gone before; 



They still live in our memory, 
And will forever more. 



%CBi in ^tntt 

The Editor has been requested to publish the namȣ 
of the following Brothers who have passed away. 



Brother G. J. Blest, Local No. 700, Corning, X. Y. 
Brother John A. Bowman, Local No. 74, Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Brother Peter Broz, Local No. 298, Flushing, L. I., N. Y. 
Brothei- 31. S. Cancer, Local No. 627, Jacksonville, Fla. 
Brother Ed. J. Chamberlain, Local No. 67, Koxbury, Mass. 
Brother Joseph Close, Local No. 143, Canton, O. 
Brother G. W. Cody, Local No. 627, Jacksonville, Fla. 
Brother Frank Coghlan, Local No. 808, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Brother Ben E, Coyle, Local No, 345, Memphis, Tenn. 
Brother John Dekker, Local No. 1330, Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Brother Heni^j^ Doherty, Local No. 67, Roxbury, Mass. 
Brother Richard Favero, Local No. 298, Flusliing, L. I., N. Y. 
Brother Oliver L. Flansburgh, Local No. 444, Pittsfield, Mass. 
Brother George Gunderson, Local No. 808, Brookljai, N, Y. 
Brother Wni. Hamnien, Local No. 298, Flushing, L. I., N. Y, 
Brother John R. Hardick, Local No. 444, Pittsfield, Mass. 
Brother Henry Hart, Local No. 444, Pittsfield, Mass. 
Brother .James Hayden, Local No. 298, Flushing, L. I., N. Y. 
Brother Robert Himes, Local No. 808, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Brother Eric Johanson, Local No. 488, New Y^ork, N. Y. 
Brother Fred Kilber, Local No. 3, ^\^leeling, W. Va. 
Brother Edgar Knott, Local No. 298, Flushing, L. L, N. Y''. 
Brother Herman Kollar, Local No. 488, New Y'ork, N. Y. 
Brother Albert Kolsinski, Local No. 1330, Grand Rapids, IMich. 
Brother Jerimiah Lawlor, Local No. 67, Roxbuiy, Mass. 
Brother Alex Leith, Local No. 298, Flushing, L. I., N. Y'^. 
Brother William D. Lose, Local No. 430, Willdnsburg, Pa. 
Brother Gust Lothman, Local No. 298, Flushing, L. I., N. Y. 
Brother George Nares, Local No. 700, Coming, N. Y. 
Brother Richard M. Olsen, Local No. 1, Chicago, HI. 
Brother Lew Paige, Local No. 184, Salt Lake City, Utah. 
Brother Lern Passier, Local No. 444, Pittsfield, Mass. 
Brother Tom Paul, Local No. 279, Toronto, Ont., Can. 
Brother Joseph H. Peyton, Local No. 1590, Washington, D. C. 
Brother James Ringrose, Local No .196, Greenwich, Coiui. 
Brother John Schubert, Local No. 808, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Brother Paul Schubert, Local No. 808, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Brother Clement Sedotti, Local No. 77, Port Chester, N. Y"". 
Brother George Smith, Local No. 3, "Wlieeling, AV. Va. 
Brother Wm. Stinewise, Local No. 808, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Brother Chas. Walter, Local No. 488, New York, N. Y. 
Brother Wm. B. AVhite, Lo( al No. 444, Pittsfield, Mass. 
Brother Thomas K. Wilson, Local No. 808, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



CorrospondoncQ 




This Journal Is Not Responsible For Views Expressed By Correspondents. 



Local Union No. 56, Boston, Celebrates 40th Anniversary 

Officers, members and invited guests met January 31, 1944 and cele- 
brated the 40th Anniversary of Local Union 56, Pile Drivers, Wharf and 
Bridge Carpenters of Boston, 

Brothers Seymour Coffin, Albert McDonald, James McCormack and 
Edward Behema, the only surviving Charter members, gave some interest- 
ing, helpful and constructive facts, also some very trying circumstances 
under which they had to work to keep the Local in operation. A very in- 
teresting fact was noted that when they first organized without any up- 
to-date furniture equipment for the office a "Beer Barrel was used for a 
desk" and wooden kegs for seats. Since then fate has smiled and fortune 
has been kind — today we have a prosperous union. 

Remarks from Peter A. Riley, General Agent, and Sydney Smith, 
Secretary and Ralph B. Steners, President of Boston D. C. wished the 
Local every success in the years to follow and congratulated the Local 
Union on the fine set of officers to manage the affairs and the members 
in general to uphold the Union Principles of the United Brotherhood. 

A collation was served after which fraternal greetings were exchanged 
by each and everyone present, the occasion closing at 11.45 P-iri- 

Seymour Coffin, Edward J. Lane, Kenneth Strong, Reuben LeGrow, 
Committee. 



Local 735 Marks 43rd Birthday 

The Editor: 

Local Union No. 735, Mansfield, Ohio, celebrated its forty-third anni- 
versary on Saturday night, February 26th. A delicious turkey dinner with 
all the "fixins" started off the evening, following' which a program of 
speeches and entertainment rounded out the affair to make the evening a 
memorable one. 

More than 100 members attended the dinner at the Sons of Herman 
hall and were entertained by pupils from the Marguerite Speas dancing 
studio. Music was furnished by the Sunshine Band of Mansfield. 

Arnold Dill, Columbus, representing the Ohio Industrial commission 
gave an address. William Stumbo, business agent from the Marion Car- 
penters' Local, was a guest. 

Committee in charge of arrangements included Harry Harlos, Plomer 
Gregg, Paul Hoffman, and Philip Neider. 

Local Union No. 735 was organized Februar}^ 22, 1901. 

Fraternally yours, 

Thomas F. Geddes, Fin. Sec. 




Ladies Auxiliary Local 23, St. Louis, Mo. 

Editor: 

The members of the Carpenters' Ladies Auxiliary Local 23 would like 
to extend g-reeting-s to all sister members, ^\^e just had a grand celebration 
of our 28th Birthday. It was celebrated with a noonday luncheon on 
February 22nd. We were fortunate indeed to have our organizer and one 
of the charter members as our guests. The tables were decorated with 
soldiers and sailors and our programs were enclosed in a likeness of 
George AA'ashington's head. After the luncheon all enjoyed the afternoon 
playing cards and games. We had many attendance prizes and of course, 




each one was given a piece of the Birthday cake which was sent by the 
Business Agents and the Secretar}' of the District Council. 

W^e have been very active in war work. We sew for the Red Cross and 
we pack boxes wdiich are given to USO's. These boxes contain on an aver- 
age of 24 various articles needed b}" the boys and as each has a card in it 
with our name and address we have received many grand letters from the 
boys. We meet each Wednesda}^ and wdien we do not pack boxes we quilt 
and do Red Cross sewing. The money made by quilting is put into our 
War Funds. We have given to all local charities. Wq have served buffet 
suppers at the Salvation Army, USO and also home-made cake and coffee 
on several Sunday evenings. 

We have an Honor Roll and held memorial services for one young man, 
who was killed in action. At Christmas each of our Service men was given 
a year's subscription to Reader's Digest. 



56 THECARPEXTER 

AVe usually raise funds by having a card party and raffling a quilt made 
by the members, but the good brothers of the various Locals and also the 
District Council have been our fairy godfathers. These Brothers have 
given us grand support in every way. 

We have AVar Stamps and Bonds on sale at each meeting and the Aux- 
iliary has several Bonds. A\"e take part whenever there is a special drive 
for the sale of War Bonds. 

"We meet on the first and third Tuesday evenings of each month and 
we should be happy to have anyone in our locality come and join us. 

I am enclosing a picture taken at our Birthday Party. 

Best Wishes to All, I remain 

Fraternally yours, 

Jessie Stege (Mrs. Chas. R.), Rec. Sec'y, 

6451 Derb3- Ave., St. Louis 14, Mo. 



Toronto Auxiliary Celebrates 6th Birthday 

The Editor: 

We of Auxiliar}^ Local 303 celebrated our sixth anniversary in. January. 
We had the pleasure of having a number of our Brothers from Local 27 
as our guests, and an enjoyable evening was spent in music, recitations, 
dancing, after which refreshments were served. 

We meet twice a month — the ist Thursday being a business meeting, 
while the third Thursday is given up to social activities. Once a year we 
hold a bazaar. Last November our Bazaar brought us about S200. This 
money is used for our soldiers and for benevolent work. 

The officers of our Auxiliary are: President, Sister Cottam; \'ice- 
President, Sister Duncan; Financial Secretar}^ Sister Roberts; Recording 
Secretary, Sister Taylor; Conductress, Sister Gallop; Warden, Sister Lan- 
dry; Trustees: Sisters ]McI\Iurray, Perry and W^oodhouse. Our Social 
Convenor is Sister Thorogood and our Benevolent Convenor Sister ]\Iin- 
ter. 

Our Auxiliary is afliliated with the Toronto Council of Women's In- 
ternational Union Auxiliaries. We are also affiliated with the Labour Re- 
search Institute. Our Delegates to these organizations bring us back some 
very interesting reports on matters concerning working people. 

We hope that some of our American Sisters will be visiting Toronto 
during the coming Summer, and we extend a hearty invitation to them to 
get in touch with us. 

Greetings and best wishes to all. 

Fraternally yours, 

(Mrs.) Ida M. Taylor, Secretary, 

381 St. Germain Ave., Toronto, Ont., Can. 



THE CARPENTER 57 

Clovis, N. M., Auxiliary Reports 

Editor, The Carpenter: 

Toadies Auxiliary No. 346, would like to greet all Sister Auxiliaries 
and tell therr^ of a few of our activities. 

We meet each second and fourth Tuesday evenings in the homes of our 
members, with a social hour following the business meetings. 

Our membership is small but we have nice times together. Each Christ- 
mas we have a part}^ and exchange gifts. During the summer we have 
picnics for our families. 

We have made several contributions to worthy causes, such as the Red 
Cross, March of Dimes and also local charity- organizations. 

To raise money for our activities we have had sales, ralTles, pie sup- 
pers and sold subscriptions. Our Auxiliary buys Bonds and Stamps and 
writes to soldiers overseas. 

We are striving for a larger membership and putting more emphasis 
on asking for goods with Union Label. 

Our officers are: President, Mrs. Glen Kenzie ;Vice-President, Mrs. A. 
E. Joiner; Recording Secretary, Mrs. John H. Parrish; Financial Secre- 
tary, Mrs. V. D. Ball; Conductor, Mrs. Ray Burns; Warden, Mrs. S. 
Williams; Trustees, Mrs. A. J. Washington, Mrs. C. D. Willis, Mrs. 
Davidson. 

Best wishes. 

Mrs. John H. Parrish, Rec. Sec, 
|k. 921 E. 4th, Route I. Clovis, N. M. 

Women Can Perform 80% of Factory Jobs 

About 80 per cent of the war plant jobs performed by men can be done 
as well — or better — by women, acording to the Industrial Hygiene Foun- 
dation of Pittsburgh. 

A surve}^ of 54 war plants in 10 states, employing a half million per- 
sons, disclosed that accident rates for women workers are lower than for 
men, while women chalk up more absences and visits to plant dispensaries, 
the Foundation reported recently. It said there is a trend toward increase 
in non-industrial sickness and industrial accidents for both men and wo- 
men at the present time. 



MEDITATION 

So many books that I never will read, 

So many songs that I never shall sing, 

Though Autumn and Winter may quicken my heart, 

My eyes may be closed to the glory of Spring. 

Or can it be true (as I'm learning to hope) 

That Heaven is Earth in celestial disguise? 

Then — after the red leaves and snowflakes have gone, 

A radiant Springtime will open my eyes! 

BETTY YETTER. 
Iiulianapolis. lud. 



58 THE CARPENTER 



IMPORTANT 

The Federal Postoffice Department now requires 
extra postal charges when they notify International 
Headquarters of any change in address of members 
on The Carpenter mailing list. 

These changes are literally coming in by the hun- 
dreds and the expense is a considerable item. This 
expense can be avoided if all members use the form 
below, to notify us of change of address. Just fill out 
the form and drop it in the mail addressed to Editor, 
The Carpenter, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, 
4, Ind. 

This is an important matter and it is requested 
that all members notify International Headquarters 
of change of address IMMEDIATELY. 



(Date) 19 

Editor, The Carpenter, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, 4, Ind. 
Please change my address on Journal file. 

From Street 

City State 

To Street 

City State 

Name in full . 

L. U. No , City State 



Fill out this blank if you have changed your address, paste it on 
a one cent postcard and send to the General OflSce. 

Honorary members are required to pay one dollar yearly sub- 
scription rate. 



Craft ProblQms 




Carpentry 

By H. H. Siegele 
LESSON 187 

In the previous lessons on roof fram- 
ing we dealt with problems relating to 
regular roof framing, which might be 
called common roof framing, because it 
is more commonly used than what is 
known as irregular roof framing. The 
two branches of roof framing are funda- 
mentally the same, however, the irreg- 
lar roof, whether it is irregular in plan 
or in pitch, is less frequently used and 
for that reason the framing of such 
roofs apparently is more difficult than 
that of the regular roof. 

In dealing with the problems that 
must be soh^ed in irregular roof fram- 




ing we intend to be as practical as pos- 
sible in order to get the problems across 
to the readers. As our practice has 
been, we will take up simple under- 
standable problems first and step by 
step lead up to the more difficult prob- 
lems. We are assuming that the read- 
er understands what is meant by the 
terms, "run", "rise", "pitch", "span" 
and so forth, all of which have been 
covered in previous lessons. The em- 
phasis from here on must be placed on 
problems pertaining to the iregular roof, 
both in plan and in pitch. 

Fig. 1 is a simple plan, irregular on 
one end, which is to receive a regular 
pitch roof. The dotted line represents 
the comb of the roof. Fig. 2 shows the 
same plan with the plates spaced for 



the rafters and some rafters in place. 
The ridgeboard should be spaced in 
keeping with the plates. In framing this 
roof we would proceed by nailing the 
ridgeboard, numbered 3, to the two raf- 
ters numbered 1 and 2. Then raise these 
rafters, holding them in place with raf- 
ters number 4 and 5, and brace this 



"' 




.___ ^' r 


,^ 










■//' 


a t 


/l/ 



Fig. 2 

part. Then ridgeboard number 7 should 
be nailed to rafter number 8 and raised, 
making the ridge joint wuth a cleat as 
shown at 6. Rafter number 9 should 
then be placed to hold the ridgeboard 
up. (An equally satisfactory way would 
be by placing the rafters shown by dot- 




ted lines before number S and number 
9 are placed.) Then place number 10 
followed by 11, 12, 13, 14 and so on 
until the rafters are all up. At A and 
B w^e show the ridgeboard projecting 
beyond the plate lines so that the end 



60 



THE CARPENTER 



rafters can be adjusted before the ends 
of the ridgeboard are cut off. 

How to obtain the edge bevel for the 
jack rafters on the irregular end is 
illustrated with the diagram to the 
right. The distance a-b and the length 
of the rafter per the distance a-c, will 
give the edge bevel of the jack rafters — 
the rafter length giving the cut. (The 
distance a-c represents a foot run.) How 
to obtain the bevels for the irregular 
end rafters will be taken up in a later 
lesson. 

Fig. 3, A, shows a detail of the 
method of fastening the ridge joint 




Fi£ 



shown at 6 in Fig. 2. At B is shown 
the commonly used joint. Either of 
these joints give satisfactory results; 
however, the one shown at A will leave 
the nailing for the rafters unimpaired 
because the joint has been placed be- 
tween the spaces rather than at the 
center of a space, while the cleat holds 
the joint securely. 

Fig. 4 shows a plan of the roof we 
have been dealing with having all of the 
rafters in place. The shaded members 
represent the preliminary work in rais- 
ing the roof. 




OUR CHART Bjg 27"x36" blue print chart 
on the steel square. Starting Key, also 
new Radial Saw Chart. Blue print shows 
how to find length of any rafter and 
make its cuts, find any angle in degrees, 
frame any polygon 3 to 16 sides and cut 
its mitres, read board foot and brace 
tables, octagon scale, rafter tables and 
much other valuable information. Can be 
scaled down for model work as w^ell as full 
scale framing. Radial Saw Chart changes pitch- 
es and cuts into degrees and minutes. Evei-y 
carpenter should have these charts. Complete 
set for 50c coin or M.O.^no stamps or checks. 

MASON AND PARRISH, ENGINEERS 
2I0S-CM, Burdick St. Kalamazoo, Mich. 



Fig. 5 shows an irregular plan which 
is to receive a hip roof. The run, as 
indicated by the figures, is 12 feet. By 
drawing the dotted lines parallel with 
and 12 feet from the plates we estab- 
lish the location of the ridge from point 
a to point b. Fig. 6 gives a diagram of 





t* 




—iO — 


-1 


., 


1 
1 


/ 

/ 

/ 


/ 






i -^ / 
1 / 


/ 






k--. 


/ 


/ 


^ 


« u'— 


1 /'^' 


/ 


,, 




i / / 





Fig. 5 

the same plan with the principal rafters 
in place. To raise these rafters we 
would nail the ridgeboard, numbered 3, 
to rafters 1 and 2, then raise this and 
place rafters 4 and 5 — then 6, 7, 8, 9, 
10 and 11. Now the remaining rafters 
can be placed. The hips and jacks to 
the right are irregular, while the rest 
of the roof is a regular hip roof. 

Fig. 5 shows that the run of this roof 
is 12 feet, but in the diagram we will 
let inches represent feet, giving us a 
run of 12 inches. Now to obtain the 
edge bevel for the jacks that join the 
long hip, take the distance from A to 
C on the body of the square and the 
length of the common rafter for the 
distance C-D, on the tongue; the tongue 
gives the cut. (C-D represents a foot 




Fig. 6 



run.) To obtain the bevel for the jacks 
that join the short hip, proceed by 
taking the distance C-B on the tongue of 
the square, and the length of the rafter 
per the distance G-D on the body; the 
body gives the cut. How to obtain the 



T II 1*: C A It P 1] X T K R 



61 



bevels 
a later 



for the 
lesson. 



hips will be taken up in 




Fig. 7 

Fig. 7 is a detail giving the joints at 
the end of the ridge to the left. The 




Fig. 8 



dotted lines represent the centers of 
the various members, and it should al- 
ways be remembered that roof framing 



is done on a basis of the center line. 
These joints represent regular hip roof 
framing. Fig. 8 shows the joints to the 
right, which are of a regular-pitch hip 
roof on an irregular plan. The figures 
shown in both details are the same as 
the figures used on the diagram shown 
in Fig. 6. The two details should be 
studied and compared. 

The men who are fired because of 
blunders made In simple matters far 
outnumber those who lose their jobs 
because of blunders made in difficult 
tasks. This is logical reasoning — simple 
things are neglected because they are so 
simple, and then suddenly one comes up 
for solution and we blunder, just be- 
cause it was too simple for considera- 
tion. One needs only to observe new 
workmen going about their tasks to 
discover that more blunders are made 
in simple matters than in difficult ones. 
The reason for this marked difference 
is that when one has a difficult task to 
perform he gives the matter considera- 
tion, but if it is simple he neglects it. 



[Set of Blue Prints and 

•eGBboK 

V "HOW TO READ BLUE PRINTS" 



Oet thl.s Free Trial Lesson. 
Prove how easy to learn 

PLAN READIXG, ESTIMATING. 

etc. in spare time at home by C.T.C. 
Method. Complete set Blue Prints FREE 
if you state age and occupation. 

CHICAGO TECH SCHOOL 
for BUILDERS 

D-105 Tech Building 

2000 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago 16, Illinois 



DOLE 



For over 100 Years 
the choice of 
skilled Carpenters 




No. in 

16 oz. 



Balanced 
Right 

When you swing 
a Maydole Hammer 
day after day you'll 
appreciate its perfect 
balance and tireless action. 

MAYKEW STEEL PRODUCTS, Inc., Shelburne Falls, Mass. 
Sold Through Hardware Dealers 



62 



THE CARPENTER 



Cornerbeading Segments 

It is an easy matter to put corner- 
beads on small segments over openings 
where the radius of the segment is no 
longer for less) than the height of the 
opening. But to put on cornerbeads 
over a wide segment-top opening with- 
out the use of a radius pole, is quite a 
different matter. 

Fig. 1 shows a wide segment-top 
opening with a templet in place for 



and pointer the nailing has to be done 
in order to bring the cornerbead to a 
true segment and at the same time in 
keeping with the surface of the finish 
plastering. To put on the other corner- 
bead, transfer the segment to the other 
bead, transfer the segment templet to 
the other side of the opening and use 
the pointer to gauge the segment and 
with a gauge adapted to the width of the 
finished jamb, bring the bead to the 
plaster line. 




Fig. 1 



Fis. 



<^ 



gauging the cornerbead with a pointer 
shown to the left. The arrows show how 
the pointer is moved to the right for 
gauging the cornerbead while the nail- 
ing is being done. The nailing is started 
with the pointer at A and carried on 
through C and E. To keep the bead in 




Fig. 2 

line with the plaster surface, stretch a 
line from 2 tc a, then from 2 to b, c, d, 
e, f , g, and h, as shown in Fig. 2. This will 
guide the bead to point C. Now stretch 
your line from b to 8, then from b to 7, 
6, 5. 4, 3, 2 and 1. Of course, as you 
ir.oTe from point to point with the line 



Fig. 3 shows two vie— = of the pointer. 
At A we have an edge view and at B 
a side view. 

It should be remembered that the 
segment templet, which Is a guide for 
the pointer, must be made with a radius 
the length of the pointer shorter than 
the radius for the segment to be formed. 
A little study of the drawings might be 
necessary to get the proper application. 



CARPENTERS 



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AMERICAN TECHNICAL SOCIETY Vocational Publishers since 1898 
Dept. G436 Drexel at 58th Street, Chicago 37, ill. 

Tou may ship me the Up-to-Date edition uf your nine 
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Please attach a letter stating your age, occupation, employer's 
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a reference. Men In service, also please give home address. 



FAVORITE OF CARPENTERS 
The Country Over 

Every carpenter who picks up this 
saw praises its perfect balance, its 
carefully designed, easy grip handle 
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steel blade, taper ground four gauges, 
set and filed for fast cutting. Next 
time you need a saw^ ask to see an 
Ohlen-Bishop B-8-S. 

OHLEN-BISHOP MFG. CO. 
906 Ingleside, Columbus, Ohio 



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Ohlen-Bisliop B-8-S Greyhound 



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V. 



ViYTEFACEs 



ST E EL M E AS U R 1 N G 
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KEUFFEL & ESSER CO, 



HOBOKEN, N. J. 




Illustration shows 

Atkins "2000" Silver 

Steel Handsaw 



• "It's because I never owned 
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money's worth — and more — in 
downright good service. I mean 
better cutting, smoother jobs. ..more cutting, with 
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Atkins saw — handsaw, hack saw, coping saw, compass saw, 
circular, and all the rest. You can't beat Silver Steel." 

Send for This Useful Booklet "SAW SENSE" 

lllustratesand describes Atkins Saws, together with numerous hints 
and tips on care and use of saws. Send for your free copy today. 

E. C. ATKINS AND COMPANY 

401 S- Illinois St., Indianapolis 9, Indiana 




/l/ata^ r^iAM^^M^ SUae^ ^e/ SAWS 




You can have a good steady, cash business 
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SEND FOR FREE PLAN — Shows how to 
start in spare time— no canvassing. You can 
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application required. Send coupon to- 
day^no salesman will call. 



FdLEY^i^.fez^ SAW FILEB % 



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^ rULCI mrU. WW. Minneapolis 13, Minn, 
k Send Free Plan on Saw Filing business — no 
k obligation. 

k Name .„_..___. ._.... . 

^Address 



MALLSAWS ''pay off" on ^11 types of concrete form 
construction in faster, accurate cuts . . . square board 
ends . . . that eliminate fins and projections . . . salvaging 
waste lumber for stoppers, spreaders, and bracers . . . 
and doing away with awkward hand sawing. In addi- 
tion, like members can be ganged and squared to size 
at one lime. 

MALLSAWS also speed up cutting of metal, cutting and scoring 
concrete, stone and tile with an abrasive wheel. Available for 
Victory Construction with 8" and 12" blades. Cutting capacities 
21/2" and 41/2". 

Asfe your Deafer and IVrife tor LiteraSure. 

MALL TOOL COMPANY 

7751 South. Chicago Av., Chicago 19, III. 




I Tools 

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Brates 

ng Tools 

ist Drills 

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Chisels — Wood 
Dolly Blocks 
Hammers 
Hand Drills 
Knife 
Levels 
Marking Gauges 



Mitre Boxes 

Planes 

Punches 

Rules 

Saw Sets 

Scrapers 

Screw Drivers 



C STAN LEY] 



Stanley Hammers are 
proving themselves to be 
good tools on production 
lines and battle fronts all 
over the world. 

To meet the endless 
demand they have been 
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Though their endurance 
and efficiency is unchanged, 
the finish has been simpli- 

V, S. Signal Corps Photo ficd tO Speed produCtion. 

Until we have won, give 
the tools you have extra 
care— and buy new ones 
only for essential use. 

STANLEY TOOLS 

111 Elm Street, New Britain, Conn. 



Sledges 
Soldering Irons 

(Electric) 
Spoke Shaves 
Squares 
Vises 



THE TOOL BOX OF THE WORLD 




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In Masonry & Concrete 

hAINE 

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9RILL BITS 

arboloy Tipped ^^ 

•M revolutionary Drill Bits are saving man 
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ey are quieter and last longer. Can be used 
any rotary drill (slow speed). Available in 
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aduated in 1/16 in. sizes) all having a maxi' 
im >/2-in. shank. 

Atir jfovr Norrfwore Dea/er and Wrife for Cafalog. 

THE PAINE CO. 
IT Carroll Ave., Chicago 12, lllinels 

OfllMi In Prinelpal cltUs 



and HANGING DEVICE J 



AUDELS Carpenters 
and Builders Guides 

4vols.$6 




Inside Trade Information On; 



Inside Trad* lRfsrm«ti»n 

for CarpenteraJBoilderfl. Joia- 
era. Bufldinx Mech&nic* ttad 
bII Woodworkera, Theis 
Guldea cira Tou the abort-out 
inatructioDB that you want— 
including new methoda. idaaa. 
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Work. Batter Work and Bat- 
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in and maS tha FKEE COU- 
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How to uss the 8t«el sauare — How to file and eat 
■awa — How to build furniture — How to use a 
mitre box — How to use the chalk line — How to use 
rules and scales — How to make joints — Carpenters 
arithmetic — Solving mensuration problems — Ee- 
timating strengrth of timbers — How to set sirderv 
and sills — How to frame houses and roofs — How to 
estimate costs — How to build houses, bams, ga- 
rases, bungalows, etc. — How to read and draw 
plans — Drawing up specifications — How to ex- 
cavate — How to use settings 12, 13 and 17 on the 
steel sauare — How to build hoists and scaffolds-— 
skylighta — How to build stairs — How to put on 
interior trim — How to hang doors — How to lath — 
lay Soors — How to paint. 




THEO. AUDEL & CO., 49 W. 23rd St.. N«w York City 

Mafl Audala Carpanten and Buildara Ouidaa. 4 Tola, on T daya' free trial. If O.E. 
I will remit SI in 7 daya. and *1 monthly until t6 ia paid. Othanriaa I wiU nturs tham. 
No oblisatioQ uoleaa 1 am aatiafiod. 

iNam* .^ 



AddiMS. 



CAB 




CO^TBaGMT I94«. OVESKEAO COOn C 



Architects and engineers have 
specified The "Ofcr/iead Door' 
in thousands of ^va^ plants 
and peacetime buildings be- 
cause of the long life of this 
quality door and its extreme 
ease and speed of operation. 



The '^'Overhead Door'" \fixh. 
the IVIiracle \^ edge is built as 
a complete unit to fit any 
opening and is used in all 
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TRACKS AND HARDWARE 
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Any "0\TRHEAD I>OOR" 

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BUY WAR BONDS 




WITH THE 

MIRACLE WEDGE 



OVERHEAD DOOR CORPORATION • HARTFORD CITY/ INDIANA, U.S.A. 



FOUNDED 1881 

Official Publication of the 
UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS of AMERICA 




MAY 1944 



Le^rw somthln^ atowf jour War Bonis 



from this fellow / 



The best thing a bulldog does is HANG 
ON! Once he gets hold of something, if s 
mighty hard to make him let go! 

And thaf s the lesson about War Bonds 
you can learn from him. Once you get hold 
of a War Bond, HANG ON TO IT for the full 
ten years of its life. 

There are at least two very good reasons 
why you should do this. One is a patriotic 
reason . . . the other a personal reason. 

You buy War Bonds because you want to 
put some of your money into fighting this 
war. But ... if you don't hang on to those 
War Bonds, your money isn't going to stay 
in the battle. 

Another reason you buy War Bonds is 




because you want to set aside some mone; 
for yoiir family's future and yours. No on 
knows just whaf s going to happen after th 
war. But the man with a fistful of Wa 
Bonds knows hell have a roof over his hea* 
and 3 squares a day no matter what haj 
pens! 

War Bonds pay you back $4 for every $; 
in 10 years. But, if you don't hang on t 
your Bonds for the full ten years, you dcm' 
get the full face value, and . . . you won' 
have that money coming in later on. 

So buy War Bonds . . . then keep their 
You will find that War Bonds are very goo< 
things to have . . . and to hold! 



WAR BONDS to Have and to Hold 

The Treasttry Department acknowledges with 
appreciatiozi-.the publication of this znessage by 

The United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of Americj 



In Their Journal 



THE CARPENTER 








You can fell the difference 
the minute you handle it! 



THOUSANDS of carpenters who 
have used Johns-Manville 
Standard Asbestos Flexboard 
over the past 10 years say it is 
by far the finest asbestos-cement 
board they've handled. It is hy- 
draulically re-pressed to give it a 
smooth, hard surface and remark- 
able strength and flexibility. 



Flexboard nails without crack- 
ing. It is rotproof and fireproof. 
It is unaffected by freezing and 
thawing. Can be used indoors 
or out. Never requires painting 
or other preservative treat- 
ment. See nearest J-M dealer 
or write Johns-Manville, 22 E. 
40th St., New York 16, N. Y. 



JOHNS-MANVILLE 

ASBEST6S FLEXBOARD 

HY D R AU Lit ALLY RE -PRESSED f OR AnD ED STRENGTH 




i^ 



THEY HAVE' 

OUR CHART Bjg 27"x36" blue print chart 
on the steel square. Starting Key, also 
new Radial Saw Chart. Blue print shows 
how to find length of any rafter and 
make its cuts, find any angle in degrees, 
frame any polygon 3 to 16 sides and cut 
its mitres, read board foot and brace 
tables, octagon scale, rafter tables and 
much other valuable information. Can be 
scaled down for model work as well as full 
scale framing. Radial Saw Chart changes pitch- 
es and cuts into degrees and minutes. Every 
carpenter should have these charts. Complete 
set for 50c coin or M.O.— no stamps or checks. 

MASON AND PARRISH, ENGINEERS 

2105-CM, Burdick St. Kalamazoo 18, Mich. 



NOTICE 



The publishers of "The Carpenter" reserve the 
right to reject all adTertislng matter which may 
be, in their judgment, unfair or objectienable to 
the membership of the United Bretherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America. 

All contracts for advertising space In "The Car- 
penter," including those stipulated as non-can- 
cellable, are only accepted subject to the above 
reserved rights of the publishers. 



This is YOUR Publication 
PATRONIZE its ADVERTISERS 



Index of Advertisers 



Carpenters' Tools and Accessories 

Page 
Clerline Mfg. Co., Weedsport, 

N. Y. 63 

Henry Disston & Sons, Inc., Phil- 

delphia. Pa. 64 

Foley Mfg. Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 64 

Heller Bros. Co., Newark, N. J.- 62 

Mall Tool Co., Chicago, 111 63 

F. P. Maxson, Chicago, 111 62 

Mayhew Steel Products, Inc., 

Shelburne Falls, Mass 64 

Millers Falls Co., Greenfield, Mass. 64 
North Bros. Mfg. Co., Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 63 

Paine Company, Chicago, 111 3rd Cover 

Stanley Tools, New Britain, 

Conn. 3rd Cover 

Carpentry Materials 

Johns-Manville Corp., New York, 

N. Y. 1 

Insurance 

United Insurance Co., Elgin, Ill._4th Cover 

Technical Courses and Books 

American Technical Society, Chi- 
cago, 111. 63 

Theo. Audel, New York, N. Y.__3rd Cover 

Builders Topics, Seattle, Wash 61 

Chicago Technical College, Chi- 
cago, 111. 64 

Joseph F. Kupec, Lincoln, Neb 62 

Mason & Parrish, Engineers, 

Kalamazoo, Mich. 1 

H. H. Siegele, Emporia, Kans 60 



A Monthly Journal, Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners 

of America, for all its Members of all its Branches. 

FRANK DUFFY, Editor 

Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, 4, Indiana 



Established in 1881 
Vol. LXIV — No, 5 



INDIANAPOLIS, MAY, 1944 



One Dollar Per Tear 
Ten Cents a Copy 



— Contents 



Seabees Pro-Labor ------ 3 

Brotherhood member home on furlough says anti-union propa- 
ganda is not fooling construction soldiers of the Navy. 

Wood and Post-War Jobs - - - - 6 

Greatly speeded up by the pressure of war, scientific experi- 
mentation in wood is developing many new uses for the post- 
w^ar era. 

WLB's Wage Bracket System - - - 12 

An executive officer of the National War Labor Board explains 
the most controversial procedure yet developed by that body. 

Furuseth the Fighter - -- - - - 18 

Matty Woll pays tribute to Andrew Furuseth, one of the great 
fiffhters of the American labor movement who earned the title 
"The Abraham Lincoln of the The Sea." 

That Makes It Unanimous - - - - 24 

Two leading industrialists corroborate the prediction of our 
General President that television will be No. 1 post-war job 
maker. 

War Is the Enemy ------ 26 

AFL presents world with workable formula for insuring peace 
and prosperity after the last shot is fired. 

OTHER DEPARTMENTS: 

Plane Gossip ---------- 10 

Keep 'Em Smoking -------- 22 

Editorials -•-- 32 

In My Opinion ----...-- 39 

Views on the News -------- -40 

Official Information -------- 50 

In Memorium --------- 55 

Of Interest to tlie Ladies ------ 56 

Craft Problems .- - 59 

Index of Advertisers -------- 1 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of 

Congress, Aug. 24, 1912. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for 

in Section 1103, act of October 3, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918. 



Seabees Pro-Labor 



Anti-union propaganda not fooling 
Construction Soldiers, says veteran 




ESPITE the barrage of anti-union propaganda being fed our armed 
forces overseas, not all of our boys are down on organized labor. 
In fact the "Seabees" are definitely pro-labor reports Brother Fred 
A. Daigneault, member of Local 2519, Seattle, home on furlough after two 
years in the south Pacific as a Shipfitter, First Class in that heroic branch 
of the service. Brother Daigneault is a pioneer member of the United 
Brotherhood in the Northwest lumber industry. He walked the picket line 
in the big strike of 1935. Hence in the service as well as out of it his inter- 
est in unioni-sm has been steadfast. 



Brother Daigneault brings an en- 
couraging message that should be 
of paramount signiRcance to every 
loyal unionist in the United States. 
This jy-year-old "Seabee," who has 
been through 8 Japanese bombing 
raids, says the vast majority of the 
boys in his outfit are definitely 
PRO-UNION! They are not fooled 
by the propaganda through the 
anti-labor press, and want American 
labor to hold the line on the home 
front — so that they can come back 
to decent wages and working condi- 
tions when the war is over. 

This news is. in refreshing con- 
trast to stories about overseas fight- 
ers falling for the anti-labor prop- 
aganda and becoming inflamed 
against the American workers. In 
some segments of the fighting forces 
it is reported that the soldiers actu- 
ally believe the whole United States 
is "strikebound." 

Two Reasons 

Daigneault attributed the level- 
headedness of the "Seabees" to two 
factors : 



"In the first place," he asserted, 
"the average age in the Seabees is 
45, v/hich is considerably higher 
than in other outfits. These men 
learned to think for themselves be- 
fore they entered the service. 

"In the second place," he contin- 
ued, "practically all Seabees are 
skilled workers — carpenters, elec- 
tricians, cat skinners, truckers, 
plumbers, bridge builders and gen- 
eral construction men. They are all 
from highly unionized crafts and 
industries, and practically all of 
them were union men before they 
joined up. They learned their trades 
under union conditions before the 
war. 

"It's a different story with most 
other Navy men, who are younger 
and got their training in the serv- 
ice. Most of them never belonged 
to a union or worked under union 
conditions. They don't know what 
a fight we had to put up to gain 
these conditions, and all they know 
about unions is what they read in 
the newspapers. We never saw a 



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labor paper all the time we were on 
the islands," he added. 

Daig-neault said his outfit left the 
continental United States in April, 
1942, and arrived first in British 
Samoa, where they were 5 months 
building an airport and doing other 
construction work. Then a group of 
120 men, including Daigneault, were 
sent out to a low, flat-surfaced is- 
land called Funafuti, in the Ellis 
group. 

Tarawa Attack Base 

This small company of "Seabees," 
with a few Marines, remained on 
this lonely and comparatively un- 
protected island for 15 months, con- 
structing the base from which Ta- 
rawa and Kwajalein were later at- 
tacked. "(Fi-^nafuti is 780 miles from 
Tarawa.) 

Upon completion of the work on 
Funafuti, this small group of "Sea- 
bees" was brought together with the 
rest of their battalion at the Pago 
naval base in American Samoa. 

Bombed 8 Times! 

During the 15 months the detach- 
ment was working on the Funafuti 
base they engaged the enemy 8 
times. 

"The Japs used to fly over in the 
light of the moon," Daigneault ex- 
plained. "The flrst raid occurred 
April 22, 1943, when there was a full 
moon. Then they left us alone for 
three months. But on July 22, 1943, 
in the full moon, the Japs came 
back; and they continued to pound 
us every month throughout the rest 
of the year. One month there were 
two raids. But despite the. flat sur- 
face of the island, which left us vir- 
tually unprotected, only two Sea- 
bees were killed in those bombings, 
and only four were wounded. There 
were eight raids in all." 



Daigneault himself suffered no 
wounds. 

He said that the Japs who attack- 
ed Funafuti had flown from Tarawa, 
which at that time was in their pos- 
session. 

Out of the 120 seasoned men who 
were assigned to the long and dang- 
erous detail on Funafuti Island, Da- 
igneault said he found "only one 
who was against organized labor, 
and he was cordially disliked by the 
rest of the men." The dissenter had 
formerly engaged in the business of 
procuring strike-breakers, the Sea- 
bee explained, and this put him "in 
bad with the other boys." 

"Of course, during these long 
months on Funafuti," Daigneault 
continued, "we had many discus- 
sions and even arguments about la- 
bor. Some of the boys, even though 
they believed in unions, were mad 
about the reports of strikes they 
read in the newspapers and thought 
the unions ought to do a better job 
of keeping down strikes. 

"But the majority of our crew felt 
the newspaper reports were lopsid- 
ed, and the arguments usually ended 
with most of the boys agreeing that 
the union workers had been lied 
about. The predominant feeling at 
all times was in favor of the 
unions." 

When news of the UMW coal 
strikes reached the island a "big 
argument" developed, said the Sea- 
bee. But before it was over "the 
majority of our men were convinced 
the strikers were justifled." It was 
the general opinion that the coal 
miners had never been paid enough 
wages for the hard and dangerous 
work they had to do, and it was 
recognized their living conditions 
were "lousy." 

"Most of our men agreed," said 
Daigneault, "that it takes two sides 



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to provoke a strike, and that the 
miners had just cause to walk out. 
I don't remember that the boys said 
much about John L. Lewis, but they 
were certainly for the coal miners 
and their union. They felt the min- 
ers had a tough break." 

One bond that kept the Seabees 
tied in closely with the unions was 
the cigarettes they received from la- 
bor unions, he asserted. 

"Most of the cigarettes we got 
were sent by the unions. We got 
more smokes from the unions than 
from any other organizations, and 
they were all good brands — not the 
cheaper kind, like we got from some 
of the service agencies," he added. 

Another interesting- point the Sea- 
bee brought out was the fact that 
the experienced unionists in the bat- 
talion took the lead in establishing 
the equivalent of "union conditions" 
in their construction work. 

"Negotiating Committee" 

Some of the most skilled men act- 
ed as a "negotiating committee," he 
revealed, and "we did our own nego- 
tiating with the gold braid." More 
and better work was turned out un- 
der these "negotiated" conditions. 

"We had it so that we worked in 
three eight-hour shifts, to give us a 
chance to rest, so we could work 
harder and do better work. Of 
course, we went off the three-shift 
basis every time there was a bomb- 



ing raid; but we went back on 
schedule after we got things Bxed 
up." 

The officers admitted, Daigneualt 
declared, that "our union methods" 
were more efficient; and it was a 
recognized fact that the union men 
were the most skilled and the hard- 
est workers. He said that the Sea- 
bees who had learned their trade in 
the organized crafts and industries 
were the "can do" boys — the ones 
with the "know how." They were 
experienced and seasoned men, and 
were respected for their ability and 
"guts." 

Keep Up the Fight! 

When asked about the attitude of 
these men to labor action in the 
United States, Daigneault said: 

"/ am sure the vast majority of 
them will back me up when I say 
that we want the unions to keep up 
the struggle for decent wages and 
working conditions. When we come 
back home we want a chance to 
work under just as good conditions 
— if not better — than we had before 
we left. The conditions should even 
be better, because you union men 
should be gaining new ground while 
we are away. It won't hurt the war 
effort for you to demand and win 
better conditions. Keep it up!" 

He expects to return to active 
duty in the Pacific theatre of war 
v/ithin a short time, he said. 



Why We Are Fighting 

"A new aristocracy of German masters will arise. That aristocracy 
will have slaves assigned to them, recruited from the landless non- 
Germans, and these slaves will be their property." — Walter Darre, Nazi 
Minister of Agriculture. 

"In the new world societ}^ we must all be indeed our brother's keeper 
and act accordingly. Then stronger nations will help the weaker, not 
patronizingly as before but as elder brothers in whom trust can be felt, 
guiding the 3'ounger ones until they are able to stand on their own feet." 
— Madame Chiang Kai-shek. 



America's forests promise to be a gigantic 
pool of post-war jobs, thanks to research 



Wood and Post War Jobs 



By CHAPIIV COLLINS 



BY THE TIME the war ends, those in the forest industries — all the 
way from lumbermen to wood chemists — may scarcely recognize 
their own baby. The conflict has posed so many new problems that 
research, in both private and public laboratories, into the properties of 
wood and how it may be adapted to war needs has reached new propor- 
tions. 

The center of this activity — and actually one of the busiest arsenals of 
our democracy — is the United States Forest Products Laboratory at 
Madison, Wisconsin. As recently as 1932, the Laboratory occupied its 
magnificent, new, five-story building, 



which is beyond comparison with 
any similar laboratory in the world. 
By 1941, 185 scientists and techni- 
cians were on its staff. Now, close 
to 700 labor there, and nearly 99 
per cent of their present activities 
are tied directly with the war. 

Wooden boxes and crating are an 
old stor}', so old, indeed, that their 
functions seemed to have reached 
the ultimate. Yet, the Laboratory 
has discovered possibly more about 
boxing, crating and packaging 
since Pearl Harbor than was learn- 
ed through all the 3'ears of previous 
experience. This was a major head- 
ache with Army Ordnance, con- 
cerned with the difficulties of trans- 
porting machiner}' and munitions of 
war thousands of miles away to the 
battle fronts. Ships were not too 
plentiful, and, for a time, were be- 
coming less so. 

The Laboratory went to work, in 
cooperation, also, with several bu- 
reaus in the \\'ar and Navy Depart- 
ments, with Lend-Lease and the 
War Food Administration. \\\ the 
first 15 months of our participation 



in the war, its research had these 
results : 

Twelve hundred packaging speci- 
fications were developed and 6,000 
packaging inspectors were trained. 
This added up to a saving of 500,000 
tons of shipping space, equivalent 
to one trip each for fifty io,ooo-ton 
cargo vessels. Here was a saving in 
shipping space w^orth at least $50,- 
000,000 . . . more than the total $1,- 
500,000 investment in the Labora- 
tory's plant plus the entire cost of 
running it for 30 years. 

These new specifications involved 
saving a fraction of an inch here, 
an ounce there. But the total saved 
reaches astronomic proportions and 
is one index, at least, of the immen- 
sity of the war effort. Forty-five 
per cent, or 15 billion board feet, of 
our entire 1943 lumber production 
went into boxing, crating and al- 
lied uses, half of it strictly military. 

This is but one problem that 
brought 6,000 representatives of in- 
dustry and government to Madison 
in 1943, seeking technical assistance. 
Because wood is a top ranking crit- 



THE CARPENTER 



ical war material, it has become es- 
sential that available supplies be 
stretched to the limit. 

Possibly in no other field has this 
type of thing" been more crucial 
than in aviation stocks. The per- 
formance of the British Mosquito 
bomber has been a source of pride 
to the pl3^vv'Ood industr}^ but it is 
only the most spectacular of vari- 
ous planes fabricated of wood. The 
sudden expansion of this phase of 
aviation caught the aircraft design- 
ers short of necessary engineering 
data. As a result, the}^ were obliged 
to use more material, with conse- 
quent greater weight, in order to 
make certain that they were allow- 
ing a sufficient margin of safety. 
Studies made by the Laboratory 
have now enabled them to produce 
lighter, faster and stronger planes, 
using substantially less material. 

Based upon research at Madison, 
at least 30 aircraft parts, made of 
laminated paper plastic, are now in 
experimental, or full, production. 
This product is stronger for the 
purpose than any similar material, 
and is equal, weight for weight, to 
aluminum. 

Compregnated wood, of a type 
developed by the Forest Products 
Laboratory, is now being manu- 
factured into propellers for test- 
ing many plane motors. Experi- 
mentally, it is being tried for flight 
propellers. An airplane tail wheel 
has been successfully molded of 
this same material. 

The Laboratory now is studying 
the use of compregnated wood as 
decking for aircraft carriers and 
for other purposes. The American 
product has the advantage of much 
greater stability than an older 
form, developed in Europe. One 
of the dififerences is the fact that the 
impregnation in the European type 
does not tend to penetrate the cell- 



wall structure, while, under the 
American process, resin is formed 
throughout the cell-wall structure. 
Post-war uses, the Laboratory is 
convinced, have great promise. 

Chemical use of wood-waste has 
been a major subject of research. 
For example, the Laboratory has 
operated an experimental wood- 
sugar pilot plant at Marquette, 
Michigan, as result of which a com- 
mercial plant is now definitely pro- 
jected in Oregon. These tests were 
based on the Scholler-Tornesch pro- 
cess, a German development, which 
in extensive industrial application 
in Europe has produced as much 
as 1,000 pounds of wood-sugar from 
a ton of dry sawdust. This may be 
fermented into 50-60 gallons of 
alcohol, leaving a residue of some 
600 pounds of lignin. 

Dr. J. A. Hall, principal bio- 
chemist of the Forest Service, has 
estimated that 150,000,000 gallons of 
such alcohol can be in production in 
the United States within less than 
a year, assuming permission to con- 
struct necessary plants. It would 
require 60,000,000 bushels of wheat 
to produce as much. This, Dr. Hall 
has pointed out, would use only the 
most readily available sources of 
mill waste on the West Coast and 
in the South, actually only a drop 
in the bucket compared with the 
])otential of complete waste utiliza- 
tion. 

Perhaps the most significant 
chemical research at Madison has 
to do with lignin, that fourth of 
wood the complexities of which 
have intrigued scientists for many 
years. In the wood-sugar process 
it is left as a residue. It has high 
efticiency as a fuel, burning with a 
caloric value twice that of wood, 
and ecjual to anthracite. Yet, its 
value as a fuel is considered inci- 
dental. It is besfinning to find a 



THE CARPENTER 



market in other, more highly de- 
veloped, fields. When its properties 
and composition are more fully un- 
derstood, its mass use may write a 
new chapter in the history of forest 
industries. 

A catalogue would be required to 
list all the war activities going on 
at Madison. Some of them are 
closely guarded military secrets, 
but here are some that are public 
property : 

Methods of speeding seasoning 
of lumber, so important today when 
war takes timber right nov/, green 
or otherwise; improvement of 
fire-resistive treatments; laminated 
wood for keels and other ship mem- 
bers; development of a plastic from 
wood-waste now pinch-hitting for 
rubber in storage batteries. 

The Laboratory's advisory ser- 
vices have reached new peaks. 
^Manufacturers, whose supplies of 
metals have been cut off or reduced, 
"want to know how they can use 
wood instead. In many cases, they 
have found they can use it better. 
Farmers want to know how best 
to harvest their woodlands. Ex- 
acting military requirements have 
spurred study of how different spe- 
cies may do bigger and more varied 
jobs. 

But the Laboratory has its sights 
set on the objective for which it 
was founded in 1910. That, briefly, 
is to discover wider and more effi- 
cient uses for wood. To those who 
fear that greater use of forest prod- 
ucts may put too great a burden on 
our timber resources, the Labora- 
tory replies, "Wise timber use is the 
best timber conservation." It points 
out that, with complete use of 
waste, we can consume double the 
amount of wood we now consume, 
without cutting a single additional 
tree. 



vSomething of the nature of the 
Laboratory's activities can be gath- 
ered from its departments. Under 
the direction of Carlile P. \\"\n- 
slow. there are these divisions: 
wood preservation, headed by 
George M. Hunt: timber mechanics, 
L. J. Markwardt : timber physics, 
Rolf Thelen: industrial investiga- 
tions Carroll A". Sweet; pulp and 
paper, Gardner H. Chidester; de- 
rived products. Dr. Earl C. Sher- 
rard ; silvicultural relations, Arthur 
Koehler. This last has to do with 
the relation of growth conditions 
to the properties of wood. 

To carry the chain of authority 
in the other direction, Winslow is 
responsible to George W. Trayer, 
chief of the division of forest prod- 
ucts, who, in turn, is responsible to 
C. L. Forsling, assistant chief of 
the United States Forest Service in 
charge of research. Lyle F. A\'atts 
is chief of the Forest Service. 

With all this increased activity 
in stretching the nation's timber 
supply, the Laboratory has had an 
internal problem of stretching its 
own financial resources. Fortunate- 
ly, its own budget of close to a 
million dollars a year has been sup- 
plemented by special allotments 
from various military and war 
agencies. In fact, such allotments 
now top its regular budget. 

AMth peace, the Laboratory will 
turn its attention to its primary 
task. It will not be a small one. 
]\Iuch has been written and much 
spoken in high places about the 
dangerous depletion of many basic 
resources. The forests remain as a 
resource, which, given proper at- 
tention, is self-replenishing. This 
fact alone can only mean that wood 
in the future must play an even 
greater role than it has in the past. 
It is Madison's job to discover 
how. 



THE C A K r E :\ T E K 



SPECIAL NOTICE 

April 10, 1944. 

To all Local Unions, 

United Brotherhood of Carpenters 

and Joiners oi America. 

Greetings: 

In the recent referendum vote on the proposal to postpone the 
next General Convention of the Brotherhood for the duration, a 
committee was appointed, consisting of George F. Coughlin, 
Daniel Butler, Elroy Hemminghaus, George H. Pattersen and W. 
L. Spenny, and said committee tabulated the returns as received 
and made a report to the undersigned showing that a total of i,og8 
Local Unions sent in returns, representing a total of 71,446 votes 
cast; of which 58,269 votes were cast in favor of postponement, 
and 13,177 votes cast against the proposal. 

Heretofore when a referendum vote has been taken we have al- 
ways published, in pamphlet form, a list of the Local Unions sub- 
mitting returns, giving the number of the Local Unions voting, the 
votes cast for and against, but in this instance, owing to the short- 
age of paper, labor, etc., we are taking this method of notifying 
the Local Unions of the result of the vote. 

Therefore in conformity with the vote as taken the General 
Convention of the Brotherhood that was to have been held in 
ig44 is postponed for the duration of the war, and arrangements 
will be made by the General Executive Board to hold a convention 
as soon as conditions will permit after cessation of hostilities. 



Fraternally yours. 



WLHG General President. 



p 



%:: 



LAHE 




SIP 



XO VOLUXTEERrXG 

As the valiant Red army last month 
beat its way to the threshold of 
the Balkans, Hitler's Wermacht moved 
into HungaiT and took over the coun- 
try. No sooner had the German troops 
moved in than the German radio began 
proclaiming the Hungarian people 
'•'actively cooperating" "with the Axis 
against Russia and the Allies. 

]*.rayhe the Hungarians are ''actively 
cuoi'vy; :;:-r" v.-;:li Hitler, but if they 
are :: :.s kind of like the boy whose 
si.=ter married a fireman. 

'ddy sister married a man in the 
v:Ii£.2e Fire Department," said he to his 
bo}- friend. 

''A volunteer?" queried the friend. 

'•'Xo," replied the brother, "Pa made 
him." 

• • • 







'.a: r.a'se avr 
•k ir ir 

XOXE BUT THE BRAYE 

Then there is the corporal in the 
South Pacific vrko couldn't rate a more 
glamorous :ob than that of company 
cook. However, that didn't stump him. 
After whipping tip an order of scram- 
bled eggs for a h'angry mob of GI Joes, 
he sat down and wrote to his gal friend 
as follows: 

"Dear Maiw: For the last three hours 
shells have been bursting all arotuid 
me at a fui'ious rate." 



WHAT A XAVY 

All over the Pacific Ocean our X'avT 
is plastering bases the Japanese previ- 
ously thought impregnable. Time after 
time American formations have sailed 
under the very noses of the Japanese 
fleet without meeting anything but mo- 
mentary opposition. 

Our Navy certainly has come a long 
way since Pearl Harbor. Bruised and 
battered on that fateful day, the Navy 
started the war more or less in the 
public doghouse, but the job it has done 
since then has been a vindication, and 
then some. Any black marks against 
the Navy at the end of 1941 have long 
since been wiped out. 

A hostess at a Christmas breakfast 
once used the eggnog mixture instead 
of the cream for preparing scrambled 
eggs. After taking a taste, one of the 
guests raised his eyes ecstatically and 
remarked, "What a hen!" 

Which just about describes our feel- 
ings about the American Navy. What a 
Na"^! 

• • • 

S3IELLS A LITTLE OF BULL 

Late last month we heard our first 
political speech of the forthcoming 1944 
presidential election. In a forty-five 
minute harangue, the speaker pointed 
out to us that this country would lose 
the war, break down under inflation, 
and suffer a complete economic collapse 
unless his candidate were sent to the 
White House in November. He also in- 
timated that his candidate at present is 
practically winning the war single-hand- 
ed, keeping the home front going, 
and in his spare moments doing such 
odd chores as staving off inflation, meet- 
ing bond quotas, and solving the man- 
power problem. 

After listening to the bragging for 
half an hour or so, we couldn't help but 
be reminded of the boasting English- 
man — -as reported in a recent issue of 
a London paper. 

"One of my ancestors." said the im- 
modest one, "won a battle against the 



THE CARPENTER 



11 



Normans by clever use of his ar- 
tillery." 

"Don't be silly," retorted his bored 
audience of one, "gunpowder wasn't 
even known at the time of the Nor- 
mans." 

"I am well aware of that fact," said 
the braggart, "and, furthermore, so was 
my ancestor." 

"Then how did he win the battle?" 

"AA^ell, It's like this, he aimed the 
artillery at the Normans, and, the idiots, 
seeing the guns pointed at them, 
thought gunpowder had been invented; 
so they turned tail and ran." 
• • • 
m YOUR AVIFE IS THE EXPERT 
' The percentage battle is still on. The 
Bureau of Labor Statistics is still stick- 
ing by its guns and insisting that living 
costs are up only 24% since the start 
of the war, although the AFL has on 
numerous occasions pointed out short- 
comings in the Bureau's method of com- 
puting price changes. In turn the Bu- 
reau is shooting holes in the AFL's con- 
tention that commodity prices are up 
closer to 44% than 24%. 

As we see it, it's merely a matter of 
figures. Wages are really frozen at 15% 
and whether 24% or 44% is the right 
figure for increased living costs, the 
fact rem^ains that American workers are 
still taking a rooking under the exist- 
ing stabilization program. 

The person who really knows what 
has hapened to living costs is the Amer- 
ican housewife. She may not know an 
index from a statistic, but she remem- 
bers what a dollar would buy in 19 3 9 
and she knows what it won't buy today. 
Consequently she is the real expert, and 
she has long since found out that her 
husband's weekly pay check, despite 
more hours and a higher wage rate, 
doesn't go as far as the 1939 check 
used to. 

Statistics are a funny thing anyhow. 
You can use the same set to prove al- 
most anything. You remember Mark 
Twain's crack about bed being the most 
dangerous place to be because statistics 
show that more people die in bed than 
anywhere else? Well, there's another 
just about as good going the rounds 
now. 

It's about an insurance salesman who 
wrote a iiolicy on a 92-year old man 
because statistics prove that few men 
die after 92. 



NEVER SATISFIED 

Man is certainly a strange animal — 
which may account for the mess the 
world is in. 

A man in Amainllo, Texas, who didn't 
kiss his Avife for five years, drilled holes 
Avith a 38 in a guy who did. 

• • • 

ESPECIALLY WHEN IN AVHITE 

With summer just around the corner, 
Bob Hope's comment on an important 
subject becomes apropos. 

Said the chisel-nosed comedian: "The 
man in the moon isn't half as interesting 
as the lady in the sun." 

* • • 




Gosh! Hilda, think of the red and tlue 
stamps we're losing! 

• • • 

NOT SO CRAZY 

With the ink and perspiration en- 
gendered by form 1040 on the 15th of 
March hardly dry yet, April 15 th smacks 
us right in the face with Declaration of 
Estimated Tax For Calendar Year 19 44. 
Two months hence, or on June 15th, 
another accounting wuth Uncle Sam will 
be due. This income tax business is 
really getting complicated, even though 
we are all ready and willing to pay our 
share for Victory. 

Whether it's true or not. we don't 
know, but they are telling about an in- 
mate of a certain mental hospital who 
was recently being examined by a psy- 
chiatrist. 

"Which would you rather have, $10 
or $10,000?" asked the doctor of the 
patient. 

"I'll take the $10," replied the in- 
mate, "I couldn't pay the taxes on the 
$10,000." 

P.S. They let him out; he Avas cured. 



12 



WLB's WAGE BRACKET SYSTEM 



By GEORGE T. BROWN 



ONE OF THE LEAST clearly understood wage principles under 
which the National War Labor Board functions is that of wage 
"inequities." The very term "inequities" is rather vague; it be- 
came a wage principle as a result of a change in the powers of the Board 
to regulate wages. As will be shown, the elimination of wage inequities 



The "Wage Bracket System" adopted some time ago by the War Labor 
Board is still hazy to many people in the labor movement. Here is an 
analysis written by an expert. Author Brown is serving as executive 
assistant to AFL members on the National War Labor Board. 



has led to the introduction and use of wage "brackets" for all occupations 
except the building trades. 

To understand clearly the bracket system in use by the War Labor 
Board, it is necessary to keep in mind certain developments in the Board's 
over-all wage policy. 1 



Wage regulation was voluntarily 
instituted by the National War La- 
bor Board several months before 
any executive order of the President 
made such action legally necessary. 
The Little Steel formula was de- 
veloped in July, 1942 to assist the 
members of the Board in shaping 
up an intelligent and practical 
method of handling wage disputes. 
Some pattern or wage policy had to 
be adopted in order to be certain 
that when disputes over wages were 
settled in one case, the solution 
would be somewhat similar ,to de- 
cisions in other cases. 

The Four Cornerstones 

The wage pattern had four out- 
standing cornerstones ; 

(7) Elimination of the differences 
of "maladjustments" between the 
averag-e straight time hourlv rates 



paid workers and the increase in the 
cost of living, since January, 1941. 

(2) Elimination of "inequalities" 
between wage rates paid in the same 
wage area for identical or similar 
work. 

(j) Elimination of substandards 
in living conditions by the determi- 
nation of minimum wage rates. 

(4) Elimination of obstacles to 
the more effective prosecution of 
the war by granting wage increases 
which did not fall into the three 
classes above. 

When the National War Labor 
Board was formally recognized as 
the agency which would regulate 
wages by Executive Order No. 9250 
of President Roosevelt on October 
2, 1942, these were the principles 
under which it operated. 

Of the four cornerstones of the 
Board's wage program, the "in- 



THE CARPENTER 



13 



equalities" principle is of immedi- 
ate interest, since from it has come 
the idea of wage rate "inequities" 
and the entire method of "wage 
brackets." 

The foundation of the inequities 
concept is quite clear. When an em- 
ployer paid a machinist 95 cents per 
hour in his plant and the employer 
across the street paid only 85 cents 
per hour for a machinist doing the 
same kind of work, then clearly 
there was "wage rate inequality." 
To eliminate such inequalities and 
to maintain industrial harmony dur- 
ing the war, the War Labor Board 
would — under Executive Order No. 
9250 — grant a 10 cents per hour in- 
crease to equalize the wage rates of 
these men. 

In time, the whole idea of equaliz- 
ing wage rates for similar work was 
attacked, first by employers and 
then by Economic Stabilization Di- 
rector Byrnes. The objection arose 
because, it was alleged, wage rates 
could not be successfully 'regulat- 
ed" by equalization. For example, 
wage rates in Company C would be 
brought up to those in Company B. 
Then rates in Company B would be 
hiked up to wage rates in Company 
A. Immediately, Company C would 
demand another increase in rates — 
equal to the new and higher rate of 
Company B. The outcome, it was 
alleged would be that all rates in an 
area would eventually be raised to 
the highest rate in the labor market. 
In other words, the wage rates 
would be "stabilized" at the high- 
est rate paid. Should the highest 
rate be increased for any reason, 
then all the other rates paid in the 
area would follow and a new cycle 
of increases would be in order. 

The entire idea of eliminating 
wage rate inequities was abolished 
by Executive Order No. 9328 issued 



by President Roosevelt on April 8, 
1943. Led by the labor members, 
the National War Labor Board 
pointed out to the President and 
Director Byrnes that the exclusion 
of any recognition of wage rate in- 
equities was unworkable and arti- 
ficial. As a consequence. Executive 
Order No. 9328 was somewhat re- 
laxed by a modification issued by 
Mr. Byrnes on May 12, 1943. The 
language of this statement on in- 
equalities is as follows: 

"In order to provide clear-cut 
guides and definite limits * * * as 
a basis for permitting the Board 
to make within the existing price 
structure and within existing levels 
of production costs, minimum and 
non-inflationary adjustments which 
are deemed necessary to 'aid in the 
effective prosecution of the war to 
correct gross inequities' within the 
meaning of Section i of the Act of 
October 2, 1942, the Board is auth- 
orized to establish as rapidly as pos- 
sible, b}^ occupational groups and 
labor market areas, the wage-rate 
brackets embracing all those various 
rates found to be sound and tested 
going rates. All the rates within 
these brackets are to be regarded 
as stabilized rates, not subject to 
change save as permitted by the 
Little Steel formula. Except in rare 
and unusual cases in which the crit- 
ical needs of war production require 
the setting of a wage at some point 
above the minimum of the going 
wage bracket, the minimum of the 
going wage rates within the brack- 
ets will be the point beyond which 
the adjustments mentioned above 
may not be made. The careful appli- 
cation of these wage-rate brackets to 
concrete cases within the informed 
judgment of the War Labor Board 
will strengthen and reinforce the 
stabilization line to be held." 



14 



THE CARPENTER 



'Inequalities' Out, 'Inequities' In 

A fact to note is that the word 
"inequalities" is not present in the 
May 12 statement. In its place has 
appeared the term "inequities." But 
the change in the power of the Na- 
tional War Labor Board over wage 
rate inequalities was more than a 
mere substitution of one word for 
another. 

The significance of the use of the 
term 'inequities" for "inequalities" 
does not lie in the meaning of the 
words. The two words are related 
in meaning. The true significance 
of the change in words was that a 
new technique of eliminating difl:'er- 
ences in wage rates for similar work 
was introduced by the National War 
Labor Board upon direction from 
the President. 

No longer were wage rate inequal- 
ities to be eliminated by equalizing 
wages for a particular job in an 
area. A more drastic policy was in- 
troduced. Differences in wage rates 
would now be eliminated by com- 
paring any allegedly "inequitable" 
rate .with the "minimum of sound 
and tested rates" for that particular 
occupation in the labor market area. 

The rate paid a machinist in Com- 
pany C would not be compared to a 
rate paid a machinist in Company 
B. In fact, the former idea of com- 
paring rates between two companies 
was entirely abolished. All com- 
parisons were to be made between 
the rates paid by one company and 
a minimum "sound and tested rate" 
for a particular job in the area. The 
minimum rate was not the rate paid 
by some specific company. Just how 
that minimum rate was determined 
led to the introduction of the wage 
bracket idea or technique. 

The purpose of a wage bracket is 
to determine the sound and tested 
minimum rate paid for a particular 



job in a labor market. Any worker 
whose wage rate is less than that 
minimum may have his rate brought 
up to it. 

The construction of a wage brack- 
et consists of three steps: 

(i) Description of the job for 
which a minimum rate is to be set. 

(2) Description of the labor mar- 
ket or area to which that minimum 
rate is to apply. 

(3) Determination of the mini- 
mum rate. 

Each step will be considered in 
turn. 

Of the three steps mentioned 
above, no one is most important. 
Each step is equally important. Too 
much emphasis cannot be placed 
upon this simple fact. 

The importance of describing ac- 
curately the job for which a mini- 
mum rate is to be determined is self- 
evident. Unless strict attention is 
paid to the job classification, rates 
for different jobs will be jumbled 
together and the whole bracket will 
be meaningless. To use a homely ex- 
ample, if the cook is careless in the 
preparation of an apple dessert, the 
customer may get a fruit salad in- 
stead. More accurately speaking, to 
call a tool and die maker simply a 
"machinist" and to determine a 
minimum rate for "machinists" is a 
hopeless hodge-podge that is cer- 
tain to cause trouble. Every worker 
should be sure that the wage bracket 
set for his job is not a "fruit salad." 
How he can check his wage bracket 
will be indicated later in this article. 

In summary, therefore, an accu- 
rate description of the job is neces- 
sary in the construction of a bracket 
because only then can you be certain 
what rates are to be considered. 

Whose rates shall be included in a 
wage bracket is determined by the 



THE CARPENTER 



15 



"labor market area." By this term 
is meant the usual or customary 
source of the labor supply; in other 
words, the place in which the work- 
ers live who normally are employed 
in the local plants. The labor mar- 
ket area for a large industrial cen- 
ter like Detroit is probably as 
sharply drawn as possible. On the 
other hand, the proper area from 
which to compile rates in a domi- 
nant-industry or few industries 
town is not so simple. 

Just what the "proper" labor mar- 
ket area is becomes a rather elastic 
concept in practice, despite the fact 
that the idea is simple to describe. 

Unless the area is determined 
clearly and fairly, the resulting- 
minimum wage rate may be an un- 
pleasant surprise to the workers in 
the bracket. 

Only after the job has been accu- 
rately described and the area from 
which wage rates are to be drawn 
has been defined does the determi- 
nation of the minimum rate become 
significant. 

The first step in determining the 
minimum rate is the collection of 
"sound and tested rates." The de- 
termination of such rates is a matter 
of judgment. In essence, the "go- 
ing rates" of all the well-established 
employers — both union and non- 
union — in the area are to be in- 
cluded. The sources of this infor- 
mation are existing labor agree- 
ments, the records of employer asso- 
ciations and information collected 
for the National AVar Labor Board 
by the Bureau of Tabor Statistics. 

Using the Wage Data 
A. Rule of Thumb Method 
After the wage rates have been 
collected the next step is to deter- 
mine the minimum of all these 
sound and tested rates. The method 
followed most frequently is to cal- 



culate a weighted average of the 
rates. Then lo per cent is added to 
the average to fix the top of the 
bracket and lo per cent is subtracted 
from the average to indicate the 
minimum rate. The maximum rate 
and the minimum rate are the two 
extremes of the bracket. 

B. Cluster Method 

Another method of reaching the 
upper and lower points of the 
bracket is to select those points by 
determining which high rate and 
which low rate are paid by the larg- 
est number of employers. This pro- 
cedure is called the "cluster meth- 
od" because most employers pay 
these two rates ; hence, most of the 
employes "cluster" around these 
two rates. 

All w^age brackets are subject to 
approval by the tripartite Regional 
Board. Too much stress cannot be 
laid upon the fact that all wage 
brackets are set by Regional Boards 
only. The National Board in Wash- 
ington does not set wage brackets. 
Wage brackets are the responsibil- 
ity of the Regional Boards. 

Since wage brackets are set for 
the key jobs in the major industries 
found in the area under the juris- 
diction of each Regional Board, a 
tremendous responsibility rests up- 
on the labor members of each Re- 
gional Board to contact the repre- 
sentatives of organized labor in 
those industries. Rarely, if ever, can 
the labor members depend solely 
upon their own knowledge of the 
industries to enable them to pass 
upon wage brackets intelligently or 
fairly. In turn, the unions in the 
industries are obligated to contact 
the labor members of the Regional 
Board in order to assist them in 
every way possible. 

In several Regional Boards — Bos- 
ton, New York and Kansas City — ■ 



16 



THE CARPENTER 



public hearings are conducted so 
that both labor and industry repre- 
sentatives may participate directly 
in the setting of the wage brackets. 
In others, public hearings are held 
after the brackets have tentatively 
been set in order to check the re- 
sults. In all instances, brackets are 
considered to be temporary until 
sufficient time has elapsed to enable 
all parties to criticize them. 

The "vvage bracket system of elim- 
inating wage rate inequities is a 
definite part of the wage pattern of 
the National War Labor Board. We 
must live with it. The only logical 
action which can be followed is to 
participate actively in the determi- 
nation of brackets. !Most workers 
have obtained the 15 per cent malad- 
justment allowance; substandard 
rates of pay are not found among 
the skilled workers ; increases "to 
aid in the more effective prosecu- 
tion of the war" are reserved for 
rare and unusual cases. 

From now on — under the present 
wage pattern of the National War 
Labor Board — the only avenue of 
wage adjustment open for all work- 
ers except those engaged in build- 
ing construction will be through 
the wage brackets. 



To participate in wage bracket 
setting, union officials must know 
their representatives on their Re- 
gional Board well. The officials 
should examine carefully the de- 
scriptions of each job for which a 
bracket is to be set when their union 
is affected. Attention must be given 
to the labor market area from which 
wage rates are to be drawn. Finally. 
the representatives of the union 
should submit the sound and tested 
rates which exist in union contracts. 

Above all, the temporary or ten- 
tative brackets for each job per- 
formed by the members of a partic- 
ular union should be checked care- 
fully. 

The responsibility of organized 
labor is clear. The sacrifices in time 
and expenses are part of the heavy 
load which all of organized labor 
must bear as its contribution to the 
war effort. Surely, no further evi- 
dence is needed that organized labor 
is making sacrifices for the welfare 
of the nation than its acceptance of 
these restrictions upon its hereto- 
fore free collectiA'e bargaining pro- 
cesses. Only if all the representa- 
tives of labor put their shoulders to 
the wheel can this load be lightened 
even slisrhtlv. — The Federationist 



War Costs 2,056 Ships to Date 

At least 2,056 warships of all types have been lost in combat in this 
war, according to "Sea Power," magazine of the Navy League of the 
United States. 

The magazine estimates the destruction of 300 German L'-boats, 43 
Japanese, 84 Italian, 20 Lmited States, 65 British and 56 of other allies. 
The L'nited Nations and the Axis each lost six battleships, the Arizona 
being the only ship of this class lost by the L'nited States. 

The Allies have lost 12 aircraft and seaplane carriers and the Japanese 
13. Heavy and light cruisers lost by the United States are set at 47 and 
enemy losses at 48. 

The Allies' great advantage is that they can build ships 
much faster than the Axis. 



17 



Cliemists devise new process for increasing 
hardness of all kinds of woods manyfold 



Maple Hard As Ebony 



DEA^ELOPED by Dr. F. T. Berliner and other Du Pont chemists, a 
new process has been developed whereby soft poplar woods can be 
made as hard as maple and maple can be made as hard as mahog-- 
any. The inventors claim the process to be cheap and simple requiring- 
materials which are always plentiful. The process is now being* devoted 
exclusively to wood going into war uses, but a brilliant post-war field for 
it is visualized. 



The chemists said it will permit 
construction, for example, of doors, 
windows and dresser drawers that 
will not swell and stick even in the 
humid tropics or slirink and become 
loose in the dryest climates. 

The chemicals used — inexpensive 
and plentiful, being derived from 
coal, air and water — transform wood 
under heat and pressure into mate- 
rials as different from the original 
as steel is from iron. Indeed, wood 
can be made strong enough to sub- 
stitute for steel in certain machin- 
ery parts, Dr. Berliner said. 

Cheap and abundant species of 
woods will be enabled to compete 
with scarce and costly varieties 
from afar, he predicted. Soft ma- 
ple, tupelo gum, yellow poplar or 
pine can be made equal to hard 
maple, oak, walnut or mahogany 
for furniture and floors, and the 
naturally hard woods also can be 
improved. 

The chemical treatment imparts 
a "built-in" finish throughout the 
wood, not merely on the surface. 
Mars or scratches on the surface 
finish can be removed by simply 
smoothing and rubbing. Dyes, mix- 
ed with the impregnating chemicals, 
can give light pine, for instance, 



the permanent colors of cherry, 
rosewood or mahogany, or brilliant 
hues of red, green or purple, if de- 
sired. For special purposes, the 
process can give soft wood a "case- 
hardened" shell, leaving the interior 
in a more resilient, flexible state. 

Dr. Berliner believes the treat- 
ment can be used for huge struc- 
tural timbers and for articles as 
small as pipe-stems and musical- 
instrument reeds ; can be applied to 
molded sawdust, shavings and other 
wood wastes and even to a number 
of cellulosic and fiberous products — • 
among them cotton, paper, bamboo 
and leather. 

Technical name of the chemical agent 
that effects these fundamental changes 
in wood is "methylolurea." It's com- 
pounded of "urea" and "dimethylo- 
lurea" — white solids, soluble in water — 
produced from ammonia, carbon dioride 
and methanol, which in turn are syn- 
thetized from coal, air and water. Small 
quantities of the chemicals, for experi- 
mental purposes, are available without 
formal war production board allocation. 

Wood is impregnated with "meth- 
thylolurea" in a water solution, and 
processes of heating and drying then 
form hard, unmeltable resins within the 
lumber. The treatment is rapid and 
comparatively simple. "Industry can 
now create in a few days woods harder 
than ebony, which nature takes a cen- 
tury to grow," Dr. Berliner said. 



18 



Furuseth the Fierhter 



In the turbulent years of its development, the American labor movement pr-- 
duced many truly great humanitarians and leaders. Outstanding among them is 

Andrew Furuseth, the liberty-loving Norwegian seaman who devoted his lifetime t-> 
the emancipation of those workers who go down to the sea in ships. For a quarter 
of a century he endured privation, physical violence, and even imprisonment. The 
maltreatment shrivelled his body but his thirst for freedom burned unquenched in his 
soul. To the end he fought for emancipation of seam'^n. When the grim Reaper a 
few years ago gave him the nod he was still fighting the good fight. 

Recently, on the occasion of the ninetieth anniversary of the birth of Andrew 
Furuseth, Matthew Woll, AFL vice-president, paid tribute to the memory of the 
grandest fighter of them all. Reprinted below are a few excerpts from Wall's tribute 
to the Abraham Lincoln of the sea. 



By MATTHEW WOLI/ 

AFL Vice-President 



ANDREW FURUSETH was born in Romedal, in Norway, and went 
to sea when he was a boy of sixteen. The life of the sailor, he 
felt then, like the ocean itself, surely must be wide and free. But 
this dream of freedom, this dream that he was to perform a man's work 
with honor and dignity, was soon dispelled, shattered. For Andrew Furu- 
seth discovered that seamen were chattels in every fo'c's'le of every mer- 
chant marine in the world. No matter under whose flag- he served, condi- 
tions were the same. Seamen lived in degrading filth and poverty ; their 
souls were completely in the hands 



of the master of the ship. 

On more than one occasion. An- 
drew Furuseth came to me and de- 
scribed the treatment of sailors 
which he himself had witnessed. "I 
saw men abused," he told me, 'beat- 
en into insensibility. I saw sailors 
try to escape from brutal masters 
and from unworthy vessels upon 
which they had been lured to serve, 
I saw them hunted down and thrown 
into the ship's hold in chains. I 
know the bitterness of it all from 
experience." 

In the many years which he had 
served as a seaman, Andrew had 
seen over-insured and undermanned 
ships go down at sea with a tragic 
loss of human life, because the own- 
ers of vessels would not furnish 



skilled seamen to sail them or pro- 
vide lifeboats for passengers or 
crews. But the owners of vessels 
did not know that on their decks, 
in their fo'c's'les, there was a com- 
mon seaman who one day would 
change all that. 

Andrew Furuseth would not sub- 
mit to slavery, and yet at the same 
time, he refused to abandon his 
calling. He started as a naive, un- 
educated sailor, and he soon real- 
ized that if he were to conduct a 
fight of his fellow-seamen, he would 
have to educate himself and pre- 
pare himself for a long, hard 
struggle. 

He studied the history of the sea; 
he studied maritime law; he read 
the histories of great labor organi- 



THE CARPENTER 



19 



zations ; and his duty became mani- 
fest. He was aware of the enormous 
power which the ship-owners of all 
countries wielded. And he knew 
that the maritime laws of all na- 
tions made the owners of vessels 
complete and absolute masters of 
the lives of seamen. The wrong- 
which he had set himself-to uproot 
was firmly entrenched in the law, 
and had become the tradition in the 
maritime life of all civilized na- 
tions. He had arrayed ag'ainst him 
the overwhelming influence of those 
who owned the ships and were 
masters of the sea. And behind 
them was the prejudice of public 
opinion throughout the w^orld re- 
garding the status of a sailor. 

Years later, when Andrew Furu- 
seth was prepared to put his new- 
found knowledge to practical use, 
with shrewed judgment he selected 
the United States as his battle- 
ground. He wisely chose the Pacific 
coast as the place for his initial 
operations. There were fewer ports 
on the Pacific coast, and because of 
this, it might perhaps be easier to 
organize the men. In addition, the 
influence of the international ship- 
ping- combine was less potential 
than it was on the overcrowded 
Atlantic coast. 

For fifteen years on the Pacific 
coast, Andrew Furuseth labored day 
and night to bring his message 
to American seamen. But our sea- 
men, after generations of virtual 
slavery, were hopeless and cynical. 
Yet somehow, a union was started, 
and for years, it struggled along-, 
limited in means, impotent in the 
face of a hostile press. But for 
Furuseth, this was only the begin- 
ning, and all during the early days 
of his struggle, he was convinced, 
almost with a fanatical conviction, 
that ultimately, he would succeed in 



enlisting the support of tolerant, 
decent men and women in the Unit- 
ed States. 

Then he came to A\'ashington and 
haunted the corridors of the Capi- 
tol, the committee rooms of Con- 
g-ress, the lobbies of hotels ; and 
wherever he went, he carried his 
appeal for freedom. lie seemed to 
have a natural gift for knowing 
when to speak and when to remain 
silent. Discouraged, defeated again 
and again, rejected, he continued to 
fight, and like many true leaders of 
men, each defeat served to renew 
his determination. 

Finally, after twenty-one years 
of patient struggle, he lived to see 
his historic fight for seamen's free- 
dom culminate in the signing of the 
seamen's law by President Wilson 
on March 4, 1915. Other men had 
fallen by the wayside, other men 
had lost faith, other men had suc- 
cumbed to the blandishments of the 
enemy — but not Andrew Furuseth. 
Through legislative storms and 
calms, over the sandbars of prej- 
udice, across every treacherous 
shoal, he stood at the helm and 
brought his ship safely into port. 
And on all those long, discouraging 
years, he had so submerged himself 
in the cause — and the cause alone 
— that when victory was finally his, 
few people in America knew of 
the self-efifacing, modest man who 
had won it. 

We are at war now. American 
vessels manned by fine, upstanding 
American seamen, living under de- 
cent conditions and adecjuately paid, 
are carrying the cargoes to our 
fighting fronts where victory soon 
will be achieved. We have new 
heroes today, but I am certain that 
when history has forgotten many 
who now claim public attention, 
particularh^ in maritime affairs, 



20 



THE CARPENTER 



Andrew Furuseth ^^•ill remain as an 
outstanding figure. From his heroic 
struggle, others will gain hope and 
courage and inspiration to fight on 
and on — to better the living condi- 
tions of their fellow-man and to cre- 
ate broader opportunities for free- 
dom. 

For generations to come, Ameri- 
can seamen will look upon Andrew 
Furuseth as the man who remem- 
bered — when all others had forgot- 
ten—the plight of the common 
sailor. 

On January 22, 1938, after a long 
and serious illness, but with the 
knowledge that his great dream 
had been realized, Andrew Furuseth 
died. The funeral services w"ere 
held two days later and were at- 
tended by labor officials, Congress- 
men, members of the government, 
and a host of friends who had 
known the president of the A. F. 
of L.'s seamen's union during all 
his life. Senator Robert ]\I. LaFoI- 
lette, the son of "Fighting Bob," 
delivered the eulogy. At the con- 
clusion of the funeral service, the 



body was cremated and the ashes 
were scattered in the middle of the 
Atlantic ocean in accordance with 
a request by Andy. A friend of the 
champion of American sailors, to 
whom he had expressed this wish, 
interpreted his request in the poem 
printed below: 

When I am dead — 

Then take my ashes far from 
shore 
And scatter them upon the waves 
For I have loved the restless 
sea 
And all the years of life I've 
known 
Were ever lashed by storm and 
swept 
By lightning Bame and driving 
hail; 
And I at close of day would 
sleep 
Where all God's wildest storms of 
earth 
Shall thunder requiems for 

me — 
When I am dead. 



Plywood Cargo Planes Okayed 

The Department of Commerce has finally authorized Henry Kaiser to 
proceed with his proposal to build a giant cargo plane made of plywood. 
The shipbuilding wizard over a year ago advocated the building of at least 
five hundred of these sky-freighters on an assembh" line basis in the na- 
tion's shipyards. However, the idea met with little enthusiasm from gov- 
ernment engineers, although Department of Com.merce spokesmen insist 
that the government has alreadv sunk over a million dollars into the 
developmient of such a plane. After lengthy negotiations with the Army 
and Xavy, A\'PB Chief Donald Nelson took matters into his own hands and 
directed the Department of Commerce to contract for three of the huge 
wooden sky-freighters at a cost of approximately eighteen million dollars. 
Kaiser has joined forces wtih Howard Hughes, West Coast plane 
builder on the new project. Work on the planes is already under ^vay in 
Hughes' West Coast plane factory. The first plane is yet to be completed. 

Details of the plane's construction are still secret. However, plywood 
instead of aluminum and other light metals is supposedly the preponder- 
ent material going into the plane's m.anufacture. 



THE CARPENTER 



21 



DEPARTMENT STORES PLAN 

BILLION DOLLAR PROGRAM 

• • • 

f^ I ^HE department stores of the nation are planning a billion dollar 
I program of expansions, alterations and improvements immedi- 
-^ ately after the war, according to the trade magazine. Department 
Store Economist. Recently the magazine made a survey of the field. 
Questionnaires were sent to all department stores of the country asking 
their plans for the post-war period. The percentage of cjuestionnaire re- 
tvirns was remarkably high. 

In compiling the answers, the magazine found: i) That ninety-three 
per cent of the stores intend to undertake planned amounts of remodel- 
ing, extension or improvement as ' 



as soon as the war is over and build- 
ing restrictions are removed. 2) 
That fifteen per cent intend to re- 
build entirely or open new branches 
which will require new building or 
extensive redesigning of old build- 
ings to suit their particular pur- 
poses. 

' In the remodeling and improve- 
ment, field, the magazine's survey 
found that such things as elevators, 
escalators, lunch counters, fur stor- 
age vaults, soda fountains, etc., are 
going to be added to thousands of 
stores after the present restrictions 
on building are removed. From the 
replies to its questionnaires, the 
magazine estimates that a back-log 
of ■ approximately a billion dollars 
worth of department store new con- 
struction and remodeling is in pros- 
pect for the post-war era. 

Even before the war, many de- 
partment stores were expanding 
their services and broadening their 
fields. At least one large depart- 
ment store in New York City built 
a huge glass-fronted, air-condition- 
ed enclosure on one of its floors to 



take care of livestock. The store now 
sells pigs, goats, cows, horses, and 
sheep. While few, if any, stores 
have indicated a desire to go into 
the livestock business, virtually all 
progressive stores have indicated a 
determination to broaden their serv- 
ices and widen their fields — all 
of which means jobs for building 
tradesmen in the form of remodel- 
ing and nev/ construction. 

The post-war department store 
will offer many new conceptions of 
comfort and ease of shopping. In- 
direct lighting, air-conditioning and 
the host of other new scientific im- 
provements are destined to find 
their way into the post-war depart- 
ment stores that do not already have 
them. AA'liether the prognostications 
of the Department Store Economist 
turn out to be optimistic or pessi- 
mistic remains to be seen. However, 
indications certainly point to the 
fact that improvement and expan- 
sion plans contemplated by depart- 
ment stores for the post-war era 
offer one of the most promising 
job-creating possibilities in the 
buildine: field. 



Buy War Bonds and Stamps! 





BROTHERHOOD SOLICITS COOPERATION OF LOCALS AND DISTRICT COUNCILS 
TO KEEP FIGHTING BOYS HAPPY. 



Donations to the cig^arette fund 
slumped bafily during- the month 
since the last issue of The Carpenter 
Avent to press. Donations made dur- 
ing- the period barely totaled half 
the amount expended by the Broth- 
erhood to provide the usual million 
cigarettes per month to our fighting 
sons and brothers. A million cigar- 
ettes cost around twenty-five hun- 
dred dollars. Contributions for the 
month barely topped twelve hun- 
dred dollars. 

The end of April finds some eight 
thousand dollars in the cigarette 
fund. While this may appear to be 
a sizeable fund, in reality it is none 
too large. So far the Brotherhood 
has been able to send a million cig- 
arettes a month overseas. The mon- 
ies in the funds are sufficient to take 
care of a little more than three 
months at the same rate ; and cer- 
tainly there are no indications that 
the war will be over by that time. 
Any residue in the fund at the ces- 
sation of hostilities will be used to 
provide free smokes for convalesc- 
ing veterans in the various govern- 
ment hospitals. Every cent of the 
fund will be spent for the benefit of 
our boys in the armed services in 
war or in peace. 

While contributions may have 
been slow, letters of appreciation 
from men overseas receiving the 
free cigarettes have not been. From 
many climates and many fronts have 
come letters of appreciation for the 
free cigarettes provided through the 



fund. Typical of them is a letter 
from the overseas headquarters of 
the Royal Canadian Air Force 
thanking Canadian Locals for their 
cigarette contributions. The letter 
says : 

• • • 

January 24th, 1944 

Canadian Local Unions, U. B. 

C. & J. of A. 
Room 10, 1182 St. Lawrence 

St. 
Montreal, P. Q. 

Dear Sirs: 

We have received recently 
at this headquarters a con- 
signment of 10,000 cigarettes, 
a gift from your Brotherhood 
to the personnel of the Royal 
Canadian Air Force overseas. 

May we, on behalf of these 
personnel, offer you our very 
sincere thanks for your kind- 
ness in sending these cigar- 
ettes. It is felt that, if the 
members knew how much 
these cigarettes are appreci- 
ated by the boys over here, 
they would feel amply re- 
warded for their generosity. 
Yours sincerely, 

J. J. Hogan, 
Squadron Leader. 



Compared to the pleasure they 
bring our boys in foreign lands, 
American cigarettes are extremely 



THE CARPENTER 



23 



cheap when purchased in quantity 
lots as the Brotherhood is able to do 
through its cigarette fund. There is 
no better way for those of us on 
the home front to extend greetings 
to the boys on the fighting fronts 
than by saying it with free cigar- 



ettes. It is to be sincerely hoped 
that the Brotherhood will be able 
to keep up its fine record to date in 
the free cigarette field. 

Make all checks for the cigarette 
fund payable to General Treasurer 
S. P. Meadows. 



CIGARETTE FUND 

Contributions received by the General Treasurer's oflace from IMarch 25, to 
April 24th, 1944. 



L. U. City and State Amt. 

8 Philadelphia, Pa... 25 00 
28 Missoula, Mont... 25 00 

62 Chicago, 111 10 00 

72 Rochester, N. Y... 100 00 

182 Cleveland, 10 00 

184 Salt Lake City, 

Utah 50 00 

220 Wallace, Ida 5 00 

246 New York, N. Y.. . 25 00 
272 Chicago Heights, 

111 10 00 

277 Philadelphia, Pa. . 5 00 
359 Philadelphia, Pa. . 25 00 
385 New York, N. Y. . . 25 00 
454 Philadelphia, Pa. . 10 00 
608 New York, N. Y.. . 50 00 
615 Brownsville, Pa... 10 00 

618 Sikeston, Mo 25 00 

657 Sheboygan, Wis... 10 00 

650 Pomeroy, 25 00 

660 Springfield, Ohio . . 10 00 
680 Newton Center, 

Mass 10 00 

682 Franklin, Pa 5 00 

719 Freeport, 111 5 00 

791 Brooklyn, N. Y. . . 25 00 
808 New York, N. Y.. 25 00 



L. U. City and State Amt. 

956 New York, N. Y. . 15 00 

961 Summit, N. J 10 79 

972 Philadelphia, Pa.. 2 00 

1024 Cumberland, Md.. 10 00 

1038 Ellenville, N. Y... 25 00 

1044 Charleroi, Pa. ... 10 00 

1050 Philadelphia, Pa... 5 00 

1108 Cleveland, 5 00 

1186 Alton, 111 5 00 

1188 Mt. Carmel, 111 4 30 

1382 Rochester, Minn... 15 00 

1452 Detroit, Mich. ... 37 00 

1535 Highland, 111 10 00 

1563 Monessen, Pa. ... 10 00 

1649 Richmond Hill, 

N. Y 10 00 

1673 Morganton, N. C. 25 00 

1731 Monongahela, Pa.. 10 00 

1739 Kirkwood, Mo. ... 25 00 

1846 New Orleans, La.. 10 00 

1847 St. Paul, Minn 10 00 

1856 Philadelphia, Pa... 25 00 

1900 Kewanee, Wis. ... 25 00 

1979 Granite City, 111.. 25 00 

2024 Coconut Grove, 

Fla 25 00 

2072 California, Pa. ... 10 00 



L. U. City and State 



Amt. 



2125 
2168 
2250 
2367 
2611 
2664 
2671 
2764 
2829 
2840 
2916 
3084 
3191 



Whitefish, Mont... 
Boston, Mass. . . . 
Red Bank, N. J.. 
Shreveport, La. . . 

Eugene, Ore 

Lewiston, Ida. . . . 
Roseburg, Ore. . . 
Humboldt, Tenn.. . 
Forest Grove, Ore. 

Gaston, Ore 

Kinzua, Ore 

TTrania, La 

Chelsea, Mass. . . 



5 00 
25 00 
10 00 
100 
5 00 
29 65 
15 00 
25 00 
20 00 
25 00 
15 00 
15 00 
10 00 



DISTRICT COUNCILS 

Cuyahoga County D. C, 

Cleveland, Ohio. .100 00 

Grays Harbor D. C, 

Aberdeen, Wash.. 5 00 

Metropolitan D. C, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. ". . . . 25 00 

Monongahela Valley D. 

C, Charleroi, Pa. 10 00 
Rochester and Vicinity 

D. C 50 00 



RECAPITULATION 
April 24, 1944 

Available Funds March 24, 1944 

Receipts 

Total 

Expenditures: 

Axton-Fisher $1,250 00 

Brown & Williamson 1,250 00 



Available Funds April 24, 1944. 



$ 9,819 65 
1,279 74 

$11,099 39 



$ 2,500 00 
$ S,599 39 



CIGARETTES Keep Them Happy 
WAR BONDS Keep Them Winning 



24 



Two leading industrialists substantiate our 
General President's findings on television 



That Makes It Unanimous 



IX A SPEECH before the Building Trade; Department of the AFL 
• in Toronto. Ontario, late in 1942, our General President, William L. 
L. Hutcheson, predicted that television vrould become a tremendous 
factor in providing jobs for building tradesmen and labor in general in 
the post-war world. To back up his prophesies, he quoted liberally from 
a survey of the television field made at his behest by the General Oftice of 
our Brotherhood. 

That the statements made by President Hutcheson at the Toronto meet- 
ing were based on realities and predicated on facts is now substantiated 
bv the findings of two of America's 



leading industrialists. Television as 
an advertising medium has such a 
bright post-war future that more 
than four and a half million jobs 
may result from the demand created 
by television alone, Thomas F. 
Joyce of the Radio Corporation of 
America and Paul Hoffman, presi- 
dent of the Studebaker Company 
and chairman of the Committee for 
Economic development, recently 
predicted after making a thorough 
study of the field. They figure that 
if television increases the demand 
for advertised goods and services 
only as much as ten per cent, ap- 
proximately 4,600,000 new post-war 
jobs will result, since our total 
working force in 1940 comprised 
something like 46,000.000 people. 
Outlining the anticipated post-vrar 
progress of television, the two in- 
dustrialists forecast that within nve 
years of full commercialization of 
television, sight-and-sound trans- 
mitting stations will be in operation 
in key cities of the United States. 
Within ten years, television service 
will be available to 80% of the 
wired homes in the country. x\t that 
time, they prophesied, television 



v.i 1 be a billion dollar industry. 

The prophesies of these two lead- 
ing industrialists tally 100% with 
the predictions made b}' our 
General President some eighteen 

months ago. In part, he said at 
that time : 

'''Forward-looking Americans are 
now scanning the economic horizon 
to discover the nev\- industries which 

vrill buttress American employment 
during the dimcult post-war recon- 
struction period. 

'■'After the first World War, it 
will be recalled, the reconstruction 
crisis v,-as bridged in large part by 
the phenomenal expansion of three 
industries: >:i bui'.cing- construc- 
tion; '2! 5.U: ;— j'. :lrr : l::1 '2' ^^~ 
dio. The e::i 0: :;:e presen: cc-ndict, 
with its demobilizations of the mil- 
lions now in defense industries and 
the armed services, will usher in a 
period of acute unemployment dis- 
tress unless some similar employ- 
ment stimulus is provided. "Where 
are such after-war "grov.-th"' indus- 
tries to be discovered? Heading 
any such list of post-v.-ar possibili- 
ties is television." 



THE CARPENTER 



25 



Visualizing television networks 
as broad and as extensive as present 
day radio networks, President 
riutcheson foresaw years of work 
for thousands of skilled building 
trades mechanics erecting the spe- 
cial types of facilities television 
will have to have. He backed up 
each of his statements with facts 
and figures based on findings con- 
tained in the extensive survey made 
by our Brotherhood. 

Major television stations, he 
said, will each require approximate- 
ly one million dollars worth of spe- 
cial construction in the way of 
studios, camera rooms, reception 
rooms, etc., plus sizeable expendi- 
tures for such additional facilities 
as separate transmitter plants. Even 
Type B television stations will re- 
quire around $200,000 worth of spe- 
cial construction to get into opera- 
tion, President Hutcheson revealed. 
He estimated that about ten Type 
A stations and two hundred and fif- 
teen Type B stations would be got- 
ten under way within a few years 
after the war. He further predicted 



that television networks — similar to 
our present day radio networks — 
Avould spring up soon after televi- 
sion became popularized. These net- 
Avorks are also expected to entail 
millions of dollars worth of new 
specialized construction. 

The predictions of industrialists 
Joyce and Hoffman corroborate and 
substantiate the findings of our 
General President. As stated above, 
these two post-w^ar planners foresee 
the television industry becoming a 
billion dollar industry within ten 
years after the war. How much of 
that billion dollars will actually go 
to building tradesmen in the form 
of wages, no one can accurately es- 
timate. However, as our General 
President pointed out many months 
ago, television is a coming post- 
war industry; an industry that will 
require tremendous amounts of spe- 
cial construction. Needless to say, 
therefore, a substantial percentage 
of the billion dollars will find its 
way into the pockets of carpenters, 
bricklayers, painters, etc. in the 
form of wasres. 



BOSTON MEMBER HAS 6 IN SERVICE 

The Behenna family of Boston, Alass., can rightfully be proud of their 
war record. Six of the Behenna children are now serving in the armed 
forces. E. W. Behenna, the father, is a long-time member of Local 56 of 
Boston. Recently a Boston paper paid Brother Behenna and his patriotic 
family a fine tribute. In part, the paper said: 

" When Technician 5th Grade Alice Behenna, daughter of Mr. 
and Mrs. E. W. Behenna of 39 Marion St. — and the only girl in a 
family with nine boys — joined the Women's Army Corps, in Decem- 
ber, 1942, she was the second in her family to enter the service . . . 
Today there are six in the service . . . She is stationed with the WAG 
detachment at Camp Grant, 111., and recently was awarded the good 
conduct service ribbon . . . Miss Behenna is assigned to the Camp Grant 
classification oflBce as a clerk-typist . . . She is a graduate of Somer- 
ville High School . . . Two of her brothers, Corp. Vincent and Pvt. 
Clayton, are in the anti-tank division of the Army, while two others, 
Seamen 2/c William and Robert, are in the Na\T ... A fifth brother, 
Peter, is in the Seabees attached to a Marine unit." 



26 



WAR is the ENEMY 



AFL presents world with formula for peace, prosperity 



THE American Federation of Labor last month made public its_post- 
war program — a program designed to banish war forever, to pro- 
mote world prosperity and social justice, to perpetuate the Four 
Freedoms and to safeguard American democracy by post-war measures 
fair to every citizen. 

The detailed and specific report, drafted by the AFL Post-AA'ar Com- 
mittee and approved by a special committee of the Executi'.'e C'''uncil. 
was released on the eve of a dra- 



matic Xational Post-War Forum 
tmder AFL auspices with leaders in 
the Government, industry, agricul- 
ture and education participating. 

"The American Federation of La- 
bor believes that Avar among the na- 
tions waged by modern engines of 
death and destruction is the su- 
preme enemy of the well-being of 
the common people of the world. 
A\'e recognize that our ov.-n move- 
ment of organized labor — a move- 
ment which is the product of the 
long struggle of workers for eco- 
nomic and social democracy — has no 
future or promise in a world living 
under the threat and burden of the 
war-svstem. We consider that the 



means are necessary — including po- 
licing and the use of armed forces 
— to prevent the outbreak of future 
wars, the report held. 

The program for the establish- 
ment of lasting peace need not in- 
volve the creation of a world gov- 
ernment, the report said; but re- 
c[uires the acceptance of definite ob- 
ligations b}' the nations of the world 
to work together under agreed con- 
ditions and within limits set by 
them. The basic principles should 
be those outlined in the Atlantic 
Charter and other pronouncements 
of the United Nations, the report 
recommended. 

Specific steps should now be taken 



elimination of v,-ar as an instrument to insure the speedy realization of 



plans for the prevention of war as 
set forth in the Four-Xation decla- 
ration and the Connally Resolution 
on post-war policy adopted by the 
L". S. Senate, the AFL urged. The 



of national policy is a condition es- 
sential to the perpetuation and the 

further development of our demo- 
cratic way of life." 

Lasting peace must rest on social 
justice accorded equally to all peo- ^^Po^^^ recommended: 

I — The creation of a U^nited Na- 
tions Commission, either to estab- 
lish a general international organi- 
zation of nations or to serve tem- 



ples, the report emphasized. The 
only safety from war, it continued, 
is through the international organ- 
ization of peace. A'^ictory in this war 
is not enough. The United Nations 
must be prepared to use whatever 



porarily in that capacity. 

2 — Transformation of the war- 



THE CARPENTER 



27 



time alliances of the United Nations 
into a provisional organization for 
peace. This recommendation recog- 
nizes that while the initial organi- 
zation for world policing will grow 
out of the military situation at the 
end of the war and will be the tem- 
porary responsibility of the great 
powers of the United Nations, the 
program for international security 
in the future will have to be work- 
ed out by the United Nations as a 
whole. This temporary interna- 
tional organization will supervise 
immediate territorial understand- 
ings to prevent unilateral action or 
any other steps not in accord with 
the Atlantic Charter. 

For the permanent administration 
of international j'ustice, the report 
urged : 

I — A Permanent Court of Inter- 
national Justice as the supreme ju- 
dicial tribunal of the world organ- 
ization for peace by arbitration and 
conciliation of economic as well as 
political disputes. 

2 — For the safeguarding of hu- 
man rights, a permanent Interna- 
tional Institute to study and report 
on development of procedures to 



assure just treatment to all groups 
and individuals. 

To provide international eco- 
nomic and social welfare the AFL 
recommended : 

I — Support of the United Nations 
Relief and Rehabilitation Adminis- 
tration to help the victims of this 
war to become self-supporting once 
more. 

2 — Enlargement and strengthen- 
ing of the International Labor Or- 
ganization. 

3 — Creation of a Food and Agri- 
culture Administration to deal edu- 
cation, child welfare, prevention of 
epidemics, traffic in drugs and traf- 
fic for immoral purposes. 

4 — Establishment of agencies in 
the field of commerce and industry 
to deal with stabilization of for- 
eign exchange; communications and 
transport on land, sea and in the air; 
international cartels; fiscal policies 
and foreign investments ; access to 
natural resources and raw materials. 

The final portion of the report 
dealt with domestic action to pro- 
vide full production and jobs for 
all in America after the war. 



War Production Reshuffles Population 

Almost five million persons have shifted from one community within 
the United States to another since the war began, OWI reports in a study 
of wartime migration. 

Most of the persons changing localities were workers who moved from 
areas where jobs were not available to industrial centers where they could 
obtain war jobs. 

According to OWI, at least 4,857,885 persons migrated from one com- 
munity to another between April i, 1940, and November i, 1943. During 
this same period, approximately 9,500,000 men and 138,000 women entered 
the armed forces, there were 9,604,000 births and 4,993,000 deaths. Thus, 
the civilian population decreased from 131,329,104 to 127,307,884, a decline 
of approximately four million or slightly more than three per cent, even 
though the number of births exceeded the number of deaths sufficiently to 
make up half of the losses to the armed forces. 



28 



THE C A R P E X T E R 



THE FIGHTING HOPKINS 




THE CAUPEXTEK 29 



SEVEN SONS IN SERVICE 



A service flag bearing seven stars — one of the few in either Canada or 
the United States — hangs from a window in the F. H. Hopkins family- 
residence at 2017 Osier Street, Regina, Saskatchewan. Seven sons from 
the Hopkins family have donned their country's uniform during the 
present conflict; Gordon, Joe, Stuart, and Stanley serving in the Canadian 
navy, and William, Harold, and James serving in the army. 

F. H. Hopkins, the justly proud father, is now and for a number of 
years has been a member of Local Union No. 1867, Regina, Saskatchevv^an. 
At present he is serving as vice-president of his local. 

The contribution being made to victory by the Hopkins family has 
earned Brother and Mrs. Hopkins the commendation of the entire Cana- 
dian labor movement; to which is added the congratulations of our Broth- 
erhood. 

Harold, the oldest of the Hopkins boys to answer his country's call, is 
29. Stuart, the youngest, is 19. The boys started enlisting in 1939, and 
ended in 1943, when the youngest joined the naval services. Two of these 
fighters, Bill and Jim, are not now on active service. They have served 
their terms and have been honorably discharged. 

Mr. and Mrs. Hopkins have been residents of Regina for upwards of 
2,2, years, and their seven sons were born in the city. 

Sgt. Frederick Harold Hopkins the eldest son, enlisted in December, 
1939, and is now in the R.C.A.S.C. He went overseas with the first divi- 
sion. He returned from overseas in July, 1943, and went back to England 
last month. He is married and has one daughter. 

William John Hopkins enlisted in the R.C.A.F. in March, 1940. He 
trained at Winnipeg and St. Thomas, and after a year and half of service 
was discharged as medically unfit. He is married, has one daughter, and 
lives in Toronto. 

OS. Walter Joseph Hopkins, 26, is now on R.C.N.V.R. service on the 
Atlantic, is married, and his wife resides in Regina. 

Leading Steward Stanley Edward Hopkins, 25, enlisted in the R.C.N.- 
V.R. in September, 1940. He has been on active service since. He is mar- 
ried and his wife resides in Regina. 

OS. Gordon Lester Hopkins is 22, and enlisted in the R.C.N.V.R. in 
January, 1942. Since that time he has been on navy duty in Canada. He is 
now at the west coast. His wife and infant son reside in Regina. 

James Robert Hopkins, 21, served before the war with the Regina 
Rifles, and joined the army in 1940. After one year's service he was dis- 
charged as medically unfit, and is now working at a shipyard at the Pacific 
coast. 

OS. Stuart "Colonel" Hopkins, 19, joined the R.C.N.V.R. in April, 1943. 
He is now on service at the west coast, having gone there last Jvily. 



30 



The Explosive Rivet 

Another not-so-secret weapon sealing the Axis doom 

• 

AMONG the new wrinkles in production techniques developed under 
the stress of war, none is contributing more to victory than the 
explosive rivet. A Liberator bomber contains something like three 
hundred thousand individual rivets. Up until recently each rivet was fixed 
in place by the time honored method. One worker held the riveting ham- 
mer to the head of the rivet while another worker held the bucking bar 
against the shank. The action of the hammer flattened the shank of the 
rivet against the bucking bar. 

When the Japs struck at Pearl Harbor, this method was pretty gen- 
erally in use in our airplane factories. However, it soon became apparent 
that with hundreds of thousands of airplanes needed for victory, and each 
plane containing hundreds of thou- 
sands of rivets, a faster method 
would have to be developed. Atten- 
tion turned to the explosive rivet. 
Originally these rivets were a for- 
eign invention. However, they still 
had some nasty bugs in them that 
made them none too satisfactory. 
So American engineers took on the 
job of ironing out the bugs. They 
did just that and today all of the 
major plane plants in the nation 
are building planes faster, safer, and 
more economically because of the 
explosive rivet. 

The explosive rivet is just what 
the name implies. It is hollow in 
the shank end. A small charge of 
explosives is contained in this open- 
ing. The rivet is inserted in the hole 
and the explosive is touched off. 
This blows out the shank end of 
the rivet making a barrel-shaped 
swelling fully as effective in hold- 
ing as the old-time closure obtained 
by the bucking bar. 

Before the American engineers 
improved the explosive rivet, it was 
hollowed out only part way up to 



the head. The result was that ex- 
plosions did not always make a 
satisfactory closing. American ge- 
nius hollowed out the rivet clear up 
to the head. The explosive charge 
was finely gauged. The result was 
that closures made by explosions 
can now be controlled minutely. In 
fact the explosive charge has been 
so finely gauged that its expansion 
effect can be controlled to within 
limits of twenty thousandths of an 
inch : 

Heretofore, the utmost precision 
was required in drilling holes for 
explosive rivets. It was important 
to have each rivet fit its hole most 
exactly, so that when the charge ex- 
ploded the rivet would be securely 
locked in place by its barrel-shaped 
closing head. 

The new rivet, with its charge ex- 
tended far up into the body, ex- 
pands the shank throughout its 
length, not just at the end where 
the blind head is formed. 

Now riveters need not be so par- 
ticular in drilling holes to needle- 



THE CARPENTER 



31 



point accuracy; for if a hole is 
slightly oversize the ex])lodin,s;- 
char_c;"e will spread the entire shank 
to fill it and insure an all-over, 
metal to metal, tight joint ! 

Tests show that these new rivets, 
even in holes 0.003 o^ '^^^ inch over- 
size, give universally tight joints. 

Riveters can insert and detonate 
the new rivets more rapidly, and 
obtain uniform good results. Under 
the old bucking bar system, a team 
of ri\'eters under normal conditions 
can set but from two to four rivets 
in a minute. Under the same condi- 
tions, a lone riveter — usually a wo- 
man these days — can set explosive 
rivets at the rate of fifteen to tvv-en- 
ty per minute. From this it can 
readily be seen what the explosive 
rivet has meant in man-hour savings 
to the airplane industry during the 
present period of manpower short- 
ages. 

However, the greatest advantage 
of the explosive rivet is its ability 
to handle hard-to-get-at places. 
Many enclosures in a plane are ex- 
tremely small. Until the explosive 
rivet was perfected many plane 
plants hired midgets as buckers to 
crawl into the smaller apertures that 
had to be riveted by the bucking 
bar method. In cramped quarters, 
bucking Vs-as slow and tedious work. 
Now all a riveter has to do is insert 
an explosive rivet, apply the gun, 
and the job is done without anyone 
having to crawl inside. 

Instead of being a hammer, the 



riveting gun used with explosive 
rivets is a heat conducting device. 
The gun transmits heat to the shank 
end of the rivet. This sets off the 
charge which blows the edges of the 
rivet outward in a barrel shaped 
bulge. The charge used in the rivets 
is non-toxic and safe. Neither shock, 
nor friction can detonate it. Tests 
show that the rivets cannot be det- 
onated^ en masse. Usually rivets are 
kept in refrigeration until needed. 
A riverter is handed a cellophane- 
wrapped package of rivets by a de- 
livery boy who pedals around the 
plants in a variation of the refriger- 
ated ice-cream wagon. The rivets 
remain usable for about an hour 
and a half. Those that are not used 
within that length of time are re- 
turned to refrigeration and repro- 
cessed for later use. 

At present, explosive rivets are 
used mostly in airplane construc- 
tion, but engineers see a greater 
post-war field for them in the manu- 
facture of refrigerators, wash-ma- 
chines, and other peacetime goods. 
Today the explosive rivet is helping 
turn out bombers and fighters at an 
undreamed of rate to spoil the 
dreams of Adolph and Hirohito. 
After the war it will make peace- 
time goods faster and cheaper. But 
like all labor-saving devices, it will 
also eliminate jobs and make more 
necessary than ever the planning of 
a bold new post-war world based on 
new conceptions of American capac- 
ity to produce and consume. 



No Unemployment In Near Future 

Although there will be considerable adjustment in production schedules 
during the coming summer, there will be little or no unemployment for 
some time to come, the War Manpower Commission predicts. Cutbacks in 
certain lines of munitions mav require some workers to change jobs but 
increases in the demand for other lines of munitions will keep the work- 
ing force about at its present strength. 



Editorial 




They Already Have the Proper Tool 

Amid a welter of hig-h priced publicity and full page advertisements, 
there recently blossomed forth in New York an organization known as the 
"White Collar League." Avmved purpose of the "league" is to unite into 
a strong pressure group the so-called white collar workers of the nation. 
In a full page advertisement in the New York Herald-Tribune, the organ- 
ization set forth its aims and objectives as follows: 

"As you well know, leading government ofBcials admit 
that the economic position of our "White Collar" workers is 
desperate because we have no organization to speak for us — 
in other words, our representatives tell us (meaning political 
representatives. Congressmen, etc.) qur only hope is to get 
together so that we can exert pressure upon those who are our 
representatives — it is a dangerous state of affairs when we, 
the majority of the nation's workers — 2£ to 30 million little 
business men, doctors, dentists, secretaries, lawyers, account- 
ants et al, cannot get anyone in power to fight in our behalf 
because we are unorganized. The small minorities such as 
labor, capital and agriculture have no difficulty — they get 
what they want — we are told if we unite we will get what we 
want. We do not invite those who want a labor union. We al- 
ready have tentative plans to accomplish our purpose. Some 
of the best brains in the country are waiting for your re- 
action to this appeal so that they may proceed to complete 
these plans. Our plans call for an organization of 3,000,000 
members before the Democratic and Republican conventions 
meet in June." 

That this appeal to the white collar worker is glibly phrased and 
neatly timed goes without saying. However, we doubt if it fools very 
many people. There is about the whole proposition too strong an odor 
of limburger. 

In the first place, the publicity and ads that launched the organization 
cost thousands of dollars. Where did the money come from? From the 
white collar workers whom the publicity describes as starving? Possible, 
but highly improbable. The publicity itself gives the tip off. It says 
"some of the best brains in the country" are interested. No doubt. No 
doubt, also, that they are probably the same brains that have been long 
engaged in a concerted effort to smash organized labor and wipe out the 
social gains of the past twenty years. A New York labor paper sent a 



I 



THE CARPENTER 33 

reporter to the headquarters of the League incognito to seek mcmljersliip. 
The reporter got nothing but evasive replies from the director. Me re- 
fused to divulge the names of the sponsors or the source of money being 
spent. However, the reporter relates she did hear a woman come in and 
pledge $5,000 to the organization— certainly no mean contribution for a 
"white collar" worker who is supposedly being driven to starvation by 
economic gains being made by organized labor for its members. 

Space does not permit pointing out all the inconsistencies in the 
League's statements. Suffice it to say, however, that the League does not 
tell the truth when it says all white collar workers are without protection. 
The League classes as white collar workers doctors and dentists. Is there 
a union in the nation with a tighter closed shop arrangement than the AMA 
and the ADA. These medical associations give their members iron-clad 
protection by setting up rules and regulations (ethics) which none can 
evade with impunity. The same holds true of lawyers and their bar asso- 
ciations. - 

Teachers, accountants, secretaries, etc., are other types of workers the 
League is supposedly set up to "protect." Why? Thousands of teachers 
belong to the American Federation of Teachers. Through their union 
they have made steady progress. They could make even greater progress 
by organizing solidly. Accountants and secretaries are eligible to join the 
Office Workers. Thousands of them already have. Through their union 
they steadily improved their lot. The American Federation of Labor has 
fought as hard for the teachers, accountants, and secretaries as it has for. 
the carpenters, boilermakers, or bricklayers. 

About the only thing in the League platform we can agree with is that 
many white collar workers need protection. The protection is theirs for 
the asking. All they have to do is join their respective unions. The in- 
dustrial workers forged ahead faster because the\' found out the value of 
unionism years ago. When the white collar workers learn the same lesson 

they will soon catch up. 

• 

Diplomacy and Sore Toes 

In a world divided into a large number of independent States, it is in- 
evitable that there should be some sore toes. On many issues it is almost 
impossible for any nation, and particularly for any great nation, to take 
any action at all without stepping on other nations' feet. 

To name only one example, no country, great or small, can raise its 
taritTs without hurting other nations, perhaps severely. 

This fact is bad enough in peace. But in war it is even worse. In war 
it can be catastrophic. It is threatening to prove catastrophic now. 

The plain truth is that the "United Nations" were never less united 
than they are today. 

The British are disturbed and annoyed by our deal to build an oil pipe- 
line in Arabia, which we apparently made without consulting them. They 
are annoyed at our attitude toward General Charles de Gaulle and his 



34 THECARPENTER 

French National Committee in Algiers ; they want to recognize it as the 
provisional government of France; we don't. 

There are reports that they even resented our intervention in the Irish 
cjuestion. 

Both we and the British are annoyed and worried by Russia's abrupt 
recognition of the Badoglio regime in Italy, and Secretary Hull has said 
bluntly that Russia acted without first consulting or even notifying us. 

Russia is irritated at our failure to invade western Europe, and is 
beginning to prod us about it again. 

We are deeply alarmed by Russia's insistence on going her own way 
in eastern Europe, her refusal to accept our mediation in her dispute with 
Poland: 

And so it goes. And as it goes the dififerences become more numerous, 
the points of irritation multiply, the gulf between the Allies widens. 

If this is so when we are all fighting for very survival against a power- 
ful, resourceful and totally unscrupulous enemy, how can we hope to hold 
together when that enemy has been overcome, and the common menace has 
disappeared? 

The answer is, we cannot. 

Unless we take an irrevocable step toward unity now. 

Unless we now, immediately, set up a United Nations Council, to act 
in the name of the United Nations in military and diplomatic matters, just 
as Washington acts in the name of the forty-eight states of our own Union. 

Then each question would be settled in council before action had been 
taken, and the number of sore toes in the vv^orld would begin to decline. 
Generally a permanent world government might evolve, much as our own 
Federal government evolved out of the earlier Confederation. 

But if we do not create a United Nations Council, the number of sore 
toes will increase, tempers will mount, and sooner or later there will be 
open breaks and new alliances— if not before the war ends, certainly not 
long afterward. For in the modern world no nation can take the time to 
consult all other nations before acting, and if it takes action without con- 
sulting them there is bound to be trouble. 

Sore toes and mounting tempers; or a United Nations Council? Which 
is it to be? 



Break the Black Market in Workers 

Many underhanded and despicable schemes for milking personal for- 
tunes out of the war have been uncovered by alert government officials. 
A few firms have been convicted for palming ofif-substandard equipment on 
our allies. Other firms have been exposed as gross profiteers. However, 
the most vicious racket uncovered yet is the "Black Market" in human 
beinsrs. 



THE CARPENTER 35 

Certain individuals and groups of individuals — hiding behind fancy 
sounding names — traffic in workers much as slave dealers did in negroes 
a hundred years ago. They corner the available supply of skilled workers 
in a given area, then they hire them out to firms in that area at several 
times the union scale. They pay the men the union scale and pocket the 
rest for themselves. 

A system of this sort developed in this country late in the last century 
when milliohs of immigrants were flocking to America from all over 
Europe. When these immigrants arrived here they were inevitably broke. 
They were unable to speak the language and helpless as little children. 
Wise and unscrupulous countrymen of theirs who knew their way around 
America were quick to take advantage of the situation. They hired out 
immigrants in droves to manpower hungry firms. Instead of going to the 
workers, the checks were paid to the hiring agent. He kept what he 
wanted out of them and gave the rest to the workers. Sometimes the work- 
ers received only enough to keep body and soul together; the hiring 
agents or padrones kept the rest. However, the system was abolished 
long ago when the facts became known and public indignation became 
aroused. 

With the manpower situation what it is today, the practice is being 
revived. The setting may be a little different, but the game is just about 
the same. Instead of ignorant immigrants being the pawns, highly skilled 
workers are today being used as the fall guys. Recent investigations have 
uncovered some startling facts. One operator, employing only a steno- 
grapher has been cleaning up better than $50,000 per month through the 
racket. Several firms have been piling up more than a million dollars 
yearly. Instances have been uncovered where operators have charged as 
high as $4.00 per hour for the services of a skilled worker whom they 
were paying $1.50 per hour. 

There are, of course, some legitimate service companies that hire out 
skilled specialists on an honest basis. They charge a nominal percentage 
above the actual scale paid the worker. With this there is no quarrel. But 
hundreds of operators have developed and revived a version of the padrone 
system. They have cornered various types of skilled workers and con- 
tracted them out at fabulous rates of pay, keeping everything for them- 
selves but the union scale paid the workers. 

This practice has cost taxpayers untold millions of dollars. It has 
served as the milking machine by which a new crop of war millionaires 
have sought to milk Uncle Sam and the war effort. 

As this is being written, the Army, Navy, War Labor Board, Manpower 
Commission and Maritime Commission are mapping out a campaign to 
break up the racket once and for all. Let us hope that their efforts are 
successful for not only does the racket cheat the taxpayers and make 
dupes of the men, but also it robs legitimate war contractors of vitally 
necessary manpower which is diverted by the operators to less legitimate 
contractors who are willing to pay the price. 



Buy War Bonds and Stamps! 




I ii i I Siil Y and P W B L I M S 




Sustained Yield 

IFFERENCES of opinion are what make horse races interesting. 
That goes for chats about sustained yield too. It is a fine term, it 
stands for something that Vv^e people who make a living from for-' 

est products can't do without, but just what does it mean? Any one who 

tries to answer that one is sticking his neck out. 

A farmer practices sustained yield. He plants a crop and harvests what- 
ever grows out of the ground. He can't possibly harvest any more than 
that. If the does not fertilize his farm and the soil runs down and his 
crops become small, he can still say 



that he is practicising sustained 
yield, in a way. He can claim that 
growth and the amount harvested 
each year are in balance, and that is 
the book definition. 

It's Zero 

In a number of West Coast coun- 
ties, where the timber has been cut 
and all the logging operations have 
moved on, growth is way ahead of 
cutting — but it seldom occurs to 
anybody to say that these counties 
are practicing sustained yield. It has 
been tried, at that; but it is like 
claiming that sustained yield is the 
practice on the Sahara desert. Sure, 
growth exactly balances consump- 
tion there. They both equal zero. 
That is not what we have in mind 
when we start talking about sus- 
tained yield. 

Clatsop County, in Oregon, is 
pretty well cut out and feels rather 
low about it, but business in the up- 
per Willamette is booming. Suppos- 



ing that growth and cutting in Clat- 
sop and Lane Counties just balance. 
They probably do r^ot, but just sup- 
pose that they do. That would not 
help Clatsop County much, nor re- 
store the 63 per cent decrease in the 
tax base that has taken place during 
the past 20 years because the timber 
has been cut and the industry has 
moved on. That is not what the lads 
are thinking about when they say 
sustained yield. 

Hanged For Cutting Tree 

These two words were borrowed 
from Europe. At one time or an- 
other over there, they seem to have 
gotten themselves into the same 
kind of jam that we are heading 
for, and were obliged to get quite 
tough about it. Gruesome tales used 
to be told about how people were 
hanged or shot or something for 
cutting a tree without a permit, or 
not planting a tree every time they 
cut one. . 



THE CARPEXTER 



37 



Much of their forest was badly 
run clown. The demand for wood 
was so keen that they could not 
v.-ait for a tree to grow up. Both 
private cntcr])rise and the custom- 
ers learned the hard way that they 
must hold back on the cuttino^; and 
more important ,must build up the 
])roduction. The science of forestry 
g"Ot its start there. It was the only 
out. Sustained yield, with that kind 
of background, means forest culture. 
It means raising- all the timber you 
want to use, rather than holding 
back consumption. Enough produc- 
tion to liave a plenty is the idea. 

Old, Old Problem 

And wdio is to get this plenty? 
The old timers had the same trou- 
bles about that that we have. If 
transportation were good ; that is, if 
the woods were on a drivable 
stream, they could ship the logs or 
lumber to the big town down the 
valley. AMien there was no water 
transportation and no big towns 
were within oxcart haul, forest pro- 
ducts were cheap locally and the 
land owners raised something else. 
In general, the residents could and 
did use the low grade stuff. The 
high quality timber that would 
stand shipping, went to town. 

On account of overcutting and 
general mismanagement, wood pro- 
ducts were scarce; that made a sell- 
er's market. The forest owners 
could and no doubt did, charge 
enough to cover the cost of raising 
and manufacturing their product. 
That made it easy and reasonable 
to keep their land in good shape. 

Customers Interested 

The customers were interested 
too. If the owner mismanaged his 
land and failed to keep it produc- 
ing, they were the ones who suf- 
fered from the wood shortage. They 



had ways — jjublic and private — to 
make him uncomfortable and to 
bring him into line. That was just 
as true for public forests as for 
those in private ownership. If the 
administration cut more than was 
being replaced by growth, as a 
means of raising money for current 
ex])enses, or tried to cut down the 
cost of government by neglecting 
the w^ood lot, it was rated with any 
other municipal corruption or in- 
efficiency. 

Sustained yield management 
comes down hard on the produc- 
tion of wood. Keeping the cut in 
balance is indispensable, but it is 
a minor part of the routine. To quit 
cutting is easy — anyone can do that. 
To raise a crop of timber to matur- 
ity is something else and takes a lot 
of doing — and that is where the U. 
S. A. is rather short. 

May Look the Same 

Sunday night when the fire is out, 
it may be hard to tell by looking, at 
a sawmill how much it is worth. It 
may be all set to start sawing on 
Monday morning, with a 20-year 
run ahead, or may be it is cut out 
and waiting for the junk man. For- 
est land is much like that. Land un- 
der management, fully stocked, and 
part of a going business, may look 
much like land that is four years 
tax delinquent and on its way to 
county ownership. 

The land under management be- 
longs to some owner — private state 
or federal — who has definite plans 
for it; who expects to give it the 
treatment that will make it pay out. 
To pay out it must get protection. 
If it is not well stocked, or in such 
shape that a crop will soon be start- 
ed, something must be done about 
that. If it is especially exposed to 
damage, fire lines, snag falling, haz- 



38 THECARPEXTER 

ard reduction is in order. AVhen it it can with the means it has, but no 
is logged, the fact that it is in per- one will pound on the table and yell 
manent ownership, with a definite in case of failure. It will get the 
job of producing a given amount of attention required by the fire laws 
wood every year will be kept in and the association finances. If 
mind. These measures will not be something happens to it, that's too 
perfunctor}'" compliance with state bad — but no one has the strong per- 
law. The}^ are just the things that sonal interest that comes to a work- 
make the difference between pay- ing part of a working enterprise, 
ing out and not paying out. and the The chance that it Avill be a success 
owner, whoever he may be, is most and raise timber to make a lot of 
concerned about that very thing. His jobs is much less than if it were in 
enterprise must bu}^ out. and the some one's sustained yield unit — 
land will get whatever it takes. private, state or federal. 

,f _ , „ J. . Sooner or later our forest land 

Orphan Land ^^..^j ^^ .^^^ ^^^^ ^^p^ ^^ ownership. 

The orphan section of logged In the fir belt, the land is too good 
land gets no such break as that. The to let it go. One way or another it 

protection agency Avill do the best will all pay out. 

• 

Accidents 5th Greatest Killer 

Accidents last 3^ear dropped from fourth to fifth place as a cause of 
death among this country's civilian population, according to a report by 
the trustees of the National Safety Council, on that organization's ex- 
panded accident prevention program. Heart disease, cancer, cerebral 

hemorrhage, and nephritis are the killers surpassing accidents. 

Other facts brought out were that all-accident death toll decreased 7 
per cent, the rising trend of accident fatalities among workers halted, 
despite an increase of 9 per cent in man-hours worked, traffic deaths de- 
creased 42 per cent, owing mainly to wartime restrictions, but also as a 
result of public cooperation, and through substantial reductions in sections 
where programs have been organized for sufficient periods to show results, 
there were indications that the home and farm problems can be solved, 
despite a national rise to 10 per cent in civilian deaths from home acci- 
dents. 

"The program with Avhich this report deals is designed to combat all 
types of accidents among all elements of the population," said AVilliam A. 
Irvin, chairman of the council's trustees. 

■ "It is the first strongly organized accident prevention effort ever de- 
veloped on a scale commensurate with the size of our accident problem," 
said Mr. Irvin, "and is the first major safet}- movement supported and con- 
ducted in the public interest. Our national accident toll of nearly 100,000 
killed, 350,000 permanently disabled, 8,650,000 temporarily injured, 350,- 
000,000 lost man days of production, and a 85.000,000,000 economic loss is 
evidence of the size and importance of this task." 



This is your publication. Patronize its advertisers. 




m ^y op//^/osf. . . 



What Our Readers Have to Say 

. . . On Topics of the Day! 

(This Journal is not responsible for the views expressed by the writers.) 



The absentee in a war plant is a much 
talked of man, criticized, and ridiculed 
because he took time off. Maybe he was 
sick, or was it just a hangover from the 
night before? Anyway, the production 
line was slowed up because a new man 
had to fill in his place. - 

There is another kind of absentee — 
the man who avoids Union meetings. 
He pays his dues before the meeting 
starts, or pays for six months in advance 
so he "won't be bothered" as some mem- 
bers put it. When they do attend a meet- 
ing they feel like a stranger to the other 
brothers. They sit through the meeting 
and don't say a word. Maybe he will 
come again, next meeting, and try to 
make himself a part of the Local, or 
maybe he won't show up again until he 
is a month or so in arrears. 

If the men on the production line 
stayed away from work like some of our 
Brotliers stay away from meetings, 
A\Tiat a LOXG WAR This WOULD BE. 
LLOYD G. FOOTH, R. S., West Allis, 

Wis. 

* * * 

Every time I pick up a paper lately 
I find a lot of tripe by Eric Johnston, 
the Boy Scout do-gooder that the U. S. 
Chamber of Commerce hired to sing 
swoon songs to the public like Sinatra 
(or whatever his name is) does to the 
high school chicks. The meat in all of 
Johnson's remarks is that business has 
seen the light and been saved. Accord- 
ing to his way of thinking it is now 
lily-white and out of the dog-house. 
The canine dwelling is now occupied by 
labor, he says. 

Maybe Johnston has been singing his 
song so long he believes it himself, but 
anyone who can read and takes the 
trouble to do so must realize by now 
that business is engaged in the great- 
est profiteering campaign in history. 
When the history of this war is written, 
there will be more scandals uncovered 



than in the three previous wars. Maybe 
there are some things about labor 
Johnston is entitled to criticize but when 
it comes to singing the same old song 
about business being pure as the snow 
he is all Avet. It's about time he turned 
the record over. 
FFC, Hartford, Conn. 

* « * 

The Carpenter has printed some first 
rate editorials the last few months and 
I enjoj' the journal more all the time. 
I can agree with nearly all I read in It. 
Last month there was an editorial en- 
titled "It's Time They Knew the Truth." 
I agree with it 100% but I don't think 
it goes quite far enough. The govern- 
ment is responsible for most of the 
strikes by the bungling of different 
agencies. It takes a year or more to get 
a decision handed down. No wonder 
men get sore and fly off the handle. 

But there is another side to it. It 
seems to me employers have brought 
about the present condition. Knowing 
that the agencies are swamped they 
have been adding fuel to the fire. They 
have been telling their men they are 
willing to give a raise. The proper form 
is filled out and sent to Washington. 
When nothing happens for six months 
or more they put all the blame on the 
government. In this way they can make 
."good fellows" of themselves by being 
on record as willing to give a raise 
and they can also take a crack at "beau- 
rocracy." 
GREG. JONES, Chicago, 111. 

* * « 

Everybody seems to think there is 
going to be a big boom in home build- 
ing after the war. I hope they are 
right. But let's keep it from being like 
last time. There was a big home build- 
ing boom after that war — Hoovervilles 
and Shantytowns. We don't want any 
more of them. 
ALVIX THOMAS, Pcorin, 111. 




VIEWS ^^7^^ NEWS 



rom ih& LABOR JOURNALS 

of fkz. NATIOK 




Not a Draft, But Common Sense 

They have a "draft labor" law in England very much like the one President 
RooseTeli is urging for this country. HoweYer, 100,000 Welsh coal miners threw 
down their tools and the government diseoTered that "it couldn't mine coal with 
bayonets." Miserable wages and frightful working conditions, were the principal 
explanations. 

The government drafted miners for the army and then drafted white-collar 
workers for the coal mines. That added to the confusion. 

In the meantime, without a draft law, American coal miners are producing per 
capita probably three times as many tons of coal as the British miners. 

"We don't need a law to draft labor. \\ hat we need is more common sense in 
the administration of the laws already on the statute books. — Labor, Washington, 

D. C. 

***** 

Profitable War Graft 

A subcommittee of the Military Affairs Committee of the House of Represen- 
tatives has discovered that "numerous firms" are engaged in hiring workmen at 
about going rates and then renting them out to war contractors at profits ranging 
up to 2.50 per cent. 

And, the committee adds, it must have been done with the knowledge of 
Army and Navy officials, who approved the bills submitted by these contractors 
working on a cost-plus-fixed-fee basis. 

We would, of course, go even further than the committee and say that this dirty 
business must have been done with the connivance of military officials. Otherwise, 
it just couldn't happen. We happen to know that in the Washington, D. C, area 
union mechanics are in a continuous battle persuading the powers that be to pay 
the prevailing union scale of wages on defense projects. 

Why this vicious practice has been allowed to even get started is a ruysteiy, 
and we can't nnderstand why Mr. Pegler has not discovered it and sounded off in 
his usual manner. He is adept at finding labor's shortages, but perhaps he is not 
so good when labor is shortchanged. — TTnion Leader, Toledo, Ohio. 



Now We've Seen Everything 

In Tuesday morning's Plain Dealer appeared an editorial on the Winchell-Dies 
feud which, after going on at great length, said practically nothing. 

But toward the end the P-D did come to the defense of Congress with this 
statement, "But we do not believe that Congi'ess as a body should be condemned, 
attacked or ridiculed because of the transgressions of a comparatively few mem- 
bers." 

Isn't that nice of the Plain Dealer to be so fair minded? Doesn't that impress 
you with honesty and integi'ity of the daily press? Or does it? 

HoTv many times has this same paper torn Its haii' and ranted and raved at 
some 13,000.000 tuiion members because of a mere handful (far less than one per 
cent) have been almost as stupid as some of our honorable (?) solons? 

And how Eia:i7 :i:r.es has the Plain Dealer, and practically all other daily 
papers, tried to paint all labor people as criminals and good-for-nothings because 
of three men out of 13,000,000? We refer, of course, to Brown, Bioff and Scalise. 

It is perfectly fine of the Plain Dealer to defend the poor Congi^essmen, but we 
would like to ask that they ti-y practising what they preach. — Citizen, Cleveland, 
Ohio. 



THE CARPENTER 41 

Independent "Union" Noise 

Independent unions demand recog-nition by the War Labor Board on the same 
footing as the AFL and CIO. Officers of a so-called Mechanics Educational Society 
have suddenly sprung into the limelight claiming to represent all of the inde- 
pendent unions in the country. 

Anything of this nature is hot stuff for the daily newspapers and radio men. 

Officials of this fly-by-night society, representing for the most part organiza- 
tions of employes supervised by their employers can make a big noise in friendly 
newspapers. But when you get right down to hardrock, no one knows anything 
about their background nor does anyone know anything about their ability or their 
claims to represent members of the independent unions. 

It is true that there are independent unions which are doing a pretty good job 
for their members. And it is also true that there are some independent unions 
which are unions in no sense of the word; they are merely stooge organizations of 
the bosses; members of these groups have no control of the activities of their so- 
called union. As, for instance, the union of transit employes in Baltimore, super- 
vised and controlled by officers of the company. 

Just what influence, there, should the officials of the Mechanics Educational 
Society have as representatives of working people? — Trade Union Xews, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

:^ ^ i^i ^ ii: 

Sound Thinking 

A midwestern judge, the other day, solved a case of juvenile delinquency to 
his own satisfaction by persuading a mother to leave her war job to stay at home 
to keep an eye on her sixteen-year-old daughter. Towns all over the United States, 
lately, are solving their juvenile delinquency problems to their own satisfaction by 
imposing curfews for teen-age children. Put the lid on the manifestations of the 
problem, these people seem to think, and you have solved your problem. 

The psychologists have a name for this solution. It is "escapism." The animal 
world has a ready-made symbol for it — the ostrich. We ought to know better, by 
this time, than to attempt to eradicate an evil by merely shaking the fist of author- 
ity — whether it is the authority of the home, or the authority of the government. 

It is encouraging in this connection to note that the Labor League for Human 
Rights, official relief arm of the AFL, is now getting up a series of local standing 
committees to work with local social agencies, as well as to integrate other patri- 
otic and relief activities of AFL members. If the trade unions and the social 
agencies can really get together in a constructive way to work out solutions in- 
stead of expedients, and to offer aid instead of ultimatums to our restless and un- 
certain younger generations, it will be worth more in immediate and in long-term 
results than a hundred cast-iron curfews. — Dayton Labor Union. 

^ ^ ^ ^- ^ 

All Not Gold That Glitters 

The American soldiers "down under" have learned that the laughing jackass 
is no jackass at all — but a bird, a kingfisher inhabiting the Australian continent. 
The American soldiers everywhere are beginning to learn that many of those who 
call themselves friends of the fighting men are no friends at all, but only foes 
who would deny them even the right to vote and pit them against the workers 
who have been providing them with the weapons of victory. — Duluth Labor "World. 



Speaking of Inflation 

Perhaps it is the height of something or other, we don't know. But we did 
come upon an item recently telling about how newsdealers in Lisbon are charging 
160 per copy for American newspapers. 

Maybe the boys in, Cleveland are missing a bet when they only run their price 
up to a miserable five cents. — Cleveland Citizen. 



42 



THE FIGHT GOES ON 

AFL blasts away at "stabilization" 

that freezes wages but not prices 




X I]\IP05IXG array of witnesses from dozens of unions and from 
every part of the countr}- blasted the "Little Steel" formula as 
the American Federation of Labor completed its case before a 
special panel of the AVar Labor Board for necessary and realistic modifi- 
cations of present "wage ceilings. 

The formula is "an iron barrier" which prevents the remedying of in- 
justices in the national wage structure, Matthew Woll, vice-president of 
the American Federation of Labor, testified. 

He displayed charts and figures to 



prove that not only the 15 per cent 
labor board formula but its "brack- 
et" system of wage adjustments 
should be "junked." 

One chart showed wages of 13,- 
820,000 workers, of whom, said Mr. 
Woll, about 15 per cent received 
$1.20 an hour, the minimum sum 
necessary to maintain health and de- 
cency standards. 

Of the 8,600,000 employes in war 
industry, he continued, only 21 per 
cent receive a basic hourly wage 
that permits them to live under nor- 
mal health and decency standards. 

Turning to consumer industries; 
IVIr. Woll told the panel that only 7 
per cent of the employes in this 
category received decent hourly 
wages. In the face of this situation, 
he asked the panel to explain how 
hopes of full employment after the 
war could be realized. 

Mr. Woll also maintained that 
employers were able to pay higher 
wages than at present because bil- 
lions of dollars had been saved in 

war contracts as a result of increas- 



ed productivity of workers. At the 
same time, he argued, profits of cor- 
porations v\ere at an all-time peak. 
He displa^'ed a chart to prove that 
net profits of corporations after 
taxes in 1943 were 8.2 billions, com- 
pared with /.^ billions in 1942. 

David Kaplan, research chief of 
the International Brotherhood of 
Team.sters, declared that it was just 
as important for the Labor Board 
to have restored to it the authority 
to make changes in wage rates to 
remedy inequalities as to have the 
present authority to remedy' malad- 
justments up to the 15 per cent per- 
mitted under the "Little Steel" for- 
mula. 

John B. Haggerty, president of 
the International Bookbinders Un- 
ion, attacked the Labor Board's 
"wage bracket" S3'stem as "vicious." 
He criticized sharply alleged board 
delays in making its decisions and 
said such delays promoted "discon- 
tent" among wage-earners. 

John J. ]\Iara, president of the 
Boot and Shoe Workers Union, de- 
clared that his union's experience 



THE CARPENTER 



43 



■with the Labor Board under the 
"Little Steel" formula "has utterly 
destroyed our confidence in it as 
an instrument of equitable treatment 
of workers in industry." 

Mr. Mara charged undue delay in 
making- decisions and told of shoe 
workers in a Wisconsin plant who 
received an increase of 5 cents an 
hour from their employer, only to 
have the Chicago regional labor 
board cut it to I cent, "for reasons 
undisclosed." When the union pro- 
tested, he added, it was advised by 
the regional board to file another 
case alleging "sectional inequali- 
ties." 

"That was a year ago and no ac- 
tion has been taken on this case 
yet," he said. 

The board's "bracket" system de- 
nies to pattern makers the wage 
rates to which they are entitled and 
in efifect sets aside wage rates ar- 
rived at by collective bargaining, 
according to George O. Lynch, pres- 
ident of the Patternmakers League, 
American Federation of Labor. 

Mr. Lynch said that in a wage dis- 
pute involving pattern makers em- 
ployed by the Firestone Tire and 
Rubber Company the Labor Board 
had shut out his union in "star 
chamber" proceedings from partici- 
pating in hearings. 

By lumping together skilled pat- 
tern makers, apprentices and others, 
said Mr. Lynch, the Labor Board 
arrived at "bracket" rates for skill- 
ed workers' pay which were "un- 
realistic." 

If the board's "bracket" theory 
continued, Mr. Lynch felt that 98 
out of 107 unions affiliated with the 
AFL would be in danger of disso- 
lution as a result of dissatisfaction 
with lowered wage rates. 

Fred Umhey, secretary of the In- 
ternational Ladies Garment Work- 



ers Union, declared that to restrict 
low-priced wage earners to the 15 
per cent wage adjustment allowed 
under the "Little Steel" formula 
was really reducing further stand- 
ards of living which already were 
below the danger line. 

The Bureau of Labor Statistics, 
said Mr. Umhey, admitted that its 
cost-of-living index was inapplic- 
able to workers in the lower income 
categories who had suffered most 
as a result of higher prices. 

Mr. Umhey said that it is "hypo- 
critical" to say that such low paid 
workers are afforded any real pro- 
tection against limitations of the 
"Little Steel" formula through the 
Labor Board's right to correct sub- 
standards of living. While the La- 
bor Board had fixed 50 cents an 
'hour as the upper limit for a sub- 
standard wage rate determination, 
the witness said that the New York 
State Department of Labor held that 
$1,600 was necessary for protection 
of health of single women. Thus, 
he added, this meant a wage of at 
least 80 cents an hour on the basis 
of a forty-hour week and fifty 
weeks' work a year. 

Francis J. Gorman, president of 
United Textile Workers of Amer- 
ica, argued for modification of the 
"Little Steel' formula for textile 
workers partly because these work- 
ers in the South received 20 per cent 
less in wage rates than those of 
other areas. 

The NWLB, according to ]Mr. 
Gorman, has not adequately handled 
the textile workers' wage rates 
under the substandard wage rules 
which it had made. 

Henry A. Schrader, of the Inter- 
national Association of Machinists, 
asserted that in many cases the 
NWLB was not allowing the "Little 
Steel" formula to be put into effect 



44 



THE CARPENTER 



even though workers were entitled 
to the benefit of the 15 per' cent 
wage adjustment. 

Unless some change were made 
modifying the formula, he believed 
that living standards would have to 
be reduced and that wage earners 
would have to compel children to 
look for jobs while others would 
have to lapse payment on their 
homes or insurance. 

Edward Kaiser for the Interna- 
tional Stove Mounters Union, de- 
clared that the Labor Board allow- 
ed wide discrepancies in wage rates 
as between the South and the North. 
He said that the maximum wage 
rate for his craft allowed by the 
board in the South was 56 cents an 
hour, compared with 97.5 cents in 
the North. 

Lloyd Thrust, president of the 
Progressive Miners of America, 
told the panel that "injustices" had 
been visited on the coal miners by 
"the lack of coordination of wages 
and food price controls." 



A statement submitted on behalf 
of the International Hod Carriers 
Union, said that the "Little Steel" 
formula was unfair to workers in 
the low wage ranges because men 
earning 50 cents an hour were en- 
titled to 7.5 cents an hour more un- 
der the formula while those earning 
$1.50 an hour received 22.5 cents an 
hour. 

John P. Frey, president of the 
Metal Trades department, told the 
panel that the shipyard workers had 
abandoned an escalator clause in 
their collective-bargaining agree- 
ment which would have entitled 
them to a wage increase of 23 to 
25 cents ^n hour to keep pace with 
living costs. 

Others who testified were Miguel 
Garriga and Charles Sands of the 
Hotel and Restaurant Workers Un- 
ion; Frank P. Berry of the Interna- 
tional Brotherhood of Papermak- 
ers; Elmer P. Tiess, St. Louis or- 
ganizer, and David Sigman, Mil- 
waukee representative. 



March War Cost Nearly 8 Billions 

War expenditures by the United States Government amounted to $7,- 
948,000,000 in March, an increase of $140,000,000 or 1.8 per cent over the 
previous high of $7,808,000,000 expended in February 1941, WPB reports. 

Average daily rate of expenditures for war purposes in March was 
$294,400,000, a decrease of 5.7 per cent from the daily rate of $312,300,0000 
in February. 

From July i, 1940, through March 31, 1944, United States expenditures 
for war purposes amounted to $176,500,000,000. 



Loggers Get Extra Rations 

Loggers who eat in logging camps or who live in isolated spots are to 
receive extra ration allowances, OPA announces. The plan worked out 
for loggers will later be used to make extra allowances available to work- 
ers in other industries, according to OPA officials. 

Logging camps serving meals to loggers will be allowed 159 meat and 
fats points and eight pounds of sugar for each resident and 94 points and 
six pounds of sugar per man per month for each non-resident logger who 
takes some of his meals there. Where fresh poultry, fish and milk are not 
available, an additional allowance will be given. 



THE CARPENTER 45 

MORE ANHEUSER-BUSCH DRAFT DODGING 

Another scion of the Anheuser-Busch dynasty recently turned up as a 
purported evader of the draft. The March issue of The Carpenter carried 
a story about Gert Hans Von Gotard, heir-grandson of Adolphus Busch, 
running- afoul of the Selective Service administration for supposedly seek- 
ing to evade the draft. On March i8th, Presley S. Anheuser, 32, son of W. 
Fred Anheuser, vice-president of Anheuser-Busch, Inc. was indicted on a 
charge of obtaining a draft deferment through allegedly false affidavits. 
The indictment said Anheuser had been given an agricultural classification 
of 3-C by his draft board on representation that he devoted full time to 
farming activities. 

In addition to disliking to do their duty as citizens, the Anheuser- 
Busch clan also seem to dislike treating organized labor fairly. For years 
the St. Louis brewing company fought our Brotherhood in courts and 
out of them. To date, no members of our Brotherhood have as yet been 
hired by the firm. 

Between seventy-five and eighty thousand members of our Brotherhood 
are serving in the armed forces today. One by one they laid down their 
tools when the call came and none of them tried to classify himself as a 
farmer to evade doing his duty to his country. And yet they have been 
condemned by individuals who resort to chicanery to evade doing their 
duty to a country that enabled them to amass personal fortunes. 

Draw vour own moral. 



Like Twain Said, A Gross Exaggeration 

Through a clerical blunder, the name of Brother Wm. D. Lose, Local 430, Wilk- 
insburg, Pa. was erroneously included in the "In Memoriam" page of the April 
issue. We are happy to report that Brother Lose is still with us and going strong. 
The report of his death — like Mark Twain's was a gross exaggeratiorf, as the fol- 
lowing note from Brother Lose will humorously testify: 
Mr. Frank Duffy; 
Dear Sir; 

A great many pleasant things have happened to me in life. I was 
happily married, became a father, also a grandfather. I am a mem- 
ber of a large bible class — go to church frequently. I love to fish 
and hunt also to play cards for pastime. I never abused any of my 
family or beat my wife. I read the daily papers and editorials. 
I have never been convicted of crime or disloyalty. I have never 
been hanged for horse stealing. I read the Journal and am a loyal 
Union Man. I also read (In Memoriam) and (Rest In Peace). 
Brother William D. Lose, Local Union No. 4 30, Wilkinsburg, Pa. 
But damn me Brother Duffy there is a limit to news. You will have 
to retract that notice of my death or mail my benefits at once so I 
can enjoy them. 

Truly Yours, 

William D. Lose. 



Various by-products obtained from tobacco in Italy include edible oil, an in- 
dustrial oil, stock feeds from tobacco seed, and paper from tobacco stalks. 

il^ i^ :^ it: Hi 

The 2,000,000,000th nickel was recently dropped into a turnstile of the muni- 
cipally-owned 7 ^/2 -year-old Independent subway system of New York City. 



46 



POST-WAR LABOR RELATION'S 



By willia:m m. leisersox 

Chairman, Satior.al Mediation Board 



William M. Leisersou is a recognized authority on labor relations. He 
lias seiTed in many capacities in Washington. T). C. as an ex-pert on labor 
matters. In these excei"pts from a speech, delivered before the Athenaeum, 
Summit, X. .J., he urges the immediate adoption of a constructive central- 
ized labor policy now to pave the way for harmonious labor relations in the 
130St-war era. 



POST-WAR planners are busily engaged these days in proposing 
and blueprinting model programs of labor relations for use after 
the war is over. It is a safe bet that none of these will be adopted. 
The kind of labor relations we shall have when peace is restored is largely 
being determined by what we are doing now in handling our wartime 
labor problems. Just as the New Deal labor policies of the 30's were the 
outgrowth of the new era prosperit}" policies of the 20's, so our post-war 
labor relations will grow out of the problems and policies of the war 
period. We shall not start with a clean slate when the war is over. AVe 
will not suddenly discard our prejudices, our special group interests, our 
attitudes toward labor, industry and Government, and on a bright day 
decide to make an entirely new start by 



organizing and conducting our labor re- 
lations on some ideal basis. We shall 
probably continue existing practices and 
policies in the main, modifying them 
here and there by voluntary action of 
employers, by collective bargaining, and 
by legislation where failure of employ- 
ers and workers to settle their own con- 
troversies create social and political 
problems for the nation as a whole. 

Lessons from Past 

I think therefore, if we are to do any 
choosing of the kind of labor relations 
we vrant after the war, that it is highly 
important we know something of the 
development of our labor problems and 
policies from the past, that we compare 
our wartime problems with prewar ex- 
periences, and that we make some use 
of the lessons to be learned from all our 
experience. If we study critically our 
prewar labor relations and how we came 
to be doing what we are doing about 
labor during the war, we might do 
something in the way of avoiding the 
pitfalls of the past. After all, it is some- 
thing of a reflection on mankind that 
history does repeat itself. We would 



then be in a position deliberately to 
choose the better practices and policies 
for survival in the future and, to some 
extent at least, consciously to control 
and direct the development of our labor 
relations and labor policies in the tran- 
sition from war to peace and during the 
post-war period. 

The great obstacle to orderly evolu- 
tion of labor relations directed toward 
goals deliberately set is the tendency of 
each generation to consider its labor 
problems unique. Thus there is a gen- 
eral impression that active government 
participation in labor relations began 
with the New Deal laws protecting labor 
organizations and encouraging collective 
bargaining. The more ardent New Deal- 
ers, also, are inclined to think that labor 
history began in 19 33. As a matter of 
fact, however, labor relations have been 
controlled by law and government in 
this country since the beginning of our 
history. 

Early Wage Conspiracy 

What the earlj- governments did 
about their strikes and labor organiza- 
tions makes plain the part they were 



THE CARPENTER 



47 



playing in regulating labor relations. 
The organizations were prosecuted as 
criminal conspiracies, and strikers were 
punished by fines or imprisonment. In 
1806 a Philadelphia judge before whom 
members of a shoemakers' union were 
being tried for organizing and engaging 
in a strike instructed the jury as fol- 
lows: "A combination of workmen to 
raise their wages may be considered In 
a two-fold point of view: one is to bene- 
fit themselves, * * * the other is to in- 
jure those ■Ci^lio do not join their society. 
The rule of law condemns both." The 
men were found guilty of a conspiracy 
to raise their wages. 

England had profoundly changed its 
labor relations policy in 19 6 when, 
faced with the first sign of strength by 
the British Labor Party in Parliament, 
it adopted a Trade Disputes Act that 
gave trade union activity a certain priv- 
ileged position. But in this country we 
did not change our labor relations fun- 
damentally until the first War Labor 
Board was established in 1918. 

Anti-Union Campaigns 

The new concept of labor relations 
introduced by President Wilson did not 
outlive his administration. The return 
to "normalcy" after the first war meant, 
so far as labor policy was concerned, 
the inauguration of a nation-wide cam- 
paign by organized employers to get rid 
of unions wliich had grown in member- 
ship and power during the \\»ar. The 
embattled employers coined a slogan, 
"the American plan", and with this in- 
scribed on their banners they battled 
for what they called the "open shop". 
They destroyed most of the newer un- 
ions that had sprung up in the war 
period, reduced the membership of the 
older established unions, successfully 
fought and barred tlie organization of 
workers in the mass production indus- 
tries, and managed to press back and 
confine unionism for another decade 
largely to skilled craftsmen and helpers. 

The prosperity period from 192 3 to 
1929 was unique in that it was not 
marked by substantial growth in mem- 
bership and strength of organized la- 
bor, which is usual in such periods. 
The employers were in the saddle. Wiser 
heads among them, fearing the results 
of unfettered power in the hands of 
management, inaugurated what came to 



be known among radicals as the "wel- 
fare offensive", and what conservative 
labor people referred to as "hellfare 
work." They tried to make company 
unions serve the needs of wage earners 
by various kinds of employe representa- 
tion plans, hoping thereby to avoid the 
grievances that lead workers to want 
collective bargaining arrangements with 
free unions. 

Then came the depression, and all 
was changed. To keep large business 
enterprises in the black it was neces- 
sary to throw millions of workers and 
their families into the red. One of the 
largest and most benevolent corpora- 
tions laid off a third of its working 
force in order to maintain interest 
and dividend payments. Welfare work 
had to be cut drastically. Industrial re- 
lations plans became an expensive lux- 
ury. Wage and force reductions Avere 
ordered with little pretense that repre- 
sentatives of employes were consulted 
or had any rights in such matters. The 
new era of benevolent labor relations 
dictated by employers died with the 
new era prosperity. 

The workers turned to politics for 
relief at first and then to Government- 
ordered collective bargaining Avith un- 
ions protected by law against employer 
interference or domination. The Na- 
tional Recovery Act of 19 33 harked 
back to the principles of the first War 
Labor Board and undertook to guaran- 
tee the right to organize and bargain 
collectively. This, however, was to be 
accomplished through the instrumental- 
ity of trade associations of employers. 
These were to adopt codes of fair trade 
practices to regulate business competi- 
tion, and it was made obligatory to in- 
clude the workers' guarantee in every 
such code. Combinations of employers 
were still to be the prime movers in 
this Government-sponsored labor rela- 
tions policy. Nevertheless the guarantee 
stimulated a great increase in union 
membership. The arrangement, how- 
ever, did not reflect the real economic 
and political strength of united labor 
sentiment and thus failed to meet the 
needs of the time. What was needed 
in the way of a labor relations policy 
was provided later by the Wagner Act, 
the National Labor Relations Act of 
1935. 



48 



THE CARPEXTER 



Union Membership Tripled 

Skipping the details of this statute 
that has aroused so much controversy, 
it is sufficient for our purpose to say 
that it freed workers from the restraints 
employers had imposed on them and it 
made possible assistance to unions by 
government agencies similar to the as- 
sistance given to farmers' and business 
organizations. As a result, the mem- 
bership of organized labor has tripled 
since 193 0, and, for the first time in 
our history, a large proportion of all 
vrage-earners and all industries are gov- 
erned by trade union agreements. The 
rapid growth strained the structure of 
the labor movement, splitting first the 
CIO from the AFL and later independ- 
ent groups from both. But the power 
and public influence of union leaders 
grew in spite of the splits to equal if 
not exceed those exercised by business 
leaders. 

The national defense program pre- 
ceding Pearl Harbor revealed the equal- 
ity of status achieved by organized la- 
bor with business management when a 
prominent labor leader and a noted in- 
dustrial manager were made co-direc- 
tors of the Office of Production Manage- 
ment with equal powers. It was largely 
through the influence of the labor co- 
director that the tripartite National De- 
fense Mediation Board, with employer, 
labor, and public members, was estab- 
lished to top the labor disputes agencies 
of the Government. Both the Produc- 
tion Management -Office and the Media- 
tion Board proved administratively de- 
fective, but they laid the basis for our 
present wartime labor relations. 

Wartime Labor Relations 

Our wartime labor relations began 
to take form shortly after Pearl Har- 
bor when the no-strike agreement, al- 
ready referred to, was made. Pursuant 
to its provisions the President set up 
the National "^ar Labor Board in Jan- 
uary 1942. Essentially this board was 
but a continuation of the Defense Medi- 
ation Board which, after seven months 
of existence, collapsed late in 1941 when 
the mine workers led by John Lewis 
struck against a decision denying the 
miners' union a closed shop in the cap- 
tive coal mines. The miners' strike of 
1941, like their several strikes in 1943, 



aroused the country, and the House of 
Representatives passed by a huge ma- 
jority the Smith Bill designed to curb 
strikes and to regulate unions. The 
no strike agreement headed off Senate 
action on this bill. 

The War Labor Board was given 
authority to make final decisions in la- 
bor disputes, , whereas the Mediation 
Board made recommendations. But this 
was only a nominal difference, for the 
President took over industries which re- 
fused to accept recommendations just 
as he does now when War Labor Board 
decisions are not obeyed. The new ar- 
rangement did make clear, however, 
that war labor disputes were to be 
arbitrated and not only mediated, al- 
though the fact that the arbitration was 
to be compulsory was not so clear. 

As already noted, the new Board like 
the Mediation Board, was without any 
set of principles or policies, such as the 
first War Labor Board had, to govern 
its decisions and to guide employers and 
unions in their own negotiations. Man- 
agers and workers therefore were un- 
able to predict what the outcome of 
proceedings before the Board might be 
on issues that divided them. It was 
necessary to bring the same disputed 
points to the Board for decision in ever 
increasing numbers of cases. As a re- 
sult, the Board's dockets soon became 
clogged, and it fell far behind in its 
work. 

The War Labor Board, in spite of its 
insistence on deciding each case on its 
merits, itself worked out a policy for 
deciding the troublesome disputes about 
union security. In a series of decisions 
it developed the policy of granting main- 
tenance of union membership as a com- 
promise in disputes involving closed and 
open shops; but the employer members 
of the Board keep dissenting from de- 
cisions on this basis. With respect to 
wages, it continued to grant increases, 
much as the Defense Mediation Board 
had done, on the merits of individual 
cases until July 1942, when it decided 
the Little Steel cases. Then it laid down 
the principle that general wage in- 
creases would be made only to bring 
average hourly rates up to 15 per cent 
above those paid in January 19 41 to 
compensate for the rise in living costs 
up to the time the cases were heard; 
but the labor members never agreed to 



THE CARPENTER 



49 



this principle. Since that time cost of 
living has risen further, and the Little 
Steel formula has become a wage ceil- 
ing embodied in the stabilization pro- 
gram against which the whole labor 
movement is now in open revolt. 

Although I have said that unions and 
their leaders have been a restraining 
influence on strikes and their coopera- 
tion in the war production program has 
contributed greatly to its success, I did 
not mean to imply that there were no 
headstrong leaders and no recalcitrant 
unions or that the power of organized 
labor has not been abused. The unions 
are to be charged with a good portion 
of the responsibility for our present la- 
bor troubles. They have come to de- 
pend on the Government to give them 
what they could not gain by collective 
bargaining with employers. And now, 
when the giving must stop because of 
the burdens of war and the necessity to 
control inflation, they turn in resent- 
ment against the Government like chil- 
dren against over-indulgent parents. Or- 
ganized labor too has administrative 
problems which it has not solved, in- 
ternal jurisdictional and racketeering 
problems. On some of these it does not 
seem to know its own mind; nor is it 
quite sure of the goals of unionism and 
the appropriate policies to further those 
goals. In making the no-strike agree- 
ment, for example, the labor represen- 
tatives did not pursue the normal course 
of unions in negotiating agreements, 
but merely acceded to the desires of the 
Government. 

Government agencies are perhaps 
more responsible for the present labor 
situation than the unions and their lead- 
ers. The dependence of workers' organ- 
izations on the Government is as much 
the result of their policies as of union 
policies. Labor leaders and labor jour- 
nals have begun to denounce Govern- 
ment bureaucracy in much the same 
terms that business leaders and trade 
journals have long been doing. These 
are good signs, for they reveal an 
awareness than we have been straying 
from the fundamental purpose of the 
labor relations policy of guaranteeing 
workers' organization rights and free- 
ing them to engage in collective bar- 
gaining. That purpose is to depend more 



and more on bargaining between equal 
parties to determine wages, hours, 
working conditions, and adjustment of 
labor disputes in order to reduce to a 
minimum action by the Government on 
the myriad details of the labor relation- 
ship. 

Post-War Picture 

I hesitate to predict from all this 
experience what we shall do after the 
war to avoid the troubles we are now 
having. That depends largely on how 
much all of us — employers, unions, gov- 
ernment officials, and the people gen- 
erally with their representatives in Con- 
gress actually learn from our wartime 
methods of handling labor relations. 
And there is much still to learn, for the 
war is far from ended. If we continue 
for the rest of the war period with the 
present administrative set-ups, with 
maintenance of membership, and the 
wage stabilization program as the only 
general labor policies which may be 
considered substitutes for strikes and 
lock-outs; or if we enact anti-strike leg- 
islation in the chastising manner of the 
Smith-Connally Act, we shall continue 
to have the same kind of decisions and 
the same kind of labor troubles we are 
having now. And the chances are that 
the same situation will be extended into 
the post-war period, only with more 
emphasis on disciplining unions and cut- 
ting wages and privileges of working 
people. The trends at present all seem 
to be this way. 

If, however, we reorganize and cen- 
tralize our many war labor agencies and 
provide them with a uniform set of la- 
bor policies to be generally applied, con- 
fine the labor relations agencies to ad- 
justing and arbitrating disputes, and 
separate from them the administration 
of the stabilization program so that all 
workers will get what they are entitled 
to under the program without the neces- 
sity of creating a labor dispute or filing 
an application for approval by a dis- 
putes board, — then I think war produc- 
tion can be carried on cooperatively 
with peaceful labor relations and little 
time lost through work stoppages. And, 
if we do something like this during the 
remainder of the war, we shall have a 
practical plan, which, no doubt, would 
be continued after the Avar. 



The American flag is never displayed 
to indicate distress. 



with the union down, except as a signal 



Official Information 




General Officers of 
THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS 

of AMERICA 

Geneeal Office : Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General President 

WM. L. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



First General Vice-President 

M. A. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Secretary 

FRANK DFFFY 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Second General Vice-President 

.JOHN R. STEVENSON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Treasurer 

S. P. MEADOWS 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



First District 



General Executive Board 

Fifth District, R. E. ROBERTS 
631 W. Page, Dallas, Texas 



Second District. WM. J. KELLY 
Carpenters' Bid., 243 4tli Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Sixth District, A. W. MUIR 
103481 Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, Calif. 



Third District, HARRY SCHWARZER 
3684 W. 136th St., Cleveland, O. 



Seventh District, ARTHUR MARTEL 
1182 St. Lawrence, Rm. 10, Montreal, Que., Can. 



Fourth District, ROLAND ADAMS 
Keuka, Fla. 



WM. L. HUTCHESON, Chairman 
FRANK DUFFY, Secretary 



All correspondence for the General Executive Board must be sent to the General Secretary. 



WM. L. HUTCHESON. GENERAL PRESIDENT 

UNITED BROTHERHOOD OF CARPENTERS 

AND JOINERS OF AMERICA 



To all Local Unions of the 
United Brotherhood of Carpenters 
and Joiners of America. 
Greetings : 




OFFICE : CARPENTERS BUILDING 

XZS EAST MICHIGAN STREET 

INDIANAPOLIS, IND. 



April i8, 1944 



At the recent meeting of the General Executive Board when consider- 
ing matters pertaining to our Brotherhood they gave consideration to the 
situation as affecting members of the organization in the armed service, 
and it developed that communications received at the General Office from 
various Local Unions disclosed that at the present time there is a chaotic 
condition existing because of Local Unions not following one procedure 
in regards to members in the service. 

In June 1943 a communication was sent to all Local Unions asking 
that they send information to the General Office setting forth the names 



THE CARPENTER 51 

and number of members they had in service on whom they were paying- 
per capita tax. Communications were received from a j^oodly number of 
Local Unions, l)ut a large number of them have never responded to our 
communication and furnished the information requested, and the Board, 
believing' it would be to the best interest of the Brotherhood to get all 
members in the armed service on an equal status, or basis, came to the 
conclusion that all Local Unions that have not paid per capita tax on 
their members in the'armed service should be directed to pay per capita 
tax on members from the time they were inducted, up to and including 
June 1943, and that the International organization, the United Brother- 
hood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, will from that date; namely, 
July I, 1943, carry such members as in good standing for the duration, or 
until such time as they are discharged. 

That the Local Unions which have paid per capita tax on their mem- 
bers who are in the armed service will be given credit for the amount they 
have paid on such members, on and after July i, 1943 to date, and all such 
members will be carried by the International organization as being in good 
standing for the duration, or until such time as they are discharged. 

The Board further directs that an applicant eligible for membership in 
the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America presenting 
an Honorable Discharge from the armed forces of the .United States or 
Canada shall be admitted without the payment of an initiation fee, pro- 
viding said discharge is submitted within one year after date of discharge. 

The purpose of this communication is, of course, to advise the Local 
Unions, and members thereof, of the action of our General Executive 
Board, and to request those Local Unions that have not been keeping their 
members in good standing by paying per capita tax on them to comply 
with the action of the Executive Board ; namely, to at once pay per capita 
tax on such members as they have in service, up to and including the 
month of June 1943, and send a list of the names of such members to this 
office on the enclosed blanks, and to those Local Unions that have paid per 
capita tax on their members in service, on and after July i, 1943, to send in 
a list of the names of the members they have paid per capita tax on, and 
the amount paid, on the enclosed blanks, and they will be given credit for 
same, so that all members in the service would be paid up to and including 
the month of June 1943, after which the International organization will 
assume the responsibility of keeping all members in the service in good 
standing and pay all donations that would accrue to such members for the 
duration. The donations referred to means, of course, death and disability 
donations. 

While we have asked in this communication that all Local Unions hav- 
ing members in the service fill out the enclosed blanks and return same to 
the General Office, we also request that Local Unions not having members 
in the armed service notify us to that efl:'ect. 

Your Executive Board felt that the International organization should 
show its willingness to cooperate with our Local Unions by following the 
foregoing procedure. 



52 THE CARPENTER 

Trusting- to receive the full cooperation of all Local Unions of the 
Brotherhood in carrying out the foregoing, I remain, 



Fraternally yours. 






General President. 



MEETING OF THE GENERAL EXECUTIVE BOARD 

Indianapolis, Ind., April 3, 1944. 

The General Executive Board met on the above date at the General Office, Indi- 
anapolis, Indiana. 

All members present. 

General President Hutcheson reported that he had received numerous com- 
munications from our Local Unions in different sections of our jurisdiction asking 
for the status of their members now in the Armed Forces and their standing, rights, 
and benefits in the organization. This caused a lengthy discussion and brought 
out the fact that the Board had already decided on December 4, 19 40 that 

Members joining the Army or Navy for active Service shall be en- 
titled to their donations until mustered out of the Service. 

This action was unanimously approved by our Twenty-fourth General Conven- 
tion held in Lakeland, Florida at the sixth day's session, December 15, 19 40, with 
the understanding that the Local Unions pay the per capita tax on their account 
while in the Service. 

However, communications which have been received at the General Office from 
various Local Unions of the Brotherhood show that a chaotic condition exists 
because of Local Unions not following one procedure in regard to members in 
service. 

In June 19 43 a communication was sent to all Local Unions asking that they 
send information to the General Office setting forth the names and number of 
members they had in service on whom they were paying per capita tax and keep- 
ing members in the service in good standing. Communications v/ere received from 
a goodly number. of Local Unions, but a large number of them have never given 
us the information requested, and the Board, believing that it would be to the 
best interest of the Brotherhood to get all members in the service on an equal 
status or basis, came to the conclusion that all Local Unions that had not paid 
per capita tax on their members who are in the armed service should be directed 
to pay per capita tax on members from the time they were inducted, up to and in- 
cluding June 1943, and that the International organization, the United Brother- 
hood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, will from that date on carry such mem- 
bers as in good standing for the duration. 

That the Local Unions which have paid per capita tax on their members who 
are in the armed service will be given credit for the amount they have paid on 
such members on and after July 1, 1943 to date, and all such members will be 
carried by the International organization as being in good standing for the dura- 
tion. 

The Board further recommends that an applicant eligible for membership in 
the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America presenting an Hon- 
orable Discharge from the armed forces of the United States or Canada shall be 
admitted without the payment of an initiation fee. 

While considering these matters the Board also recommends, and authorizes 
sent to all Local Unions of the Brotherhood the proposition of amending Section 
43, Paragraph F of the General Constitution to read as follows: 



THE CARPENTER 53 

"When an applicant for initiation has reached the age of sixty years or over 
or who has received his disability donation, shall be admitted only as an honorary 
member at a fee of not less than $10.00. 

"He shall pay a sum of not less than $1.00 per month to assist in maintaining 
the working conditions of the district, and the Local Union shall pay 25c per 
month to the General Office on each such member to assist in conducting the af- 
fairs of the United Brotherhood." 

The General President appointed a Sub-committee of the Board to confer with 
a like Committee from the International Association of Machinists to endeavor to 
work out a mutual understanding of cooperation between the two organizations. 

April 4, 1944. 
Audit of accounts of the General Office commenced. 

April 5, 1944. 
■|.' Audit of accounts continued. 

m' April C. 1944. 

B- Audit of accounts completed. 

Westchester County District Council New York requests the General Executive 
Board to take under consideration the advisability of increasing the pension to 
$15.00 per month per member or $45.00 per quarter, and after due consideration 
the Board could not see its way clear to do so at the present time. The matter 
was referred to the General President for reply. 

Local Union 18 8, Yonkers, New York, requests that the pension be increased 
to $40.00 per quarter and after due consideration the Board could not see its way 
clear to do so at the present time. As the payment of pensions comes under the 
supervision of the General President it was referred to him to reply. 

April 7, 19 44. 

Appeal of Local Union 1671, Kilgore, Texas from the decision of the General 
Treasurer in disapproving the death claim of John Yocum of said Local Union for 
the reason that he was not in benefit standing at time of death was carefully con- 
sidered after which the decision of the General Treasurer was sustained and the 
appeal dismissed. 

Appeal of W. O. Brammer, a member of Local Union 20 2 4, Coconut Grove, 
Florida from the decision of the General President in the case of W. O. Brammer 
versus the Carpenters District Council of Miami, Florida,. The decision of the 
General President was sustained on grounds set forth therein and the appeal was 
dismissed. 

Appeal of Local Union 56 2, Everett, Washington from the decision of the 
General President in the case of Ernest Turner et al versus Local Union 562, 
Everett, Washington could not be considered by the Board as the orders of the 
General President have not been complied with. 

***** 

The Sub-committee of the Board appointed to confer with a like committee 
from the International Association of Machinists reported that they met and dis- 
cussed matters after which thev agreed that further conference be held. 



The undersigned Sub-committee of the General Executive Board, made an 
audit of the Securities held by General Treasurer, S. P. Meadows, in the vaults of 
the Indiana National Bank and find the following: 

4 U. S. Treasury Bonds $ 100,000.00 each $ 400,000.00 

10 U. S. Treasury Bonds 10.000.00 each 100,000.00 

1 U. S. Treasury Bond 1,000,000.00 each 1,000,000.00 

5 U. S. Treasury Bonds 100,000.00 each 500.000.00 

1 U. S. Treasury Bond 100.000.00 each 100,000.00 

10 U. S. Treasury Bonds 100.000.00 each 1.000,000.00 

10 U. S. Treasury Bonds 100,000.00 each 1,000,000.00 

5 U. S. Treasury Bonds 100,000.00 each 500,000.00 



54 



THE CARPENTER 



3 U. S. Treasury Notes 100,000.00 eacli 300,000.00 

5 U. S. Savings Bonds 10,000.00 each 50,000.00 

5 U. S. Savings Bonds 10,000.00 each 50, 000. GO' 

5 U. S. Savings Bonds--, 10,000.00 each 50,000.00 

15 U. S. Defense Bonds (G)_ 10,000.00 each 150,000.00 

6 U. S. Treasury Bonds 10,000.00 each 60,000.00 

4 U. S. Treasury Bonds 10,000.00 each 40,000.00 

15 U. S. Defense Bonds (G)_ 10,000.00 each 150,000.00 

15 U. S. Bonds 10,000.00 each 150,000.00 

5 U. S. Bonds 100,000.00 each 500,000.00 

107 Canadian Victory Bonds. 1,000.00 each 107,000.00 

50 Canadian Bonds 1,000.00 each 50.000.00 

50 Canadian Bonds 1,000.00 each 50,000.00 

A. W. Mulr, 
Wm. J. Kelly, 
H. Schwarzer. 
***** 

There being no further business to be acted on the Board adjourned to meet at 
the call of the Chair. 

Signed, 

FRANK DUFFY, Secretary. 



NEW CHARTERS ISSUED 



2 504 Watertown, Wis. 

1213 Oconto, Wis. 

28 5 4 Rockport, Calif. 

2876 Jackson, Tenn. 



59 3 Saginaw, Mich. 

288 6 Shelbyville, Ind. 

2887 Ponderosa, New Mex. 

28 8 8 Cuba, New Mex. 



Clergymen Score Labor Draft 

Nearly 1,200 clergymen of all denominations and from every state 
joined recently in an appeal to Congress to reject the Austin- Wadsworth 
bill* backed by the administration, under which workers would be drafted 
for private profit of bosses. 

Their statement was made public by the Free Labor Committee of the 
Workers' Defense League, of which James G. Patton, president of the 
progressive Farmer's Union, is honorary chairman. 

"AVorkers would be conscripted to work for private employers under 
the bill," the religious leaders declared. "The Supreme Court has said that 
this is slavery." 

They assailed the measure as a violation of the "four freedoms" pro- 
claimed by Roosevelt and Churchill. They branded it as unnecessary and 
charged it would break up American homes and give reactionar^v draft 
boards an opportunity to smash unions. 

"Free labor can produce more than forced labor," they said. — Labor 



BROOKLYN BROTHER DECORATED 

Brother James R. Mahan of Local Union No. 740, Brooklyn, N. Y., a first class 
machinist's mate in the Navy, has received the Navy and Marine Corps medal for 
his heroic conduct as a volunteer engaged in diving activities incident to the salvage 
of ships at Pearl Harbor. 



Jin 0.j^tnjCfxXHtn 



Not lost to those that love them, 
Not dead, just gone before; 



They still live in our memory, 
And vfill forever more. 



%tsi in l^iente 

The Editor has been requested to publish the names 
of the following Brothers who have passed away. 



Brother 
Brother 
Brother 
Brother 
Brother 
Brother 
Brother 
Brother 
Brother 
Brother 
Brother 
Brother 
Brother 
Brother 
Brother 
Brother 
Brother 
Brother 
Brother 
Brother 
Brother 
Brother 
Brother 
Brother 
Brother 
Brother 
Brother 
Brother 
Brother 
Brother 
Brother 
Bi*other 



C. B. Boyd, Local No. 993, Miami, Fla. 

Crosby Conip, Local 229, Glens Falls, N. Y. 

Fred Davis, Local No. 1629, Ashtabula, O. 

Hari-j' M. Diflfenderfer, Local No. 141, Cliicago, 111. 

Alfred Doull, Local No. 634, Los Angeles, Cal. 

John G. Duncan, Sr., Local No. 141, Chicago, 111. 

Henry E. Eason, Local No. 747, Oswego, N. Y. 

T. J. Elder, Local No. 200, Columbus, O. 

Frederic Gauthier, Local No. 634, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Russell Grandstaff, Local No. 3, Wheeling, W. Va. 

Robert S. Hai-per, Local No. 634, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Anthony Hondori>, Local No. 1330, Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Edvt^ard Hoover, Local No. 337, Detroit, Mich. 

Robert Hoving, Local No. 512, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

L. W. Hubbell, Local No. 141, Chicago, HI. 

A. L. Kendall, Local No. 993, Miami, Fla. 

David Lammel, Local No. 141, Chicago, HI. 

Wm. G. Marshall, Local No. 634, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Robert Matson, Local No. 1590, "Washington, D. C. 

Robert McKenzie, Local No. 740, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Clyde A. Meade, Local No. 1542, Dodge City, Kans. 

Francis Miller, Local No. 747, Oswego, N. Y. 

J. Franli Mitman, Local No. 406, Bethlehem, Pa. 

J. J. Nealon, Local No. 200, Columbus, O. 

Clinton A. Noble, Local No. 67, Roxbury, IMass. 

M. M. NoiTis, Local No. 1590, Washington, D. C. 

Eugene Poggie, Local No. 740, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Thomas R. H. Rasey, Local No. 634, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Adam Taylor, Local No. 141, Chicago, 111. 

Charles AV. Tienken, Local No. 808, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Ii-vin A. Todd, Local No. 490, Passaic, N. J. 

William A. Wilson, Local No. 33, Boston, Mass. 

* * * 



KILLED IN ACTION 
Brother J. E. Blanton, Jr., Local No. 252, Goose Creek, Tex. 
Brother Josei)h Collura, Local No. 490, Passaic, N. J. 

• * • 

MISSING IN ACTION 
Brother Clearance Greene, Local No. 252, Goose Creek, Tex. 




Ladies Auxiliary No. 61, Reports Various Activities 

The Editor : 

Ladies Auxiliary Xo. 6i of Carpenters Local 8j, St. Paul, ]\Iinn., would 
appreciate it very much if 3-ou would publish in The Carpenter, the activi- 
ties of our Auxiliary. 

AVe meet on the second ^Monday of each month at the Teachers Fed- 
eration Hall, 372 St. Peter Street. 

We have a membership now of about 35 members Avhich we hope to 
increase regularly. Some ^^ears ago we had a larger Auxiliary but due to 
the past depression some of our members dropped' out. 

AVe managed to keep together and met in the homes. It Avas during this 
time that over 2 dozen books were bought and sent to the Home for Aged 
Carpenters. 

In the past years we really gave some memorable affairs including 
Christmas parties and family suppers. 

AVe had a famih" supper this 3'ear at Christmas and every one had a 
good time. Gifts were exchanged. 

We have bought bonds during every bond drive, two $100.00 Bonds and 
two S25.00 Bonds and AVar Stamps. We also donated to the Red Cross. 

When any member of our organization is sick, we send them a card 
or flowers. 

Every other month we have a social night, usualh' a card party fol- 
lowed by refreshments. Our husbands are especial!}^ invited to join us on 
these social nights. These card parties are usually open to the public. 

AVe all try to purchase things with the L'nion Label. 

The Officers of the Auxiliary are: President, ]Mr5. Jack Schneider; 
Vice-President, Mrs. John Carlgren; Secretary, Mrs. Elmer Pearson; 
Treasurer, 'Sirs. AA'm. Denzer. 

Best AAlshes to All. 

Mrs. Elmer Pearson, Secretary, 
1738 Palace Ave. - St. Paul 5,Minn. 



Ottumwa Ladies Celebrate 3rd Anniversary 
The Editor: 

The Ladies Auxiliary 370, of Carpenters Local 767, celebrated our 
third anniversary in March, with a supper in the Carpenters' hall for mem- 
bers and families. AA^e had a birthdav cake, and the men furnished the ice 



THE CARPENTER 57 

:ream. These get-tog-ethers are always enjoyal)le and we had the pleasure 
that evening of welcoming one new member. 

During th past year we have been helping with the war activities. At 
Christmas each boy on our service roll was sent a card and handkerchief. 
We know these were appreciated by the letters and messages receivecl 
from the boys. 

Other activities engaged in w^ere to help with the Budd\' Boxes, also 
postage for them, March of Dimes for the Infantile Paralysis Fund, Mercy 
Ship, Local Red Cross drive and w^e give each month to the Blood 
Plasma fund. AVe have bought one bond, during the last bond drive. 

Some of our ladies help regularly at the Red Cross Surgical Dressing 
stations. 

We had one benefit games party to help raise funds for our work. 

We recently had a birthday party for T. D. W^atson, the oldest mem- 
ber of the Local. 

W^e had a birthday cake with 88 lighted candles on it, a gift from the 
A-Uxiliary. 

The Local also presented Mr. W^atson with a gift. 

As we start a new year, as an organization, we hope to accomplish more 

than in the year just ended. 

Fraternally yours, 

(Mrs. \y. C.) Lena Minnick, Secretary, 

'ioy E. Hall St. Ottumwa, la. 

. » — 

Members Eagerly Await "The Carpenter" 

Thank you for publishing my letter in your April "Carpenter." You 
will be interested to know that your magazine is read immediately it 
reaches the home — I know, because I made a mistake and I've heard about 
it — the Sisters have told me and some of the Brothers have told me. 

Would you be good enough to insert a correction for me? Auxiliary 
303 meets the 2nd and 4th Thursday of each month. 

Thanking you in anticipation of }'our being able to spare me enough 
space to retify my error, I am, 

Fraternally yours, 

(Mrs.) Ida M. Taylor, Secretary, 

Toronto, Ont., Can. 

• 

Equal Pay Policy Spreads 

Although many industries still pay women beginners less than men, the 
"equal pay for equal work" principle advocated by unions and government 
has advanced during the war, OWI asserts. 

More than 2,250 firms have voluntarily equalized rates for men and 
women doing the same amount and quality of work since the WLB an- 
nounced its policy of equal pay in Nov. 1942, OWI reports. These volun- 
tary equalizations have increased the rates of about 59,500 women. 



58 THE CARPENTER 



IMPORTANT 

The Federal Postoffice Department now requires 
extra postal charges when they notify International 
Headquarters of any change in address of members 
on The Carpenter mailing list. 

These changes are literally coming in by the hun- 
dreds and the expense is a considerable item. This 
expense can be avoided if all members use the form 
below, to notify us of change of address. Just fill out 
the form and drop it in the mail addressed to Editor, 
The Carpenter, 222 E, Michigan Street, Indianapolis, 
4, Ind. 

This is an important matter and it is requested 
that all members notify International Headquarters 
of change of address IMMEDIATELY. 



(Date) 19 

Editor, The Carpenter, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, 4, Ind. 
Please change my address on Journal file. 

From Street 

City State 

To Street 

City State 

Name in full 

L. U. No , City State 



Fill out this blanic if you have changed your address, paste it on 
a one cent postcard and send to the General OflBce. 

Honorary members are required to pay one dollar yearly sub- 
scription rate. 



Craft ProblQms 




Carpentry 



By H. H. Siegele 
LESSON 188 
The irregular roof, whether in plan or 
in pitch, is rarely used; however, when 
it becomes necessary to use it, then, as 
a rule, there is no other solution for 
the problem. We are using for conveni- 
ence, as nearly as possible the same 
plan for illustrating the various prob- 
lems that we wish to bring before our 
readers; that is, the dimensions and the 
plans are kept as nearly alike as we 
can. In actual practice it is seldom that 
the same plan is used twice, for the 
simple reason that the irregular plan 
is usually vised as a solution to some 
problem brought about by existing cir- 
cumstances. What we want to impress 
on the reader's mind is that if he un- 
derstands thoroughly the principles in- 
volved in framing a roof for a certain 
irregular plan, he will have no trouble 
applying those principles to any irregu- 
lar plan roof that he might be called on 
to frame. Making a diagram of the 
roof plan at as large a scale as con- 
venient, is the most practical way of ob- 
taining the various cuts and lengths of 




the different rafters of either the irregu- 
lar-plan roof or the irregular-pitch roof. 
While the square root method is more 
accurate, it is not the most practical, 
since so few carpenters are able to work 
a problem in square root off-hand. A 
diagram in roof framing, to be exact, is 
simply materialized square root. 

Fig. 1 is a one-line drawing of a plan 
of a roof that is irregular in plan 



throughout. By using a deck, as we are 
showing on the plan, the framing of the 
roof becames a matter of framing com- 
mon rafters for a regular-pitch roof, ex- 
cepting that the jack rafters and the 
end rafters on either end are irregular 
and must be framed accordingly. The 
dotted lines shown to the left indicate a 
pair of regular common rafters. Tech- 
nically speaking, the end rafters (left) 
must be cut just a trifle longer with a 




slight bevel; however, in practice, on 
this plan, a pair of common rafters 
would answer the purpose, because the 
difference in the lengths would hardly 
be noticeable. If the irregularity in the 
plan were greater, then the end rafters 
would have to be framed to the proper 
length and bevel. The end rafters at the 
right and the jack rafters would be 
framed as explained under Fig. 2 of 
the last lesson. 'At A we show a detail 
of the framing of the deck with a 
tapering fillet to give the deck fall. The 
dotted lines show how the roof could 
be framed without a deck, in which case 
each pair of rafters would have to be 
framed a little shorter than the pair 
before. To determine the difference in 
the lengths of the rafters, a pattern for 
the shortest pair of rafters and a pat- 
tern for the longest pair of rafters 
should be made and the difference in 
the lengths of these rafters should be 
divided into as many equal parts as 
there are spaces on the plan between 
the longest and the shortest rafters, 
which would give the different lengths 
of all rafters. The dotted line through 
the center shows where the comb would 



60 



THE CARPENTER 



come, which would incline toward the 
left end. 

Fig. 2 shows the same plan but for a 
hip roof. If the deck that is shown were 
omitted the roof would come to a point 
at the dotted line. The positions of the 
hips are found by setting one leg of the 
compass at a and, at a convenient dis- 
tance, striking b, b. Then strike the 
cross at c from b, b and draw the hip 
from a through the cross at c. 

Fig. 3 is a diagram showing three hip 
rafters and one common rafter — the H's 
indicate hips and the C a common raf- 
ter. In each of these rafters a-b repre- 
sents the rafter, c-b, the rise and a-c, 




the run. To get the right conception, 
imagine each of these rafters in tri- 
angular form, hinged at the run and 
lying flat on one side. In other words, 
point b would have to be swung around 
until it would be directly above c in 
order to bring the rafter into its proper 
position. Only one hip is shown at the 
left, because the two left hips are the 
same. The shaded bevel at a gives the 
foot cut, while the one at b gives the 
plumb cut on each of the rafters shown. 

Fig. 4 is a diagram 'showing the four 
rafters just explained, the letters having 



H. H. SIEGELE'S BOOKS 

CARPENTRY, — Has more. than 300 pages and over 
750 illustrations, showing how to do things that car- 
penters have to do, not theories, $2. 

BUILDING. — This new book has 210 pages and 493 
practical illustrations, covering form building, scaf- 
folding, finishing, plans for a house, stair building, 
root framing and other subjects, $2. Send cash or 
IMoney Order. C. O. D. orders, postage and C. 0. D. 
fees, extra. Order today. 

H. H. SIEGELE 

222 So. Const. St. Emporia, Kansas 

TWIGS OF THOUGHT, poetry, revised and en- 
larged with nice cloth binding, $1. All books bear the 
Union Label and will be autographed. 



the same significance. It will be noticed 
that the four rafters have the same rise, 
but each one has a different run. To the 
left is shown a square, in part, applied 
to the diagram in order to obtain the 
figures to be used when making the dif- 




Fig. 4 

ferent cul^. The base figure, 12, 
brought to the points of the rafters and 
where the lines of the different rafters 
cross the right edge of the tongue gives, 
respectively, the different figures to be 
used on the tongue. The same diagram 
is shown in Fig. 5. Here the figure 
is used on the tongue' in each case, as 
indicated. The square in position A, 
shows 24 and 8 as the figures to be used 
to obtain the cuts. When the square is 
slipped back to position B, shown by 
dotted lines, 8 will again be the figure 
to be used on the tongue, but the figure 
to be used on the body of the square 
must be obtained on the square at the 
points of the rafters. To obtain the fi£ 
ures for the other two rafters the square 
would have to be moved back to posi- 
tions C and D. 

Fig. 6 shows another diagram of the 
plan we have been using. The dotted 




Fig. 5 

lines to the upper left show where the 
hip rafters would come if the plan were 
regular. The plumb and foot cuts ol 
the common and jack rafters are regu- 
lar. The edge bevels of the jacks are 
different for each of the three hip raf- 
ters shown. To obtain the edge beve: 
for the jacks in this roof, take the dis- 
tance a-b and the length of the com- 
mon rafter per the distance b-c, the lat- 



THE CARPENTER 



61 



ter gives the cut. The diagram is based 
on a run of 12 inches, or one foot, which 
keeps all figures within the length of 
the body of the square, but in case of a 




Fig. 6 



plan where the distance a-b would be 
more than 2 4 inches, then divide both 
figures by two and use the quotients on 
the square to obtain the cuts. 



Saw Teeth and Sharpening 
Them 

The carpenter who can sharpen his 
saws so that they will cut smoothly, 
tas found one of the principal keys to 
his success as a carpenter, and this arti- 
cle is presented to help those who might 
not have possession of that key now. 




c*: 



-i-^ \ t~) 



Fig. 1 

Fig. 1 shows at a, a side view of 
saw teeth of a cutoff saw. At b we 
are showing the same teeth, looking 
straight at the points. At c we have a 
section, showing the set of the points. 




B 

Fig. 2 

In the same way, Fig. 2 shows the 
teeth of a rip saw respectively at A, B 
and C. It will be noticed that we are 
showing a slight bevel on the teeth, 
even though a rip saw should be filed 



straight across. However, in filing a 
rip saw, every other gullet should be 
filed from one side, then the saw should 
be turned and those that are left should 
be filed from the other side. This prac- 
tice, in most cases gives the teeth the 
slight bevel we are showing, which at 
the same time keeps the teeth balanced. 
Fig. 3 shows four enlarged views of 
five saw teeth. At a, we show what hap- 
pens to the points when a saw is joint- 
ed; at b, we have a view of the jointed 
points looking straight at them, show- 




Fig. 3 

ing little white triangles at 1, 2, 3, 4 
and 5. In filing a saw after it has been 
jointed, the saw should be so placed in 
the clamp that the light will strike the 
jointed points in such a manner that it 
will reflect to the eyes of the saw-filer, 
in which case the points will appear as 
little white specks. These the saw-filer 
should keep in mind as he files, and 
stop filing just as soon as the white 
speck is gone. This, to get a first-class 
job, will often mean that the last stroke 
with the file will have to be only a part 
of a stroke. Another thing that should 



CARPENTERS 



-We teach the steel sauar£ in five 
easy lessons by mail: You can now 
throw aw»y the old fogy ideas, books, talks, etc.. which 
have not been changed in principal for last 100 year? We 
teich you the suuare in a way you will never forget. The 
word tangent, hypotenuse, A as to B and C as to A eto., 
are never mentioned in our teaching of the square. Ours Is 
a Modern Method fully copyriglued and ready to be passed 
out to the carpenter that wants to know all about the 
square In several weeks of correspondence with us. You 
receive one lesson at a time. Send in your examinatloa 
blank properly filled out. it will be checked and returned 
with proper comments. We use a '4 size practice framing 
•quare which we furnish. Witli this square you actually 
will enjoy doing your study work right at home in tho 
living room. This course is guaranteed to teach any per- 
«on who can read. BUILDERS' TOPICS, SImBllfled book 
on the steel square is said to be the easiest to understand. 
For $8.00 we furnish plans and instructions. Also sized 
One grained Washington cedar materials for building 20' 
I 20' model bungalow roof with one hip. valley and two 
gables. Scale 1" to foot. This is a honey. Write today. 

BUILDERS' TOPICS "'"^SEATTtE^l'^WASH:"'"" 

p. S. If you want to .«end 2'ic coin we will send you a 
practice square and partial lesson. 



62 



THE CARPENTER 



be watched is the shape of the teeth; 
for they should always be kept at a 
uniform size. If the iiling develops, al- 
ternately, a large gullet and a small gul- 
let and so forth, then you should regu- 
late the pressure on the file so as to do 
the greater part of the filing from the 
small gullets, and just a little from the 
large gullets. If this is watched, and 
painstakingly done, you can make your 
saw teeth look much on the order of 
those we are showing from two view- 
points at c and d of Fig. 3. 



Cracked Before Sharpening 

A craft problem that often becomes 
an annoyance to the workman is the 
breaking of the lead in his pencil just 
when he needs it most, and to make 
matters worse, when he stops to sharp- 
en the pencil he finds that the lead 
keeps on breaking off piece by piece as 
he proceeds with the sharpening; and 
when it does hold again, the pencil 'has 
become too short for practical use. The 




truth of the matter is that the lead does 
not break while the sharpening is done, 
it is already cracked, somewhat as 
shown by the dotted lines in the accom- 
panying illustration. 

Pencil number 1 shows by the dotted 
lines, through the center part of the 
pencil, how the lead is broken, either 



by the pencil being bent or for some 
other reason. When the pencil is used 
from the end, the lead holds until it is 
shapened to about the point marked a, 
pencil number 2. At this point the pen- 
cil is not too long and not too short, but 
then the lead begins to break somewhat 
as shown at b, number 3. When this 
happens, instead of resharpening the 
pencil, cut it off as shown by the dot- 
ted line between c and c, and sharpen 
the other end of the pencil, as at d. 
In this way you can utilize the best 
parts of the pencil without the lead 
breaking constantly, as it often does 
when resharpening is attempted through 
the center ... Of course there are some 
exceptions, but we have found that the 
lead in many carpenters' pencils is 
cracked before sharpening somewhat as 
shown by the dotted lines in the illus- 
tration. * 



-k -k -k 

They Bleed for Us. Let Us Bleed for 

Them. GIVE BLOOD TODAY! 

• • • 



THERE iS AN EASY WAY 

To Learn to Read the Square 

My book teaches you how the practical 
way. Big improved second edition, all il- 
lustrated and explained simply. It teaches 
you how to cut everything without read- 
ing the rafter table. Learn the easy way 
to cut jack, hip, and valley rafters. Learn 
how to set jack rafters 12, 16, 24 inclies 
to center ; how to cut polygons by the 
square or in the mitre box ; how to make 
reverse cuts ; how to cut the Gambrel 
roof ; how to read the board measure 
square ; how to build stairs ; even how to 
make blueprints, and so forth. Price, 50c 
plus postage. Union printed. Write to 

JOSEPH F- KUPEC 
1237 No. 21st St. Lincoln, Neb. 



50 Cents Per Dozen 



No. 




CARPENTERS 

Demand the Best The Genuine 

P. IVS. SAWS knn BLADES 



The Saw of Superior Quality with a National Eeputation. 
Manufactured by a member of U. B. of C. & J. of A. No. 1. 
If your dealer does not handle, write direct to me. 



P. P. MAXSON, 

3722 N. Ashland Ave. 



Sole 



Manufacturer 

CHICAGO, ILL. 




NUCUT 



SAW 
FILES 



Cuts, cross -sections and shapes to, 
meet all your saw and other filing' 
needs. NUCUTS cut more, better, 
faster, with less effort. 

HELLER BROTHERS CO. 
Newark, N.J. Newcomerstown, Ohio 



MADE BY AMERICA'S OLDEST FILE MANUFACTURERS— GOOD TOOLS SINCE 183i 




MAKE TIME 

with 
"YANKEE" TOOLS! 

Do the tools you buy make 
your work easier, faster, 
I , more efficient? Do they save 

in ' ^°" time, money, trouble? 
8 H ' Will they stand the pressure 
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keep by long, dependable 
service":' They will, indeed, if they are 
'Yankee" Fine Mechanics' Tools, the choice 
of true craftsmen everj-where, for more than 
half a century. There's only one trouble with 
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that will be corrected quickly by Victory: 
Supply can't keep up with demand ... for 
Yankee" Tools, you see, are at work for war. 



YANKEE TOOLS 

make good mechanics beiier 

North Bros. Mfg. Co., Phila. 33, U. S. A. 
EsJoblished 1880 



Makers, also, of "Yankee-Handyman" Tools 



YOURHAND 
PLANING JOBS 



with PORTABLE ELECTRIC 




One man and a Portable Electric MALL Plane can do the work 
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MALL Planes make cuts up to Vg" and IVi^ wide in both pine 
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depth of cut, A hairbreadth adjustment 0" to Vs" is easily made 
by turning the handle. 

MALL Planes are full ball-bearing mounted . . . grease incased 
gears transmit the power to cutter head ... and a trigger switch 
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plus perfect balance make for easier handling. A removable 
beveling fence can be supplied for fitting, sash and doors. With 
skilled hands at a premium, you can do hand planing faster and 
cut costs with Portable Electric MALL Planes. 

^k your Dealer and Write for Literature. 

MALL TOOL COMPANY 

'51 South Chicago Av., Chicago 19, ELI. 




9 BIG BUILDING BOOKS 



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AMERICAN TECHNICAL SOCIETY Vocational Publishers since 1898 
Dept. G536 Drexel at 58th Street, Chicago 37, III. 
You may ship me the Up-to-Date edition of yiur nine 
big books, "Building, Estimating, and Contracting" with- 
out any obligation to buy. I will pay the delivery charges 
only, and if fully satisfied in ten days. I will send you 
$2.00, and after that only $3.00 a month, until the total 
price of only $2fl.80 is paid. I am not obligated In any 
way unless I keep the books. 

Xame 

Address 

City State 

Please attach a letter stating your age, occupation, employer'! 
name and address, and that of at least one business man u 
a reference. Men in service, also please give borne address. 



MR. CARPENTER 




Here is what you 
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on any hand 
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Sent Postpaid anywhere in the U.S.A. for $1 

CLERLINE MFG. CO. 

WEEDSPORT, N. Y. 



LET'S BACK THE 

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• 

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"The Saw Most Carpenters Use" 




Medium weight Skew-back pattern. 
Made in 20-inch 10 points cross-cut; 22-inch 
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See your Hardware Dealer about this fine 
hand saw or other Disston tools needed for 
essential war work. 

The Disston Saw, Tool and File Manual is 
FREE from your Hardware Dealer — or write 
for a copy to 

^3^^ HENRY DISSTON & SONS, INC. 

504 Tacony, Philadelphia 35, Pa., U.S.A. 

id 



BOSlNESSr 



MAKE A GOOD LIVING IN YOUR OWN 

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k Send Free Plan on Saw Filing business — no 

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k Name 

^Address 





[ Set of Blue Prints aricf 

•CCBbOK 

. "HOW TO READ BLUE PRINTS" 



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for BrTLDERS 

E-105 Tech Building 

2000 S. Mkihigan Ave., Chicago 16, Illinois 



DOLE 



For over 100 Years 
the choice of 
skilled Carpenters 




No. lU 
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Balanced 
Right 

When you swin^ 
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day after day you'll 
appreciate its perfect 
balance and tireless action. 

MAYHEW STEEL PRODUCTS, Inc., Shelbume Falls, Mass 
Sold Through Hardware Dealers 



i'S o 



."■■Si"" 




MILLERS FALLS 
TOOLS 




MILLERS FALLS 

COMPANY 
GRE ENFIELD 
MASSACHUSETTS 




Background Photo Courtesy Boeing Aircraft Co. 



^nvit Tools 


Chisels — Wood 


Mitre Boxes 


Awls 


Dolly Blocks 


Planes 


Bars — Ripping 


Hammers 


Punches 


Jit Braces 


Hand OriUs 


Rules 


Soring Tools 


Knife 


Saw Sets 


}reast Drills 


Levels 


Scrapers 


Chisels — Cold 


Marking Gauges 


Screw Drivers 



Sledges 
Soldering Irons 

(Electric) 
Spoke Shaves 
Squares 
Vises 

C STAN LEY ]r^ 



Stanley Screw Drivers are 
proving their quality daily 
on three-shift, 'round-the- 
clock production of war 
goods. 

While mass production . . . 
to meet urgent war needs 
. . . has made necessary some 
simplification of design and 
finish, the same Stanley 
Quality you have always 
known, has been main- 
tained, Stanley Tools are 
proving again the produc- 
tive power of good tools 
in the hands of earnest 
mechanics. 

Until war needs are met, 
give the tools you have ex- 
tra care — and buy new ones 
only for essential use. 

STANLEY TOOLS 
111 Elm Street, New Britain, Conn. 



THE TOOL BOX OF THE WORLD 



ASTENIN6S 

Quicker 



WITH 



PAI N E ?o\%^' 

AND TOGGLE BOLT CLAMP 

IN HOLLOW MATERIAL 

Clamp Cuts Installation Time in 
Half and Saves 





BOX OF PAINE TOGGLE 
BOLTS 

Ask your Hardware Dealer 
for PAINE Toggle Bolts and 
get the clamp FREE. 



THE PAINE CO. 

2967 CARROLL AVE. 
CHICAGO 12, ILL. 

OttUmi In Principal CIrimt 




AUDELS Carpenters 
and Builders Guides 

Imlda Tr*d* lttforfnatle« 

for CarppntereJBuildera. Jora- 
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all Woodworkers. Theso 
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pnetical daily helper and 
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wodcer. Carpenters every* 
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anoe for yourself, ainiplf fill 

Inside Trade Information On: JbifbS^."" '*^ ^°^' 

How to use the steel square — How to file and set 
8aw3 — How to build furniture — How to use a 
mitro box — How to use the chalk line — How to ubo 
rules and scales — How to make joints — Carpcntora 
arithmeiic — Solving mensuration probleiDS — E&- * MVB^ MU9\ 
timating strength of timbers — How to set girders y\^\MtmJ^^ 
and sills — Plow to frame houses and roofs — How to 
estimate costs — How to build houses, bama, ga- 
rages, bungalows, etc. — How to read and draw 
plana — Drawing up apecificationa — How to ex- 
cavate — How to use settings 12, 13 and 17 on the 
steel square — How to build hoista and scaffolds — 
skylights — How to build stairs — How to put oa 
interior trim — How to hang doors — How to lath — 
lay doors — How to paint. 

THEO. AUDEL & CO., 49 W. 23rd St., N«w York City 

Mail Audeb Carpenters and Bufldors OuidM. 4 tdIs^ on 7 days' free triaL If O.K. 
I wai remit $1 in 7 days, and H monthly untU $6 is paid. Otherwis* X vfll return them. 
No oblicatioa unless I am satisfied. 

Nam* 

Address 

Oooupation , 

Reference GAft 




Amazing New Low Cost 

SICKNESS 
-ACCIDENT 



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INSURES YOUR 

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Sickness may strike 
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ACCUMULATED CASH for Stated Accidental Dea 



Do not confuse this policy ■with so-called 
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This ■wonderful, new kind of Insurance 
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It pays the applicant $25.00 ■weekly in- 
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up to §25.00 ■weekly for HOSPITAL — and 



many other liberal features all as 
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see for yourself that this is the 
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7ki« ooa happtn to you. 



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SendJVdMoney 



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FREE INSPECTION OFFER 

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Take advantage of this unusual opportunity to provide for the security of your 
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MAIL THIS COUPON TOD^ 



Unll«d tnturone* Co. 
Etgin Tower. Suit* e-IM-S 
Elgin, ilHnels. 

Please mail me at once complete information aixj Fi 
Inspection Offer of the "United" Family Group Sickm 
and Accident Policy. Send No Money. 

Name 



Address 
City — 



Sttte- 



rHE 




MPENTER 



FOUNDED 1881 

OtReial Publication of the 
UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS of AMERICA 




JUNE 1944 



m 







Lhij straw man, folks, has 
been set up by our enemies. 
His job is to fool Americans, 
to scare Americans, to lure 
them into destroying them- 
selves. 

His hands are dripping with — 
the blood of millions of in- 
nocent people — Frenchmen 
. . . Poles . . . Czechs . . . peo- 
ples of war-wracked coun- 
tries throughout the world. 

He has a deadly weapon. 

Hate. But here is the grim joker. He cannot fire thnt 

weapon . . . unless you pull the trigger. 

He hopes to destroy you by making you hate your neighbor, 
the people you work with, the folks who join you on air raid 
patrol. If groups of Americans fight each other, where will 
they find the colossal strength to destroy the Hitlers of the 
world? 

But he is a straw man. Tear off that cloak of hatred and 
he falls apart, completely. Take away that gun and he hasn't 
a leg to stand on. What's the gun loaded with? Lies, lies, 
lies! 

We hear, "The Troleslanis are prejudiced." "The Jews are 
intolerant," "The Catholics are bigoted." "The negroes are 
yellow." 

The lies aren't all thade up in Berlin or Tokyo. Some of your 
best friends tell them. But it is our enemy they help. People 



who would rather die than betray a military secret, betray our 
boys in uniform every time they repeat, or listen unprotest- 
ingly, to these lies. By spreading hatred and distrust, they 
slow up war production, sabotage civilian morale, dull the 
fighting spirit that makes a winning army. 

Shall we give the Germans and the Japs part of our army? 
Send them some of our planes and tanks and bullets? Of 
course not — that's ridiculous. 

Then let's not accomplish the same result by helping this straw 
man fire his gun. Break him down! Tear him to pieces! 
Expose him for what he- is ... an agent of the enemy, doing 
his ugly work wherever people are weak or careless enough to 
help him. 

This is a job for every American. Kill this straw man. He 
is disunity. If you don't destroy him, he will destroy you! 



^e^^t^^i^^^/ 



Think Straight -- Stop Rumors 



I 



n 




S FOR CARPENTERS 




Many Home Owners in Your Community Should Insulate With 

Ce^oteX rock wool BATTS 



Now is the time to go after home 
insulating jobs. Celotex Rock 
Wool Batts are available now; may 
be scarce later. 

Here's why. The government has 
formally warned the nation that ra- 
tioning of fuel will continue through- 
out next winter. That means that 
houses will need insulation. Owners 
should have the work done now^. 

To encourage insulating now^, the 



F.H.A. is offering exceptional terms 
through local loaning agencies. No 
down payments. First payment No- 
vember 1st. Three years to pay. 

Go after these jobs now. Ask your 
local Celotex dealer for prospects you 
can call on. Write for information on 
mailing pieces we furnish which you 
can use to solicit business. Address, 
The Celotex Corporation, Dept. TC6, 
Chicago 3, Illinois. 



C^EILOTEXX 



l!:ii !illllllllilllllllllllll llinillllllllllllllllillllllllllllllllllllllllllll!!llllllllllllllllllllllllllllll lll!IIHIIIIH^ 



A Monthly Journal, Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners 

of America, for all its Members of all its Branches. 

FRANK DUFFY, Editor 

Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, 4, Indiana 



Established in 1881 
Vol. LXIV— No. 6 



ENDIAXAPOLIS, JUNE, 1944 



One Dollar Per Year 
Ten Cents a Copy 



— Conten t s — 



Invasions Take Supplies 3 

A pipeline that must be kept flo-win^ full blast extends from American war 
plants to the fighting fronts. 

The Forests and Our Future _ _ - _ 6 

The chief forester of the United States evaluates our forest resources in 
the light of existing policies and practices. 

OTHER DEPART5IENTS: 

Plane Gossip .-.....-.- lo 

Keep 'Em Smoking ........ 14 

Editorials - -.--. 16 

In My Oijinion ,..._...-. 20 

Official Information --.--... 21 

In Memoriam --.--.---. 22 

Correspondence ..----... 23 

Of Interest to the Ladies -.-.... 26 

Craft Problems ■ 27 



Index 

Carpenters' Tools and Accessories 

Page 
E. C. Atkins & Co., Indianapolis, 

Indiana 32 

Foley Mfg. Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 32 

Greenlee Tool Co., Rockford, 111. 30 
Heller Bros. Co., Newark, N. J._ 29 
Keuffel & Esser Co., Hoboken, 

N. J. 28 

Mall Tool Co., Chicago, 111 31 

Mavhew Steel Products, Inc., 

Shelbume Falls, Mass 32 

Ohlen-Bishop Mfg. Co., Columbus, 

Oiho 29 

Paine Company, Chicago, 111 3rd Cover 

Stanley Tools, Naw Britain, 

Conn. 3rd Cover 



of Advertisers 



Carpentry Materials 



Page 
1 



31 



The Celotex Corp., Chicago, 111. 

The Franklin Glue Co., Columbus, 

Ohio 

Doors 

Overhead Door Corp., Hartford 

City, Ind. 4th Cover 

Technical Courses and Books 

American Technical Society, Chi- 
cago, 111. 31 

Theo. Audel, New York, N. Y 3rd Cover 

Builders Topics, Seattle, Wash 30 

Chicago Technical College, Chi- 
cago, 111. 

Mason & Parrish, Engineers, 

Kalamazoo, Mich. 

H. H. Siegele, Emporia, Kans 



32 



1 
28 



In line with the government's paper conservation directive, this issue of The Carpenter 
is confined to 32 pages as the Brotherhood's contribution to Victory. 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of 

Congress, Aug. 24, 1912. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for 

in Section 1103, act of October 3, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918. 



INVASIONS TAKE SUPPLIES 



Ranking Army Service Forces officer describes 
supply problems attending launching of invasion 

THE INVASION of Germany from the British Isles entails the 
the greatest military operation in the history of warfare. Millions 
of men with millions of tons of equipment are involved. The task 
of transporting them across the channel for the initial assault and keeping 
them supplied once a beachhead has been established is a job of such 
proportions that it staggers the imagination. Thousands upon thousands 
of different items are needed by modern armies today to achieve victory. 
Each particular item must be at the place it is needed most when it is 
needed most if success is to be achieved. 

A modern army is like a huge 
bomber that is made up of hundreds 
of thousands of parts. Lack of a 
single small gadget weighing a frac- 
tion of an ounce could well immo- 
bilize the whole big bomber. In the 



same way, the lack of a single small 
item of supply might cripple the 
effectiveness of a whole army. Con- 
sequently the problem of supplying 
our invasion forces with weapons to 
keep them at a peak effectiveness 
constitutes one of the most spectac- 
ular and amazing phases of the 
whole invasion show. What our 
Army Service Forces, with the co- 
operation and support of the sol- 
diers in overalls on the home front, 
have already accomplished is dra- 
matically described in the May issue 
of the Federationist by Major Gen- 
eral Lucius D. Clay. Said General 
Clay: 

The people of the United States 
today are engaged in history's 
greatest supply job. Backed by the 
industrial power of America and 
the labor of millions of her men and 



women, we are producing supplies 
in astronomical quantities for the 
war effort. 

Today there are enormous stock- 
piles in the United Kingdom — mate- 
riel of every type and description 
for the invasion of Western Europe. 

To get some idea of the logistical 
problems involved in such prepara- 
tion, think back for a moment to the 
first few months of the year 1942. 
The forces of the Allied Nations 
were on the defensive everywhere. 
Bataan was still bravely holding 
out, but it was only a question of 
time until those gallant few would 
be forced to surrender. 

The Japs were starting their drive 
in Java. The Germans were on the 
march. In almost every theater of 
war, things looked black indeed. 
The War Department was being de- 
luged with requests for troops to 
guard our own coastal cities. 

First allocation of fire-fighting 
equipment, gas masks, steel helmets 
and stretchers was being made in 



THE CARPENTER 



New York City to civilian defense 
workers. Air-raid warning- systems 
were being- installed up and down 
the seacoast. 

Yet at this very time supplies 
were on their way across the At- 
lantic for an event that seemed far 
in the future in those dark days, 
but a day we knew was bound to 
come. We had to plan ahead, and 
Ave had to plan accurately, so that 
Avhen the hour of decision finally 
came, no one could say "too little" 
or "too late." 

By 1943 the stream of supplies 
to our Allies became a mighty tor- 
rent, and those stockpiles in Great 
Britain grew and grew. Here are 
some of our accomplishments last 
year: 

We shipped more than 28,000,000 
tons of supplies and equipment to 
theaters of -operations. 

We carried overseas more than i,- 
500,000 troops and other passengers. 

We procured $23,200,000,000 of 
supplies and equipment. 

We moved 15,000,000 men within 
the continental United States. 

We took care of 3,850,000 patients 
in our hospitals. 

We did $2,400,000,000 worth of 
construction. 

We paid out $1,476,000,000 in 3,- 
000,000 family allowance accounts. 

We distributed 1,000,000 text- 
books to the armed services and en- 
rolled more than 12,000 students a 
month in correspondence courses. 

When I say "we" did these things, 
I do not mean the Army Service 
Forces alone did them. I mean that 
American labor and American in- 
dustry, working together, did them. 

There are three separate but in- 
terdependent sciences in warfare. 
They are strategy — the planning of 



campaigns; tactics — the execution 
of campaigns ; and logistics — the 
supplying of armies with the men 
and materials necessary for the im- 
plementation of strategy and tactics. 

In the United States logistics are 
the concern of the Army Service 
Forces. They are also the concern 
of every man and woman who works 
in a war industry, because every 
worker is part of the logistical chain 
that starts in an American factory 
and ends on the battlefields of 
Europe. 

The worker who molds buttons in 
New Jersey, the woman who mills 
a slot in a bayonet in Ashtabula, 
Ohio, the worker in Gary, Indiana, 
who shears out steel discs to be 
pressed into helmets — all of these, 
and uncounted thousands of their 
fellows, are part of the logistical 
chain, which starts with American 
labor on the home front and ends 
with the American soldier on the 
battlefront. 

One of the amazing things about 
the science of logistics is that it ap- 
parently has no limitations. It must 
consider and control what the na- 
tion eats, what the nation wears; 
where and under what conditions 
the citizens may travel, how hot or 
how cold their homes shall be, what 
hours they shall work, and a thou- 
sand other things. For all of these, 
through the application of logistics, 
have a direct and almost immediate 
impact upon the equipment and ef- 
ficiency of the fighting men at the 
front, and through them upon our 
enemies. 

Logistics alone cannot win wars. 
But logistics, improperly applied, 
can lose them. An army, for ex- 
ample, may be drawn, gradually, so 
far from its base that its lines of 
supply become too attenuated. Its 
force is then impaired, and it falls 



T ir E c A It p E N r !•: ii 



victim to its foes. In this g-lobal 
war many lines are stretched to 
their limit; they must not be allow- 
ed to crack. 

One of our major logistical prob- 
lems is the problem of reserves. For 
the operation to be efficient, it must 
be set up so that when supplies of a 
certain nature are placed in the 
pipeline in America, corresponding- 
supplies in the same quantity will 
come out of the pipeline in the 
theaters of operations the world 
around. To keep this pipe primed 
is an absolute necessity — and in 
order to do it, reserve supplies ex- 
actly reflecting- the lengths of the 
various supply lines must be kept 
on hand. 

This creates problems of storage 
and transportation. We cannot al- 
low ports of embarkation to become 
choked. Supplies m.ust reach the 
ports in the same ratio that they can 
be loaded aboard ship. 

All of these problems of produc- 
tion, of transportation, of storage 



and supply are apt to seem prosaic 
to the casual observer. There isn't 
much glamour in the work for those 
who toil through the night. Few 
medals are awarded. But let the 
logistical chain be broken at any 
point, or interrupted for but a single 
day, and the price may well be 
frightful. 

Break the chain once, and it takes 
months to repair the damage. Stop 
the flow of supplies to our troops to- 
day, and disaster will blacken the 
headlines tomorrow, just as certain- 
ly as night follows da3^ 

Combat has been defined as a 
series of emergencies. There are 
many emergencies ahead. Modern 
war is fluid, quick-changing, full of 
surprise. We will have rush orders 
of every type. We — all of us — will 
be asked to supply demands that 
seem impossible, but we will supply 
them. 

Only in this way can we move for- 
Avard, swiftly and surely, to the vic- 
tory ahead. 



Only 150 Sawsmiths In The Country 

Loss of sawsmiths, of whom there are onl}^ about 150 in the country, is 
one of the reasons why production of power-driven saw blades for cutting 
logs, pulpAvood and cordwood cannot be increased, WPB reports. Mem- 
bers of the Power-Driven Saw Blade Industry Advisory Committee said 
at their recent meeting that manpower shortages have curtailed production 
by 5 per cent a month in recent months. 



"Give Labor Voice/' ILO Urges 

Representation for labor at the peace conference was demanded by the 
United States Government in a resolution submitted to the ILO con- 
ference. 

This objective, for which the American Federation of Labor has con- 
sistently fought, was supplemented b}^ a demand that the ILO be consulted 
by other international organizations to be set up at the close of the war on 
all matters affecting the economic, social and political welfare of workers 

of the various countries. 




TH E CAR PE NTE RS' STAK E IN CON S E RVATI ON 



Hereiivith we present the first of series of aiticles being written exclu- 
sively for The Cai-penter by the V. S. Forest Sei'vice. These articles will 

authoritatively discuss tin- prr-iinsf forestry problems of the nation — prob- 
lems in which luembei'S of our Brotherhood have a vlta.1 interest. 



By Lyle F. WATTS 

Chief; Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture 

"1^^ THETHER he hangs doors, builds homes or fabricates v.ooden 
\ \' trusses for a mammoth airplane hangar, no one is more de- 
pendent upon plentiful supplies of good wood than the carpen- 
ter. Certainh^ one can list thousands of other uses to which this forest- 
grown material is put, including some 1.200 specific purposes essential to 
the far-flung armed forces of the United States ; but cut down the supply 
of wood, and whatever other difficulties result, to that extent a restric- 
tion is placed upon the carpenter's opportunity for making a living at his 
ancient and honorable trade. 

It is for this reason, I am sure, that 37^our magazine, THE CARPEN- 
TER, has in previous issues printed many articles on various phases of 
forestry, the forest resource, and the 



production and utilization of M^ood. 
Interesting and informative, these 
past articles no^v provide a fine 
' :i" -1 for clearer understand- 
i.-^ : - -- crucial situation in Tvhich 
the forest resource — origin of our 
supplies of w^ood, protector of vital 
watersheds, and the wellspring of 
man3" other social and economic 
benefits — has been precipitated. 

So ^ridespread in its ramifications 
is this forest^ituation that it would 
be most troublesome, if not impos- 
sible, to set down in the limited 
space of this article anymore than a 
few highlights. To me, after 33 
3^ears in the profession of forestr}^ 
all but a few of those ^^ears in the 
employ of the Federal government, 
the unsatisfactory and "challenging 



facts stand out crystal clear. I be- 
came chief of the U. S. Forest Serv- 
ice little more than a year ago. Since 
that time a flow of reports, letters, 
telegrams and ne^vspaper and maga- 
zine articles have convinced me of 
two things : 

First, a growing number of 
Americans are coming to under- 
stand what is happening to our for- 
ests, and what this means to the 
United States and its people. 

Second, the great majority does 
not understand, does not have the 
facts or is not in a position to fulh'^ 
appreciate the forest problem. 

I pick up reputable newspapers 
and magazines and — I regret to sa}^ 
— I find reputable men, among them 
sometimes friends of long standing. 



T 1 1 K C A K P E N T E It 



knowing-ly or unknowingly misrep- 
resenting- the facts, echoing a false 
doctrine that all's well with the for- 
ests, that the way things are going 
there'll always be plenty of good 
wood and that "all we must do to he 
saved" is to patiently refrain from 
expanding public action in the cor- 
rective fashion advocated by the 
Forest Service. 

What are the facts? 

Outstanding among them are 
these : 

On a nation-wide basis, the for- 
ests of the United States have been 
permitted to deteriorate to the point 
where today they are actually grow- 
ing only about one-half enough saw- 
timber to replace the amount annu- 
ally cut plus the amount destroyed 
by fire, insects, disease and the other 
elements. 

In the eastern half of the United 
States, old-growth timber, the kind 
from which comes the long, wide, 
knotless boards, has practically all 
been used up or destroyed ; and sec- 
ond-growth trees are too often be- 
ing cut before the}^ have time to 
reach full maturity or the best 
board-producing stage. 

Further, probably 80 per cent of 
all cutting on private lands is still 
being done without design and care 
as to whether sufficient growing 
stock is left standing or not. 

After destructive logging and 
burning, jy million acres that once 
grew fine merchantable timber are 
virtually non-productive. 

And even in the Pacific Northwest 
where one-third of the nation's saw- 
timber is to be found on 6 per 
cent of our forest land, many 
mills are having difficulty in obtain- 
ing stumpage, and many forest com- 
munities face drastic economic and 



social readjustment as a result ot 
too rapid timber exploitation. 

It is true that many progressive 
timber owners and operators have 
put into effect on their own lands 
good sustained yield operations or 
other programs for perpetuating the 
forests, but these give no assurance 
that the trend of needless destruc- 
tion and deterioration caused by bad 
practices on the great body of the 
forest land will be checked. 

These, then, are oustanding facts, 
picked from the top of the heap, and 
for purposes of illustration in this 
article which through the interest 
and cooperation of THE CARPEN- 
TER is to be the first of a series 
on today's challenging forest and 
wood-producing situation. But be- 
hind the facts thus spotlighted one 
can readily trace the effects of for- 
est deterioration and destruction in 
hundreds of once prosperous but 
now vanished or dying industries, 
in thousands of lost jobs for arti- 
sans and other workers and in the 
worst rural slums we have. 

All this is not new, but to viz- 
uaiize and evaluate it one has to see 
the forest situation as the national 
prol^lem that it is — -and as a problem 
which in the long run can be solved 
only by nation-wide public action. 
For the average man, engrossed 
with every day personal affairs, this 
understanding is not as simple to 
come by as might seem. For ex- 
ample, so long as there is plenty of 
lumber to be obtained in the local 
retail yard, what carpenter has much 
impulse or inclination to think about 
where the supply comes from, whe- 
ther the source of it is being pro- 
tected, or whether other forest areas 
are headed toward timber scarcity? 
All of us are inclined, I think, to 
see things from the viewpoint of our 
own immediate interest and activity. 



THE CARPENTER 



We must be informed and aroused, 
usually, if we are to see things from 
the broad viewpoint of public wel- 
fare or national good. 

But the day is here when the na- 
tional welfare, to which the per- 
sonal welfare of each of us is in- 
deed tied, cries out that public ac- 
tion be taken to stop the destruction 
and deterioration of forests. War- 
time demands serve to accentuate 
the wasteful cutting, the undermin- 
ing of local communities, the event- 
ual decline of local forest industries 
and the dislocation of workers to 
which I have alluded. 

Furthermore, it is apparent both 
from the importance of wood in the 
present world war and from current 
trends in forest use and misuse that 
unless corrective action is taken we 
may sooner or later find ourselves 
without timber in the sizes, species 
and quality vital to national secur- 
ity. Meantime, with a declining for- 
est resource we confront the pros- 
pect of post-war wood requirements 
continuing on the wartime level. 
One reason for this lies in the pent- 
up demand for forest products nec- 
essarily denied during the war. A 
second is that full post-war em- 
ployment of American workers will 
necessitate a flood of industrial ac- 
tivity higher than ever before at- 
tained in peacetime. 

A nation-wide program, with 
strong Federal leadership and par- 
ticipation, carefully calculated to 
meet the many-sided problems in- 
herent in this situation, has been 
proposed by the U. S. Forest Serv- 
ice. Briefly, this program provides 
for public control over forest prac- 
tices on private lands sufficient to 
check forest destruction and dete- 
rioration, for increased public ac- 
quisition of idle, cut-over lands, 
critical watershed areas and other 



land where public values are para- 
mount, and also for greater public 
aid in fire, insect and disease pro- 
tection, reforestation, education, 
technical guidance, credit and re- 
search. This program is thoroughly 
democratic in conception and pro- 
posed administration. And it gives 
the only positive assurance that we 
shall get good cutting practices on 
the private lands as a whole — the 
private lands which probably in- 
clude 90 per cent of the timber- 
gTowing capacity and furnish near- 
ly 95 per cent of the lumber supply. 

Yet despite the seriousness of the 
forest situation and the reasonable- 
ness of this program certain power- 
ful interests within the lumber in- 
dustry not only oppose it but even 
spray the pages of magazines and 
newspapers with paid advertising 
misleading the public into the com- 
placent belief that there is no need 
for concern about the forestry prob- 
lem in the United States ! 

As the editor of THE CARPEN- 
ter has proposed, let us examine in 
the next few issues of the magazine 
all the phases of the forest problem, 
as it is today, and as it is developing 
in this crucial period. Then let us 
examine what the Forest Service 
program actually is. After all, it is 
informed and interested groups like 
the Carpenters and Joiners Avho 
must arm themselves with the truth 
and in the final analysis see that 
proper action is taken through the 
democratic process. I welcome this 
opportunity to set the case for this 
program — as honestly and as fairly 
as lies within my power — before the 
400,000 readers of THE CAR- 
PENTER. 

Next Month: The impact of the 
war upon the forests, and the eft'ect 
of forest depletion as compared to 
manpower and equipment shortages. 



THE CARPENTER 



THE PHILADELPHIA CHARTER 

ILO Maps Program to End World Poverty 




ELEGATES from 41 nations to the recent International Labor 
Organization's conference adopted a broad charter of economic 
goals which emphasized that full employment and raising- the 
standards of living of working people in every nation must be the civil- 
ized world's primary post-war objective. 

This declaration, called the ^"Philadelphia Charter," recognized as a 
"solemn obligation" the responsibility of the ILO to further world-wide 

acceptance of the right of collective 

bargaining, a minimum living wage and of collective bargaining, 
guarantee, the extension of social 7. Provision of facilities for 

securit}^ and other measures to pro- training and transfer of labor, 
mote the health, education and eco- The ILO also sent a strong mes- 
nomic well-being of all peoples. sage to the enslaved peoples of the 

Before adjourning, the ILO also occupied countries of Europe prom- 
adopted a statement on the social ising them that their day of deliver- 



aims to be included in the peace 
treaty and to be applied thereafter. 
This resolution, submitted original- 
ly by the United States delegation, 
listed the following 7 points as be- 
ing of international as well as na- 
tional concern : 

1. Opportunity for useful and 
regular employment to all persons 
who want work at fair wages or re- 
turns under reasonable conditions, 
with provision for protection of 
health and against injury in all 
occupations. 

2. Raising standards of living 
to provide adequate nutrition, hous- 
ing, medical care and education. 

3. Establishment of minimum 



ance is not far off. 

In his closing address to the con- 
ference, Walter Nash, minister to 
the United States for New Zealand 
and president of the conference, 
termed the Philadelphia Charter 
the greatest social document that 
has yet been published. 

"But it Avill not be worth the 
paper it is written on unless we 
have action," he added. 

The ILO, in order to assure ac- 
tion on its recommendations, auth- 
orized its governing body to serve 
as the "watchdog" of the world- 
wide picture, with the duty of 
calling a special conference of the 
ILO when and if a general unem- 



standards of employment to prevent ployment situation develops. 



exploitation of workers, whether 
employed or self-employed, whose 
opportunities for high wage em- 
ployment are limited. 

4. Provision for child welfare. 

5. Provision for a regular flow 
of income to all those whose em- 
ployment is interrupted by sickness 
or injury, by old age or by lack of 
employment opportunity. 

6. The effective recognition of 
the right of freedom of association 



The governing body, in its turn, 
at a meeting, followed the adjourn- 
ment of the conference, directed a 
committee of nine to stand ready at 
all times to present the social view- 
point of the ILO at any interna- 
tional meetings held prior to the 
next ILO conference. 

Three representatives of the 
United States, including Robert 
J. ^^att, American workres' dele- 
gate, were named to this committee. 



p 



tAN 




SIP 



ENOUGH lOU's 

As this is being written, Congress is 
working on a measure to increase the 
national debt limit to two hundred and 
sixty billion dollars. 

Come the next war, let's make it 
table stakes. 

• • • 




Soio wait! Before I use this para- 
chute, is it u7iioti made? 

• -* • 

A da:vixed short 5 teaks 

The second commander-in-chief of the 
Jap navy has passed out of the picture 
since the war began. Like his prede- 
cessor, he was reportedly "killed in ac- 
tion." However, the Jap propaganda re- 
leases did not specify what kind of "ac- 
tion." In view of the continuing suc- 
cess of the American forces in the South 
Pacific, it was probably hari kari action. 

These two demised Japanese war 
lords were among the- militarists who 
were assuring the Jap people in 1942 
that America couldn't get ready to fight 
a war in less than five years. They are 
now getting their answer at Truk and 
Hollandia, and Rabaul. The whole situ- 
ation can't help but bring to mind one 
of our favorite stories. 

An old maid, who enjoyed the compan- 
ionship of a profane parrot was in the 
habit of receiving a visit from her pastor 
every Monday. To keep from being em- 
barrassed, the lady always threw a cloth 



over the parrot's cage before the pastor 
arrived. It happened that after one of 
his visits the pastor had occasion to re- 
turn the next day. Seeing him on the 
porch, the old maid hastily threw the 
cloth over the cage again, but not quite 
in time. As the minister entered the 
room, the parrot remarked: 

"This sui'e has been a damned short 
week." 

• • • . 

FIGEKE IT OUT FOR YOURSELF 

And speaking of ministers, an Epis- 
copal clergyman was once walking down 
the street wearing the garb of his pro- 
fession when he was met by tvro Irish 
lads. 

"Good morning. Father," said one of 
the bqys. 

"Hush," w^hispered the other, "he 
ain't no father. He's got a wife and two 
kids." 

• • • 

WAGES OF SES' XEED RAISING 

Despite the recent federal tax increase 
from 5% to 30%, cabarets and night 
spots seem to be doing a land office 
business the nation over. 

Moral standards of adults — following 
the usual wartime pattern — seem to be 
headed downhill; a fact that in turn is 
refiected in greatly increased juvenile 
delinquency. The rich set the pattern 
and the poor follow suit. 

And one of the ti'oubles is that the 
vices of the poor are the sophistications 
of the rich. 

• • • 

HOLD YOUR BONDS 

This month sees the greatest Bond 
Drive of the war get under way. With 
invasion just around the corner, (if not 
already under way by the time this goes 
to press) the needs of the Army and 
Navy reach new heights. More planes, 
ships, tanks and guns are needed, and 
more money is needed to pay for them. 
Buy every bond you can, and hang on 
to every bond you have. Too many peo- 
ple have been cashing in their bonds for 



THE CARPENTER 



11 



unnecessary reasons. Cashing a bond 
without the direst of reasons is handing 
Hitler a pat on the back. 

The guy that does so is like the wife 
who bought herself a swell new hat. 
"How did you manage to buy such an 
elegant hat?" asked her friend. 

"I sacrificed to buy it," replied the 
lady. 

"How?" 

"By cutting dow^n on my husband's 
lunch and tobacco money." 

The fellow who cashes in his bonds 
passes on the sacrificing to the boys in 
the amied forces just as surely as the 
wife who bought the hat. 

• • • 
ABOUT THE SIZE OF IT 

Few individuals sacrifice as much for 
the common good as union officers. 
There is alwaj's a union meeting, a 
board meeting, a committee meeting or 
a meeting of one kind or another to take 
up his off work time. If there isn't a 
meeting, one of the brothers is in trou- 
ble and needs help, or another brother 
needs advice. The union officer is a 
combination of attorney, adviser, and 
father confessor. Pretty soon his wife 
hardly recognizes him and his kids say, 
"Mamma, who's that man?" when he 
does come home, yet he keeps plugging 
away for the good of the cause. 

Whether it's true or not, we don't 
know, but they are telling about the 
two union officers' wives who were dis- 
cussing the recent marriage of a mutual 
lady friend. 

"Yes," said one, "she married a union 
officer, and a good, steady, stay-at-home 
chap, too," 

"Bigamist, eh?" queried the other. 

• • • 

ABOUT TEVIE, TOO 

Early summer, 19 44, sees the Ger- 
man sands running out. The mighty 
dream of empire Hitler and his stooges 
used as the carrot to dangle before the 
nose of the populace, turns to ashes. 
The defeat they visualized for the rest 
of the world now stares them in the 
face. 

It sort of reminds us of the colored 
chap testifying at a recent trial in 
Georgia: A fast freight train had killed 
a farmer's bull. The only witness to the 
accident was this one lad. On the stand 
during the trying of the case, he was 
told to tell his story. 



"Well, Suh," he said, "it wah like dis. 
Ah was standin' thar in de fiel' an' I 
sees de train comin' lickety-split. Den 
I sees the bull runnin' outen de Alfalfa, 
and de nex' thing I knows, de Alfalfa is 
runnin' outen de bull." 

For Hitler, the Alfalfa is now running 
out of the bull. 




Well, Miss Smith — guess tce'll have to 
stay after school again. You don't catch 
on as quickly as the others. 

• • * 

WIL^T'S IX A XAME 

A half dozen plans for reconverting 
our economy from a wartime one to a 
peacetime one have been brought forth 
in recent weeks. They apparently range 
all the way from very good to very bad. 
A couple of them at least are predicated 
on the theory that government should 
concentrate on giving industry every- 
thing but the treasury; the theory be- 
ing that the benefits bestowed on in- 
dustry would eventually trickle on down 
to the workers in the form of plentiful 
jobs. 

Since economics is not our line, the 
correctness or incorrectness of this 
line of reasoning is too deep water for 
us. There are many "experts" backing 
both the pro and con sides of the argu- 
ment. However, the comments on this 
questionable "trickle down" system we 
enjoyed most were those of a man of 
the cloth. 

Apparently being opposed to it, he 
called it the "Horse and Sparrow" sys- 
tem; the idea being to stuff the horse 
with oats on the theory- that the spar- 
rows will thus be assured of plenty of 
food. 



12 



Carpenter Becomes Ace 



To A CARPENTER, the son 
of a carpenter, fell the hon- 
or of becoming Cleveland's 
first Ace in World War II. The 
man achieving this distinction is 
Captain Frank A. Cutler, a member 
of Local Union No. ii, Cleveland. 
On May 8th, Brother Cutler bagged 
his ninth and ten Nazi planes over 




the Reich, barely a month after los- 
ing his left index finger in a fierce 
dogfight over enemy t err iter v. 
Seven of the planes credited to 
Capt. Cutler were shot down in com- 
bat and three were destroyed on the 
ground. 

However, the ten planes do not 
tell the whole story of Capt. Cut- 
ler's effectiveness as a combat pilot. 



Member of Local 11 achieves coveted 
status over Germany — the first Cleve- 
laiider to do so iii World War II. Father 
is also meraber of Local 11. 



He is also credited with destroy- 
ing several locomotives — pieces of 
equipment which Germany sorely 
needs. He has shot up and put 
out ,of commission numerous 
gun emplacements, flak towers, 
ammunition dumps, etc. and he 
has done more than his share 
of "'softening up'"' Nazi defenses 
as the prelude to invasion. For 
his daring exploits. Captain 
Cutler has already received the 
Distinguished Flying Cross, the 
Purple Heart, and the Air Med- 
al with three Oak Leaf clusters. 
Recently his superior officers al- 
so recommended him for the 
Distinguished Service Cross— 
the second highest U. S. mili- 
tary award. 

Early this year Capt. Cutler 
had a field day over enemy ter- 
ritory. He destroyed four Ger- 
man planes before returning to 
his home field, ffis formation of 
fighter planes was escorting a 
large number of bombers on a 
sweep over Hitler's domain. Cap- 
tain Cutler was. flying as wing 
man for his operations officer. 
Major Willie C. Jackson. Jr., of 
Natchitoches, La., when they spot- 
ted a large flight of ]\IE 109's 
headed for the formation of Fly- 
ing Forts they were escorting. 
Thev srot on the tails of the swas- 



THE CARPENTER 



13 



tika-marked planes and opened fire. 
Keeping on his same course, Capt. 
Cutler picked off the two end ships 
of the enemy group. Both ships be- 
gan to smoke and before long they 
caught fire and plummeted to the 
earth out of control and burning 
fiercely. 

A third German plane came into 
Capt. Cutler's sights shortly after- 
wards and the 50 caliber guns on 
his ship soon blasted it to bits. 
Separated from the rest of his flight 
by the last action, Capt. Cutler de- 
cided to head for his home field. 
Flying at low altitude, he was wing- 
ing toward England when he no- 
ticed an ME no taking off from a 
Nazi airfield. By a piece of clever 
nianoeuvering he brought his ship 
aound so he came in on the Nazi's 
rear. Just as the Nazi ship was get- 
ting its wheels off the ground, Capt. 
Cutler opened up with all eight 
guns on his Thunderbolt. The Nazi 
never knew what hit him and a few 
minutes later the ME no was only 
a couple of dollars worth of badly 
charred scrap metal. 

On April 13th, over Stuttgart, 
Germany, Capt. Cutler had his left 
index finger clipped oft' by a Ger- 



man l)ullet. "It couldn't have been 
done more neatly if it had been 
sawed off by one of my fellow union 
carpenters at home," he said. How- 
ever, this misfortune failed to stop 
him. Scarcely a month after being 
wounded he blasted out of existence 
his ninth and tenth Nazi planes, 

Capt. Cutler is the son of Mr. and 
Mrs. Glenn A. Cutler, 2007 Toben- 
son Drive, Cleveland, Like his fa- 
mous fighter pilot son, the elder 
Cutler is also a member of Local 
Union No. 11 of our Brotherhood. 

Another son, Harold, was killed 
in a plane crash while training as a 
naval pilot. A third son, John, is an 
assistant surgeon with the U. S. 
Public Health Service. 

Conscious of labor's political in- 
terests, Capt. Cutler has named his 
P-51 fighter plane "Soldiers' Vote" 
because, as he puts it, "If a man has 
the right to die for his country, he 
certainly has the right to vote." 

Capt. Cutler is a credit to his par- 
ents, his local union, our Brother- 
hood, the labor movement in gen- 
eral, and the United States as a 
whole. The Carpenter salutes him 
and bids him Godspeed. 



"G/ JOE'' Uses Union-Made Weapons 

The union label could be put on 85 per cent of all the weapons now in 
the hands of "GI Joes," WPB Vice Chairman Joseph D. Keenan said in an 
address to the Seventh Semi-Annual Convention of the Union Label 
Trades Department of the state of New York. 

"Eighty-five per cent of the engines of destruction that have been pro- 
duced in this country for the global fighting fronts have come from the 
plants having union contracts," he told the meeting. 

"It is a production record that is thrilling to all Americans except 
those who harbor the feeling that organized labor has not kept its no- 
strike pledge — a pledge that after two years of a very drastic economic 
upheaval is now 99.4 per cent pure," Keenan added. 

Labor's excellent record, Keenan said, is being challenged by schedules 
calling for the production rate for most critical material to rise 25 per 
cent by the end of this 3'ear. Meeting this goal, he asserted, will tax the 
resourcefulness of both labor and management. 





BROTHERHOOD SOLICITS COOPERATION OF LOCALS AND DISTRICT COUNCILS 
TO KEEP FIGHTING BOYS HAPPY. 



Of the several thousand local 
unions and district councils that go 
to make up our Brotherhood, only 
some forty organizations remem- 
bered the boys on the fighting fronts 
with donations to the Cigarette 
Fund during the past month. Con- 
tributions to the Fund barely topped 
the thousand dollar mark; — less 
than half enough to provide a mil- 
lion free cigarettes. To date our 
Brotherhood has been able to send 
at least a million cigarettes a month 
(plus the hundred thousand donat- 
ed by the tobacco companies for 
quantity purchases) to the battle 
fronts. It is the hope of our Broth- 
erhood that similar contributions 
can be made through the Fund every 
month for the duration. Another 
million smokes were sent overseas 
this month despite the fact contri- 
butions to the Fund fell far short of 
equalling the cost. 

Army and Navy officials recently 
pointed out that our soldiers and 
sailors are facing the toughest 
months of the war this summer. The 
showdown in Europe is at hand, and 
greatly stepped up activity against 
the Nips is destined to get under 
way at any time. For every man 
that was actually fighting a few 
months ago, there will be fifty 
Americans swapping blows with the 
enemy in a few weeks. All this 
means that many more men will be 
enduring greater hardships than 
ever before. Their need for morale- 



building cigarettes from home will 
be increased proportionally. 

To American lads fighting on for- 
eign soil, cigarettes are more than 
smokes ; they are currency and a 
medium of exchange combined. 
Many stories have come out of 
Africa and Italy showing the value 
of cigarettes. In Africa our sol- 
diers exchanged cigarettes for eggs, 
wine, clothes, and a thousand and 
one other important items that were 
unavailable for mere money. In 
Italy, too, cigarettes were the "open 
sesame" to many doors that would 
otherwise be closed to our fighting 
sons and brothers. Foreign corre- 
spondents and Red Cross workers 
have emphasized the fact that our 
boys cannot have too many cigar- 
ettes when they hit foreign soil. . 

More than any other one thing, 
cigarettes provided by labor organ- 
izations are helping to counteract 
the propaganda being fed our armed 
forces by interests that hope to de- 
stroy unionism in the post-war 
world by building up hard feeling 
between soldiers and workers. Let- 
ters of appreciation still pour into 
the General Office from all fighting 
fronts. Soldiers at Anzio, on New 
Guinea, on ships at sea, and on a 
dozen other battle fronts all write 
in to say "many thanks" for the 
smokes provided through the Cigar- 
ette Fund. With the hardest months 
of all just ahead of our soldiers and 
sailors, we are doubly obligated not 
to let them down.' 



T 11 IZ C A R P F. X T E R 



15 



The war is still a long- way from 
being- over. However, if there is 
any residue in the Cigarette Fund 
when the Avar is over, the money 
will be used to provide cigarettes 
for soldiers and sailors in govern- 
ment hospitals. Every cent to date 
has been spent for the benefit of our 
armed forces, and every cent that 
comes into the Fund in the future 



will be spent in the same way. A 
contribution to the. Cigarette Fund 
is just a way of saying "thanks" to 
our soldiers and sailors for the 
splendid job they are doing. 

All checks ff)r donations to the 
fund should be made payable to 
Cicneral Treasurer S. P. Meadows. 
Printed below is an accounting of 
the fund for the past thirty davs. 



CIGARETTE FUND 

Contributions received by the General Treasurer's office from April 25, to 
May 24, 1944. 



L. U. City and State Amt. 

36 Oakland, Cal. 25 00 

47 St. Louis, Mo. 250 00 

58 Chicago, III. 25 00 

62 Chicago, 111. 10 00 

117 Albany, N. Y 100 00 

182 Cleveland, Ohio 5 00 

189 Quincy, 111. 6 00 

232 Fort Wayne, Ind 10 00 

277 Philadelphia, Pa. 5 00 

454 Philadelphia, Pa. 10 00 

534 Burlington, la. 20 00 

660 Springfield, 0. "__ 10 00 

671 Clovis, N. M. 61 03 

895 Tarrytown, N. Y 10 00 

948 Sioux City, la. 25 00 

972 Philadelphia, Pa. 2 00 

1024 Cumberland, Md. 10 00 

1037 Marseilles, 111. 10 00 

1046 Palm Springs, Cal 22 25 

1108 Cleveland, O. 5 00 

1188 Mt. Carmel, 111. 4 30 

1297 New Brunswick, N. J - 25 00 

1351 Leadville, Colo. 25 00 

1489 Burlington, N. J 25 00 

1795 Farmington, Mo. 12 80 



L. U. City and State Amt. 

1815 Santa Ana, Cal 12G 32 

1846 New Orleans, La. 10 00 

2125 Whitefish, Mont. 5 00 

2162 Kodiak, Alaska 15 00 

2163 New York, N. Y 25 00 

2611 Eugene, Ore. 5 00 

2671 Roseburg, Ore. 15 00 

2674 Bradwood, Ore. 26 00 

2720 Toledo, Ore. 30 00 

2829 Forest Grove, Ore. 10 00 

2944 Grays Flat, Cal. 10 00 

3191 Chelsea, Mass. 10 00 

DISTRICT COUNCILS 

Indianapolis D. C, Indpls., Ind._ 25 00 
Metropolitan D. C, Philadephia, 

Pa. 25 00 

Passaic Co. D. C, Paterson, N. J. 5 00 



New Brunswick. N. J., (Executive 

Committee) 30 00 



656 Holyoke, Mass. 10 00 

(Omitted from previous report) 



• • * 
RECAPITULATION 

May 24, 1944 



Available Funds April 2 4, 1944. 
Receipts 



Total 



Expenditures: 

Axton-Fishei- 51,250 00 

Brown & Williamson 1.250 00 



$ 8.599 39 
1,085 70 

$ 9,685 09 



2.500 00 



Available Funds May 24, 1944. 



$ 7,185 09 



Editorial 




Let's Open the Doors Now 

On December 7, 1941, the American people resolved to win the war and 
win the peace that follows it. Today finds them winning the war nicely 
but not doing- so well with the peace. On the fighting fronts, progress is 
slow but steady; on the diplomatic fronts, doubts, misgivings, and uncer- 
tainty are increasing rather than decreasing. 

For one thing, there are too many closed doors on the diplomatic fronts. 
Right now there are a dozen conferences going on in Washington, in 
London, in Moscow, and other Allied centers. These conferences are delv- 
ing into problems of tremendous importance to the peace and economic 
welfare of the post-war world. But do the common people of England, 
Russia, and the United States know what is going on? A'^ery definitely not. 
Virtually all conferences are held behind closed doors. The committee^ 
meet in secret and disband in secret. Occasionally a participant gives a 
guarded and ambiguous statement to the press, and that is about all the 
ordinary citizens learn about what is going on. Yet what goes on in these 
conferences is bound to vitally aft'ect the future of every man in the nation. 

Post-war aviation, shipping, and oil supplies are all now being dis- 
cussed and worked on by various Allied committees. Currency stabiliza- 
tion and a world bank are also being given consideration." The agreements 
reached on these problems will have far-reaching effects. Still all the deals 
are being consummated behind closed doors. 

Why should this be? Early in the last war, President AVilson voiced a 
plea for "open covenants, openly arrived at." Had his advice been fol- 
lowed, probably the world would not be in. the mess it now finds itself. 
But his advice was disregarded. Deals were made behind closed doors. 
Big Business interests in the Allied nation got together and drew up 
agreements designed to enrich themselves rather than add to the common 
welfare. Are we now destined to travel the same hard road again — a road 
leading to a third World War in a couple of decades. Certainly we have 
placed our feet on that road when we continue to allow closed doors in- 
stead of "open covenants, openly arrived at" to prevail. 

If we are to have lasting peace and lasting prosperity, they must be 
predicated on understanding and mutual trust, — factors that do not thrive 
on closed doors and guarded secrecy. All the cards must be laid on the 
table face up as the starting point. 

Last month the International Labor Organization met in Philadelphia. 
There were no closed doors in the ILO meetings. Everybody knew what 
was going on. The agreements that were reached were reached after open 
and above-board discussion. If labor representatives dealing with ques- 



THECARPFXTER 17 

tions of world import can carry on their discussions in a forthrij^ht man- 
ner, why is it necessary for Big- Business and government officials to meet 
behind closed doors when considering matters involving billions of dollars 
and millions of jobs? 

Wilson's theory about "open covenants, openly arrived at" was good 
in 1918 and it is still good today. Where forthrightness and honesty dwell, 
no need exists for closed doors. If we are to build a decent post-war 
world, forthrightness and honesty must be two of the chief cornerstones. 

Let's open all the doors and let them in. 

• 

Europe's Slums Bombed — America's Safe 

The other day a great American hero came home. Sergeant Charles 
Edward Kelly, winner of the first Congressional Medal of Honor in the 
Italian theatre, returned to his mother's house in Pittsburgh for a short 
visit. No Ainerican hero since Alvin York of the last war has captured 
America's fancy as completely as has Sgt. Kelly. A typical American lad 
with an honest face and a ready grin, Sgt. Kelly represents something basic 
and fine — the something that helped to make America as great as she is. 

Naturally Sgt. Kelly's return was newsworthy. Newspapers, cameras, 
and microphones recorded his every move. And great was the shock of the 
nation when it learned that the house Sgt. Kelly was born and raised in 
abutted on a dingy ten-foot alley in a neighborhood of unpainted clap- 
board and crumbling brick. 

As we see it, however, there was reason to be neither surprised nor 
shocked. There are twenty million Sgt. Kellys in America who despite 
dismal surroundings and unbeautiful environment lead full and useful 
lives. The outside of the houses they live in may be unpainted and weath- 
er-beaten, but the inside is clean and spotless and homey. Neither shabbi- 
ness nor drabness can beat them. They are the backbone of America. 

The surprising thing is that so few people realized the deplorable 
housing conditions that exist in this country until the Kelly publicity 
called it to their attention. America, the richest land in the world, has 
housing conditions little better than those existing in some of the poorest. 
AVe have developed cars and radios and refrigerators, bringing them with- 
in the reach of nearly everyone. But we have neglected housing. 

Housing is — and unquestionably should be — destined to receive first 
consideration in the post-war era. The latest survey indicates that four 
and a half million new houses in the $3,000 to $6,000 class \vill be needed 
in the decade following the cessation of hostilities. We do not question 
the figures but we question the ability of anyone to numerically analyze 
anything as intangible and fundamental as the inherent desire of people 
to live in clean, airy, comfortable surroundings. If we can turn to housing 
the same zeal and fervor that are now turning out munitions in astronom- 
ical figures, perhaps twenty or thirty million new houses might be a better 
figure to use. 

But the fact remains that America does need millions of new houses. 
In the readjustment period the nation will need the millions of jobs that 



18 THE CARPENTER 

an adequate housing program will supply. Nothing must be allowed to 
stand in the way of bringing together in the post-war era decent housing 
and the millions of Sgt. Kellys who today still live in obsolete fire traps. 
We have done a job with automobiles and radios and refrigerators; we 
can do it with housing. 

And we can do it in the American way. A few bankers, mortgage 
firms and real estate men may try to block progress in favor of larger 
profits, but in the end home purchasing will become as simple, painless, 
and economical as buying a radio or refrigerator. Then the Sgt. Kellys of 
America will live in houses worthy of Americans, but in the meantime Sgt. 
Kellys will always continue to give a good account of themselves. 

• 

Bonds Do A Double Job 

This month sees the fifth and most important bond drive of the war 
get under way. We are now entering the phase of the war for which all the 
months since December 7th, 1941, were merelj" the buildup. We have the 
ball on the enemy's two yard line but it is going to take every ounce of con- 
certed effort the boys on the battlefront and we on the home front can 
muster to buck it over the goal line. This is what the sports writers call 
"the clutch," the moment when victory is achieved or the game is pro- 
longed indefinitel}-. A fumble at this time would be disastrous. The boys 
on the battlefronts will not fumble and we must not let them down ; we 
must carry the ball over on the bond front at any cost. 

^Millions of words have been written on the importance of buying 
bonds — especialh' at this crucial time when quick victory or a prolonged 
and bloody struggle hangs in the balance. Every one who can read knows 
he owes it to his country to put every extra cent into war bonds. However, 
there are too few people who realize that the}* owe it to themselves to 
make as big a portion of their pa}' checks as possible "extra" mone}' at this 
time. Every dollar spent needlessly now — a dollar that might have gone 
into war bonds — works a double injury. It weakens the war effort and it 
jeopardizes the spender's post-war future. 

Look around you. You will see some people spending their money as 
fast as the}' make it. A\'hen the war is over and the readjustment period 
slows things down for awhile, they will be the first to damn the govern- 
ment, damn democracy and damn everybody but themselves. Don't be one 
of these. Sure, America is going to face the greatest era of prosperity it 
has even known once this war is over. But things are going to be uncer- 
tain for awhile until the necessary readjustment is made. Prepare for that 
time now by buying bonds. 

Remember, the bonds you buy do a double job. They help achieve vic- 
tory now and they will help you weather any readjustment period crisis 
after the war. 



Religion would not have enemies, if it were not an enemy to their 
vices. — Massillon. 



THE CAIiP ENTER 



19 



HALF OF NATION'S WAGE EARNERS 

WORK UNDER UNION AGREEMENTS 



CLOSE TO FIFTY per cent of all workers in private industry are 
now covered by union agreements, the Department of Labor re- 
cently revealed. In January, 1944, the Department's statistical bu- 
reau disclosed, some thirteen and three quarters million wage earners — 
almost forty-five per cent of the total employed in private industry — were 
working under the terms of union agreements. Coverage extended to 
sixty per cent of all wage earners in manufacturing and more than ninety- 
five per cent of Longshoremen, Coal Miners, and Railroad Workers. Other 
industries were scattered in between. 



The weakest group of workers in- 
sofar as unionization is concerned 
were the clerical, technical, and pro- 
fessional personnel. About thirteen 
per cent of workers in this category 
were working under the protection 
of union agreements. However, in 
the transportation industries over 
one-half of the clerical and techni- 
cal workers were much better organ- 
ized; approximately half of such 



The Labor Department says that 
the net gain during 1943 of three- 
fourths of a million in the number 
of all workers under union agree- 
ment represent increases in some in- 
dustries and losses in others. "In 
general," it adds, "these differences 
correspond to changes in employ- 
ment in individual industries, rather 
than changes in the proportions of 



/ 1 . -^ J . workers covered by agreements." 

employes working under union -^ ^ 



agreements. 



However, unionism has shown 
a significant growth during the 
months since Pearl Harbor. At the 
recent meeting of the AFL execu- 
tive committee in Philadelphia, Gen- 
union members were required by g^al Secretary George Meany dis- 
agreement to maintain their mem- closed that the membership of the 
bership as a condition of continued Federation showed an increase of 



Closed or union shop agreements 
covered about six and a half million' 
workers and more than three million 



employment. 

An increase took place in 1943 in 
the proportion of manufacturing 
workers under maintenance of mem- 
bership provisions ■ — especially in 
the aluminum, machine tool and 



well over a half million in the last 
eight months, despite the withdraw- 
al of hundreds of thousands of men 
from industry to fill the armed 
forces. 

With American industry meeting 



steel products industries. Early in . virtually all arms quotas and half of 

1944 almost four and a third million the workers working under union 

workers were subject to agreements agreements, the smear arguments of 

providing some form of check-off labor haters fail to stand up against 

from wages. straightforward facts and figures. 



LET'S MAKE THE FIFTH WAR BOND DRIVE A SUCCESS BUY BOXDS 




What Our Readers Have to Say 

• • • On Topics of the Day 



(This Journal is not responsible for the views expressed by the writers.) 



Let's face it. 

For many years Labor has been out- 
skirmished by Business in forming the 
opinions of arerag'e Americans concern- 
ing the activities of the Unions. Busi- 
ness has been using the public press, 
the national periodicals, the mails, the 
movies and the radio to get to the 
vast 55,000,000 workers and service 
men with Business' ideology and views 
of the news concerning the struggles of 
Organized Labor. These means of com- 
munication have been, used but sparing- 
ly by Labor. 

Over the past several months public 
opinion has turned even more strongly 
against Labor and denunciations have 
been bitter. This is a natural reaction 
because the public has only heard one 
side of the story. Because the Public 
has not heard or read Labor's defense, 
it has assumed that Labor had none to 
offer. If Labor is to save itself from 
the effects of that adverse opinion it 
must act quickly and without counting 
the cost. 

The time has come for Organized La- 
bor to begin a public education program 
which includes the methods that have 
been so successfully used by Business. 
How else can these 55,0 00,00 workers 
and service men learn the truth about 
Labor save through the radio and press? 

Tou have but to pick up a metropol- 
itan newspaper or national magazine 
and leaf through the pages to find an 
ad by some firm or Association telling 
the readers how well paid are their em- 
ployes and how generous they have al- 
ways been in providing good working 
conditions. 

Seldom, however, do you find a 
similar ad or article by a Labor Organ- 
ization or leader and only occasionally 
do you hear a commentator giving La- 
bor its due. Why? 

Newspapers, periodicals, and the ra- 
dio exist through the sale of their space 



or time for advertising purposes. Com- 
mentators echo the sentiment of their 
employers. Otherwise they wouldn't 
have sponsors. 

Labor cannot expect and does not re- 
ceive free advertising. Business made 
friends of the press and radio by using 
their services and paying for them. 
Those that best advertise themselves 
and their products earn the greatest 
profits. Labor must realistically accept 
the fact that Americans believe what 
they read and hear if it Is repeated 
often enough. When Labor shows a 
willingness to pay for its advertising, 
the press and the radio will, unquestion- 
ably, cooperate with Labor and public 
opinion will be more favorable than ever 
before. 

A large, country-wide advertising 
campaign, will cost millions to be sure, 
but Labor can afford it. 

The Unions' national organizations as 
well as many Local Unions have been 
building huge Defense Funds, especially 
since the no-strike pledge. Part of those 
funds could be used for an advertising 
campaign which would be to the bene- 
fit of Labor. 

If necessary, annual assessments for 
such a campaign could be raised from 
Labor's membership. A dollar from 
each of its 16,00 0,0 members would 
make an excellent beginning. Surely the 
cost of regaining the faith and sym- 
pathy of the Public would be infini- 
tesimal compared to the rewards. 

Yes, it is time for Labor to carry its 
message into every American home. Any 
delay in beginning this program may 
very well be the difference between La- 
bor continuing its march forward to a 
better way of life or sliding backward 
into oblivion or impotency. 
PVT. WAiTER M. ALLEX 

Headquarters Detachment 
Prisoners of War Camp 
Camp Clai'k, Mo. 



Official Information 




General Officers of 
THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS 

of AMERICA 



i 



General Office : Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General President 

WM. L. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 

If First General Vice-President General Secretary 

M. A. HUTCHESON FRANK DUFFY 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Second General Vice-President 

JOHN R. STEVENSON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Treasurer 

S. P. MEADOWS 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



First District 



General Executive Board 

Fifth District, R. E. ROBERTS 
631 W. Page, Dallas, Texa.s 



Second District, WM. J. KELLY 
Carpenters' Bid., 243 4th Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Sixth District, A. W. MUIR 
10348S Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, Calif. 



Third District, HARRY SCHWARZER 
3684 W. 136th St., Cleveland, O. 



Seventh District, ARTHUR MARTEL 
1182 St. Lawrence, Rm. 10, Montreal, Que., Can. 



Fourth District, ROLAND ADAMS 
Keuka, Fla. 



WM. L. HUTCHESON, Chairman 
FRANK DUFFY, Secretary 



I 



All correspondence for the General Executive Board must be sent to the General Secretary. 



SPECIAL NOTICE 



As reported on Page g of the April issue of our journal, the member- 
ship voted overwhelmingly in favor of postponing until the cessation of 
hostilities the General Convention scheduled for this year. In accordance 
with the will of the membership as expressed in the referendum vote, the 
1944 General Convention has been postponed until hostilities are over. 
Arrangements will be made by the General Executive Board to hold a con- 
vention as soon thereafter as possible. 



t 





NEW 


CHARTERS 


ISSUED 




2155 


New York, N. Y. 




2936 


Monroe, La. 




2898 


Higli Point, N. C. 




2939 


Disston, Ore. 




2904 


Little Rock, Ark. 




2948 


Railroad Flat, 


Calif 


1237 


Winslow, Ariz. 




2951 


Hespeler, Ont. 


Can. 


1754 


Baltimore, Md. 




2928 


John Day, Ore 




2912 


Trenton, Ont., Can. 


1579 


West De Pere, 


Wis. 


2921 


Diamond Springs, 


Cal. 









Jin 0.ttnxfxiscnt 

Not lost to those that love them, They still live in our memory, 

Not dead, just gone before; And vpill forever more. 



%eBi in ^tsctt 

The Editor has been requested to publish the names 
of the following Brothers who have passed away. 



Brother George Anderson, Local No. 87, St. Paul, Minn. 
Brother Ole Anderson, Local No. 87, St. Paul, Minn. 
Brother Sidney M. Bailey, Local No. 627, Jacksonville, Fla. 
Brother Herman Bruning, Local No. 298, NeAV York, N. Y. 
Brother Wm, E. Carleton, Local No. 67, Roxbury, Mass. 
Brother Henry A. Clausen, Local No. 1984, Magna, Utah. 
Brother Alvin Bayhoff, Local No. 1590, Washington, D. C. 
Bi-other Herbert Doeuler, Local No. 249, Kingston, Ont., Can, 
Brother Jess Ellis, Local No. 1596, St. Louis, Mo. 
Brother Edward A. Evans, Local No. 225, Atlanta, Ga. 
Brother John Ferrari, Local No. 246, Nevr York, N. Y. 
Brother W. Forte, Local No. 279, Toronto, Ont., Can. 
Brother E. L. Gariough, Local No. 87, St. Paul, Minn. 
Brother A. Gerhold, Local No. 246, New York, N. Y. 
Brother Louis Greengrass, Local No. 700, Corning, N. Y. 
Brother George L. Griswold, Loeal No. 30, New London, Coniio 
Brother Charles Herrmann, Local No. 488, New York, N. Y. 
Brother Jack Holtzman, Local No. 246, New York, N. Y. 
Brother George H. Hopkins, Local No. 298, N^w York, N. Y. 
Brother Owen Jackson, Local No. 1590, Washington, D. O. 
Brother Elmer Jordan, Local No. 87, St. Paul, Minn. 
Brother Frank Kirst, Local No. 87, St. Paul, Minn. 
Brother John Lindberg, Local No. 317, Aberdeen, Wash. 
Brother Samuel Lohr, Local No. 993, Miami, Fla. 
Brother A. Lukowsky, Local No. 246, New York, N. Y. 
Brother James R. Marsh, Loeal No. 61, Kansas City, Kan. 
Brother John Motejzek, Local No, 298, New York, N. Y. 
Brother Anton Neubauer, Local No. 1596, St. Louis, Mo. 
Brother John Palmer, Local No. 488, New York, N, Y. 
Brother S. Pari'y, Local No. 279, Toronto, Out., Can. 
Brother C. Rasmussen, Local No. 246, Ncav York, N. Y. 
Brother William Reinheimer, Local No. 246, New York, N. Y. 
Brother Jake Samade, Local No. 61, Kansas City, Kan. 
Brother Eckhart Sauer, Local No. 298, New York, N. Y. 
Brother Henry Seckler, Local No. 1596, St. Louis, Mo. 
Brother Raymond R. Slade, Local No. 627, Jacksonville, Fla. 
Brother Hari-y Spai'ks, Local No. 993, Miami, Fla. 
Brother Louis Stein, Local No. 246, New York, N. Y. 
Brother James Williams, Local No. 1888, New York, N. Y. 
Brother Royal Wolford, Local No. 143, Canton, Ohio 
Brother S. Zaluzny, Local No. 246, New York, N. Y. 

* T^ :^ ' . 

KLLLED IN ACTION 

Brother Walter Gramsky, Local No. 2C6, New Castle, Pc. 



CorrospondQncQ 




This Journal Is Not Responsible For Views Expressed By Correspondentt. 

Oakland Shipwrights Dedicate New Home 

Recentl}- Local Union No. 1149, Loftsmen, Shipwrig-hts, Joiners, and 
Boat Builders, Oakland, California, put on a double-barreled celebration. 
The joint occasion marked the eighty-seventh anniversary of the forming 
of the union and officially opened the union's fine new headquarters at 115 
Broadway. Many members and their families and friends helped to make 
the occasion a memorable one. Such old-time members as George San 
Facon, 40 years membership; Frank Rynberg, 39 years membership; Ben 
Peabody, 31 3-ears membership; and Jack Anderson, 28 years membership 
were on hand to lend added honor to the ceremonies. 

Local Union No. 1149 was organized away back on April 23rd. 1S57 — 
the first union to be organized west of the Rock}^ Mountains. 

The dedication began with an open house at noon. At 2 p.m. Oakland 
Sea Scouts raised the American flag over the new union headquarters. The 
scouts were served refreshments and provided with entertainment imme- 
diately following the flag raising ceremony. 

During the afternoon and evening, union members and their friends 
danced and also enjoyed other types of entertainment. Refreshments were 
served throughout the day. 

IMarvin C. AA^alburn of San Francisco handled the arrangements for the 
celebration. He was assisted by I. Giftord, Joseph ^Mitchell, Al Garesio 
and Axel Olsson. 

Union President Ben Peabody of San Francisco presided during the 
formal part of the dedication of the new building and informally partici- 
pated in the other celebrations. He was assisted by A^ice-President Carl 
Langenberg. 

Other union officers who participated in the celebration and who aided 
in staging the affair were : Pat Fogart}^, recording secretary ; George San 
Facon, business manager ; Frank Rynberg, financial secretary ; Thomas 
O'Brien, treasurer, and Thomas Gray, warden. Business agents active dur- 
ing the combined anniversary-dedication rites included L. ^fallen, J. 
Anderson, H. Bailey and Pete Erickson. 

Peter Koning assisted in serving ice cream and cake to the Sea Scouts 
after the flag raising ceremony. Others active in the celebration were: 
Trustees Charles Gibbons and Carl Rave. 

The union headquarters formerly were located at 464 First street. 



24 THE CARPENTER 

Pennsylvania State Council Meets 

The Editor : 

The Pennsylvania State Council of United Brotherhood of Carpenters 
and Joiners of America held their Twenty-Sixth Annual Convention on 
April 13, 14, 15 in the City of Wilkes-Barre, Pa. There were approxi- 
mately sixty Delegates attending, including three Fraternal Delegates, 
Brother John B. Tierney of Buffalo, N. Y. representing New York State 
Council, Brother James Hall of Camden, N. J. representing New Jersey 
State Council and Brother Charles F. Ploward of Seymour, Indiana repre- 
senting Indiana State Council. General Representatives M. J. McDermott 
and William Blaier and a number of prominent speakers from the various 
Government and State Bureaus addressed the Delegates at different ses- 
sions of the Convention and gave very interesting talks. 

A large amount of business important to the welfare of our craft was 
disposed of during the three-day sessions. Some seventeen resolutions 
were acted on. These resolutions dealt with such matters as endorsing the 
setting up of a State Building and Construction Trades Department; ask- 
ing relaxation of credit regulations ; urging the creation of a more uniform 
wage rate throughout the Commonwealth; protesting rating of member- 
ship; and asking some necessary revisions in the Unemployment Compen- 
sation Law. 

A committee representing the State Building and Construction Trades 
Council have been successful in having the State Highwa}'- Department in- 
sert a clause in all of their contracts stating that the prevailing rate of 
wages must be paid in the locality in which the work in being done. This 
action was largely due to the persistence of the President of the State 
Council, Brother Edward W. Finney who was one of the most active mem- 
bers on this committee. 

Fraternally yours, 

Vernon Fletcher, Secretary-Treasurer. 
« 

St. John Locals Start Annual Banquet 

The first annual banquet of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America, Locals 1386 and 840, was held Wednesday evening, 
April 19th, in the Admiral Beatty Hotel. The principal speakers of the 
evening included Councilor A. E. Skaling, A. Ellis, President of Local 
840, J. Doucey, Acting-President of Local 1386, and D. McGill, Financial 
Secretary, of Local 1386. During the evening songs were rendered by 
F. S. A. McMullin, John Graham, John Mills and D. Woods who were in- 
troduced by G. D. Williams, Recording Secretary, of Local 840. About 

one hundred members were present. 

« 

Thanks Brothers for Help 

The Editor: 

To all Brethren concerned : 

For the information you gave me to build a 40 ft. truss, I want to thank 
you one and all. 



THECARPENTEU 25 

I received information from i8 Brethren throughout these United 
States, who were interested in helping a Brother member. 
Thanking- you sincerely, 

Brother Leo Phillips, 

Local No. 264. Milwaukee, Wis. 

* 

Who Knows the Answer? 

The Editor: 

Dear Sir and Brother: 

A discussion arose amongst several members of our Local Union, as 
to the origin of the so-called Plumbers ruler (it has the forty-five scale on 
the one side marked in red.) 

Could you enlighten us as to the 3-ear it appeared on the market. 
AVith man}^ thanks and best personal regards I remain. 

Fraternally 3^ours, 

Frederick Koop, Sec., 

Local No. 139. Jersey City 4, N. J. 

• 

Needless Appeals Delay Disputes 

Labor's oft-repeated charge that employers have been crippling the 
effectiveness of the War Labor Board by needlessly appealing many cases 
seems to be substantiated by a statement recently issued by the Board 
itself. 

"Unnecessary delays in the disposition of labor disputes are an impor- 
tant cause of labor unrest which may be directly harmful to the war effort, 
as well as harmful to the friendly relations between the parties," WLB 
said in the statement intended to discourage appeals from decisions of its 
commissions or regional boards which have no "genuine grounds" for 
appeal. 

About 90 per cent of the appeals filed have been denied, and in most of 
these cases, the statement said, "the part}^ appealing was merely dissat- 
isfied with the order in the case and was seeking a review of the merits 
without adequately considering whether he could establish one of the 

(four) permissible grounds for review." 

• 

AFL Fund to Aid Nazi Victims 

Refugees who succeeded in reaching Palestine before the British 
banned further Jewish immigration on March 31 will be among those to 
benefit from the Palestinian relief projects recently set up by American 
organized labor through the National War Fund, according to Abraham 
Bluestein, executive director of the Labor League for Human Rights, 
relief arm of the AFL. 

The League's contribution will provide medical aid for war workers, 
and improve existing facilities for their care at sanitoria in Haifa, Safeth, 
Jerusalem, and other Palestinian cities. 

In addition, medical aid will be furnished to the families of refugees, 
service!men, volunteer defense workers, and low-paid workers, both Jewish 
.'Mid Arab, engaged in various military projects. 




California Ladies Hold 2nd Convention 

In conjunction with the meeting- of the State Council of Carpenters, 
the Carpenters' Ladies Auxiliary State Council of California held their 
second annual convention at the Tioga Hotel, Merced. California starting- 
February 24th, 1944. The Ladies and deleg-ates attended in a bodv the 
State Council of Carpenters' opeining- session and "were excused after the 
principal speakers had given their addresses. State president, Pauline 
Hall, Auxiliary Local No. 170, was introduced by Brother J. F. Cambiano 
after which the ladies retired to their meeting room at the Hotel Tioga. 
After opening ceremonies which included a salute to the flag, repeating the 
Lord's Prayer, and the singing of God Bless America, the Auxiliary con- 
vention got down to serious business immediately. 

Judging from the reports of the various delegates, the Auxiliary mem- 
bers in California are doing an outstanding job for the war effort on the 
home front. From the Oregon to the JMexican border, the Carpenters' 
Ladies of California are playing an important part in carrying on the 
work of the Red Cross, in promoting the -welfare of the L'SO. in selling 
War Bonds, in keeping the blood bank filled, and in the hundred and one 
other war-time activities necessary to back up the boys on the fighting 
front. Virtually all locals conducted parties, or rummage sales during the 
year to raise money for such worthy causes as the March of Dimes, Red 
Cross, and USO. Many locals reported members working as Volunteer 
Nurses in their spare time. Other members have taken jobs in Avar plants 
to ease the manpower situation. In one thing the reports of all locals v,-ere 
unanimous; — all members were doing their best for the benefit of the 
war effort. 

Plans v-'ere laid to expand the State Auxiliary Council and increase its 
effectiveness. Several resolutions to this end "were adopted. Off.cers 
elected to serve for the next twelve months were: president, ]\Iaris Bray- 
ton, Local ^y^; secretary-treaurer, Ruth Thompson, Local 160; vice-presi- 
dent. Dimples McCoy, Local 62: Leia Brown, Local 170, Ruby \'an Camp, 
'Local 278, Louise Cobleigh, Local 351, and Zelma Pompa, Local 244, 
executive board members. 



A glass of currant jelly poured over a leg of lamb vrlierL almost roasted pro- 
duces a beautiful glaze and a beaTenly flavor. 



Craft ProblQms 




Carpentry 

By H. H. Siegele 

LESSON 189 

In the last lesson we explained how 
to obtain the edge bevel of jack rafters 
for an irregular-pitch roof. Let us re- 
view this, using Fig. 1 as a diagram. 
The reference letters, however, are not 
the same. We are showing three com- 
mon rafters in triangular form lying on 
cue side, in which b-c represents the 
run, c-a, the rise and a-b the rafter. 
Take the distance from b to the corner 
of the building on one arm of the 
square, and a-b on the other. The latter 
gives the edge bevel for jack rafters in 
the corner under consideration. 

The next thing we want to know is 
the difference in the lengths of the jack 
rafters for each corner. On one side of 
each of the corners we have drawn in 
the jack rafters. Where these jack raf- 
ters intersect with the hip we show a 
dotted line running parallel with the 
plate to the common rafter, as from 1 
to 1, 2 to 2, 3 to 3 and so on. The dis- 
tance between any two points where 



















>l k 














'. Xy^'f 


^\ # 














Xy^ / 


\ f--- 


— 


— 








~y 


r / 


\. f 










y 


/ 


\ if — 


- 


-- 


-y 


[y 


/ 


N. Kg 




y 


' / 


\ oj^^ c 


y 


' / 



Fig. 1 

these lines intersect the common rafter, 
gives the difference in the lengths of 
the jack rafters. In the corner marked 
B, it will be noticed, the first and last 
spaces are shorter than the other spaces 
— the reason for this is that the spac- 
ing of the rafters does not work out so 
as to intersect with the corner of the 
deck or the corner of the building. The 



spacing of the other two rafters works 
out all right with the corners of the 
deck, but on one of them it does not 
work out with the corner of the build- 
ing. The irregularity of the plan is re- 
sponsible for this. The jacks for the 
hip marked A, are the same as the 
jacks for the hip marked C. 

Fig. 2 shows a part of the plan shown 
by Fig. 1; namely, the end to the right. 




Fig. 2 



This diagram shows the long and the 
short hips lying on one side — the rise, 
it will be noticed, is the same, but the 
run is different. What we Avant to know 
is how to get the edge bevel. To do this 
we proceed by drawing e-e parallel with 
b-b in line with the end of the deck, c-c. 
At a right angle to b-c of both the long 
hip and the short hip, draw e-g. Draw 
h-g and the two dotted lines from c to d, 
keeping them in line with the sides of 
the deck. Extend the line b-a to f on 
both rafters and draw the dotted lines 
parallel with c-a. This completes the 
diagram. We are assuming that the hips 
are to join the corner of the deck, which 
will require two edge bevels in order to 
saddle over the corner. Speaking of both 



28 



THE C A R P E X T E R 



rafters, the distance e-b taken on one 
arm of the square, and the distance a-b 
on the other will give the edge bevel 
that -will fit the end of the deck, the 
distance a-b giving the cut. To get the 
bevel that will fit the side of the deck, 
take b-d on one arm of the square, and 
a-b on the other; the latter gives the 
cut. If the hip rafters are extended to 
f, f and the deck Is omitted, then the 
edge bevels for the two hips -where they 
join each other are obtained by taking 
h-g on one arm of the square and b-f on 
the other. The latter gives the cut. The 



The reference letters are the same and 
the explanations of Fig. 2 ■will apply 
here. It should be noted, though, that 




other edge bevels, in case the hips must 
fit into corners, are obtained just as In 
the other case. Taking distance e-b and 
a-b, the latter gives the cut. 

Fig. 3 shows a diagram of just the re- 
verse of what we have just considered. 




the extended lines from the sides of the 
deck cross each other, whereas in the 
other diagram they flared out. 



SIEQELE'S BOOKS 

TWIGS OF THOUGHT, poetrr, rertHea and en- 

:^:l^ :; r :f liie press. It has 64 bulkiBg white 

-.-:i _; :, ; ;:h artiitic rough-trim edges, a nit-e 

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7 ; :;r: ^ : 1 :zi; will be extra <m C.O.D. 

H. H. SfEGELE 

222 So. Const. St. Emporia, Kansas 

CARPENTRY BOOKS: 

CARPENTRY— ;::• rige; =r3 T'': :;:-=tr£Tio!:5. f.. 
BUILDING — i:" titt; -. : 4 : :::.;:--.:-.: --^rirj 



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KEUFFEL & ESSER GO, 



HOBOKEN. N. r. 



THE CARPENTER 



29 



Sometimes it becomes necessary to 
back rafters. This is especially true 
v/hen a blind valley rafter is used; that 
is, the valley rafter is extended beyond 
the valley in order to' gain support. The 
part beyond the valley must be backed 
so as to keep the edge in alignment with 
the common rafters. 

A method of obtaining the bevel for 
backing hips and valleys is shown in 




ter. Then strike the dotted circle and 
draw'a-e and e-b, which give the bevel 
for the backing at e. The shaded part 
represents a section of the backed rafter. 
Fig. 5 and G give another method of 
obtaining the bevel for backing rafters. 
Fig. 5 shows the plan we have been 
using, and the dotted lines represent 
the points of the unbacked hip rafters, 
which are made of 1%-inch material. 
Turning to Fig. 6 we show to the right 
both the short and the long hip rafters 
of Fig. 5. The distances a and b are 
transferred as shown and the depths of 
the backings are obtained as indicated 
by dotted lines. To the left we show- 
sections of the rafter material, in part, 
backed for the two hips. For the val- 
leys the application is in reverse order. 




Fig 



Fig. 4. The diagram shows how to ob- 
tain the bevel for backing hips. The 
bevel for backing valleys is the same as 
for hips, but in reverse order. At a con- 
venient point strike a-b at a right angle 
to the seat of the hip rafter. Where this 
line crosses the seat, strike c-d at a right 
angle to the line representing the raf- 



LAi 



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MASON AND PARRISH, ENGINEERS 

2105-CM, Burdick St. Kalamazoo 18. Mich. 




V. 



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906 Sngleside, Columbus, Ohio 



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be sure your circular saws and carpenter tools bear the 
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Nome 

Address. ... _„ 

City State 



We want- to emphasize here the im- 
portance of visualizing these problems 
into, as it were, realities; which is to 
say, that the student, by the aid of his 




Fig. 6 

imagination, should be able to see the 
solutions of these problems, as if he 
were solving them in actual practice. 
To cultivate the imagination to this de- 
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Keep Your Dues Paid-Up 



—PRICE LIST— 

Label and Emblem Novelties 

Card Cases (Label) .10 

Key Chaina (Label) .15 

Fub3 (Label and Emblem) .50 

Gavels (Labels) 1.25 

Pins (Emblem) ' 1.00 

Buttons (Emblem) 1.00 

Solid Gold Charms (iimblem) 7.50 

Cuff Links (Emblem) - 1.50 

Match Box Holders (Label) .15 

Belt Loop and Chain (Label) .75, 

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Auto Radiator Emblems 1-25 

In Ordering These Goods Send al! Orders and 
Make all Remittances Payable to 

FRAN'K DUFFY. Gen. Sec, Carpenters' Building, 
222 East Michiflan St., Indianapolis, Ind. 



— We teach the steel square in five 
easy lessons by mail: You can now 



CARPENTERS 

throw away the old fogy ideas, books, talks, etc., which 
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word tangent, hypotenuse, A as to B and C as to A etc., 
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on Form Work you should have . also. 

lept. 10, Medical Arts Building 
SEATTLE I, WASH. 

P. S. If you want to send 25c coin we will send you a 
practice square and partial lesson. 



BUILDERS' TOPICS "' 






vp\ 




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AMERICAN TECHNICAL SOCIETY Vocational Publishers since 1398 
Dept. GA36 Drexel at 58th Street, Chicago 37, lil. 
You may ship me the fp-to-lJate edition oi your nine 
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Name 

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Please attach a letter stating your at'e. occupation, employer's 
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A handy time and effort-saving tool for carpenters, builders, lum- 
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7751 South Chicago Av., Chicago 19, 111. 





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for BUHiDERS 

G-105 Tech Building 

2C0O S. Michigan Ave., Chicago 16, Illinois 




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Anvil Tools 

Awls 

Bars — Ripping 

Bit Braces 

Boring Tools 

Breast Drills 

Chisels — Cold 

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Dolly Blocks 

File Holders 

Hammers 

Hand Drills 

Knife 

Levels 

Marking Gauges 

Mitre Boxes 

Planes 

Punches 

Rules 

Saw Sets 

Scrapers 

Screw Drivers 

Sledges 

Soldering Irons 

(Electric) 
Spoke Shaves 
Squares 
Vises 



Stanley Bit Braces are proving their quality daily on production 
lines in woodworking plants, and on war-time construction jobs. 

Although Stanley Tools have been "stripped for action" to speed 
their manufacture, their basic design and quality remain unchanged. 

Until war needs are satisfied give your Stanley Tools extra care — 
and buy new ones only for essential use. 

STANLEY TOOLS, 11 1 Elm St., New Britain, Conn. 

[STANLEY) ) 



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FASTENING txrwiri 
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AUDELS Carpenters 
and Builders Guides 

|4vois.^6 




Inside Trade Information On: 



Insldo Trad* lofonaatlan 

for Carpent«rE),|Buildera. Juin- 
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soluttonB, plains, systems aad 
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Quick Reference for the master 
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as a Ilolpitic Hand to Eautor 
Work, better Work and Bet- 
ter pay. To BCt this Mssict- 
for yourself, simply fill 




How to use the steel square — How to file and set 
saws — How to build furniture — How to use a 
mitre box — How to use the chalk line — How to use 
rules and scales — How to make joints — Carpenters 
arithmetic — Solving mensuration problems — Es- 
timating strength of timbers — How to sot girders 
and sills — How to frame houses and roofs — How to 
estimate costs — How to build houses, barns, ga- 
rages^ bungalows, etc. — How to read and draw 
plans — Drawing up epecificationa — How to ex- 
cavate — How to use settings 12, 13 and 17 on the 
steel square — How to build hoists and scaffolds — 
skylights — How to build stairs — How to put on 
interior trim — How to hang doors — How to lath — 
lay floors — How to paint. 



THEO. AUDEL & CO., 49 W. 23rd St., Now York City 

Mail Audcls Carpenten and BuDdera Guides, 4 vols., on 7 days' free trial. If O.K. 
I wUl remit $1 in 7 days, and SI monthly until IQ ii paid. OtberwiM 1 wUl r«tum them. 
No oblifiatloa unless I um satiafiod. 



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OfReial Publication of the 
UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS of AMERICA 





1AM DOING THE LORD'S WORK/' -Says Hitler 



If you will only listen to Hitler — and hate the other fellow^ 
you and he can "save" the world. 

That's his technique. Remember his smile for the Russians — 
Us pact with them against the "plutocratic" nations? His 
smile for the French? Too bad they let themselves be mis- 
guided by British "imperialism." His smile for the British is 
he appealed to them to join him in his crusade against the 
*'Red menace"? 

Yes, even now. Hitler still pretends he is "doing the Lord's 
vork." Still has a smile for those he wishes to destroy. And a 
special smile for YOU! 

He wants you to help him divide America by the same means 
ethers have helped divide Europe — ^by breeding hatreds. 

In America, it's so easy. too. America is such fertile ground 
for just the kind of hatreds any Hitler would want. 

You can hate the Catholics, the Jews, the Protestants, You 
can hate the Negro, and you can hate the Whites. 

You can do even better than that You can divide Protesunt 
from Protestant, Jew from Jew, Catholic from Catholic, by 
dividing Republicans from Democrats, workers from capi- 
talists, native bom from immigrants. 



Like Hitler, you can find something to fit everybody . . . 
Some causes of hatred for each and all. And anyone caik 
find something to fit you. 

You can divide and divide and divide, until all America is In 
little pieces — ripe for Hitler or someone like him to come ia 
and pick up the pieces, one at a time. 

Hitler has shown how. But he has also shown how dangerous 
are those among us who carelessly or deliberately follow hi* 
example. We know now what to look for . . . maybe! 

Maybe we know now that when we hear anyone Toicing a 
slur upon any group in our America, he is helping to destroy 
America as Hitler has destroyed Europe. 

Maybe we know it. If we don't, that's not HIt]er'.s fault. He 
did his best to teach us. 

Anyway, we'd better learn. For remember, America being 

what it is, made up of so many different elements, we are 
the most vulnerable nation in the world for exactly the kind 
of game the Hitlers love to play! 

So next time you bear anyone talking viciously about ANY 
group of Americans, say to him, "Hold your tongue. Stop 
doing Hitler's work." 



Think Straight -- Stop Rumors 



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ill i ll i lllli 



A Monthly Journal, Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners 

of America, for all its Members of all its Branches. 

FRANK DUFFY, Editor 

Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, 4, Indiana 

Established in 1881 
Vol. LXIV — No. 7 



INDIAXAPOLIS, JTLT, 1944 



One Dollar Per Tear 
Ten Cents a Copy 



— Con tents — 



The Simple Truth 



Our General President informs millions of Americans of aims and ideals of our 
Brotherhood over nation-wide hook-up; tellingr a simple story of men w^ork- 
ing together to build a better life for themselves and all Americans. 



Unions or Regimentation - 



Chairman of National War Labor Board bluntly tells employers that they must 
deal honestly ^vith unions or face ever-tightening government restrictions. 



Labor and Post-war Trade - 



19 



Matty Woll pleads for realistic post-war policy on foreign trade that will 
allow America to help the war-ravaged nations of Europe without lowering 
American living standards or debasing American labors wages or conditions. 



WPB Relaxes Priorities 



27 



First steps taken to help employers develop new products for post-war manu- 
facturer — steps that will help speed up reconversion. 



Emphasis on Youth 



- - - - - 38 

Modem warfare demands adaptability as w^ell as agility and physical fitness, 
ruling out all but the young and healthy. 



OTHER DEPAHTMEXTS: 

Keep 'Em Smoking --...... 10 

Plane Gossip ---.-..>.. 16 

In My Opinion ......... 26 

Editorials .......... 32 

Views on the Xews .-..-.-- 46 

Official Information ..----.« 50 

In Memorium --..------ 51 

Of Interest to the Ladies ...---- 55 

Craft Problems - 59 

Index of Advertisers ..----.--- 4 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of 

Congress, Aug. 24, 1912. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for 

in Section 1103, act of October 3, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918. 



miP W^SiBff^ ^^fi/lfS 



THE MINUTE YOU HANDLE Johns-Man- 
ville Insulating Board, you realize it is 
a superior product. Made of tough, clean 
pine fibers, it is unusually strong and easy to 
work; nails nicely, saws with a clean, straight 
edge. The coated surface of the board is 
hard, smooth and withstands tough usage. 
It takes paint easily, requires no priming. It 
comes in a variety of sizes for ease of appli- 
cation and minimum waste. For full informa- 
tion and samples, see your local J-M Building 
Material Dealer, or write Johns -Manville, 
22 East 40th Street, New York 16, N. Y. 



JOHHS-MtWILLfe 




JOHNS-MANVILLE 



INSULATING BOARD PRODUCTS 



For over 100 Tears 
the choice of 
skilled Carpenters 




No. Hi 

16 oz. 



Balanced 
Right 

When you swin^ 
a Maydole Hammer 
day after day you'll 
appreciate its perfect 
balance and tireless action. 

MAYHEW STEEL PRODUCTS, Inc., Shelburne Falls, Mass. 
Sold Through Hardware Dealers 




THEY HAVE 



OUR CHART Bjg 27"x36" blue print chart 
on the steel square. Starting Key, also 
new Radial Saw Chart. Blue print shows 
how to find length of any rafter and 
make its cuts, find any angle in degrees, 
frame any polygon 3 to 16 sides and cut 
its mitres, read board foot and brace 
tables, octagon scale, rafter tables and 
much other valuable information. Can be 
scaled down for model work as well as full 
ecale framing. Radial Saw Chart changes pitch- 
es and cuts into degrees and minutes. Every 
carpenter should have these charts. CompletP 
set for 50c coin or M.O. — no stamps or checks. 

MASON AND PARRISH, ENGINEERS 

2ie5-CM, Burdick St. Kalamazoo 81, Mich. 






uA^o 



ovin 




de^^'^'del^o'^- 



'^9<oT"o'*-"!,;dov-n 






MILLERS FALLS COMPANY 
GREENFIELD, MASSACHUSEHS 



ov) 




Easy 
Going! 



To install the Ideal 
Latch, simply bore one 
hole through door and in- 
sert screws. A swollen 
door may be planed with- 
out removing latch. They 
earn money for you. 

You'll like working with 
Ideal latches and storm- 
screen and basement ad- 
justers. They are trouble 
free. Ask your dealer. 

(dull zine et black finish) 




Positive latching without slam- 
ming. Natural push-pull action. 
Fits m-% in. door, %" on re- 
quest. 

205 E.5tb STREET 
ST. PAUL 1, MINN. 



NOTICE 

The publishers of "The Carpenter" reserve the 
right to reject all advertising matter which may 
be, in their judgment, unfair or objectionable to 
the membership of the United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America. 

All contracts for advertising space In "The Car- 
penter," including those stipulated as non-can- 
cellable, are only accepted subject to the above 
reserved rights of the publishers. 



Index of Advertisers 



Carpenters* Tools and Accessories 

Page 
Henry Disston & Sons, Inc., 

Philadelphia, Pa. 63 

Foley Mfg. Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 63 

Heller Bros. Co., Newark, N. J._ 61 
Ideal Brass Works, St. Paul, 

Minn. 4 

Mall Tool Co., Chicago, III 61 

Mayhew Steel Products, Inc., 

Shelburne Falls, Mass. 3 

Millers Falls Co., Greenfield, 

Mass. 3 

North Bros. Mfg. Co., Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 63 

Paine Company, Chicago, 111 3rd Cover 

Stanley Tools, New Britain, 

Conn. 3rd Cover 

Carpentry Materials 

Johns-Manville Corp., New York, 

N. Y. 3 

Insurance 

Interstate Reserve Life Insur- 
ance Co., (Hospitalization), 
Chicago, IlL 1 

Interstate Reserve Life Insur- 
ance Co., (Life Ins.), Chicago, 
111. 64 

United Insurance Co., Elgin, Ill._4th Cover 

Technical Courses and Books 

American Technical Society, Chi- 
cago, 111. 63 

Theo. Audel, New York, N. Y.__3rd Cover 
Builders Topics, Seattle, Wash._ 62 
Chicago Technical College, Chi- 
cago, 111. 61 

Mason & Parrish, Engineers, 

Kalamazoo, Mich. 3 

H. H. Siegele, Emporia, Kans. — 60 



KEEP THE MONEY 
IN THE FAMILY I 

PATRONIZE 
ADVERTISERS 

WHO SPEND MONEY 
WITH YOUR UNION. 



THE SIMPLE TRUTH 

President Hutcheson outlines aims and ideals 
of our Brotherhood over national radio hook-up 



M 



ILLIONS 
of Ameri- 
people 



can 



learned something 
of the history, aims 
and ideals of our 
Brotherhood on Sat- 
urday, June 17th, 
when our General 
President William 
L. Hutcheson made 
a short talk over a 
nation-wide hook-up 
of the Columbia 
Broadcasting Sys- 
tem chain of sta- 
tions. Originating 
from WJR, Detroit, as a part of 
the "Victory F.O.B." program, the 
broadcast was carried from coast to 
coast. 

"Victory F.O.B 
dedicated to the 
Americans on the 
tells the story of 
working together have done and can 
do. Each week a distinguished 
American gives a short address as 
part of the program. 

In introducing our General Presi- 
dent as the speaker for the June 
17th program, the announcer paid 
him the following tribute: 

"For over thirty years Mr. Hutch- 
eson has been one of the dominant 
figures in the American labor move- 
ment, and is as well known in Euro- 




is a program 
achievements of 
home front. It 
what Americans 



pean and South American labor cir- 
cles as he is at home. During the 
last war Mr. Hutcheson served with 
distinction as a member of the A\'^ar 
Labor Board. In 1936 and again in 
1940 he was in charge of the Labor 
Division of the Republican Party. 
During the current conflict he has 
been appointed to several important 
posts. Today he tells you a story of 
the men and women who build^ the 
ships and equipment which are part 
of the might of America." 

Speaking as an American citizen 
and as the head of a 100% American 
organization, President Hutcheson 
reviewed the accomplishments of 
our Brotherhood in the years of 
peace as well as in the fateful years 
of the present war. In a few short 



THE CARPEXTER 



words he outlined the aims of our 
organization — the improvemer.: of 
living conditions as well as work- 
ing conditions through mutual co- 
operation. To millions of radio lis- 
teners whose ears have long dinned 
v\-ith anti-labor propaganda. Presi- 
dent Hutcheson's few forceful para- 
graphs undoubtedhr brought a sim- 
ple story of truth — a story of men 
banding together to help each other 
create a better life for themselves, 
their families, their fellow ^rork- 
ers, and Americains as a whole. 

President Hutcheson's remarks 
follow : 

Fellow Americans : 

In addressing you this afternoon 
I do so as a representative of an 
American institution — an American 
organi zati on — ^n a m e 1 y : the L n i t e d 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners ?f America — a Labor Union 
v.hiic "embers are Americans — one 
of the : ui.in rations for membership 
being tha: an applicant must be a 
citizen or show^ proof of his inten- 
tion to become a citizen to be ad- 
mitted. 

The United Brotherhood of Car- 
penters and Joiners of America is 
unincorporated — The members form 
a cooperative, mutual beneficial 
group — the purposes and aims being 
to assist and help one another to not 
only impro re their w^orking condi- 
tions but tneir living conditions as 
well. 

The policy of the organization is 
to enter into w^orking agreements 
and understanding's of mutual bene- 
fit to the members and their employ- 
ers. 

There are provisions in the or- 
ganization's Constitution vhereby 
there is pail to mzcm.bers. and their 
benetitiaries death and disability 
donations. Also a pension system is 
maintained, and a quarterly pension 



is now being paid to more than ii.- 
ooo members. The Brotherhood also 
maintains a Home for its aged mem- 
bers where men in their declining 
years ma}' go and spend the rest of 
their lives and be cared for by the 
national organization. 

During the 63 years the Brother- 
hood of Carpenters has been in ex- 
istence many millions of dollars 
have been paid to the members, such 
as death and disability donations — 
pension — maintenance of the Home, 
et cetera. 

There are at the present time 
some 70,000 members of the organ- 
ization in the armed forces, and 
during- their service to the govern- 
m.ent the Brotherhood of Carpen- 
ters keeps them in good standing, 
V ithiut the payment of any dues or 
oer caoita tax, thereby retaining 
their standing" in the organization so 
if they should be unfortunate to the 
extent of losing their lives in the 
service of their countr}' their bene- 
nciaries vould be oaid the death do- 
nations due them.. If they should be- 
come disabled then they themselves 
■would receive the disability dona- 
tions. 

We have many many thousands of 
members here on the home front 
who, during the defense program, 
have put forth ever)' possible e'S&rt 
in doing their part and rendered 
every assistance possible, and they 
vill continue to do so until ultimate 
victor V IS achieved. 

Thev, as individuals, and as 
groups, along with the International 
organization have invested many 
millions of dollars in war bonds, 
along with other Americans. The}' 
are not onh^ willing, but anxious to 
render this help and assistance, and 
as patriotic Americans the}' will 
continue to do so as long as it is 
necessary. 



THE CARPENTER 



Members of the Brotherhood of 
Carpenters, as well as all other 
Americans, are anxious to see Vic- 
tory achieved as quickly as possible. 
In the post-war period they will do 
their part to assist in bringing- about 
peace throughout the world to the 
end that we, as Americans, can live 
in the future as we learned to live in 
the past. Only in America could 
the banding together of men of com- 
mon interests such as our Brother- 
hood, be possible. Certainly not 
under dictatorship of the various 
types found overseas for under such 
control labor pays the highest pen- 
alty. Government regulation and 



regimentation of private enterprise 
and individual initiative by what- 
ever name it be called soon results 
in the complete loss of those free- 
doms for which our boys are fight- 
ing and dying — freedoms essential 
to the prosperity of labor, manage- 
ment and the nation as a whole. 

Let us preserve for all time the 
provisions of the Constitution of 
the United States of America so we 
can continue to enjoy the oppor- 
tunities of freedom, the pursuit of 
happiness and the contentment that 
comes with peace. 

God bless America and the citi- 
zens thereof wherever they may be. 



CLEVELAND CARPENTER ACE MISSING 

• 

Capt. Frank A. Cutler, member of Cleveland Local No. ii, and one of 
the leading fighter pilot aces in the present war was reported missing in 

action late in May. As related in 
the June issue of The Carpenter, 
Capt. Cutler is not only a mem- 
ber of Local No. II, but is also 
the son of a member of that local. 
His father is Glenn A. Cutler, 
2007 Torbenson Drive. 

Early this year, Capt. Cutler 
achieved the status of "Ace" 
b}^ shooting down at least seven 
enemy planes. On May 8th, 
scarcely a month after having an 
index finger shot ofif, he bagged 
several more Nazi planes, bring- 
ing his total to at least ten. Short- 
h' thereafter his parents received 
word that he has been missing in 
action since May 13th. 

Few men have written a more 
historic chapter in the present 
struggle against tyranny and op- 
pression than Brother Cutler. His 
deeds are an inspiration to all who believe in and love democracy. The 
Carpenter joins his family and friends everywhere in praying for his 
safety and a speedy return home. 




THE CARPENTER 



UNIONS or REGIMENTATION 

WLB chief tells employers it's unions or restrictions 



TALKING turkey to the nation's business leaders, War Labor Board 
Chairman William H. Davis told them they must bargain collec- 
tively with labor unions if they want to force the government "-to 
the sidelines" after the war ends and peace-time processes resume. 

He spoke at the concluding dinner session of a conference of 1,500 ■ 
employers and representatives of management held at the Hotel Astor 
under the auspices of the American 
Management Association to discuss 
problems of employer-employe re- 
lations. 



Mr. Davis urged that employers 
begin at once to plan for sound la- 
bor relations after the war in order 
that Government intervention in this 
field may be reduced to a minimum. 

The task that lies before manage- 
ment and labor now, Mr. Davis said, 
"is to adapt Avartime experience to 
the needs of peacetime industrial re- 
lations, so that we can avoid drastic 
readjustment when the pressures of 
war have been removed and the gov- 
ernment has, I trust, stepped out of 
the field of labor arbitration." 

The alternative, he warned, would 
be continued government interfer- 
ence perhaps in more drastic form. 

"When the government moves out 
of its wartime place as a direct par- 
ticipant in industrial affairs a vacu- 
um will be created if management 
and labor have found nothing to fill 
its place," he said. "And a whirl- 
wind — in the form of chaotic labor 
relations — will rush in to occupy the 
vacuum. The American people have 
no desire to undergo an industrial 
tornado because management and 



labor have insisted on creating a 
A-acuum. To m.e, sound collective 
bargaining is the natural choice to 
replace the government's wartime 
influence in the national industrial 
cosmos." 

Mr. Davis emphasized statements 
made at the morning session of the 
conference by Dr. George W. Tay- 
lor, Adce chairman of the National 
Labor Relations Board, who de- 
clared that management had a tre- 
mendous stake in making collective 
bargaining a permanent institution. 

"It had better be permanent," Dr. 
Taylor said, because of all the 

drives being made by the common 
man, the collective bargaining drive 
is the only one which accepts the 
capitalist system. If anybody thinks 
the workers will return to having no 
voice in matters that affect them he 
is very much mistaken." 

Lloyd Garrison, another public 
member of the WXB, who followed 
Dr. Taylor, spoke of the contribu- 
tion made by the board in the 
task of wage adjustment and the 
strengthening of collective bargain- 
ing, declaring that the experience 
accumulated by industry and labor 
through the board should serve as a 
valuable guide in molding post-war 
employer-employe relations. 



CARPENTERS NEEDED 

For VITAL JOBS on the Pacific Coast 

The Navy is now undertaking the construction of sev- 
eral large projects of utmost importance to the war effort. ^ 
These projects are located on the Pacific Coast and qualified 
carpenters of all kinds are desperately needed to get the 
jobs completed on schedule. Transportation to the jobs is 
provided and suitable living quarters are assured. These jobs 
offer: 

•^ The prevailing wage scale — S4 hours per week, 
with time and one-half for all work over 8 hours per 
day and on all Saturdays, Sundays, and Holidays. 

"^ Splendid working conditions due to ioo% closed shop 
agreements with all contractors doing the Navy con- 
struction work. 

"^ A chance to work on projects that will really help 
knock out the Japs and save the lives of American 
boys. 

In some cases, camp sites have been provided on job 
sites; in other cases within reasonable proximity of the job, 
with transportation provided to and from the job to the 
camp site. Maximum charges for board and room are $1.75 
per day. 

If Interested, Contact Your L U. IMMEDIATELY! 

• • • 

Note to Local Unions 

Before advising any members to proceed to the Pacific Coast, you should 
communicate with your District Council or the General Office by tclegi-aph, 
advising the number and names of members willing to accept this. employ- 
ment, and then await further word before instructing the men to proceed 
to the AVest Coast. This is essential inasnuich as reimbursement for trans- 
portation and travelling expenses will not be made unless applications are 
approved and job assignments made. 

All members reporting to accept employment must have availability slips 
as well as paid up dues books. Proof of American citizcnsliip or first papers 
must also be taken. 





BROTHERHOOD SOLICITS COOPERATION OF LOCALS AND 
TO KEEP FIGHTING BOYS HAPPY. 



DISTRICT COUNXILS 



During the month since the last 
issue of The Carpenter went to 
press, contributions to the Cigar- 
ette Fund hit a near all-time low 
although invasion of the continent 
bv American troops during the same 
period raised the need for cigarettes 
to the highest level of the war. At 
least a million of our boys are nov.- 
on French soil fighting the enemy 
in his own back 3-ard. Where they 
are fighting and sweating, cigarettes 
— especially American cigarettes — 
are all but unobtainable. Conse- 
quently the obligation to see that 
they are provided with the comfort 
and lift that only cigarettes from 
home can give is greater than ever 
before. 

Only thirty-three local unions and 
district councils connected with our 
Brotherhood responded with contri- 
butions to the fund during the last 
thirty days. Contributions barely 
topped the four hundred dollar 
mark — less than a fifth enough to 
provide our soldiers and sailors 
with one million free cigarettes — 
the month!}- goal of the Fund. Dur- 
ing the month another million cig- 
arettes were dispatched to the fight- 
ing fronts through the Fund. Our 
Brotherhood has been able to buy at 
least a million cigarettes a month 
for the boys overseas, but with a 
million cigarettes costing twenty- 
five hundred dollars and only four 
hundred dollars coming into the 
fund during the month, the Fund 
is being depleted rapidly. 



If contributions to the fund were 
not plentiful, letters of apprecia- 
tion for cigarettes received by our 

boys overseas were. Each da3^'s 
mail brings scores of letters saying 
"thanks" for the smokes provided 
through the Fund. Typical of the 
letters received Avas one from a 
Captain now recovering somewhere 
in Europe from severe wounds. He 
wrote, May 19. 19^; 

• -*• • 

'My dear ]\Ir. Hutcheson: 

I am just writing a little note to 
let you know that one carton of 
cigarettes that you and your organ- 
ization provided are very much ap- 
preciated. I was the only sur\dvor 
of a plane crash and was very se- 
verely wounded. I was unable to 
obtain any cigarettes because of the 
rationing system here and was very 
much in the mood for a smoke. The 
nurse walked in with a whole carton 
of your cigarettes and life bright- 
ened considerably. 

With many thanks and best wish- 
es to you all, I am. 

Sincerely Amours, 

Lee Gilette. 

• • • 

Letters of appreciation have come 
from all theaters of war. A lad 
from Xew York, now overseas, re- 
cently wrote his folks after arriv- 
ing in England: '"'The English wo- 
men vrere very generous and hospit- 
able towards us. We had coffee, tea. 



THE CARPENTER 



11 



and even some meat pies which were 
very tasty. The American Red Cross 
g-ave us cigarettes, coffee, dough- 
nuts, etc. Some of the packs of cig- 
arettes had Pop's union label on 
them. It said 'Compliments of the 
United Brotherhood of Carpenters 
and Joiners of America.' " The 
fighting lad is Mike Picchiello, and 
his father is a member of Local 
Union No. 246, New York. 

Several million American boys 
are now on foreign soil fighting the 



enemy. If they ever needed the 
comfort and solace of American 
cigarettes, it is now. Our Brother- 
hood's Cigarette Fund is more im- 
portant now than it ever was. Every 
penny so far spent has been spent 
for the benefit of the boys in uni- 
form and every cent that comes in 
from now on will be spent for the 
same cause. 

Make all checks for donations to 
the Fund Payable of S. P. Meadows, 
General Treasurer. 



CIGARETTE FUND 

Contributions received by the General Treasurer's oflHce from May 24, to June 
30, 1944, 



L. U. City and State 



Amt. L. U. City and State 



8 Pliiladclplaia, Pa. 25 00 

36 Oakland, Cal. 25 00 

62 Chicago, 111. 10 00 

80 Chicago, 111. 10 00 

299 Union City, N. J 10 00 

454 Philadelphia, Pa. 10 00 

507 Nashville, Tenn. 25 00 

534 Burlington, la. 10 00 

660 Springfield, Ohio 10 00 

682 Franklin, Pa. 5 00 

804 Naugatuck, Conn. 22 00 

1050 Philadelphia, Pa. 5 00 

1108 Cleveland, Ohio 5 00 

1118 Jacksonville, Fla. 10 00 

1188 Mt. Carmel, 111. 4 30 

1195 Seattle, Wash. 34 00 

1485 La Porte, Ind. 30 00 

1779 Granite City, 111 25 00 



Amt. 



1795 
1846 
1920 
1991 
2125 
2245 
2611 
2671 
2829 
2944 
3191 

, DISTRICT COUNCILS 
Indianapolis D. C, Indpls., Ind._ 

Metropolitan D. C, Phila, Pa 

Redwood D. C, Napa, Cal 

LADIES AUXILIARY 
L. A. Local 135, Union City, N. J. 



Farmington, Mo. __ 
New Orleans, La. __ 
Mineral Wells, Tex. 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Whitefish, Mont. __ 

Fallon, Nev. 

Eugene, Ore. 

Roseburg, Ore. 

Forest Grove, Ore. _ 

Grays Flat, Cal 

Chelsea, Mass. 



13 00 


10 00 


5 00 


10 00 


5 00 


28 00 


5 00 


15 00 


10 00 


5 00 


10 00 


10 00 


25 00 


10 00 



5 00 



RECAPITULATION 
June 20, 1944 

Available Funds May 24, 1944 

Receipts 

Total 

Expenditures: 

Brown & Williamson $1,250 00 

Axton-Fisher 1,250 00 

Total Available Funds June 20, 1944 



$7,185 09 
441 30 

$7,626 39 



2,500 GO 
$5,126 39 



THE CARPENTERS' STAKE IN CONSERVATION 



HOW CAN THEEE BE "PLENTY OF TI^IBEK" AETEE, THE WAE? 

by DANA PARKINSON 

Chief, Division of Information and Education, Forest Service, U, S. D. A. 



"K 



O need to worry over lumber." 

"Lumber supply ample after the war." 
"Plenty of timber." 

Not long ago, a batch of current forestry clippings from various news- 
papers in different sections of the country was routed across my desk. The 
quotations above were the headlines of three stories in that collection. 
They were similar — those headlines — to others of the same character which 
have been appearing for some time in various newspapers and magazines, 
all inspired, directly or indirectly, by certain representatives of forest 
industries. They tend to lull the ■ 



public into a false sense of security 
regarding our forest resource. 

Whether or not the writers of 
these particular newspaper articles 
were aware of the misleading char- 
acter and effect of their statements 
is beside the point. For the unin- 
formed, the result is the same. For 
example a carpenter who for one 
reason or another had been unable 
to keep up with the latest forestry 
developments might get the impres- 
sion that he need not give another 
thought to where the wood with 
which he works is to come from. 
Or, the lumberjack or sawmill work- 
er, similarly unaware of what is go- 
ing on, might feel that now he need 
not concern himself with the ques- 
tion of how long the timber supply 
on which his job depends will last. 

Furthermore, the three stories in 
point spread the impression that 
current shortages of lumber and 



other forest products so much in the 
news since the tremendous demand 
for wartime supplies has made it- 
self felt, was entirely due to lack of 
manpower and equipment, and that 
lack of accessible high quality tim- 
ber was not a factor. From their 
tone and argument, it appeared that 
once the woodsmen among the war 
workers and soldiers returned to the 
forests, and the equipment concerns 
turned again to producing peace- 
time logging machinery, there 
would "always be plenty of timber." 

Of course, the simplicity of state- 
ments like those is as mistaken as 
it is misleading. The outstanding 
facts are these : 

For generations we did clear cut 
and allowed to burn over millions of 
forest acres, leaving them no longer 
productive of commercial trees, no 
longer capable of supporting local 
forest industries, jobs, homes and 



THE CARPENTER 



13 



communities. Steadily, we reduced 
the productive capacity of millions 
of other acres by bad cutting prac- 
tices. Government statistics show 
that the total volume of standing 
sawtimber in the U. S., was reduced 
almost 40 per cent from 1909 to 
1938, while the most painstaking 
government estimates indicate that 
we are cutting and destroying al- 
most twice as much sawtimber as 
we grow each year. The impact of 
wartime demands upon the forests 
has intensified the longtime trend in 
cutting and destruction on private 
forests mirrored by those estimates 
and statistics. Over 90 per cent of 
our forest products are cut from 
private lands and most of the dam- 
age is on private lands. 

It is true that more men and more 
equipment in our remaining saw- 
timber forests could get out more 
lumber now. But, since most of the 
cutting on private land in the Unit- 
ed States toda}^ is done without con- 
scious regard to the future condi- 
tion and productivity of the forests, 
this could only mean that with the 
war's end we should be left with a 
much greater area of once commer- 
cial forest lately turned into clear- 
cut, unproductive, or at least poor- 
ly producing, forest land. And the 
irony of it is that, in the judgment 
of able and experienced foresters, 
under a national program of forest 
management just as much lumber 
could be gotten out, and at the same 
time the Nation's forests could be 
maintained in productive condition 
for future needs. In fact, a growing 
number of enlightened timber oper- 
ators and owners — and we are all 
mighty proud of them — even today 
when both prices and demands for 
timber are high, follow good cut- 
ting practices on their own land. 

The "plenty of timber" prophets. 



it seems to me, close their eyes to 
the existence of some 2 or 3 hun- 
dred million acres of forest land 
that is not fully productive in this 
country. Likewise, they refuse to 
see that we are day by day adding 
to our tmproductive or poorly pro- 
ducing commercial forest areas. We 
are growing less when we should be 
growing more timber than we use. 
Perhaps the war gives a valid ex- 
cuse for ignoring the implications 
in the repeated warnings of the For- 
est Service that wartime drain upon 
the forests, estimated at almost 60 
billion board feet in trees of saw- 
timber size, is up 25 per cent above 
the pre-war level. But forest ex- 
perts generally agree that post-war 
demand will continue on the war- 
time level for some time. \\^ill the 
same old rate of needless, destruc- 
tive cutting be continued — and de- 
nied — then? And if so, what will 
be the excuse then? 

However, the "plenty of timber" 
prophets ignore more than the best 
forestry estimates and statistics. 
They ignore the double truth that if 
forest products are to be generally 
available at reasonable cost, a na- 
tionally-distributed stand of tim- 
ber capable of producing annually 
enough merchantable wood for the 
country's needs must be maintained 
— and that today scarcely a State in 
the Union can any longer point to 
a surplus supply of merchantable 
timber. The growing list of impor- 
tant big sawmills closed down in re- 
cent years because the timber was cut 
out apparently has been overlooked 
or has no significance for them, 
nor does the plight of the dependent 
workers — lumberjacks, carpenters 
and others — when ■ the timber is 
gone and the mills closed. Seem- 
ingly they look with too little con- 
cern upon the paralysis that as a 
rule creeps over the business and 



14 



THE CARPENTER 



community life of the cut-out forest 
settlement. 

Fortunately, the other side of this 
"plenty of timber" mJsrepresenta- 
tion is becoming- more and more 
clear and understandable to the pub- 
lic, particularly to groups like The 
Carpenters and Joiners. Actual facts 
of local timber exhaustion, closed 
mills and the like appear continual- 
ly in the news. For instance, in the 
same batch of clippings from which 
I took the three "plenty of timber" 
headlines at the beginning- of this 
article there were seven actual news 
stories of this description. Space 
permits here a glance at only three 
of the most striking and significant. 

Says the Vilas County News-Re- 
view, Eagle River, Wis., April 13, 
1944: 

"Trees for Tomorrow, Inc., . . . 
points out that on April 10 ground 
was broken for the construction of 
a $10,000,000 pulp mill and town in 
Canada by the Marathon Paper com- 
pany of Rothschild. . . There will be 
employment for 1,500 men and a $2,- 
000,000 yearly payroll. . . If a sound 
reforestation and land-use program 
had been put into action in north- 
ern Wisconsin 30 or 40 years ago, 
the timber (on the acres and acres of 
cut-over land in this area) could 
now provide the state's paper mak- 
ing industry with a domestic source 
of raw material . . . That ' mill and 
town might even now be going up in 
Vilas or Oneida county had the old 
lumber barons not followed a prac- 
tice of 'cut out and get out.' " 

Says the Carroll County Inde- 
pendent, Center Ossipee, N. H., 
March 10, 1944: 

"If the people could see in one 
great pile, the lumber that has been 
moved out of Carroll County dur- 
ing the last two years, they would 
wonder how there could be any trees 



left standing. But since the boards 
move a truckload at a time and a 
carload at a time, little attention is 
being paid to the volume that is be- 
ing cut and shipped . . . Today the 
timber is going for the best possible 
use, national defense . . . But, once 
the war is won, the question quite 
naturally follows, what are we go- 
ing to do to give the woodsman 
regular employment over a term of 
years in this area ... a large part of 
our income in Carroll County rests 
directly and indirectly on forest 
products . . . Some means must be 
found to aid the individual to keep 
a crop of valuable timber growing 
on his land. . . AA^ith thousands and 
thousands of acres of wild land we 
can at little expense secure a rea- 
sonably good living, by use of pru- 
dent forethought and planning." 

Says the Escanaba (Mich.) Daily 
Press, May 23, 1944, reporting a 
talk before the Escanaba Rotary 
Club by Paul Wohlen, U. S. Forest 
Service: 

"Interest of the public is shar- 
pened by controversy over whether 
there is an adequate timber supply, 
or whether we are approaching a 
timber famine. Wohlen pointed out 
that the closing of two large timber 
industries in this area in recent 
months are certainly 'not an indica- 
tion of a surplus of timber.' He also 
cited the fact that there was once 
in Lower Michigan 25^ million 
acres of white pine. Xow there are 
but two 40-acre tracts left." 

The U. S. Forest Service holds — • 
after years of experience, observa- 
tion and educational effort — that the 
time has come for public action, 
under strong Federal leadership, to 
stop forest destruction and deteri- 
oration and to keep the forest land 
reasonably productive. It has pro- 
posed a thoroughly democratic, co- 



THE CARPENTER 15 

operative program, which was out- workers, the farmers, the business- 
lined in the first of these articles men, and other members of the gen- 
and which will be discussed in de- cral public of the United States 
tail later in the series. The ''plenty must decide — and soon, 
of timber" industrial spokesmen op- NEXT MONTTT : Nation-wide 
pose. Is this because they honestly condition of the resource, facts and 
feel they can defend the present figures on timber stands, location of 
forest situation as good for Amer- same, rate of cutting, etc., and some 
ica? That is something, readers of further fallacies of those who mis- 
THE CARPENTER, which the represent the facts. 



Uncle Sam Vetoes Conventions 

The immediate cancellation of all non-war connected conventions, trade 
meetings and conferences as well as all non-essential civilian travel was 
demanded by Director J. Monroe Johnson of the Office of Defense Trans- 
portation. 

"With the invasion now actually under way, the demands on the trans- 
portation facilities of the country are increasing-, not decreasing," Col. 
Johnson stated. "The pressure of rail shipments of war material has not 
yet reached its peak. Organized troop movement combined with increased 
casualty transportation is gaining record-breaking proportions. The 
hardship involved in* the cancellation of business meetings involving 
travel, cannot be compared with either the outright danger such non- 
essential travel imposes on the war effort nor with the very real physical 
hardships now being experienced by our military forces." 

Col. Johnson also announced that he is asking the Chairmen of both 
House and Senate Appropriation Committees as well as the Bureau of 
the Budget to take firm measures to insure the immediate curtailment of 
governmental travel, particularly in connection with conventions and other 
trade meetings. 

"The test of whether a particular convention, meeting or any use of 
the passenger facilities of either railroads or inter-city buses is of vital 
and immediate importance to the war lies in the heart of every patriotic 
American," Col. Johnson said. "In this hour of the greatest and gravest de- 
mands on every human and industrial resource of the nation, I do not 
think it too great a sacrifice to ask that our transportation system be re- 
served for the use of the militar}^ sorely needed tools of victor}^ and 
essential governmental business." 

By referendum vote the membership of our Brotherhood several 
months ago overwhelmingly decided to postpone for the duration of 
hostilities the General Convention scheduled for this year. It is gratify- 
ing to know that this patriotic action on the part of our Brotherhood is 
such a vital contribution to victory. 



Buy Bonds-Give Blood 



p 






'■°<.'*~<». 



L^NE 



NOW LS THE TIME 

According to Nipponese 'broadcasts, 
the Jap government is now working on 
a new book to be published soon. The 
title of the book is to be "Our Navy" 
and its avowed purpose is to acquaint 
the rising generation with the "proud 
responsibilities, traditions and might" 
of the Japanese Grand Fleet. 

If the book is to have any illustra- 
tions our advice to the Nip War Lords 
is to have the pictures taken immediate- 
ly because before many months anyone 
wanting to take pictures of the Jap fleet 
will have to wear a diving suit — and a 
danged good one too. 

• • • 
ADOLPH'S GOT THE PROBLEM 
Although the absenteeism myth has 

been exploded long ago, a few die-hard 
anti-laborites are still trying to use it as 
a tar brush with which to smear labor. 

If these boys think the situation is 
bad here what do they think of Adolph's 
absenteeism problem in Berlin where 
every morning a few more factories fail 
to show up for work? 

* * * 




Salle's the plumber, dear! — Ton know. 
Manpower shortage and all that, 
ic ir ic 
ASK THE SATLORS 
After years of research, scientists 
have definitely found out that kissing 
does not tend to shorten life. 

No, but it sure makes it more pleasant. 




SIP 



RIGHT AWAY, TOO 

After looking over the reports on ex- 
horbitant profits some individuals and 
firms are managing to squeeze out of the 
war, it becomes quite evident that there 
are plenty of go-getters in the nation 
today. 

"X^Tiat we need is a few more bring- 
it-backers. 

• • • 

WHAT WE NEED LOTS OF 

If there is anything this old world 
needs today, it is tolerance. Too many 
of us forget that the other fellow is 
human too. We forget that he is sub- 
ject to the same pressures and problems 
that we are. We forget that he has his 
faults and weaknesses just as we do. 
We forget that we aren't perfect either. 

If we don't watch ourselves you know 
about how it goes: 

When the other fellow tries to treat 
someone influential especially nice, he 
is toadying; when we try to play the ' 
same game, we are using tact. 

When he acts that way, he is ugly; 
when we do it, it's nerves. 

When he doesn't like our friends, he's 
prejudiced; when we don't like his, we 
are simply showing that we are good 
judges of human nature. 

When he picks flaws in things, he's 
cranky; when we do, we are discrimi- 
nating. 

When he talks a lot at union meet- 
ings, he is showing off; when we do it, 
we are trying to build the organiza- 
tion. 

The next time you are tempted to 
criticize somebody, stop and think a 
moment and see if one of the above 
paragraphs doesn't apply. 

• • • 
ABE AT HIS BEST 

Abraham Lincoln once said, "I hold if 
the Almighty had ever made a set of 
men that should do all the eating and 
none of the T\ork, he Tvould have made 
them vrith mouths only, and no hands." 

To those few who want to amass for- 
tunes out of the blood, sweat, and tears 
of this war, we commend those lines. . 



THE CARPENTER 



THE FIRST IS ENOUGH 

When Rome fell last month, Hitler 
hastily issued a statement to the Ger- 
man people telling them that Rome was 
unimportant to Nazi strategy. The Ger- 
man armies, he said, are merely wait- 
ing to deal the Allies a death blow. 
What a wait that is going to be. 

Somehow or other we are reminded 
of the three salesmen playing a friendly 
game of penny-ante poker in a Pullman 
car. There was only one other man in 
the car. One by one the players ap- 
proached him and tried to inveigle him 
into making it a four-handed game. 
Each of them met with a refusal. Fin- 
ally one of them became consumed with 
curiosity and asked the man point-blank 
why he refused to join the game. 

"Well," said the stranger, "there are 
a dozen reasons why I won't play. The 
first one is that I don't have any money. 
The sec " 

"The first one is enough," interrupt- 
ed the player. "Never mind the other 
eleven." 

The first reason why the Germans 
aren't going to win is because they 
haven't got the stuff, but there are 
twenty-six other reasons — n a m e 1 y, 
America, England, Russia, China, Bra- 
zil, and so on down the line of United 
Nations. 

ir •k -ir 

THE BRAKES BETTER BE GOOD 

Maybe its only pre-election talk, but 
some of the Big-Wigs in Washington 
are predicting a substantial reduction 
in taxes after the war. In fact some un- 
official spokesmen are predicting cuts as 
high as forty per cent. 

It all sounds fine, but the day the 
government voluntarily reduces taxes 
will be the day Jack Benny leaves some 
waitress a ten dollar tip and the Smith 
Bros, buy stock in the Gillette Razor 
Company. Any reductions that come 
will come because the people force 
them. 

And from where we sit it looks as if 
there will have to be a drastic revision 
in post-war taxation if the present eco- 
nomic life is to survive. The way we 
are headed now an eventual crack-up 
seems likely. 

It's kind of like the old lady who 
boarded the street car. "Does this car 
stop at the river?" she asked. 

"Sure hope so," laconically replied 
the motorman, "because if it doesn't 
there is going to be one big splash." 



CHEAP AT ANY PRICE 

Mopping up Germany means heav 
destruction of armaments; which ii 
turn means more war bond buying fo 
all of. us. However, we'll buy all th 
bonds necessary to help the boys d 
the job in the shortest possible time 
and to Heck with the cost. 

A northern tourist (when there wer 
such animals) once struck up a conver 
Ration with a native near the Mexicai 
Border. 

"Yep," said the native, "we alway 
take whiskey for snake-bite down here.' 

"But don't you know whiskey won' 
help you once you are bitten?" querie( 
the tourist. 

"Oh, sure, we know that," replie* 
the native, "but if we take enough be 
forehand, we don't give a dang." 

That's the way it is with us. We'l 
buy the bonds without giving a danj 
so long as the boys do the job thorough 
ly and quickly with the fewest possibh 
casualties. 

• • • 
THE RIGHT SPOT 

A well-known writer believes that th( 
war is having a profound affect on th( 
relationship of husbands and wives. Shi 
reasons that Army training is makinj 
men more masterful, and consequent!: 
she sees men being masters of the homi 
once more as they used to be genera 
tions ago. 

Our only comment is, "Oh, Yeah?" 
Several years ago somebody wrote { 
book called "Man, The Master of Thi 
Home" and do you know where the: 
still keep it in the library? You guessec 
it — the Fiction Department. 

• • • 




Zcke, ah caiii't sec a thino- That thar 
^car stuff is jest noospapcr tnlk! 



18 



Wood Scores Again 



ALTHOUGH wood has some- 
thing like twelve hundred 
vital uses in the war effort, 
a spectacular achievement hitherto 
hidden in one of our best-kept war 
secrets is now disclosed as another 
g-reat compliment to wood. The War 
Department recently permitted rev- 
elation of the fact that the tail as- 
semblies, or "fins" of the spectacu- 
larly-performing target "Rockets" 
are made of plywood. AA^hen head- 
lines victoriously announce large 
numbers of enemy planes shot 
down, the reader can be almost cer- 
tain that man}?- of the gunners in our 
planes developed their "shooting 
eyes" on target "Rockets" made of 
plywood. Over five million feet of 
•J" 3-ply waterproof plywood has 
already gone into the manufacture 
of these "Rockets." 

This rocket target replaces to a 
large extent the familiar sleeve 
target towed by an airplane at a 
relatively slow speed. Its use great- 
ly improves the accuracy of our 
anti-aircraft gunners, Army authori- 
ties assert. The rocket's speed du- 
plicates the speed of the fastest 
enemy aircraft and its use saves gas- 
oline, releases planes and pilots for 
other duties. 

U. S. Army experts estimate that 
2,000,000 pounds of other critical 
material have been saved by use of 
plywood tail assemblies in the roc- 
ket target. 

Although the rocket target has 
been in quantit}^ production since 
December 1941, its details are only 
now being disclosed by the military 
services. The rockets are launched 
from a wheeled projector by means 



War Dei>artnient reveals that rocket 
type targets made largely of pljTVOod 
help to develop aim of American gun- 
ners noTT knocking down Axis jilanes 
all over the world. 



of an electrical connection leading 
from the center of the firing 
"trough." They can be fired from 
unknown and varied angles, so that 
the speeding rockets give anti-air- 
craft gunners a realistic opportun- 
ity to develop alertness and accu- 
racy in firing. 

Highly complimentary to the in- 
herent usefulness of wood, and its 
vastly increased efficiency as ply- 
wood, are the following explana- 
tions by the U. S. Army authorities : 

1. Plywood was selected by the 
Ordnance Department, Army Serv- 
ice Forces, "because of the need for 
a light, cheap and easy-manufac- 
tured material, 3^et one strong 
enough to withstand the initial 
shock of rocket compulsion and the 
ensuing high speeds." 

2. "The necessity for having a 
surface large enough to be seen by 
the practicing gunners ruled out 
steel, since its weight would have 
unbalanced the rocket, while other 
possible materials were too critical 
for this use. Ordinary wood would 
have splintered or broken under the 
rough treatment. Hence plywood 
was selected as a material which 
would present a large surface and 
still be light and strong enough to 
stand up under the strains and pro- 
vide flight direction. In addition, 
the plywood assemblies are easier 
to crate and ship." 



19 



Lasting peace and prosperity 
will depend on world commerce 



Labor and Post- IVar Trade 

Condensed from a recent address by 
Matthew Woll 



THE OUTSTANDING post-war problem, both national and inter- 
national, is to find ways and means to meet in a spirit of justice 
and human kindness the proper economic aspirations of both 
nations and individuals in order that the temptation to international war 
may be removed. 

Through bitter suffering the world has learned that no nation is free if 
its dail