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Full text of "Carpenter"

mm 



1 



REPORT OF 

Tabulating Committee 

On The Vote For 

General 




As nominated at the 

Twenty-Fifth General Convention 

Of the U. B. of C. and J. of A., Held at 
Lakeland, Fla., April 22 to 30 

1946 



Carpenters' Printing Plant 



51 Indianapolis, Indiana 



REPORT OF TABULATING COMMITTEE ON THE VOTE 
FOR GENERAL OFFICERS 



Indianapolis, Indiana, July 19, 1946. 



Mr. Wm. L. Hutcheson, 
General President, 

United Brotherhood of Carpenters 
and Joiners of America. 

Dear Sir and Brother: 

We, the members of the Committee elected by the Twenty-Fifth General Con- 
vention of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America to tabu- 
late the vote on the election of General Officers, met at the General Office at 
Indianapolis, Indiana as prescribed by Section 9 of the General Constitution and 
organized as follows: 

Daniel Butler of Local Union No. 578, Chicago, Illinois, was elected Chairman, 
and Geo. F. Coughlin, of Local Union No. 715, Elizabeth, New Jersey, was elected 
Secretary. 

The official returns were delivered to the Committee by General Secretary, 
Frank Duffy, as per the provisions of the General Constitution. 

W. A. Meyer of Local Union 3 29, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, a candidate for 
the office of First General Vice President, and also his son, W. A. Meyer, Jr., a 
member of Local Union 329, presented themselves before the Committee and 
were present, on the first three days, at the opening and counting of all votes up 
to Local Union No. 2100, and were present at all times while ballots were opened 
and recorded. 

The Committee proceeded to tabulate the returns which showed the following 
named candidates elected: 

M. A. HUTCHESON — First General Vice President. 

R. E. ROBERTS — General Executive Board, Fifth District. 

The returns of the Local Unions and the intent of the voters were given due 
consideration, were recorded and show the following total votes as cast for each 
candidate, which was: 

M. A. HUTCHESON__93,094 

W. A. MEYER 51,195 

R. E. ROBERTS 95,094 

JOHN M. PARKER__47,591 

Local Unions whose votes were finally rejected for cause will be found so 
recorded. 

Fraternally yours, 

DANIEL J. BUTLER, Chairman 

MARTIN PORGES, 

W. L. SPENNY, 

WM. SHIPP, 

GEORGE F. COUGHLIN, Secretary. 

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1946 


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1947 


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24 


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1948 


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2 


11 


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35 


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29 


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1951 


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11 


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3 


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18 


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12 


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1954 


20 


1 


19 


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2 


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5 


36 


14 


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1957 


24 


1 


22 


2 


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40 


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9 


3 


8 


1958 




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1959 


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9 


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19 


7 


1961 


21 


7 


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6 


2 


6 





2259 


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1963 


14 


57 


12 


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236 


2 


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9 


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34 


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33 


12 


1964 


6 


22 


5 


23 


2096 


9 


1 


1 5 


4 


2261 


29 


18 


21 


25 


1965 


47 


10 


33 


24 


2098 


3 


3 


1 2 


4 


2264 


65 




65 




1967 




21 




21 


2100 




13 


1 3 


10 


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49 


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1971 


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31 


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32 


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3 


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5 


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21 


9 


12 


18 


1974 


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21 


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5 


4 


2275 


21 


10 


20 


11 


1975 


6 


19 


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16 


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17 


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2 


2279 


1 


24 


2 


23 


1977 


98 


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91 


12 


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8 


10 


9 


10 


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1978 


58 


14 


57 


15 


2108 


2 


20 


2 


20 


2281 


33 


2 


31 


2 


1979 


3 


11 


6 


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15 


29 


17 


28 


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14 


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1983 


13 


3 


11 


5 


2112 


10 




10 




2295 


43 


6 


46 


3 


1985 


2 


6 


1 


7 


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9 


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1986 


28 






28 


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72 


35 


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28 


17 


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1987 


O 


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16 


2119 


37 


3 


36 


4 


2300 


2 


8 


1 


1(1 


1990 


45 


8 


33 


17 


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7 


3 


8 


2 


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5 


1 3 


4 


1991 


25 


35 


19 


41 


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65 




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1992 


15 


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16 


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1993 




21 




21 


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4 


14 


4 


14 


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1995 


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1997 


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16 


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15 


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1999 


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2001 


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2002 


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3JS 




-i < 
a. 


"o 


3 


si 


ot 


0. 


"5 


3 


*| 


u o 

at 


a. 


o 


X 








o 


X 











X 








2344 


27 


l 


21 


7 


2634 


17 


5 


12 


10 


2867 


78 




76 


2 


2340 


16 


9 


4 


11 


2635 


110 




110 




2871 


11 


" io 


12 


9 


2351 


6 


9 


10 


5 


2637 


21 




21 




2877 


34 


15 


31 


18 


2352 


57 


6 


50 


13 


2638 


17 


' ' '3 


8 


' i2 


2883 


21 


4 


20 


5 


2353 


18 


10 


23 


5 


2639 


20 




20 




2890 


124 


52 


105 


58 


2356 


17 


9 


9 


15 


2640 


7 




7 


. . ... 


2892 


54 


13 


51 


16 


2359 


19 


9 


16 


11 


2646 


12 




11 




2899 


8 


5 


3 


10 


2364 


8 




7 


1 


2647 


33 




30 


3 


2900 


8 


10 


5 


12 


2370 


13 


"22 


27 


8 


2652 


20 




18 


1 


2901 


70 


13 


69 


14 


2373 


14 


19 


14 


19 


2iir,:; 


30 


' 'i2 


16 


26 


2903 


15 


3 


14 


4 


2375 


170 


25 


170 


25 


2655 


86 




86 




2904 


12 


5 


7 


10 


2378 


12 


1 


11 


1 


2656 


16 


' ' 6 


11 


5 


2912 


54 




54 




238(1 


5 


1 


5 


1 


2657 


13 


63 


12 


64 


2916 


23 


' ' '4 


16 


' 'ii 


2383 


3 


18 


17 


4 


2659 


108 


15 


101 


23 


2925 




3 


34 


2 


2389 


21 


3 


18 


6 


2660 


58 


34 


47 


45 


2926 


19 


3 


15 


7 


2391 


29 


4 


19 


14 


2664 


9 




9 




2927 


35 




32 


3 


2396 


10 


40 


11 


39 


2669 


144 


' '42 


138 


' '44 


2935 


38 


' ' 3 


36 


4 


2397 


12 


2 


7 


7 


2670 


36 


8 


27 


17 


2942 


15 


13 


10 


16 


2404 


15 


43 


20 


38 


2671 


9 


29 


21 


17 


2944 


18 


7 


16 


9 


2408 


7 


4 


5 


6 


2672 


8 


5 


10 


4 


2947 


331 


2 


330 


3 


2415 


10 


2 


9 


3 


2674 


3 


11 


6 


7 


2951 


14 


1 


11 


4 


2416 


15 


14 


16 


7 


2679 


17 




17 




2954 


20 


2 


21 


1 


2419 


17 


19 


20 


16 


2681 


59 




59 




2960 


205 




205 




2424 


5 


17 


6 


15 


2682 


578 




578 




2962 
2963 
2965 


6 
48 
11 


" ' '4 




5 


2427 


12 


13 


14 


11 


2684 


71 


' ' '4 


7 


' '75 


48 
11 


2436 


31 




23 


8 


2689 


32 


18 


23 


26 


ii 


ii 


2463 


25 


' i3 


27 


11 


2690 


55 


13 


55 


13 


2967 


14 


8 


5 


16 


2477 


12 


8 


14 


6 


2691 


27 




26 


1 


2969 


9 


4 


11 


2 


2502 
2505 


43 
21 


9 
3 


35 
12 


17 
12 


2692 
2694 


17 

38 


' i 


13 
38 


4 


2971 

2974 


67 
13 


40 
1 


67 

14 


39 


2509 


49 


45 


49 


45 


2696 


23 




1 


22 


2978 


15 


Q 


16 


2 


2511 
2512 


50 
22 


1 


48 
22 




2699 
2700 


11 

37 


' "3 
5 


7 
35 


7 
7 


2981 

2982 


30 
141 


25 

6 


28 
132 


22 
14 


2514 


26 


' '2i 


23 


' '24 


2701 


40 


3 


40 





2983 


58 




56 


2 


2517 


29 


14 


24 


18 


2704 


31 


1 


31 




2998 


30 


2 


28 


4 


2519 


1118 




1118 




2707 


33 


4 


35 


3 


3000 
3005 
3006 
3007 
3008 
3010 
3018 
3027 
3030 
3034 
3036 


26 
49 
28 
30 
55 
31 
10 
13 
14 
42 
169 


7 
3 
4 

' ' '2 
5 


8 
50 
24 
30 
52 
19 
10 
13 
13 
35- 
154 
33 
17 
17 


25 
2 
6 

' ' 5 

17 


2522 
2523 
2525 
25-26 
2528 
2530 
2531 


32 
139 

7 

42 

24 

29 

184 


' *'5 

11 

* 6 

iio 


22 

120 

7 

42 

15 

12 

173 


' i6 
30 

' 'i.2 

11 

114 


2714 
2715 
2720 
2732 
2735 
2739 
2744 


26 
47 
38 

I 54 
7 

1 446 
23 


12 

' '21 

4 

7 


27 

47 

40 

4 

6 

446 

20 


10 

' '19 
54 

8 


2532 
2536 
2539 
2540 


5 

146 

69 

42 


' ' 3 

10 


4 

146 

64 

42 


2 

' ' "8 
10 


2746 
2750 
2753 

2758 


41 
18 
23 
41 


5 

7 

8 


34 
18 
22 

37 


12 

7 
2 

11 


' 'ii 

30 


' "i 
21 

46 
5 

15 
3 


2545 
2546 

2547 


10 

37 

5 


3 


14 

37 

5 


. . „ 


2759 
2761 
2764 


80 

482 

82 


2 


80 

482 

64 


' is 


3038 
3046 
3061 


38 
20 
17 


' 'io 
3 


2552 


56 


30 


54 


33 


2766 


26 




26 




3062 


10 




10 
28 
28 
16 
13 
90 
14 
459 




2566 


20 






20 


2767 


319 




319 




3065 


28 






2559 
256:: 
2569 


79 
10 
18 


' 'ii 
1 


' "72 

8 

14 


18 
3 

4 


2773 

2776 
2781 


26 
'442 


' ' '4 
51 


15 
'442 


' 'is 

52 


3074 
3075 
3076 


35 
16 
14 




2570 
2571 
2573 


69 
4 
9 


' 'i3 

22 

4 


50 
10 

8 


32 

17 
5 


2782 
2783 
2785 


8 
14 
17 


2 
1 


7 
14 
17 


3 
1 


3086 
3091 
3099 


90 
12 

459 


"" 6 


' ' 'i 


2574 


17 


2 


15 


4 


2786 


33 


' 'l6 


20 


' '29 


3100 




7 




7 


2580 


317 


3 


301 


19 


2787 


31 


9 


27 


11 


3102 


' 34 


10 


29 


15 


2584 


15 




15 




2791 


20 


9 


12 


17 


3107 


16 


18 


16 


18 


2587 


247 




247 




2794 


19 


4 


8 


15 


3110 


92 


10 


87 


15 


2589 


58 


' ' 2 


33 


' '25 


2796 




7 ■ 


3 


7 


3112 


54 


12 


39 


24 


2592 


41 


2 


35 


8 


2797 


30 


5 


18 


16 


3113 


17 


1 


17 


1 


2597 


37 


31 


46 


22 


2800 


110 


.... 


110 




3115 


15 


35 


28 


22 


2603 


22 


9 


25 


7 


2805 


76 


13 


48 


' '20 


3117 


33 


16 


15 


31 


2605 


30 


17 


35 


12 


2810 


19 


22 


19 


20 


3120 


10 


17 


11 


16 


2606 


61 


30 


63 


27 


2812 


45 


55 


48 


49 


3121 


5 


13 I 


8 


8 


2607 


189 


13 


182 


18 


2813 


18 


„ 1 


16 


2 


3128 


688 





683 


5 


2609 


23 




20 


2 


2814 


20 


1 


14 


6 


3138 


15 


8 


14 


8 


2610 
2611 


76 
12 


"3 
11 


77 
12 


3 
11 


2825 
2828 


1 36 
30 


3 
5 


28 
29 


9 


3142 
3146 


26 

38 


4 

4 I 


24 
32 


6 
10 


2614 


19 


1 


14 


6 


2829 


36 


69 


33 


' '62 


3150 


38 


15 


38 


15 


2618 


152 


36 


151 


37 


2830 


29 




28 


1 


3152 


37 


6 1 


23 
325 


19 


2619 


11 


7 


11 


7 


2831 


18 


' ' 5 


7 


16 


3154 


325 


.... 




2620 


17 


3 


18 


2 


2832 


[ 22 


11 


22 


11 


3156 


31 


. . . . 1 


31 


.... 


2621 
2622 


228 
32 


35 


206 
32 


57 


2834 
2836 


98 
543 


' io 


98 
543 




3157 
3161 


20 

709 


25 1 
16 1 


12 

697 


33 

28 


2624 


40 


' "i 


40 


" 3 


2843 


6 


10 


10 


' ' 6 


3165 


.17 


8 1 


14 


11 


2625 


8 


37 


8 


37 


2845 


47 





47 




3166 


25 


1 1 


13 
38 


10 


2626 


26 


6 


18 


9 


2851 


9 


5 


8 


' ' 6 


3169 


39 


. . . . 1 


1 

5 

7 

45 


2628 


322 


39 


322 


39 


2852 


23 


5 


11 


14 


3173 


21 




16 
10 
85 


2629 
2631 


46 
33 


13 


25 
33 


29 


2855 
2856 


25 

1 14 


. . „ 


25 
14 


"*i 


3175 
3182 


13 
103 


4 
30 1 


2633 


987 




987 




2864 


108 




2 


106 


3183 I 


25 


6 I 


22 


9 



d 


1st G. 


V. P. 


5th Dis 


. G.E.B. 


d 

Z 


1st G. V. P. 


5th Dis 


. G.E.B. 


d 

Z 


1st G. V. P. 


5th Dis. G.E.B. 


Z 


























c 



°c 
3 


z 
.o 

< Ul 

X 


< LU 


. M 


Of 

_: ui 


c 



'E 

3 


Z 

o 

4 111 

X 


• tt. 
< Ul 


(A 
. M 


ee 

«_• Ul 


c 
o 

'E 

3 


Z 

o 

** «n 

< Ul 

X 


• ee 

< Ul 


. t- 
ui ce 

Ul 


ee 

•c UJ 


"5 

o 
M 


X 


5^ 




0. 


o 


Sm" 

3 
X 


5!g 




a. 


o 


Sm 

3 
X 


*S 


Of 


O. 


3184 1 

3185 1 


25 

28 


73 1 
6 


14 
16 


81 1 

14 | 


3187 
3189 


8 
158 


2 


1 7 
1 158 


1 3 


3190 
3191 


3 

36 


30 

12 I 


"28 


3° 

20 








||93,094|51,195||95,094|47,591 



Votes of Local Unions tabulated have been finally rejected by the Tabulating Com- 
mittee as not being in conformity with the provisions and will be found under the 
following capitions: 

No Seal Attached 



d 

Z 


1st G. 


V. P. 


5th Dis 


. G.E.B. 


d 

Z 


1st G. 


V. P. 


5th Dis 


G.E.B. 


d 

Z 


1st G. 


V. P. 


5th Dis 


.G.E.B. 




























Z 










Z 








c 


Z 








JO 

"c 
3 


.o 

< Ul 

.X 


J* 

< Ul 

>- 


in 

. M 
111 Ul 


ee 




'E 

3 


o 

^ Ul 

X 


< Ul 


in 

. i- 

^ Ul 


ee 

2 i£ 




'E 
3 


O 

X 


< Ul 


. M 

|U Of 

Ul 


ee 

_; ui 


"5 


sy 

3 


5s 1 


OS 


0. 


"5 


Sm 

3 


^ 


ee 


0. 


"0 


Sii 

3 


5? 


ee 


0. 


M 


X 











X 










X 








73 


4 


134 


7 


131 


1279, 




13 




13 


2201 


30 




28 


2 


79 


16 


45 


19 


41 


1353 


8 


29 


8 


29 


2206 


32 


37 


29 


39 


97 


28 


35 


28 


35 


1355 


2 


14 


2 


14 


2273 




43 


24 


19 


128 


29 


26 


23 


32 


1364 


o 


2 


4 


3 


2291 




18 


3 


14 


282 




34 




34 


1422 


11 


3 


10 


2 


2313 










330 


7 


7 


8 


6 


1479 


4 


13 


10 


7 


2357 




11 


1 




373 


1 


8 


5 


4 


1486 


9 


15 


12 


12 


2390 


3 


6 


1 


8 


383 




51 




51 


1493 


6 


6 


9 


3 


2398 


7 


26 


22 


11 


396 


17 


187 


24 


182 


1497 


70 


16 


68 


19 


2504 


11 


10 


13 


8 


413 


10 


149 


45 


14 


1515 




11 


11 




2598 


8 




8 




414 


11 


13 


7 


17 


1521 


180 





180 




2600 


54 


1 




50 


464 


6 


8 


7 


7 


1525 


10 


16 


11 


15 


2667 


42 


26 


41 


23 


508 


13 


14 


11 


' 16 


1531 


5 


7 


4 


7 


2673 


1 


5 


2 


4 


529 


1 


31 


2 


30 


1601 


9 


.... 


7 


2 


2695 


57 


8 


28 


37 


615 


7 


7 


7 


7 


1626 


4 


28 


2 


28 


2709 


6 


9 


5 


10 


641 


10 


20 


14 


16 


1635 


51 


37 


49 


37 


2728 


6 


5 


6 


4 


689 


8 


19 


5 


22 


1674 


8 


20 


9 


21 


2729 


9 


25 


13 


21 


783 


2 


24 


5 


21 


1678 


31 








2740 




22 




21 


790 


8 


49 


22 


35 


1694 


21 


18 


20 


18 


2749 


17 


3 


18 


2 


816 


12 


2 


10 


4 


1714 


9 


1 


9 


1 


2806 


34 


4 


30 


4 


835 


14 


1 


10 


4 


1734 




62 




62 


2835 


11 




11 




849 


1 


27 


1 


27 


1754 


16 


37 


15 


38 


2848 


12 


6 


14 


4 


925 


2 


84 


28 


56 


1769 




23 




93 


2874 


12 


1 


13 




939 


1 


15 


7 


9 


1798 


3 


14 


8 


9 


2884 


21 




21 




966 




7 


1 


6 


1809 


3 


9 


9 


3 


2920 


20 


.... 


20 


.... 


989 


13 


3 


7 


9 


1844 


ii 


9 


17 


3 


2959 


28 


8 


17 


19 


1008 


2 


19 


15 


6 


1880 




16 


8 


8 


2973 


16 





15 


1 


1015 


3 


40 


7 


36 


1898 


6 


10 


8 


7 


2987 


9 


2 


3 


8 


1017 


7 


12 


13 


6 


1943 


4 


12 


9 


7 


2992 


18 





18 




1143 


17 


41 


33 


25 


1956 


13 


.... 


11 





3070 


10 


20 


7 


20 


1176 


16 


13 


16 


13 


1982 




9 


5 


4 


3087 


22 


12 1 


19 


18 


1193 


35 


18 


34 


18 


2066 


36 


2() 


30 


26 


3116 


36 


32 


50 


18 


1234 


6 


12 


7 


11 


2067 


30 


19 


31 


17 


3151 


34 


8 I 


23 


19 


1241 


5 


15 


6 


14 


2069 


10 


6 


7 


9 


3195 


19 


6 I 


7 


18 


1249 


12 


23 


23 


12 


2093 


35 


13 


29 


18 























Not Registered 












66 


2 


26 


.... 


28 


1691 


1 


72 II 18 


55 


2765 


41 


2 II 


40 


3 


124 


2 


23 


3 


21 


1932 


12 


9 II 13 


8 


2846 


56 


.... II 


56 


16 


272 


37 


37 


31 


41 


2141 


2 


46 II 28 


20 


2878 


13 


23 II 


21 


iy 


372 


1 


36 


11 


26 


2147 




7 II ... . 


7 


2879 


19 


7 II 


11 




503 


5 


8 


4 


9 


2278 




22 || 15 


1 


2880 


15 


21 J 


21 


15 


596 


5 


84 


23 


65 


2306 


11 


1 II 11 


1 


2881 


28 


1 II 


24 


4 


699 


2 


20 


5 


17 


2308 


.j 


10 || 10 


5 


3011 


3 


20 II 


6 


17 


719 


4 


27 


11 


20 


2524 


38 


46 II 50 


24 


3056 


12 


1 II 


7 


6 


1520 


3 


28 


8 


23 


2612 


8 


8 II 10 


5 


3119 


79 


45 II 


78 


43 


1679 


1 5 


11 


1 10 


6 


2762 


35 


2 || 34 


4 


3164 | 


.... 


4:-! II 


24 | 


19 



Not Signed by Proper Officers, as Prescribed 



18 


24 


30 


11 


1341 


24 


6 


16 


14 


1483 


36 


10 


37 


9 





50 



29 
19 



48 
10 



31 

is 



1521 
1969 



180 
13 



180 
13 



Return Mutilated or no Account of Vote Cast by Local 



l. u. 

No. Reason not counted 

38 Ballots only. 

157 Improper return. 

215 Ballots only. 

.SOL' Improper return. 

327 Ballots only. 

585 No vole. 

700 Ballots only. 

702 Ballots only. 

86!) No return. 

875 Improper return. 

1030 Received late. 

1158 Ballots only. 

1159 Ballots only. 

1166 No return, ballots only. 

1188 No return, ballots only. 

1232 Ballots only. 

1299 Ballots only. 

130G Ballots only. 

1351 Ballots only. 



•L. U. 


L. TI 


No. 


Reason not counted 


No. 


1518 


Ballots only. 


2205 


1544 


Ballots only. 


2L-:;:: 


1551 


No vote on return. 


2255 


1557 


Ballots only. 


2311 


1567 


Ballots only. 


2342 


1615 


Ballots only. 


237!) 


1646 


Improper return. 


2384 


1773 


Ballots only. 


2393 


1799 


Ballots only. 


2550 


1811 


Ballots only. 


2551 


1862 


Ballots only. 


2627 


1905 


Ballots only. 


2788 


1933 


Ballots only. 


2888 


2013 


Ballots only. 


289 1 


2105 


Ballots only. 


2919 


2129 


Ballots returned. 


3072 


2134 


Ballots only. 


3092 


2139 


Ballots only. 


3106 


2152 


Ballots only. 





Reason not counted 
No vote on return. 
No vote. 
Ballots only. 
Ballots only. 
Improper return. 
Ballots only. 
Improper return. 
Received late. 
Ballots only. 
Blank return. 
Received late. 
Ballots only. 
Improper return. 
No vote. 

No vote on return. 
No return, ballots only. 
No return, ballots only. 
Ballots only. 



jC^ 



-~^J 



y FOUNDED 1881 

Officio/ Publication of the 
United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America 




JANUARY 1946 



The man who trusts men 
will make fewer mistakes 
than he who distrusts them 

— Cavour 

a a □ 



/ 



N this, the first peaceful New Year in half a 
decade, the crying need of the world is for tol- 
erance and understanding. Oceans of tears and 
seas of blood have soaked the soil of many lands 
because the peoples of the world forgot how to 
be tolerant and understanding. Let it never 
happen again. Let men and women everywhere 
rediscover the principles that He expounded in 
the Sermon on the Mount nineteen hundred 
years ago. Let each realize that "Yes" is the 
answer to the age-old question "Am I My 
Brother's Keeper?" 




Are You a Carpenter, 



a practical 

Builder 

or an 

Apprentice 

? 



-Here is your opportunity-! 




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FOR PRACTICAL MEN 

If you have had practical experi- 
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HOW TO LAYOUT JOBS 

Learn how to lay out and run a 
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prints. How to understand spec- 



ifications. How to estimate costs. 
No books — no classes ! Just use 
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Rgr BLUE PRINT PLANS 
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Chicago 
Technical College 

THE SCHOOL FOR BUILDERS 

A- 107 Tech Bldg., 2000 S. Michigan Ave. 
CHICAGO 16, ILLINOIS 





THCOffiPEOT 




A Monthly Journal, Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners 

of America, for all its Members of all its Branches. 

FRANK DUFFY, Editor 

Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, 4, Indiana 



Established in 1881 
Vol. LXVI — No. 1 



INDIANAPOLIS, JANUARY, 1946 



One Dollar Per Tear 
Ten CentB a Copy 



— Con tents — 



'46 Will Bring a Blitz 



With half a dozen anti-labor bills kicking around in Congress just before that body ad- 
journed for the holiday vacation, it is a foregone conclusion that the 1946 session will 
see a concerted drive by foes of labor to get one or all of these measures enacted 
into law. 



U.B. Wins Significant Court Victory 



Construction Packed the Punch 



8 

The Supreme Court of the State of Washington hands down a decision that advances 
one step further the right of workers to engage in peaceful picketing. The decision 
was the outgrowth of a case wherein CIO woodworkers in concert with the employers 
were endeavoring by injunction to prevent Brotherhood Lumber and Sawmill Workers 
from picketing employers in their recent move to establish a decent wage level. 

10 



It's Not All Caviar 



A high navy official discloses the important part that construction played in bringing 
about victory over Germany and Japan and the part it will have to play in maintaining 
peace in the future. 

21 

Working for Uncle Sam is not the cinch people thought it was. !n this article an official 
of the American Federation of Government Employes outlines both the advantages and 
disadvantages of having Uncle Sam for a boss. 

27 



iWages, Prices, and Prosperity 



Whenever an unbalance develops between commodity prices and workers' wages 
trouble follows. Right now such an unbalance is in existence and unless corrective meas- 
ures are taken soon our economy is headed for a hard jolt that can spell more depres- 
sion. 



OTHER DEPARTMENTS: 

Plane Gossip - 

Editorials *•.-.." 

Official - 

In Memoriam - \ - 

Heroes of our Brotherhood 

Correspondence - 

To the Ladies - 

Craft Problems - 

* • 
Index to Advertisers 



18 
32 
41 
49 
50 
51 
57 
59 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of 

Congress, Aug. 24, 1912. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for 

In Section 1103, act of October 3, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918. 



NOTICE 



The publishers of "The Carpenter" reserve the 
right to reject all advertising matter which may 
be, In their judgment, unfair or objectionable to 
the membership of the United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America. 
All contracts for advertising space In "The Car- 
penter," including those stipulated as non-can- 
cellable, are only accepted subject to the above 
reserved rights of the publishers. 



Index of Advertisers 



Carpenters' Tools and Accessories 

Page 
E. C. Atkins & Co., Indian- 
apolis, Ind. 4th_Cover 

Foley Mfg. Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 64 

Heller Bros. Co., Newark, N. J. 62 
Ideal Brass Works, St. Paul, 

Minn. 4 

Henry Disston & Sons, Phila- * 

delphia, Pa. 3rd Cover 

Mall Tool Co., Chicago, 111 62 

Millers Falls Co., Greenfield, 

Mass. 62 

Master Rule Mfg. Co., New York, 

N. Y. 64 

North Bros. Mfg. So., Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 3 

Paine Company, Chicago, 111 62 

Stanley Tools, New Britain, 

Conn. 3rd Cover 



Technical Courses and Books 

American School, Chicago, 111 61 

American Technical Society, 

Chicago, 111 3 

Theo. Audel, New York, N. Y.__3rd Cover 
Chicago Technical College, Chi- 
cago, 111 1 

Gateway Publishing Co., Chi- 
cago, 111. 63 

Mason & Parrish, Engineers, 

Kalamazoo, Mich 62 

H. H. Siegele, Emporia, Kans 61 

Tamblyn System, Denver, Colo. 4 



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Name 



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Attach letter stating age, occupation, employer's name and 
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THE POINT! 




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Key Chains (Label) 15 

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Buttons (Emblem) 1.00 

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Anti-labor forces in Congress preparing for 
finish fight to pass one or more measures 



'46 JVM Bring a Blitz 



ORGANIZED LABOR faces the year 1946 with the biggest battle 
in its history looming on the horizon. This became crystal clear 
by the time Congress laid aside its duties for the Christmas vaca- 
tion. A half dozen different measures — all aimed at putting the shackles 
on labor — were kicking around on Capitol Hill by the time adjournment 
came. There were the Hobbs Bill, one of the most vicious of them all, 
the Ball-Burton-Hatch Bill, the May-Smith-Arends Bill, the President's 
proposal for an enforced "cooling off" period, and a host of others. Indi- 
vidually and collectively they are aimed at one thing and one thing only — 
compulsion of one kind or another 



for American workers. During the 
1946 sessions, one after another of 
these measures will be brought on 
the floor. Every trick ever tried in 
Congress will be brought to bear by 
proponents of the bills in an effort 
to get them railroaded through both 
houses. Only by marshalling its 
forces and putting on the hardest 
fight of its life will organized labor 
defeat the measures. 

Each of the anti-labor measures 
is wrapped up in a set of the choic- 
est adjectives and adverbs. How- 
ever, in all the verbiage — like in 
the fine print on cheap insurance 
policies — there is a "catch." In each 
of the measures the "catch" is that 
compulsion is forced on the work- 
ers. They must submit to compul- 
sory arbitration, or they must re- 
frain from striking, or they must do 
this or that under penalty of fines 
or even jail sentences. 

Even when the President recent- 
ly advocated arbitrary cooling off 
periods in labor disputes while fact 
finding bodies studied the issues in- 
volved there was a hidden catch. 
The President intimated that his 
proposition was basically the same 



as the Railway Mediation Act. 
When the bill got to Congress, 
however, it resembled the Railway 
Mediation Act about as much as a 
porcupine resembles a jack rabbit. 
It was so far removed from the 
Railway Mediation Act that Presi- 
dent Green of the AFL blasted it 
as a measure designed solely to 
place the shackles of compulsion on 
labor. 

Actually, the bill went way be- 
yond the mere establishment of 
fact-finding boards to investigate 
disputes and recommend settle- 
ments. It carried a dra'stic ban on 
the right to strike during the 30- 
day period, or more, while the ma- 
chinery of the law is in operation 
in a dispute. Also, it would be a 
crime for any one to aid or en- 
courage a strike, or for unions to 
pay out strike benefits provided by 
their laws. No such language is to 
be found in the Railway Labor Act. 

Furthermore, the bill contains a 
provision which, in effect, would 
by-pass National Labor Relations 
Board regulations and permit em- 
ployers to demand elections among 



THE CARPENTER 



their workers whenever they felt 
they could undermine a union. 

Even Secretary of Labor Lewis 
B. Schwellenbach, appearing before 
the Senate Labor Committee in sup- 
port of the fact-finding- phase, dis- 
owned the election feature as dan- 
gerous and asked that it be elimi- 
nated. 

Green's blast against the bill was 
made at a hearing before the House 
Labor Committee. He raised no 
protest over the proposal to set up 
fact-finding boards along the lines 
of emergency boards under the 
Railway Labor Act, but he emphat- 
ically denounced the prohibition 
against strikes. 

The prohibition is worded so 
menacingly, he said, that it would 
virtually repeal the Norris-La- 
Guardia Anti-Injunction Act and 
turn back the clock to the days 
when courts functioned as "injunc- 
tion mills," grinding out restrain- 
ing orders against unions whenever 
employers so demanded. Also, un- 
ions, and their officers would be li- 
able to heavy penalties if strikes 
occurred in violation of the law, 
Green added. 

"Workers could not even discuss 
the subject of ceasing employ- 
ment," he said. "That right would 
be destroyed. Nor is there any logic 
in the argument that they would be 
deprived of the right to strike for 
only 30 days. That's no more sound 
than to argue that freedom of 
speech and press may be denied for 
30 days. There is no such provision 
in the Railway Labor Act." 

The May-Smith-Arends Bill just 
before the holidays produced one 
of the bitterest debates seen in the 
House in a long while. Particularly 
significant was the large number of 
Republicans who took the floor and 



assailed the bill in vigorous terms. 

For example, Congressman Jo- 
seph Clark Baldwin of New York, 
an officer of several corporations, 
declared : "I think management and 
labor are agreed that hasty legis- 
lation in this regard will boom- 
erang against both of them, as did 
the original Smith-Connally Act." 

Likewise, Congressman Everett 
M. Dirkson of Illinois exclaimed: 
"I am not going to see this folly 
committed without at least raising 
my voice. It seems to me we here 
propose to repeal one bad law by 
enacting another which may be a 
greater evil." 

"Half-baked" was the way Leroy 
Johnson, California Republican, 
characterized the proposal. 

"No law can outlaw strikes," he 
said. "We can no more require a 
worker to work against his will 
than we can force a farmer to har- 
vest a crop if he doesn't want to." 

However, the measure garnered 
considerable support from both 
parties. 

So the closing days of the 1945 
session of Congress saw the 
groundwork being laid for a finish 
fight on the host of anti-labor bills. 
As soon as the new session takes 
up it is a foregone conclusion that 
the foes of labor in both houses 
will do their utmost to get one or 
all of the labor crippling bills 
passed. They are lining up their 
forces and they are consolidating 
their strength for an all-out effort. 
When they think the time is ripe it 
will come. 

Consequently there is little doubt 
but that labor faces one of the hard- 
est fights of its career in 1946. The 
anti-labor forces in Congress are 
strong, they know all the tricks and 
they have a host of wealthy lobby- 



THE CARPENTER 7 

ists in Washington backing- them has enjoyed or hopes to enjoy the 

up with moral and financial sup- fruits of organization. It behooves 

port. On the other hand, labor has every American worker to be on his 

nothing but its numerical strength toes during 1946. It behooves him 

with which to back up its friends, to be ready and willing to make 

If labor does not use this numerical his protest known to Washington 

strength to good advantage, if tele- whenever a measure comes up that 

grams and letters do not pour into jeopardizes his right to band to- 

Congress condemning the anti^la- gether with his fellow workers for 

bor bills, the battle may well be mutual protection and progress. By 

lost. The fight for the survival of what he as an individual does or 

unionism now reaches down to does not do the battle will be won 

every worker and wage earner who or lost. 



AFL to be On Air 52 Times in '46 

The American Federation of Labor again will broadcast a weekly radio 
program over coast-to-coa»et networks during the entire year of 1946, 
President William Green announced. 

The National Broadcasting Co., the Columbia Broadcasting System 
and the American Broadcasting Co. have given assurances that they will 
make time available for the AFL to present its news and views on the 
air, just as they did this year. 

During the first thirteen weeks of 1946, the AFL will take over the 
"America United" program which it initiated over NBC in 1945. This is 
a forum program in which the AFL, business and farm representatives 
discuss outstanding national issues with invited guests from the govern- 
ment. This program now originates at 1 115 p.m., Eastern time, on Sun- 
days. There is a possibility that it may be enlarged to a half-hour period, 
instead of 15 minutes, next year. 

The second 13 weeks on the air in 1946 will be furnished by CBS. The 
nature of this program has not yet been determined. Last year the AFL 
devoted these periods to a series of dramatized stories about the Seabees, 
the great majority of whom were recruited from members of AFL unions. 

During the last half of 1946, the AFL will return to the "Labor-USA" 
program over ABC, where it is now winding up a series of 26 weekly 
editions of the American- Federationist of the Air. These programs are 
broadcast from 6:45 to 7 p.m., Eastern time on Saturday evenings. 

* 

POOR GET SICK OPTENER 

People with the lowest incomes are usually sick oftener and die sooner 
than those with high incomes. The Twentieth Century Fund points out 
that persons on relief in 1935-1936 averaged 17 days of illness a year; 
those with family incomes under $1,000 averaged almost 11 days; those 
in the $1,500 to $2,000 income group averaged 7 days; and those with 
incomes over $5,000, six and a half days of illness. 



U.B. WINS SIGNIFICANT COURT VICTORY 



ONE OF THE MOST important in many years is the decision of 
the Supreme Court of Washington State, issued at Olympia on 
the 13th of last month, in favor of the Lumber & Sawmill Workers 
Union, affiliated with the Brotherhood. It recognizes the propriety and 
legality of their picketing the CIO in the course of the recent lumber 
strike for the purpose of inducing the CIO to take joint steps with the 
A. F. of L. in efforts to procure an adequate and substantial wage adjust- 
ment. 

The Lumber & Sawmill Workers Union in the northwest, and the 
United Brotherhood of Carpenters & Joiners of America, have a right 
to feel a deep sense of pride and satisfaction over the importance and 
the breadth and the scope of this decision. It places peaceful picketing 
upon a higher plane and a firmer ■ 



foundation than has ever been ac- 
corded to it by any court, thus far, 
in America. The decision effectual- 
ly removes all fetters and restric- 
tions which have heretofore ham- 
pered unions engaged in peaceful 
picketing. No longer is picketing 
limited to the technical question of 
the existence of a labor dispute, or 
whether or not violation of contract 
is involved, and many other limita- 
tions which hitherto conditioned 
the right to picket under former 
decisions. Nor can the trial court 
hereafter grant or refuse to grant 
picketing injunctions, merely upon 
its own uncontrolled discretion, in 
accordance with whether it agrees 
or does not agree with the objec- 
tives of the picketing. Picketing as 
a result of this decision is in every 
respect coextensive with freedom 
of speech. The decision holds that 
labor on the picket line has the 
same right to communicate its view- 
point with respect to labor disputes 
as a working man has to express his 
opinion if he meets his neighbor 



— as an A. F. of L. member may 
have if he meets his CIO neighbor 
— in the market place, in the thea- 
ter, in his lodge, on the street, on 
the platform or in his home. The 
right of peaceful picketing for the 
purpose of presenting such a view- 
point is recognized as one entitled 
to protection by the courts, just as 
much and just as extensively as any 
right that falls under the heading 
of freedom of speech, freedom of 
press, freedom of assembly or free- 
dom of religion, all of which are 
within the broad guarantees of the 
First Amendment to the Constitu- 
tion and the Bill of Rights. No de- 
cision by any court in America has 
thus far so completely vindicated 
labor's right to employ the medium 
of peaceful picketing as one of its 
most valuable economic weapons in 
attaining labor objectives, includ- 
ing particularly that of procuring 
an adequate wage and a decent liv- 
ing standard, as has our own Su- 
preme Court. The Lumber & Saw- 
mill Workers Union and the United 



THE CARPENTER 



Brotherhood of Carpenters & Join- 
ers have carried on a long and dif- 
cult strike for their objectives in 
the lumber industry here in the 
northwest against vigorous opposi- 
tion. Their members stood their 
ground and have now procured for 
all workers in the industry a very 
gratifying improvement in living 
standards and wage brackets. But 
they have done more than that — 
they have gained a judicial recogni- 
tion in favor of the right of 
peaceful picketing which will serve 
and stand as a charter for labor 
throughout the entire nation, and 
will everywhere enhance the value 
of peaceful picketing wherever or- 
ganized labor feels called upon to 
employ it in its campaign for ade- 
quate wages, hours and conditions. 

There is one further comment 
that I feel should appropriately be 
added : I refer to the incongruity 
of the position of ( the CIO in its 
attempt to embarrass the A. F. of 
L., not only by remaining at work 
for 90c while the A. F. of L. was 
out on strike for a substantial in- 
crease, but more particularly in the 
measures which it adopted to re- 
strain the A. F. of L. from pursuing 
its course of peaceful picketing. 
For 50 years labor has battled, both 
in Congress and before the courts, 
to eliminate judicial interference 
with its right to picket. It has com- 
plained about the practices of 
courts in the past to interfere in la- 



bor controversies and to enjoin 
unions in their campaign for ade- 
quate wages. Slowly but surely the 
courts have gradually liberalized 
the right to picket, and in recent 
years particularly a large measure 
of recognition has been extended to 
picketing. This litigation consti- 
tutes the first instance, within my 
knowledge, of any labor organiza- 
tion appearing before the courts 
and asking that the right to picket 
be whittled away, restricted or cut 
down. In dozens of counties in this 
state, as well as in Oregon and 
Idaho, the CIO — sometimes inde- 
pendently and sometimes jointly 
with attorneys for the Weyerhaeu- 
ser interests — sought, and in the 
first instance obtained, injunctions 
striking down the right to picket. 
In their briefs and in their argu- 
ment they asked the Supreme Court 
of this state to place a major re- 
striction upon the right to picket. 
In the years to come it will prove a 
great source of satisfaction to every 
friend of labor to know that the 
efforts of the CIO to do so were 
frustrated, and that the Lumber & 
Sawmill Workers Union and the 
United Brotherhood were success- 
ful in obtaining from the Supreme 
Court of the State of AVashington 
this splendid and clear-cut defini- 
tion identifying the right of peace- 
ful picketing with the constitu- 
tional guaranty of freedom of 
speech. The decision is therefore 
a landmark in the history of labor. 



FIRST STRIKE DATES BACK TO 1786 



In 1786, a year before the Constitution of the United States was draft- 
ed, some Philadelphia printers struck for a $6 a week wage. That was 
the beginning of the American labor movement for collective bargaining, 
as described in a Twentieth Century Fund survey. Five years later Phila- 
delphia carpenters struck for a ten-hour day which they failed to get. 



10 



What an alert, hard-charging line is to a college 
baclcfleld, construction was to our combat forces 



Construction Packed the Punch 

By VICE ADMIRAL. BEN MOREELL, Civil Engineers Corps, U.S.N. 

(From an address delivered before the New 
York Building Congress, November 28, 1945) 



T IS, I BELIEVE, particularly appropriate that we are meeting on 
Wednesday rather than on Saturday afternoon. On Saturday after- 
noon, the cheers are for the men who carry the ball and make the 
touchdowns. Sunday, Monday, and Tuesday, the heroes are praised and 
the strategy is criticized. But along about Wednesday someone remembers 
that there were some fellows who played in the line without whose services 
the game could not have gone on and who contributed importantly to the 
victory. 

This analogy is applicable to the more deadly game which we have just 
won. Our combat forces and their leaders have been acclaimed and have 
been showered with well-deserved honors. But this is Wednesday, and 
in the sober atmosphere of quiet ' 



contemplation, consideration should 
be given to the contributions of 
those who provided the power in 
the line which enabled us, first, to 
hold the enemy, and then to push 
him back into his own territory, 
where he was brought to ultimate 
destruction. I refer to the work of 
American industry in general, and, 
more particularly, to the vital con- 
tribution of our construction in- 
dustry. 

At the conclusion of any opera- 
tion, whether it be military or in- 
dustrial, it is well to recapitulate in 
order that we may establish appro- 
priate guides for future campaigns. 
To me, the outstanding lesson to be 
learned from the war which we have 
just concluded is the tremendous 
growth in the importance of mater- 
iel power. A study of the changing 
methods of warfare through the 
ages leads to the' conclusion that the 
multiplication of personnel power 
through the instrumentality of 
equipment is a significant develop- 



ment. Just as in industry the power 
of the individual to produce has 
been m u 1 1 i p 1 ie d many-fold by 
equipping him with the machinery 
and tools of production, so in war- 
fare has the power of the individual 
to destroy been increased many-fold 
by equipping him with the machin- 
ery and tools of destruction. And 
the contribution of construction to 
the multiplication of materiel pow- 
er has been a vital factor in our vic- 
tory. 

The full import of construction in 
the conduct of a war is not general- 
ly recognized, even by those in the 
industry. But thoughtful considera- 
tion of the subject makes it clear 
that every strike by our combat 
forces, whether by sea, by land, or 
by air, must have been preceded by 
the construction of bases from 
which the attacks were launched, 
and more important, the speed and 
rapidity with which we were able 
to lay blows on the enemy depended 
upon the speed, certainty, and econ- 



THE CARPENTER 



11 



omy (in manpower and materiel) 
with which we were able to accom- 
plish such construction. 

The great advantage which we 
were able to achieve over the enemy 
by the superiority of our construc- 
tion abilities was well illustrated 
by an incident which was reported 
by the Associated Press from Iwo 
Jima. The report told how the Ma- 
rines captured a Japanese major 
who had been holed up in a cave 
for two weeks. He blinked his eyes 
in the unaccustomed daylight, then 
surveyed the scene before him, the 
transformed surface of his once fa- 
miliar island. All of his arrogance 
disappeared, and he mumbled weak- 
ly the one word, "Impossible!" 

The dramatization of the combat 
phases of the war by the press, the 
radio, and in the movies is a normal 
result of popular demand. The con- 
struction of a pier at which bombs 
are loaded for transportation to the 
forward areas is sorry drama com- 
pared to the explosion of one of 
those bombs on an enemy vessel. 
And still, both the construction of 
the pier and the dropping of the 
bomb are essential parts of the great 
jig-saw puzzle which must be fitted 
together to spell out victory. 

To attempt to tell the complete 
story of construction in World War 
II is beyond my abilities and the 
limitations of time. But some of the 
high-lights of the program super- 
vised by the Bureau of Yards and 
Docks of the Navy may be cited as 
indicators of my thesis. 

The national war program is gen- 
erally considered as having com- 
menced on July i, 1940, although, 
as some of you know, we were well 
under way with our developments 
prior to that date. From July 1, 
J 940, to date, the Navy has spent 



and obligated, in round figures, 
some $10,000,000,000 for construc- 
tion. If, to this, we add the cost of 
the pay, subsistence, and transpor- 
tation of the SeaBees, which costs 
are carried by other appropriations, 
the program would total, in round 
figures, some $12,000,000,000. It is 
of interest to note that the entire 
expenditure for public works con- 
struction during the First World 
War was only $189,000,000. The in- 
crease in the tempo of construction 
is indicated by the fact that from 
1916 to 1937, a period of 21 years 
including World War I, Bureau of 
Yards and Docks construction work 
totalled $360,000,000, as compared 
with the $12,000,000,000 expended 
during the past five years. 

Those 21 years from 1916 to 1937 
were years of expensive economy. 
Instead of having a Naval Shore 
Establishment adequate for the sup- 
port of our fighting forces, we had 
to start our war program almost 
from scratch. The construction in- 
dustry was faced with a major test. 
The construction of plant, begin- 
ning with the construction of train- 
ing facilities for the personnel and 
manufacturing facilities for the 
equipment, is an essential condition 
precedent to the expansion of a 
military force. 

A brief recital of some of the 
achievements on Naval works is, I 
believe, appropriate. You built 70 
new major Naval Air Stations and 
more than 100 important auxiliary 
stations, including the world's larg- 
est aviation training center cover- 
ing an area of 45 square miles near 
Corpus Christi, Texas, a total avia- 
tion program costing $1,661,000,000. 

You built over a half billion dol- 
lars worth of structures for Naval 
personnel, including great training 
camps like the $55,000,000 installa- 



12 



THE CARPENTER 



tions at Farragut, Idaho, and Samp- 
son, New York. 

There were more than a billion 
dollars worth of ship building and 
ship repair facilties, including the 
facilities at the Brooklyn Navy 
Yard which cost in excess of $100,- 
000,000 and which includes dry 
docks, ship building piers, testing 
laboratories, shops, and a 16-story 
warehouse. 

During the same period, our con- 
tractors completed the construction 
of more than three quarters of a bil- 
lion dollars worth of ordnance fa- 
cilities and approximately $500,000,- 

000 worth of supply depots. In ad- 
dition, new hospitals and expan- 
sions of existing hospitals increased 
the total bed capacity from 6,000 
to approximately 75,000 at a cost of 
$200,000,000. 

These achievements constitute 
only a part of the program which 
was carried out in this country, but 

1 will not burden you with more 
statistics. I believe it appropriate, 
however, to mention one of our 
most interesting and important de- 
velopments. I refer to the design 
and construction of floating dry 
docks. Until the latter part of the 
war, we were unable to tell this 
story for reasons of military secur- 
ity. Only recently have we been 
permitted to disclose the vital part 
that these docks played in the march 
to victory. 

At the beginning of the national 
emergency the Navy had in service 
just three floating dry docks, with 
a total capacity of 40,000 tons. Our 
studies lead to the conclusion that 
for maximum support of the Fleet 
it was essential that we project our 
service facilities as far into enemy 
territory as was possible, the opti- 
mum arrangement being that we es- 



tablish facilities close behind the 
line of action. It was quite evident 
that if the Fleet was to carry out 
its mission many ships were going 
to suffer serious damage, and those 
which escaped battle damage would 
be subjected to the hardest kind of 
usage. Experience had taught us 
that the quickest and cheapest way 
to add a ship to the Fleet was to 
repair an old one rather than to 
build a new one; but we could not 
afford to have cripples limping half 
way around the world to our Navy 
Yards. 

So, we enlisted the support of 
eminent consulting engineers and 
construction firms and went to 
work. By V-J Day, our three float- 
ing dry docks, with total capacity 
of 40,000 tons, had grown to more 
than 150 docks, with a capacity of 
1,200,000 tons. The most unique and 
the most important of these are the 
so-called "Advance Base Sectional 
Docks." As the name implies, they 
are built in sections, each capable 
of lifting 8,000 or 10,000 tons. The 
sections are designed to be towed 
to bases in the forward areas and 
there assembled and welded to- 
gether into working units, one type 
having a total capacity of 56,000 
tons and the other 100,000 tons, the 
smaller being designed to accom- 
modate the largest battleships then 
in existence and the larger being 
built to accommodate the super- 
battleships which were not complet- 
ed during the war. Either type can 
and did serve for multiple dock- 
ings of a number of smaller vessels. 

The docks are designed so that in 
case of damage from enemy action 
or other cause, any section can be 
removed and docked in the remain- 
ing sections, then repaired and re- 
placed. This "self-healing" process 
proved invaluable in service, as the 



THE CARPENTER 



13 



docks were subjected to enemy 
bombing on several occasions. 

Reports from^ the forward areas 
indicate that our predictions as to 
the importance of these docks were 
correct. As an example, three bat- 
tleships which played a vital part 
in the critical battle for Leyte Gulf 
would not have been available had 
it not been for the service provided 
by our sectional dock at Manus. The 
effects of the non-availability of 
these three battleships can only be 
conjectured, but it is certain that, 
even under the best of conditions, 
the battle would have been* much 
more costly to our forces had they 
not been there. These "Advance 
Base Sectional Dry Docks" are an 
exclusive development of the Unit- 
ed States, and are the result of the 
smooth teamwork of Government 
and private industry. 

In all, we spent approximately 
$400,000,000 for floating dry docks 
and, while this sum is large, I am 
sure that no money was ever more 
wisely invested. The Japanese 
Kamikaze attacks were directed at 
a Fleet that had brought its own 
repair facilities with it. Stricken 
ships were either repaired suffi- 
ciently to re-enter the battle or they 
were enabled to return to our ma- 
jor bases where more complete fa- 
cilities were available. In any event, 
many of our ships which would 
otherwisee have been permanently 
lost to the Fleet lived to fight an- 
other day. 

I have not intended, by dwelling 
at such length upon the floating dry 
dock program, to minimize the im- 
portance of our large graving docks 
with which, I am sure, most of you 
are familiar. I will not describe 
these in detail other than to say 
that during the war period we built 
32 graving docks and 11 Marine 



Railways at a cost of $250,000,000. 
Unquestionably, the most important 
of these was the great battleship 
dock at Pearl Harbor, which was 
commenced in 1940 and completed 
by our contractor 10 months ahead 
of schedule and just a few days be- 
fore the fateful December 7, 1941, 
ready to receive ships and to restore 
the Fleet to action. 

These are some of the accom- 
plishments of the construction in- 
dustry, the unspectacular achieve- 
ments that rarely make the head- 
lines but are essential for the win- 
ning of wars. 

The industry's contribution to 
victory has been demonstrated far 
more dramatically through the me- 
dium of the personnel which you 
have trained for our Naval Con- 
struction Battalions, popularly 
known as the "SeaBees." It is en- 
tirely appropriate that today our 
battalions are at work on their last 
assignment before demobilization. 
They are building shore facilities 
at the Yokosuka Naval Base, at Na- 
gasaki, and elsewhere in Japan. 
They are making good the predic- 
tion recounted in a jingle composed 
by the Marines at Bougainville, 
which the friendly Leathernecks 
painted on a signboard. It read as 
follows : 
"So when we reach the Isle of Japan 

with our caps at a jaunty tilt, 
We'll enter the City of Tokyo 

on the roads the SeaBees built." 
(3rd Marine Division — 2nd Raider 

Regiment) 

The arrival of the Seabees on 
the "Isle of Japan" was the end 
of a long road which they, in 
cooperation with their friends and 
co-workers in the Army Engineers, 
had constructed across the Pacific. 
Along this road they built airfields, 
the supply depots, the fueling facil- 



14 



THE CARPENTER 



ities, ship repair bases, the hospi- 
tals, communication centers, am- 
munition d u m p s, rehabilitation 
camps, and many other installations 
necessary for the immediate sup- 
port of our combat forces. They 
were called upon to work under all 
conditions of climate and difficul- 
ties of terrain and supply, and very 
often they were called upon to com- 
bat the enemy as well as the handi- 
caps of disease, loneliness and iso- 
lation. 

When Japan capitulated, more 
than 83 per cent of our 250,000 Sea- 
Bees were at work on advance bases 
in the Pacific, and their work was 
directed by some 7,000 officers of 
the Naval Civil Engineer Corps. 
They and the Army Engineers had 
achieved a fine start on the base at 
Okinawa. They were, in all, some 
65.000 of them at work on a pro- 
gram calling for 28 airfields and 
more than 1,000 miles of heavy-duty 
roads, to be accompanied by such 
collateral facilities as fuel storages, 
supply depots, utilities and harbor 
installations. 

The Okinawa project was de- 
signed to be the greatest military 
construction operation in history 
and was to constitute the major base 
from which the actual invasion of 
Japan was to take place. The mag- 
nitude and the variety of installa- 
tions planned for Okinawa consti- 
tute conclusive evidence of the 
vital importance of construction in 
the support of combat operations. 
To give you an idea of the size of 
this program, it has been estimated 
that if the facilities planned for 
Okinawa were constructed in the 
vicinity of New York City, under 
current conditions, they would cost 
approximately $200,000,000, of 
which we had completed approxi- 
mately $60,000,000 worth during the 



five months before V-J Day. 

As a collateral activity, our Sea- 
Bee Special, or Stevedore Battal- 
ions, were unloading cargo at an 
ever-increasing rate with improvis- 
ed harbor facilities. It is of inter- 
est to note that the total unload- 
ed during the peak month of July, 
1945, by the SeaBees was 1,250,000 
measurement tons, or 50,000 tons 
per day. 

In all, we were called upon to 
complete approximately 400 Naval 
bases, varying in size from the 
huge bases at Guam, Manus and 
Leyte, to relatively unimportant PT 
Boat Bases and Radar Stations. 
Typical of the major bases was the 
one constructed at Tinian, a brief 
description of which will serve 
to further emphasize the import of 
construction in World War II : 

When the Marines stormed 
ashore on July 24, 1944, the Sea- 
Bees were with them, unloading 
supplies over Navy pontoon cause- 
ways and establishing storage de- 
pots on the beach as fast as the 
supplies arrived. They worked 
around the clock. At seven o'clock 
on the morning of the third day, 
they received an order to repair 
the Ushi Airfield, which the Ma- 
rines had just captured. It was so 
filled with bomb craters that not 
even a Piper Cub could land. The 
SeaBees went to work with eight 
trucks, nine bulldozers, two tandem 
rollers, and miscellaneous hastily 
repaired Jap equipment. On the 
very next day, C-47 transport 
planes were able to land and re- 
move approximately 300 casualties. 

While some of the men were set- 
ting up camp facilities and storage 
areas, others began the construction 
of the first American runway, 6,000 
feet long, involving the moving of 



THE CARPENTER 



15 



a million cubic yards of coral. It 
was completed in 45 days. 

About five months later there ap- 
peared in the Saturday Evening 
Post an article in which the writer 
described Tinian as the finest po- 
tential base in the Pacific; but he 
had not counted on the speed of 
the American construction industry. 
Two days before the article ap- 
peared, on December 21, 1944, three 
B-29's landed on a newly-completed 
8500-foot runway. Today there are 
two giant airports on Tinian, each 
one of which has more than 30* per 
cent greater mileage in runways 
and taxi ways than New York's 
prospective Idlewild Airport. I be- 
lieve it is contemplated for Idle- 
wild that planes will be able to take 
off at the rate of six per minute. A 
year after the SeaBees landed on 
Tinian its airports could and did 
accommodate eight B-29's per min- 
ute for the bombing of Japan. 

The magnitude of the task can be 
estimated from the fact that these 
Tinian airbases required 3,800,000 
cubic yards of cut and 8,000,000 
cubic yards of fill. The asphalt 
surfacing placed on the roads, run- 
ways and taxiways would have been 
sufficient to pave a 20-foot highway 
from Boston to Washington, D. C. 

Speed of construction was an ef- 
fective instrument of propaganda. 
There were many evidences that "we 
were able to convince the Japanese 
of our ultimate victory by the tre- 
mendous accomplishments of our 
men and machines and the furious 
pace which they set by round-the- 
clock work. To illustrate this pace, 
the story is told of two Negro 
Army men who inadvertently drove 
their truck onto the access road to 
the SeaBee's coral pits on Tinian 
and were kept in the stream of traf- 
fic, hauling coral, for one entire 



morning. It was only when chow 
call sounded that they were able to 
stop long enough to convince the 
powers that be that they were not 
really SeaBees. 

In addition to the airfield work 
on Tinian, the SeaBees built bomb 
storage facilities, tank farms for 
aviation gasoline, water supply sys- 
tems, sewage disposal plants, pipe 
lines for liquid fuel, radio facilities, 
barracks, and many miscellaneous 
structures, including hospitals for 
Army and Navy with a capacity of 
7,000 beds, and 70 miles of coral 
surfaced roads, of which 15 miles 
was four-lane super-highway with 
asphalt topping. Asphalt was ob- 
tained from two plants with a daily 
capacity of 3,400 tons. 

Good use was made of battle- 
damaged Japanese power generat- 
ing equipment which was rehabili- 
tated and restored to working con- 
dition. An artificial harbor, includ- 
ing a 4800-foot sheet pile cellular 
breakwater, was built, including 
deep water piers and steel sheet 
pile bulkhead. Minor construction 
consisted of a marine railway, small 
boat repair facilities, and ramps for 
unloading LST's on the beach. 

From the original 1,500 men who 
landed with the Marines during the 
assault, the number increased rapid- 
ly to 15,000, grouped into 12 Con- 
struction Battalions, a "Special" or 
Stevedore Battalion, and a Dredg- 
ing Detachment. It is significant 
that while each of these organiza- 
tions had its special abilities, all 
battalions were called upon to do 
anything which needed doing. It is 
also pertinent to state that we were 
always working against a deadline, 
and under Japanese shell fire and 
snipers' bullets. 

Simultaneously, similar develop- 
ments were under way on Guam 



16 



THE CARPENTER 



and, on a somewhat smaller scale, 
at Saipan and Iwo Jima. From all 
of these bases the Army was send- 
ing out great fleets of B-29's to 
deluge the Japanese homeland with 
destruction. The. base at Iwo had 
an additional function to provide 
refuge for battle-damaged B-29's 
returning from Japan. When I was 
there last August, I was told by 
General Chaney, Island Command- 
er, that of the 2,000 or more B-29's 
that had landed on Iwo, approxi- 
mately 25 per cent were in distress. 
The saving in lives, property, and 
war potential from this construc- 
tion operation was almost incalcul- 
able. 

What of the future? Recent de- 
velopments, in particular the pros- 
pective application of atomic pow- 
er and the development of the guid- 
ed missile, are indicative of an 
even more rapid expansion of ma- 
teriel power in warfare. Where, in 
the past, we have witnessed an ex- 
pansion of this power in what might 
be called an arithmetical series, 
current indications are that the de- 
velopment of materiel power will 
be by geometrical progression — an 
exponential expansion, if you 
please. This, in turn, emphasizes 
two needs : first, that we must al- 
ways be prepared to mobilize our 
war potential on an instant's notice, 
and, second, that our industry must 
be closely integrated with our mili- 
tary forces in the organization of 
that war potential. 

Testimony recently given before 
the Special Committee investigating 
the Pearl Harbor disaster serves to 
emphasize some things which we 
already knew but the import of 
which we had not properly ap- 
praised. These are, first, the pitiful- 
ly inadequate readiness of the Fleet 
for battle, and, second, the inter- 



dependence of our foreign policy, 
our diplomacy, and our military 
power. 

As to the first of these, our un- 
preparedness, I do not presume to 
anticipate the findings of the select 
committee investigating Pearl Har- 
bor. However, I believe it pertinent 
to recall to you that for many years 
prior to World War II we were 
apostles of that doctrine of ex- 
treme altruism which advocates ac- 
complishment of disarmament by 
example. 

The interdependence of our for- 
eign policy, our diplomacy, and our 
armed might has been forcibly de- 
monstrated since the termination of 
hostilities. Diplomacy and military 
power are the instruments with 
which our foreign policy can be 
made effective. It is to be hoped, 
therefore, that the scope of the 
investigations of various proposals 
for effecting a merger of our armed 
forces, which are now being con- 
ducted by the Military Affairs 
Committee of the Senate, will be 
sufficiently broad to take cogni- 
zance of this interdependence. We 
should have in mind that when we 
appraise our military power we in- 
clude in that appraisal something 
more than the combat forces who 
actually engage the enemy. Studies 
of merger proposals, if they are to 
be -adequate, should be sufficiently 
comprehensive to evaluate all pros- 
pective effects on our ability to 
wage "total war," i.e., on our ability 
to mobilize our government, our di- 
plomacy, our industry, our social 
and political structures and our 
armed forces into a closely inte- 
grated team, into a "nation at war." 

There are many recent indica- 
tions that we are about to embark 
again on the traditional American 
post-war policy of emasculation of 



THE CARPENTER 17 

our armed forces. But in this case of those things necessary for the 

the effects of such policy are poten- support of our fighting forces. The 

tially more disastrous than ever be- record of the war just brought to a 

fore because of the drastic shrink- victorious conclusion gives us no 

age of the time-space factor in mod- cause for concern on this score, 

ern warfare. Without armed might, We have assumed r n _ 

we are placing the executors of our sibilities for the maintenance of 

foreign policy m the unfortunate worM pgace A lafge measure of 

position of the poker player who this burden properly belongs to the 

enters the game with unlimited am- American construction industry. If 

bition— but no chips! you are tQ maintain your brilliant 

In the international game our po- record of war accomplishment, you 

sition will depend upon the quality must carry over into the less dra- 

of our diplomacy and upo» our matic but equally important days of 

war potential. In this war potential reconstruction, the same devotion, 

a vital element is the ability of our loyalty, and enthusiasm with which 

construction industry to outbuild you carried on your war activities, 

the enemy and to provide, with Knowing you as I do, I face the 

speed, certainty, and economy, all future with complete confidence. 



Food Prices to Soar as Subsidies End 

The ending of subsidies and the subsequent lifting of price ceilings 
can be expected to cause increases of from 10 to 40 per cent in the prices 
of at least 37 basic foods within the next 6 months, it is stated in an official 
survey prepared by government economists for the Office of Price Admin- 
istration and the Department of Agriculture. 

John C. Collett, economic stabilizer, announced that food price sub- 
sidies will be removed gradually between now and June 30. Congressional 
action placing subsidies back on these commodities, the economists say, 
would change the situation and make unnecessary any food price rise. 
Otherwise, they say, the price rise is "unpreventable." No Congressional 
move is thus far known to be afoot to continue the subsidies. 

The survey states that increases will be necessary in the price of 
meats, bread, butter, milk, canned vegetables, cheese, dried fruit and other 
commodities. 

The economists said the increases will cause the highest one-year per- 
centage rise in the cost of living since 1930 and will increase the nation's 
food bill for 1946 more than $2,000,000,000 — about $15 a person. 

One of two subsidies controlling the price of butter was lifted Nov. 
8 and the price rose 5 to 6 cents a pound. 



3 OP 4 HOUSES ARE SOLD SECOND HAND 

Housing is largely a second-hand business. The Twentieth Century 
Fund says that on the average, used houses account for roughly three 
quarter of annual sales and that probably half of all the rented dwellings 
in the United States are used single-family houses. 



-5 IP 



QUESTIONABLE IMPROVEMENT 

As predicted by Labor at the time 
of its passing, the Smith-Connally Bill 
has proved to be a 100% bona fide flop. 
Even the authors admit it now. In fact 
one of them (Smith) is pushing for its 
repeal. The only trouble is that he is 
proposing an even more vicious and un- 
workable measure to take its place, a 
measure that would have even less 
chance of succeeding than the Smith- 
Connally Bill did. Of course, the anti- 
labor Congressmen are supporting it 
much as they did the first bill with 
their minds and eyes closed and their 
determination to shackle labor over- 
shadowing their better judgment. 

About all we can think of in connec- 
tion with these efforts to substitute a 
worse measure for the Smith-Connally 
Bill is the radio comedian's little boy. 
One day he brought home his report 
card. 

"Were you promoted, son?" asked 
the comedian. 

"Better than that, Pop," promptly re- 
plied the lad. "I was held over for an- 
other twenty-six weeks." 




I have to hold him very tight, Father. 
Since he's a civilian he gets so scared 
when he tells me how he won his 
medals. 



YOU CAN'T BEAT THE ARMY 

A British Army lieutenant looked 
with satisfaction at a recent issue of 
the official London Gazette. He had 
gone through the war a lieutenant and 
now his promotion to captain was offi- 
cially announced. Furthermore the ap- 
pointment was retroactive to April 1; 
19 45 — a nice concession on the part of 
the War Office. Then he looked more 
closely. The date was April 1, 1065. 

The lieutenant promptly wrote to the 
paymaster applying for allowances for 
his new rank retroactive to 1065, only 
to receive this disheartening reply: 

"Your application . . . has been found 
in order under King's Regulations and 
your account accordingly has been cred- 
ited with the sum of 39,999 pounds. . . . 
Your letter proves conclusively that you 
are the sole officer surviving from the 
Battle of Hastings, where 20,000 horses 
of an estimated value of two pounds 
each were lost by negligence. Under 
King's Regulations the responsibility 
for payment of 40,000 pounds therefore 
falls upon you. I have accordingly ad- 
justed your account to the extent of a 
net debit of one pound." 

• • • 

PAUP COMES THROUGH 

From his cave where he is holed up 
for the winter, our favorite philosopher, 
Joe Paup, sent the following little 
pearly gem: 

"A girl likes a fast young man — pro- 
vided she has him so fast he can't pos- 
sibly get away." 

• • • 

THEY WON'T HAVE TO SELL 
APPLES 

"Blessed are the peacemakers" says 
the Good Book. Blessed indeed they 
are these days. They're one group that 
doesn't have to worry about unemploy- 
ment — not with the Dutch fighting the 
Javanese, the British fighting the In- 
dians and the Chinese fighting them- 
selves. 



THE CARPENTER 



19 



FIRST THINGS FIRST 

When Mr. Bernstein dropped dead 
in his office, it was the sad duty of the 
accountant, Mr. Harper, to break the 
doleful tidings to his widow. He found 
Mrs. Bernstein lapping up a hefty plate 
of borscht soup. "Mrs. Bernstein," said 
Harper with an apologetic sigh, "I am 
sorry to tell you that your husband 
just dropped dead." 

The lady said nothing, but continued 
her meal. "I guess you didn't hear me." 

Mrs. Bernstein whirled on him and 
shook a soup spoon in his face. "I 
heard you, all right, young man," she 
informed him. "And just as soon*as I 
finish this borscht soup, you are going 
to see a woman have hysterics!" 

And that's about the way Congress 
has been carrying on. It is continuing 
to ladle out concessions to business 
while measures to promote employment, 
insure adequate housing, and keep up 
workers' purchasing power gather dust 
in committee pigeonholes. 

• • • 

IT'S A START ANYHOW 

The atomic bomb that shook Japan 
• is now shaking Capitol Hill almost as 
badly. Now that we've got the blamed 
thing we don't seem to be able to agree 
as to what we should do with it. Some 
of our Big Wigs want to turn it over 
to the Allies, some want it kept strictly 
an American deal, and others want it 
thrown in the junkpile. 

Which course is the best for the na- 
tion, we can't say. As a starter on the 
proposition, however, how about every- 
body agreeing right now that in the 
peace years ahead nobody will sell scrap 
uranium to belligerent nations of the fu- 
ture. (If you don't already know it, 
uranium is the basic element of atomic 
bombs. ) 

• • • 

QUITE A QUANDARY 

The, way the powers-that-be in Wash- 
ington have been fumbling around with 
the future of the atomic bomb, we sort 
of suspect they're up a tree. If they 
keep it an American secret, they are 
afraid some other country will develop 
the same thing secretly and someday 
possibly turn it on us. If they give the 
secret to our allies, it may prove to be a 
mistake sometime later. 



So they find themselves in about the 
same predicament as the young man 
who was courting the girl. 

"I don't know what course to take 
with Margie," he confided in his mother. 
"I've been telling her so many nice 
things about herself, I'm afraid if I stop 
now she'll think I no longer like her, 
yet if I keep it up I'm afraid she'll get 
so conceited she'll think she's too good 
for me." 

• • • 
TO THE POINT 

And while we are on the subject of 
marriages and divorces, did you know 
that a certain midwestern daily heads 
its vital statistics column (wherein are 
recorded notices of birth, marriages and 
deaths) as follows: 

"HATCHED, MATCHED, AND DE- 
TACHED." 

• • • 
GrVE 'EM TIME 

If Congress seems slow in mapping 
out a definite program to strike the 
shackles off collective bargaining and 
free enterprise, to make possible the 
creation of adequate jobs, and to put 
this country on a sound financial basis, 
let's not get too discouraged. 

After all, President Truman only the 
other day signed a bill repaying the 
Sioux Indians $101,630 for horses ap- 
propriated by the army in 1876. 

• • • 

TRUE ENOUGH 

Failure is the only thing you can ac- 
complish without putting in some genu- 
ine effort. 




20 



III 

ill 



Covered Bridges of Iowa 



By DON B. BERRY 

Publisher, Jndianola, Iowa, Record & Tribune 



MANY WOODEN, covered bridges, erected 60 to 100 years ago 
by craftsmen who never heard of a structural engineer, are still 
standing. They have outlived a generation or two of iron and 
steel bridges which have been erected, rusted out, and been replaced in 
the meantime. 



In Marion and Madison counties, 
collection of this type of structure 
covered bridges, unless some have 
disappeared recently are still stand- 
ing and carrying traffic in Marion 
county and seven in Madison. 

Most of these old bridges were 
built with lattice trusses, a series 
of overlapping triangles. Mathe- 
matically they might extend to any 
length without sagging. It used to 
be said they were built by the mile 
and sections cut off as needed, like 
liverwurst. Judging from news- 
paper descriptions, the same type 
of truss carried the American ar- 
mies across the Rhine. 

The roofs were put on and the 
sides housed to protect the wood 
from the weather. The longevity 
of these bridges proves the early 
builders were justified in covering 
them. Most of the spans in Iowa 
are under 100 feet. 

Many covered bridges in eastern 
states have been in use more than 
100 years. They are treasured as 
historic markers and some are as 
carefully policed and guarded for 
fire as is the Liberty Bell or Mt. 
Vernon. There are said to be over 
300 covered bridges in Pennsylvania 
and more than 600 in Ohio. A con- 
siderable number can still be 
found in New England, especially 



here in Iowa, is probably the largest 
west of the Mississippi River. Eive 

in Vermont. 

In a number of the early bridges 
no nails or bolts were used. The 
angles of the triangles were fixed 
with wooden pins so accurately 
formed that they would snugly fit 
the bored holes, tight as could be, 
with a portion of the pin still pro- 
jecting and slightly too large to 
go into the auger holes when first 
built. 

After the bridge had stood for 
some time and the wood had had 
time to cure and shrink, if it was 
going to, the builders would come 
and drive the pins farther into the 
holes to give the truss its final 
tightening. While this process may 
seem crude to us today, it attests 
to the craftsmanship of our fore- 
fathers. When one considers the 
limited number of tools they had 
to work with it seems almost unbe- 
lievable that they could achieve 
the precision and ruggedness that 
went into the engineering and con- 
struction of the bridges. After a 
century of constant use some of the 
bridges are still sound and use- 
able, a genuine tribute to the dur- 
ability of wood, our foremost and 
most plentiful raw material. 



21 



President of Federation of Government Employes 
outlines the drawbacks to working for Uncle Sam 



Ifs Not All Caviar 

By JAMES B. BURNS 

President, American Federation of Government Employes 



TIME was when the people thought it would be a nice thing to 
work for the government. Not so many of them think so now. 
Some years ago people thought government employes had life- 
time jobs at fancy salaries and very little work to do. They have been 
educated on these points in recent years. 

During the war the government service expanded as it never had 
before. It got to the point where almost everybody was working for 
Sam or had a relative or close 



friend who was working for him. 
Personal experience with govern- 
ment employment dissipated many 
of the illusions. 

People have found out that Uncle 
Sam, while by no means the worst 
employer in the world, is also by no 
means the best ; that he can be just 
as penny-pinching in some respects 
as a sweatshop boss of the Nineties ; 
that he never seems to be quite 
sure how many employes he wants, 
where he wants them or what he 
wants them to do ; and that he hires 
and fires as arbitrarily as old-time 
"rugged individualists." 

Organized government employes 
have been telling the American peo- 
ple part of the story over a num- 
ber of years, but the American 
people had to come to close grips 
with government employment them- 
selves before they realized what the 
whole story was like. 

It is a lucky thing for the aver- 
age man that he doesn't have as 
many bosses as the average govern- 
ment employe. The Executive 
Branch hierarchy — the chain of 
command from the head of a de- 
partment to the very minor super- 



visor — is imposing enough, in it- 
self, but that isn't all of it by any 
means. 

Above all these fellows — the im- 
mediate supervisor, and his imme- 
diate supervisor, and all the rest, 
'way up to the top — are 531 other 
bosses, the members of Congress. 
Any one of the members of Senate 
or House may take a special inter- 
est in some agency, or a part of an 
agency, and that may mean almost 
anything. It may mean abolition of 
the unit or it may mean its unprece- 
dented expansion. The odds are on 
the first alternative. 

Then there is the President, who 
at any time may prepare an execu- 
tive order that will upset consider- 
ably the affairs of an agency and 
consequently of many individuals. 
For example, an executive order 
may transfer an agency from Wash- 
ington to St. Louis or Albuquerque. 
That sort of thing is by no means 
unknown. And the Comptroller- 
General, the Attorney-General and 
the courts are continually making 
rulings that affect the government 
w o r k e r — such, for example, as 
whether he can collect overtime for 



22 



THE CARPENTER 



certain work that he has done but 
which gives rise to some legal ques- 
tions. 

Finally, there is the real boss 
of the government employe — the 
American people. The people are 
continually being told by a well-de- 
fined economy bloc that there are 
too many government employes, 
that they get too much money, that 
they don't earn it and that, anyhow, 
the American people don't want the 
services they have asked the gov- 
ernment to provide for them. 

The consequence of all this is 
that the government employe, con- 
trary to old-time belief, is a worker 
without too much security of tenure 
or locale. He may be bounced out 
of his job on pretty short notice. 
He may be told to pack up, almost 
overnight, and transfer to an office 
in Maine, or Oregon, or almost any- 
where else he doesn't particularly 
want to go. There was a lot of this 
during the war and, now that the 
war is over, there will be more. Fir- 
ing, reorganization, centralization 
and decentralization go on all the 
time. 

So much for the "security" of a 
government job. Now for the pay. 

During the warthe cost of living 
rose rapidly, as any housewife will 
attest. But government salaries 
didn't rise. 

Employes' hours were stretched 
out from thirty-nine to forty, to 
forty-four, to forty-eight, to in- 
credible lengths in some agencies. 
At the FBI, for example, a sixty- 
eight-hour week was regarded as 
pretty soft during the more hectic 
periods of hostilities. But was there 
any overtime pay? Not for the 
white-collar people. Some of them 
worked in close association with 
craftsmen who were paid on a per 



hour or per diem basis, and those 
craftsmen got increased base pay 
and overtime; but not the white-col- 
lar group. If the clerical people 
ever had held any feeling of super- 
iority over manual workers, they 
got over it promptly. 

Although they were getting any- 
thing but a square deal, the govern- 
ment workers did their jobs cheer- 
fully and tried to make out on their 
salaries as best they could, buying 
bonds, paying wartime taxes and 
contributing to wartime causes as 
generously as they could. 

Things ultimately reached the 
point where something simply had 
to be done. It was little enough. 
Congress passed a war overtime act 
that had the effect of increasing in- 
come enough to prevent hardship in 
most cases but not enough to give 
the employes an even break. Uncle 
Sam didn't pay true time and a half 
except to some of the very low-paid 
groups, and still there was no in- 
crease in base pay. 

Just before the war came to an 
end, Uncle Sam did a little better 
by his nephews and nieces. He gave 
them a 15 per cent base pay in- 
crease on an overall basis — the low- 
er paid ones got a little more, some 
of the high-paid ones considerably 
less. He also reformed his over- 
time pay procedure by making it 
true time and a half up to the 
$2980 base pay rate — but at about 
the same time he cut the amount of 
overtime worked, and a little later 
eliminated overtime altogether in 
most government agencies. 

The upshot of it all was that few 
government employes were any bet- 
ter off financially than before the 
pay increase was given them, and 
they were all worse off, in respect 
to the purchasing power of their 
base pay, than before the war. 



THE CARPENTER 



23 



Pay had been increased 15.9 per 
cent. Promotions of one sort or an- 
other averaged about 5 per cent 
more. But the government's own 
statisticians admitted that living 
costs had risen not less than 30 per 
cent in the same period. 

I have commented on the alleged 
security of government jobs and on 
the alleged high pay of government 
jobs. Most workers in private em- 
ployment not of a distinctly war- 
time nature are equally secure", if 
not more so, and received wartime 
adjustments in pay equal to or bet- 
ter than those of government em- 
ployes. All this would make it ap- 
pear that the government people are 
in rather a spot, and one might be 
excused for wondering why work- 
ers take jobs in government agen- 
cies. 

Well, after all, there are compen- 
sations. The most material one is 
the civil service retirement system, 
which does provide pretty well for 
the employes' old age — much better 
than the provision Social Security 
makes for workers in industry. 
Then, too, there is a fairly liberal 
vacation and sick leave system, 
though it doesn't compare as favor- 
ably with industry as was the case a 
decade ago. 

But in my own opinion the most 
important compensation is the de- 
sire on the part of so many people 
to be of service to their fellow-men. 
That is a very real motivation for 
most of them. Recently a Congres- 
sional committee heard simply 
overwhelming testimony as to the 
loyalty of government employes 
who had remained on the job 
though they could have earned 
three or four times as much out- 
side. They felt that with Uncle 
Sam they were doing a job worth 
while in the public interest. They 



may have had their doubts about in- 
dustry. 

At this time the American Fed- 
eration of Government Employes is 
doing its utmost to bring about the 
enactment of legislation for a base 
pay increase for government white- 
collar workers. The Senate Civil 
Service Committee has reported fav- 
orably on Senator Downey's bill, S. 
1415, which provides for an overall 
20 per cent increase in pay. The 
A.F.G.E. had asked for an increase 
of at least 24 per cent, but -the com- 
mittee did not change the original 
Downey draft as to the amount. 

The bill will face severe opposi- 
tion in its journey through Con- 
gress. Of that we are aware. But 
we are aware also that we have 
right and justice on our side. 

It is to the interest of the Ameri- 
can people, and particularly of the 
labor movement, that government 
employes be paid on a scale that 
will attract the best talent of our 
young people. That does not mean 
that Uncle Sam must pay more than 
anyone else ; they do not expect 
that. But they do not think they 
ought to be penalized. 

As for the labor movement, it is 
of the greatest importance that the 
standards set for government em- 
ployment be fair and reasonable; 
for while strongly organized unions 
can enforce scales and conditions 
better than the government pays, 
the standards prevailing in govern- 
ment service afford an excellent 
lever for lifting those employes in 
occupations where bargaining pow- 
er cannot be so effectively applied. 

The fight for better conditions 
for government employes is a 
never-ending one. The record of the 
American Federation of Labor in 
their behalf is an illustrious one; it 
has given the American Federation 



24 THE CARPENTER 

of Government Employes the Thousands of trade unionists have 

staunchest support in our many bat- sons and daughters in government 

ties — those for restoration of pay service. Those youngsters ought to 

cuts after the depression, for "liber- be" union men and women too, and 

alization" of the retirement act, for if they come within the jurisdiction 

true time and one-half for overtime, of the American Federation of Gov- 

for the night differential, and for ernment Employes we want to wel- 

the many, many other gains that come them to membership. — The 

have been achieved in recent years. Federationist. 

» 

Savings Can't Hold Prosperity 

A. U. S. Department of Labor report on family incomes in 1944 backs 
labor's view that wartime savings cannot maintain post-war buying of 
peacetime goods at high levels and inferentially supports labor's conten- 
tion that wage increases are basic to maintenance of high purchasing 
power. 

The report, issued by the department's Bureau of Labor Statistics, 
says that wartime employment opportunities and earnings contributed 
by more than one member of the family group raised family incomes last 
year to the highest point in history. 

Taking issue with assertions that the average family has accumulated 
enough savings in war bonds during its period of higher earnings to per- 
mit large-scale spending on peacetime products, thus threatening infla- 
tion, the bureau says : 

"Reports on bond purchases in 1944, however, suggest that the total 
bond holdings at income levels below $3,000 do not comprise much of a 
backlog to be used for purchases of goods coming back on the civilian 
market." 

The bureau report makes it plain that the average family, though its 
income may have been at record high levels, was not exactly rolling in 
wealth during 1944. 

Half of all families and single persons in 1944 had incomes, after pay- 
ing taxes, of $2700 or more, the bureau finds. The half-way mark in 1941, 
the last pre-war year was $1900. 

The bureau, in reviewing statistics on higher income living costs, esti- 
mates that an income of $1475 was sufficient in 1941 to cover the average 
city family of three expenses for current living for members, while the 
minimum for "breaking even" in 1944 for the city family of two or more 
members had risen about a third, to $1950. The report said: 

"Such families, averaging three persons in size, lived very modestly, 
spending an average of barely 22 cents per meal per person and $30 per 
month for housing, fuel, light and refrigeration. They paid $119 during 
the year in taxes." 

An income of this size covered expenditures for living but left nothing 
for such savings as war bonds or life insurance, the bureau states. 

The bureau emphasizes, however, that a family with this income did 
buy savings bonds or paid on life insurance, but to do so either had to 
draw on other savings or go into debt for $168. 



25 



The Fight Goes On 
• ■ * • 

WHILE achieving great records of production for the war abroad, 
American industry's planners and workers last year also made 
record contributions to fight the war against a still unbeaten 
enemy at home — the war against infantile paralysis. 

The 1945 March of Dimes topped all previous appeals, and enabled the 
National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis to carry on its organized fight 
against polio wherever this crippling disease may strike. 
Once again, last year, poliomy- 



elitis stalked our country. More 
than 13,000 cases were reported. 
Epidemics raged in sections of 
Tennessee, Utah, Illinois and New 
York. The National Foundation dis- 
bursed more than $1,000,000 in 
emergency aid to epidemic areas, in 
fulfillment of its pledge that "no 
victim shall go untreated for lack 
of funds, regardless of age, race, 
creed or- color." 

In the records of the National 
Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, 
no outbreak is more dramatic than 
the serious epidemic of 1944 in 
North Carolina. Polio struck in 
thinly-populated Catawba County 
and swept through the Catawba 
River valley like a brush fire. 

Only a miracle of or- 
ganization ■ — "The Mira- 
cle of Hickory"- — saved 
the situation. Children 
were transported to a 
temporary hospital erect- 
ed in three days. Physi- 
cians, nurses, physical 
therapists were rushed to 
the area. Behind that 
Miracle were the re- 
sources and experience-pf' 
the National Foundation, January 14.31 




teamed with strong and willing men 
and women of the Area. 

When polio hit Henderson Coun- 
ty, Tennessee, in the summer of 
1945, the County Chapters of the 
National Foundation transported 
patients from their homes to the 
nearest large hospital in Memphis, 
70 miles or more away. Patients 
who required aftercare were treat- 
ed in their homes, if possible, or 
were taken to convalescent centers. 
Cases often are reported in com- 
munities that have no hospitals with 
proper facilites for the care of polio 
patients. Such equipment as hot 
pack machines and wool and the 
services of skilled physical thera- 
pists are essential. Through the 
National Foundation patients can 
be and are hospitalized, 
greatly increasing their 
chance of recovery. 

Poliomyelitis is one of 
the most expensive di- 
seases known to medi- 
cine. Not only must many 
victims of past epidemics 
receive continuing care, 
but each years' outbreaks 
add new names to the 
steadily growing list. 
Hospitalization for a sin- 



26 



THE CARPENTER 



gle patient may cost more than $2,- 
500 a year. Some cases require con- 
tinuing - care for several years. Few 
families can meet the cost of ex- 
tended polio treatment. 

Before the National Foundation 
was launched, infantile paralysis 
was considered a "local affair." 
Throughout the land, men, women 
and children fought the disease 
with the inadequate resources then 
available. 

Today, a national network of lo- 
cal Foundation chapters stands 
ready to combat polio wherever it 
appears and to provide continuing 
care for patients from former out- 
breaks. Each chapter, wherever it 
may be, has the total backing of the 
national organization. 

Epidemic action and epidemic aid 
are the more obvious and dramatic 
aspects of the National Founda- 
tion's work. Everyone who has 
come through a polio epidemic 
knows this part of the organiza- 
tion's work. But there is another 
less spectacular and less familiar 
aspect: Science. 

The Foundation, in its eight-year 
history, has appropriated over $8,- 
000,000 for research and education. 
In universities, medical schools and 



laboratories, men of science are 
working under Foundation grants 
to seek preventive and possible cure 
for infantile paralysis. 

Physicians, nurses, physical ther- 
apists, medical social workers and 
others are constantly being trained 
in modern methods of treating poli- 
omyelitis and readjusting its vic- 
tims to useful lives. A constant pro- 
gram of education is being carried 
on by means of booklets, leaflets, 
radio, movies, to bring the facts 
about polio to the families of 
America. 

The fight is costly, and the costs 
increase as the National Foundation 
expands its activities, and as each 
succeeding epidemic adds new 
names to the growing list of pa- 
tients for whom chapters must pro- 
vide care, in many cases for years. 

Half of all contributions to the 
annual March of Dimes conducted 
January 14-31 by the National 
Foundation for Infantile Paralysis 
is retained by the local chapter for 
special equipment, hospitalization, 
transportation, treatment and care 
of polio patients. The other half 
goes to the national organization 
for research, education and emer- 
gency aid in epidemics. 



Farm Land Values Now Top Pre-War by 52% 

The persistence of the wartime boom in farm land values is disclosed 
in a recent survey by the U. S. Department of Agriculture which shows 
an average advance of one per cent a month for the last four years and a 
total rise as of March i, 1945, of 52 per cent above the pre-war (1935-39) 
average. 

For the four months ended March 1 last year the rise was 5 per cent, 
bringing the advance for the year for the country as a whole to 11 per cent, 
the study says. In only two years out of the last 34 did greater advances 
occur, the survey adds — 15 per cent during the year ended in March, 1944, 
and 21 per cent in 1919-20 when the peak of the World War boom was 
reached. The rise in 20 of the 48 states during the current war has ex- 
ceeded the average for the country as a whole with gains ranging from 
more than 60 per cent to over 80 per cent above pre-war. 



27 



WAGES, PRICES AND PROSPERITY 

By JOHN P. FREY 

(Delivered over the nationwide network of the Mutual Broadcasting System) 
* * * 



1 



"^HE QUESTION of wages and prices has created a rapidly grow- 
ing unrest. Partisans, special pleaders and politicians, economists, 
industrialists and organized workmen, are presenting their argu- 
ments to a public which has already indicated some evidence of confused 
thinking. 

Our national prosperity demands a solution to the problem of wages 
and prices, the relationship between the two and the present economic 
inconsistency, and the conflict between them. There never has been a time 
when it was more essential that 



Americans as a nation should con- 
sider some of the outstanding facts 
involved in the relationship of 
wages to prices, and the effect of 
this relationship upon national 
prosperity. 

A point of view will be expressed 
and defended this evening which 
endeavors to analyze the outstand- 
ing economic facts and present the 
problem in its true light, not from 
the standpoint of what labor is en- 
titled to, or management, or capital, 
but from the standpoint of stable 
national prosperity. 

There is a possibility, even a 
probability, that in connection with 
prices and wages we have been 
looking through the wrong end of 
the telescope and placed the cart 
before the horse. 

It is elemental, that unless there 
is the national capacity to con- 
sume, there can be no satisfactory 
market for manufactured goods, no 
full realization of America's genius 
in the field of production. 

The great majority of our citi- 
zenship — the farmers and the work- 
men — have their consuming capac- 



ity determined by the price the 
farmer receives for his product, and 
the wages received by the work- 
men. If any internal condition de- 
velops which unbalances their re- 
lationship to industrial production, 
to distribution and prices, then a 
most serious injury has been done 
to national prosperity. 

Why have there been demands 
and even strikes for a 30 per cent 
or greater increase in wages? Is 
there any economic or social justi- 
fication for labor's demand to bal- 
ance the cost of living by adequate 
wage rates? Let us examine some 
of the essential facts with unpreju- 
diced minds. We must consider 
this question open-mindedly if our 
country is to avoid some of the un- 
sound economic conditions which, 
more than anything else, created 
the depression which began in 1929. 

During the six years ending in 
1929, when the unthinking believed 
the nation to be more prosperous 
than ever before, we were in fact 
sowing the seeds of the economic 
unbalance which brought on the 



28 



THE CARPENTER 



overwhelming depression which 
followed. 

The Federal Census of Manufac- 
turers indicated that the total value 
of our manufactured products in 
1923 was $60,556,000,000. Two years 
later in 1925, the value of our manu- 
factured products had increased 
some $2,200,000,000 above 1923 ; yet 
the total volume of wages in the 
manufacturing industries was $689,- 
000,000 less than in 1923. In 1929 
the total value of our manufactured 
products was $10,000,000,000 great- 
er than in 1923. On the surface that 
would appear to be prosperity, a 
greater volume of production and 
increased value or prices for those 
goods. However, the total volume 
of wages paid in our manufacturing 
industries in 1929 was only $611,- 
000,000 above the amount paid in 
1923; in other words, there had been 
a rapidly widening gap between the 
volume of wages paid and the value 
of manufactured goods, the employ- 
es in the manufacturing industries 
being progressively less able to buy 
back the products of the manufac- 
turing industries. 

While the total sum of wages be- 
ing paid failed to keep pace with 
the enormous increase in the value 
of the manufactured goods, much of 
the income from higher prices went 
into interest on bonds and divi- 
dends on stocks. In 1922 the total 
dividends paid by all corporations 
was $930,648,0000. These payments 
had increased to $3,478,000,000,000 
in 1929. Bond holders fared even 
better, for interest payments rose 
from $2,469,000,000 in 1922 to $7,- 
588,000,000 in 1929. 

One direct result of the failure 
to place a sufficient amount of 
wealth being created each year in 
the pay envelope was an unprece- 
dented increase in the capital in- 



vestment structure in our country. 
Those who had received the bene- 
fits of increased interest and divi- 
dend payments re-invested much of 
their money in investments. The re- 
port of the Department of Com- 
merce indicates that from 1923 to 
1929, the capital investment struc- 
ture in the United States increased 
44-i billion dollars. Even though our 
country was producing wealth in a 
fabulous way as compared to other 
nations, the annual volume of 
wealth being created was wholly in- 
sufficient to pay interest and divi- 
dends on this enormous additional 
capitalization. 

The economic structure collapsed, 
collapsed principally because a bal- 
ance had not been maintained be- 
tween wages and prices; a sufficient 
amount of the national wealth cre- 
ated each year had not gone 
through the wage earners' pay en- 
velopes, so that their purchasing 
capacity could be maintained. An 
insufficient amount had gone to the 
farmer for what he was producing. 

The economic picture of that pe- 
riod is not a pleasant one to look* 
at, unless our purpose is to learn 
lessons through the bitter school of 
experience. 

After the national emergency de- 
veloped in 1940, Federal agencies 
were established to prevent the re- 
currence of the economic mistakes 
of the first World War period, and 
those of the six year period ending 
in 1929. The Government wisely de- 
cided that definite checks must be 
placed on wages and on prices, par- 
ticularly those entering into the 
cost of living. Unfortunately, and 
unwisely, two separate agencies 
were created, one the War Labor 
Board dealing with wages, and the 
other the Office of Price Adminis- 
tration, whose responsibility was 



THE CARPENTER 



29 



to prevent an increase in prices of 
consumer goods. 

The Administration through the 
War Labor Board, effectively froze 
wages from 1942. The OPA did not 
succeed in freezing prices, particu- 
larly those entering into the cost 
of living, so that while wages re- 
mained frozen, the cost of living 
constantly increased. The dollar 
progressively lost its value as* a 
purchasing medium due to the in- 
crease in the cost of living. 

It was a serious blunder for the 
Government to create two separate 
and independent agencies, one deal- 
ing with wages and the other with 
prices. It is now clear that the reg- 
ulation of wages and prices should 
have been under a single agency, 
which could be held responsible if 
it permitted an unbalance to de- 
velop between the two. 

The Dept. of Labor Index for 
the cost of living some time ago 
indicated an increase of 31 per cent 
over 1940 prices. However, these 
statistics were vigorously challeng- 
ed; the facts presented being such 
that the Secretary of Labor was fin- 
ally forced to admit that the BLS 
Index failed to include all of the 
increase in the cost of living. 

The statistical staff of the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor, assist- 
ed by numerous outstanding statis- 
ticians, found that the increase in 
the cost of living from January 1941 
up to a few months ago, averaged 
47 per cent. Some standard foods 
on the wage earner's table increased 
from 150 to 250 per cent. 

Wages and prices went through a 
somewhat similar experience from 
1914 to 1918. There were many in- 
creases in wages during the first 
World War. The workers were 
paid more dollars than they had 



formerly received, but the cost of 
living advanced more rapidly, so 
that when a survey was made of 
the first World War period, it was 
found that the worker's real wage, 
the purchasing power of his dollar, 
had been reduced, so that with the 
higher wages he was receiving in 
1918, he could buy less than in 1914. 

When labor and the farmer fail 
to receive an adequate share of the 
nation's wealth they produce, it fol- 
lows that somewhere in our dis- 
tributing system an unsound eco- 
nomic condition has developed. 
Some of the wealth created by la- 
bor and the farmer is being unduly 
and unsoundly absorbed by some- 
one else to the injury of a stable 
economic condition. 

It is of little avail to freeze both 
wages and prices if somewhere else 
in the national economic system 
others absorb that part of the na- 
tional wealth created each year 
which should go to the primary 
producers. 

The worker most properly will 
defend his standard of living which 
is based upon the real wage he re- 
ceives, the purchasing power of the 
dollars in his pay envelope. There 
can be no national prosperity in any 
real sense unless the wage earner's 
real wage is maintained, and for 
that matter increased. Aside from 
maintaining the real wage, to per- 
mit a steady increase in prices es- 
tablishes an exceedingly dangerous 
condition to national welfare. 

As prices increase the values of 
securities are reduced. Every one 
holding securities, particularly 
Government securities, is seriously 
affected. Ten years ago many wage 
earners, and people in moderate 
means, purchased Government Sav- 
ings Bonds, at that time paying 75 
cents for each dollar they were to 



30 



THE CARPENTER 



receive in return when the bonds 
matured this year. 

The increase in the cost of living 
since 1935, as_the BLS Index indi- 
cates, is over 30 per cent, so that 
when the purchaser of a $1,000 Sav- 
ings Bond, for which he paid $750 
in 1935, cashes that bond at the end 
of this year, he will receive $1,000, 
but the purchasing power of these 
dollars is now at least 30 per cent 
less. In other words, the purchas- 
ing power of that $1,000 is less than 
he originally paid for the bond, and 
the interest during the ten-year pe- 
riod. 

If one of the functions of govern- 
ment is to regulate wages and 
prices, and examine into the na- 
tion's distributing system, then the 
emphasis must be placed on bring- 
ing down prices and eliminating 
any feature in our system of distri- 
bution which siphons off that por- 
tion of wealth being created 
through production which should 
first go to the pay envelope. 

The nation faces a most serious 
problem when the Government fails 
to maintain the real value of its se- 
curities. No economic system is 
sound when the worker's real wage 
is not maintained, or under which 



the purchasing power of his sav- 
ings is reduced, and reduced to an 
extent where he cannot even secure 
a return of the dollar value of his 
savings. Labor cannot of itself 
alone control prices and what takes 
place in our distributing system, 
but labor is most assuredly on 
sound ground when it insists that 
so far as it is directly concerned, 
it will not accept a lower real wage, 
and will insist upon lower prices. 

The President inherited a dan- 
gerously unsound economic condi- 
tion. Wages had been frozen, prices 
had increased, and the purchasing 
power of securities and Govern- 
ment bonds had been reduced. That 
condition, if continued, spells eco- 
nomic disaster. 

In his radio message to the na- 
tion the President demonstrated 
that he understands the problem. 
Wages must be increased, prices 
must be held in check. Management 
and labor must be equally willing 
to face the economic facts and be 
governed by a genuine willingness 
to work out their problems through 
collective bargaining, and as joint 
stockholders in the greatest corpo- 
ration in the world, the United 
States of America. 



ALL RETAIL. STORES BOOST DOLLAR SALES 

Retail stores doing all kinds of business increased sales in December 12 
per cent above the same month last year, preliminary government figures 
seem to indicate. 

This does not mean, however, that consumers got more goods. It means 
they paid higher prices for such goods as they were able to obtain. 



MIDDLEMEN EAT UP TOO MUCH 



On the average, it costs more to distribute goods in the United States 
than it does to make them, according to the Twentieth Century Fund's sur- 
vey Does Distribution Cost Too Much? Fifty-nine cents of your dollar 
pays for distribution, forty-one cents for production. 



31 

REVIVE GERMAN UNIONS -- Keenan 

PEAKING before the Advertising Men's Post of the American Le- 
gion there, Recording Secretary Joseph D. Keenan of the Chi- 
cago Federation of Labor urged the Legion to watch carefully the 
developments in Germany and Japan, while the policies of the victorious 
powers are still in the formative stage, and asserted that "the decisions 
being made now may spell the difference between war or peace in the 
years to come." 

"Returning veterans want to have a voice in these decisions," he said. 
"They are looking to the Legion to carry their views not only into domestic 

circles, but into the foreign policy — ■ — ■ 

councils as well." cified conditions, and under the 

Keenan was vice-chairman for la- general surveillance of the mili- 
bor production of the War Produc- tary government. This policy is 
tion Board, and later was a member part of the pattern developed by 
of the United States group control the military government in the 
council in Germany. American zone to rebuild German 

Setting forth that determined ef- institutions from the ground up. 
forts are being made to reestablish In the case of trade unions, the 

a democratic government in Ger- object is to make certain that the 
many as a first line of defense organizations develop out of a gen- 
against future aggression. Keenan uine workers' interest and need, 
said that the basic foundation for uninfluenced by pressures from the 
such a movement is through such top, Keenan, said, 
free institutions as the German The speaker predicted that the 

churches and trade unions. He add- current winter will be "terrible" 
e d : for the German people, and point- 

"This attitude does not repre- ed out that what will be available 
sent pure benevolence on our part, to them will be far below any 
Whether or not we like it, we are conditions "we might desire to im- 
forced to rely in the final analysis pose as punishment." Food, fuel, 
on the Germans themselves to as- and transportation are still major 
sume the burden of running Ger- problems, and a large amount of 
many, under appropriate guaran- unemployment exists because in- 
tees and supervision. Therefore, we dustry is virtually at a standstill, 
must do everything in our power Reviewing his work with the 

to encourage and stimulate the ele- War Production Board and its pre- 
ments in the population which are decessor agencies, Keenan said that 
most favorable to our way of n o one person, or any one group of 
thinking. persons, was responsible for the 

The revival of the German labor country's phenominal production 
movement is essential to a demo- achievements, and declared that 
cratic government in Germany, rather, it was "the voluntary team- 
Keenan continued, explaining that work, the fusion of many hands and 
the policy on unions in the Ameri- many brains, and sacrifices of many 
can zones provides that workers individuals, and labor and manage- 
may organize under certain spe- ment groups." 



Editorial 




The Same Bitter Road 

Day by day the picture gets gloomier on the industrial front where the 
big battle against inflation is being waged. Rising prices threaten to en- 
gulf the economy and swamp the workers in a whirlpool of mounting liv- 
ing costs. 

To all intents and purposes, the present era is closely following the 
disastrous pattern that led to so much trouble following the last war. 
Things are drifting down the same bitter pathway. Unless they are 
halted abruptly, the same heartbreaking disillusionment awaits us at the 
end of the trail. 

The same fevered frenzy that blinded the financiers in the Twenties 
seems to be gripping the speculators now. Stock prices are climbing all out 
of proportion to their intrinsic value. Farm prices have skyrocketed far- 
beyond economically justifiable figures. Home prices, too, have literally 
run wild. By and large the old familiar picture of the Nineteen Twenties 
is emerging clearer and clearer week by week. 

When everything is added up, it takes no college professor to see that 
the way is being paved for a crash that will make 1929 look like a minor 
recession. While prices are going up, everything is rosy; but once they 
start down (and they always do when the people wake up and realize 
that they are out on the end of a limb), chaos breaks loose. Speculators 
find they have stocks on hand that can't possibly yield decent dividends 
at the prices they paid for them; farmers find they have lots of new land 
on which they can't realize interest charges; home owners find they have 
homes on which they can't keep up payments under normal conditions. 
Then the bubble bursts and there is a mad scramble to salvage something 
out of the wreck. Homes, farms and stocks hit the skids. Profits vanish 
rapidly and depression sets in for a long and bitter siege. 

And on the reconversion front, it looks more and more as if there is 
an organized strike by industry. Goods are not coming on the market as 
rapidly as they should be. Two things are apparently happening: Manu- 
facturers are holding back post-war goods until they have disposed of all 
their shoddy war goods, and 2. they are filling their warehouses with 
new goods and holding on to them in the hope that price ceilings will be 
lifted or released altogether. 

Commodity prices, too, have climbed week after week since V-Day, 
this despite the fact that most overtime costs were eliminated, wage rates 
were lowered through downgrading, and many other expenses were elimin- 
ated. Actually commodity prices should be coming down instead of rising. 
However, business seems to be in no mood to do anything but drive prices 
and profits upward. In Detroit the price of citrus fruits doubled overnight 



THE CARPENTER 33 

when controls were lifted. And so the sad story goes; greed is once more 
in the saddle riding pell mell for the abyss of eventual depression. 

As usual, the daily press is laying all the blame for runaway prices at 
labor's doorstep. Yet nothing could be farther from the truth. Plain 
greed is at the bottom of the whole thing. Is it labor that is causing 
stock prices to skyrocket? Is it lab^or that is doubling the prices of farms? 
Is it labor that is causing home prices to climb to stratospheric heights? 
In all cases the answer is, no. Labor costs, if they have any bearing on 
any one of these items, should have a deflationary rather than an infla- 
tionary effect. 

Time is running out. We. paid dearly for our mistakes after the last 
war. Let us hope that we learned something from that bitter lesson. 
Let us hope that we avoid the same pitfalls before it is too late. 



Let's Fly the Boys Home 

It's an old army saying that there are three ways of doing things: 
the right way, the wrong way, and the Army way. The saying may be a 
little bit harsh on the Brass Hats, but sometimes their way of doing things 
does pass understanding. Take for example the other day. A newspaper 
we were reading had two pictures in it : the one on the front page showed 
groups of Pacific veterans stranded in West Coast cities because trans- 
portation wasn't available to take them home; the one on an inside page 
showed workers at a Boeing plant breaking up a dozen B-29's because 
they were "surplus" as the caption put it. 

Now, from where we sit, this looks a little bit like the "Army way" of 
doing things. Why aren't those B-29's flying boys home from the Pacific 
ports? In fact why aren't the thousands upon thousands of bombers of 
all kinds that we used all during the war fulfilling the same purpose? We 
were able to send out three or four thousand bombers at a time to bomb 
Germany and Japan but we don't seem to be able to use them to get our 
boys home. 

Each big bomber could transport twenty-five to thirty GI's across coun- 
try ; not in comfort perhaps, but comfort is the last thing the boys are 
interested in. What they want is to get home. Whereas a boy can fly 
from San Francisco or Seattle to Chicago or Cleveland or Indianapolis in 
ten or twelve hours, it takes him three days to make the trip by train — 
when, if, and as he can get on one. A couple of thousand bombers utilized 
as transports could fly at least 50,000 GI's a day across country, thereby 
releasing train space for GI's with shorter distances to travel. We have 
the planes, we have the pilots, we have the airports. What we don't seem 
to have is somebody with foresight enough to order the thing done. 

After all, we were able to fly our boys to Africa and Normandy and 
Saipan and Okinawa and the other hot spots of the war where death and 
destruction awaited them. Somehow or other it just doesn't seem logical 
that we can't fly them home where peace and loved ones and normal living 
are to be their reward. 



34 THE CARPENTER 

We Need Less, Not More, Red Tape 

Indications are that Spring will see the greatest building boom in 
peacetime history get under way. The pent up demand for all kinds of 
building has reached unprecedented heights. The building material situa- 
tion is improving. Thousands of skilled building tradesmen are coming 
back from the armed forces. In fact the green light seems to be in effect up 
and down the line. 

However, there is one disturbing factor in the whole picture: the threat 
of continued or even extended government control. What the building 
game needs least of all is additional government red tape, yet more of the 
same seems to be in the offing. Laudably enough, the government seems 
determined to check inflationary price increases in building — especially 
home building. With this aim practically no one but promoters with get- 
rich-quick ideas has any quarrel. Yet on the basis of past experience, the 
building industry, by and large, looks with trepidation on further govern- 
ment encroachment in the building field. If it means added bureaus, forms, 
directives, and red tape, building may be hampered and slowed down at 
the very time when it should be hitting its peak. 



We Must Move with Caution 

Recently the President focused the spotlight of public attention on 
the health problem of the nation by advocating a five-point program osten- 
sibly designed to increase medical care for those in the lower income 
brackets. He thereby brought to a boil a vexing problem that has long 
bubbled and seethed below the surface. 

That some sort of an arrangement for better medical care of the poor 
is coming is a foregone conclusion. It is also a foregone conclusion that 
such a program is long overdo. Statistics gathered during the war show 
that too many of our young men entered manhood with physical de- 
fects that could have been prevented through adequate medical attention 
in childhood. 

However, there is great danger that we may jump into the frying pan 
out of the fire. Under the prevailing system of individual initiative, we 
have developed the best and most skilled doctors in the world. They have 
contributed more to the advancement of medical science than all the rest 
of the doctors in the world combined. The answer to our problem is not to 
tamper with this high quality medical care but rather to broaden it and 
make it available to more and more people. If we socialize medicine or put 
doctors under the control of politicians we spell doom for the quality of 
our medical care. 

We were fortunate enough recently to hear first hand from a former 
German doctor how state medicine worked in that country before the 
war. He told how dozens of youngsters in pre-war Germany were lined 
up over a wooden trough. A doctor came along with this instruments, 
dived into each child's throat and yanked out his or her tonsils. The 
tonsils he dumped into the trough. Another doctor followed him with an 
atomizer and gave each child a shot of spray. The two doctors walked out 



THE CARPENTER 35 

of the room and the children were left there over the trough spitting- and 
dripping blood into it like so many hog carcasses in a packing plant. It 
was all as cold and as impersonal as a Detroit assembly line. 

Certainly this is not the kind of medical care we want for anyone in 
this country. Human beings are not machines. On an assembly line a nut 
or a washer fits one machine as nicely as it fits another. But the same thing 
is not true of human beings. Each of us is an individual with an individual 
personality and individual idiosyncrasies. What is good for one may be 
poison to another. 

Assembly line methods in medicine certainly do not hold the answer. 
Yet assembly line methods are what we would inevitably get under a 
system that made robots of doctors. Therefore it behooves us to approach 
the problem of broader medical care with extreme caution. We must 
make sure that in working out the remedy we do not produce something 
that is more injurious than the disease it was concocted to cure. 

On the other hand, the question of adequate medical care for everyone 

can no longer be ignored. Something must be done to bring within the 

reach of even the lowest paid worker in the nation high quality medical 

attention. The large number of young men whom the Army found to be 

physically unfit because of some condition that could have been eliminated 

through adequate medical care in childhood is nothing short of disgrace. 

The greatest asset of this or any other nation is its children. If we are 

capable of financing two hundred billion dollar wars, we certainly should 

be able to safeguard the health of our children. 

e 

Every Worker Must Act 

Probably at no time since the turn of the century has organized labor 
faced a more desperate fight for its existence than it is now facing. Reac- 
tionary forces in Congress, aided and abetted by various employers' 
groups, are choking hoppers in both the House and Senate with measures 
aimed at crippling labor. Defeating one or two of them will not be 
enough. Labor will have to see to it that they are all beaten — decisively 
and irrevocably. 

In a speech at Harrisburg, Pa., last month, AFL Secretary-Treasurer 
George Meany summed up the whole situation in a few words. Said he: 

"No company sluggers this time; no sawed-off shotguns or tear gas. No, 
this time the means used is going to be more subtle. In the interest of 
industrial peace we must have just a little bit of compulsory legislation 
for labor. Just a little compulsory arbitration at first. Then a little com- 
pulsory work legislation. Then maybe we will have a little revival of 
government by injunction. Then, perhaps, a little bit of the old conspir- 
acy doctrine, under which any worker who suggests to another worker 
that they both cease work would be liable for monetary damages and per- 
haps a jail sentence on a criminal charge." 

That, in a nutshell summarizes the situation. It is up to every worker 
who believes in organized labor, every worker who has enjoyed the 
fruits of organization to enter the fight against these crippling bills. That 
is the only way they will be defeated once and for all time. Think it over. 



36 



LABOR-MANAGEMENT RETAIN VIGOR 



THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT conference, ballyhooed by press 
and radio under pressure from administrative agencies as being 
the "real McCoy," wound up its deliberations without agreeing to 
deprive either management or labor of their inherent economic and legal 
rights which will prove a great disappointment to professional meddlers, 
"burrocrats" and those within the Administration who believe that things 
can right themselves under a "sit-tight policy" that makes the O.P.A. 
"would-be mastermind'" Bowles a virtual economic dictator. 

When the conference opened President Truman and Secretaries 
Schwellenbach and Wallace assured the 36 delegates representing labor 
and management that the conference was their own for them to manage and 
reach their own conclusions. In- 



formed Washington knew that this 
was but an empty gesture and true 
to form, as soon as protests were 
filed by independent unions seeking 
representation, the old burrocratic 
method of design and control took 
over. 

Former chairman of the War La- 
bor Board, George W. Taylor, who 
had already been selected as secre- 
tary of the conference by Govern- 
ment authorities, wielded enough 
power to save his old colleague on 
the W.L.B., Frank P. Graham, pres- 
ident of North Carolina University, 
Professor William F. Ogburn of 
the University of Chicago, and Otto 
S. Beyer, professional labor con- 
sultant who is wedded to prolonged 
conciliation and mediation, as a 
committee to hear proposals from 
the independent unions. Thus in 
Hollywood style the show was made 
bigger and better. Extra stars were 
added, as a circus barker would say, 
at great expense. 

This committee offered a five- 
point program which was almost 
identical with a later five-point pro- 



gram offered by Ira Mosher, presi- 
dent of the N.A.M., and which was 
a blueprint for burrocracy in labor 
affairs. The paradox in all politic- 
ally called conferences to write 
rules of procedure in collective bar- 
gaining is that management is al- 
ways insistent upon regimenting 
labor under Government controls 
while insisting at the same time that 
employers should enjoy the fullest 
freedom of free enterprise. 

Both proposals would hamstring 
collective bargaining by prolonging 
negotiations to a degree that work- 
ingmen would be so far behind the 
parade they couldn't even hear the 
calliope. Instead of free collective 
bargaining and economic relief, 
workers would be fed statistics and 
fact-finding results for an indefinite 
period under burrocratic prescrip- 
tion. 

It is the old Army game of slow- 
ing the workers out of it. 

In a two-page analysis purporting 
to be an interpretation of his five- 
point program, Mosher clearly re- 
vealed that it was the hope of man- 



THE CARPENTER 



agement to put labor in a legal 
straight-jacket. Under the Mosher 
proposal laws would be enacted that 
would be strictly anti-labor in con- 
cept and make labor unions liable 
for damages resulting from any- 
work stoppage. 

But let the Mosher statement re- 
veal management's intent : 

"I do not question in any way 
labor's right to strike or to dis- 
agree with the proposals man- 
agement has presented here. 
But I do want to point out in the 
public interest that unless labor 
is willing to agree that it will 
not use the weapons of indus- 
trial warfare until orderly pro- 
cedures for the peaceful settle- 
ment of disputes are tried and 
unless labor is willing that laws 
and regulations shall apply 
equitably to both labor and 
management, there is little 
hope that this conference can 
do more than deal with some 
of the less important causes of 
labor unrest." 

The simple fact is that President 
Mosher forgets the fact that cor- 
porations are artificial devices that 
are licensed to do business because 
they are artificial devices. A corpo- 
ration is not a person in the flesh 
but a combination of investors 
which, after all is said and done as 
regards large corporations, is abso- 
lutely dominated and controlled by 
officials and proxy dupes, and in 
most instances with only a minority 
of stock behind them. 

Trades unions are democratic in- 
stitutions, the membership of which 
is dual in character, being both pro- 
ducers and consumers. To conceive 
the idea that people are born to 
work under compulsory conditions 
for an artificial device such as a cor- 



poration is certainly an un-Amer- 
ican viewpoint. To pass laws that 
would bring about such compulsion 
means to enslave workingmen and 
women. 

Only the utilities and railroads 
are regulated to any appreciable de- 
gree, and even the financial state- 
ments of those corporate structures 
are so confused and misleading that 
the stockholders have to take the 
official corporate word for it. 

The laws of the land are liberal 
to corporations — as witness, the 
present tax laws. A comprehensive 
comparison of tax takes as regards 
individuals and corporations can 
only be obtained by the separation 
of direct and indirect taxes. Invari- 
ably the direct and indirect taxes 
on the worker's product and his liv- 
ing expenditures reveal that the 
worker in the dual capacity of pro- 
ducer and consumer does carry the 
load — and how ! 

Thus, any attempt to compare the 
democratic makeup of a trades un- 
ion and the part trades-union mem- 
bership plays in the organic make- 
up of society with the clique rule 
of corporations, despite widespread, 
small stock holdings in corporations 
by the public, is absurd. 

The same fundamental reasons 
for public welfare legislative safe- 
guards governing the conduct of 
corporations find no place in logic 
as being necessary of application to 
trades unions. As an example, right 
now all the high-powered pressure 
of the politicians and the millions 
being spent in publicity by the cor- 
porations are being directed against 
labor. Nothing is being done to 
curb the abuse of patent rights or 
to force employers to obey the la- 
bor laws of the land. 

Yet free collective bargaining is 



38 THE CARPENTER 

being checkmated by the Adminis- Any legislation designed to put 

tration's policies, condemned by labor in a legal strait-jacket would 

politicians and fought under cover eventually destroy the high produc- 

by corporations whose spokesmen tive efficiency of American workers 

publicly declare themselves for it. as well as free enterprise. 

The overwhelming majority of A11 of which should make clear 

American labor believes in free en- why it is essential that American 

terprise and it requests the same workers protect their economic 

freedom of equal rights with em- freedom— all Pollyanna ideas to the 

ployers in enjoying free collective contrary. 

bargaining. The hopes and aspira- Regardless of the general public 
tions of labor and employers are concept, the labor-management con- 
identical. Corporations and labor ference was not a failure. In fact, 
unions are organized for the same it revealed American vigor. 

purpose — economic gain. — U. M. W. Journal 

e 

AFL Unions Ask Better Government Meet 

A proposal for a labor-management conference to promote better gov- 
ernment was submitted to President Truman by the Government Em- 
ployes' Council of the American Federation of Labor. 

In a letter to the President, Foster J. Fratt, Secretary-Treasurer of the 
council, said : 

"In the past, various 'experts,' many of them actually subsidized by 
large corporations, have managed to set themselves up in the center of 
governmental operations and to radiate their assumed influence to the 
best advantage of themselves. Now that the war is over, it seems entirely 
possible that this same influence will be brought to bear to take over the 
influential zones of government. 

"We believe the subject of better government is of such vital interest 
to the President of the United States that you may want to consider the 
announcement of and convening at an early date of all leaders of what- 
ever persuasion to general conference in Washington to turn their atten- 
tion to suggestions to be submitted to you to bring about efficiency in all 
phases of executive government. 

"Certainly the Government Employes Council of the American Fed- 
eration of Labor stands prepared to bear its portion of responsibility for 
any assignment which you determine as result of setting up such con- 
ference. If you will be good enough to indicate your desire to call such a 
conference at a convenient date, rest assured this council will remain on 

call." 

* 

NO TARGET SAFE 

"No military target is too far away for tomorrow's super bombers," 
General Henry H. Arnold, chief of the Army Air Forces, said recently. 

He predicted that bombing planes soon will be able to make non-stop 
flights of 16,000 miles — more than four times the distance between New 
York and London. 



1946 to See Increasing 
Volume of Construction 



39 



CONSTRUCTION activity should increase throughout 1946. The 
huge unsatisfied demands will undoubtedly continue to force an 
upward trend in the construction volume, as well as in the course 
of the Nation's economy, H. A. Dick, AGC president predicts. 

Business generally is moving ahead, slowly but surely, in the shift 
from war to peacetime production. Confidence in the immediate future 
continues to be high, with government and the general public sharing in 
the belief that gfood times lie ahead. 



On account of shortages of manu- 
factured materials and uncertain la- 
bor conditions, large-scale opera- 
tions in construction may not be 
attained before the end of the year. 
The Associated General Contrac- 
tors of America has voiced the ob- 
jective of construction operating at 
the rate of $12,000,000 annually a 
year from the end of the war. It 
appears that such a rate can be at- 
tained. But even that rate cannot 
quickly satisfy all demands. 

The construction industry as a 
whole faces enormous accumulated 
and new demands for its services. 
To supply those demands will re- 
quire the same resourcefulness and 
same know-how as the industry ex- 
erted in the war program. 

There can be no question that the 
aim of everyone should be develop- 
ment of the Nation to the fullest 
extent of its resources. That would 
require something like $20,000,000,- 
000 annually in construction. This 
would provide business opportuni- 
ties and jobs for about 4,000,000 
men at the site of construction, and 
create job opportunities for from 



6,000,000 to 8,000,000 off the site. 

There is almost no limit to the 
extent to which the Nation can be 
developed in the future if labor, 
management, government and all 
elements devote their energies to 
that task with the unanimity of pur- 
pose which was displayed during 
the war. 

The construction industry is now 
operating in an atmosphere of ma- 
terial and manpower shortage and 
the threat of rising prices, which 
is exerting a deterrent influence on 
contract letting. General industrial 
strife has also slowed the pace of 
construction activity. But earnest 
and intelligent men are conscienti- 
ously seeking to adjust the difficul- 
ties in the industrial field, particu- 
larly between labor and management. 
Something of a compromise is sure 
to be effected. 

The threat of rising materials 
markets is always a strong deter- 
rent to new construction, and it im- 
poses an added burden on the con- 
tractor to whom the owner looks 
for a satisfactory structure at a rea- 
sonable price. 



40 THE CARPENTER 

It is certainly to the interest of tion systems to development of na- 

all groups in the construction in- tional resources, 

dustry to make every effort to i n imagination, originality and 

get a large volume of construction adaptability, no industry is more 

work under way as rapidly as pos- resourceful than the construction 

sible, but to gain that volume will industry. But the extent to which 

require a close figuring of costs all the demands for new construction 

along the line. can be met will depend in large 

The construction industry has the measure on developments in the na- 

capacity and ability to handle all tional economy. The construction 

the construction work which the industry cannot execute an expand- 

Nation needs to improve and re- ed volume of work and prosper for 

build its physical facilities — from long unless all industries and all 

factories, housing and transporta- elements of the population prosper. 

• 

Safety Should Be Labor Function 

Promotion of safety should be as definite an objective of labor as 
wages and working conditions," said N. H. Dearborn, president of the 
National Safety Council. 

As guest speaker on "Labor, U.S.A.," the American Federation of 
Labor's ABC broadcast, Dearborn said more Americans have been killed 
by accidents since Pearl Harbor than were killed by the armed forces of 
Germany and Japan — 255,000 as compared to 261,608. 

"This squandering of lives at home is as unnecessary as it is tragic," 
declared Dearborn. "Labor, management and professional safety people 
must coordinate their efforts to apply our knowledge of accident preven- 
tion. Safe working environments must be supplemented by an endless, 
energetic, educational campaign for safe practices among individual 
workers. 

"Labor is in a strategic position to undertake this task," he said, "be- 
cause workers understand that unions are concerned with their safety. La- 
bor's efforts to prevent industrial accidents began nearly a century ago, 
reaching a climax with the passage of workmen's compensation laws early 
in this century. 

"In the many plants the industrial safety program of the National 
Safety Council is being translated into such coordinated action, with 
good results for both management and labor." 

Dearborn concluded : "I know that labor will continue to do all it 
can during this crucial period of reconversion and expansion to free 
American workers from the pain, expense and tragedy which are the in- 
evitable price of industrial accidents." 

e 

The professor put out his tongue, and the doctor added : "That seems 
to be all right, but why the postage stamp?" 

The professor beamed at him and exclaimed "Ah, so that's where I 
left it." 



Official Information 




General Officers of 
THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS 

of AMERICA 

General Office : Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General President 

WM. L. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



First General Vice-President 

M. A. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Secretart 

FRANK DUFFY 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Second General Vice-President 

JOHN R. STEVENSON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Treasurer 

S. P. MEADOWS 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Executive Board 



First District, CHARLES JOHNSON, Jr. 
Ill E. 22nd St., New York 10, N. Y. 



Fifth District, R. E. ROBERTS 
631 W. Page, Dallas, Texas 



Second District, WM. J. KELLY 
Carpenters' Bid., 243 4th Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Sixth District, A. W. MUIR 
103481 Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, Calif. 



Third District, HARRY SCHWARZER 
3684 W. 136th St., Cleveland, O. 



Seventh District, ARTHUR MARTEL 
1182 St. Lawrence, Rm. 10, Montreal, Que., Can. 



Fourth District, ROLAND ADAMS 
712 West Palmetto St., Florence, S. C. 



WM. L. HUTCHESON, Chairman 
FRANK DUFFY, Secretary 



All correspondence for the General Executive Board must be sent to the General Secretary. 



REGULAR MEETING OF GENERAL EXECUTIVE 

BOARD 

November 12, 1945 
The General Executive Board met in regular session on the above date at the 

General Office, Indianapolis, Indiana. 

General President Hutcheson, Chairman of the Board in Washington, D. C. 

attending the Labor-Management Conference called by the President of the United 

States. 

Audit of Books and Accounts of the Gengral Office commenced. 

November 13, 1945 
Audit of Books and Accounts continued. 

November 14, 1945 
General President Hutcheson present. 

As the twenty-fifth General Convention of the Brotherhood, which was to be 
held in 1944, was postponed by referendum vote taken under date of February 15, 
1944 until after the war and as that vote authorized the General Executive Board 
to call that Convention as soon thereafter as expedient, but in any event within 
one year after hostilities cease, the General Executive Board in compliance there- 
with decided that the twenty-fifth General Convention of the United Brotherhood 
of Carpenters and Joiners of America be held in Lakeland, Florida, commencing 
Monday, April 22, 1946. 



42 THE CARPENTER 

The proposition of Local Union 22, San Francisco, California, to strike out 
Paragraph C, Section 5 4 of our General Laws, endorsed by more than the required 
number of Local Unions for submission to referendum vote, was placed before the 
General Executive Board by the General President as he had notified Local Union 
22 he would do so but as the Board had already decided that the next General 
Convention of the United Brotherhood be held in Lakeland, Florida, beginning 
Monday, April 22,- 1946 and as Paragraph B, Section 63 of our General Laws 
specifies that "no new laws or amendments shall be submitted for a vote of the 
Local Unions between Conventions in which the result of such vote would not be- 
come a law six months prior to the holding of the General Convention, the Board 
therefore decided that this proposition be referred to the next General Convention 

for consideration and action. 

***** 

Request of the Lumber, Timber and Sawmill Workers of the Northwest 
for financial relief for their members on strike, was referred to the General 
President for action as soon as possible. 

November 15, 1945 

The General President notified the Board that in accordance with the provi- 
sions of Paragraph A, Section 10 of the General Constitution, he appointed Brother 
Chas. A. Johnson, Jr., of New York City, New York to fill the vacancy on the Gen- 
eral Executive Board, First District. The appointment was unanimously approved. 

Local Union 264, Milwaukee, Wisconsin; 213, Houston, Texas and 301, New- 
burgh, New York, want to know if honorably discharged members of the Armed 
Forces can be kept in good standing after being discharged and after careful con- 
sideration of the matter the Board approved the reply of the General Office that 
"any veteran returning is required to pay his dues commencing with the month in 
which he is discharged and continue to pay dues if he expects to receive the rights 
and benefits of a member of the United Brotherhood." 

***** _ 

Redding, California, Local Union 1599, wants to know if a ruling has been 
made on (1) Paragraph F, Section 42, qualifications for membership. (2) Can 
Lumber, Timber and Sawmill Workers transfer to Local Union 1599 without hav- 
ing served four years apprenticeship on a two year membership card and avoid an 
examination as to their qualifications. (3) What will be the status of these mem- 
bers when admitted to Local Union 1599 — beneficial or semi-beneficial members. 

The Board approved the answer of the General President on these matters 
dated October 12, 1945, which herewith follows: 

"Section 7, Paragraph B of the General Constitution sets forth our 
claim of jurisdiction which extends over several divisions and sub-divi- 
sions of the Trade and under Section 46 of the General Constitution it 
provides that members may transfer from one Local Union to another and 
if they have been a member of the Brotherhood for a period of two years 
or longer they would not be subject to any additional initiation fee; 
neither would they be subject to another examination as it is expected 
that the examination will be given at the time application is filed and 
as there are several branches of our Trade any member qualified to follow 
any particular branch would be granted the privilege of doing so. 

"When a Semi-Beneficial member deposits his clearance card in a 
Beneficial Local Union his status is then changed to a Beneficial member 
as of that date and he would be permitted to follow any branch of the 
Trade for which he is qualified." 

Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, Local Union 343. — Request for assistance in 
organizing work referred to the General President for further investigation. 

The Convention Call was drafted and approved to be issued November 20, 1945. 



THE CARPENTER 43 

Appeal of Local Union 899, Parkersburg, West Virginia, from the decision of 
the General President in the case of Lee Birthisel and Leonard Roy Sporleder, 
members of Local Union 1207, Charleston, "West Virginia, versus Local Union 899, 
Parkersburg, West Virginia, was carefully considered after which the decision of 
the General President was sustained on grounds set forth therein and the appeal 
was dismissed. As Local Union 899, Parkersburg, West Virginia, has not returned 
the fines of $50.00 each imposed on these members, the General Secretary is in- 
structed to deduct that amount ($100.00) - from the next per capita tax received 
from Local Union 899 so that these men may receive their money. 

The demand of Local Union 899 to be privileged to send a representative to 
appear before the Board was denied as it was decided years ago that the Board 
can only act on the evidence paper* and documents passed on by the General 

President. 

***** 

Appeal of the Providence, ■ Pawtucket and Central Falls Carpenters' District 
Council from the decision of the General President in the case of David Lamb, 
Frank P. Melanson and Fred J. Hellman, members of Local Union 67, Boston, 
Massachusetts, and Ben H. Thompson, a member of Local Union 218, Boston, Mass- 
achusetts versus the Providence, Pawtucket and Central Falls District Council was 
carefully considered after which the decision of the General President was sus- 
tained on the grounds set forth therein and appeal was dismissed. 

# # $ a£ 4 

Request of the Maryland State Council of Carpenters for financial assistance 
in establishing uniform- working conditions throughout the State and for organ- 
izing purposes in the small towns in the State was denied and the matter of organ- 
izing was referred to the General President. 

Appeal of Local Union 1786, Chicago, Illinois, from the decision of the Gen- 
eral Treasurer in disapproving the death claim of Anton Jecmen, a former mem- 
ber of said Local Union, for the reason that he was not in benefit standing at time 
of death, was carefully considered after which the decision of the General Treas- 
urer was sustained and the appeal was dismissed. 

***** 

Appeal of Local Union 2942, Albany, Oregon, from the decision of the General 
Treasurer in disapproving the death claim of James L. Hampton, a former member 
of said Local Union, who was killed in action on Luzon Island, was carefully con- 
sidered and the claim was referred back to the General Treasurer for further in- 
vestigation. 

Appeal of Local Union 2550, Tacoma, Washington, from the decision of the 
General Treasurer in disapproving the death claim of John J. Budmich, a former 
member of said Local Union, for the reason that he was not in benefit standing at 
time of death, was carefully considered after which the decision of the General 
Treasurer was sustained and the appeal was dismissed. 

***** 

Renewal of bond of General Secretary Duffy in the sum of twenty thousand (dol- 
lars ($20,000.00) through the United States Fidelity and Guaranty Company of 
Baltimore, Maryland, for one year from August 15, 1945 to August 15, 1946 was 
referred to our Legal Department. 

Renewal of Fire Insurance on contents of General Office, 222 E. Michigan 
Street, Indianapolis, Indiana, in the sum of twenty-five thousand dollars 
($25,000.00) through the Security Fire Insurance Company of Davenport, Iowa, 
and the Merchants Fire Insurance Company of Denver, Colorado, expiring Sep- 
tember 24, 1950, was referred to our Legal Department. 

Renewal of Fire Insurance on contents of our Printing Plant, 516 Hudson 
Street, Indianapolis, Indiana, in the sum of twenty thousand dollars ($20,000.00) 
through the General Insurance Company of Seattle, Washington, expiring October 
7, 1950 was referred to our Legal Department. 



44 THE CARPENTER 

Renewal of Workmen's Compensation Insurance on Employees of General 
Office, 222 E. Michigan Street, and Printing Plant, 516 Hudson Street, Indian- 
apolis, Indiana, and General Representatives throughout the country by the 
United States Fidelity and Guaranty Company of Baltimore, Maryland, expiring 
October 12, 19 46, was referred to our Legal Department. 

Renewal of Employees Liability Insurance to take care of the Brotherhood's 
liability under the special employers liability law in the States of Oregon and 
Washington through the United States Fidelity and Guaranty Company of Balti- 
more, Maryland, expiring October 12, 19 46 was referred to our Legal Department. 

Renewal of Public Liability Insurance in amounts from Five to Ten Thousand 
dollars on Printing Shop, 516 Hudson Street, Indianapolis, Indiana, expiring Octo- 
ber 12, 1946 was referred to our Legal Department. 

Renewal of Fire, Windstorm and Hailstorm Insurance on the Printing Shop, 
516 Hudson Street, Indianapolis, Indiana, through the General Insurance Company 
of Seattle, Washington, expiring October 30, 1948, was referred to our Legal 
Department. 

Local Union 772, Clinton, Iowa, protests the action of the General Executive 
Board in regards to the Home and Pension Fund, and as the proposition of Local 
Union No. 22, San Francisco, California, on this matter was referred to the next 
General Convention, it was decided that this protest take the same course. 

November 16, 1945 
Bay City, Michigan. — At a meeting of the General Executive Board held at the 

General Office in Indianapolis, Indiana, on October 14, 19 44, the Board had under 

consideration communications from Walter Sundquist, a member of Local Union 

116, Bay City, Michigan, in which he charged that 

"All officers working out of Headquarters are receivers of stolen 
property" 

and as this statement was libelous, scurrilous, derogatory and defamatory, the 

member making it should be dealt with as the Laws of the Brotherhood provide. 

The Board therefore instructed Local Union 116, Bay City, Michigan, to prefer 

charges against Walter Sundquist. 

Local Union 116, Bay City, Michigan, now reports that charges were preferred 

against Walter Sundquist. A Trial Committee was selected and a trial held. 

Walter Sundquist was found guilty and was fined the sum of two hundred dollars 

($200.00) which he paid. 

Report of the General Secretary for the year ending June 30, 1945 was care- 
fully considered after which it was ordered filed for future reference. 

***** 

Appeal of Local Union 312 8, New York City, New York, from the decision 
of the General Treasurer in disapproving the death claim of Joseph Stahl, former 
member of said Local Union, on the grounds that he was over sixty years of age 
when initiated and only an honorary member, not entitled to benefits. The de- 
cision of the General Treasurer was sustained and the appeal was dismissed. 

***** 

Request of the District Council of New Orleans, Louisiana, for financial aid 
for relief of men on strike was referred to the General President. 

***** 

Central California District Council of Lumber Handlers requests the with- 
drawal card be condensed to a more suitable size. The matter was referred to the 
General Secretary. 

* * * * * 

Request of Local Unions 1487 and 2998, Toronto, Canada for financial aid 
for organizing purposes for at least a year was referred to the General President. 

***** 

Appeal of Local Union 764, Shreveport, Louisiana, from the decision of the 
General Treasurer in disapproving the disability claim of L. F. Rodriques, a mem- 






THE CARPENTER 45 

ber of said Local Union, for the reason that it was not filed with the General Office 
within two years as the law specifies. (See Paragraph B, Section 51.) The de- 
cision of the General Treasurer was sustained and the appeal was dismissed. 

A Sub-Committee of the Board examined the Securities held by the General 
Treasurer in the vaults of the Indiana National Bank, Indianapolis, Indiana, and 
submitted the following report: 

"We, the undersigned Sub-Committee of the General Executive Board, have 
made an audit of the Securities held by General Treasurer S. P. Meadows, in the 
vaults of the Indiana National Bank, and find the following: 

General Fund 
U. S. Treasury Bonds: 

1956-59 $ 250,000.00 

1955-60 • 60,000.00 

1962-67 400,000.00 

1963-68 1,000,000.00 

1964-69 1,500,000.00 $3,210,000.00 

U. S. Defense — Series G-2y 2 s: 

1953 $ 50,000.00 

1954 100,000.00 

1957 100,000.00 $ 250,000.00 



U. S. Treasury Certificates of 
Indebtedness: 

1946 __$ 240,000.00 $ 240,000.00 



Dominion of Canada: 

1959 $ 107,000.00 

1960 50,000.00 $ 157,000.00 

Canadian Victory: 

1948 $ 50,000.00 

1956 50,000.00 $ 100,000.00 



Defense Fund 
U. S. Defense — Series G: 

1953 $ 50,000.00 

1954 i 50,000.00 $ 100,000.00 



U. S. Treasury Certificates of 
Indebtedness: 

1946 100,000.00 $ 100,000.00 



Home and Pension Fund 
U. S. Defense Series G: 

1953 $ 50,000.00 

1954 100,000.00 

1955 50,000.00 

1957 100,000.00 $ 300,000.00 



U. S. Treasury: 

1947 $ 300,000.00 

1956-59 250,000.00 



46 THE CARPENTER 

1962-67 100,000.00 

1963-68 500,000.00 

1964-69 600,000.00 $1,750,000.00 



U. S. Treasury Certificates of 
Indebetedness: 

1946 __■ $ 200,000.00 $ 200,000.00 



Respectfully submitted, 

R. E. Roberts 
Harry Schwarzer 

Roland Adams 

***** 

Audit of Books and Accounts completed. 

There being no further business to be considered the Board adjourned to meet 
at the call of the Chair in Lakeland, Florida. 

Respectfully submitted, 

FRANK DUFFY, Secretary. 



OFFICIAL NOTICE 

The Twenty-fifth General Convention of this organization will be 
held at our home, Lakeland, Florida, beginning Monday morning, April 
22, 1946. 

The Convention Call was issued on November 20, 1945 and a copy sent 
to each Local Union. Delegates and alternates must be elected in Decem- 
ber 1945 or January 1946, and the General Secretary so notified. 
Paragraph F, Section 18 of our General Laws specifies that: 

"The Recording Secretary shall, under penalty of Five Dol- 
lars ($5.00) fine, at once report to the General Secretary the name 
and post office address of the delegate and alternate." 
Please see that this is done. 

Your attention is called to Paragraph D, Section 63 of our General 
Laws, which provides that: 

"All amendments to the General Constitution submitted by 
Local Unions, District, State or Provincial Councils for the con- 
sideration of the Convention shall be forwarded to the General 
Secretary not later than the 15th day of February 1946, preceding 
the holding of the Convention, and the said amendments shall be 
published in our Official Journal in the issue immediately follow- 
ing their receipt by the General Secretary, and no further amend- 
ments shall be considered by the Constitution Committee other 
than those submitted in accordance with the above, but amend- 
ments to any section can be offered from the floor during the re- 
port of the Constitution Committee." 

€> 

Notice to Recording Secretaries 

. The quarterly circular for the months of January, February and March, 
1946, containing the quarterly password, has been forwarded to all Local 
Unions of the United Brotherhood. Recording Secretaries not in receipt 
of this circular should notify Frank Duffy, Carpenters' Building, Indian- 
apolis, Indiana. 



THE CARPENTER 47 

Proposed Changes to our Constitution and Laws 



By Connecticut State Council of Carpenters. 

Add to Section 15, ParagraphE : 

Any agreement made between any building craft or building trade and our 
National Office shall be presented and be ratified or rejected by the rank and file of 

our membership. 

♦ * & ♦ * 

By Local Union 512, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Amend Section 18, Paragraph I to read: 

The General Treasurer shall pay out of the General Fund, transportation ex- 
penses, not to exceed four cents (4c) per mile, each way, of all delegates entitled 
to seats and attending the General Convention. 

Mileage shall be computed over the shortest route over which a ticket for 
continuous passage can be purchased. All other legitimate expenses to be defrayed 
by the Local Union they respectively represent. 

By Local Unions 40, 56 and 218, Boston, Mass. 

Add to Section 42, Paragraph U: 

Members of the United Brotherhood shall be required to know whether their 
respective employers have a signed agreement with their District Council or Local 
Union. It shall be a duty of the Union to ascertain this fact and to obtain 
agreements as a requisite to the employment of its members, except, where agree- 
ments are not required, or, where they are in the process of negotiation between 
the Employer and the Union. 

By Local Union 829, Santa Cruz, Cal. 

Change, amend, and add to the following Sections and Paragraphs in our 
Constitution as follows: 

Section 49, Paragraph C, to read: 

One year's membership $ 50.00 

Two years' membership 150.0O 

Three years' membership 250.00 

Pour years' membership 350.00 

Five years' membership or more 600.00 

Section 49, Paragraph D, to read: 

Two years' membership $ 40.00 

Three years' membership 75.00 

Five years' membership 125.00 

Ten years' membership 200.00 

Section 50, Paragraph D, to read: 

One year's membership $ 50.00 

Two years' membership 100.00 

Three years' membership 150.00 

Section 51, Paragraph G, to read: 

One year's membership $ 75.00 

Two years' membership 150.0O 

Three years' membership 300.0O 

Four years' membership 450.00 

Five years' membership or more 600.00 



48 THE CARPENTER 

Section 52, Paragraph B, to read: 

Two years' membership $ 50.00 

Three years' membership 100.00 

Five years' membership or more 150.00 

Section 54, Paragraph B, to read: 

A member shall hold continuous membership for not less than twenty-five 
years. 

Section 54, add Paragraph F, to read: 

A member entitled to and receiving said pension of $15.00 per month shall 
pay not more than $1.00 per month dues. 

$ # afe # $ 

By Missouri State Council of Carpenters. 

Change Section 54, to read as follows: 

Members eligible for the Home, shall be permitted to take their wives with them 
that they may share their declining years together, providing that the member and 
his wife have been legally and lawfully married, for at least one year prior to the 
date the member is admitted to the home. 

Paragraph A. 

A member shall not be less than sixty (60) years of age to be eligible to the 
Home or Pension. 

Paragraph B. 

A member shall also hold continuous membership in the Brotherhood for not 
less than thirty (30) years to be eligible to the Home or Pension. 

Paragraph C. 

A member, whose application for admittance to the Home, had been approved 
by the proper authorities, shall have his traveling expenses paid by the General 
Office to the Home. 

Paragraph D. 

A member, not wishing to avail himself of the privilege of entering the Home, 
may apply for a pension, not to exceed $30.00 per month, and a minimum of not 
less than $15.00 per month. 

Paragraph E. 

This law supersedes all former laws of the Brotherhood on th subject of Home 
or Pension for members of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of 
America. 

* ■% # * * 

By Local Union 22, San Francisco, Cal. 

Strike out Paragraph C, Section 54 of the Constitution and Laws of the United 
Brotherhood. Section 54 to read as follows: 

Home and Pension 
Paragraph A. 

A member shall not be less than 65 years of age to be eligible to the Home or 
Pension. 

Paragraph B. 

A member shall hold continuous membership for not less than thirty years. 

Paragraph D. 

The traveling expenses of a member whose application for admittance to the 
Home has been approved by the proper authorities shall be paid by the Local 
Union in which he holds membership. 

Paragraph E. 

Members not wishing to avail themselves of the privilege of entering the Home 
may apply for a Pension not to exceed $15.00 per month. 



Not lost to those that love them, They still live in our memory, 
Not dead, just gone before; And will forever more. 



tsi m l&ttttt 



The Editor has been requested to publish the name* 
of the following Brothers who have passed away. 



Brother WALFRID T. ANDERSON, Local No. 299, Union City, N. J. 
Brother JAMES BURNETTE, Local No. 1590, Washington, D. C. 
Brother HAROLD R. CULLIVAN, Local No. 885, Woburn, Mass. 
Brother R. D. FORSBERG, Local No. 1130, Titusville, Pa. 
Brother ART. FRANZON, Local No. 1052, Hollywood, Cal. 
Brother ELBERT FRYE, Local No. 1590, Washington, D. C. 
Brother JOHN HENRY GOODEN, Local No. 10, Chicago, 111. 
Brother PAUL HAFEMAN, Local No. 282, Jersey City, N. J. 
Brother MATTHEW HOFFMAN, Local No. 366, New York, N. Y. 
Brother ARTHUR HOGGBLOM, Local No. 1590, Washington, D. C. 
Brother ANDREW JACKSON, Local No. 1149, San Francisco, Cal. 
Brother WM. J. KERR, Local No. 40, Boston, Mass. 

Brother WM. A. KILLEBREW, Local No. 1339, Morgantown, W. Va. 
Brother JOHN LIDSTONE, Local No. 1325, Edmonton, Alta., Can. 
Brother J. W. LITTLE, Local No. 1149, San Francisco, Cal. 
Brother EDWARD LONGCHAMP, Local No. 1590, Washington, D. C. 
Brother CLYDE OWEN, Local No. 1590, Washington, D. C. 
Brother P. J. RAINSFORD, Local No. 40, Boston, Mass. 
Brother WALTER RHYNDRESS, Local No. 1590, Washington, D. C. 
Brother GEORGE A. ROBINSON, Local No. 1149, San Francisco, Cal. 
Brother ANTONE SEVILLES, Local No. 1803, Enumclaw, Wash. 
Brother J. T. SHOOTER, Local No. 1590, Washington, D. C. 
Brother GEORGE STORMS, Local No. 188, Yonkers, N. Y. 




^e tviia lane baton lji» Hie in beten&e at & ttm&e beetneb 
big fyim ia W just is, in i\[z &&Z& sxi ($ob stnb man, a fytxtx. 




• * * 



Brother Albert Applegate, Local No. 299, Union City, N. J. 



Brother Robt. A. Frew, Local No. 1630, Ware, Mass. 



• • • 



CorrQSDondQRCQ 




This Journal Is Not Responsible For Views Expressed By Correspondents. 

BOYS STILL SAYING "THANKS" FOR SMOKES 

Although the war has been over for many months, letters of apprecia- 
tion for cigarettes provided by the Cigarette Fund are still coming into 
the General Office almost every day. Some of the letters are from boys 
still mopping up in the Pacific, some are from Germany and Italy and 
Iceland, and some of them are even from boys who were prisoners of the 
Japanese. Despite the hustle and confusion of getting back home, these 
boys took time out to drop a card of thanks to the General Office. 

Particularly interesting was a letter from a Texas boy who served in 
the Marine Corps. He and 343 of his buddies in a Jap prison camp re- 
ceived a case of cigarettes provided by the Cigarette Fund, probably the 
first they tasted since falling into Jap hands. This chap writes: 

***** 

Olney, Texas 

November 29, 1945 
Dear Sir : 

I found the enclosed card in a carton of Raleigh cigarettes that 
was dropped by a B-29 at Kosaka, Japan, August 28, 1945, where 
I was a prisoner of war. 

I can't tell you how welcome those cigarettes were and I wish 
to thank you for them. You can be sure that your cigarettes 
were equally appreciated by the other 343 men in that camp. 

Yours truly, 

Cpl. Charles A. Kirken, USMC. 



A Faithful Servant 

The Editor: 

At a meeting of Local 1456, New York City, held on Tuesday, No- 
vember 13, Brother Charles Johnson, Sr., was presented with a token of 
esteem from the Officers and Membership of the Local Union. 

Brother Johnson resigned as Treasurer of the Local Union on October 
1st of last year after having served as Treasurer of the Union for close 
to forty years. He was unanimously elected Treasurer Emeritus and a 
life member of the Local Executive Committee. 

Brother Johnson has served his fellow workers well during the greater 
part of his life. He is the only living founder of the present Dock Build- 
ers Union and prior to 1898 had organized two other Dock Builders 
Unions, one of which was affiliated with the Knights, of Labor. He is now 



52 



THE CARPENTER 



approaching his 82nd birthday and during his span of life has been 
associated with Dock Building organizations for close to 55 years. The 
Officers and Membership regret losing the services of their beloved Treas- 
urer, but realize that the condition of his health requires him to give up 
the responsibilities of local office. We all join in wishing him health and 
long life. 

Fraternally yours, 

William Jacobsen, Rec. Secy., 

Dock Builders' L. U. 1456. 



Illinois Council Holds Fine Convention 

The Seventeenth Annual Convention of the Illinois State Council 
convened in Springfield, Illinois, October 26, 1945 and continued through 
Saturday. President Wm. Lee of Local No. 16, Springfield, introduced 
Reverend Rothe who gave the invocation. Reverend Rothe is a member 
of Local 16. Also he introduced Mayor Kapp of Springfield and Louis 
Rodier, President of the Springfield Construction Trades Council who 
welcomed the delegates and wished the convention success. He then 
presented President Ottens with a fine gavel, a gift from Local 16. 
President Ottens opened the Convention and introduced Major Moore 




Seated, left to right, Earl Oliver, Vice-President, 1st Dist.; President 
George C. Ottens. James W. Simger, Vice-President, 2nd Dist. Standing, 
J. Earl Welch, Vice-President, 6th Dist.; John Brenton, Vice-President, 7th 
Dist.; Jack Ball, Secretary-Treasurer; Jack Ellis, Vice-President, 3rd Dist.; 
Frank Junker, Vice-President, 4th Dist. ; Dale Stump, Vice-President, 5th Dist. 



who was a Jap prisoner of war for three years and eight months. Major 
Moore described the time spent as a Jap prisoner in detail, explaining that 
he wasn't looking for sympathy or honor but wanted the world to know 
the horrors of the "March of Bataan" and the treatment given to Ameri- 
cans on Japan prison ships. 



THE CARPENTER 53 

The Committee on Credentials reported 68 delegates, three alternates 
and four fraternal delegates seated. 

Brother Charles F. Howard, Vice-President of the Indiana State Coun- 
cil ; Frank R. Hanks, Secretary of the Oklahoma State Council ; E. C. 
Meinert, Secretary of the St. Louis District Council and Wm. Rose of 
Local Union No. 5 representing the St. Louis District Council were fra- 
ternal delegates. Each gave an interesting talk. 

General Representative Cheesman who is commissioner on the Illinois 
Post- War Planning Commission gave a concise and detailed report of 
the activity of the Commission. 

Nominations were opened for officers Friday afternoon, there being no 
changes except in the office of Vice-President, 7th District. John Brenton 
was nominated unopposed. There being no opposition those nominated 
were elected by acclamation. 

Saturday morning talks were given by R. G. Soderstrum, President of 
the Illinois State Federation of Labor and Mr. E. D. VanFosson, Repre- 
sentative of the Federal Apprentice Training Service. 

At this time Second General Vice-President Stevenson gave an address 
in which he touched on many problems connected with the industry. He 
also advised the Delegates of the feasibility of Apprentice Training and 
the need for it. 

Various committees reported and were discharged, resolutions being 
acted on for the best interests of the Brotherhood. 

The question of getting the Public "Good-House" minded was dis- 
cussed with the instructions that the Executive Board look toward films 
or some other sort of advertising wherein the prospective house builder or 
purchaser could get knowledge of good and bad construction. 

President Ottens called upon Second General Vice-President Steven- 
son to install the Officers after which, in behalf of the Convention, he 
presented President Ottens with a fine wrist watch, a token of merit and 
appreciation for his service to the Council, this being his twentieth con- 
secutive elective year. 

o 

Carpenters' Local 185 Honors Nine Senior Members 

On Saturday night, October 27, 1945, Local Union 185 of St. Louis, 
Missouri, put on a joyous all-around celebration and social meeting. 

First part was to honor nine members with fifty or more years mem- 
bership. 

All these were continuous memberships, making them all the more 
unusual and honorable. Each was awarded a beautiful gold pin, secured 
from our General Office, also a gold-sealed leather encased card, certify- 
ing the bearer as entitled to wear the pin. 

Then followed a series of short speeches by officers from a number of 
other Carpenter Locals in this District, as well as the District and State 
Council. General President Wm. L. Hutcheson was asked to attend, but 
was unable to do so. A former Seabee member spoke for service mem- 



THE CARPENTER 



bers. Local 185 had thirty-five members in the war and not one was 
killed. 

Next on the program was a dance with a fine orchestra in the Auditor- 
ium of Carpenters' Hall, this lasting till after midnight. An elaborate floor 




Seated, front row, left to right: Earl Meixsell, committee chairman; A. 
A. Simson, 54 years membership ; John J. Halpin, 54 years membership; 
Geo. A. Andrews, 55 years membership; R. O. Johnson, 56 years membership; 
H. P. Hall, 56 years membership; H. Goecke, 56 years membership; G. H. 
Miller, 60 years membership; Wm. E. Miller, 61 years membership. Not in 
picture, E. H. Seibert, 55 years membership. 

show was put on between dance numbers by some of the best entertainers 
in the City, some being relatives or friends of members of the various 
Carpenter Locals. 

Several kinds of both drinks and eats were served. Thirty attendance 
prizes were also given away. 

Several hundred members and their wives, families and guests com- 
prised the attendance. Many old friendships were renewed and new ones 
made, and some are still talking about the big night. 

Local 185 really feels lifted up over it and sincerely extends to all 
other Unions the same spirit of good fellowship. 



Local Union 246 Honors Its Veterans of World War I. 

The Editor : 

Twenty-six years have passed since the signing of the Armistice ter- 
minating hostilities of World War I. Each year it has been the custom 
of Local Union 246, New York, N. Y., to in some way honor those of its 



THE CARPENTER 55 

members who served in that war and to revere the memory of those who 
have paid the supreme sacrifice. 

Brother August Darmstadt, Financial Secretary, is the originator of 
these Veterans' nights and has through the years planned some celebration 
in their honor. Again this year he has come to the fore with a gala cele- 
bration in our patriotically decorated meeting. 

In opening the ceremonies the Star Spangled Banner was rendered 
by the Metropolitan Quartette which during the evening sang several 
favorites. 

Speakers for the evening were Brother Sam Isard, A. F. of L. organ- 
izer, and Brother Sam Sutherland, General Representative and past Presi- 
dent of Local Union 246, both of whom delivered themselves nobly, and a 
generous round of applause was given. 

Mrs. Edward Reynal, a Nurses Aid of the American Red Cross, spoke 
of the activities of the Red Cross during the war, what they are doing to- 
day, and the planned activities for the future. Mrs. Reynal's address was 
well received, and a donation of one hundred dollars was given to the 
Red Cross. 

Brother Darmstadt then read the Honor Roll of the veterans of World 
War I. Of the thirty-five of our brothers who served in that war, six 
have passed away from wounds or gas poisoning and fourteen are still 
active in the Local Union. Those present for the occasion were : Otto 
Barufka, Harry Goldenberg, George Henjes, Fred Newell, Edward De- 
menaker, Carl Neilson, James Freely, Irving Rock and Harry Ziegler. It 
was regularly moved that a donation of three months dues be given to 
those still active in the Local. 

The Honor Roll of the veterans of World AVar II containing ninety- 
eight names of our brothers was read and those answering the call were 
heartily welcomed. Those welcomed home were Carl Wellhoffer, John A. 
Liotta, James Mahoney, Max Cobmand, John Muller, Nils Christenson 
and Frank Zeller, Jr., a wearer of the Purple Heart. 

President Dominick Mandaglio of Local Union 385 and the Commander 
of Fordham Post, Veterans of Foreign Wars, spoke a few words and 
wished the returned veterans well, and expressed the hope that all of our 
brothers would be home soon. 

Before adjourning for refreshments, a rising vote of thanks was given 
to Brother Darmstadt for his sincere efforts in making this meeting the 
success that it was. 

Edward E. Stamm, Rec. Sec. 



Topeka Members Honor Old Timer 

In recognition of 50 years continuous membership and active service in 
the Brotherhood, Local Union 1445 and Ladies Auxiliary, Topeka, Kansas, 
entertained with a banquet at the Garfield Park Shelter House on Satur- 
day, November 17. A large number of the members of the union and aux- 



56 THE CARPENTER 

iliary and their friends were present to pay honor to S. B. Weaver, Uncle 
Sol, as he is known to organized labor in this part of the State. 

In 1895, Sol secured his membership card and has maintained his mem- 
bership continuously since that time. He has served his organization as 
an official of the local union, having served in nearly every official posi- 
tion. He served for many years as president of the Kansas State Council 
of Carpenters and has attended several sessions of the International 
organization at the conventions. In attending the meetings of the central 
labor organizations, he became known to practically every AFL group in 
the city and state and was looked to for counsel and advice for many 
years. In 1935, the State Council of Carpenters by unanimous vote elected 
him as President Emeritus in recognition for his long and faithful service 
with the organization. 

Ben Kinch, member of the Topeka Carpenters Union and president of 
the State Council of Carpenters, acted as toastmaster, and introduced 
Mayor Warren as the main speaker of the evening. Mayor Warren said 
he was speaking as an old friend, having known Sol for many years, and 
that the loyalty and sincerity of the honored guest was reflected in the 
high standing of the organization which he had helped to establish, and 
was pleased to extend greetings from the official city family. The Mayor 
pointed out that the loyalty and efficiency of union officials of the Uncle 
Sol type had resulted in Topeka being pointed to with pride as having 
one of the outstanding union labor records. 

Other speakers were Stanley Baker, city building inspector; Floyd 
E. Black, secretary of the Kansas State Federation of Labor; A. W. 
Campbell, secretary of the Topeka Federation of Labor and editor of the 
Kansas Labor Weekly; Leslie V. Doud, publisher of of the Kansas Labor 
Weekly; and Sam Swearingen, president of Carpenters Union 1445. 

The Carpenters' Auxiliary presented Uncle Sol with a large birthday 
cake, those present receiving a portion parceled out by him. The Carpen- 
ters' Union presented him with a gift of $50, one dollar for each year of 
service and a 50-year service badge. 

The banquet was provided by the Ladies' Auxiliary and was one of 
those bounteous feasts for which that group is noted. The party closed 
with the auxiliary leading the guests in singing Old Lang Syne, and every- 
one hoping that the 50 years service will be extended into many more 

years. 

» 

GREATEST SPREE IN RACING HISTORY 

They call it "the greatest financial spree in racing history." During the 
last year, $1,306,514,314 have been bet on the ponies. The average spent 
was $75.70 per person per racing day. 

This is a most shocking revelation. Betting on horse races is one of the 
worst phases of the gambling mania. More crimes have been committed 
in the name of horse racing than almost any other sport. 

And yet, even in wartime, any attempt at regulation met with failure. 
We don't have to go very far to get the explanation : The race track crooks 
make so much money they can put on their payrolls lobbyists whose "pull" 
is irresistible. 







Spokane Ladies Very Active 

To Sister Auxiliaries, Greetings : 

Auxiliary 207 of Local 98 of Spokane, Washington, has been so busy 
during the war years there has been little time to write the accustomed 
letter to THE CARPENTER. 

For the past two years the ladies met each Wednesday, served a "pot- 
luck" dinner and sewed. They sewed quilts for relief agencies and quilts 
to sell for money to buy material for more quilts. In this, the Local was 
of great help. They sewed afghans and pillows for hospitals, layettes and 
garments for donations, etc. 

Now as they take stock they find membership and finances in a run 
down condition. Thanks to a vigorous Organization Committee and the 
hearty cooperation of the President and Business Agent of the Local new 
members are coming in at every meeting. 

An equally vigorous Ways and Means Committee is working on the 
income question. Bingo parties are planned. A hand made quilt was 
sold in October. A bazaar is planned for December. Local 98 presented 
a check for $25.00 as an appreciation for two of the members who made 
the service flag of more than two hundred and fifty names. 

As this is written they are eagerly anticipating the special social 
night when "the men" have offered to serve while the ladies "just rest." 

Any Auxiliary members visiting our little city are cordially invited to 
contact any member and visit the meetings. 

Stella Beebe, Reporter. 

• 

U. S. Cares for Million GI Babies 

A million wives and infants of servicemen have been or are being cared 
for under the emergency maternity and infant care program, the Chil- 
dren's Bureau, U. S. Department of Labor, announced recently. 

Of these million cases, some 650,000 represent babies born; 250,000, 
babies on their way ; and 100,000, sick infants. Doctor, hospital, and nurs- 
ing bills for all of them have been or are being paid out of the $100,000,000 
"stork fund" appropriated by Congress at various times during the two 
and one-half years in which the program has been in operation. 

Facts about the program, brought out in the Children's Bureau account- 
ing, show that : 



68 THE CARPENTER 

The "stork bill," on the average, is something under $100 a 
baby. However, when the mother was dangerously ill and needed 
medical, hospital, and nursing care, bills have, in some instances, 
run well over $1,000. 

The cost of caring for a sick infant averages $65. Sometimes, 
though, bills run much higher. 

Nine out of ten women cared for under this program have 
their babies in hospitals — "the safest place for a baby to be born." 
In the population as a whole, seven births out of ten take place in 
hospitals. 

The mothers, by and large, are young. A high proportion are 
having their first babies. A large number of servicemen's families 
have had their second baby under the program: a few applications 
for care for a third have been reported. 

By far the largest lot of these newcomers were born in New 
York and California, with Pennsylvania, Texas, and Illinois 
claiming the next largest numbers. All of the States have a con- 
siderable number, and even Alaska, Puerto Rico, and Hawaii, 
make a showing. No residence requirement has to be met. The 
care is given wherever the serviceman's wife or child happens to 
be, and if a move is made, the case is transferred. 

These babies represent many nationalities and races. Some of 
the fathers are "nationals" of other countries, as for instance 
Austrians serving in the American armed forces. Included, too, 
are babies whose foreign-born mothers have married servicemen 
overseas. Maternity bills are paid by Uncle Sam only for babies 
born in this country, but babies brought here from overseas be- 
come eligible for care throughout their first year. 

Applications are still being received at the rate of 35,000 a month. A 
considerable falling off in the number under Uncle Sam's care is expected 
soon, the Children's Bureau states, but "the end is not yet." The program 
will run until such date as Congress sets for its termination, and after 
that care will be completed for all cases then authorized, not only for 
the mother, throughout pregnancy and childbirth, but also the infant 
throughout his first year of life. 

Veterans' wives and infants can be cared for provided the wife became 
pregnant while the serviceman was in one of the eligible grades, that is, 
in one of the four lowest pay grades of the Army, Navy, Coast Guard, 
and Marine Corps, or was an aviation cadet. Moreover, even if the wife 
was not taken care of under the program, the baby can be cared for if it 
can be established that the father was in one of the eligible grades during 
the wife's pregnancy or the child's first year of life. In all cases the vet- 
eran must have been honorably discharged. 

The emergency maternity and infant care program is administered by 
State health departments under plans approved by the Children's Bureau. 
Applications can be obtained from the doctor providing the care or from 
the local or State health department office. Inquiries should be addressed 
to the State department of health. 



Craft ProblQms 




Carpentry 

By H. H. Siegele 

LESSON 208 

This is one of the most important les- 
sons in this series, for it takes up saw 
filing. Every carpenter, especially every 
apprentice, should keep on trying to 
improve his saw filing until he has 
reached that point of perfection which 
will give him a reputation of being a 




Fig. 1 

good saw filer. If the apprentice has not 
made it a practice to keep his copies of 
"The Carpenter" on file for future 
reference, he should keep this copy, at 
least, and study it until he is an expert 
saw filer. 

Fig. 1, a, gives a side view of nine 
teeth of a cut-off saw, giving the shape 
of the teeth. At b we show the same 
teeth looking straight at the points, and 




EfeE 



S — fe ~ 



SriF ^^^ISM^yJ^sfergjA i 



at c we have a cross section, showing 
the set of the teeth. (These illustra- 
tions about saw teeth and saw filing are 
all somewhat exaggerated). 

Fig. 2, A, shows nine rip-saw teeth 
from the side. At B the same teeth are 
shown looking at the points, while at 
C we have a cross section of the teeth 
showing the set. 

Fig. 3, to the left, shows a cross sec- 
tion of a saw blade held in a clamp. At 
the top we show a cross section of a 
flat file in position for jointing the 



teeth, which is held by two symbolic 
hands. The same file is shown, in part, 
to the right applied to saw teeth that 
are to be jointed. The symbolic hands 
in these two drawings show how to 
hold the file when jointing a saw. 

We are aware that many carpenters 
fasten the file in a frame with a saw 
kerf, which keeps the file at a right 
angle to the blade of the saw, but we 
have never owned such a device. We 
believe that jointing saws as well as fil- 
ing saws should not have too many 
mechanical aids. The whole process of 
filing saws should be learned much on 




Fig 



the order of a child learning to walk. 
At first the child will not be sure of his 
steps — he will fall, stumble along and 
make all kinds of peculiar movements, 
but all the while he will be learning to 
walk, and when he has once learned to 
walk he will do it with remarkable 
grace. Of course the child is aided in 
learning to walk by his parents and 
others, but such helps are put aside by 
the child of his own free will when he 
once knows how to walk. In much the 
same way the apprentice should learn 
how to file a saw, and when he knows 
how to file a saw without mechanical 



€0 



THE CARPENTER 



means to aid him, lie will never want to 
use them. 

Fig. 4, a, shows five enlarged teeth 
of a cut-off saw. These teeth have been 
jointed and set, ready for filing. Num- 
bers 1, 3 and 5 ?i not show the bevels 
but numbers 2 and 4 do. At b the same 




Fig. 4 



teeth are shown looking straight at the 
points. The little white triangles should 
be noticed, which are made by jointing. 
And when the saw is placed in the 
clamp for filing the light should strike 
these triangles in such a way that they 
will reflect the rays of light to the saw 
filer's eyes. In this way he will know 
all the time just how much more filing 
he will have to do to bring the tooth to 
a point, but only to a point — no more. 
Sometimes when the little white spot is 
almost eliminated it will require only a 
part of a stroke with the file to obscure 
it. The saw filer should practice this 
method of filing until he knows instinc- 
tively just how much to file away and 
from what edge of the tooth, in order 
to keep all of the teeth uniform in size. 
At d is shown what we mean by teeth 



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having a uniform size — of course, the 
points must be in perfect alignment, 
and they will, if the work is painstak- 
ingly done. What we have just said 
about filing cut-off saws will apply to 
filing rip saws. 

Fig. 5 shows two cross-section views 
of a hand-made saw clamp. At A the 
clamp is shown ready to receive the 
saw blade, while at B we show it with 
the saw blade held in the clamp. Fig. 
6 shows a face view of the same clamp. 
The two figures should be compared and 
studied. The spreader-board at the bot- 




tom should be noticed, which has a foot 
pedal, by means of which the clamp is 
tightened or loosened. The strap loop 
and hinge, which are pointed out on 
the drawings, should not be overlooked. 
Enough other details and figures are 
shown on the drawings so that anyone, 
who wants to, can make such a clamp — 
and improve on it, if he can. 

Fig. 7 shows a top view of the same 
clamp with a saw in the jaws ready for 
filing. Here the handle is shown to the 
left, and the file is shown in position 
for filing to the right, which means that 



THE CARPENTER 



61 



the filing is started at the point of the 
saw and continued in the direction of 
the arrows. The criss-cross marlw that 
are shown on the table, are used by 
some saw filers in order to keep the 
bevel of the teeth uniform. Such marks, 
if they are needed, can be made on card- 
board and fastened to the table with 




Fig. 6 

thumb tacks, or they can be made on 
the table itself in the form of pencil 
marks or saw kerf. In this figure the 
filing is done at an angle of 60 degrees 
— some saw filers hold the file at a 45- 
degree angle; however, most of the cut- 




off saw filing is done at some angle 
coming between those two extremes. 

Fig. 8 shows the same saw clamp, 
but the saw is fastened in reverse order. 



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Here the filing is started at the left, or 
the point of the saw, and carried in the 
direction of the arrows, which is toward 
the handle. The file shown to the left 
is in a 45-degree position, which is 




Fig. 8 

sometimes used for filing saws. At the 
center the file is shown at practically a 
right angle to the blade, and is the right 
position for filing rip saws. To the bot- 
tom, right, we show a cross section of 
the clamp holding a saw and the posi- 
tion of the file, which is in a level, or 
horizontal position. This is the right 
position for filing both cut-off saws and 
rip saws, so far as the horizontal posi- 
tion is concerned. 




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on every carpentry job. It can be used for cross-cutting, 
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FEBRUARY 1946 




Think It Over 



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State Occupation 



A Monthly Journal, Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners 

of America, for all its Members of all its Branches. 

FRANK DUFFY, Editor 

Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, 4, Indiana 



Established In 1881 
Vol. LXVI— No. 2 



INDIANAPOLIS, FEBRUARY, 1946 



One Dollar Per Tear 
Ten Centa a Copy 



— Contents — 



Inflation Danger Grows 



OPA director points out in no uncertain terms the need for continuing price control- 
something manufacturers have been desperately trying to dump. 



Program for Veterans 



- - - - - 11 

Matty Woll outlines the comprehensive program the AFL has adopted for the benefit of 

returned soldiers; a program that goes far beyond what the government has done in 
many instances. 



Consistency They Know Not 



18 

Some newspapers scream to high heaven when anything threatens their recognized right 
to print any opinion they see fit. However, when it comes to a group of workers ex- 
pressing their opinions in a free and unrestricted manner they immediately set up a 
howl. 



Plywood Looks Ahead 



23 



Plywood emerges from the war a time-tested product which faces a great future. 



Which Way America? 



36 

Is it to be free collective bargaining for American labor or government boards and red 
tape creating confusion, unrest and eventual chaos? 



OTBER DEPARTMENTS: 

Plane Gossip 

Editorials - 

Official - 

In Memoriani 

Heroes of our Brotherhood 

Correspondence - 

To the Ladies 

Craft Problems - 



. 


• 


16 


- 


• 


32 


. 


. 


44 


- 


■ 


48 


- 


> 


49 


. 


■ 


50 


- 


• 


53 


. 


• 


57 



Index to Advertisers 



64 



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Pressure of businessmen's groups for junking 
of price controls threatens runaway prices 



Inflation Danger Grows 

Speech by OPA Administrator Chester Bowles before the National Association of Manufacturers 

• * * 

THE WHOLE country is deeply concerned in the program of in- 
flation control about which you have asked me to speak today. 
Businessmen are concerned. Farmers are concerned. The work- 
ers in our factories are concerned. And so are the great mass of our people 
which cannot readily be fitted into any group. 

There are many audiences before which I appear where the support 
of our program is heartfelt and vigorous. Last night I spoke before sev- 
eral hundred businessmen at a dinner given by the Business Council. Next 
week I will appear at the annual dinner of the Ohio Grange, an organiza- 
tion representing thousands of • 

farmers which has also pledged its before a Congressional Committee 
all out support to the OPA's price that firm controls on prices were an 
control program. absolute essential to meet the infla- 

Here in this meeting of the NAM tionary circumstances created by 
I am face to face with a group war - In man y respects his recom- 
whose leaders have gone on record mendations went beyond the actual 
during the last 18 months in vigor- program^ which your Government 
ous opposition to what we have has P ut into effect, 
done and what we are now doing. I am told that Mr. Sargent's testi- 

Only the leaders of the National mon y was a major factor in secur- 
Retail Dry Goods Association and in g" the passage of the original 
the leaders of the Association of Pric e Control Act. 
Real Estate Boards have equalled But more recently your position 

the vigor with which the National has changed. To some degree in 
Manufacturers' Association heads 1943, and increasingly in 1944 and 
are opposing the stabilization con- 194$, you have swung into sharp 
trol program through which infla- opposition to effective price con- 
tion thus far has been kept in trol. 

Obviously, today we are in dis- 
I must point out that this opposi- agreement. Obviously, we cannot 
tion to effective price control is a both be right. One of us must be 
departure from the original NAM wrong. 

stand when wartime price controls Let me emphasize my own feel- 

were first proposed. ing of deep humility with which t 

In 1941 when price and rent con- approach the problems which con- 
trol legislation was under discus- front us. I have been wrong on 
sion, the stand of the NAM was occasion in the past and like most 
clear cut. Mr. Noel Sargent, who human beings I shall probably be 
was then your secretary, testified wrong on occasion in the future. I 



THE CARPENTER 



do not want to appear dogmatic or, 
above all, I do not want to create 
the impression that I think I have 
all the answers. - 

In that spirit I should like to 
analyze the stand of your Associa- 
tion on this question of price and 
rent control. At the outset I believe 
it is a proper question to ask what 
would have happened if the Nation 
had followed the advice of the 
NAM leaders in 1944 and 1945. 

Before Congress eighteen months 
ago and again last spring NAM 
officials advocated amendments to 
the Act which, in my opinion, 
would have made effective control 
absolutely impossible. 

But for the sake of clarifying 
the point, let's accept the view of 
those who claimed that these 
changes would have increased prices 
only 10 per cent each year. Even 
though we accept this viewpoint, 
the result would have been a 30 
billion dollar increase in the cost 
of fighting the war — a sum only 2 
billion less than the cost of the 
entire World War I. At the same 
time, Mr. and Mrs. Long-suffering 
American Consumer would have 
found $36 billion dollars added to 
their cost of living. In other words, 
even relying on the most optimistic 
estimates put forward by the pro- 
ponents of the NAM sponsored 
amendments, the Nation has already 
saved 66 billion dollars by not tak- 
ing your leaders' advice. 

But those figures are, in my opin- 
ion, only a portion of what your 
official proposal would have actu- 
ally cost our Nation. 

Those of us who have been en- 
trusted with the task of wartime 
price control have long recognized 
the fact that controlled inflation is 
an idle dream. One man's price 



may be the cost of a thousand other 
firms. 

There is no organization big 
enough or smart enough or efficient 
enough to handle the vast deluge of 
price adjustments which would re- 
sult from any such concept. There 
could be only one result and that is 
higher and still higher prices each 
feeding on itself with the begin- 
ning of an inflationary spiral which 
would soon be out of control. 

As I analyze the NAM's position 
on price control, it seems clear that 
the opposition of your leaders 
stems from a conviction that these 
controls tend to hold down produc- 
tion. Certainly there was no indica- 
tion of this during the war years. 
This is perfectly clear from the 
record. 

Both industrial and farm produc- 
tion during the year of effective 
price control have risen to record 
levels. They have gone far beyond 
even our most ardent hopes. Ameri- 
can management and American la- 
bor in their all out war effort have 
hurried the day of victory and have 
amazed our enemies as well as our 
allies. 

Today it is generally recognized 
that inflationary pressures are at 
record levels. Liquid assets are at 
an all time high. Savings have in- 
creased from pre-war levels by 145 
billions of dollars. Currency in cir- 
culation is almost five times as 
great as before the war. 

The stock market has been boom- 
ing merrily upward. As in 1929 taxi 
drivers, barbers, and elevator boys 
are providing inside information on 
just what selections are apt to rise 
the fastest. The dope sheets com- 
ing from Wall Street anticipate 
higher and still higher prices. The 
real estate market is starting to 
skyrocket. 



THE CARPENTER 



What, under such circumstances, 
would happen to prices if the Na- 
tion now accepted the advice which 
Mr. Robert R. Wason, Chairman of 
the NAM Reconversion Council 
and Mr. John Airey, Chairman of 
the NAM War Controls Termina- 
tion Committee offered to Congress 
on November 7. This NAM recom- 
mendation called for the elimina- 
tion of all price controls by the 
fifteenth day of February. What, 
for instance, would happen to food 
prices? 

Those of you who are in the 
candy business know that coconut, 
which OPA decontrolled some 
thirty days ago, has quadrupled in 
price. Many grades of furs, from 
which price controls were removed 
during the Fall months, have more 
than doubled. Your wife will tell 
you that some grades of oranges, 
lemons, and grapefruit moved up 50 
to 100% in the first few days fol- 
lowing the action of OPA in re- 
moving the price restrictions. 

If this occurred on food products 
which seemed to be in adequate 
supply, what would happen to 
meat, vegetables, milk, cereals, and 
all the other dozens of food prod- 
ucts which are in more scarce 
supply? 

If the Nation accepted the advice 
of your leaders to drop price con- 
trol 60 days from now, what would 
happen to clothing prices? Right 
now the apparel situation is tighter 
than it has been since the beginning 
of the war. 

Our veterans in search of their 
first outfit of "civvies" are forced 
to walk from store to store and 
even then often fail to secure the 
clothing to fit their needs. All au- 
thorities agree that this shortage is 
likely to continue for a great many 
months to come. 



If we accepted your official rec- 
ommendation of the early removal 
of all price control, what would 
the public be asked to pay for auto- 
mobiles, refrigerators, washing ma- 
chines and vacuum cleaners? Some 
say that competition would take 
care of all that. I can only say that 
this expectance is not in line with 
the facts. 

The original requests of OPA by 
reconverting manufacturers were 
for price increases ranging from 
25 per cent to 55 per cent. On Octo- 
ber 26 and 27 orders were taken for 
300,000 Ford cars, one-third of the 
entire 1941 production — with no 
questions asked on prices or trade- 
ins. 

If the Nation accepted the official 
NAM recommendation, what would 
happen to the price of building ma- 
terials? During the period of the 
first World War, the cost of lum- 
ber, soil pipe, brick, and other 
essential building materials tripled. 
Today the housing shortage is infi- 
nitely greater. Under the best of 
circumstances I am told that only 
500,000 homes can be built in 1946. 

This will be meager relief to the 
3,401,000 families, a major portion 
of them young married veterans, 
who will be forced to live with 
relatives, or otherwise double up 
during the coming year. If we re- 
moved price controls, is there any 
limit to the heights to which build- 
ing materials would move in 1946? 
Certainly not judging from what 
occurred 25 years ago. 

If we accepted the official advice 
of the NAM what would happen to 
rents? We could not remove price 
controls without removing rent 
controls. We know that in the pe- 
riod of the last war 90 per cent of 
the entire increase in rents occurred 
not during the war itself but after 



8 



THE CARPENTER 



the Armistice. In view of the crit- 
ical housing- shortage, could we ex- 
pect any greater restraint on the 
part of our landlords today? 

Finally if we accepted the advice 
of your leaders what would happen 
to wages? Today most of you gen- 
tlemen feel that the demands of 
the labor groups are excessive. If 
controls were ripped off as you pro- 
pose, if rents were allowed to shoot 
upward, if food and apparel prices 
were allowed to boom, labor would 
very properly intensify its de- 
mands for higher and still higher 
pay checks. 

History has proven that in a race 
between prices and wages, prices 
invariably go up faster. Under such 
circumstances, however, our work- 
ers would have but one defense, 
and that would be to get what they 
could as fast as they could get it in 
the hope of keeping their incomes 
within speaking distance of the ris- 
ing cost of living. 

Organized labor could at least 
make an effort to keep its earnings 
in line with increasing living costs. 
But how about the millions of 
workers, farmers, and people living 
on fixed incomes who have no 
strong unions to protect them? 
What would happen to them as 
prices and rents shot upwards? 

Finally, how about the business- 
men if the Nation accepted the offi- 
cial advice of the NAM ? Prices that 
skyrocket invariably collapse. How 
would our businessmen, particular- 
ly our small businessmen, fare as 
inventories were thrown on the 
market for any price they would 
buy and as the inevitable drop in 
purchasing power dried up their 
sales? 

We had 106,000 bankruptcies fol- 
lowing the collapse after the infla- 
tionary rise in 1919 and 1920. If 



we ripped off our inflation controls 
today, could we expect anything 
less in 1947. 

Your leaders say they fear in- 
flation as much as I do. They agree 
with me that production, produc- 
tion, and still more production is 
the only final cure for the inflation- 
ary danger. 

But it is their claim that price 
control interferes with production, 
and that if price controls were re- 
moved the whole situation would 
take care of itself. The record has 
proven them emphatically wrong 
in the past. The record indicates 
that their claim is equally wrong 
today. 

Last week the President's report 
stated reconversion has been 
achieved at record speed. Manu- 
facturers of automobiles, washing 
machines, electric refrigerators, 
and other reconversion products, 
reporting to the Civilian Produc- 
tion Administration estimated their 
volume of sales by June 1946 at 
from 75 per cent to 300 per cent 
above 1939 levels — ^all under OPA 
price controls. 

Retail sales today, again under 
the very price controls which your 
leaders claim make all-out produc- 
tion impossible, are breaking every 
record. 

Admittedly, price control has 
never been painless. Admittedly, it 
can never be painless. Obviously, 
there have been some delays, some 
fumbling, some outright mistakes. 
Everyday we are moving to correct 
these mistakes and to eliminate 
hardship to the fullest extent of our 
ability. 

Business is restless. Business has 
had it full of wartime regimenta- 
tion and red tape. Very properly, 
business is anxious to get back to a 



THE CARPENTER 



free economy with Government in- 
terference reduced to a minimum. 

Believe me, there is no one in 
America as anxious to get rid of 
price controls as I. I cordially dis- 
like the job I have. I would like 
nothing- better than to drop it to- 
morrow. 

Price control should and must be 
removed as rapidly as supply con- 
ditions permit. Barring- continued 
labor management difficulties, the 
production estimates for 1946 indi- 
cate that in industry after industry 
during the next 12 months, we will 
find supply and demand coming 
into balance. As that occurs, I as- 
sure you that your Government will 
move promptly to eliminate the last 
vestige of price restrictions in 
those industries. But to remove 
them before competitive conditions 
are again established is to invite 
inflationary chaos. 

Gentlemen, the recommendation 
of your leaders for the removal of 
price control in 60 days is reckless 
in the extreme. Just how high 
prices would go I do not know. But 
at the best, it is a risky, reckless, 
gambling policy which in all like- 
lihood would produce a national di- 
saster. 

The everyday people of America 
are looking forward eagerly to 
good jobs, steady jobs at higher 
wages — to a high sustained level of 
farm income — to good profits for 
our our businessmen — to the devel- 
opment of a land of peace and 
abundance where every man may 
raise his family in an atmosphere 
of economic security and with 
steadily increasing standards of 
living. 

Today the entire country, with 
very few exceptions, believes that 
our capitalistic free enterprise sys- 
tem continues to be our best hope 



of achieving this future. But we 
must face the fact that this deep 
seated confidence and belief in our 
free enterprise system is largely 
confined to America. In practically 
every European country, capital- 
ism has ceased to be even a source 
of controversy. In country after 
country we find the left wingers 
advocating communism while the 
right wingers advocate various 
forms of a socialistic state. 

I have great faith in our ability 
to make our free enterprise system 
work here in America. But would 
this system, in spite of its great 
achievements, and its deep seated 
roots in the traditions and think- 
ing of our country, survive the bit- 
ter disillusionment which would 
surely develop if the inflationary 
forces are allowed to take hold? 
Frankly, gentlemen, I am very 
skeptical. 

Let's make no mistake about it. 
The everyday people in this coun- 
try are wholeheartedly behind this 
program of inflation" control. Our 
farmers are behind it. Our work- 
ers are behind it. The consuming 
public is behind it. And tens of 
thousands of businessmen, large 
and small, many of them members 
of the NAM, are also behind it. 

The urge to strip off price con- 
trols now (or, let us say on Febru- 
ary 15th), and to let the devil take 
the hindmost, comes with relatively 
few exceptions from business and 
business association leaders. As I 
have pointed out the leaders of the 
NAM have long been among the 
most outspoken. 

The dizzy inflation which could 
so readily develop in the absence 
of OPA controls on prices and 
rents would, I repeat, not be ac- 
cepted lying down by the great 
masses of our people. It is for this 



10 



THE CARPENTER 



reason that I firmly believe that 
the stand which your leaders have 
taken represents a most dangerous 
threat to the future health and suc- 
cess of our entire free enterprise 
system. 

Gentlemen, I might have come to 
you today and made a pleasant easy 
speech about the inflationary dang- 
ers and our efforts to combat them. 
But such a speech would have fail- 
ed dismally to meet the basic issue. 

These are critical times and I be- 
lieve we are all entitled to frank 
statements and blunt opinions. 
Your leaders are on record in favor 
of a course of action which I be- 
lieve to be utterly foolhardy and 
dangerous. I would have failed to 
meet my public responsibilities if 
I did not state to you my own 
sharp disagreement with them. 

Let me emphasize that I accept 



the great sincerity and patriotism 
with which Mr. Mosher, and other 
leaders of your organization, have 
stated their views. I hope you will 
accept with equal readiness the sin- 
cerity with which I have tried to 
state the facts as I see them. 

Let me take this occasion to ask 
your organization to re-examine its 
position. You supported price con- 
trol in 1941. If you will but look 
at the facts of the present inflation- 
ary situation, it seems to me you 
must support price control now. 

In spite of whatever disagree- 
ment there may be between some of 
us, let us never forget that we are 
all working wholeheartedly and 
humbly for the same goal — a coun- 
try of peace, abundance, and pros- 
perity — for all of our people of all 
races, of all groups — whoever they 
may be, wherever they may live. 



Death Removes Nationally Known Labor Official 

The labor movement lost one of its best known and widely respected 
officials when death on Thursday, January 17, laid a chilling hand on John 
M. Gillespie, secretary-treasurer of the International Teamsters Union. 
Mr. Gillespie died in an Indianapolis hospital following a serious opera- 
tion. 

It was in Boston around the turn of the century that John M. Gillespie 
and Daniel Tobin, incumbent president of the Teamsters International, 
first entered the labor movement. They worked their way up from the 
ranks together and much of the credit for the progress and growth of the 
organization goes to their combined efforts. In 1903, John Gillespie 
served as president of the Boston local. He held the office until 1907, at 
which time he became the first general organizer of the Teamsters follow- 
ing Tobin's elevation to the presidency of the organization. He served 
in that capacity until 1925 when he was made assistant to the president. 
For sixteen years he filled that office in a very capable manner. Then in 
1941 he was elevated to the office of secretary-treasurer. 

In the years that he served the labor movement, John M. Gillespie made 
a host of friends. He attended all AFL conventions for many years and 
became known to labor leaders from coast to coast. His quiet manner and 
soft spoken ways endeared him to virtually all he met. 

Last rites and burial were held in Boston on Tuesday, January 15. 
Survivors are a daughter, Mrs. Ethel Abbott of Andover, Mass., and a son, 
George, a member of the Boston police force. 



11 



Program for Veterans 

By MATTHEW AVOLL, 

Chairman, A. F. of L. Veterans Committee 



MONTHS AGO the American Federation of Labor, through its 
President William Green, called upon its 900 central labor bod- 
ies throughout the United States to set up special veterans' com- 
mittees. These A. F. of L. veterans', committees are in a position to help 
the returning serviceman find suitable employment. They can give him 
information about employment possibilities for the future in the trades 
organized by the A. F. of L. They can also tell him about apprenticeship 
training courses and about the skill requirements in the higher skilled 
trades. 

The A. F. of L. veterans' committees in the cities and towns of the na- 
tion were instructed to become familiar with all of the legislation for 
veterans, including the G. I. Bill 



of Rights, the Selective Service Act, 
Public Law 16 and other legislation. 
They were also asked to learn about 
the facilities for veterans in their 
community and to render assistance 
to community organizations in the 
planning for veterans. The veteran 
who was an A. F. of L. member be- 
fore he entered the service will un- 
doubtedly find that his own local 
union has a veterans' committee 
which can help him obtain the bene- 
fits to which he is entitled. 

Recognizing that only full em- 
ployment can guarantee security 
for all, the A. F. of L. is committed 
to support legislation which will 
help to bring about this full em- 
ployment. Our economic system 
should be operating at capacity, 
so that there are always job oppor- 
tunities for every man and woman 
able and willing to work. 

There is only one way in which 
we can even begin to fulfill our 
obligation to those who risked 



their lives in our defense. That is 
to make real their hope for full em- 
ployment. We learned during the 
war that this can be done. The 
lessons of tremendously expanded 
production facilities and highest- 
level employment learned in the 
war must be carried into the peace. 
Preference for veterans in govern- 
ment and private employment has 
been generally promoted and, to a 
large extent, written into law. Pref- 
erence, however, is a device for di- 
viding up a scarcity of jobs. 

If lack of full employment 
should result in taking jobs away 
from civilians in order to*give them 
to veterans, who will suffer from 
it? If we have widespread unem- 
ployment, and most of the avail- 
able jobs are held by veterans, who 
will be unemployed but the parents, 
the brothers, the sisters and the 
wives of veterans? In a time of 
job scarcity, the veterans will have 
job preference, but he will also have 



12 



THE CARPENTER 



the b u r d e n of supporting those 
whom he has displaced, either di- 
rectly or indirectly, through taxes. 

In such a time, the veteran's job 
is legally protected for only twelve 
short months under the Selective 
Service Act. Hosts of unemployed 
workers, including other veterans, 
would be willing to do his job for 
lower wages. People without jobs 
would not have money enough to 
buy the products of the veteran's la- 
bor. Declining markets would lead 
to a declining number of jobs and 
we would have a depression. 

We can do much more for our 
veterans by talking less about pref- 
erence and by undertaking, seri- 
ously, to work out a program to 
achieve full employment for all — 
veteran and non-veteran alike. 

To make this goal a reality the 
American people — labor, business, 
agriculture and government — must 
pull together as a team as never 
before in our history. 

Today most employers recognize 
employes' rights to organize in un- 
ions free from employer domina- 
tion and to negotiate on working 
conditions through collective bar- 
gaining. A contract, the result of 
these negotiations between the em- 
ployer and the union, specifies 
rates of pay, hours and working 
conditions for employes. This un- 
ion contract has the same standing 
in the courts as any other legal 
contract. 

The benefits derived from union 
contracts are attested to by some 
14,000,000 members of organized 
labor today. In addition, unions 
more and more are concerning 
themselves with out-of-plant prob- 
lems of their members and are 
showing them how to obtain the 
health and welfare services they 
need. 



One of the greatest contributions 
of organized labor in the United 
States has been the establishment 
of the seniority system. Seniority 
rests upon the premise that time 
spent on a job represents an invest- 
ment by the worker, entitling him 
to a return in the form of certain 
rights. This investment has been 
recognized by the courts as a prop- 
erty right. 

To require a worker to surrender 
this seniority right on behalf of 
anyone else is to take property 
from one person to give to another. 
Such a requirement is equivalent to 
taxing one section of the population 
to pay a debt owed by the nation as 
a whole. 

The labor movement recognizes 
that time spent in the armed forces 
is lost opportunity for the veteran. 
Had he not been busy fighting our 
enemies, he would have been able 
to acquire property in the form of 
seniority. Labor has accepted the 
principle that the veteran should 
receive full seniority credit for 
time spent in service. It was on 
the suggestion of labor that a- provi- 
sion was written into the Selective 
Service Act which gives veterans 
"the same rights -that they would 
have had if they had remained in 
industry." 

Contrast this provision with the 
situation of a returning veteran 
who had sacrificed his own small 
business, such as a grocery, a radio 
store or a gasoline station, or who 
was forced to give up a professional 
practice, legal, dental or medical. 

It should be clearly understood 
that the seniority system was built 
up by workers and for workers. 
The returning veteran who works 
for an employer has as vital an 
interest in preserving that system 
as any civilian worker. Seniority 



THE CARPENTER 



will protect the veteran's invest- 
ment in his job against discrimina- 
tory action by his employer long- 
after his one-year protection under 
the Selective Service Act has ex- 
pired. 

Under the Selective Service Act 
a veteran entitled to reemployment 
may not be discharged from his 
restored position "without cause 
within one year after such restora- 
tion." The Selective Service Sys- 
tem goes on to state, "what is 'cause' 
for dismissal in any case must be 
determined by the facts and circum- 
stances in each case." In the broad- 
est terms, this means that a veteran 
is protected for a. period of only 
one year under the Selective Serv- 
ice Act, provided, of course, he 
was not classified as a "temporary 
employe" under this act. 

Let us compare this with the pro- 
tection afforded by the seniority 
system. Under seniority, an em- 
ploye enjoys life-long protection. 

Organized labor recognizes the 
seniority principle as basic to em- 
ployment security and protection 
against discrimination by employ- 
ers. The seniority system is an 
American system, built up over the 
last ioo years by members of or- 
ganized labor, who are convinced 
that this system guarantees the 
greatest protection based on the 
fairest method for all. 

The A. F. of L. Executive Coun- 
cil and the 1944 convention recom- 
mended that all national and inter- 
national unions affiliated with the 
American Federation of Labor 
waive initiation and reinstatement 
fees for veterans. Many A. F. of 
L. unions have already waived ini- 
tiation fees for veterans who were 
not previously members of their 
union and most A. F. of L. unions 
have waived reinstatement fees for 



veterans who previously were mem- 
bers of the union. However, some 
of the international and national 
unions have insurance and sickness 
and health benefits funds, part of 
which are paid for through initia- 
tion fees. State insurance laws for- 
bid participation of newcomers in 
such funds without pro rata pay- 
ments as a protection of the equity 
of those already covered by these 
benefits. Such unions are, there- 
fore, unable to waive this payment. 

The A. F. of L. and the unions 
affiliated with it took steps to pro- 
tect the seniority and job security 
of their 1,500,000 members in the 
armed forces. They were exempt- 
ed from paying dues while in 
service. The unions protected their 
insurance and health benefits, and 
paid full death benefits on members 
who gave their lives while in uni- 
form. 

The disabled veteran whose em- 
ployment opportunities are limited 
by his service-incurred injury has 
a special seniorty problem. While 
the Selective Service Act affords 
the disabled veteran no employment 
rights if he is not physically fit to 
resume his former job, labor has 
tackled this problem vigorously. 
The A. F. of L. asks that such a 
veteran shall be given another job 
which he is able to perform at the 
prevailing wages for that job. Un- 
ions affiliated with the A. F. of L. 
are seeking agreements from em- 
ployers which permit disabled vet- 
erans to apply their seniority on a 
plantwide basis. 

During the war, employers came 
to recognize that not only was there 
no disadvantage in employing 
handicapped persons but frequently 
there were good financial reasons 
for doing so. In many industrial 
plants physically handicapped work- 



14 



THE CARPENTER 



ers proved themselves capable of 
handling certain types of jobs fully 
as well as non-handicapped work- 
ers. Blind workers, for example, 
can perform certain tasks even 
more efficiently than those who can 
see. The lessons learned during the 
war must not be forgotten, but must 
be brought home to those employ- 
ers who have not had an oppor- 
tunity to learn them by personal 
experience. 

Financial barriers to the employ- 
ment of disabled veterans must be 
removed. Employers must be re- 
lieved of the increased workmen's 
compensation premiums charged 
when disabled workers are employ- 
ed. To do this, it will be necessary 
to replace private workmen's com- 
pensation insurance companies with 
state funds and to establish ade- 
quate second-injury funds under 
all. 

Disabled workers must not be 
forced to accept different wage 
scales from those of non-handi- 
capped workers. A government- 
paid disability allowance is not a 
subsidy and should not be figured 
in the wage received by such a han- 
dicapped veteran. The handicapped 
worker can be as efficient as non- 
handicapped co-workers and must 
receive the same wages as other 
workers holding similar jobs. 

The A. F. of L. recognizes the 
above principles and will do every- 
thing in its power to assure the 
handicapped veteran of a suitable 
job, good working conditions and 
the same wage scale as non-handi- 
capped workers. 

In highly skilled trades organ- 
ized by the A. F. of L., a specified 
period of apprenticeship training is 
required before a worker is ac- 
knowledged to be a skilled crafts- 
man at his trade. This period of 



apprenticeship depends upon the 
trade and will vary from six months 
to six years. These highly skilled 
crafts are taking in many veterans 
as apprentices and have arranged 
for apprenticeship training courses. 
The ex-serviceman desiring appren- 
ticeship training should get in 
touch with the union in the particu- 
lar craft in which he is interested. 
Some of the unions that require ap- 
prenticeship training have already 
arranged to give members who were 
apprentices before induction credit 
on their apprenticeship training 
equal to their period of service in 
the armed forces. Most of the un- 
ions are giving preference to re- 
turning veterans who desire to be- 
come apprentice members of their 
unions. 

Public Law 16, passed by the 78th 
Congress, provided for vocational 
rehabilitation. One of the provi- 
sions stated : 

"No course of training in excess 
of a period of four years shall be 
approved, nor shall any training 
under this part be afforded beyond 
six years after termination of the 
present war." 

This clause would have prevent- 
ed a veteran from obtaining vo- 
cational rehabilitation in any trade 
which requires apprenticeship 
training of more than four years. 
It would have also hampered his 
training for a profession, such as 
medicine, which requires a longer 
period of education and training 
than the four years mentioned in 
this law. 

Consequently, the A. F. of L. 
recommended that this provision be 
changed and the four-year limita- 
tion removed. It is believed that 
it is entirely to the benefit of the 
veteran that this restriction be 
eliminated. 



THE CARPENTER 



15 



Mutual understanding between 
civilians and veterans is essential 
to the future welfare of America. 

Labor is proud — very proud- — of 
its contributions to the cause of 
victory, yet all of us recognize that 
the greatest sacrifices and the great- 
est responsibilities inevitably fell 
upon the millions of Americans in 
uniform who did the actual fight- 
ing. 

We must make every possible ef- 
fort to provide for the economic 
and social security of our fighting 
men and women now returning 
home to resume civilian life. 

The least America can do is to 
assure a good job and decent pay 
to every demobilized serviceman or 
woman, so that he or she can get a 
new start in life and make up for 
lost time. This is a goal toward 
which labor, industry and the vet- 



erans' organizations can and must 
work closely together, along with 
the government. 

The voice of the A. F. of L. will 
be heard in behalf of the veteran 
in support of constructive social 
legislation. We want to secure the 
enactment of legislation for these 
men and women that will provide 
adequate security, that will pro- 
vide protection for them and their 
families, and that will prevent the 
recurrence of the unfortunate 
events following World War I. 

World War II was a total war. 
We want a total peace, a peace of 
justice and security for all. To- 
gether, America's fighting men and 
workers won the war. Together, 
we will and must win the peace — 
a united people respecting one an- 
other's rights and working together 
to protect, safeguard and further 
the enjoyment of a free democracy. 



Oldest Union Marks 131st Birthday 

Columbia Typographical Union No. ioi, Washington, D. C, oldest 
labor organization in continuous existence in the United States, marked 
its 131st anniversary January 7. 

The union, which began its life in 1815 around a nucleus of 19 printers 
gathered at a private home in Washington was first called the Columbia 
Typographical Society. In 1867 it assumed its present name and became 
affiliated with the National Typographical Union, which later became 
the International Typographical Union. 

The wage scale for earliest union printers was $9 for a week of 84 
hours. In 1850 the union scale rose to $12 weekly and the work week 
dropped to 70 hours. 

Today the minimum wage for newspaper printers doing day work is 
$64 for a 35-hour week. The night shift pays $69 minimum and the 
"lobster" shift, which begins after 11 p.m., pays $74 weekly. The scale 
for printers employed in commercial establishments is somewhat lower. 



COMPARISON TELLS THE STORY 

An economic study now circulating in Washington compares the living 
standards of average wage earners in leading nations. 

On this comparative basis, Russia is where the United States was in 
1790; Italy is about the U. S. of 1812; Germany matches us at i860, and 
England enjoys the living standard of the U. S. of 1870. 



SIP 



SOMETHING TO REMEMBER 

As this is being written, Congress is 
about to take up debate on a four and 
a balf billion dollar reconstruction loan 
to England. Other countries devastated 
by the war are also sending emisaries to 
Washington to negotiate for vast hand- 
outs. 

What should be done about these re- 
quests for financial assistance is too 
deep for us. After the last war we lost 
our shirts on deals like these. On the 
other hand, the devastated countries 
have to be rehabilitated if there is to 
be any prosperity in the world. 

About all we can think of in this 
connection is the farmer who wrote the 
mail order house. "Please send me one 
of the gasoline engines avertised on 
Page 714," he wrote, "and if it is any 
good I will send you a check." Very 
promptly the following reply was re- 
ceived: 

"Send us the check, and if it is any 
good we will send you the engine." 
• • • 
POEM OF THE MONTH 
Oh, what a crazy world we made — 

It's wonders never cease — 
While the civilized are locked in war 
The savages live in peace. 




Could we help it if there just ain't no 
boats to christen? 



SIX OP ONE 

The new income tax schedule is now 
in effect. Supposedly we workers are 
getting some tax relief. Judging from 
our first 19 46 pay check, the relief is a 
little on the negligible side. 



DANGEROUS BUSINESS 

Representatives of Big Business are 
continuing to agitate with all their 
might for abolition of all price controls. 
Competition will prevent profiteering, 
they insist. However, experience shows 
that such reasoning is unreliable. Citrus 
fruits this year became rather plentiful. 
Price controls were lifted and prices im- 
mediately skyrocketed; as high as 80% 
in some instances. If comparatively 
plentiful products practically double in 
price overnight when controls are lift- 
ed, what would happen to really scarce 
items with no price ceilings? 

If we lift all price controls now it 
seems to us we will be placing ourselves 
in about the same position as the Geo- 
gia youth who wrote two letters a day 
to his girl while in the Army only to 
return home and find her married to 
the mailman. 

• • * 
WE KNOW WHAT IT MEANS 

A caller at a doctor's home was sur- 
prised to have the door answered by a 
little girl. "Where's your father," the 
caller asked. "Oh, he's over at the 
hospital performing an apendectomy," 
replied the tot. 

"My that's a big word for a little girl 
like you to use," the caller countered. 
"Do you know what it means?" 

"Sure," replied the girl without hes- 
itation. "It means $125.00." 

That's the way it is with labor and 
the Ball-Burton-Hatch Bill. The spon- 
sors have wrapped it up in a lot of high- 
sounding phrases and arguments, but 
labor knows what it really means. Just 
one thing — SHACKLES. 



THE CARPENTER 



17 



YOU FIGURE IT OUT 

Each passing month sees the Allied 
foreign policy (if they have one) get- 
ing more and more confused. As we 
understand it, Japanese are now fight- 
ing alongside the British against the 
natives of some South Pacific Islands, 
pro-Nazis are in some instances holding 
down official jobs while well known 
anti-Fascists who rotted in concentra- 
tion camps under Hitler are roaming 
around unrecognized, and all the while 
the Balkan situation gets more con- 
fused and complicated and our own 
State Department bulges at the seams 
with dissension and charges and counter 
charges. We point a finger at the Rus- 
sians, who in turn point a finger at the 
British, and the British point fingers at 
everybody. 

About all we can think of in connec- 
tion with the mess is the couple who 
ended up in divorce court. Each was 
suing the other for divorce. The wife 
charged the husband sold the kitchen 
stove to provide money for whiskey, and 
the husband testified the Missus was 
such a sloppy housekeeper the stove 
was gone for three weeks before she 
missed it. 



GETTING A LITTLE TIRESOME 

For some time now the newspapers 
have been full of charges and counter- 
charges by various officials in the State 
Department. From all indications, the 
department that handles our foreign af- 
fairs is full of Mexican generals. What 
all the squabbling means baffles us no 
end. In fact we are beginning to feel 
like the burglar who broke into a big 
mansion. Hearing someone coming, he 
jumped into the music room and hid 
behind a screen. 

For an hour he listened to the lady of 
the house take a vocal lesson. For an- 
other hour he listened to the daughter 
take her piano lesson. For still another 
hour he listened to the son practice on 
his violin. When the father walked into 
the music room with a tuba under his 
arm, the burglar jumped out trom be- 
hind the screen. 

"In heaven's name call the police," he 
pleaded. 



PAYTRIOTS 

The swanky winter resorts of Florida 
and California are teeming with record- 
breaking trade. Race tracks are scoop- 
ing in billions despite recent disclosures 
of trickery and crookedness of all kinds. 
Night clubs, bistros, cabarets, and 
other hot spots are turning away cus- 
tomers nightly as the cost-plusers, 
black marketeers, and tin horn chisel- 
lers of all kinds spend the money they 
squeezed out of the blood, sweat and 
tears of the war. Somehow or other it 
seems to us that the boys who sleep in 
Africa and France, and Guadalcanal 
and Iwo Jima must be resting uneasily 
in their graves at the thought of it all. 
And remember, there were going to be 
no new millionaires created during this 
war? 

About the only comment we can 
make is that many a man who claims 
to be a great supporter of the govern- 
ment is merely holding it up. 



PAUP POPS OFF 

After pondering on atomic energy, 
the Balkan situation, UNO, and the 
general prospects for world peace, Joe 
Paup, our favorite philosopher, gave to 
posterity the following immortal words: 

"An optimist is a man who thinks his 
wife has stopped smoking cigarettes 
when he starts finding cigar butts 
around the house." 




But, we simply had to have heat, Mrs. 
Wilkens. 



IS 



Consistency They Know Not 

As the result of a decision handed down by the Supreme Court of the State of Washington 
last December, the right of bona fide labor organizations seeking decent wage standards to 
■indulge in peaceful picketing teas placed on firmer ground than ever before. The decision was 
the outgrowth of a recent strike by Brotherhood members employed in the Northwest lumber 
industry for a wage increase commensurate with prevailing conditions. As explained in last 
month's issue in the story headed "United Brotherhood Wins Significant Court Victory," the CIO, 
together with some employers, sought to enjoin Brotherhood members from picketing in certain 
instances. The Court held with the Brotherhood and its attorneys on the right of striking work- 
ers to communicate their position to fellow workers in a peaceful manner. 

When the Court handed down its decision, the Spokesman-Review of Spokane, Washington, 
one of the least friendly papers to labor in the West, took exception editorially to the findings of 
the court. In one of the ablest answers we have yet read, George Flood, Brotherhood attorney 
in Seattle, called the hand of the paper. In doing so he summarized one of the outstanding in- 
consistencies of American papers in general; while zealously and rabidly defending their right 
to print what they like when they like, they throw tip their hands in horror when the same right 
is extended to ivorkers who may through necessity resort to the picket line instead of the lodge 
hall, city street or market place to disseminate their views, although both rights stem from the 
same source — The First Amendment to the Constitution. 

Following is the text of Attorney Flood's reply to the Spokesman-Review : 



YOUR editorial of December 
14 has just been called to the 
notice of the writer, one of 
'counsel for the United Brotherhood 
of Carpenters and Joiners in the 
recent litigation resulting in a deci- 
sion of the Supreme Court on De- 
cember 13. In that decision the 
court recognized picketing by the 
Lumber and Sawmill Workers Un- 
ion of CIO employers, under the 
circumstances characterizing the 
particular picketing there involved, 
as a function in the exercise of free 
speech. 

I am not at all concerned about 
any editorial opinion you may wish 
to express on this or any other sub- 
ject. Democracy thrives by free in- 
terchange of differences of opinion. 
Freedom of press, equally as much 
as freedom of speech, is one of the 
imprescriptible, inalienable prerog- 
atives of every American; but over 
and beyond the mere expression of 
opinion, there were in your editor- 
ial certain implications which actu- 



ally amount to a distortion of the 
true facts of the case, and these I 
can not permit to pass unnoticed or 
unchallenged. 

You assume to premise your edi- 
torial upon an allegation of "in- 
stances of violence," and your criti- 
cism of the Supreme Court in 
characterizing peaceful picketing 
as freedom of speech is rationalized 
therein by gratuitously introducing 
into your discussion an assumption 
of something wholly foreign to the 
case : you allege not only resort to 
force and instances of violence, but 
deseeding to argumentum ad popu- 
lum you even go so far, by actually 
using the term, as to insinuate 
that there occurred a "splitting of 
heads." In these respects you not 
only malign the Lumber & Sawmill 
Workers Union in the northwest, 
in so far as its members engaged in 
picketing CIO operations, but you 
do a gross injustice as well to the 
Supreme Court of the State of 
Washington, and to the Supreme 



THE CARPENTER 



19 



Court of the United States whose 
authoritative construction of the 
First Amendment to the Federal 
Constitution serves as a controlling 
precedent for our own State Court's 
decision. Neither that court nor 
any court has ever sanctioned the 
use of force or violence or of as- 
sault and battery, and it is entirely 
misleading- to imply that any court 
has ever stultified itself, least of all 
our own state court, by fictitiously 
labeling- resort to force, violence or 
assault as a function of freedom 
of speech. 

The misleading aspect of your 
editorial flows from the fact that 
in our case recently decided there 
was not a single instance of force 
or violence. Your paper, so fre- 
quently alluding during the past 
few months to outbreaks of vio- 
lence in labor disputes in Detroit, 
Los Angeles and elsewhere, might 
very appropriately, with due re- 
gard to journalistic justice, have 
extended a word of recognition 
and credit to the Lumber & Saw- 
mill Workers Union over the fact 
that the recent strike in the lumber 
industry in the northwest has been 
singularly free from the slightest 
incident that might lead to or re- 
sult in violence of any kind or 
character. Never has there been a 
strike of such large proportions, 
involving some 60,000 workers, 
where manifestations of force, vio- 
lence and brutality have been so 
completely lacking. The Lumber 
& Sawmill Workers Union, A. F. 
of L., are proud of this record, and 
irrespective of any lack of sym- 
pathy which you may have for their 
strike objectives, they feel that a 
sense of editorial fair play might 
prompt you, in a line or two, to 
acknowledge the credit therefore to 
which they are entitled. 



Frankly, we doubt whether the 
total absence of force, violence or 
brutality would in the slightest 
change your opinion about any de- 
cision of the Supreme Court either 
of this state or of the United States, 
serving to extend a measure of lib- 
erality to organized labor in em- 
ploying peaceful picketing as an 
economic weapon to procure ade- 
quate wages and living standards. 
Presumably you have no quarrel 
with the Supreme Court in so far as 
it has recognized the right of the 
press freely to publish any opin- 
ion, any advertisement or any alle- 
gation of fact, immune from the 
power of any court to enjoin it — 
for that is precisely what the Su- 
preme Court of the United States 
has held. Your quarrel would sim- 
ply be with recent decisions of 
the Supreme Court of the United 
States in holding that the right of 
labor to communicate a viewpoint 
on the picket line is co-extensive 
with the working man's right to ex- 
press that same viewpoint on the 
street, in the market place, on the 
platform, or in his lodge. The in- 
junctive process, admittedly inap- 
propriate for the purpose of re- 
straining freedom of the press, you 
would presumably retain only so 
far as necessary to restrain expres- 
sion of opinion on the picket line. 

If I have not accurately seized 
your viewpoint you will of course 
not hesitate to correct me, but I 
conclude by recurring to your right 
to express any opinion whatsoever 
that you may entertain on this sub- 
ject. I confine myself simply to in- 
sisting that in doing so you relate 
that opinion only to a correct state- 
ment of facts and that you do not 
premise it upon a false or errone- 
ous factual background. 



20 



ill 



Army-Navy Lumber Agency 



CENTRALIZED control and procurement of lumber for both the 
Army and Navy is being continued in the post-war period through 
the Army-Navy Lumber Agency, established jointly by order of 
the Under Secretary of War and the Assistant Secretary of the Navy, to 
take over the wartime functions of the Central Procuring Agency, Office, 
Chief of Engineers. 

A Lumber Policy Committtee of the Army and Navy Munitions Board 
has also been established to set policies and procedures for the Army-Navy 
Lumber Agency and supervise the observance of these policies and pro- 
cedures, in accordance with the objectives of the Army and Navy Muni- 
tions Board. : . 



The Army-Navy Agency is estab- 
lished under the Office, Chief of 
Engineers, United States Army, 
with both the Chief of Engineers 
and the Chief of the Bureau of Sup- 
plies and Accounts, United States 
Navy, directed to provide such per- 
sonnel and administrative services 
as may be required for the opera- 
tion of the Agency. 

The field organizations of the 
Army-Navy Lumber Agency will 
carry out the actual procurement 
functions and will be located as 
follows : An agency at Atlanta, 
Georgia in the office of the Division 
Engineer, South Atlantic Division; 
one located in the office of the 
Navy Supply Depot, Seattle, Wash- 
ington; and one in the office of the 
District Engineer, Portland, Ore- 
gon. Any one of the Agency's 
field offices may be used for pro- 
curement of lumber for any of the 
various Armed Services or for such 
other agencies as the Veterans' Ad- 
ministration, the Panama Canal or 
other Federal Agencies who may 
obtain this service upon approval 
by the Army and Navy Munitions 
Board. 

The organization of centralized 



control and procurement of lumber 
on a permanent post-war basis is 
considered a tribute to the effec- 
tiveness of the system first inaugu- 
rated by the Central Procuring 
Agency during the war. Among the 
well known procedures originally 
established by the Central Procur- 
ing Agency, which will be contin- 
ued in the new Agency, is the "auc- 
tion system" of buying which revo- 
lutionized government procedures 
for buying lumber. 

The primary adavntage of cen- 
tralized control cited by the Agency 
is the speed with which new pro- 
curement may be made. However, 
the first job of the Agency will be 
the redistribution of excess inven- 
tories, whenever they occur, so as 
to prevent the Armed Services from 
having to go back into the market 
until all war acquired stocks are 
re-allocated. The Agency is also 
given authority over reporting, 
screening and transfer of excess 
lumber stocks between the services 
and their branches. 

When procurement is again ini- 
tiated, the lumber trade will have 
the benefit of being able to use 
identical contract forms and speci- 



THE CARPENTER 21 

fications on all the Armed Services system: "grademarking," "certifi- 

buying through the Agency. The cate of inspection" and "govern- 

Agency also emphasizes that it will ment inspection." The auctions will 

maintain the war-time record of be as well advertised as possible 

prompt payment of bills and sue- and will be open to all interested 

cessful bidders will be paid within bidders. All species of lumber, 

ten to thirty days. The Army-Navy rough or finished, including poles 

Lumber Agency will maintain a and piling, cross ties and plywood 

complete statistical record on its will be purchased through the 

lumber procurement so that pro- Agency. The only exception to cen- 

curement information will be avail- tralized purchase will be in less 

able to any interested agency of than carload lots on which the Us- 

the government. ing Agency may purchase direct, 

The Agency will use three meth- provided it makes the purchases 

ods of buying through its auction from local markets. 

• 

Truman Endorses Union Label Idea 

President Truman approved of the principle of the Union Label in a 
letter to the AFL Union Label Trades Department. The letter was in 
response to an invitation to attend the Union Label and Industrial Exhibi- 
tion in St. Louis, Oct. 29 to Nov. 3. The President said he could not make 
a definite appointment at this time. 

The rest of his letter follows : 

"I trust that the 1946 Union Label and Industrial Exhibition will be 
an outstanding success in full keeping with its laudable aims. The pur- 
pose of such an exhibition, and of the other work of your department, is 
important. Through other types of labeling the consumer has a guide to 
the content and quality of the goods he purchases. Through the union 
label he has knowledge that the men and women who make the product 
work at fair wages and under decent conditions. By educating consumers 
in general to the full meaning of the union label, you will enable them to 
give added impetus to the establishment 'and maintenance of fair labor 
standards." 

I. M. Ornburn, secretary-treasurer of the Union Label Trades Depart- 
ment, said that plans and preparations are now under way for the greatest 

union labor exhibition ever held. 

• 

Someone Was Gouged 

Some idea of the way consumers have been gouged on clothing is 
indicated by an Office of Price Administration statement that in the last 
year it has collected $1,500,000 in penalties from more than 200 manufac- 
turers and distributors of wearing apparel in New York City alone. 

Suits for damages were also declared to be pending in Federal district 
court against 500 other violators. 

During one week 15 manufacturers charged with black market opera- 
tions made out-of-court settlements of damages amounting to $248,293.17. 

Of course, the settlements represent only a fraction of overcharges paid 
by consumers. 





Cigarette Fund Closed Out 



Last month a final allotment of free 
cigarettes went out to the boys in our 
military hospitals as the Cigarette Fund 
was brought to an official close. From 
the time the Fund was inaugurated in 
August, 1943, until September, 1945 at 
least one million cigarettes a month 
were sent to the armed services through 
the Fund. When last full purchase of a 
million cigarettes was made in Septem- 
ber of last year, there remained a bal- 
ance of $287.00 in the Fund. However, 
contributions continued to trickle in. 
Some $234.10 came in after that time. 
This built the Fund up to $521.10. 
Last month the fund was officially 
closed out. The $521.10 was used to 
buy an allotment of cigarettes for 
wounded vets recovering in our military 
hospitals. 

A splendid record was thus brought 
to a close in a fitting manner. During 
the months of its existence the Fund 
provided almost thirty million free cig- 
arettes for the armed forces. Few or- 
ganizations in or out of the labor move- 
ment can tie that record. Close to five 
thousand pieces of mail have been re- 
ceived by the General Office from sol- 
diers, sailors, and marines who wanted 



to express their thanks for the gift 
smokes. In fact cards and letters of 
thanks are still coming into the Gen- 
eral Office. In all, better than sixty- 
seven thousand dollars cleared through 
the Fund as the sum total of all con- 
tributions from the General Office, Lo- 
cal Unions, and District and State 
Councils. 

During the war Brotherhood mem- 
bers made many fine contributions to 
the war effort both individually and 
through their Local Unions, District 
and" State Councils and through the In- 
ternational Office. High among these is 
the Cigarette Fund which provided the 
millions of American smokes for Amer- 
ican boys in all parts of the world where 
the uncertainties of war may have 
taken them. As General President 
Hutcheson pointed out in his letter of 
thanks sent to all units chartered by the 
Brotherhood at the time the Fund was 
discontinued, every individual member, 
every Local Union and every Council 
has a right to feel proud of the suc- 
cess achieved by the Cigarette Fund. 

Herewith is the final accounting of 
the fund: 



L. U. City and State 



Amt. 



14 San Antonio, Tex 10.00 

80 Chicago, 111 10.00 

122 Philadelphia, Pa 5.00 

260 Waterbury, Conn. 88.00 

737 Carlinville, 111 5.00 

900 Altoona, Pa 5.00 

972 Philadelphia, Pa 6.00 

1108 Cleveland, O 10.00 

1278 Gainesville, Fla 10.00 

1693 Chicago, 111. 15.00 



L. U. 

1795 
1846 
2078 
2205 
2735 
2901 



City and State Amt. 

Farmington, Mo. 10.10 

New Orleans, La 10.00 

Oceanside, Cal 5.00 

Wenatchee, Wash 5.00 

New Meadows, Ida 5.00 

Memphis, Tenn 10.00 



DISTRICT COUNCIL 
New Orleans & Vic. D. C, La 25.00 



Balance on Hand September 31, 1945 $287.00 

Receipts 234.10 



Balance on Hand $521.10 

Expenditures, January 1946, Cigarettes to Hospitals $521.10 



Plywood Looks Ahead 

From a recent speech By S. W. Antoville 



THE construction and building materials industries have suffered 
by the exaggerated and imaginative publicity that has been given 
to the home of tomorrow and the Utopian improvements it will 
possess. Not the least guilty of such products is plywood — though in 
fairness to the plywood industry, I want to emphasize the fact that most 
of the wishful thinking and unfounded claims have emanated from the 
imaginations and drawing boards of artists, designers and feature writers 
outside of the industry rather than from the responsible manufacturers of 
the product itself. 

There has been a great number of improvements and considerable 
progress made in plywood, as in other materials, but the changes and 
improvements are mostly evolution- 



ary in character, as they are in most 
products and building methods, 
rather than revolutionary. 

In the plywood industry, the war 
acted largely as a proving ground 
for a great number of improve- 
ments which actually occurred prior 
to Pearl Harbor rather than as a 
stimulant for the development of 
the changes and improvements. 
Fortunately, the plywood industry 
had, for example, prior to the 
1940's developed and used the resin 
adhesives which made it possible 
for plywood to be used as an ex- 
terior panel and for marine and 
aircraft work so that when the war 
effort required materials of this na- 
ture in ever-increasing quantities, 
they were already available. And 
just as important, production ex- 
perience in their manufacture was 
established and no longer in the ex- 
perimental stages. The important 
thing the war did for plywood was 
to prove to the skeptical and cyn- 
ical that it could be used safely, 
economically and intelligently in 



fields that hitherto had been beyond 
its capacity. This is of interest and 
importance to the lumber dealers 
because the war has dramatically 
and forcibly demonstrated the new 
markets this material will have and 
which the dealers will be able to 
serve. 

The Douglas Fir Plywood Asso- 
ciation has done an outstanding re- 
search and promotional job in first, 
through its research and engineer- 
ing departments developing the im- 
provements of the product for many 
new uses and, second, in publicizing 
through intelligent advertising di- 
rected to the consumers, builders, 
industries, and dealers, the impor- 
tant developments of this miracle 
material — plywood. And the war, 
by its adoption of the plywood for 
many important uses, by its demon- 
strations of the practicability of 
these uses, has stimulated the ac- 
ceptance and use of plywood to 
such an extent that it has accom- 
plished for plywood and for you 
who handle it what twenty years or 



24 



THE CARPENTER 



more of advertising' and missionary 
work might have accomplished. 

This development of plastics for 
adhesives has, ina sense, been revo- 
lutionary in that it has made of 
plywood an outdoor material with 
all the increased and novel uses in- 
herent in that statement. It has 
broadened its field and scope tre- 
mendously. 

The other important develop- 
ment, particularly to you who sell 
the material, in plywood which also 
was in the making prior to Pearl 
Harbor and which has been greatly 
stimulated by the necessities of the 
war, has been the improvement in 
the methods of manufacture and the 
adoption of straight line production 
procedures which will be reflected 
in reduced costs relatively speaking 
and which in turn will broaden the 
scope and market for hardwood 
.plywood. Some of us in the plywood 
industry — and I am now talking 
particularly of the hardwood ply- 
wood industry — r e a 1 i z e that to 
broaden its field and market it is 
necessary to improve quality and at 
the same time by improved meth- 
ods and greater standardization to 
reduce costs. This movement which 
was becoming evident prior to 
Pearl Harbor was stopped by the 
war because the facilities were 
needed for technical plywood for 
the war effort, and it is still retard- 
ed by the fact that the demand for 
plywood so greatly exceeds the 
supply that the incentive for reduc- 
ing prices does not exist at the mo- 
ment, and the shortages of raw ma- 
terials and labor in the woods have 
temporarily increased costs. 

We like to look to the automobile 
industry for guidance in our think- 
ing and feel that we can accomplish 
in a measure what it has accom- 
plished in giving the public — more 



for less. In these three words — 
more for less — you have the key- 
note and measure of progress. In 
the past, hardwood panelled rooms 
were largely limited to the homes 
of the wealthy. We hope by im- 
proved manufacturing methods, 
techniques and straight line produc- 
tion to bring hardwood plywood in 
a newer finished form within the 
means of greater numbers and in 
that way expand our market and 
yours. 

In thinking of the many new and 
important uses of plywood, I am 
struck by the rather plain and per- 
haps undramatic fact that the most 
important reason for the increased 
use of plywood is that it has proven 
to be an important improvement 
over lumber and a great number of 
its new uses result from its being 
used in place of lumber. And that 
is an important reason why ply- 
wood is important to you. To be 
specific and to cite some of these 
uses, I merely wish to mention 
such items as Sheathing, Concrete 
Forms, Sub Floors, Siding and 
Wall Paneling. All of these uses 
for plywood were developed prior 
to the war and in many communi- 
ties plywood was accepted for these 
purposes. But there were many con- 
tractors, carpenters and dealers who 
were skeptical about these uses for 
this wood sandwich but who have 
seen it used and have used it them- 
selves in the construction of bar- 
racks, airports and many govern- 
ment buildings contracted for by 
the government. The war brought 
plywood into such prominence that 
it received the attention of the best 
technical brains. It will find its 
place for use in many unique and 
interesting ways but fundamentally 
its progress is based upon the re- 
placement of lumber to an ever-in- 



THE CARPENTER 



25 



creasing extent. It has done and 
will do this because it wastes much 
less raw material, it is more stable 
and it permits the use of light 
weight wide boards with greater 
facility and less expense. 

For quite some time some of 
man's ingenuity has been devoted 
to the development of substitutes 
for lumber and lumber products. 
The development of plywood and 
of plastics, independently and as 
related to each other, plus research 
in the chemistry of wood has caused 
the complete reversal of scientific 
thinking. 

The substitutions for wood which 
have occurred so extensively have 
been due to certain deficiencies of 
wood in its natural form. First, the 
difficult manufacturing technique 
required in using lumber for many 
forms of manufacture. Plywood 
corrects this. Second, the weak- 
ness of lumber across the grain and 
its tendency to expand and contract 
under changes of atmospheric con- 
ditions. Plywood largely corrects 
this and impregnated plywood com- 
pletely corrects it for all practical 
purposes. Third, all lumber is sub- 
ject to decay and rot under certain 
conditions. Resin impregnation not 
only prevents this but makes such 
lumber or plywood more durable 
than some metals. Lumber may be 
made fire resistant by impregnation 
or surface coating. Science will so 
develop the use of lumber products 
under new techniques that they will 
be limited only by the quantity of 
material available and this should 
cause no worry if our forest re- 
sources are intelligently controlled. 

The case of plywood versus lum- 
ber leaves very little doubt that 
the former will more and more 
displace the latter not only because 
of its physical attributes and ease 



of application, but because the 
yield from the log quantitatively 
as well as qualitatively is so much 
superior. 

Tremendous publicity was given 
to the various methods of molded 
plywood and the public was led to 
believe that all sorts of things and 
shapes would be miraculously pro- 
duced in the future by these pro- 
cesses. Generally speaking, molded 
plywood should be defined as ply- 
wood which is formed and glued 
in one operation so that it is not 
confused with bent plywood which 
is made flat and then bent. Expe- 
rience has proven, however, that 
the molded plywood process as pre- 
sently constituted is relatively ex- 
pensive — that thus far it has not 
lent itself to mass production eco- 
nomically. Where strength and 
weight are important factors, more 
important than price, the produc- 
tion of objects with compound 
curves by the molded plywood pro- 
cess is feasible. Thus in the war 
effort the ability to make many im- 
portant hush hush items was a real 
and important contribution. But I 
do not feel too sanguine about 
molded plywood for peacetime 
products. Early in the war, when 
molded plywood was being publi- 
cized so greatly, I remember illus- 
trations of molded plywood bath- 
tubs and ,while I know that this is 
possible, I nevertheless know that 
bathtubs can be more economically 
and satisfactorily produced in 
other materials and that it would be 
futile to attempt to develop a use 
for plywood which is neither ten- 
able nor economic. I merely cite 
this as an example of where a prod- 
uct and industry can be done a dis- 
service by attempting to promote 
its use where other materials and 



26 



THE CARPENTER 



methods are more practical and bet- 
ter adapted. 

The so-called bag' methods and 
autoclave processes for making" 
molded plywood to simple curva- 
tures will in all probability go by 
the boards and be replaced by the 
much simpler, higher speed tech- 
nique of gluing mechanically; that 
is, obtaining fluid pressure on the 
wood while it is being formed 
against permanent dies which 
should be of metal. This method 
permits the use of adhesives such 
as the cold-setting phenolics or 
urea-type glues. 

Specific examples of things that 
have reason to be looked for in the 
post-war era are molded plywood 
boat hulls, particularly in the small 
boat field, molded plywood tubing, 
and molded combinations of fabric 
and veneer, high strength resin im- 
pregnated paper and veneer and Fi- 
berglass and veneer. Molded ply- 
wood which can be made to simple 
curvature like chair arms, chair 
backs, angles, channels and the like 
may lend themselves to fairly high 
speed production and reasonable 
cost. The small boat field is par- 
ticularly interesting and is no long- 
er in the experimental stage. Prior 
to the war, over 2,000 small boat 
hulls ranging from 9 ft. dinghies to 
14 ft. outboards were commercially 
produced and proven completely 
satisfactory in use. Their cost — 
compared to the traditional proce- 
dure — was relatively high and 
while the experience gained in pro- 
duction of thousands of 18 ft. hulls 
made in one piece of \" , 9-ply shells 
for the U. S. Engineers has improv- 
ed the technique considerably, the 
cost will probably exceed the cost 
of small boats made with solid lum- 
ber. They will remain in a DeLuxe 
class with certain advantages in 



weight factor, design and stability 
to offset the lower cost of conven- 
tional small boats. 

There is considerable research 
and actual development taking place 
today in the field of technical ply- 
wood for specific technical and in- 
industrial uses which may be ex- 
tended in the future to many appli- 
cations in which the lumber dealers 
will definitely be interested. Com- 
binations of plywood and high 
strength resin impregnated paper 
as a surface coating have been de- 
veloped for special use in crating 
to withstand the conditions of hu- 
midity and insects, particularly in 
the tropics. Also, combinations of 
plywood and light metals have done 
an outstanding job in packaging 
and protecting many important vi- 
tal products ranging from perish- 
able food products to smokeless 
powder. These techniques will un- 
doubtedly be applied to various 
commercial applications. I have in 
mind, as examples, a product con- 
sisting- of exterior or water proof 
Fir plywood faced with high 
strength resin impregnated paper, 
possibly in a variety of fast perma- 
nent colors as completely finished 
siding. The manufacture of kitchen 
sinks, work surfaces for kitchens, 
industrial plants, employing the 
powder box technique to which I 
have referred, which is a combina- 
tion of plywood and a thin stain- 
less steel metal, is definitely in the 
cards. 

Demand for plywood of all kinds 
far exceeds the productive capacity 
of the industry and that condition 
is likely to prevail for a long period 
of time, not only because of the 
housing shortage, but because, as I 
have pointed out, so many new uses 
have been proven and adopted as a 
result of war period experience. 



27 



THE SCHOOL AND THE PEOPLE 



THE SCHOOLS belong to the people. The kind and quality of 
education they offer express the aspiration of parents for the wel- 
fare of their children and the hope of citizens for the nation's 
future. There is no more important American policy than that of keeping 
control of the schools directly in the hands of local citizens. 

The recently increased interest of important groups of the American 
public in their schools is therefore of great significance. The industry- 
education conferences initiated by the National Education Association's 
Commission for the Defense of Democracy through Education has brought 
together from ten to twelve thousand industrialists and educators in 

communities of 40 states to discuss 

the problems encountered in adapt- nomic value of today's education, 
ing education to the needs of the pointing to the fact that the income 
community served, and in extend- of the American people has been 
ing a high grade of educational op- increased through the great skill in 
portunity to all American children. production and the demands of a 
The Commission has inaugurated higher standard of living brought 
a new series of meetings already about by education. This objective 
under way, which include farm, la- and historically important study 



bor, business and professional lead 
ers. More than a thousand repre 



justifies the conclusion, "If the peo- 
ple of the United States want to 



sentatives of these fields in seven hold their own in competition with 

states have already assembled with other countries and to raise the 

local educators and within the next level of living of our people, they 

few months it is expected that the should promptly attend to further 

key leadership from all walks of substantial expansion of education 

life in the 48 states will have given and technical training." 

educators the benefit of their ad- The attention given education in 

vice and cooperation in planning the American press during recent 

the reconversion of the schools months has been greater in amount 

from emergency wartime condi- an d more constructive in character 

tions to normal peacetime service. than it has been for many years. 

The study of the United States With the coming of the war, the 

Chamber of Commerce made dur- schools suffered a major crisis in 

ing the school year 1944-1945 is a the shortage of personnel. The fi- 

noteworthy contribution to public nancial demands of war took prece- 

opinion about education. The title dence over the financial needs of 

of the study, Education — an Invest- schools. The press has helped to 

ment in People, suggests the char- show that American resources in 

acter of the report. Essentially it personnel and in money are great 

is an attempt to appraise the eco- enough to fight a war and at the 



28 



THE CARPENTER 



same time educate our youth to 
make real what victory makes pos- 
sible. 

Advertisers, in' the press and on 
the radio, joined magazine and 
newspaper editors in interpreting 
the wartime problems of education 
and in paying tribute to the war- 
time services of the teacher. No less 
than a half million dollars have 
been spent by advertisers on this 
campaign. The program has done 
much to raise the morale of the 
teaching profession and to bring 
teachers' salaries more nearly in 
line with the cost of living. 

The emergencies of wartime have 
brought together educators and lay 
citizens in a significant effort to 
improve our schools. The increased 
responsibilities of education in the 
peace make continued cooperation 
a first call upon the time and 
thought of the American people. 

Education has a place at the 
peace table. For the first time in 
the history of the world, there is an 
opportunity to create and maintain 
a people's peace. In building the 
structure of a new world organiza- 
tion, the statesmen of the United 
Nations at San Francisco clearly 
recognized that no international 
machinery for dealing with eco- 
nomic, political, military and legal 
matters can work properly unless 
the peoples of the world learn how 
to make it work. Provisions for 
education and cultural cooperation 
were therefore incorporated in both 
the Economic and Social Council 
and in the trusteeship system of the 
United Nations Organization. 

This striking victory for educa- 
tion in the peace did not happen by 
accident. Thousands of educators 
and other citizens had grimly de- 
termined that this time education 
should not have the courteous 



"brush off" it received in 1919 by 
the Committee drafting the Cove- 
nant of the League of Nations. The 
organized teaching profession, 
through the Educational Policies 
Commission of the National Educa- 
tion Association and the American 
Association of School Administra- 
tors, spearheaded the struggle for 
an international recognition of edu- 
cation. The Commission was vigor- 
ously and ably supported by all 
types of lay organizations and by 
public-spirited individuals. The 
necessary forces were organized, 
untiring and resolute. 

The role of education at the peace 
table is vital. Preparation for war 
and preparation for peace are deep- 
ly rooted in education. Americans 
are not a war-like people, largely 
because our schools have not glori- 
fied war. They have not taught 
youth that this country was hated 
by any other nation. They have not 
taught that our national ambitions 
were threatened by those of any 
other country — that neighboring 
nations were our enemies. They 
have not taught that the individual 
existed solely to make his nation 
powerful among others, but that a 
government exists for the well- 
being of its citizens. American 
schools have taught youth that our 
real enemies are disease and pov- 
erty, and ignorance and crime, and 
that the glory of man is their de- 
feat. 

The objective of international co- 
operation in education is to elimi- 
nate the kind of education that can 
lead only to war, and substitute for 
it the kind of education that leads 
to peace. 

The stipulation of the United Na- 
tions Charter that the international 
trusteeship is to promote the so- 
cial and educational advancement 



THE CARPENTER 



29 



of trust territories is of special 
importance. Half of the people of 
the world cannot read or write in 
any language. Many of the illiterate 
live in those under-priviliged areas 
likely to be placed under trustee- 
ship. From their present condition 
of ignorance can come no contribu- 
tion to a people's peace. The safety 
of the world depends largely upon 
intelligent cooperation made pos- 
sible by universal education. 

The National Education Associa- 
tion is becoming increasingly con- 
cerned about the existence of in- 
tolerance among various elements 
of the American people and the 
prospect now that this war is over 
there may be greater racial, religi- 
ous, political and economic ten- 
sions. The existence of our de- 
mocracy will be seriously affected 
if group prejudices and antagon- 
isms get out of control or if the 
causes of such prejudices and an- 
tagonisms are not removed or re- 
duced. 

The Detroit race riot, the difficul- 
ties in Harlem, the deep prejudices 
against American citizens of Japa- 
nese ancestry, the clashes between 
the Mexican and anti-Mexican 
groups that have occurred in the 
South and West are all examples of 
outbreaks that may increase in num- 
ber and violence in the post-war 
period. Not only is there a prob- 
ability of more racial violence, but 
it is possible that religious preju- 
dices and antagonisms will increase 
and that attempts may be made to 
restrict the rights of certain church 
groups. 

In the international field the 
forces of prejudice are threatening 
the full success of cooperation 
among the nations and may cause 
a third world war unless brought 
under control. 



If the forces of disharmony and 
prejudice are to be controlled, our 
schools must teach young people to 
recognize the rights of minorities, 
to relieve injustices causing group 
conflicts, and to appreciate the sa- 
cred character of religion and the 
sincerity of those who worship, to 
whatever church they belong. More 
and more, teachers must assume re- 
sponsibility for the education of 
our youth to respect the worth and 
integrity of all individuals in our 
society. It is likewise important 
that members of minority groups be 
taught to understand and to have 
consideration for the rights, liber- 
ties and attitudes of those who con- 
stitute the majorities. 

Deep-seated prejudices originate 
early in childhood and generally 
become fixed in adolescence. There- 
fore, education in mutual under- 
standing should begin in the kin- 
dergarten and continue throughout 
the university. It is not enough that 
these principles be taught in the 
schools. There fnust be evidences 
of respect for minority groups in 
the market place and the public 
forum. 

The teachers themselves must 
have the support and the approval 
of the public in the development of 
ideals of tolerance and mutual un- 
derstanding. This support and ap- 
proval is not always forthcoming. 
There have been recent instances of 
discrimination and reprisal against 
teachers because of their efforts to 
teach tolerance and full considera- 
tion of the rights of all individuals. 

Naturally enough teachers some- 
times tend to reflect the prejudices 
and intolerance of their communi- 
ties. There is, therefore, a heavy 
responsibility upon local, state, and 
national teachers' organizations to 
discuss fully the need of tolerance 



30 



THE CARPENTER 



and mutual understanding', and to 
develop standards and attitudes 
that will influence the entire teach- 
ing profession. • 

That part of the platform of the 
National Education Association 
dealing- with this problem is recom- 
mended for adoption as public pol- 
icy: 

Every child regardless of race, 
belief, economic status, residence, 
or physical handicap should have 
the opportunity for fullest develop- 
ment in mental, moral, social and 
physical health and in the attitudes, 
knowledge, habits and skills that 
are essential to individual happi- 
ness and effective citizenship in a 
democracy. 

A hundred thousand teachers 
have left the classrooms for war 
jobs since Pearl Harbor. An equal 
number have joined the military- 
forces. Marriage, old age, and 
death have continued to take their 
usual toll of the profession. The 
turnover has been about 25 per cent 
of the teachers employed in the 
schools prior to the war. This is too 
large a turnover to permit the sta- 
bility which the profession should 
have. 

To replace those who leave the 
profession, school boards normally 
look to teacher-training colleges 
from which are recruited about 50,- 
000 teachers each year. Enrollment 
in these institutions is now only 
half of what it was in pre-war 
years. There is a critical shortage 
of teachers now, with no prospect 
of an adequate supply in the near 
future. 

To compensate for the shortage, 
80,000 persons of less than standard 
qualifications have been pressed into 
service. Still there are vacancies. 
Teaching positions have been abol- 
ished. School classes have been 



combined until they are too large 
for effective instruction. Retire- 
ment of older teachers has been 
postponed. 

Losses to military service were 
to be expected, particularly among 
the younger members of the profes- 
sion. The supply situation, how- 
ever, became really acute when 
large numbers of teachers were 
drawn to non-teaching employment 
by wartime wages sufficient to meet 
wartime living costs. 

For many years teaching has 
been a low-salaried employment. 
When the exodus from the class- 
room was highest, in 1942-43, near- 
ly 40 per cent of the nation's teach- 
ers were getting less than $1,200 an- 
nually. Fully one-third of the teach- 
ers of this country are now work- 
ing for a salary which is substan- 
tially less than the wages the fed- 
eral government pays the women 
who scrub the floors and polish the 
furniture of its offices in the Na- 
tion's Capital. 

Normally substandard salaries 
have not been adjusted to the pres- 
ent abnormally high living costs. 
The cost of living now stands at 
least 30 per cent above the level of 
January 1940; while teachers' sal- 
aries have increased since that date 
only about 24 per cent. In actual 
purchasing power the salary of the 
average teacher is less in 1945 than 
it was in 1940. 

It is not difficult to understand 
why thousands of teachers have 
sought to improve their economic 
status by entering other lines of 
work. There have been other rea- 
sons for leaving the schools. While 
the social recognition accorded the 
teacher has improved in recent 
years, many communities still 
hedge their teachers about with 
petty personal restrictions and call 



THE CARPENTER 31 

upon them for endless trivial serv- 'problems basically educational in 
ices unrelated to their professional character — the education of veter- 
training. Entering - a new occupa- ans, the occupational reconversion 
tion is a welcome relief from such of civilians, the return to school of 
restrictions. older employed youth, the revision 
«,..., , of the curriculum in the liefht of 
This situation has not only re- war experie nces, the ^direction of 
tarded advancement of teaching to- youth intQ the p rofessions neglect- 
ward real professional status, it is ed durin g the emergency period, 
seriously undermining the quality and the development of understand- 
of educational opportunity at a [ ng f new international relations, 
time when the Nation urgently Only the highest quality of prof es- 
needs the highest grade of teaching sional attainment can perform these 
service in schools of all educational important services adequately. — N. 
levels. The Nation now faces new E. A. Report 



England Starts Modernizing Coal Mines 

The first important step in the modernization of Britain's coal industry 
was taken last month when Col. O. A. Lancaster broke ground in New 
Calverton, Nottingham, for the main shaft of a mine that is expected to 
yield 1,000,000 tons annually for 125 years and to set new standards of 
efficiency and decent working conditions for miners. 

At the same time, the National Union of Mine Workers laid before 
Emanuel Shinwell, Minister of Fuel and Power, a "Charter of Demands" 
advancing concrete proposals for the betterment of working conditions 
and the attraction of new workers to the industry. 

♦ 

VETERANS SUPPORT AFL. SENIORITY PLAN 

Charleston, S. C, war veterans are lining up with organized labor in 
support of straight seniority as the only real protection of workers 
against favoritism. 

Memorial Post No. 59 of the American Legion, composed to a large 
extent of Charleston navy yard workers, went on record for a seniority 
system in the yards such as AFL unions have been battling for. 

The post's action was regarded as especially important, because some 

Legion leaders in Washington have been opposing legislation, sponsored 

by labor, to provide that layoffs and rehirings in navy yards shall be based 

exclusively on seniority. 

♦ 

CONGRESS STARTS PROBE OF HUGE TAX REFUNDS • 

Hearings to start soon before the Senate Labor and Education Com- 
mittee may cast light on how giant corporations are using tax refunds 
granted by the government to wage war against the trade union movement. 

These refunds run into billions, and when Congress authorized them 
the idea was that the money would enable the companies to reconvert 
more swiftly to peacetime production. 



Editorial 




Time for a Little Revamping 

At the present time protest demonstrations among our troops abroad 
are vying for the headlines with strikes here at home. In both the Pacific 
and the European theaters GI Joes are volubly protesting against the 
failure of the Army and Navy Brass Hats to get them home within 
what they consider to be a reasonable length of time. So far the protests 
have been limited to peaceful demonstrations. The boys want to come 
home — especially those with high point scores in the demobilization 
scheme. They don't want excuses or patronage or USO shows. They want 
one way tickets to the wives, mothers, sweethearts and jobs they left 
behind. When these haven't been forthcoming as rapidly as the boys 
figured they should, they have been taking the bull by the horns and 
doing a little prodding where they thought it would do the most good. 

Making sweeping generalities is always a dangerous thing. However, 
in talking to hundreds of ex-soldiers, it seems pretty clear that there are 
two general gripes that are well-nigh universal. The first is that GI's 
are seldom told anything. They are ordered to do plenty but not very 
often are they told the whys and wherefores of what they are doing. In a 
professional army this sort of thing may be O.K., but in a citizens' army — 
especially when that army is composed of reasonably intelligent men — it 
doesn't work out so well. Even since the last war the intelligence of the 
average American has advanced materially. Radio, fast communication 
and transportation, and more schooling have all brought this about. Men 
think for themselves more than they used to. Consequently they can't be 
pushed around as much as they used to be. Even in unionism there was a 
day when the rank-and-file was content to merely obey orders. Today 
union members want to know where and why and how before they act. 

Naturally there are very definite limits to what the Brass Hats can dis- 
close to the men — especially in time of war. But from the gripes we 
have heard from returned vets the army could do a much better job of 
keeping enlisted men informed of what is going on and why certain ac- 
tions are necessary. 

The second general gripe seems to be aimed at the caste system pre- 
vailing in the various branches of the armed services; i.e. the holier-than- 
thou attitude of the officers as compared to the enlisted men. In a demo- 
cratic army a system that draws such a fine line of demarcation between an 
officer and an enlisted man seems out of place. Undoubtedly the bulk of 
the officers in both the army and the navy are good Joes who seldom, if 
ever, take advantage of the privileges their positions as officers give them. 
However, a pipsqueek does slip by Officers' Training School once in 
awhile and when that happens the men who draw that particular officer 
catch a lot of unnecessary Hades. 



THE CARPENTER 33 

Originally, we suppose, the caste system' for officers developed from 
the need to maintain discipline. In the days when the common people 
were much more ignorant than they are today it may have been all right. 
But things are different now. The average man thinks for himself nowa- 
days, and the holier-than-thou system serves as an irritant. After all, dis- 
cipline is maintained in industry day in and day out, and it is maintained 
without a caste system. Men obey their bosses and respect their decisions. 
Thing work out smoothly without one man being made to feel he is in- 
ferior to another. In the army and navy the same thing holds true insofar 
as the non-commissioned officers are concerned. Men obey them as read- 
ily as they do the full-fledged officers who are set apart as though they 
were some superior breed. So it might not be amiss for the armed serv- 
ices to examine more closely the officer caste system, a system which 
stemmed primarily from the snobbery of the English army of the eigh- 
teenth century. 

And while they are at it it might not be a bad idea for the services to 
examine some of the Hollywoodism that seems to have infected some 
of our top-flight generals and admirals. A few of them seem to be as publi- 
city hungry as any of the Hollywood stars. If they can't get their names 
in the papers one way they do it in another way. The result is confusion 
and more confusion. One week the War Department announces demo- 
bilization has to be cut down as men are being released too rapidly for 
national safety, and the same week a high commander anounces that point 
scores for his men are being reduced. Where does that leave the men? 
Do they get to come home or don't they? It's no wonder there are demon- 
strations of protest. 

On the other hand, a sort of Bring-My-Boy-Home hysteria is sweeping 
the country. Wives, sweethearts and families are demanding that their 
loved ones come home regardless of anything else. Everybody seems to 
be forgetting that the job is not yet completed. There could be no greater 
tragedy than having America lose in the first months of peace the things 
so many men died in the war to establish. Sufficient forces must be kept 
in Germany and Japan to guarantee that neither of those nations ever 
again becomes a military power. By eliminating the two above-mentioned 
gripes, the regular Army could probably attract more men. Certainly such 
action would at least eliminate the unhappiness of the drafted men who 
still are in the armies of occupation. 



Farmers and Workers Are Interdependent 

According to the Department of Agriculture, the farmers of the nation 
enter 1946 in the most prosperous condition in their history. During 1945 
they took in more money for the crops than ever before, and after pay- 
ing off all their operating costs they kept a larger net surplus than ever 
before. The 1945 figures showed the stupendous sum of 24 billion dollars 
going to farmers in that twelve month period for their output. This was 
some 10 billion higher than the 1944 figure and some six times higher than 
the 1933 figure. Even after deducting some 13 billion dollars for higher 



34 THE CARPENTER 

operating costs, farmers during last year retained something like 1.2 
billion dollars as their net profit, a new record high. 

It is significant that this income was divided among fewer farmers than 
ever before, making each individual's take higher. In 1940 one fourth of 
our population was engaged in farming. Last year only one fifth was clas- 
sified as farmers. This unprecedented prosperity for farmers is going to 
mean more and better jobs for the city workers. Farmers are among the 
best consumers of manufactured goods in the nation when they have the 
money. They are going to need new barns and new homes and new trac- 
tors and new refrigerators. Furthermore they are going to have the 
money to pay for these things. As they buy these things the wheels of 
industry will turn faster to produce them and city men will have jobs. 
Labor has always recognized that prosperity among the farmers is a prime 
essential for national prosperity. 

However, farmers have not always recognized the equally axiomatic 
truism — namely, that prosperous city workers are the keystone of farm 
prosperity. When city workers make decent wages, they buy the prod- 
ucts of the farm. When they are not working or when their wages are 
low the farmer feels the pinch. Even the Secretary of Agriculture recog- 
nizes this fact. In commenting on the 1945 achievements of the farmers, 
he said: "The city workers had plenty of food dollars to spend and they 
spent those dollars right over the farmer's counter. They spent more than 
30 billion dollars for food, a third of their entire consumer outlay. Con- 
trast this with 1933, when consumers had only 11^ billion food dollars, 
and after the middleman took his toll there was very little left for the 
farmer." 

Before the farmer can prosper, the city worker must prosper. Pros- 
perous corporations or big dividends don't make for farm prosperity, but 
decent wages do. After all, a millionaire who takes in thousands of 
dollars a week in dividends only eats three meals a day. The same amount 
of money, if instead of being concentrated in one man's hands were di- 
vided among many workers as increased wages, would make for many 
prosperous workers. Each of them would eat more and better food and 
the farmer would feel the benefits. 

Some day all farmers and workers will realize that they are inter- 
dependent. They will realize that one group cannot prosper at the ex- 
pense of the other. When that day comes the nation should be able to 
create a sound and stable foundation for a lasting prosperity. 



Drive Out the Chisellers 

Before the ink is dry on any piece of beneficial legislation giving some 
particular group a decent break, the tin-horns, chisellers, and racketeers 
are out with schemes for mulcting the unwary. Apparently the GI Bill 
of Rights is no exception. Reports coming from many parts of the nation 
indicate that the human vultures are out en masse to fleece the GI's out of 
the benefits accruing to them under the act. The racketeers are finding 



THE CARPENTER 35 

the educational features of the GI Bill of Rights particularly vulnerable. 
All kinds of underhanded schemes for taking in the GI's are developing. 

One of the most flagrant is the phony "Trade School." These schools 
are springing up all over the country. About the only thing they are 
interested in is getting the vets' money and giving him as little as possible 
in return. There are many old established schools that do a fair job of 
teaching the vets what they promise to teach them. With these schools 
there is no particular quarrel. It is the fly-by-night schools that are 
springing up overnight and making all kinds of misleading promises to 
the GI's that ought to be exposed and driven out of business. 

The worst offenders against the GI's seeking an education are the 
sweat-shoppers who are finding the GI Bill of Rights an ideal instrument 
for procuring sweatshop labor. Under the Bill of Rights, vets are paid 
from sixty to ninety dollars a month, plus tuition fees, while learning a 
trade or profession. Unfortunately the Bill of Rights lays down no 
particular standards which training offered to GI's must meet. The matter 
is left up to the states and so far most of them have done very little 
about it. The chisellers know this and they are out to make the most of 
it. Instead of giving vets properly supervised training, they are hiring 
them for starvation wages and merely working the devil out of them. 
Recently the Colorado State Federation of Labor issued a bitter blast 
against this practice. James Shirley, Federation secretary and himself a 
vet, called attention to the vicious game. He declared : "I believe many 
employers are hiring help at fifty cents an hour under the guise of training 
to veterans knowing that the Veterans' Administration will supplement 
their wages with subsistence wages under the GI Bill of Rights." 

Colorado is not the only state from which such complaints have come. 
States are just not equipped to police veterans' training. Unscrupulous 
employers in many of them have managed to work their way into the 
"accredited" lists which gives them a pretty much free hand to exploit 
the GI's as best they can. So far the Veterans' Administration has been 
unable or unwilling to cope with the situation. 

Fleecing GI's who fought for their country is a crying shame. How- 
ever, as long as there are individuals and firms willing to do it for their 
own profits, everything possible must be done to protect the ex-soldiers. 
For their own protection as well as for the protection of the GI's, the 
unions of the nation can do no better job than to sponsor and maintain 
apprenticeship programs and apprenticeship supervision. Many of out 
District Councils have entered into, joint apprenticeship programs with 
employers of their areas. These programs assure the vets of genuine and 
thorough apprenticeship training and they assure the unions of competent 
mechanics in the years ahead. 

Through its National Apprenticeship Training Program, the govern- 
ment is encouraging GI's to take apprenticeship training. First General 
Vice President M. A. Hutcheson is a member of the national committee. 
No honest person wants to see the GI's gypped. The best way to see that 
they aren't is to provide them with means of getting genuine training 
under an apprenticeship program that is comprehensive and fair. 



36 



Which Way America? 



THE SIGNIFICANCE of the recent Management-Labor Confer- 
ence was ignored by most American newspapers. Its outstanding 
achievements were played down, and the American public was 
given the false impression that it had been a failure. Perhaps some re- 
porters wanted to make it appear so, in order to clear the way for legis- 
lation to control labor. Actually, the Conference did more than any 
amount of legislation to promote peaceful settlement of disputes. 

The Conference resulted in at least three major achievements: (i) For 
four weeks (November 5 to 30) top leaders of labor and management met 
together and came to a clearer understanding of each other's viewpoint 
and problems. (2) In three unanimous reports, they reduced to writing 
certain vital principles for collec 



tive bargaining, accepted by both 
parties, and gave a blueprint for 
reorganizing the U. S. Conciliation 
Service to fit it for constructive 
work in the settlement of disputes. 
(3) They provided for a continu- 
ing committee, with four represen- 
tatives each from management and 
labor, which can carry forward the 
joint consideration of their com- 
mon problems, enlarge the area 



of knowledge, understanding and 
agreement, and bring further pro- 
gress in collective bargaining. 

The Conference marks a mile- 
stone in labor relations. After 
World War I, management refused 
to recognize collective bargaining 
and waged bitter warfare against 
unions. Today, both national organ- 
izations of employers officially en- 
dorse collective bargaining as a 



WHICH WAY FOR AMERICA? 



C0U£CWf SMMM/M M GOViMMMT SMX0S 

UNITM5TS PRODUCTION 




GOV£#/VAf£#T 




St//t/M6£M£/Vr 



J.ASO/Z 



Management and labor examine the facts and make their own Government boards examine the facts and impose their deci« 

decisions. tions on management and labor. 



THE CARPENTER 



37 



constructive factor in American 
economic life. However, there are 
persons who advocate government 
control of labor relations, and the 
bill for labor fact-finding - boards, 
introduced in Congress immediate- 
ly after the close of the Manage- 
ment-Labor Conference, imposes 
such controls. Our country must 
therefore decide between two alter- 
natives in labor relations : Collec- 
tive bargaining or control through 
government boards. 

Under collective bargaining, man- 
agement and labor together work 
out the knotty problems of wages 
and other conditions around the 
conference table. Facts and records 
bearing on all matters concerned 
can be brought and studied by both 
parties. Decisions are adapted to 
the particular conditions of each 
plant or industry because they are 
made by those who best know the 
circumstances and who will carry 
out the agreement reached* 

During the war, collective 'bar- 
gaining was broadened in many 
plants to include union-manage- 
ment production committees. Joint 
consideration of plant problems 
combined the genius of manage- 
ment and labor to create our war 
production miracle. Eighty-five per 
cent of American war material was 
produced in plants where collective 
bargaining prevailed. The Manage- 
ment-Labor Conference has now 
paved the way for further progress. 

The bill for labor fact finding 
boards on the other hand, would 
turn back the clock of progress. 
Under this bill, the Secretary of 
Labor could certify to the Presi- 
dent any labor dispute affecting 
"the national public interest," and 
the President could appoint a fact 
finding board of three or more per- 
sons. A 30-day cooling off period 



would _ be imposed during which 
strikes would be illegal ; the board 
would then report its findings and 
recommendations. By making 
strikes a crime and thus imposing 
involuntary servitude on labor the 
bill goes far beyond the Railway 
Labor Act. 

This bill would take the process 
of negotiations out of the hands of 
management and labor and place it 
in the hands of outsiders who have 
no direct knowledge of the prob- 
lems concerned. Facts and records 
would be brought together by the 
government board and studied by 
it, not by workers and employers 
who have experience in the produc- 
tion. The board's findings or de- 
cision, not the conclusions of man- 
agement and labor, would set the 
terms to govern the plant concerned. 
Such a process would kill the joint 
management-labor consideration of 
facts and problems which is at the 
heart of American productive effici- 
ency and high living standards. 

Under government fact-finding 
boards in the railway industry, 
workers have made far less pro- 
gress than under free collective 
bargaining in other industries. It 
is significant that from 1926 to 1944, 
hourly wages of railroad workers 
rose only 50% under government 
boards, while hourly wages of fac- 
tory workers rose nearly 100% un- 
der collective bargaining. 

Further development of collec- 
tive bargaining is the way forward 
for America, if we wish to main- 
tain our free enterprise system, 
which is the basis of political de- 
mocracy. If, on the other hand, the 
objective is to develop a breach be- 
tween management and labor so 
that government controls over the 
American economy may be widen- 
ed, then government fact-finding 



38 



THE CARPENTER 



boards are an excellent mechanism 
with which to begin. 

Labor unrest and strikes cannot 
be ended by finding some simple 
formula to be adopted universally. 
Yet this is what the public was led 
to expect the Management-Labor 
Conference to do. Instead it did 
something far more important. Its 
unanimous reports set down a code 
of collective bargaining principles 
which, if followed by management 
and labor, will widen the area of 
good faith and sound relations. Im- 
portant points from the three re- 



tive should be to sign an agree- 
ment covering a definite period of 
time. Each party should present a 
statement of position; areas of 
agreement should be sought and is- 
sues precisely defined ; respect and 
consideration should be given to all 
proposals. Conciliation and volun- 
tary arbitration may be used if col- 
lective bargaining fails, but they 
should not be the first resort. 

B. Existing Agreements. Agree- 
ments should be clearly written 
and thoroughly understood by em- 
ployer and all employes ; workers 



PRODUCTIVITY AND "REAL" WAGES OF AMERICAN FACTORY WORKERS 



Z7S 
250 
225 
ZOO 
/7S 
/fO 
/25 



INO£X - /909 = /oo 



see 



Z7S 



243 — £ 



&250 



***** 



/WUWCr/ON &/? AMM00K 



e//S 



*7a S ' > I i i \*** 

x,8 Jr> • • \zaz 

a** — nnt- — ^~jfft~ eo ° 

-J^*- ! !-#- — h-W— /7S 

^♦T <.±* £Sr K Mlr£S 

— -Jr — 1 rf^T" r — - VIM /so 

^"'1' 'miimsyL. °*[" e \ ,,*■ 

I I I I I I I /oo 






*> v & is & & & 



Source: Production per Manhour: Calculated from National Bureau of Economic Research figures; "Real" Wages: Labor Department figures* 



ports are given below. (Union offi- 
cers and organizers are urged to 
write for the complete text.) 

A. First Agreements: Collective 
bargaining, undertaken promptly 
and in good faith after recognition 
of a proper bargaining agent, is the 
first step to avoid strikes or refusal 
to bargain by the employer. Ob- 
servance of the following rules will 
contribute to orderly procedure : 
The employer should not question 
his obligation to bargain with the 
union, nor should negotiations be 
delayed by either party; the objec- 



and supervisors should be educated 
in the meaning of all provisions; 
there must be an honest effort on 
the part of all to carry out the 
spirit as well as the letter of the 
agreement, to conduct relations on 
a basis of mutual fairness and re- 
spect. Agreements should contain 
effective procedure for settling 
grievances without strike or lock- 
out. Grievances should be promptly 
handled, and should be considered 
by foremen as aids in discovering 
and removing the causes of discon- 
tent. Management and union should 



THE CARPENTER 



39 



train their representatives in the 
proper functioning of grievance 
procedure; the basic objective is 
achievement of sound and fair set- 
tlements. 

C. Conciliation Service. The 

United States Conciliation Service 
should be reorganized so that it will 
be an effective and completely im- 
partial agency within the Labor De- 
partment. An Advisory Committee 
to the Director should be appoint- 
ed, consisting of equal numbers of 
management and labor representa- 
tives. Personnel of the Service 
should be characterized by imparti- 
ality, integrity and knowledge of 
management-labor problems, and 
provisions should be made for 
training newly appointed concilia- 
tors; the number of conciliators 
should be adequate. The Division 
of Arbitration should have a list of 
capable trained arbitrators who 
may be assigned when requested by 
both parties. The Technical Service 
Division should be reorganized and 
should have an advisory committee 
of equal numbers of management 
and labor representatives. Working 
with the Bureau of Labor Statistics 
and other agencies, it should pro- 
vide information whenever needed. 

During the war we know that 
productivity rose more than ever 
before. Although complete infor- 
mation for the whole period is still 
lacking, we know that in munitions 
industries from January 1943 to 
September 1944, production per 
manhour rose more than 40%, — 
three times the highest rate previ- 
ously achieved. Competent observ- 
ers feel that the cooperation of 
labor was probably the most im- 
portant factor in bringing about 
the immense wartime gain in pro- 
ductive efficiency. Union members 
worked through labor-management 



committees to break bottlenecks 
and improve production in every 
possible way. Such cooperation can 
create income to pay wages. 

Most labor-management commit- 
tees want to continue their work 
in peacetime. Such economic coop- 
eration can exist where collective 
bargaining has developed to a 
smoothly operating process, with 
good faith on both sides. Then 
union-management committees Can 
provide a way for responsible un- 
ions to improve production, bring- 
ing larger wage increases. 

Recently the Paper Makers In- 
ternational Union released a report 
which throws light on the dynamic 
possibilities of this new economic 
cooperation. The Paper Makers 
point out that : Labor today has 
reached a new position of power in 
the American economy (there are 
15 million workers under union 
contract), and must assume propor- 
tionate responsibility in keeping 
industry alive. Workers are ready 
to accept responsibility "provided 
they are convinced a fair distribu- 
tion is made of the wealth they as- 
sist in creating." To accomplish 
this cooperation, unions must work 
closely with management to reduce 
production costs, and management 
must give the union concrete infor- 
mation about production problems 
and be ready to "talk cold facts" 
around the conference table about 
its financial affairs, showing the re- 
sults accomplished by joint efforts. 
Given this true partnership, the un- 
ion must assume its proper place in 
the constant search for solution of 
the industry's many problems. The 
best way to high wages "is in o the 
improved efficiency of our union 
mills." 

The Paper Makers warn that, 
since workers and employers form 



40 



THE CARPENTER 



the majority of the population of 
all industrial countries, "the future 
of our democracies rests to a great 
extent on the shoulders of these two 
groups. If we are not able to regu- 
late ourselves and our industries, 
peacefully and intelligently, then 
we are certain to have regulations 
imposed on us by bureaucratic 
dreamers who will give us little 
consideration." 

Unio n-management cooperation 
brings efficiency, not by a speed-up, 
but by breaking bottlenecks and by 
a hundred and one other improve- 
ments which workers can make be- 
cause they know work conditions 
from direct experience. In many 
plants where union-management co- 
operation is most successful, em- 
ployers regularly furnish produc- 
tion records and charts. These rec- 
ords are hung in places where all 
can study them and see the results 
of their work. Such information is 
vital to the success of union-man- 
agement cooperation. Responsible 
union officers must know the 
increased income resulting from 
members' cooperation so they can 
determine a fair wage increase. 

Free enterprise and free labor 
have raised American productive 
efficiency to a point unequalled in 
any other country. Consequently, 
Americans enjoy the world's high- 
est living standard. No communist 
dictatorship has been able to give 
its people even half the living 
standard achieved in America un- 
der free enterprise, by increasing 
productivity and raising wages 
through collective bargaining. 

Every worker knows that a 
wage increase must be produced be- 
fore it can be paid. Rising wages 
depend on: I. Increased production 
per manhour of work to create the 



income for higher wages ; 2. Strong 
union organization to bring the 
rightful share of that income into 
the worker's pocket. 

During World War I, "real" 
wages rose 24% (1914 to 1919). This 
was due to growing strength of or- 
ganized labor, for AFL, member- 
ship doubled from 1914 to 1920, and 
unions drove for higher wages. 
Beginning in 1919, new industrial 
techniques brought a rapid rise in 
productivity; from 1919 to 1929, 
production per manhour rose 74%. 
This created the income for a rapid 
rise in wages, but no such rise took 
place. Why? Because this was 
the period of industry's anti-union 
"open shop" drive; union member- 
ship dropped sharply in the depres- 
sion of 1922 and did not recover. 
"Open shop" managements gave 
some wage increases to forestall un- 
ion organization, but in this whole 
ten year period, workers' real wages 
rose only 20%. That is, workers 
gained less in these ten "open shop" 
years than they had in the previous 
five years when union strength was 
growing. Huge profits and stock 
market speculation characterized 
the boom year 1929. Shortage of 
workers' buying power was a prime 
cause of the industrial collapse 
which followed (1930 to 1933). Dur- 
ing the depression, productivity 
went on increasing, but workers 
made no significant gains in "real" 
wages. 

In 1933 the National Recovery 
Act guaranteed workers' right to 
organize. AFL membership rose 
rapidly. A union drive for higher 
pay, together with increased em- 
ployment, lifted the average "real" 
wage 17% in one year (1933 to 
1934). Then came the employers' 
drive against NRA and its expira- 
tion in 1935. Union organization 



THE CARPENTER 41 

and wage drives were stalled for produces the income to raise wages ; 

the next two years, although pro- but workers do not receive their 

ductivity rose rapidly. Then in share of that income unless they 

1937 the National Labor Relations are strongly organized in unions. 

Act was declared constitutional and Under the "open shop" from 1919 

labor's right to organize was finally to 1929, productivity rose 74%, 

established. Union drives in the "real" wages 20%; result; the de- 

next two years (1937 to 1939) pression of the thirties. From 1929 

brought workers a share of this in- to 1939 strong unions made up 

creased productivity and "real" part of this discrepancy; wages in- 

wages rose 13%. Productivity kept creased and living costs declined, 

on rising during this period of so that "real" wages rose 



wage increases, except for a setback while productivity rose 32% ; re- 
in the industrial recession of 1937- suit : better economic health for 

America's free enterprise system America. — AFL Monthly Survey. 

• 

OPA Sees Record Profits in '46 

This is going to be a banner year for profits, the Office of Price Admin- 
istration predicted. With excess profits taxes repealed, industry should 
earn its greatest profits in history, the federal agency said. 

This statement is especially significant because American business 
made profit history in the last two year and earnings are still going up. 

The figures for 1945 are not yet available, but they were greater than 
in 1944, a "fantastic" profit year. 

American workers and trade unions should be interested in examining 
the profit figures for 1944, as revealed in a statement filed by the OPA 
with the Senate Small Business Committee. Profit increases in 1944 over 
the 1936-39 period, which was quite prosperous, include: 

Hardware retailers, 464 per cent; small furniture stores, 185 per cent; 
variety chain stores, 339 per cent; men's apparel stores, 398 per cent; 
department and specialty stores, 1,324 per cent; chain grocery stores, 152 
per cent; music stores, 210 per cent; automobile dealers, 200 per cent. 

So much for retailers. These increases in profits show how well the 
wholesalers also fared: 

Hardware wholesalers, 179 per cent; dry goods, 639 per cent; grocery 
25 per cent. 

Of course, the distribution end of business, on the whole took a back 
seat to the manufacturing end, as these profit increases emphasize: 

All manufacturing, 450 per cent; textile and leather, 730 per cent; 
transportation equipment, 650 per cent; metals and products, 590 per cent; 
building materials, 270 per cent; chemicals, 230 per cent; food, beverages 

and tobacco, 200 per cent. 

• 

ANYWAY SOMEONE BENEFITED 

The 48 states of the Union benefited financially from World War II. 

While Uncle Sam was accumulating such a debt as the world has 
never seen, the states redeemed 32.2 per cent of their outstanding obliga- 
tions and, in addition, accumulated surpluses aggregating five billion 
dollars. 



42 



New regulations on building materials 
give all the breaks to ex-soldiers 



Vets Get Preference 

• 

THE FIRST consideration of the Federal Housing Administration 
will be to expedite construction of housing costing under $10,000 
and to be occupied by veterans under the priority system for 
scarce building materials which went into effect last month, FHA Com- 
missioner Raymond M. Foley recently explained. 

Application forms for priorities for building materials presently in 
critical short supply will be available at all 71 of FHA's field offices for 
individual veterans who want to build a home of their own as well as 
builders who want to erect one or more dwellings either for sale or 
rental for which veterans of World War II will be given preference. 

In an effort to get maximum con- 
struction of moderate-cost housing 
underway as speedily as possible, 
the entire preference rating system 
has attempted to stress simplicity, 
Mr. Foley said. 

The Civilian Production Admin- 
istration, through the National 
Housing Agency, has delegated to 
the FHA the task of processing and 
issuing the new HH preference rat- 
ings under which it is anticipated 
that about half of the critically 
short materials produced in 1946 
will be made available for con- 
struction of homes for veterans. 

Mr. Foley made it clear that the 
$10,000 sales price, which includes 
land and improvements, or an $80 
a month rental are maximum figures 
and that every effort will be made 
to get a volume of construction at 
lower levels. 

In a letter to state and district 
directors he said: 

"It is particularly important that 
every effort be exerted among home 
builders to induce the production 
of housing at price levels as much 
under the $10,000 maximum as fea- 



sible. If in your jurisdiction appli- 
cations tend to concentrate at or 
immediately below the $10,000 level 
without a fair distribution among 
lower price brackets, I wish you 
would bring the facts to my atten- 
tion immediately." 

Mr. Foley also pointed out that 
housing already under construction 
may be brought within the Recon- 
version Housing Program if it 
meets the standards set in the C- 
PA's Priorities Regulation 33. 

Aside from the $10,000 maximum 
sales price and $80 a month rental 
the CPA regulation further re- 
quires : 

1. Applicants must furnish 
description of the structures 
they plan to build and the price 
or rental at which they will 
make it available to veterans. 
FHA field offices must be satis- 
fied that the proposed sale price 
or rent is reasonably related to 
the proposed accommodation. 

2. Applicants must show they 
will be ready to start construc- 
tion within 90 days and dem- 



THE CARPENTER 



43 



onstrate that they have effec- 
tive control of the land, that 
financing is assured, and that 
arrangements have been made 
for local building permits, util- 
ity services, and the like. 

3. Applicants must agree to 
make the housing available 
only to veterans during the pe- 
riod of construction and for 30 
days thereafter. In his sales 
agreement, a veteran or other 
purchaser is pledged to the 
same 30-day waiting period in 
case of a re-sale and the sale 
must be made at or below the 
maximum sales price originally 
paid. 

4. The regulation makes pos- 
sible also the conversion of ex- 
isting structures where it is 
shown increased dwelling units 
will result and it also covers 
construction of dormitories or 
group housing for educational 
institutions for the benefit of 
veterans. 

The materials to which priorities 
will apply include common and 
face brick, clay sewer pipe, struc- 
tural tile, gypsum board, gypsum 
lath, cast iron soil pipe and fittings, 
cast iron radiation, bathtubs, lum- 
ber, and millwork. CPA has an- 
nounced that additions or deletions 
from this schedule may be made 
from time to time. 

In stressing that speed in getting 
the program into operation is of 
paramount importance, Mr. Foley 
told his field directors: 

"Our procedures have been de- 
signed to effect speedy and efficient 



operation in a manner that will as- 
sure that findings are consistent 
and reasonable. With respect to 
the determination of maximum 
sales prices, we have made it clear 
that the objective of speed in pro- 
ducing housing does not permit 
more than an opinion that the sell- 
ing price is approximately in keep- 
ing with the cost of producing and 
marketing similar properties. As to 
rentals, agreement is being con- 
cluded with the Office of Price 
Administration whereunder that 
Agency will automatically accept 
as its 'initial rent' the rental ap- 
proved in these applications." 

Mr. Foley declared the necessity 
for speed made it mandatory that 
every effort must be made by field 
offices to avoid delay and pointed 
out that processing priorities is 
done without reference to the type 
of financing proposed. 

"You will note," he said in his 
letter to the directors, "that great 
reliance is placed upon your know- 
ledge of local conditions and local 
builders to avoid excesses in the 
issuance of preference ratings, par- 
ticularly to see to it that ratings 
are not issued beyond the capacity 
of the applicant to start construc- 
tion within 90 days. 

"It is hoped that between 400,000 
and 500,000 units can be placed 
under construction this year. The 
Civilian Production Administration 
is taking appropriate steps to allo- 
cate a proportion of available criti- 
cal materials to meet these prefer- 
ence ratings, based upon estimated 
housing production in that volume." 



695,000 NEGROES IN ARMY 

A War Department report detailing the contribution of Negroes to the 
war effort reveals that 695,264 wore the army's uniform, and that 475,95° 
served overseas. "They helped make possible the victory and are now 
protecting the peace," the report says. 



Official Information 




General Officers of 
THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS 

of AMERICA 

General Office : Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General President 

WM. L. HDTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



First General Vice-President 

M. A. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Secretary 

FRANK DUFFY 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Second General Vice-President 

JOHN R. STEVENSON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Treasurer 

S. P. MEADOWS 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Executive Board 



First District, CHARLES JOHNSON, Jr. 
Ill E. 22nd St., New York 10, N. Y. 

Second District, WM. J. KELLY 
Carpenters' Bid., 243 4th Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Fifth District, R. E. ROBERTS 
631 W. Page, Dallas, Texas 



Sixth District, A. W. MUIR 
10348£ Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, Calif. 



Third District, HARRY SCHWARZER 
3684 W. 136th St., Cleveland, O. 



Seventh District, ARTHUR MARTEL 
1182 St. Lawrence, Rm. 10, Montreal, Que., Can. 



Fourth District, ROLAND ADAMS 
712 West Palmetto St., Florence, S. C. 



WM. L. HUTCHESON, Chairman 
FRANK DUFFY, Secretary 



All correspondence for the General Executive Board must be sent to the General Secretary. 



SPECIAL NOTICE 

We wish to remind all Locals that the Twenty-fifth General Con- 
vention of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America 
will be held in the Auditorium of the Carpenters' Home, Lakeland, Flor- 
ida, beginning Monday morning, April 22, 1946. 

The Convention Call was issued under date of November 20, 1945 by 
authority of the General Executive Board. All Delegates and Alternates 
must be elected in December, 1945, or January, 1946, and the General Sec- 
retary so notified, Paragraph F, Section of our General By-Laws specifies 
that: 

The Recording Secretary shall under penalty of five dollars 
($5.00) fine at once report to the General Secretary the name and 
post office address of the Delegate and Alternate. 

We wish also to call your attention to the fact that : 

All amendments to the General Constitution submitted by 
Local Unions, District, State or Provincial Councils for the 
consideration of the Convention shall be forwarded to the Gen-. 



THE CARPENTER 45 

eral Secretary not later than the 15th day of February,. 1946, pre- 
ceding - the holding of the Convention, and the said amendments 
shall be published in our Official Journal in the issue immediately 
following their receipt by the General Secretary, and no further 
amendments shall be considered by the Constitution Committee 
other than those submitted in accordance with the above, but 
amendments to any Section can be offered from the floor during 
the report of the Constitution Committee. 
Please be guided accordingly. 

Fraternally yours, 

FRANK DUFFY, General Secretary. 
» 

Proposed Changes to our Constitution and Laws 



By Local Union No. 213, Houston, Texas. 

Amend Paragraph A, Section 15 to read: 

There shall be seven divisions of the jurisdiction of the United Brotherhood, 
and one member of the General Executive Board elected from each Division by 

the members of said Division only. 

***** 

By Local Union No. 213, Houston, Texas. 

Add to Paragraph I, Section 16, the following: 

And in no case shall any part of the Home and Pension Fund be placed in 
the General Fund except by referendum vote. 

By Local Union 1529, Kansas City, Kansas. 

Strike out in Paragraph A, Section 18, the words "Indianapolis, Indiana, or at 
Lakeland, Florida," and add the following: 

The Convention City shall be chosen by a majority of the ballots cast by the 
delegates of the General Convention, in regular session. 

* * * * * 

By Local Union 40, Boston, Mass. 

Amend Section 18, Paragraph E by inserting after the word "Convention" in 
the third line the following: 

All members shall be notified by mail to attend a meeting to act on the Con- 
vention Call, and to vote for the Delegates and Alternates to be elected. 

Local Union No. 921, Portsmouth, N. H., endorses the amendment to Section 
18, Paragraph I proposed by Local Union No. 512, Ann Arbor, Mich., that the 
mileage of delegates to and from the Convention be paid out of the General Fund 
at a rate' of 4 cents per mile as published in the January, 19 46, issue of The 
Carpenter on Page 47. 

Endorsed by the British Columbia Provincial Council of Carpenters. 

Approved by Local Union No. 1538, Miami, Arizona. 

Approved by Local Union No. 951, Brainerd, Minnesota. 

***** 

By Local Union 60, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Amend Section 44, Paragraph C. After the word "members" in third line 
insert: 

Also ninety (90) cents per month for each member in good standing. 

By Local Union 141, Chicago, 111. 

1. Amend Section 44, Paragraph C, by inserting in the last sentence after the 
word "members" "and one dollar ($1.00) from each monthly permit granted by 



46 THE CARPENTER 

a Local Union or District Council for which a fee is charged to be placed in a 
special fund for 'Home and Pension' purposes." Paragraph C, Section 44 as amend- 
ed will then read as follows: 

Each beneficial Local Union shall pay to the General Secretary 
$5.00 on each new member admitted, excepting apprentices and 
honorary members, also Seventy-five Cents per month for each mem- 
ber in good standing, Forty (40) cents of which shall be used as 
a fund for the general management of the United Brotherhood and 
payment of all death and disability donations prescribed by the Con- 
stitution and Laws of the United Brotherhood, together with all 
legal demands made upon the United Brotherhood. The balance of 
Thirty-five (35) Cents, together with moneys received from new 
members and one dollar ($1.00) from each monthly permit granted 
by a Local Union or District Council for which a fee is charged to 
be placed in a special fund for "Home and Pension" purposes. 

Local Union No. 141 can think of no more worthy cause for which a portion 
of each permit fee should be set aside. 

2. Amend Section 46, Paragraph A, by striking out the last sentence and in- 
serting "He shall not pay more than Two Dollars and Fifty Cents ($2.50) for a 
monthly working permit." Section 46, Paragraph A, will then read as follows: 

A member who desires to leave the jurisdiction of his Local 
Union or District Council to work in another jurisdiction must sur- 
render his Working Card and present his Due Book to the Financial 
Secretary, who shall then fill out his Clearance Card and affix the 
seal thereto. It shall be compulsory, except in case of strike or lock- 
out, for the Local Union to issue said card, providing the member 
has no charges pending against him and pays all arrearages, to- 
gether with current month's dues. Said Clearance Card shall expire 
one month from date of issue. It shall be optional with a Local 
Union or District Council to issue Clearance Cards in a jurisdiction 
where a strike or lockout is in effect. A member may leave such 
jurisdiction without a Clearance Card to seek work in another juris- 
diction where no strike exists, provided he presents a statement over 
the Seal of the Local Union or District Council in which he holds 
membership, showing that a strike or lockout is in effect in said 
jurisdiction. He shall not pay more than Two Dollars and Fifty 
Cents ($2.50) for a monthly working permit. 

Local Union No. 141 feels that when a traveling member knows only a nominal 
fee will be charged him for working in other jurisdictions plus the knowledge he 
is helping the pension fund, that this will encourage said members not to clear out 
of his home Local and to continue to support his home Local. 

3. Amend Section 5 4, Paragraph C, eliminating Paragraph C in its entirety. 
The present Paragraph D would then be identified as Paragraph C and the present 
Paragraph E would then be identified as Paragraph D. Section 54 would then read 
as follows: 

A. A member shall not be less than 65 years of age to be eligible 
to the Home or Pension. 

B. A member shall hold continuous membership for not less 
than thirty years. 

C. The traveling expenses of a member whose application for 
admittance to the Home has been approved by the proper authori- 
ties shall be paid by the Local Union in which he holds member- 
ship. 

D. Members not wishing to avail themselves of the privilege of 
entering the Home may apply for a Pension not to exceed $15.00 
per month. 



THE CARPENTER 47 

Local Union No. 141 feels that by eliminating the present Paragraph C of 

Section 54, a source of friction and a pauper clause will be stricken from our 

Constitution. 

***** 

By Local Union 2163, New York, N. Y. 

Amend Section 49, Paragraph C, last line to read: 

Five years membership or more $500.00 

***** 

By Local Union No. 13 67, Chicago, 111. 

Strike out $300.00 in last line of Paragraph C, Section 49 and insert $500.00. 

By Local Union 213, Houston, Texas. 

Add to Paragraph C, Section 49, the following: 

Twenty years or more $500.00 

***** 

By Local Union No. 16 5 7, New York, N. Y. 

Change, amend and add to the following sections and paragraphs. Section 49, 
Paragraph C, to read: 

Donations for Journeymen between the ages of 21 and 50 years 
shall be 

One year's membership $ 50.00 

Two years' membership 150.00 

Three years' membership 250.00 

Four years' membership 350.00 

Five years' membership 600.00 

***** 

By the Tri-State District Council of Carpenters — Ashland, Ky. ; Huntington, W. 
Va.; Ironton, Ohio; and Portsmouth, Ohio. 

Strike out Paragraph C, Section 54 of the General Constitution to the end 
that there shall be no discrimination in the ranks of our membership. 

***** 

By Local Union 68 3, Burlington, Vt. 

Eliminate Paragraph C of Section 54 of the General Constitution. We believe 
any member who has met all the other requirements should receive the Pension 
and there should be no discrimination. 

***** 

By Local Union 142, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Amend Section 54 to read: 

Paragraph A. A member who has held continuous membership 
for Thirty (30) years and becomes 65 years of age shall be entitled 
to the Home and Pension. 

Paragraphs B and C are to be eliminated and Paragraph D shall 
become Paragraph B and read: The traveling expenses of a member 
whose application for admittance to the Home has been approved 
by the proper authorities shall be paid by the Local Union in which 
he holds membership. 

Paragraph E shall become Paragraph C and read: Members not 
washing to avail themselves of the privilege of entering the Home 
may apply for a Pension not to exceed ($20.00) Twenty Dollars per 
month. 

***** 

By British Columbia Provincial Council of Carpenters. 

Delete Paragraph C of Section 54 of our Constitution and Laws. 



Not lost to those that love them, They still live in our memory. 
Not dead, just gone before; And will forever more. 



%£&l x: 



The Editor has been requested to publish the names 
of the following Brothers who have passed away. 



Brother E. J. AIKEN, Local No. 58, Chicago, III. 
Brother SAMUEL APICELLA, Local No. 366, New York, N. Y. 
Brother H. C. CLAUSEN, Local No. 58, Chicago, 111. 
Brother CHAMP CREWS, Local No. 627, Jacksonville, Fla. 
Brother ALFRED DAHLQUIST, Local No. 58, Chicago, 111. 
Brother J. F. DRENNAN, Sr., Local No. 213, Houston, Tex. 
Brother OSCAR H. EPLING, Local No. 634, Los Angela*, Cal. 
Brother ERHARD ERICKSON, Local No. 488, New York, N. Y. 
Brother ALTON FARLEY, Local No. 517, Portland, Me. 
Brother ANTON (TONY) GIESER, Local No. 80, Chicago, 111. 
Brother THEODORE W. GOODWIN, Local No. 305, Millville, N. J. 
Brother ABRAHAM R. GRIFFIN, Local No. 627, Jacksonville, Fla. 
Brother WILLIAM HALL, Local No. 2344, Merrill, Wis. 
Brother EINO HOLD, Local No. 488, New York, N. Y. 
Brother FLOYD HOUCHINS, Local No. 1918, Richland, Va. 
Brother ARTHUR M. HUGHES, Local No. 710, Long Beach, Cal. 
Brother ANDREW G. JOHNSON, Local No. 545, Kane, Pa. 
Brother ALBERT KRAHN, Local No. 1403, Watertown, Wis. 
Brother GABRIEL LAVERATO, Local No. 143, Canton, O. 
Brother EDWIN LINDQUIST, Local No. 787, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Brother W. McFALL, Local No. 93, Ottawa, Ont., Can. 
Brother A. O. MILLER, Local No. 1890, Conroe, Tex. 
Brother ALMA JAMES MILLS, Local No. 1620, Rock Springs, Wyo. 
Brother EARL MOORE, Local No. 740, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Brother ANDREW NYGARD, Local No. 483, San Francisco, Cal. 
Brother EDWARD J. PACKARD, Local No. 634, Los Angeles, Cal. 
Brother FRANK PALMER, Local No. 88, Anaconda, Mont. 
Brother CARL G. PETERSON, Local No. 634, Los Angeles, Cal . 
Brother MORRIS PURDY, Local No. 90, Evansville, Ind. 
Brother H. J. REHERMAN, Local No. 90, Evansville, Ind. 
Brother J. J. REID, Local No. 90, Evansville, Ind. 
Brother C. E. ROBINSON, Local No. 655, Amarillo, Tex. 
Brother MARTIN SANDWELL, Local No. 44, Urbana, 111. 
Brother HARRY M. SAWYER, Local No. 517, Portland, Me. 
Brother JOHN SCHMIT, Local No. 58, Chicago, 111. 
Brother OVID SICHARD, Local No. 710, Long Beach, Cal. 
Brother CARL SPAETH, Local No. 2, Cincinnati, O. 
Brother R. A. STILES, Local No. 545, Kane, Pa. 

Brother ELMER F. STROUD, Local No. 190, Klamath Falls, Ore. 
Brother PATRICK TAMMANY, Local No. 246, New York, N. Y. 
Brother RICHARD TROWN, Local No. 336, New York, N. Y. 
Brother W. F. TUCK, Local No. 50, Knoxville, Tenn. 
Brother ROBERT C. WATTS, Local No. 132, Washington, D. C. 
Brother THOMAS WHITE, Local No. 1511, Southampton, N. Y. 




He u»lj0 lags btmm Ijia Hie in bei en&e ai & cause beemeb 
{rg Ijxm in be ju&i ia, in il|£ ene& tit ($ab &nb man, a Ij^ra. 




• • • 
* 



Brother William Prentice, Local No. 1307, Evanston, 111. 



Brother Oscar Thompson, Local No. 2163, New York, N. Y. 



* * 



CorrQspondQncQ 




This Journal Is Not Responsible For Views Expressed By Correspondents. 

L. U. 1073 Honors Hero's Family 

If Sergeant Edwin Thomas McQuillen, hero-father of Pennsylvania's 
largest war-orphan family who was killed in the South Pacific only a year 
ago, had been lucky enough to come back home, his membership in Local 
1073, United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners, Philadelphia, to 
which he belonged when he enlisted, would have been waiting for him. 

The hope of McQuillen and his wife that he would return, and the 
hopes of his nine children that they would again enjoy a father's love 





Left to right: Julius Miller, President of Local 1073; Edward A. Kane, Vice 
President, Pennsylvania State Federation of Labor; William H. Kern, State Direc- 
tor of Labor Relations for the XJ.S. Treasury and Mrs. McQuillen. 

and care, ended when a Jap bomb smashed the American transport on 
which the 1896th Aviation Battalion Engineers, McQuillen's outfit, was 
moving into action. 

Last December, his widow who, with the children, is now the first 
charge of Heritage of America, guidance and counsel group formed to 
provide for these and other war orphans, met the union officers and 
leaders who would have served her husband had he returned. 



THE CARPENTER 



51 



At the headquarters of the Carpenters' Metropolitan District Council, 
1803 Spring Garden St., Mrs. McQuillen, as Pennsylvania's No. 1 War 
Widow, accepted, on behalf of Heritage, a $200 Bond, contributed by the 
union men who might have been her husband's fellow workers. 

In presenting the union's gift, Julius Miller, president of the local, 
lauded the part union men had played in the war. "Our appreciation will 
best be shown," said Miller, "by the continued purchase of Victory 
Bonds. Our tribute will be to exceed the fine records made in previous 
war loans." 

Edward A. Kane, Vice President of the State Federation of Labor, 
was also present to welcome Mrs. McQuillen. "The presentation of this 
bond," Kane said, "is but a slight token of the deep sympathy we of the 
State Federation of Labor feel toward the wives and families of all those 
who fell in battle. Their problems, and the problems of all our returning 
servicemen, are our deep and immediate concern. As we have carried on 
in the past, for their sake we shall continue to do so in the future." 

William H. Kern, State Director of Labor Relations for the U. S. 
Treasury, appeared at the ceremony. 

"I am pleased to welcome you into the Victory Loan Club through 
Local 1073's presentation to you of a $200 Bond," said Kern. "Your story 
will serve as an inspiration to all of us, and I believe that the magnificent 
record of the AFL in past War Bond drives will be surpassed in this, the 
Victory Loan," he concluded. 

John J. Cregan, Secretary-Treasurer of the Carpenters' Metropolitan 
District Council, was also at the presentation. 

Mrs. McQuillen, in expressing her thanks, spoke of her husband's 
great pride in belonging to the union. "His union card," she said, "was 

one of his most precious possessions." 

e 

Macon Local Marks 58th Anniversary 

In December of last year, Local 
No. 144, Macon, Georgia, rounded 
out its fifty-eighth year of existence 
as a local union of the Brotherhood. 
The occasion was marked with ap- 
propriate ceremonies. General Ex- 
ecutive Board member Roland 
Adams attended the meeting as a 
special guest. Present at the occa- 
sion was J. W. E. Culpepper, only 
remaining charter member of the 
' union. During the evening he was 
presented with a special gift. Pic- 
tured at the left is H. R. String- 
fellow, who acted as Master of 
Ceremonies in the absence of Presi- 
dent D. L. Stembridge, handing 
charter member Culpepper the gift. 




52 THE CARPENTER 

Leavenworth, Kansas, Celebrates 57th Birthday 

Leavenworth, Kansas, Local Union No. 499, celebrated its 57th anni- 
versary December 18 by giving" a party for all members and their families 
at the Christian church. 

A turkey dinner with all the trimmings was served by women of the 
church. One hundred and twenty-one members attended the affair. Many 
were absent because of the unfavorable weather. 

Entertainment for the party was furnished by Ernest Tinder and his 
orchestra, with help by the "Lone Ranger." All members and guests were 
thoroughly pleased with this annual party," said one of the officials at its 
conclusion. 

Master of ceremonies for the occasion was Virgil Mikesell. Present 
officers of the union are: president, Easton DeFrees; vice-president, Asa 
Pearson; financial secretary, Robert Moody; recording secretary, John 
Whyte; treasurer, Harvin Schuman ; conductor, Herman Probst; warden, 
Fred Spindler; trustees, Lea A. Humphrey, Albert Gladen, Earl Reynolds. 

The committee on arrangements for the party were C. A. Dickson, Asa 

Pearson, and Marvin Schuman. 

• 

West Hollywood Local Entertains Kiddies 

The Editor: 

Local 1052 of West Hollywood, California, gave a Christmas party on 
December 22, 1945, for the members of the union and their children and 
families. The Local's hall, 9014 Melrose Ave., was the scene of the 
affair. Amid suitable decorations, a house full of children, together with 
a goodly representation of the Local's membership, enjoyed a fine pro- 
gram in keeping with the holiday season. Feature event was a Punch 
and Judy show young and old enjoyed equally well. 

Before the affair broke up, Santa Claus' deputy — in the person of 
Brother Lindsay — appeared on the scene and distributed gifts and goodies. 
All who attended voted the party an unqualified success. 

Fraternally yours, 

J. E. Knight, Rec. Sec. 

• 

Jack Gill, ITU Official, Passes Away 

Funeral services were held in Indianapolis, Indiana, on Monday, De- 
cember 31, for Jack Gill, General Secretary-Treasurer of the International 
Typographical Union who passed away unexpectedly a few days previ- 
ously. 

Mr. Gill had served as Secretary-Treasurer of the International for 
the past eighteen months. Previously he had served for several years as a 
vice president of the International. He first joined the union in Provi- 
dence, R. I., in 1910. Three years later he deposited his card in the 
Cleveland union where he lived and worked at the trade until his eleva- 
tion to an office in the International Union which necessitated his moving 
to Indianapolis. As a delegate to several conventions of the American 
Federation of Labor he made many friends in all parts of the nation. 

Surviving are the widow, Mrs. Augusta Gill ; two sons, Jack, Jr., and 
Paul ; and two brothers, Leo and Joseph Gill, Center Falls, R. I. 




Carthage, Mo. Ladies Finish Active Year 

The Editor: 

Ladies Auxiliary No. 390 of Carthage, Missouri, is small but active. 
We would like to extend greetings to the editor and readers of the The 
Carpenter. We celebrated our 4th Anniversary on Saturday night, Octo- 
ber 27, with a party in Carpenters Hall. Families of Auxiliary members 
were guests. A pink and white tiered cake centered the table. Much of 
the evening was devoted to music and the singing of old favorites. There 
was Bingo and other games for those who cared to indulge. Later in the 
evening cake and ice cream were served. 

On Saturday night, December 22, the Carpenters of Local No. 1880 
gave a fine Christmas party. The ladies of Auxiliary No. 390 gave their 
assistance to make the affair a great success. About sixty attended. 
Sandwiches, pickles, potato chips, pumpkin pie and coffee were served. 
Roy Rogers very capably acted as Master of Ceremonies, introducing the 
entertainers and speakers. All had a good time. 

We have tried to back every worthy cause to the fullest extent of our 
ability. We contributed to the March of Dimes and other projects. Two 
baskets were contributed to needy families at Christmas time. Sick mem- 
bers are remembered with cards. 

All in all, we have been rather active and we hope to be able' to do 
more in the future. 

Fraternally yours, 

Mrs. Bertha Herron, Rec. Sec. 



Peace and Our Children 

Whether the world is to have an enduring and a just peace is going to 
depend in the long run upon what we do for the children, "not only our 
own, but all children," Katharine F. Lenroot, Chief of the Children's Bu- 
reau, U. S. Department of Labor, stated recently, in presenting a 12-point 
program for community action in 1946 to assure to each child "the kind of 
preparation for living that today's world demands." 

"This Nation, as every other Nation," said Miss Lenroot, "must be con- 
cerned now about the stamina of its people and their ability to climb the 
long, uphill road leading to the realization of the aims for which this 
war was fought. Behind all arrangements now being made, and especially 
behind commitments for world security, will be the character, intelligence, 
purpose and will of the men and women who make up the citizenship of 
the nations. 



54 THE CARPENTER 

"The most important long-range issues that confront us today there- 
fore have to do with our children and youth. The kind of homes in which 
they are reared, the schools they attend, the communities in which they 
live, the spirit and purpose of the Nation as a whole, those will determine 
how well our responsibility to them, and to the Nation and the world, is 
met." 

Practical steps that communities can and must take in meeting their 
responsibilities, as outlined by the Children's Bureau chief, call for: 

i. Housing fit for children — "without this need met much of our 
planning must come to nothing." 

2. Prenatal clinics for all mothers and child health conferences 
for all preschool children to give them a good start in life. 

3. Health centers and hospitals for the whole community, well 
built, staffed, and equipped to give good care to all mothers 
and children. 

4. Health programs for all school-age children and employed 
youth, with medical, dental, and nursing service and health 
education. 

5. Nursery schools and kindergartens for preschool children. 

6. Schooling for all children and youth, with good buildings and 
equipment, well-paid teachers, full terms, and well-rounded 
programs. 

7. School lunches available to all school children with all chil- 
dren treated alike — "through a good school lunch we can make 
up to some extent for the inadequate diets many have." 

8. Recreation programs for all ages. 

9. Child-welfare services, well-staffed, and with adequate facili- 
ties for children needing special care in their own or in foster 
homes. 

10. Day-care programs for children whose mothers are employed 
and for all other children requiring care away from home dur- 
ing the day. 

11. Counseling and child-labor law enforcement to help boys and 
girls prepare for what they want to do and find suitable jobs. 

12. Good local government, mindful of the problems and needs of 
children and youth, with opportunity for youth to share re- 
sponsibilities. 

"The job, of course, cannot be done by communities alone," Miss Len- 
root added, "for community resources vary. State and Federal govern- 
ments also have a responsibility, but the place to begin the job is where 
the children are. Every community should have within it a group of citi- 
zens officially entrusted with the responsibility for planning for its 
children. They must be aware, also, of the needs of children the country 
over, for no community can live to itself alone. What happens to children 
anywhere has a direct relation to the future opportunity and well being 
of all children everywhere in the Nation." 



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56 THE CARPENTEU 



IMPORTANT 

The Federal Postoffice Department now requires 
extra postal charges when they notify International 
Headquarters of any change in address of members 
on The Carpenter mailing list. 

These changes are literally coming in by the hun- 
dreds and the expense is a considerable item. This 
expense can be avoided if all members use the form 
below, to notify us of change of address. Just fill out 
the form and drop it in the mail addressed to Editor, 
The Carpenter, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, 
4, Ind. 

This is an important matter and it is requested 
that all members notify International Headquarters 
of change of address IMMEDIATELY. 



(Date) 19 

Editor, The Carpenter, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis 4, Ind. 
Please change niy address on Journal file. 

From Street 

City State . 

To Street 

City State 

Name in full ! , 

L. U. No , City State 

Fill out this blank if you have changed your address, paste it on 
a one cent postcard and send to the General Office. 



Craft ProblQms 




Carpentry 



By H. H. Siegele 

{Copyrighted 1946) — H. H. Siegele) 

LESSON 209 

In the lesson of last month we were 
dealing with filing saws, and as we 
stated then, it is one of the most im- 
portant lessons in this series. We are 
repeating this here, because the carpen- 
ter who can file his saws so that they 
will give first class results, has gone a 
long way toward becoming a master 
mechanic. 

In this lesson we are taking up tool- 
sharpening tools. While the saw set is 
not exactly a sharpening tool, it is a 
tool that is used in connection with 
sharpening saws, and therefore it makes 
a good connection between the last 
lesson and this one. 

Fig. 1 shows a side view of a plier 
grip saw set, giving the names of the 




Anvil 



these saw sets and like the plier grip a 
little better than the pistol grip. But as 
with other tools, when you are sure 
you know what you want and like, buy 

it. 

The upper drawing of Fig. 2 shows a 
three-cornered file in position for filing 
a cross-cut saw. To the right we are 
pointing out what is called the fleam 




Fig. 1 



Fis 



of a saw tooth, also the space between 
two teeth, called gullet. At the bottom 
we have the same kind of file, where the 
point, body and tang are pointed out. 

A flat file in position for filing a big 
cross-cut saw is show in the upper 
drawing of Fig. 3. Only the points of 
such saws should be beveled, as we 
are showing. The round part at the 
bottom of the gullet, pointed out with 



different parts. These names, as a rule, 
will apply to the different parts of saw 
sets in general. While there are many 
different kinds of saw sets, most of 
them will fall into one of two classifica- 
tions, plier grip saws sets or pistol 
grip saw sets. Each of these two saw 
sets has its advantages and its disad- 
vantages. The pistol grip gives the 
operator a better grip, because, as the 
name implies, the handle resembles the 
handle of a pistol. This makes it pos- 
sible to operate the saw set without 
twisting the arm out of its natural po- 
sition. But when it comes to packing a 
pistol grip saw set in a tool case, it is 
cumbersome. We have used both of 




Fig. 3 

one of the joined indicators, is filed 
straight across with a rat-tail file, such 
as is pointed out with the other indica- 



58 



THE CARPENTER 



tor. The part qf the tooth between the 
round and the beveled parts is filed 
straight across with a flat file.. All 
three of these parts should be filed 
proportionately the same at each filing-, 
in order to hold the size and shape of 
the teeth the same at all times. 

A tool grinder is shown by Fig. 4. 
This drawing is a sort of symbol of the 
many different kinds of tool grinders 



Handle 




Fig. 4 

that are in use, rather than any partic- 
ular design. We are indicating the 
tool rest, the stone and the handle 
on the drawing. 

Fig. 5 shows, at the top, a side view 
of an oilstone, and at the bottom, a 




Fig. 5 

plan. Three different angles are shown 
in the top drawing for sharpening tools 
on an oilstone. Of course, the tool 



should first be ground at a little sharper 
angle before it is put on the stone, 
as the drawing shows. The 40-degree 
angle should be used for sharpening 
bits for scrub planes and chisels that 
are to be used for the roughest kind 
of work, especially when nails or other 
damaging objects are likely to be en- 
countered. The 30-degree angle is per- 
haps the most commonly used for bevel- 
ed cutting tools, such as plane bits, 
chisels, and so forth. The 20-degree 
angle is suitable for plane bits, chisels 
and even hatchets, when these tools are 
to be used for cutting soft wood that 
does not have knots or tough spots. 
Tools sharpened to this angle should 
not be used where damaging objects 
might be hit, such as nails, brick and 
so forth. When the unbeveled side of 
the tool is put on the oilstone, it 
should be flat on it as we are showing 
to the right. 

We have shown the three most prac- 
tical angles to which beveled tools are 



Flat Fil 




Scraper 
fljade 



Fig. 6 

sharpened. But it is obvious that there 
are other angles to which such tools can 
be sharpened, all of which are legiti- 
mate whenever circumstances call for 
them, — these, though, are some of the 
things that the student must discover 
between the lines. 

In rubbing a tool on the oilstone, 
care should be taken to keep it con- 
stantly at the same angle, and the pres- 
sure that is put on the tool should be 
sufficient to cause the stone to cut 
the metal at a maximum speed. The 
strokes should run almost the full 
length of the stone, making a slight 
oval turn at the ends. Two things 



THE CARPENTER 



59 



should be kept in mind in doing oil- 
stoning. First, that you get the kind 
of edge on the tool that you want; 
and second, that the surface of the 
oilstone "will be worn down evenly. 
Short strokes running repeatedly over 
the same place will wear hollow places 
into the stone. 

Fig. 6 shows three steps in filing a 
scraper blade before using the burn- 
isher on it. To the left is shown a part 
of a flat file in position for filing the 
main bevel, which is at a 30-degree 
angle. At the center we have a cross 
section of a file in position for filing a 
slight bevel at the point at a 45-degree 



Fig. 7 

angle. To the right we have a- cross 
section of the file in position for filing 
off any wire edge that might have been 
produced in making the bevels. The 
small bevel at the point is shown exag- 
gerated — all that is needed is a slight 
bevel. 

Fig. 7 gives a side view of a burn- 
isher, such as is used for sharpening 
scraper blades. 




Fig. 8 

Fig. 8 shows a scraper blade held in 
a clamp, and three positions of the body 
of the burnisher. After the filing is 
done, as explained in Fig. 6, start to 
rub the point with the burnisher in 
position number 1, and gradually 
change to position number 2, governing 



the pressure according to the size of 
hook you want — a large hook would re- 
quire more pressure than a small hook. 
Then with the point of the burnisher 
rub the inside of the hook, holding it 
in the position shown at number 3. 
Now finish the sharpening by rubbing, 




alternately, the inside of the hook with 
the point of the burnisher and the out- 
side of the hook with the body, de- 
creasing the pressure with every stroke. 

Fig. 9 shows exaggerations of a 
scraper blade, in part, giving the four 
steps in sharpening it that we have just 
explained. Number 1 shows the first 
bevel; number 2, by dotted line, gives 
the angle of the second bevel; number 
3, shows the hook formed by rubbing 
the point with the burnisher, and num- 
ber 4 shows how to put on the finish- 
ing touches. The point of the burnisher 
is shown in position for rubbing the 
inside of the hook, while the dotted 




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60 



THE CARPENTER 



line, a-b, gives the angle of the burn- 
isher for rubbing the outside of the 
hook in finishing the edge. As we ex- 
plained before, the finishing touches 
are made by alternately rubbing the 
inside of the hook with the point of 
the burnisher and the outside of the 
hook with the body of the burnisher, 
gradually decreasing the pressure. 

Rubbing with the burnisher, first one 
side and then the other side, slightly 
bends the point of the hook with every 
stroke, which hardens the steel. But 
if this rubbing is kept up too long the 
steel will crystalize, causing little chips 
to break out, either while the rubbing is 
done or when the scraper is used. 



Thimble Gauge 

By H. H. Siegele 

Every carpenter has used what is 
known as the finger gauge for making 
short gauge marks; that is, the pencil is 
held with the index finger and thumb, 
while the other fingers are used for a 




Fi'nyer Holes 



Fig. 1 shows a perspective view of the 
thimble in the position for gauging, 
with the hand and fingers removed. The 
two finger holes are just large enough 
so that the fingers will fit into them 
snugly when the thimble is on. Fig. 2 
gives another view of the thimble, 
showing the position of the hand and 
how the pencil is held. A notch should 
be cut in the corner of the thimble, 
just right for the pencil to fit into. 

The thimble is made, as the reader 
might have observed, of a block lxl 




Fig. 2 

about 3 inches long. The holes should 
be bored before the block is cut to size, 
in order to prevent splitting while the 
boring is done. When the holes are in, 
cut the block to the proper size and 
shape. 



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guide and slip along the edge of the ma- 
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material as long as only short gauge 
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of material are to be gauged or mate- 
rial that has rough edges, then it is 
likely to either burn the finger tips or 
injure them with slivers. All of which 
can be avoided by using a thimble for 
the fingers, which makes it possible to 
gauge any lengths of material quickly 
and accurately without injury to the 
fingers. 



H. H. SiEGELE'S BOOKS 

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$1.00 postpaid. Money back guarantee if not entirely satisfied 
SEND $1.00 TODAY 

DA POPFRC 5344 Cinton Ave., So., Enclosed find $1.00. Please for- 
■ "■ HvPtHflj Minneapolis 9, Minn. ward by return mail one of your 
Carpenters & Builders' Practical Rules for Laying Out Work. 



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You may ship me the Up-to-Date edition of your eight 
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Name 

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Attach letter stating age, occupation, employer's name and 
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OHLEN-BISHOP circular saws have proven their quality 
and stamina in stepping up war production. Proven 
designs stand up longer, cuts faster and truer. A style 
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VvYTEFACE Steel Tapes have black graduations on a crack-proof 
white surface. Easy to read in any light, from any angle. Faster 
measurements with fewer errors. Designed for hard service. Resists 
abrasion from rails, pipe, rocks, concrete. Protected against rust. 

KEUFFEL & ESSER CO. 

EST. 1867 




NEW YORK -HOBOKENrN.J. 

CHICAGO • DETROIT • ST. LOUIS 

SAN FRANCISCO • LOS ANGELES 

MONTREAL 



K 






s 


Draftxng 

Reproduction 

Surveying Equipment 

and Materials 

Slide Rules 

Measuring Tapes ) 



NOTICE 



Tho publishers of "Tho Carpontor" roservo the 
right to reject all advertising matter which may 
ho, in their judgment, unfair or objectionable to 
the membership of the United Brothorhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America. 
All contracts for advertising space in "Tho Car- 
penter," including those stipulated as non-can- 
cellable, are only accepted subject to the above 
reserved rights of the publishers. 



Index of Advertisers 



Carpenters' Tools and Accessories 

Page 
Foley Mfg. Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 64 

Greenlee Tool Co., Rockford, 

111. 3 

Heller Bros. Co., Newark, N. J. 62 
Keuffel & Esser Co., Hoboken, 

N. J. 63 

Mall Tool Co., Chicago, 111 3 

Master Rule Mfg. Co., New York, 

N. Y. 62 

Molly Corp., Detroit, Mich 3 

Ohlen-Bishop Mfg. Co., Colum- 
bus, Ohio 63 

Paine Company, Chicago, 111 3rd Cover 

Stanley Tools, New Britain, 

Conn. 3rd Cover 

Carpentry Materials 

The Celotex Corp., Chicago, 111. 4 

Doors 

Overhead Door Corp., Hartford 

City, Ind 4th Cover 

Overalls 

The H. D. Lee Co., Kansas City, 

Mo. 63 

Technical Courses and Books 

American Technical Society, 

Chicago, 111 63 

Theo. Audel, New York, N. Y.__3rd Cover 
Chicago Technical College, Chi- 
cago, 111 : 1 

Gateway Publishing Co., Chi- 
cago, 111 61 

Mason & Parrish, Engineers, 

Kalamazoo, Mich. 59 

D. A. Rogers, Minneapolis, Minn. 62 

H. H. Siegele, Emporia, Kans 60 

Tamblyn System,, Denver, Colo— 64 

Tobacco Products 

Brown & Wiliamson Tobacco Co., 

Louisville, Ky 55 



KEEP THE MONET 
IN THE FAMILY! 

PATRONIZE 
ADVERTISERS 



TAMBLYN SYSTEM 
Of ESTIMATING 

If you are ambitious to have your own busi- 
ness and be your own boss the "Tamblyn 
System" Home Study Course in Estimating 
will start you on your way. 

If you are an experienced carpenter and 
have had a fair schooling in reading, writing 
and arithmetic you can master our System 
in a short period of your spare time. The 
first lesson begins with excavations and step 
by step instructs you how to figure the cost 
of complete buildings just as you would do 
it in a contractor's office. 

By the use of this System of Estimating you 
avail yourself of the benefits and guidance of 
the author's 40 years of practical experience 
reduced to the language you understand. 
You will never find a more opportune time 
to establish yourself in business than now. 

Study the course for ten days absolutely 
free. If you decide you don't want to keep 
it, just return it. Otherwise send us $5.00, 
and pay the balance of $25.00 at $5.00 per 
month, making a total of $30.00 for the com- 
plete course. On request we will send you 
plans, specifications, estimate sheets, a copy 
of the Building Labor Calculator, and com- 
plete instructions. What we say about this 
course is not important, but what you find it 
to be after you examine it is the only thing 
that matters. You be the judge; your deci- 
sion is final. 

Write your name and address clearly and 
give your age, and trade experience. 

TAMBLYN SYSTEM 

Johnson Building C, Denver 2, Colorado 



You can have a good steady, cash business 
of your own reconditioning saws with the 
Foley Automatic Saw Filer, which makes 
old saws cut like new again. The Foley is 
the ONLY Machine that files hand saws, 
also band and circular saws. Easy to oper- 
ate—no eyestrain. 

SEND FOR FREE PLAN — Shows how to 
start in spare time— no can- 
vassing. Send coupon 
today— no salesman 
will call. 



TQirttfafomZ: SAW FILER B 




£ FOLEY MFG. CO. Minneapolis 13, Minn. 

\ Send Free Plan on Saw Filing business — no 

k obligation. 

b. Name 

Address 

*-<+^AAAAA i AAAA**+ + AA+A*AAAAAAAA,k 






Easy to read 
black graduations 
and large numer- 
als. 12 inspections 
and tests assure 
top quality. 





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1 maple 


sti 


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and 


flexi- 


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moisture. 




Stainless joints 
and strike plates 
— rust-p roof - 
long wearing. 



Stanley "Zig-Zag" Rules - accurate, 
easy-to-read, handy-to-use. Look for * 
the Green Ends. 



STANLEY 



STANLEY TOOLS 
New Britain, Conn. 



THE TOOL BOX OF THE WORLD 




OH 1 1 Holes 

in Masonry and Concrete 

QUICKLY 
CHEAPLY 

vw«,PAIME 
STAR DRILLS 



75 f§i Excellent for Making 
%j) Expansion Anchor Holes. 

I ged from the finest tool steel to assure long satis- 
I tory service. Hold their edge longer than other 
I id drills and can be sharpened easily and often. 
I nished in four point sizes. 
•k Your Hardware Dealer and Write for Catalog. 

THE PAINE CO. 
'< 7 Carroll Ave. Chicago, Illinois 

Offices in Principal Cities 



\¥MIME 

{fastening Dpuircc 

md HANGING UlYILlJ 




AUDELS Carpenters 
and Builders Guides 

4vols.*6 




Inside Trade Information 

for Carpenters, Builders. Join- 
ers. Building Mechanics and 
all Woodworkers, Thess 
Guides give you the ahon-cut 
instructions that you want — 
including new methods, ideas, 
solutions, plans, systems and 
money saving suggestions. An 
easy progressive courBe for the 
apprentice and student. A 
practical daily helper and 
Quick Reference for tho master 
worker. Carpenters every- 
where are using these Guides 
ae a Helping Hand to Easier 
Work. Better Work and Bet- 
ter Pay. To get this assist- 
-■- Ml 



Inside Trade Information On: 

How to use tho steel square — How to file and set 
saws — How to build furniture — How to use s 
mitre box — How to use the chalk line — How to use 
rules and scales — How to make jointB — Carpenters 
arithmetic — Solving mensuration problems^-Ea- 
timating strength of timbers — How to set girders 
and sills — How to frame houses and roofs — How to 
estimate costs — How to build houses, barns, gar- 
ages, bungalows, etc. — How to read and draw 
plans — Drawing up specifications — How to ex- 
cavate—How to use settings 12. 13 and 17 on the 
steel square — How to build hoists and scaffolds— 
skylights — How to build stairs — How to put on 
interior trim — How to hang doors — How to lath- 
lay floors — How to paint 




THEO. AUDEL & CO., 49 W. 23rd St., New York City 

Mail Audels Carpenters and Builders Guides. 4 vols., on 7 days' free trial. If O.K. 
I will remit $1 in 7 days, and $1 monthly until $6 is paid. Otherwise I will return them' 
Mo obligation unless I am satisfied. 



Occupation. 
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CAR 




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TRACKS AND HARDWARE OF SALT SPRAY STE 



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OVERHEAD DOOR CORPORATION • Hartford City, Indiana, U. S. / 







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FOUNDED 18 81 

Ofltoia? Publication of tb-c 
JNJTED BROTHERHOOD at CARPENTERS and .JOINERS ol AMERICA 



MA RCH 1*4 6 





PLAYING BOTH ENDS FROM THE CENTER, 



02 CARPENTRY JOB 



IS TOO TOUGH FOR YOU! 




Gateway books help you do a 
BETTER job, EASIER, and in LESS 
time. That's the kind of help that 
puts extra dollars in your pocket at 
the end of the week . . . it's the kind- 
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Books show carpenters and appren- 
tices how to lick the toughest jobs 
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every day language with plenty of 
illustrations. Check your titles now. 



yOBMlflMSftah 
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I. CARPENTRY CRAFT PROBLEMS. Written by H. H. 
Slegele. This book contains over 300 pages and 700 illustra- 
tions covering the solution of problems encountered by wood- 
workers. Tool, fireproof construction, boxing win- 
dow and door frames and estimating jobs 

2. BUILDING— FORMS, STAIRS, ROOFS. This book is 

a favorite of carpenters all over the country because it gives 
principles of Kdof Framing, Setting Jambs, Flooring and 
Floors, Foundation plans and details. Elevations and 
tions, geometrical stairs, Balusters,, Roof Pitches, 
Irregular plan roofs, etc. 495 illust. 210 pages. 

3. QUICK CONSTRUCTION. Partial list of contents in- 
clude: Platform problems. Special uses of tools. Job-made 
tools, bridging and flooring problems, screens and mitering 
mouldings, window frame problems. Flashing, Sills, Stools, 
Porch and Stair problems. Carpenter made furniture. Ogee and 
other cuts. Tricks of the trade, etc. Written by 
H. H. Siegele. 250 pgs. 6T0 illust 

4. MODERN HOMECRAFT. Modern furniture design, con- 
struction and finishes. 240 pages with full 8 X 10 photo- 
graphs, plus hundreds of detailed drawings and plans, with 
estimates on approximate costs. Includes ideas on 
designing your own furniture, etc 

5. ROOF FRAMING by R. M. Van Gaasbeek, Pratt Insti- 
tute. A thorough understanding is given of the principles 
and application to practical work. Includes principles of roof 
framing, framing a gable roof, roofs of equal pitch, dormers, 
gambrel roofs, lengths of roof rafters, curved rafter roofs, 
conic roofs, hopper bevels, rake and level mould- 
ings, etc. 270 pages. 116 illust 



$2.50 



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book you choose absolutely FREE. 



6. MODERN CARPENTRY. 680 pages and over 600 illus- 
trations tell and show how to do all types of jobs the cor- 
rect way. Written in conversational language for d> 
ambitious carpenters <!>2-jO 

7. THE STEEL SQUARE. By Fred T. Hodgsen, 475 pages 
and over 300 illustrations of complete information of the ap- 
plications and uses of the Steel Square. The book is pro- 
fusely illustrated with sketches which cover the a - 
whole field of steel square practice <p2.00 

8. HOME REMODELING. 528 pages, 319 illust., 12 tables 
and 10 full size blueprints drawn to scale. An excellent book 
for woodworkers who do a lot of this type of work because it 
helps you give many new ideas and angles that produce 
more work at better pay for you. This book is *_ 
complete in every detail VJ-OO 



9. CONCRETE DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION. 508 page 
and 251 illust. A new and enlarged edition of this practice 
and popular "how-to-do-it" book dealing with all phases c 
modern concrete work. Covers retaining walls, beam 
designs, concrete columns, form construction, etc. 

10. ESTIMATING FOR THE BUILDING TRADES. 62.' 

pages, 310 illust., 44 tables. A complete book on the e8ti 
mating of all material and labor costs for every phase c 
the building trades for most types of buildings. Excellent fo 
all carpenters and wood workers who figure their 
own jobs. Saves many times the cost of the book. 



$5-oc 



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mar stnitt 

Gateway Books are guaranteed to 
be absolutely satisfactory in every 
respect, or your money will be re- 
funded. 

The GATEWAY BOOK CO., Dept. C-15 
32 N. State — Chicago 2, Illinois 



11. BLUE PRINT READING. Ill pages, 69 illust. A boo' 
of instruction devoted to the reading of blue-prints for th', 
building trades. Leaves nothing to doubt. Com- 
plete, concise 

1 2. MATHEMATICS. A mighty useful book on basic arith- 
metic. Filled with sound help and problems. 
Makes a good reference and "brusher- upper" book. 

13. HOW TO MAKE RUSTIC FURNITURE. Hundreds 
ideas and plans for making all types of rustic furni 
ture for the home. Completely illustrated and 
thoroughly described 

■■CLIP THIS COUPON' 



11.51 



$2.5C 



$2.0C 



Gateway Book Co., Dept. C-15 
I 32 N. State, Chicago 2, Illinois 

Gentlemen: Please send me the books I've checked be- 
low. I understand that if any of the books are not satis- 
factory, I may return them and my money will be cheer- 
fully refunded. 

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 



I STREET 

I CITY — STATE 



A Monthly Journal, Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners 

of America, for all its Members of all its Branches. 

FRANK DUFFY, Editor 

Carpenters 1 Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, 4, Indiana 



Established in 1881 
Vol. LXVI— No. 3 



INDIANAPOLIS, MARCH, 1946 



One Dollar Per Tea* 
Ten Cents a Copy 



— Con tents 



Circumstances beyond our control have once more 
made it mandatory for us to curtail the size of The 
Carpenter. Owing to the extremely large number 
of proposed changes to the Constitution scheduled to 
come before the forthcoming convention, this issue 
is devoted largely to official matter. The "In memo- 
riam" page and many other regular features have 
been necessarily omitted. They will be resumed again 
next month or as soon as humanly possible. 

As soon as labor and paper again become available 
in adequate quantities, The Carpenter will go back to 
the 64-page schedule. In the meantime, we ask your 
kind indulgence. 

The Editor. 



COVER PHOTO 

Topping a spar tree is one of the most spectacular and hazardous of 
forest occupations. The tree topper has removed the branches on the way 
up the tree and is now dropping its top to the ground. Rigged with cables, 
this tree is to become the focal point of a surrounding logging operation. 
Logs will be hauled to the "cold deck" and will be loaded aboard logging- 
trains or trucks for transportation to mills. 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of 

Congress, Aug. 24, 1912. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for 

in Section 1103, act of October 3, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918. 



ADDITIONAL 
WAGES! 



In these days of 
increased building, little 
jobs are still impor- 
tant. 



$ 



Additional wages may be 
earned by installing Ideal 
home and barn latches and 
storm-sereen and basement ad- 
justers. Easy to install, easy to 
operate and trouble free. Ask 
your dealer. 




250 E. 5TH STREET 
ST. PAUL 1. MINN. 




For speed and efficiency, use a MallSaw from start to finish 
on every carpentry job. It can be used for cross-cuttincr, 
ripping and bevel cutting to 45 degrees on single and mul- 
tiple units. Also operates an abrasive wheel for cutting non- 
ferrous metal, cutting and scoring tile, stone and concrete. 
Model 80 has 8" blade and 2'/ 2 " cutting capacity; Model 
128 has 12" blade and 416 " capacity. Both saws are avail- 
able in two models for 110-volt AC-DC or 220-volt AC-DC. 

MALL TOOL COMPANY 

7751 South Chicago Ave., Chicago, 19, III. 
25 years of "Better Tools for Better Work". 



YOUR 



Rafter and Angle 
Problems Solved 
Quickly with 




♦ Quickly figures rafter length. Gives 
plumb line and notch cut angles for 
common, hip or valley type rafters. 

<► Adjusts to form handy try square in a 
moment. Just set the movable protractor 
arm. Rapidly solves odd angle problems. 



Carpenters everywhe 
revolutionary tool. 



this low cost and 



$ 



3 



cefpl of check < 
money order 



IF YOUR DEALER CAN'T SUPPLY YOU 
SEND TODAY 



CORWELD SUPPLY CO. 



•upply Uo. iLZb £>o. Hoover bt. 
Los Angeles 37 California 



No. 130A ''YANKEE" SPIRAL 
RATCHET SCREW DRIVER 




No. 990,, 

YANKEE 

WISE 



"Yankee" Took have been in the thick 
of this national production . . . doing 
what the ingenuity of "Yankee" Tools 
does faster, easier, and better. Now 
that the war is over, we're working 
toward the day when every workman 
who wants "Yankee" Tools can have 
them. In the meantime, take care of 
your present "Yankee" Tools, and 
keep asking your dealer for "Yankee" 
by name. _ They've got what it takes 
to save time, labor, and money on 
countless jobs. 



YANKEE TOOLS 

make good mechanics better 

North Bros. Mfg. Co., Ph.ifdV.33, U. S. A. 
Established 1880 



Mahers, also, of "Yankee-Handyman*' Tools 



WO RIDS LOWEST PR I C E D 

ADDING MACHINE 



VEST POCKET SIZE 

IDEAL FOR FIQURING JOBS 




5 Year Guarantee | 



Fits vest pocket or purse. Guaranteed 
accurate. Operated as easily, and as 
reliably as machines costing many 
times as much. Not a toy. Substan- 
tially made of 28-gauge steel — guar- 
anteed for five years against defects 
in construction. You positively cannot 
buy a calculator of equal quality for 
as little money. ACCEPTED AS 
THE FINEST LOW PRICED CAL- 
CULATOR FOR OVER 30 TEARS 
Operates with a flick of your finger, 
adds, subtracts, multiplies, divides — 
counts up to ten million. Pays for 
itself over and over in mistakes avoid- 
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GIFT. 

Send tdoay . . . Satisfaction guaran- 
teed or money returned. Only $2.50. 



MAIL THIS COUPON TODAY! 



Fredericks Sales Agency Dept.C-3 

32 North State Chicago 2, Illinois 

Gentlemen : Please send me a Baby Calculator 
on your money back guarantee. 



NAME 



ADDRESS 

CITY State 



NOTICE 



The publishers of "The Carpenter" reserve the 
right to reject all advertising matter which mar 
be. In their Judgment, unfair or objectionable to 
the membership of the United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America. 
All contracts for advertising apace In "The Car- 
penter," Including those stipulated aa non-can- 
cellable, are only accepted subject to the above 
reserved rights of the publishers. 



Index of Advertisers 



Adding Machine 

Page 
Fredericks Sales Ag., Chicago, 111. 4 

Carpenters' Tools and Accessories 

E. C. Atkins; Indianapolis, Ind 4th Cover 

Cornweld Sup., Los Angeles, Cal. 3 

Carlson & Sullivan, Monrovia, Cal. 32 
Foley Mfg. Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. ' 32 

Henry Disston & Sons, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 32 

Ideal Brass Works, St. Paul, 

Minn. 3 

Mall Tool Co., Chicago, 111 3 

Master Rule Mfg. Co., New York, 

N. Y. 30 

Millers Falls, Co., Greenfield, 

Mass. 31 

North Bros. Mfg. Co., Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 4 

Paine Company, Chicago, 111 3rd Cover 

Stanley Tools, New Britain, 

Conn. 3rd Cover 

Carpentry Materials 

Plastic Wood, Jersey City, N. J. 31 

Technical Courses and Books 

American Technical Society, 

Chicago, 111. 31 

Theo. Audel, New York, N. Y.__3rd Cover 
Gateway Publishing Co., Chi- 
cago, 111. 1 

Mason & Parrish, Engineers, 

Kalamazoo, Mich. 30 

H. H. Siegele, Emporia, . Kans 29 

Tamblyn System, Denver, Colo— 32 

Tobacco Products 

Brown & Wiliamson Tobacco Co., 

Louisville, Ky. 27 



KEEP THE MONEY 
IN THE FAMILY! 

PATRONIZE 
ADVERTISERS 



"Well Done" Says St Louis 



Bearing the endorsement of not only the St. Louis District Council but of all 
Council affiliates as well, the following resolution has been presented to The Car- 
penter for publication. Accompanying the resolution was a letter from the St. 
Louis District Council stating in part: 

"We are enclosing herewith a resolution which was sponsored by the officers 
of Local Union 47, and which was unanimously endorsed by the membership of 
that Local at its regular quarterly called meeting in January. 

"The resolution was then presented to the Carpenters' District Council where it 
received the Council's unanimous endorsement with a motion prevailing that ill 
be presented to all affiliated Local Unions and that the resolution, along with the 
endorsements, be forwarded to the General Office to be printed in "The Carpenter." 

"We are happy to advise that in addition to the Carpenters' District Council 
we have letters from all the following Local Unions containing their unanimous 
and unqualified endorsement of the sentiments expressed in the resolution: Local 
Unions No. 5, No. 47, No. 185, No. 417, No. 602, No. 795, No. 1310, No. 1596, No. 
1739, No. 1987, and No. 2119. 

"We are, therefore, in keeping with the motion above mentioned, presenting 
this resolution to your office with the request that same be printed in the next 
issue of "The Carpenter." 



RESOLUTI 



WHEREAS, members of Local 
Union No. 47 have been cognizant 
of the continuous progress our or- 
ganization has made through the 
years. Local 47 was one of the first 
Locals chartered by our Brother- 
hood and has been in a strategic po- 
sition to observe and take note of 
the accomplishments as they oc- 
curred through these years. 

WHEREAS, there are many of 
the older members still present who 
bear witness to the fact that there 
was a time when a carpenter 
joined the Brotherhood he was im- 
mediately discharged. They can tes- 
tify to the fact that our organiza- 
tion met resistance on every hand 
and it was a struggle to overcome 
the unfair labor practices in effect 
in those days. But they proudly 



point out that their organization 
never gave up the struggle and a 
progressive program was always in 
effect. This manifestation of faith 
in the Brotherhood, together with 
the will and desire to improve, cre- 
ated the solid foundation on which 
our great organization was built. 

WHEREAS, it has been stated 
by those old timers who are remin- 
iscent of yesteryear that our pres- 
ent pinnacle of success exceeded 
their fondest dreams and most op- 
timistic expectations. 

WHEREAS, Local No. 47 has 
observed with keen interest the 
slow but sure transition of our Bro- 
therhood from a new untried organ- 
ization to one of power and promi- 
nence. The individual members, as 
well as the Local as a unit, are 



THE CARPENTER 



proud of the high position our Bro- 
therhood commands in the ranks of 
Labor. We are conscious and just- 
ly proud of the high degree of 
respect afforded our organization, 
both in and out of labor circles. We 
are happy and proud in seeing our- 
selves firmly established in the eco- 
nomic field and being recognized as 
an integral part of business and 
government. 

WHEREAS, new methods of 
construction have come into being 
since our inception and many new- 
building materials commonly used 
today were unknown when our Lo- 
cal was chartered. Thus, a new peril 
arose to confront the carpenters. 
Our organization was faced with 
the possibility of having our field 
of operations narrowed, which in 
turn would be economic ruin to the 
membership at large. When the 
members of Local 47 think and 
compare what could have happened 
to our trade with what it is today, 
it gives us more cause to appreciate 
our Brotherhood in a measure 
greater than ever. Obviously, had 
we not been organized the effect 
of these substitute materials would 
have been ruinous to the carpenter 
trade. 

WHEREAS, it was not an easy 
matter to obtain recognition of our 
jurisdictional claims to the fabrica- 
tion of some of these new materials. 
On the other hand we met with firm 
resistance by other trades who in 
turn were honest to some extent 
in their demands, and could pro- 
duce outstanding factors to substan- 
tiate their claims. This formidable 
challenge only brought forth a firm- 
er stand by our organization. 

WHEREAS, it was a struggle 
from the word go for our Brother- 
hood. Great credit is due those 
who participated in this struggle. 
We want to express our apprecia- 



tion to the membership at large, to 
the journeymen who went out in 
the field and did a fair day's work 
and a good job and conducted them- 
selves in a fashion that won for the 
organization the respect of the com- 
munity as a whole. 

WHEREAS, we take note of the 
high standards the Local's officers 
and Business Agents have set and 
the confidence they have established 
for the Brotherhood in the mind 
of the public. All of which has in 
part brought us to the fine condition ' 
we now enjoy. 

WHEREAS, it is not our idea 
to detract from others, but we are 
aware of one factor so important, 
but often overlooked by the mem- 
bers at large, that a great deal of 
credit is due to our General Officers 
for the fine way they conducted the 
affairs of our organization nation- 
ally. We are grateful for the re- 
lentless fight they waged to better 
our trade and their effort to enlarge 
our field of operations. We are 
mindful of the position our or- 
ganization commands in the Amer- 
ican Federation of Labor. Particu- 
larly so in the Building Trades De- 
partment, and we fully realize that 
it was our General Officers who 
brought this about. We recognize 
the full value of this unceasing ef- 
fort on their part to increase our 
jurisdiction and enlarge our field of 
employment. All of which greatly 
effects the economy of every mem- 
ber of our organization. 

WHEREAS, we know the tre- 
mendous amount of time and effort 
expended on their part to secure for 
us the installation of transite and 
other materials. We fully realize the 
stubborn resistance they encoun- 
tered while getting for us the han- 
dling of machinery. We know of 
the powerful organizations which 
have waged a vigorous fight to take 



THE CARPENTER 



from us the erection of all ma- 
chinery and we have watched with 
pride as our General Officers par- 
ried every blow and consistently 
averted every effort made by the 
machinists' organization to en- 
croach upon our jurisdiction. 

We have paid keen attention to 
the manner in which they have so 
ably represented us before the ju- 
risdictional board of awards in the 
Building Trades Department. 

WHEREAS, these are only a few 
of the many fine worthwhile things 
our General Officers have accom- 
plished for the Brotherhood. Their 
good efforts are felt in all branches 
of our trade. The full meaning of 
this good work cannot be put into 
words and the monetary value is 
beyond measure. 

WHEREAS, the members of Lo- 
cal Union No. 47 appreciate the 
value of the good work done by our 



General Officers, the high standard 
set by them, which we feel is the 
governing factor to which can be 
directly attributed our great suc- 
cess. 

THEREFORE, BE IT RE- 
SOLVED, that the Local wishes 
our General Officers continued suc- 
cess in their line of duty and may 
their good work and their everlast- 
ing steadfastness in behalf of our 
Brotherhood be a shining example 
and an inspiration to all those who 
work in the best interests of men 
who follow our trade. 

George Hankins, President 

Theodore Muller, Vice-Pres. 

Elroy Hemminghaus, Rec. Sec. 

Walter Fisher, Fin. Sec. 

LeRoy Lasley, Treasurer 

Robert Wuench, Conductor 

Carl Reiter, Warden 

Joseph Kern, Trustee 

Walter Boul, Trustee 

Orville Hemminghaus, Trustee 



MOST PEOPLE BELIEVE NEW WAR IS COMING 

The belief that the U. S. will be engaged in another war in the next 
25 to 50 years is steadily increasing, the National Opinion Research Center 
announced recently as it made public the result of its latest poll on the 
subject. 

In November, 67 per cent of those polled — representing a cross sec- 
tion of American adults — believed the country would be in another war 
in 50 years; 44 per cent thought it would be in 25 years. 

Only last March, the figures were 59 per cent for war in 50 years, 35 
per cent for war in 25 years. A third poll last July gave results midway 
between the March and November figures. "Typical" quotations from 
those polled gave discovery of the atom bomb and biblical prophecies as 
the reasons for expecting new wars. 



SURPRISE! JOBS GETTING SCARCER 

From labor shortages to unemployment — -that's the growing trend all 
over the country as war veterans return in increasing volume, the U. S. 
Employment Service reported last month. 

Its report showed that from November to December, the number of 
industrial areas with "large-scale unemployment" jumped from 11 to 18, 
while those with a tight labor supply dropped to 4. 

Others either had a "balanced" supply, or had developed surpluses 
which are not yet severe, the service declared. 



Official Information 




General Officers of 
THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS 

of AMERICA 



General Office : Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General President 

WM. L. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis,. Ind. 



First General Vice-President General Sbcretart 

M. A. HUTCHESON FRANK DUFFY 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Second General Vice-President General Treasurer 

JOHN R. STEVENSON -S. P. MEADOWS 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Executive Board 
First District, CHARLES JOHNSON, Jr. Fifth District, R. E. ROBERTS 

111 E. 22nd St., New York 10, N. Y. 631 W. Page, Dallas, Texas 



Second District, WM. J. KELLY Sixth District, A. W. MUIR 

Carpenters' Bid., 243 4th Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 10348J Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, Calif. 



Third District, HARRY SCHWARZEB Seventh District, ARTHUR MARTEL 

3684 W. 136th St., Cleveland, O. 1182 St. Lawrence, Rm. 10, Montreal, Que., Can. 



Fourth District, ROLAND ADAMS WM. L. HUTCHESON, Chairman 

712 West Palmetto St., Florence. S. C. FRANK DUFFY, Secretary 



All correspondence for the General Executive Board must be sent to the General Secretary. 

SPECIAL NOTICE 

To the Delegates to the 25th General Convention: 

Remember that the 25th General Convention of the United Brotherhood 
of Carpenters and Joiners of America will be held at our Home, Lakeland, 
Florida, beginning Monday, April 22, 1946, and continuing in session from 
day to day until the work coming before it has been completed. 

Credentials have already been sent to all Delegates elected. They must 
be filled out in detail and be signed by the President and Recording Secre- 
tary of your Local Union and the Seal must be affixed. The Original Cre- 
dential must be held by the Delegate and presented to the Credential 
Committee at the New Florida Hotel, Lakeland, Florida, either on Satur- 
day, April 20, or Sunday, April 21, 1946. 

The Duplicate Credential must be sent to the General Secretary with- 
out delay, addressed to him at the General Office, Carpenters' Building, 
222 E. Michigan St., Indianapolis, Indiana. Please comply with these 
instructions and oblige. 

Fraternally yours, 

FRANK DUFFY, General Secretary. 



THE CARPENTER 9 

REGULAR MEETING OF THE GENERAL EXECUTIVE 

BOARD 

Lakeland, Florida 
Carpenters' Home 
February 6, 1946 

The General Executive Board met in regular session at Carpenters' Home, 
Lakeland, Florida, on February 6, 19 46. All members present. 

A committee of three, consisting of Maurice Hutcheson, First General Vice 
President; R. E. Roberts, General Executive Board Member, Fifth District, and 
Harry Schwarzer, General Executive Board Member, Third District, was appointed 
to wait on the Lakeland Chamber of Commerce to complete arrangements for the 
holding of our Twenty-fifth General Convention to be held in Lakeland, Florida, 
beginning Monday, April 22nd, 1946. 

Consideration was again given the request of the Central California District 
Council of Lumber Handlers to condense the Withdrawal Card to a more conveni- 
ent size, after which it was laid over for further consideration. 

The General President appointed the following committees: 

Inspection of Rooms at Home: Frank Duffy 

Arthur Martel 
S. P. Meadows 

Inspection of Stock and Supplies: M. A. Hutcheson 

Harry Schwarzer 
R. E. Roberts 

Balance of the members of the Board to audit the books and accounts of the 
Home. 

Communication received from Secretary-Treasurer Cregan of the Metropolitan 
District Council, Philadelphia, Pa., to the effect that the Central Labor Union of 
Camden, N. J., appointed a committee with the object in view of erecting a memo- 
rial to P. J. McGuire. The Father of Labor Day, along with a biography of McGuire 
drafted by a publicity and advertising agency which the Central Labor Union 
approved, and after due deliberation and consideration the Board finds that the 
biography does not give the honor and respect to P. J. McGuire that he deserves 
and is entitled to. In fact his work in the Labor Movement we consider slighted. 
The Board, therefore, decided to refer the matter to the General President for 
suitable reply as the whole proposition carries with it the impression that it is a 
money making affair. 

Appeal of Local Union 1905, Centre, Alabama, from the decision of the Gen- 
eral President in the jurisdiction dispute between said Local Union and Local 
Union 13 71 of Gadsden, Alabama, on the Collinsville job, was carefully considered, 
after which the decision of the General President was sustained on the grounds set 
forth therein and the appeal was dismissed. 



Audit of Books and Accounts of the Home commenced. 

$ ;]: $ $ :& 

Audit of Books and Accounts of the Home continued. 
Audit of Books and Accounts of the Home continued. 



February 7, 1946 

February 8, 1946 

February 11, 1946 

February 12, 1946 



Audit completed and all transactions found correct. 

Appeal of Local Union 2010, Anna, Illinois from the decision of the General 
President in the case of W. A. Eastman versus Local Union 2010 was carefully 
considered, after which the decision of the General President was sustained on 
grounds set forth therein and the appeal was dismissed. 



10 THE CARPENTER 

Appeal of John North, a member of Local Union 1620, Rock Springs, Wyoming, 
from the decision of the General President in the case of said Brother versus 
Local Union 16 20 was acted upon. The decision of the General President was sus- 
tained on grounds set forth therein and the appeal was dismissed. 

Appeal of Local Union 1712, Bicknell, Indiana, from the decision of the General 
Treasurer in disapproving the death claim of Elmer Shilkett, a former member of 
said Local Union, for the reason that he was not in benefit standing at the time of 
death, was considered, after which the decision of the General Treasurer was sus- 
tained and the appeal dismissed. 

Appeal of Local Union 79 2, Rockford, Illinois, from the decision of the General 
Treasurer in disapproving the disability claim of Henry Knott, a member of said 
Local Union, for the reason that his disability was not the result of accidental in- 
juries, was carefully considered, after which the decision of the General Treasurer 
was sustained and the appeal was dismissed. 

Appeal of Local Union 2321, Benton, Arkansas, from the action of the Gen- 
eral Treasurer in only allowing $150.00 donation on death of Hubert Parker a 
former member of said Local Union as he had held membership less than four 
years, was acted upon, after which the action of the General Treasurer was sus- 
tained and the appeal was dismissed. 

Appeal of Local Union 1456, New York City, New York, from the decision of the 
General Treasurer in disallowing the death claim of Lorenzo Ferrari a former 
member of said Local Union, was referred back to the General Treasurer for 
further investigation. 

Appeal of Local Union 1993, Crossville, Tenn., from the decision of the General 
Treasurer in disapproving the disability claim of Harvey B. Gist a member of said 
Local Union, for the reason that the claim was not filed with the General Office 
within two years as the law provides in Paragraph B, Section 51 of our General 
Laws. The decision of the General Treasurer was sustained and the appeal was 
dismissed. 

Appeal of Local. Union 885, Woburn, Massachusetts, from the decision of the 
General Treasurer in disapproving the death claim of Harold R. Cullivan a former 
member of said Local Union, for the reason that he was not in beneficial standing 
at the time of death, was carefully considered, after which the decision of the 
General Treasurer was sustained and the appeal dismissed. 

Appeal of Local Union 2404, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, from the 
decision of the General Treasurer in disallowing the disability claim of Peter 
Johnson a member of said Local Union for the reason that he was not totally and 
permanently disabled as our laws provide, was carefully considered, after which 
the decision of the General Treasurer was sustained and the appeal dismissed. 

Appeal of Local Union 2, Cincinnati, Ohio, from the decision in disallowing the 
death claim of Harley F. Cook a former member of said Local Union was referred 
back to the General Treasurer for further investigation. 

***** 

February 13, 1946 

The committee appointed to wait on the Lakeland Chamber of Commerce to 
make arrangements for the successful holding of our convention reported that the 
Chamber of Commerce will co-operate and assist in every way possible to satisfy 
all our requirements. 

The Committee was directed to continue conferences with the Chamber of 
Commerce. 

Los Angeles District Council of Carpenters request for financial aid for organ- 
izing purposes for millmen was referred to the General President. 

Request of the Labor Committee of the U. A. W. for financial aid for the G. M. 
strikers was referred to the General President. 

February 14, 19 46 

New evidence having been submitted in the disapproved death claim of Anton 
Jecmen a former member of Local Union 178 6, Chicago, Illinois, the case was 



THE CARPENTER 11 

referred back to the General Treasurer to be reopened, investigated and acted 

upon. 

The General President appointed Board Members: 

Wm. J. Kelly, 2nd District 
Harry Schwarzer, 3rd District 
R. E. Roberts, 5th District 

to draft the reports of the General Executive Board and the Board of Trustees 
for submission to the Twenty-fifth General Convention. 

It was decided that the Twenty-fifth General Convention of the United Brother- 
hood of Carpenters and Joiners of America be held in the Auditorium of our Home 
at Lakeland, Florida, beginning Monday morning, April 22, 1946. 

February 15, 19 46 

It was decided to invite John L. Lewis, President of the United Mine Workers 
of America to address the Convention at his convenience some time during the 
sessions of the Convention. 

The following telegram was received from President Green of the American 
Federation of Labor: 

"The Anti-Labor Case Bill which was recently passed by the 
House of Representatives is now pending with Senate Committee of 
Education and Labor. Urge you wire Senator Murray, Chairman of 
said Committee, insisting that full and complete opportunity be ac- 
corded Labor to appear in opposition to said Bill and insist that 
representatives of your organization be accorded an opportunity to 
interpose your opposition to said Legislation. Please respond to this 
request as quickly as possible." 

The request was ordered complied with. 

The General President reported to the Board on the progress being made by 
attorneys handling the matter of recovering losses sustained by the Brotherhood 
in the case of Local Union 101. 

The General President submitted a communication he received recently from 
Local Union 101, Baltimore, Maryland, along with his reply thereto relative to 
the death claim of John Bode. The Board approves the action of the General 
President in this case. 

The General Executive Board considered the resolution by Local Union 101, 
Baltimore, Maryland, on November 26, 1945, copy of which was received by the 
Board members, and the reply of the General President thereto. The Board con- 
curred in and approved of the reply of the General President. 

There being no further business to be considered the Board adjourned to meet 
in Lakeland, Florida, prior to the opening of the Convention. 

Respectfully submitted, 

FRANK DUFFY, Secretary. 



INFORMATION REGARDING SERVICE MEN 

When making inquiries regarding members or prospective members who have 
served in the armed forces, it is imperative to set forth in your letter the date of 
induction and, particularly, date of discharge, or attach copy of discharge papers. 
This will avoid unnecessary correspondence and result in an early reply from the 
General Office. We also call your attention to a G. E. B. ruling that states: 
"The question of men in the Service of the United States or 
Canada over the age limit of apprentices, or those who have not 
completed their apprenticeship before entering the Service, was care- 
fully considered, after which it was decided that these men on pres- 
entation of an Honorable Discharge be admitted to the Brotherhood 
as apprentices without the payment of an Initiation Fee subject to 
the acceptance by the Local Union of their applications." 



12 THE CARPENTER 

Proposed Changes to our Constitution and Laws 



By Local Union No. 2212, Newark, N. J. 

Enter in the Constitution on Page 5, under "Trade Autonomy," Section 7, 
Paragraph A, 6th line, after the words Cork, Compo, Linoleum Asphalt, Rubber, 
1*15181108 and Carpets in Sheets, Squares, Inter-locked or Rolled; the Fitting of all 
Metal Edgings; the Sewing and Binding of Carpets; the Spreading of all Types of 
Pastes and Adhesives to receive the above materials. 

That Section 7, Paragraph B, 8th line, after the word "Builder" be changed to 
read "Wood Floor Layers, Linoleum, Rubber, Asphalt Tile, Plastics, Carpet Lay- 
ers, and Carpet Sewers." 

By Local Union No. 101, Baltimore, Md. 

Amend Section 9, Paragraph B, which reads in part: "The names of all nomi- 
nees for General Officers shall be referred to the members of the United Brother- 
hood for referendum vote and etc." to read as follows: 

"The names of all nominees for General Officers except the Executive Board 
members, shall be referred to members of the United Brotherhood for referendum 
vote. The Executive Board members to be voted on by the members in the division, 
only, where the Executive Board member is to serve, and nominee receiving a 
plurality vote of the members voting shall be declared elected, etc." 

The General Secretary must forward to each Local Union an itemized report 
of all receipts and expenditures "annually." 

***** 

Submitted by Local Union No. 1072, Muskogee, Okla. 

Change Section 9, Paragraph "C", Page 7, to read: 

"Election returns to be counted by the Tabulation Committee must be received 
at the General Office not later than date designated by the General Executive 
Board when place and date of convention shall have been decided. The Tabulation 
Committee shall report in writing to the General President their findings of all 
votes east by Locals for each candidate, and the candidate receiving a plurality of 
all legal votes east shall be declared elected and shall hold office for a term of four 
years, commencing April 1st, 1945, and continuing thereafter every four years, or 
until their successors are duly chosen and qualified. A full accounting of each 
Local Union's vote shall be published in pamphlet form and distributed to all 
Local Unions in the same manner as the monthly Financial Statement." 

Change Section 9, Paragraph "D", Page 7, to read: 

"Election of all officers shall be held within sixty (60) days after the Conven- 
tion, and installed within ninety (90) days thereafter. All members must be noti- 
fied by first-class mail of the time and place of such election. Ballots for the elec- 
tion shall be mailed to each Local Union at least twenty (20) days preceding the 
week of the election." 

***** 

By Local Union No. 514, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 

Amend Section 13 under the heading General Secretary. Add new paragraph 
"I" to read as follows: 

"He shall compile statistics quarterly as to the name and address of each Re- 
cording and Financial Secretary and Business Agent of all Local Unions, District 
Councils, State and Provincial Councils, and he shall furnish each Local Union, 
District Council, State or Provincial Council with two copies of same." 

***** 

By Local Union No. 161, Kenosha, Wis. 

A new section be added to the Constitution of this organization to read as 
follows: 

"The mileage expense of all duly elected delegates to the General Convention 
of this Brotherhood shaU be paid out of the General Fund of the organization, 



THE CARP EXTER 13 

plus ten dollars per diem for every day the said delegate is present at the sessions 
or on business for the Convention. 

"The General Officers shall take the proper steps to provide the necessary funds 
to complete the intent of this resolution." 

By Local Union No. 1540, Kamloops, B. C, Can. 

Endorses change submitted by Local Union 512, Ann Arbor, Mich., which 
provides: 

"That the General Treasurer shall pay out of the General Fund, transportation 
expenses, not to exceed four cents per mile, each way, of all delegates entitled to 
seats, and attending the General Convention. Mileage shall he computed over the 
shortest route over which a ticket for a continuous passage can be purchased. All 
other legitimate expenses to be defrayed by the Local Union they respectfully 
represent." 

By Local Union No. 13 46, Vernon, B. C, Can. 

Concurs in change submitted by Local Union 512, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

By Local Union No. 1735, Prince Rupert, B. C, Can. 

Amend constitution to provide that: 

"The General Treasurer shall pay out of the General Fund transportation ex- 
penses, not to exceed four cents per mile each way, of all delegates entitled to 
seats and attending the General Convention. Mileage shall be computed over the 
shortest route over which a ticket for continuous passage can be purchased. All 
other legitimate expenses to be defrayed by the Local Union they respectfully 
represent." 

Under Section 54, Paragraph C of our Constitution and Laws of our Brother- 
hood, an applicant for the Pension may be denied such unless he is able to prove 
he is unable to provide for himself a livelihood. Our General Convention should 
give serious consideration to this question, and take steps to have our Constitution 
amended. Thirty years' continuous membership necessary for our members to 
qualify for the Brotherhood Pension should be all that is necessary. 

"We propose Paragraph C of Section 54 of our Constitution and Laws be 
deleted. 

* •:< * * * 

By Local Union No. 16 3 8, Courtney, B. C, Can. 

The amendment by Local Union 5,12 of Ann Arbor, Mich., concerning amending 
Section 18, Paragraph I was endorsed by our Local at last regular meeting. 

The amendment by Local Union 829, Santa Cruz, Cal., concerning Section 49, 
Paragraph C, likewise. 

$ % :$ $ # 

By Local Union 19 63, Toronto, Ont., Can. 

That all elected delegates attending General Conventions, called by Head- 
quarters be paid two cents per mile return fare from the General Fund of our 
Brotherhood. 

That the retiring age for all officers employed and paid by our Brotherhood be 
70 years of age. 

* * * * * 

By Local Union 513, Port Alberni, B. C, Can. 

That the General Treasurer shall pay out of the General Fund transportation 

expenses, not to exceed four cents per mile each way, of all delegates entitled to 

seats and attending the General Convention. Mileage shall be computed over the 

shortest route over which a ticket for continuous passage can be purchased. All 

other legitimate expenses to be defrayed by the Local Unions they respectfully 

represent. 

***** 

By Local Union No. 470, Tacoma, Wash. 

That an additional five (5c) cents per month per capita shall be levied on all 



14 THE CARPENTER 

Locals of the United Brotherhood to establish a special Convention Fund to defray 
traveling and hotel expenses of delegates to the General Convention. 

That all expenses incurred in the administration of such a Fund shall be 
charged against said Fund. 

***** 

By Local Union No. 158 7, Hutchinson, Kan. 

That future Conventions be held in some city near the Geodetic center of the 

North American Continent. 

* * * * * 

By Local Union No. 36, Oakland, Cal. 

That Paragraph A, Section 18, be amended by striking out the words "Lakeland 
Florida," and adding the following: "Or any other centrally located city chosen by 
a majority vote of the ballots cast by the delegates to the General Convention in 

regular session." 

* * * * * 

By Local Union No. 1380, Bedford, Ind. 

That all future Conventions be held in Indianapolis, Ind. 

***** 

By Local Union No. 58, Chicago, 111. 

Strike out the words "Or at Lakeland, Florida," in Paragraph A, Section 18. 

That Paragraph A, Section 54 shall read: "A member shall not be less than 
65 years of age except when he, due to accident or sickness, becomes unable to earn 
a livelihood to be eligible to the Home and Pension." 

That Paragraph C, Section 54 be eliminated. 

That the Home and Pension assessments be increased to sixty cents (60c) a 
month instead of thirty-five cents (35c). 

That Pension payments shall be increased not to exceed twenty-five dollars 

($25) per month. 

***** 

By Local Union No. 302, Huntington, W. Va. 

That Article A, Section 18, be changed to read as follows: 

"The United Brotherhood shall meet in General Convention quadrennially in 
September in Indianapolis, Indiana, or some place designated by the General 
Executive Board which is most centrally located for the convenience of the mem- 
bers of the United Brotherhood, and the Board shall provide a suitable place for 

holding such conventions." 

***** 

By Local Union No. 286, Great Falls, Mont. 

Amend Section 18, Paragraph A to read as follows: 

"The United Brotherhood shall meet in General Convention quadrennially in 
September, at such place as may be selected by the delegates convening; on a date 
set by the General Executive Board, and the Board shall provide a suitable place 
for holding such convention. 

"The General President, General Secretary and General Treasurer shall act as 
the Committee on Credentials one day in advance of the Convention." 

:jc :J: %. ■%. % 

By Local Union No. 27, Toronto, Ont., Can. 

That all future conventions be held at Indianapolis, Indiana, or some other 
more central location; such place to be decided upon by the delegates in attendance 
at the General Convention. 

By Local Union No. 185, St. Louis, Mo. 

That in Section 18, Paragraph A, in the third line, the words "Lakeland, Flor- 
ida," be stricken and the words "some midwestern city" be placed therein. 

* * * * * 

By Local Union 2205, Wena tehee, Wash. 

Paragraph A, Section 18 be amended to read as follows: 



THE CARPENTER 15 

"The United Brotherhood shall meet 'in General Convention quadrennially. 
Each Convention shall set the time and select the place in which the next conven- 
tion shall be held. The General Executive Board shall provide a suitable place 
for holding such Convention, and the General President, the General Secretary and 
the General Treasurer shall act as a Committee on Credentials one day in advance 
of the Convention." 

***** 

By Local Union No. 1529, Kansas City, Mo. 

Change Section 18, Paragraph A, of our General Laws by striking out the 
words "Indianapolis, Indiana, or Lakeland, Florida," and add the following: 
"The Convention City shall be chosen by a majority of the ballots cast by the 
delegates of the General Convention in regular session." 

By Local Union No. 61, Kansas City, Mo. 

That Paragraph A, Section 18 of the General Constitution be amended to read 
as follows: 

"The United Brotherhood shall meet in General Convention biennially on the 
third Monday in September, in a city designated by the previous convention, and 
the General Executive Board shall provide a suitable place for holding such Con- 
vention. A Credentials' Committee, three members of which shall be members of 
the Brotherhood at large, shall be appointed by the General President and shall 
meet one day in advance of the Convention." 

That Paragraph A of Section 15 of the General Constitution be amended to 
read as follows:' 

"There shall be seven divisions of the United Brotherhood, and one member 
of the General Executive Board shall be elected from each division, by the mem- 
bers of said division." 

***** 

By Local Union No. 132, Washington, D. C. 

Strike out Paragraph I, Section 18 and insert the following: 

"The General Office shall allow every delegate $15.00 per diem for time nec- 
essarily spent in going to, and from the Convention, and transportation rates, in- 
cluding sleeping car accommodations, by the shortest route; and $15.00 per diem, 
including Sundays, for the duration of the Convention. No other appropriation 
from the General Funds shall be made in favor of the delegate." 

Section 44, Par. C pages 37 and 38, Lines 3 and 4, Page 37 and Lines 10 and 
11, Page 3 8. 

Change Seventy-five on line 3 and figures (75c) on line 4 on page 37 and the 
word Thirty-five on line 10, and the figures (35c) on line 11, page 38 to read 
Ninety and (90c) on lines 3 and 4, Page 37, and lines 10 and 11, page 38 to 
read as follows: 

"Each beneficial Local Union shall pay to the General Secretary $5.00 on each 
new member admitted, excepting apprentices and honorary members, also Ninety 
(90c) Cents per month for each member in good standing, Forty (40c) Cents of 
which shall be used as a fund for the general management of the United Brother- 
hood and payment of all death and disability donations prescribed by the Consti- 
tution and Laws of the United Brotherhood, together with all legal demands made 
upon the United Brotherhood. The balance of Fifty (50c) Cents, together with 
moneys received from new members, to be placed in a special fund for "Home and 
Pension" purposes." 

Section 49, Par. C, page 43 Line 7, Five years membership or more, strike out 
"or more," and add as follows: Ten years membership, $400.00, Twenty years 
membership or more $500.00, so as to read: 

Donations for journeymen between the ages of twenty-one and fifty years 
shall be: 

One year's membership $ 50.00 

Two years' membership 100.00 

Three years' membership ISO. 00 



16 THE CARPENTER 

Four years' membership 200.00 

Five years' membership 300.00 

Ten years' membership 400.00 

Twenty years' membership or more 500.00 

Wife's Funeral Donation: Sec. 50, Par. D Line 4, Page 44 Three years or more, 
strike out "or more" and add the following: Four years' membership or more 
$100.00 so as to read: 

The wife donation shall be: 

One year's membership $35.00 

Two years' membership 50.00 

Three years' membership 75.00 

Four years' membership or more 100.00 

Section 54, Page 47, Line 1, Par A. Paragraph A, on line 1 strike out 65 and 
insert 60, so as to read: 

"A member shall not be less than 60 years of age to be eligible to the Home 
or Pension." 

Section 54, Page 47, Paragraph C. Strike out entire Paragraph O and insert 
the following: 

"All members shall be entitled to the Home and Pension regardless of their fi- 
nancial standing." 

Section 54, Page 47, Paragraph E, line 3 strike out "to exceed" and substi- 
tute less, so as to read: 

"Members not wishing to avail themselves of the privilege of entering the Home 
may apply for a Pension not less than $15.00 per month." 

***** 

By Local Union No. 1529, Kansas City, Kan. 

Amend Section 26, Paragraph A, by adding the following: 

"And shall designate one Local Union of any existing or future District Council 
as a Millwright Local or direct that a Millwright Local be organized." 

Amend Section 13, Paragraph B, by adding after the word "Unions" the follow- 
ing: 

"Including all Jurisdictional Decisions and results of appeals of said decisions 
as rendered by the National Building Trades Department or National Referee." 

% ^ % # sfc 

By Local Union No. 1888, New York, N. Y. 

Add a paragraph to Section 26 of the General Laws to read as follows: 

"Any Local Union which is financially capable and able to maintain a Business 
Agent shall be permitted to do so." 

Amend Section 54, Paragraph B, to read as follows: 

"A member shall hold membership for not less than twenty-five years." 

Amend Section 54, Paragraph E, to read as follows: 

"Members not wishing to avail themselves of the privilege of entering the 
Home may apply for a Pension not less than thirty dollars ($30) per month." 

Local Union No. 18 88 endorses the Resolution of Local Union No. 82 9, Santa 
Cruz, Cal., on Sections 49-50-51 and 52 of the General Laws. 

4> JJC )Jc s£ ■$ 

By Local Union No. 286, Great Falls, Montana. 

That the word "obligatory" be removed from Section 2 7, Par. A of jurisdiction 
of State and Provincial Councils, and be replaced by the word "mandatory." 

^ * % % # 

By Local Union No. 15 39, Chicago, 111. 

Amend Paragraph B, Section 31, of the General Constitution so that it will 
read: 

"All officers shall serve for a term of four years, or until their successors are 
elected, qualified and installed, with the exception of the Trustees, who shall be 
elected in such a manner that the term of one Trustee shall expire annually. 
Neither the President, Treasurer, Financial Secretary nor Recording Secretary 
can act as Trustee." 



THE CARPENTER 17 

Amend Paragraph B, Section 7 of the General Constitution so that it may read 
as follows: 

"Our claim of Jurisdiction therefore extends over the following divisions and 
sub-divisions of the trade: Carpenters and Joiners, Railroad Carpenters, Bench 
Hands, Stair Builders, Millwrights, Furniture Workers, Shipwrights, and Boat 
Builders, Reed and Rattan Workers, Ship Carpenters, Joiners and Caulkers, Cab- 
inet Makers, Box Makers, Bridge, Dock and Wharf Carpenters, Car Builders, Floor 
Layers, Floor Surfacers and Sanders, Underpinners and Timbermen, Pile Drivers, 
Shorers and House Movers, Loggers, Lumber and Sawmill Workers, and all those 
engaged in the running of Woodworking machinery, or engaged as helpers to any of 
the above divisions or subdivisions or the handling of material on any of the above 
divisions or subdivisions. When the term "Carpenter and Joiner" is used, it shall 
mean all the subdivisions of the trade as herein specified." 

% :*: ^: sj: % 

By Local Union No. 10 37, Marseilles, 111. 

Paragraph B, Section 31 of our General Constitution be amended to read as 
follows: 

"All officers shall serve for a term of four years (4 years) ." 

sfc :£ jH s|: 4: 

By Local Union No. 154, Kewanee, 111. 

That Section 31, Article B, be amended to read as follows: 

"All officers of all subordinate bodies shall be elected for a term of four years 
or until their successors are elected, qualified and installed, with the exception of 
the Trustees, who shall be elected in such a manner that the term of one Trustee 
shall expire each elective term. Neither the President, Treasurer, Secretary, Finan- 
cial nor Recording Secretary can act as trustee." 

***** 

By Local Union No. 329, Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Section 31, Paragraph A, to he amended as follows: 

"The officers of a Local Union shall be a President, Vice President, Recording 
Secretary, Business Agent, Financial Secretary, Treasurer, Conductor, Warden, 
and Three Trustees. 

Seven members shall constitute a quorum. 

Section 31, Paragraph B, to be amended as follows: 

"All officers shall serve for a term of one year, or until their successors are 
elected, qualified and installed, with the exception of the Business Agent, Finan- 
cial Secretary, and the Trustees. The Business Agent and Financial Secretary 
shall be elected for a term of two years, the Trustees shall be elected in svich a 
manner that the term of one Trustee shall expire annually. Neither the President, 
Treasurer, Business Agent, Financial Secretary nor Recording Secretary can act 
as Trustee." » 

Add to the Constitution, to read as follows: 

"General Office to keep all Local Unions abreast of all orders, laws, mandates 
that affect the welfare of the membership of the Building and Construction Trades, 
and furnish annually a complete roster and addresses of officers of all International 
affiliates." ***** 

By Local Union No. 2317, Bremerton, Wash. 

That that part of Section 31, Paragraph D, of the General Constitution of the 
United Brotherhood that reads "And has been twelve months a member in good 
standing of the Local Union prior to nomination, unless the Local Union has not 
been in existence the time herein required" be stricken out and the following 
substituted: "And has been twelve months a member in good standing of the Local 
Union prior to nomination, or a member of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters 
and Joiners of America for three years immediately prior to nomination, unless 
the Local Union has not been in existence the time herein required." 

# % :}: * * 

By Local Union No. 1587, Hutchinson, Kan. 

That the sentence "Honorary Members are not eligible to hold office" he de- 
leted from Section 31, Article D. 

That the words "Nor shall they be representatives of their Local Union to any 
other body" be deleted from Section 42, Article D. 



IS THE CARPENTER 

By Local Union No. 1715, Vancouver, Washington. 

Section 40, Paragraph C, to be amended as follows: 

"The Trustees shall audit all books and accounts of the Financial Secretary 
and Treasurer and examine the bank book of the Treasurer QUARTERLY and 
see that it is correct. Or, all books and accounts of Financial Secretary and Treas- 
urer audited by a Certified Public Accountant quarterly and report to the Local 
Union, such audits to be read and examined by Local Union, and semi-annually 
to be sent to the General Secretary on blanks supplied from the General Office, 
and shall see that the Financial Secretary and Treasurer are bonded through the 
General Office, or through a bona fide bonding company, and perform such other 
duties as are provided for in the Constitution and Laws of the United Brotherhood, 
and perform any other duties their Local Union may direct." 

***** 

By Local Union No. 311, Joplin, Mo. 

Amend Section 42, Paragraph A to read as follows: 

"There shall be three classes of membership, viz.; beneficial, honorary, and 
auxiliary." 

Strike out Paragraph C, Section 42. 

Amend Paragraph F of Section 42 by striking out the words "or semi-bene- 
ficial." 

Re-letter and amend all paragraphs to conform. 

Amend Section 44, Paragraph A by striking out the word "semi-beneficial" in 
said paragraph. 

Amend Par. D, Section 44, by striking out the word semi-beneficial in said 
paragraph. 

Amend Paragraph C, Section 49 by changing the word "fifty" to "sixty." 

Amend Paragraph D by striking out from the last paragraph thereof "and mem- 
bers admitted between the ages of fifty and sixty years." 

Strike out Paragraphs A and B of Section 25. 

Insert after Paragraph D, Section 43, "No one, on becoming a member of the 
Local Union, shall be entitled to a vote on finances, wages, and hours and election 
of officers until he has held membership in good standing for a period of six 

months in said Local." 

***** 

By Local Union No. 653, Glendale, Cal. 

Add Paragraph X to Section 42 to read as follows: 

"A candidate over the maximum age limit for Apprentices who has never 
before been a member of the United Brotherhood and who, by reason of lack of 
experience, is unable to command standard journeyman's wages, may, by consent 
of the Distirct Council or Local Union in his district, be admitted to Beneficial 
Membership and permitted to obtain employment under the regular scale of wages 
for such period of time, not to exceed one year from date of admission, as may be 
determined by the District Council or Local Union. During this period of time he 
shall be subject to such special working rules as may be established by the District 
Council or Local Union for these members, and at the expiration of said time he 
shall receive standard journeyman's wages. It shall be the duty of the Apprentice- 
ship Committee to extend to such members all possible assistance and encourage- 
ment in improving their skill and knowledge of the trade." 

***** 

By Local Union No. 1128, La Grange, 111. 

Amend Par. D, Section 42 and Par. F Section 43 to read as follows: 
"When an applicant has reached the age of sixty years or over, he shall be 
admitted as an honorary member at the constitutional fee of not less than Ten 
Dollars ($10.00), he shall be charged dues of not less than One Dollar and Twenty- 
five cents, ($1.25). (The twenty-five cents per capita tax) And also shall pay not 
less than twenty-five cents ($.25) for working card and may represent his local in 
all offices. " 



THE CARPENTER 19 

By Local Union No. 181, Chicago, 111. 

Amend Section 44, Paragraph A, to read as follows: 

"Beneficial and Semi-Beneficial members shall pay not less than one dollar 
and twenty-five cents ($1.25) per month dues, five cents (5c) of which shall be 
paid by each of such members as subscription to the official monthly journal, "The 
Carpenter", and shall be so applied. No officer or member shall be exempt from 
paying dues or assessments, nor shall the same be remitted or cancelled in any 
manner." 

Amend Section 44, Paragraph C, to read as follows: 

"Each Beneficial Local Union shall pay to the General Secretary five dollars 
(#5.00) on each new member admitted, excepting apprentices and honorary mem- 
bers; also, one dollar ($1.00) per month for each member in good standing, forty 
cents (40c) of which shall be used as a fund for the general management of the 
United Brotherhood and payment of all death and disability donations prescribed 
by the Constitution and Laws of the United Brotherhood, together with all legal 
demands made upon the United Brotherhood, the balance of sixty cents (60c) 
together with monies received from new members, to be placed in a special fund 
for 'Home and Pension' purposes. " 

***** 

By Local Union No. 94, Providence, R. I. 

Amend Section 44, Paragraph C, by striking out "75c" and "35c" and inserting 
"80c" and "40c" for Home and Pension Fund to read as follows: 

"Each Beneficial Local Union Shall pay to the General Secretary $5.00 on each 
new member admitted, excepting Apprentices and Honorary Members. 

"Also 80c per month for each member in good standing, 40c of which shall be 
used as a fund for the general management of the United Brotherhood and pay- 
ment of all death and disability donations prescribed by the Constitution and 
Laws of the United Brotherhood. 

"The balance of 40c, together with the moneys received from new members to 
be placed in a Special Fund for "Home and Pension" purposes." 

Amend Section 54 by striking out the whole of Paragraph C and adding a new 
Paragraph "F" to read as follows: 

"Payment of Pension to the applicant, when approved by the General President, 
shall start from the month in which it is received by the General President." 

Amend Section 54, Paragraph E, by striking out the words Fifteen ($15) dol- 
lars and inserting the words Twenty ($20.00) dollars, to read: 

"Members not wishing to avail themselves of the privilege of entering the 
Home may apply for a Pension not to exceed Twenty ($20.00) per month. 

By Local Union No. 49 2, Reading, Pa. 

That the words "per month for each member in good standing," of the fourth 
and fifth lines of Paragraph C in Section 44 be stricken out and the words "Out of 
Each Month's Dues Collected" be inserted instead; Paragraph C of Section 44 then 
to read as follows: 

"Each Beneficial Local Union shall pay to the General Secretary $5.00 on each 
new member admitted, except apprentices and Honorary Members, also Seventy- 
five (75c) out of each month's dues collected, Forty (40c) cents of which shall 
be used as a fund for the general management of the United Brotherhood . . . etc." 

By Local Union No. 133 5, Wilmington, Cal. 

That Section 44, Paragraph F, of the General Constitution be amended as 
follows: 

"That per capita tax paid by the Treasurer of a Local Union to the General 
Secretary upon a member who is in arrears, shall be deducted from the report in 
which the Financial Secretary reports that member suspended for non-payment of 
dues." 

That Local Unions having a membership of more than Fifty per cent (50%) 
engaged in ship and boat building industries may, at their option, establish a Dis- 
trict Council of their own, under By-Laws approved by the First General Vice 
President as provided for in Section 26, Paragraph G, Page 24 of the General 
Constitution. 



20 THE CARPENTER 

By Local Union No. 199, Chicago, 111. 

Section 44; add new Paragraph H to read: 

"That the General Convention authorize the General Executive Board to estab- 
lish a budget on a pay as you go basis. When receipts exceed one and one-half 
million dollars, reduce per capita, tax to each Local Union Fifty per cent. If the 
funds go below one million dollars, increase per capita tax of each Local, not to ex- 
ceed one dollar a month on each Beneficial Member." 

Section 54. 

A. Members shall not be less than sixty years of age to be eligible to Home and 
Pension. 

B. Members shall hold continuous membership for not less than Thirty years. 

C. Strike out Paragraph C. 

T>. The traveling expenses of a member whose application for admittance to 
the Home has been approved by the proper authorities, shall be paid by the Local 
of which he is a member. 

Section 9, Paragraph H., Line 5, Strike out the words: 

"According to the intention of the voters." 

Home and Pension, Paragraph E: Members not wishing to avail themselves of 
the privilege of entering the home, may apply for a pension not to exceed $15.00 
per month. Strike out the words "Not to exceed $15.00 per month" and add "All 
Pension money received by the General Office, be pro-rated monthly to members 

qualified by Paragraphs A and B." 

* # * * # 

By Local Union No. 2046, Martinez, Calif. 

That Section 44, Par. F be amended to read as follows: 

"When a member falls in arrears for one month's dues he shall be considered 
as not in good standing with his Local Union and no per capita tax shall be paid 
to the General Secretary on this member until his dues are collected and when a 
member is three months in arrears he shall be reported to the General Secretary 
and then he shall not be considered in good standing until he has paid all arrears 
including the current month's dues. He shall not be again reported until he falls 
six months in arrears when he shall be reported as suspended and stricken from 
the rolls. If a member at any time pays any part of his arrearages and does not 
pay for the current month, he still remains in arrears and should not be reported 
by the Financial Secretary in his report to the General Office.' If at any time he 
should square up his arrearages, the Financial Secretary shall report same to the 
General Secretary, giving date when said arrearages were paid (day and month), 
which must include the payment of dues for the month in which he pays said 
arrearages, and the per capita tax for the months since which he was last reported 
in arrears must be added to the tax forwarded by the Treasurer to the General 
Secretary." 

$ $ <• i $■ 

By Local Union No. 74, Chattanooga, Tennessee. 

Amend Section 46, Paragraph A.: 

Insert after the words "together with current month's dues" (line 9) "and tax 
for clearance cards." 

By Local Union No. 9, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Amendment to Section 46, Paragraph C: 

In line 7 of Paragraph C after the words "per month," insert, nor more than the 
monthly dues of the Local Union or District Council. 

sji # ^ % % 

By Local Union No. 3116, Oakland, Calif. 

Amend and alter Section 47, Paragraph A, to read as follows: 
"A member can withdraw or sever his connection with the United Brotherhood 
by resignation in writing and it shall require a two-thirds vote of the members 
present at a regular meeting to accept a resignation. A member who resigns can 
be re-admitted on presentation of his honorable withdrawal card along with current 
dues and assessments. An honorable withdrawal must have been issued 6 months 



THE CARPENTER 21 

prior to presentation for re-admittance or all back dues and assessments must be 
paid. A member wishing to withdraw or sever his connection with the United Broth- 
erhood shall present his resignation in writing, which shall be laid over two weeks 
for investigation. A member resigning shall be given a Resignation Card, which 
shall indicate an honorary withdrawal from the United Brotherhood. Such card 
shall be furnished by the General Secretary on application by Local Union, on pay- 
ment of Fifty (50c) for each card." 

By Local Union No. 602, St. Louis, Mo. 

Add to Section 47: 

"Any honorably discharged veteran partially disabled in World War Two who 
has been a member in good standing twelve months or more prior to entering 
United States Armed Forces, who at time of discharge is unable to assume his 
efficient duties at the branch of trade coming under the jurisdiction of the United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, shall be entitled to withdraw 
his connections with the Brotherhood and receive a Special Veterans Withdrawal 
Card. Such card shall indicate he can rejoin the Brotherhood without payment of 
an initiation fee and receive credit for years of membership prior to his withdrawal, 
if at any time later he is able to resume working at the trade." 

***** 

By Local Union No. 430, Wilkinsburg, Pa. 
Change Section 49, Article C: 

1 Year Membership $50.00 Change to Read $ 75.00 

2 Year Membership 100.00 Change to Read 150.00 

3 Year Membership 150.00 Change to Read 200.00 

4 Year Membership 200.00 Change to Read 300.00 

5 Year Membership 300.00 Change to Read 500.00 

Section Article was changed to read: 

"A Brother having Thirty (30) Years continuous Membership is eligible to 
Pension." 

***** 

By Local Union No. 71, Fort Smith, Ark. 

In section 49, Paragraph C, the year and years of membership be changed to 
read as follows: 

"One year's membership $ 75.00 

Two years' membership 125.00 

Three years' membership 175.00 

Four years' membership 250.00 

Five years' membership or more 400.00" 

Also Paragraph D, Section 49, as proposed to read: 

"Two years' membership $ 50.00 

Three years' membership 75.00 

Five years' membership 100.00 

Ten years? membership or more 200.00 

Wife Funeral Donations to read as follows: 

Present Proposed 

"One year's membership $ 25.00 $ 50.00 

Two years' membership 50.00 75.00 

Three years' membership or more 75.00 100.00" 

Change Paragraph A, Section 54 to read: 

"A member shall not be less than 60 years of age to be eligible to the Home 
or Pension." 

Amend Paragraph B of Section 5 4 to read: 

"A member shall be in continuous membership for not less than twenty-five 
years, and where he can show through no fault of his, through depression or lack 
of work he was suspended for non-payment of dues, he shall be eligible for Home 
and Pension on presenting an affidavit signed by a Notary Public and the Officers 
or members of the Executive Board of his respective Local Union." 
Amend Paragraph E of Section 5 4 to read: 

"Members not wishing to avail themselves of the privilege of entering the 
Home may apply for a Pension not to exceed $25.00 per month." 



22 THE CARPENTER 

By Local Union No. 314, Madison, Wis. 

Section 49, Article C be amended to read as follows: 

"Donations for Journeymen between the ages of twenty-one and fifty years 
shall be : 

One year's membership $ 50.00 

Two years' membership 100.00 

Throe years' membership 200.00 

Four years' membership 300.00 

Five years' membership or more 500.00" 

Section 49, Article D be amended to read: 

"An apprentice or a candidate between the ages of fifty (50) and sixty (60) 
years of age when admitted to membership shall be entitled to the donations on 
condition that they have been a member the required length of time and that 
they were in good health at the time of their initiation, and in good standing at 
the time of death, provided, however, they are over two years contributing or 
financial members in good standing, and when owing a sum equal to three months' 
dues they shall be debarred from all donations until three months after all arrear- 
ages are paid in full, which payment must include the payment of dues for the 
month in which the payment is made. They shall not be entitled to wife or dis- 
ability donations. Donations for Apprentices and members admitted between the 
ages of fifty and sixty years shall be: 

Two years' membership $ 25.00 

Three years' membership 75.00 

Five years' membership 125.00 

Ten years' membership or more 200.00" 

Section 50, Article D be amended to read as follows: 
"The AVife's funeral donation shall be: 

One year membership $ 25.00 

Two years' membership $ 75.00 

Three years membership or more 125.00" 

Section 51, Article G be amended^ to read as follows: 
"The disability donation shall he: 

One year's membership $100.00 

Two years' membership . 200.00 

Three years' membership 300.00 

Four years' membership 400.00 

Five years' membership or more 500.00" 

Section 52, Article B be amended to read as follows: 
"Semi-beneficial members donations will be: 

Two years' membership $ 50.00 

Three years' membership 75.00 

Four years' membership 100.00 

Five years' membership _— 150.00" 

Section 54, Article A to be amended to read as follows: 

"A member shall not be less than 60 years of age to be eligible to the Home or 
Pension fund." 

Amend Section 54, Article E: 

"Members not wishing to avail themselves of the privileges of entering the 
Home may apply for a Pension not to exceed $30.00 per month." 

^ * * * * 

By Carpenters District Council, Holyoke and Vicinity, Mass. 
Amend Section 49, Par. C. as follows: 

Donation for journeymen between the ages of twenty-one and fifty years shall 
be based upon the amount of per capita tax paid to the General Office on said 
journeymen. 

One year's membership and less than Five years' membership $100.00 

Five years' membership and less than Ten years' membership 200.00 

Ten years' membership and less than Twenty years' membership 300.00 

Twenty years' membership and less than Thirty years' membership- _ 400.00 



THE CARPENTER 23 

Thirty years' membership and over __1 500.00 

Amend Section 49, Par. D, as follows: 

Five years' membership and less than Ten years' membership 50.00 

Ten years' membership or more $100.00 

Amend Section 50, Par D, as follows: 
Wife funeral donation; Five years' membership or more 75.00 

Amend Section 51, Par. G, as follows: 
Disability Donation; Five years' membership or more 400.00 

Amend Section 52, Par. B, as follows: 
Semi-beneficial members donation; Five years' membership or more $ 75.00 

Amend Section 54, Par. C, as follows: 

A member (65) years of age and having 30 years continuous membership shall 
be entitled to a pension, not less than $25.00 per month, providing he retires from 
the carpenter trade. Pension to be paid quarterly, January, April, July and 
October. 

Amend Section 54, Par. E, as follows: 

Members shall have the privilege of applying for admittance to the Home 
should they not wish to accept the Pension. 

New Paragraph F, Section 54, as follows: 

Members receiving the pension, shall continue to pay dues to their union. 
Per capita tax shall be paid to the General Office on all pensioners. 

Amend Section 44, Paragraph A, General Constitution, in second line, to read 
as follows: "Shall not pay less than two ($2.00) dollars per month." 

Amend Section 44, Paragraph C, General Constitution, in third line, after the 
word "members" as follows: Also $1.00 per month for each member in good stand- 
ing, Forty (40c) cents of which shall be used as a fund for the general manage- 
ment of the United Brotherhood. The balance of Sixty (60c) cents together with 
moneys received from new members, to be placed in a special fund for "Home and 
Pension" and Funeral Donation payments. This fund shall not be used for any 
other purpose, except sanctioned by referendum vote of the membership. 

* * * * * 

By Local Union No. 626, Wilmington, Del. 

Change the General By-Laws, Section 54, Paragraph A, to read as follows: 
"A member shall not be less than 60 years of age to be eligible to the home or 

pension." 

Add to Section 54, Paragraph F, of the General By-Laws the following: 

"That when a member is admitted to the Home, if he is married, that some 

arrangement be made, that he and his wife be allowed to live together at the 

Home. A member must be married for at least 10 years before his wife can be 

admitted to the Home." 

By Local Union No. 28 7, Harrisburg, Pa. 

That any member in good standing upon reaching age sixty-five (65) be en- 
titled to and be paid the prevailing Pension, providing he has been a member for 
the past 30 years. Any Brother who after 30 years continuous membership finds 
that he is unable to work at the Trade, he shall be given a paid-up membership 
card and shall also receive the prevailing Pension. 

That Articles A, B and C in Section 54 be eliminated. 

***** 

By Local Union No. 62, Chicago, 111. 
Strike out Paragraph C, Section 5 4. 

***** 

By Local Union No. 891, Hot Springs National Park, Ark. 

That part of Section 54, Paragraph B, which states members not wishing to 
avail themselves of the privilege of entering the Home may apply for a pension not 
to exceed $15.00 per month, be amended to read, $30.00 per month instead of 
$15.00 and at the death of an eligible member his widow receive $15.00 per month 
as long as she is a widow. 



24 THE CARPENTER 

By Local Union No. 787, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The membership of Local 78 7 hereby goes on record as endorsing the following 
proposed changes to our Constitution and Laws. 

1. Endorses L. U. 829 of Santa Cruz, Cal. on Paragraph B. Sec. 54. 

2. Endorses Missouri St. Council of Carp, on Paragraph A. Sec. 54. 

3. Endorses L. U. 22, San Fran., Cal. on striking out Par. C, Sec. 54. 

***** 

By Local Union No. 8 78, Beverly, Mass. 

Amend Section 54 of the General Constitution as follows: 

Paragraph A. Strike out the figure 65 in the first line and insert the figure 60. 

Paragraph C. Eliminate entirely. 

Paragraph E. Strike out the figure $15.00 in the third line and insert in place 
thereof the figure $30.00. 

Add new Paragraph as follows: 

To meet cost of additional expense, the General Executive Board shaU levy a 
per capita assessment of $1.00 on April 1 and September 1 of each year in addition 
to the regular per capita tax. 

Thus amended, Section 54 would read as follows: 

A. A member shall not be less than 60 years of age to be eligible to the Home 
or Pension. 

B. A member shall hold continuous membership for not less than thirty years. 

C. The traveling expenses of a member whose application for admittance to 
the Home has been approved by the proper authorities shall be paid by the Local 
Union in which he holds membership. 

D. Members not wishing to avail themselves of the privilege of entering the 
Home may apply for a Pension not to exceed $3O.00 per month. 

E. The General Executive Board shall levy a per capita assessment of $1.00 on 
April 1 and September 1 of each year in addition to the regular per capita tax; 
Said assessment to be used solely for Pension payments. 

***** 

By Local Union No. 1049, Poplar Bluff, Missouri. 

Strike out Article C of Section 5 4 from the Constitution; also Article E of 
Section 54 revised to read $30.00 per month. 

***** 

By Local Union No. 28 6, Great Falls, Mont. 

Amend Section 54 by striking out Par. C. Amend Section D to read as follows: 

"The traveling expenses of a member whose application for admittance to the 
Home has been approved by the proper authorities shall be paid out of money in 
the Home and Pension Fund." 

Amend Section E to read as follows: 

"Members not wishing to avail themselves of the privilege of entering the 
Home may apply for a Pension not to exceed $15.00 a month and they shall be re- 
lieved of further payment of dues." 

***** 

By Local Union No. 48 8, New York, N. Y. 

Amend Section 54 to read as follows: 

"A. A member shall not be less than 65 years of age to be eligible to the 
Home or Pension. 

B. A member shall hold continuous membership for not less than thirty years 
to be eligible to the Home or Pension. 

C The traveling expenses of a member wdiose application for admittance to 
the Home has been approved by the proper authorities shall be paid by the Local 
Union in which he holds membership. 

D. Members not wishing to avail themselves of the privilege of entering the 
Home may apply for a Pension not to exceed $15.00 per month." 

By Local Union No. 366, New York, N. Y. 
Eliminate Paragraph O of Section 54. 



THE CARPENTER 25 

By Local Union No. 470, Tacoma, Wash. 

That any member of the United Brotherhood reaching the age of sixty-five 
years and having to his credit thirty years of continuous membership, shall be 
entitled to the full pension allowed without reference to his financial standing or 
his property qualifications. 

All rules and decisions contrary to this principle are hereby repealed. 

***** 

By Local Union No. 792, Rockford, 111. 

1. That Paragraph C of Section 54 be eliminated. 

2. Amendment. "The General Treasurer shall pay out of the General Fund, 
transportation expenses, not to exceed four cents, (4c) per mile, each way, of all 
delegates entitled' to seats and attending the general convention. Mileage shall be 
computed over the shortest route over which a ticket for a continuous passage can 
be purchased. All other legitimate expenses to be defrayed by the Local Unions the 
delegates represent." 

3. That Article A of Section 18 be changed to read as follows: 

"The United Brotherhood shall meet in General Convention quadrennially in 
September at Indianapolis, Indiana on a date set by the General Executive Board, 
and the Board shall provide a suitable place for holding such Convention. The 
General President, General Secretary and General Treasurer shall act as the Com- 
mittee on Credentials one day in advance of the Convention." 

4. Add to Section 15, another paragraph, to wit: 

"The General Executive Board shall compile, maintain up to date and issue 
to all Local Unions of the Brotherhood, a booklet covering all jurisdictional agree- 
ments and decisions affecting our Brotherhood." 

5. Add to Section 15, another paragraph, to wit: 

"The General Executive Board shall cause to be compiled, printed in booklet 
form, and supplied to all Local Unions of the Brotherhood, Union Label require- 
ments on all products coming under the jurisdiction of the Brotherhood, which, 
when -complied with will assure grant of the label." 

***** 

Local Union No. 211, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

That Paragraph C, be stricken from Section 54. 

That a new paragraph to be known as Par. F be inserted in Section 54 to read 
as follows: 

"A member sixty-five (65) years of age or over, who has belonged to the organ- 
ization thirty (30) years, continuously, and w T ho is unable to work, be given au 
outright pension of thirty ($30) dollars per month for life." 

That Paragraph C, Section 49 be changed to read as follows: 

"One year's membership $ 50.00 

Two years' membership : 100.00 

Three years' membership 150.00 

Four years' membership 200.00 

Five years' membership 300.00 

Six years' membership 400.00 

Seven years' membership or more 500.00 

The per capita tax to be increased by (5c) cents per member per 
month to meet the increase in death benefits." 

***** 

By Local Union No. 165, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

That a member admitted to the Home should be entitled to have his lawfully 
wedded wife accompany him and enter the Home and thus spend their remaining 
years together. 

***** 

By Local Union No. 192 2, Chicago, 111. 

Strike out Paragraph C of Section 54 completely. 

Amend Par D, Section 60 to read: 

"No agreement shall be made or renewed with any firm granting the use of the 
label within a radius of 200 miles of large cities after June 1, 1946, unless all 
shops and mills of the firm have a 40-hour week or less and receive not less than 



2G THE CARPENTER 

$1.15 per hour and employ only members of the United Brotherhood except where 
dispensation has been granted by the General Office upon application from District 
Council, or Local Union." 

$ * * * * 

By Local Union No. 7, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Amend Section 59, Paragraph H to read as follows: 

"If 55 per cent of the members voting, vote by secret ballot to put the pro- 
posed demand into effect, the blank Schedule of Inquiries shall be filled out imme- 
diately after the vote is compiled and forwarded to the General Secretary, who 
shall at once submit a copy of same to the General Executive Board. 

"In no case shall the General Executive Board sanction a trade movement un- 
less 55 per cent of the members voting, who are affiliated with the Local Union or 
District Council, vote in favor of the demand." 

* * * * * 

By Twin Cities District Council, St. Paul, Minn. 

Amend Section 59, Par. H. to read as follows: 

"If 55 per cent of the members voting, vote by secret ballot to put the proposed 
demand in effect, the blank Schedule of Inquiries shall be filled out immediately 
after the vote is compiled and forwarded to the General Executive Board. In no 
case shall the General Executive Board sanction a trade movement unless 55 per 
cent of the members voting, who are affiliated with the Local Union or District 
Council, vote in favor of the demand." 

***** 

By Local Union 98, Spokane, Washington. 

That a new section be written within the General Constitution to read as 
follows: 

"Upon the death or resignation, or removal from his office for any reason 
whatsoever, of any member of the General Executive Board, his successor shall be 
appointed by the G. E. B. for 90 days only, and within 30 days after his appoint- 
ment the Board shall prepare and execute a referendum vote of the district mem- 
bership only that the candidate represents, approving said appointment, or write 
on the ballot the name of such member as they may choose." 

The term of each Board Member shall be for Six (6) years and said member 
shall not be again eligible for the same position. 

That all conventions of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of 
America be held in the future, in some city to be chosen by the Convention, before 
adjourning. 

By Local Union No. 1201, Borger, Texas. 

Amendment: The jurisdiction of each Local shall extend half way to the ad- 
joining locals and in the event that no roads are available for determining the 
halfway point an airline shall be used and the miles scaled off on a responsible 

map. 

% •% %: $; # 

By Local Union No. 559, Paducah, Ky. 

The proposed amendment sponsored by Local 1201, Borger, Texas is endorsed. 

* * * * * 

By Local Union No. 2671, Roseburg, Ore. 

That the 50c withdrawal card fee be removed. 

% ^: ;■: # # 

By Local Union No. 29 71, Louisville, Ky. 

Amendment: Wherever the words "Journeyman Carpenter" appear, change to 

"Journeyman Craftsman." 

***** 

By Local Union No. 2714, Dallas, Ore. 

That members who apply for withdrawal cards in the Carpenters and Joiners 
may pay a yearly fee of fifty cents for which withdrawal card shall entitle him or 
her to re-entry into the union without initiation fee. Said fee to be paid in advance 
and withdrawal card to be issued with receipt sent to each member on payment of 
yearly fee. All other benefits to be waived on issuance of withdrawal card. 



ARE YOU 





PLAIN OR TIPPED 



to the 
Union Label? 



Union people who do not boost union 
label goods are unfair to their union 
and unfair to themselves . . . because 
union-made means well-made! 

Raleigh Cigarettes are the most 
widely distributed union label product 
in the world . . - every time you say 
"A pack of Raleighs" you boost your 
union label! 



Be fair to your label, 
yourself . . . 



be fair to 




Craft ProblQms 




Carpentry 



By H. H. Siegele 
LESSON 210 
The jack plane is the most all-round 
plane used by carpenters. Many carpen- 
ters use it for practically everything, 
excepting, perhaps, very accurate joint- 
ing and for such work as only a block 




plane will do. For instance, if the bit 
is properly sharpened, a jack plane will 
do for straightening the edges of boards 
to be used for outside finishing — if you 
have to do smoothing, a jack plane can 
be made to do even better work than a 
regular smoothing plane. In fact, we 
have met carpenters who wouldn't use 
anything but a jack plane for smooth- 
ing surafces. 

The jack plane is about 14 inches 
long, and has a bit 2 y± inches wide. 
Some jack planes have smooth bottoms, 
while others have corrugated or fluted 
bottoms. The fluted bottom is preferred 




by most carpenters, because it reduces 
the friction. A drawing of a jack plane 
is shown by Fig. 1. 

We are showing a smoothing plane 
cut lengthwise through the center, and 
showing the different screws and parts 
of it. These are numbered from 1 to 
20. The names of the different parts 
are, 1, knob bolt; 2, knob; 3, cap iron; 
4, cap screw; 5, cap; 6, cap lever, or 
cam; 7, frog; 8, frog screw; 9, cap 
iron screw; 10, adjusting nut; 11, Y 
adjusting lever; 12, plane bit; 13, ad- 



justing lever; 14, handle; 15, handle 
bolt; 16, handle screw; 17, toe; 18, 
mouth; 19, plane bottom, and 20, heel. 

The parts of a plane just given, are 
more or less the same in planes from 
the block plane up to the jointer, not 
including the old-fashioned wooden 
plane. Of course, different manufactur- 
ers use different designs for the various 
parts, and probably list some of them 
by different names. This is a practical 
list intended for carpenters. 

Fig. 3 shows to the left a face view 
of a jack plane bit, and a little to the 
right of it, an edge view. At the center 
we have a face view of a cap iron for 



o 







Fig. 3 



a jack plane, and to the right of it we 
show the edge view. To the extreme 
right we show two views of the cap for 
a jack plane. 

In putting the cap iron and the plane 
bit together, the point of the cap iron 
should be kept one-sixteenth of an inch 
back of the cutting edge of the plane 
bit. The cap iron screw should be tight- 
ened with a screw driver (most carpen- 
ters use the point of the cap instead of 
a screw driver) in order to hold the 
two parts together securely. This done, 
place the bit into the plane and clamp 
it with tbe cap, which is tightened by 
means of the cap lever, or cam. In case 
this does not hold the bit securely 
enough, tighten the cap screw, or, on 
the other hand, if it should be too tight, 
loosen the cap screw somewhat. 

Fig. 4 shows three steps in adjusting 
a plane bit after it has been put into the 
plane and fastened. (A and B are much 
exaggerated, while C is only slightly 
exaggerated.) Proceed by holding the 



THE CARPENTER 



29 



plane upside-down, with the toe toward 
you and sight over the bottom. The 
first thing you will observe is that one 
corner of the bit is farther out than the 
other, as shown at A. Still sighting 




Fig. 4 
over the bottom of the plane, bring the 
cutting edge parallel with the bottom, 
by adjusting it with the adjusting lever, 
which will give you about what is 
shown at B. Now, holding the plane in 
the same position, turn the adjusting 
nut in such a manner that it will pull 
the bit back until the cutting edge 
shows only a little, about as shown at 




Fig. 5 



r // /?/;//r;s;;//s/->>/'/?. 



'7777T777r77777rm 



C. Having made these adjustments, try 
the plane — if it cuts too much pull the 
bit back by turning the adjusting nut 
— but if it does not cut enough, push it 
out a little with the adjusting nut. 
When you have the right depth, observe 
the shaving — if it is thicker on one 
edge than on the other, adjust the bit 
with the adjusting lever so it will cut a 
shaving of uniform thickness. 



H. H. SIEGELE'S BOOKS 

QUICK CONSTRUCTION.— This book covers hun- 
dreds of practical building problems, has 252 pages and 
670 illustrations. Price $2. 

BUILDING.— This book has 210 pages and 495 
illustrations, covering form building, scaffolding, finish- 
ing, plans for a house, stair-building, roof framing 
and other subjects. Price $2. 

CARPENTRY,— Has over 300 pages, more than 750 
illustrations, covering carpentry from staking out to 
fitting and hanging doors. Price, $2. (Carpentry, 
P.uilding and Quick Construction, each supports the 
other two.) Books will be autographed. 

TWIGS OF THOUGHT,— Poetry, 64 pages, brown 
cloth binding and two-color title page. Only $1. 

Postage prepaid when money accompanies the order. 
Order u U Cltrn C 222 So. Const. St. 
today. "« «. dlE.tae.i_SL Emporia, Konsas 

F R E E — Any customer who buys or has bought 3 
books in one or in different orders is entitled to a 
copy of TWIGS OF THOUGHT free. Give date after 
autograph in books previously bought. 



Fig. 5 gives a sort of diagram of a 
grinder, showing a tool being ground to 
a 40-degree bevel. This grinding is 
suitable for scrub plane bits and for 
chisels that are to be used for the 
roughest kind of work. 

Fig. 6 shows a tool being ground to 
a 30-degree bevel. This bevel is prob- 
ably the most practical for chisels and 
plane bits, while Fig. 7 shows a tool 
receiving a 20-degree bevel. This bevel 




Fig. 6 
is much used for chisels, hatchets and 
plane bits, especially for the softer var- 
ieties of woods. On plane bits this bevel 
is liable to cause chattering when used 
on knotty wood or on tough twisted 
grain. 

Fig. 8 shows the tools shown in Figs. 
5, 6, and 7 receiving the oilstone finish. 




Fig. 7 
It will be noticed that the oilstoning is 
done at about a 2-degree duller angle 
than the grinding; namely, 22, 32, and 
42 degrees. When the unbeveled side 
of the tool receives the oilstone finish, 
it is put flat on the stone, as shown 
to the left. 

Fig. 9 shows four different plane 
bits, in part, with the cutting edges 
exaggerated. To the left we have a 
scrub plane bit, with a rounded cutting 
edge. The scrub plane is used for fast 



FOR QUICK 
MEASURING 

and SMOOTH 
ACTION L^ 



w 



"% 



Oh 



The almosf frictionless channel 

fhrough which the blade of the 

STREAMLINE slides, not only 

simplifies and speeds measuring, 

but also eliminates scratchy or 

indistinct graduations. 

Note some of STREAMLINE'S 

outstanding, features — long tip, 

adaptability as a caliper or height 

gauge, direct inside measuring, lever 

brake to hold reading. Chrome plated 

case, etc. These and other features 

make STREAMLINE the pocket pal of 

mechanics, carpenters, engineers or 

home hobbyists. 

Get yours today at your local hard- 
ware store or building supply dealer or 
t»se the coupon. 





WOOD; AND TAPEi RULES 

lis Ij u li n l.j u liWii.te'tii! Li LiliJi Lii 



, MASTER RULE MFG. CO., Dept. M3 
1 815 E. 136th St., New York 54, N. Y. 
1 P. O. Box 1587, Oakland, Cal. 
Please send me: 

• □ STREAMLINE 6 ft. size ($2.00 ea.) 
1 □ STREAMLINE 8 ft. size ($2.25 ea.) 
1 D 8 ft. replaceable blade (70c ea.) 
» D 6 ft. replaceable blade (65c ea.) 

• Name . 



dill 



Address. 



►» City State_ 



cutting and for extra rough work. Next 
to this we have a jack plane bit with 
a slightly rounded (much less than 
what is shown) cutting edge. The 
rounded cutting edge when used on a 




Pig. 8 
jack plane is suitable for all kinds of 
rough planing, but when the bit is 
sharpened more nearly like" the bit for 
a jointer, the jack plane is used 
for everything from rough planing to 
smoothing surfaces — it is the indispens- 
able plane. 

To the right, center, Fig. 9, we have 
a smoothing plane bit and to the ex- 
treme right, a bit for a jointer. It 



Jack 



o 



I (I I'll 



o 



I, 

'I 1 

.III! 




Fig. 9 
will be noticed that the bits for these 
two planes are sharpened on much the 
same order; that it, the center part of 
the cutting edge is straight, while the 
corners have a slight bevel. The bevels 
shown, as mentioned before, are exag- 
gerated so as to bring out the point — 
in practice the slight bevel is hardly 
noticeable. 

(Copyrighted 1946)— H. H. Siegele 




OUR CHART Big 27"x36" blue print chart 



on the steel square, Starting Key, also 
new Radial Saw Chart. Blue print shows 
how to find length of any rafter and 
make its cuts, find any angle in degrees, 
frame any polygon 3 to 16 sides and cut 
its mitres, read board foot and brace 
tables, octagon scale, rafter tables and 
much other valuable information. Can be 
scaled down for model work as well as full 
scale framing. Radial Saw Chart changes pitch- 
es and cuts into degrees and minutes. Every 
carpenter should have these charts. Complete 
set for 50c coin or M.O. — no stamps or checks. 

MASON AND PARRISH, ENGINEERS 
2105 No. Burdick St., Dept. C-5 Kalamazoo 81, Mich. 



THE CARPENTERS HANDY HELPER 

mm& mm 

has dozens of uses on every job ! 

For that "FINISHED TOUCH" 
Plastic Wood can be used 
for filling: 



• Nail holes 

v • Cracks due to wood 
shrinkage 

• Countersunk screws 

• Old screw holes 

• Loose dowel pins 

• Broken railings 

• Split, cracked or splintered 

wood in bowling alleys. 

HANDLES LIKE PUTTY... 
HARDENS INTO WOOD 

Keep a supply of PLASTIC WOOD SOL- 
VENT on hand to control the consistency 
of PLASTIC WOOD. SOLVENT is also 
used for cleaning hands and tools. 

• On sale at all Builders' Supplies, 

Hardware and Paint Stores 



BUY THE 1 lb. CAN 



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N.w York \6. N. Y, 





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Coupon Brings Eight Big Books For Examination 

AMERICAN TECHNICAL SOCIETY Vocational Publishers since 1898 
Dept. G336 Drexel at 58th Street, Chicago 37, III. 
Tou may ship me the TJp-to-Date edition of your eight 
big books. "Building, Estimating, and Contracting" with- 
out any obligation to buy. I will pay the delivery charges 
only, and If fully satisfied in ten days, I will send you 
$2.00, and after that only $3.00 a month, until the total 
price of only $34.80 is paid. I am not obligated In any 
way unless I keep the books. 

Name . 

Address 

City State 

Attach letter stating age, occupation, employer's name and 
address, and name and address of at least one business 
man as reference. Men in service, also give home address. 



S<^ 



FROM ANY ANGLE 




LANGDON ACME MITRE BOX 



It leads in its field — like all other Millers 
Falls Tools. Ball bearing saw guides reduce 
friction. Full ball bearing lever assures 
quick, easy change of angle. For smooth, 
accurate results insist on this superior box. 



MILLERS FALLS 

TOOLS 



MILLERS FALLS 




Greenfield, Mass.,U. S. A. 



Tbe 



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CarP 



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Use 




DISSTON D-8 

Medium weight Skew-back pattern. Made in 
20-inch 10 points cross-cut; 22-inch 8 and 10 
points cross-cut; 24-inch 8 and 10 points cross- 
cut; 26-inch 7, 8, 10 and 11 points cross-cut, 
5 Yi points rip. 
• See your Hardware Dealer about this fine 

hand saw and other Disston tools 

you need. 

The Disston Saw, Tool and File 
Manual is free from your Hardware 
Dealer — or write for a copy to 

HENRY DISSTON & SONS, Inc. 

304 Tacony, Philadelphia 35, Pa., U. S. A. 



t&7/lafce r 




MACHINE SAW FILING 

with the Foley Automatic 
Saw filer is the modern way 
to recondition saws. Any- 
one can do the work — no 
experience needed — no eye- 
strain. Start in spare time 
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smooth and fast, they will 
advertise for you, bring 
you new customers and a 
steady repeat cash business. 

The Foley is the ONLY machine 
that files all hand saws, also 
band and cross-cut circular saws. 
— enables you to handle 
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and factories as well as 
farmers, carpenters, etc. 

Send for FREE PLAN 

Shows how to etart — no can 
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^ Send Free Plan on Saw Filing business, no obligation 

k Nam 

J_ Address . 



LlAi 



TAMBLYN SYSTEM 
Of ESTIMATING 

If you are ambitious to have your own busi- 
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will start you on your way. 

If you are an experienced carpenter and 
have had a fair schooling in reading, writing 
and arithmetic you can master our System 
in a short period of your spare time. The 
first lesson begins with excavations and step 
by step instructs you how to figure the cost 
of complete buildings just as you would do 
it in a contractor's office. 

By the use of this System of Estimating you 
avail yourself of the benefits and guidance of 
the author's 40 years of practical experience 
reduced to the language you understand. 
You will never find a more opportune time 
to establish yourself in business than now. 

Study the course for ten days absolutely 
free. If you decide you don't want to keep 
it, just return it. Otherwise send us $5.00, 
and pay the balance of $25.00 at $5.00 per 
month, making a total of $30.00 for the com- 
plete course. On request we will send you 
plans, specifications, estimate sheets, a copy 
of the Building Labor Calculator, and com- 
plete instructions. What we say about this 
course is not important, but what you find it 
to be after you examine it is the only thing 
that matters. You be the judge; your deci- 
sion is final. 

Write your name and address clearly and 
give your age, and trade experience. 

TAMBLYN SYSTEM 

Johnson Building C, Denver 2, Colorado 



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A popular priced inside- 
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501 W. Foothill Bl., Monrovia, Calif. 




STANLEY specializes in the distinctive appear- 
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123 



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FASTENING nriAI/Tf 
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AUDELS Carpenters 
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4vols.*6 




Ins Ida Trado Information 
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Quick Refen 

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Inside Trade Information On: pon below 

How to use the steel aauare — How to file and set 
saws — How to build furniture — How to use a 
mitre box — How to use the chalk line — How to use 
rules and scales — How to make joints— Carpenters 
arithmetic— Solving mensuration problems^-Es- 
timating strength of timbers — How to set girders 
and sills — How to frame houses and roofs — How to 
estimate costs — How to build houses, barns, gar- 
ages, bungalows, etc. — How to read and draw 
plans — Drawing ur> specifications — How to ex- 
cavate—How to use settings 12. 13 and 17 on the 
steel square — How to build hoists and scaffolds— 
skylights — How to build stairs — How to put on 
interior trim — How to hang doors — How to lath- 
lay floors — How to paint 



1 the FREE COU- 




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CAR 



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E. <t. ATKINS AND COMPANY 

401 South Illinois Street, Indianapolis 9, Indiana 
Agents or Dealers in all Principal Cities the World Over 



FOUNDED 1881 

Official Publication of the 
UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS of AMERICA 




WM. L.HUTCHESON 

- GENERAL PRESIDENT 




■■'■■'■'/ 



Vf^S~~ TWENTY-FIFTH 

GENERAL CONVENTION 

CARPENTERS'HOME 

LAKELAND, FLA. 




APRIL 1946 




w 



HEN the members 
of unions and their fami- 
lies buy only Union Label 
goods and use only Union 
services they make these 
two economic weapons 
reinforce each other. 

Keep in good standing as 
a consumer as well as a 
dues payer with your own 
union. When you patron- 
ize only firms that dis- 
play Union Labels, Shop 
Cards, and Service But- 
tons you will be in good 
standing with your broth- 
ers in other unions. 

Max Zaritsky, President, United Hatters 



02 CARPENTRY JO 



IS TOO TOUGH FOR YOU! 




Gateway books help you do a 
BETTER job, EASIER, and in LESS 
time. That's the kind of help that 
puts extra dollars in your pocket at 
the end of the week . . . it's the kind 
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Books show carpenters and appren- 
tices how to lick the toughest jobs 
. . . and the books show you in clear 
every day language with plenty of 
illustrations. Check your titles now. 



ORDER FROM THIS LIST NOW! 




1. CARPENTRY CRAFT PROBLEMS. Written by H. H. 
Blegele. This book contains over 300 pages and 700 illustra- 
tions covering the solution of problems encountered by wood- 
workers. Tool, fireproof construction, boxing win- <A 

dow and door frames and estimating jobs V^-j" 

2. BUILDING— FORMS, STAIRS, ROOFS. This book is 
a favorite of carpenters all over the country because it gives 
principles of Roof Framing, Setting Jambs, Flooring and 
Floors, Foundation plans and details. Elevations and sec- 
tions, geometrical stairs, Balusters,, Roof Pitches, (h _ 
Irregular plan roofs, etc. 495 illust. 210 pages. v^-^O 

3. QUICK CONSTRUCTION. Partial list of contents in- 
clude: Platform problems, Special uses of tools. Job-made 
tools, bridging and flooring problems, screens and mitering 
mouldings, window frame problems. Flashing, Sills, Stools, 
Porch and Stair problems, Carpenter made furniture. Ogee and 
other cuts. Tricks of the trade, etc. Written by dt r _ 
H. H. Siegele. 250 pgs. 670 illust <f>^-5 u 

4. MODERN HOMECRAFT. Modern fumituie design, con- 
struction and finishes. 240 pages with full 8 x 10 photo- 
graphs, plus hundreds of detailed drawings and plans, with 
estimates on approximate costs. Includes ideas on 
designing your own furniture, etc 

5. ROOF FRAMING by R. M. Van Gaasbeek, Pratt Insti- 
tute. A thorough understanding is given of the principles 
and application to practical work. Includes principles of roof 
framing, framing a gable roof, roofs of equal pitch, dormers, 
gambrel roofs, lengths of roof rafters, curved rafter roofs, 
conic roofs, hopper bevels, rake and level mould- d> 
ings, etc. 270 pages. 116 illust <P*-O lJ 



9. CONCRETE DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION. 508 p^ges 
and 251 illust. A new and enlarged edition of this practical 
and popular "how-to-do-it" book dealing with all phases of 
modern concrete work. Covers retaining walls, beam 
designs, concrete columns, form construction, etc. 

10. ESTIMATING FOR THE BUILDING TRADES. 629 

pages, 310 illust., 44 tables. A complete book on the esti- 
mating of all material and labor costs for every phase of 
the building trades for most types of buildings. Excellent for 
all carpenters and wood workeVs who figure th»ir 
own jobs. Saves many times the cost of the book. 



$5.0O 



$5.00 



$3-25 



Special 



If your purchase to- 
tals $10.00 or more, 
and remittance is enclosed with or- 
der, we will send you any $2.00 
book you choose absolutely FREE. 



6. MODERN CARPENTRY. 680 pages and over 600 illus- 
trations tell and show how to do all types of jobs the cor- 
rect way. Written in conversational language for a 
ambitious carpenters y2,JO 

7. THE STEEL SQUARE. By Fred T. Hodgsen, 475 pages 
and over 300 illustrations of complete information of the ap- 
plications and uses of the Steel Square. The book is pro- 
fusely illustrated with sketches which cover the d, _ 
whole field of steel square practice <p2,00 

8. HOME REMODELING. 528 pages, 319 illust.. 12 tables 
and 10 full size blueprints drawn to scale. An excellent book 
for woodworkers who do a lot of this type of work because it 
helps you give many new ideas and angles that produce 
more work at better pay for you. This book is d, 
complete in every detail VJ-00 



Opitarattiee 

Gateway Books are guaranteed to 
be absolutely satisfactory in every 
respect, or your money will be re- 
funded. 

The GATEWAY BOOK CO., Dept. C-16 
32 N. State — Chicago 2, Hlinois 



11. BLUE PRINT READING. Ill pages, 69 illust. A book 
of instruction devoted to the reading of blue-prints for tha 
building trades. Leaves nothing to doubt. Com- d> --. 
plete, concise.-* r J, J u 

12. MATHEMATICS. A mighty useful book on basic arith- 
metic. Filled with sound help and problems. cf„ -^ 
Makes a good reference and "brusher-upper" book, v^'j" 

13. HOW TO MAKE RUSTIC FURNITURE. Hundreds of 
ideas and plans for making all types of rustic furni- 
ture for the home. Completely illustrated and A 
thoroughly described <p2.00 

"■■CLIP THIS COUPON— »| 
I 1 

Gateway Book Co., Dept. C-16 
1 32 N. State, Chicago 2, Illinois 



Gentlemen: Please send me the books I've checked be- 
low. I understand that if any of the books are not satis- 
factory, I may return them and my money will be cheer- 
fully refunded. 

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 



■ NAME . 
I STREET 



CITY STATE 








THeCftBPENTeK 



A Monthly Journal, Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners 

of America, for all its Members of all its Branches. 

FRANK DUFFY, Editor 

Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, 4, Indiana 



Established In 1881 
. Vol. LXVI — No. 4 



INDIANAPOLIS, APRIL, 1946 



One Dollar Per Year 
Ten Cents a Copy 



— Con tents — 



Apprenticeship Gets the Green Light 5 

General Bradley, Veterans Administration Director, clears up any misconceptions that 
may have existed as to joint apprenticeship committees being proper and fitting instru- 
ments for training new men in the building trades. With his stamp of approval on 
local apprenticeship committees, it becomes crystal clear that if we do not handle the 
apprentice training job ourselves someone else is going to do it and the results may not 
be to our liking. 

You Can't Build with Chaos - 9 

About the only thing there is no shortage of in the building materials field is confusion 
and regulation. Unrealistic government policies, plus innumerable dodges for evading 
ceiling prices, are rapidly heading the whole building industry to the brink of com- 
plete chaos. 



AFL Charges Favoritism - 



14 

Bob Watt charges that the new wage-price policy adopted by Uncle Sam by-passes col- 
lective bargaining, creates favoritism, and places a premium on striking. 



OTHER DEPARTMENTS: 
Plane Gossip 
Editorial 

Official ... 
In Memoriain 
Heroes of our Brotherhood 
Correspondence - - 

To the Ladies 
Craft Problems 



12 
16 
19 
20 
21 
22 
25 
27 



Index to Advertisers 



32 



Although the war is over, the paper situation remains extremely tight. Our quota is so limited 
that we must continue confining The Carpenter to thirty-two pages instead of the usual sixty-four. 
Until such time as the paper situation improves, this will have to be our rule. 



Bntered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., ae second class mail matter, under Act of 

Congress, Aug. 24, 1912. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for 

in Section 1103, act of October 3, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918. 




il 



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THE CELOTEX CORPORATION • CHICAGO 3, ILLINOIS 



APPRENTICESHIP GETS GREEN LIGHT 



WITH THE BULK of the demobilization 'program of both the 
Army and Navy almost completed, the -question of apprenticeship 
training becomes an issue of considerable importance. Recently 
.the General Committee on Apprenticeship for the Construction Industry 
met with General Omar Bradley, director of the Veterans Administration. 
At that meeting the committee recommended to General Bradley that joint 
labor-management committees be recognized as appropriate training in- 
stitutions under the GI Bill of Rights. In a letter dated February 2 to M. 
-H. Hedges, committee president, General Bradley gave an affirmative reply 
to the Committee's recommendation. This decision is of extreme impor- 



tance to the entire construction in- 
dustry apprenticeship program. Lit- 
erally it gives labor and manage- 
ment, the green light to handle the 
training of apprentices through 
joint apprenticeship committees. 

Following the receipt of General 
Bradley's letter the General Com- 
mittee on Apprenticeship for the 
Construction Industry met again 
and issued the following statement: 

"In view of the importance to 
construction apprenticeship of Gen- 
eral Bradley's letter the committee 
recommended that it be printed in 
trade and labor journals with in- 
structions to local joint committees 
to contact immediately the proper 
state certifying agency and gain ap- 
proval as a training institution. 
Further, that where no joint com- 
mittees exist, prompt action be tak- 
en to establish such committees and 
secure approval from the state 
agency. 

"Wherever a joint apprenticeship 
committee exists, the committee 
should be advised, when making ap- 
plication to the state agency for 
recognition, that recognition be re- 
quested for the full territory as cov- 
ered by the joint committee; that no 



one can become an apprentice in 
that industry in that territory un- 
less he goes through the joint com- 
mittee and standards are adhered to. 
"As a further safeguard to the 
veteran, the committee urged that 
all apprentices indentured in the 
building trades be indentured to 
the joint committee. Local groups 
should be impressed with the fact 
that now that the Veterans Admin- 
istration has/given them full recog- 
nition, they should step in and do 
the job or someone else will do it, 
and not to their liking." 

In line with the recommendations . 
of the committee, we are herewith 
reprinting in full General Bradley's 
letter : 

Mr. Marion H. Hedges, Director of 
Research, International Brother- 
hood of Electrical Workers, 
1200 15th Street, N. W., 
Washington, D. C. 
My Dear Mr. Hedges: 

The proposal of the General Com- 
mittee on Apprenticeship for the 
Construction Industry which you 
recently submitted has been exam- 
ined and consideration has been 
given to your recommendations 



THE CARPENTER 



which are given on Page 18 of the 
material which you furnished. You 
have recommended that joint labor- 
management committees be recog- 
nized as training institutions quali- 
fied and equipped to provide train- 
ing for veterans under the terms 
of either Public 16 or Public 346, 
78th Congress, and that the plan 
proposed for the State of Oklahoma 
be approved as a pattern for all 
states of the Union. 

It is understood that joint labor- 
management committees have been 
set up in some crafts and localities 
and have been charged with the 
responsibility for controlling the 
training of persons in standard ap- 
prenticeship courses. This assigned 
responsibility includes the accep- 
tance of an applicant for appren- 
ticeship training, the determination 
of the establishment or establish- 
ments in which the training is to 
be provided, the arranging for the 
placement of the applicant in the 
chosen establishment, the deter- 
mination that the establishment 
provides the prescribed course in 
accordance with the accepted stand- 
ards and that the applicant contin- 
ues to diligently apply himself to 
the course and to efficiently accom- 
plish its purposes. It is further 
understood that when such an ar- 
rangement exists, it is with the full 
agreement of management and labor 
and that the arrangement has be- 
come the accepted means through 
which all applicants are started on 
and carried through a standardized 
course of apprenticeship training. 

Admittedly, such joint commit- 
tees are not actually giving educa- 
tion in the strict sense of the term 
since the education is being provid- 
ed by business establishments. How- 
ever, it may be presumed for the 
time being that the appropriate 
agencies of the respective states 



will have determined in advance 
that each joint committee which it 
approves is actually performing the 
functions for which it was estab- 
lished in an efficient manner and is 
arranging for training in establish- 
ments which are adequately equip- 
ped and staffed to provide a com- 
plete and well-rounded course of 
instruction. On this assumption, I 
have determined that joint appren- 
ticeship committees may be recog- 
nized as qualified and equipped to 
provide suitable training to vet- 
erans under Public 346, 78th Con- 
gress, in those states in which such 
recognition has been granted. Con- 
sequently, an instruction will be 
issued to all field offices of the 
Veterans Administration which will 
authorize them to accept the enroll- 
ment of eligible veterans with joint 
apprenticeship committees which 
have been approved by the appro- 
priate state agency. This will 
amount to a full acceptance of your 
recommendation No. 1 which ap- 
pears on Page 18 of the material 
which you submitted under the title, 
"Proposal of the General Commit- 
tee on Apprenticeship for the Con- 
struction Industry." 

Your second recommendation was 
that "the so-called Oklahoma plan" 
be approved as a pattern for all 
states of the union." This plan is 
described on Page 14 of the mate- 
rial submitted. It is stated in part: 
"Individual establishments 
participating in the area-wide 
program become approved 
training establishments under 
Public 346 by merely subscrib- 
ing to the area-wide apprentice- 
ship standards. They have no 
dealings with the Veterans' 
Administration whatsoever." 
The last sentence of the quoted 
statement will need to be modified 
to the extent that it will permit the 



THE CARPENTER 



Veterans Administration to super- 
vise the individual veteran and ob- 
tain from the establishment current 
information concerning the veter- 
an's conduct and progress. The Vet- 
erans Administration is charged by 
law with the responsibility for de- 
termining that the veteran's con- 
duct and progress while in training 
remain satisfactory, in accordance 
with the standards and practices of 
the institution, and the individual 
veteran's right to continue to re- 
ceive the benefits of Public 346 is 
dependent upon his conduct and 
progress continuing to be satisfac- 
tory. It will therefore be necessary 
for representatives of the Veterans 
Administration to contact enrolled 
veterans at their places of training 
in order to determine that they are 
actually receiving a course of train- 
ing rather than being subsidized in 
employment and that they are con- 
ducting themselves and progressing 
in a manner which will permit them 
to continue to receive the subsist- 
ence allowance provided by the law. 
Furthermore, there will need to be 
contact with the training establish- 
ment, either directly or indirectly, 
so that the Veterans Administration 
may be accurately informed as to 
the - amount of compensation for 
productive labor which the veteran 
has received each month from his 
employer-trainer. This is necessary 
because the law provides that ad- 
justments shall be made in the 
amount of subsistence allowance as 
the Administrator may determine 
when he finds that an enrollee is re- 
ceiving compensation for produc- 
tive labor performed as a part of his 
apprenticeship or other training-on- 
the-job. Inasmuch as the enrollee 
will receive such compensation for 
productive labor from the training 
establishment rather than from the 
joint apprenticeship committee, it 



follows that authentic reports as to 
the amount paid must come from 
the training establishment. It will 
thus be seen that the Veterans Ad- 
ministration must have certain deal- 
ings with the training institution. 
However, there will be no objection 
to permitting training establish- 
ments to forward their reports 
through the authorized joint com- 
mittee if that procedure appears to 
be most satisfactory in any given 
situation. 

So far as training under Public 
16, 78th Congress, is concerned, it 
should be noted that the law spe- 
cifically fixes greater responsibility 
with the Veterans Administration 
than is the case with respect to en- 
rollees under Public 346, 78th Con- 
gress. This law states that: "The 
Administrator shall have the power 
and duty to prescribe and provide 
suitable training" for the purpose 
of overcoming the handicap of ser- 
vice-incurred disability and to fit 
the eligible veteran for employment 
consistent with the degree of dis- 
ablement. It will be proper in ap- 
propriate cases to prescribe a stand- 
ard apprenticeship course as the 
most suitable type of training but 
under the law approval of the estab- 
lishment in which the training is to 
be provided is a responsibility of 
the Veterans Administration rather 
than any other agency. Further- 
more, the Veterans Administration 
has a definite responsibility for 
supervising the training which is 
being provided, in order to be cer- 
tain that it will overcome the handi- 
cap of the service-incurred disabil- 
ity and is being provided under con- 
ditions which will not be detri- 
mental to the disabled veteran's 
physical or mental health. How- 
ever, the Veterans Administration 
can recognize joint apprenticeship 
committees for the training of vet- 



8 THE CARPENTER 

erans under Public 16 when it finds mittee is performing the functions 
that the establishments which any delegated to it in a satisfactory- 
such committee utilizes for training l manner, 
are actually qualified to provide a Sincerely yours 
satisfactory course of training on ^,r»-r^ „ ,-^ « -r^-r ^,. 
the basis of adequate spaee, equip- OMAR N - BRADLEY, 
ment and instructor-personnel and General, U. S. Army, 
that the joint apprenticeship com- Administrator. 



White House Ceremony Honors Bro. Johnson 

At a White House ceremony attended by many high government and 
military officials, Brother Fred E. Johnson, business representative of 
the New York District Council, was awarded the Selective Service Medal 
by President Truman. Having served as a member of a Selective Service 
Board for more than five years, Brother Johnson was selected to attend 
the ceremony and receive the medal in behalf of the thousands of New 
York City board members who served for five years or longer. 

Almost from the day the Selective Service Act went into effect Brother 
Johnson served as a member of Local Board No. 106, one of the busiest 
and most efficient in the city. Despite the press of his duties as business 
representative and president of Local Unitm No. 488, he fulfilled his draft 
Board duties with efficiency and dispatch. 

One other member of Local No. 488 served as a member of a local draft 
board. Brother Harry P. Eilert served in such a capacity for three and 
a half years before ill health made it mandatory for him to resign. 

Brothers Johnson and Eilert typify the meritorious service that mem- 
bers of organized labor gave to the war effort without fanfare or publicity. 
Thousands of union members served in the armed forces. Millions worked 
long and gruelling hours in shipyards and war plants. And untold num- 
bers like Brothers Johnson and Eilert served quietly and efficiently in 
vitally necessary and sometimes unpleasant tasks. The honor paid Brother 
Johnson is a tribute to all union members who did their full share in the 
fight against tyranny. 



Apprentices Are 90 % Vets 

Returning war veterans are getting a real break under union-manage- 
ment apprentice training programs. 

In the construction industry for example, 90 per cent of the men now 
learning skilled trades are former service men, the Apprentice Training 
Service of the Department of Labor revealed. 

Furthermore, this industry accounts for 40 per cent of all "vets" who 
are registered as employed apprentices in skilled occupations in all in- 
dustries, the service reported. 

It pointed out, too, that under joint union-management arrangements in 
the building trades, many of the "vets" have received credit for experience 
gained in the army at the trade of their choice. 




WHILE the government is optimistically talking about 2,700,000 
new homes by the end of 1947, unrealistic government policies, 
coupled with extensive black market operations in building ma- 
terials, are creating a condition just one jump ahead of complete chaos, 
a recent survey by the Wall Street Journal shows. As the Journal" puts it, 
"Uncertainties outnumber new roofs in home building today." OPA prices 
are mere figments of the imagination as building material producers resort 
to one kind of subterfuge after another to get more money for their pro- 
ducts, the New York paper found as the result of its survey in nine widely 
scattered communities. 

For example, the Journal found 
that a druggist in Logansport, In- 
diana, let a contract for a house 
back in October of last year. It was 
started on a cost-plus basis with the 
contractor estimating the finished 
price at somewhere around $9,000. 
By last month the house was only 
seventy-five per cent finished and 
already costs had passed the $15,000 
mark. Furthermore, the druggist 
was living very inconveniently and 
expensively in a hotel since he sold 
his old house in the expectation 
that his new home' would be com- 
pleted in a matter of weeks. In 
Hagerstown, Maryland, the survey 
found that building costs were al- 
most double what they were before 
the war. One contractor there flatly 
stated that he would not attempt to 
duplicate any house built in 1939 for 
twice the cost. In Lorain, Ohio; 
San Mateo, California; Ridgewood, 
New Jersey, and several other sec- 
tions of the country the survey 
found conditions as bad or worse. 

Primarily the trouble stems from 
chaotic conditions in the building 
materials field. Some of it is the 
result of unrealistic pricing policies 
followed by the government and 
some of it is brought on by the de- 
sire of manufacturers for more and 
bigger profits. At any rate, builders 



are in the middle of a terrific 
squeeze. Getting the materials is 
their biggest headache. A Logans- 
port contractor laments that his 
phone bill looks like the national 
debt each month as he scours the 
country for materials. The Wall 
Street Journal, further describes ex- 
isting conditions as follows : 

"R. S. McCord of the Logansport 
Lumber Co. says that by taking a 
trip to southern pine mills he ob- 
tained three carloads of lumber — 
two of them not worth a darn. He 
says some of the mills there seem 
to be selling lumber at retail prices 
at the millsite. 

"Much the same practice, in hard- 
wood flooring, is reported by a 
builder in Ridgewood. He declares 
that some wholesalers in the South 
don't ship to retailers but have set 
up their own retail outlets. North- 
ern dealers have to take trucks to 
the South and pay retail prices, or 
more. Sometimes the price runs as 
high as 25 cents a square foot for 
flooring that has a 17-J-cent ceiling. 

"Subterfuges of various kinds 
outnumber outright price hikes, but 
instances of the latter can be found. 

"In getting plumbing supplies on 
the black market, the procedure is 
to drive up to the dealer's place 



10 



THE CARPENTER 



with your truck and pay cash, a 
Logansport builder says. Ordinary 
board lumber is selling at $110 to 
$125 a thousand board feet with no 
questions, another Logansport con- 
tractor says. Ceilings on this type 
of lumber are $70 to $80, up 75% 
from before the war, he declares. 

"The legitimate black market, as 
one Burlington, Calif., builder calls 
it, has contributed both to sharply 
higher costs and shortages in that 
area. By this he refers to concen- 
tration by manufacturers on items 
on which O.P.A. price ceilings per- 
mit higher profits. 

"Hardwood flooring of the cheap- 
er strip type is almost unobtain- 
able with makers concentrating on 
tongue and groove, Burlingame 
builders say. To get the strip, they 
say they have to pay subcontractors 
who have it at premium prices for 
installation. The same installation 
upcharge on soil pipe was reported. 

' 'The Government, to save maybe 
five to 10 cents a foot on this pipe 
for the ordinary residence, created 
the shortage. Now the subcontrac- 
tors who have the pipe on hand jack 
the price up maybe as much as $150 
a dwelling,' one builder charged. 

"Lumber mills often force build- 
ers to take mill run if they desire 
any lumber at all, another Burlin- 
game builder said. This means they 
must take a certain proportion of 
high priced, little used material to 
get the standard grades they need. 

"These methods have hiked his 
material costs as much as 35% to 
40% a dwelling, a contractor said. 

"While lumber yards in Santa 
Monica, Calif., haven't had any 
shingles to sell for more than a 
year, one dealer said they too could 
be bought installed, just about dou- 
ble what they would cost if O.P.A. 
weren't being: evaded. 



"Short of nails in the Pacific 
Northwest, a builder found two 
kegs in a neighboring town. When 
his invoice arrived, the nails were 
billed as sold in 50-pound sacks and 
cost $16 compared with an O.P.A. 
ceiling of $12.70 for two kegs. 

"Soil pipe, hardwood flooring, 
plumbing, shingles, siding and win- 
dow frames are items on which 
shortages seem most widespread. 
Builders on the Pacific Coast are 
also in need of wallboard and lath. 
In Ridgewood, it's millwork that's 
scarce. 

"Sand and slag, both local prod- 
ucts, are the the only materials free- 
ly available to him, a Lorain con- 
tractor says. A Logansport builder 
says cement and brick mortar are 
the only two not hard to get there. 
Brick is easing, he says, but the 
only color obtainable is bright red. 

"In their need for lumber, the 
builders have to take lower quality 
than what they'd like. Lynn Burge 
of Lorain says he is paying $100 a 
thousand for No. 4 quality lumber 
that he wouldn't consider using nor- 
mally. Fir for frames was wanted 
by a Ridgewood builder. He had to 
take some pine which he said was 
full of knots and was sappy. 

"Lumber grades are meaningless 
now, a Logansport builder says. 
You don't buy lumber over the 
phone as you used to ; you have to 
go out and look at it." 

A widely known radio commenta- 
tor also touched on the chaotic con- 
dition existing in the building ma- 
terial field. He gave specific exam- 
ples of contractors being "legally" 
hijacked by building materials pro- 
ducers. He told of one instance in 
which a builder had to pay almost 
twice the ceiling price for some 
lumber he needed. According to his 
story, lumber that exceeds its par- 
ticular specific dimension by even a 



THE CARPENTER H 

fraction of an inch rates the price it worked down to four inches so he 

for the next higher dimension. For could use it. 

example, a two by four which the ,, r , ,, ,11,1 , 

•11 «+ * u £ a 2. Whether or not all the above ex- 

mill cuts two by four and a quarter- . „ , , 

instead of four rates the two by six am P leS a L e IOO % tru f 1S anybody's 
price. Anyway, he told about the £ uess - Howev er, there is little 
contractor who paid two by six doubt but that a nearl y chaotic con- 
prices for two by four's which were dition exists in the building mate- 
a quarter of an inch wider than rials field. Unless order is brought 
standard. The contractor was not out of the mess shortly, building 
only stuck on the price but he also may face a crisis and the homes that 
faced the additional cost of having were promised GI's may go by the 
to take the stuff to a mill to have boards. 



VA Hospital Program To Mean Many Jobs 

The Veterans Administration's $448,000,000 hopsital construction pro- 
gram will require 70,000 man-years of on-the-job labor by building trades- 
men, L,. H. Tripp, director of VA's Construction Service, estimated. 

The program will provide employment for thousands of workmen and 
medical care for thousands of disabled veterans. 

Announced February 16 by Gen. Omar N. Bradley, administrator of 
veteran affairs, it is the largest hospital construction program in the his- 
tory of the world. VA hospital construction during the past 27 years 
totaled only $270,000,000 compared with the $448,000,000 which will be 
spent in the next fe'w years. 

• 

Corpus Christi Unionists Thank Legless Vet 

As a gesture of thanks to a veteran who left both of his legs in Ger- 
many, the citizens of Corpus Christi, Texas, last month presented him with 
a six room house. While a high school played the Star Spangled Banner, 
200 building tradesmen representing the Brotherhood and other trade 
unions on Saturday, March 9 started working at 8 a.m. on the house. 
By nightfall they had it virtually completed. 

Hundreds of spectators were on hand to watch the union men start 
their task. Some of them stayed throughout the day and others appeared 
from time to time to check up on the progress being made. All day long 
union carpenters, plumbers and electricians worked at top speed and by 
nightfall Pfc T. M. Jarvis, Jr. had a fine bungalow practically completed. 
A veteran of World War II, Jarvis was so badly wounded both his legs 
were eventually amputated. 

The campaign for providing a house for hero Jarvis was started by 
the Corpus Christi American Legion. Money for the project was donated 
by the citizens of the community and the union men provided the neces- 
sary labor. 

In view of the endless amount of adverse publicity that has been and 
is being heaped on organized labor, the gesture of the Corpus Christi or- 
ganized building tradesmen is a ringing challenge to those who for one 
reason or another seek to smear unionism. 



SIP 



MAYBE IT'S ONLY CAUTION 

As this is being written the UNO is 
preparing for its most crucial meeting. 
This organization, on which the future 
of world peace rests, is finding the sled- 
ding a little bit rugged. The presence 
of English and Russian troops in vari- 
ous parts of the world is causing some 
heated debate. 

As far as we can figure, Russian sus- 
picion is the chief stumbling block at 
the present time to the attainment of 
complete harmony. The Russian dele- 
gates to the UNO seem to be keeping 
their fingers crossed. However, it may 
be that they are merely cautious — 
something like a certain mule. 

The farmer was having his patience 
tried by the mule. Time after time the 
animal would start pulling the plow 
only to stop after a few steps. A 
stranger watched the performance for 
awhile. Finally he spoke to the farmer. 

"Appears to me," he said, "as if the 
mule is balky." 

"Oh, no," replied the farmer shaking 
his head. "It's just that he's so afraid 
he won't hear me say 'Whoa' that he 
stops every now and then to listen." 





1 AJ 




o^WB 




re 


k ft«k. iji?j?7r**— »- ,„, 


\ 



Send a squad car quick! J just locat- 
ed "Light-Fingered Louie"! 



MISSING THE BOAT 

The station agent from a small west- 
ern town was making his first trip 
to New York City. He was interested 
in seeing the seals in Central Park and 
the skyline, but the great moment of 
the visit was to be his appointment with 
the lawyer for his railroad whose offices 
were in the Empire State Building. 

The lawyer was a big man and a busy 
one and he could not help being a 
little surprised when the agent did not 
arrive for the interview. It was not 
until nearly two hours later that a faint 
knock was heard on the door, and the 
little agent limped in. 

"What a climb," he gasped as he col- 
lapsed into a chair. "Eighty flights of 
stairs." 

"Good heavens, man," exclaimed the 
lawyer, "why didn't you take the ele- 
vator?" 

"Well, I planned to," said the agent, 
"but it pulled out just as I got there." 

"To our way of thinking some of the 
Tory Congressmen are about like the 
station agent. Instead of waiting for 
collective bargaining to iron out the ex- 
isting industrial turmoil (which result- 
ed from the wartime laws and restric- 
tions anyhow) they are bound and de- 
termined to pass more laws — anti-labor 
laws. 

• • • 

SOMETHING'S NOT WORKING 

While veterans and workers are get- 
ting bunions trying to find shirts and 
suits, manufacturers warehouses are 
bulging with these items, two news- 
papers recently disclosed. The big boys 
are holding out for an increase in 
prices. 

And it sort of reminds us of the man 
from the gas company who knocked on 
the door. When the housewife answered 
he said: 

"I understand there is something in 
the house that won't work." 

"Yes," replied the lady, "he's upstairs 
lying down." 



THE CARPENTER 



13 



SLIGHTLY IGNORANT OF FACTS 

It's not very often that the workers 
of America can get a laugh out of what 
goes on in Congress. Last month, how- 
ever, one of those rare occasions oc- 
curred. "Rantin' John" Rankin was 
blasting the unions for asking for more 
wages. He pointed out that union mem- 
bers were getting from a dollar to two 
dollars per hour for their work while 
cotton farmers in his own state were 
getting only a few cents an hour in re- 
turn for their time. 

Up spoke Rep. Savage of Washington. 
What Rankin was proving, he told the 
House, was that the farmers needed 
organization to protect themselves from 
the brokers and middlemen who gob- 
bled up cotton profits. 

To our way of thinking, Savage could 
have emphasized his remarks by point- 
ing out that Rankin knew as much 
about labor as the millionaire Jack 
Benny tells about violins. 

It seems this newly-rich millionaire 
walked into a music store and asked 
to see the most expensive violin in 
the place. The clerk brought out a beau- 
tiful Stradivarius. 

"This is a genuine 1748 Strad," he 
said, "priced at $50,000." 

"'You mean it was made in 1748?" 
asked the. customer. 

"That's right," replied the clerk. 

"Tell me," continued old moneybags, 
"is the company that made it still in 
business?" 

"Of course not," answered the clerk. 

"I'm sorry, it's no sale," said the 
man. "What would I do for spare 
parts?" 

• • • 

SLIGHTLY PHONY 

We see by their propaganda that the 
Communists are desperately trying to 
inject themselves into the strike picture 
and build themselves up as the cham- 
pions of the working class. 

About the only comment we can make 
is to tell the story of the Hollywood 
press agent who had a falling out with 
one of the stars he was supposed to 
publicize. 

"Everything about you is phony," 
was his parting shot to the glamour girl. 
"Even your hair, which looks false, is 
actually your own." 



REALLY NOT A JOKE 

From the "Letters to the Editor" 
column of a Chicago paper comes the 
following little gem that pithily de- 
scribes what some of our returning vets 
run up against when they get home 
from the wars. 

"I am a discharged soldier. The 
army says I can't wear my uniform 
after I arrive home because I would 
be impersonating a soldier. 

"The stores say I can't buy a suit 
because they haven't any in my size. 

"The police say I can't go out on the 
streets naked because it's against the 
law. 

"I would gladly stay off the streets, 
but I can't find a house to live in, and 
with a shortage of lumber, I can't buy 
a barrel. 

"Having been wounded, the army 
won't take me back because I am not 
physically fit. 

"I shall be 21 in 1948. Can you tell 
me who will be running on the Republi- 
can ticket?" 

Joe L. 
• • • 

A GOOD MOTTO TO REMEMBER 

The next time you feel like criticising 
somebody for not doing things the way 
you think they ought to be done, it 
might not be a bad idea to remember 
the sign a certain Chicago business 
agent has hanging on his office wall. 
It says: 

"A hammer is the only knocker that 
does the world any good." 




I was a fool to tell Henry he talks in 
Ms sleep. 



14 



New government stabilization policy 
puts premium on strikes, Watt warns 



ylFL Charges Favoritism 



THE American Federation of Labor publicly charged last month 
that the government's new stabilization policy fails to assure 
"equality of treatment for all workers" and constitutes an in- 
vitation to strike. 

Sharply dissenting from new regulations announced by the National 
Wage Stabilization Board, Robert J. Watt, AFL member, bluntly declared 
that the board's "conception of the government's so-called wage policy" 
closes the door on millions of workers who prefer orderly procedure of 
collective bargaining to going on 



strike. 

"It is an invitation to these work- 
ers to resort to other means to gain 
their just and equal rights," Mr. 
Watt warned. 

"The statement of policy adopted 
by the board's majority is full of 
uncertainties and can only contrib- 
ute more confusion to an already 
serious situation with the inevitable 
result of further industrial unrest." 

Mr. Watt asserted that the Execu- 
tive Order issued by President Tru- 
man after settlement of the steel 
strike established as a general wage 
standard an increase of 18^ cents an 
hour above the wage rate in effect 
Aug. 18, 1945. 

He charged that Stabilization Di- 
rector Bowles on Feb. 21 issued a 
general order giving government 
approval to such increases in basic 
steel, iron mining, steel processing 
and steel fabricating where such in- 
creases were put into effect in set- 
tlement of strikes existng on Feb. 
14. But the same benefits were de- 
nied to workers in similar plants 
not on strike at that date. 

Thus, Mr. Watt pointed out, a 
privileged class was created for 
strikers and other workers frozen 
out. 



The new regulations issued by the 
National Wage Stabilization Board 
bore out Mr. Watt's charges. The 
board announced it would not be 
guided by any single wage pattern 
for the nation but would establish 
or recognize industry-wide or area- 
wide wage patterns. When these 
patterns become "sufficiently well- 
defined," wage increases coming 
within their scope can be put into 
effect without prior board approval. 

The question of what constitutes 
a "general pattern," said the board, 
will depend upon the circumstances 
and the historical relationships and 
practices presented in a given case. 

Settlements which have been 
made only as interim settlements, 
"with further adjustments clearly 
being contemplated by the parties, 
cannot, of course, be considered as 
setting patterns," the board stated. 

The board pointed out that where 
no pattern has been established 
wage and salary increases are ap- 
provable for price-relief purposes 
"only to the extent they are found 
necessary to remove gross inequali- 
ties as between related industries, 
plants or classifications, to correct 
substandard wage conditions or to 
eliminate disparities between wage 



THE CARPENTER 15 

or salary increases and the increase identity." A second type "would be 

in the cost of living." reflected in a similarity of wage- 

The inequity standard, said the rate structures on a parallelism of 

board, permits and requires a con- J ob classifications even as between 

sideration of cross-industry inequi- two industries which "might seek 

ties. This comparison will be made their products in entirely different 

both in terms of wage "rate" levels markets, 

and wage increases. In considering a claim of "gross 

At least two types of inter-in- inequities" as between rates be- 

dustry relationships are recognized, tween related industries the board 

The first includes "those relation- said, "it would be relevant that the 

ships sometimes, although not al- effects of reconversion develop- 

ways, reflected in such factors as ments upon wage or salary condi- 

the similarity or interdependence of tions have been the same or differ- 

products, or management or union ent in the two industries." 



Crazy-quilt Controls Must Go — Green 

In a hard-hitting address which made federal officials in Washington 
sit up and take notice, AFL President William Green blasted the govern- 
ment's unfair wage-price stabilization policy, condemned the administra- 
tion's intervention in labor disputes and offered an entirely new program 
to take the nation off its prolonged "emergency" status within one year. 

Speaking to a large audience gathered in a local armory for the Car- 
bondale, Pa., Central Labor Union's annual dinner, Mr. Green declared: 

"I propose, first, that the present crazy-quilt stabilization program be 
scrapped and that the President invite representatives of labor, industry 
and agriculture to confer with him on the drafting of an entirely new one 
which will be fair and just to the entire nation. 

"Secondly, 1 recommend that this new policy be adopted for the dura- 
tion of not more than one year, with the unequivocal commitment that at 
the expiration of that time all government controls on wages and prices be 
dropped. 

"Finally, I urge with all the emphasis at my command that the govern- 
ment eliminate itself from the sphere of labor-management relations ex- 
cept for offering a strengthened Conciliation Service to both parties and 
allow labor and industry to work out their problems through the proper 
methods of collective bargaining and voluntary arbitration. 

"In my opinion, even our great country cannot indefinitely sustain 
the strain of living from one emergency to the next without relief. We 
must set ourselves a reasonable deadline to get back to a normal basis and 
meet that deadline. The American Federation of Labor will do its utmost 
to help achieve that goal in the interests of preserving the American way 
of life for the American people." 



Editorial 




There's More Work to be done 

Some weeks ago a disastrous explosion in a coal mine at Pineville, 
Kentucky, snuffed out the lives of twenty-four miners. Twenty-four fam- 
ilies were bereaved and several times that many children were left with- 
out a father and a breadwinner. To add to the tragedy, the bereaved 
families stand to collect little or nothing because Kentucky is one of the 
states in which it is not compulsory for employers to carry workmen's 
compensation. The mine owners probably had their mules and equipment 
covered by insurance but they didn't carry a dime's worth of insurance on 
the lives of their miners. 

Certainly this unhappy mishap calls attention to the need for a com- 
pulsory workmen's compensation act in every state in the union. At the 
present time there. are twenty-nine states that do not have such a law. 
Organized labor should immediately start drawing up a campaign to see 
that workmen's compensation is made compulsory in each of these states 
at the very earliest possible moment. 

Accidents in industry are increasing. More and more machines are 
being invented to replace hand work; and machines mean whirling wheels 
and grinding gears. Consequently they mean more accidents, too. Men 
are being killed and maimed and crippled at an inexcusable rate already. 
As more machines come into the picture the accident rate will go up. 
These victims of industrial progress cannot be left to the mercies of 
charity. Adequate provisions must be made for them and their families, 
and it must be done on a compulsory basis. Greed is, sad to say, a pretty 
general human frailty. Unless employers are compelled by law to carry 
insurance on the lives and limbs of their employes many of them are not 
going to do so in spite of anything anyone says or does. There are going 
to be repetitions of the Kentucky tragedy and widows and orphans are 
going to be left without any means of support so long as workmen's com- 
pensation remains elective rather than compulsory in a single state. 

While the most important feature of workmen's compensation is to 
insure means of support for injured workers and their families, there is 
another aspect to it. When someone carries insurance on the lives and 
limbs of workers, that someone makes it a point to see that industrial 
hazards are kept to a minimum. This is true where private companies 
carry the insurance. The fewer accidents that occur, the more money they 
make. Consequently they make it a point to enforce safety standards. 
Where an employer does not cooperate, they raise the rates on him and 
that soon brings him to time — employers as a rule being very vulnerable 
in the region of the pocketbook. However, this same thing holds pretty 
much true even where the states carries the insurance. It pays an em- 
ployer to keep his working places safe. So compulsory insurance would 



THE CARPENTER 17 

not only guarantee to victims of industrial accidents means of support 

but it would also eliminate accidents. 

It was the untiring efforts of organized labor that brought about 

workmen's compensation in the first place. Now the time has come for 

the exertion of similar efforts to wipe out shortcomings of workmen's 

compensation in the various states where it is not compulsory. The 

Kentucky mine accident has vividly called to our attention the tragedy 

that can hit a community when the state in which it is located has no 

compulsory workmen's compensation program. It ought to inspire us to 

carry on an unending fight for adequate compulsory compensation laws 

in every one of the forty-eight states and the territories as well. 

» 

About Time Somebody Told Us 

Last month the headlines thoroughly worked over the case of a Cali- 
fornia oil man. It seems this gentleman was appointed to a post in the 
Navy Department. When his name came up for confirmation by the Senate 
committee, a stink that could be -detected clear out to the Rocky Moun- 
tains developed. A cabinet member charged that the oil man tried a few 
3'ears previously to buy off government action in some sort of a deal in- 
volving oil lands on the Pacific Coast. There followed the usual barrage 
of charges and counter-charges. 

What the merits of any of these charges or counter-charges are we are 
in no position toknow. However, we do think the matter focuses attention 
on a problem that could be pondered on a bit to good advantage. 

Why are appointments to the State Department, the diplomatic corps 
and even to military government confined so largely to big shot industrial- 
ists? It seems that almost every time a man is appointed to handle our re- 
lations with a foreign nation some tycoon of industry is given the nod. 
Being in the upper income brackets seems to be one of the qualifications 
needed for such an appointment. Why? 

Certainly it can't be said these tycoons are doing a good job. Never 
in our history were our foreign relations in worse shape. We won the war 
but we are emerging the most hated nation on the globe despite the sacri- 
fices we made to insure victory. We functioned as the arsenal of democ- 
racy. We footed the major portion of the bill. We fed and are still feed- 
ing a big percentage of the world. And most important of all, millions of 
our boys journeyed to all parts of the world to lock horns with the enemy. 
Does our war record merit any hate from anyone but the Germans and 
Japs? Certainly not. Yet we are getting it in big doses. 

The situation in Germany may be the tipoff. A few weeks ago Farben 
stock skyrocketed upward — this despite the fact that our authorities in 
Germany tell us emphatically Farben is nothing more than a name. It 
takes no deep thinker to realize that something rings phony. Who drove 
the price of Farben stock upward? Was it the carpenters or coal miners 
or plumbers of Germany who bought the stock? Decidedly not. The work- 
ers can't even buy bread. It was the big shots who bought the stock. And 
if they bought it they bought it because they know something from the 
inside. Somewhere something isn't going according to Hoyle. We are 
supposed to be eliminating German industry and wiping out its war mak- 
ing potential. 



IS THE CARPENTER 

The fact that we have so many American industrialists directing - our 
policy in Germany may or may not have something to do with the situation. 
Anyway, we can't be blamed for wondering — especially in view of the 
fact that industrial dollars from America played quite a pre-war role in 
keeping German industry functioning in high gear what with cartels, 
secret agreements, and the rest of the unsavory tie-ups. 

Why not a few labor leaders for our diplomatic work with other 
nations? Certainly few men have better training for handling knotty 
problems than our labor leaders. Almost from the day they accept their 
first union office they have to negotiate, arbitrate, and diplomatically 
handle a host of problems. Can anyone deny that John L. Lewis, Joe 
Keenan or Bill Hutcheson is a master negotiator? Can anyone ever accuse 
them of working for anything but the best interests of the people they 
represent? The answer is a loud "No" to both questions. 

Then why aren't men of this caliber utilized by Uncle Sam? Why do 
men with fat purses always get the nod? Frankly we don't know. But we 

think its about time somebody told us. 

• 

Nothing Endures Half Slave, Half Free 

Maybe it is only coincidence that this is an election year, but at any 
rate the vicious Case anti-labor bill has been smothered in committee in 
the Senate. Let no one be fooled, however. Anti-labor legislation is not 
a dead issue. The industrialists have too many hirelings in Washington 
and too much money in their coffers to lay down just because they receive 
one setback. Other anti-labor bills are in the process of being conceived 
right now. Business seems to be determined to place legislative shackles 
on organized labor. Yet anyone endowed with a modicum of common 
sense knows that every blow business aims at labor is a blow at free enter- 
prise. 

For a long time business has been talking about the necessity for pre- 
serving "free enterprise." With this proposition no honest American has 
any quarrel. But how long can enterprise remain free if all segments of it 
— workers as well as owners — are not free? Not very long, is the answer. 
Freedom is an emphemeral thing - . Everyone must be free, or nobody is 
free. Abe Lincoln expressed it best when he said, "This nation or any 
nation can not long endure half slave and half free." To business it may 
appear right now that smashing unions through drastic legislation would 
work to its advantage. Perhaps that's true — for awhile. But in the end 
it would find itself shackled as surely and as irrevocably as the unions. 

Today business is chaffing under the ever-increasing amount of federal 
control. Yet if you will look back a few decades you will find that it was 
business itself that promoted greater centralization in Washington. It 
wanted a freer hand to expand across state borders. It got what it 
wanted and now it is unhappy. 

Now it wants labor shackled. Can it not see that schackles for labor 
would eventually mean its own shackling as well? Unfortunately, no. 
Some business leaders are too blinded by the promise of immediate profits 
to look very far into the future. To these we commend the words of Abe 
Lincoln with a little bit of paraphrasing. "Free enterprise cannot long 
endure half slave and half free." 



Official Information 




General Officers of 
THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS 

of AMERICA 

General Office : Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, ln<J. 






General President 

WM. L. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



First General Vice-President 

M. A. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Secretary 

FRANK DUFFY 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind, 



Second General Vice-President 

JOHN R. STEVENSON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Treasurer 

S. P. MEADOWS 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Executive Board 



First District, CHARLES JOHNSON, Jr. 
Ill E. 22nd St., New York 10, N. Y. 



Fifth District, R. E. ROBERTS 
631 W. Page, Dallas, Texas 



Second District, WM. J. KELLY 
Carpenters' Bid., 243 4th Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Sixth District, A. W. MUIR 
103481 Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, Calif. 



Third District. HARRY SCHWARZER 
3684 W. 136th St., Cleveland, O. 



Seventh District, ARTHUR MARTEL 
1182 St. Lawrence, Em. 10, Montreal, Que., Can. 



Fourth District, ROLAND ADAMS 
712 West Palmetto St.. Florence. S. C. 



WM. L. HUTCHESON, Chairman 
FRANK DUFFY, Secretary 



All correspondence for the General Executive Board must be sent to the General Secretary. 

Notice to Recording Secretaries 

The quarterly circular for the months of April; May and June, 
1946, containing the quarterly password, has been forwarded to all Local 
Unions of the United Brotherhood. Recording Secretaries not in receipt 
of this circular should notify Frank Duffy, Carpenters' Building, Indian- 
apolis, Indiana. 



INFORMATION REGARDING SERVICE MEN 

When making inquiries regarding members or prospective members who have 
served in the armed forces, it is imperative to set forth in your letter the date of 
induction and, particularly, date of discharge, or attach copy of discharge papers. 
This will avoid unnecessary correspondence and result in an early reply from the 
General Office. AVe also call your attention to a G. E. B. ruling that states: 

"The question of men in the Service of the United States or 
Canada over the age limit of apprentices, or those who have not 
completed their apprenticeship before entering the Service, was care- 
fully considered, after which it was decided that these men on pres- 
entation of an Honorable Discharge be admitted to the Brotherhood 
as apprentices without the payment of an Initiation Fee subject to 
the acceptance by the Local Union of their applications." 



21 n ffllzm&vinm 

Not lost to those that love them, They still live in our memory, 
Not dead, just gone before; And will forever more. 



The Editor has been requested to publish the name* 
of the following Brothers who have passed away. 



Brother JOHN AUMANN, Local No. 246, New York, N. Y. 
Brother SHEPPARD H. BLIZZARD, Local No. 122, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Brother GEORGE COSTA, Local No. 1149, Oakland, Cal. 
Brother B. B. DO WD A, Local No. 103, Birmingham, Ala. 
Brother FRITZ EVENSON, Local No. 337, Detroit, Mich. 
Brother AMOS GORE, Local No. 2960, Silsbee, Tex. 
Brother GEORGE R. GUMBLE, Local No. 627, Jacksonville, Fla. 
Brother GUSTAF GUSTAVSON, Local No. 1590, Washington, D. C. 
Brother JOHN HAMMERON, Local No. 200, Columbus Ohio. 
Brother CLIFFORD A. JONES, Local No. 200, Columbus, Ohio. 
Brother HENRY W. JONES, Local No. 74, Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Brother WILLIAM KAMINSKI, Local No. 1922, Chicago, 111. 
Brother JESSIE LANDERS, Local No. 90, Evansville, Ind. 
Brother JOHN LESKO, Local No. 246, New York, N. Y. 
Brother JAMES McCOLLUM, Local No. 287, Harrisburg, Pa. 
Brother ANGUS McDONALD, Local No. 517, Portland, Me. 
Brother GEO. NEWMAN, Local No. 73, St. Louis, Mo. 
Brother ERNEST SCHAW, Local No. 1922, Chicago, 111. 
Brother HERMAN E. SCHULTZ, Local No. 1485, Laporte, Ind. 
Brother HAROLD B. SMITH, Local No. 229, Glens Falls, N. Y. 
Brother LESTER STOUDT, Local No. 287, Harrisburg, Pa. 
Brother A. R. TILLER, Local No. 132, Washington, D. C. 
Brother CLAUDE T. VERNER, Local No. 1849, Pasco, Wash. 




H* tvk a tags* ^cttxtn \(x% life in defense ai n cause beemtb 
kg Ijim ixx be just is, in ilje eues rtf O^oit anfr ntan, a tjcro. 




• * • 

2£iUe& ?(n ^rfi0n 

* 



Brother Stephen Korus, Local No. 200, Columbus, Ohio 



Brother Raymond Zielinski, Local No. 1573, West Allis, Wis. 



• • • 



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This Journal Is Not Responsible For Views Expressed By Correspondents. 

San Mateo-Burlingame Local Starts Apprentice School 

The first carpenter apprenticeship training school in the Bay Area under 
the veterans' vocational rehabilitation and educational training program 
recently opened at the San Mateo Junior College. Sponsored jointly by 
the San Mateo-Burlingame Carpenters' Local No. 162 and the Peninsula 
General Contractors' and Builders' Association the school started with 37 
apprentices. 




Thirty-seven apprentice carpenters, all discharged veterans, who recently began 
classroom training under the GI educational program at the San Mateo Junior Col- 
lege sponsored jointly by the San Mateo-Burlingame Carpenters' Local No. 162 
and the Pensinsula General Contractors and Builders Association. Left to right: 
Front row — Robert A. Eisen, Richard J. Ragni, George N. Shoemaker, Serafino 
Ragni, Ernest Gori, C. C. Kerins, Douglas B. Wilson and Mike Toksa. Seated — 
C. D. Price, E. C. Nichols, E. Damia Jr., S. M. Fitzgerald, Otto Boehm, W. R. 
Willis, Lee Barsocchini, R. J. Bernardo and R. W. Jones. Standing — Reginald 
Granucci, Frank Fox, John Cassell, Edwin A. Whitney, Robert Vassar, Roy Nelson, 
Robert Rudsisill, Henry R. Burt, John J. Kerrigan, C. A. Rulfs, Herbert Sanders, 
William N. March, Daniel C. Sanders, Samuel Wolfe, Vernon Kappes, Ramond 
Canadas, Albert Soeth, Arthur J. Belton and Bliss E. Reeve. 

All of the apprentices are discharged veterans now working for local 
contractors at apprenticeship wages with a goal of becoming journeyman 
carpenters at the end of their four-year apprenticeship. 

The local training school is being held under the leadership of U. S. 
Simonds Jr., business agent of Local No. 162, William Kelly of San Fran- 



THE CARPENTER 23 

cisco, apprenticeship coordinator of the Bay District Council of Carpen- 
ters, and Herbert Holsher, Harry Smith and George Chamberlain of the 
Peninsula General Contractors' and Builders' Association. The course is 
approved by the Federal Veterans' Administration, the division of appren- 
ticeship training- of the State Department of Industrial Relations and the 
State Department of Education. 

Initial instructors of the school will be Rene Johnston and Silas Hays, 
both of Burlingame, journeymen craftsmen sanctioned as instructors by 
the San Mateo Junior College. Other instructors will be added as the 
course of training progresses. Class meeting will be held on Tuesday 
and Thursday evenings for two and a half hours each. 

The school program will cover all phases of carpentry, including blue 
print reading, rafter framing, mathematics, use and care of hand tools and 
interior and exterior trimming. 

At a later date Local No. 162 plans to institute a refresher course for 
journeymen members recently discharged from the armed forces. This 
type of instruction is also provided under the GI Bill of Rights and 
Simonds anticipates that a large number of veterans will take advantage 
of this training. 

Local No. 162 has waived initiation fees for all journeymen recently 
discharged from the armed forces who are not union members or who 
allowed their union membership to lapse prior to going into the service. 



Ware, Mass., Marks 43rd Birthday 

"On January 19, the members of Local Union No. 1630, Ware, Mass., 
sponsored a banquet and celebration in honor of the approaching Forty- 
third Anniversary of the founding of the Local Union. The Local will 
reach the Forty-third milestone of the granting of its charter by the Inter- 
national Union on May 19. 

Some ninety members and their families and friends sat down to a 
sumptuous turkey dinner at the celebration. Red, white and blue candles 
burned on all the tables which were arranged in the form of a huge "C" 
for "Carpenters." Many dignitaries both in and out of the labor move- 
ment attended as special guests. Frank Cebula, outstanding selectman of 
Ware who has on many occasions worked closely with Local 1630, was one 
of the honored guests. In his short address following the banquet he 
paid high tribute to the officers and members of the Local Union and 
praised them for their cooperative spirit in all things pertaining to the 
betterment of the community. 

Other guest speakers included Representative William Francis of the 
Massachusetts State Council of Boston, Harry Hogan, Business Agent 
of the Springfield District Council, and several invited contractors. Spe- 
cial tribute was paid to William Hathaway, oldest charter member of the 
Local and president of the union since its inception. A sum of money 
was presented to him during the evening as a token of the Local's esteem 
for his long and faithful service. During the evening the minutes of the 
first meeting, held May 19, 1903 were read. 

In addition to President Hathaway, two other charter members attend- 
ed. They were: Bro. James Bousquet, initiated July 2, 1903, and P. Robi- 



24 THE CARPENTER 

doux, initiated September i, 1904. Brother Exeas Bousquet who has held 
membership in the Brotherhood for almost forty-seven years was pre- 
vented from being present by ill health. 

All who attended proclaimed the celebration a huge success and indi- 
vidually and collectively wished Local Union 1630 many more years of 
continued success. 



Local No. 794 Holds Party 

On January 23, 1946 at the City Hall in Leominster, Mass., Local 794 
played host to their wives, the members of Local 778 of Fitchburg, Mass., 
and their wives at an anniversary party. The affair was a resumption of 
parties that were interrupted during the war years due to rationing and 
the necessity of conserving food. They were resumed with the hope that 
never again would they be interrupted by war conditions. A supper of 
turkey and all the fixin's was served and enjoyed by the three hundred 

attending. 

* 

Guests included International Representative William Francis of Bos- 
ton, Mass.; State Senator George Stanton of Fitchburg, Mass.; President 
of Massachusetts State Council of Carpenters, Harry Hogan of Spring- 
field, Mass.; State Representative Arthur U. Mahan of Leominster, Mass.; 
and Mayor Mathais LaPierre of Leominster. 

All spoke briefly and interestingly after the dinner. Also present as 
guests were the members of the Leominster City Council and several 
Union Contractors from the district acquainting themselves with social 
activities of the Local. 

Six high class acts of vaudeville and dancing were presented following 
the speaking program. They were greatly enjoyed and the local has been 
highly praised for the splendid evening that was provided. 



Father Initiates Son 

At the regular meeting of Carpen- 
ters' Local 1354, Ogdensburg, N. Y., 
held Jan. 8, William J. Kinch, center, 
president of the Local, initiated his 
son Pfc. Joseph A. Kinch, right, vet- 
eran of World War II, into the 
union. Shown at the left is Fred La- 
point, conductor. Mr. Kinch joined the 
Local when he was 28 years old and 
has been a member for 43 consecutive 
years. Pfc. Kinch is 28. This is the 
first time in the history of the Og- 
densburg Local that a father has ini- 
tiated his son at the same age as he himself was when he joined. 









Springfield, Mo., Ladies Have Full Calendar 

The Editor: 

Ladies Auxiliary No. 431 of Springfield, Mo., wishes to extend greet- 
ings to all sister auxiliaries and thanks for the "Ladies Page" of The 
Carpenter. 

We formed our organization in November of 1944 and have been quite 
active ever since. We have very generously contributed to all worthwhile 
causes and done our best to support every activity aimed at promoting the 
war effort or building up our community and country. 

We meet on the first Tuesday night of each month for our business 
meeting. At the conclusion of our meeting we serve refreshments to 
members and their husbands. On third Tuesdays we hold a Pot Luck 
Supper. These affairs have proved to be very successful and a splendid 
way of getting everyone better acquainted with fellow members. 

We are now undertaking the making of lap robes, tray cloths, etc. for 
the Veterans' Hospital of J efferson Barracks, Mo. All members are work- 
ing very hard on this worthy project. 

AVe had a fine Thanksgiving Banquet with the Label League as our 
special guests. Everyone enjoyed the affair immensely. In December we 
sponsored a very successful Christmas party for our families. Santa Claus 
was naturally present with gifts for the children and treats for all. 

Each new baby in our group is presented with a lovely blanket. We 
also remember our sick with flowers and cards. These things are paid for 
out of a special fund maintained through a small collection at each 
meeting. 

At the present writing we are planning a Sweetheart Party for Valen- 
tines. It is to consist ,of a box supper with games and entertainment to 
follow. This is scheduled for February 14. Proceeds collected from the 
sale of boxes will be used to help build up our treasury. 

We give sincere thanks to our carpenters (Local 978) for starting us 
off with our charter and for the use of the lovely banquet room at Car- 
penters' Hall, 738 Boonville Ave. 

Hoping to hear from our sister auxiliaries, we are, 



Fraternally, 



Mrs. Edith Jeffryes, Rec. Sec. 



ARE YOU 





to the 
Union Label? 



Union people who do not boost union 
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Be fair to your label, 
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Craft ProblQms 




Carpentry 

By H. H. Siegele 

LESSON 211 

A carpenter should, take such care 
of his tools, that, as it were, they be- 
come like intimate friends; which is to 
say, that if a tool is properly cared for, 
it will always be on friendly terms with 
the carpenter who uses it. We have 
known carpenters who held sort of 
friendly conversations with some of 
their tools — they talked to them as 
if the tools could understand. The prin- 
cipal factor that was responsible for 
this feeling was that the carpenter 
knew how to sharpen his tools so that 
they would do good work. When he 




Fig. 1 

picked up any one of his planes, it pro- 
duced exactly the results that he want- 
ed. When he was sawing lumber, his 
saw cut smoothly and the ring indicated 
that a carpenter was using it. His hand 
ax had a keen edge and so did his 
chisels. His success was largely due to 
his tools, and they were what they 
were because he made them that way. 
And then we have seen carpenters who 
would cuss their tools, and frequently 
when a tool produced unfavorable re- 
sults the man would throw it away and 
start calling it names — the principal 
that meant so much to the first carpen- 
ter, in this carpenter's case was acting 
in reverse. 

The scrub plane is the plane that 
takes the greater part of the hard 
knocks. It is the forerunner of the jack 
plane, in many cases preparing the way 
for the jack plane to finish up the job. 



Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a scrub 
plane. 

The scrub plane is perhaps used more 
in door fitting than in any other one 
thing. When a door has to be cut 
down, the scrub plane is the one that 
will do it in the shortest length of 
time. Fig. 2 shows a corner of a door, 
and by dotted lines the amount of the 
door that will have to be cut off in order 
to make it fit the opening. This is done 




Fig. 2 

mostly with the scrub plane, which 
leaves the edge of the door somewhat 
in the order shown by Fig. 3. What we 
are showing here has little more order 
than what we would find in practice. 
The little hollows left by the plane, run 
almost parallel to each other in this 
drawing; while in practice they cross 
each other, and the man who operates 
the plane has to make many strokes 
that are not shown in this illustration. 



28 



THE CARPENTER 




Fig. 3 




The- important thing, however, that 
must be watched closely, especially 
when the cutting is coming close to the 
deadline, is not to cut too much with 
the scrub plane. The deadline is shown 
here by dotted lines, while the upper 
dotted lines show how much wood has 
been cut off. 

When the scrub planing is finished, 
the door hanger takes his jack plane or 




Fig. 5 

his fore plane and cuts the wood off to 
the deadline. And if he wants an extra 
good job, he uses the jointer which 
gives the edge of the door a perfectly 
straight smooth finish, as shown by Fig. 
4, where the dotted lines indicate how 
much of the door has been planed off. 
Some carpenters use the jack plane 
exclusively for fitting doors, but then 
the bit must be sharpened on the order 
of sharpening jointer bits. Others use 
the fore plane exclusively for fitting 
doors, but the door hanger who wants 




Fig. 4 



Fig. 6 

an A-number-1 job, usually does the 
finishing work with a jointer. 

Fig. 5 shows one end of a base board 
that has not been backed. To the left 
is shown how the first cut with a scrub 



THE CARPENTER 



29 



plane has been made, and then by dot- 
ted lines on the end of the board, is 
shown how other cuts will have to be 
taken to complete the job of backing, 
which is exaggerated. The part shown 
by dotted lines, to the left of the groove, 
is cut out with a jack plane. When this 
work has been finished, the board will 




Fig. 7 

appear like what is shown by Fig. 6, 
where we again show parallel grooves 
cut by the scrub plane, which in prac- 
tice will not be so orderly. The little 
ridges, if necessary, are usually, cut off 
with the jack plane, as indicated by the 
dotted lines just under the ridges on 
the end of the board. 

Fig. 7 shows the end of a board with 
the scrub-plane work finished and the 



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°X. H. H. SIEGELE 



by a jack plane, which is exaggerated, 
for the curve to which a jack plane bit 
is sharpened is so slight that it can not 
be represented in a drawing without 
exaggeration. What has just been said, 
can be applied to a shaving made by a 
fore plane, when the cutting edge of the 
bit is slightly rounded. To the right we 
show a cross section of a shaving made 
by a jointer, which is also exaggerated. 
The fore plane makes a similar shaving 
when its bit is sharpened like that of a 
jointer. 

When a plane bit chatters it has hit a 
knot or a tough spot in the wood. But 
that isn't the only thing that causes 
chattering. The bit might be ground 
to too sharp an angle. The cap iron 
might not be set right. (The point of 
the cap iron should be about 1/16 of an 
inch from the cutting edge of the bit.) 
The cap screw might need tightening. 



Scruh 



Jack 




Fig. 8 



jack-plane work indicated by dotted 
lines. This board might be a casing, an 
apron or some other kind of finishing 
board that was not backed at the mill. 

Fig. 8 gives a cross section of a board, 
showing heavily shaded cross sections 
of three shavings as they would be cut 
from the surface of a board by the 
different planes represented. The one 
shown to the left, is a cross section of 
a shaving cut by a scrub plane, which 
is hardly exaggerated. At the center we 
have a cross section of a shaving made 



Any one or several of these things 
might cause a plane bit to chatter. 
Every carpenter must learn by experi- 
ence just what to do to hold chattering 
down to a minimum. 

(Copyrighted 1946)— H. H. Siegele 

. * 

Miters 

A miter joint is any joint made on 
an angle, whether it is on a 45-degree 
angle or not; in other words, there are 
as many kinds of miters as there are 
angles. The 45-degree miter is perhaps 



30 



THE CARPENTER 



the most commonly used, and for that 
reason is often thought of as bein fe THE 
miter. Sometimes miter joints cut on 
angles other than 45-degrees are called, 
"member cuts," which implies that the 
cut is made in such a manner that the 
two pieces join each other so as to make 
the various beads and lines of the 
moulding come together right, or as 
one would say, make them member. 

The accompanying illustrations show 
two methods of obtaining miter cuts. 
The first operation is to set one leg of 
the compass at point 1, Fig. A, and from 
this point strike lines 2, 2. Having these 
points, without changing the compass, 
strike 3, 3 from points 2, 2. A line 
drawn through the intersections of 3, 3 
will give the miter that will make the 
mouldings member. 

Another method shown by Fig. A: 
Strike 4, 4 at any convenient distance 
from 2, 2 and draw a line from where 
4, 4 cross through point 1, which gives 
the miter. The same method is shown at 
B, where points b, b are struck from 
point a. Then from points b, b strike 
the part-circles c c. A line from where 




these cross through point a, gives the 
miter. 



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NOTICE 



The publishers of "The Carpenter" reserve the 
rlgnt to reject all advertising matter which may 
be. In their judgment, unfair or objectionable to 
tho membership of the United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America. 
All contracts for advertising space In "The Car- 
penter." Including those stipulated as non-can- 
ccllaole, are only accepted subject to the above 
reserved rights of the publishers. 



Index of Advertisers 



Adding Machine 

Page 

Fredericks Sales Ag., Chicago, 111. 30 

Carpenters' Tools and Accessories 

Foley Mfg. Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 32 

Greenlee Tool Co., Rockford, 111. 3 

Keuffel & Esser Co., Hoboken, 

N. J 31 

Mall Tool Co., Chicago, 111 3rd Cover 

Molly Corp., Detroit, Mich 3 

Ohlen-Bishop Mfg. Co., Colum- 
bus, Ohio 31 

Paine Company, Chicago, 111. 32 

Stanley Tools, New Britain, 

Conn. 3rd Cover 

Carpentry Materials 

The Celotex Corp., Chicago, 111 4 

Doors 

Overhead Door Corp., Hartford 

City, Ind 4th Cover 

Overalls 

The H. D. Lee Co., Kansas City, 

Mo. 31 

Technical Courses and Books 

American Technical Society, 

Chicago, 111. 31 

Theo. Audel, New York, N. Y 3rd Cover 

Gateway Publishing Co., Chi- 
cago, 111. 1 

Nelson Co., Chicago, 111 30 

Mason & Parrish, Engineers, 

Kalamazoo, Mich. 30 

H. H. Siegele, Emporia, Kans. 29 

Tamblyn Syetem, Denver, Colo— 3 

Tobacco Products 

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FOUNDED 1881 

Official Publication of the 
UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS of AMERICA 




\ 



LEST WE FORGET 

MILLIONS DIED THAT RIGHT COULD TRIUMPH OVER MIGHT: 
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Vational Labor Service 



It Takes 
Good Bricks 



^\\T7- B Y 10 CARPENTERS 

AM ° B Ire 9 owners OF 

THERE ARE v v^ 

DISSTON HANDJ^I^ 



J.N a recent survey among thousands of 
carpenters, in all parts of the country, 92 out 
of every 100 reported they own Disston saws.' 
The reasons they give for this outstanding 
preference include all the features that make a 
top quality saw. For instance, to quote a few: 

• "The Disston hand saw stays sharp 
longer and holds a better set." 

• "Disston saws are made of better 
steel." 

• "You cannot beat a Disston saw for 
good clean cutting and long life." 

Disston makes a complete line of saws for the 
carpenter. A widespread favorite of carpenters 
is the Disston D-8 illustrated and briefly 
described here. 




A v /^A^>AA'VVVAA'VvVVv*v'v^VvVVAA'VVVWVSA/\/VV^^ 

DISSTON D-8 

Medium weight, Skew-back pattern. Made in 20-inch 10 points cross-cut; 24-inch 8 and 
10 points cross-cut; 26-inch 7, 8, 10 and 11 points cross-cut; and 5V2 points rip. 



Ask your hardware retailer for 
a FREE copy of the Disston 
Saw, Tool and File Manual, 
or write to us direct. 




HENRY DISSTON & SONS, INC. 

504 Tacony, Philadelphia 35, Pa., U.S.A. 



imrav 



The saw most Carpenters use 



MIMIIIIIlJlllIlllllllllllllllIIIIIIIIIllllUIIIIIIJJJllllllllllllllllllllllJl 



A Monthly Journal, Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners 

of America, for all its Members of all its Branches. 

FRANK DUFFY, Editor 

Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Miehisran Street, Indianapolis, 4, Indiana 



Established in 1881 
Vol. LXVI — No. 5 



INDIANAPOLIS, MAY, 1946 



One Dollar Per Tear 
Ten Cents a Copy 



— Con tents — 



Red Tape Won't Keep Out Rain 



It is a sad fact that the construction industry— which faces the greatest task of all during 
the next few years— is the most regulated industry in our economy. There are endless 
supplies of directives, orders, rules, and regulations but there is a shortage of building 
materials and houses. 



Building Codes Under Attack 



Columnists and commentators with private axes to grind are systematically attacking all 
Building Codes and demanding their repeal, despite the fact Building Codes reflect the 
accumulated wisdom of years of trial and error. 



Labor Rises Again 



- ' - 12 

Free end democratic labor movements— the first casualties of the dictators— are rebuilding 
in Europe and emerging from underground where they fought an unyielding fight against 
all totalitarianism. 

* • * 



OTHER DEPARTMENTS: 

Plane Gossip 

Editorials - 

Official 

In Memoriam 

Correspondence - 

To the Ladies 

Craft Problems 



10 
16 
20 
21 
22 
24 
26 



Index to Advertisers 



29 



Although the war is over, the paper situation remains extremely tight. Our quota is so limited 
that we must continue confining The Carpenter to thirty-two pages instead of the usual sixty-four. 
Until such time as the paper situation improves, this will have to be our rule. 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of 

Congress, Aug. 24, 1912. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for 

in Section 1103, act of October 3, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918. 



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NAME 



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THE RULE THAT LENDS A HAND 




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WOOD 



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RED TAPE WON'T KEEP OUT RAIN 

• • • 

NINE MONTHS after V-J Day the long-heralded housing program 
is no nearer becoming a reality than it was during the war. There 
are coordinators and expediters and directors and experts but 
there are no houses. There are rules and regulations and directives and 
agencies but there are no roofs to cover the heads of the GI's and their 
families. There are government bulletins, government statistics, govern- 
ment directives, government speeches, and government radio programs 
but there are no building materials with which houses can be built. In 
short, there is a super-abundance of everything but houses and the stuff 

with which to build them. 

trial buildings costing more than 
$15,000 are still under government 
control. Theoretically this is sup- 
posed to channel virtually all labor 
and building materials into the 
home building end of the industry. 
Actually it will probably increase 
the traffic in black market building 
materials, throw building tradesmen 
out of work needlessly, and add 
further confusion to an already 
over-confused situation. 

In the meantime, Washington is 
teeming with lobbyists for the real 
estate people whose sole aim is to 
hamstring home construction so that 
already inflated real estate prices 
can be pushed still higher. Some ex- 
perts maintain that the shadow box- 
ing and fan dancing in Congress 
have already cost the nation thirty 
per cent of the potential 1946 build- 
ing capacity. And still lobbyists for 
the real estate people pour into 
Washington from every train and 
every plane. 

The hour is getting late but there 
is still time to salvage the remain- 
der of 1946. First the government 
must do something about cutting 
down the number and rigidity of the 
rules and regulations hamstringing 
the building industry. As a starter 
something should be done to elim- 
inate the confusion and inequities 



And the situation promises to be- 
come worse instead of better. It 
is a sad fact that the building in- 
dustry, which needs the greatest en- 
couragement because it faces the 
greatest peacetime task, is the most 
regulated and restricted industry 
in the nation. On every hand the 
building industry is hemmed in with 
rules, regulations and restrictions. 
Wages in the building industry are 
controlled by the Wage Stabiliza- 
tion Board as tightly as they were 
during the war, while wages in vir- 
tually all other industries are under 
a relatively flexible program. Build- 
ing materials still remain under a 
sort of left-handed priority and al- 
location system. And in the produc- 
tion end of building materials the 
government pricing policy is more 
rigid and confused than in any 
other particular branch of our econ- 
omy. It all adds up to endless con- 
fusion and red tape ; and it also 
adds up to little or no home build- 
ing, too. 

Last month the government cap- 
ped the climax by disguising old 
L-41 and adding it to the indus- 
try's woes. Under the present 
sugar coating of L-41 all but the 
most essential type of industrial 
building is limited to a $15,000 
maximum. In other words, indus- 



c 



THE CARPENTER 



existing- in the OPA price struc- 
ture on building- materials. As ex- 
plained in last month's edition, a 
huge "legitimate" black market has 
sprung up in lumber and other es- 
sential building materials. Sawmills 
are resorting to a thousand and one 
kinds of subterfuges to evade price 
ceilings. Under existing conditions 
it is less profitable for them to turn 
out lumber suitable for home build- 
ing than it is specialty items. 

Instead of adding new price regu- 
lations the government could prof- 
itably revise old ones that work a 
hardship on producers and tend to 
limit production. With fewer regu- 
lations the task of forcing compli-^ 
ance would be simplified, for it is 
a perfectly legitimate question to 
ask, why add new regulations when 
even the existing old ones aren't 
being adequately enforced? On the 
matter of price ceilings the govern- 
ment has in many instances follow- 
ed the old "penny-wise and pound 
foolish" tradition. The answer does 
not lie in taking away materials 
from one type of construction to 
assist another but rather in encour- 
aging and increasing materials pro- 
duction at the source so that all 
types of construction can get the 
items they need. 

And the same thing that holds 
true for building materials prices 
holds true for wages both in the 
building trades and in the build- 
ing materials production field. The 
most efficient wage policy and the 
policy that will be the cheapest in 
the long run will be the one that 
keeps morale at a high pitch, keeps 
men from deserting the industry in 
which they maintain the highest 
skill, and attracts new recruits into 
the industry and keeps them there. 
Restricting one branch of the indus- 
try to force men into another branch 
is not feasible. It will mean lost 



time and lost manpower at a period 
when every hour counts. 

Red tape won't build houses. 
Maximum production in both the 
building materials field and the 
building field itself will do the 
trick. Certainly all the experts in 
Washington must know this. When 
these people stop worrying about 
regulations and start thinking about 
encouraging maximum production, 
houses and commercial buildings 
will be built in adequate quantities 
and not before. 

Out of all the welter of confusion, 
one thing is becoming crystal clear ; 
building trades labor is ready and 
willing to do its share. That it is 
marking time instead of building 
homes is not its fault. The unions 
have gone all the way. They have 
opened wide the door to apprentices. 
They have mostly waived initiation 
fees to veterans to encourage them 
to enter trades. They have offered 
full cooperation on almost every 
score. They have decried the red 
tape and boondoggling. They have 
turned their back on some old- 
established working rules. Yet even 
today there is propaganda being 
disseminated to the effect that home 
building is being held up by the 
construction trades. 

What is past is past. It is now 
time to look to the future. When, 
if and as Uncle Sam looks at his 
hole card and decides to do some- 
thing about the endless restrictions 
that are now throttling the building 
industry real progress will get un- 
der way. There will be fewer ad- 
ministrators in Washington and 
more men in the woods and on the 
scaffold. There will be fewer "ex- 
perts" pushing pencils and more 
men swinging axes and saws. And, 
most important of all, there will be 
more houses for veterans and other 
workers. 



Organized campaign against old-established 
protective codes seems to be springing up 



Building Codes Under Attack 



THE Building Codes of the nation are under attack. In the news- 
papers and over the air there is an ever-increasing barrage of 
propaganda against these instruments of protection which virtu- 
ally all communities — both big and small — have set up to safeguard the 
interests of the people as a whole. Now that building is holding the spot- 
light of attention throughout the nation, the attack on Building Codes is 
reaching its peak. Commentators and columnists — most of them with 
private axes to grind — are setting up a great hue and cry against Building 
Codes. Their story is that Building Codes stand in the way of speedy 
completion of an adequate housing 



program for vets and other citizens 
without decent roofs over their 
heads. They visualize Building 
Codes as nothing more or less than 
obstacles standing in the way of 
progress. They lump them all to- 
gether — the good and the bad — and 
cry aloud for their repeal. 

Mostly the result of their propa- 
ganda is to spread confusion and 
doubt in the minds of many people 
not too familiar with the building 
game. Understanding neither the 
origin nor the purpose of Building 
Codes, many laymen — thanks to the 
propaganda barrage — are gaining 
the impression that the Codes are 
some sort of mumbo-jumbo design- 
ed for the express purpose of plac- 
ing restrictions in the way of 
speedy and efficient building. No- 
thing could be farther from the 
truth. Building Codes in general 
are sound, constructive, flexible and 
efficient instruments for protecting 
the interests of all the people in a 
community. There undoubtedly are 
some exceptions. In some communi- 
ties Building Codes may not have 
been revised and modernized as 
building techniques improved. But 
by and large most cities and towns 
have taken cognizance of changing 



conditions. They have constantly 
broadened and altered and revised 
their Building Codes to meet the 
new situations in such a manner 
that the greatest number could de- 
rive the greatest benefit. 

If the columnists and commenta- 
tors confined themselves to attack- 
ing the Codes that are antiquated 
and obsolete, one could hardly quar- 
rel with them. However, they fail 
to do so. They draw no distinction 
between the sound Codes and the 
few that failed to keep pace. They 
simply attack all Building Codes 
as such; and nine times out of ten 
their attacks conceal ulterior mo- 
tives. 

There is nothing sinister or mys- 
terious about Building Codes. They 
are merely the embodiment of gen- 
erations of accumulated experience 
and wisdom. Years ago people 
realized that their mutual safety 
demanded minimum standards for 
building of all kinds, for what 
would it avail a man to put up 
a sound building if his neighbor 
erected a fire-trap on the adjoining 
lot? Out of this need for mutual 
protection the Building Codes 
emerged. Down the years these 
Building: Codes served a sound and 



THE CARPENTER 



constructive purpose. They saved 
lives and protected property values. 
They are needed more today than 
they ever were in human history, 
for today there are thousands of 
crackpots and visionaries who are 
"inventing" new processes and new 
materials for building. 

Possibly this flood of "inven- 
tions" accounts for the organized 
attack being made against Building 
Codes. A promoter "invents" a way 
of making wallboard out of straw 
and glue. When he tries to market 
it he runs up against a Building 
Code. Because his product is im- 
practical, untried and of doubtful 
value, it does not come within the 
standards maintained by the Code. 
Immediately the promoter gets his 
dander up. He hires or influences 
a columnist or commentator and the 
barrage against the Code is on. 

In an article in a recent issue of 
the St. Louis Labor Journal, Albert 
E. Baum, building commissioner of 
that city, touched at some length on 
the blast being directed against the 
Building Codes of the nation. In 
part, he said : 

"Building Codes have beeen found 
necessary to establish minimum re- 
quirements for the safety of life, 
health and property. These re- 
quirements have been developed 
over many years of experience with 
numerous types of material, and, 
therefore, constitute an experience 
record similar to those collected by 
insurance actuaries. 

"As a result of these experience 
records, Building Code writers 
have available all information rel- 
ative to the strength, fire and wear 
resistant qualities of the various 
known materials. When a new ma- 
terial is offered to the public, usu- 
ally advertised in glowing terms 
regarding its properties, qualities 



and uses, few of the statements 
are however, substantiated by facts 
upon which the Building Official 
can make an intelligent and logi- 
cal decision. Many of these new 
materials have no experience rec- 
ord, and a Building Official can- 
not permit their use unless ex- 
haustive tests have been made in 
a laboratory of recognized stand- 
ing. All these things seem to be 
forgotten when an individual be- 
gins to discuss alleged shortcom- 
ings of Building Codes. 

"Recently announcements have 
have been made that the Department 
of Commerce of the Federal Gov- 
ernment, intends to prepare a model 
Building Code. The records will 
indicate that the Department of 
Commerce had a Building Code 
Committee at work for many years 
on just such a document. This 
Committee was disbanded in 1934, 
just about 12 years ago when the 
Secretary of Commerce invited the 
American Standards Association to 
arrange with the National Bureau 
of Standards for the continued de- 
velopment of Building Codes. 

"In 1935, the American Standards 
Association organized the Building 
Codes Correlating Committee, and 
its program provided for the de- 
velopment of standards for sub- 
jects customarily included in Build- 
ing Codes. This group has made ex- 
cellent progress and quite a number 
of standards have already been 
adopted and are in use throughout 
the country. 

"It will therefore be well to in- 
vestigate the sources of statements 
made relative to Building Codes 
before they are publicized, as much 
harm can be done in disseminating 
information contrary to facts. 

"The new St. Louis Building 
Code takes cognizance of the de- 



THE CARPENTER 



velopment of new materials and sets 
up the machinery whereby the 
Building Commissioner may deter- 
mine the adequacy of any new ma- 
terial proposed for use in the City 
of St. Louis. All new materials or 
methods of construction must, how- 
ever, first prove their reliability and 
worth. No Building- Office and no 
Court of Justice will take things 
for granted merely upon someone's 
unsubstantiated statement. 

"No one should be or is more 
familiar with the requirements of 
Building Codes than the Building 
Official having to enforce one of 
them. These officials do know 
them and are fully acquainted 
with the portions of Codes too re- 
strictive and too lax. Unknown to 
the average citizen is the fact 
that Building Officials through 
the national organization, the 
Building Official Conference of 
America, by means of meetings, 
letters, telephone and telegraph, 
constantly exchange information in 



an effort to improve Codes of their 
respective communities. 

"For more than a year, the Build- 
ing Officials Conference, cognizant 
that many communities need Code 
revisions, has been at work through 
its Basic Building Code Committee 
on the preparation of the very latest 
thoughts on Building Codes, name- 
ly, a Basic Building Code for uni- 
versal use. 

"The Basic Building Code will 
consist, primarily, of two volumes. 
The first, the Basic Code, giving- 
all requirements, usually little sub- 
ject to change. This volume will 
state WHAT must be done to 
ERECT a structure for any given 
occupancy. The second volume, the 
Construction Supplement, will state 
HOW it is to be done. Since 
it is planned to have this second 
volume in loose-leaf form, any au- 
thorized changes can be made im- 
mediately upon adoption. In this 
way any Building Code can be kept 
constantly up-to-date." 



Mansfield Members Mark 45th Birthday 

The Editor: 

Local No. 735, Mansfield, Ohio, on March 9 celebrated the forty-fifth 
anniversary of its founding with a bang-up banquet and social evening. 
Some 125 members and guests were present for the occasion. A delicious 
chicken dinner was served at the Sons of Herman Hall. Music was pro- 
vided by the Sunshine Band and the affair wound up as a good, old-fash- 
ioned get-together with everyone enjoying himself talking and reminis- 
cing with his old friends and making new ones. 

Brother G. C. Lake acted as toastmaster. Speakers included: Bro. 
Godfrey, safety representative, who gave a long, interesting talk on safety 
and hygiene; Bro. M. J. Beery, who talked on the State Old Age Pension; 
and Bro. E. E. Amsbaug, oldest member in the local, who recalled many 
of the hardships and struggles that heset Local 735 in the early days when 
membership was small and obstacles numerous. 

All who attended declared the party a complete success. Committee 
members in charge of arrangements were : G. C. Lake, John Gruber, and 
Phillip Neides. 

Fraternally yours, 

Thomas F. Geddes, Fin. Sec. 




SIP 



THE CARPENTER 

He makes the wall and window 
frame . . . The ceiling and the floor. . . . 
The rafters underneath the roof . . . And 
every kind of door . . . He manufactures 
cabinets . . . The table and the chair . . . 
The dresser, desk and vanity . . . And 
every wooden ware . . . He hammers and 
he saws and planes . . . And drills pre- 
cision holes . . . And he can make most 
anything . . . From ships to fishing poles 
. . . His trade is almost old as time . . . 
And it will never die. . .As long as there 
is any tree . . . That rises to the sky . . . 
His station may be humble but . . . He 
earns his daily bread . . . And he is best 
prepared to hit . . . The nail right on the 
head. 

• • • 
NOT TOO BAD OFF 

"Even though shirts and work clothes 
and butter and a few more items are 
scarce," says a California labor paper, 
"just think how much harder it would 
have been to learn to read and write 
Japanese." 

-¥■ * * 
NOT A JOKE 

"There is still lots of horse sense in 
the world," says the Pittsburgh Press, 
"but judging from the way human be- 
ings have been conducting their affairs 
one would be inclined to believe the 
horses still retain the big bulk of it." 




For the LAST TIME, Mr. Woggle- 
NOW you buy your cigarettes OVER 
the counter 1 



m 



SELFISH IS NOT THE WORD FOR IT 

The Great Strike continues. Manu- 
facturers in many lines hold back their 
goods trying to force higher prices. Or 
they dispose of them through Black 
Market channels. Yet these things radio 
and press ignore. Instead they continue 
belaboring the workers who may be on 
strike here or there for a decent living 
standard. It all sort of reminds us of 
something we read recently. It seems 
two adventurers of the last century 
were discussing prospects in various 
parts of the country. 

"I think I'll try my luck in Texas," 
said one of them. 

"Don't go there," said the other. 
"They're the most selfish people I ever 
met." 

"They are?" said the first. 

"Sure," continued the second. "Take 
my case, for example. I was there in 
the Eighties doing a little wildcat gold 
mining. My mine was under a school 
and do you know those so-and-so's 
wouldn't let me blast during school 
hours for fear of injuring the children. 
I had to work at night. Then they also 
charged me ten cents apiece for broken 
windows. Another time I was using a 
cabin up in the w r oods and the owners 
wanted it but the gosh-hanged sheriff 
wouldn't let me use ammunition on 
them. Finally I had to set fire to the 
woods to drive those folks out. Even 
then the coroner who inspected the 
bodies made me pay for the coffins and 
charged me ten dollars for the funeral 
service which only lasted a couple of 
minutes. Oh, I tell you those Texas 
people are selfish." 



JOE SHOULD KNOW 

Emerging from his winter's hiberna- 
tion, our old friend and philosopher 
Joe Paup parted his three months' 
beard to utter the following classic. 

"There are lots of self-made men in 
this country. The trouble is that too 
many of them knocked off work too 
soon." 



THE CARPENTER 



11 



IT'S A GREAT SYSTEM 

Despite the government's new super- 
duper revised wage-price policy the cost 
of living is slipping farther and farther 
ahead of wages. The innumerable bu- 
reaus, boards and agencies are all labor- 
ing mightily on the problem and they 
are bringing forth next to nothing in 
the way of stabilization of our economy. 
For the life of us we can't help com- 
paring the government's bumbling hold- 
the-line policy with the slick promoter 
who was going to sell a Philadelphia 
banker a bill of goods. 

By some hook or crook the promoter 
got to see the banker. The banker lis- 
tened very politely, then turned the 
man over to his secretary. The secre- 
tary in turn handed him over to a 
junior clerk. The junior clerk passed 
the promoter over to the janitor and 
in a few minutes he found himself in 
the street. 

"Well," asked the promoter's partner 
when he got back to the office, "What 
did you get?" 

"Nothing," replied the salesman, "but 
man alive, has he got an efficient sys- 
tem." 

* ,• • 

IT USED TO BE LIKE THAT 
They are telling a story out Montana 
way that possibly explains why teachers 
are turning more and more to unionism. 
It seems a teacher who filled his post 
well for twenty years was passed up by 
the superintendent when promotion 
time came. Thoroughly disgusted, the 
teacher collared the superintendent one 
day. 

"Look, Sir," he said, "I think pass- 
ing up my twenty years' experience was 
quite unfair." 

"Not at all, not at all," replied the 
superintendent. "You don't have twenty 
years' experience; all you have is one 
year's experience repeated twenty 
times." 

• • • 

NO USE QUIBBLING 
Joe was poor and Annie was ambi- 
tious. She told him she wouldn't marry 
him until he had a thousand dollars 
saved up. Then one day Annie's sour 
old maid aunt arrived for a visit. 

"Dear," said Joe the next time he 
called, "I've got thirty-five dollars in 
the bank." 

"Well," replied Annie with a pretty 
blush, "I guess that's close enough. 



THE PERFECT RETORT 

A politician once making a long-wind- 
ed speech was continually interrupted 
by a man in the audience who kept 
shouting "Liar!" After about the twen- 
tieth repetition the speaker got a little 
bit annoyed. Finally he stopped speak- 
ing entirely and looking his heckler 
squarely in the eye he said: 

"If the man who persists in inter- 
rupting will be good enough to tell us 
his name instead of merely shouting 
out his occupation I'm sure we will all 
be pleased to make his acquaintance." 



THEY DID IT FASTER IN ARIZONA 

The trial of the Nazi war criminals 
is droning on and on in Nuremberg. 
Volumes of testimony are getting fatter 
and fatter and still the human vultures 
are no nearer punishment than they 
were almost a year ago when Germany 
first capitulated. About all we can think 
of in connection with the endless legal 
fol-de-rol that seems to be going on is 
the case of the Arizona banker. 

Just after Arizona became a state this 
banker absconded with all the available 
funds in the vaults. As he left he 
hung a sign on the door reading "Bank 
Suspended." That night there was a 
meeting of defrauded depositors. It 
went on far into the wee small hours 
and ended with the fading sound of 
many hoofbeats. The next morning a 
bow-legged cowboy approached the 
bank and added one word to the sign 
hanging on the door. 

Amended it read: "Bank President 
Suspended." 




You want to talk to my husband? 
e you think I don't .' 



12 



LABOR RISES AGAIN 

Workers Abroad Are Rebuilding Free Unions 
By MATTHEW WOLL. 



OUT OF THE RUINS of a continent devastated by war, the first 
constructive movement to show signs of life and renewed vigor 
has been the free and democratic European trade union movement. 
In cities reduced to rubble, in countries — particularly in eastern Europe 
— burdened with armies of occupation, men and women have realized that 
there can be no rebirth of freedom and democracy unless these concepts 
are fortified by the existence of labor unions. And so, despite material 
disadvantages of every kind, despite hunger, despite the lack of clothing 
and fuel, in the face of official stupidity, new organizations to express the 
will of the workers of Europe are now being established. 
As every intelligent trade union- 



ist knows, the first victim of any 
totalitarian regime is labor. In Ger- 
many and Italy workers' organiza- 
tions were the first to be destroyed. 
In Soviet Russia the young but vig- 
orous trade union movement was 
made subservient to the government 
apparatus, so that in effect labor 
leaders in the U.S.S.R. are merely 
functionaries of the Stalinist state 
apparatus. 

At a time when many Americans 
were blinded to the sinister implica- 
tions of the Mussolini government, 
for the surprising reason that II 
Duce had made the Italian trains 
run on time, the American Federa- 
tion of Labor raised its voice in 
outspoken condemnation of the de- 
stroyers of the Italian trade union 
movement and the murderers of 
Matteotti. Long before the out- 
break of World War II, the Federa- 
tion warned that Hitler, unchecked, 
would bring the ruins of European 
civilization down upon his head. 

Ever since the birth of fascism in 
Italy and the development of its 
variants in other countries, the 



American Federation of Labor has 
not swerved for one instant on 
where it stood in the growing con- 
flict between the forces of democ- 
racy and totalitarianism. It is be- 
cause of this ingrained hatred of 
dictatorship that the Federation has 
consistently refused to have any 
dealings whatsoever with the border 
patrols of either Stalin, Hitler or 
Mussolini that have operated in this 
country. 

From the very first we denounced 
the un-American activities of the 
Communist Party, the German- 
American Bund and the various or- 
ganized spokesmen for the Musso- 
lini regime. And, by the same token, 
we were the first organization in the 
country to rally to the support of 
our brothers in Europe, at a time 
when our own country was not yet 
in the war, and when Britain stood 
alone against the fury and destruc- 
tion of organized Nazi might. 

The history of recent develop- 
ments in international labor is of 
the most vital concern to the Amer- 
ican Federation of Labor. We are 



THE CARPENTER 



13 



deeply interested in the extent to 
which Europe's free trade unions 
have been revived and in the direc- 
tion which labor in Europe and 
Asia is taking these days. 

More than that, we are deter- 
mined to insure the triumph and ex- 
tension of the democratic way of 
life in every country in the world. 

It is a source of great pleasure to 
us to be able to inform the millions 
of members of organized labor in 
the United States that organized la- 
bor in the liberated countries of 
western Europe has begun to re- 
build its free trade unions. 

At the time of writing it is 
somewhat difficult to report the ex- 
tent -to which trade unions have 
been able to revive in the Balkans, 
due to the fact that these countries 
have been virtually sealed off by 
Stalin's armies. By force of arms 
all disinterested observers and dem- 
ocratic trade unionists have been ex- 
cluded. - 

In liberated Italy the framework 
for a national federation of labor 
has been set up. But it must be 
stated with regret that the Pact of 
Rome, which was adopted at the in- 
sistence of the American Federation 
of Labor through its representative, 
Luigi Antonini, has not been adher- 
ed to fully. Italy's Communists have 
often exploited their positions in 
certain key unions for their own 
anti-democratic political purposes. 
By making political affiliation the 
yardstick for choice of leadership 
and direction of the various national 
union affiliates, the Communists are 
sowing the seeds of dissolution and 
destruction of the newly restored 
Federation of Labor. There are, 
however, healthy and promising 
sectors of the resurgent free trade 
unions in democratic Italy to coun- 
teract this dangerous trend. 



Even in Austria and Germany, de- 
spite conflicting and confusing atti- 
tudes on the part of the Allied oc- 
cupation authorities, free trade un- 
ionism is slowly but surely reviv- 
ing. It is still too early to predict 
the course of labor development in 
these vanquished countries. In the 
Russian zones the Communists have 
the tremendous advantages of So- 
viet encouragement and lavish sup- 
port which amount almost to brib- 
ery. The Communist imprint is 
bound to be heavy, there. In the 
other zones free trade unions gradu- 
ally are evolving despite policies 
and practices which are frequently 
discouraging. 

In Japan, according to Federation 
observers, the forces of free labor 
have begun to organize bonafide 
trade unions. Railway, transport 
and agricultural workers, miners 
and government workers are espec- 
ially energetic in setting up unions. 

In Great Britain the trade unions 
have more than held their own in 
the face of the most terrible hard- 
ships and casualties of war and the 
incalculable difficulties of economic 
reconstruction. Even in Spain, held 
under the iron heel of the Franco 
dictatorship, the trade union move- 
ment has made marked headway 
in reviving underground. Falangist 
persecution and terror have not 
broken the spirit of heroic Spanish 
labor, which has recently regained 
enough strength even to strike. 

The active part played by the 
Communists in the resistance move- 
ment has in a number of instances, 
particularly in Norway and France, 
overcome, in large measure, the ill 
repute into which they fell during 
the period of the Stalin-Hitler 
pact, when they undermined na- 
tional defense and even assisted the 
Nazi cause. But primarily because 



14 



THE CARPENTER 



of the enormous prestige won by 
the Russian people on the field of 
battle, the Communists have been 
able to gain considerable influence 
in a number of countries. 

Nor must we overlook the fact 
that in Europe, no less than in 
America, Communists are often able 
to gain control not because of their 
own qualities, or the attractiveness 
of their program, or the work of 
their cells and borers-from-within, 
but rather by default — because of 
the failure of the democratic forces 
to exercise initiative, to be suffi- 
ciently vigilant and active, and to 
come forward to assume responsi- 
bility and authority. 

Thus we find that in Belgium 
and Czechoslovakia the Communists 
have been able to increase their 
strength substantially in the resur- 
gent trade union movements. In 
France the Communist threat is 
particularly grave. 

At this moment the Communist 
elements and their fellow travelers 
and satellites have a powerful grip 
on the General Confederation of 
Labor. Veteran trade union lead- 
ers like Leon Jouhaux are being 
pushed around and into the back- 
ground by the more aggressive 
Communist groups, which are reck- 
lessly using the key positions they 
have captured in the trade unions 
for political purposes rather than 
for improving the conditions of 
French labor. 

For example, Louis Caillant, who 
is a close collaborator of the Com- 
munists in the C.G.T., served as 
arbiter in the recent strike of the 
Paris printers — only to rule against 
the workers' wage demands on the 
ground that they "conflicted with 
the government's deflation pro- 
gram." 

Even in Britain the Communists 
have been able to extend their in- 



fluence in a number of important 
trade unions like the miners' and 
railwaymen's organizations. It is 
this increased Communist influence 
which has served as the spearhead 
for participation by the British 
Trade Union Congress in the so- 
called World Federation of Trade 
Unions. How long the British trade 
union movement, which is essen- 
tially healthy and democratic, and 
which has for many years worked 
in closest cooperation with the 
American Federation of Labor, will 
be able to stand the machinations 
and control of the Soviet-dominated 
World Federation of Trade Unions 
remains to be seen. 

On the whole, the Scandinavian 
labor organizations are today clos- 
est to the American Federation of 
Labor in outlook and structure. 
There are already more than 300,000 
members in the restored Norwegian 
unions. Denmark, with 600,000 in 
its trade union movement, has 85 
per cent of its workers organized. 
The Swedish Federation of Trade 
Unions, with more than 1,000,000 
members out of a total population 
of 6,500,000, is well organized and 
highly centralized. But recently its 
Metal Workers Union suffered a 
costly setback in an ill-timed strike 
which was in no small measure in- 
spired and exploited by the Com- 
munists. 

It is gratifying to report that par- 
ticularly cordial relations have been 
developing between the courageous 
Spanish trade unions and the 
American Federation of Labor. Al- 
bermino Tomas of the General Fed- 
eration of Labor and Jose Leyva of 
the National Confederation of La- 
bor have been in the forefront of 
the forces cementing the coopera- 
tion of their respective organiza- 
tions with the American Federa- 
tion of Labor. Both of these labor 



THE CARPENTER 



15 



members are now represented in 
the Spanish Republican govern- 
ment-in-exile. To date not a single 
Communist or totalitarian fellow 
traveler has been selected as a 
member of this government, for 
which the recent session of the A. 
F. of L.'s Executive Council re- 
quested recognition by the United 
States. 

In Latin America discontent with 
Toledano's dictatorial rule of the 
C.T.AX. is mounting. In Chile, 
Cuba, Peru and Argentina there is 
widespread opposition to the in- 
trigues of Toledano and his Com- 
munist supporters. His zigzagging 
policy, reflecting with precision the 
twists of Russian foreign policy, 
are causing growing disillusion- 
ment among the workers of Latin 
America. The shift in Toledano's 
attitude toward Nazi Germany be- 
cause of the Hitler-Stalin pact is 
still fresh in the memory of many 
a labor leader below the Rio 
Grande. The democratic workers of 
our good neighbors can never forget 
or forgive Toledano's declaration of 
December 31, 1939, in support of 
the Transocean News Service, which 
was an arm of the Nazi government. 

Desperately seeking to maintain 
his stranglehold on the C.T.A.L. 
and recklessly pursuing a policy of 
rule or ruin, Toledano has begun a 
campaign to expel outstanding lead- 
ers of Latin American labor who 
place the interests of their unions 
and democracy above Communist 
manipulation. He has turned his 
first and heaviest gunfire against 
such devoted and highly competent 
labor leaders as Juan Arevalo of 
the Maritime Workers of Cuba and 
Bernardo Ibanez, general secretary 
of the Chilean Federation of Labor. 

In this complex and fluid situa- 
tion the self-styled World Federa- 



tion of Trade Unions was recently 
launched. This body was conceived 
by the Russian state apparatus; it 
has been fathered by the govern- 
ment-controlled Russian trade un- 
ions. Its midwife was none other 
than Sidney Hillman. Sir Walter 
Citrine is its titular head, a position 
that affords him no real pleasure. 

It is unnecessary to repeat the 
reasons for the American Federa- 
tion of Labor's persistent refusal 
to associate with this Communist- 
dominated body. The American 
Federation of Labor wants a vigor- 
ous international association of 
bonafide, free trade unions, unions 
that are not state-controlled or gov- 
ernment auxiliaries, unions that are 
not dominated by or that serve as 
the tools of political parties, unions 
that loyally defend the interests of 
labor in their respective countries 
and are not auxiliary agencies for 
enhancing company interests or 
enhancing employers' discipline, 
whether the employers be individ- 
uals, corporations or a government. 

To the American Federation of 
Labor the unity of free labor is no 
mere abstraction, no hodge-podge 
of organizations of antagonistic 
ideas and conflicting purposes. 
There can be no genuine unity of 
action without unity of aim. The 
A. F. of L. strives for a peaceful, 
prosperous and democratic world. 

The American Federation of La- 
bor always has been and always will 
be prepared to do everything to 
foster and facilitate the organiza- 
tion of a dynamic world body of 
free trade unions dedicated to the 
protection and improvement of la- 
bor's conditions, standards and 
rights in every country. 

— The Federationist. 



Editorial 




NAM Doesn't Think Much of Our Intelligence 

For many months now the National Association of Manufacturers has 
been campaigning for the immediate removal of all price controls. In 
the newspapers and over the air spokesmen for the NAM have been delug- 
ing the people with very subtle propaganda on the subject. If you get 
a city daily you have undoubtedly seen a few of the full-page ads the 
NAM has been consistently running in such papers. (And, incidentally, 
all those full-page ads aren't going to alienate the affections of any news- 
paper publishers.) 

To summarize the NAM line of reasoning in a very short sentence, 
price controls are the cause of all our troubles. The way the NAM sees 
it — or at least the way they want to persuade you to see it — is that price 
controls are holding back production and therefore threatening inflation. 

That the NAM should use such an obviously fallacious approach is an 
indication that that august body does not have a very high regard for the 
intelligence of the American people. Or perhaps they have taken a page 
from Hitler's book, for he disclosed in his infamous Mein Kampf that 
a really big whopper repeated often enough can sometimes fool the people. 
At any rate, the NAM is trying to cram down the throats of the people a 
theory that is out of line with even the plainest common sense. 

"You don't want your dollars to buy less and less ! You don't want 
your savings to melt away! Or the value of your life insurance to dwin- 
dle!" says NAM. That far they are 100% correct. But that's as far as 
they are correct. The way to prevent these things, NAM says, is to 
remove price controls. Well, a few months ago they removed price con- 
trols from citrus fruits because they were plentiful. Overnight prices 
virtually doubled. We wish some NAM economist would explain to us 
how a 100% increase in the price of citrus fruits protected the value of 
our dollars and savings and insurance. Mind you, citrus fruits were 
PLENTIFUL. Imagine, then, what would happen to prices of articles 
that were SCARCE once price control went out the window. 

"Remove price controls on manufactured goods and production will 
step up fast," NAM pleads in another slickly-worded ad. 

Of the same NAM economists, we would like to ask, how? Figures 
show that virtually our entire labor force is now gainfully employed. 
Every able bodied man and woman is at work turning out goods or help- 
ing to wind up reconversion. Every machine, too, is operating at capacity. 
If there are no more men or machines to be pressed into service, how can 
lifting price controls increase production? The true facts in the matter 
are that production is reaching its peak. There still remains some recon- 
verting to be done, which means additional production in the near future. 






THE CARPENTER 17 

Production is already running better than fifty per cent higher than 1939 
figures. Even under the impetus of war it took a couple of years for 
this nation to hit its stride in turning out armaments, but already we are 
approaching that state in the production of civilian goods. 

After the last war we had a fine example of what can happen when 
there are no controls over prices. In two years after 1918 prices jumped 
outrageously. If we allowed it to happen again the bag of sugar we now 
pay 35c for would skyrocket to $1.34, and the dozen eggs we now buy for 
50c would cost us 92c by the summer of 1947. And that's the way the 
NAM would like to "protect" your dollars and savings. 

None of us wants price controls or any other government controls for 
one day longer than necessary. As soon as supply comes within hailing 
distance of demand, we, too, will be plugging for removal of government 
controls. But until that time, we don't want to be stampeded into giving 
up the one safeguard we have against inflation. The OPA has been far 
from perfect. It has bumbled and stumbled along and stubbed its toe 
here and there, but by and large it has held down prices to a large degree. 
In some places its pricing policies may be unrealistic and not conducive 
to increasing production. But the remedy lies in curing such shortcomings, 
not in tossing out the one thing that has prevented us from falling prey to 
the worst inflation since 1923 in Germany. 

• 

It's Like Trying to Fight Fog 

Recently there came to our desk an elaborate and somewhat lengthy 
pamphlet bearing the name of Chester Bowles, Economic Stabilizer. Con- 
tained therein were some ninety questions regarding the government's 
present policy on wages and prices and the theoretical answers thereto. 
If past performance can be used as any sort of a criterion, a second pam- 
plet will soon follow. It will contain several times ninety questions and 
answers, all supposedly "clarifying" the first pamphlet. And shortly 
thereafter it will be necessary for the brain-trusters to put out another 
pamphlet "clarifying" the "clarifying" pamphlet; for in truth there is no 
definite government policy on wages and prices, just as there never has 
been since the war ended. 

Although the war has been over for less than a year the administra- 
tion has already reversed itself at least three times on wage and price 
matters. Since V-J Day we have had to contend with Executive Order 
9599, Executive Order 9651 and Executive Order 9697. Roughly a new 
order has been forthcoming every sixty days and each has been a little 
more vague and a little more confusing than its predecessor. Order 9599 
lifted all controls over wages in cases where employers did not seek price 
relief to meet additional wage costs. In cases where employers had to 
have price relief in order to meet wage increases a complicated formula 
was set down for determining the merits of each case. Uncertainty and 
confusion resulted. This brought about the issuance of Order 9651. Order 
9651 permitted employers to put into effect negotiated wage increases 
without any kind of approval if no price relief was needed. In cases where 
the employer was in doubt as to his ability to meet added wage burdens 



18 THE CARPENTER 

without higher prices, the Order provided for a six-month trial period. 
If at the end of the trial period the employer found he could not carry 
the load, he could apply for price relief. 

Stated as briefly as this, one might gather the impression the two 
orders were simple and straightforward. Such was not the case, however. 
There were a. host of if's, and's, and but's. There were vague formulas 
which had to be applied to each case. The result was that neither Execu- 
tive Order 9599 nor Executive Order 9651 could be administered in any- 
thing like a clear-cut manner. Undeserving workers got increases and 
deserving ones got nothing. 

On February 14, the adminstration came forth with Order 9697, which 
at this writing is still in effect. And with it there came a new high in 
confusion. Wage increases, before they can now get approval from the 
Wage Stabilization Board or other properly constituted authorities, must 
measure up against an impossibly ambiguous formula. The formula is full 
of such phrases as "general pattern," "area pattern," "gross inequities," 
"substandards of living," "appropriate units" and other meaningless 
mumbo-jumbo. Not even the fellows who wrote them know exactly what 
they mean. 

Worst of all, there has been favoritism in the government's ever- 
changing policy. At the time Order 9697 was in the making the steel 
workers were on strike. Both the steel workers and the steel companies 
successfully and simultaneously negotiated a wage increase and a price 
increase with the President himself. They didn't have to buck any for- 
mula. But that ended it. Other workers equally deserving of an increase 
had to buck Order 9697. Their employers had to lock horns with an un- 
intelligible set of rules contained in the order. In other words, the gov- 
ernment to all intents and purposes placed a premium on striking. The 
steel workers were on strike and they got theirs. All those who remained 
and still remain on the job while trying to settle their wage differences 
through collective bargaining have to go through an endless rigmarole 
measuring up to an ambiguous formula. 

But Order 9697 did not finish the government's "brain-trusting" of 
wage regulations. Soon afterward the befogged and benumbed workers 
had a set of "supplementary" wage regulations saddled on them. And 
there the situation rests at this writing; just a little more confused, just 
a little more complex than it was a week ago or a month ago. 

Meanwhile the cost of living continues to climb steadily higher. Under 
the existing setup the relationship between wages and the cost of living 
becomes more nebulous daily. Only one thing stands out clearly; that is 
that politicians have no place in the field of labor relations. 

• 

Not a Helpful Move 

While we are fully in sympathy with Housing Director Wyatt's am- 
bition to get 2,700,000 American families into new homes by the end of 
next year, we are deeply concerned over the way he is tackling the job. 
Particularly disturbing is his recent edict which places drastic restrictions 



THE CARPENTER 19 

on commercial building. Under this edict government approval is needed 
before any commercial building in excess of $15,000 can be undertaken. 
Even repair jobs in excess of $400 must undergo government scrutiny 
before materials will be allocated to them. 

Theoretically it all sounds fine — particularly to one not acquainted 
with the construction industry. It seems logical that if building mate- 
rials are channeled away from commercial building they will naturally 
flow into the home building field. However, it is not as simple as that. 

In the first place, the construction industry is not geared and never 
has been geared to single type construction. To reconvert the whole in- 
dustry into a home building institution would be a long and costly 
process. It would take years to accomplish the feat ; and then when it 
was completed the industry would end up out of focus and out of balance 
and unable to cope with the building problems that will arise once the 
housing program is completed. 

To illustrate what we mean, let'-s take the manpower situation. There 
are dozens of skilled trades in the construction game. Many of these 
skills have little if any connection with home building. Take the struc- 
tural iron workers for example; or the elevator constructors, or the steam- 
fitters, or the terrazzo and marble layers. Where do they fit into low cost 
home building? The answer is, nowhere. Stop commercial building and 
they are out of work. And even in our own trade this holds true. Many 
of our members boast of special skills that are peculiar to large scale 
building only. In the home building field their skills are next to worthless. 

Add to this the fact that thousands of workers are engaged in turn- 
ing out building materials suitable for large scale construction only and it 
is, easy to see that the new edict spells unemployment for untold numbers 
of men. Is throwing highly-skilled men out of work the way to lick the 
housing shortage? We hardly think so. 

Then, too, we question the effect Wyatt's program will have on chan- 
neling building materials into the home building field. For many months 
now the bulk of the building materials have sold on the black market 
instead of through legitimate channels. Will this unhappy state of affairs 
cease because of Wyatt's edict restricting building? We hardly think so. 
In fact we are inclined to believe that more commercial builders will 
be driven to patronizing back-door distribution of materials. If this is 
so, then the home builders will get fewer materials instead of more for 
they cannot compete when it comes to price. 

There are many other phases to Wyatt's edict, too. What about appren- 
tices? Can enough of them be trained on home building exclusively to 
fill the need for craftsmen in future years when commercial building and 
not home building will be the foremost problem? We can think of any 
number of other questions Wyatt's edict will raise, but those we have 
mentioned are certainly important enough to merit Mr. Wyatt's looking 
at his hole card before going any further. 



Official Information 




General Officers of 
THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS 

of AMERICA 

General Office : Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General President 

WM. L. HUTCHBSON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



First General Vice-President 

M. A. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Secretart 

FRANK DUFFY 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Second General Vice-President 

JOHN R. STEVENSON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Treasurer 

S. P. MEADOWS 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Executive Board 



First District, CHARLES JOHNSON, Jr. 
Ill E. 22nd St., New York 10, N. Y. 



Fifth District, R. E. ROBERTS 
631 W. Page, Dallas, Texas 



Second District, WM. J. KELLY 
Carpenters' Bid., 243 4th Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Sixth District, A. W. MUIR 
10348J Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, Calif. 



Third District, HARRY SCHWARZER 
3684 W. 136th St., Cleveland, O. 



Seventh District, ARTHUR MARTEL 
1182 St. Lawrence, Rm. 10, Montreal, Que., Can. 



Fourth District, ROLAND ADAMS 
712 West Palmetto St., Florence, S. C. 



WM. L. HUTCHESON, Chairman 
FRANK DUFFY, Secretary 



All correspondence for the General Executive Board must be sent to the General Secretary. 

INFORMATION REGARDING SERVICE MEN 

When making inquiries regarding members or prospective members who have 
served in the armed forces, it is imperative to set forth in your letter the date of 
induction and, particularly, date of discharge, or attach copy of discharge papers. 
This will avoid unnecessary correspondence and result in an early reply from the 
General Office. We also call your attention to a G. E. B. ruling that states: 

"The question of men. in the Service of the United States or 
Canada over the age limit of apprentices, or those who have not 
completed their apprenticeship before entering the Service, was care- 
fully considered, after which it was decided that these men on pres- 
entation of an Honorable Discharge be admitted to the Brotherhood 
as apprentices without the payment of an Initiation Fee subject to 
the acceptance by the Local Union of their applications." 



NEW CHARTERS ISSUED 



2101 
2965 
2966 
2102 
2104 
2968 
2112 
2118 
2120 
2976 
2121 



Tulsa, Okla. 
Escanaba, Mich. 
Wallowa, Ore. 
Perth Amboy, N. 
Doniphan, Mo. 
Vancouver, B. C, 
Antigo, Wis. 
Tampa, Fla. 
Columbus, Ga. 
Truman, Ark. 
Clarion, Pa. 



Can. 



2199 
2130 
2977 
2131 
2136 
2145 
2146 
2822 
2147 
2150 
2257 



Raton, N. Mex. 
Hillsboro, Ore. 
Spring Hill, La. 
Pottsville, Pa. 
Tampa, Fla. 
Deming, N. Mex. 
Menominee, Mich. 
Spring Hill, La. 
Grinnell, Iowa 
West Plains, Mo. 
Ahsahka, Ida. 



2153 DeKalb, 111. 

2158 Clinton, la. 

2165 Red Bud, 111. 

2171 Albany, Ga. 
2979 Manistique, Mich. 

2172 Yakima, Wash. 

2982 Staunton, Va. 

2175 Roosevelt, Utah 

2176 Portales, N. Mex. 

2983 Waynesboro, Va. 
2978 Pacific Grove, Calif. 



Jin fflltm&vi&m 

Not lost to those that love them, They still live in our memory, 
Not dead, just gone before; And will forever more. 



%£&l X 



The Editor has been requested to publish the names 
of the following Brothers who have passed away. 



Brother H. L. AGES, Local No. 1849, Pasco, Wash. 

Brother C. A. ALLEN, Local No. 103, Birmingham, Ala. 

Brother FRED ALLENDORF, Local No. 1602, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Brother GEORGE AUSTIN, Local No. 1888, New York, N. Y. 

Brother ED. H. BANKS, Local No. 90, Evansville, Ind. 

Brother THOMAS BARKER, Local No. 343, Winnipeg, Man., Can. 

Brother T. H. BENNETT, Local No. 550, Oakland, Cal. 

Brother EXE AS BOUSQUET, Local No. 1630, Ware, Mass. 

Brother WILLIAM B. BOWLES, Local No. 213, Houston, Tex. 

Brother GEORGE BOYETTE, Local No. 696, Tampa, Fla. 

Brother CARTON HARVEY BROWN, Local No. 627, Jacksonville, Fla. 

Brother WILFORD A. BROWN, Local No. 74, Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Brother E. R. CARNES, Local No. 133, Terre Haute, Ind. 

Brother FRED CHAMBERLAIN, Local No. 44, Urbana, 111. 

Brother W. L. CROSS, Local No. 2, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Brother FRANK DAMACO, Local No. 132, Washington, D. C. 

Brother LOUIS DEMM, Local No. 747, Oswego, N. Y. 

Brother JOHN FAGAN, Local No. 1052, W. Hollywood, Cal. 

Brother LOUIS C. FARR, Local No. 90, Evansville, Ind. 

Brother J. E. FELTNOR, Local No. 1149, Oakland, Cal. 

Brother BEN F. FOSTER, Local No. 213, Houston, Tex. 

Brother J. T. GRAHAM, Local No. 103, Birmingham, Ala. 

Brother PETER GRANT, Local No. 2163, New York, N. Y. 

Brother LOUIS HARTE, Local No. 90, Evansville, Ind. 

Brother CHARLES HESSELBERG, Local No. 808, Glendale, N. Y. 

Brother JOHN HIPPOLD, Local No. 808, Glendale, N. Y. 

Brother WILLIAM HOPE, Local No. 1888, New York, N. Y. 

Brother ADOLPH ISBELL, Local No. 512, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Brother WILLIAM JACKSON, Local No. 1590, Washington, D. C. 

Brother JOHN KRAUSS, Local No. 200, Columbus, Ohio. 

Brother JOSEPH LILL, Local No. 325, Paterson, N. J. 

Brother JAMES LOWRIE, Local No. 787, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Brother GEORGE MARMADUKE, Local No. 365, Marion, Indiana. 

Brother CARL A. MENDY, Local No. 627, Jacksonville, Fla. 

Brother SAMUEL MEYEROWITZ, Local No. 808, Glendale, N. Y. 

Brother E. L. MOORE, Local No. 696, Tampa, Fla. 

Brother C. J. MOYE, Local No. 696, Tampa, Fla. 

Brother JOHN MULVEY, Local No. 366, New York, N. Y. 

Brother NELS ALGOT NELSON, Local No. 1149, Oakland, Cal. 

Brother HENRY J. O'SULLIVAN, Local No. 385, New York, N. Y. 

Brother ADOLPH PAUL, Local No. 246, New York, N. Y. 

Brother VOSS QUARTERMAN, Local No. 2151, Charleston, S. C. 

Brother ERNEST F. RIDLEY, Local No. 1149, Oakland, Cal. 

Brother MAX RIVEN, Local No. 787, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Brother CHAS. RODGERS, Local No. 794, Leominster, Mass. 

Brother GEORGE A. ROY, Local No. 96, Springfield, Mass. 

Brother JESSE SANDERS, Local No. 1029, Johnson City, 111. 

Brother WM. C. SCHATTLE, Local No. 2, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Brother THOMAS F. SHORT, Local No. 1149, Oakland, Cal. 

Brother W. H. SMITH, Local No. 696, Tampa, Fla . 

Brother JAMES SPRINGFIELD, Local 696, Tampa, Fla. 

Brother ROBERT H. STONE, Local No. 1149, Oakland, Cal. 

Brother CHARLES TORPES, Local No. 246, New York, N. Y. 

Brother JOHN A. WAGNER, Local No. 517, Portland, Me. 

Brother WILLIAM WHEATLEY, Local No. 2163, New York, N. Y. 

Brother ALFRED WIERENGA, Local No. 1908, Holland, Mich. 

Brother JOHN W. WILLIAMS, Local No. 1029, Johnson City, 111. 

Brother FRED WILSON, Local No. 1149, Oakland, Cal. 



CorrQspondQncQ 




This Journal Is Not Responsible For Views Expressed By Correspondents. 



Great Falls Local Rounds Out 55 Years 

Local Union No. 286 of Great Falls, Mont., celebrated the 55th anni- 
versary of the granting of their charter on Saturday, November 24, 1945, in 
a manner befitting the occasion, with 500 in attendance. 

A huge specially made anniversary cake was cut by Brother Bill Pat- 
terson, the only remaining charter member. Following this, the president 
of the organization, J. A. Sieben, gave a brief outline of the high spots in 
the life of the Local. At this point, musical numbers were furnished by 
young people of the members' families. 




Officers of Local 286 are, standing, left to right, Jack Kessler, member of 
Executive Committee; Larry Price, Vice-President; J. A. Sieben, President; 
William Patterson, only remaining charter member; Fred Hodges, Trustee; Martin 
Richmond, Member of Executive Committee; A. J. Gemberling, Recording Secre- 
tary; Ira Siebrasse, Trustees. 

Seated, left to right are: Pat Pate, Member of Executive Committee; Claus 
Erlandson, Treasurer; John Kind, Trustee; Ely Erickson, Member of Executive 
Committee. 

Brother Larry Price acted as master of ceremonies and lastly called 
on Sister Amanda Liebelt, president of the Ladies' Auxiliary who gave a 
if ew timely remarks. 

The remainder of the evening was given over to dancing and playing 
cards, until midnight, when refreshments were served to all present. 



THE CARPENTER 23 

Local 286 feels that 55 years of continuous actual existence in a state 
as young- as Montana, is an achievement of a great deal more than ordinary 
worth. 

From its earliest days, 286 has always been in the forefront of labor 
activities, and has taken an active part in all civic affairs. It gained, step 
by step, working conditions, hours of work and a scale of pay comparable 
to any Local in the Brotherhood. Its history is remarkably free from 
labor disputes and its standing in the community of Great Falls is one 
of respect and honor. 

The local confidently looks forward to another 55 years of equal 
achievement and honor. 

The success of the party was due in great measure to its able arrange- 
ment committee head by Brother Pat Pate, assisted by Brothers Kessler, 
Balstedt, Erickson, Breckie and Price. 



Newark Local Aids Its Veterans 

The Editor: 

I have read a lot of what this Local or that Local has done for its mem- 
bers who were in the Service during the war. 

I do not think that any Local has done more than Local 119, Newark, 
N. J. We took care of the member's dues from the day of his induction 
in the Service. Also on return to civil life the Local presented each and 
every one with a gift, and on top of that gave them a paid-up due book for 
two years from the date of discharge ; that, of course, only holds good as 
long as they retain their membership in Local 119. 

I send you this information as some of our returned Service members 
thought it would be interesting news to publish in the first available issue 
of The Carpenter showing the respect that Union Labor had for their 
fellow members in the Armed Forces of U. S. A. 

Fraternally yours, 

Edward Danks, F. S., 119. 



Newton, N. J., Says It With War Bonds 

The members of Local Union No. 1124, Newton, N. J., who served in 
the armed forces during the recent war have concrete evidence of the 
esteem in which they are held by their brother members. At the Local's 
regular meeting held on February 20, a motion was made and seconded 
that the Local Union present each returning veteran with a fifty dollar 
war bond. By unanimous action the members present at the meeting 
approved the motion, and by further action they authorized the sponsor- 
ing of a special dinner on March 22 to honor the Local's ex-service men. 
At that time the veterans were scheduled to be presented with their indi- 
vidual bonds. 




TERRE HAUTE LOCAL. YOUNG RUT ACTIVE 

The Editor: 

Greetings to all sister organizations from one of the newest Auxiliary Locals in 
the Brotherhood! 

Local No. 445, Terre Haute, Indiana, while something of a youngster from the 
standpoint of age, is trying to make up in activity what it lacks in birthdays. 
Although we are just newly organized, we recently held a dinner and dance for 
the members of Carpenters Local 133 and their families and friends. Some 420 
attended the affair and enjoyed themselves to the utmost. There was plenty of 
fine food provided by the ladies and plenty of good entertainment for all, including 
dancing until midnight. The purpose of this party was to help everyone get better 
acquainted with his or her neighbors in the Brotherhood. Four new applications 
for membership were received as a result, and we are confident Auxiliary Local 
No. 445 will receive many more applications as the wives, mothers, and daughters 
become better acquainted with what we stand for and what we are trying to 
accomplish. 

However, this was not our first party. A short time previously we sponsored a 
party for the Auxiliary members and their husbands, and it, too, was voted a real 
success. We have many more get-togethers planned in the near future and all of us 
are looking forward to a fine year of fellowship and service for Auxiliary Local 
No. 445. Our meeting nights are the first and third Thursdays of each month. 
Any sisters visiting our territory are extended a hearty welcome to any or all of our 
meetings. 

Our officers are: President, Mrs. Opal O'Conner; "Vice-President, Mrs. Alma Ike; 
Recording Secretary, Mrs. Mary Mayrose; Financial Secretary-Treasurer, Mrs. 
Bernice Bemis; Warden, Mrs. Agnes Forbes; Conductor, Mrs. Mabel Jeffers; 
Trustees, Mrs. Mae Bright, Mrs. Hester Struckmann, Mrs. Lanie Smith. 



ATLANTIC CITY AUXILIARY RUSY DURING WAR YEARS 

The Editor: 

Auxiliary No. 372 of Carpenters' Local No. 432, Atlantic City, N. J., extends 
greetings to all Sister Auxiliaries. 

During the past year the members of Auxiliary No. 3 72, have been extremely 
busy with both War and Social Activities. 

Since last April, 1945, the Auxiliary has sponsored the fourth day of each 
month at the Local N. C. C. Service Club where we served from nine to thirteen 
hundred service men and women each day. 

As we are a very small Auxiliary it was necessary to raise the funds for this 
work by giving Monthly Card Parties. We also received several substantial checks 
for this purpose from Local No. 432. 

President Mrs. Margaret Trendell, Vice-President Mrs. Burnette Buzby and 
Conductor Mrs. Rose Copeland have donated many hours of their time to sewing 
and knitting for the Red Cross and they have received Citations for this work. 

Mrs. Nellie Piersol, Treasurer and Mrs. Sue Bernard, Trustee, have been work- 
ing steadily during the war years at the Thomas England General Hospital. 

On March 18th the Auxiliary celebrates its 5th Anniversary and the Ladies are 
planning a trip to Philadelphia on that day. 

The Auxiliary meets on the first and third Tuesdays of each month in Carpen- 
ters' Hall, 24-2 6 South New York Ave. We cordially invite any of the sisters who 
are visiting in Atlantic City to attend our meetings. 

(Mrs.) Kathryn R. Smith, Rec. Sec. 



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Craft Probloms 




Carpentry 

By H. H. Siegele 
LESSON 212 

We have heard the claim made that 
a good mechanic never uses a block 
plane. Those who make that claim con- 
tend that the mechanic should be able 
to mark and cut his material with such 
accuracy that it will not be necessary 
to fix it up with a block plane in order 
to make good joints. We do not agree 
with this theory, for unless every part 
of a piece of work is done with abso- 
lute perfection, block planing will be 
necessary to make tight joints. Take 
for example mitered casings. Unless the 
jamb is perfectly plumb and level and 
the plastering is absolutely true around 
the opening it would be difficult to 
make all of such joints fit tight without 
using a block plane or some other fixing- 
up means. Besides that, it is almost an 
impossibility to make a miter cut, with 




Fig. 1 

or without a miter box, that is abso- 
lutely true. We confess that we have 
always used a block plane in finishing, 
because we believe that it is the best 
and most economical means for making 
good joints all the time. Of course, if 
the mechanic becomes careless in his 
marking and in his cutting, because he 
can fix up the joint with the block 
plane, then the use of the block plane 
is abused, and the mechanic should 
leave it at home or in his tool case and 
make his joints entirely by cutting the 
material with his saw — he should do 
this until he regains the practice of 
careful marking and cutting. We would 
lay down this rule: The use of the block 
plane is justifiable only after the me- 
chanic has carefully marked and care- 



fully cut the material — then, if the 
joint does not fit perfectly, it should 
be fixed up with the block plane. 

Fig. 1 is a perspective drawing of the 
block plane we have used for many 
years; however, there are many differ- 
ent makes of block planes, and the car- 
penter should look for the kind that 
suits his need best, before buying. 

There happens to be a difference in 
the way the bit of a block plane is used 




Fig. 2 

in the frame and in the way the bit of 
a jack plane or of a jointer is used. 
This is indicated at A in Fig. 2, where 
it will be noticed that the bevel of the 
bit is on the upper side, while on the 
other planes it is on the under side. On 
a block plane the bevel on the bit turns 
the shavings, thus serving the same 
purpose as the cap iron of a jack plane 
or of a jointer. 




Fig 



Fig. 3 shows a grinder in part, with 
a bit of a block plane in position for 
grinding. By dotted line we are indicat- 
ing the angle of the bevel, and we are 
showing by figures the number of de- 
grees in the angle. This is a good basic 
angle for grinding block plane bits, 



THE CARPENTER 



27 



which can be increased or decreased 
according to the wishes of the workman. 
Fig. 4 shows two ways to finish the 
sharpening of a block plane bit on the 
oil stone. At the top we show the bit 
in a 20-degree angle for finishing the 
bevel, while the back is finished flat 
against the stone. At the bottom the 
bevel is also finished on a 20-degree 
angle, but the back is finished at about 



exaggerated. The heavily shaded parts 
are the parts that are to be cut away 




Fig. 4 

a 5-degree angle. Both of these meth- 
ods are good, but the bottom method is 
the one that we have always used. We 
think it is a little better than the meth- 
od shown at the top, especially when 
the bit is hollow-ground, as most bits 
are when a small grinder is used. 




Fig. 5 

Fig. 5 gives two enlarged details of 
block plane bits in part, showing two 
methods of sharpening them. The up- 
per one shows a 20-degree angle for 
the bevel sharpening, and a 5-degree 
angle for the back, while the bottom 
shows a 23-degree bevel sharpening and 
a flat sharpening for the back. 

Fig. 6 shows three different joints to 
be made by means of a block plane. It 
should be remembered that these are 




Fis 



with the block plane. In practice, when 
a joint does not fit any better than the 
three shown shown here, the recutting 
should be done with a saw. The three 
joints completed are shown by Fig. 7. 

Fig. 8 shows an enlargement of the 
member shown to the left in Fig. 6, 
which is to be fitted to the horizontal 
member. In block planing, as in all 
other planing, the material to be worked 




Fig. 7 

over must be held against some solid 
bearing. This is shown to the left — no 
particular kind of bearing is necessary, 
the principal thing is that it is solid. 
The horizontal shading lines, represent 
the shaving cuts that are to be made 
with the block plane. The symbols of 
block planes that are shown riding ar- 
rows show the direction the planing is 



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28 



THE CARPENTER 



to be done and the amount of planing; 
which is to say, the greater part of the 
planing is to be done in the direction 
indicated by the' large symbol, while 



Fig. 9 shows an enlargement of the 
partially-upright member shown at the 
center in Fig. 6. Here the end of the 
member is somewhat beveled. The solid 





Fig. 8 



Fig. 9 



only a little is to be done in the direc- 
tion of the little symbol. If this is kept 
in mind, these drawings will easily be 
understood. 



bearing is shown to the left, and the 
large symbol of a block plane indicates 
how the greater part of the planing is 
to be done. The little symbol should be 



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THE CARPENTER 



29 



NOTICE 



The publishers of "The Carpenter" reserre the 
right to reject all advertising matter which may 
be, in their judgment, unfair or objectionable to 
the membership of the United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America. 
All contracts for advertising spaee in "The Car- 
penter," including those stipulated as non-can- 
cellable, are only accepted subject to the above 
reserved rights of the publishers. 



Index of Advertisers 



Adding Machine 

Page 

Fredericks Sales Ag., Chicago, III. 31 

Carpenters' Tools and Accessories 

E. C. Atkins & Co., Indianapolis, 

Ind. 4th Cover 

Carlson & Sullivan, Monrovia, 

Cal. 28 

Henry Disston & Sons, Inc., 

Philadelphia, Pa 1 

Foley Mfg. Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 32 

Hedlund-Noltimier Co., Chicago, 

111. 29 

Ideal Brass Works, St. Paul, 

Minn. 4 

Mall Tool Co., Chicago, 111 3rd Cover 

Master Rule Mfg. Co., Inc., New- 
York, N. Y 4 

F. P. Maxson, Chicago, 111 30 

A. D. McBurney, Los Angeles, 

Cal. 28 

Millers Falls Co., Greenfield, 

Mass. : 31 

North Bros. Mfg. Co., Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 32 

Paine Company, Chicago, 111 31 

Stanley Tools, New Britain, 

Conn. 3rd Cover 

Technical Courses and Books 

American Technical Society, 

Chicago, III. 31 

Theo. Audel, New York, N. Y. 3rd Cover 

Gateway Publishing Co., Chi- 
cago, 111. 3 

Mason & Parrish, Engineers, 

Kalamazoo, Mich 32 

Nelson Co., Chicago, 111 32 

D. A. Rogers, Minneapolis, Minn. 30 

H. H. Siegele, Emporia, Kans 27 

Tamblyn System, Denver, Colo 32 

Tobacco Products 

Brown & Wiliamson Tobacco Co., 

Louisville, Ky 25 



KEEP THE MONET 
IN THE FAMILY! 

PATRONIZE 
ADVERTISERS 



accompanied with a question mark, be- 
cause in many cases the reverse planing 




Fig. 10 



is not necessary where the cut is bevel- 
ed, but if the wood splits easily, the re- 



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30 



THE CARPENTER 



verse planing should be done to prevent 
that. 

Fig. 10 shows, the upright member 
shown to the right in Fig. 6. Notice 
the bearing to the left and the large 
block plane to the right. The small 
symbol to the left indicates that the 
little planing to the left, is done in the 
same direction as the rest, but with just 
a little more care. 

In these illustrations we have used 
only three examples of joints that often 
need fixing up with the block plane, 
but the different kinds of joints that the 
block plane is used on are unlimited in 
number. Moreover, the block plane is 
used in many different ways, and for 
many different purposes. 

(Copyrighted 1946)— H. H. Siegele 



KERFEVG OFFSET BLOCKS 

Offsetting a line when it is used for 
straightening studding, forms, joists 
and so forth, is not a new thing, for it is 
well known to carpenters everywhere, 
but kerfing the offset blocks to hold 
them in position is not so well known, 
and that is what we are offering in this 
article. 

In offsetting a line, say, for straight- 
ening a side form for a concrete wall, 
the accepted procedure is to use %- 



inch blocks and slip a block under the 
line at each end to hold the line away 
from the form enough to miss the 
bulges or crooks. There are different 
ways employed to hold the blocks in 
place; some carpenters tack them to the 
form and others nail the blocks to the 
form with the nail left partly undriven 
to fasten the line to. These methods 
and others we have seen used success- 




fully in most cases, but the method we 
are showing by the illustration, we be- 
lieve is the simplest and most practical 
of them all. 

At A we have a line that is offset 
%th of an inch, giving cross sections of 
the blocks and showing, by dotted lines, 
how the blocks have been kerfed in 
order to slip the line into the saw kerf 
for holding the blocks in position. At 
B we are showing the same line blocked 
out with the same blocks, but looking 
straight at it. Try this trick the next 
time you have to offset a line, — of 
course, the offset blocks and the gauge 
block must be the 'same in thickness. 

(Copyrighted 1946)— H. H. Siegele 



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5 Year Guarantee I 

!■! I ■■■111 Illllll llllllll I llll ■Will III 

Fits vest pocket or purse. Guaranteed 
accurate. Operated as easily, and as 
reliably as machines costing many 
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as little money. ACCEPTED AS 
THE FINEST LOW PRICED CAL- 
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Operates with a flick of your finger, 
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M AJ L THIS G O U PON TO D AY ! 



I Fredericks Sales Agency Dept. C-5 ' 

[ 32 North State Chicago 2, Illinois | 

• Gentlemen : Please send me a Baby Calculator I 

I on your money back guarantee. 

J NAME I 

i ADDRESS J 

[ CITY State | 




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Made specifically for carpenters, the 
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Square can be used as a try square, mitre 
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The built-in catVeye vial may be used 
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These features are all combined in an 
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Steel blades are 9 and 12 inches long. 

One Thing In Common— QUALITY! 



MILLERS FALLS 

■k TOOLS > 



MILLERS FALLS 
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FOR 
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Learn to draw plans, estimate, be a live-wire builder, do 
remodeling, take contracting jobs. These 8 practical, pro- 
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to get more work and make more money. Architectural de- 
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UP-TO-DATE 

ED ITION 

These books are 
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Examination 



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Keep busy now at good pay, and be 
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WHO KNOW HOW. These books bup- 
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that helps solve building problems. 

Coupon Brings Eight Big Books For 



AMERICAN TECHNICAL SOCIETY Vocational Publishers since 1898 
Dept. G536 Drexel at 58th Street, Chicago 37, III. 

Tou may ship me the Up-to-Date edition of your eight 
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Whether you drill by hand or 
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365— "Sudden Depth" Carboloy 
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THE PAINE CO. 

2967 Carroll Ave. Chicago, Illinois 



■PAIME 

FASTENING JVfliifrr 
and HANGING UlVILlJ 





.A 



OUR CHART Big 27"x36" blue print chart 
on the steel square, Starting Key, also 
new Radial Saw Chart. Blue print shows 
how to find length of any rafter and 
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frame any polygon 3 to 16 sides and cut 
its mitres, read board foot and brace 
tables, octagon scale, rafter tables and 
much other valuable information. Can be 
scaled down for model work as well as full 
scale framing. Radial Saw Chart changes pitch- 
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carpenter should have these charts. Complete 
set for 50c coin or M.O. — no stamps or checks. 

MASON AND PARRISH, ENGINEERS 

2105 No. Burdick St., Dept. C-5 Kalamazoo 81, Mich. 



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' NAME * 

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TAMBLYN SYSTEM 
Of ESTIMATING 

If you are ambitious to have your own busi- 
ness and be your own boss the "Tamblyn 
System" Home Study Course in Estimating 
will start you on your way. 

If you are an experienced carpenter and 
have had a fair schooling in reading, writing 
and arithmetic you can master our System 
in a short period of your spare time. The 
first lesson begins with excavations and step 
by step instructs you how to figure the cost 
of complete buildings just as you would do 
it in a contractor's office. 

By the use of this System of Estimating you 
avail yourself of the benefits and guidance of 
the author's 40 years of practical experience 
reduced to the language you understand. 
You will never find a more opportune time 
to establish yourself in business than now. 

Study the course for ten days absolutely 
free. If you decide you don't want to keep 
it, just return it. Otherwise send us $5.00, 
and pay the balance of $25.00 at $5.00 per 
month, making a total of $30.00 for the com- 
plete course. On request we will send you 
plans, specifications, estimate sheets, a copy 
of the Building Labor Calculator, and com- 
plete instructions. What we say about this 
course is not important, but what you find it 
to be after you examine it is the only thing 
that matters. You be the judge; your deci- 
sion is final. 

Write your name and address clearly and 
give your age, and trade experience. 

TAMBLYN SYSTEM 

Johnson Building C, Denver 2, Colorado 



"YANKEE 



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TOOLS 



also make friends 

For more than half a century, 
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"Yankee" ingenuity means faster 
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'"YANKEE" SPIRAL SCREW DRIVER No. 130A 
A Size for Every Purpose 



YANKEE TOOLS 

make good mechanics better 

North/Bros. Mfg. Co., Phila. 33, U.S.A. 
Established 1880 



Makers, also, of "Yankee-Handyman" Tools 




Cuts up to IV2". Adjust- 
able fence fits either side. 
Removable depth gauge 
and spur. Cutter can be 
used in forward seat to 
make bull-nose plane. 

Makes quick work of 
rabbet joints for shelv- 
ing, built-in bookcases, 
weatherstripping, etc. 



No. 78 Plane is just one of the 
many planes made by Stanley and 
designed for just one purpose . . . 
to help woodworkers do better work 
in less time. Stanley Tools, New 
Britain, Connecticut. 

[ STAN LEY) 

Trade Mark 

THE TOOL BOX OF THE WORLD 




The compact design— p e r f e c t balance— and light 
weight of the W MallDrill makes it easy to handle 
in close quarters and cramped positions. It is equal- 
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service. Easily serviced without dismantling. W 
MallDrill is available in 2 speeds— 1700 rpm and 2500 
rpm— operates on 110- volt AC-DC or 220-volt AC-DC 

V2" MallDrill is tailormade for heavy duty drilling. 
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Ask your Deafer or Write for Literature on 
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MALL TOOL COMPANY 

7751 South Chicago Ave., Chicago, 19, III. 
25 years of "Better Tools for Better Work". 



AUDELS Carpenters 
and Builders Guides 

4 vols. $6 




Inside Trade Information 

lot Carpenters. Builders. Join- 
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nil Woodworkers. Thesa 
Guides give you the short-cut 
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including new methods, ideas, 
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ney I 

,sy proen 



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tter Work and Bet- 
To get this assist- 
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ill the FREE COU- 



Inside Trade Information On: po? 

How to use the steel square — How to file and set 
saws — How to build furniture — How to use a 
mitre box — How to use the chalk line — How to use 
rules and scales — How to make joints — Carpenters 
arithmetic — Solving mensuration problems— Es- 
timating strength of timbers — How to set girdera 
and sills — How to frame houses and roofs — How to 
estimate costs — How to build houses, barns, gar- 
ages, bungalows, etc. — How to read and draw 
plans — Drawing up specifications — How to ex- 
cavate—How to use settings 12. 13 and 17 on the 
steel square — How to build hoists and scaffolds — ■ 
skylights — How to build stairs — How to put on 
interior trim — How to hanK doors — How to lath — 
lay floors — How to paint 



THEO. AUDEL & CO., 49 W. 23rd St., New York City 

Mail Audels Carpenters and Builders Guides. 4 vols., on 7 days' free trial It O.K. 
I will remit Jl in 7 days, end $1 monthly until $6 » paid. Otherwise I will return theav 
Hq obligation unless I am satisfied. 




Occupation. 
Belcrence . . 



CAR 




The minute you pick up an Atkins Handsaw you'll recog- 
nize its perfect balance and correct design. Yes, it 
feels right. . . does the job right too. It helps produce 
the kind of job that marks the v/ork of the master craftsman. With keen, 
edge-holding teeth that take healthy bites at every stroke . . . with "Silver 
Steel" to assure extra service between filings . . . with fast, free-cutting 
qualities, Atkins are your best bet for better work. Check with your dealer 
today to see if he has the saw you want. 



E. G. ATKINS AN 



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402 South Illinois Street • Indianapolis 9, Indiana 

Agents or Dealers in all Principal Cities the World Over 




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FOUNDED 1881 

\ Official Publication of the 

UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS of AMERICA 




JUNE, 1946 



m 



warn 



itttffl 




iiliipi«ii 



Now thai the war s over and a lot more 

civilian gopdi are on the tparket, it's)? 

Wg temptation/ to srlcnd just about :aTO 

you make, and not rjul anything aside. 

->But to fall for that temptation is plenty 

dangerous.i It's like tj-ying tofljve in 'the : 

J|touse' above,— a- hoUse that rnight come 1 

, tumbling down about ypur ears at the 

first little blow oflhard tuck. 

Right now the best possible way to 



>keep your finances in sound shape is to 
save regularly— by buying V. S. Savings / , 
Bonds ft/trough the Payra/I 'Plan. 

The^e Bonds *f* exactly like War 

Bonds. Millioijsbf Americans have found ; 
; them the safest, easiest, surest way to 
save. The U. S. A- protects every, dollar- 
you invest^arid tjrtcle Sam gives\ yoq 
his personal guarantee that, in just ten' 
years, you'll get four dollars back for 



every three you put in ! 
If you stick, with the Payroll Savings 
Plan, you'll hot only guard against rimy 
days, you'll also be 'storing , Up money 
for the really important things— i'like 
sending your" children to college, travel- 
ing, ^buying a home 

So— anyway you -look at it— isn't u 
smart to ,buy every /single U. S. Bond 
you car); possibly afftjrdl ; - 



SAve thbwy way.. imy your komos through wrolLsawms 









, 



TAMBLYN SYSTEM 
of ESTIMATING 

If you are ambitious to have your own busi- 
ness and be your own boss the "Tamblyn 
System" Home Study Course in Estimating 
will start you on your way. 

If you are an experienced carpenter and 
have had a fair schooling in reading, writing 
and arithmetic you can master our System 
in a short period of your spare time. The 
first lesson begins with excavations and step 
by step instructs you how to figure the cost 
of complete buildings just as you would do 
it in a contractor's office. 

By the use of this System of Estimating you 
avail yourself of the benefits and guidance of 
the author's 40 years of practical experience 
reduced to the language you understand. 
You will never find a more opportune time 
to establish yourself in business than now. 

Study the course for ten days absolutely 
free. If you decide you don't want to keep 
it, just return it. Otherwise send us $5.00, 
and pay the balance of $25.00 at $5.00 per 
month, making a total of $30.00 for the com- 
plete course. On request we will send you 
plans, specifications, estimate sheets, a copy 
of the Building Labor Calculator, and com- 
plete instructions. What we say about this 
course is not important, but what you find it 
to be after you examine it is the only thing 
that matters. You be the judge; your deci- 
sion is final. 

Write your name and address clearly and 
give your age, and trade experience. 

TAMBLYN SYSTEM 

Johnson Building C, Denver 2, Colorado 



PAINE ANCHORS 
Stau Prit 

IN MASONRY and CONCRETE 



For firm, permanent anchorage— in fragile or 
tough materia Is— use Paine Lead Expansion 
Anchors. Easily and quickly installed, they 
provide sure support 
for hanging electrical 
and plumbing fix- 
tures or mooring 
small machines and 
motors. 

Fig. 900 (Machine 
Screw Type) is avail- 
able in 9 standard 
diams. from 6/32 to 
5/s". 

Fig. 910 (Bolt and 
Nut Type) is avail- 
able in V4", %" and 
Vz" diams. in stand- 
ard lengths. 
Ask your Hardware 
Dealer or write for 
catalog. 

900 THE PAINE CO. 

2967 Carroll Ave., Chicago 12, Illinois 



VMIME 

FASTENING EitUlftC 
and HANGING UlYILLJ 




MEASURING 




Streamline's accuracy is unsurpassed 
by any steel tape on the market today. 
Its extra long tip for holding tape steady, 
its compact chrome plated case and lever 
brake to hold readings — are only some 
of the features which make Streamline 
the rule to carry at all times. Fits easily 
into any pocket and is ready to use at 
an instant's notice. 

Can be used for direct inside measur- 
ing as well as a caliper, height gauge 
or scriber. 

Get yours today at your local hard- 
ware store or building supply dealer or 
use coupon. 

Streamline 8 ft. size $2.25 
8 ft. replaceable blade 70$ 




R:UU5 

1 , I . I .TRlADf MASK) , ,1 . | , , . I , 

il ih 1 m hliiimTm.il! I ilmm ill 



MASTER RULE MFG. CO., INC. 

815 E. 136th St., New York 54, N. Y., Dept. M-6 

Branch: P.O. Box 1587, Oakland, Cat. 

Enclosed find $2.00 for the new 6 ft. "Streamline" 
(Spare blade 65(2 extra.) 

NAME 

ADDRESS — 

CITY 



_STATE. 



A Monthly Journal, Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners 

of America, for all its Members of all its Branches. 

FRANK DUFFY, Editor 

Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, 4, Indiana 



Established in 1881 
Vol. LXVI— No. 6 



INDIANAPOLIS, JUNE, 1946 



One Dollar Per Tear 
Ten Cents a Copy 



— Con tents — 



25th Convention Makes History 



General President Hutcheson outlines accomplishments of our 25th General Convention 
and analyses some of the problems confronting our organizaiton at the present time. 



Our Brotherhood Stood Pat 



12 



Joseph Padway, AFL. General Counsel, gives the convention delegates a brief review 
of the great fight our officers put up against the efforts of Thurman Arnold to put a 
noose around labor's neck through left-handed interpretations of the Sherman Act. 



Half Now in Unions 



15 



Department of Labor figures reveal that almost half of the nation's workers who are 
eligible for union membership are now enjoying the protection of a union contract. 



OTHER DEPARTMENTS: 



Editorial - 

Official 

In Memoriam 

Correspondence 

Plane Gossip 

To the Ladies 

Craft Problems 



16 
19 
20 
21 
24 
26 
28 



Index to Advertisers 



Although the war is over, the paper situation remains extremely tight. Our quota is so limited 
that we must continue confining The Carpenter to thirty-two pages instead of the usual sixty-four. 
Until such time as the paper situation improves, this will have to be our rule. 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of 

Congress, Aug. 24, 1912. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for 

in Section 1103, act of October 3, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918. 



NO WW I THANKS TO THE HELP 

of GATEWAY BOOKS^ 

NO CARPENTRY JOB IS 
TOO TOUGH FOR YOl 






. : : | 



1^ 



APPRENTICES 



JOURNEYMEN 



L$PV 



W? 



Gateway Books are written by Union men 
...EXPERTS. ..Men who know your prob- 
lems (and know how to lick them)... Men 
like Dalzell, Townsend and Siegele. These 
men show you how to do the hardest jobs 
the easiest way in less time. It's the kind 
of help that puts extra dollars in your 
paycheck now and also insures your fu- 
ture earnings. True, Gateway Books are 
your friends for life and they are guaran- 
teed satisfactory or your money refunded. 
So start building your library today. 
Check these titles and our special Sum- 
mer bargain now. 

Send No Money 

You need send no money. We will ship the 
books C.O.D. We send you a card telling when 
books will arrive and you pay postman on their 
arrival. If prepaid, we pay postage and insur- 
ance fees. 



Special 



If your purchase to- 
tals $10.00 or more, 
and remittance is enclosed with or- 
der, we will send you one copy of 
Blue Print Reading... a regular $2.00 
value . . . absolutely FREE. 



1. CARPENTRY CRAFT PROBLEMS. Written by H. H. 
Siegele. This book contains over 300 pages and 700 illustra- 
tions covering the solution of problems encountered by wood- 
workers. Tool, fireproof construction, boxing win- «f,j -^ 
dow and door frames and estimating jobs V'Z-jV 

2. BUILDING— FORMS, STAIRS, ROOFS. This book is 
a favorite of carpenters all over the country because it gives 
principles of Roof Framing, Setting Jambs. Flooring and 
Floors, Foundation plans and details. Elevations and sec- 
tions, geometrical stairs, Balusters,, Roof Pitches, <tn C n 
Irregular plan roofs, etc. 495 illust. 210 pages. V^'jU 

3. QUICK CONSTRUCTION. Partial list of contents in- 
clude: Platform problems. Special uses of tools. Job-made 
tools, bridging and flooring problems, screens and mitering 
mouldings, window frame problems. Flashing, Sills, Stools, 
Porch and Stair problems, Carpenter made furniture. Ogee and 
other cuts. Tricks of the trade, etc. Written by cf,, cn 
H. H. Siegele. 250 pgs. 670 illust V»^O t ' 

4. ROOF FRAMING by R. M. Van Gaasbeek, Pratt Insti- 
tute. A thorough understanding is given of the principles 
and application to practical work. Includes principles of roof 
framing, framing a gable roof, roofs of equal pitch, dormers, 
gambrel roofs, lengths of roof rafters, curved rafter roofs, 
conic roofs, hopper bevels, rake and level mould- cf^ rr\ 
ings, etc. 270 pages. 116 illust S>^-O w 

5. THE STEEL SQUARE. By Fred T. Hodgsen, 475 pages 
and over 300 illustrations of complete information of the ap- 
plications and uses of the Steel Square. The book is pro- 
fusely illustrated with sketches which cover the a 
whole field of steel square practice V^'J^ 

6. MODERN CARPENTRY. 680 pages and over 600 illus- 
trations tell and show how to do all types of jobs the cor- 
rect way. Written in conversational language for d>- __ 
ambitious carpenters ¥>^»J t ' 



Qlu armtifce 

Gateway Books are guaranteed to 
be absolutely satisfactory in every 
respect, or your money refunded. 
The GATEWAY BOOK CO., Dept. C-18 
32 N. State — Chicago 2, Blinois 



$5.00 



7. HOME REMODELING. 528 pages, 319 illustrations. 12 
tables and 10 full size blueprints drawn to scale. An excellent 
book for woodworkers who do a lot of this type of work be- 
cause it helps you give many new ideas and angles 
that produce more work at better pay for you 

8. CONCRETE DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION. 508 pages 
and 251 illust. A new and enlarged edition of this practical 
and popular "how-to-do-it" book dealing with all phases of 
modern concrete work. Covers retaining walls, beam d> _ _ -. 
designs, concrete columns, form construction, etc. VJ-"'' 

9. ESTIMATING FOR THE BUILDING TRADES. 629 

pages, 310 illust., 44 tables. A complete book on the esti- 
mating of all material and labor costs for every phase of 
the building trades for most types of buildings. Excellent for 
all carpenters and wood workers who figure their d> - -.-. 
own jobs. Saves many times the cost of the book rj ,l ' u 

10. BLUE PRINT READING. Ill pages, 69 illust. A book 
of instruction devoted to the reading of blue-prints for the 
building trades. Leaves nothing to doubt. Com- d>~ nn 
plete, concise <p^MU 

11. MATHEMATICS. A mighty useful book on basic arith- 
metic. Filled with sound help and problems. *._ __ 
Makes a good reference and "brusher- upper" book. V^'O^ 

■■—CLIP THIS COUPON"" 

■ Gateway Book Co., Dept. C-18 
I 32 N. State, Chicago 2, Illinois 

B Gentlemen: Please send me the books I've checked be- | 
low. I understand that if any of the books are not satis- | 
factory, I may return them for refund. 

123456789 10 11 

NAME ■ 

I 
STREET _ 

CITY 

STATE I 




~m 




Let this popular, easy-reading GREENLEE 
HANDY CALCULATOR swiftly solve your 
woodworking problems. Just set the dial 
. . . convert linear feet to board feet . 
get slope per foot in degrees . compare 
hardness, weights, shrinkage, warping and 
working ease of various woods. 

More, too: bit sizes for head, body, thread 
of screws . . . nail specifications . tool 

sharpening hints protractor, 6" diam- 

eter, fits your tool kit. Heavily varnished 
cardboard. Special offer Order now, send 
10c (not stamps) in next mail. Greenlee 
Tool Co., Division of Greenlee Bros. & Co., 
2086 Columbia Avenue, Rockford, Illinois. 




NOTICE 

The publishers of "The Carpenter" reserve the 
right to reject all advertising matter which may 
be. In their judgment, unfair or objectionable to 
the membership of the United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America. 
All contracts for advertising space In "The Car- 
penter," including those stipulated as non-can- 
cellable, are only accepted subject to the above 
reserved rights of the publishers. 



Index of Advertisers 



Carpenters' Tools and Accessories 

Page 
Foley Mfg. Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 32 

Greenlee Tool Co., Rockford, 111 4 

Keuffel & Esser, Hoboken, N. J. 30 

Mall Tool Co., Chicago, III 3rd Cover 

Master Rule Mfg. Co., Inc., New 
York, N. Y 1 

A. D. McBurney, Los Angeles, 

Cal. 30 

Ohlen-Bishop Mfg. Co., Colum- 
bus, Ohio 29 

Paine Company, Chicago, 111 1 

Stanley Tools, New Britain, 

Conn. 3rd Cover 

Carpentry Materials 

Johns-Manville, New York, N. Y. 32 

Doors 

Overhead Door Corp., Hartford 

City, Ind 4th Cover 

Technical Courses and Books 

American Technical Society, 

Chicago, 111. 31 

Theo. Audel, New York, N. Y. 3rd Cover 

Gateway Publishing Co., Chi- 
cago, 111 3 

Mason & Parrish, Engineers, 

Kalamazoo, Mich 31 

Nelson Co., Chicago, 111 31 

H. H. Siegele, Emporia, Kans 29 

Tamblyn System, Denver, Colo.__ 1 



KEEP THE MONEY 
IN THE FAMILY! 

PATRONIZE 
ADVERTISERS 



25th CONTENTION MAKES HISTORY 

By WM. L,. HITTCHESON, General President 



ALMOST sixty-five years to the day from the date of its conception 
the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America 
opened its Twenty-fifth General Convention in Lakeland, Florida. 
It was late in April, 1881, that a small group of St. Louis carpenters con- 
ceived the idea of building- a national organization of their craft. Sixty- 
five years later, on April 22, 1946, to be exact, some nine hundred and five 
delegates, representing more than twenty-six hundred local unions, gath- 
ered together in Lakeland, Fla., to open the Twenty-fifth General Con- 
vention of the organization they started. 

Even for me it is difficult to visualize the progress sixty-five years 
have brought. When fourteen local unions from scattered areas through- 
out the east and middle west met in 



Chicago in August of 1881 to carry 
out the St. Louis idea of building 
a national carpenters' union, the 
delegates to that meeting spoke for 
a few thousand organized men at 
best. They had no money— in fact 
they left the meeting with a debt of 
fifty-seven dollars hanging over 
their heads. Wages were low and 
working conditions were abomin- 
able. Working agreements were vir- 
tually museum pieces. About the 
only real assets they possessed were 
courage and determination. Sixty- 
five years later the organization met 
in the auditorium of its own home 
for the aged, one of Florida's real 
showplaces. The fourteen original 
local unions had grown to close to 
twenty-seven hundred. Membership 
had passed the two-thirds of a mil- 
lion mark. There were deposits in 
various banks totaling close to ten 
million dollars and other assets in- 
cluding thousands of acres of valu- 
able Florida citrus land, a magnifi- 
cent home for retired members, 
two modern buildings in the heart 
of Indianapolis, plus a scattering of 
other real estate. And best of all, 



wages were six to eight times what 
they were in 1881, working condi- 
tions were vastly improved and 
agreements existed virtually every- 
where. 

Despite the fact the Twenty- 
fifth General Convention was post- 
poned a year and a half by wartime 
restrictions on travel it turned out 
to be the biggest and one of the most 
constructive ever held by the United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners. Reconversion and peace 
brought with them a host of knotty 
problems for the membership of the 
Brotherhood. The convention agen- 
da was crowded with them, yet in 
record-breaking time the nine hun- 
dred delegates disposed of these 
problems in a constructive and 
democratic manner. 

The five and a half years that 
elapsed between the Twenty-fifth 
General Convention and the preced- 
ing one were among the most try- 
ing in the history of not only our 
Brotherhood but in the history of 
the United States as well. A war 
was fought and won on a world- 
wide basis. It was a war that taxed 



THE CARPENTER 



the resources and might of the na- 
tion to their utmost. It demanded 
cantonments and 'factories and ar- 
senals and docks. It not only de- 
manded these things but it demand- 
ed them in record-breaking- time. 
Hundreds of thousands of our 
members responded to the call. 
From the Atlantic to the Pacific 
and from border to border they 
took up the challenge, and I am 
happy to say they did the job re- 
quired of them. In not a single in- 
stance did they fall down. Near- 
ly impossible schedules were met 
again and again, and not once did 
those directing the overall strategy 
of the war have to revise their plans 
because a job on which our mem- 
bers worked was not completed in 
time. In addition, approximately 
seventy-five thousand of our mem- 
bers laid down the tools of their 
trade to take up arms when the call 
came. More than seven hundred of 
these made the supreme sacrifice. 
All of these things make up a war 
record of which every member of 
the Brotherhood can be justifiably 
proud. 

Peace and reconversion have 
brought a multitude of problems no 
less urgent, no less pressing, no less 
vital to the welfare of the nation 
than the problems raised by Japa- 
nese bombing of Pearl Harbor on 
December 7, 1941. It was these 
problems that held the attention of 
the delegates to the Twenty-fifth 
General Convention, and I am 
happy to say that the delegates by 
their words and actions in the con- 
clave made it clear that they and 
the membership they represented 
intend to attack the problems of 
peace as vigorously and as whole- 
heartedly as they attacked the prob- 
lems of war. 

No industry today is faced with 
the multitude and complexity of 



problems that confront the building 
industry. First, ten years of de- 
pression slowed down construction 
of all kinds. Then five years of war 
curbed it almost completely. The 
end result is that a fifteen-year 
backlog of needed construction has 
piled up. The need for buildings 
and homes is at an all-time peak. 
On the surface it would appear that 
the construction trades are in the 
middle of a golden era. Yet nothing 
is farther from the truth. The in- 
dustry is plagued and bedeviled by 
regulations and restrictions. It is 
hampered by material shortages and 
unrealistic policies formulated at 
Washington. It is hemmed in and 
surrounded by rules and directives 
and edicts until there is little left 
that even remotely resembles com- 
mon sense. 

Ironically enough the building in- 
dustry is the key industry in the 
entire reconversion program. Be- 
fore more men can be put to work 
new factories must be built or old 
ones must be expanded, homes must 
be provided for the workers, and 
equipment must be overhauled or 
rebuilt. Yet in spite of the build- 
ing industry being the key industry 
in reconversion, it is a sad truth 
that the building industry is the 
most regulated, restricted, and gov- 
ernment-dominated industry in our 
economy today. 

All these things the delegates to 
the Twenty-fifth General Conven- 
tion of the United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America 
realized. Particularly they realized 
that a sort of national hysteria is 
developing over the present lack of 
adequate housing for returned vet- 
erans and citizens in general, a hys- 
teria that is threatening to lead the 
country down a blind alley that can 
end only in broken hopes and un- 
filled promises. As a result, the 



THE CARPENTER 



convention adopted a comprehen- 
sive program designed to remove 
some of the shackles hampering the 
industry and holding back adequate 
production of good, sound, practi- 
cal houses fit for American people 
to live in. 

First, the convention insisted 
upon the immediate removal of 
CPA restrictions on building. Un- 
der the CPA's regulations all build- 
ing other than low-cost homes is 
placed under government control, 



threatening widespread unemploy- 
ment in the whole building indus- 
try. 

2. Instead of channelling build- 
ing materials into the low-cost 
home building field it was further 
increasing operations in the already 
extensive black market in building 
materials, thereby driving prices 
upward and making ever fewer ma- 
terials available to the low-cost 
home field. 

3. The building industry is a 





Two Old Timers: Gen. Pres. Wm. L. Hutcheson and Gen. Sec'y Frank Duffy. 



the theory being that if other types 
of building are halted building ma- 
terials will flow more readily into 
the low-cost home field. However, 
from the reports of the delegates 
from all sections of the country, it 
became clear to the convention that : 

1. The restriction on commercial 
building was throwing many build- 
ing tradesmen out of work and 



balanced industry composed of 
many different kinds of construc- 
tion which are not too closely re- 
lated. The industry as a whole is 
not capable of concentrating on one 
type of building solely. 

4. The real bottleneck lies in the 
lack of building materials. 

As a result of these things, the 
convention urged the immediate 



THE CARPENTER 



cancellation of government restric- 
tions on construction. It also urged 
that the government immediately 
undertake a comprehensive program 
to increase the production of now 
scarce building materials. From the 
reports of delegates the convention 
learned that considerable lumber 
was being shipped abroad because 
the manufacturers were less re- 
stricted by price ceilings on this 
type of business. It was also learn- 
ed that no little amount of American 
lumber was being used to crate ma- 
chinery and other equipment being 
prepared for export. While realiz- 
ing that America should extend as 
much of a helping hand as possible 
to the war-stricken nations of Eur- 
ope and Asia, it was the unanimous 
opinion of the delegates that char- 
ity should begin at home and Amer- 
icans should not be unduly penal- 
ized to provide such help abroad. 

It was further found that unreal- 
istic policies on the part of the 
OPA were seriously hampering 
production of building materials 
and creating a huge black market in 
these goods. Also by unanimous 
action, the convention went on rec- 
ord as favoring the immediate re- 
moval of restrictive OPA policies 
and the abolition of other govern- 
ment agencies that hamper and re- 
strict the free play of natural eco- 
nomic forces in the construction 
field. 

Of primary concern to the dele- 
gates was the staggering increase 
in the production of "jerry-built" 
houses brought on by the existing 
shortage of places to live. Thou- 
sands upon thousands of people are 
each month being duped into buying 
these white elephants. Among the 
victims is a large percentage of ex- 
service men. It was the unanimous 
opinion of the convention that reme- 



dial steps should be taken at once. 
Veterans, like others, do not want 
"cheap" houses; they want low-cost 
houses. Cheap houses are those 
which have a low initial cost but a 
terrifically high upkeep cost, while 
low-cost homes are those which 
represent a good, honest, substantial 
value over the period of a lifetime. 
It was felt by the convention that the 
government was literally subsidiz- 
ing the "cheap" home industry and 
thereby creating the slums of ten or 
twenty years from now. The con- 
vention felt that the government 
could better use its resources and 
finances to increase the production 
of building materials and as a re- 
sult encourage the construction of 
sound dollar-value homes. 

The convention further deter- 
mined that some over-emphasis has 
been placed on home ownership. It 
was the consensus of opinion of the 
delegates that there is a great need 
for construction of low-rent apart- 
ment houses. Many young couples 
just starting out are in no better 
position to buy a home immediately 
than their fathers or their grand- 
fathers were when they first as- 
sumed family responsibilities. 
Therefore, it was the opinion of the 
convention that every effort should 
be made by the government to en- 
courage the construction of housing 
units capable of renting at a figure 
young veterans and others just 
starting out in married life can af- 
ford to pay. 

The convention thus took cogni- 
zance of the confused situation ex- 
isting in the building industry to- 
day. The remedies it suggested are 
sound and realistic. To push for the 
adoption of these remedies, the con- 
vention unanimously recommended 
the setting up of a special Commit- 
tee on Housing to function under 



THE CARPENTER 



9 



the direction of the General Presi- 
dent and the General Executive 
Board. 

Although figures reveal member- 
ship in the United Brotherhood has 
virtually doubled in the past five 
and a half years, the convention rec- 
ognized the need for further inten- 
sive organizing work among the 



Employer antagonism is diminish- 
ing and interest in unionism among 
workers is increasing; all of which 
indicates that the time is ripe for 
more intensive organizing work in 
the South. Consequently the con- 
vention, by unanimous action, auth- 
orized the General Officers and the 
General Executive Board to step up 





Opening Session of the 25th General Convention 



unorganized. Great progress has 
been made by the Brotherhood in 
organizing the logging operations, 
sawmill. and veneer plants, and fur- 
niture factories of the West Coast 
during the past few years. Never- 
theless, considerable organizing 
work yet remains to be done. In the 
lumber industry of the South organ- 
izing has not progressed as rapidly, 
due mostly to the antagonistic atti- 
tude of the employers. However, 
delegates from the southern states 
indicated that the picture has been 
changing in that section recently. 



and continue in the future the or- 
ganizing methods and means that 
have proven so successful in the 
past. 

Not the least of the problems con- 
fronting the building trades today 
is apprenticeship and apprentice- 
ship training. Certainly in our 
branch of the trade it is an impor- 
tant factor. Owing to the war years 
during which virtually all young 
men were drafted into the armed 
forces at the time they would nor- 
mally begin taking their apprentice- 



10 



THE CARPENTER 



ship training, a serious shortage of 
mechanics has developed in our 
craft. In view of the building boom 
which must develop over the course 
of the next few years, the conven- 
tion recognized the vital necessity 
of having an adequate number of 
men trained each year to meet the 
demand for skilled mechanics that 
will naturally follow. 

Primarily the concern of our or- 
ganization has been with the young 
man who was drafted into the armed 
forces at the time he was ready to 
start his apprenticeship training or 
who was already started on his ap- 
prenticeship training at the time the 
call to arms came. The United 
Brotherhood was one of the first or- 
ganizations in the labor movement 
to give consideration to the veteran. 
It was one of the first unions to 
waive an initiation fee for qualified 
veterans. It was one of the first or- 
ganizations to place all men serving 
in the armed forces in full benefit 
standing during the term of their 
service without the payment of any 
dues by them to the local union or 
the payment of any per capita taxes 
by the local union to the interna- 
tional office. 

Since the end of the war the 
United Brotherhood has made every 
effort to encourage veterans to take 
up apprenticeship training in our 
craft under the provisions of the 
GI Bill of Rights. The delegates 
to the convention revealed that in 
some states and localities Brother- 
hood affiliates have set up excellent 
standards and practices for appren- 
ticeship training. However, a num- 
ber of sections were reported as 
having very poor systems or no 
systems at all for supervising ap- 
prenticeship training, mainly be- 
cause employer cooperation was 



lacking or because state authorities 
were negligent in their duties. 

To remedy this situation the 
convention authorized the setting 
up of a National Standard of Ap- 
prenticeship Training within the 
Brotherhood. It further authorized 
First General Vice President M. A. 
Hutcheson (who is a member of the 
National Committee on Apprentice- 
ship Training) to compile or have 
compiled a Standard Manual for the 
training of apprentices, with man- 
datory and optional courses, for 
distribution to all local unions and 
district councils of the Brother- 
hood. It also recommended that he 
direct all local unions and district 
councils to develop and adopt a set 
of apprenticeship standards and a 
system for training apprentices in 
line with the Standard Manual ; 
such system to be recognized as the 
official agency for training appren- 
tices in each district. The conven- 
tion further recommended that the 
entire apprenticeship program be 
carried on in the closest possible 
cooperation with the Veterans Ad- 
ministration so long as veterans are 
involved in the program. 

Another matter that occupied the 
attention of the delegates to the con- 
vention was the growing threat of 
anti-labor legislation. Bill Green, 
president of the American Federa- 
tion of Labor, George Meany, sec- 
retary-treasurer of the same organ- 
ization, and Joseph Padway, AFL 
general counsel, all addressed the 
convention and outlined the ever- 
increasing threat of vicious, anti- 
labor legislation being written into 
the law books in Washington. How- 
ever, the Brotherhood has in the 
last five and a half years made it 
very plain where it stands on the 
matter of protecting labor's rights. 
In the dark days of 1939 and 1940 



THE CARPENTER 



11 



when Thurman Arnold was riding 
high as special United States attor- 
ney bent on imposing- some of his 
special theories on the economy of 
the nation, the Brotherhood stood 
four-square. Seven times our organ- 
ization was indicted under Thur- 
man Arnold's private interpreta- 
tions of the Sherman Anti-trust law. 
Each time we fought the indictment. 
Each time we refused to bow our 
heads. Each time we refused to 
take a consent decree, the easiest 
way out, as a few other organiza- 
tions did. We fought each indict- 
ment as it arose and one by one we 
beat six of them in the highest 
courts in the land. As this is being 
written decision on the seventh is 
being expected momentarily from 
the United States Supreme Court. 

In no small measure this adaman- 
tine stand by the United Brother- 
hood of Carpenters and Joiners re- 
moved from over the head of or- 
ganized labor the threat of shackles 
through left-handed interpretations 
of laws such as the Sherman Anti- 
trust Act. In view of this record it 
should surprise no one to learn that 
our Brotherhood will oppose as vig- 
orously any efforts to hamstring la- 
bor through new legislation as it 
opposed the efforts of Thurman Ar- 
nold to bring unions under govern- 
ment domination through left-hand- 
ed interpretations of existing laws. 
The United Brotherhood of Carpen- 
ters and Joiners of America is a 
firm believer in free enterprise and 
free unions. With all its funds and 
resources it will oppose any and all 
efforts by anyone to abridge the 
rights and prerogatives genera- 
tions of union men struggled and 
fought to establish. The half-dozen 
anti-union measures now before 



Congress will be opposed to the last 
ditch by the United Brotherhood. 
The right to strike, the right to 
work or not work alongside a non- 
union man, the right to use or refuse 
to use non-union materials are all 
sacred rights of labor secured after 
much struggle and sacrifice. The 
United Brotherhood will not see 
them revised, abridged, or curbed 
so long as it has one ounce of eco- 
nomic strength or one dollar left. 
It will defend them in the legisla- 
tures of the various states and it 
will defend them in the halls of 
Congress. The Twenty-fifth Gen- 
eral Convention issued a mandate to 
the General Officers and General 
Executive Board to that effect, and 
neither the General Officers nor 
General Executive Board are in- 
clined to take that mandate lightly. 

If the Twenty-fifth General Con- 
vention made any one thing clear it 
was that the United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America 
is going in one direction only — 
forward. Few conventions in our 
history had the unanimity of pur- 
pose and all-round determination to 
work for the common good that 
the Twenty-fifth General Conven- 
tion displayed. There was more 
genuine unity, more feeling of true 
brotherhood, and more of the spirit 
of cooperation in this convention 
than in almost any I have ever' at- 
tended. I am confident that trials 
and tribulations the next few years 
will bring can have no other effect 
than to weld the United Brother- 
hood into a finer, tighter, more im- 
pregnable organization. I know I 
speak for the entire organization 
when I say we look to the past with 
pride and face the future full of 
confidence that all obstacles will be 
met 'and conquered as they arise. 



12 



Convention speaker reveals how the fight 
put up by our officers kept labor free 



Our Brotherhood Stood Pat 

(Excerpts from a speech by Joseph Padway, AFL General Counsel, before 25th General Convention) 



PRESIDENT HUTCHESON, President Green, delegates, ladies and 
gentlemen: I have a mission to perform this morning, as your 
General President has indicated, a mission to bring to you the his- 
tory in panorama form of the legislation which now confronts the labor 
movement both in the states and in the nation. 

In order to understand the present history with respect to legislation 
affecting the labor movement, it is necessary to make comparisons with 
similar history during World War I. 

During that war and immediately after it, employers in the country 
engaged in a campaign to wreck the labor movement, and they adopted 
certain plans and schemes which would aid them in this endeavor or at 
least greatly weaken the labor movement. During that war and immedi- 
ately after it, employers were con- 



vinced that workers did want trade 
unions, for they observed that their 
workers were joining unions in 
large numbers. At the peak I be- 
lieve the American Federation of 
Labor had in excess of four million 
members at that time, and the em- 
ployers did not like that. They said 
to themselves that since workers do 
want trade unions, workers want to 
join organizations, we will give 
them organizations and we will 
have them join the organizations 
that we create. Thus there was ac- 
tivated something that had existed 
in the past in a small way, but now 
with great vigor and force — the 
company dominated union. Com- 
pany dominated unions flourished 
more than ever during the war 
years of World War I. 

It was at that time that the great 
company unions in steel, in motors 
and in other industries were cre- 
ated. 

These employer fostered unions 
were given great names — they were 
known as Employees Mutual Bene- 



fit Associations ; and some were 
wrapped up with the flag by nam- 
ing them the American Plan ; they 
were blessed with large expendi- 
tures on the part of the employers. 
Thus they were instrumental in pre- 
venting legitimate trade union or- 
ganization. Further, they were in- 
strumental in reducing the member- 
ship of the American Federation of 
Labor and the Brotherhoods as a 
result of those means. But the pri- 
mary purpose was the destruction 
or weakening of the labor move- 
ment. 

It was much easier to do it then 
because labor had no Norris-La- 
Guardia act at that time. That came 
in to being in 1932; it prohibited 
the Federal judiciary from issuing 
injunctions in labor disputes. But 
now we have that and also the Na- 
tional Labor Relations Act, an Act 
which has some faults and which 
at times has been administered to 
the disadvantage of our unions. But 
the primary purpose, the basis of 
the National Labor Relations Act is 



THE CARPENTER 



13 



sound; its idea is to free employes 
from coercion by employers ; it 
thereby prevents the creation of 
company unions. The purpose of 
the National Labor Relations Act 
was to make possible the organiza- 
tion of workers free from employer 
control. 

As a result of the Norris-LaGuar- 
dia Act courts were prevented from 
citing workers for contempt and 
putting them in jail by the same 
judge who issued the injunction. 
My point is that we did not have 
those protective laws in those days 
and as a result of the lack of those 
laws employers were able to foster 
the company unions and prevent 
true organization. 

During the second world war 
the employers again commenced to 
think how trade unionism could be 
destroyed. Again true unionism 
was flourishing — again they were 
growing. They realized that with 
these large labor organizations, 
some eight hundred thousand in 
yours, the American Federation of 
Labor with seven millions, the rail- 
road brotherhoods having increased 
their membership, the employers 
wanted to devise ways and means of 
accomplishing that which they were 
successful in accomplishing in 
World War I. 

The means that they adopted 
were twofold; one, to invoke exist- 
ing laws, the laws known as the 
anti-trust laws ; and two, to change 
or remove from the statute books 
the protective laws which labor had 
acquired in the meantime. That is 
the present plan of employers, and 
reactionary forces to destroy the 
labor movement. 

Let us consider their first device, 
to attack labor through the anti- 
trust laws. There came to the Anti- 
trust Division of the Department of 
Justice a professor of Yale Univer- 



sity, one who had little practical 
legal experience. He came to the De- 
partment of Justice, and as a result, 
of what seems to me, superficial read- 
ing in old treatises on economics he 
resolved to utilize that knowledge 
against the labor movement in order 
to compel them to conform to his 
opinion and his theories of what is 
good social economics. 

This man, Mr. Thurman Arnold, 
brought indictments against trade 
unions for alleged violation of the 
Anti-Trust Laws, and by coinci- 
dence the first indictment he chose 
was against the United Brotherhood 
of Carpenters and Joiners of Amer- 
ica. He found that in St. Louis 
there was a jurisdictional dispute; 
he waited for an opportunity like 
that, because in his opinion a juris- 
dictional dispute had the least justi- 
fication of all labor disputes, and 
thus he thought he had a sure win- 
ning case. He compelled the. Broth- 
erhood to come to conferences with 
the United States Attorney. He sent 
for your International Officers after 
the indictment and then he proceed- 
ed with the prosecution. In the 
meantime he had instituted several 
indictments against other unions, 
but he held those up and centered 
upon the indictment against the 
Brotherhood of Carpenters in St. 
Louis. 

He made suggestions to some un- 
ions for consent decrees and I re- 
gret to say, but not with any criti- 
cism because I don't know what 
prompted it, some of the organiza- 
tions did consent to the decrees that 
Mr. Arnold offered by way of 
avoiding prosecution. The Brother- 
hood of Carpenters did not accept 
any consent decree. They retained 
able counsel, Mr. Tuttle of New 
York in association with your Gen- 
eral Counsel, and they proceeded to 
give the Government battle. 



14 



THE CARPENTER 



That case was heard upon a mo- 
tion to dismiss in the city of St. 
Louis, and in that case there was 
laid down the principles of law 
which I believe in a great measure 
prevented the labor movement from 
being destroyed; I believe the text 
of the language might be used as a 
real charter of labor with respect 
to the existence of our rights and 
with respect to the right to continue 
as free labor organizations. The 
United States Supreme Court in 
that case said this : 

"It is at once apparent that the 
acts with which defendants are 
charged are the kind of acts pro- 
tected by Section 20 of the Clayton 
Act. The refusal of the Carpenters 
to work for Anheuser-Busch or on 
construction work being done for it 
and its adjoining tenant, and the 
peaceful attempt to get members of 
other unions similarly to refuse to 
work, are plainly within the free 
scope accorded to workers by Sec- 
tion 20 for 'terminating any relation 
of employment,' or 'ceasing to per- 
form any work or labor,' or 'recom- 
mending, advising or persuading 
others by peaceful means so to do.' 

And then the Court went on to 
say this, which I believe will be- 
come a classic in labor law as long 
as there will be labor law in this 
country : 

"So long as a Union acts in its 
self-interest and does not combine 
with nonlabor groups, the licit and 
illicit under Section 20 are not to 
be distinguished by any judgment 
on the part of the Attorney-General 
regarding the wisdom or unwisdom, 
the Tightness or wrongness, the self- 
ishness or unselfishness of the end 
of which the particular union activi- 
ties are the means." 

That may be slightly legalistic, 
but it means this, that no Attorney 



General can set himself up as the 
judge of what is wrong because of 
his own peculiar notions of eco- 
nomics, so long as the means em- 
ployed by trade unionists is to fos- 
ter and protect their own interests; 
under such circumstances, they com- 
mit no crime under the Anti-Trust 
Laws. As a result of that decision 
labor was prevented from having to 
go through and defend most of the 
other cases. Some they had to de- 
fend. Your own organization had 
to defend some more, but the basic 
principle having been determined, 
Mr. Arnold was badly beaten in his 
further attempts. 

Thus Section 20 of the Clayton 
Act, which modified and amended 
the Sherman Anti-Trust Law and 
contains this very memorable sen- 
tence, "The Labor of a human be- 
ing is not an article or commodity 
of commerce," thereby forever dis- 
tinguishing between labor in and of 
itself and the things that are formed 
and created or produced by labor, 
was given force and vitality in this 
great case. 

I am not here to compliment any- 
one merely for the sake of saying 
nice things; I am not here to say 
gracious things merely for the sake 
of being gracious, but I am here to 
say that it is to the credit of the 
Brotherhood of Carpenters, it is to 
the credit of President Hutcheson 
that he stood squarely on his rights, 
engaged able counsel to become 
associated with Mr. Carson, and 
spared no expense — it cost money 
to litigate these cases — and as a re- 
sult one of the most serious in- 
roads upon the rights of labor was 
prevented, and all labor was saved 
large expense, trouble and heart- 
ache by the attitude of your Presi- 
dent and of the United Brotherhood 
of Carpenters and Joiners of Amer- 
ica. 



15 



Half Now In Unions 



ACCORDING to the Department of Labor, about 13.8 million of an 
estimated 29 million workers engaged in occupations in which 
unions were organizing and endeavoring to obtain written a°ree- 
ments, were covered by written collective bargaining agreements in 1945. 
A drop in the absolute number of workers covered from 14.3 million in 
1944 was attributable entirely to a reduction of "eligible" workers, the 
percentage of workers covered having risen from 47 per cent to 48 per 
cent. 

The percentage of workers covered in manufacturing last year was 
nearly double that for non-manufacturing — 67 to 34 per cent. Percentage 
gains were registered in both cate- 



gories, the figures for 1944 having 
been 65 and 33 per cent respectively. 
In absolute figures manufacturing 
workers covered dropped off from 
8.75 to 8 million from 1944 to 1945, 
while an absolute gain was regis- 
tered in non-manufacturing where 
the number of workers under agree- 
ment rose from 5.5 to 5.8 million. 

The estimated 29 million "eligi- 
ble" workers include all wage and 
salary workers except those in ex- 
ecutive, managerial, and certain 
types of professional positions in 
most industries. The figure ex- 
cludes all self-employed, domestic 
workers, agricultural wage workers 
on farms employing fewer than 6 
persons, all Federal and State em- 
ployes, teachers, and elected and 
appointed officials in local govern- 
ments. 

The number of workers covered 
by contract should not be confused 
with the number of union members. 
Except under closed-shop or union- 
shop conditions, agreements cover 
members and non-members within 
the bargaining unit. On the other 
hand, union members may work in 
establishments not covered by bi- 
lateral agreements. This is true, for 



example, of many civil service em- 
ployes and teachers who are union 
members. 

The first regular survey of cover- 
age under union contracts was made 
by the Bureau of Labor Statistics 
in 1941 and has been continued on 
an annual basis since then. A pre- 
liminary study was undertaken in 
1938. In 1941, the Bureau estimated 
that 30 per cent of eligible workers 
were covered. The 1945 figure, 
therefore, represents a gain of about 
60 per cent in the proportion of 
workers covered, over a 4-year per- 
iod. 

Even more marked than the aver- 
age change have been changes in 
individual industries in comparison 
with the situation in 1938. For ex- 
ample, in that }^ear the aircraft in- 
dustry was almost entirely without 
union agreements, while in 1945 
nearly the entire industry was cov- 
ered. The same holds true of metal 
mining and the manufacture of 
clocks and watches. Large gains 
have been registered also in meat- 
packing, from relatively few work- 
ers under written agreement in 1938 
to nearly 100 per cent coverage last 
year. 



'editorial 




Place the Blame Where It Really Lies 

As Spring gives way to Summer, the national spotlight continues to 
focus prominently on the housing problem. News commentators and col- 
umnists continue to spread a never-ending amount of hog-wash concerning 
the housing problem. Chiefly they continue to rave about the high cost of 
home building at present. Bluntly or by innuendo they continue spreading 
the falsehood that labor costs are the basic reason why home prices have 
skyrocketed. 

In addressing our Twenty-fifth General Convention at Lakeland, Wil- 
liam Green, president of the American Federation of Labor, touched brief- 
ly on this subject. By facts and figures he showed that real estate specu- 
lators and not building tradesmen are responsible for the high cost of 
homes at present. In part, he said: 

"Let us look at a few fundamental facts, the facts that are at the heart 
of America's housing problem. They will help us determine labor's true 
place in the total housing picture. There is a widespread impression that 
the crux of the problem is high construction cost. From congressional com- 
mittees to news-magazines the assertion is made again and again that con- 
struction cost of the home is the whole problem. And, it is always argued, 
the key to that cost is the high labor cost. At every turn you hear: 'cut 
wages, reduce the labor cost and you get low-cost housing,' What is there 
to this argument? 

"The fact is now firmly established that in the sale price of the average 
house (taking 1939 as the last pre-war year) the cost of building labor 
ranges between 24 per cent and 29 per cent, depending on location and 
other conditions. Let us take the high figure and compare it with labor 
costs in manufacturing industries. Labor cost in shoe manufacturing is 
over 30 per cent ; in hat manufacturing, 38 per cent ; in seamless hosiery, 
35 per cent; in full-fashioned hosiery, 42 per cent; in printing, 39 per cent; 
in household aluminum ware, t>3 P er cent; in rayon and allied products, 
30-i per cent ; in machine tool manufacturing, 42 per cent. There are jy 
major industrial groupings in which labor costs are in excess of 30 per 
cent of the value of the product. In all of them a larger portion of the con- 
sumer's dollar goes to labor costs than in home construction. 

"We all know that because of the intensified housing shortage, real 
estate inflation and lack of controls, the cost of existing homes has sky- 
rocketed. In many cities, houses offered for sale bring two and three times 
their original cost. The cost of construction of new housing is also up 
quite sharply, currently averaging between 45 and 50 per cent above 1939. 
That rise, too is generally blamed on labor. And just as falsely. Accord- 
ing to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, between 1939 and 1945, the union 
hourly wage rates of building trades journeymen rose only 14.4 per cent 



THE CARPENTER 17 

and union rates in all building trades rose only 16 per cent. By compari- 
son, the cost of building- materials alone went up 33.3 per cent, or more 
than twice as much as building wages. In the light of these facts, how can 
the increased construction costs be charged to labor? Isn't it plain that 
labor costs rose less than any other factor in the price of a house?" 

From the foregoing comments, it is not difficult to see that profiteers 
and not building tradesmen are responsible for the current inflation in 
home prices. The commentators and columnists who continue heaping 
the blame on building trades' wages are not only spreading an untruth but 
they are also doing irreparable harm by focusing attention in the wrong 
direction and thereby delaying prompt recognition of the factors that are 
really at fault. Before any remedial steps can be taken the spots where 
the, weaknesses lie must be uncovered. Bill Green proved conclusively 
that building trades wages are not to be counted among these. 



It Still Seems Like A Good Idea 

Several months ago we ran an editorial suggesting that a few of our 
top-flight labor leaders could be used to good advantage in handling our 
relations with foreign nations. That editorial elicited considerable com- 
ment — all of it favorable. 

And why not? As we pointed out, no group of men in America has 
had wider experience in negotiations than our labor leaders. No group has 
had a better background in dealing with basically antagonistic groups 
than have our labor leaders. 

Here we make the major contribution to winning the war, we are feed- 
ing a major portion of the world, most of the world is trying to borrow 
money from us, yet we seem to be taking all the pushing around in inter- 
national circles. Can you imagine John L. Lewis or Bill Hutcheson hold- 
ing all the aces in negotiations and still coming out of those negotiations 
on the short end? Frankly, we can't and we don't think you can either. 
Maybe John L. or Bill couldn't wear short pants or balance a tea cup on 
their laps as gracefully as some of our present diplomats can, but you can 
bet your bottom dollar that they could more than hold their own in any 
knock-down drag-out battle that developed in executive sessions. And 
from where we sit that has been part of our trouble ; too much emphasis 
has been placed on silk pants wearing and tea cup balancing and not 
enough on gOod, old two-fisted negotiating. 

Maybe the idea of putting a labor leader on the diplomatic staff in 
place of a Fancy Dan is a little bit revolutionary but until the Fancy Dans 
start doing a Heck of a lot better than they have been doing we're going to 
be for it. 



The One Guarantee of a Fair Shake 

For a long time now the daily press and radio have been conducting a 
systematic campaign to win sympathy for the nation's employers. Accord- 
ing to their propaganda the employers are a chastened lot. They are all 
big-hearted, progressive and just dying to give their workers everything 
but a controlling interest in the business. On the other hand, unions are 
pictured as ruthless, demanding, irresponsible ogres taking advantage of 
the employers on every hand through supposedly one-sided laws that 



18 THE CARPENTER 

give everything to labor and take away everything- from employers. We 
have seen a hundred cartoons in recent months depicting employers as a 
puny, scared little individual prostrate on the ground with a great big 
bully labeled "Labor" standing on his neck. This seems to be the editorial 
cartoonist's favorite subject matter. 

Well, recently we ran across some facts and figures compiled by the 
Wages and Hours Division in Washington. In view of the current edi- 
torial campaign to win sympathy for the nation's employers we think that 
they are more than a little bit interesting. They show that despite the 
fact the nation is in the midst of the greatest era of prosperity in its his- 
tory, chiseling by employers is still going on. 

Wage-Hour Division records show that in the nine month period 
ending April I of this year, over 15,000 firms were required to repay to 
202.000 employes more than $15,000,000 in wages illegally withheld. Some 
employers chiseled on the Wage-Hour Act which sets minimum wages at 
forty cents an hour and maximum straight-time hours at forty per week 
for those engaged in interstate commerce. Others chiseled on the Walsh- 
Healy Act which requires payment of prevailing wage rates in plants 
producing materials under contract for the government. Still others were 
convicted for violating child labor provisions of the Fair Labor Standards 
Act and other long-established federal laws. 

In all, the Wage-Hour division examined some 30,000 firms during the 
nine month period. One out of every two was found to be a law violator. 
Significantly, complaints were received from only a very few of the firms 
inspected. Most inspections were made at random by the Division because 
of the bad reputations the firms built up over previous years. All this 
would indicate that employes of the inspected firms were not organized. 
Certainly no union would allow violations of basic labor laws to exist in 
any plant. 

Here, then, in facts and figures, is a picture of what happens in industry 
when unionism is absent. Certainly these facts and figures do not indicate 
that employers are entitled to all the sympathy and labor is entitled to 
none. 

There are few places in this world where sweeping generalities can be 
made with impunity. Employer-employe relations is certainly not one 
of them. There are good employers; but there is one thing that was true 
fifty years ago and is still true today — only by organizing themselves 
into strong, wide-awake unions can employes assure themselves of a fair 

shake every time. 

• 

A Life Well Spent 

Recently death called Miss Zara Dupont at the age of seventy-seven. 
Although born into the fabulously wealthy DuPont clan, Zara Dupont 
went her individual way. All her life she fought for the underdog. She 
walked picket lines and threw bombshells into stockholders' meetings by 
demanding that decent wages be paid workers. Years ago she told the 
industrialists of the nation "If we don't give labor a square deal, we'll 
have Fascism." Zara DuPont lived by that creed and she died by it; 
and we suspect that few people who pass in our time will face the Great 
Recorder with cleaner hands or more confident heart than Zara DuPont. 



Official Information 




General Officers of 
THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS 

of AMERICA 

Qbnebal Office : Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General President 

WM. L. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Fikst General Vice-President 

M. A. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Second General Vice-President 

JOHN R. STEVENSON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Secretary 

FRANK DUFFY 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind, 

General Treasurer 

S. P. MEADOWS 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Executive Board 



First District, CHARLES JOHNSON, Jr. 
Ill E. 22nd St., New York 10, N. Y. 



Fifth District, R. E. ROBERTS 
631 W. Page, Dallas, Texas 



Second District, WM. J. KELLY 
Carpenters' Bid., 243 4th Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Sixth District, A. W. MUIR 
103481 Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, Calif, 



Third District, HARRY SCHWARZER 
3684 W. 136th St., Cleveland, O. 



Seventh District, ARTHUR MARTEL 
1182 St. Lawrence, Rm. 10, Montreal, Que., Can. 



Fourth District, ROLAND ADAMS 
712 West Palmetto St., Florence, S. C. 



WM. L. HUTCHESON, Chairman 
FRANK DUFFY, Secretary 



All correspondence for the General Executive Board must be sent to the General Secretary. 

INFORMATION REGARDING SERVICE MEN 
When making inquiries regarding members or prospective members who have 
served in the armed forces, it is imperative to set forth in your letter the date of 
induction and, particularly, date of discharge, or attach copy of discharge papers. 
This will avoid unnecessary correspondence and result in an early reply from the 
General Office. We also call your attention to a G. E. B. ruling that states: 

"The question of men in the Service of the United States or 
Canada over the age limit of apprentices, or those who have not 
completed their apprenticeship before entering the Service, was care- 
fully considered, after which it was decided that these men on pres- 
entation of an Honorable Discharge be admitted to the Brotherhood 
as apprentices without the payment of an Initiation Fee subject to 
the acceptance by the Local Union of their applications." 



NEW CHARTERS ISSUED 



2182 


Waycross, Ga. 


2193 


2985 


DeRidder, La. 


2195 


2185 


Goshen, Ind. 


2200 


2187 


LaHave, N. S., Can. 


2501 


2989 


Idanha, Ore. 


2204 


2994 


Grant, N. Mex. 


2209 


2188 


Columbia, Miss. 


2210 



Norwich, N. Y. 
Livingston, Tex. 
San Diego, Calif. 
Benton, Ark. 
Madras, Ore. 
Windsor, Ont., Can. 
Cadillac, Mich. 



fin fflltm&tinm 

Not lost to those that love them, They still live in our memory, 
Not dead, just gone before; And will forever more. 



t&t in T&t&tt 



The Editor has been requested to publish the names 
of the following Brothers who have passed away. 



Brother JAMES AYERS, Local No. 200, Columbus, Ohio 

Brother FREDERICK BARKER, Local No. 67, Roxbury, Mass. 

Brother C. W. BRADY, Local No. 993, Miami, Fla. 

Brother MARTIN CERMEK, Local No. 337, Detroit, Mich. 

Brother C. C. COOPER, Local No. 993, Miami, Fla. 

Brother VERNOR CURTIS, Local No. 993, Miami, F!a. 

Brother HOWARD DAVIS, Local No. 993, Miami, Fla. 

Brother AUGUST FESER, Local No. 122, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Brother THOMAS J. FIEDLER, Local No. 122, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Brother GEORGE GAUTHIER, Local No. 2288, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Brother JOHN GILLIGAN, Local No. 993, Miami, Fla. 

Brother JOHN GREENFIELD, Local No. 993, Miami, Fla. 

Brother J. A. HEATH, Local No. 993, Miami, Fla. 

Brother JOSEPH ISENMAN, Local No. 246, New York, N. Y. 

Brother LEANDER JOHNSON, Local No. 993, Miami, Fla. 

Brother ADOLPH KREUZBERGER, Local No. 488, Bronx, N. Y. 

Brother CHARLES LAHTI, Local No. 993, Miami, Fla. 

Brother G. H. LINN, Local No. 993, Miami, Fla. 

Brother ERNEST MATTHIESSEN, Local No. 787, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Brother ARCHIE D. MILLER, Local No. 200, Columbus, Ohio. 

Brother JOHN MULVEY, Local No. 366, New York, N. Y. 

Brother C. H. NELSON, Local No. 993, Miami, Fla. 

Brother ROBERT P. NUGENT, Local No. 188, Yonkers, N. Y. 

Brother SELBY PHILLIPS, Local No. 2280, Mt. Vernon, Ohio 

Brother NORMAN S. PLEASANTON, Local No. 993, Miami, Fla. 

Brother GEORGE M. RAU, Local No. 87, St. Paul, Minn. 

Brother CHAS. RICHETSKY, Local No. 246, New York, N. Y. 

Brother PHILLIP RIOS, Local No. 993, Miami, Fla. 

Brother PETE RODRIGUEZ, Local No. 2288, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Brother WALTER ROSS, Sr., Local No. 67, Roxbury, Mass. 

Brother ENGELBERT SCHEIBLAUER, Local, No. 87, St. Paul, Minn. 

Brother CHARLES F. SCHNEIDER, Local No. 1472, Rockville, Conn. 

Brother EDGAR C. SHAFFER, Local No. 488, Bronx, N. Y. 

Brother ALBERT M. SHUPE, Local No. 1622, Hay ward, Cal. 

Brother LEONARD M. SLAUGHTER, Local No. 2280, Mt. Vernon, Ohio 

Brother ALFRED N. SMITH, Local No. 747, Oswego, N. Y. 

Brother WM. STEINHARDT, Local No. 246, New York, N. Y. 

Brother ALF O. STENERSON, Local No. 1622, Hay ward, Cal. 

Brother MICHAEL STETZ, Local No. 67, Roxbury, Mass. 

Brother MAHLON STUART, Local No. 246, New York, N. Y. 

Brother JAMES E. WATKINS, Local No. 993, Miami, Fla. 

Brother J. M. WHITESELL, Local No. 993, Miami, Fla. 

Brother W. O. WILSON, Local No. 993, Miami, Fla. 



CorrosponcbncQ 




This Journal Is Not Responsible For Views Expressed By Correspondents. 

Pennsylvania State Council Holds Fine Convention 

The Editor: 

The Pennsylvania State Council of Carpenters held their 28th annual 
convention April 1, 2, and 3, 1946, at Philadelphia, Penn. 

The three day sessions considered much constructive legislation to 
better conditions of Carpenters in Pennsylvania. Particularly we cite 
resolutions referring- to consideration of Veterans and elimination of 
Federal curtailment on materials for construction of industrial building. 

Sessions were highlighted by very constructive addresses from Gov- 
ernor Martin of Pennsylvania, General Executive Board Member William 
J. Kelly and General Representative O. William Blaier. 

The sixty-five delegates in attendance were pleasantly surprised by 
dinner and entertainment tendered by the Metropolitan District Council 
of Philadelphia. 

The following officials were elected to serve for the next year: 

Edward W. Finney, President ; Theodore P. O'Keef e, Secretary-Treas- 
urer, along with other Vice-Presidents: William F. McNelis, William A. 
Kendrick, Henry G. Larsen, Thomas Smith, Daniel McGee, William G. 
Grafius, Homer Brown. 

The delegates selected Pittsburgh as the next town to hold their con- 
vention in 1947. 

Fraternally yours, 

Theodore P. O'Keefe, Secretary-Treasurer. 
e-. 

Local No 47 Fittingly Observes 50th Birthday 

On Saturday evening February 23, the massive Carpenters Building at 
Grand and Easton Avenues, St. Louis, was lit up from basement to roof 
as some 2,000 members and guests from all Brotherhood locals in the 
Greater St. Louis area helped Local Union No. 47 celebrate the fiftieth 
anniversary of its chartering. 

The party was unusually successful with refreshments, food, good 
dance music and vocalizing by Floerke's union band, entertainment and 
dancing until the early hours of Sunday morning being contributing fac- 
tors. 

The ceremonies began in the large meeting hall on the second floor, 
probably the most handsome meeting hall in the city, which was packed to 
capacity with a standing audience in the corridors. D. Richard (Dick) 
Adams, veteran business agent of the Carpenters District Council, was 
master of ceremonies, and the quick-witted, eloquent and humorous Adams 
kept the meeting moving at fine speed. He spoke eloquently of the 
achievements of Local 47, the successor of Local No. 12, which later con- 
solidated with Locals 240 and 45 and then fifty years ago became Local 47, 
one of the "big" outside Locals of the Carpenters District Council. 



22 THE CARPENTER 

Adams carried back the recollections of many of the old-timers from 
Local 47 and other Locals of the Council to old days and old struggles 
and to the now long-vanished union brothers who contributed their share 
to making the Carpenters the powerful force it is today in the local and 
national building trades labor movement. 

Other speakers were Council Secretary-Treasurer Erwin C. Meinert, 
who also dwelt on the progress of Local 47, and International Representa- 
tive George Ottens, who spoke in behalf of the International Union 
and conveyed the best wishes of International President William L. 
Hutcheson. 

The final speaker of the evening, who evoked both interest and much 
applause was Carl Reiter, a newly discharged veteran, who spoke on 
unionism and the veteran. 

Among the most interested members attending, who were honored 
guests, were three members who had received 50-year membership badges. 
They are Emil Schumacher, age 81, who joined the Carpenters on March 
31, 1889; William Grueninger, who joined on March 25, 1893, and Louis 
Weissmann, who joined on June 20, 1896. 

Everyone present had a merry and rollicking time without a single 
minor incident to mar the occassion. It was indeed a fitting and success- 
ful golden jubilee celebration. 



West Coast Pile Drivers Meet 

The Pacific Council of Pile Drivers, representing fifteen piledriver 
locals on the West Coast, met in Portland, Oregon, on February 16th and 
17th, 1946. The Council meets twice a year and its objective is to bring 
the piledriver locals closer together and build good working relations 
between them. Our goal for the future is to negotiate a coastwise agree- 
ment with uniform conditions and wage scale. 

The present officers of the PCC of Pile Drivers are: President — Les 
Repass, Local 34, San Francisco; Vice-Preseident — Geo. Kaae, Local 2416, 
Portland; and Secretary-Treasurer — Jim Daniel, Local 34, San Francisco. 

The conference in Portland was devoted mainly to exchange of infor- 
mation vital to the Pile Drivers. Among other things discussed were: 
Double time for overtime 
Railroad work 
Wage increases 
Divers' schools 
Veterans' training 

There was a good general discussion on these and other subjects. The 
delegates exchanged much information which will be of benefit to the 
locals. 

The Secretary's office is used as a general information clearing house. 
He compiles data pertaining to pile driving and sends out a monthly 
work report to all the locals, together with any other items of interest. 

We hope now that the war is over and red tape is gradually disappear- 
ing, that we can make a new start toward solving some of our problems. 

A very nice banquet was given the delegates by the Portland Local. 
Brother Frank Fowells was master of ceremonies. Guests speakers were: 



THE CARPENTER 23 

Brother Gus Anderson of the Portland Central Labor Council; Brother 
John O'Neal, Executive Secretary of the Oregon State Building Trades; 
Brother Rowley, President of the State Council of Carpenters and Brother 
Bert Sleeman, International Representative for the General Office. All 
expressed a warm welcome to the delegates and invited them to return 
again. 

Next conference of the PCC of Pile Drivers will be held in Seattle, 
Washington, on the third Saturday and Sunday in August, at which time 
we hope to see all locals represented. 



Newport, R. I., Marks 60th Birthday 

The Editor: 

Local Union 176, Newport, R. I., celebrated its 60th Anniversary at a 
dinner dance held in Hotel Viking, Wednesday night, April 24, 1946, at 
7 :oo o'clock 

City and State officials, members and guests from other labor groups 
numbering more than 400 in all attended. Mayor Herbert E. Macauley, 
Cornelius C. Moore, Chairman of the Representative Council and State 
Attorney General John H. Nolan extended their felicitations. 

Other guests included William Sullivan, International Representative 
of the Carpenters; John Phillips, President of the Laborers Local; Daniel 
Cara, President of Teamsters Local 827; C. H. Gilmore, Business Agent 
of Teamsters Local 827; and Carl A. S. Anderson, Union President. Al- 
bert A. Fournier who was Chairman of the Entertainment Committee in- 
troduced George M. Chamberlain, who was toastmaster for the evening. 

A feature of the dinner was the presentation of service pins to 30 long- 
time members and to 29 members who served in the Armed Service. We 
had 200 members in the Armed Service who did not attend the banquet. 

Albert A. Fournier, Chairman of the Entertainment Committee was 
assisted on the committee by Carl Anderson, William Roberts, Nap 
Landry, Jack Biastre, David Duff, James K. Behan, William Duff, James 
Proudfoot and Jack Morrow. 

Fraternally yours, 

Albert A. Fournier, Chairman 
» 

Red Cross Worker Praises Union Cooperation 

Take it from Mrs. Elizabeth Reynal, an ardent Red Cross worker 
throughout the war years and still doing her part in that organization, 
the unions of the nation are the backbone of the Red Cross and all worthy 
humanitarian causes. A member of the New York speakers' bureau of the 
Red Cross, Mrs. Reynal gives unstinted praise to the part unions have 
always played in raising funds, donating blood and keeping things mov- 
ing generally. In a recent newspaper interview she said: "Of all groups, 
the unions are the most enthusiastic about the Red Cross, like for instance, 
Local No. 246 of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners." 

Before the war Mrs. Reynal was a stage and screen star. In 1941 she 
joined the Red Cross and played an active part in it throughout the war. 
She has naturally had wide experience in dealing with all sorts of groups. 
Consequently when she says unions such as Local 246, New York, are 
the best to deal with, her words carry weight. 




SIP 



LOTS OF FANCY THEORIES 

The one thing there has been no 
shortage of since V-J day is fancy theo- 
ries. Washington is full of economists, 
analysts, college professors and what 
have you. Week by week they have 
ground out new rules, regulations and 
edicts containing a lot of everything 
but common sense. In this connection, 
we can't help thinking of the story of 
the two college professors who went on 
a camping trip with a guide. The guide 
took them to a cabin deep in the woods. 
Entering the cabin, the two professors 
noticed that the stove was mounted on 
blocks of wood four feet above the 
floor. 

"Our guide knows something of dy- 
namics," said one professor. "He knows 
that heat rises and that by raising the 
stove above the floor level he can heat 
the cabin more quickly." 

"I don't think that was his theory 
at all," replied the other. "I'm sure 
what he had in mind when he set the 
stove up that way was that fresh air 
could be circulated more rapidly 
through the cabin and in addition he 
could dry out large amounts of green 
wood by placing it under the stove." 

Long and loud they argued, Finally 
they decided to ask the guide. 

"Heck," said the guide, "you're both 
wrong. When I brought that stove up 




NO! JAKE, NO! 



■■■ ■ WW II II w i wim w MB—I 

the river last summer I lost most of the 
pipe overboard; so I had to set her up 
that way to make the remaining pipe 
reach the roof." 

• • • 

OFF AGAIN, ON AGAIN, FINNEGAN 

The rain was pouring down. Two men 
who had a heated difference of opinion 
went out into the storm to settle their 
argument the primitive way. They 
fought for some time. Finally one got 
the other down and sprawled on top of 
him. 

"Will you give up?" he asked the 
man under him. 

"No," came the belligerent reply. 

A few minutes later the question was 
repeated. Again the reply was "NO." 

"Then," said the first, "will you get 
on top for awhile and let me get under. 
I'm getting soaked." 

Judging from results, that's about the 
way some of innumerable agencies in 
Washington are behaving in their 
scramble to perpetuate themselves. 

* • • 

THE RISK IS NOT ALL GONE 
The shooting is over but the risks of 
war are not all gone. Take the case 
of an Ohio private who is with the 
occupation forces in Germany. Shopping 
around in a German city during his off 
time, he found a number of postcards 
depicting beautiful flowers. He bought 
several. After a good deal of cogitation 
he decided the inscription at the bottom 
of each read "To my Sweetheart, the 
fairest flower of them all." So he sent 
one to his girl friend back home. Later 
he found an English-speaking German 
and asked him to translate the inscrip- 
tion. To his utter disgust, the German 
told him the literal translation was: 

"Without fertilizer you cannot get 
large blooms." 

*.'•.• 

LONG TERM ONE, TOO 

"When a girl promises to marry a 

man as soon as he makes his fortune," 

our old friend Joe Paup observes, "that 

ain't no engagement; it's an option." 



THE CARPENTER 



25 



THINGS NOT ALWAYS WHAT THEY 

SEEM 

There is some agitation for turning 
the Geneva headquarters of the now de- 
funct League of Nations into a world 
university; the theory being that great- 
er understanding could be developed 
among nations. What a world univer- 
sity would do toward developing 
greater understanding, we are in no 
position to say. However, judging from 
the state of world affairs at present, a 
little more understanding certainly 
wouldn't do any harm. 

Only the other day we read an item 
that illustrates what diplomats of one 
nation are up against when dealing 
with another nation. It seems an Amer- 
ican diplomat found himself in Italy. 
The first thing he did was hire an 
Italian clerk. Arriving at a small vil- 
lage, he asked the clerk to register at 
the hotel for him. The clerk did so. 

"By the way," asked the diplomat 
when the clerk reported back, "did you 
know my name?" 

"No, Sir," replied the clerk, "but I 
copied it from your briefcase. 

The American could not remember 
having his name on his briefcase but he 
was too tired to investigate any further. 
Next morning, however, the matter was 
cleared up in a flash. As he came down 
the steps, the desk clerk greeted him 
with an affable: 

"Ah, Good Morning, Signor Warrant- 
ed Solid Leather." 

• • • 

SNAP JUDGMENT 

Having just gotten a haircut, a Brit- 
ish soldier was returning to camp from 
the village when he met his captain 
carrying golf clubs. 

"If you're returning to camp," said 
the captain, "would you mind dropping 
off my clubs at the office?" 

"Certainly not, sir," replied the sol- 
dier. A little nearer camp he met the 
colonel. 

"Been having a round of golf?" asked 
the colonel. 

"Oh, no, sir," replied the private, 
"I've been having a haircut" 

"Fourteen days for insolence!" bawl- 
ed the colonel. 

And that's about the kind of snap 
judgment some people have been using 
in reaching conclusions on labor matters 
of late. 



USE YOUR OWN JUDGMENT 

For some time Congress has been en- 
deavoring to find out just how much 
time and money the NAM has spent 
fighting extension of OPA and price 
control. At a recent Senate hearing it 
was disclosed by NAM witnesses that 
the manufacturer's association has al- 
ready thrown $395,000 into the fight. 
Whether this tells the whole story or 
not, we can't say. 

What it reminds us of is the medicine 
man who was selling an elixir of youth. 

"Drink this medicine every day and 
you will live forever," he told his 
audience. "Look at me, I'm over 300 
years old right now." 

"Is he really that old?" one of the 
audience asked of an assistant. 

"I don't know," replied the assistant, 
"I've only worked for him 175 years. 



THAT'S US ALL OVER 

After an examination was over in a 
mountain school, the teacher asked each 
pupil to write a pledge on his paper 
swearing that he had neither received 
nor given help. 

One gangling youth who sweated out 
the examination in sheer agony wrote 
the following: 

"I ain't received no help in this 
matter; and the Lord knows I couldn't 
have gave any." 

And that's about the way it is with 
us when it comes to understanding 
what goes on in the world today. 




Heard you've been out since long be- 
fore V-J Day — What'd they discharge 

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Rockford Ladies Very Active 

The Editor: 

Greetings to all sister auxiliaries from the ladies of Auxiliary No. 280, 

Rockford, Illinois. 

We are looking forward to seeing many of you at the Illinois State 
Federation of Labor Convention being held the third week of September 
in our beautiful city. 

Already plans are under way to entertain the many carpenters and 
their wives, sisters and daughters who may accompany them. 

We are a very active organization, having had numerous suppers and 
parties during the war for the lads in the service. Only recently, we 
entertained for the lads in the hospital at Camp Grant. We brought gifts 
and refreshments and the evening was spent in playing "bunco" and cards. 
Lads having birthdays in March were given a gift. A door prize was 
awarded to the one having the lucky number. We had a very good singer 
and pianist and it is hard to say whether the lads or the ladies of the aux- 
iliary enjoyed the evening more. 

During the war, we sent packages to our girls and boys in the service. 
We received many interesting letters from them telling us how much 
packages meant to them. 

We do our bit for the Red Cross and helped to the best of our ability 
during our terrible "polio" epidemic last year. 

We have a Label and a Legislative committee. Both are very active. 
Senators and representatives are contacted for any measure or law for 
the betterment of labor. 

We have a sick committee and if a member is ill or in need, we help 
out and no one is ever overlooked. 

Money is raised by holding "bingo" games, rummage sales and white 
elephant sales. 

There is a Christmas party, an anniversary dinner and a yearly picnic 
looked forward to eagerly by all of us. 

We have a fine meeting room, a dining-room and modern kitchen 
available for our use. For these, we thank our men, the Carpenters and 
Joiners of Local 792. Our Labor Temple is located at 212 So. First Street 
and here all union crafts meet.. 

Hoping to meet many of you and to hear from our sister auxiliaries, 
we are, 

Fraternally yours, 

Mrs. Eugene Ostrom, Rec. Sec. 



THE CARPENTER 27 

Joplin Ladies Push Union Label 

The Editor: 

We, Ladies' Auxiliary No. 446 of Joplin, Missouri, wish to make our- 
selves known to other Auxiliaries. We have been organized only a short 
time; however, we think we are doing some useful and helpful work. 

As our main objective we have undertaken the project of visiting all 
of the merchants in Joplin to obtain a list of their merchandise carrying 
the Union label. Also those articles that are made in Union houses but 
do not carry the label. These lists are to be compiled into book form 
form and presented to all members of the Local Unions in Joplin. The 
expenses of having this book published are being defrayed by the dona- 
tion of money from any Local that wishes to help. Our part is to obtain 
this list. We have had wonderful cooperation from Joplin business 
houses in this effort. 

We also have had several entertainments for husbands, the latest 
being a carnival in honor of St. Patrick's day. Among other events we 
had a Country Store, Fish Pond; Fortune Teller, Freak Side Show, Card 
Tables and Bingo. Again the merchants of Joplin cooperated by donating 
gifts for prizes and merchandise for the Country Store. There were 
about 75 persons in attendance. 

Our President, Mrs. A. G. Lenger, extended an invitation to all present 
to attend our meeting as well as helping in our work. 

We hope to continue to be an organization that not only sees that our 
husbands have a good time but an organization that is helpful in impressing 
the value of asking and demanding the Union Label in all merchandise 
we buy. 

Fraternally yours, 

Mrs. J. W. Macke, Rec. Sec, 

915 Maiden Lane. 



Washington State Council Holds Convention 

The convention of the Washington State Council of Ladies Auxiliaries 
of Carpenters and Joiners of America met in Aberdeen, Washington, April 
4, 5, and 6th. There were 22 delegates from Bremerton, Aberdeen, Van- 
couver, Yakima, Grand Coulee, Mt. Vernon, Olympia, Pasco, Longview, 
Kelso and Camas. With the help of the carpenters they had a very success- 
ful convention. The new state officers for the ensuing year are Gladys 
Wurman, Camas No. 374, President; Dorris Moloso, Pasco No. 427, Vice 
President; Stella Weick, Yakima No. 309, Secretary; Lee Wolf, Grand 
Coulee No. 414, Treasurer; Anna Smith, Olympia No. 149, Margaret 
Clausen, Bremerton No. 283, and Vera Boji, Vancouver No. 292, are Trus- 
tees. Olympia installed the new officers with Phil Rider acting as install- 
ing officer. 



Craft Probloms 




Carpentry 



By H. H. Siegele 
LESSON 213 

The way a plane is held while it is in 
use is important, but to lay down a 
hard and fast rule on this point is going 
just a little too far. Here is a good 
rule: A grip that will give the workman 
control of the plane, which at the same 
time reduces false motions to a mini- 
mum and keeps efficiency at a maximum 
level, is the fundamental basis for hold- 
ing a plane. If this rule is followed, 
there will be no uniformity in the way 
planes are held by mechanics, but there 
will be similarity with some exceptions. 
This simply means that it is up to the 
individual mechanic to find the solution 
to this problem that will give him the 




most effective results. In doing this he 
will observe other mechanics, ask ques- 
tions about it, give every finding a fair 
trial and every suggestion proper con- 
sideration. In the end, though, his de- 
cision must be made on the basis of 
what will solve his own problems and 
fulfill his needs along the lines of effi- 
ciency and service. What has just been 
said about holding planes, will apply, in 
most instances, to other tools. 

The first thing that must be learned 
about planing is to place the material 
on the bench or on whatever is used for 
holding it, in such a way that the plan- 
ing will be done with (not against) 
the grain. This is illustrated by Fig. 1, 
where we show a piece of board on a 
bench in position for jointing. It will 
be noticed that the lines that represent 
the grain of the wood run somewhat 
up and in the direction the planing is 
to be done. To the right a symbol of 
a plane riding an arrow is shown — 



the arrow indicates the direction of the 
planing. Care must be taken that the 
planing, including the starting and the 
ending, will be done in a perfectly 
straight line. 

Fig. 2 shows the same board on the 




uma 



Fig. 2 



same bench, but the curved arrows in- 
dicate that the starting is done with 
the plane on an upward incline and then 
gradually into a straight line. But when 
the plane reaches the end of' the board, 
it starts to make a downward curve, as 
the arrow under it indicates. What we 
are showing here, of course, is exagger- 
ated in order to make clear the point. 
In starting to plane the edge of a board 
(or the surface, for that matter) hold 
the point of the plane firmly against 
the edge — then, as you proceed, keep 
the plane against the board, and when 
you reach the end, hold the heel of 
the plane down firmly until the shaving 
is cut to the end. This must be prac- 




Fig. 3 

ticed liberally until it becomes habitual. 
After that an occasional checking up 
will soon solve this problem perma- 
nently. 

Fig. 3 shows a board with an exag- 
gerated wavy edge in position on a 
bench for jointing. To the right we 
show a symbol of a jointer. The lines 
shading the high places indicate the 
shaving cuts that the plane will make 



THE CARPENTER 



29 



as the jointing proceeds. Every time 
the jointer is run over the edge of the 
board,, it cuts off a shaving from each 
high place. This is kept up until the 
plane cuts a uniform shaving the full 




Fig. 4 

length of the board. The old heads 
used to tell us, "When you get a full- 
sized shaving as long as the board you 
are jointing, the edge of that board will 
be straight." 

A problem that every carpenter must 
solve early in his career, is illustrated 
by Fig. 4. Here the grain of the wood 
runs in one direction up to the center, 
where it changes and runs in the other 
direction. The problem is solved by 
planing to the center and then lifting 
the plane suddenly as the upward curv- 
ing arrows indicate. The planing is done 
from both ends to the point where the 
run of the grain changes. The plane 
should be set so it will cut a very thin 



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the right we have an end view, showing 
with symbols of hands how the material 
is held with the right hand, and the 
trysquare is applied with the left hand. 
To the left we have a side view. The 
arrows indicate the direction the try- 
square is moved. From the right end, 
marked C, up to point A, the edge 
bevels toward the handle of the try- 
square. At point A the edge is square, 
but it begins gradually to bevel in the 
opposite direction up to point B. The 
full line on the upper edge of the end 
view gives the bevel at the point where 




Fig. 5 

shaving. Plane marks will probably 
show at the center where the stopping 
is done. These should be scraped out 
as illustrated by Fig. 5. 

Fig. 6 shows how to try the edge of a 
timber to see whether it is square. To 



Fig. 6 

the square is applied, while the dotted 
line gives the bevel at point B. Com- 
pare and study the two views. 

Fig. 7 shows a plane used as a 
straightedge for testing the surface of 
a board for humps or hollows. The 
plane is tilted enough so that the corner 




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30 



THE CARPENTER 



will make the test. In this case the 
board is badly warped — or, Ave might 
say, exaggerated. If the board shown 
were turned over and the plane were 
applied, the test would show just the 
opposite from what is shown by the 
drawing. 



would dull the plane bit, rather than 
sharpen it. We are illustrating this by 
Fig. 8, where the plane to the right, as 
the arrow indicates, is in position for 
cutting a shaving in the direction of the 
arrow, while the plane to the left has 
the heel lifted for the return trip in 




Fig. 7 



Early in our experience the foreman 
put us to jointing boards. After we had 
worked awhile, he happened along, and 
remarked with a grin, "I notice you 
sharpen your plane on the return trip." 
Then he went on to explain that if the 
plane is pulled back over the edge of 
the board, the heel of the plane should 
be lifted, otherwise the return trip 



Fig. 8 

the direction of the arrow. Some car- 
penters lift the plane off the board en- 
tirely and carry it back, which is per- 
haps the better way to do, especially in 
cases of jointing rather long boards. 

It would be- a good investment of 
time, if the student would go over the 
several lessons we have presented in 
this series dealing with the various 
phases of this subject and review or 
check up on them, in order to bring 
them together in his mind as more 
nearly a single unit. 

(Copyrighted 1946)— H. H. Siegele 



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THAT OLD CHESTNUT 

Recently we were in a group where 
a man presented the old chestnut of 
sawing an 8x8 block in such a way that 
it would gain one square in.cn in sur- 
face if placed in a certain position. He 
was not trying to fool anybody with it, 
because he actually believed that one 
square inch was gained; for 8 times 8 
equals 64, making 64 square inches, 
while 13 times 5, the new position, 
equaled 65, making 65 square inches. 
But let us debunk the whole thing: 




Fig. 1 

Fig. 1 shows an 8x8 block marked 
for cutting into four pieces, which can 
be reassembled in such a manner that 
the new position, apparently, produces 
a surface having 6 5 square inches in it. 




Fig. 2 

Fig. 2 shows the 4 pieces reassembled 
into the 5x13 position, and anybody 
knows that 5 times 13 equals 65 . . . 
Here is the debunking proof: If the 
reader will examine Fig. 2 closely, he 
will find that there is a heavily shaded 
diagonal streak that tapers off to a 
point at each end. That streak consti- 
tutees the alleged one square inch that 
was gained in surface by the trick cut- 
ting. But if you still are unconvinced, 
figure out the area of each of the four 
pieces and add up the number of square 
inches in them, and you will have the 
sum of 64 square inches. . . It's an old 
chestnut. 

(Copyrighted 1946)— H. H. Siegele 



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O/ficia/ Publication ol 
HERHOOD o/ CARPENTERS 



L 







what to do 



if polio strikes 

If infantile paralysis (polimyelitis) breaks out 
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June through September is the danger period 
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Keep flies and other insects away from 

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Help keep your community clean. Waste 
and exposed garbage may be sources of 
infection. 

Don't swim in polluted waters. 
Avoid removal of tonsils or adenoids 
prior to and during polio epidemic sea- 
son. 



There is no know cure for infantile 
paralysis. Good medical care will pre- 
vent or correct some deformities. But 
in every fourth or fifth case there 
'Will be permanent paralysis that can- 
not be overcome. Do not believe those 
who for one reason or another promise 
to cure these cases. Be guided by sound 
medical advice. 

Your doctor, your health officer and 
ybur county Chapter of the National 
Foundation for Infantile Paralysis will 
do everything in their power to see to 



it that your community is ready to meet 
an epidemic. Year-round services pro- 
vided by the National Foundation Chap- 
ters, in cooperation with local health 
authorities include: 

Hospitalization, transportation, care 
and treatment of polio patients. 

Purchase of artificial respirators (iron 
lungs), orthopedic appliances and other 
special equipment. 

Payment of fees, of physicians, 
nurses, physical therapists and other 
professional personnel. 



These Services Are Made Possible Through 
Your Contributions to the March of Dimes 




When thousands of carpenters were 
recently asked, "In your opinion, which 
make of handsaw is highest in quality ?", 
3 out of 4 said, "Disston handsaws." 
Many reasons were given, most of which 
add up to these: finer steel, longer life, 
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In the extensive Disston line there are 
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for a FREE copy of the 
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The saw most Carpenters use 



A Monthly Journal, Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners 

of America, for all its Members of all its Branches. 

FRANK DUFFY, Editor 

Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, 4, Indiana 



Established in 1881 
Vol. LXVI— No. 7 



INDIANAPOLIS, JULY, 1946 



One Dollar Per Year 
Ten Cents a Copy 



Con tents 



There Ought to be a Law 



A script you will never hear on your favorite radio station, but one that hits the nail 
on the head nevertheless. You can hear it enacted every day if you will just listen 
to peopie; and, as the author points out, the greedier the person talking, the more 
vitroiic he is against Eabor. 



Labor Must Be Free 



10 



George Meony tells the Twenty-fifth General Convention that America grew great be- 
cause its peoples and institutions were free, and it will continue to remain great only 
so long as its peop.es and institutions continue to rema.n free. 



Japan's Tools for Peace 



14 



American occupation forces find Japanese carpenters using tools of the most primitive 
soft. The hardest adjustment these Nip carpenters have to make in working for Ameri- 
cans is uj.ng nails— something tney haven't see since the War Lords dedicated the nation's 
metals to the war machine. 



OTHER DEPARTMENTS: 



Plane Gossip 

Editorials - 

Official 

In Memoriain 

Correspondence 

Craft Problems - 

Index to Advertisers 



12 
16 
18 
23 
24 
26 

31 



Although the war is over, the paper situation remains extremeiy tight. Our quota is so limited 
that we must continue confining The Carpenter to thirty-two pages instead of the usual sixty-four. 
Until such time as the paper situation improves, this will have to be our rule. 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of 

Congress, Aug. 24, 1912. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for 

in Section 1103, act of October 3, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918. 




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THERE OUGHT TO BE A LAW 



You'll never hear this script over your favorite radio station, out if you'll keep your 
ears open in a swanky club or a grocery store or a farming community or a Pullman 
car you'll hear it enacted a million times a day in real life. And, if you'll notice, 
the greedier an individual that is doing the talking, the more vitriolic he is against 
unions, which, in the final analysis, are waging a losing battle to maintam for their 
members some semblance of a decent living standard in a price economy gone wild. — 
Peter E. Terzick, Asst. Editor. 



SOUND: 



1st MANUFACTURER: 
2nd MANUFACTURER: 

1st MANUFACTURER: 
2nd MANUFACTURER: 



1st MANUFACTURER: 
2nd MANUFACTURER: 

1st MANUFACTURER: 



2nd MANUFACTURER: 

1st MANUFACTURER: 
2nd MANUFACTURER: 
1st MANUFACTURER: 



2nd MANUFACTURER: 



SOUND OF 2 MEN EATING LUNCH IN A PLUSH DIN- 
ING ROOM. SUBDUED: BACKGROUND NOISES OF 
CHINA AND CRYSTAL BEING HANDLED DEFTLY 
BY SKILLED WAITERS. 

(BURPS) That's what I call a good lunch, Henry. 

Yeah. It was pretty good all right. I think the food at 

the Club here is getting better again. 

It's about time. Those steaks they fed us during the 

war were pretty lousy. I was getting about ready to 

resign. 

Yeah, so was I. But I guess they had their troubles. 
You know how the Black Market is . . . you can't depend 
on anything you get. 

I guess so. But I'm sure glad it's getting better. 
Me, too. Say, I hear the Club employes are trying to 
organize. 

Yeah, I heard it too. What the Hell are those unions 
going to do next? One of the reasons I liked to belong 
here was that I could come here once in awhile and 
relax and get away from those blankety-blank union 
guys. 

Same here. Maybe we better tell the Club manager 
he can count on our resignations if he gets this place 
messed up with a union. 

Say, that sounds like a good idea. Let's do it right 
after we finish. 

Okay. Don't let me forget. By the way, how are you 
making out with the union at your plant? 
(EXCITEDLY) How am I making out? How am I mak- 
ing out? You know how I'm making out. I don't know 
what those guys are thinking about. You know, Henry, 
those so-and-so's are talking about strike again? They 
already got 14c an hour since 1941 but they still aren't 
satisfied. They want more. They want 10c an hour 
more. I tell you we got to have a law. They're plain 
greedy. They'll ruin this country. We got to have a 
law and we got to have it quick. 

That's what I say. My men are talking strike too. 
It's nothing but greed, that's what it is. We got to have 
a law . . . Say, how are you fixed in case they do strike? 



THE CARPENTER 



1st MANUFACTURER: 

2nd MANUFACTURER: 
1st MANUFACTURER: 

2nd MANUFACTURER: 

1st MANUFACTURER: 

SOUND: 



1st CUSTOMER: 
2nd CUSTOMER: 

1st CUSTOMER: 
2nd CUSTOMER: 
1st CUSTOMER: 

2nd CUSTOMER: 

1st CUSTOMER: 
2nd CUSTOMER: 

1st CUSTOMER: 
2nd CUSTOMER: 

1st CUSTOMER: 

2nd CUSTOMER: 

1st CUSTOMER: 



2nd CUSTOMER 
1st CUSTOMER: 



Oh, I'm sitting Okay. You know I haven't been selling 
anything for 6 months. I've got most of her all stacked 
up in the warehouses waiting for that blasted OPA to 
loosen up or go out of existence. 

Yeah, ,me too. I haven't filled a real order since De- 
cember. I'm not working on any 23% margin . . . 

Me either. It looks like the public is getting hot under 
the collar. I think OPA will have to give us another 
20% price boost if we just hold out a little longer. 

I certainly hope so. At the same time if we can get a 
law knocking the unions in the head this country is 
going to get somewhere. 

That's the way I look at it. We've got to get these 
greedy unions put in their place. We got to have a law. 
That's what we need — a law . . . (FADE) 

FADE IN SOUND OF BUSY GROCERY STORE. . .CASH 
REGISTERS CLICKING, MERCHANDISE BEING 
MOVED, ETC. 

Why, Myra, dear! It's so good to see you. 

Hello, Madge. Why I haven't see you in ages, dear. 
How are you? 

Splendid, dear, splendid. 

How is Mr. Wells . . . and dear, dear Junior? 

They're both fine, but Mr. Wells is terribly busy with 
his law practice. 

That's the way it is with Dick, too. You know how short 
the country has been of doctors. Dick is just on the go 
night and day. 

The poor dear . . . My isn't this shopping frightful? 

Terrible! And the prices! They're simply outrageous. 
It's those unions. It's those greedy workers. They're 
never satisfied. They're always after more money. 

You're absolutely right, dear. It's ghastly. There really 
ought to be a law. 

There certainly should be. I can't imagine why the 
President or Congress or somebody doesn't do something 
about it. 

Really, it's simply scandalous . . . Oh, by the way, we're 
moving soon. 

You are? Where are you going? 

We're moving back to our old house on 10th Street. A 
man who just moved to town was desperate for a house. 
My dear, he practically insisted on buying our new 
house. We asked $18,000 and he finally had to take 
it. And it only cost us $7,200 you know. 

WONDERFUL! Simply wonderful! When are you mov- 
ing? 

That's the trouble. I don't know. You see, we rented our 
old house to a veteran and his wife. Now we're having 
a hard time getting them out. But it seems they have 
a baby now and we can evict them on account of that 
or something. It's all terribly legal or something but 
Hayward is taking care of it. He's practically fraternity 
brothers with all the judges you know. 



THE CARPENTER 



2nd CUSTOMER: 
1st CUSTOMER: 



2nd CUSTOMER: 
1st CUSTOMER: 

SOUND: 

1st FARMER: 

2nd FARMER 

1st FARMER 
2nd FARMER 
1st FARMER 

2nd FARMER: 

1st FARMER: 

2nd FARMER: 
1st FARMER: 

2nd FARMER: 
1st FARMER: 
2nd FARMER: 



1st FARMER: 

2nd FARMER: 
1st FARMER: 



2nd FARMER: 



1st FARMER: 



Isn't it all just too thrilling ? 

Yes, isn't it. We simply hate to wait. I do hope Hayward 
gets matters settled in a hurry. Well, I'm afraid I must 
get on with my shopping. Don't you just hate shop- 
ping nowadays? These prices! I tell you, Myra, those 
greedy unions have to b'e stopped somehow. There ought 
to be a law. 

You're absolutely right. There ought to be. It's a 
scandal, that's what it is. 

That's what Mr. Wells says. There ought to be a law to 
stop those greedy workers. Well, good bye, dear, that's 
what we need, a law . . . (FADE) 

FADE IN SOUND OF AUTOMOBILE RUNNING. 

Say, this is awful nice of you to drive me into town, 

Hank. My car is supposed to be ready today. 

That's all right, Frank, I had to go into town anyway. 

Well, I sure appreciate it. 

Think nothing of it. I know you'd do the same for me. 

I certainly would. By the way, how's your wheat 

coming. 

Pretty good. Another good rain before the end of the 

month ought to put it in fine shape. How's yours doing? 

Mine looks good, too. I think it's going to be a pretty 

good year, especially if Congress does something about 

this labor situation. 

Say, isn't it a crime the way these unions are running 
hog wild? The workers never seem to be satisfied. 
Ain't it the truth! Do you know what they are charg- 
ing me to have my car fixed? Seventy-eight dollars. All 
they're doing is changing the rings and putting in a 
new set of wiring. 

It's a rotten shame, that's what it is. There ought to be 
a law stopping these crazy unions. 

That's what I think. Say, Hank, have you sold all your 
last year's wheat yet? 

Not by a jugful, Frank. I still got most of her yet. The 
way I figger, she's got to go up to $2 before long. You 
know they got to send lots of it to Europe to keep them 
people from starving. Besides the mills are running low 
on their supply. My boy Reed writes me from the city 
that you can't hardly buy a loaf of bread in the stores 
any more, the flour shortage is getting that bad. I figger 
if I hold on to mine she'll hit $2 in a couple of weeks 
after the people get hungry enough to put the heat on 
OPA. 

Me too, Hank. I got all mine yet. She looks like $2 in a 
little while if we hang on. 
It sure does. 

Say, let me off at the next corner. I think while I'm 
in town I'll drop a line to my Congressman telling him 
there ought to be a law to stop them greedy unions. 
Say, that's a good idea. I think I'll write a letter too. 
We got to stop them greedy union people or they'll 
wreck the country. Don't forget to tell him there ought 
to be a law. 

Don't worry, I'll tell him. I'll tell him there ought to be 
a law stopping them greedy workers . . . (FADE) 



THE CARPENTER 



SOUND: FADE IN SOUND OF VEGETABLE CRATES BEING 

OPENED WITH HAMMER. 

1st PARTNER: Say, Mac, I got two crates a' fresh pineapples. What 

d'ya say we make a display of 'em right here in front? 

2nd PARTNER: Okay, John, whatever ya' say. I been yer partner in this 

fruit stand 10 years and ya' ain't guessed wrong yet. 

1st PARTNER: Thanks, Pal. Yer gettin' to be a first class vegetable man 

yerself. 

2nd PARTNER; Gee, thanks. 

1st PARTNER: Okay, Pal. Keep it up. Say, Mac, I purt near didn't get 

no stuff today. They's some kind a' trouble down to 
produce row. Seems like some unions is tryin' to step 
in or somethin'. 

2nd PARTNER: Ya' don't say. 

1st PARTNER: Yeah. They was lots of runnin' around and arguin'. I 

just got my stuff on the truck and beat it. 

2nd PARTNER: Ya' think they might be a strike? 

1st PARTNER: Ya' can't never tell. Them cockeyed unions been run- 

nin' wild. 

2nd PARTNER: Ain't they? Seems like them guys ain't never satisfied. 

I tell ya', John, it looks to me like there should ought 
to be a law puttin' the slug on them guys. 

1st PARTNER You said it, Pal. Them workers is goin' nuts. Never 

satisfied. Always tryin' to get more. There should ought 
to be a law . . . Say, Mac. I notice ya' been puttin' ten- 
twelve spears a' asparagus to the bunch. That was Okay 
before the war but we got to cut her down now. Seven 
or eight is plenty now. 

2nd PARTNER: I thought them OPA guys might . . . 

1st PARTNER: Forget them guys, Pal. We gotta think about ourselves. 

And another thing ... I ain't criticism' mind ya' . . . but 
ya' been trimmin' the cabbage some. We shouldn't ought 
to trim it any more. Ya know we sell it by the pound. 
And wet 'er down plenty every mornin'. Water's heavy 
and don't cost nothin'. 

2nd PARTNER: Okay, John I'll remember from now on. 

1st PARTNER: I don't want you should get mad, 'cause all I'm tryin' 

to do is help ya', but I notice yesterday ya' threw away 
a couple a' bad tomatoes like we use ta'. We don't hafta' 
do that no more. Put 'em in the bottom of the bag. 
Them customers can't quit us now. 

2nd PARTNER: Okay, John. I appreciate ya' showin' me the ropes like 

ya' been. 

1st PARTNER: Swell, Pal. Now like I was savin' about them unions. 

Them guys is goin' nuts . . . always tryin' to get more 
and more. They ain't never satisfied. I tell ya', Pal, 
there should ought to be a law. 

2nd PARTNER: Yeah, yeah. 

1st PARTNER: Them guys is just greedy. I don't see why that there 

President Truman don't put his foot down. 

2nd PARTNER: Yeah, yeah. 

1st PARTNER: That's the kind of stuff that'll wreck the country. There 

should ought to be a law. That's what I say . . . (FADE) 

(From here on you can imagine your own scenes) 



THE CARPENTER 









TO MEMBERS 



*-¥■ 



DELEGATE JOHN J. HARTNETT, L. U. 626, AVilming- 
ton, Delaware: Mr. President and delegates, I make a mo- 
tion that the delegates of the Twenty-Fifth Convention of 
the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of 
America rise and stand in silence for one minute in respect 
and honor of the members of United Brotherhood of Car- 
penters and Joiners of America who gave their lives in de- 
fending the principles for which our flag stands — -freedom. 

That a separate page of the proceedings of this con- 
vention be set aside in honor of all the members who served 
in defending our Flag in all parts of the world. 

That a copy of this motion be printed in the Carpenters' 
Journal, to show that we have not forgotten them. 

(Adopted by unanimous rising vote, the delegates stand- 
ing in silent tribute for one minute, in accordance with the 
motion). 






10 



Labor Must Be Free 

(Excerpts from the remarks of George Meany, AFL Sec'y-Treas., before the Twenty-fifth 
General Convention at Lakeland, Fta. ) 



A SHORT TIME after your last convention was held our country was 
plunged into a war, and for the first time perhaps in the history of 
the American labor movement we came face to face with Govern- 
ment control. During all the years of our history one of the guiding prin- 
ciples that motivated the actions of the American Federation of Labor 
was its adherence to the idea of free labor. Every fight that we had back 
in the early days, whether it was with the employer, whether it was with 
the deputy sheriffs, whether it was with the Legislature of the State or 
Washington, D. C. had for its idea the maintenance of labor's freedom. 

We felt then and we feel now that to be successful, to really contribute 
to the welfare of workers in a democracy, labor must be free. It must be 
free to negotiate its contracts, it 



must be free to form its Unions, it 
must be free to write the conditions 
under which it will or will not work, 
and it must be free not to work if 
those conditions are not satisfac- 
tory. 

However, in December of 1941, 
not more than six days after the at- 
tack by the Japanese on Pearl 
Harbor had plunged our nation into 
war, President Green called a con- 
ference of the International Officers 
of the American Federation of La- 
bor and at that conference the rep- 
resentatives of these International 
Unions for the first time in the his- 
tory of the American Federation of 
Labor agreed that in the interests 
of our country as a whole, in the 
interests, the greater interests, if 
you please, than that of our labor 
movement, we would submit to a 
measure of Government control. 

No, we did not say so, in so many 
words, but what we did say is this, 
we said that we will lay aside for 
the duration of the war our strike 
clause. 



Of course we hear people say, 
well, that record was not kept 100 
per cent. Well, that is true. After 
all, it was a pledge made by human 
beings to other human beings. 
There was nothing divine about it, 
therefore there was nothing perfect 
about it. But I do submit this, that 
in comparison to the record made 
during the war by other human ele- 
ments in the Government and in his- 
tory, the record of labor during the 
war stands out. The record shows 
that insofar as keeping its no-strike 
pledge was concerned labor was 99! 
per cent perfect. That is the official 
record; less than one-half of one 
per cent of working days were lost 
during the war due to industrial dis- 
putes and matters stemming from 
industrial disputes. 

Well, we had some price control. 
We had some rationing. We had 
many other measures set out as a 
part of the war effort. Is there any- 
one here who can say that price con- 
trol was 99^ per cent effective? Is 
there anvone willing: to sav that 



THE CARPENTER 



11 



rationing was effective to the ex- 
tent of 991 per cent? 

But during this time labor had to 
contend with many headaches. We 
had the War Labor Board, estab- 
lished by agreement between the 
Government, management and labor, 
and that agreement set forth in very 
simple language that instead of 
strikes, instead of lockouts, instead 
of industrial conflict, all disputes 
would be settled by a tripartite War 
Labor Board composed equally of 
representatives of the public, of 
management and of labor. That 
agreement was made in 1941. It was 
violated in 1943 by the Government 
stepping in and taking from that tri- 
partite Board the power to set 
wages, the power to settle wage dis- 
putes and that power was given to 
an Economic Stabilization Director. 
And so we found that despite our 
agreement with the Government we 
did not get what we agreed we were 
going to get. 

America has become the greatest 
nation on earth by virtue of the fact 
that it has had a free economy, that 
it has had a free labor movement, 
and when I say it is the greatest 
nation on earth I am not thinking 
of its roads, I am not thinking of 
its tall buildings, I am thinking of 
its people. America is the greatest 
nation on earth because its people, 
the common people of this great na- 
tion have the highest standard of 
life of any people on earth. And 
that was achieved by the activities 
of such organizations as yours, such 
organizations of the American Fed- 
eration of Labor conducting busi- 
ness as free men, free to conduct 
business, free to work, free not to 
work, and if America is going to 
maintain that leadership, if America 
is going to go forward in the future, 
it is going to go forward under that 
system, not under the system of Gov- 



ernment control, not under a system 
by which the Government tells a 
man whom you are going to work 
for, and how much you are going 
to work for and when you are go- 
ing to work and when you are not 
going to work. This may not seem 
very important, it may seem far- 
fetched, but the trend is in that di- 
rection. The trend in Washington 
is in that direction. 

But here this morning this is a 
thought that I wish you will give 
consideration to, not only in this 
convention but in your daily lives, 
in your work, in your home cities; 
give thought to the fact that what 
made America great is a free econ- 
omy, and let's see to it that we do 
our part to see that labor is free 
completely and absolutely to do its 
business as it has done it in the past, 
so that it may again contribute to 
the welfare of this great nation by 
making the lives of its people a 
little better and better as the days 
go on. 

I say that the American Federa- 
tion of Labor is going to follow this 
philosophy. It is going to hew to 
the line, to set its face forward and 
let everyone know that Ave are not 
a political organization, that we are 
an economic organization, that we 
are concerned with the welfare of 
our members, that we want to build 
up the standards of work and life 
for our people and their families. 
And I am sure when we do this, 
when we move forward in that di- 
rection, there is one real, old-fash- 
ioned trade union organization and 
one real old-fashioned trade union- 
ist that is going to be on the side 
of the American Federation of La- 
bor in that effort, and that organiza- 
tion is the United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America 
under the sterling leadership of 
William L. Hutcheson. 



THE END IS NOT YET 

Well, after a long, hard struggle the 
Case Bill has been finally knocked in the 
head. It represents a real victory for 
labor but not a permanent one. Other 
anti-labor bills are still in the hopper. 
One by one, labor has managed to 
smother these vicious measures as they 
came up, but there is always another 
one just around the corner. In fact the 
situation sort of reminds us of the two 
chaps in adjacent foxholes. Shelling 
was particularly heavy. 

"You scared?" asked one of the G.I.'s 
of his neighbor. 

"Naw," replied the second, "them 
Jerries ain't got no shell with my name 
on it." 

"Well," replied the first, "I ain't 
scared they got any shell with my name 
on it. What I'm afraid of is they got 
one addressed 'To Whom It May Con- 
cern.' " 

• * • 

A START AT LEAST 

Here and there throughout the coun- 
try a house is going up now and then. 
It's a far cry from the millions that 
were going to built almost overnight by 
the Washington Big Wigs, but anyway 



5^ Precinct 

POLICE 
STATION 




Attention precinct five! Robbers at- 
tired as police held up roadhouse! Oet 
these men or think up a funny story for 
the commissioner I 



it's a start. About the only comment we 
can make is to tell about the ambitious 
young man who was drafted. From the 
day he was inducted he worked like a 
beaver. In a couple of months he was 
promoted to corporal. Writing home to 
his wife he said: 

"I have my first step in the way of 
promotion. I am now a corporal but 
don't start highbrowing the neighbors 
or move into a big new house yet." 

• • • 

STILL OUR ONLY 

As this is being written the UNO is 
entering the critical stage of its exist- 
ence. Maybe the UNO isn't perfect but 
still we can't imagine any hope of world 
peace without it. In this respect maybe 
we're a little bit like Patrick Dugan. 

Patrick Dugan, illiterate but enter- 
prising, obtained a job as sexton, and 
was doing quite well in his new position, 
until there was a burial in his church- 
yard and he was asked to sign the cer- 
tificate. Pat admitted reluctantly that 
he could not write, and was discharged. 

The unemployed man scratched 
around and found a few small tinkering 
jobs, and then, as the years went by, 
he was able to build up a large and 
prosperous contracting business. Wealth 
and position became his. 

One day Pat needed $75,000 for a 
new development, and went to the bank 
to borrow it. 

"You can have the money, Mr. 
Dugan," the banker told him. "Just 
sign these notes." 

"Oi can't write," said Pat. 

"Can't write?" exclaimed the banker. 
"And yet you have become one of the 
most wealthy and influential men in this 
community. What would you have been 
today if you could write?" 

"A sexton making $50 a month," re- 
plied the clever Irishman. 

* • • 

ONE MINUTE EDITORIAL 

The test of courage comes when we 
are in the minority; the test of toler- 
ance comes when we are in the majority. 



THE CARPENTER 



13 



THE B. A.'s DREAM 

A man knocked at the Heavenly Gate 

His face was scarred and old; 

He stood before the man of fate 

For admission to the fold. 

"What have you done," St. Peter asked 

"To gain admission here?" 

"I've been a business agent, sir," he 

said, 
"For many and many a year." 
The pearly gates swung open wide, 
St. Peter touched the bell — 
"Come in and choose your harp," he 

said, 
"You've had your share of hell!" 

• • • 

THEY CAN'T SEE FOR LOOKING 

Mrs. Thompson was taking her first 
driving lesson. 

"Henry," she complained to her hus- 
band, "that little mirror up there isn't 
set right." 

"Isn't it?" said Mr. Thompson. 

"No," explained Mrs. Thompson; "I 
can't see anything but the car behind." 

And that's about the way some people 
are when it conies to looking at organ- 
ized labor; all they can see is the 
strikes that break out once in awhile. 
Tfiey never see the millions of workers 
putting in long hard hours to turn out 
the goods we all need. They never see 
the risks these men assume in their 
daily work or the years they spend in 
acquiring their special skills and know- 
how. 

• • • 
HE'S NO ROYALTY 

And a man shouldn't get the idea he 
is the king of his household just because 
his wife crowns him once in awhile. 

• • • 
ENCOURAGING SIGNS 

Millions of words have been written 
about our chances (or lack of chances) 
of maintaining peace for any consider- 
able length of time. To our way of 
thinking, George Bernard Shaw has an- 
alyzed the situation the most ably. Old 
GBS feels that maybe there won't be 
another war for a long time. He feels 
that way not because he thinks human 
nature is improving, but rather because 
the atom bomb is so devastating the 
next war won't last very long. And if 
it doesn't last very long, the war mon- 
gers won't be able to make their usual 
billions of dollars out of it. And if they 
can't make billions out of it they won't 
be very interested in promoting it. 



To that we think he could have added 
that the atom bomb is too dangerous. 
No place in the world will be really 
safe in the next war. And if the war 
mongers have to risk their own necks 
they won't be quite so enthusiastic about 
war. 

• • • 

AIN'T SCIENCE WONDERFUL 
And just so you won't worry too much 
about the atomic bomb, let us describe a 
few of the new playthings science is de- 
veloping for the next war. First, there 
is germ warfare — all nice clean fun. A 
nation dumps highly virulent forms of 
concentrated germ culture on an enemy 
nation and whole populations are wiped 
out through epidemics. And if that 
doesn't suit your fancy, there are plant 
diseases and poisons. These are so po- 
tent they can kill a nation's crops and 
destroy the fertility of its soil so that 
the people starve to death. Of course 
if you think that is too barbaric there 
is the new atomic gas. By means of 
deadly rays it wipes out all animal and 
plant life for miles around. 
Well, pleasant dreams, folks. 

• • • 

IT CAN HAPPEN HERE 

A news article tells about a Washing- 
ton, D. C. girl who went to the corner 
grocery for a loaf of bread and came 
back with $4,000 she found on the way. 

If opponents succeed in their efforts 
to wreck OPA entirely and eliminate 
the blundering but welcome protection 
it gives us, she may need $4,000 when 
she goes for a loaf of bread a few 
months from now. 




/ got it to keep you from growling. He 
never ate meat and look what he got 
to be I 



14 



Japan's Tools 



By BOB DOWNER 



JAPANESE carpenters who have gone to work for the American 
government are getting the surprise of their lives as they see Ameri- 
can tools for the first time, because Japanese tools, crude at best, 
seem primitive compared to American equipment. 

Japanese planes, basically, are blades set in blocks of wood. A notch 
accommodates the blade, and in the middle of the notch, across the width 
of the plane, is an iron or steel rod. 



A wedge between the blade and the 
rod keeps the blade steady. 

The cut of the blade is adjusted 
by tapping it with a hammer, and 



Of all the tools that a Japanese 
carpenter carries in his canvas bag, 
the most unusual is the saw. In- 
stead of a pistol-grip handle, the 







miimMB-A 






wmmm&mm 








"■>'■■.. ■ :■..''■.:... v : :' •■' : 



Nineteen-year-old Japanese carpenter displays the tools he carries with him 
in his canvas bag. _The planes (upper left) are usually used with the right hand. 
The carpenter holds the stock with his left hand and pulls the plane toward him. 



then the wedge is driven as far as 
possible to steady the blade. 

Few Japanese carpenters have 
claw hammers. Most of them use 
double-headed hammers and draw 
nails with a sort of crowbar. 



saws have a straight handle, like 
a hammer. 

Instead of having teeth on only 
one side of the blade, Japanese 
saws have teeth on both edges — 
sometimes rip on one edge and 



THE CARPENTER 



15 



crosscut on the other. In most cases 
the number of points per inch varies 
in the teeth of one edge, from fine 
teeth at the toe of the blade to 
coarse teeth at the heel. 

Japanese squares are of thin 
metal and very narrow, almost like 
American steel tape measures. The 
square is marked off according - to 
the metric system, but no figures 
are on the square. 

At the present time there is a 
shortage of such squares, and Japa- 



because there were no nails to pull. 
Industrial experts think that there 
will be an improvement in Japanese 
tools soon, because scrapped muni- 
tions will provide plenty of raw 
material, and peacetime machinery 
is being returned to manufacturers 
through the Japanese Home Minis- 
try. They hope that the lessons 
Japan learned in making tools of 
war will be helpful in making tools 
for peace. 

The mystery that remains, how- 




In making cut for a lap joint, carpenter doesn't even use a vise or bench-hook, 
but holds the stock with one hand. Note tool bag near his left hand. 



nese carpenters working for Amer- 
ican army units sometimes use 
American made squares. 

The main difficulty that Japanese 
carpenters have, according to army 
carpenters supervising them, is that 
they can't get used to using nails. 
With most of Japan's metal being 
used for munitions during the war, 
carpenters had to use wooden pegs 
in almost every case where nails 
would ordinarily have been used. 
Few claw-hammers were ever made 



ever, is how the Japanese with 
their primitive, almost aboriginal 
tools ever expected to produce 
enough war materiel to compete 
with American assembly lines and 
modern equipment. 

By contrast to Japan's primitive 
hand tool situation our govern- 
ment is on the first of this month 
releasing some five million dollars 
worth of fine hand tools for sale to 
the public from its surplus stores. 

— Photos by Leonard Art 



Editorial 




None So Blind 



No one can conscientiously deny that the nation is right now in the 
midst of the worst muddle in its history. Particularly in the field of labor 
relations is the situation bad. There are confusion and strikes and indus- 
trial unrest. Why? What brought it all on? 

The answer is simple. Lack of a constructive program from Wash- 
ington brought it on. Lack of foresight and vision on the part of our 
elected leaders set the stage. Ignorance of and indifference to the needs 
and desires of the common people called the tune. Greed on the part of 
vested interests with strong lobbies in Washington acted out the tragedy. 

In December 1944 we wrote an editorial (appearing in the January, 
1945, issue) in which we predicted the very things that are now happening. 
Let us quote in part : 

"We still have no definite policy toward labor during the war, 
or plan for after the war. Lacking a clear-cut guiding principle, 
we have met each labor crisis with an improvisation which, while 
patching the immediate breach, has generated new misunderstand- 
ings of its own .... Buck-passing, boondoggling, and delay, 
coupled with the unfair, unworkable Little Steel Formula, have 
created a morass of chaos unparalleled in American labor history. 
And the situation shows no promise of improving. Disputes are 
piling up faster than the War Labor Board can handle them. Cases 
are being kicked around from pillar to post for months and even 
years before decisions are handed down; and when they are finally 
handed down they are more often than not so confusing and incon- 
sistent that no one can understand them. Workers are becoming 
fed up and resentful and the general public is becoming genuinely 
alarmed. 

"While the situation is bad enough while the war is going on, 
it promises to become much worse after the last shot is fired unless 
something is done immediately. Then there will be no stimulus 
of patriotism to keep men plugging away at their jobs in the face 
of mounting and endless injustices. Then there will be no driving 
urge compelling employers to keep production lines going full 
speed regardless of any other considerations. Then the real 
breakdown will come unless a consistent and realistic labor policy 
is developed in the meantime. 

"Some people seem to think that after the war is time enough 
to tackle the matter. Nothing could be more erroneous. The 
present situation cannot drift along indefinitely. The breakdown 
may come long before the end of the war — something that must 
be avoided at all costs. Furthermore, if this country is to avoid 
another disastrous depression following the cessation of hostilities 
a blueprint for an orderly reconversion program must be worked 
out beforehand. Labor cannot be ignored in that blueprint. 

"Nor can anything as impractical as the Little Steel Formula 
be maintained indefinitely ... A situation of this kind cannot 
help but develop terrific internal pressures. To date these pres- 
sures have been kept under control, but when they do break 



THE CARPENTER 17 

through the seams, the explosion will be colossal. How long will 
it be before the explosion occurs? No one can say; but no one can 
deny the time bomb is ticking and ticking fast." 

There you have it in a nutshell. Stupidity or cupidity on the part of 
some of the people we sent to Washington created the unhappy situation 
prevailing at present. We are neither politician, brain-truster nor expert, 
but we saw it coming in 1944. We were only a plain carpenter then and 
we are still only a plain carpenter, but we see something even worse 
coming in 1947 or 1948 if the Big Wigs in Washington continue in their 
determination to shackle labor through crippling legislation. Free enter- 
prise will endure only so long as all segments of it are free. Labor's free- 
dom cannot be abridged without the rights of others being abridged, too. 
The day that labor is shackled is the day free enterprise starts singings its 
swan song. Industrial peace cannot be brought about by legislating away 
men's right to air their grievances and take legitimate action to correct the 
same. Neither can men be compelled to work against their will by any 
methods short of Hitler's. 

If a plain carpenter can see these things, why can't the representatives 
of the people in Washington — men who are supposed to represent the 
cream of our brains — see them? 



It's the Same Old Sad Story 

After the first world war Big Business created for itself a perfect 
setup for milking the country of fabulous profits. It introduced the so- 
called "American Plan" — a plan which did nothing more or less than 
substitute company unions for legitimate unions. Without militant unions 
to contend with, Business had its own way. Prices went up while wages 
stayed down. In the years from 1919 to 1929, profits grew fatter and 
fatter. In that period Business embarked on a forty billion dollar expan- 
sion program. Then came October, 1929. There was forty billion dollars 
worth of new production capacity but there was no buying power to use 
up that production because wages were kept down. The result was panic, 
crash, and depression. Had a wiser program been followed there might 
never have been a serious depression. Had half of the forty billion dollars 
gone into wage increases and half of it into expansion the gap between 
productive capacity and buying capacity might never have brought on the 
debacle that created the black days of the 30's. 

All that is water under the bridge. It was a sad experience but one which 
should have taught us a lesson. However, it is now becoming clear that 
it taught Business nothing. Look at the program Business is now em- 
barked on. It is a repetition of the 20's in a more virulent form. 

As this is being written, OPA is about to sing its swan song. Big 
Business pressure on Congress is sounding the death knell of price control. 
At the same time Business is determined to hamstring the unions through 
crippling legislation. If it succeeds, what sort of a setup will it have? 
There will be no limits on the prices it can charge; at the same time 
workers will be unable to demand and get higher wages because the 
hands of their unions will be tied by anti-strike legislation. What will 
the result be? An era of unprecedented prosperity followed by a bust 
that will make 1930 look like good times. 






Official Information 




General Officers of 
THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS 

of AMERICA 

General Office : Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General President 

WM. L. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Fiest General Vice-President General Secretary 

M. A. HUTCHESON FRANK DUFFY 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Second General Vice-President General Treasurer 

JOHN R. STEVENSON S. P. MEADOWS 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Executive Board 
First District, CHARLES JOHNSON, Jr. Fifth District, R. E. ROBERTS 

111 E. 22nd St., New York 10, N. Y. 631 W. Page, Dallas, Texas 



Second District, WM. J. KELLY Sixth District, A. W. MUIR 

Carpenters' Bid., 243 4th Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. Box 1168, Santa Barbara, Calif. 



Third District, HARRY SCHWARZER Seventh District, ARTHUR MARTEL 

3684 W. 136th St., Cleveland, O. H82 St. Lawrence, Rrn. 10, Montreal, Que., Can. 



Fourth District, ROLAND ADAMS WM. L. HUTCHESON, Chairman 

712 West Palmetto St.. Florence, S. C. FRANK DUFFY, Secretary 

All correspondence for the General Executive Board must be sent to the General Secretary. 



MEETING OF GENERAL EXECUTIVE BOARD 

Carpenters' Home, Lakeland, Fla. 
April 18, 1946. 

The General Executive Board met in session on the above date, at Carpenters' 
Home, Lakeland, Florida. 

All members present. 

The General President reported that arrangements had been completed for the 
opening of our Twenty-Fifth General Convention on Monday morning, April 22, 
in the City Auditorium of Lakeland, Florida, after which the sessions will be held 
in the auditorium of the Carpenters' Home until all the business to be dealt with 
is completed. 

Request of Wyoming Valley District Council, Wilkes-Barre, Pa., for financial 
aid for relief of men on strike, referred to the General President. 

The General President submitted a letter from C. Dale Welch, President of 
Local Union 8 9 9, Parkersburg, West Virginia, in which Brother Welch reviews 
the case of Brother Lee Birthisel and Roy Sporleder, members of Local Union 120 7, 
Charleston, West Virginia, versus Local Union 89 9 and as the letter did not have 
the local seal, nor was it an appeal, it was received and filed. 

April 22, 1946. 

Local Union 576, Pine Bluff, Arkansas; did not comply with the orders of the 
General President, dated June 6, 1944, to drop.C. E. Cuthbertson from member- 
ship in that Local Union. 



THE CARPENTER 19 

Therefore, Local Union 576 was not entitled to send delegates to the Twenty- 
Fifth General Convention, and furthermore unless he (the General President) re- 
ceived a prompt notification that Local Union 5 76 complies with his instructions 
of June 6, 1944, he would recommend to the General Executive Board the revoca- 
tion of Charter No. 576. 

The General Executive Board unanimously concurred in the action of the Gen- 
eral President in this case. 

The American Society for Russian Relief, New York, New York, asked that 
one of their representatives be permitted to appear before the Convention. 

Request tabled. 

April 23, 1946. 

The General Executive Board in session on April 23, 1946, in accordance with 
the action and instructions of the Twenty-Fifth General Convention of the United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, deemed it necessary at this 
time to immediately revoke the charter of Local Union 101 and to take complete 
charge of its property and affairs, and instructed the General President, as Chair- 
man of the General Executive Board, and Frank Duffy, as Secretary of the General 
Executive Board, to immediately take such action as is necessary to carry out said 
instructions, and in accordance therewith the following telegram was sent to the 
Treasurer and three Trustees of Local Union 101, Baltimore, Maryland. 

"You are hereby instructed to immediately deliver to John Ryan, 
as General Representative of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters 
and Joiners of America, all moneys, records, bonds, securities and all 
other property and evidence of ownership, including the charter of 
Local Union No. 101, Baltimore, Maryland, to conform with the 
action taken by the Twenty-Fifth General Convention of the United 
Brotherhood on this 23rd day of April, 1946. You as an officer of 
said Local Union No. 101, will be held personally responsible for any 
refusal to comply with this order and for any expenditures of money 
following receipt of this notice and demand. 

GENERAL EXECUTIVE BOARD OF THE UNITED 
BROTHERHOOD OF CARPENTERS AND JOINERS 
OF AMERICA, 

By WILLIAM L. HUTCHESON, Chairman 
FRANK DUFFY, Secretary." 

April 24, 1946. 

The General Executive Board in session, on April 24, 1946, instructed the 
Chairman and Secretary to take such action as is necessary to see that Local Union 
5 76, Pine Bluff, Arkansas, carries out the instructions given by the General 
President under date of June 6, 1944. 

April 27, 1946. 

Delegates to the Twenty-Fifth General Convention from Southern California, 
representing the shipbuilding industry, appeared before the General Executive 
Board and advocated the formation of a District Council for that branch of the 
trade, but as Local Union 1335, Wilmington, California, has a resolution to that 
effect before the Convention, the matter was laid over until the Convention acts 
on it. 

The General Secretary was instructed to issue ballots for the election of 
General Officers for the coming terms as per the provisions of the General Consti- 
tution. Paragraph F, Section 9, specifies that: 

"All ballots shall be marked by making an X opposite the names 
of the nominees to be voted for, and shall be immediately placed by 
the member voting in a box provided for such purpose by the Local 
Union, which shall be in charge of the President. After the time for 
balloting has elapsed, the ballots shall be counted by the tellers in 
the presence of the President. The Recording Secretary shall then 
prepare duplicate statements showing the number of votes cast for 



20 THE CARPENTER 

each candidate on election blanks furnished by the General Secre- 
tary. Such statements must be signed by the tellers, attested by the 
President and Recording Secretary and have seal attached. One 
copy must be sent to the General Secretary by the Recording Secretary 
and President by registered mail, and one copy must be retained by 
the Local Union. All election returns must be sent to the General 
Secretary in sealed envelopes, said envelopes to be furnished by the 
General Secretary and marked "Election Returns, Care of General 
Secretary, United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, 
Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Indiana." The General Secretary 
shall turn over all Election Returns to the Tabulation Committee, 
when they report for duty, in the same condition as received. All 
voted ballots to be counted must be sent by registered mail or parcel 
post to the General Secretary by the Recording Secretary following 
the election and all blank ballots shall be immediately destroyed by 
the Local Union." 

The election to take place in June. The returns to be sent to the General Secretary 
not later than July 15th, 1946. 

Telegram from the Secretary of the Massachusetts State Federation of Labor 
relative to two anti-labor measures proposed which tend to weaken Free Trade 
Unions in that state and asking our support financially to defeat these measures 
was carefully considered, after which the request was referred to the General 
President to ascertain from the American Federation of Labor what the other 
affiliated organizations proposed to do in the matter, then the Brotherhood would 
do likewise. 

April 29, 1946. 

The General President appointed R. E. Roberts and Al Fischer to codify the 
laws approved by the Twenty-Fifth General Convention for submission to refer- 
endum vote. 

May 1, 1946. 

The General President submitted to the Board the deeds to the properties of H. 
Blumenberg and Nelson Ford in Florida covering their shortages of the funds of 
Local Union 101, Baltimore, Md. They were referred to the General Treasurer for 
safe keeping. 

The request for financial aid from Local 2876, Jackson, Tenn., was referred to 
the General President. 

The General Executive Board gave careful consideration to the report of the 
Committee on Housing unanimously adopted by the Twenty-Fifth General Con- 
vention on April 30, 1946, after which it was decided that the report be referred to 
the General Officers to draft a statement thereon for presentation to the official 
authorities dealing with this matter. 

In conformity with the action of the Twenty-Fifth General Convention on 
April 29, 1946 unanimously concurring in Resolution No. 60 presented by Studio 
Carpenters Local No. 9 46, HollyAvood, California and endorsed by Local Unions 
1313, 772 and 767, the General Executive Board directed the General Secretary to 
send Resolution No. 60 to the Executive Council of the American Federation of 
Labor demanding immediate restoration to the United Brotherhood of Carpenters 
and Joiners of America of jurisdiction over work that rightfully belongs to them. 

The Board recessed to meet at the call of the Chair. 

May 23, 1946. 
The General Executive Board reconvened the recessed meeting at Headquar- 
ters, Indianapolis, Indiana on May 23, 1946. 

The Board took up the audit of the books and accounts of the General Office. 

May 24, 1946. 

Local Union 717, Muscatine, Iowa. Request for financial assistance for men 
on strike referred to the General President. 

Letter from the Peter J. McGuire Memorial Committee, Camden, N. J., received. 
The General Executive Board reaffirms its former action taken at its February 



THE CARPENTER 21 

1946 meeting on the Peter J. McGuire Memorial proposed by the Central Labor 
Union of Camden, N. J. 

Appeal of Local Union 64, Louisville, Kentucky from the decision of the Gen- 
eral Treasurer in disapproving the Disability Claim of Brother Harold Busey, a 
member of that Local Union, on the grounds that it was not filed with the General 
Office within two years as the law provides, was referred back to the General 
Treasurer for further investigation. 

Appeal of Local Union 3120, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, from the decision of the 
General Treasurer in disapproving the Death Claim of Albert Sommerfeldt, a 
former member of said Local Union, was carefully considered, after which the 
decision of the General Treasurer was sustained on grounds set forth therein and 
the appeal was dismissed. 

Appeal of Local Union 15 71. San Diego, California, from the decision of the 
General Treasurer in disapproving the Death Claim of Albin Erickson, a former 
member of said Local Union, for the reason that he was not in benefit standing 
at time of death was acted upon and the decision of the General Treasurer was 
sustained and the appeal dismissed 

Appeal of Harry C. Forrest, a member of Local Union 1715, Vancouver, 
Washington, from the decision of the General Treasurer in disapproving the Death 
Claim of his Wife, Mrs. Beulah Forrest, for the reason that the claim was not filed 
with the General Office within six months from date of death as the law provides 
in Paragraph B, Section 5 3 of our General Laws. The decision of the General 
Treasurer was sustained and the appeal dismissed. 

Appeal of Local Union 1149, Oakland, California, from the decision of the 
General Treasurer in disapproving the Death Claim of Phillip H. Thompson, a 
a former member of said Local Union, for the reason that the claim was not filed 
with the General Office within six months from date of death as the law provides 
in Paragraph B, Section 5 3 of our General Laws. The decision of the General 
Treasurer was sustained and the appeal dismissed. 

Claim of Mrs. Lillie Yerion — a member in good standing of Local Union 1120 
(Millmen) Portland, Oregon, for death benefit of her husand Jesse L. Yerion. As 
there are no provisions in our Laws governing such claims the claim was disap- 
proved. 

Appeal of Local Union 5 69, Pascagoula, Mississippi, from the decision of the 
General President in which he instructed Local Union 569 under date of March 
28, 1946 to 

Continue your affiliation with the Metal Trades Council. 

Reimburse members who have paid the per capita tax. or any por- 
tion thereof. 

If the delegates you have at the present time representing you 
in the Metal Trades Council do not perform their duties in a manner 
in keeping with the policies, laws, rules and regulations of the Broth- 
erhood, then to remove them and prefer charges as per the provisions 
of the Constitution. 

The decision of the General President was sustained and the appeal dismissed. 

Appeal of L. G. Chappell, a member of Local Union 30, New London, Connecti- 
cut, from the decision of the General President in the case of L. G. Chappell 
versus Local Union 30. The decision of the General President was sustained on 
grounds set forth therein and the appeal was dismissed. 

Communication from A. J. Caine, Kennewick, Washington, received as infor- 
mation and filed. 

Appeal of David Mauser, a member of Local Union 129, Hazelton. Pa., from 
the decision of the General President in the case of David Mauser versus Local 



22 THE CARPENTER 

Union 191, York, Pa. The decision of the General President was sustained on 
grounds set forth therein and the appeal was dismissed. 

May 27, 1946. 

The resolution presented by Local Union 946, Hollywood, California, to the 
Twenty-Fifth General Convention held in Lakeland, Florida, in April, 19 46, relative 
to their claim of jurisdiction in the Studios was presented to the Executive Council 
of the A. F. of L. in May 19 46, after which a further investigation of the case was 
decided on, the results of same be reported to the Executive Council of the A. F. 
of L. at its next meeting. 

The General Executive Board went into session as the Board of Trustees. 

May 28, 1946. 

Pittsburgh, Pa.— Request of the Pittsburgh District Council for financial aid 
in the work that Council is now engaged in was seriously and carefully considered, 
after which the Board appropriated $10,000.00 to the District Council with the 
understanding that a strict accounting must be made to the General Office how it 
is spent. The Board further orders that all Initiation Fees of new members 
be turned over to the District Council to be used as directed. 

Owing to existing conditions in the State of West Virginia and the indifference 
of the members of Local Union 9 6 3, Parkersburg, to the Organization the General 
Executive Board deemed it advisable for the best interests of the Brotherhood to 
revoke the charter of Local Union 9 6 3, Parkersburg, W. Va. The members of 
said Local Union to be transferred to some nearby Local Union by the General 
President. 

In accordance with the provisions of the report of the Finance Committee to the 
last General Convention held in Lakeland, Florida, April 22nd-30th, 1946, recom- 
mending that the balance of the Project or Trust Fund be transferred to the De- 
fense Fund which was unanimously adopted by the Convention, the General 
Executive Board ordered that the balance of the Project or Trust Fund be trans- 
ferred to the Defense Fund. 

There being no further business to be transacted the Board adjourned to meet 
at the call of the Chair. 

Respectfully submitted, 

FRANK DUFFY, Secretary. 



Notice to Recording Secretaries 

The quarterly circular for the months of July, August and September, 
1946, containing the quarterly password, has been forwarded to all Local 
Unions of the United Brotherhood. Recording Secretaries not in receipt 
of this circular should notify Frank Duffy, Carpenters' Building, Indian- 
apolis, Indiana. 



NEW CHARTERS ISSUED 



2213 Mission City, B. C, Can. 2507 High Point, N. C. 

2215 Utica and Boonville, N. Y. 2228 Oakdale, La. 

2219 Shreveport, La. 250 6 Nevada City, Cal. 

2220 Camden, Ark. 2533 Vancouver, B. C, Can. 

2221 Duncan, Okla. 2534 New Westminster, B. C, Can. 
2225 Libby, Mont. 2229 Syracuse, N. Y. 



31 




tt mi t m x x a m 



Not lost to those that love them, They still live in our memory, 
Not dead, just gone before; And will forever more. 



tsi in TBt&te 



The Editor has been requested to publish the nam** 
of the following Brothers who have passed away. 



Brother OLE L. ANDERSON, Local No, 634, Los Angeles, Cat, 

Brother J. NORVAL BARRS, Local No. 634, Los Angeles, Cat 

Brother CHARLES BATTEY, Local No. 94, Providence, R. I. 

Brother ROLAND BEENS, Local No. 335, Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Brother JOHN BENSON, Local No. 1052, W. Hollywood, Cat 

Brother ERNEST J. BERNIER, Local No. 634, Los Angeles, Cat. 

Brother ALEXANDRE C. BLACKHALL, Sr., Local No. 177, Springfield, Mass. 

Brother J. T. BLACKMON, Local No. 993, Miami, Fla. 

Brother NAPOLEON BLAIS, Local No. 94, Providence, R. I. 

Brother JOHN CHAPMAN, Local No. 1052, W. Hollywood, Cal. 

Brother ARTHUR DALTON, Local No. 40, Boston, Mass. 

Brother HORACE R. DANNER, Local No. 512, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Brother GEORGE EDWARDS, Local No. 132, Washington, D. C. 

Brother RAGNAR ERICKSON, Local No. 419, Chicago, 111. 

Brother SEWARD ESTABROOK, Local No. 634, Los Angeles, Cat 

Brother G. J. FLEENOR, Local No. 50, Knoxville, Tenn. 

Brother GEORGE FOLSOM, Local No. 94, Providence, R. I. 

Brother HENRY DE FRIES, Local No. 1149, Oakland, Cal. 

Brother JOSEPH GARDNER, Local No. 94, Providence, R. I. 

Brother RICHARD GIESE, Local No. 488, New York, N. Y. 

Brother ALBERT D. GROVER, Local No. 40, Boston, Mass. 

Brother ANTHONY HAIBT, Local No. 12, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Brother ROBT. V. HELMS, Local No. 993, Miami, Fla. 

Brother JOSEPH HOLLAND, Local No. 1010, Uniontown, Pa. 

Brother JAMES E. HOMRA, Local No. 671, Clovis, N. M. 

Brother JACKSON JERSEY, Local No. 785, Covington, Ky. 

Brother JOHN AUGUST JOHNSON, Local No. 1149, Oakland, Cal. 

Brother WILLIS S. JOHNSON, Local No. 1656, Oneonta, N. Y. 

Brother FLOYD C. JOHNSTON, Local No. 103, Birmingham. Ala. 

Brother J. E. KANE, Local No. 1149, Oakland, Cal. 

Brother JOE B. KANPEN, Local No. 785, Covington, Ky. 

Brother CLARENCE J. KENNY, Local No. 1149, Oakland, Cal. 

Brother JOHN KERESZTESY, Local No. 246, New York, N. Y. 

Brother W. G. KINARD, Local No. 809, Charleston, S. C. 

Brother ALBERT W. KUESTER, Local No. 1627, Mena, Ark. 

Brohter THOMAS G. LEWIS, Local No. 634, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Brother ERNEST E. LINTON, Local No. 2288, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Brother VINTON LIVINGSTON, Local No. 335, Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Brother ARVARD LUNDBERG, Local No. 1052, W. Hollywood, Cal. 

Brother E. A. MATHEWS, Local No. 213, Houston, Tex. 

Brother EDWARD J. MAURRY, Local No. 634, Los Angeles, CaL 

Brother JOHN J. MERSHON, Local No. 1627, Mena, Ark. 

Brother JACK McQUADE, Local No. 1797, Renton, Wash. 

Brother WILLIAM MURRAY, Local No. 188, Yonkers, N. Y. 

Brother O. W. PARKS, Local No. 133, Terre Haute, Ind. 

Brother NELS PITKANEN, Local No. 1149, Oakland, Cal. 

Brother EMIL POKORNY, Local No. 246, New York, N. Y, 

Brother MORRIS L. PRESTAGE, Local No. 1815, Santa Ana, Cal. 

Brother ARTHUS F. ROSS, Local No. 785, Covington, Ky. 

Brother WILHELM RUFF, Local No. 488, New York, N. Y. 

Brother WM. SCHEIL, Local No. 246, New York, N. Y. 

Brother A. W. SCHMIDT, Local No. 1149, Oakland, Cal. 

Brother HERMAN SCHOENBORN, Local No. 419, Chicago, III. 

Brother EUGENE SCHWARTZ, Local No. 488, New York, N. Y. 

Brother GEORGE F. SHINE, Local No. 2169, Boston, Mass. 

Brother FRANK R. SIMES, Local No. 634, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Brother EMIL SIMONET, Local No. 634, Los Angeles, CaL 

Brother HERBERT SMITH, Local No. 335, Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Brother HUGH SLOVER, Local No. 213, Houston, Tex. 

Brother ARTHUR W. SOUTHERN, Local No. 993, Miami, Fla. 

Brother TOM STEVENSON, Local No. 2288, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Brother J. B. STRICKLAND, Local No. 779, Waycross, Ga. 

Brother AUGUST B. THORLAND, Local No. 2288, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Brother C. M. TROVINGER, Local No. 1010, Uniontown, Pa. 

Brother EMMMETT O. TRUEX, Local No. 634, Los Angeles, Cal, 

Brother PETE WEIDENBACH, Local No. 103 Birmingham, Ala, 



CorrospondQncQ 




This Journal Is Not Responsible For Views Expressed By Correspondents. 

Pomona Honors Old Timer 

Local Union No. 1752 of Pomona, Cal., gave a birthday party on May 
7th for its oldest member, Harvey A. Bucher, on the occasion of his 77th 
birthday. Many members spoke in praise of Brother Bucher's long and 
untiring work in behalf of organized labor in Pomona Valley. 

Among the speakers were J. E. Livingston, Representative of the Car- 
penters Local, Pomona, Lou Willits, President of the Pomona Valley 
Central Labor Council, and Jim Kearns of Los Angeles, Business Repre- 
sentative of the District Council of Carpenters. A telegram of congratu- 
lations was read from Congressman Jerry Voorhis. Paul E. Weaver, 
publisher, gave an inspiring talk commending the efforts and accomplish- 
ments of Brother Bucher. 

The membership of the local, in appreciation of the faithful service 
of its honored guest, presented him with a combination radio-phonograph. 
Following congratulations, refreshments were served. 

Brother Bucher, the only charter member now living in Pomona, has 
retired from active work on account of failing eyesight, but still continues 
active in the battle for organized labor. In the years gone by, when the 
membership was low and times were tough, Brother Bucher and a few 
loyal members held the local together by meeting in homes and by personal 
sacrifice. As times grew better, the local increased, from a low of 11 
members to a present membership of approximately 400. The local is 
now in a prosperous and healthy condition with prospects of building 
activity for a period of over 5 years. 

e 

L. U. 543 Honors Vets at 45th Anniversary Celebration 

The 46th anniversary of Carpenters Local Union 543 of Mamaroneck, 
N. Y., was observed on May 25, 1946, with a Victory dinner at Lawrence 
Inn, Mamaroneck, N. Y. The occasion marked the first anniversary the 
union has celebrated since 1940 as 38 of its members have been serving in 
the Armed Forces and the majority of the remaining men have been 
working out of town. Village officials, business agents from all of 
Westchester County, New York City and Connecticut, and 300 guests at- 
tended the dinner. Among them were : Supervisor S. Tocci of New 
Rochelle, N. Y., George Grimm, secretary-treasurer of the Building and 
Construction Trades Council, John S. Sinclair, president of the Carpen- 
ters' District Council, M. J. Warren of Tuckahoe, N. Y., and Harris Beck 
of Port Chester, N. Y. 

Louis R. Tolve, who is business agent for Local Union 543, was general 
chairman of the anniversary dinner assisted by Philip Quadrini, Edward 
Granipoli, Ernest Tolive, Anthony Macri, John C. Zeh, Jesse I. Griffen, 



THE CARPENTER 25 

Joseph Decea, Harold Mellor, Vito Palmeri, John Funnicello, James 
Murphy, James Cumming, William Logani and Patsy Petosillo. 

Mr. Mellor, president of the union, presented each veteran with a 

carpenter's pin. 

• 

L. U. 1268 Member Named "Worker-Father of 1946" 

To George A. Chamberlain, a member of Local Union No. 1268, Johns- 
town, N. Y., there came this year a unique honor. Of the millions of 
family men in the nation he was chosen "Worker-Father of 1946." The 
selection was made by the National Father's Day Committee. On Father's 
Day (Sunday, June 16) Brother Chamberlain was presented with his 
award as the climax of a five-day wmirl of entertainment in New York for 
him and his family. 

Brother Chamberlain is the father of seven sons — five of them U. S. 
Navy men, and through the irony of Fate, the wife and mother passed 
away on October 27, 1945 — Navy Day, a day dedicated to a branch of 
Uncle Sam's service to which she gave so liberally. 

Shortly before her death a personal letter was received from Secretary 
of the Navy James Forrestal, in which he said "A grateful nation shares 
your pride in your family's contribution to the cause of freedom — in 
recognition of your courage and sacrifice I extend to you the commenda- 
tion of the Navy Department and my personal congratulations." 

Local Union No. 1268 is justifiably proud of Brother Chamberlain 

and the signal honor that has been paid him. It is equally proud of his 

seven fine sons. To the congratulations that have already been paid him 

we wish to add the congratulations of the General Officers and The 

Carpenter. 

9 

Presenting A Champion 

The Editor: 

Baseball is proud of its Grand Old Man, Connie Mack; football is 
proud of its outstanding figure, Jim Thorpe ; and we, the members of 
Local Union 287, Harrisburg, Pa., have our own Grand Old Champion. He 
is Brother David W. Conklin. Bro. Conklin came to Harrisburg as a 
young man. In the year 1890, he joined the United Brotherhood of Carpen- 
ters and in all the fifty-six intervening years he has never once been in 
arrears in the payment of his dues and he seldom missed a meeting until 
his health began to fail. He is a charter member of Local 287 and has in 
past years held every office within the power of the union to bestow on one 
of its members. For fourteen years he served as president of the union. 
Always a champion of the ideals laid down by Sam Gompers and Pete 
McGuire, Bro. Conklin has served Local Union No. 287 long and well. 
His sound advice and quiet courage have helped the union weather many a 
crisis. 

Recently Bro. Conklin was ordered to the hospital for a checkup. We, 
the grateful members of Local Union No. 287, extend to him very best 
wishes and pray that he may recover speedily and be with us for many 
years to come. Fraternally yours, 

C. Edwin Miller. 



Craft ProblQms 




Carpentry 



By H. H. Siegele 
LESSON 214 
Much of the work that once was 
done by hand is now being done by 
machine. There are two good reasons 
for this. First, the machine turns out 
the work much faster than it can be 




Fig. 1 

accomplished by hand, and second, with 
perhaps only a few exceptions, the ma- 
chine does better work than the aver- 
age carpenter could do with hand tools. 
At any rate, the machine is here to 
stay, and just as it is improved from 
year to year, it will take over more 
and more of the work that is still being 
done with hand tools. But this does 
not mean that hand tools are going out 
of use, nor does it mean that carpenters 
do not have to learn how to use them. 
If it means anything, it means that be- 
cause carpenters do not get as much of 
the hand work to do as they used to, 
it is very important that they learn how 
to do all the different things with hand 
tools. For the time will never come when 
it will not be necessary to get out by 
hand a window sill, a stool, a jamb, or 
even a piece of molding and many other 
things that are needed in completing 
work, or in repairing different parts of 
buildings. Here is an example: We 
were finishing a school building, and it 



happened that we were short on chalk- 
rail for the blackboards. It would 
have taken perhaps weeks before it 
could have been delivered to us from 
the mill. We solved the problem by 
making an extra piece of chalkrail with 
the old' plow, or forty-five plane as it is 
called, that we are showing by Fig. 1. 
We had some extra bits that we had 
used previously on making pieces of 
moldings. The regular set of bits for a 
forty-five plane does not include bits 
necessary for making moldings, but 
these can be obtained if they are need- 
ed. The forty-five plane, however, is 
well adapted to making window frames, 
cutting tongues and grooves, cutting 
beads, rabbeting and many other prac- 
tical things. 

The upper drawing of Fig. 2 shows 
by the shaded parts how to prepare the 
material for a window sill. To the left 
the shaded part shows how the edge of 




the timber is bevelled, and toward the 
center is shown where the groove is to 
be cut, which receives the siding. The 
straight lines represent the cuts made 
with the plane in doing the work. The 
bottom drawing shows the sill material 
ready to be made into a window sill. 



THE CARPENTER 



27 



The forty-five plane is a necessity in 
making jambs for window frames. Fig. 
3 shows by the upper drawing a part of 
a jamb for a window, plowed for the 



is set so that the pulley stile will be as 
wide as the thickness of the sash, plus 
1/16 of an inch for play. We learned 




parting bead. The bottom drawing 
shows the parting bead, shaded and in 
place. In plowing jambs for window 
frames, it is important that the plow 



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If you are an experienced carpenter and 
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Write your name and address clearly and 
give your age, and trade experience. 

TAMBLYN SYSTEIVi 

Johnson Building C, Denver 2, Colorado 



Fig. 4 

this when we were learning the trade. 
The boss put us to plowing window 
jambs. We set the plow so it would just 
slip over the edge of the window sash, 
just as we had seen it done before by 




Fig 



journeyman carpenters. But what we 
did not notice, was that the journeyman, 
in setting the plow, allowed 1/16 of an 
inch for play. The boss discovered it 



28 



THE CARPENTER 



and solved the problem by using the 
other side of the material for the face 
side. We learned to allow for play in 
this hard way, but we will never for- 
get it. 

Frequently it happens that a window 
stool has to be made on the job, and the 
forty-five plane again is the tool that is 
needed for this. Fig. 4, the upper draw- 
ing, shows how the stool is plowed first, 
and the shading indicates the part that 




Fig. 6 

must be planed off to complete the bev- 
eled rabbet of the stool that laps onto 
the window sill. The bottom drawing 
shows the stool completed. The nosing 
design to the right, is a good one; how- 
ever, the nosing should be kept in har- 
mony with the rest of the trim. 

A cross section of a window sill is 
shown by Fig. 5. This sill is shown in 
place fastened to the window jamb and 



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to the right we have a window stool. 
The sill, stool and jamb shown here are 
the same as those shown by Figs. 2, 3 
and 4. 




Fig. 7 

Fig. 6 shows how to proceed in mak- 
ing a rabbeted door jamb. The upper 
drawing shows a piece of jamb material 
plowed for the rabbet. The shaded part 
must be removed with either a rabbet 
plane or with some other kind of plane. 
Perhaps the jack plane is used for this 
work more than the rabbet plane. A 
fore plane will also do the work. The 
straight parallel lines indicate the dif- 




ferent cuts that will have to be made 
with the plane in cutting out the rabbet 
to give it the form shown by the bottom 
drawing. The size of the rabbet is 



THE CARPENTER 



29 



shown with figures. Note the 1/16-inch 
play allowed. 

It often happens that a flooring board 
must be made for some particular place, 
either a little narrower than the regular 
width, or a little wider. And for mak- 
ing such special pieces, the forty-five 
plane is the tool to use. Fig. 7 shows 
by the upper drawing what has to be 
cut out in making a piece of flooring, 
and the bottom drawing shows the piece 
completed. 

Beading is another thing that the 
forty-five plane will do. Fig. 8, the up- 
per drawing, shows by the shading 
what has to be cut out in making the 
beads. The bottom drawing shows the 
beading completed. The beads on the 
two edges are called edge beads or edge 
beading, and the bead at the center is 
called a center bead, or center beading. 

Ship lap joints are often necessary 
and the plow again will do the work, 
however, this work properly belongs to 






Fig. 9 

the rabbet plane. The shaded part of 
the upper drawing, Fig. 9, shows the 
parts that are cut out. The shading 
shows that the cutting is done from the 
sides to the depth of the rabbet, but it 
can also be done from the edges of the 
board. 

(Copyrighted 1946)— H. H. Siegele 

• 

Wants to Know, I. 

By H. H. Siegele 

A brother wants information on how 
to cope large moldings. 

Most of the large moldings are sprung 
moldings; that is, such moldings are 
set on an angle with the wall, and 
therefore leave an air space back of 
them in the angle. See the cross sec- 
tion shown in Fig. 1. 



Many of the difficulties that arise in 
coping sprung moldings, would disap- 
pear if the first piece of molding were 
left loose for several feet from the 
angle where the coped joint is to be 



Moldinq 




Fig. 1 



made. Then when the coped piece is 
brought against it, it can usually be ad- 
justed so that the joint will fit perfectly 
before the permanent nailing is done. 
When the first piece of molding is nailed 
before the coped joint is completed, the 
joint usually is open, either at the top 
or at the bottom. To make such a joint 
fit by cutting on the coped piece is al- 
most impossible, because the two pieces 
of molding will not member, unless the 



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30 



THE CARPENTER 



first piece is set to the angle that will 
fit the coped piece. 




Fig. 2 



In the case of extra large moldings, 
there is added another difficulty. They 
are too big to be cut in a standard miter 
box. Besides, such moldings sometimes 
are slightly warped, not enough to be 
noticed, but enough to cause trouble in 
making a coped joint. In such cases I 
usually tack the first molding in place, 
as shown to the left, Fig. 1. Sure that 
the first piece is in the right position, 



I give the end of the piece to be coped a 
rough cut, as shown to the right, and 
tack it in place about as shown. Then 
I take my scriber and scribe the molding 
as shown in Fig. 2, between a and b. 
The part that is lightly shaded is the 
part to be cut out. If this work is pains- 
takingly done, the coped joint should fit 
as shown by Fig. 3. 



Molding 



Fig. 3 

A word of caution: Care must be 
taken that both pieces of molding are 
in the right position when the scribing 
is done. 

(Copyrighted 1946)— H. H. Siegele 






on-the-job mm 



HAND 
BOOK 



This new and revised edition of Carpenters and Builders' Practical Rules for Layinr 
Out Work consists of short and practical rules for laying out octagons, ellipses, roofs, 
groined ceilings, hoppers, spirals, stairs and arches with tables of board measure, 
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NOTICE 



The publishers of "The Carpenter" reserve the 
right to reject all advertising matter which may 
be. in their judgment, unfair or objectionable to 
the membership of the United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America. 
All contracts for advertising space in "The Car- 
penter," including those stipulated as non-can- 
cellable, are only accepted subject to the above 
reserved rights of the publishers. 



Index of Advertisers 



Carpenters' Tools and Accessories 

Page 

Carlson & Sullivan, Monrovia, Cal. 30 

Corweld Supply Co., Los Angeles, 

Cal. 29 

E. C. Atkins & Co. Indianapolis, 

Ind. 4th Cover 

Foley Mfg. Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 32 

Henry Disston & Sons, Philadel- 
phia, Pa 1 

Mall Tool Co., Chiacgo, 111 31 

Master Rule Mfg. Co., Inc., New 
New York, N. Y 3 

Millers Falls Co., Greenfield, 

Mass. 32 

North Bros. Mfg. Co., Phila- 
delphia Pa 3 

Paine Company, Chicago, 111 3rd Cover 

Stanley Tools, New Britain, 

Conn. 3rd Cover 

Carpentry Materials 

Celotex Corp., Chicago, 111 4 

Johns-Manville, New York, N. Y. 32 

Technical Courses and Books 

American Technical Society, 

Chicago, 111. 3 

Theo. Audel, New York, N. Y. 3rd Cover 

Mason & Parrish, Engineers, 

Kalamazoo, Mich 31 

Nelson Co., Chicago, 111 31 

D. A. Rogers, Minneapolis, Minn. 30 

H. H. Siegele, Emporia, Kans 23 

Tamblyn System, Denver, Colo 27 



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A Monthly Journal, Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners 

of America, for all its Members of all its Branches. 

FRANK DUFFY, Editor 

Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, 4, Indiana 



Established in 1881 
Vol. LXVI— No. 8 



INDIANAPOLIS, AUGUST, 1946 



One Dollar Per Year 
Ten Cents a Copy 



- — Con tents 



Here We Go Again 



A vascillating Congress revives the old wage and price control merryground. First 
General Vice President M. A. Hutcheson sums up the situation as it now exists. 

Don't Blame Labor ------ 5 

Everyone agrees that the prices being charged for new and old houses are too high. 
Who is to blame? Boris Shishkin, chairman of the American Federation of Labor Com- 
mittee on Housing, proves conclusively by facts and figures that building trades wages 
have very little to do with today's exhorbitant prices. 

12 

Veterans Administration reveals that many ex-GI's are using the loans guaranteed by the 
government to set themselves up in profitable, good-paying businesses. 

14 

A veteran senator looks at the labor picture existing today and comes to the conclusion 
that the answer to industrial unrest lies in an extension of true collective bargaining 
rather than in some form of compulsion for workers. 



GIs Are Making Good 



Keep Collective Bargaining 



OTHER DEPARTMENTS: 



Plane Gossip 

Editorials 

Official 

In Memoriam 

Correspondence 

To the Ladies 

Craft Problems 



10 
16 
20 
21 
22 
24 
26 



Index to Advertisers 



• • • 



29 



Although the war is over, the paper situation remains extremely tight. Our quota is so limited 
that we must continue confining The Carpenter to thirty-two pages instead of the usual sixty-four. 
Until such time as the paper situation improves, this will have to be our rule. 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of 

Congress, Aug. 24, 1912. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for 

in Section 1103, act of October 3, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918. 



HERE WE GO AGAIN 

• * • 

AFTER twenty-five days of the worst kind of confusion, a weak and 
vascillating Congress on July 25 enacted into law a watered-down 
extension of price and wage control. During the twenty-five day 
period when controls were off, prices skyrocketed and the cost of many 
articles increased from thirty to fifty per cent. Although price ceilings 
theoretically went back on again July 25, the revived OPA has already 
upped price ceilings substantially in many, many lines, and more upward 
revisions are destined to come within the next few weeks. Already it is 
clear that the price line is not going to be held very rigidly. 

However, insofar as wages are concerned, the same old cumbersome 
procedures that were in effect last June still prevail today. To get an 
increase today, a union must follow the same routine that was in effect 
prior to July 1. Immediately upon revival of price and wage controls, 
the following analysis of the situation was sent to affected local unions 
and district councils by First General Vice President M. A. Hutcheson: 

* * * * * 

July 30, 1946. 

To All Local Unions and District Councils of the United Brotherhood 
of Carpenters and Joiners of America Whose Members Are Engaged 
on Building Construction. 

Greetings : 

On July 25 President Truman signed a Bill which reinstated stabil- 
ization of prices and wages. The Bill became a law immediately after he 
signed it. What the new law does is extend for another year, with only a 
couple of minor changes, the same setup on revising wages that was in 
effect before June 30 when the old law expired. Therefore, for all prac- 
tical purposes, you may consider that the situation right now is practically 
the same as it was last June. It is necessary that you follow the same pro- 
cedures now that you followed then in seeking an adjustment in wages. 

In the building trades all wage cases will fall in one of the three 
categories which can be summed up as follows: 

1. Where joint collective bargaining agreements were acted upon 
by the Wage Adjustment Board prior to July 1, 1946, and the 
amount allowed by the Board was less than that agreed upon by 
the parties, a joint letter from the employer and the union re- 
questing reconsideration of the case will be accepted by the 
Wage Adjustment Board and no new case need be filed. 

2. Where collective bargaining agreements were entered into be- 
tween July 1 and July 25 and rates higher than those in effect 



4 THECARFENTER 

on June ;$0 wore put info effect by the parties, such agreements 
to be presented for approval of the Wage Adjustment Board by 
the International Union or <l>o appropriate employer group with- 
out the previously required procedure of counter-signature of the 
Building and Construction Trades Department of the A. F. of I/. 

3. Where collective bargaining agreements arc negotiated subse- 
quent to July 25, they must be submitted to Wage Adjust- 
ment Board in conformity with the procedure in existence prior 
to July 1, 1946. 

The Board announced that decisions are being released immediately 
in all cases pending- on June 30, 1946. Applications filed immediately with 
the Board will be acted upon under emergency procedures. 

The Wage Stabilization Board has announced that no proceedings for 
violation will be instituted for wages paid in the period July 25 to August 
10, 1946 on the condition that an application for approval on any higher 
rate than legally paid June 30, 1946 has been filed with the Wage Adjust- 
ment Board during that period. Any contingent payment after August 
10 of unapproved rates will be subject to enforcement proceedings. 

Fraternally yours 

M. A. HUTCHESON, 

For The 

GENERAL PRESIDENT 



Only time will tell how effective or ineffective the revised stabiliza- 
tion program will be. From labor's point of view the picture looks any- 
thing but optimistic. The program is rigged to raise prices and at the 
same time wages are placed under another "freeze." To anyone with even 
average intelligence it is obvious that the whole program is designed to 
protect profits rather than hold down prices for consumers. 

Under the new stabilization setup, a three-man board is charged with 
responsibility for decontrolling goods as rapidly as they see fit. On the 
board are a banker, an industrialist and a bureaucrat. Who is looking 
after the interests of the consumers? The answer is, nobody. It seems 
to us if the government were interested in protecting the consumers 
there would be a representative of some consumer group — such as labor 
— on the board. 

What most labor officials have feared all along is a resumption of price 
controls that don't hold down prices while at the same time wages are 
placed under rigid controls that do keep them close to static. While a 
positive analysis cannot yet be made, all indications point to the fact that 
the new stabilization program is going to lean pretty much in that direc- 
tion. In the very first few days the revived OPA allowed substantial 
price hikes in many lines of consumer goods and more are on their way. 
In the meantime wages will have to struggle along under the cumber- 
some old procedure that kept them lagging far behind prices all through 
the war 3^ears. Manufacturers and dealers are guaranteed a healthy mar- 
gin of profit on the business they do, but the workers are guaranteed 
nothing. To raise their wages they have to go through the same old com- 
plicated procedure and meet the same old ambiguous formulas. 



Don't Blame Labor 

Are Home Prices Too High? They Are. 

But Building Unions Are not at Fault 

By Boris Shishkln 

Secretary, A. F. of L. Housing Committee 



EVERY WORKER knows that in the past six years the cost of living 
has steadily increased. Every family looking for a home today 
knows that nothing has increased as much as the cost of a place to 
live. The new $6,000 dream home of 1940 is a not-so-new $10,000 house to- 
day. And the $500 lot you selected for your home back then isn't any 
bigger today, but the price has gone up to $800 or more. Or if, last Sep- 
tember, you found a $6,000 house built during the war, but waited until 
February to buy it, the price had by then jumped to $7800 — an average in- 
crease of $300 a month. 



Everyone looking for a house 
wants to know why this dizzy rise 
in the price of homes. Where does 
that extra $4000, added on the pre- 
war $6000 house, go ? Who gets the 
money? Why should the price on 
this pre-war house have increased 
17 per cent in the first six months 
after V-J Day? Why should war 
housing have increased some 30 per 
cent in this same six months, al- 
though these war-built houses were 
often hastily and shoddily con- 
structed? 

Most of the rise in the cost of 
housing is a speculative increase 
created by the scarcity of housing. 
Whenever there is a shortage, the 
man with the long purse is able and 
willing to pay more, while the man 
with the short purse is forced to do 
without. Without price control, 
those who are richer bid up the price 
out of reach of those who are poor- 
er. This is especially true of hous- 
ing right now because there is no 
substitute for a house. Bread and 
butter, meat and cheese may be hard 
to buy, but at least you can eat 



something else. But only four walls 
and a roof can give shelter. 

Without price control on the sale 
of either, both the existing homes 
and new houses have commanded 
extremely high prices. However, 
there are those who allege that labor 
generally and the building workers 
specifically are responsible for the 
high cost of housing. Over and 
over again the charge is made that 
housing costs the consumer too 
much because the wages paid con- 
struction workers are too high. 
These attacks falsify facts and vio- 
late common sense. 

The majority of wage-earners, 
both in and out of the building 
trades, have never been able to earn 
enough to afford decent, soundly 
built houses themselves. Is there 
any truth then to the charge that 
building wages are too high and that 
labor costs must be cut? What are 
the wages of building workers? 
How much of the home buyer's dol- 
lar goes to the men who build his 
home? What is the best way of 
bringing well-built houses within 
the financial reach of every wage- 



THE CARPENTER 



earner and every family in the 
country ? 

First all all let us look at what 
goes into the price that is put on 
the price tag when a house is put up 
for sale. When you break down 
the amount appearing on the price 
tag", you find that the part going to 
labor which builds the house is 
small. 

Out of every dollar, 45.7 cents go 
for materials; 12.3 cents for con- 
tractor's and subcontractor's over- 
head and profit; 12.5 cents to buy 
and improve the land, and only 29.5 
cents for site labor. As you see, 
more than 70 cents out of every dol- 
lar in the price of a house go for 
materials, overhead, land, selling 
expense and profit and not to the 
workers who built the house. 

This is the way it works out. You 
bought a $5000 house ; $2285 paid 
for the materials (and out of this 
more than $300 is clear profit), $615 
went to the contractors, $625 for the 
land and $1475 for the building 
labor. 

Only 29.5 per cent of your hous- 
ing dollar goes to labor. This is 
small compared with many other 
consumer goods. In fact, there are 
seventy-seven major industries in 
which the proportion of the labor 
cost to the value of the product is 
higher. 

The less than 30 per cent of the 
sale price of housing which goes to 
the building w r orker does not pro- 
vide him with lush living nor de- 
prive you of decent housing. The 
average w r eekly earnings on private 
building construction in 1939 were 
less than $32. It must be remem- 
bered that these are weekly earn- 
ings for employed workers during 
the time they worked. Few work- 
ers had jobs every week of the 
year and many were employed only 
a part of the year. Before the war 



there was no "full employment" in 
the construction industry. 

During the war we did achieve 
nearly full employment in most in- 
dustries and wages of most workers 
went up — although wage increases 
had a hard time keeping up with in- 
creased prices. But the general in- 
crease in wages was not fully shared 
by building workers. Early in the 
defense period the Building and 
Construction Trades Department of 
the A. F. of L. realized that the 
members of their unions were essen- 
tial to carry out the building call- 
ed for by the national emergency. 
Without an adequate supply of con- 
struction workers with the proper 
skills in the right places at the right 
time, we couldn't complete on sche- 
dule the defense construction pro- 
gram and therefore meet the pro- 
duction goals we set or have the 
housing and community facilities es- 
sential for war workers and military 
personnel. This acute need for con- 
struction workers meant they could 
demand and get higher wages. In- 
stead of saying "the sky's the limit," 
the Building and Construction 
Trades Department early in 1940 en- 
tered into a voluntary wage stabil- 
ization agreement with employers. 
All wage questions were brought be- 
fore a tripartite board for settle- 
ment. This was almost two years 
before similar procedures were es- 
tablished for every wage question 
under the National War Labor 
Board. 

In 1942 the National War Labor 
Board limited all wage increase to 
15 per cent under the "Little Steel" 
formula. Wage increases for build- 
ing workers, under the Wage 
Adjustment Board, have averaged 
much less. At the end of the war, 
construction workers were earning 
only 8 to 10 per cent more than be- 
fore the defense period. The de- 



THE CARPENTER 



cline in weekly income, which has 
affected all workers since the war, 
began for building- workers even be- 
fore the war ended. From March, 
1945, to March, 1946, for example, 
average weekly earnings of workers 
on private building construction de- 
clined more than 3 per cent. This 
was mainly due to the elimination 
of overtime and shift to lower-paid 
work. 

At a time when building workers 
have been trying to make ends meet, 
with prices going up and wage in- 
come going down, the prices of 
building materials have been in- 
creasing almost weekly. Since 
March, 1945, the wholesale price of 
^■building materials has gone up al- 
most 7 per cent and the price of 
lumber nearly 12 per cent. Since 
V-E Day more than seventy-five 
price increases on different types of 
building materials and equipment 
have been granted. 

As we pointed out earlier, the 
price tag on the house offered for 
sale is only a part of the real cost 
of buying a home. Because most 
people can afford to make only a 
small cash down payment and must 
borrow the rest of the money, 
houses are sold on long-term mort- 
gage loans. The home buyer then 
begins to pay for the house in 
monthly installments, which for 
most families attempting home own- 
ership have seldom proved to be 
easy payments. The most important 
thing that most people fail to real- 
ize when they undertake home own- 
ership is that, by 'the time the mort- 
gage is paid up, the average home 
buyer will have paid out nearly 
three times the original cost of the 
house. 

Under the best type of mortgage 
on the average pre-war house in- 
sured by the FHA, it takes twenty- 
five years to have the house fully 



paid for and to be able to call it 
your own. At the end of twenty- 
five years, when the last mortgage 
payment is made, the buyer of a 
$5000 house will have paid out $14,- 
717. So if instead of asking the 
man who is about to buy a house, 
you ask the man who really owns 
one, he will tell you that, after 
his twenty-five-year struggle with 
"easy" monthly payments, this is 
how the hard-earned cash he put 
into them was divided up: for the 
house itself — $5000 ($500 for the 
down payment, $4500 in monthly 
payments) ; for interest — 3842 ; for 
taxes and insurance — $3375 ; for es- 
sential maintenance and repairs — 
$2500; total cost — $14,717. 

During the twenty-five years the 
monthly cost paid out by the buyer 
of a $5000 house will average about 
$47.30. Of this amount, only $15 
goes to pay for the house itself. In- 
terest takes at least $12.80, while 
$11.25 goes for taxes and insurance. 
Of the remainder, $8.33 is the aver- 
age amount spent for maintenance 
essential to keep the house in repair. 

These are the bare costs of buying 
a home. They do not take into ac- 
count the cost of heat, light and 
other utilities as well as many inci- 
dental expenses which the home 
buyer discovers he must also meet 
in order to make the house he 
bought a real home for his family. 

As we have shown before, labor 
accounts for only 29.5 per cent of 
the actual price of the house itself. 
We have also shown that the cost of 
the house is only about a third of 
the total cost of home ownership. 
By the same token, the cost of the 
house is only a third of the average 
monthly payment the home buyer 
must make. Actually, therefore, the 
cost of building labor is less than 
10 per cent of the cost of home pur- 
chase. Less than ten cents of every 



THE CARPENTER 



home-buyer's dollar goes to the 
building; worker. Clearly, a reduc- 
tion in this amount would not really 
help the home buyer. 

Cutting wages of construction 
workers would save the home buyer 
very little, but it would curtail the 
market of the producers of all kinds 
of goods. 

Building workers have always 
been a major part of America's in- 
dustrial labor force. In the post- 
war years, when construction will 
pace all other activity in our econ- 
omy, the wages of building workers 
will play a strategic part. The wages 
a worker earns are his livelihood 
and the sole means of support of 
his family. The income of workers 
in a major industry such as building 
determines the well-being of every 
other worker, in every industry and 
in every shop. 

Following the collapse of the con- 
struction industry after 1926, it be- 
came clear that we cannot have full 
and stable employment in the rest of 
our economy if we do not have it in 
the strategic construction industry. 

The key to full employment — 
full-time work the year round, year 
in and year out — lies in our achiev- 
ing and maintaining a high and sta- 
ble level of activity in the construc- 
tion industry. In housing, a "high" 
level of building means at least 1,- 
500,000 new homes every year. One 
million and a half new homes, com- 
pared with the average of 700,000 
new urban dwelling units maintain- 
ed in the 1920's and the average of 
only 270,000 units achieved in the 
1930's. It's a high goal, but one we 
can and must achieve. We must 
achieve it if the construction indus- 
try is to make its full contribution 
to an economy of full production, 
full employment and high national 
income. We can achieve this goal 
through the comprehensive housing 



embodied in the General Housing 
Bill, S. 1592. 

S. 1592 attacks our housing prob- 
lems where the attack is effective. It 
provides the only cure for the hous- 
ing shortage we have accumulated 
over a period of many years. That 
cure is to bring the purchase of a 
new, privately built home within the 
financial reach of the American fam- 
ily. For the low-income families 
who cannot afford new homes pro- 
vided by private enterprise, there 
must be low-rent housing, with pub- 
lic aid when necessary. Clearly, 
only a comprehensive program, 
combining different methods, can 
meet the specific needs of every 
family. 

The vast majority of American 
families, both on the farm and in 
the city, could afford the homes that 
private enterprise builds if the costs 
were reduced. The main saving to 
home buyers must come through a 
reduction in the monthly mortgage 
payments. That is why S. 1592 
places its major attack here. The 
bill modifies and improves the FHA 
system of mortgage insurance by re- 
ducing the cash down payment to 
five per cent, by lowering the inter- 
est rate to four per cent and extend- 
ing the period of amortization to 
thirty-two years. This alone means 
a saving of between 10 and 15 per 
cent in the monthly payments on a 
home. 

The first essential reduction 
will carry further reductions with 
it. By lowering the monthly pay- 
ments, private builders will price 
themselves into the mass market of 
families of moderate means. Build- 
ing more houses will bring econ- 
omies and lower costs. No longer 
will private builders build only for 
the relatively few well-to-do; they 
will build new homes for millions 
of families in all income brackets. 



THE CARPENTER 



9 



The General Housing Bill recog- 
nizes that we can't meet our housing 
goals unless decent wages are paid 
to workers building new homes. The 
Senate made its position on this 
vital question emphatically clear. It 
passed, by an overwhelming vote, 
the A. F. of L.-sponsored and sup- 
ported amendment requiring that 
not less than prevailing wages be 
paid on all FHA-insured construc- 
tion. This requirement has existed 
on all public housing since 1937; 
it has existed on all large-scale 
FHA-insured projects since 1939. It 
is time that the requirement to pay 
not less than the established wage in 
the community be made applicable 
to all homes with the aid of federal 
mortgage insurance. 

Payment of prevailing wages is 
essential to protect the home buyer 
because it assures good workman- 
ship. It has been repeatedly dem- 
onstrated that workers who get de- 
cent wages achieve the economy of 
better performance and better work- 
manship. 

Those who attack building labor 
by urging that the reduction in 
housing costs be taken out of the 
building workers' pocket know that 
they connot make a case without fal- 
sifying the facts. Nor do they stop 
there in their attack and their false 
claims. They allege that it is the 
purpose of the building trades to 
restrict housing construction by a 
variety of means. 

The building trades unions are 
extending every effort to train 
workers in the fastest possible way 
to assure enough trained labor to 
meet the heavy demands of the 
housing emergency. Over 1,600 ap- 
prenticeship committees have been 
set up jointly by local building 
trades unions and employers all 
over the country. During the month 
of May alone the number of appren- 



tices on the active file increased 
from 31,000 to over 42,000. The ma- 
jority of the men entering appren- 
ticeship are veterans. And more 
than half are receiving credit for 
experience while in the armed serv- 
ices or for previous apprenticeship 
training. 

The number of men receiving ap- 
prentice training is being increased 
still more by increasing the ratio of 
apprentices to journeymen. In a 
number of communities the ratio is 
now one to three rather than the 
one to ten ratio prevailing before 
the war. In other communities, 
joint committees have arranged to 
use school facilities to speed train- 
ing- by supplementing the on-the- 
job experience with classroom work. 
The biggest barrier to accelerating 
this necessary training even more 
is the lack of materials, which is 
holding down the volume of avail- 
able work. To give workers prac- 
tical training, enough work must be 
available. New workers cannot be 
trained when even the experienced 
workers, who must train them, can- 
not find jobs because of the shortage 
of materials. 

The price of housing will remain 
high, too high for the vast majority 
of Americans, until we build enough 
homes to meet the need of every 
family. 

That need will not be met until 
new homes are built of the right 
type and at the right price to fit 
every pocketbook. 

The cost of housing today is too 
high. 

The high housing costs of today 
are largely a result of the shortages 
of yesterday. 

We will not build new homes to 
match the pocketbook of the wage- 
earner's family if we rob that poc- 
ketbook by reducing wages. 



-5 IP 



IT'S THAT MAN AGAIN 

After a day spent at the beach, our 

old friend and philosopher, Joe Paup, 

turned to poetry to express his reactions. 

His world-shaking epic runs as follows: 

Girls when they went out to swim, 

Once dressed like Mother Hubbard 

Now they have a bolder whim — 
And dress more like her cupboard. 

• • • 
SURE CURE 

We see by the papers there is soon 
going to be another big meeting to take 
up the juvenile delinquency problem. 
We think a certain actress ought to be 
there. This gal says she owes most of 
her success to her mother. "Mom," she 
says, "was the first person to give her 
little girl a great big hand." 

And if that isn't the answer to ju- 
venile delinquency we're daffy. 

• • • 
SOUND NATURAL? 

"Say, Jim, what d'ya say we get our 
wives together tonight and have a big 
time?" 

"Okay, Joe. Where'U we leave 
them?" 




Please ! That's no way to leave my 
store just because you think prices are 
high. 



NEVER SATISFIED 

Well, the Hobbs Bill is signed, sealed, 
delivered and written into the laws of 
the land. But are the foes of labor satis- 
fied? Heck, no. That was just a feeler. 
Now they want a bill that really ham- 
strings the unions. Of course, they'll 
tell you, they BELIEVE in unions. All 
they want to do is make the unions run 
their business they way THEY, think it 
ought to be run. And in this connection 
they remind us of the story of the 
smart young guy who went into his 
father's business. 

The junior partner made a visit to 
a distant branch office and was giving 
his father a full account. 

"The manager there," he said, "is apt 
to take too much on himself. I gave 
him plainly to understand he must get 
authority from here instead of acting 
too much on his own." 

"Yes," replied the senior partner dry- 
ly, "so I gather. Here's a telegram from 
him." 

The telegram read: "Office on fire. 
Please wire instructions." 

And that's about the way these 
"friends" of labor want to have the la- 
bor movement tied up, so it has to ask 
for instructions before it can even put 
out a fire. 

* • • 

LOYAL TO "THE HOUSE" 

A member of the National House of 
Representatives was awakened by his 
wife one night with: "John, there are 
burglars in the house!" 

"You must be mistaken, my dear," 
replied the solon sleepily. "There may 
be a few in the Senate, but in the House 
— the idea is preposterous." 

• • • 

ANOTHER PAUP POP-OFF 

After sitting hatless in the mid-sum- 
mer sun for several hours, our old 
friend JOe Paup gave to posterity the 
following little gem: 

"Chasing women is all right; it's the 
catching up with them that leads to 
all the trouble." 



THE CARPENTER 



11 



TOO MUCH DISHWATER 

Three American GI's stationed in Li- 
beria found the cost of labor so cheap 
that they could afford to hire one of 
the natives as sort of all-around helper 
in the kitchen where they worked. It 
helped ease the load when the sergeant 
wasn't around. As they got more and 
more leisure as a result of the native's 
aid, they started playing practical jokes 
on the Liberian. 

Once they filled his hat with flour. 
Another time they gave him phony 
money which he discovered had no 
value. The Liberian seemed not to no- 
tice the tricks and continued to serve 
them without resentment. They got to- 
gether, decided he was a good sport 
and then told him they would pull no 
more tricks. 

"No more flour in hat?" 

"No." 

"No more counterfeit money?" 

"No." 

The Liberian smiled: "Okay, no more 
dishwater in your coffee." 

And from where we sit it seems to us 
that some employers are now acting like 
the Liberian cook. While wages were 
controlled they fed us dishwater about 
wanting to increase pay rates; but now 
that they can do so they are singing a 
different tune. 

• • * 
NO FOOLING 

Democracy doesn't depend on what 
you think about the country. It depends 
on what you do about it. 

• • • 

SOME REFORM AT LEAST 

During recent weeks there seems to 
have been some disposition on the part 
of the Russians to enter into some open 
and aboveboard discussions on world 
peace. The change in heart has, been 
small indeed, but at least it is a change 
from the stand-pat attitude Stalin's 
mouthpieces have shown to date. It all 
sort of reminds us of the priest who 
was held up in a dark alley. When 
the victim threw up his hands, the 
thug noticed he was a man of the cloth. 
Apologetically he withdrew his pistol. 

"Excuse me, Father," he said, "I did- 
n't mean to hold up a priest but I need 
money badly." 

The priest apologized too. "I'm sorry 
I have no money with me," he said, 
"but here, have a cigar." 

"No thanks," replied the robber, "I've 
given up smoking for Lent." 



THE NEW CIVILIZATION 

There was a recent comment in a na- 
tional magazine holding that it is hard 
to be sympathetic with the people on 
the Bikini atoll who are being moved 
from their islands so America can con- 
duct an experiment with atomic bombs. 
"These savages," said the magazine 
ironically, "have not even learned to 
drop things on each other." 

This reminds us of another incident 
which was supposed to have taken place 
while American troops, tanks and flame 
throwers were blasting through a South- 
ern Pacific island inhabited by cannibals. 

Two cannibals, who had fled to the 
mountainous hinterland, were talking 
about the new civilization which was 
being brought to them. Said one of 
them: 

"The thing that I can't understand 
about these civilized people is that they 
kill more people than they can eat." 

The savages! — The Capital Times. 

• • • 

NOT SO SILLY 

The Army and Navy are now studying 
the results of their $70,000,00 Atom 
Bomb test in the South Pacific islands. 
When we remember how much "viewing 
with alarm" and "looking with trepida- 
tion" there was back in the depression 
years every time some progressive con- 
gressman suggested a few millions 
ought to be spent to provide jobs, we 
wonder where in heck civilization is 
headed. 

No wonder the S. D. Labor Leader 
opines it might be cheaper to drop the 
Atom Bomb on the United States and 
experiment with inflation on Bikini. 




Yes, I know how you feel, Mrs. Smith. 



GI's ARE MAKING GOOD 



* * * 

FROM THE Veterans' Administration comes an encouraging report 
of what free men can do in a free economy. All over the nation 
veterans with the help of GI loans and lots of ingenuity are making 
good in a big way in new business enterprises. 

A veteran in Lowry, S. C, last month repaid a G. I. business loan he 
obtained nine months ago to buy 2,000 turkey pullets and necessary feed 
and equipment. His enterprise showed a large profit. 
Three brothers, all veterans, ob 



tained a $1,500 business loan to buy 
equipment for bituminous road sur- 
facing in St. Paul, Minn. Taking 
their father into partnership, they 
formed a fast-working team capable 
of surfacing four driveways a day. 
Completing 25 driveways and one 
parking lot in three weeks, the vet- 
erans claim to be able to increase 
their pace and gross $1,000 a week 
for the rest of the year. 

An ex-sailor received a $3,600 G. 
I. loan to purchasee an Andreas 
Guarnerius violin to be used with 
the Philadelphia Symphony Orches- 
tra. A VA representative phoned 
Eugene Ormandy, conductor of the 
orchestra, to verify the value of the 
instrument. "It is a magnificent 
violin made almost 300 years ago," 
Mr. Ormandy explained. 

A nation-wide shortage of preci- 
sion gears prompted a Minneapolis, 
Minn., veteran to open a manufac- 
turing plant that immediately was 
flooded with orders for gears val- 
ued at $300,000. The 29-year old 
ex-Navy man started business with 
$27,000 obtained through G. I. and 
Reconstruction Finance Corpora- 
tion loans and his own savings. Us- 
ing war surplus equipment, the vet- 
eran developed a new manufactur- 
ing method enabling him to guaran- 
tee 100 per cent perfection for every 
gear produced. 

A former California cowboy who 
rode in rodeos throughout America 



and Europe capitalized on his know- 
ledge of horses upon his discharge 
from the Sea Bees. He obtained a 
business loan to open a combination 
riding academy and school for boys. 
His Wildwood Ranch has bridle 
paths that run through a state park 
of giant redwoods and 53 horses in- 
cluding geldings and palominos. 
The school, for boys between 12 and 
15, concentrates on body-building 
and skill-creating subjects such as 
horsemanship, handicraft and nature 
study. 

An ex-Army gunner borrowed 
$1,500 under the G. I. Bill to buy a 
38-foot lobster boat in Gloucester, 
Mass. In addition to lobster fishing, 
he charters his boat for fishing par- 
ties during the summer. 

The exterminating business at- 
tracted three Denver, Colo., vet- 
erans, two of them disabled. With 
the help of a G. I. loan, they began 
on a small scale, exterminating 
cockroaches and termites in build- 
ings. To increase profits, they turn- 
ed to the dairy industry, eradicating 
pests in barns, granaries and corn 
cribs. They bought an airplane to 
spray fields and swamps, and intend 
to learn to fly under the VA flying 
training program. 

An ex-serviceman who escaped 
unwounded from numerous straf- 
ings in Sicily and Italy borrowed 
$4,000 to open a small grocery in 
Lexington, Ky. During his first 
morning in business, cash on hand 



THE CARPENTER 



13 



was 90c. His net profits mounted 
until now they vary from $180 to 
$200 a month. 

One of the smallest G. I. loans 
recorded, $28.74, was granted a vet- 
eran farmer in Arkansas for the 
purchase of a harrow. It was ur- 
gently needed to save a valuable 
crop. 

A veteran in Kansas City, Mo., 
opened an export-import business 
with the help of a G. I. loan. As 
his representative in Italy, he chose 
his former first sergeant. 

A Spartanburg, S. C., veteran ob- 
tained a $4,000 G. I. business loan to 
establish a diaper service. 

Help wanted advertisements in 
Dallas. Texas papers furnished an 
idea to a Texas veteran and his wife. 
They secured a G. I. loan to form 
Business Service, Inc., supplying 
secretarial and office help to small 
concerns requiring part-time assist- 
ance. 

A Maryland veteran who learned 
to dive in the Navy used a G. I. 
loan to purchase diving equipment 
for local salvage work. Operating 



in the Baltimore harbor, he inspects, 
patches and repairs under-water 
cables on a contract basis. 

A former colonel and sergeant 
forgot all about rank after their dis- 
charges, obtained a G. I. loan, and 
opened a gunsmith firm in Boston, 
Mass. Both ex-ordnance men, they 
put the knowledge acquired in the 
service to use, repairing and re- 
building guns of every description. 

Over 16,000 veterans have dis- 
played American ingenuity typified 
by these cases by using nearly $48,- 
000,000 of G. I. business loans for 
ventures ranging from tool repair- 
ing to sheep raising. 

The majority of veterans went 
into business on a modest scale, with 
loans averaging $2,941 each. VA 
guaranteed or insured about $1,259 
of the average loan. 

The failure rate of G. I. business 
enterprises has been slight. Only 
eight-tenths of one per cent of vet- 
erans receiving business loans failed 
to meet payments, causing the Fed- 
eral Government to pay $112,049 to 
lending agencies. 



Death Calls Brother Tom Moore 

Canada lost one of its truly great labor leaders last month when death 
called Brother Tom Moore at the age of sixty-seven. For twenty-five 
years Brother Moore, a long and faithful member of our Brotherhood, 
served as president of the Canadian Trades and Labor Congress. Four 
years ago ill-health made it mandatory for him to retire but during these 
last years he followed the activities and progress of the labor movement 
as keenly as he did during the years he was playing a prominent part in it. 

Mr. Moore was a native of Leeds, England, settled in Niagara Falls in 
1909. He joined the United Brotherhood of Carpenters there in 1906 and 
served in many capacities until moving to Ottawa in 1919. He represented 
Canadian labor at Conferences at London, Geneva, Washington, Amster- 
dam and Kyoto, Japan, and for several years served on the governing body, 
of the International Labor Organization. 

At the Twenty-fifth General Convention of our Brotherhood a motion 
was unanimously adopted that a message of good wishes for a speedy 
recovery be sent Brother Moore who in past years attended many such 
conventions as a delegate. Such a message was sent a few weeks before his 
passing. ^ 

Throughout the labor movements of the United States and Canada the 
passing of Brother Moore is sincerely mourned. 



14 



Keep Collective Bargaining 

By Senator Robert M. La Follette, Jr. 
• • * 

INDUSTRIALISTS should recognize that it is good business to give 
their workers decent standards of living. The prosperity of industry, 
and that of farmers and service groups as well, depends largely on 
the prosperity of the worker. Labor is part of the mass market on which 
mass production depends. Farm prices and farm income are paid largely 
out of labor's share of industrial income. Historically, American industry 
has prospered when labor made its gains. Increased purchasing power, 
often very reluctantly given or wrested from industry, has been the life 
blood of our economic system. 

Far-sighted management realizes that the greatest untapped market in 
the world is right here in this country among those who now have bare 
subsistence purchasing power. Give 



them a chance to increase their 
standard of living and you automat- 
ically shift our economic machine 
into high gear. 

It is frequently argued that those 
industries which pay more than a 
bare subsistence have discharged all 
their responsibilities toward labor 
and society — that demands for high- 
er wages or lower prices in these 
industries are not justified. Such an 
argument might be true in a static 
economy. It doesn't hold water in 
an expanding economy. 

The entire industrial history of 
our country attests to the fact that 
industry can raise wages and can 
lower unit prices and still make 
good profits. 

It should be conceded that this 
very general analysis is not the 
complete picture of our present eco- 
nomic situation. There would have 
been fewer strikes since V-J Day 
had the President and other admin- 
istration spokesmen laid down a 
definite blueprint with respect to 
wages and prices, instead of trying 
to mollify both sides with an in- 
definite and vacillating policy. 



In addition, several unusual tem- 
porary economic factors are highly 
important. First of all, a tremen- 
dous backlog of demand exists for 
many industrial products. Second, 
strong inflationary tendencies are 
lurking in the economy. Third, the 
necessity for the continuance of 
many governmental economic con- 
trols impairs the operation of cer- 
tain checks and balances in collec- 
tive bargaining. Fourth, the eco- 
nomic road ahead, after complete 
reconversion, is still uncertain. 

Several facts stand out clearly in 
this confused picture. Many indus- 
tries are assured of a market for 
everything they can possibly make 
the next few years. In many cases 
it means lowered costs that should 
be reflected in higher wages and 
lower prices. Many industries have 
already benefited substantially by 
reduced average unit labor cost due 
to the reduction of overtime costs. 

In those industries that cannot 
actually effect operating economies 
under these conditions, and where 
labor is working for wages that do 
not permit an adequate standard of 



THE CARPENTER 



15 



living-, now is the time to raise 
those wages, even if some price in- 
creases are necessary. Never will 
these industries be in a more favor- 
able position to absorb increases. If 
this is not done, the effect will be 
to impose substandard conditions 
not only for the present, but for a 
long indeterminate period. All too 
often in a glutted labor market it is 
the industry with the marginal wage 
that sets the industrial standard. 

When the initial backlog of de- 
mand is satisfied, there must be a 
continuing high-level demand. That 
can be assured only with a high 
level of purchasing power, gradu- 
ally built up with an increase in real 
wages. 

These and similar problems are 
the complex issues behind the labor 
scene. It is clearly apparent that 
restrictive labor measures are not 
the answer. Curtailment of labor's 
rights can only bring bitterness and 
discontent. The logical conclusion 
of such repressive measures is to 
abolish entirely the right to strike 
and the right to peaceful picketing. 
These are fundamental rights which 
stem from the Constitution. 

I cannot emphasize this too 
strongly : this approach is the meth- 
od of totalitarianism. The destruc- 
tion of a free and strong labor 
movement was the first step in the 
subversion of the rights and liber- 
ties of all segments of the popula- 
tion. When total control was achiev- 
ed, the status of labor, and in fact 
all culture, reverted to barbarism, 
including the exist-for-work theory 
of economics. This method to se- 
cure production is irreconcilable 
with democracy and freedom. 

Punitive legislation against labor, 
or any group in society, inevitably 
entails the loss of freedom for all. 
Labor's basic rights are indivisible 
with other basic rights. Strike down 



the rights of labor and you have 
struck a major blow in wrecking the 
freedom of speech, and all other lib- 
erties that we cherish. It is part 
of the same pattern. It is part of 
the same freedom. 

The serious situation we face to- 
day calls for a delicate operation on 
the ills of our economy — not a hap- 
hazard swinging of the meat axe 
and bludgeon. A labor strike is a 
symptom of industrial illness. Too 
many people are concerned with the 
symptoms. 

The constructive approach to this 
critical problem is in the opposite 
direction. The only real answer is 
full and free collective bargaining, 
in an atmosphere permeated with 
mutual confidence, instead of mis- 
trust. The spotlight of public opin- 
ion must be turned on those who re- 
fuse to bargain in good faith. 

The conciliation and mediation 
services of the government must be 
strengthened. The use of voluntary 
mediation and arbitration must be 
encouraged. Such provisions writ- 
ten into a voluntary collective 
agreement will afford protection 
against work stoppages. Compul- 
sory methods usually defeat them- 
selves because they do not remove 
the friction and bitterness that must 
be resolved before a satisfactory 
employer-employee relationship can 
be had. Cooling-off periods are un- 
satisfactory because they can easily 
become heating-up periods or mere- 
ly stalling-off periods. 

In the most destructive war in 
history we proved that free men 
could outfight and outproduce na- 
tions governed by totalitarian states. 
We now have the opportunity to 
prove to the world that free men 
living in a democracy can have eco- 
nomic opportunity for a high stand- 
ard of living without surrendering 
their fundamental rights. 



Editorial 




It Pays to Organize 

The last vestiges of slavery in the United States seem to be on their 
way out. Throughout the land there is a slow but certain rebellion de- 
veloping among the baseball players in the organized leagues. After fifty 
years of being bulldozed, exploited and traded and sold like cattle, ball 
players are finally waking up to the fact that American freedom extends 
to all classes and all creeds. Like many other exploited workers, they 
are coming to realize that their only sure road to economic freedom and 
justice is organization. 

It is surprising that in a country as enlightened as America a form of 
virtual slavery has been able to exist for so many years. Year after year, 
highly-skilled, sturdy young ball players have bowed to iron-clad domina- 
tion by the monied interests which owned them as surely as the plantation 
owners of the south ever owned their slaves. Either they conformed with 
the wishes of their owners or they faced banishment from the game. 
They had no alternative or chance to bargain for their services. They 
accepted the terms offered by their owners or they gave up the right to 
play in organized baseball, a closed shop arrangement unparalleled in any 
other phase of American life, including organized labor. Ususally the 
owners of highly valuable baseball skill had no other means of earning a 
decent livelihood. So they invariably made the best bargain they could 
under a system which gave them no latitude or basis for bargaining effec- 
tively. 

Under the "reserve clause" feature which has long been part and parcel 
of baseball contracts, the player is indentured to a club for as long as he 
remains in the game. The club can sell the player or trade him like a piece 
of livestock. The player's wishes are immaterial. Imagine what that 
means to the player. It's as if a carpenter became the property of the 
first contractor he went to work for. He would have to work for that one 
contractor as long as he followed the trade unless the contractor chose to 
sell him or trade him. It's not hard to imagine what kind of wages would 
prevail in the industry if every carpenter had to work for one contractor 
only or get out of the trade. Well that's the sort of thing ball players 
have had to contend with for years. 

In fairness to the baseball moguls it ought to be pointed out that most 
clubs pay reasonably good salaries. Some, however, take full advantage 
of the unlimited power that is theirs under the "reserve clause." They 
exploit their players to the limit and there is little the players can do 
about it. No wonder players are turning to organization for a way out. 

This year has seen dozens of top-flight players desert American base- 
ball to play in a Mexican league. Of course the idea that they should have 
nerve enough to quit American baseball and move into the Mexican league 
where they can get what they are worth is anathema to American club 






THE CARPENTER 17 

owners. It worries them no end. Yet the Mexican league for the first 
time in history has given players a chance to dicker for their services 
and really get what they are worth. Naturally these men who slipped 
out from under the indenture clauses in our baseball leagues are forever 
barred from playing in organized American baseball again. But at least 
they are now for the first time in history getting all they can sell their 
services for in a competitive market. 

Don't get us wrong; we're not against baseball. It's a fine game and 
one we must keep. Millions of people enjoy it thoroughly and we're one 
of them. But it seems about time the men who play it, the men who make 
it great, got a decent break. For years the club owners have tried to wrap 
a sort of patriotic aura around the game. They have tried to make it. a 
sort of historic American tradition on a par with the constitution. And 
all the time it has been a money-grubbing proposition with them. They 
have squeezed it for every nickel there was in it, and nuts to the players 
and everybody else. 

It took a long time, but at last the players are waking up to the fact that 
organization offers the only sure road to economic justice. And that is 
something other exploited groups are finding out too. 



The Day of Awakening 

It has been no secret to anyone that some fine day a showdown would 
have to develop in the CIO between those who believe in straight, honest- 
to-God unionism and those who believe in ideologies imported from 
Russia. That that day is now close at hand seems logical in view of re- 
cent developments. Recently Morris Muster, a New Yorker who helped 
to organize the CIO Furniture workers in 1937 and who has been its inter- 
national president ever since, threw in the sponge. He resigned because, 
as he says, "my record as a trade unionist will not permit me to remain 
head of a Communist-controled organization." 

The membership of Munster's union is estimated at around 42,000. Of 
this number he says that not more than 1,000 are Communists. Yet at the 
union's recent convention the Communist elements took over lock, stock 
and barrel. Through chicanery and intrigue this vociferous minority im- 
posed its will upon the majority. As Munster put it, these individuals, 
like Communists everywhere, are professional politicians first and trade 
unionists only incidentally. By their plotting and scheming a handful 
of delegates who never saw the inside of a furniture factory defeated the 
will of the majority and placed themselves in complete command. By 
this action they actually placed the CIO furniture workers in the same 
category with most of the other CIO internationals which have long been 
under complete and airtight control of a Communist clique. 

Indications are that the CIO rank and file is getting pretty fed up 
with domination piped direct from Moscow. The rebellion of Munster 
and others in the furniture workers is only one straw in the wind. A half 
dozen other international unions are seething under their Communist 
yokes. Most of them have petitioned CIO president Murray for help in 
getting rid of Communist hierarchies that have been in the saddle. 



18 THE CARPENTER 

And any way you look at it is high time the rank and filers in the dual 
organization make up their minds which road they are going to travel. 
They can travel down the road of good, sound unionism followed by the 
AFI.. or they can choose to follow the erratic, underhanded, ignominious 
roadway Communism has been building in this nation. The AFL way 
they can head toward prosperity, security and peace. The Commy way 
they can walk straight into misery, turmoil, privation and strife — the 
things the Reds promote incessantly to swell their ranks with new recruits. 
By now it should be evident to everyone that the Commies' chief purposes 
are to attack the government of this nation, extol the virtues of Russia 
(which they themselves avoid like the plague), and keep alive and intensify 
industrial strife throughout our economy. 

Under a free system we made ourselves the greatest nation in the 
world. We elevated our working condition, raised our wages, and im- 
proved our living standards to a degree no one would have thought pos- 
sible even twenty years ago. With free unions and free enterprise under 
a democratic system we can go even farther in the next twenty years than 
we went in the last. 

But the Commies want none of this. They want turmoil and strife and 
uncertainty. They feed on the misery of the people and recruit their 
victims from among the beaten down and hopeless. Munster found that 
out in the CIO Furniture Workers. While it took him a long time to 
learn the facts of life, he seems to have learned them at last. He hits 
the nail on the head when he says: 

"Those people are dangerously vicious. They are not in the union to 
help workers. Anyone who goes along with them on the theory that that 
is the liberal thing to do is a fool. I know, because I have been one. It is 
better to rid the labor movement entirely of these people. They are no 

good to anyone but Uncle Joe." 

■ * 

A Gestapo Device 

For the past several months a Senate investigating committee has been 
digging into a smelly affair involving several companies which received 
huge contracts during the war. What it has uncovered up to the time 
of this writing is enough to give an honest man nausea. A couple of 
promoters started out with a printed letterhead for which they paid some 
printer a couple of dollars and wound up with almost $80,000,000 in the 
taxpayers money for munitions contracts. And for some inexplicable 
reason (he says it wasn't money) a Congressman from Kentucky acted as 
a sort of guardian angel for the deal throughout the war years. It's all a 
stinking mess and there are probably a lot more of the same to come. 

One of the alarming things uncovered by this war contract investiga- 
tion is the extensive use which the Army, the Navy and many Washington 
agencies are making of wire-tapping devices. These devices are recording 
machines that are attached to telephones. When some one calls up the 
machines are switched on and a recording is made of the conversation. It 
seems many Washington offices have been using these spying machines for 
a long time. 

From where we sit it looks as though the time has arrived when the 
problem of wire-tapping must be settled once and for all time. At 



THE CAR'PENTER 19 

various times the FBI has resorted to wire-tapping- to catch crooks — 
especially during prohibition. If we remember correctly the courts called 
such procedure illegal after Congress passed an act covering such prac- 
tices. Yet today the government itself is apparently using the snooping 
devices extensively. However noble the supposed purpose for installing 
these devices mav be, we consider them a dangerous and distinct threat 
to privacy which the constitution guarantees every citizen. It's time these 
snooping devices were made illegal. 

It is not the government alone that is using these infernal machines. 
One company alone has installed nearly 7,000 for commercial users with- 
out any sort of sales promotion: So from now on }^ou will never be 
sure whether the person you are calling is having a record made of your 
conversation or not. You won't be able to discuss anything confidential. 
You won't be able to talk freely. And certainly you won't be able to de- 
pend on the phone for anything you wouldn't care to see printed in the 
newspapers. 

Wire-tapping devices smack of Hitlerism and the Gestapo. They 
have no place in a democracy. It's high time it was made a crime not 
only to use them but to manufacture them as well. 



Civilization Hanging in the Balance 

Late last month the Allied Nations undertook the tremendous task of 
writing the peace which will officially close World War II. For the 
second time in a generation diplomats will endeavor to dispense justice 
and security to all people and all nations. It is a gigantic undertaking. 
Will they be able to succeed this time where they failed before? No one 
knows. But everyone knows that if they fail this time civilization is on its 
way out. Our own civilization will follow Greece, Rome, China, and 
the host of other enlightened eras that flourished for a day in all their 
glory and splendor only to sink into oblivion and decay. 

Now as throughout all other periods of history, the little people of 
the world are not mad at anybody. All they are interested in individually 
is having and holding a job that provides a decent living standard, a 
chance to raise a family in decent surrounding, and an opportunity to 
live a useful, busy life. The aspirations of Joe Doakes, American, are 
little different from those of Harry Limehouse, Englishman, or Otto 
Kraut, German. It's somewhere in the uppercrusts that the differences 
that lead to war arise. And invariably it's the little guys who wind up 
beating each others brains out. 

Of course the Garrsons' and Mays' of the world need a war to enable 
them to make millions of dollars overnight. From the earliest times 
there were always those who waxed fat on the misery and privation of 
others. Probably it will always be thus. But speaking for the little 
people of this nation there is one thing we would like to point out. Mod- 
ern warfare has become so destructive nobody can win anymore. There 
is no situation worth sacrificing this nation and all its people for. Yet if 
another war arises and atomic weapons come into use, our cities and all 
their inhabitants are doomed. Let those who are sitting in the peace con- 
ference ponder on that for awhile. 



Official Information 




General Officers of 
THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS 

of AMERICA 

Qinbeal Office : Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General President 

WM. L. HDTCHBSON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



First General Vice-President 

M. A. HDTCHBSON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Secretary 

FRANK DUFFY 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Second General Vice-President 

JOHN R. STEVENSON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Treasurer 

S. P. MEADOWS 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Executive Board 
First District, CHARLES JOHNSON, Jr. Fifth District, R. E. ROBERTS 

HI E. 22nd St., New York 10, N. Y. 



631 W. Page, Dallas, Texas 



Second District, WM. J. KELLY 
Carpenters' Bid., 243 4th Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Sixth District, A. W. MUIR 
Box 1168, Santa Barbara, Calif. 



Third District, HARRY SCHWARZER 
3684 W. 136th St., Cleveland, O. 



Seventh District, ARTHUR MARTEL 
1182 St. Lawrence, Rm. 10, Montreal, Que., Can. 



Fourth District, ROLAND ADAMS 
712 West Palmetto St., Florence, S. C. 



WM. L. HUTCHESON, Chairman 
FRANK DUFFY, Secretary 



All correspondence for the General Executive Board must be sent to the General Secretary. 



Convention Call — Canadian Trades and Labor Congress 

In accordance with the provisions of the Constitution you are hereby 
informed that the Sixty-first Annual Convention of the Trades and 
Labor Congress of Canada will be held in the Windsor Armories, Windsor, 
Ontario, beginning at 10 a.m. (City Time) Wednesday, September 18th, 
1946, and continuing daily until the business of the Convention has been 
completed. 

With a victorious end of World War II it is now possible for the 
Trades and Labor Congress of Canada to hold its first peace-time Conven- 
tion since 1938. In 1945 it was impossible to hold a Convention due to 
Government restrictions regarding traveling; therefore, many urgent 
problems were left in abeyance and must be dealt with this year. 



NEW CHARTERS ISSUED 



2548 
2240 
2243 
2562 
2568 
2249 
2251 
2577 
2578 



Enterprise, Ore. 
Burlington, N. C. 
Durango, Colo. 
Stayton, Ore. 
Edmonton, Alta., Can. 
Columbus, Ohio 
Palmer, Alaska 
Espanola, N. Mex. 
North Bay, Out., Can. 



2613 Windsor, Ont., Can. 

2616 El Centro, Calif. 

2252 Ottawa, Ont., Can. 

2579 Areata, Calif. 

22 62 Spruce Pine, N. C. 

2 26 6 Chatham, Ont., Can. 

262 5 Victoria, B. C, Can. 

263 Seattle, Wash. 



31 




tmtfv tant 



Not lost to those that love them, They still live in our memory, 
Not dead, just gone before; And will forever more. 



t&i in U^axs 



The Editor has been requested to publish the names 
of the following Brothers who have passed away. 



Brother FRED ANDERSON, Local No. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. 
Brother ROBERT E. BARTON, Local No. 1149, Oakland, Cal. 
Brother EARNEST BEAN, Local No. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. 
Brother HARRY BECKER, Local No. 133, Terre Haute, Ind. 
Brother HARRY BINGHAM, Local No. 40, Boston, Mass. 
Brother PHILIP BISSETTE, Local No. 490, Passaic, N. J. 
Brother FLOYD C. BURDICK, Local No. 1765, Orlando, Fla. 
Brother OLIVA BURGOIN, Local No. 94, Providence, R. I. 
Brother T. M. COLLIER, Local No. 345, Memphis, Tenn. 
Brother HARRY DEATHRAGE, Local No. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. 
Brother WM. DECKER, Local No. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. 
Brother JACK O. EBY, Local No. 1849, Pasco, Wash. 
Brother W. S. FERGUSON, Local No. 213, Houston, Tex. 
Brother JESSE FITE, Local No. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. 
Brother C. A. FOWLER, Local No. 345, Memphis, Tenn. 
Brother JOHN H. HENHOEFFER, Local No. 122, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Brother J. M. HERNDON, Local No. 1849, Pasco, Wash. 
Brother EDWARD C. JOHNSON, Local No. 122, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Brother HENRY LAMPE, Local No. 419, Chicago, 111. 
Brother W. E. LOGAN, Local No. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. 
Brother FRANK MAREK, Local No. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. 
Brother JOE A. McCORD, Local No. 1497, E. Los Angeles, Cal. 
Brother HARRY McGOWAN, Local No. 1849, Pasco, Wash. 
Brother WM. S. MUNROE, Local No. 345, Memphis, Tenn. 
Brother W. C. NOWLIN, Local No. 213, Houston, Tex. 
Brother CHAS. PAGE, Local No. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. 
Brother WESLEY W. RAPPE, Local No. 627, Jacksonville, Fla. 
Brother D. E. ROARK, Local No. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. 
Brother C. ROMANELLO, Local No. 246, New York, N. Y. 
Brother HARRY S. SCHMID, Local No. 122, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Brother WM. J. SMITH, Local No. 378, Edwardsville, 111. 
Brother WESTLEY L. SMITH, Local No. 1419, Johnstown, Pa. 
Brother NOLAND STRINGFIELD, Local No. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. 
Brother CHARLES STROBLE, Local No. 1225, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 
Brother RAY TROUTMAN, Local No. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. 
Brother JOSEPH VERDERBER, Local No. 246, New York, N. Y. 
Brother WILLIAM P. WERNER, Local No. 378, Edwardsville, 111. 
Brother RUDOLFO ZILLI, Local No. 246, New York, N. Y. 
Brother LAWRENCE ZIMMERMAN, Local No. 2871, Poison, Mont. 



CorrosponcbncQ 




This Journal Is Not Responsible For Views Expressed By Correspondents. 

Local Union No. 141 Honors Two Old Timers 

The Editor: 

On Tuesday, July 2, 1946, Local Union No. 141, Chicago, 111., met in its 
hall at 7427-29 So. Chicago Ave., to honor two 60-year continuous members 
and install the local officers. 

Brother Peter E. Carlson born January 6, 1858, joined Local. Union 
No. 162, Chicago, Illinois, April 12, 1886. Brother Chas. Swensen born 
July 22, i860, joined Local Union No. 162, Chicago, Illinois, May 12, 1886. 
Local No. 162 and Local No. 28 later consolidated and formed Local No. 10 
in 1895. Brother's Carlson and Swensen then transferred from Local No. 
10 in the early 1900's to Local Union No. 141 where they have been in 
continuous good standing ever since. Local Union No. 141 was chartered 
November 17, ic 



Brother George Ottens, general . representative, acted as master of 
ceremonies. He presented gold service pins from the General Office en- 
graved for 60 years' service, and a token from the Local Union to each of 
these brothers. Brother Ottens praised the loyalty of these two old 
timers and pointed out that with this same loyalty to principles and to our 
organization from our members today our Brotherhood can't help but 
advance. 

Brothers Carlson and Swensen both responded and we in turn gave 
them an ovation. Both of these brothers are mentally alert and in very 
good physical condition which again proves the old adage that hard work 
won't hurt you. 

The Woodlawn Commandery Band which uses our hall for rehearsals 
graciously donated their time and came over thirty strong and played 
some stirring marches. 

The following officers were installed by Brother Ottens: Stanley L. 
Johnson, Pres.; Leon D. Druse, Vice Pres.; Matt Hellman, Rec. Sec'y; 
George Vest, Fin. Sec'y; H. C. Schriner, Treas. ; Arthur J. Casson, Con- 
ductor; Frank Hawkins, Warden; Edw. H. Nielsen, Trustee. The two 
other trustees are Elmer Johnson, and Oscar Anderson, and Stanley L. 
Johnson is Business Agent. 

At the conclusion refreshments were served and we feel a memorable 
and enjoyable evening was had by all present. 

Fraternally yours, 

Matt Hellman, Rec. Sec, L. U. No. 141. 



THE CARPENTER 

Father Obligates Son 



23 




>_ J- 



On May 2, 191 1, Brother John Jar- 
vis was obligated into Local No. 
734 of Kokomo, Indiana. Thirty-five 
years later, Brother Jarvis was obli- 
gating his own son into the same 
local. Pictured herewith is Brother 
Jarvis giving the obligation to his 
son, Don Jarvis, on April 24, 1946, 
during a meeting of the Local Union. 
Congratulations to the new father 
and son team. 



Kentucky Members Attend Labor School 

Attending the recent two-week Kentucky Labor School at Richmond, 
Kentucky, were ten members of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters 
and Joiners AFL. They are Charles Bratcher, Weaver Freeman, Frank 
Dixon, Paul McAvoy and Irvin Voit of Local Union No. 64; Archie K. 
Fleming and Ira G. Thompson of Local Union No. 442; William Beller of 
No. 2866 and Gerald Weikel of 2959, and Jerry Bevins of No. 661. Repre- 
senting their locals, the delegates were from Louisville, Hopkinsville, 
Owensboro and Beutchel, Kentucky. 

The School, first of its kind to be held by any state federation of labor, 
took place on the campus of Eastern State Teachers' College, chosen be- 
cause of its convenient location and excellent facilities for study and 
recreation. Forty students from fifteen AFL unions in eight Kentucky 
cities attended. Included in the faculty were several college professors 
and representatives of the AFL and Department of Labor. 

Students spend about six hours a day in class, learning such subjects as 
labor history, labor economics, collective bargaining, public speaking and 
parliamentary law. There were also lectures by several guest speakers, 
including L. C. Willis, director of the Kentucky Department of Indus- 
trial Relations. At a special Saturday night meeting, Dr. M. D. Peterson 
of Oak Ridge addressed the School and members of the Richmond com- 
munity on the implications of atomic energy. 

The School is a project of the pioneering Kentucky Federation of 
Labor's Department of Research and Education, set up last January under 
the directorship of Mrs. Frances Kauffman of Louisville. Speaking of the 
vSchool and of the educational program as a whole, Federation Secretary- 
Treasurer Edward H. Weyler explained that the purpose was to train 
workers for leadership both in their union and in the community, so that 
labor can assume its rightful duties and responsibilities to its membership 
and to the nation. 




Jacksonville Ladies on the Move 

The Editor: 

Ladies Auxiliary 297 in Jacksonville, Fla., is on the move. We read in 
The Carpenter what other Auxiliaries are doing so we are going to tell 
you what we are doing. We are steadily growing. We have 35 members 
in good standing and we meet the second and fourth Tuesday nights in 
the Carpenters' Building. We all have a nice time together. We have a 
sick committee and when any member is reported sick a potted plant is sent 
to her. We buy a large duck with a flower already growing. If the 
family needs a cash donation we see to that also. We have a can a week 
fund for the food drive for Europe. Any member can bring more than 
one of any kind of food, the more the merrier. We have quite a supply 
on hand. 

We hold bunco parties and the proceeds go in the bank for donations 
for the sick or needy. 

On July 1st a joint installation of officers of Carpenters Local 627 and 
Auxiliary Local 297 was held, after which a ball was given for the car- 
penters and their families. A large crowd attended. Dancing was from 
9:00 to 1 :oo A.M. and free refreshments were served throughout the eve- 
ning; beer, potato chips, soft drinks, ice cream and cakes. Everyone had 
a lovely time and plenty to eat. 

We have a lovely dance floor, air conditioned for comfort. We have 
dances three nights a week, the proceeds being divided between the Car- 
penters' Local and Ladies' Auxiliary. 

We will be glad to have any lady visit us on our meeting night from 
any other Auxiliary if she is visiting our fair city. 

Florida is a wonderful place so come down and see us. 

Respectfully, Mrs. Pearl Williams. 



Hermiston Ladies Sponsor Picnic 

The Editor: 

Greetings to all sister organizations from Auxiliary Local No. 429 of 
Hermiston, Ore. We are not closing for the summer but intend to con- 
tinue our meetings on the first and third Tuesdays of each month. 

We have scheduled a picnic for July 28th at the Columbia Park for the 
Carpenters and their families. Each Carpenter is invited to bring a guest. 
Each family will provide its own basket lunch and our Auxiliary Local 
will furnish soft drinks and ice cream. 

All in all, we are looking forward to a busy and constructive summer. 

Fraternally yours, 

Florence Russel, Rec. Sec. 



THE CARP'ENTER 



25 



Los Angeles Ladies Celebrate 25th Birthday 



The Editor: 

Greetings to all sister auxiliaries from the ladies of Auxiliary No. 62, 
Los Angeles, Calif. Although it has been some time since we had an 
article in our magazine, we all look forward to getting it each month and 
eagerly peruse the contents. We, like our sister auxiliaries, were very- 
busy all through the war years. We are still carrying on through an A. 
F. of L. organization of the various craft auxiliaries united to sew, knit 
and work for our wounded service men in the hospitals here at home and 
any family of our service men needing aid. Several of our own auxiliary 
members hold office in this organization. One of our past presidents, 
Sister Brown, gave her two sons for the cause of freedom but carried on 
bravely doing more than her share of service for the boys. 

February 14th we celebrated our twenty-fifth birthday with a dance and 
card party and open house to all southern California Auxiliaries and 




their husbands. We served a lovely birthday cake and buffet supper. 
Our only charter member and treasurer twenty years, Sister Mabel 
Schmidt, was presented with a twenty-five year pin. Sister Grace Jared, 
our recording secretary, must also be credited with a long and faithful 
service. We have had several members with us 20 and 23 years. Last Christ- 
mas we served a turkey dinner to our members and their families. We 
meet the same night our husbands do and our first meeting night we serve 
refreshments and invite our husbands to partake. We have a pot-luck 
supper every three months with cake for the members having a birthday 
in the 3 months, then visit and play games while our husbands attend 
their meeting. We have $1000.00 invested in war bonds. 

Let's all get busy and convince more of these carpenters' wives they 
are needed in the auxiliaries to have a good time, learn more about organ- 
ized labor, and see that their husbands are more interested in their local 
meetings. 

Sisters from any auxiliary will be welcome to meet with us anytime. 

Fraternally, 

May Arnold, President. 



Craft Probloms 




Carpentry 



By H. H. Siegele 
LESSON 215 
In America the word "joinery" is rare- 
ly used by carpenters, even by those who 
specialize in the work that properly 
could be called by that name. We can- 
not recall ever having heard the word 
"joiner" used on the job, with refer- 
ence to a carpenter doing joinery; how- 
ever, there might be localities where 
the word has a practical usage. The 
finisher is the joiner of today, and 
finishing is the word that is used in- 
stead of joinery. The reason for the 
change from joinery to finishing and 
from joiner to finisher, we believe, is 
due to the advent of power-driven ma- 
chinery in the building industry. The 




Fig. 1 

field carpenter seldom, if ever, is called 
upon to make window sash or panel 
doors for a house. He might get to 
make small panel doors for built-in fix- 
tures, but even these are practically all 



made by the mills, or else the material 
is gotten out by a power-driven ma- 
chine on the job and the carpenter puts 
it together and installs it. Those things 
and similar other things, when they 




Fig. 2 

were made in a carpenter shop or on 
the job with hand tools, constituted the 
principal part of the work done by the 
joiner. So it is not strange that the 
word joiner is going out of use, and the 
word finisher is taking its place. 

A mechanic without tools can accom- 
plish little in the way of woodwork, 
which is equally true in regard to hold- 
ing devices, which, of course, are also 
tools but in a lesser sense. Perhaps the 
oldest of the holding tools, the old- 
fashioned bench vise, is shown by Fig. 
1, which is a sort of perspective view. 
The vise is shown holding a piece of 
material, while the bench is shown only 
in part. 

Fig. 2 is a rough drawing of a port- 
able vise clamped to the end of a bench 
with a piece of material held in the 
jaws. This is perhaps the most practi- 
cal vise in use today. It can be carried 
in a hand box and used as a bench vise 
or a tressel vise, for it is easy to fasten 
to a bench or to a saw horse. What 
we are showing is more nearly a sym- 
bol, for there are different kinds of 
such vises on the market, and the me- 
chanic should examine the different 
makes before selecting one for himself. 



THE CARPENTER 



27 



Fig. 3 shows the old-fashioned boot 
jack bench stop, which is shown fasten- 
ed to the bench with screws, but the 
common practice is to nail the stop to 
the bench with finishing nails, setting 
the nails so that the plane bit will not 
strike them. When screws are used 
they should be countersunk. Spurs are 




Bench 



Fig. 3 

usually inserted on the forked ends 
somewhat as shown. These are made of 
nails with the heads cut off and the 




Bench 



Fig. 4 

point ground to a cone point. To the 
upper right the spur is shown in place 
and at the bottom the headless nail is 
shown ready to be inserted, as indicated 
by the arrow. 

A self-cleaning bench stop is shown 
by Fig. 4. The shaded part is a sort 
of wedge with a shoulder, as shown to 




Fig. 5 

the left, against which the material is 
pushed, which automatically clamps it 
firmly, as indicated by the dotted lines. 
Either nails or screws can be used for 
fastening the stop, but nails should be 
set and screws countersunk. The same 
bench stop is shown by Fig. 5, where 



the wedge is separated from the fas- 
tened parts. The open part indicated to 
the left provides ample space for shav- 
ings, chips and the like to pass out, an 
advantage that the old-style bench stop 
shown by Fig. 3 does not have. 

Another bench stop is shown by Fig. 
6. This is a ..simple device, and can be 
made by the local blacksmith; how- 
ever, there are somewhat similar bench 
stops that can be obtained on the mar- 
ket. The one we are showing, when 
not in use, is pushed down so that the 
head will be in the housing shown by 
the medium shading. The slot into 
which the shank is slipped should be 




Fig. 6 

made so that the friction will hold the 
head up when it is in use. When the 
friction does not hold the head up, a 
little padding should be glued into the 
slot to renew the friction. 

Two views of an old-fashioned bench 
hook are shown by Fig. 7. The top is 
an edge view and the bottom is a plan. 




Fig. 7 

This hook is made by ripping out two 
wedge-shaped parts from the sides of a 
%-inch piece with the proper width and 
length. The length of the hook should 
be determined by the material it is to 
hold. If it is used for holding stair 
stringers while the housing is done, the 
hook should be long enough so that the 
board will be entirely on the bench and 
in the right position for using the 
router. 

Fig. 8 shows a part of a bench with a 
jamb against the bench stop and to the 
right it is held by a bench hook, which 
is shown heavily shaded. The sawing 
and the routing for the groove is done 



28 



THE CARPENTER 



while the jamb is in the position shown. 
Sometimes the hook is placed directly 
under the groove, but if the end to the 
left is held firmly by the bench stop, 
the position shown gives just a little 
more freedom of action. 

When this writer was learning the 
trade he looked for a book that cover- 
ed the more simple things in carpen- 
try; the things that proverbially "every- 
body knows," but all he could find was 
books dealing with problems on the 
architect and foreman levels. The things 
that he really wanted to find in a book, 
evidently were regarded as unimportant, 
and yet those are the very things that 
the beginner wants to know and should 
know before he goes on with the more 
difficult problems that only the experi- 




Fig. 8 



enced workman ever gets a chance to 
solve. It is our contention that once the 
apprentice know how to do all of the 
simple things about carpentry, he will 
have no difficulties in solving the hard 

problems. (Copyrighted 1946)— H. H. Siegele 



Wants to Know, II 

By H. H. Siegele 
The brother who wants information 
on how to cope large moldings might 
be interested in how to mark the miter 
of sprung moldings on the back, and 
cut them from the back with a cut-off 
saw. 




Fig. 1 

Fig. 1, to the left, shows a cross sec- 
tion of a large molding in place. The 
part of the back we are dealing with 
here is shown to the right at the bottom, 



shaded, and we are looking straight at 
it, as indicated by the large arrow to the 
left, which points to the bottom of the 
cross section. From the starting point 




Fig 



we make the first mark, as between a 
and a, which is a square mark. Now turn 
to Fig. 2, where we show a cross sec- 
tion to the upper left, and a drawing of 
the back, sloping down toward the right. 
Here again we are looking straight at 
the back, as indicated by the large ar- 
row to the left of the cross section. The 




Fig. 3 



mark that we make here is between a 
and a, and the way we arrive at it is by 
squaring across the back (the shaded 
part) as shown by the dotted line. Then 
we measure to the right the distance 
of the spring of. the molding, as shown 
by the cross section, which is 3 inches. 
This gives the second point, and we 
mark from a to a. (This marking can 
also be done with the steel square, by 
taking 3 on the tongue of the square 
and 5 on the body, the tongue gives the 
cut. Those figures are given with the 
cross section at the upper left. The cut 



THE CARPENTER 



29 



NOTICE 



The publishers of "The Carpenter" reserve the 
right to reject all advertising matter which may 
be, in their judgment, unfair or objectionable to 
the membership of the United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America. 
All contracts for advertising space in "The Car- 
penter," including those stipulated aB non-can- 
cellable, are only accepted subject to the above 
reserved rights of the publishers. 



Index of Advertisers 



Carpenters' Tools and Accessories 

Page 
Foley Mfg. Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 32 

Greenlee Tool Co., Rocford, III 1 

Keuffel & Esser Co., Inc., Hobo- 
ken, N. J. 31 

Mall Tool Co., Chicago, 111 3rd Cover 

A. D. McBurney, Los Angeles, 

Cal. 30 

Ohlen-Bishop Saw Co., Columbus, 

Ohio 31 

Paine Company, Chicago, 111 1 

Speedway Mfg. Co., Cicero, 111 — 31 

Stanley Tools, New Britain, 

Conn. 3rd Cover 

Carpentry Materials 

Johns-Manville, New York, N. Y. 32 

Doors 

Overhead Door Corp., Hartford 

City, Ind 4th Cover 

Technical Courses and Books 

American Technical Society, 

Chicago, 111 31 

Theo. Audel, New York, N. Y. 3rd Cover 

Mason & Parrish, Engineers, 

Kalamazoo, Mich 30 

Nelson Co., Chicago, III. 30 

H. H. Siegele, Emporia, Kans 29 

Tamblyn System, Denver, Colo 32 



KEEP THE MONEY 
IN THE FAMILY! 

PATRONIZE 
ADVERTISERS 



H. H. SIEGELE'S BOOKS 

CARPENTRY, — Has over 300 pages, more than 750 
illustrations, covering carpentry from staking out to 
fitting and hanging doors. Price. $2.50. 

QUICK CONSTRUCTION.— This book covers hun- 
dreds of practical building problems, has 252 pages and 
670 illustrations. Price $2.50. 

BUILDING. — This book has 210 pages and 495 
illustrations, covering form building, scaffolding, finish- 
ing, plans for a house, stair building, roof framing 
and other subjects. Price $2.50. (Carpentry. Building 
and Quick Construction support each other.) 

TWIGS OF THOUGHT.— Poetry, 64 pages, brown 
cloth binding and two-color title page. Only $1.00. 

PUSHING BUTTONS. — The prose companion of 
Twigs of Thought. Illustrated. Cloth. Only $1.00. 

Postage prepaid when money accompanies the order. 

VZ. H. H. SIEGELE S££™%% 

FREE. — With 2 books, Pushing Buttons free; with 
3 books, Twigs of Thought and Pushing Buttons free. 
Books autographed. 



is the same as a sheeting or plancher 
cut for a hip roof.) 

Fig. 3, to the left again shows the 
cross section of the molding, and the 
arrow shows the direction we are look- 
ing at the back. The part below the 
cross section that is shaded is what we 
are dealing with here. The mark that 
we want is between a and a, which is a 
true miter, as indicated to the right at 
a, where we show a square applied, 
using the figures 12 and 12. 

With the back of the molding marked 
in this way, take a well-sharpened fine 
saw and cut the molding from the back 
so as to cut away the three marks. If 
this is carefully done you will have a 
true miter cut. 

(Copyrighted 1946)— H. H. Siegele 
« 

SHINGLES FOR CONE 

Cutting shingles, especially asphalt 
shingles, for cone roofs is a simple mat- 




Fig. 1 

ter. Such shingles can be cut from 
slated roll roofing. The radius for de- 
scribing the shingles is easily obtained. 
Fig. 1 shows an elevation of a cone 
roof. The radius for marking the shin- 
gles for the first course is the distance 



30 



THE CARPENTER 



between point A and the eave at B. 
Such a shingle is shown cut to shape 
between 1 and B. The second course, 
numbered 2, would have a radius the 




Fig. 2 

width of the exposure to the weather 
shorter than the radius for the first 
course. The third course would have 
a radius the width of a course shorter 
than the radius for the second course, 
and so on, each radius being the width 
of a course shorter than the radius for 
the course before, up to the last course, 
which is numbered 12. 

Fig. 2 shows a roll of roofing partly 
unrolled with a radius pole in place 
for marking the shingle. To the right 
the marked shingle is shown shaded. 
Fig. 3 shows the same roll of roofing, 



but here the shingles are cut in longer 
strips and a little narrower. The pivot 
of the radius pole in this case is on one 
side of the strip and not at the center, 
as in the other case. The narrow long 
shingles are suitable for rather steep 
roofs which do not need much lap. 
When the lap is narrow, it should be 
sealed with asphalt cement, and the 




Fig. 3 

end joints should be reinforced by slip- 
ping tin shingles under them, cementing 
the ends of the asphalt shingles to the 

tin Shingles. (Copyrighted 1946)— H. H. Siegele 



GET THESE SUPER TOOLS 

SAFE-T-PLANE 




CUTS WOOD, METAL, PLASTICS 

FITS ANY DRILL PRESS 

Positive cutting action elim- 
inates scraping or tearing 
in hard, medium or soft 
woods, including balsa, ir- 
respective of grain position. 
Special cutter available for 
making square-shouldered 
cuts, another for work in 
non-ferrous metals and 
many plastic products, r- 

Features: single cutting blade: "one-spot" 
blade adjustment; polished bell guard pro- 
tects eyes and hands, directs flying chips downward; 
vibrationless operation, rugged strength, versatility 
and long life. Fully guaranteed. Only $5.95 



SUPER HACKSAW 

AND FLAT DIE FILE HOLDER 
The tool with 100 uses. 
Holds broken hacksaw 
blades— used by carpen- 
ters, mechanics, electri- 
cians, plumbers, hobbyists 
and repairmen. Perfect for 
all-round household needs; 
ideal for difficult close- 
quarter work. Price, with- 
out saw blade, only 95c. 



See your Dealer— Order di- 
rect it he cannot supply 
immediately. 



SUPER ARBOR 

(Patent Pending) 




A combination drilling or grind- 
ing wheel attachment. For Vx" 
motor shafts. Will take grind- 
ing wheel with %" hole on 
shaft and Vx" hole on small end. 
Extension can be used for rag 
or wire wheel, or Vx" 24-thread 
drill chuck which holds drills 
from No. 60 to Vx" in diameter. 
Right hand thread. Price only 
$1.50. 

A. D. McBURNEY 
939 W. 6th St., Dept. C-7 

Los Angeles 14, Calif. 



WATCH AND CLOCK REPAIRING 

COMPLETE COURSE in HOROLOGY 

A THOROUGH self-instruction train- 
ing in American and Swiss watches, 
clocks. Special sections on alarm clock 
repairs. A new, practical LEARN-BY- 
DOING instruction method. You 
m QUICKLY, easily. No previ- 
experience necessary. Watchmak- 
ing is the basic training for 
aircraft instrument work, and 
other scientific precision jobs. 
Amazing LOW PRICE. Money- 
Back Guarantee. Get into this 
fast-growing field NOW — don't 
delay. Mail coupon below. 
NELSON CO., 1139 S. Wabash, Dept. 3H66. Chicago 5, III. 
.— — <—Free Details— Mail Coupon Today!— — ^ 
I NELSON CO., 1139 S. Wabash, Dept. 3H66, Chicago 5 I 

■ Please send me — FREE and without obligation— j 
I illustrated Success- Catalog containing information about I 

■ Locksmithing and Kev making. No salesmen will call. • 




" NAME * 

I ADDRESS I 

I CITY STATE I 




•N 



THEY HAVE' 

OUR CHART Big 27"x36" blue print chart 
on the steel square Starting Key. Also 
a Radial Saw Chart. Blue print shows 
how to find length of any rafter and make 
its cuts, find any angle in degrees, frame 
any polygon 3 to 16 sides, and cuts its 
mitres, read board feet and brace tables, 
octagon scale, rafter tables and much 
other valuable information. Radial Saw 
Chart changes pitches and cuts into de- 
grees and minutes. Every carpenter should 
have this chart. Now printed on both sides, 
makes about 13 square feet of copy showing 
squares full size. Price $1.00 post paid. Check 
or Money Order— 'No Stamps. 

MASON ENGINEERING SERVICE 
2105 N. Burdick St., Dept. 6, Kalamazoo 81, Mich. 





Each month, more SpeedWay 
Drills come off the produc- 
tion line; are being shipped 
each day. But, frankly, though 
we are beginning to cut into our 
mountainous pile of back orders, 
there's a deal of waiting still 
for a lot of people who are 
ordering SpeedWay Tools today. 
However, because they are 
worth waiting for, we suggest 
that you place your order now 
with your local SpeedWay deal- 
er for earliest possible delivery. 

SPEEDWAY IVIFG. CO. 

1838 S. 52nd Ave. Chicago SO, III. 



No. 89. equipped 

with Snap- Release 

Chuck 

No. 89-J with 

Jacob chuck (as 

illustrated) $5.00 

extra. 





'^te« PC 

tsTVY^ai! EXAMS NAT ION 

i' SEND 

Learn to draw plans, estimate, be a live-wire builder, do 
remodeling, take contracting jobs. These 8 practical, pro- 
fusely illustrated books cover subjects that will help you 
to get- more work and make more money. Architectural de- 
sign and drawing, estimating, steel square, roof framing, 
construction, painting and decorating, heating, air-condi- 
tioning, concrete forms and many other subjects are included. 

BETTER JOBS » SETTER PHY "£ T °-?*™ 

The Postwar building boom is in full EDI1 I U Pi 
swing and trained men are needed. These books are 
Big opportunities are always for MJ5N the most up-to- 
WHO KNOW HOW. These books sup- date and complete 
Ply quick, easily understood training and we have ever pub- 
handy, permanent reference information lished on these 
that helps solve building problems. many subjects. 
Coupon Brings Eight Big Books For Examination 

AMERICAN TECHNICAL SOCIETY Vocational Publishers since 1898 
Dept. GC36 Drexel at 58th Street, Chicago 37, III. 

You may ship me the Up-to-Date edition of your eight 
big books, "Building, Estimating, and Contracting" with- 
out any obligation to buy. I will pay the delivery charge! 
only, and if fully satisfied in ten days, I will send you 
$2.00, and after that only $3.00 a month, until the total 
price of only $34.80 Is paid. I am not obligated In any 
way unless I keep the books. 

Name 

Address 

City State 

Attach letter stating age, occupation, employer's name and 
address, and name and address of at least one business 
man as reference. Men in service, also give home address. 



'I'LL TAKE THE WHITE ONE EVERY TIME! 




r 



PRODUCT OF MASTER SAW MAKERS 

Almost a century of Ohlen-Bishop service to 
carpenters and woodworkers assures correct- 
ness of design, style of tooth, true shaping 
and grinding when you choose an Ohlen- 
Bishop master-crafted saw. 

OHLEN-BISHOP MFG. CO., 906 Ingleside Ave., Columbus, Ohio 



■\ 




No. 10 Jointer 
No. C-6 Rip 
No. C-5 Cut-off 



°$/%B<mm 



j 



Read how this preference can help you . . . 



HOW DO YOU COMPETE AGAINST 
JERRY- BUILT CONSTRUCTION? 




WHENEVER you identify 
yourself with well-known 
quality building products, your 
own business future becomes 
all the more secure. 

That's one of the great ad- 
vantages of selling Johns- 
Manville Building Materials. 
They enjoy consumer confidence. 

Consider roofing. In a recent 
nation-wide poll, consumers 
were asked to identify the man- 
ufacturer of roofing materials 
in which they have greatest con- 
fidence. They named Johns- 
Manville eight to one! * 



One reason for this tremen- 
dous acceptance is the J-M radio 
program, "Bill Henry and the 
News." It reaches one of the 
largest of all listening audi- 
ences . . . helps make Johns- 
Manville a household word 
that stands for the best in 
Building Materials. 



j{j 75% of all people interviewed knew 
the name of a manufacturer of roofing 
materials. 46% said Johns-Manville. 
5.8% said Company "B". 3.3% said 
Company "C". The remaining 19.9% 
was divided among 43 other manu- 
facturers of roofing materials. 



Johns-Manville 



ROOFING MATERIALS 

Asbestos & Asphalt Shingles • Roll Roofings 




SfflH* 5 / 



MAKE A GOOD LIVING IN YOUR OWN 

BUSINESS— sharpening saws with the 
the Foley Automatic Saw Filer. It makes 
old saws cut like new again. All hand saws, 
also band saws and cross-cut circular 
saws can be filed on this ONE machine. 

THERE ARE HUNDREDS OF SAWS TO 
BE FILED in your own neighborhood, used 
by farmers, carpenters, homes, schools, 
factories, etc. W. L. Tarrant writes : "I 
left my old job last September and in 10 
months have filed 2,159 saws. We have a 
lovely business worked up and cannot 
keep up with the work." 

SEND FOR FREE PLAN 

— Shows how to start 
this steady cash busi- 
ness. No experience 
needed, no eyestrain, 
no canvassing. Mail 
coupon today. 




t FOLEY MFG. CO 



818-6 Foley Bldg. 
Minneapolis 13, Minn.; 
Send Free Plan on Saw Filing business — no 
k obligation. 

Name 



Address „ 

'•+* + **** + ** A*m* + + * + + + + AAA*A* + L 



LEARN TO ESTIMATE 

If you are ambitious to have your own busi- 
ness and be your own boss the "Tamblyn 
System" Home Study Course in Estimating 
will start you on your way. 

If you are an experienced carpenter and 
have had a fair schooling in reading, writing 
and arithmetic you can master our System 
in a short period of your spare time. The 
first lesson begins with excavations and step 
by step instructs you how to figure the cost 
of complete buildings just as you would do 
it in a contractor's office. 

By the use of this System of Estimating you 
avail yourself of the benefits and guidance of 
the author's 40 years of practical experience 
reduced to the language you understand. 
You will never find a more opportune time 
to establish yourself in business than now. 

Study the course for ten days absolutely 
free. If you decide you don't want to keep 
it, just return it. Otherwise send us $5.00, 
and pay the balance of $25.00 at $5.00 per 
month, making a total of $30.00 for the com- 
plete course. On request we will send you 
plans, specifications, estimate sheets, a copy 
of the Building Labor Calculator, and com- 
plete instructions. What we say about this 
course is not important, but what you find it 
to be after you examine it is the only thing 
that matters. You be the judge; your deci- 
sion is final. 

Write your name and address clearly and 
give your age, and trade experience. 

TAMBLYN SYSTEM 

Johnson Building C, Denver 2, Colorado 



A GOOD RULE FOR CARPENTERS! 

STANLEY No. 6386 



This is as handy a Rule as you 
can buy. The six-foot flexible- 
rigid steel blade can be used to 
measure straight or round 
objects, and around corners. 
On inside measurements, 
where case and blade butt 



against work, indicator on case 
points to exact measurement — 
nothing to add - no chance for 
mistakes. Blade and case are 
nickel plated to stand wear. 
Stanley Tools, New Britain, 
Connecticut. 



• Flexible-rigid steel blade 

• Direct reading for inside measurements 

• Fits in overalls pocket 



<t77J.! < Kt.l.A..t.i.U t..tAKia.AJ»».i. t .L.t«\.i t \..i.v^a.t.\».\A.\At\A.\A>\A.>>.v.i..-,V'. ; - 



[STANLEY] 



HARDWARE- HAND TOOLS - ELECTRIC TOOLS 





The compact design— p e r f e c t balance— and light 
weight of the W MallDrill make it easy to handle 
in close quarters and cramped positions. It is equal- 
ly efficient on metal, wood and plastics. Its power- 
ful, high speed motor, special steel alloy gears, and 
extra long brushes combine to assure long, constant 
service. Easily serviced without dismantling. W 
MallDrill is available in 2 speeds— 1800 rpm and 2500 
rpm— operates on 110-volt AC-DC or 220-volt AC-DC. 

Vl" MallDrill is tailormade for heavy duty drilling. 
Has speed of 500 rpm— available for 110-volt AC-DC 
or 220-volt AC-DC 

Ask your Dealer or Wrife for Literature en 
MallDrills, MallPlanes and Mallsaws. 

MALL TOOL COMPANY 

7751 South Chicago Ave., Chicago, 19, III. 
25 years of "Better Tools For Better Work". 



AUDELS Carpenters 
and Builders Guides 
[4vols.*6 




Inside Trade Information 

for Carpenters, Builders. Join- 
ers. Building Mechanics and 
all Woodworkers. Theso 
Guides give you the short-cut 
instructions that you want— 
including new methods, ideas, 
solutions, plans, systems and 
money saving suggestions. An 
easy progressive course for the 
apprentice and student. A 
practical daily helper and 
Quick Reference for tho master 
worker. Carpenters every- 
where are UBing these Guides 
as a Helping Hand to Easier 
Work. Better Work and Bet- 
ter Pay. To get this assist- 



Inside Trade Information On: 



How to use the steel square — How to file and set 
saws — How to build furniture — How to use a 
mitre box — How to use the chalk line — How to use 
rules and scales — How to make joints — Carpenters 
arithmetic — Solving mensuration problems— Es- 
timating strength •( timbers — How to set girders 
and sills — How to frame houses and roofs — How to 
estimate costs — How to build houses, barns, gar- 
ages, bungalows, etc. — How to read and draw 
plans — Drawing up specifications — How to ex- 
cavate—How to use settings 12, 13 and 17 on the 
Bteel square — How to build hoists and scaffolds — ■ 
skylights — How to build stairs — How to put on 
interior trim — How to hanjc doors— How to lath- 
lay floors — How to paint 




THEO. AUDEL & CO., 49 W. 23rd St., New York City 



No obligation uolew 1 am satisfied. 



Name., 



Address, .. . 
Occupation. 
Eel e re n ce . . 



CAR 






* ^ 





COPYRIGHT. 19 4 6. OVERHEAD DOOR CORPORATION 



&&%, OF ENDURING QUALITY 



,Mny "OVERHEAD DOOR" may 
be manually or electrically oper- 
ated. Sold and installed by 
Nation - Wide Sales — Installation 

-Service. 



• Meeting a demand for quality construction, 
The "OVERHEAD DOOR" with the Miracle Wedge is the 
choice of more than a million users. It is manufactured 
of finest materials throughout, to resist all weather con- 
ditions, and is engineered to give continuous, trouble-free 
service. It complements any style of architecture. For de- 
pendable performance, install The "OVERHEAD DOOR", 
built as a complete unit to fit any size opening in resi- 
dential, commercial or industrial structures. 



TRACKS AND HARDWARE OF SALT SPRAY STEEL 




MIRACLE WEDGE 



OVERHEAD DOOR CORPORATION • Hartford City, Indiana, U. S. A. 



CARPENTER 




FOUNDED 1881 

Official Publication of the 
UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS of AMERICA 

SEPTEMBER, 1946 



OMMEA 

vmoT 





LABOR DAY has long since become an 
American heritage. It has steadfastly 
stood as a symbol of all that is righteous 
and noble and fine in the American way of life. 
It epitomizes the progress of the little people 
toward enlightenment, freedom and a place 
in the sun. And more than that, it venerates the 
selfless sacrifices of those who fought the good 
fight in past decades that exploitation, insecurity 
and fear might be pushed a little farther back 
from Humanity's pathway toward destiny. 

This Labor Day must serve as something 
more; it must serve as an inspiration for every 
American. Let every American, humble or 
proud, rich or poor, great or small, on this Labor 
Day dedicate himself to work unceasingly for the 
building of a peaceful and better world. The 
way ahead is beset with many pitfalls and perils. 
It will take the best that each of us can give to 
avoid disaster. Let each of us here and now, on 
this Labor Day, 1946, resolve to give his best 
that equality, fraternity and liberty may not 
once more perish from the earth. 




When thousands of carpenters were 
recently asked, "In your opinion, which 
make of handsaw is highest in quality ?", 
3 out of 4 said, "Disston handsaws." 
Many reasons were given, most of which 
add up to these: finer steel, longer life, 
better service. To quote a few — 

"Disston saws are tempered just 
right for filing and setting" 

"Three of my Disston saws are over 
40 years old" 

"The Disston saw has a perfect 
balance and the handles are made to 
fit the hand" 

In the extensive Disston line there are 
saws for every purpose. Specially 
popular among carpenters is the 
Disston D-8. 



HENRY 

904 Tacony, 



ia 35, Pa., U.S.A. 





DISSTON D-8 
The original Skew-back Hand Saw 



Medium weight. Made of the famous Disston Steel, 
specially tempered and hardened for faster cutting 
and to stay sharp longer. Cross-cut saws are 
made in 20-inch, 10 points; 22-inch, 8 and 10 
points; 24-inch, 8 and 10 points; 26-inch, 7, 8, 
10 and 11 points. Rip saws, 26-inch, 5Vi points. 



Ask your hardware retailer 
for a FREE copy of the 
Disston Saw, Tool and File 
Manual, or write to us direct. 




msrm 



The saw most Carpenters use 



I LLUJ ililLLLU E LiU 1 111 ] H !1 1 II U 1 1 1 1 1 ULJJJJiJ J_ 



lllliiliillllJJJJJJ 



A Monthly Journal, Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiner» 

of America, for all its Members of all its Branches. 

FRANK DUFFY, Editor 

Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, 4, Indiana 



Rstahllshed In 1881 
Vol. LXVI— No. 9 



INDIANAPOLIS, SEPTEMBER, 1946 



One Dollar Per Year 
Ten Cents a Copy 



Contents 



Valor in the Redwoods _____ 5 

After eight months on the picket line the Brotherhood members in the Redwood lumber 
industry are still valiantly carrying on their struggle for decent wages and decent work- 
ing conditions. 

A Painful Cure - ______ 7 

Because some employers were chiselling on veterans receiving educational benefits under 
the Gl Biil of Rights the bill is amended; but the amendments penalize the veterans 
and do nothing to the chiselling employer. 



British Miners are Wondering 



The dream of British miners has long been nationalization of the coal industry. Under 
the Labor Government the mines have been taken over by John Bull but the miners 
are finding their conditions growing worse instead of better. 

- - - - 14 

An official of the Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry vividly portrays the 
terrific toll that industrial accidents take year in and year out. The statistics are grue- 
some but enlightening. 



820 Miles of Misery 



OTHER DEPARTMENTS: 

Plane Gossip 
Editorials 
Official * - 
In Memoriam 
Correspondence - 
To the Ladies 
Craft Problems 



12 
16 
19 
20 
21 
23 
26 



Index to Advertisers 



29 



Although the war is over, the paper situation remains extremely tight. Our quota is so limited 
that we must continue confining The Carpenter to thirty-two pages instead of the usual sixty-four. 
Until such time as the paper situation improves, this will have to be our rule. 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of 

Congress, Aug. 24, 1912. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for 

in Section 1103, act of October 3, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918. 



PAINE 

"Sudden Depth" 

Masonry 

DRILL 
BIT 

*CARBOlOY TIPPED 



<la*hed 




Vi Bit 

I List Price $ Jj 50 

I formerly *#■ eo. 

NOW Only 
$&%70 



Others Reduced 
in Proportion 



IMMEDIATE DELIVERY 

These famous, fast-cutting carboloy tipped 
drill bits for masonry and concrete are 
now priced within reach of every Car- 
penter and Builder. They cut 50 to 75% 
faster, assure clean, round holes for 
anchors, conduit or pipe, and are quiet 
in operation. In addition, they hold their 
edge longer. Order yours TODAY. 
Ask Your Hardware Dealer or write to 

THE PAINE COMPANY 

2967 Carroll Ave. Chicago 12, III. 

Offices in Principal Cities 



' PAIME 

fastening firwirrc 

and HANGING UL VILE J 




FOR 
EXAMINATION 

SEND NO MONEY 



Learn to draw plans, estimate, be a live-wire builder, do 
remodeling, take contracting jobs. These 8 practical, pro- 
fusely illustrated bookB cover subjects that will help you 
to get more work and make more money. Architectural de- 
sign and drawing, estimating, steel square, roof framing, 
construction, painting and decorating, heating, air-condi- 
tioning, concrete forms and many other subjects are included. 

UP-TO-DATE 

ED ITION 

These books are 
the most up-to- 
date and complete 
we have ever pub- 
lished on these 
many subjects. 
Examination 



BETTER JOBS ■- BETTER PAY 

The Postwar building boom is in full 
swing and trained men are needed. 
Big opportunities are always for MEN 
WHO KNOW HOW. These books sup- 
ply quick, easily understood training and 
handy, permanent reference Information 
that helps sclve building problems. 

Coupon Brings Eight Big Books For 



AMERICAN TECHNICAL SOCIETY Vocational Publishers since 1898 
Dept. G636 Drexel at 58th Street, Chicago 37, III. 

You may ship me the TJp-to-Date edition of your eight 
big books, "Building, Estimating, and Contracting" with- 
out any obligation to buy. I will pay the delivery charges 
only, and if fully satisfied in ten days, I will send you 
$2.00, and after that only $3.00 a month, until the total 
price of only $34.80 Is paid. I am not obligated In any 
way unless I keep the books. 



Name 

Address . 

City State 

Attach letter stating age, occupation, employer's name and 
address, and name and address of at least one business 
man as reference. Men in service, also give home address. 




with cr 

MILLERS FALLS Bench Plane 

For work that's right the first time, use 
the right plane — a Smooth, Jack or 
Jointer plane by Millers Falls. 



1^^ 



MILLERS FALLS 
COMPANY 

Greenfield 
Massachusetts 




YOU JUDGE a camera on performance. And the 
precision-engineered parts inside the camera 
decide its quality of performance. 

In building materials, too, it's what's inside that 
counts. For example— the long, wiry sugar cane 
fibres in the core of so many Celotex building and 
insulating products. 

These closely-woven fibres imprison millions of 
minute air cells which create the ideal insulating 
qualities of Celotex board. 

Examined under a magnifying glass, the serrations 
on each sugar cane fibre — more like bamboo than 
any other domestic fibre— look like small interlock- 
ing fishhooks. These multiple, matted, interlocking 
hooks are the reasons for the superior structural 
strength and durability of Celotex products. 

All Celotex cane fibre products are specially proc- 
essed to make them water and vermin resistant. All 
are easy to handle, easy to apply, economical to use. 

Remember, too— on hundreds of thousands of 
jobs, these Celotex products have proved beyond any 
doubt that they have the inside quality that counts. 



• • • 

2ctcc6> p&Ct& on Celo-Siding 

A typical Celotex cane-fibre building product 

Ideal for most low-cost building. Does 4 jobs in one 
application: 1. Sheathing 2. Insulation 3. Exterior Fin- 
ish 4. Structural Strength. 
Tongue and Groove joint on 
long edges of 2'x8' panels. 
Core of genuine Celotex 
Cane Fibre Board furnishes 
structural strength and in- 
sulation. 

All edges and sides sealed 
against moisture by coat- 
ing of asphalt. 
Extra coating of asphalt on 
exterior side. 

Exterior surface of firmly 
imbedded mineral gran- 
ules, providing durable, 
colorful finish. 

Colors: Green or Bufftone. 

Sizes: Vs" thickness— 4' x 8' with square edges. Ys" 
thickness— 2' x 8' with T & G joints on long edges. 7 /s" 
thickness— 4' x 8' and 4' x 10' with square edges. 




After eight months Brotherhood members are still 
fighting valiantly for decent wag