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FREEDOM 

~ Stalin Sty 





FIGHT COMMUNISM by- 

— PROTECTING everyone's right to speak his mind. Free speech 
guarantees individual rights, protects majority rule and our American 
way of life against Communism. 

— SPEAKING UP FOR UNITY among all Americans . . . accept people 
on their individual worth. America was made great by the contributions 
of all — Protestants, Catholics and Jews. HELP KEEP IT THAT WAY. 

— DEFENDING the right of every person to worship as he wishes . . . 
to work in any job for which he qualifies ... to live where he pleases 
. . . Defend ALL human rights for ALL — regardless of race, religion 
or national origin. SET THE EXAMPLE YOURSELF! 



© Institute for American Democracy, Inc., 

n. y. 



KNOWLEDGE 

IS 

POWER 

THE BUILDING FIELD 



BECOME THE BEST 
BUILDING MAN IN 
YOUR TOWN. LEARN 
ALL ABOUT EVERY 
PHASE OF BUILDING, 
ESTIMATING AND 
CONTRACTING 



Supervised Home Study Training 

The American Technical Society offers a step-by-step 
method of training men to become experts in the field 
of Building, Estimating and Contracting. Learn Blue- 
print Reading, Carpentry, Masonry, House Planning, 
Remodeling, Mathematics. Learn how to estimate for 
the Building Trades. Seventy-four step-by-step train- 
ing lessons complete with up-to-date text books to 
train you as a Building, Estimating and Contracting 
expert. 

We Furnish All Training Materials 

You get complete training assignments in such sub- 
jects as Structural Details, Specifications, Sheet Metal, 
Heating, Insulation, Excavation, Foundations, Woods, 
Windows, Styles of Roofs, Interior Wall Coverings, 
Stair Construction, Wind Resistant Construction, Selec- 
tion and Application of Mortars. Theory, Kinds, Design 
and Building of Driveways, Floors, Steps and Side- 
walks. Kinds and selection of Columns, Steel, Lally, 
Concrete, Brick. Fireplace Constructions, Design, Esti- 
mating,- Septic Tank Systems. Styling a House. Re- 
modeling. Complete materials include 9 text books, 8 
lesson booklets, 8 study guides with instructions for the 
study and preparation of the examinations, 61 sets of 
self-checking quizzes, 4 supplementary information 
sheets, 74 examinations to be submitted for correc- 
tions and grading by your supervisory instructor who 
helps you in your training program. 

Is Your Future Worth a 3c Stamp? 

A three cent stamp will bring your first set of train- 
ing assignments in Building, Estimating and Con- 
tracting for your examination without cost and without 
obligation. If, after examination, you are not con- 
vinced about the value of this training and do not 
believe it can help you raise your income by thousands 
of dollars, return the assignments within ten days and 
it will cost you nothing! However, if you are con- 
vinced you can build a business of your own and boost 
your earning power, and you do not return the first 
training assignment within ten days, you authorize us 
to ship the second set of training assignments C.O.D. 
for a legistration fee of $10.00 and to bill you an open 
account for the balance of the course at the rate of 
$10.00 per month until the total price of the course, 
$210.00, has been paid. This will cover all costs. 
There will be no extras. 




Become Independent 
LEARN WHILE YOU EARN 

The demand for highly paid men in the building field 
is increasing by leaps and bounds. There is a critical 
shortage of TRAINED men — men who know all jobs 
connected with the building trades. If you are in- 
terested in greater advancement and independent 
financial security, plan today to expand your know- 
ledge in the building field. Become a Building Con- 
tractor. The American Technical Society will start 
you on the road to success by providing you with the 
kind of home study training you need to learn every 
branch of Building, Estimating and Contracting. No 
classes to attend. Continue to earn while you learn. 

Here Is What You Get 

FIVE YEARS CONSULTING MEMBERSHIP: You should complete 
this training in one year, but we award you the 
privilege of consulting with our staff of engineers for 
a period of five years. 

TESTS: Examining and grading Texts in order to quali- 
fy you for our Diploma in Building, Estimating & 
Contracting. 

DIPLOMA: A Diploma to be awarded as soon as you 
have completed this Training. 

STUDY MATERIAL: (1). All textbooks and study material 
and examinations for completion of the course are to 
be supplied to you by the American Technical Society. 
This material is to be sent periodically to insure 
steady progress in your training. (2). Twelve Human 
Relations Chats on the Art of Getting Along with 
Others. (One mailed monthly.) 



MAIL THIS APPLICATION TODAY 



American Technical Society 
Box 88 

850 East 58th Street 
Chicago 37, Illinois 

I have read your offer and would like you to 
send me, without cost or obligation, your first 
set of training assignments in Building, Estimat- 
ing & Contracting. If I do not return same 
within 10 days you may ship the second set of 
training assignments C.O.D. for a registration 
fee of $10.00 and I will pay for the balance of 
my training on terms as stipulated in this Janu- 
ary issue of the Carpenter magazine. 



Name 



Address 



City 



.Zone State. 



A Monthly Journal, Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joinera 
of America, for all its Members of all its Branches. 

PETER E. TERZICK, Editor 

Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis 4, Indiana 



Established In 1881 
Vol. LXXII— No. 1 



INDIANAPOLIS, JANUARY, 1952 



One Dollar Per Year 
Ten Cents a Copy 



— Con tents — 



A Man To Remember 5 

A hundred years ago come July, a baby boy was born to an Irish immigrant couple 
on New York's east side. Every man who works for a living owes that lad a debt of 
gratitude, for he was Peter J. McGuire, father of the United Brotherhood, father of Labor 
Day, and co-founder of the American Federation of Labor. This year the United Brother- 
hood will celebrate McGuire Centennial Year. 

The Time Is Ripe 7 

Steel restrictions are beginning to take a heavy toll in those sections of the nation 
where there is little or no defense construction going on. In the meantime, steel is being 
channeled into other fields which are far less important than construction. Unless the 
government re-examines its whole steel control program the nation may find itself in a 
bad spot in case all-out war suddenly breaks out. 

The Sad Case Of McClugg - - - - 12 

This is the story of J. Morgan McClugg, a union-hater from away back. He couldn't 
see that union people contributed anything. And he went to his grave with his anti- 
union convictions intact, but a union embalmer prepared him for burial in a union-made 
casket, and even today a union caretaker sees to it that McClugg's grave is tended to 
decently. 



Seabees Ten Years Old 



15 



Last year the Seabees, construction arm of the Navy, celebrated its tenth anniversary. 
In that short space of time, the Seabees established themselves as one of the toughest 
readiest, most efficient outfits in the armed forces. 



• • • 



OTHER DEPARTMENTS 

Plane Gossip 

The Locker 

Official 

Editorials 

In Memoriam 

Correspondence 

To The Ladies 

Craft Problems 



Index to Advertisers 



* • • 



10 
17 
18 
24 
32 
34 
40 
41 



46 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of 

Congress. Aug. 24, 1912. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for 

in Section 1103, act of October 3, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918. 



CARPENTERS 

BUILDERS and APPRENTICES 



Get the practical training you need 

for PROMOTION, 

INCREASED INCOME 




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Learn how to lay out and run building jobs, read 
blue prints, estimate building costs, superintend con- 
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ence in training practical builders. 



FREE 



Blue Prints 
and Trial Lesson 



THOROUGH TRAINING IN BUILDING 

Learn at Home in Your Spare Time 

The successful builder will tell you 
that the way to the top-pay jobs and 
success in Building is to get thorough 
knowledge of blue prints, building con- 
struction and estimating. 

In this Chicago Tech Course, you learn to 
read blue prints — the universal language of 
the builder — and understand specifications — 
for all types of buildings. 

You learn building construction details : 
foundations, walls, roofs, windows and doors, 
arches, stairs, etc. 

You learn how to lay out work and direct 
building jobs from start to finish. You learn 
to estimate building costs quick- 
ly and accurately. Find out 
how you can prepare at home 
for the higher-paid jobs in 
Building, or your own success- 
ful contracting business. Get the 
facts about this income-boosting 
Chicago Tech training now. 



Send today for Trial Lesson: "How to Read 
Blue Prints," and set of Blue Print Plans — 
sent to you Free. See for yourself how this 
Chicago Tech course prepares you to earn 
more money, gives you the thorough knowl- 
edge of Building required for the higher-up 
jobs and higher pay. Don't delay. Mail the 
coupon today in an envelope or use penny 
postcard. 

MAIL COUPON NOW 



Chicago Technical College 

A-124 Tech Bldg., 2000 So. Michigan Ave. 

Chicago 16, 111. 

Mail me Free Blue Print Plans and Booklet : 
"How to Read Blue Prints" with information 
about how I can train at home. 




CHICAGO TECHNICAL COLLEGE 

TECH BLDG., 2000 SOUTH MICHIGAN AVE., CHICAGO 16, ILL. 




BE YOUR OWN BOSS! Big lifetime 
opportunity for the man who wants 
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No schooling-no experience needed. 
Easy to get jobs — business mush- 
rooms! Send coupon for "money- 
making" booklet entitled "Oppor- 
tunities in Floor Surfacing" — enclose 
25c to cover handling. 



ME RICA 

FLOOR MACHIN 



The American Floor Surfacing Machine Co. 

520 So. St. Clair St. 

Toledo, Ohio 

Enclosed find 25c in stamps or coin for 

booklet "Opportunities in Floor Surfacing," 

telling how I can start my own floor sanding 

business. 

Name 

Stree t 

City. S tate 



SEND 




Look for the 
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and Union Label 





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• 

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QUALITY 




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Product of 

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World's Largest Maker 
of Hardwood Floors 



A MAN TO REMEMBER 

* * * 

ON THE LOWER east side of New York, one hundred years ago on 
July 6th of this year, a baby was born to an Irish immigrant couple 
named McGuire. No bands played, no flags flew and no special cere- 
monies attended the birth of the baby, yet today every man who follows a 
trade or works with his hands for a living owes a debt of gratitude to the baby 
boy born that day. For that baby boy was Peter J. McGuire, founder of the 
United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America and its first General 
Secretary; co-founder of the American Federation of Labor; and the father 
of Labor Day. 

Fittingly, the United Brotherhood 
of Carpenters and Joiners of America 
will during the last half of this year 
celebrate the Peter J. McGuire Cen- 
tennial Year. Few men in recent 
history have given more unselfishly 
and unstintingly of themselves than 
did Peter J. McGuire. Forced by eco- 
nomic circumstances to start work at 
the tender age of 11, Pete McGuire 
nevertheless crammed into a short, 
fifty-four year lifetime a remarkable 
record of service to his fellow man. 

John J. McGuire and his wife Cath- 
erine were poor. Like the millions 
who migrated to America from Eu- 
rope in the early 1800's seeking a 
better life for themselves, they found 
themselves exploited, overworked and 
harrassed by a never ending battle 
to make ends meet. But they also 
found freedom and hope. Into this 
atmosphere their son, Peter, was born. 
From his parents, Peter learned self- 
respect, courage and pride. 

By the time Peter was 11, his father, 
a passionate foe of slavery, enlisted 
in the Union Army to translate his 
feelings into action. There were no 
allotment checks in those days, so 
young Peter took on the task of sup- 
porting the family. He sold papers, 
shined shoes, ran errands and swept 
out shops. But he never stopped 



studying. At 17 he entered the trade 
of piano making as an apprentice. 

The hard and miserable conditions 
surrounding the working people of 
the day distressed him. As he read 
books and studied current affairs, a 
solution gradually formed in his mind. 
That solution was unionism, broad, 
well organized, militant unionism. To 
that solution he devoted his entire 
lifetime. 

As the fruit of his labor, he saw 
the United Brotherhood of Carpenters 
and Joiners of America organized and 
established on a firm footing. He saw 
the American Federation of Labor 
spread from Coast to coast. And he 
saw Labor Day, his brain child, be- 
come a national institution, even 
though an untimely death called him 
at the age of 54. 

At the Twenty-sixth General Con- 
vention, held in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 
September of 1950, the General Ex- 
ecutive Board presented a resolution 
proposing that the hundredth anni- 
versary of Peter J. McGuire be ap- 
propriately commemorated and that 
a suitable monument be erected to 
his memory. By unanimous action, 
that resolution was adopted, as the 
following excerpt from the official 
convention proceedings shows: 



THE CARPENTER 

RESOLUTION No. 1 
Submitted by the General Executive Board, United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 

Joiners of America. 
A MEMORIAL TO P. J. McGUIRE, THE FATHER OF LABOR DAY 

Whereas, Peter J. McGuire, the founder of our great organization and its first 
General Secretary for twenty years was born in New York City, New York, on July 
6, 1852 and died in the City of Camden, New Jersey, on February 18, 1906; and 

Whereas, he devoted all his life to the Labor Movement and the betterment of 
the working people and was popularly known as the most vigorous and aggressive 
defender of the wage earners at all times and on all occasions; and 

Whereas, he was one of the most active men in the formation of the Federation 
of Trades having drafted the Call for the convention to be held in Pittsburgh, Penn- 
sylvania, on November 15, 1881, to form a Congress of Trades or a Federation of 
Trades so as to unify Labor on matters of material interest and concerned and in- 
volved and thereby present a solid and united front to its enemies; and 

Whereas, on May 8, 1882, he proposed to the newly formed Central Labor Union 
of New York City; that 

One day in the year be designated as "Labor Day" and be 
established as a General Holiday for the laboring people; 
and 

Whereas, he reorganized the then dying labor movement— The Federation of 
Trades— at a specially called meeting in Columbus, Ohio, on December 8, 1886 into 
what is now known as the American Federation of Labor where he was unanimously 
elected Secretary by acclamation, although he strenuously objected but without avail. 
He was unanimously elected Secretary of the American Federation of Labor by ac- 
clamation for the years 1887, 1888 and 1889, when he steadfastly refused to hold 
that position any longer as he wanted to give all his time to organizing the Car- 
penters. He was then elected Second Vice-President of the American Federation of 
Labor and in 1890 First Vice-President by acclamation and held that position for 
ten years, when he retired on account of ill health; and 

Whereas, all these activities on his part clearly, definitely, and distinctly show and 
prove that he did his best to make the working and living conditions of the workers 
better and more satisfactory and agreeable, to abolish slavery and to make this world 
better than he found it; and 

Whereas, on June 28, 1894, by act of Congress, Labor Day— the first Monday in 
September each year was made a "Legal Holiday" and thereafter, Peter J. McGuire 
was known and referred to as the 

"Father of Labor Day" 

Now therefore be it 

Resolved, that as the centennial of his birthday falls on July 6, 1952, celebra- 
tions of that great event be held in his honor by the United Brotherhood of Carpen- 
ters and Joiners of America and all its subordinate bodies until the end of the year 
1952; and be it further 

Resolved, that as a strong sentiment exists among all the unions comprising the 
American Federation of Labor that a monument or memorial be erected to his mem- 
ory as the 

"Father of Labor Day" 
that the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America erect such a monu- 
ment or memorial under the authority and supervision of the General Officers and 
the General Executive Board, so that his memory and the good he accomplished for 
American workers may be perpetuated for all time. 

WM. L. HUTCHESON 
FRANK DUFFY 
Adopted by the General Executive Board 
September 1, 1950 

We, your Committee on Resolutions, wish to compliment and commend the Gen- 
eral Executive Board for introducing and sponsoring such a worthy and timely act. 
We, therefore, heartily concur in this resolution and recommend its adoption. 

The recommendation of the committee was unanimously adopted. 



THE TIME IS RIPE 



IN AN editorial entitled "Time To Ask Some Pertinent Questions" the 
November issue of News and Opinion, a publication of the Building 
Trades Employers Association of New York, takes up a matter that is of 
direct concern to all who earn their daily bread in the construction industry. 
That matter is government controls over construction. Gradually government 
controls are strangling the construction industry not directly engaged in 
defense work. New York City particularly is feeling the effect, as very little 
defense building is going on in that area. The New York builders association 
thinks the time is ripe for the government to take a serious look at the existing 
controls on construction. 



In view of the fact that defense 
needs are scheduled to cut even more 
deeply into the supplies of steel and 
other critical materials during the next 
six months, it would appear that a re- 
view of the situation is indeed over- 
due. The construction team of the 
nation must be kept intact. A real 
shooting war would place on the 
shoulders of the construction indus- 
try the greatest responsibility of all 
time. In the event bombs fell in this 
country, every trained construction 
man alive would be needed to repair 
bridges, shore up buildings and keep 
highways and communications open. 
If the construction team is broken up 
through unemployment in the indus- 
try now, real tragedy could result at 
some future date. 

While the editorial in News and 
Opinion deals exclusively with the 
situation in New York City, it reflects 
on all parts of the nation where de- 
fense building is light. It is herewith 
reprinted in its entirety: 

Time to Ask Some Pertinent 
Questions 

The Bureau of Labor Statistics in 
its latest release highlights the serious 
condition of the construction industry 
in New York City. In its latest bulletin 
the following facts are cited: 



Valuation of all construction started 
in New York City, by private and 
public funds, for the first 10 months, 
1951, 1950, 1949: 

1951 1950 1949 

$311,722,000 $375,950,000 $455,486,000 

While the above shows a serious 
retrogression of about $144,000,000, 
cognizance must be taken that costs 
have risen since 1949, and in con- 
sequence physical construction in 1951 
is made less by like degree. Trans- 
lated into physical volume, construc- 
tion in New York City is little more 
than 50 per cent of 1949. When the 
full impact of the Controlled Materi- 
als Plan, now only in its first month, 
is felt, the volume is bound to dip 
under the halfway mark. This in con- 
trast to the country as a whole where 
new construction for the first nine 
months across the nation has already 
equalled the entire 1949 total. 

So much for the record. 

Is it not high time that questions 
be raised by us and through our legis- 
lators as to responsibility for this gross 
inequity? What sort of planning is 
this that ruthlessly destroys a great 
team of labor and management and 
in fact tampers with the economic 
strength of our great city? Already, 
according to responsible labor leaders, 
half of our construction force and its 



« 



THE CARPENTER 



related tens of thousands are denied 
employment in their field and pros- 
pects for 1952 are even more grim. 

We have frequently heard the mas- 
ter planners assert that this is as in- 
tended. Kill employment in commer- 
cial centers and construction labor 
will be forced to migrate to areas 
where workers are needed for de- 
fense construction. One wonders what 
type of mental process can counten- 
ance such acceptance of a totalitarian 
philosophy locally while urging all- 
out effort to combat identical trends 
in distant lands. Can we forget, as 
they apparently readily can, broken 
homes and squalid living conditions 
in new locations? Or forget that those 
who think this too great a sacrifice 
will drift, and are drifting, from their 
trades to other fields? Can we forget 
lost skills so patiently acquired, and 
the void in the ranks of our workers 
when there is a return to normalcy? 

And there is another serious prob- 
lem, which perhaps the planners in 
DPA have overlooked. What of New 
York in the days of possible emer- 
gency? In Germany, England, all 
over the globe, wherever the horror 
of war was visited, who saved whole 
cities from utter and thorough de- 
struction after bombing? Who but 
constructors and their trained mech- 
anics repaired utility mains; shored 
up or, where necessary, demolished 
buildings; hastily constructed shelters; 
quenched fire and gas; repaired utili- 
ties? Is New York utterly selfish in 
protesting being stripped of its trained 
labor force qualified in this work in 
times like these, and calling attention 
to the fact that it can find little solace 
in knowing they are employed, as di- 
rected, in Pittsburgh or Alaska? This, 
then, becomes a problem not only of 
the industry but of every inhabitant 
of our great city. 

Let us view the problem from 
another angle. As commercial and re- 



lated construction in New York City 
is wiped out, no effort has been made 
to find substitution. Apparently ours 
is not a locality considered suitable 
for industrial expansion. Admonition 
for decentralization, frequently ex- 
pressed by people in high places, has 
taken its toll. Let us look at the 
amounts of approved certificates of 
necessity for new and expanded de- 
fense facilities. Taking the period of 
approximately two months, June 22, 
1951, to August 18, 1951, as being the 
most representative when the program 
was well under way and ended tem- 
porarily with the imposition of the 
so-called 60-day moratorium on Aug- 
ust 18, we find the following: Whereas 
in the nation $1,824,235,000 was ap- 
proved, New York shared in this 
tremendous potential expenditure only 
to the extent of $6,550,000, of which 
$4,640,000 was not primarily build- 
ing construction in that it represented 
a butane plant. Surely this is carry- 
ing theory to ridiculous proportion. 
Surely in times like this greater utiliza- 
tion could be found for our great re- 
serve of manpower, transportation, ac- 
cessibility to deep water and the gen- 
eral know-how of our peoples. 

View it from another angle. What 
is the miracle that is New York? Is 
it its towering skyscrapers, its miles 
of docks, its canyons and broad high- 
ways? These are only the facade. Be- 
neath and through it all is the fact 
that here lies the center of finance 
and business management. Here is 
a reservoir of the managerial skills 
and specialized knowledge which di- 
rect virtually all our economy. Here 
are the headquarters of most of our 
great corporations, the administrative 
offices of countless more, and acknow- 
ledge it or not, here is the heart of 
our country's economy. 

Anyone who has viewed the shrink- 
age of planning as reflected in our 



THE CARPENTER 9 

architects' offices knows these basic those who guide our destiny recognize 

factors are being deliberately stifled that a "guns or butter" program can- 

by fear of governmental activities, not be applied without flexibility. New 

Little thought apparently has been York freely offers its sacrifice to the 

given to the necessity of providing defense effort, but let it be recognized 

facilities for expansion of business that any across-the-board prohibition 

management to go hand in hand with of commercial or related building, of 

expanded production. Where but here meager allocations for institutions, 

shall plans be made, finances ar- multi-dwelling units, stores and ser- 

ranged, production plotted, shipping vice establishments will result in, not 

and deliveries directed? Surely ex- a proportionate sacrifice, but destruc- 

pansion is as necessary in this phase tion of New York's construction in- 

of our economy as in any other seg- dustry, and pose a serious threat to 

ment. the economic stability of this great 

And what is the solution? Challeng- city and its strategic potential to the 

ing, but far from the impossible. Let defense effort. 



Steel Restrictions Jeopardizing Education 

Hope for more steel for school construction has been hanging in the 
balance as educators await a decision on their request to the Defense Ad- 
ministration for larger allocations of steel in the first quarter of 1952. 

At the outbreak of the Korean War, about 40,000 school-building units 
were built annually, a rate inadequate even to replace obsolete buildings 
and to reduce a twenty year backlog. For these purposes alone, a minimum 
of 48,000 new classrooms are needed each year for the next six years. Con- 
struction for one million students would not even be sufficient for the 1.6 
million new pupils entering in 1952-53. 

The Executive Committee of the National Education Association in a 
recent statement termed the allocation policies of the DPA "extremely 
short-sighted. . . . Instead of more generous allocations of steel by the pro- 
duction authorities, quarter by quarter, the supply of steel for school con- 
struction is being drastically curtailed. The policy of the production authori- 
ties, not only inferred from the limitations imposed upon school construction, 
but also from direct statements of some of their officials, is to class school 
buildings as non-essential. 

". . . Less than three-fourths of one per cent of the amount of steel being 
produced at the present rate would be required to carry forward the badly 
needed program of housing our children. We cannot believe that so small a per- 
centage would handicap the immediate military effort." 

The DPA has announced that the education allotment of steel for the 
first quarter of 1952 will be 96,000 tons. Earl J. McGrath, U. S. Commissioner 
of Education, told the special sub-committee that most of the 96,000 tons 
would be used by school projects already under construction. He said that 
"comparatively few new projects can be given the green light, and the major- 
ity of those already deferred in previous quarters would have to be deferred 
once again." 

The adjustments of educational programs as well as provisions for ade- 
quate school housing awaits action of the DPA. 



p 




LANE UOSSIP 



A BIT OF CONFUSION 

As this was being written, negotiators 
were still trying to thrash out a cease-fire 
to end the war in Korea which was not a 
war, but in which men were shooting at 
each other just exactly as if it were a war. 
And in the meantime die nation was prepar- 
ing to help arm nations with which we are 
still officially at war to help fight nations 
which are still officially our allies. About 
die only thing we can get out of the existing 
confusion is that it reminds us of an old 
story. 

A young man fell into a coma which 
lasted for several days. After he wakened 
he was discussing his experience with a 
group of friends. 

"Oh, yes," replied the young man to a 
query, "I knew all the time what was going 
on. And I also knew I wasn't dead because 
my feet were cold and I was hungry. 

"I see," said one of his friends. "But 
how did that make you realize you were not 
dead? 

"Well," answered the young man, "I 
knew that if I were in Heaven I wouldn't 
be hungry, and I knew that if I were else- 
where my feet wouldn't be cold." 




maSBo ©195 



"What we need is less yap-yap-yap 
from the employers, and more yap- 
yap-yap spelled backwards!" 



SEX IN THE SKY 

In Washington, D. C, labor members of 
the Wage Stabilization Board declared they 
had heard everything after attorneys for a 
national airline told them that the company 
wanted to give its hostesses an increase in 
pay to keep them from joining a union. 

The company wasn't opposed to unions 
as such, the attorneys were careful to point 
out, but they feared if the girls became un- 
ionized they might ask for seniority rights 
as part of their contract. And seniority 
rights would give the girls the right to 
choose the more desirable runs. 

This, explained the lawyers, was undesir- 
able from the company's viewpoint because 
it would tend to injure business. 

"Any plan would damage the business of 
our airline, they said, "because it is neces- 
sary to assign hostesses to choice runs not 
on the basis of seniority but rather on a 
basis of chest development." 

* * • 
IT'S HARD TO WIN 

Scandals in high spots in Washington con- 
tinue to grow. Each week sees another 
bureaucrat or two on the witness stand try- 
ing to explain away smelly deals of one kind 
or another. In fact some of the men who 
have replaced the first bureaucrats tossed 
out on the seats of their pants are getting 
in trouble themselves. And this puts us in 
about the same position as the hotel owner 
in an old story about pre-war Italy. 

Shortly before the outbreak of World 
War II, an American newspaper corre- 
spondent in Rome complained to the man- 
ager of his hotel that the waiter who hov- 
ered over his table whenever he interviewed 
important Italian personages was, without a 
doubt, a spy. 

"But what can I do," the manager pro- 
tested? 

"Well," replied the correspondent, "for 
one thing you can fire him." 

"I know! I know!" wailed the proprietor, 
"but how do I know whether the next spy 
will be such a good waiter?" 

• • • 

THAT MAN IS HERE AGAIN 

"There would be less trouble in the 
world," said Joe Paup in his annual New 
Year's message, "if trouble didn't always 
start out by being fun." 



THE CARPENTER 



11 



RESPONSIRLE 

And while we are on the subject of hon- 
esty in Washington, it might not be amiss 
to tell the one about the waiter in a well- 
known Washington eatery. 

Having dined, some politicians planned 
to discuss the future plans of their party. 
When the last dishes had been cleared 
away, they noticed that the waiter still kept 
hanging around. 

"Will you please leave?" the host asked. 
"We have some secret matters to talk over." 

"I'm sorry, but I can't," replied the waiter 
courtesously. 

"Look here," thundered the host, "leave 
the room at once." 

"The waiter drew himself up to his full 
height and met the cold eye of the host 
whose speeches on Capitol Hill had with- 
ered some of the leading politicians in the 
nation. 

"Excuse me, sir, but I have to stay. The 
management holds me responsible for the 
silverware." 

• • * 
NOTHING BUT IMPROVEMENT 

Last month Russian delegates once more 
hinted that Russia may pull out of UN un- 
less the western members knuckle under 
more readily to demands made by the Krem- 
lin. As far as our own reaction to the often- 
made Russian threat to withdraw from UN 
is concerned we can best express it by tell- 
ing one about Mrs. Jones and Mrs. Smith, 
long time neighbors. 

Although they were neighbors, they could 
not agree very much. Mrs. Jones was 
haughty, overbearing and uncooperative. 
Finally the Jonses decided to move. As the 
van loaded with furniture was pulling out, 
Mrs. Jones could not resist the temptation 
to throw one more barb at Mrs. Smith. 

"We'll be living in a much better neigh- 
borhood when we get moved," she yelled 
at her neighbor. 

"So will we! So will we!" yelled back Mrs. 
Smith. 

• * * 
TOUCHING TRIBUTE 

Came the day of their 25th wedding 
anniversary and the man of the house start- 
ed out to do his work in the fields as usual. 

"John," his wife called. "Don't you know 
what day this is?" 

"Yes, indeed I do," said John smoothly. 

"Well, how are we going to celebrate 
it?" persisted his wife. 

"Sure and I don't know, Maggie," said 
John, scratching his head in puzzlement. 
"How about two minutes of silence?" 



PASTORS' UNION NEXT? 

A lot of working people have heard the 
sentence "The only way we can solve our 
problems is through unionization." How- 
ever, a different group of Americans heard 
it last month. 

The man who uttered them was Rev. 
Howard P. Weatherbee, director of public 
relations at the New England Baptist Hos- 
pital. The group he was talking to was a 
convention of Protestant ministers. He de- 
clared the average pay of all workers in 
the nation was $3,024 last year, whereas, 
the average pay of the religious worker 
was $2,276. That was a problem he thought 
a union could cure. 

Maybe the pastors are beginning to feel 
that even though they know full well the 
Lord will provide, it would not do any harm 
to have a good, militant union on His side. 

• * * 
MEASURE OF RELIEF 

While visiting in a small town which had 
its full share of divorced people, a promi- 
nent clergyman met a charming young lady 
who introduced him to her mother. The 
mother had recently married for the second 
time, and immediately after the introduc- 
tion she said: 

"You noticed that my name is not the 
same as my daughter's name, but please 
don't take me for a divorcee. Thank good- 
ness, my first husband died." 




48. -E2EEB3- ©1950 C^i- SrAMWlTZ 



"The union committee to see you, 
J. B., but I don't think you'll cow them 
with that bull!" 



12 



The Sad Case of McClugg 

* * * 

J MORGAN McCLUGG is an imaginary character. As they say in the 
movies, any resemblance between him and any person, living or dead, is 
• purely coincidental. However, it is not hard to meet fellows like McClugg. 
In fact it is pretty hard to avoid them, as they are always spouting off. In restau- 
rants, bars, streetcars or trains you can meet dozens of them any day in the 
week. For, you see, McClugg is a first class, dyed-in-the-wool, plain and fancy 
union-hater. He never belonged to a union, he never dealt with one, he never 
read a union magazine, he never even had a conversation with a union man. 
But he knows all about them just the 

McClugg slipped on his AFL-made 
glasses and tugged at the lapels of 
his AFL-made pajamas. "Unions are 
destroying—" 

"Don't try to talk without your 
teeth, you oaf," said Mrs. McClugg 
as she rolled over on her AFL-made 
bed. 

Embarrassed, McClugg fled down 
the hall of his AFL-built house, 
switched on the AFL-wired light and 
walked across the AFL-laid linoleum 
to the AFL-plumbed sink. He put in 
his AFL-made teeth after scrubbing 
them with AFL-made powder and 
brush, and began to shave with his 
AFL-built razor. 

As he shaved, McClugg whistled a 
tune composed by an AFL musician 
and thought beautiful thoughts about 
a certain AFL actress he'd seen last 
night in a movie shown by an AFL 
projectionist in an AFL theater. 

Before leaving the bathroom, Mc- 
Clugg used some AFL-made paper 
hanging from a small roll on the wall. 

McClugg began to think about the 
unions again as he put on his under- 
wear, shoes, socks, shirt, suit and tie 
—all of which bore AFL labels, He 
was in a foul humor as he began to 



same. Didn't he read Pegler and 
Lawrence every day? Besides that, 
he thoroughly digests every letter sent 
out by the Committee for Constitu- 
tional Government and similar un- 
biased organizations. 

So you can see McClugg is an 
authority on unions, a genuine, 19 
carat authority. He can tell you un- 
ions are communistic, fascistic, soc- 
ialistic, anarchistic, and a dozen other 
kinds of "tic", including fantastic. With 
that introduction, we want you to 
meet Mr. McClugg. 

"I hate Unions. I hate 'em!" cried 
J. Morgan McClugg as he opened his 
eyes one Monday morning. "They're 
stirring up trouble, trying to organ- 
ize my happy family of employes 
again. Congress should abolish the 
AFL!" 

His wife yawned sleepily. "Re- 
member what the doctor said about 
your blood pressure, dear." 

"I don't care what he said!" Mc- 
Clugg growled. "Labor is trying to 
wreck the country!" He sat up, pushed 
back the AFL laundered sheets, lifted 
his weight off his AFL-made mattress, 
slipped his feet into AFL-made slip- 
pers and stalked across an AFL-made 
carpet to his AFL-made bureau. 



THE CARPENTER 



13 



eat the food his wife had ordered 
from an AFL clerk. 

"What good are unions?" he bel- 
lowed as he gulped down his AFL- 
packed sausages. Spreading AFL- 
made butter and jam on his AFL- 
baked bread he paused holding aloft 
his AFL-made knife. 

"I hate 'em!" Down crashed Mc- 
Clugg's fist on the AFL-printed morn- 
ing newspaper. His eight-year-old 
daughter spilled AFL-delivered milk 
on her AFL-made dress, which had 
to be sent to an AFL dry cleaner. 

When the little girl's tears were 
dried, she was sent off to her AFL 
teachers at school. And McClugg 
read a news item about AFL fire 
fighters and AFL nurses who had 
saved the life of a child trapped in a 
burning house. 

Reaching his office, McClugg said 
good-bye to the AFL bus driver and 
greeted Officer Tom Sullivan (Police 
local 456, AFL). He rode up in an 
AFL-made elevator with Miss Finch 
(Building Service Employes 49) and 
greeted his secretary, Miss Lewis (Of- 
fice Employes 11). 

He perused the morning mail deliv- 
ered by Joe Robinson (Letter Carriers 
82), reading first the telegrams (Tele- 



graphers 93) and air mail letters flown 
by AFL pilots. Then he began to dic- 
tate anti-union letters to Miss Lewis, 
who bit her lip and said nothing. 

McClugg lunched with his labor re- 
lations advisor. An AFL bartender 
served AFL-made whiskey in AFL- 
made glasses. He grew tense and ex- 
cited as an AFL waitress served his 
AFL-cooked lunch. 

"I'll never have any truck with un- 
ions!" cried McClugg as he took a 
large mouthful of AFL-packed fish. 
"I'll never—" 

Alas! McClugg should have heeded 
his doctor's warning. His heart could 
not stand the strain of his hatred, and 
he died before an AFL ambulance 
driver could rush him to the union- 
shop hospital. 

But this has a happy ending. For 
one thing, an AFL agent had sold 
McClugg enough insurance to take 
good care of his family. 

And McClugg had a beautiful fu- 
neral. The AFL organist played soft 
music and AFL drivers brought flow- 
ers from AFL florists. They buried 
McClugg in an AFL-made casket and 
put an AFL-made headstone over his 
grave. And AFL caretakers will keep 
the spot trimmed and green forever. 



NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON LABOR LEGISLATION MEETS 

The 18th National Conference on Labor Legislation, held in Washington recently, rec- 
ommended emergency Federal unemployment compensation benefits to workers un- 
employed as a result of civilian production curtailment. 

The conference also recommended strengthening of State unemployment compensation 
laws and adopted resolutions requesting the U. S. Labor Department to prepare a model 
State safety and health code; commending the President's Commission on Migratory 
Labor and endorsing its recommendations; reaffirming the principle of educational op- 
portunities for children, as embodied in the January 1950 amendments to the Fair Labor 
Standards Act; and urging State participation in International Labor Organization affairs. 

Some 200 State labor commissioners and representatives of organized labor appointed 
by their governors at the invitation of the Secretary of Labor were present at the con- 
ference. 

The delegates heard a message from President Truman and an address by Secretary 
of Labor Maurice J. Tobin. Other speakers included Robert S. Goodwin, Executive 
Director of the Defense Manpower Administration; Mrs. Mary Norton, Womanpower 
Consultant; Ewan Clague, Commissioner of Labor Statistics; and Labor Commissioner 
James Lee Case of Tennessee. 



H A shortage of scrap me tai * ^^u 

^ mt threatening adequate steel production. Steel cannot be 

[J^ made without a good percentage of scrap. Without 

sufficient steel, the whole defense program stands in 

jeopardy. So does the anti-inflation campaign. Steel 

prices set the pace for many other prices. The scarcer 

ReP that steel gets, the higher the price goes. This in turn 
drives up many other prices. 

In order to assist in stepping up the flow of heavy 

iron and steel scrap, the government, through the Na- 

Ml tional Production Authority, is conducting a special Pro- 

gram to discover and recover the dormant, heavy indus- 

P trial scrap metals to be found in business, commercial, 
and industrial plants. 



H 



ft 



P 



Salvage programs are set up in whole industries, 
individual factories, public utilities and among the agen- 
cies of the Federal Government. Industries such as the 
railroads, steel, and petroleum, have set up industry 
salvage committees. In-plant scrap committees have 
been established by firms participating in the program 
and, on a geographical basis, scrap mobilization com- 
mittees have been organized in the industrial commu- 
nities. 

It is in this connection that the cooperation of local 
union members can be so helpful. 

The cooperation of local union members with any 
request for their individual assistance from community 
scrap mobilization committees and from in-plant salvage 
committees in the firms where they are employed is of 
the greatest importance. 



15 



T] 
! 



Seabees 10 Years Old 

* * 

I HE NAVY'S Seabees celebrated their tenth birthday on December 
28 by high speed construction at more than 30 overseas naval bases 
and stations from the Arctic to the Tropics. 
The occasion is of particular interest to skilled workers in the construc- 
tion trades from which the Navy drew a large part of the World War II Sea- 
bees. Thousands of men now working on American construction jobs are 
Seabee veterans. 

Rear Admiral Joseph F. Jelley, 
CEC, USN, Chief of Navy Civil Engi- 
neers, said that the United Brother- 
hood of Carpenters and Joiners of 
America can share the Navy's pride 
in the builder-fighter force because 
they "have contributed in an exem- 
plary manner to the remarkable suc- 
cess of this organization." 

The Seabees, who in a period of 
only ten years have recorded an amaz- 
ing history of achievement, are still 
a symbol of the support given to the 
armed forces by organized labor. 

Admiral Jelley said of the quarter 
of a million workers who served as 
Seabees in World War II: "Thanks 
to the fact that they (Naval Construc- 
tion Battalions) were composed of 
highy skilled volunteers, they did a 
spectacular job. They taught the Navy 
a lot more about construction than 
the Navy taught them". 

Not only has organized labor con- 
tinued to support the Seabee program 
in the postwar period, but the Navy 
is depending heavily on the building 
trades to provide on-the-job training 
in construction skills that are essential 
in the Seabees. 

When the Korean conflict started, 
the regular Seabee Force numbered 
fewer than 4,000 men. Nevertheless, 
they carried out a difficult assignment 
in the surprise landing of troops and 
equipment under enemey fire at In- 



chon. Other Seabees are on the job 
in Korea today. 

At home, they have gained muscle 
during the past year, and according to 
Admiral Jelley, "are now able to 
handle any job likely to be assigned 
to them". 

The Seabees were made a perma- 
nent part of the Navy in 1946, and 
when a Seabee Reserve was organized 
shortly thereafter, it received the sup- 
port of organized labor, including the 
United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America. It was this Re- 
serve force that has enabled the Sea- 
bees to expand to meet today's defense 
assignments. 

The Reserve is divided into three 
divisions: Organized Reserve, Vol- 
unteer Reserve, and Standby Reserve. 
The Organized Reserve receives 24 
drills with pay a year and two weeks' 
active duty training annually. Vol- 
unteer Reservists meet once or twice 
a month, without pay, for lectures 
and technical discussions. No drills 
are required of the Standby Reserve, 
but its members compose a pool avail- 
able for service in case of emergency. 
The primary need today is for older 
skilled men. 

The Navy has established seven 
distinctive group ratings for Seabees. 
These ratings, descriptive of the job 
to be performed, replace the numer- 
ous World War II shipboard ratings. 



16 



THE CARPENTER 



The rating given a skilled worker The seven group designations are: 

coming into the Seabees— and also Builder; Driver; Utilities Man; Sur- 

his pay— is based on his training and veyor; Mechanic; Electrician; and 

experience in his trade. An experi- Steelworker. 




This layout of typical Seabee pictures show the seven Group VIII or Navy construction 
ratings which cover more than 60 civilian trades. 

Operating pontoon causeways as shown in the lower left is an important function of the 
Seabees during the early phases of an operation as a Navy advanced base. 

Seabees must be ready at all times to lay down their construction tools and defend 
themselves against invaders. 



enced construction foreman, for exam- 
ple, could expect a Chief Petty Offi- 
cer's rating. Provision is made for ad- 
vancement to Warrant Officer grade. 



Carpenters and Joiners come within 
the Builder Group. 

Builders construct and maintain all 
types of wood and concrete structures. 



THE CARPENTER 17 

THE LOCKER 

By JOHN HART, LOCAL UNION 366, New York, N. Y. 

JOURNEYMAN CARPENTER 

RAPID-FIRE TEST 

Time allowed: 30 minutes 

This test is designed mainly as a brisk workout for those ambitious readers who intend 
to sit for some future written exam in Carpentry. To make it more interesting each an- 
swer is a word of six letters, no more, no less. We gratuitously supply the answer to Ques- 
tion No. 1, just to give you the idea, and to send you off to a flying start. The complete 
answer list is on page 33. Twice the total correct answers is your percentage. Go for 78. 

1. An implement used to drive in nails (and alas! very often screws) HAMMER 

2. A wire-twisting, wire-cutting tool. 

3. The projection of a stair tread over the riser. 

4. A row of shingles. 

5. The name given to the lowest rail of a door. 

6. A large-scale drawing giving clearer construction information. 

7. To bend over the protruding point of a nail. 

8. A step wider at one end than at the other. 

9. A double-pointed bent nail. 

10. The space between the teeth of a saw. 

11. A very heavy two-faced hammer. 

12. A type of plane used to surface the bottom of dados or housings. 

13. A slight upward bend in a timber, arch or surface. 

14. The smaller arm of a steel square. 

15. A type of window projecting from a sloping roof. 

16. A securing strip fastened across two or more boards. 

17. A small cross-handled, screw-tipped boring tool. 

18. A vertical board on a roof cornice, often nailed to the rafter ends. 

19. A broad-headed wooden hammer. 

20. A tool for enlarging or tapering a hole. 

21. An area of 100 square feet. 

22. A very thin outside layer of wood. 

23. A block sometimes used at the bottom of a door casing. 

24. The principal supporting beam in a floor structure. 

25. A penetrating beam in an under-pinned wall, supported by shores. 

26. To fit a board to an uneven or unparallel surface. 

27. A small wooden door-fastening, turning on a central screw or nail. 

28. The under side of a beam, arch or open stairway. 

29. A roof timber extending from the plate to the ridge. 

30. A supporting crosspiece over a door or window brick opening. 

31. A style of architecture featuring pointed arches. 

32. Another name for a threshold. 

33. A square, two-faced recess on the edge of a board. _ 

34. A cross timber framed between trimmers. 

35. A board let into the studs, which carries the second floor joists. 

36. A small, thin slip tongue, used to strengthen a butt joint. 

37. A board used as a guide for laying sidewalks, curbs, etc. 

38. A frame of sloping boards or slats, used for ventilation. 

39. A tooth-like block, often part of an elaborate cornice. 

40. A system of fitting moldings by cutting out the molding's profile. 

41. A strong, well-supported timber used in a bricklayer's scaffold. 

42. A dark, native American hardwood used for fine interior finish. 

43. The stub part of a reduced tenon which fits into the stile groove. 

44. A metal disk with a single perforation. 

45. That part of a door opening between the frame and the outer wall. — 

46. The front, or chief face of a building. 

47. A vertical supporting member in reinforced concrete construction. 

48. Another name for a strike plate, or strike. 

49. To bend, warp or curl, as a board, floor or other surface. 

50. One skilled in the making or erection of finish woodwork. 



Official Information 




General Officers of 
THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARrENTERS and JOINERS 

of AMERICA 

General Office : Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General President 

M. A. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



First General Vice-President 

JOHN R. STEVENSON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Secretary 

ALBERT E. FISCHER 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Second General Vice-President 
Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Treasurer 

S. P. MEADOWS 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Executive Board 



First District, CHARLES JOHNSON, Jr. 
Ill E. 22nd St., New York 10, N. Y. 



Fifth District, R. E. ROBERTS 
4324 N. 48th St., Omaha, Nebr. 



Second District. O. WM. BLAIER 
933 E. Magee, Philadelphia 11, Pa. 



Sixth District, A. W. MUIR 
Box 1168, Santa Barbara, Calif. 



Third District, HARRY SCHWARZER 
1248 Walnut Ave., Cleveland, O. 



Seventh District, ANDREW V. COOPER 
133 Chaplin Crescent, Toronto 12, Ont., Canada 



Fourth District, ROLAND ADAMS 
712 West Palmetto St., Florence, S. C. 



M. A. HUTCHESON, Chairman 
ALBERT E. FISCHER, Secretary 



All correspondence for the General Executive Board must be sent to the General Secretary 



Notice to Recording Secretaries 

The quarterly circular for the months of January, February, and March, 
1952, containing the quarterly password, has been forwarded to all Local 
Unions of the United Brotherhood. Recording Secretaries not in receipt of 
this circular should notify Albert E. Fischer, Carpenters Building, Indian- 
apolis, Indiana. 



802 Windsor, Ont., Can. 

793 Fort Dodge, Iowa 

2683 Princeton, B. C, Can 

2686 Little Valley, Calif. 

2688 Areata, Calif. 

727 Hialeah, Fla. 

2702 Luna, N. M. 
645 La Porte, Ind. 
681 Oakville, Ont., Can. 

2703 Brookings, Ore. 
2711 Moyie Springs, Ida. 

687 Rochester, N. Y. 



LOCAL UNIONS CHARTERED 

2723 Westfir, Ore. 

2729 Tucson, Ariz. 

2733 Tucson, Ariz. 

2734 Miley, So. Car. 
688 Fort Lauderdale, Fla. 

2736 Tucson, Ariz. 
617 Alexandria, Minn. 

2737 St. Catherines, Ont., Can. 
537 Aiken, So. Car. 
589 Aiken, So. Car. 

2438 Aberdeen, S. D. 



THE CARPENTER 19 

REGULAR MEETING OF THE GENERAL 
EXECUTIVE BOARD 

San Francisco, California 
September 14, 1951 
The General Executive Board met in session on the above date, at the St. Francis 
Hotel, San Francisco, California. M. A. Hutcheson, First General Vice-President, presided. 
The attention of die General Executive Board was called to the Union Industries Show 
which was held at Soldiers Field, Chicago, Illinois, May 17th to 26th, 1951 in which the 
Brotherhood (in conjunction with the Chicago District Council) participated. It has proved 
itself as one of the outstanding exhibits, and it was the opinion of the Board that we 
should continue our activities in this respect. 

A protest of applicants who were denied a charter for a Local Union at Fontana, 
California was given due consideration by the Board, and the action in denying the charter 
was concurred in. 

Appeal of Local Union 1763, Riverton, Wyoming from the decision of the General 
Treasurer in disapproving the claim for funeral donations of the late Robert W. Helt for 
the reason that he was less than one year a member at the time of death, was considered 
and the decision of the General Treasurer was sustained. 

Appeal of Portland-Coast-Columbia District Council from the decision of the General 
Treasurer in disapproving the claim for funeral donations of the late William Parker, of 
Local Union 2878, Portland, Oregon, was considered, and upon motion, was referred back 
to the General Treasurer for further consideration. 

The committee of the General Executive Board appointed April 11, 1951 to investigate 
the complaints received concerning the affairs of several Local Unions in the Province of 
Ontario, Canada, gave a verbal detailed report regarding this situation. 

Appeal of Local Union 2667, Bellingham, Washington, from the decision of the Gen- 
eral Treasurer in disapproving the claim for funeral donations of the late Roy Stokes was 
considered and the action of the General Treasurer was sustained. 

Appeal of Local Union 1044, Charleroi, Pennsylvania from the decision of the General 
Treasurer in disapproving the claim for disability of Joseph Mattingly was considered and 
a motion prevailed that the claim be referred back to the General Treasurer for furdier 
consideration. 

Communication from Kansas City, Missouri, District Council widi reference to their 
organizing activities as well as to certain legal service expenditures which involved their 
Council was considered. The Board members expressed their opinions and it was unani- 
mously decided that the matter be left in the hands of the General Officers. 

The General Executive Board ruled on September 18, 1946 that the Financial Officers 
of all Local Unions, District, State and Provincial Councils must be bonded and maximum 
bond shall not exceed $5,000.00 on each officer or a minimum of $500.00 on each officer 
bonded as per circulars issued of previous dates. The premium on the bonds covering the 
Financial Officers is due as of July 1st for the fiscal year. According to records at the 
General Office the premium has not been paid in several instances. After some discussion 
it was decided that our bonding department submit at the next Board meeting their com- 
plete findings. 

Communication from the American Federation of Physically Handicapped, Inc. request- 
ing a financial contribution was brought to the attention of the Board and it was decided 
that $5,000.00 be donated. 

Appeal of Local Union 1693, Chicago, Illinois, from the decision of the General Treas- 
urer in disapproving the claim of the late Robert M. Mitchell for the reason that he was 
not in benefit standing at the time of death, was considered and the action of the General 
Treasurer was sustained. 

Appeal of Local Union 1040, Eureka, California, from the decision of the General 
Treasurer in disapproving the claim for funeral donations of the late Orville Anderson for 
the reason that he was three months in arrears at the time of death, was considered and 
upon motion the action of the General Treasurer was sustained. 

Appeal of Local Union 1749, Anniston, Alabama, from the decision of the General 
Treasurer in disapproving the claim for funeral donations of the late Emmett C. Hollings- 



20 THE CARPENTER 

worth, was considered and upon motion was referred to the General Treasurer for further 
consideration. 

The Board recessed on September 22, 1951 to meet at the call of the chairman. 

e et « o 

December 3, 1951 

The General Executive Board reconvened the recessed meeting at Headquarters, Indi- 
anapolis, Indiana on December 3, 1951. 

Roland Adams, Board member of the Fourth District absent on account of illness. 
The General President reported up to the present time in detail on matters affecting 
our Organization. The subject matters as reported were carefully considered. 

Renewal of bond of General Secretary Albert E. Fischer, in the sum of $20,000.00 for 
one year expiring August 23, 1952, through the United States Fidelity and Guaranty 
Company of Baltimore, Maryland, was referred to our Legal Department. 

Renewal of public liability insurance on Headquarters Building, 222 East Michigan 
Street, Indianapolis, Indiana and on Printing Plant, 516 Hudson Street, Indianapolis, 
Indiana tiirough the United States Fidelity and Guaranty Company of Baltimore, Maryland, 
expiring June 1, 1952 was referred to our Legal Department. 

Renewal of public liability insurance at 517-19 and 523-25 North Delaware Street, 
Indianapolis, Indiana through the United States Fidelity and Guaranty Company of Balti- 
more, Maryland, expiring June 1, 1952 was referred to our Legal Department. 

Renewal of public liability insurance on passenger elevator, 222 East Michigan Street, 
Indianapolis, Indiana and freight elevator, 516. Hudson Street, Indianapolis, Indiana, 
through the United States Fidelity and Guaranty Company of Baltimore, Maryland, ex- 
piring June 1, 1952 was referred to our Legal Department. 

Renewal of Workmen's compensation insurance for States of Indiana, Alabama, Ark- 
ansas, California, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mass- 
achusetts, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, North Carolina, 
New York, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin and Alaska, 
through the United States Fidelity and Guaranty Company of Baltimore, Maryland, ex- 
piring June 1, 1952 was referred to our Legal Department. 

Renewal of employers liability insurance (workmen's compensation) for States of Oregon, 
Pennsylvania, Texas, Washington and for Dominion of Canada, amount statutory, through 
the United States Fidelity and Guaranty Company of Baltimore, Maryland, expiring June 
1, 1952 was referred to our Legal Department. 

Report of the Delegates to the Forty-fourth Annual Convention of the Building and 
Construction Trades Department of the American Federation of Labor, held in San Fran- 
cisco, California, in September 1951, was filed for future reference as it has already been 
published in the December, 1951 issue of "The Carpenter" for the information of our 
members. 

Report of the Delegates to the Seventieth Annual Convention of the American Federa- 
tion of Labor held in San Francisco, California, in September, 1951, was filed for future 
reference as it has already been published in the December, 1951 issue of "The Carpenter" 
for the information of our members. 

Communication from Local Union 2164, San Francisco, California, regarding Japanese 
applicants for membership was read and it was decided that the matter be referred to 
the General President to follow past practices in such instances. 



* « * « 



To the General Executive Board, December 4, 1951 

United Brotherhood of Carpenters 
and Joiners of America. 

Having served our Brotherhood for many years I have come to the conclusion 
that it is advisable to step aside; therefore I herewith submit my resignation as 
General President of our Brotherhood. In doing so I want to say with all frankness 
and candor that among the many thousand members we have I do not know of any 
group that could be selected that would be better qualified from experience and 



THE CARPENTER 21 

knowledge of the working of our organization than those of you who constitute the 
General Officers and General Executive Board Members, and I want to express to 
you, and through you to the members of the Brotherhood my deep and sincere 
appreciation for the help, support and assistance that you and they gave me during 
my years of service. 

Sincerely and fraternally, 

/s/ WM. L. HUTCHESON 

General President 

Board Member Roberts: 

I reluctantly make a motion that the resignation as submitted be accepted. 
Board Member Johnson: I reluctantly second the motion. 

Members of the General Executive Board expressed their opinion of sincere regret in 
accepting the resignation of a leader whose courage, wisdom and foresight have contributed 
so much to the phenomenal progress of the United Brotherhood, but after discussion it 
was decided to comply with the personally expressed desire of the General President to 
resign, and upon the question being put by Acting Chairman, M. A. Hutcheson, his resig- 
nation was unanimously concurred in, effective as of January 1, 1952. 



First General Vice-President M. A. Hutcheson reported regarding proposed changes in 
"Plan for National Joint Board for Settlement of Jurisdictional Disputes." 

Moved that we adhere to our former policy and not recognize decisions rendered by 
local Building Trades Councils, other than what has been established and recognized here- 
tofore. Unanimously carried. 

In accordance with previous action of the General Executive Board in securing Certi- 
fied Public Accountant service, the General Secretary informed the Board that a contract 
had been entered into with Robert H. Clark, Certified Public Accountant, Indianapolis, 
Indiana, for quarterly audit of our books and accounts commencing with the three month 
period ended March 31, 1951. 

Communications from Bay Counties District Council, San Francisco, California, Local 
Union 933, Hermiston, Oregon and Local Union 1865, Minneapolis, Minnesota regarding 
returning Korean war veterans being admitted to membership without the payment of 
initiation fee were received. After discussion it was moved that they be notified that the 
General Executive Board does not feel that now is the time to grant any such request, and 
that they be required to pay the initiation fee as provided for in the General Constitution. 
Carried unanimously. 

Communication from Boston District Council, Boston, Massachusetts, in reference to 
increasing amount of payment of our present pension was discussed. The Board decided that 
the Council be notified that the pension is being disbursed according to the Constitution, 
and the amount being paid was reaffirmed by referendum of the members after our Twenty- 
sixth General Convention. 

Communication from Labor League for Political Education was called to the attention 
of the Board and after discussion it was moved that they be notified that the Board cannot 
see its way clear to conform with the request made because the General Constitution pro- 
hibits sending out and giving a list of members, and also because of the action taken at 
our last General Convention. Furthermore the Board is not in favor of participating and 
will have nothing to do with carrying out the proposal of a voluntary contribution. Unani- 
mously carried. 

Appeal of Providence, Pawtucket and Central Falls Carpenters' District Council, Provi- 
dence, Rhode Island, from the decision of the General President in the case of Anatole 
Levesque was considered, after which the decision of the General President was unanimously 
sustained on the grounds set forth therein, and the appeal dismissed. 

Communication from Pacific Coast Committee of Marine Carpenters of the States of 
Washington, Oregon and California, requesting financial reimbursement as indicated, in 
connection with expense incurred with their Pacific Coast Representation case before the 
National Labor Relations Board was received. A motion prevailed that their request be 
granted. 



22 THE CARPENTER 

Communication from Ontario Provincial Council, Ontario, Canada, as well as resolu- 
tions adopted at their 39th Annual Convention, requesting some assistance in organizing 
activities in that area was received. After some discussion the Board decided that the re- 
quest be given consideration by the General President in relation to organization of the 
Lumber and Sawmill Workers. 

Communication from Cloverland District Council, Marquette, Michigan in form of 
resolution requesting further servicing of their Local Unions through the General Office 
was discussed. Upon motion their request was denied. 

The following request was received from Local Union 98, Spokane, Washington, which 
was read to the Board: 

"At the meeting of the Executive Committee for Carpenters Local Union No. 
98, held October 17, 1951, it was moved and seconded and carried that the Execu- 
tive Committee petition the General Office to have a sub-committee of the General 
Executive Board to come to Spokane and investigate the conditions of Local No. 98." 

Moved that the request be complied with. Carried. 

A Committee was appointed consisting of die following: 

John R. Stevenson 

A. Muir 

R. E. Roberts 

Harry Schwarzer 



At die September, 1950 meeting of the General Executive Board during the 26th 
General Convention of the Brotherhood, First General Vice-President M. A. Hutcheson, 
gave a report covering the property (consisting of real estate and cash) of former Local 
Union 634. 

The Board, after considering the matter, decided that because of technicalities involved 
with respect to the real property, that the matter of distribution of all the assets be left 
in the hands of the General Officers. 

First General Vice-President M. A. Hutcheson reported to the Board that a meeting had 
been held in Los Angeles on September 28, 1951-, with the officers of the Los Angeles 
District Council and the officers of Local Union 929. During the meeting a deed for the 
Union hall of former Local Union 634 (and all of the office furniture and fixtures) was 
delivered to the officers of Local Union 929. Subsequently, the balance of the assets of 
former Local Union 634 in the sum of $50,000.00 was delivered to die Los Angeles District 
Council to be used for the benefit of all members of the Brotherhood in the Los Angeles 
area, by placing same in building fund. 



Local Union 33, Boston, Massachusetts proposed change in General Constitution, pro- 
posing to increase per capita tax as well as increase in pension payments. 

Moved that the Local Union be advised that their proposition does not have the approv- 
al of the Board by reason of the fact that the matter was submitted to referendum vote 
within the past year. Unanimously carried. 



Appeal of Local Union 1533, Two Rivers, Wisconsin, from the decision of the General 
Treasurer in disapproving the death claim of Jean Casavant, for the reason he was not in 
benefit standing at the time of death, was considered, and the decision of the General 
Treasurer was sustained. - 

Appeal of Local Union 1240, Oroville, California, from the decision of the General 
Treasurer in disapproving the death claim of Lloyd D. Axtell, for the reason he was not 
in benefit standing at the time of death, was considered, and the decision of the General 
Treasurer was sustained. 

Appeal of Local Union 242, Chicago, Illinois, from the decision of the General Treas- 
urer in disapproving the death claim of Frank Bauer, for the reason he was not in benefit 



THE CARPENTER 23 

standing at the time of death, was considered, and the decision of the General Treasurer 
was sustained. 

Appeal of Local Union 134, Montreal, Que., Canada from the decision of the General 
Treasurer in disapproving the claim of Hubert Desjardins for funeral donations and which 
claim was not filed within six months from the date of death per Section 53, Paragraph B, 
was considered. The decision of the General Treasurer was sustained. 

Appeal of Local Union 628, Pahokee, Florida, from the decision of the General Treas- 
urer in disapproving the claim of Sam L. Humphries for funeral donations for reasons he 
was not in benefit standing and further suspended himself per Section 45, Paragraph B, 
of our Laws was considered. Upon motion decision of General Treasurer was sustained. 

Communication from Local Union 2586, Anacortes, Washington, concerning membership 
credit of their members prior to their affiliation with the United Brotherhood when the 
American Federation of Labor turned over to the Brotherhood the various groups of Lum- 
ber and Sawmill Workers, Shingle Weavers, etc., and they were accepted as Non-beneficial 
members was discussed. In checking the records the Board finds that there was no arrange- 
ment or understanding as to credit to be allowed for former membership in the American 
Federation of Labor, and therefore decided that previous membership could not be 
credited. 

A Sub-committee of the Board was appointed by the Chairman to make a surveillance 
of records of the Brotherhood in connection with the quarterly audit of books and accounts. 
The Committee reported that they found the audits coincided and were in good order. 

At the September, 1951 meeting the Board directed our Bonding Department to sub- 
mit their findings on bonding of financial officers of Local Unions, District, State and 
Provincial Councils of the United Brotherhood. 

In furtherance thereto the Board was informed as to the survey made by our Bonding 
Department. 

The Chairman of the Board declared that the position of the General Executive Board 
could only be to reaffirm their previous action— i.e. all financial officers of Local Unions, 
District, State and Provincial Councils must comply with the Laws of the Brotherhood. 

Communication from the free Trade Union Committee soliciting a financial contribu- 
tion was read and discussed after which it v/as decided that the Committee be informed 
that since per Capita tax was increased at the San Francisco Convention of the American 
Federation of Labor, this should give the A. F. of L. sufficient funds to carry on the 
activities of the Committee. Therefore, a motion prevailed that no additional contributions 
be made. 

Another communication was received from the same Committee requesting a generous 
financial contribution in connection with their activities. In view of previous action the 
communication was filed. 

The Board was informed that the work on the P. J. McGuire Memorial Monument at 
Arlington Cemetery, Camden, New Jersey is progressing in accordance with schedule. 

The General Executive Board met as Board of Trustees. 

A Committee of the Board was selected to go to the Indiana National Bank, Indianapolis, 
Indiana, to check securities of the Brotherhood. The Committee consisted of 

O. Wm. Blaier 
Harry Schwarzer 
Andrew V. Cooper 

Upon submitting their report it was moved, and carried unanimously that the report 
of the committee be accepted as submitted. 

There being no further business to be acted upon, the Board adjourned on December 
10, 1951 to meet at the call of the Chairman. 

Respectfully submitted, 

ALBERT E. FISCHER 

Secretary 

(Continued on page 28) 



Editorial 




A Word To The Wise 

As the Congressional probers dig deeper into the tax mess in Washington, 
the smell gets stronger and stronger. Naturally, working people, like all other 
citizens who pay taxes, have been interested, for everyone knows that the 
more taxes the chisellers evade, the more taxes everyone else has to pay to 
keep the government and the defense program operating. 

However, a report released by the Internal Revenue Department late last 
month brought the whole sordid business much closer to home. The report 
revealed that unscrupulous or inefficient employers have failed to turn over 
to Uncle Sam more than a hundred million dollars which they collected from 
their employes in the form of Income Tax deductions and Social Security 
deductions. In some cases the employers went broke before they turned over 
to the Treasury Department the tax money they withheld from their workers. 
In other cases, the employers simply kept the money for themselves and 
used it for their own purposes. In either case, the workers may find them- 
selves victimized. 

Will Uncle Sam come back at the workers and try to collect from them 
the tax money which the employer withheld but failed to turn over to the 
government? Will they be robbed of Social Security benefits because the 
money they contributed and the money the employer was supposed to con- 
tribute never reached Washington? These are questions that only time can 
tell. If the workers can prove that the employer collected the money from 
them, it is doubtful if Uncle Sam will hold them liable in any way. However, 
it may be difficult for many workers to prove their cases because they do 
not keep adequate records of their earnings and the deductions which the 
employer made from their earnings. 

The best advise to workers, according to the Internal Revenue Depart- 
ment, is to keep a running record of all earnings and all deductions— and 
especially to keep a copy of "withholding tax receipts". Each year, usually 
right after the first of the year, the employer is required to hand the employe 
a receipt showing the amount of money earned during the year and the 
amount of money withheld for Income Taxes and Social Security Taxes. These 
receipts are documentary proof of how much the worker earned and how 
much was taken out for various taxes. If he has these in his possession, he 
can soon convince a tax collector that he fulfilled his obligations regardless 
of what the employer may or may not have done with the money. Un- 
fortunately, many workers have not been very careful about keeping these 
important records. 

From now on, every worker should be very careful to keep records up to 
date, together with a file of all receipts handed out by the employer. This 
is especially true for the men in the building trades who may work for several 
employers during the course of a single year. 

Failure to keep accurate personal records of Social Security payments 
may have particularly serious results for the worker at some future date. 
According to the Social Security Department, this is what can easily happen. 



THE CARPENTER 



25 



A man works for an employer for a considerable length of time. All dur- 
ing his term of employment, the employer withholds Social Security Taxes. 
However, he fails to report these taxes or to hand them over to Uncle Sam! 
Years go by. Eventually the worker becomes old enough to retire. He applies 
for his Social Security Pension and then finds to his disgust that his pension 
is far smaller than he understands it should be. He complains, and as a result 
an investigation is made. It is found that all during the time he worked for 
the above mentioned employer, no payments were credited to his account. 

The Social Security Pension a retired worker receives is based on the 
amount of his average monthly earnings. Naturally, if the government records 
show that he earned nothing and contributed nothing to his account dur- 
ing the time he was working for this employer, his pension takes a serious 
jolt. Unless he can prove otherwise with documentary evidence, the Social 
Security Department can do nothing except assume that the worker received 
no pay and made no contributions during the period in question. 

In the light of these facts, it is important that every worker keep proper 
records of his earnings and the deductions made from his earnings, especially 
in the building trades where he may work for a number of different em- 
ployers in a single year. After all, over a hundred million dollars of money 
that has been withheld from employes failed to find its way to Washington. 
Some of our members may already find themselves stuck because they did 
not keep adequate records. From now on it will be smart for each of us 
to do a little personal bookeeping every week. 

# 

Not All Wage Increases Are Inflationary- 
Economists predict that the cost of living will increase by about two per 
cent in the next couple of months. For once, economists are on safe ground. 
There is little doubt but that the cost of living will go up during the next 
few months. The business-dominated Congress saw to that when it passed 
the price and wage control bill. Actually, we will be lucky if the cost of 
living increase is held to two per cent in the first quarter of this year. 

It is the same old merry-go-round which made life miserable for most 
workers during World War II. The only controls that actually work are the 
controls on wages. If any economists are predicting that wages will go up dur- 
ing the next few months, it has escaped our notice. But they know they are 
on safe ground when they predict mpre price increases. So all of them are 
doing it. And all of them will be able to say "I told you so" a month or two 
from now, because the whole stabilization program is rigged in such a way 
that prices must go up under existing circumstances. 

It all gets back to the thing this journal has spoken out against for the 
last ten years; namely, that the powers-that-be in Washington can see one 
inflationary threat and one only— a poor working stiff getting an additional 
five cents an hour. They never seem to get excited about the billions in 
extra profits for businessmen or huge salary boosts for executives or other 
plans that put more money in the pockets of those who already have plenty, 
but let a few workers ask for a nickel more per hour and the nation im- 
mediately totters on the brink of a bottomless abyss of inflation. They throw 
up their hands in holy horror and foresee all sorts of dire calamities up to 
and including total economic collapse when Joe Worker manages to latch on 
to another 40 cents a day. 



26 THE CARPENTER 

Inflation is a terrible thing, and the lower income groups suffer the most 
from its effects. All of us have a vital stake in holding off inflation. But 
there is a realistic way of doing it and an unrealistic way. From where we 
sit, it looks as though the way we are embarked on at the present time be- 
longs to the latter group. 

The reasoning in Washington is based on one solid, inflexible promise- 
all wage increases are inflationary. To our way of thinking, this simply is 
not so. Suppose the carpenters in a certain Southern city petition the Con- 
struction Industry Stabilization Commission for an increase in wages from 
$1.75 an hour to $2.00 per hour, even though they already received their 
permissable 10 per cent increase. 

On the face of it, it would appear that the Commission would be fighting 
inflation by turning down the petition. But would they actually be doing so? 
In the first place, the men would all be dissatisfied. Many of them would 
leave the area and move to other sections where better wage scales prevailed. 
In places like Chicago or Detroit or Cleveland or Indianapolis or some other 
metropolitian center they would go to work at from $2.60 to $3.00 per hour. 
So jnstead of earning $2.00 an hour as they would be if the Commission 
okayed their increase, they move away and increase their hourly earnings 
by $1.00 or more instead of the 25 cents they asked for. As far as we can 
see, that is not fighting inflation. 

And what of the men who stayed home? Naturally they would be un- 
happy. And everyone knows that dissatisfied workers are not highly produc- 
tive workers. If, by allowing them a 14 per cent increase in wages, their 
morale was boosted to the extent that production increased 18 or 20 per 
cent would the increase be inflationary? We think not. Rather, we think 
the end result would be strongly anti-inflationary. 

So we are convinced that not all wage increases are inflationary. Far 
from it, in fact. Some wage increases are actually anti-inflationary. Further- 
more, as we pointed out in several articles in previous issues of this journal, 
it is not the wage earner groups which add fuel to the inflationary fires. 
Figures show that two-fifths of the population in the lowest income groups 
buy less than 20 per cent of the goods sold in the nation. And what goods they 
do buy, they buy carefully and frugally. When one item goes up in price, 
they buy something else. There is no bidding up of prices. Rather there is 
constant resistance to price increases, and thereby to inflation. 

In view of these facts, it might not be amiss to re-examine the entire 
stabilization program. It is important to all of us that inflation be checked 
before it runs hog-wild. To achieve that end, it may be necessary for all of 
us to take it on the chin to some extent. We must be prepared to do so. But, 
in Heaven's name, let's make the program realistic and equitable. Let's 
recognize that the little guy is not the big threat to inflation, even if he gets 
an occasional boost of a few cents an hour that never seems to compensate 
for increases in living costs. 



A Refreshing Change 

Nixon Denton, sports editor of the Cincinnati Star-Times, is an unusual 
codger. In his column he usually writes about everything under the sun 
except sports. And mostly he makes a lot of good, common sense. In a 
column which appeared just before Christmas, Denton concerned himself 



THE CARPENTER 



27 



with a Christmas party which some Cincinnati unions were giving for some 
300 underprivileged youngsters. But he also had some comments to make 
on union membership as follows: 

I represent a type of union man who must be a great disappointment to 
wind-blown patriots such as Mr. Fulton Lewis Jr., and Mr. Westbrook Pegler. 

During a long and happily dissolute life, I have not embraced Communism, 
advocated the establishment of collective farms in Connecticut, horsewhipped 
my dear, old grandmother, or awaited the arrival at Boone County Airport 
of Mr. Josef Stalin. 

Also, unless my mind is failing me, I have not picketed the Cincinnati 
Museum of Natural History for exhibiting unorganized fossil amber, dug 
out of the earthworks surrounding Ft. Ancient, or demanded, as an American 
citizen, the expatriation of all descendants of people who missed the May- 
flower. 

As a member, or former member of three unions, the Typographical, the 
American Federation of Radio Artists, and, presently, what used to be known 
as "our little group" now grown up to be the Times-Star News Room Em- 
ployes Association, an affiliate of the AFL, I have kept completely out of 
mischief, much to my regret. 

Looking back, I have only one complaint about unions. I do not like the 
little black books in which members are supposed to stick stamps showing 
that their dues have been paid. 

I can never find my little black book, at any rate, and the treasurer of the 
Times-Star News Room Employes Association has been a little hoity-toity the 
last couple of times when I asked for new ones. 

Youd think he bought them with his own money. 

Concerning the Christmas party which union members provided for 
underpriviledged children out of their own pockets, Denton was extremely 
enthusiastic. In part, he said: 

The youngsters, from environments whose residents think of Santa Claus 
as a guy who lifts milk off porches, are to be selected by the Community 
Chest, will be from eight to twelve years old, will receive individual presents 
and gift baskets, and will be entertained by radio and television talent, 
headed by Al Lewis. 

The children will not be from the families of union members, but will 
represent a cross-section of the town. 

While I am venturing guesses, I would venture another that the little 
guests will discover that the motif of the party is not union indoctrination, 
but probably a good time with enough tinsel and glitter to last in memory for 
a long time and enough of cakes and candy to provide half-pleasant stomach 
aches for all. 

It would be nice to be eight, up to twelve, of a world not too bright and 
not too warmed by goodness, and discover that some union guys, recalling 
their own childhood, had carried you, for a moment, from poverty and 
deprivation to fairyland. 

I am a stubborn man. I am glad I belong to a union. 

In this day and age when newspapers are full of rantings by professional 
hatchetmen it is refreshing to run across a forthright columnist like Denton 
who is neither blinded by venom or soured by hate. 



28 THE CARPENTER 

(Continued from page 23) 

Report of the Delegates to the Forty-third Annual Convention 

of Union Label Trades Department of the American 

Federation of Labor 

To the General Executive Board: 

The Forty-third Annual Convention of the Union Label Trades Department of the 
American Federation of Labor was held in the Italian Room, St. Francis Hotel, San Fran- 
cisco, California on September 14, 1951. One hundred and eleven delegates were present, 
representing 38 National and International Unions. The following National and Inter- 
national Unions were represented: 

Delegates 

America Federation of Labor 1 

Bakery and Confectionary Workers' International Union of America 7 

Journeymen Barbers, Hairdressers, Cosmetologists and Proprietors' International 

Union of America 4 

International Brotherhood of Blacksmiths, Drop Forgers and Helpers 1 

International Brotherhood of Boilermakers, Iron Ship Builders and Helpers of 

America 3 

International Brotherhood of Bookbinders 2 

Boot and Shoe Worker's Union 4 

United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America 3 

International Chemical Workers Union 3 

Cigar Makers International Union of America 3 

Retail Clerks International Association 2 

Cooper's International Union of North America 2 

Distillery, Rectifying and Wine Workers' International Union of America 2 

American Federation of Technical Engineers 1 

International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 2 

International Union of Operating Engineers 4 

International Photo-Engravers Union of North America 3 

International Brotherhood of Firemen and Oilers 2 

United Garment Workers of America 5 

Glass. Bottle Blowers Association of the United States and Canada 3 

United Hatters, Cap and Millinery Workers' International Union 2 

Laundry Workers' International Union 3 

Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of North America 5 

American Federation of Grain Millers 2 

Office Employes' International Union 3 

Brotherhood of Painters, Decorators and Paperhangers of America 3 

International Brotherhood of Paper Makers 1 

United Association of Journeymen and Apprentices of the Plumbing and Pipe 

Fitting Industry of the United States and Canada 1 

Metal Polishers, Buffers, Platers and Helpers' International Union 1 

National Brotherhood of Operative Potters 2 

International Printing Pressmen and Assistants' Union of North America 6 

International Brotherhood of Pulp, Sulphite and Paper Mill Workers of the 

United States, Canada and Newfoundland 2 

International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employes and Moving Picture Machine 

Operators of the United States and Canada 4 



THE CARPENTER 29 

Stove Mounters' International Union of North America 3 

International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Helpers 

of America 5 

Tobacco Workers International Union 2 

International Typographical Union q 

Upholsterers' International Union of North America 3 

Total Delegates Ill 

The Executive Board in its annual report said in part: 

It is through collective bargaining that organized labor has established our excellent 
labor standards which are the foundation of the American way of life. It will only be 
through intelligent buying that those conditions are maintained and improved. That means 
that we must always demand Union Label goods and use Union services. No better plan 
has ever been devised to make secure America's free-trade-union and free-enterprise system 
of economy. 

As citizens of our country, we exercise a buying power unequalled in the world's history. 
Our purchases, ranging from a dime's worth to the price of a home, have been respon- 
sible for our country's greatness. 

The quality you seek in goods you buy and services you patronize are available only 
because of the skillful efforts of free, American labor. 

Proud of their skills, Union artisans affix a Union Label to their products, and desig- 
nate their services by a Shop Card, or Union Button. They indicate adherence to a 
rigid standard of craftsmanship and are the best to be had here, or anywhere on earth. 

The officers of the Union Label Trades Department of the American Federation of 
Labor are happy to report that during the past year greater enthusiasm within the entire 
labor movement has been shown for Union Labels, Shop Cards and Union Buttons. Our 
policy includes increasing the demand for labor performed by members of all AFL national 
and international unions, through the various union-label campaigns and the AFL Union 
Industries Show. Greater interest has been also shown by manufacturers, employers in 
service establishments and consumers alike. 

As a consequence we have been able to fulfill in a higher degree the objectives of our 
Department, which are to publicize Union Labels, Shop Cards and Union Buttons, and to 
create greater sales of Union-Label goods and patronage of Union services. However, in 
widening the scope of our activities we shall not deviate from the basic policy upon which 
the Department was established in 1909. We shall tell the same story more graphically in 
the new techniques of modern media which are being used in our public relations for 
the Department itself and also the Union Industries Show. 

In their brief report, they summarized the important activities of the Department and 
gave a condensed description of each in its respective category, as follows: Union Label 
Leagues, Press Relations, The Union Label Directory, Bill Board Posters, Union Label 
Week— which was held in the month of September between the dates of 2nd and 8th of 
this year— Women's Auxiliaries, Public Relations Report, 1951 Union Industries Show, Labor 
Press, Daily Press, Radio, TV and Movies. 

The following organizations are now considering affiliation or reaffiliation with the 
Department: 

International Molders and Foundry Workers Union of North America-reaffiliated. 

American Federation of Teachers— considering affiliation. 

Insurance Agents International Union— affiliated. 

The Granite Cutters' International Association of America-invited to affiliate. 

Newly Chartered Union Label Leagues 
Miscellaneous Label Trades Council, Columbus, Ohio. 
Pasco-Kennewick Label League, Pasco, Washington. 
Union Label League of Tacoma, Tacoma, Washington (re-chartered). 
Union Label League of Clark, Skamania and West Kickitat Counties, Vancouver, 
Washington. 



30 THE CARPENTER 

The resolutions that were submitted to the Convention dealt with the following: 
Union Industries Show, Union Label Leagues, Women's Auxiliaries, Care, Radio and 
TV Networks, Radio Broadcasters, Labor Press Services, as well as the Labor Press. 

The Resolution Committee made their recommendations and appropriate action was 
taken by the Convention in session. One resolution was referred to the Committee on 
Finance, and the resolved portion of that resolution is as follows: 

Resolved, That the per capita tax situation of the Union Label Trades Department be 
investigated and remedial steps taken to strengthen the position of the Department in view 
of the program planned for future expansion, development and influence. 

The Finance Committee recommended that a committee be appointed and the commit- 
tee's finding be reported to the next Convention. The recommendation of the Finance 
Committee was unanimously adopted. 

Shattering all previous attendance records the 1951 AFL Union Industries Show held 
at Soldiers Field, Chicago, 111., drew a record-breaking crowd of 924,857. Impressive cere- 
monies opened the huge exposition Friday afternoon, May 18th. Each succeeding day 
brought spectacular increases in attendance with the high being reached in the final session 
when 161,658 spectators were checked through die turnstile. Aside from the huge attend- 
ance die 1951 Union Industries Show set new marks for the number, ingenuity and educa- 
tional features of the displays. 

It is very evident that the 1951 show exceeded all previous efforts in size in spectacu- 
lar quality of its exhibits. In the Building Trades Hall every department and phase of 
the Construction business was on display. The exhibit of the United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America jointly arranged with the Chicago District Council 
of Carpenters at Chicago proved to be one of the very outstanding exhibits at the Union 
Industries Show. 

The exhibit proved very popular and educational and the animated displays covered 
a large space at the Union Industries Show. The evening program for the closing day 
featured the awarding of model doll houses and prizes of Government Bonds, through 
the local committee of die Chicago Carpenters District Council. 

By unanimous action the 43rd Convention of the Union Label Trades Department 
re-elected the present officers for the ensuing year which are as follows: 

MATTHEW WOLL, President 
JOHN J. MARA, First Vice-President 
JOSEPH P. McCURDY; Second Vice-President 
JAMES M. DUFFY, Third Vice-President 
HERMAN WINTER, Fourth Vice-President 
RICHARD F. WALSH, Fifth Vice-President 
RAYMOND F. LEHENEY, Secretary-Treasurer 

Respectfully submitted, 

M. A. HUTCHESON 
D. R. ADAMS 
CHARLES HOLZMAN 



Report of the Delegate to the Sixty-sixth Annual Convention 
of the Trades and Labor Congress of Canada 

Mr. Wm. L. Hutcheson, General President 
Dear Sir and Brother: 

The 66th Annual Convention of the Trades and Labor Congress of Canada was held 
in the City of Halifax, Nova Scotia, September 10th-15th inclusive, 1951. 

Brother George Smith, member of Local Union 83 of the United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and President of the Halifax Trades and Labor Council had the honor of 
opening the first day's session. He introduced the Honorable Mayor Kinley of Halifax. 

Among other speakers who addressed the 66th Annual Convention were the Honorable 
Angus L. MacDonald, Prime Minister of the Province of Nova Scotia, Mr. L. W. Minton, 
Representative of the American Federation of Labor; also fraternal delegates Herbert L. 



THE CARPENTER :-\ 

Bullock from the British Trades Union Congress and Paul Finet, Secretary of the Belgian 
Federation of Labor. These and many other addresses were received with a greal deal of 
enthusiasm. 

The Credential Committee had reported to the Convention the names of 400 delegates 
who were registered and seated in the Convention. 

In accordance with, the adopted procedure, there were 145 resolutions presented. 
Many of the resolutions dealt with the same subject and were acted upon. Hei 
listed is a resume of some of the resolutions adopted by the Convention: 

Re-imposition of Rental Controls. 

Extension of Old Age Security to provide Old Age Pensions, at $60 per month for men 
at the age of 65 and women at 60 years of age, on a contributory basis. 

Wider Unemployment Coverage, to cover all categories in industry and relaxation of 
the restrictions placed by Government on women in the Unemployment Insurance Act. 

Free Medical care for all old age pensioners, plus drugs and medicines until these are 
covered by a National Health Insurance Scheme. 

Abolition of all railway level crossings. 

Reduction of the nine-day waiting period, extension of the plan to Hospital Workers. 
Employers to give written notices to dismissed employes. 

Reinstitution of the policy of granting subsidies on basic food commodities. 

That the 100 per cent excess profits tax be reimposed. 

That no further price increases on necessities of life be allowed. 

The Committee on the Officers' Reports presented a special resolution to the effect that 
the Congress immediately break off permanent co-operative relations with other Labor 
bodies leaving the Congress officers free to put forward their own opinions without con- 
sidering the thinking of any other outside group. 

The Legislative Committee also dealt with a resolution that was referred to the said 
Committee asking that the delegates who have been barred from the trade union member- 
ship be re-established. The Committee rcommended non-concurrence and the recom- 
mendation was adopted by the Convention. 

The Convention also took action to increase the per capita tax from national, interna- 
tional or provincial trade unions or organizations from the present 2V2C per member per 
month, an increase of lc, making the new tax at 3%c per member per month. 

Also, action was taken to amend Section 3, Article 3 of the Laws to read as follows: 
"The per capita tax on any local unit in Canada of an international union which has direct 
membership with the Trades and Labor Congress of Canada shall be paid semi-annually." 

The 400 delegates seated in the Convention comprised the following Organizations: 

International Unions 57 

National Unions 52 

Provincial Federation of Labor 31 

Federal Unions 56 

Trades and Labor Councils 86 

Local Unions 120 

In the report of the Union Label Committee, it was recommended that the responsibility 
of promoting the Union Label come within the meaning of the Department of Public Rela- 
tions and Research of the Congress and that this Department establish a Union Label 
Trades Department in Canada and further recommended that the Executive Council or- 
ganize a Union Label Industry Show in conjunction with die annual Congress Conventions. 
P. R. Bengough and G. G. Cushing were re-elected respectively as President and Secre- 
tary-Treasurer. 

The following Vice-Presidents were elected: 

J. A. WHITEBONE 
C. JODOIN 
WM. TENOVES 
C. E. BERG 
BIRT. SHOWLER. 

Respectfully submitted, 

L. FRAXCOEUR. 



(Jl it 4H^tit0ri^ttn 



Not lost to those that love them, 
Not dead, just gone before; 



They still live in our memory, 
And will forever more. 



J&e&i in Tj^z&tt 

The Editor has been requested to publish the names 
of the following Brothers who have passed away. 



JOHN ANDERSON, L. U. 393, Camden, N. J. 

JAMES F. ASHBAUGH, L. U. 200, Columbus, 
Ohio 

CECIL BEACH, L. U. 1913, San Fernando, Cal. 

ADOLF BELLAND, L. U. 2236, New York, 
N. Y. 

WILLIAM BENKE, L. U. 393, Camden, N. J. 

ALBERT BERGSTROM, L. U. 141, Chicago, 
III. 

ELMER BERGSTROM, L. U. 141, Chicago, III. 

JOHN BLACK, L. U. 298, New York, N. Y. 

ROBERT L. BLALOCK, L. U. 1497, Los Ange- 
les, Calif. 

HARRY G. BOBBITS, L. U. 101, Baltimore, Md. 

LAWRENCE BRUCE, L. U. 1913, San Fernando, 
Calif. 

ANTON JULIUS CARLSON, L. U. 488, New 
York, N. Y. 

H. E. CHAMBERS, L. U. 200, Columbus, Ohio 

C. E. CHATHAM, L. U. 225, Atlanta, Ga. 

W. A. CLARK, L. U. 627, Jacksonville, Fla. 

JOHN L. CONGLETON, L. U. 101, Baltimore, 
Md. 

OYSTEN DALE, L. U. 787, New York, N. Y. 

WALTER DAYHOFF, L. U. 993, Miami, Fla. 

JOSEPH DIOGUARDI, L. U. 2236, New York, 
N. Y. 

JOHN A. ENNIS, L. U. 2375, Wilmington, Cal. 

F. ERICKSON, L. U. 946, Los Angeles, Calif. 

JOHN FERES, L. U. 298, New York, N. Y. 

M. O. FORREST, L. U. 225, Atlanta, Ga. 

ALEX FURGENSON, L. U. 946, Los Angeles, 
Cal. 

J. H. GARRISON, L. U. 225, Atlanta, Ga. 

CHESTER GRADY, L. U. 200, Columbus, Ohio 

HENRY J. GRAVES, L. U. 1478, Redondo 
Beach, Calif. 

ARTHUR GRIMARD, L. U. 40, Boston, Mass. 

EVERETT GROSS, L. U. 993, Miami, Fla. 

WILLIAM E. HAMILTON, L. U. 101, Balti- 
more, Md. 

BENFORD HODGES, L. U. 200, Columbus, Ohio 

D. J. HOLLAND, L. U. 225, Atlanta, Ga. 
R. G. HOLM AN, L. U. 141, Chicago, 111. 
FRED J. HOPKINS, L. U. 33, Boston, Mass. 
LAWRENCE A. JACKSON, L. U. 1095, Salina, 

Kans. 
H. JEFFRIES, L. U. 946, Los Angeles, Calif. 
ANDREW B. JOHNSON, L. U. 141, Chicago, 111. 
HENNING V. JOHNSON, L. U. 141, Chicago, 

111. 
KARL I. JOHNSON, L. U. 488, New York, N. Y. 
VICTOR JOHNSON, L. U. 393, Camden, N. J. 
PHILLIP P. KARCH, L. U. 1478, Redondo 

Beach, Calif. 
HYMAN KASLOW, L. U. 787, New York, N. Y. 
ROBERT R. KIMBALL, L. U. 1478, Redondo 

Beach, Calif. 
KRANK KUSEN, L. U. 141, Chicago, 111. 

E. N. LARSON, L. U. 141, Chicago, III. 
JOHN LATVALA, L. U. 11, Cleveland, Ohio 
HENRY LAYER, L. U. 11, Cleveland, Ohio 



R. G. LAYFIELD, L. U. 225, Atlanta, Ga. 

R. G. LEA, L. U. 787, New York, N. Y. 

K. MARTINUSSEN, L. U. 946, Los Angeles, 

Calif. 
WARREN H. MILES, L. U. 1497, Los Angeles, 

Calif. 
JOHN J. MILLER, L. U. 141, Chicago, III. 
AARON MOLLENCOP, L. U. 200, Columbus, 

Ohio 
M. MONSON, L. U. 946, Los Angeles, Calif. 
JOHN NEUWIRTH, L. U. 141, Chicago, 111. 
EMIL NEWBERG, L. U. 141, Chicago, 111. 
ESKO NIEMI, L. U. 2236, New York, N. Y. 
HENNING NORDLUND, L. U. 141, Chicago, 

111. 
FELIX O'BOYLE, L. U. 141, Chicago, III. 
ALPHONSE O'CONNELL, L. U. 608, New York, 

N. Y. 
JOHN R. (BOB) OKEEFFE, L. U. 1913, San 

Fernando, Cal. 
E. B. OLSEN, L. U. 946, Los Angles, Calif. 
A. K. PARKER, L. U. 946, Los Angeles, Calif. 
EDWARD PAROWSKI, L. U. 337, Detroit, 

Mich. 
LEWIS PEARCE, L. U. 3039, West Lome, Ont., 

Canada 
KARL A. PERSON, L. U. 2236, New York, 

N. Y. 
GUST PETERSON, L. U. 141, Chicago, 111. 
WILLIAM PETERSON, L. U. 101, Baltimore, 

Md. 
JOHN A. POPE, L. U. 225, Atlanta, Ga. 
FRANK PUTRICK, L. U. 1913, San Fernando, 

Calif. 
HARRY RAMBO, L. U. 200, Columbus, Ohio 
DAN ROSS, L. U. 33, Boston, Mass. 
FRED SCHMIDT, L. U. 808, New York, N. Y. 
FRED A. SCHUR, L. U. 1095, Salina, Kans. 
ALFONSO SEGATIS, L. U. 6, Amsterdam, N. Y. 
WILLIAM SHARKEY, L. U. 141, Chicago, 111. 
JAMES SHAW, L. U. 33, Boston, Mass. 
RILEY SIZEMORE, L. U. 1913, San Fernando, 

Calif. 
JOHN SMITH, L. U. 40, Boston, Mass. 
ROBERT SMITH, L. U. 787, New York, N. Y. 
WALTER SORENSEN, L. U. 141, Chicago, III. 
C. A. SPROUL, L. U. 946, Los Angeles, Calif. 
GEORGE STAGE, L. U. 946, Los Angeles, Cal. 
JOSEPH M. STERN, L. U. 366, New York, 

N. Y. 
EUGENE STERNER, L. U. 129, Hazleton, Pa. 
VIRGIL STITES, L. U. 393, Camden, N. J. 
HUGO V. SUNDSTROM, L. U. 2236, New York, 

N. Y. 
ANTONE SWANE, L. U. 141, Chicago, III. 
J. B. TURNER, L. U. 787, New York, N. Y. 
JONAS WALP, L. U. 129, Hazleton, Pa. 
JAMES B. WHITESELL, L. U. 993, Miami, Fla. 
J. M. WILLIAMS, L. U. 946, Los Angeles, Calif. 
SIMON WINTER, L. U. 298, New York, N. Y. 
R. E. WOODEN, L. U. 946, Los Angeles, Calif. 



THE CARPENTER 

Renew Drive To Change T-H Act 



33 



The AFL Building and Construction Trades Department launched a new drive for 
prompt adoption of key amendments to the Taft-Hartley Act when Congress reconvenes 
this month. 

Utter chaos in labor-management relations in the vast defense construction program 
was predicted by Departmental President Richard Gray unless these amendments, in- 
corporated in Senate Bill 1973, are quickly approved. 

He emphasized that not only the building trades unions, but the outstanding con- 
struction employers' associations also, have testified to the urgent necessity of enactment 
of this remedial legislation. 

At present the building industry and the unions both find themselves boxed in by 
provisions of the Taft-Hartley Act as interpreted by the courts and by the National 
Labor Relations Board. 

Because of the peculiar nature of the construction industry it has always been the 
practice to execute labor-management contracts not only prior to the commencement of 
work, but also prior to the actual employment of any workers. For more than 50 years, 
such contracts have included provisions covering union security and hiring practice. 

However, the NLRB has consistently held that such contracts have no force or effect 
because the contracting union or unions were not certified by the NLRB as the bargain- 
ing agent pursuant to an NLRB representation election. 

Yet the board has failed thus far to devise a successful means of holding representation 
elections prior to employment and has found it equally impossible to hold such elections 
even after work has begun. This is because of the intermittent and transitory employ- 
ment conditions which are the very nature of the construction industry. 

Thus, explains the Building and Construction Trades Bulletin, "we are faced with a 
situation whereby our more than 500,000 contracts are of questionable legality." 

It points out that union security and hiring provisions of the contracts are constantly 
"being declared illegal when contested," thus subjecting local unions to long-drawn-out 
legal proceedings and damage suits which threaten to bankrupt union treasuries. 

To find relief from this dilemma, the Building and Construction Trades Department 
obtained approval of the AFL Executive Council to seek amendment of the Taft-Hartley 
Act, even though the unanimous policy of all AFL affiliates is to continue working for 
outright repeal of the entire law. 

Mr. Gray emphasized that the drive for enactment of Senate Bill 1973 is being con- 
ducted on a strictly nonpartisan basis. 

The bill has bi-partisan sponsorship from both Sen. Hubert Humphrey, Democrat of 
Minnesota, and Sen. Robert A. Taft, Ohio Republican. The mere fact that these two 
Senators, usually at opposite poles, could get together in sponsoring the same bill, indicates 
the unusual and emergency need for its enactment, building trades leaders said. 

The main provision of the measure exempts the building and construction industry 
from the representation election requirements of the Taft-Hartley Act. Mr. Gray pointed 
ou that his department has a membership of 2,872,067 and that the U. S. Census Bureau 
reported as of last Aug. 1 there were a total of 3,100,000 building tradesmen in the na- 
tion. Thus the cold figures prove the majority status of the union workers. 

Secondly, the bill provides that building trades contracts be exempted from the Taft- 
Hartley Act's section which makes State union security laws prevail over Federal law. 



ANSWERS TO "THE LOCKER" 



1. Hammer 

2. Pliers 

3. Nosing 

4. Course 

5. Bottom 

6. Detail 

7. Clinch 

8. Winder 

9. Staple 
10. Gullet 



11. Sledge 

12. Router 

13. Camber 

14. Tongue 

15. Dormer 

16. Batten 

17. Gimlet 

18. Fascia 

19. Mallet 

20. Reamer 



21. Square 

22. Veneer 

23. Plinth 

24. Girder 

25. Needle 

26. Scribe 

27. Button 

28. Soffit 

29. Rafter 

30. Lintel 



31. Gothic 

32. Saddle 

33. Rabbet 

34. Header 

35. Ribbon 

36. Spline 

37. Screed 

38. Louver 

39. Dentil 

40. Coping 



41. Putlog 

42. Walnut 

43. Haunch 

44. Washer 

45. Reveal 

46. Facade 

47. Column 

48. Keeper 

49. Buckle 

50. Joiner 



CorrospondoncQ 




This Journal Is Not Responsible For Views Expressed By Correspondents. 



SIOUX FALLS LOCAL ENTERS GOLDEN CIRCLE 

Recently Local Union No. 783, Sioux Falls, S. D., joined the golden circle of locals 
which have completed 50 continuous years of existence. The occasion was observed with 
a sumptuous banquet and social evening at the Labor Temple. Present were many mem- 
bers, their families and their friends. 

The Ladies' Auxiliary of the Central Council was in charge of the banquet and the 
ladies did themselves proud. They provided a banquet that long will be remembered. 
Following the dinner, several hours of varied entertainment were provided. Singing acts, 
magic, music and a comedy skit were all of top flight caliber and the guests enjoyed the 
show immensely. 

But a highlight of the evening was the introduction of pension members of the local 
to the gathering. Five of the seven pension members were on hand for the occasion. 
The other two were unable to attend, but were given a rousing round of applause no 
less. The seven old timers so honored were: Cecil Mose, Lars Johnson, George Hendrick- 




In the above picture, five of the pension members of Local Union No. 783 who 
attended the Union's fiftieth birthday party, are, from left to right: Cecil Mose, 
Lars Johnson, George Hendrickson, Nels Likvold and Ivar Endahl. 

son, Nels Likvold, and Iver Endahl. The two who were unable to be present were Norman 
Haver and John Benson. 

Principal guest and featured speaker of the evening was Bob Roberts, General Execu- 
tive Board member, who gave a brief outline of the history of the United Brotherhood 
and the obstacles which had to be overcome in achieving the success the union enjoys 
today. 

The floral decorations which added a fine spirit of gaiety to the occasion were donated 
to the union by the florists of Sioux Falls. At the end of the program, the floral pieces 
were auctioned off and the proceeds donated to the Crippled Children's Hospital. 

All in all, it was a wonderful party and the many members and guests who attended 
went away prouder than ever of Local Union No. 783. 



THE CARPENTER 



•35 



HIGHLAND, ILL., CELEBRATES 25th BIRTHDAY 

To commemorate twenty-five years of progress and to pay tribute to a grand group 

of old timers who did much to make 
that progress possible, Local Union No. 
1535, Highland, 111., on the night of 
October 7th sponsored a dinner and en- 
tertainment. Over one hundred p< i 
including members and guests, filled the 
V.F.W. Hall for the occasion. Dinm i 
supper, as well as a full program of en- 
tertainment, made the evening a memor- 
able one for all who attended. 

But for all the fine food and enter- 
tainment that was provided, highlight 
of the evening was the presentation of 
twenty-five year pins to fourteen mem- 
bers who began with the union twenty- 
five years ago and stuck with it through 
thick and thin. The presentations were 
made by Fred Immer, President of the 
Local, and Tri-Counties District Council 
President Crawford. In a few well-chosen 
words, President Crawford recalled the 
great contributions which the old timers 
made down the years and lauded them 
for their true spirit of brotherhood. 




Pictured above are the old timers who were 
honored by Local Union No. 1535 at the union's 
25th birthday party. Reading from left to right, 
front row, they are: George Fehmel, Louis Walters, 
Elmer Augustin, Jacob Gutzler, Gilbert Jacobs and 
Christ Yann. 

Back Row: Alfred Bircher, Bruno Augustin, Oscar 
Wehrle, John Kustermann, Emit Basler, Clifford 
binden and Fred Indermill. Wallace Launer, another 
of the old timers was unable to be present at the 
party and therefore does not appear in the picture. 



GREENWICH, CONN., AWARDS CERTIFICATES OF APPRENTICESHIP 

Recently certificates of completion were awarded to thirty-two members of Greenwich, 
Conn., Local 196 who completed their apprenticeships at die first graduation exercises 
conducted by the Greenwich Carpenters Joint Apprenticeship Committee. 




Harry Hyman, senior field representative of the Bureau of Apprenticeship, U. S. Labor 
Department, one of the guest speakers, congratulated die tiiirty-two Journeymen Car- 
penters on receiving their certificates. He stressed die importance of building the level 
of skill through increased knowledge of carpentry. In gaining higher skill, die carpenter 
can deal with contractors for better wages and conditions, he said. 
- Thomas Yozcik, chief of apprentice training for die State Labor Department, urged 
the full-fledged carpenters to go into the field in competition widi his brodier, not to 
undersell him, but to assist him and cooperate witii him. 



36 THE CARPENTER 

Brother William J. Sullivan, of New Haven, General Representative, traced the 
advance of carpentry from when he first entered the field forty-six years ago until the 
present day. Brother Sullivan said the advance of the carpenter actually began in 1938. 
In that year William Fitzgerald of Norwich, Conn., "saw to it that a law was passed in 
the statutes of the United States Government which provided a system of Federal Ap- 
prenticeship." Since then the carpenters have made huge advancements, he added. 

Also present at the graduation exercises were: Brothers Jack Hansen and Peter Knudsen, 
representing labor and Brother Albert Green, Business Agent of Local 196. Brother 
Joseph Pankoski, president of Local 196, presided. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA SECRETARIES HOLD MUTUAL HELP MEETS 

The financial secretaries of Los Angeles County, California, started holding meetings 
once a month in 1949. They found it impossible to select a night when all the secretaries 
could attend, so in 1950, they started meeting on the fifth Monday of the montli, which 
occurs four times a year). 

At these meetings no subject is allowed to be discussed except those pertaining to the 
official business of the office of financial secretary; therefore all politics are barred. There 
are diirty locals in the county, and when a new secretary is elected, he can get any 
assistance and help that he may need from the older members. 

An open invitation has been extended the secretary of the District Council, and at the 
luncheons the office girls and the Business Agents are invited. 



Seated left to right: Hague Dreon, No. 1012; W. E. Sparks, No. 946; A. C. Leonard, No. 710; 
Albert E. Fischer, General Secretary; W. R. McCoy, No. 25; Harry Prosin, No. 1976. 

Standing left to right: Alex M or saint, No. 2435; Ray Stimson, No. 1506; Kenneth Keller, 
No. 769; L. R. Goodrich, No. 530; W. C. Hannagan, No. 1752; L. K. Roland, No. 1507; Jim 
Sapir, No. 844; Archie Scott, No. 3161; E. J. Barbour, No. 721; G. L. Blackburn, No. 563; G. M. 
Goar, No.1140; R. H. St. John, No. 1497; Thurman Sanford, No. 929; Albert Home, No. 1437, 
B. S. Watson, No. 2144. 

On September 28, 1951, while our General Officers were in Los Angeles, twenty-two 
of our secretaries met with the General Secretary, Albert E. Fischer, who gave a resume 
of the workings of the General Office, and answered a great many questions to the 
satisfaction of all. 

This meeting brought about a feeling of indebtedness to the General Office with 
respect to reports, which in the future should be complete and legible. 



LAKE WORTH DEDICATES FINE NEW HOME 

Away back in 1912, a group of carpenters living in the area of Lake Worth, Fla., 
decided that the time had come to do something about the unattractive wages and work- 
ing conditions that prevailed at the time. Lake Worth was not yet an incorporated city 
but the carpenters knew that it would some day grow into a thriving city. So they held 
a meeting and signed an application for a charter in the United Brotherhood of Car- 



THE CARPENTER 



37 



penters and Joiners of America. Late in that year of 1912 the charter was received and 
installed and Local Union No. 1308 was in business. 

There were twelve members in that original group which applied for a Brotherhood 
charter. From the first, their dream was of owning a Union Home of their own. Now, 

almost thirty years later, that dream has 



™! 




become a reality. On October 19th, 
Local Union No. 1308 of Lake Worth, 
dedicated its fine new Home at 611 
Lucerne Avenue with a dinner and dance 
following impressive dedicatory cere- 
monies. 

Of the twelve men who signed the 
charter application in October of 1912, 
eleven have departed this life for the 
fairer and more congenial employment 
Valhalla where all carpenters eventu- 
ally clear in. The lone survivor is Brother 
L. S. McGill who is still active in car- 
pentry circles. 

A 60x60 structure, the new Home of 
Local No. 1308 is situated on a lot that 
will permit the doubling of the size of the hall in case more room is needed. Furthermore, 
the building is so constructed that a second story may be added at some future date. 
But the outstanding feature of the new Union Home is that it was built by voluntary 
labor contributed by members. Saturdays and at other off times, members lugged their 
tools to 611 Lucerne Avenue and fell to with a will. So in addition to being a fine new 
Home for the Union, the building is a tribute to the cooperative spirit and generosity 
of the membership. 

At the dedication of the Home, many members and friends were on hand to celebrate 
an important milestone in the history of the Union. Among the distinguished guests was 
the Mayor of the City, Malcolm C. Baker. 

• 

OKLAHOMA DELEGATES VISIT AIR BASE 

Some sixty members of the 
Oklahoma State Council of Car- 
penters and their wives meet- 
ing in Enid, last fall went on 
a tour of Vance Air Force Base, 
four miles south of Enid. Dur- 
ing their visit, they inspected 
the base shops, the altitude 
chamber and a Billy Mitchell 
B-25 twin-engine bomber. Four 
of the tourists are pictured 
here with Walter Timm of Fair- 
mont, a wookworker in the 
Vance carpenter shop. Left to 
right: Mrs. Aubry Latta, Okla- 
homa City; Mrs. D. A. Red- 
ding, Muskogee; H. J. Stuart, 
Tulsa; R. A. Bennett, Oklahoma 
City; and Mr. Timm. 




SANDUSKY GRADUATE APPRENTICES GIVEN GREAT SEND-OFF 

The 1951 apprenticeship banquet at Sandusky, Ohio, saw five apprentices of the car- 
penter trade receive their certificates of completion. 

Sandusky's banquets provide a well-earned "pat .on the back" for apprentices who 
have successfully completed several years of hard work. They also serve to promote 
interest on the part of the general public in the whole apprenticeship program. 



38 



THE CARPENTER 



Jointly sponsored by the apprenticeable trades and the public schools, the annual 
banquets have attracted an attendance of over 400 for the past several years. Labor- 
Management cooperation makes the program work. They even share expenses. The gen- 
eral public, friends, and relatives of the apprentices are also invited to attend. 




A banquet committee, appointed from the membership of the various Joint Apprentice- 
ship Committees, handles details under the chairmanship of the supervisor of trades 
and industrial education. 

Needless to say, this type of an affair requires hours of planning and effort. It has 
proved, however, well worth the endeavor since Sandusky's apprenticeship program has 
emerged as a stronger and more effective unit. 



35 SEATTLE GRADUATES GET JOURNEYMEN CERTIFICATES 

In impressive ceremonies sponsored by the King County and Vicinity District Council, 
35 apprentices who had completed their four years of training moved up to journeyman 




status at Seattle, Washington, on the night of October 4th. By fortuitous circumstances, 
First General Vice-President Maurice A. Hutcheson was in the locality at the time, and 
it was he who handed each mill and carpenter graduate apprentice his certificate of 



THE CARPENTER 



39 



completion. In a short address he welcomed the graduates into the United Brotherhood 
and recalled for their benefit the long and honorable history of the United Brotherhood 
and the good that has been accomplished through the organization during the past 70 years. 
Through the joint efforts of the Seattle Master Builders Association, the Seattle Home 
Builders Association, the Mill and Shop Association, and the King Country District Council 
of Carpenters, an outstanding apprenticeship program has been worked out in the Seattle 
territory— a program that has received national recognition. No little bit of the credit for 
the apprenticeship program's success goes to the coordinator, Brother Karl B. Schoonover. 
The host of highly-skilled craftsmen turned out- niany of whom have already moved to 
the top in the industry— is a tribute to the program's worth. 

Following the presentation ceremonies, a buffet luncheon was served and an entertain- 
ment program was presented. 



Reds Devise Phony New Wrinkle 

Communists have started a double-barreled plot to hoodwink loyal American trade 
unionists into supporting dangerous Commie objectives. 

The two main purposes of this latest Red drive are: 

1. To prevail upon unions and union members to give financial and moral support 
to their drive for repeal of the Smith Act. By hooking up the Smith Act with the Taft- 
Hartley Act, the Communists are trying to put over the idea that it is an anti-labor 
law. It is not. The Smith Act provides penalties for those who advocate the overthrow 
of the government by force and violence. It was under this law that the leaders of the 
Communist party were convicted. 

2. To capitalize upon labor's dissatisfaction with rigid wage stabilization by foment- 
ing a nation-wide union campaign "to repeal the wage freeze" and disrupt the Defense 
Program. 

The first brochure sent through the mails to union officials throughout the country 
appeared under the letterhead of the "Provisional Trade Union Committee for repeal 
of the Smith Act." Obviously this committee is a phony front. The covering letter was 
signed by John D. Masso, described as Secretary of the committee and Business Agent for 
Local 528, Glass Bevelers, AFL, New York. 

Investigation disclosed that Mr. Masso once ran for the New York State Assembly 
from Brooklyn on the Communist party ticket. 

Other names on the letterhead included officials of unions expelled from the CIO 
because of following the Communist party line and a sprinkling of obscure local officers 
of AFL and CIO unions, who are either left-wingers or dupes of the Communists. 

The letter said that with the Taft-Hartley Act and the Smith Act, "we of labor are 
being placed on the defensive because of our failure to recognize that the so-called 
drive against communism is in reality a drive aimed directly against our trade unions." 

Unions were urged in the letter to adopt a canned resolution against the Smith Act, 
to write to President Truman demanding a halt to Smith Act prosecutions and to send 
money to the committee. 

Less camouflaged was a second letter sent out Nov. 13 by the "Self-Defense Com- 
mittee of the Victims of the Smith Act." The victims of course are the convicted Commie 
leaders. This committee is headed by Elizabeth Gurley Flynn and by Louis Weinstock, 
both avowed Communists. Readers of the letter were urged to send a dollar bill to the 
committee and to use the enclosed "Repeal the Smith Act Xmas Seals." 

The third communication was under the letterhead of the United Electrical, Radio and 
Machine Workers of America, an organization expelled by the CIO because of its 
Commie leanings. Signed by Bill Calm, of the UE publicity staff, it sought to launch 
a campaign to "repeal the wage freeze" and urged all unions, AFL, CIO, Railroad Unions 
and "Independent," to get behind the fight. The letter said the UE was planning an 
informal news bulletin "to provide factual ammunition for this fight." 




NORWALK AUXILIARY HAS BUSY YEAR 

The Editor: 

Ladies' Auxiliary No. 580 of Norwalk, Connecticut, sends greetings and good wishes 
to all Sister Auxiliaries. 

Our charter was issued to us in April of 1950, and since that time our activities and 
membership have steadily increased. 

In April of this year we celebrated our first anniversary with a banquet for members 
and their husbands. The following months were very happy ones for the Auxiliary for 
in that time we have held two very successful card parties, bingo parties, get-together 
socials and heard a lecture on "First Aid" by a local doctor who is on the staff of the 
Norwalk General Hospital. 

We were called upon by the Brothers of Local 746 to serve luncheon to the delegates 
to the Connecticut State Council of Carpenters' Convention held in Norwalk in June 
of this year, and to serve refreshments to the graduating class of the Joint Apprenticeship 
Council. 

For last month, we had a Christmas party for members and their families. Santa Claus 
was present to distribute gifts and stockings to each child. 

To our Sister Auxiliaries, we would like to send our very best wishes for a Happy 
and Successful New Year. 

Fraternally, 

Mrs. Frances T. Tavella, 
Publicity Chairman. 



T-H Does Not Cut Strikes 

The Taft-Hartley Act does little, if anything, to reduce labor-management 
disputes. 

Taft-Hartley has had almost nothing to do with the decrease in the 
number of strikes since 1947. That was the year the law was passed. 

In a report to a Senate Labor sub-committee, Labor Specialist Gustav 
Peck of the Library of Congress said: 

"The Taft-Hartley Act, while it regulated many collective bargaining 
practices and determined numerous issues of collective bargaining by law, 
does not seem to have reduced tensions in industrial relations or caused a 
smoother adjustment of the problems which are the subject of negotiation 
between managements and unions. 

"In fact, a case can be made that the unwillingness of some unions and 
employers to accept some of the terms of the Taft-Hartley Act and the dis- 
putes that have arisen out of the meaning and intent of other provisions, 
have added to the areas of controversy." 

Peck said that strikes and threatened strikes will exist as long as collec- 
tive bargaining exists. He found scattered or occasional work stoppages 
were to be preferred to "the maintenance of peace under all conditions." 



Craft Probloms 




Carpentry 

H. H. Siegele 
LESSON 280 

The previous lesson covered draftsman's 
lines, staking out, and batter boards. In 
this lesson excavating for garage foundations 
and forms for such foundations will be 
treated. Several different garage foundation 
problems will be discussed from a practical 
standpoint. In this way the student can 
study them all, and if he can by modifica- 
tion arrive at a better design, that will be 
his sole gain. 




Fig. 1 
Excavating.— Fig. 1 shows a plan of the 
double garage that was staked out in the 
last lesson, giving by dotted lines the width 
of the footings and by full lines the loca- 
tion of the foundation walls. A corner of 




Fig. 2 
a trench for this foundation is shown inset. 
At -the bottom of the drawing the lines are 
extended by dotted lines to the batter 
boards, indicating how lines are fastened 



to the boards, as guides in excavating and 
for locating the foundation walls. 

Foundation Forms.— Fig. 2 shows the same 
plan after the excavating was completed, 
the footings poured, and the forms for the 




foundation walls were in place and filled 
with concrete. At a larger scale, inset, are 
shown two cross sections of the walls. The 
one to the left, inset A-A, is a sort of de- 
tail of the wall cut at A-A, as shown to the 
upper left. The arrows indicate the direc- 
tion of the view. To the right, inset B-B, 







r3 

• Reinforcing Rods' ^ 

V 

Concrete Piles 



3 



Hi 7 -. 7 ' ggasa^EgdE^ s - g **-—-'? 




Driveway 



Fig. 4 

is shown a cross section of the wall cut as 
indicated at the upper right at B-B. Here 
it will be noticed that the exposed part of 
the wall has been cut at two points for 
the door opening, 2 feet from each of the 
two righthand* corners, making the door 
16 feet wide. Fig. 3 shows the same cross 
section of the foundation shown in Fig. 2, 
excepting that the forms have been re- 
moved and the filling-in work has been 



42 



THE CARPENTER 



done. Besides that, the concrete floor slab 
has been poured. Two features of the con- 
struction are pointed out at X. The dotted 
line pointed out by the indicator to the 
right, shows how the reinforcing rods should 
be placed in the floor slab over the foun- 
dation in the doorway. To the left, also 
pointed out by indicator, is shown how the 
concrete slab is supported by pockets formed 
in the wall by means of blocks. Details of 
such a block are shown in the drawing 
below. At A is shown an end view; at B, 
a face view, and at C, a top view. At D is 



shown how a 2x4 is ripped in two, from 
which the blocks that form the pockets are 
cut out. These blocks are tacked to the 
forms at the proper elevation, 3 feet on 
center. 




Fig. 5 
Concrete Piles Support Foundation.— Fig. 

4 shows the same garage plan shown by 
Figs. 1 and 2, but here the foundation is to 
rest on concrete piles, 3 of which are pointed 
out. Each pile has one reinforcing rod, 
which is bent over somewhat as shown on 




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*9* B-B 

Fig. 6 

the drawing. A-A and B-B indicate what 
the larger scale drawings in Fig. 5 repre- 
sent. Here the piles are shown cut in two. 
The depth to which such concrete piles 
should go, must be determined by the local- 
ity in which they are used. The frost line 
as well as the kind of soil must be taken 
into consideration. The holes for the piles 
Staksst 




Fig. 7 



can be made with a post auger. Fig. 6 
shows the upper part of the garage founda- 
tion wall shown in Fig. 5, completed, with 
the forms removed and the 2x4 plate bolted 
to the wall. Figs. 4, 5 and 6 should be 
compared and studied. 



THE CARPENTER 



43 



Forms for Exposed Part of Wall.— Fig. 7 

shows a method of forming and bracing the 
forms for the exposed part of garage foun- 
dation walls. The reinforcing rods pointed 
out are the extensions of the rods that run 




^Anchor Bolts' 
Fig. 8 
through the concrete piles already referred 
to and shown in previous illustrations. Stakes, 
door openings, and anchor bolts are also 
pointed out in this drawing. The same lay- 
out with the forms removed and the 2x4 
plates bolted to the walls, is shown by Fig. 
8. A-A and B-B show where the larger 
scale drawings shown in Fig. 6 were taken. 



c 

4_r 



T_ 



°\ 






Dralrt 



Temporary Wall 



Fig. 9 
Garage for Dwelling.— The garage for 
which we have been building foundations 
is to be finished temporarily for the owner 
to live in, while in his spare time he builds 
a real home. Many carpenters and builders 
have used this means of solving their hous- 



t,? 

if 



'. '■ 



TV I i ■■) _- p— 



m 

c-c 



m 



m 



i 



D-D 



Fig. 10 

ing problems during the post-war period 
when unoccupied houses were hard to find. 
After the foundation was in place, a good 
cement floor was poured and finished, some- 
what on the order of the one shown in Fig. 



9. The drain shown was located so that it 
would center the shower bath. A temporary 
wall was placed in the wide front opening, 
as shown by dotted lines on the drawing. 
To the right is shown a part of the drive- 
way in place. A little lighter foundation 
was used here than was shown in Figs. 2 
and 3. This can be observed by the larger 
scale drawing in Fig. 10. C-C and D-D of 
Fig. 9 indicate what these sections represent. 
The lighter foundation is especially economi- 




Vz Lighter 
than Aluminum 



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44 



THE CARPENTER 



cal. The size of the footing and the thick- 
ness of the wall should be noticed particu- 
larly. 

Modifications Possible.— Slavishly holding 
to any one of the three different kinds of 
garage foundations would be missing the 
purpose of this lesson. The foundation de- 
sign shown in Figs. 2 and 3, is suitable 
for a superstructure made of brick or of 
cement blocks; while the concrete piles 
shown in Figs. 5 and 6, and the design 
shown in Fig. 10 are suitable for a wood 

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BISECTING 

By H. H. Siegele 
An old head sent this, which is not new, 
but it is so practical that is should be passed 
on. 




Fig. 1 
Fig. 1 shows a curb joint of a rafter for 
a gambrel roof. The problem is to obtain 
the cut that will make a perfect joint. 
D 




Fie. 2 



Fig. 2, A, B and C, is a diagram of what 
is shown in Fig. 3. The first operation is 
to continue line A-B to D, as shown by 
dotted line. This done, take the framing 
square, using 12 on the blade as the strik- 
ing point, and place it on the diagram in 



THE CARPENTER 



45 



the two positions shown, marking along the 
outside edge of the tongue in each ap- 
plication. Now strike the dotted line, a-b, 
in such a manner that it will intersect point 




Fig. 3 

B and cross the intersection of the two 
tongue marks. This will give you what is 
shown by Fig. 4. 




Fig. 4 

Fig. 4 shows how to use the edge of a 
board for the line A-B-D. Having this line, 
all that is needed is to make the line B-C, 
bisect the angle C-B-D to obtain the line 



a-b. Now apply the square on line a-b as 
shown, making 12 intersect the angle at B. 
The shaded bevel shown in the angle be- 
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edge of the board is the bevel that will 
make the cut. In doing the marking, use 
12 on the body of the square and the point 
where the tongue of the square intersects 
the edge of the board. 

While Fig.l shows the curb joint of a 
rafter for a gambrel roof, the process is 
the same for obtaining the bevel for the cut 
of any kind of a miter joint. 



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NOTICE 

The publishers of "The Carpenter" reserve the 
right to reject til advertising matter which may 
be. in their Judgment, unfair or objectionable to 
the membership of the United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America. 

All Contracts for advertising space In "The Car- 
penter," Including those stipulated as non-can- 
cellable, are only accepted srbject to the above 
reserved rights of the publishers. 



Index of Advertisers 



Carpenters' Tools and Accessories 

Page 

The American Floor Surfacing 

Machine Co., Toledo, Ohio 4 

Burr, Mfg. Co., Los Angeles, Cal. 42 

£. C. Atkins and Company, Indiana- 
polis, Ind 4th Cover 

The Dumore Co., Racine, Wis.__ 43 

Eliason Tool Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 45 

E-Z Mark Tools, Los Angeles 

Calif. 47 

Foley Mfg. Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 43-48 

Greenlee Tool Co., Rockford, 111— 46 

The Lufkin Rule Co., Saginaw, 

Mich. 3rd Cover 

A. D. McBurney, Los Angeles, 

Cal. 47 

Millers Falls Co., Greenfield, 

Mass. 44 

The Paine Co., Chicago, 111 48 

Sandvik Saw and Tool, New 

York, N. Y 48 

J. H. Scharf Mfg. Co., Omaha, 

Neb. 43 

Simplex Level Co., Detroit, 

Mich. 45 

The Speed Corp., Portland, Ore.- 44 
Stanley Tools, New Britain, 

Conn. 3rd Covei 

Carpentry Materials 
E. L. Bruce Co., Memphis, Tenn._ 4 

Technical Courses and Books 

American Technical Society, Chi- 
cago, 111. 1-47 

Audel Publishers, New York, 

N. Y. 3rd Cover 

Chicago Technical College, Chi- 
cago, 111. 3 

A. Riechers, Palo Alto, Cal 46 

H. H. Siegele, Emporia, Kans. 42 



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WHY PROFESSIONAL CARPENTERS USE 

SWEDISH SHARK BRAND 

CHISELS 




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m MPENTER 

^^ ^/ FOUNDED 1881 

Official Publication of the 
United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America 




WM. L. HUTCHESOH 

Retiring General Preside 



M.A.HUTCHESON 

. General President 



A NEW GENERAL PRESIDENT AT THE HELM 

After 36 years of outstanding service, William L. Hutcheson, on Jan- 
uary 1st, stepped down as General President to become General President 
Emeritus, thereby passing the helm to the capable hands of M. A. Hutche- 
son, who, during his many years as First General Vice-President, proved 
himself eminently qualified to carry on the policies and traditions under 
which such great progress has been made. 



FEBRUARY, 1952 







BLOOD 



MEANS LIFE 



A pint of your blood, donated through 
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Make a date at your nearest Blood Bank 





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ESTWING MFG. CO. Dept. C ROCKFORD, ILL. 



A Monthly Journal, Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners 
of America, for all its Members of all its Branches. 

PETER E. TERZICK, Editor 

Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis 4, Indiana 



Established in 1881 
Vol. LXXII— No. 2 



INDIANAPOLIS, FEBRUARY, 1952 



One Dollar Per Year 
Ten Cents a Copy 



— Con tents 



The Chief Steps Down 



After 36 years of distinguished service as General President, William L. Hutcheson 
turns over the helm of the organization to other hands, but not before he had built the 
membership from 200,000 to 800,000 and more than quadrupled the assets of the or- 
ganization during his tenure in office. 



New G. P. Has Training, Experience 



10 

General President M. A. Hutcheson brings to his new office 38 years of varied ex- 
perience in the United Brotherhood. Starting out as a very young lad in the bookkeeping 
department of the General Office, he has put in time as a clerk, as an apprentice, as a 
journeyman, as a representative and as a General Officer. With that well-rounded back- 
ground, his knowledge of the problems and needs of the organization is thorough and 
far-reaching. 



1952 Could Be Good 



13 



Dollar construction volume set a new high in 1951. 1952 can come close to equaling 
this record if building restrictions do not strangle the industry. There are many indica- 
tions that present controls on building have become needlessly burdensome, and both 
the Brotherhood and Building Trades Department are fighting for such revisions as may 
be needed to enable the construction industry to play its full part in the mobilization 
program. 



What We Can Achieve 



22 



The nation's foremost economist predicts that living standards can be increased very 
substantially in the next 25 or 30 years while at the same time working hours are de- 
creased to 30. By 1980 he sees at least 72.5 million Americans at work and national pro- 
duction hitting somewhere between 416 to 550 billions of dollars. 



• • • 



OTHER DEPARTMENTS 

Plane Gossip 

Editorials 

Official 

In Memoriam 

The Locker 

Correspondence 

To The Ladies 

Craft Problems 



Index to Advertisers 



* * * 



20 
24 
32 
33 
34 
36 
41 
42 



47 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of 

Congress, Aug. 24, 1912. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for 

in Section 1103, act of October 3, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918. 



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The Chief Steps Down 

* * * 

AFTER 36 years of distinguished service in that capacity, William L. 
Hutcheson has handed over the presidency of the United Brotherhood 
of Carpenters and Joiners of America to other hands. At the meeting 
of the General Executive Board, held in Indianapolis, December 3rd to De- 
cember 11th, President Hutcheson tendered his resignation. With great re- 
luctance, the Board accepted the resignation, and by unanimous action made 
him General President Emeritus. 



With his stepping down, a mighty 
milestone in the history of the United 
Brotherhood was wrapped up for pos- 
terity, a milestone that will be remem- 
bered even if the United Brotherhood 
lasts 1,000 years. 

Taking over the reins of the or- 
ganization in 1915 upon the death of 
General President Kirby, William L. 
Hutcheson has piloted the United 
Brotherhood through critical times. 
Through two major wars and a long 
and bitter depression, he has guided 
the destinies of the organization with 
a firm and steady hand. Anti-labor 
drives, anti-trust lawsuits, and at- 
tacks of many kinds have been made 
on him and on the organization he 
headed. But he met them all without 
backing up an inch or without once 
compromising the principles upon 
which the organization was founded. 
In the end he always emerged vic- 
torious and the phenomenal growth 
and financial stability which the or- 
ganization has achieved in the past 
36 years are a tribute to his personal 
courage and to the soundness of the 
policies he followed. 

When Brother Hutcheson took over 
as General President in 1915, the 
membership of the United Brother- 
hood barely exceeded 200,000. Fi- 
nancially, there was scarcely a dollar 



in the bank for each member. From 
that beginning, he has, through his 
courage to fight for the right, his 
ability to inspire those around him, 
and his boundless energy to devote 
to the job, led the United Brother- 
hood to its present pinnacle of success. 
The small organization he took over 
36 years ago, he built into the present 
membership of well over three-quar- 
ters of a million, backed by financial 
assets running into eight figures. 

Late last year, Brother Hutcheson 
decided the time had arrived to step 
down. At the December meeting of 
the General Executive Board, he ten- 
dered his resignation. 

In that resignation he said: 

Having served our Brotherhood for 
many years I have come to the con- 
clusion that it is advisable to step 
aside; therefore I herewith submit my 
resignation as General President of 
our Brotherhood. In doing so I want 
to say with all frankness and candor 
that among the many thousand mem- 
bers we have I do not know of any 
group that could be selected that 
would be better qualified from experi- 
ence and knowledge of the working 
of our organization than those of you 
who constitute the General Officers 
and General Executive Board Mem- 



THE CARPENTER 



hers, and I want to express to you, 
and through you to the members of 
the Brotherhood my deep and sincere 
appreciation for the help, support and 



cepted by the Board. However, 
Brother Hutcheson is still far from 
finished serving the United Brother- 
hood. By unanimous action of the 




WM. L. HUTCHESON 

General President Emeritus 

assistance that you and they gave me Executive Board, he is now Execu- 

during my years of service. tive Director of the Home for Aged 

Only out of deference to his per- Members. Furthermore, he is to con- 

sonal wishes was his resignation ac- tinue as First Vice-President of the 



THE CARPENTER 



9 



American Federation of Labor, a posi- 
tion he has filled for many years. And 
last but not least, he is empowered to 
attend all meetings of the General 
Executive Board in order that General 
Officers and Executive Board mem- 
bers may draw on his wisdom and 
years of experience in labor matters. 

William L. Hutcheson was born 
near Saginaw, Michigan, 77 years ago. 
His father, Daniel O. Hutcheson, was 
a ship builder, ship joiner and caulker. 
In his early teens, William L. Hutche- 
son began following in his father's 
footsteps, starting out as a timber fra- 
mer. In May 1902, he helped organize 
Local Union No. 1164 at Midland, 
Michigan, becoming its first president. 
Shortly thereafter he transferred to 
Local Union No. 334, Saginaw, where 
he has held membership ever since. 
For seven years he served as Business 
Agent of that union and represented it 
at all conventions of the United Broth- 
erhood. At the 1912 convention he 
was nominated for the office of Sec- 
ond General Vice-President, and 
being elected by the membership, on 
February 1st, 1913, he moved to Ind- 
ianapolis to assume that office. 

Three months later, upon the resig- 
nation of First General Vice-President 



Arthur Quinn, he automatically moved 
up to First General Vice-President in 
conformity with the terms of the 
United Brotherhood constitution. 

In October 1915, General President 
James Kirby passed away, and again 
in accordance with the provisions of 
the Constitution, William L. Hutche- 
son moved up to become General 
President. At the next convention he 
was nominated for the office and won 
handily in the referendum vote. He 
has been re-elected ever since, mostly 
without anyone being nominated in 
opposition. All during his 50 years of 
membership in the United Brother- 
hood he has served as an officer of 
either his Local Union or the Inter- 
national Union. As Fourteenth Gen- 
eral President, he has filled the office 
for a longer time than all 13 prede- 
cessors combined. 

On behalf of all members of the 
United Brotherhood who have bene- 
fited so much from the leadership of 
William Hutcheson, The Carpenter 
takes this opportunity to say "Well 
done, good and faithful servant" and 
to wish him many years of happiness 
and contentment. Likewise, it is a fit 
time to salute our new officers and to 
wish them every success also. 



Farmers Dislike 82nd Congress 

Farmers have as low an opinion of the 1951 Congress as most working men 
and women do. 

A Minneapolis poll, conducted by the Minneapolis Tribune, asked Min- 
nesota residents what they thought of the 1951 Congress. 
Here are the answers given to the poll: 

City 
Residents Farmers 

Excellent 1% 1% 

Good 18 13 

Just Fair 54 7 

Poor 13 58 

No Opinion 14 21 

100% 100% 



10 



NEW G.P. HAS EXPERIENCE, TRAINING 

• • • 

FOLLOWING in the footsteps of a great leader is the severest test of 
ability and courage that the fates can impose on any man. This is true 
in all walks of life. The football player who is called up to fill the 
shoes of an outstanding all-American or the actor who must replace a great 
star or the business man who is suddenly elevated to the top of the company 
all find themselves faced with a great challenge. 

When William L. Hutcheson handed in his resignation as General Presi- 
dent after 36 years of outstanding service, the fates catapulted First General 
Vice-President M. A. Hutcheson into such a role. Filling the shoes of William 
L. Hutcheson demands a degree of wisdom, ability and personal courage such 
as few men possess. Yet if any man 



among the 800,000 members of the 
United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America is competent to 
follow in the footsteps of William L., 
that man is M. A. Hutcheson. By train- 
ing, background and experience he 
is qualified to cany on the policies 
and principles through which the 
the United Brotherhood has made 
such rapid and consistent progress. 

Although only in his early fifties, 
M. A. Hutcheson has 38 years of 
continuous membership in the United 
Brotherhood to his credit. Nearly 25 
of those years have been spent in the 
service of the organization. As a 
young lad he started working as a 
clerk in the bookkeeping department 
of the General Office. By the time he 
was 17 he had decided to enter the 
trade of carpentry. In 1914, on his 
17th birthday, he joined the United 
Brotherhood as an apprentice in Ind- 
ianapolis. As a member of old Local 
Union No. 75 he served out his ap- 
prenticeship there. 

About the time he was finishing his 
apprenticeship, World War I was in 
full swing. Laying down his tools, he 
enlisted in the Navy and spent two 
years doing the bidding of Uncle Sam 



despite the fact his superintendent 
insisted on getting him deferred. 

Upon his discharge from the Navy, 
he returned to Indianapolis and picked 
up his tools again. Then followed a 
period working at the trade in many 
parts of the United States. To gain 
experience and increase his know- 
ledge of the trade, Brother Hutcheson 
worked at many jobs in many cities; 
dock building in New York, ship 
building in Brooklyn, and general car- 
pentry and mill work in many other 
cities. Until the late 1920's he kept 
his tools as shiny through constant use 
as any member in the organization. 

In 1928 he was appointed a General 
Representative. Because of his inti- 
mate knowledge of the bookkeeping 
practices and procedures employed 
by the General Office, he spent much 
of his time as an auditor. In this 
capacity he visited many unions in 
many localities and thus became inti- 
mately acquainted with the peculiar 
problems of those unions and those 
localities. The ten years he spent in 
this capacity afforded him a great op- 
portunity to understand and appreci- 
ate the scope of the United Brother- 
hood and the problems facing Local 



THE CARPENTER 



11 



Unions and State and District Coun- 
cils. 

When in 1938 the death of George 
Lakey created a vacancy in the Gen- 



That the choice was the right one 
has been proved repeatedly since 
1938. In the office of First General 
Vice-President, M. A. Hutcheson has 




M. A. HUTCHESON 

General President 



eral Office, Brother Hutcheson was 
the unanimous choice of all the Gener- 
al Officers and General Executive 
Board members for First General 
Vice-President. 



served the organization with wisdom, 
judgment and fine executive ability. 
The great apprenticeship program 
which has been developed in the past 
ten years is one of the projects he 



12 



THE CARPENTER 



spearheaded. The "Current Informa- 
tion" bulletin through which the Gen- 
eral Office endeavors to keep all 
unions abreast of the latest develop- 
ments in labor legislation, government 
directives and all matters affecting the 
construction industry is a project of 
his. So are the several fine movies 
which have been produced to bring 
home to the membership and to the 
general public the breadth and scope 
of the United Brotherhood. 

As First General Vice-President, M. 
A. Hutcheson has carried a work load 
year in and year out that would break 
the backs of most men. As a member 
of the Joint Jurisdictional Board for 
the Settlement of Jurisdictional Dis- 
putes, he has had to spend at least 
one (and often two days a week) in 
Washington. As a Vice-President of 
the Building and Construction Trades 
Department, he has had to spend still 
further time away from his desk. 

His office work has never suffered, 



but only because there has been no 
such thing as an eight-hour day in 
the office of the First General Vice- 
President. The impressive manner in 
which he has been re-elected every 
time is a clear indication of the fact 
that the membership at large is cog- 
nizant of these facts. 

This zeal and energy are now trans- 
ferred to the office of General Presi- 
dent. They are a guarantee that the 
shoes of William L. Hutcheson will 
be filled not only with ability, but 
also with integrity and honor as well. 
The years he spent as an office clerk 
in the General Office, as an apprentice 
and journeyman on the job, as a Gen- 
eral Representative on the road, and 
in the First General Vice-President's 
chair are a further guarantee that the 
United Brotherhood will grow and 
prosper under M. A. Hutcheson. 
Whether training, background or tem- 
perament is the yardstick, a better 
choice could not be made. 



Bill Calls for Higher Social Security Pensions 

An increase in Social Security payments .and coverage of 11 million more 
workers are included in a bill which is to be introduced in Congress soon. 

Sens. Hubert Humphrey (Minn.), Herbert Lehman (N. Y.) and Jim Murray 
(Mont), and Reps. John Dingell (Mich) and Franklin Roosevelt (N. Y.), all 
Democrats, announced that they will sponsor legislation to raise the maximum 
wage base on which Social Security taxes are made from $3,600 to $4,800 a 
year. This would pay for higher pensions. 

At present, covered workers and their employers each pay 1.5 per cent of 
wages into the Social Security fund. Thus the proposed tax maximum for one 
worker would rise from $54 a year to $72. Beginning in 1954, wage earners 
and employers will each pay two per cent. 

The measure would extend coverage to persons totally and permanently 
disabled. At present, a disabled person must apply to the local welfare de- 
partment for help. 

It also would cover members of the armed services, 4.5 million farmers, 
1.4 million farm workers, 1.3 million domestic workers and 300,000 self-em- 
ployed professional persons. 

"The principle of Social Security," they added, "has been completely ac- 
cepted by the country. No political party or group proposes to repeal it . . . 

"Too many of our citizens are still outside it. Too many of our citizens 
are approaching old age without the assurance that they need not fear its 
hazards." 



13 



1952 Could Be Good 



WHAT DOES 1952 have in store for the construction industry? From 
best available information, this year can come close to equalling the 
great record achieved in 1951, if government controls on non-defense 
construction do not throw a monkey wrench in the machinery. Materials will 
be in short supply, especially during the first six months of the year. But even 
in spite of these shortages the construction industry will be able to carry on 
at near capacity if the government agencies follow a realistic policy in allocat- 
ing materials and approving essential projects not directly connected with 
turning out munitions. 



Controls of various kinds were in 
effect during all of 1951. In spite of 
this fact, the construction industry set 
a new volume record during the year. 
Total construction volume for the year 
hit somewhere around the 39 billion 
dollar mark— about 12 per cent of the 
total production of all goods and serv- 
ices turned out during the year. How- 
ever, it was only during the last six 
months of the year that government 
restrictions really hurt. 

Going into the new year, these re- 
strictions have really been hurting— 
especially in those sections where di- 
rect defense construction has been 
scarce. And all prospects are that 
they will continue hurting for many 
months to come. After a very careful 
survey of all conditions, the Associ- 
ated General Contractors has come 
to the conclusion that construction 
volume in 1952 is capable of hitting 
the 37 billion dollar mark if the in- 
dustry is given any kind of a chance 
to produce. In a statement issued 
at the end of 1951, AGC saw the 
picture as follows: 

"It will be a year of 'spotty' con- 
struction activity, with peak levels 
of work in some areas and severe 
drops in others, depending on the 
types of construction, the distribu- 
tion of materials, and the adminis- 
tration of construction controls. . . 



"It is important for public and 
private awarding agencies to keep 
planning programs alive for those 
projects not now permitted in order 
to prevent a serious lag in commenc- 
ing their construction once they are 
permitted to go ahead." 

AGC officials urged mobilization 
officials to "forecast, when possible, 
the time when materials will become 
available so that additional types of 
construction can be undertaken." 

Here is the association's outlook for 
1952 construction by types— 

"Military, naval and atomic energy 
construction— expected to double next 
year to more than $4 billion, the high- 
est total since the war year 1943. 

"Private industrial— now in full 
swing under the impetus of the de- 
fense program, should continue slight- 
ly upwards from its 1951 total of $2 
billion to another all-time peak. 

"Public utilities— expected by mo- 
bilization officials to drop slightly from 
the $4.6 billion 1951 total. However, 
within this group, increases are ex- 
pected in electric light and power 
construction, and pipelines should re- 
main almost level at slightly over $1 
billion. 

"Decreases are expected by mo- 
bilization officials of more than 50 
per cent from the 1951 levels of $1.3 
billion for commercial construction 



14 



THE CARPENTER 



and $430 million for religious con- 
struction. 

"Decreases of from 15 to 20 per cent 
are also stated under present control 
policies from this year's totals of al- 
most $1 billion for hospitals, $11.4 
billion for housing, $1.8 billion for 
schools, $2.2 billion for highways, $865 
million for reclamation and flood con- 
trol, and $1.3 billion for farm con- 
struction. 

"However, building construction of 
various types and highway bridges and 
structures, after experiencing difficul- 
ties in the first six months, could re- 
cover with the anticipated easing of 
structural steel in the latter part of the 
year." 

"There has never been as large a 
demand for all types of construction 
as that now facing the industry. 

"The country needs and undoubt- 
edly will have, barring all out war, a 
large volume of construction for many 
years to come," Foreman commented. 

"Civilian demand is reaching a peak 
and the needs of the mobilization pro- 
gram are piled atop that. The con- 
struction industry, however, has the 
capacity to meet this demand, if the 
industry 'refrains from policies that 
unduly hamper the industry's pro- 
ductive capacity." 

Here is the association's review of 
1951 construction highlights: 

"The year saw a gradually diminish- 
ing supply of critical construction ma- 
terials for civilian projects as they 
were siphoned off by growing require- 
ments and foreign programs. 

"Government restrictions and allot- 
ments under the Controlled Materials 
Plan cut back many civilian projects 
during the last half of the year, pro- 
jecting some into 1952 and possibly 
farther into the future. Structural 
steel appeared to be the principal 
limiting factor for construction in 
1951. 



"While private new construction 
paralleled the record 1950 level of 
almost $21 billion, declines in several 
categories were offset only by an un- 
precedented increase in industrial ex- 
pansion. 

"Publicly financed new construction, 
on the other hand, paced by military, 
naval and atomic energy projects, 
surged ahead of 1950 by $2 billion to 
more than $9 billion— a total surpassed 
only in the peak war year 1942." 

The review also declared: "On the 
basis of mobilization program plans 
calling for bigger bites from the ma- 
terials normally used for civilian pro- 
ducts, the sharpest difficulties for types 
of construction other than those sup- 
porting defense should be felt during 
the first half of 1952. 

"As a result, public construction is 
expected to expand by another 15 per 
cent while privately-financed construc- 
tion declines somewhat. 

"However, another peak year of 
fabricated structural steel production 
anticipated by that industry in 1952 
should ease the supply of this pre- 
sently critical material in the latter 
half of the year to the extent that an 
upswing in building construction will 
be limited principally by the shortage 
of copper." 

That the men in Washington di- 
recting the defense program have a 
hard job goes without saying. That 
they are doing the very best they know 
how also goes without saying. And 
yet there is little doubt but that the 
construction industry has legitimate 
grounds for complaint in the way 
it is being treated insofar as controls 
are concerned. In the first place, the 
controls on construction seem to be 
more rigid than absolutely necessary 
—probably because all of the author- 
ity centers in Washington rather than 
being vested partially in regional offi- 
ces. This has resulted in decisions 
that seemingly did not take into con- 



THE CARPENTER 



15 



sideration peculiar local needs and 
conditions. Then, too, controls have 
been changed too frequently, much 
to the discouragement of prospective 
builders. Furthermore, to save com- 
paratively small tonnages of scarce 
metals, a disproportionately heavy 
burden has been placed on the con- 
struction industry. 

Among the hardest hit sections of 
the nation is New York City. Because 
very little direct defense work is be- 
ing located in the city, the construc- 
tion industry is doing little more than 
marking time, since controls have 
pretty well stopped all other kinds 
of building. Recently the contractors 
and building trades workers of the 
city met to petition the National Pro- 
duction Authority for some sort of 
relief. At that meeting the building 
trades representatives presented a 
resolution pretty much covering the 
things wrong with the present pro- 
gram of controls and suggesting feas- 
ible solutions. 

Since many districts other than New 
York City are feeling the pinch, a 
portion of that resolution is herewith 
being reprinted: 

Whereas, The NPA failed to recog- 
nize that construction projects require 
preliminary planning over an extended 
period of time, and financial commit- 
ments of a serious nature before actual 
construction starts, and 

Whereas, The NPA, in its lack of 
knowledge of the basic requirements 
of the building construction industry 
as demonstrated by its constant change 
in control regulations from Order M-4, 
to M-4A and now the Controlled Ma- 
terials Plan, representing three differ- 
ent criteria promulgated within one 
year, has caused investors to with- 
draw plans for millions of dollars of 
essential construction projects, and 

Whereas, NPA regulations, as ap- 
plied to building construction, con- 



serve minor quantities of critical ma- 
terials and force upon the industry 
a disproportionate and unfair burden 
in relation to other industries in the 
defense mobilization program, 

Now, therefore, be it resolved 

That the Building and Construction 
Trades Council, mindful of the de- 
fense emergency, but believing that 
it is essential to the welfare of the 
8,000,000 people in the City of New 
York that its construction industry be 
permitted to maintain a balanced 
economy, urges the National Produc- 
tion Authority to: 

1— Consult with responsible repre- 
sentatives of the construction industry 
before issuing regulations affecting 
the industry; 

2— Amend its regulations so that 
building construction ivhich has start- 
ed may be completed, and permit 
construction projects initiated with 
prior approval of NPA to go forward; 

3— Amend its regulations so that fi- 
nancial and legal commitments are 
considered in defining commencement 
of construction; 

4— When a building project is ap- 
proved grant an allotment of materials 
for the entire construction project to 
permit orderly and economical com- 
pletion; 

5— Give more authority to NPA re- 
gional offices to authorize construc- 
tion projects, rather than concentrate 
all the allocation power in Washing- 
ton where local needs and conditions 
are not understood. 

Getting the nation armed as quick- 
ly and as thoroughly as possible is 
the first concern of building trades- 
men as much as it is of any other 
group of Americans. Whatever sac- 
rifices become necessary will be taken 
without complaint. However, the ab- 
solute necessity for keeping the con- 
struction team intact so that the na- 



16 



THE CARPENTER 



tion can be kept functioning if cities 
should ever be bombed should not 
be overlooked or de-emphasized. Cer- 
tainly there is nothing contained in 
the recommendations proposed by the 
New York building tradesmen to dis- 
courage the defense effort or slow up 
rearmament. On the other hand, 
adoption of these proposals could go 
a long way toward eliminating some 
of the most pressing handicaps in the 
present construction picture. 

Both independently and through 
the Building Trades Department, Gen- 
eral President M. A. Hutcheson is 
fighting tooth and toenail for a revi- 
sion of controls to permit the con- 
struction industry to function more 
effectively in the defense effort. Some 
slight modifications have already been 
promised and more may be forthcom- 
ing as steel supplies increase. 

One of the major concerns ex- 
pressed by President Hutcheson is 
that Red Tape may keep controls 
from being relaxed as rapidly as the 



steel supply increases. He pointed 
out that estimated steel production 
for 1951 was around 105 million tons 
as compared to 90 million tons in 
1944, the peak year in World War II, 
an increase of better than 16%. Pro- 
duction this year is expected to in- 
crease by another five or six million 
tons; which means that the nation 
will be producing steel at least a 
fifth faster than it was in 1944 when 
the nation was making an all-out war 
effort. Yet today the building in- 
dustry is being badly hampered by 
rigid controls. 

In the final analysis, what kind of 
a year 1952 will be for the building 
industry depends a great deal on what 
the government does with controls. 
The General Office is in very close 
touch with the situation, and as the 
picture changes every effort will be 
made to keep allocations of scarce 
materials to the construction indus- 
try flowing at the maximum pace 
consistent with national safety. 



Labor's Role In Foreign Relations High 



Labor's influence in international relations has reached a new high the 
Economic Cooperation Administration said in its closing report. 

Not only was organized labor represented by official labor advisers to 
Paul Hoffman and succeeding administrators or EGA, but labor advisers were 
appointed to ECA missions abroad, labor information specialists were en- 
gaged to help explain the purposes and aims of the Marshall Plan to labor 
abroad and in the United States, delegations of American labor officials were 
sent abroad to help in the fight against communism, and hundreds of union 
representatives from Europe and Asia were brought to the United States 
to learn the secrets of America's high standard of living. 

The work accomplished by this participation of labor in the field of 
foreign affairs has not, however, come to an end. While the Marshall Plan 
is wound up exactly six months ahead of the schedule laid down by Congress, 
the legal powers and functions given to ECA are to finish out their allotted 
span under the newly created Mutual Security Agency, whose director is W. 
Averell Harriman, Deputy Director Richard M. Bissell, Jr., becomes operating 
head of the new MSA, charged not only with economic assistance to the 
European rearmament program, but also with continuing the program of U. S. 
economic and technical assistance to Asia. 



17 



SAFE HANDS TAKE OVER 

* * * 

WHEN John R. Stevenson, on January 1st of this year, moved up to 
the office of First General Vice-President as provided for in the Con- 
stitution, he brought to that office nearly half a century of trade un- 
ion experience on two continents. 

Born in Ayrshire, Scotland, some sixty-four years ago, Brother Stevenson 
attended public schools in that country. At an early age, he was apprenticed 
to the carpentry trade and joined the Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and 
Joiners. While still a very young man he migrated to Chicago, where he de- 
posited his card with the First Branch 
of the Amalgamated Society. On April 
1, 1907, he became a member of Local 
80 of the United Brotherhood, and 
has held his membership there ever 
since. 

The rise of Brother Stevenson in 
the United Brotherhood has been 
slow but steady. Shortly after be- 
coming a member of Local No. 80, 
he was elected trustee. After serv- 
ing in that capacity for several years, 
the membership elevated him to Vice- 
President. By 19.16 his ability was 
so widely recognized that the union 
elected him President. Year after 
year the membership of Local No. 
80 continued electing him to that post. 
In 1941 he was still serving as Presi- 
dent of his Local, with only a short 
break during the 1920's when he acted 
as Recording Secretary. 

But long before 1941 the Chicago 
District Council also recognized his 
capabilities. In 1927 the Council 
singled him out for Business Agent. 
For the next ten years the Council 
re-elected him to that post. Then in 
1937 it elevated him to the office of 
President. He was still serving in 
that office in 1941 when the General 
President appointed him Second Gen- 
eral Vice-President. 




JOHN R. STEVENSON 

First General Vice-President 

In his years of activity in the Chi- 
cago labor movement, Brother Stev- 
enson gained wide experience. In the 
turbulent times during World War I 
and right after, his leadership helped 
the union stave off many vicious at- 
tacks. Many of the most vicious anti- 
union drives of the era originated in 
Chicago. That organized labor was 



18 THE CARPENTER 

not smashed in those hectic days is the General President, with the ap- 

due entirely to the righting qualities proval of the General Executive 

of the membership and a small band Board, selected Brother Stevenson to 

of able and courageous leaders, not fiU the office Ebven Qn 

the least or whom was John R. Steven- .i n . £ .1. .1 r> .1 Ci 

T mx. i_- 1l ^ 1 r ,mr i the nrst ot this month, Brother Stev- 
son. In the bitter strikes ot 1915 and , . , ., m _ . 

1919, Brother Stevenson did great enSOn ™ved into that office. Twice 

work as strike committee chairman of since then he has been re-elected 

his own local and as an advisor in the without opposition, an indication that 

city-wide struggle. the entire membership is well aware 

Brother Stevenson was often a dele- of his capabilities, 
gate to American Federation of Labor Tq ^ office rf pirst Geneml yice _ 

Conventions and ror ten years ne -,.,,,, . nr . r 

acted as chairman of the Building Preslden * he b " n § s fift y y ears of ex " 

Trades Committee of the Illinois State Perience in trade unionism, plus a 

Federation. steady temperament and a cool head, 

When the office of Second General attributes the office can utilize to the 

Vice-President became vacant in 1941, fullest degree. 



Science Harnesses Atom For Humanity 

Two important scientific discoveries, which may vastly enrich human life 
for many future generations, were announced in the past month. 

For the first time, scientists succeeded in producing electric power from 
atomic energy. 

A new synthetic chemical, named Krilium, which converts nonproductive 
soil into rich loam in a matter of hours, instead of the years required by 
present methods, was successfully demonstrated. 

The discoveries promise vast expansion of industrial and agricultural 
production when they are perfected. 

The atomic experiment was successfully accomplished in a small brick and 
concrete building on the Snake River, near Arco, Idaho. The Atomic Energy 
Commission made the official announcement. 

Heat energy was taken from a breeder reactor by means of a liquid metal 
not revealed and this energy produced enough steam energy to drive a turbine 
generating electric power. The entire equipment of the station was serviced 
by the electricity thus generated. 

Scientists attach great hopes to this new discovery for broad scale peace- 
time development. They feel that in the future the harnessing of atomic 
energy to lighten the burdens of man and solve problems of industrial pro- 
duction will far overshadow the present grim significance of the atom bomb. 

Development of the new soil-building chemical was announced by the 
Monsanto Chemical Company at the meeting of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science. 

The chemical is not a fertilizer. It is a soil-conditioner that quickly im- 
proves the consistency of even hard-baked clay soil, enabling plants to 
obtain maximum amounts of oxygen, water and nutrients from the earth. 

Extensive tests over three years indicate that Krilium may usher in a 
revolutionary era to agriculture, in which depleted desert areas may be 
restored to green and productive acreage. 



19 



SECOND V.P. HAS SOLID BACKGROUND 

* * * 

WITH NEARLY thirty-five years of varied union experience behind 
him, O. William Blaier, newly-appointed Second General Vice- 
President, knows the labor movement from A to Z. He has served 
his Local Union and International Union in many varied capacities down the 
years. And all of his service has been marked by efficiency and loyalty. 

Brother Blaier was born in Wilmington, Del., on July 17, 1897. On May 
29, 1918, he joined Local Union No. 359 of Philadelphia where he rounded out 
his apprenticeship. Within a very short while his natural ability was recog- 
nized, and in June of 1920 he was elected Financial Secretary of his union, a 
post he continued holding until 1937. 

From 1932 until 1937 he also served 
as Business Representative of the 
Philadelphia District Council. For a 
number of years he also served as 
delegate to the Central Council. In 
addition, he was a delegate to the 
Building and Construction Trades 
Council, and for five years he served 
as Vice-President of that body. With 
all this he still found time to func- 
tion as a delegate to the Pennsylvania 
State Council of Carpenters and the 
State Federation for many years. 

In May of 1937, he was appointed 
a General Representative by Gener- 
al President William L. Hutcheson. 
For eleven years he filled that office 
with credit to himself and his organ- 
ization. When in March of 1948 the 
resignation of William J. Kelly created 
a vacancy in the office of General 
Executive Board Member for the Sec- 
ond District, Brother Blaier was a 
natural choice to fill the vacancy. 

Much of his time in recent years 
was spent in Washington representing 
the United Brotherhood before the 
numerous Federal agencies, where his 
sincerity and understanding of the 
labor movement stood him in good 
stead. When the Construction Indus- 
try Stabilization Commission was set 
up to handle wages in the construc- 




O. WILLIAM BLAIER 

Second General Vice-President 

tion industry, it was only natural that 
Brother Blaier should be selected as 
a member of that important body. As 
a commission member he has done a 
great job. Those who know Brother 
Blaier best know that the office of 
Second General Vice-President is in 
safe and capable hands. 



p 




LANE U OSS IP 



ITS A SHOUT RIDE 

Now that election time is approaching 
again, a lot of Senators and Congressmen 
who voted for every anti-labor bill that 
came up during their time in office have 
suddenly become "friends" of labor. And 
as far as we are concerned they remind 
us of nothing as much as they do of little 
Sandy. 

Sandy was going to town with his father 
one day. Before they got on the street- 
car, Sandy, Sr., kept drilling the boy to 
tell the conductor he was five years old if 
the conductor asked. When they finally 
got on the car, sure enough the conductor 
asked: "How old are you, son?" 

"Why I'm five," replied the lad without 
hesitation. 

"And wben will you be six?" continued 
the conductor. 

"As soon as I get off this car," replied 
the lad without hesitation. 

That is the way it is with these so-called 
"friends" of labor. They will be as friendly 
as an old dog until election day. But as 
soon as their election bandwagon gets them 
to Capitol Hill, they soon go back to being 
"six" again. 




122 . -eagpEB-' 



"You're violating the labor laws, 
Miss — You can't use bodily persua- 
sion to induce men to join you!" 



IT CAN'T BE DONE 

All predictions are that 1952 will usher 
in the greatest scientific progress in history. 
The predictions are founded on solid ground. 
More research scientists are at work now 
than ever before. One and all, they are 
trying to beat Mother Nature in one way 
or another. 

Yet a Canadian researcher has discovered 
that nature made the average man's arm 
28 inches long and the average woman's 
waist 28 inches around. Still brainy fellows 
are trying to improve on a system that 
operates as neatly as that. 

• • * 

NOT MUCH IMPROVEMENT 

If Patrick Henry thought taxation with- 
out representation was bad, he should see 
it with representation. 

* • * 

MAKES A DIFFERENCE 

As the Congressional probers dig deeper 
into unethical procedures in government, 
a number of Congressmen who were most 
outspoken against corruption have found 
thejr names being linked with one kind of 
questionable deal or another. Naturally, a 
lot of their enthusiasm has vanished. So 
much so that it reminds us of die story we 
still think funny after 25 years. 

A father had a boy who was inclined to 
fib. To break him of the habit, the father 
often told the incident of young George 
Washington and the cherry tree. Every time 
die boy fibbed, the father brought up the 
cherry tree incident. 

One Halloween the outhouse on the fam- 
ily farm bit die dust. Suspicious of his son, 
the old man gave him die third degree. 
Finally the son admitted diat he was with 
the gang that pulled the trick. Grabbing 
him by the nape of the neck, the old man 
dragged him to the woodshed and began 
whaling die tar out of him. 

"But, Pop," wailed the lad. "This ain't 
right. I told the truth. When George Wash- 
ington admitted he chopped down the cherry 
tree his Pop let him off with a lecture." 

"Maybe, Son, maybe," replied the old 
man, "But George Washington's dad wasn't 
in the cherry tree when he chopped it 
down." 



THE CARPENTER 



21 



ANYHOW IT SEEMS THAT WAY 

A clever veterinary who runs a dog hospi- 
tal has a great system for "treating" dogs 
who are overfed by indulgent owners. When 
he gets such a dog, he places him in an old, 
abandoned brick kiln with a crust of bread, 
an onion, and an old shoe. When the dog 
starts to gnaw on the bread, the anxious 
owner is told that the dog is doing nicely. 
When he starts on the onion, the report is 
that he has improved greatly. But when 
the dog finally starts gnawing on the shoe, 
the owner is told that the dog is completely 
cured and ready to go home. 

Sometimes it seems to us the government 
must be working on the same theory in so 
far as people are concerned. Instead of 
giving us the correct dope straight from 
the shoulder, we get scares, threats and 
rumors to chew on. The Big Wigs seem 
more interested in driving us than in lead- 
ing us. As far as we are concerned, we do 
not like it. Certainly the American people 
are big enough and intelligent enough and 
patriotic enough to do the things that need 
doing without propaganda, threats and 
rumors. 

• • • 

MAYBE HE'S RIGHT 

As 1951 drew to a close and 1952 ap- 
peared over the horizon, every editor, com- 
mentator, politician, radio comedian and 
bartender had some comments to make on 
the state of the world and the prospects 
for the new year. Of all of them we heard 
or read, only that of our old friend and 
favorite philosopher, Joe Paup, made any 
sense. 

"The trouble with the world is," said 
Paup from under his favorite table at Pete's 
Place, "that there are too many retail minds 
trying to solve wholesale problems." 

• * • 
WITHOUT GENERALS AND 

ADMIRALS TOO 

As if you did not already have enough 
to worry about, we are throwing in the 
following little thought catcher: 

The automobile has already killed more 
American people than have all the wars 
this nation has engaged in since 1776. Over 
the Christmas holiday, auto victim No. 
1,000,000 went to his eternal reward, while 
all the men killed in all the wars fought 
.by this nation total less than 936,000. 

If this proves anything it is that the 
preaeher is right when he says, "Man is but 
dust." And it may also explain why women 
can settle him so quickly. 



LOGICAL EXPLANATION 

A neighbor of ours has called his wife 
"Hopalong" for many, many years. The 
name always intrigued us, and although 
we often hinted around, he never did di- 
vulge the origin of it. Last month we 
could contain our curiosity no longer, so 
we asked him point-blank. 

"Well, it's like this," he explained. "For 
years we have had a joint checking account 
and durned if she doesn't beat me to the 
draw every time." 

• * • 
SLOW IN COMING 

All summer long the big meat packing 
companies have been telling the people 
through expensive ads that lower meat 
prices were coming. But all through the 
Fall and early Winter meat prices have con- 
tinued to go up. Our guess is that meat 
prices will come down when a certain coon 
dog comes home. 

This particular coon dog was a dinger, 
as the President might say. Whenever his 
master wanted a coon, he merely whittled 
out a coon-hide stretcher to show the dog 
the size coon he wanted. The dog would 
take a look at the stretcher and head for the 
woods. In an hour or so he would be back 
with the right size coon. 

This happy state of affairs went on for a 
long time until one day the lady of the 
house set the ironing board on the back 
porch. And the coon hound ain't been back 
since. 




"Now this next shot is for a labor 
paper, so I want a close-up of your 
union button!" 



22 



What We Can Achieve 



HARVARD'S Sumner H. Slichter, whom Fortune has described as the 
the "best known economist in the United States," is thoroughly con- 
vinced that "getting more output will continue to be this country's 
number one economic problem." 

In 1949, in an article, "How Big in 1980," Slichter expressed this opinion. 
In his book, What's Ahead for American Business, published in 1951, he re- 
appraises the situation in the light of international developments, and is even 
more emphatic about the need for increasing production and increasing 
productivity "since the contest between the United States and Russia is a 
long run production contest.' 



During World War II, Slichter 
points out, production increased so 
enormously that the quantity of con- 
sumer goods available for civilian 
use was actually greater during the 
war than it had been before. In 1943 
it was 12.5% higher than in 1940, and 
in 1945 it was 28.4% greater. No such 
increase in goods for consumption can 
be expected now, due to several fac- 
tors: 

At the beginning of World War II 
we had a large number of unem- 
ployed, and an expansion of the labor 
force by nine million workers. There 
is no possibility of such expansion 
now. There was an increase by one- 
sixth in the length of the work week, 
which we probably will have in 1952 
or early in 1953. The length of the 
work week increased during the third 
quarter of 1950, but the output for 
the quarter was the same as for the 
first three months of the year. Between 
1951 and 1952, Slichter believes, out- 
put per manpower hour may rise to 
the normal amount of 2V2% per year 
because many inexperienced workers 
will by then have been trained and 
many obstacles to defense produc- 
tion will have been overcome. 

"The need for more output per man 
hour is virtually unlimited" Slichter 



points out, "because there seems to be 
scarcely any limit to the capacity of 
man to consume goods. The average 
family, among the fifth of the fam- 
ilies with the largest incomes, spent 
in 1949 about $6,700 on consumer 
goods. If the lower four-fifths of the 
families had consumed the same 
amount of goods per family, the out- 
put of consumer goods would have 
had to be doubled, and yet the fami- 
lies who spent the $6,700 a year had 
no difficulty in finding ways to spend 
the money. It is plain, therefore, that 
the output of American industry might 
be doubled without satisfying the 
need for goods. 

By 1980, Slichter predicts we can 
reasonably expect the population of 
the United States to be at least 175 
million. Assuming that the number 
of persons at work continues at the 
present ratio to the population, 41.4%, 
we can anticipate a work force of 
about 72.5 million. 

If the increase in output per man 
hour continues at the usual rate our 
output per man hour in 1980 will be 
about 88.4% greater than in 1948. 

As incomes go up the demand for 
leisure also increases, and by 1980 we 
can expect the hours worked by the 
average person will have dropped 



THE CARPENTER 



23 



one-fourth; this will mean a 30 hour 
week will be virtually universal. 

Annual output per worker in 1948 
was $4,065; in 1980 we can expect 
it to be at least $5,744. With 72.5 mil- 
lion persons at work the net national 
production per year will be at least 
$416 billion, and may even go above 
the $550 billion mark. 

Slichter does not feel that the av- 
erage annual increase of 2% per hour 
is sufficient to meet requirements, and 
believes that 3% increase per man 
hour per year is well within the range 
of possibility though he admits it will 
not be easily achieved. Five possible 
hurdles to this accomplishment are 
listed as 1. Steep taxation; 2. Power- 
ful trade unions; 3. Concentration of 
industry and decline of competition; 

4. Exhaustion of natural resources; 

5. A slow-down in the making of in- 
ventions. 

1. While taxes are much higher 
than anyone dreamed they would be 
after the war, the present rate of 
capital formation is sufficient to in- 
crease the country's stock of housing, 
plants and equipment by about 4% 
per year, according to Slichter. Higher 
corporate taxes he believes will have 
little effect on expenditure for plants 
and equipment. 

2. Trade unions, he predicts, will 
be able to push up wages more than 
2% per year but it does not necessar- 
ily follow that this will retard ac- 
cumulation of capital; indirectly un- 
ions help increase output since the 



pressure for higher wages tends to 
stimulate management to increase out- 
put and cut costs. 

3. Competition is more vigorous to- 
day than ever and will become even 
more competitive due to such factors 
as the rise of chain stores and mail 
order houses, the possession of a larger 
stock of technological knowledge, and 
the fact that the economy is made 
more competitive by the huge ex- 
penditures of government and busi- 
ness upon industrial research. 

4. Consumption of raw materials 
during the next generation may be 
more of a problem than it has been, 
but it seems likely that the problem 
can be met through development of 
substitutes and an increase in the 
amount of imports. A greater de- 
pendence upon other countries for 
raw materials has profound implica- 
tions for some of the country's most 
important problems and policies since 
it will mean that the ability of many 
countries to sell to the United States 
will be improved. It will mean also 
that the United States cannot impose 
tariff barriers on scarce products. 

5. The very nature of discoveries 
makes it difficult to predict the rate 
at which they will be made. Never- 
theless, it is unlikely that there will 
be any decline. Expenditures for in- 
dustrial research in 1940 were eight 
times as large as in 1920, and in 1950 
they were two times as great as they 
were in 1940.— Illinois Labor. 



PRICES WORRY MORE PEOPLE 

A public opinion poll showed people are becoming more concerned about high prices. 

The Survey Research Center of the University of Michigan reported that: 

Last June, 4 out of every 10 persons interviewed expected prices to be higher within 
the next year. 

By November more than 5 out of every 10 persons thought prices would be higher in 
1952. 

Last June, 40 per cent thought prices would soon be lower. In November only 25 
per cent of the people expected stable or declining prices. 

- Most people believe that now is as good a time as any to buy expensive household 
items like refrigerators or television sets. Why? 

This survey shows that the American people realize that Congress shot the price control 
law full of holes last summer. 



Editorial 




It Doesn't Cost— It Pays 

There are millions of workers (both male and female) in the nation who 
do not belong to a union. Some of them— particularly in the white collar 
class— think they are a little bit special and therefore too ritzy to belong to a 
labor movement that is made up mostly of people who sweat to earn their 
daily bread. Some of them think they save money by not belonging to a 
union since they avoid paying a few dollars a year in union dues. Some of 
them think they are smarter than the other guy and can do okay by themselves. 
Added together, these non-union people add up to a sizeable percentage of 
the total working force. 

For years, this journal and virtually all other labor journals have been 
pointing out that the above reasons for not joining a union are silly. Now a 
person who really is in a position to know comes out and says the same thing 
in most emphatic terms. That man is Maurice J. Tobin, Secretary of Labor. 

The wages of some 20 million unorganized workers, employed in white 
collar jobs, service trades, and smaller factories, have failed to keep pace 
with soaring living costs, Tobin recently disclosed in an article in Labor 
Information Bulletin, a publication of the Department of Labor. These 
people have lost billions of dollars in purchasing power, he warned. As a 
result, not only the non-union people themselves have suffered, but also the 
entire national economy has been affected adversely. He challenged the 
labor movement to remedy this situation by .organizing the unorganized. 

At the same time, Tobin revealed that living costs soared by something 
around 13 per cent in less than two years. For those who came under col- 
lective bargaining, wage rates generally kept pace with price increases. But 
for those who were going it alone, inflation has been a nightmare. 

Union members have machinery by which wages can be adjusted to rising 
living costs, but "the absence of this machinery, or some adequate substitute 
for so many millions of American workers constitutes a long-range menace for 
the American economy," Secretary Tobin said. 

He estimated that 45 per cent of the nation's wage earners, largely in the 
white collar class, have been the worst victims of inflationary price trends. 

Ultimately non-union wage rates tend to follow pay standards set by 
unions, but there is a time lag and this "can have serious economic con- 
sequences," Tobin asserted. Many economists have attributed falling volume 
of retail sales over the past few months to reduced purchasing power. 

"And what significance should this have for the American labor movement 
generally?" Tobin concluded. "It should serve unions as an additional motive 
for rededicating themselves to that mission that is summed up in the three 
words: organize the unorganized." 

If they did not know it before, certainly these non-union people who 
think they are too smart to need a union must realize by now that it does not 
cost to belong to a union but rather it pays to belong to one. Tobin is in a 



THE CARPENTER 25 

position to know whereof he speaks. When he says non-union workers lost 
several billions in wages because they had no union plugging for them, his 
word has to be accepted. 



Daily Papers Please Take Note 

Employers have long been interested in finding out what their employes 
think of them. All sorts of "scientific" devises have been invented for measur- 
ing employe attitudes toward the company. Counselors, moral interviewers, 
attitude surveys and even labor spies have been employed by various com- 
panies in an effort to get accurate and unbiased information. How successful 
these programs have been is probably open to debate. However, employers 
continue depending on them more and more. 

To say that labor people have little faith in opinion polls, straw votes, 
etc. is putting it mildly. Various opinion polls have had a Republican in the 
White House before every election since 1932. Only one thing has been 
wrong— the voters never agreed with the poll takers' opinions of how they 
were going to vote. And there is plenty of evidence to indicate that some 
polls have been used as a vehicle for trying to influence public opinion rather 
than as a vehicle for trying to sample public opinion. This being an election 
year, another rash of straw votes, opinion polls, etc. can reasonably be ex- 
pected to break out between now and November. 

But getting back to industrial attitude measuring, employers are con- 
stantly seeking new and better ways of learning how they rate in the eyes of 
their employes. Some day some bright boy is going to figure out that the 
best way to find out is by asking each employe directly what he thinks of the 
company, and immediately a lot of scientific opinion samplers are going to be 
out of a job. Until that time, the "scientific" boys with one kind of formula 
or another for doing the job are going to eat regularly. 

Recently the Industrial Relations Center of the University of Minnesota 
decided to give a new twist to this attitude measuring business. It decided 
to find out how the workers in six firms felt about their particular unions. Up 
to now, as far as we know, no such study has ever been made. Union officials 
have worked along on the theory that union meetings are a good indication 
of the members' feelings. When meetings have been quiet and orderly, it 
was an indication that everyone was pretty well satisfied. When there was 
lots of wrangling and gum-beating, somebody was dissatisfied. 

Particularly in view of the fact that any number of columnists and com- 
mentators are constantly picturing union members as brow-beaten captives 
of ruthless union bosses, it is very interesting to note what the University of 
Minnesota survey discovered. Unlike so many questionable surveys, the 
University of Minnesota survey asked some simple and direct questions. And 
it got some simple and direct answers. 

The first question posed by the survey was this: The local officers are 
doing a good job? Of the AFL men interviewed, 87 per cent agreed that 
their officers were doing a good job. Eleven per cent had no definite opinion, 
and two per cent disagreed. 

Another statement advanced this question: I could get just as good pay 
if I didn't belong to the union? With that one, 84 per cent of the AFL men 
asked disagreed, and five per cent were undecided. To the question: My 



26 THE CARPENTER 

union makes my job more secure? 88 per cent of the AFL members replied 
"yes". To the question: I feel that every employe should be a member of a 
union? Some 94 per cent of the men in AFL unions answered "yes'. Only two 
per cent actually answered "no"— the other four per cent being undecided. 
(Anti-labor columnists and commentators please note). 

Some 86 per cent of the AFL men asked thought it would be worth their 
while to attend union meetings. Nearly three-quarters thought that the union 
got a good deal in the last contract negotiated with the employer. Eighty 
per cent thought their union was getting them good wages and working 
conditions. 

It is also interesting to note that the survey found AFL members had a 
better attitude toward their company than did CIO members or non-union 
workers. Furthermore the AFL rated 15 percentage points higher in union 
loyalty than did CIO members. 

To the people in the labor movement who read something besides the 
daily papers, the findings of the University of Minnesota survey come as no 
surprise. They merely substantiate the experiences of the NLRB in union 
shop elections, 97 per cent of which are favorable to the union. The disclosure 
by Secretary of Labor Tobin that unorganized workers are losing billions of 
dollars by not having any machinery for keeping wages in line with increas- 
ing living costs only adds to the conviction of the vast majority of union men 
that only through organized labor can they hope to get some semblance 
of economic justice. 



The Rich Can Be Suckers Too 

This journal has repeatedly warned its readers to be on guard against 
the "Millionaires Amendment", a proposition that would limit to 25% the 
amount of income taxes the Federal Government could levy against any in- 
come. The backers of this proposed amendment to the Constitution are 
trying to sneak it in by the back door by putting it through a sufficient num- 
ber of state legislatures before presenting it to Congress— the reverse of the 
usual procedure. The object of the amendment is simple— to ease the. tax 
burden of the extremely wealthy and shift more of the load to the backs of 
the poor. 

Recently the St. Louis Post-Dispatch ran a lengthy story on the history 
of the Millionaires Amendment and the people behind it. It was an extremely 
interesting story. 

A good deal of credit for launching the amendment, the Post-Dispatch 
gave to the late J. A. Arnold, a man of many and varied interests, all of them 
profitable to Mr. Arnold. Arnold discovered long ago that there is money in 
beating the drums for schemes that appeal to the wealthy. Supposedly he 
began his career in Washington by lobbying against women's suffrage in the 
early years of the century. He also lobbied against the Adamson eight-hour 
law for railroad workers. Later he supposedly took some money from brewers 
around 1917-1918, but denied that any of it was used for German propaganda. 

Around the early 1920's he purportedly organized the American Tax- 
payers' League, the Southern Tariff Association, and the National Council 
of State Legislatures. 



THE CARPENTER 27 

Senate investigators found that all three of Arnold's brainchildren shared 
the same office and funds. They described all three organizations behind 
which Arnold was operating as lobbying organizations set up to influence 
Congressional legislation and in the process providing a nice living for Arnold. 
To make a long story short, other committees investigated Arnold as the 
years went by and also found that he kept the wolf away from his door pretty 
consistently by getting contributions from the wealthy for one cause or 
another. 

Finally, according to the story, he eased out of the American Taxpayers' 
Association which was organized in Washington, D. C. to push the Million- 
aires Amendment. Supposedly Arnold then moved his scene of operations to 
Chicago where he started the Western Tax Council which is also backing the 
amendment. As usual, Arnold did not go hungry during the years he devoted 
his talents to beating the drums for the Millionaires Amendment through the 
Western Tax Council. 

If all this proves anything, it is that many wealthy people are suckers for 
any scheme that promises them something for nothing— a trait one would 
hardly expect to find in men who succeed in the dog-eat-dog business world. 
The second thing it proves is that moral considerations are not given too much 
weight in some business circles at least. Pouring money into the coffers of a 
professional promoter whose main concern seems to be in taking care of 
No. 1 hardly squares with the highest ethics one could think of. 

But the main thing it proves is that the Millionaires Amendment was born 
of a dubious union between high-powered promoters and gullible businessmen. 
However, regardless of what its antecedents may be, the amendment is a 
distinct threat to all who work with their hands for a living. If the amend- 
ment passed, the tax money saved for the rich would all have to be made 
up by the poor. Actually, the amendment would be a bonanza for people 
making from $40,000 a year upward and a kick in the pants to those making 
less. 

The backers of the amendment now claim that they have twenty-six state 
legislatures already on record as being in favor of the amendment. This may 
or may not be true. If it is, then it means that working people everywhere 
must be on guard to see that no further state legislatures take similar action. 
The people behind the proposed amendment are influential and wealthy. 
Regardless of who they may have had or still have working for them, their 
influence in Congress is considerable. The only way they can be stopped is by 

enternal vigilance on the part of the common people. 

• — 

Eating Off the Taxpayers 

The next time a reactionary Congressman sounds off about "subsidies," 
he should be reminded that: 

The House restaurant, where Representatives eat lunch, and sometimes 
dinner, when Congress is in session, is subsidized by taxpayers at $45,000 
a year. 

A lunch that costs 90 cents in the House restaurant would cost $1.05 in 
Miami, $1.25 in San Francisco and $1.50 in Detroit, aceording to the United 
Press. 

Congressmen can eat for less than people in Miami, San Francisco or 
Detroit because taxpayers are subsidizing their meals. 



28 



February 17 Is Brotherhood Week 

A year ago last Christmas, a reader asked for a definition of Brotherhood. The follow- 
ing piece, which appeared in the March, 1951, issue of The Carpenter, was an effort to 
answer that request. Inasmuch as the nation is marking "Brotherhood Week" February 
17 through 24, and the need for universal brotherhood has never been greater, the piece 
is herewith being reprinted. 

* * 

What is $5rothcrlr0oi>? It is everything, or everything is nothing. It is the catalyst that 
separates a human being from the beast of the jungle. It is the leavening of love and the 
scaffolding upon which society rests. It is the glowing light which has beckoned mankind 
along the tortuous path of progress from the law of the fang to the Bill of Rights. It is 
the cornerstone of Democracy and the fountainhead of human dignity. It is the strength 
of the past and the hope of the future. 



ie ISrotljerljnoik? It is the biggest thing in the world and at the same time the 
smallest. It is a thousand union men walking a picket line for weeks or months to redress 
an injustice done to a single member. But also it is a housewife baking a cake for an ail- 
ing neighbor. It is battered and beaten GI's with bone-weary arms and frozen feet carry- 
ing wounded comrades out of the frigid wastes of Korea. But also it is a vigorous young 
carpenter giving a lift to a tired old-timer working by his side. It is a hundred and fifty 
million people placing their homes, their savings and even their lives at the disposal of 
the nation to protect the principles of liberty and equality. But no less it is Bill Smith 
mowing the lawn of the old couple up the street. It is a dozen or a hundred or a thousand 
people working together to maintain a church or a lodge or a union. It is the fifty cent 
contribution or the hour of committee work given by the least of them. 



is ^vathevhaait? It is the wisdom of Lincoln and the warmth of Ghandi. It is 
the humility of Jesus, the humbleness of Mohammed and the humanitarianism of Con- 
fucius. It is Catholic and Protestant and Jew living together in peacefulness and harmony. 
It is Italian and Dane and Bulgarian and Pole working side by side on the job and sitting 
shoulder to shoulder in the union hall searching for ways to advance the common good. 
It is the Ten Commandments and the Sermon on the Mount. It is the Bible, the Talmud 
and the Koran. It is the essence of all wisdom of all ages distilled into a single word. But 
equally it is the understanding of neighbors and friends who sorrow at your misfortunes 
and rejoice at your triumphs. You cannot see Brotherhood; neither can you hear it or 
taste it. But you can feel it a hundred times a day. It is the pat on the back when things 
look gloomy. It is the smile of encouragement when the way seems hard. It is the helping 
hand when the burden becomes unbearable. 



jai is ^ftxtI^crIjoot>? It is pioneer Americans of faiths and creeds and colors band- 
ing together to raise a barn for a neighbor. It is men in leather breeches and homespun 
shirts taking wagons apart and carrying them over the mountains, piece by piece, to get 
wagon trains into California and Oregon. It is working men risking their jobs, their homes 
and their futures to build unions capable of eliminating exploitation and poverty and in- 
dustrial slavery. It is men and women working for a common cause that is bigger than any 
individual. 

What is '?Br0iljerI|oo6? It is hope of mankind for immortality. Man comes into the 
world from whence he knows not. He struggles a while and departs again into whence he 
knows not. But like the tiny crustaceans which create the magnificent coral reefs, he makes 
a tiny contribution to the universal plan. The coral comes into the world, lives awhile, and 
then dies to add its tiny skeleton to the skeletons of millions of generations which went 
before. In the end, a beautiful coral island rises out of the sea. Like the coral, man comes 
into the world to live awhile and eventually pass on. Like the coral, he makes his con- 
tribution to the universal plan. Brotherhood is the mortar that holds together the contri- 
butions of all men in all ages. 

HJliat is l&totlievhtaabi'! It is not life. It is more than that. It is that which gives mean- 
ing to life and makes it worth the living. 

Qpljat is 't&voHievliottb. 



29 



TV-Big Leaves, Small Roofs 

By Millard C. Faught 
* * 

IN CHICAGO, the National Committees of both the Republicans and 
Democrats have agreed on something— they will change the site of the 
1952 Conventions to suit the convenience of . . . television. This deci- 
sion came on the heels of a political miracle in New York, where television 
campaigning had catapulted unknown Rudolph Halley over the heads of 
entrenched machines and into the Number Two Job of city politics. 

If television can thus change the age-old patterns of "politics as usual," 
then it is truly a social force to be reckoned with. The explanation is that 
TV brings the vagaries of politics right into the home in interesting and tang- 
ible form. It makes informed voters 



out of stay-at-homes, often little in- 
terested in public affairs. 

But TV has done more than that. 
It has turned the family living room 
into a political soap box, a rustler's 
roost, Indian reservation, football sta- 
dium, wrestling mat, movie house, 
opera house, and (worse luck for 
young Hopalong) even a school house. 
Small wonder that folks are fasci- 
nated by the new miracle of tele- 
vision. 

There seems to be only one big 
trouble with this miracle, and the 
public is just beginning to be aware of 
the trouble. Somebody has to pay for 
everything that shoius up on the magic 
screen— even when the President him- 
self talks from the White House. And 
the American public is that somebody 
whether or not the individual owns 
a television receiver. Also, the costs 
of television programs run to as much 
as 10 times the cost of similar pro- 
grams on radio. The rise of "inflation" 
as the public knows it has been as 
nothing compared to the soaring costs 
of television, even in its infancy, and 
the TV sky seems awfully high. Even 
the "obvious" TV problems, which 
the public can see on their home 



screens— the poor programing, excess 
commercials, etc.,— all trace back to 
this root cause, costs-which some- 
body must pay if the show goes on. 

To view the problem by analogy, 
television has shot up like a beauti- 
ful new plant with big leaves and 
bright flowers, but this new "Green 
Bay- Tree" seems to have insufficient 
roots, and the ones it has are sucking 
up too much moisture from the soil 
it happened to sprout in. 

Indeed, thus far, television has only 
one economic root— the advertiser's 
dollar— and currently it is soaking up 
about $2,500,00.0 per week, just to pro- 
gram the 108 stations now on the air. 
For the future some 2000 stations are 
forecast, but they may not all sprout 
unless this new plant gets some more 
revenue roots and some new economic 
soil. Enough television stations to 
serve the whole country could easily 
soak up all the money now being ap- 
propriated for all advertising pur- 
poses. But that in itself wouldn't nec- 
essarily solve the whole problem. 

If advertisers are to pay all of tele- 
vision's bills, they are obviously going 
to sponsor those programs that sell 
the most goods to the most viewers 



30 



THE CARPENTER 



for the least program expense. So it 
is that TV is overrun with low-cost 
ancient Westerns, but the Metropol- 
itan Opera goes unsponsored and un- 
available on TV. Reason it would cost 
about $80,000 to put one opera on 
television, not counting the charges 
for station time and network costs. 
That's too steep for advertisers, since 
opera doesn't have a high enough 
"Hooperating." 

It is this same matter of insufficient 
economic roots that explains why TV 
doesn't blossom out with top quality 
movies, the best football games and 
the premium prize fights. When mill- 
ions of people see these programs "for 
free" on television, somebody loses 
those customers at the theatre or sta- 
dium box office. Nor can the adver- 
tisers make up the difference by spon- 
soring such programs on "free" tele- 
vision. It is even a question how long 
they can continue to foot the million- 
dollar-plus bill for the World Series 
each year. 

It is hardly surprising, therefore, 
that two of the box office victims of 
television— the theatre and the sports 
promoters— have got together and 
devised a hybrid use of the new 
medium, called "Theatre Television." 
Here a premium program— like the 
Robinson-Turpin fight— is televised by 
closed circuit only to. theatres equip- 
ped with "big screen television." The 
public can see the show only by the 
old process of going to such a theatre 
and buying a ticket. 

This practice, even in its experi- 
mental stage, has given John Public 
a rude shock. He has got into the 
habit of expecting that such things 
should be on television "for free" as 
they were on radio. But on televi- 
sion the "tab" is too big for the spon- 
sor to continue to treat the public. 

When first confronted with this 
cold fact of "no tickee no lookee," 
John Q. rared up and declared there 



"ought to be a law" against such 
iron curtains on his free television 
expectations. He bought the set— now 
how about some good shows! 

There is a law that applies here— 
the law of economics, which in its 
simplest form says there is no such 
thing as something for nothing. Prize 
fights, ball games, movies and theat- 
ricals are private property. There is 
still no law says they must be given 
away— even on television. 

But, there is also no sound evidence 
that the public expects to get free 
on television what they have paid 
for in the past. Surveys from every 
section of the country have reflected 
the public's willingness to pay for 
good movies, plays, prize fights, operas 
and the like on television . . . but 
how. There was no such thing as a 
home box office to collect the ticket 
money. 

Now there is. Finally, after 20 years 
of research, there is in existence a 
working, tested system of home box 
office television and at least three 
other such systems are being tinkered 
with or talked about. The working 
method is Zenith Radio Corporation's 
system called Phonevision, which has 
already been extensively and success- 
fully tried, under temporary permit 
from FCC, for the purpose of televis- 
ing good movies into people's homes 
for a fee via television. The test was 
so successful that $60,000 is being 
spent by Zenith in further analysis 
just to make sure the startling results 
are accurate. It showed that there 
exist as many as three new home TV 
family customers at $1 per film for 
every one who had seen the same 
films in movie houses. Shortly the 
FCC will be asked to authorize Phone- 
vision as a regular television service 
available for use by any station. This 
development could give added use- 
fullness to the existing telephone plant 
and equipment, in which more than 



THE CARPENTER 



31 



$10 billion of capital are invested, 
adding nine-figure income that could 
help carry part of the load of rising 
costs and provide increased earnings. 

When such a home box office sys- 
tem of TV is in use, then television 
will finally have economic roots in 
proportion to its flowering potentials. 
Besides all that it now can do as a 
communications system subsidized by 
advertising revenue, TV will have be- 
come a modern miracle of electronic 
distribution. As such it would be by 
all odds the cheapest and most effec- 
tive distribution system for movies, 
plays, opera, sports, adult education 
and the like ever devised. Freed from 
all the customer inconvenience of 
transportation, traffic, parking wasted 
time, baby sitters, "dressing up to go 
out," etc., home box office TV would 
frequently save the customer more in 
these "auxiliary costs" than the charge 
for the feature program at home. 

This costly problem of always hav- 
ing to move the customer to the prod- 
uct has always plagued the "spectator 
art." And besides moving the custo- 
mer, it was necessary to provide some 
kind of large and costly customer hous- 
ing facility like a theatre or a stadium, 
with a box office in the entrance. In 
our hurried, crowded, complex day 



and age, these methods of selling 
"crowd commodities" are growing ob- 
solete. In contrast, what could be 
more logically modern than an elec- 
tronic distribution system to deliver 
all of these things to the most con- 
venient marketplace of all— the custo- 
mer's home? 

Based on three years of research 
into the economics of this new poten- 
tial distribution use of the new med- 
ium, in this writer's opinion, box of- 
fice television would do any or all of 
the following things when available 
nationally: At least double the num- 
ber of potentially profitable televi- 
sion stations; more than solve the fi- 
nancial burdens now crushing out 
opera and the legitimate theatre in all 
but the few biggest cities; possibly 
quadruple the market for motion pic- 
tures; rescue spectator sports, both 
professional and collegiate, from the 
malady of empty stadium-itis; and 
finally free the adult educational proc- 
ess from the narrow limits of the class- 
room. 

Television is a communications mir- 
acle today, but with its growth limited 
by costs. Freed of these economic 
chains, television can also become a 
distribution marvel tomorrow of far 
greater magnitude. 



Living Standards Lowered By Shrinking Dollar 

The U. S. dollar took another beating in actual buying power last year, shrinking to 
5% cents as compared with 100 cents in 1939, according to an article in Labor's Monthly 
Survey. 

This steady decline in the value of money, due to price increases, has serious and far- 
reaching consequences for everyone. It robs every worker, and lowers his living stand- 
ard. The damage done cannot be offset by cost-of-living wage increases. Unions have 
struggled in vain under WSB regulations to raise wages enough to maintain real income. 

Since every wage increase automatically raises the worker's income tax payment, his 
take-home pay will never rise as much as living costs. In November, tax rates were raised 
and real income reduced still further. And these are not the worker's only losses. The 
shrinking value of money has reduced his savings to scarcely more than half of what he put 
aside in 1939. And every dollar invested in war bonds during the war has lost a large 
part of its purchasing power. 

Creeping inflation is changing the worker's outlook. In the past he could look forward 
to a steadily rising standard of living as productivity rose. Today he fights a losing battle 
and cannot even maintain his present standard, or the value of his earnings. Other groups 
are much worse than union members. 



Official Information 




General Officers of 
THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS 

of AMERICA 

General Office : Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General President 

M. A. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



First General Vice-President 

JOHN R. STEVENSON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Secretary 

ALBERT E. FISCHER 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Second General Vice-President 

O. WM. BLAIER 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Treasurer 

S. P. MEADOWS 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Executive Board 
First District, CHARLES JOHNSON, Jr. Fifth District, R. E. ROBERTS 

111 E. 22nd St., New York 10, N. Y. 4324 N. 48th St., Omaha, Nebr. 



Second District, RALEIGH RAJOPPI 
2 Prospect Place, Springfield, New Jersey 



Sixth District, A. W. MUIR 
Box 1168, Santa Barbara, Calif. 



Third District, HARRY SCHWARZER Seventh District, ANDREW V. COOPER 

1248 Walnut Ave., Cleveland, O. 133 Chaplin Crescent, Toronto 12, Ont., Canada 



Fourth District, ROLAND ADAMS 
712 West Palmetto St., Florence, S. C. 



M. A. HUTCHESON, Chairman 
ALBERT E. FISCHER, Secretary 



All correspondence for the General Executive Board must be sent to the General Secretary 



IMPORTANT NOTICE 

In the issuance of clearance cards, care should be taken to 
see that they are properly filled out, dated and signed by the 
President and Financial Secretary of the Local Union issuing 
same as well as the Local Union accepting the clearance. The 
clearance cards must be sent to the General Secretary without 
delay, in order that the members names can be listed on the 
quarterly account sheets. 

Regarding the issuing of clearance cards, the member should 
be informed that said clearance card shall expire one month 
from date of issue, and must be deposited within that time. 
Otherwise a clearance card becomes void. When a clearance 
card expires, the member is required to redeposit same in the 
Local Union which issued the clearance, inasmuch as he is still 
a member of that Local Union. 



2) n fflLtm&riztm 



Not lost to those that love them, 
Not dead, just gone before; 



They still live in our memory, 
And will forever more. 



The Editor has been requested to publish the names 
of the following Brothers who have passed away. 



R. ALLEN, L. U. 1244, Montreal, Que., Canada 
JOHN M. AMBROS, L. U. 61, Kansas City, Mo. 
JOHN ARGENTO, L. U. 1335, Wilmington, Cal. 
JOSEPH AUBERTIN, L. U. 1360, Montreal, 

Que., Canada 
CHARLES A. BAILEY, L. U. 2288, Los Angeles, 

Calif. 
JOSEPH BAKER, L. U. 1497, Los Angeles, Cal. 
W. H. BAKER, L. U. 388, Richmond, Va. 
GILBERT BANKS, L. U. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. 
HANS BARSTEN, L. U. 488, New York, N. Y. 
JOHN W. BEIGER, L. U. 440, Buffalo, N. Y. 
W. D. BEAR, L. U. 25, Los Angeles, Calif. 
ANTON BENSON, L. U. 2288, Los Angeles, 

Calif. 
FRED W. BEWLEY, L. U. 64, Louisville, Ky. 
G. R. BRATCHER, L. U. 25, Los Angeles, Calif. 
HAROLD N. BRUHJILL, L. U. 1289, Seattle, 

Wash. 
H. F. BUETIKOFER, L. U. 1497, Los Angeles, 

Calif. 
CHARLES BUTERA, L. U. 20, New York, N. Y. 

D. L. CAFFEY, L. U. 676, Brownwood, Texas 
HARRY CARLSON, Jr. L. U. 488, New York, 

N. Y. 
VERNON CARPENTER, L. U. 200, Columbus, 

Ohio 
MARTIN CHICK, L. U. 11, Cleveland, Ohio 
ALFRED B. COPES, L. U. 11, Cleveland, Ohio 
WALTER CUMMINGS, L. U. 246, New York, 

N. Y. 
R. A. CUNNINGHAM, L. U. 345, Memphis, 

Tenn. 

E. M. DENISON, L. U. 25, Los Angeles, Calif. 
WILLIAM DETTMER, L. U. 1367, Chicago, 111. 
SID DEVLIN, L. U. 379, Texarkana, Ark.-Tex. 
MATTHEW DICK, L. U. 101, Baltimore, Md. 
J. H. DOBBS, L. U. 993, Miami, Fla. 

H. P. DODD, L. U. 64, Louisville, Ky. 

LOWELL, I. DUNN, L. U. 64, Louisville, Ky. 

W. A. EASTMAN, L. U. 2732, Hilt, Calif. 

JOHN M. EDWARDS, L. U. 64, Louisville, Ky. 

R. W. FARRIS, L. U. 345, Memphis, Tenn. 

EMIL FAULK, L. U. 61, Kansas City, Mo. 

E. H. FISHER, L. U. 98, Spokane Wash. 

GEO. E. FITZ, L. U. 388, Richmond, Va. 

V. E. FREDRICKSON, L. U. 25, Los Angeles, 
Calif. 

CHARLES GARDNER, L. U. 165, Pittsburgh, 
Pa. 

PAUL GASSMAN, L. U. 1437, Compton, Calif. 

J. W. GREEN, L. U. 61, Kansas City, Mo. 

ALVIN GREER, L. U. 64, Louisville, Ky. 

FRANK W. HARRIS, L. U. 2288, Los Angeles, 
Calif. 

EDMUND HELLNER, L. U. 129, Hazleton, Pa. 

ARTHUR HITCHLER, L. U. 440, Buffalo, N. Y. 

ANTONY HOLSTROM, L. U. 583, Portland, 
Ore. 

A. L. HUGHIE, L. U. 225, Atlanta, Ga. 

PETER IBSEN, L. U. 35, San Rafael, Calif. 

ROBERT JACKSON, L. U. 109, Sheffield, Ala. 

ALFRED R. JOHNSON, L. U. 98, Spokane, 
Wash. 

H. L. JOHNSON, L. U. 61, Kansas City, Mo. 

I. N. JONES, L. U. 64, Louisville, Ky. 

HARVEY E. JORGES, L. U. 98, Spokane, Wash. 

GABRIEL KANTO, L. U. 337, Detroit, Mich. 

PETER KLEE, L. U. 20, New York, N. Y. 

ORVILLE H. KNOPP, L. U. 393, Camden, N. J. 

HOWARD KOKENSBERGER, L. U. 129, Hazle- 
ton, Pa. 



D. C. LACY, L. U. 1497, Los Angeles, Calif. 
/J5.\. LAGASA ' L - U - 25 > L °s Angeles, Calif. 

ARTHUR LAMBERT, L. U. 1497, Los Angeles, 

CHAs/k. W. LARSON, L. U. 98, Spokane, 

Wash. 
CHARLES LEMON, L. U. 249, Kingston, Ont., 

Canada 
CHARLES LESLIE, L. U. 1244, Montreal, Que., 

Canada 
M. LINDROT, L. U. 25, Los Angeles, Calif. 
J. B. LIVERS, L. U. 25, Lis Angeles, Calif. 
C. H. LUNDY, L. U. 25, Los Angeles, Calif. 
EMMETT MCGEHEE, L. U. 345, Memphis, 

Tenn. 
WILLIAM MAKINSON, L. U. 4, Davenport, la 
JOSEPH G. MATTINGLY, L. U. 64, Louisville, 

Ky. 
JOHN MILLER, L. U. 80, Chicago, 111. 
WALLACE MILLER, L. U. 2131, Pottsville, Pa 
RICHARD MOHR, L. U. 98, Spokane, Wash. 
CHARLES NELSON, L. U. 20, New York N Y 

F. L. NELSON, L. U. 25, Los Angeles, Calif. 
HARRY R. OBERG, L. U. 583, Portland, Ore. 
JOHN OLDBERG, L. U. 61, Kansas City, Mo. 
WLADYSLAW OSTASZEWSKI, L. U. 246. New 

York, N. Y. ' 

GLEN P. OTTEN, L. U. 1497, Los Angeles, Cal. 

HENRY PANCKE, L. U. 488, New York N Y 

IVER PAULSEN, L. U. 1367, Chicago, III ' 

SELMAR A. PAULSON, L. U. 98, Spokane, 
Wash. 

JOHN A. PEACOCK, L. U. 225, Atlanta, Ga. 

NEIL C. PETERSON, L. U. 1335, Wilmington, 
Calif. 

WILLIAM PFANMOELLER, L. U. 64, Louis- 
ville, Ky. 

J. A. PORTER, L. U. 345, Memphis, Tenn. 

WILLIAM F. POYNTER, L. U. 64, Louisville, 
Ky. 

C. QUARTEL, L.U. 25, Los Angeles, Calif 

G. L. RAY, L. U. 225, Atlanta, Ga. 

M. M. RICHARDSON, L. U. 246, New York 

N. Y. 
ANTHONY ROBERTSON, L. U. 98, Spokane, 

Wash. 
GLEN A. ROSS, L. U. 98, Spokane, Wash. 
F. H. SACKEWITZ, L. U. 61, Kansas City, Mo. 
M. K. SAXE, L. U. 98, Spokane, Wash. 
JOHN SCHULER, L. U. 20, New York, N. Y 
JOHN SMITH, L. U. 20, New York, N. Y. 
W. B. SMITH, L. U. 64, Louisville, Ky. , 
RICHARD W. STRECKFUSS, L. U. 1497, Los 

Angeles, Calif. 
SHERMAN STUMBAUGH, L. U. 98, Spokane, 

Wash. 
W. E. TEASLEY, L. U. 225, Atlanta, Ga. 
JOS. TENDZIEGOLSKI, L. U. 98, Spokane, 

Wash. 

E. H. THOMAS, L. U. 388. Richmond, Va. 
W. H. THOMAS, L. U. 64, Louisville, Ky. 
WILLIAM THOMPSON, L. U. 64, Louisville, 

Ky. 
ANTON ULVI, L. U. 101, Baltimore, Md. 
J. WALSH, L. U. 740, New York, N. Y. 
R. L. WEBB, L. U. 61, Kansas City, Mo. 
LOUIS C. WEEDMAN, L. U. 64, Louisville, Ky. 
HERBERT L. WHITE, L. U. 700, Corning, N. J. 
MARION WHITE, L. U. 1960, Savannah, Ga. 
EDGAR A. WILLIAMS, L. U. 388, Richmond, Va. 
H. G. WRIGHT, L. U. 388, Richmond, Va. 
GUY WYLIE, L. U. 98, Spokane, Wash. 



34 



THE CARPENTER 



THE LOCKER 

By JOHN HART, LOCAL UNION 366, New York, N. Y. 

THE KING'S ENGLISH 

English is the mother tongue of more than 235 million people, only Chinese being 
more widely spoken. Because of its preponderance of borrowed alien words English has 
been called a mongrel language, though cosmopolitan might have been a more politic 
adjective to use. Only one-fifth of it is of Anglo-Saxon or Old English origin. This con- 
sists of such simple words as man, house, dog. German speakers will note the Teutonic 
flavor of tiiese so-called Old English names. More than half of this "mongrel language" 
is derived directly from Latin, and about fifteen per cent from Greek. French, Italian, 
Spanish, and practically every other tongue have supplied the rest. It is not an easy 
speech to master. The grammar is comparatively simple, but the spelling and pro- 
nunciation are notoriously inconsistent, each rule having several exceptions. You may 
circumvent the spelling impediment by employing a secretary, but you must take care of 
the pronunciation yourself. Anyone seeking a comprehensive knowledge of the English 
language is undertaking a prodigious, lifetime task. He is a philological genius if he 
eventually succeeds, and a qualified candidate for the Hall of Fame. 

VOCABULARY 

How many words are in the English language? No one knows to within 100,000 
or so. You may take thirty-five dollars from your next pay envelope and buy an un- 
abridged dictionary boasting of over 600,000 definitions. For a trifle less you have the 
choice of another, also unabridged, which only supplies a piddling 450,000 definitions. 
Now we all know uSat unabridged means complete; not shortened. So here we have a 
variation of 150,000 words between two arbiters of the language. Two dollars odd, is 
the price of an excellent dictionary defining 75,000 words. And for the puny sum of 
thirty-five cents you can get a pocket-size one with 36,000 entries; 1000 words a penny. 
The golden age of erudition! Every man a scholar! 

How many of these hundreds of thousands of words do you have to know? Well, a 
man may know only 500, and yet have money in the bank. You might call him illiterate, 
but he can make out. If what he hears on the radio is all gobbledygook to him, he can 
buy a television set and feast his orbs on the ravishing Dagmar. If he can't read a paper 
he may buy Life, Look, See, Gawk, Squint, etc. What has he got to worry about? 

Basic English is a vocabulary of 850 simple words. A six-year-old child is familiar 
with 600 of them. You could write a book in Basic English, or translate with its aid 
any of the classics. Of course it would be very dull reading, somewhat like a bedtime 
story, but it would be, nevertheless, good English. 

4000 different words comprise 99% of everyday speech. The twenty most common 
are: THE, OF, AND, TO, A, IN, THAT, IS, I, IT, FOR, AS, WITH, WAS, HIS, HE, BE, 
NOT, BY, BUT. All good old Anglo-Saxon. In speech or print a word averages only 
4V2 letters. The vocabulary of a first-class daily is supposed to be 25,000 words. Some 
papers use only 9,000. The venerable and venerated New York Times, in its mammoth 
Sunday edition, is given credit for a vocabulary of 40,000. Shakespeare, the Immortal 
Bard, used 15,000 different words in his writings. Not bad for one who had no Reader's 
Digest to boost his word power weekly. Authorities state an average literate person should 
know as many words as Shakespeare; better than average can thoroughly read a first-class 
daily; but only the elite will feel at home with the comprehensive, 300-page Sunday Times. 



SAMPLE WORD ORIGINS. 



LATIN: 

GREEK: 

OLD ENG: 

FRENCH: 

ITALIAN: 

SPANISH: 



fidelity 

asterisk 

herring 

chivalry 

burlesque 

renegade 



Others: Gaelic: slogan, 
alcohol, coffee. 



state local viaduct temporal lunatic aviator 
cycle drama chronic democrat architect telephone 
house heart silver mother father stone 
armor nature fatigue constable sabotage apartment 
studio bandit cartoon milliner isolate mezzanine 
cigar plaza sherry flotilla tornado commodore 

whiskey. Dutch: yacht, stoop. German: plunder, swindle. Arabic: 

Persian: caravan, pajamas. Norse: geyser, berserk. 



pedal 

tonic 

moon 

rent 

piano 

cork 



THE CARPENTER 



35 



PRONUNCIATION 

The preferred pronunciation of these fairly common words is excusably not too well 
known. The American form is given. There is, as yet, no American language, but we 
are acquiring one slowly. The British say we already have it, and how! Nuts! 

IMPIOUS ALBINO REPTILE LONGEVITY LONGLIVED SUCCINCT RESPITE VICTUALS 

impeeus albyno reptill lonjevity longlyved suksinkt respit vittel 

HEINOUS FACILE BESTIAL PROBOSCIS CULINARY ZEALOT RIBALD CAMBRIC 

ribbeld caimbric 



haynuss fassil 



beschul probossis 



cyoolinairy zellot 



Here are some odd but permissible pronunciations. Some fussy purists in English 

pronounce these words as written, but we, the people, had them right all the time. 

CUPBOARD CHESTNUT BREECHES ISTHMUS FOREHEAD 

cubberd chessnut britches issmus forrid 

ENGLISH COXSWAIN APOSTLE THOMAS OFTEN 

apossel tomas offen 

THYME SAYS PRETTY 

time sez pritty 
AN5T 
enny 



inglish 

BUSINESS 

bizness 

TOWARD 

toerd 



CHESTNUT 

chessnut 

COXSWAIN 

cocksen 

HANDKERCHIEF 

hangkerchiff 

IRON 

i-ern 



Some members of the building trade, present company expected, have a careless pro- 
nunciation for certain words common to that trade "Deef" was correct 100 years ago. 

ARCHITECT CORNICE OVERALLS MAINTENANCE 

WRONG : artchitect cornish overhalls manTAINance 

RIGHT : arkitect corniss overalls MAINtenance 

ASPHALT DEAFENING FAUCET 

WRONG : ashfault deefning fasset 

RIGHT : assfault deffening fawset 

Watch your accent! A word may be either good king's English or Hindustani de- 
pending on where you accent it The accented syllable of these words is in capitals. Bear 
down on this syllable and go easy with the others. 

robust gondola curator comparable omnipotent preferable mischievous integral 

roBUST GONdola cuRAYtor COMparable omNIPotent PREFerable MISshivuss INtegral 

adult grimace pergola secretive emeritus affluent incognito mankind 

aDULT griMACE PERgola seCREETive eMERitus AFFluent inCOGnito manKIXD 

How's your Latin? These words are pure Latin, so the Latin pronunciation rules. 

DATA PRORATA VICE VERSA BONA FIDE STATUS DAIS GRATIS FINIS FIAT DIEM 
dayta pro rayta vycee versa bohna fydee staytus dayis graytis fynis fyat dyem 

Parlez vous Francais? Whether you do or not, you have many French words to con- 
tend with in your composite language. Our pronunciation of these words is far from 
French, but it's the best we Americans can do, so they let us get away with it. 

DEBRIS ELITE REGIME MELEE COUP COINNOISEUR ATTACHE CUISINE NEE CHIC 
dayBREE ayLEET rayZHEEM mayLAY coo CONNisser attaSHAY kweeZEEN nay sheek 

These words will never be pronounced as Webster requires. Who ever says February? 

FEBRUARY RHUBARB SHERBET SARSAPARILLA 

Webster Wants : february roobarb sherbet sarsaparilla 

Webster Gets : febuary roobub sherbert sassparilla 

VASELINE PUMPKIN BREADTH 

Webster Wants : vasseline pumpkin bredth 

Webster Gets : vazeline punkin breth 

The king's English is pure, or correct English. Here are some examples of the way 



it is spoken in England. This is not Cockney, but sanctioned literate usage. 



LIEUTENANT 

lefftenant 

FRACAS 

fracca 



W r AISTCOAT 

weskit 
VASE 
vawz 



SCHEDULE 
shedule 
CLERK 
dark 



PROPER GLADSTONE BEAUCHAMP LEICESTER 

NAMES. gladstun beecham lester 

COCKBURN ST. JOHN SALISBURY 

coburn sinjun sawlzbery 

WEMYSS FEATHERSTONEHAUGH 

weems fanshaw 



PATENT 
paytent 
DERBY 
darby 

STRACHAN 
strawn 

MAINWARING 
mannering 

RALPH 

rafe 



GARAGE 

garridge 

Z 

zed 

GREENWICH 

grenij 

CHOLMONDLEY 

chumley 



About 40 years ago two British battleships were named Indomitable and Indefatigable. 
It was realized that no British tar could be expected to say these names as the dictionary 

(Continued on page 40) 



CorrospondoncQ 




This Journal Is Not Responsible For Views Expressed By Correspondents. 

SHREVEPORT LOCAL PAID NICE COMPLIMENT ON 50th BIRTHDAY 

It is not often that daily papers have something nice to say about a labor union. How- 
ever, when Local Union No. 764, Shreveport, La., recently celebrated its 50th anniversary, 
the Shreveport Journal thought the event so significant it devoted a good part of its editorial 
column to complimenting the union. Under the title "Congratulations, Carpenters," the 
Shreveport Journal carried the following editorial: 

Congratulations, Carpenters 

The Carpenters Union No. 764 of Shreveport, which celebrated its fiftieth anniversary 
Friday night, deserves in full measure the congratulations received in connection with 
its completion of a half century of service important not only to its members but also to 
the community in which the bulk of its membership's efforts have been constructively 
expended. 

Indicative of the interest the carpenters reflect in their organization's affairs was the 
large attendance at the anniversary celebration; approximately 450 members and guests 
participating in the significant occasion. Reminiscences related to a record here prob- 
ably unsurpassed. 




Members and guest of Local Union No. 764, Shreveport, La., helping the Local 
Union celebrate the completion of its first half century of progress. 

Another fact of unusual note which played part in the anniversary program was the 
presentation of gold emblem pins for more than a quarter century's membership to 102 
carpenters. Nineteen of the group have been members more than 40 years, namely 
Oscar Bartlett and R. E. Stripling, 48; John Howat, 47; and John E. Morris, 54; A. M. 
Bond, S. D. Holt and A. P. Parker, 44; T. S. Atkins, 43; D. D. Bartlett, and R. J. Caven- 
der, 42; H. A. Genteman, F. T. Henson, G. C. Jones, Jim Jones, and D. A. Prudhomme, 
41; Thomas W. Allen, E. E. King, D. O. Lambert, and B. B. Wilderson, 40. 

Mr. Howat for many years was the union's business manager and president of the 
Central Trades and Labor Council. He is now a national figure with the parent car- 
penters union in field service. 

The oldest in period of membership in the local carpenters' organization are Claude C. 
Davenport, and Alex Butler, who on June 1 last were guests at a banquet in their honor. 
They have been members fifty years. 

Among those who in earlier years were members are a number of Shreveport's fore- 
most building contractors. Their experiences in the union have helped in the develop- 
ment and maintenance of amicable relations between employers and employes, which have 
existed in this community with marked benefits. 

The carpenters have contributed greatly to the upbuilding of Shreveport and area, and 
the half century of operation of their union is an occasion for merited salute. 



THE CARPENTER 



37 



SPRINGFIELD, ILL., MARKS 63rd BIRTHDAY 

To celebrate the sixty-third anniversary of its founding, Local Union No. 16, Spring- 
field, 111., on the night of December 11th held a special meeting to pay tribute to a 
grand roster of old timers. Special guest and featured speaker of the evening was 
Reuben G. Soderstrom, President of the Illinois State Federation of Labor. 




Pictured above is part of the great bunch of old timers Local Union No. 16, Springfield, 111., 
can boast of, together with special guests at its 63rd birthday meeting: 

Standing left to right: Reuben G. Soderstrom, President of the Illinois State Federation of La- 
bor; William Sime, 25 year member; Joe C. Feger, 25 year member; Jesse R. Elmore, 25 year mem- 
ber; Louis Schmitt, 25 year member; Arch Callaway, 25 year member; Edward Lisenbey, 25 year 
member; Albert Pence, 25 year member and Springfield Building Inspector; Ernest C. Langford, 
President of Local No. 16. 

Seated left to right: John Casserly, 51 year member; William Helmick, 50 year member; James 
Durkin, 50 year member; William VanSice, 50 year member, and Louis Nelson, 50 year member. 

During the evening, service pins were awarded to some ninety-three members with 
records of from twenty-five to forty-nine years of continuous membership and eight mem- 
bers with from fifty to fifty-five years of continuous membership. Local Union No. 16 
is justifiably proud not only of its long and honorable history in the Brotherhood, but 
also of its grand bunch of old timers. 



BROTHERHOOD WEEK MEANS SOMETHING IN SAN RAFAEL 

Beginning February 17th, the nation is celebrating Brotherhood Week. A more ap- 
propriate gesture could hardly be conceived, for if this war-torn world, with its awful 
tensions and fears, needs anything, it is a more universal application of the spirit of 
Brotherhood. 

For over seventy years "Brotherhood" has been a part of the name of the United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America. That the word has not been there 
in vain has been proven time after time down the years. In recent weeks the officers and 
members of the various building trades unions in and around Marin County, Calif., dem- 
onstrated that they understand the meaning of the word in its practical application as 
well as in its dictionary meaning. 

Early in 1951 Marine Corporal Alvin Long, a member of San Rafael Carpenters 
Local 1710, was engaged in some of the bitterest fighting in Korea. He suffered the loss 
of both feet and was returned to the States. 

His fellow union members, learning of his misfortune, decided to do something about 
it and began rallying support to build Brother Long a home— something every veteran, 
as well as every American worker, longs for but sometimes simply cannot attain. 

The project gained momentum rapidly. Practically every building trades union sent 
members to work on the three-bedroom home on holidays and Sundays. Brother Long, 
his wife and children, are moving into the home with great faith in the brotherhood of man, 
especially union men. 

There was no fanfare or publicity connected with the job the Marin County con- 
struction workers did for a fellow union member. There are no heroes or fair-haired 



THE CARPENTER 



boys. Everybody who could, pitched in and did his best. As a result, a fellow union 
member who paid a great price to protect the life and liberty of all Americans got a 
practical demonstration of what life could be like if all men understood and practiced 
Brotherhood. 



SALEM, ORE., HONORS GRADUATING APPRENTICES 

Carpenters Local Union No. 1065, Salem, Oregon, on September 15, 1951, gave a 
turkey dinner honoring twenty-nine apprentices who were to be awarded journeyman 
certificates. There were 390 carpenters, their wives and guests present. 

Mr. J. D. McDonald, president of Oregon State Federation of Labor, acted as master 
of ceremonies. Mr. Charles R. Smith, General Organizer for the American Federation of 
Labor, gave a talk on the Apprenticeship Program. Ivor T. Jones, Executive Secretary, 
Oregon State Council of Carpenters, and member of State Apprenticeship Council, spoke 
briefly on the importance of the union in the economic life of the tradesman and the 
duty of the graduates to take part in the affairs of the Local Union. 




First row (from left to right): Sherman Smith, Financial Secretary, Local 1065 and Secretary of 
Apprenticeship Committee, and apprentices Eugene Rictor, Ivan Cooter, R. H. Ruch, L. J. Scheide- 
man, E. C. Visti. 

Second row (from left to right): William Kimsey, State Labor Commissioner and Chairman of 
State Apprenticeship Council and apprentices E. C. Bailey, Arthur Bose, H. B. Christenson, Harry 
A. Harris, H. C. Selby, R. J. Tompkins, J. D. McDonald, President, Oregon State Federation of 
Labor. 

Third row (from left to right): Ivor T. Jones, Executive Secretary, Oregon State Council of Car- 
penters and Member, Oregon State Apprenticeship Council and apprentices Archie A. McDonald, E. 
J. Hertel, W. W. Heller, F. C. Jaeger, E. H. Leek, W. F. Lukins, Charles R. Smith, Organizer, Amer- 
ican Federation of Labor. 

Certificates were handed out by William Kimsey, Labor Commissioner for the State 
of Oregon, also chairman of the State Apprenticeship Council. 

The new journeymen are: 

Eddie C. Bailey, James L. Barnwell, Ivan Bogart, Arthur Bose, H. A. Christensen, 
Palmer F. Copple, S. B. Dodge, Jr., Harry A. Harris, J. L. Harter, E. J. Hertel, Fred C. 
Jaeger, Edward J. Klukis, Elmer H. Leek, W. F. Lukins, Archie A. McDonald, John F. 
Miller, Eugene Richter, Leon J. Scheideman, Harlan C. Selby, Guy S. Sherman, Robert 
L. Tompkins, Elwood E. Townsend, Everett C. Visti, James A. Wilcox and Edwin H 
Zitow, all of Salem. 

David H. Barnhardt of Gates, Ivan Cooter of Sublimity, Wendell W. Heller of Mill 
City, Robert H. Ruch of Turner. 



THE CARPENTER 



39 



BRISTOL CELEBRATES 50th BIRTHDAY 

Amid gay floral pieces and glamorous crystal decorations which turned the Crystal 
Ballroom of the West End Club into a veritable fairyland, Local Union No. 952, Bristol, 

Conn., on the night of December 1st, 
celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of its 
founding with a banquet and social even- 
ing. Some 200 hundred members, friends 
and guests were on hand for the oc- 
casion to help Local Union No. 952 
properly celebrate its golden anniver- 
sary. 

A turkey dinner with all the trimmings 
put the guests in the proper mood right 
at the beginning. Short speeches by 
special guests John J. Egan, State Labor 
Commissioner, and William Sullivan, 
General Representative, added to the 
enjoyment of the evening. Commis- 
sioner Egan complimented the union on 
its fine record and Representative Sulli- 
van paid tribute to the old timers. 

Local Union No. 952 was chartered 
on December 3rd, 1901. The first meet- 
ing was held in the Grand Army Build- 
ing. First officers of the union were: 
President, Fred Griswold; Vice-President, 
B. Hummel; Recording Secretary, G. H. 
Andrews; Financial Secretary, C. H. 
Peck; Treasurer, V. Rosen; Conductor, 
W. Hill; Warden, C. Cole; Trustees, W. 
L. Stewart, A. J. Calkins, and B. Hum- 
mel. All these men are now gone to a 
better land, but the heritage they left 
behind has enabled the union to go on 
building and progressing. 
A highlight of the evening was the introduction of nine old timers who are now on 
the pension rolls of the United Brotherhood. They were: Elof Anderson, Martin Andrews, 
Albert Barnfield, Joseph Cusson, Leon Lacouse, Jr., John Luddy, Ernest Paulin, Edward 
Picard and E. J. Sutherland. 

Dancing to the music of Rudy Fiona's orchestra lasted far into the night. This being 
the first big get-together sponsored by the local, the ladies enjoyed themselves so much 
that a Ladies Auxiliary will undoubtedly appear in Bristol before long. 




• Officers and guests attending the 50th Anniver- 
sary Dinner of Local Union 952 of the United Broth- 
erhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America of 
Bristol, Connecticut. Shown above are: Seated, left 
to right, Fred Graves, Vice-President and Trustee; 
Raymond McFarland, President; Charles Wagner, 
Business Representative and Financial Secretary; 
and George Suydam, Treasurer. Standing, left to 
right, are: Hugo Peters, Warden; Derwood Parent, 
Recording Secretary; William J. Sullivan, General 
Representative, United Brotherhood of Carpenters 
and Joiners of America; State Labor Commissioner 
John J. Egan, George Keltonic, Conductor and Trus- 
tee; and Romeo Perrault, Trustee. 



WACO HONORS OLD TIME MEMBER 




A. D. Sample, president of Local No. 
622, Waco, Texas, pins a 50-year pin on 
the lapel of Louis Sullenberger. 



Recently Local Union No. 622, Waco, Texas, 
paid tribute to a grand old member. The man so 
honored was Brother Louis Sullenberger, who 
recently completed fifty years of continuous mem- 
bership in die United Brotherhood of Carpenters 
and Joiners of America. 

During his many years of membership, Broth- 
er Sullenberger has held practically every office 
within the gift of die local. During the past ten 
years he has capably filled die office of treasurer. 
As a small token of the great esteem in which 
he is held by officers and members alike, he was 
recently presented with a fifty-year sendee pin 
and a specially engraved gold watch at special 
ceremonies held by die union. 



40 



THE CARPENTER 



SOMERVILLE LOCAL LOSES 101 YEAR OLD MEMBER 

On December 30th, Local Union No. 455, Somcrville, N. J. received a severe blow 
when the grand old man of the organization passed away. The old timer was Brother 
J. W. Kline who would have celebrated his hundred and first birthday had he lived until 
March 29th of this year. 

It is difficult to imagine, but Brother Kline was already a young man when Lincoln 
was assassinated. He saw much of the nation's history made in his lifetime. Never in 
arrears and always interested in the welfare and progress of the union his passing thinned 
the ranks of old timers within the Brotherhood. 




MACON LOSES LAST CHARTER MEMBER 

When Local Union No. 144, Macon, Ga., was organized 
away back in 1887, one of the men who helped to organize 
it was Brother J. W. E. Culpepper. Last December, 
Brother Culpeppei- passed away at the Home at Lake- 
land, Florida, the last surviving charter member of Local 
No. 144. 

Few men within the Brotherhood chalked up a longer 
or more honorable career than did Brother Culpepper of 
Local No. 144. Sixty-five years of continuous member- 
ship in a Local Union he helped to organize is a privi- 
lege accorded few men by the Divine Maker. Needless to 
say, Local Union No. 144 is greatly saddened by the 
passing of Brother Culpepper. 



THE LOCKER 

(Continued from page 35) 

specified. So by official decree the pronunciation of these two ships was declared to be: 
indoMITable and indeFATIGUEable. Anyone who referred to them as the inDOMitable 
and indeFATigable was wrong. Very practical people, the British. The King's birthday is 
December 14. On that day the Guards troop the colors, a grand spectacle of military 
precision and colorful pagentry. December is a bleak, miserable month in England. June 
is a nice, mild month, when it doesn't rain. So the King's birthday is observed in June. 

Americans who poke fun at the British pronunciation of certain proper names might 
remember, that people who live in glass houses shouldn't throw stones. Here's a selec- 
tion of pronunciations of American places. 



POUGHKEEPSIE 
poe-kipsy 


QUINCY 
quinzy 


DES MOINES 
dee moin 


MICHIGAN 
mishigah 


HOLYOKE 

hole-yoke 


CONNECTICUT 
conneticut 


HELENA 
HELenna 


WORCESTER 

wooster 


AMHERST 

ammerst 


ARKANSAS 

arkansaw 


SPOKANE 
spokann 


WICHITA 
WICHitta 


HOBOKEN 
HOE-boken 


CONCORD 
conkerd 


BOISE 

boyzy 


PIERRE 










peer 











ANTIDISESTABLISHMENTARIANISM 

There's the longest word in the dictionary; 28 letters and 11 syllables. It can be used 
to good advantage at convivial gatherings. When you can no longer say it, then it's time 
to go home. The dictionary defines it: opposition to disestablishment of a state church. 
That doesn't tell us much. The state-favored religion of a country is called the Established 
Church. In England it is Protestant Episcopal: in Spain, Catholic; in Sweden, Lutheran 
Protestant. We have none. At one time the Established Church of Ireland was also 
Protestant Episcopal. It was abolished by Act of Parliament in 1869. Gladstone, the 
Liberal Prime Minister, sponsored this Act. Disraeli, the Tory leader, opposed it. In 
Parliament, Gladstone attacked Dizzy and his party for their uncompromising adherence 
to anti-you finish it. And that's how that monster originated. 




L. A. 462 CELEBRATES 5th ANNIVERSARY 

The Editor: 

Ladies' Auxiliary 462 of Lafayette, Indiana, extends greetings and best wishes to all 
Sister Auxiliaries. 

On November 10, we celebrated our 5th Anniversary with a turkey dinner and en- 
tertainment at Snyder's Restaurant, having our husbands as guests. There were fifty-five 
present, fourteen of them being charter members. 

On December 15, we had our Christmas party in the Labor Temple for our families. 
Santa was present with a gift for everyone and favors of chocolate Santas for the children. 
This was a carry-in supper with the Auxiliary furnishing plenty of chicken and noodles. A 
very enjoyable evening was had by all. On October 6, we held a chili supper, our main 
money-making project, which proved very successful. 

We donate to the Red Cross, Community Chest, Polio and Cancer Funds, and usually 
at Christmas time, we help an unfortunate family. This year, we helped one of our 
members whose husband passed away. 

This past year, we held a membership drive, which gained us eight new members. 
Our membership is now fifty. 

Our officers for this year are: President, Mrs. Harry Wingard; Vice-President, Mrs. 
Marion Funkhouser; Secretary, Mrs. Harold Oland; Treasurer, Mrs. Frank Johnson, 
Conductress, Mrs. Wayne Lindberg; Warden, Mrs. Miles Dimmitt; Trustees, Mrs. Harry 
Ford, Mrs. John DeWitt and Mrs. Alvin Trook; Chaplain, Mrs. Alva Nickles; Historian, 
Mrs. Meredith Allyn; Flower Fund Chairman, Mrs. Richard Heide. 

We would enjoy hearing from all Sister -Auxiliaries, especially those from our Hoosier 
State. 

Fraternally, 

Thelma Oland, Secretary. 



DENISON, TEXAS LADIES ARE BUSY GROUP 

The Editor: 

Ladies' Auxiliary No. 364 of Denison, Texas, received its charter in November of 
1940, making the organization eleven years old. We have twenty-seven members enrolled, 

most of whom are active— we have two 
Honorary members. 

Our meetings are held twice a month 
and Local 371 has arranged for us to 
meet in one of the beautiful rooms of 
their hall. Thanks to our husbands and 
friends. 

We try to help with charity donations 
and donate to the home for the aged 
near Sherman, Texas. 

Our officers are Mrs. Pat Harper, 
President; Mrs. C. W. Stacy, Vice-Presi- 
dent; Mrs. L. L. Simmons, Treasurer; 
Mrs. Hubbard Bacon, Secretary; 
The above picture was made of some of our members at the big barbecue held on 
Labor, Day by our Carpenters' Local, at the V. F. W. Camp Ground on Lake Texoma. 

Fraternally, 

Mrs. Hubbard Bacon, Secretary. 




Craft ProblQims 




Carpentry 

By H. H. Siegele 
LESSON 281 

Whipping the Housing Problem.— How 
some carpenters whipped the housing situa- 
tion, following World War II, is the subject 
of this lesson. The man who wants a house, 
but has only enough money to buy a lot 
and build a garage, can get relief by build- 
ing the garage first and living in it. Then 
in his spare time he can build the foun- 
dation of a real house, and little by little 
salvage enough time to build the frame- 




/S s \ B A lcur ^ wl ^ 




Fig 1 

work. When he has this work far enough 
along to get a loan on it, he can push 
through enough of the finishing, so that he 
can move in. On the rest of the work he 
can use the material that will come out of 
the garage. That is, if he planned it that 




Fig. 2 

way in the first place. It can be done 
successfully, especially by a carpenter who 
wants a home of his own. 

Plan of Garage Home.— Fig. 1 shows a 
plan of the garage home that was staked 



out in the previous lesson. To the right, 
by dotted lines is shown how the wide 
front garage door opening was closed by 
a temporary wall. In this false wall are 



Clg. Outlet \a 



Living Room 




shown two windows and the front door. 
Two bedrooms are shown. The one to the 
upper right is partitioned off with a cur- 
tain partition. This curtain can be pulled 
to one side, adding the bedroom space to 
the living room. In the kitchen are shown 



©^ Drop Cord 



Bedroom 




Sink' 



Fig. 4 



a stove, a sink, a table, and a refrigerator. 
The main bedroom has a small closet, upper 
center. Adjoining this bedroom jis the 
shower bath and the water closet. Electric 
lights and wall outlets are shown in the plan. 
All doors that are marked A are 2'6" x 6'; 
those marked B are 2'0" x 6'6". The win- 
dows are all 24" x 20"— 2 Its. It is sug- 
gested here that the sizes of the doors and 



THE CARPENTER 



43 



windows that are later to be used in the 
house, should be selected with reference to 
the service they are to give in the house, 
and not because a particular size is speci- 
fied here. 

Door Jamb Details.— Fig. 2, the upper 
drawing, shows an enlarged drawing of the 
door leading to the main bedroom. This 
door is marked A in Fig 1, and therefore 
is shown here as a 2'6" x 6'6". The parti- 
tions, as pointed out, are made of pressed 



-2-6-* 



JJl 









II 




2-8* 




*vO 




1 



Fig. 5 

wood. The inside finish of the outside walls 
is also pressed wood. The bottom drawing 
in Fig. 2 shows details of the inside door 
jambs, which are made of 2x4's set flat- 
wise. On the kitchen side are shown 1x4 
casings. The door is shown cut, in order 
to pennit a larger scale drawing. Study 








Fig. 6 

these drawings with the door that opens into 
the main bedroom, Fig. 1. 

Doors and Windows.— Fig. 3 shows the 
lower righthand corner of the building, in 



a larger scale. At the bottom is shown a 
window, the size of which is given in fig- 
ures. For emphasis, let it be suggested again 
that the sizes of windows and doors, which 




Fig. 7 

are to be installed in the new house when 
it is built, be governed by the requirements 
of that house. The front door is shown to 
the right, which is a 2'6" x 6'6" door. The 
window is shown located 5'5" from the 
corner to the center of the window, while 
the door is shown locaed 5'6" from the cor- 
ner to the center of the door. A ceiling out- 
let for a light is shown connected with a 



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44 



THE CARPENTER 



switch near the front door. The connection 
of the light and switch is indicated hy the 
dotted line. A convenience or wall outlet is 
also shown. 

Fixtures.— Fig. 4 shows the stove and sink 
in the kitchen, a part of the main hedroom, 
showing die ceiling outlet, marked D, which 
means tiiat die light is held by a drop cord. 
The dimensions of the shower bath and the 
water closet are given in figures. A door 





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marked B, leads to the water closet, where 
the stool and lavatory are pointed out. A 
curtain partition separates the shower bath 
from the water closet. Study this larger 
scale drawing with the plan in Fig. 1. 

Cheap Window and Door Frames.— Any 
kind of window or door frames can be used. 



T 
I 





Fig. 8 

However, those frames that are to be used 
again in the house, should match the house 
frames. The designs given here are for cheap 
frames, because some of the v/ork is tempo- 
rary. Fig 5 shows to the left a front view 
of the front door frame, . and to the right 
the front view of the window shown to the 
right of the door in Fig. 1. Those two 




Fig. 9 

frames are set in the temporary wall that 
closes the wide door opening. This wall 
should be sealed at the bottom where it 
joins the cement driveway, with fibred ce- 
ment, in order to keep rain, snow and water 
from getting inside of the building. Fig. 6, 
to the left, shows the face views of the two 
left corners of the front door frame. To 
the right are shown sections of the head 



THE CARPENTER 



45 



and the sill of the front door. A section of 
the side door frame is shown by Fig. 7. 
Compare this widi the head construction in 
Fig, 6. Fig. 8 shows to the left, face views 
of the two left corners of the window frame. 
To the right are shown a section of the 
head and also a section of the sill and 
adjoining parts. A side section of the win- 
dow frame is shown by Fig. 9. Pointed out 
are casings, stool, window stop, parting 
bead, 2x4 jamb, blind stop, and sill. It 
should be noticed tiiat the parting bead is 
planted onto the 2x4 jamb. Compare this 
drawing with the head construction shown 
in Fig. 8. 

No Hard and Fast Rule.— There isn't any- 
thing about this building that is hard and 
fast. It can be made wider, longer, or even 
smaller tiian what is shown. The arrange- 
ments of the rooms can be changed to suit 
die needs of the owner. Another thing, 
there are more windows shown tiian are 
needed for a garage. Those that will later 
be used in finishing the house should be 
selected with reference to the house require- 
ments. Any other changes that might seem 
expedient, should be made when the ar- 
rangements are planned in the first place. 



SILL DRAIN 

H. H. Siegele 

Any carpenter who has ever installed a 

sliding sash in a garage, or in some other 

secondary building, knows something about 

the problem diat this article deals with. 




Such sash need somediing to hold them 
from slipping too far out when they are 
operated. A stop does not look well on the 
outside, and dierefore the plowed sill is 
the solution to the problem. 



SANDVIK HAND S 



WHY 

cut p££P£# WITH 





WEDISH STEEL 



HOW SANDVIK'S HIGHER 
CROWN CUTS DEEPER 

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HOW SANDVIK'S HANDLE 
MAKES SAWING EASIER 

Sandvik's handle is man-sized 
to prevent finger fatigue and to 
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blade thrust you make. 




LESS SHARPENING 

WHY IT PAYS TO BUY A 
SANDVIK HAND SAW 

Made of the finest Swedish Steel, 
the Sandvik Hand Saw needs 
only a third of the sharpening 
other saws require . . . which 
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greater! 



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■H 



CARPENTER-CONTRACTORS 

INCREASE YOUR 

BUILDING PROFITS 

this proven way. . . 



Fig. 1 shows a cross section of a garage 
window sill that is plowed in such a man- 
ner that the sash will slide against the 
shoulder when it is pushed back and pulled 



<< *** nm m m m r mn i ■■ »ii» i» h i >n« i i «I lTJ * U 

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City Zone 

State CA-252 



v 




forward. The objection to such a sill is 
that the water will run into the groove from 
the outside, which in time will cause rot- 
ting. The problem is solved by boring holes, 
as shown shaded and marked "Drain". Such 
holes should be placed at intervals of 
about 12 inches— at any rate, not over 16 
inches from center to center. 

Fig. 2 shows an outside view of a slid- 
ing sash, such as one finds in garages and 
other similar buildings. The drain holes 
are pointed out with indicators. 




Fig. 3 shows just a little different design. 
Here the hole for the drain stops just be- 
fore it reaches the front edge of the sill, 
and a small hole is bored from the bottom 
up to meet the downward sloping hole. 
This conceals the outlet of the drain, and 
should be used in cases when such con- 
cealment is desired. A stop is shown on 
the inside to hold the sash in place, but 
a groove can be plowed into the sill just 
large enough to give the sash ample play. 
This will make a stop unnecessary. 



NOTICE 



The publishers of "The Carpenter" reserve the 
right to reject all advertising matter which may 
be, in their Judgment, unfair or objectionable to 
the membership of the United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America. 

All Contracts for advertising space in "The Car- 
penter," including those stipulated as non-can- 
cellahle, are only accepted srbject to the above 
reserved rights of the publishers. 



Index of Advertisers 



Carpenters' Tools and Accessories 

Page 

The American Floor Surfacing 

Machine Co., Toledo, Ohio 48 

Burr, Mfg. Co., Los Angeles, Cal. 44 

Carlson & Sullivan, Inc., Mon- 
rovia, Calif. 6 

Estwing Mfg. Co., Rockford, 

111. 1 

Eliason Tool Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 47 

E-Z Mark Tools, Los Angeles 

Calif. 6 

Foley Mfg. Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 48 

The Lufkin Rule Co., Saginaw, 

Mich. 48 

A. D. McBurney, Los Angeles, 

Calif. 48 

North Bros. Mfg. Co., Philadel- 
phia, Pa 6 

Sandvik Saw & Tool, New York, 

N. Y 45 

Simplex Level Co., Detroit, 

Mich. 44 

Skilsaw, Inc., Chicago, III 5 

The Speed Corp., Portland, Ore— 44 

Stanley Tools, New Britain, 

Conn. 3rd Covet 

Carpentry Materials 

The Upson Co., Lockport, N. Y._ 4 

Doors 

Overhead Door Corp., Hartford 

City, Ind 4th Cover 

Technical Courses and Books 

American Builders, Bristol, Conn. 46 

American Technical Society, Chi- 
cago, 111 47 

Audel Publishers, New York, 

N. Y. 3rd Cover 

Chicago Technical College, Chi- 
cago, 111. 3 

H. H. Siegele, Emporia, Kans 43 

Wearing Apparel 

The H. D. Lee Co., Kansas City, 

Mo. 3rd Cover 



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Occupation- 



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COPYRIGHT. 1952. OVERHEAD DOOR CORPORATION 



OVERHEAD DOOR CORPORATION 

HARTFORD CITY, INDIANA, U. S. A. 



THE 



founded ' /88f 



Official Publication of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America 







0*0*0*****0000 



BLOOD 

MEANS LIFE 

A pint of your blood, donated through 
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He gave his in agony and suffering; we 
can give ours in comfort and ease. 

Make a date at your nearest Blood Bank 
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are giving theirs by the gallon. 



GIVE! 



Ask any carpenter who ever worked in the West and he'll tell you . . . 
1 There's nothing like a union made 





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('less than 1% residual 
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A Monthly Journal, Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners 

of America, for all its Members of all its Branches. 

PETER E. TERZICK, Editor 

Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis 4, Indiana 

One Dollar Per Year 
Ten Cents a Copy 



Established In 1881 
Vol. LXXII — No. 3 



INDIANAPOLIS, MARCH, 1952 



— Conte nt s — 



Revamping Of Controls Needed 



While the government is clamping down stricter controls on building to save scarce 
metals, leaders of many metal industries are complaining that supplies are getting harder 
to get rid of because production is catching up with demand. In those sections of the 
nation where defense construction is light, many building trades workers find jobs getting 
scarce as restrictions cut down on civilian construction. Obviously the time is ripe for the 
government to review its program of controls. 



We Must Fight Back 



10 

With the backing of many people whose sole motive is to save taxes, an organized 
campaign to cut down the services rendered by our public school systems is sweeping the 
nation. All sorts of charges are being hurled at our schools. Unless the common people 
fight back, the one room, little red school house may reappear again, thereby wiping 
out all the progress of the past 50 years. 



UMT, Wise Or Foolish? 



16 



Within the next few weeks, Universal Military Training will face a showdown. Every- 
one agrees that the prime need of the nation is a strong military machine capable of 
meeting any threat or combination of threats to our national security. The question is, 
will Universal Military Training help or hinder the reaching of this objective? 



Austrian Unions Defy Reds 



19 

Despite the fact they are deep behind the Iron Curtain, Austrian labor unions do not 
allow themselves to be dominated by the Russians. In a thousand different ways they 
badger the Reds and refuse to knuckle under to them. So far they have gotten av/ay 
with it in spite of all the Red commissars have been able to do. 



* * * 



OTHER DEPARTMENTS 
Plane Gossip 
Editorials 
The Locker 
Official 

In Memoriam 
Correspondence 
To The Ladies - 
Craft Problems 



Index to Advertisers 



* * * 



14 

24 
28 
29 
30 
32 
38 
41 



46 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of 

Congress. Aug. 24, 1912. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for 

in Section 1103, act of October 3, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918. 



CARPENTERS 

BUILDERS and APPRENTICES 



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Cuts a clean, accurate, deep, complete profile on door by striking 
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Revamping of Controls Needed 

By ALBERT E. FISCHER, General Secretary 

* * * 

FOR MANY months past, a major concern of all General Officers of our 
Brotherhood has been the rapid stagnation of non-defense construction 
because of unrealistic government controls on such building. Build- 
ing tradesmen in practically all sections of our jurisdiction not swamped 
with direct defense construction are walking the streets in idleness because 
government controls are sharply curtailing non-defense commercial and in- 
dustrial construction. Even home building has been slashed to the bone by 
government planners. According to a recent report, nearly 60,000 construction 
workers in New York City alone are jobless or seeking jobs outside of the 
city because controls have caused the wheels of the construction industry to 
grind to a halt. Many other localities are nearly as hard hit. 

In view of the fact that government 
restrictions on scarce materials to 
be made available to the construction 
industry in the second quarter of this 
year are even more drastic, all in- 
dications are that building will con- 
tinue to limp along this Spring unless 
sufficient pressure can be brought to 
bear on the people in Washington 
who make the decisions. These people 
claim that many materials— particu- 
larly steel are in extremely short sup- 
ply. By contrast, many leaders in the 
steel industry claim that production 
is rapidly catching up with demand. 
A recent survey made by the Wall 
Street Journal had a number of steel 
producers actually worrying about 
whether they will be able to get rid 
of all their production by the first of 
next year. Another survey made by 
the same paper found many of the 
big users of steel having six to nine 
month inventories of steel on hand 
when actually they were supposed to 
have only enough to carry them forty- 
five days. 

So there is a wide discrepancy be- 
tween the picture painted by the 
heads of the Defense Production Au- 



thority and the picture painted by 
steel producers and sellers. About the 
only thing certain in the whole situ- 
ation is that the restrictions on the 
construction industry are very drastic 
and completley out of balance with 
the cutbacks imposed on other indus- 
tries. 

Independently and in conjunction 
with the Building Trades Department, 
General President M. A. Hutcheson 
has been fighting for a revamping of 
construction controls to give the in- 
dustry a fairer shake. On February 
12th, the Construction Industry Ad- 
visory Council of the United States 
Chamber of Commerce, held a meet- 
ing in Washington, D. C. to consider 
the unhappy plight of the construction 
industry. General President Hutche- 
son delegated me to attend that meet- 
ing. Present at the meeting were rep- 
resentatives of practically all con- 
tractors' associations, representatives 
of Washington agencies running the 
defense program, and a number of 
representatives of building trades un- 
ions, as well as various material 
dealers. 



8 



THE CARPENTER 



For a full day the problems of the 
construction industry were aired from 
many angles. I am frank to say that 
I came away from that meeting thor- 
oughly convinced that the construc- 
tion industry has a legitimate com- 
plaint about the way it is being treat- 
ed. My impression was that the 
government men who were there, even 
though they carry the responsibility 
for overall planning of the defense 
program, did not have the grasp of 
the problem that those of us in the 
construction business had. 

Among the speakers at the meeting 
was Richard J. Gray, president of the 
Building and Construction Trades De- 
partment, who gave what most people 
thought was the outstanding speech of 
the day. Brother Gray outlined the 
chaos that is being imposed on the 
construction industry by government 
controls. He lashed out at the grow- 
ing bureaucracy in Washington which 
is gradually usurping one function 
after another that rightfully belongs in 
the realm of free enterprise. 

". . . It is not difficult to recognize 
the fact that our present form of 
Democratic Government has changed 
radically from the basic concept of 
checks and balances as envisioned by 
the drafters of our Constitution," he 
said. 

'Today, under the guise of the com- 
plexities of modern life in a Democ- 
racy we have a fourth branch— the 
Administrative Branch. In recent years 
government by Administrative Bu- 
reaus, Commissions, Authorities and 
Boards has been gradually taking over 
the functions of not only the Legis- 
lative, but also the Judicial and to a 
limited extent the Executive." 

"We of labor do not relish the 
thought of having to carry on col- 
lective bargaining with the govern- 
ment;— we know from experience that 
our traditional economic implements 
are outlawed when the government 
is the employer." 



Gray wound up with a fervent plea 
for joint action by labor and manage- 
ment to solve the many existing prob- 
lems without "help" from the govern- 
ment which all too often turns out 
to be dictation in the long run. 

Before the meeting adjourned a 
strong statement of policy was adopt- 
ed by those in attendance. That policy 
calls for a more realistic program in 
the matter of controls so that the con- 
struction industry can play its full part 
in the economic life of the nation in 
both peace and war. It calls for a 
step up in planning so that the con- 
struction industry can strike out bold- 
ly as soon as the emergency end§. Be- 
cause of its importance, it is herewith 
reprinted in full: 

PROPOSED POLICY STATEMENT 

on 

CONSTRUCTION 

and the 

REARMAMENT PROGRAM 



Active construction markets are, 
next to agriculture, the most impor- 
tant single factor in maintaining a 
strong civilian economy. These con- 
struction markets provide employment 
for eight million workers on the site 
and in supplying materials. They 
provide structures essential to the 
country's production and well-being- 
houses, factories, commercial build- 
ings, schools, highways, and water 
works. 

Because they add to capital re- 
sources, active construction markets 
are not inflationary. They should be 
maintained to the maximum extent 
consistent with the essential require- 
ments of the rearmament program. To 
that end, the Construction Industry 
Advisory Council urges more effective 
liaison between the defense establish- 
ment and the construction industry. 

1. The Contruction Industry Ad- 
visory Council recommends that the 



THE CARPENTER 



Defense Production Administrator 
take the further steps, which it is 
understood he has under considera- 
tion, to establish clearly defined re- 
sponsibility for the handling of con- 
struction problems in the Defense 
Production Administrator. Such an 
activity should bring together facts 
and figures applicable to the construc- 
tion industry as a whole and its re- 
lations to the rest of the economy. It 
should at once examine the discrep- 
ancies between government and in- 
dustry reports on the availability of 
critical materials— discrepancies that 
undermine confidence in the control 
system. It should promote better 
screening of quarterly requirements 
for critical materials for both civilian 
and military construction. It should 
advise on the solution of emergency 
problems, including unemployment 
problems which are already evident 
in certain areas. 

2. The Construction Industry Ad- 
visory Council urges appropriate ac- 
tion on the part of both government 
and industry to conserve critical ma- 
terials. In this connection use should 
be made, among others, of the findings 
and recommendations of the survey 
now being made by the Building Re- 
search Advisory Board. Conservation 



regulations applied to private con- 
struction should be applied to public 
construction as far as practicable. 

3. The Construction Industry Ad- 
visory Council urges the government 
and the industry as a matter of na- 
tional policy to encourage the plan- 
ning of needed construction projects, 
both private and public, so that they 
will be ready to go forward when the 
materials are available. Such a na- 
tional policy should be an essential 
part of our overall national objective 
which is to build a strong defense and 
to maintain a strong civilian economy. 

(a) Further to encourage the plan- 
ning of needed construction projects, 
the Construction Industry Advisory 
Council recommends the granting of 
provisional authorization of less es- 
sential projects, such authorizations 
to be honored as soon as materials 
become available for such uses. 

(b) The Construction Industry Ad- 
visory Council also recommends that 
any allocation of materials for a spe- 
cific project carry with it assurance 
that, in future quarters, critical ma- 
terials will be provided sufficient to 
complete the project, subject to can- 
cellation only in the event of all-out 
war. 



SEES NEED FOR ONE MILLION "EXTRA" WORKERS IN 1953 

Recruitment of more than one million "extra" workers from several groups in the 
population— mainly housewives and retired persons— may be necessary in 1953 to meet 
defense manpower goals, Secretary of Labor Maurice J. Tobin said. 

He said manpower needs over the next two years will increase by an estimated 
three and one-half million, and labor force expansion will be required, especially in 
1953 when sharper pressures on labor supply are expected. This year, however, re- 
ductions in non-defense employment due to curtailed supplies of metals for civilian 
uses will partly offset pressures caused by expanding manpower needs, he declared. 

Tobin warned that in recruiting the extra workers "it will be necessary in many 
instances to adopt job requirements, hours, and working conditions in order to make 
fuller use of these groups." 

The Secretary's statement was made in connection with the publication of a man- 
power outlook, "Projected Manpower Requirements and Supply, 1952-1953," prepared 
by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. 

The report set the expected net gain in manpower needs during 1952 at 1.5 mil- 
lion, including scheduled armed force build-up. To provide the additional manpower 
needed in 1952, the total labor force would have to be expanded by an estimated 1.2 
million, bringing it to 67.7 million by the end of the year. This increase, if achieved, 
would exceed the "normal" annual increase by about 400,000. 



10 



The Attack on Our Schools 



WE MUST FIGHT BACK 

By JOHN EKLUND 

President, American Federation of Teachers 

"I know of no safe depository of the ultimate powers of society out 
the people themselves ; and if we think them not enlightened enough to 
exercise their control with a wholesome discretion, the remedy is not 
to take it from them, but to inform their discretion by education." 

—THOMAS JEFFERSON. 

* * 

AFTER three full years of general and specific attacks on public educa- 
tion, three facts begin to stand out. First, an atmosphere of hysteria has 
been created by certain groups, both nationally and locally. Second, 
tax control groups are using the ensuing distrust to cut financial support of 
school programs. Third, some of the criticisms leveled at the schools may be 
justified, but the remedies for any weaknesses that may exist in modern 
education should be worked out by friends of the public schools, not by 
enemies. 



The hysteria created by some of the 
groups attacking the public schools 
has been well described in numerous 
recent publications. It has been estab- 
lished that in some American com- 
munities large sums have been spent 
to promote the vilification of school 
people and school programs. 

The groups which are attacking the 
public schools disseminate material 
that is not factual. Their program is 
to deceive and overwhelm parents by 
glossy advertising techniques and 
then, after the public schools have 
been weakened by their attacks, seize 
control and eliminate all modern edu- 
cational methods and practices de- 
signed to meet the needs of the indi- 
vidual child and of the democratic 
community. 

The American labor movement has 
a tremendous stake in the American 
public schools. When the operation 
of the public schools is attacked, when 
such irresponsible and self-seeking in- 
terests attempt to destroy their func- 
tion, it is time for labor to come out 
fighting. 



In the face of the constant barrages 
laid down against our public schools, 
labor should alert itself as to why 
such attacks are being leveled. 

Labor knows that more than 90 per 
cent of the children walking through 
the doors of our public schools are the 
children of wage-earners. There are 
also other reasons why labor is and 
always has been keenly interested in 
the public schools. 

Between 1828 and 1834-the period 
when the first public schools were 
being born in Massachusetts and 
Rhode Island— the first moves were 
being made toward a national labor 
movement. Without exception, these 
movements included as a major part 
of their program the concept of "free 
and equal public education." 

The first convention of the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor, seventy years 
ago, declared: 

"We are in favor of such legislation 
as will enforce by compulsion the edu- 
cation of children." 

Since 1881 every major public 
school advancement that has occurred 



THE CARPENTER 



11 



had its genesis in the platforms of the 
American Federation of Labor. The 
Federation has always seen that the 
achievement of social and economic 
reform must rest upon education of 
the people as a whole. Labor has 
fought a battle for decades to give 
the public schools the freedom and 
the means to do their job. 

As labor has fought for better work- 
ing conditions, higher wages and se- 
curity, so have the public schools 
sought to teach our young people to 
reason and to know. 

The attacks on the public schools 
are not unprecedented. The differ- 
ence today is simply that they have 
become bolder and louder than be- 
fore. 

Let us identify the groups which 
are attempting to cut down our pub- 
lic schools. In a recent issue The 
Nation's Schools identifies nine groups, 
among which are the "National Coun- 
cil for American Education." "Friends 
of the Public Schools of America" and 
"Guardians of American Education." 
Then there are the groups which are 
always with us, such as the "Tax- 
payers' Protective Leagues" and "Eco- 
nomy Councils." These seek constantly 
to reduce public services of any kind— 
and the schools do cost money. In 
addition, one finds various local 
groups, informally gotten together, 
which are unhappy with some phases 
of the school program. 

To meet the persistent threats of 
these groups, many communities have 
set out to build representative and re- 
sponsible citizens' committees. Where 
such committees have been formed, 
and where they really represent a 
popular cross-section, they have been 
bulwarks against the attacks of the 
special interests. 

Let us here note just what the at- 
tacks have been. Almost all the at- 
tacking forces today are accusing the 
public schools of teaching "social- 



ism," socialism frequently being iden- 
tified as "progressive education." The 
accusers further aver that the funda- 
mentals, the three R's, are being neg- 
lected. Another charge is that vast 
sums of money are being wasted on 
"frills." Also, say the attacking groups, 
the schools exert little control over 
youngsters and discipline is fading. 

These charges are false. To under- 
stand the reason behind these attacks 
and just how phony these accusations 
are, one must look first to the tradi- 
tional program of the schools. Until 
the advent of John Dewey and the 
development of a truly democratic 
philosophy in education, much of the 
public schools' program was based on 
three social concepts: (1) that there 
was a privileged class to whom spe- 
cial concessions and benefits should 
go; (2) that the aggrandizement of big 
business and monopoly was synony- 
mous with free enterprise, and (3) 
that property rights were top priority 
in society, frequently to the disad- 
vantage of human rights. 

Eventually these concepts and the 
schools in which they prevailed were 
weighed and found wanting. These 
concepts did not prepare the youth of 
our country to be the free citizens 
which under our Constitution they 
were entitled to be. 

The Horatio Alger approach, the 
sacredness of money power, the Polly- 
annish solution to the insistent social 
and economic demands of the Twen- 
tieth Century began to lose out. Real- 
ism in education came forward. 

The public schools underwent and 
are continuing to undergo a reorienta- 
tion. Very simply, the best in educa- 
tion today recognizes the rights and 
dignity of every person. It recognizes 
that freedom of enterprise is lost when 
competition goes. And it is fully 
aware that each must be taught to face 
up to the problems confronting us as 
a nation. 



12 



THE CARPENTER 



The record is full of persistent at- 
tacks made on the schools and on 
teachers because they sought to es- 
tablish the verities in the preceding 
paragraph. In New Orleans a teacher 
was accused of "teaching commu- 
nism" because of a review of the out- 
moded method by which the Presi- 
dent is elected. In a Western city a 
teacher was fired because the British 
medical services plan was given some 
attention in her classes. The firing 
was by the administration, but the 
pressures came from without. A third 
teacher, speaking recently in Detroit, 
was attacked by the press. The speak- 
er's relations with progressive educa- 
tional programs were labeled sub- 
versive and dangerous. 

These attacks on public education 
are of prime danger— but only be- 
cause the schools give in to the highly 
organized groups which with single- 
ness of purpose take pot-shots at the 
schools and the teachers as they move 
with the evolving democratic pro- 
cesses so fundamental to the rights 
and privileges of workers. 

The groups which are assailing the 
public schools want a return to the 
days of special privilege for the few, 
unorganized, timid and cheap labor, 
the supremacy of property rights. 
They want a constricted social and 
economic system. And they view the 
schools as the first target if they are 
to achieve their program. 

How do we know these things? 
What is the evidence that can substan- 
tiate such an accusation? The evi- 
dence is in what the attacking forces 
try to do to school curricula, to teach- 
ers, to programs and to educational 
philosophy. 

In every recent onslaught one of 
the first demands has been that the 
schools return to the teaching of "fun- 
damentals." It seems not to matter 
that the fundamentals are being 
taught increasingly well— that study 



after study reveals that when funda- 
mentals are related to experience they 
become meaningful in a functional 
way. The old methods of rote and 
drill are cheaper, and there is no 
danger then that arithmetic is being 
related to the price of meat or an 
hourly wage rate. 

In 1949 the public schools of Den- 
ver, Colorado, made a complete evalu- 
ation of the progress of Denver young- 
sters in a quite progressive educa- 
tional process. The tests revealed 
that, in a vast majority of instances, 
progress was far ahead of national 
norms. Did that stay the attack? 
Oh, no! And today the Denver schools 
have returned to a much more highly 
regimented curriculum. It is not amaz- 
ing that the same school administra- 
tion which weakly gave ground to the 
reactionary pressure forces although 
it had proof of a competent program 
has recently banned nineteen Public 
Affairs pamphlets, many of them deal- 
ing with social, economic and political 
problems of our day. 

.The drive against our schools in 
1952 is like the drives of the Thirties 
that banned the Rugg textbook, the 
first social science book to deal with 
modern technology and the attendant 
socio-economic problems. It is the 
same kind of drive that banned the 
"Building America" series in Califor- 
nia—books dealing with the problems 
of unemployment, organized labor 
and working conditions. 

The attacks on the schools, it is 
obvious, seek to put out of bounds the 
consideration of certain fundamental 
subjects. Those attacking the schools 
would block an understanding of an 
economic democracy that seeks to 
utilize the resources of the nation for 
the benefit of all the people, seeks to 
make health, welfare and security 
benefits available and seeks to balance 
the power of wealth by the collective 



THE CARPENTER 



13 



action of the workers themselves. The 
enemies of the public schools want to 
impose a straitjacket on the schools. 
To do this, the cry of "socialism" is 
raised, communities are inundated 
with lies or half-truths and the schools 
run for cover. 

That the attacks on public educa- 
tion are made by these highly concen- 
trated and well-supported groups is 
not surprising. The shocking thing is 
that the schools buckle under and sell 
their birthright. 

If in your town the attacks have 
come and there has been "a return to 
fundamentals" or book banning or 
teacher firings, it would be well to 
take a good look at what is actually 
happening and what groups are caus- 
ing it to happen. It has taken a long 
time to open the public schools even a 
little to the cause of human dignity, 
to the social significance of democ- 
racy, to the fundamental right of 
workers to band together and to the 
American stake in the world. 



The public schools have been tend- 
ing to grow up to democracy as we 
live it— to the reality of a strong labor 
movement, to the solution of social 
and economic problems. But this for- 
ward movement will stop if these at- 
tacking groups have their way. 

While the American Federation of 
Labor has defined and fought for 
every one of the expanding services 
of the American public schools over 
the years, reactionary attacking forces 
such as those now so active have 
fought against them. When unsuc- 
cessful, they have returned to the bat- 
tle time and again, striving at all 
times to discredit and suppress. 

The motives of these hostile groups 
are to reduce the average American to 
serfdom, to enslave the workers again, 
to discredit progress. 

If the ultimate powers of democ- 
racy are to be left to the people them- 
selves, as they should be, labor and 
education must fight back. 

—The Federationist 



OIL FOR THE LAMPS OF EDUCATION 

Although the United States Supreme Court has ruled several times that 
the oil which lies under the ocean below the low-tide mark belongs to all 
the people of the United States, the oil lobbies are still conducting a terrific 
fight to get the oil put under the domination of the several maritime states. 

In connection with the tidelands oil, a group of Senators are proposing 
that the revenue from the gas and oil lands be earmarked by the Federal 
Government for helping education. A measure to that effect has been intro- 
duced by Senator Hill. 

The Hill Amendment would see that revenues from oil and natural gas 
leases in land under the Pacific and Gulf Coasts, off the shores of California, 
Texas, and Louisiana, go to meet the needs of the school system. 

It would be an amendment to the measure which turns over the offshore 
land, also known as the Tidelands, to the U.S. The revenue would be from 
leases of the land to the oil and gas companies. The resources are estimated 
to be worth $50 to $100 billion. 

The AFL spokesman said, "No better purpose could be found for revenues 
derived from a windfall provided by nature than to pump new vitality into 
the schools of this nation. 

"It is generally agreed that the wells which can be tapped for taxation 
purposes already have been drained to a low level. Little can be expected in 
more generous appropriations by national and state legislative bodies, though 
demands for expanded facilities are still increasing, and the cost of operating 
existing plants will not decline." 



p 



lXne 







SURE-FIRE TEST 
With the beginning of the New Year, 
Selective Service stepped up its draft quotas 
drastically, From the looks of tilings, the 
nineteen and twenty year olds virtually 
all are going to be in the armed forces by 
the end of the year Draft boards are no 
longer as fussy as they were even a few 
months ago. If you can breathe you are in. 
During World War II, the doctor felt 
the body. If it was warm, the guy was 
automatically a soldier. Today it is rapidly 
approaching that state of affairs again. In 
fact the standard joke around induction 
centers these days goes sometiiing like this: 
Draft board doctor: "Read that chart!" 
Prospective draftee: "What chart?" 
Doctor: "That's right, my boy, there is 
no chart. Your eyes are perfect. Get your 
uniform at window X." 

* • • 
MAYBE COLUMBUS WAS WRONG 

Prior to 1492, most of the people in the 
world— including the scientists— thought that 
the world was flat. After getting a look at 
the financial condition of most nations today, 
one is inclined to believe the pre-Columbus 
idea had some genuine merit. 




5 51 P 



"You don't have to know anything 
for this job; you just have to 'No' 
everything!" * 



A MASTER'S OPINION 

After listening to a long debate on whe- 
ther or not television is turning out to be a 
good tiling for America, Joe Paup, the 
original Face on the Barroom Floor, summed 
up the whole situation neatly in the follow- 
ing words: 

"Television is a great factor in keeping 
the family together. Television keeps the 
family at home— at least until the last in- 
stallment on the set is paid." 

* * * 
VERSATILITY 

The hieroglyphics of the medical profes- 
sion may be irritating to the average lay- 
man but one young man insists that the 
undecipherable prescription scrawled by his 
doctor has stood him in very good stead 
indeed. Since obtaining the medicine for 
which it was written he has, to date, used 
the slip of paper as a pass to several foot- 
ball games, for transportation on his local 
transit lines, as an invitation to three par- 
ties, as a note of introduction to the man 
who gave him his present excellent job and 
as an excuse for deferment by his draft 
board. He is now working out lyrics in 
hopes that it will make the Hit Parade. 
—Mary Alkus in the American Legion Mag- 

azinC - • • • 

WORTH REMEMBERING 

An article in a recent national magazine 
revealed how backward Americans are when 
it comes to exercising the most important 
prerogative of citizenship— voting. The arti- 
cle pointed out that nearly 85% of Eng- 
land's eligible voters cast a ballot in the last 
election. In the last election in Japan, the 
percentage exceeded 90 per cent. But in the 
last two presidential elections in America, 
barely one-half of the eligible voters took 
the trouble of registering and voting. 

There is an old poem about Mary Brown 
that would fit in very nicely here, but the 
trouble is we can't remember it. However, 
the gist of it was that Mary Brown thought 
a girl ought to find a young man who was 
rich, intelligent, kind, successful and hand- 
some before she got married. The punch 
line was "Mary thought she was right, but 
it turned out she was left." 

Anyway, the common people of the nation 
may find themselves like Mary Brown un- 
less they do a better job of voting. 



THE CARPENTER 



15 



WASHINGTON SCENE 

A Business Agent who went to Washing- 
ton to try to speed up Wage Stabilization 
Board approval of a wage case presented 
by his local union was telling about his 
. experiences. 

"I put in a hell of a week," he said. "I 
ran all around Capitol Hill trying to get 
something done. Then when I saw it was 
going to take a lot longer than I anticipated, 
I asked the hotel clerk if he could give me 
a cheaper room. For an answer, he bopped 
me in the eye." 

"That must have made you very mad," a 
friend said. 

"On the contrary," replied the Business 
Agent, "it made me very happy. It was the 
first definite answer I'd gotten all week." 

• • . • 
SAD BUT TRUE 

Delegates to the Florida State Council's 
recent convention were much amused by the 
following piece which contains more truth 
than poetry: 

THE FREE RIDER'S PSALM 
The dues paying member is my shepherd, 
I shall not want. 

He provideth me with rest days and vaca- 
tion, so that I may lie down in green 
pastures, beside the still waters. 
He restoreth my back pay. 
He guideth my welfare, without cost to 
me. 

I stray in the paths of the non-righteous, 
for my money's sake. 

Yea, though I alibi, and pay no dues, from 
generation to generation. 
I fear no evil, for he- pays my dues and 
protects me. 

The working conditions, which he pro- 
vides, they comfort me. 
He anointeth my head with oil of seniority, 
the eight-hour day, the vacation agree- 
ment and the forty-hour week. 
And my cup runneth over with ingratitude. 
Surely his goodness and loving kindness 
shall follow me all the days of my life 
without cost to me. 

I shall dwell in his house forever, and 
allow him to pay the bill. 

• • • 

REAL WONDER WEAPON 

Day by day we read about the fantastic 
new weapons that are being developed; 
atomic artillery, planes that can carry many, 
many tons of bombs thousands of miles, etc. 

But to us the most fantastic thing in the 
whole picture is the fact that a cannon can- 
not be fired anywhere in the world without 
hitting the American taxpayer right in the 
hip pocket where he carries his wallet. 



TIME FOR CAUTION 

"'Are the daily papers in your community 
running stories criticizing the teaching, text- 
books or teachers in your schools? If they 
are, it is time to look into the situation. 
Backed by real estate interests whose prime 
concern is to save tax money by cutting 
down the quality and quantity of education 
given our youngsters, a nation-wide cam- 
paign to bring back the one-room school- 
house seems to be under way. 

Like all other human institutions, our 
schools must be subject to public scrutiny. 
Constructive criticism can improve them and 
strengthen them. But the sniping campaign 
now going on is not aimed at improving 
our schools, but rather at emasculating them. 
Its disguise should not fool us. 

It all sort of reminds us of the door-to- 
door salesman who called on a farmhouse. 
On the front step a huge, light-brown animal 
lay sunning itself. 

"What kind of a dog is that?" the sales- 
man asked the lady of the house. 

"Don't rightly know," replied the lady. 
"My brother in Africa sent him to me." 

"Well, he sure is funny looking," con- 
tinued the peddler. 

The lady nodded. "You should have seen 
him before I cut off his mane." 

When the papers in your community begin 
harping about your school system, make 
sure it is not a dog with its mane cut off. 




"You have a better medium than I.to 
learn your fortune!... I mean, of 
course, your labor paper!" 



16 



UMT, Wise or Foolish? 

* * 

FOR THE first time in its 176 year history, the United States of America 
is seriously considering adoption of a Universal Military Training pro- 
gram. Recently the National Security Training Commission issued a 
favorable report on Universal Military Training, and a bill incorporating most 
of its recommendations has been introduced in Congress. As this was being 
written, A House Committee had already taken favorable action on UMT, 
Sometime this month the bill will undoubtedly come up for final action. When 
it does, the die will have to be cast and the nation will be confronted with 
making a hard and challenging choice. 

To say that the nation is strongly divided on the question is to put it 
mildly. Both proponents and opponents of UMT are numerous and vociferous. 
Backers of the UMT program claim 



that it is absolutely necessary to pre- 
serve the national security. Oppo- 
nents of the idea point out that two 
World Wars have been fought in this 
century. In each of the wars, one side 
consisted of nations possessing long 
histories of enforced military training 
of all young men, while the other side 
consisted of nations without universal 
military training programs. In both 
instances the nations without training 
programs won. 

About the only thing both sides can 
agree on is that we are living in a 
period of extreme crisis. That crisis 
is not likely to disappear or even 
diminish for years to come. No one 
can even hazard a guess as to when 
the current tensions will subside, and 
only a fool or an incurable optimist 
can close his eyes to the likelihood of 
the current cold war erupting into a 
hot one suddenly and viciously. Ob- 
viously, adequate and efficient mili- 
tary preparedness is a major concern 
of our age. Without it, our chances of 
survival become very small. 

The point in issue, then, is not whe- 
ther or not we should have a strong 
Army, Navy and Air Force capable of 



meeting any threat or combination of 
threats, but rather how to get the kind 
of military machine we need with the 
least possible destruction of demo- 
cratic values for the cheapest possible 
price in terms of dislocation of the 
cultural and social values which have 
made America great. 

It is on this point that the disagree- 
ment arises. Advocates of UMT in- 
sist that only by giving all young men 
a short period of intensive training at 
the time they reach manhood can the 
ability of the nation to defend itself 
be maintained. On the other hand, 
opponents of UMT point out that six 
months of military training actually 
means nothing in the long run. A year 
or two after taking such training, all 
that the young man has learned is 
forgotten. Changes in weapons and 
tactics are being made so rapidly 
that even if the trainee remembers all 
he learned, a good deal of it is obso- 
lete in a few years. 

Under the UMT program now being 
considered, all young men reaching 
the age of 18 would be inducted for 
a six month period. They would take 
their training at a regular military es- 



THE CARPENTER 



17 



tablishment and be subject to the same 
military control as regular soldiers. 
To all intents and purposes, they 
would live the same sort of life as the 
soldiers, sailors and airmen of the 
regular forces do; the only difference 
being their period of service would be 
limited to six months. The UMT 
trainee would take the same oath as 
the regular soldier does. He would be 
subject to court martial, would be 
trained by and supervised by regular 
Army personnel. 

At the completion of his six month 
training period, the trainee would be 
given his release. However, for the 
following seven and a half years he 
would be in a reserve category sub- 
ject to call at any time for further 
training or active duty whenever the 
Brass in the Pentagon deemed an 
emergency existed. 

Backers of UMT point out that un- 
der this program young men are re- 
quired to give up only six months 
of their time, whereas draftees and 
volunteers must put in several years 
in the service under existing condi- 
tions. However, opponents of the idea 
are quick to point out that the six 
month training period means nothing. 
For seven years after the completion 
of his training the draftee would be 
subject to possible call. All during 
that time he would have qualms about 
getting married, starting a business or 
even embarking on a college educa- 
tion, never being sure a call back in- 
to the service would not cancel his 
plans. 

Under the draft as it exists at the 
present time, draftees are required 
to serve several times six months. But 
at the completion of their tour of 
duty their compulsory service is over. 
They are not required to join a re- 
serve outfit, although they may do so 
if they choose. There are many other 
arguments, pro and con regarding 
UMT and undoubtedly all of them 



will be repeated many times over be- 
fore UMT is finally adopted or re- 
jected. It is not the purpose of this 
article to choose sides. However, 
there are some aspects of the ques- 
tion which merit a little attention in- 
asmuch as they seem to have been 
overlooked in the shuffle. 

When UMT was first proposed 
several years ago, the idea behind it 
—at least as we understood it— was 
that the program would combine un- 
military living and ample educational 
oportunities with a new type of mili- 
tary training based less on traditional 
discipline and more on democratic 
processes. The bill now pending be- 
fore Congress falls short of meeting 
these promises. The educational pro- 
gram which was to enable youngsters 
to keep up their studies (under the 
control of civilian administrators, in- 
cidentally) seems not to be incorpo- 
rated in the existing plan. Likewise the 
idea of providing trainees with some- 
thing other than routine military liv- 
ing seems to have fallen by the way- 
side also, since the current bill would 
have trainees take their training at 
regular military establishments under 
regular military procedures. 

There the matter rests at the time 
of this writing. About the only certain 
ihing in the entire picture is that 
UMT will probably produce some of 
the hottest debates of the current ses- 
sion of Congress whenever it comes 
up for final action. 

In view of the fact that the United 
Stales has endured and prospered for 
176 years without enforced military 
training for its young men, it seems 
sad to think that the nation must face 
it at this late date. If anything can 
be credited with the rapid growth 
America achieved in the nineteenth 
century, that thing is the fact that en- 
forced military training existed in a 
major portion of Europe during that 
time. Millions of young men migrated 



18 THE CARPENTER 

from Europe to the United States be- ly prepared day in and day out can 

cause of their hatred of compulsory we hope to survive. The paramount 

military training. question is, how can we best achieve 

To usurp a chunk of a young man's that preparedness? If it must be Univ- 

life is a hard thing to do. It takes ersal Military Training, that is what 

from him months or years that he vital- it must be. But certainly UMT ought 

ly needs to plan his future. Whether to be the very last resort, a resort to 

he intends to go to college, enter ap- be given earnest consideration only 

prenticeship training or even get mar- after all alternative measures have 

ried, UMT can negate all his plans. been definitely proved to be inade- 

Yet the tensions and potential quate. Practically every generation of 

threats which surround the United young American's since 1776 has been 

States are not of any American's mak- called upon to defend the nation. Not 

ing. They have been forced on us by one of them failed. This generation 

a ruthless and determined foe set on will not fail either. What we must 

bending the whole world to his total- decide is, will Universal Military 

itarian will. Only by being adequate- Training help or hinder? 

♦ 

A Novel Idea In Education 

A novel experiment in labor education, which may set a pattern for com- 
munities throughout the nation, will be tried out in Minneapolis, April 28. 

That day has been set aside by the local school board as Labor Education 
Day. The children will get the day off to let their 3,000 teachers go to 
school and learn about organized labor's philosophy, history, objectives, and 
policies. 

The program has been arranged by the Minneapolis Central Labor 
Union, in cooperation with the school board and the American Federation 
of Teachers, AFL. Their plan was recently presented to the AFL Executive 
Council as an idea possibly worth sponsoring in other cities. 

Surprisingly enough, the Junior Chamber of Commerce also is sup- 
porting the Labor Education Day, which will alternate each year with 
a Business Education Day, on which the teachers will be given back- 
ground information on the aims and objectives of the private enterprise 
system. 

In discussing the plan, John M. Eklund, President of the American 
Federation of Teachers, Said: 

"The American Federation of Labor maintains the position that all the 
agencies of the community— business, labor, church, and government— can 
and should cooperate in aiding the schools and school administrations in 
revitalizing and enriching the school program. 

"We protest the attempted presentation of one-sided views on con- 
troversial questions in the schools. That is educationally and socially un- 
sound. 

"Some great traditions in American life have never been adequately 
covered in our school curricula. Notably, one of those areas is the history 
and philosophy of the American trade union movement. 

"No child can meet the problems of the modern world without a clear 
understanding of the aims and purposes of free trade unions. Teachers 
cannot impart a well-rounded education to students unless they have a good 
background of information on labor matters." 



19 




Austrian Unions Defy Reds 

* * * 

EPRESENTATIVES of some 1,200,000 free workers gathered recently 
in a labor convention. There was nothing unusual about that. What 
• was unusual was that the meeting took place behind the Iron Curtain— 
100 miles inside Russian territory to be exact. 

The frighteningly dramatic experience is old hat to members of the Austrian 
Federation of Trade Unions. They meet regularly in Vienna, and Vienna is 
100 miles within the Russian Zone to Austria. 

Inside the convention hall sat be-ribboned Russian "observers," their box 
up in front, close to the speakers' platform. Less than half a block away Soviet 
armed guards marched. 



But delegates criticized the Reds 
openly, stood firm in their determina- 
tion to retain their economic stability 
at all costs in order to continue to 
stand up to the Russian menace. In 
the past the Marshall Plan has greatly 
helped them to do this. 

It's not that Austrian workers are 
unafraid of the Russians. Too many 
have been kidnapped and terrorized 
by the Reds to be blase about them. 
But they've learned through bitter ex- 
perience with tyrants that the best 
way to deal with them— the only way 
in fact— is with firmness. 

Austrian trade unionists started 
learning the ropes a long time ago- 
even before the era when Adolf Hitler 
was pushing whole countries around. 
During the period of Austro-Fascism, 
beginning in 1934, the free trade un- 
ions were dissolved. In their place, 
the Fascists established a new total- 
itarian federation— and provided 
strong incentives for joining. One was 
that only members of the new federa- 
tion had the right to vote or to run 
as a candidate; another was that em- 
ployers with "good trade union mem- 
bership records" were given priority 
in obtaining public contracts. 

Despite the many inducements, 
membership in the totalitarian unions, 



after three years of pressure, reached 
less than half a million. Free trade 
unions, meanwhile, continued to exist 
illegally. Underground activities led 
dozens of leaders to concentration 
camps and jails. But they were de- 
termined to keep alive free trade un- 
ionism. 

The so-called illegal trade union 
fighters of the Fascist and Nazi peri- 
ods became the key men in setting 
up the Austrian Federation of Trade 
Unions in 1945. The Federation is 
a non-political union, but with a 
strong Socialist, anti-Communist ma- 
jority. It is very powerful in Austria- 
representing more than 60 per cent 
of all wage and salary earners. It was 
among the first organizations to join 
the International Confederation of 
Free Trade Unions. 

Having weathered one form of to- 
talitarian terror, Austrian trade un- 
ionists were not unprepared to bat- 
tle another. The battling started soon 
after the Russian "liberation." 

Almost immediately, as soon as it 
became- obvious the Russians were 
bent on domination, Austrian trade un- 
ionists moved into action. In the first 
national trade union elections in 1945 
the workers' hostility to Communism 
was laid bare. One by one Commu- 



20 



THE CARPENTER 



nists were dropped from key posts in 
the Federation. 

Exploiting a genuine economic 
grievance— an old Commie trick— the 
Reds started a strike in the Russian 
zone. They entered factories where 
only women worked and terrorized 
them. In others, they overpowered 
male workers by sheer force of num- 
ber and arms. 

They tore pavements off the streets, 
rolled streetcars from their tracks. In 
one town, the Red leaders even moved 
into union headquarters of the non- 
communist Trade Union Federation 
and gave orders to the workers as if 
they were bona fide leaders. 

They ignored appeals of the Aus- 
trian Government and the police. 

The legitimate union leaders knew 
they would have to do something 
drastic, if a "putsch" was to be fore- 
stalled. 

Franz Olah, president of the build- 
ing workers union, who had learned 
a few things in the course of a seven- 
year stay in a Nazi-run concentration 
camp, thought he had an answer. 

He sent out a speedy call for vol- 
unteers. Several hundred building 
workers responded at once. Then, 
armed only with sticks, the free work- 
ers marched into the Russian zone of 
Vienna and cleared the streets of the 
Communists. 

The Russians were aghast. Many 
observers felt the embarrassing de- 
feat was a decisive factor in the loss 
of the Communist effort to overthrow 
the Government. 

At any rate, the attempted, "putsch" 
collapsed shortly afterwards. 

Perhaps the most remarkable thing 
to happen in the whole period of East- 
West struggle is— what didn't happen 
in Austria. 

This tiny republic of some seven 
million people has produced a series 



of shocks to the Russians almost as 
disturbing as the unexpected U. S. de- 
fense of South Korea. It has also sur- 
prised many of Austria's neighbors— 
and has confounded the forecaster 
who looked for Italian and French- 
type Communist growth in the strate- 
gically placed little nation. 

For— despite Austria's location with- 
in throwing distance of the Russian 
giant and her satellites . . . despite six 
years of Russian attempts to take over 
the Government . . . despite ( or per- 
haps because of) 800 kidnappings 
and terrorism in open daylight- 
Austria stands firm in her friendship 
for the West and her hatred for the 
East. 

How did this come about? 

If ever credit belonged to any one 
group, credit belongs today to the 
Austrian trade unions. They stand as 
the backbone of opposition to Com- 
munism. 

Why is it that workers, who tradi- 
tionally provide the principal source 
of Communist conversion, in the case 
of Austria baffled and misled the 
master planners of the Kremlin? 

In the beginning— at the close of 
World War II— few people thought it 
would be that way. Austrian workers, 
although predominantly Socialist and 
not Communist, were prepared to wel- 
come the Russians with open arms— 
as heroes and liberators. 

But when the Russians entered Vi- 
enna, they made several big and un- 
forgiveable mistakes. Unused to see- 
ing pianos and other "luxuries" in 
workers' homes, they plundered and 
destroyed furniture in hundreds of 
workers' dwellings. Worse than that, 
they raped thousands of Viennese 
women. 

These blatant actions did not en- 
dear the Communists to the Austrian 
workers. The reception grew still 
chillier when the Russians, patterning 



THE CARPENTER 



21 



their behavior on the slave labor sys- 
tem in their own country, introduced 
into Austrian factories some hateful 
new technique s— piece-work, the 
speedup . . . 

After that, the Austrian workers 
adopted as a slogan— "sweat shop . . . 
sweat shop . . ." to describe Red-run 
factories— and they used it effectively 
in their anti-Communist campaigns. 

But Russian errors did not end 
there. 

In 1946, they made the mistake of 
inviting a group of Austrian trade un- 
ionists to visit the Soviet Union. The 
delegates uncovered a few items of 
information that were not on the 
agenda— such as that workers who do 
not fill estabished quotas are ridiculed 
and caricatured in public . . . that 
wages are dreadfully low. Somehow, 
the delegation returned to Austria 
some weeks ahead of schedule. 

One member of the group explained 
later: 

"We asked too many questions." 

Several months afterwards the Rus- 
sians pulled another one that didn't 
win any new hearts for them in Au- 
stria. 

A request had been made to the Al- 
lied Council that something be done 
to provide shoes for some women 
workers in a cement factory in the 



Russian zone who had been working 
in their bare feet. 

The Russian Council member, baf- 
fled, got to his feet and confided: 

"I can't understand this request. 
It's ridiculous. In Russia women work- 
ers don't wear shoes. Why do Au- 
strian women need shoes? 

All these things filtered back to 
the Austrian people. They also heard 
stories from refugees who had drifted 
in from the satellite countries. 

The stories added up to facts, and 
the Austrians, living as close to the 
Communists as any other free people, 
were quite able to distinguish fact 
from fancy. 

Conseqently, in every election held 
in their country, they've tossed Com- 
munists out of office. They've also set 
up a steady stream of refugees into 
the Western zones— those occupied by 
the French, British and Americans. 

Even in Vienna, where there is a 
joint four-power occupation, includ- 
ing the Russians, Austrians have not 
been daunted. They speak their minds 
freely, and usually in firm anti-Rus- 
sian terms. 

Thus it is that Austria, small but 
unafraid, stands today as a dedicated 
anti-Communist bastion while some 
other European countries still face the 
menace of Red boring from within. 



BOSTON HOST TO GREATEST UNION-INDUSTRIES SHOW 

The American Federation of Labor's Union Industries Show— bringing to Boston the 
most graphic example of labor-management cooperation— will open its 1952 exposition 
at the Mechanics Building on May 17, Dirctor Bay F. Leheney announced. The eight- 
day Show will continue through May 24. 

The giant Show, which is sponsored by the AFL's Union Label Trades Department, of 
which Mr. Leheney is Secretary Treasurer, is designed to encourage better relations be- 
tween AFL unions and their respective firms. It is the largest labor-management ex- 
position in the world and one of America's most successful shows. 

Almost every AFL craft and Union Label will join with industry in bringing to the 
Show expert craftsmen and an outstanding display of consumer goods. Added to the 
Show's normal theme of "harmony in industrial relations" this year, is an emphasis on 
exhibitor's whole-hearted cooperation in the nation's defense effort. 

The entire 150,000 square foot area of Mechanics Building will be devoted to ex- 
hibits which will feature everything from tacks to trailers. 



22 



/n hardwood flooring "Bruce" means 




IT CARRIES OUR LABEL 

• • • 

AS THE whistle blew to end the final working day of 1951 in the E. 
L. Bruce Co. Hardwood Flooring Plants, a statistical-minded member 
of Local 2523, United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of 
America, pulled out his pencil and began jotting down some figures on the 
back of an envelope. 

"Let's see," he said. "A total of 100 million board feet of hardwood floor- 
ing at all Bruce plants this year . . . that's 540 million lineal feet. The stamp- 
ing wheel is two feet around— that makes 270 million impressions of the Un- 
ion Label on Bruce Hardwood Flooring in 1951!" 
Carrying these statistics a little fur- 



ther, there have been 800 million im- 
pressions of the Union Label on Bruce 
Hardwood Flooring in the three years 
since the company began displaying 
this identification. Now installed in 
homes, apartments, and other types 
of buildings throughout the world are 
more than 300 million feet of union- 
labeled Bruce Flooring. That's a lot of 
flooring in three years— enough to sup- 
ply all the housing units in a hypo- 
thetical city of about one million pop- 
ulation. 

E. L. Bruce Co. whose executive 
offices and largest flooring plant is in 
Memphis, Tenn., first started display- 
ing the label on flooring in November, 
1948. At that time a paper label was 
used and was applied with glue on the 
outside of bundles of flooring. The 
next step was the inclusion of the 
Union Label on the marking wheel 
which cuts the Bruce name and other 
data on the back of the individual 
strips of flooring. Then about a year 
ago, after many months of experi- 
mentation, Bruce and Local 2523, 
whose officials had been working 
closely with Bruce technicians on the 
problem, developed a process of ap- 
plying ink to the marking wheel so 
that the Union Label and the other 



information carried on the wheel 
would be very prominently displayed 
on the flooring, instead of being mere- 
ly cut into the wood as was formerly 
done. 

Bruce makes a variety of types, 
grades and sizes of hardwood flooring, 
and as you might expect from their 
huge volume this flooring is used in 
just every type of building and build- 
ing project— from huge apartment de- 
velopments calling for more than 
7,000,000 feet on one site to the most 
modest individual homes. Here is a 
list of a few typical recent installations 
of Bruce Flooring with the Union 
Label. No doubt most of our readers 
will find at least some of these names 
familiar. 

Fresh Meadows, New York City. 
Stuyvesant Town, New York City. 
Peter Cooper Village, New York City. 
Clinton Hills, New York City. 
Manhattan House, New York City. 
John Hancock Village, Boston, Mass. 
Berkshire Apartments, Washington, 

D. C. 
Congressional Hotel, Washington, 

D. C. 
Lakewood, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Blossom Hill Manor, Los Gatos, Cal. 



THE CARPENTER 



23 



Santa Lucia Village, Salinas, Cal. 
Bissonnet Apartments, Houston, Tex. 
Edgewater Hotel, Madison Wis. 
Mills & Sons Jobs, Elgin & Franklin 

Park, 111. 
J. C. Nichols Country Club District, 

Kansas City, Mo. 
Happy Homes, Kansas City, Mo. 
Village Green, Kansas City, Mo. 
Carlswell Air Base Housing, Fort 

Worth, Tex. 
Westchester Apartments, Ft. Worth, 

Tex. 
Dorchester Apartments, Dallas, Tex. 
Parklabrea, Los Angeles, Cal. 
Parkmerced, San Francisco, Cal. 

As indicated, the above represents 
only a few of the thousands of jobs 
on which Bruce Union-Labeled Hard- 
wood Flooring was" used. Actually, 
nearly 100,00 families move into hous- 
ing units on Bruce Floors with the 
Union Label each year! 

Much of the Bruce Flooring pro- 
duced each year goes into giant proj- 
ects such as Lakewood, Los Angeles, 
listed above. This new development 
is America's biggest housing project, 
and provides homes for 17,500 Los 
Angeles families. The development 
covers 3,500 acres and has 133 miles 
of streets. Its 70,000 population dwarfs 
such cities as Poughkeepsie, New 
York and Mt. Holyoke, Mass. 



In addition to projects such as this 
one, and the giant apartment projects, 
Bruce Flooring with the Union Label 
is also being used each year in thou- 
sands of individually built houses and 
is also widely used for remodeling. 

Bruce has been aggressively pro- 
moting the fact that the Union Label 
appears on their flooring ever since 
the day that the first Label was ap- 
plied. They had an attractive exhibit 
in the Carpenters' Section of the Un- 
ion Industries Show at Cleveland in 
1949 and have exhibited at the sub- 
sequent shows at Philadelphia and 
Chicago. They have also used fre- 
quent advertisements in trade maga- 
zines featuring the Label and other 
copy appearing on the back of their 
flooring. 

F. H. O'Connor, Vice-President of 
E. L. Bruce Co. has this to say about 
his company's use of the Union Label: 
"We have found that the displaying 
of the Union Label on our products, 
like the displaying of our own name 
and trademark, is a valuable instru- 
ment in conveying to the building in- 
dustry and to the general public the 
fact that our products meet the high- 
est quality specifications, that the 
users of our products may expect to 
find this quality consistent, day after 
day and year after year." 



17,000 WAGE CASES MIRED IN WSB 

More than 17,000 cases remain to be acted on by the Wage Stabilization 
Board. Board members see no relief in sight as more cases are submitted 
for study. 

Industry members of WSB reported that businessmen are complaining 
that they are unable to put pay raises into effect because the board has not 
had a chance to consider them. 

Executive Director Harry Weiss of WSB suggested four ways to cut 
down the backlog, aside from getting more money from Congress. 

1. Handle more cases orally in regional boards. 

2. Eliminate the unanimous-vote requirement on cases involving pay 
increases to get rid of inter-plant inequities. 

3. Give more power to the executive director to decide cases. 

4. Work out policies on pensions, productivity increases and commission 
earnings. 



Editorial 




Something To Think About 

Perhaps it is not the healthiest sign in the world for democracy, but the 
fact remains that pressure seems to be playing an increasingly important 
part in the process of government on the national level. The groups that 
are organized to exert plenty of political pressure on Washington seem to 
have considerable success in getting what they want; citizens who are not 
organized usually find the sledding tough regardless of the merits of their 
cause. The situation is nothing for the ordinary fellow to cheer about, but 
that, apparently, is the way things are. 

In this pressure politics business, organized labor is a babe in arms. 
Vested interest groups have money, and influential people who can call Con- 
gressmen "J oe " or "Dick" to promote their causes. They can entertain lavishly, 
contribute lavishly to campaign funds, and even dangle promises of good jobs 
before Congressmen facing possible defeat. By contrast, all organized labor 
can do is send an occasional man to Washington to plead its cause. He has 
no money to throw around, he cannot belong to the fancy clubs, and least 
of all can he hint at lucrative jobs. That labor can accomplish as much as 
it does is a wonder. 

What brought up all this was the fact that a deferment program for appren- 
tices has finally been agreed upon in Washington. Shortly after the present 
draft went into effect, a deferment program for college students was put into 
operation by the Selective Service director. Naturally considerable opposi- 
tion was engendered because of the seemingly discriminatory aspects of the 
program. Individual protests were of no avail. It was only after organized 
labor marshalled its influence, that amendment of the policy was forthcoming. 

According to an announcement by W. F. Patterson, Director of the U. S. 
Department of Labor's Bureau of Apprenticeship, apprentices are shortly 
to be given consideration in the matter of deferments. Recently Patterson 
said: 

"I know full well how difficult it has been during the present emergency 
to keep apprentices on the job because of the large number entering military 
service. * * * As deferment of apprentices would greatly relieve the situa- 
tion, I am glad to report that final conclusion regarding the question is near." 

Mr. Patterson announced that a proposal for deferment of apprentices 
has been drawn up and agreed upon by representatives of the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Labor and most of the other government agencies having manpower 
and defense functions. He explained that the regulations proposed would 
permit deferment of an apprentice in any trade who has been in training for 
one year or more; and if an apprentice is in a trade classified as critical by 
the Secretary of Labor he could be deferred after six months of training. 

An apprentice to be eligible for deferment under the proposed regulations, 
he said, would have to be employed under an apprenticeship program which 
meets the standards and requirements prescribed by the Director of Selective 



THE CARPENTER 25 

Service, which would be based on the. .recommendations of the Secretary of 
Labor. Also the program would have to be accepted by the State Selective 
Service Director. The final authority with regard to deferment decisions, he 
added, would rest with the local Selective Service Board. 

"The principle involved in the proposal," Mr. Patterson pointed out, "is 
similar to that underlying the college student deferment regulations. In both 
cases continued training and education for high level skills and knowledge is 
essential to the Nation's long-range interests. The present world tensions 
may continue for many years and we cannot afford to have any cessation in 
our training and education." 

If any moral can be drawn from all this, it is that organized labor must 
build its political fences higher and wider. And the only way that can be 
done is by every union member taking an active interest in politics— at least 
to the extent of registering at the right time and voting every time the oppor- 
tunity presents itself. 

• 

Property Rights Seem To Get Priority 

Congressman John H. Dempsey of New Mexico does not do much talk- 
ing. Now and then, however, he finds some situation which makes him mad. 
Then he blows the lid off. 

Dempsey did that last month on the House floor, after boiling for months 
about an injustice to 132,000 American soldiers who were war prisoners of 
the Japanese and Germans. 

Dempsey rose and announced that he is asking members of the House to 
sign a "petition" which would take from the Interstate Commerce Committee 
and bring up for action a bill which has this purpose: 

"Require payment by Japan, Germany and other former enemy nations, 
under the terms of the Geneva Convention, to our own boys, for the com- 
pulsory labor and. inhumane treatment they suffered when they were pris- 
oners of war." 

"For five years," Dempsey declared, "these men have waited for us to 
take the necessary action to bring about payment of their just claims. They 
have waited in vain, despite the fact that they, and the dependents of those 
who made the supreme sacrifice for us, have in many cases been in dire need 
of even the meager funds these payments would provide." 

The New Mexico congressman explained the situation this way: 

Some time before the Second World War, the United States, Japan, Ger- 
many and most other countries signed the "Geneva Convention," an inter- 
national agreement laying down rules for treatment of war prisoners. Among 
other things, this provided that prisoners who were forced to work for the 
enemy who captured them must be paid at least the equivalent of $1.50 a day. 

Uncle Sam more than lived up to that agreement. He did not force enemy 
prisoners to work but many of them worked voluntarily, and they were 
promptly paid better wages than had been promised at Geneva. 

It was far different with Uncle Sam's enemies, Dempsey said. For ex- 
ample, the Japanese militarists not only forced American prisoners to work 
as "slaves," and paid them nothing, but also "our men suffered terrible tor- 
ture and many came home. wrecked in mind and body." 



26 THE CARPENTER 

In the years since the war, Dempsey pointed out, Uncle Sam has given 
Japan "more than $2 billion in economic aid." Yet, to this day, Japan has 
not paid its former American prisoners one cent for their "forced labor and 
mistreatment." 

The money to pay them has been in this country all the time— in "enemy 
property" owned by Japanese business men but held by Uncle Sam. What 
Dempsey proposes is that this money be used to pay the former prisoners of 
the Japs. That's also what is proposed by the bill held up in the House 
Interstate Commerce Committee. 

Why is it held up there? Because, Dempsey said, the State Department 
asked that the legislation be held up. "The responsibility lies entirely at 
the door of the State Department. It is following its customary policy of 
giving first consideration to foreign nations and their citizens, regardless 
of the welfare of our own citizens." 

Meanwhile, Dempsey pointed out, the State Department arranged for 
payment of American and "allied" businessmen for losses they suffered 
through war damage to their property in Japan. 

"Please get the full significance of that." Dempsey pleaded. "It puts 
property losses above human lives, human suffering, and human rights." 

Why does the State Department oppose using the Japanese property to 
pay American war prisoners? Dempsey and other congressmen answered that 
question this way: 

The Japanese Peace Treaty, largely written by John Foster Dulles, who 
came from a Wall Street international law firm, is now in the hands of the 
Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Until that treaty is "all wrapped up," 
the State Department does not want the Japanese government to be "an- 
noyed" by any proposal to use the property of Japanese business men to 
pay the former war prisoners. 

Moreover, Dempsey said, after the treaty is signed the Japanese business 
men will get back their property. Then it can't be used to pay the prisoners, 
their widows and orphans. 

"For five long years our needy men and their dependents have waited," 
Dempsey exclaimed. "Is this just another instance of waving flags, martial 
music and gushing oratory when our boys go out to fight for us, then find 
on their return that there is a decided chill in the air that once was overheated 
with patriotism? I hope not."— Labor 



The Curmudgeon Leaves A Message 

Last month death called Harold L. Ickes. With his passing the nation 
lost one of its most colorful public figures. Hard-headed, short-tempered 
but of unquestionable integrity, Mr. Ickes knuckled under to no one. For 
thirteen years during the New Deal era he served as Secretary of the Interior, 
the longest any man in history ever held the job. All during that time Mr. 
Ickes was subjected to an avalanche of criticism unparalleled in recent times, 
mainly because he opposed all efforts of the vested interests to exploit the 
natural resources of the nation for their own enrichment at the expense of the 
people. Through all the criticism and calumny he stuck to his guns, never 



THE CARPENTER 27 

once bowing to political expediency or personal politics. Although he handled 
millions upon millions of dollars in public funds, even his bitterest enemies 
could whip up no breath of scandal regarding his management of them. Mr. 
Ickes was not always right, but he was never anything but sincere, and his 
opinions were never influenced by what advantage or disadvantage might 
accrue to him by his decisions. 

Mr. Ickes is gone, but in his career he said many things that bear re- 
membering. A few are herewith reprinted: 

We should never forget that, in an era of unrest, a demagogue even as 
fantastic as Hitler appeared to be can develop at such a pace that, before we 
realize it, he is beyond our catching. There are men here, and in England 
and France as well, who believe in their hearts that a dictatorship is more 
desirable than democratic self-government. Given a brutal dictator such 
as Hitler, union labor could be "put in its place and kept there'' 

In the thought of some of our prominent citizens, including persons in- 
side of Congress, and even within our administrative agencies, the "place 
of labor" is at a machine for long hours at a bare subsistence wage. 

A dictator would also make short shrift of the farmers who think that they 
ought to have at least a decent living out of their long hours of sweaty toil. 
There are those among us who, without compunction, would reduce free- 
born farmers to the serfdom to which Hitler has consigned, in Europe, men 
who live on and by the land. 

It appeals delightfully to my sense of humor to hear monopolists sound 
off stentoriously about "individual initiative" and "free American enterprise." 
Free American enterprise and monopoly are mutually exclusive. Both cannot 
occupy the same space at the same time. 

It has not been the little businessmen, nor has it been the liberals in this 
country, who have destroyed free enterprise or even hindered it. It has been 
the monopolists, men who go about pounding their "individualistic" chests, 
who have been trying their busy best to destroy initiative while loudly, if at 
times hypocritically, vaunting this American institution to death. 

The truth is that many of those in whose vocabularies these fine, full words 
stand out in large blocked letters, although they may not know it, are paying 
verbal tribute at the gravestone of "individual initiative" and "free American 
enterprise." 

Mr. Ickes summed up his whole philosophy in a book published a few 
years ago entitled "Autobiography of a Curmudgeon". If he believed any- 
thing, it was that monopoly, cartels and organized vested interests threaten 
not only the future of the free enterprise system but also the very future 
of the democracy under which such progress has been made. 

In the light of recent developments, the warnings sounded by Mr. Ickes 
are worth remembering. There are those in the nation who fear union men 
asking for an additional five cents an hour more than they fear the rise of 
a dictator. Their counterparts in Italy and Germany pushed Mussolini and 
Hitler into power because the bully boys promised to "put the unions in 
their place." It can happen here, too, if the ordinary people do not keep on 
their toes. 



THE LOCKER 



By JOHN HART, LOCAL UNION 366, New York, N. Y. 

CONSTITUTION and LAWS of the UNITED BROTHERHOOD 

Question test for officers and members. 
What we call our Constitution is a little blue book of 64 pages. Each Brotherhood 

member should be acquainted with its main provisions. Responsible officers are obliged 
to know it more thoroughly because of their obligation to maintain and enforce its laws. 

Whoever takes this test may consult his Constitution all he wants to find the correst 
answers. If he is die persistene type and time is no object he can score himself a beautiful 

100%. This might be a big help to him next June, it might, it might. Answers are on 
page 31. Have at it, Brother. 

1. What is die smallest number of members necessary to form a Local? 

2. Are apprentices entitled to funeral donations? 

3. When is nomination night for Local Union officers? 

4. Who pays the traveling expenses of a member entering die Carpenters Home?. 

5. What item of property in a Local is exclusively owned by the General Office?. 

6. Where in the Constitution is a member in arrears barred from voting? 

7. If the President and Vice-President were botii absent who opens the meeting?- 

8. What General Officer investigates and approves claims for funeral donations?- 

9. Does the General Office issue a Financial Statement? 

10. The General Convention of this Brotherhood meets how often? 

11. What Local Union officers are forbidden to act as Trustee? 

12. Is a Business Agent one of the specified Local Union officers? 

13. May a Local transfer funds from its General Fund to its Contingent Fund? 

14. Where is die Carpenters Home located? 

15. The title to all property owned by a Local Union is held in whose name? 

16. A member is suspended when he owes his Local Union how much money? 

17. What General Officer supervises shops, mills and factories? 

18. What is die time limit for filing a death claim? 

19. Must members be notified of die meeting when Local Officers are nominated?- 

20. Where in die Constitution is an apprentice excluded from holding office? 

21. According to the Constitution one officer must receive a salary. Which one?__ 

22. How often is a Local Union obliged to meet? 

23. A Local of 600 members is entitled to how many General Convention delegates? 

24. What Local Officers are elected for a diree year term? 

25. May Local Union officers be elected by a show of hands vote? 

26. In how many books must a member's dues be recorded? 

27. Must members be notified of the election date of Local Officers? 

28. Widiin how many days must a penalized member pay his fine? 

29. Must die Local vote approval of payment of the per capita tax? 

30. What General Officer approves an application for a Pension? 

31. No appropriations of money can be voted after what hour? 

32. In what year was this Brotherhood established? 

33. When are newly elected Local Officers installed? 

34. To vote for officers a member must be in the Local how long? 

35. What General Officer sanctions the issue of the United Brotherhood label? 

36. May a member be initiated without appearing before a Local Union? 

37. How many members constitute die General Executive Board? 

38. Can a General Convention delegate represent other Locals besides his own? 

39. How much of the §1.00 per capita tax goes into the Home and Pension Fund?- 

40. May a member on trial employ a lawyer to plead for him? 

41. May a member only six months in a Local ever be eligible to hold office? 

42. For how many years are our General Officers elected? 

43. What's the highest body within the Brotherhood to which appeal may be made? 

44. The General President decides all appeals and grievances except what? 

45. What are die three divisions of our Constitution? 

46. What are the age limits for apprentice candidates? 

47. May a member absent dirough sickness be nominated for office? 

48. An appeal to the General President must be made within how many days? 

49. May a member be charged in Chicago for an offense committed in St. Paul? 

50. How are the members informed that the Local's per capita taxes are paid? 

Twice total correct equals percentage. % Total correct answers 



Official Information 




General Officers of 
THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS 

of AMERICA 

General Office : Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General President 

M. A. HUTCHBSON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



First General Vice-President General Secretary 

JOHN R. STEVENSON ALBERT E. FISCHER 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Second General Vice-President General Treasurer 

O. WM. BLAIER S. P. MEADOWS 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Executive Board 
First District, CHARLES JOHNSON, Jr. Fifth District, R. E. ROBERTS 

111 E. 22nd St., New York 10, N. Y. 4324 N. 48th St., Omaha, Nebr. 



Second District, RALEIGH RAJOPPI Sixth District, A. W. MUIR 

2 Prospect Place, Springfield, New Jersey Box 1168, Santa Barbara, Calif. 



Third District, HARRY SCHWARZER Seventh District, ANDREW V. COOPER 

1248 Walnut Ave., Cleveland, O. 133. Chaplin Crescent, Toronto 12, Ont., Canada 



Fourth District, ROLAND ADAMS M. A. HUTCHESON, Chairman 

712 West Palmetto St., Florence, S. C. ALBERT E. FISCHER, Secretary 

All correspondence for the General Executive Board must be sent to the General Secretary 



IMPORTANT NOTICE 

In the issuance of clearance cards, care should be taken to 
see that they are properly filled out, dated and signed by the 
President and Financial Secretary of the Local Union issuing 
same as well as the Local Union accepting the clearance. The 
clearance cards must be sent to the General Secretary without 
delay, in order that the members names can be listed on the 
quarterly account sheets. 

Regarding the issuing of clearance cards, the member should 
be informed that said clearance card shall expire one month 
from date of issue, and must be deposited within that time. 
Otherwise a clearance card becomes void. When a clearance 
card expires, the member is required to redeposit same in the 
Local Union which issued the clearance, inasmuch as he is still 
a member of that Local Union. 



Not lost to those that love them, They still live in our memory, 

Not dead, just gone before; And will forever more. 

The Editor has been requested to publish the names 
of the following Brothers who have passed away. 



Brother JOHN B. ANDERSON, L. U. 2375, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Brother EMILE ARSANAULT, L. U. 40, Boston, Mass. 

Brother EMANUEL BABAYAN, L. U. 769, Pasadena, Calif. 

Brother GROVER C. BETHARDS, L. U. 1323, Monterey, Calif. 

Brother LESTER BLEM, L. U. 1497, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Brother WILLIAM BROWN, L. U. 1098, Baton Rouge, La. 

Brother JOHN CALDWELL, L. U. 1095, Salina, Kans. 

Brother LOUIS CARLOT, L. U. 1529, Kansas City, Kans. 

Brother PETER J. CHABOT, L. U. 983, Detroit, Mich. 

Brother PELLEGRINO COLANTUONI, L. U. 40, Boston, Mass. 

Brother JACK COOLEY, L. U. 19, Detroit, Mich. 

Brother HOWARD B. CORTRIGHT, L. U. 188, Yonkers, N. Y. 

Brother JOHN C. CRAMER, L. U. 1273, Eugene, Ore. 

Brother ALPHONSE C. DEROSIER, L. U. 96, Springfield, Mass. 

Brother RICHARD DE WOLF, L. U. 983, Detroit, Mich. 

Brother MATTHEW DICK, L. U. 101, Baltimore, Md. 

Brother JAMES W. ELROD, L. U. 1407, San Pedro, Calif. 

Brother ERIC ERRICKSON, L. U. 393, Camden, N. J. 

Brother FRANK E. FISCHLEIN, L. U. 4, Davenport, la. 

Brother MARTIN GOODWIN, L. U. 337, Detroit, Mich. 

Brother WALTER GREINER, L. U. 13, Chicago, 111. 

Brother J. C. HAGWOOD, L. U. 993, Miami, Fla. 

Brother JOHN B. HARDESTY, L. U. 343, Winnipeg, Man., Canada 

Brother WALTER HARRIS, L. U. 1236, Michigan City, Ind. 

Brother JOOSEPH A. HART, L. U. 2435, Inglewood, Calif. 

Brother M. W. HULL, L. U. 1497, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Brother ED HULSE, L. U. 1273, Eugene, Ore. 

Brother THORVALD B. JACOBSEN, L. U. 101, Baltimore, Md. 

Brother FRANK L. KEHOE, L. U. 40, Boston, Mass. 

Brother FRED KLEBE, L. U. 993, Miami, Fla. 

Brother LLOYD M. KNIGHT, L. U. 583, Portland. Ore. 

Brother ANDREW LARSEN, L. U. 188, Yonkers, N. Y. 

Brother WILLIAM LAVERTY, L. U. 101, Baltimore, Md. 

Brother WILEY LEGG, L. U. 2375, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Brother JOHN C. LINDSEY, L. U. 1913, San Fernando, Calif. 

Brother ROY D. MADER, L. U. 40, Boston, Mass. 

Brother CHARLES C. MARTIN, L. U'. 1497, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Brother GEORGE MARTIN, L. U. 622, Waco, Texas 

Brother WILLIAM MERZ, L. U. 5, St. Louis, Mo. 

Brother JOSEPH MICHELS, L. U. 19, Detroit, Mich. 

Brother MORRIS MILLER, L. U. 993, Miami, Fla. 

Brother PAUL MISCHANKO, L. U. 608, New York, N. Y. 

Brother KARL MUELLER, L. U. 1053, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Brother JOHN PEACOCKE, L. U. 185, St. Louis, Mo. 

Brother F. H. PICKLER, L. U. 2435 Inglewood, Calif. 

Brother ISAIIE ROBERT, L. U. 801, Woonsocket, R. I. 

Brother MICHAEL ROLEK, L. U. 101, Baltimore, Md. 

Brother MICHAEL ROSE, L. U. 101, Baltimore Md. 

Brother R. L. ROSE, L. U. 1497, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Brother EUGENE RUHL, L. U. 101, Baltimore, Md. 

Brother WILLIAM SCHNEIDER, L. U. 1053, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Brother CLAY SCHULENBURG, L. U. 1098, Baton Rouge, La. 

Brother JOSEPH SHAPIRO, L. U. 490, Passaic, N. J. 

Brother SYLVESTER G. SHARP, L. U. 393, Camden, N. J. 

Brother CLARENCE SHOCKEY, L. U. 993, Miami, Fla. 

Brother GEORGE SILVERS, L. U. 993, Miami, Fla. 

Brother AUGUST SIMMLER, L. U. 325, Paterson, N. J. 

Brother MAHLON SIPE, L. U. 1419, Johnstown, Pa. 

Brother NELS SODEROUIST, L. U. 13, Chicago, 111. 

Brother O. B. STATLER, L. U. 1419, Johnstown, Pa. 

Brother ANDREW A. STAUFFER, L. U. 2435, Inglewood, Calif. 

Brother WILLIAM L. STENDER, L. U. 2288, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Brother DORSEY STEWART, L. U. 337, Detroit, Mich. 

Brother RUDY J. SURINA, L. U. 1407, San Pedro, Calif. 

Brother FREDERICK THOMANN, JR., L. U. 203, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

Brother A. W. THRESHER, L. U. 1407, San Pedro, Calif. 

Brother HARRY WALKER, L. U. 1913, San Fernando, Calif. 

Brother FRED R. WELLS, L. U. 40, Boston, Mass. 

Brother EDWARD WELZANT, L. U. 1367, Chicago, 111. 

Brother WAYNE E. WOLLAM, L. U. 983, Detroit, Mich. 

Brother SAM WORKMAN, L. U. 1529, Kansas City, Kans. 

Brother STANLEY WYSOCKI, L. U. 3S3, Camden, N. J. 



THE CARPENTER 



31 



ANSWERS TO "THE LOCKER" 



9. 



Section number and paragraph letters are 
given for reference. 

10. 29-A. 

Yes. 49-D, E. 

First meeting night in June. 31-C. 

His Local Union. 54-C. 

The Charter. 29-A. 

43-H. and 9-E. (General Officers). 

The Recording Secretary. 32-D. He 
calls for the nomination and election 
of a temporary President. 

The General Treasurer. 53-C. 

Yes. 13-B. Each Local receives one 
monthly. 

Every four years. 18-A. 

President, Treasurer, Financial and Re- 
cording Secretaries. 31-B. 

No. 31-A. 

No. 58-A. 

Lakeland, Florida. 5-B. 

The Trustees. 40-A. 

A sum equal to six months dues. 45-B. 

The First General Vice-President. 11-B. 

Six months. 53-B. 

No. 31-C. 

3i-D. An officer must be a journeyman. 

The Treasurer. 37-D. 

Once a month. Page 60. Standing de- 
cision of the General Executive Board. 

3. 18-C. 

31-B. 



10. 
11. 

12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 



23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 



Day Book, Due Book, 



The Trustees. 
No. 31-E. 
Three. 36-B. 
Ledger. 

27. Yes. 31-1. 

28. Thirty. 55-H. 

29. No. 44-E. The per capita tax is a 

standing appropriation. 



30. The General President. 54-F. 

31. 10:30 P.M. 58-D. 

32. 1881. 

33. First meeting night in July. 31-J. 

34. Twelve consecutive months. 42-W. 

35. The First General Vice-President. 60-C. 

36. Yes. 25-D. In isolated places he may 

be initiated on the spot by some 
authorized official and send his dues 
to the nearest Local. 

37. 12. 15-C. G. P., 1st G. V. P., 2nd G. V. 

P., Gen. Sec, Gen. Treas., and the 
seven District Board members. 

38. Yes. 18-H. Several Locals may club 

together to pay the expenses of one. 
He is credentialed from his own 
Local. 

39. Thirty-five cents. 44-C. 

40. No. 56-G. Unless the lawyer happens 

to be also a Brotherhood member. 

41. Yes. 31-D. If it is a new Local not in 

existence one year. 

42. Four. 9-C. 

43. The General Convention. 57-A. Except 

violations of Trade Rules. 

44. Death and Disability Claims. 10-F. 

45. Constitution, General By-Laws, Gener- 

al Laws. 8-A. 

46. Between the ages of seventeen and 

twenty-four years. 42.K. 

47. Yes. 31-D. 

48. Thirty. 57-D. 

49. No. 56-A. A member must be charged 

and tried in the district in which the 
alleged offense was committed. 

50. Receipts acknowledging payment of 

same to the General Office are read 
at the meeting by the President. 
44-G. and Order of Business No. 12. 



DISTRESS AREAS TO GET WORK 

Officials admit it will be late spring or early summer before the new program for chan- 
neling defense work into areas and industries of high unemployment gets under way. 

The new government program became effective February 7, when government pro- 
curement officers were authorized to place war orders in distress areas and industries 
although the work might be done at less cost elsewhere. 

However the procedure requires that the Labor Department certify that a large man- 
power surplus exists in an area or industry, a special federal committee must make a 
survey and make recommendations, and these must be studied and approved by the 
Office of Defense Mobilization. 

Even then, many plants will have to be re-opened and re-tooled to handle defense 
production. 



CorrospondoncQ 




This Journal Is Not Responsible For Views Expressed By Correspondents. 



DENVER DISTRICT COUNCIL INSTALLS 




Upper row back: R. E. Roberts, G. E. B. member; John B. Chase, President and B. A. 
Pro-Tern; George E. Robertson, Financial and Recording Secretary. Third row back, stand- 
ing left to right: Otis Brooks, L. U. No. 55; Charlie Lowry, L. U. No. 1480; M. Fabrizio, 
L. U. No. 882; Andrew Ribar, L. U. No. 1583; Richard Black, L. U. No. 1480; Oral Case, 
L. U. No. 896; Otto Widmayer, L. U. No. 1396; Alex Allander, Jr., L. U. No. 2363; Fred 
Nichols, L. U. No. 1982; E. C. Nordlie, L. U. No. 55. Second row, standing: W. Bickel, 
L. U. No. 896; R. E. Pickett, L. U. No. 1396; Robert Tanberg, L. U. No. 1583; S. 
Stucka, L. U. No. 55; R. L. Scott, L. U. No. 55; Roy Bergh, L. U. No. 55; C. Beeks, 
L. U. No. 55; McMahan, L. U. No. 1583; Joe Ross, L. U. No. 882. First row, sitting: R. 
Shively, L. U. No. 55; John McKay, L. U. No. 55; Art English, L. U. No. 55; A. Borg- 
heinck, L. U. No. 55; J. W. Collins, L. U. No. 55; H. Hammond, L. U. No. 55; W. Shep- 
ard, L. U. No. 55; H. Stewart, L. U. No. 55; R. Dickerson, L. U. No. 55; F. W. Griffel, 
L. U. 1583; H. Worley, L. U. No. 1982; and C. S. Bergman, L. U. No. 55. 

On September 2nd, in the presence of a fine turnout of delegates, officers of the Car- 
penters District Council of Denver, Colorado and Vicinity were installed. To record the 
occasion for future generations, a photographer was commissioned to take a picture. The 
result appears above. 

e 

MARITIME PROVINCIAL COUNCIL HOLDS GREAT MEET 

Over the week-end of January 19th, the Maritime Provincial Council of Carpenters, 
Joiners and Millmen held its annual convention at Moncton, N. B., Canada. With ex- 
cellent representation on hand, the Council disposed of a long agenda dealing with 
matters of vital interest to Brotherhood members in the area. Action was taken on such 
matters as uniformity of wage rates and working conditions for all carpenters within the 
jurisdiction of the Council, elimination of discrimination against union members, etc. 



THE CARPENTER 



33 



Through a hard-hitting program, the Council is determined to wipe out the practices 
and abuses which penalize members unfairly. -, 

Saturday evening, Local Union No. 2401 of Moncton played host to the delegates at 
a banquet held at the New Brunswick Hotel. A long list of distinguished guests was on 
hand to help make the occasion a memorable one. Among the special guests were: Andrew 
Cooper, General Executive Board Member; Mayor Parlee, who extended the city's welcome; 
W. A. D. Trent, manager of the local office of the National Employment Service; H. F. 
White, secretary of the Provincial Labor Relations Board, Mr. Taylor, provincial director 
of Apprenticeship Training; Robert Jones, Vice-President of the Provincial Federation 
of Labor; Joseph Gagnon, President of the Moncton District Trades and Labor Council; 
and a host of other labor and government dignitaries. 

From the addresses of the government men, the delegates received a great deal of 
useful information which will enable them to increase the effectiveness of their respective 
Local Unions. All things combined, the convention proved to be a very fruitful one. All 
officers were re-elected and Sydney was selected as the site of the next convention. 



EASTHAMPTON HONORS 12 OLD TIMERS 

To honor twelve old time members whose contributions to the union down the years 
account for a good deal of the success that has been achieved, Local Union No. 1372, 
Easthampton, Mass., on the night of January 22nd sponsored a social evening as a means 
of saying thanks to the old timers. Refreshments and a showing of the Brotherhood film 
"The Carpenter" helped to make the affair a successful one, but the pinning of service 
pins on the twelve old timers was the highlight of the evening. 




Pictured above are old time members of Local Union No. 1372, Easthampton, Mass., 
receiving their service pins from representative Fletcher Smith. From left to right, front 
row, they are: Paul A. Cantin, Sr., Herman Tauscher, Adam Kutz, Otto Kutz, Edwin F. 
Bernhardt, David J. Cullen, and Smith. 

Back row: Walter Heintze, Joseph Berestka, Otto Irmischer, Albert Abraham, and 
Joseph Raymond. Arthur Thouin, Sr., a charter member, was unable to be present because 
of illness. 

Among the old timers honored were two charter members, David Cullen and Arthur 
Thouin, Sr., who had their signatures on the original application for a charter made forty- 
nine years ago. Brother Thouin served as the union's first treasurer. Others receiving 
service pins were: Edwin Bernhardt, Albert Abraham, Joseph Berestka, Paul A. Cantin, 
Sr., Walter Heintze, Otto Ormischer, Adam Kurtz, Otto Kurtz, Joseph Raymond, and 
Herman Tauscher. Adam Kurtz has served thirty-three years as Business Agent. 



'34 



THE CARPENTER 



WILL REDDINC'S CONTRIBUTION LICK POLIO? 

For thousands of years, polio has taken a frightful toll among the children of the 
world. Withered limbs, twisted bodies and useless legs in virtually all communities are 
a daily reminder of the ravages this dreadful scourge of childhood can inflict on its 
victims. But the fight against polio is being won. Scientists in white coats, working 
with modem equipment in vast laboratories, are slowly but surely solving the mystery 
of polio and developing a cure. 

But the fight is a hard one and an expensive one. It has already taken a good deal 
of money and it will take a good deal more before polio can be eliminated as a threat 
to childhood. 





And perhaps the donation made by the Carpenters of Local Union No. 1599, Redding, 
California, will be the donation that will turn the trick. On the other hand, perhaps, not. 
But in any event, the members of Local Union No. 1599 and their brodier building trades- 
men of the area have made a contribution to • polio research that will help the cause 
along greatly. 

As their contribution to the annual March of Dime campaign, which is conducted 
yearly to raise money to fight polio, the building tradesmen of the Redding area decided 
this year to build a dream home and raffle it off for the benefit of the fund. Translating 
their ideas into action, they asked for and got the cooperation of all segments of the com- 
munity. Materials dealers donated materials. Retail Clerks and Culinary Workers responded 
with time and money. A lot was donated. 

In 27 hours of working time, the skilled craftsmen of Redding completed the dream 
house. It was raffled off at 50c per ticket and thousands upon thousands of dollars were 
thereby raised for the fight on polio. A great deal could be written about the contribution 
of the skilled workers of Redding in the project, but an editorial in the local daily paper, 
the Record-Searchlight, said it all in an editorial. That editorial said: 

Miracle of Teamwork 

To the hundreds of local families whose home-building projects have dragged out 
into long, long months the construction of the March of Dimes dream house in 27 
working hours must seem like an unbelievable miracle. 

It ivas just four days from vacant lot to completed five-room house, all finished ex- 
cept for tile-laying which had to wait for cement to harden. 

In a ivay it teas a miracle — a miracle of teamwork, cooperation and unselfish effort. 
You might, if you were willing to spend enough money, hire for four days as many men 
as tcorked on the dream house. But you can't hire or buy the kind of spirit that went 
into the job. These men weren't working for pay; they were making a contribution to 
the fight against polio; they were out to set a speed record; they were out to show 
ivhat could be done. 



THE CARPENTER 



35 



So, in some of the vilest weather in years, they turned out by the dozens and worked 
harder than they ever ivould for pay. Wind and rain and snow and mud didn't stop 
them. They threw a tarpaulin over the job and went ahead. Even when water collected 
on thetarp and the wind then dumped it over one of the workmen, the victim went 
right ahead and worked in his wet clothes. 

The job, obviously, was well planned and well directed. Material was there when 
it was needed, so there were none of the agonizing waits that recent home builders know 
so well. 

So many participated in the project that we'll not attempt to acknowledge them 
here. Organized labor sponsored the project, got it rolling and provided the volunteer 
workmen. Lumber mills, contractors, lumber yards, suppliers of all the things that go 
into a house from foundation to roof, pitched in generously and contributed the ma- 
terials. The subdivider gave the lot. 

If all the people of Shasta county contribute one tenth as generously as the builders 
have, the polio fight ivill be well financed. 



FLORIDA COUNCIL ELECTS HILL FOR 26th TIME 

At the recent 26th annual convention of the Florida State Council of Carpenters, held 
at the Alcazar Hotel at Miami, the council paid special tribute to Brother Bob Hill, 
secretary-treasurer. At the convention, Brother Hill was re-elected for the 26th con- 
secutive time. In all the years of its existence, the council has had but one secretary- 
treasurer— Bob Hill. Hill was one of the men who helped to bring the council into being. 
At the first meeting he was elected secretary-treasurer. Every succeeding convention 
followed suit. Today Brother Hill is still filling the post as effectively as ever, having 
over half a century of labor experience to draw from. 

As a token of appreciation for his outstanding service, the delegates to the convention 
presented Brother Hill with a beautiful, suitably inscribed lighter at a banquet held in 
connection with the convention. 




The convention itself was an outstanding success. Many matters of vital interest to 
the carpenters of the state were given attention. Frank Roche, president of the State 
Federation was on hand and gave a splendid talk on the problems confronting labor today. 
Several other special guests, including Brother Cheek of the Tennessee State Council, and 
Representative Van Pittman, presented informative and enlightening talks to the delegates. 
Among the favorable reports made was a report on the increase in Workmen's Compensa- 
tion from $22 per week to $35 per week— an improvement the council worked for dil- 
igently. Unemployment Compensation was also raised from $15 per week to $20 per 
week, and the work of Brother Van Pittman in getting the improvements put over in 
the legislature was duly noted. 

George L. Mitchell was elected president of the council to succeed John Maxim whose 
services to the council are too numerous to mention. 



36 THE CARPENTER 

DcKALB JOINS GOLDEN CIRCLE 

Members of Carpenters Local No. 965, DeKalb, Illinois, their families and many 
friends gathered at the Carpenters hall on Lincoln Highway Friday, January 4, 1952, to 
commemorate 50 years of union activity in this area by Local No. 965. 

Local 965 obtained its charter on January 7, 1902, and it has been intact through many 
years when labor was hard pressed to maintain its rightful place in die community. The 
first ten years of the existence of Local 965 were rather hectic and on a touch and go 
basis. The meetings were sometimes held secretly. Some men would join, then move to 
other employment and drop their union affiliations. Of the men who joined the union 
during the first ten years, only a few are still affiliated and some receiving pensions. 




The above photo depicts the officers of the Carpenters Local No. 965 who are at 
present guiding the destiny of the Local through its trials and tribulations as is completes 
its fiftieth year. 

Left to right: Oliver Solsrud, Business Representative; Alvin Wildenradt, Treasurer; 
Clarence Taylor, Trustee; Spencer Anderson, Recording Secretary; Arthur Parkhouse, 
Trustee; Curt Lovig, Vice-President; Wallace Anderson, President and Melvin Grove, 
Trustee. 

In the early twenties the union began to grow steadily, but in the 1930's the industry 
hit a snag and was held together only through the efforts and the farsighted men at its 
head. 

Local No. 965 has been very active, not only in union activities, but in civic affairs as 
well. They have always been ready and willing to extend to any civic group their whole 
hearted cooperation in any of their undertakings. 

Today Local 965 has grown to a point where it now boasts the ownership of the only 
building in DeKalb which is owned by a labor group as well as having the honor of being 
the oldest Local in DeKalb. 

The celebration consisted of a family party, motion pictures showing the Carpenters 
Home in Lakeland, Florida, refreshments and square dancing. 

Wallace Anderson, President of the DeKalb Local, was in charge of the activities of 
the evening, assisted by a large committee. 



THE CARPENTER 



37 



Frank Rice, one of two living charter members, was present, as well as a number of 
older members, including Carl E. Anderson, Carl Wildenradt, Sr., Albert Tadd, William 
Yates, Clarence Taylor and others. 

Among the oldest members are: Harry Hanaway, who is at the Carpenters Home in 
Lakeland and Frank Rice, the two charter members; Charles Holderness and Carl E. 
Anderson, forty-six years as members; Carl Wildenradt, Sr., forty-five, Thure Hallgren, 
forty; Arthur Parkhouse, thirty-nine; Andrew Hallgren, thirty-eight; Fred Norman, thirty- 
seven; Frank Merry, and Albert Tadd, thirty-five; Neo Johnson and William Yates, thirty- 
two; Russell R. Erickson, Clarence Jacox and Walter Masterson, twenty-seven; and 
Clarence Taylor, Adrian Jacobson, Jacob Jacobson and Harold Walker, twenty-five. 



LOCAL 612 CELEBRATES 56th BIRTHDAY 

Away back five years before the dawn of the Twentieth Century, a small group of 
carpenters in the vicinity of West New York, N. J., applied for a charter in the United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America. In due time the charter arrived and was 
installed. Fifty-six years later, on September 22nd, to be exact, the members of Local 
Union No. 612, gathered together with their wives, sweethearts and friends to celebrate the 
56th anniversary of the installing of that charter. 

A fine time was had by one and all. As the members, friends and guests sat down to a 
fine banquet or danced to the foot-tickling music afterward, the thoughts of most of them 
went back to the old days when the ink on the charter was barely dry, when wages were 
$2.00 per day or less and working conditions were abominable, when to admit union 




membership was to invite discharge or blacklisting or worse. And many remembered 
the old timers, most of them now dead and gone, who fought and sacrificed and worked 
to build the union and through the union to bring about die wages and working conditions 
that exist today. The celebration was a heart felt tribute to the contribution they made 
toward better living for all. 

Until a late hour the members and guests enjoyed themselves, and all of them departed 
proud of the accomplishments achieved by Local Union No. 612 and convinced that the 
organization is destined to serve the community for many years to come. 




The Editor GREETINGS FROM AUXILIARY No. 400 

Greetings to Sister Auxiliaries from Auxiliary No. 400 of Hollywood, California. 

Our Auxiliary is small, but all good workers. This past year has been a good one for 
us. We have made around $450.00 and have helped needy people. Our donations are 
made by having dances and dinners. 




From Left to Right Front Row: Arminita Dreon, Financial Secretary; Ruby Boyle, 
Vice-President; Mae Roberts, President; Ruth Nordlund, Recording Secretary; Aileen Dorn, 
Conductress. Standing: Edith Jones, Stella Hannah, Trustee; Celia Smookler, Marie 
Paterson, Trustee; Ethel Collins and Helen Casler. 

On November 7th, we entertained Sisters from other Auxiliaries in this district with a 
home talent show which was a huge success. Sisters from eight Auxiliaries responded to 
the invitation. The show was held at the Carpenters' Hall of Local 1052. Other Locals, 
together with our men from 1052 and their wives, attended the show. Preceding the show, 
the women met in our Auxiliary Room for a get-acquainted period. There were four 
state officers present— Mable Parker, President; Ruth Nordlund, Vice-President; Ethel 
Wash, Secretary- Treasurer; Margaret Walker, Board Member; and two past state Presi- 
dents—Mae Hoover and "Dimples" McCoy. Before the show started, everyone participated 
in community singing. We had twelve skits of song and dance numbers— one included 
the "women carpenters" that was outstanding. Following the entertainment and awarding 
of door prizes, everyone adjourned to the banquet room for refreshments that were 



THE CARPENTER 



39 



donated by the men from Local 1052. Everyone had a delightful evening, visiting and 
exchanging ideas. 

On December 19th, we held our Christmas "party and members brought food to be 
donated to a sick member of our Local and his family. We also donated money to this 
family and many others who were in need. It made a grand Christmas for our Auxiliary 
to be able to make a Merry Christmas for others. 

Correspondence from other Auxiliaries will always be welcome. 

Fraternally yours, Mrs. Ruth Nordlund, Recording Secretary 

» 

LADIES AUXILIARY No. 495 

The Editor: 

Ladies' Auxiliary No. 495 of San Rafael, California, sends a friendly "hello" to all 
Auxiliaries. We have been keeping quite busy with civic and our own social activities. 
We feel that busy members are happy in the fact that they have a part in the functions 
of an organization. 

Our Auxiliary adopted a group of soldiers stationed at Pt. Arena and have taken great 
pleasure in doing service for them. The members baked and packed home-made cookies 
for Thanksgiving for 150 boys and sent Christmas Cards signed by each member. We 
collected used tools and other useful articles for them to use to while away their spare time 
from their duties. 

We celebrated our Fourth Anniversary January 26th at the Carpenters' Hall. The hall 
was literally turned into an old fashioned barn for the barn dance. Square dancing and ball 
room dancing was enjoyed until the wee hours. Brothers "Tex" Rockwell, George Hocker- 
son, Roy Sapp, James Braden and Cal Hammack entertained with solos and musical selec- 
tions. Mr. Eugene George called for the square dancing. Mrs. Elmer Beckinus, President, 
cut the birthday cake and all joined in singing Happy Birthday to the Auxiliary. 

We had a very Merry Christmas party for the members and their families. Brother 
Claude Harden officiated as Santa Claus. 

We have many more activities planned for the near future. A bus trip to Hayward 
Auxiliary was enjoyed by twenty-five of our members. 

We would like to hear from other Auxiliaries. 

Fraternally yours, Mrs, Charles Nelson, Publicity Chairman 



NEBRASKA AUXILIARIES PROMOTE UNION STAMP 

The Editor: 

Greetings to all Auxiliaries and State Councils from the Nebraska State Council of 
Carpenters Auxiliaries. 

On February 3rd we held our Quarterly Executive Board Session in Lincoln. A good 
turnout was on hand and we had a very profitable session. 
We have been organized for only three years but we are 
getting along nicely and accomplishing a good deal. We 
now have seven Auxiliaries affiliated and we have high hopes 
of growing from now on. 

As a fund-raising idea, we have hit on a novel scheme 
which seems to be doing well. We have had a stamp 
printed that can be used on union mail such as Christmas 
seals are used on Christmas mail. The stamp is our own 
design. Down the left-hand side it has the letters AFL. 
Across it, utilizing the A and the F and the L, are the 
words Always for Labor. Thus, in addition to helping us 
bolster our treasury, the stamps serve to advertise organized 
labor. The stamps are printed in red, white and blue. 
These stamps are on sale to any or all Auxiliaries at sixty- 
cents for a sheet of 100 stamps, if ordered in lots of ten sheets or more at one time. In- 
terested Auxiliaries may then re-sell them for a dollar a sheet to individuals to help their 
own treasuries. So far we have sold over 1,000 sheets in our own state and about 300 
sheets to other sections of the country. 
Fraternally, 

Camille Butler, Secretary, 215 No. 23rd St., Omaha, Neb. 




40 



Questions For Old Timers 



A correspondent wants information regarding building terms or 
expressions dating as far back as 1785 and 1758. He reports finding 
records in the vicinity of Annapolis, Maryland, in which were used 
these expressions: "Galloping Joists" and "Galloping Rafters." He 
wants to know how and where these joists and rafters were used in a 
building, and what they were like. In another part of the letter he 
writes: 

"Recently a description of the original specifications for 
the Market Hall (circa 1758) in the town of Annapolis itself 
was found. This paper described the building as being 40 feet 
long and 20 feet wide with a pitch of 10 feet. It is not known 
what this term pitch means. If it refers to the roof pitch then 
a very important dimension, the height of the building, has 
been omitted from a specification intended to inform the pros- 
pective builder of the extent of his work." 

It is quite evident to me that the phrase, "a pitch of 10 feet," 
refers to the pitch of the roof. It would be the logical pitch for a build- 
ing 20 feet by 40 feet. In most cases when the pitch of a roof is de- 
signated, the word pitch refers to the rise of the roof, rather than to the 
slope. For example, a one-third pitch means that the rise is equal 
to one-third of the span. The slope is the unescapable result. The same 
is true when speaking of other pitches, as one-fourth pitch, one-half 
pitch, etc. The fraction always indicates what part of the span is to be 
used as the rise of the roof. Then if the roof framer knows the dimen- 
sions of the building, he has all the information he needs to frame the 
roof. The only exception to this practice is when the pitch of a roof 
is indicated by degrees, as in a 45 degrees pitch, etc. In such cases 
the rise is determined by the slope of the roof. Even when the pitch of 
a roof is shown by a diagram (right-angle triangle) the rise always 
determines the pitch. But the degree method of roof framing is rarely, 
if ever, used by carpenters. It is doubtful whether any of the methods 
just referred to were in general use back in 1758, and therefore the 
simplest way of indicating the pitch of a roof, would have been to give 
the full rise. This being true, the logical conclusion is that the expres- 
ion "a pitch of 10 feet" gave the pitch of the roof, rather than the height 
of the building. 

However, "Galloping Joists" and "Galloping Rafters" are terms un- 
familiar to me. Is there some old timer in our organization who is fa- 
miliar with the terms and what they refer to? If so, I would appreciate 
receiving a note from him either directly to me or to "The Carpenter." 

H. H. Siegele 

222 S. Constitution 
Emporia, Kansas 



Craft Probloms 




Carpentry 

By H. H. Siegele 
LESSON 282 

The Garage Home.— A temporary garage 
home can have many of the conveniences 
that modern standards of living call for, as 
was shown by the previous lesson. At the 
same time, the outside of such homes can 
be made rather attractive by exercising 
good taste, even though everything that is 
done is done with a view to economy. 

Front Elevation.— Fig. 1 shows the front 
elevation of the garage, which is used as 




nm i --ji --' fig 



Fig. 1 

a temporary home. The large opening for 
the front garage door, is indicated by dot- 
ted lines, which has been closed with a 
temporary wall. In this wall the front door 
and two windows have been placed. The 
bottom of the wall that closes the garage 
door opening, is sealed with fibered cem- 
ent, in order to keep rain and snow water 
from getting into the building. This is 




Fig. 2 
pointed out with the "Seal Here" indicators. 
To the left is shown a cross section of a 
side wall, giving the height of the wall, and 
also the depth of the foundation. On the 
main drawing the footing and the founda- 



tion wall are pointed out. The driveway, 
which is shown by dotted lines, is also 
pointed out on this drawing. The outsides 
are covered with imitation brick siding. It 




Fig. 3 

should be remembered, however, that the 
specifications given on the drawings, or that 
might be mentioned in the text, are not 
hard and fast. If the owner or the builder 
wants something else instead of what is 
specified, that is his absolute right. The roof 
pitch, as shown to the upper right, is a 12 
and 7 pitch. 



-Asphalt Shingles ■ 



€) 



□ 
□ 



' — -Imitation Bmck Siding 




■ Footing- 



-Foundation- 



Fig. 4 

Rear Elevation.— Fig. 2 shows the rear 
elevation with two windows. To the left 
is shown a cross section of a side wall, cut 
through a window. The pitch of the roof 
is also indicated here— likewise the footing 
and foundation wall. 

The imitation brick siding that is used 
to cover the outside walls, is asphalt sid- 
ing, put up in rolls, with the brickwork 
printed on it, as it were, with granulated 
rock. 

Side Elevations.— Fig. 3 shows the left 
side elevation, where the foundation and 
footing are pointed out, also the siding. 



42 



THE CARPENTER 



Here is shown the rear door and two win- 
dows. Asphalt shingles arc specified for 
the roof. Fig. 4 shows the right side eleva- 
tion of the garage home. 



1X6 JofST HwiflE*' 




Fig. 5 

Cross Section.— Fig. 5 shows a cross sec- 
tion of the building, cut through the kitchen, 
water closet, shower, and clothes closet. 
The refrigerator and sink are shown in the 
kitchen, while in the water closet, are shown 
die stool, and a part of the lavatory. The 
curtain diat separates die shower from die 
water closet is pointed out— also the drain. 
To the extreme right is shown the inside 
of the clothes closet door. The vent is in- 
dicated by dotted lines. The joist hangers 
that are pointed out, are lx6's, used to 



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support the living room, which do not have 
a partition support. 

Detail of Cornice.— Fig. 6 is a detail of 
cornice, where the asphalt shingles are 
pointed out. The rafter and ceiling joists, 
shown in part, arc 2x4's. A quarter round 
is shown in the angle, but a square piece, 
%x%, can be used instead, which would give 
a rather pleasing effect. Pressed wood is 
specified, but if some other kind of wall 
board is desired, it can be used. The 
The %xl-% slats are used for covering the 
joints of the wall board. 

Longitudinal Section.— Fig. 7 shows the 
lengthwise section of the garage home, cut 



Asphalt Shingles, 



Crown Mold 



Imitation Brick 




dirough the kitchen and living room. The 
work table, stove, and sink are shown here. 
To the right the curtain wall is pointed 
out. The floor is made of concrete, which 
is pointed out on the drawing with the 
"Concrete Slab" indicators. To the right 
the sealing of the temporary wall, that 
closes die large front opening of die gar- 
age, is pointed out. The 2x4 rafters and 




Fig. 7 

ceiling joists are also pointed out on the 
drawing. 

Partition Details.— Fig. 8 shows in detail 
how the partitions are joined to the ceil- 
ing, as shown at the top. At the bottom is 
shown how the partitions are joined to the 
floor. The partition studding are set fiat- 
ways, as specified on die drawing. The 1x6 
backing above the pressed wood, to which 
the partition is fastened, should be studied. 
Notice how it is fastened to a 2x3, which in 



THE CARPENTER 



43 



turn is fastened to the 2x4 ceiling joists. 
Wood plugs are used for fastening the 2x2 
plate at the bottom, but expansion bolts 
could also be used. 

Door Opening Construction.— Fig. 9 shows 
three views of the construction of the door 
openings. To the left is a face view of the 
side of the opening that is constructed of 
2x4's, which could be called the jamb. The 
2x4's, in this case, also answer for the casing. 
At the center we have a cross section of the 




Fig. 8 

door opening, while to the right the cased up 
side of the opening is shown. The casings, it 
will be noticed, are lx4's. See the bottom 
drawing of Fig. 2 of the previous lesson. 

Temporary Parts.— Since everything that 
is installed to convert a garage into living 
quarters, will have to be torn out again, the 
installations should be made with a view to 
salvaging the material when it is dismantled. 
This means that, while substantial con- 
struction should be kept in mind, many 
parts of the installations can be done by 
fastening them just enough to keep them 




Fig. 9 

in place. Then when they are taken down, 
it will reduce the cost of labor and also pre- 
vent damage to the material. . . Here is a 
chance for the man who wants to own his 
own home to start in that direction, and 
eventually to succeed. 



THE SLIDE SQUARE 

. Eor many years this writer has felt the 
need of a tool with which one could measure 
angles in degrees, without having to carry 
a protractor with him. That need is satisfied 
by a new invention, the slide square. This 
is a time-saver in marking the cuts for gable 
and regular hip and valley roofs. For ir- 
regular hip and valley roofs it serves as a 
short-cut bevel square. To mark any level 
and plumb cuts you simply set the tongue 
of the square to the degree that will give 




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132-138 Lafayette St., New York City • Barrie, Ontario 



44 



THE CARPENTER 



one or the other cut, and the square will 
mark both cuts. 

Fig. 1 gives a face view of the slide square, 
set for marking the level and plumb cuts 
for a half pitch roof, which, as most mech- 
anics know, is 45 degrees. For a third pitch 
the tongue is set at 33.75 degrees. A table 
on the face of the square gives the degrees 
to use for the different pitches. 

To bisect angles, such as are shown by 
Fig. 2, measure one or the other of the two 



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angles in degrees, and divide by two— the 
quotient will give the point in degrees for 
marking the member cut, not only for the 
sharp (acute) angle, but also for the dull 
(obtuse) angle. The square to the right, 




Fig. 1 

with the face side up, is set for marking the 
member cut for the sharp angle. The mem- 
ber cut for the dull angle is marked, with- 
out changing the square, by swinging it in- 
to die position shown by dotted lines to the 
left. 

To trisect any angle, measure the angle 
in degrees and divide by three— the quotient 
giving the number of degrees in each of the 



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for this fine tool. 



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Greenlee Tool Co., 2083 Columbia Ave., Rockford, III. 



THE CARPENTER 



45 



three parts. This is shown by Fig. 3, where 
a 90-degree angle is shown trisected. The 
square was first set at 30 degrees. Then at 
60 degrees, which divided the angle into 




three parts. To divide the same angle into 
six parts, set the square to one-sixth of 90, 
or 15 degrees, and mark the first line, as 
shown by the dotted fine. The second line 




is made with the square set at 30 degrees. 
The third at 45 degrees, and so on until the 
angle is divided into six equal parts. In the 
same way any angle can be divided into as 
many parts as the case might require. 

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instructions $2.95 at dealers or POSTPAID. 
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To get the member cuts for the joints of 
a "parallelogram, measure one of the angles 
in degrees, and set the square to half the 
number of degrees in the angle. The square 
set, one edge will give the member cuts for 
the sharp angles, while the other edge will 
give the member cuts for the dull angles. 

Every roof framer, stair builder, or finisher 
should have a slide square in his kit. In 
fact, every carpenter needs this tool to 
complete his set of tools. 



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NOTICE 

Tho publishers of "The Carpenter" reservo the 
right to reject all advertising matter which may 
bo, In their judgment, unfair or Objectionable to 
the membership of the United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America. 

All Contracts for advertising space In "The Car- 
penter," including those stipulated as non-can- 
collable, are only accepted subject to the above 
reserved rights of the publishers. 



Index of Advertisers 



Carpenters' Tools and Accessories 

Page 

The American Floor Surfacing 

Machine Co., Toledo, Ohio 46 

Burr Mfg. Co., Los Angeles, Cal. 43 
E. C. Atkins & Co., Indianapolis, 

Ind. 4th Cover 

Cedarberg Mfg. Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 45 

Robert H. Clark Co., Beverly 

Hills, Calif. 44 

Henry Disston & Sons, Inc., 

Philadelphia, Pa. 4 

The Dumore Co., Racine, Wis. 45 

Eliason Tool Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 5 

E-Z Mark Tools, Los Angeles 

Calif. 6 

Foley Mfg. Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 46 

Greenlee Tool Co., Rockford, III— 44 
The Lufkin Rule Co., Saginaw, 

Mich. 43 

A. D. McBurney, Los Angeles, 

Calif. 45 

Millers Falls Co., Greenfield, 

Mass. 5 

The Paine Co., Chicago, 111. 47 

Sandvik Saw & Tool, New York, 

N. Y. 6 

J. H. Scharf Co., Omaha, Neb. — 44 
The Speed Corp., Portland, Ore— 44 
Stanley Tools, New Britain, 

Conn. 3rd Covet 

Carpentry Materials 

Boyle-Midway, New York, N. Y— 5 

E. L. Bruce Co., Memphis, 

Tenn. 4 

Technical Courses and Books 

American Technical Society, Chi- 
cago, 111. 47 

Audel Publishers, New York, 

N. Y. 3rd Cover 

Chicago Technical College, Chi- 
cago, 111. 3 

Frederick J. Drake & Co., Wil- 

mette, 111. 47 

International Corespondence 

Schools, Scranton, Pa. 48 

A. Riechers, Palo Alto, Calif. 3rd Cover 

H. H. Siegele, Emporia, Kans. 42 

Wearing Apparel 

Brownstein-Louis Co., Los Ange- 
les, Calif. 1 



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A New and Timely Book on 
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Covers All These Sub- 
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Roof Framing Table, 
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Measure, Brace and 
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Square Problems, Square 
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Counter Pitch, Simple 
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Difference in Lengths 
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leys, Framing Gable 
Studding, Curved-Edge 



Hayfork Hoods. Stair Building — Plank Stairs, Serv- 
ze Stairs, Housed Stairs, Rough Horses, Newels, Handrails. 
Vinding and Circular Stairs, Concrete Steps, Circular Cement 

fairs, Self-Supporting Circular Stairs, and the Protractor. A 

hort Roof Framing Course: Roofs and Roof Pitches; Stepping 
.)ff Rafters; Regular Valley, Jack, and Hip Cuts. Miscellane- 

us Roof Problems, Stair Problems, Squaring Problems, and 

quares. 

. Full Cloth Binding • 184 Practical Helpful Pages 
Complete Subject Index • 468 Illustrations 



468 Illustrations Show Actual Uses 
of the Steel Square on All Jobs 

The steel square is one of the most important 
tools the building tradesman possesses. Yet few, 
if any, of even the best and most experienced 
workmen, know all the things that can be done 
with it. Here is a new book you are sure to 
want by H. H. Siegele, America's most authorita- 
tive writer on all building subjects and practical 
craft problems. It is the last word on the steel 
square and how it can be used — to increase your 
skill and efficiency — save your time — make 
money for you. Order the STEEL SQUARE and 
other books by Siegele today. Use them 5 days 
and if they fail to please we will refund your 
money. 



ORDER ON THIS HANDY COUPON 



Frederick J. Drake & Co., Dept. 33 
117 Green Bay Road, Wilmette, III. 
Send Siegele Books checked below. If not 
satisfactory I will return in 5 days for full re- 
fund. □ Send C. O. D. ' Remittance En- 
closed $ 



□ The STEEL SQUARE (New Book) 
Other Siegele Books 

□ Roof Framing, 
$2.50 

□ Carpentry, $2.50 

□ Carpenter's Tools, 
$2.50 

□ Quick Construction, 
$2.50 



$3.00 



□ Concrete Construc- 
tion, $2.50 

□ Building Trades 
Dictionary, $3.00 

□ Building, $2.50 



Name 



Address 
City 



State . 



A TRUE I. C S. STORY 



taken from an actual lettei 




I was a World War II pilot . . 



A prisoner of war in Germany , 



IT WOULD HAVE TAKEN ME 
YEARS TO LEARN THE HARD 
WAY WHAT I GET EASILY 



FROM I.G.S. 




yOUNO MAN, I'M VERY IM- 
PRESSED BY THE PROGRESS 
SHOWN IN 
THESE REPORTS 
FROM | £ $ / Wl |i|' ; -.''' 




WELCOME TO NATIONAL AIRLINES! 
YOOXL START AS CITY TRAFFIC 
MANAGER HERE IN TAMPA. 
GOOD LUCK I 




Back home, I was hired by National . 



I'VE DOUBLED My EARNINGS 
SINCE I BEGM MY | .C.S . 
STUDIES. AND I'M GOING 
TO KEEP RIGHT AT IT. 




Studied with I. C. S. in my spare time ... I. C. S. sent reports to my employer . . , 



I am now Washington District Manager. 

How have you done since the war? Start now to get the V^> * ^N. *""") < 

training that leads to advancement. Mail coupon today! parke wright 



INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOLS 



Without cost or obligation, please send me 

D Air Conditioning 

D Heating 

D Plumbing D Refrigeration 

□ Refrigeration, Domestic 

D Refrigeration & Air Conditioning 
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□ Aeronautics Courses 
D Aeronautical Engineer's, Jr. 
D Aircraft Drafting & Design 
D Aircraft Mechanic 

D tngine Mechanic 

□ Architecture 

□ Architectural Drafting 
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□ House Plannirrg 
Art Courses 

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D Magazine Illustrating 
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Automotive Courses 

□ Automobile Q Auto Technician 
D Auto Electric Technician 

D Auto Body Rebuilding & Refinishing 

Chemical Courses 
Q Chemical Engineering 



BOX 8835-3, SCRANTON 9, PENNA. 

full particulars about the course BEFORE which I have marked X: 
□ Chemistry, Analytical □ Heat Treatment of Metals 

D Chemistry, Industrial Q Industrial Engineering 

D Food-Plant Sanitation Q Industrial Instrumentation 

D Petroleum Production and Refining Q Industrial Metallurgy 
D Pulp and Paper Making Q Plastics n Machine Shop Inspection 



D Civil Engineering 

D Bridge and Building Foreman 

D Highway Engineering 

D Reading Structural Blueprints 

D Sanitary Engineering 

Q Structural Drafting 

D Structural Engineering 

D Surveying and Mapping 

Communications Courses 

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Electrical Courses 

O Electrical Drafting 
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D Lighting Technician 
O Practical Electrician 
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D Internal Combustion Engines 
Mechanical Courses 



D Forging 



D Mechanical Drafting 

D Mechanical Engineering 

O Millwrighting D Mold-Loft Work 

D Patternmaking— Wood, Metal 

D Reading Shop Blueprints 

H Sheet-Metal Drafting 

D Sheet-Metal Worker 

D Ship Drafting D Ship Fitting 

□ Tool Designing D Toolmaking 

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Radio Courses 

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[J Radio Servicing 

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D Car Inspector and Air Brake 
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D Locomotive Engineer 



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D Salesmanship D Secretarial 

D Sales Management D Stenography 
D Traffic Management 



Name- 
City— 



-Home Address- 



Present Position . 



Representatives in all principal cities. Canadian residents send coupon to International Correspondence Schools Canadian, Ltd., Montreal, Canada. 



When you want kMNv 

y 4> ■■ - "*'wss!is | fe U vi'' 




Nail Hammer No. 51.' < 
Perfectly balanced — makes 
light of heavy work. Special 
analysis steel head "super- 
heat-treated". Live young \ 
hickory handle "Evertite" 
processed, triple wedged 
for permanent tightness. \- 
Polished head with black %- 
neck. Curved claws — 
semi-ripping pattern. 

Available in 5,7, 10, 
\ 13, 16 and 20 oz. 




Extension Rule No. 227 

Speeds measuring on every job. 
6" brass slide for inside meas- 
uring. Large, black Gothic 
numerals. Graduated in 1 6ths 
on all edges. Straight 
grained maple sticks — 
extra thick — tough and 
flexible. NEW protec- 
tive plastic finish — 
fo\ ! * ! %!> wears 4 times longer. 
Nickel silver joints, 
longest wearing. 
"Ball socket" ac- 
tion prevents 
stretching. A 
®SjN "Green End" 

m Ruie - 




work with these 

Stan ley Tools 

Like all Stanley Tools those shown here are designed to do 
a better job. Y our dea ler carries the complete line — look 
for the famous C STANLEY] trade-mark. 

Stanley Tools, New Britain, Conn. Reg. U.S. Pat. Off. 

HARDWARE • TOOLS • ELECTRIC TOOLS • STEEL STRAPPING • STEEL 



THE TOOL BOX OF THE WORLD 

[STANLEY] 



Full Length Roof Framer 

A pocket size book with the EN- 
TIRE length of Common-Hip-Valley 
and Jack rafters completely worked 
out for you. The flattest pitch is Vz 
inch rise to 12 inch run. Pitches in- 
crease V2 inch rise each time until 
the steep pitch of 24" rise to 12" 
run is reached. 

There are 2400 widths of build- 
ings for each pitch. The smallest 
width is % inch and they increase 
*4 " each time until they cover a 50 
foot building. 

There are 2400 Commons and 2400 
Hip, Valley & Jack lengths for each 
pitch. 230,400 rafter lengths for 48 
pitches. 

A hip roof is 48'-9 1 / 4" wide. Pitch 
is 7V 2 " rise to 12" run. You can pick 
out the length of Commons, Hips and 
Jacks IN QNE MINUTE 

Let us prove it, or return your money. 

Getting the lengths of rafters by the span and 
the method of setting up the tables is fully pro- 
tected by the 1917 & 1944 Copyrights. 

Price $2.50 Postpaid. If C. O. D. pay $2.90. 

Californians Add 8c. Money back privilege. 

Canadians use Money Orders. 



A. RIECHERS 



P. O. Box 405 



Palo Alto, Calif. 




AUDELS Carpenters 
and Builders Guides 

4 vols. $6 

Inside Trade Information 

for Carpenters, Builders, Join- 
ers, Building Mechanics and all 
Woodworkers. These Guides 
give you the short-cut instruc- 
tions that you want— including 
new methods, ideas, solutions, 
plans, systems and money sav- 
ing suggestions. An easy pro- 
gressive course for the appren- 
tice and student. A practical 
daily helper and Quick Refer- 
ence for the master worker. 
Carpenters everywhere are us- 
ing these Guides as a Helping 
Hand to Easier Work, Better 
Work and Better Pay. To get 
this assistance for yourself. 

Inside Trade Information On: mSF free 1 coupon beiow. 

How to use the steel square — How to file and 

set saws — How to build furniture — How to use 

a mitre box — How to use the chalk line — How 

to use rules and scales — How to make joints — 

Carpenters arithmetic — Solving mensuration 

problems — Estimating strength of timbers — 

How to set girders and sills — How to frame 

houses and roofs — How to estimate costs — How 

to build houses, barns, garages, bungalows, etc. 

— How to read and draw plans — Drawing up 

specifications — How to excavate — How to use 

settings 12, 13 and 17 on the steel square — How 

to build hoists and scaffolds — skylights— How 

to build stairs — How to put on interior trim— . 

How to hang doors — How to lath — lay floors — How to paint 

imMmmimmimiinimiio MMii iinHoinniiniln 

AUDEL, Publishers, 49 W. 23rd St., New York 10, N. Y. 

Mail Audels Carpenters and Builders Guides, 4 vols., on 7 days' free 




Occupation- 



Employed by- 



CAR 



a 




ifeftoobW'! 



8ed"fo Occho ! 



t 



,.|fc,;H 





y^uW. 6«d"4 St6cfc ! 



only ATKINS 
SAWS* 



ma 




"Si/ver Stee/" 
Files 

For every filing 
purpose. Tops in 
quality! Tops in 
value! 



# Generations of carpenters have used 
and approved the Atkins No. 65, the World's 
Champion of truly fine saws! And now it 
has "sired a son." . . . The Atkins Jr. -65. Same 
style, same fine "Silver Steel" quality, same 
Perfection Pattern handle— identical in 
everything but size. The 11 Pt. blade is only 
16" long. Along with its larger counterpart, 
the Jr. -65 belongs in every carpenter's 
kit for smooth precision work at close quarters. 

fine7 bo/5/ 
E. C. ATKINS AND COMPAN' 

402 South Illinois Street, Indianapolis 9, Indiana 



ATKINS 




CARPENTER 




FOUNDED 1881 



Official Publication of the 
UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS of AMERICA 




APRIL, 1952 



The Enemy at His Back 





M 



says BOB LOVELADY, Lincoln wood, Illinois 



"A SKIL Saw is the most conven- 
ient to use on every sawing job, 
whether it's on a saw-horse or on a 
roof," says Bob Lovelady, six-year 
user of SKIL Saws. With the grip 
handle behind the blade, there's a 
straight line of force that means 
easier guiding, greater accuracy. 
That's one-hand operation for cut- 



ting . . . not merely for lifting the 
saw into position. And whether 
Bob Lovelady uses one hand or two, 
he can always count on steady, 
power-packed action from this saw. 
It gives him the help he needs on 
the job. That's why he says, "For 
easier handling and steady power, 
give me a SKIL Saw every time." 




SKIL Saw 
Model 825 



«d^ 



SKIL Driver ^*~^ 



Powerful, heavy duty 8'/4" SKIL Saw for day-long saw- 
ing of all kinds. Base adjustments: 0" to 2 s /»" vertical 
depth of cut; 0° to 45° bevel adjustment; 2'/8" depth of 
cut at 45°. Rear grip handle with auxiliary top handle. 
Free blade speed: 3000 r.p.m. Overall length: 18". 
Weight: 17 Vi pounds. One of 10 SKIL models ... a 
saw to fit every need. 




SKIL Belt Sander 



SKIL products are made only by SKILSAW, INC. 
5033 Elsfon Avenue, Chicago 30, III. 

Skilsaw Factory Branches in principal cities 
In Canada: Skiltools, Ltd., 3601 Dundas Street West, Toronto 9, OnL 



A Monthly Journal, Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners 

of America, for all its Members of all its Branches. 

PETER E. TERZICK, Editor 

Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis 4, Indiana 



Established In 1881 
Vol. LXXII— No. 4 



INDIANAPOLIS, APRIL, 1952 



One Dollar Per Year 
Ten Cents a Copy 



— Con tents — 



Political Awakening Needed 



In three elections in a row organized labor has allowed candidates representing 
the vested interests to win by default because working people were too "busy" or too 
lazy to go to the polls. The result has been passage of the Taft-Hartley Law, higher taxes 
for the poor and tax loopholes for the rich, inflation largely brought on by profiteering. 
Working people are paying dearly for their negligence at the polls. Next November will 
give us a chance to correct the situation. Will we be smart enough to grab it? 

11 

In recent years Uncle Sam has brought to the United States many teams of European 
workers to show them how industry operates within our shores. What these visiting 
Europeans found is interesting. A French team recently wrote a book describing the im- 
pressions gained while visiting here, a few of which are contained in this article. 



As Others See Us 



A Somewhat Different Story 



16 

If you read any daily paper at all you undoubtedly read the story several months 
ago about plumbers and other building tradesmen being paid $750 a week on an atomic 
project in Nevada. It made a fine story and gave the impression union members were 
getting rich off the defense effort. But when the Atomic Energy Commission looked into 
the matter, it found the situation considerably different from the situation the news- 
papers described. The Commission handed out a true version of the matter but very 
few papers bothered to print it. Here it is. 



It Is Our Job - 



19 

Tax loopholes cost the United States four and a half billion dollars a year in lost 
revenue, revenue that must be made up by dipping deeper into the average working 
man's pay check. The time has come for plugging these loopholes before there can 
be any talk of imposing any additional taxes on John Q. Public. 



• • • 



OTHER DEPARTMENTS 
Plane Gossip 
Editorials 
The Locker 
Official 

In Memoriam 
Correspondence 
To The Ladies - 
Craft Problems 



Index to Advertisers 



* * * 



14 
24 
30 
32 
33 
34 
39 
40 



46 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of 

Congress. Aug. 24, 1912. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for 

in Section 1103, act of October 3, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918. 



CARPENTERS 

B U I L D E RS a nd APPRENTICES 




THOROUGH TRAINING IN BUILDING 

Learn at Home in Your Spare Time 

The successful builder will tell you 
that the way to the top-pay jobs and 
success in Building is to get thorough 
knowledge of blue prints, building con- 
struction and estimating. 

In this Chicago Tech Course, you learn to 
read blue prints — the universal language of the 
builder — and understand specifications — for all 
types of buildings. 

You learn building construction details : 
foundations, walls, roofs, windows and doors, 
arches, stairs, etc. 

You learn how to lay out work and direct 
building jobs from start to finish. You learn 
to estimate building costs quickly and accurate- 
ly. Find out how you can pre- 
pare at home for the higher- 
paid jobs in Building, or your 
own successful contracting busi- 
ness. Get the facts about 
this income-boosting Chicago 
Tech training now. 

MAIL COUPON NOW 




Prepare for more pay, greater suc- 
cess. Learn how to lay out and run 
building jobs, how to read blue prints, 
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tical training with complete blue print 
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Over 47 years of experience in train- 
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INCREASE YOUR INCOME 

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FRI 



Blue Prints 
and Trial Lesson 



Send today for Trial Lesson: "How to 
Read Blue Prints," and set of Blue Print 
Plans — sent to you Free. See for yourself 
how this Chicago Tech Course prepares 
you to earn more money, gives you the 
thorough knowledge of Building required 
for the higher-up jobs and higher pay. 
Don't delay. Mail the coupon today in an 
envelope or use a penny postcard. 



CHI CAGOTECHN I C A L C O LL E G E 

TECH BLDG., 2000 SOUTH MICHIGAN AVE., CHICAGO 16, ILL. 



Chicago Technical College 

D-124 Tech Bldg., 2000 So. Michigan Ave., 

Chicago 16, Illinois 

Mail me Free Blue Print Plans and Booklet: "How to Read Blue Prints" 
with information about how I can train at home. 

Name Age 

Address Occupation 

City Zone - State 



GREATEST CEILING 
PRODUCT EVER ■ 





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finish. For information, wire, 
write or mail the coupon. 



THE UPSON COMPANY, 834 Upson Point, Lockporl, N.Y, 
□ Mail me full information on Upson Ceiling Tiles. 
Q Have your representative call to give me full informa- 
tion on Upson Ceiling Tiles. 

NAME 



UPSON CEILING TILES 
come packaged in carton: 



TYPE OF BUSINESS. 

STREET 

CITY 



.STATE, 



KNOWLEDGE 

IS 

POWER 

THE BUILDING FIELD 



BECOME THE BEST 
BUILDING MAN IN 
YOUR TOWN. LEARN 
ALL ABOUT EVERY 
PHASE OF BUILDING, 
ESTIMATING AND 
CONTRACTING 



Supervised Home Study Training 

The American Technical Society offers a step-by-step 
method of training men to become experts in the field 
of Building, Estimating and Contracting. Learn Blue- 
print Beading, Carpentry, Masonry, House Planning, 
Remodeling, Mathematics. Leam how to estimate for 
the Building Trades. Seventy-four step-by-step train- 
ing lessons complete with up-to-date text books to 
train you as a Building, Estimating and Contracting 
expert. 

We Furnish All Training Materials 

You get complete training assignments in such sub- 
jects as Structural Details, Specifications, Sheet Metal, 
Heating, Insulation, Excavation, Foundations, Woods, 
Windows, Styles of Boofs, Interior Wall Coverings, 
Stair Construction, Wind Resistant Construction, Selec- 
tion and Application of Mortars. Theory, Kinds, Design 
and Building of Driveways, Floors, Steps and Side- 
walks. Kinds and selection of Columns, Steel, Lally, 
Concrete, Brick. Fireplace Constructions, Design, Esti- 
mating, Septic Tank Systems. Styling a House. Re- 
modeling. Complete materials include 9 text books, 8 
lesson booklets, 8 study guides with instructions for the 
study and preparation of the examinations, 61 sets of 
self-checking quizzes, 4 supplementary information 
sheets, 74 examinations to be submitted for correc- 
tions and grading by your supervisory instructor who 
helps you in your training program. 

Is Your Future Worth a 3c Stamp? 

A three cent stamp will bring your first set of train- 
ing assignments in Building, Estimating and Con- 
tracting for your examination without cost and without 
obligation. If, after examination, you are not con- 
vinced about the value of this training and do not 
believe it can help you raise your income by thousands 
of dollars, return the assignments within ten days and 
it will cost you nothing! However, if you are con- 
vinced you can build a business of your own and boost 
your earning power, and you do not return the first 
training assignment within ten days, you authorize us 
to ship the second set of training assignments C.O.D. 
for a )egistration fee of $10.00 and to bill you an open 
ar-oount for the balance of the course at the rate of 
Si 0.00 per month until the total price of the course, 
$210.00, has been paid. This will cover all costs. 
There will be no extras. 




Become Independent 
LEARN WHILE YOU EARN 

The demand for highly paid men in the building field 
is increasing by leaps and bounds. There is a critical 
shortage of TRAINED men — men who know all jobs 
connected with the building trades. If you are in- 
terested in greater advancement and independent 
financial security, plan today to expand your know- 
ledge in the building field. Become a Building Con- 
tractor. The American Technical Society will start 
you on the road to success by providing you with the 
kind of home study training you need to learn every 
branch of Building, Estimating and Contracting. No 
classes to attend. Continue to earn while you learn. 

Here Is What You Get 

FIVE YEARS CONSULTING MEMBERSHIP: You should complete 
this training in one year, but we award you the 
privilege of consulting with our staff of engineers for 
a period of five years. 

TESTS: Examining and grading Texts in order to quali- 
fy you for our Diploma in Building, Estimating & 
Contracting. 

DIPLOMA: A Diploma to be awarded as soon as you 
have completed this Training. 

STUDY MATERIAL: (1). All textbooks and study material 
and examinations for completion of the course are to 
be supplied to you by the American Technical Society. 
This material is to be sent periodically to insure 
steady progress in your training. (2). Twelve Human 
Relations Chats on the Art of Getting Along with 
Others. (One mailed monthly.) 

MAIL THIS APPLICATION TODAY 



American Technical Society 
Box 88 

850 East 58th Street 
Chicago 37, Illinois 

I have read your offer and would like you to 
send me, without cost or obligation, your first 
set of training assignments in Building, Estimat- 
ing & Contracting. If I do not return same 
within 10 days you may ship the second set of 
training assignments C.O.D. for a registration 
fee of $10.00 and I will pay for the balance of 
my training on terms as stipulated in this April 
issue of the Carpenter magazine. 



Name 



Address 



City Zone State. 



WHYSANDVIK HAND SAWS 
CUT &££P£# WITH 
USS EFFORT 






SWEDISH STEEl 



HOW SANDVIK'S HIGHER 
CROWN CUTS DEEPER 

Unusually high crown length- 
ens the saw's cutting edge with- 
out lengthening the blade, 
giving a deeper cut every time! 




HOW SANDVIK'S HANDLE 
MAKES SAWING EASIER 

Sandvik's handle is man-sized 
to prevent finger fatigue and to 
allow maximum power in every 
blade thrust you make. 



/. 



LESS SHARPENING 



WHY IT PAYS TO BUY A 
SANDVIK HAND SAW 

Made of the finest Swedish Steel, 
the Sandvik Hand Saw needs 
only a third of the sharpening 
other saws require . . . which 
means a cutting life three times 
greater! 



Vi 



■"■ AT BETTER HARDWARE STORES EVERYWHERE! 

^anc/v/k J&u/ & /bo/ 47 



Division of Sandvik Steel, Inc. 



WARREN STREET, NEW YORK 7, N. Y. . 



"Hang That Door The Profess/onal Wav" 
faeoHl I MARK BUTT GAUGE 

truly a CARPENTER'S friend; 



Cuts a clean, accurate, deep, complete profile on door by striking 
with hammer. Just remove chips. Repeat operation on jamb. Hang 
door. No adjustments or fussing. Precision made of drop-forged, 
heat-treated steel. Standard 3", 3%" and 4" sizes. Agreed by car- 
penters to be almost indispensable as hundreds of testimonials show. 




COMES WITH 
LEATHERETTE CASE 

YOU DO THIS 




Only $1.75 each... 

$3.50 a pair (any two) — 
$5.25 complete set of three. 
If dealer can't supply, send 
only $1.00 with order and 
pay postman balance plus 
postage C.O.D. (In Canada 
25c higher per order. No 
C.O.D. in Canada). State 
sizes wanted. Mail coupon 
today. 

U.S. and Canadian Patents 
AND GET THIS 

|— — — — — — Clip and Mail Today "■ — — "■■ — ""j ^ 

E-Z MARK TOOLS, Box 8377, Dept. C, Los Angeles 16, Calif 

Please send the E-Z MARK products checked below: 

□ I Gauge-$I.75-SIZE □ Door Jacks @ $17.50 

□ 2 Gauges-$3.50-SIZES □ Check or Money Order 

□ 3 Gauges-S5.25-SIZES enclosed O Send C.O.D. 

Name 

Address ' 



E-Z MARK ADJUSTABLE DOOR JACK 



Ideal for journeymen, 

production mills, 

general contractors, 

maintenance shops, 

weather strippers. 

ONLY $17.50 

DELIVERED, 

PREPAID 




I 




l: 



City Zone 



State 



doors up to 8 feet. 
Makes all preliminary work to hanging 
door easy. Simplifies work with sash, 
screen doors, cupboard doors, dutch 
doors. 

E-Z MARK TOOLS 

Box 8377 Dept. C, Los Angeles 16, Cal. 



POLITICAL AWAKENING IS NEEDED 



* * * 

TO MOST Americans 1952 is just another year. But in three-fourths of 
the world outside of America longing eyes will be cast toward our 
shores because this year we will have the privilege of selecting by 
secret ballot the people whom we want to rule over us for the next four years. 
It is hard to believe, but to three-fourths of the people in the world secret 
elections are total strangers. Some of them have never known a free election. 
Others have elections which are elections in name only because their is neither 
secrecy of ballot nor choice of candidates. 

How many men died to establish the free ballot in such parts of the 
world as it exists in, history does not record. Yet the figure must run into the 

millions, for the free ballot was paid . : 

for dearly in suffering and blood. 
Five thousand years ago men were 
fighting for it in Greece and Persia 
and Babylonia. Hundreds of millions 
of x\siatics and Africans are still fight- 
ing for it today. 

Yet the amazing part of it all is 
that nearly half of the eligible voters 
in America will not bother getting 
registered and going to the polls this 
year. They will give up by default 
a privilege men have died for for 
5,000 years. In the last few presi- 
dential elections, barely half of the 
people voted. By contrast, 85% of 
the eligible voters in England cast 
their ballots last year. In the recent 
election in Japan, almost 95% of the 
eligible voters went to the polls. Even 
in the Iron Curtain countries where 
voting is a mere formality since no 
choice is left up to the people, over 
90% of the voters are on hand to 
put an X where they are expected 
to. 

Ironically enough, no people have 
more at stake in their elections than 
do Americans. In no nation on earth 
is the democratic process more ad- 
vanced than it is in America. No- 
where do elected representatives of 



the people have wider discretion in 
determining the destinies of the peo- 
ple than has our own Congress in 
the United States. The welfare of 
each of us is closely bound up with 
the kind of a President and Congress 
that sit in Washington. Yet half of 
us are always too busy, too lazy or 
too uninterested to bother register- 
ing and voting. 

Sad to say, working people are 
among the worst offenders in this 
respect. Time after time in recent 
years they have allowed elections to 
go by default. Each time their neg- 
lect has cost them dearly. One has 
to look no farther back than the 1946 
election (which working people hand- 
ed to the special interest groups on 
a silver platter) for proof of this un- 
happy circumstance. Hardly had the 
new Congress elected in 1946 warmed 
its chairs than the Taft-Hartley Law 
was rushed through. 

In succeeding elections the story 
has been the same. Labor has stayed . 
away from the polls in droves, and 
unfriendly candidates have waltzed 
into office. The price working people 
have paid since is mighty high— tax 
loopholes for the wealthy, higher 



THE CARPENTER 



taxes for the wage earner; rigid con- 
trols on wages and elastic controls 
on prices; sacrifice for the common 
people, profits as usual for business. 

What working people must learn 
is that legislation can nullify all the 
gains made by organization and eco- 
nomic effort. Winning a wage in- 
crease through organized effort is fine, 
but if tax increases are allowed to 
eat away the wage improvements 
nothing is gained. Better working 
conditions are not always easy to 
get, but what does it profit to get 
them if an unfriendly Congress or 
State Legislature can legislate them 
away? In the final analysis, all gains 
that organized labor makes must be 
buttressed by a fair-minded govern- 
ment at both the national and state 
level. 

From the very beginning of union- 
ism in America, political action has 
been an integral part of union func- 
tions. In fact political action rather 
than economic action was the key- 
stone of the first real labor unions in 
the United States. Guilds existed in 
America long before the revolution. 
However, these guilds consisted al- 
most entirely of master craftsmen who 
organized to fix the prices of the 
products they produced. To all in- 
tents and purposes, they were organ- 
izations of employers. It was not un- 
til 1800 that the first real unions of 
workers put in an appearance. These 
unions sprang up as strictly local 
organizations. Each was a separate 
entity and little or no cooperation 
existed between various unions. 

The first recorded effort of indivi- 
dual unions to form a labor movement 
occurred in Philadelphia in 1827 when 
some 15 unions formed The Mechan- 
ics' Union to assist the Carpenters 
Association then on strike for a 10- 
hour day. But the time was not au- 
spicious for the launching of united 
labor movement. In the Cordwainers 



(shoemakers) case a few years pre- 
viously, the courts had found the 
strikers guilty of an illegal conspiracy. 
Men were thrown in jail for doing 
collectively things they were free to 
do as individuals. The courts had 
to reach clear back into English com- 
mon law to find something with which 
to crack down on the workers for 
having the effrontery to think that 
they should be entitled to a living 
wage. However, they did just that 
and a number of strikers went to jail. 
For the better part of the next century 
the courts continued classing strikes 
as illegal conspiracies punishable by 
fines or jail terms or both. 

In this unhealthy atmosphere, the 
unions decided that their only salva- 
tion lay in passage of new laws to 
give labor organizations some funda- 
mental rights. The Philadelphia Me- 
chanics Union lasted barely a year. 
The unions turned to politics with 
wholehearted concentration. They de- 
manded laws giving them the right 
to organize and strike, laws to exempt 
tools from attachment for debt, labor 
liens to insure collection of wages, 
abolition of convict labor, and aboli- 
tion of imprisonment for debt. Uni- 
versal sufferage and free public 
schools also were high on the de- 
mands of the working people. Hav- 
ing seen that the strike road was a 
hopeless one under existing circum- 
stances, the unions turned their atten- 
tion to politics as the best hope of 
securing economic justice. 

In the first 50 years of its existence 
as a Republic, no political parties as 
we know them today existed in the 
United States. But by 1828 a rugged 
individual named Andrew Jackson 
was making his dynamic personality 
felt throughout the land. Political 
parties for and against him began 
forming. In Philadelphia the organ- 
ized workers formed the Working- 
men's Party to back Jackson. Their 



THE CARPENTER 



success was phenomenal. They swept 
many pro-labor candidates into office 
by substantial majorities. 

The success in Philadelphia opened 
the eyes of working people through- 
out the nation. Within the next year 
or two, Workingmen's Parties spread 
from Maine to Georgia and on out 
west to the Mississippi. For a few 
years the Workingmen's Party met 
with considerable success. But a seri- 
ous split in the leadership developed 
within a few years. Some leaders saw 
a back-to-the-land movement as the 
only salvation for working people. 
Another faction advocated a sort of 
state socialism. With complete unity 
gone, the political influence of labor 
waned rapidly. 

But in the years before the split, 
the political action of the working 
people brought about many badly- 
needed reforms. More than that, it 
opened the eyes of the nation to the 
potential strength of a united labor 
movement. And it gave organized 
labor a shining example of what can 
be accomplished through concerted 
political action. 

Ever since that time, organized 
labor has been active in politics to 
a greater or lesser degree. When 
things were progressing satisfactorily, 
interest in politics waned; when con- 
ditions needed changing, political ac- 
tivity increased rapidly. 

Now conditions once more demand 
a mighty reawakening of political ac- 



tion on the part of organized labor. 
In three elections in a row, organized 
labor allowed candidates represent- 
ing the vested interests to win by 
default. The result has been passage 
of the union-shackling Taft-Hartley 
Law, disproportionate sacrifice for 
the common people, inflation largely 
brought on by profiteering, and many 
other ills that plague the wage earner 
today. 

The cure is a simple one— election 
of progressive and fair-minded men 
not only to Congress but to all State 
Legislatures as well. It will not be 
an easy job, but neither will it be 
an impossible one. All it will require 
is a little effort on the part of every 
union member. It seems fantastic, 
but many a union member who will 
willingly walk the picket line for 
weeks to redress a wrong, by the same 
token will not take the necessary time 
to register and vote regardless of how 
seriously his welfare is threatened by 
reactionary legislation. 

This year's election is the greatest 
political challenge labor has faced in 
100 years. If it is to be met and con- 
quered, the percentage of voters must 
be raised from 50% to 80% or 90%. 
Registering and voting is one thing 
each citizen must do for himself. No 
organization or committee can do it 
for him. Consequently each citizen 
bears the responsibility for taking care 
of his own obligations in this respect. 
What are YOU going to do about it? 



BEST SALESMAN OF DEMOCRACY 

Secretary of Labor Maurice I. Tobin told Congress that American labor unions are 
the best and "most effective" salesmen of democracy. 

In his annual report to Capitol Hill— this year's titled "Mobilized Labor for Defense"— 
Tobin praised both labor and management for their "sacrifice" made in support of the 
government's defense program. His highest compliments, however, went to labor: 

"American trade unions," he said, "have been the nation's most effective salesmen 
of the democratic way of life as the best hope of human freedom and a rising standard of 
living the world over." 

Tobin credited the government with much progress in the past twenty years towards 
the goal of "insuring mass purchasing power" for a continuing expanding economy. He 
said this had been done by federal encouragement of collective bargaining, establishment 
of old-age pensions and unemployment insurance, minimum wage laws, prohibition of 
child labor, and price supports for farmers. 



10 



Meet Board Member Rajoppi 

TO MEMBERS living on the North Atlantic Seaboard, Raleigh Rajoppi, 
new General Executive Board Member for the Second District, needs 
no introduction. In the past twenty years he covered the territory from 
end to end many times in one capacity or another. In fact he has been so many 
places seemingly at the same time that 
some people understandably must be- 
lieve him to be twins. However, such is 
not the case. Brother Rajoppi is only 
one man, but a man who never lets the 
grass grow under his feet. 

Born in Millburn, N. J., forty-seven 
years ago, Brother Rajoppi was educated 
in the public schools there. He entered 
his apprenticeship in the Essex and Mor- 
ris County area of New Jersey and in 
1924 joined the United Brotherhood. 
From the very beginning he took a very 
active part in union affairs. By 1927 
he was elected president of his union, 
Local No. 1113, Springfield. He served 
in that capacity through 1929. The 
following year he was elected financial 
secretary of his union, a post he filled 
for many years. At the same time he 
was also elected secretary of the district 
council. 

By 1935 the membership had elevated him to business agent of the 
district council. Three years later he was also elected president of the New 
Jersey State Council of Carpenters, a post he still occupies. But in spite of 
his heavy work load he found time to serve on various civic bodies. He is 
a former member of the New Jersey Rehabilitation Commission for the 
Handicapped and a former member of the New Jersey Board of Mediation. 
At the present time he is still a member of the New Jersey Disability Council. 
Four years ago Brother Rajoppi was appointed a general representative by 
the then General President, William L. Hutcheson. In that capacity he 
served the United Brotherhood faithfully and well. When Board member O. 
William Blaier resigned early this year to assume the office of Second General 
Vice-President, the office of Board Member for the Second District became 
vacant. By experience, training and initiative, Raleigh Rajoppi was well 
equipped for the job. Consequently, General President M. A. Hutcheson, 
with the approval of the Board, named Brother Rajoppi to fill the vacancy. 

Married and the father of two daughters, Board member Rajoppi resides 
at Springfield, N. J. A tireless worker and a man with few interests outside of 
his family and his union, Brother Rajoppi is certain to fill his new post with 
distinction as well as efficiency. On behalf of the entire membership, THE 
CARPENTER takes this opportunity to offer him congratulations and very 
best wishes. 




11 



As Others See Us 



WHAT makes America the great nation it is? What makes possible 
the tremendous productivity which has created in America the 
highest standard of living the world has ever known? 
There are probably as many answers as there are people. The scientist 
might tend to give science the bulk of the credit, whereas a management 
man might be inclined to rate managerial brains highest. Actually, there 
probably is no single answer. More likely American success in a combina- 
tion of many factors, science, managerial genius, productive skill, and, above 
all, dignity for each human being. 



At any rate, that is the opinion of 
a group of French shoe makers who 
paid an extended visit to the United 
States last year under the auspicies of 
the Economic Cooperation Admini- 
stration. These Frenchmen— repre- 
senting engineers, workers, techni- 
cians and managers— spent a good 
deal of time studying American pro- 
duction methods. On their return to 
France they wrote a book giving their 
impressions of what they saw and 
found here. Only recently that book 
has been translated into English. It 
is so penetrating portions of it are 
well worth reprinting. In a chapter 
entitled "Workers" the book says: 

"There is one observation which 
must be stressed above all others. The 
visitor who expects to discover ex- 
traordinary tools and spectacular me- 
chanical setups is badly disappointed. 
He will discover rio 'secrets' producing 
miraculous results, or workers labor- 
ing as if they were convicts sentenced 
to hard labor. But he will be struck 
by the results and will wonder how 
Americans, with equipment similar to 
that in use in France, making numer- 
ous and often complicated styles and 
filling many small orders, manage to 
reduce their manufacturing time to 
such an extent and to offer the con- 



sumer shoes which, when evaluated 
in hours, work, cost from two and a 
half to four times less than in France. 

"The literature and press of West- 
ern Europe repeat, whenever the occa- 
sion arises, "that men deserve more 
attention than things, that the mind 
comes before the machine, and in- 
deed one cannot but approve this 
principle. 

"The American literature and press 
do not stress those problems so much, 
and it is not uncommon to find books, 
articles or films extolling the glory of 
the machine. 

"Nevertheless, it is impossible to 
overlook the fact that the human 
being is respected much more in the 
United States than is generally the 
case on our shores. 

"We would be going beyond our 
subject if we were to try to define 
American civilization in its human es- 
sence, our craftsmen's background for- 
bidding us from setting ourselves up 
as philosophers or sociologists, but it 
is impossible not to place the human 
factor first in a study of productivity. 

"This respect for the individual is 
highly developed. It is probably dif- 
ficult for Latin minds thoroughly to 
grasp American psychology to the ex- 
tent where the latter can be reduced 



12 



THE CARPENTER 



to a simple definition. The ethnic 
groups are so numerous and so differ- 
ent that the 'American' mind can only 
be partially understood. Nevertheless 
the common traits of the so-called 
'Americanized' minds are more con- 
spicuous though they vary greatly, 
and those are the traits, often en- 
countered, that we take as a starting 
point to try to explain the state of 
mind prevailing in American factories. 

"The individual is respected, he is 
well identified by his last name, his 
first name and his middle initial. If 
necessary, when father and son have 
the same first names, the word Junior 
(Jr. in the abbreviated form) is added 
to the name of the son. Even though 
certain names are very common, this 
distinctive abbreviation is generally 
sufficient to indentify individuals. 

"The latter are thus always con- 
scious of the fact that they have an 
individual character, each one being 
unique. If, by reasoning, the indi- 
vidual admits that he is a part of an 
entity constituting the social body 
of his country, nevertheless it is with 
his own being and his own conscience 
that he contacts other human beings. 

"This is the antithesis of the totali- 
tarian conception of society, consid- 
ered as the base, where the individual 
is only a cell without a conscience, 
and is obliged to cast his mind in the 
collective mold. 

"Does this mean that the social 
sense is non-existent in the United 
States, and that this agglomeration of 
140 million persons does not consti- 
tute a group, but an assemblage of 
140 million isolated individuals? 

"Not at all. Because if the in- 
dividual fully realizes that he has a 
personality and a unique character, he 
recognizes that other human beings 
must normally enjoy the same rights 
as he. He thus respects in others the 
personal attributes he finds in him- 
self. Desiring to feel free, the Amer- 



ican respects the liberty of others. De- 
siring to be treated as a human being, 
the American treats others as human 
beings. 

"The high standard of living of the 
whole population, permitting a gen- 
eral comfort known only to wealthy 
families in Europe, has reduced very 
appreciably the visible differences in 
the positions of individuals. The level- 
ing off, insofar as there is a leveling 
off, is accomplished by taking as the 
objective the top of the ladder and 
not the bottom. Thus the 'class' feel- 
ing does not exist, since everyone has 
the same opportunity to climb the 
ladder. The worker does not have 
an inferiority complex in relation to 
his chiefs or his employer because 
he knows for sure that if he so desires 
and has the ability he can obtain pro- 
motions and attain the best positions. 

"A logical consequence of the re- 
spect of the individual and of his 
liberty, is the American postulate of 
the chance given to everyone. 

"The memory of the fabulous ascent 
of the Vanderbilts, of the Rockefellers 
and of a few others remains very 
vivid in American minds. Though to- 
day such exceptional careers are ex- 
tremely rare, there are still examples 
of persons having started from noth- 
ing and becoming important business- 
men or great industrial leaders. The 
rule, then, consists in giving everyone 
the possibility of using his talents, 
and the one who would refuse to give 
a man this chance would be consid- 
ered an anti-social beast. 

"The notable examples recalled 
above, and the less spectacular but 
current ones which frequently are en- 
countered minimize the value of di- 
plomas and the prestige of those pos- 
sessing diplomas. A person is not 
measured by the number of his di- 
plomas, but by his practical ability 
to succeed in his job. The privileges 
of college graduates are therefore 



THE CARPENTER 



13 



practically non-existent. The idea of 
refusing an important job to a person 
of merit, on the pretext that he is not 
a college graduate would not come to 
anybody's mind. Even so American 
colleges are crowded with students, 
because although diplomas are not 
absolutely necessary, the acquired 
knowledge greatly facilitates the en- 
hancement of personal capabilities. 

"The third common characteristic 
of 'Americanized' persons is their ab- 
solute faith in the famous axiom that 
we have not hesitated to write in Eng- 
lish since it is so well known. 

"The whole American industrial 
history decisively confirms that when- 
ever time is saved, it means that 
everyone will receive more money. 

"Perhaps it may be said that this 
axiom is the most condensed manner 
of expressing the idea of productivity. 
In the final analysis if it is admitted 
that money means increase of pur- 
chasing power; the search for ways 
to save time is the key to productivity 
and to the road which it opens. 

"The three principles which we 
have recalled, constituting the basic 
foundations of the American mind 
lead, in social relations, to logical con- 
sequences which we are now going 
to find applied in the factories. 

"Without a doubt, the atmosphere 
of the footwear workshops visited by 
the group is the direct result of these 
three basic concepts. 

"If it seldom happens that the names 
of the workers appear on the ma- 
chines, it is simply because inside the 
plant everyone knows everybody else. 
Whenever a person is in contact with 
the public, a sign, placed on the desk, 
at the window, inside the elevator, or 
over the bus driver's seat, gives the 
name of that person. The employee 
and the workman are not and do not 
want to be just numbers, and would 
not' permit a series of figures to dis- 
grace their collars or caps. 



"In the workshop everyone is called 
familiarly by his first name, on equal 
terms. The authority of foremen and 
superintendents is not exerted by vir- 
tue of a discretionary right, but takes 
the form of personal advice. Indeed, 
each worker, being conscious of his 
personality, is, at the same time, con- 
scious of his responsibility. He is en- 
trusted with a job which he tries to 
do the best he can out of self-respect. 
If he does a poor job, it will not be 
said that the miller does not know his 
job, but that George F. Smith is a poor 
worker. His work is not anonymous. 

"This idea of individual responsibil- 
ity is highly developed, and works 
both ways. The foreman, knowing 
that George F. Smith has a sense of 
personal responsibility, has no reason 
whatsoever to assume that responsi- 
bility, nor that of any of the other 
workers under his supervision. He 
can thus devote all his time to his job 
as foreman. As he too knows the field 
of his responsibility very well and in- 
tends to honor his good name, for the 
same reasons as George F. Smith. His 
boss, the plant superintendent gives 
him a free hand in his work and at 
the same time finds himself relieved 
of a source of worries. This enables 
him to devote his time to his own 
duties. The same thing happens be- 
tween the superintendent and the 
management. The employer's mind 
is free as regards the functioning of 
the plant, which enables him to con- 
centrate all his efforts on administra- 
tion alone. 

"Of course, in spite of this atmos- 
phere in which everyone knows the 
extent of his own responsibility, men 
being men, efforts must be rewarded 
and failures penalized. Wages are the 
foundation of this mechanism. As 
these wages give a purchasing power, 
they are very much appreciated and 
everyone tries not only to retain them, 
but if possible, to raise them." 



p 




LANE U05SSP 



TO HECK WITH THE POOR 

For the past several years, the labor press 
of the nation has been telling its readers 
that passage of the "Millionaires' Amend- 
ment" (limiting to 25% the amount of in- 
come taxes the government could levy 
against any income) would bring financial 
ruin on the nation. Recently one of the 
leading financial papers of the nation told 
its subscribers the same thing. It analyzed 
the whole proposition and came to the con- 
clusion that the nation would be unable 
to meet its military commitments if the 
Millionaires' Amendment became law. 

However, that is not stopping the backers 
of the amendment. They are stepping up 
their campaign to put over their tax steal 
for the rich. That success of the project 
might bankrupt the nation seems to bother 
them not at all. 

In their shortsightedness they sort of re- 
mind us of the big tycoon who met a num- 
ber of reverses all at once. Going to the 
garage, he told his chauffeur; "James, get 
out the Cadillac and drive over a cliff; I 
want to commit suicide." 




"First, what is your present wage, 
limitation, seniority status, health 
and welfare benefits, and retire* 
ment pension?" 



70 BUCKS STILL AIN'T INFLATION 

Nearly a year ago this journal ran an 
article entitled "Seventy Bucks Ain't Infla- 
tion" which pointed out that the average 
wage earner is in no position to bid up the 
price of goods. All he can do, the article 
pointed out, is keep his head above water 
by ignoring the luxuries and keeping the 
necessities down to the minimum. The 
months have proved that piece to be right. 
Manufacturers are now desperately scram- 
bling to sell all the goods they turn out. 
The mass buying power simply is not there. 
The average wage earner has so little left 
for other things after he pays his rent and 
buys his groceries that makers of luxury 
items are finding him a poor customer. 

Merchants are trying to disguise the fact 
business is bad in the hope they can build 
up a shortage scare demand, but the follow- 
ing is now the standard joke among the 
selling fraternity: 

Salesman (beginning to unroll his sam- 
ples): "I'd like to show you. . . ." 

Prospect (firmly): "No, no, not interested." 

Salesman (eagerly): "But can't I just show 
you. . . ." 

Prospect (emphatically): "Absolutely not. 
I'm not interested." 

Salesman (wistfully):: "Then would you 
mind if I stepped in and looked at the 
samples myself? I haven't had a chance to 
see them for three weeks." 

* * * 
WE ALL MAKE THEM 

The painter who painted himself into a 
corner and the carpenter who built a boat 
in his basement too big to get out the door 
now have a couple of steeplejacks to keep 
them company 

Recently a Newark firm hired two union 
steeplejacks to tear down a 125-foot smoke 
stack. They entered through a door in the 
bottom and climbed an inside ladder to the 
top. All day long they ripped out bricks 
and threw them down the inside, complete- 
ly forgetting about the door at the bottom. 

Came quitting time, and— you guessed it 
—the pair found themselves trapped. They 
yelled and beat on the sides of the chimney 
and even climbed back to the top and waved 
their arms, but no one seemed to pay any 
attention. Many hours later a passerby 
heard their shouts and phoned the police 
who rescued the sheepish gentlemen. 



THE CARPENTER 



15 



MATTER OF OPINION 

A high public official who used his office 
to line his own pockets at the expense of the 
taxpayers was recently convicted on a num- 
ber of counts. Although the judge could 
have given him as much as 60 years in the 
jug, he made the sentence two years, plus 
a few thousand dollars fine. From where 
we sit, it seems as if a stiffer penalty might 
have been in order as few crimes are more 
despicable than graft. 

When it comes to betraying public trust, 
we feel something like the lady in one of 
our favorite stories. 

The woman was called for jury duty, but 
asked to be excused because she didn't be- 
lieve in capital punishment. Trying to 
persuade her, the Judge explained: 

"This is merely a case where a wife is 
suing her husband because she gave him 
$1,000 to pay on a fur coat and he lost the 
money in a poker game. 

Whereupon the woman said: "I'll serve, 
Judge, I could be wrong about capital pun- 
ishment." 

• * * 
THEY HAVE A BADGE 

A female lecturer (probably in the pay 
of the jeweler's institute) is campaigning 
for double ring marriages. 

"Women wear wedding rings to show 
they are married," she tells her audiences. 
"I think men should also wear something 
to show that they have embarked on the 
sea of matrimony." 

We hate to disillusion the poor gal, but 
men are already wearing something to de- 
note that they are married— patches on last 
year's pants. 

• * * 
MONEY TALKS 

Off and on in recent months, the wage 
stabilization agencies in Washington have 
been hinting that wage controls will be re- 
laxed to allow workers to bring their wages 
up to something more in keeping with to- 
day's prices. So far, however, all there has 
been is talk. Which reminds us of the old 
story of the bride. 

Young Mrs. Jones found her days long 
and boring while her husband of a few 
months was at work. Smiling sweetly at her 
spouse one morning, she said: 

"Darling, I read the other day that money 
talks. Is that really true?" 

"That's right, dear, it really does," replied 
the husband. 

"Well," continued the bride, "how about 
leaving a few dollars in the house to keep 
me company? I get terribly lonesome with- 
out anyone to talk to." 



WE ARE PECULIAR CUSSES 

Last month the United States Supreme 
Court upheld the validity of a state (Mis- 
souri) law requiring employers to give their 
workers time off with pay to vote in elec- 
tions. Some 16 states in all have similar 
laws and the Supreme Court stamp of ap- 
proval now placed on such laws really makes 
them effective. 

However, the decision does not affect the 
main problem— how to get Americans out to 
vote. We doubt if even drawing pay for 
voting time will encourage Americans to go 
to the polls as religiously as do many other 
peoples. 

Americans are peculiar cusses. They 
would fight to the death against anyone who 
threatened to take away their right to vote, 
but about half of them never take the 
trouble to vote when they have the privi- 
lege. Maybe there is more truth than poetry 
to the old one about the man who did not 
kiss his wife for five years and then killed 
the milkman the first time he did. 

* * * 
EPITAPH 

Under this sod lies Percival Bold 

So young he was snatched from this life 

Because he dared go out in the cold 
Attired like his wife. 

* * * 
ONWARD AND UPWARD 

Old Zeke, Pumpkin Creek's ancient gen- 
eral store proprietor, says that history may 
be repeating itself, but it seems like every 
time it does so the price has gone up. 




"Not boiled tongue againr 



16 



A Somewhat Different Story 



SEVERAL months ago the newspapers were devoting a good deal of 
space to "exposing" scandalous conditions existing on an atomic energy 
project in Nevada. The way the newspapers pictured it, cost-plus con- 
tractors and key men in their crews were getting rich at the expense of the 
government and the defense effort. Newspaper stories intimated that plumbers 
were making several thousand dollars a month on the project and other trades 
were doing nearly as well. The Indianapolis papers at least told of double- 
double-time being paid construction men. The clincher in the whole deal was 
the disclosure that a plumbing superintendent received $756 for a single 
week's work. 



As a result of all the publicity, the 
Joint Committee on Atomic Energy 
held a public hearing to ascertain the 
facts concerning the Nevada project. 
What the commission found and what 
the newspapers had reported turned 
out to be considerably different things. 
However, if the newspapers that 
screamed so loudly about the "shock- 
ing" conditions at the project ran any 
articles giving the findings of the 
Commission, they must have been 
buried on an inside page because 
few, if any, people saw them. 

Mr. M. H. Stewart, plumbing su- 
perintendent on the control building 
was paid $758 for 123 hours of work 
during the week of October 16. This 
is the week directly preceding the 
start of the fall atomic tests at the 
Nevada test site. Mr. Stewart was 
paid $3.50 per hour, which is the 
legal minimum established by the 
Department of Labor as required by 
the Bacon-Davis Act, for plumbing 
superintendents in the Las Vegas 
area. Double time and only double 
time was paid for all hours worked 
after 5 p.m. on week days and all 
hours worked on Saturday and Sun- 
day. These double time payments 
were in accordance with the agree- 



ments between the construction labor 
unions and the associated contractors 
in effect in the Las Vegas area. These 
rates apply on all single-shift opera- 
tions, and construction at the Las 
Vegas test site was set up as a single 
shift operation. Thus Mr. Stewart's 
payments, considering the hours he 
worked, were the minimum permitted 
under the law and the labor union 
agreements in effect in the area at 
the time. 

The Atomic Energy Commission 
gives the following reason as a cause 
for the exceptional circumstances 
which required this plumbing super- 
intendent to work 123 hours in one 
week. The control building is the 
nerve center in the operation of the 
Nevada test site. The building-con- 
struction contract was originally 
awarded to the McNeil Construction 
Co. of Los Angeles on May 21, on a 
lump-sum basis, as the low bidder. 
The contract called for completion 
in 90 days or by the 19th of August. 
Five bids were received for this work. 
McNeil's bid was $618,000. This sum 
was subsequently raised to $660,000 
as the result of certain additions to 
and changes in the building design. 
The next lowest bidder submitted 



THE CARPENTER 



17 



$723,000 as its figure, and the highest 
bidder, Haddock Engineers, Ltd., bid 
$896,000. The successful bidder was 
required to obtain a performance 
bond. McNeil's performance bond is 
for slightly over $300,000. On June 
22, Haddock Engineers, Ltd., was 
awarded a cost-plus-fixed-fee contract 
for approximately $6,000,000 to erect 
certain structures required in the shot 
area for scientific measurements and 
observations. These structures were 
designed by the scientists in the field, 
and it was therefore impossible to put 
this work out on lump sum as no 
designs were available. To further 
complicate the work of Haddock 
Engineers, additional tests were add- 
ed to the schedule during the summer 
of 1951, and these tests called for ad- 
ditional structures. In order to com- 
plete the job on schedule, Haddock 
Engineers regularly worked its em- 
ployes overtime and its workers re- 
ceived overtime payments each week. 
As a result of these overtime pay- 
ments, great pressure was placed up- 
on lump-sum contractors such as 
McNeil to pay similar high wages 
on penalty of losing their workers to 
the cost-plus-fixed-fee contractors. 
McNeil did in effect lose large num- 
bers of his workers to Haddock En- 
gineers. By-mid-September, McNeil 
had fallen behind on his construction 
work to such an extent that drastic 
action was required in order to com- 
plete the control building on time. 
When it became clear on September 
24 that McNeil would not have the 
control structures ready for use by 
bomb-testing time, the Commission 
terminated his contract and gave Had- 
dock Engineers, Ltd., the cost-plus- 
fixed-fee contractor on the job, cost- 
plus-fixed-fee contract to complete 
the control point. Under Government 
contract law, the Commission was 
precluded from awarding the cost- 
plus-fixed-fee completion contract to 
McNeil; for the law specifically states 



that the Government may not alter a 
contract in favor of a contractor. In 
view of the legal restrictions and 
McNeil's unwillingness to pay the 
necessary overtime rates for his own 
economic reasons, it was decided to 
award the contract to some other 
firm. Haddock was on the site. There 
were only 15 days left in which to 
complete the structure, and the Com- 
mission therefore awarded the cost- 
plus-fixed-fee completion contract to 
Haddock. 

The latter in effect took over 
McNeil's labor force and added to 
it, completing the structure in time 
for the test. Mr. Stewart, the plumb- 
ing superintendent who received the 
$756 pay check, was originally an 
employee of McNeil but was on Had- 
dock's payroll during the week of 
October 16 (the week before the tests 
were scheduled to begin) when he 
received the $756 payment. As plumb- 
ing superintendent, he was familiar 
with the details of the job; and it was 
actually cheaper, the Commission test- 
ified, to pay overtime wages to the 
plumbing superintendent and the 
other construction workers on the 
control point than it would have been 
to have delayed the tests, thereby 
requiring 600 scientists and 2,800 
Army and Air Force personnel to 
stand idly by at an estimated cost of 
$30,000 per day, excluding the cost 
of the Army and Air Force personnel. 
Moreover, if another individual had 
been called in to relieve Mr. Stewart, 
the new man— under the union con- 
tract—would have been paid at the 
same double-time rates, and cost to 
the Government would have been the 
same. 

The control point was not fully 
complete at the time of the first test 
shot, but it was completed to the 
point where it could be fully utilized 
for the test. Haddock Engineers fi- 
nally completed the building after 



18 THE CARPENTER 

the tests were concluded. All of this tract, they found the construction 

final completion work following the area around the control building 

test was done on a straight-time basis, practically unusable, due to the trash 

The Commission estimated that it will and lumber strewn about the area, 

cost between $50,000 and $100,000 Haddock surveyed the area with the 

extra for the completed control build- architect-engineer, Holmes and Nar- 

ing. That is approximately $700,000 ver > together with local AEC repre- 

to $750,000 as opposed to McNeil's sentatives, and all three agreed that 

bid of $660,000. This would bring the the 1 d r ebris 1 (including quantities of 

cost up to approximately that of the USed form lumber) should be gath- 

j , " I.,, j <ti efirvnn ere d up and burned in order to clear 

second lowest bidder and $150,000 ., .. l £ m . . 

A >,/xrt nnn it a c ^ i-i the site tor more efficient access to 

to $200,000 below that of the highest .i T1 ^ . . ... 

, .,, ° the area, lhe Commission maintains 



bidder. 



that no individual or group of indi- 



In connection with press allegations viduals at this time or at that time 

as to the burning of $30,000 worth were able to agree upon the value 

of form lumber at the Nevada test site, of this lumber. 

AEC advised that when Haddock Further investigation is now being 

Engineers took over the McNeil con- made by the joint committee. 



Boston Promises A Great Show 



Boston, a city rich in historical significance, will this year play host to the Union In- 
dustries Show w T hich is sponsored annually by the American Federation of Labor to 
dramatize the teamwork that exists between management and labor in the United States. 
Approximately 150,000 square feet of floor space in Mechanics Hall will be utilized 
in presenting the mammoth exhibition. From May 11 through May 24 hundreds of 
thousands of visitors will pour through the turnstiles at Mechanics Hall to marvel at 
the sweat, skill and know-how that go into the production of American union-made goods, 
the best tiiere are in the world. 

Only in America could such an industrial exposition be sponsored by organized labor, 
for only in America have worker-members of free trade unions attained the recognition 
and respect necessary to successfully conduct such an affair. 

Primarily, the Union Industries Shows are staged to publicize union labels, union 
shop cards and union buttons and to promote increased patronage of union services 
and increased sales of union-made-in- America products. The annual shows encourage 
better relations with fair employers and go a long way to build more widespread public 
understanding and goodwill for organized labor. This is done by exhibiting before the 
great American consumer market union-made articles of outstanding quality, many of 
which are produced right on the floor of the exposition by expert A. F. of L. members. 

The 1952 Union Industries Show will feature many types of exhibits. There will be 
animated displays sponsored by unions, exhibits by manufacturers of nationally known 
products, joint sponsored by both union labor and management, and "live" exhibits de- 
picting the numerous skills of A. F. of L. members. 

With the cooperation of the General Office, the Boston District Council is preparing 
an exhibit which will undoubtedly be one of the main features of the show. The officers 
and members of the council are working hard on the project and the ideas they are de- 
veloping are outstanding. 

If it will be possible for you to be anywhere near Boston between May 17 and May 24, 
attend the Union Industries Show without fail. It will be well worth your time and 
trouble. 



19 



It Is Our Job 



Plugging tax loopholes must be done 
at the ballot box by next November 



TAX LOOPHOLES cost the United States 4.5 billions of dollars a year, 
practically every cent of which is now coming out of the pockets of 
persons earning less than $5,000 a year and benefitting almost entirely 
those with incomes over $10,000, Senator Hubert H. Humphrey charged in a 
tax study made by the Public Affairs Institute. 

"The 1951 Act did not raise enough money for a sound fiscal program," the 
Minnesota Senator wrote. "It imposed higher taxes without proper regard 
for the consideration of ability to pay. It increased the inequities of existing 
law by widening existing loopholes and adding new ones. The pay-as-we-go 
objective was undermined by the enormous handouts to high income 
recipients." 

"It is a shocking fact," the Senator 
added, "that the writing of tax legis- 
lation has come to resemble the log- 
rolling and pork barrel of the speeial 
interest groups seeking protective tar- 
iffs and rivers and harbors appropri- 
ations . . . undisguised log-rolling 
where a coal Senator supports the 
high depletion allowance for oil in 
return for the oil Senator's support 
of a higher depletion allowance for 
coal is undermining the integrity of 
(the tax) system." 

In an analysis of the 1950 and 1951 
tax boosts, Senator Humphrey lists 
six tax loopholes which have been of 
huge financial benefit to the high in- 
come tax brackets: 

(1) The "unbelievably generous de- 
pletion" privileges already granted to 
oil and mining interests have now 
been extended by the 1951 Act to 
sand, gravel, stone, clay, oyster and 
clam shells and salt. The Senator esti- 
mated that the depletion provisions 
of the Act cost the United States 
Treasury $750 million a year. 

"If percentage depletion had been 
eliminated," the Senator wrote, "the 



entire tax increase on people earning 
less than $4,000 a year could have 
been dropped from the last tax bill." 

(2) Income splitting provisions en- 
acted by the 80th Congress, contrary 
to general belief, do not benefit the 
low income tax brackets but run into 
huge savings for the upper income 
brackets, the higher the income the 
bigger the proportional saving. 

"Income splitting now costs about 
$2.5 billion a year," Senator Hum- 
phrey said. "All of this revenue could 
be raised by adjusting the rates for 
married couples. If the Congress had 
the courage to adopt this suggestion, 
it could have eliminated all of the in- 
dividual income tax rate increases 
from the 1951 Act and still have 
raised more money." 

The Senator estimated that "97 
per cent of the tax relief from income- 
splitting goes to people with incomes 
of more than $5,000." 

(3) Failure of Congress to provide 
for tax withholding at the source on 
dividends and corporate bond interest 
in the same manner that it compels 
tax withholding on wages and salaries 



20 



THE CARPENTER 



was estimated by Senator Humphrey 
to have cost the Treasury $300 mil- 
lions "in sorely needed revenue." 

Charging that efforts by the House 
to bring about this reform were 
thwarted by a "predominantly con- 
servative" Senate, Senator Humphrey 
declared that at the very time "that 
wage earners are paying every last 
cent of their taxes because it is with- 
held from their pay envelopes, bil- 
lions of dollars of interest and divi- 
dends are evading taxes." 

(4) Estate and gift taxes "are in a 
pitiful state," the Senator declared, 
stating that the weakness of the pre- 
sent estate taxes was "due to the fact 
that while all other taxes were in- 
creased very substantially in the 
1940's, the estate and gift tax rates 
and exemptions remained the same." 
To make matters worse, 1948 amend- 
ments actually reduced estate taxes 
in certain cases. 

"Closing the estate and inheritance 
loopholes on wealthy persons would 
have more than made up the $428 
million raised through higher manu- 
facturer excise taxes under the 1951 
Act, the latter a large additional bur- 
den for the low income groups." 

(5) The favored treatment of capital 
gains, the Senator wrote, represents 
"nothing less than class legislation- 
legislation which reduces the tax bur- 
den of the wealthy classes." Under 
the present law only those whose in- 
come is more than $14,000 if single, 
and $28,000 if married, benefit from 
the capital gains "bargain rate." 

Rather than tighten up sharply on 
capital gains rates as requested by the 
Treasury, Congress, in fact, has ex- 
tended its advantages for the benefit 
of speculators by reducing the time 
necessary to hold stocks and property. 
The Senator said that failure of Con- 
gress to adopt the recommendations 
of the Treasury for a heavy increase 



in the capital gains rate cost about 
$400 million. 

(6) Congressional approval of family 
partnerships under which infant chil- 
dren can now be made partners in a 
business undertaking were estimated 
by the Senator to cost the Treasury 
$100 millions a year. 

Under the 1951 provisions of the tax 
act, an infant six months or six days 
old can be made a partner, permitting 
a split-up in the family income that 
saves the wealthy taxpayer thousands 
of dollars. Senator Humphrey de- 
clared that a businessman with two 
children and an income of $100,000 a 
year could cut his taxes more than 
$24,000 by taking advantage of the 
split-income and family partnership 
tax loopholes. 

So long as these loopholes exist, the 
tax burden on the ordinary citizen 
will continue mounting as expendi- 
tures for defense increase. And the 
chances of plugging the loopholes are 
small unless the complexion of Con- 
gress can be changed in November, 
for the past six years Congress has 
been too full of errand boys for Big 
Business. They got there because the 
special interest groups realize the im- 
portance of registering and voting. 
In every election they are out prac- 
tically 100% to see that their candi- 
dates are elected. On the other hand, 
too many working people fail to reg- 
ister and vote. So long as this situa- 
tion exists, loopholes for the wealthy 
will remain in our tax laws. 

There is only one way these special 
tax favors can be eliminated. That 
is by the election of fair-minded men 
who have the interest of all the 
people, rather than a privileged few, 
uppermost in their minds. This means 
the job will have to be done at the bal- 
lot box, and you and I will have to 
do it. Will we do it? This year's elec- 
tion will tell the story. 



21 



In TOO Years Wood Working Advanced 



FROM HANDICRAFTS TO INDUSTRY 

• • • 

APPROXIMATELY 100 years ago, wood working machinery was first 
introduced in the United States. During the century that has elapsed 
since that time, wood working has grown into one of the foremost 
industries in the nation. Thousands upon thousands of Brotherhood members 
today earn their daily bread by operating wood working machines. They turn 
out hundreds of different products that contribute materially to the prosperity 
and comfort of the nation. 

It all began in Eng- 
land around the end of 
the Eighteenth Century. 
A couple of brothers 
named Samuel and Jer- 
emy Bentham were the 
fathers of woodworking 
machinery. The funda- 
mentals they discovered 
and the first machines 
they constructed still 
provide the basic prin- 
ciples around which to- 
day's highly efficient 
machines are built. 

Last year Sweden 
celebrated the centenary 
of the Swedish wood 
working industry. Like 
the United States, Swe- 
den imported its first 
wood working machin- 
ery from England in the 
first part of the last cen- 
tury. In a very illumin- 
ating article in "Skogs- 
industriabertaren", official organ of the 
Swedish Paper, Wood and Forest 
Workers Union, Knut Larsson, a 
Swedish wood worker who spent con- 
siderable time in America, traced the 
development of wood working ma- 
chinery back to earliest times in Eng- 
land. With his permission, portions 
of his article are herewith reprinted: 




The first band saw, patented around 1808, laid the 
the foundation for the wood working machine industry. 



THE FIRST WOOD WORKING 

MACHINES 

By Knut Larsson 

It is difficult or impossible to indi- 
cate a certain year as marking the 
beginning of an industry: the transi- 
tion from handicraft to modern pro- 
duction is almost imperceptible. In 



THE CARPENTER 



the Swedish wood industry this transi- 
tion—the replacement of manual work 
by water, steam, and electricity— took 
place some time between 1S25 and 
1S50. There have been, of course, 
carpenters and cabinet makers from 
time immemorial in Sweden, and their 
methods gradually evolved from prim- 
itive expedients to a skilled craft. 



penses simply did not believe their 
eyes when they saw actual wood 
working machines at the Fair. If they 
had earlier heard about those won- 
drous tools from hear-say, they cer- 
tainly had not grasped their meaning. 
There is a story about these men 
dropping out of a sightseeing tour 
around London and getting lost for 




An original model of a parallel planing machine built in the early part of the 
last century. 



In 1851 the Swedish wood industry 
entered a new epoch of real prosper- 
ity. Jean Bolinder, an engineer em- 
ployed in northern Sweden, had vis- 
ited England in 1841 on an official 
scholarship. He had copied the wood 
working machines of the City Saw 
Mill in London, and he had publicly 
exhibited his drawings at the Tech- 
nical Highschool in Sweden's capital. 
But there was no reaction and, con- 
sequently, no change. On a renewed 
scholarship Bolinder returned to Eng- 
land to visit the London Industrial 
Fair of 1851, specializing on wood 
working machinery. 

Some Swedish sawmill owners who 
accompanied him on government ex- 



some days, full as they were of the 
ambition to see every possible factory 
possessing such machinery. When 
they eventually returned to Sweden, 
no time was lost in importing English 
machinery, and along with them came 
English engineers. The first factories 
were opened at Gothenburg, Stock- 
holm, and at Lulea up north. 

From where had the English gotten 
their fine machines? There were two 
brothers, Samuel and Jeremy Bent 
ham, who worked in London in the 
1770's. They ran an engineering work- 
shop where they produced metal 
working machines designed by broth- 
er Samuel who, incidentally, was no 
little man: a brigadier general and 



THE CARPENTER 



23 



general inspector of the British docks, 
he had been given an excellent and 
scientific training at Westminster 
School. He first worked for seven 
years at the Woolwich shipyards and 
then set out to study other shipyards 
for about two years. 

In 1779 this Samuel Bentham was 
sent all around Europe to study for- 
eign ship-building. When in Russia 
he invented his first wood working 
machine a planing machine, though 
of a constructiton altogether different 



working machinery, and another fac- 
tory was soon opened at York Street 
to cope with the demand. The pro- 
duction of such machinery must thus 
have gathered full speed almost at 
once, and there is expert evidence 
for this assumption. In a lecture be- 
fore the Society of Arts in 1852 Pro- 
fessor Willis stated that machines 
were constructed for all kinds of 
wood work, planing, moulding, re- 
bating, grooving, mortising, and for 
sawing in fine curves and complicated 




A French planing machine with circular cutters developed somewhere around 1820. 



from those we know today, reminding 
one rather of a metal plane. An Eng- 
lish engineer by the name of Hatton, 
it is true, had obtained a patent for a 
planing machine as early as in 1776; 
but his tool neither worked nor really 
deserved to be called a machine. 

When in 1791 Samuel Bentham re- 
turned to England with his invention, 
his brother Jeremy was just organiz- 
ing, under Government auspices, the 
workhouses of which he had been the 
inspired initiator. Since the workers 
in those reformatories were unskilled 
and could not work wood properly, 
Jeremy turned to his brother to design 
machines which might compensate 
that lack of skill. 

Accessory buildings on Jeremy 
Bentham's premises at Queen's Square 
Place, Westminster, were transformed 
into factories to manufacture wood 

(Continued 



forms. There were remarkably beau- 
tiful window frames, for example, and 
all kinds of ornaments for wagon 
wheels were done so beautifully that 
hardly anything remained to be done 
by hand but to assemble the different 
parts. A Royal Commission examined 
these machines, and mention was 
made of them in the House of Com- 
mons. 

Mr. Bentham became Sir Samuel 
and was dispatched to various ship- 
yards to determine to what extent his 
machines could be used there. A flat- 
tering offer from the Czar of all the 
Russias was declined by Sir Samuel, 
anxious as he was to reserve his wis- 
dom and skill to the industry of his 
own country rather than to make 
money. 

Returning from his study trip Ben- 
tham recommended several types of 

on page 28) 



Editorial 




A Lesson For The Diplomats 

Recently the following little human interest story appeared in a Chicago 
newspaper: 

A raw wind snapped at the legs of Mike Heneghan's soiled overalls 
as he laid the last brick on the building, nine stories up. 

It was the last of more than 200,000 buff bricks, a refacing job started 
last March that now was done. 

Mike, old and gray, looked at the last brick. 

Then he turned toward the score of fellow workers, members of 
Local No. 21, AFL Bricklayers Union, standing high on the scaffolding 
at 500 Peshtigo Court. 

"I'd like to have that brick," said big, bluff William E. Olson, con- 
struction superintendent of Kraft Foods Co. 

"The whole lot of us should remember it," put in Heneghan, 68, of 
4230 West Gladys, with a quaver in his voice. 

Olson removed the brick and scraped off the mortar. 

Heneghan called the bricklayers to gather 'round. Olson passed a 
pen and all wrote or printed their names on the brick. Michael Hene- 
ghan . . . Irish; Tony Cirrincioni . . . Italian; Tim Larsen . . . Swedish; 
William Kreutzfeldt . . . Germany; Harry Diss . . . Portuguese; Emil 
Kroschel . . . Finnish. 

John Mazerzyk, Jr. . . . Polish; William Keele . . . English; Jack H. 
Francis and Raymond Harris . . . Scotch-Irish, veterans of World War 
II; Johann and Jacob Petrenko . . . Ukrainians and once German pris- 
oners of war; Jack Toussaint . . . French; Tony Tatosian . . . Armenian. 

Finally, when 20 workers had signed the brick, Olson pulled out a 
piece of crumpled paper. He wrote, as the bricklayers made sugges- 
tions: 

"Many men from many home lands. All Americans now. Men with 
different home lands, different religions, different customs have all con- 
tributed their skill toward a common goal. 

"But as the diplomats of the world haggle over conference tables, 
some swear the peoples of the different nations never can solve their 
mutual problems. 

"Here, all these men worked, planned and cooperated until they 
had built something lasting . . . an expression of their pride in America. 

"Perhaps in this last brick there will always be a warm flame kindled 
by the men who love America." 

Then they all shook hands and Olson, with the brick, disappeared 
into the executive offices of the company. 



THE CARPENTER 25 

While the story in itself has an appealing human touch, it seems to us that 
it contains something of deep significance. While bricklayers in Chicago- 
Polish, Finnish, Jewish, Portugese, Armenian and English— are working side 
by side on the job to build something strong and lasting, diplomats from 
various nations are snarling at each other across conference tables and grad- 
ually pushing the world toward a war which well might destroy civilization 
completely. Why should this be? 

There is nothing exceptional or extraordinary about the Chicago brick- 
layers. They are no different from the carpenters in Schenectady or the 
plumbers in Houston or the electricians in San Francisco; craftsmen of many 
races and many creeds and many varied backgrounds work harmoniously 
side by side. Piece by piece they put together buildings and bridges and 
tunnels. They do not snarl at each other or try to undercut each other or 
gang up among themselves to eliminate a Pole or a Swede or a Jew. 

Why can't the diplomats do as well? 

Maybe the answer lies in the fact the bricklayers or carpenters or plumbers 
do not want the whole world for themselves and nothing for the other fellow. 
What they want is a fair shake for themselves and, by the same token, a fair 
shake for the other fellow too. 

When the "smart" people of all nations (who run the world) learn that 
simple little thing, lasting peace will be possible. Not before. Until they do, 
it might not be a bad idea to have a few bricklayers and carpenters and elec- 
tricians doing a little sitting around the conference tables of the world in- 
stead of reserving the privilege exclusively for the boys with the striped pants 
who have been bungling the job since civilization first began. 



Dry Rot In Unionism Is Dangerous 

By Joseph S. Martin, President Local Union No. 1098 

It is real, this dry rot that unionism faces today; and the name of this evil 
is indifference. What is indifference? It is the thought that has come over a 
large number of members time and time again, a thought that you hear spoken 
on every side. 

What is this thought? 

That it doesn't make any difference whether or not we go to the meetings, 
just so the other members go. And the others take the same attitude so the 
final result is that sometimes we have only a handful of members attending 
the meetings and conducting the affairs that every member of the local union 
should take part in. 

Indifference is capable of undermining the ideals and principles of union- 
ism that men have fought and died for. 

Does this seem far fetched? Stop and think for a moment. When people 
are indifferent to anything it does not require much opposition for them to 
give up that thing completely. Unionism is no exception. It only requires a 
little obstacle to make an indifferent person give up. 

Why is this? 

Because through his indifference he does not understand the issues. Con- 
sequently he does not care enough about his union or local to fight and main- 
tain the conditions that were so dearly bought with toil, sweat and yes, even 
blood. 



•26 THE CARPENTER 

He therefore becomes the target and main objective of those who are doing 
their utmost to destroy the unions through laws, propaganda and lies. These 
people know that an indifferent union man is one who not having the infor- 
mation at hand can be made to believe what they want him to believe. 

They also know that the indifferent union man won't take the trouble or 
time to find out if their propaganda is true or not. Thus the indifferent union 
man will soon swallow the bait and lose his perspective. By this method of 
confusion Hitler nearly conquered the world. 

Then what is the answer to all of this. 

Simply this; attend your local meetings and be active. Take the time to 
find out if the facts are true; also find out who are the friends of labor and who 
are its enemies. So, remember this; in active members, there only lies the life 
and strength of our free labor movement. 



It Makes A Difference 



Should there be one kind of "military justice" for privates and another 
for generals? That question is again raised by two contrasting developments. 

In one, an Army court-martial sentenced First-Class Private Warren Mc- 
Connell to dishonorable discharge and ten years in prison, for sleeping on 
his guard post in Korea. McConnell, whose age is twenty, wrote his father 
that he had been awake for three days, building bunkers and "pulling guard," 
and couldn't stay awake any longer. 

Sleeping on post is a serious matter, but it couldn't possibly have the far- 
reaching and disastrous results which are following the other development, 
involving an "officer and gentleman." 

According to reports, which Army authorities admit are true, Major 
General Robert W. Grow committed the astounding folly of keeping a diary 
while he was a military attache in Uncle Sam's embassy in Moscow. He took 
the diary with him when he went to Frankfurt, Germany, for a meeting with 
other American military attaches from other countries. 

A military attache is a glorified kind of spy, and General Grow must have 
known the Communist rulers would pay a high price to find out what he was 
doing and thinking. Yet he left his diary on a table in his Army hotel room in 
Frankfurt. In effect, he was "asleep at his post." 

Some "Red" spies of a very practical and unglorified kind photographed 
the pages of his diary and then returned it to the table. Parts of the diary 
are being published in Communist countries now, and they put Uncle Sam in 
a bad light. 

For example, the diary written by an American general, who is supposed 
to be a responsible person, says we should attack Russia immediately and 
"hit below the belt." Grow tells how he picked out targets for American 
bombers, and calls for: "War! As soon as possible! Now!" 

That sort of stuff is worth any amount of money to Communist prop- 
agandists, who are telling the world that Uncle Sam is a "war monger." 
What will happen to the general who did his country more damage than 
could be done by sleeping on any post? Will he get a dishonorable discharge 
and ten years in prison? It's not likely.— Labor 



THE CARPENTER 27 

Hardly An Effective Weapon 

A year or more ago the United States Supreme Court handed down a 
decision which knocked the props out from under the "fair trade" laws. 
These so-called "fair trade" laws, which are a little too complicated for an 
ordinary wood-butcher to understand, permitted states to pass statutes fixing 
minimum prices on items "fair-traded" by manufacturers. The legal tech- 
nicalities involved may be complicated but the results are understandable 
to everyone. Under the fair trade laws, a manufacturer could say that his 
electric iron or tube of tooth paste could not be sold below a stipulated price. 
In states that went along with the program, the price set by the manufacturer 
became binding on all people handling the merchandise at retail. 

What happened to prices under the fair trade laws is interesting. 

FORTUNE MAGAZINE in J9J f 9 compared fixed vs. free prices in Maryland (fixed) 
and Washington, D. C. (free) 

Of 117 identical drug items shopped: 

35 cost 33% LESS in free Washington 

38 cost 25% LESS in free Washington 

29 cost 14% LESS in free Washington 

FORTUNE MAGAZINE shopped 5' t items in East St. Louis (fixed) and St. Louis, 
Missouri (free) and found that: 

54 identical price-fixed items cost 16.2% more 
on the fixed east bank of the Mississippi 
than on the free west end of the Bridge ! 

The ST. LOUIS STAR TIMES shopped 50 other identical items in the same free and 
fixed stores, found that the Illinois price war was over 10% HIGHER than the free 
Missouri. 

The Supreme Court decision having upset the law, Congress is now in 
the process of studying the advisability of writing a new one. The theory 
behind the fair trade law is that it is needed to protect the small merchant from 
the chain stores. Fair trading prevents chain stores from undercutting prices 
to the point where the independent retailer cannot compete. 

Theoretically there might be some merit to the idea, but practical ap- 
plication of fair trade practices indicates that the manufacturer reaps a 
golden harvest at the expense of the consumer, while the independent re- 
tailer gets very little benefit. What really kills off the independent retailer 
is special discounts and secret rebates which chain stores work out with 
manufacturers, even though such practices are illegal. Fighting monopoly 
is a laudable goal, but fair trade laws hardly seem to be an effective weapon 
worth what they cost the consumer. 

Thousands upon thousands of independent merchants have proved that 
the independent can compete with the chain stores. He cannot do it on a 
price basis; but he can do it by offering courtesy, extra service and, above 
all, genuine friendliness. A better job of administering present laws against 
secret rebates and special discounts for large buyers might help the little 
fellow too. But in the final analysis he will be able to survive only by pitting 
warmth and friendliness against the cold-bloodedness of the chain stores. 



THE CARPENTER 



( Continued 

machines, but not until 1797 did the 
Admiralty decide to use them at the 
shipyards. In the meantime the fac- 
tories at Westminster and York Street 
continued turning out machines, and 
many patents were obtained. When 
the Admiralty eventually made up 
their minds, Jeremy Bentham super- 
vised the production of the new ma- 
chines which, to judge from his re- 
ports, proved satisfactory. Invoices 
from Bentham's factories to the Ad- 
miralty include lathes, saws, planes, 
tenons for boring, drills, squaring 
tools, and a host of other machines. 



from page 23 ) 

principle, in those days. The royalties 
received by Brunei, Bentham's French 
collaborator, were assessed by the 
work-saving effect they had during 
one year. The resulting 16,000 pounds 
was quite some money in those days. 
A Board of Arbitration mediating in 
1813 in a dispute between Jeremy 
Bentham and the British Government 
adjudged to Bentham royalties in the 
amount of 20,000 pounds for machines 
he had supplied to shipyards and pen- 
itentiaries. 

The minutes of those arbitration 
proceedings are interesting. They re- 




An early Nineteenth Century spindle shaper. Note safety de- 
vices over the cutters. 



Together with M. I. Brunei, a French 
engineer, Bentham also designed ma- 
chinery for block making— an impor- 
tant innovation, for many blocks were 
needed for the sailing boats of those 
days, and the highly developed craft 
of the block makers had up to then 
done without mechanical aid. 

In 1803 Samuel Bentham persuaded 
the Admiralty to make use of new ma- 
chines that had proved effective and 
to erect a steam-engine plant to oper- 
ate them. Steam engines were then 
manufactured for many shipyards, and 
wood processing machinery was used 
increasingly and its design improved. 

Almost all machinery which we 
now use was invented, at least in 



cord that Samuel Bentham had de- 
signed a number of machines for un- 
skilled workers, especially for work- 
house inmates. In 1793 he had ob- 
tained patents for that machinery to 
secure its use in the reformatories. 
• There were statements by witnesses 
that no occupational skill whatsoever 
was required for operating those ma- 
chines. Used also in the shipyards 
and operated by ordinary workers, the 
machines saved ninety per cent of the 
work that would otherwise have been 
required. Tables, for instance, could 
be produced at half their earlier costs. 
J. Bichards, in his "Treatise on the 
Construction and Operation of Wood- 
Working Machines," London, 1872, is 



THE CARPENTER 



29 



certainly right when observing that 
Bentham's machines evidently fulfilled 
the expectations set upon them, and 
maybe he is equally right when add- 
ing that this cannot always be said of 
modern machine production. The list 
in Richards' book of the inventions 
made by Samuel Bentham before 1800 
is almost overwhelming; but it would 
be a disservice to the memory of the 
great inventor to bore the reader by 
reprinting it here. Be it enough to 
quote Richards' words that Bentham's 
lathe patent of 1793 has made possible 
machine-turning, and with it all sub- 
sequent progress in the precision of 
machine production. 

All that has been presented shows 
clearly that Sir Samuel Bentham is 
entitled to the designation "Father of 
the Woodworking Industry". Richard 
says that Bentham's inventions are the 
earliest in England and certainly 
ahead of other countries. 

"Surrounded as we are with re- 
markable machines," says Richards to 
his contemporaries of 1872, "let us 
not forget the circumstances under 
which Samuel Bentham's machines 
were developed. Imagine catgut 
bands, pulleys with grooves for trans- 
mission of rapid motion from the 
power source to the machine, the skill 
required of the workmen to develop 
the machines from Bentham's draw- 
ings, the workers' ignorance of geo- 
metric design and their general lack 
of mechanical competence, all that 
we today are so well acquainted 
with." 

At a trial between the Crown and 
James Smith in 1848 a tribute was 
paid to Bentham's genius that the 
Government never acknowledged dur- 
ing his lifetime: "Sir Samuel Bentham 
was the first to put a sawmill into 
production in our country, the first to 
draw up the principles for all kinds 
of machine saws that are constructed 
or are likely to be constructed, prin- 



ciples which since that time have 
never been departed from. A specifi- 
cation of his 1793 patent is a perfect 
treatise on the matter, the only source 
worth quoting from which has been 
written on the subject up to this time." 

Bentham was, of course, not alone 
in constructing machines for the use 
of the wood industry. The French 
engineer Brunei has been mentioned 
already. And the English engineer 
William Newbery in 1808 patented a 
band saw whose design little differs 
from that of our days; but difficulties 
in obtaining proper blades prevented 
this invention from coming into use. 
An unknown Frenchman thus re-in- 
vented the saw and exhibited it at the 
Paris Industrial Fair of 1856. The 
French had succeeded in solving the 
problem of the blades, and French 
band saw blades are even now known 
for their high quality. 

The shaper was invented in Hol- 
land about 1822 and, competing with 
the engineering firms of Richards in 
London and Kelley in Philadelphia, 
there were the Allen, Ransom & Co. 
machine builders who introduced 
score of improvements ranging from 
oil-lubricated bearings to special band 
saws. Also, there was the French en- 
gineering workshop of F. Arbey, and 
there was the less edifying figure of 
Mr. Woodworth in London. The lat- 
ter held patents for planing machines 
which he could not improve, hinder- 
ing others to obtain patents for better 
ones. His monopoly is said to have 
caused enormous losses to the English 
economy, and it fatally retarded Eng- 
lish progress in this field. 

There were no further inventions in 
this field in England from 1815 to 
1855. The initiative was taken over 
by America, and here pioneering spirit 
and a lack of stifling traditions gave 
rise to the construction of a more 
practical kind of machinery. The in- 
itiative had gone West, for good. 



THE LOCKER 



By JOHN HART, LOCAL UNION 366, New York, N. Y. 

THE OLD COVERED BRIDGE 

Many are under the impression that the covered hridge is an American invention which 
has survived only in the state of Vermont. If this is your belief you might as well take 
youx dose of disillusionment right now. Covered bridges were built in several European 
countries wherever a nearby forest could supply the necessary timber, and, although Ver- 
mont has more covered bridges than all the other New England states combined, there 
were, at a. recent date, more of them in Ohio, Pennsylvania and Indiana. Due to the in- 
sistent and continuous demand for highway improvements these bridges are rapidly being 
eliminated as hazardous and obsolete relics of the horse and buggy age, so that today 
there are hardly 400 left standing in the whole country. Vermont is slow to abandon them, 
and rightly so, as they are beautifully appropriate to the scenic setting provided by the 
lovely Green Mountain state. You know the picture, you've seen it so often on the prettier 
Christmas cards. In the background the snow-clad hills— a snug, tree-sheltered farmhouse 
with a red barn— a slender-spired, little white church— and in the foreground an old covered 
bridge through the portals of which is emerging a one-horse open sleigh. All that's missing 
is the jingle of the bells. The other states won't mind it a bit if we call this a typical 
Vermont scene. 

The first covered bridge was built in America around 1800, and was instantly given the 
nickname, "die kissing bridge"— we'll let you guess why. Several reasons are given for 
closing diem in, most of them silly. To provide shelter for travelers in bad weather— to 
keep the horses from shying when crossing die river— to act as a meeting place for the 
local residents. The real reason was, to protect the expensive framework against decay, it 
being estimated that a covered bridge would last forty years or more longer than one un- 
covered. Furthermore, a covered bridge was stronger. The roof trusses were tied in by 
wind braces to die top chord members of the side trusses, making a stiffened, compact 
unit, capable of resisting any extreme wind pressure. The side trusses were often 10 feet 
or more high, and in an open bridge were subject to distortion by wind pressure, many of 
them being blown considerably out of plumb. Selected spruce and hemlock were the woods 
preferably used, usually seasoned for three years before being erected. Black walnut was 
sometimes used in Indiana and Ohio, being very cheap and plentiful in that region once 
upon a time. Nice salvage in one of diose old walnut bridges, we would think. 

The earliest bridges, usually toll bridges, were of a simple truss design, a typical one 
costing around $6,000, which was a lot of money in those days. No plans were ever used, 
probably because no one could read them. The boss carpenter was the designer. He 
worked by guess and by gosh. Experience taught him what dimension timbers to use and 
where to use them. Lumber being plentiful and cheap, and right at hand, he never skimped 
on material, rather he overdid it just to be on the safe side. The specifications simply 
called for a bridge a load of hay wide and a load of hay high, located in a certain spot 
and guaranteed to stand up. Sometimes a two-way bridge was called for, in which case 
a dividing partition was run along the middle. The trusses were pre-assembled, knock- 
down, in a nearby level field. All members were fitted joinery fashion with hairline ex- 
actness. In the final assembly, oil-soaked oak pins were the only fastenings used, no bolts 
or other ironwork being employed. No self-respecting carpenter in those days ever needed 
them. He put his trust only in wood. A temporary supporting falsework with the necessary 
camber was built across the river. On top of this the stringers were laid straight and par- 
allel, and then, piece by piece, the pre-fitted members were assembled. When the roof was 
completed die false work was knocked away. This was the critical moment for all hands. 
Would she hold? How much would she drop? But they always held up, and many of 
them are still standing today, more than 100 years after erection. 

About 1820 an architect named Town designed the lattice truss which permitted the use 
of smaller timbers and made erection more easy. This same type of lattice truss is being 
used today, in wood and steel, and is called a Town truss. For his Deerfield Village collec- 
tion of American antiquities, Henry Ford bought one of these old Town truss bridges 
which was built in Pennsylvania in 1855 with a span of 228 feet. Another early type truss 
used was the Burr, which had a reinforcing laminated wooden arch fastened to the com- 
pression struts on the inside face. Then the engineers came on the scene around 1850 and 
introduced labor-saving iron tie-rods, bolts and other devices hitherto unknown in bridge 
building. The Howe truss called for diagonal wood struts with vertical iron tie-rods. Like 
the Town, the Howe truss is being used today, with variations of course. So little by little, 
just as it is nowadays, the exactness required of the carpenter was gradually eliminated in 



THE CARPENTER 31 

bridge construction. Around the Eighties many Howe type bridges were built in Indiana. 
They were erected by specializing bridge-building companies, and all members were pre- 
cut at the mill. These factory-produced bridges were practical, but no one ever called 
them pretty. Some of these Howe trusses were as much as 18 feet high with a span of 200 
feet or more. The average width of a typical one-way bridge was 16 feet. Some of them 
had a pedestrian walkway blistered on the outer side. We imagine there are still a few 
in use in Indiana. 

If by 'Some remote chance a covered bridge were being built today, the call would be 
for hatchet-and-saw carpenters. The early bridges were no hatchet-and-saw jobs. They 
were built by expert carpenters who were expected to do a first-class job, and who damn 
well knew how to do it. Furthermore, they got the time to do it. Well, we can do it too 
if anyone wants it that way. But who does? 

THE WHITE-HAIRED BOY 

In case you don't know, we should explain what a white-haired boy is. He's the for- 
tunate fellow picked out from several others less fortunate for special consideration by 
someone in a position to grant favors. These lucky babies are everywhere. You had one 
in your class going to school. Maybe you called him teacher's pet. You'll find one in the 
White House if your political beliefs don't restrict your eyesight. They are rumored to 
exist in some trade unions, not yours of course, where they get the best jobs and are 
Johnny-on-the-spot whenever a nice appointment is scheduled. Most likely you never met 
one or even heard tell of one. 

This expression came from Ireland where the term used is "white-headed boy." When- 
ever a fair-headed boy was born into an Irish family of black-haired children, he became 
his mothers darling to the utter exclusion of everyone else. He got the best of everything 
—the top of his father's egg— the warm seat nearest the fire— sugar on his bread and butter 
—nothing was too good for him. His adoring mother called him a Gaelis expression of 
endearment, one translation of which could be, "My white-headed little boy!" Naturally 
this concentration of favoritism was resented by the other neglected members of the family 
who complained, "The white-headed boy gets everything in this house." And all over 
the world the white-haired boys have been getting it ever since. As we said before you 
probably never met one. 

WIDOW'S WALK 

What's a widow's walk? That's a fair question to ask a carpenter inasmuch as a 
widow's walk is a name for a certain part of a building. Some carpenters know what it is, 
some don't. In case you are in the latter class here's your golden opportunity to learn, and 
much good it will do you when you know it. 

Way back in the days when American sailing ships were in their glory, a ship's captain 
was generally a fairly wealthy person. Being so, he was in a position to build himself a 
home of some distinction in his home port town. This was typically a square, white, solid 
looking house, a distinctive feature of which was a small railed deck on the very top of 
the roof. This deck was designed as a lookout place from which to scan the nearby harbor. 
In his leisure time between voyages the captain would climb to tins land deck of his by 
way of the attic, and enjoy a busman's holiday by observing through his telescope the 
shipping activity in the port. So at first this lookout was called a captain's walk. But, 
alas and alack! in many sad instances there was a voyage from which the captain did not 
return. Then it was his widow who daily climbed to the deck and anxiously scanned the 
harbor mouth, hoping to see her husband's long overdue ship sailing across the bar. Being 
a sentimental race of people, this sad picture of the bereft and disconsolate widow keeping 
her hopeless vigil appealed to us immensely, and roused within our compassionate hearts 
a feeling of sympathy and admiration. So we began to call the little deck the widow's 
walk, and that's the name it goes by in most places today. More rarely it is called a cap- 
tain's walk. 

Widow's walks are pretty common in the old New England seaports, Salem, Portsmouth, 
and many other such like towns. Naturally you'd hardly expect to see one in Kansas City 
or Butte, Mont, unless some doodling architect stuck one on a house just because he thought 
it was a pretty-looking thing. Come to think of it, that wouldn't be such a crazy idea at 
all. Nice place to go on a Sunday afternoon with a pitcher of whatever your local laws 
permit you to fancy, and the Sunday paper. After a hard week's work some fellows like 
to relax in solitary comfort, far from everyone and everything. What better place than a 
widow's walk? 



Official Information 




General Officers of 
THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS 

of AMERICA 

General Office : Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 

General President 
M. A. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



First General Vice-Phesident 

JOHN R. STEVENSON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Second General Vice-President 

O. WM. BLAIER 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Secretary 

ALBERT E. FISCHER 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Treasurer 

S. P. MEADOWS 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Executive Board 



First District, CHARLES JOHNSON, Jr. 
Ill E. 22nd St.. New York 10, N. Y. 



Second District, RALEIGH RAJOPPI 
2 Prospect Place, Springfield, New Jersey 



Fifth District, R. E. ROBERTS 
4324 N. 48th St., Omaha, Nebr. 



Sixth District, A. W. MLTR 
Box 1168, Santa Barbara, Calif. 



Third District, HARRY SCHWARZER 
1248 Walnut Ave., Cleveland, O. 



Seventh District, ANDREW V. COOPER 
133 Chaplin Crescent, Toronto 12, Ont., Canada 



Fourth District, ROLAND ADAMS 
712 West Palmetto St., Florence, S. C. 



M. A. HUTCHESON, Chairman 
ALBERT E. FISCHER, Secretary 



All correspondence for the General Executive Board must be sent to the General Secretary 



Notice to Recording Secretaries 

The quarterly circular for the months of April, May, and June, 1952, con- 
taining the quarterly password, has been forwarded to all Local Unions of 
the United Brotherhood. Recording Secretaries not in receipt of this circular 
should notify Albert E. Fischer, Carpenters Building, Indianapolis, Indiana. 





LOCAL UNIONS 


CHARTERED 


2738 


Orangeburg, S. C. 


2062 


Cedar Rapids, la. 


2741 


Orangeburg, S. C. 


2097 


Stevens Point, Wis. 


2743 


Eldred, Penn. 


2172 


Santa Ana, Calif. 


2753 


Beaumont, Tex. 


2195 


Gardiner, Ore. 


3018 


Eldred, Penn. 


2768 


Berthierville, Que., Can. 


1450 


Peterborough, Ont., Can. 


2222 


Goderich, Ont., Can. 


2754 


Pembrock, Ont., Can. 


2235 


Pittsburgh, Penn. 


2757 


Magnolia, Ark. 


2339 


Gold Beach, Ore. 


1460 


Edmonton, Alberta, Can. 


2343 


Bastrop, La. 


1810 


Lebanon, Tenn. 


2447 


Murfreesboro, Tenn. 


1820 


Keene, N. H. 


2770 


Ellicottville, N. Y. 


1966 


Miami, Fla. 


2482 


Midland-Penetang, Ont., Can, 



ilrt 0l£m&xx&m 



Not lost to those that love them, 
Not dead, just gone before; 



They still live in our memory, 
And will forever more. 



The Editor has been requested to publish the names 
of the following Brothers who have passed away. 



JOHN ABELSON, L. U. 87, St. Paul, Minn. 

ALEX AHO, L. U. 2236, New York, N. Y. 

ROBERT ALEXANDER, L. U. 1, Chicago, 111. 

ALLEN N. ANDERSON, L. U. 1622, Hayward, 
Cal. 

CHARLES L. APTT. L. U. 67, Boston, Mass. 

CLARENCE C. BAKER, Sr., L. U. 100, Muske- 
gon, Mich. 

EINER C. BAKER, L. U. 100, Muskegon, Mich. 

LEONARD BANDELL, L. U. 101, Baltimore, Md. 

ORLA B. BARTLETT, L. U. 710, Long Beach, 
Cal. 

JAMES G. BENT, L. U. 40, Boston, Mass. 

FRANK DeBOER, L. U. 490, Passaic, N. J. 

0. L. BRADY, L. U. 2078, Vista, Cal. 

E. A. BREDE, L. U. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. 
DON BRENAMAN, L. U. 226, Portland, Ore. 
ALVIN D. BROWN, L. U. 721, Los Angeles, Cal. 
EDW. W. R. BRYANT, L. U. 101, Baltimore, 

Md. 
FLOYD E. BULMER, L. U. 1913, San Fernando, 

Cal. 
C. M. BURCHER, L. U. 261, Scranton, Pa. 
JAMES C. CAMPBELL, L. U. 1849, Pasco, 

Wash. 

F. P. CANTERBURY, L. U. 261, Scranton, Pa. 
CARL J. CARLSON, L. U. 710, Long Beach, 

Cal. 
JAMES JOEL COMBS, L. U. 627, Jacksonville, 

Fla. 
EDWIN COUSENS, L. U. 1622, Hayward, Cal. 
MERTON COX, L. U. 226, Portland, Ore. 
GEORGE CRAWFORD, L. U. 397, Whitby, Ont., 

Can. 
FRED CROWNOVER, L. U. 1622, Hayward, Cal. 
HOWARD DARROW, L. U. 532, Elmira, N. Y. 
J. F. DAVIS, L. U. 1768, Jacksonville, Tex. 
RALPH DeMEO, L. U. 993, Miami, Fla. 
CLEM M. DENNY, L. U. 103, Birmingham, Ala. 
C. H. DICE, L. U. 226, Portland, Ore. 
CARL DICKEY, L. U. 1622, Hayward, Cal. 

1. H. DINWOODIE, L. U. 1622, Hayward, Cal. 
ARNOLD A. DIXON, L. U. 218, Boston, Mass. 
ARTHUR L. DIXON, L. U. 210, Stamford, Conn. 
GERALD R. DONEY, L. U. 1367, Chicago, 111. 
HUGH DONNELLY, L. U. 1367, Chicago, 111. 
GEO. DUBY, L. U. 226, Portland, Ore. 
JAMES B. DURKIN, L. U. 16, Springfield, 111. 
WALTER S. ENANDER, L. U. 844, Reseda, Cal. 
STEPHEN ERVIN, L. U. 829, Santa Cruz, Cal. 
T. W. FARMER, L. U. 103, Birmingham, Ala. 
NATHAN FINCH, L. U. 746, Norwalk, Conn. 
J. T. FINN, L. U. 710, Long Beach, Cal. 

TOM GETTLE, L. U. 2078, Vista, Cal. 
HAROLD GILL, L. U. 721, Los Angeles, Cal. 
VIRGIL GOFF, L. U. 721, Los Angeles, Cal. 
LEON S. GOODALL, L. U. 532, Elmira, N. Y. 
JOHN O. GRANLUND, L. U. 67, Boston, Mass. 
W. J. GREENING, L. U. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. 
CLIFFORD GROPP, L. U. 626, Wilmington, 

Dela. 
H. H. HAGER, L. U. 993, Miami, Fla. 
JESSE HALL, L. U. 44, Champaign-Urbana, 111. 
HELMER HANSON, L. U. 1849, Pasco, Wash. 
RAYMOND HARRISON, L. U. 198, Dallas, Tex. 
CHARLES R. HATCH, L. U. 16, Springfield, III. 
FRED HEIMFORTH, L. U. 710, Long Beach, Cal. 
MARTIN HESS, L. U. 11, Cleve'and, Ohio 
BENJ. L. HICHBORN, L. U. 621, Bangor, Me. 

(Continued 



ROBT. A. HOLLISTER, L. U. 284, New York, 

N. Y. 
HUGO HUG, L. U. 264, Milwaukee, Wis. 
SYLVESTER HYKE, L. U. 337, Detroit, Mich. 
F. V. INGHAM, L. U. 2078, Vista, Cal. 
HAROLD F. INNES, L. U. 844, Reseda, Cal. 
PAUL JACKSON, L. U. 103, Birmingham, Ala. 
HENRY JANDER, L. U. 710, Long Beach, Cal. 
LEO JANSEN, L. U. 87, St. Paul, Minn. 
J. M. JAR VIS, L. U. 1622, Hayward, Cal. 
MAX JENSEN, L. U. 740, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
E. J. Johansson, L. U. 721, Los Angeles, Cal. 
BEN JOHNSON, L. U. 11, Cleveland, Ohio 
IVER JOHNSON, L. U. 87, St. Paul, Minn. 
J. C. JOHNSON, L. U. 993, Miami, Fla. 
FRANK KAJER, L. U. 54, Chicago, 111. 
PATRICH KELLEY, L. U. 261, Scranton, Pa. 
CLARENCE KEYSER, L. U. 325, Paterson, N. J. 
ADAM S. KLEBE, Sr. L. U. 101, Baltimore, Md. 
ERWIN KOEHLER, L. U. 264, Muwaukee, Wis. 
JAMES A. KRONK, L. U. 422, Rochester, Pa. 
S. E. KUHN, L. U. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. 
A. KUMZA, L. U. 1922, Chicago, 111. 
DAVID LAING, L. U. 132, Washington, D. C. 
AUG. LAMBRECHT, L. U. 264, Milwaukee, Wis. 
OMER LAROCHE, L. U. 1360, Montreal, Que., 

Can. 
CHAS. LARSON, L. U. 1922, Chicago, 111. 
MARTIN LEE, L. U. 87, St. Paul, Minn. 
JOSEPH LEGAULT, L. U. 337, Detroit, Mich. 
JOHN LEHMAN, L. U. 261, Scranton, Pa. 
PATSY LEO, L. U. 301, Newburgh, N. Y. 
GUS LERANGIE, L. U. 218, Boston, Mass. 
FOREST C. LITTLE, L. U. 1622, Hayward, Cal. 
HUBERT D. LOGAN, L. U. 710, Long Beach, 

Cal. 
WALTER LUCAS, L. U. 526, Galveston, Tex. 
CARL LUNDGREN, L. U. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. 
THOS. M. McGEE, L. U. 1849, Pasco, Wash. 
ALEX McGILL, L. U. 11, Cleveland, Ohio 
FRANK A. McGOWAN, L. U. 1622, Hayward, 

Cal. 
HARRY MARGOLIN, L. U. 721, Los Angeles, 

Cal. 
CIRILO P. MARTINEZ, 1622, Hayward, Cal. 
FRANK MELLINAND, L. U. 261, Scranton, Pa. 
EDWARD METSCHLAT, L. U. 261, Scranton 

Pa. 
EDWARD MILES, L. U. 608, New York, N. Y. 
FRANK MILLER, L. U. 1922, Chicago, 111. 
LEROY MILLER, L. U. 87, St. Paul, Minn. 
CHARLIE F. MOORE, L. U. 103, Birmingham, 

Ala. 
ALFRED J. MORRIS, L. U. 721, Los Angeles, 

Cal. 
RICHARD MUIRHEAD, L. U. 18, Hamilton, 

Ont., Can. 
J. S. OTTIS, L. U. 44, Champaign-Urbana, 111. 
KENNETH OWENS, L. U. 16, Sprinsrfie'd, 111. 
WILLIAM J. OWENS, L. U. 261, Scranton, Pa. 
THOS. J. PALMER, L. U. 1771, Eldorado, 111. 
OSCAR PANKONIEN, L. U. 454, Philadelphia, 

Pa. 
J. P. PENN, L. U. 526, Galveston, Tex. 
OSCAR PETERSON, L. U. 808, New York, N. Y. 
VINCENT PETTA, L. U. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. 
FRANK H. PHILLIPS, L. U. 218, Boston. Mass. 
J. P. PHILLIPS, L. U. 601. Henderson, Ky. 
R. S. PIKE, L. U. 993, Miami, Fla. 
on page 38) 



CorrQspondQncQ 




Tin's Journal Is Not Responsible For Views Expressed By Correspondents. 

LOCAL No. 906 DEDICATES FINE NEW HOME 
Glendale, Ariz., is a quiet little town of approximately 10,000 people situated close 
to Phoenix. Its industries are small and most of its revenue comes from agriculture. But 
Glendale is slowly but surely building a labor movement second to none in the state. 
On January 25th the first labor hall in Glendale was opened with appropriate ceremonies. 
That hall belongs to Local Union No. 906 of the United Brotherhood. 

Local Union No. 906 was chartered April 1, 1941. To say that the community 
welcomed the union with something less than open arms is putting it mildly, particularly 
as the farm element looks with disapproval on anything even resembling organized 
labor. But the men who make up Local No. 906 have allowed nothing to discourage 
diem. Year in and year out they have plugged away at building their union, taking 




set-backs in stride and profiting by mistakes. The fine new temple which stands at 
42 So. Eight St. is a tribute to their steadfastness and determination. 

The new Carpenters Hall was dedicated with impressive ceremonies. Representative 
Don Cameron was on hand to extend the congratulations of the General Office. Many 
odier prominent Arizona labor officials were also there to pay tribute to Local No. 906. 
Few Local Unions in the southwest possess nicer homes. 

Like its parent union, Auxiliary No. 407 of Glendale is also a small but active 
group. The ladies have done an excellent job of building community relations. In 1951 
the fourteen ladies who comprise the Auxiliary raised better than ten per cent of all 
the money raised in the community for the Crippled Children Fund. 

With the inspiration of their new home to help them, Local No. 906 and Auxiliary 
No. 407 should continue making progress. 

• 

NEW KENSINGTON LOCAL MARKS 60th BIRTHDAY 

A capacity crowd enjoyed the sixtieth anniversary celebration of Local Union No. 333, 
New Kensington, Pa., which was held at the Praha Cafe Saturday evening, January 12th. 
After a delicious dinner of broiled spring chicken with all the trimmings, President LaVerne 
Householder introduced General Representative C. M. Slinker who acted as master of 
ceremonies. 

Mayor F. M. Hornegave delivered the opening address of welcome in which he paid 
high tribute to the civic-mindedness of Local Union No. 333. A long list of other dis- 



THE CARPENTER 



35 



tinguished guests were on hand to help the union properly mark its important milestone. 
Among them were representatives from the Pittsburgh District Council, the Pennsylvania 
State Council, and a number of sister Local Unions in the area. 

William J. Kelly, general manager for the Pittsburgh District Council, with fifty-three 
years of active service in the labor movement to his credit, gave a stirring address on the 
progress that has been made in the past half century. He compared wages and working 
conditions as they existed at the time he entered the trade and as they exist today. 

Ted P. O'Keefe, Secretary-Treasurer of the Pennsylvania State Council, also gave a 
short talk in which he paid high tribute to the officers and members of Local Union No. 
333 for their steadfastness and loyalty to union principles down the years. Other guest 
speakers included: Wm. A. Kendrick, Vice-President of the Pennsylvania State Council; 
Lindsey Ross, Secretary-Treasurer of the Joint Council of Eastern Pennsylvania; and Pro- 
fessor Schnitzell of Reading, Pa., the unsung hero of Schuylkill Canal, who recounted his 
impressions of World War I. 

However, the highlight of the evening was the introduction of Rrother E. H. Black- 
burn who transferred to Local Union No. 333 from Jeanette in November, 1891. Brother 
Blackburn reviewed the growth of the community and the progress achieved by the 
Union. He recalled the many struggles of bygone days which were won by stout-hearted 
men against great odds. He told of the many sacrifices that had to be made before 
today's wages and working conditions were achieved, and he lauded the leadership which 
brought about such things in the United Brotherhood as the Home at Lakeland and 
the present pension and benefit system. 

During the evening, twelve young men who had successfully completed their four 
years of Apprenticeship Training were handed their Journeymen's Certificate by President 
Householder and Representative Slinker. 

The balance of the evening was devoted to entertainment, dancing and general 
sociability with plenty of refreshments on tap. All in all, the party proved to be a grand 
success. 



JEFFERSON CITY LOCAL JOINS GOLDEN CIRCLE 

On the night of December 1, 1951, Local Union No. 945, Jefferson City, Mo., 
wrote the final chapter of its first fifty-years of existence with a fine banquet at the 
Governor Hotel. A great turnout of members, friends and guests that taxed the capacity 

of the banquet hall was present to help the 
union properly wind up its first half century 
of progress. Starting out with a grand din- 
ner, the evening was devoted to entertain- 
ment, reminiscing, and, last but not least, in 
paying tribute to the fine record of growth 
and progress chalked up by Local Union 
No. 945. 

J. O. Mack of Kansas City acted as toast- 
master. Among the speakers were Mel Shas- 
serre of St. Louis, secretary of the Missouri 
State Council; Sam Curd, business agent of 
the Kansas City millwrights; and Bob Roberts, 
General Executive Board member who ex- 
tended the congratulations and best wishes 
of all General Officers. The speakers re- 
counted the many fine contributions made 
to the labor movement by Local Union 945. 

Following the dinner, the three motion pictures produced by the United Brotherhood 
were shown and greatly enjoyed. But the most exciting part of the evening was the 
presentation of two old timers to the meeting. President George Clark presented Brothers 
L. A. Korn and A. B. Eveler, each of whom has fifty years of continuous membership to his 
credit, with fifty-year buttons. 

Square dancing such as only red-blooded carpenters can produce wound up the 
evening and all who were in attendance went home proud of Local Union No. 945 and 
convinced that the next fifty years will see even greater progress by the union. 




Pictured above are the two grand old men 
of Local Union No. 945 who were honored 
at the union's golden anniversary celebration, 
they are left to right: Brother L. A. Korn, 85 
years of age and a member of the union for 
over 50 years, and Brother August B. Eveler, 
also a 50 year member and still a man keenly 
interested in the welfare of his union. 



36 



THE CARPENTER 




NAILS AND MORTAR AND BROTHERLY LOVE 

Years ago some sage said: "A man never knows the value of friends until adversity 
hits him." That the sage was right was never better demonstrated than it was recently 
ai Winston-Salem, N. C. Several months ago, Brother Stamey C. Myers, a member of 
Loral Union No. 1942, Wins- 
ton-Salem, lost his home and A 
all its furnishings through a dis- <, # : f 
astrous fire. As it would be 
to most people in moderate 
circumstances, a loss of such 
proportions was a tragedy some- 
thing akin to the end of the 
world to the Myers family. Few 
working people arc able to ac- 
cumulate more than a modest 
home and a few possessions. 

Needless to say, the world 
looked black to the Myers fam- 
ily. But they soon learned what 
friendship and brotherly love 
mean. As the best way of help- 
ing a brother in distress, Local 
Union No. 1942 decided that 
rebuilding the house would 
serve best. Consequently a 
goodly number of volunteers 
showed up at the site several 
miles from the city. Hour after 
hour they sawed and nailed 
and plumbed and braced. When 
they became tired, a second 
shift of volunteers from Local 
Union No. 1942 took over. 
Eventually a spic and span new 
home for the Myers family 
arose from the ashes of the 
destroyed one. C. A. Myers, 
brother of the fire victim, donated the lumber for the new home. So in addition to nails 
and mortar and timber, the new home contains generous quantities of unselfishness and 
brotherly love. And the Myers family might well paraphrase the old saying by making 

it read: "A family never knows the value of a union until adversity hits it." 

• 

LOCAL No. 811 SPONSORS FINE BANQUET 

Three years ago, Local Union No. 811, New Bethlehem, Pa., inaugurated an annual 
banquet and get-together. Each year these affairs have gotten better. The one held 
Wednesday evening January 9th of this year in the social room of the First National 
Bank was the best of them all. 

Mrs. Ruth McMillan and her capable staff of helpers served an excellent turkey 
dinner that included all the traditional trimmings. Some fifty-three members, friends and 
guests enjoyed it thoroughly. 

Following the dinner, W. C. Plyler, president of the union, gave a short talk on the 
benefits of unionism and die value of the things which unionism promotes. A special 
guest, L. D. Householder, business agent for district two, outlined the problems con- 
fronting the construction industry at die present time and predicted a good summer for 
die area. Also present was Brodier Carl T. Westland, secretary-treasurer of the Pittsburgh 
District Council, who discussed the activities of the council and summarized the problems 
surrounding building trades workers under government controls, building restrictions, etc. 

Following the speaking, the evening was turned over to Brother John E. McClelland, 
chairman of the entertainment committee who introduced "The Robins" of the Radio 
Artists Entertainment Service of Pittsburgh who turned out to be the most entertaining 
group to put on a show in the area in a long long time. Everyone enjoyed himself 
thoroughly and all are eagerly looking forward to next year's affair. 



The above picture, taken near the close of the first 
shift when a number of volunteers had already left, 
shows the Myers family and some of the members of 
Local Union No. 1942 standing before the house they 
helped to build. 

Reading from left to right, they are, first row: Rich- 
ard Myers, son, Mrs. Myers, Mr. Myers, Dewey L. 
Hodge, Ancill Motsinger, John Cole and Henry B. Von- 
cannon, business agent of the union. 

Back row: H. R. Baity, C. F. Woolsey, C. O. Bennett, 
C. T. Cole, B. T. Keicher and James N. Burge. 



THE CARPENTER 



37 



LOCAL No. 18 MARKS 70th BIRTHDAY WITH BANQUET 



Local Union No. 18, Hamilton, Ontario, one of the few unions almost as old as the 
United Brotherhood itself, on the night of December 18th, 1951, celebrated the 70th 
anniversary of its chartering with a gala banquet and social evening. Not even a howling 
blizzard could keep members and their friends away from the affair. As a result, a fine 
turnout was on hand to help the union celebrate its great milestone, even though those 
who lived in the outlying districts found it impossible to beat the blizzard. While the 
wind and die snow howled outside, several hundred members of the union and their 
well-wishers gathered around the banquet to break bread together and pay homage to 
the great union men, past and present, who helped to guide Local Union No. 18 through 
seven decades of progress. 

Many distinguished guests were on hand to help the union fittingly mark its completion 
of "three score and ten" years of service to the community. Among them was Andy 




Cooper, General Executive Board Member for the Seventh District, who conveyed the 
best wishes of the General Office. 

The men who brought Local Union No. 18 into existence have long since gone to 
their eternal reward, but the organization they founded is still carrying on in the traditions 
they established. When Local Union No. 18 was born, Hamilton was a struggling young city. 
Wages were a few cents an hour and hours were from ten to twelve per day. Through 
wars and panics and depressions, Local Union No. 18 continued fighting for better wages 
and working conditions. Bit by bit a victory was won here and an improvement in wages 
and working conditions established there until today's standards were reached. The way 
was not always easy and the obstacles were numerous, but officers and members of the 
union kept plugging away. The conditions enjoyed today are a result of their efforts. 

Until a late hour the members and guests rehashed old times, relived interesting ex- 
periences and generally enjoyed themselves. All left witii a renewed faidi in Local Union 
No. 18 and a new determination to keep moving forward. 



WINNIPEG CELEBRATES 65th MILESTONE 

When the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America was scarcely 
five years old, a small group of progressive carpenters at Winnipeg, Man., sent in an 
application for a charter. Sixty-five years later, Local Union No. 343 celebrated the 65th 
anniversary of the occasion by holding a banquet and dance. It was charter No. 343 
which the Winnipeg carpenters of 1887 received in response to tiieir application. Down 
the years the union has fought a never-ending fight to make life a little better for the 
working people of Winnipeg. Today it is one of the stalwarts of the Manitoba labor 
movement. And the wages and working conditions established by the union are among the 
best in the territory. 



38 THE CARPENTER 

On the night of February 28th, all this history and progress were celebrated in grand 
style. A large attendance was on hand for the event. With a number oi distinguished 
guests present to offer congratulations to the union, the guests heard many fine speeches. 

Highlight of the evening was the presentation of badges of merit to some fifty-three 
members each of whom had twenty-five years of continuous membership or more to his 
credit. A stirring round of applause greeted the old timers as he accepted their awards. 

As a tribute of esteem, the union also presented to Brother J. B. Graham, for over 
twenty years business agent of Local Union No. 343, a gold watch, suitably inscribed, 
and a matching chain. 

All in all, the birthday celebration turned out to be a grand affair and a fitting tribute 

to a great Local Union. 

• 

LOCAL 80 HONORS 21 FIFTY-YEAR MEMBERS 

On Monday evening, February 4, 1952, Local Union No. 80, Chicago, held a 
Special Called Meeting, for the purpose of honoring twenty-one members, who have been 
members of the United Brotherhood for fifty-years or more. Sixteen of those to be 
honored were present and were presented with gold lapel buttons by our former Presi- 
dent, John R. Stevenson, who now is First General Vice-President, United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America. Five members were unable to be present. 

President Ted Kenney, Secretary-treasurer Charles Thompson and other officers of 
die Carpenters' District Council of Chicago and vicinity were present and spoke a few 
words relative to the occasion. Several other officers of Local Unions in the district were 
present and were introduced by the chairman, President Oscar H. Larson. 
The following members received fifty-year buttons: 
Gus Larson Charles A. Wilson Wm. J. Hoskins 

Thomas Saunders Adolph Ecklund Frank Klemt 

Theodore Brown Fred A. Brown Enoch Anderson 

John Brims Pierce Malone Settinio Silvestri 

Wm. Forsythe Jack Ingram Edward W. Jones 

Dennis Kearin J. C. Rasmussen Paul Ekle 

Joseph Reichert Ira Reed George Purdie 

First General Vice-President, John R. Stevenson, after pinning die buttons on these 
fifty-year members, gave an interesting address to all present, dwelling on the activities 
of die organization as a whole, and also commending these members for their long and 
honorable membership in the organization. The evening wound up with a buffet supper 
and beverages, and a wonderful time was had by all present. 



2Jrt (fMemtfrxaitt 

(Continued from page 33) 



ALBERT POHLMAN, L. U. 710, Long Beach, AUGUST F. STIELOW, L. U. 289, Lockport, 

Cal. N. Y. 

HAROLD PRICE, L. U. 322, Niagara Falls, JOHN STRICKLAND, L. U. 218, Boston, Mass. 

N. Y. JAMES STUVEE, L. U. 1922, Chicago, 111. 

RICHARD F. RAPLERE, L. U. 844, Reseda, Cal. CHARLES A. SWENSCON, L. U. 808, New 
RICHARD P. REILLY, L. U. 844, Reseda, Cal. York, N. Y. 

WM. HOLT RICHARDSON, 1771, Eldorado, III. ROBERT C. TAYLOR, L. U. 1622, Hayward, 

WM. H. RICHTER, L. U. 272, Chicago Hts., 111. ..... .^al. .. TI7 .. DI r T Tt , , , „ 

HENRY RORICK, L. U. 261, Scranton, Pa. WILBE CaT TEMPLE - L ' U ' 1437 < Compton, 

C. H. ROSE, L. U. 261, Scranton, Pa. JAMES THOMSON, L. U. 2404, Vancouver, B. 
CLARENCE S. RUSSELL, L. U. 2732, Hilt, Cal. c., Can 

GEORGE SCHUSTER, L. U. 1922, Chicago, 111. FRANK TIMMONS, L. U. 87, St. Paul, Minn. 

WILLIAM SCRIBNER, L. U. 1622, Hayward, J. O. TORRENCE, L. U. 710, Long Beach, Cal. 

Cal. CHARLES TRUEBLOOD, L. U. 710, Long Beach, 
FELIX SEHMAN, L. U. 87, St. Paul, Minn. Cal. 

PAUL SHEETS, L. U. 200, Columbus, Ohio GEORGE J. TURNEY, L. U. 721, Los Angeles, 
JOHN W. SHEPPARD, L. U. 721, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Cal. STEVE UREN, L. U. 18, Hamilton, Ont., Can. 

P. A. SIMS, L. U. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. FRANK VITEK, L. U. 87, St. Paul, Minn. 

CHAS. G. SK1LLIN, L. U. 1849, Pasco, Wash. HARRY WALKER, L. U. 1913, San Fernando, 
DEWEY SNAVELY, L. U. 1622, Hayward, Cal. Cal. 

MICHAEL SOLTYS, L. U. 844, Reseda, Cal. O. J. WALLER, L. U. 87, St. Paul, Minn. 

PHILIP SPANIER, L. U. 721, Los Angeles, Cal. SAM WALTERS, L. U. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. 

JOHN STEBLEN, L. U. 808, New York, N. Y. A. B. WALTON, L. U. 2078, Vista, Cal. 

WALTER STEMLER, L. U. 721, Los Angeles, PETER WICKSTRAND, L. U. 226, Portland, 

Cal. Ore. 

BEN F. STEVENS, L. U. 198, Dallas, Tex. RALPH RODMAN WILLIAMS, L. U. 30, New 
EDWARD STIEBLING, L. U. 87, St. Paul, Minn. London, Conn. 




AUXILIARY NO. 303 HAS BUSY YEAR 

The Editor: 

Friendly greetings to all Sister Auxiliaries from Auxiliary No. 303 of Toronto, Ontario, 
Canada. 

The sands of time have emerged us into another year, and while we reminisce through 
the past twelve months, we find ourselves very grateful for the fellowship of sisterhood, 
whereby we share the satisfaction of good things accomplished both for ourselves and 
otiiers around us. 

Our election of officers last June resulted in little change except for our President, 
who, under the strain of ill health, relinquished die chair and Sister Cottam accepted the 
Presidency. 

Our bazaar which took place last October was a marvelous success, and we are active 
all through the year for this event. 

We have sewing bees once a month, and these are held at die various homes of mem- 
bers; in this manner, we keep together bodi the practical and social. 

We hold our business meetings every second Thursday of die mondi and our social 
night during the fourth week and our Brothers of Local 27 turn out very well for these 
get-togethers— in this way our funds are replenished. 

Our Christmas party for the members' children and grandchildren was a very happy 
affair and a huge success. 

We are endeavoring to put on a drive for new members, thus promoting labor with 
pleasure; it's a good combination. 

Some of our Brothers in Local 27 are in die Sanatorium and it was to their families 
our benevolence was bestowed at Christmas. 

Our Auxiliary celebrated its Fourteendi Anniversary on January 25, 1952, by having 
a banquet at the Royal York Hotel. This was put on for the members of 303 and their 
husbands. 

Our officers are: Mrs. Cottam, President; Mrs. H. Gallop, Vice-President; Mrs. Bryant, 
Treasurer; Mrs. Thorogood, Secretary; Mrs. Bonser, Conductress; Mrs. Redwood, Warden; 
Mrs. Jean Gallop, Benevolent Convenor, Mrs. Jones, Social Convenor; Mrs. Woodhouse, 
Mrs. Roberts, Mrs. Ida Taylor, Trustees. 

With best wishes to all our readers. 

Fraternally yours, 

Doris Thorogood, Secretary 



LAS VEGAS AUXILIARY CELEBRATES FIRST ANNIVERSARY 

The Editor: 

Ladies' Auxiliary No. 597 of Las Vegas, Nevada, sends Greetings to all Sister Auxiliaries. 

We received our Charter on October 6, 1950 and we have 38 paid-up members. 

Our meetings are held at die Carpenters' Hall on the first and third Friday evening 
of each month. The carpenters of Local 1780 also meet at the Hall at the same time and 
following our meetings, our husbands join us for refreshments and a social hour. 

We have one social event each month which includes our husbands. Last year, we 
celebrated our First Anniversary with a dance. We also had a Hallowe'en dance and a 
New Year's Eve party. Last November, our social was a turkey dinner for our husbands 
and families. For our Christmas project, we bought some candy and bedroom slippers 
for a number of elderly people that are in care of the county. 

We would enjoy hearing from other Auxiliaries. 

Fraternally, 

Mrs. Ethel Sellers, Recording Secretary 



Craft ProblQms 




Carpentry 

By H. H. Siegele 
LESSON 283 
Garage Completed.— The two previous 
lessons showed how a garage can be used 
for living quarters, until the owner can build 
a real home to move into. In this lesson 
the garage is shown completed, after the 
partitions were taken out and the material 
used, either in the house or in the garage 
itself, presuming, of course, that the owner 
is living in his new home. 




A«*M 



Fig. 1 



Fig. 1 shows the plan of the garage. To 
the right is pointed out a 4-foot extension 
of the concrete floor of the garage, which 
becomes a part of the concrete driveway. 
The front opening is indicated by dotted 
lines. At the bottom of the drawing is 




A-A 



Fig. 2 



shown a workbench. To the bottom left, 
the side door is shown. Only three windows 
are shown in this plan. The rest were taken 
out and will be used elsewhere. The open- 



ings of the removed windows were studded 
and boxed over, so that the outsides could 
be stuccoed. 

Workbench.— Fig. 2 shows at A-A a cross 
section of the workbench, cut across as 
shown at A-A, Fig. 1. To the right is shown 



Boxing, 




7S87777 



Fig. 3 



a front view of the left end of the bench. 
A shelf is pointed out about 8 inches above 
the floor. This shelf is laid on 2x4 ledgers 
laid flat, which are supported on one end 
by the concrete wall and on the other with 
short struts, as shown by the cross section 
at A-A. Two views, in part, of the window 
frame are shown by these drawings. Study 
and compare the two drawings. 




Bolts ■ 



Fig. 4 



Truss Over Front Opening.— Fig. 3 shows 
a front view of the garage, giving the size 
of the front opening in figures— also the 
construction of the truss that spans the 
opening. The front of this truss is boxed 
on a 60-degree angle with the 2x12 beam, 
to which the boxing is fastened. On the 
back of the truss 2x4 braces are fastened to 
the rafters and the beam, with both nails 
and bolts. The heavy dots indicate bolts. 
Before the boxing or 2x4 braces are fastened, 
the beam should be given a gradual erown, 



THE CARPENTER 



41 



—enough to take up the sagging, due to 
seasoning. A detail of one end of the truss 
construction is given by Fig. 4. The braces, 
rafters, beam, and bolts are pointed out, 




while the boxing on the front is indicated 
by dotted lines. Compare this detail with 
the drawing in Fig. 3. 

Front Elevation and Doors.— Fig. 5 shows 
a front elevation of the garage after the 




Fig. 6 

outsides were stuccoed and the doors were 
installed. The stucco was placed over the 
imitation brick siding, after the sides were 




Flitched Beam 



•/4 Steel Plate- 



Fig. 7 

covered with chick wire to reinforce the 
stucco. Fig. 6 shows the front elevation of 
the same garage, in case a hip roof is used 
instead of a gable roof. It is obvious that 



when a hip roof is used, some other means 
of supporting the roof over the wide open- 
ing must be used. Some kind of beam is 
suggested. 

Beam Supports.— Fig. 7 gives a detail of 
the roof cornice, just over the front opening. 
It also shows a cross section of a flitched 
beam, which supports the roof over the 
front door. Fig. 8, at A, shows a side view 
of a beam made of two 2x12 timbers, rein- 
forced with a rod, as shown by the dotted 
lines. A cross section of this beam is shown 
at A, Fig. 9. As shown the beam is held 




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42 



THE CARPENTER 



together with bolts. At B is shown a side 
view of a Hitched beam which is bolted to- 
gether, as indicated by the dots. At B, Fig. 
9, is shown a cross section of this beam. 
At C is shown a side view of an I beam, 
a cross section of which is shown at C, Fig. 



can be stock-sized doors, made to order 
doors, shop-made doors, or even job-made 
doors. The construction of a job-made door 
is suggested by Fig. 10. To the left is shown 
the framework of snch a door with four 
crossbars. Four methods of fastening the 



ATT 



sir — -* 



B 



Fig. 8 



9. The drawings of Figs. 8 and 9 should 
be compared and studied in keeping with 
these explanations. 

Doors.— Wide front garage openings, such 
as shown in the front elevations of this 
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openings that have a center support. 

The doors used for this garage can be any 
kind of doors that tiie owner wants, They 

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joints between the stiles and the ends of 
the crossbars are shown. At A the cross- 
bar is fastened to the stiles, as indicated by 
die dotted lines, by means of mortise and 
tenon joints. At B the crossbar is shown 
joined to die stiles by means of dowels, in- 
dicated by dotted lines. At C a halfflap 
joint is used for fastening die crossbar to 
the stiles, while at D die joints are made 
widi corrugated metal fasteners. The fas- 
tenings shown at A, B, and C are the best, 
but it will take more time to make them. 
The joints made widi the corrugated fas- 
teners, shown at D, are the simplest, and 
dierefore the cheapest. After die frame is 




completed, it is covered with pressed wood, 
leaving an opening for the glass lights, as 
shown by die drawing to the right. The 
pressed wood can be fastened widi nails or 
with countersunk screws. Pressed wood is 
suggested here, because the walls of the 
temporary living quarters in the garage were 
finished widi pressed wood, which can be 
used here in making the doors. 

Paint.— Before the pressed wood is fas- 
tened, the frame should be painted— also 



THE CARPENTER 



43 



the back of the pressed wood— and while the 
paint is still green, the pressed wood should 
be fastened to the frame. The outsides of 
the doors should have a prime coat of paint 
before the nail and screw holes are puttied, 
—then the paint should be applied. 

Management.— It will depend a great deal 
on the management of a job like this, as to 




rftoEDWooy 



Fig. 10 

whether or not it will prove to be econom- 
ical. Everything that is used in fixing up 
the temporary living quarters should be 
planned in such a way that little, if any, of 
the material can not be used again, either 
in the garage or else in the completing of 
the house. Common sense must be applied 
liberally in order to manage any building 
project of this kind economically. 



WANTS TO KNOW 

A reader wants to add six feet to a room 
on one of the eave sides of his house, and 
wants to know how to support the ceiling 
and roof where the wall has to be removed. 

The problem is simple. Fig. 1 shows a 
lattice truss that is suitable for supporting 
the ceiling and roof where the wall is to 
come out. The rafters of the truss should 




Fig. 1 

have the same pitch as the roof that is to 
cover the addition to the room. In fact, 
the truss should answer for one pair of 



rafters. Notice that the two ends of the truss 
are boarded solid on both sides. The pur- 
pose of this is to keep the rafters from push- 
ing out of place. Between the two boarded 
ends, 1x4 braces are placed, 12 inches on 
center, as shown by the drawing. These 



Bolt 




^2X8 Chord '2X6 

Temporary Support' 
Fig. 2 

braces are placed on both sides of the truss, 
but sloping in opposite directions. The chord 
is made of a 2x8, which should have a crown 



78" LEVEL only $13" 

For setting door jambs and windows. No other liko 
it. 4 plumbs, 2 levels. Use either end or edge up. 
Weighs 4 lbs. I-beam type, non-warp. Patented. 

NO FACTORY REPAIRS NEEDED! 

Spirit tube glass holder (50c) replaced in a min- 
ute with ordinary screw driver. 

72"— $12.50. All sizes extruded aluminum 
DIRECT from Factory, Express Prepaid 

SIMPLEX LEVEL CO. 



6828 E. Warren Ave. 



Detroit 7, Michigan 




THE SPEED CORP. 

512 N. E. 73rd Ave., Dept. 
Portland, Oregon 



SAW FILER 

Saves You Time, Money 

Now you can do expert saw 
filing at home. Lifetime tool 
makes precision filing easy foe 
even the most inexperienced. 
Two simple adjustments make 
ir fit any type hand saw. Keep 
your saws extra sharp and true- 
cutting with a Speed Saw Filer 
Complete with file, ready to use- 
Money back guarantee. Cash 
with order, prepaid (C.O-D. 
postage extra.) 




44 



THE CARPENTER 




of from one-halt to three-fourths of an inch. 
The braces and the end boarding should be 
well nailed, as indicated by the dots in 
Fig. 1. 

How to fasten the ceiling joists and rafters 
of the roof to the. truss is shown by Fig. 2. 
At the bottom, right, is shown a temporary 
support for the ceiling joists and roof. The 
rafters and ceiling joists must be cut out to 
receive a 2x6 with a 1x2 ledger nailed on, 
as shown. When these and the rafters and 



EAStER 
QltiCKER 
BETTER 



ROOF FRAMING 



Rafter Length and Cuts 
Without Use of Steel Square 

Lay out any type of roof more accurately and 
in only one-nfth of the time required by other 
methods. Get the POULSEN METHOD OF 
ROOF FRAMING. It will save your time and 
make money for you. Valuable tables — 54 of 
them — starting with one-quarter inch rise per 
foot of run — simplify all roof framing prob- 
lems. Tables give common, hi]), valley and 
jack rafter length and necessary cuts in a 
jiffy without calculation. Learn also how to 
measure rafters from top and edge — definite- 
ly and accurately. No need to bother with 
centers and making adjustments for cuts. 
Every carpenter needs this POULSEN METHOD 
book. It saves four-fifths of all roof layout 
time and labor. Everything is already worked 
out for you in simple, easy-to-use tables. Cloth 
bound. Book has 90 pages and many illustra- 
tions. Besides the tables it contains every other 
bit of roof information a journeyman should 
have. 

Clip this ad and send with your name and 
address and $3.00 for your copy postpaid to- 
day. Money back if not fully satisfied. 

POPULAR MECHANICS PRESS 

Dept. 284, 200 E. Ontario St., Chicago 



cpiling joists are well nailed together, the 
truss should be put in place. The chord of 
the truss and the 2x6 should be bolted to- 
gether, as shown, and then reinforced by 
spiking the 2x6 to the chord. The 1x2 ledger 
should also be well nailed to the 2x6. 



WANTS TO PASS ON 

A reader wants to pass on an easy way to 
determine angles in degrees, or measure 
angles in degrees. 

From a point called the vertex, strike a 
horizontal base line. Set the compass at 
this point and strike a part-circle with a 
radius of 7 3/16 inches, as shown by the 
accompanying diagram. Now to get the 




angle you want, measure as many Va inch 
spaces on the part-circle, as there are degrees 
in the angle. In this case it is a 5 degree 
angle. To get a 25 degree angle, measure 
twenty-five V& inch spaces on the part-circle, 
or 3V8 inches. The 20 degrees added to the 
5 degrees, shown on the drawing, will make 
25 degrees. 

A little more accurate results can be ob- 
tained by multiplying both 7 3/16 and % 
by 2, 3, or more. Let's multiply by 2, which 
gives us a radius of 14% inches, while the 
spaces for the degrees will be Vi inch. 



PUT PIONEER SELF- RELEASING HOOK ON YOUR CHALKLINE 

SAVE A TRIP 

EVERTIME YOU STRIKE A LINE 
SATISFACTION «UARAMTIED 



PIONEER Mfg. Co. 




- Relented — 



Patent No. 2513256 



Get behind a 



SPIRAL SCREW 



DRIVER 



and get ahead 
of the job 




HMKEE TOOLS HOW PAST Or 

[STANLEY] 

THE TOOL BOX OF THE BORLD 



Let the spiral 
the heavy 
wrist work. A 
simple push on a 
sturdy "Yankee" 
drives or draws the 
screw with a spinning 
start. Good for years 
smooth, willing part- 
ship with your good 
right hand. Three sizes, 
each with 3 size bits. Pop- 
ar 30A size, range of 
screws #2 to #8. For one- 
hand operation, buy the 130A 
"Yankee" with the "quick- 
return" spring in the handle. 
Send for the "Yankee" Tool Book 

NORTH BROS. MFG. OO. 

Philadelphia 33, Pa. 




"I COULDN'T GET ALONG 
WITHOUT MY MEZURALL 
TAPE RULE - ITS MY 
HANDIEST TOOL..." 




fUFKiN 

CHROME-CLAD 
Mezu 



adjustable hook gives me accurate 
aside measurements. It also measures 
odd shapes, as well as butt end and hook- 
over measurements. The jet-black markings are 
easy to read against the durable chrome white 
background which will not crack, chip, or peel. 
I can replace blades in a matter of seconds. 
You can get them in 6, 8, and 10 foot lengths." 



buy iUFKIN 



TAPES . RULES • PRECISION TOOLS 

AT YOUR HARDWARE OR TOOL STORE 

THE LUFKIN RULE CO., SAGINAW, MICHIGAN 

132-138 Lafayette St., New York City • Barrie, Ont. 



Qyjif Earn Better Pay This Easy Way 

CARPENTRY 
ESTIMATING 

...QUICK.. .EASY.. .ACCURATE 

with this simplified guide! 

You can earn higher pay when you know how 
to estimate. Here is everything you need to 
know to "take off" a bill of materials from set 
of plans and specifications for a frame house. 
Saves you time figuring jobs, protects you 
against oversights or mistakes that waste 
materials and cost money. Nothing compli- 
cated — just use simple arithmetic to do house 
carpentry estimating with this easy-to-use ready 
reference handbook. 

SIMPLIFIED 
CARPENTRY ESTIMATING 

Shows you, step by step, how to figure mate- 
rials needed for (1) foundation, (2) framing, 
(3) exterior finish, (4) interior finish, (5) 
hardware, and (6) stairs. Gives definite "take- 
off" rules, with many quick-reference tables and 
short-cut methods that simplify the work. 

CDEMAI ErATIIDEC' dumber Checking List. Mlll- 
drCblHL rCHIUIILd. work Checking List. Hard- 
ware Checking List. Materials Ordering Information. Quick- 
Figuring Tables Tor estimating concrete footings and walli, 
concrete piers, window frames, door and window areas, 
sash weights, nail quantities. How to figure labor hour« 
per unit of work. Rules for linear, area and volume 
measurement. Mathematical reference tables, including dec- 
imal equivalents, lumber reckoner, conversion of weights and 
measures, etc. New chapter, "How to Plan a House," gives 
useful data for contractors and material dealers. 



TURN TO CHAPTER 8, 



when you receive this book, 
and see the "Estimatlnj; 
Short Cuts" you can use for quick figuring of board foot- 
age. Here are simplified ways to estimate lumber needed 
for floors, wall3, ceilings, roof, door and window frames, 
inside trim for these frames, inside trim for inside doors, 
and drawers and cabinets. This chapter alone can be worth 
the entire price of the book to you! 



Send No Money 




EXAMINE 10 DAYS FREE 

Just fill in and mail cou- 
pon below to get "Sim- 
plified Carpentry Esti- 
mating" for 10 DATS 
FREE TRIAL. If not 
fully satisfied, return the 
book and owe nothing-. If 
you keep it. send only 
$3.75 plus few cents post- 
age In full payment. You 
take no risk. Mail cou- 
pon now. 



MAIL THIS COUPON 



SIMMONS-BOARDMAN Publishing Corp. (Car-452) 
30 Church Street, New York 7, N. Y. 

Send me for in DATS FREE TRIAL. "Simpli- 
fied Carpentry Estimating." I will either return 
it in 10 days and owe nothing, or: send only $3.75 
(plus shipping charges) in full payment. 



City & State 




BE YOUR OWN BOSS! Big lifetime 
opportunity for the man who wants 
to get ahead in something for him- 
self! Earn as high as $50 a day and 
more sanding floors with an easy-to- 
run American Machine — and you are 
boss! Prospects everywhere — old and 
new homes and remodeling. Pleasant 
indoor work — steady the year round. 
No schooling-no experience needed. 
Easy to get jobs — business mush- 
rooms! Send coupon for "money- 
making" booklet entitled "Oppor- 
tunities in Floor Surfacing" — enclose 
25c to cover handling. 



ME RICAN 

FLOOR MACHINES 




The American Floor Surfacing Machine Co. 

520 So. St. Clair St. 

Toledo, Ohio 

Enclosed find 25c in stamps or coin for 

booklet "Opportunities in Floor Surfacing," 

telling how I can start my own floor sanding 

business. 

Name. 

Streets 

City Start- 



NOTICE 

The publishers of "The Carpenter" reserve the 
right to reject all advertising matter which may 
be, in their judgment, unfair or objectionable to 
the membership of the United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America. 

All Contracts for advertising space in "The Car- 
penter." including those stipulated as non-can- 
cellable, are only accepted subject to tho above 
reserved rights of the publishers. 



Index of Advertisers 



Carpenters' Tools and Accessories 

Page 

The American Floor Surfacing 

Machine Co., Toledo, Ohio 46 

Burr Mfg. Co., Los Angeles, Cal. 41 
Carlson & Sullivan, Monrovia, 

Cal. 48 

Henry Disston & Sons, Inc., 

Philadelphia, Pa. 47 

Eliason Tool Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 47 

E-Z Mark Tools, Los Angeles 

Calif. 6 

Foley Mfg. Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 48 

The Lufkin Rule Co., Saginaw, 

Mich. 45 

A. D. McBurney, Los Angeles, 

Calif. 42 

North Bros., Mfg. Co., Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 45 

Pioneer Mfg. Co., Bakersfield Cal. 44 
Sandvik Saw & Tool, New York, 

N. Y. 6 

J. H. Scharf Co., Omaha, Neb.__ 42 
Simplex Level Co., Detroit, Mich. 43 

Skilsaw, Inc., Chicago, 111 1 

The Speed Corp., Portland, Ore — 43 
Stanley Tools, New Britain, 

Conn. 3rd Covet 

Carpentry Materials 

The Upson Co., Lockport, N. Y._ 4 

Doors 

Overhead Door Corp., Hartford 

City, Ind. 4th Cover 

Technical Courses and Books 

American Builder, Bristol, Conn. 48 

American Technical Society, Chi- 
cago, 111. 5-47 

Audel Publishers, New York, 

N. Y. 3rd Cover 

Chicago Technical College, Chi- 
cago, 111. 3 

Simmons-Boardman Pub. Corp., 

New York, N. Y. 45 

Popular Mechanics Press, Chi- 
cago, 111. 44 

H. H. Siegele, Emporia, Kans. 41 

Wearing Apparel 

The H. D. Lee Co., Kansas City, 

Mo. 3rd Cover 



KEEP THE MONEY 
IN THE FAMILY! 

PATRONIZE 
ADVERTISERS 




Treat yourself to 

a gift of the finest 

hand saw made — 

a Disston. Makes 

better work easier 

to do. The light, 

narrow blade is 

true taper ground 

for easier cutting 

. . . runs with less set 

. . . stays sharp longer 

because it's made of Disston Steel — 

the finest of all saw steels. Both rip 

and crosscut styles. 

A practical gift to 
give a friend a lift! 

Remember the Disston D-23 — or one of 
the other fine Disston Saws or Tools — next 
time you are thinking of a gift for a 
friend. For more information on Disston 
Saws and Tools, write for a FREE copy 
of the Disston Saw, Tool, & File 
Manual. FREE— address: 

HENRY DISSTON & SONS, INC. 

404 Tacony, Philadelphia 35, Pa., U.S.A. 

In Canada, write: 2-20 Fraser Ave. 

Toronto 3, Ont. 

DISSTON, 

the saw most carpenters use 




SEND 

NO MONEY 

MORE THAN 

4000 PAGES 

• 

2750 
PICTURES 



9 BIG COMPLETE BOOKS 

BUILDING, ESTIMATING, CONTRACTING 



Examine this TTp-to-Date Edition for 10 days. See how 
these nine books supply easily understood training that 
will help you to get a better job and make more money, 
or start a profitable business for yourself. Think what 
a BIG help it will be to have them handy for use In 
solving all sorts of building problems. 

Learn to draw plans, estimate, do all-new construction 
and modern remodeling to meet fast growing demand. More 
than 4000 pages of practical, pay raising information with 
2750 helpful illustrations, on such subjects as blueprint 
reading, concrete forms, masonry, carpentry, steel square, 
electrical wiring, plumbing, heating, painting, and hun- 
dreds more. 

In our more than 50 years we have never offered mora 
complete building information. Send the coupon TODAY. 
(A year's consulting privileges with our engineers now 
given with these books without extra cost.) 

AMERICAN TECHNICAL SOCIETY— Publishers Since 1898 
Dept. G-436, Drcxel Ave. at 58th St., Chicago 37, III. 

I would like to examine your 9-Yolume Set of Building, 
Estimating, Contracting Books. I will pay the delivery 
charges only, but if I choose I may return them express 
collect. If after 10 days' use I prefer to keep them. I will 
send you S3 and pay the balance at the rate of only $4 a 
month until $34.80 has been paid. Include consulting ser- 
vice as offered above. 

Name 

Address 

City State 

Please attach letter giving employer's name and address 
(if self employed give businessman reference). Men in 
service please give home address. 

Before you build another 

STAIRCASE 




lUASOM 



Get an 

stm r 



GM»Gt 



Saves its cost in 1 day- 
Does a Better Job in HALF the Time 

The Eliason Stair Gauge takes all the grief and bother 
out of building staircases. In a few seconds you get both 
correct length and angle for stair treads, risers, closet 
shelves, ready to mark board. Each end automatically 
pivots and locks at exact length and angle needed for per- 
fect fit. Length adjustable from 20" up. Saves a day or 
more, increases your profits $20 to $30 on each staircase. 
Fully guaranteed. Circular on request. 



Postpaid (cash with order) 
or C.O.D. plus postage, only . 



$12« 



ELIASON TOOL CO. 

2121 E. 56th St., Minneapolis 17, Minn. ^^F" 

Measure tread in a few seconds for perfect fit. 




in 



MEASURES 10 FEET UP 



Handy for all your measuring, the new 
BIG CHIEF is especially designed for ex- 
tended overhead and reach-in measure- 
ments. The extra rigid 3 /4-inch wide blade 
extends farther horizontally, and a full 
10 feet overhead without buckling. Grad- 
uated in feet and inches, the easy-to-read 
white blade automatically converts inches 
to feet at a glance. 




It*** 



with these 
famous CARLSON features 

Double graduations feet and inches 
• Ten second blade change 
Easy-action swing-tip 
9 Easy-to-read crackproof white face 
9 Built-in automatic brake 

AT YOUR HARDWARE DEALER TODAY 

Produced under patents 2089209, 2510939 



■■HiM-im 



CARLSON & SULLIVAN, INC. 

MONROVIA, CALIFORNIA 



WkihgL 



$20 to $30 a Week 

EXTRA MONEY! 



With the high prices of food, clothing and everything 
else, just think what you could do with extra money 
every week! Turn your spare time into CASH — sharp- 
ening saws with a Foley Automatic Saw Filer pays up 
to $3 or $4 an hour. Start in your basement or garage 
— no experience necessary. "The first saw I sharpened 
with my Foley Filer came out 100%" — writes Clarence 
E. Parsons. No Canvassing — -"I advertised in our local 
paper and got in 93 saws" — says M. L. Thompson. 
With a Foley you can file all hand saws, also band and 
crosscut circular saws. 

FREE BOOK 

Shows How To Start 

"Money Making 
Facts" explains how 
you can get business 
from home own- 
ers, farmers, car- 
penters, schools, fac- 
tories, etc. "I get work 
from 20 and 30 miles 
away," says Charles 
H. Smith. Investigate 
— no salesman will call 
— send coupon today. 



F01EY£^**& SAW FILER fe£ 



FOLEY MFG. CO., 418-2 Foley Bldg. 

Minneapolis 18, Minn. 

Send FREE BOOK — "Money Making Facts' 




Name . 
Address 



f*r m»p r »+ rtn ** 



> j «> — —«.»«< 



A GOLD MINE 

Of l/P-TO-THE-M/NuTE 
BUILDING INFORMATION 



packed into the American Buitdet 
CATALOG-DIRECTORY for 1952, 
published as a supplement to 
American Builder magazine's 
giant, 600-page April issue— the 
IDEAL issue with which to start 
your American Builder subscrip- 
tion! 

Besides including the annual al- 
phabetical listings of all the ma- 
jor building products (with their 
manufacturers' names and ad- 
dresses!) now on the American 
market, American Builder has 
added to the directory TWENTY- 
SIX "Product Reference Sections" 
—time-saving articles written by 
building research experts on 
every key building subject from 
window-framing to power tools! 

Start your American Builder subscrip- 
tion with this spectacular issue, and 
join the other 94,000 subscribers now 
using American Builder as their monthly 
guide to sounder, more profitable build- 
ing. You'l! receive— every month— all 
the timeliest news and ideas on 
techniques of building. . . 
O materials and equipment. . . 
methods of selling homes. . . 
financing and land development. . . 
© Washington building legislation. . . 
• homes that sell best from coast to 

coast. . . 
Construction of homes, stores, mo- 
tels, shopping centers, farm build- 
ings. . . 
and a host of other features! 

Write today— since only a limited num- 
ber of April copies will be run— and get 
your subscription started while the ex- 
tra-low $5 (for three years) and $3 (for 
one year) rates still prevail! 



MAIL THIS COUPON 1 

American Builder, Circulation Dept. 
Emmett St., Bristol, Conn. 

Start my subscription at once to AMERICAN 
BUILDER for the period checked below: 

□ Three years, $5. (36 issues) 

□ One year, $3. (12 issues) 



City 



State CA-452 



itiftri""' 



s»n«9 



Stanley Hammers give you perfect balance plus all 
the famous features that contribute toward an easy, 
accurate swing . . . and a long and useful life. Made in 
many sizes, for any purpose, Stanley Hammers are 
part of the complete line of Stanley Tools — found in 
carpenters' kits everywhere. Look for the famous trade 
mark [Stanley] at your dealer's. Stanley Tools, New 
Britain, Connecticut. 



No. 51 yi Nail Hammer 
— Pincer-like claws pu" 
even headless nails 
Pre-shrunk "Evertite" 
hickory handle. 
Carpenters' favorite. 




r%fc 




No. 431': A Bricklayei 
— Adze eye. 24 oz. 
Nicely balanced 
for easy handling 



THE TOOL BOX OF THE WORLD 

[STANLEY] 

Reg. U.S. Pat. Off. 



HARDWARE • TOOLS • ELECTRIC TOOLS • STEEL STRAPPING • STEEL 




100 Plus — Aristocrat of 
nail ha 
Alloy steel head. Pre-shrunk 





CARPENTER'S 
OVERALLS 



Lee Sturdy 
Fabrics 

Sanforized 

Money-Back 
Guarantee! 



World's Largest 
Makers of Union- 
Made Work Clothes 




The H. D. LEE CO. 

Kansas City, Me. 
Trenton, N. J. 
South Bend, Ind. 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
San Francisco, Calif. 
Boaz, Ala. 




AUDELS Carpenters 
and Builders Guides 

4vols.$6 

I nsi de Trade Information 

for Carpenters, Builders, Join- 
era, Building Mechanics and all 
Woodworkers. These Guides 
give you the short-cut instruc- 
tions that you want— including 
new methods, ideas, solutions, 
plans, systems and money sav- 
ing suggestions. An easy pro- 
gressive course for the appren- 
tice and student. A practical 
daily helper and Quick Refer- 
ence for the master worker. 
Carpenters everywhere are us- 
ing these Guides as a Helping 
Hand to Easier Work, Better 
Work and Better Pay. To get 
this assistance for yourself. 
_ simply fill in and 

Inside Trade Information On: man free 

How to use the steel square — How to file and 

set saws — How to build furniture- — How to use 

a mitre box — How to use the chalk line — How 

to use rules and scales — How to make joints — 

Carpenters arithmetic — Solving mensuration 

problems — Estimating strength of timbers — 

How to set girders and sills — How to frame 

houses and roofs — How to estimate costs — How 

to build houses, barns, garages, bungalows, etc. 

— How to read and draw plans — Drawing up 

specifications — How to excavate — How to use 

settings 12. 13 and 17 on the steel square — How 

to build hoists and scaffolds — skylights — How 

to build stairs — How to put on interior trim — . 

How to hang doors — How to lath — lay floors — How to paint 





AUDEL, Publishers, 49 W. 23rd St., New York 10, N. Y. 

Mail Audels Carpenters and Builders Guides, 4 vols., on 7 days' tree 
trial. II OK I will remit $1 in 7 days and $1 monthly until $6 isoaid. 
-Otherwise I will return them. No obligation unless I am satisfied. 



Occupation. 



CAR 




T H 




MIRACLE WEDGE* 
SALT SPRAY STEEL * 



* TRADE MARK 

COPYRIGHT, 1932, OVERHEAD DOOR CORPORATION 



OVERHEAD DOOR CORPORATION 

HARTFORD CITY, INDIANA, U. S. A. 



CARPENTER 




FOUNDED 1881 

Official Publication of the 
UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS of AMERICA 




p..rmrLJTTIJTJTJlJTJTJTJ^^ 

: YOU MAY BE THE GOAT 
I IF YOU FAIL TO VOTE 






Will inflation get worse in 1953? 

Will wage controls hurt even more in 1954? 

Will taxes dig into the pay check deeper in 
1955? 

Will the Taft-Hartley Law be cancelled out by 
1956? 

The men we send to Washington in next November's election will 
write the answers to these questions. If we send the right kind of men 
by getting out and voting, the answers will be right. If we allow the 
election to go to the special interest groups by default, the answers 
will be wrong. It is as simple as that. 

There will be no second chance. Either we do a job in November 
or we suffer the consequences for four long years. 

What Are You Going To Do About It? 

You cannot vote if you do not register; and you cannot register if you 
do not make an effort to do so. Registering and voting are two things 
nobody in the world can do for you. You must do them yourself. For 
your country's sake, for democracy's sake, and, above all, for your own 
sake, 

BE SURE TO 

REGISTER and VOTE! 

dlJTJlJlJlJTJTnJlJXr^^ LJ~1J1J1JTJTJTJ~U~D 



12,000,000 reasons 
why you'll get more jobs with 
Gold Bond Insulation Board! 




'~pHIS latest Gold Bond ad, above, will tell the 
■■■ 12,000,000 men and women who read the Satur- 
day Evening Post (May 24th) how you can add attrac- 
tive rooms to their homes with Gold Bond Insulation 
Board and other Gold Bond Products. Ads like this 
develop profitable work for you throughout the year. 

Your local Gold Bond lumber and building" material 
dealer will gladly show you the Plank and Tile in 
variegated blends. All three styles, large panels, 
Plank and Tile, also come in ivory color. New Gold 
Bond Duplex Insulation Tile goes up "two at a time!" 
Interlocking edges hide nails or staples. 

Write for a free copy of "Interiors by Gold Bond" 
— a colorful, illustrated booklet that will help you 
get more remodeling jobs. 



ADDA-ROOM NOW I 

Wi,h GM Bond 



NATIONAL GYPSUM COMPANY • BUFFALO 2, NEW YORK 

Fireproof Wallboards, Decorative Insulation Boards, Lath, Plaster, Lime, Sheathing, Gypsum 
Roof Decks, Wall Paint, Textures, Rock Wool Insulation, Metal Lath and Sound Control Products. 



A Monthly Journal, Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiner* 

of America, for all its Members of all its Branches. 

PETER E. TERZICK, Editor 

Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis 4, Indiana 



Established in 1881 
Vol. LXXII— No. 5 



INDIANAPOLIS, MAY, 1952 



One Dollar Per Year 
Ten Cents a Copy 



— Con tents — 



But Not At Our Expense 



Confessions Of A Driver 



The Institutional ad has become something of a racket. An institutional ad is- one 
that does not offer a specific product for sale but rather promotes a political phi- 
losophy or trys to put over a pet economic theory espoused by the advertiser. Many 
such ads are purely and simply anti-union. There is no questioning the right of 
advertisers to print anything they desire so long as it is not libelous, but the adver- 
tisers ought to pay the costs. As it is, all advertising is deductible as a business 
expense, even those that are nothing more than a cheap form of lobbying. 

8 

Jake Rich, editor of the Hat Worker, buys himself an automobile and learns that 
life is no longer the simple, easygoing thing it was when he was a pedestrian. 
Every person who drives an automobile ought to get a chuckle out of Jake's tussle 
with traffic laws, parking problems, taxes, etc. 

14 

Right after the close of World War II, General President William L. Hutcheson 
predicted that organized labor would prove to be a major force in rebuilding Europe 
along democratic lines. How true those predictions turned out to be can be gath- 
ered from reading the annual report of the Secretary of Labor. In it, the Secretary 
says: "American trade unions have been the Nation's most effective salesmen of 
the democratic way of life as hope of human freedom and a rising living standard 
the world over." 

17 

In Indianapolis, at least, some elements within the Parent-Teachers Association 
seem bent on making the PTA a political football for purposes of their own. The 
PTA is too fine an organization and the purpose it serves is too important to allow 
factionalism and political maneuvering to tear it to pieces. 



Just As Bill Said 



Is Politics Killing PTA? - 



* * * 



OTHER DEPARTMENTS 
Plane Gossip 
Official 
Editorials 
In Memoriam 
The Locker 
Correspondence 
To The Ladies - 
Craft Problems 



Index to Advertisers 



* * * 



12 
21 
24 
29 
31 
34 
39 
41 



46 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of 

Congress. Aug. 24, 1912. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for 

in Section 1103, act of October 3, 1917. authorized on July 8, 1918. 



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Ads peddling political tripe may be O. K. but- 



NOT AT OUR EXPENSE 



• • 

HOW MUCH money do you spend each year for anti-union advertis- 
ing? 
"Why none, of course," is your immediate response, "and what's 
the matter with the editor of THE CARPENTER? He must be getting holes 
in the head." 

Sure, you do not spend any money directly for advertising that knocks 
unionism, calls the union shop un-American, and yearns for a return to the 
"good old days" of the last century, but you pay for a good deal of it just 
the same. 



Recently a progressive Senator 
brought on the floor of the Senate the 
whole question of "institutional" ad- 
vertising. Institutional advertising is 
advertising that is not concerned pri- 
marily with selling a definite product 
but is rather concerned with putting 
over an idea or a philosophy. You 
have seen many such ads lately. They 
weep over the sad plight of corpora- 
tions or damn unions or advocate 
shifting all the tax load to the backs 
of the poor. 

He branded all such advertising as 
"an open form of lobbying." He fur- 
ther pointed out that such advertis- 
ing is deducted as a legitimate ex- 
pense item in such a manner. The 
taxes thus lost have to be made up 
by the taxpayers; which in the final 
analysis, means the taxpayers have 
to foot the bill for the advertising. So 
whether you like it or not, you are 
spending money for the kind of ad- 
vertising we mentioned above. 

This being a political year, the 
amount of such advertising will in- 
crease by leaps and bounds. Ry the 
use of this technique, corporations can 
back their favorite candidates to the 
hilt without having to show any polit- 
ical contributions being made directly 



to the candidate. They can also side- 
step the regulations which have been 
adopted to control expenditures on 
political campaigns to prevent wealthy 
men from literally buying public of- 
fices. 

The Senator was careful to point 
out that he did not question the right 
of the corporations to advertise any 
way they chose. Rut he did not think 
it was just for corporations to charge 
such advertising as an operating ex- 
pense, thereby passing on the bulk 
of the cost to the taxpayers. With 
that view point we agree most whole 
heartedly. If corporations want to ad- 
vertise a philosophy of their own, they 
should be free to do so. Rut when 
it comes to exempting such advertis- 
ing from taxation and thereby pass- 
ing on a big slice of the bill to the 
people, an entirely different principle 
is involved. 

The Senator referred especially to 
two full-page ads which appeared 
recently in Washington, D. C. papers. 
One of them, sponsored by Safeway 
Stores, attacked the Office of Price 
Stabilization and was "nothing but 
a wholesale attack on the Defense 
Production Administration." The other 
ad, entitled "Some Things are Worse 
Than Strikes," was sponsored by the 



THE CARPENTER 



McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. It 
had nothing whatever to do with the 
business followed by McGraw-Hill. 
All it did was attack the Wage Stabi- 
lization Board for recommending the 
union shop in the steel dispute. No- 
where in it was any mention made 
of the products or services that Mc- 
Graw-Hill has to sell. 

In calling for remedial action 
against such brazen abuse of advertis- 
ing privileges, the progressive Sena- 
tor declared he would continue to ob- 
ject to saddling the taxpayers with a 
sizeable share of the expense of such 
ads until such time as it is "possible 
for every farmer, every school teacher, 
and every other person in the United 
States who wishes to do so, to have 
similar advertising published in news- 
papers and to charge the cost of the 
advertising as a deduction for income 
tax purposes." 

To date Congress has not seen fit 
to do anything about the situation. 
However, the fact that the matter has 
been brought before that body for 
discussion is a healthy sign. Thought 
control is one of the greatest dangers 
of our age. By controlling thought, 
the dictators of Europe, past and 
present, have managed to keep the 
people under their thumbs. In the 
United States, thought control has not 
as yet become an established fact but 
there are numerous danger signs. 

For one thing, the growth of mo- 
nopoly in the newspaper industry is 
making it impossible for people in 
many communities to get more than 
one side of any question. Newspaper- 
ing has lately become big business 
with a capital "B". It is only natural 
that the people who own the news- 
papers should reflect the viewpoint of 
big business. Having become big 
business, newspapers are run with 
more attention paid to the cash regis- 
ter than to the needs or desires of the 



people. The advertiser is king and 
the subscriber a necessary evil. 

That in itself is dangerous. But 
when you combine monopoly in news- 
papering with a setup that allows 
corporations to advertise any kind of 
philosophical tripe they care to and 
pass on the bulk of the cost to the tax- 
payers, a really ominous situation de- 
velops. The potentialities for controll- 
ing thought in a substantial portion 
of the nation are appalling. 

No one questions the right of corpo- 
rations or individuals to run any sort 
of advertising they care to run, so 
long as it is not libelous or filthy. But 
the people who run the ads should 
pay for them. Advertising that tries 
to sell a product is one thing. It per- 
forms a valuable service. It creates 
a demand for goods and thereby keeps 
men working. This kind of advertis- 
ing is really a legitimate operating 
expense. There is no question but 
that it should be included in the cost 
of doing business, exactly as the sala- 
ries of salesmen are. 

But advertising that propounds po- 
litical views is something entirely dif- 
ferent. It makes no effort to sell goods 
or services. Rather it tries to sell 
people on a pet brand of philosophy 
dear to the heart of the advertiser. 
It performs no service for anyone ex- 
cept the advertiser who has an axe to 
grind. If corporations or individuals 
want to propound a particular shade 
of political thinking the privilege 
should be theirs. But the expense 
should be theirs too. 

Censorship is a very dangerous 
thing. Once it starts it is almost im- 
possible to stop it until all freedom 
is gone. However, the abuse of the 
institutional ad has grown so flagrant 
that some sort or remedial measure 
is overdue. 

It should not be a difficult job to 
differentiate between legitimate ad- 



THE CARPENTER 7 

vertising and the questionable kind, the best thing the ordinary reader can 

Any ad that offers for sale goods or do is to be on the lookout for these il- 

services is a legitimate ad. On the legitimate ads. Another thing to do 

other hand, any ad that advocates is to take their messages wit h a grain 

political or economic changes in gov- of salt Remember the name of the 

ernment ought to be treated as a po- c i • i i .. . j . i 

w . , L ., L . ,, ,, r nrm doing such advertising and take 

Iitical contribution rather than as an ^ , .• . , 

„ i t-i „ r mn i ill i i the ad into consideration when mak- 

ad. the rormer should be classed as 

a cost of doing business and the lat- m § a P urchas e- If such advertising 

ter should be considered strictly as a becomes a detriment rather than an 

contribution to a political war chest. asset to the advertisers, the news- 

Until such time as something con- paper readers themselves may put an 

structive is done about the situation, end to them. 



Living Standard At New High 

"In spite of war, taxes, prices, American living standards are better than 
ever. The average family is able to dress better, eat better, buy more, and 
save more. 

"Most people never had it so good." 

That is what the U. S. News and World Report, a conservative publication 
circulated widely among businessmen, told its readers in the April 11 issue. 

In reporting facts which often are ignored by politicians, the U. S. News 
and World Report says: 

"American families, at this time, are enjoying the highest standard of 
living in history. They are eating better, wearing better clothes, using more 
labor-saving gadgets, and buying more services than ever before. 

"Spectacular improvements in living conditions are reflected in government 
reports that measure the physical volume of goods and services bought by 
consumers. Life in the U. S., viewed when a rising standard of living 
threatens to level out, looks like this: 

"The typical consumer now is living 37 per cent better than in 1929. The 
average individual, in other words, has been buying and using that much 
more goods and services than the typical consumer did in 1929— a year long 
remembered for easy spending and high living." 

The magazine pointed out that the "typical U. S. family" is eating 12 
per cent better than it did in 1939, and is enjoying more and better clothing. 

Since 1945, it stated, "U. S. families have splurged heavily on automobiles, 
television sets, refrigerators, freezers, and dozens of other durable products 
that mean easier living. For the 6 years since 1945, purchases of these 
things for each person have averaged 31 per cent over 1929— in physical 
volume. 

"Medical services, dry cleaning, haircuts and permanents, many other 
services are used more freely. Altogether, the average individual has been 
buying 28 per cent more of these than in 1929. 

"Personal saving— including money invested in new homes— also has risen. 
New miracle drugs that help to keep the family alive and healthy are making 
contributions that are not fully measured by statistics. Improvements in many 
products, such as cars, are not taken fully into account." 



Confessions of a Driver 

By J. C. RICH 

* * * 

I BEGAN MY criminal career rather late in life when I acquired my first 
jalopy, a vintage Chewy of the 1928 crop. By the time it reached my 
possession it had aged and mellowed with several previous owners, the 
last of whom assured me it was a great boon he was conferring on me in 
parting with his cherished antique. It had been a dearly beloved family 
possession with him. His children and dog would miss it once it was gone, 
he said, but he was ready to part with it because he knew I would give it a 
good home and treat it tenderly with respect for its age and condition. I 
didn't want to break the man's heart by disclosing the real reason why I 
wanted the relic. It was because I had been advised that it would be better 
to learn driving on an old rather than a new car, the wear and tear of appren- 
tice driving being what it is. ■ 



I was smart and didn't let on to 
the man that I didn't know the first 
tiling about a car, but when he told 
me that the clutch disk was good for 
at least five thousand miles more and 
that a can of liquid solder would 
easily fix the leak in the radiator I 
knew that I had a bargain. He cer- 
tainly appreciated the faith I put in 
him when I refused to take the wheel 
for a test run. I didn't want to dis- 
illusion him by telling him that I 
didn't know how to drive. I certainly 
put one over on him. 

It was after he transferred the title 
to me that I joined the ranks of the 
criminal elements. Until then I had 
held the notion which was common 
among radicals at the time that an 
automobile, if not precisely a work 
of the devil, was an appurtenance of 
plutocratic wealth which an upright 
member of the proletariat should 
shun as a mark of shame. The au- 
tomobile was the plaything of the 
wealthy, a luxury of the idle rich, 
and while this Jake Rich was not 
precisely idle he certainly was not 
wealthy, and an automobile should 



therefore have been out of his class. 
Now that I think back on it, I'm con- 
vinced that my original reservations 
were correct and proper ones. Only 
the rich could have supported that 
1928 jalopy in the repair shops to 
which it was accustomed. 

How little it takes to lead a man 
into a life of crime once he leaves the 
path of rectitude trod by the pedes- 
trian! I had done no more than break 
a slight prejudice of my class by ac- 
quiring a car, but I was to go on and 
on to ever greater transgressions. I 
may not have realized it at the mo- 
ment, but the fact was that my own 
attitude and the attitude of society 
toward me changed the instant I 
stepped into an automobile of my 
own. From that very moment on I 
was to live the life of the harried and 
the hectored, ever suspect, ever on 
the run, ever in fear of the traffic cop 
and other purveyors of law and order. 

There are approximately 53,000,000 
registered owners of automobile ve- 
hicles in the United States. Every 
one of them has violated the law at 
one time or another. Every one of 



THE CARPENTER 



them is a suspicious character. All 
of them have acquired a physical 
mannerism, a sort of nervous tic, 
which forces them to look into the 
rear mirror more often than straight 
ahead to see whether a cop is chas- 
ing them. They know damn well 
they're guilty. If they didn't violate 
the speed laws, it was one of a mil- 
lion other regulations they failed to 
observe. Maybe the beam of the 
headlights wasn't focused right, or 
the rubber on the windshield wiper 
wasn't up to par, or perhaps a cop 
spotted this knight on wheels when 
he passed that idiot hugging the left 
lane and obstructing traffic two miles 
back. Who knows, the kids might 
have blown the wrapper off a Pop- 
sicle out of the window and right 
onto the highway and thus worked 
up another black mark against the 
cringing criminal at the wheel! 

The fact is that crime and car 
ownership are as inseparable as ham 
and eggs or kids and bubble gum. A 
man with a car is ipso facto a law 
breaker. He may want no more than 
to get from one place to another, but 
that alone will involve him in dozens 
of violations of the law. Assuming 
that his car is in perfect condition, a 
large assumption these days, and 
further assuming that he himself is 
in the pink of condition, an even 
larger assumption in view of the 
strain on his nerves and physique, he 
is still bound to have violated some 
law or ordinance. If he moved as 
much as a hundred feet from his start- 
ing point, he no doubt beat the traf- 
fic light as it changed from green to 
red. He moved at a rate faster than 
ten miles an hour through a school 
street. This was on Sunday when 
schools are closed, but the crawl 
stroke is de rigeur on school streets 
even on Sundays. He made a wide 
turn into the highway in order to 
avoid the dumb cluck alongside who 



made an even wider turn, and he was 
guilty of dangerous if not reckless 
driving. He honked his horn to wake 
stupid ahead of him and didn't honk 
as he approached a side alley, both of 
them punishable offenses. On a 
"Stop" street he came to an almost 
complete rest but it is a fact that 
he did'nt send the wife out to flag 
approaching cars. He is therefore 
guilty as charged! 

Guilty, guilty, guilty, all the time! 
He was foolish to have started in the 
first place. He never should have 
moved from where he was because 
there, at least, he had himself parking 
space for the car. He had gained the 
parking space by hard work, skill and 
enterprise. He was quicker on the 
draw than the guys behind him, and 
ahead of him, and had managed to 
squeeze into the spot without shear- 
ing off more than half a fender from 
the neighboring car. It was heedless 
recklessness on his part to give up the 
spot, for it was a far, far better park- 
ing space he was giving up than he 
was going to find at the end of his 
journey. There in midtown he was 
sure to have no parking space what- 
ever. As everybody knows, the busi- 
ness sections of all municipalities are 
off limits for motorists. Cities and 
towns were laid out in the days of 
the oxcart and, therefore, only mule 
trains are permitted to halt at busi- 
ness establishments. Stores, offices 
and other business enterprises pur- 
posely congregate in midtown in 
order to avoid the importunate cus- 
tomers who travel by automobile. 
This forces the customers to stay put 
and shop in their immediate neighbor- 
hoods. This, in turn, affords the 
stores an excuse to branch out with 
annexes in the suburbs so as to entice 
the customers whom they straightarm 
away from their establishments in 
midtown by prohibitions on parking. 



10 



THE CARPENTER 



The suburban communities are 
also smart and they know how to keep 
the motoring mob in its place. In the 
old days the main highway was pur- 
posely laid out so as to lead customers 
into town to Four Corners where a 
man could stop to freshen up his team 
and take a little something in Joe's 
tavern to sustain him on the long 
journey home. The wife and kids at 
the same time could stop at the gen- 
eral store and lay in a length of red 
flannel for the winter. If they went 
on a lemon drop and black lick'rish 
binge in the process, that was part of 
the joy of travel and, anyway, it didn't 
mess up the upholstery in the hay- 
bedded sleigh nohow. But now the 
idea is to keep the main highway as 
far away from town as possible. The 
city fathers know that with the slight- 
est encouragement a motoring family 
might be induced to stop and spend 
a couple of bucks in the stores, and 
they're not going to have it said about 
them that they permitted customers 
to pester the merchants with their 
trade, the storekeepers being solid 
citizens and voters in every commun- 
ity. Politicians are cagey that way. 

What the politicians have done is 
something even Stalin would have 
been proud to invent. After clamp- 
ing down rules and regulations to 
prevent motorists from parking any- 
where but their own back yards, they 
went ahead and built them beautiful 
highways to go some place. To be 
sure, when they get to the place 
there is nowhere to stop, but the 
roads are elegant and you can admire 
the scenery and the beautifully deco- 
rated toll gates all tricked up with 
Christmas lights and tinkling cash 
registers. The dream of every motor- 
ist these days is to establish a toll 
bridge on his premises. It has been 
estimated that if Junior had to pay 
a fifty-cent toll every time he sneaked 
out of the garage with the old man's 



jalopy, there would be enough to 
pay off the finance company and have 
a little over to go in hock for a tele- 
vision set. Of course, the history 
books tell us that when our fore- 
fathers founded this republic they 
proceeded to wipe out tolls and other 
hindrances to free communication be- 
tween the states, but that was be- 
cause they were old fashioned and 
believed in making things easier for 
the traveling public. Nowadays the 
idea is to make things tough all 
around. 

Since every motorist is invariably 
a law breaker he is fair game for every 
guardian of the law. Time v/as when 
the local constable of Podunk would 
polish up his potsie, step out on the 
highway and pull in his quota by the 
time church let out for Sunday din- 
ner. The neighboring communities 
had an understanding on the game 
laws and a bag of twenty or thirty 
drivers was considered the limit in 
most townships, depending on the 
amount of parking space the Justice 
of the Peace had in his area. There 
the hapless victims had to visit until 
the Justice woke from his Sunday 
snooze and proceeded to dole out 
justice for the crime of being spotted 
by the constable. A motorist in the 
toils of rural justice could plead guilty 
and pay a fine ranging from >ten to 
twenty-five bucks, or plead innocent 
and deposit bail of twenty-five bucks. 
He could then return Wednesday six 
weeks from Sunday and get a refund 
in case he was fined less than twenty- 
five bucks, which he wasn't. It was 
a wonderful racket and the local boys 
used to pay big money for the con- 
cession, but it was not to last. The 
Statehouse gang got to fighting with 
the Courthouse gang and took the 
business away. The motorist is still 
being clipped, but now they wing 
him at the toll gates instead of the 
speed traps. 



THE CARPENTER 



11 



One of these days some up-and- 
coming youngster will discover that 
the automobile has come to stay and 
will make himself a great political 
career from the discovery. He will 
say that a motorist is practically hu- 
man and can even operate the lever 
on a voting machine once he steadies 
his hand sufficiently from the ordeal 
of driving. That being the case, the 
politician will try to cotton up to the 
motoring public and run on the is- 
sue that this is the twentieth century 
and automobiles are not nuisance en- 
cumbrances on the streets but con- 
veyances to transport people from 
place to place. When elected, he will 
surround himself with aides who will 
not look for new ways to make things 
tough for the driver. He will insist 
that parking lots, garages and repair 
shops be established right in the cities 
where people have a right to be and 
where they have to transact business. 
Instead of working up fines and pen- 
alties for drivers, he will pass laws 
to penalize builders and merchants 
who do not provide space for parking, 
loading and shopping. He will en- 
courage the smart business men to 
use their bean and recognize that in 
a motoring age the main drag can 



stretch beyond the perimeter of walk- 
ing distances, and they will then look 
for ways and means to make the ap- 
proach to their stores and business 
offices more inviting for motorists. 

This, of course, is a dangerous idea, 
and might work havoc with the plans 
of present day traffic experts. I see 
where in New York they have finally 
worked the ultimate in relieving traf- 
fic congestion. In Times Square it is 
absolutely forbidden to stop a car at 
a curb at any time, any way, no mat- 
ter how. During the war they did 
even better by refusing gas for any 
travel except the most favored. The 
next step would be the one they have 
in Russia where nobody except the 
chief commissars have cars at their 
disposal. No cars, no roads, no traf- 
fic, no congestion, and happy days 
on the Moscow subway! The only 
ones who get a ticket there are those 
who stay out of line on the party line, 
a traffic offense that is practically 
fatal in Russia. 

As a driver and hardened law- 
breaker I still think there ought to be 
an easier way to solve traffic prob- 
lems. Don't shoot the driver, I say. 
You can't never tell. He may be a 
voter. 



NAM Could Learn From Eaton 

Cyrus Eaton of Cleveland is one of the great financiers of our time. In his 
day he has successfully bucked such giants as the House of Morgan. Recently 
he was called to testify before the Senate Committee on Elections. A part of 
what he said is worth quoting: 

"I felt that, in my own interest as a capitalist, my place was on the side 
of the laboring man. I have long tried to promote better relations between 
capital and labor, and I opposed the anti-labor Taft-Hartley law, which Con- 
gress passed in a burst of blind emotion. There must be a partnership be- 
tween capital and labor, if the capitalist system is to survive," the industrialist 
told the committee. "I deplore the practice of management of issuing denun- 
ciations of labor and approaching labor leaders in a spirit of hostility and 
anger. Management ought to take advantage of every possible occasion to ex- 
press confidence in labor and in leaders of labor. 



EVERYBODY HAPPY 

For die umpteenth time, Russia is launch- 
ing a peace offensive. For purposes of his 
own, old Moustache Joe is once more wav- 
ing the olive branch frantically trying to 
convince the world that all he wants is 
compromise. However, many Europeans 
know how Joe compromises. 

This story is going die rounds in Euro- 
pean countries diat have compromised widi 
the Kremlin. 

A hunter once went out hunting widi 
his favorite rifle. Pretty soon he caught up 
with a great big bear. The bear had no 
rifle but he had a lot of guts. 

Said the bear to die hunter: "Why are 
you hunting?" 

"I need a new fur coat," replied the 
hunter. 

"Well," retorted the bear, "I need my 
breakfast. Why don't we retire to my den 
and talk this thing over." 

The hunter agreed, so they sat down to 
work out an agreement. They talked and 
'talked without too much luck. So finally 
die bear suggested diat they compromise. 
Again the hunter agreed. After awhile the 
bear got up alone. They had reached a 
compromise. The bear had his breakfast 
and the hunter had on his fur coat. 




127. «iEDc» © 1951 (^AZL 'StA/^u/ITZ 



"Looka dem headlines! . . . Hah! Let 
'er bust, I say! It'll be no skin offa 
my nose!" 



MATTER OF OPINION 

A wood butcher is a poor person to com- 
ment on legal matters, but it seems to us 
that some of our courts have been missing 
the boat. Recent investigations disclosed 
how closely gambling has been tied up with 
graft, corruption of law enforcement agen- 
cies, and even murder. For a long time the 
people responsible for maintaining law and 
order have cried that it was impossible to 
pin anydiing on the rats running the crime 
syndicates. 

Then along come the investigating com- 
mittees with a lot of embarrassing questions 
which the vice overlords refused to answer. 
Hailed into court on contempt charges, a 
number of these skunks were found guilty 
on many charges which could have gotten 
them 20 to 50 years in the pokey. 

In several cases, however, the courts 
handed down sentences of only a few 
months, plus fines that really mean nothing 
to die vice lords who drag down millions 
annually. To our way of thinking the crime 
czars could have been put in a position like 
that which faced Oscar in an ancient story. 

Three high school boys, George, Tom and 
Oscar played hookey one day. Upon their 
return to school the principal had all three 
in his office trying to find out what they did 
the day before. George admitted he had 
been out petting with a girl. He drew a 
month's suspension. Tom admitted he had 
been out smooching with two different girls 
and drew two month's suspension. 

About that time Oscar had his hand on 
the door knob. "What do you think you 
are doing?" die principal demanded. 

"Well," answered Oscar, "it looks like my 
school days are permanently over." 
* * * 
NO LAUGHING MATTER 

The other day a new father went to the 
infant ward of the hospital to see his brand 
new offspring. Looking through the win- 
dow, he saw row upon row of new arrivals 
and every last one of diem seemed to be 
crying. 

"Why are they all bawling?" he asked the 
nurse. 

"Listen," she replied, "if you were only 
a few days old, without any clothes, out of 
work, and owed die government almost $1,- 
700 on the national debt you'd be bawling 
too." 



THE CARPENTER 



13 



WHAT A PITY 

The much-heralded hunt for evil-doers in 
government has fizzled out with all the bang 
of a wet firecracker. The super-sleuth who 
was hired to do the job got the axe in less 
than two weeks. In turn the man who hired 
him (and then fired him) got the axe him- 
self. And all the grafters, chisellers and 
crooks must be laughing so hard they are 
spilling their $12 a quart champagne down 
their $30 shirts. 

There was only one thing wrong with 
Newbold Morris, the man hired to ferret out 
the stinkers— he thought the way to do the 
job was to start at the top. While he was 
riding herd on the little guys, everything 
was fine, but when he started investigating 
Congressmen and other Big Wigs he soon 
got his ear pinned back. 

We can best express our reaction to the 
whole mess by telling the old one about 
the football player. This particular player 
was the star of the team. With the pigskin 
he was a whiz, but with the books he was 
a flop. Having drawn a particularly low 
grade in a chemistry class, the coach went 
to the chemistry professor to protest. 

"Come, now, Professor," said the coach, 
"surely Jones doesn't deserve a zero." 

"I'm sure he doesn't either," replied the 
professor, "but that is the lowest mark there 
is." 

• * * 

FAVORITE SON 

Next month political fever will reach its 
highest pitch. With the president out of the 
pitcure, every Democrat above precinct 
committeeman is coyly casting eyes toward 
the White House, and in the Republican 
Party even a few precinct committeemen 
are probably nursing secret hopes. The old 
machine politicians run the show, but lower 
echelon boys keep right on dreaming. 

So long as this is the season for proposing 
unknowns for the presidency, we have one 
of our own we want to mention. He is a 
West Virginia farmer we recently read 
about. 

Several years ago he borrowed five dol- 
lars from the bank. He paid the usual six 
per cent interest in advance. To the bank- 
er's surprise, he put up a $5,000 govern- 
ment bond as security. Each year he re- 
newed the loan. This year the perplexed 
banker asked him just what the big idea 
was. 

"Well," replied the farmer, "it's a lot 
cheaper than renting a safety deposit box." 

Think what a guy like that sitting in the 
White House could do to the national debt. 



GOOD REASONING 

City after city is knocking public housing 
in the head. A well organized and well 
financed campaign seems to be under way 
to put the skids under rent controls as well 
as government initiated housing. Reams of 
propaganda are being thrown at the people 
from all sides. 

Needless to say, all this propaganda is 
pretty potent stuff— all about what a great 
job the real estates people are doing and 
how everybody will be better off if the 
housing job is left to them exclusively. 

Maybe so; but our own reaction is about 
like that of the Scottish chemistry student. 
In class one day the professor held a two- 
shilling coin over a glass of acid. 

"Now I am going to drop this coin in the 
acid," he announced. "Will it disolve?" 

"No, sir," replied one of the students. 

"Good!" replied the professor, "Now will 
you explain to the class why it won't?" 

"Because," came the answer, "If it would 
dissolve, you wouldn't drop it in." 
* * * 
STRANGE NEW MALADY 

The medical profession sees the day not 
far ahead when polio will be licked. It is 
also confident that cancer can be beaten in 
the not too distant future. But it seems to 
be making absolutely no progress with the 
mysterious malady that seems to strike all 
Washington chisellers as soon as an inves- 
tigating committee calls them to testify. 
Every time a sticky-fingered gent is to be 
subpoenaed the process server finds him in 
a hospital "too sick" to testify. "Subpoen- 
itis" might be a good name for it. 




"We can't afford to be rescued— We 
still have two week's rent paid!" 



14 



Just sis Bill Said 



RIGHT after the close of World War II, General President William 
L. Hutcheson wrote a much-reprinted article predicting that organized 
labor would prove to be one of the major forces in rebuilding a free 
and democratic Europe from the rubble created by the war. In part, he said: 

"The importance of organized labor to mankind's future welfare has 
assumed a newer and greater role— it is through organized labor that the 
little people all over the world will articulate their aims and beliefs and 
aspirations. It is through organized labor that they will promote and foster 
an economic and social order capable of achieving lasting peace and pros- 
perity. The first free institutions which Hitler and Mussolini destroyed in 
their ruthless march to power were 



the free trade 
pears that the 



unions. Now it ap- 
first free institutions 
which must be rebuilt before Europe 
can emerge democratic are the trade 
unions." 

- These words were written in 1946, 
and the years since then have proved 
their basic truth. The United States 
has spent billions upon billions of 
dollars to rehabilitate Europe and 
teach its people the advantages of a 
democratic society. Some of the mon- 
ey was spent wisely; some of it was 
spent foolishly. Some of it got re- 
sults and some of it was wasted. In 
the final analysis, the one program 
that worked with 100% effectiveness 
was the time and money expended 
by American labor unions to help 
their brothers abroad. The annual re- 
port of the U.S. Department of Labor 
for the first time this year appraised 
the role played by American labor in 
halting the march of communism 
throughout Europe. The following 
excerpts from that report should be 
of more than passing interest to all 
union members: 

"American trade unions have been 
the Nation's most effective salesmen 
of the democratic way of life as the 



hope of human freedom and a rising 
standard of living the world over," 
Secretary of Labor Tobin said. 

"Labor has played a key role in the 
crisis into which communism has pre- 
cipitated the world. The support and 
cooperation of a skilled and efficient 
working force has long been essential 
to the military defense efforts of free 
nations. But the nature of the current 
conflict has thrust the labor question 
into the very heart of the crisis in 
another and even more crucial sense. 
The allegiances formed by organized 
workers throughout the world will 
have a significant effect on the out- 
come of the allied and United States 
defense efforts. These allegiances 
will inevitably reflect the degree to 
which the democratic way of life 
offers the most direct path to the 
improvement of living and working 
conditions. 

"Opposition to totalitarianism in 
any form has consistently been one of 
the basic principles of American trade 
unions. They repudiated the bogus 
'labor fronts' of the Nazis and Fascists, 
and denounced dictatorships every- 
where. American labor leaders are 
particularly alert to communism be- 



THE CARPENTER 



15 



cause of its concentrated infiltration 
and propaganda directed at the labor 
movement and because of its mis- 
leading claims of serving the interests 
of workers. American unions were 
among the first and most realistic 
groups to alert their own member- 
ship and others to the Communist 
danger, a resolution to that effect 
having been passed by the American 
Federation of Labor as early as 1920. 

"Communism subverts and distorts 
every principle for which free trade 
unionism in the United States has 
been struggling since its inception: 
The freedom and individuality of the 
worker, the self-determination and 
permanence of the trade union, a de- 
cent home in a free community, eco- 
nomic progress through collective 
bargaining, and participation in the 
government of the community and 
Nation. 

"Top American union officers have 
recognized and accepted as one of 
American labor's major responsibilities 
the need to keep the foreign policy 
of the United States consistently and 
vigorously democratic, and to work 
actively for the strengthening of free 
trade-unions and for social and eco- 
nomic improvement of workers 
throughout the world. The threat of 
communism has greatly enhanced 
American labor's interest in foreign 
developments. Both the AFL and the 
CIO have established international 
policy committees and administrative 
departments to deal with foreign la- 
bor problems. 

"Initially, the ECA, administrative 
organ for the European Recovery 
Program, sought to help restore and 
expand the shattered economies of 
Western European nations. By the 
middle of 1951, industrial production 
in Western Europe as a whole had 
substantially surpassed the prewar 
level. These achievements contrib- 
uted conspiciously to a decline in 



Communist strength in most Western 
European countries, particularly in 
the labor movement. Non-Communist 
trade-unions were enabled to safe- 
guard the labor movement from Com- 
munist control in most countries and 
to weaken the strong Communist grip 
on unions in Italy and France. Un- 
der non-Communist leadership, these 
trade-unions in turn made a major 
contribution to the economic recov- 
ery program, supporting production 
and anti-inflationary measures in the 
interest of reconstructing and expand- 
ing production facilities. In the ma- 
jority of ERP countries, special trade- 
union committees maintained official 
contact with their Government agen- 
cies responsible for ERP matters, 
keeping the labor movements inform- 
ed and expressing their views on 
policies and program implementation. 

"Because of the economic and po- 
litical importance of trade unions to 
Western Europe, their support has 
been essential to the success of the 
Marshall Plan. To build confidence 
among European trade-unionists in 
the program and in its objectives, U.S. 
labor was invited to participate in the 
operation of ECA. 

"In the Washington headquarters 
of ECA, two trade-union officials were 
appointed as advisers to the ECA Ad- 
ministrator. Assisted by a small staff, 
they have assumed responsibilities in 
areas of policy, information, and tech- 
nical assistance. 

"In the European headquarters of 
ECA and in most of the ECA country 
missions operating in Western Eur- 
ope, American trade-unionists have 
been participating as chiefs of labor 
divisions. In a few instances, Ameri- 
can trade unionists have served si- 
multaneously as labor attache and as 
ECA Mission labor director. 

"As labor representatives within 
ECA, they have sought to relate the 
activities of the ECA Missions more 



16 



THE CARPENTER 



closely to the economic interests of 
non-Communist trade-unionists. More 
specifically, labor staff responsibility 
has included the development of pro- 
grams for improving living standards, 
raising productivity, and increasing 
labor mobility. It has involved, among 
other things, encouragement, of low- 
cost workers' housing through ECA- 
approved allocations of aid in Ger- 
many, Austria, Netherlands, Italy, 
and France; direction of investment 
programs towards increasing employ- 
ment opportunities in Germany, Italy, 
and Austria; and the financing of 
training programs in Greece and the 
Netherlands. 

"In recognition of the importance 
of keeping European workers inform- 
ed about the Marshall Plan and the 
country out of which it developed, 
labor information specialists, drawn 
wherever possible from editorships of 
American labor papers or from posi- 
tions where they have come to know 
'the American labor movement, have 
been assigned both to the European 
headquarters of ECA and to most 
ECA country missions. 

"Under these programs, trade union 
and Labor Department publications 
about industrial life and standard 
books about industrial relations are 
widely distributed among trade-union 
officials, educators and government 
officials and are in great demand. Sev- 
eral of them have been translated into 
various foreign languages for dissemi- 



nation among rank-and-file unionists, 
and their distribution is numbered in 
the hundreds of thousands. News and 
feature stories, photographs, posters 
and exhibits are also distributed ex- 
tensively, as are reprints of articles 
appearing in trade-union publications, 
magazines and other American union 
sources. 

"Increasing use is being made of 
appropriate films from American trade 
union and other sources. These are 
reissued with either sub-titles or com- 
plete dialogue in the language of the 
country in which they are used, and 
distributed through trade union and 
other outlets. Here, as in the pam- 
phlet and related operations, ECA's 
Labor Information and Information 
divisions in Europe have worked in 
close cooperation with the USIS. 

"Meanwhile, the Voice of America 
has been carrying two basic programs 
weekly— one a commentary on labor 
developments and the other a sum- 
mary of significant labor activities. 
News events of specific interest to 
particular countries are selected and 
broadcast in the appropriate language, 
usually by persons well known in 
their respective country. Since the 
Voice of America is the major medi- 
um for reaching the people in the 
USSR and captive countries, the in- 
clusion of accounts of the activities 
of free American labor is of particular 
significance in this country's inter- 
national labor program." 



LESS THAN 50% VOTE 

More than 56 million persons eligible to vote did not cast their ballots in 1950, the 
Census Bureau reported. 

In the U. S. that year, 96,833,000 persons were of voting age. Of these 73 per cent 
registered. That means that 27,268,000 did not even bother to register. 

Of those who registered, only 58 per cent or 40,430,000 actually voted, according to 
the Bureau. 

The Census Bureau figures for 1948, a Presidential year, show that not many more 
voted then. 

The number of persons over 21 in 1948 was 93,704,000. Of these, only 71 per cent, 
or 66,812,000, registered. Those who went to the polls were 73 per cent of those registered, 
or 48,834,000. 

Thus, even in a Presidential year, almost 45 million people failed to vote. 



17 



Is Politics Killing PTA? 



DO YOU belong to the Parent Teachers Association in your community? 
If you have children of school age or children who will eventually 
reach school age, it might not be amiss to consider joining. Up to 
now at least, the PTA has been a valuable adjunct to primary and secondary 
education. Its only purpose— according to its constitution— is to foster greater 
understanding between the schools of a community and the citizens of that 
community. Insofar as the PTA has adhered to this formula it has done 
fine work in many, many communities. 

However, in Indianapolis, at least, a disturbing situation has arisen in 
regard to several PTA groups. Instead of sticking to aims laid down in the 
PTA constitution, several groups have seemingly appointed themselves 
lobbies for projects that hardly seem connected with education. For example, 
one PTA unit supposedly circularized 



its membership with literature ad- 
vocating the dissolution of the Public 
Housing Authority in Indianapolis 
which was contemplating the erec- 
tion of a low-rent housing project. 
School authorities, as we understand 
it, soon put an end to that kind of 
politicking. 

But the PTA in Indianapolis is split 
wide open on another matter, the 
question of federal aid to education. 
This may or may not be a question 
in which the PTA should properly in- 
volve itself. In any event, several 
PTA units have gone on record as 
opposing any sort of federal aid to 
education. These units maintain that 
the National PTA officers are lobby- 
ing in Washington in favor of the 
Barden Bill which proposes to give 
federal funds to various states to help 
them elevate their educational stand- 
ards. Whether this is true or not 
is unknown to this writer. But there 
is one thing in the whole matter that 
smells a little funny. 

Federal aid to education is not a 
new matter. The Barden Bill was 
originally introduced some five or six 
years ago. For all these years the 
PTA has not been particularly con- 
cerned about the matter. 



Recently, however, the Supreme 
Court of the United States decided 
for the third time that all the oil lying 
under the ocean beyond the low tide 
mark belongs to the people of the 
United States rather than to the ad- 
joining states. Best estimates indi- 
cate that somewhere between 40 and 
50 billion dollars worth of oil and 
natural gas are involved. 

This off-shore oil has long been a 
hot potato. The oil companies have 
been desperately trying to get the off- 
shore oil awarded to the adjoining 
states. Three cases were taken to the 
United States Supreme Court and 
three times that tribunal has ruled that 
the oil belongs to all the people. 

Now the oil lobby has changed its 
tactics. Now it is working on a bill 
to have Congress give up all claim 
to ocean oil and transfer ownership 
of the off-shore oil lands to the mari- 
time states. Strangely enough, such 
a measure can muster a great deal of 
strength in Congress. One of the chief 
stumbling blocks to passage of such 
a bill is another bill introduced by 
Senator Hill of Alabama. The Hill 
measure would keep ownership of 
the ocean oil in the hands of all the 
people. But it would earmark all 



18 



THE CARPENTER 



funds derived from leasing out the oil 
lands for the specific purpose of help- 
ing states elevate their educational 
standards. 

Now maybe it is purely coincidence 
that certain elements in the PTA take 
it upon themselves to oppose all fed- 
eral aid to education at the very time 
when the Hill Bill proposes to set 
aside for educational purposes the 
bonanza which the Supreme Court 
decisions handed the American peo- 
ple. If it is a coincidence, it is a veiy 
happy one for the oil lobby. If a size- 
able number of state PTA's can be 
lined up as opposing all federal aid 
to education, the oil lobbyists and 
their errand boys in Congress can say: 
"See, the people do not want the oil 
lands educating their children. The 
only thing to do is give them over to 
the management of the various states." 

Perhaps it is only that we have a 
suspicious mind, but the timing is 
too pat. For one thing, the Barden 
'Bill, the original bill proposing to 
use federal funds to help state educa- 
tional systems, is some five or six 
years old. For five or six years the 
PTA concerned itself comparatively 
little with the matter. But suddenly 
a peculiar situation arises. A Supreme 
Court decision hands a bonanza in 
oil lands to the American people. The 
only recourse to the oil lobby is to 
work for a bill to transfer title to 
maritime states. Chief stumbling 
block in the pathway of such a meas- 
ure is another bill which would keep 
the oil lands under federal control 
and devote any revenues derived 
therefrom to helping states educate 
their children. All at once some PTA 
elements kick up a terrific furore 
against federal aid to education. 

It may be significant, too, that these 
PTA elements are not merely working 
against the Barden Bill, but against 
"all federal aid to education." There 
is quite a difference. The Barden Bill 



proposes to raise money through taxes 
to subsidize state educational institu- 
tions. The Hill measure proposes only 
that the oil lands under the ocean be 
kept in the hands of the federal gov- 
ernment while a committee of twelve 
prominent educators devise ways and 
means of allocating the funds to the 
various states. But the anti groups 
in the PTA make no distinction; they 
are against all federal aid to educa- 
tion. Period. They may be sincere in 
their protests (and certainly the ques- 
tion of where, when and how the 
growth of federal power must be 
checked is a pressing one), but if they 
are, they could hardly be doing a 
bigger favor to the oil lobby. Muddy- 
ing the waters is a standard technique 
with lobbies and publicity agents. No- 
thing could have possibly done a bet- 
ter job in respect to the oil land ques- 
tion than the furore raised within the 
PTA. 

And the saddest thing of all is that 
the PTA as a national institution may 
suffer irreparable harm. As a liaison 
group between the schools and the 
community the PTA has been render- 
ing a very valuable service for years 
and years. But if certain elements 
within the organization manage to 
pervert the functions of the group, 
either maliciously or incidentally, the 
usefullness of the PTA may dwindle. 

Involved in the federal aid to educa- 
tion question is the whole problem 
of centralization of power in Wash- 
ington, D. C. It is a knotty one and 
one that will definitely have to be 
settled before long. However, the 
PTA hardly seems to be the proper 
place to settle it. 

Those who want to make the PTA 
a lobbying agency for a political phi- 
losophy are making a big mistake. 
The only result can be to tear the 
PTA asunder and thus cripple the 
effectiveness of a fine organization 
that up to now has done a fine job. 



19 



Many Members Visit Home 

* * * 

EVER SINCE the Home for Aged Members at Lakeland, Florida, was 
first opened nearly 35 years ago it has been one of the prime tourist 
attractions of central Florida. People from all 48 States and ten 
Canadian Provinces, as well as from many foreign countries, have visited 
the Home and marvelled at its completeness and the beauty of its surround- 
ings. Diplomats, government officials and people famous in arts, sciences, 
and sports have been among them. Each year the number of visitors seems 
to increase as one person tells another of the attractiveness of the Home and 
the unusual beauty of its setting. 

Naturally such widespread interest 
in the Home is gratifying. But even 
more gratifying is the ever-increas- 
ing number of members of the United 
Brotherhood who are visiting the 
Home each year. In March of this 
year, Brotherhood members from 15 
States, two Canadian Provinces and 
the District of Columbia signed the 
visitors' register at the Home. Some 
months during the winter season, reg- 
istration of visiting members is higher; 
some months it is lower. But each 
month invariably sees a large number 
of United Brotherhood members visit- 
ing the Home to inspect the magnifi- 
cent plant which they and their broth- 
er members built, maintain, and own 
for the benefit of all members. 



Perhaps the fact that winter vaca- 
tions in Florida are becoming more 
popular accounts somewhat for the 
steady increase in the number of 
members visiting the Home. Perhaps 
the motion picture, "The Carpenters 
Home," produced by authority of the 
General Executive Board and shown 
in hundreds of Local Union, State, 
and District Council meetings, has 
whetted the curiosity of some mem- 
bers. In any event, more and more 
members are traveling to Lakeland 
each year to get a first-hand look at 



the Home. Invariably they are glad 
that they did so. If there are guests 
at the Home from their home districts, 
they visit with them awhile. If there 
are not, they inspect the unmatched 
facilities for taking care of aged mem- 
bers and stroll through the acres of 
beautiful flowers, shrubs and lawns 
anyway. One and all they leave Lake- 
land inspired by what they saw. 

Members inspecting the Home in 
March came from as far away as 
Montreal, Quebec, and Colorado 
Springs, Colorado. There were 56 
visitors in all, many of them accom- 
panied by wives and friends. Follow- 
ing is the list of Brotherhood mem- 
bers visiting the Home during March: 

Emile Bonneau, Montreal, Can., L. 

U. 1558. 
Don M. Smith, Chester, Penn., L. U. 

207. 
Mr. and Mrs. John Slevaka, So. Mil- 
waukee, Wis., L. U. 1114. 
Candar Martello, Monongahela City, 

Penn., L. U. 1731. 
Mr. and Mrs. Dane G. Osborn, Ann 

Arbor, Mich., L. U. 572. 
Edwin B. Baker, Warren, Ohio, L. 

U. 1514. 
Gay E. Daneill, Jacksonville, 111., L. 

U. 904. 



20 THE CARPENTER 

John C. Pearson, West New York, N. John J. Shnker, Shillington, Penn., 

Y., L. U. 391. L." U. 492. 

G. J. Carlson, Chicago, 111., L. U. 58. John T. Jackson, Duluth, Minn., L. U. 
Louis C. Pigeon, Central Falls, R. I., L. U. 361. 

L. U. 342. Harry Parsons, Evanston, 111., L. U. 
James Bell, Brooklyn, N. Y., L. U. 1307. 

2163 - Edward Banks, Summit, N. J., L. U. 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Rochat, Sea 115. 

Cliff, L. I., N. Y., L. U. 1093. D> D McClain, Independence, Mo., 
Irving Huffmire, Schenectady, N. Y., L. u. 1329. 

L> U - 146 - Ernst Fairclough, Rockford, 111., L. U. 
Oscar C. Benikz, Rochester, Minn, 792. 

" * '• , Frank A. Maglia, Paterson N. J., L. 

Mr. and Mrs. Ted Biggs, Valparaiso, jj 395 

Ind., L. U. 1873. _ ' "•..■. tT7 . . _ T TT 

^ TT _. _. . XT - r _ TT Chas. E. Smith, Windsor, Ont, L. U. 

George H. Brown, Elmira, N. Y., L. U. AQA 

532. 4y4 ' 

Chas. A. Mileur, Mnrphysboro, 111., Bernard J- O sborne > Cleveland, Ohio, 

L. U. 604. L - U ' ii> 

Mr. and Mrs. P. Gillcrist, Milton, Chas * R " ™° th ' California > Penn -> L - 

Mass., L. U. 67. U - 2072 ' 

Mr. and Mrs. C. J. Nichols, Hanover, Mr - and Mrs - C - E - Peters > St. Paul, 

Mass., L. U. 1275. Minn -> L - U - 87 - 

-Virgil Sprenger, Detroit, Mich., L. Bras e Marks, Muncie, Ind., L. U. 592. 

U. 983. James W. Russell, Chicago, 111., L. 
G. Sprenger, Detroit, Mich., L. U. U. 62. 

983. ^ W m . A. Chestnut, Oaklawn, 111., L. 
Erwin Haboda,, Lyons, 111., L. U. U. 141. 

1054 - L. M. Nunn, Savannah, Ga., L. U. 
Geo. L. Peterson, Chicago, 111., L. 256. 

u - 10 - Otto Heun, Manitowoc, Wis., L. U. 
Shetley Puhur, Detroit, Mich., L. U. 849. 

2265 - Natter Wagner, Washington. D. C, 
Atha A. Castle, St. Louis, Mo., L. L. U. 132. 

U - 185 - Fred B. Zobel, Chicago, 111., L. U. 80. 

Mr. and Mrs L. Thompson, Lake w R Russell Chicag0 I1L L> tj. 80 . 

Geneva, Wis., L. U. 290. T , A _ ' ' ' ^. >T 

a i r>w n t> 1 1 xt v t acoo Anderson, Long Island City, N. 

Angelo DeCamo, Brooklyn, N. Y., L. J v _ TT ' „ & •" 

U 787 

J. C. Green,' St. Louis, Mo., L. U. 531. Erik Johnson, Astoria, N. Y., L. U. 

257 
P. C. Chester, Colorado Spgs., Colo., 

L. U. 515. James C. Salter, Pittsburgh, Penn., 

Mr. and Mrs. Allen G. Ross, Oswego, L - U - 211 - 

N. Y., L. U. 747. I. J. McKee, Maplewood, Mo., L. U. 
P. J. Meeks, Fulton, N. Y., L. U. 408. 1739. 

Van M. Hills, Syracuse, N. Y., L. U. Mr. and Mrs. George Fishbourn, Mis- 

12. hawaka,, Ind., L. U. 413. 



Official Information 




General Officers of 
THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS 

of AMERICA 



General, Office : Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General President 

M. A. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis. Ind. 



First General Vice-President 

JOHN R. STEVENSON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Secretary 

ALBERT E. FISCHER 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Second General Vice-President 

O. WM. BLAIER 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Treasurer 

S. P. MEADOWS 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Executive Board 



First District, CHARLES JOHNSON, Jr. 
Ill E. 22nd St., New York 10, N. Y. 



Fifth District, R. E. ROBERTS 
4324 N. 48th St., Omaha, Nebr. 



Second District, RALEIGH RAJOPPI 
2 Prospect Place, Springfield, New Jersey 



Sixth District, A. W. MUIR 
Box 1168, Santa Barbara, Calif. 



Third District, HARRY SCHWARZER 
1248 Walnut Ave., Cleveland, O. 



Seventh District, ANDREW V. COOPER 
133 Chaplin Crescent, Toronto 12, Ont., Canada 



Fourth District, ROLAND ADAMS 
712 West Palmetto St., Florence, S. C. 



M. A. HUTCHESON, Chairman 
ALBERT E. FISCHER, Secretary 



All correspondence for the General Executive Board must be sent to the General Secretary 



REGULAR MEETING OF THE GENERAL 
EXECUTIVE BOARD 

Carpenters' Home 
Lakeland, Florida 
February 22, 1952 

The regular meeting of the General Executive Board was called to order by Chair- 
man M. A. Hutcheson on the above date. 

In accordance with the terms of the Constitution of the United Brotherhood, M. A. 
Hutcheson succeeded to the office of General President, effective as of January 1, 1952, 
upon resignation of William L. Hutcheson, who served in official capacity for approximately 
forty years. 

John R. Stevenson, Second General Vice-President, succeeded to the office of First 
General Vice-President, as provided for in Section 12 of the Constitution of the United 
Brotherhood. 

In accordance with Section 10 of our Constitution the General President filled the 
vacancy in the office of Second General Vice-President by appointing O. Wm, Blaier, 
Board Member of the Second District. 

Also, in accordance with Section 10 of our Constitution the General President filled die 
vacancy created, by appointing Raleigh Rajoppi of Springfield, New Jersey as the Board 
Member of the Second District. 



22 THE CARPENTER 

The appointments were unanimously concurred in. 

Report of the Delegate to the Sixty-sixth Annual Convention of the Trades and Labor 
Congress of Canada held in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada in September 1951 was filed 
for future reference as it has already been published in the January 1952 issue of 
"The Carpenter" for the information of our members. 

Report of the Delegates to the Forty-third Annual Convention of the Union Label 
Trades Department of the American Federation of Labor held in San Francisco, 
California in September 1951 was filed for future reference as it has already been 
published in the January 1952 issue of "The Carpenter" for the information of our 
members. 

Renewal of Bond of General Treasurer S. P. Meadows in the sum of $50,000.00 for 
one year expiring February 1, 1953 through the United States Fidelity and Guaranty 
Company of Baltimore, Maryland was referred to our Legal Department. 

The sub-committee which was appointed to investigate conditions existing in Local 
98, Spokane, Washington submitted its findings in a written report. The committee 
reports that they were convinced that a serious factional fight has developed over a 
period of years and apparently the Local is unable to function properly so long as 
disturbances referred to occur. 

The committee further reported that they are convinced that certain members' 
activities should be discontinued and have reached the following conclusions: 

That the members involved and so named in their report be denied the privilege 
of attending meetings of any Local Union, District Council, State or Provincial Council, 
or holding office, or serving on committees, or being a delegate to any convention of 
the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, or any subdivision 
thereof, or be employed by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, 
or any subdivision thereof, for a period of five (5) years from this date. 

Failure to comply with die above stipulations will subject such member to be 
forever debarred from membership and donations in this order. 

A motion prevailed unanimously that the report of the committee be concurred in. 
-(Members of the sub-committee did not vote on their report.) 

Appeal of Local 2274, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania from the decision of the General 
Treasurer in disapproving die claim for funeral donations of the late Emerson W. Ruth 
was considered and the action of the General Treasurer was sustained. 

Appeal of Local 658, Millinocket, Maine, from the decision of die General Treasurer 
in disapproving the claim for funeral donations of the late William Kiah fo*r the reason 
he was not in benefit standing at the time of death was considered. A motion prevailed 
that the decision of the General Treasurer be sustained. 

The General President appointed the following committee to inspect the rooms of 
the Home: 

John R. Stevenson, Albert E. Fischer, Andrew Cooper. 

He also appointed the following on inspection of stock and supplies: 

O. William Blaier, Harry Schwarzer, R. E. Roberts. 

The balance of the members of the Board to audit the books and accounts of the Home. 

Letter of appeal from several members of Local Union 788, Rock Island, Illinois 
appealing die decision of the First General Vice-President in reference to the action of 
Local Union No. 788 in increasing dieir dues, was considered. 

A motion prevailed that the decision of the First General Vice-President be sustained. 
Carried unanimously. 

A communication from the American Heart Association in reference to a contribution 
to the 1952 Heart Fund was brought to the attention of the Board, and a motion pre- 
vailed that we give the same amount as previously donated. 

In furtherance to the dedication of Peter J. McGuire memorial at the Arlington 
Cemetery near the City of Camden, New Jersey, the General Executive Board selected 
the date of August 9, 1952 to hold the dedication and several prominent speakers are to be 
invited to attend and deliver short addresses. 

The committee appointed on arrangements are as follows: 

O. Wm. Blaier, Charles Johnson, Jr., Raleigh Rajoppi. 



THE CARPENTER 23 

Local Unions, District, State and Provincial Councils will be informed of final 
arrangements in connection with the dedication of the memorial. 

At several previous sessions of the Board, discussions were held in reference to 
selection of a convention city for the Twenty-seventh General Convention of the United 
Brotherhood and the Board's attention was called to the various invitations extended. An 
exhaustive survey of the various cities was made in which to hold our convention and 
since it is difficult to secure adequate and appropriate accommodations, the General 
Secretary at the last session of the Board, was directed to secure additional information 
from die Cincinnati Convention and Visitors Bureau. 

The General Secretary read letters from the aforementioned Bureau, confirming 
definite dates, etc., upon which the Board decided to hold the next convention in the 
City of Cincinnati. 

Communication from the Wood, Wire and Metal Lathers' International regarding 
agreement dated May 10, 1950 was read, and after discussion the General President 
stated if there were no objections same would be turned over to the committee for 
further consideration. 

Communication from the Cuyahoga, Lake, Geauga and Ashtabula Counties Carpenters 
District Council, Cleveland, Ohio, requesting reimbursement of legal fees and expenses 
incurred in the federal case, in which the United Brotherhood was a party, as well as 
the Cleveland District Council, was carefully considered. In view of the fact that the 
Brotherhood was a party to the litigation it was decided that the request be granted. 

Communication from the President of the American Federation of Labor, as well as 
copy of letter addressed to the President of the International Association of Machinists 
were read in reference to complaint entered by the United Brotherhood against the Inter- 
national Association of Machinists with the Executive Council of the American Federa- 
tion of Labor at its January 1952 meeting in the matter of the International Association 
of Machinists filing unfair labor practice charges against our Brotherhood, as well as 
our Local Unions under the Taft-Hartley Law. Upon motion the communications were 
received as information. 

The committee on inspection of rooms reported in writing as to their findings. 

The committe on audit of books and accounts found same correct. 

The committee on stock and supplies found same in good order. 

A committee was appointed to revise in part the application for admission to the 
Home, this committee to confer with the Executive Director of the Home. The com- 
mittee selected was: 

John R. Stevenson, O. Wm. Blaier and Albert E. Fischer. 

The Certified Public Accountants examined die Securities held by the General 
Treasurer in the vaults of the Indiana National Bank, Indianapolis, Indiana and their 
report as of December 31, 1951 shows the following: 

GENERAL FUND 

$2,920,625.00 *U. S. Treasury Bonds 

25,000.00 U. S. Treasury Notes 

1,000,000.00 U. S. Treasury Bonds 

1,000,000.00 U. S. Treasury Bonds 

1,500,000.00 U. S. Treasury Bonds 

50,000.00 U. S. Defense Bonds 

100,000.00 U. S. Defense Bonds 

120,000.00 U. S. Defense Bonds 

100,000.00 Dominion of Canada Bonds 

107,000.00 Canadian Victory Bonds 

200,000.00 Canadian Victory Bonds 

100,000.00 Canadian Victory Bonds 

50,000.00 Canadian Victory Bonds 

242,100.00 Adams Packing Ass'n. Preferred Stock 2421 shares $100.00 share 

100,000.00 Adams Packing Ass'n. Debenture 1952 

140,000.00 1st Mortgage Note-4 at $35,000.00 each 

*Maturity Value of these bonds-$3,000,000.00 

(Continued on page 28) 



2V4S 


1959-62 


1%S 


1952 


2V4S 


1959-62 


2V2S 


1963-68 


2%s 


1964-69 


2 X /2S 


1953 


2%s 


1954 


2%s 


1957 


3 s 


1958 


3 s 


1959 


3 s 


1962 


3 s 


1966 


3 s 


1956 



Editorial 




Will Industrialists Swallow What Labor Scorned? 

Between the West and Russia lie nine nations which have been completely 
enslaved by the Kremlin. They are Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Po- 
land, Roumania and the three Baltic States, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. 
Together they comprise a population of close to 100 million. 

These nations may have been overrun by the Reds but they have not 
yielded. Particularly is this true of the labor unions that existed when the 
Russians moved in. Hundreds of free trade unionists left their homelands to 
continue fighting Russian imperialism from foreign soil. Thousands of them 
congregated in Paris and from there they are fighting the Russian Bear with 
everything they have. By newspapers, by radio and by underground con- 
tacts they are beaming the truth behind the Iron Curtain and lending every 
encouragement possible to the people who revere freedom. 

Among the fine publications put out by these transplanted unionists is 
a hard-hitting little newspaper called "Labor in Exile." For several years 
it has been printed in French and now it is being translated into English. For 
our money it is about as informative and factual as any labor paper we have 
yet seen. 

Among the many features contained in the first issue was an editorial 
entitled "Popular Front For Capitalists." What the editorial cried out against 
was the blindness of some industrialists who cannot see anything beyond the 
dollar sign. Because of its timeliness, the editorial is herewith reprinted 
in full. 

A POPULAR FRONT FOR CAPITALISTS 

Having failed miserably to unite the workers of the world, Stalin and his 
cohorts, improbable as it seems, are now trying to unite the capitalists of 
the world. 

The Kremlin is calling an International Economic Conference to be held 
in Moscow next month, April 3-10. The organizer of the Conference is the 
renegade Polish socialist Oscar Lange and invitations have been sent out to 
Western industrialists, economic experts, and other capitalists. 

No one who believes in a democratic world of human decency will oppose 
the principle of freedom of international trade. Labor, in the West or the 
East, has traditionally been a staunch advocate of free trade. But no one in 
his right mind will believe it possible to trade freely with the countries behind 
the Iron Curtain as long as they are in the grip of the Communist dictatorship. 

What does Moscow hope to achieve with this Economic Conference? 
By holding out such bait as free trade with the East the Stalinists seek, 
in the first place, to weaken the armament program of the West by creating 
dissension and differences among the free nations. The Kremlin has one 
primary objective for the present: to split NATO. At the same time, the 
Soviet rulers desperately need western trade to build their vast military 
machine which extends from China to Berlin. 



THE CARPENTER 25 

Will Stalin succeed in creating a popular front of capitalists as a kind of 
sister-organization to the World Peace Partisans? 

The Moscow Economic Conference has already been exposed as fraudulent 
by labor in the United States, Britain, France, and by the International 
Center of Free Trade Unionists in Exile. 

But one need only read the financial press of the West to realize that 
some western industrialists are getting itching fingers. They can smell profits 
in the East. They would like to take advantage of the trading opportunities 
that the Moscow Conference ostensibly offers. 

To make an extra franc, pound, or dollar, they seem ready to adopt a 
policy of appeasement towards Moscow, completely ignoring Munich, and 
the tragic lessons of wartime and postwar history. 

For the sake of a few immediate profits they are ready to accept the 
enslavement of millions of men and women living behind the Iron Curtain. 

What if their trade with the East will strengthen the Soviet war machine 
and correspondingly weaken the free countries of the West! What if some 
of the steel, industrial goods, and raw materials they intend to send to Russia 
will eventually be used by Stalin to enslave the West! 

Some of the industrialists of the West have long ago lost even the will 
to power which distinguishes creative from decadent capitalism. They seem 
to be determined to fulfill Marx's prophecy that capitalism digs its own 
grave. The Communist dictators could not ask for more. 



The Big Problem Remains 

What will life be like 100 years from now? Recently several widely- 
acclaimed books predicted dire things for the future of mankind. The main 
theme of all these books was that population is growing faster than food sup- 
plies and things therefore look black indeed. The books emphasized that there 
is only so much tillable soil in the world and that practically all of it is now 
in production. With the population of the world doubling every 70 years or 
so, hunger is bound to catch up with us soon. They also emphasized the fact 
that the earth contains only limited amounts of all natural resources which we 
have been using up at an alarming rate. 

On the face of things they put up very logical arguments. If science stood 
still, their predictions would undoubtedly come true. But science is always 
reaching out a little farther and changing things drastically. About 100 years 
ago, a man named Dr. Malthus first "proved" that the human race was des- 
tined to starve because food supplies could not keep up with population 
growth. Had farming conditions remained static, Dr. Malthus' theory would 
have long since come true. If farmers could raise no more per acre today than 
they did 100 years ago hunger really would be stalking the land. But scientific 
farming has trebled the amount each acre can produce with the result that 
food is more plentiful than it ever has been. 

At a recent meeting of the American Society of Civil Engineers in New 
York, Dr. Vannevar Bush, one of the nation's outstanding scientists, gave the 
world a quick peek at some of the wonders that are to come. In his book, 
there seems little likelihood of food famine catching up with mankind for a 
long, long time to come. 



26 THE CARPENTER 

Dr. Bush said progress had begun in cultivation in the seas, instead of 
mere harvesting. Scottish fiords have been successfully fertilized, greatly in- 
creasing the yield of fish. Other efforts include rapid raising of oysters by con- 
trolling their food, promoting of fish ponds to yield 300 pounds of bass an acre 
a year and harvesting of protein from tiny shellfish fed on sea plants. 

In new methods of reclaiming land, Dr. Bush said the United Fruit Com- 
pany had diverted a river in Honduras to lay down several feet of fertile silt 
in a swamp, which would then be drained. In India, he said, sub-soil cutters 
are exterminating kans grass, which has been taking over 10,000,000 acres of 
wheat land. 

Efforts still under way, he went on, include new synthetic chemicals to 
bond clay soils, which, unlike natural chemicals, are not attacked by soil bac- 
teria. Their use may give 20 to 80 per cent crop increase in "a revolution in 
agriculture." 

At his own institution, Dr. Bush said, single-celled plants— algae— are being 
grown in water circulated in plastic bags with controlled food and carbon 
dioxide. Each plant's product may be varied from 56 per cent protein to 80 
per cent fat. 

Such a process, he explained, may furnish food "in enormous quantities 
with relatively little use of land, and apparently at a cost such that the status 
of whole populations may ultimately be greatly altered." 

A combination of vitamin B-12 with antibiotics may increase growth of 
chickens or hogs by 30 per cent on the same weight of food, using vegetable 
proteins instead of more expensive animal proteins, Dr. Bush said. A milk 
fprmula for small pigs may cut mortality, and allow sows to have three litters 
a year instead of two. Breeders are seeking a sheep that habitually gives birth 
to twins. 

In medicine, Dr. Bush predicted that "the process of maintaining a normal 
hormonic balance as a means of preserving the health of the population gen- 
erally may be the great medical accomplishment of the next decade." 

In chemistry, Dr. Bush envisioned exchange methods that would make 
pure water from salt water, and select desired chemicals from the seas "with- 
out handling the entire mass." In industry, he said automatic controls would 
require "not less labor" but more skilled labor. 

If Dr. Bush's assumptions are correct, man has little to fear from depletion 
of nature. But the problem of getting men to live together in peace and har- 
mony, with every man entitled to and receiving a place in the sun, may take a 
lot more imagination than science has yet been able to produce. 



A Long Over-Due Reform 

Last month a bill designed to prevent shady practices in national elections 
was introduced in the House of Commons. That such a bill is long overdue 
is attested to by the fact that a Senate subcommittee is right now engaged in 
investigating the fitness of one member of the Senate to serve, and the legality 
of the election of another. Politics has always been a nasty business, but in 
recent years it has been kicked deeper into the gutter by opportunists and 
demagogues to whom honesty and decency are only words in the dictionary. 

Object of the new bill is to put the spotlight of public scrutiny on all politi- 
cal campaigns. There seems to be more and more evidence that some elections 



THE CARPENTER 27 

have been "bought" in recent years. Millions have been spent to elect a single 
Senator. A poor man— regardless of his ability, honesty and suitability for the 
job— has no more chance of getting elected these days than a snowball has in 
a traditionally hot place. Unless something is done, and done soon, the will of 
the people will count about as much in national elections as it does in Gum- 
boovia. 

The new bill proposes to remedy the situation in three ways. First it would 
set up an organization within the government charged with the definite re- 
sponsibitly of policing election campaigns. A "custodian" would head this 
"Office of Election Records." All candidates would have to file with the custo- 
dian full statements of contributions and expenditures involved in their cam- 
paigns. These the custodian would investigate and check, with all violations 
to be reported to the Department of Justice for appropriate action. 

The second thing the bill would do would be to require candidates to re- 
port all contributions and expenditures connected with primary elections as 
well as with general elections. As it is now, candidates are required to account 
only for the things they do in general elections although in many instances 
primary elections are infinitely more important and more susceptible to corrup- 
tion. 

Lastly, the bill would require "political committees" to file reports of re- 
ceipts and expenditures too. These "political committees are handy gim- 
micks candidates use to keep from letting Uncle Sam know how much money 
they are spending and the source from which they received the money. The 
candidate is required to report only what he spends. If he throws the bulk 
of his finances into the hands of a "committee' the committee does the dirty 
work for him and he is in the clear. The new bill would put the responsibility 
on the candidate by making it unlawful for any committee to spend a cent 
without written authority from the candidate. 

This is an election year. It will probably be one of the bitterest elec- 
tions in history. Millions upon millions will be spent. Certainly the people 
have a right to know who puts up the money and how it is spent. There is 
something rotten when a candidate can spend two million dollars (as one 
Ohio Senator reputedly did running for a job that will pay a little over 
$100,000 in six years). Maybe there is a man in the nation so charming that 
people will throw him two million dollars without expecting anything in 
return, but we seriously doubt it. We would feel much safer if we knew 
who gave him the money and how much. The only way we will ever know 
is if a bill such as the one in the House hopper at the present time is passed. 
Honest Congressman— for .their own protection— should see that it is passed 
right away. 

Money has become far too great a factor in elections. Too many unprin- 
cipled men have been able to literally buy their way into public office. The 
scandals which have been rocking Washington became a natural result. There 
is no use kidding ourselves; a good deal of the rottenness in the Capital orig- 
inated in Congress. Many Congressmen who were shouting loudest for a 
housecleaning changed their tunes quickly when investigators began uncover- 
ing their own questionable activities. Government must be cleaned up, but the 
only way it can really be cleaned up is by guaranteeing that only honest, sin- 
cere and independent men are elected. There is no better way of assuring this 
than by keeping the spotlight of public scrutiny on all elections. 



28 THE CARPENTER 

(Continued from page 23) 

DEFENSE FUND 

$ 243,437.50 *U. S. Treasury Bonds 

50,000.00 U. S. Defense Bonds 

50,000.00 U. S. Defense Bonds 

105,000.00 U. S. Treasury Notes 

* Maturity Value of these bonds-$250,000.00 

HOME AND PENSION FUND 



2%s 


1959-62 


2%s 


1953 


2%s 


1954 


1%S 


1952 



974,843.75 


*U. S. Treasury Bonds 




2 J /4S 


1959-62 


50,000.00 


U. S. Defense Bonds 




2%s 


1953 


50,000.00 


U. S. Defense Bonds 




2%s 


1955 


100,000.00 


U. S. Defense Bonds 




2%s 


1954 


100,000.00 


U. S. Defense Bonds 




2V 2 s 


1957 


500,000.00 


U. S. Treasury Bonds 




2%s 


1963-68 


600,000.00 


U. S. Treasury Bonds 




2y 2 s 


1964-69 


500,000.00 


U. S. Treasury Bonds 




2%s 


1967-72 


140,000.00 


U. S. Treasury Notes 




1%S 


1952 


150,000.00 


Adams Packing Ass'n. 


Common Stock 1500 shares $100.00 share 


200,000.00 


Adams Packing Debenture- 


-4 at 


$50,000.00 each 




*Maturity Value of these bon 


ds-$ 1,000,000.00 



There being no further business to be acted upon, the Board adjourned on February 
29, 1952 to meet at the call of the Chairman. 

Respectfully submitted, 

ALBERT E. FISCHER, Secretary 



Labor Given Voice In Farm Policy 

For the first time in the history of agriculture in the United States, organized labor 
has an official voice in determining policies affecting the nation's 2 million farm workers, 
H. L. Mitchell, president of the AFL National Farm Labor Union, declared. 

Mitchell's statement was made in connection with the release of a series of recommenda- 
tions made to the Labor Department by an 18-man committee composed of representatives 
of the American Federation of Labor and the CIO. The committee was appointed by 
Secretary of Labor Tobin. 

It recommended that the Secretary of Labor conduct public hearings in each major 
agricultural area to determine the availability of domestic farm workers for employment 
before certifying the need for importation of foreign workers. 

The secretary was called upon also to determine through public hearings the prevailing 
wages to be paid to foreign workers if it was found necessary to import them from Mexico, 
the British West Indies or elsewhere. 

The committee asked for official representation of organized labor in future negotiations 
with Mexico for an international agreement permitting the importation of farm workers. 
It recommended that the United States seek to have incorporated into the agreement with 
Mexico a minimum wage of not less than 75 cents an hour to be paid imported Mexican 
nationals. 

While expressing disappointment that Congress did not provide that persons knowingly 
employing illegal aliens would be subject to penalty, the labor representatives felt that 
the law had been strengthened by the amendment to penalize persons transporting, har- 
boring, or concealing illegal aliens. However, they pointed out that if Congress fails to 
appropriate funds to enforce the law, it becomes a public fraud. 



Jin ffizmcviztm 

Not lost to those that love them, They still live in our memory, 

Not dead, just gone before; And will forever more. 



%tst in T^ztttz 

The Editor has been requested to publish the names 
of the following Brothers who have passed away. 



Brother DAVID BANAKA, Local No. 1445, Topeka, Kans 

Brother CHARLES BATTLES, Local No. 1065, Salem, Ore 

Brother RALPH W. BENNETT. Local No. 1130, Titusville, Pa 

Brother P. J. BOHAN, Local No. 1,065, Salem, Ore. 

Brother REGIS F. BROWN, Local No. 1822, Ft. Worth, Texas 

Brother JAMES BUTT, Local No. 56, Boston, Mass. 

Brother ALFRED E. CADDY, Local No. 184, Salt Lake City, Utah 

Brother ERNEST CARPENTER, Local No. 1134, Mt. Kisco, N. Y 

Brother CHAS. CHRISTENSEN, Local No. 184, Salt Lake City, Utah 

Brother WILLIAM COOGAN, Local No. 488, New York, N. Y 

Brother GEO. M. COOKE, Local No. 11, Cleveland, Ohio 

Brother HARRY B. COOK, Local No. 129, Hazleton, Pa. 

Brother W. C. CREASEY, Local No. 388, Richmond, Va. 

Brother C. O. CROUCH, Local No. 345, Memphis, Tenn. 

Brother ROY F. CUNNINGHAM, Local No. 1822, Ft. Worth, Texas 

Brother WM. DANNENBERG, Local No. 5, St. Louis, Mo. 

Brother ERNEST B. DOBBINS, Local No. 857, Tucson, Ariz. 

Brother EDWARD EASTON, Local No. 1445, Topeka, Kans. 

Brother E. FAVEERE Local No. 5 St. Louis Mo. 

Brother EMORY EDGAR FRALEY Local No. 1322, Belmont, Ohio 

Brother JOSEPH GAYEWSKI, Local No. 488, New York, N. Y. 

Brother DOMINICK GRADY, Local No. 11, Cleveland, Ohio 

Brother CHAS. E. GRAVES, Local No. 1065, Salem, Ore. 

Brother GEORGE HAGAN, Local No. 100, Muskegon, Mich. 

Brother WILLIAM H. HAGGARTY, Local No. 626, Wilmington, Del. 

Brother AL HAHN, Local No. 5, St. Louis, Mo. 

Brother JAMES A. HARDESTER, Local No. 132, Washington, D. C. 

Brother EUGENE HOLZINGER, Local No. 5, St. Louis, Mo. 

Brother WALTER JUNCK, Local No. 1114, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Brother FRED KLAPMEYER, Local No. 6, Amsterdam, N. Y. 

Brother W. K. KNIGHT, Local No. 103, Birmingham, Ala. 

Brother JOHN LAPPI, Local No. 1335, Wilmington, Calif. 

Brother JAMES LE HANE, Local No. 188, Yonkers, N. Y. 

Brother WILLIAM LONG, Local No. 56, Boston, Mass. 

Brother JOHN H. MC CORMACK, Local No. 56, Boston, Mass. 

Brother JAMES A. MARLEY, Local No. 1065, Salem, Ore. 

Brother J. W. MASON, Local No. 1683, El Dorado, Ark. 

Brother JOSEPH MECHLER, Local No. 366, New York, N. Y. 

Brother STEWART MUNN, Local No. 366, New York, N. Y. 

Brother KAARLE NYBERG, Local No. 488, New York, N. Y. 

Brother JOHN W. OTT, Local No. 16, Springfield, 111. 

Brother C. E. PEOPLES, Local No. 11, Cleveland, Ohio 

Brother HOWARD PETERSON, Local No. 100, Muskegon, Mich. 

Brother MATT PIPPO, Local No. 1335, Wilmington, Calif. 

Brother JAMES POWELL, Local No. 2131, Pottsville, Pa. 

Brother JOHN PRUELLAGE, Local No. 5, St. Louis, Mo. 

Brother FRED ROSHON, Local No. 1445, Topeka, Kans. 

Brother SAMUEL ROTHMAN, Local No. 1367, Chicago, III. 

Brother HUGH RUDDER, Local No. 5, St. Louis, Mo. 

Brother S. D. RUTLEDGE, Local No. 1335, Wilmington, Calif. 

Brother HEZEKIAH SADDLER, SR., Local No. 388, Richmond, Va. 

Brother OSCAR SCHUESSTER, Local No. 5, St. Louis, Mo. 

Brother JULIUS SCHUMANN, Local No. 983, Detroit, Mich. 

Brother HENRY W. SCHUSTER, Local No. 1445, Topeka, Kans. 

Brother RUDOLPH SEGER, SR., Local No. 5, St. Louis, Mo. 

Brother JOHN A. SMITH, Local No. 1335, Wilmington, Calif. 

Brother HARRY C. STUCKLEY, Local No. 626, Wilmington, Del. 

Brother RUBY SUMPTER, Local No. 2479, Fairfield, 111. 

Brother U. A. TOWNEN, Local No. 11, Cleveland, Ohio 

Brother WILFRED TRUDEL, Local No. 801, Woonsocket, R. I. 

Brother EDWARD ULTES, Local No. 363, Elgin, III. 

Brother MICHAEL VANDENABEELE, Local No. 983, Detroit, Mich. 

Brother OTHA W. YOUNG, Local No. 388, Richmond, Va. 

Brother A. J. ZEPF, Local No. 5, St. Louis, Mo. 






; 

BLOOD 

MEANS LIFE 

A pint of your blood, donated through 
the Red Cross Blood Bank, can help save 
the life of a soldier who spilled his own 
blood to protect you and me and the rest 
of the nation. 

He gave his in agony and suffering; we 
can give ours in comfort and ease. 

Make a date at your nearest Blood Bank 
to give a pint of blood for the boys who 
are giving theirs by the gallon. 



GIVE! 



t 



^^^*^^^^*^^^^^^^^^^*^^^^^^^^^^^«*^*^^^^#»*^*^*^*yi 



THE LOCKER 

By JOHN HART, LOCAL UNION 366, New York, N. Y. 

INDIVIDUAL ANNUITIES 

An annuity is a guaranteed income paid by an insurance company, immediately or in 
the future, at stipulated periods (monthly, quarterly, half-yearly, yearly), in return for 
either a single or annual premium. Group Annuities are issued to a group of employees 
under a blanket contract held by the employer, who pays the premiums, or shares the 
cost with his workers. Annuities are commonly thought to be available only for busi- 
ness men and the elite of the white-collar class in general. Blue-collar workers are not 
credited with having any great regard for them, presumably because, of the high cost of 
minimum premiums. Though the minimum annual premium for a Retirement Annuity 
is not exactly an American's ransom, the pay-off date is a long way ahead. Some of us 
are obliged to live only for today— God is good, tomorrow will take care of itself. In the 
lives of many working men every day is a rainy day, so how much fore-handed can a fellow 
be? Merely as an item of curiosity just a brief review of the common annuities is given, 
so that anyone who perforcedly declines the opportunity to build for himself a mansion 
in the sky, may at least take a look at the plans. 

General conditions: No medical examination. Minimum single premium, $1,000. 
Minimum annual retirement premium, $100. No income checks issued for less than $10. 
Annuity for a woman is that of a man 5 years younger. Future income ages, 50 to 70. 
Immediate Annuities are non-participating (no individuals). They have no cash or loan 
value. Retirement Annuities are participating (dividends extra). They have a cash or 
loan value. Incomes are guaranteed minimum, paid for life of annuitant (the income 
receiver). Figures given here are average. Some companies pay more, a few less. 

IMMEDIATE LIFE ANNUITY 

Single premium. Income, guaranteed for life, begins at end of stipulated annuity 
period, monthly, quarterly, etc. What happens at death of annuitant is given below. 
This type annuity is favorable for the older people; the greater the age, the greater the 
income. Premium is not recallable. Once paid you'll never see it in one piece again. There 
is no cash or loan value. No dividends. Income is maximum and minimum. 



Annual Annuity received for Single Premium of $1,000. Non-participating 



Age when bought. Male 
Life only. No refund 
10 years guaranteed. 
Installment refund. 
Cash refund. 



40 


45 


50 


55 


60 


65 


$40.25 


$44.55 


$50.00 


$57.00 


$66.15 


$78.35 


39.85 


43.80 


48.65 


54.55 


61.60 


69.85 


36.95 


39.85 


43.30 


47.50 


52.50 


58.70 


36.35 


39.00 


42.10 


45,80 


50.20 


55.35 



70 

$94.90 

78.75 

66.25 

61,35 



Cost of Single Premium for Monthly Annuity of $10.00. Non-Participating. 



Age when bought. Male. 
Life only. No refund. 
10 years guaranteed. 
Installment refund. 
Cash refund. 



40 


45 


50 


55 


60 


65 


$3,039 


$2,753 


$2,460 


$2,165 


$1,873 


$1,590 


3,071 


2,798 


2,526 


2,258 


2,006 


1,777 


3,306 


3,070 


2,830 


2,586 


2,343 


2,103 


3,361 


3,136 


2,907 


2,678 


2,450 


2,227 



70 

$1,323 

1,583 

1,870 

2,014 



If annuitant dies before full premium value is paid these conditions apply: 
Life only. No refund. That's all there is, there isn't any more. Not to anyone. 

Payments continue to heirs to end of 10th year from issue date. 
Payments continue to heirs until full value of premium is paid. 
Cash payment to heirs of uncollected balance of premium. 



10 years guaranteed 
Installment refund. 
Cash refund. 



Many people object to the "Life Only" forfeiture of unpaid premium balance, espe- 
cially the heirs who never owned the money in the first place. This forfeiture rule 
benefits those annuitants who survive to collect the largest possible income. This Life 
Only Annuity is a shoot-the-works contract for a man whose interest is in Number One, 
everyone else being provided for long ago. Time he thought of himself. This type of 
contract pays a nice income, so he goes the whole hog, and be damned to anyone else. 
The "10 Years Guaranteed" contract has the welfare of the heirs in mind. The other 
two types guarantee the return of full premium in any event, so what have you got to 
lose? Any old how, the annuitant gets his as long as he sticks it out. 



32 



THE CARPENTER 



JOINT LIFE AND SURVIVOR ANNUITY. IMMEDIATE. 

Called the husband-and-wife annuity, though it may include any two persons. It 
provides a guaranteed income while both persons live, and at death of one, continues 
to the deadi of the survivor. There are various forms of this type annuity. We give 
the figures of that of the V. O. Insurance Company, simple and typical. No cash or loan 
value. No dividends. No refund at death of last survivor. Woman's age in relation 
to man's determines the income. Note the premium for a man aged 65 and a wife of 
various ages. Yield is $120 per year on all premiums quoted. For ages 60-65 this is 
about 5 per cent. Not as good as A. T. and T. maybe, but A. T. and T. isn't guaranteed, 
is it? 

Cost of Single Premium for $10 Monthly Annuity. Payable to Death of Last Survivor. 

Ages when bought. 

Man. 50 | 50 | 55 | 55 | 60 | 60 | 65 | 65 | 65 

Ages when bought. 

Woman. 45 

$3,337 

RETIREMENT INCOME ANNUITY. DEFERRED. 

Also called Income Continuation, Retirement Pension, Deferred Income. It could be 
called also Rainy Day Income. This is the annuity for a young fellow with a long-range 
vision— very, very long. He can buy this contract during his best earning years and 
collect die benefits when his earning capacity isn't what it used to be. Its a good idea 
when it works. Here's the pitch: Figures are average for a contract requiring a unit 
premium of $100 a year. It has an increasing cash value which, after the 10th year, 
is more than total premiums paid. There is a nominal death benefit equal to total 
premiums paid, or cash value if greater. If contract lapses, cash value may be taken, or 
a reduced income at later age. Cash value at income age may be taken instead of in- 
come. Premiums stop at income age. Dividends are extra. 

Monthly Income at 65 for Annual Unit Premium of $100. Death Renefits. Participating. 



50 


50 


55 55 


60 


60 


65 1 50 


$3,158 


$3,048 


$2,859 $2,746 $2,549 


$2,435 $2,234 j $2,895 



Age when bought. Male 
Life only. No refund. 
10 years guaranteed. 
15 years guaranteed. 
20 years guaranteed. 
Cash refund. 
Cash value at 65. 



45 


50 


55 


$15.30 


$10.70 


$6.60 


13.80 


9.65 


6.00 


12.40 


8.65 


5.35 


10.85 


7.60 


4.70 


10.50 


7.30 


4.55 


$2,288 


$1,598 


989 



35 40 

$26.40 $20.50 

23.85 18.55 

21.40 16.60 

18.75 14.55 

18.10 14.05 

$3,951 $3,068 

A recent proposal put to this Brotherhood would, for $9 extra dues a year, add $15 
a month to the current Pension. Taken alone, this amounts roughly to a Retirement 
Income of $15 monthly for annual premium of $9. Our average Pensioner collects for 
13 years, paying dues right along. Take a member aged 35. His total premiums to 
collect $15 monthly life income would be, say $390. Let's see what he'd get from the 
Al Insurance Company for $390. To be fair we point out that all the conditions apply- 
ing to Retirement Income Annuity apply to the Al Company except it does not pay 
dividends. Now go over all the pros and cons carefully, and then figure out why this 
proposition was voted down in referendum vote. FOR: 74,000. AGAINST: 97,000 



Al Ins. Co. 
Gen. Office. 



Ann. prem. $13. 
Extra dues $9. 



Paid up at 65, $390. 
Paid, 43 years, $390. 



Cash Value, $524. 
Not optional 



Mthly life inc. $3.64. 
Mthly. life inc. $15.00. 



Although it really doesn't belong here we mention the Retirement Income Policy 
issued by most companies. General conditions: Carries $1,000 Life Insurance payable 
at death before income age, or cash value if greater. At income age, $10 monthly for 
life, 10 years payments guaranteed. Cash value at income age ($1,655) may be taken 
instead of income. Premiums stop at income age. Dividends extra. We give the figures 
for a typical policy at various ages for men. Income at 65. No disability. 

Age when bought. 

Male. , 30 I 35 40 I 45 I 50 I 55 I C. V. at 65 

Annual Premium. | $40.30 1 $49.25 $61.85 | $80.85 |$112.40 |$175.20 | $1,655 

The proceeds of most life policies may be used for a single payment annuity on the 
lines of those noted here. The cost of annuities is constantly increasing. People live 
longer, especially annuitants who, it is said, never die. A company which could make over 



THE CARPENTER 



33 



5% per cent on its investments 25 years ago can make only around 3 per cent today. A 
Life Only contract bought in 1930 would pay at the age 65 $108 annually. Same con- 
tract bought in 1935 would pay $95. As shown elsewhere today's income is only $79. 
Many big companies don't push their annuity business over much, many don't handle it at 
all. But once a contract is signed, come hell or high water, inflation or deflation, the 
stipulated income is paid. Insurance companies don't renege. We mean the big fellows 
of course. It is claimed that for certain people, under certain conditions, an annuity is the 
best investment of all. You can form your own opinion now that you know the details. 

News item: New York, March 23, 1952. Lewis W. Dawson, President of the Mutual 
Life Insurance Company, personally called on Mrs. Thomas Almond to present to her the 
regular income check on an annuity contract she has had with Mutual for forty-six years. 
He informed her that since she purchased her contract in 1906, his company has paid her 
more than three times the cost of the contract. Mrs. Almond timidly remarked that she 
had no intention of defrauding the company. She was assured that Mutual considered it 
a pleasure to serve her. Mrs. Almond is 102 years old. 



Got A Good Tool Box? 

The Carpenter: 

Being a carpenter and a member of the United Brotherhood, 
I thought I would ask your help. I receive my copy of THE 
CARPENTER and appreciate reading it. 

At present I am filing saws. The company I work for em- 
ployes about forty carpenters so naturally I see all kinds and 
sizes of tool boxes. In most cases it is just a common box and 
the tools are piled in it without too much rhyme or reason. 

I was wondering if through the columns of THE CAR- 
PENTER I could get a blueprint or sketch of a practical tool 
box that would contain all the tools a carpenter needs but 
keep them in such a way that all tools would be readily 
accessible at all times without having to dig to the bottom 
of the pile for a certain tool. 

Has some member devised such a box? I would appreciate 
hearing from him through this journal. 

Fraternally yours, 

Daniel Adolph, Creston, B. C, Can. 



EIGHT LOCALS SIGN NEW BRUCE AGREEMENT 

Several weeks of negotiations were successfully brought to a close on March 10th when 
the E. L. Bruce Company and eight Local Unions of our United Brotherhood signed a 
new agreement covering all the operations of the Bruce Company. The new agreement 
calls for an across-the-board increase in wages, an additional paid holiday and the elimina- 
tion of the last pay differentials between plants. 

Bruce is the largest manufacturer of hardwood flooring and other hardwood products 
in the world. Furthermore, every Bruce product carries the Union Label of the United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America. For a number of years all eight Broth- 
erhood Locals have negotiated a single contract to cover all Bruce employes although the 
plants are scattered over a wide area in several states. 



CorrQspondQncQ 




Tin's Journal Is Not Responsible For Views Expressed By Correspondents. 

DOWNERS GROVE CELEBRATES 40th ANNIVERSARY 

To celebrate the 40th anniversary of the founding, Local Union No. 1889, Downers 
Grove, on the night of February 17th sponsored a banquet and social evening. Over 

200 members, friends and 
guests were on hand for the 
occasion, and a great time was 
had by all. 

The program was opened by 
President John Lawry leading 
the Pledge of Allegiance to 
the Flag. A highlight of the 
evening was the reading of 
the minutes of the first meet- 
ing of Local Union No. 1889 
held February 17th, 1912. Bet- 
ter than anything else possibly 
could, the minutes of the first 
meeting of Local Union No. 
1889 emphasized the consis- 
tent progress that has been 
made during the past four dec- 
ades. 

Among the special guests to 
the celebration were the offi- 
cers of the Chicago District 
Council, representing Cook, 
Lake and DuPage Counties, 
who helped to make the even- 
ing a memorable one. A num- 
ber of short but highly interes- 
ting speeches congratulated the 
union on the progress it has 
made and recalled the many real contributions to sound unionism Local Union No. 1889 
has made down the years. 

A delicious Smorgasbord dinner with absolutely nothing left out started off the 
evening. All sorts of refreshments were provided for the guest during the evening. A fine 
dance band provided first class music for either dancing or listening. It was an evening 
of reunion, fellowship and fun, and all who attended went home proud of Local Union 
No. 1889 and sure that it would continue serving the community for many more years 
to come. 




Top Row, Standing Jeft to right, are: Cbas. A. Thompson, 
Secretary Chicago District Council; Ted Kenney, President 
of Chicago District Council; John Lawry, President of Local 
1889; Alex W. Robertson, Representative of Chicago District 
Council; Leon Druse, Representative of Local Union 141 of 
Chicago. 

Second Row, Seated left to right, are: Edw. Landbrf, War- 
den of Local 1889; Harry Rayner, Treasurer of Local 1889; 
Arthur Prokaski, Vice-President of Local 1889; George Vix, 
Trustee of Local 1889; Fred Prokaski, Representative of Local 
1889. 

Bottom Row, seated left to right, are: Frank Dean, Con- 
ductor of Local 1889; Edw. Steinhauser, Trustee of Local 
1889; Roy Vix, Financial Secretary of Local 1889; Otto Vix, 
Recording Secretary of Local 1889. 



MANSFIELD LOCAL MARKS 50th BIRTHDAY 

Away back in February, 1901, there were only 45 states in the Union (Arizona, New 
Mexico and Oklahoma still being territories), the automobile a rich man's novelty and 
radio was still 20 years away. About that time a small group of carpenters in Mans- 
field, Ohio, was deciding that if they were going to get anywhere with correcting the 
many injustices plaguing their trade at the time, it would have to be done through or- 
ganization. They applied for a charter in the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America. On February 22, 1901, Washington's birthday, that charter was 
installed. 



THE CARPENTER 



35 



Fifty-one years and one day later— February 23rd, 1952, to be exact— Local Union 
No. 735 of Mansfield celebrated the 51st anniversary of its founding with a banquet and 
social evening held at Sons of Herman Hall. In the 51 years, Local Union No. 735 has 
helped to bring about many, many changes for the better. 

Starting out with a fine dinner, the 51st anniversary celebration was a success from 
start to finish. A highlight of the evening was the showing of the two films "This Is 
Your Brotherhood" showing the General Office in action, and "The Carpenters Home" 
showing the many-sided operations of conducting the Home for Aged Members at Lake- 
land, Fla. The films were well received and many members expressed a determination to 
visit both the General Office and the Lakeland Home in person at the earliest possible 
moment. Entertainment, reminiscing and just plain having a good time took up the 
remainder of the evening. 

o 

CHARLEROI CELEBRATES 50th ANNIVERSARY 

On the night of March 18, Local Union No. 1044 of Charleroi, Pa., celebrated the 
fiftieth anniversary of its founding with a banquet and social evening. Some 250 mem- 
bers and guests were on hand for the occasion, to help Local Union 1044 properly celebrate 
its Golden Anniversary. 

John Cregan, Secretary- 
Treasurer of the Philadelphia 
District Council served as toast- 
master, being introduced by 
William J. Kelly, manager of 
the Pittsburgh District Council. 
A short speech was given by 
Charles Slinker, International 
Representative and President of 
the State Council of Carpen- 
ters. Local 1044 was highly 
honored in having with them 
Raleigh Rajoppi, the newly ap- 
pointed General Executive 
Board Member of the 2nd 
District. An address, which was 
well worth listening to was 
delivered by him. Among the 
honored guests were: L. E. 
Ross, Secretary of the Reading 
Joint Council; Nickolis Merlo, 
of the Wage Stabilization 
Board; Angus MacKay and Dale 
Horner both Vice-Presidents of the State Councils of Carpenters. 

The highlight of the evening was the presentation of Bonds to the two charter mem- 
bers, Walter Smith and Paul Gibson. The presentation was made by Carl T. Westland, 
Secretary-Treasurer of the Pittsburgh District Council. 

Souvenir pencils commemorating the occasion, were presented to all the members 
and guests. 

Certificates of Journeymen were given to, Milan Veres, Robert Blasko, James Lee 
Brown, Roth Perlinger, Arthur Cantarell and Fred Montgomery. 

A gala floor show followed and the balance of the evening was spent dancing to the 
music of Ernie Ames. 




Officers of Local 1044 of the United Brotherhood of Car- 
penters and Joiners of America of Charleroi, Pa., shown above 
are: Seated, left to right, Robert Gregg, Trustee; Walter 
Smith, Charter member and Treasurer; Paul Gibson, Charter 
member and Trustee; and Fred Hill, Trustee. 

Standing, left to right, are: Sam Conrad, Vice-President; 
Gene Solomon, Financial Secretary; Roy Smock, President; 
William Harrison, Warden; Wilbur Blum, Conductor; and 
Edward Dopier, Recording Secretary and Business Represent- 
ative. 



ADA LOCAL BUYS OWN BUILDING 

The officers and members of Local Union No. 2013, Ada, Okla., are wearing broad 
smiles these days. Recently they moved into their own building. There is nothing 
unusual about a local union owning its own building, but in the case of the Ada boys 
there is. Local Union No. 2013 is less than seven years old. It was on September 7, 



36 



THE CARPENTER 



1945, that Frank Hanks, secretary of the Oklahoma State Council installed Charter No. 
2013. At the time there were some 30 carpenters in Ada anxious to establish a local 
—most of them transfers from other locals. 

This group of men got together and formed Local Union No. 2013. What they 
lacked in size they made up in determination. From the Ada Trades and Labor Council 
they rented a place to meet. Gradually they began organizing all the eligible men in the 
community. Today the membership exceeds 120, and 95 per cent of all the work in 
die territory is done by members of the union. 

Late last year die union decided it was time to have a home of its own. A committee 
was set up to explore possibilities. After considerable investigation, the committee found 
a suitable building diat could be bought cheaper than a new one could be built. On 
February 26th of this year the deal for the building was closed, and a few days later 
the union moved in. For a union less than seven years old that is a record of which all 
members can be proud. 



LAWN BOWLING IS POPULAR HOME SPORT 

Of all the forms of recreation available to residents of the Home at Lakeland, lawn 
bowling seems to rate high in popularity. Somehow or other hands that used die hammer;, 




Pictured" herewith is an enthusiastic group of bowlers. Reading from left to 
right, they are: C. Mellott, Joe Koughan, Gus Strate, Frank Finn, Abe Vrogin- 
dewey, John Mitis, Joe Wagner, and Con Seize. 

saw and square for years seem to have a talent for handling a lawn bowling ball. Prac- 
tically every fine day teams of lawn bowlers can be found fighting it out on the spacious 
courts near the Home. 



LOCAL No. 1445 MEMBERS WINS ARMY COMMENDATION 

Local Union No. 1445, Topeka, Kansas, has received word from Fort Leonard Wood, 
Missouri, to the effect that one of its members, Private John R. Buelthel has been com- 
mended for his proficiency in engineering. Over the signature of Major Hugh M. School- 
field, commanding officer of die 68th Medium Tank Battalion of die 6th Armored Divi- 
sion, Brother Buelthel was handed the following citation: 

1. "As your Battalion Commander I wish to congratulate you for attaining the high- 
est score in your Company in the Engineer Proficiency Test given by diis Division. 



THE CARPENTER 



37 



2. This achievement reflects your intelligence, ambition, and devotion to duty with- 
out which such a success in military life would not have been possible. 

3. I am confident that the characteristics which have enabled you to attain this honor 
will stand you in good stead in future life." 




LOCAL 3100 PAVES WAY FOR CENTRAL RODY IN MUNISING 

On March 21st, a Central 
Labor Union was officially in- 
stalled at Munising, Mich. In- 
stallation of the Central Labor 
Union charter was the culmina- 
tion of a long campaign by 
officers and members of Local 
Union No. 3100 to have such 
a body established in Muni- 
sing to coordinate the efforts 
of all organized labor in the 
area. 

Last October, John Pater, 
president of Local No. 3100, 
and Charles Wilderspin, secre- 
tary, with the assistance of 
General Representative Howard 
Bennett— started the wheels 
rolling to get a central body 
established in Munising. To 
further the project, they sought 
and eventually received the co- 
operation of the other trades in 
die area. Together the various 
unions petitioned for a central 
body charter and in due time 
the charter was granted. On 
March 21st die charter was in- 
stalled with appropriate cere- 
monies. 

Without a central body to 
act as a clearing house for all 
labor activities in the commu- 
nity, the various unions in 
Munising have been working 
at a disadvantage. At various 
times there was talk of try- 
ing to establish such a body. 
However, until the officers of 
Local Union No. 3100 took 



Pictured above are labor leaders who succeeded in 
securing a Central Labor Union charter for Munising. 
From left to right, they are: (seated) Leon J. DeBroux, 
AFL Representative; Howard Bennett, General Rep- 
resentative; and Vern Stuht, Secretary-Treasurer of the 
newly-organized Munising Central Labor Union. 

(Standing) John Pater, President of the Central Labor 
Union and also President of Local Union No. 3100; 
John Romans, Sergeant-at-arms of the Central Union and 
a member of Local Union No. 625 of State, County and 
Municipal Employes Union; Charles J. Wilderspin, or- 
ganizer for the Central Labor Union and Secretary- 
Treasurer of Local Union No. 3100; R. J. "Pop" Dorow, 
Second Vice-President of the Michigan Federation of 
Labor, Business Agent of the Marquette Central Union 
and a 50-year member of the United Brotherhood; 
Leonard Methot, Central Union Trustee and a member 
of Local Union No. 96 of the Paper and Sulphide 
Workers Union; Ted Compton, Trustee of the Central 
Union and a member of State, County and Municipal 
Employes Union; Tony Louis, Trustee of the Central 
Union and a member of Local Union No. 96 of the 
Paper and Sulphide Workers Union. 

on the job, all plans remained in the "talk" stage. Widiin five months after die leaders 
of Local Union No. 3100 took over the job of establishing a central body in Munising 
a charter was hanging on die wall. 



CALIFORNIA COUNCIL HOLDS FINE MEET 

With one of the largest delegations in history on hand, the California State Council 
of Carpenters held its 1952 convention in Los Angeles during March 14, 15 and 16di. 
A full agenda of matters pertaining to the welfare of Brotherhood members in the state 
kept the delegates busy throughout the three-day session. Highlight of die meeting was 
the presence of General President M. A. Hutcheson who fortunately was able to be in 
Los Angeles to attend his First State Council convention since assuming die General 
Presidency. In a few well-chosen words he reviewed die growth of die membership from 
1,900 in 1881 to better than 800,000 at the present time. He also emphasized die need 
for an all-out political effort on the part of organized labor this year. 



38 



THE CARPENTER 



During the convention, Joseph Camhiano, State Council President, was elected for 
the 26th consecutive time. Brother Cambiano, a Brotherhood representative, was pre- 
sented with a handsome leather travelling bag bearing a suitably-inscribed silver plate 



Sarr J^quiis Coyjrhj District Council of Carpenter 



5 




Front Row, left to right: A. H. Fedler, Stockton; J. A. Sousa, Stockton; M. A. Hutche- 
son, General President; J. F. Cambiano, International Representative; Harry Grady, Secre- 
tary State Council; Floyd Carmichael, Stockton. 

Back Row: Frank Castiglione, Stockton; Estes Woods, Lodi; Robt. Stanbrough, Man- 
teca; Jack Dillashaw, San Andreas; Frank Harp, Tracy; Ernest Helm, Tracy; M. R. Marcus, 
Secretary, San Joaquin County D. C; Earl Thomas, Secretary Los Angeles, D. C. 

on the inside to commemorate his silver jubilee in office as Council president. The pres- 
entation was made during the annual banquet which has become a tradition with Council 
conventions. 

Stockton was chosen as the site of next year's convention. 



BOSTON UNION LABEL SHOW ALL SET 

All indications are that this year's Union Label Show will surpass any 
similar show yet held in both attendance and interest. Hundreds of exhibitors 
—among them the Boston District Council and the General Office of the United 
Brotherhood— have lined up a show that should please everyone. 

The Union Label Show in Boston will help provide a better understanding 
of the trade union objectives AFL President William Green declared. 

"The annual Union Industries Show sponsored by the Union Label Trades 
Department of the AFL," said Mr. Green, "fulfills a long-recognized need for 
better understanding of the objectives of the trade union movement, reflected 
in true collective bargaining between workers and employers and symbolized 
by the use of the Union Label, Shop Card, and Service Button. 

"The response of trade unionists and the public in general to the Union 
Industries Shows has been reflected in constantly spiraling attendance records 
and the number of participating exhibitors each year. 

"I strongly urge support for an attendance at the Union Industries Show to 
be held in Boston, Mass., beginning May 17 and continuing through May 24. 
It presents a unique undertaking in public relations work and an opportunity 
for all to gain firsthand knowledge of the actual work done by many trade 
unionists in producing the needs of every day life. 

"At the same time, the Union Industries Show provides an opportunity to 
gain a better appreciation of the varied benefits to be derived through better 
employer-employe relations. 

"Make attendance at the Boston '52 Union Industries Show a 'must' on your 
engagement calendar." 




L. A. 122 HOPE TO REACH 200 MEMBERS 

The Editor: 

Greetings to all Auxiliaries from Auxiliary No. 122 of Kansas City, Mo. 

We have a membership of one hundred and ninety-three and are striving to reach the 
two hundred mark. 

Our meetings are held on the first Monday evening and the Wednesday afternoon 
following the third Monday in the Carpenters' Hall with luncheon at noon. 

Our activities consist of card parties, sewing circle and quilting. Our latest achieve- 
ment was a parcel post sale which was very successful. We thank all the Auxiliaries as 
well as individual members who helped to make it so. 

We contribute to the Polio Fund, Red Cross, Shrine Circus and Boys' Town. We 
have a birthday luncheon in March of each year at a Hotel for all' members. We have 
a Christmas party each year. At the quarterly meetings of the Local, we serve cake and 
coffee to the men. Occasionally, the men have a dance and we help serve the refreshments. 

For our membership drive, we chose sides, blue and gold and the one who lost served 
and entertained the winning side. 

In July 1951, the Auxiliary sponsored a clothing, canned goods and cash drive for the 
flood victims— we helped about fifty families. 

We are affiliated with the M.F.W.A.L. As yet we do not have a State Council in 
Missouri, but hope to soon. 

Glad to hear from Sister Auxiliaries. 

Fraternally yours, 

Neva Mack, Recording Secretary 



AUXILIARY IN ITS 25th YEAR 

The Editor: 

Ladies' Auxiliary No. 195 of Burkley, Michigan, sends greetings to everyone and best 
of luck to the new Auxiliaries. 

We just passed our 24th Anniversary by having a potluck dinner and entertaining our 
husbands. Also, Mr. Leo Hoffman and Mr. Clarence Lumley, of Local 998, received their 
twenty-five year pins. Mrs. Hoffman surprised us with a huge cake for the occasion. 

We are receiving new members slow but sure. Our social evenings are growing larger 
and larger. 

We have started a fund of twenty-five dollars for a large American flag for the outside 
of the building of Local 998. 

At Christmas, we had a party and assisted the Local in tlieir party. 

We are so happy to see new Auxiliaries join our ranks and we would be very happy 
to hear from every Auxiliary in Michigan and wish the best for them. 

May God bless and keep you all. 

Fraternally, 

Mrs. Lloyd Thompson, President 



AMARILLO LADIES PLAN FOR STATE COUNCIL CONVENTION 

The Editor: 

Greetings to Sister Auxiliaries from Auxiliary No. 180 of Amarillo, Texas. 
Our Auxiliary was twenty-five years old on March 17, 1952, and in celebration of this 
. event, we had a fried chicken dinner for our members and tlieir families. A life-time 



40 THE CARPENTER 

membership and corsage was presented to our charter member, Mrs. Geo. T. Enoch, 
who has served the Auxiliary in many capacities during the past twenty-five years. A 
spelling bee was held after the dinner. 

Our main project for the past year has been helping a handicapped child who comes 
from a broken home. Recently, we voted to help the Negro Rescue Home here in Amarillo 
with a food shower and used clothing. 

We are making plans to entertain the Texas State Council of Carpenters' Ladies 
Auxiliaries at their annual convention to be held here in June. We are expecting a good 
representation from the various Auxiliaries from over the state. 

Our business meeting is held the first Thursday evening each month at Carpenters' 
Hall. We serve refreshments to the carpenters after the meetings are over. Our socials 
are held on the third Thursday of each month, usually in the home of some member. 

We would be happy to have any Auxiliary member visit us when she is in Amarillo. 
We would like to hear from the Auxiliaries in other cities. 

Fraternally yours, 

Mrs. W. W. Finch, Recording Secretary 



HOUSING STARTS RISE 27 PER CENT TO 98,000 IN MARCH 1952 

A total of 98,000 new permanent nonfarm dwelling units were started dur- 
ing March, up 27 per cent from February, according to preliminary estimates 
of the U. S. Labor Department's Bureau of Labor Statistics. The February- 
March rise was not as great as in most previous years on record, but, March 
1950 excepted, new housing volume during March 1952 was at a record high 
for that month. Included in the March 1952 estimate were 12,000 new publicly 
"owned units begun during the month. 

Preliminary reports to the Bureau indicated a pronounced rise in new hous- 
ing activity during March in the New England, Middle Atlantic, and East 
North Central regions, but evidence of. some decline in the Mountain and 
West South Central States. 

Private housing starts increased 16 per cent (11,800 units) from February 
to 86,000 new units in March, bringing the 1952 first-quarter total to almost 
225,000. This figure was 10 per cent lower than the volume for the first 
quarter of 1951, but if the level of private activity (on a seasonally adjusted 
basis) continues for the remaining three quarters of this year, 1952 will never- 
theless be another million-unit year for new private housing. 

A total of 18,100 new public units were put under construction during the 
first quarter of 1952, compared with 11,400 for the comparable 1951 quarter. 
During the 9 months July-March of the 1951-52 fiscal year, 28,100 new public- 
units were started in the United States. The majority of these (about 26,500) 
represent units begun under the 50,000-unit limit established by Congress (for 
the U. S. and possessions) for the fiscal year ending June 1952 for the Federal 
low-rent housing program. 

Final 1951 reports show a total of 1,091,300 new permanent nonfarm dwell- 
ing units started, compared with the Bureau's preliminary estimate of 1,- 
090,000, issued in January. Of the final total, 1,020,000 were privately owned 
units. One-family houses accounted for 87 per cent of private activity in 1951 
—a slightly larger proportion than in 1950. 



Craft ProblQms 




Carpentry 

By H. H. Siegele 
Lesson 284 

The First Thing— The home builder, if he 
doesn't already own one must first of all 
find a lot to build on, in a satisfactory 
locality. This part of the project should not 
be dealt with lightly; for, in a sense, every- 
thing depends on it. The ideal home is 
more than a house with modern conven- 
iences; there must be congenial neighbors, 
who are practical in their compatibilities. 
The whole enviroment must be free from 
disagreeable noises, unsanitary conditions, 
and unsightly spectacles. 

Contour of Lot— The contour of a lot is 
important, especially in cases where some or 
all of the persons concerned do not have 
a chance to visit the lot before a definite 
decision is made. For example, the owner 



100^ 




Fig. 1 

is moving to a rather distant locality, and 
he employs an agent to buy and build a 
house on it. The agent, who most likely 
would be the architect, will make contour 
drawings of the lot and submit them to the 
owner for his approval before the purchase 
is made. Fig. 1 is such a drawing. This 
shows that the lot is reasonably level, 50 
feet wide and 115 feet long. Each little 
square in this and the next drawing repre- 
sents a plot of ground 5 feet by 5 feet. In 
each of these two cases, point 100 is the 
highest point on the lot. At this point a 
stake has been driven flush with the ground. 
With the transit set at some convenient spot, 
the target is adjusted to start at the 100 
foot point. Then the target is set to 99' 
10", and with it the contour line is carried 
across the lot, as shown by the irregular 
line, from 99' 10" to 99' 10". Next the tar- 



get is adjusted to 99' 8", and with it a 
contour line is carried across the lot, as 
shown between 99' 8" to 99' 8". In the 
same way 99' 6" is carried across the lot, 
and so on, until the contour of the whole lot 
is shown on the drawing. For example, 
take the line between 99' 8" and 99' 8", 
where six points are shown by the X's. 



S80 Ravi NEs .98 98S 99 994 




Coktoi/r Lines 



Fig. 2 

These points are located with the target 
and by measurements. This is shown at 
point number 4. Here distance A locates 
the line on which the target is moved until 
it is on the right elevation. Then distance 
B is obtained by measurement. This done, 
the point is located on the drawing by 
means of the little squares, and marked, as 
shown. In this case X marks are used, but 
any convenient mark will do. In the same 
way all of the other points are located and 
marked on the drawing. After these points 
are all shown, draw the contour line through 
them, as shown by the line 99' 8" to 99' 8". 



< Ji r (--\J~NV. <(>7- 




y c-C (Old Cellar 

"; *y (—Brush Patch ^- — > 
^-^ Cistern-^/® 



Old Foundation Wall 




Old Well . 
I^C-Tbee— ^ _ 



"~l® 



n£) 



Fig. 3 

When the lot is reasonably level, the con- 
tour lines can be placed farther apart— also 
the points for locating the lines can be 
farther apart. But is should be remem- 
bered, that the closer together the marks 
are, the more accurate will be the results, 
which is equally true in case of the contour 



42 



THE CARPENTER 



lines. When the lot is rough, or has a ravine 
running through it, as shown in Fig. 2, 
then it is advisable to make contour draw- 
ings as accurate as possible, in order to show 
how much fillins;-in has to be done. Some 



Old Lots— Fig. 3 is a drawing of a lot that 
has previously been used as a building lot. 
Here instead of contour lines, the general 
condition of the lot is indicated on the 
drawing. Old cellars, wells, cisterns, founda- 




YZZZZMZZMziZi 



I H I II * .11 

•*3-5^*p3-i-*4< n-4 



hi ii > " > " ' > 



Fig. 4 



means would have to be provided so the wa- 
ter would not pool on the lot to the north, if 
no satisfactory agreement could be reached 
with the owner of that lot. Such matters 
often involve enough expense, etc., to justify 
looking for a lot in some other locality. The 
contour lines shown in Fig. 2 are located in 
the same way as explained in Fig. 1. 

FILE SAWS THE RIGHT WAY 

SUPER FILER No. 9 



tions, trees, etc., should be indicated on such 
drawings, giving the relative position that 
they hold on the lot. If necessary, the con- 





so EAST: With this new filing jig and 
jointer anyone can now sharpen any hand- 
saw like new! When file hits hardened 
steel rollers teeth are finished and EX- 
ACTLY THE SAME HEIGHT. All teeth 
cut and saw runs true and smooth. Jig 
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SUPER 99 SQUARE GAGE (STAIR GAGE) 

Clamps on framing square, making a pre- 
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building, roof framing and other bevel cuts. 
Packed one pair to a carton. 

Only $1.25 per Pair Postpaid. 

A. D. McBURNEY 

317 E. 4th St., Dept. C-17 
LOS ANGELES 14, CALIFORNIA 




_ . J _ I _2 1 

-« 15 -i — — >J 4 



w 



w*. 



t\ 




Lgl^-v-BftTTCn B0fl«DS^T\ 



Fig. 5 

tour of the lot should also be given on the 
same or some other drawing. 

House Plan— Fig. 4 shows a plan of a 
house with two bed rooms, a bath room, 
utility room, kitchen, and living room. Each 



THE CARPENTER 



43 



of the two bed rooms has a small closet. 
The walls of this house are to be built of 
concrete blocks. Outside measurements are 
23' 6" by 30' 10". Details and other parts 
of tliis house will be shown as we proceed. 

Squaring with Transit— Fig. 5 shows how 
to square a building with a transit. First 
locate the center of the building on the lot, 
and set the transit in such a position, that 
the center will be directly over the build- 
ing center. Now establish the long center 
line, making it parallel with the lot line, 

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CUTS FASTER, CLEANER 
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MANUFACTURERS OF PRECISION CUTTING TOOLS 



78" LEVEL only $13" 

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as from A to B. Set a batter board at each 
end of this line with a saw kerf to hold the 
line. Swing the transit around to estab- 
lish the cross line, as from C to D. Place a 
batter board at each end, and cut a saw 
kerf, as in the other case. With lines 
stretched from A to B, and from C to D, the 



Footing 




Wall" 



Fig. 6 



other lines can be established by measure- 
ments. For instance, set lines 1-2 and 3-4 
parallel with and 11' 9" from line A-B. In 
the same manner, set lines 5-6 and 7-8 
parallel with and 15' 5" from line C-D. 

Batter Boards— Fig. 6 gives two batter 
boards, showing the saw kerfs for the foot- 



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44 



THE CARPENTER 



ings and also for the walls. The excavated 
trench for the footings and the walls is 
shown in part. The lines in this drawing 
are set for the footings. Fig. 7 shows the 
same corner and hatter boards, with the 
lines set for both the footings and the walls. 
Study and compare the two drawings. You 
will discover that the footing lines are used 
to establish the width of the trenches. Fig. 
8 shows a batter board, a part of the main 
trench, and the lines set for the footing of 
an underground column, and also for the 



column itself. Footings for such columns 
are called spot footings. The irregular 



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Fig. 7 



shaded streak between the trench excava- 
tion and the excavation for the spot foot- 




FOOTIHO 



Fig. 8 



ing, indicates part of the drawing cut out, to 
bring the two excavations closer together. 



Hitting Holes 

A solution to the problem of hitting holes 

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other side, is given here. In this case a 

handle for a door is used to illustrate the 



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problem, but there are many other ways that 
the problem presents itself to carpenters. 

Fig. 1, to the left, shows a door handle 
in its proper location against the side of a 
door. This handle is to be fastened by driv- 
ing the nails from the other side, clipping off 
the points and rivet-clinching them in order 




ftrafle 



Fig. 1 

to hold the handle. To the right is shown 
the first operation. Here the nails are driven 
through the door, as if the handle were to 
be nailed to the door, but that is not the 
case. After the four nails have been driven 
through the door in this manner, and hold 
the handle in place, they are pulled out one 
by one and driven through the same holes 
from the other side, somewhat as shown by 
Fig. 2, bottom right. In this figure the upper 





part of the handle is shown riveted to the 
door, by clipping the points of the nails 
off, and giving them a rivet clinch, as shown. 
At the bottom the nail is shown partly 
driven through the door for the riveting. 
Nails made of soft metal, such as copper 
nails, give excellent results. 



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NOTICE 

The publishers of "The Carpenter" reserve the 
right to reject all advertising matter which may 
be, in their Judgment, unfair or objectionable to 
the membership of the United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America. 

All Contracts for advertising space in The Car- 
penter. " Including those stipulated as non-can- 
cellable, are only accepted subject to the above 
reserved rights of the publishers. 



Index of Advertise 


:rs 

ssories 
Page 

4 
46 

48 

43 

-3rd Cover 

-4th Cover 

47 
46 

47 
4 

42 

44 

4 
47 
44 
44 
43 

48 

1 
3rd Covei 

43 

45 
4th Cover 
1 

ooks 

47 

3rd Cover 

3 
48 
43 




Carpenters' Tools and Acce 

The American Floor Surfacing 
Machine Co., Toledo, Ohio 

Burr Mfg. Co., Los Angeles, Cal. 

Cedarberg Mfg. Co., Minneapolis, 
Minn. 




Robert H. Clark Co., Beverly 
Hills, Calif. 




Eliason Tool Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 
E-Z Mark Tools, Los Angeles 

Calif. 




Foley Mfg. Co., Minneapolis, 




Greenlee Tool Co., Rockford, IU._ 
The Lufkin Rule Co., Saginaw, 




R. Mayes & Son, Detroit, Mich._ 
A. D. McBurney, Los Angeles, 
Calif. 




Mechanical Measuring Device, 

Washington, D. C. 
Millers Falls Co., Greenfield, 




The Paine Co., Addison, 111. 

Pioneer Mfg. Co., Bakersfield Cal. 

J. H. Scharf Co., Omaha, Neb. 

Simplex Level Co., Detroit, Mich. 
Speedy Hinge Spacer, Fort 

Worth, Texas 
Stanley Tools, New Britain, 

Universal Saw Guide, San Fran- 




Carpentry Materials 

E. L. Bruce Co., Memphis, Tenn. 
Franklin Glue Co., Columbus, 
Ohio 




National Gypsum Co., Buffalo, 
N. Y. _ 




Technical Courses and B 

American Technical Society, Chi- 




Audel Publishers, New York, 

N. Y. - 
Chicago Technical College, Chi- 




\ A. Riechers, Palo Alto, Calif. 

H. H. Siegele, Emporia, Kans 





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9 BIG COMPLETE BOOKS 

BUILDING, ESTIMATING, CONTRACTING 



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SPEEDY HINGE SPACER 

Pat. Pending 

CHARLES H. GRAFF— Inventor 

Hinges spaced quickly and accurately. Er- 
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If Jambs are accurately set all doors of equal 
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<***« DANDEE REELS 





No. 41 



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No. 41 Reel and Plumb Bob. Use this new toe 
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No. 44 Chalk Line Reel. 50 
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No. 44 



IEr 
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Official Publication of the United Brotherhood 
of Carpenters and Joiners of America 

JUNE, 19 52 





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A Monthly Journal, Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners 

of America, for all its Members of all its Branches. 

PETER E. TERZICK, Editor 

Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis 4, Indiana 



Established in 1881 
Vol. LXXII — No. 6 



INDIANAPOLIS, JUNE, 1952 



One Doll'T Per Year 
Ten Cents a Copy 



Con tents — 



Fine Servant— Poor Master 



For eight out of the last 10 years the government has controlled credit. Under 
government controls it has been difficult for people to get beyond their depth finan- 
cially. Nor that controls have been lifted, the high-pressure salesmen will be beat- 
ing the bushes again, and people who are not wary find themselves in trouble. 
Credit is a fine servant if used wisely, but when abused it can become a terrible 
master. 



Many Honor "The Chief" 



Some 600 union members from all over the nation gather together in the Grand 
Ballroom of the Columbia Club in Indianapolis on May 3rd to pay tribute to one of 
the greatest labor leaders of all time— General President Emeritus William L. Hutch- 
eson. 



You Must Vote In 1952 



14 



With the defense program slated to reach its goal next year, what is in store 
for the nation in 1954? Things can be either good or bad. Much will depend on the 
kind of men we send to Washington in November of this year. With the right 
kind of men sitting in Congress and the White House, recession or depression need 
not bother us in 1954. So, in the final analysis, what we do in November will tell 
the story. ' 



Boston Sees Great Show 



18 



Year by year the Labor Industries Show grows better and better. This year's 
show at Boston undoubtedly topped them all. And the display entered jointly by 
the General Office and the Boston District Council was among the most interesting 
and educational in the show. 

21 

Only a hundred years ago nails were so valuable they were often passed on 
from father to son by being listed in wills with real estate and other assets. Only 
with the coming of wire nails and nail-making machines did nails become the com- 
mon commodity we know today. 



Curious Facts About Nails 



* * * 



OTHER DEPARTMENTS 
Plane Gossip 
Editorials 
The Locker 
Official 

In Memoriam 
Correspondence 
Craft Problems 



Index to Advertisers 



* * * 



12 
24 
30 
32 
33 
34 
39 

46 



Entered July 22, 1915. at INDIANAPOLIS, IND„ as second class mail matter, under Act of 

Congress. Aug. 24, 1912. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for 

in Section 1103, act of October o, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918. 



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* * 

LAST MONTH Regulation W was lifted. This regulation was established 
as a means of holding down buying— particularly in heavy goods such 
as washing machines, refrigerators, automobiles, etc. What it did was 
impose definite restrictions on credit. A merchant had to get a substantial 
down payment on any item he sold and the balance could be carried for a 
limited time only. As a weapon against inflation, Regulation W probably 
worked as effectively as anything yet devised. In all its aspects it may not 
have been entirely fair to working families, but it did prevent people from 
throwing all their credit resources as well as their cash into the scramble for 
goods that were scarce. 

Now the regulation has been lifted. Merchants are once more free to sell 
goods on any terms they may see fit. And the burden of buying wisely has 
once more been passed back to the customer. 

It seems a little ironical that Regu- 



lation W should be lifted but that 
; price and wage controls should be 
continued. There is only one reason 
why Regulation W was lifted, and 
that is because demand has not been 
able to keep up with supply. Goods 
have been piling up in the ware- 
houses because people have not been 
able financially to buy the goods fast 
enough at the prices that are being 
charged today. Hence business was 
rapidly stagnating. To counteract the 
situation, Regulation W was lifted so 
that the full credit resources of the 
people could be tapped by the mer- 
chants. 

Now it seems a little silly that price 
ceilings should remain on items that 
have been freed from credit controls 
because demand is not equal to sup- 
ply, but that is the way it is. There is 
only one really effective brake on 
prices— and that is competition. When 
supplies exceed demand, competition 
sees to it that prices are kept in line. 
Apparently the days of competition 
are back. There are more goods of 



practically all kinds than there are 
customers. To get more customers, all 
credit restrictions are tossed to the 
winds. Still price and wage controls 
are kept in effect. 

What we suspect is that business 
insists on price and wage controls be- 
ing kept in effect. In the first place, 
price ceilings are meaningless in a 
situation where goods are more plen- 
tiful than buyers. But ceilings do give 
the illusion of scarcity. A price ceil- 
ing of $300 on a refrigerator for 
which the manufacturer can only get 
$250 means nothing. The price ceil- 
ing costs the manufacturer nothing 
and on the other hand it gives him a 
strong selling point. So why not keep 
the ceiling? 

But even more important, business 
knows that wage controls really do 
control wages. To the above manu- 
facturer the $300 ceiling price is a 
farce if he can sell his product for 
$250 and still make a decent profit. 
On the other hand, he knows that the 
wage controls will really keep the 



THE CARPENTER 



wages of his workers in line. Wage 
controls are no farce. The formula 
for setting wages is fixed and specific. 
So we suspect that business is willing 
to trade meaningless price controls 
for rigid wage controls. Both ways 
they win. 

Regardless of how and why Regu- 
lation W was lifted, the fact remains 
that all credit restrictions are now off. 
And it behooves every wage earner 
to do a little pondering on the matter. 
The super-salesmen have been given 
the green light again. They will once 
more be putting on the heat and the 
family that is not wary may find itself 
in financial trouble eventually. 

Fundamentally there is nothing 
wrong with installment buying. As a 
matter of fact it has been a great 
boon to the average wage earner. 
Without installment buying, few car- 
penters or butchers or railroad men 
would have been able to buy cars or 
refrigerators or even houses. But be- 
cause they have been able to use their 
credit wisely, many wage earners 
have elevated their standard of living 
to the point where they are the envy 
of the world. 

Lately, however, the super-sales- 
man and the nothing-down and three 
year-to-pay school of merchandising 
has developed. Instead of being a 
boon this kind of selling can lead fam- 
ilies into bankruptcy. Now that all 
credit restrictions have been dropped, 
the super-salesman will be running 
hog-wild again. It will pay all work- 
ing families to be on their guard. 

For eight of the last 10 years credit 
restrictions have been in effect in this 
country. These restrictions have acted 
as a natural brake on the credit com- 
mitments most people could make. 
Before they could buy they had to 
have at least a third down, and the 
balance they had to pay off in a year 



and a half or less. Under the circum- 
stances, it has been relatively difficult 
for people to over-extend themselves 
financially. After eight or 10 years of 
this sort of babying, there may be a 
danger that some people have grown 
sloppy in the management of their 
credit possibilities. It is an easy thing 
to do— particularly in view of the fact 
that for almost 10 years credit restric-. 
tions have done our thinking for us. 
Now that the super-salesmen will be 
beating the bushes right and left, it 
will pay every member to be doubly 
careful. 

Installment financing, like eating, is 
not a bad thing if it is indulged in 
with some degree of wisdom. Most 
young couples just starting out to 
establish a home and a family have to 
rely heavily on credit financing. If 
they buy wisely and keep their pay- 
ments within a safe margin of their 
ability to pay they usually acquire the 
things they need with a minimum of 
hardship. Furthermore, they get to 
enjoy the things they need while they 
are paying for them. But the woods 
are now full of sharpies who are out 
to make a buck regardless. They have 
no scruples about loading down peo- 
ple with all the junk they possibly 
can. While they are selling they are 
bland as butter and as polite as Lord 
Chesterfield, but when they are col- 
lecting and the payment is a day late 
they can be meaner than old Scrooge. 
Now that all credit restrictions are off 
they will be having a field day. 

Buy what you need and what you 
can afford. Credit is a great servant 
but a terrible master. Use him as a 
servant and he can make your life 
happier and more satisfactory, but let; 
him become your master and he will, 
hound you to a premature grave and 
continue hounding your survivors 
even unto the third and fourth gen- 
eration. 



1 



Many Honor "The Chief" 

* * * 

""^HE Grand Ballroom of the Columbia Club in Indianapolis, Indiana, 
has been the scene of many memorable parties in its time. Here, the 
rich, the famous, and the near-famous from all parts of the world have 
been entertained and feted at one time or another. Here, Presidents, Ambass- 
adors and Cabinet Members have broken bread together and formulated 

policies affecting the entire world. 

But it is doubtful if the memory- The occasion was a testimonial din- 

filled walls ever witnessed a happier ner tendered to William L. Hutche- 
event than the one held on Saturday son, General President Emeritus of 






■ 

wSmM 




Photo — courtesy Indianapolis Star 

Nearly 250 years of outstanding: labor leadership are represented in the above photo- 
graph as four old-time stalwarts join hands with General President M. A. Hutcheson 
just prior to the start of the William L. Hutcheson Testimonial Dinner. From left to 
right, they are: William Green, AFL president; John L. Lewis, president of the Miners; 
William L. Hutcheson, General President Emeritus; Maurice A. Hutcheson, General 
President; and Dan Tobin, Teamsters president. 



night, May 3rd, when some 600 union 
men gathered together there to pay 
tribute to one of the grand old men 
of the labor movement. They came 
from all 48 States and 10 Canadian 
Provinces, and even the Territory of 
Alaska. And they came for one pur- 
pose. 



the United Brotherhood of Carpen- 
ters and Joiners of America, who, 
after nearly 37 years of outstanding 
service in that capacity, voluntarily 
bowed out of the presidency of the 
United Brotherhood on January 1, 
1952, to assume the post of General 
President Emeritus in accordance 



THE CARPENTER 



with the provisions of a resolution 
unanimously adopted by the Twenty- 
sixth General Convention empower- 
ing him to do so whenever he deemed 
the time proper. 

Few events have gathered together 
under one roof a more distinguished 
roster of guests than did this testimon- 
ial to William L. Hutcheson. Con- 
ceived by the United Brotherhood as 
a means of expressing to Brother 
Hutcheson the esteem and respect 
with which he is held by the member- 
ship of the organization he helped so 
much to build, the affair nevertheless 
attracted a host of prominent labor 
leaders from many unions and many 
crafts. 

William Green, President of the 
American Federation of Labor, was 
there to pay his respects to an old 
colleague. So was AFL Secretary 
George Meany. Both Richard J. Gray, 
President of the Building Trades De- 
partment, and Joseph Keenan, Secre- 
tary, were there for the same purpose. 
Fourteen presidents of Internationl 
Unions either came themselves or sent 
personal representatives to convey 
their respects to Mr. Hutcheson. 

But the vast majority of guests in 
attendance was composed of Carpen- 
ters who came from far and near to 
pay tribute to "The Chief" who led 
them through good times and bad for 
37 years down a straight and unswerv- 
ing road of sound trade unionism. 

When General Secretary Emeritus 
Frank Duffy, who served the United 
Brotherhood for 47 years as General 
Secretary, finished recounting the 
many contributions Brother Hutche- 
son made down the years to the ad- 
vancement of the trade of carpentry, 
the applause was close to deafening. 

Daniel J. Tobin, President of the 
Teamsters, in a short address, recalled 
the many times William L. Hutche- 
son stood four-square against attempts 
to subvert the sound principles upon 



which organized labor in America 
was founded. "I consider William L. 
Hutcheson one of the foremost labor 
leaders of all time", he said. "He rep- 
resents the best there is in the labor 
movement and it makes me feel 
lonely to know he is laying down his 
buckler and sword. But it makes me 
happy to know that the leadership of 
the United Brotherhood has passed 
into worthy hands. I know Maurice 
Hutcheson and I have the highest 
regard for his ability. It will be a 
pleasure to work with him." 

William Green, AFL President, 
also lauded Brother Hutcheson as "a 
great representative of labor, a great 
American, and a great man". He re- 
called the many occasions upon which 
Brother Hutcheson defied the forces 
which were seeking to reduce Amer- 
ican working men to some sort of 
glorified peonage, and he urged that 
the deeds of Brother Hutcheson be 
used as an inspiration to continue the 
fight against all things and all people 
bent on undermining the freedom of 
American labor. 

Dick Gray, President of the Build- 
ing Trades Department, touched on 
many problems that have confronted 
the Building Trades in years past and 
the part that Brother Hutcheson 
played in solving these problems. 

Charles Tuttle, New York, Chief 
Counsel of the United Brotherhood, 
verbally doffed his hat to the achieve- 
ments of William L. Hutcheson as 
General President. He told of the 
time when Thurmond Arnold was pre- 
pared to put a leach on all organized 
labor through anti-trust prosecutions. 
He recalled that Brother Hutcheson 
met with Arnold in Washington and 
when the Justice Department asked 
him to sign a constant decree, Brother 
Hutcheson put on his hat and walked 
out. Seven times Arnold tried to put 
a noose around the neck of the 
United Brotherhood and seven times 






■Sm 




10 



THE CARPENTER 



William L. Hutcheson fought him in 
the courts. Each time Brother Hutche- 
son won, and as a result, organized 
labor was spared from dictation by 
the Justice Department. 

The last speaker was John L. Lewis, 
President of the United Mine Work- 
ers, a man who has fought side by 
side with Brother Hutcheson for 
nearly half a century. President Lewis 
touched on the many times he called 
on Brother Hutcheson for help down 
the years. "Not once did I call in 
vain", he said. 

Lewis eloquently outlined the need 
for greater unity in organized labor. 
"That unity", he said, "can never be 
achieved by dealing out the Miners. 
If we do not achieve it, this growing 
encroachment of government controls 
will lead us to disaster". He closed 
his remarks by congratulating the 
United Brotherhood on having a man 
of the caliber of Maurice A. Hutche- 
son to carry on the great traditions 
and policies laid down by William L. 
Hutcheson. 

Choked with emotion, William L. 
Hutcheson made a brief but touching 
response. He thanked everyone for 
the many kindnessess shown him and 



pledged himself to continue working 
to the very end for the elevation and 
advancement of the working man's 
interests. 

General President Maurice A. 
Hutcheson acted as toastmaster. Dur- 
ing the evening President Emeritus 
Hutcheson was presented with a 
suitably-inscribed, solid platinum 
watch as a token of the esteem in 
which he is held by the members of 
the United Brotherhood. An African 
Rosewood bust which the sculptor 
was unable to finish in time is also 
being presented to Brother Hutch- 
eson. Both were the gifts of the Gen- 
eral Officers and General Represent- 
atives who are in a better position 
than anyone else to appreciate the 
quality of the leadership displayed by 
Brother Hutcheson down the last 37 
years. 

A further tribute was paid to Gen- 
eral President Emeritus Hutcheson by 
Local Union No. 334 of Saginaw, 
Mich., which conferred on him a life 
membership. Al Maier, president of 
Local 334, presented to Brother 
Hutcheson a hand-embossed scroll 
bearing the following resolution: 



"Jlttitei* y&rattievtiaob oi (&avpenlex& anb ^oincvB al .America 
Local Union No. 334 

Saginaw, Michigan 

WHEREAS, William L. Hutcheson, a member of this Local Union, has devoted half a 
century of valiant service to the cause of organized labor, and 

WHEREAS, From October, 1915, until his voluntary retirement on January 1, 1952 he 
served as General President of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America with distinction to both himself and the organization, and 

WHEREAS, During his stewardship the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of 
America has been built into a mighty force for the advancement of the trade 
of carpentry in all its branches and the welfare of those who earn their daily 
bread therein, and 

WHEREAS, By his determination and courage William L. Hutcheson has on many oc- 
casions beaten back the assaults of those who sought to destroy not only the 
United Brotherhood but all organized labor as well, and 



THE CARPENTER 11 

WHEREAS, The name of William L. Hutcheson has become known all over the world 
where men revere freedom, integrity, and devotion to principle, and 

WHEREAS, In his capacity as General President Emeritus, his wisdom, experience and 
counsel are constantly being called upon to further the interests of the United 
Brotherhood, now therefore be it 

-RESOLVED, That this meeting of Local Union No. 334 of the United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America, held in Saginaw, Michigan, this 18th 
day of March, 1952, by unanimous action, make Brother William L. Hutche- 
son a life Member of this Local Union, and be it further 

RESOLVED, That this memorial be presented to General President Emeritus Hutcheson, 
one of the truly great labor leaders of all time, as a courtesy and a mark 
of the high esteem in which he is held by the officers and members of this 
Local Union. 



Dirt Farmers Turning To Unions 

Over 3,500 farmers, comprising all of the fruit and vegetable growers in 
this southeastern Louisiana area, have organized a union affiliated with the 
AFL National Farm Labor Union and are pioneering in an experiment that 
may result in wedding the family-type farmer to the industrial worker and 
halting the trend to large-scale, corporate farming. 

Through the work of their organization— Local 312 of the Louisiana Fruit 
and Vegetable Producers Union— farmers in this section are receiving a fair 
share of the profits from their products that are sold on the markets. 

Before organizing, the small farmers were going broke, the middlemen 
were getting rich and the consumer was paying high prices at the grocery 
store. Many family farmers were driven out of business, the number dropping 
from 10,000 to 3,500 in the last seven years. 

Following a few unsuccessful attempts by small farmers to organize and 
head off bankruptcy, certain farmers who had been trade union members 
took the reins and established the union despite bitter opposition from 
produce buyers. 

They received help from the Louisiana State Federation of Labor, the 
AFL Southern organizing staff, and the National Farm Labor Union. 

The union meets the needs of the farmers here by doing three things: 
Selling produce cooperatively; buying cooperatively, and financing cooper- 
atively through a credit union. 

Utilizing trade union methods and techniques, a solid marketing organiza- 
tion was created. 

The union has anchored itself firmly by securing written agreement with 
every handler of fresh produce in the area. Agreements with all the canneries 
provide that these companies buy produce only from union members. 

The small farmers, seeing the benefits of union organization, are making 
plans to organize other family-farm operators in other Southern states. Plans 
also are being laid to make all the rural parishes (counties) in Louisiana 100 
per cent union. 

The union is cooperating with Labor's League for Political Education. 
Secretary-Treasurer George Forstall said the members realize the champions 
of all- the plain people, whether they earn a living off the land or in stores and 
shops. 





Q55IP 



FIRST THINGS FIRST 

All credit curbs have been lifted. It is now 
possible to buy any kind of a gadget at any 
terms the seller can be induced to give. 
"Nothing down and three years to pay" will 
once again become the battle cry of mer- 
chants. 

Credit buying is a fine thing for working 
people. It enables them to enjoy a lot of 
luxuries they could not afford otherwise. 
But easy credit can become the ruination of 
lots of people, too. Before you buy any- 
thing, be sure you need it, and be even 
more sure the payments will not strap you 
for years to come. In this connection, it 
might be appropriate to tell about PFC 
Johnson. 

The sergeant was quizzing a bunch of 
rookies. "Johnson," he yelled, "what's the 
first thing you do in cleaning a rifle?" 

"Look at the number," the private an- 
swered promptly. 

"Now what in blazes has that got to do 
with anything?" the sergeant demanded. 

"Just to make sure I am cleaning my own 
gun," Johnson answered. 

So when you are buying something on 
time, be like Johnson. Make sure you can 
afford it. 




"And just which store regulation 
says I can't wear a print dress to 
work?" 



MUCH BETTER 

This month the political sound and fury 
will reach their climax as both parties run 
off their national conventions. All over the 
land political hopefuls have been beating 
the bushes looking for support. Over the 
airways and in the newspapers the political 
sauerkraut has been assailing our ears and 
eyes in a never ending stream. 

To our way of thinking, the sad part of 
the whole thing is that somehow or other 
the Taft-Hartley Law has been lost in the 
shuffle as a political issue. Instead of candi- 
dates being compelled to take a stand for or 
against repeal of the notorious law, every- 
one is dodging the issue; all that is, except 
one anti-labor Congressman from New York. 
This forthright gentleman— running in a 
blue-stocking district— recently said: "I 
would as soon resign my seat in Congress 
as vote for any change in the Taft-Hartley 
Law." 

We can best express our reaction to that 
remark by telling the one about the sweet 
young thing from Texas that was visiting 
in Boston. One night she had a date with 
the scion of one of Boston's oldest fam- 
ilies. When the young man arrived she was 
ready and waiting. The only thing was that 
she had not as yet put on her gloves. 

As they walked down the street she pro- 
ceeded to draw on her gloves, much to the 
horror of her escort. 

"Why, Miss Bentley," he exclaimed, "in 
Boston young men would as soon see a 
young lady put on her stockings in public 
as draw on her gloves." 

The Texas miss gave him a cool stare. 
"Listen, Bub," she finally said, "in Texas 
the young men would a dang sight rather." 

• * • 

ADVICE FROM JOE 

Last month the occupant of a certain 
white house in Washington, D. C, got 
messed up again at a press conference by 
choosing the wrong word. For days later 
secretaries were trying to iron out the mess. 
All of this was not lost on Joe Paup, the 
poor people's philosopher. 

"The best way to save face," Joe in- 
formed the palpitating world, "is to keep the 
lower half of it closed." 



THE CARPENTER 



13 



HERE IS A BARGAIN 

An advertisement in a New York paper 
last month offered for sale a manufacturing 
plant which went busted. However, the ad 
made it clear that someone with money 
could do all right with the plant not as 
an operating business but as a tax loop- 
hole. The ad explained that anyone inter- 
ested in obtaining a million dollar tax loop- 
hole could buv the plant and then resell 
the fixtures and equipment and thereby 
establish a million dollar "loss" for tax pur- 
poses. 

Just thought we ought to mention this in 
case some carpenters might be interested in 
knocking a million or so off his income tax 
obligation. 

• * • 

PERPETUAL CUSTOMERS 

Reading between the lines in certain 
financial papers, it seems logical to assume 
that another major anti-union drive is on 
its way. Periodically the heads of certain 
business associations seem to think it wise 
to raise huge war chests to put on nation- 
wide drives against organized labor. Elec- 
tion years are usually their meat. 

If it still has to come, let it come. Some- 
how or other we feel about like the registrar 
in an old one about a movie actor. 

This particular film hero was married and 
divorced five times in three years. Before 
the ink on his last divorce was completely 
dry he appeared before the registrar with 
bride No. 6. 

The registrar married the couple and 
when the ceremony was over the actor 
reached for his wallet. But the registrar 
waived aside the money he offered. 

"Not this time," he said. "This one is 
on the house." 

* • • 

DOG GONE 

Where do old, worn-out fire plugs go? 
Why to the dog kennel, of course. 

At least, that is where they go in Tor- 
onto. The humane society there has taken 
over the cities used hydrants and installed 
them— minus any water— in die outdoor dog 
kennels. 

An official said die plugs are designed to 
calm die dogs' nerves which may be upset 
by the unfamiliar journey to the kennels. 
Besides, it must give the canines a nice 
homey feeling. 



LOOK WHO'S TALKING 

For years organized labor has been criti- 
cized right and left for allowing jurisdic- 
tional disputes to exist. Among those who 
have been loudest in their condemnation 
are a number of bar associations composed 
of lawyers in specific districts. Now look 
what is happening. 

In Arkansas, lawyers are suing several 
banks to prevent them from executing cer- 
tain documents connected with settling es- 
tates and administering trust funds. If that 
ain't a jurisdictional dispute, Topeka ain't in 
Kansas. Personally we view the situation 
about like Aunt Cassie. 

A home economist from a nearby uni- 
versity was giving a cooking lesson to a 
group of farm women. 

"Take an egg," she explained, "and care- 
fully perforate the basal end. Duplicate the 
process on the apex. Then, applying the lips 
to one of the apertures, by forcibly exhal- 
ing the breath, discharge the shell of its 
contents." 

Eighty-year-old Aunt Cassie turned to a 
neighbor. "Beats all how different these new- 
fangled ways is," she whispered. "When 
I was a gal we just poked a hole in each 
end and Slowed. " 

The lawyers may talk like the home econ- 
omist and the business agents may talk 
like Aunt Cassie but a squabble about the 
work adds up to die same thing— a juris- 
dictional dispute. 




123 



©1951 &RL "SrAMWlTZ. 



"I'll admit you have a critical voice 
on your union's policies; but they 
don't hold their meetings in here!" 



14 



To insure having a job in 1955 




You Must VOTE In 1952 

* * * 

HEN THE current defense program was first put into operation, 
December 31, 1954 was set as the deadline for having the nation 
adequately mobilized. All indications are that the goal will be pretty 
well met. By the end of 1954 the mobilization base will have been built. 
Thereafter outlays of money for defense purposes can be expected to drop 
substantially. 

While it is good news to know that the nation will be prepared to take 
care of any emergency by the end of 1954, completion of the defense programs 
will usher in many other serious problems. For the past few years our entire 
economy has been geared to rearming the nation as rapidly as possible. Huge 
outlays of money have been allocated to building up our armed strength. This 
money has come out of the pay envelopes of Americans in the form of back- 
breaking taxes. 

With the defense program com- 
pleted, taxes should drop. But the 
impact of big spending for arms will 
be gone. The millions of men and 
women who are now grinding out 
tanks, planes and guns will have com- 
pleted their jobs. Unless the civilian 
economy is able to absorb them and 
put them to work making toasters, 
washing machines, etc., joblessness 
may again haunt working people. The 
situation is one that merits consider- 
able real thought. 

Will there be joblessness and a de- 
pression? It all depends on what we 
do right now. This fall we are going 
to elect a new Congress and a new 
President. If we send the right kind 
of men to Washington, there need 
be no serious or damaging depression. 
On the other hand, if we, the work- 
ing people of the nation, allow this 
year's election to go by default again 
as we did several times in the past, 
the penalty may be heavy. 

From best estimates available, gov- 
ernment defense expenditures will 
drop by about 20 billion dollars after 



the defense program is completed. 
Further it is estimated that spending 
by private industry for expansion will 
drop by. about seyen billion dollars 
after the arms buildup has reached 
satisfactory proportions. Added to- 
gether, these two factors could make 
1955 a poor year, if we allow it to., 
But there is no logical reason why 
we should allow it to be. 

The past quarter century has made 
it clear that depressions are man- 
made. Because they are man-made 
they are not inevitable. We have the 
brains and the will to prevent another 
disaster such as plagued us in the 
early thirties. 

Nineteen hundred fifty-five need 
not be another 1929 if in 1952 we 
send to Washington men of vision 
and courage, men who have the wel- 
fare of all the people at heart instead 
of the welfare of the privileged few. 
Based on a study made by Twentieth 
Century Fund, here are a few sugges- 
tions that can be followed for making 
the transition from a defense econ- 



THE CARPENTER 



15 



omy to a peacetime economy with a 
minimum of dislocation: 

1. Tax Reduction— We have willingly 
paid tremendously high taxes to pro- 
vide the costs of defense on a "pay as 
we go basis" to prevent runaway infla- 
tion and the pile-up of our national 
debt. When these conditions no longer 
prevail taxes should be reduced to 
provide a source of additional pur- 
chasing power to help sustain the 
demand for goods and services. 

Just what kind of tax reduction 
should we have when the appropriate 
time comes? To answer this requires 
certain assumptions respecting the 
general conditions that may prevail 
when the tax laws are to be changed. 
Our reading of these prospective con- 
ditions leads to these conclusions: 

(a) We are unlikely to experience 
a private investment boom with its 
highly inflationary tendencies, such 
as prevailed after World War II. (b) 
Consumer demand, particularly for 
durable goods will be deficient, (c) 
Government expenditures will still 
provide for a substantial $40-45 bil- 
lion defense business with its accom- 
panying large profits for many busi- 
nesses. 

We believe that given the condi- 
tions likely to prevail, the first tax 
cuts should come in the levies on the 
masses of people in the $5,000 and 
under income group. For here is 
located the largest bloc of potential 
purchasers whose lack of income is 
the only deterrent to their immediate- 
ly going into the market to buy the 
many things they need. Here is the 
mass of people who have been hardest 
hit by the imposition of the combined 
defense income and excise tax levies. 

What about tax relief for upper 
income brackets and business? It is 
alleged that in the absence of tax re- 
lief new investment and risk taking 
would be discouraged, and might seri- 



ously dampen any effort to stimulate 
post-defense business expansion. It 
is also true that new and small busi- 
nesses are at a disadvantage by com- 
parison with large established cor- 
porations, because existing tax provi- 
sions for carry-forward or carry-back 
of current losses afford no relief for 
them. Special provision for early tax 
relief for such concerns would appear 
in keeping with our desire to see new 
businesses form and grow. 

The same good case for early tax 
relief cannot be made for established 
and larger corporations and upper in- 
come groups. Even the taxes required 
by the defense expenditure program 
has not prevented their accumulation 
of large volumes of savings and the 
maintenance of record levels of in- 
vestment. In 1951, total corporate 
securities offerings were 10 per cent 
higher than in the lower-taxed peace- 
time year 1948; proceeds from the 
sales of common stocks were 97 per 
cent above 1948; while preferred 
stock proceeds rose 72 per cent. In 
1951, common stock proceeds of 
$1.2 billions represented the largest 
amount of risk capital raised since 
1929. (Note: The Federal Reserve 
Board shows that only 7 per cent of 
the Nation's families and individuals 
own corporate securities; this owner- 
ship being confined almost entirely to 
those with net worths of $5,000 or 
more. In their latest survey (1950) 
of individual savers, the top 10 per 
cent of all income receivers were re- 
ported to have accumulated nearly 
$3 out of every $4 of total net per- 
sonal savings.) In the heavily taxed 
defense year of 1951, individuals 
saved over $9 billions more in cur- 
rency and bank deposits, savings in 
building and loan associations and in- 
surance equities than they did in the 
lower-taxed peacetime year of 1948. 

These data suggest that the pro- 
pensity for high-saving among upper- 



16 



THE CARPENTER 



income groups has not been adversely 
affected by defense taxation, and that 
risk-taking capital has not been 
choked off by such taxation. Con- 
sequently when tax relief is possible 
they should not be placed in the front 
of the line ahead of others whose 
claims for relief from tax burdens are 
more valid in terms of need and 
whose increased purchasing power 
can help most to stave off a depres- 
sion. 

2. Extension and Liberalization of 
Unemployment Compensation— In any 

drop of economic activity that may 
follow curtailment of defense expen- 
ditures, increased unemployment 
benefits takes a high priority as a 
means of supporting purchasing 
power. 

How many Americans know the 
low level of such benefits? Workers 
rendered jobless in covered employ- 
ment receive on the average less than 
one-third their weekly pay for periods 
ranging from as low as 12 weeks in 
some states up to 26 weeks in the 
highest states. After they exhaust 
their benefits, they have only home 
relief to look forward to. Consider 
this level of protection against the 
prevailing situation in 1951, when 
more than one out of every three 
factory workers had no liquid assets, 
and over half had debts (other than 
mortgages) averaging over $300. 

It would appear essential in view 
of these circumstances, to provide for 
increasing the benefits paid and the 
length of the benefit period. 

3. Public Works— Many people think 
the primary way to cushion any post- 
defense slump should be through the 
expansion of needed public works. 
Fortune Magazine said recently that 
such spending might reach $12 bil- 
lion a year after 1955 thereby "offset- 
ting perhaps half of the indicated de- 
cline in private capital outlays." 



The big problem here is to have 
enough economically justifiable proj- 
ects ready to go when required to 
maintain employment. The Bureau 
of the Budget reports that the reserve' 
of public works authorized to be un- 
dertaken after 1953 amounts only to 
$16 billions. The "lead factor" runs 
into a considerable period of time. 
To be sufficiently forehanded and to 
avoid wasteful, stop-gap programming 
of public works, action to enlarge 
this authorized reserve should be 
started now. It takes time to work 
up projects to the point where men 
can be put to work. The preliminaries 
should be completed long before 
1955. 

4. Wage -Price -Profit Adjustments — 

Something more has to be added to 
the preceding list of measures to 
spark the economy into action in a 
post-defense emergency, if the eco- 
nomic engine is to be kept running 
smoothly. The relationship between 
wages, prices and profits have to be 
examined constantly and adjustments 
made whenever such action is re- 
quired. 

It appears at present, for example, 
that profit margins have been widened 
while "real" wages fall. In June 1950, 
the average gross weekly pay for a 
factory worker was $58.85. In De- 
cember, 1951, it was $67.40. In the 
intervening 17 months, higher prices 
and two tax increases more than 
wiped out the purchasing power of 
the $8.55 weekly wage increase. The 
unmarried worker was left with 77c 
less purchasing power per week, and 
the married worker with three de- 
pendents no better off, as compared 
with June, 1950. 

On the other hand business profit 
margins have risen considerably since 
June 1950. The corporate profit rate 
from current operations (before taxes), 
increased 14.9 per cent per unit of 
industrial output between the first 



THE CARPENTER 



17 



half of 1950 and the second half of 
1951. "Real" after tax profits from 
total current operations rose 10.5 per 
cent over the same period. 
5. Housing— The Housing Act of 
1949, often described as a "milestone" 
in American housing legislation, calls 
for the "realization as soon as feasible 
of the goal of a decent home and suit- 
able living environment for every 
American family." 

Are we achieving that goal? 

If you think so, what about the 
slum areas that still deface our great 
cities, including the Nation's capital? 

If we are achieving our goal, what 
about the rural slums, particularly in 
some parts of the south, where indoor 
toilets and running water in the kitch- 
en are rarities? 

Since the end of World War II, the 
United States has had a huge build- 
ing boom. More than 5 million new 
housing units were built in five years. 
Yet the Census Bureau reported in 
1950 that of 35,000,000 non-farm 
dwellings, TEN MILLION were sub- 
standard and 2,500,000 more were 
overcrowded! 

Decent housing is part of the Amer- 
ican standard of living. 

We all want decent housing for 
our people, but we differ on how we 
can get it. 

Some candidates will tell you that 
we should leave to private enterprise 



the job of building all the houses that 
are needed for our people at reason- 
able costs and rentals. 

Others will tell you that private 
enterprise is interested in only ex- 
pensive housing that will bring larger 
profits. 

There seems to be a "no-man's" land 
of workers who earn too much to get 
into low cost public housing, but not 
enough to pay the rentals on expen- 
sive upper-class housing. Should any- 
thing be done for them? 

Congressional committees tell us 
that soldiers' families in many places 
have to live in "reconditioned" chick- 
en houses for which they pay exor- 
bitant rents. 

Even at the present rate of con- 
struction, 1955 will see a huge back- 
log of demand for good houses at 
reasonable prices. With proper plan- 
ning now, hundreds of thousands of 
jobs in housing can be created in 1955 
after the defense boom slacks off. 

Whether or not Congress recog- 
nizes these things and does something 
about them depends on the kind of 
men we send to Washington this Fall. 
In the final analysis it is up to us. If 
we do a good job in the election, 1955 
need not be another 1929. On the 
other hand, if we let the election go 
by default, the results can be dis- 
astrous. WHAT ARE YOU GOING 
TO DO ABOUT IT? 



COINCIDENCE IS HARD TO EXPLAIN 

Abraham Lincoln's son, Robert, was in the army during his father's presi- 
dency. One day Robert received orders to report to Washington; on his arrival 
he was told his parents were at Ford's Theater. As he entered that building 
he met a group carrying out the body of the President. 

Years later, as Secretary of War under Garfield, he was requested by the 
President to go with him to New Jersey. At the last moment, finding out 
that business would necessitate his remaining in Washington, Robert Lincoln 
hastened to the depot to inform the President of the fact. At the building he 
met a group carrying out the fatally wounded President. 

Twenty years later President McKinley invited Robert to the Pan-American 
Exposition. Lincoln accepted. At the door of the building where he had been 
told to go, he met a group carrying President McKinley, victim of an assassin. 



18 



Boston Sees Great Show 

* * * 

ON SATURDAY afternoon, May 17th, the 1952 version of the Union 
Label Industries Show opened its doors at Mechanics Building, 
Boston, Mass., amid appropriate ceremonies. While flash bulbs ex- 
ploded and newsreel cameras clicked and radio announcers elbowed their 
way through the crowds with their microphones, William Green, president 
of the American Federation of Labor, cut the traditional ribbon to signify 
that the show was officially open. All the glamor of a Hollywood first night 
was there. Blaring bands, pretty models in sketchy attire, and high dignitaries 
representing city and state were all there to help organized labor ring up the 
curtain on its mighty annual show. 






One of the highlights of the Show was the above miniature movie theater which pro- 
vided seats for around seventy Show visitors. On the screen in the upper right, the three 
movies made by the United Brotherhood were projected. After an hour or two of walk- 
ing, visitors were happy to sit down and watch an interesting movie. 



Before the doors were closed the 
following Saturday night, the better 
part of a million people had passed 
through the turnstiles to view the hun- 
dreds of exhibits of union craftsman- 
ship, play the free games, enjoy the 
free entertainment and watch skilled 
union workmen turn out a vast array 
of products. 

Only in America could such an in- 
dustrial exposition be sponsored by 



organized labor, for only in America 
has labor achieved enough stature, re- 
spect of the general public to make 
such an enterprise feasible. Only in 
America is the relationship between 
management and labor so firmly 
grounded in mutual understanding 
that both can cooperate to the extent 
necessary to put on a show of such 
magnitude. 



THE CARPENTER 



19 



Primarily the Union Industries 
Shows are put on to publicize union 
labels, shop cards and buttons. In 
this respect they do a tremendous job. 




Among- the most ancient and honorable crafts 
in the world is that of wood carving. The booth 
pictured above displayed an unusual example of 
what skilled Brotherhood carvers can do with 
wood and a few tools. 

Millions upon millions of people in 
Cincinnati, St. Louis, Milwaukee, Bos- 
ton and other large cities have at- 
tended these shows and marvelled at 
the skills employed by American 
workmen and the fruits 
that develop from sound 
labor relations which make 
management and labor in- 
dustrial partners. Year by 
year the Union Industries 
Shows have grown in both 
size and interest. Undoubt- 
edly this year's show at 
Boston topped them all. 
Somewhere around 500 in- 
dividual displays covered 
everything from bookbind- 
ing to leather tanning. 
Some displays were spon- 
sored entirely by AFL un- 
ions, others were sponsored 
jointly by unions and employers, and 
a number of displays were sponsored 
solely by fair employers. The dis- 
plays filled all three floors of Me- 



chanics Hall, a Boston landmark 
erected the year the Brotherhood was 
born. 

High among the interesting ex- 
hibits at this year's show was that 
displayed jointly by the Boston 
District Council and the United 
Brotherhood. Among the largest in 
the show, the Brotherhood exhibit 
covered some 600 square feet. It 
presented to the general public a 
good cross section of the hundred 
upon hundreds of skills Brother- 
hood members employ in earning 
their daily bread. 

Actually the Brotherhood exhibit 
was broken down into a number of 
individual booths. One booth dis- 
played what expert floor layers can 
do with carpet and tile. Another 
booth showed what apprentices do 
to acquire the high degree of skill 
needed to entitle a man to the name 
"journeyman carpenter". Still an- 
other booth showed how insulators 
use cork and other insulating mater- 
ials to build cold boxes. Other booths 
acquainted the public with the skills 
and know-how involved in building 




Among the interesting booths in the United Brotherhood 
display was the above booth depicting the solid sort of 
work apprentices are taught to do. 

union-made doors and laying attrac- 
tive hardwood floors. One booth was 
devoted to dock and bridge-building 
trades. Diving suits, under-water saws 



20 



THE CARPENTER 



and all the paraphenalia of the trade 
were there to give the public a better 
picture of what is involved in erect- 
ing docks, piers and bridges. 

However, one of the 
highlights of the show was 
the miniature movie thea- 
ter provided by the Broth- 
erhood for showing the var- 
ious films produced by the 
union. After the people had 
spent hours wandering 
around the crowded floor 
space, the Brotherhood the- 
ater gave them a place to 
sit down while they watch- 
ed the three Brotherhood 
films being run off. The 



signing or erecting the Brotherhood 
exhibit have a right to be proud. 

In this day and age when many 
groups are constantly taking pot shots 




Brotherhood exhibit in- 
volved thousands upon 
thousands of hours of hard 
work. It also involved a 
good deal of money. But 
the Boston District Council 
and its affiliated unions spared neither 
time nor money in their efforts to 
make a worth while exhibit. That 
their efforts were not in vain was 
amply attested to by the great amount 
of interest which the Brotherhood ex- 
hibit aroused among visitors to the 
show. All who had any part in de- 



Boston being one the major seaports in the nation, a 
great amount of dock and pier work goes on there a'l the 
time. The above booth gave visitors to the Union Indus- 
tries Show a good idea of what is involved in the work. 
Diving suits, underwater saws, etc., were all there for the 
people to examine. Particularly interesting was the lighted 
map in the background which showed by means of different 
colored lights all the heavy construction projects that have 
been built recently and the projects that are yet to be 
built in Massachusetts. 



at organized labor from many angles, 
the Union Industries Show should go 
a long way toward dispelling anti- 
labor sentiment in Boston and New 
England. The Boston District Council 
and affiliated unions did their share 
beautifully. All connected with the 
show are to be congratulated. 



HANDS ACROSS THE SEA 



On a recent Saturday evening, at the Covenant Club in Chicago, something happened 
of importance to the carpenters of Israel; to wit, a banquet sponsored by Carpenters Local 
504, AFL, of Chicago. 

About 500 banqueteers paid $50 a plate to attend. The object was to raise money to 
put up a wood working mill in Beersheba, where door frames and window sashes are a 
scarce commodity right now. 

Beersheba is the place mentioned in the Bible as the southernmost point of Jewish 
ancient territory "from Dan to Beersheba." It is an old city in name and location, but 
a new one in everything else. 

Four years ago, after 3,500 Arabs left, there was practically nobody in Beersheba. To- 
day there are 18,000— from Bulgaria, Romania, Poland, French Morocco, etc.— but nobody 
from Local 504 of Chicago or Local 1073 of Philadelphia. 

But Locals 1073 and 504 proposed to finance the building of the first woodworking 
mill in Beersheba. The Philadelphia carpenters are paying for the machinery, the Chicago 
carpenters for the building. 

Ted Kenney, president of the Carpenters District Council of . Chicago, is chairman 
of a drive to raise $50,000. The money will be turned over to the Israel Federation of 
Labor, the Histadrut— a gift from one union to another. 

Of 750,00 newcomers to Israel during the past year, a quarter-million live in tents and 
sheds. The new mill is intended to develop new skilled workers as well as building material. 



21 



By H. E. ZIMMERMAN 

* 

FEW PEOPLE who use nails ever stop to think of the evolution of this 
most useful and indispensable article in our everyday life. Today wire 
nails are so abundant, cheap, and serviceable, that the presumption is 
that they were always in existence. That nails have been in use since prehis- 
toric times is a known fact. One over two and one-half pounds in weight was 




7 



Explanation of illustration: No. 1 is a wrought nail. Note the single projection of the 
head. Nos. 2, 3, and 4 are different varieties of cut nails. Note the different kinds of 
heads. Nos. 5, 6, and 7 are wire nails, each with different kind of head. On No. 6 can be 
seen the corrugation on shank near head, which increases its holding power. These va- 
rieties are only typical — there are many other kinds. 

found some years ago in the ruins of Troy, and similar large specimens have 
been discovered in places where prehistoric man made his home. The most 
primitive method of holding pieces of wood together was by means of thongs 
or cords. Wooden pins were also used for this purpose, and there are some old 
buildings standing today which have a number of wooden pins in them. 

Then came the hand-wrought nails 



the manufacture of which was one of 
the household industries of New Eng- 
land in the 18th century. In a speech 
in Congress, 1789, Fisher Ames said: 
"It has become common for country 
people in Massachusetts to erect 
small forges in their chimney corners; 
and in winter and in evenings, when 
little other work can be done, great 



quantities of nails are made even by 
children. These people take the rod 
of iron of the merchant and return 
him the nails, and in consequence of 
this easy mode of barter, the manu- 
facture is prodigiously great." 

The old-time American blacksmith 
included nail-making among his many 
accomplishments, one end of his anvil 



22 



THE CARPENTER 



being shaped for the forging of nails. 
Such nails were universally used in 
house-building, until about 1800, 
when cut nails, because of their 
cheapness, superseded them. There- 
fore, where the orginal nails of a 
house are wrought, the house dates 
before 1800; or where cut, after that 
date. Nails used at the time the 
house was built are nearly always to 
be found in the garret floor. 

The wrought nail is easily distin- 
guished from the machine-made or 
cut nail. It was made from rectangu- 
lar strips of malleable iron, several 
feet long, and about a quarter of an 
inch thick, called "nail rods," which 
were furnished the blacksmith. 

In Europe a few of the old nail- 
smiths still exist in Bavaria, where 
they forge a thousand nails in a 12- 
hour work day. These nails, which, of 
course, cost more than machine nails, 
are sold to local shoemakers or re- 
tailed in sport shops, and are used in 
the boots of shepherds, guides, tour- 
ists, and other mountaineers, who 
have found that the machine-made 
product will not keep a person from 
slipping. Many of these nails are im- 
ported by Austria and Switzerland 
for the tourist trade, while a few can 
be found in any establishment that 
caters to mountain climbers in a seri- 
ous way. For the making of these 
nails a special anvil is used, with vari- 
ous sized holes, into which the rods of 
heated iron are pressed into nails, and 
then sharpened with the hammer. 

The early cabin builder in Colonial 
times wanted nails above everything 
else, and he frequently found it im- 
possible to procure them. In those 
times the nearest supply of nails 
manufactured on a large scale was 
the mother country, England. Under 
such circumstances nails became so 
scarce and precious that the practice 



of a pioneer burning his house when 
he moved to newer lands, in order to 
carry along the nails, became so gen- 
eral throughout the colony of Vir- 
ginia that the following law was 
passed in 1645, restraining the plan- 
ter: "It shall not be lawful for any 
person so deserting his plantation as 
aforesaid to burn any necessary hous- 
ing that are situated thereon, but 
shall receive so many nails as may be 
computed by two different men were 
expended about the building thereof 
for full satisfaction." In 1785 the com- 
mandant of Fort Harmar wrote to the 
governor of Pennsylvania complain- 
ing that Kentucky frontiersmen, in 
order to get nails, had torn to pieces 
the out-buildings belonging to the 
fort. 

There was apparently no depend- 
able local supply of nails in Virginia 
even at the end of the 17th century, 
for William Fitzhugh of King George 
wrote at least once in 1695 and again 
in 1697 to his English agent to send 
him nails. Occasionally among the 
chattels in the early wills, bracketed 
with silks, jewels, the family plate 
and other precious belongings, one 
finds that nails were bequeathed the 
lucky legatees. Early in the 18th cen- 
tury nails cost about four shillings six 
pence per pound, or the equivalent of 
about $1.12 in our money. 

Thomas Jefferson's name is interest- 
ingly wrapped up in the subject of 
hand-made nails. Some years ago the 
Hon. Albert Johnson, of the state of 
Washington, had inserted in the Con- 
gressional Record a letter from 
Thomas Jefferson, dated at Monti- 
cello, April 29, 1795, to M. de Muen- 
ier, from which we quote: "In our pri- 
vate pursuits it is a great advantage 
that every honest employment is 
deemed honorable. I am myself a 
nail maker . . . My new trade of nail 
making is to me in this country what 



THE CARPENTER 



23 



an additional title of nobility or the 
ensigns of a new order is in Europe." 

How dealers in antiques would like 
to own some of those nails, if well 
authenticated! One wonders how 
many such nails he made, and if any 
of them are extant and available. 
Probably Jefferson's hand-made nails 
might command as high a price as the 
signature of Button Guinnett, Geor- 
gia, signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. 

Following wrought nails came the 
"cut" variety. Such nails and tacks 
were invented by John Washburn, 
Kingston, Mass. He cut the blanks 
with a machine and children placed 
each nail where the head was to be 
struck. Some years after that Jesse 
Reed improved on the Washburn ma- 
chine, and later Ezekiel Reed— per- 
haps a relative— completed the first 
"successful" nail-making machine. 
Washburn never patented his ma- 
chine. He was also the inventor of 
the screw augur. 

The cut nail consists of a rectang- 
ular, tapering shank of iron, not ham- 
mered into a point by hand, but tap- 
ered by a single cut, across a plate of 
iron. The smith was furnished, not 
with a nail rod, but a strip of plate 
iron, several feet long, about 2M 
inches wide, and often about one- 
eighth inch thick. This strip he slid in- 
to a cutter, worked at first by hand- 
power, resembling those used by 
bookbinders to trim books. This cut- 
ter, rising and falling rapidly, clipped 
off the end of the iron plate crosswise 
into narrow, tapering, rectangular 
slices or nails, whose length was gov- 
erned by the width, and thickness, 



and by the depth of the nail plate. 
The taper of the cut alone produced 
the point, but not the head. At first 
this was made by dropping the freshly 
cut piece, point downward, into a 
slotted clamp or vise, and then spread- 
ing the larger projecting end with a 
hammer. 

Cut nails are easily distinguishable 
from wrought nails. Both have rec- 
tangular shanks, but the wrought nail 
tapers on all four sides; the cut nail 
on only two opposing sides. Cut nails 
everywhere superseded the wrought 
nail not long after 1797, when two 
cut-nail factories were established in 
Philadelphia. 

Following the cut nail came the 
wire variety. On modern machines 
such nails are made at the rate of 
about 400 per minute. Wire, in the 
cold state, is fed into the machine. 
The hammer moves back the required 
length with the wire. The wire is 
then firmly gripped (leaving those 
"cording" marks near the head), and 
while a blow from the hammer forms 
the head, side cutters cut the wire off 
to form a diamond point. This all 
takes place so rapidly that the eye 
can scarcely follow the operation. 

The nails are then collected and 
automatically conveyed to the tum- 
bling machine, where they are shaken 
together, sometimes as long as an 
hour, to polish them and remove the 
rough spots. From there they are 
automatically fed into the bags or 
kegs in which they are sold. Screwed 
wire nails are made in a similar man- 
ner, the helix being put on the surface 
of the wire during its manufacture. 



NET WORKING CAPITAL JUMPS 

Net working capital of American corporations increased $2.5 billion to $80.9 billion 
last year, the Securities and Exchange Commission reported. Working capital repre- 
sents funds to pay operating costs and purchase materials. 

Corporations held $2.1 billion more in cash, or a total of $29.4 billion. Holdings of 
government securities increased $600 million to a total of $21.4 billion, the SEC said. 



Editorial 




Another Straitjacket In The Making 

Not since debate on the Taft-Hartley Law some five years ago has anti- 
labor hysteria been as wide-spread and virulent as it is today. Taking advan- 
tage of the steel crisis and the recent oil strike, the anti-labor forces of the 
nation have been having a field day whipping up feeling against organized 
labor. Newspapers, magazines and airwaves have all been chanting the same 
theme; "Labor is too strong. The power of the unions must be broken." 
General Mc Arthur in Detroit tells his audience labor is now on the verge of 
exploiting management. A writer in Fortune implies that labor is becoming 
a dangerous monopoly. Readers Digest, the Wall Street Journal and a dozen 
other national magazines all echo the same sentiment. 

Needless to say, all this anti-labor furore is not passing unnoticed in Wash- 
ington. A half dozen ideas for clamping down on labor have been hatched 
up in recent weeks. The proper anti-labor climate has been cultivated, and 
unless organized labor is on its toes and prepared to take full advantage of 
the election now pending, new labor-shackling legislation is almost a cinch 
to appear before long. 

At a matter of fact, such legislation is already in the hopper. Last month, 
Congressman Smith of Virginia introduced the most viciously anti-labor bill 
the nation has ever seen. If it becomes law, all the rights which organized 
labor has built up so slowly and so painfully over the years will be wiped 
out with a single stroke of the pen. 

What the Smith Bill would do is make the 80-day injunction provisions 
of the Taft-Hartley Law permanent in all cases where the national welfare 
might be construed as being in peril. Above and beyond that, the Bill would 
impose government receiverships over both unions and management in cases 
where a strike threat continued. During such phony receiverships the wages 
and working conditions of the workers would remain unchanged. However, 
no provision is made for a corresponding freeze of profits. Fines and jail 
sentences would be handed out to workers daring to strike in violation of 
injunctions and receiverships. But employers would be free to carry on any 
way they saw fit— even to the point of goading men to strike. 

The Bill also provides that costs of maintaining such receiverships would 
have to be borne jointly by management and the workers involved. How- 
ever, since the earnings of the workers would be frozen while the companies 
could build up their profits as high and as fast as possible, the real burden 
would fall on union treasuries. 

Needless to say, all segments of labor are bitterly opposed to this Bill 
and everything about it. AFL President Green recently termed the measure 
as "Totalitarianism at its worst". It will be opposed every inch of the way. 
Perhaps its very viciousness will defeat it, but the anti-labor hysteria being 
built up to its present high pitch, no one can be sure what Congress will do. 
The fact that all Congressmen and a third of the Senators are now seeking 



THE CARPENTER 25 

re-election will undoubtedly temper the actions of many anti-labor members 
until November. But if organized labor, by staying away from the polls, 
once more permits an unfriendly Congress to take over, look out for the 
Smith Bill or something equally vicious early next year. 

All the anti-labor hysteria being whipped up at the present time well 
could be a sort of softening up process to make the general public receptive 
to new labor-shackling laws. Another Congress like the 80th could well mean 
a labor movement deprived of all the rights that make it effective. 

The November election will really tell the story. If labor goes to the 
polls in sufficient numbers, the threat of the Smith Bill and other measures 
like it will be defeated. On the other hand, if labor again allows the elec- 
tion to go by default, look not only for the Smith Bill but for a dozen more 
equally vicious ones to crop up periodically. As a citizen and an eligible 
voter, what are you going to do about it? 



McGuire Centennial Year 

July 6th of this year will mark the hundredth anniversary of the birth of 
Peter J. McGuire. Resolution No. 1 unanimously adopted by the Twenty- 
sixth General Convention in Cincinnati in September 1950, provided that the 
last half of this year should be celebrated as McGuire Centennial Year. Many 
Local Unions and State and District Councils are laying plans for appro- 
priately marking the hundredth birthday of McGuire. Some are planning 
picnics, some are planning dinners, and some are planning to dedicate a 
definite meeting to the memory of one of labor's great men. 

It is only fitting that every group in the Brotherhood utilize some means 
of honoring the memory of Pete McGuire. No man has contributed more to 
the advancement of the trade unionism than has Peter J. McGuire. It was 
McGuire who laid the foundation for the establishment of our Brotherhood. 
It was McGuire who first dreamed of a national federation of labor. It was 
McGuire who first advanced the idea of a national holiday for labor. Today 
he is rightfully known as the founder of the United Brotherhood, co-founder 
of the American Federation of Labor and the Father of Labor Day. 

All the contributions made to the advancement of labor by Peter J. 
McGuire will never be known, for he was a modest man and a man who 
sought little in the way of glory or publicity for himself. The great passion of 
his life was to see all workers organized into strong and stable unions capable 
of winning economic justice for their members. To that end he devoted all his 
time and his energies. He kept no notes or personal papers. He sought no 
recognition or aggrandizement. He was content to let his part be lost in the 
common history of advancement written by organized labor. Only one who 
has tried to delve into the life of McGuire can appreciate how thoroughly he 
succeeded in effacing his personal exploits from labor history. 

No one knows how many times he was fired for union activity, or how 
many times he went hungry in his early days, or how many miles he walked 
to spread the gospel of unionism because he had not the price of a railroad 
ticket in his pocket. To McGuire all these things were incidentals and merely 
part of the game. He kept plugging away, and by the fruits of his efforts this 



26 THE CARPENTER 

great Brotherhood of ours was created. He lived to see the American Federa-. 
tion of Labor become the mighty fortress he visualized, and long before he 
^ied every State in the Union had recognized Labor Day as a legal holiday. 

Pete McGuire has been dead nearly 50 years, but the great things he 
worked for and fought for live on. On this hundredth anniversary of his birth 
it is only fitting that we accord his memory some small tribute. 



Academic Freedom 



Last Summer a Yale student published a book which attracted general 
attention because it seemed to contain evidence of a trend to approve collec- 
tivism in the teaching of the social sciences. The president of Yale appointed 
a committee of distingushed alumni to survey the intellectual and spiritual 
welfare of the university, its students and its faculty. 

This committee has reported no evidence of indoctrination of students 
with subversive theories and no Communists on the faculty. The report 
pointed to current confusion about academic thinking and noted that respon- 
sibility is the inevitable accompaniment of freedom. 

"Academic freedom means the right, long accepted in the academic world, 
to study, discuss and write about facts and ideas without restrictions, other 
than those imposed by conscience and morality," the report of the committee 
said. 

The committee further stated that academic freedom should be denied 
only to teachers who use it to destroy individual liberty or to overthrow by 
violence our democratic form of government. Teachers, who have the respon- 
sibility to help others to find the truth, must be unrestricted in that search 
and as private citizens have the same rights as others. But even so, the report 
held, professors cannot escape responsibility for repercussions if their acts 
and discussion of controversial subjects reflect on the university. Such moral 
responsibility is adequate to keep persons of integrity in line with the under- 
standing that academic freedom is concerned with the search for truth, not 
with the advocacy of partisan causes. 

The report concluded: 

"Whenever national affairs are at a crisis, the ancient rights and privileges 
that free men have fought for through the ages are in jeopardy. Academic 
freedom is attacked by authoritarian powers bent on destroying democracy, 
because academic freedom is the application of free enterprise to ideas. In 
the minds of dictators, academic freedom stands in the way of totalitarian 
domination and therefore has to go. 

"There is today, more than ever, widespread realization that religion alone 
can give meaning and purpose to modern life. 

"University education covers so many areas in nature and in human affairs 
that the resultant impress upon students often lacks wholeness of outlook and 
fails to furnish direction of life. It is by faith that man sees all things work- 
ing together in the light of God and gives himself to work with them." 

—The Federationist 



27 



Old Timers Reply 

* 



FROM THE replies to "Questions for Old Timers," (March issue) it is 
quite evident that the terms "galloping rafters" and galloping joists" are 
used in more than one sense. It is also clear that the present usage of 
the terms, if they are still used in the original sense, must be confined to cer- 
tain localities. There were nine replies, which I have put into the following 
classifications: 

(1) Hewed on one side. (2) Deviating from the regular spacing. (3) Crown 
of joist or rafter up. (4) Queen post rafter. It was generally agreed that the 
expression, "10' pitch," referred to the total rise of the roof. 
Hewed One Side.— Fig. 1 shows in 



part three commonly used heavy tim- 
ber joists in place. At the top is shown 
a joist that is hewed on four sides. 
Such joists were used in the better 
class of structures, especially where 
a floor was laid on top, and ceiling 
boards or plastering was put on the 
bottom. Second from the top is shown 




'This Unevenness' 
Makes It Gallop ' 

Fig. 1 

a joist that was hewed on two sides, 
top and bottom. This cut the work 
of hewing in two, and still furnished 
a straight bearing for the floor that 
was laid on top, and the ceiling that 
was put underneath. The third draw- 
ing from the top shows a joist hewed 
on one side only, and hewed only 



enough to give a straight bearing for 
the flooring boards. This joist, say 
two old timers (one from the East 
and one from the middle West) was 
called a galloping joist, and rafters 
that were hewed the same way were 
called galloping rafters. The bottom 
drawing shows the top of a galloping 
joist, as explained by one of these 
old timers. He gives as the mark of 
a galloping joist, the wide and narrow 
hewed surfaces pointed out on the 
bottom drawing. This log was lined 
in such a way that the work of hew- 
ing was reduced to a minimum— vir- 
tually just hewing off the high places 
and, as it were, jumping or galloping 
over the low places, where the hew- 
ing produced only a narrow bearing 
for the boards. Such a joist could be 
hewed with galloping speed, com- 
pared with the time it took to hew 
out the joist shown at the top. 

Deviating from Regular Spacing.— 

Two old timers (one from the East 
and the other from the South) have 
similar, but not the same ideas about 
what constitutes a galloping joist or 
rafter. I quote from one of the let- 
ters: 

"When spacing for joists, say, 24 
inches on center, and I come to the 



28 



THE CARPENTER 



end of the building, T find the last 
two joists will have to cover 55 inches 
—7 inches more that 48. Then I jump 
the next space SVz inches past the 
regular space, hence I have a gallop- 
ing or jump joist." 

What I deduct from this letter is 
shown by Fig. 2, where the ends of 
four hewed joists are in place. The 
two to the left are spaced 24 inches 




First Or Segono Floor- 
Fig. 2 

on center, while the two to the right 
are spaced 27% inches. The joist sec- 
ond from the right is a galloping or 
jumped joist, according to this old 
timer. 

The other man, who also deter- 
mines what a galloping joist, or rafter 
is by the spacing, no doubt has the 
same idea, but gives a different view- 
point. He says that when the spacing 
comes to stair and other openings, 
both in floors and in roofs, the regular 
spacing is "ignored" and galloping 



Crown Up 



KJrt. rc-ki-rro C.iiDDrDT-' ^ 



No Center Support 




Fig. 3 



joists are used with irregular spacing. 
It would seem, according to these two 
letters, that any irregular spacing 
would result in a galloping or jumped 
joist, or rafter, as the case may be. 

(Note: In my early experience I 
often heard the "jump" expression, as 
in, jump in a joist, jump in a rafter, 
or jump in a studding. This was 
especially true in remodeling work. 



The "jump in" phrase was used to 
settle a question of spacing— usually 
a wide space, that needed more sup- 
port for whatever was to be nailed 
on afterward, received a jump in addi- 
tion.) 

Crown Up.— Four of the old timers 
(two from the middle West, one from 
the East, and one from the South) 
have similar crown-up ideas about 
galloping joists or rafters. One says 
that it means, always set the joist with 
the crown up. See the upper left 
drawing of Fig. 3. . . The second one 
writes that a galloping joist is one 
that has no partition support between 
the end bearings. This, of course, 
implies that the crown would have 



.Galloping Rafters 




Galloping Joists- 

Fig. 4 

to be up— upper right drawing. . . 
The bottom drawing shows, in per- 
spective, what the third of the crown- 
up old timers sent in. He claims that 
galloping joists, or rafters, have the 
crown up, resembling the galloping 
of a small animal, presumably the 
rabbit. In comparison, he refers to 
an animal that does not gallop or 
hurry, "but is always ready," the 
skunk. His last bit of advice is: "Frame 
joists and rafters crown up— do not 
let the Boss catch you framing them 
down." . . . The fourth crown-up old 
timer says that joists or rafters used 
on two or more sections, as shown by 
fig. 4, are galloping joists and gallop- 
ing rafters, evidently implying that 
the crown must be up. 



THE CARPENTER 



29 



Queen Post Rafter.— One (from the 
West) writes that "a galloping rafter 
is a queen post rafter." It is not clear 
whether he means the rafter of a 
queen post truss, or the rafters to 
which the roof boards are fastened. 
Fig. 5 shows a queen post truss, 
shaded, while the rafters that receive 
the roof sheeting are unshaded. 

Conclusions.— After studying the 
combined information from old timers, 




Fig. 5 

in the light of experience, my conclu- 
sions are as follows: 

Back in 1758 rafters and joists that 
were hev/ed on one side only were 
called galloping. This was the speed- 
iest way to get such timbers ready, 
for all that was needed was a straight 
bearing; the width of the bearing did 
not matter. . . Galloping used in the 
sense of jumped, no doubt originated 
in the early days, and still is used in 
that sense in certain localities. . . The 
crown-up principle is fundamental, 



whether the term galloping or some 
other term is used. The four* letters 
from old timers covering this point 
prove conclusively that the crown-up 
application of the term galloping is 
still in vogue, and probably is the 
balloon-framing version of the hewed- 
on-one-side galloping rafter or joist. 

Any further information covering 
the terms in question will be appre- 
ciated by this writer. 

H. H. Siegele 
222 So. Constitution St. 
Emporia, Kansas 
# # » 

In addition to the foregoing expla- 
nations received by Brother Siegele, 
the editor has been given one other 
version that merits consideration. A 
midwest business agent, in examining 
several buildings erected around 1700, 
noted that both in the rafters and 
joists two sizes of timber were used. 
The large timbers (say 4 x 10's) were 
spaced 36 to 48 inches apart. They 
provided the bearing surfaces for the 
floors or roofs. Between these there 
were one or two lighter rafters or 
joists (say 2 x 6's) which served as 
nailing surfaces rather than as load- 
carrying members. These lighter 
members the business agent suspect- 
ed might have been called galloping 
rafters or joists. Any arguments? 



BIG INDUSTRIAL STATES LAG ON ELECTION DAY 



The big industrial states, where organized labor should play an important part in turn- 
ing out the vote, set poor records in getting people to the polls in the Presidential and 
Congressional elections of 1948 and 1950, respectively. 

In New York, which leads the nation in the number of industrial workers, only 63 per- 
cent of the people of voting age cast a ballot in 1948, and only 49 per cent two years later. 

Pennsylvania, another state with large numbers of working men and women, had a 
similar record: 53 per cent in 1948, and 50 per cent in 1950. 

Illinois, highly industrialized, did a little better. Sixty-eight per cent of its adults 
voted for President in 1948, and 59 per cent voted for Representatives in 1950. 

California's percentages were 60 and 47, and Michigan's, 53 and 44. 

Officials of Labor's League for Political Education said the figures showed the vital 
necessity of trade unionists taking an active part in politics this year in order to elect 
their friends and defeat their enemies. 



THE LOCKER 

By JOHN HART, LOCAL UNION 366, New York, N. Y. 

CAKES AND ALE 

In the course of a full and contented life a man needs, for the benefit of his mind, 1 1 is 
soul, and his body, a library of but four books: A due book, a bank book, a Bible, and a 
one-volume Shakespeare Some cynics consider the writings of the Bard obscure and ob- 
solete. Others will tell you there is nothing worthwhile written or spoken today that has 
not already been better said by Shakespeare 350 years ago. This selection of quotations 
from his plays seems to back up those who hold the latter opinion. Judge for yourself. The 
play, act, scene and speaker are noted. Readers of this journal not familiar with those 
plays might well look up Julius Caesar, a rhetorical exhibit of the old double-cross, just 
as we know it today. And the second line is spoken by a carpenter in his Sunday clothes, 
minus his leather apron and his rule. 



Spielers 

Speechmakers 

Windbags 



Patriotism 



This 

Cock-eyed 

World 



The 
Ladies 



Kings 

Dictators 

Czars 



Vices 

and 

Virtues 



Cowards 



Words, words, mere words— no matter from the heart. 

Troilus and Cressida. 5—3. Troilus 
Well said! That was laid on with a trowel. 

As You Like it. 1—2. Celia 
The devil can quote Scripture for his purpose. 

Merchant of Venice. 1—3. Antonio 
Better a witty fool than a foolish wit. 

Twelfth Night. 1-5. Clown 

One drop of blood drawn from your country's bosom, should grieve you 
more than streams of foreign gore. Henry VI (1). 3—3. Pucelle 
Who is here so vile, that will not love his country? 

Julius Caesar. 3—2. Brutus 

All the world's a stage, and all the men and women merely players. 

As You Like It. 2—7. Jaques 
How weary, stale, flat and unprofitable seem to me all the uses of this 
world! Hamlet. 1—2. Hamlet 

Oh, how full of briers is this working-day world! 

As you Like it. 1—3. Rosalind 

Women are like roses, whose fair flower being once displayed, fades 
that very hour. Twelfth Night. 2—4. Duke 

Though you're as chaste as ice, as pure as snow, you shall not escape 
calumny. Hamlet. 3—1. Hamlet 

Do you think because you are virtuous there shall be no more cakes 
and ale? Twelfth Night. 2-3. Sir Toby 

Frailty, thy name is woman! Hamlet. 1—2. Hamlet 

When beggars die, there are no comets seen; the heavens themselves 
blaze forth the dead of princes. Julius Caesar. 2—2. Calpurnia 

Upon what meat does this our Caesar feed, that he is grown so great? 

Julius Caesar. 1—2. Cassius 

It is excellent to have a giant's strength, but it is tyrannous to use it 

like a giant. Measure for Measure. 2—2. Isabella 

Imperious Caesar, dead and turned to clay, might stop a hole to keep 

the wind away. Hamlet. 5—1. Hamlet 

How wretched is that poor man that hangs on princes' favors! 

Henry VIII. 3-2. Wolsey 
Though authority be a stubborn bear, yet he is often led by the nose 
with gold. Winter's Tale. 4—3. Clown 

Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown. 

Henry IV (2). 3-1. King Henry 

The evil that men do lives after them; the good is oft interred with 
their bones. Julius Caesar. 3—2. Antony 

Patience is a tired mare, yet she will plod. Henry V. 2—1. Nym 

Jealousy, the green-eyed monster which mocks the meat it feeds on. 

Othello. 3-3. Iago 

The gods are just, and of our pleasant vices make instruments to plague 
us. King Lear. 5—3. Edgar 

Cowards die many times before their deaths; the valiant never taste of 
death but once. Julius Caesar. 2—2. Caesar 

That which in mean men we entitle patience, is pale, cold cowardice in 
noble breasts. Richard II. 1—2. Duchess of Gloster 

Conscience makes cowards of us all. Hamlet. 3—1. Hamlet 



THE CARPENTER 



31 



Paternity How sharper than a serpent's tooth it is to have a thankless child. 

King Lear. 1—4. Lear 
What's in a name? That which we call a rose, by any other name would 
smell as sweet. Romeo and Juliet. 2—2. Juliet 

It is a wise father that knows his own child. 

Merchant of Venice. 2—2. Launcelot 

Ah, Youth! Come kiss me, Sweet-and- Twenty, youth's a stuff will not endure. 

Twelfth Night. 2-3. Clown 
Golden lads and girls all must, like chimney-sweepers, come to dust. 

Cymbeline. 4—2. Guiderius 
A young man married is a man that's marred. 

All's Well That Ends Well. 2-3. Parolles 

Praise He was a man, take him for all in all. I shall not look upon his like 

again. Hamlet. 1—2. Hamlet 

His life was gentle, and the elements so mixed in him, that Nature might 
stand up, and say to all the world, "This was a man!" 

Julius Caesar. 5—5. Antony 
He was not born to shame; upon his brow shame is ashamed to sit. 

Romeo and Juliet. 3—2. Juliet 

Dispraise There's no more mercy in him than tiiere is milk in a male tiger. 

Coriolanus. 5—4. Menenius 

Love Love is blind, and lovers cannot see the pretty follies that themselves 

and commit. Merchant of Venice. 2—6. Jessica 

Reauty Beauty provokes thieves quicker than gold. 

As You Like It. 1—3. Rosalind 

Men have died from time to time, and worms have eaten them— but not 

for love. As You Like It. 4—1. Rosalind 

Men are April when they woo— December when they wed. Same. 

Advice To your own self be true, and it must follow, as the night the day, you 

from cannot then be false to any man. 

An Expert Be familiar, but by no means vulgar. 

Neither a borrower nor a lender be. A loan often loses both itself and 

friend. 
Beware of entrance to a quarrel, but being in, act so that your opponent 

may beware of you. 
Give every man your ear, but few your voice. 

Hamlet. 1—3. Polonius to his son Laertes 

Pain When sorrows come, they come not single spies, but in battalions. 

and Hamlet. 4—5. King 

Sorrow There was never yet a philosopher that could endure the toothache 

patiently. Much Ado About Nothing. 5—1. Leonato 

Sweet are the uses of adversity. As You Like It. 2—1. Duke 

Misery acquaints a man with strange bedfellows. 

The Tempest. 2—2. Trinculo 

How bitter a thing it is to look into happiness through another man's 

eyes. As You Like It. 5—2. Orlando 

Workers We came into the world like brother and brother; now let's go hand in 

and hand, not one before another. Comedy of Errors. 5—1. Dromius. E 

Plebians The fault is not in our stars, but in ourselves, that we are underlings. 

Julius Caesar. 1—2. Cassius 

There is a tide in the affairs of men, which taken at the flood leads on 

to fortune. Julius Caesar. 4—3. Brutus 

SHAKESPEARE SAID THAT? 



This punk. Merry Wives. 2—2. Pistol 

Chew on this. Julius Caesar. 1—2. Brutus 
What the dickens. Merry Wives. 3—2. 

Mrs. Page 
Will you shog off? Henry V. 2—1. Nym 
I'll comb your noddle with a three-legged 
stool. Taming of the Shrew. 1—1. Katherina 



Merry as the day is long. Much Ado 

About Nothing. 2—1. Beatrice 

Tell the truth and shame the devil. Henry 

IV (1). 3-1. Hotspur 

What's mine is yours, what's yours is mine. 

Measure for Measure. 5—1. Duke 



Official Information 




General Officers of 
THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS 

of AMERICA 

General Office : Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General President 

M. A. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



First General Vice-President 

JOHN R. STEVENSON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Secretary 

ALBERT E. FISCHER 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Second General Vice-President 

O. WM. BLAIER 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Treasurer 

S. P. MEADOWS 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Executive Board 
First District, CHARLES JOHNSON, Jr. Fifth District, R. E. ROBERTS 

111 E. 22nd St., New York 10, N. Y. 4324 N. 48th St., Omaha, Nebr. 



Second District, RALEIGH RAJOPPI 
2 Prospect Place, Springfield, New Jersey 



Sixth District. A. W. MUIR 
Box 1168, Santa Barbara, Calif. 



Third District. HARRY SCHWARZER 
1248 Walnut Ave., Cleveland, O. 



Seventh District, ANDREW V. COOPER 
133 Chaplin Crescent, Toronto 12, Ont., Canada 



Fourth District, ROLAND ADAMS 
712 West Palmetto St., Florence, S. C. 



M. A. HUTCHESON, Chairman 
ALBERT E. FISCHER, Secretary 



All correspondence for the General Executive Board must be sent to the General Secretary 



IMPORTANT NOTICE 

In the issuance of clearance cards, care should be taken to see that they are properly 
filled out, dated and signed by the President and Financial Secretary of the Local Union 
issuing same as well as the Local Union accepting the clearance. The clearance cards must 
be sent to the General Secretary without delay, in order that the members names can be 
listed on the quarterly account sheets. 

Regarding the issuing of clearance cards, the member should be informed that said 
clearance card shall expire one month from date of issue, and must be deposited within that 
time. Otherwise a clearance card becomes void. When a clearance card expires, the mem- 
ber is required to redeposit same in the Local Union which issued the clearance, inasmuch 
as he is still a member of that Local Union. 



LOCAL UNIONS CHARTERED 



2773 Bend, Oregon 
1123 Mobile, Alabama 
1318 Farmingdale, L. I., New 
York 

2778 Moncton, N. B., Canada 

2779 Crescent City, California 



1510 Tampa, Florida 

1601 Marquette, Michigan 

1982 Seattle, Washington 

2185 Lancaster, California 

1409 Portsmouth, Virginia 

2311 Washington, D. C. 



31 rt jM^mnriam 



Not lost to those that love them, 
Not dead, just gone before; 



They still live in our memory, 
And will forever more. 



JXt&t in Ij^t&te 

The Editor has been requested to publish the names 
of the following Brothers who have passed away. 



GEORGE AKERS, L. U. 871, Battle Creek, Mich. 

JEWEL O. ALEXANDER, L. U. 764, Shreve- 
port. La. 

JAMES A. ARRINGTON, L. U. 1811, Monroe, 
La. 

JESSIE BADEN, L. U. 403, Alexandria, La. 

JACKSON BAKER, L. U. 762, Quincy, Mass. 

EDWIN C. BALDWIN, Sr., L. U. 101, Balti- 
more, Md. 

ISSAIC BANDSTRA, L. U. 325, Paterson, N. J. 

JOHN T. BEAUDET, L. U. 101, Baltimore, Md. 

JOHN BEHRINGER, L. U. 1367, Chicago, III. 

OSCAR V. BENSON, L. U. 1437, Compton, Cal. 

CHARLES E. BIGGS, L. U. 533, Louisville, Ky. 

WALTER J. BOMBARD, L. U. 125, Utica, 
N. Y. 

CHAS. N. BOUDREAUX, L. U. 1846, New 
Orleans, La. 

FREDERICK S. BRAY, L. U. 65, Perth Amboy, 
N. J. 

W. W. BRYAN, L. U. 764, Shreveport, La. 

THOMAS BUNYARD, L. U. 14, San Antonio, 
Tex. 

STANLEY BURKE, L. U. 488, New York, N. Y. 

ODIN BYE, L. U. 226, Portland, Ore. 

ANTHONY CONRAD, L. U. 226, Portland, Ore. 

R. E. COSGROVE, L. U. 14, San Antonio, Tex. 

C. R. CROSS, L. U. 226, Portland, Ore. 

WILLIAM I. CROSS, L. U. 1507, El Monte, 
Cal. 

C. O. CROUCH, L. U. 345, Memphis, Tenn. 

JOHN DAHLS, L. U. 2425, Glendive, Mont. 

ERNEST M. DARBY, L. U. 101, Baltimore, Md. 

WILLIAM J. DICKERSON, L. U. 1323, Mont- 
erey, Cal. 

FRITZ DINGLESTEDT, L. U. 14, San Antonio, 
Tex. 

CLAY ELLIS, L. U. 1811, Monroe, La. 

H. S. EWING, L. U. 226, Portland, Ore. 

B. C. FINDLEY, L. U. 225, Atlanta, Ga. 

JAMES F. FLEMING, L. U. 1478, Redondo 
Beach, Cal. 

EUGENE FORTNER, L. U. 1846, New Orleans, 
La. 

W. A. FRANKS, L. U. 494, Windsor, Ont., Can. 

CONRAD GLATZ, L. U. 18, Hamilton, Ont., 
Can. 

S. WILSON GORRELL, Sr., L. U. 101, Balti- 
more, Md. 

JOHN J. GRAY, L. U. 65, Perth Amboy, N. J. 

ROBERT HAMER, L. U. 18, Hamilton, Ont., 
Can. 

LLOYD M. HELMS, L. U. 1683, El Dorado, 
Ark. 

M. J. HODGES, L. U. 764, Shreveport, La. 

E. J. HUDLEY, L. U. 1498, Provo, Utah 

JAMES F. HUDNALL, L. U. 1811, Monroe, La. 

J. L. JARRETT, L. U. 225, Atlanta, Ga. 

JOHN A. JOHANSON, L. U. 226, Portland, Ore. 

EYESTON A. JOHNSON, L. U. 1498, Provo, 
Utah 

LOUIS M. KOCH, L. U. 14, San Antonio, Tex. 

R. W. KRAUSE, L. U. 14, San Antonio, Tex. 



HENRY KULMAN, L. U. 494, Windsor, Ont., 

Can. 
ROMEO LANTHIER, L. U. 1360, Montreal, 

Que., Can. 
PHILLIPPE LAROCHELLE, L. U. 625, Man- 
chester, N. H. 
Z. LeBOEUF, L. U. 1822, Fort Worth, Texas 
C. C. LEONARD, L. U. 653, Chickasha, Okla. 
DANIEL LOVAS, Sr., L. U. 2073, Milwaukee, 

Wis. 
FRANK MacDONALD, L. U. 625, Manchester, 

N. H. 
JOHN ALEN MacDONALD, L. U. 56, Boston, 

Mass. 
MATTHEW MALKIN, Sr., L. U. 101, Baltimore. 

Md. 
CHRIS MARKS, L. U. 226, Portland, Ore. 
ALBERT McCRORY, L. U. 1507, EI Monte, Cal. 
E. E. McDONALD, L. U. 1822, Fort Worth, 

NEREE METHOT, L. U. 625, Manchester, N. H. 

A. C. MOEHRIG, L. U. 14, San Antonio, Tex. 
CALVIN L. NUCKOLS, L. U. 225, Atlanta, Ga. 
AMOS H. NUNLEY, L. U. 184, Salt Lake City. 

Utah 
WM. S. PARKER, L. U. 1498, Provo, Utah 
JOSEPH PELNAR, L. U. 54, Chicago, 111. 
G. F. PENTECOST, L. U. 764, Shreveport, La. 
GOTTFRID PETERSON, L. U. 488, New York. 

N. Y. 
PETER PETERSON, L. U. 488, New York. 

N. Y. 
FRED A. PHILLIPS, L. U. 1478, Redondo 

Beach, Cal. 

B. R. POTTS, L. U. 1811, Monroe, La. 
VICTOR ROGERS, L. U. 1948, Ames, la. 
EMIL REISMANN, L. U. 337, Detroit, Mich. 
RICHARD REISSMANN, L. U. 337, Detroit, 

Mich. 
ANTON W. SABINI, L. U. 366, Bronx, N. Y. 
LIVINGSTON SASSAMAN, L. U. 1714, Tama- 

qua, Penn. 
WILHELM SCHULTER, L. U. 1323, Monterey. 

Cal. 
M. J. SHIPPY, L. U. 1570, Marysville, Cal. 
BOYD SMITH, L. U. 1498, Provo, Utah 
LOVELL H. SMITH, L. U. 540, Waltham, Mass. 
EMMETT SPARKS, L. U. 472, Ashland, Ky. 
WARD N. STEPHENS, L. U. 1478, Redondo 

Beach, Cal. 
BRUNO STORFORS, L. U. 762, Quincy, Mass. 
DAVID THOMPSON, Jr., L. U. 1530 Leesville, 

La. 
JAMES A. THOMPSON, L. U. 1811, Monroe, 

La. 
OLIVER W. THORNTON, L. U. 1498, Provo, 

Utah 
JOSEPH TRHLIK, Sr., L. U. 54, Chicago, 111. 
WALTER A. TURNER, L. U. 653, Chickasha, 

Okla. 
JOSEPH TURRILL, L. U. 337, Detroit, Mich. 
E. B. WALKER, L. U. 1968, Oberlin, Ohio 



CorrospondoncQ 




This Journal Is Not Responsible For Views Expressed By Correspondents. 



The 19th of 



NIAGARA-GENESEE D. C. MARKS FIRST BIRTHDAY 

May 1952 saw completion of the first and very successful year of the 

exsistence of our District Council. 

Yes, it was just a year ago that Locals 
289 of Lockport, N. Y. and 1151 of Ba- 
tavia, N. Y. decided to form the Niagara- 
Genesee and Vicinity District Council. 
The year was full of activity with many 
new problems to be worked out. The 
delegates went right to work setting up 
the operation of the District Council. 
With fine cooperation from the General 
Office and the New York State Council 
of carpenters we are very proud to look 
at what we have accomplished in the 
past year. 

Our District Council at this time wishes 
to extend our sincere thanks to the Gen- 
eral Office and the New York State Coun- 
cil of carpenters for their prompt and 
courteous support to us in the past year. 




Council delegates in the above photo are, Bot- 
tom Row, left to right: Stanley Pratt; William 
O'Dell, B. A. of Local 1151; El wood Taylor, Presi- 
dent; Rocco A. Sidari, Secretary; Edward Graham, 
B. A. of Local 289; Carl Sage, Vice-President. 

Back Row: William Hillman, Andrew Snyder, 
Richard Lippold, Everett McClung, Harold Reek, 
Belmont Hawley, Omar Olsen, Roy Hogoboom. 



LOCAL 1072 MARKS 50th BIRTHDAY WITH BANQUET 

Carpenters Local Union 1072, Muskogee, one of the oldest unions in Oklahoma, being 
organized April 4, 1902 during Indian territorial days, celebrated its 50th Anniversary 
Friday night, April 4, 1952 at the Masonic Temple with a gala banquet and social evening. 
A fine turn out was on hand to help celebrate this milestone. Several out of town guests 
were present at the banquet from practically all over the state of Oklahoma. Three 
charter members are still living and one was present at the celebration. 





Brother Frank Hanks made the main address, speaking on the history and advance- 
ment of local 1072. When Carpenters Local Union 1072 was organized, Muskogee was 
nothing but a cow town, no pavement, nothing but board sidewalks, few businesses and 
dwelling houses were here. Through wars, panics and depressions Local 1072 has been 
fighting for better wages and working conditions and to this end they shall keep working. 

Until a late hour the members and guest discussed and lived old times and experiences 
once more, enjoying the occasion immensely. All left with a determination to keep push- 
ing Local 1072 to their utmost. 



THE CARPENTER 



35 



LOCAL No. 762 HONORS HERO-MEMBER 




REWARD FOR HEROISM: Harold Johnston, re- 
ceives a gold watch, presented from Carpenters 
local 762, AFL, for his rescue of a four year old 
girl from the water at Town River, off Snug Har- 
bor, in February. Shown left to right are John A. 
Wishart, secretary of the union; George Oster, 
president, Alexander G. Cumming, trustee, Mr. 
Johnston and Fred Ericksin, also a trustee. 



At a special called meeting of Local 
Union No. 762, Quincy, Mass., held on 
April 10th, Harold Johnston, a member 
of the union, was presented with a beau- 
tful gold watch. In February of this 
year Brother Johnston risked his own 
life to save that of a four year old girl 
at Snug Harbor. The heroism of Brother 
Johnston received considerable publicity 
throughout the area. 

To honor Brother Johnston for his val- 
iant deed, Local No. 762 called the spe- 
cial meeting. In a few well-chosen words, 
Secretary John A. Wishart presented the 
gold watch to Brother Johnston. On the 
back was the following inscription: "Pre- 
sented to Harold Johnston by the mem- 
bers of Local No. 762, Quincy, Mass., 
for saving a child's life at Snug Harbor 
on February 1, 1952," 

President George A. Oster also pre- 
sented Brother Johnston with a citation 
from the Massachusetts Humane Society 
which bears with it a silver medal. 



DENISON LOCAL HONORS OLD TIMER 

In these trying times, the day by day problems of all people are frustrating and 
vating. Union members are no exception. Officers and members alike must worry 
keeping their heads above the troubled waters of financial 
disaster; about keeping their organization efficient and pro- 
gressive; about keeping abreast of the ever-changing direc- 
tives that pour out of Washington. 

Local Union No. 371 boasts of a member who has taken 
all these things in stride for the past 50 years and is still 
going strong. Recently Local Union 371 dedicated a party to 
Brodier H. P. Capelle, treasurer of the union, who has held 
membership in the United Brotherhood for over half a 
century. 

About a hundred guests were present to salute Brother 
Capelle, and everyone reported having a good time. 

During the course of the evening, Brother Capelle was awarded a fifty-year pin 
union. In the accompanying photograph, B. E. Perry, president of the Denison 
Trades Council is shown pinning the emblem to the lapel of Brother Capelle. 



aggra- 
about 




by the 
Labor 



MARSEILLES LOCAL CELEBRATES 50th BIRTHDAY 

Back in 1902 when the United Brotherhood had scarcely become of age, a group of 
carpenters at Marseilles, 111., applied for a charter. On March 15th of tiiat year, charter 
No. 1037 was installed at Marseilles. 

Fifty years later, on March 14, 1952 to be exact, members and friends of Local 
Union No. 1037 gathered together in the Legion Post Hall in Marseilles to celebrate the 
golden anniversary of the union. Members of Local No. 1037, their families and friends, 
contractors, lumber dealers, and city officials were all there to help the union properly 
celebrate the completion of its first half century of service to the community. It was a 
great party. 

A fine turkey dinner with all die traditional trimmings was the celebration kick-off. 
Pictures, dancing, and just plain visiting among friends rounded out die evening. 

Highlight of the evening was the introduction of Brother Al Watson, only living char- 
ter member of the union. In a short address Brother Watson recalled some of die early 



36 



THE CARPENTER 



struggles of the union. It was a genuine pleasure for many members to renew their 
acquaintance with Brother Watson who is still active in the trade after all these years. 

Brothers Fairclough and Hill brought greetings and congratulations from the State 
Federation and the State Council of Carpenters. Arrangements were in charge of Business 
Agent Herman Olsen. 



ST. CHARLES, ILL., CELEBRATES GOLDEN JUBILEE 

Two-hundred fifty members and guests attended the 50th anniversary celebration held 
by Local Union No. 1083, St. Charles, 111., April 23rd at the Legion hall. The festivities 
opened with a roast beef dinner with all the trimmings served at 6:30 o'clock by Jack 
Edwards. G. E. Thompson, superintendent of Community District 303 public schools, the 
master of ceremonies, did an outstanding job on introducing the entertaining features and 
speakers during die program which followed the dinner. The invocation was given by the 

Rev. George S. McClary. 

Congratulatory greetings 
were extended the local by 
Mayor I. G. Langum and others 
spoke of the fine record the 
local has established over the 
50 years of their organized 
efforts. Among the several old 
time members present was 
Frank Underwood, who is now 
92 years "young." 

An interesting and informa- 
tive talk given by Stanley John- 
son, secretary of' the Illinois 
State Federation of Labor, was 
enjoyed. Following the program, which included many other entertaining and enjoyable 
features, James Newel showed a film which depicted activities and points of interest at the 
carpenters national home in Lakeland, Fla. Dancing was enjoyed following the movie. 

Elrick Soderquist, president of the local, and his corps of officers, spent much time and 
effort in planning and arranging this evening of fun and fellowship and the large turn out 
and the success of the program showed the results of the long range planning. Others 
who assisted included Arthur Meeks, Paul Peterson, Gordon Anderson, Roy Stillions, Cor- 
nelius Schrauth, John Nelson, Stanley Swinehamer, Lester Osborne, B. G. Snelting and 
William Davidson. 




Pictured above are the officers of Local Union No. T083, 
St. Charles, 111., together with speakers and special guests 
who attended the 50th anniversary celebration of the union. 



BEAUMONT LOCAL BOASTS 4 OLDEST UNIONISTS IN TOWN 

Beaumont, Texas, is a well organized town. There are thousands of trade unionists 
there. However, the four men with the longest records of continuous membership are all 
members of Local Union No. 753 of the United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America. Recently Local Union No. 753 
paid special tribute to these four old timers. They are: C. O. 
Richards who has 37 years of continuous membership to his credit; 
S. L. Arnoled, 36 years; E. F. Delotte, 36 years; and D. J. Ridge- 
way, 35 years. 

In spite of their years in harness all of them are still actively 
following the trade and giving the younger men a good run for 
their money. Likewise they are still taking an active part in the 
affairs of the union and doing their best to promote the interests 
of the union whenever and whereever possible. Thereby they 
are setting a fine example for the younger men to shoot at. 

Brother Richards recalls that in all of his 37 years in Local 
Union No. 753, the union has been on strike only three times, 
a record which speaks well for the quality of leadership and mem- 
bership diat has made up Local No. 753 down the years. 




Pictured above are two 
of the veterans of Local 
No. 753. They are S. 
L. Arnold and D. J. 
Ridgeway. 



THE CARPENTER 



37 



UTAH STATE COUNCIL HOLDS SPRING MEET 

The Utah State Council of Carpenters held its annual Spring Convention at Provo, 
Utah, March 29, 1952. In many ways it was the" most successful convention yet held by 
the council. 

The council is composed of 11 affiliated locals, and delegates representing all 11 locals 
were in attendance. A full agenda of matters important to the carpenters of the state was 




disposed of in good order. Also in attendance were Bert Sleeman and Don Gilman, Inter- 
national Representatives from the Western area. Both of them gave valuable advice to 
the convention. 

The ladies of Auxiliary No. 445 of Provo provided an interesting program for visiting 
ladies. A highlight of the meeting was a banquet and supper dance tendered the visiting 
delegates and their wives following the convention. It was a fine affair and all who 
attended reported having a good time. 

The next convention of the Council will be held at Vernal, Utah, July 26th. 

• 

LOCAL 109 HONORS EIGHTEEN APPRENTICES WITH BANQUET 

On the night of February 29, 1952, Local Union 109, Sheffield, Alabama honored 
eighteen apprentices with their certificates of completion with a Banquet at the Hotel 
Muscle Shoals. 




Shown above receiving their Journeymen certificates from Representative Vance 
Stamps are: Dexter J. Robinson, James E. Bowling, James D. Yarbrough, Norman G. 
Creasy, John L. Clemons, Luther C. Miller, Lindsey D. Cossey, James P. Riddell, Denny 
W. Gray, and Tommie L. Hines, outstanding Apprentice of 1951. 

Not shown in the picture were graduating Apprentices: Otis M. Blevins, Lloyd R. 
Bond, Robert P. Darby, Broze Dixin, Jack McLendon, Luther P. Mansell, John P. Mash- 
burn, C. G. Stover and James H. Thomas. 

Among the distinguished guests present were Brother Vance Stamps, International Rep- 
resentative, who acted as Master of Ceremonies; Sam S. Douglass, President of Alabama 
State Federation of Labor; Lo Petree, State Superviser, Bureau of Apprenticeship; James 
P. Burt, Field Representative, Bureau of Apprenticeship; Harry S. Wald, Secretary of 
Joint Apprenticeship Committee; B. H. Craig, Contractor; J. H. Bigbee, Contractor and 
the Executive Board of Carpenters' Local 109. 

Following the dinner, certificates were presented by Brother Stamps after which brief 
talks were made by Sam S. Douglass, Lo Petree and Contractors. 

After a very enjoyable evening the group was dismissed with a prayer by Sam S. 
Douglass. 



38 



THE CARPENTER 



OKLAHOMA CITY HOLDS FINE ANNUAL BANQUET 

With some 600 members, friends and guests present, Local Union No. 329, Oklahoma 
City, Okla., held its annual banquet on the night of March 22, 1952. Carpenters Hall was 
the banquet site, and few of those who attended could remember ever having a better 
time. 

Barbecued spareribs, a universal favorite, was the main dinner dish, and from the 




way they disappeared it was evident that Oklahoma City carpenters are as handy with 
the knife and fork as they are with the saw and hammer. 

A fine program of entertainment helped to make the event the success it turned out 
to be. A mock opera staged by the YMCA Boys Chorus had the audience in stitches 
much of the time. Magic tricks by Leonard Sparagowski added to the pleasure of the 
evening. Square and round dancing until a late hour wound up the festivities. 



BRUCE SIGNS NEW UNION LABEL AGBEEMENT 

In March of this year, a new contract was negotiated between the Bruce Company 
of Memphis, Tenn., and all the Brotherhood Local Unions representing Bruce employes. 
Like its predecessor, the new contract provides that all products turned out by the com- 
pany will bear the Brotherhood label. The Bruce Company is the largest manufacturer 
of hardwood flooring and other hardwood products in the nation. It has eight or nine 




plants scattered throughout the Southern States. The same agreement covers all operations. 

The new contract provides for a wage increase across the board, an additional paid 
holiday, and eliminates the last differentials in wages that existed between plants. 

Pictured above are the negotiators who drew up the new agreement. 



Craft ProblQms 




Carpentry 

By H. H. Siegele 
LESSON 285 
Concrete Block House— So many inquiries 
came to this department, wanting informa- 
tion about concrete block houses, that the 
writer felt that a treatment of the subject 



Front Elevation— Fig. 1 shows the front 
elevation of a house, the floor plan of which 
was shown in lesson 284. To the right is 
shown a cross section of the right side wall, 
cut through the door leading to the utility 
room. Pointed out on this section is a 
layer of 12"xl2"x4" hollow tile, on which 
the concrete slab rests. More will be said 




I 


1 


mini 


mini 



2424 




2424 



i 

r 1 - 



FOOTING 



-FOUNOATION ' 




was justified. The term concrete block is 
used here as a symbol, covering terms, such 
as pumice blocks, cement blocks, or any 
other blocks that in design and use are re- 



Fig. 2 



12X12X4 Tile- 

about this when the details of the floor con- 
struction will be shown as we proceed with 
this series of lessons. Asphalt shingles are^ 
specified, but if some other kind of roof- 



\*Z-6- 




miim ii 

2424 : 



&£ 



FQOTIN6 



Foundation 



i 



lated to what is commonly called concrete 
block. This should be remembered, for 
from here on only the term concrete block 
(or blocks) will be used with regard to the 
composition of the blocks. 



ing is desired, the change can be made. The 
footing and the foundation wall are pointed 
out, which also will be treated in some 
other place with details. The figures, 2424, 
directly under the windows should be re- 



40 



THE CARPENTER 



membered, which will be explained when 
the illustrations are given. Fig. 2 shows the 
lrlt side elevation (if the same house. To the 
upper right the piteh of the roof is given, 
which is a rather flat piteh. Here again, if 
a steeper piteh is more praetical or pre- 
ferred, the change can be made without 
altering any part of the plan for the rest 
of the house. 

Concrete Blocks— Fig. 3 shows by the 
upper drawing an ordinary concrete block, 
which has three full hollow parts, and two 



tion and at the same time produced some- 
thing different. Moreover, some concrete 
block 1 louses are plastered on the inside, 




half hollow parts, one at each end. The 
sides of this block have straight flat surfaces. 
The block shown at the bottom, also has 
three full hollow parts, but only one-half 
hollow part on one end. The other end has 
a square flat surface. This block is used at 
corners and around openings. The two 
blocks just mentioned are the same in size, 
7%"x7%''xl5", as shown on the drawing. 
These blocks are especially suitable for 
walls that are either to be plastered or stuc- 
coed. However, they are also used suc- 
cessfully without either plastering or stucco. 
In fact the original house, that is used here 
as a pattern, is not plastered on the inside. 
This feature reduced the cost of construc- 




Rods 



but are left unstuccoed on the outside. 
Whatever the case may be, the plastering 



Concrete 



Reinforcing 
Rods 




Fig. 5 

or the stucco can be put on at some later 
date, giving the walls new appearances. 



THE CARPENTER 



41 



Lintel Blocks-Fig. 4, A, B, C, and D, 

shows four different lintel blocks. The hol- 
low part, when the blocks are in place, is 
filled with concrete and reinforced with 



Brick Rowlock Sill 




Fig. 6 



rods, as shown by the perspective view at 
the bottom. In order to tie the upper part 
of the walls securely together, a course of 
the lintel blocks should be carried around 



Concrete 
Block 




SteeuSash 
Stucco-* 
Brick 



Concrete 
Block 



Fig. 7 

the entire building. The hollow part of 
this course should be filled with concrete 
and reinforced, as indicated on the drawing. 
The blocks shown at B and D have grooves 



at the bottom to receive the flange of the 
steel window frame. 

Lintel blocks to span wide openings are 
shown by Fig. 5. The perspective view at 
the top shows the blocks in place, filled 
with concrete and reinforced. At the bot- 
tom are shown details of this block. The 
one to the left, at A, has a groove formed 
at the bottom for the window frame. Study 
and compare Figs. 4 and 5. 

Brick Rowlock Sill— Fig. 6 gives a per- 
spective view of a part of a concrete block 
wall, showing the bottom part of a window 
opening with a brick rowlock sill. Where 
the steel window frame will be placed is 
indicated by die dotted lines, respectively on 
die sill and the jamb of the opening. A 
cross section of the brick sill is shown at the 
bottom in Fig. 7, where other parts of the 
construction are pointed out. The upper 
drawing shows a plan of a part of the same 
sill. Here the different parts of the con- 
struction are also indicated. Notice that 
the outside is shown stuccoed, while the in- 
side is left unplastered. Fig. 8 shows a cross 
section of die window head. Here die lintel 



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CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION.— Has 159 p. 426 il.. 
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CARPENTER'S TOOLS.— Covers sharpening and us- 
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QUICK CONSTRUCTION.— Covers hundreds of prac- 
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by the famed artist. Will Rapport. $2.00. 

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books THE WAILING PLACE and 2 poetry books free. 

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QUANTITIES.— 12 or more books 20% off, f. 0. b. 

Chicago. 



42 



THE CARPENTER 



block is shown filled willi concrete and 
reinforced with two % ineli round bars. The 
outside is shown stuccoed, just as the origi- 
nal house is. as mentioned before. 

No Basement— In these days of freezers 
and refrigerators, the need for a basement 
has been greatly reduced, and in some in- 



%\«— 7 5 /b- 




Lintel Block 



stances, completely eliminated. A well 
equipped utility room often gives practically 
all of the services that a basement does in 
the way of laundry and so forth. At the 
same time it eliminates the going down and 
up basement stairs. Many housewives, when 




it's longer... 
more useful! 



IhVlOfS.t WHITE .CHIEF 



Speeds your measuring. Easy to read the markings— they're 
jei black against snow white. Blade is acid-resistant, wear- 
resistant and crack-proof. . changeable in 10 seconds... 
equipped with "Swing Tip." Get a spare blade, too, and 
save money. The White Chief by Carlson— AT YOUR 
HARDWARE DEALER. 

Rule produced under pats. 2089209, 2510939 



CARLSON & SULLIVAN, INC. 

MONROVIA, CALIFORNIA 



FILE SAWS THE RIGHT WAY 

SUPER FILER No. 9 

$295 

POST 



SO EASY: With this new jig and jointer 
anyone can sharpen handsaws like new. 
When tile hits steel rollers teeth are finished 
and EXACTLY THE SAME HEIGHT. 
All teeth cut and saw runs true and smooth. 
Sets angles and length in 5 seconds. % 
turn of thumb screw locks everything. 





Used as jointer 



$895 




they get used to these modern conveniences, 

wouldn't have a basement. Another ad- 
vantage that this arrangement has, is that 
the floor of the house is only about five 
inches above the grade line. This elimi- 
nates much of the danger of accidents, for 
there are no steps to slip on or stumble 
over. While such accidents might never 
happen, there always exists the possibility 
that they may. This is especially true in 
cases of old people. But young people are 
not immune to accidents. . .There are, of 
course, many advantages that could be 
pointed out in favor of a full basement. And 
those who want them, and can afford them, 
should have them. 



WANTS TO KNOW 
By H. H. Siegele 

A reader wants to know a good way to 
construct a hoisting tower. 



teh 





Sets angles and length in 5 seconds. 
% turn of thumb screw locks everything. 
A. 0. McBURNEY, 317 E. 4th St., Los Angel 14, Cal. C- 18 



The accompanying illustration shows by 
the main drawing at the bottom, the first 
section of a wooden tower. The corner 
supports are started first. A detail in a little 
larger scale (out of proportion) is shown to 
the right. A short piece, numbered 1, and 
a longer piece, numbered 2, are shown 
nailed together and set in a concrete base. 
The four corners are anchored to the ground 



THE CARPENTER 



43 



in this way. Care must be taken so that 
just enough space is allowed for the cages, 
or platform lifts, as they are sometimes call- 
ed. After the four corners are started, nail 
the first 2x6 band in place at the bottom, as 
shown by the main drawing. Then nail the 
third piece to each corner, which is number- 
ed 3 in the detail to the right. Notice that 
the corners are constructed so that the nail- 
ing can be done in the most convenient 
way by a right-hand man. The second 2x6 
band is then nailed in place, and the panels 
are X braced. On the main drawing only 
one X brace is shown, but in practice an X 
brace should be placed in every panel. When 
the tower is complete, the X braces, wher- 
ever openings to the cage are necessary, are 
removed. 

When the first section is finished, add 
number 4, shown to the right, to each of the 
corners, and construct the second section of 
the tower. In the same way, continue the 
work from section to section until the tower 
is the required height. At the top of the 
main drawing is shown the pulley beam, 
which is supported by 2xl0's. 

It should be remembered that a hoist- 
ing tower is to be substantially constructed, 
which means that the material must be 
straight-grained and strong enough to sup- 
port any load or strain that the tower must 
carry or withstand. With the corners well 
anchored to the ground, guy wires or cables 
should be placed at intervals of from 25 to 
30 feet, depending on circumstances. 

The guides for the ' cages are shown 
shaded by the bottom part of the main draw- 
ing. The 2x6's to which the two center 
guides are fastened should be noted. The 
outside guides are fastened to the 2x6 bands. 
The cables are pointed out at the top draw- 



ing, while the symbols of pulleys are shown 
in .black. 



WANTS TO KNOW 
By H. H. Siegele 
A reader wants to know the right way to 
place the brace on ledger-and-brace doors, 
with regard to the hinges. 

When the brace acts in compression, it 
should be placed as shown by the door to 



{MFKm "LEADER" chrome-dad 
steel tape 




Famous Lufkira 
Chrome-Clad finish on 
J tape line gives non-glare 

readability — will not chip, crack, peel or corrode. 
Jet black markings sunk below chrome-white 
surface. Vinylite covered case protects against 
water, stains, and scuffs. At all hardware stores. 

Tapes • Rules • Precision Tools 
From Your Dealer 

THE LUFKIN RULE CO. • SAGINAW, MICHIGAN 
132-138 Lafayette St., New York City • Barrie, Orst. 




FOR THE CARPENTER 

NICHOLLS No. 700-A, 100-R and 3-R give you the most com- 
plete yet the simplest to use rafter and framing rules of any 
square on the market! 

FOR THE CABINET MAKER 

NICHOLLS No. TOO Eureka Standard Square gives you all the 
necessary rules and fine graduations needed for your trade. 



Be Satisfied with Only the Best — Insist On 

NICHOLLS MANUFACTURING CO. 
Ottumwa, Iowa, U.S.A. 

SINCE 1896 

FINE TOOLS EXCLUSIVELY FOR THE BUILDING TRADES 




AT 
YOUR 
DEALER 




UNION 
MADE 



44 



THE CARPENTER 



the right, in Fig. 1. But in case the brace 
gives its support by tension, then the brace 
on the door shown to the left is placed in 
the right way. However, tension bracing 
for doors or gates is done mostly with rods, 
wires, etc., while compression bracing is 



/ 



k 



Ledger 



-■Brace 




LEDGER 



Fig. 1 



done with wood; therefore the brace shown 
by the door to the right, is properly placed. 



Fig. 2 shows two of many constructions 
of batten doors. In fact, almost any door 
made of boards can properly be called a 
batten door. Those shown by Fig. 1 are 
batten doors. The term, ledger-and-brace, 
merely distinguishes them from other bat- 



M# 




•Batten Doors 



Fig. 2 
ten doors. When the brace is omitted, they 
are ledger doors, belonging to the batten 
door family. 



"Hang That Door The Professional Way 
Meant Z MARK BUTT GAUGE 

truly a CARPENTER'S friend; 



Cuts a clean, accurate, deep, complete profile on door by striking 
with hammer. Just remove chips. Repeat operation on jamb. Hang 
door. No adjustments or fussing. Precision made of drop-forged, 
heat-treated steel. Standard 3", 3 Va " ond 4" sizes. Agreed by car- 
penters to be almost indispensable as hundreds of testimonials show. 




COMES WITH 
LEATHERETTE CASE 

YOU DO THIS 




Only $1.75 each... 

$3.50 a pair (any two) — 
$5.25 complete set of three. 
If dealer can't supply, send 
only $1.00 with order ond 
pay postman balance plus 
postage C.O.D. (In Canoda 
25c higher per order. No 
C.O.D. in Canada). State 
sizes wanted. Mail coupon 
today. 

U.S. and Canadian Patents 
AND GET THIS 

— ■" - — ■— — — Clip and Moil Today — — — ^— — — s 

E-Z MARK TOOLS, Box 8377, Dept. C, Los Angeles 16, Calif, j 

Please send the E-Z MARK products checked below: 

□ I Gauge-$I.75-SIZE □ Door Jacks @ $17.50 J 

□ 2 Gauges-$3.50-SIZES □ Check or Money Order ' 

□ 3 Gauges-$5.25-SIZES enclosed D Send C.O.D. | 

Name I 

Address * 



E-Z MARK ADJUSTABLE DOOR JACK 



Ideal for journeymen, 

production mills, 

general contractors, 

maintenance shops, 

weather strippers. 

ONLY $17.5C 

DELIVERED, 

PREPAID 





Cify 



Zone 



• city ione State | 



doors up to 8 feet. 
Makes all preliminary work to hanging 
door easy. Simplifies work with sash, 
screen doors, cupboard doors, dutch 
doors. 

E-Z MARK TOOLS 

Box 8377 Dept. C, Los Angeles 16, Cat. 



GIVE THEM THE BEAUTY 
OF FINE WOOD PANELING 





at wallboard cost 

with Gold Bond 

Gypsum Grainboard 



9 Gold Bond is promoting a powerful 
idea to millions of magazine readers 
... an idea that will develop profitable work 
for you throughout the year. 

It's Gold Bond's "Add-A-Room NOW" 
campaign with full page, full color 
ads like the recent Saturday Evening Post 
ad (left) which tells homeowners you 
can give them the beauty of natural wood 
paneling for just a fraction of the cost. 

Fireproof Gold Bond Grainboard gives 
you the chance to sell more jobs 
right now. Thousands of homes have been 
sold with the second floor unfinished. 
Folks are begging for new ideas on 
how to finish off a room or two. Show 
them a sample of Gold Bond Grainboard 
and you've sold a job. 

You'll like working with Gold Bond. It 
saws and nails like lumber — won't 
expand, contract or warp. Comes 
in Knotty Pine, Bleached and Dark 
Walnut. See full size panels at your local 
Gold Bond lumber and building 
material dealer today. 



ADDA-ROOM NOW! 

wr,h (Sold Bond 



NATIONAL GYPSUM COMPANY 

BUFFALO 2, NEW YORK 

Fireproof Wallboards, Decorative Insula- 
tion Boards, Lath, Plaster, Lime, Sheathing, 
Gypsum Roof Decks, Wall Paint, Textures, 
Rock Wool Insulation, Metal Lath and 
Sound Control Products. 



W W UMWOHWHI 



CARPENTER-CONTRACTORS 

INCREASE YOUR 

BUILDING PROFITS 

this proven way. . • 




fe5 



Join the 96,000 other subscribers 
now using AMERICAN BUILDER as 
their monthly guide to sounder, 
more profitable building! 

AMERICAN BUILDER, "the most 
useful book in the light construc- 
tion field," brings you every 
month: 

• Changes and improvements in 
homes and all other types of 
light construction— new trends 
— new designs — new building 
materials— new products— new 
equipment. 

• Designs and plans of modern 
homes— including blueprint and 
list of materials. 

• Washington Newsletter for the 
light construction industry. 

• "Ask the experts," free con- 
sultation service for subcrib- 
ers' individual building prob- 
lems. 

• "Better detail" plates and 
"how-to-do-it pointers"— tested 
ways to save time and get 
better construction. 

• Money-saving ideas; short-cuts; 
new building opportunities. 

In addition, AMERICAN BUILDER'S 
monthly features and serial articles 
bring you a constant source of up-to- 
the-minute information on all the key 
building subjects — remodeling, power 
tools, lumber, asbestos, gypsum, cement, 
plywood— framing garages, homes, farm 
structures, store's, churches, apartment 
buildings— and many, many others! 
Start your subscription now, while the 
extra-low rates are still in effect. Under 
the $5.00 for 3 years rate, you pay only 
14 cents a month! 

— IV1AIL THIS COUPON 

American Builder, Circulation Dept. 
Emmett St., Bristol, Conn. 

Start my subscription at once to AMERICAN 
BUILDER for the period checked below: 

□ Three years, $5. (36 issues) 

□ One year, $3. (12 issues) 



*A*fi: 



^ 



NOTICE 



Name 



Street 

City Zone 

State CA-652 



The publishers of "The Carpenter" reserve tho 
rlcht lo reject all advertising matter which may 
he. In their Judgment, unfair or objectionable to 
the membership of the United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America. 

\ll Contracts for advertising space In "The Car- 
penter," Including those stipulated as nnn-can- 
cellable, arc only accepted subject to the above 
reserved rights of the publishers. 



Index of Advertisers 



Carpenters' Tools and Accessories 

Page 

The American Floor Surfacing 

Machine Co., Toledo, Ohio 48 

Carlson & Sullivan, Inc., Mon- 
rovia Calif. 42 

Henry Disston & Sons, Inc., 

Philadelphia, Pa. 47 

Eliason Tool Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 3rd Cover 

E-Z Mark Tools, Los Angeles 

Calif. 44 

Foley Mfg. Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 47 

The Lufkin Rule Co., Saginaw, 

Mich. 43 

A. D. McBurney, Los Angeles, 

Calif. 42 

Nicholls Mfg. Co., Ottumwa, la. 43 

North Bros. Mfg. Co., Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 47 

Skilsaw, Inc., Chicago, III 4 

Stanley Tools, New Britain, c 

Conn. 3rd Covei 

Swanson Tool Co., Oak Lawn, 

III. 48 

Carpentry Materials 
The Upson Co., Lockport, N. Y. 1 

National Gypsum Co., Buffalo, 

N. Y. 45 

Doors 

Overhead Door Corp., Hartford 

City, Ind 4th Cover 

Technical Courses and Books 

American Builder, Bristol Conn., 46 

American Technical Society, Chi- 
cago, III. 47 

Audel Publishers, New York, 

N. Y. 3rd Cover 

Chicago Technical College, Chi- 
cago, 111. 3 

H. H. Siegele, Emporia, Kans 41 



KEEP THE MONEY 
IN THE FAMILY! 

PATRONIZE 
ADVERTISERS 




Treat yourself to 

a gift of the finest 

hand saw made — 

a Disston. Makes 

better work easier 

to do. The light, 

narrow blade is 

true taper ground 

for easier cutting 

. . . runs with less set 

. . . stays sharp longer 

because it's made of Disston Steel — 

the finest of all saw steels. Both rip 

and crosscut styles. 

A practical gift to 
give a friend a lift I 

Remember the Disston D-23 — or one of 
the other fine Disston Saws or Tools — next 
time you are thinking of a gift for a 
friend. For more information on Disston 
Saws and Tools, write for a FREE copy 
of the Disston Saw, Tool, & File 
Manual. FREE — address: 

HENRY DISSTON & SONS, INC. 

604 Tacony, Philadelphia 35, Pa., U.S.A. 

In Canada, write: 2-20 Fraser Ave. 

Toronto 3, Ont. 

DISSTON. 

the saw most carpenters use 



V;-> 




SEND 

NO MONEY 

MORE THAN 

4000 PAGES 

• 

2750 
PICTURES 



9 BIG COMPLETE BOOKS 

BUILDING, ESTIMATING, CONTRACTING 



Examine this Up-to-Date Edition for 10 days. See how 
these nine books supply easily understood training that 
will help you to get a better job and make more money, 
or start a profitable business for yourself. Think what 
a BIG help it will be to have them handy for use In 
solving all sorts of building problems. 

Learn to draw plans, estimate, do all-new construction 
and modern remodeling to meet fast growing demand. More 
than 4000 pages of practical, pay raising information with 
2750 helpful illustrations, on such subjects as blueprint 
reading, concrete forms, masonry, carpentry, steel square, 
electrical wiring, plumbing, heating, painting, and hun- 
dreds more. 

In our more than 50 years we have never offered mora 
complete building information. Send the coupon TODAY. 
(A year's consulting privileges with our engineers now 
given with these books without extra cost. ) 

AMERICAN TECHNICAL SOCIETY— Publishers Since 1898 
Dept. GA-36, Drexel Ave. at 58th St., Chicago 37, III. 
I would like to examine your 9-Volume Set of Building, 
Estimating, Contracting Books. I will pay the delivery 
charges only, but if I choose I may return them express 
collect. If after 10 days' use I prefer to keep them. I will 
send you $3 and pay the balance at the rate of only $4 a 
month until $34.80 has been paid. Include consulting ser- 
vice as offered above. 

Name 

Address 

City State 

Please attach letter giving employer's name «nd address 
(if self employed give businessman reference). Men In 
service please give home address. 



PILOT HOLES iri o 

hurry with one hand 

and ^YANKEE" 

Automatic Push Drill 



Give yourself an extra hand for 
holding doors, window stop mould- 
ing, hardware and other work. A 
"Yankee" Push Drill bores holes 
fast, easy, one-handed. Spring in 
handle brings it back after every 
stroke and puts a reverse spin in 
the drill point to clear away chips. 
Improved chuck prevents drills 
pulling out. Magazine handle holds 
8 drill points, %" to W- Built for 
years of willing work. Your Stanley 
dealer carries these and other 
"Yankee" Tools. 

Write for "Yankee" Tool Book 



•YANKEE" TOOLS 
NOW PART OF 



[STANLEY] 



THE TOOL BOX 
OF THE WORLD 



NORTH BROS. MFG. CO. 

Philadelphia 33, Pa. 



'Yankee' 
No. 41 




the new SPEED SQUARE 

LARGER IN SIZE 

If you are one of our thousands of customers, you will like 
this improved square even better, with its time saving fea- 
tures. Pivot the corner against the rafter and with an easy 
action swing to cut wanted. 

• USE SAME NUMBER ALL CUTS EACH ROOF 

Invented and developed by experienced carpenters for 
the mechanic who wants a time saving, easy-to-use 
tool. 

Not an extra tool for your tool box. You 
use this Square for all other work. 

Practically unbreakable, 
ig 3/16 inch thick the edge of the Square is 
til for using as gauge for electric hand saw 
hen cutting off studs, etc. 
| FRAME YOUR RAFTERS AS EASY AS 
YOUR STUDS OR JOISTS 

The Rafter Booklet gives lengths for all 
rafters for any building width of feet and 
inches, or any pitch from one inch up to 
24 inch rise per foot run. 

Rust Proof - Light - Strong Aluminum 



erals, non- 
Easy to 
years of use 



3 



^}C (with books) 
•*•* POSTPAID 



$3.50 C.O.D. 



50c FOR BOOKS ONLY. 
MONEY BACK GUARANTEE 



SQUARE: fortop of 

COMMON 7 INCH RISE 



r length books with each square. 

It your dealer cannot supply you, 
send direct to: 



ALSO FORTOP 
HI P OR VAL. 10 
RISE 



OF 

NCH 



Swanson Tool Co. 



9113 S. 53rd Ave. 
Oak Lawn, Illinois 



CASH© 

MAPTTTWTE SAW PTT.TNO 



MACHINE SAW FILING 
PAYS UP TO $3 or $4 an 
hour. With a Foley Saw Filer you can file 
all hand saws, also band and cross-cut cir- 
cular saws. It is easy to operate — simple 
adjustments — no eyestrain. Start AT HOME 
in basement or garage. Patented jointing 
principle evens up all irregular teeth and 
makes an old saw cut just like new. 



Send for FREE BOOK 

"Money Making Facts ' 

No canvassing necessary 
— "I advertised in our 
local paper and got in 
93 saws — I only work 
spare time at present" 
says M. L. Thompson. 
Leo H. Mis writes: "I 
made about $900 in spare 
time last year." Free 
Book shows how you can 
start in spare time at 
home with small invest- 
ment. Send coupon today 
— no salesman will call. 



FOLEYc^w^ SAW FILER fe 



FOLEY MFG. CO., 618-2 Foley Bldg. 

Minneapolis 18. Minn. 

Send FREE BOOK — "Money Making Facts' 

Name 

Address 





G MONEY 

oor surfacing work! Be your 
own boss and keep all the 
profits from your labor! 
Prospects everywhere for 
maintenance and repair in 
present homes. Sanders 
are easy to operate — no 
special schooling — no 
big investment. Earn $35 
to $50 a day . . . indoor 
work. Send for "tell- 
all" booklet entitled 
"Opportunities in 
Floor Surfacing" 
enclosing 2 5 cents 
in coin or stamps to cover handling. 
American Floor Surfacing Machine Co., 
520 So. St. Clair St., Toledo, Ohio. 

American 

FLOOR MACHINES -PORTABLE TOOLS 




Now better than ever Srt 



Stanley No. 923 Bit Brace with 
the NEW self-centering chuck 

A long-time favorite with craftsmen, the No. 923 
Bit Brace with the new self-centering chuck is now 
better than ever. It saves time . . . speeds work. 
Just drop the bit into the square socket, tighten the 
chuck, and the bit automatically centers itself. For 
fast, smooth action . . . long, dependable service, 
get the No. 923 with the new self-centering chuck 
. it has everything you want in a Bit Brace. 
Stanley makes a complete line of Bit Braces. See 
the style and size you want on display at your 
local dealer's. 

OTHER WORK-SAVING FEATURES. Head spins on ball bearings 
ond a bronze bushing. Cocobolo hardwood handle and head. Nut 
and cotter pin lock chuck in place. Forged Universal jaws take both 
round and square taper shank bits to Vz 5 sizes — 6 to 14 
sweep. 




Stanley Tools, 
New Britain, Conn. 

THE TOOL BOX OF THE WORLO 

[STANLEY] 

Reg. U.S. Pol. Off. 



HARDWARE • TOOLS • ELECTRIC TOOLS • STEEL STRAPPING • STEEL 




Before you build another 

STAIRCASE 




Hi*** 



Get an 

STMR 



G&UGl 



Saves its cost in 1 day- 
Does a Better Job in HALF the Time 

The Eliason Stair Gauge takes all the grief and bother 
out of building staircases. In a few seconds you get both 
correct length and angle for stair treads, risers, closet 
shelves, ready to mark board. Each end automatically 
pivots and locks at exact length and angle needed for per- 
fect fit. Length adjustable from 20" up. Saves a day or 
more, increases your profits $20 to $30 on each staircase. 
Fully guaranteed. Circular on request. 

Postpaid (cash with order) 

or C.O.D. plus postage, only . . . 

ELIASON TOOL CO. 

2121 E. 56th St., Minneapolis 17, Minn 



Measure tread in a few seconds for perfect fit. 



^ 




AUDELS Carpenters 
and Builders Guides 

4voIs.$6 

InsideTrade Information 

for Carpenters, Builders. Join- 
ers. Building Mechanics and all 
Woodworkers. These Guides 
give yoa the short-cut instruc- 
tions that you want— including 
new methods, ideas, solutions, 
plans, systems and money sav- 
ing suggestions. An easy pro- 
gressive course for the appren- 
tice and student. A practical 
daily helper and Quick Refer- 
ence for the master worker. 
Carpenters everywhere are us- 
ing these Guides as a Helping 
Hand to Easier Work. Better 
Work and .Better Pay. To get 
this assistance for yourself, 
simply fill in and ^^ 

Inside Trade Information On: man free 

How to use the steel square — How to file and 

set saws — How to build furniture — How to use 

a mitre box — How to use the chalk line — How 

to use rules and scales — How to make joints — 

Carpenters arithmetic — Solving mensuration 

problems — Estimating strength of timbers — 

How to set girders and sills — How to frame 

houses and roofs — How to estimate costs — How 

to build houses, barns, garages, bungalows, etc. 

— How to read and draw plans — Drawing up 

specifications — How to excavate — How to use 

settings 12 13 and 17 on the steel square — How 

to build hoists and scaffolds — skylights — How 

to build stairs — How to put on interior trim — . 

How to hang doors — How to lath — lay floors — How to paint 





AUDEL, Publishers, 49 W. 23rd St., New York 10, N. Y. 

Mail Audels Carpenters and Builders Guides, 4 vols., on 7 days' free 
trial. If OK I will remit $1 in 7 days and $1 monthly until $6 is paid. 
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MUMME 



A Monthly Journal, Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners 

of America, for all its Members of all its Branches. 

PETER E. TERZICK, Editor 

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Established in 1381 
Vol. LXXII— No. 7 



INDIANAPOLIS, JULY, 1952 



One Dolliir Per Year 
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Con tents — 



All Can't Be Executives ----- 5 

Hundreds of corporations are now providing for periodic medical checkups for 
their executives at the expense of the company. They have found that healthy and 
happy executives can produce more. It is about time they recognized the same 
principle applies to workers. 



Let's Stop Crying Wolf 



The present crisis is the most serious one this nation has ever faced. There is 
no need for exaggerating it or embroidering on facts. However, instead of giving 
the people facts, some branches of government— notably the armed forces— keep cry- 
ing "wolf" time after time whenever they deem scare headlines will help them get 
the things they are after. Such a policy is dangerous. 



McGuire Dedication August 9th 



- ' - 12 

On the afternoon of August 9th, the memorial ordered erected over the grave 
of Peter J. McGuire by action of the Twenty-sixth General Convention will be 
officially dedicated at Arlington Cemetery, near Camden, N. J. In his short lifetime 
McGuire did as much for the working man as any person who ever lived. Every man 
who works for a living has benefited from McGuire's efforts, and every one is 
invited to attend the McGuire dedication. 



Blood From Test Tubes 



15 



Over the airways and through the newspapers, the Red Cross is constantly trying 
to interest people in giving blood because the supply available to the armed forces 
is dangerously low. What the situation would be in the event of a bombing of an 
American city is difficult to imagine as blood and its byproducts would be required 
in millions of units. To date, no substitute for blood has been found; but science 
is now working on two promising leads that show considerable promise. 



• .'"•■■• 



OTHER DEPARTMENTS 
Plane Gossip 
Official 
Editorials 
In Memoriam 
The Locker 
Correspondence 
To The Ladies 
Craft Problems 



Index to Advertisers 



* * * 



10 

22 
24 
31 
32 
33 
40 
42 



47 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of 

Congress. Aug. 24. 1912. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for 

in Section 1103, act of October 3, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918. 



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H 



ALL CAN'T BE EXECUTIVES 

AVE YOU had a physical check-up recently? Do you have an occa- 
sional pain in the chest that should be X-rayed, a nagging backache 
that ought to get a going-over by a specialist? You can get these 
things— for free, too— if you know how. It is simple. All you have to do is 
become an executive in one of the nation's bigger corporations. 

Recently the Wall Street Journal ran a feature article on what and how 
American corporations are doing to protect the health of their executives. 
The article revealed that at least 400 American corporations not only pay for 
comprehensive medical check-ups for their key personnel, but also that they 
make these periodic examinations 



mandatory. Of course, it is all done 
at the expense of the company. "We 
discovered that efficient work is re- 
lated to good health," the Journal 
quotes one chief executive as stating. 

According to the Journal article, 
Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company 
of Akron has been checking up on 
the health of its key executives for 
better than ten years. Consequently 
it seems to have pioneered in the field 
of protective medicine designed to 
keep executives functioning efficiently. 

The article quotes Goodyear's chair- 
man, P. W. Litchfield, who takes ad- 
vantage of the free, medical services 
himself, as saying, "My formula for 
success ranks health as No. 1. The 
interests of the company require that 
its key personnel be of good health 
and it is logical that we should have 
a comprehensive, smooth-working pro- 
gram to this end. This program has 
saved Goodyear many millions of dol- 
lars by giving us more efficient per- 
sonnel." 

Litchfield's words seem to be ech- 
oed by the Rrass Hats of somewhere 
between 400 and 500 major corpora- 
tions, all of which adopted one form 
or another of free and compulsory 
health check-ups for all executives. 
About 30,000 of their executives are 
being run through the clinics each 



year at no cost to themselves. The 
companies pick up the tabs for med- 
ical fees as well as for any travel ex- 
penses involved. Says the Journal arti- 
cle: 

"Exactly what value an executive 
health program has in dollars and 
cents is difficult to estimate. But Dr. 
O. T. Mallery, Jr., director of indus- 
trial health at the University of Mich- 
igan, declares that executives "are 
scarce commodities, worth anywhere 
from $250,000 to $500,000 apiece." 
And General Motors' philosophy is 
that the exams 'protect the large in- 
vestment' it has in its executives. 

"Examinations are generally pretty 
comprehensive. For a typical one 
costing around $100, an executive is 
put through a complete medical-his- 
tory check and clinical exam, includ- 
ing blood-chemistry, serological (body 
fluid), electrocardiographic (heart ac- 
tion), metabolism, dental chest X-ray 
and kidney and liver studies. Throw 
in another $30 to $50 and he gets 
specialized X-ray work, such as studies 
of the gastrointestinal tract. All this 
is exclusive of possible travel expenses 
to clinics which the company pays 
also. 

"It isn't any different from what an 
individual can obtain for himself by 
entering any one of the 70 or more 



THE CARPENTER 



clinics throughout the country that 
specialize in this kind of work. What 
makes it unique, however, is the fact 
that the employer takes the initiative 
in urging an executive to look after 
his health and even makes the neces- 
sary clinical arrangements and gets 
the bill. 

"Benefits work two ways, finds a 
president of a large Midwestern oil 
company. Says he: "We get better 
working executives. But it's surpris- 
ing what our program is doing to the 
morale of company bosses. They have 
developed a keener appreciation of 
the need for good health and derive 
a satisfaction from knowing that their 
company is sincerely interested in re- 
taining their services for the longest 
possible time.' 

"Most companies refer their execu- 
tives to clinics and physicians ap- 
proved by their medical directors. 
Some, like Goodyear, are set up to 
do almost the entire job in their own 
company-run hospitals. 'This way,' 
says Dr. L. C. Hatch, medical adviser 
of all Goodyear plants and supervisor 
of the exams, 'it costs us about half 
as much as companies which have to 
send their people to clinics.' 

"Chrysler Corp. sends the men who 
run its business to the Mayo Clinic 
in Rochester, Minn., 'to give them a 
change of scenery.' So does Hotpoint, 
Inc., subsidiary of General Electric. 
General Motors has a list of 63 clinics, 
approved by its chief medical director. 
It has 4,000 men who are eligible each 
year for the examination, by far the 
largest of any company. Republic 
Steel Corp. has an arrangement with 
the Cleveland Clinic to do the job." 

What the corporations spend on 
keeping their top brass healthy was 
not revealed. However, the compa- 
nies seem to find the investment a 
profitable one. The discovery that 
efficient work is related to good health 
should have surprised no one. In 



fact companies should eventually 
learn that good health is as essential 
to the efficiency of a working man as 
it is to the efficiency of a swivel chair 
cowboy. When they do, preventive 
medicine programs for all employes 
will become generally accepted. 

About the time the Wall Street Jour- 
nal article was hitting the streets, the 
President was making a speech to a 
safety conference. In .his speech the 
President revealed that two million 
American workers were hurt on the 
job last year. Some 16,000 of them 
were killed and several times that 
number were disabled. What these 
industrial casualties cost the compa- 
nies and the nation in money alone, 
without giving any consideration to 
the pain and suffering involved, stag- 
gers the imagination. How many of 
these industrial casualties could have 
been prevented by better safety stand- 
ards and equipment must ever re- 
main a mystery. Yet if American corp- 
orations can spend the money to send 
30,000 executives through clinics an^ 
nually, it seems that they can afford 
to provide safer working conditions 
for all employes. 

And now that the corporations have 
found that it is profitable to protect 
the health of their executives, they 
ought to be turning their thoughts to 
protecting the health of their workers, 
too. They would undoubtedly find 
that profitable as well. And, sure as 
shooting, that day will come. 

Once only executives were granted 
annual vacations. Once only top brass 
were included in profit-sharing plans. 
But eventually the companies found 
that the same sauce that fattened the 
goose fattened the gander. Today, 
after a goodly amount of union prod- 
ding, millions of industrial workers 
enjoy annual vacations, profit-sharing 
plans, and other prerogatives that 
were once reserved solely for execu- 
tives. 



Let's Stop Crying "Wolf 

* * * 

ONE of the things in the present national crisis that has long worried 
this journal is the complete lack of confidence which the armed forces, 
the government and the defense agencies have shown in the good 
sense and good judgment of the American people. Instead of giving the people 
facts, the powers-that-be in Washington have fed us propaganda. A cloak of 
secrecy has been thrown around virtually all operations along the Potomac- 
even those which have only a remote connection with national security and 
national defense. 

All this has bred in the minds of many Americans a serious sense of sus- 
picion and even mistrust. Propaganda is no substitute for facts; and the more 
that Washington relies on propaganda instead of facts, the more confused and 
apprehensive the American people will become. 

In this respect, the armed forces ■ 



have been particularly flagrant offend- 
ers. Ever since the end of the last 
war, the various branches of the 
armed forces have been demanding 
(and mostly getting) huge appropria- 
tions for defense purposes. We are 
not questioning the right of armed 
forces to ask for necessary appropria- 
tions, but we do question some of the 
methods they have used to secure 
them. For a long time the "scare" 
technique has been standard operat- 
ing procedure with Army, Navy and 
Air Force. Whenever an appropria- 
tion bill is about to come up before 
Congress the services all vie with one 
another to see which can put out the 
most alarming headlines. Generals 
and admirals knock themselves out 
painting lurid pictures of the threat 
hanging over our heads. Sometimes 
the stories border on the fantastic. 
After the appropriations are made, 
things usually simmer down again. 

Maybe the generals and admirals 
feel that this is the only way they can 
get the money they need, but we 
doubt such drastic steps are necessary. 
Americans are intelligent people. The 



men and women who represent them 
in Congress are mostly alert and cap- 
able. We do not think it is necessary 
to beat them over the head with wild- 
eyed propaganda to make them real- 
ize that the Communist threat is a 
serious one. 

During the last several months 
appropriation bills for the next fiscal 
year have been before Congress. Dur- 
ing that time, increasingly alarming 
stories of Red air supremacy have 
been filling the newspapers and air 
channels. One day last month Con- 
gressman Curtis of Missouri took a 
crack at these stories on the floor of 
the House. 

"I spent four years in the Second 
World War in the Naval Air Force, 
he told his colleagues. "There I 
learned that the basic thing is fuel- 
not only the production of fuel, but 
also transportation of it. No air force 
is more effective than its supply of 
fuel. 

"Do Russians have the petroleum 
and refining capacity to support an 
air force of the size the generals and 



THE CARPENTER 



admirals talk about? Do the Russians 
have the railroad, rolling stock, high- 
ways and pipelines to effectively de- 
liver gasoline and other fuel to their 
air bases? If so, they have performed 
a miracle. 

"I do not believe in underestimating 
the power of an enemy," Curtis de- 
clared, "but I likewise do not believe 
in trying to fool the American people 
when there is no basis for such a 
scare. The American people and Con- 
gress are willing to face up to realities, 
but they are not willing to be bam- 
boozled." 

The last sentence in the above para- 
graph hits the nail squarely on the 
head; the American people and Con- 
gress are willing to face up to reali- 
ties, but they do not want to be bam- 
boozled. And the amount of bam- 
boozling stemming from Washington 
seems to be on the increase day by 
day. 

That the Communist threat is grave 
cannot be denied. Those of us who 
have been in the labor movement 
for 15 years or more are particularly 
aware of the fact, for we learned long 
since how ruthless, treacherous, 
underhanded and vicious Communists 
can be. They have thrown all their 
tricks at us in the last two decades, 
because capture of the labor move- 
ment has been their main goal in 
America. Thousands upon thousands 
of union men were fighting the threat 
of Communist infiltration and coming 
to grips with the hard reality of Com- 
munistic treachery in the Twenties 
and Thirties when a lot of the people 
who are now waving the flag so vigor- 
ously were unaware that Communism 
represented anything more than a 
word in the dictionary. Of all people 
in the nation, union members need 
less bamboozling relative to the men- 
ace of Communism than does any 
Other group. 



Aside from the fact that people do 
not like to be hoodwinked, there is 
another grave danger involved in the 
situation. It is best exemplified by the 
old copy book story of the boy who 
cried "wolf" so often when no wolf 
was around that no one answered his 
cries when a wolf really did appear. 
That could happen to us. If generals 
and admirals are going to continue 
crying "wolf" every time they want to 
put over a program, the cry may not 
get the proper response when the 
wolf really appears at our doorstep. 
Sooner or later the wolf is really going 
to appear. When it does we want to 
be fresh and ready; something we can 
never be if false alarms keep wearing 
us down, just as they did the workmen 
in the copy book story. 

Nor are the armed forces the only 
offenders in this respect. Many of the 
numerous agencies that have been set 
up as a result of the emergency are 
nearly as bad. The fat boys riding the 
swivel chairs in Washington at 
healthy salaries want to justify their 
existence and keep themselves on the 
gravy train. Consequently they have 
to keep the picture looking as black 
as possible. Whenever the pressure 
eases momentarily they have to jog it 
up a little by handing out a scare 
story of one kind or another. 

Then, too, there are the politicians 
who want to use the emergency for 
political advantage. The ins some- 
times try to gain advantage of the 
outs by picturing the situation as too 
desperate to permit the changing of 
horses in midstream. On the other 
hand, the outs try to get in by mini- 
mizing the accomplishments of the ins 
and trying to convince the people that 
the national security can be main- 
tained only by throwing out the ineffi- 
cient ins and putting the efficient outs 
into power. This being an election 
year, the people are being subjected 



THE CARPENTER 



to a particularly heavy dose of this 
sort of political maneuvering. In the 
process, more and more rights are be- 
ing put on ice for the duration. And 
if a lot of people who are bettering 
themselves these days have their way, 
the duration will never end. 

What it all adds up to is that the 
American people are being bamboo- 
zled too much and too often. And the 
results may prove disastrous. If people 
ever lose confidence in their govern- 
ment and their armed forces, planes 
and tanks and guns will not matter 
much for the chances of victory will 
be gone. 

It is the opinion of this journal that 
the American people are fully aware 
of the seriousness of the present situa- 
tion. It is our conviction that the 
American people are ready and will- 
ing to make any sacrifices necessary 
to meet the clear and present danger. 
All they want to know is the facts as 
they really exist. When they do know 
the true facts, they will be far ahead 
of the admirals, generals, and politi- 
cians in putting out the time, effort or 
money needed to insure victory. It 



will not be necessary to prime them 
with propaganda. 

Lest anyone get the impression 
that we do not consider the present 
emergency a serious one, let us make 
it clear that in our opinion the nation 
is in the greatest peril it has ever had 
to contend with in all its history. 
Never before has a potential foe been 
so treacherous and underhanded as 
the Communist orbit is today. Never 
before has so much of the world been 
lined up against us at one time. Never 
before has a more vicious Fifth Col- 
umn existed than today exists in 
America. Added together, these things 
make our plight a serious one. If and 
when war does come, we will be fac- 
ing the hardest fight in our history. 

But let us face the situation square- 
ly, honestly and openly. The crisis is 
desperate enough not to need any 
embroidering by political or military 
Brass Hats. In the long run, embroid- 
ering can only weaken the mental and 
moral sinews of the people, sinews 
which must be maintained at maxi- 
mum strength. 



Income Gains, Salaries Stay At Same Level 

Although total personal income in the U. S. rose in April to an annual rate 
of $258.9 billion, wages and salaries remained the same, the Department of 
Commerce reported. The March rate amounted to $258.2 billion. 

Personal income includes wages, salaries, income from proprietorships and 
partnerships, dividends, interest payments, and rents received by landlords. 

Wage and salaries in the large manufacturing industries decreased about 
$500 million compared with March figures to a yearly rate of $59.5 billion. 

Earnings of proprietors, landlords, and stock and bond holders all rose in 
April over March levels. For the January-April period, personal dividend re- 
ceipts increased 4M per cent over the same period in 1951. 

Meantime, the Wage Stabilization Board began studying a new formula 
that may increase pay checks of many trade unionists as much as 4 cents an 
hour, provided employers agree. A special committee proposed 2 possible 
courses to gear wages to increased output: 

1. Allowing automatic wage increases across the board of about 2 per 
cent per worker per year, or 4 cents an hour— if management agrees. 

2. Permitting increases only when employers and unions show the WSB 
that their productivity is expected to rise in the next 12 months. 



p 



G 



■' 



LANE U055IP 



BEWARE 

From the pen of Peter A. Reilly, Boston 
District Council secretary, comes the timely 
little warning that is as much truth as it is 
poetry: 

Attention good friends and read this draft, 
Of a candidate who rhymes with graft, 

And from his mouth much wind he blew, 
In Nineteen Hundred and Fifty-Two— 

As up the River, and over the State, 
He preaches his venom of fear and hate; 

Against the rights for which we strive, 
As Royalists did in Seventy-Five. 

Beware all workers from far and near; 

Of that phony pretender to Paul Revere, 
Who sped along the river and shore, 

To warn us against our foe of yore: 

Beware good friends, each one, and all— 
Of the names you see on the ballot this 
Fall; 

And remember your friends, and to them be 
true, 
When you cast your vote, in Fifty-Two. 

Remember what McGuire said years ago, 
To help your friends and defeat your foe; 

And also the adage that's old and true: 
Don't kiss the hand that injures you! 







w* 



130. -ggEc» ©I9SI QajL ^TAWJiTz 



"I'm really a non-union white collar 
worker by trade— I'm just doing 
this to earn a living!" 



MUCH ADO ABOUT NOTHING 

We see by the papers that a new effort is 
to be made to weed crooks out of the gov- 
ernment. The last guy who tried to do the 
job decided that the best way to start was 
to investigate the financial standing of all 
people in government. But a lot of Con- 
gressmen thought otherwise. They wanted 
the other fellow investigated but they did 
not want to be investigated themselves. So 
the investigator got the ax. 

Now the new head of the Justice Depart- 
ment is going to do the job, according to 
a lot of Washington propaganda. But there 
will be no questionnaires, and no questions 
that might embarrass anyone. 

For our part, all the furore about the new 
clean up campaign reminds us of nothing as 
much as it does of an old story about a 
north woods farmer. This farmer lived close 
to a defunct railroad that only operated a 
train one time a week to keep its franchise. 

One day when the weekly train was due, 
the farmer noticed one of his calves had its 
foot caught on a trestle on the right-of-way. 
The farmer ran over and tri.ed to release the 
calf, but had no luck. Finally the train came 
along and, since it was barely moving, it 
managed to stop in time. 

• The engineer and fireman got out and 
tried to help the farmer release the calf. But 
they had no luck either. Finally the farmer 
hit on the idea that a toot of the train's 
whistle might frighten the calf into releas- 
ing itself. The engineer thought it a good 
idea, so he returned to the engine and gave 
the whistle cord a long and mighty tug. 

The idea worked. The calf jerked itself 
free but unfortunately it jumped clear off 
the trestle and dashed itself to pieces on 
the rocks below. The farmer looked down 
at his deceased calf for a few seconds. 
Finally he turned to the engineer and said: 

"Wasn't that a hell of a big toot for one 
little calf?" 

• * • 
SIGN OF THE TIMES 

The following conversation was overheard 
at the toy counter of a big department store: 

Lady shopper: "Isn't this rather compli- 
cated for a small child?" 

Clerk: "Madam, this is an educational 
toy designed to prepare a child for mod- 
ern living. Any way he puts it together, 
it's wrong." 



THE CARPENTER 



11 



IT COULD HAPPEN 

Examining officers to first Draftee: "What 
did you do in civilian life? 

Draftee: I mowed lawns, shoed horses, 
milked cows, mixed concrete, laid bricks, 
dug coal, felled timber, painted houses, 
sailed ships, cut hair, made shoes, sold in- 
surance, played saxaphones, baked bread, 
and built barns 

Officer: "I guess we can fit you in some- 
where." Turning to the second draftee: 
"What did you do in civilian life?" 

Second Draftee: "I went to college and 
I got more trophies in the pantie raids than 
any man at Siwash College." 

Officer: "Great, man, great, Report to 
Officer Candidates School at once." 

• * * 
SUCH IS PROGRESS 

For years science has dreamed of chang- 
ing solid matter into energy. At the same 
time it also has been dreaming of turning 
energy into solid matter. When scientists 
learned how to split the atom, they achieved 
their first goal. Now scientists at Brook- 
haven Laboratory are building a huge "cos- 
motron" with which they hope to be able 
to achieve goal number two. 

Putting all this in plain words; science 
is now almost able to blow the world to 
Hell. If the new cosmotron works, they 
hope to be ' able to put the pieces together 
again. 

• * • 
OUR OWN FAULT 

-■ Two women were discussing their hus- 
bands over tea one day. 

"My husband has absolutely no faults," 
said one. "He doesn't drink or play cards 
Or go out nights." 

"Doesn't he even smoke?" asked the sec- 
ond. 

"Only very moderately," replied the first. 
"He does love a cigar after a good dinner 
but I doubt if he smokes two cigars a 
month." 

The thought occurs to us that a lot of us 
working people are like the above husband; 
We love to have good men representing us 
in Congress but we seldom get them be- 
cause we fall down on the simple matter 
of registering and voting when the oppor- 
tunity is presented to us. 

• • * 
PAUP'S PEARLY GEM 

"It is possible for a man to make a fool 
of himself without knowing it," Joe Paup, 
habitue of questionable places, recently said, 
"but not if he is married." 



NOT WITHOUT A ROW 

Using the hysteria whipped up by the 
steel crisis as a cloak, anti-labor interests 
in Washington are doing their darndest to 
get the complexion of the Wage Stabiliza- 
tion Board changed. Their proposal is to 
change the Board from one on which labor 
management and the general public are 
represented equally to one which is com- 
posed exclusively of "neutral" members. And 
we will bet their idea of neutral members 
would be a dilly— some of the steel tycoons 
who still employ goons and spies, a few of 
the more vicious coal operators, and West- 
brook Pegler. 

Anyway, the tripartite complexion of the 
Board will not be changed without an all- 
out fight from the working people of the 
nation. As far as we are concerned the 
present Board is not only fair but efficient 
as well. Before we will tolerate any change 
we are going to act like the Irishman in 
one of our favorite stories. 

This Irishman rushed into a pub one day 
and cried: "Give me a pint before the row 
starts." 

In two gulps he had it down. 

"Give me another pint before the row 
starts," he repeated to the bartender. 

The bartender complied. When the re- 
quest was repeated a third time, the bar- 
tender finally asked: "What row?" 

"I'm broke," calmly replied the Irishman. 



FTFf 



KEEP A^^ETNBLY 
LINE MOVING! 




"With this constant speed-up, how 
come they call this gadget we're 
making a labor-saving device?" 



12 

McGuire Dedication August 9th 

IN Arlington Cemetery, near Camden, N. J., on Saturday, August 9th, 
a beautiful monument to Peter J. McGuire will be officially dedicated. 
To every man who works with his hands for a living, it will be a signifi- 
cant event, for no individual contributed more to the establishment, develop- 
ment and growth of American labor than did Peter J. McGuire. All who have 
benefited from the things McGuire did are welcome to attend. 

The monument was erected by the General Executive Board in conformity 
with action taken by the Twenty-sixth General Convention. 

Of the many great men produced by organized labor, none exceeds 
McGuire in stature, in accomplishments or in results. Born on the lower east 
side of New York 100 years ago on July 6th, McGuire crowded into fifty-four 
short years many lifetimes of service to humanity. 

During the years he was growing up, the exploitation, insecurity and 
misery that surrounded working people of the day appalled McGuire. In- 
wardly he seethed against them, and more and more his attention centered on 
finding ways and means of correcting these evils. As a youngster he was a fine 
student, but the necessity of earning a living for his family cut short his formal 
education. But he never stopped educating himself. He read all the pamphlets 
and books he could lay his hands on. Then one day he heard of Cooper In- 
stitute of New York, a college especially founded to help working people 
acquire an education they could not secure otherwise. 

To young Pete McGuire, Cooper Institute opened up a whole new world 
of books, discussions and debate. He studied the ancient philosophers, delved 
into economics and history and political theory, but all the time his heart 
remained wrapped up in the wage earner and his struggles. All that young 
McGuire learned at Cooper Institute he translated into terms of the wage 
earner and his problems. Whether it was philosophy or economics or politics 
McGuire was studying, he always asked himself the same question: "How 
does this idea affect the man who earns his living by the sweat of his brow?" 

The more he studied, the more young McGuire became convinced that the 
hope of the working man lay in organization. More and more he con- 
centrated his thoughts and his energies on building up a strong and demo- 
cratic labor movement capable of correcting the evils of exploitation he saw 
on every hand. He ate unionism, slept unions, and preached unionism. In 
the final analysis, his enthusiasm, his zeal and his sound thinking contributed 
tremendously to the development of the free and democratic labor move- 
ment as we know it today. No man gave it more. 

Peter J. McGuire has been dead 46 years, but the things he accomplished 
live on, and will continue doing so so long as there is a free America. The 
magnificent monument to be dedicated to him in Arlington Cemetery on 
August 9th, is a fitting one. But there are many more; the United Brotherhood, 
which he founded; the American Federation of Labor which he pioneered 
and kept alive during the first trying years; Labor Day which he first con- 
ceived and brought into reality. 



THE CARPENTER 13 



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tin*/ Mp£neM> o£ ^niebica 

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3TAe ^epiefasU ' Gx@cu/£ve £Boabe( 

M. A. Hutcheson Charles Johnson, Jr. 

Wm. L. Hutcheson Raleigh Rajoppi 

John R. Stevenson Roland Adams 

O. William Blaier Harry Schwarzer 

S. P. Meadows R. E. Roberts 

Albert E. Fischer A.W. Muir 

Frank Duffy Andrew Cooper 



14 THE CARPENTER 

THE LIFE OF PETER J. McGUIRE 



Born in New York, N. Y., July G, 1852. 

Ended his formal education at the age of 11 to help support his 
family. 

Realizing the handicap of a man not skilled in a craft, entered 
the trade of cabinet making and joined the Cabinet Makers Union 
of New York in 1872. 

Attended Cooper Union Institute at night to complete his educa- 
tion. 

Became convinced that the salvation of the wage earner lay in 
organization. 

Unionism became his prime interest in life. 

Recognized the need for one international union of wood workers 
and in June of 1881 issued the first call for a convention in Chi- 
cago, August 8-12 which culminated in the formation of the 
Brotherhood of Carpenters. 

Elected the First General Secretary of that organization and 
served in that capacity twenty years, 1881-1901. 

Preached the need for a national federation and on August 3, 
1881 drafted the fust call for a convention which instituted the 
Federation of the Organized Trades and Labor Unions of the 
United States and Canada in Pittsburgh, November 15, 1881. 

When adverse conditions threatened the existence of the Federa- 
tion of the Organized Trades he led the fight for reorganization 
of that body and through his efforts the American Federation of 
Labor was born on December 8, 1886. 

He was unanimously elected Secretary of the American Federa- 
tion of Labor in 1886-1888. 

Unanimously elected Second Vice-President of the American 
Federation of Labor in 1889; elected First Vice-President from 
1890 to 1900. 

Successfully led the fight for the eight-hour day when in May of 
1890 the American Federation of Labor singled out the Carpen- 
ters to spearhead the movement. 

In the Central Labor Union of New York, on May 8, 1882, he 
first advanced the proposal that "one day in the year be desig- 
nated as Labor Day and be established as a general holiday for 
the laboring classes." The first Monday in September was desig- 
nated by act of Congress in 1894 as a legal holiday. 

Resigned as General Secretary of the United Brotherhood of Car- 
penters and Joiners of America in July, 1901, because of ill health. 

Died in Camden, N. J., February 18, 1906. Buried in Arlington 
Cemetery, Merchantville, N. J., February 21, 1906. 



15 



BLOOD FROM TEST TUBES 

* * * 

IT IS hardly possible to listen to the radio, watch a TV program or read 
a paper these days without encountering an urgent appeal for blood. The 
Pentagon tells us that the armed forces are at least 300,000 pints of human 
blood short of the goal needed to keep supplies at an adequate level. This 
in itself is discouraging. But when one considers the thousands or even mil- 
lions of casualties that might result from a sneak attack on one or two of our 
major cities, it becomes downright frightening. Many might die because 
life-giving plasma was not on hand when it was needed. 

In view of the fact that giving a pint of blood takes very little time, costs 
absolutely nothing, and leaves no bad after effects, it seems ridiculous that 
the Red Cross constantly should have to beg for donors. But that is the way 
it seems to be at the present time. 



It has been estimated that a single 
atomic bomb dropped on a city such 
as Chicago might kill as many as 200,- 
000 and seriously wound 250,000 more. 
Treatment of the injured would re- 
quire at least 19,000,000 pints of 
whole blood or plasma. Is it any won- 
der, then, that the Red Cross is con- 
stantly appealing for blood donors? 

For the time being there is no sub- 
stitute for whole blood or blood plas- 
ma in treating injured people. But 
the situation is on its way to being 
remedied. Two new partial substi- 
tutes are being developed by science, 
and both of them show much promise. 
Both substitutes were first developed 
in Europe— one in Germany and one 
in Sweden. 

After Germany had been knocked 
out of the last war, American scien- 
tists were amazed at the efficient man- 
ner in which German battle casualties 
were restored to full vigor. A little 
investigation disclosed that German 
scientists had discovered a blood sub- 
stitute that was used pretty success- 
fully on at least half a million men. 
The substitute was PVP (Polyvinyl 
Pyrrolidone, if you want to be techni- 
cal about it.) 

Naturally American authorities were 
greatly impressed. Following through 



on the basic research developed by 
the Germans, American chemists have 
succeeded in refining and improving 
the product until now it shows great 
possibilities as a substitute for natural 
blood or natural blood by-products. 

On the other hand, Swedish scien- 
tists too made great progress in de- 
veloping synthetic blood substitutes 
during the war. The Swedish product 
is synthetic derived from sugar. Last 
year, an American firm, Commercial 
Solvents Corporation spent $213,000 
building a pilot plant for further de- 
velopment of this product which it 
calls Expandex. Within the next 12 
months it expects to have a full-scale 
plant in operation. 

Both PVP and Expandex claim a 
number of important advantages over 
natural blood products. Both can be 
used on all types of blood, thereby 
eliminating the matching of types that 
natural blood requires. Both can be 
sterilized so that there is no danger 
of passing viruses or allergies from 
giver to receiver, as sometimes hap- 
pens in natural blood transfusions. 
Both can be stored for long periods 
of time without any deterioration. 
Neither requires refrigeration. Both 
can be made in unlimited quantities 
at a price that should be somewhere 



16 



THE CARPENTER 



in the neighborhood of $5.00 a pint 
as compared to a cost of $35.00 a pint 
for natural plasma. 

The main function of both blood 
substitutes is to restore circulation and 
maintain the blood pressure in badly 
injured or burned patients. In shock 
cases, the volume of blood circulating 
through the system drops sharply. If 
something is not done promptly to get 
better circulation, the patient fre- 
quently dies. In cases of this kind, the 
new synthetics are proving to be very 
valuable. They have also proved effec- 
tive for the treatment and prevention 
of shock resulting from certain kinds 
of surgery. But probably their great- 
est usefulness to date has come from 
treating patients with severe burns. 

When substantial portions of skin 
are burned away on the human body, 
the natural plasma in the blood seeps 
away through injured or broken cap- 
illary walls. This causes the blood 
remaining in the body to thicken and 
thereby flow much less freely through 
the circulatory system. If the process 
goes on long enough or involves too 
much of the body, death usually fol- 
lows. 

In the treatment of severly-burned 
patients, the new blood substitutes 
show greatest promise. They can be 
used to replace the fluid losses and 
thereby keep the consistency of the 
blood close to normal. This keeps 
the blood supply circulating properly 
and thereby keeps patients alive until 
nature begins her natural healing pro- 
cesses. 

Since the bulk of casualties result- 
ing from an atomic explosion would 
be burn cases, the importance of the 
new synthetics can be appreciated. 
The National Research Council is ex- 
pected to stockpile somewhere be- 
tween two and three million pints of 
blood plasma, both natural and syn- 
thetic, to take care of any possible 
emergency. 



However, it should be emphasized 
that the need for whole blood is not 
diminishing. The new synthetics can 
meet some of the medical needs of 
whole blood or by-products rendered 
from whole blood. But in many kinds 
of treatment, natural blood is the 
only answer. Recently, Dr. M. C. 
Winternitz, chairman of the National 
Research Council's Division of Medi- 
cal Sciences, said: "Nothing can take 
the place of whole blood now or in 
the forseeable future." 

The best the new synthetics can do 
is stretch the supply of natural blood 
by substituting for it in those cases 
where they can be used effectively. 
What they do, in effect, is carry pa- 
tients through emergency periods un- 
til proper treatment can be given 
them. 

Perhaps the day will come when 
blood substitutes will be able to do 
every job that natural blood can. But 
that day is not here yet. Consequently 
the obligation of every citizen to give 
as much blood as he can has not di- 
minished. 

. Month in and month out the armed 
forces are becoming increasingly 
alanned over the lack of adequate 
blood supplies. Why this should be 
passes understanding. Giving blood 
is a painless process. It does the giver 
no harm whatsoever. Furthermore it 
costs nothing. Yet the pint of blood 
might well mean the difference be- 
tween life and death for some battle 
casualty. 

If you have never given blood be- 
fore, call up your nearest Red Cross 
Blood Center and find out first hand 
how painless, simple and satisfying it 
is to give a pint. The day may come 
when synthetics will satisfy all the 
needs of the blood banks. However, 
that day is not here yet, and until it 
comes all of us have a moral obliga- 
tion to give as much of our own blood 
as we can. 



17 



BEHIND THE IRON CURTAIN 

Editor's note: Working in Paris there is a small group of former labor leaders 
who escaped from Iron Curtain countries. Recently they banded themselves together 
into "Free Trade Unionists in Exile." Through this organization they are doing fine 
work in smuggling the truth about the free world to the enslaved peoples within 
the Russian orbit as well as by exposing actual conditions behind the iron curtain. 

To correct the many errors and half-truths regarding Communism that have 
developed recently, the Exiles prepared the following analysis of the real situation 
behind the iron curtain. 




N OBSERVER who is sensitive to the social condition in iron curtain 
countries knows that radical changes in the structure of society have 
occurred since communism came to that part of the world. It is 
equally evident that these transformations have been imposed by force and 
are not the result of normal evolution. It is the communist parties who, bol- 
stered by occupation armies and the direct aid of Soviet Russia, have under- 
taken the operation of liquidation— not only of the old social order, but also of 
social groups which formerly supported this bourgeois-capitalist order. (It must 
be pointed out that the bourgeoisie, although small in number, had succeeded 
in the past in taking over power and in keeping it, despite the will of the 
people.) 



THE OLD BOURGEOISIE 

The policy of extermination of 
these social groups— methodically 
planned and systematically carried 
out— is not intended merely to destroy 
their once dominant class character- 
istics. It is intended specially and 
above all to destroy physically those 
individuals who belonged to the 
groups. Just as under Hitler, whole 
groups— ethnic or racial— were out- 
lawed and submitted to an arbitrary 
and violent rule, today one can see the 
Stalinist regimes who call themselves 
Popular Democracies imposing laws 
of exception for those of bourgeois 
origin or of the former landed aris- 
tocracy who must be exterminated. 

At the moment, the results of this 
policy present us with the following 
picture: 

The best known elements of the 
social, political and economic groups 
have been excluded from political 
life. One part has been isolated, either 



in prisons, concentration camps or 
forced labor; another part has already 
been physically exterminated (these 
are the missing, those condemned to 
death and executed, those who have 
died as a result of mistreatment in 
prisons or camps). A few of them are 
under provisional liberty— watched 
day and night, haled before the police, 
questioned and accused eternally of 
having relations with what the com- 
munists call the reactionaries. They 
can find no work, so their very ex- 
istence is precarious. Children of 
bourgeois origin find the doors of 
schools closed to them. For them, 
military service means incorporation 
into units sent exclusively into forced 
labor camps. 

As for those who are sent to death, 
communist policy finds only a new 
occasion for propaganda-making. In 
effect, they are called on for disavow- 
als of their former political actions, 
for blasts against all which is not 



18 



THE CARPENTER 



communist and Russian. That is a 
fairly easy task, since men whose 
social condition has sunk to the bot- 
tom of misery are indifferent or ready 
to lend themselves to anything. 

One can see how these elements 
surrender to the incessant persuasion 
of the communists. For these people 
want to join the society of those who 
work; they want above all else to be 
left in peace. They are, therefore, 
ready to gain that peace by any 
means, even by selling out. Auto- 
matically, they become informers and 
police spies. And sometimes they are 
even capable of an excess of zeal. 

The conclusion becomes inescap- 
able that no action is possible among 
these elements of bourgeois origin. 
Although there are some who resist 
all pressure, we cannot place much 
faith in them. First of all, their deeds 
awake no echoes among the masses 
because of their past; actually, the 
workers and peasants have no con- 
fidence in those who used to govern 
by abuse and violence. They see in 
their actions only the personal motive 
to regain possessions and re-establish 
former privileges. The worker and the 
peasant can only answer them by the 
question: Are you trying to get back 
your lands, your factories or your 
banks? 

In order to economize our forces, 
we must abandon all efforts in their 
direction, because the experiment is 
doomed from the beginning to defeat. 
Only those who know nothing about 
the changes which have taken place 
in the heart of the country and those 
who do not recognize men's attitudes 
would proceed in that manner. 

The activities of western democracy 
should be oriented toward the prin- 
cipal factors which constitute the pop- 
ular democracy: that is, toward the 
peasants, the working masses, the 



technicians and, to a certain extent, 
the intellectuals. 

THE PEASANTRY 

In numbers, the peasants represent 
the most important element of the 
area. However, while their attitude 
demonstrates their hatred for the re- 
gime, they are relatively ineffective 
in deeds. That is because the peasants 
are scattered through the country in 
little communities separated from 
each other by great fields. What is 
more, the regime has effective con- 
trol devices. To watch an entire vil- 
lage, all that is needed is two or three 
militiamen aided by an equal number 
of spies. And the Security forces can 
control the movements of each vil- 
lager outside his community, so that 
contact between communities is vir- 
tually non-existent. 

So far as radio sets are concerned, 
there never were very many, and the 
situation has not improved today, 
Those which were in the hands of 
peasants have been confiscated and re- 
placed by numerous receivers linked 
to the same radio set which is located 
in the town hall or Communist Party 
headquarters, now labelled the cul- 
tural center of the village. Programs 
are prepared purely as demoralizing 
and hate-instilling propaganda. 

The government makes use at the 
same time of another device among 
the peasant masses. This is the use 
of the stool pigeons recruited from 
among the former leaders of the bour- 
geois parties (called historical parties), 
that is, the former leaders of the vil- 
lages. They perform their shameful 
tasks under the whip of economic 
pressure. Actually, unlike in the past, 
the current income of a priest or pas- 
tor, for example, is not enough to pro- 
vide a minimal existence. He cannot 
clothe himself, send his children to 
school because of exorbitant taxes (for 
only children of workers and peasants 



THE CARPENTER 



19 



get free schooling). The priest and 
pastors are and remain bourgeois, so 
far as the communists are concerned. 
So they are submitted endlessly to 
pressure and blackmail. 

Added to all this, the peasants have 
never known a real civic education. 
They have always been considered a 
simple electoral mass, capable only of 
voting so as to assure the election of 
bourgeois party representatives. To- 
day, this lack of civil conscience is 
deplored because it is painful to ad- 
mit that the most numerous mass of 
the country, although in full revolt 
aginst the government, is quite incap- 
able of a conscious action of organiza- 
tion and liberation. Still worse, the 
sporadic and leaderless revolt suits 
the regime down to a T, because it 
provides the government with a pre- 
text for repression and permits it to 
get rid of all those elements deemed 
in opposition or hostile. Besides, the 
whole world knows the tactics and 
morality of communism: It is better 
to arrest a hundred innocents than to 
let a single adversary escape to con- 
tinue anti-communist activities. 

The psychological factor is equally 
important: repression paralyzes all ef- 
forts, not only of opposition, but also 
of the slightest criticism of the regime. 

What all this adds up to is the 
very limited character of peasant re- 
sistance, a resistance which makes 
itself felt particularly in the realm of 
production and all that concerns 
goods and resources. In that respect, 
the peasants create very real difficul- 
ties for the government and their re- 
sistance, for the most part passive, is 
nonetheless effective. 

THE WORKING MASSES 

These days, the weight of the work- 
ing masses is much larger, although 
they remain much less numerous than 
the peasants. Their role becomes 



more and more important in the life 
of the new states built on popular 
democratic lines where everything 
tends toward industrialization. Be- 
sides, the workers have in the past, 
thanks to trade unions, been able to 
acquire a civic education and to com- 
prehend their social situation. They 
have furnished proved democrats, de- 
voted at once to the interests of the 
working class and to true democracy. 
What is more, the very character of 
their work keeps the workers in con- 
tinuous contact with each other, 
which facilitates the exchange of 
ideas and a better understanding of 
their needs. 

This situation creates immense dif- 
ficulties for the communist police con- 
trol groups and any precipitate action 
on their part only results in a greater 
reaction from the workers. 

The state of mind of the working 
class is flatly opposed to the Stalinist 
regime. Despite the promises and 
advantages offered to workers (espe- 
cially those in heavy industry), 90% 
of the workers are against the com- 
munist government and only 10% at 
the most are for it. That does not 
mean that the workers want a return 
to the old days. None of them wants 
to hear of turning back the clock to 
the old governments. Although they 
are aware that the standard of living 
is lower now than in the past, they 
know that morally their position has 
improved. They have not forgotten 
the humiliations inflicted by the so- 
called bourgeois democrats. Com- 
munist propaganda profits from this 
psychological situation in an attempt 
to woo the workers. Since the results 
are uncertain, the communists content 
themselves with the passivity or neu- 
trality of the workers. 

That indicates that a well-led ac- 
tivity is needed to inform them by 
radio of the situation and real outlook 



20 



THE CARPENTER 



of the working classes in the free 
countries, to assure them of the active 
solidarity not only of the workers in 
the democratic countries but also of 
public opinion in the free world, to 
present in detail the aims of the dem- 
ocratic forces for the inauguration of 
a true social democracy. 

This enlightening activity is easier 
to do by radio because the workers 
today own a larger number of sets 
(although this may seem a paradox) 
than ever before. 

The conclusion to be drawn is elo- 
quent: it is by means of the working 
classes that news can be diffused in 
an efficient manner. The majority of 
the workers are of peasant origin and 
maintain constant relations with work- 
ers of the soil, who are relatives or 
friends. In turning toward the work- 
ing classes, emphasis must be placed 
on the unity among those at the bot- 
tom of the social order: the peasants 
and those who work in industry have 
the same aims: liberation from com- 
munist dictatorship. 

THE TECHNICIANS 

The technical groups were trained 
by the old regime. It will take time 
for the communists to create new 
technicians. At this point, they are 
still at the training stage. However, 
whether the old or new technicians 
are concerned, it can be conceded 
that the communists have been able 
to create a psychological climate fav- 
orable to the State. The technicians 
enjoy very great advantage today in 
comparison with the unhappy situa- 
tion of the rest of the population. De- 
spite their traditional training, the 
technicians have been neutral so far 
as the crimes of communism are con- 
cerned. While the workers display a 
steady resistance, the technicians re- 
main immobile, having neither the 
courage nor the desire to jeopardize 
the important advantages they enjoy. 



However, this does not mean that 
the technicians will remain on the 
sidelines indefinitely. It should be 
enough to give them the facts that 
they can easily verify which show 
that no position, no matter how high- 
ly placed, in a communist regime re- 
mains stable. Also they must be told 
that in a true democracy technicians 
are much more respected than in a 
popular democracy and that, besides, 
on the professional level, their role 
is greater and their potentialities 
much more developed. 

ARMED RESISTANCE 

From time to time, the western 
press makes a fuss about what it calls 
resistance in the mountains. The re- 
sult of these reports is to make such 
resistance sound much more impor- 
tant than it actually is. In the first 
place, the resistance is quite limited. 
Its structure demonstrates that it is 
usually imposed rather than chosen 
voluntarily. This form of resistance 
is an indirect result of the govern- 
ment. The persons who belong to it 
are those sought by the police who 
take refuge in the maquis, the brush. 
Their attitude is extremely confused. 
They are more inclined to despair 
than prepare for coordinated and ef- 
fective action. That is in part because 
of the tremendous difficulties under 
which they operate. Effective aid to 
them would mean finding a way to 
get them food and medicines. And 
if that is not done rapidly, they will 
undoubtedly lose very quickly all con- 
fidence in themselves as well as in 
us. 

Already, the government has been 
able to drive a wedge between them 
and the passive population of the 
villages by means of astute provoca- 
tions. Added to that has been the 
transfer of strong militia units spec- 
ially trained for fighting against re- 
sistance in the mountains and control- 



THE CARPENTER 



21 



led by Russian specialists of the M. 
G.B. This is enough to give an idea 
of the conditions which beset a resis- 
tance which becomes ever more des- 
perate as it is forced to accept the 
lack of any immediate prospect for 
improvement. 

THE ESSENTIAL FACTOR 

Once one considers an attempt to 
enlighten public opinion behind the 
iron curtain, one must take into ac- 
count the basic changes that have 
occurred since the imposition of the 
communist regimes. The bourgeoisie 
has practically disappeared— there can 
be no argument about this socially; 
and it is equally true physically for its 
leaders. 

The peasants are without organiza- 
tion and their discontent is not trans- 
lated into action. The only motivat- 
ing force for resistance in the coun- 
tries behind the iron curtain is the 



working class. If there is to be effec- 
tive action, it must take into account 
the increased importance of workers 
in industry. They are capable of car- 
rying with them the peasants, with 
whom they have maintained their 
links. Finally, a struggle for libera- 
tion based on the active participation 
of the working class acquires a de- 
cisive social character. This partici- 
pation is real proof that the libera- 
tion of the country will not entail as 
a corollary the restoration of the old 
social forms which have been de- 
stroyed once and for all and whose 
elimination is at last accepted by all. 
The fundamental aim of all activity, 
therefore, ought to be to recruit the 
workers on the side of democracy. 
The communists already have done 
much to bring this about. An attempt 
to isolate the working class from the 
communist propaganda would be de- 
cisive. 



MAN BITES DOG 



"Introduction of the union makes the management clean house. Unions 
keep management on its toes. If there is too loose a hand, management gets 
casual about hiring, layoffs and the like. The end result of unions is the sta- 
bilization of production and pensions— as well as greater profits." 

Who said that? Some labor agitator? 

No, it was William McCord, director of industrial relations for Personal 
Products, Inc., addressing a group of seniors in Highland Park High School, 
Highland Park, N. J. 

And that's not all. McCord chided the students for swallowing industry 
propaganda thrown at them in the newspapers. 

"You're as anti-union a group of young people as I've ever met," he said. 
"You've been reading too many newspapers. Management and labor no longer 
meet with their hands on their guns in their pockets. They have become econ- 
omists. 

"Unions and management work out their problems jointly, and their differ- 
ences are usually not fundamental, although there are conspicuous excep- 
tions." 

McCord was the management representative on a labor relations panel 
held at the school. Appearing with him for labor was Edward G. Wilms, who 
agreed that "a good healthy union is one of the best assets management can 
have." Moderator was William Vanderzeev, a student. The panel was arranged 
by Hamilton Stilwell of the Institute of Management and Labor Relations of 
Rutgers University, assisted by Miss Bessie Cushman, history teacher at the 
school. 



Official Information 




General Officers of 
THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS 

of AMERICA 

General Office : Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General President 

M. A. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



First General Vice-President General Secretart 

JOHN R. STEVENSON ALBERT E. FISCHER 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. Carpenters' Building. Indianapolis, Ind. 



Second General Vice-President General Treas0rer 

O. WM. BLAIER S. P. MEADOWS 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Executive Board 
First District, CHARLES JOHNSON, Jr. Fifth District. R. E. ROBERTS 

111 E. 22nd St., New York 10, N. Y. 4324 N. 48th St., Omaha, Nebr. 



Second District, RALEIGH RAJOPPI Sixth District. A. W. MCIR 

2 Prospect Place, Springfield, New Jersey Box 1168. Santa Barbara, Calif. 



Third District, HARRY SCHWARZER Seventh District. ANDREW V. COOPER 

1248 Walnut Ave., Cleveland, O. 133 Chaplin Crescent, Toronto 12, Ont., Canada 



Fourth District, ROLAND ADAMS M. A. HUTCHESON, Chairman 

712 West Palmetto St., Florence, S. C. ALBERT E. FISCHER, Secretary 



All correspondence for the General Executive Board must be sent to the General Secretary 

Notice to Recording Secretaries 

The quarterly circular for the months of July, August and September, 
1952, containing the quarterly password, has been forwarded to all Local 
Unions of the United Brotherhood. Recording Secretaries not in receipt of 
this circular should notify Albert E. Fischer, Carpenters Building, Indian- 
apolis, Indiana. 



Convention Call 



In accordance with the provisions of the Constitution of the Trades and 
Labor Congress of Canada, you are hereby notified that the Sixty-seventh 
Annual Convention will be held in the City of Winnipeg, Manitoba, com- 
mencing at 10 A.M., Monday, August 18, 1952, and continuing daily until 
the business of the Convention is completed. 



THE CARPENTER 23 

REGULAR MEETING OF THE GENERAL 
EXECUTIVE BOARD 

Carpenters' Building 
Indianapolis, Indiana 
April 30, 1952 
Regular meeting of the General Executive Board was held at the General Office, 
Indianapolis, Indiana, beginning on the above date. Chairman M. A. Hutcheson presided. 
The General President reported fully on all matters of importance to the Organization 
which developed since the previous meeting of the Board. 

Citation Honoring 
WILLIAM L. HUTCHESON, GENERAL PRESIDENT EMERITUS 

William L. Hutcheson for thirty-six years has guided the destiny of 
the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America as General 
President— a term of office covering more than half the period since the United 
Brotherhood was instituted. 

Those thirty-six years have been outstanding in the history of the United 
Brotherhood. 

The courageous and able leadership of William L. Hutcheson has been in a 
large measure responsible for the solid growth achieved by the United Brother- 
hood in both membership and financial stability during the past four decades. 

Anti-labor legislation and anti-union drives have never influenced William 
L. Hutcheson to compromise his union principles or abandon his union ob- 
jectives. 

The services of William L. Hutcheson as General President of the United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America has confounded his 
enemies, and maintained our prestige throughout the world. 

No man in the nation has contributed more to the growth of organized 
labor, both in the United States and die world, than has William L. Hutcheson. 

William L. Hutcheson in serving as General President Emeritus, out of 
the richness of his experience, the wisdom of his years, is still being called 
upon for guidance and counsel. 

In recognition and appreciation of these sterling qualities as well as the 
noble services rendered, 

The General Executive Board by unanimous action on April 30, 1952 
bestows upon William L Hutcheson, General President Emeritus, Life Mem- 
bership in the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America. 

At the February, 1952, meeting of the General Executive Board communications were 
read in reference to case filed by the United Brotherhood with the Executive Council of 
the American Federation of Labor at its January, 1952, meeting, regarding the Inter- 
national Association of Machinists filing unfair labor practice charges against our Brother- 
hood, as well as our Local Unions under the Taft-Hartley Law. 

The Board was informed as to further activities on the part of the Machinists Organiza- 
tion and by unanimous action of our General Executive Board, the General President is 
to exercise his full authority to protect the interest and jurisdiction of the United Brother- 
hood. 

Communication from Carpenters District Council of Jacksonville, Florida and Vicinity 
requesting some financial assistance in a National Labor Relations Board case in which 
the Trial Examiner rendered an intermediate decision against their Council was read. 
After carefully considering the request same was referred to the General President for 
further disposition. 

The General Representatives of the United Brotherhood met during the sessions 
of the Board. Many subjects were discussed in connection with their assignments, also 
policies of the Wage Stabilization Board as well as the Construction Industry Stabilization 
Commission procedures. Likewise, they were advised as to procedures that are to be 

(Continued on page 29) 



Editorial 




Not Belonging To A Union Was The Big Mistake 
In the women's magazines of today you are likely to find most anything 
from how to make bathroom curtains out of old inner tubes to how to make 
inner tubes out of old bathroom curtains. However, in a recent issue of one 
of the leading female magazines we found something entirely new— an editorial 
on the need for unions. 

It was not exactly an editorial. For that matter, it did not even mention 
unions at all; but to our way of thinking it pointed up the evils that can be- 
fall an unorganized worker more eloquently than anything we have read in a 
long, long time. 

This particular magazine runs a feature called "How America Lives." Each 
month it takes one family and tells you all about it; how it lives, how much 
money it has to live on, how the money is spent, etc., etc. Sometimes the 
family chosen is in the bucks. Sometimes it is not. About all the feature proves 
is that all of us have our troubles. 

In the June issue of the magazine, the family chosen for dissection was 
that of a bank teller living in New Jersey. If you think you have troubles, 
listen to his. As a young man he started working in this particular bank. Soon 
he married and had a family well underway. By the time he had been at the 
bank 12 years he made a mistake— a justifiable on at that. 

It seems a forged check for $80.00 came across his desk, and he honored 
it in good faith. When the check was found to be a forgery, the president of 
the bank and half a platoon of vice-presidents tore their hair and agitated 
their ulcers into a turmoil. After giving the forged check a microscopic ex- 
amination, they all agreed it was a perfect job and that the teller had no way 
of identifying it as non-kosher. 

However, they came to the collective conclusion that the teller would have 
to be punished to set an example for the rest of the employes. As a result, 
they cut his salary from $55.00 per week to $25.00 per week. That was 18 
years ago. Only recently has he gotten back to the same wage scale he was 
getting in 1934. For an $80.00 mistake he was penalized up to $1500 a year 
for 18 years. 

To the eternal gumption of the teller, he had the intestinal fortitude to 
quit. But the year was 1934 and he had several children by that time. While 
his meager savings lasted he scoured the country for work. But as those of 
us who are old enough to remember 1934 can well realize, there was no work 
to be had in that year. Eventually economic necessity forced him to return 
to the bank and the $25.00 per week. By working hard, double-checking all 
papers and keeping his nose clean he has managed to keep himself at the 
$25.00 level. His earning may have climbed back to $55.00 per week but the 
cost of living has climbed much faster than his salary has. In buying power, 
$55.00 per week in 1952 is hardly the equivalent of $25.00 in 1934. 



THE CARPENTER 25 

Could there possibly be a better editorial for unionism? Here is a man 
who made an honest mistake. Even his bosses admitted that it was impossible 
to detect the forgery with the naked eye. But he made a mistake, nevertheless. 
So for 18 years he gets penalized up to $1500 a year to pay for his $80 mistake. 

Of course, in the book of the National Association of Manufacturers he 
may rate as a sort of a hero. Isn't he one of those rugged individualists who 
does not need any nasty old union to help him fight his battles? Isn't he a red- 
blooded, 100% free American citizen who does not have to "pay tribute to 
some union boss?" 

If every worker in the country who made an $80 mistake was penalized 
$1,500 per year, the going wage scale in the nation would scarcely average 
$30 per week. But most workers have unions to insure that they are treated 
fairly. Everyone who does anything is bound to make a mistake occasionally. 
When a worker makes an honest mistake, he is usually sorrier than anyone 
else. Certainly no employer is entitled to penalize him 500% a year to pay 
for it. And no union worthy of the name would ever permit such a gross in- 
justice to be saddled on one of its members. 

The next time you read some NAM propaganda telling you how unneces- 
sary unions are in this enlightened age, how dictatorial unions are, how mon T 
opolistic unions are, how blessed are the advantages of rugged individualism, 
just remember the case of the New Jersey bank teller who paid out some- 
thing like $25,000 over 18 years for making an $80 mistake. Or perhaps we 
should have said "for not belonging to a union," because everybody will make 
an occasional mistake and certainly no union would permit such a rank and 
vicious injustice to be saddled on one of its members. Maybe his real mistake 
was in not belonging to a union. 

•— 

A Situation That Bears Watching 

It is no exaggeration to say that unions are under the most merciless attack 
seen since the 1920's. On every hand they are being villified and besmirched 
by vested interests and those who do their bidding. Newspapers, radio and 
TV are constantly laying all of the ills that beset the nation at the doorstep 
of organized labor. The clamor for new and more restrictive anti-labor legis- 
lation is being whipped up on all sides by seemingly organized propaganda. 

Those of us who can remember back to the 1920's have some justification 
for feeling that history may be repeating itself. Organized labor came out of 
World War I numerically strong but weak in internal solidarity. Millions of 
new members had been taken in during the war who knew little or nothing 
of the history, aims and ideals of organized labor. Taking advantage of this 
situation, the traditional enemies of labor opened up a blistering campaign of 
anti-unionism. They devised the mis-named "American Plan," which was noth- 
ing more or less than an open shop drive. The American Plan wrapped the 
flag around the open shop. Looking at this distance it seems hard to believe, 
but the plan was so well financed and propagandized that in a few years the 
total strength of the labor movement was cut almost in half. 

Except for a hard core of union men who had been through the mill before 
World War I, the plan might have succeeded 100%. It was the tough, mili- 
tant union men who had had first hand experience with the blacklist, yellow 



26 THE CARPENTER 

dog contracts, labor spies and professional strike breakers who refused to fall 
for the heavy anti-labor propaganda. They stuck by their unions and they 
fought the good fight through thick and thin. In the end, they held the labor 
movement together and kept it functioning despite injunctions, wage cutting, 
company unionism and all the other devices that were thrown against them. 

Is 1952 a repetition of 1922? There are many indications that it may be. 
Organized propaganda against labor is constantly mounting. Runaway shops 
moved to the unorganized South, court-backed raids on union treasuries, anti- 
labor slogans and committees are all parts of the overall anti-labor pattern. 

Once more patriotism seemingly is being used as an anti-labor weapon. 
Some of the most vicious attacks on fundamental union rights are being 
directed against unions which are out-and-out Red in leadership. This puts 
the vast bulk of the unions which, like our own Brotherhood, have realistically 
fought communistic infiltration for years, in an unhappy position. It goes 
against the grain to lend aid and comfort to unions which obviously are under 
Red domination. On the other hand, if basic union principles are allowed to 
go by default, all organized labor will suffer the consequences. It may or may 
not be an accident that the assaults on union rights are directed against the 
Red unions who merit little sympathy from any true American. 

In a recent issue of the Catering Industry Employe, Hugo Ernst, brings 
up a point in question. Last March the president of the United Public 
Workers, an independent union of government workers which has consis- 
tently hewn closely to the Moscow line, was cited for contempt of Congress 
because he refused to turn over his membership files to a Congressional 
Committee. By the time this is in print he may be serving a jail sentence. 

When this UPW officer was subpoenaed by the McCarran Committee, he 
was asked to produce certain union records. He turned over to the committee 
all the financial files of the union. Likewise he turned over other pertinent 
union data. But when it came to turning over the membership list, he refused 
on the grounds that even the Taft Act respected the right to privacy. Now he 
is facing indictment for refusing to do so. 

The right of privacy is something it took organized labor generations to 
achieve. It is something unions must maintain if the blacklist, labor spying 
and all the evils of fifty years ago are not to be brought back. That the bur- 
den of defending the right of privacy has fallen on the shoulders of a union of 
dubious standing is unfortunate. It could be that it was even planned that way 
by smarties who knew that such an attack on a bona fide union would raise 
a storm of protest that could not be denied. 

Unfortunately a precedent is a precedent, whether a legitimate union or 
a phony one was involved. A basic right whittled away from a questionable 
union can soon be made applicable to a legitimate one. 

Therefore, it will be wise to watch all proceedings against unions carefully. 
No organization in the nation has opposed communism longer or more effect- 
ively than has the United Brotherhood. No organization has a better concept 
of the treachery, underhandedness and viciousness of communism than has 
the United Brotherhood. But the use of Red unions as vehicles for whittling 
away basic union rights must not be allowed. 



THE CARPENTER 27 

Is FHA Next? 

Is still another Washington scandal brewing— this time in FHA? At least 
one observer, Charles Abrams, who has been close to the whole housing pic- 
ture, thinks so. Writing in the June 2 issue of the New Leader, Abrams makes 
some disturbing charges. 

According to Abrams, fully a third of mortgages on American homes are 
now backed by FHA financing. At the present rate of increase, 15 years from 
now FHA guarantees will stand behind practically every home mortgage in 
existence. Yet FHA was started in 1934 as a sort of temporary pump-priming 
project venture worked out by the government and speculators to give housing 
a quick shot in the arm. At the same time a second scheme was devised under 
which builders of speculative rental units could also receive government- 
backed credit. Practically all rental units are now being constructed through 
FHA financing. 

On the surface, all this may appear as beneficial, Abrams points out, but 
underneath, special privilege, favoritism and worse have grown up. Uncle 
Sam, he says, will one day wake up holding the empty bag. In part, Abrams 
says in his article: 

"But the mortgage lenders were not the only beneficiaries. Soon thereafter, 
appraisals were rigged so that the mortgage exceeded the cost of the building. 
The mortgage-lender didn't care, for the mortgage was insured by the Federal 
Government. A host of speculative builders were enabled to build without 
any investment of their own, and to draw out, as net profit from the Govern- 
ment-insured mortgage, anywhere from 10 to 20 per cent of its face amount, 
besides owning the rental housing projects. In the case of the small homes 
sold, the 10-per-cent down payment was so much added velvet. 

"Government expansion in the mortgage-lending and building fields has 
thus given rise to four powerful interests bent upon securing the continuity 
of their insurance and bounty: Builders, mortgage-lenders, savings and loan as- 
sociations, and the building-materials group. These are organized into a lobby 
chain which is referred to as the Real Estate Lobby. Actually, it has become 
one of the most important pressure groups in Washington. In point of fact, it 
represents few real-estate investors. 

"The front for this organization is a group of home-builders and brokers, 
operating as the National Association of Real Estate Boards. Under the 
arrangement, the lobby defends the Government agencies and works for their 
appropriations in Congress. The Government agency, in turn, repays the 
lobby by reducing building standards, thereby enhancing private profit, and 
selling the idea of indiscriminate home-ownership as a national policy. The 
Government agency also acts as an umbrella for the protection of these entre- 
preneurs against prosecution for fixing interest rates, stifling competition and 
committing other violations of Federal law. 

"The FHA commitment has become a saleable commodity in the open 
market. Land with only a nominal value when purchased by a speculator has 
been peddled in the open market for profits ranging from $30,000 to half a 
million dollars. The reason is that the FHA commitment automatically en- 
ables the speculator to reap from the insured mortgage loan far more than 
the building costs. He can therefore sell it at once. Approval of a loan by a 
small-time Government servant in a locality can thus make a man a tycoon 
overnight, without his ever wasting the slightest effort in building the project. 



28 THE CARPENTER 

The Federal guarantee under the FHA has even been used to develop hotels 
in some parts of the country, despite the fact that the purpose of FHA never 
intended lending its credit for building commercial enterprises. 

" 'Dummy leases' " have now become routine. Under this device, specula- 
tors, who buy land at nominal prices, lease it to themselves through dummy 
corporations at fantastic rentals. A project is then built on the leased land. 
Buildings are erected on land which had little or no value at the time the 
lease was made. As a result, the rent which was only a paper entry before is 
secured by the building project. The builder then raises a Government-insured 
mortgage for a higher amount than the cost of the building. The speculator 
makes a double profit— first, by getting more than the project cost from the 
mortgage funds on the leased project, and then by cashing in on the land on 
which the leased project stands." 

These are serious charges. Shortly hearings on proposed new FHA appro- 
priations will be held. Uncle Sam could profitably give the entire FHA setup 
a thorough going over before throwing in any more money, if even one-tenth 
of what Abrams charges is true. 



Improved Purchasing Power the Answer 

An Eastern firm recently announced that it is manufacturing a 500 H. P. 
electric motor capable of coming to a full stop in three revolutions and rever- 
sing in 8/10's of a second. It is designed to make factories more automatic 
so that they can turn out more goods with fewer workers needed to attend 
the machine than they did on the old assembly line basis. The giant motor is 
capable of carrying materials to other machines, pausing for an instant while 
the materials are processed, then carrying them down the production line for 
further processing— all this without being touched by the human hand. 

Everywhere in our factories, construction and transportation industries, 
mines and even agriculture, one worker is doing the job \hat many workers 
formerly performed— thanks to improving tools and automatic machines. But 
because these machines have the potential to produce more, gives no as- 
surance that they will be used to capacity. There must first be a rising demand 
for their products. And that demand must come from consumers with money 
in their pockets. The machines themselves, however efficient, can't buy or 
consume their own products, nor provide the raw and finished materials 
needed for their special forms of production. 

Our private enterprise system then, can continue to thrive only as long 
as it maintains a maximum purchasing power among the most people, to buy 
and consume the products of our increasingly productive factories and fields. 
But to buy, they must first have jobs at good wages. Over and above this, 
they must have certain forms of security or insurance to assure continued 
purchasing power in periods of unemployment, illness, old age and the like. 

This is where a strong labor movement comes in. Without its expert col- 
lective bargaining processes which obtain for the worker a fair share of the 
total productivity, and give him larger purchasing power, an automatic pro- 
ductive economy becomes a Frankenstein monster that could destroy the 
private enterprise system and completely throw our national economy out 
of balance. Just why so many owners and managers of industry refuse to see 
this imponderable in its proper perspective is one of the strangest paradoxes 
of our times— St. Louis Labor Tribune. 



THE CARPENTER 29 

(Continued from page 23) 

followed in cases that are docketed with the Jurisdictional Board of Awards and the 
importance of the promotion of our Union Label. 

The General President informed the General Executive Board of the situation existing 
in the flood areas as a result of the flood waters in the midwest area and that some 
financial assistance was necessary. Upon motion the Board referred the entire matter to 
the General President for whatever attention he deems necessary. 

The committee appointed at the last meeting of the General Executive Board on 
arrangements for the dedication of the P. J. McGuire memorial at Arlington Cemetery near 
the city of Camden, New Jersey, which will be held on August 9, 1952, reported 
that the monument will be completed this month and that final arrangements have been 
made in furtherance to the dedication. As previously indicated Local Unions, District 
Councils, State and Provincial Councils will be further informed as to the dedication of 
the memorial. 

Renewal of bond on Assistant Superintendent of Carpenters' Home, Lakeland, Florida, 
in the sum of $20,000.00 through the United States Fidelity and Guaranty Company of 
Baltimore, Maryland for one year, ending March 10, 1953. Same was referred to the 
General Secretary. 

Renewal of bond on the Chief Clerk of the Bookkeeping Department of the United 
Brotherhood in the sum of $10,000.00 through the Capitol Indemnity Insurance Company 
of Indianapolis, Indiana, for one year, ending April 1, 1953. Same was filed with the 
General Secretary. 

Communications from Central Washington District Council Lumber and Sawmill 
Workers, Wenatchee, Washington, appealing for financial assistance for legal fees and 
expenses which involves Local Union 2740 and its members of Ellensburg, Washington 
was,, upon motion, referred to the General President. 

The annual report of the General Secretary was submitted to the Board and upon 
motion was filed for future reference. 

At the 19th General Convention of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners 
of America, which was held in Ft. Worth, Texas in September, 1916, General Secretary 
Duffy was made Historian of the United Brotherhood. 

At subsequent conventions, as well as meetings of the General Executive Board, refer- 
ence was made to the preparing of the history of the Brotherhood. 

There is prepared now in preliminary stage the history of the Brotherhood from 1881 
to 1941, also history of carpenters' organizations prior to the time the Brotherhood was 
instituted. 

This manuscript was turned over to the General Secretary and brought to the atten- 
tion of our General Executive Board, after which it was decided that the General Secre- 
tary is to continue preparation of same in order that the history may be brought up to date. 

The General Executive Board was complimented on the arrangements for the Testi- 
monial Dinner to Wm L. Hutcheson, General President Emeritus, which was held May 3, 
1952 in the City of Indianapolis, Indiana. 

Appreciation was also shown for the splendid manner in which the occasion was 
celebrated. Many friends, as well as national and international officers and representatives 
from Local Unions, District, State and Provincial Councils were present on the occasion. 

Appeal of Local Union 577, Charleston, South Carolina from the decision of the 
General Treasurer in disapproving the death claim of John P. Middleton for the reason 
he was not in benefit standing at the time of death was considered, and the decision of 
the General Treasurer was sustained. 

Appeal of Local Union 710, Long Beach, California, from the decision of the General 
Treasurer in disapproving the death claim of Edward F. Fitzgerald for the reason the 
statute of limitations had expired in the filing of said claim was considered. The decision of 
die General Treasurer was sustained. 

Appeal of Local Union 3189, Preston, Ontario, Canada from the decision of the General 
Treasurer in disapproving the claim for funeral donations of Charles Bidwell for the 
reason the Local Union was in arrears and out of benefit standing at the time of death of 
the individual was considered. The decision of the General Treasurer was sustained 



30 THE CARPENTER 

Appeal of Local Union 1166, Fremont, Ohio from the decision of the General Treas- 
urer in disapproving the claim of Ralph A. Guptill for funeral donations which claim was 
not filed within six months from the date of death per Section 53, Paragraph B was 
considered. The decision of the General Treasurer was sustained. 

Appeal of Local Union 3189, Preston, Ontario, Canada from the decision of the 
General Treasurer in disapproving the claim for funeral donations of Charles M. Lehman 
for the reason the Local Union was in arrears and out of benefit standing at the time of 
death of the individual was considered. The decision of the General Treasurer was sustained. 

Appeal of D. G. DeMott, member of Local Union 1921, through L. U. 1921, Hemp- 
stead, New York against the decision of the General Treasurer in disapproving the death 
claim of G. M. DeMott for the reason the statute of limitations had expired in the filing 
of said claim was considered, and the decision of the General Treasurer was sustained. 

Communication from "Care" Co-operative for American Remittance to Europe, Inc. 
requesting that we participate in dieir program in having assembled and packed a new 
CARE apprentice carpenter kit, as a medium for apprentices in West Germany and Berlin. 
After some discussion the communication was received and filed. 

Communication from the Commercial Telegraphers' Union, Washington, D. C, wherein 
they request an outright donation as well as a loan to their "Union Strike Fund," was 
considered and upon motion filed. 

A sub-committee of the Board was appointed by the Chairman to review records 
of the Brotherhood in connection with quarterly audit of books and accounts. The 
committee appointed was Charles Johnson, Jr., A. W. Muir and R. E. Roberts. The com- 
mittee reported they found same in good order. 

There being no further business to be acted upon, the Board adjourned on May 6, 
1952 to meet at the call of the Chairman. 

Respectfully submitted, 

ALBERT E. FISCHER, Secretary 



PROTECTION FROM OUR FRIENDS 

The Committee for Economic Development has referred to itself from time 
to time as an organization of the more progressive, forward-looking business 
men. The stated purpose of the CED is to help determine policies that will 
encourage the attainment of high production and employment within the 
framework of a free society. 

Last year the CED proposed additional taxes of $10,000,000,000, $5,000,- 
000,000 of which were to be raised through a 3 per cent increase in excise taxes 
on liquor, tobacco, autos, refrigerators, and other consumers' durables. 

The CED further suggested that these new or increased excise taxes should 
be excluded from the cost of living in determining future wage increases. So 
John Q. Citizen was to have his cost of living boosted, but was to forget about 
a raise. 

The CED also knew tax loopholes existed in 1951 which, if closed, would 
result in increased tax revenue, but it opined consideration of these loopholes 
would cause delay, so other tax increases should be enacted first. 

Now, in 1952, the CED again believes the budget should be reduced as 
much as possible. If, however, the budget can't be balanced, the CED urges a 
new tax— preferably a selective federal sales tax. 

And the loopholes, which continue to permit savings of from $4,500,000,000 
to $6,000,000,000 yearly by certain privileged taxpayers? 

Ah, but that was last year. This year it appears that loopholes have ac- 
quired the sanction of custom. Why should the CED alienate its constituents 
who feel a sales tax is so much more respectable and even more democratic, 
because, don't you know? "Everybody pays it." 

If these are friends— may we be protected from them!— Los Angeles Labor 
Citizen 



$ n ffi tm&xxum 



Not lost to those that love them, 
Not dead, just gone before; 



They still live in our memory, 
And will forever more. 



t&t in IJ^arx 



The Editor has been requested to publish the names 
of the following Brothers who have passed away. 



GEORGE AKERS, L. U. 871, Battle Creek, Mich. 
GUIDO ANDREOTTA, L. U. 608, New York, 

N. Y. 
E. F. BALLINGER, L. U. 944, San Bernardino, 

Calif. 
ODELL D. BARNES, L. U. 56, Boston, Mass. 
FRED L. BATES, L. U. 74, Chattanooga, Tenn. 
JOHN BEER L. U. 488, New York, N. Y. 
AUBREY L. BEERS, L. U. 2435, Inglewood, Cal. 
ERNEST M BELANGER, L. U. 517, Portland, 

Me. 
JOSEPH BENDONI, L. U. 67, Roxbury, Mass. 
JOHN R. BETTS, L. U. 200, Columbus, Ohio 
GEORGE E. BLACK, L. U. 1565, Abilene, Tex. 
WILLIAM T. BLOUNT, L. U. 132, Washington, 

TAYLOR A. BOWLES, Sr., L. U. 101, Balti- 
more, Md. 
H. BREWER, L. U. 103, Birmingham, Ala. 
OSCAR CARLSON, L. U. 488, New York N. Y. 
LOUIS F. CISTOLDI, L. U. 40, Boston, Mass. 
DAVID R. COLEMAN, L. U. 301, Newburgh, 

N. Y. 
ROY COLEMAN HILLIARD, L. U. 1518, Gulf- 

port, Miss. 
DOMINIC CORSO, L. U. 40, Boston, Mass. 
ERNEST DAVIS, L. U. 74, Chattanooga, Tenn. 
WALTER DEAN, L. U. 322, Niagara Falls, 

N. Y. 
A. J. DEDMAN, L. U. 5, St. Louis, Mo. 
FRANK L. DIXON, L. U. 472, Ashland, Ky. 
J. C. DO AN, L. U. 1507, El Monte, Calif. 
H. A. DOVER, L. U. 103, Birmingham, Ala. 
EDWARD A. DUG AN, L. U. 517, Portland, Me. 
JOHN H. ELDRIDGE, L. U. 74, Chattanooga, 

Tenn. 
LOUIS A. FISCHER, L. U. 5, St. Louis, Mo. 
OSCAR FISCHER, L. U. 5, St. Louis, Mo. 
HOWARD G. FLANNERY, L. U. 517, Portland, 

Me. 
ALLAN J. FRASER, L. U. 40, Boston, Mass. 
J. E. GEERTSEN, L. U. 1507, El Monte, Calif. 
OLLIE R. GOOLSBY, L. U. 74, Chattanooga, 

Tenn. 
HUBERT C. GRAY, L. U. 74, Chattanooga, 

Tenn. 
J. H. HADDOCK, L. U. 74, Chattanooga, Tenn. 
RUDOLPH HAGER, L. U. 299, Union City, New 

Jersey 
W. N. HARPER, L. U. 74, Chattanooga, Tenn. 
LOUIS HAUMAN, L. U. 335, Grand Rapids, 

Mich. 
JOHN HEALY, L. U. 494, Windsor, Ont., Can. 
AUGUST HEDTRICK, L. U. 808, Brooklyn, 

N. Y. 
LONNIE A. HOLDEN, L. U. 101, Baltimore, 

Md. 
S. J. HORTON L. U. 83, Halifax, Nova Scotia, 

Can. 
FRANK HOUSER, L. U. 1714, Tamaque, Pa. 
GUST JAEKEL, L. U. 1367, Chicago, 111. 
MERLIN JOHANNSEN, L. U. 871, Battle Creek, 

Mich. 
JOHN JOHNSON, L. U. 608 New York, N. Y. 



MARTIN P. JULIANA, L. U. 1507, El Monte, 

Calif. 
FRANK KNEE, L. U. 337, Detroit, Mich. 
GRANT KUHN, L. U. 101, Baltimore, Md. 
ADOLPHE LAFOND, L. U. 625, Manchester, 

N. H. 
PAUL W. LANE, L. U. 1822, Ft. Worth, Tex. 
J. L. LEE, L. U. 75, Chattanooga, Tenn. 
EVERELL LENNOX, L. U. 83, Halifax, Nova 

Scotia, Can. 
WILLIS I. LEVERE, L. U. 696, Tampa, Fla. 
HARRY MARTIN, L. U. 264, Milwaukee, Wis. 
CLIFTON G. McMORRIS, L. U. 1098, Baton 
FRANCIS J. MEDER, L. U. 1335, Wilmington, 

Calif. 

Rouge, La. 
CLYDE MILLER, L. U. 74, Chattanooga, Tenn. 
J. A. MORRIS, L. U. 103, Birmingham, Ala. 
CHARLES NEUMEYER, L. U. 368, Allentown, 

Pa. 
FRANK E. NOONAN, L. U. 67, Roxbury, Mass. 
T. C. PATTERSON, L. U. 74, Chattanooga, 

Tenn. 
JOSEPH PATRICK CONNORS, L. U. 627, Jack- 
sonville, Fla. 
OLAF PERSON, L. U. 608, New York, N. Y. 
GEORGE PICKARD, Sr., L. U. 337, Detroit, 

Mich. 
FRANCIS PIERCE, L. U. 5, St. Louis, Mo. 
W. C. REED, L. U. 764, Shreveport, La. 
PHIL. RIESER, L. U. 5, St. Louis, Mo. 
HAROLD RODGERS, L. U. 2435, Inglewood, 

Calif. 
FRED M. ROUSH, L. U. 696, Tampa, Fla. 
EDWARD RUSSELL, L. U. 322, Niagara Falls, 

N. Y. 
JOHN SAVAGE, L. U. 298, Long Island City, 

N. Y. 
ENOCH SCHAEFFER L. U. 368, Allentown, Pa. 
JACOB SCHULTZ, L. U. 67, Roxbury, Mass. 
JOHN SCHUSTER, L. U. 264, Milwaukee, Wis. 
JOHN SLAVIN, L. U. 608, New York, N. Y. 
GUISEPPE SQUILLACE, L. U. 67, Roxbury, 

ALVIN J. STENNETT, L. U. 696, Tampa, Fla. 
ELVING STRANDBERG, L. U. 625, Manchester, 

N. H. 
MICHAEL STROCK, L. U. 608, New York, 

N. Y. 
DAVID SUTHERLAND, L. U. 40, Boston, Mass. 
CHARLES L. TURNER, L. U. 67, Roxbury, 
HOYAL VAUGHN, L. U. 74, Chattanooga, Tenn. 
JAMES WALSH, L. U. 5, St. Louis, Mo. 

Mass. 
J. H. WALTER, L. U. 132, Washington, D. C. 
JOHN WEISMAN, L. U. 67, Roxbury, Mass. 
JOHN WESA, L. U. 1335, Wilmington, Calif. 
J. B. WHITE, L. U. 696, Tampa, Fla. 
HELMER WIBERG, L. U. 1367, Chicago, III. 
GEORGE W. WILLIAMS, L. U. 1437, Compton, 

Calif. 
RALPH WILHELM, L. U. 626, Wilmington, 

Del. 
HERBERT WILSON, L. U. 729, Liberty, N. Y. 
R. E. WOODY ARD, L. U. 764, Shreveport, La. 



THE LOCKER 

By JOHN HART, LOCAL UNION 366, New York, N. Y. 

JOURNEYMAN CARPENTER-ADVANCED 
30 Minute Test 

This is an extension of the test in "The Carpenter" of last January. Now the required 
correct answers must be a seven-letter word. The first question and answer should convey 
the idea. Two points for each correct answer establishes your percentage. If it's 78 you're 
way up on top. These tests are purposely made a little difficult. Most carpenters prefer 
this, any ABC stuff being considered silly and uninteresting. It would be the easiest thing 

in die world to list 50 questions on the trade which every carpenter— and his wife— could 
answer 100 per cent. Answers on page 41. 

1. An edged tool used by demon nailers to slog in nails. 

2. Parallel saw cuts across the back of a board to permit easy bending. 

3. The light-colored new wood nearest the bark of a tree. 

4. In some localities a scaffold is called by this name. 

5. The metal reinforcing band at the end of a chisel or screwdriver handle. __ 

6. A fancy, seven-letter name for a porch. 

7. The jointed part of a leafed hinge. 

8. A noticeably beveled corner on a piece of wood. 

9. A mechanical device on a brace allowing only one-way rotation of the bit. _ 

10. A type of floor laid in unit blocks of several narrow wooden pieces. 

11. The wood generally used to make the best two-foot rules. 

12. Strips nailed to a masonry wall, providing nailing surface for lathing. 

13. The largest commonly used bench plane, 22 or 24 inches long. 

14. A twisted frame, door, board, etc., is said to be in ? 

15. The toughest and strongest American-grown hardwood. 

16. A plain, round, tapering baluster. 

17. Another term used to describe the platform system of house framing. 

18. A rod substituting for a compass when large arcs are laid out 

19. The common term used to denote the wood of the Sequoia tree. '. 

20. A type of roof named for its inventor, a French architect. 

21. A kind of compass, used to mark a line parallel with adjoining surface. 

22. Still another name for a joist-hanger, bridle iron or brindle. 

23. A laminated arrangement of three or more pressure-glued wood veneers. 

24.. A heavy division-piece, wood or stone, separating two adjoining windows. _ 

25. A type of flush joint formed by two reversed edge rabbets. 

26. The recessed cut-out in a stringer into which the step is inserted. 

27. A regular polygon, two of its sides forming an internal angle of 120°. 

28. Another term used instead of T & G as applied to flooring etc. 

29. A swamp-grown, decay-resistant softwood, much used for outside work. — 

30. A rule with one fixed and one sliding jaw, used to measure thickness. 

31. The longitudinal beam or joist framing a well opening. 

32. A tool used to put a fine finish on hardwood after planing. 

33. Narrow wooden strips nailed across the ribs of masonry centers. 

34. A vertical base ground. 

35. A slim, tapered saw, circular-cutting, smaller than a compass saw. 

36. The support for a handrail on the wall side of a stairs. 

37. A small-dimensioned joist, anchored or nailed to a concrete floor slab. 

38. A two-jawed extracting tool with pivoted lever-handles. 

39. A rafter framed between a hip and a valley. 

40. A system of two-story light framing with continuous wall studs. 

41. A handsaw stiffened with a slotted metal strip on its back. 

42. The waist-high, open shelf on a kitchen cabinet. 

43. As applied to lumber, the opposite term to rough. 

44. To fasten two pieces of wood by driving a nail obliquely. 

45. A decorative, latticed grillwork, generally used as a garden screen. 

46. Concave, parallel grooving, as on a pilaster, column, door casing, etc. 

47. The slight swelling on the vertical outline of a column shaft. 

48. A small ventilating window, over a door or another window. 

49. The correct name for the steel square used to lay out roofwork. 

50. A deep rectangular slot into which something similarly shaped is fitted. — . 

Total correct x 2 % 



CorrospondQncQ 




This Journal Is Not Responsible For Views Expressed By Correspondents. 




LOCAL No. 16 BOASTS A FINE NEW HOME 

Recently Local Union No. 16, Springfield, 111., dedicated its fine new home. A 48 x 87 
structure, the new union building is a model modern design. It sits on a 110 x 140 lot, 
the unused portions of which are shaled to provide plenty of parkins space. 

In the normal business functions of the 
union, the building also is used as a 
recreational and educational center for 
the benefit of members and their fam- 
ilies. It is theirs to use and enjoy and 
was erected for their exclusive use. 

The lot on which the building sits 
cost $5,000. The building itself cost 
better than $44,000, and the furnishings 
amounted to $6,000 altogether. Despite 
the large amount of money involved in 
erecting and furnishing the fine new 
union home, Local Union No. 16 has no 
outstanding indebtedness. 

The one-story building has an asphalt 
i tile floor, fibre board ceilings properly 
insulated. Foundations and walls are of 
sufficient strength to stand the addition of another story when and as such a move becomes 
necessary. Ail trim is of natural oak, and natural gas heat provides an evenness of tempera- 
ture that adds to die pleasure of an event held in the building. It is located only three 
blocks from the State Capitol and is less than a mile from the center of the city. 

• 

50th BIRTHDAY OBSERVED BY 916 

Aurora, 111., Local Union 916, of die United Brodierhood of Carpenters and Joiners 
recently held their 50th anniversary dinner and program at the Masonic temple, with three 
living charter members, Judson Briscoe, Charles 
Strickland and H. E. Johnson, being honored. 

George C. Ottens, president of the Illinois State 
Council of Carpenters, was the principal speaker 
in a program which preceded some excellent en- 
tertainment. 

The Rev. Frank S. Smith gave the invocation; 
introductions were made by W. E. "Duff" Corbin, 
anniversary chairman; greetings were extended by 
Mayor Lloyd H. Markel, and an official welcome 
extended by Theodore Scheidecker, president of 
Local 916. 




Rising Sun chapter, of the Eastern Star, served 
a lavish turkey dinner. 

The anniversary was in charge of a committee 
consisting of Corbin, Harold Kellogg, Miller Bum- 
pus, Frank Larrabee, Burdette Halbaesma, Larry 
Lakeman, Edward Ream, Ellis Eichelberger, William Hawkinson, Theodore Scheidecker, 
Peter Sliauter, Louis Carr, Elmer Anderson, Clarence Sanders, Fred Dabney, Clarence 
Benson, Lyall Reynolds and Ed Harms. 



Shown above at the 50th anniversary 
dinner of Local No. 916 are, left to 
right: J. W. Hill, secretary-treasure?, 
Illinois State Council of Carpenters; 
Mayor Lloyd Markel; Theodore Schei- 
decker, president of Local 916, Aurora; 
George C. Ottens, president of the Illi- 
nois State Council of Carpenters. 



34 



THE CARPENTER 



Printed in the souvenir program was a fine history of the union. 
Bert Cleveland was the first president; G. A. Campbell the first secretary. 

Following are the charter members who joined the local when it was organized Oct. 5, 
1901: C. E. Confer, Levi Gochring, A. N. Lintner, Dick Cleveland, Frank McNett, E. A. 
Narchood, Charles Strickland, Del DcLong, J. J. McNair, A. L. Johnson, L. C. Lovcland, 
Isaac Young, H. C. Loveland, A. C. Lackey, N. E. Parke, Frank Zeman, Samuel Kaylor, 
Adam Pottcrger, Judson Briscoe, H. E. Johnson and Bert Cleveland. 



LOCAL No. 1596 REMEMBERS BOYS IN SERVICE 

Some time ago, Local Union No. 1596 St. Louis, Mo., set up an Educational and 
Entertainment Committee and handed it an important job. It is the job of the committee 
to keep all members in the armed forces posted on what is going on in organized labor 
"back home," and to see that they receive suitable gifts from the union at Christmas and 
on their birthdays. 




HOT LICKS 'N BLUE NOTES, by special permission of the AFL Musicians 
union, were wafted through the air Saturday night, May 9th, by a bunch of AFL 
Carpenters (and an Electrician and a couple of other assistants) at Local 1596 benefit 
show. Led by Herman Hassinger (accordionist), the band also includes Hayward 
"Slim" Justis (piano), Jim Sharp, (oil drum bass fiddler), "Fritz" Karsch (violin), Ed 
Linhart, (piano-organ), Charles Kuebler (violin), Henry Hassinger (guitar), Thomas 
and Eva Stewart (guitars). 

"We want our boys in the service to know that this is a fraternal organization as well 
as an organization devoted to improving wages and working conditions," Barney Fulwilder, 
committee chairman, recently wrote in a letter to The Carpenter. 

Last Christmas the union sent cards to all members in the armed forces. One of them 
recently returned with 21 different post marks on it. The post office never did locate the 
member. 

To finance the work of the committee, Local Union No. 1596 sponsored a "Carpenters' 
Variety Hour" and "Evening in Hollywood" on the night of May 3rd. A fine turnout was 
on hand to enjoy the show and support the work of the committee. All of them got their 
money's worth. 



THE CARPENTER 



35 



Under the' able direction of Harry Von Romer, Sr. 3 and the leadership of Lester J. 
Merritt, professional master of ceremonies, the performance set a fast pace. 

After the introduction by the 1596 band, the show featured acrobatics by Walter, Trudy 
and Herb Eberle. A big hit were baritone solos by Frank Mantia with Ed Linhart as 
piano accompanist. Merritt then presented an "Evening in Hollywood" type audience 
participation show in addition to introducing various acts. 

Next was a comedy routine by Francis Becker, Aaron Turnbull, Mel Krumpelman and 
Ralph L'Hommedieu. Ronnie L'Hommedieu performed on his electric steel guitar, preced- 
ing the astounding feats of magic of George Knecht, one of Local 1596's oldest members, 
who gave a long and varied performance, both amusing and mystifying his audiences. 

Musical arrangements for the show were scored by Herman Hassinger and the orchestra 
was composed of Charles Kuebler, Bill Huddleston, Hayward "Slim" Justus, James Sharp, 
Ed Linhart, Fred Karsch and Henry Hassinger and Thomas and Eva Stewart. Also on the 
program were Johnnie Redeker with a trumpet solo; and Ronnie L'Hommedieu in an elec- 
tric guitar number; and Ronnie joined his dad, Ralph L'H., in a skit entitled "The Little 
House." 

Barney Fulwilder was chairman of the committee in charge which included Ollie Lang- 
horst in addition to other members of the cast. Mel Krumpelman was in charge of lights 
and George Benner of finances. 

With the exception of Merritt, and Linhart and Kuebler the entire cast was made up of 
members of die Carpenters union. Merritt and Linhart are professionals; Kuebler is a shop 
steward of the AFL Electrical Workers Local 1 at the Killark Electric Company and a 
close associate of many of the Local 1596 fellows. The show was presented in the large 
auditorium at the Carpenters Hall, 1411 North Grand Blvd. in St. Louis. 



HOME BOASTS SOME REAL GOOD EXPERTS 

Having locked up their tool boxes and thrown away the keys, the guests at the Home 
at Lakeland, Florida, develop many interesting hobbies. To work off their excess energy, 
these "youngsters" participate in many pastimes and take full advantage of the many 
recreational facilities provided by the home 




The above group of enthusiastic golfers can be found giving Old Man Par a good 
run for his money practically every day. Believe it or not, they often take Par in tiieir 
stride on the beautiful golf course which is a part of the Home grounds. 

Florida weather being what it is, nearly every day in die year is a good day for sports. 
Consequently, guests at the home get in plenty of practice at their favorite sports, whether 
it be shuffle 'board, bowling on the green, or golf. The patience and skill that licked 
roofing problems and framing problems in by-gone days licks sport problems just as 
easily. The result is that every sport indulged in by Home guests has a number of experts. 



36 



THE CARPENTER 



MANCHESTER LOCAL PASSES HALF CENTURY MARK 

Recently Local Union No. 625 of Manchester, N. H., joined the Golden Circle of 
unions which have completed fifty years of continuous service to their members. The 
occasion was celebrated with a fine banquet and social evening held at the Jutrus Post 

Hall. Hundreds of members, 
friends and special guests were 
on hand for the event. Among 
the distinguished guests were 
Hon. J o so p h a t T. Benoit, 
Mayor of the City; W. IT. 
Riley, State Labor Commis- 
sioner; William H. Shea, State 
Federation President; and a 
number of school officials, ap- 
prenticeship officials and labor 
officials. 

Age and youth both were 
honored during the course of 
the evening. Some 32 old time 
members with from 30 to 46 
years of continuous member- 
ship in good standing in the 
union to their credit were given 
a fine ovation. Likewise, some 
43 young men who had recently completed their apprenticeship training were also given 
official recognition. 

To say that Local Union No. 625 has come a long way in the past 50 years is to put it 
mildly. Only the oldest of the old timers can appreciate what wages and working conditions 
were when the charter was installed. Since that time wages have been increased many- 
fold, hours have been cut drastically and working conditions have been improved rapidly. 

• 

ALABAMA STATE COUNCIL HOLDS GREAT MEETING 

The Alabama State Council held its 12th Annual Convention at Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 
with Local 1337 as host. The convention ran through April 11th and 12th. 




Pictured herewith are the present officers if Local No. 
625. They are, front row, from left to right: J. N. Bilodeau, 
vice-president; Jack Hopcroft, president; L. I. Martel, secre- 
tary and business agent. 

Back row: A. T. Gagnon, conductor; J. J. Manning, 
warden, K. F. Wright, recording secretary; E. J. Poulin, 
trustee, G. J. Francoeur, trustee. 




Enclosed is a group picture of the officers of the State Council together with General 
President and General Secretary, reading from left to right: J. T. Reed, Executive Board; 
Albert E. Fischer, General Secretary; D. L. St. John, Secretary-Treasurer; J. C. Barrett, 
General Representative; Lorraine McVay, Convention Secretary; Genaral President, M. 
A. Hutcheson; B. T. Durham, President; S. E. Graydon, Executive Board; O. E. Stewart, 
Vice-President; W. O. Bennett, Executive Board; T. B. Britt, Executive Board. 

This was by far the best convention ever held, being highlighted by visits and addresses 
by our General President, M. A. Hutcheson; General Secretary, Albert E. Fischer; and Ed 
Weyler of Kentucky. 

These great labor leaders were a great inspiration to the Carpenters' cause in Ala- 
bama. Their visit was of untold value to the Brotherhood in Alabama. 



THE CARPENTER 



37 



TULSA HOLDS IMPRESSIVE CEREMONIES FOR GRADUATES 

Recently the Joint Apprenticeship Committee, composed of representatives of the 
Associated General Contractors and Carpenters Local Union No. 943, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 
held their first formal completion ceremony for apprentices. 

W. E. DeWitt of the DeWitt Construction Company served as Program Chairman. 

The first speaker, Architect Joseph Koberling, emphasized the fact that he had served 
an apprenticeship as a bricklayer and stated that this method of training served as a 
practical introduction in the building trades. He pointed out that apprenticeship did 
not lead to "blind alley" occupations, and that each apprentice should look forward to 
becoming a foreman, superintendent, or an owner of his own business at some future date. 

Mr. Henry R. Lohmann, President of the Lohmann Construction Company representing 
the Associated General Contractors, expressed his sincere appreciation for the splendid 
labor relations created through regular meetings of the Joint Apprenticeship Committee. 

Mr. Bob Roberts from Omaha, Nebraska, representing the United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America, stated that a building is no better than the men who 



xmsert&i iWHxw m MiU 




In the above picture, are shown graduating apprentices and special guests who at- 
tended the special ceremonies sponsored by the Joint Apprenticeship Committee at Tulsa, 
Oklahoma. From left to right they are, front row:Ned C. Lon<?, G. L. Towns, James A. 
Gillen, A. C. Keeler, R. E. Roberts, Frank R. Hanks, W. E. DeWitt, Frank Horster, Larry 
T. Brooks and Thomas Land. 

Middle row: Joseph Koberling, Ott Carpenter, Arthur A. Meledeo, John K. Jones, 
Everett Willard, Jack Peacock, Paul Dow, Joseph Thomas, Charles Barnett, W. R. Grimshaw. 

Back Row: Bob Eerley, Robt. Moore, Jesse Carpentier, George New, Eearl Tackett, 
Arthur Dunn, Leon Florence, George Hughes, J. Bennett Jones. 

build it. He also emphasized the importance and universal use of the text books for 
carpenter apprentices recently published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America. 

At the conclusion of the formal addresses, Mr. DeWitt introduced Frank Horster, 
J. A. C. Chairman, and Bob Earley, State Supervisor, Bureau of Apprenticeship, U. S. 
Department of Labor, who presented certificates of completion to the apprentices. In 
speaking to the assembly, Mr. Horster and Mr. Earley called attention to the fact that 
a certificate of completion was documentary evidence from labor, management, and the 
Government, attesting that the apprentice had completed his apprenticeship and was 
now an all-around competent journeyman mechanic. 

The following guests were introduced: William R. Grimshaw, Jr., Thomas L. Land, 
and Larry T. Brooks, President of Brooks Construction Company, Associated General 
Contractors; A, C. Keeler and Frank Hanks, representing the United Brotherhood of Car- 
penters; and Lonzo F. Kirk, Business Representative, Carpenters L. U. No. 1072, Musk- 
ogee, Oklahoma. 



38 



THE CARPENTER 



LOCAL No. 848 MEMBERS BUILD OWN HALL 

After struggling along for years without adequate quarters or a suitable meeting hall, 
Local Union No. 848, San Bruno, Cal., had the pleasure of holding its first meeting in its 
fine new home on the night of May 9th. It took a lot of planning and a good deal of co- 
operation from all members, but Local No. 848 finally has achieved its dream of a home of 
its own. 

Erected at 805 Masson Ave., the new headquarters of Local No. 848 represents a big 
step forward not only for 848 but for the entire labor movement of the area as well. 

The new union home stands as a tribute to what cooperation can do when all members 
dedicate themselves to a single project. Volunteer labor did most of the job. Evenings 
and over weekends, members brought their tools to 805 Mas. c on Ave. and fell to work with 
a will. With their hammers, saws and square they put together a building of which all 
organized labor can be proud. Even before the finishing touches were added, the union 
was meeting in its own home. 

Congratulations to the officers and members of Local Union No. 848 for their demon- 
stration of what cooperation can do. 

• 

KANSAS CITY WELCOMES 217 GRADUATING APPRENTICES 

In the magnificent new ballroom of the Muehlebach Hotel in Kansas City, Mo., the 
Greater Kansas City Building and Construction Trades Joint Apprenticeship Council, on 
the night of May 9th, honored some 217 young men who had completed their apprentice- 
ship training in a branch of the building trades during the past year. Fifty of these young 
men were carpenters 5 millwrights, cabinet makers or millmen. Several hundred guests, 
representing both labor and management, were on hand to wish die new journeymen mech- 
anics well. 

The Greater Kansas City Joint Apprenticeship Program is one of the most efficient 
in die country. Much of its success stems from the fact that cooperation between labor 




and management is high, and nowhere is this day to day cooperation better exemplified 
than it is in the operation of the Joint Apprenticeship Program. 

The Joint Apprenticeship Council honored the Carpenters by appointing Mr. Hide, 
secretary of the Carpenters Joint Apprenticeship Committee, as chairman. The master of 
ceremonies was a general contractor, again showing the high degree of cooperation which 
exists and is so necessary to die success of any joint program 

A fine dinner started the festivities. A well-balanced entertainment program enlivened 
the evening. But the highlight of the event was the presentation of certificates of com- 
pletion to the young men who spent four years diligently applying themselves to the 
task of learning their appointed trades. Brother Hide presented the certificates. 

Guest of honor and featured speaker was John R. Stevenson, First General Vice- 
President of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, who con- 
gratulated die graduating apprentices and urged them never to stop trying to improve 
themselves and their skills. 



THE CARPENTER 



39 



50th ANNIVERSARY OF CARPENTERS L. U. No. 986, McALESTER, OKLA. 

McAlester's Union Carpenters celebrated their 50th anniversary of the founding of 
Local Union No. 986, United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners, with a banquet 
meeting Saturday night, May 3, 1952, at the American Legion Building. 

J. T. Long, Business Agent, estimated 
a crowd of about 275 members with 
their wives and visiting officers of other 
Locals was in attendance. 

The McAlester Charter was dated 
January 31, 1902 and bears the signa- 
ture of William D. Huber, General Presi- 
dent at that time. 

Permanent headquarters were estab- 
lished in 1946 at the present site, which 
is also used as a Labor Temple by other 
crafts. The building, 2619 North Main, 
is owned by the Carpenters and was 
erected through co-operative efforts of 
the members. 

Many old time members of the Union 
were present for the banquet, which 
featured several musical numbers and 
addresses by City Manager Harold Tip- 
pit and Howard Cowan, McAlester News 
Capital editor. 

L. J. Dickerson, a Union Carpenter 
since 1906, and H. J. Fullilove, whose 
membership dates back to 1903 were 




Officers of Local Union No. 986 and special 
guests who attended the Union's 50th anniversary- 
celebration are shown in the above picture. Read- 
ing from left to right, they are: Front row, C. E. 
Hunter, president; Homer Mowdy, vice-president; 
A. H. Clay, president, State Council; Fred McNatt, 
vice-president, State Council; Owen Y. Ivey, record- 
ing secretary, Local No. 986; and L. F. Kirk, State 
Apprenticeship Chairman. 

Back row: Clarence Lutz, executive board mem- 
ber; J. T. Long, financial secretary and business 
agent; D. E. Craig, treasurer; L. H. Bernhardt, 
trustee; and Delmar Legg, trustee. 



present. Both are now retired. 

Other veteran members, most of them still active, are R. B. Fawcett, E. E. Kelly, 
Gus Pascoe, Forrest Williams, Robert Fawcett, Felix Fullilove, and A. W. Raydon, with 
their membership ranging to 42 years. 

John Fullilove acted as toastmaster for the evening, and had charge of musical arrange- 
ments: Rainbow Girls sextette, Fishers band, and Deloise Huddleson and Kenny Minyard. 

Invitations were sent out to all Local Unions in the State and a large percentage of 
the Locals were represented. All guests were called on to make a talk. 

Officers of the Local are: C. E. Hunter, President; Homer Mowdy, vice-President; 
Owen Ivey, recording secretary; D. E. Craig, secretary; Delmar Legg, L. H. Bernhardt 
and Dick McDonald, Trustees; J. T. Long, financial secretary and business agent; D. E. 
Craig, treasurer. 

• 

PENNSYLVANIA COUNCIL HOLDS BIGGEST CONVENTION 

The Pennsylvania State Council of Carpenters held their 34th convention in Pittsburgh 
on May 15-16-17, 1952, and it was considered the largest group ever assembled at a 
convention of carpenters in Pennsylvania— numbering 125 delegates, 4 fraternal delegates 
and 85 lady guests. These delegates represented 26,000 members of the United Brother- 
hood out of a possible 29,000 in Pennsylvania. 

The host organization, the Pittsburgh District Council, did a splendid job of welcoming 
and entertaining the delegates and their guests. The Ladies Auxiliaries of Pittsburgh, di- 
rected by Mrs. Sally Grover and Mrs. Anna C. Larimer, are to be complimented for the 
very fine itinerary of events arranged for the ladies during the daytime period. 

The climax of events was the gala dinner and entertainment arranged by the Pittsburgh 
District Council Committee on Thursday evening. The principal address was made by 
Second General Vice Presdent O. William Blaier, whose remarks were well taken by all 
present. Many other distinguished guests addressed the affair which was followed by enter- 
tainment which will long be remembered. 

The entire convention, from a business standpoint, was successful and the many prob- 
lems that were resolved to the satisfaction of the delegates will prove of much benefit to 
all the District Councils and Local Unions of the United Brotherhood in Pennsylvania. 

The delegates unanimously voted the next convention in Harrisburg in 1953. 




WASHINGTON LADIES KEEP ACTIVE 

The Editor: 

Ladies Auxiliary No. 467 of Washington, D. C, extends greetings and best wishes to 
all Sister Auxiliaries. Our Auxiliary is now entering its sixth year and is steadily growing. 
We have twenty-seven members. We meet on the fourth Friday of each month. 

Our fifth annual dance was held on Nov. 17, 1951 at the Willard Hotel in the Crystal 
Ballroom. It was an outstanding success. We wish to thank all the Locals for helping us by 
taking tickets. 




L. A. 467 celebrated the fifth anniversary with a dinner on Jan. 12, 1952, at the Prince 
George Country Club. There were fifty present everyone enjoyed the turkey dinner and 
dancing afterwards. We donate to the Cancer Fund also to the Crippled Childrens Hospital. 

Our officers for this year: President, Mrs. Sallie Brining; Secretary, Mrs. Sammie 
Brinkman; Treasurer, Mrs. Emile Nelson; Conductor, Mrs. Lillian Anderson; Warden, 
Mrs. Signe Carlson; Trustees, Mrs. Marie Larson, Mrs. Herbert Carlson, Mrs. Greta 
Anderson. 

We would enjoy hearing from all Sister Auxiliaries. 

Fraternally, 

Mrs. S. Brinkman, Secretary. 



. PORTLAND AUXILIARY CELEBRATES 4th BIRTHDAY 

The Editor: 

We, the ladies of Portland, Oregon, Auxiliary No. 504, Carpenters, have passed our 
fourth anniversary. We celebrated with a birthday party, cards and refreshments, and a 
beautiful birthday cake with four candles. 



THE CARPENTER 



41 



We hold our one business meeting the second Tuesday of each month, with some 
kind of social get together on the fourth Tuesday. We have enjoyed several pot luck 
dinners with our husbands, from L. U. 226, and cards after. We have helped to organize one 
new Auxiliary at Newburg, Oregon. Sold chances on a hand crocheted table cloth, have 
had a plastic party, and had a secret pal party for Christmas. 

We held our rummage sale and several members of Carpenter Local No. 226 helped 
us. We are planning a picnic at the home of one of our members near Oswego Lake. We 
are also looking forward to our election of officers. Small gifts have been sent to other 
auxiliaries for their parcel post sales. 

We have thirty-seven members. 

Sisters from other auxiliaries are welcome to attend our meetings. 

Fraternally, 

Opal M. Miller, Publicity Chairman 



ALBUQUERQUE LADIES DO MUCH GOOD WORK 

The Editor: 

Greetings to all Sister Auxiliaries from L. A. No. 547, of Albuquerque, New Mexico. 

On Thursday June 5th of this year we celebrated in honor of our third anniversary, 
which was June 7, Thursday being our regular meeting day and most convenient for the 
majority to attend. We had a delightful Spanish Luncheon followed by games. 

Each year we take a major project. This year it is the T. B. section of the Veterans' 
Hospital. Every third Thursday of each month we hold a party for the patients. There 
are five wards, from twenty-eight to forty-eight patients to each ward. We visit each 
patient, have quiz and guessing games, giving an average of $20.00 worth of prizes each 
month. 

On special occasions such as Christmas and Easter, when other clubs entertain certain 
wards, we have what the Hospital terms, "Our Adopted Ward;" Ward 15, to whom we 
served ice cream, home-made candies and cookies. 

We also made a trip to the mountains nearby, last Christmas, gathered evergreens and 
made Christmas wreaths for the entire Hospital. 

We have pot-luck dinners, many types of get togethers, some of them following old 
fashioned lines, all enjoyable. 

Some of the ladies state that they do not get the "Carpenter," but those that do get 
it enjoy it very much. 

Fraternally, 
Alice Leatherman, Rec Sec. 







w 

ANSWERS TO "THE LOCKER" 






1. 


Hatchet 


li. 


Boxwood 


21. 


Scriber 


31. 


Trimmer 


41. 


Backsaw 


2. 


Kerfing 


12. 


Furring 


22. 


Stirrup 


32. 


Scraper 


42. 


Counter 


3. 


Sapwood 


13. 


Jointer 


23. 


Plywood 


33. 


Lagging 


43. 


Dressed 


4. 


Staging 


14. 


Winding 


24. 


M union 


34. 


Soldier 


44. 


Toenail 


5. 


Ferrule 


15. 


Hickory 


25. 


Shiplap 


35. 


Keyhole 


45. 


Trellis 


6. 


Veranda 


16. 


Spindle 


26. 


Housing 


36. 


Bracket 


46. 


Fluting 


7. 


Knuckle 


17. 


Western 


27. 


Hexagon 


37. 


Sleeper 


47. 


Entasis 


8. 


Chamfer 


18. 


Trammel 


28. 


Matched 


38. 


Pincers 


48. 


Transom 


9. 


Ratchet 


19. 


Redwood 


29. 


Cypress 


39. 


Cripple 


49. 


Framing 


10. 


Parquet 


20. 


Mansard 


30. 


Caliper 


40. 


Balloon 


50. 


Mortise 



Note: In The Locker, May issue, the Cash Refund fi 
read respectively across the board: $20.25—15 
didn't use a fine enough point on our pencil, 
a man on his annuity income.— J. H. 



pares for Retirement Annuity should 
75-11.75-8.20-5.10. We evidently 
Which is a poor excuse for gypping 



Craft Probloms 




Carpentry 

By H. H. Siegele 
LESSON 286 

Modifications.— The house that is taken as 
a pattern for these lessons, as was stated in 
the last lesson, actually was erected, and is 
now occupied. But the likes and dislikes of 



of which is shown in lesson 284. To the 
upper right the pitch of the roof is given. 
The cornice projects heyond the main struc- 
ture 2 feet 6 inches, as shown in figures to 
the left. The trend, however, of cornices 
is to eliminate them altogether. There are 
reasons for doing this. A wide cornice adds 
to the cost of the building, and while it pro- 
12. 




Fig. 1 



kto 



lllllllllllllH 

2323 



IIIIIIIIIHIIIII 



Stucco 




m mn mna 
2424 



■JO 



U- 



Footing 



^ 



^Foundation- 



people are not always die same, nor are dieir 
needs and wants the same. Therefore it 
should be remembered that there isn't any- 
thing about this house that can not be modi- 
fied to suit the needs or tastes of those who 



tects the upper part of the walls against sun- 
shine and rain, it prevents the rain from 
washing that part of the building. Conse- 
quently the upper part of the outside walls 
have various degrees of accumulated dust 




might be interested in using it as a pattern 
for a home of their own. 

Side and Rear Elevations.— Fig. 1 gives 
the right side elevation of the house, a plan 



12X12X4 Tile' 

and dirt on them, while the bottom part is 
washed clean, but shows the effects of the 
weather. On the other hand, die house with- 
out a cornice is washed clean from top to 



THE CARPENTER 



43 



bottom, and the effects of the weather are 
the same throughout, giving the outsides a 
uniformity that is impossible when the roof 
has a wide cornice. Fig. 2 shows the rear 
elevation. The notes are practically the same 



Concrete Window Sill 




Concrete Blocks' 

as on the other elevations, and need no 
further explanations. 

Cement Window Sill.— Fig. 3 is a perspec- 
tive view of a cement window sill in place. 
There are two ways that such sills can be 



»# 



-Concrete 
Block 



Cement 
■ Stool 




Cement 
Sill 



Fig. 4 



Cement 
Stool 



Concrete 
Block 



made. They can be poured in forms before- 
hand, and then when the walls are laid up, 
set in place by the masons. Or, when the 
concrete blocks are laid, the sills can be left 
out. Afterward forms are built for them in 



the proper position. These forms are then 
filled with rich cement and sand. When this 
has set the forms are taken off and the sill 
will be in place. The forms for such work 



Plaster 




Fig. 5 

should be treated widi a paraffin prepara- 
tion, so that the concrete will not stick to 
the wood. Immediately after the forms are 
off all defects should be repaired, and when 
the patches have had their initial set, the 
sill should be painted with a rich cement 
Concrete 

•LtNTEL 

Block 
Stucco 




BrickMolo 

r^M'l J 6 Screen 

Fig. 

paint. If this work is properly done, well 
appearing sills will result. 

Cement Sill and Stool.— Fig. 4, at die bot- 
tom, shows a cross section of a cement win- 
dow sill with a cement stool on the inside. 
The upper drawing shows a part of the sill 
and stool in plan, together with a cross sec- 
tion of the jamb, showing how the steel win- 
dow frame is fastened 

Details of Door Sill, Jamb, and Head.— 
Fig. 5, the upper drawing, gives a detail of 
the door jamb, also a plan of part of the. 
cement sill and threshold. The bottom draw- 



44 



THE CARPENTER 



ing gives a cross section of the sill and thres- 
hold and their relationship to adjoining 
parts. Study the notes. 

Fig. 6 shows the head of the door frame 
and the lintel. It will he noticed that in this 



C C 

c c 

c c 

c c 



A 



24 



Fig. 7 2424 
drawing and in the drawing shown in Fig. 
5, the outside is stuccoed and the inside is 
plastered. In the window details the inside 
is shown without plastering, because the 
original house was not plasterered. But here 



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CARPENTER'S TOOLS.— Covers sharpening and us- 
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