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Full text of "Carpenter"

Result of 
Referendum Vote 




December 10, 1953 



GENERAL OFFICE 

United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners 
of America 

Carpenters' Building Indianapolis, Indiana 



\\ 



Report of 
Tabulating Committee 



December 10, 1953. 

Mr. Maurice A. Hutcheson, General President, 

United Brotherhood ol Carpenters and Joiners of America, 

Carpenters Building, Indianapolis, Indiana. 

Dear Sir and Brother: 

We, the Committee appointed by you to tabulate the returns on the vote taken by our 
Brotherhood on the propositions submitted by the General Executive Board in conformity 
with Section 63, Paragraph "B" of tire General Constitution report the following: 
The propositions were: 

Proposal No. 1, proposes to increase per capita tax for the General Fund 
in the amount of (25c) Twenty-five cents. 

Proposal No. 2, proposes an increase in per capita tax and change in the 
amount paid as pension, which conforms to a resolution as presented by Local 
Union 993, Miami, Florida. 

Returns were received from 2199 Local Unions, of which 2152 were in conformity with 
the General Constitution. 

The total vote of the 2152 Local Unions properly filled out and filed with the General 
Office showed the following: 

FOR AGAINST 

Proposition No. 1 169,617 68,614 

Proposition No. 2 112,722 120,629 

The returns show that: 

Proposition No. 1 received more than the majority as per Section 63, Paragraph A of 
the General Constitution. 

Proposition No. 2 did not receive the majority as per Section 63, Paragraph A of the 
General Constitution. 

The returns from the following Local Unions were cast out for various reasons as listed. 

Returns without seal of the Local Union: From Local Unions 692, 863, 2062. 

Returns from Local Unions not properly filled out: Local Unions 30, 1960. 

Returns from Local Unions having no votes for or against: Local Unions 1476, 577. 

Returns received after the official deadline: Local Unions 56, 91, 92, 315, 491, 546, 613, 
680, 6S9, 713, 804, 921, 1005, 1031, 1057, 1096, 1102, 1377, 1426, 1511, 1520, 1525, 1854, 
194L 2026. 2075, 2096, 2154, 2317, 2371, 2409, 2468, 2620, 2641, 2760, 2882, 391, 2198, 
2388, 2419. 

Fraternally yours, 

DANIEL J. BUTLER, Chairman, 
MARTIN PORGES, Secretary, 
D. RICHARD ADAMS, 
AMOS P. STEVENS, 
GEORGE CASSEDAY. ■ 



December 10, 1953. 
Mr. Maurice A. Hutcheson, General President, 
United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of., America, 
Carpenters Building, Indianapolis, Indiana. 

Dear Sir and Brother: 

We, the Committee appointed by you to tabulate the returns on the vote taken by our 
Brotherhood on the proposition submitted by the General Executive Board in conformity 
with Section 63, Paragraph "B" of the General Constitution, report the following: 

The proposition was to amend Section 44, Paragraph "D" to increase per capita tax 
10c per month for semi-beneficial Local Unions. 

Returns were received from 96 Local Unions, of which 92 were in conformity with the 
General Constitution. 

The total vote of 92 Local Unions properly filled out and filed with the General Office 
showed 5,615 votes in favor of the proposition. 

The number of votes against the proposition was 3,677. 

The returns show that the proposition received more than the majority as per Section 63, 
Paragraph "A" of the General Constitution. 

The returns from the following Local Unions were cast out for various reasons as listed. 

Returns without seal of the Local Union: From Local Union 2751. 

Returns received after the official deadline: From Local Unions 2663, 2976 and 2995. 

Fraternally yours, 

DANIEL J. BUTLER, Chairman,: 
MARTIN PORGES, Secretary, 
D. RICHARD ADAMS, 
AMOS J. STEVENS, 
GEORGE CASSEDAY. 



/ 



THE VOTE 



Proposal i 

No 

::i 



Proposal 2 
Yea I No 



111 

21 

497 

1200 

531 

1537 

l L86 

771 
•j 

1 62 
[2 

'_"J 
59 
23 
1966 
98 
19 

•j ;il 
12 

171 

40 

6 

135 
39 
•J.". 
89 

278 
41 
67 
26 
25 
L169 
22 

238 
22 

161 

6 

72 

2070 

:;:; 

1481 

153 

1748 

4 

359 

131 
47 

138 
18 
35 

219 

12G 
87 
06 
72 
4. r > 
40 
1543 
22 
20 
70 

652 
27 

906 
83 
82 
1183 
68 
73 
4 
51 

595 
58 
30 
80 

308 
68 
69 
82 



84 

70 
206 
200 

ii 



' 1 5 
68 



308 I 

" " 3 II 
90 

■ -£ 

48 11 

4|| 

42|| 

40 | 
16 

noli 

32|| 
36|| 
14|| 
43|| 
10 11 
61 II 

. ... II 
1 13 
59 11 
34 11 

. ... II 
14|| 
19 11 
12 I! 

. ... II 
60|| 
28 11 

• ... II 

9 11 

110 II 

3 11 
15 | 
32 
42|| 

4 11 
75 11 

. ... II 
174 II 



16 II 
34 || 

94 |i 

431 H 

. . . . II 

22|| 

5 11 

24 II 
84 II 
26 || 
75 II 
75 Ii 
35|| 

610|| 

5 11 

30|| 

41 II 

336 || 
43|| 

25 11 
187|| 



1390 





231 




:: 


' ' 86 


520 




106 


72 




91 


377 


879 




550 




478 


70 


n 


L367 


ins 


i L86 




2023 




82 


' '2 1 


771 




s 


' "12 


21 


203 


28 


72 


606 




•>•> 








62 


'303 


23 




1966 


' ' 3 


8 


17.-, 


19 




294 




Hi 


"21 


182 


35 


27 


21 


2 


46 


98 


265 


2 1 


10 


17 


4 1 


93 


41 


302 


95 


114 


290 


57 


36 


31 


32 


34 


6 


253 


931 


39 




241 


' 56 


22 




139 


'l49 


40 


25 


76 


30 


2070 




33 


' ii 


1500 




153 


12 


1748 




4 


' 58 


359 


28 


70 


40 


45 


11 


164 


90 


6 


15 


35 


15 


223 


28 


138 


27 


88 


2 


84 


83 


73 




101 


'iii 


42 




1543 




22 


"21 


52 


2 


73 


61 


492 


557 


27 




"85 


. . „ 


44 


60 


1135 


44 


43 


51 


67 


82 


11 


68 


66 


19 


641 


551 


46 


17 


37 


24 


55 


57 


357 


289 


71 


40 


69 


17 


50 


220 



1. I 

No 



Pro] 
yes 



OSttl II 

! No 



Propo 
yes I 



smI 2 
No 



110 


61 


4 


4 


02 


1 1 1 


1 I 


SO 


100 




1 12 


25 


10 


21 




I 18 


20 




20 




1 L6 


17:: 


' 1 60 


159 


'l74 


1 1(1 


29 


64 


26 


67 


117 


720 




720 




1 IS 


23 




23 




1 19 


823 




320 


"3 


121 


19 




19 




122 


1 3 l 


50 


48 


'l5i 


124 


'.11 




89 


2 


1 25 


3 


' '77 


77 


3 


127 


36 




36 




128 


23 


* '4i 


20 


' '43 


129 


03 


40 


58 


43 


130 


2 


18 


2 


18 


131 


108 


7:; 


55 


121 


132 


166 


1 


151 




133 


15 


'23 


60 


' 15 


134 


94 


2 1 


46 


77 


135 


590 


24 


521 


11 


136 


40 


31 


56 


15 


137 


3 


46 


36 


13 


139 


4 


30 


34 




140 


12 


1 


10 


' 5 


1 11 


1065 


.... 


1065 




142 


122 


95 


126 


"83 


1 13 


350 


61 


389 


22 


144 


29 


14 


12 


43 


14G 


57 


31 


51 




149 


9 


18 


12 


"15 


150 


23 


12| 


17 


19 


153 


8 


26 I 


17 


19 


154 


43 


14 


40 


16 


1 .-,.-, 


256 


.... | 




256 


156 


10 


.... 1 


"io 




157 


65 


11 


61 




159 


125 


40 1 


125 


' '4 


160 


68 


.... I 


62 


1 


161 


45 


60 


26 


66 


162 


72 


61 1 


73 


61 


163 


84 


19| 


102 


7 


165 


61 


21 


52 


42 


166 


401 


.... I 


461 




168 


83 


....| 


83 




169 


650 


.... I 


650 




170 


8 


....| 


8 




171 


75 


43| 


63 


' 47 


174 


77 


211 


49 


65 


175 


12 


.... | 


15 




176 


28 


233 | 


40 


'233 


177 


100 


.... | 




99 


179 


4 


61 


" "4 


6 


180 


79 


65 | 


20 


119 


181 


1609 


.... I 


1669 




182 


144 


104 1 


150 


'ioi 


183 


1242 


.... | 


1242 




184 


135 


59| 


126 


"09 


185 


47 


15 1 


51 


11 


1S6 


70 


41 


73 


1 


187 


18 


10 I 


18 


11 


188 


127 


109 1 


154 


77 


189 


30 


1 1 


8 


26 


190 


5 


36 1 


4 


37 


191 


35 


91 1 


39 


85 


192 




101 




10 


193 


"2 


22 1 




24 


194 


8 


11 1 


"9 


9 


195 


12 


36| 


18 


30 


196 


127 


101 


1 


136 


198 


113 


133 1 


143 


103 


199 


695 


.... | 


695 




200 


82 


43| 


79 


' 55 


201 


60 


18 1 


38 


41 


203 


100 


11 


98 


3 


204 


1 


16| 


1 


16 


206 


19 


1 1 


15 


5 


207 


16 


111 


14 


6 


210 


9 


1 1 


46 


7 


211 


113 


74|| 


108 


73 


213 


117 


99 1 


117 


97 


215 


881 


. . . . f 


881 




216 


5 


24 |; 


3 


"26 


217 


10 


12 1 


14 


10 


218 


130 


58 1' 


146 


40 


220 I 


28 


. . . . 1! 


.... 


28 



L. U. 

No. 



Proposal 1 
Yea | No 



221 

22T 
225 
220 
227 
228 
229 
230 
231 

2::7 
235 
236 

2:; 8 
239 
240 
241 
242 
243 
244 
245 
246 
247 
248 
249 
250 
251 
253 
254 
255 
250 
257 
259 
200 
261 
262 
264 
265 
266 
268 
269 
270 
271 
272 
274 
275 
277 
278 
280 
281 
282 
283 
284 
285 
286 
287 
288 
290 
291 
292 
293 
295 
297 
298 
299 
300 
301 
302 
303 
305 
306 
307 
308 
309 
310 
311 
312 
313 
314 
316 
317 
319 
320 
321 
322 
323 



253 
1460 

928 
1 
51 
34 
39 
27 
34 
15 
18 

' "2 

5 

13 

65 

955 
26 

"37 

861 
61 
45 
44 
16 
42 

137 

495 
18 

384 

1740 

34 

105 

486 
70 

113 

321 
14 
52 

165 
7 
38 
73 
41 
39 
45 

364 

1 

37 

21 

92 

930 

"37 

58 

243 

4 

' 16 

2 

12 

35 

528 

17 

5 

54 

23 

32 

18 

335 

8 

82 

' 'i4 
45 
25 

' 75 
72 
45 
111 
22 
12 
35 
42 



9 

12 
1 

22 
070 

19 
5 
6 

"6 
16 

"9i 
27 

8 

18 

2 



23 

8 
106 

' 23 
13 
11 

'il6 

70 

' 'is 

25 
19 
25 

'i.48 
41 

105 11 
213 || 

2 11 
32 I 

3 11 



6| 

91 

5 I 

....| 

12| 

22 I 

.... I 

48 I 

.... I 

32 I 

34 I 

32 I 

....I 

30 I 

91 

1 I 

70 I 

311 

224 I 

....I 

34| 

20 1 



13 



34 
20 
42 

1 

23 

1 

18 

i05 



5 
31 
34 



Proposal 2 
Yes I No 

9 

2 15 

248 

1000 

461 

1 

54 

38 

43 

30 

34 

15 

13 



4 

12 

54 

955 

24 

"27 

861 

61 

45 

3 

19 

4 

58 

505 

18 

21 

1736 

34 

105 

486 

49 

108 

150 

10 

52 

142 

7 

42 

73 

"39 

29 

364 

2 

43 

21 

85 

930 

' '4i 
13 

243 
10 
1 
13 
16 
14 
41 

528 
30 
2 
48 
12 
14 
18 

335 
11 
64 

"l4 
32 
24 

"77 

35 

2 

105 

6 

12 

30 

42 



L. U. 

No. 


Proposal l||Propos 
Yes | No II Yes | 


al 2 

No 
4 


L. U. 

No. 


Proposal 1|| Proposal 2 
Yes | No II Yes | No 


L. U. 
No. 


Proposal 1|| Proposal 'j. 
Yes | No II Yes | No 


324 
325 
326 
327 
328 
329 
331 
333 
334 
335 
336 
337 
338 
340 


33 
18 


4|| 
75 11 


33 


436 


56 


2 || 52 | 


1 


548 


55 


11 II 16 


50 


57 


44 


437 


787 


II 787 




549 


25 


12 || 22 


10 


15 


15 II 


3 


27 


440 


371 


.... II ... . 


'371 


550 


74 


49 || 10 


110 


10 


11 II 


6 


15 


442 


63 


.... 1 37 


26 


55:; 




54 || 


54 


36 
75 

83 
150 




37 




443 


19 


31 II 5 


42 


554 


' 13 


11 14 




"72 11 

|| 


68 


' '78 


444 


2 


50 II 26 


26 


556 


15 


17 II 9 


' '23 


35 


41 


445 




7 II ... . 


7 


557 


61 


12 || 01 


9 


8 II 


70 


88 


446 


"32 


38 || 13 


55 


558 


78 


17 II 77 


18 


25 


17 II 


23 


17 


447 




59 || 


59 


560 


16 


.... II ... . 




58 


11 II 


58 


11 


448 


"85 


24 || 44 


58 


561 


35 


3 || 35 


"S 


33 


20 || 


45 


8 


450 


62 


67 II 62 


67 


562 


42 


42 II 33 


52 


41 


52 II 


93 


2 


452 


61 


200 II 24 


216 


563 


87 


332 || 104 


310 


8 


83 II 


3 


89 


453 


15 


25 || 32 


8 


564 


24 


4 II 28 




21 


36 II 


24 


34 


454 


1151 


58 II 1183 


26 


565 


6 


12 II 6 


"l2 


341 


38 


30 || 


30 


38 


455 


65 


II 63 




566 


8 


9 II ... . 


17 


342 


102 


304 || 


116 


289 


456 


17 


17 II 18 


16 


568 


24 


II 24 




343 


73 


82 || 


19 


122 


459 


8 


II 11 




569 


16 


65 11 7 


' '70 


344 


18 


39 || 


14 


43 


460 


21 


13 || 12 


' 22 


570 


32 


.... II ... . 


32 


345 


66 


37 II 


97 




461 


32 


26 || 31 


27 


571 


18 


19|| 6 


30 


347 


19 


36 11 


10 


"45 


462 


23 


8 || 14 


17 


572 


8 


29 II 19 


18 


348 


20 


11 II 


20 


11 


464 


109 


1 II 5 


105 


573 


14 


1 II ... . 


12 


349 


209 


II 


207 


2 


465 


60 


5 11 51 


17 


574 


33 


38 II 36 


35 


350 


148 


108 II 


160 


97 


466 


17 


5 || 21 


1 


575 


10 


.... 1! 10 


.... 


353 


44 


II 


43 


1 


467 


4 


22 || 22 


4 


576 


6 


43 II 4 


45 


354 


4 


10 || 


5 


9 


469 


11 


35 II 18 


27 


578 


253 


II 253 


.... 


355 


297 


II 


6 


291 


470 


63 


31 II 58 


29 


579 


30 


17 II 47 


.... 


356 


66 


HI 


66 




472 


10 


57 11 2 


64 


581 


13 


19 II 14 


18 


357 


41 


8 11 


20 


' '21 


475 


1 


104 || 1 


104 


582 


8 


.... II 8 


.... 


359 


1020 


II 


942 


38 


476 


20 


13|| 4 


29 


583 


120 


209 II 76 


245 


360 


30 


4 II 


3 


34 


478 


3 


33 || 2 


34 


584 


130 


8 II 2 


117 


361 


58 


16|| 


25 


51 


479 


33 


II 23 


2 


586 


228 


1 217 II 126 


308 


362 


27 


20|| 


27 


20 


480 


17 


. ... 11 17 




588 


37 


.... II 37 


.... 


363 


62 


69 11 


70 


61 


481 


2 


14 || 2 


14 


591 


4 


10 II 5 


9 


364 


11 


9 II 


8 


12 


482 


47 


4|| 51 




592 


65 


U 65 




365 


1 


102 || 


29 


70 


483 


121 


46 || 46 


' '98 


593 


4 


8 II ... . 




366 


138 


7 II 


141 


4 


485 




12 II 


12 


594 


20 


7 II 21 


"'6 


367 


43 


16 II 


39 


18 


486 


i25 


.... II 125 




595 


21 


1 58 11 59 


18 


368 


87 


23 II 


101 


9 


488 


915 


.... II 915 




596 


6 


1 54 II 4 


54 


369 


28 


18 || 


6 


42 


490 


115 


15 II 79 


' 43 


597 


12 


1 .... II 12 




370 


4 


11 II 


21 


10 


492 


119 


41 || 114 


48 


598 


70 


1 106 II 


1 'i76 


372 


25 


29 11 


34 


493 


247 


27 II 256 


18 


599 


142 


| 3 II 141 




373 


16 


4|| 


18 


2 


494 


149 


175 || 94 


218 


600 


12 


1 II 12 




374 


91 


HI 


10 


82 


495 


68 


.... 1 


68 




601 


13 


1 7 II ... . 


I "26 


377 


291 


.... II 


290 


1 


496 


31 


71 


38 




602 


60 


1 .... II 10 


1 35 


378 


100 


2|| 


84 


18 


497 


27 


.... | 




' '27 


603 


81 


1 32 II 80 


I 29 


379 


32 


75 II 


12 


86 


498 


10 


44 ] 


' 'ii 


43 


604 


33 


18 II -33 


i 18 


383 


22 


19|| 


14 


33 


499 


23 


.... I 


24 




605 


11 


1 1 II 4 


I 8 


384 


35 


2 11 


37 




500 


64 


.... 


64 




606 


35 


1 12 II 5 


I 42 


385 


709 


38|| 


714 


"33 


501 


75 


.... 


10 


"65 


607 




22 II 


| 22 


386 


1 


9 11 


1 


9 


503 


28 


3 || ... . 


33 


608 


1079 


1 II 1079 




387 


40 


42 |! 


39 


43 


504 


506 


II 506 




609 


24 


1 28 II 24 


I ' '28 


388 


818 


34|| 


30 


822 


505 


35 


1 II 35 


"i 


610 


2 


1 56 II 1 


1 57 


390 


46 


.... I 


24 


22 


506 


21 


7|| 4 


24 


612 


9 


1 24 II 32 


1 1 


392 


13 


21 


6 


9 


507 


71 


107 II 72 


104 


614 


9 


1 .... II ... . 


1 9 


393 


252 


201 1 


237 


214 


508 


12 


17 II 32 




615 


9 


1 4 II 3 


1 10 


394 


18 


2 I 


1 


18 


509 


2 


39 || 2 


"39 


616 


34 


1 II ... . 


1 34 


396 


62 


56| 


118 




510 


20 


8 11 21 


7 


617 


8 


1 4 11 3 


9 


397 


41 


31 


33 


' ' '6 


511 


31 


.... II 22 


4 


618 


12 


I II 12 




398 


io- 


20 | 


2 


30 


512 


48 


30 || 3 


74 


6i 9 


12 


1 II 12 




399 


12 


20 1 


8 


24 


514 


39 


15 || 43 


13 


620 


98 


1 .... II 45 


1 16 


400 


12 


.... 1 


11 


1 


515 


47 


49 || 44 


51 


621 


! 51 


| 96 II 23 


I 96 


401 


13 


30| 


13 


30 


516 


24 


24 || 25 


23 


622 


25 


1 189 II 14 


1 200 


403 


19 


27 1 


7 


39 


517 


54 


.... II 53 




6*>3 


29 


1 16 11 15 


I 30 


404 


78 


123 1 


65 


129 


518 


21 


5 11 15 


' 'io 


624 


52 


1 17 11 65 


1 16 


405 


34 


30 I 


34 


30 


520 


10 


8 II 10 


8 


625 




58 II 31 


I 25 


406 


50 


144 | 


54 


145 


522 


44 


3 || 39 


16 


626 


"39 


1 43 II 37 


1 43 


409 


31 


27 1 


33 


26 


524 


12 


5 11 10 


7 


6*>7 


! 61 


1 42 II 51 


1 50 


411 


48 


30| 


12 


67 


525 


10 


14|| 7 


19 


630 


1 37 


| 25 II 29 


I 30 


412 


37 


HI 


36 


12 


526 


39 


24 || 31 


35 


6^1 


21 


1 13 II 22 


1 13 


413 


34 


39 1 


36 


42 


527 




65 II 1 


64 


632 


1 5 


1 13 H 16 


1 4 


414 


2 


14 1 




17 


528 


' 14 


5|| 17 


2 


6^3 


1 541 


1 II 541 




415 


64 


19 1 


' 26 


44 


529 


9 


58 || 2 


65 


6ft 5 


! 7 


1 93 II 28 


1 "71. 


416 


51 


.... 1 


51 




530 


168 


36 II 14 


190 


6^6 


1 8 


1 II 


1 8 


417 


102 


24| 


97 


"28 


531 


117 


2 || 117 


2 


6^8 


I 24 


I 13 II 25 


1 13 


418 


16 


41 


.... 


20 


532 


41 


18 II 35 


24 


639 


1 71 


1 20 II 47 


1 32 


419 


80 


.... I 


80 




533 


51 


.... II 51 




641 


1 33 


I 1 II 35 




421 




12 


9 


' ' '3 


534 


19 


12 || 19 


"16 


6*2 


| 40 


1 124 II 28 


1 'il7 


422 


"48 


41 


25 


27 


535 




6 II .... 


6 


6^3 


1 504 


1 II 504 




424 


3 


20 


2 


21 


536 


• • \j. 


.... II ... ." 


7 


644 


1 34 


I II 34 




425 


98 


16 1 


98 


16 


537 


37 


12 || 31 


18 


645 


42 


| 27 II 39 


I "30 


426 


21 


.... 





18 


538 


12 


5 II .... 


17 


647 


1 6 


1 19 II 7 


1 19 


428 


28 


5 


33 




539 


7 


21|| 5 


25 


648 


1 29 


1 8 II 29 


1 10 


429 


178 


5 


165 


"is 


540 


28 


.... II 15 


8 


650 


| 50 


I 5 II 50 


1 5 


430 


123 


1 


4 


114 


541 


18 


4|| 18 


4 


651 


1 21 


I 11 II 21 


1 11 


431 


15 


.... 


13 


2 


542 


28 


HI 17 


5 


652 


1 6 


1 10 II 5 


11 


432 


165 





165 




543 


55 


106 II 75 


123 


6*3 


1 12 


I 25 II 8 


28 


433 


178 


.... 


183 




544 


57 


11 || 52 


13 


654 


| 235 


I 1 II 235 


1 1 


434 


851 










545 


23 


|| 23 




6*6 


1 23 


I II 23 


1 .... 


435 


10 


.... 


10 




1 547 


23 




I 23 




657 


1 17 


| 24 || 10 


j 30 



1. 1 


1 i upUMll i 1 


rouosal - 


L. U. 


Proposal Hi Proposal 2 


L. U. 


Proposal 1 1 


Proposal 2 




Vi 


No Yes 


No 


No. 


Yes | 


No || Yes | 


NO 


No. 


Yes | 


No | 


Yes | 


No 




l i 




1 1 


2 


769 


147 


77 || 138 


86 


886 


11 


1 | 


11 


1 


11 


11 




77o 


3 


35 II 


30 


ssv 


7 


4 




13 




5 


22 


' ' 22 


772 


18 


12 || 7 


22 


sss 


90 


. . . . 1 


"90 










S9 




77:; 


12 


27 II 13 


2(i 


SS'.I 


109 


28 1 


21 


'i(J8 






22 


29 


"ii. 


775 




41 || .... 


41 


893 


23 


30 


4 


47 


60 I 


109 






109 


77<; 


' ':':i 


16|| 16 


31 


S95 


27 


32| 


28 


31 




27 






1 


777 


3 


26 || .... 


31 


896 


1 


13| 




14 




s 






87 


77s 


40 


4 || 40 


4 


897 


24 


511 


5 


66 








' ' 6 


77 


7 so 




50 ;i .... 


50 


898 


145 




143 






[1 


B2 


16 


71 


781 


' -26 


.... II ... . 


2(1 


899 


41 


"in 1 


12 


' '44 




2 1 ; 


l 


5 


22 


782 


9 


3|| 6 


6 


900 


29 


19 1 


23 


24 


87 1 


10 


B 


I 


17 


783 


27 


20 || 13 


34 


901 


19 




19 






80 


:: 1 


27 


38 


Vsr. 


17 


5 II 23 


2 


902 


13 


'. : ". 1 


13 




67 1 




12 . 




42 


787 


158 


121 || 236 


11 


903 


24 


36 | 


1 


"59 








16 


82 


788 


63 


44 || 6 


90 


904 


71 


3| 


75 




677 




12 




12 


789 


23 


.... 1 23 




905 


9 


13 


9 


"is 


18 


16 || 


' 29 


6 


790 


19 


61 || 4 


"76 


906 




48 | 


.... 


48 




2 I 


15 II 


23 


15 


791 


125 


2 || 127 




907 


' "6 




9 




10 


|| 


6 


1 


792 


75 


40 || 68 


' '47 


909 


14 


' ' 9 


12 


" ' '4 






163 || . 




163 


7'.H 


45 


.... II 2 


31 


910 


3 


37 


2 


40 




17 


1 


ic> 


5 


795 


3 


79 II ... . 


75 


911 


111 


140 




250 


r,s.; 
684 


19 




49 




796 


8 


6|| 8 


6 


915 


12 


54 


'"4 


62 


L2 


10 II 


6 


' io 


70s 


34 


.... II 31 


3 


916 


176 


42 


165 


53 


i ; g ."i 




82 


1" 


48 


799 


69 


14 || .... 


83 


918 


9 


32 


21 


23 


690 


32 


28 II 


12 


27 


SOU 


25 


3|| 3 


25 


919 


11 


2 


.... 


13 


691 


52 


36 II 


60 




Sol 


48 


5 || 44 


11 


920 


95 




.... 


95 


693 




11 II . 




' 'ii 


803 


66 


40 || 40 


67 


922 


7 


' ' '9 


7 


9 


696 


73 


|| 


i3 


60 


Si 15 


8 


.... II 8 




924 


12 




11 




77 


43 


49 


74 


806 


34 


12 || 46 




925 


5 


"i6 


1 


' 23 


698 


6 1 


7 II 


71 




807 


16 


.... II 1 


' 'ii 


926 


11 


4 


2 


9 


699 


25 


5 II 


17 


"l3 


808 


128 


.... II 128 




927 


20 


75 


4 


87 


700 


3 


21 


12 


12 


809 


12 


12 




928 


5 


6 


1 11 




7"! 


IS 


49 || 


c.s 


29 


811 


14 


11 II 1 


' *24 


929 


92 


96 


65 


'ii2 


703 




39 II 


8 


25 


813 


16 


65 || 65 


16 


930 


28 


11 


3 


37 


705 


' 57 


78 11 


35 


91 


814 




18 II .... 


18 


932 


10 


24 


1 24 


11 


706 




21 || 




21 


815 


. . . . 


.... II 21 




933 


3 


30 


1 .... 


33 


7l - 


6 


3 II 


"7 


2 


817 




18 II .... 


"i6 


935 


26 




20 




7' :• 


• ■ 


19 || 


1 


20 


819 


80 


70 || 77 


73 


936 






1 7 




7ln 


76 


55 1 


88 


552 


820 


9 


49 || 5 


50 


937 




' 27 


1 .... 


' 27 


71 1 




53 || 




53 


822 


26 


2 || 22 


4 


938 


' "5 


19 


1 3 


20 


71 - 


48 


|| 


'is 




824 


31 


95 || 29 


98 


939 


10 


1 


1 5 


5 


71 1 


3 


83 II 


4 


' ' 83 


825 


26 


19 II 10 


35 


940 


34 




1 15 


19 


715 


670 


1! 


500 


170 


826 


8 


27 || 15 


20 


942 


12 


' "5 


17 




716 


14 


10 II 


18 


5 


827 


11 


23 || 1 


31 


943 


100 




1 77 


' 19 


717 


4 


185 II 


2 


187 


828 


17 


18 II 17 


17 


944 


36 


"98 


48 


84 


718 


35 


13 II 


32 


16 


829 


32 


23 || ... . 


55 


945 


14 


49 


1 11 


52 


719 


16 


17 II 


14 


19 


830 


17 


2|| 16 


4 


946 


168 


38 


1 168 


38 


720 


41 


II 


3 


39 


831 


3 


26 || 13 


16 


947 


23 


19 


1 14 


29 


721 


175 


192 II 


95 


245 


832 


4 


59 || ... . 


63 


948 


42 


15 


1 50 


7 


722 


11 


14 11 


11 


14 


833 


18 


3|| 12 


6 


949 


1 


19 


1 3 


17 


725 


18 


6 11 


11 


13 


835 


13 


14 || 13 


14 


950 


83 


1 


64 


20 


726 


1 


21 II 




22 


836 


35 


12 || 30 


15 


951 


9 


23 


1 5 


27 


727 


41 




'46 




837 


25 


11 II 8 


25 


953 


55 


69 


| 42 


78 


728 


11 


ie ii 


19 


"9 


838 


19 


17 || 11 


23 


954 


37 


121 


14 


142 


729 


10 


L5 


10 


15 


839 


124 


117 II 140 


115 


955 


30 


51 


1 .... 




730 


40 


2|| 


39 


3 


841 


49 


68 || 24 


82 


956 


12 


48 


1 12 


"is 


7:U 


6 


22 || 


6 


22 


842 


73 


.... II 73 




957 


40 


45 


1 39 


47 


732 


17 


111 


15 


1 


843 


38 


46 || 10 


"io 


958 


36 


7 


I 34 


5 


7.;: 1 . 


10 


7 11 


10 


8 


844 


73 


119 || 72 


114 


960 


14 


5 


II 2 


n 


734 


O'l 


.... II 


22 




845 


196 


.... II 56 


51 


961 


1 


52 


1 9 


44 


7::r. 


19 


36 11 


22 


"si 


846 


22 


59 || 20 


59 


962 


11 


5 


II 11 


3 


7:; 7 


6 


16 11 


10 


12 


847 


2 


21 II 2 


21 


964 


140 




I 140 




7 - 


39 


57 11 


7 


90 


849 


45 


14 || 50 


9 


965 


33 


"36 


32 


' '38 


VMO 


120 


.... II. 


120 




850 




37 || ... . 


37 


966 


7 




7 




740 


17 


20 11 


22 


"is 


852 


"*6 


25|| 7 


24 


967 




' '25 


Ij .... 


"25 


741 


14 


•Jl 


16 


19 


853 


4 


30 || 4 


25 


968 


" - 9 




1 9 




742 


54 


21|| 


43 


24 


854 




68 || 18 


44 


969 


42 


' "3 


1 .... 


"38 


743 


39 


69 11 


41 


72 


855 


' "2 


8|| 1 


9 


971 


54 


18 


i| 45 


2C 


744 


12 


3 11 


13 


2 


856 


6 


. . . . il 6 




972 


184 


2 


1 .... 


182 


747 


25 


10 11 


28 


7 


857 


41 


75|| 6 


'i08 


. 973 


73 




II 42 


2S 


74 S 


25 


7 11 


19 


11 


858 


11 


11 




974 


3 


"48 


II 13 


4S 


750 


14 


3 II 




17 


859 




11 II ... . 


' ii 


975 


9 


5 


10 


4 


751 


1 


48 11 




48 


861 


' ii 


.... II 17 




976 


42 




II 40 




753 


56 


33 11 


"3i 


47 


866 


19 


10 II 19 


' 'io 


977 


23 


' '22 


II 23 


"22 


754 


19 


.... II 


17 


2 


867 


10 


18|| 5 


20 


978 


47 


24 


9 


62 


755 


23 


3111 


36 


14 


868 


147 


.... II 147 




979 




10 


'1 . . . . 


1C 


756 


32 


24|| 


29 


27 


869 


66 


.... II 66 




980 


' "9 


19 


1 3 


25 


757 




13 11 




13 


870 


238 


119 || 119 


'238 


981 


1 


22 


2 


21 


758 


"ii 


53 11 


"ii 


53 


871 


44 


4 || 40 


9 


982 


33 


52 


1 30 


50 


759 




19 




19 


873 


23 


38 II 19 


36 


983 


9 


55 


II 6 


6C 


760 


"io 


4 11 


"7 


7 


874 




6 || ... . 


6 


984 


50 




'I . . . . 


5C 


7<U 


5 


28 11 


33 




876 


"29 


HI 24 


4 


985 


167 




'1 167 




762 


40 


2|| 


40 


" - 2 


877 


4 


26 || 7 


23 


986 


17 


"75 


10 


"83 


763 


5 


38 11 


5 


38 


878 


149 


.... II 149 




989 




36 




36 


764 


48 


25 11 


46 


27 


879 


10 


15 II 10 


' 'i5 


990 


"2i 




II "2i 




765 


21 


3 11 


21 


4 


880 


36 


.... II 36 




992 


8 


' .33 


1 5 


"35 


766 


2 


48 11 


2 


48 


881 


4 


40 I 7 


"39 


993 


165 


22 


I 187 




767 


66 


64 11 


55 


71 


882 


39 


12 || 38 


13 


996 


24 


9 


1 6 


"27 


768 


21 


34|| 


15 


41 


885 


1 HI 


41 || 90 


44 


1 997 


20 


5 


1 17 


8 



L. U.| 


Proposal 1|| Proposal 2 


No. 


Yes 


No II \es | 


No 


99S 


5 


40|| 


4 


41 


999 


18 


6 11 . 




26 


1000 


28 


.... II 


'21 


7 


1002 


15 


53|| 


19 


51 


1004 


11 


36 II 


11 


36 


1006 


589 


.... II . 




589 


1008 


10 


13|| 


"3 


20 


1010 


56 


15|| 


30 


43 


1011 


6 


3|| 


6 


3 


1013 


13 


.... II 


13 




1014 


21 


14|| 


15 


"26 


1015 


52 


.... II 


52 




1016 


11 


36 11 


8 


' '36 


1017 


21 


.... II 


21 




1018 


9 


2|| 


7 


• • '4 


1019 


13 


25|| 


11 


29 


1020 


41 


106 If 


35 


112 


1021 


24 


HI 


23 


2 


1022 


8 


33|| 


11 


30 


1023 


36 


3 11 


20 


19 


1024 


64 


1 II 


36 


29 


1026 


25 


.... II 


25 




1027 


8 


6 11 


9 


' " '4 


1028 


1 


36 11 


1 


36 


1029 


1 


16 11 


1 


16 


1030 


16 


.... II 


6 


8 


1032 


27 


2 11 


2 


27 


1033 


3 


1111 


8 


6 


1035 


26 


18 11 


13 


31 


1036 


8 


12 11 


4 


17 


1038 


15 


19 || 


13 


21 


1039 


9 


4|| 


4 


9 


1040 


16 


44 || 


16 


44 


1041 


25 


.... II 




25 


1042 


133 


18|| 


i32 


19 


1043 


1 


' 23 || 


9 


15 


1044 


35 


.... I| 


35 




1045 


12 


2 11 


X i 




1046 


53 


.... II 


ar 


' i 


1047 


27 


28 11 


in 


47 


1048 


21 


2|| 


r 21 


2 


1049 


24 


3|| 


15 


12 


1050 


62 


95 11 


54 


96 


1051 


26 


.... II 


26 




1052 


46 


205 || 


39 


'26.3 


1053 


9 


131 II 


10 


129 


1055 


85 


29 11 


44 


69 


1056 


15 


8|| 


15 


8 


1058 


50 


10 || 


19 


26 


1060 


7 


28 || 


7 


28 


1062 


127 


25 || 


128 


18 


1063 


8 


7|| 


1 


14 


1065 


49 


73|| 


38 


91 


1066 


16 


11 II 


16 


11 


1067 


8 


42|| 


8 


41 


1070 


74 


1111 


113 


1 


1071 


15 


HI 




13 


1072 


40 


- ion 


' '32 


18 


1073 


523 


76|| 


30 


536 


1074 


26 


10|| 


13 


23 


1075 


12 


17|| 


13 


18 


1077 


3 


10|| 


3 


10 


1079 


22 


10 || 


19 


14 


1080 


8 


2|| 




10 


1084 


5 


15|| 


"i9 


1 


1086 


8 


25 11 




33 


1088 


16 


2 11 


"17 


3 


1089 


36 


115 11 


39 


110 


1091 


38 


44|| 


16 


66 


1093 


140 


27 11 


109 


43 


1094 


3 


15 II 


2 


12 


1095 




50|| 




50 


1097 


' 'l9 


40 || 


' 'l8 


41 


1098 


46 


34|| 


65 


18 


1100 




22 || 




22 


1101 


'"8 


5 11 






1104 


31 


10|| 


' "12 


"29 


1105 


15 


4|| 


14 


5 


1106 


15 


120|| 


15 


120 


1107 


23 


14 || 


12 


25 


1108 


1211 


215 II 1204 


222 


1110 


20 


.... II 


20 




1111 


8 


39 || 


7 


"26 


1112 


16 


9|| 


13 


12 


1113 


114 


25 11 


121 


17 


1115 


8 


15 II 


7 


16 


1118 


14 


.... II 


14 




1119 


7 


13 11 


19 


' i 


1121 




7 11 




9 



L. U. 

No._ 

1122 

1124 

1125 

1126 

1127 

1128 

1131 

1132 

1133 

1134 

1135 

1136 

1137 

1138 

1139 

1140 

1141 

1142 

1143 

1144 

1145 

1146 

1147 

1148 

1149 

1151 

1152 

1153 

1154 

1155 

1157 

1158 

1159 

1160 

1161 

1162 

1163 

1164 

1166 

1168 

1169 

1171 

1172 

1173 

1174 

1175 

1176 

1177 

1178 

1179 

1181 

1182 

1183 

1184 

1185 

1186 

1187 

1188 

1190 

1193 

1194 

1196 

1197 

1198 

1199 

1201 

1202 

1203 

1204 

1205 

1206 

1207 

1208 

1209 

1210 

1211 

1212 

1214 

1216 

1217 

1219 

1221 

1223 

1224 

1225 

1226 

1227 

1229 

1230 



Proposal 1| 
Yes I N o I 

77 I 
13 1 



3 
12 

7 

149 

53 

185 

203 

29 

5 

41 

9 

10 

i34 
9 
79 
17 
98 
22 
1 

' '66 

1 

7 

291 

70 

17 

36 

4 

22 

27 

23 

8 

40 

26 

658 

17 

569 

12 

41 

' '22 
60 
10 
10 

42 
23 



3 
15 
15 

6 

110 
22 
20 
12 
67 
23 
18 
10 

"28 

' ' '6 

36 

9 

852 

14 

73 

17 

11 

216 

18 

1 

3 

9 

2 

26 

10 
26 
26 
4 
12 
36 
16 
32 



67 

1 

31 



Proposal 2 
Yes I No 
77 
12 
67 
1 
59 



5 II 
15 || 
13 11 

3|| 
20|| 

7|| 

5 11 
84|! 
...I 

12 I 
17 1 

22 I 
13| 

7 I 
48 I 
67 I 
140 I 
24| 
35| 

23 I 
235 I 

20 I 

4 I 

16| 

17 1 

34 I 

31 

22 I 

.... I 

25 

13 1 
3 

44 

33 

13 

3 

1 

34 

14 

9 

6 

20 

23 

4 

11 

52 

5 

19 

25 



267 
26 

18 

"98 
20 
15 
13 
23 
25 
1 
50 
14 

' '9 
16 
43 
14 



3 
13 

7 
149 

28 
185 
205 

29 

"63 

17 

9 

"67 

9 
68 
17 
98 
26 

4 

" "2 

2 

8 

291 

79 

22 

48 

3 

26 

19 

21 

9 

18 

25 

645 

17 

509 

6 

3 

' "3 
50 

5 
10 

28 

7 

' ' 1 
20 

' 15 

5 

9 

106 

' 'ii 

12 
67 
23 
32 
15 

"26 

" '22 
1 

'843 

"53 

27 

9 

219 

20 

5 

4 



32| 


3 


61 


28 


71 


9 


1 1 


10 


34| 


18 


21 


5 


71 


6 


71 


10 


.. 1 


36 


.. 1 


16 


.. 1 


30 



10 
6 
5 

4 
20 

77 
5 



12 
13 

20 
13 
70 
47 
63 

140 
15 
30 
11 

236 
16 
11 
17 
17 
54 
4 
35 

' '61 
21 
44 
44 
52 
24 
9 
1 
58 
32 



25 
4 
21 
52 
9 
41 
33 
32 



210 
21 

18 

"98 
4 
50 
26 
32 
37 
15 
34 
15 

12 
43 

15 

31 

4 

. . „ 

47 

22 

5 

10 



L. U. 

No. 



1231 

1233 

1234 

1235 

1236 

1237 

1238 

1239 

1240 

1242 

1243 

1244 

1245 

1246 

1247 

1248 

1250 

1251 

1252 

1253 

1254 

1255 

1256 

1257 

1258 

1259 

1261 

1262 

1263 

1265 

1266 

1268 

1269 

1271 

1272 

1273 

1274 

1275 

1276 

1277 

1278 

1279 

1280 

1281 

1282 

1283 

1284 

1285 

1286 

1287 

1289 

1290 

1292 

1293 

1295 

1296 

1297 

1298 

1300 

1301 

1302 

1303 

1304 

1305 

1306 

1307 

1308 

1310 

1311 

1312 

1313 

1314 

1315 

1316 

1317 

1318 

1319 

1320 

1321 

1323 

1324 

1325 

1327 

1328 

1329 

1330 

1332 

1333 

1334 



Proposal 1| 
Yes I No I 



Proposal 2 

Yes I No 



11 


.... II 


6 


249 


.... II . 




10 


3|| 


'ii 


25 


59 II 


20 


71 


HI 


66 


14 


.... II 


14 


275 


1011 

87 11 . 


10 


i9 


21 II 


'i9 


13 


43|| 


5 


70 


HI 


39 


32 


66 


4 


13 


16|| 


6 


26 


4|| 
23 || . 


29 


'31 


70|| 


'28 


61 


.... II 


61 


36 


55|| 


40 


5 


47|| . 




28 


1 II 


'27 


8 


.... II 


8 


29 


2|| 


29 


17 


42|| 


17 


7 


20|| 


6 


25 


43|| 


21 


6 


19 II . 




5 


4111 


"5 


10 


.... II 


10 


. 5 


3|| 


5 


26 


16|| 


30 


17 


76|| 


10 


22 


11 II 


32 


23 


35 || 


2 


3 


17|| 




31 


.... I 


'si 


31 


35 11 


23 


17 


39 11 


13 


50 


3 11 


26 


24 


3|| 


24 


20 


8 11 


26 


15 


21 || 


15 


10 


7|| 


8 


32 


33|| 


27 


140 


16 11 


70 


20 


.... II 


20 


14 


2 II 


14 


29 


11 II 


4 


45 


1011 


27 


16 


5 11 
9|| 


9 


"75 


82 || 


'48 


17 


14 II 


20 


35 


37 || 

53|| 


77 


' "-32 


55 II 


'29 


96 


110 || 


110 


1 


11 II 


1 


3 


32|| 


4 


7 


46|| 


6 


1 


25 || 


1 


45 


100 11 


42 


33 


30 11 


3 


12 


1011 




38 


119 II 


'46 


3 


17 II 


1 


103 


79 II 


120 


47 


9 11 


46 


52 


81 II 

7 11 


58 


' 92 


48|| 


"7 


19 


30|| 


23 


1 


37 11 


1 


13 


4 II 


14 


17 


.... II 


17 


15 


.... II 


15 


50 


.... II 


50 


43 


23|| 


36 


7 


.... II 


5 


1 


16 11 


2 


27 


13 11 


10 


7 


160 || 


7 


62 


85 II 


46 


14 


.... II 


14 


5 


6 11 


3 


29 


.... II 


29 


45 


.... II 


45 


3 


14 11 


3 


21 


8 11 


9 


41 


.... II 


41 



i. r 


l'ri>i»isul 1 1'roposal 2 


L. U. 


Proposal 1|| Proposal 2 


L. U. 


Proposal 1|| ] 


'ropo 


sal 2 


No. 




No 


lea 


No 


No. 


Ye 


No || 


les 


JNo 


No. 


Yes 


JNO || 


Yes 


No 


i 


82 


106 


30 


102 


1445 


64 


6 11 


30 


31 


1565 


8 


45|| 


49 


4 






32 


1 


IS 


1 lie. 


80 


4 11 


10 


24 


1566 


15 


II 


15 






v., 






85 


1 1 17 


::., 


.... II 


31 


3 


1507 




23|| 




"23 




1 s 




' '» 


81 


1 1 10 


28 


50 II 


4 3 


27 


1570 


' 'i2 


66|| 


'22 


55 


1 :: 1 1 


68 






•j 


1 150 


17 


3 1 




20 


1571 


131 


225 II 


87 


216 




19 






20 


1 I..I 


2 


28 11 


' 2 


27 


1572 


8 


8 II 


8 


4 




10 




"2 


1 1 


1 152 


10 


135 II 


11 


130 


1573 


29 


35 11 


10 


54 




880 







880 


1 153 


2 


12S II 


6 


124 


157 1 


19 


13 II 


27 




1340 


18 


7 


18 


7 


1 1 :, I 


3 1 


16|| 


37 


14 


1575 


8 


2|| 


6 


' '4 




4 


70 


4 


70 


1 156 


21)85 


II 2085 




1570 


11 


8 1 


11 


8 


13 19 


16 


2 


7 


11 


1457 


10 


21 || 


9 


' 22 


1577 


109 


.... II 




109 




2 1 


11 


26 


1 1 


1 158 


2 


78 11 


2 


76 


15 SO 


11 


13 || 


ii 


6 


1351 


23 






25 


1 150 




12|| 


12 




1582 


8 


26|| 


5 


27 




1 1 


23 


' ' 9 


21 


1 161 


' 32 


1 II 


29 


4 


1583 


8 


19|| 


6 


15 


135 t 


15 




9 


7 


1 162 


20 


16|| 


8 


34 


1584 


26 


2 11 




28 




:;i 


!!!! 


31 




1464 


16 


17|| 


17 


15 


1585 


20 


29 || 


"34 


15 


1358 


.".7 




2 1 


' ' i 6 


1 165 


2 


29|| 


20 


11 


1586 


16 


7|| 


16 


7 


1359 


in 


46 


5 


48 


1466 


16 


.... II 


1 


16 


1587 


42 


.... II 


4 


38 




24 


3 


17 


10 


1469 


15 


26|| 


14 


28 


1588 


29 


3 II 


1 


32 


1361 


so 


7 


30 


7 


14 70 


6 


11 II 


5 


12 


1589 


10 


12|| 


10 


12 


1362 


17 


2 


17 


2 


1471 


43 


17 11 


27 


34 


1590 


1150 


II 1156 




1363 


39 


1-.7 


7 


169 


1472 


28 


5 11 


25 


8 


1592 


1 


8 II 


1 


' '8 


1364 


2 


12 


2 


12 


1473 


49 


8 11 


32 


25 


1593 


13 


4 II 


11 


6 


1365 


100 


39 


[ 101 


35 


1474 


6 


14|| 


8 


12 


1594 




274 || 




274 




3 


::i 


9 


28 


1477 


16 


32|| 


17 


31 


1595 


' 94 


.... II 


' '94 




1367 


660 





1 660 




147S 


83 


89 II 


87 


85 


1596 


896 


512 || 


456 


'884 


1368 


1 


4r» 


3 


"48 


1470 




58|| 




58 


1597 


43 


2|| 


39 


4 


1369 


7 


1 


8 




14 SO 


' '97 


43 || 


"7 


160 


1598 


174 


83|| 


102 


159 


1370 


in 


2 


1 . ... 




14S1 


26 


13 11 




49 


1599 


24 


9|| 


1 


32 


1371 


1" 


22 


16 


' 45 


14S4 


1 


61|| 




64 . 


1602 


228 


.... II 


228 




1372 


39 


.... 


39 




1485 




44 || 


"ies 


36 


1603 


2 


4|| 


2 


' ' '4 


1373 


34 


60 


37 


"60 


1486 


' ii 


15|| 


4 


23 


1604 




95 || 




95 


1374 


3 


r>4 


3 


54 


1488 




45 II 




45 


1605 


' i 


18 II 


" i 


17 


1375 


2 


14 


2 


14 


1489 


i39 


.... II 


"20 


119 


1606 


33 


.... II 


33 




1378 




14 


1 


14 


1490 


28 


1 II 


23 


6 


1609 


24 


19|| 


10 


! !32 


1379 


' 44 


2 


35 


13 


1491 


21 


28|| 


7 


42 


1610 


21 


5|| 


15 


10 


1380 


46 





I 


46 


1492 


34 


4|| 


9 


28 


1611 


3 


1011 


3 


10 


1381 


5 


37 


1 .... 


43 


1493 


13 


4|| 


10 


7 


1612 


12 


.... II 


12 




1382 


32 


14 


4 


43 


1494 


16 


3|| 


1 


18 


1613 


248 


.... II 


248 




1383 


38 


7 


22 


16 


1496 


35 


167 11 


38 


163 


1614 


12 


4 II 




"ie 


1384 


28 


12 


1 15 


25 


1497 


1515 


505 II 


848 


1272 


1615 


284 


8 11 


'257 


35 


13SG 


;,:: 


50 


19 


78 


1498 


20 


18 11 




38 


1616 


18 


15 || 


4 


29 


138S 


2 


105 


1 .... 


107 


1499 


15 


5 11 


"i5 


5 


1618 


5 


42|| 


14 


32 


1389 




16 


I .... 


16 


1500 




9 11 




9 


1619 


28 


3 II 


7 


24 


1390 


22 


13 


20 


14 


1501 


"5 


70|| 


' '76 


5 


1620 


37 


.... II 


37 








69 


! .... 


69 


1502 




26|| 




26 


1621 


29 


.... II 


33 




1393 


22 


8 


28 


1 


1503 


'"9 


.... il 


"9 




1622 


53 


172 || 


31 


"i78 


1394 


97 


153 


1 117 


138 


1505 


48 


.... II 


1 


"47 


1623 


10 


.... II 


10 




1395 




19 


! .... 


19 


1506 


138 


75 || 


113 


94 


1626 


21 


.... II 


30 




1396 


' *5 


40 


5 


38 


1507 


134 


124|| 


122 


131 


1629 


48 


7 11 


51 


" i 


1397 


07 


53 


84 


60 


1508 


15 


7 11 


18 


4 


1630 


11 


1 II 


12 




1399 


22 





22 




1509 


82 


1111 


82 


11 


1631 


42 


9 11 


30 


"2i 


1400 


31 


65 


1 23 


' 73 


1512 


60 


.... II 






1632 


113 


150|| 


13 


248 


1401 


100 


26S 


! .... 


36S 


1513 


30 


21 II 


"i9 


"31 


1633 


7 


.... I 


7 




140:: 


11 


1 


10 


2 


1514 


7 


26 || 


5 


26 


1634 




21|| 


5 


"i6 


1405 


41 


12 


1 .... 


53 


1515 


21 


HI 




22 


1635 


"56 


15|| 


28 


36 


1400 


50 


7 


50 


7 


1516 


21 


10 11 


"i5 


16 


1636 


32 


6 11 


10 


28 


1408 


41 


89 


35 


97 


1517 




35|| 


5 


30 


1637 


11 


1 II 


1 


11 


141H 




7 


1 .... 


7 


1518 




36 11 




36 


1639 


9 


3|| 


3 


9 


1411 


' 'ii 


40 


31 


21 


1519 


' i4 


57 || 


' - 2i 


50 


1640 


22 


9 11 


15 


17 


1412 




17 


1 .... 


17 


1521 


8 


50|| 


7 


50 


1641 


20 


9 11 


29 




141?. 


" 28 


37 


1 35 


30 


1522 


1 


13 11 


2 


12 


1642 


17 


14 11 




' 'i7 


1414 


71 


20 


1 32 


60 


1524 


25 


5|| 


11 


18 


1643 


7 


20|| 


" 9 


18 


141 r. 


2 


25 


1 3 


23 


1526 


2 


29|| 


4 


27 


1644 


196 


124 II 


37 


279 


1416 


60 


48 


67 


38 


1527 


66 


51 || 


71 


43 


1645 


60 


20 || 


15 


65 


141S 


10 


57 


8 


59 


1528 


16 


' 4|| 




20 


1647 




17 11 




17 


1410 


11 


15 


10 


16 


1529 


65 


1011 


'*68 


5 


1648 


' ' 2 


71 II 


' '2 


71 


1420 


7 


41 


10 


37 


1531 




29|| 


1 


28 


1649 


149 


II 


131 


10 


1421 


4S 


1 


48 


1 


1532 


"28 


8 11 


7 


29 


1650 


62 


7 II 


47 


21 


1422 




80 


1 .... 


80 


1533 


42 


7|| 


1 


49 


1651 


10 


39 II 


1 


48 


142?, 


130 


13 


1 134 




1534 


17 


20|| 


7 


28 


1652 


10 


1 II 




11 


1425 




17 


1 .... 


' 'ii 


1535 


10 


9|| 


11 


8 


1654 


22 


110 11 




128 


1428 


' 20 


18 


20 


18 


1536 


1433 


2|| 


4 


1431 


1655 


15 


II 


' '9 


6 


1429 


23 


14 


4 


33 


1538 




16 || 




17 


1656 


17 


3 II 


16 


4 


1430 


14 


2 


1 


17 


1539 


623 


.... II 


'623 




1657 


607 


7 II 


613 


1 


1431 


1 


18 


1 3 


16 


1540 


56 


31 II 


59 


".3i 


1658 


16 


25 II 


8 


34 


1432 


7 


19 


6 


20 


1541 


1 


30|| 


. . „ 


31 


1659 


42 


8 II 


40 


4 


1433 


12 


82 


12 


82 


1542 


2 


15 11 




16 


1600 


18 


10 II 


16 


12 


1434 


34 




1 29 


5 


1548 


5 


7 11 


1 


11 


1661 


24 


II 


24 




1435 




' *20 


1 


20 


1550 


6 


44|| 


31 


19 


1662 


16 


135 II 


26 


'i20 


1436 


' *63 




63 




1551 


1 


9 11 


10 




1603 


48 


II 


48 




1437 


1696 


' 29 


37 


i686 


1552 


3 


12|| 


6 


' "9 


1664 


72 


8 11 


5 


' '75 


143S 


56 




I 7 


48 


1554 


22 


10 11 


1 


35 


1605 


657 


II 


657 




1439 


10 


' "8 


8 


10 


1555 


11 


.... II 


11 




1667 


12 


24 11 


4 


' 33 


1440 


18 




18 




1556 


12 


22|| 


4 


"24 


1669 


90 


257 II 


22 


325 


1441 


10 


' ii 


17 


' ' '4 


1558 




50|| 


1 


49 


1670 


36 


II 


36 




1442 


14 


1 


1 .... 


15 


1559 


' i2 


119 11 




131 


1671 


1 


21 II 


2 


"20 


1443 


13 


51 


1 7 


58 


1563 


2 


7 11 


' 'i 


5 


1072 


29 


2 11 


11 


21 


1444 


.... 


18 




18 


1 1564 


47 


23|| 


49 


21 


1673 


1.8 


8 11 


1 


18 



L. U. 


Proposal 1|| Proposal 2 


L. U. 


Proposal 1|| Proposal 2 


L. U. 


Proposal 1|| Proposal 2 


No. 


Yes 


| No 


1 Yes 


No 


No. 


Yes 


| No 


1 Yes 


No 


No. 


Yes 


1 No || 


Yes 


No 


1674 




. 30 || ... . 


30 


1783 


6 


4 


1 8 


2 


1896 


10 


45 || 




58 


1675 




27 II 26 


1 


1784 


445 


77 


1 408 


114 


1897 


22 


44 || 




66 


1677 


' '38 




I .... 


38 


17S5 


22 




22 




1899 


28 


II 


' '2i 




1678 


23 




23 




1786 


206 




I 206 




1900 


18 


9 II 






1679 


10 


' "6 


1 10 


" " '4 


1789 




' 'is 


1 .... 


' 'ii 


1901 




29 || 




"29 


1680 


22 




II 2 


20 


1791 


' ' 'i 


19 


1 .... 


20 


1902 


' 'si 


II 


' 'si 




1681 


18 




18 




1792 


20 


34 


1 7 


46 


1903 


1 


16|| 


1 


"ie 


1682 






1 14 




1794 


15 


8 


1 15 


8 


1904 


17 


.... II 


14 


3 


1683 


"is 


"21 || 


' '68 


1795 


1 


30 


1 . . . . 


31 


1908 


21 


35 || 


19 


36 


1684 


32 




1 . . . . 


31 


1796 




40 


I .... 


40 


1910 


78 


54 || 


113 


1!) 


1685 


21 


"2OH 27 


13 


1797 


' '45 


23 


1 18 


49 


1912 


15 


1 II 


7 


8 


16S6 


18 


9|| 18 


9 


1799 


14 




1 .... 




1913 


61 


187 11 


68 


178 


1688 




70 || ... . 


70 


1800 




' 'is 




' 'is 


1917 


7 


.... II 


7 




1689 


' '38 


33 || 15 


58 


1801 


' '20 


4 


\ '.'.'.: 


24 


1919 


2 


44 || 


4 


' ' 43 


1691 


18 


nil 


21 


1802 


14 


22 


1 6 


29 


1920 


i 


31 II 


1 


31 


1692 


56 




I .... 


56 


1803 


26 




1 26 




1921 


38 


281 || 


36 


279 


1693 


540 




1 540 




1804 


2 


' 'i9 


15 


' ' 6 


1922 


1120 


II 1120 




1694 


300 




I 299 


"i 


1805 


42 


39 


IS 


58' 


1924 


50 


.... II 




' '56 


1695 


44 




48 




1806 


18 


8 


18 


8 


1925 


58 


4 11 


6 


50 


1696 


7 


"30 || 


"29 


1807 




7 


1 .... 


7 


1926 


18 


5 11 


20 


O 


1697 


3 


36 || .... 


| 38 


1808 


'i93 


36 


1 186 


43 


1927 


24 


36|| 


24 


41 


1698 


10 


19 


1 5 


23 


1809 


10 




1 .... 


10 


1928 


23 


6|| 


11 


18 


1699 


110 




I 110 




1810 


9 


' "8 


1 11 


6 


1929 


331 


8 11 


330 


9 


1700 


19 


• -- 7 


29 




1811 


60 


1 


1 11 


47 


1931 


183 


.... II 


183 




1701 


34 


9 11 


' 'is 


1812 


29 


1 


1 26 


1 


1933 




40 || 




' 'io 


1702 


11 




U 10 


1 


1813 




13 


1 .... 


13 


1934 


"ii 


20|| 


' ' 6 


25 


1703 


19 


"is 


20 


12 


1815 


"35 


635 


1 35 


635 


1935 


13 


21 I 


12 


21 


1705 


11 




1 .... 


11 


1816 


1 


11 


1 1 


11 


1937 


8 




8 




1706 


15 


' '26 


1 4 


31 


1817 


9 


.... 


1 9 




1938 


42 


"51 || 


15 


' '78 


1707 


59 


48 || 60 


47 


1818 


7 


16 


1 4 


"is 


1939 


32 


9|| 


36 


1 


1709 


31 


5 || 28 


8 


1820 


5 


2 


1 3 


2 


1940 


21 


112 11 


7 


126 


1710 


5 


31 


6 


30 


1822 


47 


60 


1 33 


76 


1942 


29 


2|| 


29 


2 


1711 


16 


3 11 


12 


1824 


4 


25 


1 4 


25 


1943 


12 


4 II 


9 


7 


1713 


11 


. .„ 


1 .... 


12 


1825 


5 


16 


1 8 


13 


1944 


15 


6|| 


4 


17 


1714 


20 




1 18 




1828 


53 


32 


1 52 


33 


1945 


55 


1011 


65 




1715 


24 


65 


1 2 


' 'si 


1829 


28 


21 


1 5 


44 


1946 


42 


26|| 


33 


"29 


1716 


6 


3 || ... . 


8 


1831 


22 




1 


21 


1947 


71 


22 || 


70 


22 


1717 




16 || ... . 


18 


1832 


7 


' 'ii 


1 11 


35 


1948 




16|| 




16 


1718 


"46 


5|| 4 


47 


1835 


37 


45 


I 40 


41 


1949 


' '27 


11 II 




30 


1719 


11 


18 11 6 


23 


1836 




11 


1 7 


4 


1952 


11 


12|| 


'io 


13 


1720 


20 


18 || 29> 


' 8 


1837 


'269 


16 


1 246 


21 


1953 


7 


16 11 


4 


20 


1721 


36 


.... 


1 36 




1840 


10 


28 


1 1 


37 


1954 


127 


.... II 


127 




1723 


21 


81 


1 10 


"72 


1841 


7 


27 


7 


27 


1955 


15 


28 11 


15 


"28 


1724 


13 


.... 


1 13 




1842 


8 


9 


1 7 


10 


1957 


43 


.... II 


43 




1725 


5 


174 


77 


'i02 


1843 


15 


8 


5 


17 


1958 




2|| 






1726 


20 


30 


20 


30 


1844 




24 


.... 


24 


1959 


"27 


22|| 


"i2 


' 35 


1727 




7 


[ . . 


7 


1845 


"56i 


14 


.... 


575 


1961 


15 


49 || 


.6 


53 


1728 


'i45 


5 


1 2 


148 


1846 


1942 


67 


70 


1917 


1963 


40 


2 II 


4 


34 


1731 


11 


2 


1 9 


4 


1847 




13 




13 


1964 


24 


nil 


12 


21 


1732 


11 




11 




1848 




40 


'.'.'.'. 


40 


1965 


22 


.... II 


1 


21 


1733 


12 


'602 


10 


'593 


1849 


160 


146 


135 


165 


1966 


57 


... 11 


57 




1734 


29 


4 


3 


24 


1850 


14 


6 


10 


10 


196S 


9 


211 


8 


' '3 


1735 


9 


30 


5 


34 


1851 


25 





25 


. .„ 


1969 




33 11 




33 


1736 




55 


.... 


55 


1852 


74 


1 


74 




1970 


"28 


13 11 


'37 


4 


1737 


' 'i.6 


.... 


16 


. . „ 


1853 


8 


22 





30 


1971 


36 


7 11 


40 


4 


.738 


6 


1 


6 




1855 


10 


42 


5 


47 


1972 




27 11 




27 


1739 


128 


98 


141 


85 


1856 


159 


24 


9 


125 


1973 


' '47 


.... II 


'47 




1740 




13 


.... 


13 


1857 


65 


.... 


5 


60 


1974 


18 


9 11 




"27 


1741 


' ie> 


156 


12 


158 


1858 


9 


16 


9 


16 


1975 


60 


.... II 


'60 




1742 


1 


14 


1 


14 


1861 


13 


11 


6 


17 


1976 


19 


220 || 


19 


'220 


1743 


20 


.... 


20 




1862 


15 





15 




1977 


2 


48 


2 


48 


1745 


20 


8 


1 


"27 


1863 


14 


13 


20 


' ' '7 


1979 


10 


.... II 


10 




1746 


53 


236 


18 


267 


1864 


9 


7 


2 


13 


1980 


29 


14 II 


35 


"8 


1748 




12 


.... 


12 


1865 


38 


151 


9 


174 


1981 


6 


15 11 


4 


17 


1749 


' "2 


52 


.... 


55 


1866 


17 


23 


1 


39 


1983 


1 


15|| 


1 


15 


1750 


634 


.... 


634 




1867 


26 


43 


26 


43 


1984 


6 


3 11 


4 


5 


1752 


76 


107 


61 


m 


1869 


3 


22 


2 


23 


1987 


2 


34|| 


9 


33 


1753 


15 


.... 


15 




1870 


16 





14 




1990 


31 


5 11 


24 


7 


1754 


46 


7 


46 


'"7 


1871 


356 


10 


357 


' "9 


1991 


44 


77 11 


41 


78 


1756 


23 


1 


3 


21 


1873 




69 





69 


1992 


14 


13|| 


11 


19 


1757 


95 




"" 


95 


1875 


"l3 


29 


9 


33 


1993 


28 


20 11 


31 


17 


1758 


24 


"25 






1876 


18 








18 


1994 




22|| 




22 


1759 


25 


27 


5 


' i(3 


1878 


19 





19 




1995 


' "i<3 


.... II 


i.3 


4 


1760 




39 


.... 


39 


1879 


13 


6 


4 


' ii 


1996 


45 


46 11 


23 


66 


1763 




21 


.... 


21 


1880 


17 


2 


18 


1 


1997 


30 


12|| 


23 


19 


1764 


il2 


1 


23 


76 


1881 


1 


22 


1 


22 


1998 




46 11 




46 


1765 


51 


72 


58 


63 


1883 


23 


14 


16 


13 


1999 




9|| 




9 


1767 


18 


6 


11 


16 


1884 


35 




35 




2000 


"29 


3|| 


"2i 


7 


1768 


9 


14 


9 


14 


1885 


2 


' '38 


3 


' '37 


2001 


15 


76 || 


2 


89 


1769 


5 


13 


11 


7 


1886 


9 


8 


6 


11 


2002 


26 


4|| 


15 


16 


1770 


48 


41 


56 


30 


1887 


14 


4 


11 


6 


2003 


19 


1 II 


13 


7 


1772 


231 


45 


236 


41 


1888 


52 


11 


43 


5 


2004 


29 


12 || 


28 


13 


1773 


57 


.... 


.... 


57 


1889 


52 


50 


82 


10 


2006 


4 


56|| 


2 


57 


1776 


5 


9 


7 


7 


1890 


16 


2 


12 


5 


2007 


15 


47|| 


2 


59 


1778 




35 


.... 


35 


1891 


10 





10 




2008 


29 


15 || 


26 


15 


1779 


"58 


31 


50 


36 


1892 


12 


3 


12 


3 


2009 




17 11 


2 


4 


1780 


247 


162 


225 


184 


1893 


18 


60 | 


6 


72 


2010 | 


"i<5 


43|| 




60 


1781 


3 


12 


10 


5 


1894 


13 


16 


26 


3 


2011 I 


13 


.... II 


i3 




1782 


49 


21 


15 


20 


1895 1 


7 


51 


4 


8 


2012 | 


55 


II 


55 





1. 1 


Proposal i Propo 


>al 2 


\ 




No I 


i'es 


Nn 


201 I 


47 


5 1 


l i 


III 


201.1 


i 


51 




51 


2010 




L3 


9 


I 


2017 


18 




is 




■Jills 


16 


H 


19 








G 


226 






16 


i 


16 


' i 




20 




20 


6 


202 1 






17 








28 


46 


' ' 18 




32 


i 


17 


23 


2029 


11 


29 


22 


i:> 




19 




9 


39 


2031 


19 




25 


1 


2032 


176 


.... 




170 








' 23 




2034 








' 's7 


2035) 


10 


- 7 


"i 


30 


2036 


1 


IT 


1 


17 


•J'>::7 


10 


22 


15 


17 


2038 


10 


21 


4 


57 


2039 


1 15 


16 1 


.... 


131 


2040 


84 


.... 


SI 




2041 


7 


2 


7 


" ' 3 


2042 


2 1 


4(1 ! 


25 


32 


2043 




121 


.... 


122 


204 t 


7 


71 


1 


13 


20 16 


19 


1 1 r, 


44 


119 


2047 




352 





352 


2048 


" - 6 


26 


4 


29 


2049 


99 


15 


39 


61 


2053 


in 


• • 1 


.... 


19 


2054 


1 22 


1 


82 


41 


2055 


12 


1 


12 


1 


2056 


o 


15 I 


4 


13 


2057 


i) 


28 1 


6 


31 


2058 


35 


.... 


.... 


35 


2059 


9 


14 | 


13 


lo 


2060 


24 


20| 


29 


15 


2061 


5 


77 1 


6 


76 


2063 


3 


19 1 


10 


11 


2064 




15 1 


.... 


15 


2065 


' 16 


91 


7 


19 


2066 


5 


14| 


8 


10 


2067 


40 


40| 


3 


78 


2071 


24 


38 1 


5 


57 


2072 


8 


4 I 


.... 


12 


2073 


66 


44| 


35 


76 


2076 


14 


.... ! 


14 




-"77 


20 


24 ; 


9 


' ' 34 


207S 


27 


124 I 


7 


141 


2079 


104 


.... 1 


164 




2081 


7 


1 1 


5 


3 


2082 




207 I 


.... 


207 


2083 


' i 


18 


.... 


19 


2085 




10 I 


.... 


10 


2086 


' "l8 


11 


IS 


11 


2087 


56 


8 


54 


9 


2088 


9 


.... 


9 




2089 


25 


.... I 


4 


' '20 


2091 


12 


.... 


12 




2092 


19 


.... 1 


19 




2093 


73 


82 | 


10 


'l48 


2094 


760 


.... 


760 




2095 


6 


3 


3 


"(3 


209S 


7 


31 


8 


30 


2099 


8 


12 


6 


14 


2100 


9 


28 


9 


28 


2101 


4 


6 


4 


6 


210?. 


20 


9 


26 


6 


2107 


3 


10 


3 


10 


210S 


5 


11 


5 


11 


2109 


16 


3 


3 


16 


2110 


20 


.... 


20 




2111 


40 


2° 


63 


3 


2114 


58 


96 


23 


132 


2117 


376 


.... 


336 


20 


2119 


89 


2 


2 


89 


2120 


27 


16 


7 


35 


2122 


15 


14 


9 


19 


2123 




8 


1 


7 


2124 


' 'ii 


9 


13 


9 


2125 


34 


20 


1 


53 


2126 


1 


84 


1 


84 


2127 


33 


39 


15 


58 


2128 


3 


17 


3 


17 


2129 


3 


14 


t 1 


17 


2130 


8 


89 


4 


95 


2131 


24 


123 


20 


127 



I. I 



2132 

2133 

2134 

2135 

2136 

2137 

2139 

■_'1M 

21 13 

2144 

2 1 1 7 

2 1 5 l 

2152 

2155 

2156 

2158 

2159 

21011 

2161 
2162 

2163 
2164 

210.-, 
2107 
2168 
2170 
2172 
217:: 
2 1 7 1 
217S 
2179 
2180 
21S1 
2 1 8 I 
2185 
21 SS 
21S9 
2190 
2192 
2194 
2195 
2196 
2197 
2200 
2202 
2203 
2204 
2205 
2206 
2207 
2208 
2209 
2210 
2211 
2212 
2213 
2214 
2217 
2218 
2219 
2220 
2221 
2222 
2223 
2225 
2227 
2228 
2229 
2230 
2231 
2234 
2235 
2236 
2238 
2239 
2240 
2241 
2242 
2243 
2244 
2245 
2246 
2248 
2249 
2250 
2251 
2252 
2253 
2254 



Proposal l 

Y(-s I No I 



4 

5 

5 

37 

469 

5 

13 

24 
52 



11 

4 

119 

600 

2 

21 

3 

420 

"3i 

o 

13 

5 

18 

10 

81 

4 

21 

21 



10 

I I 

2S 

38 

10 
10 

129 

'25 

128 

' '6 

4 

26 



53 
6 

5 

4 

22 

29 

.... 

18 

4 

106 

39 



11 

24 
30 
15 
11 



60 

24 

' 16 

228 

30 

16 

13 

8 

190 

9 

381 

45 

6 

9 

' '26 

17 



55 
1 



4 

2 

11 

16 

18 
14 
24 

39 



15 
1 



18 

2 

14 



5 
12 
22 



Proposal 2 

Yes I No 
16 
10 
27 
12 
16 
16 

129 

8 

31 

120 

' '6 
6 

' "i9 

61 
47 
10 
6 
4 
11 
25 

' 25 

19 

105 

35 



21 

T 

' i 

'20 
1 

48 



7 
109 



600 
2 

' '2 
3 



4 
24 
34 
35 

' '63 
75 
43 

32 

' "i6 

228 

36 

19 

14 

10 

189 

9 

794 

48 

8 

7 

60 

20 

16 

355 

13 

"66 

1 

19 

' '26 
22 
20 
12 
14 
18 
20 
24 
11 
42 
119 

"i.5 
" '7 

417 

18 



11 

7 
15 
75 
19 



L. U, 

No. 



2258 

2259 
2260 

2201 

2204 

2205 

2209 

2270 

2271 

2272 

227:; 

2271 

2275 

2270 

2278 

227'.) 

2280 

2281 

2282 

2283 

2284 

2285 

2286 

2287 

2288 

2289 

2290 

2293 

2294 

2295 

2296 

2297 

2298 

2301 

2303 

2305 

2309 

2310 

2311 

2314 

2315 

2318 

2320 

2322 

2323 

2324 

2325 

2327 

2330 

2331 

2334 

2335 

2336 

2337 

2338 

2340 

2342 

2344 

2345 

2349 

2350 

2351 

2352 

2353 

2354 

2355 

2356 

2359 

2360 

2362 

2367 

2369 

2370 

2372 

2373 

2375 

2376 

2378 

2379 

2381 

2382 

2383 

2384 

2386 

2389 

2391 



Proposal 1 1 

Yes I No I 



23 
17 
70 
19 

24 

16 

150 

o 

172 
20 
2S 
11 
18 
37 
15 
25 

'i.7 

19 



11 

79 

' 'ei 

1515 

1 



13 



80|| 
20 II 

oil 

32 II 

...II 
54|| 



13 

12 

50 

2 

12 
22 
4 
18 
16 
10 



33 

15 

332 

8 
2 

7 



5 
11 



31 
18 
12 

"7 
1 
1 
9 

II 
... 
20 

"5 
2 

13 
6 

33 
6 
4 
2 
5 

22 

17 

'i3 
27 
16 

17 

11 

'34 

4 

18 

5 

'io 
11 

16 

15 

101 

' ' '6 
20 



23 
11 



L. U. 


Proposal 1|| Proposal 2 


L. U. 


Proposal 1| 


Proposal 2 


L. U. 


Proposal HI Proposal 2 


No. 


Yes 


No || 


Yes 


No 


No. 


Yes 


No | 


Yes 


No 


No. 


Yes 


No || Y 


es 


No 


2392 


12 


6 11 


13 


5 


2559 


184 


276 | 


19 


441 


2810 


2 


99 || 


2 


99 


2395 


10 


.... II 


1 


6 


2561 


3 


148 | 


.... 


151 


2812 


118 


18 II . . 




136 


2396 


60 


3 11 


3 


40 


2562 


143 


57 1 





200 


2813 




34 || . . 




34 


2397 




9 11 


4 


5 


2563 


21 


2| 


.... 


23 


2814 


462 


196 || 


io 


639 


2398 


"85 


136 II 


73 


150 


2569 




17| 


.... 


17 


2816 


459 


II . . 




450 


2400 


6 


45|| 


6 


45 


2573 


' '23 


296 | 


.... 


319 


2823 


166 


14 || 


'2 


178 


2402 




7 11 




7 


2576 


9 


119 1 


.... 


114 


2828 


8 


20|| 


1 


23 


2403 


' 'i.3 


8 II 


*i3 


9 


2580 


12 


16 1 


1 


29 


2829 


180 


41 II 2 


12 


9 


2404 


76 


1111 


80 


8 


2581 


217 


553 


67 


693 


2830 


37 


19 || . . 




56 


2405 


80 


68 11 


8 


140 


2583 


23 


61 


.... 


29 


2832 


38 


II . . 




38 


2406 


15 


1 II 




16 


2584 


6 


81 


6 


8 


2833 


20 


11 II 


22 


9 


2407 


16 


3 11 


"i.7 


2 


2587 


280 


346 


.... 


626 


2836 


1 


272 || 


2 


271 


2408 


10 


4 11 




13 


2588 


136 


19 


.... 


155 


2840 




22 || . . 




22 


2411 


168 


.... II 


'i<38 




2589 


202 


28 


18 


212 


2841 


"9 


160 || 


9 


160 


2412 


11 


.... II 




' ii 


2591 


42 






42 


2843 


255 


85 || . 




340 


2413 


9 


111 


"io 




2592 




'l89 


::" 


189 


2845 


90 


II . 




90 


2414 


76 


.... II 




"76 


2593 


'i30 


70 


9 


191 


2847 


22 


80 II 


22 


80 


2415 


19 


3|| 


"l3 


9 


2594 


63 


2 




65 


2851 


173 


59 || 225 


7 


2416 


150 


69 11 


45 


153 


2599 


49 


17 


: : : : 


66 


2855 


6 


54 || 


8 


52 


2417 


15 


1 II 


15 


1 


2603 


125 


"" 




125 


2858 




144 || . 




144 


2418 


16 


HI 


16 


1 


2605 


71 




: ::: 


71 


2859 


'i30 


32 || . 




162 


2422 


3 


26|| 


5 


24 


2606 


161 


.... 


.... 


161 


2864 


4 


5111 


'4 


51 


2423 


89 


.... II 


89 




2611 


270 


108 


.... 


378 


2868 


10 


.... II . 




10 


2424 


6 


15 11 


6 


"is 


2612 


10 


6 


13 


2 


2869 


68 


.... II 


io 


58 


2425 


24 


3 11 


10 


18 


2618 


123 


123 


.... 


246 


2870 




9|| . 




9 


2426 


10 


2|| 


4 


8 


2621 


295 


319 


18 


596 


2877 


"l62 


.... II . 




162 


2427 


13 


5 11 




22 


2623 


38 


.... 


.... 


38 


2878 


141 


19 11 . 




159 


2428 


16 


.... II 




16 


2626 


8 


9 


2 


15 


2879 


91 


.... II 


'4 


84 


2429 


3 


114|| 


"4 


113 


2627 


181 


109 


12 


278 


2880 


94 


6|| . 




100 


2430 


8 


20 11 


8 


20 


2628 


322 


"" 




322 


2881 


156 


.... II . 




156 


2435 


165 


88|| 


152 


91 


2630 


16 




"'. ! 


16 


2S84 


17 


9|| . 




26 


2437 


136 


17 11 




153 


2633 


1386 


314 


.... 


1700 


2885 


49 


.... II 


49 




2438 


24 


.... II 


' "2 


22 


2635 


100 


.... 


.... 


100 


2887 




51 II . 




"51 


2441 


12 


46 11 


8 


46 


2636 


120 


127 


.... 


245 


2889 


' 'is 


6|| . 




20 


2445 




23 li 


1 


21 


2648 


233 


42 


.... 


275 


2894 


125 


75 || . 




200 


2446 


' 97 


.... II 




97 


2652 


10 


38 


2 


45 


2895 


10 


.... II 


io 




2447 


22 


7 II 


"i.7 


12 


2659 


253 


.... 


. . , . 


253 


2896 


17 


35 || . 




' '52 


2452 


30 


7 11 


25 


13 


2669 


55 


186 


"" 


241 


2901 


23 


44|| 


16 


51 


2453 


212 


18 11 




230 


2671 


129 


14 




143 


2902 


378 


52 || . 




430 


2454 


3 


21 II 




24 


2675 


63 


330 


5 


392 


2903 


41 


46|| . 




94 


2455 


5 


25|| 


"7 


J° 


2681 


58 


.... 


.... 


58 


2905 




43 || . 




43 


2456 


23 


HI 




S24 


2685 


25 


32 


.... 


57 


2906 


' '59 


.... II . 




59 


2457 




16 11 




r 16 


26S7 


101 


83 


14 


168 


2907 


22 


90|| . 




95 


2458 


' 'i 


17|| 




18 


2689 


42 


21 


2 


61 


2908 


176 


24 || 200 




2459 


11 


.... II 




11 


2691 


443 


72 


50 


465 


2911 


45 


6|| 


45 


"'6 


2460 


14 


HI 


' io 


3 


2692 




23 


.... 


23 


2916 


216 


6 11 . 




222 


2461 


26 


18|| 


26 


18 


2694 


' '26 


.... 


.... 


26 


2922 


233 






233 


2462 


14 


HI 


12 


3 


2697 


8 


10 


1 


17 


2924 


33 


'. '. ' ' II '. 




33 


2463 


31 


54 || 


31 


52 


2698 




22 





22 


2926 


1 


54 || 


i 


54 


2464 


60 


2 11 




62 


2699 


' '44 


.... 


.... 


44 


2927 


350 


5|| . 




355 


2465 


9 


12 || 


"6 


15 


2700 


119 




"" 


119 


2933 


13 


15 11 . 




28 


2467 


14 


.... II 


13 


1 


2701 


130 


' 32 




160 


2934 


42 


21 II 


'8 


56 


2469 


43 


• nil 


43 


11 


2712 


99 


33 




132 


2935 


90 


4|| 


4 


90 


2470 


72 


.... | 


62 


1 


2714 


358 


40 


' "l3 


385 


2936 


9 


.... II 


9 




2471 


37 


7 11 


37 


7 


2715 


402 


39 


.... 


441 


2940 




21 || . 




"2i 


2472 


26 


3 11 


26 




2716 


572 


182 


.... 


754 


2941 


"i6 


. . . . fl • 




19 


C473 


9 


40 || 


9 


"46 


2717 


11 


16 


11 


16 


2942 


58 


281 || . 




339 


2474 


30 


30|| 


23 


39 


2719 


14 


6 


"" 




2943 




148 II . 




148 


2476 


19 


.... II 




19 


2720 


475 


225 




'766 


2945 




17 II 


'2 


8 


2477 


10 


33 J| 


"3 


43 


2723 


153 


3 


3 


153 


2949 


i.394 


.... 1 . 




1394 


2480 


32 


17 11 


1 


48 


2724 


29 


2 


.... 


31 


2954 


145 






145 


2482 


18 


.... II 




18 


2727 


2 


16 


.... 


18 


2967 


12 


'.'.'.'. II ' 


i2 




2485 


11 


HI 




12 


2730 


50 


2 


.... 


52 


2969 


25 


17 11 


1 


' 'ii 


2486 


11 


noil 


' i3 


104 


2732 


28 


.... 


.... 


28 


2970 




197 II . 




197 


2488 


178 


.... II 


178 




2735 




88 


.... 


88 


2975 


"3 


37 11 . 




39 


2489 


4 


8|| 




' 'i2 


2739 


'iio 


306 


34 


410 


2982 


25 


nil . 




36 


2490 


9 


22 || 


• --j 


24 


2740 


24 


"" 




19 


2983 


26 


4|| 


's 


22 


2491 


4 


23|| 


4 


23 


2750 


262 




. ; ". 


262 


2985 


7 


85|| 


7 


85 


2493 


27 


4 II 


30 




2752 


234 


156 




380 


2996 


2 


25|| . 




27 


2498 


63 


24111 




'304 


2755 


5 


18 


'...'. 


32 


2997 


66 


2 11 


62 


4 


2505 


17 


66|| 




82 


2756 


38 


13 


— 


51 


2999 


7 


2111 . 




28 


2509 


98 


42|| 


2 


138 


2758 


73 


.... 


.... 


73 


3002 


36 


.... II . 




36 


2513 


140 


25 || 




165 


2761 


27 


51 




78 


3008 


10 


.... II . 




10 


2519 


1377 


150 || 




1527 


2763 


29 


64 


'"4 


87 


3009 


476 


142 || . 




618 


2521 


36 


71 II 


' '2 


105 


2767 


622 


.... 


.... 


622 


3028 


92 


.... || . 




92 


2522 


148 


122 || 


11 


259 


2773 


51 






51 


3035 


72 


48|| . 




120 


2523 


16 


159 || 


8 


157 


2774 


188 


"i 


'...'. 


192 


3036 


159 


77 II 


io 


222 


2524 


22 


293 || 




315 


2779 


179 


89 


8 


260 


3038 


276 


124 || 


16 


384 


2526 


47 


.... II 




47 


2780 


42 


4 




46 


3041 


160 


.... II 


3 


157 


2528 


13 


.... II 


' 'ii 




2784 


154 


71 


"43 


182 


3042 


110 


11 II • 




121 


2530 


12 


17 11 




"29 


2785 


71 


45 


10 


106 


3050 


161 


22|| . 




183 


2531 


594 


11 II 




605 


2787 


332 


58 


8 


382 


3066 




36|| . 




36 


2534 


16 


4|| 


' '2 


18 


2791 


626 








626 


3067 


"l8 


36 || 


'7 


47 


2536 


82 


58|| 




140 


2793 


12 


9 




21 


3070 


132 


.... II . 




132 


2550 


17 






17 


2794 


15 


13 


'"8 


20 


3074 


19 


30|| 


3 


46 


2552 


323 


'. '■ '.'■ II 




323 


2796 


96 


24 





120 


3075 


78 


.... II . 




78 


2554 


352 


582|| 




934 


2797 




80 





80 


3082 


20 


2|| 


20 


2 


2556 


15 


1 II 


' '2 


14 


2800 


' ' "4 


48 


.... 


52 


3089 




1011 . 




10 


2558 


1 


16|| 


1 


16 


2805 


150 


163 


8 


305 


3091 


'iss 


92|| 


'5 


275 



I 

201! 
201 ( 
201' 

2040 
2041 
2042 
2043 
204 I 
2046 

2048 
2049 
2053 
2054 
2055 
2056 
2057 

2059 
2060 
2061 

2064 
2065 

2071 
2072 
2073 
2076 

-'•77 
2078 
2079 
2081 
2082 

2085 

2086 

•J'.-7 

2088 

2089 

2091 

i 

2093 

2094 

I 

2100 

2101 

2103 

2107 

210S 

2109 

2110 

2111 

2114 

2117 

2110 

2120 

211'2 

2123 

2124 

2125 

2126 

2127 

2128 

2120 

2130 

2131 



L. U. 

No. 



3093 
3099 
3110 
3111 
3113 
3116 
3117 
3121 



Proposal 1| 
Yes | No | 



3 

455 

7 

6 

43 

21 

115 



in i 

...I 

87 I 
9 

22 | 
1 | 

42| 



Proposal 2 
Yes | No 

20 
455 
94 
11 
64 
22 
42 
115 



L. U. 
No. 



3124 
3128 
3131 
3147 
315!) 
3161 
3167 



Proposal 1|| Proposal 2 

Yes | No || Yes I No 



138 

269 

10 

49 

ii 



45 

"27 
19 

440 



i:is 
15 



10 167 



15 



100 
10 
75 
19 

450 
10 167 



L. U. 

No. 



3171 
3175 
31 76 

31S-J 
3184 
3185 
3197 



Proposal 1 
Yes I No 



15 
1 

26 
308 

55 

85 
261 



57 



172 
151 



'JO 



Proposal ! 

Yes I N( 



191 



3,1 



SEMI-BENEFICIAL LOCAL UNIONS 



1, r. 


Proposal 1 


L. U. 


Proposal 1 


L. U. 


Proposal 1 


L. U. 


Proposal 1 


L. U. 


Proposal 


No. 


Yes | No 


No. 


Yes | No 


No. 


Yes 


No 


No. 


Yes 


No 


No. 


Yes 


N( 


2504 




86 


2660 




100 


2818 


12 


47 


3011 




30 


3,138 




3 


2508 


11 


10 


2661 




150 


2838 


3 


34 


3013 


31 




3146 


140 




2510 


32 




2667 


383 


127 


2850 


15 


165 


3022 


15 




3152 


6 


2 


2516 


40 


22 


2670 




38 


2852 


27 


13 


3031 


5 


6 


3157 


8 


2 


2537 


113 


432 


2676 


16 




2867 


127 




3033 


1 


10 


3158 


2 


t 


2540 


1 


23 


26S4 


115 




2883 




31 


3039 


75 


15 


3160 




1 


2543 


30 




2706 


28 


1 


2904 


14 




3055 


50 




3164 


9 




25 t I 


29 


4 


2707 


14 


7 


2928 


20 




3057 


13 


6 


3170 


144 


4 


2549 


23 


8 


2745 




9 


2931 


8 


287 


3076 




25 


3173 


18 




2553 


45 


10-1 


2757 


13 




2944 


20 




3092 


19 




3174 


18 




2566 


31 


4 


2750 


16 


10 


2947 


1131 




3096 


43 




3179 


4 


I 




15 




2762 


30 




2953 


14 




3100 




31 


3186 


11 




2572 


65 


10 


2776 




26 


2959 


20 




3102 


5 


55 


3187 


4 


1 








2778 


16 




2960 


12 




3112 


82 


17 


3189 


8 




2600 


80 




-Tvi 


7 


22 


2963 




25 


3119 


701 


103 


3190 


13 




2608 


842 


67 


2802 


41 




2964 


5 


50 


3120 




25 


3191 


12 


; 


261 l 




22 


-803 




30 


2971 


60 


4 


3125 


12 




3193 






2631 


86 


3 


2808 




394 


2991 


26 


1 


3134 




47 


3194 


57 


1' 


2651 


200 


80 


2800 




204 





















DANIEL J. BUTLER 
C. RICHARD ADAMS 
AMOS P. STEVENS 
MARTIN PORGES 
GEORGE CASSEDAY 



id 




MPENTER 



FOUNDED 1881 



Official Publication of the 
UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS of AMERICA 




*-* 



BLOOD 

MEANS LIFE 

A pint of your blood, donated through 
the Red Cross Blood Bank, can help save 
the life of a soldier who spilled his own 
blood to protect you and me and the rest 
of the nation. 

He gave his in agony and suffering; we 
can give ours in comfort and ease. 

Make a date at your nearest Blood Bank 
to give a pint of blood for the boys who 
are giving theirs by the gallon. 



GIVE! 




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galling of the shank — eliminates work-ruining "ride up" and "dive"! 

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EO^PEN 




Trade Mark Reg. March, 1913 

[IlIIllIIMMllMlin^ 

A Monthly Journal, Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners 
of America, for all its Members of all its Branches. 

PETER E. TERZICK, Editor 
Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis 4, Indiana 



Established in 1881 
Vol. I.XXIII -Xo. 1 



INDIANAPOLIS, JANUARY, 1953 



One Dollnr Per Year 
Ten Cents a Copy 



— Con tents — 



None Quite So Blind 



The Communists are doing a satisfactory job of fooling at least one group. They 
are closing their eyes to the inevitability of their destruction at the hands of the monster 
which they perpetuate. 



Charity For Whom? 

The generosity of many gooi 
use the cloak of honest charity 

AFL Begins New Era 

The American Federation Of I 
ship of George Meany and Willii 

President Emeritus Is Honored 

William L. Hutcheson receives recognitioi 
ment of labor. 

Don't Discount The British 

ades Union 
* * 



9 

ho 

14 

ider- 

17 

nee- 

26 

The Eighty-fourth Annual Trades Union Congress discloses the fighting spirit of the 
British people. 



The generosity of many good people is being imposed upon by scheming grafters who 
use the cloak of honest charity to conceal their chicanery. 



The American Federation Of Labor looks forward to new horizons under the leader- 
ship of George Meany and William Schnitzler. 



William L. Hutcheson receives recognition for his many contributions to the advance- 
ment of labor. 



OTHER DEPARTMENTS 
Plane Gossip 
The Locker 
Editorials 
Official 

In Memoriam 
Correspondence 
To The Ladies 
Craft Problems 



Index to Advertisers 



• * * 



12 
16 
20 
29 
35 
37 
41 
42 



47 



Entered July 22. 1915. at INDIANAPOLIS, IXD.. as second class mail matter, under Act of 
Congress. Aug: 24. 1012. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for 
- in Section 1103, act of -October .Z. 1917. authorized on July 8. 1918. 



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None Quite So Blind 

By PETER E. TERZICK 

* * 

T THE present time Uncle Sam has virtually all top-flight communists 
in the nation under indictment for conspiring to overthrow the gov- 
ernment by force. Some of these are out on bail pending trial, and 
others are languishing behind bars because no one is interested in going 
their bail. Whether or not the government's move is a wise one, we are in no 
position to know. Neither are we in any position to know whether or not the 
government can make its case against the communists stand up, for in this 
country we still have the decadent, capitalistic, bourgeois system of considering 
everyone innocent until proven guilty. 

However, there is one thing that 




we do know, and that is that it is 
high time to separate the sheep from 
the goats in this nation. The Justice 
Department estimates that there are 
somewhere around 50,000 bona fide, 
card-carrying communists in the coun- 
try—admittedly not a very high ratio 
in a nation that numbers its popula- 
tion at close to 160 million. Yet this 
handful of communists— trained in dis- 
ruption, obstruction, and sabotage as 
it is— creates economic and political 
disturbances out of all proportion to 
its size. 

It succeeds in these endeavors sim- 
ply because there is a vast mass of 
people who, while not being officially 
connected with the communist party 
in any way, nevertheless swallow com- 
munistic propaganda hook, line and 
sinker and, worse yet, believe it as 
gospel. 

A long time ago Shakespeare said, 
"None so blind as those who will 
not see." That being the case, per- 
haps it is a waste of time trying to 
point out anything to those who can- 
not or will not see; but their blind- 
ness may prove to be so costly to hu- 
manity that anything is worth trying. 



These are the Americans who visu- 
alize Russia as a paradise for workers 
with milk and honey flowing in the 
streets. They believe the Kremlin has 
no aggressive aspirations. They read 
The Daily Worker or the Guardian 
in the United States or News-Facts in 
Canada and swallow every party line 
switch without gagging or belching. 
They see only what they want to see 
and hear only what they want to hear. 
Every remark in The Carpenter that 
is even remotely critical of Russia 
prompts them to write letters of pro- 
test—always unsigned of course. 

To these people we would like to 
direct a few simple questions. If 
everything is so wonderful in Russia, 
why does the Iron Curtain exist? Why- 
are American newspapermen not al- 
lowed to travel where they want and 
look at what they want in Russia so 
long as they stay away from defense 
areas? Oh, the Kremlin occasionally 
hand picks a group of foreigners to 
take a conducted tour, but always 
only "acceptable" persons are invited; 
which makes these tours mean little 
or nothing. 

If conditions are as good as Soviet 
propaganda tries to make them, why 



THE CARPENTER 



is the world not Free to see for itself? 
Nothing raises more suspicion in this 
nation than does a school board meet- 
ing that is closed to the public or an 
investigation from which newspapers 
arc barred. Certainly the same must 
apply to the Soviet Iron Curtain. 

If the Kremlin has no aggressive 
aspirations, how do the Soviets ex- 
plain Alger Hiss and Judy Coplon 
and the Rosenbergs and the Golds 
and the Sobells and the dozen other 
spies who were caught spying clear 
back into the early Thirties? And 
what about the innumerable spies 
caught in England and Canada and 
France? Why is a nation interested 
only in peace ( as Stalin claims) build- 
ing up the most extensive spy network 
in the world? 

A man who only uses a bank to 
make a deposit or a withdrawal can 
claim to be an honest man with some 
justification. The man who draws a 
plan of the bank, keeps a record of 
what time the watchman comes on 
the job and investigates the burglar 
alarm may be honest too, but no one 
can be blamed for suspecting other- 
wise. 

And what about the great equality 
that supposedly exists in Russia. Let 
us quote a "great" Scottish writer 
named Naomi Mitchison who recent- 
ly completed an invitational tour of 
Russia. She says: 

"Is there a ruling class? There are 
enormous differences in earning pow- 
er .. . Yet these differentials are not 
producing a class structure, even 
though it is possible to invest money 
in State bonds and to pass it on by 
inheritance." 

So there are no classes in Russia? 
What makes classes other than differ- 
ences in income? If there are vast dif- 
ferences in earning power there are 
going to be classes because human 
beings are human beings. 



And wasn't wealth living side by 
side with comparative poverty a dirty 
capitalist institution? What happened 
to the great communist foundation- 
stone "From each according to his 
deeds; to each according to his 
needs". Communism was supposed to 
bring about this idyllic situation— 
every man a king, and every king 
equal. No more dirty capitalistic pass- 
ing on of wealth from father to son, 
no more one man getting more than 
another; no more one man having 
more than he needs while another has 
less. Those things were all supposed 
to be manifestations of a rotten and 
decandent capitalism. Under com- 
munism "From each according to 
his deeds; to each according to his 
needs" was to prevail. 

But, according to Madame Mitchi- 
son, needs and deeds are still separ- 
ate things in the great Soviet para- 
dise. Some do better than others, 
and wealth is even passed on from 
father to son. 

For those who have great admira- 
tion for collectiveism, it is not neces- 
sary to travel to Russia for a sam- 
ple. We have many of them right 
here. We, the people, own post of- 
fices and schools and city halls and 
government buildings of all kind. 
They are all ours. We share in them 
alike. We also own city, state and 
federal automobiles and trucks. 

However, we seldom see a citizen 
planting flowers on a court house 
lawn or polishing a state owned auto- 
mobile. On the other hand, most of 
us own a little plot of crab-grass and 
some kind of a bucket of bolts— 
usually with healthy mortgages on 
them. While we seldom cultivate the 
post office grounds or sweep out a 
post office truck, most of us spend 
hours manicuring our own lawns or 
tinkering with our cars because we 
feel a pride of ownership. And there- 
in lies the difference between stateism 



THE CARPENTER 



as represented by communism, and 
individualism as represented by Amer- 
ican capitalism. The Russian is sup- 
posed to take pride in what the state 
owns while the American literally 
does not give a hoot what the state 
owns, so long as it does its job effec- 
tively. What he is interested in is 
what he can acquire for himself 
through his own efforts; things that he 
can call his own and do with as he 
sees fit. And that is the way 99% 
want to keep it. 

And this exaltation of the state as 
against the individual also explains 
the difference between unionism in 
Russia and unionism in the United 
States. In Russia and its satellites, 
the function of the union is to increase 
production and maintain discipline. 
In America the function of the union 
is to protect the worker from exploita- 
tion of all kinds. The theory behind 
Russian unions is that all work is 
done for the state, the state is the 
people, therefore anyone who soldiers 
on the job in any way is an enemy of 
the people. 

Those workers behind the Iron Cur- 
tain who think work quotas are too 
high or the pay is too low or that 
working conditions could stand im- 
proving is a "Social Democrat" and an 
enemy of the people. Martin Horvath, 
big wheel in Hungarian communist 
party recently said in a speech: 

"We must fight against the under- 
mining work of social democracy in 
our plants which encourages slack- 
ness in discipline, swindling in wage 
and sick allowances ..." 

Another way of putting it is that 
the Hungarian unions must fight 
against members who lay off unnec- 
essarily or soldier on the job or fail 
to meet production norms or think 
they have grievances. 

Compare this with the tasks the 
average business agent of an Ameri- 
can union performs. All week long 



he listens to grievances and endeav- 
ors to straighten them out. He con- 
stantly protects the members of his 
union from punishment for accidental- 
ly botching a job or laying off to take 
care of a pressing personal matter. 

Much of the construction work in 
America during the past 10 years has 
been government work. For those 
who would like a sample of the glories 
of the Russian system, let all working 
rules be suspended for the duration 
of such a job, on the theory that we, 
the people, are the government, and 
consequently we are building the job 
for ourselves. Let the union devote 
its time to catching and eliminating 
those who "encourage slackness in 
discipline, or swindle in wages". Let 
the business agent hunt out and pun- 
ish those who are not satisfied with 
wages and working conditions. In this 
way you can get a fair approximation 
of the glories of working for a "peo- 
ple's democracy". 

No one has read more Russian 
propaganda than we have. We have 
read of all the glories of communism. 
But we have never yet read one word 
of criticism written by anybody still 
behind the Iron Curtain. To our way 
of thinking, that is the most significant 
point of all. There are 200 million 
Russians and perhaps another 100 mil- 
lion people in the satellite nations. 
Surely all 300 million cannot be happy 
and satisfied. Yet the first word of 
criticism of anything communistic has 
yet to come from behind the Iron Cur- 
tain. 

By contrast, this journal has criti- 
cized various arms of the United 
States so many times that it has be- 
come almost embarrassing. We have 
criticized the tax structure, wage and 
price controls, building materials con- 
trols, the Taft-Hartley Law, Congress, 
the President and a thousand and one 
other branches of the government. 
We criticized not because we were 



THE CARPENTER 



subversive or because we opposed the 
government, but simply because we 
disliked some of the things they were 
doing. We let them know what we 
thought in no uncertain terms. If 
enough people criticized along with 
us we got action. If enough didn't, we 
got nowhere, but we kept right on 
criticizing. And no one considers us 
subversive or "enemies" of the govern- 
ment. 

So, in the final analysis, perhaps the 
best yardstick for judging the true 
worth of a way of life is by the criti- 
cism of it rather than by the propa- 
ganda put out by the people in the 
saddle. What the Wage Stabilization 
Board has had to say about itself and 
the work it has been doing is one 
thing. What we, as working people, 
have had to say about it is something 
else. 

Pointing out all these things to 
those who have eyes but see not may 
be a waste of time. Fifteen years ago, 
the writer of this piece made a propo- 
sition to anyone interested in enjoying 
the glories of communism. To any 
American citizen who wanted to vol- 
untarily renounce his American citi- 
zenship in favor of Russian citizenship 
he offered to donate a one-way ticket 
to Moscow. In 15 years no one has 
accepted that proposition. However, 
it still stands. 



And the thought occurs to us that 
the past month has given the world 
some great examples of the "glories" 
that come to those who betray the 
lands of their birth to further the ex- 
pansion of world communism. In 
Czechoslovakia some 14 citizens 
formed the hard core of the com- 
munist conspiracy that paved the way 
for Russian "liberation" five years ago. 
Last month they got their rewards. 
Eleven of them stretched ropes tight 
with their necks; the other three were 
sentenced to spend the rest of their 
days in communist cells. 

Ironically, the communists who are 
operating in this country operate 
through communist "cells" too. 
Whether they realize it or not, they 
are operating in the same manner that 
Clementis and Slansky and Frejka and 
the eight other communists who last 
month died at the end of a hangman's 
rope, operated in Czechoslovakia five 
years ago. Nor should they ignore the 
three Polish communists who were 
ventilated last month by firing squads. 
The list of terrorism and slaughter 
that has attended the spread of com- 
munism is appalling. If it should have 
taught us anything it is that there is 
neither safety nor peace for anyone in 
compromise with communism— least 
of all for those who successfully be- 
tray their native lands to the Kremlin. 



CHILD LABOR STILL WIDELY EXPLOITED 

More than 2,000,000 American children are working full or part-time and many of these 
are employed illegally, the National Child Labor Committee reported at its 46th annual 
meeting recently. 

An investigation of 33,000 employers in 1951 by the Federal Wage-Hour Division 
turned up 7,310 illegally employed minors, the report said. Of these, 321 were under nine 
years, 2,271 were between nine and 14, 3,201 were 14 and 15 and 1,517 were 16 and 17 
year olds employed in hazardous occupations. 

"The highest percentage of under-age children found working was in logging opera- 
tions, for which the legal age minimum is 18 because of the hazardous nature of the work," 
the report said. "Next came agriculture where there is a 16-year age minimum for em- 
ployment during school hours." 

"The worst child labor abuses," it declared, "occur in agriculture, with the children of 
migrant workers suffering most of all. The large numbers employed, the early age at 
which they work, their neglected schooling and general living conditions are in bitter con- 
trast to this country's traditional concern for the welfare of the children." 



CHARITY-FOR WHOM? 

• * * 

PERIODICALLY throughout the year many persons are suprised to find 
an unexpected package in the mail addressed to them. It usually con- 
tains a key chain, pen, stickers or some other small object of little value 
and a request of a nominal donation to what seems to be a worthy cause. 

In many cases the organization which sends the trinket is sincere in its 
efforts to aid the unfortunates of the community, but almost as often as not 
they are playing the public for a sucker, making fortunes due to the essential 
humanitarian feelings of the average man or woman. 
Charity is one of the noblest of all 



human virtues. Nothing should be al- 
lowed to discourage it, but neither 
should questionable promotions be 
allowed to exploit it. There are many 
very worthy appeals made by mail; 
Christmas Seals to fight TB, Easter 
Seals to help crippled children, and 
many others which have been in busi- 
ness for long periods of years and 
have done much good work. On the 
other hand, however, promoters have 
begun to muscle into the field with 
high sounding organizations that have 
little humanitarianism behind them. 
This means that every new appeal for 
funds should be examined carefully. 

Out in Hollywood, Jimmy Fidler, 
popular newspaper gossip columnist, 
founded the National Kids' Day foun- 
dation in 1948. He was, and is prob- 
ably very sincere in his desire to help 
children who are suffering. But four 
years after the founding of the or- 
ganization its executive secretary, 
John R. Swallow, reports that not a 
penny of the expenditures have gone 
directly to any needy child, or chil- 
dren's charity. 

"The Wall Street Journal" recently 
printed an article which made the 
very new executives of RKO Pictures 
so uncomfortable that they resigned 
their positions. The "Journal'' found 



that the new stock owners were a 
syndicate of five men, headed by 
Ralph Stolkin and Abraham Koolish. 
These men have engaged in ques- 
tionable professions such as punch- 
board sales and mail order schemes. 
When it was discovered that Stolkin 
and Koolish were connected with the 
National Kids' Day Foundation, "The 
Journal" again looked behind the 
scenes and came out with more start- 
ling information. 

According to the "Journal," the 
Chicago Better Business Bureau has 
in its files records which show that in 
the four year period from June, 1948 
to June 30, 1952, the contributions re- 
ceived by Empire Enterprises, the 
foundations' collection agency, total 
$650,626.50. The cost of mailing, and 
opening returns was set at $652,585.32; 
a loss of $1,958.82 in four years. That 
is the cost set by the funds raising 
company. 

Almost two-thirds of a million dol- 
lars was donated by the public, in 
what they believed was a worthy 
cause, and the company which is paid 
to handle the cash, claims they had a 
loss of almost $2,000. 

Fidler announced that the loss 
shown was due to "a book-keeping 
technicality," and that Empire Enter- 



THE CARPENTER 



prises agreed to stand any losses ac- 
cording to their contract with the 
foundation. 

What have Stolkin and Koolish to 
do with this? Stolkin is the president, 
and Koolish the founder of Empire. 
Koolish also made the deal which 
connected the foundation with Em- 
pire and Gayton Associates; another 
charity-by-mail concern. 

The "Journal" discloses that "with 
every letter it sends out for the Kids' 
Day Foundation, Empire encloses a 
batch of 'personalized name stickers' 
bearing the recipients name and ad- 
dress." It goes on, saying: "In some 
mailings, it also includes a shiny new 
penny, as a 'good luck piece.' Along 
with a return envelope, a coin card is 
provided, 'if you wish to make a do- 
nation in addition to the nominal pay- 
ment of 50 cents." 

Gayton's mailings are described as 
"more ambitious. They include a 
'wonderful pen,' with the name of the 
recipient personally engraved in 23 
karat gold." For this they ask $1.50, 
plus a donation. 

Continuing with the Wall Street 
disclosures, "Notarized statements 
from Empire and Gayton indicate 
their mailings prior to June 30 had by 
October 7 brought in a profit to the 
foundation of $88,843.79. But this cal- 
culation does not include the cost of 
opening the return envelopes received 
after June 30." 

Considering the figures which are 
supplied in the article, about 10 per 
cent of the public contributions goes 
to the foundation. The rest is con- 
sumed in expenses. 

Other incomes of the foundation be- 
sides Empire-Gayton mailings brought 
in $389,833.01 in the four years end- 
ing June 30. Despite this income, no 
charitable work has been done. The 
major part of this money went for 
publicity purposes. 



A spokesman for J. Walter Thomp- 
son Co., who handled the advertis- 
ing and public relations, said his 
agency lost money on the deal, but 
handled it because "we consider the 
program is sound." 

Kids' Day is celebrated on the 
fourth Saturday in September, and 
the foundation has spent most of its 
time, money and efforts in building 
up public interest in the day, and not 
in actually providing help for needy 
kids. They intend to increase interest 
in the day so that local groups can 
raise donations for their own groups 
and help needy young people. 

This part of the program has been 
a success in part. In 1949 Kiwanis 
International began cooperating on 
a local level. During the course of 
their activities the Kiwanis have re- 
ceived all the foundation's calls for 
charity. In one case referred to them 
by the foundation, a child from Calif- 
ornia was treated at Kiwanis' expense, 
after the child's parents had appealed 
to the Foundation. 

In 1951 the local service clubs of 
the Kiwanis raised $432,785, and ex- 
pect to get more than $1 million in 
1952. Kiwanis has been helping 
young people for many years, but the 
foundation says that its activities have 
given the former organization a big 
boost. 

The "Journal" quotes O. E. Peter- 
son, secretary of Kiwanis International 
as saying: "We are deeply concerned 
over the foundations' fund raising 
activities. The Kiwanis board at its 
next meeting in Chicago will give 
thorough consideration to this mat- 
ter." 

Peterson further states that the 
members are dissatisfied and some, 
who are members of Better Business 
Bureaus, have raised objections to 
the foundation's program of merchan- 
dise mailings. 



THE CARPENTER 



11 



A help fund 'lias been established 
by the board of directors, to provide 
"immediate and emergency assis- 
tance not available from other 
sources." So far about $1,000 has gone 
into the fund, and Fidler declares 
that the directors have requested that 
all excess income in the future be 
placed there. 

Part of the success of the fund rais- 
ing must be attributed to the many 
famous names connected with the 
project. Supreme Court Justice Wil- 
liam O. Douglas, Columnist Drew 
Pearson, Bing Crosby and Mrs. Bob 
Hope, wife of the famous comedian, 
are a few of the well known people 
whose names are, or have been con- 
nected with the Kids' Day Founda- 
tion. Douglas recently resigned as a 
member of the advisory council, and 
Mrs. Hope resigned as second vice- 
president of the foundation. Douglas 
has formally requested that the or- 
ganization no longer use his name be- 
cause he felt "the appeals were tak- 
ing on too commercial an aspect." 

Fidler chose the Empire organiza- 
tion for the fund-raising because of 
their work for the Disabled Ameri- 
can Veterans. Stolkin headed Ran- 
dolph Associates, Inc., who operated 
a puzzle contest for the D. A. V., 
according to the Chicago Better Busi- 
ness Bureau. 

Koolish once owned the Ident-O- 
Tag Company, which sent out minia- 
ture license plates as key chains for 
the veterans' organization. In 1946 the 
D. A. V. purchased Ident-O-Tag from 



Koolish for $1,336,500 according to 
the BBB. 

Stolkin is further connected with 
charity groups through his presidency 
of Mathur, Inc., of Omaha, Nebraska. 
Mathur's primary concern is collect- 
ing funds for Boys' Town. The Mat- 
hur publicity man states that the com- 
pany raises something like $5 mil- 
lion a year for this philanthropy." 

Patrick Norton, manager of Boys' 
Town, states in the "Journal" article 
that "we have been working with Mat- 
hur for 10 or 12 years and have never 
had any reason for complaint." He 
was surprised when told that Mr. 
Stolkin is one of Mathur's owners. 

Empire has served the Sister Kenny 
Foundation of Minneapolis, aiding the 
organization's own fund-raising group 
by soliciting in areas where they do 
not serve. Fred Fadell, publicity di- 
rector of the Kenny Foundation, states 
that when the Empire people ap- 
proached them and offered their ser- 
vices. "It seemed like a wonderful 
idea to us." 

Mr. Fadell may have been a babe 
in the woods, or may not have cared 
for he stated that he was not con- 
cerned over the manner in which the 
operation has been conducted. 

Many people have become hard- 
ened against pleas for funds by legit- 
imate charitable organizations, due to 
misguided men like Jimmy Fidler, 
who is letting himself and what seems 
like a good idea, The National Kids' 
Dav Foundation, be taken for a ride. 



WASHINGTON D. C. INVITES BROTHERS VISITS DURING INAUGURAL WEEK 

President Fred Zimmers has courteously informed us that Local 132. of Washington, 
D. C. has unanimously voted to have an open house to all visiting Brothers during the week 
of the inauguration, and requested that the following notice be published in this issue of 
the journal: 

Courtesies will be extended to all visiting brethren in the Nation's Capitol dur- 
ing Inaugural Week. The office of Local No. 132, located at 1010 Tenth Street, 
N.W., is open from 8:00 a.m., to 5:00 p.m., daily, except Saturday. Drop in and 
say "hello." 
Our thanks to Brother Zimmers and the members of Local 132 for their kind invitation. 



p 



LAN 



DO YOUR SHOPPING EARLY 

I low did you make out this Christmas? 
Did Aunt Emma's necktie look as if it 
had fallen in the ketchup vat after being 
used in the bottom of a bird cage for three 
months? Did the socks Cousin Tillie knit 
for you look as if they were intended for 
King Kong? 

Well, diat's Christmas for you; people 
spending money they can't afford for pres- 
ents the recipients won't like, and everybody 
having a wonderful time in the process. 

There being only 287 shopping days left 
until next Christmas, this might be the time 
to start hinting to die little woman. If she 
has $80,000 lying around loose in her 
pocketbook, we have a dandy suggestion. 
An Eastern engineer has just developed a 
calculating machine diat plays chess. The 
little lady can get it for you at the usual 
pre-Christmas special for only $79,999.95. 
This offer positively ends on midnight, De- 
cember 24, 1953. 

Of course if you do not play chess the 
little lady can always fall back on sterling 
silver wild duck shears or hand carved 
caviar ladles. 





"They say there's one good thing 
about non-union labor — But I'm 
hanged if I could ever find it!" 



THERE IS ALWAYS ONE DRAWBACK 

As we go into die new year, it seems 
that nearly everybody has a sure-fire, guar- 
anteed foolproof plan for ending the Korean 
war— everybody that is except the people 
who are running the show and really know 
what is going on. Apparently there are 
more plans for peace than diere are per- 
petual motion machines. Most of them are 
about equally practical. 

In regard to these super ideas we always 
keep remembering the time Jeff, the comic 
strip character, invented a sensational new 
kind of fountain pen. It could write con- 
tinuously for 20 years without ever needing 
refilling. There was only one drawback; the 
pen was seven feet long. 

* * • 

NEXT TIME WILL BE DIFFERExNT 

Last mondi a scientist predicted that with- 
in 10 years America should be able to de- 
velop a huge platform which could be 
anchored out in space beyond the gravita- 
tional pull of the earth. Such a platform 
would in reality be a sort of satellite sitting 
still while die earth revolved around under 
it. It would be used to launch weapons 
against which diere would be no possible 
defense. 

The man who made this prediction was 
no crackpot. As a scientist in Germany he 
was largely responsible for the development 
of the German guided missile program. 
After the war he moved to the United 
States and is now living and working here 
and applying for citizenship. 

About the only comment we can make is, 
Heaven Help Us. The last war created 
millions of displaced persons. What with 
die new weapons man has created since 
dien— atomic artillery, faster than sound 
planes and possibly even space platforms— 
die next war is going to create a lot of dis- 
personed places. 

• • • 

PAUP, THE VOICE OF EXPERIENCE 

"The trouble with diis life," said Joe 
Paup in his first public pronouncement for 
1953, "is that by die time a man is old 
enough to really watch his step, he isn't 
going any place." 



THE CARPENTER 



13 



GET READY TO DUCK 

Recently one of the weekly news maga- 
zines predicted: "You can expect tax revi- 
sions favoring business, curbs on excessive 
wage increases, and an end to policies that 
alarm management." It also predicted that 
a sales tax will have lots of backing in 
Congress. That certainly is true. A group 
of reactionary Congressmen has already 
been exploring for the most likely looking 
avenue for putting over the sales tax. Their 
work has been quiet but they have been 
spreading out wide. 

And this sort of brings to mind an old 
story. The driver of an auto carrier was 
stuck on the highway because the lights 
on his tractor failed. After trying vainly to 
get them working again, he finally hit upon 
a happy idea. He climbed up and turned 
on the headlights of the first car on top of 
his trailer. 

The idea worked fine and he was sailing 
along nicely until suddenly an approaching 
car swerved crazily before taking off for the 
meadows. The carrier driver stopped and 
ran over to the car. When he asked what 
the trouble was, a whiskey tenor from the 
car replied: 

"As I wash telling Joe here; if that thing 
wash as wide as she wash tall, we didn't 
stand a chance." 

• • • 

A REAL TEAR-JERKING STORY 

Department stores and retail stores were 
crying in their beer last month because 
Christmas sales were down a little bit from 
the year before. However, to anyone who 
tried to buy anything in the average depart- 
ment store between December 5 and De- 
cember 24 the lamenting of tire stores 
sounded a bit on the phony side. 

The hand-wringing of the store owners 
sort of brings to mind the story of the Ohio 
motel owner. For years this proprietor of 
a fine motel had a good business. Then 
they built a super highway a few miles to 
the south and immediately he began grum- 
bling. Night and day he complained to his 
neighbors about how hard he had been hit. 
Finally one neighbor got fed up with the 
constant moaning. 

"Why, I can't see what you're crying 
about, Tom," he said. "Every night last 
week I noticed you had your No Vacancy 
sign on by 10 o'clock." 

"I know, I know," replied the motel 
owner, "but before they built that con- 
sarned super highway I used to turn away 
25 or 30 cars a night. Now I am lucky if I 
get to turn away 10 or 12." 



ITS HARD TO WIN 

Only a few years ago 14 more or less 
prominent Czechs were praying for a poli- 
tical upheaval that would allow Russia to 
take over Czechoslovakia. They lied and 
they cheated and they undermined Czech 
institutions until at last they suceeded in 
bringing about the upheaval. Russia walked 
into the country and brought the Czech 
people "liberation." 

For 11 of the 14 who prayed for Russian 
"liberation," the end of the story was exactly 
the same as it was for numerous others in 
the same position in other nations; the end 
of a rope. At that the 11 who were hanged 
were lucky. The other three got life im- 
prisonment—endless davs in a Communist 
cell. 

What we bet is that a lot of others who 
helped to sell Czechoslovakia out to the 
Russians aren't sleeping too well these nights. 
For some reason or other we think it appro- 
priate to tell the old one about the little 
boy who kept praying for a baby brother. 

Night after night he prayed for a little 
brother. Finally his wish was answered. 
When his mother came back from the hos- 
pital she brought triplets with her. As the 
boy first looked at his new brothers, the 
mother said: 

"Tommy, now aren't you glad you prayed 
for a baby brother"? 

"I sure am, mother," replied the lad, "and 
aren't vou glad I stopped praying when I 
did?" 




"A raise? ... A raise? . . . Isn't that 
some sort of a crackpot phrase that 
Unions use, Miller?" 



14 



AFL BEGINS NEW ERA 

* * 

ON NOVEMBER 25th new but experienced hands took over the helm 
of the American Federation of Labor. The day before, William Green, 
venerated president of the Federation for 28 years was laid to rest at 
Coshocton. Ohio. In accordance with the Federation constitution, the Execu- 
tive Council met on November 25 for the purpose of choosing a successor 
to Mr. Green. 




GEORGE MEANY, President, A. F. of L. 

The task of the Executive Council was not a difficult one, for the obvious 
choice was a man who had served the Federation well for 12 years and had 
worked closely with Mr. Green through some of the most trying years in the 
Federation's history. George Meany, Secretary-treasurer of the Federation, 
was that man. In short order, the Executive Council elevated him to the 
presidency of the Federation. 

George Meany is a comparatively young man in the higher echelons of 
American Labor, but he has behind him a rich labor background. Only four 
days before he was selected as president of the A. F. of L., a testimonial dinner 



THE CARPENTER 



15 



was given in honor of his thirty-five 
years service to the United Associa- 
tion of Journeymen and Apprentices 
of the Plumbing and Pipe Fitting 
Industry. 

A native New Yorker, Meany was 
born in 1894. He began as a union 
officer in 1922, when he became busi- 
ness agent of Local 463 of the Plumb- 
ers and Steamfitters. In 1934 he be- 
came president of the New York State 
Federation of Labor and was re-elect- 
ed each year until 1939, when he was 
drafted for the A, F. of L. post of sec- 
retary-treasurer. President Meany was 
serving in this capacity at the time of 
his election to the leadership of the 
A. F. of L. 

The vacancy created by Meany s 
elevation to the presidency was filled 
by another young labor leader. As 
George Meany has the difficult task 
of living up to the heritage left to 
him by former presidents Samuel 
Gompers, and Bill Green, William 
Schnitzler steps into a position form- 
erly held by such great labor leaders 
as Peter J. McGuire and Frank Morri- 
son. 

William F. Schnitzler has been 
president of the Bakery and Confec- 
tionery Workers' International Union 
since 1950, succeeding Herman Win- 
ter, who retired. 

Now 48, Schnitzler began working 
as a metal grinder. When the factory 



in which he was employed closed, he 
went to work in a Newark bakery, 
and completed his apprenticeship in 
1924. He was elected business repre- 
sentative of Baker's Local 184, of 
Newark in 1934, and three years later 




VVm. F. SCHNITZLER, Secretary A. F. L. 

became general representative of the 
international union, and in 1941 inter- 
national representative, a post he held 
until his accession to the presidency. 

With two young, forceful leaders, 
Meany and Schnitzler, at its helm, the 
American Federation of Labor can 
look forward to a future as bright and 
dynamic as its past. Our congratula- 
tions to the new officers. 



FACTORY EARNINGS, HOURS AND EMPLOYMENT AT NEW HIGHS 

Earnings, hours, and employment in the Nation's factories were at new highs in 
September. 

1. Average weekly earnings of factory workers rose by $1.78 between mid August 
and mid September to $69.58, an all-time record and $4.09 more than in September 
1951. Average hourly earnings, also an all-time high, rose by more than 2 cents over 
the month to $1.69. 

2. The average workweek of factory workers increased by half an hour between 
August and September to 41.1 hours, the highest September level since 1945. 

•3. September nonfarm employment rose by 520,000 workers to an all-time record 
high for that month of 47,600,000. Employment in factories increased by 800,000, reach- 
ing 16,300,000, the highest level since the end of World War II. (Total September em- 
ployment, as reported by the Census Bureau, was 62,300,000, a new high for the month.) 

4. Factory workers earned an average of 8 cents an hour this September more than they 
did a year ago. 



THE LOCKER 



By JOHN HART, LOCAL UNION 366, New York, N. Y. 

MIXED NUTS 

This being the season (if peace to men of good will, we're on a sort of a holiday on 
this page this month— a busman's holiday you might call it. This fricassee of assorted 
perplexities is intended to be merely amusing— we hope. We assure you that no advanced 
knowledge of mathematics is required to answer any one of them. But you do need a 
clear head and a nimble wit. two valuable assets cheaply availible to anyone regardless 
of the extent of his education. That's about all we have to say except to wish you a Happy 
New Year, and may all your weeks be ringers. Answer on page 36. 

Ball one! How much is ten thousand per cent of a penny? An American penny, of course. 
Who's what? Three men are talking. Let's call them A, B, and C. A say to C, "I am 
the same relation to B, that B is to you." B says to C, "A is the same relation to you, that 

1 am to your father." If you have nothing very important on the agenda you might figure 
out what relation A is to C. 

The erratic ladder climber. A painter over in Brooklyn, slightly non compos mentis, climbs 

a stepladder in this very peculiar way: He goes up 4 steps an dien comes down 3. If he 

climbs up a total of 40 steps to reach the top step, how many steps are in the stepladder? 

Step on it. 

Special for floorlayers. Two full carpenters and an apprentice can lay a floor in 5 hours 12 

minutes. Now the apprentice works only half as fast as either of the two journeymen. How 

long would he take to lay the floor if working alone? Don't write in and ask what kind of 

a floor it is. 

The Christmas shopper. Mrs. McGinn went Christmas shopping. She started at Sears and 

spent half her money. One third of what was left she let go in the A & P. One quarter 

of her remaining cash she squandered in Woolworth's. She then had left $2.13 with which 

to buy her husband's Christmas present. How much did Mrs. McGinn begin with? Where 

she got all the money is not part of the problem. 

The red-haired cop. In a hospital a red-haired policeman, pointing to a doctor, says to his 

blue-eyed nurse, "I have no brothers, I have no sons, but that doctor's father is my father's 

son." What relation is the doctor to the red-haired cop? Give up? 

Chicken feed. After a wild pinochle game in die dayroom Smithy counts his money. He 

has all coins; pennies, nickels, dimes, quarters, and halves. Very strangely he had the same 

number of each coin. His monev totalled $6.37. How much of each of the five different 

coins did he have? No bills? Whoever saw a bill in a dayroom pinochle game? 

Want to be a teller? The manager of the Beehive Bank gives this test to applicants for the 

position of teller: "Here's a check for $63. Cash it with 6 bills. I don't want singles. You 

have 30 seconds. Beady. Go. We tried this out on three tellers last week. They all 

turned pale. Give it a go. You have 30 minutes. 

All the way from Buffalo. A train leaves Buffalo for New York. At the 1st stop half the 

passengers got off and 6 got on. At the 2nd stop half the passengers got off and 5 got 

on. 3rd stop— half got off, 4 got on. 4th stop— half got off, 3 got on. 5th stop— half got off, 

2 got on. 6th stop— half got off, 1 got on. Next stop, Grand Central with only 5 passengers 
on board. How many passengers started out from Buffalo? This is a good time to inform 
you that it is Grand Central Terminal, not Grand Central Station. But you can call it the 
depot for all we care. 

The farmer in the dell. If three times the number of cows Farmer Owens owns is three 
more dian twice the number of cows Farmer Owens owns how many cows does Farmer 
Owens own ownyway? You are permitted to read this just once more. 

Who's a doorhanger? Aleck can hang 4 doors in an hour. Bill can hang 5 doors in an 
hour. Aleck starts 2V2 hours ahead of Bill. How long will it take Bill to catch up with him? 
How long will it take the boss to catch up with him? That's the important worry for Aleck. 
Bit of a problem. A carpenter bought a bit for 70 cents— sold it for 80 cents— bought it 
back for 90 cents— sold it again for a dollar. How much did he make on this whole comp- 
licated transaction anyway? 

Special for kids. Jane has a candy stick 9 inches long. Joan has one only 6 inches long. 
Janice has a dime. If tile candy is equally divided among all three girls how much of 
Janice's dime should Jane and Joan get? Assuming Janice kicked in the dime. 
Sprechen sie Lokkjau? DI SJO IN TEDI AMAN DPUZ ZLINGTO OBU TPUT MET 
OG ETHERA NDTH ENRE ADMETH RO UGHN OLO NGERAPUZ ZLESH ALLI 
BET OY OU. Who's on first? 



17 



President Emeritus Is Honored 

• * 

IN A SIMPLE ceremony held in the Columbia Club in Indianapolis on 
Wednesday, December 10th, Charles Hanson, president of the New York 
and Vicinity District Council, presented to General President Emeritus 
William L. Hutcheson, as a token of appreciation and esteem, a beautiful 
book of scrolls. Hand-lettered, hand-bound, and hand-tooled, it exemplified 




General President M. A. Hutcheson receiving the book of scrolls from Charles Hanson, 
president of the New York District Council, at the testimonial dinner tendered to General 
President Emeritus Wm, L. Hutcheson whose likeness looks down from a huge photograph. 

the magnificent artistry which the craft of book binding at its best is capable 
of achieving. 

Contained therein were individual scrolls from the New York District 
Council, and from every local union affiliated with the Council, expressing 
appreciation and admiration for the 36 years of outstanding service which 
William L. Hutcheson, as General President, devoted to the advance- 
ment of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America and 
the labor movement as a whole. 



THE CARPENTER 



19 



Present at the ceremony were the 
General Officers of the United Broth- 
erhood; Charles Hanson, president of 
the New York District Council; Bob 
Johnson, secretary; and John Mc- 




Hand-tooled leather, vellum bond paper and 
gold leaf combine to make the book of scrolls 
a masterpiece. 

Mahon, Buffalo, secretary of the New 
York State Council. Mr. Hanson made 
the presentation and General Presi- 
dent Emeritus Hutcheson responded 
with a very short speech of thanks. 

Originally the book of scrolls was 
to be presented to General President 
Emeritus Hutcheson at a testimonial 
dinner given in his honor at the Com- 
modore Hotel in New York City on 
September 20th, when both the an- 
nual convention of the American Fed- 
eration of Labor and the Fall meeting 
of the General Executive Board of the 
United Brotherhood were in session 
there. However, ill health prevented 
him from attending; consequently the 
actual presentation was made at the 
simple ceremony at Indianapolis. 

The New York dinner was the larg- 
est ever held at the Commodore Hotel, 
which has played host to many not- 
able occasions. Some 2,400 members 



friends, and guests, and well-wishers 
taxed the banquet facilities of the 
hotel to capacity. Virtually the entire 
Executive Council of the Federation 
was there. So were the officers of 
practically all international unions 
which are a part of the Federation. 
But the vast majority of guests con- 
sisted of Brotherhood officers and 
members who worked with General 
President Emeritus Hutcheson, fought 
side by side with him down the years, 
and benefited from his courageous 
and able leadership. 

Put together by craftsman steeped 
in old time traditions of artistry, the 
books of scrolls is a true work of art. 
The many scrolls in it are hand- 
lettered throughout on finest vellum 
bond paper. A satin-lined, leather- 
covered box makes a suitable reposi- 
tory for it. 

Into one volume it compresses all 
the esteem and admiration which the 




. itencxr watifltttlv fistighs: for *t>* cavise j£ tW . ■-, 
Usfeov €ck h&f <» csmturs and Uavc tatuituui>- 
sxwcd *ur Brt>«v*Uoed m %he acCux at 
General Pwswicot tiff iS I«rtv>.jg or S&ars - 
"£3[s a Ua*« atwt tx)OM$& tiSewdcv t»t* the 
J!2L pi-UTfipi«« shar aramaw otiv Uiisox- msw - 
tnjrrt. vcu »a»c etc<isi£a*tH< vxtervLsti the 
axjrfuna, m**»i*0 gairt*. and are lawina. tthiiid 
ftgjructurf e$~ inspiring <iecttmplK£hi-tic**ts — 
*g*S"» a citizen and a treise uitimm. vow iutwt 

J?2S.<:c>iwST.kusu:<A arsratfcj; to titf pvcniieasi d the- 
ttmtssd Stat** anatSte welfare t*" it» ujerttees- 

Hna si«U continue c«<ttun#el eitmsricon labor 
. an<t t*£ institution)?-. 
"£££ it tStftetor* taws'" t'wt* *»<=. tHe oHtsviir 
JC? A>tsi members *)t th< 

^u»S^rk QiwmiA TJkutmr 

'O Strict Gm*ncit 

ON**** Bmte«w of <Cfy*ym$m& 

:m&££<Htiezz of JEfjirt^me 

cxfKC0& our gratuwSc tin: tite UfldereHip and-, 
the atx viics* i^ou tone wnoenjd - orid prestrcr 
th-LS teetimerc-ual in ttfk*f» tft pur 

" "MS*?*** <md~X)ttp jffi&ctim 



One of the hand-lettered scrolls in the book. 

thousands of carpenters in New York 
and vicinity hold for the long and 
honorable efforts General President 
Emeritus Hutcheson expended in 
their behalf. 



Editorial 




From Here 1953 Looks Good 

If you still have unquestioning, childlike faith, then this is the article for 
you. Polls have received so much ridicule in the past few years that it is 
amazing that they are still in business. Their cousins, surveys, have done 
better. Even they have received pretty rough treatment at times, but they 
have managed to survive, to bring forth their periodic prognostications. 

The latest such survey to cross our desk is the result of extensive work by 
the F. W. Dodge Corporation, construction news and marketing specialists. 
This survey concerns estimates of the amount of building which will be done 
in 1953. Research work was done in 37 eastern states, which according to 
the Dodge Corporation, "are accepted by the industry as a factual basis for 
48-state construction indexes." 

Good news for all in the construction industry is the theme of this statistical 
crystal gazing. Construction trends show that building contracts for 1953 will 
"practically equal" those of 1952, so says the survey. 

Present information on trends shows that figures should reach 16,008 
millions of contracts awarded in all categories of construction by the end of 
1952, and the estimate for 1953 is 16,020 millions of contracts, or virtually 
no change. 

Breaking down the expected construction as to categories, the following 
differences between 1952 and 1953 should occur: Non-residential building, 
increase 8%; residential building, decrease 11%; total building decrease, 2%; 
public works and utilities increase 8% . 

Dollar volume of private building and engineering contracts is expected 
to decrease 7% and public building and engineering contracts are expected 
to increase by 10%. 

In terms of floor space and dollar volume, new residential building is ex- 
pected to drop 11% in 1953, new homes building to decrease 12%. These 
estimates are made under the assumption that there will be no easing of 
housing credit. 

Heavy engineering contracts account for the expected 8% increase in dollar 
volume, while proposed atomic projects are expected to help retain the levels 
of 1952 for non-residential buildings. 

A heavy demand for civic improvements including schools, highways and 
similar projects will be limited to the extent to which financing can be made 
available. 

After polling the nation's wizards of economics, the Dodge Corporation 
informs us that "Only minor changes in over-all business trends are expected. 
High-level stability is expected to characterize general business conditions, 
with the possibility of a quite mild set-back in the second half" of 1953, say 
the economists. 

The economists consulted operate as university professors, in business or 
financial firms, as private consultants or government men. They conclude 



THE CARPENTER 21 

that total output of goods and services will increase slightly for the first half 
of next year, with a slight decrease in the latter half. 

Prices are expected to decline moderately, but strangely enough, a slight 
upward trend is expected for wages. In the construction industry wages are 
going to remain about the same, an average of $2.27 an hour, as they were 
in June, 1952. 

It's a fairly rosy picture for the construction worker to look forward to for 
1953, but we think we will cross all our fingers on both hands and carry a 
rabbit's foot all year. We have been fooled by predictions before. 



A Lesson In Organization 

Few legends have stirred the imagination of succeeding generations of 
Americans as widely as have legends of buried pirate treasure. Even in this 
day and age, a hundred years after the last pirate threw in the sponge, buried 
pirate treasure has a tremendous lure for all adventurous souls. Hardly a 
month goes by but what some promotor organizes an expedition to search 
for great wealth some old time pirate was supposed to have buried. How 
many millions unwary investors have lost in such enterprises cannot even be 
estimated. However, it must be a very sizeable sum. 

But in common with a great many others myths that have become 
American legends, the myth of pirate treasure has been exploded by scientific 
research. Recently a man named George Woodbury turned out a book called 
"The Great Days of Piracy in the West Indies." Woodbury did a lot of dig- 
ging into old records and old accounts of pirate activities. He separated the 
wheat from the chaff regarding pirates, and the romantic from the factual. 
What he came up with is an entirely different picture from the conception 
the average citizen has of piracy and pirates. He scoffs at the idea that there 
are vast stores of pirate loot buried in various parts of the West Indies. 

According to Woodbury, pirates had no bed of roses. Mostly they worked 
like dogs (and risked their necks in the process) to eke out a meager living. 
They seldom buried any treasure because they seldom had any to bury. What 
loot they did manage to store up they usually spent in honky-tonks of various 
ports. 

But the interesting thing about old-time pirates is the fact that they knew 
the value of organizing. They knew that their chances of making a living 
and getting an even break depended on organization. 

"The captain of a pirate ship is usually assumed to have been an absolute 
despot, ruling his underlings with a rod of iron and keeping the lion's share 
of the loot," Woodbury writes. "Actually, pirates elected their captain by a 
free vote and only for the duration of his vote of confidence. Any time the 
majority of the crew lost confidence in his ability, the captain lost his position 
and went back to the forecastle. His powers were very limited. And the 
captain's share of any loot was at the most two shares against the common 
sailor's one." 

The pirates may not have had a union with a formal name, but apparently 
they maintained a union just the same. From their union came the strength 
to evade the authorities on one hand, and to the keep the captain from ex- 
ploiting them on the other. 



22 THE CARPENTER 

Tn our own day we have seen the social scum of onr time learning the 
value of organization. Tn the past year the inmates of a dozen penitentiaries 
have offered organized resistenee to authorities in an effort to improve their 
conditions. A few times they even succeeded in winning concessions from 
the very society they sinned against. 

It seems in passing strange that the riff raff of the old pirate days and 
even today's scum should appreciate the value of organization while millions 
of free intelligent and decent workers of our own time— particularly in the 
white collar class— still remain outside the labor movement. There are other 
millions who are in the labor movement but pay it only a grudging lip service. 

Certainly neither the old time pirates nor modern felons can be considered 
smart. Those who live by the sword usually die by the sword. Yet when it 
comes to knowing the value of organization the pirates and felons seem able 
to teach a lesson to some American workers. 



Durkin Appointment Is A Right Step 

Few appointments in recent times have evoked as much controversy as 
has the appointment of Martin Durkin, Plumbers president, to the cabinet 
post of Secretary of Labor. On the one hand, the entire labor movement has 
been elated over the selection of a bona fide union official to such a high 
and important office. On the other hand, Senator Taft and his reactionary 
cohorts have been horrified at the thought of a labor leader having some say 
in how the government should conduct labor matters. When it comes time 
for the Senate to ratify Durkin, the Taft bloc may make an effort to turn 
thumbs down on him. 

In the appointment of Durkin, two facts impress us. The first is that it 
took genuine courage on the part of Eisenhower to name an avowed Democrat 
to the post. Durkin never made any bones about his support for Eisenhower's 
opponent in the election. That in itself made him unacceptable to many 
Republican big wigs other than Senator Taft. The idea of putting a Democrat 
in a cabinet post was distasteful to many middle-of-the-road Republicans— 
especially those who may have had an eye on the job for themselves or a 
friend. 

But in spite of this opposition, Eisenhower gave Durkin the nod. That 
took no little amount of independence and courage. As far as we are con- 
cerned, it is a good omen. Independence and courage are the two qualities 
the new president must have in unusual abundance if an honorable peace is 
to be achieved abroad and a healthy economy is to be maintained at home 
during the next four years. 

The second fact about the Durkin appointment that impresses us is that 
Eisenhower has picked a thoroughly capable man. Durkin has not made the 
headlines as often as some other labor leaders have. He may lack what news- 
papermen vaguely refer to as "color". But when it comes to working smoothly, 
efficiently and consistently, Durkin has few superiors. As Labor Commissioner 
for the State of Illinois he proved himself a capable administrator. As presi- 
dent of the plumbers, he displayed the qualities of leadership that cabinet 
officer must possess. 

With all the die-hard Republicans insisting that the Secretary of Labor 
be chosen from among the political opportunists who called themselves 



THE CARPENTER 23 

"Citizens for Eisenhower," the selection of a tried and true labor man for 
the post is a mark on the credit side of the ledger for the new President. It 
is recognition on his part that organized labor is a vital segment of our 
people. Perhaps it is even more than that; perhaps it is even the first move 
on his part to fulfill the campaign promises he made. 

For years Durkin has been working for a better break for all people- 
higher living standards, better housing, better educational opportunities and 
freedom from fear of old age, infirmity and unemployment. 

In his campaign oratory, Eisenhower promised to work for these things 
too if elected. When he takes office on the 20th of this month, he will have 
the opportunity of fulfilling those promises. Is the appointment of Durkin, 
over the protests of many of his die-hard backers, the first step in that direc- 
tion? We sincerely hope so. 



The True Colors Now Show Up 

Washington, D. C. is this month undergoing the greatest change over in 
history as thousands of Democratic appointees turn over their swivel chairs 
to their Republican successors. After 20 straight years of Democratic rule, 
it is only natural that there should be pathos, drama, and even comedy in the 
process. In some instances, big wheels will now be working for guys who were 
unknown clerks in their departments. In others, men who assumed themselves 
to be indispensible fixtures are reading the "Help Wanted'' ads. All sorts of 
strange and funny situations are developing. 

One of the funniest is the mad scramble of the reactionary lobbyists to 
find a new cow to milk. For the past 20 years several of these lobbies have 
grown fat and sassy carrying on a ceaseless fight against the "socialistic evils" 
of the New Deal and Fair Deal. Whenever their treasuries got a little bit low, 
all that was needed to bring the fat contributions rolling in was a new blast 
against the Democrats who were "ruining" the country. It was as sure-fire 
as it was easy. A Republican victory was the cure-all they could point toward. 

Now that a Republican victory has been achieved, the bogeyman that made 
all the big contributions possible is a gone goose. In other words, the goose 
that laid the golden eggs is suffering from rigor mortis. 

However, this is not stopping the lobbyists. Already they have Eisenhower 
under suspicion. The Committee for Constitutional Government, one of the 
oldest and richest of these lobbies, already is trying to pave the way for its 
continued existence by intimating Eisenhower may need some educating. 

In a private memorandum issued recently, this notorious lobby said: 

"The fight has just begun. If we want freedom and say so out loud and 
regularly, the Eisenhower government will restore it to us— perhaps reluctantly. 
If we let it know we want it to mind its own business, it is possible that we 
will have won the election." 

Obviously the professional hand-wringers fear that their meal ticket will be 
lost if businessmen have faith in Eisenhower and his government. Just as obvi- 
ously, they do not care a tinker's damn who is doing what so long as they can 
keep themselves eating high on the hog. 



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26 



Don't Discount the British 

By JOHN R. STEVENSON, 1st General Vice-President 



LAST SEPTEMBER I had the pleasure of attending the Eighty-fourth 
Annual Convention of the British Trades Union Congress as one of 
two fraternal delegates from the American Federation of Labor. It 
was an experience I shall remember for years. The hospitality of the officers 
and delegates left nothing to be desired. Everywhere I went and everyone I 
met, only kindness and courtesy prevailed. 

Fifty-eight years ago the Trades Union Congress and the American Federa- 
tion of Labor began exchanging fraternal delegates. Our own immortal Peter 
J. McGuire was one of the first fraternal delegates to represent the Federa- 
tion at a Trades Union Congress. In 1895 he and Sam Gompers journeyed to 
Cardiff to extend the fraternal greet- 



ings of America's organized workers. 
At every convention since, at least 
one, and more often two fraternal 
delegates from the American Federa- 
tion of Labor have been in attendance 
at Trades Union Congress conven- 
tions. At the same time, every Fed- 
eration convention since that time has 
had one or two delegates from the 
British Congress sitting in on its 
deliberations. In 1925, and 1926, 
William L. Hutcheson represented 
the Federation at the TUC. Mem- 
bers of our Brotherhood have visited 
Congress conventions as fraternal del- 
egates some eight times in all. Other 
Brotherhood members who served as 
fraternal delegates to the Trade Union 
Congress are Harry Lloyd, Boston, 
1898; Sidney J. Kent, Laramie, 1900; 
Harry Blackmore, St. Louis, 1902; and 
Wm. B. MacFarlane, Buffalo, 1910. 

This years convention of the Trades 
Union Congress was held at Margate, 
a resort city some 75 miles southwest 
of London. Some 943 delegates from 
some 183 different unions were in at- 
tendance. They represented a total 
membership of a little over 8,000,000. 
The convention lasted for six days and 



an amazing amount of ground was 
covered in that time. 

In general, the matters which con- 
cerned the Trades Union Congress 
convention were the same matters 
which concern American unions in 
their own conventions; wages, work- 
ing conditions, pensions, cost of liv- 
ing, etc. However, I believe that 
British unions delve deeper into 
world affairs and foreign relations 
than do American unions. Rather 
comprehensive reports on East Africa, 
West Africa, Spain, Italy, France, 
Asia, Japan, Greece, Turkey, and a 
dozen other parts of the world were 
included on the convention agenda. 
Perhaps this is only natural, since the 
British economy is so closely allied 
with foreign trade. Whatever hap- 
pens elsewhere in the world for good 
or evil sooner or later reflects itself 
in the prosperity of the British work- 
er. An upheaval in Africa or a change 
of government in Asia can mean more 
or fewer exports to that part of the 
World. To British workers, fewer ex- 
ports mean less work and greater 
exports mean more jobs; consequently 
it is not surprising that British union- 



THE CARPENTER 



27 



ists should follow with considerable 
concern all political and economic 
changes taking place throughout the 
world. 

This is not to say that American 
labor conventions ignore world affairs 
or international events. Convention 
proceedings of both our own United 
Brotherhood and the American Fed- 
eration of Labor forcefully attest to 
the fact that American unions have 
always shown a keen interest in all 
that goes on throughout the world. 
But I had the feeling that rank and 
file British union members followed 
world events as faithfully as they 
followed cost of living indices or wage 
trends. 

I was particularly interested in the 
way the Congress conducted its con- 
vention. To be able to understand 
how the convention operates it is 
necessary to know a little about the 
organizational structure of the Trades 
Union Congress. 

Between conventions, the affairs of 
the Congress are administered by a 
General Council consisting of 35 mem- 
bers representing 19 trade groups. At 
the present time the General Council 
is made up of three representatives 
from Mining and Quarrying, three 
from Railways, three from Transport 
(other than railways) one from Ship- 
building, three from Engineering, two 
from Iron and Steel, two from Build- 
ing and Woodworking, one from 
Printing and Paper, two from Cotton, 
one from Textiles, one from Clothing, 
one from Leather, Boot and Shoe, two 
from Glass and Pottery, one from 
Public Employment, two from Civil 
Service, one from Non-manual, three 
from General Workers, and two from 
Women Workers. 

These various groups elect then- 
representatives to the General Coun- 
cil. Nominations are sent to the con- 
vention and elections are held dur- 
ing the convention. Those elected re- 



main in office until the following con- 
vention, and are eligible for re-elec- 
tion. 

The General Council transacts all 
business of the Congress between 
conventions. The President of the Con- 
gress is elected by the General Coun- 
cil at its first meeting following the 
annual convention. On the other hand, 
the General Secretary is elected by 
the convention. The Council meets 
periodically to carry on the business 
of the Congress between conventions. 

During the year, the Council pre- 
pares a report of its activities and a 
summation of matters that are of im- 
portance to British workers. This re- 
port, in effect, becomes the agenda 
of the convention. Paragraph (d) of 
Rule 26, governing conventions reads 
as follows: 

"General Council's Report— After 
the opening of each Annual Conven- 
tion, the General Council shall pre- 
sent their report for the past year, 
which shall he laid on the table for 
discussion. The items of the report 
shall be discussed SERIATUM, and 
not as a whole; each speaker to he 
limited to five minutes. Such report 
shall he given precedence over all 
other business provided that where 
a Motion on the Agenda bears di- 
rectly upon any part of the report, 
such Motion may at the discretion of 
the President be taken in conjunc- 
tion with such part of the report." 

To all intents and purposes, this 
means that the report of the General 
Council becomes the convention agen- 
da. The president begins reading the 
report section by section. If there is 
no objection to an item from the con- 
vention floor, the item is automatically 
adopted. 

When a dispute does arise, the mat- 
ter is debated in a thoroughly demo- 
cratic manner. Each speaker appears 
at a microphone before the rostrum. 



28 



THE CARPENTER 



In front of him there are two red 
lights. One minute before his alloted 
time is up, one of the red lights lights 
up. At the end of his time, the other 
light lights up too as a signal that his 
time is up. 

To facilitate the work of the con- 
vention, a General Purposes Com- 
mittee is also set up. This committee 
consists of five members elected at 
each convention to serve at the suc- 
ceeding one. The duty of this commit- 
tee is to cooperate with the movers 
and seconders of motions in order 
that composite motions, reconciling 
different points of view, can be ob- 
tained wherever possible. This com- 
mittee also fulfills many of the func- 
tions of a resolutions committee by 
studying various resolutions present- 
ed by subordinate bodies and making 
appropriate recommendations there- 
on. 

In general, the affairs of the con- 
vention moved smoothly and efficient- 
ly, with a minimum of lost motion. 
All debate was keyed to a very high 
plane and without exception all speak- 
ers knew what they were talking 
about. Among the delegates were 
many who were Members of Parlia- 
ment in addition to being trade union 
officials. It was a pleasure to listen 
to a good deal of the speaking which 
really rated as oratory. 



As examples of British preoccu- 
pation with world affairs, no two mat- 
ters resulted in more debate than did 
bacteriological warfare on one hand, 
and discrimination and anti-unionism 
in South Africa on the other. The 
convention finally went on record as 
petitioning the United Nations to abol- 
ish the use of the former as a permis- 
sible weapon of war and decrying the 
autocratic actions of the South Afri- 
can government in its treatment not 
only of unions but of minority groups 
as well. 

Before the convention completed its 
business it urged better provisions for 
taking care of the aged, equal pay in 
government work, a more realistic 
balance between wages and living 
costs, and greater efforts to increase 
world trade. 

While it did not appear so much 
on the surface, it was obvious that 
British unions have their problems 
with communists. 

All in all, it was a wonderful experi- 
ence to see our British cousins at 
work in their unions. It was hearten- 
ing, too, for the British tenacity and 
doggedness showed through. The 
British may be down but they are far 
from out. They may never regain the 
top of the heap again, but I think they 
will wind up being far from the bot- 
tom. 



INJURY RATE REMAINS AT RECORD LOW FOR QUARTER 

The second-quarter injury rate for manufacturing this year remained at a record low 
for the season despite a small upswing in June, according to preliminary reports received 
by the U. S. Labor Department's Bureau of Labor Statistics. 

For the first 6 months of the year, the average rate, 13.7 injuries for each million 
employee-hours worked, was 13 per cent below the corresponding rate for last year and 
2 per cent below the average for the first 6 months of 1950, just before the start of the 
Korean war. 

Almost two-thirds of 135 industries studied reported lower rates in the first 6 months 
this year than in 1951. Greatest over-the-year drops were recorded by planing milL, 
where injuries decreased from 50.1 per million man-hours to 36.6, and by the logging in- 
dustry, with a drop from 101.7 to 88.7. 

Other industries reporting important decreases in their 6-month injury rate between 
1951 and 1952 included gray-iron factories, where the rate fell from 39.7 to 32.1: bottled 
soft drinks, 32.1 to 24.5; cutlery and edge tools, 21.4 to 14.0; boat building and repairing, 
40.9 to 33.7; cold-finished steel, 19.9 to 13.0; sanitary ware and plumbers' supplies, 19.1 
to 12.5; and millwork and structural wood products, 29.0 to 22.8. 



Official Information 




General Officers of 
THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS 

of AMERICA 

General Office : Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General President 

M. A. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



First General Vice-President 

JOHN R. STEVENSON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Secretart 

ALBERT E. FISCHER 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Second General Vice-President 

O. WM. BLAIER 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Treasurer 

S. P. MEADOWS 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Executive Board 



First District, CHARLES JOHNSON, Jr. 
Ill E. 22nd St., New York 10, N. Y. 



Fifth District. R. E. ROBERTS 
4324 N. 48th St., Omaha, Nebr. 



Second District, RALEIGH RAJOPPI 
2 Prospect Place, Springfield, New Jersey 



Sixth District. A. W. MITR 
Box 1168. Santa Barbara, Calif. 



Third District, HARRY SCHWARZER 
1248 Walnut Ave., Cleveland, O. 



Seventh District. ANDREW V. COOPER 
133 Chaplin Crescent, Toronto 12, Ont., Canada 



Fourth District, ROLAND ADAMS 
712 West Palmetto St., Florence, S. C. 



M. A. HUTCHESON. Chairman 
ALBERT E. FISCHER, Secretary 



All correspondence for the General Executive Board must be sent to the General Secretary 

Notice to Recording Secretaries 

The quarterly circular for the months of January, February, and March, 
1953, containing the quarterly password, has been forwarded to all Local 
Unions of the United Brotherhood. Recording Secretaries not in receipt of 
this circular should notify Albert E. Fischer, Carpenters Building, Indian- 
apolis, Indiana. 



McGUIRE MEMORIAL PICTURE 
So many requests have been received for pictures of the Peter J. Mc- 
Guire Memorial that the General Executive Board has authorized the printing 
of a beautiful four-color reproduction of the Memorial, 22^ inches by 19 
inches, suitable for framing. These are available to Local Unions and District, 
State and Provincial Councils. Secretaries may secure a copy by sending a 
request to: 

Albert E. Fischer, General Secretary 

222 E. Michigan Street 

Indianapolis, Indiana 



30 THE CARPENTER 

Report of the Delegates to the Forty-fourth Annual Convention 

of Union Label Trades Department of the American 

Federation of Labor 

To the General Executive Board: 

The Forty-fourth Convention of the Union Label Trades Department of the American 
Federation of Labor was called to order in the Hendrik Hudson Room of the Roosevelt 
Hotel New York, N. Y. at 10 A. M. on September 12, 1952, by President Matthew Woll. 
The following National and International Unions were represented. 

Delegates 

American Federation of Labor 1 

International Union United Automobile Workers of America 3 

Bakery and Confectionery Workers' International Union of America 7 

The Journeymen Barbers, Hairdressers, Cosmetologists and Proprietors' Inter- 
national Union of America 4 

International Brotherhood of Boilermakers, Iron Ship Builders and Helpers of 

America 3 

International Brotherhood of Bookbinders 4 

Boot and Shoe Workers' Union 4 

United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America 3 

United Cement, Lime and Gypsum Workers' International Union 3 

International Chemical Workers' Union 3 

Cigar Makers' International Union of America 3 

Retail Clerks' International Association 6 

Coopers' International Union of North America 2 

Distillery, Rectifying and Wine Workers' International Union of America 2 

International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 3 

International Union of Operating Engineers 3 

American Federation of Technical Engineers 1 

International Photo Engravers' Union of North America 3 

International Brotherhood of Firemen and Oilers : 2 

United Garment Workers of America 5 

Glass Bottle Blowers' Association of the United States and Canada 3 

American Flint Glass Workers' Union of North America 3 

International Glove Workers' Union of America 1 

United Hatters, Cap and Millinery Workers' International Union 3 

International Union of Journeymen Horseshoers of United States and Canada 1 

American Federation of Hosiery Workers 3 

International Jewelry Workers' Union 4 

Laundry Workers' International Union 3 

Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of North America 5 

Sheet Metal Workers' International Association 1 

American Federation of Grain Millers 1 

International Molders' and Foundry Workers' Union of North America 1 

American Federation of Musicians 2 

Office Employes International Union 2 

Brotherhood of Painters, Decorators and Paperhangers of A.merica 3 

International Brodierhood of Paper Makers 1 

United Association of Journeymen and Apprentices of the Plumbing and Pipe 

Fitting Industry of the United States and Canada 1 

Metal Polishers, Buffers, Platers and Helpers' International Union 1 

National Brotherhood of Operative Potters 1 

International Plate Printers, Die Stampers and Engravers' Union of North America 1 

International Printing Pressmen and Assistants' Union of North America 6 

International Brotherhood of Pulp, Sulphate and Paper Mill Workers of the United 

States, Canada and Newfoundland 2 

International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employes and Moving Picture Machine 

Operators of the United States and Canada 4 

International Stereotypers and Electrotypers' Union of North America 2 

Stove Mounters' International Union of North America 3 



THE CARPENTER 31 

International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Helpers 

of America 5 

International Typographical Union i 5 

Upholsterers' International Union of North America 3 

Total Delegates 136 

The report of the Executive Board of the Department listed the cities in which Board 
meetings were held. They were as follows: Miami, Florida; New York, New York; Boston, 
Massachusetts; and Atlantic City, New Jersey. The meetings were held at the same time 
as the Executive Council of the American Federation of Labor was meeting. 

The Executive Board in its annual report disclosed that its intensified campaign during 
the past year has proved most successful in promoting the fundamental principles of union 
label, shop card and union button patronage throughout the nation. It has remained the 
basic policy of the Department to utilize every available medium and explore every possible 
avenue in an attempt to keep increasing the demand for the high-quality products made, 
and the excellent services rendered, by members of all A. F. of L. national and international 
unions. 

The Department is constantly in search of new techniques and ideas which may be used 
in publicizing the union label, shop card and union button, not only to members of the 
A. F. of L., and their families, but also to manufacturers and employers in service estab- 
lishments. This type of promotion is carried on every week of the year and is highlighted 
by the Union Industries Show which is held annually. In this brief report only a summary 
of the activities of the Department can be given. 

The report of the Executive Board also detailed various activities of the Department 
such as, Union Label Councils, the Public Relations Division of the Department, Union 
Label week— which was observed the week of September 1-7, 1952— (For year of 1953 the 
Union Label week will be September 7-13) Women's Auxiliaries, A. F. of L. Union 
Industries Show, and Statement of Fund Receipts and Disbursements for the fiscal year 
ended July 31, 1952. 

Since the last convention, two organizations have affiliated with the Department; namely, 
International Union United Automobile Workers of America and American Federation of 
Hosiery Workers. 

The Committee on the Officers' Reports commended the officers of the Department, as 
well as the staff, for the fine job they have done during the past year and recommended 
concurrence in their report. The report of the committee was adopted. 

The report of the Finance Committee was also concurred in. This committee had one 
resolution referred to it— a request to the Department for aid in the Canadian Label set-up. 
Upon recommendation of the committee, the resolution was directed to the attention of 
the incoming Executive Board for study and action thereon. 

Resolutions that were referred to the Resolution Committee were titled as follows: 

Appreciation to Central Labor Bodies and State Federations 

News Media 

Union Industries Show 

Participation in Union Industries Show 

Affiliated National and International Unions to Encourage Their Local Unions to Affiliate 
with Local Union Label Councils 

Request That Central Labor Bodies Encourage Their Affiliates to Join Union Label 
Councils 

Local and State Union Label Councils 

Union Label Councils 

Union Label Week 

Union Label Contracts 

Union Label Club 

Utilizing the Economic Strength of the Union Label 

Aid for the Physically Handicapped 

Care 

The Resolution Committee made its recommendations which were duly acted upon by 
the Convention. 



32 THE CARPENTER 

The two resolutions that were assigned to the Committee on Laws were likewise adopted. 
One of these resolutions proposed an increase in per capita tax from the present one cent 
per member, per month, to one and one-half cents per member per month; a move made 
necessary by increased obligations in the publicity field, plus general increases in expenses 
of all kinds. The revenue now received is not sufficient to finance the progressive activities 
necessary to maintain efficient operation of the Department. 

The proposal to increase the per capita tax, which was adopted as submitted, will be- 
come effective as of January 1, 1953. 

The other proposal was relative to increasing the salary of the Secretary-Treasurer 
whose duties have .become more complex with the present expansion program; a program 
which is of great importance to the affiliated unions and to the American Federation of 
Labor. 

In addition to these resolutions a number of Amendments to the Constitution were 
adopted. These are as follows: 

Amendment to Article I Section I 
NAME 

ARTICLE I, Section 1— Where this section reads: "This organization shall 
be known as the Union Label Trades Department of the American Federation 
of Labor . . . ". insert after the word Label the following: "And Service." 
Where this Section reads "Union Label Leagues," delete the wore! Leagues 
and insert the word Councils. With changes 

ARTICLE I, Section 1 would be as follows: "This organization shall be 
known as the Union Label and Service Trades Department of the American 
Federation of Labor, and shall be composed of National and International 
unions regularly chartered by and affiliated to the American Federation of 
Labor, using Union Labels, Shop Cards or Buttons on the products of their 
members or to designate membership therein; Union Label Councils and the 
American Federation of Women's Auxiliaries of Labor." 

Amendment to Article III, Section 2 
CONVENTION 

ARTICLE III, Section 2— Where this section reads: "Union Label 
Leagues," delete the word Leagues and insert the word Councils, making this 
section read as follows: "The basis of representation in the Convention shall • 
be had upon the average amount of tax paid during the year and shall be: 
From national or international unions of less than 4,000 members, one dele- 
gate; 4,000 or more, two delegates; 8,000 or more, three delegates; 16.000 
or more, four delegates, and so on, on this basis. Local Union Label Coun- 
cils shall be entitled to one delegate. The American Federation of Women's 
Auxiliaries of Labor shall be entitled to one delegate. Questions may be de- 
cided by a division or show of hands; but if a call of the roll is demanded 
each delegate shall cast one vote." 

Amendment to Article III, Section 7 
ARTICLE III, Section 7- Where this Section reads "five Vice-Presidents," 
delete the word five and insert the word seven making this Section read as 
follows: "The officers of this Department shall consist of a President, seven 
Vice-Presidents, and a Secretary-Treasurer, to be elected at the annual con- 
vention by ballot, these officers to Constitute the Executive Board. In the 
event of any vacancy occurring, no matter from what cause, the Executive 
Board shall immediately proceed to elect a successor for the unexpired term. 
No two members can belong to the same organization." 

ARTICLE III, Section 11— Where this Section reads: "Shall have suitable 
offices in the city of Washington, D. C, at headquarters of the American 
Federation of Labor," delete the word at and insert the words near the, mak- 
ing this Section read as follows: "The Department shall have suitable offices 
in the city of Washington, D. C, near the headquarters of the American 
Federation of Labor, for the transaction of the business of the Department." 



THE CARPENTER 33 

Amendment to Article IV, Section 3 

DUTIES OF OFFICERS 

ARTICLE IV, Section 3— Where this Section reads: "Upon payment of an. 
initiation fee of $2.00, to establish Local Union Label Leagues," delete 
$2.00, and insert $5.00, and delete the word Leagues and insert 
the word Councils. Where this Section reads: Where the establishment 
of a Union Label League has the endorsement of the central labor union," 
delete the word League and insert the word Council and after the words 
central labor union, add "or state federation." These changes will make this 
Section read as follows: "The duties of the Secretary-Treasurer shall be to 
carry out the purposes for which the Department is established; he shall keep 
a correct record of the proceedings of the conventions and meetings of the 
Executive Roard; he shall be authorized, upon payment of an initiation fee 
of $5.00 to establish local Union Label Councils wherever three or more 
affiliated Local Unions of affiliated trades may exist, and where the establish- 
ment of a Union Label Council has the endorsement of the central labor 
union or state federation. ..." 

Amendment to Article IV, Section 5 

ARTICLE IV, Section 5— Delete this entire section and in its place insert 
the following: 

"The revenue for the support of this Department shall be derived from in- 
itiation fees of Union Label Councils; per capita tax of one and one-half cents 
per member, per month upon members of all affiliated National and Interna- 
tional organizations, payable on or before the 15th of each month; an annual 
tax of $5.00 from the American Federation of Women's Auxiliaries of Labor, 
payable semi-annually in advance; and a tax of $1.00 per month from Union 
Label Councils, payable monthly in advance. Any affiliated organization being 
in arrears for payment of tax for a period of over three months shall stand 
suspended from this Department until such time as all arrears are paid and the 
Secretary- Treasurer shall notify any and all organizations, subject to the dis- 
cipline here provided." 

AFL UNION INDUSTRIES SHOW 

Rreaking all previous attendance records for cities of comparable size, 644,297 New 
Englanders visited the 1952 Union Industries Show in Roston From May 17 through 24. 
It was the first time this "World's Greatest Labor-Management Exhibition" was held in 
the Northeastern part of the United States and it was, by far, the greatest exhibition of 
any type ever to be staged in New England. There was a great variety of colorful and 
educational displays, with a total value of $20 million. 

The A. F. of L. Union Industries Show is an outstanding example of good public 
idations. With the huge display of the American Federation of Labor occupying a 
prominent position on the stage of the huge auditorium, the public immediately absorbed 
the fact that this was an exhibition of the skill and craftsmanship of members of the 
greatest labor organization in the world . . . the American Federation of Labor. 

Tremendous interest in the show was shown by the press, radio and TV. Hundreds 
of articles and photographs appeared in newspapers and magazines. Much valuable radio 
and TV time was devoted to the giant exhibition going on in Mechanics Ruilding. The 
1952 Union Industries Show received much greater publicity tiian any show in the past 
and much more than any show of any type which has been held in New England. 

Union Industries Shows were begun before World War II and have continued to 
grow each year in size, stature and effectiveness. With such acceptance by both our 
own A. F. of L. members and the general public as has been shown in this great exhibition, 
the Union Label Trades Department cordially invites, and strongly urges, that all A. F. 
of L. national and international unions participate in this undertaking by climbing aboard 
the A. F. of L. bandwagon of good will and exhibiting their union-made wares or 
demonstrating their union-manned services. The Eighth Union Industries Show will be held 
in Minneapolis, Minnesota, during the period of April 18-25, 1953. 



34 THE CARPENTER 

Tin elected officers of the Department for the ensuing year are as follows: 

President, Matthew Woll 
First Vice-President, John J. Mara 
Second Vice-President, Joseph P. McCurdy 
Third Vice-President, James M. Duffy 
Fourth Vice-President, Herman Winter 
Fifth Vice-President, Richard F. Walsh 
Sixth Vice-President. James Suftridge 
Seventh Vice-President, Joseph Lewis 
Secretary-Treasurer. Raymond F. Leheuey 

Respectfully submitted, 

John R. Stevenson 
John Joplin 
Ray Ginnetti 



Two More Apprenticeship Units Available 



Two more units of the United Brotherhood's Standard Apprenticeship 
Training Course are now ready for distribution. They are Units No. VIII and 
IX. Unit No. VIII covers Cabinet Making (Mill) and Unit No. IX covers Mill- 
work. These units cover their particular fields as completely and as effectively 
as do the first seven units. 

A new revised price list for all material connected with the Standard Ap- 
prenticeship Training Course is printed below. Orders for any of this material 
should be placed through local unions. 

Price List 

Apprenticeship Training Course 

Units I thru IX. including binder__ $6.20 Ring Hinder $1.25 

Unit No. 1-Tools, Materials, His- _ Blue Print Plans (15 to set). 3.00 

torv of Trade .55 T *' c u * / u\ o= 

, T . ' _ _, , . „_ Less Inan lull set (each) .35 

unit -No. 2— r oundations .55 

Unit No. 3-Rough Framing .55 Instructors Manual .10 

Unit No. 4-E\terior Finish .55 Unit Analysis (Instructors Manual). .50 



Unit No. 5— Roof Framing .55 



Test Papers— Units 1 through 



Unit No. 6-Interior Finish .55 „ nd j ourney man 1.60 

5"?* S°" l~^t- Bu! ' 1 ? i "? ------- •«» Final-Per Unit .10 

l mt xt°- o'SuTv , § ( )_ S Alternate Final-Per Unit .10 

Unit No. 9— Mill Work .5o 

Unit No. 12 (Part 1) Rlue Print Test Instructions and Test Keys free to 

Reading and Estimating .55 Apprentice Committees 

Furnished without charge: 
Apprenticeship Standards (Rooklet of Procedure). 
FORMS— Application for Apprenticeship in Carpentry. 
Apprentice Agreement. 

Identification Card and Report Form (Carpentry). 
Identification Card and Report Form (Millmen). 
Apprentice Master Record. 

Shipping charges prepaid. 

Make all remittances, Checks, Money orders (Express or Postal) payable to Albert E. Fischer, Gen- 
eral Secretary, 222 E. Michigan St., Indianapolis 4, Ind. 



*$ n fflltmari&m 



Not lost to those that love them, 
Not dead, just gone before; 



They still live in our memory, 
And will forever more. 



%tsi in l^tatt 

The Editor has been requested to publish the names 
of the following Brothers who have passed away. 



WM. A. AMEND, L. U. 1055, Lincoln, Neb. 
WM. O. ARNOLD, L. U. 1095, Salina, Kans. 
R. H. BECKER, L. U. 844, Reseda, Calif. 
K. BERTELSEN, L. U. 1047, San Francisco, Cat. 
CHARLES BONTEMPO, L. U. 11, Cleveland, 

Ohio 
ROY E. BRAYTON, L. U. 925, Salinas, Cal. 
HOMER C. CASEY, L. U. 627, Jacksonville, Fla. 
RALPH W. COOK, L. U. 1373, Flint, Mich. 
I. C. DALEY, L. U. 2067, Medford, Ore. 
A. DREW, L. U. 1047, San Francisco, Cal. 
HENRY ENGLAND, L. U. 1784, Chicago, 111. 
LEO FRAPPIER, L. U. 801, Woonsocket, R. I. 

ROY R. GAUDETTE, L. U. 177, Springfield, 

Mass. 
F. GERRANS, L. U. 1047, San Francisco, Cal. 

JACOB GRASSMAN, L. U. 246, New York City, 

N. Y. 
EMIL GURROLA, L. U. 1497, East Los Angeles, 

Cal. 

GEORGE HARTIG, L. U. 1922, Chicago, 111. 

CHARLES A. HAWKINS, L. U. 930, St. Cloud, 
Minn. 

H. L. HERRICK, L. U. 177, Springfield, Mass. 
JESSE S. HINKLE, L. U. 122, Philadelphia, Pa. 
CHRISTIAN HORN, L. U. 1055, Lincoln, Neb. 
CLYDE HOYT, L. U. 515, Colorado Springs, 

Colo. 
MARTIN HYNES, L. U. 444, Pittsfield, Mass. 

TONEY JOHNSON, L. U. 246, New York City, 
N. Y. 

CHARLES H. LANE, L. U. 844, Reseda, Cal. 

JOSEPH LA VIGNE, L. U. 49, Lowell, Mass. 

FARS LINDBERG, L. U. 51, Boston, Mass. 

EDWIN L. LINDROTH, L. U. 1497, East Los 

Angeles, Cal. 
BURNELL LODER, L. U. 1373, Flint, Mich. 
WM. A. McCORD, L. U. 1070, El Centro, Calif. 

DAVID S. McGLASHING, L. U. 40, Boston, 

Mass. 

JOE MEDEARIS, L. U. 1072, Muskogee, Okla. 
JOHN D. MILLER, L. U. 844, Reseda, Cal. 
EMIL MAX MITCHELL, L. U. 4, Davenport, la. 



EDWARD M. MORGAN, L. U. 122, Philadlephia, 

Pa. 
JOSIAH ALLEN MULL, L. U. 30, New London, 

Conn. 
B. F. NIEHOFF, L. U. 11, Cleveland, Ohio 
S. OLSON, L. U. 1047, San Francisco, Cal. 
JOHN O'RILEY, L. U. 177, Springfield, Mass. 
VITO PALERMO, L. U. 246, New York City, 

N. Y. 
STEPHEN PATRUNO, L. U. 177, Springfield, 

Mass. 
W. PAUL, L. U. 1047, San Francisco, Cal. 
JULES POURCIAU,. L. U. 1098, Baton Rouge, 

La. 
GEORGE W. REED, L. U. 101, Baltimore, Md. 
J. BEN ROBERTSON, L. U. 343, Winnepeg, 

Man., Can. 

B. SARLUND, L. U. 1047, San Francisco, Cal. 
CONRAD SCHROEDER, L. U. 1922, Chicago, 

III. 
FRANK SCHWARZ, L. U. 1784, Chicago, 111. 
JACOB SEIMETZ, L. U. 246, New York City, 

N. Y. 
JOHN SEMAN, L. U. 188, Yonkers, N. Y. 
JAMES SIMPSON, L. U. 301, Newburgh, N. Y. 

C. R. SMITH, L. U. 1890, Conroe, Texas 
HUMPHRIES W. SUMNER, L. U. 627, Jackson- 

ville, Fla. 
AL TESSON, L. U. 1987, St. Charles, Mo. 
RALPH TIMMERMAN, L. U. 177, Springfield, 

Mass. 
DAVID TYSON, L. U. 122, Philadelphia, Pa. 
W. R. VINEYARD, L. U. 1070, El Centro, Cal. 
LEANDER C. WANTZ, L. U. 101, Baltimore, 

Md. 
ALBERT WEATHERELL, L. U. 188, Yonkers, 

N. Y. 
HENRY WEISE, L. U. 101, Baltimore, Md. 
JAMES R. WEST, L. U. 11, Cleveland, Ohio 
G. W. WILLIAMS, L. U. 1517, Johnson City, 

Tenn. 
JOS. W. WINSTEAD, L. U. 1631, Washington, 

D. C. 
SIDNEY WOLFSON, L. U. 844, Reseda, Cal. 
HOWARD YOCKERS, L. U. 1095, Salina, Kans. 
OTTO J. ZACH, L. U. 583, Portland, Ore. 



36 THE CARPENTER 

ANSWERS TO "THE LOCKER" 

We stated that no great knowledge of mathematics was required to tackle any of these 
little problems. To back up that statement we show how a bright lad who never got past 
long division going to school might go about figuring them out. Naturally his method is 
clumsy and slow, but he gets them all right just the same. 

Ball one! 100% of anything is equal to the whole. So 100% of a penny is 1 cent. 1,000% 
is 10 cents. 10.000% is 100 cents. Answer: One dollar 

Who's what? Using three kid's alphabet blocks, A, B, and C, it turns out that C is a grand- 
lather, B is his son, A is B's son. Answer: His grandson 

The erractic ladder climber. This crazy guy climbs up 4 steps to actually mount to one. But 
the last 4 steps he climbs takes him to the top. Climbing 36 steps, he has actually got to 
the 9th step. Last 4 steps take him to the top. Answer: 13 steps 

Special for floorlayers. 1 carpenter's labor equals that of 2 apprentices. So the labor of 2 
carpenters and 1 apprentice equals the labor of 5 apprentices. Right? Now, if the labor 
of 5 aprentices will lay the floor in 5 hrs. 12 min., 1 apprentice will take 5 times as long. 
Right again? Answer: 26 hrs. 

The Christmas shopper. Let's work this thing out backwards. Woolworth's: Spent one 
quarter. Had $2.13 left which is three quarters. So one quarter would be 71 cents and 
four quarters would be $2.84, the amount she came in with. 

A & P: Spent one third. Had $2.84 left which is two thirds. So one third would be $1.42 
and three thirds would be $4.26, the amount she came in with. 

Sears: Spent one-half. Had $4.26 left. Twice that is what the old lady started out with. 

Answer: $8.52 

The red-haired cop. This looks like a crazy question. Any son of the cop's father must be 
either the cop himself or his brother. But he has no brothers. So he's talking about him- 
self. He's the doctor's father. But he has no sons. So the doc is a woman. Ans: His daughter 

Chicken feed. Add together a penny, nickel, dime, quarter, and a half and you get 91 cents. 
This divides evenly into Smithy's cash, ($6.37,) 7 times. Answer: 7 

Want to be a teller? The check is an odd figure. So an odd figure bill must be used. Can't 
use singles. Must be a five. To get that 3 in the check an 8 is needed. Got to use two's. 

4 two's make 8, and a five givesl3. One fifty makes it 63. Answer. 1 fifty, 1 five 4 two's 

All the way from Buffalo. Let's back the train all the way back to Buffalo. Grand Central: 

5 arrived (1 got on at 6th stop)— 6th stop: 8 arrived (2 got on at 5th stop: 12 arrived (3 got 
on at 4th stop)— 4th stop: 18 arrived (4 got on at 3rd stop)— 3rd stop: 28 arrived (5 got on 
at 2nd stop)— 2nd stop: 46 arrived (6 got on at 1st stop)— 1st stop; 80 arrived from Buffalo. 

Answer: 80 

The farmer in the dell. Three times a number is twice the number plus the number itself. 
So if three times the cows is 3 added to twice the cows then 3 is the number of cows this 
cattleman owns. Answer: 3 

Who's a doorhanger? If Aleck hangs 4 doors an hour he has hung 10 in 2V2 hours when 
Bill is ready to go. Now Bill hangs 1 more door an hour than Aleck. At the end of 10 hours 
he has hung 10 more and is right on top of him. Answer: 10 hours 

Bit of a problem. Say this guy had a buck in his pocket when he went out to buy the bit. 
Here's what he'd have at the end of each transaction: 30 cents— $1.10— 20 cents— $1.20. 

Answer: 20 cents 

Special for kids. There's 15 inches of candy stick. Divide among 3. Each kid gets 5 inches. 
Jane gave away 4 inches. Joan gave away 1 inch. Divide Janice's dime 4 and 1. Answer: 
Jane, 8 cents, Joan, 2 cents. 

SPRECHEN SIE LOKKJAU? DISJOINTED I AM AND PUZZLING TOO BUT PUT ME 
TOGETHER AND THEN READ ME THROUGH NO LONGER A PUZZLE SHALL 
I BE TO YOU. 



This Journal Is Not Responsible For Views Expressed By Correspondents. 

CALIFORNIA LOCAL GETS NEW HALL 

In a recent visit to General Headquarters, Lute Harless, financial secretary of Local 
1478, of Redondo Beach, California, informed us that the members have completed the 
redecoration of their new hall. 

The hall was formerly the North Redondo Beach Community Center, and had been 
used by the local for meetings. It was purchased from the city in January, 1950, through 
a building assessment of the membership. 




Shown are the present officers in the new headquarters. They are as follows, 
from left to right: 

Front row: Theodore Malott, treasurer; . Lute Harless, financial secretary, L. J. 
Carpenter, president; William Steele, Vice-president; Clyde Fryar, recording secre- 
tary; and Frank Stimar, warden. 

Back row: William McCarthy, trustee; Ernest M. Campbell, conductor; Dale H. 
Keys, business representative; John Metzler, trustee; James T. Overstreet, as- 
sistant business representative and William Callahan, trustee. 

Included in the purchase were six parking lots, easily available should the needs 
of the local require the building of a larger hall in the future. 

Although a United Brotherhood local has existed in the city since 1921, Local 1478 
has been in Redondo Beach since 1934. It now has 1,071 members in good standing. 



NEW JERSEY LOCAL HONORS FIFTY YEAR MEN 

Far Hills Inn, near Gladstone, New Jersey, was the scene of a celebration held last 
month, by Local Union No. 1253, in honor of three men who have given fifty years of 
their lives in service to the United Brotherhood and organized labor. 

Bert Van Horn, Cornell Vanarsdale and Stephen La Tourette were guests of honor 
at the banquet, and were presented with fifty year pins. The three men are shown in 
the accompanying photograph, seated before the group. 



38 THE CARPENTER 

Officers, mi mln is. their wives and friends were served a fine meal, after which they 
wire still able to find energy enough to dance and enjoy the festivities. 

Local officers lauded the three men in speeches accompanying the presentation ami an 
enjoyable evening was had by all who attended. 




Congratulations from all of the United Brotherhood. It is to men such as these three 
diat our organization owes its success and existence. They are true representatives of 
American organized labor. 

• 

DEATH CALLS COLORFUL BROTHERHOOD MEMBER 

When death on October 6th removed from our midst Brother Hans Nielson, treasurer 
and business agent of Local Union No. 791, Brooklyn, N. Y., the United Brotherhood lost 

one of its most colorful members. Brother 
Nielsen was born in Assens, Denmark, 
some 62 years ago. Shortly after the turn 
of the century he migrated to the United 
States. As a young immigrant he saw much 
of the country before settling down in 
Brooklyn. Although a graduate of the 
highly-efficient apprenticeship system in 
Denmark, Brother Nielsen punched cows 
in the West, helped build railroads and 
held all sorts of different jobs. 

In 1908, Brother Nielsen returned to the 
East and joined Local Union No. 115 in 
Bridgeport, Conn. Shortly thereafter he 
cleared into Local Union No. 791 of 
Brooklyn, at which time he was manager 
of one of the largest chain stores in the 
nation. Within a short time his native 
ability and his capacity for hard work had 
impressed his brother members. Time 
after time he was elected to office in his 
union. For many terms he served as treas- 
urer and business agent. He was still 
serving in the latter capacity at the time of 
his death. 

A delegate to many national conventions 

and an active worker in all phases of 

labor activities, Brother Nielsen enjoyed 

a host of friends from coast to coast. Funeral sendees were held October 8th and the 

many friends in attendance and the man;, floral tributes from all parts of the nation paid 

eloquent tribute to the esteem which he earned during his long and fruitful career. 




THE CARPENTER 



39 



TRIBUTE PAID LONG SERVICE 

Local 998, of Berkley, Michigan, paused October 24th to pay tribute to Edmund 
Taylor, 80 years old veteran who has been a member of the United Brotherhood for the 
past 50 years. 

The guest of honor presented himself at the testimonial wearing the current union 
button in his lapel, and carrying the current working card in his pocket. After showing 
the card, he remarked, "I'm ready to go 
to work again tomorrow." 

A group of nearly 200 were on hand to 
pay homage to the old timer as he was 
presented a fifty year pin and several 
gifts, including a handsome table radio 
and two fine sport shirts. 

Taylor was born January 13, 1872, 
near Pontiac, Mich., and joined the 
United Brotherhood October 24, 1902, 
exactly fifty years previous to the celebra- 
tion. He remembered that "practically 
everyone warned me against joining the 
union, and said I wouldn't be hired on 
any job, but I joined anyway. I was paid 
25 cents an hour at the time." 

He first became a member of Local 
1032, which has since been consolidated 
with Local 998. Working mostly on 
home construction, Brother Taylor re- 
tired form carpentry in 1929, but re- 
tained his membership in the union. 




In the picture are, from left to right, front row; 
Raymond Fair, president of 998; Brother Taylor 
and Ronald Swanson, Master of Ceremonies for 
the proceedings. 

Back row: Past Presidents, Alfred Albiston, 998; 
Ed. Harper, 998 and 1032; Chester Jacobs, Sr., 
998; and Charles Hurst, 1032. 



NLNE BROTHERS HONORED 

Nine members of Local 384, of Ashville, North Carolina were honored at a special 
meeting October 15th. The group, whose ages ranged from 67 to 95 years, included Paul E. 

Herron, member for 50 years; 
W. E. Masters, 95 years of age, 
a member 46 years; H. A. Hen- 
derson, 94 years, 46 years as 
a member; W. N. Buckner, 42 
years membership; W. H. 
Hoyle, 39 years of membership: 
J. S. Holcombe, 38 years; James 
D. Ray, 37 years; and J. W. 
Tuten, 30 years. Willard Lytle. 
a member for 45 years was un- 
able to attend. All of tiiose 
honored are now on the pen- 
sion rolls. 

Vance Stamps, General Rep- 
resentative of the United Broth- 
erhood delivered an address eu- 
logizing the great advancements 
made by the local since its 
founding in 1888. 

Minutes of the first meeting, 
were read and many of the 
names therein were familiar 




Shown in the above photo are, from left to right, front 
row: Brothers Worley, Henderson, Herron and Masters. 
Second row: Holcombe, Hoyle, Ray and Tuten. 
Back row: James F. Barrett, Brother Buckner and Vance 



Stamps. to present members, as those 

charter members' sons and grandsons have carried on the family tradition and become 
members of the local. 

Refreshments were served and renewal of old acquaintances added to an enjoyable 
and significant meeting. 



40 



THE CARPENTER 



LOUISIANA CARPENTERS CELERRATE CENTENNIAL 

Members of Local 1813 joined their fellow townspeople early in October in celebra- 
tion of the one hundredth year of the founding of Winfield, Louisiana. 




P8* 





In the accompanying photograph, Miss Sullivan is shown upon the float. In the front 
row kneeling are, from left to right: C. I. Parker, F. Sanders, Riley Young, Roy T. 
Waxley, Lester T. Carpenter and R. D. Jones. 

Back row, from left to right: W. H. Gates, E. E. Edmonds, treasurer; W. V. Hall, 
financing and recording secretary; Henry Bates, D. W. McDaniel, A. T. Watts, B. D. 
Lemmons, N. F. Price, W. L. Owens, Charlie Risher, Clarence Bakker, A. M. Camp, 
president; and Dallas Varnell. 

The members built a float showing their part in helping to build a greater Winnfield 
and a greater Winn Parish. 

Previous to the parade the carpenters had elected Miss Dorothy Lynn Sullivan as 
"The Queen of Carpenters." She was crowned and further honored by riding the float 
in the parade. 

* 

50 YEARS SERVICE HONORED 

Brother J. I. Engle. a pensioned member of Local 929, of Los Angeles, was honored 
at a meeting with the presentation of a fifty year gold service button. 

Born in Missouri, June 5, 
1873, Brother Engle joined Lo- 
cal No. 4 of Kansas City, Miss- 
ouri, on October 2, 1902. In 
1906 he transferred his mem- 
bership to Local 61, where he 
remained until 1944. In that 
year he moved to California, 
where he became a member of 
Local 929. 

Having made many friends 
in the thirty-eight years he 
spent in the Kansas City area, 
Brother Engle wishes to extend 




Shown in the above photograph are Brother Engle and 
Local President L. H. Pattisson as the old-timer was pre- 
sented his fifty-year service pin. 



best wishes to those who still remember him there. 

Local 929 is justifiably proud of its old-timer. Not only was he a charter member of 
the Local, but he has constantly offered his time and energy to further its growth and 
success. 




OKLAHOMA LADIES HOLD 20th ANNUAL CONVENTION 

To The Editor: 

Greetings to all sister auxiliaries from the Oklahoma State Council of Carpenters' 
Ladies Auxiliaries. Our state council has just completed its Twentieth Annual Convention, 
held at Oklahoma City, October 13, 14 and 15. 

At present we have 14 auxiliaries which are affiliated with the state council. We are 
now conducting our annual membership contest among the auxiliaries, and the group 
which increases its percentage of membership by the greatest amount is awarded a 
beautiful hand made plaque. Tulsa ladies have won the award for the past two years. The 
plaque is made by a ceramic class conducted by the Enid Auxiliary. 




State council officers include: Mrs. Albert Gray, Oklahoma City, president; Mrs. 
E. E. Combs, vice-president, Lawton; Mrs. Alice Keeler, financial secretary, Mus- 
kogee; Mrs. Ruth Dawes, recording secretary, Tulsa; Executive board members: 
Mesdames Nina Beekler, Ponca City; Nadine Harshaw, Okmulgee; and Carl Watts, 
Enid. 



Our convention was honored by the presence of R. E. Roberts, General Executive Board 
member of the 5th District; A. C. Keeler, general representative; and Mel Shasserre, 
secretary-treasurer of the Missouri State Council. 

The accompanying photograph was taken at a luncheon during the convention, in the 
Huckins Hotel. 

Fraternally yours, Mrs. Ruth Dawes 



WORD FROM KANSAS LADIES 

To The Editor: 

Greetings to all auxiliaries from Ladies Auxiliary 290, of Parsons, Kansas. 

Our membership now numbers 33 ladies. We are proud of our organization and the 
principles for which it stands, and feel that we are making an honest and sincere con- 
tribution to the cause of organized labor. By standing firmly behind the locals and the 
United Brotherhood we are aiding America to grow in stature through the advancement 
of the individual. It is our hope that our small, but sincere contribution will eventually 
help the world become a better place in which to live. 

Business meetings are held the 1st Wednesday of each month and social meetings, 
usually consisting of a pot luck supper on the 4th Wednesday. Our Thanksgiving banquet 
was a great success, with 80 persons in attendance. 

Fraternally yours, Glena Fricke, Secretary 



Craft ProblQms 




Carpentry 

By H. H. Siegele 
LESSON 292 
Siding, Shingles, and Stucco.— Siding, 
shingles, and stucco are three materials that 
are commonly used for finishing the out- 
sides of frame buildings. Each of these 
materials will give good results alone or in 
connection with either one or the other two, 
or with both. Ordinary wood shingles, how- 
ever, are gradually giving way to composi- 
tion shingles. These give a pleasing appear- 
ance, and save the owner money, for they 
do not have to be painted. Being noncom- 
bustibie they give some fire protection. The 



Sidinc 



Shinoles 

Belt Course 




Fig. 1 

color of asbestos shingles is permanent. If 
such shingles are washed frequently they 
impress the observer favorably. Wood shin- 
gles, if they are stained, do not have to be 
painted, but they should be restained to 
keep up a satisfactory appearance. This is 
less expensive than paint. Stucco is also 
noncombustible and gives about as much 
fire protection as asbestos shingles do. 
While many owners do not paint stucco, 
those who like to have an occasional change 
in the color of a building, can paint it 
with a stucco paint. This paint is much 
less expensive than paint for wood. Wood 
siding is still an economical outside finish- 
ing material. However, the economy is 
offset by the fact that it must be painted, 
both for protection of the siding itself, 
and for appearance. 

Fig. 1 shows a gable and a part of the 
main structure of a building, on which 
shingles are used on the upper part of the 



gable, siding on the bottom part, and stucco 
on the main part of the building. These 
three materials work well together, and 
are joined by belt courses, as pointed out. 

Details of Cornice.— Fig. 2, the main 
drawing, shows a detail of the eaves with a 
metal gutter resting on a rather narrow 
frieze. Notice the flashing, which has the 
upper edge nailed to the underside of the 
roof sheeting, as shown just above the indi- 
cators. The flashing and the back of the 



Asphalt Shingles 




Stucco 



Fig. 2 



gutter are shown separated a little, so as 
to show the position they hold when in 
place. In practice the flashing should con- 
tact the back of the gutter where the two 
lap. The gutter, in this case, is made with 
a molding effect to match the rake molding. 
A detail of the rake molding is shown by 
the upper drawing. The frieze and how it 
joins the stucco should be observed on both 
of these drawings. Also notice the details 
in Fig. 3, where the left one represents 
siding joining a frieze, and the one to the 
right shows how wood shingles should join 
the frieze. The lightly shaded shingle that 



THE CARPENTER 



43 



is pointed out butts against the bottom edge 
of the frieze. Asbestos shingles join the 
frieze, if a frieze is used, somewhat as 
siding does, but the rabbet must be cut to 
conform with the thickness of the shingles. 

Construction of Angles with Siding.— Fig. 
4 shows to the left a perspective view of 



-raiEzE 



•Frieze 



Siding 



•Shinsles 



Fig. 3 

an angle made by scribing siding of one 
side onto the siding of the other side. This 
scribing is done by either carrying the sid- 
ing of both sides up at the same time, or 
by siding up one side first, and then scrib- 



- Boxing 




Coped Angle 



Copmer Strip 



Fig. 4 



ing the other side to it, board by board. 
To the right is shown the other method 
for making an angle with siding. Here an 
angle piece is used, as shown, to which 
the ends of the siding boards are fitted. 
The illustrations show just enough of the 



angles in perspective, to make clear the 
construction. The angle piece should be 
large enough to receive the siding and 
leave a well-proportioned reveal for margin. 

Siding Corners of Tin— Fig. 5 shows to 
the left a part of a corner that has the sid- 
ing on ready to receive the tin shingles, 
which are shown shaded on the drawing 
to the right. Study the drawings. 



•Builoino Paper Between 




Rough Joints 



Tin Shingles 



Wood and Mitered Siding Corners.— Fig. 
6 shows to the left a part of a corner of a 
building, with a wood corner board to re- 
ceive the siding. This is the conventional 
corner construction for siding. To the 
right is shown a part of a corner that has 



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BUILDING— Has 220 p. and 531 il., covering several 
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Today. ■■■ *" wltwttt Ernpona, Kansas 

QUANTITIES.— 12 or more books 20% off, f. o. b. 

Chicago. 



44 



THE CARPENTER 



the siding mitered. This make a well- 
appearing corner, but it is more expensive 
than the other, for it takes more time to 
make it than the one shown to the left. The 
part that has to be watched is the up and 
down line of the corner— that should be 
perfectly straight. It can be done, but it 
takes time and skill. 

Details of Belt Courses.— Fig. 7 shows 
two swayed belt courses made with shingles 
and a frieze board. At the center of each 
of these drawings, is shown a cross section. 
The sways give the shingles a drip. The 



Miter Joint 




Siding 



Fig. 6 

upper one has a bed molding and a frieze 
directly under the shingles. The bottom 
drawing shows no molding. The frieze in 
both cases, joins siding. Fig. 8, the top 
drawing, shows a sway made with shingles 
that goes to the extreme, while the bottom 
drawing shows a rather slight sway. Notice 



Blocking 




Fig. 7 

the difference and also the similarity in the 
construction where the siding joins the belt 
course. 

Other Connection Details.— Fig. 9, to the 
left, shows what could hardly be called a 
belt course, but it is a simple connection 
between siding and shingles. This con- 



struction is economical. The detail second 
from the left is of a conventional belt 
the extreme right is shown a simple con- 

3wAYr-\ 




Fig. 8 

course construction, making a line of de- 
marcation between siding and stucco. To 
nection between siding and stucco. Second 
Siding 



Shingles 





Stucco 



Fig. 9 

from the right is shown a good connection 
between shingles and stucco. Notice the 
slight sways in the details to the right. 

« 

PASS IT ON 
Part I 

A member wants me to pass on two craft 
problems to the readers. 



Open Crack 



Ot-b Part-, 




Fig. 1 

These craft problems are outgrowths of 
faulty construction. In remodeling a build- 

( Continued On Page 46) 




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DIPLOMA: A Diploma to be awarded as soon as "you 
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STUDY MATERIAL: (1). All textbooks and study material 
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Others. (One mailed monthly.) 

MAIL THIS APPLICATION TODAY 



American Technical Society 
Box 90 

350 East 58th Street 
Chicago 37, Illinois 

I am interested in becoming a building contractor. Enroll 
me for your complete training program in Building, Esti- 
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privilege. Send me your first set of training assignments. 
If I do not return the assignment within ten days, you may 
ship me the second, and all future training assignments 
periodically until the full training materials, instructions, 
and study assignments have been sent to me. Upon re- 
ceipt of the second assignment, I will remit $10.00 and 
will pay for the balance of my training at not less ■ than 
$10.00 per month until the full price has been paid as 
stipulated in this January issue of Carpenter Magazine. 



Name 



Address 

City Zone State . 



46 



THE CARPENTER 



(Continued From Page 44) 

ing, 4 feet were added to one side of it. 
The floor of the old part was to answer for 
blind flooring, while the addition received a 
new blind floor. The faulty construction was 
due to the fact that the old and the new 
blind floors were joined on one joist with- 
out breaking joints. Besides this, the nail- 
ing on the new blind floor was inadequate. 
Soon after the remodeling, a small crack- 
was noticeable in the finish floor. Gradually 



Q tl I C K - SET GAGE & drawer pulls 




MilJ-^ 




MARK 

LOCATE CENTERS S^f*^ Irfffi] I ' H0LES 
Here is a handy new BQ ^rff\]l**~~^' 
adjustable jig that ^f^mTiUI V DRILLED 

makes it simple to 
mark all your cupboard 
and drawer pulls quickly and easily. Can also be 
used for laying out door butts. Save time and effort 
with the new Quick-Set Gaoe . . . only $1.00 postpaid. 

A. D. McSURNEY 

3i7 E. 4th St., Los Angeles 13, Calif., Dept. C-25 



improved 78" LEIEL $ 14 85 

For setting door jambs and windows. No other llk« 
it. 4 plumbs, 2 levels. Use either end or edge up. 
Weighs 4i lbs. I-beam type, non-warp. Patented. 

NO FACTORY REPAIRS NEEDED! 

New positive-clamp Spirit Tube glass holder (50c) is 
replaced in a minute with ordinary screwdriver. 

72"— $14.35 All sizes extruded aluminum 

DIRECT from Factory, Express Prepaid 

Cash with order. 



the crack got wider and wider, when the 
brother was called in to suggest a solution 
to the problem. 

Fig. 1 shows in cross section the old and 
the new parts, which are separated by the 




open crack. The crack was brought to- 
gether with a rod, placed as shown. Notice 
the 2x6 reinforcing blocks and the two 
braces shown at a a. Fig. 2 gives a detail 
of the left end of the rod, showing how the 



-Fixed Jo/nt 




4923 Cadillac Blvd. 



Detroit 14, Mich. 



Fig. 3 



head of the rod was sunk into the boxing 
enough, so that the siding would cover it. 
Fig. 3 shows a part of the drawing shown by 
Fig. 1. but in a little larger scale. Here the 
joint is pointed out, after it had been drawn 
together with the rod. Notice how the 
right end of the rod was pulled into a 
horizontal position by the strain. 



Hang That Door The Professional Way 
faeaull MARK BUTT GAUGE 



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Only $1.98 each. 




If dealer can't supply, 
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□ 3 Gauges-$5.94-SIZES □ Send C. O. D. 



Address 

City Zone 



NOTICE 



The publishers of "The Carpenter" reserve the 
right to reject all advertising matter which may 
be,' in their judgment, unfair or objectionable to 
the membership of the United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America. 

All Contracts for advertising space in "The Car- 
penter," including those stipulated as non-can- 
cellable, are only accepted subject to the above 
reserved rights of the publishers. 



Index of Advertisers 



Carpenters' Tools and Accessories 

Page 

The American Floor Surfacing 

Machine Co., Toledo, Ohio 4th Cover 

E. L. Bruce Co., Memphis, 

Tenn. 4th Cover 

Carlson and Sullivan, Inc., Mon- 
rovia, Calif. 3rd Cover 

Eliason Tool Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 4 

E-Z Mark Tools, Los Angeles 

Calif. 46 

Foley Mfg. Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 47-48 

Greenlee Tool Co., Rockford, Ill._4th Cover 
Kingsdown Cable-Wire Co., Chi- 
cago, 111. 48 

The Lufkin Rule Co., Saginaw, 

Mich. 44 

A. D. McBurney, Los Angeles, 

Calif. 46 

Millers Falls Co., Greenfield, 

Mass. 4th Cover 

A. D. McBurney, Los Angeles, 

Calif. 48 

The Paine Co., Addison, 111 4 

Porter-Cable Machine Co., Syra- 
cuse, N. Y. 1 

Simplex Level Co., Detroit, Mich. 46 

The Speed Corp., Portland, Ore— 47 

Stanley Tools, New Britain, 

Conn. 24-25 

Swanson Tool Co., Oak Lawn, 

111. 48 

Technical Courses and Books 

American Technical Society, Chi- 
cago, 111. 45-47 

Audel Publishers, New York, 

N. Y. 3rd Cover 

Chicago Technical College, Chi- 
cago, 111. 3 

H. H. Siegele, Emporia, Kans.__ 43 



KEEP THE MONEY 
IN THE FAMILY! 

PATRONIZE 
ADVERTISERS 



BUY DEFENSE BONDS- 
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• 

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BUILDING, ESTIMATING, CONTRACTING 



Examine this Up-to-Date Edition for 10 days. See how 
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In our more than 50 years we have never offered more 
complete building information. Send the coupon TODAY. 
(A year's consulting privileges with our engineers now 
given with these books without extra cost.) 

AMERICAN TECHNICAL SOCIETY— Publishers Since 1893 
Dept. G-136 Drexel Ave., at 58th St., Chicago 37, III. 
I would like to examine your 9-Volume Set of Building, 
Estimating, Contracting Books. I will pay the delivery 
charges only, but If I choose I may return them express 
collect. If after 10 days' use I prefer to keep them, I will 
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only $4 a month until $34.80 has been paid. Include con- 
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Name 

Address 

City --" State 

Please attach letter giving employer's name and address 
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service please give home address. 



SHARPEN 



CIRCULAR SAWS 
LIKE AN EXPERT 



Keep circular saw blades 
sharp and true cutting. 
With the Speed Circular 
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THE SPEED CORP. DEPT. A 

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angle 



ZaJuvl $100 a MONTH 

in spare fime! ..:"' ._* 



with FOLEY 
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SHARPENER 

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FOLEYMFG.CO, 101-3 Foley Bldg. Minneapolis 18, Minn. 





the new SPEED SQUARE 

LARGER IN SIZE '*" « m- 

If you are one of our thousands of customers, you will like 
this improved square even better, with its time saving fea- 
tures. Pivot the corner against the rafter and with an easy 
action swing to cut wanted. 
• USE SAME NUMBER ALL CUTS EACH ROOF 
invented and developed by experienced carpenters for 
the mechanic who wants a time saving, easy-to-use 
Yv tool. 

\\ Not an extra tool for your tool box. You 

use this Square for all other work. 
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Being 3/16 inch thick the edge of the Square is 
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O FRAME YOUR RAFTERS AS EASY AS 
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The Rafter Booklet gives lengths for all 
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tells how to start your own business 

FILING SAWS 



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| Minneapolis 18, Minn. 

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How to hang doors — How to lath — lay floors — How to paint. 




AUDEL, Publishers, 49 W. 23rd St., New York 10, N. Y. 

Mail Audels Carpenters and Builders Guides, 4 vols., on 7 days' Iree 
trial. If OK I will remit $1 in 7 days and $1 monthly until $6. is paid. 
—Otherwise I will return them. No obligation unless I am satisfied. 



Employed by- 



CAR 



BIG MONEY 

«in your hands! 



YOUR OWN BOSS! 

Men who are determined 
to get ahead in some- 
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Earn as high as $50 and more a day sanding 
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Pleasant indoor work — steady the year 
round. No schooling — no experience needed. 
Age makes no difference — men 18 to 80 are 
active and successful. Send for "money-mak- 
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Floor Surfacing" — enclose 2 5c in coin or 
stamps to cover handling. 




A 



MER 



SEND . . 

ICAN 



FLOOR SURFACING MACHINE CO. 
520 So. St. Clair St., Toledo 3, 0. 




1 



If you like 
fine tools 

...then you'll really enjoy the smooth, 
fast action of the "GREENLEE 22" 
Solid-Center Auger Bit. And you know 
it reaches you "factory sharp," 
for each is Plastic-Sealed with a special 
protective coating. Ask your hardware 
dealer for "GREENLEE 22." 



GREENLEE 



SPECIAL OFFER . . . WOODWORKING 
CALCULATOR. ..25c . Quick solutions to 
countless problems. ..converting linear 
to board feet, nail and bit sizes, etc. Send 25c to 
Greenlee Tool Co., 2 <>8 1 Columbia Ave., Rockford, III, 




'Nest of Sa 



A great new tool 
electricians, plu 



Cuts most ANYTHING most ANYWHERE 



Sure-grip pistol handle and 3 quickly interchange- 
able blades — 10-tooth for steel, iron, plaster, nails, 
bolts, etc. . . . 24-tooth for thin sheet metal, gutter 
pipe, etc. . . . 7-tooth for wood. Blade rotates and 
locks in desired position, handle stays always in the 
clear. Ask for Millers Falls No. 725 "Nest of Saws" 
at your hardware dealer's. Only $2.95* complete. 



MILLERS FALLS 

TDDL5 a 



Millers Falls 
Company 




Blades turn and lock] 
in 8 positions 

'Price slightly higher in 
the West and Canada 



What Is Brotherhood? 



-¥--¥-* 



What Ts Brotherhood? Il is ever y thin «» or everything is nothing. It 
VVIldl J.5. XJIULI1C1X1UUU. is the cata i yst that separates a human being 

from the beast of the jungle. It is the leavening of love and the scaffolding upon 
which society rests. It is the glowing light which has beckoned mankind along the 
tortuous path of progress from the law of the fang to the Bill of Rights. It is the 
cornerstone of Democracy and the fountainhead of human dignity. It is the strength 
of the past and the hope of the future. 

U7V,„f T TD r/ -.4. U ar-Vi r\s\ A P II is the biggest thing in the world and at the 

What Is Brotherhood/ same time th B e smaUest . It is a thousand union 

men walking a picket line for weeks or months to redress an injustice done to a 
single member. But also it is a housewife baking a cake for an ailing neighbor. It 
is battered and b-aten GI's with bone-weary arms and frozen feet carrying wounded 
comrades out of the frigid wastes of Korea. But also it is a vigorous young carpenter 
giving a lift to a tired old-timer working by his side. It is a hundred and fifty mil- 
lion people placing their homes, their savings and even their lives at the disposal of 
the nation to protect the principles of liberty and equality. But no less it is Bill 
Smith mowing the lawn of the old couple up the street. It is a dozen or a hundred 
or a thousand people working together to maintain a church or a lodge or a union. 
It is the fifty cent contribution or the hour of committee work given by the least 
of them. 

TX/Vio'f To T2.rr\4-\-\ar\i r\r\A P I* ' s * ne w 'sdom of Lincoln and the warmth of 
VVnat ±S DrOinemOOU. Ghandi. It is the humility of Jesus, the hum- 
bleness of Mohammed and the humanitarianism of Confucius. It is Catholic and 
Protestant and Jew living together in peacefulness and harmony. It is Italian and 
Dane and Bulgarian and Pole working side by side on the job and sitting shou!d~r 
to shoulder in the union hall searching for ways to advance the common good. It is 
the Ten Commandments and the Sermon on the Mount. It is th? Bible, the Talmud 
and the Koran. It is the essence of wisdom of all ages distilled into a single word. 
But equally it is the understanding of neighbors and friends who sorrow at your 
misfortunes and rejoice at your triumphs. You cannot see Brotherhood; neither can 
you hear it or taste it. But you can feel it a hundred times a day. It is the pat on 
the back when things look gloomy. It is the smile of encouragement when the way 
seems hard. It is the helping hand when the burden becomes unbearable. 

\KT\-\ci4- To T^T"f»t hprhoorl P ^* * s pi° ne er Americans of all faiths and creeds 

and colors banding together to raise a barn 
for a neighbor. It is men in leather breeches and homespun shirts taking wagons 
apart and carrying them over the mountains, piece by piece, to get wagon trains into 
California and Oregon. It is working men risking their jobs, their homes and their 
futures to build unions capable of eliminating exploitation and poverty and industrial 
slavery. It is men and women working for a common cause that is bigger than any 
individual. 

What IS BrOtherhOOd? U iS thC ^° pe ° f manki " d for immortality Man 

comes into the world from whence he knows 
not. He struggles a while and departs again into whence he knows not. But like the 
tiny crustaceans which create the magnificent coral reefs, he makes a tiny contribu- 
tion to the universal plan. The coral comes into the world, lives awhile, and then dies 
to add its tiny skeleton to the skeletons of millions of generations which went before. 
In the end, a beautiful coral island rises out of the sea. Like the coral, man comes 
into the world to live awhile and eventually pass on. Like the coral, he makes his 
contribution to the universal plan. Brotherhood is the mortar that holds together the 
contributions of all men in all ages. 

What IS BrOtherhOOd? !t J 3 " 0t Hfe - ^ is more than that. It is that 

which gives meaning to life and makes it worth 



living. 



That Is Brotherhood. 



SML 



ARE EASIER 



ASIER 
GUIDE/' 



says 
WM. G. SCHMITT, 

Philadelphia Carpenter 



"SKIL Saws are built to make our work 
easier," says Mr. Schmitt. "The rear grip 
handle makes it easier to guide the saw 
and sawing takes less effort because you 
guide straight through the work." SKIL 
Saw handles are scientifically placed for 
either one-hand or two-hand operation in 
any cutting position. The saws are per- 
fectly balanced, light in weight. They're 
packed with power . . . power to make 
cuts with speed and accuracy even in 
heavy going. "SKIL Saws stand up under 
constant work," says Mr. Schmitt. "I've 
had one SKIL Saw for twenty years and 
it's still in service." 




SKIL Saw Model 825-oVi" saw. Full 
base adjustments: 0" to 2 Va" vertical depth 
of cut; 0° to 45° bevel adjustment; 2Ve" 
depth of cut at 45° Free speed of blade: 
3000 r.p.m. Overall length: 1 8". Weight: 
17!4 pounds. 



Your SKIL Distributor has the saws for your job . 10 models, a saw for every cutting need. 



P^X 




TOOLS 



SKIL Belt Sander 



SKIL Products are made only by SKIL Corporation, formerly SKILSAW, INC., 
5033 Elston Avenue, Chicago 30, Illinois 

SKILSAW Factory Branches in Principal Cities * In Canada: Skiltools, Ltd., 3601 Dundas Street West, Toronto 9, Ont. 



A Monthly Journal, Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners 
of America, for all its Members of all its Branches. 

PETER E. TERZICK, Editor 
Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis 4, Indiana 

One Dollar Ff-r iVar 
Ten Cents ft Copy 



Established in 1881 
Vol. LXXIII — No. 2 



INDIANAPOLIS, FEBRUARY, 1953 



Co ntents — 



People Aren't Guinea Pigs 



Now advertisers are trying to probe into your subconscious to find new ways to sell 
their products. New and old psychiatric methods are being appropriated by these super- 
salesmen to force the American public to buy products which they do not want. 



What About Welfare Plans? 

The lion's share of your industrial medicc 
the worker is left out in the cold with an un 

Durkin Becomes Secretary of Labor 



The lion's share of your industrial medical dollar goes to the insurance company, and 
the worker is left out in the cold with an unsatisfactory means of medical protection. 



10 

and 

16 

st in 

18 



Dynamic Martin P. Durkin is the first member of Labor on a presidential cabinet in 
more than twenty years. 

The Complete Carpenter ----- 

A prominent western labor leader discusses "What is a Carpenter?" 

The New White House - - - - - 20 

The White House is converted from a dangerous firetrap to a modern convenient 
home, retaining all of its historical features. 



Have A Heart 



23 



Labor endorses a fine charity. A dangerous killer is being thwarted by a worthwhile 
organization. 



• • • 



OTHER DEPARTMENTS 
Plane Gossip 
Editorials 
The Locker 
Official 

In Memoriam 
Correspondence 
To The Ladies 
Craft Problems 



Index to Advertisers 



* * * 



14 
24 
29 
31 
32 
33 
38 
40 



46 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of 

Congress. Aug. 24, 1912. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for 

in Section 1103, act of October o, 1917, authorized on July 8, 191S. 



CARPENTERS 

BUILDERS and APPRENTICES 




THOROUGH TRAINING IN BUILDING 

Learn at Home in Your Spare Time 

The successful builder will tell you 
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You learn how to lay out work and direct 
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and Trial Lesson 



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•yon to earn more money, gives you the 
thorough knowledge of Building required 
for the higher-up jobs and higher pay. 
Don't delay. Mail the coupon today in an 
envelope or use a penny postcard. 



CHI CAGO TECHNICAL COLLjEGE 

TECH BLDG.,2000 SOUTH MICHIGAN AVE., CHICAGO 16, ILL. 



L 



Chicago Technical College 

B-125 Tech Bklg., 2000 So. Michigan Ave., 

Chicago 16, Illinois 

Mail me Free Blue Print Plans and Booklet: "How to Read Blue Prints" 

with information about how I can train at home. 

Name ,_ Age 



Address Occupation 

City Zone State 




MAKE GOOD MONEY 

applying 

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Look up! Look at ceilings! 

There are hundreds of jobs — right over your head 
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customers. 

Now you can install two tj^pes of ceilings: (1) 
paneled ceilings using Upson Kuver-Krak Panels, 
Upson Strong-Bilt Panels or beautiful new Upson 
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12 inch Ceiling Tiles. So you have more chances 
than ever for ceiling jobs, and for remodeling 
too, — dens, recreation rooms, new living quarters. 

Mail in the coupon now for a free. Upson Ceiling 
Sample Kit. Contains full directions, samples — 
everything you need to know about this kind of work. 



UPSON 



KUVER-KRAK PANELS 
AMD CEILING TILES 



The Upson Company 
8312 Upson Point, Lockport, New York 

Please mail me a FREE Upson Ceiling Sample Kit. 

Name 

Street 

City 



_State_ 



Number of Lumber Dealer. 




N o w ! Earn Better Pay This Easy Way 

CARPENTRY 
ESTIMATING 

QUICK... EASY... ACCURATE with this simplified guide! 



You can earn higher pay when you know how 
to estimate. Here is everything you need to 
know to "take off" a bill of materials from 
set of plans and specifications for a frame 
house. Saves you time figuring jobs, protects 



you against oversights or mistakes that waste 
materials and cost money. Nothing compli- 
cated—just use simple arithmetic to do house 
carpentry estimating with this easy-to-use 
readv reference handbook. 




SIMPLIFIED 
CARPENTRY ESTIMATING! 

Shows you, step by step, how to figure materials needed 
for (1) foundation, (2) framing, (3) exterior finish, (4) in- 
terior finish, (5) hardware, and (6) stairs. Gives definite 
"take-off" rules, with many quick-reference tables and 
short-cut methods that simplify the work. 



Send No Money 

Examine 10 Days Free 

just fill in and mail the. 
coupon to get "Simplified 
Carpentry Estimating" for 
10 DAYS FREE TRIAL. If 
not fully satisfied, return the 
book and owe nothing. If 
you keep it, send only $3.75 
plus few cents postage in 
full payment. You take no 
risk. Mail coupon now. 



Check i n g 

List. Millwork Checking List. Hard- 
ware Checking List. Materials Order- 
ing information. Quick Figuring 
Tables (or estimating concrete foot- 
ings and walls, concrete piers, window 
frames, door and window areas, sash 
weights, nail quantities. How to fig- 
ure labor hours per unit of work. 
Rules for linear, area and volume 
measurement. Mathematical reference 
tables, including decimal equivalents, 
lumber reckoner, conversion of weights 
and measures, etc. New chapter, "How 



TURN TO CHAPTER 8 



to Plan a House." gives useful data 
for contractors and material dealers. 

when you 
receive 
this book, and see the "Estimating 
Short Cuts" you can use for quick 
figuring of board footage. Here are 
simplified ways to estimate lumber 
needed for floors, walls, ceilings, roof, 
door and window frames, inside trim 
for these frames, inside trim for in- 
side doors, and drawers and cabinets. 
This chapter alone can be worth the 
entire price of the book to you! 



MAIL THIS COUPON 



SIMMONS-BOARDMAN Publishing Corp. (Car-253) 
30 Church Street, New York 7, N. Y. 

Send me for -10 DATS FREE TRIAL. "Simplified Carpentry Estimat- 
ing." I will either return it in 10 days and owe nothing, or send only 
$3.75 (plus shipping charges) in full payment. 

Xame ■-■ 

Address ■ 

City & State 



KNOWLEDGE 

IS 

POWER 



IN THE BUILDING FIELD 




BECOME THE BEST 
BUILDING MAN IN 
YOUR TOWN. LEARN 
ALL ABOUT EVERY 
PHASE OF BUILDING, 
ESTIMATING AND 
CONTRACTING 



Supervised Home Study Training 

The American Technical Society offers a step-by-step 
method of training men to become experts in the field 
of Building. Estimating and Contracting. Learn Blue- 
print Reading, Carpentry, Masonry, House Planning. 
Bemodeling, Mathematics. Learn how to estimate for 
the Building Trades. Seventy-four step-by-step train- 
ing lessons complete with up-to-date text books to 
train you 33 a Building, Estimating and Contracting 
expert. 

We Furnish All Training Materials 

You get complete training assignments in such sub- 
jects as Structural Details, Specifications, Sheet Metal. 
Heating, Insulation, Excavation, Foundations, Woods. 
Windows, Styles of Boots. Interior Wall Coverings, 
Stair Construction, Wind Resistant Construction, Selec- 
tion and Application of Mortars. Theory, Kinds, Design 
and Building of Driveways, Floors, Steps and Side- 
walks. Kinds and selection of Columns. Steel, Lally. 
Concrete, Brick. Fireplace Constructions, Design. Esti- 
mating, Septic Tank Systems. Styling a House. Be- 
modeling. Complete materials include 9 text books, 8 
lesson booklets, 8 study guides with instructions for the 
study and preparation of the examinations, 61 sets of 
self-checking quizzes, 4 supplementary information 
sheets, 74 examinations to be submitted for correc- 
tions and grading by your supervisory instructor who 
helps you in your training program. 

Is Your Future Worth a 3c Stamp? 

A three cent stamp will bring your first set of train- 
ing assignments in Building, Estimating and Con- 
tracting for your examination without cost and without 
obligation. If, after examination, you are not con- 
vineed about the value -of this training and do not 
believe it can help you raise your income by thousands 
of dollars, return the assignments within ten days and 
it will cost you nothing! However, if you decide you 
want to fulfill your ambition to become a building 
contractor, you start your training immediately. Keep 
the first assignment and future training material com- 
plete 'with textbooks, and instructions will be sent to 
you periodically. I'pon receipt of your second training 
assignment, you remit $10.00 and then agree to pay not 
less than $10.00 each following month, until the total 
cost of your training program, $212.90, has been paid. 



Become Independent 
LEARN WHILE YOU EARN 

The demand for highly paid men in the building fleld 
is increasing by leaps and bounds. There is a critical 
shortage of TRAINED men — men who know all jobs 
connected with the building trades. If you are in- 
terested in greater advancement and independent 
financial security, plan today to expand your know- 
ledge in the building field. Become a Building Con- 
tractor. The American Technical Society will start 
you on the road to success by providing you with the 
kind of home study training you need to learn every 
branch of Building. Estimating and Contracting. No 
classes to attend. Continue to earn while you learn 

Here Is What You Get 

FIVE YEARS CONSULTING MEMBERSHIP: You should complete 
this training in one year, but we award you the 
privilege of consulting with our staff of engineers for 
a period of five years. 

TESTS: Examining and grading Texts in order to quali- 
fy you for our Diploma in Building, Estimating & 
Contracting. 

DIPLOMA: A Diploma to be awarded as soon as you 
have completed this Training. 

STUDY MATERIAL: (1). All textbooks and study material 
and examinations for completion of the course are to 
be supplied to you by the American Technical Society. 
This material is to be sent periodically to insure 
steady progress in your training. (2). Twelve Human 
Relations Chats on the Art of Getting Along with 
Others. (One mailed monthly.) 



MAIL THIS APPLICATION TODAY 



American Technical Society 
Box 91 

850 East 58th Street 
Chicago 37, Illinois 

I have read your offer and would like you to send 
me, without cost or obligation, your first set of 
training assignments in Building. Estimating and 
Contracting. If I do not return same within 10 
days you may ship me the second set of training 
assignments and enroll me for your complete 
training program. I agree to remit $10.00 on 
receipts of a second assignment and will pay 
K10.00 per month until the balance of my train- 
ing has been paid in full as stipulated in this 
February ad in Carjtenter Magazine. 



Name 



Address 



City 



.Zone State. 



People Aren't Guinea Pigs 

• • • 

HAT IS the worth of a union? If that question were asked of a 
thousand union members there would probably be a thousand 
different answers. To most members— particularly those in the 
vounger age groups— the worth of a union probably would center around the 
ability of the union to elevate wages and improve living standards through 
collective bargaining. Running a close second undoubtedly would be the 
ability of the union to improve working conditions, eliminate safety hazards, 
and maintain an equitable system of seniority guaranteeing fair treatment. 

To real old timers, however, the : 




worth of a union would probably in- 
volve something more than wages 
and working conditions. It would 
involve the right to be a man made 
in the image of God— the right to be 
an individual, the right to be unique, 
the right to think one's own thoughts 
and live one's own life; something 
that did not always exist in the days 
before unions. Only those who worked 
in the old days when the employer, 
was an absolute autocrat can appre- 
ciate the changes that unions have 
brought about down the years. 

In the old pre-union days, the po- 
litical views of the boss had to be 
the political views of the worker— or 
else. The moral standards of the em- 
ployer had to be the moral standards 
of the worker— or else. Even the 
thoughts the worker thought had to 
conform with the ideas that the em- 
ployer held— or else; for the employer 
had ways of finding out about the 
politics and morals and thoughts of 
each of his workers. In those days 
the worker was not simply an em- 
ployee; he was a ward and a slave as 
well. His thoughts were not his own, 
for even off the job he had to behave 
in a manner that was acceptable to 
his employer to avoid discharge at 
best and blacklisting at worst. 



To most old timers this emancipa- 
tion from thought control, from com- 
plete domination by the employer; 
from censoring of thought, word and 
deed, constitutes the primary worth 
of a union. To them the constant im- 
provement in wages and working con- 
ditions that unions have been able to 
achieve down the years are only 
additional dividends accruing from 
union membership, for nothing in the 
world is quite so lastingly desirable 
as freedom to live according to the 
dictates of one's own conscience. 

What brought about this line of 
thought was an extremely disturbing 
article that appeared in a recent issue 
of the Wall Street Journal. Unions 
have managed to wipe out complete 
domination of thought, word and deed 
by the employers, but now a new sort 
of threat is arising. The advertising 
agencies, the psychologists and the 
psychiatrists are bent on turning hu- 
man beings into guinea pigs. By 
various means these scientists and 
psuedo-scientists are trying to develop 
means for prying into the hearts and 
minds and inner-most thoughts of 
people; all in order to be able to sell 
them more toothpaste or influence 
them more readily with propaganda. 



8 



THE CARPENTER 



"The clever psychologists who mas- 
termind the efforts to sell you such 
things as deodorants, cigarettes and 
beer," said the Journal article, "are 
beginning to resort to methods for- 
merly tried only on disturbed mental 
patients. 

"The Szondi test, doll playing, Ror- 
schach ink blots, Rozenzweig picture 
frustration and other exoteric testing 
schemes borrowed from mental insti- 
tutions are being used increasingly 
every day to find out things about 
you that you don't know yourself." 

That is a lot of high-sounding 
language but what it means is that 
they are searching for ways and means 
of bending you to their will. Instead 
of being human beings with prejud- 
ices, foibles, and virtues that are ex- 
clusively our own, you and I are so 
many guinea pigs to the researchers. 
We are not human beings capable of 
love, hate, fear, compassion, etc. In- 
stead we are statistical charts of pro- 
spective buying power for breakfast 
foods or prospective votes for a candi- 
date with lots of money. 

To probe the public mind these 
"experts" use a lot of supposedly sci- 
entific techniques. One of them is 
"thematic perception" in which people 
are asked to make up stories about 
simple pictures of individuals doing 
every day things such as washing 
dishes, scrubbing the floor, doing the 
laundry or something of that nature. 
In the process, the scientists are sup- 
posed to find out a lot of things about 
the person he does not even suspect 
himself. 

Another method is the chain inter- 
view which is being used more widely 
every day to check the value of pub- 
licity (which is another name for 
propaganda.) In this technique a 
news story is read to one person who 
then dictates his version of it into a 
recording machine. Another guinea 



pig listens to the recorded version and 
then dictates his interpretation of it. 
This process is repeated six or eight 
times. By studying the changes which 
occur down the line in the original 
version, researchers are supposed to 
find exactly how any message will be 
received by an audience. 

These are only a few of the tech- 
niques used. There are many others. 
Unless there is some sort of rebellion 
somewhere down the line, the prod- 
ding, goosing, exploring and mind 
reading will eventually reach intoler- 
able proportions. And all for what? 
To force more products you do not 
want down your throat. 

In personnel work, many compa- 
nies have flirted with these scientific 
techniques for years past. Through 
these devices they are supposed to 
be able to select nothing but ideal 
employes for every job. How success- 
ful they have been, we have no way 
of knowing. However, we are inclined 
to look upon all these ultra-new ding- 
uses as nuisances. 

Where all these supposedly scien- 
tific devices fall down is that they 
treat human beings as though they 
were fixed quantities, something 
which they very definitely are not. A 
ham is a ham. It was a ham yesterday 
and it will be a ham tomorrow. But 
a human being is a creative, thinking, 
everchanging individual. He is never 
exactly the same two days in a row. 

Almost any day in the week you can 
read in the newspapers of some bank 
cashier who, after being a devoted 
family man and a valued and trusted 
employe for 25 years, suddenly helps 
himself to a big wad of the bank's 
money and takes off for South Amer- 
ica with a red-headed hussy. Or you 
can read of some supposedly hard- 
ened criminal who suddenly decides 
that crime does not pay and thereup- 



THE CARPENTER 



on becomes an honest and decent 
citizen. 

.The scientists maintain that their 
tests can disclose tendencies of this 
nature in individuals; that they can 
tell whether a prospective bank em- 
ployee is likely to turn crooked at 
some time. Frankly, we have our 
doubts. Probably nine bank employes 
out of 10 once in awhile get fed up 
with the humdrum routine and dream 
of walking off with a wheelbarrow 
load of the bank's dough. Most of 
them never do, but occasionally one 
does. 

What motivates the exception who 
does give in to a brash impulse? Who 
knows? Maybe the fates kick him in 
the teeth once too often. Maybe a 
book he read or a lecture he heard or 
a person he met helped change his 
point of view. A thousand different 
things can happen to a human being 
in the course of a month or a year, 
each of them having some bearing on 
his viewpoint, his philosophy of life 
and his outlook toward society. The 
truth of it is that none of us today is 
exactly the same person he was yester- 
day. An)' science that tries to treat 
human beings as fixed quantities, is, 
in our opinion, on pretty shaky 
ground. A ham is a ham today and 
will be a ham tomorrow; a human 
being is a child of God possessing a 
free will and endowed with infinite 
possibilities for good or evil. In all 



of us the good and the evil are in 
constant conflict and trying to classify 
human beings as though they, were 
fixed quantities like hams or teakettles 
is, in our opinion, a pretty hopeless 
proposition. 

Than human dignity there is no 
more precious possession. In our com- 
plicated and highly integrated society, 
the dignity of the human being is con- 
stantly being assaulted by many 
forces. Essentially, the difference be- 
tween our system of government and 
the Russian system revolves around 
human dignity. Democracy holds that 
human dignity merits the highest con- 
sideration; the Russian system con- 
siders human dignity as meaningless 
except as it can further glorification of 
the State. 

It is obnoxious, therefore, to realize 
that the advertising pitchmen, the 
psychologists and a whole host of 
psuedo-scientists are trying to reduce 
human beings to guinea pigs in this 
country. And the dangers involved 
are fairly obvious to anyone who re- 
members Hitler or Mussolini. 

The antidote against all this "guinea 
pigism" is common sense, an attribute 
with which the American people are 
liberally endowed. When the people 
are not only informed of all this hocus 
pocus but also warned of its dangers, 
their good, common sense will pro- 
tect them from it. 



EROSION OF SOIL CAUSING MORE WORLD HUNGER 

Hunger and misery throughout the world may become more acute as a result of "man- 
made deserts" created by erosion and soil wastage. 

That was the warning given in a United Nations report last month. The report noted 
that world population increased 3 per cent in the past 5 years, while production of food in- 
creased only 1 per cent. 

The report said erosion has taken a particularly heavy toll in Northwest China, North 
Africa and the Middle East, which were once "gardens of plenty." It cited an area of a 
million acres in Northern Syria which is known as "the graveyard of a hundred dead cities." 
Here ruins of ancient homes show that 3 to 6 feet of topsoil have been swept away, leaving 
bare limestone hills. 

On the other hand, where exploitation of the soil is replaced by modern .conservation 
methods, "the possibilities in store for its growing population are beyond the imagination," 
the report adds. 



10 



What About Welfare Plans? 

• • 

OVER the period of the last few years there has been a tremendous 
growth in health and welfare plans throughout the nation. At the 
close of World War II, somewhere in the neighborhood of 3,000,000 
American workers were covered by such plans. Since 1945 that number has 
grown to an estimated 10,000,000, and new health and welfare agreements are 
being negotiated every day. 

How adequate and satisfactory is the medical care under these plans? Not 
what it should be, says the Social Security Administration. In a recent report 
this agency pointed cut that expenditures for medical care, plus loss of income 
due to illness cost the American people about $14,200,000,000 in 1951, the last 
year for which complete statistics were available. All private insurance plans 
lumped together, however, only paid 



out $1,800,000,000 of this huge medi- 
cal bill. That amounts to a shade less 
than 13 per cent. It also pointed out 
that in order to get this $1,800,000,000 
in insurance, those who were insured 
had to pay out $2,400,000,000 in pre- 
miums. The remaining $600,000,000, 
or roughly 25 per cent, went for over- 
head and profits. 

Recently a study of California 
health and welfare plans was made 
by Dr. Richard Weinerman. In gen- 
eral, his findings can be summarized 
about as follows: 

1. The great diversity in welfare 
plans has resulted in a considerable 
waste of dollars; dollars which were 
won the hard way through collective 
bargaining and could well have been 
used in the pay envelopes. All the 
following contributed to the waste of 
dollars: 

(a) Big chunks were going to in- 
surance companies in the form 
of safety margins— normally 
from 10c to 20c on the dollar. 

(b) There was considerable evi- 
dence of wasteful expenditures 
resulting from abuse of fee sche- 



dules, provision of unnecessary 
hospital, surgical and allied ser- 
vices. Medical care suffered in 
proportion. 

(c) Duplication of administrative 
functions occurred because 
there were so many small plans. 
Duplication of billings, etc., also 
occurred. 

(d) In some instances, as much as 
50% of the premium dollar went 
for other than primary health 
needs of the worker and his f am- 
ily. 

2. Benefits bought were not always 
those most needed; benefits covered 
about 30% of medical needs. Office, 
home, and family care were generally 
not covered in an adequate fashion. 

3. Since dependents in the average 
family incur 80% of the medical bills, 
the worker who has medical care for 
only himself under a welfare plan 
actually has 20% of his medical bills 
insured. 

Some suggested remedies were: 
elimination of the 20% cut taken by 
insurance companies, establishment of 
health centers to increase the practice 



THE CARPENTER 



11 



of preventive medicine and the eli- 
mination of catastrophies, and cover- 
age of whole families on an annual 
.rather than a fee basis. 

Among the unions which have pio- 
neered in prepaid medicine, the Min- 
ers probably have had the widest ex- 
perience. Nearly half a century ago, 
prepaid medical plans were in ex- 
istence in some mining communities. 
In recent years the Miners have put 
into effect the most comprehensive 
health and welfare program yet de- 
vised. Many millions of dollars are 
involved in the Miner's program, fi- 
nanced by a royalty on every ton of 
coal mined by members of the Miner's 
Union. 

In a recent issue of the Mine Work- 
ers Journal, an article dealing with 
some aspects of the health and wel- 
fare program, was published. That 
article concerned itself with a report 
made by Dr. Warren F. Draper, ex- 
ecutive medical officer of the Miner's 
fund, after a meeting of West Virginia 
doctors. 

Shortcomings of services presently 
available for mine workers and their 
families were described by Dr. 
Draper. 

Summarizing his observations on 
the results of the conference, Dr. 
Draper advised Miss Josephine Roche, 
director of the fund, that it was fea- 
tured by a candid exchange of views 
on the necessity of better medical ser- 
vice and that there was frank admis- 
sion of deficiencies and constructive 
suggestions for improvement. He com- 
mented: 

"We have come far in developing 
a spirit of cooperation and understand- 
ing with the doctors and are assured 
of further and more rapid progress. 
My recommendations were submitted 
to the AM A committee which called 
the conference and it sent copies to. 
all participants for their study and 



comment. This meeting marked real 
progress and a great advance over 
what has gone before." 

In Dr. Draper's comprehensive re- 
port, based on the actual experience 
of the fund's area medical adminis- 
trators and headquarters staff over the 
past five years, the situation confront- 
ing mine workers in regard to medical 
care was outlined in some detail and 
a program was presented to correct 
current faults and chart a course of 
progress for the future. He stressed 
the vital importance of the private 
physicians who treat the UMWA pa- 
tients under fund auspices. 

"In our opinion," Dr. Draper said, 
"by far the most important considera- 
tion in medical practice in the coal 
mine areas is the conscientiousness 
and competence of the physicians 
who treat our patients. There are 
those whose services need not be 
questioned. There are others whose 
motivations and qualifications, as we 
know, are such that the interests of 
the patient are not well served and 
the money paid them by the fund is 
largely wasted." 

Because the number of physicians 
in coal mining areas is "all too few," 
Dr. Draper explained, it has been nec- 
essary to utilize the services of even 
the incompetents "on the chance that 
they may be helpful to a limited ex- 
tent, and to assauge the feeling of the 
miner that the sen-ices of any sort of 
physician are in his extremity prefer- 
able to none at all." 

Experience has shown, Dr. Draper 
continued, that some physicians in 
these areas were never properly train- 
ed,., some are victims of circumstances, 
some have gone backward due to lack 
of adequate facilities and because 
they are out of touch with the medi- 
cal profession, and some are simply 
interested in the better than average 
income obtainable in mining areas. 



12 



THE CARPENTER 



In further discussing the physicians 
of the coal fields. Dr. Draper's out- 
spoken report said: 

"Closely related are the services 
performed by physicians who know 
they are not qualified for certain work, 
but who will attempt almost anything 
in order to retain the fee. The results 
are often gruesome. The physicians 
in our special centers and the special- 
ists in the outstanding clinics to which 
these patients are finally referred in 
desperation can furnish abundant in- 
formation on this score. 

"Unnecessary surgery performed by 
reasonably competent physicians who 
know better, but want the money, is 
hard on the patient and deprives other 
patients of much needed service that 
could be provided by the money 
wasted. In one of our communities, 
after much travail, we refused to pay 
for other than emergency operations 
until a consultant of recognized stand- 
ing in a city far removed pronounced 
them indicated. Just one of the para- 
graphs of documentation is quoted as 
follows: 

"Out of 54 appendectomies, 
performed, the pathological re- 
port confirmed the diagnosis of 
appendicitis in 25 and reported 
normal appendices in the other 
29. In the case of one physician 
who performed 11 appendecto- 
mies, only three were confirmed 
by the pathologist. Another phy- 
sician who had performed 12 ap- 
pendectomies, five of w 7 hich were 
confirmed by the pathologist, did 
not obtain more than one white 
cell count during the hospitaliza- 
tion of any of these 12 patients, 
and did not obtain a urinalysis 
on five of these patients." 

"One viewpoint that has been ex- 
pressed by a number of physicians is 
that while they may not feel that 
surgery is really necessary, neverthe- 



less, the>' have to go ahead with it 
because the patient otherwise would 
have it done by some other physician. 
This would seem to mean that the de- 
sire of the patient is sufficient just- 
ification to the physician for perform- 
ing major surgery. 

"Time does not permit of a dis- 
sertation on the indiscriminate and 
irrational use of the antibiotics nor 
do I believe it would add to the know- 
ledge of this group. I believe, how- 
ever, that it is tremendously impor- 
tant in its implications, and that the 
miners unwittingly are doing their 
share in the development of penicil- 
lin-resistant strains of bacteria. 

"The physicians of the Fund have 
done much to improve the standard 
of practice of some of these physicians 
by bringing them into contact with 
specialists, reviewing their clinical re- 
cords and pointing out their errors; by 
insisting upon hospital improvements 
under the threat of withholding sure 
and full-pay patients; and by sending 
patients to physicians elsewhere to 
provide an incentive to better service. 

"In some instances, our Area Ad- 
ministrators have gone to great 
lengths in appealing to the State Med- 
ical Society for the correction of gross 
deviations from professional and ethi- 
cal standards. Where this has been 
attempted in any considerable degree, 
it has been a tedious, wearing and 
generally unsatisfactory process that 
we should dread to repeat." 

In one area, Dr. Draper informed 
the conference, where some of the 
nost troublesome experiences have oc- 
cured, the state medical society has 
been reluctant to take decisive action, 
although admitting the deficiencies 
charged, for fear that it might result 
in general questioning by other pa- 
tients of the standard of medical carp 
available. 



THE CARPENTER 



13 



In a direct appeal to the members 
of the AMA present, Dr. Draper then 
declared: 

"While the physicians of the 
Fund could continue to make 
some progress in improving the 
quality of medical and hospital 
care by various means that might 
be used, it would not be ade- 
quate, nor do we feel that this 
responsibility should rightfully be 
placed upon us. We believe that 
you will agree that this is an obli- 
gation of organized medicine 
which can and must be under- 
taken and fulfilled, if only for the 
protection and maintenance of 
the principles and independence 
that it holds most dear." 
At the outset Dr. Draper had ex- 
plained to the physicians that the op- 
eration of the Fund's medical program 
is entirely in medical hands and, 
therefore, "our medical program is as 
good or as bad as we doctors in the 
Fund, our medical advisers and the 
physicians who care for our patients 
have succeeded in making it." 

Stressing the paramount importance 
of the Fund's medical services not 
only in relation to the mine workers 
but to medical standards generally, 
Dr. Draper said: 

"I can assure you that the United 
Mine Workers of America is following 
with meticulous care the results of its 
trial of the present type of program 
for providing a good quality of medi- 
cal service for its P/2 million bene- 



ficiaries at fair and just cost. I can 
assure you also that our experience 
and findings are continually and 
eagerly sought, not only by other 
branches of labor but by government 
and many other elements as well. 
While we freely discuss the principles 
upon which our program is based, we 
have felt thus far that no constructive 
purpose would be served by publiciz- 
ing all of the conditions and experi- 
ences encountered, and setting forth 
the costs of medical service under the 
present plan until they have been 
stabilized and afford accurate data for 
comparison with other plans. At the 
rate of 50 million dollars or more per 
year, our expenditures for medical 
and hospital service should be of ex- 
traordinary value in many ways." 

The policy of the Wage Stabiliza- 
tion Board which has allowed work- 
ers to negotiate employer-financed 
health and welfare plans after the 
maximum allowable limit on wage in- 
creases has been reached has given 
added impetus to the growth of such 
plans. Undoubtedly they are destined 
to continue increasing for some time 
to come. 

Medicine is a highly specialized 
field and insurance is a complicated 
one. When you combine principles 
of both— which is exactly what a 
health and welfare fund does— you 
come up with something really com- 
plex and fraught with all sorts of pit- 
falls. Labor cannot be too careful in 
all it does in this connection. 



MOST CANADIANS EARN UNDER $40 

Of the more than three million wage or salary earning men in Canada at the 1951 census, 
43 per cent were making less than $40 a week, according to a Bureau of Statistics report. 

Most of the men in this wage bracket were engaged in agriculture, logging, fishing, hunt- 
ing and trapping. About 16 per cent of the total were making less than $2.0 a week, and in 
this group were included 62 per cent of men in agricultural occupations, 52 per cent of those 
in hunting, fishing and trapping and 40 per cent of those in logging. Most of the rest of 
the people in these three categories earned between 820 and $40 a week. 

Women in the wage and salary bracket of less than $40 a week accounted for 84 per 
cent of the total of 1,073,829. 





HIRING THE WOLF TO GUARD THE 
SHEEP 

Now that the personnel of the various 
Congressional committees has been set, we 
can hardly be blamed for wondering. Some 
of the committees that bear the responsibility 
for investigating corruption in government 
have men on them whose own records smell 
anything but sweet. Maybe it all goes to 
prove that there is something in the old 
adage about "it takes a crook to catch a 
crook." 

However, our own reaction is about the 
same as that of a church deacon in Hawaii. 
Easter morning one of the deacons of this 
prominent Hawaiian church was standing 
in front of the doors greeting the worship- 
pers as they came in. Finally a woman 
stepped up to him and said with some pride: 

"I never go to church except on Easter 
morning." 

"Step right in," replied the deacon, "the 
ushers will seat you." 

"By the way," continued the lady, "would 
it be safe to leave my umbrella in the 
foyer?" 

"Better take it with you," retorted the 
deacon. "Plenty of people like you here 
today." 




m 



"May I voice a complaint, Benson, 
without consulting your Union com- 
mittee? .— You're standing on my 
foot!" 



GUESS WHO LOSES? 

Along about the last two weeks in October 
of last year, the air waves were thick with 
promises of tax reductions if the people 
would only send the right men to Congress. 
On November 4th the people made their 
choice. In the weeks the new Congress has 
been in session there has been talk of higher 
pay for Congressmen, stepping up the de- 
fense effort, and many other things, but 
little mention of tax reductions. 

The one concrete proposal advanced thus 
far would eliminate excess profit taxes on 
corporations but leave personal income taxes 
as they are. 

As far as we are concerned, about all this 
proposal does is give us a chance to tell an 
old one about the boy on his way to Sun- 
day School. 

Before he left home the boy's mother 
gave him two nickels— one for the Sunday 
School collection and one for an ice cream 
cone. As the boy walked along the street 
he dropped the nickels accidently. One 
came to rest at his feet and the other rolled 
down a grating. 

The boy picked up the nickel lying on 
the sidewalk, looked down at the nickel in 
the grating, shook his head sadly as he said: 

"Well, it sure is too bad, but there goes 
the Lord's nickel." 

* .•• • 
THEY CATCH ON QUICK 

The older generation is always worrying 
about the younger generation going to the 
dogs. The oldsters who are worrying about 
the small fry today were the small fry of 
yesterday who worried their elders in the 
Twenties and Thirties. 

What brought all this to mind was a little 
piece in an Indianapolis paper that proves 
the bobby sox set knows what is going on 
in the world. Day in an day out, all of us 
have been reading about the "silence" tactics 
assorted Reds and Pinkos have been using 
before various courts and investigating 
bodies. All they ever say is "I refuse to 
answer on the grounds it might incriminate 
me." 

Well, anyway, last month a teacher in an 
Indianapolis school asked a youngster a 
question and his answer was: "I refuse to 
answer that question on the grounds it 
might flunk me." 



THE CARPENTER 



15 



ALWAYS THE SAME ANSWER 

One by one the European nations which 
were supposed to rearm themselves with 
American financial help are reneging on 
their commitments. One and all they offer 
" the same excuse— they cannot afford the cost 
unless Uncle Sam comes through with more 
financial help. Most of them are better off 
than they were at the beginning of World 
War II but every plea for cooperation or 
return assistance is always answered with a 
request for more American funds. It is 
getting to the point where it reminds us of 
the man who went to a doctor with a bad 
ankle. 

After giving the ailing leg an examination, 
the doctor asked: 

"How long have vou been going about 
like this?" 

"Two weeks," answered the patient. 

"Why. man, your ankle is broken. Why 
didn't you come to me sooner?" 

"Well, doctor," replied the man meekly, 
"every time I tell my wife there is anything 
wrong with me she declares I have to stop 
smoking." 

• • • 

PAUP'S WORM'S EYE VIEW 

Upon his return from Washington where 
he witnessed the inaugural parade from 
some of the very best gutters in town, Joe 
Paup, that gentleman philosopher of Skid 
Row fame, gave the palpitating world the 
following pearly gem: 

"The trouble with government is too 
much overhead and too much underhand." 

• • • 

A FORMULA THAT CAN'T MISS 

By the middle of last month, all the auto- 
mobile companies had brought out their 
1953 models. As usual, there was a lot of 
fancy advertising, hoopla, and fanfare con- 
nected with the unveiling of the models, 
In general, there was little change in the 
cars— a little more chromium here, a little 
more plush there, but nothing particularly 
designed to increase mileage, step up safety 
or add to endurance. The one thing in 
which there was no change was the price 
being asked. 

If 3'ou are like most of us; that is, driving 
a jallopy that is well past the first flush of 
its youth and generously endowed with as- 
sorted knocks, squeaks, groans and rattles, 
we have a sure-fire system for making the 
old bus sound much better. Merely ask 
the denier what he wants for a new 7 1953 
model. 



LEAVE WELL ENOUGH ALONE 

Since passage of the GI Bill for Korean 
Veterans, a group .known as the National 
Association of Approving Agencies has come 
into being. Their duty is to pass judgment 
on apprenticeship training. However, there 
are indications that some State approving 
agencies are more interested in breaking 
down the high caliber of apprenticeship 
standards that unions and employers jointly 
have established than they are in seeing the 
Korean Vet gets a decent break. 

As far as we are concerned, our feeling;-: 
in this matter are about the same as those 
of the telephone cablefhan in a favorite 
story of ours. 

It seems a young society matron was 
taking a First Aid course. Driving home 
from a lesson one night she was surprised 
to see a man lying flat on his face in the 
middle of the road. 

"This is a golden opportunity to put into 
effect what I learned tonight." she thought 
to herself. So she parked her car, ran over 
to the man, and began practicing her best 
life-saving techniques. But almost immedi- 
ately the "victim" came to life. 

"Look, lady," he said, "I'm holding a 
lantern for the guy working down in that 
manhole. What in Hell you're doing I don't 
exactly know. But I can tell you one thing: 
this is neither the time nor the place for it." 

And that is the way we feel about appren- 
ticeship training. This is neither the time 
nor the place to disturb the fine programs 
unions have alreadv worked out. 




"Yes, but how do you know the one 
in back is a non-Union man?" 



16 



DURKIN BECOMES SECRETARY OF LABOR 

• 

WHEN General Dwight D. Eisenhower was last month inaugurated 
as the Thirty-fourth President of the United States, a young soft- 
spoken man whose roots are deeply imbedded in the American labor 
movement stood quietly in the background. That man was Martin P. Durkin. 
president of the United Association of Plumbers and Steamfitters. A few weeks 
previously President Eisenhower startled old line politicians by naming Durkin 
as his choice for the important post of Secretary of Labor. When installed. 
Mr. Durkin will become the first labor leader to fill a cabinet position in 
more than 20 years. 



Although comparatively unknown 

outside of the labor movement, Mr. 
Durkin has long been recognized as 
a man of sound judgment, unquestion- 



atrics or bluster, the new Secretary of 
Labor filled a number of important 
posts with honor and distinction. 

The son of an old time trade union- 
ist, Martin Durkin was born in Ghi- 







Secretary of Labor Martin P. Durkin 



able integrity and intense loyalty 
among those who know him best; and 
that is as true among employers as it 
is among union members. Moving 
slowly but surely, not given to the- 



cago some 58 years ago. He attended 
parochial school there until the 
age of 17, whereupon he entered ap- 
prenticeship training in the plumbing 
trades. Working at his trade during. 



THE CARPENTER 



17 



the day, he studied courses in heating 
and ventilating in night school, which 
enabled him to become one of the 
best qualified mechanics in his pro- 
fession. As soon as he was eligible, 
he joined Local Union No. 597 of the 
Plumbers. 

With the entry of the United States 
into World War I, Mr. Durkin laid 
down his wrenches and dies to serve 
his country. Returning from the war, 
he picked up his tools and once more 
resumed his place as a first class 
journeyman in the plumbing industry. 
In addition to his work, Mr. Durkin 
had one other main interest— his union. 
More and more of his spare time he 
devoted to his union. 

By 1921 his ability and enthusiasm 
were recognized by his union broth- 
ers. In that year he was elected busi- 
ness agent of Local No. 597. In that 
capacity he made a name for himself 
as a capable and efficient official. By 
1927 his reputation for getting things 
done had spread beyond his own 
union. As a result, he was elected a 
vice president of the . Chicago Build- 
ing Trades Council. 

While newly-elected Governor 
Henry Horner of Illinois was casting 
about in 1933 for a man to name as 
Labor Commissioner of Illinois, his 
eye fell upon Martin Durkin and then 
and there his search ended. Through- 
out Governor Horner's term, Martin 
Durkin served as his Labor Commis- 
sioner. When the next election placed 
a Republican in the Executive Man- 



sion, he was so impressed with Dur- 
kin's work that he kept him on for an- 
other four years although Durkin was 
an avowed Democrat. 

During his eight years as head of 
the Illinois Labor Department, Mar- 
tin Durkin made many changes for 
the better. He sparkplugged the es- 
tablishment of an unemployment com- 
pensation system and he was largely 
instrumental in the inauguration of 
job placement service in Illinois. He 
fought long and hard for the establish- 
ment of a State conciliation and medi- 
ation branch. The eight-hour law on 
die Illinois statute books is due large- 
ly to the efforts of Martin Durkin. 

After his two terms as Illinois Labor 
Commissioner. Mr. Durkin went back 
to serving his union. He became Sec- 
retary-Treasurer of the Plumbers and 
Steamfitters. Upon the death of Presi- 
dent George Masterson, Durkin was 
selected to head the organization. 
Since 1943 he has also^ been a vice- 
president of the American Federation 
of Labor. 

In addition to his many duties in 
the labor movement, Mr. Durkin has 
found time to serve as vice president 
of the Catholic Conference on Indus- 
trial problems and a director of the 
Union Labor Life Insurance Com- 
pany. 

With him in his new capacity, Mr. 
Durkin takes the best wishes of mil- 
lions of union members throughout 
the world. 



FOREST OWNERSHIP 

Forests in private ownership constitute 75% of the nation's commercial 
forest area. They include most of the best growing sites and accessible loca- 
tions, and furnish 85% to 90% of the cut. Three quarters of this private 
forest area is owned by more than three million farmers and one million non- 
farmers, many of the latter being absentee. 

As of 1945, lumber manufacturers owned 11% of the private commercial 
forests, and pulp manufacturers 4%. Recent acquisitions by these interests, 
especially non-industrial holders, has greatly increased these percentages. 



18 



THE COMPLETE CARPENTER 

From an address by Ivor T. Jones, Executive Secretary, Oregon State Council of Car- 
penters, delivered before the 1951 convention of the Northwestern Council of Lumber and 
Sawmill Workers. 



THE QUESTION of who is and who is not a carpenter has been the 
subject of many discussions, and some of these of course have been 
quite heated especially on the part of some of the old line mechanics 
who are naturally just a little bit jealous of the term. 

I, personally, like to think of the Brotherhood in terms of the complete 
carpenter. In other words, that the members of the Brotherhood working 
at the many and varied skills of the trade make up the parts of the complete 
carpenter. Each is dependent upon the other and none is sufficient unto 
himself. 



It is interesting to note, if we go 
back far enough, that the original 
complete carpenter went into the 
woods and logged his timbers, which 
he hewed, squared or otherwise 
framed with ax, broadax, saw, chisel 
or adze for the construction of the 
building. 

When necessary, he sets posts or 
piling into the ground to support the 
foundation of the building. 

With froe and mallet, he split the 
shakes to cover the roof. From other 
logs he split out and fashioned with 
drawknife and plane the materials for 
doors, windows, trim, cabinets and 
furniture. Using the tools from his 
kit, he developed these materials in- 
to the finished product. 

And if machinery was involved, he 
built and set the waterwheel; made 
the wooden pulleys, wooden shafts 
and wooden boxes; then set and 
aligned everything and made it ready 
for operation. 

He was the complete carpenter, do- 
ing all of the things that form the 
fundamental parts of our jurisdiction. 
Within this crude picture of the com- 
plete carpenter, we readily identify 



the logger, the sawmill worker, the 
pilebuck, the shingleweaver, the mill- 
man and cabinet maker, the furniture 
worker, the construction carpenter 
and the millwright. 

The process of evolution and the 
demands of expediency have brought 
about the division of the original 
complete carpenter into the many 
parts as we are familiar with them 
today, but we must remain fully con- 
scious of the fact that each of these 
parts is still an indispensable segment 
of the original complete carpenter, 
with none holding exclusive right to 
the title of the "one-and-only-carpen- 
ter". It takes all of the individual 
parts to make up the whole. 

Because in this modern day we 
carry on the work of our jurisdiction 
on a mass production scale, so to 
speak, we have organized ourselves 
largely on the basis of the skills with- 
in our jurisdiction. Thus we have pro- 
duction locals, construction locals, 
piledriver locals and shingleweaver 
locals, and so on. This basis of or- 
ganization has been and still is nec- 
essary in the process of finding our- 



THE CARPENTER 19 

selves within the Brotherhood. How- the Brotherhood for the mutual bene- 

ever, this segregation at the local level fit. 

has its evils as well as its benefits. This fuller utilization of the strength 
It naturally tends to develop group of the Brotherhood can be accom- 
consciousness as opposed to thinking plished through properly directed co- 
in terms of the Brotherhood as a operation and coordination of the va- 
whole. Each group is inclined toward rious functions of our subordinate 
independent action without benefit of bodies throughout a given area. The 
counsel with the other groups. Some possibilities for the good of our mem- 
will say, well why not, we have the bership under such a set-up would 
autonomy to take independent ac- be almost boundless, 
tion. That is true. We do have auton- It is my opinion that our continued 
omy, but in my opinion this auton- growth and advancement make it ever 
omy is sometimes abused and has in increasingly important that we work 
many cases worked to the detriment more closely together, solidifying our 
of our membership as a whole. It re- gains by unification of action, and 
quires only elementary observation to maintaining our position as leaders in 
reveal the fact that virtually every the field of industry by adapting pur- 
group interest is also common interest, selves to changing conditions, over 
This gives rise to the promise of the which we have only such control as 
need for further organization— unit or- we may maintain by holding firm to 
ganization on an area basis to more our position as leaders through con- 
fully harness the potential strength of certed effort. 



Skyscraper Logger 



Whenever the average person thinks of loggers he visualizes rugged 
mountains, tall trees, and strong-muscled men. Mostly that conception is 
correct; yet right in the heart of New York City there is a sizeable logging 
operation going on at the present time. Furthermore, it has a fine little saw- 
mill in conjunction with it. It all came about this way: 

During the war a bright young man named Richard Power was employed 
by the War Production Board on a job that took him to all. parts of the New 
York waterfront. Power noticed that docks were being dismantled all the 
time. The old piling was cut off and burned or hauled away to some remote 
spot and dumped. Upon investigation, he found out that only the part of the 
piling sticking above the water at low tide was subject to rot; all the rest 
was sound wood. This gave him an idea. 

He bought a crane and a small sawmill. With the crane, which he mounted 
on a barge, he pulls the piling out of the river bottom. After pulling it to his 
mill, which is located in the shadow of the Statue of Liberty, he cuts away 
the rotten top and turns the remainder into lumber. Since the piling is any- 
where from 65 to 85 feet long, he salvages a lot of good wood out of the New 
York waterfront. And he makes a nice living in the process. 

Dock owners are glad to have him get rid of their old piling as it saves 
them the expense of doing the job themselves. Through the efforts of Power, 
a lot of wood that formerly was burned or left to rot is being put to many 
useful purposes. 



20 



5W 



The New White House 

• • 

ON JANUARY 20, 1953, two men met, one leaving, the other arriv- 
ing to take up residence in one of the most finely constructed modern 
buildings on earth. The amazing job of reconstruction of the Presiden- 
tial Palace, the third such work in the history of the building, has made it not 
only a Mecca for tourists, but an attraction for contractors and builders, desir- 
ing to view its many new architectural innovations. 

The curious construction men 
would do well to investigate the 
story of the renovation, besides in- 
specting the completed job. It be 
gan in January, 1948, when President 
Truman became concerned because of 
noticeable vibrations in the second 
floor. In February he invited a com- 
mittee of nationally renowned archi- 
tects and engineers to conduct an in- 
vestigation concern- 
ing the structural 
condition of the Ex- 
ecutive Mansion. A 
few weeks before a 
cursory examination 
by the Commission- 
er of Public Build- 
ings had disclosed 
dangerously weak- 
end timbers support- 
ing the second floor. 
The committee's 
report resulted in 
the President's re- 
quest of a Congres- 
sional appropriation of $50,000 for a 
thorough survey to determine the ex- 
tent of the weakness, and the expense 
of its correction. Soon the committee 
discovered that the building was actu- 
ally in dangerous condition not only 
from collapse but as an exceptional 
fire hazard. 

Walls and piers were found to lack 
reasonable footing, and a fire-proof 




Magnolias in bloom, framing the front 
view of the White House from the North. 



third floor roof, which had been in- 
stalled in 1927, added a great weight 
and created the possibility of walls 
and ceilings collapsing. 

When President Truman went to 
Missouri in November, to vote in the 
1948 election, he decided not to return 
to the White House until it had been 
repaired. The building was closed im- 
mediately and the removal of all fur- 
nishings began. 

April, 1949, mark- 
ed the enactment of 
Public Law 40, es- 
tablishing a seven 
man, Commission of 
Renovation of the 
Executive Mansion. 
In June, 1949, $5,- 
400,000 was appro- 
priated through 
Public Law 119, for 
the reconstruction 
and modernization. 
. The special prob- 
lem of retaining the 
historic features and the exact dimen- 
sions created an unusual need of fine 
craftsmanship. It was decided to leave 
the outer walls standing and com- 
pletely reconstruct the interior of the 
building. 

Demolition and dismantling were 
handled with precise care, trying to 
retain the many fine appointments in 
their original form. Ornamental plas- 



THE CARPENTER 



21 



ter-work and woodwork were pre- 
served by careful handling and artful 
re-creation. Designs by James Hoban, 
who drew the original plans in 1792, 
were faithfully restored. 

Steel replaced wood in the new 
framing of the structure. Old wooden 




>■ \ 



The graceful new stair located at the center 
bay east of the Entrance Hail. 

beams, despite then* great age, were 
found to be sound and unmarred by 
rot or decay. Had they not been cut 
away by succeeding generations of 
architects, who over the years intro- 
duced such conveniences a£ running 
water, gas, and electricity into the 
White House, in all probability they 
would still be doing their job satis- 
factorily. Although all possibilities of 
future remodeling could not have 
been allowed for, the steel beams 
should endure many years. 

In replacing the wood is was neces- 
sary to provide a temporary steel 
framework to support the walls. This 
bracing was removed and replaced by 
heavier girders. The .most amazing 
thing about the old framing was that 



the large wooden beams were able to 
support the excess burden. The wood 
constructed second story dated back 
to reconstruction after the fire in 1814. 
New heating and air conditioning 
systems were installed to guarantee 
comfort regardless of outside temper- 
ature. Generous spacing between the 
old walls allowed sufficient room for 
such modern conveniences without 
changing room dimensions. Radio and 
television outlets have been conveni- 
ently placed throughout, although at 
present only two fixed television sets 
have been installed. Each room is 
equipped with telephone-type dials 
and volume regulators, now used for 
radio, but adaptable to television. 

Two noticeable changes have been 
made in the interior. Making the sec- 
ond floor all one level was impossible 
without shortening the impressive 
high ceilings of the East Room. A 
short raised portion of the second 
floor, (over the East Room) caused a 
need for an iindesired stair. By lessen- 
ing construction space between floors 
it was found the stair could be re- 
placed by a short ramp. 

At the Entrance Hall a magnificent 
formal marble stair, located centrally, 
replaces an old stair which was in the 
dark east end of the hall. At the bot- 
tom of this stair are the seals of the 
thirteen original States. 

."'..-. AIL phases % of the renovation were 
\vell ahead ■ of schedule prior to the 
outbreak of the Korean War. At that 
time unusual increases in the costs of 
construction made subcontractors 
wary of making commitments for 
work on fixed prices. The Contract 
originally called for completion of the 
work by September 26, 1951, with 
possible minor extensions to the mid- 
dle of November. Impaired labor con- 
ditions and difficulties with material 
procurement, due to the national 
emergency, delayed the completion of 



22 



THE CARPENTER 



restoration until March 27, 1952, four 
months behind schedule. 

Many materials which were not re- 
quired for re-use in the building, or 
were of historical value, were distri- 
buted to the general public at the esti- 
mated cost of such distribution. An 
excess of expenses of $10,000 was de- 
rived from the distribution; a sum 
which was deposited in the Treasury. 

Articles of historical value were al- 
located to museums for public display. 
Usuable material of value which was 
not returned to the White House, was 
transferred to various governmental 
agencies where needed. 

In the "Report of the Commission 
on the Renovation of the Executive 
Mansion," compiled by Edwin B. 
Morris, the work of renovation is 
summed up as 'follows: 

"It is believed, after completion 
of all phases of the work at the 
White House, the scheme decided 
upon to correct structural difficul- 
ties and to install services has 
been such as to justify the effort 
and study from which it resulted. 



The New York Herald Tribune, 
commenting editorially, said, 'The 
Commission members have done 
well. Heaven alone could have 
offered them safe refuge had they 
done otherwise.' " 
The White House means much to 
the American people. It is as dear a 
symbol of all the nation's character- 
istics and ideals as the Flag, or the 
Liberty Bell. Although its massive 
size and rambling style have attracted 
some criticism, the stately columns, 
gleaming white exterior and majestic 
setting have endeared it to all. As 
individuals we may dislike its occu- 
pants, but seldom does a person view 
it for the first time without feeling awe 
and reverence. 

Many times in recent years harsh 
words have been spoken about the 
President, his administrators and Con- 
gress, but the $5,761,000 spent on the 
restoration of the White House has 
been generally conceded as money 
well spent. The dangers of its decay 
have been removed, and a national 
shrine has been preserved for future 
generations. 



Good Bye To a Good Neighbor 



For somewhere in the neighborhood of 44 years the International Office of 
the Teamsters Union has been located in the Carpenters Building at 222 E. 
Michigan St., Indianapolis, Indiana. As of February 1, 1953, however, the 
Teamsters Union will have a new address. Several years ago the Teamsters 
decided to move their headquarters to Washington, D. C. On the first of this 
month they finally completed the move. 

Shortly after our Brotherhood moved into its newly-completed building 
in 1909, the Teamsters joined us. They rented the third floor of our General 
Office Building and they have been there ever since. In all those years they 
have been good neighbors and wonderful tenants. Now that circumstances 
have decreed a parting of the ways, the best wishes of the officers and mem- 
bers of the United Brotherhood go with them to Washington. 

Temporarily the Teamsters are taking space in a new office building 
erected by the Letter Carriers in Washington. Eventually they plan to move 
into a fine new building of their own which is now in the blueprint stage. 



23 



Have A Heart 

• • 



A FEW weeks ago a play was shown on television concerning a man 
who had been told that he had an incurable heart disease, and his 
death might occur at any moment. Upon receiving the fateful message, 
the man walked out of the doctor's office, absent mindedly talking to himself, 
feeling that fate had dealt him a raw deal. He would be forced to give up 
his job, stay at home and wait for a painful, slow death. 

The remainder of the play is unim- 
portant to this article, but the idea 
concerns you. What would happen 

to you if your doctor suddenly told | JjMfRfCflS HiQUT fiSSOCfU.TIuN 

you that your heart was worn out 
and that death was iminent? 

Is your wife young enough to sup- 
port herself and the children? Would 
she lose the house and be forced to 
live on charity? Such things are un- 
pleasant to think about, so we shrug 
them off and say, "Oh well, there's 
nothing wrong with my heart." 

If there is not, well and good; but 
if there is, medical science can do a 
lot to help keep you alive, leading a 
useful and productive life for a long 
time. Great strides have been made in 
cutting down the toll of heart disease. 
However, a good deal remains to be 
done before diseases of the heart are 
knocked out of first place among kill- 
ers. In the fight against heart disease, 
the American Heart Association, a vol 1 
untary group dedicated to cutting 
down the ravages of heart diseases, is 
doing good work. 

The American Heart Association is 
conducting its annual campaign in 
February. American labor has 
pledged its support to the group be- 
cause it feels that a worthwhile ser- 
vice is being performed. Maurice J. 
Tobin, former Secretary of Labor, is 
chairman of its National Labor Com- 




Intense interest is shown in the cardio- 
graph reading being viewed by General 
President Maurice A. Hutcheson, who is 
serving on the National Labor Committee 
of the American Heart Association. The 
electrocardiograph is one of the many 
educational features of the Associations 
exhibit which was on display at the 71st 
American Federation of Labor Convention 
in New York City. Mr. Hutcheson has 
always shown keen interest in the Heart 
Association's expanded program of heart 
research, public education and community 
service. 

mittee, of which William L. Hutche- 
son is also a member. The committee 
consists of 141 American labor leaders. 

(Continued on page 28) 



Editorial 




Good Luck, Mr. President 

Standing on a simple wooden platform erected by union carpenters, a tall, 
sinewy man on the 20th of last month raised his hand as a retired General of 
the United States Army and lowered it as President of die United States. Fifty 
million pairs of eyes watched as Dwight D. Eisenhower repeated, after Chief 
Justice Vinson, the oath of office that elevated him to chief executive of this 
mighty nation. 

What kind of a President will Mr. Eisenhower make? Only time will tell. 
Certainly no President in recent history moved into office with a more solid 
popularity or a better record of achievement behind him. Not since Lincoln 
was aii occupant of the White House has a president possessed a more en- 
gaging personality or a warmer disposition. Few incoming presidents have 
proved themselves capable administrators as thoroughly as did General 
Eisenhower in his direction of allied armies in Europe during World War II. 

At this stage of the game then, President Eisenhower has everything in 
his favor. What he makes of his opportunities depends entirely on him from 
now on. 

That he takes office at one of the most critical periods in world history is 
known to every school boy. However, the hour of crisis is what makes or 
breaks leaders, what separates the men from the boys. Without the perilous 
situations they actually faced, the resoluteness and courage of Washington 
or Lincoln might never have had an opportunity to assert themselves. In calm 
and untroubled times both well might have been undistinguished presidents, 
for it is challenge and ordeal that brings to the surface the qualities that make 
for great leadership. 

In every dark hour in American history the right man has miraculously 
appeared. Let us sincerely hope that President Eisenhower adds to diis tra- 
dition by welding us into a single mighty force capable of maintaining peace 
abroad and tranquility and prosperity at home. 

In his inaugural address, President Eisenhower, gave every indication of 
recognizing the enormity of the task which confronts him. Further, be voiced 
a determination to deal realistically with things as they are. If he can trans- 
late into action the high purpose which he has consistently put into his words, 
the nation may fare well under his leadership. 

If we had any advice to give him, it would be that contained in the last 
paragraph of his prayer on inauguration day, in which he said: 

"Especially we pray that our concern shall be for all the people, regard- 
less of station, race or calling. May cooperation be permitted and be the 
mutual aim of those who, under the concept of our Constitution, hold to 
differing political beliefs, so that all may work for the good of our beloved 
country and for Thy glory." 



THE CARPENTER 25 

The paramount need of the clay is for a President and a government 
which represent all the people. Good luck, Mr. President, and may you never 
deviate far from this noble aspiration. 



Wetbacks Are The Concern Of All Of Us 

According to the New York Times, one of the few really reliable and un- 
biased newspapers left in the United States, somewhere in the neighborhood 
of 1,500,000 "wetbacks" entered the United States during 1952, a new all-time 
high. Wetbacks are illegal immigrants who cross the border surreptitiously 
from Mexico to find employment in the United States. They are called wet- 
backs because most of them wade or swim across the Rio Grande to evade 
immigration authorities. Although they are law breakers, the flood has been 
so great that Federal officials have despaired of capturing or prosecuting any 
but a small handful of repeated offenders. 

Once in this country, the wetbacks are a many-sided menace. They are a 
menace to American living standards, for they have to take jobs at any wages 
the employer cares to pay. Mostly they have been employed on the big factory 
farms of the Southwest. Lately, however, they have been migrating far afield 
and invading many industries other than agriculture. 

They are a menace to health because they undergo no examinations when 
they cross the border. How many of them are carriers of dangerous diseases 
no one can even guess. 

They are a menace to national security because they are given no screen- 
ing upon entry— which means communists, saboteurs and spies of all kinds 
may be included among them. 

Organized labor has long demanded that something be done to halt the 
tidal wave of wetbacks, especially in view of the fact that American farm 
workers are being forced out of jobs by the foreigners who have to work for 
any wage. The only reason something has not been done about the situation 
long before now is that the huge corporation farms make money off the wet- 
backs. Once a wetback reaches this country, he has to stay hidden or get sent 
back. The factory farm managers know this and they often take full advan- 
tage of the situation. If a wetback complains of anything, they threaten to 
report him. Rather than go back to the misery he left, the wetback accepts 
any wages or working conditions the employer imposes on him. The irony 
of the whole situation is that there is virtually enough native American labor 
to handle all the farm work. However, American farm workers expect a half 
way decent standard of labor. 

The New York Times put its finger on the situation when it said: 

"The underlying cause of the traffic is the desire of many people in the 
United States for cheap labor, regardless of how degraded the conditions." 

Every effort to cure the situation by legislation has been blocked by the 
Landlord Farmers Lobby and its big business allies. Time after time they 
have smothered moves to wipe out the shameful situation. Several times 
President Truman proposed remedies that were killed in Congress. 



26 THE CARPENTER 

Several proposals for halting the illegal traffic in Twentieth Century slavery 
have been offered. Probably the remedy suggested by the New York Times 
is the most plausible. Said that worthy journal: 

"The way to reduce the traffic to a minimum would be to make it impos- 
sible for wetbacks to find employment, by imposing a stiff fine on people who 
hire them."' 

The wetback problem is one of the tough nuts the Eisenhower admini- 
stration inherited. Tt will take all its prestige and statesmanship to do the job, 
for the factory farm interests are anything but worried. In fact they are so 
confident of their position that they are even suggesting that Japanese, Fili- 
pinos and Peruvians be imported to work in agriculture. 

Certainly nothing will be done about the wetback situation until enough 
people are aroused to the danger involved. Wetbacks jeopardize American 
living standards by drastically undercutting wages and working conditions. 
They menace national health by making it possible for carriers of epidemic 
diseases to float around the country unchecked. They menace national security 
by being free from any effective screening. 

What we all have to understand is that it is not simply the American farm 
workers of the Southwest who are affected. The wrecking of wage rates or 
working conditions in one industry or one part of the country affects every 
industry and every other part of the country. Disease knows no borders; 
neither does sabotage. We all have a big stake in seeing that the wetback 
situation is cured. What are we going to do about it? 



A Situation That Needs Clarifying 

Readers of this journal are more or less familiar with the circumstances 
surrounding the efforts of the Justice Department to bring to task some half 
dozen American oil companies, which allegedly have been operating in con- 
junction with oil companies of other nations, on a world-wide cartel basis. 
In previous issues of this journal the efforts of Senator Hennings to get re- 
leased a report on the breadth and scope of these operations have been given 
some attention. The report was finally releasd, but not before some portions 
of it were modified. 

Anyway, a few months ago, the Justice Department brought grand jury 
action against the oil companies for violating the Sherman Anti-trust Act. 
The Justice Department issued subpoenas calling for submission of an enor- 
mous volume of books and records concerning foreign operations of the 
American companies. This immediately brought a storm. of protest from the 
attorneys representing the companies involved. They protested on two 
grounds: first, that the government attorneys were merely "fishing," that is 
asking for voluminous records in the hope that by searching through them 
they could find something damaging; and, second, that the companies' books 
could not be made public without endangering the security of the United 
States. 

This second objection apparently made some impression on the high brass 
in Washington. The National Security Council urged that the criminal phase 



THE CARPENTER 27 

of the proceedings be dropped— the phase that would require the making 
public of many company records. Last month President Truman wrote the 
Attorney General that he was "of the opinion that the interests of National 
Security might best be served at this time by resolving the important question 
of law and policy involved in that investigation in the context of civil litiga- 
tion rather than in the context of a criminal proceeding." 

Naturally the legal complications in a case as involved as this one is are 
numerous and complex. Dozens of million dollar attorneys can spend days 
arguing about a comma or a semicolon, and this rarified legal atmosphere is 
no place for a mere labor editor to stick his nose. However, there are impli- 
cations in this case that transcend the legal technicalities; the welfare and 
safety of all Americans are concerned. 

When the National Security Council recommends that the interests of 
national security can best be served by dropping any action against the oil 
companies that might bring to light the complicated and devious dealings of 
the oil companies in foreign lands, a fine state of affairs must exist. Par- 
ticularly is this so when the President agrees. 

The question becomes, just what in Hell kind of shennanigans have the 
oil companies been indulging in? What kind of deals and secret contracts 
and under-the-table commitments have they entered into with other nations 
that the honor and integrity of the United States can be jeopardized if these 
are brought to light? 

In our naive way we thought that the State Department bears all responsi- 
bility for handling foreign relations. However, oil companies seem to be a 
law unto themselves. Apparently they conduct their own foreign negotia- 
tions and run their own show. They run it, that is, until they get their necks 
in a wringer. As soon as they do, they wrap the American Flag around them- 
selves and yell "They can't do that to us; we're Americans. America will pro- 
tect us." More than one war in the past has been influenced by American 
corporations holding important interests abroad. 

Exactly what all is involved in the present oil cartel case we are in no 
position to know. But we do know this; the time has come to put the quietus 
on American corporations being allowed to operate their own international 
relations until such time as they come a cropper, whereupon protection of 
their property and concessions becomes a responsibility of Uncle Sam. 

This is an extremely complicated field but one that needs immediate ex- 
ploring. It is a fine thing for American companies to do business abroad. 
However, in the process, the following conditions should be imposed: 

1. Companies doing business abroad should be under the direction of 
Uncle Sam or else should be strictly on their own when they are in trouble 
as well as when they are rolling up profits. 

2. Nothing they do should reflect in any way on Uncle Sam or be capable 
of causing him any embarrassment. 

3. Under no circumstances should any obligation devolve on Uncle Sam 
Lo use either force or threats of force to bail out corporations entering foreign 
countries. 



THE CARPENTER 



(Continued from page 23) 

Heart Association work is of three 
types; research, education and com- 
munity service. The causes of the 
three Outstanding heart diseases are 
the principal problems of the research 
program. Rheumatic fever, arterioscle- 
rosis and hypertension are receiving 
the principal attention. 

Knowledge of the causes and cures 
of heart disease is conveyed by pam- 
phlets, speakers, movies, radio, TV, 
newspapers and magazines. The aim 
of the Association is to make everyone 
heart conscious. 

Communities are enlightened by 
visits from "heart kitchens," and simi- 
lar exhibits, showing them the dangers 
they face and how they can be 
avoided, and also see tangible evi- 
dence of the use of their contributions. 

Annually 763,000 American men, 
women and children succumb to heart 
disease, while another 10,000.000 are 
crippled, many for life. The impor- 
tance of the program is not to be 
underemphasized. 

The American Heart Association 
was originally organized as a scientific 
body of physicians, in 1922. In 1948 
it became a voluntary health associa- 
tion and the next year began a fund- 
raising campaign. In July, 1948 there 
was a national office and 18 affiliated 
associations. Today there are 57 affili- 



ates and 325 chapters in 46 States 
Washington, D. C, Puerto Rico and 
Hawaii. 

Clinics have been established in 
some areas which provide physical 
examinations, vocational planning and 
job placement for those with heart 
disease. They have aided the person 
with heart disease to locate his proper 
place in life, not doomed to end his 
days in a bed or wheelchair, but able 
to pursue a healthful, useful life, 
despite his affliction. 

Most people who have heart disease 
can be quite active. Of course they 
must lighten the load on their heart, 
but the necessity for slowing down is 
something that we all must face as the 
years add up. 

The Heart Association is able to in- 
form as to the symptoms, causes and 
cures or aids to heart difficulties, but 
they need help in the form of ad- 
ditional volunteer workers and most 
important, funds to earn* on their 
work. 

February is the month in which the 
Heart Association conducts its annual 
campaign for funds. Investigate your 
local group and if you feel that their 
contribution to your community is a 
helpful one. further their cause with 
a little donation of time or money. 
You might be giving to yourself.' 



WIDOW IS 5-MILLIONTH S. S. BENEFICIARY 

On December 4th, 1952, a 23-year-old California widow became the 5-millionth social 
security beneficiary on the nation's old-age and survivors insurance rolls. She is the 
225,000th mother with children who is now getting monthly survivors benefit payments; her 
two small children have joined 865,000 other youngsters on the social security benefit rolb. 

This milestone in the growth of the old-age and survivors insurance program was marked 
by a special ceremony in San Francisco. Mrs. Dolores Plaa, of nearby San Rafael, was pre- 
sented an official certificate to commemorate the occasion by Federal Security Agency offi- 
cials in San Francisco, as her children, Larry James, 4, and Michele Marie, 1, looked on. 
The occasion pointed up the expansion of the system since the close of 1940, the first year of 
monthly benefit payment. At that time, only a little over 200,000 persons were on the rolls. 

A first check will be mailed to Mrs. Plaa at once for $423.90, representing a lump-sum 
death payment of $255 and the first of the $168.90 monthly payments which Mrs. Plaa and 
her children will receive for many years under provisions of the social security program, 
administered by the Federal Security Agency. 

Sixteen years after the program went into effect in January 1937, the five million persons 
on the rolls are receiving more than $200 million a month in insurance payments. 



THE LOCKER 

By JOHN HART, LOCAL UNION 366, Naw York, N. Y. 

JOURNEYMAN CARPENTER-SELECT 
30-Minute Test 

This is the third of a series of rapid-fire tests submitted for the benefit of those hustling 
carpenters who like to keep their mental faculties in trim on all matters relating to the 

trade. Wits, like good tools, can get rusty from non-use. Each correct answer is now re- 
quired to be an eight-letter word as shown in Question 1. Twice the correct answers is the 
percentage. A score of 76% rings the bell— loud. Tip on a time limit test: Go down the 

fist, answering all questions of which you are dead sure. Go back and pick up those of 

which you are not so sure. In whatever time is left take a hit-or-miss stab at all the stickers. 
Answers are on page 30. 

1. The kind of handsaw most commonly used by carpenters C R O S S C U T 

2. The correct name for a small supporting pillar of a handrail . . 

3. The lumberman's technical name for lumber that is dressed 

4. Trade name for all wood produced by coniferous trees 

5. A strip of metal or other material used to prevent leakage 

6. The penny-size name for a nail, three inches long 

7. A molding running around the outer edge of a door casing 

8. The hardwood most generally used for the best brace heads 

9. Running a flat file along the points of a handsaw is called 

10. The wood most commonly used for the best bench plane handles 

11. A type of bolt with a square neck to prevent turning 

12. That part of a tenoned rail which butts against the stile edge 

13. A window sash which swings vertically on hinged stiles 

14. A wood lining, about waist high, for interior walls 

15. The rough wood floor to which the finished floor is secured 

16. The opposite term to blindnail 

17. The polygon with the least number of sides 

18. The case containing the keyhole in a Yale type lock 

19. Blocking or bracing used to stiffen floors . 

20. A thin board used as a pattern. (Preferred spelling) 

21. A two-legged marking tool with a quadrant wing and tiiumb screw 

22. The foreign-grown hardwood most commonly used in the U.S. . 

23. Trade name for all wood produced by broad-leaved trees - . 

24. A type of commonly used wood screw with a cross-slotted head . . 

25. The member of a stairs supporting the ends of the steps 

26. The projection of a rafter or beam beyond its support 

27. Carpentry work in general, erected for concrete construction . . . ... . . 

28. The small screw that secures tiie door knob to the spindle ........ 

29. A fan-shaped type of joint much used in drawer construction 

30. A plane with its cutter set close to the front edge of die stock ......... 

31. A semi-circular or elliptical transom light 

32. An American-grown hardwood, like oak, much used for fence posts 

33. A temporary partition in a concrete form 

34. A criss-cross arrangement of heavy, temporary supporting timbers 



30 



THE CARPENTER 



35. 
36. 

37. 
38. 
39. 
40. 
41. 
-12. 
43. 
44. 
45. 
46. 
47. 
48. 
49. 
50. 



General name for the vertical members of house framework 
A compass-like gauge for measuring diameters 
A tenon with a shoulder on one face only 

A gauge stick temporarily used to maintain the width of forms 
A story-by-story system of frame house construction 
A small inserted patch repairing a damaged piece of wood 
A semi-liquid cement used under a sill on masonry foundation 
The kind of mahogany mostly used today for superior work 
The side of a concrete beam form, vertical to the soffit 
Trade name for asbestos sheets much used for office partitions 
A figure having five sides and five angles 
A square flat pillar framing a doorway, often fluted or reeded 
The soffit of a roof cornice 

The curve on a handrail easing it nicely into the newel 
A brown, oily, pungent liquid commonly used as a wood preservative 
Trade name of hard, brown wallboard made wholly of wood fibre 
Total correct . . . . x 2 = . % 



1. 


Crosscut 


11. 


Carriage 


21. 


2. 


Baluster 


12. 


Shoulder 


22. 


3. 


Surfaced 


13. 


Casement 


23. 


4. 


Softwood 


14. 


Wainscot 


24. 


5. 


Flashing 


15. 


Subfloor 


25. 


6. 


Tenpenny 


16. 


Facenail 


26. 


~* 


Backhand 


17. 


Triangle 


27. 


8. 


Oocobolo 


18. 


Cvlinder 


28. 


9. 


Jointing 


19. 


Bridging 


29. 


0. 


Rosewood 


20. 


Template 


30. 



31. 


Fanlight 


41. 


Grouting 


32. 


Chestnut 


42. 


Honduras 


33. 


Bulkhead 


43. 


Beamside 


34. 


Cribbing 


44. 


Transite 


35. 


Studding 


45. 


Pentagon 


36. 


Calipers 


46. 


Pilaster 


37. 


Bareface 


47. 


Plancier 


38. 


Spreader 


48. 


Easement 


39. 


Platform 


49. 


Creosote 


40. 


Dutchman 


50. 


Masonite 



ANSWERS TO "THE LOCKER* 

21. Dividers 
Mahogany 
Hardwood 
Phillips 
Stringer 
Overhang 
Formwork 
Setscrew 

29. Dovetail 

30. Bullnose 

Note: Eight-letter answers were called for. Any other kind is wrong. In order not to be 
brought up on charges for violation of Section 55 we'll comment on some of the answers 
which might be considered controversial. 

2. Baluster. Banister, though commonly used, is an incorrect corruption of baluster. 

3. Surfaced. S2S2E means, in a lumber yard, surfaced 2 sides, 2 edges, dressed all around. 

20. Template. Very often spelled templet, which won't do here. 

21. Dividers. Wrongly called a compass, which is simply a pair of pivoted legs. 

25. Stringer. Also called string— stringboard— stringpiece and Lord knows what else. 
None of these words fit in here. 

26. Overhang. May be called a tail, but not here. 

31. Fanlight. Some call every transom a fanlight. Correctly, a fanlight is shaped like a 

fan, which accounts for the name. 
34. Cribbing. Cribwork is also right. 
36. Calipers. Calipers, not caliper, is considered correct. However, a thickness measuring 

rule is properly called a caliper rule. 
39. Platform. Also called Western— some other place. 

41. Grouting. Also called grout, which wouldn't do here. 

42. Honduras. Sometimes called Mexican— baywood. Honduras is preferred. 

47. Plancier. Planceer and plancher, are near enough to be called correct. If you want to 
be precise call it plancier from now on. 

Easement. Easing is another name, and we have also heard ease-off. All refer to the 
sweep given to the handrail so that it butts square against the newel. 
Masonite. Presdwood is a trade name for a wallboard product of the Masonite Corp- 
oration. Most carpenters refer to it as Masonite, which is the eight-letter answer wanted. 



48 



SO 



Official Information 




General Officers of 
THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and TOINERS 

of AMERICA 

General Office : Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General President 
M. A. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



First General Vice-President 

JOHN R. STEVENSON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Secretary 

ALBERT E. FISCHER 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Second General Vice-President 
O. WM. BLAIER 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Treasurer 
S. P. MEADOWS 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Executive Board 



First District, CHARLES JOHNSON, Jr. 
Ill E. 22nd St., New York 10, N. Y. 



Fifth District, R. E. ROBERTS 
4324 N. 48th St., Omaha, Nebr. 



Second District, RALEIGH RAJOPPI 
2 Prospect Place, Springfield, New Jersey 



Sixth District. A. W. MUIR 
Box 1168, Santa Barbara. Calif. 



Third District, HARRY SCHWARZER 
1248 Walnut Ave., Cleveland, O. 



Seventh District, ANDREW V. COOPER 
133 Chaplin Crescent, Toronto 12, Ont.. Canada 



Fourth District, ROLAND ADAMS 
712 West Palmetto St., Florence, S. C. 



M. A. HUTCHESON. Chairman 
ALBERT E. FISCHER, Secretary 



All correspondence for the General Executive Board must be sent to the General Secretary 

McGUIRE MEMORIAL PICTURE 

So many requests have been received for pictures of the Peter J. Mc- 
Guire Memorial that the General Executive Board has authorized the printing 
of a beautiful four-color reproduction of the Memorial, 22^ inches by 19 
inches, suitable for framing. These are available to Local Unions and District. 
State and Provincial Councils. Secretaries may secure a copy by sending a 
request to: 

Albert E. Fischer, General Secretary 

222 E. Michigan Street 

Indianapolis, Indiana 



IMPORTANT NOTICE 

In the issuance of clearance cards, care should be taken to see that they are properly 
filled out, dated and signed by the President and Financial Secretary of the Local Union 
issuing same as well as the Local Union accepting the clearance. The clearance cards must 
be sent to the General Secretary without delay, in order that the members names can be 
listed on the quarterly account sheets. 

Regarding the issuing of clearance cards, the member should be informed that said 
clearance card shall expire one month from date of issue, and must be deposited within that 
time. Otherwise a clearance card becomes void. When a clearance card expires, the mem- 
ber is required to redeposit same in the Local Union which issued the clearance, inasmuch 
as lie is still a member of that Local Union. 



31 tt 01 £ XXX X X B m 



Not lost to those that love them. 
Not dead, just gone before; 



They still live in our memory, 
And will forever more. 



Ulesrt in l^tsttt 

The Editor has been requested to publish the names 
of the following Brothers who have passed away. 



WILLIAM ASHE, L. U. 325, Paterson, N. J. 

JEFFERSON M. BALLARD, L. U. 1765, Or- 
lando, Fla. 

STUART BARRETT, L. U. 337, Detroit, Mich. 

FRANK BEER, L. U. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. 

AXEL BERGESON, L. U. 361, Duluth, Minn. 

JAMES BOAZ, L. U. 2375, Wilmington, Cal. 

PHILLIP K. BONIARE, L. U. 1631, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

THOMAS A. BRATTON, L. U. 343, Winnipeg, 
Man., Can. 

DAN BROWN, L. U. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. 

GEORGE BROWN, L. U. 366, Bronx, N. Y. 

EDWIN BURROWS, L. U. 2375, Wilmington, 
Cal. 

A. E. CARPENTER, L. U. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. 
HARRY COUT, L. U. 1, Chicago, 111. 
ISAAC CROSBY, L. U. 176, Newport, R. I. 
WILLIAM H. DON, L. U. 67, Roxbury, Mass. 
HARRY DRURY, L. U. 1266, Austin, Texas 
FRED DUGAY, L. U. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. 
LEE S. DYSINGER, L. U. 289, Lockport, N. Y. 
JOHN FAVRET, L. U. 854, Cincinnati, Ohio 
JOHN FILKINS, L. U. 6, Amsterdam, N. Y. 
ULDARIC GUILLETTE, L. U. 801, Woonsocket, 

R. I. 
WILLIAM S. HANSON, L. U. 1849, Pasco, 

Wash. 
CHARLES J. HIRBE. L. U. 200, Columbus, 

Ohio 
WM. HOFFMAN, L. U. 1, Chicago, 111. 
EDWARD HUEY, L. U. 200, Columbus, Ohio 
ALEX JACKSON, L. U. 343, Winnipeg, Man., 

Can. 
J. B. JARVIS, L. U. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. 

B. A. JOBE, L. U. 25, Los Angeles, Calif. 
TORSTEN JOHNSON, L. U. 488, New York, 

N. Y. 
BENTON O. JONES, L. U. 1323, Monterey, Cal. 
HOWARD KINCAID, L. U. 1430, Kearney, Neb. 
JOHN KINZEL, L. U. 854, Cincinnati, Ohio 
FRANK KNOWLSON, L. U. 1, Chicago, III. 
STANLEY KOCHOCKI, L. U. 322, Niagara 

Falls, N. Y. 
CHARLES KOHN, L. U. 20, New York, N. Y. 
JEROME KOPPLEMAN, L. U. 974, Baltimore, 

Md. 
ROBERT KUGLER, L. U. 161, Kenosha, Wis. 
EVERETT LATTIMORE, L. U. 1143, La Crosse, 

Wis. 
PATRICK LAWTON, L. U. 608, New York, 

N. Y. 



WILLIAM LEMMING, L. U. 854, Cincinnati, 
Ohio 

FRANCOIS I. LERGNER, L. U. 1296, San Diego, 
Cal. 

ALF LORENSEN, L. U. 366, Bronx, N. Y. 

SAMUEL LUNDY, L. U. 608, New York, N. Y. 

WALTER MACKIE, L. U. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. 

PATRICK McDONALD, L. U. 60S, New York, 
N. Y. 

DANIEL J. McNAMARA, L. U. 56, Boston, 

Mass. 

MANUEL C. MEDERIOS, L. U. 176, Newport, 
R. I. 

HARRY A. MESSNER, L. U. No. 1, Chicago, 
III. 

JAMES H. MILLER, L. U. 133, Terre Haute, 
Ind. 

JOHN J. MORGAN, L. U. 200, Columbus, Ohio 

GORDON MOYER, L. U. 322, Niagara Falls, 
N. Y. 

K. B. NICHOLS, L. U. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. 

JONAS NIO, L. U. 488, New York, N. Y. 

WILLIAM ORD1NG, L. U. 854, Cincinnati, Ohio 

MICHAEL PALUMBO, L. U. 20, New York, 

N. Y. 
GEORGE M. REYNOLDS, L. U. 206, New 

Castle, Pa. 
JAY REYNOLDS, L. U. 2375, Wilmington, Cal. 
CARL M. RICHARDSON, L. U. 133, Terre 

Haute, Ind. 
JOHN RONAN, L. U. 608, New York, N. Y. 
EDMUND W. SECORD, L. U. 334, Saginaw, 

Mich. 
MILTON E. SEWALL, L. U. 206, New Castle, 

Pa. 
A. R. SMITH, L. U. 1065, Salem, Ore. 
LELAND SNYDER, L. U. 20, New York, N. Y. 
L. SORENSON, L. U. 1307, Evanston, 111. 
EDWARD SP ANGLER, L. U. 1143, La Crosse, 

Wis. 
ROBT. STEINBERG, L. U. 1, Chicago, III. 
CHARLES SUCHY, L. U. 1430, Kearney, Neb. 
GEORGE THOMPSON, L. U. 1323, Monterey, 

Cal. 
BYRON WEIDNER, L. U. 368, AHentown, Pa. 
WILLIAM WILBARD, L. U. 20, New York, 

N. Y. 
HUGH WILKISON, L. U. 1010, Union town, Pa. 
MARSHALL C. WILLIAMS, L. U. 1765, Or- 
lando, Fla. 



CorrospondoncQ 




This Journal Is Not Responsible For Views Expressed By Correspondents. 



FLORIDA APPRENTICES HONORED 

Representatives of labor and management joined in honoring apprentices who had 
completed their training in building trades industries in the Daytona Beach, Florida area, 
on November 13th. Over 150 persons attended the banquet honoring the new journeymen. 

William F. Patterson, director of the Apprenticeship Bureau of the Department ol 
Labor, was the principal speaker. Mr. Patterson told the group that America's greatest 
defense against Russia was in the skill of its citizens. He also remarked that apprentice- 
ship has come into full recognition, and at the same time the skilled worker has been ac- 
cepted in his true place as a social equal. 

United Brotherhood General Representative Van Pittman told the assemblage that a 
real debt was owed to the employer who gave the worker an honest opportunity to make 
full use of his skill, and only by honest workmanship could the debt be paid; otherwise 
tlie workers bring discredit upon themselves and their labor organizations. 

Journeymen certificates were presented by John Simmons, president of the Daytona 
Beach Contractors Association, to men who had been trained in the fields of carpentry, 
electricity, plumbing and sheet metal working. 

Robert Pfeiffer, executive secretary of the Florida State apprenticeship council awarded 
certificates of merit to Clarence Charters and John Morgan of Daytona Beach. 

Members of Local 1725, of Daytona Beach who were presented journeymen certificates 
included: Glenn Belt, Ernest S. Jackson, Charles A. Kressman, Glenn Munsey, Donald E. 
Rawlins, Ronald R. Rawlins, William B. R-egister and Robert E. Wren. 



LOCAL 301 CELEBRATES 65th ANNIVERSARY 

Local Union No. 301, of Newburgh, New York observed its sixty-fifth anniversary on 
Saturday evening, November 22nd, with a banquet and dance at the new VFW Building 
in Newburgh. 

Well over 300 members . and 
their guests were in attendance. 
Mayor Herbert A. Warden, of 
Newburgh, gave a short address 
during which he congratulated 
the members on their friendly 
labor relations which have ex- 
isted for many years. ... 

Charles W. Hanson, presi- 
dent of the New York State 
Council of Carpenters; and the 
District Council of Carpenters 
of New York City, was the 
principal speaker. He gave a 
very interesting talk. in which 
he made mention of the gains 
made by our organization dur- 
ing the years since its inception. 
Brother Hanson introduced 
George DeHart, who, on Sep- 
tember 26, 1952, had com- 
pleted 60 years of continuous membership in Local 301. The Newburgh Local is also proud 
to announce that it has nineteen other members who have served continuously for f orb- 
years or more. 




Shown standing from left to right are: Bernard H. Mur- 
ray, financial secretary and business agent; Hanson present- 
ing the wallet to Brother De Hart and Local 301 President 
William Watt. 



34 



THE CARPENTER 



L. I". 612 CELEBRATES 57th ANNIVERSARY 
B< lutiiul Riverview Restaurant, at North Bergen, New Jersey, was the scene of tlie 
37th anniversary dinner-dance of Local Union No. 612, of West New York. New Jersey 
held October 25th. 




Not only did the local celebrate the 57th year of its existence, but combined the 
festivities with a farewell party in honor of Edward J. Russell. For the past 27 years 
Brother Russell has served as financial secretary of the local. During the evening he was 
presented with a beautiful gold watch, upon which were inscribed the names of the mem- 
bers of the local. His resignation is the result of his leaving the State of New Jersey. 

Among the other honored guests representing the Hudson County District Council 
were Business Agents Henry Cook, Al Beck, and their wives and President Donald Craw- 
ford and his daughter. 

The gay spirits which permeated the evening's festivities are reflected in the faces of 
those attending the dinner-dance, as shown in the accompanying photograph. 



SPRINGFIELD. ILLINOIS LOCAL HONORS OLD-TIMERS 

Centennial Auditorium, in Springfield, Illinois was the scene of a special meeting of 
Local 16, November 14th, in honor of twelve of its long time members and Peter J. 
McGuire, first General Secretary and founder of the United Brotherhood. 

General Representative J. 
Earl Welch spoke in behalf of 
General President Hutcheson, 
in tribute to Peter J. McGuire. 
Financial Secretary Howard 
Shehorn presented fifty year 
pins to Andrew McDonald, 
Robert Bell and John Bell, and 
twenty-five year pins to M. R. 
McMichael and James H. Mon- 
roe. 

The meeting also served as 
a memorial for deceased Broth- 
ers William W. Owens, James 
B. Durkin, Charles R. Hatch, 

Shown in the above photo are, from left to right, front J° nn W ' 0tt ' P \ G> Mur P h y- 
row: John Bell, 50 years; Louis Nelson, 51 years; Robert Frank Kaiser, William J. Ford. 
Bell, 50 years; John Casserly, 52 years; Wiilliam Van Sice, Frank M. Brown. Wiley Lipe. 

51 years - Louis C. Fowler. William B. 

Second row: Representative Welch Brothers McMichael Hehuick and Meredith M. Stra- 
and Monroe, 25 years; and Brother Fochtmann, B. A. and . 
treasurer of the local. ley. 




THE CARPENTER 



35 



SANTA VISITS LOCAL 162 

More than 400 children were on hand at the hall of Local 162 of San Mateo, Calif- 
ornia awaiting the arrival of Santa Claus. The hall was decorated in gay yuletide fashion 

by members and their wives. 
While waiting, the children were 
served refreshments arid enter- 
tainment was provided in the 
form of games. 

Members of Boy Scout Troop 
35, sponsored by the local, 
were on hand to sell Christmas 
wreaths. 

Each year members of the 
local visit the nearby veterans' 
hospital and decorate the wards 
and distribute presents, hoping 
to spread the spirit of Christmas 
to these men away from home. 
The local has always taken an 
active part in community af- 
fairs, hoping to spread the spirit 
of brotherhood the year around. 




Kids awaiting Santa at Local 162 



SALVATION ARMY FINDS HELPING HAND 

Shortly before Christinas, members of the York, Pennsylvania Salvation Army group 
looked forward to another Yuletide season of standing upon cold street corners ringing 
a bell, hoping to receive donations so that tiiey could carry on their charity work. Often 
the little black kettle hanging on a tripod was passed unnoticed by busy Christmas shoppers, 
so the Salvation Army officials contacted 
members of Local 191 of York to see if 
they would build a decorative booth; one 
which would attract the Christmas crowds 
and protect the workers from the weather. 
The booths were to be constructed so that 
they could be taken down each year and 
then reassembled the next year. 

When called upon to aid in -the con- 
struction of such a booth, several members 
of Local 191 generously offered their services. 
Brothers S. J. Miller, Norman Babner, Henry 
Smith, John Keagy, Clair Lentz, Everett 
Coruse, Lawrence McCauslin, Samuel Bare 
and Dale Gemmill put their heads together 
and came up with a novel idea. 

The booths finally emerged as small houses, 
shaped as Christmas trees. One side has an 
opening for the workers to solicit from pe- 
destrians and the other side has a mantel and 
fireplace for the donations of persons in auto- 
mobiles. 

Red and white candy stripes and simulated 
bricks decorates one side while the tree side 
is green. 

Materials for the project were donated 
by York supply houses. With the aid of 
coffee and doughnuts provided by the Salva- 
tion Army, three booths were completed in time for the Christmas season this year, and 
the sturdy little structures give promise of lasting many more seasons. 




Brothers Smith and Babner work on the 
roof while Miller, Gemmill, Lentz and Keagy 
put the finishing touches on the face of the 
tree. 



36 THE CARPENTER 

JERSEY CARPENTERS PLAY SANTA CLAUS 

Sevi ral members of Local 31, of Trenton, New Jersey demonstrated that Brotherhood 
is more than part of tin name of our organization. 

While working on a large truck terminal being built near Trenton, they noticed a nearby 
ramshackle frame house. The men knew that a large family lived there and the people 
were unable to patch the large holes in the roof by themselves. The residents, Mrs. Harry 
Horne and her five children, had little to look forward to but a dreary Christmas. 

Giving up their spare time, George Grocott, Joe Palma, Joe Bice, Joe Pasum, Frank Mon- 
tooth, Carl Massari, Steve Szolomayer and Ed Kendrick of Local 31, and Lee Dean of 
Local 369 of the Hod Carriers and Building and Laborers Union, contributed their work. 
while contractor William Dean and the Builders' Lumber and Supply Company sup- 
plied the materials for repairing the humble frame home. 

A few days after the job was completed several of the men returned with clothing for 
the Horne children. The oldest son, Phillip, 17, provides the greater part of the family 
income. Their father deserted the Homes six years ago. 

Although the Homes were unable to reward the "Good Samaritans" financially, they did 
pit sent them with an envelope. Enclosed was the following message. 

"This is to assure you that you will share in the merit of three masses each day for 
nine days, beginning January 1, 1953." < 

Mrs. Horne added in a note: "I don't know any other way in which to express our 
thanks for all you have done and are trying to do for us. God bless you all." 

In this striving, grasping world it is good to know of men who understand the true 
meaning of Brotherhood. 

• 

DEATH TAKES OLD TIMER 

Brother William H. Don of Local 67, Roxbury, Massachusetts, died October 31, 1952. 

He is believed to have been one of the oldest members in continuous years of member- 
ship in the United Brotherhood. He carried a union card for sixty-nine years. 

Initiated in the Amalgamated Society in Glasgow, Scotland on June 30, 1883, he lived 
in South Africa for a short time before coming to America. On his arrival in the United 
States he transferred his membership into Local 2163, of New York City. In 1930 he 
became a member of Local 67, continuing there until the time of his death. 



CHRISTMAS PARTY FOR CANADIAN KIDS 

Three Canadian furniture companies and Local 3189, of Preston, Ontario joined forces 
to entertain over 500 children and adults with a gala Christmas party. This example of 
fine labor-management relations between the local and the Preston Furniture Company, 
Canadian Office & School Furniture Company, Limited, and the Schmidt Furniture Com- 
pany is an annual affair. The money is raised each year by means of raffles and drawings 
conducted in the shops. 

Early in die evening, December 19th, the childrens' party took place with singing of 
carols and showing movies, and a visit from Santa Claus. Over 250 children were in attend- 
ance. Later a similar number of adults enjoyed a very pleasant dance. 

The entertainment committee consisted of Brothers J. Poulton, N. Hillborn, D. Poore 

and R. Sheppard. 

+ 

LOCAL 13 HOLDS ANNUAL CHRISTMAS PARTY 

Local 13, of Chicago played host to 900 members and guests at their annual Christmas 
Party, December 9th. After the regular meeting was adjourned dinner and refreshments 
were served. 

Music was provided by Labor's WCFL orchestra. 

Members of Local 13 who are now in the Armed Forces were presented with thirty-eight 
$50.00 defense bonds, gifts of the local. The presentations were made by a representative 
of the United States Treasury Department. 

A very pleasant and memorable evening was had by all. 



THE CARPENTER 



37 



MINNESOTA LOCAL REPORTS YEAR-END ACTIVITIES 

From Labor Day to Christmas, Local 1382 of Rochester, Minnesota has been busily 
engaged in community activities. 

The local was well represented by 
a beautiful float in the Labor Day 
parade. Riding on the float were four 
lovely girls representing the local 
and the ladies auxiliary. All of the 
nearby labor organizations partici- 
pated in the ceremonies insuring a 
colorful and successful spectacle. 
The float was built by members, the 
materials being furnished by the local. 

The Apprenticeship Completion 
Program, held October 28th, was 
anodier highlight of the fall activi- 
ties. It has become an annual affair, 
mainly due to the work of Emil 
Heintz, director of the Rochester 
Evening Community College, and 
Harold Atwood. field representative 
of Apprenticeship, Department of 
Labor. 

About 500 members and friends 
attended a turkey dinner, December 
4th at the local Eagles Club. 

The last event of the year was the Christmas Party for children, held in conjunction 
with all A. F. of L. locals in the area. A free show and gifts of candy and fruit were 
heartily enjoyed by approximately 1500 kids. 

Local 1382 has set a fine example for other labor groups by cooperating with other 
groups in their community to insure the success of worthy causes. The members have 
become boosters of their city and the surrounding area and by so doing advance the 
cause of labor and the progress of the community. 




EIGHT FIFTY-YEAR MEN HONORED 




Shown are from left to right, seated: Oscar Hult, 50 
years; John D. Brown, 50 years; William F. Schuller, 50 
years; Bert Bondurant, 50 years; Harry E. Johnson. 50 years; 
and John R. Zylstra, warden. 

Standing, from left to right: George McPhail, president; 
William Pennekamp, vice-president; Samuel Beech, treasurer; 
Edward L. Nelson, financial secretary; Dick Vink, 50 years; 
Robert McElroy, conductor; Nicholas Penn, 50 years; 
August Sikma, 50 years; John Bots, trusttee; and John R. 
Swanson, tustee. 



Eight members of Local 434 
of Chicago were honored with 
presentations of fifty-year pins 
at the meeting, October 15, 
1952. President George Mc- 
Phail gave the presentation 
speech and commended the 
men on their fine records of long 
service to organized labor. Re- 
cording Secretary Charles 
Sprietsma assisted by placing 
the pins upon the lapels of the 
50 year men. 

Refreshments were served 
following the presentation and 
the old timers spent die balance 
of the evening in reminiscing. 

Brother Joseph Belanger, a 
64 year member was unable to 
attend due to illness. 






nr?/» //^ 




10th ANNIVERSARY CELEBRATED BY BILOXI LADIES 

Tu The Editor: 

Greetings from Ladies Auxiliary Local 405, of Biloxi, Mississippi. Our meetings are 
held every Thursday at 7:30 p.m. in the Carpenters' Hall, Local 1667. 

July 15th marked the 4th anniversary after a disbandment of two years during World 
War II, which would actually make this our 10th anniversary. This year the banquet was 
held at the Pastime Cafe, and a dance followed at the Carpenters' Hall on Reynoir Street, 
attended by both members and their husbands. 




We have nine charter members still with us, and now have a total of 37 active members. 

Social parties are held on the third Thursday of each month, and throughout the year 
we hold weiner roasts, picnics and various other social events. At Christmas time we have 
a party for the children and hold our Annual Carnival Dance. 

The Auxiliary 'sends flower sprays to all members and their families that have sickness 
in their homes or loved ones in hospitals, and especially to the families of deceased Brothers. 
Tin- March of Dimes is one of our favorite charities, and another activity- which is ap- 
preciated is~a gift of a basket of groceries to members' families when the head of the 
household, is ill. 

We would. enjoy hearing from sister auxiliaries and prospective members. 

Fraternally yours, 

Mrs. Edith Moran, recording secretary 



PINE BLUFF LADIES SAY HELLO 

To The .Editor:. .:'•. . 

Members of Ladies Auxiliary 551 of Pine Bluff, Arkansas extend a warm and sincere 
wish for a happy and prosperous New Year to all ladies auxiliaries. 

Although 1952 was a successful year for our auxiliary, we are looking forward to still 
greater advancements in 1953. During the past year we sponsored a bingo-cake walk, sold 
pie and coffee at our meetings, took up collections to buy gowns and pajamas for members 
and their families in the hospital and raffled carpenters tools for our general fund. 

At our social meetings we had pot luck dinners, also all day quilting bees each Wed- 
nesday. A short vacation from the quilting was required at the end of the year, but we 
intend to return to the task at the close of the holiday season. 



THE CARPENTER 



39 



Part of our funds were used to help a charitable group at the Davis Hospital here. 
Christmas baskets and contributions to the crippled childrens' hospital in Little Rock con- 
sumed more, so we must get back to work and build up our resources again. As long as 
we are able to help the unfortunate the work is worth the effort. 

Fraternally, 

Mrs. John Verdue, Rec. Sec. 



NEWS FROM LITTLE ROCK LADIES 

To The Editor: 

A friendly hello to all auxiliaries from Ladies Auxiliary No. 255, of Little Rock, 
Arkansas. 

We meet on the first and third Monday of 
each month at Carpenters' Hall at 5th and 
Victory Streets. 

Last month we presented a cake walk and 
bingo party to raise funds for our annual 
Christmas party for members and their fami- 
lies. 

The accompanying photograph is of our float 
which was in the local Labor Day Parade. 

We would enjoy hearing from prospective 
members and other Ladies Auxiliaries. 
Fraternally yours, 
Mrs. Arthur Dennie, Rec. Sec'y. 




CAPE GIRARDEAU AUXILIARY GETS OFF TO GOOD START 

To The Editor: 

The Ladies of Cape Girardeau, Missouri, having received their Charter entitling 
them to join the official family of Ladies Auxiliaries of the United Rrotherhood of Carpenters 
and Joiners of America, wish to take this 
opportunity to extend their greetings to all 
Sister Auxiliaries. 

Twenty wives and daughters of Cape Gir- 
ardeau carpenters composed the charter mem- 
bership of Auxiliary No. 654, although the 
charter was to be held open for a few weeks 
to allow other interested ladies to join as 
charter members. On December 5, 1952 
Brother Mel Shasserre, secretary-treasurer of 
the Missouri State Council of Carpenters, in- 
stalled the Charter and gave the obligation to 
the elected officers. 

Following the installation of officers, the 
women were delightfully surprised witii coffee 
and doughnuts served by the men of Car- 
penters' Local No. 1770, resulting in a very 
pleasant evening, giving all a chance to become better acquainted. 

Ladies Auxiliary No. 654 would welcome and appreciate letters from Sister Auxiliaries 
giving information of their activities and any suggestons which would help make our 
organization a success. 

Fraternally yours, 

Mrs. Clemens Freese, Rec. Sec. 




Craft Problcsms 




Carpentry 

By H. H. Siegele 
LESSON 293 
Marking for Siding.— When the corner 
boards are in place and the window and 
door frames are set. you are ready for doing 
the marking for the siding. Different car- 
penters have different ways of doing this. 
Some use the compass and space from the 
base line up to the window sill. This spac- 
ing is then transferred to a stick, with which 
all of the corner boards and door casings are 
marked for the siding up to the window 
sill line. Then they space for the siding 
from the bottom of the window frame up to 
the top' of the window cap. This spacing 
is also -transf erred to a stick, and with this 
stick the spacing for this part of the siding 



Frieze 



Marking Stick 




'WlNBOW SfLL 

Marking Stick 



f 



Base Line 



Fig. 1 

is marked .on. window and door casings and 
corner boards. Next the spacing above the 
window and door frames is done. If it is 
a one-story building, there will be little 
spacing to do above the frames, but if it is 
a story and a half or a two-story building, 



another stick must be made for that part of 
the marking. Other carpenters make a mark- 
ing stick for the corners, as shown to the 
left by Fig. 1, and with it mark the corner, 
boards. This stick must be spaced so that 




Building Paper 

Fig. 2 

the siding courses will come out right with 
the window and door frames. From this 
stick, or story pole, as it is called, a spacing 
stick is made for marking the door frames, 
and another one for marking the : window 
frames. The latter is pointed out on Fig. 1. 
Every job presents a different layout, and 
the wise carpenter will systematize his work 
in order to gain uniformity and economy. 

Building Paper.— Fig. 2 shows the same 
layout shown by Fig. 1, excepting that the 
shaded part represents building paper. Paper 
strips used under the corner board and win- 
dow casings are indicated by dotted lines, 
and where the paper has been rolled back, 
by heavier shading. The big dots represent 
heads of roofing nails with which the paper 
is held in place. This way of fastening build- 
ing paper is all right when there is no strong 



THE CARPENTER 



41 



wind to tear it off, and when one is sure 
that it will be covered with siding before 
quitting time. Otherwise it should be held 
on with lath or some odier slats. 




Fig. 3 

Conventional Siding.— Fig. 3 shows the 
layout shown in the previous figures, but 
with the siding in place. This drawing rep- 
resents rather narrow conventional siding, 





'Wide: Sioino 



Corner Board 



Fig. 4 

otherwise called lap siding. The craft prob- 
lem here, gives a short cut for marking and 
cutting siding boards to be used between 



corner boards and window frame, or in some 
other similar situation. There are twenty 
boards in place between the corner and the 
window. First square twenty boards of the 
proper length, to fit the corner board. Then 
hold board number 1 to its place and mark 
it for length and joint— also board number 2 
and numbers 3, 4 and so on up to 20. These 
should be stacked so that number 20 will be 
on top. Then cut number 20, number 19, 
number 18, 17, 16. etc., until all the boards 
are cut and stacked in order. This willl put 
board number 1 on top. Now start with board 
number 1 and nail it in place, then board 
number 2, and number 3, 4 and so on. If 
the marking and cutting are carefully done, 
when the boards are all in place, the joints 
will be good. 

Wide Siding.— Fig. 4 shows a part of the 
layout shown before, covered with wide 
siding. This siding is taking the place of 




Fig. 5 

the narrower conventional siding and adds 
novelty, resulting in a pleasing appearance. 

Applying Building Paper.— Fig. 5 shows 
in each of the two drawings part of the lay- 
out shown previously. The upper drawing 
shows a full-width strip of paper held in 
place with pieces of lath and roofing nails. 
The nails are indicated by the heavy dots. 
The reason the lath are held up at the bot- 
tom and roofing nails are Used to hold the 
bottom edge, as shown, is to leave enough 
of the paper without obstruction so that the 



42 



THE CARPENTER 



first siding board can be put on without 
moving lath. When the first board of sid- 
ing is on, it will hold the paper, and the 
lath above can be changed to the position 
shown by the bottom drawing. How this 
is done is indicated by the dotted part- 
circles and arrows. The rest of the siding 
is then pnt on np to the lath. Then they 
are removed and used to hold the next strip 
of paper. 

Nail Support.— Fig. 6, the upper drawing, 
shows a part of a siding board in place. The 
dotted line gives the line of the next board, 
which is supported by the nail pointed out 
to the left. This is also shown by the bot- 
tom drawing, where the second board is 
shown in place, shaded. At A, in both draw- 
ings, the blocking out of the first board is 
pointed out. 

Bad and Good Joints.— Fig. 7, top draw- 
ing, shows 5 samples of bad joints. The bad 
joints are heavily shaded and of course ex- 
aggerated. The joint numbered 1 evidently 
was a good joint until board number 2 was 
put in place, which was cut out of square 
and a little too long, so that it pushed out 
the corner board a trifle more. Then when 
board number 3 was put on, which was also 



too long and poorly cut, the corner board 
was pushed out still more. Boards number 

yftvCoMER Board 



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4 and 5 did not push the corner board out, 
but the ends were so rougblv cut that the 




Fig. 7 
joints are both bad. As stated before, the 
faults of these joints are magnified, but 



THE CARPENTER 



43 



they represent a sort of composite of all un- 
acceptable joints. The joints shown by the 
bottom drawing are the approved joints. 

End to End Joints.— Fig. 8 shows at the 
bottom a face view of a good end to end 
joint. The nails here are kept 2 inches 



4 

i 
_Jf_ 



Bad Joints 



Cracks 



^M 



"*V 



Face Views 

Fig. 8 

from the joint, and not less than %-inch 
from the bottom edge. Of course there are 
exceptions to this rule. The joint shown 
second from the bottom, also is a good joint, 
but the nails were placed too close to the 
joint, resulting in the cracks that are pointed 
out. When it becomes necessary to nail 




\ bi ^3 

t c] I 

f 



py j 

EofiE Views 
Fig. 9 



siding rather close to the joint, the use of 
thinner nails will often prevent cracking. 
The two upper joints shown are bad, and 
of course magnified to bring out the point. 

Edge Views of Siding Joints.— Fig. 9, 
drawn to a larger scale, shows the thick 
edge views of siding joints. At A is shown 
an approved joint about to go together, 
which is shown completed at B. At C the 
joint is open in the back, due to too much 
back bevel in the cuts. At D the fault is 
in reverse order. 



A Footing Problem 

Basement walls, especially partition walls, 
often have their weak points where the door 



*:.Wall—n 



'Footing 



Fig. 1 
openings are located. The trouble is in the 
footings. 




/Weak Points 



Fig. 2 
Fig. 1 shows a side view of a basement 
wall, in part, where the footing is pointed 




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44 



THE CAHPENTER 



out. The bottom of the footing is Indicated 
by the dotted line. Designers, as a rule, 
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The results are shown by Fig. 2. Here the 



Xx iS N u 




The Solution 



«M& 







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weak points an indicated. The wall on the 
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THE STEEL SQUARE, by Siegele 

A practical treatment of the steel square 
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actual uses. Book No. 1. $3.00 

CARPENTERS TOOLS, by Siegele 
A much needed book on the complete tare, 
sharpening and maintenance of all the 
tools the carpenter uses. For Journeyman 
and Apprentice. 394 illustrations. Book 
No. 2 $3.00 

CARPENTRY (Craft Problems) by Siegele 

Practical helpful solutions to hundreds of 
carpentry problems and covering the entire 
field. 302 pages. Over 700 illustrations. 
Book No. 3. $3.00 

BUILDING— FORMS, STAIRS, ROOFS, 
by Siegele 

Practical instruction on form building, 
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illustrations. Book No. 4. $3.00 

CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION, by Siegele 

Covers all form building and concrete work 
including materials, mixes and methods. 
An excellent and authoritative book for 
carpenters and builders. Illustrated. Book 
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ROOF FRAMING, by Siegele 

Covers all types of roof construction with 
explanation of all terms. 400 Illustrations 
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QUICK CONSTRUCTION, by Siegele 

Practical building methods for the craft 
worker and contractor. Packed with prac- 
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670 illustrations. Book No. 7. $3.00 

BUILDING TRADES DICTIONARY, by 
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Gives over 6800 meanings of words, terms 
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An indispensible book for daily, profitable 
use. 670 illustrations. Book No. 8. $3.00 

ROOF FRAMING. 

A practical course of study by Van Gaas- 
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Bush, to me at once, the books indicated by ciicles below. 
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I 

I City State. 




Treat yourself to 

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the saw most carpenters use 



NOTICE 

The publishers of "The Carpenter" reserve the 
right to reject all advertising matter which may 
be, in their Judgment, unfair or objectionable to 
the membership of the United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America. 

Ml Contracts for advertising apace In "The Car- 
ii. nt .t. " Including those stipulated as non-can- 
cellable, aro only accepted subject to rim above 
: rvi ' • Ighl i of the publishers. 



Index of Advertis< 


srs 

•ssories 


Carpenters' Tools and Acct 




Page 


The American Floor Surfacing 
Machine Co., Toledo, Ohio 


3rd Cover , 


Carlson and Sullivan, Inc., Mon- 
rovia, Calif. 


44 

46 
45 


Henry Disston & Sons, Inc., Phila 
delphia, Pa. 


F. J. Drake & Co., Wilmette, 111. 


, Eliason Tool Co., Minneapolis, 


45 

44 

44-48 
48 


I E-Z Mark Tools, Los Angeles 
Calif. 


[ Foley Mfg. Co., Minneapolis, 


' H. D. Lee Co., Kansas City, Mo.. 


1 The Lufkin Rule Co., Saginaw, 
Mich. 


47 

45 
43 


A. D. McBurnev, Los Angeles. 
| Calif. 


Nicholls Mfg. Co., Ottumwa, Ia._ 


North Bros. Mfg. Co., Phila- 
j delphia, Pa. 


47 


Sharp Mfg. Co., Salem, Ore 


48 


Simplex Level Co., Detroit, Mich. 


45 


Skill Corp., Chicago, 111 


1 


The Speed Corp., Portland, Ore_ 


43 


: Stanley Tools, New Britain, 
Conn. 


3rd Cover 


Venetian Blind Laundry Equip. 
Co., Wichita, Kans. 


48 


Carpentry Materials 




The Upson Co., Lockport, N. V._ 


4 


Doors 


i 


Overhead Doors Corp., Hartford 
City, Ind. 


4th Cover 1 


Technical Courses and Books 


1 American Technical Society, Chi- 
cago, 111. 


6-47 


Audel Publishers, New York, 
N. Y. 


3rd Cover | 


Chicago Technical College, Chi- 


3 


H. H. Siegele. Emporia, Kans 


42 


Simmons-Boardman Publishing 
Corp., New York, N. Y. 


5 

1 



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How to use the steel square — How to file and 

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Employed by- 



CAR 



•itolt 



to build a five-section 

door with wide 
horizontal panels 

-1951 




Rapid advancements in residential architecture called for a new and modern 
design of The "OVERHEAD DOOR" — to complement the ranch-type home, 
yet blend with every style of architecture. 

True to tradition, our engineers produced a door with narrow sections and 
wide horizontal panels . . . with the same structural strength and the same 
blue-ribbon performance, always! 



Copyright 1953- O.D.C. 



^ ^7 and its i 




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manufacturing divisions make 



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"HE 



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FOUNDED 1881 

Official Pnbiiaation at the 
UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS of AMERICA. 

MARCH, 10 53 









BLOOD 

MEANS LIFE 

A pint of your blood, donated through 
the Red Cross Blood Bank, can help save 
the life of a soldier who spilled his own 
blood to protect you and me and the rest 
of the nation. 

He gave his in agony and suffering; we 
can give ours in comfort and ease. 

Make a date at your nearest Blood Bank 
to give a pint of blood for the boys who 
are giving theirs by the gallon. 



GIVE! 




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accomplished with less than one-quarter turn of the collet! 

In addition, the dovetail effect of the cams assures accurate collet, alignment and 
provides extreme rigidity — bits can't run out, cuts are smoother, chatter and kick 
are banished, tool life is greatly extended. 



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Home... _ _ ■— - I 

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in Canada write; Strongridge, lid., London r Onf. 



A Monthly Journal, Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners 
of America, for all its Members of all its Branches. 

PETER E. TERZICK, Editor 
Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis 4, Indiana 

Established in 1881 
Vol. I. XXI II -No. 3 



INDIANAPOLIS, MARCH, 1953 



One Dollar Per Year 
Ten Cents a Copy 



— Con tents 



Now It's The Big Deal 

A new theory on qualifications o 
the result of President Eisenhower's o 

Carpentry Involves Many Hazards 

First of a series of articles on accidents experience 
1949. 

Routzohn Joins Labor Department 

A member of the United Brotherhood's lei 
merit of Labor. 

Labor Looks After Its Own 

American Federation of Labor a 
of providing their members with c 

It Displays Our Label 

Port!and, Oregon leads the way 
its vicinity. 

Wooden Ships For Modern Sailors 

ps. The U. S. Navy 
• • • 



5 

as 

9 

nd 

16 

»art- 

18 

cord 

20 

d in 

31 

Men still sail in wooden ships. The U. S. Navy utilizes new processes in marine con- 
struction. 



A new theory on qualifications of governmental officials receives an honest test as 
the result of President Eisenhower's appointments. 



First of a series of articles on accidents experienced by carpenters during 1948 and 
1949. 



A member of the United Brotherhood's legal staff becomes Solicitor for the Depart- 
ment of Labor. 



American Federation of Labor affiliates have a right to be proud of their fine record 
of providing their members with adequate benefit services. 



Port'and, Oregon leads the way in displaying the Union Label on doors produced in 
its vicinity. 



OTHER DEPARTMENTS 

Plane Gossip 

The Locker 

Editorials 

Official 

In Memoriam 

Correspondence 

To The Ladies 

Craft Problems 



Index to Advertisers 



• * * 



14 
23 
26 
33 
34 
35 
39 
40 



47 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of 

Congress. Aug. 24, 1912. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for 

in Section 1103, act of October 3, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918. 



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NOW IT'S THE BIG DEAL 



* * 

EFORE the new Republican administration was more than a couple of 
weeks old it had already served notice on the American people that it 
intends to chart a new course for our economy. In a move that sur- 
prised no one, President Eisenhower on February 6th terminated all govern- 
ment control over wages and salaries. A similar decontrol of all prices is more 
than likely to be completed in the near future— probably even before these 
words reach print. There are strong indications that credit controls may be 
reimposed soon. Taxes are also getting a good deal of attention; which means 
there may be a revision in one way or another before too many weeks. 

What does it all add up to? How is 



the ordinary wage earner going to be 
affected? Probably no one knows— 
not even the men who are calling the 
shots in Washington. However, one 
thing is certain. The new administra- 
tion took over the reins of the nation 
when productivity was at its peak. 
There were more people employed 
on January 20th than ever before in 
history. There were more goods be- 
ing turned out than ever before in his- 
tory. Consumption was higher than 
it ever was. All segments of the econ- 
omy, labor, management and the 
farmer, were enjoying the fruits of 
the prosperity. 

To be true, it was a war prosperity, 
generated and sustained by the tragic 
fighting in Korea and the larger threat 
of all-out war with Russia. The war 
in Korea is not ended and the threat 
of war with Russia has not dimin- 
ished, but the task of building up 
American military might to adequate 
peaks has come close to fulfillment. 
The real trick is going to be to main- 
tain the economy at something ap- 
proaching its present peak when the 
urgent demand for war goods is over, 
or at least greatly diminished. Can 
the new administration turn the trick? 



If confidence is any yardstick, it 
can. From the New Deal and the 
Fair Deal, we are now embarked on 
what might be called the Big Deal- 
big business setting the policies and 
calling the tunes. Practically every 
appointment of any importance made 
by President Eisenhower has gone 
to a business tycoon. Some wag in 
Washington has dubbed the Presi- 
dent's first team as "seventeen million- 
aires and a plumber"— the latter, of 
course, being Martin Durkin, Secre- 
tary of Labor. 

All the financial publications and 
most of the daily papers in the nation 
have been wildly enthusiastic about 
this state of affairs. It suits them to a 
T. For years they have been crying 
that what we needed were some solid, 
level-headed business men in Wash- 
ington to inject some efficiency into 
government. Now we have precisely 
that. Can these businessmen-turned- 
politicians accomplish all the miracles 
that many people apparently deem 
them capable of? Can they cut govern- 
ment spending without reducing jobs? 
Can they cut taxes without reducing 
the essential services which the gov- 
ernment is now rendering the people? 
Only time will tell. Certainly they 



THE CARPENTER 



have a golden opportunity to prove 
all the theories they have expounded 
during the last 20 years. 

Over the years, government has 
grown more complex. Whether suc- 
cessful business experience is an auto- 
matic stepping stone to success in 
government administration is a moot 
question. On this subject, "Roundup," 
the wide-awake bulletin published by 
the Texas State Federation of Labor, 
had some interesting comments to 
make in a recent issue. Said Roundup: 

"However, government, like other 
work, requires a degree of practice 
and training in its particular prob- 
lems. A good carpenter isn't neces- 
sarily a good plumber, even after 
reaching the pinnacles of achievement 
in cabinet making. And by the same 
token an able and successful man 
isn't necessarily a good government 
official. 

"Running a country requires keep- 
ing an eye on the gross size of the 
stream of commerce. Running a busi- 
ness requires concentrating on grab- 
bing one little part of that stream for 
oneself, regardless of its size. The 
governing official's concern is pros- 
perity for the country as a whole. 
The business tycoon's concern is a 
maximum profit for his company. 
They don't necessarily go together. 
One of the richest men in the world, 
if not the richest— the operator with 
the biggest take— is the Agha Khan. 
He has income enough and to spare 
so that his son Aly Khan can afford 
the best— but the best!— of the finer 
things of life without worrying about 
the expense. But if you have ever 
seen his country in India you know 
that the scrawniest razorback hog in 
the East Texas piney woods lives in 
the lap of luxury compared to the 
average man under the Agha's rule. 
Nevertheless, if ability to govern well 
is synonymous with ability to rake in 



the coin, the Agha Khan's subjects 
have the finest ruler on the face of 
the earth. 

"Here in America we don't measure 
the ability of our governors by pre- 
cisely that standard. Our ideals, as a 
matter of fact, run in terms of men 
born in a log cabin and dedicating 
their lives to public service and high 
ideals, often at the loss of that extra 
buck. By American standards the 
Agha Khan rates pretty low on the 
scale of rulers. 

"Between ability at governing and 
ability at business there is the same 
difference as between being a good 
game conservationist and a good 
hunter. It isn't the same thing. That's 
not to say anything against the good 
hunter. Just that if he is to become 
also a good conservationist, he has a 
new trade to learn. 

"If he realizes he's got a new trade 
to learn, the business man in govern- 
ment may make the best of officials. 
He is apt to be very able and adapt- 
able. If he doesn't realize he is ap- 
prenticing himself to a new trade in 
middle life, the results are apt not 
to be good. 

"And a lot of people— including 
business men themselves— have the 
idea that a business man is automati- 
cally better equipped than anybody 
else to design government policy— 
that they are ready-made 'sound, 
practical men' who know the an- 
swers. 

"This theory of business success 
proving economic wisdom is needed 
in government is apt to trip us up if 
we don't watch it. 

"Actually, this theory— that success- 
ful business men are necessarily bet- 
ter planners of economic policy than 
specialists in government— is on a par 
with a theory that we should turn 
over the health care of our people to 
athletes. 



THE CARPENTER 



"Rocky Marciano is a world cham- 
pion athlete, so naturally he has a 
sound practical knowledge of the hu- 
man body and is superior to that 
scrawny physician and surgeon— 
stoop-shouldered from poring over 
books— in helping you meet any bodily 
ills." That's how this reasoning runs. 

"If this reasoning convinces you, 
then naturally, the next time you get 
sick, just forget about the doctor and 
call the nearest football star. That 
football star is a "sound man with 
practical experience" and he's got the 
physique to prove it, just as that busi- 
ness tycoon is a "sound man with 
practical experience" and he's got 
the millions to prove it." 

The analogy which Roundup makes 
between businessmen as government 
officials and athletes as doctors may 
be a little too pessimistic, but the fact 
remains that government is much 
more complex than business. In busi- 
ness the issue is usually clear-cut. 
The businessman can always ask him- 
self the simple question, is it good 
for my company? Whenever he has a 
decision to make, in government the 
issue is never quite that simple, since 
many conflicting interests are involv- 
ed. What is good for the farmer 
may be not so good for business or 
labor. What is good for westerners 
may be anathema to easterners. And 
so it always goes. There are con- 
flicting viewpoints and interests to 
reconcile in almost everything gov- 
ernment does. Men used to making 
decisions in which the issue is clear- 
cut may find themselves bogged down 
by the conflicting pressures and pulls 
of the political arena. 

On the other hand, all businessmen 
achieve their success by having the 
ability to reduce waste, increase ef- 
ficiency, eliminate deadwood, etc.. In 
this respect, the business viewpoint 
should be a big asset to the present 



administration, for no one can deny 
the fact that business in general is 
much more efficient than the Federal 
government has been. 

In any event, then, the next four 
years should be among the most in- 
teresting in American history. In the 
overall picture, organized labor bears 
a tremendous responsibility for seeing 
to it that the social gains of the past 
are maintained and expanded, that 
the rights of labor are protected, that 
the purchasing power of the working 
people is maintained at a level suffi- 
ciently high to permit them to buy 
back the products they produce. 

For one thing, labor must watch 
very carefully all developments in 
labor legislation not only in Washing- 
ton but in state legislatures as well. 
The Taft-Hartley Law is undoubtedly 
due for some sort of overhauling; 
whether the overhauling is for the 
better or worse may depend upon the 
alertness labor displays in the months 
ahead. The same holds true for state 
labor legislation. 

Another matter which must be 
watched closely is tax legislation. Tax- 
es are the exact equivalents of pay 
cuts. A tax increase of two dollars 
per week amounts to the same thing 
as a two dollar wage cut. In the days 
ahead Congress will undoubtedly 
struggle with the tax question. There 
are plenty of those in both the House 
and Senate who do not believe that 
ability to pay should have any bear- 
ing on taxes. Unless they are watched 
closely more of the tax load may be 
shifted from the backs of the wealthy 
to the backs of the wage earners. 

Still another area in which organ- 
ized labor must be constantly alert 
is the area of natural resources. Busi- 
nessmen have not always been given 
to adhering to the long range view 
in the matter of conservation of re- 
sources, as witness the despoiling of 



8 THE CARPENTER 

the forest lands in the Great Lakes natural resources there can be no con- 
area. Lands that could have been tinning prosperity, 
left in condition to produce timber So, in the final analysis, organized 
perpetually were high -graded and labor has a tremendous responsibility 
abandoned. Our natural resources in the political field. The Big Deal 
must not be exploited ruthlessly for goes into office full of zeal and prom- 
immediate gain at the expense of fu- ise. It is our task to see that perform- 

ture generations. Without adequate ance lives up to its promise. 

• 

Labor Aids Flood Victims 

Organized American labor, through the Labor League for Human Rights, 
official relief arm of the American Federation of Labor, has come to the aid 
of flood victims in England and the Netherlands with a gift of $1,500 worth 
of CARE food and blanket packages. 

Matthew Woll, president of the league, in turning over the check to 
CARE, said that additional funds for the relief of English and Dutch trade 
unionists will be raised in a nation-wide campaign. 

"Thanks largely to the wholehearted response of the American people," 
said Woll, "the immediate emergency in the two countries is over. 

"But as the people who were evacuated from the stricken areas return 
to their devastated homes, the need for further aid in the form of CARE 
food and blanket packages will continue for some time to come. I am appeal- 
ing to all AFL affiliates, from the individual member and local union to the 
level of the great international unions, to aid this drive of the Labor League 
for Human Rights. 

"Many industrial plants and workshops have been destroyed in both 
countries by the raging floods," Woll added. "In keeping with its general 
"program of aiding free and democratic trade unions abroad, the Labor 
League for Human Rights is enlisting every American worker's support in 
the effort to aid these people during their prolonged period of need." 

Distribution of the Labor League CARE packages will be supervised by 
AFL representatives in England and the Netherlands, Woll declared. 

Orders for CARE blanket and food packages, or contributions in any 
amount may be forwarded to the AFL representative, CARE, 20 Broad St' 

New York 5, N. Y. 

• 

BROADER SOCIAL MEASURES FILED 

The first of what is expected to be a long list of bills to strengthen and broaden 
social security coverage last month were introduced in the House by Aime Forand 
(D., R. I.) and Harold Ostertag (R., N. Y.). 

They want benefits extended to persons between 65 and 75 who continue working 
at jobs covered by social security and who earn more than $75 a month. The present law 
prevents their receiving pensions under the system. 

It was pointed out tiiat elderly persons with large incomes from stocks, bonds and 
noncovered employment and individuals over 75 can collect insurance benefits from 
social security. 

Meantime, Carl Curtis (R., Neb.), a member of the House Ways and Means Com- 
mittee, where social security legislation must begin, suggested diat a new study of the 
whole program be undertaken. 

That is in fine with a suggestion by Sen. Robert Taft (R., Ohio) who wants to turn 
the problem over to a commission for study. In effect, observers pointed out, such a study 
would halt any action to expand social security or make it more effective during this 
session of Congress. 



Carpentry Involves Many Hazards 

Editor's note: Accident prevention is (or should be) a prime concern of every 
working man, for it is he who suffers most and loses most through accidents on the 
job. Recently the Department of Labor made an analysis of accident experience in the 
carpentry trade in 1948 and 1949. Contained in that study is a good deal of food for 
thought, for the study shows carpenters suffer twice as many accidents as do general 
factory workers. Significant portions of the study will be run in THE CARPENTER. 
This is the first installment. 

* * * 

ALL available information indicates that the injury-frequency rate for 
carpenters is slightly higher than the average for all construction occu- 
pations. A somewhat lower than average frequency of fatalities, how- 
ever, gives carpenters a comparatively favorable injury-severity record. 

In 1948, the most recent year for which separate injury rates are available 
for the various construction operations, carpenters experienced an average of 
38.2 disabling injuries in every million employee-hours worked. The corres- 
ponding average for all construction workers in that year was 36.7. The in- 
juries to carpenters produced an average time charge of 106 days per case, 
representing a time loss of 4.1 days 



for every 1,000 employee-hours 
worked. For the construction indus- 
try as a whole the comparable aver- 
ages were 135 days charged per case 
and 5.0 days lost per 1,000 hours 
worked. 

In comparison with most noncon- 
struction activities, the carpenters' in- 
jury record was less favorable. The 
all-manufacturing injury-f requency 
rate in 1948 was only 17.2, less than 
half the rate for carpenters. Similarly, 
the average severity of the injuries ex- 
perienced by manufacturing workers 
tended to be much less than for car- 
penters' injuries. In manufacturing, 
the average time charge per injury 
was 83 days and the severity rate was 
1.5 in contrast to the carpenters' aver- 
ages of 106 and 4.1. 

In common with most other con- 
struction trades, carpenters face many 
more hazards arising from the work 
environment than from the specific 
operations of their trade. The fact 
that they seldom work for long peri- 
ods at any one location and the ne- 



cessity of working in close proximity 
to other trades which are usually un- 
der different supervision contributes 
greatly to the existence of environ- 
mental hazards. Housekeeping prob- 
lems are particularly difficult to over- 
come in these circumstances. 

On new construction, particularly 
residential and small commercial jobs, 
the premises around the structures are 
frequently muddy, slippery, rutted, 
cut by open trenches, obstructed by 
piles of dirt and materials, cluttered 
with the equipment of many trades, 
and littered with scrap materials. The 
possibility of injury from a slip or fall, 
or from contact with sharp or rough 
materials arises as soon as the worker 
enters the construction area. These 
hazards are intensified by the manual 
operations involved in the movement 
of materials and equipment at the job 
site. Because the materials are fre- 
quently heavy, bulky, or awkward to 
handle, the operation in itself presents 
considerable possibility for strains, 
sprains, or other injuries arising from 



10 



THE CARPENTER 



overexertion. The hazardous surfaces 
over which they must be moved add 
greatly to these possibilities. 

Inside a new structure there are 
many possibilities of slips, falls, and 
overexertion due to unfinished floors 
which are frequently rough, irregular, 
and cluttered with materials or scrap; 
unguarded floor openings; open stair- 
ways; and rough access ladders. Fall- 
ing materials, originating in the opera- 
tions of other trades on the premises 
as well as in their own, constitute an- 
other important hazard for nearly all 
construction workers. 

On many types of construction, car- 
penters work ahead of the other 
trades,erecting the structural frame- 
work and building the surfaces, plat- 
forms, and scaffolds on which the 
other trades work. In doing this they 
frequently must climb on and work 
from open structural members with 
little protection from the possibilities 
of falls. 

In repair work carpenters also en- 
counter many hazards arising from 
poor houskeeping conditions and fre- 
quently find it necessary to work in 
tight and relatively inaccessible quar- 
ters. The lack of adequate scaffolds 
and ladders on repair jobs of short 
duration frequently leads workers to 
utilize makeshift methods of reaching 
elevated positions and results in falls. 

The lumber and other materials 
with which carpenters work are fre- 
quently heavy and awkward to han- 
dle. In addition, the edges of lumber 
may be sharp or splintery. As most 
of these materials must be moved in- 
to position by hand, carpenters face 
the possibility of hand cuts, crushed 
fingers and toes, and strains and 
sprains from overexertion. 

The hand tools of the trade, many 
of which have sharp cutting edges, 
present many hazards when they are 
mishandled or are not kept in good 



condition. Portable electric saws, 
jointers, drills, and other powered 
tools are frequently used in carpentry 
operations. In many instances the cut- 
ting edges of these tools are inade- 
quately guarded and in field use they 
are frequently not grounded to pre- 
vent electric shock. 

Kinds of Injuries Experienced 

The 9,061 disabling injury cases 
which were examined in detail in- 
cluded 42 fatalities, 6 permanent-total 
disabilities, 309 permanent-partial dis- 
abilities, and 8,704 which were listed 
as temporary-total disabilities. Some 
of the last group were still undergo- 
ing treatment at the time the records 
were reviewed and their final classi- 
fication could not be definitely deter- 
mined. Presumably, a few of these 
cases ultimately would develop into 
fatalities or permanent disabilities. 

Fatalities 

Skull fractures accounted for 15 of 
the 42 reported deaths. Twelve of 
these were the result of falls; 1 re- 
sulted from a collision of a truck with 
a railroad train and another was due 
to a broken hoist cable which per- 
mitted a creosoted pile to fall and 
strike a workman. For the fifteenth 
case, no details were available. 

Of the 12 falls resulting in skull 
fractures, 11 were from elevations; 4 
of these were from scaffolds. For two 
of these accidents the records merely 
indicated that the workmen had fallen 
from scaffolds. In the third case, a 
carpenter was killed when a scaffold 
on which he was working collapsed. 
The fourth scaffold accident occurred 
as a carpenter was temporarily oper- 
ating a hoist, the controls of which 
were located on the scaffold. Ap- 
parently, the carpenter disengaged 
the brake as he was reaching for the 
hoist lever. The cage, carrying a 
wheelbarrow loaded with concrete, 
fell about 30 feet before the carpenter 



THE CARPENTER 



11 



could stop it. When he applied the 
brake, the sudden stop broke a guy 
wire on the boom of the hoist, per- 
mitting the boom to fall. The work- 
man was knocked from the scaffold 
by the boom and fell 60 feet to the 
street. 

Two carpenters fell from elevations 
to concrete floors and were killed. In 
one case the carpenter fell from a 
ladder on which he had been climb- 
ing to a scaffold. As he neared the 
top of the ladder, he grasped a 2" by 
6" scaffold timber. The plank, which 
had not been nailed (moved and he 
lost his balance. In the second case 
a carpenter fell through a floor open- 
ing which he had cut to permit the 
erection of a smokestack. 

Five other carpenters suffered skull 
fractures when they fell from eleva- 
tions. One was knocked from a rail- 
road car by a timber as it was being 
raised by a hoist. Another lost his 
balance and fell from a roof as he was 
handling lumber. A third slipped as 
he was walking on a steel beam and 
fell 17 feet to the floor. Still another, 
standing on a wall tightening bolt& 
on a form, lost his balance and fell 
to the ground when his wrench slip- 
ped. The final accident in this group 
occurred as a carpenter was walking 
across a piece of plywood which was 
being used as a covering for a pit. 
When the plywood tilted, the carpen- 
ter fell into the pit. 

The twelfth skull fracture occurred 
when a carpenter fell over debris on 
the ground outside a new building. 
His head struck a surveyor's stake. 

Brain concussions accounted for 
three deaths, in all of which falls were 
responsible. In one case, a carpenter 
fell from a roof. In another, the work- 
man fell from a sawhorse and struck 
a pile of bricks. In the third accident, 
a carpenter, standing on a wall, was 
landing steel beams from a crane. 



After he removed the chains from one 
of the beams, the boom of the crane 
struck the beam which turned and 
knocked him from the wall.. 

Four carpenters died as a result of 
strains. In three of these accidents 
death was actually the result of a 
heart attack induced by heavy lift- 
ing. In the fourth case, a carpenter 
suffered a hernia when he tried to 
move a dolly which had stopped and 
settled in a soft spot of the pavement. 

Three carpenters were electrocuted 
—one by a short circuit in a drill and 
two by direct contract with electric 
power transmission lines. Of the lat- 
ter two accidents, one occurred when 
a carpenter touched a "live wire" as 
he was nailing sheeting to the gable 
of a house. In the other, a carpenter 
contacted an 11,000- volt power line 
while he was using a hand line to 
lift material to a scaffold. 

An apprentice carpenter was im- 
paled on half-inch reinforcing steel. 
While he was working from a plank 
which had been placed across two 
steel girders, the plank slipped and 
he fell 38 feet onto the steel. One 
fatal injury was due to heat prostra- 
tion and another was attributed to an 
occupational disease contracted while 
the carpenter was working with creo- 
soted lumber. 

Four seemingly minor injuries re- 
sulted in death. In one case, a work- 
man tripped when his trousers caught 
on a board. He died 2 days later from 
internal injuries which he experienced 
while trying to maintain his balance. 
In the second accident, a carpenter 
fell into a hole and bruised his head 
and trunk. He returned to work but 
sometime later a malignant tumor 
developed which caused his death. 
Two workmen died as a result of in- 
fections of puncture wounds to hands. 
Splinters were responsible for both 
of these injuries. 



12 



THE CARPENTER 



Six of the fatal injuries were gen- 
eral in nature. Falls from elevations 
accounted for four of these and traf- 
fic accounts for the other two. Of the 
falls, two were from scaffolds and two 
from roofs of buildings. 

Permanent-Total Disabilities 

Three of the six permanent-total 
disability cases were back injuries 
and two were head injuries. The sixth 
was a multiple-fracture case. In this 
accident a staging collapsed, crush- 
ing a carpenter in it. 

Two of the back injuries did not at 
first appear to be serious — one, a 
strain, occurred when a carpenter 
twisted his back as he tripped over 
a level; the other, a bruise, resulted 
when a workman was struck by a 
drift pin which fell on him. The third 
back injury, a severe fracture, was 
due to a fall from a scaffold. 

The two head injuries were a frac- 
tured skull and a brain concussion. 
In the first accident, a staging tipped, 
causing the carpenter to fall to the 
ground. In the second accident, a 
descending elevator cage struck the 
workman's head. 

Permanent-Partial Disabilities 

The 309 permanent-partial disabili- 
ties included 225 amputations, 5 enu- 
cleations, and 79 cases involving the 
loss of use of a body part or function. 

Thumbs or fingers were involved in 
all but three of the amputations which 
were divided as follows: 

Thumb 34 

1 finger 148 

2 fingers 29 

3 fingers 6 

4 fingers 3 

Thumb and 1 finger 2 

Great Toe 1 

1 toe (not great) 2 

Total 225 



Of the 222 finger and thumb ampu- 
tations, 117 resulted from contact 
with power saws and 81 with jointers. 
About half the injuries attributed to 
saws resulted from contact with port- 
able electric saws. 

Shapers were responsible for two 
permanent finger injuries and four 
men were permanently disabled by 
hoisting equipment— two had their fin- 
gers caught in the buckets of cranes, 
one was caught on a chain, and an- 
other in a pulley. Two carpenters 
suffered finger amputations in con- 
nection with the use of motor vehi- 
cles. In one case, the workman tried 
to repair a truck and had his finger 
amputated by the fan. In the second 
instance, the vehicle fell from a jack 
as the carpenter was changing a tire. 

Hand tools produced six finger or 
thumb ainputations; hatchets were re- 
sponsible for three, hand saws for 
two, and a sledge for the other. Lum- 
ber contributed to five amputations. 
Two men were disabled when timbers 
toppled over on their hands, one per- 
mitted a piece of lumber to slip from 
his hands and fall on his finger, one 
had his finger crushed under a timber 
as he was placing it into position, and 
another mashed his finger between a 
wall and a piece of lumber which he 
was passing to a co-worker. 

Three amputations were attributed 
to doors. In one case the door closed 
on a workman's finger as he was fit- 
ting it, and in another the spring on 
a garage door broke as an employee 
was hanging the door. His finger was 
caught and amputated by the door 
when it fell. In the third accident a 
carpenter inserted his finger in a small 
hole of a steel door to close it. As he 
did so, a sliver of steel punched his 
finger. The wound became infected 
and the employee lost his finger. 

Another carpenter guided a steel 
pile into a casing and lost a finger 



THE CARPENTER 13 

when it was caught between the pile Moving objects inflicted 32 of the 

and the shell of the casing. In an- 79 permanent loss-of-use injuries, 

other case, a carpenter had a finger Falling objects (building materials, 

amputated when it was crashed by a walls, boxes, etc.) produced seven, 

plasterboard which was blown dowm including two injuries to legs, and in- 

bv the wind. juries to a hand, a thumb, an eye, 

_ r - j . .. „ . - and a neck. In addition, an employee 
Of the three toe amputations, two ' ,£,/ 
, „ r . ..i i . • _n„ who was struck by a railing building- 
resulted from contact with electrically . y & . . f 
, , , t 4-t, 4.1, -^ ^r,c Q form, suirered permanent mmry to 
powered hand saws. In the third case, ' i J /. 

,-, i .i several parts or his body. Flymg 

the toe was crushed under a steel *: ( / fo 

u V. - h 1 r! chips, nails, and other small particles, 

^" and thrown objects were responsible 

In one of the enucleation cases, a f or ]_ fi nger an( j 13 eye disabilities, 

chip struck a carpenter's eye as he E ight g nger j n | ur ies and one eye iri- 

was pounding a piece of steel with a } - ury were traced to blows by hand 

hammer. In the second case, an ap- too r s and two fi n g er injuries were the 

prentice, holding a chisel which an- resu lt of workmen being struck by 

other workman was striking with a powered hand saws. 

sledge, was struck bv a chip which L _ 

,, & „ ' ,, , . i \ 4.U ^ bails accounted for 20 permanent 

flew trom the chisel. Another appren- . . • . . * 

, , £ _ ; „c „ loss-ot-use injuries. Of these, tour 

tice lost an eve when a fragment ota . . . ' ... ' 

.1 i 1 n- j i. 1 u-o ~,-~ ~r f° ot injuries, tour leg injuries, and one 
nail broke off and struck his eye as . J -. » J ' 

, i • i_- i a „l~™ back injury were due to falls trom 

he was applying shingles. A carpen- _ ' - - 

r ^ L { ° v „u~„ scaffolds. Other falls were respons- 

ter foreman lost an eve when an abra- ... £ . ....." . 

, , , , ' j . - ible ior nine permanent miuries, m- 

sive wheel broke and a piece pene- * J . . ' . 

,ii. t i.u c i ,-,™ ^ eluding three general body miuries, 

trated his eye. In the final case, a '*. % * n 1 

y 1 . „. 1 * ^ two arms, two feet, a linger, and an 

carpenter was applymg baseboaid. & ' 

When his hammer slipped, it shat- 
tered the plaster and a chip struck Ten permanent disabilities resulted 

his eye. Infection developed and the from workmen bumping into or strik- 

removal of the eye followed. in g against equipment and other ob- 

„ . . . . jects. Moving parts of powered equip- 

Finger and thumb injuries were ment accounted for eight fin Qr 

the most common of the permanent thumb .^.^ and Qne hjmd ^ 

loss-of-use cases, accounting for 26 The Qther disabilitV5 an eve inju ^ 

of the 79 disabilities in that group. occurred when a car p eri ter struck a 

Eyes were involved in 18 loss-of-use nail which was pro j ecting f rom a 

cases, legs or feet in 14, backs in. 7, f orm> 

and arms or hands in 7. The 79 dis- _ . . . 
,.,.,. i -n j i x, c bix permanent ringer or thumb in- 
abilities were classified by nature or . . * & 

r „ juries, a toot injury, and a back injury 

mmry as follows: , . ■ ' i ,. ,' 

J ' were due to workmen being caught 

Cuts, lacerations (mostly eye in- ^ onj Q r between moving objects. 

juries) ^o Hand tools accounted for two of these 

Fractures 26 injuries and a motor vehicle, a form, 

Bruises, contusions 11 a door, an excavation, a tool box and 

Strains, sprains 10 a tree each accounted for one. Over- 
Burns 2 exertion accidents were responsible 

Foreign bodies, n.e.c. 2 for four permanent back injuries and 

— a stumble was responsible for a leg 

79 injury. 



p 




LANE UD55IP 



COULD BE THE EXPLANATION 

Recently a team of French workers was 
\ isiting the United States studying Ameri- 
can production techniques. For many weeks 
they toured various industries in various 
cities. At die conclusion of their tour they 
decided diere was not too much difference 
between French machines and American 
machines. Neither did they find much dif- 
ference in management techniques. How- 
ever, diey did find American production 
almost double that of French. They pon- 
dered diat for awhile, and finally one of 
diem told the following story to illustrate 
his idea of why American production was 
so high: 

An American girl while visiting in Paris 
met a charming French girl and they be- 
came good friends. Naturally their con- 
versation eventually turned to the interest- 
ing subject of love. 

"The Frenchman is very subtle in his 
lovemaking," said the French cutie. "First 
he kisses your fingers, then he kisses your 
hands, then he kisses your shoulder, then 
he kisses your ear. . . ." 

"Heck," replied die American Miss, "by 
that time the American man is back from 
his honeymoon." 




. m 



"You'll hear from my Union repre- 
sentative about this — ■ he's also my 
fiance!" 



SORT OF FRUSTRATING 

In his first speech as President, Mr. Eisen- 
hower must have given quite a jolt to the 
BBB's (Big Business Boys) who expected 
him to drop all taxes on business and give 
the corporations a free hand on his very 
first day in office. Instead die President laid 
down a program that calls for continued 
sacrifice on the part of all toward the build- 
ing of a better future for all. 

The frustration of the BBB's who had 
their hopes built up so high must have been 
about like that of another fellow who visit- 
ed a psychiatrist. 

"Doctor," he said, "last night I had a 
horrible dream. I dreamed I was stranded 
on an island with a thousand beautiful 
blondes, brunettes, and red-heads. It was 
ghastly." 

"Man," said the doctor, "you must be 
off. Imagine kicking about a beautiful 
dream like that." 

"I know, doctor," continued the patient, 
"but I dreamed I was a girl too." 

• * • 
PAUP ON ECONOMICS 

Miffed at being passed up as a possible 
economic advisor to the new administration, 
Joe Paup. that erstwhile financier who once 
in 1907 handled three whole dollars in one 
week, offered the following opinion on eco- 
nomics anyway: 

"In 1929 many a man had his purse 
cleaned by the stock market. Today the 
super market does the same thing." 

* * • 
RESTRICTED 

A kind-hearted lady who had strict ideas 
about the consumption of strong drink, was 
accosted by a shabby character. 

"Please, ma'am," he whined, "can you 
spare a little cash for a poor, needy fellow?" 

The lady hesitated, sniffing. But he was 
such a pitiful object, that she opened her 
purse. "Here," she said, handing him some 
money, "take diis, but I hope you won't 
spend it for vile liquor." 

The needy one scanned the frugal hand- 
out. "With what you gimme, ma'am," he 
answered sadly, "I can't get no other kind." 



THE CARPENTER 



15 



TAKING NO CHANCES 

Representative Lucas of Texas who has 
several times previously introduced a bill to 
outlaw industry-wide bargaining lost no 
time in getting his bill into the hopper 
again. Before the present session of Congress 
was more than a few days old he had his 
pet bill up for action again. With war, in- 
flation, taxes, and a hundred other ills pla- 
guing the nation, one would think Lucas 
might have plenty of things to keep his 
mind occupied for a month or two at least 
without kicking labor in the teeth. How- 
ever, such seems not to be the case. 

To our way of thinking, Lucas is some- 
thing like the nervous young fellow who was 
visiting a psychiatrist. 

"What do you dream about at night"? 
asked the medico. 

"Baseball," replied the lad. 

"Don't you ever dream about anything 
but baseball?" 

"Nope, just about baseball, night after 
night." 

The doctor was very puzzled. Finally he 
asked: 

"Don't you ever dream about a pretty- 
girl?" 

"What!" replied the young man, "and 
miss my turn at bat?" 

• • • 
JUST A HINT 

Many months ago, the prices farmers got 
for beef began dropping. Month after month 
they sagged downward but the sag was 
never reflected in the retail price of beef 
until recently. Only recently has the house- 
wife been able to notice any difference in 
what the butcher asks for his pot roasts. 

Now we are not saying there was any 
profiteering during the months when farm 
prices were going down while retail prices 
were staying up, but we do feel like a cer- 
tain wife whose husband was on trial for dis- 
orderly conduct. When the judge asked her 
if her husband was a drunkard, she replied: 

"Well, your Honor, I wouldn't exactly say 
he was a drunkard; but I will say the boys 
at the plant have nicknamed him "Bacon" 
because they have to bring him home so 
often." 

• • • 
ANYWAY, IT SEEMS SO 

Legally the husband is the head of the 
house, and the pedestrian has the right-of- 
way, but the cemetery is full of guys who 
trier] to exercise their risrhts. 



WORTH LISTENING TO 

If you do not listen to Frank Edwards. 
AFL radio commentator, you miss a lot of 
good laughs as well as a lot of good com- 
mon sense. As a sample, we give you an ex- 
cerpt from one of Edwards' recent broad- 
casts: 

The mail is full of letters from ladies who 
tell me that their nylons aren't what they 
used to be. From Chicago comes this lady's 
comment: "Tell the ladies and the girls 
that I have solved the problem of nylons 
quite a while ago. I pay 82 cents a pair for 
black cotton stockings. They wear like iron 
and they look like gunny sacks . . . but 
they never run! But then I am 75 and I 
seldom run either." 

• • • 
ASSEMBLY TROUBLE 

In the Soviet zone of Berlin a German 
worked in a plant that was manufacturing 
a bewildering array of small parts which, 
when put together in Moscow, were sup- 
posed to produce a baby carriage. Expect- 
ing an addition to his family soon, the work- 
er decided to get himself a carriage. Each 
night he carried home a different part. A 
few weeks after he had undertaken his 
scheme, a friend, who was in on the deal, 
asked him how he was getting along. 

"I got all the parts," the worker replied, 
"but, you know, no matter how I put them 
together, I always wind up with a machine 
gun." 




'StEEEs 



"I see they want to plug some more 
tax loopholes — I'd like to put in a 
plug for some more, too!" 



16 



ROUTZOHN JOINS LABOR DEPARTMENT 

* 

JUDGE Harry N. Routzohn, for the past quarter century a key member of 
the United Brotherhood's legal staff, has been named Solicitor for the 
Department of Labor, a post second only to that of the Secretary of Labor. 
The appointment of Mr. Routzohn was made early last month by Presi- 
dent Eisenhower and Senate confirmation was routine. Upon his shoul- 
ders will fall the task of reorganizing the entire legal set-up in the Labor 
Department. 



Born in Dayton, Ohio, in 1881, the 
same year that the United Brother- 
hood was born in Chicago, 111., Mr. 
Routzohn has practiced law for nearly 
50 years; and few men have achieved 
more distinguished legal careers. In 
his time Mr. Routzohn has served as 
a prosecuting attorney, as a probate 
judge and as a member of Congress. 
He has taken some of the most im- 
portant cases of our time before the 
United States Supreme Court. Now, 
as Solicitor for the Department of 
Labor, he is destined to perform 
another great service for the Ameri- 
can people. 

In the best American tradition, 
Judge Routzohn started his life as the 
son of a family in very moderate cir- 
cumstances. By the time he gradu- 
ated from grade school in Dayton, 
economic circumstances made it nec- 
essary for him to go to work to help 
support his family. First as a black- 
smith's helper and later as a trolley 
tender he contributed to the support 
of his brothers and sisters. At 15, he 
was appointed a court page. He read 
law but was unable to take the bar 
examination because he lacked the re- 
quired education. 

The would-be attorney turned to 
the study of other subjects until he 
had the necessary requirements to 



earn a teacher's certificate. Equipped 
with this, he took his bar examination 
in 1904 and passed it successfully. 
Shortly thereafter he was appointed 
assistant prosecuting attorney for 
Montgomery County, Ohio. In 1916 




he was elected probate judge, a posi- 
tion he held until he voluntarily re- 
tired in 1929 to resume private prac- 
tice. Ten years later he was sent to 
Congress by the voters of the third 
Ohio district. 

In Congress Mr. Routzohn distin- 
guished himself by exposing the ex- 



THE CARPENTER 



17 



tent of infiltration of subversives in 
the National Labor Relations Board 
and the extent to which the Board 
was biased in favor of the extreme 
left-wing elements in American labor. 
Of the men he exposed some have 
since gone to jail for various frauds 
and others have been proved active 
Communists. 

Twenty-five years ago, Mr. Rout- 
zohn began representing our Brother- 
hood. In no small measure, his legal 
brilliance has been responsible for the 
consistent success which our Brother- 
hood has enjoyed in court matters. 

When Thurman Arnold threatened 
to wreck the labor movement with his 
anti-trust indictments some 15 years 
ago, it was William L. Hutcheson who 
refused to knuckle under or be intim- 
idated by Arnold. Because they were 
faced with possible prison terms if 
Arnold could make his indictments 
stick, some labor leaders took the 
easy way out by surrendering on 
Arnold's terms. 

But not William L. Hutcheson. To 
the Brotherhood legal staff he said 
"fight;" and fight they did. In court 
after court, clear up to the United 
States Supreme Court, they chal- 
lenged the right of Arnold to inter- 



pret the anti-trust laws in such a way 
as to place a stamp of illegality on 
union acts and procedures of long- 
standing tradition. 

That fight has long since become 
a classic in labor law. In conjunction 
with attorneys Charles Tuttle of New 
York and Joe Carson of the General 
Office, Judge Routzohn manned a 
highly important laboring oar in that 
crucial battle. In the end our Broth- 
erhood emerged triumphant, thanks 
to the competence of its legal staff. 
The courage of William L. Hutcheson 
and the fighting spirit of attorneys 
Tuttle, Routzohn and Carson saved 
the labor movement from emascula- 
tion by legal sophistory. 

In the years since the Arnold in- 
dictments, many other challenges to 
the fundamental rights of our Broth- 
erhood have had to be met in the 
courts. In all of them our Brother- 
hood has been vindicated. Each time, 
Mr. Routzohn has played a highly 
important part in achieving victory. 

On behalf of the entire membership 
of our Brotherhood, THE CARPEN- 
TER takes this opportunity of extend- 
ing to Mr. Routzohn every good wish 
for happiness and success in his im- 
portant new post. 



Accidents Are Industry's Biggest Headache 



Strikes, labor's most valuable and seldom-used weapon, are generally false- 
ly accused of a myriad of evils, one being that they are the cause of many 
price increases due to great industrial loss of time. However, a recent report 
by the Bureau of Labor Statistics showed that industrial accidents, not strikes, 
are the cause of the greatest amount of lost time. 

The Bureau's report states that during 1952, 15,000 workers were killed, 
and 84,000 suffered disabling injuries as the result of on-the- job-accidents. To- 
gether with other minor injuries these accidents caused a loss of 206 million 
man-days of earning and production. 

Compared with losses due to strikes and other labor troubles, accidents 
are four times more responsible for losses of man hours. These figures also 
take into consideration that the great steel strike of 1952 nearly doubled the 
average yearly time loss resulting from strikes. 



IS 



Labor Looks After Its Own 



* * 

AN INSURANCE company that paid out better than 84 million dollars 
in claims in a single year would be tempted to brag about the matter 
in full page ads in the nation's leading newspapers. As a matter of fact 
most insurance companies periodically do take space to inform the public of 
the benefits they have paid. Most of them also hire press agents to beat the 
publicity drums in their behalf. 

With all this we have no quarrel. If insurance companies want to blow 
their own horns, that is their own business. Maybe it is time that organized 
labor started doing the same thing. How many people— even those who are 
members— know that international unions affiliated with the American Feder- 
ation of Labor paid out better than 84 million dollars in benefit services in 

the year 1951? The exact figure was 

$84,396,61102. And yet it is doubt- national unions affiliated with the 
ful if even one member in a hundred Federation in 1951 was reported as 
is acquainted with the fact. follows in the report of the Executive 

Inasmuch as there are roughly 8 Council: 

million members in international un- Death Benefits $23,307,483.82 

ions affiliated with the Federation Sick Benefits 14,470,396.98 

and benefit services exceeded 84 mil- Unemployment Benefits ____ 1,054,792.72 

.. , „ . r n .i.i n L Old Age Benefits 20,378,512.11 

hon dollars, it follows that benefit pay- Disability Benefits 1,216,031.88 

ments in 1951 averaged out some- Miscellaneous Benefits 23,969,393.51 

where around $10 per member. That ^ M^QUm 

is a record that merits some publicity 

-particularly in view of the fact that ° ur own United Brotherhood was 
unions are not in the insurance busi- one of the unions which pioneered 
ness. Their prime concern is to look a benefit program to alleviate the 
after the economic interests of their suffering of unfortunate members to 
members; to see that exploitation and wnom the f ates have been unkind, 
economic injustice are eliminated; to From its inception in 1881, our Broth- 
see that workers receive a fair share erhood has provided a death benefit 
of the goods and services they pro- !arge enough to insure a decent burial, 
duce. The benefits which unions pay For years it has also provided a 
are merely additional dividends con- spouse's death benefit and a benefit 
nected with membership. Yet the 84 for total disability, 
million dollars which various AFL For the past quarter of a century 
unions paid out in 1951 to insure that our Brotherhood has also provided a 
deceased members avoided a pauper's pension benefit for old timers whose 
grave or that old timers could have working days are behind them; this 
a little income in their declining years in addition to maintaining the magni- 
represents a record of achievement ficent Home for Aged Members in 
that cannot be discounted. Lakeland, Florida, where retired 

A recapitulation of the benefit ser- members may choose to spend their 
vices paid out by national and inter- declining years in peace and comfort. 



THECARPENTER 19 

The important role which our the total payments made by our 

Brotherhood has played in benefit Brotherhood. 

services is reflected in the figures con- In the final ana i ysis5 what it all boils 

tained in the Federation's Executive down to is that every member of a 

Council report. Of the 84 million dol- un i on affiliated with the American 

lars paid out in benefit services by the Federation of Labor has a right to 

entire AFL in 1951 our Brotherhood be d of ^ t humanitarian 

accounted for $5,262,449 64 That is recQ P rd which has % een achieved . 

roughly 6.2 % of the total. It is also n u r r> 1.1. 
t-- • ,. , , , . .-, . However, members of our Brother- 
interesting to note that the amount •, , , . ,^ . , L . , , 

.j ,° i t, ,i , j hood have a right to be particularly 

paid out by our Brotherhood was , r ° . . ,..5, , , 

more than a million dollars ahead of P rou u d ' for not only in 1951 but also 

the payments made by any compar- m the y ears clear back to 1881 ' the 

able union. Onlv two unions, one of United Brotherhood of Carpenters 

which has a plan wherein employers and Joiners of America has been in 

contribute, and the other of which re- the forefront not only in improving 

ceives a percentage of earnings rather wages and working conditions but in 

than a flat per capita tax, exceeded taking care of its own as well. 



Teachers Declare Civics Text Omits Labor's Influence 



"Very few textbooks (used in the public schools of the U. S.) give fair 
treatment to the history, objectives, and accomplishments of the labor move- 
ment in the United States," Irvin R. Kuenzli, secretary-treasurer of the Ameri- 
can Federation of Teachers, told the Thirty-fifth annual convention of the 
AFT. 

"In discussing this problem with the Central Labor Council of Los Angeles 
in March, 1950," continued Kuenzli, "I called attention to the seriously inade- 
quate treatment of organized labor in McGruder's textbook in civics. 

"In this book, fourteen pages are devoted to the U. S. Department of 
Commerce, fifteen pages to the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and less than 
one-half page to the U. S. Department of Labor." 

Harold Hanover, secretary-treasurer of the New York State Federation of 
Labor, and its legislative representative, declared that business and industrial 
corporations have started a campaign to influence the nation's schools. The 
trade union movement, he said, should demand its right to take part in the 
development of education programs. 

"America's greatest champion of free public education," said Hanover, "the 
trade union movement, is being treated almost like a pariah by our modern, 
self-styled champions of education." 

Hanover said the National Association of Manufacturers is "campaigning 
now for the support of the entire American education program by big busi- 
ness." 

^"Progress in education" can only be rhade, he said, through cooperation 
of "all segments of the community, including representatives of labor, educa- 
tion, the church, and interested citizens, as well as business." 

—Retail Clerks Advocate 



m 



If Your Door Comes From Portland, Ore.— 



It Displays Our Label 

• • 

HOW MANY Union Labels of our Brotherhood does it take to make a 
mile? It all depends. The Union Label used on a few specialty items, 
such as shingles, ranges as long as five and a quarter inches. On the 
other hand, the decal used on some fine fixtures and other highly-finished items 
is barely two inches long. But whether five inches long or two inches long, the 
Brotherhood Label means the same thing— that the products bearing it were 
made by Brotherhood members enjoying at least the minimum of wages and 
working conditions deemed essential to the maintenance of an American stand- 
ard of living. 

Any way you look at it, the Broth- 
erhood Union Labels placed on doors 
manufactured in the Portland, Ore- 
gon area on any working day would 
come pretty close to making up a mile, 
if laid end to end. All doors manufac- 
tured within the jurisdictional terri- 
tory of the Portland and Vicinity Dis- 
trict Council now carry our Label. 
Each- working day approximately 
15,400 doors roll off the production 
lines of 16 door plants operating in 
and around Portland. Each of them 
now carries a Label. That means 
15,400 Brotherhood Labels each day 
adorn doors shipped from Portland 
to all parts of both the United States 
and the world. 

In order to appreciate the full sig- 
nificance of the fact that all doors 
made in the Oregon metropolis now 
carry our Label, it is necessary to take 
a brief look into the past. 

In the early Twenties, unionization 
of the door industry in Portland was 
just beginning. The two door plants 
that existed at the time were being 
organized by our Brotherhood. Shortly 
the most highly skilled men in both 
plants were in the union. This nucleus 
of union men comprised only about 
25% of the men working in the plants, 



for at that time it was the general 
consensus of opinion that only the 
men who employed skills as diversi- 
fied and as technical as those of the 
outside carpenter belonged in the 
union. 

As a consequence, from a crew of 
around 400 at one plant, and a crew 
of similar size at the other, only about 
100 in each plant carried union cards. 
The rest were unorganized and pretty 
much at the mercy of the ever-chang- 
ing economic tides. 

Of the men who were organized, 
fully half were working at piece work. 
The wages of the other men in the 
plants ranged from four to six dol- 
lars per day. And, needless to say, 
the Union Label was only an idle 
dream of the most enthusiastic union 
members. 

Today Portland area door plants 
employ close to 1,200 men and 
women, all of them members of the 
United Brotherhood of Carpenters 
and Joiners of America. The number 
of door plants has increased from two 
to 16. How all this progress came 
about would require too much space 
to tell. However, the story of how 
the Union Label came to be uni 



: 



THE CARPENTER 



21 



—DID YOU KNOW— 

That over four thousand firms in 
the United States and Canada display 
the Union Label of our United Broth- 
erhood of Carpenters and Joiners of 
America on the products they manu- 
facture? This is a fact. However, it 
is difficult to determine the exact 
number using our Label at any given 
time, since the number is constantly 
changing. Some firms fail to live up 
to the agreements they entered into 
when they were granted the right to 
use our Label. As soon as these back- 
sliders are uncovered, their right to 
use our Label is revoked. On the 
other hand, new firms are constantly 
entering into agreements giving them 
the right to display our Label. So 
the number of firms using our Label 
is always fluctuating, but it is well 
above the four thousand mark now, 
and growing constantly. 




Our Brotherhood Label appears on 
an almost endless variety of products. 
It guarantees that these products are 
made under conditions compatible 
with the standards laid down by our 
organization. 

Our Label is over 50 years old. 
Prior to 1900 our Brotherhood had 
no universal Label. Some localities ex- 
perimented with Labels of their own, 
but not too much success crowned 
their efforts. At the Eleventh General 
Convention, held in Scranton in 1900, 
the cabinet makers of New York, 
composing Local Union No. 309, 
presented a resolution proposing 
adoption of an international Label. 
The resolution carried. At a meet- 
ing of the General Executive Board 
in 1901, a Label was designed and 
adopted. However, the Twelfth Gen- 
eral Convention proposed a change 
in the Label. It proposed that the 
design now in use be adopted. The 
action carried and our Label in its 
present form has been the official 
Label of our Brotherhood ever since. 

Everyone who believes in fair play 
and a decent living standard for all, 
should look for our Label on all man- 
ufactured goods falling within our 
jurisdiction. However, it is doubly 
important that our own members 
do so. 



versally adopted by the door manu- 
facturers in the area merits repeating. 

In the early days, the Union Label 
was pretty much an unknown quantity 
in the plants, until shipments of doors 
were held up in England by Label- 
conscious carpenters who knew the 
true value of the Union Label. These 
English carpenters refused to handle 
doors made in Portland until they 
were assured that the plants making 
them would become completely or- 
ganized and apply our Brotherhood's 
Label to their doors. 

As early as 1927 one of the two 
major door plants entered into a Label 
agreement with our Brotherhood, thus 
becoming the first door plant in the 
Pacific Northwest to earn that distinc- 
tion. This company has continually 
lived up to our Brotherhood's require- 
ments for the Label ever since. In 
1940 the other major plant also fell in 
line and earned the right to use the 
Label. 

However, both of the plants re- 
served the right to apply or not to 
apply our Label, as they saw fit. In 
1950, one of the plants agreed to place 
our Label on all doors it manufac- 
tured. Last year the other entered 
into a similar agreement, and since 
that time all doors originating in 
Portland have carried our Label. In 
the intervening years a number of 
other smaller plants had entered the 
door field in Portland. Almost as fast 
as they entered the field they were 
organized and prevailed upon to enter 
into Label agreements, so that today 
the Portland and Vicinity District 
Council proudly boasts that all doors 
manufactured within its jurisdiction 
display the Brotherhood label. 

The number of Brotherhood mem- 
bers employed by the door makers 
in the Portland area today totals 
approximately 1,190, and includes 
both men and women. These Broth- 



22 THE CARPENTER 

erhood members turn out about conceivable type of door. They make 

15,400 doors per day. They work in panel doors, glass doors, exterior 

modern plants under close to ideal doors, flush doors, refrigerator doors, 

conditions for wages ranging from knocked down doors, cupboard doors, 

a $15.20 per day, low to a $19.44 per overhead garage doors> French doors> 

day, high. Piece work has long since e i j j r„ j ..i „ii 

, " , ,. i , »n .1 . . r hre doors, and doors raced with all 

been abolished. All this is a rar cry r , , , , , P1 

from the early days of the 1920's ^ es of hard T W0 ° d > stee ]> glass fibre, 

when the plants were only 25% or- P lastlc ' etc - In fact ' m Poland it is 

ganized; when over half of these were possible to procure any kind of a door 

struggling with piece work; when s ? far invented by the mind of man. 

from four to six dollars per day con- Of the hundred kinds that are avail- 

stituted the average wage. able, only one will not carry our Union 

The Portland door plants are versa- Label; that is a cast iron door made 

tile and efficient. They turn out every by men of another trade. 

© — ■ 

Should Congress Be Put On TV? 

Should the people be given a chance to check on what goes on in Congress 
through radio and TV? Some people say "yes" and some say "no." One of 
the Congressmen who thinks it would be beneficial to have the voters look- 
ing over the shoulders of the people's representatives in Washington is 
Congressman Javits of New York. In a recent speech he said: 

"Government should operate as far as possible in a fishbowl. 

"President Eisenhower's announcement of his intention to periodically tele- 
vise and broadcast presidential news conferences, the beneficial experience 
of television coverage of the Presidential campaign, the already established 
radio and television coverage of the United Nations all confirm the need for 
modernizing our congressional procedures. 

"The way to get the people interested in government is to let them see 
and hear it in action. This has been the experience of political campaigns and 
congressional investigations and is just as true of congressional sessions. 

"The vast coverage of the inauguration proceedings, making them avail- 
able to half of the population of the United States and especially to millions 
of school children over a nation-wide hookup of 118 stations show the audi- 
ence which is practicable. 

"The subject of broadcasting and televising congressional sessions and 
committee hearings has been much discussed within the last year. 

"The arguments made against it that it would result in theatricalism in 
debate or in a relatively few members speaking most of the time, or that it 
can be distorted for partisan purposes, are all matters that can be dealt 
with by the rules of the House and the powers of the Speaker and the com- 
mittee chairmen. 

"Also, the discernment of the listening and viewing audience is not to 
be underestimated. Members inclined to engage in theatricalism will have 
to account for it to their constituencies. This is likely to be an effective 
discipline for all. 

"The profound nature of modern problems and their meaning to the life 
and future of every individual American dictates that major congressional 
activities shall be open to the greatest view possible." 



THE LOCKER 



By JOHN HART, LOCAL UNION 366, New York, N. Y. 

DECIMALS 

Many a miserable schoolboy received his first introduction to decimals about like this: 
The teacher wrote a few figures on the blackboard, stuck a dot between two of them, and 
turning to his mesmerized pupils said, "Boys, that's a decimal. Now pay attention and I'll 
show you how to add them." And so he was taught decimals without having the foggiest 
notion of what a decimal really was. What is a decimal, anyway? If no one ever told you. 
well, you're never too old to learn. You're back in school again, this time with an uncer- 
tified teacher who knows more about a pickaxe than he does about pedagogy, which in- 
formation you probably consider superfluous. 

The word decimal comes from the Latin decern, meaning ten. December comes from 
the same source. It was the tenth month in the ancient Roman ten-month calendar. Two 
months, January and February, were later added and placed on top, which, of course, made 
the tenth month the twelfth. So much for that. Decimals were invented several hundred 
years ago as an abbreviated method of writing a certain kind of fraction. Only die math- 
ematicians knew anything about them until the 18th century, when they were gradually 
adopted to popular usage. Our decimal system of coinage, adopted in 1785, and the French 
metric system of weights and measures, adopted in 1799, are both examples of the simpli- 
fication of figures by the use of decimals. Incidentally, only the English-speaking countries 
have not switched over to the decimal metric system of weights and measures and, outside 
of the U. S. and Canada, all tiiese countries still hang on to a cumbersome, intricate coinage 
system which no American could ever figure out, even with a scratch pad and pencil. To 
avoid doubling back, an explanation of decimals should properly begin with fractions. 

You know what a fractiire is— something broken. Fracture and fraction are alike in 
meaning, both being derived from the Latin fractus, meaning broken. A fraction is the 
broken part of some whole thing— a clumsy way to put it. Precisely and briefly, a fraction 
is a quantity less than a unit. % is a fraction. We call it two-thirds. Some whole thing, 
or unit, has been broken or divided into 3 parts and we are referring to 2 of these parts— 
to two-thirds. The figures 2 and 3 are called the terms of the fraction. They tell us all 
about it. The terms of a fraction are called the denominator and the numerator which, like 
so many mathematical definitions, are big words, hard to remember and equally hard to 
distinguish between. The denominator denominates or names the parts into which the unit 
is broken. 3 is the denominator of the fraction % . The unit is divided into 3 parts— into 
thirds. How many diirds? The numerator tells us the number. 2 is the numerator of the 
fraction % . The unit has been divided into 3 parts. We want to indicate 2 of these parts. 
We write % and we call it two-thirds, and we're now about toe deep in fractions. 

There are all kinds of fractions, but right now we are concerned with only a few. A 
common fraction is any fraction not a decimal fraction. It must have a denominator and 
numerator. If its value is less than 1 it is called a proper fraction. If more tiian 1 it is 
called an improper fraction. % is a proper fraction, being less than 1. 4/3 is an improper 
fraction, being 1%, or more than 1. Well, what do we know now? % is a common 
fraction— it has a numerator and denominator. Because it is less than 1 it is a proper frac- 
tion. Its terms are 2 and 3. Its denominator is 3. Its numerator is 2. Knowing all that 
we're pretty well set for decimal fractions. 

A decimal fraction is a proper fraction whose denominator (bottom figure) is 10, 100, 1000 
etc. A scholar would say a decimal fraction is one whose denominator is 10 or any power 
of 10. Stick to the first definition if you don't know anything about powers of 10. 100 is 
the 2nd power of 10, 1000 is the 3rd power of 10, and so on. So, both definitions are equal- 
ly correct. 3/10, 33/100 and 333/1000 are all decimal fractions. Note that the denomin- 
ator is 1 followed by so many zeros. It can't be anything else. Decimal fractions are not, 
however, commonly written in this form. Whoever invented decimals simplified die writing 
of such fractions. And now, at last, we're ready to explain what a decimal is. 

A decimal is an abbreviated method of writing a decimal fraction— a sort of labor saving, 
shorthand device. Take the fraction 33/100. It requires 5 figures and a line. Written as 
a decimal— .33— only 2 figures and the decimal point are used. Both mean the same, thirty- 
three hundredths— never say hundreds. In writing a decimal fraction as a decimal, only the 
numerator (top figure) is used. The denominator is indicated by the number of figures after 
the point. The point represents 1. Each figure represents a zero. There must be as many 
figures in the numerator as zeros in the denominator. If insufficient, fill in zeros-after the 
point. A few examples should help to make this clearer. 

(Continued to page 30) 



Youca 



to do accurate! 




Read If 4 ways! 1. Direct 
reading centered at one point for 
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2. Ordinary reading as extension 
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3. & 4. Reading from either end 
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Makes Marking Gauge in Units of 
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square against stock. As shown, user 
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2", 4", 6", 8", 10", 12" and up. 



Hook Measurements Can Be Easil 
Quickly Obtained. Green, squat . 
ends hook over stock. User obtai 
hook measurements in even Vi feet fro i 
long stick, o.thers from short 6 * stick. I 



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Editorial 




Another Timely Warning 

On numerous occasions, this journal has speculated as to what this world 
would be like today had some serious attention been paid to the recommen- 
dations made by organized labor down through the years. AFL convention 
proceedings disclose that the Federation was fully awake to the dangers in- 
volved in Hitler's rise to power. As early as 1934 and 1935 the Federation 
was urging sanctions against the Nazis. In the late 1930's the Federation was 
protesting the export of iron and steel to Japan— steel that was destined a few 
years later to rain death and destruction on our boys all over the Pacific. It was 
the Federation, too, which repeatedly warned the nation, not only during 
World War II, but in the years since then as well, that no credence could be 
put in any commitments made by Russia. 

However, the politicians and diplomats all had different ideas, and as a 
result the nation has been led from one international crisis to another. On 
the domestic scene, the record is nearly as bad. Sound proposals on inflation, 
taxes, housing, etc., advocated down the years by organized labor have been 
ignored, with the result that the economy of the nation has been teetering on 
the brink of disaster for the past 15 years. 

What brought all this to mind was a warning issued by last month's meet- 
ing of the AFL Executive Council. In a clear-cut statement of facts, the 
Executive Council warned that a slump is inevitable unless purchasing power 
of wage earners is kept in line with productivity, 

The statement pointed out that since 1949 productivity for industry as 
a whole has increased by 13.2%. During the same period, the "real" wages of 
factory workers have increased only seven per cent, and the average for all 
workers even less. 

This gap between purchasing power and wages is widening, the report 
said, and would have resulted in unemployment even last year except for the 
fact the armed forces removed half a million potential workers from the 
labor pool. 

The statement quotes the President's committee of Economic Advisors 
who recently said that our economy must expand by some 10 to 12 billion 
dollars per year if the present work force is to be kept employed. As defense 
expenditures drop off, it is important that the shrinkage in military produc- 
tion be balanced by increased consumption of civilian goods. Nothing con- 
tributes to high consumption of civilian goods more completely and readily 
than does adequate purchasing power in the hands of the working people. 

"If the present trends are permitted to continue, and wages are allowed 
to lag further behind increasing productivity," the AFL report warns, "a sharp 
and destructive curtailment in America's economic activity will be inevitable. 
This will mean a cut in production, a drop in business and a heavy rise in un- 
employment. 



THE CARPENTER 27 

"A depression is not imminent. We still have before us at least a year of 
stability largely supported by defense outlays. 

"The time for action to avert a depression is before the threat is already 
upon us. To enlarge the buying power of wages, and through them the bulk 
of consumer demand, is vital not only to the American workers, but to the 
prosperity of businessmen, farmers and all other economic groups. 

"It is imperative that wages be kept in line with our country's technological 
and productive growth in order to keep America strong." 

Organized labor is thus once more sounding a timely warning to the 
powers-that-be in industry and government. Will they pay any attention? If 
past performance can be used as any yardstick, the answer is propably, no. 
In fact the NAM has already branded productivity increases as "impractical 
and undesirable." But that only makes it more important that organized labor 
keep pitching. 



It Wouldn't Hurt Any Of Us To Take A Look 

International finance is a highly specialized field which only a handful 
of experts understand thoroughly. Your editor very definitely is not among 
these. In fact, a man less qualified to elucidate on international finance or 
any kind of finance, for that matter) it would be difficult to find. So perhaps 
it is presumptious for a man who has never been able to keep a two-bit 
checking account in balance to delve into the finer points of international 
banking. However, events of the past few years have uncovered a few truths 
that seem rather obvious even to a non-financier as obtuse as your editor. 

Ever since the end of the war, most of the nations of the world have 
found themselves wallowing in a financial morass. Their currencies have 
been unstable, their exports have been insufficient, and their economies have 
been tottering. With one or two exceptions, much of the world, both in 
Europe and in South America, still remains in the same unhappy state. Only 
the bolstering hand of Uncle Sam is keeping some of these nations from 
collapsing completely. And lately Uncle Sam's arm has shown signs of tiring. 
What will happen to these nations when Uncle Sam can no longer carry them 
is a question the experts have to figure out. 

What interests us here is the nations that have pulled themselves up by 
their own bootstraps since the war, and the formulae they used to do the job. 
Perhaps the best example is Peru, the little South American nation that is 
getting back solidly on its financial feet. 

As late as 1949, Peru was in dire financial straits. Its gold reserves, built 
up by the war, were dwindling, its exports were drying up, and nobody wanted 
to accept its currency. In an effort to stave off financial disaster, the govern- 
ment had been controlling prices and wages, it had been regulating currency 
and restricting both imports and exports. It had been directing what was to 
be produced and who was to produce it. Despite all this government direc- 
tion, the economy deteriorated steadily. 

Then in 1949 a new government took over. Instead of devising more con- 
trols, the new government began taking controls off. One by one, the govern- 
ment regulations were junked. 



28 THE CARPENTER 

Almost immediately the economy of Peru began picking up. The sol, the 
Peruvian money unit, began stabilizing at its true market value. With a stable 
sol. other nations began trading more with Peru, and the economy perked up 
as a result. Foreign investments began coming in because investors felt that 
they could get their money out if they made any profits since the sol was 
readily exchangeable in the world's money markets. All in all, Peru began 
a steady climb to solvency. Today it is one of the most stable and prosperous 
nations in South America. Its gold reserves have roughly doubled since 1949. 
Foreign investments have increased eight-fold in the same period. 

Whether or not all the credit for Peru's improvement in economic cir- 
cumstance goes to the transition from a managed economy to a free economy, 
we are in no position to say. But certainly the transition must have played a 
mighty important part. It might not be amiss for the many European nations 
which are continually looking toward Washington for a way out of their eco- 
nomic difficulties to cast their eyes toward Peru and its example of what free 
enterprise can do. 

This is no brief for the present government of Peru which, unfortunately, 
remains a dictatorship, and any dictatorship— even a benign one— is unpala- 
table to all Americans. However, there is no discounting the job that has been 
done in Peru. The job was not done by the government. It was done by free 
enterprise when the government got itself out of the way. 

Another example of what can be accomplished when government steps 
out of the way occurred several years ago when Canada decontrolled her cur- 
rency. During and for several years after the war, the Canadian government 
controlled the export of Canadian currency. All during that period, Canadian 
money was discounted 10% in the United States. A couple of years ago, the 
Canadian government removed all restrictions on the Canadian dollar. Almost 
overnight it jumped to 10% ABOVE the United States dollar. Since that time 
it has stabilized and is now worth around three cents more than the U. S. 
dollar. 

As we said in the beginning, international finance is too deep a subject for 
a broken-down labor editor. However, it does seem to us that the many 
European and South American nations which are trying to solve their economic 
dilemmas with more and more controls ought to take a long, searching look 
at the nations which have abandoned managed economies for free enterprise, 
and the results they have achieved thereby. Furthermore, it might not be 
amiss for all of us in America, too, to take a good look at what the managed 
economies of the world are doing and what their counterparts are doing under 

a free enterprise system. 

e 

Stock Brokers Seek To Bait Another Trap 

Hang onto your pocketbook! The Wall Street boys are after it. Their 
intentions are tipped off by a report prepared by a New York Stock Exchange 
committee and loudly lauded by the Exchange president and members. 

To understand the report's proposals, it is necessary to recall the boom 
before the bust of 1929. Millions of Americans— including workers, school 
teachers, "white collar" employes and other folks of modest means— were 
"playing the stock market." 



THE CARPENTER 29 

It was easy to get into this gambling game, because the "margin" require- 
ment was as low as 5 per cent. Just give $5 to an obliging broker. Then he 
borrowed $95 from a banker, and handed you $100 of stock "chips." 

Some of the suckers were lucky— for a while. If the market price of the 
stock went up from $100 to $150, they made a $50 profit, or 1,000 per cent 
on their $5 margin investment. They decided it was a wonderful game— and 
came back for more. 

The brokers and bankers also liked the game, because they got their 
profit "rake-off" on every share of stock sold. 

Sooner or later, however, the suckers "lost their shirts." They put up S50 
"margin," then $500, $1,000 and still more. They borrowed from their relatives 
and their wives' folks, and watched the stock "ticker." 

Then the price of the stock went down on the market. If it fell even a 
little, the 5 per cent margin was wiped out. The broker called for more mar- 
gin money. The victim didn't have it, so he lost every dollar he had put into 
the stock. Not only that, but he found himself deep in debt to the broker. 

That game helped bring on the crash of 1929. Then millions of good 
Americans found themselves with their life's savings gone, and big debts 
which mortgaged their futures. 

In the sadder but wiser days after the crash, Congress passed a law under 
which the Federal Reserve Board moved to discourage wild booms and busts, 
by forbidding brokers to sell stocks on less than 75 per cent margin. 

Now the brokers, and the bankers back of them, want to return to the 
"good old days" when they were raking in fatter profits than now. The Stock 
Exchange committee urges Congress to cut the margin requirement from 75 
to 40 per cent, so more people will get into the stock speculation game. 

For the same purpose, the committee proposes that Congress reduce the 
"capital gains" tax from 26 to 13 per cent, and shorten from six to three 
months the time a speculator must "hold" a stock to take advantage of that 
tax bargain. 

If that proposal goes through, the tax on unearned speculative profits will 
be little more than half the minimum 22.2 per cent tax on workers' hard- 
earned incomes.— Labor. -" 

• 

Negotiating Committees Must Carry The Ball Again 
When President Eisenhower last month signed Executive Order No. 
10,434, wage negotiations were once more freed from all government restric- 
tions and control. The settlement of wage matters was thereby returned to 
the realm of collective bargaining, where it rightfully belongs. 

In the 11 years since 1942, wage negotiations have been free from govern- 
ment controls only three or four years in all. All during the time controls 
were in effect, both union negotiators and management negotiators have had 
to carry on their negotiations with one eye on Uncle Sam. As a result, the 
art of negotiating may have become rusty. Now that Uncle Sam has removed 
himself from the picture, the men who do the negotiating are on their own 
again. 

This places an additional responsibility on the committees which negotiate 
for members of our Brotherhood. It is up to them to see that our members 
receive a fair share of the wealth they produce. It is up to them to see that 
true collective bargaining is once more restored to labor-management relations. 



30 THE CARPENTER 

(Continued from page 23) 

33/100 is written .33. The numerator (33) preceded by the decimal point. 2 zeros in 
the denominator (100)— 2 figures in the numerator. So, to change a decimal fraction to a 
decimal, write the numerator, preceded by the point. There must be a figure for each 
zero in the denominator. If more figures are needed use zeros in front. 

3/100 is written .03. 2 zeros in the denominator. As we have but 1 figure in the frac- 
tion's numerator we fill in a zero, after the point, to get the 2 figures needed. 
9/10=.9 9/100=.09 99/10Q=.99 9/1000=.009 999/1000=.999 

To write a decimal as a proper fraction: Write the number over 1 followed by as many 
zeros as figures in the number. 
.7=7/10 " .77 = 77/100 .777 = 777/1000 .07=7/100 .007 = 7/1000 

3.1416 is called a mixed decimal. It is a whole number and a decimal. It is properly 
read as three, point, one-four, one-six. A pure decimal has no whole number as, .123. This 
is properly read as point, one-two-three. It is understood as, one hundred twenty-three 
thousandths (123/1000). 

The figures after the point are called places of decimals. 3.1416 has 4 places of deci- 
mals Batting averages are worked out to 3 places of decimals. Lifetime batting average 
of Ty Cobb: Times at bat, 11,429. Hits, 4,191. Divided 4,191/11,429 = .367. 

Addition and subtraction of decimals: Rule— same as ordinary addition and subtraction 
but— keep the points in vertical line. Let the figures go where they will, right or left of the 
point. To avoid error, zeros may be used to fill in blanks if you wish. 

Addition: 









Subtraction: 






1.234 


or 


1.234 


55.5 


or 


55.500 


56.7 




56.700 


6.666 




6.666 


.89 




.890 











48.834 48.834 

58.824 58.824 All decimal points in vertical line. 

Multiplication of decimals: Rule— Proceed as in ordinary multiplication. When the 
product is known, count the number of places of decimals in the 2 numbers multiplied. 
Point back the same number of places in the product. Fill in zeros if short. 

Multiply .818 by 6.2 Multiply .212 by .13 

.818 3 places of decimals .212 3 places of decimals 

6.2 1 place .13 2 places of decimals 

1636 636 

4908 212 

Product 5.0716 4 places back to point. .02756 5 places back to point. 

Fill in 1 zero. 

To multiply by 10, 100, 1000, etc. Move the point 1 place right for each zero. 
123.45 x 10=1,234.5 1.234 x 100=123.4 12.345 x 1,000=12,345 .12 x 1,000=120 

Division of decimals: Rule— Make a whole number of the divisor by moving the point 
to the right end. Move the dividend point the same number of places right. Quotient point 
goes directly over dividend point. Proceed as in ordinary division. Note: When divisor and 
dividend are multiplied by the same number the quotient is unchanged. Moving the divisor 
point 2 places right, for instance, multiplies it by 100. Moving the dividend point also 
2 places right multiplies it by 100. 

Divide 18.204 by 2.22 Divide 42.3 by 2.35 

8.2 Quotient. Point over point. 18. 

Divisor. Point 222. | 1820.4 Dividend. Point also moved 235. | 4230. Fill in 1 zero 

moved 2 places 1776 2 places right. 235 

right to make a 

whole number. 444 1880 

444 1880 

The point at the end of a whole number as shown here is, of course, not necessary. 
To divide by 10, 100, 1000, etc. Move the point 1 place left for each zero. 
123.4 divided by 10 =12.34 123.4 divided by 100=1.284 9 divided by 100=. 09 



31 



WOODEN SHIPS FOR MODERN SAILORS 

• • 

ALTHOUGH great wooden sailing ships are relics of the past, wood it- 
self is not obsolete as a shipbuilding material. Casual visitors to the 
waterfronts of New Orleans, San Francisco or New York would prob- 
ably conclude that modern passenger liners are made entirely of iron, steel 
and other metals, but a close inspection of such a ship would show that this 
is not the case. 

Modern liners have ballrooms and lounges with wooden floors, wall panels, 
stairs and hand rails of wood. Often decks are made of wood on freighters, 
as are nearly all hatch covers. 



Wood is as much a part of ship- 
building today as it was 100 years ago. 
During 1944 the United States Navy 
used 8,850,000 tons of steel, and dur- 
ing the same twelve month period 
used 2,970,000 tons of wood, rating 
the latter material second in tonnage 
and first in volume of all materials 
involved in naval construction. 

American white oak and other 
choice shipbuilding woods are just 
as widely sought today as they were 
in the era of clipper ships. In some 
of the smaller types of naval vessels: 
gunboats, destroyer escorts, mine- 
sweepers, PT boats and dredges, the 
hulls and most of the superstructure 
are composed almost entirely of wood. 
Many floating drydocks are made of 
wood. Flight decks of aircraft car- 
riers, desk slats and some of the 
bearings on submarines, and parts of 
decks on heavy fighting ships are al- 
so wooden. 

Plywood and laminated wood are 
now used extensively instead of solid 
timbers. These types of wood are 
found to have greater strength and 
durability and are more adaptable to 
marine construction. When treated 
with fire retardants they are found 
to be in some ways superior to metals. 
John G. Kuenzel, senior materials en- 



gineer for the Bureau of Ships, speak- 
ing before the Centennial of Engin- 
eering Convocation, held in Chicago 
last September, relates one wartime 
example of the superiority of wood 
over metal. 

"In 1942 a Navy directive was is- 
sued known as a "strip-ship" directive, 
which led to the removal of paint and 
many furnishings from our naval ves- 
sels to prepare them for action. The 
directive was interpreted by some to 
include the removal of wooden decks 
from Naval combatant ships. 

About that time a Naval combatant 
ship was engaged in the Southwest 
Pacific; in the course of action her 
gasoline tanks caught fire and the 
steel melted. For thirteen hours her 
damage control crews fought fire and 
the only thing that stood between 
them and the red hot metal was the 
wooden decking. As a result of that 
experience, Douglas fir, and other 
types of wood decking, remained on 
our carriers and major combatant 
ships." 

Marine laminates have played a 
very important part in modern ship- 
building. The laminated material has 
been found to have several advan- 
tages over one piece timbers. Shrink- 



32 THE CARPENTER 

age and swelling are no longer a In 1854, this ship travelled from Bos- 
problem. Long drying periods are ton to Liverpool on her maiden voy- 
eliminated and the laminates are age. The average speed achieved was 
much stronger than solid timbers. eighteen knots. When compared with 

Mr. Kuenzel emphasized the Navy's tne record of thirty-fonr knots, re- 
dependence on wood for marine con- cently set by the United States, the 
strnction, saying; "The current wood Lightning's speed seems rather slow 
shipbuilding program is going for- until one remembers that wind, and 
ward, with latest developments in not powerful deisel engines powered 
laminates, adhesive testing, wood pre- the clippers. 

servation for decay and marine borer Man thinks that he is making great 

protection. All possible research has progress in many fields of science, 

been mustered in order that these until he realizes that many materials 

vessels will be produced as scheduled which have been in use for centuries 

and that any alternate materials used are still the best for a specific pur- 

in their construction conforms to a poS e. Wood has proven to be a per- 

basic policy of thirty year service f ec t example of this case. Its ability 

life. to withstand fire, rot and marine bor- 

Modern ocean liners are noted for ers, with proper chemical treatment, 

their speed in transatlantic crossings, has placed it back at the top of the 

but even some of the most modern shipbuilder's list of essential materi- 

ships have difficulty in surpassing the als. Men still go down to the sea in 

record of the clipper ship, Lightning, wooden ships. 

. « 

Contractors To Study Changes Ahead 

at 
A. G. C. Miami Convention, March 23-26 



With another peak volume of activity probable for the construction in- 
dustry in 1953, general contractors attending the 34th annual convention of 
The Associated General Contractors of America in Miami, March 23-26, will 
focus their attention sharply on the twin task of carrying forward defense 
construction and an expanded program of civilian projects. 

More than 1,400 of the nation's leading contractors will attend the con- 
vention, whose program is being arranged to provide an opportunity to assess 
industry factors in the coming months. A construction volume totaling $44 
billion has been estimated for this year, comparing with an all-time record 
of $42.3 put in place last year. 

Over 80 per cent of the contract construction work in this country is per- 
formed annually by A. G. C.'s more than 6,200 member-firms, as well as a 
large volume of work overseas. The organization is the one national trade 
association of general contractors of all types. 

Convention speakers thus far announced are: Richard J. Gray, president 
of the Building and Construction Trades Department of the American Fed- 
eration of Labor; Walter Williams, Under-Secretary of Commerce; Carlton 
S. Proctor, past-president of the American Society of Civil Engineers; Major 
Gen. Samuel D. Sturgis, Jr., Acting Chief of Engineers for the Army; Rear 
Admiral J. F. Jelley, Chief, Bureau of Yards and Docks of the Navy. 



Official Information 




General Officers of 
THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS 

of AMERICA 



General Office : Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General President 

M. A. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



First General Vice-President 

JOHN R. STEVENSON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Secretary 

ALBERT E. FISCHER 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Second General Vice-President 

O. WM. BLAIER 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Treasurer 

S. P. MEADOWS 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Executive Board 



First District, CHARLES JOHNSON, Jr. 
Ill E. 22nd St., New York 10, N. Y. 



Fifth District, R. E. ROBERTS 
4324 N. 48th St., Omaha, Nebr. 



Second District, RALEIGH RAJOPPI 
2 Prospect Place, • Springfield, New Jersey 



Sixth District, A. W. MITIR 
Bos 1168, Santa Barbara, Calif. 



Third District, HARRY SCHWARZER 
1248 Walnut Ave., Cleveland, O. 



Seventh District, ANDREW V. COOPER 
133 Chaplin Crescent, Toronto 12, Ont., Canada 



Fourth District, ROLAND ADAMS 
712 West Palmetto St., Florence, S. C. 



M. A. HUTCHESON. Chairman 
ALBERT E. FISCHER, Secretary 



All correspondence for the General Executive Board must be sent to the General Secretary 

IMPORTANT NOTICE 

In the issuance of clearance cards, care should be taken to see that they are properly 
filled out, dated and signed by the President and Financial Secretary of the Local Union 
issuing same as well as the Local Union accepting the clearance. The clearance cards must 
be sent to the General Secretary without delay, in order that the members names can be 
listed on the quarterly account sheets. 

Regarding the issuing of clearance cards, the member should be informed that said 
clearance card shall expire one month from date of issue, and must be deposited within that 
time. Otherwise a clearance card becomes void. When a clearance card expires, the mem- 
ber is required to redeposit same in the Local Union which issued the clearance, inasmuch 
as he is still a member of that Local Union. 



LOCAL UNIONS CHARTERED 



2865 Juneau, Alaska 
1468 Alcolu, So. Car. 

2866 New York, N. Y. 
1662 Van Nuys, Calif. 
1794 Dubuque, la. 

2267 Kapuskasing, Ont., Can. 

2869 Fayetteville, No. Car. 

1773 Mandan, No. Dak. 



1981 Elizabeth City, No. Car. 

2870 Reedsport, Ore. 
1878 Brookfield, Mo. 
1482 Fond du Lac, Wise. 
2301 Star City, Ark. 
2182 Montreal, Que., Can. 
2219 Corpus Christi, Tex. 

2871 Monroe, No. Car. 



3N M 

Not lost to tliose that love them, 
Not dead, just gone before; 



t m o x x n m 



They still live in our memory, 
And will forever more. 



%c&t in Tj^tntt 

The Editor has been requested to publish the names 
of the following Brothers who have passed away. 



CHRIS AAROL, L. U. 65, Perth Amboy, N. J. 

ABEL AGESEN, L. U. 65, Perth Amboy, N. J. 

CARLOS C. BABCOCK, L. U. 1478, Redondo 
Beach, Cal. 

ALVA D. BALLAIN, L. U. 1507, El Monte, Cal. 

OSCAR BEAUVAIS, L. U. 337, Detroit, Mich. 

JOHN H. BEGGS, L. U. 1149, San Francisco, 
Cal. 

ROY BORDEN, L. U. 1849, Pasco, Wash. 

HARRY F. BROWN, L. U. 1507, El Monte, Cal. 

FRANK R. BUCKLEY, L. U. 1507, El Monte, 
Cal. 

PETER CAMPASTRINI L. U. 1407, Wilming- 
ton, Calif. 

DONALD CAMPBELL, L. U. 1149, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

EDGAR W. CASE, L. U. 1893, Fredericton, 
N. B., Can. 

AMOS CHABOT, Sr., L. U. 983, Detroit, Mich. 

W. T. CHERRY, L. U. 764, Shreveport, La. 

J. H. COLLINS, L. U. 226, Portland, Ore. 

ROBERT M. COLLINS, L. U. 1149, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

WM. DIETZ, L. U. 1, Chicago, 111. 

HERBERT E. DORN, L. U. 1, Chicago, 111. 

HENRY DROEGE, L. U. 6, Amsterdam, N. Y. 

MARTIN ENGEL, L. U. 13, Chicago, 111. 

WM. R. FROST, L. U. 226, Portland, Ore. 

THOMAS GABRIELSEN, L. U. 898, Benton 
Harbor, Mich. 

G. L. GALLANT, L. U. 1890, Conroe, Tex. 

HECTOR A. GARANT, L. U. 1149, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

GUST AVE GERKIN, L. U. 1, Chicago, 111. 

RUDOLPH GILDNER, L. U. 226, Portland, Ore. 

JOHN A. GOBEN, L. U. 4, Davenport, Iowa 

ALBIN GUSTAVSON, L. U. 13, Chicago, 111. 

PETER HANLON, L. U. 13, Chicago, 111. 

ALV1N HANSON, L. U. 1053, Milwaukee, Wis. 

CLYDE HARADON, L. U. 226, Portland, Ore. 

WM. HEIDEN, L. U. 1053, Milwaukee, Wis. 

DELMAR HOSLER, L. U. 226, Portland, Ore. 

ELLIS JOHNSON, L. U. 226, Portland, Ore. 

JACKSON F. JONES, L. U. 226, Portland, Ore. 

JACOB KALLIO, L. U. 226, Portland, Ore. 

CHAS. KOEHLER, L. U. 1053, Milwaukee, Wis. 

PAUL LEBLANC, L. U. 764, Shreveport, La. 

FRANK LEE, L. U. 1507, El Monte, Cal. 

ANTON LENK, L. U. 1053, Milwaukee, Wis. 

M. E. LEWIS, L. U. 1822, Fort Worth, Texas 



DEMETRIO MORALES, L. U. 1407, Wilming- 
ton, Calif. 

ALBERT MUDLAFF, L. U. 13, Chicago, 111. 

LOUIE H. MYERS, L. U. 1507, El Monte, Cal. 

WILLIAM NUENFELDT, L. U. 419, Chicago, 

THORLIEF F. OIER, L. U. 1149, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

L. H. OSSENKOP, Sr., L. U. 1765, Orlando, Fla. 
PAUL PADIE, L. U. 36, Oakland, Cal. 
WALLACE PERSKY, L. U. 2079, Houston, Tex. 
WALTER B. PETERS, L. U. 226, Portland, Ore. 
HALVAR PETERSON, L. U. 1149, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

GEORGE RADKTE, L. U. 1053, Milwaukee, Wis. 

BERT REECE, L. U. 226, Portland, Ore. 

JOE BLAKE RICHARDS, L. U. 764, Shreveport, 
La. 

ADELBERT RIGGS, L. U. 439, Kanab, Utah 

HENRY ROSENDALL, L. U. 13, Chicago, 111. 

GEORGE RUEDLINGER, L. U. 90, Evansville 

Ind. 
DENNIE J. RUTH, L. U. 101, Baltimore, Md. 
MICHAEL SACKETT, L. U. 65, Perth Ambov 

N. J. 
J. J. SANDERS, L. U. 764, Shreveport, La. 
ANTON SCHLEGEL, L. U. 419, Chicago, 111. 
JOSEPH SCHNEIDERMAN, L. U. 1157, Pater- 

scn, New Jersey 
FRANK SKROUD, L. U. 1053, Milwaukee, Wis. 
CHARLES STAATS, L. U. 65, Perth Amboy, 

N. J. 
KARL STEINHAUER, L. U. 226, Portland, Ore. 
JOHN STEYER, L. U. 419, Chicago, III. 
MAURITZ STRAND, L. U. 1367, Chicago, 111. 
CLARENCE T. TERRY, L. U. 101, Baltimore, 

Md. 
B. W. THIELE, L. U. 226, Portland, Ore. 
MANUEL TRUJILLO, L. U. 1149, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 
W. V. UPTEGROVE, L. U. 226, Portland, Ore. 
CHARLES E. URQUHART, L. U. 540, Waltham, 

Mass. 
ADOLPH VICK, L. U. 419, Chicago, 111. 
ELMER J. VILLEME, L. U. 983, Detroit, Mich. 
JACOB VOGEL, L. U. 226, Portland, Ore. 
HENRY VOSS, Jr., L. U. 1149, San Francisco, 

Cal. 
HERMAN A. WAHLBORG, L. U. 1507, EI 

Monte, Cal. 
ARTHUR E. WYATT, L. U. 226, Portland, Ore. 



COITQS 




This Journal is Not Responsible for Views Expressed by Correspondents. 

NEW YORK LOCAL OBSERVES 50th ANNIVERSARY 

The Hotel Johnstown was the scene of a banquet held September 18th, the 50th anni- 
versary of the founding of Local 1268 of Johnstown, New York. 

Honored guests included 
William F. Miller, only living 
charter member, George Brunt, 
oldest member in continuous 
years of service, (49 years) and 
Stanley Clark, 42 years. 

Recording Secretary Frederic 
Newnham, Jr., oldest active 
member, with 43 years service 
acted as toastmaster. 

Pins were presented to Mor- 
ris Vedder, Clifford Sparks, 
John Davis, James Stewart and 
Serene Hanson in honor of 
twenty-five years service. 

Following the banquet and the presentation ceremonies, dancing was enjoyed by ap- 
proximately seventy members and their guests. 




Members and guests of Local 1268 celebrate 50th an 
niversary at the banquet table. 



2,000th APPRENTICE BEGINS TRAINING 



Brother Bobby Chase, a 
twenty-one year old veteran of 
Korea, was recently indentured 
into the Carpentry Apprentice- 
ship Program under the aus- 
pices of the Orange County 
California District Council of 
Carpenters and the Orange 
County Carpenters Joint Ap- 
prenticeship Committee. His 
indenture attracted special at- 
tention as he was the 2,000th 
apprentice to be accepted into 
the California State Appren- 
ticeship Program in Orange 
County. 

The value of the Appren- 
ticeship Program is emphasized 
by the interest shown in it by 
many young men returning 
from military service. The op- 
portunity to learn a trade, to 
find a place in a modern society 
and prepare for a secure future, 
in the- best interests of yourself 
and your community, is given 
by the Apprenticeship Program. 




Bobby Chase, 2,000th apprentice to enter training in Orange 
County, California is shown as he begins his work. From 
left to right are: Brother C. C. Mason, of Local 1815, Santa 
Ana, chairman of the Carpenters J. A. C; H. J. Harkleroad 
of Local 2203, Anaheim, Secretary of the Carpenters J. A. C,; 
Brother Chase and Archie J. Mooney, Local 2046, Martinez, 
chief of the Division of Apprenticeship Standards of the 
State of California. 



36 



THE CARPENTER 



JERSEY LOCAL CELEBRATES FOUNDING 

Fifty years of its existence was observed by Local 1209 of Newark, New Jersey with a 
gala celebration held December 27, 1952. More than 750 members, their families and 
guests attended the banquet, show and dance staged by the local. 

Local 1209 President John A. Frank acted as toastmaster. presenting John J. Walsack, 
secretary-treasurer of the Essex District Council; Raleigh Rajoppi, 2nd District General 




Large group enjoys 50th anniversary arranged by Local 1209, of Newark, New Jersey 

Executive Board Member; and the principal speaker of the evening, Second General Vice- 
President O. Wm. Blaier. 

Brother Blaier gave an inspiring address, congratulating the local for the part it has 
played in the success story of the United Brodierhood's history, and our organization's part 
in improving the standards of American economic life. 

A very pleasant evening was completed with a dance, and those in attendance left 
with proud recollections of the contributions of the union to the advancement of America 
and the status of the workingman. 

* 

GOLDEN ANNIVERSARY CELEBRATED BY CONNECTICUT LOCAL 

A banquet and social evening marked the celebration of the 50th anniversary of the 

founding of Local 647, of Fair- 
field, Connecticut. Held July 
26, die affair was attended by 
more than 100 members, their 
families and friends. 

Special guests included 
Frank Judd, a pensioner; Di- 
rndl Kinnie, oldest living mem- 
ber and town selectman; Harold 
Barker, retired business agent: 
and Robert McLevy, newly ap- 
pointed business agent. 

After consuming a steak din- 
ner, the guests were still able 
to enjoy dancing to the music 
of a local orchestra. 

Members of the local voiced 
their appreciation and enjoy- 
ment of the evenings' festiv- 
ities, and looked forward to another successful fifty years as a part of the United Brother- 
hood. 




Shown are officers of the local and honored guests at 
the banquet; from left to right: John Zawesza, trustee: 
Joseph Kovacs, recording secretary; George Mat is, treasurer; 
Frank Salko, vice-president; Joseph Butkus, president; 
Frank Judd, oldest living member; LeRoy Knapp conductor; 
and John Horosko, financial secretary. 



THE CARPENTER 



37 



LYNN LOCAL PROUD OF GREAT OLD TIMER 

On January 17, 1853, Millard Fillmore was winding up his term as President of the 
United States, and Franklin Pierce was looking forward to the inauguration a few weeks 
hence that officially would start his term in that high office, there were only 31 stars in 

the flag of the United States because a large part 
of the west was still uncharted and unsettled. The 
war between the States was still eight years away, 
and such everyday conveniences as electricity, 
refrigeration, the automobile, etc., were not even 
dreamed of by the most progressive thinkers. 

In restrospect, 1853 seems eons back in ancient 
history, yet Local Union No. 595, Lynn, Mass., 
boasts of a member who has linked 1853 and 1953 
in his lifetime. Away back on January 17, 1853, 
Brother George H. Murray of Local No. 595 was 
born in the village of Summerside, Prince Ed- 
ward Island, Canada. As a young man he mi- 
grated to the United States and took up the 
trade of carpentry. 

Somewhere in the early 1890's he joined the 
United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of 
America (the exact date is lost because Local No. 
595 left the United Brotherhood for a short period 
around the turn of the century). His membership 
now dates from 1902. In any event, for nearly 
60 years Brother Murray has been a loyal and active member of Lynn Local No. 595. 

In his long and honorable career in the union, Brother Murray has served four years as 
president, and some 20 odd years as recording secretary. Although, as he puts it, "I 
wouldn't be much good on a scaffold right now," he is comparatively hale and hearty. 

Officers and members of Local No. 595 are mighty proud of their grand old timer and 
it is their fondest wish that good health and good fortune grant him many more years of 
active life. 




Brother George H. Murray, 100 year 
old member of Local 595, of Lynn, 
Massachusetts celebrating his latest 
birthday. 



FIFTY YEAR MEN HONORED 

Three veteran members of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, 
Local 1366, of Quincy, Illinois were honored at the regular meeting January 12, with the 
presentation of gold pins denoting fifty or more 
years continuous membership in the organization. > ^ sj 

The honored men, Charles Lubbert, Edward 
Rengstorff and Charles Pieper, were presented 
with gold pins by Local President Theodore 
Schuette. A luncheon was served following the 
meeting and presentation. 

Brother Lubbert was initiated into Local 1366 
November 12, 1900. He served as an official of 
the union for ten years and was employed as a 
woodworking machine operator in Quincy. 

For fifty-three years Edward Rengstorff has 
been a member of the local. At various times he 
served as warden, trustee, conductor, and as treas- 
urer for the past forty-seven years; a post he 
holds at the present time. 




Local President Schuette pins a fifty 
year award on Charles' Luppert's lapel 
as Edward Rengstorff and Charles Piep- 
er look on. 



On January 1, 1899, Charles Pieper became a member of the woodworking trade. At 
that time, when he was thirteen years old, he was employed by a show case and fixture 
making company in Quincy. He remained an employee of the firm until ten years ago when 
he retired. He has been a member of the local for the past fifty-four years. 



38 



THE CARPENTER 



A FAMILY OF CARPENTERS 

About six months ago Clarence Pliske of Chesterton, Indiana descried the steelworkers 
trade and became die seventh son of Walter Pliske, Sr., to become a carpenter. Herman, 
Walter, John, Tom, Alex and Jim, like their father and brother are all members of Local 113. 

Two daughters, Mrs. Norman Brandt, 
Mrs. George Schooter and their mother, 
complete the family roster. The daugh- 
ters are also reputed to be able hammer 
and saw mechanics although they are 
engaged as housewives at the present 
time. 

Local 113 recognizes the weight of 
the superior numbers made up of the 
Pliske family, for John is its president, 
Herman, treasurer since 1940, Walter, 
Jr., a trustee and delegate and Alex a 
conductor. 

Walter Pliske, Sr., son of Germans 
who immigrated to this country in 1881, 
the year of the founding of the Brother- 
hood, has done construction and con- 
tracting in the Chesterton area for many 
years. The largest building attributed to his work is the nearby Tremont Hotel, a twenty- 
two room establishment. 

John and Tom are now engaged in a new enterprise, Pliske Construction. They re- 
cently completed erection of a local store. Walter Sr., Walter Jr. and Clem work for the 
new firm, Herman is foreman for L. I. Combs and Sons, homebuilders of Gary, : and Jim 
is employed by Tonn and Blank, a construction firm of Michigan City. 

Local 113 was organized in 1916 with the aid of the elder Pliske and its growth and 
success are in part due to die work of Walter Pliske and his seven woodworking sons. 




The Plislce Carpenters: Front row, left to right 
Herman, Walter Sr., Walter Jr. and John. 
Rear row: Tom, Jim, Alex and Clem. 



FIRST ANNIVERSARY FOR OREGON LADIES 

To the Editor: 

Ladies Auiliary 635 of Roseburg, Oregon served a ham dinner at die Labor Temple in 
celebration of their first anniversary on January 17th. A beautiful cake, decorated with 
the Auxiliary Emblem served 
as a centerpiece. 

Approximately thirty-five 
guests enjoyed the dinner and 
the festivities afterward. 

Auxiliary 635 has been bus- 
ily engaged in various activities 
during the past year. We built 
a float for a rodeo parade, 
sponsored a local girl, Janis 
Dowdy, in the Centennial 
Queen contest, made baby lay- 
ettes and contributed $25.00 to 
the March of Dimes. Assistance 
has been given to Local 2949 
in their activities, such as a pic- 
nic last August and the annual 
Christmas party. 

Our Local began last year with 27 charter members, and now has 42 members. 

We meet on the same nights as Local 2949 and to add to the interest of the members 
we have door prizes and a guessing box. 

We would like to hear from other auxiliaries. The Ladies of Auxiliary 635 




Members and guests enjoying a ham dinner in celebration 
of Auxiliary 635's first anniversary. 




IOWA LADIES STAGE SUCCESSFUL AUCTION 

To The Editor: 

The ladies of Auxiliary 307 of Sioux City, Iowa wish to express their gratitude to the 
twenty sister auxiliaries which responded with gifts for our recent parcel post sale. 

This event took place November 20th, following a pot-luck dinner for members and 
their families. The gifts were auctioned with Eddie Mackey of Local 948 doing the honors. 
It was a gala evening and the men did most of the bidding. 

The highest bid was $2.10, but we were able to recognize a profit of $25.10. 

There were many surprises when the packages were opened, and the men nonchalantly 
modeled aprons and various other feminine accessories. 

We have received many inquiries as to the success of our sale which could not be 
measured in dollar and cents alone. Our greatest profits were from the pleasantness of the 
evening and the advancement of fellowship. 

On December 18th we held our annual Christmas party, with Santa Claus, (Jake 
Rasmussen) distributing the gifts and candy to children and adults. The festivities were 
followed by a short program, group singing and a delicious lunch. 

February marks the 15th anniversary of the founding of our auxiliary! We are planning 
a celebration at that time. 

Our present officers include: Esther Rasmussen, president; Gertie Edwards, vice- 
president; Margaret Roe, recording secretary; Florence Smith, treasurer; Faith Fulton, 
conductress; and Zella Severson, warden. 

We enjoy hearing from other auxiliaries, and will gladly share ideas with you. Rest 
regards to our sisters everywhere. 

Sincerely yours, 

Margaret Roe, recording sec'y- 

•— 

WASHINGTON LADIES EXPRESS APPRECIATION 

To The Editor: 

Grand Coulee, Washington, Auxiliary 414 would like to greet all sister auxiliaries and 
let those who have written letters to "The Carpenter" know how much we have enjoyed 
them. 

Of course many of you know where we are located and that we have a wonderful 
attraction for tourists; therefore we are extending an open invitation to all members of locals 
and auxiliaries to visit us whenever you are in the vicinity. Our meetings are held the 
1st and 3rd Fridays of every month in the Carpenters Hall. 

Construction work is very slow here now that the dam is practically completed, but 
work is plentiful in the surrounding areas. 

We have experienced an unusually mild winter, without even the expected white 
Christmas. 

Our auxiliary is quite active, often having rummage sales, or sales of food or embroidery 
work. We usually have Thanksgiving dinners and never miss a Christmas party, with a 
Santa Claus and treats for the kids, both large and small. 

Letters from other auxiliaries would be appreciated as we are especially interested to 
know how many other sisters read the "To The Ladies" page. Even if the letters are not 
forthcoming we would like to wish all a happy and prosperous New Year. 

Sincerely yours, 

Josephine Sevartz, sec.-treas. 



Craft ProblQms 




Carpentry 

By H. H. Siegele 

LESSON 294 

Joints— No carpenter and particularly no 
apprentice needs to be afraid to tackle 



split the material. The nails should be 
uniformly distributed and balanced. To 
avoid hammer marks, use the nail set for 
driving the last quarter or eighth inch of 
the nail. The presence or absence of ham- 
mer marks is a good index to a mechanics 
rating on finishing. 




Fig. 1 



finishing; for if he can make good joints, 
he is a good finisher. Of course, there is 
more to it than that. In order to make good 
joints, it is necessary to do correct measur- 
ing, careful marking, and accurate cutting. 
That will call for measuring tools that are 
true and marking and cutting tools that are 
sharp. When the mechanic has a joint cut 
so that it will fit, it is up to him to put it 
together and nail it. That means there are 
to be no open parts in the finished joint. 
The finishing touches are also important, 
which consist of dressing off and sandpaper- 



S>idin6 Board 



Distribution of Joints— Fig. 1 shows a 
small house with part of the siding on. 



SlDINO 




Mark Hebe 

Fig. 2 

ing whenever and wherever needed. The 
nailing must be done so that it will not 




Everything above the frieze has been omit- 
ted. The basement windows are located 
directly under the windows. The joints 



THE CARPENTER 



41 



shown with X's under them, are reasonably 
well distributed. Butt-to-butt joints of sid- 




Sidino Board 



Siding Hook 



Corner Board 



Fig. 4 
ing should never be put so close together 
that they form a sort of nest, somewhat 



SlDING 




Siding Markers 
Corner Board--* 



Fig. 5 
like those shown with the O's under them. 
When siding is put between windows, or 



between a corner board and a window, 
butt-to-butt joints should be avoided. If 
good management is used in cutting the 
siding, very little waste in material will 
result. 

Marking for Cuts— In squaring the first 
cut of siding boards it is advisable to use 
the framing square, rather than a try square 
or a combination square. As long as the 
edge of the board is straight, it makes little 
difference, but when there are short crooks 
in the edge of the siding board and the 
squaring is done with a small square, it can 
easily cause unsquare cuts. Fig. 2 shows 
the framing square applied to a siding board 
for marking the end cut. 



SlDING 




Corner 



Fig. 6 

Siding Hook— Fig. 3 shows two views of a 
job-made siding hook. The side view shows 
a cross section of a siding board with a 
hook in position for marking the cut. The 
parallel dotted lines running from A to A 
show the relationship of the casing to the 
siding hook when the marking is done. 
The edge view, to the right, shows the 
siding hook again in position for marking 
the cut. The line (partly dotted) running 
from B to B represents the casing line, 
which guides the hook. Fig. 4 gives a per- 
spective view of the siding hook in position 
for marking the cut. A metal siding hook 
in perspective, is shown in position for 
marking, by Fig. 5. This siding hook can 



42 



THE CARPENTER 



only be used for marking narrow conven- 
tional siding. Fig. 6 shows by dotted lines a 
marked siding board after the marker is 
removed. 



Edge Of Siding 




////// 77 

Finished Joint 




Fig. 7 

Under Cutting— Fig. 7, the upper draw- 
ing, shows by the sharp V-shaped dotted 
lines how much bevel the edges of casings 
and coiner boards should have. Here the 
bottom edge of die siding is shown in posi- 
tion for marking. The slightly beveled line 



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between the dotted lines, shows how the 
siding should be under cut. At A, shaded, 
is shown the thickness of the thin edge of 
the siding, onto which the thick edge laps. 
The bottom drawing shows the siding board 
in place and the joint finished. 

Too Much Bevel— Fig. 8 shows the thick 
edge of lap siding in place for marking. It 
will be noticed by the V-shaped dotted 
lines, that the casing has too much bevel- 
much exaggerated. How the marking should 
be done in such cases is indicated by the 
perpendicular dotted line and the beveled 
line pointed out at X. When the board is 
cut on this line, it will fit the casing some- 
what as shown at O. The edge of the board 
in place is indicated by dotted line. The 
thin edge of the siding is shown shaded. 
This view and the two views shown in Fig. 
7 are from the bottom straight up. The 



CftSING- 




casing is in cross section and shown only 
in part. 

Cut for Beveled Corner— Fig. 9 shows 
a sort of diagram, illustrating how to cut 
the siding for a beveled corner. At the 
top is shown the thin edge of the siding 



Thin Edge: 




Thick Edge 



Fig. 9 



with the bevel marked on it. The shaded 
part to the right is the part to be cut off. 
At die bottom is shown die thick edge of the 
siding, also marked for the bevel. The 
shaded part to the right is the part that is 
to be cut off. By dotted lines, at the top 



THE CARPENTER 



43 



and at the bottom, is shown how the 
points are arrived at to get the face line 
pointed out at A. The shaded part to the 
right is to be cut off. The line of the cut 
on the back of the siding is shown by 
dotted line and pointed out on the draw- 
ing. The line representing the corner of 
the building should be kept in mind when 
the diagram is under study. 

Wide Siding-All of the illustrations in 
this lesson show narrow lap siding. The 
reason for this is that narrow siding requires 
much less space in making details, than 
wide siding. The application is the same, 
whether narrow or wide siding is used. 
For marking wide siding the job-made sid- 
ing hook will give the best service. In 
making the hook, be sure that it will be 
long enough to reach across the board, and 
that the slot will be wide enough to re- 
ceive the board. 



GABLE STUDDING 

Gable studding can be framed in advance 
so that they will space themselves, as it were 
without marking the plate— all that is nec- 



Di//erence in Lengfh 
16 indies 



deference in LenafH 
2.W 




This difference in the lengths can also be 
gotten in a practical way with the square, 
as shown by the illustrations. 

Fig. 1 shows a pair of gable rafters in 
place. The pitch is one-half pitch. The first 
thing to do is to make sure that the rafters 
are perfectly straight and held straight with 
stay braces, as shown. Then either set a 
studding at the center, as shown, or else 
use a straightedge instead, and apply the 
square, letting the horizontal arm intersect 
with the bottom of the rafter, just one space 



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44 



THE CARPENTER 



from die studding (or straightedge). The 
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the lengths of the studding. 




Fig. 2 

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by the makers of famous Greenlee tools. 

GREENLEE TOOL CO. 

2083 COLUMBIA AVENUE, ROCKFORD, ILLINOIS 



with these 
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# Ten second blade change 
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# Easy-to-read crackproof white face 

# Built-in automatic brake 

AT YOUR HARDWARE DEALER TODAY 

Produced under patents 2089209,2510939 



CARLSON & SULLIVAN, INC. 



MONROVIA. CALIFORNIA 



NOTICE 



The publishers of "The Carpenter" reserve the 
right to reject all advertising matter which may 
be, in their judgment, unfair or objectionable to 
the membership of the United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America. 

All Contracts for advertising space in "The Car- 
penter." including those stipulated as non-can- 
cellable, are only accepted subject to the above 
reserved rights of the publishers. 



Index of Advertisers 



Carpenters' Tools and Accessories 

Page 

The American Floor Surfacing 

Machine Co., Toledo, Ohio 4th Cover 

Carlson and Sullivan, Inc., Mon- 
rovia, Calif. 46 

Eliason Tool Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 46 

E-Z Mark Tools, Los Angeles 

Calif. 43 

Foley Mfg. Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. ] 48 

Greenlee Tool Co., Rockford, 111 46 

Kingsdown Cable & Wire Co., 

Chicago, 111. 43 

The Lufkin Rule Co., Saginaw, 

Mich. 3rd Cover 

A. D. McBurney, Los Angeles, 

Calif. 44 

Miller Falls Co., Greenfield, 

Mass. 47 

The Paine Co., Addison, 111. 3rd Cover 

Porter-Cable Machine Co., Syra- 
cuse, N. Y. 1 

Sharp Mfg. Co., Salem, Ore. 46 

Simplex Level Co., Detroit, 

Mich. 4th Cover 

The Speed Corp., Portland, Ore._4th Cover 

Stanley Tools, New Britain, 

Conn. 24-25 

Swanson Tool Co., Oak Lawn, 111. 48 

Zapart Saw Filer, Brooklyn, N. Y. 44 

Carpentry Materials 

Boyle-Midway, Inc., New York, 

N. Y. 4 

E. L. Bruce Co., Memphis, Tenn. 4 

Technical Courses and Books 

American Technical Society, Chi- 
cago, 111. 47 

Audel Publishers, New York, 

N. Y. 3rd Cover 

Chicago Technical College, Chi- 
cago, 111. 3 

A. Reichers, Palo Alto, Calif 4th Cover 

H. H. Siegele, Emporia, Kans.__ 42 

Simmons-Boardman Publishing 

Corp., New York, N. Y 45 

Tamblyn System, Denver, Colo— 48 



KEEP THE MONEY 
IN THE FAMDLY1 

PATRONIZE 
ADVERTISERS 




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NO MONEY 

MORE THAN 

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• 

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9 BIG COMPLETE BOOKS 

BUILDINGy ESTIJVIATING, CONTRACTING 



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in our more than 50 years we have never offered more 
complete building information. Send the coupon TODAY. 
(A year's consulting privileges with our engineers now 
given with these books without extra cost.) 



AMERICAN TECHNICAL SOCIETY— Publishers Since 1898 
Dept. G-336 Drexel Ave., at 58th St., Chicago 37, III. 
I would like to examine your 9-Volume Set of Building, 
Estimating, Contracting Books. I will pay the delivery 
charges only, but If I choose I may return them express 
collect. If after 10 days' use I prefer to keep them, I will 
send you $3 plus postage and pay the balance at the rate of 
only $4 a month until $34.80 has been paid. Include con- 
sulting service as offered above. 

Name . 



Address 



City State 

Please attach letter giving employer's name and address 
(If self employed give businessman reference). Men In 
s ervice please give home address 

Onlythetfew 

Millers Falls No. 966 
Sander-Polisher 

Voeslhem 
/III... 




!,The! most versati le tool ■•: 
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'-■■ MILLERS FALLS COMPANY;" : 
Greenfield, Mass. : ; -, . 

'xMILLERS FALLS// 
\ TOOLS '/ 





It's the only Sander-Polisher 
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Complete with 
6" rubber pad, 
6" lamb's wool 
bonnet and 
three 6" sand- 
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new SPEED SQUARE 

LARGER IN SIZE <'•" » »*• 

u are one of our thousands of customers, you will like 
improved square even better, with its time saving fea- 
es. Pivot the corner against the rafter and with an easy 
ction swing to cut wanted. 

• USE SAME NUMBER ALL CUTS EACH ROOF 
Invented and developed by experienced carpenters for 
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tool. 

Not an extra tool for your tool box. You 
use this Square for all other work. 
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Being 3/16 inch thick the edge of the Square is 
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The Rafter Booklet gives lengths for all 
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Rust Proof - Light - Strong Aluminum 



$0.25 



Black, 
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numerals, non- 
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(with books) 

POSTPAID 
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50c FOR BOOKS ONLY. 
MONEY BACK GUARANTEE 



read after years of use 

Two rafter length books with each square 

If your dealer cannot supply you, 
send direct to: 



SHOWING POSITION OF 
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ALSO FORTOP OF'-, w m ~ 

gi s p E °RVAL.jo,NCH5 wanson t 00 | Co 



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• Oak Lawn, Illinois 




FOR 
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Send FREE BOOK — "Money Making Facts'' 

Fame « 

Address 




LEARN TO ESTIMATE 

If you are ambitious to have your own busi- 
ness and be your own boss the "Tamblya 
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If ycu are an experienced carpenter and 
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first lesson begins with excavations and step 
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1115 So. Pearl St., C-53, Denver 10, Coio. 



BUILT 

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201 

A "RED END" RULE — 
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InJ I set Paine 
Expansion Screw Anchors in 
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anCl TIGHT en the screw. 
For a job that won't pull loose, 
you'll find it pays to do it this 






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ANCHORS 

■" Drill the hole with a 
Paine "Sudden Depth" 
Carboloy-tipped bit ■* 



THE PAINE COMPANY 
4 Westgate Road, Addison* Hi. 



the best craftsmen always take 



pAME/s 



AUDELS. Carpenters 
and Builders Guides 

4voIs.*6 



InsideTrade Information 

for Carpenters, Builders, Join- 
ers, Building Mechanics and all 
Woodworkers. These Guides 
give you the short-cut instruc- 
tions that you want— including 
new methods, ideas, solutions, 
plans, systems and money sav- 
ing suggestions. An easy pro- 
gressive course for the appren- 
tice and student. A practical 
daily helper and Quick Refer- 
ence for the master worker. 
CarpenterB everywhere are us- 
ing these Guides as a Helping 
Hand to Easier Work. Better 
Work and Better Pay. To get 
this assistance for yourself, 
simply fill in and 
mail FREE COUPON below. 

How to use the steel square — How to file and 
set saws — How to build furniture — How to use 
a mitre box — How to use the chalk line — How 
to use rules and scales — How to make joints — 
Carpenters arithmetic — Solving mensuration 
problems — Estimating strength of timbers — 
How to set girders and sills — How to frame 
houses and roofs — How to estimate costs — How 
to build houses, barns, garages, bungalows, etc. 
— How to read and draw plans — Drawing up 
specifications — How to excavate — How to use 
settings 12, 13 and 17 on the steel square — How 
to build hoists and scaffolds — skylights — How 
to build stairs — How to put on interior trim — 
How to hang doors — How to lath — lay floors — 'How to paint. 




Inside Trade Information On: 




AUDEL, Publishers, 49 W. 23rd St., New York 10, N. Y. 

Mail Audels Carpenters and Builders Guides, 4 vols., on 7 days' free 
trial. If OK I will remit $1 in 7 days and $1 monthly until $6 is paid. 
— Otherwise I will return them. No obligation unless I am satisfied. 

| Name . 



CAR 



Full Length Roof Framer 

A pocket size book with the EN- 
TIRE length of Comnion-Hip-Valley 
and Jack rafters completely worked 
out for you. The flattest pitch is % 
inch rise to 12 inch run. Pitches in- 
crease \'i inch rise each time until 
the steep pitch of 24" rise to 12" 
run is reached. 

There are 2400 widths of build- 
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width is Vi inch and they increase 
1 / i" each time until they cover a 50 
foot building. 

There are 2400 Commons and 2400 
Hip, Valley & Jack lengths for each 
pitch. 230,400 rafter lengths for 48 
pitches. 

A hip roof is 48'-9%" wide. Pitch 
is 7V 2 " rise to 12" run. You can pick 
out the length of Commons, Hips and 



Jacks and 



IN ONE MINUTE 



the cuts. 



Let us prove it, or return your money. 

Getting the lengths of rafters by the span and 
the method of setting up the tables is fully pro- 
tected by the 1917 & 1944 Copyrights. 

Price $2.50 Postpaid. If C. O. D. pay $2.90. 

Californians Add 8c. Money back privilege. 

Canadians use Money Orders. 



A. RIECHERS 



P. O. Box 405 



Palo Alto, Calif. 



improved 78" LEVEL $ 14 85 

For setting door jambs and windows. No other like 
it. 4 plumbs, 2 levels. Use either end or edge up. 
Weighs 4i lbs. I-beam type, non-warp. Patented. 

NO FACTORY REPAIRS NEEDED! 

New positive-clamp Spirit Tube glass holder (50c) Is 
replaced in a minute with ordinary screwdriver. 

72"— $14.35 All sizes extruded aluminum 

DIRECT from Factory, Express Prepaid 

Cash with order. 

SIMPLEX LEVEL CO. INC. 

4923 Cadillac Blvd. Detroit 14, Mich. 



BIG MONEY 

• in your hands! 



BE YOUR OWN BOSS! 

Men who are determined 
to get ahead in some- 
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A 



SEND . . 

MERICAN 

FLOOR SURFACING MACHINE CO. 
520 So. St. Clair St., Toledo 3, 0. 




SHARPEN 



CIRCULAR SAWS 
LIKE AN EXPERT 



Keep circular saw blades 
sharp and true cutting. 
With the Speed Circular 
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THE SPEED CORP. DEPT. A 

3420 S.W. MACADAM AVE., PORTLAND 1, OREGON 






Official Publication 





: 






soys MR. A. C. HI LUNGER 
after Q*X years of 

Saws 



service 




SJ<fL 



Add up the number of years these 
four SKIL Saws have been used by 
Mr. A. C. Hillingerof Glencoe, Illinois, 
and you get a total of 62 years of SKIL 
Saw service. Since he bought his first 
SKIL Saw in 1928, Mr. Hillinger finds 
SKIL Saws can be counted on to per- 
form accurately and dependably un- 
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steady flow of power and the perfect 
balance to make straighter. easier cuts. 



SKIL Products are made only by SKIL Corporation 

formerly SKILSAW, Inc. 

5033 Elston Avenue, Chicago 30, Illinois 



There are 10 SKIL Saw models ... all 
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Your SKIL Distributor will show 
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pendable SKIL Tools can serve you 
better and easier. 





PORTABLE 



TOOLS 



SKIL Belt Sander 



SKIL Disc Sander 



•* SKIL Factory Branches in 34 Principal Cities 
tn Canada: Skilfools, Ltd., 3601 Dundas Street West, 
Toronto 9, Ontario 



A Monthly Journal, Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners 
of America, for all its Members of all its Branches. 

PETER E. TERZICK, Editor 
Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis 4, Indiana 



Established in 1881 
Vol. LXXIII— No. 4 



INDIANAPOLIS, APRIL, 1953 



Oiip Dollar Per Year 
Ten Cents a Copy 



— Con tents — 



It Pays To Be Prepared 5 

A warning from the General President concerning the possible return of wage controls. 



The Fight Must Go On 

The battle against cancer must be eternal. 



8 
12 



Home Ownership-American Bulwark 

Increasing interest rates on government housing loans is not a fair solution for the 
wage earner. 



Carpentry Involves Many Hazards 

s on the Departmenl 
* * • 



15 

Second in a series of reports on the Department of Labor's analysis of the causes of 
carpentry accidents. 



OTHER DEPARTMENTS 

Plane Gossip 

The Locker 

Editorials 

Official 

In Memoriam 

Correspondence 

To The Ladies 

Craft Problems 

Index to Advertisers 



* * * 



10 

23 
24 
30 
31 
33 
37 
38 

46 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND.. as second class mail matter, under Act of 

Congress. Aug. 24, 1912. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for 

in Section 1103, act of October 6, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918. 



CARPENTERS 

BUILDERS and APPRENTICES 




THOROUGH TRAINING IN BUILDING 

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CHICAGO TECHNICAL COLLEGE 

TECH BLDG.,2000 SOUTH MICHIGAN AVE., CHICAGO 16, ILL. 



Chicago Technical College 

D-125 Tech Bldg., 2000 So. Michigan Ave., 

Chicago 16, Illinois 

Mail me Free Blue Print Plans and Booklet: "How to Read Blue Prints" 
with information about how I can train at home. 

Name Age 

Address Occupation 

City Zone State 



L_ 





imri&'ygtljgpr about 
dirt jf Wands . . ^yfii 



UPSON 







are 








WIPE INK AWAY 
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UPSOU 



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Name 

Street 



City 

Name of Lumber Dealer . 




Upson Sample Kit in- 
cludes all the material 
shown above. 



It Pays To Be Prepared 

By M. A. HUTCHESON, General President 



* * 




w 



HEN President Eisenhower signed Ex- 
ecutive Order No. 10,434, late in January, 
all government control over wages and 
salaries was eliminated. Determination of wage 
rates thereby reverted back to management and 
labor as a part of the collective bargaining process. 

In the 11 years since 1942, wage rates have been 
under government control for all but three or four 
years between the end of World War II and the 
start of war in Korea. As a result, wage negotia- 
tions largely have been carried on in the atmos- 
phere of a goldfish bowl. Negotiators have had to 
keep an eye on Washington at all times, because 
Washington has had the final say in wage matters 
most of the time since 1942. With all government restraints on wages now off, 
the full burden once more passes back to the negotiating committees them- 
selves. The government will no longer either hurt them or help them. Local 
unions and district councils will get only what wage gains they can hammer 
out at the negotiating table. 

Whether the removal of wage and 
price controls at this particular time 
is a wise or foolish move, only time 
will answer. Certainly few questions 
were more hotly debated before the 
President made his decision. Whether 
we like it or not, we must face the fact 
that controls are now off, and must 
govern ourselves accordingly. 

In this respect, there are one or 
two matters which I would like to call 
to the attention of our local unions 
and district councils. 

First, while controls are definitely 
off at the present time, no one can 
tell how long they will stay off. If in- 
flation remains unchecked for any 
length of time, wage and price con- 
trols may go back on without further 
ado. In fact a bill giving the President 



standby power to reimpose controls at 
any time has already been introduced 
in the Senate. If the threat of all-out 
war becomes more serious, new con- 
trols are almost certain. If an all-out 
war does break out, they are a fore- 
gone conclusion. 

This being the case, it would be 
wise for all of us to take a good look at 
the years during which we have had 
controls and how we fared under 
them. In looking back over the past 
10 years, I think I can make one gen- 
eral observation— the local unions 
and district councils which went into 
wage controls with their agreements 
right up to date and their records 
complete fared the best. Let me ex- 
plain: 



THE CARPENTER 



Most local unions and district coun- 
cils have long had such things as 
differentials for foremen, millwrights, 
piledrivers, etc. Most of them also 
have had differentials for extra-haz- 
ardous work, night work, etc. Practi- 
cally all have time and a half or 
double time for overtime or holiday 
work. Some locals and councils have 
these benefits incorporated in written 
agreements. Others have them in the 
form of verbal agreements. Some have 
them by past practice and custom. 

When wage controls went on, the 
locals and district councils that could 
prove they had these things in the 
past had little difficulty in establishing 
them as a part of their normal wage 
structure before a wage board. On 
the other hand, the unions which did 
not have adequate records to prove 
their case sometimes ran into diffi- 
culties. 

For example, a small local union 
located in a community where there 
was only an occasional bit of pile driv- 
ing work may have had no difficulty 
in convincing the contractors that pile 
driving work rated a pay differential. 
When wage controls came on, how- 
ever, the wage board sometimes was 
hard to convince that such a differen- 
tial existed unless the union was able 
to back up its claim with a written 
agreement or an authentic record of 
past jobs where such a differential 
was paid. 

This may seem a trivial matter, 
but just such things as this have 
caused many local unions and dis- 
trict councils headaches under wage 
controls. Sometimes it has cost them 
money, too. Wage boards are usually 
sticklers for one thing; they always 
want ironclad proof of any claims 
made by either labor or management. 

That a practice may have been 

long standing and widely accepted 



usually meant nothing to a wage 
board without substantiating evidence. 
For example, a union may have had 
a wage differential for extra-hazardous 
work for 15 years. However, the board 
usually paid little heed to the prac- 
tice unless the union could definitely 
establish the fact that such a differen- 
tial existed by either producing an 
agreement in writing or showing a 
fairly complete list of jobs on which 
such differentials had been paid for 
a number of years past. The word of 
the union was seldom enough. The 
board wanted concrete evidence. The 
unions which could produce such evi- 
dence made out all right; those which 
could not, ran into all sorts of head- 
aches. 

In view of the fact that the threat 
of new controls will be hanging over 
our heads for many years to come, it 
seems to me that our unions will be 
making a mistake if they do not profit 
from past experience under govern- 
ment stabilization of wages. I would 
advise all unions to bring their agree- 
ments and records up to date as rapid- 
ly as possible and keep them there 
from now on. If possible get all 
"fringe" benefits down in writing. If 
this is not possible, keep an accurate 
record of every job on which such 
benefits were paid. 

This is particularly important for 
the unusual situations. There may 
have only been a couple of small pile 
driving jobs in your vicinity in the 
past ten years. Next month the gov- 
ernment may decide to put a multi- 
million dollar defense project in your 
area which will involve hundreds of 
pile driving jobs. If you can prove 
there has been a premium for pile 
drivers in the past, a wage board will 
go along with you in the event wage 
controls are reimposed. If you can- 
not, all sorts of complications may 
develop. 



THE CARPENTER 



It is important, then, that we all 
conduct our affairs just as though 
wage controls were due to return next 
week, for they may come at any time. 

Another thing which created diffi- 
culties for some of our unions under 
wage controls was the fact that they 
did not keep a file of old agreements. 
When wage controls went on right 
after the outbreak of war in Korea, 
the Wage Stabilization Board set a 
definite date as the basing point for 
all wages. To determine exactly what 
the wage rates were on that given 
day, the board demanded copies of 
wage agreements for several years 
back. Those unions that had copies 
of old agreements got along fairly 
well. Those that did not had many 
more troubles. Therefore, it is im- 
portant that our unions keep a file 
of old agreements. 

Other of our unions ran into com- 
plications because they did not have 
their newest wage rates on file with 
the Davis-Bacon Division of the De- 
partment of Labor. Whenever a new 
wage scale is put into effect in an 
area, that new scale should be placed 
on file with the Davis-Bacon Division, 
for it is these Davis-Bacon scales that 
the government uses in predetermin- 
ing what wage rates for a given area 
are to be. 

Because they failed to keep Davis- 
Bacon posted as to then newest wage 



scales, some local unions ran into diffi- 
culties under wage stabilization. The 
government predetermined wages for 
the area at the old rate because it 
did not have the newest rate on file. 
Then when the union protested, it was 
sometimes difficult to convince the 
wage board that the wrong rate had 
been used. Usually the matter was 
straightened out, but only after a good 
deal of arguing and hard work on the 
part of the General Office. 

These are all things that can be 
avoided in the future, and I strongly 
urge all local unions and district coun- 
cils to take careful note of them. 
Wage controls may never come back. 
On the other hand, they may be back 
with us next month or the month 
after. In any event, it will pay us to 
be prepared for them at any time. 
W 7 hat this involves is getting as much 
of our wage and working conditions 
as possible down on paper. It involves 
keeping an accurate record of jobs 
done by our men It involves keeping a 
file of our past agreements, and keep- 
ing our newest wage rates on file with 
the Davis-Bacon Division of the De- 
partment of Labor. It may entail a 
little wor^, but that work could well 
pay handsome dividends in the event 
wage controls catch up with us 
again. 



ALTEMEYER URGES PENSIONS BE EXTENDED 

Social Security Commissioner Arthur Altemeyer proposed that pensions for the aged 
should be extended to cover individuals who are not under a retirement system, urged 
that workers permanently and totally disabled be allowed to retire with benefits at any 
age, and recommended a compulsory national health insurance program. 

His recommendations, included in his annual report which has just been released, 
were along the lines suggested by the AFL on numerous occasions. 

The commissioner also asked for repeal of legislation providing that relief rolls must 
be made public, and suggested that federal assistance should be given a state helping 
any needy person. At present, die states carry the full expense of the public assistance 
program not covered by federal-state plans of aid to die aged, dependent children, the 
blind and totally disabled. 

Altemeyer proposed that the poorer states receive a relatively higher proportion of 
federal relief funds for administrative expenses. 



The Fight Must Go On 

* * * 

IT IS a matter of proud record that the organized labor groups of the 
nation have contributed immeasurably to the political, economic and 
social well-being of the country. Workingmen everywhere have been 
quick to respond to the challenge of any force which threatens the security 
of themselves or the community in which they live. 

One of our most vital concerns is health. No one knows better than the 
workingman what a bitter toll is extracted from us by the forces of disease. 
It is a toll measured by wages lost, savings exhausted, lives snapped short and, 
most of all, the smashing emotional impact of pain, suffering and loss of those 
we love. 

One by one the great disease killers 
of man have been conquered and 
these victories have resulted in longer 
and more fruitful lives. Now the bat- 
tle is being joined against one of the 
oldest killers of mankind— cancer. 

And that fight is being won. Ac- 
cording to the American Cancer So- 
ciety, cancer patients are being cured 
today who would not have been 
saved ten or even five years ago. Yet 
despite these advances in medical 
knowledge, cancer has become the 
second ranking disease killer of man- 
kind. It now kills one in Seven. Six 
hundred Americans are dying every 
day. In 1953, 225,000 will die of can- 
cer. Many of these will be children. 
For cancer kills more children be- 
tween the ages of three and fifteen 
than any other disease. 

These are the ominous facts of the 
cancer picture for 1953. Yet there is 
hope, great hope, for man in this 
struggle. From statistics prepared by 
the American Cancer Society, it is 
learned that last year 70,000 lives 
were saved. Principally because those 
people went to their doctor in time. 
For cancer is most curable when de- 
tected early. The American Cancer 



Society goes on to say that an addi- 
tional 70,000 could have been saved 
by early detection and prompt treat- 
ment. 

Knowing cancer's seven danger sig- 
nals will help protect you against can- 
cer. They are: 

1. Any sore that does not heal. 

2. A lump or thickening in the 
breast or elsewhere. 

3. Any change in a wart or mole. 

4. Unusual bleeding or discharge. 

5. Persistent indigestion or diffi- 
culty in swallowing. 

6. Persistent hoarseness or cough. 

7. Any change in normal bowel ha- 
bits. 

Appearance of any danger signal 
may not mean cancer. But it should 
always mean an immediate visit to a 
physician. An even better protection 
against death from cancer is an an- 
nual physical examination for all men 
over 45 and all women over 35. 

The American Cancer Society is in 
the forefront of this crusade against 
the killer. It is the only organization 
that is fighting cancer on three fronts: 
Education, research and sendee to 



THE CARPENTER 



the cancer victims and his family. In 
the past eight years the ACS has 
given $24,500,000 to research alone. 

April has been named as cancer 
control month by Act of Congress and 
Presidential Proclamation. During 
that month the American Cancer So- 
ciety engages in a nation-wide drive 
for funds to continue and expand the 
all-important work being done in the 
great hospitals and laboratories. A 
work that has but one goal— freeing 
you and your fellow man from the 
terrible ravages of cancer. 

When the volunteer from the local 
unit of the American Cancer Society 
approaches you for a gift, give and 
give generously with the certain 
knowledge that your dollars are bring- 
ing the inevitable victory over can- 
cer ever closer! 



FOOD PRICES TO STAY HIGH 



American families will buy about as much 
food this year as in 1952 and they will pay 
the same high prices. 

That is the Department of Agriculture's 
forecast of the food outlook for the rest of 
this year. 

Although the prediction is for little or no 
change in total food consumption, some 
changes for individual foods are expected. 
As housewives have already seen, more beef 
and veal will be available than in 1952 and 
less pork. Increased supplies are forecast 
also for margarine, frozen fruit juices and 
vegetables, and, depending on weather con- 
ditions, possibly fresh vegetables. You can 
expect to find less lamb and mutton, eggs, 
butter, canned fruit juices and perhaps 
sugar. 

The department says that retail food 
prices will be down only slightly from 1952's 
peak levels. The housewife continues to 
pay high prices but the farmer's share of 
her dollar is decreasing. That's because 
the percentage of the food dollar going to 
processors, transportation firms and distri- 
butors is constantly increasing. 



—STORY OF THE MONTH— 

A few weeks ago, Riley Children's 
Hospital of Indianapolis officially 
dedicated an $1,800 iron lung which 
was the gift of Local Union No. 60 
of Indianapolis. Thereby hangs an 
interesting tale. 

For a number of years Local Union 
No. 60 has maintained a Christmas 
Fund to help out needy families dur- 
ing the Yule season. Last Fall the 
Local decided to buy an iron lung for 
Riley Hospital, since the fund had a 
healthy balance. 

The life saving mechanism was or- 
dered and duly delivered to the hos- 
pital last October, but the official pre- 
sentation did not take place until 
some five months later. The reason? 




Pictured above is a committee from 
Local No. 60, attaching a small plaque to 
the iron lung which the union donated 
to Riley Hospital, Indianapolis. Reading 
from left to right, they are: Vern Elder, 
president; . A. W. Miller, treasurer; 
Kenneth Scheonewey; and O. F. Suhr, 
financial secretary. 

Well, it seems that within an hour of 
the time the iron lung was delivered 
to the hospital a young mother was 
severely stricken with polio. She had 
to go into an iron lung or face death. 

Last year being one of the worst 
polio years on record, the lung was 
kept in constant use. Only a few 
weeks ago could it finallv be dedicat- 
ed. 

This year, next year, and for many 
years to come the gift of Local Union 
No. 60 will go on saving fives and 
reminding the citizens of Indianapolis 
that the word "Brotherhood" belongs 
in the name of our organization. 



p 




LANE U05SIP 



WRONG APPROACH 



One of the planks on which the Republi- 
can Party campaigned last fall was a prom- 
is to renounce the more or less secret trea- 
ties which made it possible for Russia to en- 
slave several million people through legal- 
istic chicanery. True to his word, President 
Eisenhower urged Congress to take such 
action. However, by the time Congress got 
through amending his proposals, they ended 
up meaningless. 

The way it was done sort of reminds us 
of the story of the young chap who had 
several aunts. All his aunts were married, 
and all except one of them had one or 
more children. This childless aunt worried 
the little five-year older considerably. Fin- 
ally he worked up his courage to the 
point where he asked her: 

"Aunt Emma, why is it that Aunt Tillic 
and Aunt Doris and Aunt Bess all have little 
children but you don't have any?" 

"Well," replied Aunt Emma, "Uncle 
George and I keep looking for a baby in 
the cabbage patch but so far we haven't 
found one." 

The young lad gave her a scornful look 
and replied: "If that's how you're going 
about it, you ain't never going to get one." 




199. 



Sfy/r* 



"Is this the worthy cause where every 
Union member has been donating a 
day's wages?" 



NO DOUBT ABOUT IT 

Since the advent of television, movie 
owners, sports promotors and even restau- 
rant proprietors are complaining of a de- 
cline in patronage. A half dozen surveys 
have been undertaken to find out just what 
effect TV has had on the entertainment 
habits of people. One and all, these sur- 
veys arrive at the same conclusion; "tele- 
vision tends to keep the family home!" 

With that conclusion we agree whole- 
heartedly—especially until the set is paid for. 

• * • 

THE OLD ORDER PASSES 

Last month, in what ever place it is 
that dictators wait out eternity, Joe Stalin 
joined Hitler and Mussolini and Attila and 
Ghengis Khan and the long list of power- 
hungry despots who tried to conquer the 
whole world. One and all, they dreamed 
of owning the entire earth, but each of them 
wound up with nothing more than a six- 
foot by three-foot plot of it— little different 
from the fate that will eventually befall 
you and me. 

Somewhere in all this there must be a 
moral for dictators and would-be dictators, 
foreign and domestic alike. Perhaps Shake- 
speare pointed it up most effectively when he 
said: "The evil that men do lives after 
them, while the good is oft interred with 
their bones." 

* * * 
QUESTIONABLE PURITY 

Things certainly change in a hurry. Al- 
fred Krupp, the man who helped put Hitler 
in power and make Germany an armed 
fortress, was a war criminal in 1946. Last 
month he got his "punishment." We gave 
him back the 300 million dollar munitions 
empire he built up before World War II. 
Apparently he has become as pure as the 
driven snow in seven short years. 

To our way of thinking this pureness of 
Krupp is reminiscent of the sailor in a 
beanery. 

"Is your ice cream pure?" he asked the 
waitress. 

"As pure as the girl of your dreams," re- 
plied the waitress. 

"Gimme' a ham sandwich," growled the 
gob. 



THE CARPENTER 



11 



NOT MUCH OF A SOLUTION 

Faced with an ever-growing enrollment, 
school administrators throughout the United 
States are desperately trying to devise ways 
and means of handling the situation with 
die totally inadequate number of classrooms 
the>' have. One administrator has even sug- 
gested that schools should be operated on a 
12-month year to get the children out faster. 
To our way of thinking that is a question- 
able solution since this country has the 
material, the manpower and the money to 
build adequate schools in every community 
in the land. One way such a program could 
be financed without costing anybody any- 
thing is to have Congress enact Senator 
Hill's proposal that revenue from offshore oil 
be put into a school fund. This is the oil 
the oil interests want Congress to deed away 
to the various states, even though the 
Supreme Court ruled that it belongs to all 
the people. 

In view of the pressure that the oil lob- 
bies are exerting against this logical solu- 
tion to the school problem, Senator Hill's 
proposal will probably go down to defeat, 
and all sorts of makeshift programs for han- 
dling the school load will result. 

The whole thing sort of reminds us of 
the bachelor who had difficulty finding a 
decent place to eat. Finally he decided to 
give his patronage to a particularly unap- 
petizing dump. 

One day a friend ate dinner with him. 
After dinner the friend asked him why he al- 
ways ate in this particular place. 

"Well," said the bachelor, "in many 
places the waiters grab away your plate be-, 
fore you are through." 

"Don't they do that here?" continued the 
friend. 

"Oh, sure," replied the bachelor, "but 
here the food is so bad you don't mind it." 

• * * 
PEACE, IT'S WONDERFUL 

"And here, gentlemen, a Mitchurin field 
will be developed under the five-year plan. 
After the pattern of the Great Soviet Union, 
exotic plants will be grown on it for the 
benefit of the working people," the official 
guide of the Soviet Zone Information Bu- 
reau was telling a group of Western visitors. 

At this moment a Soviet truck drives up 
and two soldiers set up a big sign reading: 
"Off limits, Military area." 

The guide does not lose his presence of 
mind. "Yet in order to protect our crops 
from sabotage by the imperialist war mon- 
gers we are going to build a jet fighter base 
first." 



CANDID COMMENT 

Brunettes console themselves with the 
reason that gentlemen prefer blondes is be- 
cause most blondes aren't. 

Most men look older than their age from 
working so hard to keep their wives look- 
ing younger than theirs. 

The next wonder drug that medical sci- 
ence should develop should be used in the 
case of post-operative complications fre- 
quently associated with the presentation of 
the bill.-Wall Street Journal. 

• • * 
COULD BE THE ANSWER 

According to a study by the U. S. Treas- 
ury Department, of 100 men who start 
their productive years at the age of 25, only 
one is wealthy, four are well-to-do, and 
16 are moderately fixed by the time they 
reach 65. Of the original 100, 36 will be 
dead. 

Probably the other 43 sent daughters 
through college. 

* * • 

ASK ANY WIFE 

Joe Paup, after walking into a neighbor- 
hood bar optimistically, and an hour later 
walking out misty optically, gave posterity 
these immortal lines: 

"The rich man employs a butler, a maid, 
a valet, a cook and a secretary; the poor 
man just gets married." 




"I'll bet if I was hurrying to a Cham- 
ber of Commerce meeting instead of 
a Union meeting, you'd be clearing a 
path for me!" 



12 



Home Ownership— American Bulwark 

By O. WM. BLAIER, Second General Vice-President 




EVEN though the traditional Spring upswing 
in home building is still a few weeks off, 
already it is obvious that home building is 
on the downgrade. Homes simply are not selling as 
fast as they did a year ago or two years ago; 
consequently the speculative builders are slowing 
down their activities. The slump in home buying 
is not stemming from the fact that the demand for 
homes is dwindling, but rather from the fact that 
homes are becoming increasingly difficult to buy 
for the average individual. 

What is happening is that the insurance com- 
. panies and banks and mortgage and loan com- 
panies are winning their long struggle to get home 
financing rates increased. For years they have been endeavoring to get both 
FHA and VA rates upped by a substantial amount. Last month a Senate com- 
mittee began hearings on the proposition. 

The government, through VA (Vet- 
erans Administration) and FHA (Fed- 
eral Housing Authority) for years has 
been insuring certain types of housing 
loans so that virtually all the risk has 
been eliminated for private lenders. 
The government did not actually loan 
the money to house buyers but it did 
guarantee loans which private lenders 
made. Both programs were set up to 
help people in the lower income 
brackets to buy houses. VA guaran- 
tees and insures home mortgage loans 
with a maximum interest rate of four 
per cent for veterans. FHA does the 
same thing for home buyers who are 
non-veterans . at slightly higher rates. 

These two programs have made it 
possible for some six million Amer- 
icans to buy homes they might not 
otherwise be able to manage. To date 
FHA has processed some three mil- 



lion loans totaling better than 23 bil- 
lion dollars. Recently the limit on 
homes eligible for FHA loans was 
raised to $16,000. Although the VA 
program is only seven years old, al- 
ready it has processed some three mil- 
lion loans with a total value in excess 
of 19 billion dollars. 

Since most of the risk was eliminat- 
ed for lenders operating through FHA 
or VA, the government set maximum 
interest rates somewhat lower than 
ordinary private rates. It was this 
guaranteeing of loans that made home 
ownership possible for many ordinary 
working people. It enabled lenders 
to lend money on mortgages at lower 
interest rates, and it enabled them to 
take on mortgages which might not 
be enticing otherwise. The fact that 
between them FHA and VA have pro- 



THE CARPENTER 



13 



cessed some six million loans testifies 
to the need for the programs. 

Lately, however, the lending insti- 
tutions have been hesitant about loan- 
ing money at present FHA and VA 
rates. For years they have been com- 
plaining that the rates were too low. 
They grumbled and they complained 
to Washington, but they kept making 
loans. But in the past three months 
or so, many of them literally have 
gone on strike. They have refused to 
make any more mortgage loans 
through FHA or VA. Naturally this 
has made it hard on many prospec- 
tive home buyers— veteran and non- 
veteran alike. Coupled with this 
"strike" of mortgage money there has 
been a wide campaign of propaganda 
and lobbying for an increase in the 
interest rates. Until recently, both 
FHA and VA have been unmoved by 
these pleas for higher rates. The atti- 1 
tude of Uncle Sam has been, that 
on the basis of the minimum risk 
involved present rates were high 
enough. Now, however, there are 
many indications that the financial 
institutions may win their fight for 
greater returns. 

The "strike" has been effective and 
people who want homes have been 
forced to either do their business out- 
side of FHA or VA at higher rates, 
or do without homes of their own. 
From the number of letters regard- 
ing this matter which have been re- 
ceived by the General Office, it is 
apparent that many of our members 
are vitally concerned. How many of 
our members are directly employed 
in house building it is impossible to 
say, but if houses do not sell they are 
all vitally affected. So are the lumber 
workers and the furniture workers 
and many other branches of our craft. 

Last year 200,000 FHA loans and 
nearly 300,000 VA loans, totaling 
somewhere around 4.6 billion dollars 



between them, were negotiated by 
home buyers. If interest rates on these 
loans had been only one-half per cent 
higher, the financing costs would be 
increased by better than 15 million 
dollars per year for these home buy- 
ers. While that does not seem to be 
very much, if you say it quickly, it 
must be remembered that the bulk of 
this burden would fall on young peo- 
ple whose earning potential was far 
from its peak but whose expenses 
were at their 1 highest level owing to 
the heavy financial drain involved in 
establishing a family, Then, too, most 
of the people on whom this additional 
burden would fall would be veterans. 
Even those only renting homes would 
eventually feel the added pinch, for 
increased financing costs are sooner 
or later reflected in increased rentals. 

Another aspect of the situation is 
that the additional 15 million dollars 
that went into home financing would 
be 15 million dollars of lost purchas- 
ing power insofar as furniture and 
clothing and automobiles and other 
household items are concerned. At 
this particular time when sales of 
man)' lines of merchandise are shrink- 
ing, any proposition that results in a 
substantial reduction of vital purchas- 
ing power would seem an unhealthy 
step, since an expanding economy is 
imperative to our continued prosper- 
ity. 

Bound up with this question of 
higher government-insured mortgage 
rates is the whole fiscal policy of the 
new administration. For years the 
government has used all its machinery 
to keep all interest rates low. All that 
time the financial institutions have 
waged a running fight for higher in- 
terest rates. Now that a new admin- 
istration has taken over in Washing- 
ton, the fight is coming to a head. The 
advocates of higher interest rates in- 
sist that "hard money," that is mon- 



14 



THE CARPENTER 



ey that is expensive to borrow, is a 
major weapon against inflation. Al- 
ready they have succeeded in getting 
the interest rate on 9 billion dollars 
of the national debt increased by one- 
half per cent. This will increase the 
cost of Servicing the national debt by 
something like 45 million dollars, that 
might otherwise be used to buy furni- 
ture and clothing and goods that 
make jobs. 

Fiscal policy, the national budget 
and the national debt are all tremen- 
dously involved subjects best left to 
the experts. But it is the considered 
opinion of this writer that increasing 
the interest rates on government- 
guaranteed mortgages— where practi- 
cally all the risk is eliminated— is both 
unnecessary and dangerous at this 
particular time. Recently, Represen- 
tative Albert Rains (D. Ala.) intro- 
duced a bill to extend the VA home 
loan program two years beyond the 
June 30th expiration date. His bill 
would also allocate some half billion 
dollars more for direct home loans 
immediately, a proviso that would 
provide some of the cash now being 
withheld by the lending institutions. 



Home ownership is one of the bul- 
warks of the American way of life. 
There are few communists among 
those who own a home of their own. 
This is as true in Europe and Asia 
as it is in the United States and 
Canada. Whatever makes it more dif- 
ficult for any ordinary citizen to ac- 
quire a home of his own weakens the 
fabric of democracy by that much. 
The American construction industry 
has built more than a million homes 
a year for the past few years— a truly 
remarkable accomplishment. 

By its unparalleled record of achieve- 
ment, the American construction in- 
dustry has kept up with the demand 
for homes in the luxury class. The 
great shortage that now exists is in 
the modest home class— the class that 
normally needs low-cost financing be- 
cause the buyers are largely average 
wage earners. It will be this class that 
bears the bulk of the burden higher 
FHA or VA rates will create. All in 
all, it would seem best that a contin- 
uation of FHA and VA mortgage lend- 
ing policies as they now exist is the 
wisest course for everyone. 



SUGGESTS UNIONS TO RUN CD 

Detroit's Civil Defense organization, like that in most cities, is an excellent one— on 
paper. But getting people to volunteer for CD duty is another matter. They're simply 
apathetic. 

However, Maj. Gen. Harry A. Johnson, commander of the 10th Air Force with head- 
quarters at nearby Selfridge Field, has an answer. "I think Civilian Defense should be 
put in the hands of labor unions," said the general. And though he wasn't specific, he 
might have added "AFL unions," for he continued, "After all, it's the plumbers, electricians, 
and truck drivers who would keep us operating in case of disaster." 

It all came about when a 13 year-old eighth grade school girl wrote Detroit's Common 
Council asking what was being done to protect Detroit from possible enemy air strikes. 
She also expressed an interest in living another 80 years. 

Her letter was printed in a local newspaper and attracted the attention of Air Force 
authorities at Selfridge Field. A jet pilot and his radar operator were sent to her school 
and outlined Selfridge's defense plan to a general school assembly. 

Most of the 1,500 students were satisfied, but not the letter writer and her friend. 
In company with the school principal, they were whisked off to Selfridge Field for a first- 
hand look. 

At lunch with Col. James E. Johnson, base commander, the young ladies, and the 
school principal, Gen. Johnson claimed: "Detroit's military set-up is good. We have a tight 
system. But we could never stop them all. 

"It's Detroit's Civilian Defense set-up that's woefully weak. There's no interest— but 
maybe it's because the system is set up wrong." 



15 



Carpentry Involves Many Hazards 

Editor's note: Accident prevention is (or should be) a prime concern of every 
working man, for it is he who suffers most and loses most through accidents on the 
job. Recently the Department of Labor made an analysis of accident experience in the 
carpentry trade in 1948 and 1949. Contained in that study is a good deal of food for 
thought, for the study shows carpenters suffer twice as many accidents as do general 
factory workers. Significant portions of the study will be run in THE CARPENTER. 
This is the second of the series. 

* * 

Accident Causes 

A GENERALLY accepted tenet in accident prevention is that every ac- 
cident may be traced to the existence of some hazardous condition in 
the working environment; to the commission of an unsafe act by some 
individual; or to a combination of these two accident-producing factors. Ac- 
cident analysis consists of identifying these factors and in summarizing the in- 
formation relating to a number of accidents in order to indicate the kinds of 
hazards most commonly involved and which thereby warrant the most inten- 
sive attention by persons responsible for accident prevention. 

Generally, the elimination of haz 



ardous working conditions is solely the 
responsibility of management. The 
avoidance of unsafe acts, on the other 
hand, requires understanding and co- 
operation by both management and 
workers. Management must take the 
lead, however, by providing safety- 
minded supervision and by making 
sure that all workers are acquainted 
with the hazards of their operations 
and are familiar with the means of 
overcoming them. 

The function of accident analysis 
is to supply as much information as 
possible for use in accident preven- 
tion—not to assess blame for the oc- 
currence of any accident. The prac- 
tice, therefore, is not to choose be- 
tween an unsafe act and a hazardous 
condition when both are factors in an 
accident, but rather to indicate both 
as contributing elements in the oc- 
currence of the accident. Experience 
indicates that when all accident de- 
tails are known both an unsafe act 
and a hazardous condition will be 
found to have been involved in the 



great majority of accidents. Moreover, 
it is usually evident that if either the 
unsafe act or the hazardous condition 
had been eliminated the accident 
probably would not have occured. 

As pointed out previously, the ma- 
terials available for analysis in this 
survey were primarily injury reports 
rather than detailed accident reports. 
They were almost invariably explicit 
in indicating the kind of accident 
which produced the injury, but many 
failed to indicate the circumstances 
leading to the accident. About one- 
third gave no indication of the exist- 
ence or non-existence of a hazardous 
condition and only one in five contain- 
ed sufficient details to permit ade- 
quate conclusions regarding the com- 
mission of an unsafe act. In this anal- 
ysis the distributions of hazardous 
conditions and of unsafe acts have 
been based upon the reports which 
were complete in respect to these de- 
tails and the incomplete reports have 
been listed as unclassified. These un- 
classified items should not be inter- 



16 



THE CARPENTER 



preted as representing cases in which 
no hazardous condition or unsafe act 
was involved. No conclusions can be 
drawn from the data as to the propor- 
tion of all carpenter accidents that 
can be ascribed solely to hazardous 
conditions or solely to unsafe acts. 



per cent of the accidents. Of some- 
what lesser prominence, unsafe work- 
ing procedures accounted for 10 per 
cent of the accidents, and poor house- 
keeping and the lack of necessary 
personal protective equipment were 
each responsible for 4 per cent. 



Chart 1. MAJOR TYPES OF ACCIDENTS 
IN CARPENTRY OPERATIONS 

PERCENT OF All DISABLING INJURIES 




Caught in, on, or between objects 



Hazardous Working Conditions 

Expressed in general terms, the 
hazardous conditions most commonly 
contributing to carpenters' injuries 
were: defective agencies, responsible 
for 37 per cent of the accidents; im- 
properly guarded agencies, account- 
ing for 22 per cent; and the lack of 
proper equipment, associated with 20 



Defective Agencies— The most com- 
mon hazard in the defective agency 
group consisted of projecting nails or 
wires in scrap lumber or in structural 
members. In about two-thirds of the 
cases attributed to this hazard the in- 
jury occured when the carpenter step- 
ped on the projecting nail or wire. 
Most of the others were cases of 



THE CARPENTER 



17 



striking against projecting nails or 
wires while placing materials in posi- 
tion. 

Materials of inadequate strength 
for the purpose used were responsible 
for nearly as many accidents as were 
projecting nails and wires. A high 
percentage of these were cases in 
which scaffolds, ladders, and forms 
collapsed under load because of de- 
fects in the materials used in their 
construction. Nails which broke and 
flew while being driven and hand 
tools or materials which shattered or 
spalled under impact to throw off 
chips or fragments were the sources 
of most other accidents in this group. 

Scaffolds, apparently composed of 
adequate materials but which gave 
way because they had been improp- 
erly designed or assembled, were re- 
sponsible for a considerable volume 
of falls. Similarly, many carpenters 
fell when they placed their weight on 
forms or structural members which 
had been put in position but not ade- 
quately secured. Others, in somewhat 
fewer numbers, were struck by struc- 
tural materials which fell because of 
inadequate nailing or assembly. 

Damaged lumber with sharp and 
splintery edges and slippery working 
surfaces were both prolific sources of 
accidents. The splinter injuries oc- 
curred mostly in the course of han- 
dling the lumber. The slippery working 
surfaces occurred principally on the 
grounds around new structures or on 
surfaces which were exposed to the 
weather and resulted primarily in 
falls or near falls. 

Improperly Guarded Agencies— The 
hazards in this group consisted pri- 
marily of unguarded power equip- 
ment and inadequate provision of 
guard rails and toeboards on scaf- 
folds or around openings in working 
surfaces. In most instances the un- 
guarded machines were saws, al- 



though jointers, sanders, and grinders 
were involved in many of these acci- 
dents. 

The great majority of the accidents 
attributed to the lack of guard rails 
were falls, two-thirds of which were 
from scaffolds or temporary working 
platforms. The remainder were falls 
into floor openings or into open 
trenches and excavations. The acci- 
dents which more adequate provision 
of toeboards would have prevented 
were all cases in which carpenters 
were struck by objects falling from 
scaffolds. 

Lack of Proper Equipment— Two - 

thirds of the accidents attributed to 
this general type of hazard were lift- 
ing accidents in which carpenters ex- 
perienced strains, sprains, or hernias 
while manually moving heavy mate- 
rials without sufficient assistance. The 
remainder were primarily falls, about 
equally divided between falls from 
make-shift platforms used as substi- 
tutes for non-existent scaffolds and 
falls resulting from climbing on forms 
or structural members where no lad- 
ders were available. 

Hazardous Working Procedures- 
Working or walking on open joists or 
narrow structural members is quite 
common in construction work. Fre- 
quently it is tolerated or accepted as 
necessary, simply because it seems 
impractical to lay planking over the 
joists or to build walkways for jobs 
of short duration. The risk which this 
entails, however, is obvious because 
nearly 6 per cent of the reported ac- 
cidents experienced by carpenters 
were attributed to these hazardous 
procedures. Nearly all the resulting 
accidents were falls— the majority be- 
ing falls to lower levels. 

The practice of assigning work at 
different levels in open structures is 
also common in construction opera- 
tions. In large measure this circum- 



IS 



THE CARPENTER 



stance arises from the fact that the 
different crafts generally operate un- 
der separate supervision and fre- 
quently have their tasks scheduled 
without particular consideration of 
what the other crafts may be doing 
at the same time. Workers on the 
lower levels are thereby directly ex- 
posed to the hazard of being struck 



common hazard in construction was a 
prolific source of injury-producing ac- 
cidents, particularly on the grounds 
around the structures being construct- 
ed. 

Lack of Personal Protective Equip- 
ment—The use of personal protective 
equipment is not common in carpen- 
try operations, although the record is 



CHART 2. MAJOR HAZARDOUS WORKING CONDITIONS 
IN CARPENTRY OPERATIONS 



PERCENT Of ALL DISABLING INJURIES 




by falling materials originating in the 
overhead operations. Accidents of 
this type were not particularly com- 
mon, but occurred in sufficient vol- 
ume to warrant closer attention to the 
elimination of this hazard. 

Poor Housekeeping— The designa- 
tion "poor housekeeping" was applied 
in this analysis primarily to the trip- 
ping and stumbling hazards created 
by the accumulation of scrap and de- 
bris on working surfaces. This verv 



replete with cases in which it is ob- 
vious that the use of protective de- 
vices, such as safety shoes, impact 
goggles, gloves, safety hats, or knee 
pads, would have prevented or mini- 
mized injuries. Wider use of these de- 
vices is unquestionably desirable. In 
the great majority of cases, however, 
the use or non-use of these devices 
has no bearing upon the occurrence of 
the accident itself. Therefore, because 
accident analysis is primarily concern- 



THE CARPENTER 



19 



ed with determining the factors which 
led to the accident as contrasted with 
the injury which resulted from the 
accident, the absence of personal pro- 
tective devices is seldom indicated as 
a hazardous working condition. 

There are, however, certain types 
of operations performed by carpen- 
ters which can be performed safely 
only through the use of proper pro- 
tective equipment. Typical opera- 
tions in this category include the use 
of power grinders to dress or sharpen 
tools and the breaking, chipping, drill- 
ing, or hammering of concrete, plaster, 
stone, or metal. These operations fre- 
quently throw off fast-flying chips or 
particles which can inflict serious eye 
injuries unless the eyes are protected 
by a face shield or goggles. In erect- 
ing scaffolds, forms, and structural 
members, carpenters are frequently 
called upon to work from precarious 
elevated positions. In these instances 
the use of life lines and safety belts 
are essential for the prevention of 
falls. 

Carpenters frequently find it neces- 
sary to work in a kneeling position 
and as a result experience a consider- 
able number of cuts and abrasions on 
their knees from contact with rough 
surfaces. Knee pads probably would 
prevent most of these injuries. 

Most of the accidents ascribed to 
the lack of personal protective equip- 
ment in this analysis occurred in op- 
erations of the types described above. 
In about a third of the cases the de- 
ficiency was the lack of a safety belt 
or life line. These were the most 
serious cases consisting of falls from 
elevations. In nearly another third it 
was the lack of knee pads and in 
about a fifth of the cases the defi- 
ciency was the lack of goggles or face 
shields. The fact that steel-toed safety 
shoes would have prevented many toe 
injuries was recognized, but their non- 



use was not considered an accident 
cause. 

Unsafe Acts 

For the purpose of this analysis an 
unsafe act was defined as that viola- 
tion of a commonly accepted safe pro- 
cedure which occasioned or permitted 
the occurrence of the injury-produc- 
ing accident. Literally, this definition 
means that no personal action should 
be designated as unsafe unless there 
was a reasonable and less hazardous 
alternative procedure. For example, 
the use of a ladder' which was not 
equipped with safety shoes when no 
properly equipped ladder was pro- 
vided was classified as a hazardous 
condition and not as an unsafe act. 
On the other hand, the use of a nail 
keg or other makeshift platform as a 
working surface was classified as an 
unsafe act because other safe means 
of reaching overhead work were gen- 
erally available. 

The analysis, however, does not im- 
ply that the alternative safe procedure 
was known to the person acting in an 
unsafe manner, nor that his act was 
the result of a considered choice be- 
tween two possible procedures. It was 
apparent in many instances that the 
individual knew the safe procedure 
but knowingly decided not to follow 
it. In other cases, circumstances in- 
dicated that the person acted unsafe- 
ly simply because he did not know the 
alternative safe method. 

In broad categories, the unsafe acts 
most commonly found to be respon- 
sible for accidents to carpenters were: 
Assuming an unsafe position or pos- 
ture, which occurred in 58 per cent 
of the cases; using unsafe equipment 
or using equipment unsafely, which 
contributed to the occurrence of 25 
per cent of the accidents; operating 
without authority, failure to secure 
or warn, associated with 11 per cent 
of the accidents; and unsafe loading 



20 



THE CARPENTER 



or placing, which was responsible for 
3 per cent. 

Assuming an Unsafe Position or 
Posture— In general, most of the un- 
safe acts in this group could be des- 
ignated as inattention to surround- 
ings. More specifically, in more than 



attention to footing is a "must" for 
these workers. The number of mis- 
steps into openings or off the edges 
of scaffolds, platforms, and other ele- 
vated surfaces, and the number of 
trips or stumbles over misplaced ma- 
terials which should have been quite 



3. MAJOR TYPES OF UNSAFE ACTS IN CARPENTRY OPERATIONS 




$& 



m 



¥ 



PERCENT OF ALL DISABLING INJURIES 




Inattention to footing 



Gripping objects insecurely 




Inattention to surroundings 



Ji. Operating without authority, failure to secure er warn 



Exposure to moving objects 




Taking wrong hold of objects 



Unsafe loading or placing 



Other 



60 per cent of the cases in the group 
the unsafe act consisted of failure to 
observe the well-known safety admo- 
nition "watch your step." Because of 
the irregular surfaces and poor house- 
keeping conditions so frequently en- 
countered in the areas where carpen- 
ters must work, close and constant 



visible indicates, however, that this 
precept is frequently forgotten. 

A large proportion of the inatten- 
tion to footing accidents occurred 
while the workers were simply mov- 
ing about the work site. Another large 
group occurred while the workers 
were lifting or carrying materials. In 



THE CARPENTER 



21 



the later instances concentration on 
the work being performed probably 
was responsible for the inattention to 
footing. Cases were quite common in 
which falls resulted from stepping on 
loose objects while getting down from 
ladders, descending stairs, or stepping 
from one surface to another. 

Also in the category of inattention 
to surroundings, many of the reports 
indicated that the injured workers 
simply walked into piled materials, 
posts, or parts of the building in 
which they were working. Others 
swung their tools too widely or raised 
their heads too sharply while working 
in confined spaces and were injured 
when they struck against obstructions. 

The training of skilled workers usu- 
ally includes instructions on how to 
apply the tools of the trade safely, 
particularly how to avoid contact with 
edge tools or impact tools if these slip 
or happen to be misdirected. Never- 
theless there were many instances re- 
ported in which tools were used in 
such a manner that when they slipped 
or glanced from the material they 
were directed against the worker's 
body. Of somewhat similar character, 
a number of cases were reported in 
which carpenters used their shoulders 
or other parts of their bodies to sup- 
port lumber which they were nailing 
into place and then drove the nails 
through into their own flesh. 

Unnecessary exposure to falling or 
sliding objects was not a particularly 
common unsafe act, but occurred fre- 
quently enough to warrant some at- 
tention. In a number of these cases 
the injured person had placed himself 
under a heavy fixture or object to 
support it while it was being fastened 
in place. In other instances they un- 
necessarily entered areas where over- 
head work was being performed or 
where scrap materials were being 
dropped or thrown from overhead. 



Incorrect Handling or Unsafe Use 

of Equipment— Reflecting the prepon- 
derance of manual operations in car- 
pentry work, a large proportion of the 
accidents were directly related to im- 
proper methods of handling tools or 
materials. In many instances workers 
dropped objects on their own toes or 
set objects down on their fingers 
simply because they had not taken 
or maintained a proper grip on the 
materials. In other instances workers 
were struck by their own hand tools 
because they were not holding them 
properly to keep them under control. 
In some cases the fault lay in attempt- 
ing to lift objects which were too 
heavy or bulky for one man to handle 
or in using one hand instead of two. 
The misuse or abuse of tools was also 
a common source of injury. These 
unsafe practices included procedures 
such as striking hatchets or hammers 
with other metal tools, which caused 
metal chips to fly and inflict eye in- 
juries; using hatchets or wood chisels 
as pry bars; and using tools of incor- 
rect size or capacity. 

Failure to Secure or Warn, Operat- 
ing Without Authority— The predom- 
inating unsafe act in this group was 
that of placing materials in positions 
from which they could fall and leav- 
ing them without adequate support. 
This occurred most frequently in the 
course of fitting lumber, forms, doors, 
sash, cabinets, and other millwork. 
Typically, these were cases in which 
the cabinets or other objects had been 
put in final position, but were sup- 
ported only by wedges or temporary 
fastenings pending completion of the 
fitting job. Such fastenings frequently 
were inadequate to hold the weight 
and the improperly supported objects 
pulled away and fell on the worker. 

In the category of operating with- 
out authority, the most common unsafe 
act was that of carpenters attempt- 



22 THE CARPENTER 

ing to operate vehicles or power surface, on a sloping surface such as 

equipment, such as bulldozers or a pitched roof, or close to the edge of 

hoists, with which they were not fa- an elevated surface from which it 

miliar. In most instances this occurred could fall or slide to strike someone 

when the regular operator happened below. 

to be unavailable, and rather than dc- Miscellaneous Unsafe Acts-This 
lay his own work waiting for the op- gr0 up included a wide variety of un- 
erator, the carpenter elected to move safe acts no one of which occurred in 
or use the equipment himself. gre at numbers. The most common 
Unsafe Loading or Placing— Most were: throwing material instead of 
commonly the accidents resulting passing it or using a hand line; fight- 
from unsafe acts of this general va- ing; teasing or startling other workers; 
riety resulted in injury to persons oth- jumping from elevations instead of 
er than those who committed the un- climbing down; and climbing on 
safe acts. Generally, the specific un- structural members or scaffold sup- 
safe act consisted of placing a tool ports instead of using available lad- 
or piece of material on an unstable ders to reach elevated surfaces. 



TEST REVEALS DEFENSE NEEDS REVISING 



AFL Secretary-Treasurer William Schnitzler and George J. Richardson, 
secretary-treasurer of the International Association of Fire Fighters, witnessed 
the 35th U.S. nuclear blast as it rocked the Nevada desert last month. Schnit- 
zler was present as a guest of the Civil Defense Administration and Richard- 
son as a member of President Eisenhower's Special Committee on Civil De- 
fense. 

The device exploded in the test was designed to serve as a tactical atomic 
weapon for use in place of artillery against an enemy entrenched on a wide 
front. It was a small energy release so far as atomic weapons are concerned, 
less than a tenth as powerful as some U. S. atomic weapons, but the most 
powerful single artillery shot ever fired. 

The test was also planned to show the effect of an atomic blast on houses 
and vehicles. For this purpose, 2 typical American homes of New England 
colonial design, fully furnished throughout but without plumbing, heating or 
electrical fixtures, were set up 3,500 and 7,500 feet from the explosion. Fam- 
ilies of dummies were situated in the houses and automobiles. 

The preliminary reports on the effects of the blast, said John P. Redmond, 
president of the Fire Fighters, show the necessity for a drastic revision of our 
plans for atomic bomb defense. Redmond pointed out the effect of shattered 
glass within the test houses, and the apparent advisability of seeing that win- 
dows are opened, not closed, in case of an A-bomb attack. He remarked on the 
number of structures now being constructed with extensive glass surfaces. 

Closest to the blast on this occasion were 1,500 troops and observers who 
crouched head down in 5-foot trenches 2 miles across the sand and sagebrush 
of Yucca Flat. The explosion defined with blinding clarity each detail of the 
trench revetments and sand bags, and the trenches quaked as the desert floor 
shook with a force equal to 15,000 tons of TNT. 



THE LOCKER 

By JOHN HART, LOCAL UNION 366, New York, N. Y. 

THE MOST BEAUTIFUL BUILDING IN THE WORLD 

There are two long-time rivals for the title "the most beautiful building in the 
world." One, the Taj Mahal, is a tomb; the other, the Parthenon, is a toppled ruin. 
A modern architect, inoculated by cubism, would sneeringly object against the inclusion 
of these two buildings in any comparison with present-day architecture, on the ground 
that style in building, like style in everything else, changes with the forward march of 
time. In his book the Parthenon is a relic of a dead age, and the Taj Mahal a glorified 
bauble, gorgeous, yet gaudy and cheap. There was a time when the Parthenon was a 
source of inspiration for a progressive architect. His education was incomplete until he 
made the pilgrimage to the Mecca of architecture and beheld with his own eyes that 
superb structure of unsurpassed beauty, typical of all the delicacy of line and regard for 
perfection that was the greatest contribution of any people to the noble art of architecture. 
As practiced today, architecture is mainly a problem of engineering, which is ad- 
vanced as an excuse for the current contemptuous disdain for classic detail. The budding 
young architect now makes his pilgrimage to the right bank of the East Paver to find 
inspiration in the new symbol of structural design, the U.N. Secretariat Building which 
one well-known American architect alludes to as "slab design." A carpenter might liken 
it to an up-ended tool box. Substitute glass for both faces and marble for both ends and 
there's your magnificient building. A good working plan of this thirty-nine story, elongated 
glass and marble box could be laid out by the same carpenter on a sheet of plywood, using 
only a rule, a straight edge, and a pencil. There isn't a curve, a molding, or a relieving 
ornament of any noticeable kind anywhere on it. Everything is straight, square, and parallel. 
And this is what they call the most spectacular architectural creation of today— a highly 
sophisticated design that delights the eye. Whose eye? You may note a similar elimination 
of detail in many other public buildings being erected nowdays. Straight-line design is a 
natural consequence of the adoption of the fads of functionalism and utilitarianism, big- 
word alibis for money-saving extinction of the handicraft and workmanship of the old-time 
skilled mechanic. No longer is there beauty in a classic cornice or a Corinthian colonnade. 
The highest expression of beauty in our engineered buildings of today is a Bethlehem I 
beam. 

THE TAJ MAHAL 
Recently, a famous Broadway personage had a bit of a tiff with his wife. Her demands 
on his generosity were a wee bit extravagant. She pouted because he wouldn't buy her the 
Taj Mahal— with ball bearings. She's still pouting. 

The famous Taj Mahal is located in Agra, India. It has been called— a masterpiece of 
Eastern architecture— a combination of all the beauty and style of Mohammedan workman- 
ship—a supreme achievement, unequalled for the 
purity and beauty of its design— the most beautiful 
building in the world. About the year 1631 the 
favorite wife of Emperor Shah Jahan died. One 
of her titles was Taj Mahal— Crown of the Palace. 
As an appropriate tribute to his beloved Queen, 
the Emperor ordered a tomb to be built in Agra. 
For this purpose he invited to his court all the 
eminent architects, sculptors, and artists from his 
own and nearby countries to work on its design. 
All other public building was stopped in India to 
secure the services of the most skilfull masons, in- 
layers, and goldsmiths to labor on the creation of 
the greatest man-made wonder of the world. For 
twenty years 20,000 workers were steadily em- 
ployed in its erection. On its completion there 
stood in Agra a poem in marble, a gleaming white mausoleum, studded with precious stones, 
truly a fitting resting place for the beautiful Taj Mahal. 

The Taj is set as the focal point in a luxuriant, cypress-bordered garden. Along the 
length of the garden is a narrow reflecting pool, probably the inspiration for a similar pool 
which fronts the Lincoln Memorial in Washington. The pure white marble tomb is erected 
on an elevated marble terrace, 330 feet square. At each corner of this terrace stands a 
slim, snow white minaret, 140 feet high. The tomb itself is about 190 feet square with 

(continued to page 28) 




THE TAJ MAHAL 



Editorial 




Sacrifices Should Be Equalized As Much As Possible 
Away back in 1917 when the United States was teetering on the brink of 
World War I, some financial geniuses in Washington devised the "cost-plus" 
scheme for getting the nation armed in a hurry. To those firms that had a 
drag in Washington, cost-plus contracts were handed out right and left. 
These firms produced the goods all right but the prices Uncle Sam had to 
pay for them turned out to be a national scandal. The higher the manu- 
facturer could run the cost on any item, the greater was the profit he made, 
for under cost-plus he got the total manufacturing cost, plus a healthy per- 
centage for his cut. A whole new crop of millionaires resulted. 

When World War II loomed on the horizon, President Roosevelt assured 
the nation there would be neither cost-plus contracts nor a new batch of war 
millionaires. Probably he even believed that a repetition of World War I 
profiteering could be prevented. However, events proved him to be over- 
optimistic. In one way or another, groups of industrialists exerted sufficient 
pressure on Washington so that cost-plus contracts (this time disguising them- 
selves behind the fancy new name "cost-plus fixed fee") once more went to 
the outfits with the proper connections. Needless to say, the crop of million- 
aires did not diminish. 

After the war broke out in Korea, Uncle Sam once more was faced with the 
necessity for stepping up production as quickly as possible. This time Con- 
gress came up with a new wrinkle to entice firms into military production. 
This time the "fast write off" became the bait. Under the fast write off, firms 
are allowed to write off the cost of putting up defense plants in a relatively 
short time. That is, instead of having to spread the cost over a thirty year 
period or so, they are allowed to charge off 45 per cent of the cost over the 
first 5 years. This means not only that they get their investment back much 
faster, but also it means they keep considerably more tax-free revenue each 
year since tire yearly portion of income charged to the cost of construction is a 
legitimate expense of doing business, as far as tax purposes are concerned. 

Recently, however, it has come to light that a good many companies 
who have nothing to do with defense effort are being granted fast write 
offs. An editorial in a financial paper recently touched on this matter at some 
length. It pointed out that one company recently was granted a fast write 
off on a two and a half million dollar plant, although its products will not have 
the remotest connection with the war effort. Then the editorial concluded 
that the whole proposition can be laid to the fact that the excess profits tax 
exists. This tax, said the piece, stifles expansion and, therefore, the govern- 
ment has to resort to a fast write off subterfuge to get a desirable non-defense 
plant built. 

On the surface it sounds fine, but we will bet our bottom dollar that 
there is more to the story than that. A little checking would probably un- 
cover the fact that somebody "knew Joe" in Washington, and Joe fixed 



THE CARPENTER 25 

things up. This is an age when "knowing Joe" is more important than having 
a really worthy proposition. And this probably explains why so many retired 
admirals and generals have gone on corporation payrolls at fabulous salaries 
in recent years. They are the boys who know Joe when it comes to selling 
old Uncle Sam. Where the cure lies, we are in no position to say. But it 
does seem in passing strange that corporations have to be enticed into war 
work" with guaranteed profits, while ordinary citizens are yanked into the 
armed forces without any choice. Nobody offers a $90-a-week carpenter 
a $100 a week to join the navy. They simply point the finger at him and say: 
"beginning as of now, you are an ordinary seaman." That the navy pay may 
be only a fraction of his journeyman's scale seems to be, as they say in the 
movies, only coincidental to anybody but the fellow involved. 

Under the circumstances, it hardly seems fair that excess profits should 
go untaxed. As Sherman said nearly 100 years ago, war is "Hell indeed. It 
brings dislocations and injustices and a lot of misery. But what we have, 
the freedom to speak and worship and work as we please, are worth fighting 
for to the last breath, and even to the last dollar. In the process, it seems only 
fair that the sacrifice ought to be predicated upon as broad a base as possible. 
And above all else, the premium should be removed from knowing Joe. 



A Situation That Needs Remedying 

Before the present session of Congress was more than a few weeks old, 
some five or six bills had been introduced to amend various provisions of the 
Social Security Act. Some of the measures are desirable in that they liberalize 
provisions of the Act and others are not so desirable because they tighten 
up qualifications. However, as far as we are concerned, the main weakness 
of the present program was not even mentioned in any bill introduced up 
to the time of this writing. 

From the letters received by THE CARPENTER it is obvious the great- 
est hardship cases which accrue under the present setup involve those men 
who are struck down by crippling illness or accident before they reach the 
age of 65. Hardly a day goes by but what we receive a letter from some mem- 
ber who feels he is being discriminated against by the present way of 
figuring benefits. 

As the law now stands, no worker can draw benefits until he reaches the 
age of 65. If arthritis or heart disease or a crippling accident forces him 
into involuntary retirement before he reaches that age, he draws nothing 
until such time as he does reach 65. This part is understandable. But the part 
that is not understandable is that the months he cannot work during the 
time he is waiting to reach the age of 65 are counted against him in figuring 
his benefits. A letter from a member in St. Louis contains a typical example. 
In part, that letter said: 

"My case is simply this; I have over 40 quarters of paid in credits, but have 
been unable to work for six years and indications are I will never be able 
to work again. I have two more years to go to reach 65. That means they will 
use the ninety-six months not worked to add to those worked to figure out 
my average monthly pay. 

"It will reduce my benefits by about 50 per cent. If I had been 65 at the 
time I was disabled I would have drawn the higher rate because I would not 



26 THE CARPENTER 

have been penalized for the months not worked before reaching 65. At the 
same time the amount T paid in would be exactly the same." 

Tt is not difficult to see why this member thinks he has a legitimate com- 
plaint. Had he been 65 at the time he was stricken, the money he paid in 
would have provided him with a half-decent pension. But because he was 
not, the months he has to wait until he reaches 65 reduce his benefits by 
nearly half, although the amount of money he paid in has not diminished 
any. In fact, in an ordinary insurance policy it would have been increased by 
interest earnings. 

No man becomes totally disabled because he wants to. The fates play 
him a dirty trick when a crippling disease or a serious accident puts an end 
to his earning days. To penalize such a man when bad luck catches up with 
him hardly seems the fair thing to do. 

After all, we donate funds to associations dedicated to fighting such 
dreaded diseases as arthritis, cancer and heart disease. And very worthy 
causes they are, too. But if we can spend money to fight the diseases, it only 
seems logical that we ought to be able to give the victims of these diseases 
a fair shake as well. 

Last month Senator Taft succeeded in having Congress order a study 
made of the whole Social Security problem. This "study" proposition is a 
favorite Congressional device for halting consideration of any measure for a 
long time. Hence it is doubtful if Social Security will come up for any action 
in the present session. However, when it does come up, it is to be sincerely 
hoped that enough Congressmen will be open-minded enough to see the in- 
justice of taking away benefits from workers who are forced into retirement 
by conditions over which they have no control. Maybe it will take some 
prodding to get Congress to see the light. If that becomes the case, we ought 
to be ready to do the prodding. 



Reds Can Be Caught Without Television Cameras 

Are Congressional investigations of Communism threatening to grow into 
a Frankenstein monster? Is there a threat that they may bring about the 
very sort of totalitarianism they are set up to fight? Not a few people are 
beginning to wonder; especially since some of the committees have avowed 
an intention of investigating our schools, our lodges and even our churches. 

Congress has both the right and the duty to make every effort to safe- 
guard the policy-making branches of our political and economic life from 
Communist infiltration. However, it has an equal duty to protect innocent 
citizens from being hounded, persecuted and pushed around by publicity- 
hungry demagogues who might not be above using the privilege of office 
to crack down on those whom they dislike personally. Striking a balance 
between these two extremes presents something of a problem in democracy, 
fairness and common decency. 

At least three committees are now busily engaged in Red-hunting. One 
is a House Committee headed by Congressman Velde of Illinois; two are 
Senate Committees. Senator Jenner of Indiana heads one and Senator Mc- 
Carthy of Wisconsin heads the other. None of these men can be classed as 
being exactly publicity-shy, and to date nothing has had more publicity 
value than fire-eating denunciations of Reds in government and public life. 



THE CARPENTER 27 

What can happen to honest citizens under the present setup was recently 
demonstrated when a prominent business woman made a speech expressing 
apprehension over a contemplated Red hunt in the schools and colleges of the 
nation. The woman, Mrs. Agnes E. Meyer, wife of the publisher of the Wash- 
ington Post, told 17,000 school administrators meeting in New York she 
thought any investigation of the teachers of the nation in the manner tradition- 
ally employed by the investigating committees was dangerous. 

During her speech she said; "The American people must now realize that 
they are the ones who make the climate of public opinion and that they must 
come to the defense of our public schools and of our institutions of higher 
learning. For the independence of our whole educational system will be 
jeopardized if Velde, Jenner and McCarthy are not stopped. 

"Either the clergy of all denominations must now unite in a protest 
against these latest Congressional inquisitions, or they will be next to burn 
at the stake. 

"The power of McCarthy should not be underestimated. He is a danger- 
ous, clever and ruthless demagogue. He is another Huey Long with different 
tactics but with the same lust for power. 

"I have been present at the Jenner hearings. They are of a character 
to make any honest American sick to his stomach. ... By observing the 
Jenner hearings, the techniques for persecuting the teaching profession can 
be forecast. 

"The plan is to expose any teachers who look suspicious and may even be 
guilty of Communist affiliations. Then with the support of an aroused public 
opinion behind them, our Congressional inquisitors will attack any or all 
professors whose opinions they dislike." 

The day after Mrs. Meyer delivered her speech, Congressman Velde, by 
intimation at least, pictured her as a fellow traveller. He accused her of 
having written a pro-Comunist letter in 1947 which was published in the 
magazine "Soviet Russia Today." 

The Washington Post promptly published a picture of the letter as it 
appeared in the magazine. It was signed, not by Mrs. Agnes E. Meyer, but 
by a Mrs. G. A. Mayer of Fort Clements, B. C. Note that the names are not 
even close to being the same. Asked to explain by reporters, Velde apolo- 
gized and blamed the "mistake" on a clerk. 

Mrs. Meyer got her name cleared. But suppose she had no powerful 
newspaper behind her to expose the vicious slander against her. Suppose 
she had been poor and unable to pay what it would cost to dig up the truth? 
Would Velde have been so quick to apologize and straighten out the matter? 

There is a solution to the whole problem of keeping the Communist in- 
vestigations in line. Let all investigations be absolutely private. Reds can 
be ferreted out in private committee hearings as efficiently as they can be- 
fore television cameras and batteries of reporters. When a committee gets 
the goods on a Red, let him be turned over to the proper authorities for prose- 
cution. From then on the case could be public. By this means it would be 
possible to clip the wings of those demagogues who are more interested in 
making the headlines than in actually catching Reds. 



28 THE CARPENTER 

(continued from page 23) 

chamfered corners, making its plan somewhat octagonal. It is 70 feet high and is sur- 
mounted by a bulbous dome, 190 feet to the top. Precious stones are inlaid everywhere, 
inside and outside. These inlaid jewels are worked into elaborate floral designs, scrollwork, 
and quotations from the Mohammedan Koran written in Arabic script. One single inlaid 
flower is composed of 150 varied-colored jewels; jaspers, jades, sapphires and turquoises. 
Within the building a pierced marble screen of delicate lacework design surrounds the 
resting place of the Queen and the Emperor who, on his death, was laid beside her. 

An Englishwoman, viewing this magnificient structure for the first time, said she would 
gladly die that very instant if she knew she would have such a tomb. The effeminate archi- 
tecture of the Taj has been adversely criticized by some as too much the work of the 
jeweler and not the architect. This distinctly feminine design was deliberate and, in a way, 
compulsory. The Mohammedan religion forbids portrayal by painting or sculpture of any 
person. So, to perpetuate the character and beauty of the emperor's beloved Queen, this 
tomb was designed and erected; nowhere equalled for superb excellence and lavishness in 
decorative detail. The Taj stands today as if built but yesterday, its beauty enhanced by 
the luxuriant setting, mirrored in the placid reflecting pool, and gleaming white in the 
Indian sun. 

THE PARTHENON 

The Parthenon, an ancient Greek temple, stands on the Acropolis, a prominent hilltop 
in Athens. It has been described as the only perfect building erected since the beginning 
of time— the highwater mark of Greek classic art— the creation of men who put superior 
workmanship above everything else. It was built about 432 B.C. in honor of the Greek- 
goddess Athena. Like all Greek temples its basic design was very simple. Rectangular 
walls supporting a slightly pitched gable roof, over- 
hanging at both ends, the whole building being 
surrounded by columns. The Parthenon is the 
perfect example of the apparent simplicity of Doric 
style. It was 228 feet long, 101 feet wide, and 
65 feet to the peak. There were eight col- 
umns at each end and seventeen along each side. 
Within each porch there were six additional col- 
umns. It was built entirely of marble, even to the 
roof tiles, which were reduced to a thinness per- 
mitting a slight admission of light. No mortar was 
used anywhere in its erection, all stones being 
minutely fitted and dowelled or clamped together 
with bronze fastenings. The harsh glare of the 
white marble was subdued by artificial coloring. r EP lica-THE PARTHENON 

Statues were given flesh colors, and the cornices 

and other sculptural details were boldly tinted in red, blue, and gold. Centuries after its 
erection it was discovered that the Greek architects had painstakingly made allowances for 
optical illusion and variations caused by light and shade distortion. Horizontal lines were 
delicately cambered to give a straight-line appearance. Column shafts were slightly bellied 
to compensate for an illusion of concavity. Panels, which at a height seemed square, were 
actually oblong. Even the floor was humped in the center to counteract an appearance of 
hollowness. The gables, or pediments, at either end, and the surrounding frieze were 
elaborately embellished with sculptures. The inside, lighted only by the open door and 
the faint light filtering through the thin, marble roof tiles, contained but one ornament, a 
huge gold and ivory statue of the goddess Athena. 

The glory of the Parthenon died slowly. About 426 A.D. it was converted to a 
Christian church. After Athens was taken by the Turks in 1456 it became a mosque. Its 
almost complete destruction occurred in 1687. The Turks, still in possession of Athens were 
besieged by the Venetians with whom they were at war. The Parthenon was utilized as 
both a fort and powder magazine. A single Venetian shell landed on the roof, penetrated 
the marble tiles, and exploded in the powder chamber. That was the death blow to the 
glorious Parthenon. In the course of time the marble was used by peasants to build walls, 
and the beautiful sculptures were broken up to make roadbeds. In 1801, Lord Elgin, 
British ambassador in Constantinople, received permission to help himself to all the sculp- 
tures he wanted. For several years he did so, and in 1816 sold his accumulated loot to the 
British government for 36,000 pounds. This collection of the Parthenon sculptures is now 




THE CARPENTER 



29 



on exhibit at the British Museum where they are known as the Elgin Marbles. Although 
almost a complete ruin, the meticulous lines and fine proportions of this Doric temple are 
still discernible. Perhaps the greatest gift of the ancient Greeks to civilization was style 
in architecture. It has been copied for 2,000 years, line for line, never equalled and never 
excelled. Nothing yet has been originated in architectural design to even remotely compare 
with the flawless perfection of these temples erected by the best mechanics of all time in 
honor of their pagan gods. 

In Nashville, Tenn. there is a reproduction, in concrete, of the Parthenon, the only 
copy in all the world. It was built in 1931 after two sculptors had spent considerable time 
in Athens and the British museum obtaining exact details of the original. It is used as an 
art museum, and is visited annually by hundreds of thousands of interested persons who 
acknowledge a debt to the citizens of Nashville for their munificent gesture in presenting 
to the American people this faithful replica of the building highest in honor in all archi- 
tecture, the incomparable and glorious Parthenon. Nashville has a proud title, the Athens 
of the South. We have an idea the citizens of that cultured city wouldn't walk across town 
to look at the Secretariat Building. Neither would we. 



MINNEAPOLIS TO SEE UNION LABEL INDUSTRIES SHOW 

The 1953 AFL Union Label Industries Show— bringing to Minnesota the most graphic 
example of labor-management cooperation— will open in the Minneapolis Auditorium on 
April 18. The eight-day show will continue through April 25. 

The giant show, which is sponsored by the AFL Union Label and Service Trades 
Department, is designed to encourage better relations between AFL unions and their 
respective employer firms. It is the largest labor-management exposition in the world 
and one of America's most successful shows. 




inneapolis -April 18-25 



Almost every AFL craft and Union Label will join with industry in bringing to the 
show expert craftsmen and an outstanding display of consumer goods. The entire area 
of the huge auditorium will be devoted to exhibits which will feature everything from 
tacks to trailers. 

Unions engaged in the building industry will demonstrate their "know-how" in brick- 
laying, plumbing, steamfitting, carpentry, plastering, and painting. Highlighting the 
educational "live shows" will be the bakery workers, cigar makers, and printers. 

Under the joint sponsorship of the General Office and the Twin Cities District Council, 
the United Brotherhood will maintain one of the largest displays in the show. A committee 
of the Twin Cities Council has been working on the display for many weeks. 

Those and hundreds of equally interesting and educational exhibits will be dramatized 
during the eight-day period. In addition, scores of unusual and entertaining vaudeville 
acts, orchestras, movie and TV personalities will be presented on the auditorium stage. 



Official Information 




General Officers of 
THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS 

of AMERICA 

General Office : Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General President 

M. A. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Fiest General Vice-President 

JOHN R. STEVENSON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Secretary 

ALBERT E. FISCHER 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind, 



Second General Vice-President 

O. WM. BLAIER 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Treasurer 

S. P. MEADOWS 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Executive Board 



First District. CHARLES JOHNSON. Jr. 
Ill E. 22nd St., New York 10. N. Y. 



Fifth District, R. E. ROBERTS 
4324 N. 48th St., Omaha, Nebr. 



Second District, RALEIGH RAJOPPI 
2 Prospect Place, Springfield, New Jersey 



Sixth District. A. W. ML'IR 
Bos 1168, Santa Barbara. Calif. 



Third District, HARRY SCHWARZER 
1248 Walnut Ave., Cleveland, O. 



Seventh District, ANDREW V. COOPER 
133 Chaplin Crescent, Toronto 12, Ont., Canada 



Fourth District. ROLAND ADAMS 
712 West Palmetto St., Florence, S. C. 



M. A. HUTCHESON. Chairman 
ALBERT E. FISCHER, Secretary 



All correspondence for the General Executive Board must be sent to the General Secretary 

Notice to Recording Secretaries 

The quarterly circular for the months of April, May, and June, 1953, con- 
taining the quarterly password, has been forwarded to all Local Unions 
of the United Brotherhood. Recording Secretaries not in receipt of this 
circular should notify Albert E. Fischer, Carpenters Building, Indianapolis, 
Indiana. 



JOURNAL 

Every effort is being made by this office to furnish each member with a copy of our 
journal, THE CARPENTER. In this respect many officers of Local Unions have been 
very cooperative in supplying this office with the names and addresses of their members. 
This office has available, upon request, blank address lists; also individual request cards 
for use when the member fails to receive the journal due to a possible change of address. 
We find in many instances we are not advised of the change of address and as we have 
mentioned before, this causes a premium postage on the return of the journal. 

Again we wish to emphasize that it is the desire of this office that all members re- 
ceive the journal and with the cooperation of the officers of the Local Union as well as 
the members we can accomplish that purpose. 





t m xx n m 



Not lost to those that love them, 
Not dead, just gone before; 



They still live in our memory, 
And will forever more. 



%tst in Tjj^z&zt 

The Editor has been requested to publish the names 
of the following Brothers who have passed away. 



ARTHUR L. ALLIER, L. U. 1360, Montreal, 
Que., Can. 

RASMUS FRED ANDERSEN, L. U. 829, Santa 
Cruz, Cal. 

CARL ANDERSON, L. U. 1883, Macomb, III. 

CARL A. ANDERSON, L. U. 792, Rockford, 111. 

C. L. BANDY, L. U. 1882, Fort Worth, Texas 

JOHN L. BARNES, L. U. 44, Champaign-Urbana, 
111. 

J. A. BELL, L. U. 225, Atlanta, Ga. 

JOE BILDERBACK, L. U. 627, Jacksonville, Fla. 

CHARLES BRINTON, L. U. 1265, Monmouth, 
111. 

OTTO BROMSTEAD, L. U. 622, Waco, Texas 

KARL BUKAW, L. U. 67, Boston, Mass. 

H. C. BURGESS, L. U. 1273, Eugene, Ore. 

PAUL M. BURNS, L. U. 768, Kingston, Pa. 

EARL H. BURRIS, L. U. 71, Fort Smith, Ark. 

DAVID BURROUGHS, L. U. 33, Boston, Mass. 

RALPH J. BURTLE, L. U. 16, Springfield, 111. 

RAY M. CAMPBELL, L. U. 1497, E. Los Ang- 
eles, Cal. 

WALTER M. CARR, L. U. 146, Schenectady, 
N. Y. 

WM. C. CHAMBERS.SR., L. U. 933, Miami, Fla. 

EDWIN C. CLOW, L. U. 583, Portland, Ore. 

J. R. COGGIN, L. U. 345, Memphis, Tenn. 

ANDREW CORWIN, L. U. 532, Elmira, N. Y. 

DANIEL W. COTTER, L. U. 67, Boston, Mass. 

FRED A. COX, L. U. 16, Springfield, 111. 

JOHN E. CROSS, L. U. 500, Butler, Pa. 

FRANK A. CUNNINGHAM, L. U. 67, Boston, 

LESTER DAVIES, L. U. 1006, New Brunswick, 

N. J. 
JOSEPH DOREMUS, L. U. 325, Paterson, N. J. 
CHESTER DYBICZ, L. U. 1497, E. Los Angeles, 

Cal. 
LEROY EBERSOLE, L. U. 822, Findlay, Ohio 
B. F. ELMORE, L. U. 345, Memphis, Tenn. 
ERWARD FLO, L. U. 1497, East Los Angeles, 

Cal. 

B. A. FOGLE, L. U. 101, Baltimore, Md. 
CASPER FUGLAAR, L. U. 403, Alexandria, La. 
ROBERT FUNK, L. U. 488, New York, N. Y. 

C. GLENN GOLDEN, L. U. 1507, El Monte, Cal. 
JOE GOLDENSTEIN, L. U. 44, Champaign- 
Urbana, 111. 

ALEXANDER S. GRAHAM, L. U. 56, Boston, 

Mass. 
ROBERT E. GROSS, L. U. 11, Cleveland, Ohio 
WILLIAM J. GUCKAVAN, L. U. 129, Hazleton, 

Pa. 
J. M. GUNN, L. U. 345, Memphis, Tenn. 
J. S. HAMILTON, L. U. 225, Atlanta, Ga. 
HAROLD D. HANSEN, L. U. 155, Plainfield, 

N. J. 
ROBERT F. HESS, L. U. 129, Hazleton, Pa. 
DENVER HINESLEY, L. U. 225, Atlanta, Ga. 
AUGUST HINZ, L. U. 42, San Francisco, Cal. 
E. R. HOGATT, L. U. 2499, Iola, Kansas 
CHARLES HOMOLKA, L. U. 1922, Chicago, 111. 



C. L. HUDGENS, L. U. 1822, Fort Worth, Texas 
H. E. HUMBLE, L. U. 1529, Kansas City, Mo. 
JAMES W. HUNTER, L.U. 56, Boston, Mass. 
O. JORGENSEN, L. U. 740, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
JACOB KAZANCHY, L. U. 299, Union City, 

N. J. 
MARTIN KEARNS, L. U. 11, Cleveland, Ohio 
JAMES E. KELLY, L. U. 56, Boston, Mass. 
JAN WILLEM KIPP, L. U. 325, Paterson, N. J. 
FRED KIRSIS, L. U. 67, Boston, Mass. 
FRANCIS H. KISSABETH, L. U. 2180, Defiance, 

Ohio 
PAUL KLEIN, L. U. 1922, Chicago, 111. 
CHARLES KRUSKA, L. U. 246, New York, 

N. Y. 
CLAUDE LANDIS, L. U. 1833, Macomb, III. 
BILL LEACH, L. U. 770, Yakima, Wash. 
JOHN S. LE GROW, L. U. 56, Boston, Mass. 
JAMES LEONARD, L. U. 532, Elmira, N. Y. 
EDWARD LESTER, L. U. 11, Cleveland, Ohio 
STANLEY LIND, L. U. 978, Springfield, Mo. 
ERIC LOCKSTED, L. U. 1922, Chicago, 111. 
JOSEPH R. LUCAS, L. U. 631, Spring Valley, 

111. 
NILS FRED LUND, L. U. 488, New York. N. Y. 
JAMES A. MAC DONALD, L. U. 33, Boston, 

Mass. 
RALPH H. MAC KENZIE, L. U. 33, Boston, 

DANIEL MAC NIEL, L. U. 67, Boston, Mass. 
J. EARLE MAXWELL, L. U. 326, Prescott, Ariz. 
JACOB B. MAY, L. U. 462, Greensburg, Pa. 
ELMORE H. MAYO, L. U. 16, Springfield, 111. 
ANDREW J. MC DONALD, L. U. 16, Sringfield, 

111. 
JOHN MC KIERNAN, L. U. 299, Union City, 

N. J. 
PETER MENSCH, L. U. 488, New York, N. Y. 
OCSAR C. MILES, L. U. 225, Atlanta, Ga. 
THOMAS MILES, L. U. 822, Findlay, Ohio 
FRANK S. MILLER, SR., L. U. 101, Baltimore, 

Md. 
HENRY A. MOORE, L. U. 67, Boston, Mass. 
WILLIAM H. MOORE, L. U. 33, Boston, Mass. 
CLYDE L. MORRIS, L. U. 225, Atlanta, Ga. 
M. E. MOTT, L. U. 345, Memphis, Tenn. 
EARL E. OLIVER, L. U. 1693, Chicago, II'. 
HENRY O. OLSON, L. U. 1497, E. Los Angeles, 

Cal. 
BENJAMIN PEABODY, L. U. 1149, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 
EDWARD PHILPITT, L. U. 933, Miami, Fla. 
WILLIAM POIRIER, L. U. 1360, Montreal, Que., 

Can. 
H. PRATT, L. U. 249, Kingstown, Ont., Can. 
JAMES W. PRINCE, L. U. 190, Klamath Falls, 

Ore. 
HARRY PROCTOR, L. U. 1529, Kansas City, 

Mo. 
J. R. RADFORD, SR., L. U. 345, Memphis, Tenn. 
G. W. RETHERFORD, L. U. 1822, Fort Worth, 

Texas 



32 



THE CARPENTER 



CHARLES RICHARDSON, L. U. 246, New York, 

N. Y. 
W. S. RINEHART, L. U. 933, Miami, Fla. 
O. SCHOMBERG, L. U. 249, Kingstown, Ont., 

EDRIC SCHORTGEN, L. U. 190, Klamath Falls, 

Ore. 
THORTON L. SELLERS, L. U. 1497, East Los 

Angeles, Cal. 
GEORGE W. SHIELDS, L. U. 71, Fort Smith, 

Ark. 
A. J. SIMERSON, L. U. 933, Miami, Fla. 
WM. H. SMITH, L. U. 1055, Lincoln, Neb. 
DANIEL STEELE, L. U. 33, Boston, Mass. 
CHARLES H. SUTTER, L. U. 40, Boston, Mass. 
WILLIAM F. SUTTER, L. U. 1367, Chicago, 111. 



3lu JMcmnrinm 

JACOB SVIRKOL, L. U. 40, Boston, Mass. 
CARL THELEN, L. U. 792, Rockford, 111. 
GEORGE E. THOMPSON, L. U. 1497, East Los 

Angeles, Cal. 
AMOS P. WALLS, L. U. 583, Portland, Ore. 
THOMAS WARD, L. U. 325, Paterson, N. J. 
GILBERT A. WHEELER, L. U. 768, Kingstown, 

Pa. 
LEO WILSON, L. U. 1883, Macomb, 111. 
BERNARD WISSMAN, L. U. 1206, Norwood, 

Ohio 
CHARLES E. WOLKE, L. U. 904, Jacksonville, 

111. 
FRANK WRIGHT, L. U. 1883, Macomb, 111. 
ADOLPH ZAWISTOWSKI, L. U. 1922, Chicago, 

111. 



NATIONAL JOINT CARPENTRY APPRENTICESHIP COMMITTEE 

RECOMMENDS UNITED BROTHERHOOD TRAINING PROGRAM 

Representatives of the United Brotherhood and Associated General Contractors of 
America met in Washington, D. C. January 26, for a highly important meeting of the 
National Joint Carpentry Apprenticeship Committee. Elected by the group to serve as chair- 
man of the committee was First General Vice-President John R. Stevenson, and W. A. 
Snow, manager of the building division of Associated General Contractors as secretary. 




Shown above are members of the committee and their guests. Reading from left to right, they 
are: Frederic G. Krapf, Wilmington, Del.; Alvah H. Libbey, Minneapolis, Minn.; H. D. Humphries, 
Atlanta, Ga.; John Bowerfox, Washington, D. C; W. A. Snow, Washington, D. C; Harold Jennrich, 
Dept. of Labor; Tom Murray, General Representative; Harry Schwarzer, General Executive Board 
member; Asgar Andrup, member of the United Brotherhood committee on apprenticeship; John 
R. Stevenson, First General Vice President; W. F. Patterson, Director of Apprenticeship; Harold 
Cladny, Washington, D. C. ; and M. M. Hanson, Dept. of Labor. 

Discussions of the various problems encountered by apprentices throughout the 
nation caused the committee to pass a motion to bring "to the attention of all state and 
local groups concerned with carpentry apprenticeship that the National Joint Carpentry Ap- 
prenticeship Committee favors and encourages the use of the United Brotherhood of Carpen- 
ters and Joiners Apprentice Training Course in Carpentry for related carpentry instruction." 

Difficulties of veterans engaged in apprenticeship training were noted and it was 
suggested that any apprenticeship program endorsed by the Bureau of Apprenticeship, 
or by State Apprenticeship agencies be officially recognized by the Veterans Administration. 
According to General Office records, some 36,728 young men are now engaged in 
learning the trade of carpentry through apprenticeship programs sponsored in whole or in 
part by our Brotherhood. This is a greater number of apprentices than an}' other trade 
connected with the construction industry can claim. 



CorrospondoncQ 




This Journal is Not Responsible for Views Expressed by Correspondents. 

CANADIAN CARPENTERS PROTEST GOVERNMENT INTERFERENCE 

Like their U.S. counterparts, the Canadian Brotherhood carpenters object to govern- 
mental interferences in the settling of disputes between employers and employes. The 
two day session of the provincial convention, held January the 26 and 30th, in Swift 
Current, Saskatchewan, was a stormy one with discussion of long and heated nature. 

Strong objections were voiced concerning employers who gave preference to non- 
union carpenters over those who carried union cards. So that conditions could be more 
readily improved, it was decided to recommend that a provincial organizer be appointed, 
and that employers would be allowed to visit monthly meetings of locals for the express 
purpose of discussing differences. 




Attending the Provincial Carpenter Council Convention were, from left to right, front 

row: A. V. Cooper, James Twigg, C. C. Williams, H. Pederman and C. A. Wyatt. 

Center row, from left to right: J. Twvyer, A. Standen, Stu Laws, C. Reed, M. Hansen, 

R. Carlton, Ross Ried, G. Crosskleg, J. Kirik, J. A. Peters, S. Kosolofski, Wm. Simpson, 

and Norman Wiederhold. 

Back row, left to right: H. Gibson, S. Cranfield, P. Dirkison, H. Robertson, Lou Glasser, 

and A. Boldt. 



Guest speaker on the first night of the convention was Andrew V. Cooper, General 
Executive Board member from the Seventh District. Brother Cooper advised his audience 
to take their membership in the Brotherhood more seriously and respect their contracts, 
and by so doing, gain the respect of the employers and the government. He further 
remarked that he did not favor governmental interference, but thought that differences 
could best be settled by getting together and talking over the problems with the employer. 

A. J. MacGilvary, invited to represent the local contractors, asked that the unions "be 
rational," in their salary demands, and hoped that the great differences in wage differentials 
between large and small cities could soon be remedied. 

The 1954 provincial convention was slated to be held in Saskatoon, on January 28 and 29. 



34 



THE CARPENTER 



VETERAN CARPENTERS HONORED 

Independence, Kansas, once the home of frontiersmen, buffalo hunters, Indian fighters 
and other plainsmen was the scene of a banquet January 29, honoring eight carpenters, who 
were early leaders in the labor movement in their state. 

Over 130 members and guests of Local 1198, of Independence gathered in the Booth 
Hotel to pay honor to eight men whose years in service to the United Brotherhood and 
organized labor ranges in length from 25 to 45 years. The old timers were presented 
service pins and were further honored in speeches by R. E. Roberts, General Executive 




Shown seated are, from left to right: Brothers Warnock and Smith. 
Standing are. from left to right: Brothers Rice, Dawson, Miller, Scott, Roberts, Gos- 
sett. Cooley and Harry* Capp. 

Board member: Charles Miller, Kansas State Council president; George Rice. State Council 
secretary; and Ira Gossett, president of Local 1189. 

Among those honored were: W. E. Smith, 45 years; C. F. Warnock, 40 years; N. C. 
Cooley, 25 years; Harry Capp, 25 years; Floyd Scott, 25 years; Floyd Dawson, 25 years; 
J. B. Owen, 45 years; and A. D. Moses, 35 years. Brothers Owen and Moses were unable 
to attend. 

Like their predecessors in Independence, these men have utilized their combined 
strength against a common foe, welding the bounds of Brotherhood into a unbreakable 
band to encircle and protect the workingman. 



FOURTH ANNUAL BANQUET HELD BY LOCAL 811 

Thursday evening, February 12th, members and guests of Local 811, of New Bethle- 
hem, Pennsylvania, met in the social room of the First National Bank for their fourth 
annual banquet. 

Table and room decorations were in the theme of the holiday and the winter season. 

Mrs. Ruthie McMillin and her effecient helpers served a fine turkey dinner with all 
the trimmings. 

Following the dinner, John E. McClelland, recording secretary, introduced each 
member who in turn introduced his guest. By so doing each person was given the feeling 
tiiat he was playing an integral part in the affair and that his place in the organization, 
no matter how small, was an important one. 

President W. C. Pyler emphasized that the best way to establish a feeling of fellowship 
among die brothers, and to increase interest in the local, was for each of them to make the 
maximum effort to attend each meeting. 

Three moving pictures produced by the United Brotherhood were shown by Mr. 
Blaine George and his son. They illustrated the functions of the Brotherhood in all divi- 
sions of the trade, the work of die General Office and life at the Home for aged mem- 
bers in Lakeland. Florida. The films were well received and served to give the member- 
ship a better understanding of the activities of the organization. 



THE CARPENTER 



35 



Due to tlie wonderful dinner served by Mrs. McMillen, and the presentation of the 
films, "the affair was enjoyed by all and gave assurance that it will be repeated many times 
in the vears to come. 



BROTHER SETS RECORD IN LOCK INSTALLATION CONTEST 

A record time of one minute, thirty-five seconds for installing a Kwikset lock was 
recently set by Brother Earl M. Hallgren, of Des Plaines, Illinois, during the lock instal- 
lation contest held at the National As- 
sociation of Home Builders Convention 
in Chicago. 

Brother Hallgren was awarded a 
$1,000 Defense Bond by Emanuel M. 
Spiegel, new president of the National 
Association of Home Builders. 

During the convention over 600 mem- 
bers of the building industry partici- 
pated in the lock installation contest and 
81 per cent were able to complete the 
installation in three minutes or less. 
Each contestant was presented with a 
beautiful pen stand. 

Brother Hallgren, a member of Local 
839, of Des Plaines, is now a building 
contractor. He served his apprenticeship 
under the Chicago District Council, 
training at the Washburn Trade School. 
He has been engaged in the building 

trades since completing his apprenticeship, witii the exception of the period in which 

he served as a B-29 pilot in die Air Corp during World War II. 




Emanuel M. Spiegel (left), of New Brunswick, 
New Jersey, new president of the National Associa- 
ton of Home Builders, is shown awarding a $1,000 
Defense Bond to Earl M. Hallgren, building con- 
tractor from Des Plaines, Illinois. 



ST. LOUIS CABINET MAKERS BACK BLOOD CAMPAIGN 

Early in March, tiiis year, Local 1596, 
cf St. Louis, Missouri, began a very com- 
mendable program. Its purpose was to 
provide the members, their dependents 
and the Armed Forces with blood. Any 
member of the local between the ages 
of from 21 to 60, and in good health, 
or members of his family were eligible 
to answer the call for blood. 

If 667 pints of blood were donated in 
the name of die local, the members and 
their dependents were assured of a sup- 
ply of blood in an emergency from the 
St. Louis hospitals. Surplus blood is to 
be donated to the Armed Forces. 

According to the latest reports, the 
local is receiving fine support from the 
members. The initial group of donors 
consisted of workers from the Gravois 
Plaining Mill. 

Women are allowed to contribute as 
many as four times a year while men 
may contribute five times. Thorough 
physical examinations are given before 
donations to insure the safety of the 
donor. 




The first group of donors of Local 1596 watch 
as a fellow worker, George Sheets, donates to the 
blood campaign. Standing, first row. from left to 
right: Henry Weinreich, business agent of the St. 
Louis District Council and Local 1596; Marvin R. 
Landgraf, superintendent of the Gravois Mill who 
joined the workers in the donations; ARC nurse 
Claire Chesney; local members Robert T. Goodman, 
Roy Allen, Roy Gutierrez, Gilbert Bauman and Joe 
Rak. Second row, left to right: Robert S. Saunders, 
financail secretary of the local; William A. Stein- 
kamp, shop steward at the mill; and local members 
Frank Goessler. Ellis Hancock, Walter Gneckow and 
Theodore W. Coy. 



36 



THE CARPENTER 



FIRST APPRENTICESHIP GROUP GRADUATED AT WILLIAMSPORT, PA. 
Twenty-nine men received carpenter journeymen certificates at an open meeting of 
Local 691, of Williamsport, Pennsylvania, on January, 19th. This was the first group to 
complete the apprenticeship program since the labor-management committee on apprentice- 
ship was organized in 1945. 




Part of tlie group receiving journeymen certificates are. from left to right, front row: 
Mr. Roller, Harry Rrungard, Joseph McCabe, Eugene T. Haag, Robert N. O'Dell, Ralph 
B. Hughey, Jr., Charles J. Eschbach, Max M. Thomas, Willis E. Snyder and Secretary Hough; 
Second row, standing, from left to right: Allen L. Douty, William J. Decker, James E. 
Winter, David E, Young, Bruce Gilbert, Jack R. Alberts, Paul A. Sechler, Raymond C. 
Lowe, Glenn E. Thomas, Charles C. Harris, John S. Miller, James A. Harris and Mr. Keil. 

Representing the Williamsport Joint Apprenticeship Council were Richard Lundy, 
president; Eben Hough, secretary; Robert Everhart, George Gehron, George Roller, 
Charles E. Barnes and Edgar Haas. 

Consultants for the program include Carl O. Keil, of the bureau of apprenticeship, U.S. 
Department of Labor, and Clyde Corner, of the Williamsport Technical Institute. 



NEW JERSEY LOCAL CELEBRATES 63 YEARS 

Local 121, of Bridgeton, New Jersey, observed its 63rd anniversary Saturday, February 
21st, with a banquet held in Bridgeton's beautiful Cumberland Hotel Ballroom. 

Thomas G. Sloane's many years as financial secretary were given well deserved recogni- 
tion as this charter member was treated as guest of honor. In appreciation, a cash gift 
and a beautiful wallet was presented to the old timer. In acceptance, Brother Sloane 
spoke of personal recollections of the founder of the Brotherhood, Peter J. McGuire. 




The gay spirits of the guests are shown as they sat for the above photograph at Local 
121's 63rd anniversary party. 

Among other honored guests was Gunnar Backlund, executive board member of the 
New Jersey State Council of Carpenters. Also invited was General Executive Board Mem- 
ber Raleigh Rajoppi, but he was unable to attend due to a General Executive Board meeting 
on the same date. A letter from Brother Rajoppi was read, in which he expressed his 
regrets for being unable to attend, and commended Brother Sloane for his long and 
faithful service to the Brotherhood. 




LANSING LADIES HONOR FOUR 

The Editor: 

Ladies Auxiliary 545, of Lansing, Michigan honored four members of Local 1449 

with a dinner at Carpenters Hall December 11th. Mrs. Matt Jefferys, president of L. A. 

545, was mistress of ceremonies, and George Wise, president of Local 1449, presented 

pins to A. A. Jones, thirty-two years membership, William Rider, thirty-four years, Abe 

Vroegindewey, forty-three 
years and to Mrs. J. A. Boichot, 
whose late husband was a mem- 
ber fifty-two years. 

Brother Vroegindewey's pin 
was sent to Lakeland, Florida, 
where he now resides at The 
Carpenters' Home. 

Old times in the United 
Brotherhood were recalled by 
Brodiers Rider and Jones, and 
Business Agent Guy Oswald 

spoke of the many gains which have been made in recent days of organization. 

Brother Mingus, treasurer of Local 1449 gave a short report on the financial growtii 

of the local, telling of the building of the new hall, plus retaining a comfortable bank 

account. 

Shown are the ladies, members of the local and guests at the honor dinner. 




TORONTO LADIES RECOUNT YEAR'S ACTIVITIES 

To The Editor: 

Friendly greetings to all sister auxiliaries from Ladies Auxiliary No. 303, Toronto, 
Ontario. 

Looking over die record of the past twelve months we feel satisfied with the progress 
we have made. Five new members have been added to our rolls and the year's outstand- 
ing fund raising project, our annual bazaar, was a smashing success. 

During the year we held euchre and bridge parties and other forms of entertainment 
which allowed our husbands and friends to join us once each month. 

A few changes were made in our roll of officers with the elections last June. At 
present our officers are as follows: 

Mesdames D. Thorogood, president; A. Cottam, vice-president; E. Minter, treasurer; 
G. Redwood, secretary; Moore, conductress; Rice, warden; Jean Gallop, benevolent con- 
vener; J. Jones, social convener; and trustees Roberts, Rouble, and M. Taylor. 

We have had the pleasure of receiving correspondence from several auxiliaries in the 
various states and have enjoyed taking part in their parcel post sales, then being informed 
of their success in such events. 

Business meetings are still held the second Thursday of each montii, while social 
events usually take place during the fourth week of each month. 

Wishing best of luck to all readers, I remain, 

Fraternally yours, 

Mary Redwood, secretary. 



Craft ProblQms 




Carpentry 



By H. H. Siegele 
LESSON 295 
Wood Shingles— Cypress, cedar, and red- 
wood are considered by good authorities 
as the leading woods for shingles. These 
woods endure well and give a pleasing ap- 
pearance. White pine, yellow pine, and 
spruce are also used for shingles, but they 
are not as substantial as the woods pre- 
viously mentioned. Sap. knots, cross-grain, 
shakes, rot, and poor milling, all have to be 
taken into consideration in order to deter- 
mine the quality of shingles. Climatic con- 




Fig. 1 

ditions have much to do with the dura- 
bility of wood shingles, and for that reason 
a shingle that lives well in one climate, 
might not do so well in another. It is said 
that cypress shingles have been known to 
last for over a hundred years on roofs of 
mansions in Virginia. Redwood shingles, a 
certain writer maintains, have been known 




Fig. 2 

to last more than fifty years. In most cli- 
mates, though, shingles that will stay on a 
roof without developing leaks for twenty or 



twenty-five years, can be considered good 
shingles. Shingles on the south and west 
sides of buildings always deterioriate faster 
than those on the north and east sides. The 
contrast is most noticeable between the 




Fig. 3 

north side and the south side. There is 
much less difference between the east side 
and the west side. This deterioration, of 
course, is caused by the rays of the sun. The 
south side is affected the most, next the 
west side and then the east side. The north 
side is affected the least of all. The differ- 
ence, speaking of time, in the lasting quali- 




Fig. 4 



ties of shingles between the south and the 
north sides of a building sometimes is as 
much as ten or fifteen years, depending on 
circumstances. Good ventilation is one of 
the best preservatives for wood shingles. 
Dipping shingles in creosote or some other 
preservative, before they are put on, in- 
creases their life. Painting shingles after 
they are nailed on, as a rule, is not condu- 
cive to increasing the lasting qualities. Paint 
will cause the shingles to stick at the butt 
ends, making water pockets back of the 



THE CARPENTER 



39 



shingles, consequently rotting is inevitable; 
for paint, under such conditions, merely 
protects the surface of the shingles. 

Side Shingling— Fig. 1 shows the shin- 
gling started on a side of a house, which is 
shown only in part. The corner boards and 
window casings should be spaced for the 
shingle courses about the same as for con- 
ventional siding. In most cases the courses 
of shingles are spaced wider than for sid- 
ing. The best way to line the shingles below 
the windows is by starting the first course 
with a line. The rest of the courses be- 
tween the first course and the windows, 
should be lined with a chalk line, which 
is to serve as a guide for the straightedge. 
Two straightedges are pointed out on the 



Whats Wron6 Here- 




Fig. 5 

drawing, a short one about half-way up, 
and a long one between the first course and 
the window sill. This straightedge is tacked 
on, as indicated by the heavy dots on the 
drawing. The straightedge is used to hold 
the shingles to the proper line while they 
are put on. After a course of shingles is 
on as far as the straightedge will reach, the 
straightedge is taken off and moved ahead 
in order to finish the course. Then the next 




fM MM. IH xI,km 



UE 



Fig. 6 



course is put on in the same way, and so 
on until the shingling is done up to the win- 
dows. For shingling between the windows 
and between the corner boards and win- 
dows, shorter straightedges are used. No 



chalk line is necessary when the straightedge 
reaches from casing to casing or from corner 
board to casing. This is shown to the left. 
The space between the two windows will 



4-Piece Corner 



Boxing- 




•Shimoles' 

Corner Board 

Fig. 7 



take a longer straightedge. Fig. 2 shows 
the same layout with the shingles all in 
place. The heavy fines show how those 
courses should line with the window sills 
and with the top of the window caps. 

Asbestos Shingles— Asbestos shingles, see 
Fig. 3, are fast eliminating the use of wood 
shingles for the sides of houses. The courses 
of asbestos shingles are about twice as wide 



•60XIN<5 




Wood Shingles" 

Fig. 8 

as the courses for wood shingles. The 
courses should, as much as possible, fine 
with the top of the window caps and the 
bottom of the sills. Due to the wide courses 
such lining is not always possible. The 
courses usually line with the top of the 
caps, but not so often with the window sills. 
Notice the small window on the drawing 
and how the shingles join the sill. 

Shingling Details— Fig. 4 shows toward 
the top a good way to mark die last shingle 
of a course. Here a short course of shingles 
is shown in place, excepting the last shingle, 
which is to be fitted between the two 
shaded shingles. To do this, cut off the 
corner of die shingle tip and place it as 
shown on the drawing. Then mark points 



40 



THE CARPENTER 



a and b. This done, trim the shingle as 
indicated by dotted line between the two 
points. Notice that the shingle is held a 
little up to see while the marking is done. 
Toward the bottom of the detail are shown 
three things to avoid in shingling. At 1 are 
shown two joints that are in a direct line, 



D0XIN6 





An6lcPiece 

Wood Shinolcs 

Fig. 9 



with one course of shingles between. If 
the shingles in the middle course would 
split at the dotted line it would cause a leak. 
At 2 are shown three joints in almost a 
direct line, while at 3 two joints are shown, 
one above the other. A good rule is to make 
the shingles lap not less than 1 inch, both 



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to prevent leaks and to produce a workman- 
like appearance. 

Defects— See whether you can figure out 
a remedy for the defects shown in Fig. 5. 
Fig. 6 shows other defects. The defects 
pointed out at a, b, c, and d can all be 
remedied by trimming the shingles. Other 
defects are shown at e, f, g, h, i, and j. 
Some of these are so bad that the defective 
shingles should have been discarded rath- 
er than used. 

Corners for Wood Shingles— Fig. 7 shows 
two ways to make corners with wood shin- 
gles. To the left is shown a corner made 
with a corner board. To the right, the cor- 
ner is made by mitering, the shingles. This 
makes a nice appearing corner. Laced cor- 
ners are shown by Fig. 8. To the left the 
edges of the shingles show alternately, once 
on one side, and then on the other side, 
which is continued to the top of the corner. 
To the right the edges of the shingles are 
all shown on one side— the side where they 
are the least conspicuous. Two ways to 
make angles, or reverse corners, are shown 
by Fig. 9. To the left the angle is made by 
coping the shingles, while to the right an 
angle piece is used, onto which the shin- 
gles are fitted. 



Roof Framing by Degrees 

II 

The previous article covered common raf- 
ters, showing the application of the slide 
square for marking the different cuts. The 
first table shown on the face of this square 
covers common rafters. The first column of 




Fig. 1 

the table gives the pitch according to the 
steel square. The second column gives the 
degrees the radial of the slide square is to 
be set to for marking the level and plumb 
cuts, while the third column gives the length 
of the rafter per foot run. That is all you 
need to know to frame a common rafter. 



THE CARPENTER 



41 



The second table covers hip and valley 
rafters. The first column of this table gives 
the degrees to which the radial is set for 
marking the level and plumb cuts. The 
second column gives the degrees for mark- 
ing the edge bevel, or side cut, as it is also 
called. The last column gives the length 
of hips or valleys per foot run of the com- 
mon rafter. 

Fig. 1 shows, left, the slide square ap- 
plied to a timber for marking the level cut 



r — « 




Fig. 2 

of hips or valleys. To the right it is shown 
applied for marking the plumb cut. In both 
of these applications, it will be noticed, the 



radial of the square is set at 27.23 degrees. 
This means that both cuts can be marked 
without changing the radial. Fig. 2 shows 



Gut Off, 




•Cut Off 



Fig. 3 



a detail, in a little larger scale, of the tail of 
a hip rafter with the square applied to the 
left for marking the plumb cut of the tail, 
and to the upper right, it is shown in posi- 
tion for marking the plumb cut of the seat. 
The level cut of the seat is marked with 
the square in the position shown by dotted 
lines. These cuts can also be marked by 




FOR "TOP" OR "PLUMB" CUTS 
PIVOT HERE - MARK HERE 




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Two rafter length books with each square. 

If your dealer cannot supply you, 
send direct to: 



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9113 S. 53rd Ave. 
Oak Lawn, Illinois 



42 



THE CARPENTER 



applying the square to the bottom edge of 
the timber. This will mean that the square 
would have to be swung around one-half 
turn. As in the other figure, the radial is set 
at 27.25 degrees. 

Fig. 3, bottom drawing, shows a side view 
of a hip or valley rafter with the level and 
plumb cuts marked. This rafter has no tail. 
The upper drawing shows two applications 



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CARPENTERS and 
BUILDERS' HANDBOOK 

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of the square, right, for marking the edge 
bevels of hips or valleys. The shaded part 
cuts out for hips, while for valleys the cut 
is just the reverse, but the applications of 
the square are the same. Think this through. 
The radial is set at 41.5 degrees. To the 
left, by dotted lines, the square is shown in 
position for marking square across the tim- i 
ber. Here the radial is set flush with thfi 
edge of the blade. 

Fig. 4, bottom drawing, shows in a little 
larger scale, a side view of the tail of a hip 
rafter marked for cutting. The shaded parts 
are to be cut out, as shown. The upper 
drawing shows the bottom edge of the tail, 
and two applications of the square for mark- 



Ed&e. View 




Fig. 4 

ing the edge bevels of the seat cut. Th< 
seat is shown shaded. The radial in thi: 
case is again set at 41.5 degrees. The bevel; 
for the valley, as any roof framer knows, are 
in reverse from the bevels of the hip, bir 
the bevel is die same. In fact, the applica 
tions of the square, as shown by Fig. 4, i: 
right for marking for the valley rafter. 



PASS IT ON 
Part II 

Here is another problem due to fault) 
construction. In this case a joint has toe 



Hump 




4 X4 



Fig. 4 



much crown and causes a hump in the floor 
Fig. 4 shows in cross section the hump, the 
joist that causes the hump, and one joist tc 



THE CARPENTER 



43 



the right and one to the left of it. The 
problem was solved by placing a hook-bolt, 
as shown, which was hooked into the joist 

Hump- 




Saw eo Otf-Su 
Fig. 



4 X4 



j and run through a 4x4, as indicated by the 
dotted lines. The hole in the joist for the 
hook, was bored from the left, as shown 




Corrected Joist 



Bricgino- 



Fig. 6 

by the dotted line. By turning the nut, the 
joist was drawn down, until it hugged the 
4x4. See Fig. 5. The projecting end of 



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the bolt, shown by dotted lines, was sawed 
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in a short period of your spare time. The 
first lesson begins with excavations and step 
by step instructs you how to figure the cost 
of complete buildings just as you would do 
it in a contractor's office. 

By the use of this System of Estimating you 
avail yourself of the benefits and guidance of 
the author's 40 years of practical experience 
reduced to the language you understand. 
You will never find a more opportune time 
to establish yourself in business than now. 
Study the course for ten days absolutely 
free. If you decide you don't want to keep 
it, just return it. Otherwise send us $8.75 
and pay the balance of $40.00 at $10.00 per 
month, making a total of $48.75 for the com- 
plete course. On request we will send you 
plans, specifications, estimate sheets, a copy 
of the Building Labor Calculator, and com- 
plete instructions. What we say about this 
course is not important, but what you find it 
to be after you examine it is the only thing 
that matters. You be the judge; your deci- 
sion Is final. 

Write your name and address clearly and 
give your age, and trade experience. 

GORDON M. TAMBLYN 

TAMBLYN SYSTEM 

1115 So. Pearl St., C-53, Denver 10, Colo. 



Heavy-Duty POWE 
CORDS 



At 




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POSTPAI 



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send 100 ft. Cord Set(s), (2 cond. J£U) 

100 ft. Cord Set(3) (2 cond. J/12). Satis- 
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w ! Earn Better Pay This Easy Way 

CARPENTRY 



T MATING 



WICK... EASY,,. ACCURATE with this simplified guide! 




3H can earn higher pay when you know how 
estimate. Here is everything you need to 
iow to "take off" a bill of materials from 
t of plans and specifications for a frame 
)use. Saves you time figuring jobs, protects 



you against oversights or mistakes that waste 
materials and cost money. Nothing compli- 
cated—just use simple arithmetic to do house 
carpentry estimating with this easy-to-use 
ready reference handbook. 




SIMPLIF 
CARPENTRY ESTIMATING! 

Shows you, step by step, how to figure materials needed 
for (1) foundation, (2) framing, (3) exterior finish, (4) in- 
terior finish, (5) hardware, and (6) stairs. Gives definite 
"take-off" rules, with many quick-reference tables and 
short-cut methods that simplify the work. 



lend Ho Money 

Examine 10 Days Free 

fust fill in and mail the 
oupon to get "Simplified 
Carpentry Estimating" for 
DAYS FREE TRIAL. If 
iot fully satisfied, return the 
>ook and owe nothing. If 
'ou keep it, send only $3.75 
'lus few cents postage in 
'ill payment. You take no 
isk. Mail coupon now. 



Checking 

List. Millwork Checking List. Hard- 
ware Checking List. Materials Order- 
ing Information. Quick Figuring 
Tables for estimating concrete foot- 
ings and walls, concrete piers, window 
frames, door and window areas, sash 
weights, nail quantities. How to fig- 
ure labor hours per unit of work. 
Rules for linear, area and volume 
measurement. Mathematical reference 
tables, including decimal equivalents, 
lumber reckoner, conversion of weights 
and measures, etc. New chapter, "How 



to Plan a House," gives useful data 
for contractors and material dealers. 

TURN TO CHAPTER 8 *^ 

this book, and see the "Estimating 
Short Cuts" you can use for quick 
figuring of board footage. Here are 
simplified ways to estimate lumber 
needed for floors, walls, ceilings, roof, 
door and window frames, inside trim 
for these frames, inside trim for in- 
side doors, and drawers and cabinets. 
This chapter alone can be worth the 
entire price of the book to you! 



MAIL THIS COUPON 



I SIMMONS-BOARDMAN Publishing Corp. (Car-453) 
g 30 Church Street, New York 7, N. Y. 

■ Send me for 10 DAYS FREE TRIAL. "Simplified Carpentry Estimat- 
ing." I will either return it in 10 days and owe nothing, or send only 
$3.75 (plus shipping charges) in full payment. 

I Name — 

| Address 

_ City & State — — — — -' 




, a COMPLETE LINE of 

DRY WALL TOOLS 

...another GOLDBLATT First 



2-F0R-1 TOOL. For dry wall 
feathering. 2 flexible spring steel 
blades, 1 curved, 1 flat. Blades 
instantly Interchangeable or may 
be used together if rigidity Is 
desired. Each blade fits in either 
knife position, as illustrated, or 
reverse trowel position, beneath 
the handle. Hardwood handle. 
0W21 — Complete 

with blades Each $4.95 

DWFB — Extra Flat Blade 

(8" wide x 6" long).. ..Each $1.75 

OWCB — Extra Curved Blade 

(8" wide x 41/2" long) Each $1.75 

TAKE-DOWN "T" SOUARE. 47%" 
leg with 18" "T". "T" folds down 
to align with leg for convenient 
carrying and storage (see illus- 
tration). 47%" leg, perfect for 
scoring 48" wall board panels. 
Square weighs only 20 oz. 
DWTT Each $5.25 

CORNER TAPING TOOL. 100° 
angle spring steel flex-o-blades 
make it possible to cement 
both sides of a corner at once. 
Tape can be smoothed to clear 
angle in one operation. Smooth, 
comfortable hardwood handle. 
Frog and tang of lightweight 
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weight of tool only 7 oz. 
DWCT Each $3.95 

CURVED BLADE TAPING 
TROWEL. For those prefer- 
ring trowel style tool for 
taping work. Tool has a 
spring steel blade with a 
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tough, lightweight alumi- 
num mounting. Comfortable 
handle. Blade 10V 2 "x4V2". 
DW34 Each $3.95 

DRY WALL CEMENT HAWK. Spe- 
cially made for wall board work. 
Stainless steel blade measures 
10" x 5" and has a 1" lip 
Hawk weighs only 18 oz. fori 
lightweight comfort. Comfort- 
able bracket type handle. 
Smooth surface makes this 
tool practically self-cleaning. 
DWCH Each $2.75 

Items shown above are only a few of the many 
Dry Wall tools and accessories you'll find in the 
new Goldblatt Dry Wall Bulletin. Fill in coupon 
below and return today for your free copy. See 
your dealer or order direct on order blank below. 
We'll ship your order 24 hours after we receive it. 
Add 5% to cover postage and packing. 



GOLDBLATT TOOL COMPANY 



1938 Walnut Street • Kansas City 8, Mo. 

□ Please send me FREE Goldblatt Dry Wall Bulletin 
Name 

Address 






City 



State 



Enclosed find my Check Money Order for: 

□ DW21 2-For-1 Tool. □ DWCT Taping Tool. 
$4.95 each $3.95 each 

D DWCH Hawk. 
$2.75 each 
□ DWTT "T" Square. $5.25 each 



Q DW34 Trowel. 
$3.95 each 



NOTICE 

The publishers of "The Carpent.tr" reserve the 
right to reject all advertising matter which may 
be. In their judgment, unfair or objectionable to 
the membership of the United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America. 

All Contracts for advertising space In "The Car- 
penter," including those stipulated ae non-can- 
cellable, are only accepted subject to the above 
reserved rights of the publishers. 



Index of Advertisers 



Carpenters' Tools and Accessories 

Page 

The American Floor Surfacing 

Machine Co., Toledo, Ohio 44 

Camdriver Co., Meriden, Conn 42 

Carlson and Sullivan, Inc., Mon- 
rovia, Calif. 47 

Eliason Tool Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 3rd Cover 

E-Z Mark Tools, Los Angles, 

Calif. 43 

Foley Mfg. Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 42-48 

Goldblatt Tool Co., Kansas City, 

Mo. 46 

Kingsdown Cable & Wire Co., 

Chicago, 111. 44 

H. D. Lee Co., Kansas City, Mo_ 47 
The Lufkin Rule Co., Saginaw, 

Mich. 3rd Cover 

A. D. McBurney, Los Angeles, 

Calif. 43 

Miller Falls Co., Greenfield, 

Mass. 47 

Nicholls Mfg. Co., Ottumwa, Ia._ 43 

North Bros., Philadelphia, Pa 44 

See-Saw, Dearborn, Mich. 48 

Skill Corp., Chicago, 111 1 

Simplex Level Co., Detroit, 

Mich. 43 

Stanley Tools, New Britain, 

Conn. 48 

Swanson Tool Co., Oak Lawn, 

111. 41 

Carpentry Materials 

The Upson Co., Lockport, N.Y 4 

Overhead Door Corp., Hartford City, 

Ind. 4th Cover 

Technical Courses and Books 

American Technical Society, Chi- 
cago, 111 47 

Audel Publishers, New York, 

N. Y. 3rd Cover 

Chicago Technical College, Chi- 
cago, 111. 3 

D. A. Rodgers, Minneapolis, 

Minn. 42 

H. H. Siegele, Emporia, Kans 40 

Simmons-Boardman Publishing 

Corp., New York, N. Y 45 

Tamblyn System, Denver, Colo 44 



KEEP THE MONEY 
IN THE FAMILY! 

PATRONIZE 
ADVERTISERS 





SEND 

NO MONEY 

MORE THAN 

4000 PAGES 

• 

2750 

PICTURES 



9 BIG COMPLETE BOOKS 

BUILDING, ESTIMATING, CONTRACTING 



Examine this Up-to-Date Edition for 10 days. See how 
these nine books supply easily understood training that 
will help you to get a better job and make more money, 
or start a profitable business for yourself. Think what 
a BIG help it will be to have them handy for use In 
solving all sorts of building problems. 

Learn to draw plans, estimate, do all-new construction 
and modern remodeling to meet fast growing demand. Afore 
than 4000 pages of practical, pay raising information with 
2750 helpful illustrations, on such subjects as blueprint 
reading, concrete forms, masonry, carpentry, steel square, 
electrical wiring, plumbing, heating, painting, and hun- 
dreds more. 

in our more than 50 years we have never offered mora 
complete building information. Send the coupon TODAY, 
(A year's consulting privileges with our engineers now 
given with these books without extra cost.) 

AMERICAN TECHNICAL SOCIETY— Publishers Since 1898 
Dent. G-436 Drexel Ave., at 58th St., Chicago 37, III. 

I would like to examine your 9-VoIume Set of Building, 
Estimating, Contracting Books. I will pay the delivery 
charges only, but if I choose I may return them express 
collect. If after 10 days' use I prefer to keep them, I will 
send you $3 plus postage and pay the balance at the rate of 
only $4 a month until $34.80 has been paid. Include con- 
sulting service as offered above. 

Name 

Address 

City State 

Please attach letter giving employer's name and adaresi 
(If self employed give businessman reference). Men In 
service please give home address. 




igh-Powei 
Utility Drill 



MILLERS FALLS 
No. 814 

$19.85 

with Millers Fails 
Precision Chuck 

Also as shown with 
Jacobs Geared Key 
Chuck - No. 1814 
. . . $22.35. 



The most powerful 1 / £" drill 
in its price class, this new 
palm-fitting Millers Falls 
pistol-grip model packs all 
the punch you need for 
smooth, accurate drilling 
U P *° Va" •" steel — up 
to 1" and more in wood 
with modern power bits. 
Straight-line, no-slip trigger switch. Convenient lock- 
ing device for continuous operation. Light: only 3 
lbs. Compact: only 8Vi" over-all. And ruggedly built 
to Millers Falls traditional quality standards. See it 
at your hardware dealer's or write for free folder. 

MILLERS 
FALLS 
COMPANY 
Greenfield 
Mass. 




MILLERS FALLS 

TOOLS 




C CARLSON > 



Numerals read from right to left on the Carlson 
3210 RH White Chief (Conventional rules read 
left to right). Hold the 3210 RH in your left hand 
pencil in your right . . . numerals are rightside 
up for right-handed marking. See it at your 
Hardware Dealer. 
Produced under patents 2089209, 2510939, 2629180- 



CARLSON & SULLIVAN, INC^J^nia 




For extra "good measure' 

There are no squares and rules equal to STANLEY for 
day-in-day-out, year-after-year service. Every carpenter 
who has used them knows the extras — in utility, accuracy, 
and durability — that Stanley builds into its tools. 

Standardize on STANLEY. See the complete line on dis- 
play at your local hardware dealer's. 




STANLEY TOOLS 
104 Elm St., New Britain, Conn. 

THE TOOL BOX OF THE WORLD 

[STANLEY] 

Reg. U.S. Pot. Off. 



No. 126"Z«z-Zag" Rule NEW! 

Big, black, plastic covered figures, nickel- 
silvered ball-lock joints and square-end, 
even-inch sticks are some of the features 
of this new rule that also doubles as a 
marking gauge. For complete satisfac- 
tion select a STANLEY Green End Rule. 



No. R100 Carpenters' Square 

The most indispensable tool for carpen- 
ters, not only for framing but for every 
step of construction. Available in choice 
of four finishes, polished, blued, copper 
and aluminum. 



HELPFUL BOOKLETS— FREE 



126 Folding Rule — Describes 5 ways 
to test the time and error-saving features 
of this important, new measuring tool. 
Tell* how to read and use a Steel 
Square. Chapters on: all types of Rafters 
and Measures, Eight Foot Scale, also 
Polygons and fheir Mitres. 



HARDWARE • TOOLS • EtECTRIC TOOLS • STER STRAPPING • STER 




VU& 



$900 



IN SPARE TIME 



"I did vers well last 

year with my Foley 

equipment, about 950 

saws in ruy spare time. 

About $900 for me." 

Leo H. Mix. 

Carpenters Make up to $3 or $4 an hour in 

spare time. With a Foley Automatic Saw 

Filer you can rile hand, band and circular 

saws better than the most expert hand filer. 

Cash business, no canvassing. No eyestrain, 

no experience needed. 

FREE BOOK 

"MONEY MAKING FACTS" 

shows .lust how you 
can start at home in 
spare time, with 
small investment, 
no overhead, — and 
develop into a full- 
time repair shop. 
Send coupon today 
■ — no salesman will 
call. 



FffrMEYt^^ SAW FILER fe 



FOLEY MFG. CO., 418-3 Foley BIdg., 

Minneapolis 18, Minn. 

Send FREE BOOK — "Money Making Facts' 




Name . 
Address 



FOR QUICK ACCURATE SET UPS 

RADIAL 



SAFE, BIG SAW CAPACITY 
EASY TO TAKE ABOUT 




F.O.B. Factory 
PLUS SAW 



Patented. *Trade Mark reg. 

CARPENTERS ALL AROUND 

CUT-OFF AND RIPPING 

MACHINE 

Self-Squaring. Track rests on material 
while sawing, tilts up for easy material 
handling. Swings to any angle. Saw sets 
crosswise in carriage for ripping. Saw 
locks in roller carriage. Carriage can be 
locked any place on track. Track elevates 
oVz" . Saw blade alignment adjustable. 
24" cut off or rip capacity. VVt. 15 lbs. 
(less saw.) 17" wide, 40" long. All rust- 
proof. 

Manufactured by 

SEE-SAW 



4140 Syracuse, 



DEARBORN, MICH. 



WFKIN "RED END 



ff 



EXTENSION RULES— 
THEIR OWN GUARANTEE 
OF QUALITY! 




X-46F 

Heavy Duty 



Constructed in Every Way 
To Maintain Accuracy and 
Give You On-The-Job Durability 

• Rust-resistant, triple-locking heavy 
joints are double-attached to the 
rule — end play is eliminated and 
accuracy maintained 

• Brass strike plates prevent wear 

• Made of the finest straight-grained 
hardwood sections 

• Durable boxwood finish further 
protected by tough, clear plastic 
coating 

• Bold, easy-to-read figures and 
graduations are EMBEDDED RIGHT 
INTO THE WOOD 



BUY fUFKIN 



232 



TAPES • RULES • PRECISION TOOLS 

FROM YOUR HARDWARE OR TOOL STORE 

THE LUFKIN RULE CO., SAGINAW, MICHIGAN 
132-138 Lafayette St., New York City • Barrie, Ont. 



Before you build another 

STAIRCASE 




iP 



Get an 



m Saves its cost in 1 



GAUGE 



day- 



Does a Better Job in HALF the Time 

The Eliason Stair Gauge takes all the grief and bothei 
out of building staircases. In a few seconds you get both 
correct length and angle for stair treads, risers, closet 
shelves, ready to mark board. Each end automatically 
pivots and locks at exact length and angle needed for per- 
fect fit. Adjustable to fit any stairway. Saves a day or 
more, increases your profits $20 to $30 on each staircase. 
Made of nickel plated steel. Fully guaranteed. Circular 
on request. 



Postpaid (cash with order) 
or C.O.D. plus postage, only . , 

ELIASON TOOL CO. 

6946 Pillsbury Ave., Minneapolis 23, Minn 



$]295 



Measure tread in a few seconds for perfect fit. 




AUDELS. Carpenters 
and Builders Guides 

4 vols. $6 



InsideTrade Information 

for Carpenters, Builders. Join- 
ers, Building Mechanics and all 
Woodworkers. These Guides 
give yoa the short-cut instruc- 
tions that you want— including 
new methods, ideas, solutions, 
plans, systems and money sav- 
ing suggestions. An easy pro- 
gressive course for the appren- 
tice and student. A practical 
daily helper and Quick Refer- 
ence for the master worker. 
Carpenters everywhere are us- 
ing these Guides as a Helping 
Hand to Easier Work, Better 
Work and Better Pay. To get 
this assistance for yourself. 

Inside Trade Information On: mSf free" coupon below. 

How to use the steel square — How to file and 

set saws — How to build furniture — How to use 

a mitre box — How to use the chalk line — How 

to use rules and scales — How to make joints — ■ 

Carpenters arithmetic — Solving mensuration 

problems — Estimating strength of timbers — 

How to set girders and sills — How to frame 

houses and roofs — How to estimate costs — How 

to build houses, barns, garages, bungalows, etc. 

— How to read and draw plans — Drawing up 

specifications — How to excavate — How to use 

settings 12, 13and 17 on the steel square — How 

to build hoists and scaffolds — skylights — How 

to build stairs — How to put on interior trim — 

How to hang doors — How to lath — lay floors — How to paint. 





AUDEL, Publishers, 49 W. 23rd St., New York 10, N. Y. 

Mail Audels Carpenters and Builders Guides, 4 vols., on 7 days' free 
trial. If OK I will remit $1 in 7 days and $1 monthly until $6 is paid. 
— Otherwise I will return them. No obligation unless I am satisfied. 



Employed by- 



CAR 




32 



years THE "OVERHEAD DOOR" 

has helped home builders to SATISFY home owners 

A satisfied customer is your best asset. Take no chances! In every house you 
build, put this beautiful door — easy to open — perfectly balanced — expertly 
installed — and promptly serviced! It adds to the value of the home, wins 
instant favor with the owners. 



Look for this famous trade mark 
in the yellow pages of your 
telephone directory. 




\ A *e 



FOR RESIDENTIAL, COMMERCIAL, AND INDUSTRIAL USE 
OVERHEAD DOOR CORPORATION, Hartford City, Indiana 

t'CA'S GRiA1 N AME IN Q^i/rT^^7 




THE 



FOUNDED 1881 



Official Publication of the 
UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS of AMERICA 

MAY, 1953 







Loot for the 
Bruce Brand 
and Union Label 



EASY TO LAY 
HIGHEST 




BRUCE 

Hardwood FBoorin 




Product of 

E. L. BRUCE CO. 

Memphis, Tenn. 



World's Largest Maker 
of Hardwood Floors 



|TWO GREAT TAPES THAT STAY 

EASY-TO-READ 

For On -The -Job Durability 
Buy the Long Steel Measuring 
Tapes with the AH- Metal Line 






The quality leader in steel measuring tapes. 
All-metal Chrome-Clad line in the "Leader" 
won't surface crack, chip, or peel ... is most 
rust and corrosion resistant. Figures and 
graduations won't wear off as they are bond- 
ed to the line and protected by multiple 
electroplatings. Jet-black markings are 
easy-to-read against the chrome-white sur- 
face. Tough maroon-colored vinyl cover. 
Choice of regular or folding hook ring. 



if- 



III 



II 




Now — a high 
quality steel measur- 
ing tape at popular 
prices. Abrasion tests prove that the all- 
metal line in the Ni-Clad will out-wear 
painted tapes many times. Black figures 
and graduations are in sharp contrast to the 
nickel background. Durable green vinyl 
cover. Choice of regular or folding hook 
ring. 

A post-card will bring 

you fully descriptive folders of the 

"Leader" and "Ni-Clad" steel tapes. 

238 

BUY §liFt€iN^°V^ • Rules • Precision Tools 
/ ' FROM YOUR HARDWARE DEALER 

THE LUFKIN RULE CO., SAGSNAW, MICHIGAN 

132-138 Lofayette St., New York City • Barrie, Ontario 





TTIE CAEPENTEB 



Trade Mark Reg. March, 1913 



A Monthly Journal, Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners 
of America, for all its Members of all its Branches. 

PETER E. TERZ1CK, Editor 
Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis 4, Indiana 



Established in 1881 
Vol. LXXIII— No. 5 



INDIANAPOLIS, MAY, 1953 



One Dollar Per Year 
Ten Cents a Copy 



— Con tents — 



It Ain't Funny McGee 5 

The House Committee on Education and Labor hears Taft-Hartley Law "Experts." 

The Whole Story - 8 

A refutation of the Chamber of Commerce's land grab claims. 

One Battle On Many Fronts - - - - 12 

The danger of state anti-labor legislation, as seen by 1st General Vice-President 
Stevenson. 



Carpentry Involves Many Hazards - 

Third in a series on accidents and means of preventing them. 

Stran-Steel Is Metal Lumber - 

A versatile building material gains in popularity. 



* * * 



OTHER DEPARTMENTS 
Plane Gossip 
Editorials 
Official 

In Memoriam 
The Locker 
Correspondence 
To The Ladies 
Craft Problems 



Index to Advertisers 



* * * 



18 
20 



16 
24 

28 
32 
36 
38 
42 
43 



47 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of 

Congress. Aug. 24, 1912. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for 

in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918. 



CARPENTERS 

BUILDERS and APPRENTICES 



Get the practical training you need 

for PROMOTION, 

INCREASED INCOME 




THOROUGH TRASHING IN BUILDING 

Learn at Home in Your Spare Time 

The successful builder will tell you 
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knowledge of blue prints, building con- 
struction and estimating. 

In this Chicago Tech Course, you learn to 
read blue prints — the universal language of 
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You learn building construction details : 
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You learn how to lay out work and direct 
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Building, or your own success- 
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Chicago Tech training now. 



Prepare now for more pay, greater success. 
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Learn how to lay out and run building jobs, read 
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Blue Prints 
and Trial Lesson 

Send today for Trial Lesson: "How to Read 
Blue Prints," and set of Blue Print Plans — 
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jobs and higher pay. Don't delay. Mail the 
coupon today in an envelope or use penny 
postcard. 

MAIL COUPON NOW 

> Chicago Technical College 

E-125 Tech. Bldg., 2000 So. Michigan Ave. 
Chicago 16, 111. 

1 Mail me Free Blue Print Plans and Booklet : 
"How to Read Blue Prints" with information 
about how I can train at home. 

Name Age .... 




Address 



Occupation 



City • Zone. . 



State 



C H I C A G O T E C H N I C A L GO L LE G E 

TECH BLDG.,2000 SOUTH MICHIGAN AVE^ CHICAGO 16, ILL. 





•White Blade 
10 feet long 

* Easy Action 
Swing Tip 

* Numerals are 
rightside up for 
right-hand marking 



C CARISON) 



Numerals read from Wghf to left on the Carlson 
3210 RH White Chief (Conventional rules read 
left to right). Hold the 3210 RH in your left hand 
pencil in your right . . . numerals are rightside 
up for right-handed marking. See it at your 
Hardware Dealer. 
Produced under patents 2089209, 2510939, 2629180. 



CARLSON & SULLIVAN, INC Sg 




Let high-quality chisels by 
Greenlee help you put an 
extra-fine finish on your work. 
Each is carefully balanced . . . 
blade is of selected tool steel 
that long retains its true, 
fine-cutting edge . . . attractive 
green plastic handle provides 
comfortable, sure grip. 
Choice of socket and tang butt 
types . . . see your hardware 
or building supply dealer. 



GREENLEE 

M 

Greenlee Tool Co., 2085 Columbia Ave., Rockford, III 



FOR QUICK ACCURATE SET UPS 

radial See-Baw 

SAFE, BIG SAW CAPACITY 
EASY TO TAKE ABOUT 




F.O.B. Factory 
PLUS SAW 



Patented. *Trade Mark reg. 



CARPENTERS ALL AROUND 

CUT-OFF AND RIPPING 

MACHINE 

Self-Squaring. Balanced track rests on 
material clamping it while sawing. Saw 
automatically retracts, tilts track up. 
Swings to any angle. Saw sets crosswise 
in carriage for ripping. Saw locks in 
roller carriage. Carriage can be locked 
any place on track. Track elevates 4". 
Saw blade alignment adjustable. 18" cut 
off or rip capacity. Wt. 11 lbs. (less 
saw.) 17" wide, 36" long. All rust-proof. 

Manufactured by 



SEE-SAW 



4140 Syracuse, 



DEARBORN, MICH. 



Before you build another 

STAIRCASE 




lUtffi 



GAUGt 



Saves its cost in 1 day- 
Does a Better Job in HALF the Time 

The Eliason Stair Gauge takes all the grief and bothei 
out of building staircases. In a few seconds you get both 
correct length and angle for stair treads, risers, closet 
shelves, ready to mark board. Each end automatically 
pivots and locks at exact length and angle needed for per- 
fect fit. Adjustable to fit any stairway. Saves a day or 
more, increases your profits $20 to $30 on each staircase. 
Made of nickel plated steel. Fully guaranteed. Circular 
on request. 

Postpaid (cash with order) 
or C.O.D. plus postage, only . 

ELIASON TOOL CO. 

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Measure tread in a few seconds for perfect fit. 



*12 w 




Foes of labor indulge in ludicrous T-H testimony, but— 



It Ain 't Funny, McGee 

* * 

SO YOU think you've got it tough, eh? So you think just because Junior 
broke off his front tooth and Sissie needs a new Spring coat you're in 
financial difficulties? Ha! You've got it good, boy; only you don't know 
it. Wait till you see what happens to the whole Board of Directors of United 
States Steel one of these fine days when the stockholders find out the kind of 
shenanigans they have been pulling. Wait until you see them standing in 
line with tattered spats and frazzled Homburgs waiting to get their unem- 
ployment insurance checks. 

It's sad even to contemplate, but it's coming as sure as sin. Just as soon 
as enough U. S. Steel stockholders get a peek at the transcript of the hearings 

which the House Committee on Edu- 

cation and Labor has been holding 
regarding the Taft-Hartley Law, the 
directors are dead pigeons. The bum's 
rush is what they are going to get. 
But they brought it on themselves, 
too, by not knowing sheep droppings 
from coffee beans about economic 
ABC's. 



Here's the way it is. 

When the committee first an- 
nounced its Taft-Hartley hearings, 
only people who had actual experi- 
ence in labor relations and had some 
pertinent testimony to give, were go- 
ing to be heard. But before the hear- 
ings were more than a couple of 
weeks old, every screwball, crackpot 
and publicity seeker with the price 
of a ticket to Washington was allotted 
time before the committee. The re- 
sult has been more hog wash gath- 
ered together in one place than even 
Washington, hog wash center of the 
universe, has seen in a long, long 
time. 

Among the "experts" who testified 
was a long hair by the name of Will- 
ford I. King, an economist for the 
Committee for Constitutional Govern- 



ment. Space will not permit even a 
cursory review of the activities of 
either Mr. King or CCG. Suffice it 
to say that both of them consider the 
income tax unconstitutional. Suffice it 
to say that they have promoted the 
"Millionaires' Amendment" which 
would place a 25% limit on income 
taxes. Suffice it to say that both of 
them have knocked Social Security 
and the Fair Labor Standards Act and 
every other piece of social legislation 
that has come along in the past 20 
years. 

Probably never having been an em- 
ployer in the true sense of the word, 
or having belonged to a union, ne- 
gotiated a contract or settled a griev- 
ance or participated in the organiza- 
tion of a plant, his qualifications as 
an expert in the field of labor relations 
needed no questioning. So Mr. King 
took up an hour or two of the Com- 
mittee's time giving his invaluable 
advice. 

And here is where the poor old di- 
rectors of U. S. Steel got theirs. The 
thesis of Mr. King's testimony was 
that unions are useless, unnecessary, 
monopolistic, restrictive, antiquated, 



THE CARPENTER 



uneconomic and a lot of other things— 
none of them complimentary. Besides, 
Mr. King insisted, unions do not raise 
wages one iota. Increased wages come 
for other reasons, he says. 

That's the blow that put the U. S. 
Steel tycoons in the breadlines. Here 
last year they allowed their plants to 
be shut down for five or six weeks by 
a strike rather than grant the steel 
workers the 15 or 20 cents an hour 
they were demanding, and would 
have gotten anyhow. That shows you 
how ignorant they are. All the while 
they thought that the demands of the 
steel workers for additional pay were 
an effort on the part of the union to 
increase wages, whereas Mr. King 
says there just ain't no such animal. 

So there you have it. Imagine what 
is going to happen to the steel tycoons 
as soon as the stockholders find out 
that they closed down production for 
several weeks in the mistaken idea 
unions were trying to increase wages. 
It's laughable how ignorant some peo- 
ple in high places can be. Here all 
the time the economic forces Mr. King 
talks about were going to elevate the 
wages of the steel workers anyway, 
but the heads of U. S. Steel didn't 
know it. Instead they labored under 
the delusion that if they gave the steel 
workers what they wanted they might 
be raising wages. So from now on be 
careful how you treat the panhandler 
who hits you up for a dime for a 
"cuppa cawfee;" he may be a former 
director of U. S. Steel. 

But there is no end to the wonders 
of Mr. King's testimony. In the first 
five minutes of his testimony he bleeds 
all over the place over the unhappy 
plight of the nation's workers who are 
being penalized by belonging to 
unions. The way he sees it, unioniza- 
tion in industry runs up costs, which 
means workers can buy less with their 
dollars. In the very next five minutes, 



however, lie says that the share of 
added value which labor gets from 
the manufacturing process in Amer- 
ican industry has increased only from 
36.6% in 1939 to 38.6% in 1950, clear 
proof unions do not increase wage 
rates. How unionization can run up 
the cost of commodities without work- 
ers actually getting a bigger share of 
the dollar value is something Mr. King 
failed to clear up. 

In fact, Mr. King even may have 
been a little embarrassed before he 
folded up his papers and headed for 
home. Before he got away, Represent- 
ative Bailey of West Virginia, had a 
few things to take up with him. In 
connection with Mr. King's testimony 
that productivity, not unionism, is the 
cause of increased income level, Mr. 
Bailey said he wished to inform Mr. 
King, in the event he was not abreast 
of developments, that the 82nd Con- 
gress amended the Wage and Hour 
Law to raise the minimum wage for 
many categories of persons from 42 
cents per hour to 75 cents per hour. 
This action affected at least three and 
a half million persons earning less 
than 42 cents an hour and an un- 
known number of other persons earn- 
ing between 42 cents an hour and 
75 cents an hour. This was done by 
Congress, not machinery or produc- 
tivity. While Rep. Bailey did not 
mention the fact, virtually 100% of 
the people who benefitted by the 
raising of the minimum wage to 75 
cents were non-union workers. 

Rep. Bailey also noted that Con- 
gress had exempted some industries 
in the service field in raising the min- 
imum. When he checked with an 
elevator operator in his home city a 
year later he found him earning the 
magnificent salary of $13 per week. 

To all this, Mr. King's reply was a 
classic that should go down in history. 



THE CARPENTER 



People who work for low wages, Mr. 
King propounded, show a lack of in- 
itiative. 

Representative Wier of Minnesota 
also posed a $64 question. Why, he 
asked Mr. King, wasn't everything 
peaches and cream in the late 1920's 
and early 1930's, when exactly the 
kind of conditions Mr. King advocat- 
ed were in effect throughout the coun- 
try. Mr. King immediately became 
greatly concerned about monetary 
matters and inflation. 

In the end, Mr. King advocated the 
abolition of any rights which unions 
might have under law, the repeal of 
all social legislation, and the elimina- 
tion of anything that might interfere 
with profits. In this respect, at least, 
Mr. King was an outstanding witness. 
He said he wanted no part of unions 
—Period. 

On the other hand, the U. S. Cham- 
ber of Commerce and the National As- 
sociation of Manufacturers advocated 
Taft-Hartley revisions that would kill 
unions as dead as the dodo bird. All 
the while they resented any implica- 
tion that their aim might be to put 
unions out of business. 

Now, it is one of the fundamental 
freedoms of this country that any man 
is entitled to make any sort of a 
joker he wants to out of himself. If 
he wants to sit on a flagpole or grow 
a funny beard or wear zoot suits, 
that is one of the privileges he enjoys 
under the Constitution. If one is so 
inclined, this constitutional guarantee 
also includes the right to preach that 
the air over property belongs to the 
owner of the property, who has a 
right to charge anyone else for breath- 
ing it. Therefore, we have no quarrel 
with Mr. King making any sort of 
statements that suit his fancy. Out- 
side of feeling a little sorry for him, 



our only reaction was a couple of 
good belly laughs. 

But Mr. King and the Committee 
for Constitutional Government are 
nothing to laugh about very long. 
CCG is one of the best financed lob- 
bies in Washington. In recent years 
it has spent millions of dollars ped- 
dling just the sort of guff Mr. King 
presented to the Committee. 

Those dollars come from people 
who actually want a return to the 
early 1930's. Recently another Con- 
gressional Committee was blocked in 
its efforts to find out exactly where 
the millions CCG has spent came 
from. So no one knows where they 
came from, but it is obvious that there 
has been no apparent diminishing in 
the funds pouring into this organiza- 
tion dedicated to returning the nation 
to the era of the gas light and buggy 
whip. 

Here we leave Mr. King and CCG. 
In contrast to Mr. King and his Alice- 
in-Wonderland testimony, the out- 
standing witness to appear before 
the committee with pertinent remarks 
was George Meany, president of the 
American Federation of Labor. With 
no hemming or hawing, President 
Meany laid the cards on the table. 
In one single sentence he summed 
up the whole situation as neatly and 
as concisely as it could possibly be 
done. When the Committee got bog- 
ged down in the "rights" of people 
to work or to belong to unions or not 
to belong to unions, Brother Meany 
clarified the whole issue in the fol- 
lowing classic sentence: 

"While a union worker pays three 
or four dollars A MONTH for the 
privilege of being a union man, the 
non-union worker pays three or four 
dollars A DAY for the privilege of 
being a non-union man." 



The Whole Story 

Reprinted from an article written for AMERICAN FORESTS 

By ROBERT W. SAWYER 

* * 

FOR some months federal land-ownership has been under attack by the 
Chamber of Commerce of the United States. The attack began in the 
August 15, 1952 issue of the Chamber's publication, WASHINGTON 
REPORT, where there appeared an outline map of the United States with a 
dark area in each state representing the percentage of its acreage in federal 
ownership. The total of the shaded portions was said to be 24 per cent or 
455,146,726 acres out of a national total of 1,905,361,920. There was a caption, 
"Federal Land Empire Deprives States of Taxes on 24% of U. S." 

The opening paragraphs of the accompanying article read: 

"Federal bureaus now own 24 per 



cent of all the land in the United 
States." 

"Federal bureaus pay no state taxes. 
Private landowners do. This means 
that you pay not only your share of 
state taxes but you must pay more 
to make up for what the bureaus don't 
pay." 

One who read the rest of the arti- 
cle was left with the impression that 
this extensive federal ownership 
brings only burdens— no benefits— to 
states and their citizens. The land 
hungry U. S. bureaus, he was told, 
continually seek to extend their hold- 
ings and as they do so the states are 
"deprived" of more and more tax in- 
come. 

Then Laurence F. Lee, president 
of the U. S. Chamber, speaking in 
November before the National Lum- 
ber Manufacturers Association, elab- 
orated. From Mr. Lee's words one 
would suppose the American citi- 
zen's freedom to buy and sell land 
was coming to an end and that there 
is a dangerous government con- 
spiracy to extend a land acquisition 



program. He conceals but thinly, an 
attack on federal forest ownership— 
the national forests. He raises the 
same cry as does the Chamber article 
about tax losses resulting from gov- 
ernment ownership. 

Doubtless the figures are all cor- 
rect and it is indeed a fact that 
federal bureaus pay no state taxes. 
President Lee may defend the nar- 
row meaning of his words, the half 
truths they tell. They are only half 
truths, however, and if he speaks in 
a just cause it is unfortunate that he 
fails to tell the whole story. 

Let all the facts be put on the 
record and of these the first and the 
most important as an answer to the 
Chamber attack is that there are mil- 
lions of acres in that 24 per cent 
that no one would ever want or be 
willing to own or pay taxes on. There 
is no tax loss on these lands. Another 
is that thousands, if not millions, of 
acres of lands that were once federal 
went into the hands of citizens and, 
after being denuded of their timber, 
went back to the "federal empire" on 



THE CARPENTER 



the solicitation, not of a federal bu- 
reau, but on that of their private own- 
ers. Many other thousands of acres 
left government ownership, went first 
on the tax roll and then tax delin- 
quent. Now they are owned by the 
counties where they are a headache 
for the assessors and a sorrow to the 
conservationists. They ought to be re- 
turned to the federal domain. 

A final fact is that though taxes 
are not paid on any of these federal 
lands numerous financial benefits in 
lieu of taxes and otherwise do come 
to the states where they lie. 

It is in the 11 Western states that 
the greatest part of the "Federal land 
empire" shown on that Chamber map 
is found. The total is 402,036,696 
acres out of the 455,146,726 and it is 
to these 402 million western acres that 
the attention of the reader is directed. 
While they include land in various 
categories, Indian reservations, mili- 
tary installations, national parks, na- 
tional monuments, reservoir floors, ir- 
rigation canals and so on by far the 
largest acreages are those in the na- 
tional forest and in the (once) so- 
called unreserved public domain. 

Mention has been made of the 
lands that have been turned back to 
the government and of those that 
went into private ownership and 
then tax delinquent. The latter are 
lands that were homesteaded. The 
category just named, the unreserved 
public domain, is made up of the 
acres left over after the western 
homesteaders had had their pick. It 
is nontax paying because no one ever 
wanted to own it. No, these lands 
are not on any tax roll but their ex- 
istence does bring to the states the 
special financial benefits already re- 
ferred to. These are not mentioned 
by the U. S. Chamber. They are 
benefits in highway construction funds 
and here is the story. 



Since 1921 there have been federal 
appropriations for state highways. 
The general rule is for the states and 
the federal government to share costs 
on a 50-50 basis. In the public land 
states, however, on a federal aid high- 
way contract the rule is varied in rec- 
ognition of the federal acreage and in 
Oregon, for example, the state's share 
is 37% per cent to the federal 62% 
per cent. 

In 1930 another special benefit 
came to the public land states with 
the appropriation of funds under 
the Oddie-Colton Act for highway 
building across the public lands and 
Indian reservations. In all $31,000,- 
000 has been authorized or appropri- 
ated for these public land roads. 

Of less importance but yet a re- 
turn because of the existence of the 
public domain are the payments made 
to many counties under the provisions 
of the Taylor Grazing Act. 

So much for the public domain in- 
come. Of greater importance are the 
returns to counties and states and 
property owners in general by reason 
of the existence of the national forest. 
One of these— but only One— is vague- 
ly hinted by Mr. Lee. 

To begin with, and contrary to the 
impression left by one of Mr. Lee's 
sentences, schools are beneficiaries of 
the national forest ownership. Fed- 
eral law requires the payment to each 
state of 25 per cent of the annual 
gross income of each national forest. 
The money must be used for the bene- 
fit of roads and schools. For the five 
year fiscal period 1948 through 1952, 
Oregon counties have received from 
this source $15,196,476.38. That 25 
per cent payment is in lieu of taxes. 
In addition the states benefit road- 
wise from the existence of the national 
forests for there are regular federal 
appropriations for forest highways. 
From fiscal 1948 to 1952 inclusive, 



10 



THE CARPENTER 



these appropriations for Oregon's for- 
est highways totaled $11,570,847.62. 
Nor is this all, for on forest roads (not 
highways) in that same period nearly 
$5^ million of federal funds was spent 
in the state. Annually over $1,000,000 
is spent on maintenance. 

The financial benefits just described 
accrue to all the states containing 
public domain or national forests. In 
Oregon, in addition, there are two 
special situations in the field of for- 
estry and government landownership. 
These are the Oregon and California 
revested lands and the Coos Bay 
Wagon Road lands. Presumably their 
acreages are in the Oregon total and 
it is therefore proper to point out that 
they bring substantial annual returns 
to the counties in which they lie. The 
figures are— acres, 2,610,867 and pay- 
ments to 18 Oregon counties in the 
five fiscal years 1948 through 1952, 
$15,010,458.96. These funds, like most 
of the national forests 25 per cent 
fund, are all derived from timber 
sales. 

In the light of all these facts and 
figures it is difficult to find justification 
for the charge that federal landowner- 
ship deprives the states of taxes. The 
figures are from only one state but 
conditions in it, so far as federal lands 
are concerned, are not unlike those 
of the other public land states. Ob- 
viously, the public domain lands can- 
not be expected to go into a private 
ownership, tax-paying status. At the 
same time the fact that these lands 
are what they are does bring a finan- 
cial return to the states as their pro- 
prietor, the United States, recognizes 
and assumes the obligations of owner- 
ship. 

There is another fact to be added 
to the list already given. This relates 
to the national forests. As to them, 
let it not be assumed that they consist 
entirely of timber-bearing acres. Again 



using Oregon figures, one finds in the 
state 14,813,175 acres of national for- 
est, but 5,267,175 of these acres are 
classified as noncommercial. All acres, 
nevertheless, bring a return in lieu of 
taxes to the counties in which they lie 
and they bring to the state annually 
millions of dollars that have no recog- 
nition on the part of the U. S. 
Chamber. These conditions as to the 
national forests in Oregon are dupli- 
cated in greater or lesser degree in 
each of the Western states. 

As one of the facts essential to the 
telling of the whole story, reference 
has been made to the forest lands that 
have gone into federal ownership. Mr. 
Lee would make it appear that the 
federal government had been active 
in acquiring such acreage. "The tim- 
berland owner," he says, "is invited 
to exchange his cut-over lands . . . for 
trees of the federal government." It 
is doubted here that the exchanges 
that have added to the acreage of the 
national forests came about in any 
such fashion. 

For the full record it would be nec- 
essary, of course, to go to each na- 
tional forest. In Oregon the facts con- 
tradict Mr. Lee. There have been, for 
instance, added by exchange to the 
Deschutes national forest in central 
Oregon 383,369 acres. For all but 
8,095 acres of that figure, the exchange 
was initiated by the private owners. 
The small balance is the total of ex- 
changes sought by the Forest Service 
for the protection of timbered strips 
along the highways— an undertaking 
originally promoted by numerous 
groups of citizens rather than any fed- 
eral authority. 

In the past five years in all the na- 
tional forests in Oregon there have 
been additions totalling 114,435 acres. 
Exchanges made up 108,126 acres and 
all were initiated by the owners. 



THE CARPENTER 



11 



—STORY OF THE MONTH— 

Rain and civic pride combined to 
bring about a community project by 
the members of Local 1372, of East- 
hampton, Massachusetts. 

Located in the west central part 
of the Bay State, Easthampton is 
situated near beautiful Nanatuck 
Park. On two occasions recently, the 
members of the Local were forced to 
abandon plans for carpenters' picnics 
due to rainy weather. They had often 
enjoyed the swimming, fishing, picnic 
grounds and baseball diamonds at 
the park, but the threat of rain which 
plagues all picnickers was something 
of a problem. 

After getting the local park com- 
mission to contribute the materials, 




Members of Local 1372, Easthampton, 
Mass. constructing the picnic shelter at 
Nanatuck Park. 

members of the Local worked in 
their spare time and built a sub- 
stantial picnic shelter. It was com- 
pleted after three Saturdays and a 
few evenings work. The town is now 
building three large fireplaces at one 
end of the shelter. 

Spurred by the activities of the 
carpenters, other groups are engag- 
ing in similar projects which are 
suited to their talents. 

No longer do the visitors to Nana- 
tuck Park need worry about getting 
wet, thanks to the members of Local 
1372. The shelter stands as a tribute 
to these carpenters and their pride 
in their community. They realize that 
by helping their fellow man in the 
true spirit of "Brotherhood," they are 
making their community a better 
place in which to live. 



The fact is, that in all too many 
cases of private timberland ownership 
the lands have been clear cut and the 
owner, no longer willing to pay taxes, 
has wrung from his acres the last re- 
maining dollar of value by turning 
them over for national forest stump- 
age. That procedure, and not eager- 
ness on the part of bureaucrats to ex- 
tend the federal domain, has enlarged 
the acreage of the national forests. 

In addition to such national forest 
acreage additions in the West, there 
should be remembered purchases 
made under the Weeks Act in many 
states. The record is not available but 
here again it is a fair guess that in 
most cases, if not all, the transaction 
was initiated by the owner and not 
by a federal officer. 

One sees in the Chamber attack 
and the Lee address the beginning 
of a movement to force the United 
States to divest itself of some of its 
lands, more especially the timberlands 
of the national forests. Here is the one 
natural resource in sole government 
control that private operators would 
like to reach. Mineral lands may be 
filed on and the title secured by desig- 
nated processes. Grazing land may be 
leased though livestock operators 
would like to have it as they did be- 
fore the Taylor Grazing Act "for free." 
National forest timberland is not sold. 
If it were, there would be an end to 
the uses and services that the public 
enjoys as a result of government man- 
agement. Water supply protection 
would cease, recreation would suffer, 
consistent and long-term forest and 
range planning, study, control and di- 
rection would stop and in the end a 
great share of the nation's timber sup- 
ply would be exhausted. 

It is unlikely that the attack will 
succeed. Certainly it cannot do so on 
the strength of the arguments so far 
presented. If the proponents under- 
take to carry their case further let 
J them tell the whole story. 



12 

The fight against anti-labor laws is— 

One Battle on Many Fronts 

By JOHN R. STEVENSON, 1st General Vice-President 
* * * 

AS THIS was being written, the hearings of yt'JwX 

the House Education and Labor Committee 
on proposed Taft-Hartley amendments was / 0™**^ 
droning on into its second month. Although the 
committee announced before the hearings began I 
that it was interested only in getting testimony 
based on actual experiences under the Taft-Hartley | 
law, the hearing soon degenerated into a sort 
of political sounding board where everyone who 
wanted to get his name in the paper was free to 
spout off, whether or not his work had any connec- 
tion with labor relations. 

Naturally, the proceedings before this commit- 
tee have monopolized the spotlight insofar as in- 
terest in industrial relations is concerned. While there can be no discounting 
of the importance of the committee's hearings, I feel too little attention has 
been paid to another phase of labor legislation. That phase is state labor 
legislation. 

Early in March, the Supreme Court made public a decision involving the 
State of Virginia's "right-to-work" law. 




That ruling handed organized labor 
a setback whose implications may not 
be fully recognized for a long time to 
come. I do not think that it is any 
exaggeration to say that it may be 
the handwriting on the wall that fore- 
tells a threat to organized labor fully 
as serious and dangerous as the Taft- 
Hartley law itself. Perhaps its dan- 
gers are even greater, for the "right- 
to-work" legislation actually supple- 
ments the Taft-Hartley law and gives 
it additional leverage in states where 
such laws exist. 

What the Supreme Court decision 
in the Virginia case did was: First, to 
establish the constitutionality of the 
state "right-to-work" law. Secondly, 
it very seriously undermined some 
long established rights of a union 
to picket peacefully. The case de- 
veloped in the following manner: 



Virginia passed the misnamed 
"right-to-work" law some four or five 
years ago. The law made it illegal to 
deny work to anyone because of 
union membership or non-member- 
ship. When a Richmond contractor, 
subsequent to the passage of the law, 
employed both union and non-union 
men on the job, the building trades 
unions placed a picket on the job 
carrying a banner proclaiming "this 
is not a union job." 

After the picket appeared on the 
job, a number of union men refused 
to cross the picket line. The employer 
went into court for an injunction on 
the grounds that the picketing had an 
illegal aim under the Virginia law— 
namely, to prevent the employment of 
non-union men. The court granted 
the injunction, and the unions ap- 



THE CARPENTER 



13 



pealed the case clear up to the Su- 
preme Court, contending that the in- 
junction violated free speech rights 
under the First Amendment to the 
Constitution. 

Despite the fact that both sides 
agreed that the picketing was peace- 
ful, the Supreme Court upheld the 
injunction granted the employer. It 
was a seven to two decision and in 
the dissent Justice Douglas raised 
some far reaching questions. In part, 
Justice Douglas said in his minority 
opinion: 

"If this union used the coercive 
power of picketing to force the con- 
tractor to discharge the non-union 
men who were employed on the job, 
Virginia could issue the injunction. 
For it falls within the police powers 
to keep opportunities for work open 
to both union and non-union men. 

"But, if the union did no more than 
advertise to union men and sympa- 
thizers that non-union men were em- 
ployed on the job the picketing would 
be privileged. 

"Picketing is a form of free speech— 
the workingman's method of giving 
publicity to the facts of industrial life. 
As such it is entitled to Constitutional 
protection. 

"A purpose to deprive non-union 
men of employment would make the 
picketing unlawful; a purpose to keep 
union men away from the job would 
give picketing Constitutional protec- 
tion." 

When a layman gets involved in 
legal technicalities, it is not difficult 
for him to get beyond his depth. I 
do not want to pose as a legal expert 
because I certainly am not one. How- 
ever, it seems to me that the implica- 
tions involved in the Virginia case 
strike at the very grass roots of union- 
ism. 

For one thing, it took organized 
labor a half-centurv to establish the 



fact in the courts that peaceful picket- 
ing is an exercise of free speech. That 
was a long and hard battle, but in 
the end practically all courts recog- 
nized, as Justice Douglas pointed out 
in his dissenting opinion, that picket- 
ing is the workman's way of advertis- 
ing the facts of industrial life. 

Where does the Virginia decision 
leave this theory? Here we have some 
unions that picketed a job in the most 
peaceful manner possible. At no time 
were more than two pickets on the 
job at the same time. At no time did 
the pickets' signs state anything more 
coercive than "this is not a union job." 

Yet the courts slapped the unions 
down on the theory that the picketing 
under the "right -to -work" law was 
illegal. The state law made it illegal 
to deny anyone the right to work be- 
cause of membership or non-member- 
ship in a union. A majority of the 
court assumed that the purpose of the 
picketing was to deprive the non- 
union men of employment. Therefore, 
they ruled the picketing was illegal. 

Now this matter of "intent" is split- 
ting legal hairs mighty fine. What 
the whole thing does is to emphasize 
the dangers involved in the misnamed 
"right-to-work" laws which have al- 
ready been passed by some dozen 
states and are under consideration in 
others. 

Bluntly put, what these laws do 
is outlaw any resemblance of union 
shop or maintenance of membership, 
even though both employers and 
workers may deem such an arrange- 
ment mutually beneficial. These state 
laws are based on the same old mis- 
conceptions that influenced passage 
of the Taft-Hartley law. When the 
Taft-Hartley law was up for consid- 
eration, a lot of people with axes to 
grind sold Congress on the idea that 
millions of workers were forced into 



14 



THE CARPENTER 



unions and kept there by coercion. 
To "cure" this situation, the Taft- 
Hartley law made it legal to sign a 
union shop agreement only after a 
majority of all eligible employes voted 
in favor of such an agreement. What 
was the result? The 16th annual re- 
port of the National Labor Relations 
Board tells the story. 

In the four years and two months 
during which such a provision was 
contained in the Taft-Hartley law, 
the NLRB held 46,119 union shop 
elections. Union shop agreements 
were authorized in 44,795 elections. 
This is roughly 97%. In these elec- 
tions, some 6,542,564 workers were 
eligible to vote. Of this number, 
5,547,478, or 84.8% voted. Of the 
total number voting 5,071,988 or 
77.5% voted in favor of the union 
shop arrangement. Does this record 
support the contention that workers 
are in unions simply because they are 
coerced into joining and maintaining 
membership? Apparently not, for in 
1951, by almost unanimous action, 
Congress repealed the union security 
election provisions of the Taft-Hartley 
law. 

During the period when the Taft- 
Hartley law required union shop elec- 
tions, some $3,000,000 was spent by 
the government to find out that work- 
ers are in unions, not because anyone 
forced them to be, but because they 
wanted to be. 

In the face of this evidence, some 
13 state legislatures have nevertheless 
been sold the same bill of goods— that 
there is something sinister about a 
union and an employer signing a 
union shop agreement. A number of 
them have already passed "right-to- 
work" laws, and others have equiva- 
lent laws under consideration. Re- 
cently such laws have been turned 
down in Utah, Idaho, Nevada and 
Wyoming. Sooner or later, probably 



every state legislature will have such 
a law before it, for the forces that 
seem determined to render labor in- 
effective operate on a nation-wide 
basis. 

From what is going on in the Taft- 
Hartley hearings in Washington it is 
obvious that Big Business is shifting 
its campaign against unions to the 
state level. According to the Wall 
Street Journal, one of the main T-H 
changes business is seeking, is the 
vesting of more authority to regulate 
unions in the hands of the individual 
states. 

Slight amendments may give in- 
dividual states big powers over labor; 
"states, under the plan, could write 
laws tougher than Federal statutes" 
said a recent article in that paper. 
"Business groups are backing the 
change because they want the states 
free to enforce tighter curbs on union 
activity." 

Under the circumstances, the threat 
of state anti-labor legislation cannot 
be discounted or ignored. While the 
Taft-Hartley law may pose the more 
obvious danger, state anti-labor laws 
strike just as hard and as relentlessly 
at many of the traditional rights of 
labor. In the anxiety to eliminate the 
former, the latter must not be allowed 
to accomplish the same results via the 
back door. 

The question of whether or not or- 
ganized labor belongs in politics has 
long since been answered by passage 
of the Taft-Hartley law and various 
"right- to-work" state laws. Political 
action on the part of labor is no longer 
a matter of seeking to elect friendly 
candidates; rather it is a life and death 
struggle to keep unions from being 
legislated out of anything resembling 
effectiveness. Nothing is more basic 
to the very existence of organized 
labor than the right to picket peace- 
fully. In view of the Supreme Court 



THE CARPENTER 



15 



decision in the Virginia case, how 
long will labor maintain that right if 
state laws are to empower courts to 
constantly seek out the intent of pick- 
eting? 

The Virginia case must become a 
rallying point for labor. In four state 
legislatures "right-to-work" bills have 
been defeated this year because labor 
was aroused and militant. Until labor 
groups in every state in the Union are 
equally aroused, the threat of anti- 
labor legislation hangs over the heads 
of all unions. 

The "right-to-work" title is a mis- 
nomer if there ever was one, for these 
laws protect no one's right to work. 
Nobody in Virginia or any other state 
where such a law exists can go to an 
employer and insist that he be given 



work. Moreover, such laws do not 
prohibit an employer from firing a 
worker if the boss does not like the 
color of his hair or the shape of his 
nose. All these laws do is to protect 
the scab. He takes all a union can 
win for him without contributing 
anything to the union in return. All 
the sweating and toiling and sacrific- 
ing the union members may have 
done to establish decent wages and 
working conditions mean nothing; it 
is the chiseller and dead-beat who 
gets the consideration from these so- 
called "right-to-work" laws. 

Elimination of the Taft-Hartley in- 
justices must be pushed; but in the 
process, the equally dangerous threat 
of state anti-labor legislation must not 
be ignored or forgotten. 



JUDGE ROUTZOHN PASSES ON 

On Tuesday, April 14th, the United Brotherhood and American labor movement lost 
a friend and champion with the passing of Judge Harry N. Routzohn. An able lawyer 
and a fine gentleman, Judge Routzohn had served on the legal staff of the Brotherhood 
for the past twenty-five years. During the years in which he acted as the legal representa- 
tive of the United Brotherhood he compiled an enviable record. 

Early in February this year, he was appointed as Solicitor for the Department of 
Labor by President Eisenhower, a post second only to that of Secretary of Labor. 

Judge Routzohn had practiced law for 
nearly fifty years, having been admitted to 
the bar in his home state of Ohio in 1904. 
During that time he served as prosecuting 
attorney, probate judge, congressman and 
special prosecutor, and -taught law for a time 
at the University of Dayton. On several oc- 
casions he practiced before the United States 
Supreme Court and was very active in the 
defense of the Brotherhood in the case in 
which William L. Hutcheson successfully 
stood up to Thurman Arnold. 

While in Congress he distinguished him- 
self by exposing the extent of infiltration of 
subversives in the National Labor Relations 
Board and emphasized that the Board was 
biased in favor of extreme left-wing elements 
of American labor. 

Born in Dayton, Ohio, in 1881, he started 
life in very ordinary circumstances. Going to 
work shortly after being graduated from grade 
school, to aid in the support of his brothers 
and sisters, Judge Routzohn was employed 
as a blacksmith's helper and trolley tender. 

In his spare time he studied until he met the requirements of the State of Ohio for a 

teacher's certificate, which allowed him to enter the study of law. 




Plan 




e GOSSIP 



THE STALLING IS ALL OVER 

Within a few weeks of the passing of 
Joe Stalin, the Kremlin began making peace 
overtures that had the smack of sincerity 
in their ring. However, counterfeit coins 
have been known to ring pretty nicely too, 
so caution should be our watchword. 

Maybe the Russian peace overtures are 
sincere; maybe they are only tricks to try 
to lull us to sleep; or maybe they stem from 
the fact that the Kremlin realizes that at 
long last we are loaded for bear once again. 
Whatever may be motivating them, we have 
only one comment to make— they had better 
be based on sincerity. If they are not, the 
Reds may find themselves in the same posi- 
tion as a struggling young artist in an old 
story of ours. 

A little light on cash, the artist unex- 
pectedly ran into the landlady in the hall. 

"Just think, madam," he said, "in a few 
years people will look at this house and say, 
'Fintcher, the painter, used to work here.' " 

To which the landlady replied: 

"If you don't pay your back rent by to- 
night, they will be able to say it tomorrow." 




"Skippy does his bit for union labor 
—He's bit everyone who's crossed 
our picket line!" 



THAT S OPPORTUNITY? 

Organized labor has presented to Con- 
gress a clearcut formula for staving off a 
depression. It is neither complicated nor 
hard to understand. Keep the purchasing 
power of the working people high enough 
to buy the products that farm and factory 
produce and there will never be a depres- 
sion, summarizes the AFL's formula in a 
single sentence. 

But some of the Big Business Boys have 
other ideas. They want unions curbed, prof- 
its untaxed, credit expanded and specula- 
tion unhampered. Since they make money 
on the economic ferris wheel whether it is 
going up or coming down they aren't very 
fussy. Who else may get hurt in the proc- 
ess bothers them not at all. 

As a matter of fact they remind us of an 
old story about a Swiss guide. The Amer- 
ican tourist in Switzerland was somewhat 
disturbed by the limitless enthusiasm of 
his guide, who was taking him on a moun- 
tain climbing expedition. About noon they 
came face to face with a particularly dan- 
gerous situation. While the tourist did a 
lot of sweating, the guide sat calmly smok- 
ing his pipe. As they prepared to push on, 
the guide said: 

"Be especially careful not to fall here as 
this is a mighty dangerous place. But if 
you do fall, remember to look to the right 
because the view is extraordinary." 

* * * 

DAFFY DEFINITIONS 

Teacher— One whose task is to take a lot 
of live wires and see they're well grounded. 

Egotist— A guy always me-deep in con- 
versation. 

Facts— Our scarcest raw material. 

Deflation— That which takes the wind out 
of our sales. 

Ordeal— What an ideal becomes after you 
marry him. 

Bar— Something which, if you go into, 
you're apt to come out singing a few of and 
might get tossed behind. 

Gentleman— A fellow who doesn't blow 
his knows. 



THE CARPENTER 



17 



EFFICIENCY WITH A CAPITAL E 

As Congressional committees dig into the 
procurement methods of the Army, Navy 
and Air Force, some very disturbing situa- 
tions are being uncovered; which may ac- 
count to some extent for the snafu that has 
existed in the ammunition supply in Korea. 
Apparently the tonnage of red tape always 
seems to exceed the tonnage of armaments 
ordered. Some times as many as 200 dif- 
ferent brass hats have to okay an item of 
ordnance. Sometimes ten items are ordered 
when one is needed. The more we read of 
the situation, the more we are reminded of 
the gardener in an old, old story. 

The gardener of a large estate was sent to 
the hardware store to buy a wheelbarrow. 
In due course the old man returned pushing 
one wheelbarrow with another one sitting 
in it. 

When the employer asked him why he 
bought two barrows, the old man answered 
with a snort of disgust: 

"You didn't think I was going to carry 
the darned thing did you?" 

• • * 

MAGNIFICENT ANTE MERIDIAN 
MEANS GOOD MORNING 

At its best, English has always been a 
difficult language to handle with any degree 
of precision. Since bureaucracy has reached 
its present peak, however, the difficulties 
of expressing something neatly and pre- 
cisely have increased greatly. In a recent 
issue of the New York Times, W. E. Farb- 
stein had a few interesting examples. 

A recent Army order warned all officers 
and enlisted men to "reduce the volume and 
verbosity of electrically transmitted mes- 
sages." What the Army meant was "cut 
down on phone calls and wires." 

When a New York plumber asked the 
Bureau of Standards if hydrochloric acid was 
okay to use as a pipe cleaner, the bureau 
replied: "The efficiency of hydrochloric acid 
is indisputable, but the corrosive residue is 
incompatible with metallic permanence." 
The puzzled plumber finally figured out 
that what the bureaucrats meant was "Don't 
use hydrochloric acid; it will eat Hell out 
of the pipes." 

Showing that the disease is not peculiar 
to the United States, Farbstein cites an 
English doctor who testified that a man was 
suffering from "circumorbital haematoma" 
when what the guy had was a plain old 
shiner. He also tells of an Australian gov- 
ernment official who had to survey a plot of 



ground for possible use as a playing field. 
The official reported as follows: 

"It is obvious from the difference in ele- 
vation with relation to the short depth of 
the property that the contour is such as to 
preclude any reasonable development po- 
tential for active recreation." What it all 
boiled down to was that the field was too 
darn sleep for a playground. 

* * • 
A SOCIETY WITH A ROSY FUTURE 

Dispatches from Melbourne, Australia, 
tell of the phenomenal success a new organ- 
ization called "Society For The Prevention 
Of Cruelty To Husbands" is having in 
signing up new members. Within two 
months of its founding, the organization had 
something like 500 members on its rolls, and 
new applications coming in daily. 

According to die secretary of SFTPOCTH, 
the Society's aims are to combat "nagging 
wives, aggressive mothers-in-law and inter- 
fering relatives." So far we have not heard 
of any American chapters being established 
but the potential membership in this coun- 
try must be terrific. 

About all any of this does is give us an 
opportunity to print once more Joe Paup's 
famous poem "Advice to the Young Man" 
which goes about as follows: 

Gather your kisses while you may, 
For time brings only sorrow; 
The girls who are so sweet today 
Are backseat drivers tomorrow. 




That's one advantage of having 
union employees, boss— Your busi- 
ness has zoomed since you quit inter- 
fering!" 



18 



Carpentry Involves Many Hazards 

Editor's note: Accident prevention is (or should be) a prime concern of every 
working man, for it is he who surfers most and loses most through accidents on the 
job. Recently the Department of Labor made an analysis of accident experience in the 
carpentry trade in 1948 and 1949. Contained in that study is a good deal of food for 
thought, for the study shows carpenters suffer twice as many accidents as do general 
factory workers. Significant portions of the study are being run in THE CARPENTER. 
This is the third of the series. 

* * 

TO ILLUSTRATE the general hazards encountered by carpenters, a 
number of typical accidents were selected for special analysis. These 
accidents were analyzed by a member of the Division of Safety Stand- 
ards in the Bureau of Labor Standards of the United States Department of 
Labor and suggestions were made to indicate how they might have been 
prevented. 

The purpose of this portion of the report is not to make all-inclusive 
recommendations, nor to propound authoritative safety rules, but rather to 
point out that there is a simple approach to the prevention of nearly every 
accident. Many safety engineers, no doubt, would attack the problems in- 
volved in these accidents in different ways and would achieve equally good 
results. The method of prevention, however, is of little importance as long 
as it accomplishes its purpose. 



Brief descriptions of the accidents 
with comments and recommendations 
of the Bureau of Labor Standards' 
safety specialist are herewith pre- 
sented: 

Case Descriptions and Recom- 
mendations 

1. A carpenter was using a port- 
able electric saw. The blade caught 
his overalls, which pulled the saw 
against his leg. Investigation disclosed 
that the saw was not guarded. 

All powered saws should be 
adequately guarded. The proper 
type of guard for a portable saw 
completely encloses all of the 
blade not actually in the cut. 

2. A carpenter was using a port- 
able electric saw to cut wedges. A 
piece of wood kicked back and lacer- 
ated his left thumb. 

A portable saw should never 
be used for cutting wedges. In- 



stead, a fixed saw with suitable 
guides and jigs should be used. 

4. A carpenter was using a port- 
able electric saw. When the guard 
failed to close quickly, the blade lac- 
erated his leg. Investigation disclosed 
that the guard was clogged with saw- 
dust. 

To be effective, guards of this 
type must be kept clean and in 
good working order. Inspection 
of all equipment should be made 
frequently and at regular inter- 
vals. Defective or unsafe equip- 
ment should be repaired or cor- 
rected immediately or removed 
from service. 

4. A carpenter was using a port- 
able electric saw to cut rafters. While 
standing on wet ground, he picked 
up the saw and suffered an electric 
shock. Investigation disclosed that 
the saw had not been grounded. 



THE CARPENTER 



19 



All portable electric-powered 
tools should be adequately 
grounded. In addition, they 
should be inspected periodically 
to insure safe operating condi- 
tions. 

5. An employe was cutting a 2" x 
6" rafter with a portable electric cir- 
cular saw. When he had finished his 
cut, he shut off the power and drop- 
ped his hand with the saw to his side. 
The still-moving blade cut a deep 
gash in his leg. Investigation dis- 
closed that the guard had been re- 
moved from the saw several days be- 
fore and had not been replaced. 

Employes should not be per- 
mitted to use any equipment 
without the safeguards which 
have been provided. Adequate 
supervision should be maintained 
to enforce this rule. 

6. While a helper was breaking 
concrete with a hammer and chisel, 
a piece of concrete lodged in his eye. 
Investigation disclosed that no gog- 
gles or other eye protective devices 
were provided. 

Suitable eye protection should 
be provided for this work. Al- 
though goggles will protect the 
eyes, face shields with or with- 
out goggles are more desirable. 

7. A carpenter was standing on a 
sawhorse platform installing rock lath 
on the ceiling. A particle fell from 
the lath and lodged in his eye. The 
employe failed to have the particle 
removed and infection developed. 

(a) Eye protection should be 
provided and worn on all ceiling 
and other overhead jobs. 

(b) Particles which have be- 
come lodged in workmen's eyes 
should be removed as soon as 
possible, but only by a physician 
or other qualified person. 

(Continued 



8. An employe was using a chisel 
to cut a bolt. As he struck the chisel, 
a piece of steel chipped from the head 
of the chisel and punctured his arm. 
Investigation disclosed that the head 
of the chisel was mushroomed. 

Maintaining tools in good con- 
dition at all times is important in 
accident prevention. Workmen 
should be trained to remove de- 
fective tools from service until 
they are repaired or corrected. 

9. A carpenter was driving a stake 
with a sledge. When the stake split, 
the sledge struck his foot. 




"The overhead is reaily raising 
hob with our profits!" 



NATIONAL SAFETY COUNCIL 



All workmen should be care- 
fully trained in the safe use of 
hand tools. In this case, the car- 
penter should have placed him- 
self in a position so that when the 
stake split he would not have 
been struck by the sledge. 

10. An apprentice was holding a 
stake while it was being driven into 
the ground by a co-worker. The sec- 
ond employe missed the stake and 
struck the apprentice's hand. 

on page 33) 



20 



STRAN-STEEL IS METAL LUMBER 

• • • 

CARPENTERS, like men in many other rapidly developing fields, are 
sometimes surprised to discover that supposedly new methods or ma- 
terials are not so new after all. Stran-Steel is undoubtedly a prime 
example of this. 

First put on the market in 1933, Stran-Steel is probably a familiar building 
material to most old time members. To some newer members, however, it may 
still be something of an innovation, particularly since steel restrictions for the 
past 12 years have curtailed its use to considerable degree. 

Stran-Steel is a product suitable for 



framing either in house building or 
in light commercial construction. It 
consists of two pieces of light metal 
backed up to each other to form a 
sort of beam. However, there is this 
difference. A groove between the two 
pieces of sheet steel extends the length 
of the piece. When used as a stud or 
joist, sheathing, roofing or floor lining 
can be nailed to the piece. The nail 
enters the slot which is especially de- 
signed to deform the nail and virtually 
clinch it. The holding power that is 
thus derived is tremendous. 

Any carpenter who is familiar with 
wood framing is well qualified to 
frame and erect this material. Spe- 
cially designed grooves allow studs 
and joists to be joined by ordinary 
nails, although steel screws and even 
welding can be used. During the war, 
Stran-Steel went into thousands of 
Quonset huts for the armed forces. 

No special tools are required for 
Stran-Steel construction. The tools in 
the average carpenter's box are suf- 
ficient, just as the skills he developed 
in working with other materials are 
sufficient. 

Our organization is known as the 
United Brotherhood of Carpenters 
and Joiners. Too often we forget what 



the latter word means. A joiner is one 
who joins material together. Over the 
years we have allowed the title "car- 
penter" to designate all facets of our 
trade, to the neglect of such honor- 
able crafts as joinery. We should 
never forget that we are joiners as 
well as carpenters. 

The use of Stran-Steel utilizes and 
requires all the skills that joinery en- 
tails. Furthermore, the manufactur- 
ers of this material recognize this fact 
and are desirous of having men of our 
trade erect this material whenever it 
is used in building construction. 
Therefore, every member of our or- 
ganization should bear in mind that 
the erection of Stran-Steel is joinery 
work which only carpenters and join- 
ers are fully qualified to perform. 



FACTS TO REMEMBER ABOUT 
STRAN-STEEL 

Stran-Steel is used in exactly the 
same manner as other framing ma- 
terials. 

It is nailable. 

It requires no tools that the ordi- 
nary carpenter does not have in his 
tool box. 

The know-how of the carpenter is 
needed to erect it quickly, safely and 
economically. 



THE CARPENTER 



21 



Accessories make Stran-Steel a versatile framing 
material, as these illustrations show. 




SHEET VETAL SCREWS 



Shown in detail herewith are various methods used in join- 
ing S-S metal lumber. Like other materials, S-S rafters, 
studs, and joists are inter-connected with nails or screws. 
The sheathing, sub-flooring, and roofing materials are nailed 
to it in the same way it has been done by carpenters for 
generations. The tools that are needed are the tools every 
carpenter carries in his tool box. urn in n in i ii imhi 

mmSmmm 



RAFTER PLATE 





HEADER BRACKET 




22 



THE CARPENTER 




General Representative William J. Sullivan watches members 
of Local 79, New Haven, Connecticut, during the erection of a 59 
unit apartment building. The carpenters are shown nailing sheath- 
ing to the building's Stran-Steel framing. 




Stran-Steel framing was used for a 26' x 80' addition to a super 
market at Manhattan, Kansas. The building was closed in and occu- 
pied in seven days. 



THE CARPENTER 



23 




A remodeling job in San Francisco shows how Stran-Steel studs 
were used in the job. 




Stran-Steel was used in the construction of the 1,600-unit Kent 
Village near Washington, D. C. Shown above is a detail of the S-S 
joints being set in one of the units. Note steel bridging. 



Editorial 




When Labor Loses So Does Management 

It is not often that a labor publication can print the words of a representa- 
tive of management without any comment. A notable exception, however, 
is a short piece written by Mr. A. B. Toro, manager of a food chain in Penn- 
sylvania, for a business publication in the food industry. So straightforward 
and thought-provoking are Mr. Toro's words that the Amalgamated Meat 
Cutters and Butcher Workmen of America had it published in pamphlet form. 
Significant portions of that pamphlet are herewith reprinted: 

"Try to analyze your employes' needs and daily problems. You will find 
there is no mystery in Unions. Unions are nothing but your own employes, 
the men on your team. You cannot call the plays, carry the ball, block and 
score by yourself. You need the entire team. 

"What makes a union? The answer is People, and these people are your and 
my employes. A business leader recently wrote a book and stated in it that 
unions never lose. Let's be practical. Do you want unions to lose? If they do, 
it simply means that your employes lose. That would certainly not help your 
or my business. I would like to change that author's statement from 'Unions 
never lose' to 'Unions always improve.' Again I say that when Unions im- 
prove, so will the community as well as your business. 

"How many of us remember the years following the first World War? Yes, 
Unions lost at that time. You can search the records, and you will find that 
so did business and communities as well. Having done business with organ- 
ized labor since 1919, I remember very well the ups and downs of Unions. I 
can assure you that in every case when Unions lost ground, so did business. 
Remember the Longshoremen Strike -of New York during Mayor Hyland's 
days? The famous Red Mike? Sure, he broke it. But you search the records 
and tell me what happened to business. Then let us refer to the long dragged 
out International Seamen Union's Strike in 1921. Again Union lost, and again 
I would like to suggest that the record be examined. You will find that busi- 
ness also lost. You have often heard 'As Vermont goes, so goes the Nation.' 
I don't know how accurate a statement that is, but surely you will not be 
wrong when you say, 'As Unions go, so goes the Nation.' 

"It is my sincere belief that organized labor produces a much better disci- 
plined employe. In every case where I have worked with organized labor, 
my personnel turnover has been less. I have a vivid recollection of one par- 
ticular organization of which I was one of the managing heads. We had 
union labor in the meat department, but not in the other departments of this 
organization. Records will prove that the labor turnover in the meat depart- 
ment was much less than that in other departments. The discipline was higher 
and the type of personnel attracted by this union labor department was in- 
deed of a higher caliber. Some of those same union men are today executives 
of the firm. 



THE CARPENTER 25 

"As recently as two months ago, I took over the management of a business 
that had just been organized by one of our oldest labor groups. Because 
management did not understand organized labor, and therefore did not co- 
operate with those men representing the employes, the personnel turnover 
was tremendous, the morale was poor and the man-hour production was very 
low. Four weeks after taking over management of this business our labor 
turnover was drastically reduced, and of course the man-hour production 
raised considerably. The particular point which I want to stress is that this 
organization had been working on a 53-hour-week schedule. Two weeks after 
I took over, the Wage Stabilization Board authorized a 45-hour work week. 
The actual dollar payroll on a 45-hour week basis only increased $100.00 per 
week for every $4300.00 spent while on a 53-hour work week. Records can 
prove this statement. Here again I claim that when management appreciates 
and understands the problems that concern organized labor and works to- 
gether with labor, better and higher production will result. 

"I have taken time off to put down a few of my ideas regarding manage- 
ment and organized labor. Perhaps you, too, can spare some time to give this 
vitally important matter the thought and consideration it deserves. This phase 
of our business is top level. It should not be left up to just anyone in your 
personnel department. 

"Think it over. Organized labor is YOUR BUSINESS." 

• 

A Lesson In Cooperative Effort 

Recently American Federation of Labor Unions, working through the 
Denver Metal Trades Council, succeeded in winning the election to represent 
the employes at the new Rocky Flats Atomic Energy Plant at Denver. It was 
a decisive victory, the Metal Trades Council polling four times as many votes 
as the CIO. 

Now there is nothing unusual or extraordinary about AFL unions winning 
an election from the CIO. Records will show that they win three or four to 
one over the CIO. What makes the victory in the Denver Atomic Energy plant 
unique is the high degree of cooperation and teamwork that was achieved 
among the AFL unions in Denver operating through the Metal Trades 
Council. 

The organizing program in the plant was spearheaded by officers of the 
Council. However, they had the full and unqualified cooperation of the re- 
spective business agents of all local unions both in the construction trades and 
the metal trades. International representatives, too, worked closely with the 
Council in the matter. The result was smooth-functioning teamwork that 
paid off handsomely in victory. 

What this victory demonstrated is that local unions of various interna- 
tionals, working together and in cooperation with international representa- 
tives can win elections in this type of plant without any complicated pro- 
cedures or conflict of interests, provided they use an organization such as the 
Metal Trades Council to coordinate their efforts and spearhead their pro- 
gram. All that is needed is a combining of efforts and an acceptance of re- 
sponsibility on the part of each local union involved, to the end that there is 
no working at cross purposes. Once victory has been achieved, each local 
union naturally falls heir to those employes coming within its jurisdiction. 



26 THE CARPENTER 

The success that has been achieved at Denver can be achieved in other 
sections of the country where similar plants are scheduled to go up. The 
Denver unions used no secret formula, neither did they utilize anything more 
complicated than cooperation and common sense, two commodities that are 
available to all men in all walks of life. Areas that now face, or will sooner 
or later face, organizing problems similar to those that faced Denver unions 
could profitably take a page from the book of success which Denver unions 
wrote at the Rocky Flats Atomic Energy plant. 



The Shape Of Things To Come 

A secret "memorandum," prepared by a top public relations firm proposing 
a plan to shape American public opinion to accept a national sales tax, has 
come into the possession of the Madison, Wisconsin, "Capital Times," progres- 
sive paper published by William T. Evjue. 

The memorandum, outlining a scheme to substitute the sales tax for income 
taxes, was prepared by Carl Byoir and Associates, for the Sheaffer Pen 
Company. The latter's head, Craig R. Scheaffer, now is Assistant Secretary 
of Commerce in Washington. 

The Byoir plan describes publicity techniques by which the American 
people, long hostile to a Federal sales tax, can be fooled into supporting it. 

The memorandum is labeled "confidential." Among other things, it says: 

"The sales tax proposal lends itself readily to a nation-wide campaign . . . 
as a long-range solution to the existing tax hodge-podge. 

"Generally for it are the industry groups. The organized labor groups . . . 
New Dealers and liberal economists . . . are opposed, insisting on steeper 
graduated income taxes. 

"A proposed campaign is a matter of careful timing to get public accept- 
ance, rather than the merit of the proposal. 

"If the plan is to go ahead, it should not be done by any one company. 
Initial impetus would have to come from a trade association, civic group or 
by 'name' spokesmen," publicity expert Byoir advises. 

"The approach would have to be that this is the time to begin to plan to 
straighten out the inequalities in the tax structure. It will be necessary first 
to develop news items on the subject. 

"These might result from letters to important congressional leaders and 
committee chairmen, or a speech by an industrial leader at some important 
gathering, the report of which can be circulated or used for exploitation. 

"Another method," the secret memorandum says, "would be a special one or 
two-day institute on the sales tax subject, held under the auspices of a business 
administration school of a leading college." 

The memorandum lists New York University, Columbia, Cornell and North- 
western as among the colleges which conduct business "symposiums" and 
other gatherings which "provide a good public relations vehicle for launching 
a point of view." 

Also, the Byoir memorandum says, "a number of important associations 
are scheduled for meetings and offer opportunities for suggesting the sales 
tax topic or speakers on the subject. These include American Management 



THE CARPENTER 27 

Association, Chamber of Commerce, General Federation of Women's Clubs, 
and the Economic Clubs of New York and Detroit, both very important out- 
lets" for publicity. 

The memorandum also names the "Town Meeting of the Air" and many 
other radio and television programs as offering good "springboards" for sales 
tax propaganda. 

4 

"An essential element in all this," the secret memorandum says, "is some 
effective speaking personalities. The lecture platforms and radio-TV forums 
are leery of small-fry economists and small-fry spokesmen for business. 

"Since tax programs are proverbially dull, they require more than the usual 
showmanship to make them interesting. It will be necessary to have Mr. 
Sheaffer, or someone of equal stature available as a 'star' speaker, and others 
as alternates. 

"If the sales tax campaign receives the green light," the Byoir memorandum 
tells the Sheaffer Company, "the sooner some of the activities suggested here 
are put into effect the better." 

The "Capital Times" cites this shocking memorandum as an example of 
the methods professional "public relations men" use nowadays to put over 
not only such schemes as sales taxes, but also to "sell" reactionary political 
candidates to the voters.— Labor 



The General Office Does Not Endorse Any Insurance Plans 

All local unions are warned to be on guard against insurance companies 
which claim that their insurance policies have the endorsement or blessing of 
the General Office. One or more companies seem to be operating on this un- 
ethical basis. Several local unions have bought this insurance, only to find 
that performance and promises were two different things. 

We want to make it as clear as we possibly can— the General Office does 
not endorse any insurance schemes. Those companies which claim such en- 
dorsement are operating unethically. If they came right out and flatly stated 
that the General Office endorsed their policies it might be an easy matter to 
have them hailed into court for fraud. But they are too clever for that. By 
very clever use of words they give the impression that they have our endorse- 
ment without actually saying so. To carpenters who do not have college de- 
grees in English it is hard to tell the difference. 

Virtually all states have insurance laws that are supposed to protect the 
public. To some extent these laws do a good job; in ©ther respects they are 
very lax. Investigation of several of these insurance companies show that 
they barely operate within the law. They are constantly on the borderline 
between the legal and illegal. 

So let us repeat: the General Office does not endorse any insurance poli- 
cies or plans. Neither does it endorse any advertising or advertising schemes 
or advertised products. Anyone implying anything else is trying to deceive 
you. 



Official Information 




General Officers of 
THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS 

of AMERICA 

General Office : Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General President 

M. A. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



First General Vice-President General Secretary 

JOHN R. STEVENSON ALBERT E. FISCHER 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Second General Vice-President General Treasurer 

O. WM. BLAIER S. P. MEADOWS 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Executive Board 
First District. CHARLES JOHNSON, Jr. Fifth District, R. E. ROBERTS 

111 E. 22nd St.. New York 10, N. Y. 4324 N. 48th St., Omaha, Nebr. 



Second District, RALEIGH RAJOPPI Sixth District. A. W. MUIR 

2 Prospect Place. Springfield, New Jersey . Box 1168. Santa Barbara, Calif. 



Third District, HARRY SCHWARZER Seventh District. ANDREW V. COOPER 

1248 Walnut Ave., Cleveland, O. 133 Chaplin Crescent. Toronto 12, Ont., Canada 



Fourth District, ROLAND ADAMS M. A. HUTCHESON. Chairman 

712 West Palmetto St., Florence, S. C. ALBERT E. FISCHER, Secretary 



All correspondence for the General Executive Board must be sent to the General Secretary 

MEETING OF THE GENERAL EXECUTIVE BOARD 

Carpenters' Home 
Lakeland, Florida 
February 23, 1953 

The meeting of the General Executive Board was called to order by Chairman M. A. 
Hutcheson on the above date. 

All members of the Board were present with the exception of A. W. Muir, Sixth District, 
who was detained on account of other business of the Organization. 

The General President reported fully on all matters of importance to the Organization 
which developed since the previous meeting of the Board. 

Reports of the delegates to the American Federation of Labor, Trades and Labor Con- 
gress of Canada, Building and Construction Trades Department, the Union Label and 
Service Trades Department, were approved and filed for future reference. These reports 
were published in our journal, THE CARPENTER, for the information of our members. 

Renewal of bond of General Treasurer S. P. Meadows in the sum of $50,000 for one 
year expiring February 1, 1954 through the United States Fidelity and Guaranty Company 
of Baltimore, Maryland was referred to the General Secretary. 

Communication from the Ontario Provincial Council of Canada, requesting additional 
representatives in order to establish more uniform conditions throughout the Province, was 



THE CARPENTER 29 

considered by the Board. The Board decided that the request be referred to the General 
President. 

Appeal of Local Union 296, Eveleth, Minnesota, against the decision of the General 
President in denying territorial jurisdiction to their Local Union, to particularly include the 
village of Aurora, the cities of Biwabik and Gilbert, Minnesota, was fully discussed. After 
all information was considered it was the consensus of opinion that consolidation would 
be beneficial in that area— the General President to consolidate these Local Unions and 
further direct, after Local is established, that they maintain a full time Business Agent. 

A communication from the Ohio State Council of Carpenters was brought to the atten- 
tion of the Board advising a resolution was unanimously adopted at their recent convention 
commending the General Officers and General Executive Board on the P. J. McGuire 
Memorial. 

A motion prevailed to publish the entire contents of their letter, which is as follows: 
"M. A. Hutcheson 
General President 
222 East Michigan Street 
Indianapolis 4, Indiana 
"Dear Sir and Brother: 

"During our recent convention in the City of Akron, Ohio a resolution was presented 
and adopted by unanimous vote to extend to the General Officers and General Executive 
Board Members sincere congratulations for having had erected the Memorial to Peter 
J. McGuire. 

"This Memorial is truly a masterpiece, and the finished memorial expresses the true 
esteem in which the Memory of this Great Man is held by this Great Organization of 
ours. 

"This committee composed of our General Officers and General Executive Board can 
well be proud of a job well done. 

"It is with a great deal of pleasure that the Officers, the Executive Board and the 
Affiliated Local Unions in the State of Ohio extend to you and through you to the General 
Officers and General Executive Board our most sincere congratulations. 

"With best wishes for a Very Merry Christmas and a Happy and Prosperous New 
Year, I am 

Fraternally yours, 

/s/ Wm. H. Reed, 

Secretary-Treasurer" 

Correspondence from the American Heart Association and the Indiana Heart Founda- 
tion was read as to their increased activities; they also being in the process of launching 
tiieir 1953 Heart Fund Drive and requesting our assistance. The Board decided that the 
matter be referred to the General President. 

President of the Florida State Council of Carpenters appeared before the Board re- 
questing financial assistance to the State Council to combat anti-labor legislation in the 
State of Florida. In furtherance thereto he indicated that the Council would appropriate 
a similar amount as petitioned. 

The Board carefully considered their request, and a motion prevailed that their request 
be granted. 

A committee from Local Union 2139, Tallahassee, Florida appeared before the Board 
in reference to the decision of the General President regarding millwright work on the 
Foley project in Taylor County, Florida. It was moved and unanimously carried that the 
decision of the General President be sustained. 

Communication from Local Union 946, Los Angeles, California requesting die General 
Executive Board to do everything possible to maintain television work for members of the 
Brotherhood was read, and after consideration of same it was moved, and unanimously 
carried, that the matter be left in the hands of the General President. 



30 THE CARPENTER 

Appeal of Local Union 2785, The Dalles, Oregon, from the decision of the General 
Treasurer in disapproving the claim of Michael N. Penners for funeral donations on Theresa 
K. Penners (wife) was considered. The decision of the General Treasurer was sustained 
for the reason that Michael N. Penners had passed the age of 50 years at the time of his 
initiation and under, the provisions of Section 49, Paragraph D of the General Constitution, 
is not entitled to wife funeral donations. 

Appeal of Local Union 530, Los Angeles, California, from the decision of the General 
Treasurer in disapproving the claim of Ralph Briggs for funeral donations on Grace Briggs 
(wife) was considered. The decision of the General Treasurer was sustained for the reason 
that Ralph Briggs had passed the age of 50 years at the time of his initiation and under the 
provisions of Section 49, Paragraph D of the General Constitution, is not entitled to wife 
funeral donations. 

Appeal of Local Union 957, Stillwater, Minnesota, from the decision of the General 
Treasurer in disapproving the death claim of Arthur George Krongard for the reason he 
was not in benefit standing at the time of death and the decision of the General Treasurer 
was sustained. 

The Metal Trades Department of the American Federation of Labor requested that 
our Organization become affiliated with the Department. After due consideration the Board 
decided to leave the matter to the General President for such disposition as is deemed 
appropriate. 

Communication from the Union Label Trades Department of the Trades and Labor 
Congress of Canada requesting our International Organization to become affiliated with this 
Department was read. The Board decided that this matter be left with the General Presi- 
dent for proper disposition. 

Previously, at a meeting of the Board held at the Carpenters' Home, Lakeland, Florida, 
the question as to revising the Constitution of our Ladies' Auxiliaries was discussed and 
referred to the First General Vice-President for further study. 

The First General Vice-President submitted a written report on this subject, which is 
as follows: 

"At the meeting of the General Executive Board held in Lakeland, 
Florida, in 1952, the matter of Ladies Auxiliaries was referred to the under- 
signed to report back to the Board in connection with the Constitution of 
Ladies' Auxiliaries. 

"In line with this, I was presented with correspondence that had been 
carried on between the General Secretary and at least twenty-one (21) organi- 
zations of Auxiliaries. 

"We were furnished with Constitutions and found that many of them 
appeared similar to fraternal insurance societies and nothing in their Consti- 
tutions shows any improvement over the Constitution of Ladies' Auxiliaries 
of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America. 

"Some requests have been made for improvements in the Ritual. This is 
a matter that could be left to die Ladies' Auxiliaries of the United Brother- 
hood, affording them the right to amend their Ritual if they so desire. They 
have the right at the present time to adopt by-laws for themselves which do 
not conflict with the Constitution furnished diem by the United Brotherhood. 
"My recommendation is that the matter of the Constitution and Ritual of 
Ladies' Auxiliaries of the United Brotherhood be left as outlined above." 

Respectfully submitted, 

/s/ John R. Stevenson, 

First General Vice-President" 
The recommendation of the First General Vice-President as submitted was unanimously 
concurred in by the Board. 

At the meeting of die General Executive Board held in Lakeland, Florida, on February 
22, 1952, the Board selected the place for holding our next General Convention, as pro- 
vided for in Section 18 of the General Constitution. 



THE CARPENTER 31 

However, inasmuch as our conventions have grown because of the number of delegates, 
and satisfactory arrangements could not be made for accommodations to meet all our 
requirements until November 15, 1954, the Board took this into consideration and con- 
cluded that the month of November offers a more satisfactory date in 1954, at which time 
adequate facilities will be available. 

Therefore, the Board set November 15, 1954, as the date on which the convention will 
convene at Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Communications from the Quebec Provincial Council and the Montreal District Council 
extending an invitation to the General Executive Board to hold a General Convention of 
the United Brotherhood in the City of Montreal in 1958, were discussed. It was decided 
that it is impossible to make commitments so far in advance, and that the Council be so 
advised. 

The General President submitted to the Board briefs as prepared by the Northwestern 
Council of Lumber and Sawmill Workers concerning matters between mill and cabinet 
makers and lumber and sawmill workers in the Northwest. The Board members were 
furnished copies of this brief, and the General President appointed a sub-committee of the 
Board to review this material. 

Appeal of Carpenters District Council of Denver and Vicinity, Denver, Colorado, 
against the decision of the General President in the case of Paul J. Johnson versus the 
Denver District Council, was considered, after which by unanimous action, the Board 
sustained the decision of the General President. 

Appeal of Harry M. Fogg against the decision of the General President in the case of 
Harry M. Fogg versus Carpenters District Council of Denver and Vicinity, Denver, Colo- 
rado was brought to the attention of the Board and considered, after which the decision 
of the General President was sustained unanimously on the grounds set forth therein, and 
the appeal was dismissed. 

Appeal of lower Hudson and Vicinity District Council against the decision of the Gen- 
eral President in the case of James V. Licata versus Lower Hudson Valley and Vicinity 
District Council of New York was brought to the attention of the Board, after which the 
decision of the General President was unanimously sustained, and the appeal dismissed. 

Considerable correspondence was received regarding Representative W. J. Baker, who 
had charges preferred against him by the Kootenay District Council. First General Vice- 
President John R. Stevenson informed them that if charges are to be preferred against a 
General Representative they would have to be filed with the General Executive Board. 

It was decided that the Kootenay District Council be advised that there is nothing 
to warrant the charges which they presented to the General Executive Board. 

The Chairman appointed the following committee to inspect the rooms of the Home: 
John R. Stevenson, Albert E. Fischer, A. V. Cooper. 

He also appointed the following on the inspection of stocks and supplies: H. Schwarzer, 
R. E. Roberts, A. V. Cooper. 

The balance of the members of the Board to audit the books and accounts of the 
Home. 

The committee on inspection of rooms reported their findings in writing. The various 
matters reported are to be given further attention as is necessary. 

The committees on books, accounts, stocks and supplies reported favorably. The com- 
mittee on books and accounts recommended that a certified public accountant be employed 
to make a semi-annual report. The recommendation was concurred in by unanimous 
action. 

The Certified Public Accountants examined the securities held by the General Treasurer 
in the vaults of the Indiana National Bank, Indianapolis, Indiana, and their report as of 
December 31, 1952 find same correct and accounted for as shown in the monthly financial 
statement. 

There being no further business to be acted upon the Board adjourned to meet at the 
call of the Chairman. 

Respectfully submitted, 

ALBERT E. FISCHER, Secretary 



Jlit fflltmtfvinm 



Not lost to those that love them, 
Not dead, just gone before; 



They still live in our memory, 
And will forever more. 



Miwiea:^ftaci 



%tsi in l^tnzt 

The Editor has been requested to publish the names 
of the following Brothers who have passed away. 



ANTON ANDREASON, L. U. 1367, Chicago, 111. 

ROY ARMSTRONG, L. U. 71, Ft. Smith, Ark. 

KENNETH BAUGHER, L. U. 3055, Goshen, Ind. 

A. BELMONTE, L. U. 1693, Chicago, 111. 

JOHN BRESCIA, L. U. 101, Baltimore, Md. 

EARL H. BURRIS, L. U. 71, Ft. Smith, Ark. 

GEORGE M. CLARK, L. U. 2163, Bronx, N. Y. 

JAMES B. CLARK, JR., L. U. 101, Baltimore, 
Md. 

GAVIN CREE, L. U. 2163, Bronx, N. Y. 

WILBUR E. CUNNINGHAM, L. U. 101, Balti- 
more, Md. 

HOWARD CURTIS, L. U. 470, Tacoma, Wash. 

JOSEPH DAY, L. U. 2249, Williamsport, Pa. 

FRANKLIN K. DEAL, L. U. 393, Camden, N. J. 

MARTIN E. FARLEY, L. U. 289, Lockport, N. Y. 

JAMES FLAVIN, L. U. 101, Baltimore, Md. 

W. F. FRANCIS, L. U. 925, Salinas, Cal. 

CLARENCE FREDERICK, L. U. 470, Tacoma, 
Wash. 

KNUTE FREDERICKSON, L. U. 470, Tacoma, 
Wash. 

SAMUEL GLACKEN, L. U. 1419, Johnstown, 
Pa. 

ED GOERGER, L. U. 470, Tacoma, Wash. 

WILLIAM GRASING, L. U. 139, Jersey City, 
N. J. 

WALTER I. GROTE, L. U. 1849, Pasco, Wash. 

HENRY GRUNZE, L. U. 1053, Milwaukee, Wis. 

R. D. GUTHRIE, L. U. 627, Jacksonville, Fla. 

WM. H. HINZE, L. U. 1430, Kearney, Neb. 

WM. M. HIRTE, L. U. 583, Portland, Ore. 

W. E. HUTSON, L. U. 1098, Baton Rouge, La. 

GEORGE JAMES, L. U. 2375, Wilmington, Cal. 

FRANK JASIAK, L. U. 1615, Grand Rapids, 
Mich. 

RALPH KAYE, L. U. 470, Tacoma, Wash. 

HARRY LARSON, L. U. 71, Ft. Smith, Ark. 

A. J. LAWRENCE, L. U. 470, Tacoma, Wash. 

LYMAN LOWE, L. U. 1323, Monterey, Cal. 

RUPERT S. MAGEE, L. U. 1065, Salem, Ore. 

W. E. MASTERS, L. U. 384, Asheville, N. C. 

JOHN MARTIN MC DOUGALL, L. U. 1405 Hali- 
fax, N. S., Can. 



WILLIAM W. MC DOWELL, L. U. 384, Ashe- 
ville, N. C. 

ALBERT MEENEN, L. U. 490, Passaic, N. J. 

JOHN MEISTER, L. U. 734, Kokomo, Ind. 

TONY MLADECK, L. U. 11, Cleveland, Ohio 

D. E. MOLIN, L. U. 11, Cleveland, Ohio 

D. W. MOORE, L. U. 71, Ft. Smith, Ark. 

ALEXANDER MOYES, L. U. 2163, Bronx, N. Y. 

DOUGALD MUNN, L. U. 2163, Bronx, N. Y. 

PETER MURTAUGH, L. U. 2163, Bronx, N. Y. 

HERMAN NIEDERMANN, L. U. 6, Amsterdam, 
N. Y. 

OLOF OSTLUND, L. U. 1367, Chicago, 111. 

FRED PAETZ, L. U. 1367, Chicago, III. 

AMBERS BERRY PAUL, L. U. 1212, Coffey- 
ville, Kans. 

CHARLES RALSTON, L. U. 1430, Kearney, 
Neb. 

OTTO REHFELD, L. U. 1053, Milwaukee, Wis. 

LESLIE B. SANFORD, L. U. 404, Perry, Ohio 

DAVID SCOTT, L. U. 2163, Bronx, N. Y. 

JOHN SCHULTZ, L. U. 699, Sewickley, Pa. 

GEORGE W. SHIELDS, L. U. 71, Ft. Smith, 

Ark. 
JOHN H. SHOAFF, L. U. 171, Youngstown, 

Ohio 
CARL STIENHELPER, L. U. 2249, Williams- 
port, Pa. 
GEORGE STORMINGER, L. U. 488, New York, 

N. Y. 
BERT TAYLOR, L. U. 488, New York, N. Y. 
GUY THOMPSON, L. U. 1615, Grand Rapids, 

Mich. 
V/ALTER THOMPSON, L. U. 71, Ft. Smith, Ark. 
OLAV TRYLAND, L. U. 488, New York, N. Y. 
SAMUEL VENZIANO, L. U. 11, Cleveland, Ohio 
GEORGE W. WAKEFIELD, L. U. 1095, Salina, 

Kans. 
NELSON WILLIS, L. U. 470, Tacoma, Wash. 
O. R. WILSON, L. U. 2435, Inglewood, Cal. 
J. F. WOOLRICH, L. U. 470, Tacoma, Wash. 
BARNY ZARANICK, L. U. 298, Long Island 

City, N. Y. 
FRED H. ZEBB, L. U. 1822, Ft. Worth, Texas 



THE CARPENTER 



33 



(Continued 

Close teamwork and adequate 
instruction will prevent many ac- 
cidents of this type. The best 
practice suggests the use of tongs 
to hold the stake. 

11. A carpenter was installing wall 
brackets. When one of the brackets 
slipped, the screw driver he was using 
punctured his left hand. 



WORKING DAZE 



^ 



LLLLLLLLLUJ 



SHIPPING ■&RECEIVim 




"Relax- it's a company car!" 



NATIONAL SAFETY COUNCIL 



All employes should be care- 
fully trained in the safe perform- 
ance of their duties. In this case, 
the carpenter should have placed 
his left hand in a position so that 
it would not have been struck by 
the screw driver when it was mis- 
directed. 

12. A wharf builder was using an 
adz to shape a post. The adz slipped 
from the post and struck his foot. 
The adz is a highly dangerous 
tool. Careful training in safe pro- 
cedures is essential to prevent ac- 
cidents of this type. In this case, 
the workman should have stood 
in a position so that he would not 
have been struck by the adz 
when it glanced from the post. 



from page 19) 

13. An apprentice was cutting rock 
lath with a pocket knife. The blade 
closed and caught his finger. 

Apprentices should be care- 
fully instructed in the safe per- 
formance of their duties. A 
spring-blade knife should never 
be used in this work. Instead, a 
one-piece knife, properly guard- 
ed, should be used. 

14. A helper was drilling holes in 
an overhead angle iron. Small par- 
ticles of steel fell into his eye. 

Employes engaged in this work 
should be furnished protective 
goggles, and should be required 
to wear them. 

15. A carpenter was using a pair 
of pliers to remove a nail. When the 
nail loosened suddenly, the force ap- 
plied to the pliers threw the nail, 
which struck the carpenter's eye. 

Thorough instruction in the 
safe method of using hand tools 
should be a part of the training 
given every carpenter. Pliers are 
not intended for use in removing 
nails. Instead, a claw hammer or 
a nail puller should be used. 

16. A carpenter was using a hatch- 
et to shape a piece of lumber. The 
hatchet glanced from the lumber and 
cut his leg. Investigation disclosed 
that the hatchet was dull. 

All workmen should be care- 
fully trained in the safe use of 
hand tools. In this case the car- 
penter should have (a) placed 
himself in such a position that he 
would not have been struck by 
the hatchet when it glanced from 
the lumber, and (b) removed the 
hatchet from service until it had 
been properly dressed. 

17. An employe was cutting a 2" x 
4" with a hand saw. As he started a 
45-degree cut, the saw slipped and 



34 



THE CARPENTER 



cut his thumb. Investigation disclosed 
that the carpenter did not start the 
cut carefully because of haste. 

(a) Carpenters should develop 
safe working habits in using hand 
tools. In this case the workman 
should have drawn the saw slow- 
ly and carefully across the board 
until the cut was started. 

(b) Wherever possible, a miter 
box should be used when sawing 
at an angle. 

18. A carpenter was using a wreck- 
ing bar to pry a board. He did not 
secure a good "bite" on the board and 
the bar slipped when pressure was 
applied, smashing his fingers between 
the bar and the board. 

Workmen should be carefully 
trained in the safe use of hand 
tools. In this case, full pressure 
should not have been applied to 
the bar until the proper "bite" 
had been secured. A proper 
stance might have prevented the 
injury even though the bar slip- 
ped. 

19. A carpenter was standing on a 
ladder removing forms from a con- 
crete column. When the bar he was 
using slipped, he was thrown off bal- 
ance and fell to the ground. The in- 
jured worker stated that he could 
not get a good "bite" with the bar. 

The carpenter's difficulty in get- 
ting the proper "bite" with the 
bar was probably due to his limit- 
ed position on the ladder. Port- 
able steps or platforms should be 
provided to give more secure 
footing. 

20. A carpenter was placing tie 
wires on a form. As he cut a piece 
of wire it flew up and the end struck 
him in the eye. 

For this type of work plastic 
face shields or goggles are neces- 
sary. 



When cutting wire the worker 
should stand to the left of the cut 
and should hold the wire with his 
left hand. The free end of the 
wire will then spring away from 
him. 

21. A carpenter was constructing 
an archway in an old building. While 
he was removing the plaster and lath, 
some particles of plaster lodged in his 
eyes. 

Goggles or face shields should 
be provided and worn in this 
work. 

22. As a carpenter was climbing a 
ladder, a rung broke and he fell to 
the ground. Investigation disclosed 
that the rung had broken through a 
knot. 

Ladder rungs should be manu- 
factured from knot-free lumber. 
In this case, an equipment- 
inspection procedure should have 
revealed the defect. 

23. While a carpenter was descend- 
ing a fixed ladder, his foot slipped be- 
tween the rungs of the ladder. In- 
vestigation disclosed that the rungs 
of the ladder were covered with ice. 

Under weather conditions 
where ice may be present, ail 
fixed ladders should be carefully 
inspected and all ice removed be- 
fore the ladders are used. 

24. A carpenter tried to carry a 
piece of lumber up a ladder. He lost 
his balance and fell to the ground. 

Employes, climbing ladders, 
should never attempt to carry 
lumber or other materials. The 
material should be passed from 
one employe to another, or it 
should be raised by a hand line 
or by mechanical lifting equip- 
ment. 

25. A workman was using a ladder 
to climb a scaffold. When the ladder 
slipped he fell against a brace on the 



THE CARPENTER 



scaffold. Investigation disclosed that 
the ladder was not equipped with 
safety shoes and that the base of the 
ladder had been placed too far away 
from the scaffold. 

(a) Ladders which are not an- 
chored should be equipped with 
safety feet. 

(b) Workmen should be care- 
fully trained in the safe use of 
ladders. Generally, ladders should 
not be placed more than one foot 
away from the vertical line of 
support for every 4 feet of height 
to the support. 

26. While a carpenter was grind- 
ing the cutting edge of his hatchet, 
a particle of steel lodged in his eye. 
Investigation disclosed that the grind- 
er was equipped with a shield but 
that no goggles or other eye protec- 
tive devices were available to him. 

Some form of eye protection is 
desirable in nearly all construc- 
tion work. In grinding opera- 
tions, such protection is essential. 
Either goggles or a face shield 
would have prevented this injury. 

27. A carpenter had his thumb 
amputated in a joiner when the board 
he was cutting turned and his thumb 
struck the cutter. Investigation dis- 



closed that the point-of-operation was 

not guarded. 

The point-of-operation of a 
joiner should be guarded, prefer- 
ably by a guard which will ride 
on top of the stock. 

28. While a carpenter was using 
a circular saw, his hand struck the 
moving saw blade when he attempted 
to brush some small pieces of wood 
from the table. Investigation disclosed 
that the saw blade was not guarded. 

(a) Circular saws should be 
equipped with a hood-type guard. 

(b) Workmen using circular 
saws should be carefully trained 
in their safe use. A suitable brush 
should be used to clean the saw 
table. 

29. While a carpenter was cutting 
a plank on a circular saw, a piece of 
sawdust lodged in his eye. 

Some type of eye protection 
should be worn on this work. A 
face shield is preferable for op- 
erators of circular saws or other 
woodworking machines where 
sawdust or chips are likely to be 
thrown from the operation. How- 
ever, for men who perform vari- 
ous types of work, goggles are de- 
sirable. Generally, the spectacle 
type will suffice. 



DEATH TAKES CARPENTERS' PRINTING PLANT MANAGER 



Thirty-eight years of faithful service as manager of the Brotherhood's 
printing plant came to an end March 19th, with the death of Arthur W. Smith, 

For more than fifty years he was a member of the International Typo- 
graphical Union. He was born in London, England, learning his trade as an 
apprentice in English newspaper shops. 

Migrating to the United States in 1902, he became a resident of Chicago, 
and for a number of years was secretary of the South Chicago Trades and 
Labor Assembly, resigning in 1915 when invited by General President James 
Kirby, to install and operate the proposed printing plant at the General Office. 

After Mr. Kirby's death he continued to serve as manager of the plant 
under General Presidents Wm. L. Hutcheson and M. A. Hutcbeson until he 
died, when he was succeeded by his son, R. S. Smith. 



THE LOCKER 

By JOHN HART, LOCAL UNION 366, New York, N. Y. 

A STROLL DOWN WALL STREET 

Wall Street is certainly the best known and most lambasted street in all the world. 
To some people, here and abroad, it is notorious as a gold-paved thoroughfare populated 
by bloated, war-loving plutocrats who uniformly wear very tall hats and baggy white vests 
decorated with the Almighty Dollar sign, smoke only king-size cigars, and tote in each fat 
hand a bulging moneybag also marked with the emblem of wealth. Well, sorry to say, the 
gold paving has been ripped up long ago and replaced by common Main Street asphalt. 
The nearest plug hat is in a dustproof file drawer in the Mayor's office in City Hall half a 
mile away. Drop a quarter around noontime in Wall Street today and you'll be crippled 
for life if you make any attempt to retrieve it. It's all small change these days. 

The focal point of Wall Street is the New York Stock Exchange, commonly known as 
the Big Board. This ancient institution was founded in 1792 when trading in securities 
first started in that same street not far from where they've set up shop today. The de- 
clared purpose of the Exchange is to provide facilities for the free and open trading of 
certain approved, listed securities. These listed securities now number about 1,522 stocks 
composed of 2,800 million shares— market value, $121 billion— and about 950 bond issues 
—value, $100 billion. Only stocks with a respectable financial pedigree may be listed. 
The company must have a good business record with earnings of at least $1 million a 
year. There must be a minimum of 300,000 shares held by at least 1,500 stockholders. 

Only the 1,375 members of the Exchange who hold "seats" may buy and sell these 
securities on the trading floor. The varying prices paid for these seats show the ups and 
downs of Wall Street. What ups! and oh, what downs! Lowest price this century was 
$17,000 paid in 1942. In 1929, the year of the Big Wind on Wall Street, someone paid 
$625,000 for a seat— a hot one for sure. Current price is around $45,000. On the Toronto 
Exchange the price tag on a recently sold seat read, $75,000! Beefers on the Street com- 
plain there are too many members and not enough business, so reduction of the member- 
ship by 50 is proposed. Those who wish to get out from under may sell to those who wish 
to stick. Seats are sold by the holders, not by the Exchange. 

In 1952, 338 million shares were traded— market value, $15 billion. 444,000,000 were 
sold in 1951—525 million in 1950. In 1929, 1,125 million shares were sold, 16% million of 
them on C Day, October 29. Only a piddling 126 million were traded in 1942. 

At this year's start there were 1,067 common stocks listed on the Big Board, 975 of 
which paid cash dividends totalling nearly $6 Billion in 1952. 271 of these stocks paid 
an increase over 1951—458 paid the same— 246 paid less. Yield on a stock is the yearly 
amount earned per $100. Average yield on these 975 dividend-paying stocks was $5.50 a 
share-a bit of a drop. It was $7.80 in 1948-$7.00 in 1949-$6.70 in 1950-S6.50 in 1951. 
Reason: A buyers' market, called a bull market, is under way since mid- 1949. Stocks are 
in demand, so the price goes up and the yield goes down. This is written in March. In 
May die bears— sellers— may upset the applecart and thereby change the present picture. 
323 of these 975 stocks paid dividends yearly for 20 or more continuous years. Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad holds the record having paid something each year since 1848— only 50 cents 
some years— paid a dollar last year. Highest priced listed stock is Coco-Cola International 
—sold last for $874. None were sold in 1952. Lowest is Benguet Mining— a buck and a half. 

Bonds, preferred and common stock, make up the listed securities. Corporate, or in- 
dustrial bonds are the Exchange's best bond sellers. A corporate bond is issued by a busi- 
ness corporation at an original price of usually $1,000, with a fixed interest rate of say 4%, 
and a maturity date, say 1975. The buyer of such a bond lends $1,000 to the company 
for which he receives $40 interest a year. Repayment of the $1,000 will be made in 1975 
or sooner if the bond is callable. Interest on bonds is a fixed charge, regardless of earnings, 
which must be paid ahead of any stock dividends. A bondholder is a creditor of the 
company, not a shareholder, and has no say in its affairs as long as his bond obligations are 
fulfilled. Because of its ranking security a good bond does not have a very large yield. 
Currently, first-grade bonds yield around 3% to 3% % —corporate bonds, that is. Lower 
grade bonds pay more— the lower the grade the higher the yield. 

Preferred stock is, as the name implies, stock which has preference in dividend pay- 
ment. It is usually issued at an original price of $100 with a fixed dividend of say $5 a 
year, which must be paid before any dividend on common. Some preferred stock is cumu- 



THE CARPENTER 37 

lative, which means that any unpaid dividends accumulate and will be squared up when- 
ever earnings warrant it. This doesn't always happen, but that's the way it's supposed to 
work. A preferred-stock holder usually has no vote unless arrearages occur. Because of 
the preferred and fixed dividend these stocks are favored by play-safe investors. Like 
bonds, they seldom get on the speculator's book. Currently, a first-grade preferred stock 
has a yield of around 4%. As with bonds, the higher the yield, the greater the risk. Stock 
AA pays $5 a year. It sells at $122, making the yield 4.10%. Stock XX also pays $5. It 
sells at $75, making the yield a nice 6.6%. You pay for security. 

Common stocks are the life's blood of Wall Street. A common-stock owner is also an 
owner of the company in ratio to the number of shares owned. He has, so they tell him, 
a vote in its management and a proportionate share in its earnings— if any. The invest- 
ment risk of common is, of course, greater than that of preferred or bonds. There is no 
fixed dividend. Very often dividends are passed— for the good of the company— even 
though earnings look good. Unpaid dividends on common do not accumulate. And, of 
course, the bondholders and preferred stock holders must get theirs before the common 
boys line up for their whack. Prices of common stock may fluctuate greatly, depending on 
the company's net earnings and the varying opinions of the investors as to their worth. 
On some good stocks the dividend is taken for granted, AT&T for example, which has 
paid $9 annually for the past 30 years. 

Common stocks, once ill-regarded, now move in high society. New York State now 
permits savings banks and life insurance companies to invest in approved issues. The 
Harvard endowment fund has $152 million stuck in common shares. Which ones? Why, 
the best, of course. A recent survey of the financial setup of the American people indi- 
cates that 6% million are shareholders, of whom 2,050,000 earn less than $5,000 a year. 
53,000,000 Americans have savings accounts. The shareholders are 4% of the population 
—the bankbook holders, 34%. Wall Streeters think that 4% figure is a bit low. They 
concede that life insurance, Savings Bonds and emergency savings accounts all have priority 
over stocks, but any surplus might be profitably invested in sound securities. Business 
depends on investments. The worker depends on business. No investments no business. 
No business, no work for the worker. Don't squirrel your money away, they say, put it 
to work. All the earnings are yours— well, pretty near all. 

Much of the publicity favoring common stock ownership is post-mortem and iffy. If 
you had bought roughly $500 worth of General Motors common in 1927, and if you had 
bought $500 worth of the same stock each year thereafter, you would own at the end 
of 1951, 576 shares, worth $33,400. That's not all. You would also have received $17,640 
in dividends, making a combined total of $51,040. Your investment was around $12,600. 
So, your 25-year profit would be $38,440— if you had played the hand this way. Here's a 
tip for a young fellow. Pick a good stock— stick a few hundred a year into it— at the end 
of 25 years rake in the pot and live happily ever after. If you had bought just one 
share of National Lead for $200 in 1927, by reason of 5 stock splits and stock dividends 
that one share would have grown to 54 shares in 1952, worth at the market price, $1,434. 
Dividends would be additional. Put $200-take $1,434 plus. 

There are, of course, many riches-to-rags stories which you dig up yourself. A prime 
investment, good as gold, Bon Ami B sold at $70 six years ago and paid $3.25 dividend. 
Now it sells for $10 and pays goose eggs. Macy's sold for $65 in 1946— you can have it today 
for $25. Gotham Hosiery-$43 in 1946-now $9. Bristol-Myers (Ipana)-$70 in 1946-$23 to- 
day. Probably all recommended investments— in 1946. So, a coin has two sides, a head and 
a tail. Here's how two investors played the market last year. 

Around New Year's Jack Smart bought Central of Georgia Ry. at $17.50. It climbed 
to $35.50. Smart unloaded. Profit, $18 a share, which is 103%. Put in $100-take out 
$203. Around New Year's Henry Jay went for Patino Mines at $16.38. Later in the year 
he discovered he was in Bolivian tin mines, so he unloaded quick at $5.50. Loss $10.88 a 
share, which is 66%. Put in $100— get back $34. Can't make money that way, Henry. 

Some figures on just one stock. General Motors has 500,000 stockholders. Total shares 
-90,008,487. 1,835,644 preferred shares pay $5 a year. 1,000,000 preferred pay $3.75. 
Common shares-87,172,843. Du Pont owns 20,000,000 of them. Each common share 
received $4 last year. In 1952 G.M. rung up on the register, $7,549,154,419. Profit-$558,- 
721,179^ Price of G.M. common March 10-$66. What's the chances for '53, '54, '55? 
We don't know, and we don't know anyone who does. Buy yourself a crystal ball. 



CorrospondQncQ 




This Journal is Not Responsible for Views Expressed by Correspondents. 

SCOUTS SPONSORED RY CALIFORNIA LOCAL 

More than 25,000 persons attended the Scout-O-Rama held recently in the County 
Fiesta Building at San Mateo, California. 

Troop 35, sponsored by Local Union 162 of San Mateo, demonstrated methods of 
starting fires by friction. A large and attentive audience watched the unusual demonstra- 
tion almost continually throughout the show. 

More than 70 Troops and Dens were represented, but Troop 35 was the only one 
sponsored by a labor organization. Local 162 takes pride in its troop and is happy that 
it is able to give active meaning to the word, "Brotherhood." 




Standing directly below the Troop pennant are Scoutmaster Dick Moore, and 
on his left, Local 162's president, Malcolm Kidd. 

In any community, brotherhood is a necessity for a happy and successful existence. 
Local 162's contribution toward helping these young boys develop into fine men is in 
keeping with die standards and traditions of the United Brotherhood and is deserving of 
recognition. 



1902-52, LOCAL 1075, HUDSON, NEW YORK 

Fifty years of membership in the United Brotherhood were celebrated by members and 
friends of Local 1075, of Hudson, New York, with a banquet held November 8th, at the 
General Worth Hotel. 

Toastmaster Peter Karic paid tribute to the original 10 members who chartered the 
Local, and summarized its growth through the years to the present membership of 119. 



THE CARPENTER 



39 



Other speakers were George Yerry, Hudson Valley District Council president; John 
Kelly, mayor of Hudson; Richard Walsh, Federal apprenticeship representative for the 
Hudson area; Eugene Tariff, president of the Columbia County Realtors; and John Sinclair, 
Westchester County business agent. 

Each of the speakers concentrated on informing the audience in his specific field, but 
each emphasized the long and honorable record of Local 1075 and its respected place 
amid American labor. 




Shown is a portion of the large group which attended Local 1075s 50th anniversary 
celebration banquet. 

Dancing followed a sumptuous banquet and the guests showed their appreciation 
of the work by the committee which provided the evening's entertainment. It included: 
Homer Decker, Charles Drobner, Albert Fenn, Jr., Robert Hewitt, William Jutofsky, Peter 
Karic and John Leek. 



MICHIGAN LOCAL CELEBRATES 50th ANNIVERSARY 

Elks Temple was the scene of the celebration of the 50th anniversary of Local 1080, 
of South Haven, Michigan, held December 30th About 100 members of the Local and 
their guests enjoyed the fine banquet and the evening's entertainment. 

Brother Richard Lundy acted as toastmaster, while Local President Ray Trowbridge 
gave the welcoming address. The invocation was given by Reverend Killgren. 

Local 1080's early history was presented by Brother N. Opland, who also introduced 
Warren Dodge, 83 years of age and Walter Seavy, 80, who have 47 and 42 years of 
continuous membership respectively. 

General Representative C. O. Van Horn, guest speaker, reviewed the accomplish- 
ments of the Brotherhood since its founding, and discussed the trials encountered by the 
pioneers of the early days of the organization. 

Among the congratulatory messages read was one from General President M. A. 
Hutcheson. 

An interesting talk and presentation of colored slides on the building of wooden 
models was given by Mr. Miller, of Miller Models. 



40 



THE CARPENTER 




THREE GENERATIONS OF CARPENTERS 

Although this photograph and story were mis- 
laid for over a year we feel that they are still 
interesting enough to be news. 

When Donald D. Brammer was initiated into 
Local 2024, of Coconut Grove, Florida, he be- 
came the third generation to be represented by 
his family in the Local at one time. The initiation 
ceremony was conducted by his grandfather, 
eighty-four year old W. O. Brammer, Sr. 

Brother W. O. Brammer was initiated into 
Local 1149 (now located in San Francisco) in 
Coconut Grove in 1917. Since that time he has 
held every office from president of the Miami 
District Council through the offices of the Local 
Union. 

Donald's father, Kennon B. Brammer has been 
a member of the Brotherhood since August, 1925. 
He was also obligated by Brother Brammer, Sr. 

In accepting the obligation of the Brotherhood, 
Donald also accepts a difficult task of attempt- 
ing to follow in the footsteps of his family's 
tradition of fighters for organized labor. 
Shown taking the obligation is Donald B. Brammer, (foreground, arm upraised) and his 
father, Kennon B. Brammer. Behind them on the dias are, from left to right: Leslie 
Campbell, former president of Local 2024; W. O. Brammer and George L. Mitchell, busi- 
ness representative of the Miami District Council. 

e 

STORE KRAFT SIGNS UNION LABEL AGREEMENT 

Recently Local Union No. 832, Beatrice, Neb., and the Store Kraft Manufacturing 
Company, one of the nation's foremost producers of high grade store fixtures, signed a 

union label agreement which 
authorizes the company to 
affix our Brotherhood label on 
all products it turns out. The 
union label agreement came as 
the culmination of several 
months of negotiations. 

Although located some dis- 
tance from the metropolitan 
centers of the nation, Store 
Kraft Mfg. Co., nevertheless 
supplies many of the leading 
department and chain stores in 
such cities as New York, Phila- 
delphia and Chicago with dis- 
play cases and fixtures of all 
kinds. In fact it is hard to find 
a drug store, variety store, hard- 
ware store, jewelry store or de- 
partment store anywhere in the 
nation that does not have at 
least one Store Kraft fixture in 
it, since the company is a rec- 
ognized leader in its field. 
The company produces several standardized designs of fixtures that are adaptable 
to any size or style of store. This fact— plus the fact that die company specializes in the 
use of glass and chrome— accounts for the popularity of Store Kraft fixtures. 

The addition of our Brotherhood's Label should enhance the popularity of Store Kraft 
fixtures, for it proclaims to the world that the fixtures were made under conditions 
satisfactory to our organization. 




Pictured above in the foreground is Merle Jones, president 
of Store Kraft Mfg. Co., handing General Representative 
Howard Bennett (right) a signed contract authorizing the 
company to use our Brotherhood Label. Looking on in the 
background, from left to right, are: Albert Briggs, Marion 
Morton and Kenneth Malen, Store Kraft representatives; 
Gordon Polak, Harold Walker and Marion Williams, members 
of the Union's negotiating committee; Wm. Heckel, committee 
chairman; George Carstains, financial secretary; Perley Bates, 
committee member; and Norman Gilbert, president of Local 
No. 832. 



THE CARPENTER 



41 



GEORGIA LOCAL CELEBRATES 65th ANNIVERSARY 

Volunteers' Armory, in Macon, Georgia was the scene of a gala banquet in celebration 
of the 65th anniversary of Local 144's entry into the United Brotherhood. 

General Secretary Albert E. Fischer, main speaker of the evening, discussed the history 
of the Brotherhood and emphasized the part which the Southern Local has played in aiding 
our organization to become the strong, useful group which it is today. 




Members and friends of Local 144 celebrate 65 years of membership in the 
United Brotherhood. 

Other speakers and distinguished guests included J. B. Pate, president of the Georgia 
Federation of Labor; Henry W. Chandler, secretary of the Georgia Federation, and a 
member of Local 225, of Atlanta; Judge Cecil A. Baldwin, Mayor Lewis B. Wilson, 
Reverend James Waters, and Pastor Mabel White, all of Macon. 

Following the speeches a wonderful Southern style Georgia barbecue was served and 
a dance highlighted by old-fashioned Southern square dancing. 

Efforts of the entertainment committee consisting of T. Frank Jones, C. A. Parker and 
H. R. Stringfellow were fully appreciated by the gathering of more than 150 members 
and friends of the Local. Brother Stringfellow served as Master of Ceremonies. 



LOCAL 2067 HOLDS ANNUAL CRAB SUPPER 

An annual custom was continued by the Brothers of Local Union 2067, of Medford, 
Oregon, when they held their crab supper on March 13th of this year. 

To those who are familiar with the delectable flavor of Pacific Coast crabs, the en- 
thusiasm which Medford crab suppers invoke is understandable. To those who have only 
tasted the pallid substitutes that other sections of the country produce, there is no ade- 
quate way of describing the savory, delicate, titilating flavor of Dungeness crab. 

In any event, the annual crab suppers sponsored by Local Union No. 2067 have be- 
come something of a high spot in the life of the Union. This year's supper topped them 
all both in quantity of crab consumed and in the quality of good fellowship that prevailed. 

Among the more than one hundred and forty guests in attendance was State Represent- 
ative E. H. Mann, who spoke briefly on the problems confronting the State Legislature. 
He invited questions from the audience on pending labor legislation, thus giving the 
workers an opportunity to voice their opinions on current legislation. 

Other guests included Myron Johnson, of the Federal Bureau of Apprenticeship; Eldon 
Krall, secretary of the Willamette Valley District Council; Elvin W. Smith of the South- 
west Oregon District Council and George Milligan, an official of Mercy Flights, Incorpo- 
rated. 

Following the meal, movies were shown, to complete a pleasant evening. 




SIXTH BIRTHDAY CELEBRATED IN MONTANA 

To The Editor: 

Miniature saw horses, a birthday cake and shamrock-covered candles were included 
in the decorations at the sixth birthday celebration of Ladies Auxiliary 472, of Billings, 
Montana. Seventy-five guests attended the banquet, held March 14th, at the Labor 
Temple, and also the Annual Ball which followed. 

Now after six years our Auxiliary has forty-six active members, fourteen of which 
are charter members. 

Our meetings are held on the second and fourth Tuesdays of each month, the latter 
meetings being social nights, which are well attended by our husbands and friends. 

In the past year we have initiated four new members and one charter member 
passed away. Our charter was draped for one month in honor of the deceased member's 
memory. 

Red Lodge picnic grounds, on the Cooke City Highway, was the scene of our annual 
picnic. Held last fall, it was well attended as usual, attracting about 150 parents and 
their children. 




Members and guests of Ladies Auxiliary 472 celebrate the organization's sixth an- 
niversary at the A. F. of L. Labor Temple. 

Twin Bridges Orphans Home's kindergarten cottages have been adopted by our group 
and we now send each child a gift on his birthday and at Christmas and Easter. There are 
IS children there at the present time. 

Several members of our Auxiliary were given gifts while in the hospital during the 
year, three members were given baby showers and one member a food shower when her 
husband passed away. 

Hamburger and coffee sales at the Labor Temple on dance nights have helped us 
raise a good sum of money to carry on our activities. We also sold shares on a linen 
filled hassock and have been serving public dinners at the Temple once each month. 

December 20th we held our annual Christmas party. It consisted of a gift exchange 
and helping the other A. F. of L. Locals in giving a party for children. Santa was on 
hand to give gifts of candy and a movie was shown. 

We enjoy reading letters from sister Auxiliaries and welcome suggestions which might 
help to make our organization a success. 

Fraternally yours, 

Mrs. Leone Hormann, Publicity Chairman 



Craft Probloms 




Carpentry 

By H. H. Siegele 

Lesson 296 

The Wide Cornice.— The bungalow style 

of architecture, perhaps, affords the best 

means of dealing with the wide cornice. 

Such cornices were quite popular in the 




Pier. 1 Studding 

days when building materials were less ex- 
pensive than they are now. The wide cor- 
nice is not out of date. There are signs of 
it coming back. The dehorned cornice is 
not perfect. Sometimes it is difficult to make 
it water-tight, and a great many people do 
net like the looks of it. The wide cornice 
gives the edges of the roof a sort of decora- 




Fig. 2 

tive fringe. It goes well with the barge 
board, which makes the bracket more than 
an ornament. A bracket that does not in- 
dicate support for something, is entirely out 
of place. 

Substantial Brackets.— Fig. 1 shows two 
views of a well appearing and substantial 



bracket. To the right is shown a side view, 
and to the left we have a front or face view. 
The dotted lines toward the top indicate the 
continuation of the edge of the roof and 
barge board. Study the drawings until you 




understand them. A similar bracket is shown 
by Fig. 2. This bracket is less expensive 
than the other, but its supporting value is 
practically the same. Its appearance is also 
good. The end of the horizontal piece has 
a different cut, but these cuts can be modi- 
fied to suit the tastes of the interested per- 
-£ooF v^ — — - — -s , 




sons. Fig. 3 shows a bracket, on the canti- 
lever order. It is made of a 4x4 that extends 
back into the roof and joins the first rafter 
after the gable rafter. The drawing is cut 
in order to conserve space. Bracket A, has 
a plain cut at the end, a view of which is 
shown at the bottom over A. Bracket B is 
shown only in part. Excepting that this 



44 



THE CARPENTER 



bracket has a more fancy cut at the end, in 
all other details it is the same as bracket A. 
A front view of it is shown at the bottom 
over B. 

Ornamental Brackets.— Fig. 4 shows a 
novelty in the way of brackets. To the right 
is shown a side view, and to the left is a 
'Poor > 




Fig. 5 



front or face view. The quarter-circle piece 
that constitutes the bracket is circular in 
form, witii a diameter of 4 inches, as shown 
to the bottom right. The bracket can be 
made of solid wood, or it can be built up 
of boards and then shaped. A 4x4 built- 



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up bracket will be less expensive than a 
round-shaped bracket. Fig. 5 shows two 
views of a similar bracket. Here again the 
bracket is a quarter-circle, but the piece has 
a square shape. Study the two figures, and 
'Roof- 




Fig. 6 

compare them. Either of these brackets can 
be round or square, solid wood or built-up, 
or they can be modified in some other way 
to suit the taste of the owner. Two views 
of another rather fancy bracket are shown 
by Fig. 6. This bracket is easy to make, 



Fig. 7 



Bracket 




but it is not what could be called a substan- 
tial bracket. If it is well built it will keep 
the barge board from sagging, if the cor- 
nice is not too wide. 

Bracket and Barge Boards.— Fig. 7 shows 
a gable in part. This gable, if it were shown 



Bar&e Board 




in full, would have five brackets. But if the 
need for support is taken into consideration, 
the bracket at the comb of the roof is not 
necessary. There is no danger of the roof 
sagging at this point, if it is well supported 
by the other two brackets. Also, a bracket 
at the comb of the roof, does not add any 
ornamental value to the gable view. In fact 
it reduces the ornamental value. Fig. 8 
shows another gable in part. Here we have 



THE CARPENTER 



45 



only one bracket. This is all right if the 
barge board is not too long. The window 
shown in this drawing helps to break the 
monotony. But the view would be improved 
if an additional bracket were added a little 
above center on the barge board. If the 
gable shown in Fig. 9 were in full, there 
would be four brackets shown, equally 
spaced so far as the span is concerned. This 
arrangment gives the most satisfactory ap- 
pearance. Each bracket has a supporting 
purpose, as well as an ornamental value. 

Barge Board Tails.— Fig. 10 shows four 
different cuts for barge board tails. How- 



Full Length Roof Framer 

A pocket size book with the EN- 
TIRE length of Common-Hip-Valley 
and Jack rafters completely worked 
out for you. The flattest pitch is V2 
inch rise to 12 inch run. Pitches in- 
crease V2 inch rise each time until 
the steep pitch of 24" rise to 12" 
run is reached. 

There are 2400 widths of build- 
ings for each pitch. The smallest 
width is *4 inch and they increase 
y±" each time until they cover a 50 
foot building. 

There are 2400 Commons and 2400 
Hip, Valley & Jack lengths for each 
pitch. 230,400 rafter lengths for 48 
pitches. 

A hip roof Is 48'-9*4" wide. Pitch 
is l x k" rise to 12" run. You can pick 
out the length of Commons, Hips and 
Jacks and IN ONE MjjyTJTE the cuts> 
Let us prove it, or return your money. 

Getting the lengths of rafters by the span and 
the method of setting up the tables is fully pro- 
tected by the 1917 & 1944 Copyrights. 

Price $2.50 Postpaid. If C. O. D. pay $2.90. 

Californians Add 8c. Money back privilege. 

Canadians use Money Orders. 



A. RIECHERS 



P. O. Box 405 



Palo Alto, Calif. 



ever, an unlimited number of tail-cut de- 
signs are possible. The drawings show the 
width of the barge boards as 6 inches, but 



Baroc Raftcr 




barge boards can be made narrower or 
wider than what is shown on the drawing. 




Fig. 10 Tail Cuts 
Notice the tail cuts on the barge boards 
shown in Figs. 7, 8, and 9. 



improved yg" LEVEL $ 14 85 

For setting door jambs and windows. No other Ilk* 
it. 4 plumbs, 2 levels. Use either end or edge up. 
Weighs 4i lbs. I-beam type, non-warp. Patented. 

NO FACTORY REPAIRS NEEDED! 

New positive-clamp Spirit Tube glass holder (50c) is 
replaced in a minute with ordinary screwdriver. 

72"— $14.35 All sizes extruded aluminum 

DIRECT from Factory, Express Prepaid 

Cash with order. 

SIMPLEX LEVEL CO. INC. 

4923 Cadillac Blvd. Detroit 14, Mich. 



Wow •- Millers Falls brings you NEW 




"Biggest advance in planes in 20 years!" That's 
what carpenters everywhere are saying when 
they feel the new scientifically designed han- 
dles on Millers Falls Bench Planes. You get a 
far surer grip, easier planing, more cutting 
power, greater accuracy. See for yourself — 
at your hardware dealer's. 
MILLERS FALLS CO. • Greenfield, Mass. 



MILLERS FALLS 

TOOLS 



PIAN/M 
EASE 



New, scientifically shaped 
handles give a roomier grip 
that means greater comfort 
-better control— less fatigue. 




46 



THE CARPENTER 



WANTS TO KNOW-II 

A reader wants to know how to cut a 
sheet of masonite so that when it is bent 
into a half-circle, the cut will be a true 
miter cut. 



by drawing lines from the center of the 
circle at 15-degree angles. To find how 
wide the masonite has to be, multiply the 
radius by pi, or 3.1416, which will give the 
width you want. This is illustrated by the 




The illustration shows to the right a half 
circle, the left half of which is divided into 
six parts. Seven points were necessary to 
make the divisions. These points were found 

ESTIMATE INTELLIGENTLY 

A complete estimate, "plans, specs," appen- 
dix and summary. EVEN UNIT PRICES! 
For Typical 
38 x 90 Commercial Building 
with basement 

If you know your way around a con- 
struction job, this foiio will help you 
prepare a safe proposal for any job from 
$500 to $1,000,000 

A PRACTICAL MAN HAS THE 
ADVANTAGE **** 
EST5MATE— IMMEDIATELY 

Send $2.85 M.O. to 

G. A. LINDGREEN 
Box EE Kingsford Hgts., Ind. 



drawing to the left of the half circle, where 
the circumference from A to B is shown 
flattened out. Divide this distance into 12 
equal parts, or as many parts as the hall 
circle would have if the two quarters were I 
divided into six parts each. Now proceec I 
by raising perpendicular lines at each point 
as shown by the drawing. Carry point 1 oi 
the half circle to the left until it strikes the I 
first perpendicular line at point 1. In the I 
same way carry point 2 to point 2 on the 
second perpendicular line, and point 3 to i 
and so forth, marking the lines as shown >/ 
When all of the perpendicular lines arc 
marked as the drawing shows, draw a line 
through these points, giving it a continuous 
curve from point to point. If this work i; I 
carefully done, when the sheet is cut anc 
bent into a half circle, the cut will be or 
a 45-degree angle. 



Hang Tmi Poor The Professional Wav 
Ujeaull. MARK BUTT GAUGE 



Truly a carpenter's friend. Cuts a clean, deep, complete profile on door by strik- 
ing with hammer. Just remove chips. Repeat on jamb. Hang door. No adjust- 
ments or fussing. Precision made of drop-forged steel. Standard 3", 3'/ 2 " and 
4" sizes. Almost indispensable say hundreds of letters. 




Only SI. 75 each. . . 

If dealer ean't supply, 
send only $1.00 with 
order and pay postman 
balance plus postage 
C.O.D. (In Canada 25c 
higher per order. No 
COD. in Canada). 
State sizes wanted. 
Mail coupon today. 



MARK TOOLS, Box 7-8377, Los Angeles 16, 
Please send the E-Z MARK gauges checked : 



Cal. 



□ I Gauge-$I.75-SIZE— 

□ 2 Gauges-$3.50-SIZES. 

□ 3 Gauges-$5.25-SIZES_ 



□ Check or Money 
Order enclosed 

□ Send C O. D. 



U. S. 



and Canadian 
Patents 



Address 

City Zone_. 



You Do This — And Get Thli , 



J 



NOTICE 



The publishers of "The Carpenter" reserve the 
right to reject all advertising matter which may 
be, in their judgment, unfair or objectionable to 
the membership of the United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America. 

All Contracts for advertising space in "The Car- 
. penter." including those stipulated as non-can- 
cellable, are only accepted subject to the above 
reserved rights of the publishers. 



Index of Advertisers 



Carpenters' Tools and Accessories 

Page 

The American Floor Surfacing 

Machine Co., Toledo, Ohio 3rd Cover 

Carlson and Sullivan, Inc., Mon- 
rovia, Calif. 4 

Eagle Products, Meriden, Conn.- 47 

Eliason Tool Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 4 

E-Z Mark Tools, Los Angeles, 

Calif. 46 

Foley Mfg. Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 48 

Greenlee Tool Co., Rockford, 111 — 4 

Kingsdown Cable & Wire Co., 

Chicago, 111. 48 

The Lufkin Rule Co., Saginaw, 

Mich. 1 

A. D. McBurney, Los Angeles, 

Calif. 47 

Miller Falls Co., Greenfield, 

Mass. 45 

The Paine Co., Addison, 111. 48 

Porter-Cable Machine Co., Syra- 
cuse, N. Y. 4th Cover 

See-Saw, Dearborn, Mich. 4 

Simplex Level Co., Detroit, 

Mich. 45 

Stanley Tools, New Britain, 

Conn. 3rd Cover 

Carpentry Materials 

E. L. Bruce, Memphis, Tenn. 1 

Technical Courses and Books 

American Technical Society, Chi- 
cago, 111 47 

Audel Publishers, New York, 

N. Y. 3rd Cover 

Chicago Technical College, Chi- 
cago, 111. 3 

G. A. Lindgreen, Kingsford 

Hgts., Ind. 46 

A. Reichers, Palo Alto, Calif. 45 

H. H. Siegele, Emporia, Kans. __ 44 

Tamblyn System, Denver, Colo. _ 48 



KEEP THE MONEY 
IN THE FAMILY! 

PATRONIZE 
ADVERTISERS 




frtfrfrUHAtU 



SEND 

NO MONEY 

MORE THAN 

4000 PAGES 

• 

2750 

PICTURES 



9 BIG COMPLETE BOOKS 

BUILDING, ESTIMATING, CONTRACTING 



Examine this Up-to-Date Edition for 10 days. See how 
these nine book3 supply easily understood training that 
will help you to get a better job and make more money, 
or start a profitable business for yourself. Think what 
a BIG help it will be to have them handy for use In 
solving all sorts of building problems. 

Leam to draw plans, estimate, do all-new construction 
and modern remodeling to meet fast growing demand. Mora 
than 4000 pages of practical, pay raising Information with 
2750 helpful Illustrations, on such subjects as blueprint 
reading, concrete forms, masonry, carpentry, steel square, 
electrical wiring, plumbing, heating, painting, and hun- 
dreds more. 

In our more than 50 years we have never offered more 
complete building information. Send the coupon TODAY. 
(A year's consulting privileges with our engineers now 
given with these books without extra cost.) 

AMERICAN TECHNICAL SOCIETY— Publisher! Since 189i 
Dept. G-536 Drexel Ave., at 58th St., Chicago 37, III. 
I would like to examine your 9-Volume Set of Building, 
Estimating, Contracting Books. I will pay the delivery 
charges only, but If I choose I may return them express 
collect. If after 10 days' use I prefer to keep them, I will 
send you $3 plus postage and pay the balance at the rate of 
only $4 a month until $34.80 has been paid. Include con- 
sulting service as offered above. 



Name 



Address 



City State 

Please attach letter giving employer's name and adoren 
(if self employed give businessman reference). Man In 
service please give home address. 




FILE SAWS THE RIGHT WAY 



m 

USED AS JOINTER 

SO EASY with this new filing jig and jointer anyone can 
now sharpen any handsaw like new! When file hits hardened 
steel rollers teeth are finished and Exactly the Same Height. 
All teeth cut and saw runs true and smooth. Jig and 
instructions $2.95 postpaid. Free Folder. 



CUPBOARD & DRAWER PULL GAUGE 



Handy new adjustable 
jig that makes it simple 
to mark all your cup- 
board and drawer pulls 
quickly, easily and ac- 
curately. . . $1.00 post- 
paid. Dept. C-29 
4th St., Los Angeles 13, Calif. 




A. D. McBurney, 



A#ew7 Miracle Wood Drill 

"Screw -Mate" 
DOES 3-JOBS AT ONCE 
Drills shank-hole, pilot-hole 
and counter-sinks in one oper- 
ation on wood or plastic. Au- 
tomatic stop at right depth 
insures 100% holding power. 
Drill up to 40-holes p.m., eas- 
ily, accurately ! High-tungsten 
steel outlives ordinary drills. 
Fits all % "-chucks. Utility Kit, 
5-popular sizes with stand . . . 
"The Carpenter's Friend." 
Postpaid complete only.. $3. 95 

FREE FOLDER describing other 
"do-it-better-easier" tools, 




YANKEE BARGAIN 

Box of 40 asstd , 
springs for home 
repairs. Postpaid 



•1. 



Eanlp Products 



BOX 84A MERIDEN. CONN. 



Have It Handy! 




the product of 
1000 uses . . • 

PERFORATED HANGER IRON 

Whether the job is new construction or repair, 
vou'll find a time-saving use for Paine Perforated 
Hanger Iron. Inexpensive, compact, 10-foot coils 
take little room in your tool case, but they're worth 
their weight in gold when needed. And Paine 
hanger iron has milled, burr-free edges that save 
your hands. 
Make a note — get a coil or two at your supplier. 



THE PAINE COMPANY 
4 Westgate Road, Addison, III. 



the best craftsmen always take 



pMMts 



WEE PLAN 

tells how to start your own business 

FILING SAWS 



Here is a steady repeat CASH business you can start In 
your own basement, or garage in your spare time. You can file 
band, band and cross-cut circular saws on the Foley Saw Filer. 
No eyestrain — no experience needed. "The first saw I sharp- 
?ned with my Foley Filer came out 100%." — writes Clarence 
E. Parsons. 

Every saw you 
sharpen with 
the Foley Saw 
Filer brings you 
more customers. 
"I rented a two- 
car garage and 
have all the 
work I can 
>do." — Charles 
H. Smith. 

FREE BOOK 

shows how 
siart 




Sens/ Coupon for FREE BOOK 




ESTIMATE Complete Buildings 

Sure, you can read and write; add and 
subtract; multiply and divide and have 
trade experience. Yes, you are already 90% 
on your way toward self-employment! 
You have ambition, a mind, a job, spare 
time, a room for study, and I want to help 
j'ou make the highest use of these priceless 
assets, as I have done for thousands like 
you. Private study and silent thought is a 
mighty practice, under proper guidance, to 
develop native powers and abilities and 
start you on the way to a higher standard 
of living. It will cost you nothing to try my 
system. 

The TAMBLYN SYSTEM Builder's Course 
in Estimating is self-teaching. Not an hour 
of your time is lost in needless letter writ- 
ing. You write only when you need help, 
and you get a prompt personal answer in 
plain-trade-talk. I am only a few mail-hours 
away from your side. 

My instructions are plain and easily under- 
stood, and I give all the special help you 
need without additional charge. When you 
have completed the course you have a new 
out-look on life. You are confident and 
assured. 

On request I will send you the complete 
course in one package postpaid. You have 
ten days for free examination. If you don't 
want it, send it back. If you keep it send 
$8.75 and $10.00 a month until the full 
price of $48.75 is paid. 

Print your name and address plainly, sign 
it and send it to: 

GORDON M. TAMBLYN 

TAMBLYN SYSTEM 

1115 South Pearl St., C-43, Denver 10, Colo. 



Heavy-Duty POWER 



CORDS 



SATISFACTION 
GUARANTEED 

ALL RUBBER . . . FLEXIBLE — 

Made of rugged military cordage 
approximating civilian 2 conductor 
#14. Complete with cord clamp, 
spring action plug, and heavy duty 
female connector. Cable diameter 
.500 in. Also 100 ft. (2 cond. #12) 
Sets @ $15.50 postpaid. 




100 ft. 

SET 

only 

$Q.95 

POSTPAID 



•— > — — — — CLIP AND MAIL TODAY — — — — — I 

KINGSDOWN CABLE & WIRE CO. 

I 4540 W. Addison St. Dept. C5 Chicago 41, III. J 



i FOLEY MFG. CO., 518-3 Foley Bldg. 

j Minneapolis 18, Minn. 

I Send me free book "Money Making Facts." 

j Address . 

I Name 



Enclosed is check or money order for $_- 

send 100 ft. Cord Set(s), (2 cond. 

100 ft. Cord Set(s) (2 cond. .#12). 

faction guaranteed. 



Jili) 
Satis- 



Name 



Street 



City Zone — 




the NATURAL choice 

of SKillCD HANDS 



STANLEY LEVEL 

Take the No. 233 Aluminum Level — a 
"100 Plus" level for those who want the 
best. Truss construction makes it rigid and 
strong — with extra metal around the 
glasses and at places that receive greater 
strain. It's light, rust-proof and warp- 
proof. Glasses are fully adjustable to 
30°, 45° or any angle desired, or for 
degree of pitch to the foot. 

New STANLEY RULE No. 126 

A new value in rule utility, quality and 
economy. Extra utility because it doubles 
for use as a marking guage and for hook 
measuring. Extra quality through large 
figures protected by plastic, nickel-silver 
ball-lock joints and select sticks with 
square ends. Extra economy because of 
its durability. Also available for Inside 
Flat Reading — 126F. 




More Stanley Tools are used by car- 
penters and cabinet-makers than 
any other brand of hand tools. 
Why? Because Stanley makes it 
their business to know what skilled 
workmen want — in balance, in feel, 
in accuracy, and in durability. 
Stanley provides this extra quality 
— consistently. 



New Helpful Booklet 
FREE 

126 Folding Rule — Describes 
5 ways to test the time and 
error-saving features of this im- 
portant, new measuring tool. 



.'? U «C 



nun. 




STANLEY TOOLS 

104 Elm St., New Britain, Conn. 

THE TOOL BOX OF THE WORLD 

Reg. U.S. Pat. Off. 



HARDWARE • TOOLS • ELECTRIC TOOLS 
STEEL STRAPPING • STEEL 



Steady work... Big money 



BIG MONEY for you today in 
floor surfacing work! Be your 
own boss and keep all the 
profits from your labor! 
Prospects everywhere for 
maintenance and repair in 
present homes. Sanders 
are easy to operate — no 
special schooling — no 
big investment. Earn $35 
to $50 a day . . . indoor 
ii work. Send for "tell- 
all" booklet entitled 
"Opportunities in 
Floor Surfacing" 
enclosing 2 5 cents 
in coin or stamps to cover handling. 
American Floor Surfacing Machine Co., 
520 So. St. Clair St., Toledo, Ohio. 

American 

FLOOR MACHINES - PORTABLE TOOLS 





AUDELS Carpenters 
and Builders Guides 

4vols.*6 

InsideTrade Information 

for Carpenters, Builders. Join- 
ers, Building Mechanics and all 
Woodworkers. These Guides 
give you the short-cut instruc- 
tions that you want— including 
new methods, ideas, solutions, 
plans, systems and money sav- 
ing suggestions. An easy pro- 
gressive course for the appren- 
tice and student. A practical 
daily helper and Quick Refer- 
ence for the master worker. 
Carpenters everywhere are us- 
ing these Guides as a Helping 
Hand to Easier Work, Better 
Work and Better Pay. To get 
this assistance for yourself. 
- • « — . . . _ simply fill in and 

Inside Trade Information On: mail free coupon below. 

How to use the steel square — How to file and 

set saws — How to build furniture — How to use 

a mitre box — How to use the chalk line — How 

to use rules and scales — How to make joints — 

Carpenters arithmetic — Solving mensuration 

problems — Estimating strength of timbers — 

How to set girders and sills — How to frame 

houses and roofs — How to estimate costs — How 

to build houses, barns, garages, bungalows, etc. 

— How to read and draw plans — Drawing up 

specifications — How to excavate — How to use 

settings 12, 13 and 17 on the steel square — How 

to build hoists and scaffolds — skylights — How 

to build stairs — How to put on interior trim — 

How to hang doors — How to lath — lay floors — : How to paint 





AUDEL, Publishers, 49 W. 23rd St., New York 10, N. Y. 

Mail Audels Carpenters and Builders Guides, 4 vols., on 7 days' free 
trial. If OK I will remit $1 in 7 days and SI monthly until $6 is paid. 
— Otherwise I will return them. No obligation unless I am satisfied. 



Employed by- 



-CAR 



S]/h0 Porter-Cable 





RUGGED. All the power, 
speed and stamina needed for 
long rip cuts, fast cross cuts, 
compound miters, etc. Actu- 
ally cuts through 1 x 10 pine 
board in 1 second! 



CUTS DEEPER. Full 8V4" 
blade cuts 2V&" at 45° — deep 
enough for undressed 2 x 4's. 
2%" at 90° is deeper than 
any comparable saw. 



SAFER. (1) Exclusive kick- 
proof clutch ( 2 ) exclusive 
cam-action guard (3) exclu- 
sive auxiliary front guard (4) 
and extended base make saw- 
ing safer than ever. 



These are only the highlights of what's 
new in the Porter-Cable CONTRACTOR'S 
SPECIAL. Get the complete story — today — 
see your dealer or mail coupon for full 
information. 



Porter-Cable 



"CONTRACTOR'S 
SPECIAL" 

More advanced features than 
any other saw at any price! 

1 MORE POWER — Larger motor with 
higher amperage provides 10% more 
power. 

2 LIGHTER — New style casting shaves 
weight to 13 V2 lbs. — means less muscle 
strain. 

3 KICK- PROOF CLUTCH -Eliminates 
dangerous kick-back when blade hits 
knots or nard spots. 

4 BLADE GUARD LIFT LEVER — 
Permits you to pull guard back without 
risk while blade is spinning. 

5 CAM-ACTION GUARD — Exclusive 
design (pat. pending) provides steady, 
full retraction — abolishes extra push re- 
quired to overcome jamming. 

6 AUXILIARY FRONT GUARD — 
Automatically covers exposed blade at 
front of saw when base is lowered for 
shallow cuts. 

7 EXTENDED BASE — Lets you cut 
in either direction on either side when 
notching or trimming roof overhang. 



r 




Manufacturers of Speedmatic & Guild Electric Tools 



PORTER-CABLE Machine Co., 

1585 N. Salina St., Syracuse 8, N. Y. 

(In Canada: Strongridge Ltd., London, Ont.) 
Gentlemen: 

Please send complete information on new "Con- 
tractor's Special," also name of nearest dealer. 

Name _ - 



~l 



Address. 
City 



State. 



I 

I 1 




I 



FOUNDED 1881 



Official Publication of the 
UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS of AMERICA 

JUNE, 1953 




tica J Can't Fly Off 



SAVES EXPENSE, DELAY AND DANGER 

from loose, broken or splintered handles. 

GENUINE SOLE LEATHER GRIP 

Proven most comfortable and durable In all 
climates. Double lacquered, non-slip finish. 
It fits YOUR hand. 




ONE PIECE HEAD AND HANDLE 

Gives you strength of steel for all pulling and 
ripping by hand, and insures permanent 
balance year 'round. 



MAREC OF THE SKILLED FOU 28 YEARS 



$3.65 



$4.50 



$4.50 




$4.00 



Bv* 



$3.25 



ESTWING MFG. CO. Dept. C ROCECFORD, ILL. 



Trade Mark Reg. March, 1913 



A Monthly Journal, Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners 
of America, for all its Members of all its Branches. 

PETER E. TERZICK, Editor 
Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis 4, Indiana 



Established in 1881 
Vol. LXXIII— No. 6 



INDIANAPOLIS, JUNE, 1953 



One Dollar Per Year 
Ten Cents a Copy 



— Con tents — 



Many Cooks — Little Broth - 



Congressmen finds themselves in the same boat as the average man. The great 
variety of suggested changes in the Taft-Hartley Law demonstrate their confusion. 



Social Security Is In Danger 

With 18 billion dollars in the pot the wolves close in. 

1953 Label Show Is Tops - 

Annual spectacle continues high quality performance. 

Aptitude Test For Apprentices - 

The apprentice is given an honest measure of himself. 

Carpentry Involves Many Hazards 

Fourth in a series on accidents and how to avoid them. 



10 
13 
18 
22 



OTHER DEPARTMENTS 

Plane Gossip 

Editorials 

The Locker 

Official 

In Memoriam 

Correspondence 

To The Ladies 

Craft Problems 



Index to Advertisers 



* * • 



16 
24 
32 
33 
34 
36 
39 
40 



46 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of 

Congress. Aug. 24, 1912. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for 

in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918. 



CARPENTERS 

BUILDERS and APPRENTICES 




THOROUGH TRAINING IN BUILDING 

Learn at Home in Your Spare Time 

The successful builder will tell you 
that the way to the top-pay jobs and 
success in Building is to get thorough 
knowledge of blue prints, building con- 
struction and estimating. 

In this Chicago Tech Course, you learn to 
read blue prints — the universal language of the 
builder — and understand specifications — for all 
types of buildings. 

You learn building construction details : 
foundations, walls, roofs, windows and doors, 
arches, stairs, etc. 

You learn how to lay out work and direct 
building jobs from start to finish. You iearn 
to estimate building costs quickly and accurate- 
ly. Find out how you can pre- 
pare at home for the higher- 
paid jobs in Building, or your 
own successful contracting busi- 
ness. Get the facts about 
tliis income-boosting Chicago 
Tech training now. 

MAIL COUPON NOW 




Prepare for more pay, greater suc- 
cess. Learn how to lay out and run 
building jobs, how to read blue prints, 
how to estimate building costs. Prac- 
tical training with complete blue print 
plans and specifications — same as used 
by superintendents and contractors. 
Over 48 years of experience in train- 
ing practical builders. 

INCREASE YOUR INCOME 

Hundreds have quickly advanced to fore- 
man, superintendent, inspector, estimator, 
contractor, with this Chicago Tech train- 
ing in Building. Your practical experi- 
ence aids your success. Get the technical 
training you need for promotion and in- 
creased income. 

FUSTC Blue Prints 
if &I& and Trial Lesson 

Send today for Trial Lesson: "How to 
Read Blue Prints," and set of Blue Print 
Plans — sent to you Free. See for yourself 
how this Chicago Tech Course prepares 
you to earn more money, gives you the 
thorough knowledge of Building required 
for the higher-up jobs and higher pay. 
Don't delay. Mail the coupon today in an 
envelope or use a penny postcard. 



C H I C AG O TEC H N ICAL CO LLEG E 

TECH BLDG., 2000 SOUTH MICHIGAN AVE., CHICAGO 16, ILL. 



Chicago Technical College 

G-125 Tech Bldg., 2000 So. Michigan Ave., 

Chicago 16, Illinois 

Mail me Free Blue Print Plans and Booklet: "How to Read Blue Prints" 
with information about how I can train at home. 

Name Age 

Address Occupation 



City _ Zone 



.State 



Now!-3 New SK1L Homebuilders Saws 
at the lowest prices ever! 




Heavy-Duty! Ball Bearing! Genuine SKIL Quality! 



Carpenters! Here are the saws you asked for — 6" and 
7 l A" and 8V4" heavy-duty, ball bearing models. A size for 
every cutting job ! Now you can have a genuine SKIL 
Saw to fit your exact needs at a price which gives you 
more value for your saw dollars than ever before! 

THESE QUALITY FEATURES ARE YOURS 
AT NO EXTRA COST! 



• Genuine Heavy-duty con- 
struction . . . ball and needle 
roller bearings throughout 

• Safety guard retracting han- 
dle for pocket cuts and abrasive 
disc use 



• Only one built-in adjustment 
for depth — one for bevel 

• Calibrated rip fence for both 
right and left hand cuts 

• One or two-hand operation 
for easy control in all positions 



10 EXTRA-HEAVY-DUTY MODELS AVAILABLE 
IN COMPLETE SIZE RANGE 



The only complete portable 
power saw line . . . more 
SKIL Saws in use than all 
other makes combined. You 
Can See the Cut with SKIL 
Saw! 

SMI 

PORTABLE^ TOOLS 

SKIL Products are made only by 
SKIL Corporation 

formerly SKILSAW, Inc. 
5033 Elston Ave., Chicago 30, III. 

3601 Dundas Street West, 

Toronto 9, Ontario 
34 SKIL Factory Branches 



See Your Distributor or Call Your SKIL Factory Branch for Complete Information 
on the SKIL Homebuilders Saw Line! 



Taft-Hartley stew shows there are— 



Many Cooks — Little Broth 

• • 

"^ OR SOMETHING over three months committees in both the House 
and Senate have been studying the Taft-Hartley Law and what, if 
anything, should be done about amending it. To date, some 35 bills 
proposing changes of one kind or another have been introduced in the House. 
Nineteen bills have similarly been introduced in the Senate. 

All these bills have been referred to Committee on Labor in either the 
House or the Senate. Significantly, of the 19 bills introduced in the Senate, 
at least 16 were introduced by members of the Senate Committee on Labor 
and Public Welfare. On the House side, 13 of the 35 labor bills were intro- 
duced by members of the House Committee on Labor and Education. 

Naturally these committee members 

be the first crack in the Taft-Hartley 
strait jacket. 

The following are resumes of bills 
proposed to amend the Taft-Hartley 
Law. These bills have been presented 
to the House and Senate and were 
reviewed in the April, 1953 issue of 
the Building and Construction Trades 
Bulletin. 

Senate T-H Amendments 
S. 225 Butler (R., Nebr.) 

Aimed at Seamen and Longshore 
Unions tieing up shipping in and out 
of U. S. Territories. 

S. 369 Murray (D., Mont.) 

Permits a "closed shop" in printing 
industry. Liberalizes "secondary boy- 
cott" prohibitions and repeals "injunc- 
tion provisions. Would prohibit NLRB 
from determining scope and subject 
matter of collective bargaining. 

S. 655 Taft (R., Ohio) 

Removes requirement that NLRB 
give top priority to employer unfair la- 
bor charges against union. Relaxes sec- 
ondary boycott provision to permit a 
union to request workers to refuse to 
perform work which has been trans- 
ferred from a plant where there is a 
strike. Employers' "free speech" pro- 
vision is broadened. Extends non- 



who introduced bills of their own 
are pushing for favorable committee 
action on the bills they authored. 
Consequently there has been a great 
deal of maneuvering and politicking 
behind the scenes in committee de- 
liberations. This state of affairs may 
exist for some time to come, a fact 
that might conceivably prevent any 
showdown on Taft-Hartley revisions 
for a long time to come. Needless to 
say, many of the bills would make 
the Law more restrictive. 

Of all the bills that have been in- 
troduced to date, the one introduced 
by Senator Smith of New Jersey, who 
is chairman of the Senate Committee 
on Labor and Public Welfare, seems 
to enjoy the most widespread support. 
This bill proposes to exempt the con- 
struction industry and certain public 
utilities from the list of enterprises 
subject to provisions of the Taft- 
Hartley Law. In a way that would 
appear to be a step in the right direc- 
tion. On the other hand, it would 
make labor relations in the construc- 
tion industry subject to state labor 
laws.. Unfortunately some 14 states 
now have laws on their books which 
are as bad or worse than the Taft- 
Hartley Law itself. In the main, how- 
ever, passage of the Smith Bill would 



THE CARPENTER 



Communist affadavit to employers. 
Permits discharge of Communists. 
Eliminates need for union to file state- 
ments with Secretary of Labor as to 
elections, union finances, etc. 
S. 656 Taft (R., Ohio) 

Permits union and employers in 
construction industry to make shop 
contracts prior to employment and 
without NLRB certification. 
S. 657 Taft (R., Ohio) 

Amends NLRB procedure. Permits 
NLRB to make final decision when 
party charged with violation waives 
his right to a hearing. Permits one 
NLRB member to hear oral argument 
instead of two now required. Creates 
12 -member Advisory Committee on 
Procedure and Practice, appointed by 
Supreme Court, of six labor and six 
management attorneys. 
S. 658 Taft (R., Ohio) 

Permits union shop contract allow- 
ing check off of dues and initiation 
fees. Prevents union secondary boy- 
cott action under S. 655 from being 
basis of damage suit. Requires Secre- 
tary of Labor to investigate all health 
and welfare funds established by con- 
tract. Permits employer to waive par- 
ticipation in administration of welfare 
funds. 

S. 659 Taft (R., Ohio) 

Changes NLRB setup and proce- 
dures. Increases members from five to 
seven, no more than four from same 
political party. Substitutes NLRB 
General Counsel with an Administra- 
tor with full jurisdiction over Region- 
al Directors. Permits parties charged 
with violations to request Board rul- 
ing as to whether case involved inter- 
state commerce in jurisdiction of 
Board prior to hearing. 

S. 838 Magnuson (D., Wash.) 

Would legalize "hiring halls" in 
"Maritime Industry." 
S. 1026 Ives (R., N. Y.) 



Permits President to request parties 
to settle their differences. He then 
appoints "Emergency Board" which 
makes fact finding public. If differ- 
ence isn't settled, President refers it 
to Congress. 
S. 1075 Ives (R., N. Y.) 

Permits President to refer dispute 
to Congress if work stoppage occurs 
during the period of the appointment 
of the "Emergency Board" and the 
Board's issuance of fact finding. 
Changes from 30 to 60 day's time in 
which Board reports to President. 
S. 1190 Ives (R., N. Y.) 

Makes Secretaries of Commerce 
and Labor ex-officio members of Na- 
tional Labor-Management Panel cre- 
ated by this section. 
S. 1264 Ives (R., N. Y.) 

Allows NLRB to decline to assert 
jurisdiction over any labor dispute 
when it thinks effect on commerce 
is insufficient to warrant the exercise 
of its jurisdiction. Permits NLRB to 
cede jurisdiction to State or State 
Agency in disputes involving unfair 
labor practice and representation 
cases even though commerce substan- 
tially affected. 

Also deletes proviso in Sec. 10(a) 
which requires before NLRB can 
cede jurisdiction to a State, the State 
law must not be considered incon- 
sistent with the Federal Act. 
S. 1301 Ives (R., N. Y.) 

Relates to rights of both parties 
during 60-day waiting period. 
S. 1311 Ives (R., N. Y.) 

Makes it an unfair labor practice 
for a union to strike an employer not 
only when another union has been 
certified but when another union has 
petitioned for certification prior to 
such strike. 
S. 1312 Ives (R., N. Y.) 

Makes injunction provision discre- 
tionary rather than mandatory. Limits 
injunctive period to 60 days. 



THE CARPENTER 



S. 1146 Humphrey (D., Minn.) 

Grants final authority to Regional 
Directors in representation cases, pro- 
vides for legal assistants to trial ex- 
aminers, permits card checks or other 
methods of determining proper em- 
ploye representatives prior to a hear- 
ing. Creates Court of Labor Appeals. 
NLRB decisions to be appealed di- 
rectly to this court, which would have 
exclusive jurisdiction with appeal to 
U. S. Supreme Court. 
S. 1161 Goldwater (R, Ariz.) 
It reads as follows: "Nothing in this 
Act shall be construed to nullify the 
power of any State or Territory to 
regulate or qualify the right of em- 
ployes to strike or picket." 

This is what has become known 
as the NAM-U. S. Chamber of Com- 
merce "Sleeper" Bill. If this bill ever 
becomes a law, a union would never 
know when it could strike or picket 
an employer since he would become 
subject to one set of rules under State 
laws and another set under Federal 
laws. 
S. 1254 Goldwater (R., Ariz.) 

Attorney General would be required 
to cite all cases of Communist domin- 
ated labor unions to "Subversive Ac- 
tivities Control Board" created by the 
Internal Security Act of 1950. The 
Board would conduct hearings and 
convicted union leadership would lose 
all rights of Certification, right to 
strike etc., under the Act. 

To illustrate the magnitude of this 
bill it provides that the Attorney Gen- 
eral can, if he finds one Communist 
leader in a local union, name in his 
petition, the International union, all 
local councils to which the union is 
affiliated, plus hundreds and even 
thousands of other locals of this same 
International. 

Senator McCarran (D., Nev.) on 
January 7, 1953, introduced S. 23 
which amends the Subversive Ac- 



tivities Control Act of 1950, permit- 
ting an employer to fire an employe 
who belongs to an organization des- 
ignated subversive by the Attorney 
General. 

House T-H Bills 

H. R. 115 Byrd (D., W. Va.) 

Repeals T-H Act and re-enacts 
Wagner Act. 

H. R. 504 Lane (D., Mass.) 

Same as H. R. 115. 

H. R. 542 Perkins (D., Ky.) 

Repeals T-H but does not re-enact 
the Wagner Act. 

H. R. 1311 Weir (D., Minn.) 

Repeals T-H and re-enacts much 
amended Wagner Act. 

H. R. 132 Heselton (R., Mass.) 
H. R. 369 Auchincloss (R., N. J.) 

Both bills identical. Steps set forth 
are: 

(1) President issues order prevent- 
ing strike or lockout enforced by At- 
torney General obtaining an injunc- 
tion; (2) Parties to dispute try nego- 
tiations, or; (3) Parties submit to vol- 
untary arbitrations and; (4) if not set- 
tled within 30 days, President ap- 
points arbitrators who make enforce- 
able decision. 

H. R. 318 McDonough (R., Cal.) 

Permits union shop contracts in 
building and construction industry 
prior to employment and without 
NLRB representation elections. State 
compulsory open shop laws would 
have no effect on building industry. 

H. R. 323 McDonough (R., Cal.) 
H. R. 3296 Garmatz (D., Md.) 

Permits labor unions to use dues 
to publish preference of candidates 
for political office when a majority of 
members agree to such expenditures. 
H. R. 3296 differs only in that it re- 
moves all restrictions on political con- 
tributions of labor unions. Majority 
consent of members not required. 



8 



THE CARPENTER 



H. R. 328 McDonough (R., Cal.) 
H. R. 475 Keating (R., N. Y.) 

Both require employers to sign non- 
Communist affidavit. 

H. R. 1920 Chenoweth (R., Colo.) 

Permits union and employer who 
have been parties to collective bar- 
gaining for a period of 25 years or 
more to continue to insert any terms 
in their contract not unlawful prior 
to T-H. 

H. R. 2510 Dingell (D., Mich.) 
H. R. 2511 Rhodes (D., Pa.) 

Permit a closed shop in the print- 
ing industry. Removes NLRB author- 
ity to determine scope and subject 
matter of collective bargaining. Per- 
mits employes to refuse to enter pre- 
mises when employers' employes are 
on strike. Repeals injunction provi- 
sions. 

H. R. 2545 Lucas (D., Texas) 

Makes it an unfair labor practice 
for an employer to engage in a "mo- 
nopolistic lockout." Same for unions 
regarding "monopolistic strike." 
Amends secondary boycott in that it 
prevents NLRB from giving certifica- 
tion to a union representing employes 
of competing employers unless such 
employes were less than 100 in num- 
ber and unless the plants or facilities 
of such employers are less than 50 
miles apart. Mandatory injunction and 
damage action made applicable to 
violations. 
H. R. 3055 Lucas (D., Texas) 

Bans industry-wide bargaining. Per- 
mits States to regulate strikes and 
picketing in all industries, even those 
which affect interstate commerce and 
even though such State laws are in 
direct conflict with Federal laws. 

H. R. 3067 Condon (D., Cal.) 

Redefines term "employer." Per- 
mits appeal to NLRB from decision 
of General Counsel's refusal to issue 
complaint of unfair labor charge. In- 



creases Board members' salaries and 
permits Board members to hire at- 
torneys, trial examiners and regional 
directors. Permits regional offices to 
conduct hearings prior to representa- 
tion elections. 
H. R. 3146 Rhodes (D., Pa.) 

Permits "closed shop" contract. Re- 
peals Sec. 14(b), which gives prefer- 
ence to State open shop laws over 
Federal laws. 
H. R. 3361 Bailey (D., W. Va.) 

NLRB cannot cede jurisdiction to 
State if State law is inconsistent with 
Federal law. Repeals mandatory in- 
junction provisions. Repeals National 
Emergency Sections 206 to 210. 
Amends Section 502 relating to right 
of employe to refuse to work under 
abnormally dangerous conditions, tak- 
ing precedence over State laws incon- 
sistent with this section. 

H. R. 3481 Howell (D., N. J.) 

Employer could not disseminate in- 
formation to employes if factual con- 
text is such that it tends to coerce the 
employes of their rights under the 
Act. 
H. R. 3533 Blatnik (D., Minn.) 

Defines "secondary boycott," which 
would no longer make it illegal to re- 
fuse to work for a non-union sub- 
contractor on a job where other con- 
tractors are union. Amends the sec- 
ondary boycott section of the Act, 
which on its face would not cure our 
peculiar union-non-union contractor 
situation on the same job. Repeals 
damage action provision for violation 
of secondary boycott provision. 
H. R. 3588 McCarthy (D., Minn.) 
H. R. 4270 Javits (R., N. Y.) 

A union, local or international, 
would not be liable for unathorized 
unlawful acts of any officers of such 
union. Unions could not be sued for 
damages for unauthorized unlawful 
acts of union officials. Both bills have 
same purpose. 



THE CARPENTER 



H. R. 3639 Machrowicz (D., Mich.) 

This would broaden the scope of 
"plant gards" to include "plant pro- 
tection employes." 
H.R. 3847 Velde (R., 111.) 

A procedure which would result in 
a union forfeiting its right to strike. 
H. R. 3883 Ostertag (R., N. Y.) 

Identical to S. 1075. 
H. R. 3926 Ostertag (R., N. Y.) 

Identical to S. 1190. 
H. R. 3993 Rhodes (R., Ariz.) 

Identical to S. 1254. 
H. R. 3999 Smith (R., Kans.) 

Eliminates present permissable 
"Union Shop" contract and makes it 
mandatory that all contracts be open 
shop contracts. Eliminates reference 
to union shop contracts. Makes it un- 
fair labor practice for unions to sign 
anything but "open shop" contracts. 
Also specifically repeals the 1951 
"union shop" amendment to the "Rail- 
way Labor Act." 
H. R. 4274 Kearns (R., Pa.) 

Permits State NLRB to grant "Cer- 
tification" to employe groups which 
have not received certification by the 
Federal NLRB. Prevents State from 



enforcing State labor laws until the 
NLRB elects to exercise its jurisdic- 
tion. 

H. R. 4358 Powell (D., N. Y.) 

Makes it an unfair labor practice 
for employers to discriminate in hire, 
etc., because of race, color or nation- 
al origin. 

H. R. 4409 Kelly (D, Pa.) 

Does not require union officials to 
file non-Communist affadavit and sub- 
stitutes requirement that the constitu- 
tion of a labor union contain a provi- 
sion preventing Communist member- 
ship. 

H. R. 437 Fisher (D., Texas) 

Makes unions subject to existing 
Federal Anti-Trust laws the same as 
corporations. Limits NLRB Certifica- 
tion to employes of not more than one 
employer unless such employes all 
worked in the same metropolitan dis- 
trict and do not number more than 
500. 

H. R. 639 Wilson (D., Texas) 

Does not specifically amend T-H, 
but would make unions subject to 
Federal Anti-Trust laws. 



Another Apprenticeship Booklet Is Now Ready 

Off the press and now ready for distribution is another booklet in the Brotherhood 
Standard Apprenticeship Training Course. This newest booklet is a supplement to Part 1 
of Unit XII (blueprint reading and estimating). It is entitled "Answers and Explanations For 
Questions In Unit XII (part 1)." 

As the title implies, this booklet supplements Unit XII and explains the seeming dis- 
crepancies between plans and unit instructional material. It was compiled to assist die 
instructor who may not be adequately acquainted with all the construction methods used 
in the three different sets of blueprint plans, A, B, and C. In its preface, the booklet states: 

"The three plans "A," "B," and "C" were selected because they represented widely 
separated areas, thus allowing the apprentice the opportunity to become acquainted with 

types of construction used outside his own area The house in each of the three 

plans was constructed by skilled craftsmen of our Brotherhood who were able to detect the 
errors and make the needed corrections as the work progressed. 

"It is hoped that during the time the apprentice is studying the blueprint course, he 
will profit from the experience of his instructor and develop this same skill in blueprint 
reading and estimating." 

Answers and Explanations for Questions In Unit XII is priced at 55c per copy. 
Local Unions and District Councils interested in obtaining copies should direct their 
orders to: 

ALBEBT E. FISCHEB, General Secretary 
222 E. Michigan St. 
; , . , , Indianapolis 4, Ind. 



10 



SOCIAL SECURITY IS IN DANGER 

• • 

LOOK out for a concerted effort to wreck the Social Security program. 
Ever since the program was put into operation in 1937, certain insur- 
ance companies and financial institutions have been looking for a 
chance to undercut its whole structure. These outfits fought Social Security 
tooth and toenail when it was being debated in Congress. They fought it 
right down to the wire, and although they did not succeed in stopping it, 
they never gave up fighting it. Year in and year out they have sniped at the 
program and tried to weaken its provisions whenever an opportunity pre- 
sented itself. ■ 

In the beginning their hue and cry taken a complete flip flop. Now the 
was that the Social Security program very same people who a few years ago 
was unsound and based on uneco- were screaming that working people 
nomic reasoning. Because the Social were going to be cheated by Social 
Security Administration was loaning Security because the whole idea was 
out its surplus funds (at interest) to unsound are casting about for ways 
other government agencies instead of and means to dip into the 18 billion 
building up cash reserves, these op- dollar cushion. 

ponents of Social Security cried to Experts representing the United 
the high heavens that nothing but States chamber of Commerce have 
disaster lay ahead. Repeatedly they suggested that at least part of the 
charged that the Social Security Ad- 18 billion dollars be used to balance 
ministration was doing things that tne budget and thereby allow a cut 
private insurance company officers in i ncome taxes> Another suggestion 
would be put in jail for doing. They is t h at the needy be integrated into 
insisted that in a few years Congress the Social Security system to balance 
would have to appropriate money the budget. As matters now stand, 
from the general fund if those enti- the Federal government and individ- 
tled to benefits were to get what they USL \ states jointly take care of the 
had chalked up to their credit. Time nee dy. Washington gives grants-in- 
after time they labeled the whole aia > t0 states to help them take care 
program a fraud and predicted that f t h 0S e who became too old to work 
those who paid into it were going to before Social Security came into ef- 
get back nothing. feet, those who are blind or crippled, 

Through it all the Social Security and those widowed or deserted moth- 
Administration kept plugging away ers who have no way of taking care of 
at its job. Suddenly some of these their children. These grants come out 
people who fought Social Security of the general fund, which in turn 
from the word go, realized that there relies on g eneral taxes, 
was something like 18 billion dollars What the adoption of either of the 
piled up in Social Security funds at above suggestions would do to the 
the present time. Now the line has Social Security program is not diffi- 



THE CARPENTER 



11 



cult to envision. Once Congress set 
a precedent by dipping into Social 
Security funds, the Social Security 
fund would never again get its nose 
above water. Every time the fund 
accumulated a few spare dollars some 
Congressman would be presenting an 
idea for syphoning off the excess. 

As to the idea that the indigent 
should be integrated into the Social 
Security program as a budget-balanc- 
ing scheme, even as tried and true a 
reactionary as Senator Byrd of Virgin- 
ia found the proposition too much to 
swallow. Speaking before a meeting 
of the Chamber of Commerce, Byrd 
recently said: 

"Social Security funds are a sacred 
trust of the government. They have 
been paid by workers and employers, 
to be held by the government as a 
trustee, and to be paid out to individ- 
uals as they become eligible. 

"The same holds true of unemploy- 
ment and similar funds for which the 
government is trustee. Payments into 
these funds are not ordinary income 
that the government can use to bal- 
ance the budget." 

However, make no mistake about 
it, the heat is on Social Security. The 
tipoff is the lambasting Social Security 
is getting in the national magazines. 
Recently both Readers Digest and 
Look Magazine have carried articles 
taking pot shots at Social Security. 
The Look article in particular lowered 
the boom on the whole Social Securi- 
ty program. Pointing out some situa- 
tions which are allegedly unfair, the 
magazine article smears the whole 
program. Even the title of the piece, 
"Will You Be Cheated By Social Se- 
curity?" is written in such a way as to 
undermine confidence in the Social 
Security program. Then, instead of 
presenting ideas for eliminating the 
things it considers to be abuses, the 
article winds up with a recommenda- 



tion that the Chamber's scheme of 
putting Social Security on a "Pay as 
you go" basis— a move that would 
freeze benefits at a level so low as 
to make Social Security meaningless— 
be adopted. This would make benefits 
subject to the whims of Congress. 

Look's entire argument was assailed 
by Nelson Cruikshank, director of 
social insurance activities for the AFL, 
as a "complete phony." 

"The article starts out by saying 
that Social Security is not insurance," 
he said, "and then goes on to raise 
charges that could only be brought 
against an insurance system. 

"The private insurance companies 
. like to advertise about the man who 
makes one payment on a policy and 
then drops dead while his check is in 
the mail, leaving his wife and children 
with an assured income. That ignores 
the fact that other policy holders are 
putting up the money to pay that in- 
come. 

"The Look article makes it appear 
that when Social Security does some- 
thing similar it is cheating those who 
pay taxes for years, ignoring the fact 
that their wives and children have the 
protection all those years even though 
they don't need it." 

In recent years, every move to de- 
feat, slow down or eliminate any 
social legislation has been preceded 
by a barrage of magazine publicity. 
Apparently the attack on Social Se- 
curity is following the same pattern. 
More and more magazines will be 
taking up the hue and cry against 
Social Security. Having no way of 
answering, the real friends of Social 
Security will have to sit idly by while 
the softening up campaign continues. 
Then when "anti" publicity has 
reached the saturation point, the 
move will be made in Congress. 

When that move comes, labor had 
better be prepared. Too many work- 



12 



THE CARPENTER 



ing people have paid in too much 
money to Social Security to allow it 
to be killed or weakened by those 
who are interested only in wiggling 
out from under the taxes they have to 
pay. Too many retired workers al- 
ready have begun reaping the fruits 
of Social Security to allow them to be 
thrown back on a dole or some sort 
of charity. 

It took plenty of fighting to get 
Social Security established on the 
statute books in the first place. It 
may take even more to keep it there 
in a form that means something to 
the man who has to retire after a 
lifetime of useful work. The chal- 
lenge is being made. We must be 
ready to meet it whenever and where- 
ever we have to. The only way the 
job can be done is by keeping abreast 
of events and letting Congress know 
how we feel about it when the chips 
are down. 



LABOR FORCE % WOMEN 

Nearly 19V2 million women were in 
the Nation's labor force in March 
1953, according to the Women's Bu- 
reau of the U. S. Department of 
Labor. Of these, I8V2 million were 
employed at that time. 

Reports from State employment 
offices show that requests for women 
workers were somewhat fewer in 
March than in February. 

In certain occupational groups, how- 
ever, the demand for women workers 
exceeded the local supply. Openings 
for stenographer- typists, nurses, med- 
ical technicians and natural scientists 
(except chemists) were among those 
occupations where requests for per- 
sonnel exceeded supply. In the ser- 
vice trades, requests for domestic 
workers and ward attendants were 
also in excess of applicants available. 
There was also a shortage of women 
for work in tobacco houses. 



—STORY OF THE MONTH— 

There may be material shortages, 
labor shortages, and it may take what 
seems like a long time to build a 
house, but you can't tell that to the 
Harry Foster family of Farmington 
Township, Michigan, near Detroit. 
Less than two weeks after their home 
was reduced to a pile of blackened 
ashes they were planning to move into 
a new home that didn't cost them a 
dime, thanks to the generosity of A. 
F. of L. artisans, their employers, 
neighbors and people who just want- 
ed to help. 

When a flash fire destroyed their 
I home, the Fosters and their five chil- 
dren were in dire straits. A move- 
ment to restore the family's home be- 
gan, with many A. F. of L. workmen, 
building tradesmen representing the 
various crafts, volunteering their ser- 
vices. A fund was started, and con- 
tractors offered both materials and 
labor. 

With this sort of support, the mod- 
ern "house-building bee" was started. 
Before dusk on the first day, forty 
Brotherhood carpenters had completed 
the frame on the full basement foun- 
dation. 

Other craftsmen took over from 
there. Carpenters, plasterers, plumb- 
ers and electricians moved with a 
vengeance. In four days, including a 
Sunday, the house was completed ex- 
cept for the last detail, the painting 
of the interior. And the only reason 
that wasn't done earlier was because 
the paint couldn't be applied to the 
wet plaster. 

The painting has now been com- 
pleted and the Fosters are living in 
their new home. 

A modern miracle— The Foster fam- 
ily think so, for in less than two weeks 
they've run the gamut of human emo- 
tions. From being stripped of all their 
worldly goods by the fire that roared 
through their modest home, to living 
in a spanking, modern new home is 
certainly experiencing the opposites of 
life's blows and blessings, they say. 

—Cincinnati Chronicle. 



13 



1953 Label Show fs Tops 

* * 

MINNEAPOLIS and St. Paul rate among the most modern and pros- 
perous cities in the United States. In their time the Twin Cities 
have played host to many attractions and spectacles. However, it 
is doubtful if they ever saw anything as spectacular and popular as the 1953 
Union Industries Show which was held in the Minneapolis Auditorium from 
April 18th through the 25th, under the auspices of the Union Trades and 
Label Department of the American Federation of Labor. 

From the moment the show opened (with appropriate ceremonies in which 
the Governor of the State, the Mayor of the City and a host of dignitaries 
from labor, government and the entertainment world participated) until it 
closed, the huge Minneapolis Auditorium was packed with visitors. Although 
11 p.m. was the official closing time 



for the show, several nights it was 
necessary to extend the closing to 
midnight. And it took some persuad- 
ing to get the auditorium cleared even 



mystery. From a complete automatic 
laundry in the lower section of the 
auditorium, manned by members of 
the Laundry Workers Union, to union 




John Bakken, secretary of the Twin City District Council, is trying- his hand at wood 
turning in the above photo. Note display of antique tools and hand-made gavels in background. 



at midnight. Most of the time it would 
have been impossible to crowd a doz- 
en more visitors into the building dur- 
ing rush hours. 

To those who attended, the reasons 
for the show's popularity were no 



cigar makers plying their skills in a 
main floor exhibit, the show ran the 
gamut of skills and know-how utilized 
by union craftsmen in their daily task 
of making America strong, comfort- 
able and prosperous. Somewhere in 



14 



THE CARPENTER 



the neighborhood of 200 exhibits were 
devoted to acquainting the general 
public with the miracles that labor 
and management, working together 
in harmony and understanding, can 
achieve. 

Among the largest and most inter- 
esting exhibits in the entire show was 
that sponsored by the Twin City Dis- 
trict Council of Carpenters and the 
General Office of the United Brother- 
hood. Consisting of some 2,000 square 
feet of floor space, the Brotherhood 



played the results that can be achieved 
when skilled mechanics are employed 
to create modern kitchens, basements, 
etc. 

The booth that displayed models 
of what apprentices do in tackling 
layout work in their classrooms al- 
ways had large crowds in front of it. 
Another booth that was never without 
a crowd was the booth where old 
time wood turners turned out ex- 
quisite samples of balusters, wooden 




The work of apprentices never fails to attract attention. The above booth, displaying the 
handiwork of Twin City apprentices, was no exception. Thousands of visitors admired the 
scale models and asked questions about apprenticeship training. 



exhibit dramatically called attention 
to the many diversified skills pos- 
sessed by Brotherhood members. 

One booth showed the artistry that 
union millmen can inject into the 
manufacture of such items as display 
cases, church pews, back bars and 
furniture. Another booth showed how 
union craftsmanship can combine 
beauty with skill in the setting of tile 
floors and walls. Other booths dis- 



urns complete with lids, and other 
intricate wooden items. 

Of special interest to old timers 
was a great display of ancient wood- 
working tools which the Twin City 
District Council rounded up especial- 
ly for the show. Side by side with 
the modern lathe on which the wood 
turner was shaping his conversation 
pieces, stood an old lathe manufac- 
tured in Norway over a century ago. 



THE CARPENTER 



15 



It was a one-foot-power proposition, 
the operator having to keep it going 
with a treadle. The thrust bearing was 
made of bone, and tallow was used 
for greasing the bearings since the 
lathe was built long before petroleum 
products became widely used. 

In the antique tool exhibit there was 
also an old brace that dated back 
somewhere around a hundred years. 
The bit was locked into the brace 
with a key, but apparently the out- 
fit was capable of doing a job. A com- 
plete set of carriage maker's tools was 



is Your Brotherhood" and "The Car- 
penters Home," made by the Broth- 
erhood, were exhibited. In fact 
standees often outnumbered those sit- 
ting. Through the viewing of our 
movies, thousands of Minnesotans 
learned something of the aims and 
the ideals of our Brotherhood in addi- 
tion to getting a liberal education in 
the skills and craftsmanship that car- 
pentry in its many branches entails. 

Ever since the annual Union In- 
dustries Show was started some 10 or 
12 years ago it has been uniformly 




In the above booth, show visitors saw many 
wood, glass and chromium to create masterpi 

also included in the display. Many 
a visitor must have wondered how 
the old timers could turn out the fine 
work they did with such cumbersome- 
looking tools. 

However, it was the miniature 
movie theater which was the hit of 
the Brotherhood exhibit. Built to ac- 
comodate some 65 to 70 persons, the 
theater was always full while the 
three movies, "The Carpenter," "This 



examples of what union craftsmen can do with 
eces in furniture and fixtures. 

successful wherever it has played. AH 
in all, the 1953 version was an out- 
standing success. The exhibits were 
well planned and highly diversified. 
The crowds were terrific and the ed- 
ucational value of the show was high- 
er than ever. 

The Twin City District Council did 
an outstanding job in preparing and 
planning the Brotherhood exhibit. 
Their efforts reflected nothing but 
credit on our Brotherhood. 



p 



LANE UD55IP 



CONVERSATIONAL PIECE 

A teen-age boy confined to his home 
with a broken leg keeps up his school work 
through visits from one of the school board's 
home visitation teachers. The other day, 
the priest dropped in while the teacher was 
helping Bob and for awhile talk turned to 
other topics. Bob's seven-year-old sister 
found the talk going over her head, so she 
cast about for an idea to bring herself back 
into the conversation. "Say," she said sud- 
denly to the priest, "you know something? 
Our cat ate our bird. And on Friday, too!" 

* • • 

SO SAYS JOE 

Now that the new Spring styles are out 
and the gals are no longer bundled up to the 
ears in furs, the time has come for Joe Paup, 
Sage of the Skidrow, to make his annual 
evaluation of the new styles. 

"I have only two comments to make on 
the styles the girls will be wearing this 
year," says Joe. "The first is, that honesty 
apparently no longer is the bust policy. The 
second is, that the girl who feels coolest 
while looking hottest apparently is the best 
dressed." 




"I'm sick of looking at that de- 
spondent slump! Either join the 
Union, or wear some shoulder 
bracesP 



ONE WAY STREET 

Having read a good deal of the testimony 
presented at the current Taft-Hartley hear- 
ings by businessmen, it seems as if they are 
all 100% in favor of free enterprise and no 
interference with the law of supply and 
demand. A steel tycoon testified that unions 
interfere with the law of supply and de- 
mand, thereby restricting commerce. A cor- 
poration lawyer put forth the theory that 
employers have all seen the light; which 
makes unions unnecessary. A manufacturer 
told the committee that lower prices would 
be the natural result of further curtailment 
of unions. 

It all sounded fine, if one read nothing 
but the testimony these business leaders 
were giving. Unfortunately, however, your 
editor reads the papers too. In one week 
a little grocer in California was arrested for 
selling a carton of cottage cheese one cent 
below the "fair-trade" price set by the pro- 
ducer; a hardware merchant in Ohio was 
hailed into court for selling an electric razor 
at a buck below the price the manufacturer 
dictated; and a seed store operator in New 
York was given a kick in the pants for un- 
dercutting the "fair-trade" price on a lawn 
mower. 

Putting the whole thing together, we come 
to the conclusion that some businessmen are 
all for free trade so long as it gives them 
the right to beat down wages as much as 
possible without interfering with fixed prof- 
its. To them, free trade is a one way street; 
which puts them in a category with the 
little old lady from the hills who went to 
New York to visit a highly successful son. 
The son got her a fine room with bath in 
one of the big hotels. The next day he 
asked her how she slept. 

"Not very good," she replied. "The room 
is nice, the bed is fine, but all night I laid 
awake worrying that someone might want 
to use the bathroom, because you know the 
only entrance to it is through my room." 

• • • 

UNION 

"Marriage," said Joe Paup after observ- 
ing the record crop of weddings taking 
place this month, "is a union between two 
people in which the man always pays the 
dues." 



THE CARPENTER 



17 



HOW IT HAPPENED 

Today when we say we measure some- 
thing "by rule of thumb" we mean, of 
course, almost any kind of rough measure- 
ment. But back in the middle ages; when 
the phrase was first coined, it meant pre- 
cisely what it said. 

The average masculine thumb is close to 
being exactly one inch wide, and carpen- 
ters centuries ago used their thumbs to 
•measure whatever they happened to be 
working on. By the time that more precise 
measurements were invented the thumb 
term was so firmly entrenched in the lan- 
guage of the workers that it remained in 
common usage, gradually assuming the 
meaning that we ascribe to it today. 

• * • 

ONLY A FABLE 

One day Papa Hog wandered away 
from the farmyard and his wife and little 
kiddies. He walked down the road until he 
came to a spot where a brewery truck had 
been in a collision. In the middle of the 
road was a huge puddle of beer, so Mr. 
Pig took a sample. One sample called for 
another and pretty soon Mr. Pig was in his 
cups. 

Turning his feet homeward, he staggered 
back into the farmyard waving his tail and 
squealing a bawdy song. When Mama Hog 
saw his condition, she whisked the young- 
sters off to bed. Then she confronted her 
spouse. 

"Shame on you, Henry Hog," she roared, 
"making a human being of yourself in front 
of the little ones." 

• • • 

OLD-FASHIONED CURE 

On the porch of the general store, talk 
had grown nostalgic about the old-time edu- 
cation when book learning was larruped into 
you to stay. It was agreed that fear of a 
licking helped children to learn. But one 
fellow disagreed. "The only time I was 
ever licked," he said, "was for telling the 
truth." There was silence while his neigh- 
bors assimilated this. Then quietly, judici- 
ously, one of them said, "Well, Sam it cured 
ye."— Cappers' s Weekly. 

• * • 

POSITIVE PROOF 

Maybe you do not think this column 
very funny, but somebody does, let us . tell 
you. A reader in Nebraska recently wrote 
to tell us that he threw the last issue in the 
stove and the stove roared. 



IT DIDN'T TAKE LONG 

Over the past few years this journal has 
repeatedly warned of the dangers involved 
in the ship transfer racket by which Amer- 
ican shipping firms transfer their ships to 
foreign subsidiaries, thereby avoiding both 
the payment of legitimate taxes and the ne- 
cessity for maintaining American wage rates 
and working conditions. Now it comes to 
light that some of these transferred ships 
have even been dealing with the enemy. 
Our only comment is that it did not take 
the chickens long to come home to roost. 
It sort of reminds us of the story of the 
small town drunk. 

Staggering out of a bar one evening, he 
spotted the town's only taxi standing at the 
curb. Climbing into the back seat, he said 
to the driver: 

"Take me to Charlie's Bar." 

"You're in front of Charlie's Bar now," 
replied the driver. 

"O. K." said the lush, "but next time don't 
drive so blooming fast." 

• • • 
INFORMATION, PLEASE 

While a group was dining in a Chinese 
restaurant one of the musicians, for a solo, 
Struck up a vaguely familiar melody but 
none could remember its name. Beckoning 
to the magnificently clad waiter, they asked 
him to find out what the man was playing. 
He paddled across the dining room and then 
returned in triumph to announce, "Violin!" 




"If you get fired for drinking, you'll 
give the Union a bum name, Vlotz, 
— » yours!" 



18 



The District of Columbia lias pioneered 



Aptitude Tests for Apprentices 



WHAT does it take to make a good craftsman— a carpenter, for ex- 
ample? 

What means can be taken to spot the best possibilities in young 
candidates for the trade? What steps can be taken to assure that the most com- 
petent apprentices will succeed journeymen when death, retirement or ad- 
vancemnt comes along? 

These are some of the questions which confronted the Joint Carpentry 
Apprenticeship Committee for Washington, D. C. and vicinity in 1951 when, 
in cooperation with the public employment service, it decided to try out apti- 
tude testing as a part of the apprentice selection process. 

Because of the high rate of drop- 



outs and other reasons, the Joint Car- 
pentry Apprenticeship Committee, 
composed of the Carpenters District 
Council of Washington and the Mas- 
ter Builders Association, Mill Opera- 
tors, and other participating employ- 
ers of the area, in January 1950, de- 
termined to reorganize its apprentice- 
ship program. Nicholas R. Loope, a 
World War II Navy veteran and a 
construction superintendent who was 
also a journeyman, was appointed di- 
rector of the joint program. Mr. Loope 
and his committee faced and solved 
many problems, including courses of 
study, on-the-job supervision, and re- 
porting. But continuing high turn- 
over of trainees remained a bother- 
some problem. Mr. Loope, convinced 
that steps differing from past practice 
had to be taken to reduce the number 
of dropouts and remembering his own 
experience with aptitude tests on en- 
tering the Navy, sought the advice 
of Gino J. Simi, director of Appren- 
ticeship in the District of Columbia, 
who suggested the use of the United 
States Employment Service aptitude 
tests as one means of solving the 
problem of drop-outs. 



As a result of Mr. Simi's recommen- 
dation, a meeting was arranged, in 
May 1951, with Fred Z. Hetzel, di- 
rector of the USES in the District. 
Out of this meeting came a program 
for aptitude testing of prospective car- 
pentry apprentices along with a fol- 
low-up test research project to estab- 
lish objective criteria for selection of 
apprentices in the future. The main 
points in the program follow: 

1. All applicants, referred by the 
USES, the union, management, or 
other sources, are "screened" by Mr. 
Loope on the basis of physical quali- 
fications, background, character, and 
interests. Suitable applicants are then 
referred for job counseling and apti- 
tude testing to USES. 

2. All applicants are tested and are 
then sent back to Mr. Loope, includ- 
ing those who did not pass the USES 
tests. (Mr. Loop himself received in- 
struction in the aptitude testing pro- 
gram so that he might fully under- 
stand the project.) 

3. Test results are not used to de- 
termine entrance into the trade ex- 
cept in border-line cases in which 
doubt exists in areas other than apti- 



THE CARPENTER 



19 



tudes, because the follow-up test re- 
search requires that there be a wide 
range of abilities employed on the 
job. 

4. All persons who started train- 
ing after May 1951 have been tested 
and are currently being trained in the 
program. All new entrants are tested 
as the program continues. 

A year after the testing program 
started, 87 persons had been tested. 
As a result of the test information 
and ratings furnished by Mr. Loope 
based on related school grades and 



Intelligence: The ability to 
"catch on," or to understand the 
instructions and underlying 
principles of the trade, and the 
ability to reason and make 
judgments. 

Numerical ability: The ability 
to perform arithmetic opera- 
tions quickly and accurately. 
Spatial ability: The ability to 
comprehend forms in space and 
to understand relationships of 
plane and solid objects. This 




Photo shows officials who are concerned with standards and training of future jour- 
neymen under D. C Carpentry Apprenticeship Aptitude Test Selection Program. Left to 
Right: Fred Z. Hetzel, director of the USES in D. C; Nicholas R. Loope, director of 
the joint carpentry apprenticeship committee for Washington, D. C and vicinity: 
Gino J. Simi, director of apprenticeship for D. C; Robert J. Vol land, principal, Bell 
Evening School; and Harold Cladny, chairman of the Joint Committee, and member of 
the Master Builders Association, D. C Branch of Associated General Contractors, as 
well as a member of the National Joint Carpentry Apprenticeship Committee. 



on-the-job reports of foremen and 
and contractors, a special test battery 
applying to the carpentry trade was 
developed by the employment service 
in its follow-up research. This battery 
has since been used by USES in test- 
ing new entrants in the joint carpen- 
try apprentice program. 

The test is designed to measure the 
various abilities which a carpenter 
must possess. Briefly, these abilities 
are: 



ability is something described 
as the ability to "visualize" ob- 
jects of more than one dimen- 
sion, or to think in terms of 
geometric patterns. 

Manual ability: The ability to 
move the hands easily and skill- 
fully. The ability to work with 
the hands in placing and turn- 
ing motions, and especially to 
use the tools which a carpenter 
must use in his work. 



20 



THE CARPENTER 



The process of developing the car- 
pentry aptitude battery involved sev- 
eral steps. The first step was to con- 
duct a job analysis in order to ob- 
tain complete information about the 
duties by skilled carpenters. Particu- 
lar attention was paid to the workers' 
"characteristics" in performing the 
job. The next step was the selection 
of measures of job success such as 
supervisors' ratings and school grades 
with which test "scores" could be 
scientifically compared. In other 
words, the tests themselves were 
tested against standards of job effi- 
ciency. 

Up to April 1, 1953, a total of some 
175 young men— some of them Korean 
veterans— were tested. Results? USES 
records show that of 28 "poor" ap- 
prentices, 23 or 82 per cent would not 
have entered training if the test had 
been used as the sole determinant in 
the initial selection of new entrants. 
Most of those who failed to meet the 
minimum test scores either dropped 
out voluntarily or were discounted in 
crafts, including tool-and die-makers, 
plumbers and pipefitters, bricklayers, 
sheet-metal workers, machinists, print- 
ers, and others. 

According to the Bureau of Em- 
ployment Security, U. S. Department 



training since they were unable to 
meet the demands of classroom and 
on-the job training. 

Plans of the D. C. Joint Committee, 
according to Mr. Loope, call for con- 
tinuing the present methods of selec- 
tion of new entrants for the full cycle 
of four years— the program for train- 
ing began three years ago in January 
—and to maintain master records 
which include the aptitude test in- 
formation. Results will then be com- 
pletely studied and the over-all effec- 
tiveness of the tests in the selection 
process evaluated. 

Mr. Loope has reported that to date 
beneficial results of the testing pro- 
gram are reflected in the fact that 
persons who failed to pass the tests 
also invariably are failing to make 
good in training and are dropping out 
voluntarily or have to be eliminated. 

The carpentry aptitude tests are 
similar to tests being used extensively 
in many parts of the country for the 
selection of apprentices in various 
of Labor, results of aptitude testing 
in many cities in other apprenticeable 
occupations have demonstrated the 
effectiveness of test selection of be- 
ginning workers in lessening turnover, 
and producing better journeymen. 



GOOD NEWS FOR YOUNG JOR HUNTERS 

Job hunting should be rewardng for high-school graduates and other young people 
seeking their first job this spring and early summer, the Department of Labor announced. 

Surveys have indicated that replacement needs in this period of record-breaking em- 
ployment will provide the largest number of job opportunities for the hundreds of thou- 
sands of young who will be leaving school in search of employment this month. 

"In order to assist this year's crop of graduates, Korean veterans and other young 
people in finding employment, the Bureau of Employment Security has issued a 'Job 
Guide for Young Workers,' " Secretary of Labor Martin P. Durkin said. "This guide has 
been sent to the State employment services affiliated with the United States Employment 
Service where it will be used in providing job counseling and placement services to gradu- 
ates, post-Korean veterans and other young people. 

"The Job Guide highlights basic facts about the forty occupations most frequently held 
by young people leaving high school and provides general information about the major 
industries which hire the most people each year. It tells about the kinds of jobs open to 
beginners. For the forty occupations on which detailed data is supplied, it provides infor- 
mation about the duties, the qualifications needed to meet hiring requirements, the em- 
ployment prospects, the opportunities for advancement and some of the advantages and 
disadvantages of each kind of job." 



THE CARPENTER 



21 




DEATH CALLS BOARD MEMBER ADAMS 

Death claimed an outstanding leader of the United Brotherhood on Friday, 
May 15th, at Florence, South Carolina. 

Roland Adams, General Executive Board Member from the Fourth District, 
was fatally stricken by a cerebral hemorrhage, when apparently recovering 
from a recent attack of a similar nature. 
At the time, he was in a hospital near 
his home in Florence. 

Brother Adams was born in Ken- 
tucky, November 30, 1872. On April 7, 
1902, he was initiated into Local Union 
377, at Alton, Illinois. His interest in 
the cause of organized labor was quick- 
ly recognized and he was soon elected 
Financial Secretary of the Local. He 
remained at that post until 1909, when 
he was elected Business Agent of the 
Alton Building Trades Council, a posi- 
tion in which he served for twelve and 
one-half years. 

Soon after he became Business 
Agent, the contractors of the city 

staged a lockout and imported strikebreakers to defeat the local carpenters. 
Largely through the efforts of Brother Adams, the lockout failed and all con- 
tractors who remained as members of the Builders' Exchange signed union 
contracts. 

In 1908, Local 377 elected Adams as a delegate to the Fifteenth General 
Convention, held in Salt Lake City. He has attended all conventions since in a 
similar capacity. 

Early in the Twenties, General President William L. Hutcheson recognized 
the merit of Brother Adams' work and appointed him General Representative 
for the Southeastern States. He remained at that post until appointed General 
Executive Board Member when a vacancy was created by the death of James 
L. Bradford, of Nashville, Tennessee, in 1937. 

At the time of his death, Brother Adams held membership in Local Union 
819, of West Palm Beach, Florida. 

Funeral services were held at Florence on Sunday, May 17th. Attending 
were General President M. A. Hutcheson, Second General Vice-President O. 
Wm. Blaier, General Secretary Albert E. Fischer, and General Executive 
Board Members Charles Johnson, Jr. and R. E. Roberts. 

Large floral offerings were sent by many district and state councils and 
local unions in acknowledgement of their appreciation of the long years of 
hard work which Brother Adams had performed in their behalf. 



THREE MILLION WOMEN IN UNION 

Department of Labor statistics estimate that nearly 3 million women are 
now members of labor unions. The greatest number of women workers are 
to be found in unions having jurisdiction over apparel trades, service trades, 
communications work, textile mills and electrical goods manufacturing. 



Carpentry Involves Many Hazards 

Editor's note: Accident prevention is (or should be » a prime concern of every 
working man, for it is he who suffers most and loses most through accidents on the 
job. Recently the Department of Labor made an analysis of accident experience in the 
carpentry trade in 1948 and 1949. Contained in that study is a good deal of food for 
thought, for the study shows carpenters suffer twice as many accidents as do general 
factory workers. Significant portions of the study are being run in THE CARPENTER. 
This is the fourth of the series. 

* * * 

A ROOFING contractor was hoisting material to the roof of a building 
with block and tackle and had roped off the area beneath the tackle. 
A carpenter dropped his hammer into the roped-off area and entered 
the area to get it. As he did so, a hammer fell from a bucket being hoisted 
to the roof and struck him on the head. 

(a) Roped-off areas should be entered only after an exchange 
of signals whereby the hazardous operation would be interrupted. 

(b) Construction workers should wear safety hats while they 

are on the job. 

While working on a scaffold, a car- 
penter slipped and fell, thereby in- 
juring his back. Investigation disclos- 
ed that spots of ice had formed on the 
surface of the scaffold. 

Scaffolds should be inspected 

frequently to insure safe condi- 
tion. Where ice may be present, 

scaffolds should be inspected be- 
fore they are used and all ice 

should be removed or sanded. 

An employe was standing on a scaf- 
fold. One of the scaffold boards broke, 
throwing the workman to the ground. 
Investigation disclosed that the 2" x 
10" plank split through a large knot. 
All lumber used in scaffolds 

should be inspected before being 

used and only lumber which is 

free of large knots should be used 

for platform planks. 

A carpenter was working on a scaf- 
fold nailing siding to a new building, 
A second carpenter, working on the 
roof, dropped his hammer, which 
struck the first workman on the head, 
(a) Whenever practical, work 

assignments should be planned 



to avoid anyone having to work 
in unprotected areas when other 
operations are being performed 
overhead. In this case, one of 
the operations should have been 
delayed until the other was com- 
pleted. 

(b) All construction workers 
should wear safety hats while on 
the job. 

The scaffold on which a carpenter 
was working collapsed and he fell to 
the ground. Investigation disclosed 
that the scaffold had not been de- 
signed to carry the weight imposed 
upon it. 

Scaffolds should be carefully 
designed for the maximum ex- 
pected loads, which should not 
be exceeded. 

As an apprentice was nailing one 
end of a 2" x 12" plank to a post, the 
other end jarred loose and fell. To 
avoid being hit, the apprentice 
stepped back and fell from the un- 
guarded scaffold upon which he was 
working. 



THE CARPENTER 



23 



(a) Scaffolds should be con- 
structed with guardrails and toe- 
boards. 

(b) Sufficient help and ade- 
quate supervision should be pro- 
vided for all operations. In this 
case, a second workman should 
have been assigned to hold one 
end of the plank. 

Two carpenters were working from 
an unrailed scaffold. To startle his 
co-worker, one employe shook the 
scaffold. The second workman fell 
from the scaffold. 

(a) All scaffolds should be ade- 
quately guarded with a rail and 
toeboard. 

(b) Horseplay should be pro- 
hibited. Sufficient supervision 
should be provided to assure the 
enforcement of this rule. 

The middle plank of a three-plank 
scaffold slipped and the workman 
standing on it fell to the floor. In- 
vestigation disclosed that the plat- 
form planks had not been nailed. 

All platform planks should be 
securely fastened to prevent their 
slipping or turning. 

A carpenter was standing on a 
bracket scaffold which collapsed and 
threw him to the ground. Investiga- 
tion disclosed that the metal bracket 
holding the scaffold had been nailed 
to a soft white pine studding and that 
the traffic on the scaffold had loosened 
the nails. 

Brackets used in scaffolds 
should be bolted in accordance 
with the American Safety Stand- 
ard A 10.2-1944, Safety Code for 
Building Construction. 

A carpenter who had been working 
on a scaffold attempted to climb down 
the scaffold because there was no lad- 
der available. The scaffold lumber 
was wet and when his foot slipped, 
lie fell to the ground. 



Ever)' scaffold assembly should 
include a ladder or some other 
means of safe access. 

A carpenter laid his hammer on a 
scaffold. Later, when he acciden- 
tally kicked it, the hammer fell strik- 
ing a second carpenter working un- 
der the scaffold. Investigation dis- 
closed that the scaffold did not have 
a toeboard. 

(a) All scaffolds should be 
equipped with toeboards. 

(b) Whenever practical, work 
assignments should be planned 
to avoid anyone having to work 
in unprotected areas when other 



WORKING DAZE 







"You wouldn't be interested in my 
business -! seH safety shoes!" 



NATIONAL SAFETY COUNCIi 



operations are being performed 
overhead. In this case, one of the 
operations should have been de- 
layed until the other was com- 
pleted. 

(c) All workmen should be 
thoroughly trained to work safe- 
ly. In tills instance, the carpen- 
ter should not have placed his 
hammer where he was likely to 
strike it with his foot. 
A carpenter stepped from a saw- 
horse platform 18 inches high onto a 

(Continued to page 28 J 



Editorial 




Solving A Problem In Reverse 
For many years past, organized labor has been genuinely concerned 
about the "wetback" problem. This journal repeatedly has called attention 
to the dangers involved in hundreds of thousands of aliens sneaking across 
our Southern border without any screening, health check or inspection of 
any kind. 

These wetbacks are a menace to health, national security and American 
living standards. Because they are in the country illegally, they have to 
accept employment at whatever wages are offered to them. Mostly they are 
hired by the big corporation farms of the southwest where they are exploited, 
housed under the most primitive conditions and generally kept in a state 
bordering on slavery. Living under primitive conditions as they do, they 
constitute a breeding ground for diseases and crimes of all kinds. 

Lately wetbacks have been leaving the farm areas of the Southwest and 
invading industries other than farming. Wetbacks have recently been en- 
countered as far north as Oregon and as far east as Missouri. Because of 
the wetbacks, hundreds of thousands of native farm workers have been forced 
to seek other means of employment, for no American can maintain a decent 
standard of living on wages wetbacks must often work for. 

Year in and year out labor has protested the inability of the Immigration 
Service to cope with the wetback problem under the inadequate appropria- 
tions granted it by Congress. Recently Congress acted. What was that action? 
The Senate Appropriations Committee subcommittee on Justice Department 
appropriations eliminated from next year's budget money to operate the 
twelve spotter planes which the Immigration Service has been using since 
1941 to catch aliens sneaking across the southern border. This was done in 
the interests of "economy." 

What elimination of the spotter planes will do is to tie the hands of the 
Immigration Service almost completely, for these spotter planes have been 
the most effective weapon available to the Service in trying to cope with the 
flood of illegal immigrants. During April, a record of 87,416 border-jumpers 
was caught by the border patrol— more than two a minute around the clock. 
Spotter planes played an important role in making the haul of wetbacks as 
large as it was. If these planes are put in mothballs, the Immigration Service 
will not be able to stop more than a little trickle of the vast flood of border- 
jumpers. 

However, the appropriation cut for spotter planes is not going unchal- 
lenged. Labor, church groups and many private citizens are voicing vigor- 
ous protests. Senator Humphrey of Minnesota has indicated that he will 
fight the proposal to a finish. Recently he told the appropriations committee: 

"I find such crippling of the immigration service's border patrol very hard 
to reconcile with other existing immigration procedures. Apparently the 



THE CARPENTER 25 

United States today is operating under two unrelated immigration procedures. 
On our two coasts and on the Canadian border, the Immigration and Nation- 
ality Act governs entrance and deportations. Under this law not even a sea- 
man can come ashore for 24 or 48 hours without screening. The other im- 
migration procedure applies to our southern border, over which last year 
three-quarters of a million persons illegally entered the country." 

The bald fact of the matter is that some corporate interests— particularly 
the factory farms— do not want the wetbacks stopped. They like having a 
pool of labor that is meek, docile and willing to accept whatever is offered 
in the way of wages and working and living conditions. If it were not so, 
something would have been done about the wetback situation a long time 
ago. 

Keeping the spotter planes in operation will not solve the wetback prob- 
lem, although eliminating the money to operate the planes will make it much 
more acute. It is time that the problem was attacked on an over-all basis and 
solved once and for all. It is time that our one virtually unprotected border 
be closed to potential subversives. It is time that potential spreaders of epi- 
demic diseases be kept from wandering into the country at will. It is time 
that American workers be protected from the competition of coolie labor. 
Keeping the spotter planes flying is important, but the real need is for In 
policy that will solve the wetback problem permanently. The spotter plane 
fight having focused attention on the matter, there is no better time than now. 



The Greatest Good for All Should Prevail 

How would you like it if you made a long journey to a Western national 
park or forest only to discover that if you entered such an area you would be 
trespassing? 

Would you, a small stockman of a Western state, appreciate being tossed 
off of grazing lands which you had used for many years? 
Obviously the answer is an emphatic NO! 

Regardless of your distaste for the possibility of such things occurring, 
they may eventually happen, . . . unless Congress has the courage to defy a 
powerful Western stockmen's group, skillfully augmented by the propaganda 
arms of the United States Chamber of Commerce and the National Association 
of Manufacturers. 

Several bills, but principally two, H. R. 4023, sponsored by Congressman 
D'Ewart, of Montana, and S. 1491, sponsored by Senator Butler of Nebraska 
are proposing to remove much of the lands from the public domain. These, of 
course, are public lands which are still of great commercial value, not the 
deserts and exceptionally mountainous areas. 

H. 4023 proposes to grant a priority to those persons now holding grazing 
permits on federal lands, creating tax-free property rights for the lucky few. 
It would give preference to the holders of 19,708 grazing permits over the 
persons who were included in 30 million who visited the national forests in 
1951. 

Commenting in Harpers magazine, an authority on the West and a cham- 
pion for the preservation of its way of life, Bernard DeVoto said recently, 
"Congress should remember three things: that the public lands belong to the 



26 THE CARPENTER 

citizens of 4S states and not to two per cent of 11, that the impairment of 
public lands would arrest the progress in the West and ultimately make the 
region a charge on the rest of the country, and that the public lands are the 
only responsibility of the government besides atomic energy about which Con- 
gress could make an irretrievable mistake, one that could not be corrected 
later on. 

"For if the public lands are once relinquished or even if any fundamental 
change is made in the present system, they will be gone for good." 

Should a Senator propose to remove the Statue of Liberty, because it is a 
threat to navigation in New York Harbor, his political life would be ended 
immediately. Such a national shrine is revered and pointed to as a symbol of 
what the United States stands for. The first organization to raise its voice 
would probably be the U. S. Chamber of Commerce. Why then are they 
giving such strong support to these grazing bills, which are as great a threat 
to many national shrines, each dear to the hearts of many people who have 
never had an opportunity to see the Statue of Liberty? 

Federal lands, in the form of national monuments, parks and forests belong 
to all of us. They were set aside as reclamation areas for conservation pur- 
poses, or for recreation, and they are intended for the use of all the people, not 
just a few. The defeat of the grazing bills is a necessity to the future of the 

conservation program which has existed since the late 1800's. 

» 

A Problem That Merits Careful Consideration 
Away back in the depression, when a rash of kidnappings was striking 
fear in the heart of every parent who had a few dollars in the bank, a proposal 
was made in Congress that wire tapping be legalized to aid the FBI in appre- 
hending kidnappers. Although public indignation was at fever pitch because 
of the boldness and ruthlessness of the kidnappers, the idea of making wire 
tapping legal did not muster enough support in Congress to put the proposi- 
tion over. Too many people were afraid that once legalized, wire tapping 
could be used for all sorts of purposes other than catching kidnappers. 

Last month wire tapping broke into the news again when Attorney General 
Brownell asked authority for the Federal Bureau of Investigation to tap tele- 
phones and use evidence so obtained to get convictions in "criminal cases in- 
volving national security." 

Although wire tapping is illegal, seemingly it is being done on a big scale, 
not only by government security agencies but also by state and city police and 
even private eyes. The rub is that courts will not admit evidence secured by 
wire tapping. Brownell's proposal would eliminate this roadblock. 

While the motives that inspire the Attorney General's proposal are of the 
highest, the course he advocates merits the greatest possible amount of sober 
reflection. The extent of the Communist conspiracy in the United States— as 
disclosed by the recent investigations and trials— is a frightening thing. Like 
termites, Reds have permeated many structures in our governmental edifice. 
They must not only be contained but actually wiped out once and for all. 
However, in the process, the fundamental rights on which our whole constitu- 
tional structure rests must not be undermined. 

In a recent decision involving charges of subversion and perjury against 
Owen Lattimore, Federal Judge Luther Youngdahl uttered these words: 



THE CARPENTER 27 

"When public excitement runs high as to alien ideologies, it is the time 
when we must be particularly alert not to impair the ancient landmarks set 
up in the Bill of Rights. . . . Attempts of the courts to fathom modern political 
meditations of an accused would be as futile and mischievous as the efforts in 
the infamous heresy trials of old to fathom religious beliefs. ... It is true 
that in England of olden times men were tried for treason for mental indis- 
cretions such as imagining the death of the king. But our Constitution was 
intended to end such prosecutions." 

It is difficult to see how anyone can disagree much with Judge Young- 
dahl's words. The reason why Communism is so obnoxious to most Americans 
is that it elminates anything even remotely resembling individualism. Neither 
correspondence nor conversation have any sanctity. Parents have to live in 
fear of what their children may tell their teachers or youth leaders. Hearsay 
or gossip mongering by a personal enemy is enough to bring the dreaded 
knock on the door at midnight. To combat Communism, Hitler built a system 
as tyrannical and as obnoxious as Communism itself. The task of America is 
to avoid the pitfalls of both Communism and Nazism. 

Catching and making impotent every subversive and saboteur in the 
nation is a job that must be done promptly. If legalizing wire tapping is the 
only way the job can be done, then Congress should take the proper action 
without further ado. However, every possible precaution should be taken to in- 
sure that wire tapping is confined to the end which Brownell proposes— the 
catching and convicting of spies and saboteurs. 

There are plenty of individuals in Congress and organizations such as the 
National Association of Manufacturers who would honestly define a legitimate 
strike for wages or working conditions on a defense project as sabotage or 
subversion. To them the tapping of a union phone would be a patriotic duty. 
In the end, all phones except those in NAM headquarters might be subject 
to tapping unless Congress is careful to legalize tapping in specific instances 

only. 

• 

CIVIL DEFENSE IS EVERYBODY'S JOB 

Modern warfare no longer balks at natural boundaries. The oceans and 
the skies and the great reaches of the continent have shrunk alarmingly 
since the close of the last war. Today our civilian populations are equally 
exposed, with our armed forces, to the onslaught of enemy attack. 

To put it bluntly, our backyards of today may be the front lines of to- 
morrow. A possible enemy has all the deadly weapons of the most modern 
arsenal— atomic, biological, and chemical. What's more, he has the means 
to deliver them on our very doorsteps, almost at will. 

There is no sure way to stop attacking planes, according to our military 
experts. At least seven out of every ten enemy bombers would get through 
our defenses. 

The lesson of these alarming facts is plain: Every man, woman, and child 
in these United States should be prepared to help himself or others if an 
attack comes. Civil defense offers the chance we need to prepare ourselves. 
The ten volunteer services can use our personal skills and talents to the very 
best advantage— beginning now. The initial organizational job has been 
done in every State and Territory and in every city with a population of 
more than 40,000, as well as in many rural areas. 



28 



THE CARPENTER 



(Continued from page 23) 

block of wood and twisted his ankle. 
Investigation disclosed that the floor 
was littered with discarded scraps of 
lumber. 

(a) Good housekeeping is es- 
sential to safety. Before starting 
work, the supervisor of the crew 
should make sure that all work- 
ing surfaces are cleared of loose 
materials. 

(b) Portable steps or platforms 
with steps are preferable to saw- 
horse platforms for this type of 
work. 



WORKING DAZE 




"We've installed every known safety 
device to keep our employees from 
getting caught in our equipment!" 



NATIONAL SAFETY COUNC/l 



A carpenter stood on a sawhorse, 
slipped, and fell astride it. 

Sawhorses should never be 
used as working surfaces. In- 
stead, portable steps or a plat- 
form should be provided and 
used for this type of work. 

A carpenter stood on a nail keg, 
looked up toward his work, tipped the 
keg, and fell to the floor. 

Nail kegs should never be used 
as working surfaces. Portable 
steps or stools so designed that 



they will not tip should be pro- 
vided. 

A carpenter was standing on the 
floor joists while he was nailing a 
walkway into place. His foot slipped 
and he fell, straddling a joist. 

Workmen should be carefully 
trained in the safe performance 
of their duties. In this case, the 
workman should have nailed the 
walkway from the walkway itself. 
If that was not practical, he 
should have laid a plank across 
the joists to provide suitable foot- 
ing. 

A helper was carrying a sheet ol 
plywood 4' x 8' x %". His vision was 
blocked by the plywood and he step- 
ped into an opening in the floor and 
fell. Investigation disclosed that the 
opening had been made for a hot-ah 
duct. 

(a) All floor openings in build- 
ings under construction should 
be adequately guarded with rail- 
ings and toeboards or should be 
covered with planks. 

(b) In handling heavy or large 
objects, two or more workmen 
should be assigned to the opera- 
tion. 

A carpenter, working on the second 
floor of a new house, fell to the base- 
ment through an open stair well. 
All floor openings should be 
adequately guarded with railings 
and toeboards or should be cov- 
ered with planks. 

While carrying a piece of lumber, 
a carpenter fell to the basement. 
All floor openings in buildings 
under construction should be 
guarded by guard rails and toe- 
boards or covered with planks. 
A carpenter working on a roof 
stepped on some wet sap, slipped, and 
fell off. Investigation disclosed that 
the contractor had thought a scaffold 



THE CARPENTER 



29 



unnecessary because the pitch of the 
roof was slight. 

Level walkways should be pro- 
vided for all roof work regardless 
of the slope of the roof. 

As a carpenter was setting forms, 
his foot slipped and he fell against 
a form, fracturing his rib. Investiga- 
tion disclosed that the ground was 
muddy, very slippery, and had a 
considerable slope. 

Before any work is started, 
safe footing should be provided. 
This not only reduces the hazard 
of the work but increases the rate 
of production. 

A carpenter was standing on the 
wall of a foundation setting the first 
floor joists. As he reached to pick up 
a joist, he lost his balance and fell 
from the wall to the ground. Investi- 
gation disclosed that the wall was 6 
feet high and that no scaffold had 
been provided. 

Foundation walls should not be 
used as working surfaces. Instead 
a scaffold or a portable railed 
platform should be provided. 

A carpenter was building forms for 
a concrete bridge. While he was 
walking on a plank which had been 
placed between an earthen bank and 
the bridge footing, the plank turned 
and he fell, striking the concrete foot- 
ing. Investigation disclosed that the 
10-inch plank had been laid as a walk- 
way over uneven ground. 

Provision should be made for 
safe access to all jobs. In this 
case, the plank should have been 
secured so that it would not turn. 
In addition, elevated walkways 
should be constructed of two or 
more planks, cleated together. 

A helper was carrying a door up a 
stairway, slipped on a 2" x 4" block, 
and turned his ankle. When he fell, 



the door mashed his fingers against 
the stairway. 

Good housekeeping is essential 
to safety. Each crew should be 
required to remove its own scrap. 
Periodic inspections and adequate 
supervision should be maintained 
to enforce this rule. Particular 
attention should be given to keep- 
ing stairs free of loose objects. 

A carpenter was working on the 
first floor of a new building while 
other carpenters were placing joists 
on the second floor. One of the joists 
fell, striking the carpenter across his 
back. 

Whenever practical, work as- 
signments should be planned to 
avoid anyone having to work in 
unprotected areas when other op- 
erations are being performed 
overhead. In this case, one of the 
operations should have been de- 
layed until the other one was 
completed. 

Two carpenters were working on 
different floors of a new building. The 
workman on the second floor asked 
the other workman to throw a chalk 
box to him. When the first employe 
failed to catch the box, it fell, striking 
the second workman on the head. 

Materials and other articles 
should never be thrown. In this 
case, the chalk box should have 
been raised on a hand line. 

A carpenter's helper was moving a 
large exhaust fan. A piece of bar steel, 
leaning against a wall, fell and struck 
him on the head. Investigation dis- 
closed that the steel had been left by 
ironworkers who had recently com- 
pleted a contract on the job and that 
the helper's foot struck the bar as he 
was moving the fan. 

(a) The ironworkers' foreman 
should have checked the prem- 
ises to make sure that his crew 



30 



THE CARPENTER 



removed all their materials and 
scrap before leaving the job. 

(b) The carpenter foreman also 
should have checked the area to 
see that it was clear for his crew 
and should have had the bar re- 
moved. 

(c) The helper himself also 
should have inspected the area 
before starting his work in order 
to spot any possible hazards. 

A carpenter was dismantling a scaf- 
fold and was tossing each piece onto 
a pile. As he threw a board, a pro- 
jecting nail scraped his hand. 

(a) Nail wounds are a serious 
hazard in work of this kind. If 
the lumber is to be reused, all 
nails should be drawn as each 
piece is removed. If the lumber 
is to be discarded, the nails may 
be bent into the wood. 

(b) Gloves should be worn on 
work of this type. 

When an apprentice attempted to 
pull a 2" x 4" from a loose pile of 
used lumber, the pile shifted and fell 
against him. 

Lumber should be piled in an 
orderly and stable manner. This 
not only will reduce the hazard 
of handling the material but also 
will save time when it must be 
moved. 

A carpenter, carrying a plank, stum- 
bled over a piece of lumber. In try- 
ing to regain his balance he stepped 
on a nail projecting from a piece of 
scrap lumber. 

(a) Good housekeeping is essen- 
tial for safety. Before starting 
work, the supervisor of the crew 
should make sure that all work- 
ing surfaces are cleared of loose 
materials and other tripping haz- 
ards. In addition, all working 
crews should be required to re- 
move their own scrap. 



(b) It should be standard pro- 
cedure on all jobs that nails in 
scrap lumber must be drawn or 
bent into the wood before any 
piece is discarded. 
In walking from one end of a build- 
ing to the other, a carpenter walked 
across the open floor joists. As he 
stepped on one, the nails pulled loose 
and it turned. The carpenter fell, in- 
juring his back. Investigation dis- 
closed that the joists had just been 
placed into position and that no walk- 
way had been provided. 

Workmen should not be per- 
mitted to walk across joists. A 
railed walkway should be pro- 
vided. 

A carpenter was nailing rafters. As 
he struck a nail, it flew back, striking 
him in the eye. The employe lost the 
vision of the eye. 

(a) Workmen should start nails 
carefully by striking them square- 
ly but lightly until they have pen- 
etrated the lumber to a depth suf- 
ficient to be held securely. 

(b) Goggles or other eye pro- 
tection should be worn on work 
involving the driving of nails. 

A carpenter, installing mineral wool 
insulation, developed an infection on 
his hands from contact with the min- 
eral wool. 

Gloves should be worn in work 
of this nature. 

While an apprentice was using the 
freight elevator, his foot was crushed 
between the elevator cage and a land- 
ing. Investigation disclosed that ht 
was standing near the front of the 
elevator because of the heavy load 
being carried and that the door of 
the cage did not extend to the floor. 

According to the American 
Standard Safety Code for Eleva- 
tors, Dumbwaiters, and Escala- 
tors, Z 17. 1-1937, car gates or 



THE CARPENTER 



31 



doors for freight elevators should 
guard the full opening, except 
that they need not be more than 
6 feet high. 

While a carpenter was handling 
rough framing, a splinter penetrated 
his finger. Infection developed when 
he failed to have the splinter re- 
moved. Investigation disclosed that 
no first-aid facilities were available. 

(a) Employes who are required 
to handle rough lumber should 
be furnished, and required to 
wear, suitable gloves. 

(b) First-aid facilities should be 
available on every job. 

A carpenter was nailing rafters. As 
he attempted to drive a nail, a rafter 
slipped off the plate. In replacing the 
rafter, he strained his arm. 

Foremen should make sure that 
adequate help is provided for all 
operations. In this work, a sec- 
ond employe should be assigned 
to hold the rafter while it is being 
nailed. In addition, whenever it 
is necessary to place heavy rafters 
by hand, two or more men should 
be assigned to that work. 

In placing a 14-foot 2" x 10" joist 
on the plate, a carpenter's finger was 
crushed between the joist and the 
plate. 

Thorough instruction in the 
safe handling of materials should 
be a part of the training given 
every carpenter. In this case, the 
workman should have grasped 
the joist so that, when he set it 



down, his fingers would not be 
crushed. 

A block and tackle was being used 
to raise lumber to the roof of a build- 
ing. The cable broke and the lumber 
fell, striking a carpenter. Investiga- 
tion disclosed that the cable was bad- 
ly frayed. 

Cables should be inspected 
frequently on a regular schedule. 
Frayed cables should be removed 
from service immediately. 

A scaffold builder and a helper 
were lifting a 12-foot 2" x 12" to a 
scaffold. The carpenter strained his 
shoulder. Investigation disclosed that 
the workmen had tried to lift the 
plank to a level 7 feet above the 
ground. 

This accident illustrates the im- 
portance of proper training and 
good teamwork in handling lum- 
ber. Overhead lifting is likely to 
cause injury if the proper meth- 
ods are not used, but trained men 
can do such work without injury. 

A carpenter was working from a 
ladder which was standing on soft 
ground. The ladder tilted as one foot 
sank into the ground and the carpen- 
ter jumped, fracturing his foot as he 
struck the ground. 

(a) If the ladder had been 
equipped with safety feet, this 
accident might not have hap- 
pened. 

(b) If the ladder had been se- 
cured at the top, the accident 
might have been avoided. 



HANDICAPPED PROBLEM BECOMES MORE ACUTE 

According to Paul A. Strachan, president, American Federation of the Physically Handi- 
capped, the number of the handicapped is steadily on the increase in the United States. 

Mr. Strachan said, "We have an estimated 38,000,000, handicapped men and women in 
this nation, as to date— these figures differ from the previous ones given at 30.000,000 on the 
last survey in 1944-45. Since then many handicapped veterans have come out of World 
War II and the Korean War, as well as that in industry where some 2,000,000 workers 
meet with an accident annually and are in some degree maimed. This could easily swell 
the total of physically handicapped into greater proportions than we have had before. 



THE LOCKER 

By JOHN HART, LOCAL UNION 366, Now York, N. Y. 

JOURNEYMAN CARPENTER-SUPERSELECT 
30-Minute Test 

This is the fourth progressive test for carpenters. Correct answers to each question 

must be a nine-letter word as shown under. Two points for each one correct gives a 
maximum percentage of 100. Take the title for 76. Answers are on page 35. 

How far can we go with this sort of stuff? All the way up to PARALLELOPIPEDON 
—if you're game to come along. The catechism on carpentry is encyclopedic. 

1. One skilled in the making and erection of wood products. CARPENTER 

2. The penny-size name for a nail IV2 inches long. 

3. Term applied to a wall designed to resist lateral pressure 

4. Another common and equally correct name for a smooth plane 

5. Oak specially sawn to emphasize the figured grain is called 

6. Common name for a rule with very large, clear figures 

7. The hard, matured wood from the central part of a tree - 

8. A smooth, steel handled tool used to sharpen a scraper 

9. The kind of bit which has an adjustable cutter 

10. A trimmed opening in a floor, provided for the stairs 

11. Framed woodwork on interior walls, higher than wainscotting 

12. Name applied to a ripping bar with a large hook, or bend 

13. Constructed to be taken apart and reassembled elsewhere 

14. A hall between the outer door and an inner door 

15. Term used to designate an infringement of a building code law 

16. Any solid material used in making concrete 

17. Ruilt up in layers, as plywood, wood truss members, etc. 

18. Abrasive-covered material used to finish fine woodwork ......... 

19. Trade name of a fireproof wallboard made by the U. S. Gypsum Co 

20. Common name for an architect's building drawing 

21. A protective board around the lower part of inner walls 

22. Allowance for free movement of a door, window, etc. 

23. A four-sided figure with four right angles 

24. Removal of concrete formwork is called— 

25. A series of architectural columns set at regular intervals 

26. A light interior wall, one story or less in height 

27. Soundproofing material placed between beams in bathrooms 

28. One who figures the labor and material costs of a building . . 

29. Usual name for the skeleton of a wooden building 

30. A single-radius arch, less than a semi-circle, is called— 

31. Name applied generally to all wide-sheeted, rigid wall covering 

32. Type of joint used in concrete to permit possible swelling 

33. One whose profession it is to devise the plan of structures ......... 

34. A firmly fixed mark from which working levels are taken . . 

35. Arranged alternately to one side and another as nails, joints 

36. General name for asphalt tile, cork, and linoleum floor covering 

37. T & G boards covering the sides or roof of a building 

38. A round, iron supporting post, smaller than a column 

39. Another common name for a door saddle 

40. Precise name for a carpenter's circle-describing tool 

41. A drawing showing the front view of a building 

42. A small-headed nail used in trim or other fine work 

43. A shelf-like floor built between the first and second story 

44. General name for any needle-leaved tree— pine, fir, etc. 

45. The holding tool used to lengthen an auger bit is called a bit 

46. A small structure erected on the roof of a building 

47. Another common name for a leader, or eave drain pipe 

48. An iron reinforcing face plate used on butted beam joints .......... 

49. A board, tapered in cross section, used for siding 

50. An ornamental bracket, used in series in elaborate cornices 

Total correct ...... x 2 = % 



Official Information 




General Officers of 
THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS 

of AMERICA 

General Office : Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General President 

M. A. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



First General Vice-President 

JOHN R. STEVENSON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Secrbtart 

ALBERT E. FISCHER 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Second General Vice-President 

O. WM. BLAIER 

Carpenters' Building. Indianapolis. Ind. 



General Treasurer 

S. P. MEADOWS 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis. Ind. 



General Executive Board 
First District. CHARLES JOHNSON, Jr. Fifth District, R. E. ROBERTS 

111 E. 22nd St., New York 10, N. Y. 4324 N. 48th St., Omaha, Nebr. 



Second District, RALEIGH RAJOPPI 
2 Prospect Place, Springfield, New Jersey 



Sixth District. A. W. MUTR 
Box 1168, Santa Barbara, Calif. 



Third District, HARRY SCHWARZER 
1248 Walnut Ave., Cleveland, O. 



Seventh District. ANDREW V. COOPER 
133 Chaplin Crescent, Toronto 12, Ont., Canada 



Fourth District 



M. A. HUTCHESON. Chairman 
ALBERT E. FISCHER, Secretary 



All correspondence for the General Executive Board must be sent to the General Secretary 



CONVENTION CALL 

THE TRADES AND LABOR CONGRESS OF CANADA 
68th ANNUAL CONVENTION 

To All Affiliated Unions, Trades and Labor Councils and Federations of Labor: 
Greetings: 

In accordance with the provisions of the Constitution of the Trades and Labor Congress 
of Canada, you are hereby notified that the Sixty-eighth Annual Convention will be held 
in the City of Ottawa, Ontario, commencing at 10 a.m., Monday, August 10, 1953, and 
continuing daily until the business of the Convention is completed. 



NEW LOCAL UNIONS CHARTERED 



2380 
2872 
2875 
2103 
2209 
2123 
2876 
2882 
3160 
2885 
2884 
722 
535 



Fernald, Ohio 
Green Tree, N. M. 
Missoula, Mont. 
Calgary, Alta., Can. 
Louisville, Ky. 
Flint, Mich. 
Payette, Ida. 
Santa Rosa, Calif. 
Eldred, Penn. 
Jacksonville, Texas 
Smith River, Calif. 
Salt Lake City, Utah 
Lusk, Wyo. 



2898 South Nelson, N. B., Can. 

2891 Stockton, Calif. 

2895 Elkton, Va. 

2896 Lyons, Ore. 

2654 Kingston, Ont., Can. 

1877 Rocky Mount, N. C. 

2897 Seney, Mich. 

2928 Quebec, Que., Can. 

2932 Lysten, Que., Can. 

823 Camden, Tenn. 

872 Burns Lake, B. C, Can. 

606 Virginia-Eveleth, Minn. 



Not lost to those that love them, 
Not dead, just gone before; 



zmovxnm 



They still live in our memory, 
And will forever more. 



%t&t in Tj^tntt 

The Editor has been requested to publish the names 
o/ the following Brothers who have passed away. 



HELGE ALHSTRAND, L. U. 1922, Chicago, III. 
HOBERT ALMELING, L. U. 1987, St. Charles, 

Mo. 
ANDREAS ANDREASEN, L. U. 787, Brooklyn, 

N. Y. 
RUSSELL A. APHELIN, L. U. 983, Detroit, 

Mich. 
ROY PAGE BABER, L. U. 132, Washington, 

D. C. 
MOISE BEAUDOIN, L. U. 608, New York, N. Y. 
FRANK BEERS, L. U. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. 
JOHN L. BELLEW, L. U. 61, Kansas City, Mo. 
H. M. BEVILLE, L. U. 132, Washington, D. C. 
PETER BRADY, L. U. 1922, Chicago, 111. 
PETER BROWN, L. U. 514, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 
FRANK BRUUN, L. U. 608, New York, N. Y. 
SAM CARLSTRAND, L. U. 25, Los Angeles, 

Cal. 
LAWRENCE CASEY, L. U. 608, New York, 

N. Y. 
ANTHONY CATALANELLO, L. U. 514, Wilkes- 
Barre, Pa. 
BEN CATHCART, L. U. 226, Portland, Ore. 
FRANK CHALOUX, L. U. 608, New York, N. Y. 
V. H. CHRISTLER, L. U. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. 

E. C. COBEL, L. U. 61, Kansas City, Mo. 
ERIN M. COFFEY, L. U. 226, Portland, Ore. 
OWEN COLTON, L. U. 184, Salt Lake City, 

Utah 
GEORGE E. CONANT L. U. 1407, Wilmington, 

Cal. 
ARTHUR CROW, L. U. 226, Portland, Ore. 
R. E. CULVER, L. U. 61, Kansas City, Mo. 
CORTLAND DECKER, JR., L. U. 532, Elmira, 

N. Y. 
G. W. DEXTER, L. U. 226, Portland, Ore. 
CHARLES W. DONACA, L. U. 226, Portland, 

Ore. 

F. W. DUGAY, L. U. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. 
WILLIAM DUNN, L. U. 937, Dubuque, Iowa 
WALTER DUNNIHOO, L. U. 1849, Pasco, 

Wash. 

JOSEPH DYER, L. U. 2039, New Orleans, La. 

KEITH ECCLES, L. U. 184, Salt Lake City, 
Utah 

HARRY EITEL, L. U. 514, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 

THOMAS A. FERRARA, L. U. 366, Bronx, N. Y. 

ANTONIO FERRARO, L. U. 299, Union City, 
N. J. 

GEORGE A. FLORENCE, L. U. 132, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

D. R. FRICK, L. U. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. 

ROBERT S. GLOVER, L. U. 61, Kansas City, 
Mo. 

JOHN WESLEY GORDON, L. U. 505, Litch- 
field, 111. 

M. B. GREISEN, L. U. 226, Portland, Ore. 

A. E. GRIMSHA, L. U. 61, Kansas City, Mo. 

PAUL HARRIS, L. U. 132, Washington, D. C. 

WILLIAM E. HARRIS, L. U. 2039, New Orleans, 
La. 

RALPH HOOD, L. U. 1715, Vancouver, Wash. 

FRANK E. IRVINE L. U.132, Washington, D. C. 

JOHN JACOBS, L. U. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. 

ALFRED JENSEN, L. U. 198, Dallas, Texas 

FRED JOHNSON, L. U. 808, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

HARRY JOHNSON, L. U. 44, Champaign- 
Urbana, 111. 



HERBERT E. KETTLE, L. U. 226, Portland, 
Ore. 

EMERY LANTHIER, L. U. 1360, Montreal, Que., 
Can. 

ERNEST R. LARO, L. U. 1247. Laconia, N. H. 

PATRICK LAWTON, L. U. 608, New York, 
N. Y. 

HENRY LIGHTKEP, L. U. 897, Norristown, Pa. 

RALPH LOCKETT, L. U. 16, Springfield, 111. 

AMADEE LOPEZ, L. U. 2039, New Orleans, La. 

JACOB Y. LOUX, L. U. 122, Philadelphia, Pa. 

H. R. LUND, L. U. 1, Chicago, 111. 

MICHAEL MAIER, L. U. 61, Kansas City, Mo. 

W. MACKIE, L. U. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. 

WILLIAM M. MAC KAY, L. U. 1715, Van- 
couver, Wash. 

H. C. MACKNEY, L. U. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. 

F. MC GINNIS, L. U. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. 

WILLIAM L. MCGUIRE, L. U. 1849, Pasco, 
Wash. 

LOUIS MEYER, L. U. 1922, Chicago, 111. 

AARON MILLER, L. U. 514, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 

JOHN P. MILLER, L. U. 101, Baltimore, Md. 

W. G. MILLER, L. U. 1849, Pasco, Wash. 

A. MOE, L. U. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. 

PETER MOSHANG, L. U. 787, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

A. W. MUGGOCH, L. U. 343, Winnepeg, Man., 

Can. 
K. NICHOLS, L. U. 25, Los Angeles, Cal. 
EMIL NYLANDER, L. U. 608, New York, N. Y. 
FRANK V. ODEN, L. U. 226, Portland, Ore. 
JOSEPH PAGNINI, L. U. 246, New York, N. Y. 
FRANK E. PALMER, L. U. 198, Dallas, Texas 
OLE PAULSON, L. U. 368, Allentown, Pa. 
FRED PEOPLES, L. U. 61, Kansas City. Mo. 
CLARENCE PITTS, L. U. 1888, New York, N. Y. 
ADOLF PLISCOTT, L. U. 514, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 
R. G. POPHAM, L. U. 226, Portland, Ore. 
GEORGE POTEET, L. U. 101, Baltimore, Md. 
JOHN PROCHAZKA, L. U. 246, New York, 

N. Y. 
GEORGE RAE, L. U. 132, Washington, D. C. 
JOHN B. RICE, L. U. 226, Portland, Ore. 
L. J. RICHARDSON, L. U. 226, Portland, Ore. 
DANIEL RITTER, L. U. 368, Allentown, Pa. 
IRVING ROCK, L. U. 246, New York, N. Y. 
CLARK ROE, L. U. 44, Champaign-Urbana, 111. 
E. M. ROWLAND, L. U. 61, Kansas City, Mc. 
WINFIELD D. SAWYER, L. U. 1849, Pasco, 

Wash. 
MYRON SHALES, L. U. 514, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 
MANNING E. SHAW, L. U. 1715, Vancouver, 

Wash. 
L. G. SICKELS, L. U. 132, Washington, D. C. 
ROBERT T. SPENCER, L. U. 132, Washington, 

D. C. 
EVERETT S. STEARN, L. U. 132, Washington, 

D. C. 
GEORGE H. STEVENS, L. U. 621, Bangor, Me. 
JAMES TASCHETTA, L. U. 1922, Chicago, 111. 
CHARLES A. THOMAS, L. U. 42, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 
CHARLES R. VENTO, L. U. 1, Chicago, 111. 
CARL WESTERGARD, L. U. 641, Fort Dodge, 

Iowa 

B. F. WILCOX, L. U. 627, Jacksonville, Fla. 

C. E. WILCOX, L. U. 198, Dallas, Texas 
GEORGE W. WRIGHT, L. U. 226, Portland, Ore. 



THE CARPENTER 

ANSWERS TO "THE LOCKER' 



1. Carpenter 

2. Fourpenny 

3. Retaining 
-4. Smoothing 

5. Quartered 

6. Blindmans 

7. Heartwood 

8. Burnisher 

9. Expansive 
10. Stairwell 



11. Panelling 

12. Gooseneck 

13. Knockdown 

14. Vestibule 

15. Violation 

16. Aggregate 

17. Laminated 

18. Sandpaper 

19. Sheetrock 

20. Blueprint 



21. Baseboard 

22. Clearance 

23. Rectangle 

24. Stripping 

25. Colonnade 

26. Partition 

27. Deafening 

28. Estimator 

29. Framework 

30. Segmental 



31. Wallboard 

32. Expansion 

33. Architect 

34. Benchmark 

35. Staggered 

36. Resilient 

37. Sheathing 

38. Stanchion 

39. Threshold 

40. Compasses 



35 



41. Elevation 

42. Finishing 

43. Mezzanine 

44. Evergreen 

45. Extension 

46. Penthouse 

47. Downspout 

48. Fishplate 

49. Clapboard 

50. Modillion 



Detroit J-A Committee Graduates 150 

Members of die latest class attending the Building Trades Apprentice School, sponsored 
by die Detroit Carpentry Joint Apprenticeship Committee, were honored with graduation 
ceremonies held February 1st, at die Fort Wayne Hotel in Detroit. 

The 150 graduates are now journeymen of various Carpenters' locals, Floor Decorators' 
local 2265, Millmens' local 1452 and Millwrights' local 1102. 

Success of die Detroit Building Trades Apprentice Program was due largely to the hard 
work and cooperation of Stuart Proctor, head carpentry instructor; Earl L. Bedell, divi- 




The ISO graduating apprentices and their faculty members smile in appreciation 
of a job well done. 

The men who made the apprenticeship program a success congratulate the represent- 
ative of the apprentices. From left to right: Stuart Proctor, C. W. Spain, C. E. Engel, 
Henry M. Wojcik, speaker for the graduates, E. L. Bedell, J. W. Mc Creery, Gus 
Hauswirth, and behind the others, L. M. Weir. 

sional director of vocational education for technical and trade schools; W. McCreery and 
Cus Hauswirth, instructors; Cornelius W. Spain, school principal; Charles E. Engel, assist- 
ant principal; and L. M. Weir, secretary of the Carpentry Joint Apprenticeship Committee. 

Although the great majority of men were graduated as carpenters, lack of space prevents 
our listing the great number of carpenters' locals which they represent. 

The smiles of the graduates and the faculty members offers mute evidence to the out- 
standing success of the program. 



CorrospondoncQ 




This Journal is Not Responsible for Views Expressed by Correspondents. 

37 YEARS SERVICE HONORED 

Members of Erie, Pennsylvania's Local 81 met to pay homage to its first and only 
treasurer at a testimonial dinner on January 15th. The celebration marked the thirty- 
seventh year that John W. Haskins had served the Local in this capacity. He was 

initiated into Local 284, (then in Erie) 
in 1908, and held various offices until 
its consolidation with Local 1012 formed 
the present Local. Before the consolida- 
tion he was an officer of the short lived 
Erie District Council. 

Other guests included General Execu- 
tive Board Member Harry Schwarzer, 
who was the principal speaker of the 
evening, and Charles M. Slinker, General 
Representative. 

Since January, 1889, when the first 
Local (116) was chartered in Erie, wages 
and working conditions have continually 
improved. At that time the standard 
wage was a lowly sum of $2.00 per day 
for a 10 hour day, 60 hour week. Only 
during the depression of the thirties did 
wages suffer a setback, from $1.15 to 
$0.80 per hour. Today the scale is $2.49 
per hour. 

The traditions inculcated in those first members of the United Brotherhood who met 
m Chicago in 1881 have been retained by Local 81 to the present day. John W. Haskins 
stands as a symbol of the integrity and temerity which permeates the organization he 
has served so long and faithfully. 




A veteran of the Brotherhood receives congratula- 
tions from his fellow Brothers; from left to right: 
Charles Slinker, Harry Schwarzer, George Wuen- 
schel, recording secretary, Local 81 ; Lewis Hemmis, 
president, Local 81 ; Brother Haskins, and Law- 
rence Haskins his brother and a fellow member of 
the Local. 



OLD TIMERS HONORED AT ANNIVERSARY CELEBRATION 



The 50th anniversary of Local 955, 
of Appleton, Wisconsin was highlighted 
by a testimonial banquet and dance at 
which the four oldest members of the 
Local were feted as guests of honor. 

Brothers Albert Feldhahn, John C. 
Meilke, Earl Clark and James London 
were honored by more than 100 mem- 
bers and their guests who attended the 
festivities at the Moose Hall in Appleton 
last October 17th. 

Walter Jensen, president of the Wis- 
consin State Council of Carpenters, was 
the principal speaker of the evening. He 
recalled the deeds of the Local and its 
progress over the past fifty years and 
paid tribute to the old timers for their 
long and faithful service. 




Waiter Jensen and Erven Schultz, secretary of the 
Wisconsin State Council of Carpenters, listen to 
the reminiscing old timers of Local 955, From left 
to right: Brothers Jensen, John Mielke, Earl Clark. 
Schultz, Albert Feldhahn and James London. 



THE CARPENTER 



37 



CALIFORNIA CARPENTERS TOP FLIGHT BOWLERS 

Local 162 of San Mateo, California continues its outstanding public relations ac- 
tivities by sponsoring three fine bowling teams in the West Coast City. Recent issues 

of THE CARPENTER have 
carried several stories about the 
many activities of Local 162 
which have furthered the good 
reputation of the United Broth- 
erhood. 

The three groups of keglers 
have acquired several trophies 
and may soon add another to 
their collection. Bowling in 
three different leagues, the 
teams met recently for a play- 
off to determine the winner of 
the team trophy presented by 
the Local. The winning team 
holds the trophy until the next 
year, or until they are defeat- 
ed. 

Two members of the group 
received individual honors in 
their respective leagues, one 
for individual high score and 




The first group of bowlers to be sponsored by Local 162 
are shown with Local President Malcolm Kidd holding the 
trophy which is presented to the top team for each year's 
bowling. 



the other for being the most improved bowler in his league. One of the teams is now 
tied for first place in its league with only six games left to play. 

All of the members of the teams are carpenters and so far have been very successful 
in maintaining the reputation of the United Brotherhood of being winners. 



MISSOURIANS OBSERVE 50 YEARS IN BROTHERHOOD 

February 11, 1953 marked the 50th anniversary of the chartering of Local 1434, of 
Moberly, Missouri. A banquet commemorating the event was held in the Moberly 
Masonic Temple. Honored guests in attendance included: J. O. Mack, president of the 




Members attending the 50th Anniversary Banquet of Local 1434 are shown, from 
left to right: 1st row; Brothers Hedges, Frank Cobb, Walkup, T. B. Allen; Financial 
Secretary Dave Myers; Evan Coons, Howell; Recording Secretary F. J. Payne; C. J. Coons, 
Charles Hughes, Clark, and Ed. D. Edwards. 

2nd row; Brothers Keene, Vernon Hager, Jack Cleeton, L. N. Bledsoe, M. L. Black- 
well, F. M. Johnson, E. M. Combs, T. R. Bell, Jr., and R. A. Miller. 

3rd row; Roy Collins, Hubert Bowden, Ralph Bowden, John Hager, J. I. Zaner, W. 
S. Hendren, W. H. Brubaker, F. C. Jacoby, G. L. Hillen, Paul Hillen and Charles Kirkendall. 

Missouri District Council; Mel Shasserre, council secretary; and Mark Bagby, general 
representative. 



THE CARPENTER 



Local President E. L. FIowoll presented 40 year pins to C. W. Clark, J. W. Hedges, 
E. E. Kcene. Alvin Walkup and C. J. Coons. W. B. Cottingham, also a forty year man,' 
was unable to attend. 

Following the invocation, delivered by the Reverend Ernest S. Waite, a banquet was 
served after which motion pictures of the General Office and the Home were shown. 

Starting in 1903 with a membership of forty, Local 1434 has grown until today the 
roll numbers 116 carpenters. Prevailing wages were from $2.25 to $2.50 per day, nine 
hours per day and six days a week. Today the hourly wages are slightly less than the 
former day's wage. 

Not only is the Local noted for its monetary advances but also for its willingness to 
support projects which are for the betterment of the community and the trade. 



CARPENTER CHOSEN "SEABEE OF THE MONTH'' 

Once described by Admiral William F. Halsey 
as "a hatchet-packing Seabee and a worthy mem- 
ber of our South Pacific jungle-hacking, Jap- 
cracking, all service team," Carl E. Hull, a mem- 
ber of Local 1140, of San Pedro, California, has 
been chosen as the "Seabee of the Month." 

Chief Petty Officer Hull now makes his home 
at 973 Twentieth Street in San Pedro. Brother 
Hull is a member of the Seabee Reserve and is 
engaged in light construction contracting. 

During World War II he was awarded the 
Silver Star by Admiral Halsey for capturing a 
Jap soldier single-handed, armed with an axe, 
during the Battle of Bougainville in December, 
1943. On another occasion he rescued the crew 
of a bull-dozer which was knocked out by Jap- 
anese mortar fire. He enlisted in the Seabees 
in November, 1942. 

Brother Hull also served as an Army Sergeant 
in World War I. At that time he served in the 
Philippine Islands, China and Siberia. Between 
wars he was engaged as a member of the San 
Pedro police force. 




A peaceful view of the "Seabee of the 
Month." "Hatchet-Packing" Brother Carl 
E. Hull. 



GREENSBURG, PA., LOCAL HONORED 

Local Union 462 of Greensburg, Pa. was honored last September by the host to the 
14di Annual Convention of the Pennsylvania 
State Federation of Labor. Typographical Un- 
ion 668, of Jeanette-Greensburg, playing host 
to the convention, invited Local 462 to parti- 
cipate at the opening session. The Brotherhood 
Local responded by presenting a gavel bearing 
the Union Label to Robert E. Lynn, president 
of the Pennsylvania Federation. 

Speaking in behalf of the Brotherhood, Lo- 
cal 462 President J. P. Glasgow requested that 
the gavel be used with firmness and decision. 
Mr. Lynn assured the assemblage that with the 
cooperation of the delegates a fine and orderly 
convention would be conducted. 

Congratulations to Local 462 for their fine 

Spirit of Cooperation and friendship, exemplify- J. p. Glasgow, Local 462 President, presents 
ing the Singleness of purpose to be found a "n>°n made gavel to R. E. Lynn while I. 
.i • *i . . .f a "ti r t tt • T. U. Local 688 President Joseph A. Hellman 

throughout the A. F. of L. Unions. beams his approval. 





LADIES AUXILIARY No. 280 

o the Editor: 

A cheery hello from Ladies Auxiliary 280, of Rockford, Illinois. 

It has been quite some time since you have heard from us but this has not been 
[together due to negligence on our part. Our time has been busily occupied with our 
'gular business meetings, white elephant and rummage sales and seeing that our travel- 
tg basket is filled and sent on to the next member for her donation 

The aforementioned traveling basket is relayed from member to member for donations 
: food, candy and other delicacies for distribution at opportune moments to the sick, 
ijured or needy. 

Our former recording secretary, Floss Gil, recently made an apron to which each 
ember sewed her monetary donations for charitable purposes. After all donations 
ere attached, each member guessed as to the total sum and the one who came nearest 
> the correct amount was awarded the apron. It was fun and brought in a substantial 
im. 

Several husbands of members were ill over a long period and monetary gifts were also 
nt to them. 




Members of Ladies Auxiliary 280, assembled at a social event. 



We have made several contributions to the blood bank and the polio fund, trying to 
~> our bit for the community. 

Our annual Christmas party, and in the summer, our anniversary dinner and picnic 
we become institutions of the Auxiliary. Our husbands and families always attend 
^ese social events. 

A special sunshine chairman sends gifts regularly to shut ins at the nearby county 
)spital. These gifts usually consist of assorted candies or cookies packed in attractive 
as. It doesn't require a great effort on our part but the old folks show great apprecia- 
3n. One member, Betty Nyman made eleven dozen cookies. They were small dainty 
ies, carefully and elaborately decorated. 

You can see that our members are very cooperative in all of our activities, con- 
futing generously with their time and money. It is a great pleasure to be connected 
ith them. 

Our present officers include Eugenia Ostrom, president; Doris Thalman, vice-president; 
id Mary Carlson, treasurer. 

An open invitation is extended to members of other Auxiliaries and members of the 
rotherhood to visit us whenever they are in our city. 

Fraternally yours, 

Lucille Fairclough, Rec. Sec. 



Craft Probloms 




Carpentry 

By H. H. Siegele 

LESSON 297 

Cheap Work.— Many writers dealing with 

subjects pertaining to carpentry, do not treat 

the subject of cheap work. Evidently they 

regard such work as unethical, or as a means 



^2X4- 




'Sill 



Fig. 1 
of giving less to the owner than value re- 
ceived. But that is not the case. Cheap work 
has a legitimate place in the building indus- 
try. This kind of work is usually found in 




Fig. 2 
temporary buildings, which after they have 
served their purpose are dismantled and 
the material is used in some other construc- 
tion work. The emphasis in all cheap work 
is placed on economy, but at the same time 



the value of appearance and substantial cor 
struction must not be overlooked, especiall 
when available at little or no extra expensf 
Simple Openings.— Fig. 1 shows tw 
roughed-in simple openings. To the left :! 
an opening that is as wide as the distanc 
between the studding. All that is needed f( 
roughing in this kind of opening, is a heade 
at the top and one at the bottom. The oper 
ing to the right is the same, excepting th; 
instead of a header at the bottom, it has 
sill that must also answer for the heade 
The opening to the left, is shown after th 
boxing in, in Fig. 2. How this opening 
cased up is indicated by the dotted lines. Tl 
casing projects over the ends and edges ( 



..,-.-'.-... 




. /Casing • - 4 


f 




1 










/ 


• 










\ 


• 


• 




■' 






• 














, 


• 








: rJ : 


* «« 




.» 


\ \ 'SlLL ! 






... • 





Fig. 3 

the boxing just enough to form a stop tc 
the window sash. Fig. 3. shows how th 
opening to the right in Fig. 1. will appea 
after it is boxed and cased up. 

Cheap Window Frames.— The roughing-i 
of a cheap window frame is shown by Fi£ 
4. This opening, as the figures will show 
is framed just right for a 30" x 24", doubl 
sash, window. The sill again answers fo 
the bottom header. Fig. 5 gives a detail o 
one side of this frame after it is completed 
The outside is covered with novelty sidin; 
while the inside of the wall is finished wit! 
pressed wood. The term "pressed wood 
should be taken as covering all manufac 
tured wall-finishing materials, such as mason 
ite, wall board, plywood, and so forth. Tin 



THE CARPENTER 



41 



casings are 1" x 4" boards. At a, b, and c 
are shown respectively, the window stop, 
the parting bead (planted on) and the blind 
stop. The parting bead is made by ripping 
a regular parting bead in two. A front eleva- 
tion of the finished frame, which is shown 
roughed in, in Fig. 1, is shown by Fig. 6. 
A little study of this will reveal a well ap- 
pearing frame. 



construction gives a pleasing appearance, 
although the construction is simple and 
economical. Another detail of a side or head 




Fig. 4 

Details of Head and Sill.— Fig. 7 shows 
the head and sill of the frame shown in Fig. 
6. The head construction is practically the 
same as the side construction. There is one 
intentional difference between this detail 
and the own shown in Fig. 5, which is that 
knotty pine is specified in Fig. 7, while 
pressed wood is shown by Fig. 5. This 

-PressedWood ,Casin6 .Stool 

F^- 




Sidin6' Siu/ 

Fig. 5 
means that any kind of board finish can 
be used for the inside, whether it is wood 
or some kind of manufactured wall board. 
The finished sill construction is simple, but 
substantial. 

Elevation Details.— Fig. 8 shows eleva- 
tion details of the head, side, and sill, in 
part, of the frame shown in Fig. 6. This 




'Novelty Siding- 

Fig. 6 

construction of this frame is shown by Fig. 

9. Here the face of the 2" x 4" jamb is 

covered with pressed wood, which conceals 



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42 



THE CARPENTER 



the ends of the siding. The outside casing 
takes the place of the hlind stop. The part- 
ing bead again is planted on, or in simple 



Tin Flashing 
Water table 

Cove. 

Casing 

Parti no Bcpid 
Blind Stop 
Sill 




Knotty Pine 



Casing 



Stop 



-^-Stool 



pron 



Knotty Pine 



terms nailed on. This construction makes 
no provision for screen, while the other con- 
structions shown do. 




This method of making cheap window 
frames was used successfully in a mushroom 
town near an army camp, during the war. 
The buildings were used for the duration, 
and then dismantled. 

Spring Bolts.— The upper sash in those 
cheap window frames were held in place by 
spring bolts, while the bottom sash were 
held up or locked when down by the same 
means, spring bolts. 




^aaat&Awka/ 



UNION/C- MADE 



tOCAL 14o5 
OnUMWA, IOWA 

BE SATISFIED WITH 
ONLY THE BEST-INSIST ON 



FOR CARPENTERS 

NICHOUS No. 100A, IO0R 
. end 3-R give you the most 



FOR CABINET MAKERS 

NICHOUS No. 100 Eureka 



Squares give you 
•cessary graduations 



!<§»$)& 



OL yjoiVc (DealsA, 

SINCE 1896 
NICHOLLS MFG. CO. 

OTTUMWA, IOWA . 



Modifications.— A study of the drawings 
will reveal two important things: First, a 
well appearing window frame, and second, 
an economical frame substantial enough for 
any temporary building. It will also be seen 

Siding N \\ H r— Pressed Wood 



Casing 




Casing 



Parting Bead' ~ n WindowStop 

that the constructions shown can be modified 
to suit the needs or tastes of the owners. 

While the details show only novelty sid- 
ing, this method of making cheap window 
frames was used successfully where the 
outsides were covered wth boards running 

up and down, with bats covering the cracks. 

♦ 

NEWSPAPERMAN BOSSES JOB 

A prominent nespaperman, acted as own- 
er's agent on a certain job. Among the 
new features that were introduced on that 




Fig. 1 

job, there was a soundproofing scheme. It 
was a clever idea. The bottom panels of 



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CUPBOARD & DRAWER PULL GAUGE 



Handy new adjustable 
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quickly, easily and ac- 
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paid. Dept. C-30 
McBurney, 317 E. 4th St., Los Angeles 13, Calif. 




THE CARPENTER 



43 



certain doors were equipped with louvers, 
through which the air passed into or out of 
the rooms. This gave rise to another prob- 
lem, soundproofing. How could sounds (es- 
pecially words) be kept from passing through 
the louvers. Theoretically the problem was 
solved by padding the bottom of the louvers 
with some kind of magic sound-killing fiber. 
The theory is illustrated by the accompany- 
ing drawings Fig. 
1 and 3 are cross 
sections of a room, 
cutting through the 



Louver 



Death Curl 
of Souhb 




Fig. 2 

door. The arrows give the tracks of indi- 
vidual sounds. Fig. 2 gives a detail, in 
part, of a louver, showing the magic fiber 
producing the death curl of sound. As the 
foreman explained it, when the sound of a 
word leaves the lips, it scoots from point A, 
Fig. 1, to point B, makes a right angle turn 
up to point C, where it gets tangled in the 
magic fiber, and dies like a door nail! 

What seemingly was not taken into con- 
sideration when the theory was formulated 



is shown by Fig. 3. The individual sound 
of a word as it leaves the lips at point A, 
also flies to point b, glances to point c, 
where it again makes a turn and shoots 




Fig. 3 

down to point D, missing the magic fiber 
on the louvers, and makes its get-a-way! 

This writer wonders whether the news- 
paperman knew, when he bossed that job, 
that, that clever soundproofing theory, in 
practice would be a total fizzle. 




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Only $1.75 each. . . ~~ " ~ ~ "~ ~ ^~ ~~~ ~~* """" " — ' ~ ~ ~ ~ "~~ ~ "" ™ 
I E-Z MARK TOOLS, Box 7-8377, Los Angeles 16, Cal. 
Please send the E-Z MARK gauges checked: 
□ I Gauge-$!.75-SIZE □ Check or Money 

ID 2 Gauges-$3.50-SIZES Order enclosed 

□ 3 Gauges-$5.25-SIZES □ Send C. 0. D. 

I Name 

I Address 




If dealer can't supply, 
send only $1.00 with 
order and pay postman 
balance plus postage 
C.O.D. (In Canada 25c 
higher per order. No 
C.O.D. in Canada). 
State sizes wanted. 
Mail coupon today. 



You Do Thl 



And Get This, 



U. 



S. and Canadian 
Patents 



City Zone State. 




? 



;%, 



W Si 



< 



IfoMf mucii profit do 



PLASTER JOB? 

Foolish question to ask a carpenter? Sure it is . . . 
but look at it this way for a minute. Every time a 
ceiling is replastered you lose money. You lose money 
because you've lost a job ... a very profitable job. 
Yes, installing Upson Kuver-Krak Panels over old 
plaster is simple easy work. Easy to sell, too . . . 
because once you tell a homeowner he doesn't have 
to go through the messy ordeal of replastering, the 
job is practically yours. You don't get any kickbacks, 
either . . . because an Upson Ceiling is permanent 
and crackproof. For Free sample hit, mail the coupon. 



UPSON 



KUVER-KRAK PANELS 
AND CEILING TILES 



1 
1 

1 
1 

1 


The Upson Company 

936 Upson Point, Lockport, New York 

Please mail me a FREE Upson Ceiling Sample Kit. 




1 


Mrppt 




1 
1 


r;« y 




1 






1 












J 



Upson Sample Kit 
includes all the 
above material. 






Steady work... Big money 



BIG MONEY for you today in 
floor surfacing work! Be your 
own boss and keep all the 
profits from your labor! 
Prospects everywhere for 
maintenance and repair in 
present homes. Sanders 
are easy to operate — no 
special schooling — no 
big investment. Earn $35 
to $50 a day . . . indoor 
work. Send for "tell- 
all" booklet entitled 
"Opportunities in 
Floor Surfacing" 
enclosing 2 5 cents 
in coin or stamps to cover handling. 
American Floor Surfacing Machine Co., 
520 So. St. Clair St., Toledo, Ohio. 

American 

FLOOR MACHINES - PORTABLE TOOLS 





At 
Bargain 
Prices! 




UiSFACTlON 
UARANTEED 
LL RUBBER . . . FLEXIBLE— 

ade of rugged military cordage 
■proximating civilian 2 conductor 
14. Complete with cord clamp, 
ring action plug, and heavy duty 
male connector. Cable diameter 
00 in. Also 100 ft. (2 cond. #12) 
'ts @ $15.50- postpaid. 



100 ft. 

SET 

only 

$Q.95 

POSTPAID 



— — —— CLIP AND MAIL TODAY — — — -._. 
KINGSDOWN CABLE & WIRE CO. j 

4540 W. Addison St. Dept. C5 Chicago 41, III. I 

Enclosed is check or money order for $_ I 

send 100 ft. Cord Set(s), (2 cond. atflij 

100 ft. Cord Set(s) (2 cond. j£l2). Satis- 
faction guaranteed. 

Name [ 1 



Street 

City Zone 



I 
I 
I 
.-J 




THE SAW MOST CARPENTERS USE 



To make your 
job easier make 



f \ sure your saw is 




Strai ght 

%Set 
\Ce/?tereaf 



Strai ght 



A bent or "dished" saw 
binds, jerks, tears lumber, 
tires you. ALL DISSTON 
Saws are straight! 



Set 




Uneven set mars the work, 
makes straight, rhythmic 
sawing impossible. ALL 
DISSTON Saws are 
set evenly! 

Centered 

An off-center or poorly 
slotted handle causes blade 
to bind and buckle, cut 
crooked. ALL DISSTON 
Saws have true-centered 
handles ! 

Ba/ancec/ 

Unless your saw "feels" 
right— has an easy, com- 
fortable balance — you 
can't work right. ALL 
DISSTON Saws are 
balanced ! 

FREE Folder! 

"Hand Picking Your Hand 
Saw" can help you select the 
right saw for your needs. 
Ask your hardwareman for a 
copy or mail the 
coupon below. 




"1 

Henry Disston & Sons, Inc. | 

604 Tacony, Philadelphia 35, Pa., U.S.A. 
(In Canada: 2-20 Fraser Ave., Toronto 3, Onl.) 
Please send me a free copy of g 

"Hand Picking Your Hand Saw." 

Name 

Address 

City Stale 




"RED END" 
RULE 

your guarantee of 



Extra Heavy Duff 

EXTENSION RULES 

X-46 For regular reading 
X-46F For flat reading 

• 50% thicker sections 

• Triple-locking brass joints 
maintain accuracy 

• Solid brass strike plates prevent wear 
® Graduation on both edges 

• Markings EMBEDDED RIGHT INTO THE 
WOOD 

• Bold easy-to-read figures 

• Brass extension for accurate inside meas- 
urements has black-filled markings for 
easy reading 

•' Durable boxwood finish protected by 
tough clear plastic coating 



247 



BUY fUFKtN 

TAPES • RULES • PRECISION TOOLS 
FROM YOUR HARDWARE OR SUPPLY STORE 

THE LUFKiN RULE CO., SAGINAW, MICHIGAN 
137-138 Lafayette St., New York City • ftarrie, Ont. 



NOTICE 

The publisher!! of "The Carpenter" reserve the 
right to reject all advertising mutter which muy 
be, In their judgment, unfair or objectionable to 
the membership of tho United Drothcrhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America. 

All Contracts for advertising space in "The Car- • 
penter," Including those stipulated as non-can- 
cellable, are only accepted subject to the above 
reserved rights of the publishers. 



Index of Advertisers 



Carpenters' Tools and Accessories 

Page 

The American Floor Surfacing 

Machine Co., Toledo, Ohio 4S 

Carlson and Sullivan, Inc., Mon- 
rovia, Calif. 3rd Cover 

Henry Disston & Sons, Inc., 

Philadelphia, Pa. 45 

Eliason Tool Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 47 

Estwing Mfg. Co., Rockford, 

111, 1 

E-Z Mark Tools, Los Angeles, 

Calif. 43 

Foley Mfg. Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 48 

Kingsdown Cable & Wire Co., 

Chicago, 111. 45 

The Lufkin Rule Co., Saginaw, 

Mich. 46 

A. D. McBurney, Los Angeles, 
Calif. 42 

Nicholls Mfg. Co., Ottumwa, 

Iowa 42 

North Bros. Mfg. Co., Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 48 

See-Saw, Dearborn, Mich. 47 

Simplex Level Co., Detroit, 

Mich. 43 

Skill Corp., Chicago, 111. 4 

Stanley Tools, New Britain, 

Conn. 3rd Cover 

Swanson Tool Co., Oak Lawn, 

111. 48 

Andrew Zapart, Brooklyn, N. Y._ 47 

Carpentry Materials 
The Upson Co., Lockport, N. Y._ 44 

Doors 

Overhead Door Corp., Hartford 

City, Ind. 4th Cover 

Technical Courses and Books 

American Technical Society, Chi- 
cago, 111 47 

Audel Publishers, New York, 

N. Y. 3rd Cover 

Chicago Technical College, Chi- 
cago, 111. 3 

H. H. Siegele, Emporia, Kans. 41 



KEEP THE MONEY 
IN THE FAMILY! 

PATRONIZE 
ADVERTISERS 



Before you build another 

STAIRCASE 





ll»* s °* 



Get an 

ST MR 



gaug* 



Saves its cost in 1 day- 
Does a Better Job in HALF the Time 

The Eliason Stair Gauge takes all the grief and bother 
out of building staircases. In a few seconds you get both 
correct length and angle for stair treads, riserB, closet 
shelves, etc., ready to mark board. Each end automatically 
pivots and locks at exact length and angle needed for per- 
fect fit. Adjustable to fit any stairway. Saves a day or 
more, increases your profits $20 to $30 on each staircase. 
Made of nickel plated steel. Fully guaranteed. Circular 
on request. 



Postpaid (cash with order) 
or C.O.D. plus postage, only . 



$1295 



ELIASON TOOL CO. 

6946 Pillsbury Ave., Minneapolis 23, Minn. '"*&&' 

Measure tread in a few seconds for perfect fit. 




FOR QUICK ACCURATE SET UPS 

radial See-Saw* 

SAFE, BIG SAW CAPACITY 
EASY TO TAKE ABOUT 




F.O.B. Factory 
PLUS SAW 



Patented. *Trade Mark reg. 

CARPENTERS ALL AROUND 

CUT-OFF AND RIPPING 

MACHINE 

Self-Squaring. Balanced track rests on 
material clamping it while sawing. Saw 
automatically retracts, tilts track up. 
Swings to any angle. Saw sets crosswise 
in carriage for ripping. Saw locks in 
roller carriage. Carriage can be locked 
any place on track. Track elevates 4". 
Saw blade alignment adjustable. 18" cut 
off or rip capacity. Wt. 11 lbs. (less 
saw.) 17" wide, 36" long. All rust-proof. 

Manufactured by 



SEE.SAW 




frffrflUHAcU 



SEND 

NO MONEY 

MORE THAN 

4000 PAGES 

• 

2750 

PICTURES 



9 big complete books 

building; estimating, contracting 



Examine this Up-to-Date Edition for 10 days. See how 
these nine books supply easily understood training that 
will help you to get a better job and make more money, 
or start a profitable business for yourself. Think what 
a BIG help it will be to have them handy for use in 
solving all sorts of building problems. 

Learn to draw plans, estimate, do all-new construction 
and modern remodeling to meet fast growing demand. More 
than 4000 pages of practical, pay raising information with 
2750 helpful illustrations, on such subjects as blueprint 
reading, concrete forms, masonry, carpentry, steel square, 
electrical wiring, plumbing, heating, painting, and hun- 
dreds more. 

In our more than 50 years we hare never offered more 
complete building information. Send the coupon TODAY. 
(A year's consulting privileges with our engineers now 
given with these honks without extra cost.) 

AMERICAN TECHNICAL SOCIETY— Publishers Since 189S 
Dept. GA-36 Drexel Ave., at 58th St., Chicago 37, III. 
I would like to examine your 9-Volume Set of Building, 
Estimating. Contracting Books. I will pay the delivery 
charges only, but if I choose I may return them express 
collect. If after 10 days' use I prefer to keep them. I will 
send you $3 plus postage and pay the balance at the rate of 
only $4 a month until $34.80 has been paid. Include con- 
sulting service as offered above. 



Name 



Address 



City State 

Please attach letter giving employer's name and address 
(if self employed give businessman reference). Men In 
service please give home address. 




4140 Syracuse, 



DEARBORN, MICH. 



an hour 

FILING 
SAWS 

QUICK AND ACCURATE SAWFILING ACCOM- 
PLISHED SENGLEHANDED WITHOUT EYE- 
STRAIN OR EFFORT, etc. 

ZAPART SAW FILER files and moves a saw 
at the same time by shifting file sideways at 
the moment before raising. A single adjustment 
regulates shifting according to size of teeth 
to be filed. 

With a ZAPART one hand SAW FILER you 
can sharpen all the Hand, Band, Circular cross- 
cut, combination, rip, metal-cutting up to 30" 
diameter and Chain Saws. It is a clean, safe 
and quiet working tool; attachable to any ob- 
ject. Many men using it at home. It can be 
stored in any desk or dresser drawer. 
Filers and other simplified sawshop equipment 
available for 60 day practice ; within the U.S.A. 
only. 

ZAPART SAW FILER less chainsaw attachment 
Price $86.00 
For details write to: 

ZAPART SAW FILER 

586 Manhattan Ave., Brooklyn 22, N. Y. 




ROOF FRAMING ""UK 1 " 
SWANSON SPEED *«>""» 

Can be on interesting part of your building 

operation instead of a difficult one. Just 

pivot the corner against the rafter and with 

an easy action, swing to the cut wanted. Use 

only one number (pitch in inches) for the cuts 

f a roof. BE THE ROOF FRAMER OF YOUR 

GANG. 

THOUSANDS IN USE. Not an extra tool 

for your tool kit. Use it for all other work. 

PRACTICALLY UNBREAKABLE. Being 3 16 

inch thick, the edge of the square is 

deal for using as cut off gauge for 

electric hand saw. 

The rafter length booklet gives 

lengths of all rafters, hips, valleys, 

commons, jacks, cripples. Any 

building width in feet and inches, 

any pitch to 24 inch. 



ALUMINUM 

Black, numerals, non- 
glare finish. Easy to 
read after years of use 



$ 3 2S 



(with books) 

POSTPAID 
$3.50 C.O.D. 



50c FOR BOOKS ONLY. 
MONEY BACK GUARANTEE 



Send for folder "Framing A Roof With The 
Speed Square," gives full instruction with 
cuts showing a roof framed. Also describes 
our new speed plane— oluminum— light-weight 
—non-clogging— used either as jack or rabbet 
plane. 



Two rafter length books with each square. 

It your dealer cannot supply you, 
send direct to: 



Swanson Tool Co. 



9113 S. 53rd Ave. 
Oak Lawn, Illinois 



9/fa/ie. 



$20 to $30 a Week 

EXTRA MONEY! 



With the high prices of food, clothing and everything 
else, just think what you could do with extra money 
every week! Turn your spare time into CASH — sharp- 
ening saws with a Foley Automatic Saw Filer pays up 
to $3 or $4 an hour. Start in your basement or garage 
— no experience necessary. "The first saw I sharpened 
with my Foley Filer came out 100%" — writes Clarence 
E. Parsons. No Canvassing — "I advertised in our local 
paper and got in 93 saws" — says II. L. Thompson. 
With a Foley you can file all hand saws, also band and 
crosscut circular saws. 

FREE BOOK 

Shows How To Start 

"Money Making 
Facts" explains how 
you can get business 
from home own- 
ers, farmers, car- 
penters, schools, fac 
tories, etc. "I get work 
from 20 and 30 miles 
away." says Charles 
H. Smith. Investigate 
— no salesman will call 
- — send coupon today. 



FOKY^r^^ SAW FILEftpsfc 



FOLEY MFG. CO., 618-3 Foley Bldg., 

Minneapolis 18, Minn. 

Send FREE BOOK — "Money Making Facts' 

Name 

Address 




PILOT HOLES in a 

hurry with one hand 

a„dd n YANKEE" 

Automatic Push Drill 



Give yourself an extra hand for 
holding doors, window stop mould- 
ing, hardware and other work. A 
"Yankee" Push Drill bores holes 
fast, easily, one-handed. Spring in 
handle brings it back after every 
stroke and puts a reverse spin in 
,^ | the drill point to clear away chips. 
Improved chuck prevents drills 
pulling out. Magazine handle holds 
8 drill points, }{§" to n lei". Built for 
years of willing work. Your Stanley 
dealer carries these and other 
"Yankee" Tools. 

Write for "Yankee" Tool Book 

NORTH BROS. MFG. CO. 

208 West Lehigh Avenue 

Philadelphia 33, Pennsylvania 

DIVISION OF STANLEY TOOLS j STANLEY] 



"Yankee" 
No. 41 



This NEW STANLEY RULE 

works^^J> 



iways 



Any carpenter who has tried 
out the new No. 1 26 
Stanley Rule knows how 
helpful it is — how 
much time — how many 
steps — it saves. 
All because it can be 
used 3 ways. 

marking gauge 

Open from either side 

— end number is always 

even. Butt the square, 

green ends of folded 

sticks squarely against work and you 

have an accurate marking gauge •• 

for any 2 " or 4 * multiple. 

THE TOOL BOX OF THE WORLD 





Open the rule from the 
long stick end and 
hook the unfolded portion 
over the end of the stock you are 
working on. This gives you a measure- 
ment in even half-foot lengths. Open 
from the short stick end and you have 
an end-to-end reading in half-foot 
lengths. 



Inch by inch a real rule 
value. Big plastic coated 
figures. Wear 4 times longer- 
wipe clean in seconds. Nickel silver 
ball-lock joints drop open and 
closed. Rustproof and stainless. 



[STANLEY] 



STANLEY TOOLS, 104 Elm Street, New Britain, Connecticut 
Reg. U.S. Pat. Off. HARDWARE • TOOLS • ELECTRIC TOOLS • STEEL STRAPPING • STEEL 



"Jf'uii 



«'cJ?^ 



**£2**» 




•White Blade 
10 feet long 

• Easy Action 
Swing Tip 

* Numerals are 
rightside up for 
right-hand marking 



C CARLSON") 



Numerals read from right to left on the Carlson 
3210 RH White Chief (Conventional rules read 
left to right). Hold the 3210 RH in your left hand 
pencil in your right . . . numerals are rightside 
up for right-handed marking. See it at your 
Hardware Dealer. 
Produced under patents 2089209, 2510939, 2629180. 



ARLSON & SULLIVAN, INC 



MONROVIA 
CALIFORNIA 



AUDELS Carpenters 
and Builders Guides 

4vols.*6 



InsideTrade Information 

for Carpenters. Builders, Join- 
ers, Building Mechanics and all 
Woodworkers. These Guides 
give you the short-cut instruc- 
tions that you want— including 
new methods, ideas, solutions, 
plans, systems and money sav- 
ing suggestions. An easy pro- 
gressive course for the appren- 
tice and student. A practical 
daily helper and Quick Refer- 
ence for the master worker. 
Carpenters everywhere are us- 
ing these Guides as a Helping 
Hand to Easier Work. Better 
Work and Better Pay. To get 
this assistance for yourself. 
_ . _ _ - Bimply fill in and 

Inside Trade Information On: man free coupon below. 

How to use the steel square — How to file and 

set saws — How to build furniture — How to use 

a mitre box — How to use the chalk line — How 

to use rules and scales — How to make joints — 

Carpenters arithmetic — Solving mensuration 

problems — Estimating strength of timbers — 

How to set girders and sills — How to frame 

houses and roofs — How to estimate costs — How 

to build houses, barns, garages, bungalows, etc. 

— How to read and draw plans — Drawing up 

specifications — How to excavate — How to use 

settings 12, 13 and 17 on the steel square — How 

to build hoists and scaffolds — skylights — How 

to build stairs — How to put on interior trim — 

How to hang doors — How to lath — lay floors — "How to paint 





AUDEL, Publishers, 49 W. 23rd St., New York 10, N. Y. 

Mail Audels Carpenters and Builders Guides, 4 vols., on 7 days' free 
trial. If OK I will remit $1 in 7 days and $1 monthly until $6 is paid. 
— Otherwise I will return them. No obligation unless 1 am satisfied. 



Employed by- 



-CAR 



Right — Commercial doors of wood or steel 
are built in any size to fit any opening — 
a complete door engineering service. 

Below— Special Design 1M, one of many 
new raised-panel residential models of 
The "Overhead Door." Send for complete 
information. 




Adds to the 
BEAUTY, VALUE 
and CONVENIENCE 

of the home 




...insures buyer satisfaction! 

National consumer advertising is pre-selling your 
prospective buyers on the easy operation, strong 
construction and long life of The "Overhead Door. 
Install this quality garage door in every home you 
build. It's one of your best selling points! 

OVERHEAD DOOR CORPORATION • Hartford City, Ind. 



America s Great Name in 

i Quality Doors 



Residential — Commercial — Industrial 



FOUNDED 1881 



Official Publication of the 
UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS of AMERICA 



JULY, 1953 







Symbols of Liberty 




FOR ON-THE-JOB DURABILITY 
One Steel Tape Leads Them All! 

*UFKIN 



"Leader" 

CHROME-CLAD 
STEEL TAPES 







^O 



For hard on-the-job use, you want the most 
durable steel measuring tape. The Lufkin 
"Leader" is your best buy. Figures and 
graduations won't wear off as they are 
bonded to the line, and protected by electro- 
platings that further strengthen the fine tape 
steel from which the line is made. The jet- 
black markings stand out sharp and clear 
against the chrome-white surface. The line 
in the Lufkin "Leader" is all-metal — won't 
surface crack, chip, or peel, is easier to keep 
clean, is most rust and corrosion resistant, 
and will outwear the ordinary soft-coated 
tapes many rimes. 

Tough, maroon-colored vinyl case. 25, 50, 
75, and 100-foot lengths, with or without 
hook ring. 

210 



BUY 



TAPES • RULES • PRECISION TOOLS 

FROM YOUR HARDWARE OR TOOL STORE 

i 

THE LUFKIN RULE CO., SAGINAW, MICHIGAN 

1 32-1 38 Lafayette St., New York City • Barrie, Ontario 




In Hollow Walls 

and ceilings — sheet rock, 
structural tile, thin paneling, 
or lath and plaster 

Secure Fastening 

for cabinets bathroom fixtures, 
shelving, partitions, mirrors, 
hook strips, etc. 

Is Sure and Easy 

with the device that's made 
lor the job in 5 head styles. 
Bolt sizes from Va" thru Vi 

You'll save time . . . 




THE PAINE COMPANY 
4 Westgate Road, Addison, III. 



the best craftsmen always take 



PAIGE'S 




^lili 



SATISFACTION 
GUARANTEED 

ALL RUBBER . . . FLEXIBLE — 

Made of rugged military cordage 

approximating civilian 2 conductor 

#14. Complete with cord clamp, 

spring action plug, and heavy duty 

female connector. Cable diameter 

.500 in. Also 100 ft. (2 cond. #12) 

Sets @ $15.50 postpaid. 

,,—?». — — CLIP AND MAIL TODAY— — — — 

I KINGSDOWN CABLE & WERE CO. 

! 4540 W. Addison St. Dept. C-7 Chicago 41, 111. 

I Enclosed is check or money order for $ 

1 send 100 ft. Cord Set(s), (2 cond. #14) 

: 100 ft. Cord Set(s) (2 cond. #12). Satis- 

1 faction guaranteed. 



100 ft, 

SET 

only 

$Q.9o 

POSTPAID 



Name 
Street 



City . Zone State, j 



A Monthly Journal, Owned and Published by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners 

of America, for all its Members of all its Branches. 

PETER E. TERZICK, Editor 

Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis 4, Indiana 



Established in 1881 
Vol. LXXIII— No. 7 



INDIANAPOLIS, JULY, 1953 



One Dollar Per Year 
Ten Cents a Copy 



— Con tents — 



Is UN Worth Saving? ------ 5 

Isolationists increase their frenzied attacks on world peace organizations. All inter- 
national organizations threatened by assaults. 

Free Men Will Always Win ----- 9 

Pessimists warn that the end of world hostilities means the end of prosperity. 



Brotherhood Has No Boundaries 



14 



Carpenters' locals lend Israeli a helping hand. Industry boosted by gift of wood- 
working mill. 

The Ultramodern In Home Building 16 

An unusual and interesting home, built by Brotherhood workmen, shows what im- 
agination and craftsmanship can do. 

Shott Shoots T-H Claims ------ 21 

Noted economists calls present labor law a return to 19th Century labor relations. 

Look Before You Join ------- 28 

Mainly loyal citizens unwittingly join Communist organizations. Are you a member of 
a Red-infiltrated group? 

* • • 

OTHER DEPARTMENTS 

Plane Gossip ------- 

Editorials -------- 

The Locker ---_-__ 

Official 

In Memoriam ------- 

Correspondence --____- 

To The Ladies ------- 

Craft Problems - - - - - - 



* * * 



Index to Advertisers 



12 
24 
32 
34 
35 
36 
41 
43 



47 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act ot 

Congress. Aug. 24. 1912. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for 

in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918. 



CARPENTERS 

BUILDERS and APPRENTICES 



Get the practical training you need 

for PROMOTION, 

INCREASED INCOME 




Prepare now for more pay, greater success. 
Hundreds have quickly advanced to foreman, 
superintendent, inspector, estimator, contrac- 
tor, with this Chicago Tech training in Build- 
ing. Your practical experience aids your suc- 
cess. 

Learn how to lay out and run building jobs, read 
blue prints, estimate building costs, superintend con- 
struction. Practical training with complete blue print 
plans and specifications — same as used by superin- 
tendents and contractors. Over 48 years of experi- 
ence in training practical builders. 



FREE 



Blue Prints 
and Trial Lesson 



THOROUGH TRAINING IN BUILDING 

Learn at Home in Your Spare Time 

The successful builder will tell you 
that the way to the top-pay jobs and 
success in Building is to get thorough 
knowledge of blue prints, building con- 
struction and estimating. 

In this Chicago Tech Course, you learn to 
read blue prints — the universal language of 
the builder — and understand specifications — 
for all types of buildings. 

You learn building construction details : 
foundations, walls, roofs, windows and doors, 
arches, stairs, etc. 

You learn how to lay out work and direct 
building jobs from start to finish. You learn 
to estimate building costs quick- 
ly and accurately. Find out 
how you can prepare at home 
for the higher-paid jobs in 
Building, or your own success- 
ful contracting business. Get the 
facts about this income-boosting 
Chicago Tech training now. 



Send today for Trial Lesson: "How to Read 
Blue Prints," and set of Blue Print Plans — 
sent to you Free. See for yourself how this 
Chicago Tech course prepares you to earn 
more money, gives you the thorough knowl- 
edge of Building required for the higher-up 
jobs and higher pay. Don't delay. Mail the 
coupon today in an envelope or use penny 
postcard. 

MAIL COUPON NOW 



I Chicago Technical College 
H-125 Tech. BIdg., 2000 So. Michigan Ave. 
Chicago 16, 111. 

Mail me Free Blue Print Plans and Booklet : 
i! "How to Read Blue Prints" with information 
about how I can train at home. 

\\ Name A 8 e 



Zone. 




State 



C H I C AG O TEC H NICAL COLLEGE 

TECHBLDG., 2000 SOUTH MICHIGAN AVE., CHICAGO 16, ILL. 



Look for the 
Bruce Brand 
and Union Label 



EASY TO LAY • HIGHEST QUALITY 

Bruce 

HARDWOOD FLOORING 




Product of 

E. L. BRUCE CO. 

Memphis, Tenn. 



World's Largest Maker 

of Hardwood Floors 




ROOF 
FRAMING 
IS EASY 

SHARP'S AUTOMATIC FRAMING 

SQUARE SOLVES ALL PROBLEMS 

INSTANTLY! 



One Setting gives you the 
marking for both Plumb Cut 
and Mitre Cut. 

Blade gives 




MiTSR fOR HtftVAtHrVy.X ,S\ ''„, 
OR JACK RAFTERS. 





KArren 



Bevel Bar 

automatically 

adjusts itself 

for all 

Mitre Cuts on 

Hip, Valley 

or Jack Rafters. 



ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW IS 
THE WIDTH OF BUILDING 
AND PITCH OF THE ROOF 

Just set tool to pitch of roof and it automatically pro- 
vides direct marking guide for all cuts. Gives exact 
figures for length of rafters. 

Good tools speed your work. Sharp's Framing Square 
is precision made of quality metals, a Journeyman's 
tool. Prepaid $9.85, C.O.D. postage extra. 
Order today k. SHARPS MANUFACTURING CO. 
direct from W P.O. Box 332, Dept. L, Salem, Qrej 



<4u&#Ut&> FRAMING SQUARE 



With criticism mounting, soon we must decide— 



IS UN WORTH SAYING? 

• • 

ONE NEED be neither a historian or a scholar to realize that the 
United Nations Organization is heading toward a life-or-death crisis 
in the near future. From the very beginning there have been sub- 
stantial forces in the United States opposed to the whole idea of an inter- 
national tribunal. Mostly these were the isolationists who feared loss of 
sovereignty and the ascendency of a super-world government. Year in and 
year out these opponents of the UN have sniped at the organization and 
passed up no opportunity to give it a black eye. Opposition to the UN has 
never been absent in the United States since the UN was born. 
Lately, however, opposition has 



been more widespread and a good 
deal more vociferous. UN is being 
attacked from many angles by wholly 
unrelated groups. Perhaps Los Ange- 
les, where the school board recently 
voted to prohibit the use of United 
Nations literature after a long and 
bitter battle, provided the opening 
skirmish in the coming UN war. Cer- 
tainly few issues have divided a city 
as thoroughly and as violently as 
did the question of whether or not 
Los Angeles youngsters should be 
allowed to look at UNESCO liter- 
ature. In the end the anti forces won. 
UN thereby lost considerable prestige 
at a very time when its prestige was 
reaching its lowest ebb anyway. 

The fact that other sections of 
California, such as Long Beach, 
barely an hour's drive from Los Ange- 
les, and Marin County in the far north, 
are resisting any and all pressure to 
oust UNESCO literature from the 
school curriculum does not detract 
from the fact that UN prestige suf- 
fered a serious blow in Los Angeles. 
Los Angeles is not the only section 
where UN has been faring poorly. 
More and more of the nation's press 
is becoming increasingly critical of 
UN. So are a good many radio and TV 



commentators. Few of these advo- 
cate outright U.S. withdrawal from 
UN at once, but all speak as if little 
or nothing can be expected from UN. 

What are the facts? Is UN a com- 
plete failure? Should we abandon it 
and "go it alone?" Unfortunately only 
history will be able to give the answer, 
for the problems involved cannot be 
solved in less than a generation or 
two. Two vastly different ideologies, 
democracy and totalitarianism, are 
competing for the hearts and minds 
of all men. The competition may lead 
to war or it may struggle along in a 
tense and unhappy "peace" filled with 
suspicions and tensions. Either way, 
the ultimate answer will not be ar- 
rived at in the lifetime of most of us. 

What, then, is the function of UN 
in the picture? Certainly it has not 
been able to maintain peace in the 
world, for men have been dying in 
Korea and in Indo-China for the past 
several years. If it cannot maintain 
peace, is it worth saving? 

For all the failures which have so 
far beset UN, it is still difficult to 
envision any answer other than an 
unequivocal "yes." 

The League of Nations failed. UN 
may fail too. But sooner or later, 



THE CARPENTER 



when war is abolished, it will be 
abolished by a world tribunal which 
can muster all the nations of the 
world that have good will in their 
hearts against the ambitious few that 
look at conquest and power for their 
own aggrandisement. Until it has been 
proved beyond the shadow of any 
doubt that UN cannot measure up to 
this standard, it should not be allowed 
to pass out of the picture. While its 
record to date may not be encourag- 
ing, it has nevertheless limped along 
bravely. 

Part of the disappointment in UN 
undoubtedly stems from the high 
hopes which attended its birth. Out 
of the first UN meeting in San Fran- 
cisco came brave and inspiring words. 
The preamble to the UN Charter 
thrilled not only the downtrodden and 
the enslaved, but also all men every- 
where who believed in freedom, 
equality and justice. Now, only eight 
years later, many Americans are losing 
confidence in the ability of UN to 
implement the aspirations so hope- 
fully set forth at San Francisco. 

The fact that Communists or sus- 
pected Communists have been un- 
covered among the American staff 
serving UN has not added to the 
peace of mind of American citizens or 
enhanced the prestige of UN. Added 
together, all these factors have created 
a climate of suspicion, if not down- 
right hostility, toward UN in a sub- 
stantial percentage of the American 
people. 

What the American people need 
most desperately from UN at the 
present time is evidence that UN is 
determined to make good from now 
on. In a recent speech, President 
Eisenhower said: "The United Na- 
tions must become not only an elo- 
quent symbol but an effective force." 
Americans now need dramatic proof 
that UN is through being an eloquent 



symbol and is ready to become an 
effective force. 

In this connection, Norman Cousins, 
editor of Saturday Review of Litera- 
ture and a long-time booster of UN, 
had this to say in a recent issue of 
"United Nations World:" 

"Here we come to a basic fact about 
world organization. The problem 
created by a weak world organization 
is not only that it cannot deal effect- 
ively with a major crisis when it oc- 
curs. The heart of the problem is that 
weak world organization makes a cri- 
sis inevitable. In the absence of any 
real framework of world security, 
large nations inevitably will use every 
means at their disposal to safeguard 
their positions. This in turn means not 
only an all-out arms race but the 
elimination of such power vacuums as 
may exist outside the major parties. 
The resulting competition for national 
security is volatile and combustible. 

"In defining its objectives, therefore, 
the UN can show that there must be 
an organic connection between fool- 
proof disarmament and the machin- 
ery of world law. It can dramatize 
the blood relationship between re- 
sponsible authority and the machinery 
of justice. It can recognize fully the 
incredible complexities in the way of 
a structured peace, but it can make 
it clear that these complexities actual- 
ly define the nature of the challenge, 
rather than the reason for avoiding it." 

Mr. Cousins suggests that a UN Re- 
vision Conference should be held 
either in 1955 or 1956 for the purpose 
of reviewing the accomplishments (or 
lack of accomplishments) up to that 
time, and using that experience as a 
guide to map a more virile and dy- 
namic UN program. 

All the ramifications involved in the 
opposition to UN cannot possibly be 
covered in one short article. Readers 
may remember an article which ap- 



THE CARPENTER 



peared in this journal right after last 
year's AFL convention. That article 
was based on a report made by 
George P. Delaney, AFL representa- 
tive in Europe. In his report to the 
convention, Mr. Delaney bitterly as- 
sailed the attitude which some U.S. 
employer representatives to the Inter- 
national Labor Organization have dis- 
played in recent years. He charged 
that employer representatives to ILO 
were invariably picked from either 
non-union employers or employers 
who have vast holdings in foreign na- 
tions. He also pointed out that some 
of these employer representatives al- 
ways raised the cry of socialism when- 
ever an ILO proposal seemed des- 
tined to raise the living standards of 
foreign workers. 

ILO being an integral part of 
United Nations, a few paragraphs 
from Mr. Delaney's conclusions are 
worth repeating: 

"What is the significance of all this 
to the trade union members of Ameri- 
ca? We stand to gain no direct or 
immediate benefit from the standards 
determined by the International La- 
bor Organization— our own standards, 
achieved through collective bargain- 
ing and otherwise, are already gener- 
ally higher. 

"But those standards do not exist in 
a vacuum, insulated from external 
forces and pressures. How can we be 
sure of our ability to maintain them, 
in time of economic stress, in the face 
of competition, from abroad, of prod- 
ucts turned out by sweated labor, un- 
der sub-human conditions of work? 

"Can we continue to gain improved 
wages and working conditions from 
American employers, if their foreign 
competitors lag farther and farther be- 
hind in those respects? Do our mem- 
bers, as good trade unionists, want to 
work on imported commodities pro- 
duced under unfair, sub-standard con- 



ditions, any more than they would 
want to work on sweat shop goods 
produced in this country? 

"Furthermore, we have a broader 
interest in this undertaking. We have 
an interest in the promotion of those 
higher levels of employment and pros- 
perity which can only come with ex- 
panding world markets for our own 
products. And expanding world mar- 
kets can only come with steady and 
consistent improvements in the con- 
ditions of workers in other lands. 

"We have a vital interest in the 
preservation of world peace, and 
world freedom. Yet we know that 
neither peace nor freedom can be 
established on a foundation of world 
poverty and unrest. 

"These attacks upon the Interna- 
tional Labor Organization are not, 
therefore, remote from our own trade 
union interests. They are, in the final 
analysis, directed equally against 
your standards, your principles, and 
your ideals as trade unionists and as 
Americans. It is up to you to help 
to protect those standards and ideals 
now— by taking a new and more ac- 
tive interest in the ILO, and by giv- 
ing your full support to the work of 
that organization." 

From Mr. Delaney's report, as well 
as from the opposition to UNESCO 
literature in Los Angeles, it is not dif- 
ficult to see that opposition to UN is 
not confined solely to UN but rather 
includes many of its branches. Fur- 
ther more, there is room for suspicion 
that at least some UN opposition stems 
from lack of confidence in the UN set- 
up and more from the fear that ILO 
policies may elevate foreign wage 
standards and thereby interfere with 
profits. 

Admittedly something as compli- 
cated as UN constitutes mighty deep 
waters for an ordinary labor journal. 



8 



THE CARPENTER 



Yet the issues involved are so funda- 
mental and working people have so 
much at stake in the success or fail- 
ure of UN to maintain peace and pro- 
mote world prosperity that every man 
ought to give it some earnest con- 



sideration. UN may not be the answer 
to lasting peace, but when that answer 
comes it can only come through a 
world tribunal capable of uniting the 
free and decent elements in the world 
against the evil elements. 



LOCAL 43 DISCOVERS RELIC 



Spring cleaning time usually 
brings many gripes and a few 
aches and pains, whether it is 
being done in the home or in 
a local union office. But there 
is always a bright side, for the 
aching back can be quickly 
forgotten when a memento of 
a happy experience lets one 
relive the days gone by. An 
old letter, a newspaper or a 
document can bring to mind 
the birth of a child, the first 
days of school or a young 
love. 

Of course these memories are 
likely to be connected with 
home cleaning, but the experi- 
ence of workers at Local 43, of 
Hartford, Connecticut brought 
a lift to their spring cleaning 
operations. While sorting 
through the piles of records 
which the office had accumu- 
lated over a long period of 
years, several exceptionally old 
clearance cards were uncov- 
ered. 

The oldest of these cards 
was dated on August 2, 1886, 
the fifth year of die Brother- 
hood's existence. It is made 
out in the name of Max A. 
Deuschmidt, granting him clear- 
ance from Local 44, then lo- 
cated in Waterbury, Connecti- 
cut. 

Still in suprisingly good con- 
dition, the oldest of these cards 
is shown, no longer of momen- 
tary importance to a few individuals, 
of integrity that has lasted for many 



c^PEpEigkjeip^ I 



OF 1 A.VI1£RICA. 

lis is to vSertifu, that the bearer hereof 




whose name 
hand-writing, 

No...?T.... 
and is entitled t 
We recommend 
\J members of the 
^ admission into a 
^g of three months from t 

This Card expires .._ 



:* 



:/> 






his card in his own ]% 
of Loetd Union 

der our jurisdiction. 

and protection of all !| 

may be, and to free ; p 

therhood for the space ' *J 

ml po longer. 



Given under our hands and the seal of Local ; 
ff.J±lZ; this . U-C€^y^2U^la\) Oj 




but a treasured relic of an honorable past. A symbol 
years. 



TVA FORESTRY 



About 250,000,000 trees have been produced at TVA nurseries and planted on private 
and public lands in a program to develop forest resources. There is organized fire pro- 
tection in 85 per cent of the Valley forests, and many timberland owners have adopted 
sustained yield cutting practices to assure that timber will not be cut at too fast a rate. 
Estimated annual income from Valley forest products is $350,000,000. 



Cold shooting war or hot economic one— 



Free llllen Will Always Win 

• • 

AS THIS issue was going to press, prospects for a negotiated truce in 
Korea seemed extremely bright. In fact there even seemed to be some 
indications that all East- West differences eventually may be settled 
around the conference table instead of over bloody battlefields. Experience 
long since having made it plain that Russian promises can seldom be taken 
at face value, the current optimism for a negotiated and permanent peace 
may be premature and groundless. More than once in the past 20 years 
Kremlin overtures of friendship have turned out to be tricks designed to trap 
the West into costly commitments of one kind or another. Perhaps the 1953 
olive branch being so enticingly dangled by the Kremlin hides a stiletto, but so 
long as it is there it cannot be ig- 



nored. The olive branch may be genu- 
ine after all. 

The ironic thing about the whole 
situation is that the prospect of an 
era of genuine peace fills a surpris- 
ingly large number of Americans with 
forebodings and gloom rather than 
hope and elation. These are the peo- 
ple who are convinced that Russia is 
changing her tactics from a cold 
shooting war to a hot economic one. 
It is this economic war that will drive 
us to ruin, they insist. 

Malenkov and the Kremlin, say 
these pessimists, have discovered that 
rather than wearing our economy 
down, the demands of national de- 
fense have elevated our productive 
might to new plateaus of perform- 
ance. For the past three years, the 
United States has turned out not only 
mountains of war materials but also 
an endless array of civilian goods. 
The Reds had hoped that the sad- 
dling of a heavy defense load on the 
American economy would cause it to 
break down. Instead our economy re- 
acted by growing stronger and health- 
ier. The Reds have now recognized 
their mistake, the pessimists, insist. 



Now the Reds appear to be revers- 
ing their field— abandoning the cold 
shooting war and entering into a hot 
economic one. They visualize the un- 
employed walking the streets of our 
cities as they did in the 1930s, as soon 
as our defense plants begin slowing 
down. And there are many Ameri- 
cans who agree with this gloomy 
prognosis. 

Fortunately this unhappy anxiety is 
not shared by most of the nations 
far-sighted leaders. With good rea- 
son, too. For one thing, there cannot 
possibly be any sudden termination 
of defense production. Too often in 
the past Russian overtures of peace 
have been nothing but schemes for 
buying time or propaganda advan- 
tages or something of the sort. Re- 
gardless of what the Russians do or 
say, America must go on building up 
its defenses to the point where maxi- 
mum possible security is achieved. 
This means a continuation of defense 
production for years to come. 

Another fact which many pessimists 
overlook is that the United States it- 
self is an "undeveloped" country in 
many respects. For those earning 



10 



THE CARPENTER 



decent incomes and living in pros- 
perous circumstances it is hard to 
realize the fact that there are some- 
where in the neighborhood of 20,- 
000,000 people in the United States 
who are still living under relatively 
primitive conditions. These people 
have never been integrated into our 
economy. They have never done 
much as producers and they have 
contributed very little as consumers. 
Their annual earnings have never 
topped $1,500; consequently, they 
have never provided much of a mar- 
ket for consumer goods. 

These people are now being drawn 
into full participation in our economy. 
The automobiles and washing ma- 
chines and television sets these people 
can buy as they elevate their living 
standards provide a richer market 
than almost anything defense spend- 
ing seems to offer right now. 

On the other hand, political and 
psychological factors are becoming 
more favorable for an increase in 
world trade. The possibilities for do- 
ing business with the rest of the 
world on a mutually profitable basis 
are improving constantly as artificial 
barriers are broken down. From now 
on it will become easier to do busi- 
ness with our friends abroad. 

Despite inflation, skyrocketing 
prices and all the other economic 
pressures there have been on the 
pocketbook lately, individual savings 
are close to a new high. Most of 
these dollars were put into the bank 
for a specific purpose— to buy a house 
or farm or new car. As goods become 
more available and better priced, the 
dollars in the bank will go to work. 

Another encouraging factor is that 
many of our greatest natural re- 
sources have not been fully put to 
work as yet. And we have not even 
scratched the surface in such fertile 
and promising fields as electronics, 
chemistry and atomic fission. Added 



together, all these things mean that 
we can grow and prosper and reach 
our full stature as a nation in time 
of peace as readily as we can in time 
of war. 

In the cold war we met every Com- 
munist thrust with firmness and deter- 
mination. In the end, the Reds gave 
up hope of winning the cold war in 
Korea. With the same spirit of firm- 
ness and determination we can meet 
any economic aggression on the part 
of the Kremlin. UN World in its May 
issue commented editorially on this 
matter as follows: 

"Competition for the world market 
may be the new Soviet strategem. 
Moscow may train its economic artil- 
lery on the objectives of trade with 
Japan, with Germany, with all the 
market-hungry nations. It would thus 
break up the Western alliance, hitch 
the economic wagons of an increasing 
number of states to the red star, and 
cause a fatal shrinkage in the eco- 
nomic power of the United States. 

"If this is so, the East- West struggle 
may ultimately be measured entirely 
in terms of economics: the cold war 
will become a matter of cold statis- 
tics. Just as in centuries past, various 
epochs were dominated by achieve- 
ments in art, religion, or philosophy, 
so perhaps ours is the Economic Cen- 
tury. 

"Luckily, the new terrain chosen by 
the new leaders of Russia is not 
altogether unfavorable to the United 
States. The achievements of the 
American economy are a matter of 
historical record. It is true that the 
Soviet economic challenge, if it 
comes, will be powerful and sus- 
tained. 

"Yet it can be met and will be met 
—if only for one basic reason. Capital- 
ism—physically, morally and psycho- 
logically—is a totally different system 
from what Karl Marx supposed it to 
be a hundred years ago. Consequent- 



THE CARPENTER 11 

ly, the whole Marxist-Leninist-Stalin- out maneuver driven workers in war, 
ist concept of the future is based on they can do it in peace too. 
an incorrect assumption." The A. F. of L. Executive Council, 
In the last paragraph of the above at its spring session, urged the Presi- 
quotation lies the essence of the hope dent to make plans to assure the con- 
which America holds. World War II tinuance of prosperity. They con- 
taught the world one important thing curred in his request for economic 
—free men can outproduce driven advisers, with a request that labor, 
men at any time, at any place, and business and agriculture be represent- 
under any circumstances. For all the ed equally on the council, 
millions of slave laborers the Nazis We have been successful in our at- 
worked to complete exhaustion in tempts to defeat the threat of run- 
short periods of time, Hitler and his away inflation, and by the same, sen- 
leaders could not keep pace with sible, cooperative efforts we can elim- 
American production lines manned in inate the threat of depression. With 
large part by housewives, oldsters intelligent economic planning the 
called out of retirement, and even the United States can continue in peace- 
physically handicapped, all of whom ful prosperity as she has in war. The 
had but one big asset in their favor end of world conflict should be wel- 
— the knowledge that they were free, corned as a blessing instead of as an 
If free workers can outproduce and economic threat. 



WAGE-HOUR HEAD REVISES BENEFIT-PLAN REGULATIONS 

Revised regulations and interpretations on profit-sharing and benefit plans 
under the Fair Labor Standards Act have been issued by Wm. R. McComb, 
Administrator of the U. S. Labor Department's Wage and Hour and Public 
Contracts Divisions. 

McComb issued the revisions after a public hearing and a series of con- 
sultations with labor and management. Participating were representatives of 
the AFL, CIO, and UMWA and also of the Council of Profit Sharing Indus- 
tries, a management organization. 

Statutory amendments effective January 25, 1950, provided that payments 
made under a bona fide profit-sharing plan meeting the Administrator's regula- 
tions or a bona fide plan for providing health and welfare benefits for em- 
ployees may be excluded from the employee's other earnings in determining 
his regular rate of pay. Under the act, overtime pay at time and one-half the 
regular rate is due employees for all hours worked beyond 40 a week. 

An important provision of the new benefit plan interpretations accepts as 
bona fide, in the absence of contrary evidence, a plan which qualifies under 
section 165(a) of the Internal Revenue Code, if its primary purpose is to pro- 
vide employees with retirement, disability, medical and hospital benefits, and 
the like. 

The benefit plan revisions also eliminate a previous requirement that the 
employer's contributions must be paid over to a third party trustee. Under 
the revisions, the trustee may be an affiliate of the employer. This change 
conforms the requirements to prevailing practice. 

The revisions also make it clear that a bona fide benefit plan may be 
financed out of profits. This change will help clarify the uncertainty which 
previously existed as to whether payments made under such a plan would 
have to meet the tests for profit-sharing plans or those for benefit plans. 



p 




^ 



LANE DOSS IP 



HARD TO EQUALIZE 

The economy axe has been working over- 
time in Washington. Budgets have been 
slashed to the bone, and not even the 
agonized shrieks of the armed forces top 
brass have been able to save the services 
from substantial cuts. Wise or foolish, right 
or wrong, not a department or an agency 
or an arm of the government has escaped 
the wringer treatment. 

And are some of the strongest advocates 
reacting strangely! Newspaper after news- 
paper that shouted loudest for economy 
last January now is very unhappy because 
some pet project is feeling the pinch. Every- 
body apparently wants economy in govern- 
ment; however, the economy has to be 
practiced on the other fellow and the other 
communities. 

All this economy furor sort of reminds 
us of the fellow who never married. 

"How is it that you never married?" a 
friend asked one day. 

"Well," replied the batch, "I always de- 
cided that I would never marry until I 
found the ideal woman. I searched for 
years before I found her." 

"Then what?" 

"Unfortunately I found out she was look- 
ing for the ideal man." 



173. 




"I'm so glad you joined the Union, 
dear, and got that nice paid-vacation 
check— wasn't it?" 



IT COSTS MORE TOO 

Somehow or other this old world gets 
more and more complicated by the day. 

A young doctor returned to the small 
town where he was born and called on the 
old family physician. 

"I suppose that you intend to specialize," 
remarked the elder. 

"Oh, yes," answered the youth, loftily. 
"In the diseases of the nose; for the ears 
and throat are far too complicated to be 
combined with the nose for purposes of 
study and treatment." 

There was a short pause, after which the 
old medic inquired: "and which nostril are 
you concentrating on?" 

* * * 

A LONG TIME TO WAIT FOR JUSTICE 

A "wage adjustment" dating back to 1887 
has given Miss Josephine Lang, 80 year old 
domestic, "retroactive" pay amounting to 
$36,050. 

Attorneys for the aged woman settled 
for that amount in Superior Court in Cali- 
fornia in her suit against the estate of her 
late employer, Miss Bessie Murphy, 70 who 
died in 1951. 

Miss Murphy was a child of six when 
Miss Lang became her nurse, the suit said. 
Subsequently, through 64 years, Miss Lang 
said she served as cook, baker, charwoman, 
laundress, confidant and companion and 
never was paid more than $1 a day. 

At that, the elderly nurse was lucky. It 
may have taken her 64 years and a court 
trial to get what was coming to her, but in 
the end she got it. A lot of non-union 
people working on non-union jobs today 
may spend the next 64 years with their 
noses to the grindstone without ever getting 
economic justice. The moral is: there is 
no substitute for a union which sees to it 
that its members get what they are entitled 
to when they are entitled to it. 

• * * 
WHOLE HOG 

A Dixie GI was playing cards with some 
English soldiers for the first time. Taking 
a quick look at what he had been dealt, 
the Southern boy saw four lovely aces. 

"One pound," was the bet ventured by 
the Englishman on his right. 

"Ah don't know how yo'all count yo 
money," said the GI, "but ah '11 raise you a 
ton." 



THE CARPENTER 



13 



ALL TOO TRUE 

Judging by what the front pages contain 
these days, the persons who wish you 
"every happiness in the world" aren't be- 
ing too generous any more, comments the 
Wall Street Journal. 

* * * 

NO RUNS, NO HITS, ONE ERROR 

Two Fort Sill enlisted men were credited 
recently with a nice try in their plan to buy 
their way out of the Army, but they still 
were in service. 

Cpl. George C. Noonan, Jr. of Santa 
Barbara, Calif., and Pfc. Hugh Lucas of 
Dallas, Texas, said they had tried unsuc- 
cessfully to use an 1890 law that permitted 
a man to leave the Army if he bought his 
uniform. The law was suspended in 1940 
by President Roosevelt until April 1, 1953. 

Corporal Noonan said he had watched 
the newspapers closely on April 1 to see 
if Congress had passed legislation extend- 
ing the suspension. He could not find it 
anywhere. 

"So I put in my application," he said. 
"My commanding officer phoned and wanted 
to know the score. I told him about the 
law, and he said he would forward it on." 

Then came the blow. Corporal Noonan 
and Private Lucas, who also had made ap- 
plication, were informed Congress had pas- 
sed a bill on March 31 extending the sus- 
pension until July 1. The Army hopes by 
then to have the law stricken as "archaic." 

"It was just an outside chance," explained 
Private Lucas, "and we figured it was worth 
a try." 

Seems like West Point ought to give 
these two lads a good looking over. Good 
potential four-star general material there. 

* * * 
AH, FLATTERY 

"Did you see how pleased Mrs. Smith 
looked when I told her that she didn't look 
a day older than her daughter?" 

"I didn't notice. I was too busy watching 
die expression on her daughter's face!" 

* * " * 
JUSTIFIABLE HOMICIDE 

"One day," said the countryman from the 
hills, who was on trial for murder, "when 
my rheumatism was pestering me, and my 
daughter had just eloped with a good-for- 
nothin' scalawag, and my barn had burned 
down and I lost both my mules, and my 
best old sow got the cholera and died, and 
I just heard they had foreclosed the mort- 
gage and the sheriff was lookin' for me, I 
told my troubles to one of these here op- 
timists, and he said 'Cheer up, old top, 
the worst is yet to come!' So I shot him." 



ANYHOW, IT SEEMS THAT WAY 

Old Joe Paup, the poor man's Plato, 
after attending a piano recital, a dance 
recital, a horse show and a play in which a 
neice of his was involved, came to the 
following conclusion: 

"Today it takes more money to keep a 
child amused than it did to get his father 
educated." 

• • • 

VALUE RECEIVED 

( Reprinted from UNION) 

On a busy street corner in Seattle I 
was accosted by a small, furtive and seedy- 
looking individual who sidled up to me with, 
"Brother, would you buy me a drink?" in- 
dicating the liquor emporium nearby. "I'll 
put you wise to something good." Feeling 
dry myself, and intrigued by the little 
stranger's disarming manner, I told him to 
lead the way. 

We ordered our drinks, he gulped his 
down without a flinch and started for the 
exit. "Hey," I yelled," what about that tip 
you were going to give me?" 

The stranger paused for a moment at the 
door, took a half-step forward and with an 
apologetic grin spreading over his un- 
shaven face said, "Oh yeh— I almost forgot— 
if you ever get sent up to San Quentin 
Penitentiary, use the grindstone on the far 
right of the machine shop. Its got ball 
bearings and turns the easiest." 

Having performed his end of the bargain, 
he vanished into the passing crowd. 




-SIggBS-153 ©'953 CAM. Skmu)iTz 



"My girl friend is no Isolationist — 
but she does have a definite 'Hands- 
of f ' policy!" 



14 



A new woodworking plant in Israel proves— 



Brotherhood Has No Boundaries 

Editor's note: Since 1941 the world has known little except a hot war, a cold war, or an un- 
stable peace. Under the circumstances, the headlines for the past 15 years have concerned them- 
selves mostly with tensions and threats and misunderstandings between nations. Almost ignored 
has been the fact that a new nation, dedicated to the same concepts of freedom and independence 
that motivated our own founding fathers, is rising in the desert of the Near East. By muscle, 
sinew and sweat, modern pioneers are carving Israel out of a niggardly land. They are literally 
making the desert bloom. American labor has been watching that effort with more than passing 
interest. As this article proves, it has been doing more than that; it has been digging into its 
pockets to help the courageous workers of Israel get their economic feet planted on a firm 
foundation. 

• * 

By Ted Kenney, President, Chicago District Council of Carpenters 

TWO YEARS ago it became my happy privilege to accept the Chair- 
manship of the Chicago Labor and Business Committee to erect a 
woodworking mill in Naharyia, Israel, in behalf of the Israeli Federa- 
tion of Labor— HIST ADRUT. This project is sponsored by Carpenters' Local 
504 in Chicago and Local 1073 in Philadelphia. 

I did so at the request of Brother Charles Holzman, business representa- 
tive of Local 1539, who for a number of years has been the .chairman of the 
labor division of the Is- 
rael Histadrut Campaign 
of Chicago. 

The basic purpose of this 
project was to provide a 
factory in which the new- 
comers into this new de- 
mocracy in the Middle 
East would be given sorely 
needed occupational train- 
ing—and the many wood 
products made would be a 
boon to the growing popu- 
lation. 

It was especially gratify- 
ing to participate in the 
building of the factory 
which would be a gift to the General 
Federation of Labor in Israel. For it 
is they who are the actual builders 
and pioneers of the New Israel. 

In May of 1952 we held our first 
banquet in order to raise funds for 
this great project. In view of the great 
need we continued our activities and 
have just held our Culminating Ban- 
quet for this cause on the 6th of June 
at the Morrison Hotel. Our entire 




From left to right, Ted Kenney, president of the Chicago 
District Council; Charles Holzman, business representative 
of Local Union No. 1539; and O. Wm. Blaier, 2nd General 
Vice President happily discuss the fine results achieved 
at the Culminating Banquet. 



committee was very proud of the fact 
that the guest speaker on this occa- 
sion was Brother O. Wm. Blaier, Se- 
cond General Vice-President. I am 
especially gratified at the warm- 
hearted interest which has always 
manifested in this project by our Gen- 
eral President, Brother Maurice 
Hutcheson and our First General 
Vice-President, John R. Stevenson. 



THE CARPENTER 



15 



—STORY OF THE MONTH— 

As recently as thirty years ago, golf 
was a rich man's game. 

Today the situation is reversed with 
many of moderate means, both young 
and old, strolling the greenswards, 
whacking away at the small white 
ball. As in all sports, prestige and mon- 
ey means little in active competition. 

This very fact was illustrated last 
May 29th, when Leonard A. Young, 
a 32 year-old member of Local 329, 
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma defeated 19 
year-old Bill Parker, for the Oklaho- 
ma State Amateur Championship. 

Twice previously he had been de- 
feated in the early rounds by men 
who eventually won the champion- 
ship, but in this, his fifth try, he was 
determined to win. Down two at the 
third hole, Young fought back to gain I 
a 2-up lead at the end of 18 holes. 
Parker's long and accurate drives 
evened the score on the 32nd hole 
and the two golfers started the final 
hole even. The 465-yard 36th hole 
was a battle for both tired men, but 
Young's more accurate irons and putt- 
ing captured the final hole for him. 

In an editorial entitled "Golf Goes 
Main Street," The Tulsa World speaks 
out for the carpenter-champion: 

"The victory of L. A. Young in the 
Oklahoma State Amateur golf tourna- 
ment at Tulsa Country Club is the 
best psychological boost public links 
players have had in many a day. 

"Time was when batting the little 
ball around the dunes was the less than 
sane privilege of the playboys and 
bankers. It was the sport of pluto- 
crats, no less; with the dollar sign as 
an entry fee. Then came the caddies 
and others of the common herd, who 
had learned their good golf from the 
bad golf of the dilettantes. 

"Nowadays, as carpenter Young 
has so amply proven, mighty good 
golf is played on the public course. 
The duffers are relegated to the 
country clubs, too tied down by world 
economic pursuits to serve the cause 
of links perfection. 

"All hail golfer Young, and the 
public links crowd, who have trans- 
ferred the plaything of Kings to Main 
Street, U.S.A." 



We have already raised $75,000 for 
this woodworking mill in Israel. I 
might add that the response of many 
of my brothers in the labor move- 
ment and my friends in the building 
trades industry was extremely heart- 
ening. I sincerely believe that our 
project was one of the best examples 
which could be offered of labor and 
management working together to help 
others. 

Both the purpose of the project and 
the manner in which our activities 
were conducted in its behalf consti- 
tute a real lesson in Brotherhood. It 
is because of this that I sincerely be- 
lieve that all who have participated in 
this effort feel that they have been 
richly rewarded. 

I should like to thank our entire 
committee for their loyal cooperation 
and especially Brother Charles Holz- 
man for his devoted and dedicated 
efforts to help make this great project 
a reality. 



New School Honors Name 
of William Green 



The first public school named for 
William Green, late president of the 
American Federation of Labor, was 
recently dedicated at Lawndale, Cali- 
fornia. 

Mrs. Olga V. Pierce, principal of 
the new school, welcomed parents, 
teachers and others who attended die 
program. 

Hobson G. Denmark, a longtime 
member of the Boilermakers Union, 
and a member of the local school- 
board, was largely responsible for the 
naming of the school. 

An excellent painting of Mr. Green, 
by Fay Black, a member of the Paint- 
ers Union, was presented to the 
school. 



16 



THE ULTRAMODERN IN HOME BUILDING 



IN AN attractive suburban neighborhood of Aurora, 111., stands what 
undoubtedly is a most unusual house. Finished some two years ago, it 
has been called the house of the Twenty-first Century. Whatever its 
esthetic value may be, however, no one can gainsay the fact that its plan- 
ning and construction involved imagination and know-how. The owners 




A typical Sunday, with the Ford's home surrounded by curious crowds. 



and the architects supplied the im- 
agination, and the members of Local 
Union No. 916, under the direction 
of contractor Don Tosi, supplied the 
know-how. 

Mr. and Mrs. Albert Ford, builders 
and owners of the unique residence, 
knew only too well the penalties in- 
volved in daring to be unconvention- 
al. 

However, two national magazines, 
Life in its March 19, 1951, issue, and 



Architectural Forum in its April, 1951, 
issue gave the Ford house consider- 
able favorable publicity. 

Located in the center of an acre 
and a half plot in the suburban area 
of Aurora, the house is constructed 
of Stran-Steel members, arched to 
form the shape of half a grapefruit, 
with a needle pointed pylon sticking 
out the center. The Quonset ribs do 
not come all the way down to the 
floor level. They are butt welded to 



THE CARPENTER 



17 



bent "I" beams. The exterior walls 
are covered with black, stained, shin- 
gles down to the coal wall on the 
street side, while the back of the 
house is exposed except for screening 
over the red Stran-Steel members. 

Built in a 166 foot circle, the in- 
terior has three levels; the gallery, pit 



playing marbles and cullets weighing 
100 pounds. These huge clusters of 
glass are the residue from glass fur- 
naces. 

No conventional windows are to be 
found in the structure. Ventilation is 
derived from hinged louvres and ceil- 
ing vents. Light enters through the 
bomber-type Plexiglass blister in the 




The Stran-Steel dome before it received its Plexiglass covering. 



and balcony. It is not divided into 
conventional rooms, except for bed- 
rooms and baths. 

No plaster was used in the con- 
struction. The horizontal ceilings are 
covered with tightly coiled, black 
tarred rope, while one wall is faced 
with cannel coal for a space of 75 feet. 
Embedded in the wall are ordinary 



center of the house, which is pierced 
by the copper pylon which serves as 
a chimney for the fireplace on the 
spacious terrace. A smaller Plexiglass 
bubble covers each of two baths, 
while the two bedrooms are equipped 
with skylights. 

The bedrooms are located in wings 
at opposite sides of the house, each 
equipped with a bath which also 



18 



THE CARPENTER 




A view of the spacious and beautifully appointed gallery, showing the coal wall and cypress 

covered portion of the dome. 



mmm 





• . 



-*•*'*. ■* 









Only screening covers the sun bathed rear side of the "Round House. 
Bed rooms flank each side of the terrace. 



THE CARPENTER 



19 



has unusual features. Rope adorns 
the ceilings as elsewhere in the house, 
while the bathtubs are of black ter- 
razzo and the concrete floors are also 
black. 

Mrs. Ford, who is the director of 
the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts, 
has a study in the pit. Directly be- 
hind the study is the kitchen, modern- 
ly equipped, with cabinets of unusual 



ing was called "a near miracle of pre- 
cision," by Architectural Forum. 

Architect Bruce Goff created the 
house, not only desiring to make it 
something different, but hoping to 
allow for the maximum utilization of 
space. 

Different down to the last detail, 
the conventional garage is not to be 
found, but a car port serves the same 
purpose. 




Local 916 members survey the interior after the Stran-Steel ribs were covered with shingles. 
Pipes of the radiant heating unit circle the floor. 



depth, serving as bookcases on the 
study side. 

Heated by a radiant heating system, 
the Fords have found the home ex- 
ceptionally economical, due to the 
great expanse of sunlight which enters 
through the dome. 

One of the most unusual features, 
is the dome ceiling. It is covered, ex- 
cept for the plexiglass center, with 
lapped cypress. Contractor Don Tosi's 
workmen's craftsmanship on this fac- 



Great freedom of decoration is al- 
lowed by the enormous open space of 
the interior. 

Its exceptionally modern styling 
and fine craftsmanship will appeal to 
many people. It took courage as well 
as vivid imagination to build this 
ultramodern house. As mentioned 
previously, there are many unusual 
features throughout the house which 
required the higher degree of superb 
craftsmanship. 



20 THE CARPENTER 

Russ Wages Buy Less Food Than Before Five Year Plan 

The Soviet worker's real earnings in terms of food purchasing power are 
considerably below the 1928 level, despite post war price cuts, according to 
an article which appeared in the July Monthly Labor Review, published by 
the U. S. Labor Department's Bureau of Labor Statistics. 

The year 1928, when a degree of free enterprise prevailed under the New 
Economic Policy (the "NEP") and the peasants had not yet been forced into 
collective farms, marked the high point in the Soviet level of living, accord- 
ing to the article. The decline in the level of living began with the introduc- 
tion late in 1928 of the Five Year Plans "with their overriding, unrelenting 
emphasis on the expansion of heavy industry. From that time the Soviet con- 
sumer has never ceased to pay heavily to support this expansion." 

Analysis of official Soviet prices and earnings shows that the average Soviet 
worker would have to work about 45 per cent longer in 1953 than he did in 
1928 in order to buy the same weekly supply of seven important foods— bread, 
potatoes, beef, butter, eggs, milk, and sugar. 

In particular, the Soviet worker now has to work about 67 per cent longer 
to buy a pound of bread, about 43 per cent longer to buy a pound of beef, and 
about 244 per cent longer to buy a quart of milk. Potatoes alone, because of 
a 50 per cent price cut in April this year, are slightly "cheaper" than they were 
in 1928. 

The article states that the "increased worktime now required to purchase 
the food consumed weekly by the average family of four persons presumably 
answers the question why an exceptionally high percentage of women have to 
to work outside the home. 

"A Soviet worker, as sole supporter of a family of four, would now have 
to work over 75 per cent of his time to buy only the seven foods in quantities 
which the average Moscow wage earner family purchased in 1928." 

The same policy of emphasis on production of heavy goods at the expense 
of consumer goods has led to a steady decrease in the standard of living in all 
of the nations which have been forced into the Russian orbit. Food, clothing, 
and household items all require longer periods of working time to earn in 
spite of all the price rigging and monetary rigging that the Kremlin has done 
to make it appear that prices are going down. It still takes more minutes of 
work at today's wages to buy a loaf of bread than it did five years ago. 

All this explains the riots which have shaken Eastern Germany, Poland, 

and other satellite nations. Working and living standards deteriorated to the 

point where rebellion became inevitable, for when life becomes so barren that 

death loses its fearsomeness, direct action always results. 

• 

LITTLE BUGS PLENTY POWERFUL 

Seventy-five per cent of the living creatures on Earth are insects. Of the more than 
700,000 species in the U. S., about 10,000 infect man or his crops, according to "Insects, 
Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture, 1952." 

Without moder npesticides for control of insects and diseases, many of our foods could 
not be grown commercially while others would be inferior in quality, and scarce and costly 
because of lower yields. Today more than 40,000 agricultural formulations, based on some 
500 different chemicals, have been registered to serve the needs of th corp raiser. In 
spite of this progress, insect damage to agricultural products amounts to $4 billion annually 
i nthe U. S., wiUiout counting damage to trees. 



21 



Shott Shoots T-H Claims 



THIS journal has repeatedly pointed out that the Taft-Hartley Law, 
instead of being (as its backers claim) a new approach to labor rela- 
tions, is in reality an abandonment of all progressive labor legislation 
that has been enacted since the turn of the century. Instead of being some- 
thing new and promising, it is a return to the horse and buggy era when the 
cards were stacked overwhelmingly against the working man. 

Now John Shott, long one of the nation's leading economists and at pres- 
ent senior economist for Public Affairs Institute, takes a long and searching 
look at Taft-Hartley and comes up with pretty much the same conclusion. 
In a study of nine important prob- 



lems of labor-management relations 
in the United States, Shott develops 
the thesis that we are trying to solve 
today's labor disputes in terms of 
Nineteenth Century concepts of the 
relationship between the worker and 
his employer. 

His study, "Issues in Labor-Man- 
agement Relations," published recent- 
ly by the Public Affairs Institute, a 
nonpartisan research organization, 
asks whether "rules of conduct that 
reflect the values and economic real- 
ities of a bygone era are appropriate 
for Twentieth Century industrial rela- 
tions." 

Among issues raised by the Taft- 
Hartley Act and considered by the 
author in this context of ancient ver- 
sus modern industrial practices are: 
free speech for employers, the use of 
the injunction in labor disputes, the 
legal block against the secondary boy- 
cott, and the closed shop. In addition, 
the efforts of some industry groups to 
press for the barring of industry-wide 
bargaining is examined. 

Taft-Hartley provisions that em- 
ployers may express their opinions of 
unions, short of open threats or prom- 
ises of reward, are defended by sup- 



porters of the Act in the name of free 
speech, and in the name of "equaliz- 
ing" the balance between the em- 
ployer and the union. But the study 
points out that the license granted to 
employers to express their opinions 
on unions may not be the "equaliza- 
tion" measure that it appears on the 
surface. 

For example, there is the so-called 
"captive audience" doctrine in which 
the employer may make an anti-union 
speech on company time and on com- 
pany property. Can this right of the 
employer be "equalized" by giving 
union officials the right to speak on 
company time and property in favor 
of the union? 

"How can the union leader, whose 
own job depends on the management, 
give the same force to his remarks 
that must always follow anything said 
or done by the owner of the ma- 
chines, material and plant?" the au- 
thor asks. 

The study points out that the late 
Justice Holmes placed emphasis on 
the relative character of free speech, 
citing the Holmes statement that the 
constitutional guarantee of free speech 
did not protect a man from an injunc- 



22 



THE CARPENTER 



tion "against uttering words that have 
all the effect of force." 

Consequently, it is concluded that 
what is needed is a new, realistic ap- 
praisal of the real force that is impli- 
cit in the statements of "the man who 
hands out the paychecks." 

The present "free speech" doctrine, 
the study points out, is a return to the 
time before the Wagner Act when 
employers could openly denounce un- 
ions in any fashion they liked before 
"captive" audiences. 

In reviewing the injunctive provi- 
sions of the Taft-Hartley Act, the au- 
thor makes the point that restoration 
of court action against strikes and 
strikers is a reversion to a legal tech- 
nique that was thoroughly discredited 
in the past history of American labor- 
management relations. He points out 
that Herbert Hoover signed the Nor- 
ris-LaGuardia Act of 1932, which all 
but eliminated the use of injunctions 
in labor disputes. 

The author notes that the injunc- 
tion has long since been abandoned 
in labor disputes in Great Britain 
where the practice originated. Yet, in 
the United States, the courts "in an 
atmosphere of advanced industrial 
development followed a course of re- 
trogression in the selection of legal 
principles and methods in dealing 
with industrial controversies." This 
course, temporarily halted by the Nor- 
ris-LaGuardia Act, was revived by 
the Taft-Hartley Act, which "made 
legal a summary method of dealing 
with labor disputes found in no other 
industrial nations." 

Again, the banning of the second- 
ary boycott is a further example of 
the "old" versus the "new." Many 
years ago the secondary boycott was 
held a conspiracy in restraint of trade 
under the common law which cen- 
tered its attention on the property 
right of the employer to do business 



rather than on the right of the em- 
ployes to protect their gains from 
collective bargaining. This common 
law approach to the secondary boy- 
cott was superseded by the Norris- 
LaGuardia Act which made such boy- 
cotts legal. Here, again, the Taft- 
Hartley Acts reverts to "ancient rules 
of conduct" to govern the labor-man- 
agement relations of a modern indus- 
trial society. 

The case is much the same with the 
closed shop. Whether the closed shop 
is "good" or "bad" can be debated 
from varying viewpoints. The historic 
fact is, however, that the closed shop 
is the product of an evolutionary 
process in the industries of all indus- 
trial nations and union control of the 
hiring process serves an important 
economic function of value not only 
to the workers but the employers as 
well. The author suggests that re- 
examination of the actual workings of 
the closed shop in specific industries 
is necessary before judgment is 
passed as to the value of the require- 
ment for union membership in ad- 
vance as a condition of employment. 

One of the nine issues examined is 
the proposal to outlaw industry-wide 
bargaining. Congress rejected this 
proposal at the time of the Taft-Hart- 
ley Act but it is still the goal of some 
anti-union forces. Here, as in the case 
of the closed shop, the question is 
whether "a normal industrial develop- 
ment" should be set aside and older 
practices substituted. The author asks 
whether bargaining on a plant or 
company basis by individual unions, 
rather than by national unions on an 
industry-wide basis, would in reality 
more adequately meet the needs of 
modern American industry. He points 
out the possibility of widespread un- 
economic readjustments in many in- 
dustries should industry-wide bar- 
gaining be forbidden by law. 



THE CARPENTER 



23 



An important section of "Issues in 
Labor-Management Relations" is de- 
voted to study of the injunction- 
enforced cooling-off period in so- 
called national emergency work stop- 
pages. The study questions whether 
these Taft-Hartley provisions have 
actually contributed to effective col- 
lective bargaining in such disputes. 
The study further questions whether 
there were actually any "national 
emergencies" involved in the cases 
where the President invoked the na- 
tional emergency procedures. 

The author suggests that a guide to 
future policy would be provided by 
careful analysis of the facts presented 
by the Attorney General to the feder- 
al district courts to support the in- 
junctions issued under these provi- 
sions. After examining the affidavits 
to support the injunction of April 1948 
in which the United Mine Workers 
were fined $1,400,000 for contempt of 
court, the author says: 

"One gets the impression that high 
government officials were requested 



to provide statements to support a 
sudden decision by the political au- 
thorities to end the coal strike." Re- 
viewing specific affidavits submitted 
by cabinet officers intended to prove 
that a crisis would ensue if the coal 
strike should last for several weeks, 
the author concludes that the state- 
ments supplied "little, if any, support 
for the declaration of national emer- 
gency." 

The study concludes that there is 
wide agreement among impartial pro- 
fessional labor experts on two impor- 
tant policy considerations: (1) that 
there have been no genuine national 
emergencies, and (2) that the use of 
the injunction in enforcing a cooling- 
off period of 80 days does not aid in 
the settlement of labor disputes. In 
view of these findings he believes 
that the suggestion of George Meany, 
President of the American Federation 
of Labor, that mediation and concilia- 
tion should be relied upon in these 
situations, merits favorable considera- 
tion. 



"BIG AMERICAN," THE FLOOR SANDER'S FRIEND 

Although common today, fifty years ago motor driven floor Sanders were rare and 
treasured objects. Floors were then finished by workmen who knelt on the floor and 

scraped the surface with a steel blade. 

By inventing one of the first machine driven 
sanders, J. H. Prugh relieved floormen from a diffi- 
cult task. Mr. Prugh was employed as a carpenter- 
foreman in 1901. The contractor for whom he 
was working had failed to include die cost of fin- 
ishing floors when he presented his bid for work 
on the new Natural Sciences Building at Stanford 
University. Faced with a substantial loss, he was 
saved by the invention of his foreman, who con- 
ceived his machine after the principle of die 
board sanding machines then in use in lumber 
mills. 

The crude machine, named "Big American," 
was driven by a 5-horse power motor, self-pro- 
pelled, with the operator standing on the platform. 
It had double 18-inch sanding drums, was wood 
framed, and employed a clutch for forward or 
reverse motion. 

Today, the manufacturers of "Big American," the American Floor Surfacing Machine 
Company, in its fiftieth year, is a recognized leader in the field of floor surfacing machine 
equipment. 




Editorial 




An Apology to our Readers 

Last December, in an editorial, we reported that the Federal Trade Com- 
mission was beginning a study of the disappearing consumer dollar and 
where it goes. We felt that when the study was completed a true picture 
of who gets our dollar would be painted for the public. Now we would like 
to apologize for our gullibility and stupidity. In that editorial we also stated 
that profiteers would be smoked out. Now we are blushing at our naivete. 

We will try to give an honest picture of why we were fooled. In 1952, 
President Truman requested that the FTC begin the study of how the con- 
sumer's dollar is divided. He advised that particular attention be given to 
cigarettes, fertilizer, bread, flour, milk and butter. The result would show 
how much each handler, the farmer, transporter, manufacturer, wholesaler 
and retailer was receiving, as his share of the total price of a given product. 

Recently the Department of Agriculture released figures which caused 
quite a bit of apprehension among the nation's economists. The farmer's 
share of the consumer dollar is getting very small. In 1945 the farmer re- 
ceived 54 cents of this dollar, while today he receives only 45 cents; and 
should such a trend continue, he may soon find himself receiving no more 
than the 32 cents he got in 1932. During 1952 it cost the housewives $2.9 
billion more to fill the family larder than it did in the previous year, yet the 
farmer is getting less money. 

Who got the increase? Not the farmer, he got less. FTC and the Securities 
and Exchange Commission give us a partial answer. From the middle of 1951 
to the middle of 1952, middlemen's profits increased 11% after taxes. This 
group includes processors, packers, dairy companies, millers, canners, whole- 
salers and retailers. The torpedoed study was supposed to show us who 
got the lion's share. We might have gotten our answer but Congressmen and 
the men who pull the strings began getting scared. The Commission was 
getting too close to the secret. 

The study was allowed to continue until it came up for appropriations 
for 1953. At that time the Senate rammed through an appropriations bill 
that was amended to read "... no part of the foregoing appropriation shall 
be available for statistical analysis of the consumer dollar." The vote for 
this amendment was 45-30. 

A few voices spoke up in objection. One, Senator Kilgore, of West 
Virginia, was loud enough to be heard. He said, "Someone is apparently 
bound and determined that the American people shall not be provided 
with the facts on profiteering that is now going on at the expense of the 
farmers and consumers." 

Many complaints have been heard in recent years concerning farm price 
supports. We couldn't understand why they were needed, especially since 
we paid such high food prices at the neighborhood store. We thought 



THE CARPENTER 25 

the farmer was getting as rich as Midas, but now we can wonder just how 
much he did make. Maybe he told the truth when he protested that he wasn't 
causing high prices. 

Who was, we can't tell you, since Congress won't let the FTC spend 
a mere $186,000 to complete their study. Our budget can't stand such 
great expense. It seems the only thing we can do is apologize for letting 
Congress make fools of us. 



A Matter For The Shareholders 

The following is an article which originally appeared in the May 28th 
edition of the TLC-News. We feel that its content is an important message, 
not only to Canadians, but to all Americans. 

Our forest resources not only provide us with wood, the world's most 
widely used building material, but serve as a bulwark against many of the 
ravages of nature. Our laws have successfully protected them from irrespons- 
ible extermination, but laws cannot successfully prevent the carelessness 
that results in hundreds of forest fires throughout America each year. 

Although we do not have 'Crown Forests' in the United States, we have 
great acreages in the National Forests which are owned in entirety by 
every citizen. We would not intentionally throw a smoldering cigarette or 
burning match on the floor of our home, but we recklessly destroy our wood- 
lands by this type of carelessness. 

This message by the News is not only appropriate to the people of Canada, 
but to the residents of all the Americas where there are forests to be ruined 
by fire. 

"Every Canadian, at birth, becomes the. inheritor of 45 acres of his 
country's forests. We call them 'Crown Forests', but the crown is on every- 
body's head as a shareholder of the public-owned timberlands. All told, 
they measure a million square miles. 

"Out of this tree-growing inheritance comes a stream of wealth amount- 
ing to 2/1 billion dollars a year. Whether in a woodcutters' camp or an 
industrial town, the 'forest dollar' lodges in every Canadian's pocketbook 
and energizes every branch of trade and commerce. 

"In our early history, Canada's forest supply far exceeded the immediate 
needs of limited population. Today, the situation has changed sharply. 
World demand for forest products has expanded the wood-using industries 
to a point where accessible timberlands no longer contain a surplus and, in 
some areas, are insufficient to feed dependent factories. 

"The 'forest dollar' is born in the forest and its 'life expectancy' is cued 
directly to perpetual production of wood material. This is not an auto- 
matic process, by any means, and requires high technical skill to bring 
about. The factor that defeats good forest-management, and threatens the 
nation's income from forest resources, is the annual plague of forest fires. 
These are 80% the work of human recklessness and by a modicum of per- 
sonal care could be banished in all ten provinces. While most Canadians, 
in recreational journeys to the woodlands, take effective precautions against 
fire damage, 4,000 others manage to set the country blazing and, year by 



26 THE CARPENTER 

year, desecrate two million acres. In this process they incinerate 350 million 
young trees that Mother Nature herself planted as a future endowment for 
the children of Canada. Clearly then, as world demand places a golden 
premium on Canada's forests, the Canadian people can do no less than con- 
demn and, to the limit of their power, extirpate the senseless burning of 
their woodland treasure." 



More Power To Them 

To the ordinary citizen, the world of science is as remote and as unap- 
proachable as Inner Mongolia or Upper Tibet. What goes on in the land of 
smoking test tubes, whirring gadgets and unearthly smells is mostly as un- 
intelligible to the layman as Sanskrit or Egyptian hieroglyphics. Most of us 
picture the pure scientist as a meek sort of little guy lost in a fog of thought 
and oblivious to the commonplace pressures and tensions of life that baffle 
and bother the rest of us. 

This concept, of course, is wrong. Scientists are just human beings, a little 
smarter than the rest of us, maybe, and a little better able to put things in 
their true perspective, but for all that, capable of getting angry, frustrated or 
fired with a desire to oppose injustice. Witness the furore which has been 
created in the scientific world by the battery additive controversy as proof. 

Ever since wet cell batteries were invented, to make possible self starters 
on automobiles, inventors have sought a battery rejuvenator capable of stretch- 
ing the all too short life of an automobile battery. These rejuvenators have 
come and have gone, but not a single one has proved to be of any real merit. 
Most of them relied on the same formula, a mixture of sodium sulfate and 
magnesium sulfate (Epsom salts). For something like 25 years the Bureau 
of Standards has investigated these battery rejuvenators and gathered a tre- 
mendous amount of information on them. It even issued a circular summa- 
rizing its findings. 

Recently, however, a Californian with some powerful political connec- 
tions placed on the market a battery additive he called "Battery AD-X2" for 
which he made some spectacular claims. The promoter of AD-X2, while 
admitting his product was essentially a powder mixture of the two chemicals 
named above, claimed that his rejuvenator had certain additional properties 
which the Bureau of Standards overlooked. 

So vociferous was he in his denunciations of the Bureau's report that 
AD-X2 was just another sodium sulfate-Epsom salts rejuvenator that he 
managed to enlist the sympathy of the Senate Small Business Committee. To 
make a long story short, arrangements were made to have some tests on AD- 
X2 run at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

After MIT made its tests, the Senate Small Business Committee released a 
report of the MIT findings. In typical publicity man fashion, the report 
blasted the Bureau of Standard's findings as unscientific, and the MIT tests 
as clear proof that AD-X2 was a worthwhile product in lengthening battery 
life. So much criticism of the Bureau of Standards was generated that the 
Bureau's director, Dr. Allen V. Astin, finally handed in his resignation. Later 
he was prevailed upon to retain his post until a more complete survey of the 
Bureau and its operations was completed. 

In any event, since the integrity and competence of an important govern- 
ment bureau and its head, one of the foremost scientists in the nation, were 



THE CARPENTER 27 

impugned, Consumers Research Bulletin official publication of independent 
and impartian Consumers Research, interested itself in the case. The editor 
of Consumers Research Bulletin wrote to MIT for a copy of the university's 
report on battery additives. The editor reported that only after considerable 
correspondence was he able to obtain a photostatic copy of the report. He 
found that although the two most important questions surrounding battery 
additives were: "will it prolong the life of an automobile battery under condi- 
tions of normal use?" and "will it revive a dead battery, as the promoter 
claimed," the MIT report answered neither. 

Prying still deeper into the matter, the editor of CRB corresponded with 
several officials of MIT. In a letter from one of them, the following state- 
ment was included, according to the CRB editor: 

"There are no recommendations included in the report, nor did our group 
arrive at any definitive conclusions with respect to the commercial value of 
the product." 

Now all this may sound complicated, and it is, but what is involved here 
is that a very important branch of the government, long looked up to for its 
integrity, gets a black eye for daring to stand up to pressures from commercial 
interests which have big axes of their own to grind. A notable scientist who 
heads the Bureau has had serious doubt cast upon his professional compe- 
tence. And the hucksters and ad men move one step closer to substituting 
hoopla for facts in our national life. 

Scientists throughout the nation (and the world, for that matter) are up in 
arms over the matter. They are going to have a lot more to say before this 
mess is cleaned up. And for our part, we say— more power to them. 

• 

Two More States Reject 'Millionaire's Amendment' 

Nebraska and Florida have added their names to the growing list of states 
who have rescinded their previous approval of a Constitutional Convention 
call. The purpose of the convention was to bring about the so-called "Million- 
aires Amendment." The 1949 Nebraska legislature, and the 1952 session of 
Florida's had voted in favor of such a convention. 

The amendment was designed to aid the 'suffering few' who receive in- 
come which is taxed more than 25 per cent. Those in this higher income 
bracket constitute about one per cent, or 450,000 of the nation's 42 million 
taxpayers. 

Losses in taxes from such an amendment would amount to $16 billion, a 
sum which would have to be paid by those in the lower income brackets. 

Article V of the Constitution requires that ". . . the Legislatures of two- 
thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amend- 
ments . . ." With about twenty of the required thirty-two states in the fold, the 
backers of the amendment are seeing the chances for a convention growing 
smaller each day. 

The principle of taxing in accordance with ability to pay has long been a 
part of the American democratic scheme. The good judgment of the many 
state legislatures in rescinding previous convention calls for the amendment 
is a favorable sign for the workingman. He still exists as a potent political 
power; a fact which at least seven state legislatures have observed, even if 
done in a truant fashion. 



28 



Look Before You Join 

* * 

AMERICANS are probably the greatest "joiners" in the world. Nowhere 
else on earth are citizens more willing and eager to join organizations 
that have as their aim the betterment of social, economic, or fraternal 
conditions in a community or an area. It is impossible to even guess how 
much good has been accomplished by this strong American urge to organize 
for mutual advancement. The great lodges, unions, service clubs and charit- 
able institutions which contribute so much to the health and happiness of our 
citizens are the direct outgrowth of that urge. Nothing should be allowed to 
stand in the way of this desire to work with others for the benefit of all. 

However, this is a very confused age we live in. Thanks to the efforts of 
subversives and downright traitors, titles cannot be relied on any longer. Hun- 
dreds of organizations with the most 



vicious anti-American purposes have 
been organized in recent years behind 
patriotic-sounding names. Thousands 
upon thousands of loyal, completely 
trustworthy citizens have been sucked 
into these organizations by the mis- 
leading titles. By the time they got 
wise to the fact their time and money 
were being used in an effort to tear 
America down, it was too late for 
many to save themselves from embar- 
rassment and disgrace. The coura- 
geous ones admitted their errors and 
faced the music. The weak ones are 
still cowering in fear, hoping they will 
never be exposed. 

In view of the way in which Com- 
munists have subverted the meaning 
of such simple words as "peace" and 
"democracy," every organization con- 
taining these words in its titles should 
be investigated carefully before join- 
ing. In fact, the wise citizen will not 
join anything new these days without 
being certain the organization has 
been cleared by the Department of 
Justice. 

Recently the Department of Justice 
redesignated some 192 organizations 



as being subversive. This list of sub- 
versive organizations is the list used 
by the government in its loyalty 
checks; consequently it is as close to 
an official list as one can get. 

Some of these organizations are no 
longer in business. Some are merely 
paper organizations. Others are still 
doing business in the same old stand. 
Included are organizations that are 
Communist, Fascist or just plain to- 
talitarian in nature. 

It might not be amiss for each 
citizen to read this list carefully or 
even save it for future reference. 
Know what you join, for the organiza- 
tion with the most patriotic-sounding 
name may be the most subversive. 
Here is the list of organizations the 
Department of Justice considers sub- 
versive: 

Communist Party, U.S.A., its subsidiaries 

and affiliates 
Communist Political Association, its subdivi- 
sions, subsidiaries and affiliates, including: 
Alabama People's Educational Associa- 
tion 

Florida Press and Educational League 
Oklahoma League for Political Educa- 
tion 



THE CARPENTER 



29 



People's Educational and Press Associa- 
tion of Texas 

Virginia League for People's Education 
Young Communist League 
Abraham Lincoln Brigade 
Abraham Lincoln School, Chicago 
Action Committee to Free Spain Now 
American Association for Reconstruction in 

Yugoslavia, Inc. 
American Branch of the Federation of Greek 

Maritime Unions 
American Christian Nationalist Party 
American Committee for European Work- 
ers' Relief 
American Committee for Protection of For- 
eign Born 
American Committee for Spanish Freedom 
American Committee for Yugoslav Relief, 

Inc. 
American Council for a Democratic Greece, 
formerly known as the Greek American 
Council; Greek American Committee for 
National Unity 
American Council on Soviet Relations 
American Croatian Congress 
American Jewish Labor Council 
American League Against War and Fascism 
American League for Peace and Democracy 
American National Labor Party 
American National Socialist League 
American National Socialist Party 
American Nationalist Party 
American Patriots, Inc. 
American Peace Mobilization 
American Polish Labor Council 
American Rescue Ship Mission (a project of 
the United American Spanish Aid Com- 
mittee) 
American-Russian Fraternal Society 
American Russian Institute, New York, also 
known as the American Russian Institute 
for Cultural Relations with the Soviet 
Union 
American Russian Institute, Philadelphia 
American Russian Institute of San Francisco 
American Russian Institute of Southern Cali- 
fornia, Los Angeles 
American Slav Congress 
American Youth Congress 
American Youth for Democracy 
Armenian Progressive League of America 
Associated Klans of America 
Association of Georgia Klans 
Association of German Ntionals (Reichs- 

deutsche Vereinigung) 
Ausland-Organization der NSDAP, Over- 
seas Branch of Nazi Party 
Black Dragon Society 

Boston School for Marxist Studies, Boston 
California Labor School, Inc., San Francisco 
Carpatho-Russian People's Society 



Central Council of American Women of 
Croatian Descent, also known as Central 
Council of American Croatian Women, 
National Council of Croatian Women 

Central Japanese Association (Beikoku Chuo 
Nipponjin Kai) 

Central Japanese Association of Southern 
California 

Central Organization of the German-Ameri- 
can National Alliance (Deutsche-Ameri- 
kanische Einheitsfront) 

Cervantes Fraternal Society 

Citizens Committee to Free Earl Browder 

Citizens Committee for Harry Bridges 

Citizens Committee of the Upper West Side 
(New York City) 

Citizens Protective League 

Civil Rights Congress and its affiliated or- 
ganizations, including: 

Civil Rights Congress for Texas 
Veterans Against Discrimination of 
Civil Rights Congress of New York 

Columbians 

Comite Coordinador Pro Republica Espa- 
nola 

Committee to Aid the Fighting South 

Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern 
Policy 

Committee for Nationalist Action 

Commonwealth College, Mena, Arkansas 

Connecticut State Youth Conference 

Congress of American Revolutionary Writers 

Congress of American Women 

Council of African Affairs 

Council for Pan-American Democracy 

Croatian Benevolent Fraternity 

Dai Nippon Butoku Kai (Military Virtue So- 
ciety of Japan or Military Art Society of 
Japan) 

Daily Worker Press Club 

Dante Alighieri Society (between 1935 and 
1940) 

Dennis Defense Committee 

Detroit Youth Assembly 

Emergency Conference to Save Spanish 
Refugees (founding body of the North 
American Spanish Aid Committee) 

Federation of Italian War Veterans in the 
U.S.A., Inc. (Associazione Nazionale Com- 
battenti Italiani, Federazione delgi Stati 
Uniti d' America) 

Finnish-American Mutual Aid Society' 

Friends of the New Germany (Freunde des 
Neuen Deutschlands) 

Friends of the Soviet Union 

Garibaldi American Fraternal Society 

George Washington Carver School, New 
York City 

German-American Bund (Amerikadeutscher 
Volksbund) 

German-American